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Full text of "The clergyman's instructor : or, A collection of tracts on the ministerial duties"

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THE 


CLERGY1\IAN'S INSTRUCTOR, 


OR 


A COLLECTION OF TRACTS 


ON 


THE MINISTERIAL DUTIES. 


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 yr}ç, Ta
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7rovpav{wv lxtl. 7rpayp.áT6)V. 


Chrysostom. de Sacerdotio Dial. I I ( . 


SIXTH EDITIO
. 
J .."'5' 


OX FORI I: 


AT THE UN"IVERSITY PRESS. 


)[. nccc .1. v. 



ADVER'fI SEIVIENT 


TO THE 


FIRST EDITION. 


THE Tracts contained in the following volullle have 
been collected and published, in confornlity with the 
plan for SOlne time adopted by The Delegates of the Cla- 
trendo'll ptress, of assisting the Parochial Clergy, either by 
reprinting some of the Inore scarce or eminent treatises of 
our English divines, or by editing in a more convenient 
-form such documents as, though necessary to be referred 
to by those in holy orders, \vere before accessible only in 
\vorks of great magnitude and expense. And as what 
has hitherto been done ,vith this vie\v has received no 
inconsiderable approbation, not only from ecclesiastical 
persons, but from serious and learned men of all orders, it 
is hoped that the present republication of tracts calculated 
e
pecially both to teach and to enforce the ptractical duties 
of 'Jninisters, will not be thought less useful than those 
\vhich have preceded it, or a less serviceable endeavour 
to contribute to the advancement of true religion, and a 
due honouring of THE CHURCH as by Ia\v established in 
this realm. 


OXFORD, July 6, 1807. 



i\ D V E R '1' 1 S E 1\1 E N 'f 


TO THE 


SIXTII EDITION. 


.. 
COPIES of the Fifth Edition of this !Ianual ha,'ìng 
becolne scarce, the Delegates of the University Press 
have thought fit to lueet the continued demand for the 
"r ork by sending forth a new Impression. 
''The Editor, \"ho, at their request, undertook to correct 
the Press, ,vas entrusted \"ith some discretionary po\ver 
a
 to the contents of the V olunle and its better accommo- 
dation to the class of Readers, for ,vhonl it is prinlarily 
intended. Accordingly, t\VO brief Tracts, introductory to 
" the Country Parson," have been on1itted, as not essen- 
tially connecteù \vith the design, nor directly conducive 
to the end, of the Compilation. The longer of the t\VO 
purports to be Biographical; but, being bJ' no means 

trictly or exclusively so, has been superseded by the 
anlpler and far JTIore attractive Life of George J-Jerbert, 
,vhich Isaac 'Val ton founded upon it. This on1ission has 
afforded room, \vithou t incon venient increase of the bulk 
of the V ohnne, for portions of the Remains of T\vo Pre- 
lates, but recently renloved by death and therefore still 
frc
h in the recollection of the great hoùy of the clergy 
aucl la)'-luelubers of the United Church-Archbishop 
IJo\vJey and Bishop f(aye. It is contidcntly hoped that 
the passages, borro\ved fro))) the ,,'ritiug's of these great 



\" 



uHl good Inen, will be found entitled to the place here 
assigned to them, by reason of their intrinsic excellence, 
a
 ,,,ell as by their striking adaptation to the avowed aim 
of the original projectors of "the ClergYlnan's Instructor." 
Each of tIle separate Tracts, of which the \V ork con- 
sists, is no\v, for the first time, accoInpanied by a short 
Biographical Notice of its "r riter. 
Besides the challges, thus noticed, no alteration, deserv- 
ing of mention, has been made. 
The Eight Tracts, ,vhich have forlned the suLstance of 
the "r ork in its later Editions, are retained in the saIne 
order as before; the only care of the Editor having been 
to secure accuracy of Text in every instance, by guarding 
against the repetition of a few typographical errors. Nor 
are these Tracts believed to be less "calculated" than 
they ever \vere "both to teach and to enforce the prac- 
" tical duties of l\Iinisters."* 'Vith one exception, the 
Authors ''''ere of the Episcopal order; and, therefore, ad- 
dressed the Clergy on the topies, \vbich they handled, as 
Spiritual Fathers and Guides. It is obvious that 'V riter
, 
all of whonl belonged to a space of tiIne, intervening 
bet\\"peen tbe opening of the 17th and the middle of the 
18th century, rnust frequently, both in lllatter and in 
style, indicate their reInoteness fronl our O\Vll day. It is 
equally obvious to everyone, even slightly acquainted \vith 
the Annals of our Church and Country
 in \vhich these 
ornalnents of both are conlmeInorated, that among thenl- 
seh'es there existed nUlnerous and considerable differences 
of talents and learning, of telnper and tastes, of position 
and of external circumstances. .L\.ccording to such diver- 
ç;itie8 their exhortations and counsels, their cautions and 


* .Advertisement to the Fir
t gdition. 



,'J 


,varnings are, of course, Illodified and varied. But the 
òistinctive characteristics of the several "r riters rather 
enhance than diminish the value of the collected Treatises; 
since the very pecuJiarities of each Inay furnish special 
occasions for fixed attention, careful comparison and ju- 
dicious discrÎ1nination, on the part of the Student, ,vho 

hall be engaged in examining the details of one and the 
same great subject and in separating \vhatever is local, 
ten1porary and personal fronl abundant Inaterials, \vhich 
are of universal application and \vill be for ever profitable. 


OXFORD, June 
3, 1855. 



'r
\BLE OF CONTENTS. 


I. A PRIEST to the Temple, or the Country Parson, his Character and 
Rule of Iloly Life, by 1fr. George Herbert, A.1\1. Fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and sometime Public Orator of that 
University. .................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. 1-62. 


II. Rules and Advices to the Clergy of the Diocese of Down and Connor, 
by Jeremy Taylor, D. D. Lord Bishop of that Diocese. . . . 63-82. 


III. A Discourse of the Pastoral Care, by Gilbert Burnet, Lord Bishop 
of Sarurn . . _ .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . R3-21 O. 


IV. A Discourse by Thomas Sprat, D. D. Lord Bishop of Rochester, to 
the Clergy of his Dioce
c, IßP5 .. .. .. . . ........211-246. 
" 
. Jt o.r..... t11 '- ð r 
V. ,A. Companion for the Candidates of I-Ioly Orders in two parts; the 
first being a Visitation Sermon, concerning the great difficulty and 
danger of the Priestly Office; and the second, a Charge to the 
Clergy of the Diocese of St. David's, on the principal parts and 
branches of the Pastoral Office, with rules and directions for the 
due performance of each of them, by George Bull, D. D. I...ord 
Bishop of St. David's. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247-282. 


.. 



viii 


CONTENTS. 


VI. Directions given to the Clergy of the Diocese of London in the 
year 1724, by Edmund Gibson, D. D. Lord Bishop of London. 
To which is added his Charge to the Clergy in his last V
sitation, 
begun in the year 1741 and finished in the year 1742. . . 
. 283-330. 


,rII. Instructions to the Clergy of the Diocese of Tuam, by Josiah 
Hort, D. D. Lord Archbishop of Tuam, at his Primary Visitation, 
1742.. ...... .... .. ........ .. .. .. .......... .. .331-356. 


VIII. Parochialia: or, Instructions to the Clergy, in the Discharge of 
their Parochial duty. By the Right Rev. Thomas Wilson, D. D. 
Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man. .. ............... 357-430. 


IX. A Letter addressed to the Clergy and Laity of his Province, by 
William Howley, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. . . . .43] -440. 


x. A Charge, delivered in 1831, and portions of a Charge, delivered 
in 1846, to the Clergy of the Diocese of Lincoln, by John Kaye, 
D. D. Lord Bishop of Lincoln. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441-474. 



A 


. 
PRIEST TO TIlE TEMPLE; 


OR 


THE COUNTRY PARSO
 


HIS CHARACTER, AND RULE OF HOLY LIFE. 


BY 


MR. GEORGE HERBERT. 


B 




GEORGE HERBERT
 of good family and noble connec- 
tions, ,vas born at the Castle of his ancestors, near 
1 ontgo- 
mery, in 1593. He ,vas educated at W estIni
ster School, and 
from thence elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1608. 
A few years after he had taken the degree of 
1. A. he ,vas 
chosen Orator for the University, and aspired, as former 
holders of his office had done, to some public employment in 
the State; his circumstances of birth and the favour of the 
Court coinciding \vith his o\vn turn of mind at the time to 
recommend such a plan of life. He ,vas, how-ever, diverted 
from all purposes of the kind by the death of those, on ,,'hom 
his hopes of promotion had rested, and especially of King 
James I, who had shewn much regard for him. In a tem- 
porary retreat from the ,,"orld, he then formed a firm resolu- 
tion to devote himself to the Sacred Profession. Accordingly, he 
was ordained Deacon in 1626, Priest in 1629. In the interval 
between these t\VO important events, he had been presented to 
the Reëtory of Bemerton near Salisbury; and there he died 
in 1632, at the comparatively early age of 39. 


His Life by Isaac "yo alton has been often published; and, 
recently, at the Oxford University Press, in an octavo volume, 
'which contains the other Biographical ,vorks of the same 
author. It is also included in the Ecclesiastical Biography of 
the late Dr. 'V ords,,' orth. 


B2 



.. 



THE AUTHOR TO THE READER. 


BEING desirous, through the mercy of God, to please him, for 
whom I am and live, and who giveth me my desires and per- 
formances; and considering with myself that the way to please 
him is to feed my flock diligently and faithfully, since our Saviour hath 
made that the argument of a pastor's love; I have resolved to set down 
the form and character of a true pastor, that I may have a mark to aim 
at ; 'Whi ch als o I will set as high as I can, since he shoots higher that }:; 
threatens the moon, than he that aims at a tree. Not that I think, if 
- ----------_. 
a ma.n-- do OOt all which is here expressed, he presently sins, and 
displeases God; but that it is a good strife to go a8 far as we can in 
pleasing of him, who hath done so much for us. The Lord prosper the 
intention to myself and others, who may not despise my poor labours, 
but add to those points, which I have observed, until the book grow to 
a complete pastoral. 


1632. 


GEORGE HERBERT. 


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A 


PRIEST TO THE TE
IPLE; 


OR 


THE COUNTRY PARSON, 


HIS CHARACTER AND RULE OF HOL Y LIFE. 


CHAP. 1. 


Of a pastor. 
A PASTOR is the deputy of Christ for the reducing of nlan ì 
to the obedience of God. This definition IS 
dè nt
 and 
contains the direct steps of pastoral duty and authority. For 
fir
t, man fell ii"om God by disobedience. Secondly, Christ is 
the glorious instrument of God for the revoking of man. Thirdly, I J 
Christ being not to continue on earth, but, a er he had fulfilled 
the work of reconciliation, to be received up into heaven, he 
constituted deputies in his place, and these are priests. And 
therefore St. Paul, in the beginning of his Epistles, professeth 
this; and, in t.he first to the Colossians, plainly avoucheth that he 
fills up that u'hich is behind of the ajJlictions of Christ in his flesh, 
for kis hod!l's sake, which is tne en-urea: wherein is contained 
the complete definition of a minister. Out of this charter of the 
priesthood may be plainly gathered both t.he dignity thereof 
and the dutJ; the dignity, in that a priest may do that which 
Christ did, and by his authority, and as his vicegerent. The 
duty, in that a priest is to do that which Christ did, and after 
his manner, both for doctrine and life. 



8 


The Count}7J Parson. 


eRA P. II. 


Tlleir diversities. 
O:F pastors, (intending llline own nation only, and also therein 
setting aside the right reverend prelates of the church, to 
wholn this discourse nriseth not,) SOlne live in the universities, 
SOBle in noble houses, SOllIe in parishes residing on their cures. 
Of those that live in the universities, some live there in office, 
\vhose rule is that of the apostle, !{om. xii. 6. Having gifts dif- 
ferinp, according to the grace that is piven to us, u"hether prophecy, 
let ZlS p1'ophesy according to the proportion of faith; or 'J}zinistry, 
let us wait on ou'J
 ministering: or he that teacl
eth, on teaclu'ng, 
(.
c.; he tl
at rltletl
, let lâJì
 do it with diligence, 
c. Some in a 
preparatory \vay, whose ainl and labour lllUst be not only to get 
knowledge, but to subdue and mortify all lusts and affections; 
and not to think that, when they have read the fathers or 
schoolmen, a minister is nlade, and the thing done. The great- 
est and hardest preparation is within: for, unto the ungodly 
saitlt God, JVhy dost thol" preaclt n?JY laws, and takest 9fty cove- 
nant in thy rnouth? Psalm 1. 16. Those that live in noble 
houses are called chaplains, whose duty and obligation being 
the 8ame to the houses they live in, as a parson's to his parish, 
in describing the one, (which is indeed the bent of IllY discourse,) 
the other will be nlanifest. Let not chaplains think thenlselves 
80 free as many of theu1 do, and, because they have different 
names, think their office different. Doubtless they are parsons 
of the falllilies they live in, and are entertained to that end, 
either by an open or inlplicit covenant.. Before they are in 
orders, they may be received for conlpanions, or discoursers; 
but after a nlan is once n1Înister, he cannot agree to come into 
any house, where he shall not exercise what he is, unless he 
forsake his plough, and look back. "Therefore they are not to 
be over-subnlissive, and base, but to keep up with the lord and 
lady of the house, and to preserve a boldness with theIll and all, 
even so far as reproof to their very face, when occasion calls, but 
seasonaLly and discreetly. They ,vho do not thus, while they 
relnember their earthly lord, do much forget their heavenly: 
they wrong the priesthood, neglect their duty, and shall be so 
far frolll that which they seek with their over-snbnli
siveness 
and cringing, that they shall ever be despised. They who fOl
 



The Country Pa'tson. 


9 


the hope of promotion neglect any necessary admonition or 
reproof, sell, with Judas, their Lord and Master. 


CHAP. III. 
The pa1'son"'s life. 
THE country parson is exceeding exact in his life, being holy, 
just, prudent, temperate, bold, grave in all his ,vays. And 
because the two highest points of life, wherein a Christian is 
ll10st seen, are patience and Inortification; patience in regard 
of afflictions, mortification in regard of lusts and affections, and 
the stupifJing and deading of all the clamorous powers of the 
soul; therefore he hath throughly studied these, that he may 
be an absolute Inaster and commander of himself, for all the 
purposes which God hath ordained him. Yet in these points 
he labours Inost in those things \vhich are most apt to scan- 
dalize his parish. And first, because country people live hardly, 
and therefore, as feeling their own sweat, and consequently 
knowing the price of n10ney, are offended much with any, ,,-ho 
by hard usage increase their travail, the country parson is very 
circun1spect in a voiding all covetousness, neither being greedy 
to get, nor niggardly to keep, nor troubled to lose any worldly 
wealth; but in all his words and actions slighting and dises- 
teen1ing it, even to a \vondering that the world should so much 
value ,vealth, which in the day of wrath hath not one dram of 
comfort for us. Secondly, because luxury is a very visible sin, 
the parson is very careful to avoid all the kinds thereof, but 
especially that of drinking, because it is the most popular vice; 
into which if he come, he prostitutes himself both to shame 
and sin, and by having fellowship with the unfruitful worh
s of 
darkness, he disableth himself of authority to reprove them: for 
sins make all equal, whom they find together: and then they 
are worst, who ought to be best. Neither is it for the servant 
of Christ to haunt inns, or taverns, or alehouses, to the disho- 
nour of his person and office. The parson doth not so, but 
order
 his life in snch a fashion, that when death takes him, as 
the Jews and Judas did Christ, he may say as he did, I sat daily 
'witlt you teaching in tlte temple. Thirdly, because country peo- 
ple (as indeed all honest men) do much esteenl their \vord, it 
being the life of buying, and seUing, and dealing in the ,vorld ; 
therefore the parson is very strict in keepiI1g his word, though 



10 


The Country Parson. 


it be to his own hinderance, as kno\ving, that if he be not so, he 
will quickly be discovered and disregarded; neither will they 
believe him in the pulpit, whom they cannot trust in his conver- 
sation. As for oaths and apparel, the disorders thereof are also 
very manifest. The parson'ls yea is yea, and nay nay; and his 
apparel plain, but reverend and clean, \vithout spot
, or dust, or 
smell; the purity of his mind breaking out, and dilating itself 
even to bis body, clothes and habitation. 


CHAP. IV. 


The parson'ls knowledge. 
- 
THE country parson is full of all knowledge. They say, it is 
an in nlason that refuseth any stone: and there is no kno,v- 
ledge, but, in a skilful hand, serves either, positively Jas it is,' or 
else to illustrate some other knowledge. He condescends even 
to the knowledge of tillage and pasturage, and makes great use 
of them in teaching, because people by wbat they understand 
are best led to what they understand not. But t.he chief and 
top of his knowledge consists in the book of books, the store- 
house and magazine of life and comfort, the holy scriptures. 
There he sucks and lives. In the scriptures he finds four 
things; precepts for life, doctrines for knowledge, examples for 
illustration, and promises for comfort: these he hath digested 
severally. But for the understanding of these; the means he 
useth are, first, a holy life, remeInbering ,,,hat his 1\:Iaster saith, 
that if any do God's will, he shaUl-now of the doctrine, John vii, 
and assuring himself that wicked nlen, how-ever learned, do not 
kno,v the scriptures, because they feel them not, and because 
they are not understood but with the same Spirit that writ them. 
The second means is prayer, which it" it be necessary even in 
temporal things, ho\v much more in things of another world, 
,vhere the ,veIl is deep, and ,ve have nothing of ourselves to 
draw \vith! 'Yherefore he ever begins the reading of the scrip- 
ture with sonle short inward ejaculation, as, LOfrd, open 'Jnine 
eyes, that 1 Juay see the 'wondrous tldngs of tllY la
f). &c. The 
third Il1eanS is a diligent coUation of scripture with scripture. 
· For all truth being consonant to it

lf, and all being penned by 

 one and the self-saIne Spirit, it cannot be, but that an industri- 
ous and judicious comparing of place with place must be a 
singular help for the right understanding of the scriptures. To 



The CO'ltnfr!l Parson. 


11 


this may be added the consideration of any text with the cohe- 
rence thereof, touching what goes before, and what follows 
after, as also the scope of the Holy Ghost. \\"'hen the apostles 
would have called down fire from heaven, they were reproved, 
as ignorant of what spirit they were. For the law required 
one thing, and the gospel another: yet as diverse, not as repug- 
nant: therefore the spirit of both is to be considered and 
weighed. The fourth means are commenters and fathers, who 
have handled the places controverted, which the parson by no 
means refuseth. As he doth not so study others as to neglect 
the grace of God in himself, and what the Holy Spirit teacheth 
him; so doth he assure himself, that God in all ages hath had 
his servants, to \vhom he hath revealed his truth, as well as to 
him; and that as one country doth not bear all things, that 
there may be a conlmerce; so neither hath God opened, or will 
open, all to one, that there may be a traffick in knowledge be- 
tween the servants of God, for the planting both of love and 
hunlility. Wherefore he hath one comment at least upon every 
book of scripture, and ploughing \vith this, and his own lnedita- 
tions., he enters into the secrets of God treasured in the holy 
scripture. 


CHAP. v. 
The pa'J"son"'s accessary lcnowledges. 
THE country parson hath read the fathers also, and the 
schoolnlen, and the later writers, or a good proportion of 
aU, out of all which he hath cOlnpiled a book, and body of di- 
vinity, which is the storehouse of his sermons, and ,vhich he 
preachÐth all his life; but diversely clothed, illustrated, and 
enlarged. For though the world is full of such composures, yet 
every nlan"'s own is fittest, readiest, and most savoury to him. 
Besides, this being to be done in his younger and preparatory 
times, 
t is an honest joy ever after to look upon his well-spent 
hours. This body he made by way of expounding the Church 
Catechislu, to which all divinity may easily be reduced. For it 
being indifferent in itself to choose any n1ethod, that is best to 
be chosen of which there is likeliest to be most use. Now 
catechising being a work of singular and adnlirable benefit to the 
church of God, and a thing required under canonical obedience, 
the expounding of our Catechisnl Inust neecls be the most useful 



1
 


The Country Parson. 


form. Yet hath the parson, besides this laborious ,york, a 
slighter form of catechising, fitter for country people: according 
as his audience is, so he useth one or other; or sometimes both, 
if his audience be intermixed. He greatly esteems also of 
cases of conscience, wherein he is n1uch versed. And indeed, 
herein is the greatest ability of a parson, to lead his people ex- 
actly in the ways of truth, so that they neither decline to the 
right hand, nor to the left. Neither let any think this a slight 
thing. For everyone hath not digested, when it is a sin to take 
something for money lent, or ,,,hen not; when it is a fault to 
discover another's fault., or ,vhen not; when the affections of 
the soul, in desiring and procurin,g increase of lneans or honour, 
be a sin of covetousness or ambition, and when not; when the 
appetites of the body in eating, drinking, sleep, and the pleasure 
that comes ,vith sleep, be sins of gluttony, drunkenness, sloth, 
lust, and when not; and so in many circumstances of actions. 
]\; o\V if a shepherd kno,v not which grass will bane, and ,vhich 
not, how is he fit to be a shepherd? "Therefore the parson hath 
throughly canvassed all the particulars of human actions, at 
least all those ,vhich he observeth are most incident to his 
l)arish. 


CHAP. VI. 


The parson praying. 
THE coun try parson, when he is to read divine services, 
composeth himself to all possible reverence; lifting up his 
heart and hands and eyes, and using all other gestures ,vhich 
may express a hearty and unfeigned devotion. This he doth, 
first, as being truly touched and amazed with the majesty of God, 
before whom he then presents himself; yet not as himself alone" 
bat as presenting with himself the whole congregation, whose 
sins he then bears, and brings ,vitn his own to the heavenly 
altar, to be bathed and washed in the sacred laver of Christ"s 
blood. Secondly, as this is the true reason of his inward fear, 
so he is content to express this outwardly to the utn10st of his 
power; that being first affected himself, he may affect also his 
people, knowing that no sern10n (for a sennon they n1ay forget 
again, when they come to pray) moves them so n1uch to reverence 
as a devout behaviour in the very act of praying. .L\ccordingly his 
voice is humble, his words treatable and slo\\'; yet not so slow 
neither, as to let the ff'rvency of the supplicant hang and die 



tr1 
, 
'r ( 


.. 


t'It 


The Country Parson. 
.., 
a · ( -. I - b 
 . d 
between speaking, but with a grave lIve IneSS I etween leal' an 
zeal, pausing yet pressing, he perforn1s his duty. Besides, his 
ex:unple l he having often instructed his people how to carry 
thelnselves in divine service, exacts of them all possible rever- 
ence, by no means enduring either talking, or sleeping, or 
gazing, or leaning, or half-kneeling, or any undutiful behaviour 
in them: but causing theIn, when they sit, or stand, or kneel, 
to do all in a straight and steady posture, as attending to what 
is done in the church; and everyone, 111an and child, answer- 
ing aloud both AlDen, and all other answers, which are on the 
clerk"s and people'ls part to answer: which answers also are to 
be done, not in a huddling or slubbering fashion, gaping or 
scratching the head, or spitting even in the midst of their an- 
swer, but gently and pausably, thinking what they say; so that f I 
while they answer, As it was in the beginning, &c. they meditate 
as they speak, that God hath ever had his people, that have 
glorified hin1 as well as now, and that he shall have so for ever. 
And the like in other answers. This is that ,vhich the apostle 
calls a reasonable service, Rom. xii, ,vhen we speak not as par- 
rots, without reason, or offer up such sacrifices as they did of old, 
which ,vas of beasts devoid of reason; but when we use our 
reason, and apply our powers to the service of him that gives 
them. If there be any of the gentry or nobility of the 
parish, who sometimes make it a piece of state not to come at 
the beginning of service with their poor neighbours, but at mid- 
prayers, both to their own loss, and to their"s also who gaze upon 
then1 when they come in, and neglect the present service of 
God, he by no means suffers it, but after divers gentle admoni- 
tions, if they persevere, he causes them to be presented: or if the 
poor churchwardens be affrighted with their greatness, notwith- 
standing his instruction that they ought not to be so, but even 
t.o let the world sink, so they do their duty; he presents them 
himself, only protesting to them, that not any ill-will draws him 
to it, but the debt and obligation of his calling, being to obey 
God rather than nlen. 


19 


CHAP. VII. 


The pærson preaclting. 
THE country parson preacheth constantlJ, the pulpit is his 
joy and his throne: if he at any time internlit, it is either 



14 


Th(
 CO'ltntry Pa'l'son. 


for want of health, or against SOlne festival, that he may the 
better celebrate it, or for the variety of the hearers, that he nlay 
be heard at his return nlore attentively. When he interIl1its, 
he is ever very well supplied by SOlne able man, \vho treads in 
his steps, and \viII not thro\v down what he hath built; whom 
also he entreats to press sonle point, that he himself hath often 
urged with no great success, that so in the Inouth of t\VO or 
three witnesses the truth nlay be more established. When he 
preacheth, he procures attention by all possible art, both by 
earnestness of speech, it being natural to men to think that, 
,vhere is llluch earnestness, there is sonlewhat worth hearing; 
and by a diligent and busy cast of his eye on his auditors, \vith 
letting them know that he obser
'es who marks, and who not; 
and with particularizing of his speech now to the younger sort, 
then to the elder, now to the poor, and no\v to the rich: This is 
for you, and this is for you; for particulars ever touch, and 
awake more than generals. IIerein also he serves hilnself of 
the judgments of God, as of those of ancient tiIlles, so especially 
of the late ones; and those most, which are nearest to his 
parish; for people are very attentive at such discourses, and 
think it behoves them to be so, when God is so near theIu, and 
even over their heads. SOJnetilues he tells thenI stories, and 
sayings of others, according as his text invites him; for thelll 
also luen heed, and reilleinber better t.han exhortationA; which, 
though earnest, yet often die \vith the sermon, especially with 
country people, \"hich are thick and heavy and bard to raise 
to a point of zeal and fervency, and need a 1l10untain of fire to 
kindle them; but stories and sayings they will well remelnber. 
He often tells thenl, that sennons are dangerous things, that 
none goes out of church as he canle in, but either better or 
worse; that none is careless before his Judge, and that the 
\,"ord of God shall judge us. By t
lese and other means the 
parson procures attention; but the character of his serlnon is 
holiness; he is not witty, or learned, or eloquent, but holy: a 
character that Hermoge nes never dreallied of, and therefore he 
could give no precep fSth ereof. But it is gained, first, by 
choosing texts of devotion, not controversy, moving and ravish- 
ing texts, whereof the scriptures are full. Secondly, by dipping 
anrl seasoning all our words and sentences in our hearts, before 
they come into our mouths, truly affecting and cordially ex- 
pressing all that \ve say; so that the auditors luay plainly 



The Country Pa'J"sort,. 


15 


perceive that every word is heart-deep. Thirdly, by turning 
often, and making many apostrophes to God; as, 0 Lord, bless 
Iny people, and teach thelll this point; or, 0 my .l\Iaster, on 
\vhose errand I come, let me hold my peace, and do thou speak 
thyself; for thou art love, and when thou teachest, all are 
scholars. Some such irradiations scatteringly in the SerlYlOn carry 
great holiness in them. The prophets are admirable in this. 
So Isaiah lxiv. Ok that thou wOltldest rend the heavens, that thou 
wouldest come down, &c. And.J eremiah, chap. x, after he had 
complained of the desolation of Israel, turns to God suddenly, 
o Lord, I know tltat tlw 
()a!/ of man is not in himself, &c. 
Fourthly, by frequent wishes of the people's good, and joying 
therein, though he hilnself were, with St. Paul, even sacrificed 
upon the service of their faith. For there is no greater sign of 
holiness, than the procuring and rejoicing in another's good. 
And herein S1. Paul excelled in all his Epistles. H O\V did he 
put the Romans in all his prayers! Rom. i. 9. and ceased not to 
give thanks for the Ephesians, Eph. i. 16. and for the Corinth- 
ians, chap. i. 4. and for the Philippians lnade request with joy, 
chap. i. 4. and is in contention for them \vhether to live or die; 
be \vith them or Christ, ver. 23; which, setting aside his care 
of his flock, \vere a madness to doubt of. 'Vhat an admirable 
epistle is the second to the Corinthians! how full of affections ! 
He joys, and he is sorry; he grieves, and he glories: never 
was there such care of a flock expressed, save in the great 
Shepherd of the fold, who first shed tears over Jerusalem, and 
afterwards blood. Therefore this care may be learned there, 
and then woven into sermons, which \viII make them appear ex- 
ceeding reverend and holy. Lastly, by an often urging of the 
presence and lnajestyof God, by these or such like speeches: 
Oh let us take heed what \ve do: God sees us; he sees whether 
I speak as I ought, or you hear as you ought; he sees hearts, as 
we see faces: he is among us; for if we be here, he must be 
here, since we are here by hiln, and. without him could not be 
here. Then turning the discourse to his Inajesty; And he is a 
great God, and terrible; as great in mercy, so great in judg- 
ment : there are but two devouring elements, fire and water; he 
hath both in hiln; his 'Voice is as the sound of 'ina'1"l!/ 'waters, 
Revelations i. And he himself is a consumz.ng fire, Heb. xii. 
Such discourses shew very holy. The parson's met.hod in hand- 
ling of a text consists of two parts; first, a plain and evident 



16 


The Country Pa'J'son. 


declaration of the meaning of the text; and secondly, some 
choice observations drawn out of the \vhole text, as it lies entire 
and unbroken in the scripture itself. This he thinks natural 
and sweet and grave. \Vhereas the other way of crumbling a 
text into small parts, as
 the person speaking, or spoken to, the 
subject, and object, and the like, hath neither in it sweetness, 
nor gravity, nor variety, since the words apart are not scripture, 
but a dictionary, and Inay be considered alike in all the scripture. 
The parson exceeds not an hour in preaching, because all ages 
have thought that a competency, and he that profits not in that 
time \viII less afterwards; the sanle affection ",.hich nlade him 
not profit before, making him then ,yeary, and so he gro\vs from 
not relishing, to loathing. 


CHAP. VIII. 


Tho par,,;on on Sundays. 
THE country parson, as soon as he awakes on Sunday 
morning, presently falls to work, and seeins to himself so 
as a Dlarket-man is, when tho market-day conIes, or a shop- 
keeper, when customers use to come in. His thoughts are full 
of making the best of the day, and contriving it to his best gains. 
To this end, besides his ordinary prayers, he makes a peculiar 
one for a blessing on the exercises of the day, that nothing 
befall him unworthy of that l\iajesty before ,vhich he is to pre- 
sent himself, but that all may be done with reference to his 
glory, and \vith edification to his flock, humbly beseeching his 
::\Iaster, that how or whenever he punish him, it be not in his 
ministry. Then he turns to request for his people, that the 
Lord would be pleased to sanctify theln all, that they may come 
with holy hearts and awful nlillds into the congregation, and 
that the good God would pardon an those ,vho come with less 
prepared hearts than they ought. This done, he sets himself to 
the consideration of the duties of the day; and if there be any 
extraordinary addition to the customary exercises, either from 
the time of the year, or froln the State, or fronl God by a child 
born, or dead, or any other accident, he contrives ho\v and in 
what manner to induce it to the best advant:tge. Afterwards 
when the hour calls, with his fan1Ïly attending him, he goes to 
church, at his first entrance hlunbly adoring and worshipping 
the invisible majest)' and presence of Alnlighty God, and blessing 



The OQuntry Parson. 


17 


the people either openly, or to hÎ1nseIf. Then having read divine 
service twice fully, and preached in the mornnig, and cate- 
chised in the afternoon, he thinks he hath in SOIDe measure, 
according to poor and frail man, discharged the public duties of 
the congregation. The rest of the day he spends either in 
reconciling neighbours that are at variance, or in visiting the 
sick, or in exhortations to SOllle of his flock by themselves, 
whom his sermons cannot or do not reach. And everyone is 
more a,vaked, when we conle and say, Thou art the rnan. This 
way he finds exceeding useful and winning; and these exhorta- 
tions he calls his privy purse, even as princes have their's be- 
sides their public disbursements. At night he thinks it a very 
fit time, both suitable to the joy of the day, and without hinder- 
ance to public duties, either to entertain some of his neighbour3, 
or to b
 entertained of thenI, where he takes occasion to dis- 
course of such things as are both profitable and pleasant, and 
to raise up their minds to apprehend God's good blessing to our 
Church and State; that order is kept in the one, and peace in 
the other, without disturbance or interruption of public divine 
offices. As he open
d the day with prayer, so he closeth it, 
hUlllbly beseeching the Ahnighty to pardon and accept our poor 
services, and to in1prove thel11, that we Inay grow therein, and 
that our feet may be like hinds' feet, ever climbing up higher 
and higher unto him. 


CHAP. IX. 


The parson's state of life. 
THE country parson, considering that virginit.y is an higher 
state than l11atrilllony and that the lllinistry requires the 
best and highest things, is rather unnlarried than married. 
But yet, as the telnper of his body lnay be, or as the tenlper of 
his parish lllay be, where he lllay have occasion to converse with 
WOlllen, and that alnongst suspicious lnen, and other like 
circulnstances considered, he is rather 111arried than unularried. 
Let hiln cOllllnunicate the thing often by prayer unto God, and 
as his grace shall direct hitn, so let hitn proceed. If he be un- 
Inarried, and keep house, he hath not a 'VOlnan in his house, 
but finds opportunities of having his nleat dressed and other 
services done by lnen servants at home, and his linen washed 
abroad. If he be unlllarried, and sojourn, he never talks with 
c 



vh 


]8 


The Country Parson. 


? 
" 


any WOluan. alone, but in the audience of others, and that 
seldom, and then also in a serious manner, never jestingly or 
sportfully. lIe is very circunlspect, in all cOlllpanies, both of 
his behaviour, speech "and very looks, knowing hiluself to be 
both suspected and envied. If he stand steadfast in his heart, 
having no necessity, but hath power over his own will, and hath 
so decreed in his heart, that he will keep hinlself a virgin, he 
spends his days in fasting and prayer, and blesseth God for the 
gift of continency, knowing that it can no \vay be preserved, but 
only by those means by which at first it was obtained. He 
therefore thinks it not enough for hiln to observe the fasting days 
of the church, and the daily prayers enjoined him by authority, 
\vhich he observeth out of hlunble conforlnity and obedience; 
but adds to thein, out of choice and devotion, some other days 
for fasting, and hours for prayers; and by these he keeps his 
body tanIe, serviceable, and healthful; and his soul fervent, 
active, young, and lusty as an eagle. He often readeth the 
\ lives of the priluitive 11lonks, hermits, and virgins, an d wond ereth 
,not so luuch at their patient suffering, and cheerful dying under 
: persecuting enlperors, though t.hat indeed be very adlnirable, as 
at their daily tenIperance, abstinence, watchings and constant 
prayers and 11lortifications in the tinIes of peace and prosperity. 
To put on the profound hUluility and the exact temperance of 
our Lord J eSllS, ,vith other exeluplary virtues of that sort, and 
to keep them on in the sunshine and noon of prosperity, he 
findeth to be as necessary, and as difficult at least, as to be 
clothed \vith perfect patience and Christian fortitude in the cold 
lllÏdnight storms of persecution and adversity. He keepeth his 
,vatch and ,yard, night and day, against the proper and peculiar 
tenlptations of his state of life, which are principally these two, 
spiritual pride and ilupurity of he[1 rt: against these ghostly 
eneluies he girdeth up his loins, heeps the inlagination froln 
roving, puts on the whole arnlour of God, and by the virtue of 
the shield of faith he is not afraid of the pestilence that wallceth in 
darl.:ness, (carna] ilupurit.y,) nor of tlte sicl.:ness tltat destroyetlt at 
noon-day, (ghostly pride and self-conceit.) Other temptations 
he hath, which, like Inortal eneulies, luay sonIetilnes disquiet 
hinl likewise; for the human soul being bounded and kept in, 
in her sensitive faculty, will run out n10re or less in her 
intellectual. Original concupiscence is such an active thinE5, by 
reason of continual inward or outward tell1ptations, that it is ever 



The Country Parson. 


19 


attenlpting or doing one mischief or other. An1bition or un- 
timely desire of promotion to a higher state or place, unrler 
colour of accomlnodation, or necessary provision, is a comn10n 
ternptation to men of any eIninency, especially being single men. 
Curiosity in prying into high speculative and unprofitable 
questions, is another great stumblingblock to the holiness or 
scholars. These and many other spiritual wickednesses in high 
places doth the parson fear, or experilllent, or Loth; and that 
much Inore being single, than if he were married; for then 
commonly the stream of ten1ptations is turned another ,vay, into 
covetousness, love of pleasure, or ease, or the like. If the parson 
be unmarried, and lneans to continue so, he doth at least as much 
as hath been said. If he be nlarried, the choice of his ,,'ife ,vas 
made rather by his ear, than by his eye; his judgn1ent, not his 
affection, found out a fit wife for him, whose humble and liberal 
disposition he preferred before beauty, riches, or honour. I-Ie 
knew that the good instrument of God to bring women to 
heaven, a wise and loving husband, could out of hun1Ìlity produce 
any special grace of faith, patience, lueekness, love, obedience, 
&c. and out of liberality nlake her fruitful in all good works. 
As he is just in all things, so is he to his wife also, counting 
nothing so much his own, as that he may be unjust unto it. 
Therefore he gives her respect both before her servants and 
others, and half at least of the government of the house, 
reserving so much of the affairs as serve for a diversion for him; 
yet neyer so giving over the reins, but that he son1etilnes looks 
how things go, delnanding an account, but not by the way of an 
account. And this must be done the oftener, or the seldoll1er, 
according as he is satisfied of his wife's discretioll. 


CHAP.X. 


Tho parson in Ids house. 
THE parson is very exact in the governing of his house, 
n1aking it a copy and model for his parish. lIe knows the 
tenlper and pulse of every person in his house, and accordingly 
either meets with their vices, or advanceth their virtues. His 
wife is either religious, or night and day he is winning her to it. 
Instead of the qualities of the world, he requires only three of 
her; first a training up of her children and maids in the fear of 
God, with prayers and catechising, and an religious duties. 
c
 



]8 


Tlw Oountry Parson. 


\. 


any WOlnan, alone, but in the audience of others, and that 
bcldoll1, and then also in a serious manner, never jestingly or 
sportfully. lIe is very circumspect, in all cOlupanies, both of 
his behaviour, bpeech "and very looks, knowing hill1self to be 
both suspected and envied. If he stand steadfast in his heart, 
having no necessity, but hath power over his o\vn will, and hath 
so decreed in his heart, that he will keep himself a virgin, he 
spends his days in fasting and prayer, and Llesseth God for the 
gift of continency, knowing that it can no way be preserved, but 
only by those means by which at first it was obtained. lIe 
therefore thinks it not enough for hill1 to observe the fasting days 
of the church, and the daily pravers enjoined him by authority, 
,vhich he observeth out of hUlllble conformity and obedience; 
but adds to then1, out of choice and devotion, SOlne other days 
for fasting, and hours for prayers; and by the
e he keeps his 
body tan1e, serviceable, and healthful; and his soul fervent, 
active, young, and lusty as an eagle. He often readeth the 
'lives of the prilnitive monks, hermits, and virgins, an d woñ dereth 
not so luuch at their patient suffering, and cheerful dying under 
: persecuting elnperors, though t.hat indeed be very adluirable, as 
at their daily ten1perance, abstinence, \vatchings and constant 
prayers and mortifications in the tillles of peace and prosperity. 
To put on the profound hun1Ïlity and the exact tenlperance of 
our Lord Jesus, \vith other exemplary virtues of that sort, and 
to keep thelll on in the sunshine and noon of prosperity, he 
findeth to be as necessary, and as difficult at least, as to be 
clothed \vith perfect patience and Christian fortitude in the cold 
n1idnight stOrIns of persecution and adversity. He keepeth his 
watch and ward, night and day, against the proper and peculiar 
temptations of his state of life, which are principally these two, 
spiritual pride and iUlpurity of he:. rt: against these ghostly 
enenlies he girdeth up his loins, keeps the in1agination froln 
roving, puts on the whole armour of God, and by the virtue of 
the shield of faith he is not afraid of tke pestilence that wallceth in 
darl.:ness, (carnal iUlpurity,) nor of tlte sickness that destroyetlì at 
noon-day, (ghostly pride and self-conceit.) Other temptations 
he hath, which, lilie n10rtal enemies, lnay sometilnes disquiet 
hilu likewise; for the hUI11an soul being bounded and kept in, 
in her sensitive faculty, will run out 1110re or less in her 
intellectual. Original concupiscence is such an active thing, by 
reason of continual inward or outward temptations, that it is ever 



The Country Parson. 


19 


attenlpting or doing one mischief or other. Ambition or un- 
timely desire of promotion to a higher state or place, unner 
colour of accomillodation, or necessary provision, is a common 
temptation to men of any elninency, especially being single nlen. 
Curiosity in prying into high speculative and unprofitable 
questions, is another great stumblingblocl{ to the holiness or 
scholars. These and man}
 other spiritual wickednesses in high 
places doth the parson fear, or experilllent, or both; and that 
much nlore being single, than if he were nlarried; for then 
commonly the stream of tenlptations is turned another \vay, into 
covetousness, love of pleasure, or ease, or the like. If the parson 
be unn1arried, and means to continue so, he doth at least as much 
as hath been said. If he be n1arried, the choice of his ",
ife \vas 
made rather by his ear, than by his eye; his judgment, not his 
affection, found out a fit wife for him, whose humble and liberal 
disposition he preferred before beauty, riches, or honour. I-Ie 
knew that the good instrument of God to bring \vornen to 
heaven, a wise and loving husband, could out of hun1ility produce 
any special grace of faith, patience, l11eekness, love, obedience, 
&c. and out of liberality Dlake her fruitful in all good works. 
As he is just in all things, so is he to his wife also, counting 
nothing so much his own, as that he may be unjust unto it. 
Therefore he gives her respect both before her servants and 
others, and half at least of the government of the house, 
reserving so much of the affairs as serve for a diversion for hiIn; 
yet neyer so giving over the reins, but that he sOlnetillles looks 
how things go, del11anding an account, but not by the way of an 
account. And this lnust be done the oftener, or the seldoll1er, 
according as he is satisfied of his wife's discretion. 


CHAP.X. 


Tho parson in his house. 
THE parson is ver}
 exact in the governing of his house, 
nlaking it a copy and model for his parish. 1-1 e knows the 
tenlper and pulse of every person in his house, and accordingly 
either meets with their vices, or advanceth their virtues. His 
\vife is either religious, or night and day he is winning her to it. 
Instead of the qualities of the world, he requires only three of 
her; first a training up of her children and maids in the fear of 
God, with pra:yers and catechising, and all religious duties. 
c
 



QO 


The Oountry Parson. 


Secondly, a curing and healing of all wounds and sores with her 
o,vn hands; which skill either she brought with her, or he takes 
care she shall learn it of some religious neighbour. Thirdly, a 
providing for her fan1ily in such sort, as that neither they want 
a competent sustentation, nor her husband be brought in debt. 
His children he fir
t nlakes Christians, and then conllnon,veaIth's 
Dlen; the one he owes to his heavenly country, the other to his 
earthly, having no title to either, except he do good to both. 
Therefore having seasoned thenl with all piety, not only of ,vords 
in praying and reading, but in actions, in visiting other sick 
children, and tending their ,vounds, and sending his charity by 
then1 to the poor, and sonletiln
 giving then1 a little nloney to 
do it of theluselves, that they get a delight in it, and enter into 
favour ,vith God, ,vho weighs even children's actions, 1 Kings 
xiv. 12, 13, he afterwards turns his care to fit all their dispo- 
sitions with sonle calling, not sparing the eldest, but giving him 
the prerogative of his father's profession, ,vhich haply for his 
other children he is not able to do. Yet in binding them 
apprentices, (in case he think fit to do so,) he takes care not to 
put theln into vain trades, anrl unbefitting the reverence of their 
father's calling, such as taverns for men, and lace-making for 
'von1en; because those trades, for the n10st part, serve but the 
vices and vanities of the world, which he is to deny, and not 
augment. IIowever, he resolvelS with hilnself never to olnit any 
present good deed of charity, in consideration of providing a 
stock for his children; but assures hin1self, that money thus lent 
to God is placed surer for his children's advantage, than if it 
were given to !!:e chalnber o
 Londo n. Good deeds, and good 
breeding, are his two great stocks for his children; if God givo 
any thing above those, and not spent in them, he blesseth God., 
and lays it out as he sees cause. Hi$ servants are all religious; 
and were it not his duty to have thenl so, it were his profit, for 
none are so ,veIl served as by religious servants, both because 
they do best, and because what they do is blessed, and prospers. 
After religion, he teaches theIn, that three things nlake a com- 
plete servant, truth, diligence, and neatness or cleanliness. 
Those that can read (1 re allowed tin1es for it, and those that can- 
cot are taught; for all in his house are either teachers or learn- 
cr
, or both; 80 that his f:,ullily is a school of religion. and 
they all account, that to teach the ignorant is the greatest ahus. 
Even the walls are not idle, but sOlJ1ething is written or painted 



f 

 ... 


The Country Parson. 


21 


there, which may excite the reader to a thought of piety; 
especially the 1018t Psalm, which is expressed in a fair table, as 
being the rule of a fan1ily. And when they go abroad, his wife 
anlong her neighbours is the beginner of good discourses, his 
children alnong children, his servants among other seryant.s; so 
that as in the house of those that are skilled in nlusic all are 
nlusicians; so in the house of a preacher all are preachers. He 
suffers not. a lie or equivocation by any nleans in his house, but 
counts it the art and secret of governing, to preserve a directness 
and open plainness in all things; so that all his house knows 
that there is no help for a fault done, but confession. He him- 
self or his wife tak es account of sermons, and how everyone 
profits, conlparing this year with the last: and, besides the COlTI- 
DIon prayers of the falnily, he straitly requires of all to pray by 
themselves before they sleep at night and stir out. in the morn- 
ing, and knows what prayers they say, and, till they have learned 
them, Blakes thenI kneel by hiln; esteenling that this private 
praying is a more voluntary act in them, than when they are 
called to others' prayers, and that which when they leave the 
family they carry with thenl. He keeps his servants between 
love and fear, according as he finds theln; but generally he 
distributes it thus; to his children he shews nIore love than 
terror, to his servants nlore terror than love: but an old good 
r servant boards a child. The furniture of his house is very plain, 
but clean, whole, and sweet, as sweet aA his garden can make; 
for he hath no Inoney for such things, charity being his only 
perfume, which deserves cost when he can spare it. His fare is 
plain and conlnlon, but wholesome; what he hath is little, but 
very good; it consisteth most of lllutton, beef, and veal; if he 
adòs any thing for a great day, or a stranger, his garden or 
orchard supplies it, or his barn and bacl{side: he goes no further 
for any entertainment, lest he go into the world, esteelning it 
absurd that he should exceed, who teacheth others teIl1perance. 
But those which his honle produceth he refuseth not, as conling 
cheap and easy, and arising fronl the inlprovenlent of things, 
which otherwise would be lost. 'Yherein he admires and imi- 
tates the wonderful proyidence and thrift of the great House- 
holder of the world: for there being two things, which as they 
are, are unuseful to man, the one for smal1ness, as crumbs and 
scattered corn, and the like; the other for the foulness, as 
wash and dirt, and things thereinto fallen; God hath provided 



QQ 


The Oo'untl'!l Parson. 


creatures for both; for the first, popItry; for the second, swine. 
These save man the labour, and doing that which either he could 
not do, or wa.s not fit for him to do, by taking both sorts of food 
into theIn, do as it were dress and prepare both for man and 
then1selves, by growing themselves fit for his table. The parson 
in his house observes fasting days; and particularly as Sunday 
is his day of joy, so Friday his day of humiliation, which he 
celebrates not only with abstinence of diet, but also of company, 
recreation, and an outward contentInents, and besides with con- 
fession of sins, and all act.s of nlortification. N ow fasting days 
contain a treble obligation: first, of eating less that day than 
on other days: secondly, of eatin o no pleasing or over-nourishing 
things, as the Israelites did eat sour herbs: thirdly, of eating no 
flesh, which is but the detennination of the second rule by 
authority to this particular. The two former obligations are 
l1luch nlore essential to a true fast than the t.hird and last; and 
fasting days were fully performed by keeping of the two former, 
had not authority interposed: so that to eat little, and that 
unpleasant, is the natural rule of fasting.. although it be flesh. 
For since fasting in scripture language is an afflicting of our 
80uls, if a. piece of dry flesh at. lny table be more unpleasant to 
nle than SOlne fish there, certainly to eat the flesh, and not the 
fish, is to keep the fasting day naturally. And it is observable, 
that the prohibiting of flesh C[Llne froln hot countries, where both 
flesh alone, and n1uch n10re with wine, is apt to nourish more 
than in cold regions, and where flesh may be lnuch better sparpd, 
and with lllore safety, than elsewhere
 where both the people 
and the drink being cold and phleglnatic, the eating of flesh is 
an antidote to both. For it is certain, that a weak stoluach 
being preposses
ed ,vith flesh, shall lnuch better brook and bear 
a draught of beer, than if it had taken before either fish or 
roots, or such things; which will discover itself by spitting, and 
rheum, or phlegnl. To conclude, the parson, if he be in full health, 
keeps the three obligations, eating fish or roots, and that for 
quantity little, for quality unpleasant. If his body be weak 
and obstructed, as 1110St students are, he cannot keep the last 
obligation, nor suffer others in his house that are 80 to keep it; 
but only the two fonner, which also in diseases of exinanition 
(as con
unlptions) HUlst be b.'oken: for Bleat was Blade for IHan, 
not luan for lneat. To all this nlay be added, not for en1bolden- 
jug the unruly, but for the comfort of the weak, that not on]y 



The Count'!'y Parson. 



3 


sickness breaks these obligations of fasting, but sickliness also. 
For it is as unnatural to do any thing that leads nle to a sickness, 
to which I am inclined, as not to get out of that sickness, when 
I am in it, by any diet. One thing is evident, that an English 
body, and a student's body, are two great obstructed vessels, 
and there is nothing that is food, and not physic, \vhich doth 
less obstruct than flesh moderately taken; as being imll10derately 
taken, it is exceeding obstructive. And obstructions are the 
cause of lllost diseases. 


CHAP. XI. 


The parson's courtesy. 
THE country parson owing a debt of charity to the poor, 
and of courtesy to his other parishioners, he so distinguisheth, 
that he keeps his money for the poor, and his table for those 
that are above alnls. Not but that the poor are welcome also to 
his table, WhOlll he son1etimes purposely takes houle ,vith hin1, 
setting them close by him, and carving for them, both for his 
own humility and their comfort, who are nutCh cheered with 
such friendliness. But since both is to be done, the better sort 
invited, and Ineaner relieved, he chooseth rather to give the 
poor money, which they can better en1ploy to their own advan- 
tage, and suitably to their needs, than so much given in IDeat at 
dinner. Having then invited some of his parish, he taketh his 
times to do the like to the rest; so that in the compass of the 
year, he hath them aU with him, because country people are 
very observant of such things, and will not be persuaded but 
being not invited they are hated. "Thich persuasion the par- 
son by an means avoids, knowing that where there are such 
conceits, there is no rooln for his doctrine to enter. Yet doth 
he oftenest invite those whom he sees take best courses, that so 
both they may be encouraged to pprsevere, and others spurred 
to do ,veIl, that they may enjoy the like courtesy. For though 
he desire that all should live well and virtuously, not for any 
reward of his, but for virtue's sake; Jet that will not be so: and 
therefore, as God, although we should love hÌ1n only for his o'wn 
sake, yet out of his infinite pity hath set forth heaven for a 
reward to draw men to piety, and is content if, at least so, 
they will become good; so the country parson, who is a dili- 
gent observer and tracker of God's ways. sets up as n1any 




44 


The ('oluztry Parson. 


encouragelnents to goodness as he can, both in honour, and 
profit, and fame; that he may, if not the best \vay, yet any \Va), 
nlake his pDrish good. 


CHAP. XII. 


The parson"s charity. 
THE country parson is full of charity; it is his predoluinant 
elenlent. For many and \\'onderful things are spoken of thee, 
thou great virtue. To charity is given the covering of sins, 
1 Peter iv. 8. and the forgiveness of sins, 1\latthew vi. 14. 
Luke vii. 47. the fulfilling of the law, Ron1ans xiii. 10. the life 
of faith, .J alues ii. 
6. the blessings of this life, Proverbs xxii. 9. 
Psahn xli. 
. and the reward of the next, 
Iatthew xxv. 35. In 
brief, it is the body of religion, John xiii. 35. and the top of 
Christian virtues, 1 Cor. xiii. 'Vherefore aU his works relish 
of charity. "Then he riseth in the nlorning, he bethinketh 
himself what good deeds he can do that day, and presently cloth 
them: counting that day lost wherein he hath not exercised his 
charity. lIe first considers his own parish, and takes care that. 
there be not a beggar or idl
 person in his parish, but that all 
be in a C0l11petent way of getting their living. This he effects 
eithf1r by bounty or persuasion, or by authority, making use of 
that excellent statute which binds all parishes to luaintain their 
own. If his parish be rich, he exacts this of them; if poor, and 
he able, he easeth then} therein. But he gives no set pension to 
any; for this in time will lose the nalue and effect of charity 
with the poor people, though not \vith God: for then they will 
reckon upon it as on a debt; and if it be taken a\vay, though 
justly, they will ll1UrIUUr, and repine, as Hluch as he that is dis- 
seized of his own inheritance. But the parson having a double 
aitn, and Inaking a hook of his charity, causeth theln still to 
depend on hin1; and so by continual and fresh bounties, unex- 
pected to theIn, but resolved to hilllself, he wins them to praise 
God nlore, to live nlore religiously, and to take n10re pains in 
their vocation, as not knowing when they shall be relieved; 
which otherwise they \votdd reckon upon, and turn to idleness. 
Besides this general provision, he hath other times of opening 
his hand; as at great festivals and cOlllnlunioHs; not suffering 
any, that day that he receives, to want a good meal suiting to 
the joy of the occasion. nut specially, at hard tilDes, and 



The Goltntry Pal'son. 



5 


dearths, he even parts his living and life among t.hem, giving 
sonle corn outright, and selling other at under rates; and, when 
his own stock serves not, working those that are able to the 
same charity, still pressing it in the pul) it and out of the pulpit, 
and never leaving thenl till he obtain his desire. Yet in all his 
charity he distinguisheth, giving theIn most who live best, and 
take most pains, and are most charged; so is his charity in effect 
a sermon. After the consideration of his own parish, he enlargeth 
hinlself, if he be able, to the neighbourhood; for that also is some 
kind of obligation; so doth he also to those at his door, whom 
God puts in his way and makes his neighbours. But these he 
helps not without SOlne testimony, except the evidence of the mi- 
sery bring testitnony with it. For though these testinlonies also 
11lay be falsified, Jet considering that the law allows these in case 
they be true, but allows by no nleans to give without testimony, 
as he obeys authority in the one, so being once satisfied, he 
allows his charity SOllIe blindness in the other; especially, since, 
of the two C0111nlands, we are more enjoined to be charitable 
than wise. But evident nliseries have a natural privilege, and 
exenlption fron1 alJ law. \Vhenever he gives any thing, and 
sees them labour in thanking of hin1, he exacts of thenl to let 
hiln alone, and say rather, God be praised, God be glorified; 
that so the thanks Inay go the right way, and thither only 
where they are only due. So doth he also before giving make 
theIn say their prayers first, or the Creed, and Ten Com- 
lnandments, and as he finds thelli perfect, rewards them the 
lllore. For other givillgS are lay and secular, but this is to give 
like a priest. 


CHAP. XIII. 


The parsou,'s enurclt. 
THE country parson hath a special care of his church, that all 
things there be decent, and befitting His nalue by which it 
is called. Therefore, first, he takes order that all things be in 
good repair; as walls plastered, windows gJazed, floor paved, 
seats whole, firm and unifonn; especially that the pulpit and 
desk and conlmunion table and font, be as the)' ought, for those 
great duties that are performed in them. Secondl)., that the 
church be swept and kept clean, without dust or cobwebs, and 
at great festivals strewed and stuck with boughs, and perfumed 




6 


FIle GO
IJntr!l Parson. 


with incense. Thirdly, that there be fit and proper texts of 
scripture every where painted, and that all the painting be 
grave and reverend, not ,vith light colours or foolish antics. 
Fourthly, that all the books appointed by authority be there, 
and those not torn or fouled, but whole and clean, and well 
bound: and that there be a fitting and sightly conuuunion cloth 
" of fine linen, with an hanòsonle and seeIuly carpet of good 
" and costly stuff or cloth, and all kept sweet and clean, in a 
" strong and decent chest, with a chalice and cover, and a stoop 
" or flagon; and a bason for alms and offerings; besides which, 
" he hath a poor luan'ls box con\TenientIy seated to receive the 
" charity of ,vell-n1Ïnded people, and to lay up treasure for the 
" sick and needy." And all this he doth, not as out of necessity, 
or as putting a holiness in the things, but as desiring to keep 
the n1Ïddle way between superstition and slovenliness, and as 
following the apostle'ls two great and admirable rules in things 
of this nature: the first whereof is, Let all things be done decently, 
and in order: the second, Let all th,ings be done to edification, 
] Cor. xiv. For these two rules cOlnprise and include the 
double object of our duty, God and our neighbour; the first 
being for the honour of God, the second for the benefit of our 
neighbour. So that they excellently score out the ,yay, and 
fully and exactly contain, even in external and indifferent 
things, what course is to be taken; and put then1 to great 
shalue who deny the scripture to be perfect. 


CHAP. XIV. 


The parson in circllJit. 
'fHE country parson upon the afternoons in the week-days 
tfikes occa
ion sOluetin1es to visit in person, now one quarter 
of his parish, now another. }-'or there he shall find his flock 
lnost naturally as they are, \vallowing in the nlidst of their 
affairs: whereas on Sunday it is easy for then} to compose them- 
selves to order, which they put on as their holiday clothes, and 
come to chur
h in franle, but cOlnmonly the next day put off 
both. 'Vhen he comes to any house, first he blesseth it, and 
thPll as he finds the persons of the' house cmplo)'ed, so he forms 
his discourse. Those that he finds religiously eInployed, he 
both cOInnlends thenl much, and furthers then1, when he is gone, 
in their en1plo)'nlen t; as, if he finds them reading, he furnisheth 



The Count'J"!! Parson. 


Q7 


then1 with good books; if curing poor people, he supplies thenl 
with receipts, and instructs thenl further in that skill, shewing 
theln how acceptable such \vorks are to God, and wishing them 
ever to do the cures with their own hands, and not to put them 
o\?er to servants. Those that he finds busy in the works of 
their caning, he cOlnmendeth thmn also; for it is a good and 
just thing for everyone to do their own business. But then he 
admonisheth then1 of two things; first, that they dive not too 
deep into worldly affairs, plunging themselves over head and 
ears into carking and caring; but that they so labour, as neither 
to labour anxiously, nor distrustfully, nor profanely. Then 
they labour anxiously, when they overdo it, to the loss of their 
quiet and health: then distrustfully, when they doubt God's 
providence, thinking that thf'ir own labour is the cause of their 
thriving, as if it were in their o\vn hands to thrive, or not to 
thrive. Then they labour profanely, when they set thenl- 
selves to work like brute beasts, never raising their thoughts 
to God, nor sanctifying their labour with daily prayer; 'when 
on the Lord'ls day they do unnecessary servile work, or in 
tinle of divine service on other holidays, except in the cases 
of extrenle poverty, and in the seasons of seed-titue and 
harvest. Secondly, he adviseth then1 so to labour for wealth 
and 11laintenance, as that they lnake not that the end of their 
labour, but tllat they nlay have wherewithal to serve God the 
better, and do good deeds. After these discourses, if they be 
poor and needy Wh0111 he thus finds labouring, he gives them 
somewhat; and opens not only his 1110Uth but his purse to their 
relief, that so they go on Illore cheerfully in their vocation, and 
hÏ1nself be ever the more welcolne to them. Those that the 
parson finds idle, or ill enlployed, he chides not at first, for that 
were neither civil nor profitable; but always in the close before 
he departs fron1 theln: yet in this he distinguisheth; for if he 
be a plain countryman, he reproves him plainly; for they are 
not sensible of fineness: if they be of higher quality, they COln- 
lllonly are quick, and sensible, and very tender of reproof; and 
therefore he lays his discourse so, that he conles to the point 
very leisurely, and oftentilnes as Kathan did, in the person of 
another, nlaking thenl to reprove themselves. However, one 
way or other, he ever repro yes them, that he may keep himself 
pure, and not be entangled in others' sins. N either in this 
doth he forbear, though there be company by: for as when the 



fl8 


Th.e Country Parsul/;. 


offence is particular, and against me, I anI to follow our Saviour"s 
rule, and to take my brother aside, and reprove him; so when 
t.he offence is public, and against God, I am then to follow the 
apostle's rule, 1 Tin10thy v. 20, 
tnd to rebuke openly that 
which is done openly. Besides these occasional discourses, the 
parson questions what order is kept in the house, as about 
prayers Inorning and evening on their knees, reading of scrip- 
ture, catechising, singing of psahlls at their ,vork, and on holi- 
days; ,vho can read, who not: and sOlnetimes he hears the 
children read hinlself, and blesseth them, encouraging also the 
servants to learn to read, and offering to have them taught on 
holidays by his servants. If the parson were ashalned of parti- 
cularizing in these things, he were not fit to be a parson: but 
he holds the rule, that nothing is little in God's service: if it 
once have the honour of that name, it grows great instantly. 
\Vherefore neither disdaineth he to enter into the poorest cot- 
tage, though he even creep into it, and though it smell never 80 
loathsomely. For both God is there also, and those for whom 
God died: and so much the rather doth he so, as his access to 
the poor is more cOInfortable than to the rich; and in regard of 
hilllself it is nlore hunlÌliation. These are the parson's general 
ainIs in his circuit; but with these he mingles other discourses 
for conversation sake, and to 111ake his higher purposes slip the 
more easily. 


CHAP. xv. 


Tlte parson couifortÙlg. 
THE country parson, ,vhen any of his cure is sick, or afflicted 
with loss of friend or estate, or any ways distressed, fails not 
to afford his best cOIllforts, and rather goes to theln than sends 
for the afflicted, though they can, and otherwise ought to con Ie 
to hiru. To this end he hath throughly digested all the points 
of consolation, as having continual use of them; auch as are 
froIH God's general providence extended even to lilies; frolu 
his particular, to his church; frolll his proluises, frolll the ex- 
aInples of all saints that ever 'v ere ; from Christ hiu1self, per- 
fecting our redemption no other way than by sorrow; from the 
benefit of affiiction, which soft.ens and works the stubborn heart 
of Ulan; froln the certainty Loth of deliverance and reward, if 
we faint not; fronl the miserable conlparison of the moment of 



The Oountr!/ Parson. 


Q9 


griefs here, with the weight of joys hereafter. Besides this, 
in his visiting the sick, or otherwise afflicted, he followeth the 
church's counsel, namely, in persuading them to particular 
confession, labouring to Inake theIn understand the great good 
use of this ancient and pious ordinance, and how necessary it 
is in some cases: he also urgeth them to do some pious cha- 
ritable works, as a necessary evidence and fruit of their faith; 
at that time especially, to the participation of the holy sacra- 
ment, she,ving then} how cOlnfortable and sovereign a n1edicine 
it is to all sin-sick souls; what strength, and joy, and peace it 
adlninisters against all temptations, even in death itself. He 
plainly and generally intimateth all this to the disaffected, or 
sick person, that so the hunger and thirst after it may come 
rather from themselves, than from his persuasion. 


CHAP. XVI. 


The parson a father. 
THE country parson is not only a father to his flock, but also 
professeth hiu1self throughly of the opinion, carrying it 
about with him as fully, as if he had begot his whole parish. 
And of this he n1akes great use. For by this means, when any 
sins, he hateth hi In not as an officer, but pities him as a father: 
and even in those wrongs which, either in tithing or otherwise, 
are done to his own person, he considers t.he offender as a child, 
and forgives, so he nlay have any sign of amendrnent; so also, 
when, after many adn10nitions, any continues to be refractory, 
yet he gives him not over, but is long before he proceed to dis- 
inheriting, or perhaps never goes so far; knowing, that some 
are called at the eleventh hour, and therefore he still expects 
and waits, lest he should detern1Ìne God's hour of coming; 
,vhich as he cannot touching the last day, so neither touching 
the intermediate days of conversion. 


CHAP. X,TII. 


The parson in journey. 
THE country parson, when a just occasion calleth him out of 
his parish, (which he diligently and strictly weigheth, his 
parish being all his joy and thought,) leaveth not his n1inistry 
behind hin1; but is himself wherever he is. Therefore those 



30 


The Country Parson. 


he nIeets on the way he blesseth audibly, and with those he 
overtakes, or that overtalie hinI, he begins good discourses, such 
as lllay edify, interposing sOllletinles some short and honest re- 
freshlllents, which Illay nlake his other discourses more welcolne, 
and less tedious. And when he comes to his inn, he refuseth not 
to join, that he may enlarge the glory of God to the company he 
is in, by a due blessing of God for their safe arrival, and saying 
grace at Ineat, and at going to bed by giving the host notice, 
that he will have prayers in the hall, wishing hill1 to inform bis 
guests thereof, that if any be willing to partake, they nlay resort 
thither. The like he doth in the lllorning, using pleasantly the 
outlandish proverb, that "prayer
 and provender never hinder 
"journey." 'Vhen he COllles to any other house, ,vhere his kin- 
dred or other relations give binl any authority over the family, 
if he be to stay for ú tilHe, he considers diligently the state 
thereof to G-od-ward, and that in two points: first, what disor- 
ders there are either in apparel, or diet, or too open a buttery, or 
reading vain books, or swearing, or breeding up children to n l ) 
calling, but in idleness, or the like. Secondly, what means of 
piety, whether daily prayers be used, grace, reading of scriptures 
and other good boo
s, ho\v Sundays, holidays, and fasting days 
are kept. And accordingly, as he finds any defect in these, he 
first considers with hin1self, \vhat kind of relnedy fits the telnper 
of the house best, and then he faithfully and boldly applieth it; 
yet seasonably and discreetly, by taking aside the lord or lady, 
or master and nlistress of the house, and shewing them clearly 
that they respect theln 1110st who "ish then1 best, and that not a 
desire to meddle with others'! affairs, but the earnestness to do 
all the good he can, nloves hinl to say thus and thus. 


CHAP. XVIII. 


The parson is sentinel. 
THE country parson, wherever he is, keeps God's watch; that 
is, there is nothing spoken or done in the cOlnpany \\"here 
he is, but C0I11eS under his test and censure; if it be well spoken 
or done, he takes occasion to commend and enlarge it; if ill, he 
l)resently lays hold of it, lest the poison steal into some young 
and un wary spirits, and possess thenl even before they theln- 
selves heed it. But this he doth discreetly, with luolli(ying and 
suppling words; This was not so well said, as it luight have 



The Oountry Parson. 


51 


been forborne; 'Ve cannot allow this; or else, if the thing will 
achnit interpretation ; Your Il1eaning is not thus, but thus; or, 
So far indeed what you say is true, and well said; but this will 
not stand. This is called keeping God's watch, when the baits 
which the enemy lays in company are discovered and avoided; 
this is to be on God's side, and be true to his party. Besides, 
if he perceive in company any dis('ourse tending to ill either by 
the wickedness or quarrelsonleness thereof, he either prevents it 
judiciously, or breaks it off seasonably by some diversion. 
'Vherein a pleasantness of disposition is of great use, men 
being willing to sell the interest and engagenlent of their dis- 
courses for no price, sooner than that of mirth; whither the 
nature of nlan, loving refreshnlent, gladly betakes itself, even to 
the loss of honour. 


CHAP. XIX. 


Tlte parson -in reference. 
THE country parson is sincere and upright in all his relations. 
And first, he is just to his country; as when he is set at an 
armour, or horse, he borrows them not to serve the turn, nor 
provides slight and unuseful, but such as are every '.yay fitting 
to do his country true and laudable service, when occasion re- 
quires. To do otherwise is deceit; 3nd therefore not for 
hinl who is hearty and true in all his ways, as being the servant 
of hirn in whom there was no guile. Likewise in any other 
country-duty, he considers what is the enù of any cOlnnland, and 
then he suits things faithfully according to that end. Secondly, 
he carries himself very respectively, as to all the fathers of the 
church, so especially to his diocesan, honouring him both in 
,vord and behaviour, and resorting unto him in any difficulty, 
either in his studies or in his parish. He observes visitations, 
and, being there, Inakes due use of then1, as of clergy councils, 
for the benefit of the diocese. And therefore before he conIes, 
having observed sOlne defects in the nlinistry, he then either in 
sermon, if he preach, or at some other tilne of the day, pro- 
pounds among his brethren what \vere fitting to be done. 
Thirdly, he keeps good correspondence with all the neigh- 
bouring pastors round about hiIn, perforIuing- for them any 
ministerial office which is not to the prejudice of his own 
parish. Likewise he ,velcomes to his house any Ininister, how 



3
 


Thp Country Pa
"son. 


poor or mean soever, with as joyful a countenance as if he \vere 
to entertain some great lord. Fourthly, he fulfils the duty and 
debt of neighbourhood to all the pari
hes which are near him. 
}1'or the apostle's rule, Philipp. iv. being admirable and large, 
that t[-e : hould do whatsoever tllings are honest, or fnst, or lYltre, 
or lovely, or of good repol't, if there be any virtue or auy pra'ise ; 
and neighbourhood being ever reputed, even among the heathen, 
as an obligation to do good, rather than to those that are further, 
where things are otherwise equal, therefore he satisfies this duty 
also. Especiany, if God have sent any calamity either by fire or 
famine to any neighbouring parish, then he expects no brief; 
but taking his parish together t
e next Sunday, or holida.y, and 
exposing to them the uncertainty of human affairs, none know- 
ing whose turn 111ay be next, and then when he hath affrighted 
thenl with this, exposing the obligation of charity and neigh- 
bourhood, he first gives liberally hinlself, and then incites thelll 
to give; 111aking together a sunl either to be sent, or, \vhich 
were Inore comfortable, all t.ogether choosing some fit day to 
carry it thenIse]ves, and cheer the afflicted. So, if any neigh- 
bouring village be overburdened with poor, and his own less 
charged, he finds some way of relieving it, and reducing the 
manna and bread of charity to some equality, representing to 
his people, that the blessing of God to them ought to make thenI 
the more charitable, and not the less, lest he cast their neigh- 
bour's poverty on them also. 


CHAP. XX. 


The parson in Goá's stead. 
THE country parson is in God's stead to his parish, and 
dischargeth God what he can of his r rOluises. 'Vherefore there 
is nothing done either \vell or ill, whereof he is not the 
rewarder or punisher. If he chance to find any reading in 
another's Bible, he provides hin1 one of his o\vn. If he finds 
another giving a poor man a penny, he gives him a tester for it, 
if the giver be fit to receive it; or if he be of a condition above 
such gifts, he sends hin1 a good book, or easeth him in his tithes, 
t
lling hinl when he hath forgotten it, This I do, because at such 
and such a time you were charitable. This is in SOlne sort a 
discharging of God; as concerning this life who hath pron1Ïsed 
that godliness shaH be gainful: but in the other God is his own 



The Oolt/dry Parson. 


ss 


immediate payn1aster, rewarding all good deeds to their full 
proportion. The parson"s punishing of sin and vice is rather 
by withdrawing his bounty and courtesy from the parties 
offending, or by private or public reproof, as the case requires, 
than by causing thelu to be presented, or otherwise c0I11plained 
of. And yet as the malice of the person or heinousness of 
the criule l11ay be. he is careful to see condign punishment 
inflicted, and with truly godly zeal, without hatred to the 
person, hungereth and thirsteth after righteous punishnlent of 
unrighteousness. Thus, both in rewarding virtue and in 
punishing vice, the parson endeavoureth to be in God's stead, 
knowing that coun try people are drawn or led by sense l110re 
than by faith, by present rewards or punishnlents more than 
by future. 


CHAP. XXI. 


The parson catechising. 
THE country parson values catechising highly: for, there 
being three points of his duty; the one, to infuse a con1- 
petent knowledge of salvation into everyone of his flock; the 
other, to multiply and build up this knowledge to a spiritual 
temple; the third, to inflanle this knowledge, to press and drive 
it to practice, turning it to reformation of life, by pithy and lively 
exhortations; catechising is the first pòint, and but by cate- 
chising the other cannot be attained. Besides, whereas in 
sermons there is a kind of state, in catechising there is an hun1- 
bleness very suitable to Christian regeneration, which exceed- 
ingly delights him as by ,yay of exercise upon hÎInself, and by 
,yay of preaching to 11Îlnself, for the advancing of his own 
mortification. For in preaching to others, he forgets not hÎ1u- 
self, but is first a sern10n to hilnEelf, and then to others, growing 
with the growth of his parish. He useth and preferreth the 
ordinary Church Catechislu, partly for obedience to authority, 
partly for unifonnity sake, that the same common truths may be 
every where professed, especially since n1any remove from 
parish to parish, ,vho like Christian soldiers are to give the ,vord 
and to satisfy the congregation by their catholic answers. He 
exacts of all the doctrine of the Catechisn1; of the younger sort, 
the very words; of the elder, the substance. Those he cate- 
chiseth publicly, the
e privately, giving age honour, according 
D 



36 


Tlte Oountry Pars 011,. 


not only the feast but the ,vay to it. At baptislll, being hilnself 
in ,vhite, ho requires the presence of a]], and baptizeth not will- 
ingly but on Sundays or great days. lIe adnlits no vain or 
idle naines, but snch as are usual and accustoined. He says that 
prayer with great devotion, ,vhere God is thanked for calling us 
to the knowledge of his grace, bapti
n1 being a blessing, that the 
",-orId hath not the like. He ,villingly and cheerfully crosseth 
the child, and thinketh the cerenlony not only innocent, but re- 
verend. He instructeth the godfathers and godmothers, that it 
is no cOlllpIinlental or light thing to sustain that place, but a 
great honour, and no less burden, as being done both in the pre- 
sence of God and his saints, and by ,vay of undertaking for a 
Christian soul. He ad viseth all to call to mind their baptism 
often; for if wise men have thought it the best ,yay of preserv- 
ing a state, to reduce it to its principles by \vhich it grew great; 
certainly it is the safest course for Christians also to meditate on 
their baptisnl often, (being the first step into their great and glo- 
}'ious calling) and upon ,vhat terms, and with ,vhat vows they 
,"ere baptized. At the tiIHes of the holy communion, he first 
takes order with the churchwardens, that the elements be of the 
best, not cheap, or coarse, much less ill-tasted, or ullwholesoll1e. 
Secondly, he considers and looks into the ignorance or careless- 
ness of his flock, and accordingly applies hilllself ,vith cate- 
chising and lively exhortations, not on the Sunday of the 
conununion only, (for then it is too late) but the Sunday or 
Sundays before the cOlnmunion, or on the eves of all those days. 
If there be any, who, having not yet received, are to enter into 
this great work, he takes the nlore pains with them, that he luay 
lay the foundation of future blessings. The time of every one's 
first receiving is not so nluch by Jears, as by understanding: 

articularly, the rule ll1aJ be this: 'Vhen anyone can distin- 
guish the sacramental frOlll common bread, knowing the institu- 
tion, and the difference, he ought to receive, of \vhat age soever. 
Children and )"outh are usually deferred too long, under pre- 
tence of devotion to the sacr:unellt; but it is for want of 
instruction; their understandings being ripe enough for ill 
thiugs, and why not then for better 
 But parents and nlasters 
should make haste in this, as to a great purchase for their 
children and servants; which while they defer, both sides 
suffer; the one, in wanting Inany excitings of grace; the other, 
in bcing worse served and obeyed. The saying of the Catechis111 



The Oountry Pa1'1son. 


87 


is necessary, but not enough; because to answer in form may 
still adnlit ignorance: but the questions must be propounded 
loosely and widely, and then the answerer will discover what he 
is. ThircUy, for the manner of receiving, as the parson useth all 
reverence hilTIself, so he adnlinisters to none but to the reverent. 
The feast indeed requires sitting, because it is a feast; but ll1an'ls 
unpreparedness asks kneeling. He that comes to the sacrament 
hath the confidence of a guest; and he that kneels confesseth 
hinlself an unworthy one, and therefore differs from other feast- 
ers : but he that sits, or lies, puts up to an apostle: contentious- 
ness in a feast of charity is Inore scandal than any posture. 
Fourthly, touching the frequency of the conlmunion, the parson 
celebrates it, if not duly once a month, yet at least five or six 
times in the year; as, at Easter, Christmas, 'Vhitsuntide, afore 
and after harvest, and the beginning of Lent. And this he doth, 
not only for the benefit of the work, but also for the discharge of 
the churchwardens; ,vho being to present all that receive not 
thrice a year, if there be but three conlffiunions, neither can all 
the people so order their affairs as to receive just at those times, 
nor the churchwardens so well take notice who receive thrice 
and ,vho not. 


CHA P. XXIII. 


The parson's completeness. 
THE country parson desires to be all to his parish, and not 
only a pastor, but a lawyer a1so, and a physician. There- 
fore he endures not that any of his flock should go to law; but 
in any controversy, that they should resort to him as their judge. 
'1'0 this end, he hath gotten to hinlself some insight in things 
ordinarily incident and controverted, by experience, and by 
reading some initiatory treatises in the law, with Dalton's Jus- 
tice of Peace, and the Abridgments of the Statutes, as also by 
discourse with men of that profession" whom he hath ever some 
cases to ask when he meets ,vith theln; holding that rule, that 
to put men to discourse of that wherein they are most eminent, 
is the most gainful way of conversation. Yet whenever any 
controversy is brought to him, he never decides it alone, but 
sends for three or four of the a blest of the parish to hear the 
cause with him, whom he nlakes to deliver their opinion first; 
out of which he gathers, in case he be ignorant himself, what to 
hold; and so the thing passeth with 1110re authority, and less 



38 


TI"e Count'}'!! Parson. 


envy. In judging, he follows that ,vhich is altogether right; 
80 that if the poorest man in the parish detain but a pin un- 
justly fron1 the richest, he absolutely restores it as a judge; but 
,,,hen he hath 80 done, then he assumes the parson, and exhorts 
to charity. NeverthelesB, there ll1ay happen sOlnetiIlles SOIlle 
cases, ,vherein he chooseth to permit his parishioners rather to 
Inake use of the la,v, than hÎ1nself: as in çases of an obscure 
and dark nature, not easily deternlinable by lawyers theIllselves: 
or in cases of high consequence, as establishing of inheritances; 
or lastly, when the persons in difference are of a contentious 
disposition, and cannot be gained, but that they still fall from all 
con1pro111ises that have been made. But then he shews then1 
. 
ho,v to go to la,v, even as brethren, and not as enelnies, neither 
avoiding therefore one another's company, much less defan1ing 
one another. No,v as the parson is in law, so is he in sickness 
also: if there be any of his flock sick, he is their physician, or 
at least his ,vife, of 'VhOl11, instead of the qualities of the world, 
he asks no other, but to have the skill of healing a wound, or 
helping the sick. But if neither hhnself nor his wife h3Þve the 
skill, and his 1neans serve, he keeps SOl11e young practitioner in 
his house for the benefit of his parish, whon1 yet he ever exhorts 
not to exceed his bounds, but in ticklish cases to call in help. 
If all fail, then he keeps good correspondence with some neigh- 
bour physician, and entertains him for the cure of his parish. Yet 
it is easy for any scholar to attain to such a measure of physic, as 
luay be of n1uch use to hin1 both for himself and others. This is 
dono by seeing one anat0111Y, reading one book of physic, having 
one horba] by hinl. And let Fernelius be the physic author, for 
he writes briefly, neatly, and judiciously; especially let his method 
of physic be diligently perused, as being the practical part, and 
of lTIOSt use. N ow both the reading of hiln and the knowing of 
herbs rnay be done at such times, as they may be a help and 
a recreation to more divine studies, nature serving grace both in 
comfort of diversion and the benefit of application, when need 
requires; as also by ,yay of illustration, even as our Saviour 
Blade plants and seeds to teach the people: for he ,,'as the true 
householder, ,vho bringeth out of his treasure things ne,v and 
old; the old things of philosophy and the ne\v of grace; and 
nlaketh the one serve the other. And I conceive our Saviour 
did this for three reasons: first, that by falniliar things he might 
make his doctrine slip the more easily into the hearts even of the 



The Ooz/;ntry Parson. 


39 


Ineanest. Secondly, that labouring people (whom he chiefly 
considered) might have every ,vhere monuments of his doctrine, 
remmnbering in gardens his 1l1ustard-seed and lilies; in the field, 
his seed-corn and tares; and so not be drowned altogether in 
the works of their vocation, but sometimes lift up their 11linds to 
better things, even in the nIidst of their pains. Thirdly, that he 
1l1ight set a copy for parsons. In the knowledge of silnples, 
wherein the manifold wisdoIn of God is wonderfuUy to be seen, 
one thing "ould be carefully observed; which is, to know what 
herbs may be used instead of drugs of the sallIe nature, and to 
make the garden the shop: for homebred medicines are both 
more easy for the parson's purse, and nlore fall1iIiar for allll1en's 
bodies. So, "There the apothecary useth either for loosing, rhu- 
barb; or for binding, bole Armeniac; the parson useth dalnask or 
,vhite roses for the one, and plaintain, shepherd'ls purse, kllot- 
grass, for the other, and that with better success. As for spices, 
he doth not only prefer homebred things before theIn, but con- 
demns them for vanities, and so shuts them out of his falnily, 
esteeming that there is no spice comparable, for herbs, to rose- 
mary, thyme, savory mints; and for seeds, to fennel, and 
caraway seeds. Accordingly, for salves, his wife seeks not the 
city, but prefers her garden and fields before all outlandish 
gunls. And surely hyssop, valerian, 11lercury, adder's tongue, 
yerrow, meliot, and St. John's \vort, lliade into a salve; and el- 
der, chamomile, mallows, comfrey, and small age IlIade into a poul- 
tice, have done great and rare cures. In curing of any, the parson 
and his family use to prenlise prayers, for this is to cure like a 
parson, and this raiseth the action from the shop to the church. 
But though the parson sets forward all charitable deeds, yet he 
looks not in this point of curing beyond his own parish, except 
the person be so poor that he is not able to reward the phy- 
sician: for as he is charitable, so he is just also. N 0\" it is a 
justice and debt to the c0111monwealth he lives in, not to en- 
croach on ot.hers' professions, but to live on his own. And justice 
is the ground of charity. 


CHAP. XXIV. 
The parson arguing. 
THE country parson, if there be any of his parish that hold 
strange doctrines, useth all possible diligence to reduce them to 
the comnlon faith. The first means he useth is prayer, be- 



40 


The GountT!! Parsún. 


seeching the Father of lights to open their eyes, and to give hiIn 
power so to fit his discourse to them that it nlay effectually 
pierce their hearts and convert thelll. The second lueans is a 
very loving and sweet usage of them l both in going to and 
sending for thenl often, and in finding out courtesies to place 
on thel11; as in their tithes, or otherwise. The third Dleans is 
the observation what is the main foundation and pillar of their 
cause ",hereon they rely; as, if he be a papist, the church is 
the hinge he turns on; if a schisnlatic, scandal. 'Vherefore the 
parson hath diligentlyexalnined these two \vith himself; as, \vhat 
the church is ; how it began; how it proceeded; whether it be a 
rule to itself; whether it hath a rule; \vhether, having a rule, it 
ought not to be guided by it; \vhether any rule in the ,yorld be 
obscure; and ho,v then should t.he best be so, at least in funda- 
lliental things; the obscurity in SOl110 points being the exercise of 
the church; the light in the foundations being the guide: the 
church needing both an evidence and an exercise. So for scandal: 
\",hat scandal is, when given or taken; whether, there being t,vo 
precepts, one of obeying authority, t.he other of not giving scan- 
dal, that ought not to be preferred, especially since in disobeying 
there is scandal also; ,vhether things once indifferent, being 
nlado by the precept of authority nlore than indifferent, it be in 
our power to omit or refuse them. These and the like points 
he hath accurately digested, having ever besides two great helps 
and powerful persuaders on his side; the one, a strict religious 
]ife; the other, an hUlllble and ingenuous search of truth, being 
unilloved in arguing, and void of all contentiousness: which are 
two great lights able to dazzle the eyes of the nlisled, \vhile they 
consider that God cannot be wanting to them in doctrine, to 
whonl he is so gracious in life. 


CHAP. XxV. 


The parson punishing. 
'VI-IENSOE,TER the country parson proceeds so far as to 
call in authority, and to do such things of legal opposition, 
either in the presenting or punishing of any, as the vulgar e\?er 
construes for signs of ill-will; he forbears not in any ,vise to 
use the delinquent as before, in his behaviour and carriage 
towards him, not avoiding his cOlllpany, or doing any thing of 
averseness, save in the very act of punishment: neither doth he 



The Oountry Parson. 


41 


esteem hÏ1n for an enenlY, but as a brother 8till
 except some 
sll1all and temporary estranging may corroborate the punislunent 
to a better subduing and htllllbling of the delinquent; which if 
it happily take effect, he then COlnes on the faster, and Inakes so 
much the ll10re of hiul, as before he alienated hiIDself; doubling 
his regards, and she,ving by all ll1eans that the delinquent's 
return is to his advantage. 


CHAP. XXVI. 


The parson"'s eye. 
THE country parson at spare times from action, standing on 
a hill, and considering his flock, discovers two sorts of vices, 
and two sorts of vicious persons. There are SOlne vices whose 
natures are always clear and evident, as adultery, murder, 
hatred, lying, &c. There are other vices, \vhose natures, at 
least in the beginning, are dark and obscure; as covetousness 
and gluttony. So likewise there are sonle persons who abstain 
not even from known sins; there are others, who ,,,hen they 
know a sin evidently, they comnlit it Dot. It is true indeed, 
they are long a knowing it, being partial to themselves, and 
,vitty to others who shall r
prove thenI for it. A man nlay be 
both covetous and intemperate, and yet hear SerI110nS against 
both, and himself condemn both in good earnest: and the 
reason hereof is, because the natures of these vices being not 
evidently discussed, or known comnlonly, the beginnings of 
them are not easily observable: and the beginnings of them are 
not observed, because of the sudden passing froD1 that which 
was just now lawful to that ,vhich is presently unlawful, even 
in one continued action. So a Ulan dining eats at first lawfully; 
but proceeding on, comes to do unlawfully, even before he is 
aware, not knowing the bounds of the action, nor when his 
eating bpgins to be unlawful. So a nlan storing up money for 
his necessary provisions, both in present for his family, and in 
future for his children, hardly perceives when his storing be- 
comes unlawful; yet is there a period for his storing, and a 
point or centre when his storing, which was even now good, 
passeth froll1 good to bad. "Therefore the parson, being true 
tÇ> his business, hath exactly sifted the definitions of all virtues, 
and vices; especially canvassing those, whose natures are 1110St 
stealing, and beginnings uncertain. Particularly concerning 



4
 


The OOltntry P at'son. 


these two vices, not because they are all that are of this dark 
and creeping disposition, but for example sake, and because 
they are nlost common, he thus thinks: First, for covetousness, 
he lays this ground: 'Vhosoever, when a just occasion calls, 
either spends not at all, or not in some proportion to God's 
blessing upon him, is covetous. The reason of the ground is 
manifest, because wealth is given to that end to supply our 
occasions. N O\V, if I do not give every thing its end
 I abuse 
the creature; I aill false to my reason, which should guide llle; 
I offend the supreme Judge, in perverting that order which he 
hath set both to things and to reason. The application of the 
ground \vould be infinite; but in brief, a poor man is an 
occasion, my country is an occasion, my friend is an occasion, 
IllY table is an occasion, my apparel is an occasion: if in all 
these, and those more \vhich concern nle, I either do nothing, 
or pinch, and scrape, and squeeze blood, undecently to the 
station wherein God hath placed me, I al11 covetous. 1\lore par- 
ticularly, and to give one instance for all, if God hath given me 
servants, and I either provide too little for them, or that which 
is unwholesollle, being sometinles baned meat, sonletimes too 
salt, and so not eonlpetent nourishment, I am covetous. I bring 
this example, because lllen usually think, that servants for their 
money are as other things that they buy, even as a piece of 
\vood, which they may cut, or hack, or thro\v into the fire, and 
so they pay theln their wages, all is \vell. Nay, to descend yet 
more particularly, if a nlan hath wherewithal to buy a spade
 
and yet he chooseth rather to use his neighbour's, and ,veal' out 
that, he is covetous. Nevertheless, few bring covetousness thus 
lo\v, or consider it so narrowly, which yet ought to be done, 
since there is a justice in the least things, and for the least there 
shall be a judglnent. Country pee pIe are full of these petty 
injustices, being cunning to nlake use of another, and spare 
thmllselves; and scholars ought to be diligent in the observation 
of these, and driving of their general school-rules ever to the 
smallest actions of life: which, while they d\vell in their books, 
they will never find; but being seated in the country, and 
doing their duty faithfully, they \vill soon discover: especially 
if they carry their eyes ever open, and fix thenl on their charge, 
and not on their prefennent. Secondly, for gluttony, the par- 
son lays this ground: He that either for quantity eats more than 
his health or employment ,viII bear, or for quality is lickerous 



Tho Countr!l Parson. 


43 


after dainties, is a glutton; as he that eats Inore than his estate 
will bear is a prodigal; and he that eats offensively to the com- 
pany, either in his order or length of eating, is scandalous and 
uncharitable. These three rules generally cOlnprehend the 
faults of eating, and the truth of t.helll needs no proof: so that 
men n1ust eat neither to the disturbance of their health, nor of 
their afk1-irs, (which being overburdened, or studying dainties 
too n1uch, they cannot well despatch) nor of their estate, nor of 
their brethren. One act in these things is bad, but it is the 
custom and habit that names a glutton. l\Iany think they are 
at more liberty than they are, as if they were masters of their 
health, and so they will stand to the pain, all is well. But to 
eat to one"s hurt, comprehends, besides the hurt, an act against 
reason, because it is unnatural to hurt oneself; and this they 
are not masters of. Y et of hurtful things, I am lllore bound to 
abstain from those which by n1ine own experience I have found 
hurtful, than from those which by a common tradition and vul- 
gar knowledge are reputed to be 80. That ,vhich is said of 
hurtful meats extends to hurtful drinks also. As for the quan- 
tity, touching our elnployments, none must eat so as to disable 
themselves from a fit discharging either of divine duties, or 
duties of their calling. So that if after dinner they are not fit 
(or unwieldy) either to pray or work, they are gluttons. Not 
that all ll1Ust presently work after dinner; for they rather n1ust 
not work, especially students, and those that are \veakly; but 
that they must rise so, as that it is not meat or drink that hin- 
ders them from ,vorking. To guide them in this, there are 
three rules: first, the custOID and knowledge of their own body, 
and what it can well digest: the second, the feeling of then1- 
selves in time of eating; which because it is deceitful, (for one 
thinks in eating that he can eat n10re than afterwards he finds 
true) the third is the observation with what appetite they sit 
do\vn. This last rule joined with the first never fails. For 
knowing what one usuaHy cnn well digest, and feeling \vhen I 
go to Ineat in what disposition I aln, either hungry or not, ac- 
cording as I feel myself, either I take my wonted proportion, or 
din1inish of it.. 1
 et physicians bid those that \vould live in 
health not keep an uniform diet, but to feed variously, no\v 
more, now less: and Gerson, a spiritual n1an, wishet.h nIl to 
incline rather to too much, than to too litde; his reason is, 
because diseases of exinanition are more dangerous than diseases 



44 


The Country Parson. 


of repletion. But the parson distinguisheth according to his 
double ailn, either of abst.inence a moral virtue, or 11l0rtification 
a divine. 'Vhen he deals with any that is heavy and carnal, he 
gives hin1 those freer rules; but when he meets with a refined 
and heavenly disposition, he carries them higher, even son1e- 
tin1es to a forgetting of themselves
 knowing that there is one, 
who, ,vhen they forget, remelnbers for thel11; as when the 
people hungered and thirsted after our Saviour's doctrine, and 
tarried so long at it, that they \yould have fainted, had they 
returned empty, he suffered it not; but rather nlade food n1ira- 
culously than suffered so good desires to miscarry. 


CHAP. XXVII. 


Tlte parson in mirtlt. 
THE country parson is generally sad, because he knows 
nothing but the cross of Christ, his nlind being defixed on 
it with those nails \vherewith his l\Iaster was: or if he have any 
leisure to look off froln thence, he n1eets continually with two 
most sad spectacles, sin and misery; God dishonoured every 
day, and man afflicted. Nevertheless, he sometin1es refresheth 
himself, as knowing that nature \viII not bear everlasting droop- 
ings, and that pleasantness of disposition is a great key to do 
good; not only because all lnen shun the con1pany of perpetual 
severity, but also for that ,vhen they are in company, instruc- 
tions seasoned with pleasantness both enter sooner, and root 
deeper. 'Vherefore he condescends to human frailties both in 
hinlself and others; and internlingles some n1Ïrth in his dis- 
courses occasionally, according to the pulse of the hearer. 


CHAP. XXVIII. 


The parson in contempt. 
THE country parson kno,vs well that, both for the general 
ignominy which is ca"t upon the profession, and much 1110re 
for those rules which out of his choicest judglnent he hath 
resolved to observe
 and \vhich are described in this book, he 
must be despised; because this hath been the portion of God 
his l\laster, and of God's saints his brethren, and this is foretold 
that it shall be so still, until tÏ1ne be no more. 
evertheless, 
according to the apostle's rule, he endeavours that none shall 
despise hin
; especially in his o\vn parish he suffers it not to 



The Oountry ParsoJl. 


45 


his UtIll0st po,ver; for thnt., where contempt is, there is no room 
for instruction. This he procures, first, by his holy and 
unblameable life; which carries a reverence ,vith it, even above 
conteInpt. Secondly, by a courteous carriage and winning beha- 
viour : he that will be respected nlust respect; doing kindnesses, 
but receiving none, at least of those who are apt to despise; for 
this argues a height and eluinency of Illind, which is not easily 
despised, except it degenerate to pride. Thirdly, by a bold and 
inlpartial reproof, even of the best in the parish, ,,'hen occasion 
requires: for this may produce hatred in those that are reproved, 
but never contempt either in them or others. Lastly, if the 
contenlpt shall proceed so fnr as to do any thing punishable by 
law, as contenlpt is apt to do, if it be not thwarted, the parson, 
having a due respect both to the person and to the cause, 
referreth the ,,-hole matter to the exnmination and punishnlent 
of those which are in authority; that so the sentence lighting 
upon one, the exalllple may reach to all. But if the contempt 
be not punishable by law, or being so, the parson think it in his 
discretion either unfit or bootless to contend, then when any 
despises him, he takes it either in an hunlble way, saying 
nothing at all; or else in a slighting way, shewing that reproaches 
touch hin1 no nlore thnn a stone thrown against heaven, where 
he is and lives; or in a snd way, grieved at his own and others' 
sins, which continually break God's laws, and dish OIl our hinl 
,vith those mouths which he continually fills and feeds; or else 
in a doctrinal way, sa) ing to the cOlltenlner, Alas, why do you 
thus 
 You hurt yourself, not l11e; he that throws a stone at 
another hits himself: and so, between gentle reasoning and 
pitying, he overCOllles the evil: or lastly, in a triumphant ,vay, 
being glad and joyful that he is made confonnable to his 
Iaster ; 
and being in the world as he was, hath this undoubted pledge of 
his salvation. These are the five shields wherewith the godly 
receive the darts of the ,,,icked; leaving anger and retorting 
and revenge to the children of the world, whonl another's ill 
mastereth and leadeth capt.ive, without any resistance, even in 
resistance, to the same destruction. For ,,,hile they resist the 
person that reviles, they resist not the evil which takes hold of 
then1, and is far the worse enemy. 



Lt6 


T"e Oountry Pa1"son. 


CHAP. XXIX. 


The parson with his clturchwa}"{lens. 
THE country parson doth often, both publicly and privately, 
instruct his church,vardens \"hat a great charge lies upon them, 
and that indeed the whole order and discipline of the parish is 
put into their hands. If himself reform any thing, it is out of 
the overflowing of his conscience; whereas they are to do it by 
conlnland and by oath. Neither hath the place its dignity from 
the ecclesiastical laws only, since even by the common statute- 
Ia\v they are taken for a kind of corporation, as being persons 
enabled by that name to take m
veable goods or chattels, and to 
sue and to be sued at the la\y concerning such goods for the use 
and profit of their parish: and by the sal11e la\v they are to levy 
penalties for negligence in resorting to church, or for disorderly 
carriage in time of divine service. \Vherefore the parson 
suffers not the place to be vilified or debased, by being cast on 
the lower rank of people; but invites and urges the best unto it, 
she\ving that they do not lose, or go less, but gain by it; it 
being the greatest honour of this world to do God and his 
chosen service; or as David says, to be even a doorkeeper in the 
house of God. No,v the Canons being the churchwardens' 
rule, the parson adviseth them to read, or hear then1 read often, 
as also the Visitation Articles, \vhich are grounded upon the 
Canons, that so they may kno\v their duty, and keep their oath 
the better; in which regard, considering the great consequence 
of their place, and lnore of their oath, he wisheth thenl by no 
means to spare any, though never so great; but, if after gentle 
and neighbourly adulonitions they still persist in ill, to present 
them; yea though they be tenants, or otherwise engaged t.o 
the delinquent: for their obligation to God and their own soul 
is above any temporal tie. Do ,veIl and right, and let the world 
sink. 


CIIAP. XXX. 


The parson's cons.ideration of Providence. 
THE country parson, considering the great aptness country 
people have to think that all things COlne by a kind of natural 
course; and that if they so,v and soil their grounds, they I11USt 
have corn; if they l{eep and fodder well their cattle, they must 



The Country Parso'n. 


47 


have nlilk and calves; labours to reduce them to see God's 
hand in all things, and to believe that things are not set in such 
an inevitable order, but that God often changeth it according as 
he sees fit, either for reward or punishulent. To this end he 
represents to his flock, that God hath and exerciseth a threefold 
power in every thing which concerns ll1an. The first is a sus- 
taining power; the second, a governing power; the third, a 
spiritual power. By his sustaining power he preserves and 
actuates every thing in its being; so that corn doth not grow 
by any other virtue than by that which he continually supplies, 
as the corn needs it; without which supply the corn would 
instantly dry up, as a river ,vould if the fountain were stopped. 
And it is observable, that if any thing could presume of an 
inevitable course and constancy in its operations, certainly it 
should be either the sun in heaven, or the fire on earth, by rea- 
son of their fierce, strong and violent natures: yet when God 
pleased, the sun stood still, the fire burned not. By God's 
governing power he preserves and orders the rf\ferences of things 
one to the other, so that though the corn do grow, and be pre- 
served in that act by his sustaining power, yet if he suit not 
other things to the growth, as seasons, and weather, and other 
accidents by his governing power, the fairest harvest comes to 
nothing. And it is observable, that God delights to have nlen 
feel and acknowledge and reverence his power, and therefore 
he often overturns things, when they are thought past danger; 
that is his tinle of interposing: as ,,,hen :1 111erchant hath a ship 
come hOI11e after many a storm, which it hath escaped, he 
destroys it son1etinles in the very haven; or if the goods be 
housed, a fire hath broken forth and suddenly consumed theln. 
Now this he doth, that men should perpetuate, and not break 
off their acts of dependence, how fair soever the opportunities 
present themselves. So that if a farmer should depend upon 
God all the year, and being ready to put hand to sickle, shall 
then secure himself, and think all cocksure; then God sends 
such weather as lays the corn and destroys it: or if he depend 
on God further, even till he imbarn his corn, and then think all 
sure; God sends a fire and consumes all that he hath: for that 
he ought not to break off, but to continue his dependence on 
God, not only before the corn is inned, but after also; and 
indeed to depend and fear continually. The third power is 
spiritual, by which God turns all outward blessings to inward 



48 


The Oountry Pcnson. 


advantages. So that if a farnIer hat.h both a fair harvest, and 
that also well inned and inlbarned, and continuing safe there; 
yet if God give hiln not the grace to use and utter this 'v ell, all 
his advantages are to his loss. Better ,vere his corn burnt than 
not spiritually ilnproved. And it is observable in this, ho\v 
God's goodness strives with Inan's refractoriness: man \vould sit 
down at this \vorId; God bids hinl sell it, and purchase a better: 
just as a father, ,,,ho hath in his hand an apple, and a piece of 
gold under it.; the child conIes, and with pulling gets the apple 
out of his father"s hand: his father bids hilll throw it away, and 
he will give hilll the gold for it, which the child utterly refusing 
eats it, and is troubled with wornlS: so is the carnal and wilful 
Ulan with the 'YOrnl cf the gravè in this ,vorld, and the \YOr111 of 
conscience in the next. 


CHAP. XXXI. 
The parson in liberty. 
THE country parson, observing the nlanifold ,viles of Satan, 
(who pb.ys his part, sometilnes in drawing God's servants froln 
hiln, sonletinles in perplexing theln in the service of God) stands 
fast in the liberty wherewith Christ hath l1lade us free. This 
liberty he compasseth by one distinction, and that. is, of what is 
necessary and ,,,hat is additionary. As for eX:lI11ple: It is 
necessary, that all Christians should pray twice a day every day 
of the ,veek, and four tinles on a Sunday, if th:y be ,yell. This 
is so necessary and essential to a Christian, tha: he cannot with- 
out this Inaintain hilllself in a Christian state. Besides this, the 
godly have ever added sonle hours of prayer, as at nine, or at 
three, or at n1Ídnight, or as they think fit and see cause, or 
rather as God's Spirit leads them. But these prayers are not 
necessary, but additionary. N O'Y it 
o happens that the godly 
petitioner upon some enlergent interruption in the day, or by 
oversleeping himself at night, OIl1ÏtS his additionary prayer. 
Upon this his nlind begins to be perplexed and troubled; and 
Satan, who knows the exigent, blows the fire, endeavouring to 
disorder the Christian, and put hÍIn out of his station, and to 
enlarge the perplexity, until it spread and taint his other duties 
of piety, which none can perform so ,yell in trouble as in calnl- 
ness. IIere the parson interposeth 'with his distinction, and 
shews the perplexed Christian, that this prayer being addition- 
ary, not necessary; taken in, not C0l1l111anded; the oIllission 



The Countl'!! j.Jaï'son. 


49 


thereof upon just occasion ought by no 111eans to trouble him. 
God knows the occasion as well as he, and he is as a gracious 
father, who l1l0re accepts a COTIlmOn course of devotion than 
dislikes an occasional interruption. And of this he ie so to 
assure himself, as to admit no scntple, but to go on as cheerfully 
as if he had not been interrupted. By this it is evident that 
the distinction is of singular use and comfort, especially to pious 
minds, which are ever tender and delicate. But here there are 
two cautions to be added. First, that this interruption proceed 
not out of slackness, or coldness, which will appear if the pious 
soul foresee and prevent such interruptions, what he lnay, 
before they COlne, and when, for all that they do comp, he be a 
little affected therewith, but not afflicted or troubled; if he 
resent it to a mislike, but not a grief. Secondly, that this 
interruption proceed not out of shame. As for exanlple; a 
godly Juan, not out of superstition, but of reverence to God's 
house, resolves, whenever he enters into a church, to kneel 
down and pray, either blessing God, that he will be pleased to 
dwell among men; or beseeching hitn that, whenever he repairs 
to his house, he nlay behave hÏInself so as befits so great a pre- 
sence; and this briefly. But it happens that, near the place 
\vhere he is to pray, he spies some scoffing ruffian, who is likely 
to deride hinl for his pains: if he now 
hall, either for fear or 
shanle, break his custom, he shall do passing ill; so nluch the 
rather ought he to proceed, as that by this he may take into his 
prayer hun1iliation also. On the other side, if I am to visit the 
sick in haste, and my nearest way lie through the church, I ,viII 
not doubt to go ,vithout staying to pray there; but only, as I 
pass, in my heart; because this kind of prayer is additionary, 
not necessary, and the other duty overweighs it; so that if any 
scruple arise, I will throw it away, and be most confident that 
God is not displeased. rrhis distinction may run through aU 
Christian duties, and it is a great stay and settling to religious 
sou Is. 


CHAP. XXXII. 


The parson's sllPveys. 
THE country parson hath not only taken a particular survey 
of the faults of his own parish: but a general also of the diseases 
of the tinIe, that so, when his occasions carry hinl abroad, or 
F. 



50 


The OO
lntf'Y Pa1
son. 


bring strangers to hilu, he Inay be the better arlned to encounter 
theIne The great and national sin of this land he cstee1US to be 
idleness; great in itself, and great in consequence; for when 
Iuen have nothing to do, then they fall to drink, to steal, to 
,vhore, to scoff; to revile, to all sorts of gamings. 00n1e, say 
they, ,ve have nothing to do, let us go to the tavern, or to the 
ste\vs, or what not. 'Vherefore the parson strongly opposeth 
this sin wheresoever he goes. And because idleness is twofold" 
the one in having no calling, the other in \valking carelessly in 
our calling, he first represents to every body the necessity of a 
vocation. The reason of this assertion is taken from the nature 
of man, wherein God hath place
 two great instrun1ents, reason 
in the soul, and a hand in the body, as engagements of ,vorking : 
so that even in Paradise man had a calling; and ho\v much 
more out of Paradise, ,vhen the evils which he is now subject 
unto Inay be prevented or diverted by reasonable ell1ployn1ent. 
Besides, every gift or ability is a talent to be accounted for, and 
to be iU1proved to our 
Iaster's advantage. Yet it is also a debt 
to our country to have a calling, and it concerns the COJl1mOn- 
,vealth that none should be idle, but all busied. Lastly, riches 
are the blessing of God, and the great instrun1ent of doing ad- 
n1irable good: therefore all are to procure them honestly and 
seasonably, when they are not better employed. Now this rea- 
son crosseth not our Saviour's precept of selling ,vhat ,ve have, 
because, when ,ve have sold all and given it to the poor, we 
must not be idle, but labour to get n1ore, that we Inay give more, 
according to St. Paul"s rule, Ephes. iv" 
8, 1 Thess. iv, 11, I
. 
So that our Saviour's selling is so far from crossing St. Paul's 
working, that it rather stablisheth it, since they that have 
nothing are fittest to ,vork. No,v because the only opposer to 
this doctrine is the gallant, ,vho is ' vitty enough to abuse both 
others and himself, and ,vho is ready to ask if he shall mend 
shoes, or what he shall do 
 therefore the parson unmoved shew- 
cth that ingenious and fit elnployment is never ,vanting to those 
that seek it. But if it should be, the assertion stands thus: all 
are either to have a calling, or prepare for it: he that hath or 
can have yet no clnploYlnent, if he. truly and seriously pr epare for 
it, he is safe and within bounds. Wherefore all are either pre- 
sently to enter into a calling, if they be fit for it, and it for thelll ; 
or else to exan1ine "ith care and advice what they are fittest for, 



The Count1"y Parson. 


51 


and to prepare for that with all diligence. But it will not ùe 
anliss in this exceeding useful point to descend to particulars : 
for exactness lies in particulars. 1\1en are either single or nlar- 
ried: the married and housekeeper hath his hands full. if he 
do what he ought to do. For there are two branches of his af- 
fairs: first, the improvement of his fanlily, by bringing them up 
in the fear and nurture of the Lord: and secondly, the improve- 
nlent of his grounds, by drowning or draining, or stocking or 
fencing, or ordering his land to the best advantage both of hinl- 
self and his neighbours. The Italian says, "N one fouls his 
" hands in his o,vn business :" and it is an honest and just care, so 
it exceed not bounds, for everyone to employ hiulself to the ad- 
vancement of his affairs, that he 111ay have wherewithal to do 
good. But his family is his best care, to labour Christian souls, 
and raise them to their height, even to heaven; to dress and 
prune them, and take as much joy in a straight growing child, 
or servant, as a gardener doth in a choice tree. Could men find 
out this delight, they would seldonl be froln home: whereas 
now, of any place they are least there. But if, after all this care 
,veIl despatched, the housekeeper's family be so snlall, and his 
dexterity so great, that he have leisure to look out, the village 
or parish, which either he lives in, or is near unto it, is his enl- 
ployment. He considers everyone there, and either helps theln 
in particular, or hath general propositions to the whole town or 
h:11nlet, of advancing the public stock, and Il1anaging COlllmons 
or ,voods, according as the place suggests. But if he may be of 
the conlmission of peace, there is nothing to that: no COl1nnon- 
wealth in the world hath a better institution than that of justices 
of the peace: for it is both a security to the king, ,vho hath so 
11lany dispersed officers at his beck throughout the kingdom, ac- 
countable for the public good: and also an honourable employ- 
ment of a gentle or noble man in the country he lives in, 
enabling hinl with power to do good, and to restrain all those 
who else might both trouble him and the ","hole state. \Vhere- 
fore it behoves all, who are come to the gravity and ripeness of 
judgnlent for so excellent a place, not to refuse, but rather to 
procure it. And whereas there are usuaUy three objections 
11lade against the place; the one, the abuse of it, by tn king 
petty country bribes; the other, the casting of it on Inean per- 
sons, especially in some shires; and lastly, the trouble of it: 
these are so far from deterring any good men fronl the place, 
E2 



5
 


The Oountry jJ a1 . s0 'll. 


that. they kindle thenl rather to redeeul the dignity either froni 
true faults or unjust aspersions. Now, for single men, they 
are either heirs, or younger brothers: the heirs are to prepare 
in all the forenlentioned points against the tÎ1ne of their prac- 
tice. Therefore they are to mark their father's discretion in 
ordering his house and affairs; and also else\vhere, when they 
see any remarkable point of education or good husbandry, to 
transplant it in tin1e to his own hOlne, \vith the satne care as 
others, \vhen they Ineet with good fruit, get a graft of the tree, 
enriching their orchard, and neglecting their house. Besides, 
they are to read books of law and justice; especially the Statutes 
at Large. .As for better books of divinity, they are not in this 
consideration, because we are ab
ut a caUing, and a preparation 
thereunto. But chieflYJ and above all things, they are to fre- 
quent sessions and assizes: for it is Loth an honour \vhich they 
owe to the reverend judges and Inagistrates, to attend theu1, at 
least in their shire; anrl it is a great advantage to kno\v the 
practice of the land; for our la\v is practice. Sometilnes the 
heir nlay go to court, as the enlinent place both of good and ill. 
At other tinIes he is to travel over the king's dOlninions, cutting out 
the kingdolll into portions, \vhich every year he surveys piece- 
meal. 'Vhen there is a parlianlent, he is to endeavour by all 
Ineans to be a knight or burgess there; for there is no school to 
a parlialnent: and when he is there, he nlust not only be a 
Illorning 111an, but at cOlnnlittees also; for there the particulars 
are exactly discHssed, which are brought from thence t.o tho 
house but in general. 'Vhen none of these occasions call hinl 
abroad, every morning that he is at home, he must either ride the 
great horse, or exercise so]ne of his military postures. For all 
gentlelnen, that are no\v wf'akened and disarll1ed with sedent.ary 
lh es, are to know the use of their arms: and as the husbandnIan 
labours for hinl, so nlust they fight for and defend hiln, \vhen 
occasion caBs. r.rhis i8 the duty of each to other, \vhich they 
ought to fulfil: and the par
on is a lover of and exciter to just- 
ice in all things, even as John the Baptist squared out to every 
one, even to soldiers, what. to do. As for younger brothers, 
those ,vhonl the parson fil1ds loose, and not engaged into SOllle 
profession by their parents, whose neglect in this point is intole- 
rable, and a shan1eful wrong, both to the conul1onwealth and their 
own house: to theIn, after he hath shewed the unlawfulness of 
spending the day in dressing, cOl1lplhnenting, visiting, and sport- 



The Count1:! Parson. 


53 


ing, he first conlnlends the study of the civil law, as a Lrave and 
wise knowledge, the professors whereof ""ere much employed 
by queen Elizabeth, because it is the key of conlnlerce, and dis- 
covers the rules of foreign nations. Secondly, he conlnlends the 
DlathenuLtics, as the only wonder-worJiing knowledge, and there- 
fore requiring the best spirits. After the several knowledge of 
these, he adviseth to insist and dwell chiefly on the two noble 
branches thereof, of fortification and navigation; the one being 
useful to all countries, and the other especially to islands. But 
if the young gallant think these courses dull and phlegnlatic, 
where can he busy hilnself better than in those new plantations 
and discoveries, which are not only a noble, but also, as they 
lllay be handled, a religious enlploY111ent? Or let hiln travel 
into Gernlany and France, and observing the artifices and l11anu- 
factures there, transplant thell1 hither, as divers haye done 
lately, to our country's advantage. 


CHAP. XXXIII. 


The parson's li'braI'Y. 
THE country parson's library is a holy life: for (be
ides the 
blessing that that brings upon it, there being a pron1Ìse, that if 
the kingdonl of Gorl be first sought. all other things shall be 
added) even itself is a serHlon. For the telnptations with which 
a good nlan is beset, and the ways which he used to overconle 
thein, being told to another, whether in private conference or in 
the church, are a sermon. He that hath considered how to carry 
hin1self at table about his appetite, if he tell this to another, 
preacheth; and luuch nlore feelingly and judiciously than he 
,vrites his rules of teillperance out of books. So that the parson 
having studied and luastered all his lusts and affections within, 
and the ,vhole arll1Y of tenlptations without, hath ever so 111finy 
sernlons ready penned, as he hath victories. And it fares in this 
as it doth in physic: he that hath been sick of a consumption, 
and knows what recovered him, is a physician, so far as he Ineets 
with the sanle disease and tenlper; and can nluch better and 
particularly do it than he that is generally learned, and was 
never sick. And if the same person had be
n sick of all diseases, 
and were recovered of all by things that he knew, there ,vere 
no such physician as he, both for skin and tenderness. J lIst so 
it is in divinity, and that not without nlanifest reason: for 



54 


The Country Parson. 


though the-t.elnptations nlay be diverse in divers Christians, yet 
the victory is alike in all, being by the selfsanle Spirit. Neither 
is this true only in the nlilitary state of a Christian life, but even 
in the peaceable also; \vhen the servant of God, freed for a 
while from temptation, in a quiet sweetness seeks how to please 
his God. Thus the parson, considering that repentance is the 
great virtue of the gospel, and one of the first steps of pleasing 
God, having for his own use examined the nature of it, is able 
to explain it after to others. And particularly, having doubted 
sonletinles, \vhether his repentance \vere true, or at least in that 
degree it ought to be, since he found hiulself sonletimes to ,veep 
1110re for the loss of some temporal things than for offending 
God, he callIe at length to this resolution, that repentance is an 
act of the nlind, not of the body, even as the original signifies; 
and that the chief thing which God in scriptures requires is the 
heart and t.he spirit, and to worship hinl in truth and spirit. 
'Vherefore in case a Christian endeavour to weep and cannot, 
since we are not lll:lsters of our bodies, this sufficeth. And con- 
sequently he found, that the essence of repentance (that it Inay 
be alike in all God's children, which, as concerning \veeping, it 
cannot be
 some being of a more Inelting telnper than others) 
consisteth in a true detestation of the soul, abhorring and renounc- 
ing sin, and turning unto God in truth of heart and ne\vness of 
life: which acts of repentance are and 11lUst be found in all God's 
servants: not that weeping is not useful, \vhere it can be, that so 
the body Inay join in the grief, as it did in the sin; but that, so 
the other acts bel that is not necessary: so that he as truly repents 
who perfOrll1S the other acts of repentance, when he cannot 1110re, 
as he that weeps a flood of tears. This instruction and conlfort 
the parson getting for hiulsclf, when he tells it to others, bccolncs 
a sernlon. The like he doth in ot'ler Christian virtues, as of 
faith and love, and the cases of conscience belonging thereto, 
\vherein (as St. Paul implies that he ought, Rom. ii.) he first 
preacheth to hiulself, and then to others. 


CHAP. XXXIV. 


Tlte jJa1'"son's deæteritg in cfj}jJl!ling w" reJìwdies. 
TIlE country parson knows that there is a double state of a 
Vhristian even in this life, the one military, the other peaceable. 
The luilita..y is, when we are assaulted with telnptations either 



The Country Parson. 


55 


fronl within or fronl without. The peaceable is, \vhen the devil 
for a tinle leaves us, as he did our Saviour, and the angels 
minister to us their own food, eyen joy and peace and comfort 
in the Holy Ghost. These two states ,vere in our Saviour, not 
only in the beginning of his preaching, but afterwards also; (as 
l\Iatth. xxii, 35, he ,vas tempted; and Luke x, 21, he rejoiced 
in spirit:) and they Inust be likewise in all that are his. Now 
the parson having a spiritual judgment, according as he discovers 
any of his flock to be in one or the other state, so he applies 
hillìself to them. Those that he finds in the peaceable state, he 
ad viseth to be very vigilant, and not to let go the reins as soon 
as the horse goes easy. Particularly, he counselleth thenl to 
two things: first, to take heed lest their quiet betray thenl, as 
it is apt to do, to a coldness and carelessness in their devotions, 
but to labour still to be as fervent in Christian duties, as they 
remelnber themselves were, when affliction did blow the coals. 
Secondly, not to take the full conlpass and liberty of their peace: 
not to eat all those dishes at table which even their present 
health other\"ise adn1its; nor to store their house with all those 
furnitures which even their present plenty of wealth otherwise 
admits; nor \vhen they are among then1 that are merry, to 
extend then1selves to all that Inirth, which the present occasion 
of wit and cOlnpany otherwise adn1Ïts; but to put bounds and 
hoops to their joys: so will they last the longer, and when they 
depart, return the sooner. If we would judge ourselves, \ve 
should not be judged; and if we would bound ourselves, ,ve 
should not be bounded. But if they shall fear that at such or 
such a tilne their peace and mirth have carried thenl further 
than this n10deration, then to take Job's admirable course, who 
sacrificed lest his children should have transgressed in their 
mirth: so let them go, and find some poor afflicted soul, and 
there be bountiful and liberal; for with such sacrifices God is 
,veIl pleased. Those that the parson finds in the n1ilítary state, 
he fortifies and strengthens with his utmost skill. N ow in those 
that are tenlpted, whatsoever is unruly falls upon two heads j 
either they think that there is none that can or will look after 
things, but all goes by chance or wit: or else, though there be a 
great Governor of all things, yet to thenl he is lost, as if they 
said, God doth forsake and persecute them, and there is none to 
deliver thenl. If the parson suspect the first and find sparks of 
such thoughts now and then to break forth, then
 without opposing 



56 


The Cvulttr!I Parson. 


directly, (for disputation is no cure for atheisln) he scatt.ers in 
his discourse three sorts of argulllents: the first taken from 
nature, the second from the la\v, the third froln grace. For 
nature, he sees not how a house could be either built without a 
builder, or kept in repair without a housekeeper. He conceives 
not possibly, how the \vinds should blow so 111uch a
 they can, 
and the sea rage so nluch as it cn,n, and all things do what t.hey 
can, and all, not only without dissolution of the whole, but also 
of any part, by taking a\Vay so ll1uch as the usual seasons of Slun- 
Iller and winter, earing and harvest. Let the weather be what 
it ,viII, still ,ve have bread, though son1etin1es 1110re, sOlnetimes 
less; wherewith also a careful Joseph luight Ineet. He con- 
ceives not possibly how he that' would believe a Divinity if he 
had been at the creation of all things, should less believe it, 
seeing the preservation of all things; for preservation is a crea- 
tion; and nlore, it is a continued creation, and a creation every 
n10luont. Secondly, for the law, there Inay be so evident though 
unused a proof of Divinity taken froln thence, that the atheist or 
Epicurean can have nothing to contradict. The Jews yet live, 
and are known: they have their law and language, bearing wit- 
ness to thell1, and they to it: they are circull1cised to this day, 
and expect the proInises of the scripture: their country also is 
known, the places and rivers travelled unto and frequented by 
others, but to the111 an unpenetrable rock, an unaccessible det5crt. 
\Vherefore, if the Jews live, all the great ,vonders of old live in 
then1; and then who can deny the streched out arn1 of a nlighty 
God? especially since it luay be a just doubt, whether, consider- 
ing the stubbornness of the nation, their living then in their 
country under so lnany ll1iraclos were a stranger thing than 
their present <?xile and disability to live in their country. .A.nd 
it is observaLle, that this very thing \Vas intended by God, that 
the Jews should be his proof and \' itnesses, as he calls theIn, 
Isaiah xliii, 12; and their very dispersion in all lands \vas intended 
not only for a punisluuent to then1, but for an exciting of others 
by their sight to the acknowledging of God and his power, 
l:}sahlllix, 11; and therefore this kind of punislul1ent was chosen 
rather than any other. Thirdly, for grace. Besides the conti- 
nual succession, since the gospel, of holy 111eD, who have borne 
\titness to the truth, (there being no reason why any should dis- 
trust St. Luke, or Tertullian, or Chrysostolll, l110re than Tully, 
'Tirgil, or Livy,) there are t\\ 0 prophecies in the gospel, which 



The Country Parson. 


57 


evidently argue Christ's divinity by their success: the one 
concerning the WOßlan that spent the ointment on our Saviour, 
for which he told that it should never be forgotten, but with 
the gospel itself be preached to all ages, 
Iatthew xxvi, 13: 
the other concerning the destruction of Jerusalem; of which 
our Saviour said, that that generation should not pass till all 
were fulfilled, Luke xxi, g
; which Josephus's story confirmeth, 
and the continuance of which verdict is Jet evident. To these 
nlÎght be added the preaching of the gospel in aU nations, 

Iatthew xxiv, 14, which we see even miraculously effected in 
these new discoveries, God turning men's covetousness and am- 
bitions to the effecting of his word. Now a prophecy is a won- 
der sent to posterity, lest they complain of want of wonders. It 
is a letter sealed and sent, which to the bearer is but paper, but 
to the receiver and opener is full of power. He that sa\v 
Christ open a blind man's eyes sa\v not more divinity, than he 
that reads the w0111an's ointInent in the Gospel} or sees J erllsalenl 
destroyed. With some of these heads enlarged, and woven into 
his discourse, at several tioles and occasions, the parson settleth 
wavering lllinds. IJut if he sees them nearer desperation than 
atheisnl; not so n1llCh doubting a God as that he is their's; then 
he dives into the boundless ocean of God's love, and the un- 
speakable riches of his loving-kindness. He hath one argun1ent 
unansweraLle. If God hate theIn, either he doth it as the)' are 
creatures, dust and ashes; or as they are sinful. As creatures 
he must needs love thenl; for no perfect artist ever yet hated 
his own work. As sinful, he lnust much more love thenl; 
because notwithstanding his infinite hate of sin, his love over- 
caIne that hate, and that with an exceeding great victory, which 
in the creation needed not, gave them love for love, even the 
Son of his love, out of his bosonl of love. So that lllan, which 
way soeyer he turns, hath two pledges of God's love, (that in 
the mouth of two or three witnesses every word n1ay be 
established) the one in his being, the other in his sinful being: 
and this as the more faulty in him, so the more glorious in God. 
And alllnay certainly conclude, that God lo\'es thell1 till either 
they despise that love, or despair of his 111ercy: not any sin 
else, but is within his love; but the despising of love lnust 
needs be without it. The thrusting away of his arm only makes 
us not eIubraced. 



58 


The Oountt'Y Pa
'son. 


CHA,P. XXXV. 


The parson's condescending. 
THE country parson is a lover of old customs, if they be good 
and harnlless; and the rather, because country people are much 
addicted to then1, so that to favour them therein is to win their 
hearts, and to oppose them therein is to deject theln. If there 
be any ill in the custom, which may be severed from the good, 
he pares the apple and ghTes theln the clean to feed on. Par- 
ticularly, he loves procession and l1}aintains it, because there 
are contained therein four 111anifest advantages. First a bless- 
ing of God for the fruits of the, field: Secondly, justice in the 
preservation of bounds: Thirdly, charity in loving, ,valking, 
and neighbourly accolnpanying one another, with reconciling of 
differences at any tillIe, if there be any: Fourthly, mercy in 
relieving the poor by a liberal distribution and largess, which at 
that thne is or ought to be used. Wherefore he exacts of all to 
be present at the peranIbulation: and those that withdra\v, and 
sever themselves froln it he mislikes, and reproves as un- 
charitable and unneighbourly; and if they will not refonn, 
presents theln. Nay, he is so far fronl condenlning such assen1- 
Llies, that he rather procures them to be often, as knowing that 
absence breeds strangeness, but presence love. N O\V love is his 
business and ainl; wherefore he likes well that his parish at 
good tinles invite one another to their houses, and he urgeth 
them to it: and sometilnes, where he knows there hath been or 
is a little difference, he takes one of the parties and goes with 
hiln to the other, and all dine or sup together. There is much 
preaching in this friendlines
. Another old custon1 there is of 
saying, when light is brought in, "God send us the light of 
heaven;" and the parson likes this very well; neither is he 
afraid of praising or praying to God at all tinle
, but is rather 
glad of catching opportunities to do theln. Light is a great 
hlessing, and as great as food, for which we give thanks: and 
those that think this superstitious, neither kno,v superstition 
nor thelnselves. 1\8 for those that are ashalned to use this fornl, 
as being old and obsolete, and not the fashion, he reforms and 
teaches then} that at baptisln they professed not to be ashalned 
of Christ's cross, or for any shalue to leave that which is good. 
He that is a
hailled in slnall things will extend his pusillaniinity 



The Oountry Parson. 


59 


to greater. Rather should a Christian soldier take such oc- 
casions to harden hiulself, and to further his exerCIses of 
lllortification. 


CHAP. XXXVI. 
The parson blessing. 
THE country parson wonders that blessing the people is in so 
little use with his brethren: whereas he thinks it not only a 
grave and reverend thing, but a beneficial also. Those ,vho use 
it not, do so either out of niceness, because they like the salu- 
tations, and compliments, and fonlls of worldly language better: 
which confornlity and fashionableness is so exceeding unbe- 
fitting a Ininister, that it deserves reproof, not refutation: or 
else, because they think it elnpty and superfluous. But that 
which the apostles used so diligently in their writings, nay, 
,vhich our Saviour hirl1self nsed, 
Iark x, 16, cannot be vain and 
superfluous. But this was not proper to Christ, or the apostles 
only, no more than to be a spiritual father was appropriated to 
then1. And if temporal fathers bless their children, how nluch 
more nlay and ought spiritual fathers 
 llesides, the priests of 
the Old Testanlent were commanded to bless the people, and the 
fornl thereof is prescribed, Numb. vi. Now as the apostle 
argues in another case, if the ministration of condeIllnation did 
bless, how shall not the lllinistration of the Spirit exceed in 
blessing 
 The fruit of this blessing good Hannah found, and 
received with great joy, 1 Sam. i, 18, though it came fronl a 
tuan disallowed by God: for it was not the person, but priest- 
hood, that blessed; so that eyen ill priests lnay bless. N eit.her 
have the ministers power of blessing onl)T, but also of cursing, 
So in the Old Testaillent Elisha cursed the children, Q Kings 
ii, 24; which though our Saviour reproved as unfitting for his 
particular, who was to shew all humility before his passion, yet 
he allo\\s it in his apostles. And therefore St. Peter used that 
fearful imprecation to Simon !\Iagus, Acts viii, Thy moncJI pen.sh 
witl" thee: and the event confinned it. So did St. Paul, 2 Tinl. 
iv, 14, and 1 Tinl. i, 20. Speaking of Alexander the coppersmith, 
who had withstood his preaching, The Lord, saith he, reward hirtz 
according to Ids works. And again, of HJnleneus and Alexander 
he saith, he had delivered tlten
 to Satan, that the!l1night learn not 
to blasplzen
e. The fornls both of blessing and cursing are ex- 



60 


The Country Parsoll. 


pounded in the C0l11nl0n Prayer Book, the one in The grace of 
our Lord Jesus Ghrist, &c., and The peace of God, &c.; the other 
in general in the COllunination. 
Now blessing differs from prayer in assurance, because it is 
not performed by ,vay of request, but of confidence and power, 
effectually applying God"s favour to the blessed, by the interest- 
ing of that dignity wherewith God hath invested the priest, and 
enga.ging of God's own power and institution for a blessing. 
'fhe neglect of this duty in nlinisters themsehcs hath lllade the 
people also neglect it; so that they are so far fronl craving this 
benefit froin their ghostly father, t.hat they oftentÌ111es go out of 
church before he hath blessed thenl. In the til11e of popery 
the priest's benedicite and his" holy water were over-highly 
valued: and now we are fallen to the clean contrary, even frOlll 
superstition to coldness and atheisln. But the parson first values 
the gift in hilnself, and then teacheth his parish to value it. 
And it is observable, that if a nlinister talk with a great nlan in 
the ordinary course of cOlnpliulenting language, he shall bo 
esteelued as an ordinary conlplilnenter; but if he often interpose 
Hi blessing, when the other giycs hil11 just opportunity, by spe:1k- 
ing any good, this unusual fOrIn begets a reverence, and Inakes 
hiIll esteclned according to his profession. The saIne is to be 
observed in writing letters also. To conclude, if all lllen are to 
bless upon occasion, as appears ROIH. xii, 14, how lllllCh IHore 
those who are spiritual fathers? 


CI-IAP. XXX'
II. 


Goncernin.'l detraction. 
TI-IE country parson, percciving that lliost, when they are at 
leisure, Inake others" faults their entf\rtainluent and discourse, 
and that even S0111e good nl011 think, so they speak truth, they 
may disclose another"s f
tult, finds it sOlnewhat difficult how to 
proceed in this point. For if he absolutely shut up Inen"s 
Illouths and forbid all disclosing of faults, Inl1ny an evilluay not 
only be, but also spread in his parish, without any rCluedy, 
(which cannot be applied without notice) to the dishonour of 
God and the infection of his flock, and the disconlfort, discredit 
and hindrance of the pastor. On the other side, if it be un- 
lawful to open faults, no bcnefit or advantage can Blake it lawful: 
for 'we 
/lust '/LOt do evil, that good 
nay cOlne of it. N ow the 



The Countr!! Parson. 


61 


parson taking this point to task, \vhich is so exceeding usefuJ, 
and hath taken so deep root, that it seems the very life and 
substance of conyersation, hath proceeded thus far in the dis- 
cu
sing of it. Faults are either notorious or private. Again, 
notorious faults are either such as are lnade known by common 
fame, (and of these those that kno\v them may talk, so they do 
it not with sport, but cOlnTniseration) or else such as have 
passed judglnent and been corrected, either by whipping, or 
ilnprisoning, or the like. Of these also men DUty talk, and more, 
they Inay discover theln to those that kno\v thenl not; because 
infanlY is a part of the sentence against malefactors, which the 
law intends, as is evident by those which are branded for rogues, 
that they may be known; or put into the stocks, that they may 
be looked upon. But sonle nlay say, though the la\v allow this, 
the gospel doth not, which hath so much advanced charity, and 
ranked backbiters an10ng the generation of the wicked, Rom. i, 
so. But this is easily answered: as the executioner is not 
uncharitable that takes away the life of the condemned, except, 
besides his office, he add a tincture of private 11lalice in the joy 
and haste of acting his part; so neither is he that defalnes him 
whon1 the la,v would have defamed, except he also do it out of 
rancour. For in infanlY all are executioners, and the law gives 
a nlalefactor to all to be defalued. And as 111alefactors n1ay lose 
and forfeit their goods or life, so 111ay they their good name, and 
the possession thereof, which before their offence and judgment 
they had in all nlen's breasts: for all are honest, till the contrary 
be proved. Besides, it concerns the cOlnmonwealth, that rogues 
should be known, and charity to the public hath the precedence 
of private charity. So that it is so far fronl being a fault to 
discover such offenders, that it is a duty rather, which may do 
nluch good, and save nluch harm. Nevertheless, if the punished 
delinquent shall be much troubled for his sins, and turn quite 
another nlan, doubtless then also nlen's affections and words 
l11Ust turn, and forbear to speak of that, which even God himself 
hath forgotten. 



RULES AXD AD'ICES 


TO 


THE C L ERG ,- 


OF THE 


DIOCESE OF DO" X ...\XD CO XX OR. 


BY 


JERE)[í T 
\ YLOR 


BISHOP OF TH_-\T DIOCESE. 



J ERE
iY TAYLOR is stated, on \vhat appears to be good 
authority, to have been lineally descended from Dr. Ro\yland 
Taylor, Rector of Hadleigh in Suffolk, and a celebrated suf- 
ferer in the cause of the Reformation, under Queen 
lary. 
When he ,vas born at Cambridge, in 1613, the humble sta- 
tion of his father shews that the family had not recovered 
from the effects of the confiscation of estate, \yhich follo\ved 
the death of his martyred ancestor. At the age of 13, he ,vas 
admitted into Caius College, as a Sizar; took the degree of 
B. A.; and, ,vhether he gained a Fello,vship of his college 
or not (for the point remains doubtful) proceeded, in due 
course, to the degree of M. A. He ,vas ordained, before he 
had reached the Canonical age; and ,-ras soon employed as 
Deputy Lecturer at St. Paul's Cathedral. A repoTt of his 
eloquence ,vas conveyed to archbishop Laud, \vho summoned 
him to preach at Lambeth; and, from that time, befriended 
him. The archbishop suggested his removal from Cambridge 
to Oxford. He first entered at University College; but, not 
long afterwards, became Fello\v of All Souls}, through the 
influence perseveringly exerted in his favour by his patron, 
the Visitor of that College. 'rhus it fortunately happens that 
each of the Universities of England is entitled to lay claim to 
one and the same distinguished ornament. He ceased to 
reside at Oxford, on his acceptance of the Rectory of U pping- 
ham, in Rutlandshire. \'Vhen he was compelled by the 
troubles of the times to retire from" his benefice, he sought 
refuge in Wales and, for a ,,,hi Ie, kept a School there; but 
his unshaken loyalty and firm adherence to the Church sub- 
jected him to frequent persecutions and occasional imprison- 
ment. His character and his misfortunes combined to procure 
for him zealous and liberal supporters, under the difficulties, 
\\"ith ,vhich he had to contend. One of these (Lord Conway) 
F 



66 


at length induced him to accept a Lectureship and some other 
advantages in Ireland and to settle permanently in a retreat 
provided for him near Lisburn. A journey to London, in 
the beginning of 1660, afforded him an opportunity of signing 
the Loyalist Declaration of April of that year. Among the 
early results of the Restoration \vas his nomination, in August 
of the same year, to the bishopric of Down and Connor. In 
the next year, "on account of his virtue, wisdom, and indus- 
try," (such are the words of the ,vrit under the Privy Seal) he 
,vas further entrusted \yith the diocese of Dromore. He 'vas, 
Inoreover, appointed Vice-Chancellor of the University of 
Dublin. Arduous and incessant duties, both Episcopa] and 
Academical, occupied him during the few remaining years of 
his life, ,vhich ended in 1667. 


His Works (most of \vhich ,vere published before the Resto- 
ration) are universally allo\ved to justify the eulogy, pro- 
nounced on their Author by Bishop Rust, his successor in the 
see of Dromore : 
"This great Prelate had the good humour of a Gentleman, 
" the eloquence of an Orator, the fancy of a Poet, the acute- 
" ness of a Schoolman, the profoundness of a Philosopher, the 
" \"isdom of a Counsellor, the sagacity of a Prophet, the reason 
" of an Angel and the piety of a Saint." 


A Life of Bp. Taylor, ,vith a critical exan1Ínation of his 
"Titings, from a Prelate of kindred spirit and genius, the late 
Bp. Heber, accompanies the complete Edition of his Works, 
recently published under the direction of the Rev. C. P. Eden, 
formerly Fello,v of Oriel College, Oxford. 
There is also a Biography by the Rev. R. A. 'Vilmott, 
12mo, entitled: " Bp. Jeremy Taylor, his Predecessors, Con- 
" temporaries and Successors." 



RULES AND ADVICES 


TO THE CLERG Y. 


I. Personal duly. 
I. REME
IBER that it is your great duty, and tied on you 
by lllany obligations, that you be exemplar in your lives, and 
be patterns and precedents to your flocks; lest it be said unto you, 
Why talcest thou my law into t1
y l}/lO'lttlì, seeing tlwu lìatest to be 
reformed thereby? He that lives an idle life lllay preach \vith 
tru th and reason, or as did the Pharisees: but not as Christ, or 
as one having authority. 
II. Every nlinister in taking accounts of his life Inust judge 
of his duty by more strict and severer measures, than he does of 
his people; and he that ties heavy burdens upon others, ought 
himself to carry the heaviest end: and many things lllay be 
lawful in theIn, \vhich he lllust not suffer in hiulself. 
III. Let every lllinister endeavour to be learned in all spirit- 
ual wisdom, and skilful in the things of God; for he will ill 
teach others the ,yay of godliness perfectly, that is hinlself a 
babe and uninstructed. An ignorant minister is an head without 
an eye; and an evil minister is salt that hath no savour. 
IV. Every minister, above all things, must be careful that he 
be not a servant of passion, whether of anger or desire. For he 
that is not a master of his passions will always be useless, and 
quickly will become contenlptible and cheap in the eyes of his 
parish. 
V. Let no minister be litigious in any thing; not greedy or 
F
 



68 


Bishop Taylor's Advice to his Olergy. 


covetous; not insisting upon little things, or quarrelling for or 
exacting of every minute portion of his dues; but bountiful and 
easy; remitting of his right, \vhen to do so may be useful to his 
people, or \vhen the contrary nlay do mischief, and cause 
reproach. Be not over righteous, (saith Solomon) that is, not 
severe in demanding, or forcing every thing, though it be indeed 
his due. 
VI. Let not the name of the church be made a pretence for 
personal covetousness; by saying, you are willing to remit many 
things, but you must not wrong the church: for though it be 
true, that JOU are not to do prejudice to succession, yet Inany 
things may be forgiven upon just occasions, from which the 
church shall receive no incolnníodity ; but be sure that there are 
but fe,v things which thou art bound to do in thy personal 
capacity, but the same also and more thou art obliged to per- 
fonn, as thou art a public person. 
VII. Never exact the offerings or customary wages and such 
as are allo,ved by la\v, in the nlinistration of the sacranïents, 
nor condition for them, nor secure them beforehand; but first 
do your office, and nlinister the sacraments purely, readily and 
for Christ's sake; and when that is done, receive what is your 
due. 
VIII. Avoid all pride, as you \vould flee fronl the most 
frightful apparition, or the most cruel enemy; and renlember 
that :you can never truly teach humility, or tell what it is, unless 
you practise it yourselves. 
IX. Take no measures of humility, but such as are material 
and tangible; such which consist not in humble ,vords, and 
lowly gestures; but what is first truly radicated in your souls, 
in low opinion of yourselves, and in real preferring others before 
yourselves; and in such significations, which can neither deceive 
yourselves nor others. 
X. Let every curate of souls strive to understand himself 
I I best; and then to understand others. Let hinl spare himself 
least; but severely judge, censure and condemn himself. If he 
be learned, let hilu shew it by wise teaching and humble 111an- 
\ I h 
ners. If he be not learned, let hirn be sure to get so lUUC 
kno\vledge as to kno\v that, and so 11luch hUlllility as not to 
' grow insolent and puffed up by his enlptiness. For Inany ,viII 
pardon a good l11an that is less learned; but if he be proud, no 
I . Ulan ,viII forgive hiln. 



Bishop Taylor's Advice to his Olergy. 


69 


XI. Let every nlinister be careful to live a life as abstracted 
from the affairs of the world, as his necessity will permit hinl; 
but at no hand to be immerged and principally employed in the 
affairs of the world: what cannot be avoided, and what is of 
good report, and what he is obliged to by any personal or 
collateral duty, that he may do, but no more: ever remembering 
the saying of our blessed Lord; In the 'l()orld ye shallltave trou- 
hle; hut in me ye shall have peace,. and consider this also, which 
is a great truth; that every degree of love to the world is so 
much taken from the love of God. 
XII. Be no otherwise solicitous of your fame and reputation, I 
but by doing your duty well and wisely; in other things refer 
yourself to God; but if you meet with evil tongues, be careful 
that you bear reproaches sweetly and temperately. 
XIII. Remenlber that no minister can govern his people welI, 
and prosperously, unless himself hath learned humbly and 
cheerfulIy to obey his superior. For every minister should be 
like the good centurion in the gospel; himself is under authorit.y, 
and he hath people under him. 
XIV. Be sure in all your words and actions to preserve 
Christian simplicity and ingenuit)T; to do to others as you 
\vould be done unto yourself) and never to speak what you do 
not think. Trust to truth, rather than to your menlory; for 
this may fail you, that will never. 
XV. Pray much and very fervently for all your parishioners I 
and all men that belong to you and all that belong to God; but 
especially for the conversion of souls; and be very zealous for 
nothing but for God's glory and the salvation of the world, 
and particularly of your charges: ever remembering that you 
are by God appointed, as the Dlinistera of prayer and the 
ministers of good things, to pray for all the ,,'orld and to heal 
all the world, as far as you are able. 
X VI. Every minister nlust learn and practise patience, that 
by bearing all adversity meekly and humbly and cheerfully, 
and by doing all his duty with unwearied industry and with 
great courage, constancy and Christian nlagnanilnity, he lnay 
the better assist his people, in the bearing of their crosses and 
overcoming of their difficulties. 
XVII. He that is holy, let him be holy stiIl) and still more 
holy, a.nd never think he hath done his work, till all be finished 
by perseverance, and the measures of perfection in a holy life, 



70 


Bishop Taylor's Advice to ltis Olergy. 


II. 


and a holy death; but at no hand must he magnify himself by 
vain separations frOin others, or despising them that are not so 
holy. 
II. 01 prudence 'l'eq'ltlred in 'fninisters. 
XVIII. Remember that discretion is the Inistress of all 
graces; and humility is the greatest of all n1iracles: and with- 
out this, all graces perish to a man's self; and without that, all 
graces are useless un to others. 
XIX. Let no minister be governed by the opinion of his 
people, and destroy his duty, by unreasonable compliance with 
their humours, lest, as the bishop of Granata told the governors 
of Leria and Patti, like silly animals they take burdens upon 
their backs at the pleasure of the multitude, \vhich they neither 
can retain \vith prudence nor shake off with safety. 
XX. Let not t.he reverence of any man cause you to sin 
against God; but in the matter of souls, being well advised, be 
bold and confident; but abate nothing of the honour of God, or 
the just Ineasures of your duty, to satisfy the hnportunity of any 
man whatsoever, and God will bear you out. 
XXI. 'Vhen you teach your people any part of" their duty, as 
in paying their debts, their tithes and offerings, in giving due 
reverence and religious regards, din1inish nothing of admonition 
in these particulars, and the like, though they object, That you 
speak for yourselves, and in your o'wn cases. For counsel i3 
not the \vorse, but the better, if it be profitable both to him that 
gives and to hin1 that takes it. Only do it in silnplicity, and 
principally intend the good of their souls. 
XXII. In taking accounts of the good lives of yourselves or 
others, take your measures by the express words of scripture; 
and next to then1 estin1ate them by their proportion and compli- 
ance \vith the public measures, with the laws of the nation, ec- 
clesiastical and civil, and by the rules of fame, of public honesty 
and good report; and last of all by their observation of the ordi- 
nances and exterior parts of religion. 
XXIII. Be not satisfied when you have done a good ,york, 
unles s you have also done it 
ll i and when you have, then be 
careful that vainglory, partiality, self-conceit, or any other folly 
.. or indiscretion, snatch it not out of your hand, and cheat you of 
the re\yard. 
XXIV. Be careful so to order yourself, that you fall not into 
temptation and foIly in the presence of any of your charges; and 



Bisnop Taylor's A dvice to his Ole,"9Y. 71 
especially that you fall not into chi dings and intemperate talk- 
ings, anò sudden and violent expressions: never be a party in 
clamours and scoldings, lest your calling become useless, and your 
person conteInptible: ever remen1bering that if you cheaply and 
lightly be engaged in such lo,v usages with any person, that per- 
son is likely to be lost fronI all possibility of receiving l11uch 
good from your ministry. 
III. The rules and measures of govel"nnwnt to he used hy 
9ninisters in tlteir respective cures. 
XXV. Use no violence to any man, to bring him to your t 
opinion; but by the word of your proper lninistry, by den10n- I, 
. 
strations of the Spirit, by rational discourses, by excellent exam- 
ples, constrain then1 to come in; and for other things they are I 
to be permitted to their own liberty, to the measures of the laws, ( 
and the conduct of their governors. 
XXVI. Suffer no quarrel in your parish, and speedily sup- 
press it, ,,-hen it is begun; and though nIl wise men \"ill 
abstain from interposing in other men's affairs, and especially in 
matters of interest, which lllen 10,Te too well; yet it is your 
duty here to interpose, by persuading thelll to friendships, re- 
concilen1ents, moderate prosecutions of their pretences; and by 
all means }you prudently can, to bring them to peace and 
brotherly kindness. 
XX'TII. Suffer no houses of debauchery, of drunkenness or 
lust in your parishes; but implore the assistance of authority 
for the suppressing of all such meeting-places and nurseries of 
impiety; and as for places of public entertainment, take care 
that they observe the rules of Christian piety and the allo"Ted 
measures of the la\v. 
XXVIII. If there be any papists or sectaries in your parishes, 
neglect not frequently to confer with them in the spirit of 
meekness, and by the importunity of wise discourses seeking to 
gain them. But stir up no violences against them; but leave)':; 
them (if they be incurable) to the wise and n1erciful disposition '. 
of the Ia WB. 
XX IX. Receive not the people to doubtful disputations: and I 
let no names of sects or differing religions be kept up amongst 
you, to the disturbance of the public peace and private charity; 
and teach not the people to estimate their piety by their distance 
from any opinion, but by their faith in Christ, their obedience 



72 


Bishop Taylor"s Advice to his Clergy. 


I to God and the laws, and their love to all Christian people, even 
though they be deceived. 
XXX. Think no man considerable upon the point or pre- 
tence of a tender conscience, unless he live a good life, and in 
all things endeavour to approve himself void of offence both to- 
,vards God and man: but if he be an hUlnble person, modest 
and inquiring, apt to learn and desirous of information; if he 
seeks for it in all ,vays reasonable and pious, and is obedient to 
laws, then take care of him, use hinI tenderly, persuade him 
meekly, reprove hilll gently, and deal mercifully with him, till 
· God shall reveal also that to him, in \vhich his unavoidable 
trouble and his temptation lies. 
XXXI. Mark them that cause divisions among you, and 
avoid them; for such persons are by the scripture called scan- 
dals a in the abstract; they are offenders and offences too. But 
if any man have an opinion, let him have it to himself, till he 
can be cured of his disease by tillle a':ld counsel and gentle 
usages. But if he separates from the church, or gathers a con- 
gregation, he is proud, and is fallen from the communion of 
saints and the unity of the catholic church. 
XXXII. He that observes any of his people to be zealous 
let hilll be careful to conduct that zeal into such channels where 
there is least danger of inconveniency; let hilll employ it in 
something that is good; let it be pressed to fight against sin. 
For zeal is like a cancer in the breast; feed it with good flesh, 
or it will devour the heart. 
t XXXIII. Strive to get the love of the congregation; but 
let it not degenerate into popularity. Cause thenI to love 
i you and revere you; to Ioye \vith religion, not for your conl- 
: pliance; for the good you do them, not for that you please 
them. Get their love by doing your duty, but not by omitting 
or spoiling any part of it: ever remJrnbering the severe ,vords 
I of our blessed Saviour, Wo be to you 'when all '1nen speak well 
of you. 
XXXI,r. Suffer not the common people to prattle about re- 
ligion and questions; but to speak little, to be s\vift to hear, and 
slow to speak; that they learn to do good ,yorks for necessary 
uses, that they work with their hands, that they may have ,vhere- 
withal to give to them that need; that they study to be quiet, 
and learn to do their own business. 
a 1:Kávða
a 7Tupà TTW 
LlJax;w. Vide Rom. xvi. 17, 01 
LxouTaToíjvTE
. 



Bishop Taylor's .Adv'ice to his Clergy_ 


73 


x XX V_Let every minister take care that he call on his 
charge, that they order themselves so that they leave no void 
spaces of their time, but that every part of it be filled with use- 
ful or innocent employment. For \vhere there is a space without' 
business, that space is the proper time for danger and tempta- 
tion; and no man is more miserable than he that knows not ho\v 
to spend his time. 
XXXVI. Fear no man's person in the doing of your duty 
wisely and according to the laws: remembering always, that a 
servant of God can no more be hurt by all the powers of \vick- 
edness, than by the noise of a fl)"s wing, or the chirping of a 
sparrow. Brethren, do ,yell for yourselves; do ,veIl for your- 
selves as long as you have time; you kno,v not how soon death 
,vill come. 
XXXVII. Entertain no persons into your assemblies from 
other parishes, unless upon great occasion, or in the destitution 
of a minister, or by contingency and seldom visits, or with leave; 
lest the labour of thy brother be discouraged, and thyself be 
thought to preach Christ out of envy, and not of good-\vill . 
XXXVIII. Never appeal to the judgment of the people in 
matters of controversy; teach them obedience, not arrogancy ; 
teach them to be humble, not crafty. For without the aid of 
false guides you ,viII find some of them of themselves apt enough 
to be troublesome; and a question put into their heads and a 
power of judging into their handH, is a putting it to their choice 
whether you shall be troubled by them this week or the next; 
for much longer you cannot escape. 
XXXIX. Let no n1inister of a parish introduce any ceremony, 
rites, or gestures, though with SOITIe seeming piety and devotion, 
but what are commanded by the church, and established by la,v ; 
and let these also be wisely and usefully explicated to the people, 
that they may understand the reasons of obedience; but let 
there be no ll10re introducerl, lest the people be burdened un- 
necessarily, and tempted or divided. 
IV. Rules and advices concerning preaching. 
XL. Let every Ininister be diligent in preaching the ,vord of 
God, according to t.he ability that God gives him: ever remem- 
bering that to 111inister God's word unto the people is the one 
half of his great office and en1ployment.. 
XLI. Let every minister be careful that what he delivers be 



74 


Bishop Taylor's Advice to his Olergy. 


indeed the word of God; that his sermon may be answerable to 
his text; for this is God's word, the other ought to be according 
to it; that, although in itself it be but the ,vord of Ulan, yet by 
the purpose, truth and signification of it, it may, in a secondary 
sense, be the word of God. 
J XLII. Do not spend your sermons in general and indefinite 
things, as in exhortations to the people to get Christ, to be united 
to Christ, and things of the like unlimited signification; but tell 
them in every duty, what are the measures, what circunIstances, 
what instrun1ents, and what is the particular nIinute meaning of 
every general advice. For generals not explicated do but fill 
the people's heads with empty notions, and their mouths with 
perpetual unintelligible talk; but their hearts remain enIpty, 
and then1selves are not edified. 
XLIII. Let not the hunlours and inclinations of the people 
be the measures of your doctrines, but let your doctrines be the 
measure of their persuasions. Let thenl know froln you what 
they ought to do; but if you learn from thelu what you ought 
to teach, you will give but a very ill account at the day of judg- 
ment of the souls committed to you. He that receives fronl the 
people ,vhat he shall teach thenI, is like a nurse that asks of her 
child what physic she shall give him. 
XLIV. Every minister, in reproofs of sin and sinners, ought 
to concern hin1self in the faults of then1 that are present, but 
not of the absent; 1101' in reproof of the times; for this can serve 
no end but of faction and sedition, public murmur and private 
discontent; besides this, it does nothing but anIuse the people 
in the faults of others, teaching thenl to revile their betters and 
neglect the dangers of their own souls. 
XLV. As it looks like flattery and design to preach nothing 
before nIagistrates but the duty of their people and their own 
eminency; so it is the beginning of mutiny to preach to the 
people the duty of their superiors and supreme; it can neither 
COlTIe from a good principle nor tend to a good end. Every 
minister ought to preach to his parish, and urge their duty: St. 
John the Baptist told the soldiers ,vhat the soldiers should do, 
but troubled not their heads ,vith what ,vas the duty of the 
Scribes and Pharisees. 
XL VI. In the reproof of sins, be as particular as you please, 
and spare no man's sin, but meddle with no Iuan's person; 
neither name any nlan nor signify hinl, neither reproach hinI, 



Bishop Taylor's Advice to ltis Clergy_ 


75 


or make hin1 to be suspected; he that doth otherwise lllakes his 
sennon to be a libel, and the ministry of repentance an instru- 
ment of revenge; and so doing he shall exasperate the man, but 
never alnend the sinner. 
XLVII. Let the business of your sermons be to preach holy 
life, obedience, peace, love among neighbours, hearty love, to 
live as the old Christians did, and the new should; to do hurt 
to no luan, to do good to every man: for in these things the 
honour of God consists, and the kingdom of the Lord Jesus. 
XL VIII. Press those graces most that do most good, and 
make the least noise; such as giving privately and forgiving 
publicly; and prescribe the grace of charity by all the mea- 
sures of it which are given by the apostle, 1 Cor. xiii. For this 
grace is not finished by good ,vords, nor yet by good works, but 
it is a great building, and many nlaterials go to the structure of 
it. It is worth your study, for it is the fulfilling of the Com- 
" 
mandnlents. 
XLIX. Because it is impossible that charity should live, un- 
less the lust of the tongue be mortified, let every minister in his 
charge be frequent and severe against slanderers, detractors, and 
backbiters; for the crin1e of backbiting is the poison of charity, 
and yet so comlnon, that it is passed into a proverb, After a good 
dinner, let us sit down and backbite our neighbou'rs. 
L. Let every minister be careful to observe, and vehement in 
reproving those faults of his parishioners, of which the laws can- 
not or do not take cognizance; such as are many degrees of 
intemperate drinkings, gluttony, riotous living, expenses above 
their ability, pride, bragging, lying in ordinary conversation, 
covetousness, peevishne
s, and hasty anger, and such like. For 
the word of God searches deeper than the laws of Inen; and 
lllany things will be hard to be proved by the l11easures of 
courts, which are easy enough to be observed by the \vatchful 
and diligent eye and ear of the guide of souls. 
LI. In Jour sermons to the people, often speak of the four 
last things, of death and judgn1ent, heaven and hell; of the life 
and death of Jesus Christ; of God's mercy to repenting sinners, 
and his severity against the impenitent; of the formidable exam- 
ples of God's anger poured forth upon rebels, sacrilegious, op- 
pressors of widows and orphans, and all persons guilty of crying 
sins: these are useful, safe, and profitable: but never run into 
extravagances and curiosities, nor trouble yourselves or then1 



76 


Bis!top Taylor's A dvice to Ids Olergy. 


with mysterious secrets; for there is more laid before you than 
you can understand; and the \vhole duty of man is, To lea')" God 
and keep !tis com1nandments. Speak but very little of the secret 
and high things of God, but as much as you can of the lowness 
and humility of Christ. 
LI!. Be not hasty in pronouncing damnation against any man 
I or party in a matter of disputation. It is enough that you re- 
bl> prove an error; but ,vhat shall be the sentence against it at the 
day of judgment, thou kno,vest not, and therefore pray for the 
\,.A. 
i'b-Ù-". erring person and reprove hin1, but leave the sentence to his 
Judge. 
LIlI. Let your serillons teach the duty of all states of men to 
whom you speak; and particularly take care of servants and 
hirelings, merchants and tradesmen, that they be not unskilful, 
nor unadn10nished in their respective duties; and in all things 
speak usefully and affectionately; for by this means you ,viII 
provide for all lnen's needs, both for them that sin by reason of 
their little understanding, and them that sin because they h
ve 
evil, dull or depraved affections. 
, LIV. In your serlnons and discourses of religion, use primi- 
tive, known and accustomed words, and affect not ne\v fantasti- 
calor schismatical terms; let the Sunday festival be called the 
I Lord's day; and pretend no fears fronl the common use of words 
amongst Christians. For they that make a busiE ess
 the words 
of COllUllon use, and reforlll religion by introducing a new word, 
intend to make a change, but no alllendment; they spend them- 
sëlves in t.rifles, like the barren turf that sends forth no medici- 
nable herbs, but store of Illushrooms; and they give a demon- 
stration that they are either inlpertinent people, or else of a 
querulous nature; and that they are ready to disturb the 
church, if they could find occasion. 
L'T. Let every minister in his charge, as n1uch as he can, en- 
deavour to destroy all popular errors and evil principles taken 
up by his people, or others \vith \vhom they converse; espe- 
cially those that directly oppose the indispensable necessity of a 
holy life; let hin1 endeavour to understand in \vhat true and 
useful sense Christ's active obedience is inlputed to us; let him 
make his people fear the deferring of their repentance, and put- 
ting it off to their death-bed; let him explicate the nature of 
faith, so that it be an active and quickening principle of charity; 
Jet him, as much as he may, take frOln them all confidences that 


O<J<ol -. . 



Bishop Taylor's Advice to lâs Clm:QY. 


77 


slacken their obedience and diligence; let him teach then} to 
Ï1npute all their sins to their own follies and evil choice, and so 
build theJu up in a most holy faith to a holy life: ever remem- 
bering that in all ages it hath been the greatest artifice of Satan 
to hinder the increase of Christ"s kingdom by destroying those 
things in which it does consist, viz. peace and righteousness, 
holiness and mortification. 
L'TI. Every minister ought to be careful that he never ex- / 
 
pound scriptures in public contrary to the known sense of the I: 
catholic church, and part.icularly of the churches of England and J . 
Ireland, nor introduce any doctrine against any of the four first 1 !II 
general councils; for these, as they are nleasures of truth, so also: ' 
of necessity; that is, as they are safe, so they are sufficient; and, 
 
beside what is taught by these, 110 matter of belief is necessary; 
to salvation. 
L VII. Let no preacher bring before the people, in his SerIllOnS 
or discourses, the argument of great and dangerous heresies, 
though with a purpose to confute thelll; for they will nluch easier 
retain the objection than understand the answer. 
L '
III. Let not the preacher make an article of faith to be a 
matter of dispute; but teach it with plainness and sinlplicity, 
and confirlu it with easyargurnents and plain ,vords of scripture, 
but without objection; let. thenl be taught to believe, but not to 
argue, lest if the arguments meet \vith a scrupulous person, it 
rather shake the foundation by curious inquiry, than establish it 
by arguluents too hard. 
LIX. Let the preacher be careful that in his sermons he use 
no light, imulodest or ridiculous expressions, but what is wise, 
grave, useful and for edification; that, when the preacher brings 
truth and gravity, the people may attend with fear and reverence. 
LX. Let no preacher envy any luan that hath a greater au- 
dience, or more fame in preaching than himself; let him not 
detract front him or lessen his reputation directly or indirectly; 
for he that cannot be even with his brother but by pulling him 
down, is but a d \Yarf still; and no nlan is the better for making 
his brother worse. In all things desire that Christ's kingdonl 
may be advanced; and rejoice that he i8 served, whoever be the 
minister; that if you cannot have the fame of a great preacher, 
JTet you may have the reward of being a good man; but it is 
hard to nliss both. 
LXI. Let every preacher in his parish take care to explicate 



78 


Bz.shop Taylor's Advice to his Olergy. 


to the people the Inysteries of the great festivals, as of Christ- 
mas, Easter, Ascension-day, 'Vhit-Sunday, Trinity-Sunday, the 
Annunciation of the blessed Virgin l\Iary; because these feasts, 
containing in them the great fundamentals of our faith, will 
with most advantage convey the mysteries to the people, and fix 
them in their Inemories, by the solemnity and circumstances of 
the day. 
LXII. In all your sermons and discourses speak nothing of 
God but \vhat is honourable and glorious; and impute not to 
him such things, the consequences of which a wise and good nlan 
,vill not own: never suppose him to be author of sin, or the 
procurer of our damnation. For God cannot be telnpted, neither 
temptetk lte anY'lnan. God is tr e, and eroer!I man a liar. 
LXIII. Let no preacher conlpare one ordinance ,vit h another; 
as prayer with preaching, to the disparagement of either; but use 
both in their proper seasons, and according to appointed order. 
LXIV. Let no nlan preach for the praise of Inen; but if you 
meet it, instantly \vatch and stand upon your guard, and pray 
against your own vanity; and by an express act of acknowledg- 
ment and adoration, return the praise to God. Remember that 
Herod was, for the oll1ission of this, smitten by an angel; and do 
thou tremble, fearing lest the judgment of God be otherwise than 
the sentence of the people. 


V. Rules and adroices concerning OateckisJÎ(;. L L 
O(.
 fIJ'w 
LXV. Every minister is bound, ,upon every Lord's day before 
evening prayer, to instruct all young people in the Creed, the 
Lord's Prayer, the Ten Comlnandments, and the doctrine of the 
sacraments, as they are set down and explicated in the Church 
Catechism. 
LXVI. Let a bell be tolled when the catechising is to begin, 
that all \vho desire it may be present; but let all the nlore 
ignorant and uninstructed part of the people, whether they be old 
or young, be required to be present; that no person in your 
parishes be ignorant in the foundations of religion: ever remem- 
bering that, if in these things they be unskilful, ,vhatever is 
taught besides is like a house built upon the sand. 
LXVII. Let every minister teach his people the use, practice, 
methods and benefits of nleditation, or mental prayer. Let them 
draw out for them helps and rules for their assistance in it, and 
furnish thenl with materials, concerning the life and death of the 



Bishop Taylor's Advice to his Olergy. 


79 


ever blessed J esns, the greatness of God, our own meanness, the 
dreadful sound of the last trumpet, the infinite event of the two 
last sentences at doomsday: let them be taught to consider what 
they have been, what they are, and what they shall be; and, 
above all things, what are the issues of eternity; glories never to 
cease, pains never to be ended. 
LXVIII. Let every minister exhort his people to a frequent I I ,,' 
confession of their sins, and a declaration of the state of their ' 
souls; to a conversation ,vith their minister in spiritual things, 
to an inquiry concerning all the parts of their duty; for by 
preaching and catechising and private intercourse, all the needs of 
souls can best be served; but by preaching alone they cannot. 
LXIX. Let the people be exhorted to keep fasting-days, and 
the feasts of the church, according to their respective capacities; 
80 it be done wit.hout burden to then1, and without becoming a 
snare; that is, that, upon the account of religion and holy desires 
to please God, they spend son1e time in religion, besides the 
Lord's day; but be very careful that the Lord's day be kept 
religiously, according to the severest measures of the church 
and the con1n1ands of authority: ever ren1enlbering, that as they 
give but little testin10ny of repentance and mortification, ,,,ho 
never fast; so they give but sn1all evidence of their joy in God 
and religion, who are unwilling solemnly to partake of the public 
and religious joys of the Christian church. 
LXX. Let every n1inister be diligent in exhorting all parents 
and Inasters to send their children and servants to the bishop at 
the visitation, or other solen1n times of his coming to then1, that 
they lllay be confirnled: and let him also take care that all young 
persons may, by understanding the principles of religion, their 
Vo\V of baptism, the excellency of the Christian religion, the 
necessity and advantages of it and of living according to it, be 
fitted and disposed, and accordingly by them presented, to the 
bishop, that he lllay pray over thenl and invocate the Holy Spirit 
and luinister the holy rite of confirmation. 


V 1. Rules and advices concerning tlte visitation of the sick. 
LXXI. Every lliinister ought to be careful in visiting all the 
sick and afflicted persons of his parish: ever remembering, that 
as the priest's lips are to preserve knowledge, so it is his duty to 
minister a word of con1fort in the tilne of need. 



80 


Bishop Taylor's Advice to his Olergy. 


LXXII. A minister Inust not stay till he be sent for; but of 
his own accord and care go to them, to examine them, to exhort 
them to perfect their repentance, to strengthen their faith, to 
encourage their patience, to persuade them to resignation, to the 
renewing of their holy vows, to the love of God, to be reconciled 
to their neighbours, to Inake restitution and anlends, to confess 
their sins, to settle their estate, to provide for their charges, to 
do acts of piety and charity, and above all things, that they take 
care they do not sin towards the end of their lives. For if 
repentance on our death-bed seem so very late for the sins of our 
life; what time shall be left to repent us of the sins ,ve commit 
on our death-bed? 
LXXIII. \Vhen you comfort the afflicted, endeavour to bring 
them to the true love of God; for he that serves God for 
God's sake, it is almost impossible he should be oppressed with 
sorrow. 
LXXIV. In answering the cases of conscience of the sick or 
affiicted people, consider not ,vho asks, but what he asks; and 
consult in your nns,vers more ,vith the estate of his soul, than the 
conveniency of his estate; for no flattery is so fatal as that of the 
physician or divine. 
LXX V. If the sick person inquires concerning the final estate 
of his soul, he is to be reproved rather than ans,vered; only he 
is to be called upon to finish his duty, to do all the good he can 
in that season, to pray for pardon and acceptance: but you have 
nothing to do to nleddle ,vith passing final sentences; neither 
cast him down in despair, nor raise him up to vain and unrea- 
sonable confidences. B ut take care that he be not carelessly 
. JI 
ismissed. 
LXXVI. In order to these and many other good purposes, 
every 111inister ought frequently to converse with his parishioners; 
to go to their houses, but always publicly, with witness, and 
with prudence, lest what is chJ.ritably intended be scandalously 
reported; and in all yonI' conversation be sure to give good 
example, and upon all occasions to give good counsel. 


VII. Of ministering the sacraments, puhlic prayers, and other 
duties of 'JninisteJ's. 
LXXVII. Every n1Ïnister is obliged publicly or privately to 



Bishop Taylor"s Advice to ltis Clergy. 


81 


read the COllunon prayer every day in the week, at lllorning and 
evening; and in great towns and populous places conveniently 
inhabited, it nlust be read in churches, that the daily sacrifice of 
prayer and thanksgiving may never cease. 
LXX VIII. The minister is to instruct the people that the 
baptisnl of their children ought not to be ordinarily deferred 
longer than till the next Sunday after the birth of the child; lest 
importune and unnecessary delay occasion that the child die, 
before it is dedicated to the service of God and the religion 
of the Lord Jesus; before it be born again, admitted to t.he 
prolnises of the Gospel and reckoned in the account of the 
second Adam. 
LXXIX. Let every minister exhort and press the people to 
a devout and periodical cOlnnlunion at the least three tinles in 
the year, at the great festivals; but the devouter sort and they 
who have leisure, are to be invited to a frequent cOlnmunion; 
and let it be given and received with great reverence. 
LXXX. Every nlinister ought to be well skilled and studied 
in saying his office, in the rubrics, the canons, the articles and 
the hon1ilies of the church, that he Inay do his duty readily, 
discreetly, gravely and by the public measures of the laws. To 
which also it is very useful that it be added that every lllinister 
study the ancient canons of the church, especially the p eniten - · . 
tials of the ea stern an d weste rn ch urches: - let -hi
ead good 
book
 such as are approved by public authority; such which 
are useful, wise and holy; not the scribblings of unlearned 
parties, but of men learned, pious, obedient and disinterested; 
and aUlongst these, such especially which describe duty and 
good life, which minister to faith and charity, to piety and devo- 
tion; cases of conscience, and solid expositions of scripture: 
concerning ,vhich, learned and wise persons are to be consulted. 
LXXXI. Let not a curate of souls trouble hinlself with any 
studies but such which concern his own or his people's duty; 
such as may enable him to speak v"ell and to do well; but to 
meddle not with controversies, but such by \vhich he 111ay be 
enabled to convince the gainsayers, in things that concern public 
peace and a good life. 
LXXXII. Be careful in all the public adnlinistrations of your 
parish that the poor be provided for. Think it no shalne to beg 
for Christ's poor members; stir up the people to liberal alnls by 
your \vords and your example. Let a collection be made every 
G 



8
 


B'ishop Ta!llor's Advice to ltis Clergy_ 


Lord's day, and upon all solelnn meetings, and at every COll1- 
Inunion; and let the collection be wisely and piously admin- 
istered: ever remembering that, at the day of judgment, 
nothing shall publicly be proclaimed but the reward of alms 
and mercy. 
LXXXIII. Let every minister be sure to lay up a treasure 
of comforts and ad vices, to bring forth for every man's need in 
the day of his trouble; let him study and heap together instru- 
luents and advices for the promoting of every virtue, and reme- 
dies and arguments against every vice; let him teach his people 
to Iuake acts of virtue not only by external exercise, but also in 
the \vay of prayer and internal meditation. 
In these and all things else that concern the nlinister's duty. 
if there be difficulty, you are to repair to your bishop, for further 
advice, aBsistanc
 and information. 


"" :, ;, 


, f (' 
{)' 
 /.( "'" 
 ( 

...() t_ ,
 f 
(' çI
 I 
t... , . ( {' 



A DISCOURSE 


OF THE 


P ASrrORAL CARE, 


WRITTEN BY THE 


RIGHT REVEREND FATHER IN GOD, 


G I IJ B E R 'f, 
LORD BISHOP OF SARUM. 


G
 



GILBERT BURNET, born at Edinburgh in 1643, was of 
an ancient and influential family in Aberdeenshire. His 
father, an Episcopalian and Royalist, was thrice obliged 
to quit Scotland for refusing the Solemn League and Covenant. 
At last, relinquishing the practice of the La,v, he ,vas per- 
mitted to reside on his own estate; from ,vhence he ,vas re- 
called into active life, at the Restoration, and made a Lord of 
Session. The early education of his son Gilbert was wholly 
under his care; and so managed by him that his pupil, at 
the age of 10, was sent to the College of Aberdeen and, at the 
age of 14, took the Degree of M. A. The youthful Graduate 
applied himself, for more than a year, to the study of the La\y; 
but soon deliberately chose the Sacred Profession, for which 
his father had destined him. He zealously pursued the requi- 
site studies under able guides, lrhom he has gratefully com- 
memorated and among whom ,vas included the learned and 
pious Robert Leighton, then Bishop of Dumblane, afterwards 
Archbishop of Glasgow. He "Tas ordained Priest in 1665, 
,,"as elected Professor of Divinity in the UnÍ\.ersity of Glasgow 
in 1670, and continued to fill the Chair of chief Teacher of 
Theology there, until 1674. Circumstances then led him to 
settle in London, where he became Preacher at the Rolls' Chapel 
and Lecturer at St. Clement's. His conduct during the trial and 
at the execution of William, Lord Russell (\vho ,vas a valued 
friend of his) involved him in difficulties with the Court; and 
he ,,-as ultimately, through Royal interference, both dismissed 
from his Lectureship and deprived of the Rolls' Chaplaincy. 
Upon the accession of James II, he left England and, having 
married a Dutch lady of Scotch descent, ,,,"as naturalized as a 
subject of the States of Holland. He ,vas thus placed out of 
the reach of his enemies at home and conveniently situated for 
acting the prominent part, ,vhich History ascribes to him, to- 
wards and in the Revolution of J 688. He ,vas nominated to the 



86 


Bishoprick of Salisbury, soon after "\Villiam and 
Iary had as- 
cended the Throne; survived Queen Anne, to ,,,hose son, 
the Duke of Gloucester, he had been Preceptor; and died in 
1715. His share in the public transactions of his times and 
his numerous ,,-r ritings ,,-ill preserve his name and memory; 
and ,,-ill afford occasion, in future, for such diverse and even 
opposite estimates of his merits as have been already often 
formed. The follo\ying testimony comes from one, who \,-as 
no adlnirer of the Bishop's Politics, but too sincere a lover of 
truth to do injustice to any man: 
" Burnet, as it must be ackno,,-ledged even by his enemies, 
"was an active and meritorious Bishop and, to the extent 
" of his opportunities, a re,,-arder of merit in others. He 
" \yas orthodox in points of faith, possessed superior talents, 
" as ,,-ell as very considerable learning; was an instructive and 
" entertaining "Triter, in a style negligent indeed and in- 
'c elegant, but perspicuous; a generous, open-hearted and, in 
"his actions, good natured man; and, although busy and 
" intrusive, at least as honest as most partisans." 


The Life of Bishop Burnet, lrritten by his son, is added to 
the IIistory of his Own Time, in the Oxford Edition of that 
"1ork by the late revered Preaident of 
lagdalen College, Dr. 
Routh, from \v hose Preface the passage above cited has been 
taken. 



OF THE 


PASTORAL C.LtRE. 


CH AP. I. 


Of the dignity of sacred employments, and the names and designa- 
tions gi'Cen to the'J1
 in scripture. 
Ho,v low soever the esteenl of the clergy Inay be sunk in 
a profane and corrupt age, and how nluch soever the errors 
and disorders of clergymen Inay have contributed to bring this 
not only upon themselves, but upon others who deserve better, 
but are unhappy in being mixed with so nluch ill company; yet 
certainly if we either consider the nature of things in themselves, 
or the value that is set on that profession in the scriptures, it 
will appear that it ought to be considered at another rate than 
it is. As much as the soul is better than the body, and as much 
as the purifying and perfecting the soul is preferable to all those 
nlechanical emplo)"lnents which relate to the body, and as nU1Ch 
as eternity is more valuable than this short and transitory Jife ; 
80 l1ulCh does this enlploJnlent excel aU others. 
A clergynlan, by his character and design of life, ought to be 
a man separated from the cares and concerns of this world and 
dedicated to the study and Ineditation of divine matters: whose 
conversation ought to be a pattern for others; a - constant 
preaching to his people: who ought to offer up the prayers of 
the people in their name, and as their mouth to God: ,,,ho ought 
to be praying and interceding for them in secret, as well as 
officiating an10ng them in public: who ought to be distributing 



88 


Of the Pastoj'al Caire. 


among them the bread of life, the word of God; and to be dis- 
pensing among them the sacred rites, which are the badges, the 
union and the supports of Christians. He ought to adlnonish, 
to reprove and to comfort thein, not only by his general 
doctrine in his sermons
 but from house to house; that 80 he 
may do these things more home and effectually than can be 
done from the pulpit. He is to watch over their souls, to keep 
them froln error and to alarm theln out of their sins, by giving 
thenl \varning of the judgments of God; to visit the sick, and to 
prepare theln for the judgn1ent and life to come. 
This is the function of a clergyman; \vho, that he may 
perform aU these duties \vith lnore advantage and better effect, 
ought to behave himself so ,veIl that his own conversation n1ay . 
not only be without offence, but be so exemplary, that his people 
may have reason to conclude that he himself does firlnly believe 
all those things, which he proposes to them; that he thinks 
himself bound to follo\v all those rules that he sets them; and 
that they may see such a serious spirit of devotion in him, that 
from thence they may be induced to believe that his chief 
design among them is to do them good and to save their souls; 
which may prepare them so to esteem aud love him, that they 
may not be prejudiced against any thing that he does and says 
in public, by any thing that they observe in himself in secret. 
He Inust also be elnploying himself so ,veIl in his private 
studies, that from thence he may be furnished with such a 
variety of lively thoughts, divine meditations and proper and 
noble expressions, as n1ay enable hin1 to discharge every part of 
his duty in such a n1anner, as may raise not so much his own 
reputation, as the credit of his function, and of the great rnessalle 
of reconciliation that is committed to his charge: above all 
studies, he ought to apply hÍInself to understand the holy 
scriptures aright; to have his memory well furnished that 
way, that so upon all occa
ions he D1ay be able to enforce what 
he says out of theIn, and so be an able '1ninister of t1te new 
testament. 
This is in short the character of a true clerg-YInan, \vhich is to 
be more fully opened and enlarged on in the foIlowing parts of 
this book. All this looks so great and so noble that it does not 
appear necessary to raise it, or to insist on it more funy. Indeed 
it speaks its own dignitJ so sensibly, that none will dispute it 
but stich as arc open enelnies to all religion in general, or to the 



Of the Pasto
'al Care. 


89 


Christian religion in particular; and yet even few of these are 
so entirely corrupted, as not to wish that external order and 
policy were kept up among men, for restraining the injustice 
and violence of unruly appetites and passions; which fe,v, even 
of the tribe of the libertines, seem to desire to be let loose; 
since the peace and safety of mankind require that the world be 
kept in nlethod and under some yoke. 
It will be more suitable to my design, to shew ho,v well this 
character agrees with that which is laid down in the scriptures 
concerning these offices. I shall begin first with the names, and 
then go on to the descriptions, and lastly proceed to the rules 
that we find in them. 
The name of deacon, that is now appropriated to the lowest 
office in the church, was, in the time that the New Testanlent 
,vas writ, used 1110re promiscuously: for the apostles, the 
evangelists and those, whonl the apostles sent to visit the 
churches, are all called by this nalIle. Generally in all those 
places 'v here the word minister is in our translation, it is deacon 
- in the Greek, ,vhich signifies properly a servant, or one who 
labours for another. Such persons are dedicated to the imme- 
diate service of God; and are appropriated to the offices and 
duties of the church; so this term both expresses the dignity 
and the labour of the employment. 
The next order carries no\v the name of presbyter, or elder; 
\vhich though at first it ,va.s applied not only to bishops, but to 
the apostles thenlselves; Jet in the succeeding ages, it came to 
be appropriated to the second rank of the officers in the church. 
It either signifies a seniority of age, or of Christianity, in oppo- 
sition to a neophyte or novice, one newly converted to the faith; 
but by conlnlon practice, as senate or senator, being at first 
given to counsellors by reason of their age, came afterwards to 
be a title appropriate to thenl ; so the title presbyter, (altered in 
pronunciation to be in English, priest) or elder, being a charac- 
ter of respect, denotes the dignity of those, to WhOID it belongs: 
but since St. Paul divides this title either into two different 
ranks, or into two different perfonnances of the duties of the 
same rank, those that rule 
Dell, and those that labour in 'lcord and 
doctrinea
. this is a title that speaks both the dignity, and Jike- 
wise the duty belonging to this function. 


a 1 Tim. Y, 17. 



90 


Of the Pastoral Gare. 


The title ,vhich is no\v by the custoln of many ages given to 
the highest function in the church, of bishop, or inspector and 
overseer, as it in1ports a dignity in him, as the chief of thoso 
\vho labour; so it does like\vise express his obligation to care 
and diligence, both in observing and overseeing the \vhole flock; 
and more specially in inspecting the deportment and labours of 
his fello\v-worknlen, who are subordinate to him in the constitu- 
tion of the church, yet ought to be esteemed by him, in imitation 
of the apostles, his brethren, his fellow-labourers and fello,v- 
servants. N ext to the names of the sacred functions, I shall 
consider the other designations and figures, made use of to 
express then1. 
The most common is that of pastor or shepherd. I t is to be 
ren1eIl1bered, that in the first simplicity of mankind, for Inany 
ages, men looked after. their o,vn cattle, or employed their 
children in it; and when they trusted that care to any other, it 
was no sinall sign of their confidence, according to what Jacob 
said to Laban. The care of a good shepherd 'vas a figure then 
so ,veIl understood, that the prophet expresses God's care of his 
people by this, of his feedin.q them as a sheplterd, carr!Jing his 
la'ln
s in ltis boso'l}
, and gentl!J leading the1n that were with !Joung b. 
Christ also calls himself the .qood Sltepherd, that lcne'w his sheep, 
anel diel not as a hirelin.q, fly away 
chen the 'wolf can
e, but laid 
dozl)n h.is life for his slleep c. This then, being so often Inade use 
of in both Testan1ents, is an expression of the great trust com- 
Initted to the clergy, \vhich likewise supposes a great, a constant 
and a tender care in looking to, in feeding or instructing, in 
\vatching over and guarding the flock against errors and sins, 
and their being ready to offer themselves to the first fury of 
persecution. 
The title of stewards, or dispensers, which is the most honour- 
able in a household, is also given to them. These assign to 
everyone his due share, both of labour and of provision; these 
\vatch over theln and have the care and order of the other ser- 
vants assigned to theine So in this great fan1Ïly, of ,vhich Christ 
is the head d, the stewards are not only in a post of great dignity, 
but also of nluch labour: they ought to be observing the rest of 
this household, that they Inay be faithful in the distribution, and 
so encourage, admonish, reprove, or censure, as there is occasion 
for it. 


b Isa. x1, 11. 


C John x, I I, 12. 


d 1 Cor. iv, I, 2. 



Oftne Pastoral Care. 


91 


They are also called ambassadors, and this upon the noblest 
and most desirable lnessage; for their business is to treat of 
peace between God and man; to them is given the word or doc- 
trine of reconciliation; they are sent by Christ and do speak in 
God's nanIe; as if God did beseech men by theJn; so do they in 
Ohrtsf's stead, who is the J\lediator, press men to be reconciled to 
God e ; words of a very high sound, of great trust and dignity, 
but which import likewise great obligations. An ambassador is 
very solicitous to maintain the dignity of his character, and his 
master's honour; and chiefly to carryon that ,vhich is the main 
business that he is sent upon, which he is always contriving ho\v 
to promote: so if the honour of this title affects us, as it ought to 
do, with a just value for it, ,ve ought at the same time to consi- 
der the obligations
 tIillt accompany it, of living suitable to it, 
answering in some sort the dignity and majesty of the King of 
kings, that has committed it to us: and of labouring with all 
possible diligence, to effectuate the great design on which ,ve 
are sent; the reconciling sinners to God: the ,york having in 
itself a proportion to the dignity of him that employs us in it. 
Another, and yet a more glorious title, is that of angels f , 
\vho, as they are of a pure and sublime nature and are called 
a flaming fire, so do alu-ays behold tl
e face of 01.ll' lteavenly 
Father, and ever do his will
 and are also ministen.ng spirits, sent 
fortI! to 'ininister to thenl. that are appointed to ðe the heirs of 
salvation. This title is given to bishops and pastors; and as if 
that ,vere not enough, they are in one place caUed not only the 
'Jnessengers or angels of tke chz/;rckes, but also (he glory of 
Christ g. The natural Ì1nport of this is that men, to whom 
this title is applied, ought to imitate those heavenly powers, in 
the elevation of their souls, to contemplate the works and glory 
of God, and in their constant doing his \vilI, more particularly 
in ministering to the souls of those, for whom t.he great Angel 
of the covenant made himself a sacrifice. 
I do not anlong these titles reck3n those of rulers or govern- 
ors h, that are also given to bishops, because they seem to be 
but another nanle for bishops, whose inspection ,vas a rule and 
government, and so carried, in its signification, both authority 
and labour. To these designations, that carry in them characters 
of honour, but of honour joined to labour; and for the sake of 


c 2 Cor. v, 19,20. 


f Rev. ii, iii. 


g 2 Cor, viii, 23. 


h Heb. xiii, 7, 17. 



92 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


which the honour \vas due, according to that, esteem them very 
highly for their 
()orJI:'s sake,. I shall add some other designa- 
tions, that in their significations carry only labour without 
honour, being borro\ved from labours that. are hard, but no way 
honourable. 
They are often called watchmen i, who used to stand on high 
to,vers and \vere to give the alarn1, as they sa\v occasion for it: 
these men were obliged to a constant attendance, to \vatch in 
the night, as well as in the day: so all this, being applied to 
the clergy, imports that they ought to be upon their ,vatch- 
to\ver, observing \vhat dangers their people are exposed to, 
either by their sins, \vhich provoke the judgn1ents of God; or 
by the designs of their enenlies: they ought not, by a false re- 
spect, to suffer them to sleep and perish jn their sins; but must 
denounce the judgments of God to them, and rather incur their 
displeasure by their freedon1, than suffer them to perish in their 
security. 
St. Paul does also call churchmen by the name of builders, 
and gives to the apostles the title of master-builders k. This 
iU1ports both hard and painful labour, and like\vise great care 
and exactness in it} for ,vant of which the building ,viII be not 
only exposed to the injuries of weather, but will quickly tumble 
down; and it gives us to understand that those \vho carry this 
title ought to study well the great rule, by which they must 
carryon the interest of religion, that so they may build up their 
people in their 'lnost holy faith, so as to be a building fitly framed 
together. 
They are also called labourers in God's husbandry, labourers 
in his vineyard, and harvest, who are to sow, plant, and ,vater, 
and to cultivate the soil of the church 1. This iTJlports a conti. 
nual return of daily and hard labour, which requires both pain 
and diligence. They are also callpd soldiers m, men that did 
war and fight against the powers of darkness. The fatigue, 
the dangers and difficulties of that state of life are so well 
understood, that no application is necessary to n1ake them more 
sensible. 
And thus by a particular enumeration of either the more 
special nanles of these offices, such as deacon, priest and bishop, 
ruler and governor, or of the designations given to them of 


i Ezek. iii, 17. 


k I Cor. üi, 10. 1 I Cor. iii, 6, 9. Matth. ix, 37, 38, xx, I. 
m Philipp. ii, 2.'). 



Of the Pastoral Oare 


93 


shepherds or pastors, stewards, ambassadors and angels, it 
appears that there is a great dignity belonging to them, but a 
dignity which must carry ]abour with it, as that for which the 
honour is due: the other titles of watchn1en, builders, labourers 
and soldiers, inlport also that they are to decline no part of their 
dut.y, for the labour that is in it, the dangers that may follow, or 
the seeming meanness that may be in it, since ,ve have for this 
so great a rule and pattern set us by our Saviour, who has given 
us this character of himself, and in that a rule to all that pretend 
to come after him, The Son of rnan cænw not to be rninistered 
unto, but to minister D. This was said upon the proud conten- 
tions that had been among his disciples, who should be the 
greatest; two of them presun1Íng upon t.heir near relation to 
him, and pretending to the first dignity in his kingdom; upon 
that, he gave them to understand that the dignities of his king- 
dom ,vere not to be of the Bame nature with those that were in 
the world. It ,vas not rule or en1pire to; which they ,vere to 
pretend; The disciple was not to be aòove his lord: and he that 
humbled himself to be the last and lowest in his service was, by 
so doing, really the first. 
He himself descended to the washing his disciples' feet o , 
\vhich he proposeth to their imitation; and that caIne, in latter 
ages, to be taken up by princes and acted by them in pageantry: 
but the plain account of that action is that it ,vas a prophetical 
emblem; of which sort we find several instances, both in 
Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel: the prophet doing somewhat 
that had a mystical signification in it, relating to the subject of 
his prophecy: so that our Saviour's \vashing the feet of his 
disciples imported the hun1ility and the descending to the mean- 
est offices of charity, which he recomlnended to his followers, 
particularly to those, \vhom he appointed to preach his gospel to 
the ,vorld. 


CHAP. II. 
Of the rztles set down in script
tre for those tltat minister in hol!! 
things, and of the corruptions that are set forth ,in then/;. 
I INTEND to ,vrite with all possible simplicity, without the 
affectation of a strictness of Inethod: and therefore I will give 
one full view of this ,vhole matter, \vithout any other order 


n Matth. xx, 28. 


o John xiii, 5. 



94 


Of the Pastoral Oare. 


than as it lies in the scriptures: nnd ,villlay both the rules and 
the reproofs that are in thenI together, as things that give light 
to one another. In the la'v of 
Ioses P we find nIany very par- 
ticular rules given for the \vashing and consecration of t.he 
priests and Levites, chief! y of the High priest. The whole tribe 
of Levi was sanctified and separated frolll the conlmon labours, 
either of ,var or tillage: and though they were but one in 
twelve, :ret a tenth of aU "
as appointed for them: they were 
also to have a large share of another tBnth; that so they luight 
be not only delivered from all cares, by that large provision that 
\vas Inade for them, but nlight be able to relieve the necessities 
of the widows and fatherless, the poor and the strangers that 
sojourned alllong them; and by their bounty and charity be 
possessed both of the love and esteem of the people. They 
,vere holy to tlte Lo'rd; they were said to be sanctified or dedi... 
cated to God; and the head of their order carried on his nIitre 
this inscription, Holiness to the Lord. The nlany ,vashings that 
they \vere often to use, chiefly in doing their functions, carried 
this signification in thenl, that they were appropriated to God, 
and that they were under very strict obligations to a high degree 
of purity; they might not so luuch as mourn for their dead 
relationsq, to shew how far they ought to rise above all the con- 
cerns of flesh and blood, and even the Inost excusable passions 
of hunlan nature. But above all things, these rules taught thenl 
with what exactness, decency and purity they ought to perforlll 
those offices that belonged to their function r; and therefore 
\vhen Aaron's two sons, Nadab and Abihu, transgressed the 
law that God had given,fire cånle out from tke Lord, and devoU'J'ed 
tke1n S ; and the reason given for it carries in it a perpetual 
rule; I w,ill be sanctified in all them tltat draw near to nw, and 
hefore all tile people 1 will be glorijied t : which imports that 
such as minister in holy things ought to behave thenlselves so 
that God's nalue may be glorified by their Ineans; otherwise, 
that God will glorify hilnself by his severe judgnlents on then1. 
A signal instance of which we do also find in Eli's two sons u, 
,vhose ilupieties and defilenlents, as they n1ade the people to 
abhor the offering of the Lo'rd, so they also drew down, not only 
heavy judgments on theu1selves, but on the whole house of Eli; 
and indeed on the whole nation. 


P Levit. viii. 


q Levit. xxi, I. 
t Levit. x, 3. 


r Levit. xxii, 3, 4. 
U J Sam. ii.. and iii. 


s.Levit. x, I. 2. 



OJ. tlte Pastoral OaJ
e. 


95 


But besides the attendance which the priests anù Levites 
were bound to give at the tenlple, and on the public service there, 
they were likewise obliged to study the law, to give the people 
,yarning out of it, to instruct them in it, and to conduct them 
and watch over them: and for this reason they had cities assign- 
ed thelll in all the corners of the land; that so they might both 
more easily observe the nlanners of the people and that the 
people might more easily have recourse to thenl. N O\V ,,,,hen 
that nation bec:llne corrupted both by idolatry and imnlorality, 
God raised up prophets to be extraordinary lllonitors to thenl ; 
to declare to thenl their sins, and to denounce those judgulents 
which were coming upon thein, because of them: we find the 
silence, the ignorance and the corruption of their pastors, their 
shepherds and their watchnlen, is a lllain article of their charge; 
so Isaiah tells thein, that their watclunen 
()ere blind, ignorant, 
dun
b dogs, that could not bark; sleeping, lying dozen, and loving 
to SlU1Jlber: yet these careless watchulen were covetous and in- 
satiable, They weré greedy dogs, which could never Itave enough; 
shepherds tltey were, t!tat could not 
tnderstandx; but how remiss 
soever they nlight be in God's work, they were careful enough 
of their own: The!! all looked to their own way, ever!! one to Ids 
ou:n gain frorn ltis quarter. They were, no doubt, exact in levy- 
ing their tithes and first-fruits, ho,v little soever they might do 
for them, bating their bare attendance at the temple, to officiate 
there; so guilty they were of that reigning abuse, of thinking 
they had done their duty, if they either by themselves, or by 
proxy, had performed their functions, without nlinding what ,vas 
incunlbent on them, as watchmen, or shepherds. In opposition 
to such careless and corrupt guides, God promises to his people 
to set ?l"{dchrnen over tlwJn that should never hold their peace day 
nor nigltt. 
As the captivity drew nearer, we may easily conclude that 
the corruptions both of priest and people increased, which 
ripened thenl for the judgments of God, that were kept back 
by the refornlations which Hezekiah and Josiah had made; but 
at last all ,vas so depraved, that though God sent two prophets, 
Jeremiah and Ezekiel, to prepare thenl for that terrible ca- 
lamity, yet this was only to save son Ie fe\v among them: for the 
sins of the nation ,vere grown to that height, that though 1\10se8 
and Sanluel, Noah, Job, and Daniel Y, had been then alive to 
x Isaiáh lvi, 10, I I. Y Jer. X", I. Ezek. xÏ\r, 14. 



96 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


intercede for them, yet God declared that he would not hear 
tltem; nor spare the nat-ion for tlwir sakes: so that even such 
nlighty intercessors could only save their own souls. In this 
deplorable state we shaH find that their priests and pastors had 
their large share. Tlw priests said not, TVltere is the Lord? 
They that handled the law knew f}ne not; the pastors also trans- 
gressed against me z; and their corruption went so far, that they 
had not only false prophets to support them, but the people, who, 
how bad soever they may be thelnselves, do generally hate evil 
priests, grew to be pleased with it. The prophets proplwsy 
falsel!!, and the priests bear rule by their means; and m.y people 
love to have it so: Frmn the prophet even to tlte priest, eve'}"y one 
dealt falsel!!3. And upon that, a woe is denounced against tIle 
pastors tltat destroyed and scattered tlte slleep of God's pasture b. 
They by their office ought to have fed the people; but, instead 
of that, they ltad scatte1"ed tlte flock, and driven the}}
 a1.ca!l, and 
had not visited them: both propllet and priest were profane; their 
wickedness was found even in the hmtse of God c . In opposition 
to all which, God prolnises by the prophet, that he would set 
shejJherds over then
, that should feed tltenz; so tltat tlw people 
should have no more reason to be afraid of their pastors d , or of 
being misled by them; and he prolnised upon their return frolll 
the captivity, to g'ive thelì
 pastors according to Ids own lteart, 
who sho
tld feed them with knowledge and understanding e. 
In Ezekiel, \ve find the solen1n and severe charge given to 
watchmen twice repeated; that they ought to warn tlte wic/ced 
frou7J '
is wickedness; otherwise though he should indeed die in kis 
sin, God would require his blood at the watchnzan's hand; but if 
he gave warning, ltß had by so doing delivered his own soul f . 
In that prophecy we have the guilt of the priests set forth very 
heinously. Her priests have violated my law, and profaned rny 
hol!! things; they have put no difference hetween the lwly and 
profane, the clean and the 
tnclealZ, and have kid their eyes fr01n '1ny 
sabbaths; the effect of which ,vas, that God was profaned anwng 
the'lng. This is more fully prosecuted in the 34th chapter, 
which is all addressed to the shepherds of Israel; JVue he to the 
shepherds of Israel, that do feed thelnselves! should not the shep- 
herds feed the flock? Ye eat tlte fat, and ye clothe you witl" the 


z Jer. ii, 8. a Jer. v, 3 1 , and vi, 13. b Jer. xxiii, I. c Jer. xxiii, 2, 1 I. 
dJer. xxiii, 4. eJer. iii, 15, f E
ek. iii, 17, 18, 19, and xxxiii, 7, 8,9. 
g Ezek. xxii, 26. . 



Of llw Pa:;loral Ca1.e. 


97 


tvool, ye lill litera that a
'e fed: hut ye feed not the ßock h . Then 
follows an enun1eration of the several sorts of troubles that the 
people were in, under the figure of a flock, to shew how they 
had neglected their duty in aU the parts and instances of it; 
and had trusted to their authority, which they had abused to 
tyranny and violence. Tlte diseased have ye not strengtllened, 
neitlter have ye healed that 1.['!dch u;as siclc, neither have ye hound 
'llp that wIdell, 'U.as hroJæn, neitltcr have !Ie hl'ought again that u,.h ich 
'leas driven away, neither ha?;e ye sougltt that which u)as lost; hut 
witl/; force and 1. 'itk cruelty hare !I'e ruled t!W1}
i: upon which 
follows a terrible expostulation, and denunciation of judgn1ents 
against them: I ant against tlte sh(Jpherds, sa-ith the Lo/'d; I will 
require my flock at their hands, and cause them to cease fro1J
 feed- 
ing the flock; neither shall the shepher'ds feed thelllSelves any 9n01"e k . 
And in the 44th chapter of that prophecy one rule is given, 
which was set up in the prin1Ïtive church as an unalterable 
luaxiln: that such priests as had been guilty of idolatry should 
not do the office of a priest any more, nor come near to any of 
the holy things, or enter within the sanct.uary, but were still to 
bear their Shall1e; they lllight n1Ìnister in SOlne inferior services, 
such as keeping the gates. or slaying the sacrifice; but they were 
still to hea1' their iniquity. 
I have passed over aU that occurs in these prophets, which 
relates to the false prophets, because I win bring nothing into 
this discourse that relates to sins of another order and nature. 
In Daniel, we have a noble expression of the value of such as 
tztrn 'lnen to righteousness, that they shall sltine as the stars for eve
' 
and e
'erl. In Hosea, we find among the sins and calamities of 
that time. this reckoned as a main cause of t.hat horrid corrup- 
tion, under which they had fallen, there being no truth, no mercy, 
9wr knowledge of God in the land; wldch u.as defiled by swearing, 
ly'ing, killing, stealin.q and c01nmitting adultery. lJIy people are 
destro!/ed for lack of knowledge: to which is added, Because thou 
hast rejected lcnowledge, (or the instructing the people) I will 
also reject thee, that tltau shalt he no priest to 9ne; seeing thou hast 
forgot the law o/thy God, I'lL.ill also forget thy cltildren m . That 
corrupt race of priests attended still upon the telnple, and offered 
up the sin-offering and feasted upon their portion; which is 
\vrong rendered, They eat 'lip the sin of my people; for sin stands 


h Ezek. xxxiy, 2, 3. i Ezek. xxxiv, 4. k Ezek. xxxiv, 10. 
i Dan. xii, 3. m Hosea i,
, I, 2, 6. 
II 



98 


OJ" the Pa:3toral Care. 


there, as in the law of l\loses, for sin-offering: because of t.he 
advantage this brought theIn, they were glad at the abounding 
of sin; which is expressed by their setting tlteir !teart, or lifting 
up their soul, to tlteir iniquity: the conclusion of whiC'h is, that 
they should be given up for a vpry heavy curse of, Like priests like 
people. In Joel, we find the duty of the priests and n1inisters of 
the Lord set forth in tin1es of great and approaching ca]aulities 
tIUIS. They ought to be intercessors for the people, and to weep 
betu"een the porclt and tlte altar and say, Spare thy peo]Jle and 
give not tltine Iwrita[/e to reproaclt, that tlte Iteatlten (strangers and 
idolaters) should rule over thenz; 'it"llerefore should tlMY say among 
the jJeople, JJThere is their God n ? There is, in 
licßh, a vf>ry black 
character of a depraved priegthood; Their pr'iests teacl
 for lâre 
and tlwir prophets divine fO}' 'Iîzoneyo. 
These were the forerunners of the destruction of that nation: 
but though it Iuight be expected that the captivity should have 
purged thein from their dross, as it did indeed free theln from 
all inclinations to idolatry; yet other corruptions had a deeper 
root. 'Ve find, in Zechariah, a curse against the idol shepherd, 
,vho resenlbled the true shepherd, as an idol does the original: 
but he was without sense and life. JJToe be to tlte idol shepherd 
that leavet! the flock; the curse is figuratively expressed, The 
sword sltall be upon ltis ann, and his rigltt eye 
. (the things that he 
valued most) his ar}}
 sltall bf3 clean dried 'lip and ltis 'rigId eye 
sltall be utterl!! darkenedp. ]3ut this is more copiously set out by 

lalachi, in an address nlade to the priests; And now, 0 ye 
priests, tltis commandnwnt is for you; If YOlt wal not Iwar, and if 
YO'lt will not lay 'l't to heart, to pive glo'J'!I'lluto 1ny narne, I 'lcill even 
send a curse upon you, and I u
ill curse you}'" blcssinarJs 
. yea, I have 
cu,rsed the;n already, because ye do not lay it to heart.- Then tho 
first covenant with the tribe of Levi is set forth; ]JIy covenant 
'leas 'lL,ith hÙn of life and peace; tll la'lv of truth was Ù" his 9JlOutl" 
and iniquity '1{'as not found in 'tis lips; Iw '1callæd u,ith rne in 
peaee and equity and did tUl'n many front tlteil' iniquity,. for the 
priest's Ups should pr'esf!pve knolrle(((]e, and they should seelc tlte 
law at Ids 'Illouth; for he is tlte 1nessenger of tlte Lord of hosts. All 
this sets forth the state of a pure and holy priesthood: but then 
follow terrible words: But ye are depar-ted out of the '1L'a!/
 ye 
have caused 'Jnanz! to stumble at tlte law: ye hare corrupted the co- 
'tenant of Levi, saitl/; the Lord of llOSfs. Tlìerifore ha
'e I al,
o 
n Joel ii, 17" 0 
licah iii, I I. P Zech. xi, 17. 



Of the Pastoral Ca}
e. 


9H 


1nade YOlt contemptible and base before all the people; according ns 
!Ie harce not kept my u"a!/s, but have been parMal ù
 the lau; q. 
Their ill exanlple 1l1ade 111any loathe both their law and theil' 
religion: they had corrupted their institution and studied, by a 
gross partiality, to bring the people to be exact in those parts of 
the la.w, in which their wealth or their authority was COIl- 
cerned; while they neglected the lllore essential and indispens- 
able duties. 
rrhus far ha ve I gone over the most important places that 
have occurred to me in the Old Testaluent relating to this mat- 
ter; upon aU which I "ill only add one renlark, that though 
SOUle exception lllight be Inade to those expressions that inlport 
the dignity and sanctification of those who were then conse- 
crated to the holy functions, as parts of that instituted religion 
which had its period by the coming of Christ; ye,t such passages 
as relate to Inoral duties, and to the obligations that arise out 
of natural religion, have certainly a lllore binding force, and 
ought to be understood and eXplained in a more elevated and 
sublinle sense, under the new dispensation, which is internal 
and spiritual; compared to which, the Old is called the letter 
and the flesh; therefore the obligations of the priests, under the 
Christian religion, to a holy strictness of life and conversation, 
to a diligent attendance on their flock, and for instructing and 
,vatching over theIn, n1ust all be as llluch higher, and nlore 
binding, as this new covenant excels the old one. 


CH.A.P. III. 


Passages out oj
 the New TestaJnent relating to tlte same 
'matter. 
THIS general consideration receives a vast iUlprovenlent fronl 
the great example that the Author of our religion, the great 
Bishop and Shepherd 0.( our souls, has set us; who went about 
ever doing good, to whon1 ,it 
cas as Itis :meat and drink to do 
the u'ill oj' Ids Ji'ather t!tat sent IÛ1Jl. He was tlte pood Shepfttrd, 
tltat knew his sheep and laid down his life fop tlwln. I\nd since 
he set such a value on the souls of that flock) which he hath re- 
deelned and purchased with his own blood; certainly those, to 
whom he has conullitted that work of reconciliation which stood 
himself so dear, ought to consider thenlsclves under very strict 


q 
Ial. ii, 1, &c. 
nQ 
. 



100 


Of the Pastoral Oa1"e. 


obligations, by that charge of which they nlust give a severe 
account at the great day, in which the blood of all those who 
have perished through their neglect and default shall be re- 
quired at their hands. Yet because I will not aggravate this 
argulnent unreasonably, I will nlake no use of those passages 
,vhich relate inl111ediately to the apostles: for their function 
being extraordinary, as were also the assistances that \vere given 
theln for the discharge of it, 1 will urge nothing that belongs 
properly to their Inission and duty. 
In the character that the gospel gives of the priests and 
Pharisees of that tilne, \ve nlay see a just and true idea of the 
corruptions in to which a bad clcrgy is apt to fall. They studied 
to engross the knowledge of the law to themselves, and to keep 
the people in ignorance, and in a blind dependence upon them: 
they \"ere zealous in Jesser matters, bu t neglected the great 
things of the law: they put on an outward appearance of strict- 
ness, but under that there ,vas much rottenness: they studied to 
make proselytes to their religion, but they had so deprayed it 
that they becan1e thereby worse Inen than before: they 111ade 
great shows of devotion, of praying, and fasting nluch, and 
giving ahus; but all this was to be seen of 111en, and by it they 
devoured the estates of poor and silllple people: they ,vere very 
strict in observing the traditions and custonlS of their fathers, 
and every thing that contributed to their own authority or ad- 
vantage; but by so doing they nlade void the Ia\v of God: in a 
,vord, they had no true ,vorth in theillsel ves, and hated such as 
had it: they were proud and spiteful, false and cruel, and nlade 
use of the credit they were in with the people, by their comply- 
ing ,vith thelll in their vices, and flattering then1 with false 
hopes, to set thelll on to destroy all those who cliscoycred their 
corruptions, and ,vhose real and shining worth nlade their coun- 
terfeit show of it the 1110re conspicuous and odious. In this 
short view of those enormous disorders, \vhich then reigned 
aUlongst then1, we have a full picture of the corrupt state of bad 
priests in all ages and religions, with this only difference, that 
the priests in our Saviour's tiule ,vere 1110re careful and exact in 
the external and visible parts of their conversation, than they 
have been in other titnes: in which they have thro\vn off the 
yery decencies of a grave anrl sober deportInent. 
l1ut now to go on with the characters and rules that ,,-e find 
in the New Testaluent. Our Saviour as he cOlllpared the work 


. 



Of the Pa:sfoJ'al CaJ'e. 


101 


of the gospel in luany parables to a field and harrest
 so he calls 
those whon1 his Father was to send, the labourers in that 
harvest; and he left a direction to aU his followers, to pray to 
Itis Father that /le 
vo'ltld send laboZlrel's into his harvest r . Out 
of which, both the vocation and divine mission of the clergy 
and the prayers of the church to God for it, that are among us 
fixed to the ember weeks, have been gathered by many pious 
writers. In the ,varnings that our Saviour gives to prepare for 
his second cOllling, we find the characters of good and bad 
c1ergYlnen stated in opposition to one another, under the figure 
of stewards: the good are both wise and faithful, they wait for 
bis con1Ïng, and in the 11lean while are dividing to e1:ery one of 
their ftJllow-sep'cants his portion to eat in dzte seasonS, that is, 
their proportion both of the doctrine and mysteries of the gospel, 
according to their several capacities and necessities. But the 
bad stewards are those who put the evil day far from theI11 and 
say in their heart, The Lord delayet/t his c01ning; upon which 
they eat, drink and are drunken: they indulge their sensual 
appetites even to a scandalous excess; and as for their feHow- 
servants, instead of feeding, of in
tructing, or watching over 
theIn, they beat then1, they exercise a violent and tyrannical 
authority over theln. Their state in the next world is repre- 
sented as different as their behaviour in this was; the one shall 
be exalted fronl being a steward to be a 'ruler over the hO'ltse/wld, 
to be a king and a priest [O}'> e.ver unto God; whereas the other- 
s/tall be cut aSltnder, and shall/tave Ids portion 'lcith unbelievers. 
The 1 Gth of St. John is the place, which both fathers and 
more modern writers have Inade chiefly use of, to shew the 
difference between good and bad pastors. The good shepherds 
enter by the door, and Christ is this door, by wholn they lnust 
enter; that is, from whon1 they U1ust have their vocation and 
luission: but the thief and robber, who cOlues to kill, steal and 
destroy, cliulbeth up some other way: whatever he n1ay do in 
the ritual way, for fornI's sake, he 1 1 "1s in his heart no regard to 
Jesus Christ, to the honour of his person, the edification of his 
church, or the salvation of souls; he intends only to raise and 
enrich hill1self; and so he cOlnpasses that, he cares not ho\v 
many souls perish by his Ineans, or through his neglect. The 
good s/tfpnerd 'Æ'íW1CS his sheep so 
l'ell, that he can tell them by. 


r 
Iatth. ix" 3 8 . 


s Luke xii, 4 2 . 



10
 


Of tlte ]:Jasto'ì'al Care. 


rnClìJle, and lead theJJ
 Oltt, and they I"ear his vuice; Óltt the hi,'eling 
careth not for the sheep, he is a stranger to theIll, they kno,v 
not his voice, and ,viII not follow hinl. rrhis is urged by all 
,vho have pressed the obligation of residence, and of the per- 
sonallabours of the clergy, as a plain divine and indispensable 
precept: and eyen in the council of Trent, though, by the 
!)ractices of the court of Iton1c, it was diverted fronl declaring 
residence to be of divine right, the decree that ,vas made to 
enforce it urges this place to she\v the obligation to it. The 
good shepherd feods the flock and looks for pasture for theIn, 
and is ready to give his life for the sheep; but the bad shepherd 
is represented as a hireling tllat caretl/; not for tlte flock, that 
sees tl1(3 1.VOif cOining, and 'ltpO that leavetlt the sheep and jlieth. 
This is, it is true, a figure, and therefore I know it is thought 
an in way of reasoning to build too 111UCÌ1 upon figurative 
discourses: )'et on the other hand, anI' Savionr having de- 
livered so great a part of his doctrine in parables, we ought at 
least to consider the Inain scope of a pa.raLle; anrl Inay well 
build upon that, though eyer). particular CirCUIl1stance in it 
cannot bear an argulllcnt. 
I shaH add but one passage lliore fron1 the Gospc1s, which is 
lunch made use of by all that have "Tit of this tuattcr. 'Vhell 
our Saviour confirmed St. Peter in his apostle
hip, 1'1'0111 which 
he had fallen by his denying of hinl
 as in the charge which he 
thrice repeated of fieding his laniós and !tis slwep, he pursues still 
the figure of a shepherd; so the question that he asked prepara- 
tory to it was, Simon, lo
.est thOlt 'lIte 'inore than thcse t ? Froln 
which they just1y gather, that the love of God, a zeal for his 
honour, and a preferring of that. to aU other things whatsoever, 
is a necessary and indi
pensable qualification for that. holy ell1- 
ploJluent; which distinguishes the true shepherd froIl1 the_ hire- 
ling; and by which only he can be both aninu1ted and Íortified 
to go through with the labours and difficulties, as well as the 
dangers and sufferings, which ll1ay accon1pany it. 
'Vhen St. Paul was leaving his last charge with the bishops 
that luet hin1 at l\Iiletus, he still Inakcs use of the san1e Ineta- 
phor of a shepherd, in those often cited words_ Tahoe heed to 
.%urselves, and to all the fiock o
'er 'l1,IÛcl" the IlfJly Ghost Itatlt made 
!IOU bishops or ov(rSI!{1'S, to .(ced t!te cllurch n.f God, ll"hiclt Iic hatl" 


t.Tohn xxi, 15. 



Of the Pastoral Care. 


103 


pltl'chased 
cith l,is ov'n hlood u . The words are solenl11 and the 
consideration enforcing then1 is a mighty one; they ilnport the 
obligations of the clergy both to an exactness in their own de- 
portInent and to earnest and constant labours, in ill1itation of 
the apostle, who, during the three years of his stay among thel11.1 
had been serv'ing God witlt all hunÛlity of nlind, 'lDith 'ìnany tears 
and te7nptations; and l
ad not ceased to u;arn eve'r!! one, hotllJ 
night and day, 'lcitlt tears; and ltad taught them, publicl!!, and 
froJJ
 IWllse to lwuse x . Upon which he leaves them, calling 
thf'n1 aU to witness that he 'ii"aS pure fl'Oln the blood of all men Y. 
;1'here has been great disputing concerning the persons to whonl 
these words were addressed: but if all parties had studied more 
to follow the exanlple here proposed and the charge that is 
here given, \vhich are plain and easy to be understood, than to 
be contending about things that are 1110re doubtful, the good 
lives and the faithful labours of apostolical bishops would have 
contributed lnore both to the edifying and healing of the church 
than all their arguments or reasonings will ever be able to do. 
St. Paul, reckoning up to the ROlnans the several obligations 
of Christi
ns of all ranks to assiduity and diligence in their 
callings and labours, aI110ng others he nUDlbers these ; ]Jini
ters, 
let IllS 
oait on ou,}' rninistering; or he fltat teaeltes, on teaching; 
he that ruldll, with diligence z . In his Epistle to the Corinthians, 
as he states the dignity of the clergy in this, that they ought to 
be accounted of as tlte 9ninisters of Christ, and ste'lcards of tIle 
'Jnysteries of God; he adds, that it is 
"e1ltired in stezeards that a 
'Jna'll be found faithful a . In that Epistle he sets down that per- 
petuallaw, which is the foundation of all the provision that has 
been n1ade for the clergy, Tltat the Lord hath ordained that they 
'whieh preaclÌi the gospel should lice of the gospel b . But if upon 
that the laity have looked on thelnselves as bound to appoint so 
plentiful a supply that the clergy 111ight have whpreoD to live at 
their ease and in aLundance; then certainly this was intended, 
that they, being freed fi'Olll the troubles and cares of this world, 
Inight. attend cont.inually on the 7ninistry of the 'lcord of God and 
on prayer c . Those who do that work negligently provoke the 
laity to repent of their bounty and to defraud then1 of it. For 
certainly there are no such eneu1ies to the patrilJlOny and rights 
of the church as those who eat the fat, but do not preach the 
u Acts XX
 28. x Acts xx, 19, 20. y Acts xx, 26. z Rom. xii, 7, 8. 
a I Cor. Ï\r, I, 2. b I Cor. ix, 14. c Acts 'Ti
 4. 



101 


Of the Pa..,tural Care. 


gospel nor feell the flock. Happy, on the other hand, are they 1 
to WhOlll that character \vhich the apostle aSSU1l1CS to himself 
anò to Tinlothy does belong; 1'herefore, seeinp u.e llave received 
tllis rninistry, as we llave received rnerc!J, UJe faint not; !Jut have 
renoltnced tlte lâdden things of dislwnesty, not u'alking in craftÏ- 
ness, nor handlinp the won] of God deceitfully,. bout b..y u'lanijèsta- 
tion of tlte trutll, cúm17wnding ourselres to ecery rnan's conscience 
in tlte sigl;t 0.( Godd. In the Epistle to the Ephesians, we have 
the ends of the institution of all the ranks of clergyrnen set forth 
in these words; He gave some, apostles; and smne, prophets; and 
S01ne, ercangelists; and Borne, pastors and teaclwrs: for tlte perfect-ing 
of the saints
 for tlle 'work of the 'lniuist1:y, fo'}. tlte edify'ing 0.( the 
body of Olu"ist: till 'we all come in the 
tnit!l oj' the faitlt and of the 
knolcledpe of tlte Son of God, unto {(J jJelfect rnau, 'ludo tlte rneasure 
of the statlt1"'e of the fulness of Chr-isle. In these words ,ve see 
sOlllething that is so vast and noble, so far above those slight and 
poor performanceR, in which the far greater part do too easily 
satisfy thernselves; that in charity to thenl we ought to suppose 
that they have not. reflected sufficiently on the illlportance of 
them. Otherwise they would have in SOlne sort proportioned 
their labours to those great designs for which they are ordained; 
and would ren1ember the charge given to the Colossians to say 
to Archippus, ,vho, it seenlS, ,vas remiss in the discharge of his 
duty, Take heed to the 'lninistry u'lticllt tlWlt ltast received in tlte 
Lo'rd, that tno'lt fltljil itf. 
The Epistles to Tilllothy and Titus are the foundation of all 
the canons of the church. In these we have the characters of 
bishops and deacons, as ,veIl as the duties belonging to those 
functions, so particularly set forth, that fron) thpnce alone every 
one who will weigh thelll \vell luay find sufficient instruction, 
how he ought to behave hinlself in the house of God. In these 
we see what patterns those of the clergy ought to be Ù
 
()ord, (or 
doctrine) in conversation, in charit!l, in spirit, in faith. and in 
pUr'.ity j tlu!y oUfJlll to give attendance to reading, to exlwrtation, and 
to doctrine; that is Loth to thp instructing and exhorting of their 
people. 'l'ltey oU:[1ltt not to neglect tlte gift tltat was 9'iven to tlwln by 
the laying on of hands j thè
y ought to meditate on t1
('.
e tlân.qs, to 
gi ve tlu''/nselces wlwl(y to tlwJn, tltat so their p'J'ojit il/.f! may appear 
unto all; and to take heed to tlwlìlselces aud tlwiì" doctJ"-ine, and to 
('ontiltzle in tltent ; for in su doing the!} sltall holk sace tltenlselres aad 
d2 Cor. iv, 1,2. eEphes. i,', II, 12, 13. fCol. iv', 17 



Of tlte Pastopal Ga1'e. 


105 


{hose that hf'ar tlte'Jng. Those that govern the church arc ll10re 
particularly charged before God, the Lord Jeslls, and tlte !toly 
angels, that theyoóserve these things wit/tOut prefirrlnp olle before 
another, doing nothing by partiality, bJ d0J11estic regards, the 
consider:1tions of friendship, intercession, or ilnportunity; and 
above all, that they lay hands suddenly on no man; to which are 
added words of great terror, neitheÎ be tlwu partaker of otllfr men's 
sins: keep thyself purt h . 'Vhich ought to n1ake great ilnpl'essioll 
on all those with wholll the power of ordination is lodged, since 
they do plDinly ilnport that such as do ordain any rashly with- 
out due inquiry and a strict examination, entitle thelnselves to 
all the scandal they give 
tnd become partners of their guilt; 
which, if well considered, must needs make all such as are not 
past feeling, use great care and caution in this sacred trust. 
Bishops are the depositaries of the faith, which they are to l{eep 
pure, and to hand down faithfully, according to these words; 
And tlw things 1,'-h ick t!tou !tast heard of rne among 'JJtany witnesses, 
tlte saJne conlnât tllOl ' to faitliflll l1len, u.:ho 1nay be able to teach 
others also. Upon this he prepares the bishops for difficulties, 
to endure hardness as a good soldier of Jesus Ghrist. And accord- 
ing to that figure, since those that go to war do not carry 
unnecessary burdens with thein, which 11lay encu111bcr or retard 
their lnarch, he adds, J.."?"o 12lan that warreth entanglet/t lâruself'lcitli 
tlle affairs of this life, thal Ile may please hirn 
()lLO katìt cllOscn lti'llll 
f01" a soldier i. Upon this it is that all those canons, which have 
been luade in so 11lany ages of the church against churclunen's 
Ineddling with secular affairs., have been founded; than which 
we find nothing 1110re frequently provided against, both in the 
Apostolical canons, in'" those of ..I.\ntioch, in those Inade by the 
general council of Chalcedon, and in divers of the councils of 
Carthage: but this abuse had too deep :1 root in the nature of 
111an to be easily cured. St. Paul does also in this place carry 
on the 111etaphor, to express the earnestness and indefatigable- 
ness of clergyn1en's zeal; that as officers in an army were satis- 
fied with nothing under victory, \vhich brought thelll the 
honours of a trilHnph, so we ought to fight, not only so as to 
earn our pay, but for mastery, to Rpoil and overCOlue the powers 
of darkness; yet even this 111Ust be done Iawfull) k, not by 
deceiving the people with pious frauds, hoping t.hat our good 


g I Tim, j,., 12-16. 


h I Tim . v, 2 I, 22. 
k 2 Tim. ii, 5. 


i 2 Tim. ii, 2. 3, 4. 



106 


Of the Pastoral Oare. 


intentions will atone for our taking bad Inethods. '\Tar has its 
la\vs as well as peace, and those who lnanagc this 8piritu:tl war- 
fare ought to keep thenlselves within the instructions and com- 
nlands that are given thenl. Then the apostle, changing the 
figure from the soldier to the worlnnan and steward, says, i..'{tztdy 
to snew thyself approved unto God (not to seek the vain applause 
of nlen, but to prefer to all other t.hings the witness of a good 
conscience, and that in sinlplicity anrl godly sincerity he lllay 
,valk and labour as in the sight of God) a 'l,(jorkman that needeth 
not to be asltamed, 'J'igldl..1J dividing tlte 'll'ord of truth 1: this is, 
according to the figure of a steward, giving ev
ry one his due 
portion; and a little after COlnes a noble adrnonition, relating to 
the lueel{ness of the clergy towards those that divide fronl them: 
The servant of the Lord 'Jnust 
tot strive; bitt be gentle to all nwn, 
apt to teaclb, patient, in 'l1zeekness instructing those tltat oppose tltenz- 
selres, if'peradventure God 'will give tlteJn 'repentance, to the acknoVJ- 
le(((ling the i'J"Ut!ì m. This is the passage that was chiefly urged 
Ly our reforIner.s against the persecuting that the l
onia,n clergy 
did every where set on against thenl: the extent of it ought to 
be well considered, that so it l11ay not be said that we are only 
against persecution when it lies on ourseh-es; for if it is a good 
defence to S0111e, it is as good to others; unless we own that we 
do not govcrn ourselves by that rule of doing to oinc}':; tltat wkich 
'l()e v;o'ltld IUlve ot/tel'S do to 'lts. In the next chapter we find the 
right education of this bishop, and that which furnishes a clergy- 
n13.n to perfornl all the dutiés incunlbent on him; li'rmn a cltild 
tholt llast lowwn lIte lw(V scriptures 'icltick are able to 'JnaÀ:e thee u'ise 
'unto salvation, tlt1"ouglt faitlb in Christ Jesus ll : that is, tbe Old 
Testaluent well studied, by one that believed J e8US to be the 

Iessias, and that was led into it by that faith, did discover to 
luan the great economy of God in tho progress of the light, 
which he Inade to shine upon t.he world by degrees, unto the 
perfect day of the appearing of the Sun of righteousness; and 
to this he ad(ls a noLle character of the inspired writings: All 
scripture 1.S .qicen by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doc- 
trine, for 'pejJpooj; for correction, fvr instruction in r(fJlttcousncss, 
that the '/nan of God 'na!/ be perfect, tltro'ltgltly fltJ'illshed 'Unto all 
.'food worÁ'sO. The apostle goes on, and gives Tin10thy the 1l10st 
sO]C111n charg(\ that ca.n be set out in words; which, if undorstood 
1 2 Tim. ii, T 5. m 2 Tim. ii, 24, 25. n 2 Tim. iii, 15. 
o 2 TiIn. iii, 16, 17. 



OJ'' the Pastoral Care. 


107 


as ùcIonging to all bishops, as the whole church of God has ever 
done, nlust be read by them with trClnLling: I charpe thee 
therefore b(iOJ"e God, and tlte Lord Jesus Gltrist, 'U,'ho shaTl Judge tlte 
quicl.,; and dead at Ids appeal'iJl!l, and his kin9do}}
; l
r'eaclt tlte 
'loord; be instant in season, out of season; 'rerr'01:e, reóuke, exltOrt 
'loitlt all lOll.Qsuffcrinp and doctrinep; (that is, with great gentle- 
ness in the l1U1nner, and clearness and strength in the 11latter of 
their instructions;) and a little after, JVateh thOlt in all tlÛngs J 
endltre alfiict ion, do tlte 'lcork of an evangelist; 'inake full proof of 
( or fulfil) thy rninistryq: and as a consideration to enforce this 
the Jnore, he tells what a noble and agreeable prospect he had 
in the view of his approaching dissolution: the time of Ibis 
departing drew ni[ilt, he 
oas ready to be offered upr j as a sacrifice 
for that faith which he had so zealously and so successfully 
preached: and here we have his two great preparatives for 
lnartyrdom; the one was looking on his past life and labours; 
I ha1'e fougltt a gocdfigld, I have finished my eOltrSe, I hare kept tlte 
faitlt 8 . The other ,vas looking forward to the reward, tltat 
crOlcn o.f'righteousness u'hiclt UXlS laid 'ill) for ltiJJl, 'lc/delt the Lord, 
the I}'igldeo'lts jlulg p , 'woltld give kiln at that day; and not onl!! to 
hinz, but also to all those that forced his appearing t, and certainly 
III ore especially to those \\"ho not only loved it theolscl\'es, but 
who laboured so as to dispose others also to love it. To all these 
considerations, though nothing needed to have been added, to 
one upon whom they nlade so strong an impression as they did 
upon Tilnothy, yet one COJnes after all, which ought to teach us 
to work out OUi" sabjat ion 
üit!t fear and tremóling, since St. J>aul 
tells Tinlothy, that DeInas, one of the companions of his labours, 
had .forsaken ltiril, and that which prevailed over hin1 was tlte 
love of this present world u . 
These are the rules and charges given by St. Paul to TiITIothy, 
and in binl to all the bishops and pastors that were to COlue after 
hinl in the church. SOlne of these are again repeated in his 
Epistle to 'I'itus, where we have the characters Fet out, L-r which 
he was to prepare and examine those elders or bishop
, who 
were to rule the house of God: that those being well chosen, 
they nlight be able b.1I sound doctrine boilt to exhort and con
'ince the 
painsayCJ's x,. and, that he Inight do his duty with the Blore 
u'<h'antagf', he charges hinl to shell' bimse?l ill flll things a patt('rn 


I' 2 Tim. i,', I, 2, q 2 Tim, i,', ;}. r 2 Tim. Î", 6, s 2 Tim. i,', 7. 
t 2 Tim. i\" 8. u 2 Tim. i,', 10. x Tit. i, 9. 



108 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


of good UJOl'Á'S : in doctrine skewing uncorruptness) gravity, sincerity, 
and using s'ltCh sound speech as could not be conde}nned: tltat so those 
'lL
ko '[cere of the contrar!! part (the J udaizers \vho were studying 
to corrupt the Christian religion by lnaking a n1edley of it and 
Judaism) nÛgltt l
ave no evil thing to say of hirnY: and after a 
glorious but short abstract of the design of their holy religion, he 
concludes that part of the Epistle in these words, These things 
speak and exltort, and rebuke witl
 all autlwrit!! : to which he adds 
a charge, that n1ay seem nlore proper to be addressed to others 
than to hÎlnself; Let no man desjJ'ise tlwe z: the saIne is likewise 
in his Epistle to TiIl1othy, with this addition; Let no rnan despise 
thy youtlt R : but these words do illlport that it is in a bishop's 
own power to procure due esteen1 to hiu1self; at least to prevent 
contell1pt; since a holy and exelnplary deportnlent and faithful 
and constant labours never fail to do that. In the conclusion of 
the Epistle to the Hebrews, we find both the characters of those 
who had laboured among them and had ruled theIn, but who 
\vere then dead; and also of such as were yet ali ve. Rem,e}}
bel" 
tltem" wllo had tIle rule over you; who lla1;e spoken to ym/; tlw word 
of God, 1. ch ose faitlt.fòllou" cons.idering the end of theil'" conversation b. 
They had both lived and died, as well as laboured, in such a 
manner, that the ren1enlbering of what had appeared in thelll 
,vas an effectual n1eans of persuading the IIebrews to be steady 
in the Christ.ian religion: for certainly) though while a Ulan lives, 
let hin1 be e,.er so en1Ìnent, there is still roonl for ill nature and 
joalousy to nlisrepresent things, and to suspect that sOlnething 
lies hid under the fairest appearances, which nlay shew itself in 
due time; all that goes off, when one has finished his course, so 
that all appears to be of a piece and that he has died as he had 
lived. Then the argul11ent from his conversation appears in its 
fun strength, without any dilninution. But the charge given 
with relation to those who then had the rule over them is no less 
relnarkable; Obey thern that have tlw rule over YOll: and subnÛt 
!Jourselves, fú'ì" they 1-Datclt for your souls, as they that IItUst give 
account; that they uzay do it witlt Joy, and not with grief; for that 
'l.s 'ltnprojitable for !JOUC. IIere obedience and submission is en- 
joined) upon the account of their rulers watching oyer then1, and 
for thell1; and t.herefore those, \vho do not \vatch like men that 
l{now that they nlu
t give account of that trust, have no reason 


Y Tit. ii, 7, 8. 


z; Tit. ii, 15. a 1 Tim. iv, 12. 
c Heb. xiii, 17. 


b Heb. xiii, 7. 



Of the Pastoral Care. 


109 


to expect these fron1 their people. Of a piece with this is St. 
Paul's charge to the Thes,
alon'ans; TVe beseech !IOU to know (or 
to acknowledge) thent which labolu' a1tLOng YOll, and are o'Cer !JOlt 
in the Lord, and adlìlOnisll YOll, and to estee1n tltem 'Cer!l ldgldy 1.n 
lo
'e fO'l" their 1cork's sake. Here both the subn1Ïssion and esteenl, 
as well as the acknowledglnent that is due to the clergy, is sfiid 
to be for their work's sake: and. therefore such as do not the 
work, and that do not labour and adn10nish their people, have 
no just clailn to then1. There is another expression in the Se- 
cond Epistle to the Thessalonians, that is much urged by those 
\"ho have writ on this head 
 Tltat if any 'lL'ill not 'work, he should 
not eat
' which, if it is a rule binding alllllen, seems to lie much 
heavier on the clergy, 
I shall conclude all that I intend to bring out of the scripture 
upon this arguluent, with St. Peter's charge to the elders of the 
churches to which he writ; which is indeed so full, that though 
in the course of the New Testall1ent it had not lain last, it 
deser\'ed by the rules of luethod to be kept last, for the closing 
and enforcing all that has gone before and for giving it its full 
weight. St. Peter descends, 1 Epist. chap. Y, Yer. ], &c. to a 
level with theIn, calling himself no better than a fellow-elder and 
a 'witness of the sufferinps of Christ; and also a partaker of the 
glory 'itltieh 'lcas to be revealed. Feed the flock of God, says he, 
1vlÛ.ch is among you, (these words will bear another renrlering, 
as nl7tch as lietl
 in !JOll) takin.a the orersipht thereo.(, not b..lf con- 
straint. (as forced to it by rules. canons, or laws) bzd u'illingly ; 
not for filthy lucre, (for though God has ordained that such as 
preaelt the gospel should li'Ce of the gospel; yet those wlJO propose 
that to theinseives as the chief Inotive in entering into holy 
orders are hereby severely conden1ned) but of a ready 'lIÛnd, 
'Jtelther as being lords orer Go(fs heritape, (or" not 'using a despotic 
autlwrit!! over tlwir several lots or divisions) but being examples 
to t'he jloclc, not tyrannizing it over their people; but acquiring 
their authority chiefly by their own exemplary conversation. 
The conclusion of the charge is suitable to the solenlnity of it, 
in these words: And 
vlten the chief i
h(!pherd shall appear, ye shall 
lilæwise 1'eceive a crown of glory that fadeth not away. 
"Tith this I n1ake an en(l of citations froin 
cripture: I think 
it is as plain as words can luake any thing, that such as are 
dedicated to the service of God and of his church ouO'ht to 
o 
labour constantly and faithfully, and that in their own persons. 



110 


OJ'tlte J}ústural Care. 


For it is not possible to express a personal obligation in ternl.
 
that are both 1110re strict and lnore solenln than these are, which 
have been cited: and all the returns of obedience and sublnis- 
sion:- of esteCl11 and support, being declared to be due to thenl 
on the account of their watching over and feeding the flock of 
God, thof:e who pretend to these, without considering theulselves 
as under the other obligations, are guilty of the worst sort of 
sacrilege, in devouring the things that are sacred, without doing 
those duties for which these are due; and what right soe\'er the 
}a,w of the land nlay give then1 to theu].. yet certainly, according 
to the divine law, those who do not wait at tlte altar, ought not 
to he partakers 1.citlt the altar: t,
ose 
vho do not '/niuister aùout 
lw7!1 tllings, o71.fJ1d not to live f the thiups of tIle tcnlple: no]' 
ougld iÌtose, 'lvlto do 'íwt jJreaclt the 90slJel, to lice of the gospeld. If 
I had a Inind to Inake a great show of reading, or to triunlph in 
IUY al'guJnent \\ ith the pOlnp of quotations, it were very easy to 
bring a cloud of witnesses to confirm the application that I have 
lllade of these passages of scripture: indeed all those who have 
either writ commentaries on the scriptures, ancient and Inodern, 
or ha ,-e left hOlllilies on these subjects, have pressed this l1latter 
so HIuch, that e,Tery onf1 that has nIade any progress in ecclesia!õ;- 
tical learning lnust kno,v that one luight Boon stuff a great 
luany pages with abundance of quotations out of the authors, 
both of the best and of the worst ages of the church: not only 
the fathers, hut even the schoohnen; and, \vhich is more, the 
canonists have carried this matter very high, and have even 
delivered it as a luaxinl, that all dispensations that are procured 
upon undue pretences, the chief of which they reckon the giving 
a InaJ1 an easy and large subsistence, are null and void of thenl- 
selves: and conclude, that ho\v st.rong soever they Dlay be in 
law, yet they are nothing in conscience; and that they do not 
free a nlan fronl his obligations to resiùence and labour: and 
they do generally conclude, that he, who upon a dispensation, 
\vhich has been obtained upon carnal accounts, such as birth, 
rank, or great abilities (and qualifications that are not Jet so good 
as these) docs not reside, is bound in conscience to restore the 
fruits of a benefice, which he has thus enjoyed with a Lad consci- 
ence, without perfonning the duty belonging to it in his own 
person. But though it were yery easy to bring out a great deal 
to this purpose, I will go no further at present upon this head; 
d I Cor. ix, 13, I..... 



OJ the Pastoral Care. 


111 


the words of God seen I to be so express and positive, that such 
fiS do not Jield to so undisputable an authority will be little 
n10ved by all that can be brought out of authors of a lower fornl, 
against whonl it will be easy to Illuster up 111any exceptions, 
if they will not be deterIllined by so nutnJ" of the oracles of 
the 1iving God. 


OI-IA.P. IV. 
Qftlw sense 01 the lyriuÛtive church Ùz this '}}
atteï". 
I "TILL not enter here into any historical account of the 
discipline of the church during the first and best ages of Christ- 
ianity. It is the glory of the church, that in her disputes on 
both hands, as well with those of the church of ROine as with 
those that separate froll1 her, she has both the doctrine and the 
constitution of the prÏInitive church on her side. But this plea 
would be Inore entire and less disputable, if our constitution 
were not only in its luain and lnost essential parts fOrIned upon 
that glorious Inoùel; but were also in its rules and adlninistra- 
tions n1ade more exactly conforIuable to those best and purest 
tinles. I can never forget an advice that was given me above 
thirty Jears ago, by one of the worthiest clcrgynlen now alive : 
while I was studying the controversy relating to the goverIllnent 
of the church from the prin1itive tillies, he desired nle to join 
,vith the l110re speculative discoveries, that I should 111ake, the 
sense that they had of the obligations of the clergy, both with 
relation to their li,-es and to their labours; and said, that. the 
argulnent in favour of the church, ho,v clearly soever made out, 
would never hase its full effect upon the world, till abuses were 
so far corrected that we could show a prin1Ítive spirit in our 
adn1inistration, as well as a prinÚti,'e pattern for our constitution. 
This l11ade, even then, deep ilnpressions on tHe, and I thank 
God the sense of it has never left n1e in the whole course of n1Y 
studies. 
I will not at present enter upon so long and so invidious a 
work, :J s the descending into all the particulars into which this 
matter n1Ïght be branched out; either frolH the writings of the 
fathers, the decrees of councils, the R0111an law and capitulars, 
or even fro111 the dreg of all, the canon law itself; which, though 
a collection Inade in one of the worst ages, yet carries nlany 
rules in it that would E:eClli excessively seyere, eyen to us, after 
our reforIl1ation of doctrine and worship. Thi.s has been already 
done with so llluch exactness, that it will not be necessary to set 



l1Q 


OJ" tlte Pastoral GaTe. 


about it after the harvest, which was gathered by t.he learned 
bishop of Spalato in the last Look of his great work e: which the 
pride and inconstancy of the author brought under a disesteeul 
that it no way deserves; for whatever he nlight be. that work 
,vas certainly one of the best productions of that agf'. But this 
design has he en prosecuted of late with nluch I110re exactne
s 
and learning, and with great honesty and fidelity, where the 
interest of hi
 church did not force hinl to use a little art, by 
F. Tholna8in, who has conlpared the nlodern and the ancient 
discipline, and has shewed very copiously by what steps the 
change was nlaùe, and ho\v abuses crept into the church. It is 
a ,york of gre
t use to such as desire to understand that luatt(lr 
truly. I will refer the curious to thesf', and many other lesser 
treatises, writ by the J ansenists in France, in which abuses are 
very honestly cOlllplained of, and proper renledies are proposed; 
,,,hich in 111:lUY places being entertained by bishops, that had a 
right sense of the prin1itive rules, have given the rise to a great 
reformation of the French clergy. 
Instead then of any historical deduction of these matters, I 
shall content lnyself with giving the sense of two of the fathers 
of the Greek church, and one of the Latin, upon this whole 
business, of the obligations of the clergy. The first is Gregory 
of N azianzuln, whose father ordained hiu1 a presbyter, notwith- 
standing all his hUlnble intercessions to the contrary, according 
to the custoln of the Lest men of that age, ,vho, instead of 
pressing into orders, or aspiring to them, fled frolH thenl, 
excused thelnselves, and, judging thenlse]ves unworthy of so holy 
a character and so high a trust, were not without difficulty pre- 
vailed on to subnlit to that, which in degenerate ages men run to 
as to a sub;Ûstence, or the 11leanS of procuring it, and Seell1 to 
have no other sense of that sacred institution, than Inechanics 
have of obtaining their freedom in that trade or cOIllpany, in 
,vhich they have passed their apprenticeship. It were indeed 
happy for the church, if those who offer theu1selves to orders had 
but such a sense of thelll as tradeSlnen have of their freedonl : 
,vho do not pretend to it till they have finished the tinle pre- 
scribed; and are in SOlne sort qualified to set up in it: where- 
as, alas! llle11, who neither know the scriptures nor the 
body of divinity, ,vho have Dlade no progress in their studies, 
e De Republica Ecclesiastica, in 3 vols. folio, by 
Iarco Antonio de Domi- 
nis, Archbishop of Spalato, in Dalmatia; published by him during his stay in 
England, in the reign of James I. 



Of tlte Paslo/'al Care. 


113 


and can give no tolerable account of that holy doctrine, in which 
they desire to be teachers, do yet, with equal degrees of con- 
fidence and inlportunit.y, pretend to this character and find the 
way to it too easy and the access to it too free. But this holy 
father had a very different sense of this nlatter. . He had indeed 
subnlitted to hiR father's authority, he being his bishop, as well 
as his father. But inunediately after he was ordained, he gives 
this account of himself in his Apologetical Oration: "That he 
judging he had not that sublin1Îty of virtue, nor that familiar 
acquaintance \vith divine lllatters, ,vhich became pastors and 
teachers; he therefore intending to purify his own soul to 
higher degrees of virtue, to an exaltation above sensible ob- 
jects, above his body and above the world, that so he Inight 
bring his luind to a recollected and divine state and fit his 
soul that, as a polished mirror, it might carryon it the iUl- 
pressions of divine id,eas, unnlixed with the allay of earthly 
objects, and lnight be still casting a brightness upon all his 
thoughts, did, in order to the raising hÎ1nself to that, retire 
to the wilderness. He had observed that nlany pressed to 
handle the holy nlJsteries with unwashed hands and defiled 
souls; and before they were nleet to be initiated to the divine 
vocation, were crowding about the altar; not to set patterns 
to others, but designing only a subsistence to theillseives: reck- 
oning that the holy dignity ,vas not a trust, for which an ac- 
count was to be given, but a state of authority and exemption. 
They had neither piety nor parts to recomlnelld theIn, but 
were the reproaches of the Christian religion, and were the 
pests of the church: which infected it faster than any plague 
could do the air; since lllen did easily run to iluitate bad 
exalnples, but were drawn off very hardly by the perfectest 
patterns to the practice of virtue. Upon which he fOrIlled 
ð, high idea of the eminent worth and virtues, which becalne 
those who governed the church) and of the great progress th
t 
they ought to be daily luaking; not contented with lo\v mea- 
sures of it, as if they were to weigh it critically in nice balances, 
and not to rise up tv the highest degrees possible in it. \... et 

ven this was not all; for to govern lllankind, which was 
so various and so uncertain a sort of creature, seen1ed to hin1 
the highest pitch of knowledge and wisdolll, as far above that 
skill and labour, that is necessary to the curing of bodily dis- 
eases, as the soul is superior to the body; and )'Pt 
ince 80 
I 



114 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


much study and observation ,vas necessary t.o make :1 man a 
sliiIfuI physician, he concluded that much lllore was necessary 
for the spiritual nledicine: the design of \vhich was to give 
,vings to the soul, to raise it above the ,vorld and to consecrate 
it to God." Here he runs out into a, noble rapture upon the 
excellence and sublimity of the Christian religion and upon the 
art of governing souls; of the different methods to be taken, 
according to the diversity of men's capacities and telnpers; and 
of dividing the ,yore! of God aright aluong theIne The diffi- 
culties of \vhich he prosecutes in a great variety of sublime 
expressions :1nd figures; but concludes, lalnenting that" there 
\vas so little order then observed that Inen had scarce passed 
their childhood, whpn, before they understood the scriptures, 
not to say before they had washed off the spots and defilements 
of their souls, if they had learned but t,vo or three pious words, 
which they had got by heart, or had read some of the Psalms 
of David, and put on an out,vard garb that carried an ap- 
pearance of piety in it, these men were presently pushed on 
by the vanity of their nlinds, to aspire to the government of 
the church." To such persons he addresses himself very 
rhetorically, and asks them, ",,,hat they thought of t.he COlll- 
Inonest en1ployulents, such as the playing on instruments, or 
of dancing, in comparison with divine wisdolU. For acquiring 
the one, they knew great pains and lnuch practice ,vas neces- 
sary: could they then imagine that the other should be so 
easily attained?" But he adds, "that one lnay as ,veIl sow 
upon rocks, and talk to the deaf, as hope to work upon per- 
sons, who have not yet got to that degree of wisdonl, of being 
sensible oÎ their own ignorance. This evil he had often with 
nlany tears Janlented; but the pride of such Inen was so great, 
that nothing under the authority of a St. Peter or a St. Paul 
could work upon them." Upon this nlention of St. Paul, he 
breaks out into a rapture upon his labours and sufferings, and 
the care of an the churches that lay on hill1; his becoming all 
things to all n1en; his gentleness, where that was nece.ssary, and 
his authority, upon other occasions; his zeal, hig patience, his 
constancy and his prudence, in fulfilling all the parts of his 
Ininistry. Then he cites several of the psssages of the pro- 
phets, particularly those of J erelniah and Ezekiel, Zechariah 
and l\falachi, which relate to the corruptions of the priests and 
shepherds of Israel; and shews how applicable they were to the 



Of the Pastoral Care. 


115 


clergy at that tinIe, and that all the woes denounced against 
the Scribes and Pharisees belonged to them, with heavy ag- 
gravations. "These thoughts possel"ised hiIll day and night; 
they did eat out his yery strength and substance; they did 
so afRict and deject him, and gave him so terrible a prospect 
of the judgnlents of God, which they were drawing down upon 
the church, that he, instead of daring to undertake any part 
of the government of it, was only thinking how he should 
cleanse his own soul and fl. y froIll the wrath, which was to 
come; and could not think that he was yet, while so young, 
meet to handle the holy things." 'Vhere he runs out into a 
new rapture in nlagnifYing the dignity of holy functions and, 
upon that, 8a)'s, " That though he had been dedicated to God 
froIll l1Ïs mother's wonlb and had renounced the world and all 
that ,vas channing in it, even eloquence it
elf, and had delighted 
long in the study of the scriptures and had subdued many of 
his appetites and passions; yet after all this, in which perhaps 
he had becon1e a fool in glorying, he had so high a notion of 
the care and governlnent of souls, that he thought it above his 
strength; especially in such bad tilnes, in which all things were 
out of order; factions were forilled, and charity was lost; so 
that the very nalue of a priest was a reproach, as if God had 
poured out conteInpt upon thel11; and thereby ilnpious men 
daily blaspheIned his naIne." And indeed, all the show of re- 
ligion that relnained, was in their nlutual heats and anilllosities, 
concerning some matters of religion; "they condemned a'1d 
censured one another; they cherished and made use of the 
worst nlen, so they were true to their party; they concealed 
their crinles, nay, they flattered and defended some, that should 
not have been suffered to enter into the sanctuary; they gave 
the holy things to dogs, while they inquired very narrowly into 
the failings of those that differed from them, not that they 
nlight lalnent then}, but that they 111ight reproach thmn for 
then1. The sanle faults which they excused in SOIne, were de- 
claÏ1ned against in others: so that the very nan1e of a good or 
a bad nlan was not now considered, as the character of their 
lives, but of their being of or against a side. And these abuses 
were 80 uniyersal, that they were like people, like priest. If 
those heats had. arisen upon the great heads of reli
ion, he 
should have comnlended the zeal of those who had contended 
for the truth, and should have studied to have followed it. But 
I 
 



116 


Of the Pastoral Oare. 


their disputes were about small matters, and things of no con- 
sequence; and yet even these \vere fought for, under the glo- 
rious title of the faith, though the root of all \vas men's private 
anill1osities. These things had exposed the Christian relif!:ion 
to the hatred of the heathen, and had given even the Christians 
theIllselves very hard thoughts of the clergy: this was gro\vn 
to that height, that they \vere then acted and represented 
upon the stage, and lllade the subject of the people's scorn: 
so that by their means the nal11e of God ,vas blasphen1ed. 
This was that which gave hilll much sadder apprehensions than 
all that could be feared from that wild beast, that ,vas then 
beginning to vex and persecute the church, (by which probably 
Julian is meant) the comfortable prospect of dying for the 
11al11e of Christ 111ade that a persecution was not so dreadful 
a thing, in his account, as the sins, the divisions and dis- 
tractions of Christians." This then ,vas the reason that had 
made him fly to the wilderness; for the state of the church 
01 
had Inade hiln despond, and lose all his courage: he had also 
gone thither, that he might quite break hilllself to all his appe- 
tites and passions, and to all the pleasures and concerns of this 
life, that did darken the shinings of the divine in1age upon his 
soul and the enlanations of the heavenly light. \Vhen he con- 
sidered the judgments of God upon bad priests, and Inany other 
strict rules in the old dispensation, and the great obligations 
that lay upon those who were the priests of the living God, 
and that ought, before they presumed to offer up other sacri- 
fices, to begin \vith the oblation of thernselves to God; he was, 
upon all these reasons
 moved to prepare hiu1self by so long 
a retreat. 
I have given this long abstract of his Apologetical Oration, 
not only to set before Iny reader the sense that he had of the 
sacred functions, but likewise to shew what 'v ere the corruptions 
of that age, and with how 111uch freedoIn this holy father laid 
then1 open. If there is any occasion for applying any part of 
t.his to the present age, or to any persons in it, I chose rather to 
offer it in t.he words of this great Juan, than in any of my own. 
I wish few \vere concerned in then1; and that such as are would 
Blake a due application of thel11 to thelnselves, and save others 
the trouble of doing it 1110re severely. 
I go next to another father of the Greek church, St. Chrysos- 
tOlU, whose books of the priesthood have been ever reckoned 



Of the Pastora1 Care. 


117 


among the best pieces of antiquity. The occasion of writing 
them was this: he had lived many years in great friendship 
with Basil; at last, they having both dedicated thenlselves to 
sacred studies, the clergy of Antioch had resolved to lay hold 
on them and to use that holy violence which was in those times 
often done to the best luen, and to force them to enter into 
orders. "Thich when Basil told Chn'sostom, he concealed his 
0/ 
own intentions, but pressed Basil to submit to it; who, from 
that, believing that his friend was of the same rHind, did not go 
out of the way, and so he ,vas laid hold on; but Chrysostonl 
had hid himself. Basil, seeing he could not be found, did all 
that was possible to excuse himself: but, that not being accepted 
of, he was ordained. Next tinle that he lllet his friend, he ex- 
postulated severely with him for having forsaken him upon that 
occasion: t.his gave the occasion to those books, ,,'hich are 
purE:ued in the way of a dialogue. 
The first book contains only the preparatory discourses, ac- 
cording to the nlethod of such "Titings. In the second he 
runs out to shew from our Saviour's words to St. Peter, Simon, 
lO'1:est thou 1ne? "what tender and fervent love both to Chrigt 
and to his church a priest ought to feel in hilnself, before he 
enters upon the feeding those sheep, \vhich Christ has pur- 
chased ,,,"ith his own blood. To lose the souls of the flock first, 
and then one"s own soul, t.hrough remissness, was no light 
nlatter. To have both the powers of darkne8s and the works 
of the flesh to fight against, required no ordinary measure 
both of strength and courage. He pursues the allegories of a 
shepherd and a physician, to shew, by the parallel of these 
laid together, the labours and difficulties of the priesthood, 
especially when this authority was to be lllaintained only by 
the strength of persuasion; and Jet sometimes severe luethods 
must be taken, like incisions to prevent gangrenes, or to cut 
off a part already corrupted. In the I1lanaging this, great 
art and prudence was necessary; a bishop ought to have a 
great and generous, a patient and undaunted mind: therefore 
Chrysostom says that he found, though he truly loved his 
Saviour, yet he was so afraid to offend him that he durst 
not undertake a charge, that he did not yet judge hirnself quali- 
fied for. It was not enough that a Illan was tolerably well 
esteemed by others; he ought to exanline himself: for that 
of a bishop's being '1cell reported of is but one of many cha- 



118 


Of the Pastoral Oare. 


racters, declared necessary by St. Paul. He complains much 
that those \vho raised Inen t.o orders had n10re regard to rank 
and \vealth and to Inuch tinle spent in a vain search into pro- 
fane learning (though Christ chose fisherIllen and tentrnakers) 
than to true \vorth and an earnest zeal for the real good of 
the church. In the third book, he runs out with a great 
compass on the praises of the priestly function; he looked 
upon it as a dignity, raised far above all the honours of this 
,vorld and approaching to the angelical glory. A priest ought 
to aspire to a purity above that of other mortals, answering 
that of angels. '.Vhpn a priest perforrns the holy functions, 
is sanctifying th
 holy eucharist, and is offering a crucified 
Christ to the people, his thuughts should carry hin1 heaven- 
wards, and as it were translate him into those upper regions. 
If the l\Iosaical priest was to be holy, that offered up sacri- 
fices of a lower order, how much holier ought the priests 
of this religion to be, to ,,,horn Christ has given the power 
both of retaining and forgiving of sins! But if St. Paul, after 
all his visions and labours, after all his raptures and suffer- 
ings, yet was inwardly burnt up with the concerns of the church, 
and laboured with Inuch fear and trelnbling, how much greater 
apprehensions ought other persons to have of such a trust! 
If it were enough to be called to this function, and to go 
through with the duties incumbent on it in SOlne tolerable 
manner, the danger were not great: but when the duty, as 
,veIl as dignity, together with the danger belonging to it, are 
all laid together, a man is forced to have other thoughts of 
the matter. No man that knows he is not capable of con- 
ducting a ship will undertake it, let hiln be pressed to it 
never so luuch. A mbitious men, that loved to set themselves 
forward, ',ere of all others the most exposed to temptations: 
they ,vere apt to be inflamed by the s111allest provocations, 
to be glad at the faults of others, and troubled if they sa,v 
any do well; they court.ed applause, and aspired to honour: 
they fawned on great persons, and trod on those that were 
below them; they made base submissions, undecent addresses, 
and often brought presents to those in authority; they durst 
not in any sort reprove them for their faults, though they 
reproached the poor out of measure for their failings. These 
,vere not the natural consequences of the dignity of the priest- 
hood; but unworthy anrl defiled per
ons, who, without true 



Of the Pastoral Care. 


119 


merit, had been advanced to it, had brought it under reproach. 
There had been no due care used in the choice of bishops, 
and by the Ineans of bad choices the church was almost ruined, 
through the gross ignorance and unworthiness of many in 
that post. Certainly a worthy priest has no ambitious aspir- 
ings; those who fly to this dignity from that base principle 
will give a full vent to it when they have attained it. If 
subnlissions, flatteries and money itself are necessary, all will 
be employed; therefore it ,vas an indispen
ab]e preparation 
to it, that one should be duly sensible of the greatness of 
the trust, and of his own unfitness for it, that so he lnight 
neither vehemently desire it, nor be uneasy if he should happen 
to be turned out of it. A man may desire the office of a hishop. 
when he considers it is a work of toil and labour; but nothing 
is more pestiferous than to desire it because of the power and 
authority that accompanies it. Such persons can never have 
the courage that ought to shew itself in the discharge of t.heir 
duty, in the reproving of sin, and venturing on the indignation 
of great men. He confesses he had not yet been able to free 
his mind fronl that di
ease and, till he had subdued it, he 
judged himself bound to fly from all the steps to prefernlent: 
for the nearer he should come to it, he reckoned the appetite 
to it would rage the higher within hin1; whereas the way to 
break it quite, was to keep hilllself at the greatest distance 
fronl it. Nor had he that vi,?acity or lively activity of temper, 
\vhich became this function; nor that softness and gentleness 
of mind, that was necessary to prepare him to bear injuries, 
to endure contempt, or to treat people with the mildness that 
Christ has enjoined his followers, which he thought more 
necessary to a bishop than all fastings or bodily nlortifications 
whatsoever. And he runs out into a long digression upon 
the great nlischiefs that a fretful and spiteful temper did to 
him that was under the power of it, and to the church, when 
a bishop was soured with it. It will often break out, it will 
be luuûh observed and will give great scandal: for as a 
little snloke will darken and hide the clearest object; so, if 
all the rest of a bishop's life were brighter than the beanls 
of the sun, a little blemish, a passion or indiscretion ,,,,ill darken 
all, and make all the rest be forgotten. Allowances are not 
lllade to thenl as to other lllen; the world expects great 
things from them, as if they had not flesh and blood in them, 



l
O 


Of the Pastol'al Care. 


not a IUllnan, but an angelical nature; therefore a bishop 
ought, by a constant ,vatchfulness, and a perpetual strictness, 
to be armed with armour of proof on an sides, that no wound 
1uay hurt hinl. Stories will be easily believed to his disad- 
vantage, and his clergy about him ,vill be ready to find them 
out and to spread thenl abroad. He lays this do\vn for a 
certain nlaxiIn, That every man knows hilnself best; and there- 
fore whatsoever others might think of him, he who knew well 
that he had not in hinlself those qualifications t.hat ,vere 
necessary for this function ought not to suffer himself to be 
detern1Ïned by that. After this, he lays open the great dis- 
orders, factions, partialities and calumnies, ,vith which the 
popular elections were at that. tiIne nlanaged, and the general 
corruption that had overrun the \vhole church; so that the 
strictness and authority, the gentleness and prudence, the 
courage and patience, that ,vere necessary to a bishop, were 
very hard to be found altogether. He instances, to rnake 
out the difficulty of discharging the duty of a bishop, in that 
single point, of managing the widows; who ,vere so nleddling, 
so innnoral, so factious, and so c]au1orous, that this alone 
,vas enough to CIl1ploy a bishop's prudence anrl exercise his 
patience. Fr0111 that, and another article relating to it con- 
cerning the virgins, he goes to consider the trouble, the diffi- 
culties, and censures, that bishops were subject to, by the 
hearing of causes that were referred to theul; nlany, pretending 
they were wronged by their judgments, n1ade shipwreck of 
the faith in revenge; and they pressed so hard upon the 
bishop's tin1e, that it was not possible for him to content them 
and discharge the other parts of his duty. Then he reckons 
up the lllany visits that \vere expected from bishops, the 
several civilities they ,vere obliged to; which it ,vas hard to 
nlanaO'e so as not to be either too Hiuch or too little in them: 
o 
1natter of censure would be found in both extrelnes. Then 
he reflects on the great tenlper that ought to be observed in 
the final sentence of excomlnunication; between a gentleness 
to vice on the one hand, and the driving lnen to despair and 
apostasy on the other. And he concludes that book with re- 
flections on the vast burden that follows the care of souls. In 
his fourth book he runs through a variety of arts and profes- 
sions, and shews how nutch skill and labour ,vas necessary for 
everyone of theJl1: from ,vhence he concludes strongly, that 



Of the Pastoral Gare. 


]21 


nIuch lTIOre was necessary for that which was the most important 
of all others; so that no consideration whatsoever should make 
a lTIan undertake it, if he did not find hilnself in sonle sort 
qualified for it: nIore particularly he ought to be ready to give 
an account of his faith, and to stop the 11l0uths of all gainsayers, 
Jews, Gentiles, and heretics j in which the ignorance of many 
bishops, carrying things fronl one extreme to another, had given 
great occasion to errors. A bishop must understand the style 
and phrasp of the scriptures well. From this he runs out 
into a very noble panegyric upon St. Paul, in whoIu a pattern 
was set to all bishops. His fifth book sets out the labour 
of preaching, the temptations to vanity in it, the censures that 
were apt to be made, if there was either too much or too little 
art or eloquence in sernIons. To this he adds the great exact- 
ness that a bishop should use in preserving his reputation, yet 
without vanity, observing a due telnper between despising the 
censures of the multitude, and the servile courting of applauses. 
In his sermons he ought above all things to study to pdify, 
but not to flatter his hearers, or to use vain arts to raise 
esteem or adIuiration fronl them: since a bishop, whose Inind 
was not purged from this disease, must go through many toss- 
ings and be nluch disquieted: and upon that. he runs out so 
fully upon the teInptations to desire applause for eloquence and 
a readiness in speaking, that it plainly appears that he felt 
that to be his own weak side. The sixth book is chiefly em- 
ployed to shew how luuch a harder thing it ,vas to govern the 
church, than to live in a desert under the severest mortifica- 
tions." 
I will go no further in this abstract; I hope I have drawn out 
enough to give a curiosity to such as have not yet read those 
e
cellent books, to do it over and over again: for to any that 
has a true relish, thev can never be too often read: eyerv read- 

 . 
ing win afford a fresh pleasure and new Inatter of instruction 
and meditation. But I go, in the last place, to offer St. J eron1e"s 
sense in this matter. I shall not bring together what lies scat- 
tered through his works upon this argunlent, nor shall I quote 
,vhat he writ in his youth upon it; ,vhen the natural flame of 
his temper, joined with the heat of youth, Jnight make him 
carry his thoughts further than what human nature could bear: 
but I shall only give an abstract of that which he writ to Nepo- 
tian on this head, in his old age, as he says himself, a good part 



l

 


Of tlte Pastoral Care. 


of that epistle being a reflection upon the different sense that 
old age giyes of these things, froln that \vhich he felt during the 
ardour of youth. 
He begins \vith the title clerk, ,vhich signifying a lot or 
portion, "illlports either that the clergy are God's portion, or 
that God is their's, and that therefore they ought to possess 
God and be possessed of him. lIe that has this portion must 
be satisfied with it.: and pretend to nothing; but having food 
and railuent, be therewith content, and as l11en carried their 
crosses naked, so be ready to carry his. He must not seek 
the advantages of this world in Christ's warfare. Some clerks 
grew richer under Christ, \vho made hilnself poor, than ever 
they could have been, if they had continued in the service of the 
. ' 
god of tIns world; so that the church groaned under the wealth 
of those ,vho were beggars before they forsook the ,vodd. Let 
the strangers and the poor be fed at your tables, says he, and 
in these you entertain Christ hinlself. \Vhen you see a traffick- 
ing clerk, who frOln being poor grows rich, and from being 
mean becolnes great, fly frolD hilll as from a plague. The con- 
versation of such men corrupted good minds; they sought after 
wealth and loved cOlllpany, the public places of conversation, 
fairs and market-places; whereas a true clerk loves silence 
and retireluent. Then he gives hilll a strong caution against 
conversing \vith \VOlnen, and in particular against all those 
mean conlpliances, which SOlne of those clerks used towards rich 
WOlllen, by which they got not only presents during their lives, 
but legacies by their wills. That abuse had grown to such an 
intolerable excess that a la\v was made, excluding priests from 
having any benefit by testaments. They were the only persons 
that were put under that incapacity. Heathen priests ,vere 
not included in the la\v, yet he does not cornplain of the law, 
but of those, \vho had given just occasion for nlaking it. The 
laws of Christ h
d been contemned, so it was necessary to 
restrain them by human laws. It was the glory of a bishop 
to provide for the poor, but it \vas the reproach of a priest 
to study the enriching of himself. He reckons up many in- 
stances of the base and abject flattery of SOlne clerks, to gain 
upon rich and dying persons, and to get their estates. Next 
he exhorts hiln to the constant and diligent study of the scrip- 
tures; but to be sure to do nothing that should contradict his 
discourses, or give occasion to his hearers to answer him thus, 



Oj
 the Pastoral Care. 


IfZ3 


\Vhy do not you do as you say 
 Then he speaks of the 
union that ought to be between the bishop and his clergy: 
the affection on the one side, and the obedience on the other. 
In preaching, he must not study to draw applauses, but groans, 
fronl his hearers. Their tears was the best sort of commenda- 
tion of a sennon, in which great care was to be taken to avoid 
the methods of the stage, or of common declamations. Great 
use was to be nlarte of the scriptures. The mysteries of our 
faith and the sacralnents of our religion ought to be well ex- 
plained: grimaces and solemn looks are often nlade use of to 
give weight and authority to that which has none in itself. He 
charges hiln to use a plain sinIplicity in his habit., neither shew- 
ing too 1111.1ch nicety, on t.he one hand, that savours of luxury, 
nor such a neglect, on the other, as nlight savour of affec- 
tation. He recommends particularJy the care of the poor to 
hinl. Then he speaks of c1ergYluen 's nlutually preferring one 
another; considering that there are different members in one 
body, and that everyone has his own function and peculiar 
talent: and that therefore no man ought to overvalue his own, 
or undervalue his neighbour's. A plain clerk ought not to value 
himself upon his sinlplicity and ignorance, nor ought a learned 
and eloquent man to measure his holiness by his rhetoric; for 
indeed, of the two, a holy simplicity is much more valuable 
than unsanctified eloquence. He speaks against the affectation 
of Inagnificence and riches in the worship of God, as things 
more beconling the ponlp of the Jewish religion, than the 
hUInility of the spiritual doctrine of Christ. He falls next 
upon the high and sumptuous way of living of some priests. 
\vhich they pretended was necessary to procure them the re- 
spect that \vas due to thenl, and to give them interest and 
credit: but the world, at least the better part of it, would 
always value a priest 1110re for his holiness than for his wealth. 
He charges hiln strictly to avoid all the excesses of ,vine, and, 
in opposition to that, to fast much, but without superstit.ion, or 
a nicety in the choice of such things as he was to live on in the 
time of fasting. Some shewed a trifling superstition in those 
nlatters, as well as vanity and affectation that was indeed scan- 
dalous. Plain and siIuple fasting ,vas despised, as not singular 
nor ponlpou8 enough for their pride. For it, seenlS by what 
follows, that the clergy was then corrupted with the saIne dis- 
orders, with which our Saviour had reproached the Pharisees, 



1
4 


Of tlte Pastural Care. 


\vhile they did not study inward purity, so luuch as outward 
appearances; nor the pleasing of God, so much as the praise 
of men. But here he stops short, for it seeIns he went too 
near the describing some enlÏnent man in that age. FroDl that 
he turns to the government of a prie..t's tongue: he ought 
neither to dfltract fronl anyone hiulself, nor to encourage such 
as did: the very hearkening to slander was very unbecoming. 
They ought to visit their people, Lut not to report in one place 
what they observed in another; in that they ought to be both 
discreet and secret. Hippocrates adjured those that canle to 
study from him, to be secret, grave, and prudent in their whole 
behaviour; but how llluch more did this beconle those, to whoIn 
the care of souls was trusted! be advises him to visit his people 
rather in their afflictions than in their prosperity; not to go 
too often to their feasts, \vhich must needs lessen hilll that 
does it too lunch. He, in the last place, speaks very severely 
of those, who applied the wealth of the church to their own 
private uses. I t was theft to defraud a fi'iend, but it \'I,yas 
sacrilege to rob the church. I t was a crilne that exceeded 
the cruelty of highwaynlen, to receive that which belonged 
indeed to the poor, and to withdraw any part of it to one's 
private occasions, He concludes with this excuse, That he 
had nanled no person; he had not \vrit to reproach others, 
but to give thelll warning. And therefore, since he had treated 
of the vices of the clergy in general ternlS, if any ,vas offended 
,,,ith hinl for it, he thereby plainly confessed that he himself 
was guilty." 


CHAP. V. 


An account of S01J
e canons in dirers ages of the church, relating to 
the duties and lahours of tlte clerp!J. 
I "TILL go no further in gathering quotations, to shew the 
sense that the fathers had in these nlatters; these are both so 
full and so express, that I can find none Inore plain and more 
forcible. I shall to these add some of the canons that have been 
made, both in the best and in the worst ages of the church, 
obliging bishops and other clerks to residence and to be con- 
tented with one cure. In that at Sardica that met in the year 
3-1.7, consisting of above three hundred and fifty bishops, two 
canons were Blade (the 11th and lQth) against "bishops who, 



OJ the Pa..
toral Care. 


1
5 


without any urgent necessity or pressing business, should be 
absent fronl their church above three weeks, and thereby grieve 
the flock that was conunitted to their care :" and even this 
provision was Inade, because bishops had estates lying out 
of their dioceses; therefore they were allowed to go and look 
after them, for three weeks; "in which tinle they were to per- 
fornl the divine function in the churches to which those estates 
belonged." 
l\Iany provisions were al:so made against such as went to 
court, unless they were called by the eIllperOrs, or went by a 
deputation froin the church upon a public account. There is not 
anyone thing Blore frequently provided against, than that any 
of the clergy should leave their church, and go to any other 
church, or live any where else without the bishop's leave and 
consent: nor is there any thing clearer fronl all the canons of 
the first ages, than that they considered the clergy of every 
church as a body of Inen dedicated to its service; that lived 
upon the oblations of the faithful, and that was to labour in the 
several parts of the ecc]esiastical nlinistry, as they should be 
ordered by the bishop. 
In the fourth general council at Chalcedon, pluralities do first 
appear: for they are nlentioned and condenlned in the 10th 
canon, which runs thus: "N 0 clerk shall, at the sanle tiIne, 
belong to two churches; to wit, to that in which he was first 
ordained, and that to which, as being the greater, he has gone, 
out of a desire of vainglory 
 for such as do so ought to be sent 
back to that church, in which they were at first ordained, and 
to serve there only: but if any has been translated froin one 
church to another, he shall receive nothing out of his fornler 
church, nor out of any chapel or alnlshouse belonging to it: 
and such as shall transgress this definition of this general 
council, are condemned by it to be degraded." I go next to a 
worse scene of the church, to see what provision
 ,vere Inade in 
this Inatter about the eighth centur T, both in the east and in the 
west: the worse that those ages and councils were, it makes the 
argunlent the 
tronger; since even bad IHen in bad times could 
not justify or suffer such an abuse. 
In the year 787, the second council of Nice was held, that 
settled the worship of Î1nages. The 15th canon of it runs thus: 
" No clerk shall fronl henceforth be reckoned in two churches," 
(for every church had a catalogue of its clergy, by which the 



1
6 


Of the Pastoral Oare. 


dividends were nlade) "for this is the character of trafficking 
and covetousness, and wholly estranged frolu the ecclesiastical 
custom. 'Ve have heard from our Saviour's own words, that 
no man can serve t leO 'IItJasters; for 1M3 will either hate tIle one, 
and love tIle other; or cleave to the one, and desJ}ise the other.- 
Let ever!! one therefore, according to the apostle's \vords, con- 
tinue in the vocation, 'l.n which he is called, and serve in one 
church: for those things which filthy lucre has brought into 
church-matters are contrnry to God. There is a variety of 
emploYlnents, for acquiring the necessary supplies of this life: 
let everyone that pleases nlake use of these, for furnishing 
himself: for the apostle says, Tllese Ilands mini
tered to my 
necessiNes, and to those that u' re witll 1ne. This shall be the 
rule in this town, which is guarded by God; but in relllote 
villages an indulgence may be granted, by reason of the want 
of men." It is upon this that the canonists do found the first 
of the two reasons, for which only they allow that a dispensation 
for holding t\\?O benefices may be lawful: one is, the want of fit 
and sufficient BIen for the service of the ch urch. The founda- 
tion of the other will be found in the canon, which I shall next 
set down. 
It is the 49th canon of the sixth council at Paris, under Lewis 
the Good, in the year 829. This council canle after a great 
many that had been held by Charles the Great and his son, for 
purging out abuses and for restoring the prilnitive discipline. 
These councils sat at Frankfort, 
Ientz, Aken, Rheinls, Chalons, 
Tours, Arles; and this of l>aris was the last that was held upon 
that design. In these, all the primitive canons relating to the 
lives and labours and the gOVf'rnlnent of the clergy \
ere renewed. 
Among others is that of Chalcedon formerly mentioned; but it 
seenlS there was no occasion given to nlake a special one against 
pluralities, before this held at Paris, which consisted of four 
provinces of France; Rheillls, Sens, Tours, and Rouen. The 
canon runs thus: Ie As it becomes every city to have its proper 
bishop; 
o it is also beconling and necessary that every church, 
dedicated to God, should have its proper priest. Yet covet- 
ousness, \vhich is idolatry, (of which we are nluch ashanled) 
has so got hold of some priests and caught them captives in 
its fetters that they, blinded with it, know neithpr whither 
they go, nor what they ought to be or do; so that they, being 
kindled with the firo of covetousness and forgetful of the 



Of the Pastoral Care. 1
7 
priestly dignity, neglecting the care of those churches to which 
they were pro1110ted, do, by SOllle present given or promised, 
procure other churches not only frOlTI clerks, but froIl1 layn1en, 
in which they do against law undertake to perfortn the 111inistry 
of Christ. It is not known whether t.heir bishops are con- 
sulted in this IHatter or not; if they are, without doubt their 
bishops becolne partakers of their sin: but if they presunle 
to do it without consulting them, yet it is to be imputed to 
the bishop's negligence. There is scarce a priest to be found 
who warreth worthily and diligently in that church, in which 
he is dedicated to the divine service: but how Dluch less will 
he be able to do that worthily in two, three, or 1110re churches! 
This practice brings a reproach on the Christian religion, 
and a confusion on the priestly order. The covetousness 
of the clergy is censured by their people; the worship of God 
is not performed in places consecrated to hill1; and, as was 
observed in the fornler chapters, the souls of the people are 
thereby much endangered. 'Vherefore we do all unanilllously 
appoint, that no bishop suffer this to be done in his parish 
(or diocese, these words being used pron1Ïscuously) any more; 
and we decree, that every church that has a congregation 
belonging to it, and has nleans by which it lllay subsist, shall 
have its proper priest; for, if it has a congregation, but has 
not 111eans by which it lllay subsist, that 111atter is left to the 
bishop, to consider whether it can or ought to be supported 
or not. But it is specially reco1l1111ended to their care, to 
see that, under this pretence, no priest may, out of covetousness, 
hold two or three churches, in which he cannot serve nor 
perfornl the worship of God." The last provisions in this 
canon are the grounds upon which the canonists found the 
second just cause of dispensing with pluralities, which is, when 
a church is so poor that the profits \vhich arise out of it 
cannot afford a competent nlaintenance to a clerk; bu t then the 
question arises, what is a competent maintenance 
 This they 
do all bring very low, to that which can just 111aintain hinl: and 
they have so clogged it, that no pretence should be given, by so 
general a word, to covetousness, voluptuousness or an1bition. 
And indeed while we have so 111any poor churches :1rl1ong us, 
instead of restraining such pluralities, it were rather to be wished 
that it were made easier than by law it is at present, either to 
unite thenl together, or to make one Inan capable of serving two 



lQ8 


OJ the Pastoral Care. 


churches, when both benefices lnake but a tolerable subsistence, 
rather than to be forced to have a greater number of clerks than 
can be decently n1aintained; since it is certain that it is more 
for the interest of religion and for the good of souls, to have one 
worthy n1an serving two churches, and dividing hilllself between 
them, than to have clerks for lllany benpfices, whose scandalous 
provisions Blake too many scandalous incuIl1bents, which is one 
of the greatest diseases aud llliseries of t.his church. 
But a due care in this lllatter has no relation to the accuillula- 
tion of livings at great distances (everyone of which can well 
support an inculubent) upon the saine person, }Herely for the 
making of a fan1ily, for the supporting of luxury or vanity, or 
for other base and covetous .iIesigns. But I go next to two of 
the worst councils that ever carripd the nan1e of General ones, 
the third and the fourth of the Lateran, that we Inay see what 
was the sense of the twelfth and thirteent.h centuries in this 
lliatter, notwithstanding the corruption of those ages. The 
thirt.eenth canon of the third Lateran council runs thus: "For- 
asmuch as sonle, whose covetousness has no bounds, endeavour 
to procure to theillselves divers ecclesiastical dignities and 
several parish churches, against the provisions of the holy 
canons; by which llleans, though they are scarce able to 
perform the office of one, they do clailn the provisions due to 
111any: we do severely require, that this n1ay not be done for 
the future; and therefore, when any church or ecclesiastical 
ministry is t.o be given, let such a one be sought out for it as 
shall reside upon the place, and shall be able to discharge the 
care in his own person: if otherwise, he who receives any 
such benefice contrary to the canons, shall lose it, and he who 
gave it shall likewise lose his right of patronage." 1'his canon 
not being found effectual to cure so great an abuse, the twenty- 
ninth canon of the fourth council in the Lateran was penned in 
these words: " It was with great care forbidden in the council 
of the Lateran, that anyone should have divers ecclesiastical 
dignities and 1110re parish churches than one, which is con- 
trary to the holy canons. Otherwise he that took theIll should 
lose thein, and he that gave thmn should lose the right of 
giving thenl. But by reason of some 111en'l
 presumption and 
covetousness, that decree has had little or no effect hitherto; 
we therefore, desiring to n1ake a 1110re evident and express 
provision against these abuses, do appoint: That whosoever 



Of tlte l
asto'ral COI'e. 


129 


shall receive any benefice, to which a care of souls is annexed, 
shall thereupon, by law. be deprived of any other such benefice 
that he fornlcrly had; and if he endeavours still to hold it, he 
shall lose the other likewise; and he, to whom the right of the 
patronage of his first benefice did belong, is enlpowered to 
bestow it, upon his accepting another: and if he delays the 
bestowing it above three months, not only shall his right de- 
volve to another, according to the decree of the council in 
the Lateran, but he shall be obliged to restore to the church, to 
which the benefice belongs, all that which he hinlself received 
during the yacancy. This 'we do likewise decree as to parson- 
ages and do further appoint, That no luan shall preslline to hold 
Dlore dignities or parsonages than one in the san1e church, even 
though they have no cure of souls annexed to them. Provided 
always, that dispensations 11lay be granted by the apostolical see, 
to persons of high birth, or eminently learned (sublirnes et litera- 
tas personas) or dignified in universities, (for so t.he \yord literati 
was understood) who upon occasion may be honoured with greater 
benefices." I t ,vas by this last proviso, that this, as well 
as all other canons made against these abuses, becaine quite 
ineffectual; for this had no other effect, but the obliging people 
to go to Rome for dispensations; so that this canon, instead 
of reforming the abuse, did really establish it; for the quali- 
fications here D1entioned were so far stretched that any person, 
that had obtained a degree in any university, caDle within the 
character of lettered or learned; and all those
 that were in any 
dependance upon great men, caIne likewise within the other qua- 
lification of high rank and birth. 
This was the practice al1l0ng us during the reign of Henry 
VIII; and he, when he was beginning to threaten the see of 
Ronle in the matter of his divorce, got that act to be passed, 
which has been the occasion of so much scandal and disorder in 
this church. It seems to one that considers it well, that the 
clauses which qualify pluralities were grafted upon another bill 
against spiritual persons taking estates to farIn, with which that 
act begins; and that in the carrying that on, such a telllper 
shewed itself, that the other was added to it. It contained 
indeed a linlitation of the papal authority; but so nlany provi- 
sions are nlade, that the nobility, clergy, and the n10re eminent 
of the gentry, knights in particular, were so taken care of, that 
it could Dleet with no great opposition in the parlialuent 
 but 


K 



130 


Qfthe Pastoral Care. 


from the state of that tinIe, and froIH several clauses in the act 
itself, it appears it ,vas only intended to be a provisional act, 
though it is conceived in the style of a perpetual la\v. By it 
then, and by it only, (for I have not been able to find that any 
such act ever passed in any kingdoln or state in Christendom, 
lllany having been Blade plainly to the contrary in }1-'rance, 
declaring the obligation to residence to be of divine right) ,vere 
the abuses, that had risen out of the canon of one of the worst 
councils that ever "as, authorized and settled among us, as far 
as a la\\' of the land can settle theill. But, after all, it is to be 
considered that a law does indeed change the legal and political 
nature of things; it gives a title to a freehold and property; but 
no hunlan law can change he In oral or divine laws and cancel 
their authority. If a false religion is settled by la,v, it becolues 
indeed the legal religion, but is not a whit the truer for that: 
and therefore if t.he laws of the gospel oblige clerks to personal 
labour, as was fOrIllerly nlade out, an act of parliament may 
indeed qualify a man in law to enjoy the benefice, ,vhether he 
labours in it or llOt; but it can never dissolve his obligation to 
residence and personal labour. 
But to bring this chapter to an end, I shall only add thrée 
decrees that ,vere nlade by the council of Trent in this matter, 
that so it nlay appear what provisions they made against abuses, 
,yhich are still supported by laws :llnong us. A part of the first 
chapter of reforIuation, that passed in the sixth session, runs 
thus: "This synod adnlonishes all that are set over any cathedral 
churches, by what title soever, that they, taking heed to theln- 
selves, and to all the flock, over ,,,hich the Holy Ghost has set 
them to gOY ern the church of God, which he has purchased with 
his o\vn blood, do watch and labour and fulfil their ministry, as 
the apostle has cOllunanded: and they nlust know that they 
cannot do this, if, as hirelings, eley forsake the flock commit- 
ted to thelll and do not watch over those sheep, whose blood 
will be required at their hands in the last day: since it is 
certain that no excuse will be received, if the ,volf devours 
the sheep, ,vhen the shepherd does not look after thenl. Yet 
since, to our great grief, it is found that SOine at this tiIHe 
neglect the salvation of their soul
 and, preferring earthly 
things to heavenly, are still about courts; and forsaking the 
fold, and the care of the sheep trusted to theIn, do give 
t.hmuselves wholly to earthly and telnporal cares: therefore 



Of tltel:J as t(}/'al (;(ire. 


131 



n the ancient canons, which by the iniquity of tinles and 
the corruption
 of men, were fallen into desuetude, were renewed 
against nOll-residents." To which several compulsory clauses 
are added, which are indeed slight ones, because the execution 
of thenl was entirely put into the pope's power, and the pun- 
ishnlent did only lie, if the bishop ,vas absent six 11lonths in 
a year. 
This decree did not satisfy those who moved for a reformation; 
so a fuller one was 111ade in the 23d session, 1st chap. in these 
,vords: "'Yhereas, by the law of God, all those
 to whom the 
care of souls is COIllll1itted, are commanded to know their sheep, 
to offer sacrifice for then1, to feed them by the preaching of 
the word of God, the adlninistration of the sacraments, and 
by the exan1ple of a good life, to have a tender care of the 
poor
 and all other miserable persons, and to lay themselves 
out upon all the other functions of the pastoral care: which 
cannot be perforlned by those, who do not watch oyer nor 
are present with their flock; therefore t.his synod does adn10nish 
and exhort thelu that they, ren1elubering the divine precepts, 
and being lnade an exall1ple to their flock, may feed and govern 
them in righteousness and truth. Upon this they declare, that 
all bishops, even cardinals thelusehes, are obliged to personal 
residence in their church and diocese, and there to discharge 
their duty, unless upon SOllle special occasions." By which 
indeed a door is opened to as many corruptions as the court 
of ROlne thinks fit to dispense with. Yet without this none 
nwy be absent above two, or at lnost three months in the whole 
Jear; and even that l11ust be upon a just reason, and with- 
out any prejudice to the flock; "And they leave this upon 
the consciences of such as withdraw for so long a time, who 
they hope will be religious and tender in this matter, since all 
hearts are known to God, and it is no sluall sin to do his work 
negligently." They declare the breaking this decree to be a 
l110rtal sin
 and that such as are guilty of it cannot with a good 
conscience enjoy the Inean profits during such their absence, 
but are bound to lay thelu out 011 the fabric, or give then1 to the 
poor: and all these provisions and punishll1ents they do also 
Inake against the inferior clergy, that enjoyed any benefice to 
which the care of souls was annexed; and the execution of that 
is put in the bishop's hands, who is required not to dispense 
KQ 



13Q 


Of tlte Pastoral ()a're. 


,vith their residence, unless upon a very ,veighty occasion, 
::tbove two lllonths; and in this they give the bishop so full an 
authority that no appeal or prohibition was to lie against his 
sentence upon non-residents, even in the court of Ronle. By 
these decrees, though t.he papal party hindered a forlnal decla- 
ration of the obligation to residence by divine right, that so room 
nlight be still left for the dispensing power; yet they went very 
near it; they applied passages of scripture to it, and laid the 
charge of mortal sin upon it. 
In the last place, I shall set down the decree that ,vas made 
in the 24th session, chap, 17, against pluralities, in these words: 
"vVhereas the ecclesiastical order is perverted, when one clerk 
has the offices of 111any conunitted to hinl, it ,vas therefore 
,veIl provided by the holy canons, that no nlan should be put 
into two churches. But In any, led by their depraved covet- 
ousness, deceiving themselves, but not God, are not ashalued 
to elude those good constitutions by several artifices, and 
obtain luore benefices than one at the same time: therefore 
the synod, being desirous to rèstore a proper discipline for 
the government of churches, does, by this decree, by ,vhich 
all persons, of what rank soever, even cardinals themselves, 
shall be bound, appoint, that, for the future, one 111an shall 
be capable of receiving only one ecclesiastical benefice. But 
if that is not sufficient for the decent luaintenance of hinl 
that has it, then it shall be lawful to give hiln another simple 
benefice, provided that both benefices do not require personal 
residence. This rule nlust be applied not only to cathedrals, 
but to all other benefices, ,vhether secular, regular, or such 
as are held by conlmendalll, or of ,,,hat sort or order soever 
they lllay be. And as for such as do at present possess 
either lllore parish churches than one, or one cathedral and 
another parish church, they shaLl be forced, notwithstanding 
any dispensations or unions that lllay have been granted thenl 
for term of life, to resign within the 8pace of six 1110nth8 
.all they do now hold, except one cathedral, or one parochial 
church; otherwise all their benefices, ,vhether parochial or 
others 8hall be by law esteemed void, and as such tI1E
y shall 
be disposed of to others. Nor may those who formerly en- 
joyed thelll receive the lllean profits after the terln of six 
l110nths with a good conscience. But the synod wishes that 



Oj'tlte Pastoral Cal'e. 


lSS 


some due provIsIon nlight be made, such as the pope shall 
think fit, for the necessities of those who are hereby obliged 
to resign." 
These were the decrees that were made by that pretended 
general council: and wheresoever that council is received, they 
are so seldom dispensed with that the scandal of non-residence 
or plurality does no nlore cry in that church. In France, though 
that council is not received, yet such regard is had to primitive 
rules that it is not heard of aillong them. Such exanlples are 
to us reproaches indeed, and that of the worst sort, when the 
argument, from the neglect of the pastoral care, which gave so 
great an advantage at first to the reformers, and turned the 
hearts of the world so much frolll their careless pastors to those 
who shewed nlore zeal and concern for theIn, is now against us 
and lies the other way. If the nature of man is so nlade that it 
is not possible but that ojJènces '{nust conle, yet 'Woe he to kiln hy 
whom they come. 
CHAP. VI. 
Of the declared sense and rules of the church of England in this 
'Jnattel' . 
'VHATSOE,TER may be the practice of any anlong us, and 
whatsoever may be the force of some laws that were lll:1de in bad 
t.inIes, and perhaps upon bad ends, yet we are sure the sense of 
our church is very different: she intended to raise the obligation 
of the pastoral care higher than it ,vas before; and has laid out 
this matter more fully and more strictly than any church ever 
did in any age, as far at least as my inquiries call carry me. 
The truest indication of the sense of a church is to be taken 
from her language in her public Offices: this is that, which she 
speaks the nlost frequently and the most publicly; even the 
articles of doctrine are not so nluch read and so often heard, as 
her liturgies are. And as this way of reasoning has been of late 
nlade use of with great advantage against the church of Rorne, 
to make her accountable for all her public Offices in their plain 
and literal meaning; so will I Inake use of it on this occasion: 
it is the stronger in our case, whose Offices being in a tongue 
understood by the people, the argulnent fron1 thenl does more 
evidently conclude here. 
In general then this is to be observed, that no church, before 
ours at the Reforn1ation, took a formal sponsion at the altar 
froln such as were ordained deacons and priests: that ,vas indeed 



134 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


always dell1anded of bishops, but neither in the Ron1an nor 
Greek Pontifical do ,ve find any such solemn vows and prolnises 
denlanded or made by priests or deacons, nor does any print 
of this appear in the Constitutions, the pretended Areopagite, 
or the ancient canons of the church. Bishops ,vere asked n1any 
questions, as appears by the first canon of the fourth council of 
Oarthage. They were required to profess their faith and to 
promise to obey the canons, which is still observed in the Greek 
church. The questions are lllore express in the ROlnan Ponti- 
fical; and the firost of these delnands a pronlÏse, That they will 
instruct their people in the Christian doctrine, according to the 
holy scriptures: ,vhich was the foundation upon ,vhich our 
bishops justified the Reformàtion ; since the first and chief of all 
their vows binding then1 to this, it was to take place of all 
others; and if any other parts of those sponsions contradicted 
this, such as their obedience and adherence to the see of Rome, 
they said that these "'ere to be limited by this. 
All the account I can give of this general practice of the 
church, in demanding prolnises only of bishops, and not of the 
other orders, is this; that they considered the governn1ent of the 
priests and deacons as a thing that was so entirely in the bishop, 
as it ,vas indeed by the first constitution, that it was not t.hought 
necessary to bind them to their duty by any public vows or pro- 
nlises, (though it is very probable that the bishops n1ight take 
pri,'ate engagements of then1 befol'e they ordained them) it being 
in the bishop't s power to restrain and censure thenl in a very ab- 
solute and sumlnary ,vay. But the case ,vas quite different in 
bishops, \vho ,vere an equal by their rank and order; none having 
any authority over thelli by any divine law or the rules of the 
gospel; the power of prilnatps and n1etropolitans having arisen 
out of ecclesiastical and civil la\vA, and not being equaIly great 
in all countries and provinces; and therefore it was nlore neces- 
sary to proceed with greater caution, and to denland a further 
security froln then}. 
But the ne\v face of the constitution of the church, by which 
priests were not under so absolute a subjection to their bishops 
as they had been ut first, which was occasioned partly by the 
tyranny of SOllIe bishops, to "hich bounds were set by laws and 
canons, partly by their having a special property and benefice of 
their own, and so not being nlaintained by a dividend out of the 
common stock of the church as at first, had 80 altered the state 



Of the Pastoral Oal"e. 13:J 
of things, that indeed no part of the episcopacy was left entirely 
in the bishop "s hands, but the power of ordination. This is still 
free and unrestrained; no writs nor prohibitions frOlTI civil 
courts and no appeals have clogged or fettered this, as they 
have done all the other parts of their authority. Therefore our 
Refornlers, observing all this, took great care in reforming the 
Office of ordination; and they made both the charge that is 
given, and the promises that are to be taken, to be very express 
and solelnn, that so both the ordainers and the ordained Inight 
be rightly instructed in their duty, and struck with the awe and 
dread that they ought to be under in so holy and so important 
a performance. And though all ll1ankind does easily enough 
agree in this, that proll1ises ought to be religiously observed 
which men Inake to one another, how apt soever they may be to 
break them; yet, to make the sense of these promises go deeper, 
they are ordered to be n1ade at the altar, and in the nature of 
a stipulation or covenant; the church conferring orders, or in- 
deed rather Christ, by the Ininistry of the offices that he has 
constituted, conferring theIn upon those promises that are first 
ll1ade. The forms of ordination in the Greek church, which we 
have reason to believe are less changed and more conforl1l to 
the primit.ive patterns than those used by the Latins, do plainly 
import that the church only declared the divine vocation. "The 
grace of God, that perfects the feeble and heals the weak, pro- 
motes this man to be a deacon, a priest or a bishop:" where 
nothing is expressed as conferred, but only as declared; so our 
church, by making our Saviour's words the forln of ordination, 
must be construed to intend by that, that it is Christ only that 
sends, and that the bishops are only his 111inisters to pronounce 
his mission: otherwise it is not so easy to justify the use of this 
form, " Receive the I-IoIy Ghost;" which as it was not used in 
the primitiye church, nor by the ROl11an, till within these five 
hundred years, so in that church it is not. the form of ordina- 
tion, but a, benediction given by the bishop singly, after the 
orders are given by the bishop and the other priests joining 
with hin1: for this is done by hinl alone as the final consununa- 
tion of the action. But our using this as the form of ordination 
shews, that we consider ourselves only as the instruments that 
speak in Christ's name and words; insinuating thereby that he 
only ordains. Pursuant to this, in the ordaining of priests, the 
questions are put in the name of God and of his church; which 



laG 


Of tlte j:Jastol'al Cat'e. 


makes the ans\vers to theln to be of the nature of VO\VS and 
oaths; so that. if luen do luake conscience of any thing, and if it 
is possible to strike terror into theul, the fol'lus of our ordinations 
are the Inost effectually contrived for that end that could have 
been fran1ed. 
The first question that is put in the Office of deacons is, " Do 
JOu t.rust that you are inwardly Inoved by the l-Ioly Ghost to 
take upon you this office, to serve God for the proilloting of his 
glory, and the edifying of his people r" To which he is to answer, 
" I trust so." This is put only in this Office, and not repeated 
after\Vard
, it being justly supposed that where one has had this 
nlotion, all the other orrlers Inay be in time conferred pursuant 
to it: but this is the first step by which a man dedicates him- 
self to the service of God, and therefore it ought not to be 
n1ade by any that has not this divine vocation. Certainly, the 
answer t.hat is Inade to this ought to be well considered; for 
if any says, " I trust so," that yet knows nothing of any such 
motion, and can give no account of it, he lies to the Holy Ghost, 
and nlakes his first approach to the altar with a lie in his mouth, 
and that not to men, but to God: and ho\v can one expect to be 
received by God, or be sent and sealed by him, that dares do a 
thing of so crying a nature, as to pretend that he trusts he has 
this motioll, \vho knows that he has it not, who has made no 
reflections on it, and, when asked what he means by it, can say 
nothing concerning it, and yet he dares venture to conle and say 
it before God and his church 
 If a n1an pretends a cOlnn1ission 
fron1 a prince, or indeed from any person, and acts in his nan10 
upon it, the la\v will fall on hÎIn and punish him: and shall the 
great God of heaven and earth be thus vouched and his motion 
be pretended to by those, \VhOnl he has neither called or sent? 
And shall not he reckon with those ,yho dare to run without 
his mission, pretending that they trust they have it, when per- 
haps they understand not the inlportance of it; nay, and perhaps 
sonle laugh at it, as an enthusiastical question, who yet will go 
through with the office? They C0111e to Christ for the loaves; 
they hope to live by the altar and the gospel, how little soever 
they serve at the one, or preach the other; therefore they will 
say any thing that is necessary for qualifying then1 to this, 
"hether true or false. It cannot be denied but that this ques- 
tion carries a sound in it that scenlS a little too high, and. that 
l)}ay rather ra.ise scruples, as ilnporting sOluewhat that is not 



OJ'tlw Pastoral Care. 


137 


ordinary, and that seelUS to savour of enthusiasnl; and there- 
fore it was put here, ,vithout doubt, to give great caution to 
such as conle to the service of the church. :\Iany may be able 
to answer it truly according to the sense of the church, who 
nlay Jet have great doubting in themselves concerning it; but 
every fllan that has it not, must needs know that he has it not. 
The true meaning of it must be resolved thus: The motives 
that ought to deternline a man to dedicate himself to the minis- 
tering in the church, are a zeal for pronloting the glory of God, 
for raising the honour of the Christian religion, for the nlaking 
it to be better understood, and more submitted to. He that 
loves it, and feels the excellency of it in hilnself, that has a due 
sense of God's goodness in it to Inankind, and that is entirely 
possessed with that, will feel a zeal within hinlself for communi- 
cating that to others; that so the only true God and Jeslls Cltrist 
whom he has sent, may be more universally glorified and served 
by his creatures. And when to this he has added a concern for 
the souls of men, a tenderness for them, a zeal to rescue thenl 
from endless nlisery, and a desire to put then} in the way to 
everlasting happiness; and, fronl these Illotives, feels in hil11self 
a desire to dedicate his life and labours to those ends; and, in 
order to thenl, studies to understand the scriptures, and more 
particularly the Ne,v Testament, that fronl thence he may fornl 
a true notion of this holy religion, and so be an able nlinistel' of 
it: this l11an, and only this Ulan, so Inoved and so qualified, can, 
in truth and with a good conscience answer, That he trusts he 
is inwardly moved by the Holy Ghost: and everyone that ven- 
tures on the saying it without this, is a sacrilegious profaner of 
the nalue of God and of his holy Spirit: he breaks in upon his 
church, not to feed it, but to rob it; and it is certain that he 
who begins with a lie, ll1ay be sent by the father of lies; but he 
cannot be thought to enter in by the door, who prevaricates in 
the first word that he says in order to his admittance. 
But if the Office of deacons offers no other particular nlatter of 
reflection, the Office of ordaining priests has a great deal; indeed 
the whole of it is calculated to the best notions of the best tinIes. 
In the charge that is given, the figures of watchmen, shepherds, 
and stewards, are pursued, and the places of scripture relating 
to these are applied to them: "They are required to have 
always printed in their remelnbrance, ho,v great a treasure 
was conlnlitted to their charge: the church and congregation, 



138 


01 the Pastoral Care. 


\vhom they Jnust serve, is his spouse and body. Then the 
greatness of the fault of their negligence, and the horrible 
punishluent that "Till follow upon it, is set before them in case 
the church or any nlenlber of it take any hurt or hinderance 
by reason of it. They are charged never to cease their labour, 
care and diligence, till they have done all that lieth in then1, 
according to their bounden duty, towards aU such as are or 
shall be comlnitted to their care, to bring thenl to a ripeness 
and perfection of age in Christ. They are again urged to 
consider ,vith ,vhat care and study they ought to apply them- 
selves to this; to pray earnestly for God's holy Spirit, and to 
be studious in reading and learning of the scriptures; and to 
forsake and set aside, as much as they may, all ,,"orldly cares 
and studies. I t is hoped that they have clearly deterlnined, 
by God"s grace, to give themselves wholly to t.his vocation; 
and, as much as lieth in theIn, to apply thenlselves wholly to 
this one thing, and t.o draw aU their cares and studies this way 
and to this end; and that by their daily reading and ,veighing 
the scriptures, they ,,,ill study to ,vax riper and stronger in 
their n1inistry." These are some of the ,vords of the prepara- 
tory charge given by the bishop, when he ent.ers upon this office, 
before he puts the questions that follow to those who are to be 
ordained. 'Vhat greater force or energy could be put in ,vords, 
than is in these? Or ,,,here could any be found that are more 
,veighty and Inore express, to she,v the entire dedication of the 
\vhole lnan, of his t.ilne and labours, and the separating himself 
from all other cares to follow' this one thing with all possible 
application and zeal? l'here is nothing in any office, ancient or 
modern, that I ever sa'v, which is of this force, so serious and 
so solemn; and it plainly ilnplies not only the sense of the 
church upon this ,vhole matter, but likewise their design who 
framed it, to oblige priests, notwithstanding any relaxation that 
the la,vs of the land had stiU favoured, by the firmest and 
sacredest bonds possible, to attend upon their flocks, and to do 
their duties t.o them. For a bare residence, without labouring, 
is but a mock residence; since the obligation to it is in order to 
a further end, that they nlay watch over and feed their flock, 
and not enjoy their benefices only as farnls or as livings, 
according to the gross but conUllon abuse of our language, by 
which the names of cures, parishes or benefices, which are the 
ecclesiastical names, are now swaUo\ved up into that of living, 



Of the Pastoral Care. 


139 


,vhich carries a carnal idea in the very sound of the ,vord, and I 
doubt a nlore carnal effect on the nlinds of both clergy and laity. 
'Vhatever we Inay be, our church is free of this reproach; 
since this charge carries their duty as high and as home as any 
thinO' that can be laid in words. And it is further to be C011- 
o 
sidered that this is not of the nature of a private exhortation, 
in which a man of lively thoughts and a warnl fancy may be apt 
to carry a point too high; it is the constant and uniform voice 
of the church. Nor is it of the nature of a charge, which is only 
the sense of hilu that gi'Tes it, and to \vhich the person to whom 
it is given is only passive: he hears it, but cannot be bound by 
another man.s thoughts or words, further than as the nature of 
things hinds him. But orders are of the nature of a covenant 
between Christ and the clerks, in which so many privileges and 
powers are granted on the one part, and so nlany duties and 
offices are promised on the other; and this charge being the 
preface to it, it is stipulatory. It declares the whole covenant 
of both sides; and so those who receive orders upon it are as 
much bound by every part of it, and it beconles as much their 
own act, as if they had pronounced or pron1ised it all in the nlost 
fonnal words that could be; and indeed the answers and pro- 
nlises that are afterwards made are only the application of this to 
the particular persons, for giving theln a plainer and livelier 
sense of their obligation, which Jet, in itself, was as entire 
and strong, whether they had 111ade any promise by words of 
their own or not. 
But to put the matter out of doubt. let us look a little further 
into the Office, to the prolllises that they make ,yith relation to 
their flock, even to such as are or shall be con1mitted to their 
charge. They pronlise, "That, by the help of the Lord, they 
will give their faithful diligence always so to minister the doc- 
trine and sacraments and the discipline of Christ, as the Lord 
hath comlnanded, and as this realnl hath received the same, 
according to the comnlandn1ent of God: so that they nlay 
teach the people comnlitted to their care and charge with all 
diligence to keep and observe the same." This does plainly 
bind to personal labour ; the mention that is made of" what this 
realm has received" being limited by what follows, "according 
to the comluandn1ent of God," shews, that bv this is nleant the 
rcfonnation of the doctrine and worship that ,vas then received 
and established by Jaw; by which these general ,vords, " the 



140 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


doctrine, and sacraments, and discipline of Christ," to which 
all parties pretend, are determined to our con'Stitution; so that 
though there ,vere sonle disorders anlong us, not yet provided 
against by the laws of the land, this does not secure a reserve 
for them. This is so slight a remark, that I should be ashall1ed 
to have made it, if it had not been urged to Inyself, slight as it 
is, to justify, in point of conscience, the claiming all such 
privileges or qualifications as are still allo,yed by la,v. But I go 
on to the other proluises: the clerk says, "He will, by the help 
of God, be ready, ,vith all faithful diligence, to banish and 
drive away all erroneous and strange doctrines, contrary to 
God's ,vord, and to use both public and private admonitions 
and exhortations, as well to the sick as to the whole within his 
cure, as need shall require and as occasion shall be given." 
This is as plainly personal and constant as ,vords can nlake any 
thing; and in this is expressed the so much neglected, but so 
necessary duty, which incumbents owe their flock, in a private 
,yay, visiting, instructing and admonishing them, which is one 
of the 1110st useful and inlportant parts of their duty, how 
generally soever it nlay be disused or forgotten; these being the 
chief instances and acts of watching over and feeding the flock, 
that is cOlllmitted to their care. In the next place, they promise 
,or That they will be diligent in prayers, and in reading of the 
holy scriptures, and in such studies as help to the knowledge 
of the san1e, laying aside the study of the ,yorId and the flesh." 
This still carries on that great notion of the pastoral care, which 
runs through this whole Office; that it is to be a man's entire 
business, and is to possess both his thoughts and his time. 
They do further promise," That they will Inaintain and set 
forward, as much as lieth in theIn, quietness, peace and love 
anlong all Christian people, and especially alnong them, that 
are or shall be conl1nitted to their charge." 
These are the vows and promises that priests 11lake, before they 
can be ordained. And to complete the stipulation, the bishop 
concludes it with a prayer to God, "who has given theIl1 the 
,vill to do all these things, to give them also strength and 
power to perform the same; that he Inay accolnp]jsh bis work, 
that he hath begun in them, until the tinle that he shall comp, 
at the latter day, to judge t.he quick and the dead." L"pon 
the whole lnatter, either thi
 is aU a piece of gross and impudent 
pageantry, dressed up in grave and lofty expreF:sions, to strike 



Of tlte Pastoral Oare. 


141 


upon the weaker part of mankind, and to furnish the rest with 
Blatter to their profane and inlpious scorn; or it must be con- 
fessed that prie
ts COlne under the nlost f01'1nal and express 
engagements to constant and diligent labour, that can possibly 
be contrived or set forth in ,vords. It is upon this that they are 
ordained; so their ordination being the consunlnlation of this 
conlpact., it must be acl{nowledged, that, according to the nature 
of an mutual conlpacts, a total failure on the one side does also 
dissolve all the obligation that lay on the other: and therefore 
those who do not perf 01'111 their part, that do not reside and 
labour, they do also, in the sight of God, forfeit all the authority 
and privileges, that do follow their orders, as much as a Christ- 
ian at large, that does not perfornl his baptisnlal vow, forfeits 
the rights and benefits of his baptisnl, in the sight of God; 
though, both in the one and in the other, it is necessary that, for 
the preventing of disorder and confusion, a sentence declaratory 
of excoffinlunication in the one: as of degradation in the other, 
pass, before the visible acts and rights, pursuant to those rites, 
can be denied. 
To all this I will add one thing n10re, which is, that since our 
book of Ordination is a part of our liturgy and likewise a part 
of the law of the land; and since constant attendance and dili- 
gent labour is Inade necessary by it; and since this law is 
subsequent to the act of the 
lst of Henry ,-rIll, that qualifies 
so many for pluralities and non-residence, and is in plain terms 
contrary to it; this, as subsequent, does repeal all that it contra- 
dicts. It is upon all this a Inatter that to l11e seems plain, that 
by this la'v the other is repealed, in so far as it is inconsistent 
with it. This argument is by this consideration Inade the 
stronger, that the act of king Henry does not enact that such 
things shaH be, but only reserves privileges for such a
 lnay be 
capable of an exemption fronl the comlnon and general rules. 
Now, by the principles of la\v, all privileges or exemptions of that 
sort are odious things; a.nd the constructions of law lJing hard 
and heavy against odious cases, it appears to me, according to the 
general grounds of h,w, very probable, (I speak within bounds 
when I 8ay only probable) that the act of uniforInity
 which 
lllakes the Offices of Ordination a part of the law of England, is 
a repeal of that part of the act of king Henry, \vhich qualifies for 
pluralities. To conclude, whatsoever may be the strength of this 
plea in bar to that act, if our faith, given to God and his church 



142 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


in the Inost express and plainest words possible, does bind, if 
pron1Îses given at the altar do oblige, and if a stipulation, in the 
consideration of which orders are given is sacred and of an in- 
dispensable obligation, then, I am sure, this is. 
To 11lake the whole 11latter )!et the st.ronger, this Office is to 
be cOlupleted with the cOllununion: so that, upon this occasion, 
that is not only a piece of religious devotion accompanying it, 
but it is the taking the sacrament upon the stipulation that has 
been made between the priest and the church: so that those 
,vho have framed this Office have certainly intended, by all the 
\vays that they could think on, and by the weightiest ,vords they 
could choose, to 11lake the sense of the priestly function, and of 
the duties belonging to it, g
ve deep and strong itnpressions to 
such as are ordained. I have compared with it all the exhorta- 
tions that are in all the Offices I could find, ancient and modern, 
,vhether of the Greek or the Latin church; and this must be 
said of our's, without any sort of partiality to our own fornls, 
that no sort of comparison can be Inade between our's and all 
the others; and that as 111uch as our's is 1110re siluple than those 
as to its rites and cerenlonies, which swell up other Offices, so 
much is it lllore grave and weighty in the exhortations, collects 
and sponsions that are luade in it. In the Roman Pontifical, 
no proIuises are delnanded of priests, but only that of obedience; 
bishops, in a corrupted state of the church, taking care only of 
their own authority, while they neglected more important obli- 
gations. 
In the Office of consecrating bishops; as all the sponsions 
made by thenl, ,vhen they \vere ordained priests, are to be con- 
sidered as still binding, since the inferior office does still subsist 
in the superior; so there are ne\v ones superadded, proportioned 
to the exaltation of dignity and authority, that acconlpanies that 
office. In the Ronlan Pontifical there are indeed questions put 
to a bishop, before he is consecrated; but of all these the first 
only is that, which has any relation to his flock, which is in these 
words: ,,"Tilt thou teach the people over WhOll1 thou art to be 
set, both by thy exanlple and doctrine, those things that thou 
learnest out of the holy scripture r' All the rest are general, 
and relate only to his conversation; but not at all to his labours 
in his diocese: \vhereas, on the contrary, the engageluents in 
our Office do regard not only a bishop's own conversation, but 
chiefly his duty to his people; he declares, that" he is detel'- 



Of tlte PastUl'al Care. 


143 


Inined to instruct the people, comn1Ïtted to his charge, out of the 
holy scriptures:" that" he win study thein, so as to be able by 
theln to teach and exhort with wholesolne doctrine; and with- 
stand and convince the gainsayers:" that" he will be ready, 
with all faithful diligence, to banish and drÌ\ye away aU erroneous 
and strange doctrine contrary to God's \yord; and both pri.. 
"atdy and openly to call upon and encourage others to the 
saIne:" that "he will nlaintain and set forward, as much as 
lies in hiln, quietness, love and peace aUlong all Inen; and cor- 
rect and punish such as be unquiet, disobedient and criulinous, 
within his diocese; according to such authority as he has." In 
particular, " he pron1Ïses to be faithful in ordaining, sending, or 
laying hands upon others: he promises also to shew himself to 
be gentle and merciful, for Christ's sake, to poor and needy 
people, and to all strangers destitute of help." These are the 
covenants and promises under which bishops are put, which 
are again reinforced upon then1 in the charge that is given 
imlnediately after their consecration, when the Bible is put in 
their hands; "Give heed to reading, exhortation and doctrine: 
think upon the things contained in this book; be diligent in 
them, that the increase conling thereby may be nlanifest unto 
all Iuell. Take heed unto thyself, and to doctrine, and be dili- 
gent in doing them; for by doing this, thou shalt both save thy- 
self and them that hear thee. Be thou to the flock of Christ 
a shepherd, not a wolf; feed theIn, devour then1 not. Hold 
up the weak, heal the sick, bind up the broken, bring again 
the outcasts, seek the lost; be so merciful, that you be not too 
rellliss; so 111inister discipline that you forget not mercy: that, 
when the chief Shepherd shall appear, you may receive the never 
fading crown of glory, through Jesus Christ our Lord." In 
these words the great lines of our duty are drawn in very 
expressive and comprehensive tern1S. 'Ve have the several 
branches of our function, both as to preaching and governing, 
very soleIuuly laid upon us: and both in this Office, as well as 
in an the other Offices that I have seen, it appears, that the 
constant sense of all churches in all ages has been, that preach- 
ing was the Lishop's great duty, and that he ought to lay himself 
out in it Inost particularly. 
I shall only add one advice to all this, before I leave this 
article of the sense of our church in this matter; both to those, 
who intend to take orders, and to those, who have already taken 



144 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


them. As for such as do intend to dedicate thenlselves to the 
service of the church, they ought to read over these Offices fre- 
quently; and to ask thenlselves solelnnly, as in the presence of 
God, whether they can with a good conscience make those an- 
swers, \vhich the book prescribes, or not 
 and not to venture 
on offering thelllseives to orders, till they know that they dare 
and nlay safely do it. Every person who looks that way ought 
at least on every Ordination-Sunday, after he has once fornled 
the resolution of dedicating himself to this \vork, to go over the 
office seriously with himself, and to consider in \vhat disposition 
or preparation of mind he is, suitable to what he finds laid down 
in it. But I should add to this, that for a year before he COlnes 
to be ordained, he should ev(U.'y first Sunday of the lnonth read 
over the Office very deliberately; and frame resolutions conform 
to the several parts of it, and, if he can, receive t.he sacranlent 
upon it, with a special set of private devotions, relating to his 
intentions. As the tilne of his ordination draws near, he ought 
to return the oftener to those exercises. It \vill be no hard task 
for hin1 to read these over every Sunday, during the last quarter 
before his ordination; and to do that yet more solelnnly, every 
day of the week in \vhich he is to be ordained; and to join a 
greater earnestness of fasting and prayer with it on the fast-days 
of his ember-week. 
Here is no hard in1position. The perfonnance is as easy in 
itself, as it will be successful in its effects. If I did not consider 
rather what the age can bear, than what \yere to be wished for, 
I would add a great lllany severe rules, calculated to the notions 
of the prin1itive tin1es. But if this advice were put in practice, 
it is to be hoped, that it would set back n1nny who COlne to be 
ordained, \vithout considering duly, either what it is that they 
ask, or what it is that is to be asked of them: which sonle do 
\vith so supine a negligence, that wù plainly see that they have 
not so much as read the Office, or at least that they have done 
it in so slight a manner, that they have formed no clear notions 
upon any part of it, and least of all upon those parts, to which 
they themselves are to Inake answers. And as such a method 
as I have proposed would probably strike SOllIe with a due awe 
of divine nlatters, so as to keep theln at a distance till they were 
in sonle sort prepared for t.heln; so it would oblige such as 
come to it, to bring along with theln a serious teIl1per of mind 
:Ind such n preparation of soul, as lllight lllake that their orders 



Of the Pastoral Gare. 


145 


should be a blessing to them, as well as they themselves should 
be a blessing to the church. It must be the greatest joy of a 
bishop's life, who truly Ininds his duty in this weighty trust of 
sending out labourers into God's vineyard, to ordain such per- 
sons, of whon. he has just grounds to hope that they shall do 
their duty faithfully in reaping that harvest. He recko'1s these 
as his children indeed, who are to be his strength and support, 
his fellow-labourers and helpers, his crown and his glory. But 
on the other hand, how heavy a part of his office n1ust it be, to 
ordain those, against whom perhaps there lies no just objection, 
so that, according to the constitution and rules of the church, he 
cannot deny them; and yet he sees nothing in thenl that gives 
hinl courage or cheerfulness. They do not seem to have that 
love to God, that zeal for Christ, that tenderness for souls, that 
meekness and humility, that mortification and deadness to the 
world, that becollles the character and profession which they 
undertake; so that his heart fails hinl and his hands tremble, 
when he goes to ordain them. 

ly next advice shall be to those who are already in orders, 
that they ,viII, at least four tilnes a year, on the Ordination- 
Sundays, read over the Offices of the degrees of the church, in 
which they are; and will particularly consider the charge that 
,vas given, and the ans\vers that were made by them; and then 
ask themselves, as before God, who will judge them at the great 
day upon their religious perfonnance of them, whether they 
have been true to thenl or not: that so they 111ay hunlble theln- 
selves for their errors and omissions, and may renew their vows 
for the future, and so to be going on, from quarter to quarter, 
through the "hole course of their ministry, observing still what 
ground they gain, and what progress they make. To such as 
have a right sense of their duty, this will be no hard perfornl- 
ance. It will give a vast joy to those ,vho can go through it 
with sonle measure of assurance, and find that, though in the 
Inidst of nlany temptations and of much weakness, they are 
sincerely and seriously going on in their ,vork to the best of 
their skill, and to the utnlost of their power; so that their con- 
sciences say within theIn, and that without the partialities of 
self-love and flattery, JJTell done, good and faitliful sel
,vant: the 
hearing of this said within, upon true grounds, being the cer- 
tainest evidence possible, that it shall be publicly said at the last 
great day. This exercise will also offer checks to a man that 


14 



146 


Ojfhe Pastoral Cal
e. 


looks for them, and intends both to understand his errors, and to 
cleanse hinlself fronl then1. I t ,viII, upon the whole 11latter, 
make clergymen go on with their profession, as the business and 
labour of their lives. 
Having known the very good effect that this luethod has had. 
on SOlne, I dare the more confidently reconlmend it to all others. 
Before I conclude this chapter, I will she\v what rules our 
reformers had prepared \vith relation to non-residence and plu- 
ralities; which though they never passed into laws, and so have 
no binding force ,vith then], yet in these ,ve see ,,,hat \vas the 
sense of those, that prepared our Offices and that ,vere the chief 
instruments in that blessed ,vork of our reformation. The l
th 
chapter of the titled, "Conce ning those that were to be adnlitted 
to ecclesiastical benefices," runs thus; "'Vhereas, ,,,hen many 
benefices are conferred on one person, everyone of these nlust 
be served with less order and exactness, and many learned 
men, ,,,ho are not provided, are by that lueans shut out; there- 
fore such as exanline t.he persons ,vho are proposed for bene- 
fices, are to ask everyone of thenl, ,vhether he has at that 
tinle another benefice or not; and if he confesses that he has, 
then they shall not consent to his obtaining that to which he 
is presented, or the first benefice shall be Dlade void, as in caso 
of death, so that the patron may present any other person to 
it." Chap. 13th is against dispensations, in these \vords: " No 
nlan shall hereafter be capable of any privilege, by virtue of 
\vhich he lllay hold more parishes than one: but such as have 
already obtained any such dispensations for pluralities, shall 
not be deprived of the effects of theu1 by virtue of this la,v." 
Tho 14th chapter relates to residence in these words: "If any 
man, by reason of age or sickness, is disabled froul discharging 
his duty, or if he has any just calIse of absence for sonle tinIe, 
that shall be approved of by VIe bishop, he must take care 
to place a worthy person to serve during his absence. But 
the bishops ought to tal{e a special care" that upon no regard 
whatsoever any person luay, upon feigned or pretended reasons, 
be suffered to be longer absent from his parish, than a real 
necessity shall require.')') 
These are SOlue of the rules ,vhich were then prepared; and 


d Bishop Burnet here refers to a 'V ork, entitled: Reformatio Legum Ecclesi- 
asticarum-now accessible to the student, through a new edition, printed at 
Oxford, in 1850, under the care of Dr. Cardwell. 



OJ. the Pastoral Cal'e. 


147 


happy had it been for our church, if that whole work of the re- 
formation of the ecclesiastical la,v had been then settled among 
us. Then we might justly have said, that our reformation was 
complete, and not have lamented, as our church still does in 
the Office of Commination, " That the godly discipline \vhich 
was in the primitive church is not yet restored," ho,v llluch 
and how long soever it has been wished for. It is more than 
probable that we should neither have had any schisms, nor civil 
'val'S, if that great design had not been abortive. If but the 19th 
and 
Oth titles of that work, ,vhich treat of the public offices and 
officers in the church, had become a part of our la,v, and been 
duly eÀecuted, ,ve should indeed haye had matter of glorying in 
the world. 
In the canons of the J"ear 157], though there ,vas not then 
strength enough in the church to cure so inveterate a disease as 
non-residence; yet she expressed her detestation of it in these 
words: "The absence of a pastor from the Lord's flock, and that 
supine negligence and abandoning of the ministry, which we 
observe in many, is a thing vile in itself, odious to the people, 
and pernicious to the church of God; therefore we exhort all 
the pastors of churches in our Lord Jesus, that they will, as 
soon as possible, come to their churches, and diligently preach 
the gospel; and, according to the value of their livings, that 
they will keep house, and hospitably relieve the poor." It is 
true, all this is H1uch lessened by the last words of that article, 
"That every year they must reside, at least, threescore days 
upon their benefices." By the canons lllade at that tilue, plu- 
ralities were also limited to t,venty miles distance. But this was 
enlarged to thirty miles by the canons in the year 1597; yet by 
these the pluralist ,vas required to spend "a good part of the 
year" in both his benefices. And upon this has the n1atter 
rested ever 8ince; but there is no e:xpress definition lllade how 
far that general ',"ord of a "good part of the year" is to be 
understood. 
I will not to this add a long invidious history of all the 
attempts that have been maåe for the reforming these abuses, 
nor the Inethods that have been made use of to defeat thenl. 
They have been but too successful, so that 'we still groan under 
our abuses, and do not know when the tin1e shaH conI(=' in which 
, 
we shall be freed from them. The defenders of those abuses, 
,,,ho get too much by them to be wining to part with them, have 
LQ 



]48 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


ßlade great use of this, that it ,vas the puritan party that, during 
queen Elizabeth and king J anIes the First's reign, promoted 
these bills to render the church odious: whereas it seems lliore 
probable that those who set them forward, ,vhat invidious cha- 
racters soever their enemies might put then1 under, were really 
the friends of the church; and that they intended to preser,ye it, 
by freeing it fronl so crying and so visible an abuse; which 
gives un offence and scandal, that is not found out by lnuch 
learning or great observation, but arises so evidently out of the 
nature of things, that a SIll all measure of COlnmon sense helps 
everyone to see it, and to be deeply prejudiced against it. But 
since our church has fallen under the evils and luischiefs of 
schism, none of those ,vho divide fronl us have made any more 
attelupts this ,vay; but seem rather to be not ill pleased that 
such scandals should be still among us, as hoping that this is so 
great a load upon our church, that it both weakens our strength 
and lessens our authority. It is certainly the interest of an 
enemy, to suffer the body to which he opposes himself to lie 
under a'3 nlany prejudices, and to be liable to as much censure, as 
is possible; whereas every good and wise friend studies to pre- 
serve that body to ,vhich he unites himself, hy freeing it fronl 
every thing that may render it less acceptable and less useful. 
Here I will leave this argument, having, I think, said enough 
to convince all that have a true zeal to our church, and that 
think themselves bound in conscience to obey its rules, and that 
seelU to have a particular jealousy of the civil po\ver's breaking 
in too far upon the ecclesiastical authority, that there can be 
nothing nIore plain and express, than that our church intends to 
bring all her priests under t.he strictest obligations possible to 
constant and personal labour, and that in this she pursues the 
designs and canons, not only of tile prilniti,ye and best tilnes, 
but even of the ,vorst ages; since none ,vere ever so corrupt, as 
not to condelun those abuses by canon, even when they maintained 
them in practice. She does not only bind thenI to this, by the 
charge she appoints to be given, but also by the vows and pro- 
11lises that she deillands of such as are ordained. 'Vhcn all this 
is laid together, and ,vhen there stands nothing on the other side 
to balance it, but a law nlade in a very bad tinIe, that took away 
SOine abuses, but left pretences to cover others; can any man, 
that weighs these things together, in the sight of Ged, and that 
believes he nlust answer to hiIn for this at the great day, think, 



OJ'' the Pastoral Care. 


149 


that tho one, how strong soever it lTIay be in his favour at an 
earthly tribunal, will be of any force in that last and dreadful 
jurlglTIent? This J leave upon all nlen's consciences; hoping that 
tIle!! 'ill so Judge tneJnselves, that they shall not he judged of the 
Lord. 


Clll1P. VII. 
Oftne due preparation of such as Ina!! and O1tght to he put 1.n orders. 
THE greatest good that one can hope to do in this world is 
npon young persons, who have not yet taken their ply and are 
not spoiled with prejudices and wrong notions. Those who have 
taken an ill one at first will neither be at the pains to look over 
their notions, nor turn to new methods; nor will they, by any 
change of practice, seen1 to confess that they were once in the 
wrong: so that, if matters that are an1Ïss can be mended or set 
right, it must be by giving those that have not yet set out and 
that are not yet engaged, truer views and juster ideas of things. 
I will therefore here lay down the model upon which a clerk is to 
be formed, and will begin with such things as ought to be previous 
and preparatory to his being initiated into orders. 
These are of two sorts; the one is of such preparations as are 
necessary to give his heart and soul a right temper, and a true 
sense of things: the other is of such studies as are necessary to 
enable hin1 to go through with the several parts of his duty. 
Both are necessary, but the first is the more indispensable of the 
two; for a man of a good soul nlay, with a moderate proportion 
of knowledge, do great service in the church, especially if he is 
suited with an emploJrnent that is not above his talent: whereas 
un sanctified knowledge puffs up, is insolent and unquiet; it gives 
great scandal and occasions lllnch distraction in the church. In 
treating of these qualifications, I will watch over my thoughts, 
not to let them rise to a pitch that is above what the common 
frailties of hlunan nature, or the age we live in, can bear: and 
after all. if in any thing Inlay semll to exceed these Dleasures, 
it is to be considered that it is natural in proposing the ideas of 
things to carry them to what is wished for, which is but too often 
beyond what can be expected; considering both the corruption 
of mankind, and of these degenerated tilnes. 
First of all then, he that intends to dedicate hinlself to the 
church ought, fron1 the tin1e that he takes up any such resolu- 
tion, to enter npon a greater decency of behaviour, that his 11lind 



150 


Of tlte Pastoral Care. 


nlay not be vitiated by ill habits, ,vhich may both give such bad 
characters of hilu, as may stick long on him afterwards, and 
Inake such ill impressions on hiulself, as may not be easily ,yorn 
out or defaced. He ought, above all things, to possess hinlself 
,vi th a high sense of the Christian religion, of its truth and 
excellence, of the value of souls, of the dignity of the pastoral 
care, of the honour of God, of the sacredness of holy functions, 
and of tho great trust that is comnlÌtted to those who are set 
apart froln the world, and dedicated to God and to his church. 
He ,vho looks this way must break hilnself to the appetites of 
pleasure or \veaIth, of anlbition or authority; he nlust consider 
that the religion, in which he intends to officiate, calls all men 
to great purity and virtue, to a probity and innocence of nlan- 
ners, to a meekness and gentleness, to a hUIUility and self-denial, 
to a contelnpt of the world, and a heavenly-mindedness, to a 
patient resignation to the will of God, and a readiness to bear 
the cross, in the hopes of that everlasting reward \vhich is 
reserved for Christians in another state; all which was eininently 
recommended by the unblemished pattern, that the Author of 
this religion has set to all that pretend to be his follo,vers. 
These being the obligations which a preacher of the gospel is to 
lay daily upon all his hearers, he ought certainly to accustom 
himself often to consider seriously of them; and to think ho\v 
shanleless and iUlpudent a thing it \vill be in hin1, to perform 
offices suitable to all these and that do suppose thenl; to be 
instructing t.he people, and exhorting thenl to the practice of 
then1; unless he is in some sort all this hiIllself, which he teaches 
others to be. 
Indeed, to be tied to sllch an employment, while one has not 
an inward confonnity to it, and cOluplacence in it, is both the 
most unbecoming, the lnost unpleasant and the lnost uncomfort- 
able state of life imaginable. Sucn a person will be exposed to 
all nlen's censures and reproaches, who, when they see things 
amiss in his conduct, do not only reproach him, but the whole 
church and body to which he belongs, and, \vhich is nlore, the 
religion \vhich he seeins to recommend by his discourses; 
though his life and actions, \vhich will always pass for the Dlost 
real declaration of his inward sentiments, are a visible and con- 
tinual opposition to it. On all these things he, whose thoughts 
carry him toward the church, ought to reflect frequently: 
nothing is so odious as a nlan that disagrees ,vith his character; 



OJ" the Postoral Care. 


151 


a soldier that is a cowarù, a courtier that is brutal, an alllLassador 
that is abject, are not such unseelnly things, as a bad or vicious, 
a drunken or dissolute clergJluan. But though his scandals 
should not rise up to 80 high a pitch, even a proud and passion- 
ate, a worldly-nlinded and covetous priest gives t.he lie to his 
discourses so palpably, that he cn.nnot expect they should have 
much weight. X or is such a Inan's state of life less unpleasant 
to himself, than it is unbecoming. He is obliged to be often 
pelfornlÏng offices and pronouncing discourses, in which, if he 
is not a (rood man he not only has no P lp3sure, but must. have a 
b ' 01 
forlned aversion to them. They Blust be the heaviest burden of 
his life; he n1ust often feel secret challenges within; and 
though he as often silences these, yet such un\velcome reflec- 
tions are uncol11fortable things. He is forced to 111anage hinlself 
with a perpetual constraint and to observe a decorunl in his de- 
portlnent, lest he fall under a 1110re public censure. N ow to be 
bound to act a part and live with restraint one's whole life, must 
be a very nlelancholy thing, He cannot go so quite out of sight 
of religion and convictions, as other bad n1en do, who live in a 
perpetual hurry and a total forgetfulness of divine matters 1 
They have no checks, because they are as seldonl in the way to 
find theIn as is possible. But a clerk cannot keep hin1self out of 
their way; he Jnust relneJllber them and speak of theIn, at least 
upon SOUle occasions, whether he will or no: he has no other 
way to secure himself against thenl, but by trying what he can 
do to nlake hill1self absolutely disbelie\'e theine K egative 
atheisnl, that is, a total neglect of all religion, is but too 
easily arrived at; yet this shall not serve his turn, he lllust build 
his atheism upon sonle bottom, that he may find quiet in it. If" 
he is an ignorant nlan, he is not furni8hed with those sleights of 
wit and shows of learning, that. must support it: but if he is 
really learned, he win soon be beaten out of thenl; for a learned 
atheism is so hard a thing to be conceived that, unless a nlan's 
powers are first strangely vitiated, it. is not easy to see how any 
one can bring hiulself to it. There is nothing that can settle the 
quiet of an in priest's lnind and life, but a stupid forlnality, and 
a callus that he contracts by his insensible way of handling 
divine matters, by which he becoilles hardened against then). 
But if this 
ettle8 hinl by stupifying his powers, it does put him 
also so far out of the reach of conviction, in aU the ordinary 
lnethods of grace) that it is scarce possible he can ever be 



152 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


awakened, and by consequence that he can be saved; and if he 
perishes, he nlust fall into the lowest degree of misery, even to 
the portion of hypocrites: for his ,,,hole life has been a course of 
hypocrisy in the strictest sense of the ,vord; which is the acting 
of a part, and the counterfeiting another person. His sins have 
in thelll all possible aggravations: they are against knowledge 
and against vows, and contrary to his character; they ca,rry in 
thenl a deliberate contempt of all the truths and obligations of 
religion; and if he perishes, he does not perish alone, but carries 
a shoal down ,vith him; either of those, who have perished in 
ignorance through his neglect, or of those, who have been 
hardened in their sins through his ill example. And since all 
this Blust be put to his accQunt, it l11ay be justly inferred frOlll 
hence, that no man can have a heavier share in the lniseries 
of another state, than profane and wicked clerks. On all these 
things he ought to employ his thoughts frequently, who intends 
to dedicate hinlself to God, that so he 111ay firmly resolve not to 
go on ,vith it, till he feels such seeds and beginnings of good 
things in himself, that he has reason to hope, that, through the 
grace and assistance of God, he will be an exanlple to others. 
He ought l110re particularly to examine himself, ,vhether he 
has that soft and gentle, that l11eek and humble, and that 
charitable and conlpassionate telnper, ,vhich the gospel does so 
111uch press upon all Christians; that shined so eminently 
through the whole life of the blessed Author of it; and ,vhich 
he has so singularly recollllnended to all his foIlowers; and that 
has in it so l1lany charms and attractives, which do not only 
cOlllmend tho8e who have these a,miable virtues, but, which is 
much Inore to be regarded, they give theln vast advantages in 
recolnmending the doctrine of our Saviour to their people. 
They are the true ground of that Christian wisdom and discre- 
tion, and of that grave and calnl devorbnent, by which the clergy 
ought to carryon and maintain their authority: a haughty and 
huffing htnnour, an impatient and insolent tenlper, a loftiness of 
deportment and a peevishness of spirit., rendering the lives of 
the clergy, for the Inost part, bitter to theInselves, and their 
labours ho'v valuable soever otherwise they may be, unaccept- 
able and useless to their people. ,A. clergyman HUlst be prepared 
to bear injuries, to endure n1uch unjust censure and calumny, to 
see hiJnself often neglected, and others preferred to hiIn, in 
the esteenl of the people. He that takes all this ill, that resents 



Of the Pastoral Car'e. 


153 


it, and cOlnplains of it, does thereby give himself much disquiet; 
and to be sure he will, through his peevishness, rather increase 
than lessen that contempt, under which he is so uneasy; which 
is both better borne anò sooner overcome by a meek and a 
lowly temper. A man of this disposition affects no rsingularities, 
unless the faultiness of those about him makes his doing his 
duty to be a singularity: he does not study to lessen the value 
that is due to others, on design to increase his own: his low 
thoughts of hinlself Inake that he is neither aspiring, nor envy- 
ing such as are advanced: he is prepared to stay tin God in his 
providence thinks fit to raise him: he studies only to deserve 
prefennent, and leaves to others the wringing posts of advantage 
out of the hands of those that give them. Such a preparation of 
Inind in a clergyman disposes him to be happy in whatsoever 
station he may be put, and renders the church happy in hin1: 
for men so moulded, even though their talents should be but 
mean, are shining lights, that may perhaps be at first despised, 
as men of a low size, that have not greatness of soul enough to 
aspire; but when they have been seen and known so long that 
all appears to be sincere, and that the principle from whence 
this flows is rightly considered, then every thing that they say 
or do must have its due weight: the plainest and sinlplest things 
that they say have a beauty in theIn, and will be hearkened to 
as oracles. 
But a l11an that intends to prepare himself right for the 
Dlinistry of the church, n1ust indeed, above all things, endeavour 
to break hinlself to the love of the world, either of the \vealth, 
the ponlp, or the pleasures of it. He lllust learn to be coutent 
with plain and siu1ple diet, and often even abridge that by true 
fasting. I do not can fasting a trifling distinction of meats, but 
a lessening of the quantity, as well as the quality, and a con- 
tracting the time spent at meals, that so he may have a greater 
freedonl both in his tinle and in his thoughts; that he may be 
more alone, and pray and Ineditate more, and that what he saves 
out of his meals, he may give to the poor. This is, in short, the 
true llleasure and right use of fasting. In cold climates, an 
abstinence till night may create disorders and raise such a dis- 
turbance both in the appetite and in the digestion, that this, 
Inanaged upon the practices of other countries, especially in 
young persons, may really distract, instead of furthering, those 



154 


OJ tlw Pastoral Care. 


,vho do it indÎscreetïy. In short, fasting, unless joined ,vith 
prayer and almsgiving, is of no value in the sight of God. It is 
a vast advantage to a man to be broken to the niceties of his 
palate, to be content with plain food, and even to dislike de- 
licacies and studied dishes. This ,viII make him easy in narrower 
circumstances, since a plain bill of fare is soon discharged. A 
lover of his appetites and a slave to his taste Inakes but a n1ean 
figure among men, and a very scurvy one among clergyn1en. 
This deadness to the world must raise one above the affecta- 
tions of pOlnp and state, of attendance and high living: which to 
a philosophical mind will be heavy, when the circumstances he 
is in seein to impose and force it on hilll. And therefore he 
\vho has a right sense finds it is aln10st all he can do, to bear 
those things which the tyranny of custom or false opinions put 
upon him; so far is he from longing for them. A man that is 
truly dead to the world ,vollld choose luuch rather to live in a 
lowly and narrow figure, than to be obliged to enter into tho 
Inethods of the greatness of this world; into ,vhich if the consti- 
tutions and forms of a church and kingdoIll put hinI, yet he feels 
hiIl1self in an unnatural and uncouth posture: it is contrary to 
his own genius and relish of things, and therefore he does not 
court nor desire such a situation, but, even while he is in it, he 
shews such a neglect. of the state of it, and so luuch indifference 
and humility in it, that it appears how little power those things 
have over his Inind, and ho\v little they are able to subdue and 
corrupt it. This lnortified Inan lnust likewise become dead to 
all the designs and projects of n1aking a falnily, or of raising the 
fortunes of those that are nearly related to hinI: he nlust be 
bountiful and charitable; and though it is not only lawful to 
him, but a necessary duty incumbent on hiIn, to make due pro- 
vision for his faulily, if he has any; yet this luust be so 
Illoderated, that no vain nor sordid designs, no indirect nor 
un becon1Ïng arts 111:1 y n1Ïx in it; no excessive wealth, nor great 
projects nlust appear; he must be contented with such a pro- 
portion as Illay set his children in the way of a virtuous and 
liberal education; such as may secure thenl froIn scandal and 
necessity, and put thenl in a capacity to serve God and their 
generation in some honest employn1ent. But he, who brings along 
with hilTI a voluptuous, an alubitious, or a covetous Inind, that is 
carnal and earthly luinded, COines as a hireling to feed hilnself, 



Of the Pastoral Care. 


155 


and not the flock; he comes to steal and to destroy. Upon all 
this, great reflection is to be Inade concerning the l1lotives that 
deterlnine one to offer himself to this eInployment. 
In the first beginnings of Christianity, no man could reason- 
ably think of taking orders, unless he had in hinl the spirit of 
martyrdolu. He was to look for nothing in this service but 
labour and persecution: he was indeed to live of the altar, and 
that was all the port.ion that he was to expect in this world. In 
those days, an extraordinary measure of zeal and devotion was 
necessary to engage men to so bar(1 and difficult a province, 
that, how great soever its reward might be in another world, 
had nothing to look for in this but a narrow provision and the 
first and largest share of the cross: they,vere the best known, 
the ßlost exposed, and the soonest fallen upon in the persecu- 
tion. But their services and their sufferings did so nlu('h re- 
commend that function in the succeeding ages, that the faithful 
thought they could never do enough to express their value for 
it. The church came to be richly endowed; and though super- 
stition had raised this out of measure, yet the extreme went as 
far to the other hand at the reformation, when the church ,vas 
alnlost stripped of all it.s patrimony, and a great many churches 
"ere left so poor, that there was not, in most place
, a suffi- 
cient, nay, not 80 luuch as a necessary maintenance reserved 
for those that were to tninister in holy t.hings. But it is to be 
acknowledged that there are such remnants preserved, that 
nutny benefices of the church still may, and perhaps do but 
too much ,york upon men's corrupt principles, their anlbition 
and their covetousness: and it is shrewdly to be apprehended, 
that of those who present themselves at the altar, a great part 
COllIes, as those who followed Ohrist, for the loaves; because 
of the good prospect they have of l11aking their fortunes by the 
church. 
If this point should be carried too far, it might perhaps seenl 
to be a pitch above hun1an nature; and certainly very far above 
the degeneracy of the age we live in; I shall therefore lay this 
matter with as large an allowance as I think it can bear. It is 
certain, that since God has nlade us to be a compound of soul 
and body, it is not only lawful, but suitable to the order of 
nature, for us, in the choice we nlake of the state of life that we 
intend to pursue, to consider our bodies in the next place after 
our souls: yet we ought certainly to begin with our souls, with 



156 


Of the jJastoral Care. 


the powers and faculties that are in them, and consider ,veIl of 
\vhat telnper they are, and what our measure and capacity is; 
that so we may choose such a course of life for which we seem 
to be fitted, and in which we nlay probably do the most good to 
ourselves and others: from hence ,ve ought to take our aims 
and nleasnres chiefly. ßut in the next place, we not only may, 
but ought to consider our bodies, how they shall be maintained 
in a way suitable to that state of life, into which we are engaged. 
Therefore though no luan can, with a good conscience, begin 
upon a worldly account, and resolve to dedicate himself to the 
church, nlerely out of carnal regards; such as an advo,vson in 
his family, a friend that will promote hitn, or any other such 
like prospect, till he has firBt consulted his telnper and disposi- 
tion, his talents and his capacities; yet though it is not la,vful to 
n1ake the regards of this world his first consideration, and it 
cannot he denied to be a perfecter state, if a nlan should offer 
hinlself to the church, having whereon to support himself, 
,vithout any assistance or reward out of its patrinlony; and to be 
nearer to St. Paul's practice, ,vhose hands luinistered to his 
necessities, and who reckoned, that in this he had whereof to 
glory, that he was not burdensolne to the churches: yet it is, 
without doubt, lawful for a n1an to design, that he nlay subsist 
in and out of the service of the church: but then these designs 
nlust be lin1ited to a subsistence, to such a moderate proportion 
as may nlaintain one in that state of life; and nlust not be let 
fly by a restless ambition, and an in8atiable covetousness, as a 
ravenous bird of prey does at all game. There must not be a 
perpetual inquiry into the value of benefices, and a constant im- 
portuning of such as give then1: if la'vs ha,ye been made in sonle 
states restraining all arnbitus and aspirings to civil employn1ents, 
certainly it were luuch nlore reasonable to put a stop to the 
scandalous iU1portunities that are every where complained of; 
and no where luore visiblf1 and more offensive than at court. 
This gives a prejudice to men, that are otherwise inclined 
enough to search for one, that can never be ren10ved but by 
putting an effectual bar in the ,vay of that 'Scranlbling for bene- 
fices and prefennents; which will ever make the lay part of 
n1ankind conclude, that, let us pretend \vhat ,ve will, covetous- 
ness and aUlbition are our true motives and our chief vocation. 
It is true, the strange practices of many patrons and the consti.. 
tution of n10st courts give a colour to excuse so great an in- 



Of the Pastoral Ca e. 


157 


decency. l\Ien are generally successful in those practices; and 
3S long as luunan nature is so strong, as all nlen feel it to be, it 
will be hard to divert thenl froln a Inethod which is so common, 
that to act otherwise would look like an affectation of singularity: 
and nlany apprehend, that they nlust languish in lnisery and 
necessity, if they are wanting to thmnselves in so general a prac- 
tice. And indeed if patrons, but chiefly if princes would effect- 
ually cure this disease, '\\ hich gives theln so Inuch trouble as 
well as offence, they lnust resolve to distribute those benefices 
that are in their gift, ,vith so visible a regard to true goodness 
and real merit, and with so finn and 430 constant an opposition 
to application and importunity, that it nlay appear, that the only 
way to advancement is to live well, to study hard, to stay at 
home and labour diligently; and that applications by the per- 
sons thelnselves, or any set on by them, shall always put those 
back who Blake thell1: this ,vould Inore effectually cure so great 
an evil, than all that can be said against it. One successful 
suitor who carries his point will pronlote this disorder lllore 
than twenty repulses of others; for, unless the rule is severely 
carried on, everyone will run into it, and hope to prosper as well 
as he who they see has got his end in it. If those who have the 
disposition of benefices, to which the cure of souls is annexed, 
did consider this as a trust lodged with them, for which they 
nlust answer to God; and that they shall be in a great nlcasure 
accountable for the souls that lnay be lost through the bad choice 
that they nlake, knowing it to be bad; if, I say, they had this 
lllore in their thoughts, than so many scores of pounds as the 
lhoing aillounts to; and thought themselves really bound, as 
without doubt they are, to seek out good and worthy tuen, weU 
qualified and duly prepared, according to the nature of that 
benefice, which they are to give; then we nlight hope to see 
lnen 111áke it their chief study, to qualify themselves aright; to 
order their lives, and franle their minds as they ought to do, and 
to carryon their studies with all appJication and diligence. But 
as long as the 8hort 111ethods of application, friendship or in- 
terest, are lllore effectual than the long and hard way of labour 
and study, human nature will always carry 11len to go the surest, 
the easiest and the quickest way to work. 
After all, I wish it were well considered by all clerks, what it 
is to run without being either called or sent; and so to thrust 
one's self into the vineyard, without staying till God, by his 



158 


Of tlte Pastoi
al Care. 


providence, puts a piece of his ,york in his hands: t.his ,viII give 
a nlan a vast ease in his thoughts, and a great satisfaction in all 
his labours, jf he knows that no practices of his own, but merely 
the directions of Providence, have put him in a post. He may 
well trust the effects of a thing to God, ,vhen the causes of it do 
plainly flow from hinl. And though this ,viII appear to a great 
many a hard saying, so that few will be able to bear it; yet I 
Inust add t.his to the encouragement and cOlllfort of such as can 
resolve to deliver themselves up to the conduct and directions of 
Providence, that I never yet knew anyone of those fe,v (too fe\v 
I confess they have been) who were possessed with this nlaxinl, 
and that have followed it exactly, that have not found t.he fruit 
of it even in this world. A watchful care hath hovered over 
them: instruments have been raised up, and accidents have hap- 
pened to them so prosperously, as if there had been a secret de- 
sign of Heaven, by blessing them so signally, to encourage others 
to follow their Ineasures, to depend on God, to deliver themselves 
up to his care, and to wait till he opens a way for their being 
employed and settled in such a portion of his husbandry as he 
shall think fit to assign to them. 
These are preparations of mind, ",ith which a clerk is to be 
fornled and seasoned: and in order to this he must read the 
scriptures llluch, he Blust get a great deal of those passages in 
thenl that relate to these things by heart, and repeat them often 
to hilnself; in particular, luany of the most tender and melting 
Psalms, and nlany of the most comprehensive passages in the 
Epistles; that by the frequent reflecting Oll these he may fill his 
memory with noble notions and right ideas of things. The 
Book of Proverbs, but chiefly Ecclesiastes, if he can get to 
understand it, will beget in him a right view of the world, a just 
value of things, and a contempt of many objects, that shine ,vith 
a false lustre, but have no true worth in theln. 80111e of the 
books taught at schools, if read afterwards, ,,,hen one is more 
capable to observe the sense of them, nlay be of great use to 
promote this temper. Tully's Offices will give the nlind a noble 
set; all his philosophical discourses, but chiefly his Consolation; 
,vhich though some critics ,viII not aIIo,v to be his, because they 
fancy the style has not all the force and beauty in it that was 
peculiar to him, yet is certainly the best piece of them all : these, 
I say, give a good savour to those who read them much. The 
satirical poets, Horace, J Hvenal, and Persins, may contribute 



Of tlte Pas oral Care. 


159 


wonderfully to give a Dlan a detestation of vice, and a contenlpt 
of the coronIon methods of mankind; ,vhich they have set out in 
such true colours, that they must give a very generous sense to 
those who delight in reading them often. Persius"s second 
satire may weIl pass for one of the best lectures in divinity. 
Hierocles upon PJthagoras's Verses, Plutarch's Lives, and, 
above all the books of heathenisln, Epictetus and 
Iarcus Aure- 
lius, contain such instructions, that one cannot read them too 
often, nor repass then1 too frequently in his thoughts. But 
when I speak of reading these books, I do not 111ean only to run 
through then1, as one does through a book of history, or of 
notions; they nlust be read and weighed with great care, till 
one is beconle a master of all the thoughts that are in thenl: 
they are to be often turned in one's mind, till he is thereby 
wrought up to sonle degrees of that telnper which they propose. 
.And as for Christian books, in order to the framing of one"s 
nlind aright, I shall only reconlmend The Whole Duty of 
lan, 
Dr. Sherlock of Death and Judgment, and Dr. Scott's books; 
in particular, that great distinction that runs through then1, of 
the Ineans and of the ends of religion. To all which I shall add 
one small book 11lore, which is to nle ever new and fresh, gives 
always good thoughts and a noble temper, Tholnas a I{empis of 
the Ilnitation of Christ. By the frequent reading of these books, 
by the relish that one has in them, by the delight they give, and 
the eftects they produce, a nlan will plainly perceive, whether his 
soul is nlade for divine matters or not; what suitableness there 
is between hin1 and them; and whether he is yet touched with 
such a sense of religion, as to be capable of dedicating himself 
to it. 
I an1 far fr01ll thinking that no lnan is fit to be a priest, that 
has not the telnper which I have been describing, quite up to 
that height in which I have set it forth: but this I will positively 
sa.y, that he who has not the seeds of it planted in him, who has 
not these principles and resolutions f'Jrmed to pursue theIn, and 
to improve and perfect hi1nself in then1, is in no wise worthy of 
that holy character. If these things are begun in him, if they 
are Jet but as a grain of mustard seed; yet if there is a life in 
them, and a vital sense of the tendencies and effects they Inust 
have, such a person, so moulded, with those notions and in1pres- 
sions, and such only are qualified, so as to be able to say with 



160 


Of the Pastoral Oal
e. 


truth and assurance, that they trust they are inwardly moved by 
the Holy Ghost to undertake that office. 
So far have I despatched the first and chief part of the prepa- 
ration necessary before orders. The other branch of it relates 0 
their learning, and to the kno\vledge that is necessary. I confess 
I look upon this as so Dluch inferior to the other, and have been 
convinced by so much experience, that a great llleasure of piety, 
with a very sDlall proportion of learning, will carry one a great 
,yay, that I may perhaps be thought to come as far short in this, 
as I nlight seem to exceed in the other. I will not here enter 
into a discourse of theological learning, of the measure that is 
necessary to make a cODlplete divine, and of the nlethods to 
attain it: I intend only to lay down here, that which I look on 
as the lo\vest degree, and as that ,vhich seems indispensably 
necessary to one that is to be a priest. He must then under- 
stand the N e\v Testament \vell. This is the text of our religion, 
that \vhich \ve preach and explain to others; therefore a Dlan 
ought to read this so often over, that he may have an idea of 
the \vhole book in his head, and of all the parts of it. He cannot 
have this so sure, unless he understands the Greek so \vell as 
to be able to find out the meaning of every period in it, at least 
of the words and phrases of it: any book of annotations or para- 
phrase upon it is a great help to a beginner; Grotius, Hanlnlond, 
and Lightfoot are the best. But the having a great deal of 
the practical and easy parts of it, such as relate to men's lives 
and their duties, such as strike and awaken, direct, comfort or 
terrify, are Illuch more necessary than the more abstruse parts. 
In short, the being able to state right the grounds of our hope, 
and the terms of salvation, and the having a clear and ready 
view' of the De\V covenant in Christ Jesus, is of such absolute 
necessity, that it is a profaning of orders, and a defiling of the 
sanctuary, to bring any into it, that do not rightly understand 
this Inatter in its whole extent. Bishop Pearson on the Creed 
is a book of great learning and profound exactness. Dr. Barro\v 
has opened it ,vith more sinlplicity; and Dr. Towerson Dlore 
practically: one or other of these IllUSt be well read and consi- 
dered. But when I say read, I lllean read and read over again, 
so oft that. one is nlaster of one of these books; he IllUSt \"Tite 
notes out of thenl, and Illake abridgments of thenl, and turn them 
so oft in his thoughts, that he nlust thoroughly understand and 



VI tIle PasfO'fal Cal'e. 


161 


\vcll renlClnbcr then1. He n1ust read also the Psaln1s over so 
carefully that he may at least have a general notion of those 
divine hJtnns; to which bishop Patrick's Paraphrase will help 
to carry hinl. 
A system of divinity must be read with exactness: they are 
almost all aìike. 'Yhen I was young, 'Vendelin and 
Iaresius 
'were the two shortest and fullest. Here is a vast error in the 
first forn1ing of our clergy, that a contenlpt has been cast on that 
sort of books; and indeed to rise no higher than to a perpetual 
reading oyer different sJstems, is but a mean pitch of learning; 
ahd the swallowing down whole systems by the IUlnp has helped 
to possess people's minds too early" ith prejudices, and to shut 
thetll up in too inlplicit a following of others. But the throwing 
off aU these books Inakes that many who have read a great. deal, 
yet have no entire body of divinity in their head; they have no 
scheme or nlethod, and so are ignorant of some very plain things, 
which could never have happened to them, if they had carefully 
read and digested a system into their n1enlories. But because 
thh
 is indeed a very low fornl; therefore to lead a man further, 
to have a freer view of divinity, to examine things equally and 
clearly, and to use his own reason, by balancing the various 
views, that two great divisions of protestants have, not only in 
the points which they controvert, but in a great nlany others, 
in which though they agree in the same conclusions, yet they 
arrive at then1 by very different prenlises; I would advise hin1 
that studies divinity, to read two larger bodies, writ by sonle 
etninellt men of both sides; and, because the latest are con1- 
monly the best, Turretin for the whole Calvinist hypothesis, and 
LÍ1nborch for the Anninian, win lllake a tuan fully the nlaster of 
all the notions of both sides. Or if one would see how far middle 
ways may be taken, the 1'heses of SaUTIIUr, or Le Blanc's Theses, 
will conlplete him in that. These books well read, digested into 
abstracts, and frequently reviewed or talked over by two COlll- 
panions in 
tudy, will give a nlan an entire view of the whole body 
of diyinity. 
But, by reason of that pest of atheism, that spreads so much 
among us, the foundations of religion HUlst be well laid : bishop 
'Vïlkins's book of Natural l{eligion win lead one in the first steps 
through the principles that he has laid together in a plain and 
natural 11lethod. Grotins's book of the Truth of the Christian 
lleligion, with his notes upon it, ought to be read and ahuost 
J[ 



16Q 


01 the Pasto}
al Care. 


got by heart. The ,vhole controversy Loth of atheislll and deisll1, 
the argunlents both for the Old and New Testalnent, are fully 
opened, ,vith a great variety both of learning and reasoning, in 
bishop Stillingfleet's Origines Sacræ. 
There remains only to direct a student how to fornl right 
notions of practical rnatters; and particularly of preaching. Dr. 
Halllillond'>s Practical Catechisln is a book of great use; but not 
to be begun with, as too nlany do: it does require a good deal 
of previous study, before the force of his reasonings is appre- 
hended; but when one is ready for it, it is a rare book, and 
statps the grounds of nlorality and of our duty, upon true prin- 
ciples. To form one to understand the right lllethod of preach- 
ing, the extent of it, and the proper ways of application, bishop 
Sanderson, 1\11'. Faringdon, and Dr. Barrow, are the best and the 
fullest nlodels. 'There is a vast variety of other senllons, ,vhich 
may be read ,vith an equalilleasure of advantage and pleasure. 
And if from the tinle that one resolves to direct his studies to- 
,yards the church, he ,vould every Lord's day read two sern10ns 
of any good preacher, and turn thenI a little over in his thoughts, 
this would insensibly, in two or three years tilne, carry hin1 very 
far, and give him a large view of the different ,vays of preaching, 
and furnish hinl with materials for handling a great 111any texts 
of scripture when he COlnes to it. 
And thus I have carried my student through those studies, 
that seem to nle so necessary for qualifying hirr! to be an able 
Ininister of the New Testau1ent, that I cannot see how any 
article of this can be well abated. It may seelll strange, that in 
this \vhole direction I have said nothing concerning the study of 
the fathers or church-history. But I said at first that a great 
distinction was to be luade between what ,vas necessary to pre- 
pare a man to be a priest, and what was necessary to luake him 
a conJplete and learned divine. 
The knowledge of these things is necessary to the latter, 
though they do not seeIn so necessary for the former: there are 
lnany things to be left to the prosecution of a divine's study, 
that therefore are not nlentioned here, not with any design to 
disparage that sort of learning; for I [un now only upon that 
lueasure of knowledge, under which I heartily wish that no nUln 
,vere put in priest's orders; and therefore I haye passed over 
many other things, such as the nlore accurate understanding of 
the controversi
8 between us and the church of ROlne, and the 



O.f the IJastoral Care. 


IUS 


unhappy disputes Letween us and the dissenters of all sorts; 
though both the one and the other have of late been opened with 
that perspicuity, that fulness of argtul1ent, and that clearness as 
well as softness of style, that a collection of these n1ay give a 
luan the fullest instruction, that is to be found in any books I 
know. Others, and perhaps the far greater number, will think 
that I have clogged this Inatter too 111uch. But I desire these 
DUtY consider how luuch we do justly reckon that our profession 
is preferable either to law or medicine. Now, if this is true, it 
is not unreasonable that, since those who pretend to these must 
be at so nluch pains, before they enter upon a practice which 
relates only to Iuen's fortunes or their persons, we, ,vhose 
labours relate to their souls and their eternal state, should be 
at least at sonle considerable pains before we enter upon them. 
Let any young di\'ine go to the chall1bers of a student in the 
Inns of Court, and see how nlany books he lllust read, and ho\v 
great a volunle of a conlmon-pJace-book he must 111ake: he will 
there see through how hard a task one Dlust go in a course of 
many years, and how ready he 111Ust be in all the parts of it. 
before he is called to the bar or can Inanage business. Ho\v 
exact 111Ust a physician be in anatolny, in sinlples, in pharnlacy, 
in the theory of diseases, and in the observations and counsels 
of doctors, before he can either with honour or a safe conscience 
undertake practice! lIe Dlust be ready with all this, and in 
that infinite number of hard words, that belong to every part of 
it, to give his directions and write his bills by the patient's bed- 
side; who C3.nnot stay till he goes to his study and turns over 
his books. If then so long a course of study, and so nluch 
exactness and readiness in it, is necessary to these professions; 
nay, if every mechanical art, even the lneanest, requires a course 
of lnauy years, before one can be a Inaster in it, shull the noblest 
and the lnost iUlportant of all others, that which conles fron1 
heaven and leads thither again; shall that which God has 
honoured so highly, and to which laws and go"ernll1ents have 
added such privileges and encouragements, that is employed ill 
the suLlimest exerciseb, which require a proportioned worth in 
those who handle thenl, to Inaintain their value and dignity in 
the esteenl of the world; shall all this, I say, be esteelued so low 
a thing in our eyes, that a nluch less degree of tinle and study 
is nece
sary to arrive at it, than at the lllost sordid of all trades 
whatsoe\'er 
 And Jet, after aU, a man of a tolerable capacity, 
:\J 2 



164 


Of th
 Pastoral Care. 


"Tith a good degree of application, may go through all this well 
and exactly in two years time. I am very sure, by Inany an 
experiment I have made, that this may be done in a luuch less 
con1pass; but because all men do not go alike quick, have not 
the san1e force, nor the same application, therefore I reckon two 
years for it; which I do thus divide: one year before deacon's 
orders, and another bet\veen them and priest's orders. And can 
this be thought a hard in1position 
 Or do not those, who think 
thus, give great occasion to the contempt of the clergy, if they 
give the world cause to observe, that how much soever we may 
magnify our profession, yet by our practice \ve shew that ,ve do 
judge it the meanest of all others, ,vhich is to be arrived at upon 
less previous study and preparation to it, than any other what- 
soever 
 Since I have been hitherto so minute, I will yet divide 
this matter a little lower into those parts of it, \vithout which 
deacon's orders ought not to be given, and those to be reserved 
to the second year of study. To have read the Ne\v Testament 
,veIl, so as to carry a great deal of it in one's lllelllory, to have a 
clear notion of the several books of it, to understand ,veIl the 
nature and the conditions of the covenant of grace, and to have 
read one system well, so as to be master of it, to understand the 
whole catechetical matter, to have read \Vilkins and Grotius; 
this, I say, is that part of this task, \vhich I propose before one 
is n1ade deacon. The rest, though much the larger, ,vill go the 
easier, if those foundations are once well laid in them. And 
upon the article of studying the scriptures, I will add one advice 
more. 
There are two methods in reading thelll; the one ought to be 
merely critical, to find out the meaning and coherence of the 
several parts of them, in \vhich one runs easily through the 
greater part, and is only obliged to stop at some harder pas- 
sages, \vhich luay be marked down, and learned men are to be 
consulted upon them: those that are really hard to be eXplained 
are both few and they relate to matters that are not so essential 
to Christianity; and therefore after one has in general seen what 
is said upon these, he may put off the fuller consideration of that 
to more leisure and better opportunities. I3ut the other ,yay 
of reatling the scriptures is to be done Inerely with a vie\v to 
practice, to raise devotion, to increase piety, and to give good 
thoughts and severe rules. In this a n1an is to employ himself 
lunch. This is a book always at hand
 and the getting a great 



Of tILe Pastoral Care. 165 
deal of it always by heart is the best part of a clergYlnan's study; 
it is the foundation, and lays in the lnaterials for an the rest. 
This alone nlay furni
h a man with a noble stock of lively 
thoughts and subliIlle expressions; and therefore it nlust be 
always reckoned as that, without which all other things anlount 
to nothing; and the chief and nlain subject of the study, the 
Ineditation and the discourses of a clergyman. 


CHAP. VIII. 
Of the f
/;nctiolls and labours of clerg!Jlnen. 
I HA'TE in the fornler chapter laid down the model aod 
method, by which a clerk is to be fOrIned and prepared: I COlne 
no,,," to consider his course of life, his public functions and his 
secret labours. In this, as ,veIl as in the fornler, I will study to 
consider what mankind can bear, rather than what may be 
offered in a fair idea, that is far above what we can hope ever 
to bring the world to. As for a priest's life and conversation, 
so Inuch was said in the former chapter; in which, as a prepa- 
ration to orders, it was proposed what he ought to be; that I 
may now be the shorter on this article. 
The clergy have one great advantage, beyond all the rest. of 
the world, in this respect, besides all others" that whereas the 
particular callings of other men prove to them great dish'actions, 
and lay n1any temptations in their way, to divert them fronl 
D1inding their high and holy calling of being Christians; it is 
quite otherwise with the clergy; the more they follow their 
private callings, they do the Inore certainly ad vance their gene- 
ral one: the better priests they are, they become also the better 
Christians: every part of their caning, when wen perfornled, 
raises good thoughts, brings good ideas into their luind, and 
tends both to increase their knowledge and quicken their sense 
of divine natters. A priest therefore is more accountable to God 
and the world for his deportment, and will be more severely 
accounted with, than any other person ,vhatsoever. He is Inore 
watched over and observed than all others; very good nlen ,vill 
be, even to a censure, jealous of him; very bad ruen will wait 
for his halting and insult upon it; and all sorts of persons will 
be willing to defend thenlselves against the authority of his doc- 
trine and adnlonitions by this, H He says, but does not :" and 
though our Saviour charged his disciples and followers, to hea'p 



166 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


those 'who sat in JJIoses' chair, and to ObSei'i:e and do 'lvnatsoe'ver 
they bid then
 obse1'"ve, but not to do after their 'lvorJ.:s, for they .said 
and did note; the ,vorld \vill reverse this quite, and consider 
rather how a clerk lives, than ,,,hat he says. They see the one, 
and fronl it conclude what he hinlself thinks of the other; and 
so will be1ieve theInselves not a little justified, if they can say 
that they did no \vorse than as they sa,,,, their 111inister do before 
theln. 
Therefore a priest nlust not only abstain fronl gross scandals: 
but keep at the furthest distance fronl them: he 111USt not only 
not be drunk, but he must not sit a tippling, nor go to taverns 
or alehouses, except some urgent occasion requires it, and stay 
no longer in thenl, than as tJlat occasion denlands it. He nlust 
not only abstain fronl acts of lewdness, but from all indecent 
behaviour and unbecolning raillery. GaIning and plays, and 
every thing of that sort, which is an approach to the vanities and 
disorders of the ,yorld, Inust be avoided by hinl. And, unless 
the straitness of his condition or his necessities force it, he ought 
to shun all other cares; such as, not only the farnling of 
grounds, but even the teaching of schools, since these must of 
necessity take hin} off both from his labour and study. Such 
diversions as his health, or the tenlper of his n1Ïnd, 11lay render 
proper for hinl, ought to be Inan{y, decent, and grave; and such 
as may neither possess his luind or tilne too Inuch, nor give a 
bad character of hiln to his people. He lllust also avoid too 
much familiarity with bad people, and the squandering away 
his tinle in too lTIuch vain and idle discourse. I-lis cheerfulness 
ought to be frank, but neither excessive nor licentious: his 
friends and his garden ought to be his chief diversions, as his 
study and his parish ought to be his chief elnploYlnents. He 
nlust still carryon his study, making himself an absolute nlaster 
of the few books he has, till his c
rclllnstances grow larger, that 
he can purchase more. He can haye no pretence, if he were 
ever so narrow in the world, to say, that he cannot get not only 
the ColIects, but the Psalnls, and the 
ew Testalnent by heart, 
or at least a great part of then!. If there be any books belong- 
ing to his church, such as J ewers 'V orks, and the Book of 
Martyrs, which lie tearing in luany places, t.hese he may read 
over and over again, till he is able to furnish hilllself better, I 
mean \vith a greater variety: but let him furnish hilnself ever so 
e 
Iatt. xxiii, 2, 3. 



OJ'tn Pasto;'al Oare. 


167 


well, the reading and understanding the scriptures, chiefly the 
PsalnlS and the New Test:unent, ought to be still his chief study, 
till he becomes so conversant in then1, that he can both say 
nlany parts of then1, and explain thenl without book. 
It is the only visible reason of the Jews adhering so firn1Iy to 
their religion, that during the ten or twelve years of their 
education, their youth are so nluch practised to the scriptures, 
to weigh every word in then1, and get them all by heart, that it 
is an adrniration to see how ready both n1en and WOInen all10ng 
thern are at it: their rabbies have it to that perfection, that they 
have the concordance of their whole Bible in their melnories; 
,vhich gives then1 vast advantages, when they are to argue with 
any that are not so ready as they are in the scriptures. Our 
task is nluch shorter and easier, and it is a reproach, especially 
to us protestants, who found our religion merely on the scrip- 
tures, that we know the New Testament so little, which cannot 
be excused. 
'Vith the study of the scriptures, or rather as a part of it, 
comes in the study of the fathers, as far as one can go ; in these, 
their apologies and epistles are chiefly to be read, for these gÎ\.e 
us the best view of those tinIes. Basirs and Chrysostonl"s ser- 
mons are by much the best. To these studies, history comes in 
as a noble and pleasant addition; that gives a nlan great views 
of the providence of God, of the nature of man and of the con- 
duct of the world. This is above no man's capacity; and though 
sonle histories are better than others, Jet any histories, such as 
one can get, are to he read, rather than none at all. If one can 
compass it, he ought to begin with the history of the church, 
and there at the head Josephus, and go on with Eusebius, So- 
crates, and the other historians, that are commonly bound to- 
gether; and then go to other later collectors of ancient history. 
The history of our own church and country is to cOlne next; then 
the ancient Greek and ROlnan history; and after that, as lnuch 
l1Ístory, geography, and books of tra,vels, as can be had, will 
give an easy and a useful entertainment, and will furnish one 
with great variety of good thoughts, and of pleasant as well as 
edifying discourse, As for all other studies, everyone Inust 
follow his inclinations, his capacities, and tha.t which he can 
procure to himself. The books that we learn at schools are 
generally laid aside, with this prejudice, that they were the 
labours as wen as the sorrows of our childhood and education; 



168 


Of the Pastoral Caj'e. 


but they are anlong the best of books; the Greek and Ronlan 
authors have n spirit in thmn, a force both of thought and ex- 
pression, that later ages have not been able to imitate; Bu- 
chanan only excepted, in wholu, lnore particularly in his Psalnls, 
there is a beauty and life, an exactness as ,veIl as a liberty, that 
cannot be imitated, and scarce enough commended. The study 
and practice of physic, especially that which is safe and siInple, 
puts the clergy in a capacity of doing great acts of charity, and 
of rendering both their persons and labours very acceptable to 
their people; it will procure their being soon sent for by them in 
sickness, and it. will give them great advantages in speaking to 
them of their spiritual concerns, when they are so careful of 
their persons: but in this nothing that is sordid must mix. 
These ought to be the chief studies of the clergy. But to 
give all these their full effect, a priest that is n1uch in his study 
ought to enlploya great part of his time in secret and fervent 
prayer, for the direction and blessing of God in his labours, for 
the constant assistance of his holy Spirit, and for a lively sense 
of divine lnatters, that so he 111ay feel the impressions of theln 
grow deep and strong upon his thoug-hts. This, and this only, 
\vill luake hin1 go on with his ,york without ,vearying, and be 
always rejoicing in it: this will make Ilis expressions of these 
things to be happy and noble, when he can bring thenl out of 
the good treasure of his heart, that is ever fun, and al \Va ys warnl 
with thenl. 
From bis study, I go next to his public functions. He nlust 
bring his mind to an inward and feeling sense of those things 
that are prayed for in our Offices: that ,vill make him pronounce 
them with an equal measure of gravity and affection, and with a 
due slowness and eluphasis. I do not love the theatrical ,yay of 
the church of ROlne, in \vhich it is a great study, and a long 
practice, to learn in everyone of their Offices, ho\v they ought 
to compose their looks, gesture and voice: yet a light ,vander- . 
ing of the eyes, and a hasty running through the prayers, are 
things highly unbecoming; they do very llluch lessen the 
lnajesty of our \vorship, and give our enemies advantage to call 
it dead and fonnal, ,vhen they see plainly, that he who officiates 
is dead and forInal in it. A deep sense of the things prayed for, 
a true recollection and attention of spirit, and a holy earnestness 
of soul, will give a conlposnre to the looks, and a weight to the 
pronunciation, that will be ten1pered between affectation on the 



Of the Pastoral Cal't. 169 
one hand, and levity on the other. As for preaching, I refer 
that to a chapter apart. 
A minister ought to instruct his people frequently of the 
nature of baptism, that they nH1Y not go about it merely as a 
cerenlony, as it is too visible the greater part do; but that they 
nuty consider it is the dedicating their children to God, the 
offering them to Christ, and the holding them thereafter as his; 
directing their chief care about then1, to the breeding them up 
in the 'Jl1trtltl"e and adnwnition of the Lord. There must be care 
taken to give them all a l'ight notion of the use of godfathers and 
godnlothers, which is a good institution, to procure a double se- 
curity for the education of children; it being to be supposed, 
that the con1mon ties of nature and religion bind the parents so 
strongly, that if they are not nundful of these, a special vo\v 
would not put a new force in them: and therefore a collateral se- 
curity is also delnanded, both to supply their defects, if they 
are faulty, and to take care of the religious education of the 
infant, in case the parents should happen to die before that is 
done. And therefore no godfather or godmother are to be 
invited to that office, but such with wholn one would trust the 
care of the education of his child; nor ought any to do this 
office for another, but he that is willing to charge hÌ1nself \vith 
the education of the child for whon1 he answers. But when 
alnbition or vanity, favour or presents-r are the considerations 
upon which those sureties in baptisn1 are chosen, great advantage 
is hereby given to those who reject infant-baptisn1, and the ends 
of the church in this institution are quite defeated; \vhich 
are both the nlaking the security that is given for the chil- 
dren so nluch the stronger, and the establishing an endear- 
ment and a tenderness between fan1ilies; this being in its own 
nature no small tie, how little soever it n1ay be apprehended or 
understood. 
Great care 111Ust be taken in the instruction of the youth: the 
bare saying the Catechisll1 by rote is a small matter; it is 
necessary to make then1 understand the weight of every word in 
it: and for this end every priest, that n1Ïnds his duty, will find 
that no part of it is so useful to his people, as once every year to 
go through the whole Church-Catechisln, \vord by word, and 
n1ake his people understand the ilnportance of every tittle in it. 
This win be no hard labour to himself; for after he has once 
gathered together the places of scripture that relate to every 



170 


OjW the Pasto/'al Care. 


article, and fonned some clear illustrations and easy sÏ1niles 
to make it understood, his catechetieal discourses, during all the 
rest of his life, will be only the going over that same matter 
again and again. By this means his people will conle to have 
all this by heart; they will kno'v what to say upon it at hOlne 
to their children; and they ,vill understand all his sernlons the 
better, ,,,hen they have once had a clear notion of all those ternlS 
that nIust run through thenl; for those not being understood 
renders thenl all unintelIigiLle. A discourse of this sort would 
be generally of nIuch greater edification than an afternoon's 
sernIon: it should not be too long; too nIuch must not be said 
at a time, nor Inore than one point opened; a quarter of an hour 
is tinIe sufficient; for it will gro,v tedious and be too little 
remembered, if it is half an hour long. This would draw an 
assenlbly to evening prayers, \vhich ,ve see are but too nIuch 
neglected, ,,,hen there is no sort of discourse or sermon ac- 
companying them. And the practising this, during the six 
months of the year, in which the days are long, would be a very 
effectuallneans both to instruct the people, and to bring thenI to 
a more religious observation of the Lord"s day; which is one of 
the powerfullest instrlunents for the carr
.ing on and advancing 
of religion in the world. 
'Vith catechising" a Ininist
r is to join the preparing those 
,",hon1 he instructs to Le confirmed, which is not to be done 
merely upon their being able to say over so lHany ,,"orda by rote. 
It is their renewing their baptisnlal vow in their own persons, 
,vhich the church designs by that Office; and the bearing in 
their own n1inds a sense of thcir being bound ilnmediately by 
that, which their sureties then undertook for thenI. No\v to do 
this in such a manner, as that it nlay make inlpression, and have 
a due effect upon thenl, they must stay till they therl1selves 
understand what they do, and till they ha,?e sonle sense and 
affection to it; and therefore till one is of an age and disposition 
fit to recei\?e the holy sacran1ent of the Lord's supper, and 
desires to be confirlned, as a solenln preparation and qualification 
to it, he is not yet ready for it: for in the coronlon nIanagenlent 
of that holy rite, it is but too visible, that of those nlultitudes 
that crowd to it, the far greater part cOlne nlerelyas if they were 
to receive the bishop's blessing, ,vithout any sense of the VO\v 
made by thenl: and of their renewing their baptisillal engage- 
ments in it. 



Of the Pastoral Gæì'e. 171 
As for the greatest and solen1nest of all the institutions of 
Christ, the commen10rating his death, and the partaking of it in 
the Lord's supper; this must be well explained to the peopJe, 
to preserve them fronl the extrelues of superstit.ion and irre- 
verence; to raise in then1 a great sense of the goodness of God, 
that appeared in the death of Christ; of his love to us, of the 
sacrifice he once offered, and of the intercession which he still 
continues to n1ake for us: a share in all which, is there federally 
offered to us, upon our coming under engagements, to answer 
our part of the covenant, and to live according to the rules it 
sets us. On these things he ought to enlarge himself, not only 
in his 8ern10ns, but in his catechetical exercisE1s, and in private 
discourses; that so he lllay give his people right notions of that 
SOleIlln part of worship, that he may bring them to delight in it; 
and Inay neither fright them from it, by raising their apprehen- 
sions of it to a strictness that n1ay terrify too n1uch, nor encourage 
them in the too conUllon practice of the dead and fornlal 
l
ecei\'ing, at the great festivals, as a piece of decency recon1- 
luended by custon1. 
About the time of the sacralnent, every nlinister that knows 
anyone of his parish guilty of enIÏnent sins, ought to go and 
adluonish hinl to change his course of life, or not to profane the 
table of the Lord.; and if pri\'ate adlnonitions have no effect, 
then if his sins are public and scandalous, he ought to deny him 
the sacranlent; and upon that he ought to take the method 
which is still left in the church to n1ake sinners ashan1ed, to 
separate them from holy things, till they have edified the church 
as n1uch by their repentance, and the outward profession of it, 
as they had forn1erly scandalized it by their disorders. This we 
must confess, that though ,ve have great reason to lan1ent our 
want of the godly discipline that was in the prÏJnithye church, 
)yet we have still authority for a great deal more than we put 
in practice. Scandalous persons ought, and might be more 
frequently presented than the)" are, and both private and public 
adn10nitions might be n10re used than they are. There is a flat- 
ness in all these things among us. Some are willing to do 
nothing, because they cannot do all that they ought to do; 
whereas the right way for procuring an enlargement of our 
authority, is to use that we have well; not as an engine to 
gratify our own or other people's passions, not to vex people, 
nor to look after fees, Inore than the correction of manners, or 



17Q 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


the edification of the people. If we began much \vith private 
applicat.ions, and brought none into our courts, till it was visible 
that all other ,va)'s had been unsuccessful, and that no regard 
was had either to persons or parties, to nlen's opinions or 
interests, "e might again bring our courts into the esteem which 
they ought to have, but which they have ahnost entirely lost. 
"r e can never hope to bring the world to bear the yoke of 
Christ, and the order that he has appointed to be kept up in his 
church, of noting those that \valk disorderly, of separating our- 
selves froln then1, of having no fello,vship, no, not so much as 
to eat with them; as long as we give them cause to apprehend, 
that ,ve intend by this to bring thelll under our yoke, to subdue 
them to us, and to rule the
 with a rod of iron; for the truth is, 
111ankind is 80 strangely cOlnpounded, that it is very hard to 
restrain ecclesiastical tyranny on the one hand, ,vithout running 
to a lawless licentiousness on the other: so strangely does the 
,vorld love extreules and avoid a telllper. 
N o,v I have gone t.hrough the public functions of a priest; 
and in speaking of the last of these, I have broke in upon the 
third head of his duty, his private labours in his parish. He 
understands little the nature and the obligations of the priestly 
office, who thinks he has discharged it by perfonning the public 
appointn1ents; in ,vhich if he is defective, the la,ys of the 
church, ho,v feeble soever they lllay be as to other things, ,viII 
have their course. But as the private duties of the pastoral care 
are things upon ,vhich the cognizance of the law cannot fall, so 
they are the nlost ÏIuportant and necessary of all others: and the 
more praiseworthy, the freer they are and the less forced by the 
c0111pulsion of la,v. As to the public functions, every lllan has 
his rule; and in these all are aln10st alike; every man
 especially 
if his lungs are good, can read prayers, even in the largest con- 
gregation; and if he has a right t3,ste, and can but choose good 
sernlons, out of the lnany that are in print, he DIay likewise serve 
them ,veIl that ,yay too. But the difference between one Ulan 
and anot.her shews itself Inore sensibly in his private labours, 
in his prudent deportnlent, in his nlodest and discreet ,yay of 
procuring respect to hiulself, in his treating his parish, either in 
reconciling such differences as n1ay happen to be :llnong them, 
or in admonishing 111e11 of rank, who set an ill exan1ple to others, 
\vhich ought always to be done in that way, which ,viII probably 
have the best effect upon thell1; therefore it nUlst be done 



OJ. tll Pastoral Oa1
e. 


173 


secretly, and \\ith expres:o:ions of tenderness and respect for their 
persons: fit times are to be chosen for this; it may be often the 
best way to do it by a letter; for there may be ways fallen 
upon of reproving the '\'orst men in so soft a n1anner, that if 
t.hey are not reclain1ed, yet they shaH not be irritated or Jnade 
\vorse by it, which is but too often the effect of an indiscreet re- 
proof. By this a minister nIay save the sinner's soul; he is at 
least sure to save his own, by having discharged his duty towards 
his people. 
One of the chief parts of the pastoral care is, the visiting the 
sick; not to be done barely when one is sent for: he is to go as 
soon as he hears that any of his flock are ill; he is not to 
satisfy himself with going over the Office, or giving them the 
sacrament when desired: he ought to inform hinIself of their 
course of life, and of the temper of their mind, tbat so he nULY 
apply himself to theIn accordingly. If they are insensible, he 
ought to awaken thenI with the terrors of God, the judgment 
and the wrath to come. He must endeavour to make thell1 
sensible of their sins; particularly of that which runs through 
most men's lives, their forgetting and neglecting God and his 
service, and their setting their hearts so inordinately upon the 
world. He nIust set them on to examine their dealings, and 
make them seriously to consider, that they can expect no nIercy 
fronl God, unless they restore whatsoever they may have got 
unjustly from any other, by any nIanner of ,yay, even though 
their title "yere confirnled by law. He is to lay any other sins 
to their charge, that he has reason to suspect them guilty of; 
and must press them to all such acts of repentance as they are 
then capable of. If they have been men of a bad course of life, 
he must give then1 no encouragmnent to hope Jl1uch from this 
death-bed repentance; yet he is to set then1 to implore the 
111ercies of God in Christ Jesus, and to do all they can to obtain 
his favour. But unless the sickness has been of a long continu- 
ancE', and that the person's repent[tn
e, his patience, his piety, 
has been very extraordinary during the course of it, he nlust be 
sure to give hiJU no positive ground of hope; but lea.ye hÍ1n to 
the luercies of God. For there cannot be any greater treachery 
to soul
, that is 11l0re fatal and nlore pernicious, than the giving 
quick and easy hopes, upon so short, so forced and so imperfect 
a repentance. It not only n1akes those persons perish securely 
thenIselves, but it leads all about thenI to destruction, when they 



174 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


see one, of \vhose bad life and late repentance they have been 
the \vitnesses, put so soon in hopes, nay by sonle unfaithful 
guides lluLde sure of salvation: this must Inake theln go on very 
secure in their sins, ,vhen they see how sl11a11 a nleasure of 
repentance sets all right at last. All the order and justice of a 
nation ,vould be presently dissolved, should the howlings of 
crin1Ïnals, and their promises of anlendment, ,vork on juries, 
judges or princes: so the hopes that are given to death-bed 
penitents must be a IllOSt effectual means to root out the sense 
of religion of the Ininds of all that see it. And therefore though 
no dying man is to be driven to despair, and left to die obstinate 
in his sins; )1et if we love the souls of our people, if we set a 
due value on the blood of Christ, and if ,ve are touched with any 
sense of the honour or interests of religion, ,ve Inust not say any 
thing that may encourage others, \vho are but too apt of thenl- 
selves to put all off to the last hour. "r e can give thelll no 
hopes from the nature of the gospel-covenant; yet after an, the 
best thing a dying man can do is to repent.; if he recovers, that 
may be the seed and beginning of a new life and a new nature 
in hinI. Nor do ,ve know the l11easure of the riches of God's 
grace tLnd nlercy; ho\v far he 111ay think fit to exert it beyond 
the conditions and promises of the ne\v covenant, at least to the 
lessening of such a person's misery in another state. 'Ye are 
f;ure he is not within the new covenant; and since he has not 
repented, according to the tenor of it, we dare not, unless we 
betray our cOlunlission, give any hopes beyond it. But one of 
the chief cares of a nlinister about the sick ought to be to exact 
of them solonIn vows and pronlises of a renovation of life, in case 
God shall raise them up again; and these ought to be denlanded, 
not only in general ,vords, but if they have been guilty of any 
scandalous disorders, or any other ill practices, there ought to 
be special proillises made with relation to those. A nd upon the 
recovery of such persons, their nlinistcrs ought t.o put, thenI in 
mind of their engagenlents, and use all the due freedom of 
admonitions and reproof, upon their breaking loose from them. 
In such a case they ought to leave a terrible denunciation of t.he 
judgnlents of God upon thenI; and so, at least, they acquit 
themsel ves. 
There is another sort of sick persons, who abound nlore in 
towns than in the country; those are the troubled ill mind: of 
these there are two sorts; sonle have cOlllmitt.ed enormous sins, 



OJ the Pastoral Care. 


175 


which kindle tt stornl in their consciences; anù that ought to be 
cherished, till they have conlpleted a repentance proportioned to 
the nat.ure and degree of their sin. If wrong has been done to 
another, reparation and restitution lllust be made to the utInost 
of the party's power. If blood has been shed, a long course of 
fasting and prayer; a total ttbstinence frOnl wine, if drunkenness 
gave the rise to it; a making up the loss to the family, on which 
it has fallen, 111USt be enjoined. But alas! the greater part of 
those that think they are troubled in mind are nlelancholy 
hypochondriacal people, who, what through sonle false opinions 
in religion, what through a foulness of blood, occasioned by their 
unacti ve course of life, in which their nlinds work too luuch, 
because their bodies are too little enlployed, fall under dark and 
cloudy apprehensions; of which they can give 110 clear nor good 
account. This, in the greatest part, is to be removed by strong 
and chalybeate nIedicines; yet such persons are to be nluch 
pitied, :lnd a little humoured in their distenlper. They must be 
diverted from thinkin
 too much, being too IllUC
 alone, or 
dwelling tuo long on thoughts that are too hard for then1 to 
nlaster. 
The opinion that has had the chief influence in raising these 
di
telllpers, has been that of praying by the Spirit; when a flanle 
of thought, a melting in the brain, and the abounding in tender 
expressions, have been thought the effects of the Spirit, moving 
all those synlptonlS of a WarIH telllper. Now in all people, espe- 
cially in persons of a Inelancholy disposition, that are much alone, 
there will be a great diversity, with relation to this, at different 
titues: sOlnetimes these heats will rise and flow copiously, and 
at other tinIes there will be a danlp upon the brain, and a dead 
drJness in the spirits. This, to nlen that are prepossessed with 
the opinion now set forth, will appear as if God did sometimes 
shine out, and at other tinIes hide his face; and since this last 
win be the nlost frequent. in filen of that. teluper, as they will be 
apt to be lifted up, when they think they have a fulness of the 
Spirit in them, so they will be as lnuch cast down when that is 
withdrawn; they will conclude froln it, that God is angry with 
them, and so reckon that the\T must be in a very danO'erous COll- 
.J .. 
 
dition: upon this, a vast variety of troublesonle scruples will 
arise, out of every thing that they either do or have done. If 
then a Ininister has occasion to treat any in this condition, he 
must rnake then1 apprehend that the heat or coldness of their 



176 


Of tlte Pastoral Care. 


brain is the effect of telnper, and flows from the different state or 
the aninlal spirits, ,vhich have their diseases, their hot and their 
cold fits, ttS ,veIl as the blood has; and therefore no measure can 
be taken froln these either to judge for or against thell1selves. 
They are to consider ,,,hat are their principles and resolutions, 
and what is the settled course of their life; upon these they are 
to form sure judgments, ttnd not upon any thing that is so fluc- 
tuating and inconstant as fits or humours. 
Another part of a priest's duty is, with relation to them that 
are without, I mean, that are not of our body, which are of the 
side of the church of Ron1e, or an10ng the dissenters. Other 
churches and bodies are noted for their zeal in l11aking prose- 
lytes, for their restless endeavours, as ,veIl as their unla,vful 
methods in it; they reckoning, perhaps, thttt all will be sancti- 
fied by the increasing their party; ,vhich is the true name of 
Inaking converts, except they become at the same time good 
men, as ,veIl as votaries to a side or cause. \Ve are certainly 
very rell1Íss in this of both hands; little pains is taken to gain 
either upon papist or nonconformist; the law has been so n1uch 
trusted to, that that nlethod only ,vas thought sure; it ,vas Inuch 
valued, and others at the san1e tÌIne as nluch neglected; ttnd 
,vhereas at first, without force or violence, in forty years time, 
popery, from being the prevailing religion, ,vas reduced to a 
handful, ,ve have now in abo,Te twice that nUlllber of years made 
very little progress. The favour she,ved them fron1 our court 
made us seem, as it ,vere, unwilling to disturb theln in their 
religion; so that we grew at last to be kind to them, to look on 
them as hannless and inoffensive neighbours, and even to cherish 
and comfort them: ,ve ,vere very near the being convinced of 
our mistake, by a terrible and dearbought experience. N o'v 
they are again under luttches; certainly it beconles us, both in 
charity to then1, and in regard tú our o,vn sttfety, to study to 
gain them by the force of reason ttnd persuasion; by shewing 
all kindness to thein, and thereby disposing theIn to hrarken to 
the reasons that ,ve may lay before thenl. 'Ve ought not to give 
over this as desperate, upon a few unsuccessful attempts; but 
nlust folIo,v the}n in the meekness of Christ, that so we may at 
last prove happy instrulllcnts, in delivering theln fi.Oln the 
Llindness and captivity they are kept under, and the idolatry 
and superstition t.hey live in: we ought to yisit thelli often in a 
spirit of love and charity, and to offer thenl conferences; and 



Of the Pastoral Care. 


177 


upon such endeavours we have reason to expect a blessing, at 
least this, of having done our duty, and so delivering our own 
souls. 
Nor are we to think that the toleration, under which the law 
has settled the dissenters, does either absolve then1 fron1 the 
obligations that they lay under before, by the la,vs of God and 
the gospel, to maintain the unity of the church, and not to rent 
it by unjust or causeless schisn1s; or us fron1 using our endea- 
vours to bring then1 to it, by the methods of persuasion and 
kindness: nay, perhaps, their being now in circun1stances, that 
tl:.ey can no more be forced in these things, may put son1e of 
them in a greater towardness to hear reason; a free nation natu- 
rally hating constraint: and certainly the less ,ve seem to grudge 
or envy then1 their liberty, we ,vill be thereby the nearer gain- 
ing on the generouser and better part of then1, and the rest 
would soon lose heart, and look out of countenance, if these 
should hearken to us. I t was the opinion many had of their 
strictness, and of the looseness that was among us, that gained 
then1 their credit, and made such numbers fall off from us. 
They have in a great lneasure lost the good character that once 
they had: if to that we should likewise lose our bad one; if ,ve 
were stricter in our lives, more serious and constant in our 
labours, and studied n10re effectually to refom1 those of our 
communion, than to rail at theirs; if we took occasion to let 
thenl see that we love them, that we wish them no harm, but 
good; then ,ve might hope, by the blessing of God, to lay the 
obligations to love and peace, to unity and concord before 
then1, with such advantages, that son1e of them n1ight open their 
eyes, and see at last upon how slight grounds they have no\v so 
long kept up such a wrangling, and made such a rent in the 
church, that both the power of religion in general, and the 
strength of the protestant religion, have suffered extren1ely by 
them. 
Thus far I have carried a clerk through his parish, and all the 
several branches of his duty to his people. But that all this may 
be well gone about, and indeed as the foundation upon which all 
the other parts of the pastoral care may be well managed, he 
ought frequently to visit his whole parish from house to house; 
that so he may know them, and be known of then1. This, I 
know, ,viII seem a vast labour, especially in towns, where 
parishes are large; but that is no excuse for those in the 
N 



178 


Of the Pastoral (}are. 


country, where they are generally sll1all; and if they are larger, 
the going this round will be the longer a doing; yet an hour a 
day, twice or thrice a week, is no hard duty; and this, in the 
compass of a year, will go a great ,vay, even in a large parish. 
In these visits much t.ime is not to be spent; a short word for 
stirring them up to mind their souls, to make conscience of 
t.heir ,vays, and to pray earnestly to God, nuty begin it, and 
almost end it; after one has asked in what union and peace the 
neighbourhood lives, and inquired into their necessities, if they 
seen1 very poor, that so those to whom that care belongs may be 
put in mind to see ho,v they l11ay be relieved. In this course 
of visiting, a minister will soon find out, if there are any truly 
good persons in his parish, after whon1 he 111USt look with a more 
particular regard: since these are the excellent ones, in ,vhonl 
all his delight ought to be. For let their rank be ever so mean, 
if they are sincerely religious, and not hypocritical pretenders to 
it, who are vainly puffed up ,vith some degrees of knowledge, 
and other outward appearances, he ought to consider tnem as 
the 1l10St valuable in the sight of God; and indeed, as the chief 
part of his care; for a living dog is hette1
 than a dead lion. I 
know this ,vay of parochial visitation is so worn out that, 
perhaps, neither priest. nor people will be very desirous to see it 
taken up. It will put the one to labour and trouble, and bring 
the other under a closer inspection, 'which bad men will no ,vays 
desire, nor perhaps endure. But if this were put on the clergy 
by their bishops, and if they eXplained in a sermon, before they 
began it, the reasons and ends of doing it; that would remove 
the prejudices which might arise against it. I confess this is an 
increase of labour, but that will seeln no hard matter to such as 
have a right sense of their ordination vows, of the value of souls, 
and of the dignity of their function. If luen had the spirit of 
their calling in thenl, and a du
 measure of flarne and heat in 
carrying it on, labour in it would be rather a pleasure than a 
trouble. In all other professions, those \vho follow them labour 
in them all the year long, and are hard at their business every 
day in the week. All men that are well suited in a profession, 
that is agreeable to their genius and inclination, are reaIly the 
easier and the better pleased the more they are employed in it. 
Indeed there is no trade nor course of life, except ours, that 
does not take up the whole man: and shall ours only, that is 
the noblest of all others, and that has a certain subsistence fixed 



Of the Pastoral Oare. 


179 


upon it, and does not live by contingencies and upon hopes) as 
all others do, n1ake the labouring in our business an objection 
against any part of our duty 
 Certainly nothing can so nluch 
dispose the nation to think on the relieving the necessities of 
the many slnaU livings) as the seeing the clergy setting about 
their business to purpose: this would, by the blessing of God, be 
a nlost effectual means of stopping the progress of atheism, and 
of the contempt that the clergy lies under; it ,volIld go a great 
way towards the healing our schism, and would be the chief 
step) that could possibly be made, towards the procuring to us 
such laws as are yet wanting to the completing our reformation, 
and the nlending the condition of so nlany of our poor brethren, 
who are languishing in ,vant, and under great straits. 
There remains only somewhat to be added concerning the 
behaviour of the clergy towards one another. '-fhose of a higher 
form in learning, dignity and ,vealth ought not to despise poor 
vicars and curates; but on the contrary, the poorer they are, 
they ought to pity and encourage them the nlore) since they are 
all of the sanIe order, only the one are n10re happily placed than 
the others; they ought therefore to cherish those that are in 
,vorse circunlstances, and encourage them to come often to thenI; 
they ought to lend theIn books and to give them other assist- 
ances) in order to their progress in learning. It is a bad thing 
to see a bishop behave himself superciliously towards any of his 
clergy; but it is intolerable in those of the same degree. The 
clergy ought to contrive ways to meet often together, to enter 
into a brotherly correspondence) and into the concerns one of 
another, both in order to their progress in knowledge and for 
consulting together in all their affairs. This ,,,ould be a n1eans 
to cement them into one body; hereby they might understand 
what were amiss in the conduct of any in their division, and try 
to correct it either by private advices and endeavours, or by 
laying it before the bishop, by whose private labours, if his 
clergy would be assisting to hin1 aJld give him free and full 
inforIuatÎons of things, many disorders might be cured, without 
rising to a public scandal, or forcing hinI to extreme censures. 
It is a false pity in any of the clergy, who see their brethren 
running into ill courses) to look on and say nothing: it is a 
cruelty to the church and may prove a cruelty to the person, of 
Wh01l1 they are so unseasonably tender: for things ll1ay be 1110re 
easily corrected at first, before they have grown to be public, or 
Nfl 



180 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


are hardened by habit and custom. Upon these accounts it is of 
great advantage, and nlay be matter of great edification to the 
clergy, to enter into a strict union together, to meet often and 
to be helpful to one another: but if this should be made practi- 
cable, they must be extremely strict in those meetings to observe 
so exact a sobriety, that there nlight be no colour given to 
censure them, as if these ,vere merrymeetings, in which they 
allowed themselves great liberties. I t were good, if they could 
be brought to nleet to fast and pray: but if that is a strain too 
high for the present age, at least they must keep so far within 
bounds, that there may be no room for calumny. For a disorder 
upon any such occasion \vould give a ,vound of an extraordinary 
nature to the reputation of the ,vhole clergy, when everyone 
would bear a share of the blame, which perhaps belonged but to 
a few. Four or five such meetings in a summer would neither 
be a great charge nor give much trouble: but the advantages 
that might arise out of theln \vould be very sensible. 
J have but one other advice to add, but it is of a thing of great 
consequence, though generally managed in so loose and so indif- 
ferent a manner, that I have some reason in charity to believe, 
that the clergy make very little reflection on ,,'hat they do in it: 
and that is, in the testinlonials that they sign in favour of those 
that come to be ordained. !\lany have confessed to myself that 
they had signed these upon general reports and
 importunity; 
though the testimonial bears personal knowledge. These are 
instead of the suffrages of the clergy, \vhich in the primitive 
church were given before any were ordained. A bishop must 
depend upon them; for he has no other ,vay to be certainly 
informed: and therefore as it is a lie, passed with the solemnity 
of hand and seal, to affirm any thing that is beyond one's own 
kno\vledge, so it is a lie Dlade to God and the church; since the 
design of it is to procure orders. So that if a bishop, trusting 
to that, and being satisfied of the knowledge of one that brings 
it, ordains an unfit and un\vorthy Dlan, they that signed it are 
deeply and chiefly involved in the guilt of his laying hands sud- 
denly upon him: therefore every priest ought to charge his 
conscience in a deep particular manner, that so he may never 
testify for anyone, unless he knows his life to be 80 regular, and 
believes his temper to be so good, that he does really judge hirll 
a person fit to be put in holy orders. These are all the t'ules 
that do occur to me at present. 



Of tlu3 Pastoral Care. 


181 


In performing these several branches of the duty of a pastor, 
the trouble will not be great., if he is truly a good man, and de- 
lights in the service of God, and in doing acts of charity. The 
pleasure \\ ill be unspeakable; first, that of the conscience in this 
testimony that it gives, and the quiet and joy which arises from 
the sense of one's having done his duty: and then it can scarce 
be supposed but by all this some will be "Tought on; SOlne sin- 
ners will be reclaÎ1ned; bad men will grow good, and good men 
will grow better. And if a generous man feels, to a great de- 
gree, the pleasure of having delivered one from misery, and of 
making hin} easy and happy; how sovereign a joy must it be to 
a man that believes there is another life, to see that he has been 
an instrulnent to rescue some from endless nlisery, and to further 
others in the way to everlasting happiness! And the more in- 
stances he sees of this, the lnore do his joys grow upon him. This 
luakes life happy, and death joyful to such a priest; for he is not 
terrified with those words, Give an account of thy ste'lcardsltip, for 
thou 'Jnayest be 'JUJ longer steward: he knows his reward shall be 
full, pressed down, and running over. He is but too happy in 
those spiritual children, whom he has begot in Christ; he looks 
after those as the chief part of his care, and as the principal of 
his flock, and is so far from aspiring, that it is not without some 
uneasiness that he leaves them, if he is conlmanded to arise to 
SOlne higher post in the church. 
The troubles of this life, the censures of bad men, and even 
the prospect of a persecution, are no dreadful things to him that 
has this seal of his nlinistry; and this comfort within him, that 
he has not lahoured in 'Vain, nor run and fmlgld as one tnat heats 
the air; he sees tlte travail of his sOld, and is satisfied 'when he finds 
that Goer's 'work prospers in Ids hand. This comforts hin1 in his 
sad reflections on his own past sins, that he has been an instru- 
ment of advancing God's honour, of saving souls, and of propa- 
gating his gospel; since to have saved one soul is worth a nlan's 
cOIning into the world, and richly ,vorth the labours of his whole 
life. Here is a subject that nlight be easily prosecuted by many 
warn1 and lively figures: but I now go on to the last article re- 
lating to this Inatter. 



18
 


Of the Pasto/rat Oa1'e. 


CHAP. IX. 


Ooncerning pl'eaching. 
THE ,vor1d naturally runs to extren1es in every thing. If one 
sect or body of men magnify preaching too lnnch, another carries 
that to another extrenle of decrying it as much. It is certainly 
a noble and a profitable exercise, if rightly gone about, of great 
use both to priest and people, by obliging the one to much study 
and labour, and by setting before the other full and copious 
discoveries of divine matters, opening theln clearly, and pressing 
them weightily upon them. It has also no,v gained so much 
esteem in the world that a clergyman cannot maintain his credit 
nor bring his people to a constant attendance on the ,vorship of 
God, unless he is happy in these pelformances. 
I ,vill not run out into the history of preaching, to she,v how 
late it ,vas before it was brought into the church, and by what 
steps it gre,v up to the pitch it is no\V at: ho,v long it was before 
the Ron1an church used it, and in ho,v Inany different shapes it 
has appeared. SOlne of the first patterns we have are the best: 
for as Tully began the Roman eloquence, and likewise ended it, 
no Ulan being able to hold up to the pitch to which he raised it; 
so St. Basil and St. Chrysostom brought preaching fronl the dry 
pursuing of allegories that had vitiated Origen, and fronl the 
excessive affectation of figures and rhetoric that appears in Na- 
zianzen, to a due simplicity; a native force and beauty; having 
joined to the plainness of a clear but noble style, the strength of 
reason and the softness of persuasion. SOlne ,vere disgusted at 
this plainness, find they brought in a great deal of art into the 
composition of sermons; mystical applications of scripture grew 
to be better liked than clear texts; an accumulation of figures, 
a cadence in the periods, a playing upon the sounds of words, a 
loftiness of epithets, and often an obscurity of expression, ,vere 
according to the different tastes of the several ages run into. 
Preaching has passed through lnany different forms among us 
since the reforluation. But \vithout flattering the present age, 
or any persons now alive, too much, it must be confessed that it 
is brought of late to a Hluch greater perfection than it ,vas ever 
before at anlong us. It is certainly brought nearer the pattern 
that St. Chrysostom has set., or perhaps carried beyond it. Our 



Of the Pastoral Care. 


183 


language is Iuuch refined, and we have returned to the plain 
notions of sinlple and genuine rhetoric. 
\Ve have so vast a nUl11ber of excellent performances in print, 
that if a nUlIl has but a right understanding of religion, and a 
true relish of good sense, he may easily furnish himself thi
 way. 
The impertinent way of dividing texts is laid aside, the needless 
setting out of the originals, and the vulgar version, is ,vorn out. 
The trifling shows of learning in nlany quotations of passages, 
that very few could understand, do no lTIOre flat the auditory. 
Pert wit and luscious eloquence have lost their relish. So that 
sermons are reduced to the plain opening the lueaning of the 
text, in a few' short illustrations of its coherence with what goes 
before and after, and of the parts of which it is cOluposed; to 
that is joined the clear stating of such propositions as arise out 
of it, in their nature, truth, and reasonableness, by which the 
hearers may form clear notions of the se,Teral parts of religion, 
such as are best suited to their capacities and apprehensions: to 
all "hich applications are added, tending to the reproving, direct- 
ing, encouraging, or cOlnfo1'ting the hearers, according to the 
several occasions that are offered. 
This is indeed all that can truly be intended in preaching, to 
make some portions of scripture to be rightly understood; to 
make those truths contained in thenl to be In01'e fuliyappre- 
hended; and then to lay the nlatter home to the consciences of 
the hearers, so directing all to sonle good and practical end. In 
the choice of the text, care is to be taken not to choose te
ts 
that seenl to have humour in thenl; or that l1lust be long 
wrought upon before they are understood. The plainer a text 
is in itself, the sooner it is cleared, and the fuller it is of matter 
of instruction; and therefore such ought to be chosen to com- 
n10n auditories. 
Iany will renlenlber the text that rCll1ember 
nothing else; therefore such a choice should be made, as may 
at least put a weighty and speaking sentence of the scriptures 
upon the nlenlories of the people. ..1.\ sermon should be made 
for a text, and not a text found out for a sermon; for to give 
our discourses weight, it should appear that ,ve are led to them 
by our texts: such sernlons will probably have n1uch nlore 
efficacy than a general discourse, before which a text seen1S only 
to be read as a decent introduction, but to which no regard is 
had in the progress of it. Great care should be also had, both 
in opening the text, and of that which arises fronl it, to illus- 



184 


Of tlte Pastoral Care. 


trate thml1 by concurrent passages of scripture. A little of this 
ought to be in every sermon, and but a little; for the people are 
not to be overcharged with too much of it at a time; and this 
ought to be done with judgment, and not made a bare concord- 
ance-exercise, of citing scriptures that have the same \vords, 
though not to the same purpose and in the same sense. A text 
being opened, then the point upon \vhich the sermon is to run is 
to be opened; and it \vill be the better heard and understood, if 
there is but one point in a sermon; so that one head, and only 
one, is ,veIl stated, and fully set out. In this, great regard i
 to 
be had to the nature of the auditory, that so the point eXplained 
may be in some measure proportioned to then}. Too close a thread 
of reason, too great an abstraction of thought, too sublime and 
too n1etaphysical a strain, are suitable to very few auditories, if 
to any at all. 
Things must be put in a clear light, and brought out in as 
short periods and in as plain words as may be. The reasons of 
theln Inust be made as sensible to the people as is possible; as 
in virtues and vices, their tendencies and effects, their being 
suitable or unsuitable to our powers, to both souls and bodies, 
to the interests of this life as well as the next; and the good or 
evil that they do to hun1an societies, families, and neighbour- 
hood
, ought to be fully and frequently opened. In setting these 
forth, such a n1easure is to be kept, that the hearers ulay per- 
ceive that things are not strained, in the way of a declamation, 
into forced characters; but that they are set out, as truly they 
are, \vithout n1aking thenl seem better by iUlaginary perfections, 
or worse by an undue aggravation. For the carrying those 111at- 
ters beyond the plain observation of lnankind 111akes that the 
,vhole is looked on as a piece of rhetoric; the preacher seeming 
to intend rather to she,v his skill, in raising his subject too high, 
or running it do,vn too lo,v, than to lay before them the native 
consequences of things; and that ,vhich upon reflection they may 
be all able to perceive is really true. Virtue is 80 good in itself 
that it needs no false paint to Inake it look better; and vice is 
so bad that it can never look so ugly as ,vhen shewed in its own 
natural colours. So that an undue sublime in such descriptions 
does hurt, and can do no good. 
'Vhen the explanatory part of the sernlon is over, the appli- 
cation comes next: and here great judgluent nlUSt. be used, to 
make it fall the heaviest and lie the longest upon such parti- 



Of the Pastoral Care. 


185 


culars as may be within the con1pass of the auditory. Directions 
concerning a high devotion, to a stupid ignorant company; or of 
generosity and bounty, to yery poor people; against pride and 
anlbition, to such as are <lull and low-minded; are ill suited 
and so must have little effect upon theln: therefore care 111ust 
be taken that the application be useful and proper; that, it make 
the hearers apprehend some of their sins and defects and see 
how to perform their duty; that it awaken them to it and 
direct them in it: and therefore the most comlnon sins, such as 
men's neglecting their duty to God, in the seyeral branches of 
it; their setting their hearts inordinately upon the world; their 
lying in discourse, but chiefly in bargainings; their evil- 
speaking and their hatred and malice, ought to be very often 
brought in. Sonle one or other of these ought to be in every 
application that is made, by which they may see that the whole 
design of religion lies against them. Such particular sins, 
swearing, drunkenness, or lewdness, as abound in any place, 
n1ust likewise be frequently brought in here. The application 
must be clear and short, very weighty, and free of every thing 
that looks like the affectations of wit and eloquence; here the 
preacher must be all heart and soul, designing the good of his 
people. The whole sermon is directed to this: therefore, as it 
is fit that the chief point which a sermon drives at should come 
often o,yer and over, that so the hearers nlay never lose sight of 
it, but keep it still in view; so in the application, the text must 
be shewed to speak it; all the parts of the explanation must 
come in to enforce it: the application must be opened in the 
several views that it n1ay have, but those must be chiefly insisted 
on that are most suitable both to the capacities and the circunl- 
stances of the people. And in conclusion, all ought to be 
summed up in a weighty period or two; and some other signal 
pa
sage of the scriptures relating to it may be sought for, that 
so the matter may be left upon the auditory in the solemnest 
manner possible. 
Thus I have led a preacher through the composition of his 
sermon; I will next lay before hÌ1n some particulars relating to 
it. The shorter sermons are, they are generally both better 
heard and better remen1bered. The custom of an hour's length 
forces many preachers to trifle away nluch of the time, and to 
spin out their matter, so as to hold out. So great a length does 
also flat the hearers and tempt them to sleep; especially when, 



186 


Of tlte Pastoral Oarf3. 


as is usual, the first part of the sernlon is languid and heavy. 
In half an hour a man may lay open his matter in its full extent, 
and cut off those superfluities ,vhich come in only to lengthen 
the discourse: and he may hope to keep up the attention of his 
people all the while. As to the style, sermons ought to be very 
plain; the figures Blust be easy, not Inean, but noble, and 
brought in upon design to make the matter better understood. 
The ,vords in a sermon l11ust be sinlple anù in conlmon use; not 
savouring of the schools, nor above the understanding of the 
people. All long periods, such as carry two or three different 
thoughts in them, Inust be avoided; for few hearers can follow 
or apprehend these: niceties of style are lost before a common 
auditory. But if an easy sinlplicity of style should run through 
the ,,,hole composition, it should take place most of all in the 
explanatory part; for the thing being there offered to be under- 
stood, it should be stripped of all garnishing; definitions should 
not be offered in the ternlS or Inethod that logic directs. In 
short, a preacher is to fancy hilnself as in the rOOln of the most 
unlearned 111:1n in his ,vhole parish; and therefore he lnust 
put such parts of his discourse as he would have all understand 
in so plain a form of ,vords that it ulay not be beyond the 
meanest of theln. This he will certainly study to do, if his desire 
is to edify them rather than to nlake thenl adll1ire hiulself as a 
learned and high-spoken Illan. 
But in the applicatory part, if he has a true taste of eloquence, 
and is a master at it, he is to employ it all in giving sometimes 
such tender touches as may soften and deeper gashes, such as 
nlay awaken his hearers. A vain eloquence here is very ill 
placed; for if that can be borne any where, it is in illustrating 
the matter; but all lnust be grave, where one would persuade: 
the most natural, but the most sensible expressions conle in best 
here. Such an eloquence as Inakes the hearers look grave, and 
as it ,vere out of countenance, is the properest. That which 
Inakes them look lively, and as it were snlile upon one another, 
11lay be pretty, but it only tickles the inlagination and pleases 
the ear; whereas that \vhich goes to the heart and wounds it, 
lllakes the hearer rather look ùown and turn his thoughts in- 
,yard upon hilnself. For it is certain that a sern10n, the conclu- 
sion whereof Inakes the auditory look pleased and sets thenl all 
a talking one ,vith another, ,,-as either not right spoken or not 
right heard; it has been fine and has probably delighted 



Of {he Pastoral Care. 


187 


the congregation rather than edified it. But that sernIon that 
makes everyone go a"ay silent and grave, and hastening to be 
alone, to nleditate or pray over the Blatter of it in secret, has had 
its true effect. 
lIe that has a taste and genius for eloquence must improve it 
by reading Quintilian, and Tully's books of Oratory, and by 
observing the spirit and method of Tully's Orations: or, if he 
can enter into Demosthenes, there he will see a much better 
pattern, there being a silnplicity, a shortness and a swiftness 
and rapidity in hinl, that could not be heard without putting his 
auditors into a great commotion. All our modern books upon 
those subjects are so far short of those great originals, that they 
can bear no cOlnparison : yet F. Rapin's little book of Eloquence 
is by much the best, only he is too short. Tully has so fully 
opened all the topics of invention that a man ,vho has read him 
will, if he has any invention of his o\vn and if he knows 
thoroughly his matter, rather have too much than too little in 
his vie\v, upon every subject that he treats. This is a noble 
study, and of great use to such as have judgment to nlanage it ; 
for artificial eloquence, without a flame within, is like artificial 
poetry; all its productions are forced and unnatural and in a 
great measure ridiculous. Art helps and guides nature; but if 
one was not born with this flanIe, art will only spoil hinI, nlake 
- hilll luscious and redundant. To such persons, and indeed to 
all that are not masters of the body of divinity and of the scrip- 
tures, I should much rather reconllnend the using other Inen's 
sermons than the making any of their own. But in the choice 
of these, great judgment must be used; one nIllst not take an 
author that is too much above hiIllself; for by that, compared 
with his ordinary conversation, it will but too evidently appear 
that he cannot be the author of his own sernlons; and that will 
make both him and t.hem lose too much of their weight He 
ought also to put those printed sermons out of that strength and 
closeness of style, which looks very well in print, but is too stiff, 
especially for a conlmon auditory. He may reverse the method 
a little, and shorten the explanations, that so he 111ay retain all 
that is practical; and that a man Inay form hinlself to preaching, 
he ought to take some of the best nlodels and try what he can 
do upon a text handled by them, without reading them, and then 
cOlnpare his work \vith theirs; this will nlore sensibly, and 
without putting him to the blush, model him to in1Ítate, or, if he 



188 


Of tlte Pastoral Care. 


can, to excel the best patterns. And by this method, if he ,viII 
restrain hilnself for some time and follo,v it close, he may come 
to be able to go without such crutches, and to ,york ,vithout 
patterns: till then, I should advise all to make use of other 
men's serlnons, rather than to n1ake any of their own. 
The nation has got into so good a taste of sermons, from the 
vast number of those excellent ones that are in print, that a 
mean composition will be very ill heard; and therefore it is an 
unseasonable piece of vanity for any to offer their own crudities, 
till they have ,veIl digested and ripened them. I wish the ma- 
jesty of the pulpit were more looked to; and that no sermons 
\vere offered from thence but such as should make the hearers 
both the better and the wiser, the nlore knowing and the more 
serIOUS. 
In the delivering of sermons, a great cOlnposure of gesture 
and behaviour is necessary, to give them \veight and authority: 
extren1es are bad here, as in every thing else; some affect a 
light and flippant behaviour; and others think that ,vry faces 
and a tone in t.he voice will set off the matter. Grave and cOln- 
posed looks, and a natural but distinct pronunciation, will al- 
ways have the best effects. The great rule which the lnasters 
of rhetoric press much can never be enough remembered; that 
to make a man speak ,veIl, and pronounce with a right emphasis, 
he ought thoroughly to understand all that he says, be fully 
persuaded of it, and bring himself to have those affections, 
,vhich he desires to infuse into others. He that is inwardly per- 
suaded of the truth of what he says, and that has a concern 
about it in his mind, will pronounce ,vith a natural vehenlence, 
that is far more lively than all the strains that art can lead hiln 
to. An orator, if \ve hearken to them, must be an honest man, 
and speak always on the side of truth, and study to feel all that 
he says; and then he \vill speak it so as to Inake others fe
l it 
like\vise. And therefore such as read their sern10ns ought to 
practise reading much in private, and read aloud, that so their 
own ear and sense nlay guide thein, to kno,v,vhere to raise or 
quicken, soften or s,veeten their voice, and when to give an 
articulation of authority or of conviction; where to pause and 
'vhere to languish. 'Ve plainly see by the stage, \vhat a force 
there is in pronunciation: the best compositions are murdered, 
if ill spoken; and the ,vorst are acceptable, when ,veIl said. In 
tragedies rightly pronounced and acted, though we know that all 



Of tlte Pastoral Care. 


189 


is fable and fiction, the tender parts do so melt the company 
that tears cannot be stopped, even by those who laugh at thmll- 
selves for it. This shews the power of apt words and a just pro- 
nunciation: but because this depends, in a great measure, upon 
the present ten1per of him that speaks, and the lively disposition 
in which he is, therefore he ought by much previous seriousness 
and by earnest prayer to God, to endeavour to raise his mind to 
as warm a sense of the things he is to speak of, as possibly he 
can, that so his senTIons may make deep iInpressions on his 
hearers. 
This leads me to consider the difference that is between the 
reading and speaking of sern10ns. Reading is peculiar to this 
nation, and is endured in no other. It has indeed made that our 
sermons are n10re exact, and so it has produced to us many 
volumes of the best that are extant; but after all, though some 
few read so happily, pronounce so truly, and enter so entirely 
into those affections which they recon1mend, that in them \ve see 
both the correctness of reading, and the seriousness of speaking 
sen11ons, yet every one is not so happy: some by hanging their 
heads perpetually over their notes, by blundering as they read, 
and by a cursory running over them, do so lessen the ll1atter of 
their sermons, that as they are generally read \vith very little 
life or affection, so they are heard with as little regard or esteem. 
Those who read ought certainly to be at a little more pains, than 
for the most part they are, to read true, to pronounce with an 
emphasis, and to raise their heads, and to direct their eyes to 
their hearers: and if they practised l110re alone the just way of 
reading, they n1ight deliver their sermons with much more ad- 
vantage. 
fan is a low sort of creature; he does not, nay, nor 
the greater part cannot, consider things in themselves, without 
those little seasonings that must recommend them to their affec- 
tions. That a discourse be heard with any life, it must be 
spoken \vith some; and the looks and motions of the eye do 
carry in them such additions to what is said, that where these do 
not at all concur, it has not all the force upon them that other- 
wise it might have; besides that the people, ,,,ho are too apt to 
censure the clergy, are easily carried into an obvious reflection 
on reading, that it is an effect of laziness. 
In pronouncing sermons, there are t\VO ways; the one is 
when a whole discourse is got by heart, and delivered word for 
word, as it was writ down. This is so vast a labour, that it is 



190 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


scarce possible that a n1an can be able to hold up long to it : )'et 
there is an advantage even in this to beginners; it fills their 
men10ries ,vith good thoughts and regular meditations: and 
when they have got some of the 1110st ilnportant of their sermons 
by heart in so exact a manner, they are thereby furnished with 
topics for discourse. And therefore there are at least t,vo dif- 
feren t subjects, on which I ,vish all preachers would be at the 
pains to forn1 sennons well in their memories: the one is the 
grounds of the covenant of grace, of both sides, God's offers to 
us in Christ, and the conditions that he has required of us, in 
order to our reconciliation ,vith him. This is so important a 
point, in the whole course of our lninistry, that no man ought to 
be to seek in the opening or explaining it: and therefore, that 
he n1ay be ripe in it, he ought to have it all rightly laid in his 
melnory, not only as to the notions of it, but to have such a 
lively description and illustration of it all, as to be able to speak 
of it sensibly, fully and easily upon all occasions. Another sub- 
ject in ,vhich every nl1nister ought also to be \vell furnished, is 
concerning death and judgment; that so when he visits the sick, 
and, as is conlnlon, that the neighbours come in, he lnay be able 
to make a grave exhortation, in ,veighty and fit ,vords, upon 
those heads. Less than this, I think, no priest ought to have in 
his lnemory. But indeed, the more sermons a young beginner 
gets by heart, he has still thereby the more discourse ready upon 
those heads; for though the \vhole contexture of the sermon 
will stick no longer than he has occasion for it, yet a great deal 
\vill stay with him: the idea of the whole, with the most import- 
ant parts of it, will ren1ain lnnch longer. 
But now I come to propose another method of preaching, by 
\vhich a priest may be prepared, after a right vie,,' of his matter, 
a true understanding his text, and a digesting of his thoughts 
upon it into their natural and proper order, to deliver these 
both more easily to hinlself
 and \vith a better effect both upon 
hilnself and his hearers. To come at this, he lnust be for some 
years at a great deal of pains to prepare himself to it; yet when 
that is over, the labour of all the rest of his life, as to those per- 
fO
lllances, ,viII become very easy and very pleasant to him. 
The preparations to this must be these: first, he must read the 
scriptures very exactly; he Inust have great portions of them 
by heart; and he must also, in reading thein, make a short con- 
cordance of them in his meD1or)"; that is, he nlust lay t02'ether 



Of the Pastoral Care. 


191 


such passages as belong to the same matter; to consider how far 
they agree or help to illustrate one another, and how the sanIe 
thing is differently expressed in then1; and \vhat various ideas 
or ways of recommending a thing rise out of this concordance. 
Upon this a man nlust exercise himself much, dra\v notes of it, 
and digest it well in his thoughts. Then he must be ready with 
the whole body of divinity in his head; he must know what 
parts conle in as objections to be answered, where difficulties lie, 
how one part coheres \vith another and gives it light. He 
Inust have this very current in his menlory, that he may have 
things lie before him in one full view; and upon this, he is also 
to work, by luaking tables, or using such other helps as may lay 
11latters clearly before him. He is, more particularly, to lay 
before him a system of morality, of all virtues and vices, and of 
aU the duties that arise out of the several relations of mankind; 
that he may have this matter very full in his eye, and kno\v 
what are the scriptures that belong to all the parts of it: he is 
also to nlake a collection of all such thoughts as he finds either 
in the books of the ancient philosophers (where Seneca will be 
of great use to him) or of Christian authors: he is to separate 
such thoughts as are forced, and that do become rather a strained 
declamation made only to please, than a solid discourse designed 
to persuade. All these he must gather, or at least such a nUI11- 
ber of them, as may help him to form a distinct notion of that 
matter, so as to be able both to open it clearly, and to press it 
with affection and vehemence. 
These are the materials that must be laid together; the prac- 
tice in using thel11 comes next: he then that \vouid prepare 
himself to be a preacher in this Dlethod, must accustom himself 
to talk freely to himself, to let his thoughts flow from hinl, 
especially when he feels an edge and heat upon his mind; for 
then happy expressions will COine in his mouth, things will 
ventilate and open thenlselves to hiIn, as he talks them thus in 
a soliloquy to himself. He must als-o be \vriting many essays 
upon all sorts of subjects; for by \vriting he will bring hinlself 
to a correctness both in thinking and in speaking: and thus, by 
a hard practice for two or three years, a man may render hinl- 
self such a nlastcr in this matter, that he can never be surprised, 
nor will new thoughts ever dry up upon him. He must talk 
over to himself the whole body of divinity, and accustom him- 
self to explain, and prove, to clear objections, and to apply every 



19Q 


Of {he Pasto'pal Care. 


part of it to SOlne practical use. He must go through hun1an 
life, in all the ranks and degrees of it, and talk over an the 
duties of these; consider t.he advantages or disadvantages in 
everyone of them, their relation to one another, the morality of 
actions, the COlnmon virtues and vices of lnankind; more parti- 
cularly the duties of Christians, their obligations to meekness 
and humility, to forgive injuries, to relieve the poor, to bear 
the cross, to be patient and contented in every state of life, to 
pray lnuch and fervently, to rejoice ever in God, and to be 
always praising him, and most particularly to be applying 
seriously to God through Jesus Christ for mercy and pardon, 
and for his grace and Spirit; to be ,vorshipping him devoutly 
in public, and to be delighting frequently to commemorate the 
death of Christ and to partake of the benefits of it. All these, 
I say, he must talk over and over again to binlself; he must 
study to give his thoughts all the heat and flight about them 
that he can: and if, in these his meditations, happy thoughts 
and noble and tender expressions do at any time offer them- 
selves, he must not lose them, but write them down; and, in 
his pronouncing over such discourses to himself, he must 
observe ,vhat \vords sound harsh, and agree ill together; for 
there is a music in speaking as well as in singing; which a man, 
though not otherwise critical in sounds, ,viII soon discover. By 
a very fe\v years' practice of two or three of such soliloquies a 
day, chiefly in the morning, \vhen the head is clearest and the 
spirits are liveliest, a man will contract a great easiness both in 
thinking and speaking. 
But the rule I have reserved last is the most necessary of all, 
and without it all the rest will never do the business: it is this; 
that a man must have in himself a deep sense of the truth and 
power of religion; he must have a life and flame in his thoughts, 
with relation to those subjects: he n1ust have felt in himself 
those things, ,vhich he intends to explain and recommend to 
others. He must observe narrowly the motions of his own 
mind, the good and bad effects that the several sorts of objects 
he has before him and affections he feels within hinl, have upon 
him; that so he may have a lively heat in himself when he 
speaks of them, and that he may speak in so sensible a manner 
that it may be almost felt that he speaks from his heart. There 
is an authority in the simplest things that can be said, "'hen 
they carry visible characters of genuineness in them. Now if a 



Of the Pastoral Care. 


1!J
 


tuan can carry on this method, and by much nleditation and 
prayer dra'v down divine influences, ,vhich are always to be 
expected, when a man puts himself in the way of them and 
prepares himself for them; he ,viII often feel that, while he is 
musing, a fire is kindled \vithin him, and then he will speak 
with authority and without constraint; his thoughts will be true, 
and his expressions free and easy: sometinles this fire will carry 
him, as it ,vere, out of himself; and yet without any thing that 
is frantic or enthusiastical. Discourses brought forth with a 
lively spirit and heat, where a composed gesture and the proper 
motions of the eye and countenance and the due modulations of 
the voice concur, will have all the effect that can be expected 
from any thing that is belo,v immediate inspiration: and as this 
will be of use to the hearers, so it ,viII be of vast. use to the 
preacher himself, to oblige hinl to keep his heart always in good 
tune and temper; not to suffer irregular or forbidden appetites, 
passions or projects to possess his mind: these will both di- 
vert him from going on in the course of nleditation, in which 
a man must continue many years, till all his thoughts are put in 
order, polished and fixed; they ,viII make him likewise speak 
much against the grain, with an aversion that will be very sen- 
sible to himself, if not to his hearers, if he has guilt upon hiln, 
if his conscience is reproaching him, and if any ill practices 
are putting a damp upon that good sense of things, that lllakes 
his thoughts sparkle upon other occasions and gives him an 
air and authority, a tone of assurance and a freedom of ex- 
pressIon. 
Such a method as I have been opening has had great success 
with all those that I have known to have tried it. And though 
everyone has not that swiftness of imagination nor that clear- 
ness of expression, that others may have, so that in this men 
may differ as nluch as they do in their \vritten compositions; 
yet every man by this method nlay rise far above that which he 
could ever have attained to any othpr way: it will nlake even 
exact compositions easier to hinl, and hiln much readier and freer 
at them. But great care must be used by him, before he suffers 
himself to speak with the liberty here aÏtned at in public; he 
must try himself at snlaller excursions from his fixed thoughts, 
especially in the applicatory pn.rt, where flame and life are nlore 
necessary, and \vhere a ll1istaken word or an unfinished period 
are less observed and sooner forgiven, than in the explanatory 
o 



194 


Of tk(j Pastoral OaJ
e. 


part, \vhere l11en ought to speak Inore severely. And as one 8UC- 
ceeds in some short excursions, he may give himself a further 
scope, and so, by a long practice, he ,viII at last arrive at so great 
an easiness both in thinking and speaking, that a very little 
llleditation \vill serve to lay open a text to him, ,vith all the 
matter that belongs to it, togethor with the order in which it 
ought to be both explained and appJied. And ,vhen a man has at- 
tained to a tolerable degree in this, he is then the master of his 
business; he is master also of much tilne, and of many noble 
thoughts and schenIes that will arise out of thenI. 
This I shall prosecute no further; for if this opening of it 
does not excite the reader to fûllo\v it a little, no enlargements 
I can offer upon it ,viII work upon him. But to return to 
preaching, and so conclude this chapter. He that intends truly 
to preach the gospel, and not hinlself; he that is more concerned 
to do good to others, than to raise his o,vn fame, or to procure a 
following to himself, and that makes this the Dleasure of all his 
meditations and serlnons, that he may put things in the best 
light, and recolnmend them ,vith the 1l10st advantage to his peo- 
pie; that reads the scriptures much, and meditates often upon 
the In ; that prays earnestly to God for direction in his labours, 
and for a blessing upon them; that directs his chief endeavours 
to the most important, and most indispensable, as well as the 
l110st undeniable duties of religion; and chiefly to the inward 
reformation of his hearers' hearts, which "ill certainly dra\v all 
other lesser matters after it; and that does not spend his time 
nor his zeal upon lesser or disputable points; this nlan, so nlade 
and so nloulded, cannot luiscarry in his work: he ,vill certainly 
succeed to sonle degree; the word spoken by hin
 shall not 'J
et111


 
again: he shall have his cro,vn and his reward froDI his labours: 
and, to say all that can be said in one word with St. Paul, lte 
shall hoth save ltÙnselj and them tl at hear ltim. 


THE OONOL US I ON. 


I HA VE no\v gone over all that seemed to be most Í111- 
portant upon this head, of the pastoral care, ,vith as much 
shortness and clearness as I could; so now I anI to conclude. 
The discourse may justly seelll imperfect, since I say nothing 
concerning the duties incumbent on bishops. But I will upon 
this occasion say very little on that head. The post I am in 



Of the Pastoral Car'e. 


195 


gives me a right to teach priests and deacons their duty; there- 
fore I thought that ,vithout any great presumption I might 
venture on it: but I have been too few years in the higher 
order, to take upon me to teach them, from whom I shall ever 
be ready to learn. This is certain, that since, as was formerly 
said, the inferior orders subsist in the superior, bishops lllust 
still be under all the obligations of priests: they are then, take 
the matter at lowest, bound to live, to labour and to preach as 
,veIl as they. But why are they raised to a higher rank of 
dignity and order, an increase of authority and an extent of 
cure? and why have Christian princes and states given them 
great revenues and an accession of secular honours 
 All this 
must certainly import their obligation to labour more eminently 
and to lay thenlselves out more entirely in the work of the 
gospel; in which, if the greatest encouragements and assist- 
allces, the highest dignities and privileges belong to them, 
then, according to our Sa\Tiour's example and decision, who 
ca'l1w not to be :;ninisterred unto but to m'l.nister, and who declared 
that he 'leltO is .first shall be last, and he wllo is tlte greatest fJìzust 
be the servant of all; then, I say, the higher that any are rßised 
in this ministry, they ought to lay themselves out the more 
entirely in it and labour the lTIore abundantly. And as our 
obligations to Christ and his church tie us to a greater zeal and 
diligence, and to a more constant application of our care and 
thoughts; so the secular supports of our honours and revenues 
were given us, to enable us to go through with that extent of 
care and jurisdiction that lies upon us. \Ve are not only watch- 
men to ,vatch over the flock, but likewise over the watchnlen 
thetnselves. "r e keep the door of the sanctuary, and will have 
much to answer for, if through our remissness or feeble easiness, 
if by trusting the examination of those we ordain to others, and 
Jielding to intercession and importunity, we bring any into the 
service of the church, \vho are not duly qualified for it. In 
this we must harden ourselves and become inexorable, if \Ye 
will not partake in ot.her men's sins and in the n1ischiefs that 
these may bring upon the church. It is a false pity and a cruel 
cOlupassion, if ,ve suffer any considerations to prevail upon us in 
this luatter but those which thê gospel directs. The longer 
that we know thenl before we ordain theIn, the n
ore that ,ve 
sift them, and the greater variety of trials through which ,ve 
may nlake them pass, we do thereby both secure the quiet of 
o 2 



196 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


our own consciences the more, as well as the dignity of holy 
things and the true interest of religion and the church: for 
these two interests must never be separated; they are but one 
and the same in themselves; and what God has joined together, 
we must never set asunder. 
'Ve must be setting 1J0nstantly before our clergy their obliga- 
tions to the several parts of their duty; ,ve must lay these upon 
them, ,vhen we institute or collate them to churches, in the 
solemnest manner and ,vith the weightiest words we can find. 
'Ve must then lay the importance of the care of souls before 
them and adjure thenI, as they will answer to God in the great 
day, in which ,ve nIust appear to ,vitness against theIn, that they 
,yill seriously consider and observe their ordination-vows, and 
that they will apply themselves wholly to that one thing. vVe 
must keep an eye upon them continually and be applying re- 
proofs, exhortations and encouragelnents, as occasion offers: we 
must enter into all their concerns and espouse every interest of 
that part of the church that is assigned to their care: we must 
see them as oft as ,ve can, and encourage them to conle fre- 
quently to us; and must live in all things with them, as a father 
,vith his children. And that every thing we say to stir them up 
to their duty may have its due weight, ,ve must take care so to 
order ourselves that they may evidently see that ,ve are careful 
to do our own. We must enter into all the parts of the worship 
of God with theIn; not thinking ourselves too good for any piece 
of service that may be done; visiting the sick, admitting poor 
and indigent persons, or such as are troubled in nlind, to come 
to us; preaching oft, catechising and confirn1Îng frequently; and 
living in all thing
 like lllen that study to fulfil their'lnin-istr!l and 
to do the work of evangelists. 
There has been an opinion of late, llluch favoured by SOllIe 
great men in our church, that th
 bishop is the sole pastor of his 
whole diocese; that the care of all the souls is singly in him, and 
that all the incumbents in churches are only his curates in the 
different parts of his parish, ,vhich was the ancient designation 
of his diocese. I know there are a great many passages brought 
from antiquity to favour this; I will not enter into the question, 
no not so far as to give my own opinion of it. This is certain, 
that such as are persuaded of it ought thereby to consider them- 
selves as under very great and strict obligations to constant 
labour and diligence; otherwise it will be thought that they 



Of the Pastoral Care. 


197 


only favour this opinion, because it increases their authority, 
without considering that necessary consequence that follows 
upon it. 
But I will go no further on this subject at this time, having 
said so luuch only that I may not seem to fall under that heavy 
censure of our Saviour's \vith relation to the scribes and Phari- 
sees, that they d'id bind Iwavy bll'rdens, and griev01ltS to be borne 
upon others; and laid tReJn upon men's shoulders, 
chen tltey 
then
seZ.ves would not IJfWVe then
 with one of their fingers. I Blust 
leave the whole matter with nlY readers. I have now laid toge- 
ther with great simplicity what has been the chief subject of 
my thoughts for above thirty years. I was formed to thenl by a 
bishop that had t.he greatest elevation of soul, the largest COl1lpaSS 
of knowledge, the most mortified and most heavenly disposition, 
that I ever yet saw in mortal; that had the greatest parts as ,veIl 
as virtues, with the perfectest humility, that I ever saw in man; 
and had a sublime strain in preaching, with so grave a gesture 
and such a Dlajesty both of thought, of language and of pronun- 
ciation, that I never once sa\v a wandering eye where he 
preached; and have seen ,vhole asselublies often melt in tears 
before him; and of whom I can say, with great truth, that in a 
free and frequent conversation with hÍ1n, for above two and 
twenty years, I never knew him sayan idle "Tord that had not 
a direct tendency to edification; and I never once saw hÏ1n in any 
other temper, but that which I ,vished to be in, in the last minutes 
of my life. For that patteI'D ,vhich I saw in hinl and for that 
conversation which I had with him, I know how much I have to 
answer to God: and though my reflecting on that which I knew 
in him gives me just cause of being' deeply humbled in myself 
and before God; yet I feel no more sensible pleasure in any 
thing, than in going over in nlY thoughts all that I saw and 
observed in him. 
I have also another reason, that has detern1Ïned DIe at this 
time to prepare this discourse and to offer it to the public; fronl 
the present posture of our affairs. We are no\v brought very 
near the greatest crisis that ever church or nation had: and as 
on the one hand, if God should so far punish us for our sins, for 
our contempt of his gospel and neglect of our duties, as to deli- 
ver us over to the rage of our enemies, ,ve have nothing to look 
for but a persecution 1110re dreadful than any is in hist
ry: so if 
God hears our prayers and gives us a happy issue out of all 



198 


Oltko Pastoral Care. 


those dangers, ,vith ,vhich the lnalice of our enenlies threatens 
us; \Ve have in vie,v the greatest prospect of a blessed and 
lasting settlement, that even our ,vishes can propose to us. No\v 
nothing can so certainly avert the one or prepare us to glorify 
God in it, if he in his justice and \visdom should call us to a fiery 
trial of our faith and patience; as the serious lllinding of our 
functions, of our duties and obligations, the confessing of our sins 
and the correcting of our errors. 'Ve shall be very unfit to suffer 
for our religion, much less to die for it, and very litt.Ie able to 
endure the hardships of persecution, if our consciences are 
reproaching us all the ,vhile that ,vo have procured these things 
to ourselves; and that, by the ill use of our prosperity and other 
advantages, \ve have kindled a fire to consume us. But as ,ve 
have good reason frolll the present state of affairs, as ,veIl as fronl 
the lllany enlinent deliverances and happy providences, which 
have of late, in so signal a manner, watched over and protected 
us, to hope that God, according to the riches of his lllcrcy and 
for the glory of his great name, \vill hear the prayers that many 
good souls offer up, rather than the cry of those aboll1inations that 
are stiU aUlong us: so nothing can so certainly hasten on the 
fixing of our tranquillity, and the conlpleting our happiness, as 
our lying often bet\veen the porch and the altar, and interceding 
with God for our people; and our giving ourselves wholly to the 
ministry of the ,vord of God and to prayer. These being then 
the surest means, both to procure and to establish to us all those 
great and glorious things that we pray and hope for; this seemed 
to me a very proper time to publish a discourse of this nature. 
But that ,vhich nlade it an act of obedience, as well as zeal, 
,vas the authority ofn1Y most reverend llletropolitan; who, I have 
reason to believe, employs his titne and thoughts chiefly to con- 
sider what may yet be wanting to give our church a greater 
beaut.y and perfection; and what are the nloAt proper lneans both 
of purifying and uniting us. To which I thought not.hing could 
so ,veIl prepare the way, as the offering to the public a plain and 
full discourse of the Pastoral Care and of every thing relating to 
it. His grace approved of this, and desired nle to set about 
it: upon these motives I writ it, with all the sinlplicity and 
freedom that I thought the subject required, and sent it to him: 
by 'v hose particular approbation I publish it, as I writ it at his 
direction. 
There is indeed one of nlY Inotives that I have not yet lllen- 



Oftke Paslo'rat Oære. 


199 


tioned, and on ,vhich I cannot enlarge so fully as I ,veIl nlight. 
But while we have such an invaluable and unexan1pled blessing 
in the persons of those princes whom God hath set over us; if 
all the considerations which arise out of the deliverances that 
God has given us by their means, of the protection ,ve enjoy 
under theln and of the great hopes we have of them; if, I say, 
all this does not oblige us to set about the refornling of every 
thing that may be amiss or defective among us, to study nluch 
and to labour hard; to lead strict and exemplary lives, and so 
to stop the mouths and overcome the prejudices of all that 
divide from us; this will 111ake us look like a nation cast off 
and forsa/æn of God, which is nigh unto cursing, and whose 
end is bU'l'ning. "r e have reason to conclude that our present 
blessings are the last essays of God's goodness to us; and that, 
if ,ve bring forth no fruit under these, the next sentence shall 
be, Out it douJn, 'why cumberetll it the ground? These things lie 
heavy on my thoughts continually, and have all concurred to 
draw this treatise from me; ,vhich I have writ with all the sin.:. 
cerity of heart and purity of intention that I should have had, 
if I had known that I had been to die at the conclusion of it 
and to answer for it to God. 
To him I humbly offer it up, together with my most earnest 
prayers, that the design, here so imperfectly offered at, may 
become truly effectual and have its full progress and accomplish- 
ment; which ,vhensoever I shall see, I shall then with joy say, 
Nunc dimittis, &c. 


CHAP. x. 
Of presentations to benefices and sirnon!J. 
I DO not intend to treat of this matter, as it is a part of our 
law; but leaving that to the gentleInen of another robe, I shall 
content IHyself with offering an historical account of the progress 
of it, with the sense that the ancient church had of it, together 
with such reflections as will arise out of that. 
At first the whole body of the clergy, in every city, parish or 
diocese, was as a fanlily under the conduct and authority of the 
bishop; who assigned to everyone of his presbyters their pecu- 
liar district and gave him a proper maintenance out of the stock 
of the oblations of the faithful. None were ordained but by the 
approbation, or rather the nomination of the people, the bishop 




oo 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


being to exalnine into the worth and qualifications of the per- 
sons so nonlinated. In the first ages, ,vhich were times of per- 
secution, it is not to be supposed that anlbition or corruption 
could have any great influence, ,vhile a man in holy orders was 
as it were put in the front and exposed to the first fury of the 
persecutors. So that ,vhat Tertullian saysf on this head will be 
easily believed, " that those who presided over them were first 
tried; having obtained that honour, not by paying a price for 
it, but by the testimony that \yas given of thenl; for the things 
of God ,vere not purchased by nloney;" he alluding probably 
to the methods used by the heathens to arrive at their pontifical 
dignities. 
But as soon as \veaIth and dignity was, by the bounty of 
Christian emperors, made an appendix to the sacred function, 
then \ve find great complaints Inade of disorders in elections 
and of partiality in ordinations, on \vhich we see severe reflec- 
tions made by the best men both in the eastern and western 
churches. They not only condenlned the purchasing elactions 
and holy orders with money, but all the train of solicitations and 
intercessions, \vith all flattery and obsequious courtship in order 
to those things. 
They indeed laid the name of simony chiefly on the purchasing 
of orders by money, ,vhich was attempted by Simon of Salnaria, 
conlmonly called Simon 
Iagus; but they brought other prece- 
dents to she\v ho\v far they carried this matter. Balaaln"s hire 
of divination, Gehazi's going after Naanlan for a present, and 
Jeroboam's 111aking priests of those who filled his hands'F." are pre- 
cedents much insisted on by them, to carry the lnatter beyond 
the case of a bargain beforehand; every thing in the way of prac- 
tice to arrive at holy orders \vas all equally condemned. 'Vhen 
things ,vere reduced into methodical divisions, they reckoned a 
threefold sinlony; that of the hand when money was given, that 
of the mouth by flatteries, and that of service, \vhen men by 
donlestic attendance and other enlployments did, by a temporal 
drudgery, obtain the spiritual dignity. 
Chrysostom h expresses this thus: "If you do not give nloney, 
but instead of money, if you flatter; if you set others at ,york, 
and use other artifices, you are as guilty." Of all these he 
adds, that "as St. Peter said to Simon, Thy money perish w'itk 
thee, so may thy ambition perish with thee." St. J erOln i 
f Apology. g 2 Chron. xiii, 9. h Horn. in Acta Ap. i In Esai. 



Oltko Pastoral Care. 



Ol 


says, "'Ve see many reckon orders as a benefice, and do not seek 
for persons ,vho may be as pillars erected in the house of God, 
and may be nlost useful in the service of the church; but they 
do prefer those for ,vhom they have a particular affection, or 
,vhose obsequiousness has gained their favour, or for \vhom 
some of the great men have interceded; not to mention the 
,vorst of all, those who, by the presents they make them, pur- 
chase that dignity." 
A corruption began to creep into the church, in the fifth 
century, of ordaining vagrant clerks, without any peculiar title; 
of whonl ,ve find St. J erom oft comp1aining. This was con.. 
deluned by the council of Chalcedon in a most solemn manner k : 
" The orders of all ,yho \vere ordained presbyters, deacons or 
in the inferior degrees, without a special title either in the city, 
in some village, SOlue chapel or nlonastery, are declared null and 
void: and, to the reproach of those who so ordained them, they 
are declared incapttble of perfonuing any function." But ho\v 
sacred soever the authority of this council ,vas, it did not cure 
this great evil, from which nlany more have sprung. 
A practice rose, not long after this, which opened a new 
scene. 1\Ien began to build churches on their own grounds, at 
their own charges, and to endow these; and they ,vere naturally 
the mast.ers, and, in the true signification of the Ron1an \vord, 
the patrons of them. All the churches in the first matricula 
were to be served by persons named to them by the bishop, and 
,vere to be maintained by hinl out of the revenue of the church; 
but these were put upon another foot, and belonged to the pro. 
Pl'ietors of the ground, to the builders and the endowers I. 
They \vere also to offer to the bishop a clerk to serve in them. 
It seems they began to think that the bishop was bound to 
ordain all such as ,vere nanled by thenl: but Justinian m settled 
this matter by a law; for he provided that the" patriarch should 
not be obliged to ordain such as ,vere nOlninated by the patron, 
unless he judged them fit for it :" th
 reason given is, "that the 
holy things of God might not be profaned n." It seems he had 
this in his eye, when by another law he condemns those who 
received any thing for such a nomination; for so I understand 
the patrocinium ordinationis. 
The elections to lllost sees lay in nlany hands; and to Ii:eep 


k Can. 6. 


I Fundus, ædificatio, et dose 
n Nov. 6. C. I. 


m Novel. 57. c. 2. 



Q02 


Of the Pastoral Care. 


out not only corruption but partiality, fronl having a share in 
them, he by a special la\v required, "that all persons, seculars 
as ,veIl as ecclesiastics, ,vho had a vote in elections, should join 
an oath to their suffrage, that they 'vere neither moved to it by 
any gift, promise, friendship or favour, or by any other affection, 
but that they gave their vote upon their knowledge of the merits 
of the person 0." It ,viII easily be imagined that no rule of this 
kind could be much regarded in corrupt ages. 
Gregory the Great is very copious in lanlenting these dis- 
orders and puts ahvays the threefold division of sill10ny toge- 
ther, 'Jltanus, oris, et ministeriip. Hincmar cites the prophet's 
,vords, He that shaketk his llands j'r01J
 holding of hrihesq; in 
the Vulgate it is, frorn ever1 hribe; applying it to three sorts of 
sinlony. And in that letter to Lewis the Third, king of France, 
he protests "he kne'v no kinsman nor friend; and he only 
considered the life, learning and other good qualities necessary 
to the sacred ministry." Those ages were very corrupt; so 
that the great advantages that the popes had, in the disputes 
concerning the investitures into benefices, ,vere taken from this, 
that servile obsequiousness and flatteries ,vere the nlethods used 
in procuring thenl. Of ,vhich it ,vere easy to bring a great and 
copious proof, but that it is needless. 
I shall only name t\VO provisions made against all these 
sinistrous practices: one ,vas anlong us in a council at Exeter r , 
in which this charge is given; " Let all nlen look into their 
own consciences, and exaluine themselves \vith ,vhat design they 
aspire to orders; if it is, that they may serve God more vir- 
tuously and nlore acceptably; or if it is for the teIuporals, and 
that they may extort benefices from those who ordain them; 
for ,ve look on such as simoniacs." In the council of Basil s, 
in ,vhich they attempted the restoring the freedon1 of elections, 
as a means to raise the reputation of the sacred function, 
they appointed that an oath should be taken by all electors, 
" 'fhat they should not give their voice for any ,vho had, as they 
were credibly informed, endeavoured to procure it to themselves, 
either by pronlising or giving any tenlporaI thing for it, or by 
any prayer or petition, either by thenlselves or by the interpo- 
sition of any other; or by any other ,yay whatsoever, directly 
or indirectly." This ,vould go as far as those who took it con- 


o Nov. 137, c. 2. p Tom. 2, 195. 
r Synod. Exon. 1287, cap. 8. 


q Isa. xxxiii, 15. 
s Sess. 12. 



Of the Pastol'al Oaf'e. 


QOS 


sidered themselves bound by an oath, to secure elections from 
corruption or practice. 
I will go 110 further to prove that both fathers and councils, 
in their provisions against silnony, considered the practice of 
application, importunity, solicitations and flatteries, as of the 
same nature with simony: and therefore, though our law considers 
only simony, as it is a bargain in \vhich n10ney or the equivalent 
is given or promised, yet the sense of the church went much 
further on this head, even in the n10st corrupt ages. The canon 
law does very often mention simony in its threefold distinction, 
manus, linguæ, et obseq?tii; it being still reckoned a duty, both 
in the giver and receiver, that the gift should be free and 
voluntary. 
In the church of Ron1e, a right of patronage is, according to 
their superstition, a n1atter of great value; for in every n1ass the 
patron is to be remembered by a special collect, so that it saves 
them a great charge in a daily mass said for them. To us this 
effect. ceases; but still it is a noble piece of property, since a 
patron has the n0l11ination of him that has a care of souls com- 
mitted to him. But. as it is in itself highly valuable, so a great 
account is to be given for it to him, \vho made and purchased 
those souls, and in whose sight they are of inestimable value, and 
\vho will reckon severely with such patrons as do not 11lanage it 
with a due care. 
It is all one \vhat the consideration is on ,vhich it is bestowed, 
if regard is not in the first place had to the worth of the person 
so n0111inated; and if he is not judged fit and proper to under- 
take the cure of souls: for with relation to the account that is to 
be given to the great Bishop of souls, it is all one whether money, 
friendship, kindred or any carnal regard \vas the chief 11lotive 
to the nomination. 
I know it may be said, no man but one in holy orders is ca- 
pable of being possessed of a benefice, and in order to that he is 
to be exan1ined by the bishop, though already ordained, before 
he can be possessed of it: but the sin is not the less, because 
others come in to be partakers of it. Still a patron must answer 
to God for his share, if he has nominated a person without due 
care, and without considering whether he thinks him a proper 
person for undertaking so great a trust. 
I will not carry this matter so far as to say that a patron is 
bound to choose the fittest and n10st deserving persons he can 




04 


01 the Pastoral Care. 


find out: that may put him under great scruples; and there 
being a great diversity in the nature of parishes, and in the 
several abilities necessary for the proper duties of the pastoral 
care, it may be too great a load to lay on a luan's conscience an 
obligation to distinguish who may be the fittest person. But 
this is very evident, that a patron is bound to nalne no person to 
so important a care as the charge of souls, of \vhom he has not at 
least a probable reason to believe that he has the due qualifi- 
cations anrl will discharge the trust committed to him. Some 
motives nlay be baser than others: but even the consideration 
of a child to be provided for, by a cure of souls, \vhen the main 
requisites are ,vanting, is in the sight of God no better than 
simony. For in the nature of things it is all one, if one sells a 
benefice, that by the sale he may provide for a child, and if he 
bestows it on a child, only out of natural affection, without con- 
sidering his son's fitness to lnanage so great a trust. Perpetual 
advo,vsoI1S, which are kept in fanlilies as a provision for a child, 
\vho Inust be put in orders, ,vhatever his aversion to it or unfit- 
ness for it may be, bring a prostitution on holy things. And 
parents, ,vho present their undeserving children, have this ag- 
gravation of their guilt, that they arc not so apt to be deceived 
in this case, as they Inay be when they present a stranger. 
Concerning these they may be Ì1nposed on by the testimony of 
those whol11 they do not suspect; but they must be supposed to 
be better inforIl1ed as to their own children. 
It is also certain, that orders are not given by all bishops with 
that anxiet.y of caution that the importance of the matter 
requires. And if a person is in orders, perhaps qualified for a 
lower station, yet he nlay ,vant many qualifications necessary for 
a greater cure: and the grounds, on ,vhich a presentation can be 
denied, are so narrow that a bishop Inay be under great difficul- 
ties, who yet knows he cannot btand the suit, to which he lies 
open, when he refuses to cOlnply ,,-ith the patron's nomination. 
The sum of all this is that patrons ought to look on them- 
selves as bound to have a sacred regard to this trust that is 
vested in theIn, and to consider very carefully what the nature 
of the benefice that they give is, and what are the qualifications 
of the person they present to it; otherwise the souls that may 
be lost by a bad nomination, ,vhatsoever nlay have been their 
motive to it, will be required at their hands. 
A t first the right of patronage was an appendant of the estate 



Of the Pastoral Care. 



05 


in which it was vested; and was not to be alienated but with it, 
and then there was still less danger of an ill nomination. For it 
11lay be supposed that he who was nlost concerned in a parish 
would be to a good degree concerned to have it \vell served. 
:But a new practice has risen among us, and, for aught I have 
been able to learn, it is only anlong us, and is in no other nation 
or church whatsoever: how long it has been among us, I am not 
versed enough in our law-books to be able to tell: and that is 
the separating the advowson from the estate to which it was an- 
nexed; and the selling it, or a turn in it, as an estat.e by itself. 
This is so far allowed by our ]a\v that no part of such a traffick 
comes within the statute against sinlony, unless when the benefice 
is open. I shall say nothing more on this head, save only that 
whosoever purchases a turn, or a perpetual advowson, with a 
design to make the benefice go to a child, or remain in a family, 
without considering the worth or qualifications of the person to 
be presented to it, put thenlselves and their posterity under great 
tenlptations. For here is an estate to be conveyed to a person, 
if he can get but through those slight examinations upon which 
orders are given, and has negative virtues, that is, if he is free 
from scandalous sin, though he has no good qualities, nor any 
fixed intentions of living suitably to his profession, of following 
the studies proper to it and of dedicating hinlself to the work 
of the nlinistry: on the contrary, he perhaps discovers a great 
deal of pride, passion, covetousness and an ungoverned love of 
pleasure; and is so far from any serious application of mind to 
the sacred functions, that he has rooted in him an aversion to 
them. 
The ill effects of this are but too visible, and we have great 
reason to apprehend that persons who come into the service of 
the church with this disposition of mind will despise the care of 
souls, as a thing to be turned over to one of a nlechanic genius, 
who can never rise above some low perfornlances; they will be 
incessantly aspiring higher and highet", and by fawning attend- 
ances and the 111eanest compliances \vith such as can contribute 
to their advancenlent, they will think no services too much out 
of their road, that can help to raise them: they \vill nleddle in 
all intrigues, and will cry up and cry down things in the basest 
methods, as they hope to find their account in them. I wish, 
with all my heart, that these things were not too notorious, and 
that they did not lay stumblingblocks in men"'s way, which may 



206 


Of the Pastoi'al Oal'e. 


give advantages to the tribe of profane libertines to harden thenI 
in their prejudices against not only the sacred functions, but all 
revealed religion in general. I shall end this head, leaving it on 
the consciences of all patrons, and obtesting them by all that is 
sacred, to reflect seriously on this great trust that the law has 
put in their hands; and to consider what account they are to 
give of it in the great day. 
But if patrons ought to consider thelnselves under strict obli- 
gations in this n1atter, ho\v much III ore ought they to lay the 
sense of the duties of their function to heart, who have by 
solemn vows dedicated themselves to the work of the lllinistry? 
'''That notion have they of running \vithout being sent, who 
tread in those steps 
 Do not they say, according to \vhat \vas 
threatened as a curse on the posterity of Eli, Put me, I pr'a!l t!tee, 
into one of the priest's offices, that I 'j}
ay eat a piece of hread t ? 
Do they not feel these \vords as a character of \vhat they say 
,vithin thelllselves, when they come up to the altar 
 Can they 
not trust God, and go on, fitting thenlselves in the best manner 
they can for holy functions, "Taiting for such an interposition of 
Providence as shall open a clear \vay to them to some station in 
the church; not doubting but that, if God by a Illotion of his 
Spirit called thenl to holy orders, he will raise up instrunlents 
to bring that about and put it in the heart. of sonle one or other 
to giye or to procure to them a post, without their own engaging 
in that sordid merchandise, or descending to any, though less 
scandalous Inethods, \vhich bring \vith them such a prostitution 
of lllind, that they \vho run into thelll cannot hope to raise to 
themselves the estee111 due to the sacred function; which is the 
foundation of all the good they can do by their labours. If 
things turn cross to them, in a post to \vhich such endeavours 
lnay haye brought thein, what cOlllfort can they have within 
thenl 
 or what confidence can they have in God? \vhen their 
own consciences \vill reproach theIll \"ith this, that it is no 
,vonder, if \vhat was so ill acquired should prosper no better. 
'Vhen they conle to die, the horror of an oath falsely taken, 
which they palliated by an equivocating sense, \vill be a terrible 
cOlnpanion to thenl in their last minutes; when they can no 
In ore carry off the Hlatter by evasions or bold denials, but are to 
appeal' before that God, to \vhose eyes all things are naked and 
opened. Then all the scandal they have given, all the souls 
t I Sam. ii, 3 6 . 



Of the Pastv'j'al Oa'ì'e. 207 
that they have lost or neglected, all the reproaches that they 
have brought on their function and on the church, for which 
perhaps they have pretended no ordinary 111easure of zeal; all 
these, I say, will come upon them as an armed man and sur- 
round them with the sense of guilt and the terrors of that 
cOllsunâng fire, that is ready to devour theul. 
Ien who have, 
by unlawful methods and a prevaricating oath, conle into a 
benefice, cannot truly repent of it, but by departing from it. 
For the unlawful oath will still lie heavy on them, till that is 
done. This is the indispensable restitution in this case; and 
unless this is done, they live on and die in the sin unrepented 
of. God is not 'in 0 eked, though men are. I will leave this here, 
for I can carry it no higher. 
As for those who have not prevaricated in the oath, but yet 
have been guilty of practice and methods to arrive at benefices, 
I do not lay this of relinquishing their benefices on then!: but 
certainly, if they ever COlne to right notions of the matter, they 
will find just ground to be deepl y hunlbled before God for all 
their practices that way. If they do truly nlourn for them and 
abstain froill the like for the future, and if they apply themselves 
with so much the more zeal to the labours of their function 
and redeelll the nleanness of their former practices by a stricter 
course of life, by their studies and their diligence, they may by 
that compensate for the too COnllll0n arts, by which they arrived 
at their posts. 
I kno\v these things are so COnllllonly practised that, as fe\v 
are out of countenance who tread in such beaten paths, so I am 
afraid they are too little conversant in just notions to feel the 
evil of them. I t is no ,yonder if their labours are not blessed, 
,,,ho enter on them by such low and indirect methods: whereas 
men who are led by an overruling Providence into stations, 
without any Illotions or procurement of their own, as they have 
an uncJouded call froin God, so they have the foundation of a 
true firmness in their own minds. They can appeal to God, 
and so have a just claim to his protection and blessing: every 
thing is easy to theIn, because they are always easy ,vi thin. If 
their labours are blessed with success, they rejoice in God, 
and are by that animated to continue in then1 and to increase 
their diligence. If that is denied them, so that they are often 
forced to cry out, !JIg lealtneSs, my leanness u , I have laboured 
U Isaiah xxiv, 16. 




08 


Of tile Pastol"al Oal'e. 


in vain; they are hunlbled under it; they examine themselves 
Dlore carefully, if they can find any thing in their own conduct 
that may occasion it, \vhich they will study to correct, and still 
they persist in their labour; knowing that if they continue doing 
their duty, whatever other effects that may have, those faithful 
shepherds, ,vhen the chief Shepherd shall appear, shall receive 
from him a crown of glory that fadetk not awayx. 
fro all this I will only add somewhat relating to bonds of 
resignation. A bond to resign at the pleasure of the patron 
carries with it a base servitude, and simony in its full extent: 
and yet because no nloney is given, some who give those bonds 
do very ignorantly apprehend that they may, with a good 
conscience, swear the oath of simony. There is but one \vay 
to cure the nlischief of this great evil, which can have no 
effect, if bishops will resolve to accept of no resignation made 
upon such bonds; since by the comnlon la\v a clerk is so 
tied to his bishop and to his cure that he cannot part \vith 
it without the bishop's leave. By this all these bonds u1ay be 
made ineffectual. 
Other bonds are certainly more innocent, by which a clerk 
only binds himself to that \vhich is otherwise his duty. And 
since the forms of our courts are dilatory and expensive, and 
there is not yet a full provision made against many abuses 
which a good patron would secure a parish from, I see no just 
exception to this practice, ,vhere the abuse is specially certified; 
so that nothing is reserved in the patron's breast, by general 
words, of which he, or his heirs, \vho perhaps may not inherit 
his virtues as they do his fortunes, may nlake an ill use. It is 
certain our constitution labours yet under some defects, which 
were provided against by that noble design, brought so near per- 
fection in that work entitled. Reformatio Legu1n Ecclesiasticaru11't, 
\vhich it is to be hoped \vill be at some tinle or other taken up 
a.gain and perfected. 
The affinity of the fornler matter leads nle to give an (1ecount 
of somewhat relating to Jllyself. \Vhen I \vas first put in the 
post which I still hold, I found there were nlany 111arket towns 
in the diocese very poorly provided. So since there are about 
fifty dignities and prebends belonging to the cathedral, I consi- 
dered how by the disposing of these I nlight mend the condition 
of the incumbents in the nlarket towns and secure such a help 
x I Pet. v, 4. 



OJ'tlte Pastoral Care. 



09 


to their successors. And by the advice of SOlllC veryeluinent 
divines and canonists, this nlethod was resolved on, that, when 
I gave a prebend to any such incUlllbent, he should give a bond, 
that, if he left that benefice, he should at the same tÏ1ne resign 
his prebend, that it might go to his succes
or. This went on for 
SOllle years with a universal approbation. 
But when a hunlour began to prevail of finding fault, this 
was cried out upon as :1 grievance bordering upon simony. I 
upon that drew up a vindication of IllY practice, from great 
authority, out of civilians and canonists. But upon second 
thoughts I resolved to follow that saying of Solonlon's, Lea've off 
contention, before it be meddled witl" or engaged in Y. SO to 
lay the clanlour that some seemed resolved to raise, I resolved 
to drop IllY design, and so delivered back all the bonds that I 
had taken. 
I will offer nothing either in the way of vindication or resent- 
lnent, being satisfied to give a true relation of the matter, leaving 
it to the reader"ls judgnlent to approve or censure, as he sees 
cause. And thus I conclude this chapter, which I thought was 
wanting to cOInplete my design in writing this treatise. 


Y Provo xvii, 14. 


p 



, 



A DISCOURSE 


MADE BY 


THE LORD BISHOP OF ROCHES1'ER 


TO THE 


CLERGY OF HIS DIOCESE, 


AT 


HIS VISITATION IN THE YEAR 
IDCXCV. 


p
 



.. 



THO
1AS SPRAT, a native of Devonshire, ".as educated at 
"\Vadham College, Oxford; ,-çhere he was elected Scholar, in 
16 5 2 , and afterwards admitted to a Fellowship. He took the 
Degree of IVI. A. in 1657. .After the Restoration, he was 
ordained; and, on being appointed Prebendary of 'Vestmin- 
ster in 1668, began to experience that Court favour, ,vhich 
was subsequently shewn, as in other instances, so in his pro- 
motion to the Deanery of Westminster, in 1683, and to the 
Bishopric of Rochester, in 1684. He ,vas entangled in the 
Politics of the unhappy times, which immediately preceded 
and folIo"yed the last named year; and, whilst History records 
some of the transactions of his life that lie open to criticism 
and even to animadversion, it preserves also a notice of the 
personal inconvenience and danger, to which he 'was sub- 
jected, in 1692, from a charge of being concerned in attempting 
to bring back the exiled King. He cleared himstlf of the 
accusation by confronting its authors, detecting their frauds 
and exposing their villainy; and cOlnmemorated his deliver- 
ance by a day of thanksgiving in each year, until he died 
in I 7 13. 
His literary productions, both in Prose and in Verse, ,vere 
much admired by his contemporaries. But the fact that he 
held a place among the Poets of his day is, at present, know'n 
rather through his Biography, included in Dr. Johnson's 
Lives of the Poets, than through any remaining interest in 
,yorks, of which the great Critic had evidently fonned a lo\V 
estimate. Nor does his Professional reputation depend so 
much on his published Sermons, now seldom read, as on that 
single illustration of his zeal and vigilance in the Episcopal 
Office, ,,-hich has, from time to time, appeared in this Collec- 
tion and is reprinted in the ensuing pages. 



A 


DISCOURSE 


1\IADE BY 


TIlE LORI> BISHOP OF ROCHESTER 


TO THE 


CLERGY OF HIS DIOCESE. 


I CAN scarce think it worth nlY ,vhile or your's, my good 
brethren, that I should now spend much time in any long 
general exhortation to your diligent and conscientious performing 
the duties incumbent on you, as you are "the ministers of God, 
duly called according to the will of our Lord Christ, and the 
order of this excellent church of England." 
Did I find there were here any absolute need to use many 
words towards the exciting your care in the several administra- 
tions of your holy calling; yet., I am persuaded, I might myself 
well spare my own labour and your patience on this subject; 
since all that kind of wholesonle advice has been already so very 
sufficiently and so much better given you, in argunlents deduced 
out of the holy scriptures and most fitly applied to this purpose, 
by the venerable compilers of our pub1ic liturgy, in the forms 
appointed for the ordering of deacons and priests. 
There, you kno\v, this work has been so wisely and so fully, 
long ago, done to a bishop's hands; there all the parts of your 
weighty office are so judiciously laid before you; the high dig- 
nity and great ilnportance of it, towards the salvation of Dlankind, 
is so substantially urged; the blessed fruits and everlasting re- 
wards of well-attending it, and the extreme dangers of neglecting 



fl16 


Tlte Bishop of Rochester's 


it, are so justly anlplified; the necessity of adorning your doc- 
trine by an innocent, virtuous and pious life of your own, 
to,vards the rendering it efficacious on the lives of others, is so 
pathetically enforced; that, I aID confident, the very best charge 
a bishop could give to his clergy, were to recon1mend seriously 
to all their memories, as I now do most affectionately to yours, 
those very same questions and answers, those very saIne promises 
and vows, as you ought to esteem them, wherewith everyone of 
you rlid 1l10st solemnly charge his con
cience, at the time of your 
adlnission into holy orders. 
I profess I cannot, nor, I believe, can the wit of man, invent 
any more proper nlethod of instruction to men in your circunl- 
stances, froln a Inan in 111ine, than to exhort JOu all to a continual 
recollection of and meditation upon those many and great 
obligations you then seemed voluntarily and cheerfully to lay on 
yoursel ves. 
'Vhence there could not but ensue, by God"s blessing, a firm 
resolution in Jour nlinds to endeavour the perfornlance of them, 
and a holy perseverance in those endeavours, and in conclusion, 
the happy effects of all on yourselves and the flocks conlmitted to 
you: that by thus IJJzeditat'ing on these fIlings and giving your- 
selves 
()Ilolly to thert
, Jjo'ltr profiting may appear to all; and that 
by taking heed to yourselves and YO'ltr doctrincs and contin'lting in 
then
, you may botlt save yourselves and those that hea1. you. 
Wherefore seeing that, which else had been a bishop's proper 
business in such Ineetings as this, I hope, is, or may be so easily 
shortened for me by JOll yourselves, by your having recourse to 
3J rule so ,veIl known and so obvious to you, in a book, which 
ought scarce èver to be out of your hands; I shall the rather, at 
this time, purposely olnit the prescribing you many admonitions, 
touching the Inatter and substance of the duties of your sacred 
function. Instead of them, I shall only offer you some few' 
familiar considerations, which may serve as so 111any friendly and 
brotherly advices, concerning chiefly the manner and way of 
performing some of the principal offices of your ministry. 
And I trust in God that, if these advices shall be as carefully 
examined and, if you find thenl useful, as industriously observed 
by you as they are honestly intended by lHe, t.hey nlay, in SOlne 
sort, enable you to do lauda.bly and with cOIllmendation, the 
saIne things, which, I hope, you already do, without just ex- 
ception. 



DisC01/}"se to his Olerpy, 1695. 



17 


Only, in this place, let me premise, once for all, that whatever 
instructions I shall no'v give you, I intend them not only as 
directions to you, but especially to myself. As indeed, in all 
matters, that conle under deliberation, he ought to be esteemed 
no good counsellor, who is very ready and eager in giving, but 
averse from receiving the sanle counsel, as far as it l11ay be also 
proper for himself. 
The first advice I pre
ume to set before your vie,v shall relate 
to the nlanner of doing your part, in all the ordinary officeR of 
the public liturgy. 
As to that, it is nIY earnest request, that you ,yotlld take very 
much care and use extraordinary intention of nIind, to perfect 
yourselves in a true, just, sensible, accurate, becoming way of 
reading and adIninistering them, as you have occasion. 
A suggestion, which some perhaps, at first hearing, may think 
to be but of a slight and ordinary concernment: yet, if I am not 
much deceived, it win be found of exceeding nIoment and con- 
sequence in its practice: and of singular usefulness towards the 
raising of devotion in any congregation piously inclined: when 
Jour weekly or rather daily labours of this kind shall be thus 
performed; I mean, not ,,-it h a mere formal or artificial, but 
with such a grave, unaffected delivery of the ,vords, as (if the 
defect be not in ourselves) will indeed naturally flo\y from a right 
and serious con
idering of their sense. 
I pray therefore, take my nIind aright in this particular. I do 
not only mean that you should be very punctual in reading the 
Coulmon Prayer Book, as the law requires; that is, not only to 
do it constantly and entirely in each part, without any mainIing, 
adding to or altering of it, that so supplications, prayers, inter- 
cessions and giving of tnanlcs, may be made, by you, for all men; 
for kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a 
quiet and peaceahle life in all godliness and honesty. 
If you do not so, you are liable to a legal puni
hlnent and 
censure. But nIY ain1 now is, not mèrely to prevent that, or to 
provide only against your breaking the la,v. 'Vhat I intend is 
something higher and more excellent; something that Jon cannot 
be punished for, though you do it not; but if you shall do it in 
any reasonable perfection, it will redound to the unspeakable 
henpfit of your congregations. 
The purpose then of this nIY pl3 in motion to you is, in short, 
to beseech you all to e1nploy much serious pains in practising 




18 


The Bishop of Rochester's 


the public and private reading of all your offices, as the use of 
any of them shall occur, dist.inctly, gravely, affectionately, fer- 
vently; so as every where to give then1 all that vigour, life and 
spirit, whereof they are capable: which certainly is as great as 
in any human writings \vhat
oever; if ,ve be not wanting to them 
in the repetition. 
The truth is, ,vhatever some may imagine to the contrary, 
such a complete and consummate faculty of reading the Common 
Prayer, Quam neq1teo monstrare, et sentio tantuln, is of so great 
difficulty, as ,vell as use, that I am fully convinced it very ,velJ 
deserves to have some place among our constant studies; at least 
in the first initiation into our ministry, if not throughout the 
\vhole course of it. 
I could heartily ,vish it ,vere altogether needless for me to lay 
so much stress on this advice as I do. Yet, I hope, I may do it 
without offence; since it is not \vith design of censuring Dny 
particular men's failings or deficiencies, but only for the public 
good; that \ve may all strive to attain not only to a mediocrity, 
but to an excellency in this kind: ,vhich, in lny sn1all judgment, 
can never be done, unless \ve shall make this duty a business by 
itself, and assign it a special place among our other ecclesiastical 
studies. 
I t cannot be denied, but the church itself has provided for 
this \vith all inlaginable circumspection; having solemnly en- 
joined every clergyman, besides the time of his public ministry, 
to read some very considerable parts of his Office, once a day 
at least to hilnself, except he shall be excused by indispensable 
business. 
By \vhich wise injunction, though, no doubt, the church 
intended prinuLrily to produce and increase, in the nlinds of all 
its ministers, a frame of spirit perpetually serious and devout; 
yet, if that be also accompanied with a proportionable regard to 
the manner as \vell as to the matter of our public prayers, this 
other advantage of well reading, \vhat is so often to be read, will 
folIo,,' of cour
e, and by necessary consequence. 
It seems indeed to me, that the very \vay of performing all 
the outward acts of religion has so wonderful an influence 
towards obtaining the inward effects of it on our hearts and 
consciences, that I cannot but think \ve can never be too labori- 
ous in preparing and exercising our thoughts and even our very 
voices, in private, for a public service of so great Í1nportance. 



Disco frse to his Olergy,1695. 


Q19 


It is true, we general1y value and esteem preaching as our 
great privilege and honour. And so far we are in the right. 
But we are not so, if we look on the reading of prayers only as 
our task and burrlen; and, as such, shall be willing to get rid of 
it altogether, or to get through it in any un decent manner, with 
such heaviness or precipitation as, in any affairs of worldly 
interest, we would never be content with: a preposterous custom., 
which, if due care be not taken, may be very prejudicial and 
mischievous to our church, by quenching the spirit of devotion 
in our o,vn people and giving occasion to our adversaries 
to thro,v scorn and contempt on our otherwise incomparable 
liturgy. 
Consider, I pray you, how can \ve expect that others should 
revere or estef'm it according to its true worth, if we ourselves 
will not keep it so much in countenance as to afford it a fair 
reading? if we ,viII not do it so much common justice as to con- 
tribute, as much as lies in our power, that it nlay have an im- 
partial hearing, equal at least to any other divine ordinance? if 
we shall refuse to lay as much weight on those devotions, which 
our whole church has enjoined us to pour out before the throne 
of grace., for the people, as we do on those discourses, which we 
n1ake, on our own heads, to the people 
 
'Vherefore, I say again, this very cOInmendable skill of devout 
and decent reading the holy Offices of the church is so far front 
being a perfunctory or superficial work, a mean or vulgar 
accomplishment, or a subordinate lower administration, only fit 
for a curate; that it deserves to be placed among your Ininisterial 
endowments of greater superiority and preeminence; as being 
one of the most powerful instruments of the holy Spirit of God., 
to raise and conln1and Hlen's hearts and affections: of the holy 
true Spirit of God, I say; which, though in our inward ejacu- 
lations, or private supplications to,vards Heaven, it often helpetk 
o'ttr infirmities, and malceth intel'cession for 'Us with groanings that 
cannot be utte1
ed; yet, in the public worship, is most frequently 
pleased to operate by such "ords and sounds as are expressed 
with the best utterance. 
So that now, with a just assurance, I may assert this to be a 
very proper qualification of a parochial nlinister; tha.t he has 
attained to an habitual faculty of setting forth the public prayers 
to all their duf' advantage, by pronouncing them leisurabIy, 
fitly, wannly, decently; with such an authorit.y in the 8peaker
 



220 


Thf' Bishop of Rochester's 


as IS, In 80111e degree, suitable to the authority of what IS 
spoken. 
Thus much I may safely say, t.hat the reader of the prayers, if 
I he does his part, in the nlanner J have mentioned, by such a 
vigorous, effectual, fervent delivery of the \vords and conceptions, 
put into his mouth by the church itself, may give a new 
enlivening breath, a new soul, as it were, to every prayer, every 
petition in it: he l11ay quicken and aninlate those confessions, 
intercessions and thanksgivings, \vhich, when read coldly and 
indifferently, with irreligious carelessness or ignorant flatness, 
will seem to some to be but a dead letter: he tllay make every 
Hymn, every P8alm, every Lesson, Epistle and Gospel, to be- 
come well nigh a new sermon; at least he may give to the old 
standing text of the Bible a very good clear exposition, even by 
. his very \vay of reading it to the congregation. 
This, upon experience, you "Till find t.o be apparently true. 
For if, as is usually observed by men of learning in printed 
books, the very accurate and critical pointing of the copy is one 
of the best kinds of good new comnlentaries on any old author; 
how nluch more, in all the offices of devotion, would that, which 
consists not only in good pointing and observing all due stops, 
but in so nluch more besides, I mean a good, distinct, forcible, 
yet easy and unforced reading of every prayer and portion of 
the holy scriptures; ho\v much more would all this really serve 
for a good new paraphrase and illustration of every sentence in 
thenl! 
I t is indeed alnlost incredible how quite another thing the 
òaily nlorning and evening prayers will appear; what new 
figures and beauties and hidden treasures of sacred eloquence 
they will continually discover \vhen thus pronounced; how 
much apter they \vill be to kindle in us and our auditors all 
nlanner of heavenly affections, of spiritual grief and contrition, 
of love and gratitude, of faith, hope and charity, and joy in the 
Holy Ghost; when the harnlony of the tongue shall be tuned, 
as it were, to the harrnony of the matter; when the zeal of the 
reader shall I{eep company with his voice; and his voice sha]] 
be adapted to and varied together with every sense and 
expression; when by long use and inlitation of the best masters, 
or the best we can come at, we shall kno\v falniliarly how to 
give every \vord and sentence its due poise; \vhere to lay a 
greater or sllluIIer w
ight on every clause, 1.ccorrling to it
 



Discourse to Ids Cler!!!}, 1695. 


2Ql 


natural or spiritual force; where to be quicker or nlore vehe- 
ment, where slower and more sedate; how to observe equally all 
pauses and distances; how to avoid lllonotonies on the one hand, 
and imn10derate elevations and depressions on the other; yet, 
where to use the same tones, where to rise or fall in the right 
place: when, I say, the reader shall be throughly expert and 
versed in practising these and many nlore such natural decencies 
of pronouncing; though they may seem but light and petty 
things, taken singly and apart, yet all together, in their full 
united power, they will be found to have an adnlirable concur- 
rence towards the creating, augmenting, well-tempering and 
well-governing of devotion. 
Had I time, it were easy to exemplify this, in every Office of 
our church. Give me leave only to mention one instance 
within the cOlllpass of IllY own knowledge, which perhaps may 
not be unworthy your special ren1arking: though I doubt not 
but many of you have Dlet with several examples of the like 
nature. 
It was imn1ediatelyafter the happy restoration of king Charles 
the Second, when, together with the rights of th
 crown and 
the English liberties, the church and the liturgy were also newly 
restored; that a noted ringleader of schisnI in the fornler times 
was to be buried in one of the principal churches of London. 
The minister of the parish, being a ,vise and regular conformist, 
and he was afterwards an en1Ïnent bishop in our church, well 
knew how averse the friends and relations of the deceased had 
always been to the Conlmon Prayer; which, by hearing it so 
often called a low rudiulent, a beggarly element and carnal 
ordinance, they were brought to contemn to that degree, that 
they 8hunned all occasions of being acquainted with it. 
Wherefore, in order to the interment of their friend, in sOlue 
sort, to their satisfaction, yet so as not to betray his own trust, 
he used this honest nlethod to undeceive then1. Before the day 
appointed for the funeral, he ,vas at the pains to learn the \vhole 
Office of 13urial by heart. And then, the time being COlne, 
there being a great concourse of luen of the saIne fanatical 
principles, when the company heard all delivered by him ,vith- 
out book, with a free readiness and profound gravity and 
unaffected con1posure of voice, looks and gestures, and a very 
powerful elnphasis in every part (as indeed his talent was 
excellent that way), they ,vere strangely surpri
ed and affected; 



f.222 


I'kf3 Biskup of RV('/t 
tfj1"'S 


}Jrofessing they had never heard a IHore suitable exhortation or 
a 1l10re edifying exercise, even from the very best and nlost pre- 
cious men of their own persuasion. 
But they were afterwards much lnore surprised and con- 
founded, when the sanle person, who had officiated, assured the 
principal men among them that not one period of all he had 
spoken was his own; and convinced theIn by ocular demonstra- 
tion how all was taken ,vord for \vord out of the very Office 
ordained for that purpose, in the poor contemptible Book of 
Common I>rayer. 
Whence he nlost reasonably inferred ho\v much their ill. 
grounded prejudice and nlistaken zeal had deluded them, that 
they should adnlire the saln discourse, \vhen they thought it an 
unprepared, unprenleditated rapture: \vhich they would have 
abominated, had they known it to be only a set form prescribed 
by authority. 
And from the sante observation, we also lnay as justly infer, 
that all the coldness and dulness, which too Inany such abused 
and wanton spirits have complained they find in set forms, is not 
really in the forms themselves; in ours it is far otherwise. If 
there be any colour for the cOlilplaint, that can only proceed froIH 
a cold, flat, supine, insipid manner of repeating them. 
Upon the \vhole Inatter it is most certain that, in the public 
worship of God, nothing can be more grave or Inoving, more 
lofty or divine, either in the confessing, petitioning or praising 
part, than where the thoughts and expressions are strictly 
weighed and prudently reduced into standing unalterable fOnDs; 
provided also, those very forms be not pronounced in a formal 
\vay; but that they be assisted, inflamed, inspired, as I may say, 
\vith such a present ardour and sprightly zeal in readjng them, 
as \viII always make thenl seenl to be extempore: extempore, I 
Inean, in the new, ready, vehelnent luanneI' of their pronuncia- 
tion; but set fornls still, in the solid ripeness of the sense and 
the due choice and deliberate ordering of their phrases anti 
figures; \vhich are the peculiar advantages of set forllls: and 
therefore, so spoken, they will in all reason produce a far more 
real, unfeigned and durable devotion, than all the other luere 
extempore, raw and indigested effusions ought to pretend t.o. 
I should crave your pardon that I have dwelt so long on this 
first head of advice. Rut it appeared to l11e so very ll1aterial 
that I could not hastily pass it over: especially since what I have 



1J1.SCOltrSe to lti.
 OIeJ:q!J, 1695. 




3 


now said on this subject lllay concern in conUllon all your 
public nlinistrations, and is equally applicable, not onlJ to thp 
well perfornling the daily l\iorning and Evening Prayers through- 
out the year, both of ordinary days and Sundays and extra- 
ordinary fasts and festivals; but also to the Offices of Baptism, 

latrÌ1l1on)", and the holy COIDlllunion; and indeed to every 
other part of our established liturgy; in all which as the reader 
officiates better or worse, so n10st usually is their benefit and 
efficacy more or less on the minds of the hearers. 
Nay, I will now make bold to go further, to apply the useful- 
ness of this counsel, not only to the praying part, but also to 
another part of your office I am next to consider, which is that 
of preaching. 
I am verily persuaded, that the serInons preached every Sun- 
day in this one kingdom, by the church of England clergy in 
this age, are more excellent cOlnpositions of that kind than have 
been delivered, in the same space of time, throughout the whole 
Christian world besides. 
Only let me take the freedon1 to suggest that perhaps it 
would add much, though not to the solid and substantial part of 
such discourses, yet to their just popularity and more general 
acceptance and to the greater edification of our hearers, if ,ve 
would universally addict ourselves a little more to this study of 
pronunciation: by which advantages alone of the freedom and 
life of their elocution, we know the preachers of some other 
nations do seeln to reign and triunlph in the pulpit, whilst their 
sern10ns, as far as we can judge by those we have of them in 
print, are not con1parable to the English. 
An observa.tion, which, methinks, may rouse our preachers to 
outdo then1 in this kind of perfection also; I 111ean, in a natural, 
comely, nlodest, Jet undaunted force of pronunciation: not such 
as is full of over-action and min1ical gesticulations; which, 
though some parties nlay adn1ire for a tilne, and to serve a turn, 
yet the serious teluper of our nation '\'ill never long approve or 
adulit of. l
ut I intend such a steady, con1posed, severe, 
decent, lively and apposite lnanaging your voices and gestures 
in the pulpit, as is best accolun10dated to the gravity and so- 
lidity of the English genius, and is also agreeable, as 111uch as 
may be, to the sinlplicity, power and height of the luessage you 
bring frotH heaven. 
The next great duty then of lour priestIy office, which 



2
4 


T/te Bis/top úf RochestfJr' s 


conIes in our way, being that of preaching, I shall begin with 
one short adlllonition, which, I confess, I anI ahnost ashalned to 
give; and yet it luay be very expedient that it should be given ; 
not, I declare, as a correction to any of you here present for 
any thing past, but only in regard to the future, and for the sake 
of those ,vho as yet are less experienced preachers and young 
tilllorous beginners. 
The caution, in plain ternls, is this; that every person, who 
undertakes this greü.t enlployment, should Inake it a nlatter of 
religion and conscience, to preach nothing but what is the 
product of his own study and of his own COlllposing. 
I ,vould not be mistaken, as if I should hereby condenl11 the 
reading of the HOlnilies; \vhich were COIllposed by the wisdolll 
and piety of former tinies and have been ever since allowed, 
nay recolnmended, by our church, in some places and upon 
some necessities, to be used. I anl so far froln doing so that I 
rather wish froni my heart we were furnished with a larger stock 
of such learned, plain and orthodox discourses. 
There can be no luanneI' of hurt, nay there is very great 
reason that, upon sOlne urgent occasions, a preacher should have 
liberty to take something out of that public treasury, which ,va
 
laid up for that end and has the stanlp of authority upon it to 
lllake it current. My purpose is only to dissuade you from all 
unjust rapine of this kind, frolli all underhand dealing with the 
pri vate stores of particular persons. 
As to that, I dare avouch, it is far better and nlore advisable, 
even for the rawest practiser, to exhibit but very Inean things 
of his own at first, than to flourish it in the best of other nlen'8 
sense and oratory. For he who does never so ordinarily at first, 
provided it be from himself, may and will do better and better 
in till1e, by God's assistance, through fervent prayer and in- 
defatigable attention to reading and hearing and practising to 
preach. 'Vhereas this sordid borrowing, this shanleful, I had 
almost said sacrilegious, purloining frolll other men'8 labours, is 
an utter irreconcilable enemy to all lllanner of growth and 
improvenlent in divine learning or eloquence. 
I will not now insist on the meanness of spirit and perpetual 
fear, that nlust attend the consciousness of this guilt, lest it 
should be sonle time or other discovered; or on the shanle and 
contell1pt that often happens to such pilferers upon the discovery. 
But besides all this, in truth, when once l11el1 have indulged 



Discoltrse to hi.
 (}leJ:(!Y, 1695. 
thcIllselves in this casy, but d(\spicable and 8huffiing COIUIl1erCC, 
they seldom or never give it over; nay, at last, they can very 
hardly give it over, if they woulrl. 
Thence would su
ceed such a visiblf' decay of parts, such a 
neglect of aU serious studies, such a de,
uetude and unaptness 
for regular thinking, such enlptiness of invention and memory, 
such a diffidence of their own style, understanding and judg- 
nlent; that they, who at first nlarle bold \vith others' sernlons, 
perhaps Inerely out of idlenes
, will at length be forced to do it 
out of necessity. It will unaxoidably happen to this kind of 
thieves, as n10st comnlonly it does to aU others; they steal so 
long in their youth und strength of age, because they will not 
work, that in their old age they are cOIllpelled to steal on. 
Lecauf.:e they cannot work. 
But enough or too luuch of this. I know to ",holn I speak; 
to those who, for aught I could ever observe or hear
 do not 
only preach, but thelllseives conlpose what they preach. \
 et I 
thought it becallle Ine to give this intiulation, seeing, in Iny own 
sInaIl experience, J have been forced to deny orders to SOlne 
persons, because I found thelu peccant in this very crinle. I 
was at first exceerlingly alnazed to hear thenl produce U10st 
excellent sernlons, whilst I found their gifts of nature and abili- 
ties of learning and knowledge were far froin being passable. 
But lilY wonder was soon over, when I luanifestIy discovered 
that nothing but their ignorance was their own, their SerIllOnS 
belonging of right to their betters. 
XO\V then, nlY brethren, that we lllay COlue into the way again, 
after this unwelcome digression; in lnaking our sernlon
, great 
regard ought to be had to the words and to th
 nlatter; great to 
both, though not equally great to both. 
\..- our words and st)'le shoulrl be siutpie, expressive, weighty, 
authoritativ
; and therefore, though not without SOIHe true art, 
\ et not very artificial; and rather void of all ornalnent, than 
oyer-adorned; but as l1U1Ch scriptural as IHay be without aftect- 
ation: and as eas)", fanlÍliar and intelligible as possible. And 
perspicuity is always possible. Nay it is alnlost ilHpossible that 
one"ls words should not be perspicuous, whf'n his thoughts are 
clear and untroubled and the thing to be spoken of is throughly 
understood. "-hen the Blatter is \\ ell invf'uted. digested and 
ordered in the Inind, it very rarcl
' happens but the fittest and 



Q5 


(l 



fl2G 


The Bishop of Ruchesfe'JO"'s 


lllOst expressive words will occur to the fancy and tongue of tllC 
speaker. Verba no,
 Ùtvita sefjupntur. 
N ext, since your matter must of course be either doctrinal or 
practical; where it shan be luerely doctrinal, there it Inay suffice 
for your COlnmon auditories, and, in good truth, for all other fronl 
the lowest to the very highest, that it be plain, sound, substan- 
tial, ancient, catholic; seldonl or never curiously drawn out into 
the fine threads of dispute and speculation, or, as the apostlo 
terms them, oppositions nf science falsely so called. 
I t were indeed much to be wished that the agitating of all 
ll1anner of controversies could be utterly excluded fronl the 
great work of saving souls, which is your special work, Yet, 
because, in tiIues so degenerate from the priluitive purity and in 
this militant state of the Christian church, it cannot be expected 
that you should teach aptly, or oppose schisll1 and heresy solidly 
 
without touching sOlnetinles and entering upon some walks of 
controversies; certainly the best way, in these inevitable cases, 
is never to D1eddle with such obscure subtilties, out of spiritual 
pride or ostentation, but Inerely out of necessity; and then only 
with the most necessar)T part.s of thenI; and then also that JOu 
be ever sure to keep close to the fOrJn of sound 'U."ords used in 
the church, and to cont.ain yourselves within t.he known bounds 
of scripture detcrnlinations, in every controverted point, to deliver 
the faith to your people, as it was once delivered to the saints. 
As Jittle a lover then as I :l1n of controversial divinity in the 
pulpit, yet I cannot be faithful to you or to our 1110ther the 
church of England, if I do not reconuuend two sorts of it to 
be seriously studied by you: but I lllust still say, rather to be 
studied than preached; though preached too upon reasonable 
occaSIons. 
The first kind is that of the controversies between us and the 
church of Ronle. For we are not yet 80 exenlpt fronl fear on 
that quarter that we should securely lay aside and suffer to rust 
on the walls those very anns, which, to the immortal praise of 
the parochial clergy, were so successfully luanaged by them, 
during the last great crisis of danger from the popish interest. 
I the rather l11ention these, because they are still altnost in 
every nlan's hands; and perhaps a judicious sun1 and full epitome, 
collected out of them all, would be as useful a body of controver- 
sies on those questions, aR any i
 yet extant. 



Discolu'se to lli.
 Vlerpy,1695. 




7 


\Vherefore, that you 1l1ay preserve your own and the souls 
under your care frOln infection and be able to convince gain- 
sayers, I exhort you all, accorùing to your several stations and 
opportunities, to be still conversant and prepared in those very 
sanle argull1ents against the papists: yet, let Ine say also, not 
only now in those. For there is another sort of controversies 
or rather blaspheulous doctrines, revived in this age, and which 
seenl indeed to be the most cherished and darling tenets of the 
loose and antichristian part of the age; I luean those execrable 
opinions against the incarnation and eternal godhead of our 
Saviour, the sat.isfaction of his 111eritorious sufferings and death, 
and the very being of the ever-blessed Trinity: which being all 
of t.hetl1 the peculiar and distinguishing foundations of Christi- 
anity, whatever they who so directly oppose thell1 n1a)" at first 
pretend, yet they cannot but reaBy tend to the destruction of the 
primitive faith in Christ and the introduction of another religion, 
new and therefore abolninable. 
\Vherefore, to 111aintain no less than the nlain fundaTnental 
points of our pUJre and 
tndefilecl religion, you are now Inost zeal- 
ously to apply your thoughts to the serious study of those divine 
mysteries. Yet if you please to take my judgluent, after you 
shall be never so well furnished with weapons, defensive or 
offensive, of this nature, you should yery rarely brandish or so 
nluch as shew theln in your ordinary pulpits; never but when 
you cannot avoid it without betraying or deserting the orthodox 
truth. ..A.nd whenever you shall produce any of theln in such 
auditories, even then, it were best done in a calnl, positive and 
didactical, rather than in a sharp wrangling or contentious way. 
But always take along with you what I said before, to wade no 
further in theIn, in your popular senuous, than as the scripture 
light prill1Ïtively expounded shall plainly lead you. 
This 111ay suffice, at present, touching the doctrinal and spe- 
culative part of your preaching. As to the other, which is the 
practical, in that I need not forewarn you t.o proceed with such 
reserve or restraint. In the greatest abundance of that, if Inan- 
nged with nny t.olerable prudence, there can hardly be any 
nlanner of excess. l\Iost assuredly, the less controversial and 
the more prnctical your pulpit di,courses are, the better they 
must be and the 1110re profitable. 
Now, nlY dear brethren, the subject of this part of your ser- 
mons being, as you cannot but know, so comprehensive and 
Q
 





8 


Tlte Bishop of Rochester's 


vast, ::ts to take in the whole compass of all our spiritual and 
mor::tl duties; I s::tY of moral also; for, let none be deceived, 
In oral preaching is of l11arvellous use, wherever it is subservient 
to the inspired doctrine of Christianity, and does not strive to 
justle that, which is its principal, quite out of the pulpit: but, 
I say, the Inatter of your pr::tctical pre::tching being in itself so 
large as to extend to aJI the precepts and prolnises both of the 
la\v ::tnd the gospel; to all the ternpt::ttions and corruptions of the 
\vorld, the flesh and the rlevil; whereof the one ought to be 
the eternal ::trgunlent of your exhortations, the other of your 
reproofs and adulonitions: here it is especially that I would be- 
seech yon all, with a brotherly t
nderness and oblige you, with 
a fatherly authority, to layout the whole stress and bent of your 
souls, to draw all your studies, all your learning, hun1an or di- 
vine, aU your eloquence, all your affections
 all your zeal this 
way; this being the gre::tt \vork you haye chosen for the busi- 
ness of your whole lives, and for which we all were so peculiarly 
dedicated to the service of God and his church: and let DIe add, 
this being the great purpose, for which all scripture semns to 
have been git'en h!J inspiration of God; that it may be pro/itahle 
for doctrine, 10'1' reprooj
 fur correction. There is the chief end 
of all the doctrine you aro to teach. IJut what follo\vs 
 }'or in- 
struction in 1'igltteo
tsness,. that the 'lnan of God 'lna!J he perft3ct, 
thrullgldy furnished to et"m7/ goud work. There is the great 
design of all the practice you are to enforce. 
I have despatched what I thought proper now to say on this 
hearl of preaching, unless you will suffer l11e to name one very 
obvious caution; which yet. I cannot thinli to be eyer the less 
necessary for being so very obvious. 
'fhe caution is that, in ::tll your senllOllS, where JOu h:1ye 
occa
ion to praise any virtue or dispraise any vice; in all your 
comlnendatious of \vh::tt is good or discolluuendations of' what is 
bad, lOU would always sep::trate tho good person fronl the good 
thing and always rlistinguish the sinner fronl the sin: that is, 
that you would neyer put anyone virtue, neyer ::tny one vice, 
you are to deal with in the pulpit, into the habit or countenance 
of ::tny one lllClnber of your congregations, so that they Illay be 
known thereby: in ::t word, that you would utterly shun anrl 
abhor all personal flatteries of the good and all :personal reflec- 
tions on the wicked. 
As to the first of these extreInc
, that ot flattery, I need only 



Discourse to Ids Oler!'!/, 1695. 



29 


lllel1tion it here. That is seldonl thought worthy of such plain 
country congregations as )'OU1'8 generally are: it were wen, if it 
were as nlllCh excluded out of all other religious asselublies of 
better quality. 
It is indeed great pity that Duch glossing and deceitful lan- 
guage should at last, in any n1easure, take sanctualY in the 
church; when it had been so long, in all ages, by COlnl11on con- 
sent of wise and good luen, judged fit to be banished. out of all 
other well-constituted societies. Has it not been always found by 
experience that a flattering tongue is so far fro In increasing the 
virtues of the good and the great that it rather serves to de- 
prave the real worth they nlight have before '? ::;0 that, as the 
Psalmist says, the nlen wlw flatter u,ith tlteir tongue, Ilave not 
only no faithfulness in their 1Jwuth, but th,eÜ- very throat is an 
open sepulc/
re. But, above all, it is Bl0st unbecon1Ïng the pul- 
pit; where 1nen would seenl to speak as from God and with 
authority, which nothing can 1110re debase or prostitute than 
flattery. 
As to the other excess, that of secret reflections and malicious 
insinuations against or open defanlations of per.30ns, I would 
absolutely dissuade you frol11 the very shadow and suspicion of 
it. I would entreat you all, in tlte bowels of OlU' Lord Cltri
t, 
that you would never, on any occasion or accident, not even on 
the greatest provocation, do that affront to the honour and n10- 
dcsty of the pulpit as to luake it a l)lace for any rudeness or 
scurrility whatsoever. Surely nothing can be nlùre disgraceful 
to the reputation of your profession or nlore destructive to edi- 
fication or Ulore unbeseen1ing the gravity and charity of a 
church of England divine, than to nlake an ordinance so sacred 
and the word of God handled in it becon1e instrunlental to Jour 
own private passions, animosities or revenges. 
1 tUll now arri\'ed at the next great duty of your holy office, 
whieh is that of catechising; not so nuwh to reconllnend to you 
the duty itself; though I Inight do that IHOSt earnestly and 
vehcluently and with SOI11e kind of episcopal expostulation and 
reprehension, if any where it 
hould be totally neglected. But 
that I woulrl not here so nllwh as suppose. 
I cannot doubt but we are all of one 11linù touching the inex- 
pressible adyantages of this ordinance in genf'ral ; we, especially, 
who have lived in these tiU1Cg. \Ve cannot but be abundantly 
convinced of it by a woful and rlearbought pxperience: since tt 



230 


The lJishojJ uj"llochester's 


is evirlent that the far greater part of the Ulonstrous looseness of 
opinions and profane enorIuity, of manners, which overwhelmed 
the whole face of the last age and has too nluch descended on 
this, did relnarI\:ably proceed froin the notorious defect or uni- 
versal omission of orthodox catechising, during the calamities 
and confusions of the great rebellion. 
"Therefore, touching the imminent necessity of restoring, or, 
I Inay well hope rather, alllong you, of continuing, this first 
part of Christian discipline, I nULke sure account we are all 
agreed. 
The only thing to be debated is the manner how this holy 
exercise IUa.y be so put in use that the blessed ends, which I am 
assured \ve all ain) at alike lnay be attained. 
Without all controversy then, the first practice of your regu- 
lar catechising, in all your churches, ought to be in the very 
same order and on the saIne Inaterials, \vhich the Church Cate- 
chislll has traced out and the la\v has enjoined. 
I would therefore desire you an to begin, or rather encourage 
you to go on, plainly and literally, in that ,yay, with a strict 
confinelnent of your catcchuinens, as they Inay be called, to that 
very cOlllpendious introduction; to have your youth throughly 
versed and instructed perfectly in all the questions and answers 
there prescribed. This ought by no 11leallS to be left undone in 
the slnallest or poorest of your country cures; where the high- 
est capacities are not at first above, and the lo\vest can /Scarce be 
below, this kind of plain information. 
But in greater towns, where the youth are somewhat better 
educated and so should be more capable of ilnproven1ent, there, 
supposing still you never Olllit the other more simple way, you 
may, by degrees
 \vith a sober and discreet pace, proceed fur- 
ther; I will not say by enlarging the foundations, but by raising 
the building higher on the saIne cOlllpass of ground. 
And this I have known done with very remarkable fruit and 
benefit to the learners, in a familiar method, whereof I ,viII only 
trace out to you the ilnperfect draught, \vhich by tinle and cus- 
tom JOu may easily advance and complete. The nlethod is this; 
that to every article and every clause of it, in the Church Cate- 
chism, after they have learnt them by heart, you should annex, 
at first, some such texts of scripture as nlay suffice to prove the 
Inatter contained in them, and do it in the fewest words antl 
clearest to the purpose. These texts you should induce your 



DißcOztl'
e to !tis Clergy, 1695. 


Q31 


young disciples to repeat often anù perfectly without book, 
together with each article, and should begin to let theln under- 
stand, by a very brief exposition, how evidently each scripture 
proves each article. 
Then, by degrees, after they shall be made intil11ately ac- 
quainted with that first set of texts, you lnay 1110re securely add 
other quotations out of the J
ible, sOlnewhat larger, but still 
tending to the same purpose; and when you have eXplained 
them, in the like manner, but 1110re copiously, JOu 111ay cause 
those also to Le learnt as exactly and repeated as readily as the 
forn1er. .A.nd the same course JOu ll1ay begin and go through 
with again, still adding 1110re texts, and l110re distinctly dividing 
the parts and lnelubers of the several articles, as often as you 
shall find it practicable or convenient. 
Thus, whilst you do not oyerburden tender ulinds, but softly 
instil these instructions into then1, drop after drop, the children 
you have undertaken in this way, so very little out of the com- 
Inon road, and l11any also of riper years, who shall be present 
and. attentive, ,,,ill, beyond their own, and even your first ex- 
pectation, C0111e to have treasured up, almost unawares, in their 
lninds, a little body, as it were. of orthodox divinity: which can- 
not but be all orthodox, all primitive, as being without 111ixture 
purely collected out of the holy scriptures. 
With the scriptures, by this nleans, their luemories \\,ill 
un perceivably be filled; yet not 80 as only to fit theln to cant 
with unseasonably in conlmon discourse, but so as to instruct or 
confirnl their judgulents and teach then1 to apply properly ,vhat 
they shall there read, to every part of a sober Christian's be]ief 
or practical duty. 
111 this great article of catechising, I would offer one honest 
direction III ore. It is, that you should not so llluch ailn in it at 
the length of the exercise or at the perpetual changing of your 
thoughts and expressions, as at the sound botton1, on which you 
build your discourse, and the solid, 11l1lnOvable ground of each 
doctrine, whereon you fix your explanations; though your per- 
fornlance each tin1e be the shorter, so it be not unreasonably 
short, and though your words and phrases lnay happen frequently 
to be the san1e and repeated nlore than once. 
In tl'utlJ, I would, if I durst, offer S0111e such advice also as to 
your preaching. But I know the COllllllon vogue is against D1Y 



Q
32 


The IJ.ishup oj'Rochester"s 


real opinion in this 1l1atter. And therefore I I1Hlst ha.ndle thi
 
point the Inore tenderly. 
I t is indeed a, very great burdpn that the hunIonr of the 
people, anrl our own too, in sonle lneasnre, has laid on our pro- 
fes8ion; such as, I think, no other caJling or way of life, were 
e\'er willing to lay on theIllSelves; no, nor any other nation, that 
I know of, has exacted in so high a degree fronl their clergy; 
that you should twice, or once a week, at. least, always present 
your auditories with new sern1ons; and those al
o to be conl- 
posed with the care and accuracy alnlost of elaborate and com- 
plete treatises. 
'Vhf'reas I 
un snre, in the business of catechising, and nlost 
probably the saUIe will be fbllUd trup in preaching also, that a 
sound, substantial, well-collected and well-woven provi
ion of 
plain, instructive, godly and devout discourses, altered and 
increased, according to the teacher"s growing abilities, and used 
oyer and over, though in the saIne desl{s or pulpits, would be 
l110re edifYing and sink deeper into the nlinds and consciences 
of the hearers, than all the greatest affluence and redundance of 
new words and phrases, 111ultiplied or interchanged, which the 
lnost fanciful, copious catechist or preacher can devise. 
I haye known son1e very learned and pious nlen and excellent 
preachers and zealous lovers of our church and country, whose 
\velfare and prosperity they wisely judged to be inst'para bly 
joined; I say I have known these persons affectionately declare 
their wishes that SOlne such order as this 1 shall subjoin were 
observed by the greatest. part, if not by all our parochial 
D1inisters. 
That, on the very entering into their nlinistry, or at any tillle 
afterwards, if they have not done it before, they would set 
thelllseives to draw out the general lineaments and larger nlen1- 
bel's of a whole year's, or perhaps a two years' course of cate- 
chislns and ser1110ns: following therein the annual I11ethod of our 
church's devotions, or any other scheme they shall approve and 
form to then1seh'es ; provided it cOlnprises aU the Dlain point:s of 
Christian doctrine and practice. 
That on this stock they should set up; and, in the first and 
second year, begin to fill up the void spaces and lay the first 
colours, towards the finishing, as well as their sufficiency will 
then allow; f":tiJI eollc(.ting and conveying all the streanlS of 



Discourse to his Cl()rpy, 169j. 


233 


thcir useful reading and learning into those COllHllOn receptacles 
and chanllf'ls; and so succe
::5ively preaching them on, as the 
year turns round. 
That eyer after, in the whole progress of their n1Înistry, they 
should still be adding to or cutting off frolll, or polishing those 
first iUlperfect ideas; altering the lnethod and bhapp of the 
whole, if needful; enforcing or increasing the argun1ents, ilIus- 
tr'ations and all1plificatiolls, if wanting; inserting new doctrines 
Lefore unobserved, lnaking new practical inferences before un- 
touched, as their judgulents or light or experience shall in1- 
prove; but especially, still drawing, Inore and lnore, o\'er an a 
new beautiful skin and the lovely features of scripture language: 
and then, without scruple or disguise, should preach thenI 
again and again, so corrected, auglnented and in sonle part 
renewed. 
And I have heard these very wise persons, some of them n10st 
excellent fathers of our church, often conclude that, by this or 
sonte such luethod. any preacher, t.hough of no extraordinary 
bright endoWlnents at first., yet of an honest luind, clear sense, 
unwearied industry and judicious learning, would, in process of 
titne, in all likelihood, have by hinI in store a conlplete dOlnestic 
course of sound, well-conlpacted, affecting sermons; that, by 
God's blessing nlight, with the just advantages of deli\'cry, be 
of far greater use to his conscientious hearers than all that 
pOlllpOllS no\'elty and counterfeit variety, which 80111e others 
lnay boast of. 
I say counterfeit variety. For so indeed it is often, upon 
trial, found to be. And now I haye faithfully told you the 
opinion of those great Inen, I will presunle, under so safe a 
shelter, to disclose 111Y own thoughts in this business; yet still 
with all deference and calldour towards any who lnay differ 
frolll me in this particular. 
'Ve have lived in an age when the two gifts, as they are wont 
to be caUed, of extempore praying ånd extelnpore preaching 
have been Inore pret.ended to and lllagnified than, I believe, they 
ever were before, or, I hope, ever will be again, in this church 
and nation. ,.,.. et, for all I could ever learn or observe, t.he 1110st 
f3udden readiness and most profuse exuberancy, in either of 
these ways, has been only extelllpore in show and appearance, 
and yery frequently but a cunningly-di
selnbled change of the 




34 


The Bishop of Rochester's 


,ery sanle Inatter and words often repeated, though not in the 
same order. 
As to that of extenlpore praying, \vhich therefore too many 
n1Ïstake for praying by the Spirit, it is nlanifest, that the most 
exercised and most redundant faculty ill that kind is, in reality, 
only praying by the fancy or the melnory, not by the Spirit. 
They do but vary and renlove the scripture style anrllanguage, 
or their own, into as many places and shapes and figures as 
they can. And though they have acquired never so plentiful a 
stock of thenl, yet still the sanle phrases and expressions do so 
often COlne about again that the disguise nlay quickly be seen 
through by any attentive and intelligent hearer. So that, in 
I)lajn tertllS, they who think theinseives most skilful in this art 
do really, all the while, only pray in set forms disorderly set, 
and never ranged into a certain luethod. For which cause, 
though they nlay not seem to be set forms to their deluded 
auditors, yet they are so in thenlselves; and the very persons 
\vho use theln Inost variously and most artificiaJIy cannot but 
kno\v thenl to be so. 
This, my brethren, seeins to be all the great. mystery of the 
so llluch boasted power of extelnpore praying. And why nlay 
not the like be affirlned, in great nleasure, of exteIl1pOre preach- 
ing, which has so near an affinity with the other 
 Is not this 
also, at the bottonl, only a lllore crafty lllanagelnent of the same 
phrases and observation
, the SalTIe doctrines and applications, 
\vhich they had before provided and composed and reserved in 
their 1ll8mories 
 · 
Do but hear the 1110st voluble masters in this way, once or 
twice, or perhaps oftener, as tar as their changes shall reach; 
and at first, no doubt, you will be inclined to wonder at the 
strange agility of their ilnaginat.ions and C0111paSS of their 
inventions and nimbleness of their utterance. But if you shall 
attend thenl cahllly and constantly, the vizor will be quickly 
pulled off, though they manage it never so dexterously: you 
\vill at last find, they only \valk forwarrl and backward and 
round about: one, it mav be, in a larger labyrinth than 
another; but in a labyrinth still; through the same turnings 
and windings again and again anrl, for the Inost part, guided 
by the same clue. 
The t->
planations, perhaps, of their texts, the connections and 



DiscUllì"Se tv 'tis Clergy, 1695. 


235 


transitions of the parts, and some sudden glosses and descants, 
and flights of fancy Inay seen1 new t.o you. But the Inaterial 
points of doctrine and the conlmon places, to which, upon any 
Joss or necessity, the)' have recourse, these they frequently 
repeat and apply to several subjects, with very little alterations 
in the substance, oftentilnes not in the "yords. These are the 
constant paths which the)' scruple not to walk over and over 
again, till, if you follow thenl very close, you Inay perceive, 
amidst all their exten1pore pretensions, they often tread in the 
Fame grounds till they have trodden thelll bare enough. 
But, God be thanked, the church of England neither requires 
nor stands in need of any such raptural {if I nlay so call it) or 
enthusiastical spirit of preaching. Here the n10re advised and 
lliodest, the Inore deliberate and prepared the preacher is, the 
better he is furnished, by God's grace, to deliver effectually our 
church's solid sense, its fixed IJrecepts, its unalterable doctrines. 
Our church pretends not to enter into n1en's judgnlents Inerely 
by the affections; nluch less by the passions to overthrow their 
judglnents. 'Ihe door, which that strives first to open, is of the 
understanding and conscience: it is content, if by then1 a passage 
shall be Blade into the affections. 
I have detained you the longer on this argument, because I 
:un perfectly convinced that although one or two preachers in 
an age, or perhaps some few more, nlen of extraordinary parts, 
assurance of luind and volubility of tongue, nlay, by long use. 
Blake a renlarkable blaze, for a tinle, in this sudden, unstudied 
way; 
'et, if it should ever become the general custom of the 
whole English clergy, it would produce little III ore than ignor- 
ance and confidence in many of our preachers. and ten1pt many 
of the laity, who presume themselves to be equally gifted, to 
think the)' had an equal right to the lliinistry. 
But what need I say any more of this nlatter 
 It is confessed 
on all hands, that if an exten1pore kind of preaching had been 
universally put in use anlong us, frum the beginning of our 
refonnation, the whole church of Christ had been much impo- 
verished thereby, had been deprived of the best treasury of 
sermons that ever it was enriched with since the apostles and 
their successors, and the prin1Ïtive fathers' tilnes. 
There is still behind one solen}11 duty lnore belonging to all 
of U8, wherein I would willingly suggest. one serious word of 
counsel: and it concerns the office of visiting the sick. I would 




g6 


The Bis/top u.f Rocnester's 


not doubt but herein JOU generalJy do your parts diligently, 
piously and prudently. But t.here are SOlne things in this, as 
,veIl as in the others before lnclltioned, touching the nlanner of 
doing it, whereof the oòservation Inay be of a peculiar and signal 
benefit to yourselyes, as well as to your spiritual patients. 
If you please to consult the rubrics relating to this office, ) ou 
,viII find you are lnore left to your own liberty in this than, I 
think, in any of t.he rest. For this duty of friendship and cha- 
rity being supposed to be nlore in private, the rule itself in the 
liturgy seenlS to give ,vay to, nay to direct sonle occasional 
adrnonitions and exhortations, to which I do not renleInber it 
does equally eIl1pOWer you in any of the rest, out of the pulpit. 
'Vherefore, to prepare y'bur thoughts and to replenish your 
luinds thronghly for this work not only of nlinisterial duty, but 
of compassion and brotherly love, you shall not only do 'v en to 
furnish your Inemories with a plentiful store of pious, Inoving, 
affectionate expressions out of the Rook of Psalrns and other 
practical and devotional parts of the holy scriptures, first; and, 
next to theIn, out of our own liturgy 
 and all these to be casu- 
ally used, as shall be nlost proper: but principally I would 
persuade you to have SOlne good sound body of casui5-:tical divi- 
nity, of your own studying Ilnean J to be always at hand J that is, 
in your hearts as ,veIl as heads. 
You can scarce inlagine, unles.s you have tried it, as, I hope, 
SOllle of you have, of what unspeakable use this divine science of 
cases of conscience will be to JOu upon any sudden, unforeseen 
elllergency in such ghostly visits. 
Indeed the being a sound and well-experi
nced casuist is also 
a lHOst excellent qualification towards all the other ends of your 
n1Ïnisterial office; there being no kind of skill or proficiency in 
all your theological studies, that more beCOll1eS a divine of the 
church of England; ,vhose highest spiritual art is to speak 
direct1 y frOln his own conscience to the consciences of those 
under his pastoral care: and this at all tinles; but ll10st espe- 
cially when they are on their sick beds: when Inen's consciences 
are usually 1l10st awakened., ll10st ll1anageable, nlo
t truly t.ender 
and capable of the best iInpressions. 
So that I say it again, and can never say it too often, one of 
the 1l10st necessary provisions and instrulnents of your sacred 
arnloury, which you are alway
 to carry about with you, ill your 
own souls (for there it i
 best lodged; thence it will be drawn 



Discourse to his ClerpJ/, 1695. 



g7 


forth, on a]] occasions, with the quickest expedition), is such a 
firl11 sense and general schenle of the pr11nitive, uncorrupt, 
practical, casuistical divinity: such as, on the one f'ide, is purged 
frOlll the spiritual crafts and equi\'ocations of the Jesuits, and, 
on the other, is freed froln the narrowness and sourness of 
enthusiasl11. 
I told you even now, it highly concerned you a]] to be ,yell 
stocked with plenty of good nlatter for present lIse, in the visita- 
tion of the sick; and that for your own sakes as n1uch as their"s. 
..A.n<1, in truth, so it is. A clergYlnan can no way better have 
his own affections and passions regulated, tmupered, softened, 
nloi'tified, sanctified, than by frequently perforl11ing this office in 
a right godly Inanner. 
]3)" thus often seeing death before our eyes, in all its ghastl)F 
shapes, we cannot, if it be not the fault of our own insensibility, 
but be the better accustolned and luade skilful to teach the 
whole and the healthful how to prepare to 111eet that king of 
terrors, By these spiritual anatomies of the dying (if I lnay 
be anowed to use so bold a metaphor), we cannot but be lnade 
l110re expert in discerning the inward fraBles and constitutions of 
the living and to apply the properest rmnedies to the diseases of 
their souls. 
And, to instance now only in one duty of such a faithful spi- 
ritual physician, that of relieving and refreshing the con
cience 
throughly searched and purged, and of conlforting and re
toring 
the true penitent, what. I beseech you, can be a more godlike 
work an10ng l11en, than for us to be hlunbly serviceable in that, 
which God owns to be his \\'ol'k, to be skilled in not breaking the 
b'l'uised 1'eed a7td not qZlcnchin.f1 the sJ7loking flcur:? to Le iustru- 
Inental in perfornling our Lord's own office, ulldpr the parable 
of the good Salnaritan, in binding up tlte 'li'OltndLd spirit antl 
pourÙl.fJ wille aJul oil 'into it? 
'Vhat can Illore adorn your evangelical n1Ïnistr} than a soft, 
Inelting, conlpassionate, fellow-feelin
, nlcrciful .habit and dis- 
position of luind. and, as the scripture styles it, the Oi'JtameJd of a 
meek spirit? Or, where can such a blessed tenlper be 1110re 
seasonably practised or sooner learned and increased, than iu the 
chanlbers of sick ancl dying persons 
 
Now. IllY dear brethren, having aU along insisted that, for 
the furni
l1Ïng and enriching your Blinds with spiritual know- 
ledge towards the due perforn1ÏIlg these and. all other offices of 




3B 


The Bishop of Rochester'f: 


your holy profession, you should 11lake the holy scriptures the 
principal subject, and indeed the only final centre of all your 
studies; that your doctrine should never swerve froln that Ull- 
erring rule; your very ,yords, language and style, should every 
,vhere taste of and overflow with those living and inexhaustible 
strealllS of trut.h and godliness; it may be expected that, for 
the sake only of the younger divines alnong you, I should add a 
,vord or two touching the luanneI' and l1lethod of your studying 
these sacred writings. It is indeed a business too large to be 
drawn within the narro,v compass of the conclusion of such a 
discourse. But since a true, at least a cOInpetent, understanding 
of this blessed Look ought to be the beginning and end of all 
our spiritual studies; and because I may speak to SOlne whose 
circul1lstances in this \vorld are not so plentiful as to enable 
them to purchase large libraries; yet their industry is by no 
means to be discouraged, nor their zeal, in pursuing this holy 
skill, abated; I will open to JOU Iny own sÍ1nple apprehensions 
in this Il1atter, with subnlission still to better judgl11ents. 
l\Iy opinion is, that although, without question, all l11anner of 
secular or ecclesiastical learning can ne\"er be more usefully el11- 
ployed than in this search and is all little enough for it, and too 
little to complete it; yet, when all is done, the script.ure itself is 
the best. expositor, the best COnll11entator on itself. 
It is apparent, that the whole New Testanlent is so to the 
whole Old Testaluent; that being the real light of the other's 
figurative darkness and mysteries; tho very consulllnlation of 
the other"s prophecies, and shado'ws of good tllings to COlne. But 
I ,viII also aver that every part, every book, every sentence 
ahnost, both of the Old and the N e'v Testaluent, ,veIl cOIllpared 
and judiciously set one over against the other, in their right 
vie,v and reflection, cannot but prove" by God's blessing, an in- 
estilllable explanation of each other: if a due and accurate care, 
I say, be taken to interpret their difficult texts, by others of their 
o\vn that are easier; and to collate their words, phrases and 
sense, that nlay seeiU dark or doubtful in some places, with the 
sanle or the like in other places, where they are clearer and 
Inore intelligible. 
I canot forbear, as I go along, to declare my lueaning a littIe 
fuller in this matter, by one special instance. For, consider, I 
pray, how is it possible for any, the Inost learned or sagacious 
student in divinity, to conceive the true and genuine sense of 



Discou'rse to !tis Clerg!l, 1695. 



39 


the eloquent and divine Epistle to the Hebrews, except he has 
been also throughly conversant in the writings of l\fosE's? Or 
where can there be found a clearer, a more spiritual and nlore 
illustrious C0l11nlentary on the whole ritual part of the Pentateuch, 
than the Epistle to the Hebrews? 
The like also nlay be proved of all other portions of t.he 
holy book of God. And indeed to manifest what Il1utual bright- 
ness and splendour the scripture gives to and takes froln itself, 
by conlparing its several parts, I need only urge the frequent 
practice of our Saviour hiulself, and the inspired penlnen of the 
gospel, in thus expounding the old law by the new, and the ne\v 
by the old. 
So that now I may, with greater freedom, propound IUY Inll11- 
bIe conceptions in this matter; that where n1uItitudes of fathers, 
councils, schoolmen, histories are wanting (which are all very 
beneficial helps, where they can be had, but, \\ here they cannot 
be conle at), if a clergJInan shall resort inlnlediately to the 
fountain itself, first and always iInploring the assistance of that 
divine Spirit, by which the scriptures were written, and then, 
with a sincere love of the truth and resolution to live according 
to it, without which God will neither hear our prayers nor 
bless our endeavours; and also with an lnuuble heart, a devout 
nlind and unquenchable feryour of spirit and a right unbiassed 
judgment; joined with a sufficient skin in the original languages" 
and in those other introductory studies; which no nlan in holy 
orders, if it be not the bishop's fau1t as well as his own, can pos- 
sibly be altogether to seek in: and if withal he shall be assisted 
with sonle of the ancient, and sonle few of the Illûdern sound 
and orthodox conllnentaries; he will, in all hunlan probability, 
by an incessant, daily and nightly nleditating upon and revolv- 
ing in his Ininrl, thE' divine text itself, becoIne, in time, though 
not perhaps as Apollos is said to have been, eloquent and 
mighty in the scriptures, yet a 'workman that needetlt not to be 
ashaJned, rightly dividing the 'lcord of trllth. 
The more to encourage your sturlies in this nlethod, if you 
shall be necessitated to it, give Ine leave to present you with one 
example of a great divine and bishop, in the tinle of king 
Charles the First, who was one of the n10st en1Ìnent confessors 
then, and survived those calan1Îties, to die in peace and tranquil- 
lity, several }.ears after the return of king Charles the Second. 
In the comn10n persecution, which then happeneò to th(- 




40 


The Bishop if Rue/lester's 


whole episcopal order, this reverend person \vas exposed to a 
Dlore than ordinary degree of popular nlalice and rage; so that, 
without ever being once brought to his trial, he was closely inl- 
prisoned in the Tower for ahnost twenty years, and ,vas not only 
despoiled of his annual revenue and personal e
tate in the first 
fury of the civil ,val'S; but was al
o plundered of Inost of the 
collections of his fonner labours, and a very considerable 
library. 
'Vherefore, being thus laid up in prison, without any prospect 
of liberty, having al
o a numerous f:uuily to nlaintain, so that he 
"Tag not able, in any sort, to repair the loss of his books and 
papers, he betook himself to this course of study: well ]{nowing 
that he could have no faithfuller conlpanion for his solitude, nOlO 
surer consolation in his afflictions, than the holy scriptures, he 
applied hinlself to theln inunediately, with little other help but 
what he had within hilnseIt
 and the best prints of the originals 
in the learned tongues, and their translation
 in the learned and 
l11odern, in bot.h which he was a great nlaster. 
Thus however he firnlly and vigorously proceeded so far in 
the single study of the scriptures that, long before his enlarge- 
n1ent, he had composed a great mass of annotations on divers 
parts of the Bible. \'Vhat is beconle of thenI, I know not. If 
they are either eUlbezzled or suppressed, no doubt it is to the 
great danlage of the church; since the native t.houghts of a great 
luan are generally, at least, as good as the Inost artificial. 
Perhaps JOu will say
 he lllight be able to do aU this by the 
strength of his Ineillory and the variety of learning he had laid 
up in it Leforehand; and ] make no doubt but those were au 
exceeding great assistance to hilll. 
But what ,vas very relnarkable, and for \vhich I anl bold to 
produce hiln as an instance worthy your irnitation in t.his parti- 
cular, I know he was often heard to profess solen1nly that, in all 
his fornler studies and various reading and observations, he had 
never 111et with a 1110re useful guide, or a surer interpreter, to 
direct his paths in the dark places of the lively oracles, to give 
inforulation to his understanding in the obscure passages, or 
satisfaction to his conscience in the experinlental truths of thenl, 
than when he was thus driven by necessity to the assiduous con- 
tenlplation of the scripture alone, and to weigh it by itself, as it 
,vere, in the balance of the 
anctuary. 
I-Iad I not been already so tedious, there is OIlP particular 



Discoll'rse to Ids Olergy, 1695. 


Q41 


behind, on which I ought most justly to have expatiated, whifh 
now I can only name; and it is that touching the luanner of 
your conversat.ion; that it be such, as Inay render JOu vessels, 
not only sanctified, but nleet for your .ßIa
ter"js use, and, as St. 
Paul al
o adds, vessels of IwnOUl". 
I would therefore reconnnend to l11en of your character, not 
only the innocency and sincerity, but (as much as hunlan frail- 
ties will allow) the comeliness and the an1iableness of every word 
and action of your lives: that you especially would not only 
strive to follow u'hatsoever thinps are true, or honest., or just., 
hld llioreover u"katsoever tlângs are pyre and lorel!! and oj" good 
report; that you would thinle on these things, not onl!! 'if there b(J 
an!! virtue, b

t if there he any praise of virtue. 
}1'rolll you, n1Y brethren, it ll1ay well be expected, that your 
behaviour should not only be unblamable. but, if I Inay he 
pennitted so to say, s0111ething more than strictly unblalnable, 
and that not only to those within, but also towards theln \vho as 
yet. are without; that you should not only keep your B1inds 
clean, Jour hands unpolluted, your tongues well goyerned, your 
whole course of life spotless and upright, and your cor:tsciences 
undefiled, but also your consciences 'Coid of offence, and that to- 

()ards 'Jnen, as well as towards God: that you 111ay be not onl)" 
exenlplary in your fanIilies, in your pari:
hcs, in the neighbour- 
ing country, in the whole church of God, to the gentry. to the 
laity, to your brethren of the clergy, to the C0l1ll110naIty of 
our c0l1ll11union, for your justice, 1110desty, sobriety, prudence, 
quietness and obedience to superiors; but that you \vould exer- 
cise and extend all these virtues, and also Jour humility. long- 
suffering, good-wiII, good wishes, condescension and affability, 
even beyond the church itself, to the very enen1Ïes of it: that 
towards all 111en you would sweeten the gravity of your be- 
haviour and soften the strictness of your conversation, with the 
gentleness and suavity of your Inanners: that you would take spe- 
cial care, as never to be obstinately ih the wrong, so, when you 
are sure you are in the right, even then never to be too rigidly, 
austerely or 1110rosely in the right: that by all reasonable re- 
spects, n1ild and winning converse, and not only by a ready 
return, but by a cheerful prevention of all Christian good offices; 
and eyen by 111aking your very oppositions and contentions with 
those that differ frOln you, if JOU shall happen to be forced to 
any, as hun1ane and friendly and easy to be entreated as pos.. 
R 




4Q 


The Bishop of Rochester"ls 


sible; by all this you may do your part to put to silence the igno- 
rance of foolish and unreasonable 'inen. \Vho knows but you 
Dlrty convert and gain some of them 
 \vho knows but by your 
thus following not only righteousness and faitl
, but peace and 
charity; by your being not only apt to teach, hut gentle to all 
men and patient, -in rneelness instructing those that oppose them- 
selroes; who knows if by these means God peradventure will 
give the fiercest adversaries of our church repentance to (he ac- 
knowledging of the truth? 
Iost certainly by these means, or by 
no other, in all human probability. . 
I cannot now enlarge as I would on this most necessary and 
seasonable argunlent. But unquestionably by thus keeping 
yourselves free from haughty censoriousness and untractable 
peevishness and sullen darkness of life and manners; and by 
excelling in the contrary virtues, you will, in the best way, 
teach and convince all that dissent from you, how un\vorthy 
such a pharisaical garb and disposition is of the true Christian 
liberty or severity. 
In short, by such a grave, sedate, decent, charitable course 
and colour of your \vhole lives, you will do yourselves, and 
especially the church of England, most right. For our church 
itself, \vherever she is set in a true light., cannot but be found to 
be most of this sweet, meek and truly pacific temper of any 
church in the Christian \vorld. 
I conclude therefore, \vhoever among her sons and nlembers, 
much nlore among her teachers and fathers, as you and we are, 
shall not do their utmost to attain to this gentle, obliging, 
channing manner of conversation, \vhich our church prescribes 
towards all men, adversaries as \vell as friends, I must repeat 
what our blessed Saviour said to his disciples on the like occa- 
sion, TIley know not 'what spirit th yare of. 
There is one or two short requests more I anI to nlake you, 
\vhich chiefly respect me, as your unworthy bishop; and then I 
shall give ease to your patience. 
One is to entreat that you "would be e
ceeding \vatchful, and 
indeed religiously scrupulous, for whom }TOU give certificates and 
testilnonials. For what sonle of you, perhaps out of good nature 
or good neighbourhood, or an easiness, and not being able to 
resist inlportunity, nlay at first think to be only a matter of form, 
is not so to me. I havÐ scarce any other way possible of being 
}'ight.Jy infornled, fron1 wit.hout, of the good lives or sufficient 



 



Discourse to his Clergy, 1695. 



43 


endowments of the persons, but only by your's and the like tes- 
till1onies. The law of the land appoints that method to me, and 
almost confines me to it. "Thereas if you make this to be only 
a business of private favour or partiality, not of public judgment 
and conscience, I may chance to be led into very mischievous 
and sometimes irreparable mistakes; only by that, which you 
may esteelll but as a piece of bashfulness and good breeding: I 
may be induced to lay hands on the ignorant and unworthy, 
Inerely by the authority of your names, the subscribing of which 
you Dlight think to be only an office of COJl1mOn hun1anityand 
modesty. 

l y next and last request to you at this time shall concern 
your curates. This it may suffice only to intin1ate to you. I 
know I need not spend Dlany words on it in this assembly; be- 
cause there is but a very small inconsiderable number of plural- 
ists in my diocese. I am persuaded they will be found upon 
inquiry the fewest of any in England. 
I cannot but say I could be very well content there were 
more; especially if all, so qualified, would be rigorously true to 
the church in their choice of substitutes, where they cannot 
always reside themselves. 
For as, I will frankly own, I never yet heard an invincible 
objection against the prudent allowance and nloderate use of 
pluralities; but only some plausible popular ones against the 
abuse of them; which ,ve are as n1uch offended with as any 
others can be: so, I verily believe, were this legal indulgence to 
the clergy so carefully observed every where, as, among divers 
other good ends of it, to furnish us with a race of painful, learn- 
ed, godly curates; who, by this way of probation, n1ay make, 
and shew themselves worthy to be proll1oted to a higher charge; 
these pluralities would be so far froln being a scandal or preju- 
dice, that they would conduce to the strength and defence, as 
well as they do to the ease and ornament of the church of 
England. ' 
The great obligation then I an1 to lay upon you (you, I n1ean, 
whonl it does at present concern) is this, that you would be 
very unlnovably faithful to n1e, to yourselves and to the whole 
church of God, in the persons whol11, on just occasions, you 
shall offer to nle to be your curates. 
I do not only intend that you should never own or patronise 
R2 




44 


TIle Bishop of Rochester's 


any, as your curates, who really are not so, that, under that 
colour, by false titles, they nlay slip into holy orders. But I 
speak of such instances \vhere you really have need of and the 
Jaw allows you to have curates. J n such cases, it is my earnest 
entreaty that you ,,"ould not only keep all the legal tilues 
of your own residence and hospitality; and not only afford 
your curates a liberal lllaintenance in your absence; liberal, I 
mean, not only for their o\vn livelihood, but for their continuing 
S0111e kind of hospitality too, to the poor at least: hut that you, 
you especiaJIy, who are of greater age and experience.. ,vould 
\vatch over your curates as your fello\" labourers, your friends, 
your probationers; for \\"hose iinproveillent in divine learning, 
godly conversation and abilities of teaching, you or I nlust be 
answerable to the great Shepherd of our souls. 
But it is high time to disll1iss you. I beseech Almight.y God 
to assist and prosper all your labours to his glory and your own 
con1fort in the great day of account. Towards the obtaining 
which blessed ends, you can never think of any better or indeed 
of any other means, than by living up, in Jour private conver- 
sation, to the religion you profess and teach others; and in your 
public office, by defending and supporting the church established 
by law in this kingdoill. 
A religion and a church that \vell deserves all this at Jour 
hands; being in its faith most prill1itive, in its orders 11l0st 
apostolical; in its discipline lllOst moderate; in it.s charity Inost 
diffusi,'o; in its deyotions most spiritual as to the substance, 
1110st decent as to the cirC11n1stances. In few words, in its inter- 
ests it is inviolably united with the laws and rights, with the 
well-being, 1 had ahnost said ,vith the being, of the English 
nation and governtnent: in its principles it is irreconcilable 
\vith the interests of popery, anrl the only impregnable defence 
against its return into this land: which, it is luuch to be lanlented, 
that the dissenters will not see, and are therefore dissenters, 
since it is evident, the papists thelnselves have always seen it but 
too weIl. 
'Vhat then renlains? but that as Christians, as Englishll1en, 
a
 churcillnen, ,ve should all make it our principal, our only 
great concern, and pray to God, the Father of mercies, that all 
others of our character throughout the nation ,,,ould nlal{e it 
their'ls; to represent to tho world t.he true excellencies of such a 



Discou/'s, to lds Oltl'91J, 1695. 



-J.5 


religion and such a church, by our doctrine and exaluple, with 
industry and vigilance, with steadfastness and courage, in rneek- 
rzess of wisdom, and 'with zeal according to knou,le(Zqe. 
And if we shan an, in this lllanner, devote ourselves to this 
work, we DUty then be assured that the sallle proluise which 
our Lord Christ, in SOllle of his last words on earth lllade to his 
whole church, will be enlinently lnade good to this, the purest 
part of it in these latter ages of Christianity, that he hhnself w.il' 
he alu'a!/s with it, even to the end of the u.o'ì
ld. Amen. 



A C01\IP ANION 


FOR THE 


CANDIDATES OF HOLY ORDERS; 


OR THE 


GREAT Il\IPORTANCE AND PRINCIPAL DUTIES 


OF THE 


P R I EST L Y 0 F F ICE. 


BY THE RIGHT REVEREND FATHER IN GOD 


GEORGE BULL, D. D. 


LATE LORD BISHOP OF ST. DA VID 9 S. 



GEORGE BULL was born, in 1634, at Wens, in Somerset- 
shire, being of an ancient family, ,,-hose estate and seat ,,,ere at 
Shapwick, in that County. In early childhood, he lost his 
father, an excellent man, by whom he had been dedicated to 
the service of the Church even at the Font. Having learned 
the rudiments of Grannnar in his native city, he "'as sent by 
his Guardians to Tiverton School, whence he removed to Ox- 
ford and "Tas entered at Exeter College, in 1648. Upon a 
firm refusal to bind himself by the Engagement, enforced in 
the next year, "to be true and faithful to the Government, 
" then established, ,vithout l{ing or House of Peers, and never 
" to consent to the readmitting of either of them again", he 
\,",as obliged to quit the University and to complete his educa- 
tion in the retirement of the country. 'V.hen he had reached 
the age of 2 T, Dr. Skinner, the ejected Bishop of Oxford (\l ho 
liyed to be restored and translated to the See of "T orcester) 
ordained him. 'fhe first scene of his Pastoral labours ,,-as a 
small Parish, near Bristol; but, in 1658, he ,,"as presented to 
the Rectory of Siddington St. 
lary, near Cirencester; and, in 
1662, to the small contiguous Vicarage of Siddington St. Peter. 
In these united parishes, not too large for one man's care, he 
combined a diligent discharge of j1inistel'ial duties with a 
prosecution of Sacred studies, of ,,'hich the results are seen in 
his principal ,V orks, the lasting memorials of his ability and 
learning, his zeal and piety. After 27 years so spent, he ,vas 
promoted to the Rectory of Avening, a Inore valuable Benefice 
in the same County and Dioceßc of Gloucester, wherein he had 
been already long settled; his Patron being a private gentle- 
man of the County, who thoroughly knew his worth. It 'was 
not, however, l Jossible that a recoo'nition of merits and services 

 




50 


like his should be confined to his o\vn neighbourhood. Tokens 
of public approval and gratitude ,vere not ,vanting. In 1678, 
a Prebend of Gloucester ,vas conferred upon him by the earl of 
Nottingham, then Lord Chancellor; in 1686, the Archdea- 
conry of Llandaff by Archbishop Sancroft, ,vhose option it ,vas 
on that occasion; and, in the same year, the Degree of D. D. 
by the University of Oxford. In 1705, after 20 years' continu- 
ance at A vening, he received, ",vith great surprise and no less 
" concern", an offer of the Bishopric of St. David's. His 
reluctance to accept the proposal ,yas \vith difficulty overcome 
by the importunity of hi
 personal friends as ,yell as of several 
Governors of the Church; and, although the nomination of the 
Crnwn ,vas by some disapproved on account of the advanced 
age of Dr. Bull, \vho ,,,as in his 71st year, yet it ,,,as at the 
time and has ever since been a subject of congratulation for the 
Church of England that the name of one of the nwst distin- 
guished of her sons ,vas thus enrolled in her list of Bishops. 
In spite of declining strength and vigour, he faithfully admin- 
istered the affairs of his Diocese until his death, ,vhich occurred 
in 17 I O. 


The life of Bishop Bull, by Robert Nelson, Esq., is prefixed 
to his 'V orks, published at Oxford and edited by the late Regius 
Professor of Divinity, Dr. Burton. 



A 


,r I SIT ...l T ION S E R 
I 0 N 


CONCER
ING THE 


GREAT DIFFICULTY AND DANGER 


OF THE 


PRIESTL Y OFFICE 


J Al\IES iii, 1. 
JIy hrethre1l, be not many masters, knou'ing that lee shall 'receire 
the greater co nden'inat ion . 
l'HE text ma)' at first sight appear to some to stand at a very 
wide distance from the present occasion. But I hope, by 
that tiu1e I have spent a little pains in eXplaining it, I shall set 
the text and occasion at a perfect agreement. 
The words therefore are by interpreters di",ersely expounded. 
Among the rest, two interpretations there are, ,,,hich stand as 
the fairest candidates for our reception. 
1. Son1e understand the mast.ers here in my text to be proud. 
nlalicious censors and judges of other men's actions, and so 
expound the text as a prohibition pf rash and uncharitable 
judgn1ent, and Inake it parallel to that of our Saviour, J
tdge not, 
that ye he not Jucf.qed 8 . Be not rash and hasty in censuring or 
judging the actions of others, or speaking evil of them, consider- 
ing that by so doing you will but procure a greater judgment of 
God upon yourselves. The chief, if not the onlyargun1ent for 
this interpretation, is the context of the apostle's discourse, which 


· 
Iatth. vii, J. 



25
 


.A OOJJlj)(tniolt for the 


in the following verses is wholly spent against the vices of the 
tongue. Eu t, 
2. Others there are, \vho interpret the n1aster
 in the text to 
be pastors or t
achers in the church of God; and accordingly 
understand the words as a serious caution against the rash 
undertaking of the pastoral office or function, as an office at- 
tended with great difficulty and danger, a task very hard to be 
discharged, and "'herein ,vhoever Iniscarries makes himself there- 
by liable to a, severer judgll1ent of A In1ighty God. 
This latter interpretation (with subnlission I speak it) seen1S 
to n1e, aln10st beyond doubt, the genuine sense of the apostle. 
The reasons are evident in the text itself. For, 1. unless \ve thus 
expound the words, it will be hard to give a rational account of 
this word 7rOÀÀOl. 'Jnany, ,vhy it should be inserted. For if we 
understand those Inasters the apostle speaks of to be rash judges 
and censurers of others, it is Inost certain then, one such would 
be too nlany, and the 111ultiplicity of thml1 would not be the only 
culpable thing. nut, on the other side, if we receive the latter 
interpretat.ion, the account of the word 7ToÀÀoì is easily rendered 
according to the paraphrase of Erasmus, thus; "Let not pastors 
or teachers be too vulgar and cheap anlong you j let not every 
]TIan rush into so sacred an office :1nd function b." And Drusius's 
gloss on this very word is remarkable: Su'm/n
a SU1n-n
ar'lt}n
. quo 
pauc'l.ores sunt 'J12agistri, eo lIieli.us agitur eu'l)
 populo. .1Va'Jn ut 
'lnedicoruu'& olin
 Oar'iam, ,ita doctOl'îlTn et mapisll'ol'll'ìn nunc 'lnulti- 
tudo perclit rempublicam. Utinam 'Canus sim. I neeù not English 
the words to those ",h0111 they concern. 

. If we embrace any other interpretation, ,ve must of neces- 
sity depart frolll the luanifest propriety of the Greek ,vord, which 
onr translators render nzaste'l"s. 'rhe word is ÕLòálTKUÀot, which 
whoso understands the first elelnents of the Greek tongue knows 
io he derived froln òI,òáCTK(tJ, to teach, and so literally to signi(y 
teachers. Be not '1nall!/ teachers. 
And so accordingly the Syriac renders it by :1 word which, the 
learned Drusius tells us, is parallel to the Hebrew ü"j'
, which 
undoubtedly signifies doctors or teachers. 
Theso reasons are sufficient to justify our interpretation, 
though I might add the authority of the ancients, who generally 
follow this sense, as also the concurrent judgtnent of our nlost 


b X 
 passlln am hiatis esse magist1-i. 



Candidates of hol!! Orders. 


!2!)S 


learned lIlodern annotators
 Erasnlus, V" atablus, Castellio, Estius, 
Drusius, Grotius, with nlany others. 
..A,s for the connection of the words, thus explained, with the 
following discourse of the apostle, I suppose this very easy 
account l11ay be given of it. The moderation and government 
of the tongue (on ,vhich St. J anles in the sequel of the chapter 
wholly insists) though it be a general duty (for there is no 
nlan's tongue so lawless as to be exen1pted fron1 the dominion to 
right reason and religion) yet it is a duty wherein the pastor or 
teacher hath a peculiar concern. The nlÍnister's tongue is a 
chief tool and instrument of his profession, that which ex officio 
he must often Inake use of: he lies unrter a necessity of speaking 
much and often, and the \Vise :\lan tells us, in the m.
dtitude of 
'words there u:anteth not sin c. .i\nd certainly there is scarce any 
consideration more powerful, to deter a man fron1 undertaking 
the office of a teacher, than this; how extremely difficult and 
aln10st ilnpossible it is, for a n1an that speaks Hluch and often, so 
to govern his tongue, as to speak nothing that either is itself 
unfit or in an unfit time, or after an undue nlanner; and yet 
how highly every teacher is concerned so to do. 
So that it is a very easy knot to fasten my text to the next 
verse, thus: Let not every man alnLitiously affect the office of a 
teacher in the church of God, considering that it is an office of 
great difficulty and danger; for in rruyny things 'We qffend all; 
if any 'Jnan offend not in 'lDQ1'd, the 8a
ne is a perfect rJ
an, &c. 
As if he had said, As there are many ways, whereby the best of 
us do offend, so there is no way whereby we so easily fall into 
sin, as by that slippery member the tongue; and there is no 
luan nlore exposed to this danger of transgressing with the 
tongue than the teacher, who luakes so 111uch and so frequent 
use of it. So that the teacher is TÉÀEW
 av
p, a rare and per- 
fectly accolnplished man indeed, that hath acquired the perfect 
governluent of his tongue. He that can do that, ,vho fails not 
in that pi2ce of his duty, may easily aiso bridle his whole body, 
i. e. rightly manage himself in all the other parts of his pastoral 
office. But this, as it is very necessary, so it is extremely diffi- 
cult, and therefore be not many teaclwrs d . 
To this it will not be amiss to add, what Grotius wisely 
observes, that the adillonition of the apostle concerning the vices 


c Pro,". x, 19, 


d M
 7ToÀÀoì lhðáCTlcaÀOL ylJlfCTilf. 




54 


A Oompanion for the 


of the tongue, subjoined to the caution in D1Y text, "is chiefly 
directed against brawling and contentious disputers e ;" such 
teachers as abuse their liberty of speaking unto loose discourses, 
and take occasion from thence to vent their o\vn spleen and 
passions: luen of il1teu1perate spirits and virulent tongues, 
troublers rather than teachers of the people, whose tongues are 
indeed cloven tongues of fire, but '1lot such as the apostles ,vere 
endo\ved with fronl above, as serving to burn, rather than to en- 
lighten, to kindle the flames of faction, strife and contention, 
rather than those of piety and charity in the church of God. 
And, indeed, the direful and tragical effects
 ,vhich the 
apostle in this chapter ascribes to the evil tongue, as that it is a 
.fire, a world of iniquity, defiling the 'wltole hod!!, setting on fire 
the course of nature, full of deadly poison f , &c. are such as are 
not so easily producible by the tongue of a private nlan as of a 
teacher: " 'Vhose discourse (saith Erasmus) spreads its poison 
by so much the Illore generally and effectually, as the authority 
of the speaker is greater and his advantage also of speaking to 
many g." 
Having removed this seeming rub in the context, I return 
again to the text itself; wherein you nlay please to observe, 
1. A serious dissuasive fronl the rash undertaking of the pastoral 
office; j)Iy hretll'pen, be not many 'iJlasters or tBachers. Q. A 
solid argument or reason to enforce it, dra\vn from the difficulty 
and the danger thereof; kìW'lDin.q tllat we shall receive &c. /J-Eî(ov 
Kp{p.a, a greater or severer J:udgnwnt; i. e. God will require 
more of us that are teachers than of others; ,ve shall not 
escape or be acquitted in the divine judgnlent at so easy a rate 
as they. There is a place in the excellent Book of 'Visdonl h, 
that is exactly parallel to nlY text and gives great light to it, A 
sltarp }udgnzent shall he to then", tltat are Ï1z higll- places i. 'Vhere 
the 01 1J7rfpÉxovTE
, those that tre in high places in the state, 
answer to the ÒI.ÒáCTKaÀoL in IllY text; the teachers in the church: 
the Kp{(n
 ånóTop.os, the sharp, or, the precise and seccre judgment, 
to the p.Eî{ov Kp{p.a, the greater Judgrnent in the text. 
I shall not at all insist on the first branch of the division, the 


e 1Iaxime directa est in rixosos disputatores. 
f 4>ÀC1y í C o vua TÒV TPÓXOV T1lr Yfvfufwr. 
g Cujus sermo hoc latius ac periculosius spargit suum venenum, quod 
auctoritate dicentis commendetur. 
b 'Visù. vi, 5. 
i KpíULS' Ù1fÓTOP.OS' Èv Toîs V7TfPfXOVUL yíVfTaL. 



Oandidates of holy Orders. 



55 


dissuasive; as remembering that I am to preach not an ordina- 
tion, but a visitation sennon; and to discourse not to candidates 
of holy orders, but to such as are already engaged in that sacred 
profession. I come therefore to the reason or argument in the 
text (as of very ll1uch concernn1ent to all that are in the 
priestly office) drawn from the great difficulty and danger 
thereof. To represent both which, as fully as my short allow- 
ance of time and much shorter scantling of abilities wiII permit, 
shall be my present business. 
And first, as to the difficulty of the teacher's office, it is a very 
great difficulty fully to explain it. So nlanyare the branches of 
his duty, that it were a tedious labour to reckon theJn up : Lord, 
what a task is it then to discharge then1! I shall content u1)'self 
therefore rudi .J.1Iiner'Ca, briefly and only in general to describe 
the chief est requisites that are necessary to constitute a complete 
teacher in the church of God; and even by that little which I 
shall say, I doubt not but it will appear how very formidable, 
how tremendous an undertaking that function deserves to be 
accounted. The teacher's office then requires a very large 
knowledge, a great prudence, an exemplary holiness. And 
surely nluch is required of him, of whom these things are 
required. 
1. Then, the first requisite to the office of a teacher is a very 
large knowledge. The very name of his office implies this; he 
is ÕI.Õá(TKaÀo
, a teacher; and he that is such must be, as the 
apostle requires k, apt or fit to teaclt 1. And this he cannot be, 
unless he be ,veIl learned m and instructed himself, and furnished 
with a plentiful n1easure of divine knowledge. God hin1self, by 
the prophet 
lalachi, requires that the priest's lips 1'1p1 ,.,

, 
should læep or preserve kno'lcle((Qe n . l\lethinks the expressiön 
is more enlphatical than is ordinarily conceived. It seen1S to 
imply that the priest should be a kind of repository or treasury 
of knowledge, richly furnished with knowledge hi Ins elf, and 
able also a.bundantIy to furnish and sl1pply the wants of those 
that shall at any time have recourse to hilll for instnlction. And 
therefore it presently follows: And they (that is, the people) 
shall seek the law at his mouil
. Yea, the ,vords import that the 
priest fshould be a treasury of knowledge not to be exhausted. 
He nlust have knowledge not only to spend, but to keep; not 
k I Tim. iii, 2. 1 t:.L
aKTLKÒr, aphIS sÏ\'e iùoneus ad docendum. 
m A..
aKTòr, doctus. n l\1al. ii, 7. 




56 


A Cornpanion fo'l' tlte 


like those that live froID hand to mouth, or whose stock of know... 
ledge is quickly spent in a few senTIons, but he must have 
sOluething still reserved and laid up in store. l\Iethinks our 
Saviour doth excellently expound this text, though it be by a 
parable, E).ery scribe that is instr'ltcted in th
 lângdOlJ't of '"eaven 
is like unto a 'man tltal is an householder, whicl" hringetlt fortI/; out 
of his treasure things new and old o . 'Vhere the ypaflflaTéù
, or 
scribe, is the sanle alllong the J e\vs with the vop.olJLôáa-KaÀo
, the 
teacller or expounder of the law. And it is the usual custom of 
our Saviour, as Grotins observes, " by nanIes in use among the 
Jews, to express such offices, as \vere to be in the Christian 
chnrchP." The ypaJJ-fLaTéù
 then, or scribe, is the same with 
the òLòáa-KaÀos-, or teacher, afterwards in the church of Christ. 
This scribe is said by our Saviour to be instl'ztcted unto or for 
tIle kin.qdonz of heattenq, i. c. ,veIl prepared, provided, furnished 
for the preaching of the gospel. And, to shew that he is so, he 
is compared to the householder who, for the Inaintaining of his 
faluily and the entertainnIent of his guests all the year long, is 
supposed to have an à7rOO
KJ], or repository for provisions (called 
here his Of}a-avpò
, ltis treasure), and there to have laid in pro- 
visions KaLvà Kaì naÀ.aLà, botlb ne'lV and old, i. e. [t great store and 
abundance, provisions of all sorts and kinds. As the spouse in 
the Canticles tells her beloved, At our' gates are all 1J'tanneì' of 
fruits, hoth new and old, 'whicll- I have laid up for tllee r . This 
kind of hospitality (however by the iniquity of an ungrateful 
sacrilegious age he nlay be disabled from exercising the other) is 
the indispensable duty of the pastor or teacher. He n1ust keep 
a table ,veIl furnished with these heavenly provisions for all 
con1ers. 
The kno,vledge of a teacher, ,ve shall easily grant, extends 
itself into a very large compass, if \ve consider ,,,hat that sci- 
ence is that he is to teach; thf\ology, "the art of arts, and the 
science of sciencess," as Nazianzen speaks; the queen and 
mistress of all other disciplines, to \vhich they do all but ancillare, 
perform the office of handlnaids, and yet in so doing they are of 
use and service to her. 


o l\Iatth. xiii, 52. 
P Nominibus apud Judæos receptis significare munia, quæ futura erant in 
ecclesia Christiana. 
q MaB'1TfVBfLS' flS' T
lI {3auLAfíall 'T6J1I ovpall6JlI. 
r Cant. vii, 13. 
s TiXll'1 TEXlIÔJll, Kaì 17rLUT
I-''1 11T'LUT17l-'roll. 



Candidates of holy Orders. 



57 


And upon that account, the divine, if he will be cOl1lplete, 
must be 7ravE7rtUT11Jl.Wl-', lnust have compassed the ÈYKvKÀ07ratÒE{a, 
in the nlodern and more noble signification of the word; i. e. 
the whole circle of' arts and sciences. And he that hath so 
done, zlli des n01ìlinis huJus honorell
, let him pass for a perfect 
divine, he only is adequate to so ample a title. But, God be 
thanked, this is only the heroic perfection, not the necessary 
qualification of a teacher. A nlan may very well content himself 
to sit in a much lower form, and yet sit safely; he nlay move in 
a far inferior orb, and yet give much light and conlnlunicate 
a benign and useful influence to the church of God. Let us 
view therefore the necessary parts of theology itself, wherein the 
teacher cannot be ignorant or uninstructed, but to the very 
great detriment of his disciples and his own greater shame and 
hazard. Ho,v ample a field have we still before us ! here is the- 
ology positive, polemical, moral, casuistical; and all nlost neces- 
sary for the teacher. 
As for positive divinity, or the knowledge of those necessary 
speculative truths that are revealed in scripture, a man can no 
more be a divine, that is unacquainted with this, than he can be 
a gratnnlarian, that understands not the very first elements of 
granlnlar. And yet of so abstruse, so sublinle a nature are even 
these truths that for a nlan rightly to apprehend them and 
clearly to explain them, especially to the capacity of his duller 
hearers, is no very easy nlatter. 
Polemical or controversial divinity is theologia armata, or that 
part of divinity which inst.ructs and furnisheth a lnan with 
necessary ,veapons to defend the truth against its enenlies. 
Now ihe good shepherd's office is not only to feed his sheep, 
but to secure thenl fron1 the wolves; or else his care in feeding 
then1 serves only to make them the fatter and richer prey. And 
therefore St. Paul t requires, that the teacher should be able, 
Uhoth b!/ sound doctrine to exhort his hearers, Xas also to convince 
or refute painsa!/ers or opposers. Hæc non sunt TOV TVXÓVTos-, 
(as Grotius ,veIl gIosseth on the text) every man cannot do this, 
and yet every teacher must. The times, wherein we live, do 
D1uch heighten the necessity of this study; for \\ e nlay enforce 
this duty on all teachers, by the sanle lnelancholy argument 
that St. Paul doth in the forementioned text. The teacher, 


t Titus i, 9. Q Kaì 1rapaKuÀfîv Iv Try ðt8auKaÀía Tjj û-vtatvovun. 
J( K 
 , , "\' !'\ . - I " 
at TO\lS cwr&l\fì'OPTa
 (l\fY)(fW. 



 



Q58 


A Companionfol'tlte 


saith he, nlltst be able to cO'il'Cince gainsayers: why so? He gives 
the reason, There a1'e nzany 'llnrul!! and 
'ain ieaclle1's and 
deceivers, &é. 'whose moutlts 1nust be stopped, who subvert whole 
houses, teaching things 'll'll'Ích the!! ought no/Yo These unruly and 
vain teachers, these deceivers, ,vere neVflr certainly in a greater 
nUlnber than no\v they are. These nlen's nlouths lllUst be stop- 
ped, there is a necessity for it; for otherwise they will subvert 
,vhole houses, yea and pervert ,,,hole parishes. Not that ,ve 
have any hopes in this age to stop the 1110Uths of our opposer
, 
so as to make thenl cease speaking; (for bawl they will to etern- 
ity; they are, as the apostle sOlnewhere speaks, unreasonable 
'íJlen z , that understand not, admit not of any topics; no argu.. 
nlentation, though never- so convincing, will make thenI give 
back ;) but so, at least, as that t.hey shall be able to speak little to 
the purpose, so as to satisfy sober, hUIllble, docible persons, who 
have not passionately espoused an error, or, to speak in the 
apostle's phrase, that are not gÙ:en up to strong delusiûns, to believe 
lies, that the!! 'lna!! be da
nned. In a ,vord, our fate in these days 
is nluch like that of the rebuilders of Jerusalem after the cap- 
tivity, that '''ere necessitated everyone 'loitlt one of his hands to 
(work in tlte lJuilcling, with the oikeJ' to hold a weapon a . "Tith one 
hand we HUlst build up our people in the doctrine of piety, with 
the other ,ve D1ust resist heretical opposers, who otherwise will 
denlolish as fast as we build. 
And to quicken us to this part of our study, methinks no con- 
sideration can be Inore forcible than this; to observe, where 
nlinisters are defective therein, with what trÍlnnph and ostenta- 
tion deceivers carry souls captive, to the disgrace not only of the 
persons, but also of the function of the teachers, yea and of truth 
itself, which is wounded thus through their sides and bleeds 
through their ,veakness and folly. 
But let us leave this thorn) field of controversial, and step 3, 
little into the other nlore fruitfllJ, of Inoral or practical divinity. 
Of this one speaks most truly: "The knowledge of contro- 
versies is D1ade necessary by heretics, the study of piety by God 
hinIself b ." Theology is doubtless a practical science, nothing in 
it but "hat aims at this end. And therefore he that neglects 
this practical part of it understands not the very design of his 


Y Titus i, 10, II. Z"AV()pW1TOL ÚT01TOt. a Xehem. iv, 17. 
b Controversiarunl scientiam necessariam fecerunt hæretici, t-itudium pietatis 
Deus ipse mandayit. 



Candidates of Italy OrdeJ's. 


259 


own profession. Without this a luan deserves no more to be 
accounted a divine, than he a physician that understands little 
or nothing of therapeutics. It is true, there are some (otherwise 
not unlearned ll1cn) that despise this part of theology, as a vulgar, 
trivial, easy, obvious thing. But sure they very n1uch disparage 
their own judgment, who let the world understand that they are 
of this n1ind: and the event C0l11n10nly shews ho\v much they 
arc lnistaken. For bring these doctors out of their academic 
cells, set thenl to preach in a country congregation, and they 
soon become the objects of laughter, or rather of pity to the 
wiser: to observe how they greedily snatch at every occasion of 
engaging in a controversy, and that perhaps such a one as was 
never before heard of by their hearers, but a controversy they 
had read in some of their books, though long ago dead and 
buried; thus manfully encountering ghosts and shadows: ho\v 
learnedly they will discuss the barren subtleties of Aquinas or 
Scotus, which the poor souls no n10re understand, than if they 
had read theul a lecture out of Cornelius Agrippa's occult 
philosophy: how, when they come to practicals, they are 'velut 
in alium mundum translati, as if they were entered into a ne\v 
unknown world; so frigid, barren and lifeless are their 
discourses on those subjects. And may the same shame, or a 
serious repentance, attend all the contel11ners of this useful 
theology ! 
Lastly, there is casuistical divinity, which I distinguish froDI 
moral or practical, as a more noble species thereof, and which 
therefore deserves a distinct consideration. For though all 
casuistical divinity be practical, yet aU practical divinity is not 
casuistical; for the design of casuistical divinity is to resolve only 
the dubious and difficult cases that refer to practice. How diffi- 
cult this study is, every n1an that is not a very stranger therein 
will readily acknowledge. And the necessity thereof is evident: 
for what more necessary for a teacher, than to be able to resolve 
his people what their duty is in difficult cases? Teachers, no 
doubt, are purposely placed by God in these cross-ways, 
as mercurial statues, not dead, but living speaking ones, 
directing the perplexed traveller towards the heavenly Jeru- 
salen! and saying (as it is in the prophet) This is the wag, 
walle therein. And the Lord, by tbe prophet J\Ialachi, tells u
 
that the priest should be such a one as that the people mo!/ seek 
the law at his mouth: the Jaw, i. e. the sense of the la\v, or what 
s 2 



260 


.A C(Jlrt}Janion far the 


that d.uty is, which the la\v obligeth then1 to in doubtful cases: 
a very oracle to be consulted by them on all occasions. It is 
true, the greatest oracle n1ay be sometimes silenced by a greater 
difficulty: but an oracle altogether dun1b is certainly a very 
lan1entable contradiction. 
I have all this while spoken nothing of the holy scriptures, 
that deep and unsearchable tnine, from whence the divine is to 
fetch all his treasure. Fronl hence he is to borro,v the princi- 
ples of all theology, positive, polelnical, moral, casuistical; and 
therefore it is evident that, unless he be ,veIl studied in these, he 
must needs be defective in all the rest. lIe nlust needs be 
a \veak divine, that is not mighty in the scriptures c , as it is said 
of Apollosd. And, Lord, ho\v many things are necessary to give 
:1 luan a right understanding of these sacred ,vritings! I confess, 
,ve are fallen into a very confident age, wherein to interpret 
scripture is counted. the most obvious and easy thing; and 
every Inechanic, that scarce understands common sense, will 
venture on the expounding of these 111ysterious books. '" e have 
so childishly departed fronl the error of the ROluish church, 
in asserting an inexplicable obscurity of the scriptures, e\ en in 
things necessary, that for fear of this Charybdis \ve are swallo\v- 
ed up in as dangerous a Scylla, to nutke the scriptures even 
despicable and conten1ptible. 
'or, as Nazianzen truly saith, 
" that which is thus easily understood is generally with as Bluch 
ease slighted and contemned e." But we know who they are, 
who "run from one bad extrelne to another f." For it is certain, 
that rightly to understand the holy scriptures is a very difficult 
thing, especially for us who live at so great a distance froln those 
times, wherein they were ,vritten, and those persons and churches, 
to wholl) they \vere directed. It is no slender measure of the 
In10wledge of antiquity, histor)
, philology, that is requisite to 
qualify a nlan for such an undertaking. They kno\v nothing of 
the holy scriptures that know not this. And therefore those 
unlearned and ignorant 111en, that venture on the exposition of 
scripture, being perfect strangers to these parts of learning, n1ust 
of necessity wrest them to their own and their hearers' destruc- 
tIon. 
I cannot on1it to tal{e notice here of that C0l11nl0n n,xionl, "A 


c fJ.vvaTò
 Èv Taí
 'Ypacþaí
. d Acts xviii, 24.. 
, r
' ,. \ rI , A...' 
e To pavLCJ)
 ^'T}7TTOV a7Tav fVKaTa't'pov'T}TOV. 
{ Dum vitant vitia in contraria currunt 



Candidates of /tol!! Orders. 



61 


good textuary is a good divineg;" and to observe, that it is 
nlost true, if rightly understood. If by a textuary,ve Inean hiIn 
who hath not only a concordance of scripture in his nlelnory, 
but also a comnlentary on theln in his understanding; who 
thinks it not enough to be ready in alleging the bare ,vords of 
scripture, with the mention of chapter and verse where it is 
written, unless he kno\v the sense and n1eaning of what he 
recites. The forIner every illiterate sectary is able to do, who 
can quote scriptures by dozens and scores, the tithe whereof he 
understands not, and are little to his purpose. The latter is the 
proper commendation of the divine. 'Vithout this grain of salt, 
the aphorism, but now nlentioned, nlost justly falls under the 
severe censure of our learned Prideaux: ",...\.. good textuary is 
a good divine, say many, ,vho understand not, n1ind not., either 
the text or divinit.yor goodness h." 'Ve have seen the neces- 
sary parts of theology rudely delineated, and yet even by this 
in1perfect draught we n1ay take an estimate, how large that 
nlan's knowledge ought to be, that is obliged to understand all 
these things. 
I confess that here also (and I have as nluch reason to rejoice 
in it as most of my brethren) a latitude is to be allowed; and it 
were a cruelty ,vorse than that of Procrustes, to stretch all n1en 
to the same giant-like proportion of knowledge that some attain 
to. But yet doubtless it is a wise and prudent severity, as Na- 
zianzen speaks, " to ll1easure every teacher and stretch hin1 out 
to St. Paul's rules and canons i." And they, as we have already 
heard, require that he should be òt.òaKTt.Kò
, apt and fit to teach, 
i. e. in SOlne competent Ineasure able to instruct his hearers in 
all these useful parts of theology. 
Q. I have discoursed so largely of the first requisite of the 
teacher's office that, if I gave over here, 1 had said enough to 
convince any sober person of the difficulty thereof. Rut :yet this 
is not all. A very great prudence also is required in the teacher, 
or else his knowledge will be useless and unserviceable. 'Vlsdolll 
is the soul that anin1ates and enlivens knowledge, without which 
a large knowledge is but like a huge carcass, a lifeless unactive 
thing. And if any Ulan thinks that science and prudence are 


g Bonus textualis, bonus theologus. 
b Bonus textualis, bonus theologus, clamant quamplurimi, qui nee de textu, 
ne
 de theologia, nee de bonitate sunt solieiti. 
1 IIapfl<Tfívftv Tois- rrav
ov KÚVOUUI. 




6
 


A Oonpanion for the 


things inseparable, sad experience refutes hin1. Every learned 
man is not a wise luan; and there are some who have read very 
many books, but very few men; who have dwelt so much in 
their studies that they understand little abroad in the ,vorld, no 
not in their own Ii ttIe world, I mean their charges and parishes. 
There are some that have a large nleasure of the spirit of know- 
ledge, but \rant the spirit of governtnent, which yet is most 
necessary for hilu \vho is to be a guide of souls. Every teacher 
is concerned to be wise, both for hilnself and those cOllunitted 
to his charge. For hiu1self, to take heed of nlen, that he be 
neit.her betrayed by false brethren, nor becolne a prey to the 
luaIice of professed eneluies; to decline both the envy and 
contempt of his neighbou
s; to keep hiulself within the bounds 
of his calling; to 'inind !tis own husiness k , &c. To this kind of 
,visdom belongs the advice of our Saviour, \vhen sending forth 
his apostles, as innocent lambs anlongst the \volves of that age, 
he cautions them to be wise as serpents and innocent as doves l ; 
i. e. to use all honest and sinless arts to secure thenlselves. But 
this is not the prudence \vhich I principally intend; for if a 
minister be defective in this, he is no nlan's foe but his o\vn; he 
hurts only hiInself, and that but in temporal concerns. 
I add, therefore, that he is to be \vise for those conlmitted to 
his charge, lest by any indiscretion of his he obstructs that which 
ought to be his great design and business, the et.ernal salvation 
of their souls. And here how lnany things are there, ,vhich a 
teacher is concerned to understand! He n1ust be wise so to frame 
his discourses, especially in public, that he speak nothing that 
may either offend the \veak, or give advantage to the Dlalicious; 
that his sermons may not only be good in theluselves, but 
adapted and fitted to the necessity of his hearers; that he nlake 
choice of the I1I0St suitable and powerful argun1ûnts to enforce on 
thenI those Christian duties, ,vhereto he exhorts them. He 11Ulst 
be wise in the goverIlluent of his carriage and actions, dis- 
tinguishing especially bet\veen la\vfulness and expediency, and 
shunning not only that which is directly sinful, but whatsoever 
is scandalous and offensive. 1-Ie 111Ust be ,vise in his COllUllon 
converse with his people, that he be neither of too easy or too 
1110rose and difficult an access; but especially he is to be careful 
of this in his freer conversation ; that he indulge not himself any 
libert.y 1110ro than ordinary, al1l0ng those who will Blake an ill 
k Tà íðca npáuuELv. 1 :\Iatth. x, 16. 



Oandidates of holy Orders. 


263 


use of that, wherein there was no ill intended. He is to be wise 
in the choice of his friends, not to inscribe any luan into that 
catalogue, that luay reflect any disparagement on his person or 
function: for qui non conten
nitu1" a se, conte1nn,ituJ" a socio. He 
must be wise, especiaJly in the government of his own fan1Ïly: 
for as the apostle excellently reasons, if a rnan know no' ltOW to 
rule his own house, ltOW shall he talce care of tlte clturclt of God m ? 
He 111l1St be ,vise to inquire into the state of his flock, and to 
discern their particular tempers and constitutions; and even to 
search into their hearts and secret inclinations. He lnust be 
wi,
e to adluinister private counsels and reproofs, duly observing 
the circulustances of tinle, of place, of person, of dispositiun; for, 
as the wisest of luen tells us, a 'lcord fitly spoken is lilce apples of 
gold in pictzeres of silvern. These and many other things the 
teacher is deeply concerned to be well versed in; and what a 
task is this ! 
If it be objected, "that prudence is a thing without our power, 
an arbitrary gift of God, which he besto,vs on whom he pleas- 
eth, as he doth beauty or wealth, or a good natural wit, and 
therefore cannot. reasonably be imposed on a l11an as his duty:'" 
I answer, if this prudence were wholly out of our election, yet 
this certainly ,vas left to our free choice, whether we would 
undertake that office, \\?hereto so great prudence is requisite. 
"T e have obliged ourselves to it, by engaging in that function 
that cannot be discharged ,vithout it. But indeed this excellent 
gift of God is in a great degree put within our power, in con- 
junction with the divine assistance. "\Ve nlay and nlust endea- 
vour for it, diligently study it, carefully observe things and 
persons, faithfully record experiluents, consult ,viser friends. 
But, abo,?e all things, we must take St. J alTIeS'S advice, If an!! 
'1nan 
l'an,t wisdmn, let 'tÏ1n ask of God, who gi'vetll, liberall!J and 
'ltp bra idetlt not, and it sltall he given hiJn o . Especially, if he 
desire it constantly, earnestly and above all things in the world; 
if with Solomon he despise greatness 
nd wealth and all other 
secular advantages; and before thenl aU, desire this one thing 
of God, that he 'would give hÏ1n wisclO1n and knowledge to go in and 
out hefore the people com,nitted to Ids cllarge and guÙlancep. 
3. I come now to the last, though not the least, of those requi- 
sites that are necessary to the office of a teacher, viz. an exem- 
plary holiness. For of this I may say, as the apostle cloth, 
m I Tim. iii,S. n Provo xxv, I I. 0 James i, 5. p 2 Chron. i, JO. 



264 


t Companion for tlte 


speaking of the three theological graces, And n010 abidet"h .fait"h, 
hope and charity, these tltree; but the greatest of these is charity q. 
So hero there rClnaineth knowledge, prudence, holiness, all 
three necessary requisites to luake up a cOlllpletc teacher; but 
the greatest of these is holiness. And w'hnt ho further says of' 
the salue grace of charity, in the bcginning of the saine chapter, 
may ,vith a little change be applied also to our present purpose. 
If a l11an had 7râ<Tav YVW(TLV, all sorts of lcnowl Jdge, so as to be 
able to understand all mysteries; if he ',ere prudent, beyond 
the protligious n1easure of 80101non'8 wisdom; if those endo\,,- 
n1el1ts \\ ere crowned in hilll with an eloquence Inore than hUlnan, 
so that he were able to discourse like an angel: yet without this 
holiness he ,vere as nothing, or at best but as the sounding hrass 
01" tin/ding c!/rnbal. The priest that is not clothed witl" righteous- 
ness, though otherwise richly adorned with all the ornalnent8 of 
hunutn and divine literature, and those gilded over with the rays 
of a seraphic prudpnce and sagacity, is yet but a naked, beggarly, 
despicable creature, of no authority, no interest, no use or service 
in the church of God. 1"he unholy teacher, let hin1 preach 
never SO well, discourseth to little purpose; there will be no life 
in his doctrine, because his life is so destitute of the spirit of 
holincs
, ho will sooner danll1 his own soul than S:1ye any luan's 
else. Ilis discourses, though arIned \vith the 1110st powerful 
oratory, will serve to 1110ve no other affection in his hearers than 
that of indignation against his hypocrisy and iU1pudence, to hear 
hill1 excellently declaiul against a vice, of which himself is noto- 
riously guilty; and they will say, 
LOì
iped('n." rectus derideat, .-I.Etltiopem albus. 
In a ".ord, as a wise luau ".cll observes, Hovery notorious vice 
is infinitely against the spirit of go\rCrnn1ent, and depresses a 
l11an to au evenness with COIlU110n persons." 
-l/'acin-us quos inquinat æquat. 
And when a Inan"s authority is thus lost, he becolnes a thing 
,,'holly useless in the ehl1l'ch of God. lJ sele8
 did I say? it. ,vere 
,veIl if that were all: he is the Inost pernicious creature that 
1110' es 011 God's earth; h
 serves to the "orst purposes, to 
luakc lucn atheists, infidels or heretics. Learned and 1\.llowing 
Incn, of ill lives, have been always the greatest stlllllblingblock 
q I Cor. xiii, I J. 



Oandidates of holy Orders. 


Q65 


in the church of God: their fall is not single, but attended with 
the ruin of ll1an)" others; who, Ï1nitating the barbarous civility of 
those nations that use to solemnize the funerals of their great 
men by sacrificing a great part of their families, ,vhen the 
teachers damn themselves, are ready to die and perish with them 
for con1pany. And the fallacy that ruins theln is this; because 
some wise men live ,vickedly, they presently conclude that 
wickedness is the greatest wisdom: as if it were impossible for 
the will to choose contrary to the dict.ates of the understanding, 
or for a n1an that knows his duty not to do it. 'Ve of this age 
have reason to take special notice of this. For as Cicero, inquir- 
ing into the causes of those bold and unheard-of attempts that 
Catiline and his confederates made upon the commonwealth of 
Rome, presently gives this account: nos (dieo aperte) nos consu- 
les desumus: so when we are astonished at the prodigious blasphe- 
mies, heresies and schisms of our times, and wonder at the cause 
ofthen1, we n1ay quickly resolve ourselves after the sanle n1anner: 
nos (dieo aperte) nos pastores desu1nus. For certainly all the 
argun1ents that heretics and sectaries have n1ade use of to 
seduce our people from obedience unto the n10st excellent 
doctrine, liturgy and discipline of our church, ,vould have been 
accounted ridiculous sophisms and no way served their wicked 
purposes, if they had not been furnished ,vith a n10re power- 
ful topic ab exenplo, from the vicious lives of sonle clergymen. 
And as to this : 


-Pudet hæc opprobria nobis 
Et diei l)ot
tisse, et non potuisse refelli. 
I might here be very large in representing the necessity of 
holiness in a nlinister; but I shall only observe, that the ,vicked 
teacher sins with the highest aggravation of his guilt, and the 
least hope of his repentance; he is the greatest and most despe- 
rate sinner. 
The greatest sinner; for either he is a person of n10re than 
ordinary knowledge or he is not: if not, he sinned greatly in un- 
dertaking that office, to which so great a knowledge is requisite: 
if he be, his knowledge doubtless increaseth his guilt: For he, that 
lcnows his 91zaster's 'will and dotllJ it not, shall be beaten 'witllJ 
7nany stripes. Besides, he n1ust needs sin with a very strange 
assurance, by living in that wickedness which he daily reproves 




66 


A Compa/tÍon fOl' tlte 


and preaches against, and so becoming aVToKaTáKpLTO
, a con- 
demned man, from his o\vn mouth. 
But that \vhich I chiefly urge is this: the wicked teacher is, 
of all men living, in the n10st hopeless and desperate condition. 
I t is usually observed of seamen, that dwell in the great deep, 
that if they are not very pious, for the most part they are despe- 
rately wicked, because they daily behold the ,vonders of the 
Lord, and besides live in a continual and a very near danger, 
bordering on the ver)" confines of death, and being, 
Qltatuor aut septem digitis a nlorte rernoti, 
hztt a fe
Ð fingers" hreadth divided from their fluid graves. And if 
these considerations do not persuade them to fear the Lord exceed- 
ingly, as it is said of the mariners in Jonah, i, 16, it argues that 
they are exceedingly hardened. The observation is truer of the 
minister; if he be Dot a good man, he must needs be extrelnely 
bad; for he daily converseth in the great deep of the holy scrip- 
tures and there sees and reads such things that, if they do not 
effectually persuade hinl to piety, it is certain he is a man of an 
obdurate heart. 
'Vhat remedy is likely to work this 111an's cure and repentanco
 
Win the dreadful menaces and threats of God's ".ord affright 
hhn 
 No; these are daily thundered out of his own mouth, 
and yet to him they are but hruta fulmina. 'ViII the gracious 
promises of God allure him 
 No; he daily charnls his hear- 
ers \vith these, but remains himself as the deaf adder. 'ViII 
those excellent books of learned and pious n1en, that he reads 
in his study, work any good on hinl 
 No; he that slights God's 
,vord will little regard the ,vords of men. 'ViII the public 
prayers make him serious 
 No; he daily reads thenl, and his 
daily practice is contr3ry to his daily prayers. Will a medicine 
compounded of the flesh and bloed of the Son of God (I Inean 
the holy eucharist) do the Dliserable man any good? No; he 
hath frequently received those dear pledges of his 
aviour"s love, 
and yet is still as bad as ever, and so hath trodden under 
foot tile hlood of the everlasting covenant, ,vherewi th he should 
have been sanctified. The Lord look upon t.his D1an; for there 
is no hope of him, ,vithout a miracle of divine mercy. Nay in- 
deed, all these excellent 111eans, by being Dlade familiar to him, 
have lost their efficacy upon him. Our Saviour, nlethinks, cloth 
excellently represent the hopeless condition of a vicious minister, 



Candidates of hol!! Order-so 



67 


by a parable, where speaking to the apostles (considered, I sup- 
pose, as ministers of the word) he tells thein, Ye are the salt of 
the earth: but, if the salt have lost its savour, wherewithal shalt it 
he salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing but to be cast O
tt 
and trodden under foot of rnenq. Salt, if it be good, is of excel- 
lent use to season many things; but if it becolne itself unsavoury, 
it is not only the n10st useless thing, good for notlting but to 
be cast out, &c. but irrecoverably lost; there is not.hing will fetch 
putrid salt again; for if the salt hatk lost Ids saV02lr, 'wherewitltal 
shall it be salted? Thus necessary is holiness in a minister, 
both for himself and others. 
I have no\v done with the difficlùty, and consequently with 
the danger, of the pastoral office, represented froln the three 
grand requisites thereunto; a very large knowledge, a great 
prudence, an exemplary holiness. I shall add but one consider- 
ation more, of itself abundantly sufficient to evince the whole; 
viz. That every teacher is accountable for the souls committed to 
his charge. This is the plain doctrine of the author of the 
Epistle to the Hebrews: Obey theíJ
 that have the 'l''lde over !JO
fJ 
and submit yourselves ,. for the!! 'lvateh for !J01lr souls, as they 
that 'J1Htst give aCC01tnt r , &c. A dreadful consideration this! 
And St Chrysostoln tells us that, ,vhen he read that text, "it 
did KaTao-EíELv T
V tvx
v, cause a kind of earthquake within 
hÏ1n and produce a holy fear and trembling in his souL" And 
in his commentary on the text he thus exclaims: "Lord, how 
difficult, ho,v hazardous an undertaking is this! 'Vhat shall 
a man say to those wretched nlen, that rashly thrust thelnselves 
into such an abyss of judgments? All the souls that. are commit- 
ted to thy conduct, men, ,vomen and children, thou art to 
give an account of s ." He presently subjoins, "It is a wonder if 
any ruler in the church be sayed t." ...1 passionate hyperbole, 
expressing his deep sense of the extreme danger of the pastoral 
office. 
It is true, indeed, the excellent bishop speaks there of those 
of his own most sacred order, whose place and dignity in the 


q l\latt. v, 13. r Heb. xiii, 17. 
8 B ß " r' 
 " " ./ "' ex ' ,., r , 
a at 1rouo
 0 ICLVOVVO
. TL av n
 fL1rot. 1f'pO
 TOV
 a LOV
 TOV
 f1f't.fPL11TOJITa
 
;avTov
 ToUaVTfJ Tt.fLCJJPLOOV àßvuucp; 1f'áVTCJJV 
v élPx..fL
, '}'VVatlCooV, lCai av
poov, lCai 
1f'aíaCJJv, uv Xóyov 
í.
CJJ
. 
t eavfLáCCð fl nvá (UTI. TOOV åpx.óvrCl>v UWe
VaL. 



268 


...4 CoulJ}anion for tIle 


church of God, as it is eminently higher, their charge greater, 
their inspection more extensive; so will their account be ac- 
cordingly. But yet the same is true, in its proportion, of every 
clergYluan, of what order soever he be. So St. Austin express- 
ly; "If you Inark it, Inost dear brethren, you shall find that 
all the Lord's priests, not only bishops, but also presbyters 
and ministers of churches, stand in a very hazardous condition u." 
And he gives a shre\vd reason for what he says a little after; 
" If at the day of judglnent it will be a hard task for every man 
to give an account of his own soul, \vhat \viII become of 
priests, of ,vhom God ,viII require an account of the souls of 
so Inany others committed to their charge x 
" He concludes, 
" magnun
 opus, sed gravis sarcina; the care of souls is indeed a 
great ,york, a noble undertaking, but yet a very grievous bur- 
den.'') He nlust be a man of very firm shoulders that is not 
crushed under it., 
I have ofttimes, not ,vithout wonder and indignation, ob- 
served the strange confidence of empirics in physic, that dare 
venture on the practice of that noble art, \vhich they do not at 
all understand; considering ho,v for a little paltry gain they 
shrewdly hazard, or rather certainly destroy, the health and lives 
of men; and have judged them \vorthy of as capital and ignonli- 
nious a punishnlent, as those that kill nlen on the highways. 
But I have soon exchanged this meditaiion into another of more 
concernment to lllyself; and my indignation hath _quickly re- 
turned into IllY own bosonl, ,vhen I consider ho\v much bolder and 
more hazardous an attelnpt it is for a man to venture on the 
priestly office, to minister to the eternal health and salvation of 
souls: ho\v nluch skill is requisite to qualify a Dlan for such an 
undertaking; ho\v great care in the discharge of it; what a sad 
thing it ,vould be, if, through D1Y unskilfulness or negligence, any 
one soul should Iniscarry under IllY hands, or die and perish 
eternally ! 
'Ve luinister to souls. Souls! luethinks in that one ,vord 
there is a sermon. Inlnlortal souls! precious souls! one where- 


11 Si diligenter attenditis, fratres charissimi, ornnes sacerdotes Domini, non 
solum episcopos, sed etiam presbyteros et ministros ecclesiarum, in grandi 
periculo esse cognoscetis. 
x Si enim pro se unusquisque vix poterit in die judicii rationem reddere, 
quid de sacerdotibus futurum est, a quibus sunt omnium animæ requirendæ ? 



Oalldidates of holy Orders. 


=269 


of is more worth than all the world besides, the price of the 
blood of the Son of God. I close up this with the excellent 
words, appointed by the church to be read at the ordination of 
every priest: "Have always therefore in your remembrance, 
how great a treasure is COJll111itted to your charge. For they 
are the sheep of Christ, which he bought with hia death, and 
for whom he shed his blood. The church and congregation
 
whom ye serve, is his spouse and body. And if it shall hap- 
pen, the same church, or any nlembers thereof, to take any 
hurt or hinderance, by reason of your negligence, you kno,v 
the greatness of the fault, and also t.he horrible punishment 
that will ensue.'') 
And no\\" methinks I may use the apostle's words in another 
case; Ye see you/I' calling, brethren y. You see how extrelnely 
difficult and hazardous an office it is we have undertaken; who is 
sufficient for these th'ing,') z? whose loins do not tremble at this 
fearful burden on his shoulders 
 who would not be almost 
tempted to repent hilnself of his undertaking and to wish him- 
self any the meanest mechanic, rather than a nlinister 
 But, alas! 
this were vain, yea sinful. Weare engaged in this sacred office, 
and there is no retreating; we must now run the hazard, ho,v 
great soever it be; in we are, and on we must. "Vhat shall we 
then sa)
? what shall we do? Surely this is our best, yea our 
only course. Let us first prost.rate ourselves at the feet of the 
Almighty God, humbly confessing and heartily bewailing our 
great and manifold miscarriages in this weighty undertaking; let 
us weep tears of blood (if it ,vere possible) for the blood of souls, 
,vhich we have reason to fear may stick upon our garments. 
The blood of souls, I say: for ,vhen I consider ho,v many less 
discerned ways there be, whereby a man may involve himself in 
that guilt, as not only by an openly vicious example, but even 
by a less severe, prudent and wary conversation; not only by 
actions directly criminal, but by lawful actions, when offensive; 
(for by these the apostle assures us, (4-' 9nan 'fila!! destro!/ the soul 
of his u)eak b'rother, for wh01ì'l Ohrist died a ;) not only by a gross 
negligence and supine carelessness, but by evel'Y lesser renlÌs- 
sion of those degrees of zeal and diligence, which are requisite 


Y I Cor. i, 26. BÀÉ7TfTf T
V KÀijULlI VP.WlI, à
f'Acþf)i. 
r.. Kal 'lI'pÒ
 TaiJTu Tí
 iKulIór; a Romans xiv, 15... 



270 


A C01ìtpanion fo}"' the 


in so in1portant an affair: in a word, by not doing all that a man 
can and that lies \vithin his power, to save the souls comn1itted to 
his charge :-1 say, \vhen I consider this, for mine own part I 
cannot, 1 dare not justify nl)'self, or plead Not Guilty before the 
great Judge of heaven and earth; but do, upon the bended 
knees of my sou], bewail my sin and implore his pardoning grace 
and nlercy, crying mightily unto him; Deliver me from this 
hlood-guiltiness, 0 'Iny God, thou God of rny salvat-ion; and IJny 
ton.que shall sing aloud of thy righteousness. 
Having laid ourselves at God's feet, let us not lie idly there, 
but arise, and for the future do the work of God with all faith. 
fulness and industry; Jea, let us nlake amends for our past 
negligence, by doubling our future diligence. And for our 
encourageulent here, let us renlember, that though many things 
are required of a n1inister, yet the chief and most indispensable 
requisites are these t\VO; a passionate desire to save souls, and 
an unwearied diligence in the pursuit of that noble design. The 
Ininister that \vants these two qualifications \vill hardly pass the 
test, or gain t.he approbation of God, the great Judge and Trier; 
but where these are found, they \vill cover a multitude of other 
failings and defects. Let us therefore, reverend brethren (and 
may I here conjure both JOu and myself, by the endeared love 
we bear to our own souls, and the precious souls, con1mitted to 
our charge, yea by the blood of the Son of God, the price of 
both) let us, I beseech you, from henceforth return to our 
several charges, zealously and industriously plying the great 
work and business that is before us. Let us think no pains too 
great, to escape that p.Eî(ov Kp{p.a, that greater judgnwnt, that 
otherwise attends us. Let us study hard and read much and 
pray often and preacl/; in season and out of season and catechise 
the youth and take wise opportunities of instructing those, who 
being of riper years nlay yet be as unripe in knowledge; and 
visit the sick and according to our abilities relieve the poor, 
shewing to all our flock the example of a watchful, holy, hUlllble 
conversation. And may a great blessing of God crown our 
labours! Let us go on, and the Lord prosper us ! 
I have done ad clerum, and have but a \yord more ad pop'ltlum, 
to the people. 
1\Iy brethren, you Inay possibly think yourselves altogether 
unconcerned in this whole discourse. But if you do, you are 



Oandidates of holy Orclm's. 



71 


mistaken; all this nearly concerns even you. I shall only point 
to you wherein. 
1. If the past.oral office be so tremendous an undertaking, 
judge then, I pray you, of the sacrilegious boldness and impiet.y 
of those U zzahs among the laity, that dare touch this ark, the 
priest's charge and care. If we, my brethren, that have been 
trained up in the schools of the prophet.s, that have been 
educated with no small care and cost to this employment, that 
have spent a double apprenticeship of years in our studies, and 
Inost of us a great deal lllore-if we, I say, after all this, find 
reason to tremble at our insufficiency for such an undertaking; 
how horrible is the confidence, or rather impudence, of those 
mechanics, that have leaped from the shopboard or plough into 
the pulpit, and thus per saltu'ln, by a prodigious leap, com- 
menced teachers! what shall we say to these mountebanks in the 
church, these empirics in theology? I only say this. I can never 
sufficiently adll1Ïre either their boldness, in venturing to be 
teachers, or the childish folly and simplicity of those, that give 
themselves up to be their disciples. It is a miracle that any 
such person shall dare to preach, or if he do, that any man in his 
right wits should vouchsafe to hear hiln. 

. This discourse concerning the difficulty and hazard of the 
priestly office shews sufficiently all the people's danger. It is 
the danger your own souls are in, my brethren, if not carefully 
looked to, that is the great hazard of your office. 0 therefore, if 
you do consider it, what need have you to look to yourselves! 
3. Lastly, if our work and office be attended with this difficulty, 
sure it is your duty to pity us, to pray for us, to encourage us, 
by all possible ways and means, to the vigorous performance of 
it; at least not to add to our load, or discourage us, either by 
your wayward factiousness, or stubborn profaneness, or sacri- 
legious injustice: if you do, sad will be your account. 
Remmnber therefore the advice.of the apostle b ; Obey thenlJ 
that have the rule over you, and sulÚnit yourselves; for they 
'watch for your souls, as they that must give an account; that 
they 'Jnay do tlâs (i. e. attend on this work of watching over your 
souls) with joy, and not 
()ith griefc. Grotius's paraphrase is 
here nlost genuine; "Sweeten and allay the irksonle labour of 
)'our teachers, by performing to them all offices of respect and 


b Hebrews xiii, 17. c "'Iva pETà xapâr TOVTO 7roté;)ut, Ka1 p.
 UTEVú(ovTEr. 



27
 A OOilíjJanion fop the Candidates of koly Ol'del's. 
love, that they may, with alacrity and not wit.h grief, discharge 
that function, which is of itself a sufficient burden without any 
addition of sorro\v from you d." 

""OIW to God tlte Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, he ascrihed all 
honour and glory, adoration and 'loorship, hotlt now and fO'ì
 
ever. Ànlen. 


d :\Iulcete eum laborem omnibus obsequiis et officiis, ut cum alacritate 
potius quam dolore fungantur munere satis gravi, etiamsi a vobis nihil 
triste accedat. 



THE 


PRINCIPAL PARTS AND BRANCHES 


OF THE 


PASTORAL OFFICE, 


WITH 


RULES AND DIRECTIONS 


FOR THE DUE PERFOR)IANCE OF EACH OF THE}! j 


I
 A CHARGE TO THE CLERGY OF THE DIOCESE OF 
ST DAVID'S. 


Reverend brethren of the clergy, 
I SHALL not waste my time and little strength, by detaining 
you with a long and useless preface. In short, IllY business 
at this time shall be to set before you the several parts and 
branches of that holy office and function which you have under- 
taken, together with some rules and directions which are neces- 
sary to be observed for the due perfornlance of each of them. 
The principal parts and branches of the pastoral office are 
these five : 
First, Reading divine service, or the prayers of the church. 
Secondly, Preaching. 
Thirdly, Catechising. 
Fourthly, Adlninistering the holy SaCrall1ents of Baptisnl and 
the Lord's supper. 
Fifthly and lastly, '''lsiting of the sick. 
First, l{,eading divine service, or the prayers of the church. 
This SOllle may think to be a slight and easy matter, that needs 
T 



274 


A O(j1npanion for the 


not any advice or directions; but they are very much Inistaken. 
For to the reading of the prayers aright, there is need of great 
care and caution. The prayers of the church nlust be read 
audibly, distinctly and reverently. 
1. Audibly, so that, if possible, all that are present may hear 
them and join in them. There are some that mutter the prayers, 
as if they were to pray only to themselves, ,vhereby they exclude 
most of the congregation from the benefit of thenl. 

" The prayers of the church ought to be read distinctly and 
leisurely; not to be galloped over, as the manner of SOllIe is, 
,vho read the prayers so fast that they outrun the attention and 
devotion of the people, not. giving thenI time to join with them 
or to Inake their responses in their due places. This rule is to 
be observed in reading the prayers throughout, but especially in 
reading the Decalogue or Ten COlnnlandnlents in the second 
service. There are some that read the Commandments so thick 
one upon another, that the people have not tinle to add that 
excellent prayer to each of them, Lord, have 1nercy upon us, and 
incline our hearts to keep tlds law. 
To this head, of distinct reading the prayers, I shall only add 
this one observation. Whereas upon Sundays and holydays the 
church hath appointed a first and second service to be read one 
after another, it is convenient that there be a decent interval 
betwixt them. For judge, I pray you, how absurd it may seem, 
to conclude the first service with St. Chrysostom's prayer, and 
The grace if our Lord Jesus Ohr'l"st, and immediately, ,vithout 
any intermission, to enter upon the second service. 
I verily believe the first intention of the church \vas, that 
these two services should be read at two several times in the 
morning; but no,v custom and the rubric direct us to use them 
both at the same tinle. Yet in cathedral or nlother churches, 
here is still a decent distinction between the two services: for 
before the priest goes to the altar to read the second service, 
there is a short but excellent anthenl sung; in Ì1nitation where- 
of, in the churches of London, and in other greater churches 
of the country, instead of that anthem there is part of a psahn 
sung. 
S. And lastly, the prayers of the church are to be read with 
great reverence and devotion, so as to excite and kindle devo- 
tion in the congregation. Thus the prayers of the church are to 
be read, if ,ve would keep up the reputation of thenl and render 



Oandidates of holy Orders. 


Q75 


theIl1 useful to the people. But alas! there are too nlany lninis- 
tel'S who, by disorderly and indecent and irreverent reading 
of the liturgy, disgrace it and expose it to contempt. To whom 
the church Inay cOlnplain, as one of old in the poet did of the ill 
rehearsal of his oration : 
Q'uem recitas 'ì1U3
tS est, 0 Fidentine, lihellus ; 
Sed male dZlm recz.tas, incipit esse lUllS. 
The book of prayers, which ye read, is indeed n
ine: hut at 
the sad rate you read it, I an
 asha
ned of it; z.t is none of mine, 
but YO'ltr's. 
I am verily persuaded that this is one cause that there are so 
many sectaries and separatists anlong us. They find so little 
reverence and devotion in the use of our comnlon prayers that 
they cannot away \vith them, but run from the church to the 
conventicle, where they hope to find more devotion. 
II. Another part of the pastoral office is preaching, i. e. (as we 
cOlnnlonly use the word) taking a text or portion of scripture, 
eXplaining it, raising some useful point of doctrine frOln it, and 
applying it to the edification of the hearers. For otherwise the 
bare reading of the scriptures is sonletimes called preaching; as 
Acts xv, Ql. For /.Ioses (that is, the writings of l\Ioses) of old 
ti1iw hath in every city the'Jì/; tlwt preach kin/;, heing read in the 
synagog'ltes every sahhath day. But here I take the word preach- 
ing in the forementioned sense, as now it is used. This is a 
noble part of the pastor's duty, but difficult; it is not a work 
that everyone should undertake or can perform: for it requires 
the knowledge and understanding of the holy scriptures, and, in 
order thereunto, some skill in the learned languages and other 
parts of hUlllan learning; it requires a good judglnent and 
discretion, I add elocution too. The tinle will not give lue leave 
(if I were able) to set before you all the rules or precepts of the 
art of preaching and to give you an entire systenl of it. There 
are many learned men, who have written full treatises of this 
subject; I mention only our excellent bishop 'Vilkins, who hath 
published a treatise, entitled, Ecclesiastes, or the Preacher, 
which I reconlmend to the reading of younger divines and first 
beginners in the art of preaching: to ,,,holn also I give' this 
further advice, that they should not at first trust to their own 
compositions, but furnish thenlselves with store of the best ser- 
mons that have been published by the learned divines of our 
T
 




76 


A Gompanion for the 


church. These they should read often and study to imitate 
thenI, and in time they will attain to a habit of good preaching 
thenlselves. Alllong the printed sernlons, those of the late 
archbishop Tillotson are \vell known and approved by all. 
But \vhat shall be done in those poor parishes where there are 
as poor ministers, altogether incapable of performing this duty of 
preaching in any tolerable manner 
 I answer that., in such 
places, Ininisters, instead of sermons of their o\vn, should use the 
HOlnilies of the church, which ought to be in every parish. And 
they ,"ould do well also, now and then, to read a chapter or 
section out of the 'Vhole Duty of l\lan, which, I presullle, is 
translated into the 'Velsh tongue. I add that it ,vould be a 
piece of charity, if the clergy of the neighbourhood to such 
places, \vho are better qualified, \vould sometimes visit those dark 
corners and lend some of their light to then1, by bestowing now 
and then a sernlon on the poor people, suited to their capacities 
and necessities. They have lllY leave, yea and aut.hority so to 
do; and they may be sure the good God \vill not fail to reward 
thenl. 
III. The third work of the pastor's office is catechising, with- 
out \vhich preaching will not be sufficient. For if people be not 
,veIl instructed in the necessary principles of re1igion ,vhen they 
are young, they ,viII hardly attain to any sound knowledge when 
they are old. For according to the Greek apophthegln, 


N " , " 8 ,.. " 
EKpOV tarpEvEtV, Kat YEPOVTU l'OV ETHV, TaVTOV E(]"TL, 


To instruct an ignorant old r/lan, and to 'raise a dead 9ìzan, are 
tldngs abnost equally diffic1.tlt. I shall not insist upon this sub- 
ject; for the usefulness and necessity of catechising is acknow- 
ledged by all, though the \vork itself is by many of the clergy 
sadly neglected. '!\There such neglect is, it. is the duty of the 
churchwardens to present. I shall Inake it nlY business to see 
this fault anlended. ' 
IV. Another and a main part of the priest's office, is the 
adn1Înistration of the holy sacraments, Baptism and the Lord's 
snpper. 
First, for Baptisnl; the church strictly requires that it be 
perforrlled publicly, in the house of God, not in private houses, 
except in case of real necessity; as when a child is weak and 
cannot without endangering itself be brought to church. But 
notwithstanding this strict order of our church, in most places in 
. 



Candid(ltl',
 of hO
lJ O,'ders. 


277 


this countr}T, baptism is altogether adlninistered in private houses, 
and scarce any (if any) baptized in the church. If this may be 
allowed, away with the fonts in your churches, what do they 
signifJ
 To what purpose are they there? If all the authority I 
:l1n invested with can do it, I will see this lamentable abuse of 
the sacraInent of Baptism refornled. 
But further observe that, as our church strictly requires that 
baptisnl be administered in public, so it advises that it be 
performed (if conveniently it n1ay b
) on the Lord's day, in a 
full congregation of Chri
tian people. Hear the words of the 
rubric: 
" The people are to be adn10nished that it is most convenient 
that baptism should not be administered but upon Sundays and 
other holydays, when the most number of people come together; 
as ,veIl for that the congregation there present nlay testify the 
receiving of them that be newly baptized into the ntlInber of 
Christ's church, as also because, in the baptism of infants, every 
man present may be put in renlelnbrance of his own profession 
made to God in baptism."" 
I take leave to add that it is 1110st for the interest of the infant 
to be so baptized, that it nlay have the benefit of the united 
prayers of a full Christian congregation, which is nluch to be 
valued. 
Iethinks there should be no need of urging this to 
parents, that have any real love or affection to their children. 
This would incline them to desire that thenlselves, which the 
church desires of them. Remenlber, I beseech you, that your 
children are to be but once baptized: and what is but once done 
ought to be well done, in the best and most perfect n1anner. 
To come to the other sacrament, the Eucharist, or holy sup- 
per: this is the n10st sacred and mysterious rite, the apex. the 
t.op and perfection of Christian worship, as the ancients term it; 
and therefore it ought to be penormed with the greatest rever- 
ence and solemnity in every punctilio of it, according to the 
direction of our church in her rubric tu the Communion Office. 
But this you are especially to take care of, that you adnlinister 
not the holy sacrament to persons known to be vicious and scan- 
dalous. Hear the rubric of the church to this purpose, viz. 
"So many as intend to be partakers of the holy communion 
shall signify their nanles to the curate at least SOlne time the 
day before.-And if any of those be an open and notorious 




;
 


....1, Co, pa l.O 1/'0 · II 


t.
vil Ii vel' or have done any wrong to hi"! neighbours, b} word 
or deed, so that the congregation be thereby offended. the 
curate, having knowledge thereof shall c'lll him and advertise 
hilu, that in 3n)"wise he presume not to COlne to thp Lord"s 
table until he hath openly declared hilllself to have trulJ re- 
pented and 3Jnended his fornler naught) life, that the congrega- 
tion Inay thereby be satisfied. which before were otrended; and 
that he hath recolnpensed the parties to whonl he hath done 
"rong, or at least declare hillllÖ;clf to be in full purpose so to 
do, as 
oon as he conveniently nla
." 
I al11 not ignorant that there are SOllIe who plead for n ti'ee 
3dIni
:5ion to the Lord's table of all that are lueIubers of the 
visible church, and not 
-et. excolunlunicated; and exclaÏlll 
ngaiust the exclu8ion of BIen fro III the holy conuuunion, LiS a 
device and usurpation of the presb
-terian
 and other sectaries. 
But theQe lHen are grossly luistaken.. for you see it is the expre8s 
order of our church. I add.. that the S
Ul1e order ,....a-; observed 
in the prÍ1lliti\"e and apostolical churches. For Justin 'lartyr, 
who tlourished ,vithin forty years after the apostolic age (i. e. 
after the death of St. John the apostle) in his 
econd Apology 
tells u
. t ha t in his tiine none ,yere adillitted to the holy eu- 
charist but those who lived according to the la.". of Christ. It 
i
 a received di8tinction 
11110ng- divines that there is a twofold 
L: 
exconllllunication. ezc(), 17 .ca .. ajor tino , 'c; the greater 
and the lesser excollul1unication." The greater excolllnluni- 
cation i
 an exclusion of n 111an fron1 the cOllIn1union of the 
church and the public ordinance
 uniyer:sally. The lesser ex- 
conll11unication is indeed in order to prevent the greater and to 
bring Juen under the discipline and correction of the church for 
the ainendlllent of their lives. that so at length they may be fit 
to be admitted to the holy communion. 
So our church infornls us in her rubric to the ConlIDunion 
Office, where the lnini
ter, repelling any froIH the cOlll1nunion, is 
required ,. to gi,.e an account thereof to the ordinary ,,-ithin 
fourteen da
 Q after at the furthest; and the ordinary shall pro- 
ceed against the offending person according to the canon.-' 
So nluch for the adlninistratiol1 of the holy sacraments of Baptism 
and the Lord\
 supper. 
,.... I COlne to the fifth and last part of the pa 
toral office nz. 
visiting the 
il'k. For this we have an express conulland in the 



en. es of I úb rd 1'8. 


279 


holy fo.!criptureH, 18 1-ll.,,! sic, (llllfJ11.9 ' fJa, le ltill" ('all fine tIt eld ,'8 
()f tl c/ rcl"b, i. e. the pre
byter8 of the church; as 
UPIJo
ing 
they may not otherwise have noticE:; of hi. sickness. Sick men 
too commonly neglect thi
 duty, oftentimû'3 out of fpar, proceed- 
ing from an evil conscience. They look upon the Inini,;ter's 
coming to their sick bed a,,; a kind of a messenO'er of death, for 
which they are not so well prepared. But if the 
ick man doeíi 
not send for his minister, the minister (having other notice of his 
:;ickne
s) ought to go to him without being '3ent for. 
How to perform this duty towards sick men aright, our church 
fully directs him, in her excelIent Office of the V isitation of thE; 
Sick, \\hich is so full and perfect that there need,; nothing to be 
added to it. 
Eut observe further that it iR the pastor"s duty to visit hiß 
parishioners, not only when they are sick but al'lo when they 
are well and in good health; not only with common neighùourly 
vÍRits, but visiting then1 to the purposer-: of 
alvation. He 
should sometimes go home to their hou'5 s, and minister to their 
Boul
 in private, mildly reproving them for what faults he 
observes in them, admoni:'3hing them of such duties as he knows 
them to be ignorant of; as not coming constantly to church, Dot 
frequenting the communion and the like. He is there 
ri()uEly 
to call upon them, to mind them of the great concern of their 
immortal souls, in time to prepare for '"ickn8ð.
 and death and 
the tremendous judgment that follows. Such particular private 
applications of the minister to his parishioners are highly useful, 
and ,vi]] render the public ordinances more ben8ficial to them. 
To JOU, my brethren of the clergy, 1 shall conclude all I have 
to say, in a short but serious and affectionate exhortation. 
1. In the fir8t place, and above all things, follow after h()ljne
s, 
withou which no Il n 81 all see tf Lo d. Holine oS is a qualifica- 
tion indispensably required in every Christian, and that sub 
pericuTo animæ, as hp hopes to be 8 ved, and to see the face of God 
in heaven. And can it be imagined. that a minister of God 
should be 
aved \\;thout it 
 Kay, he is obliged to holine:,:; in a 
double capacity, both as a Christian and as a minister. _\.s a 
minister, his calling obliges him to be almost perpetually con- 
versant about holy thing
; which he profane:-z, if he be not him- 
self a holy person. He profane God's holy ,,"orship, hi
 holy 


b Jam
s v, 14. 



280 


A COljnp((nio/
 fOl' the 


,vord and his holy sacranlents; and God will 1l10st certainly and 
severely punish such profaners of his sacred things. 
Nay, a Ininister of God is obliged to an exenlplary holiness. 
Epiphanius tells us that the duty of the laity is TÒ (J"Ú/1-PÆTPOV Ka
 
TÒ uVYYVWUTÒV, a 'flwre 
noderate measure if piety, suited to t.heir 
capacity and tenlpered with a greater indulgence and luercy. 
But frOIU the clergy is expected 
 7rEPL 7ráVTWV àKptßoÀoyía, a 
'f)wre exact and aCCltrate course of life in all tlânps. And St. Paul 
speaks to the saIne purpose, when he charges Titus to she\v 
himself in aU things an exa}J
ple or pattern of good works c . For 
every pattern nlust be excellent and extraordinary and such as 
is worthy of imitation. This the people will expect fron1 us, 
that we should go before thenl and lead them on to virtue and 
piety by our example. And ho\vever they fail in other civilities, 
they will be sure generally to observe this piece of good manners, 
they will readily give us the precedence in the \vay to heaven 
and be content to follow us at a very hllnlble distance. So that 
our conversation must be somewhat extraordinary, if we expect 
by our example to bring thein up to the ordinary and necessary 
measures of piety; and ,ve shall hardly be able to do well, unless 
,ve ourselves do sOluewhat excellently. 
2. Be diligent, very diligent in the business of your calling; 
for it is a laborious calling that will not admit of ease and idle- 
ness. I speak especially to the younger clergy; ply your 
studies, give yourselves to reading, chiefly the holy scriptures 
and the \vritings of learned men, that have eXplained t.hem to 
you. 
The exhortations of St. Paul to Timothy are full to this pur- 
pose; Till I come, give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to 
doctrine, meditate 'ltpon tltese things, give thJJself wholly to them, 
tltat thJJ p140fiting maJJ appear uvto all d . Consider, I beseech 
you, \vhat kind of person he ,vas, wholn St. Paul thus exhorts: 
he was one, who froln a child kne\v the holy scriptures; one 
that had the gift of prophecy and ,vas endued with extraordi- 
nary and even miraculous gifts. This man St. Paul earnestly 
calls upon to be diligent in reading and study; ,vhat need then 
have we, even the Lest of us, of this diligence, who are so very 
far short of his accomplishments! J n a ,vord, an idle person in 
any ('aIling whatsoever is very contelnptible; but an idle and 


c Titus ii, 7. 


d I Tim. Ï\r, 13. 15. 



Oandidates of holy 01ylers. 


281 


Iazy parochial priest is of alllllortals the n10st contenlptible and 
inexcusable. '''hat! so n1uch business, and that of so great 
inlportance as the salvation of nlen's souls, and yet idle 
 For the 
Lord's sake shake off sloth, rouse up and bestir yourselves in the 
business of your calling, renlembering that the souls of your 
people and your own souls are at stake. 
3. And lastly, be much and often in prayer to God, especially 
in private prayer. Content not yourselves with reading prayers 
at church, but take care also that there be daily prayera in your 
fanlilies, at least n10rning and evening; and some time every day 
retire to your studies, and there, upon your bended knees, 
earnestly beseech Ahnighty God to have mercy on you, to direct 
and assist JOu in your studies and to give you 
ood success in 
your labours. Pray for the souls of the people committed to 
your charge; pray for your own souls that, wl
ile you preach to 
others, you !J'ourselvf.s rnay not he castawaJJs. 
If you do these things; if you adorn J 9 0ur holy profession 
with a holy conversation; if you be diligent in the business of 
your calling; if you pray daily to God for his help and assist- 
ance; he will not fail to be with you and to carry you t.hrough 
all difficulties with honour and success; and in the end your 
reward will be great and glorious, and an abundant cOlllpensation 
of aU your labours. So St. Peter tells you in that excellent text, 
with which I shall conclude; Feed the flock of God, 'If)ltich is 
among !fOU, taking the o'Cersight thereof, not hJJ constraint, hut 
lcillingly; not for filth!! lucre, hut of a read!f înind,. neither as 
heing lords 01Jer God's heritage, hztt heing ensaJnples to the flock. And 
(when the chief Shepherd shall appear, !Ie shall receive a crown oJ- 
glo'r!f that fadetk not awa!fe. 


e I Peter v, 2, 3, 4. 



. 



DIRECTIONS 


GIVEN 


TO THE CLERGY 
OF THE DIOCESE OF LONDON, 


IN THE YEAR l\tlDCCXXIV. 


BY THE RIGHT REVEREND FATHER IN GOD 


ED
IUND 


LORD BISHOP OF LONDOX. 


To which is added, 


His CHARGE to the Clergy, in his last Visitation, begun in the Year 
1741 and finished in the Year 1742. 



. 



ED
fUND GIBSON ,vas born in the Parish of Bampton, 
'Vestmoreland, in J669; and ,vent, from the Free Grammar 
School there, to Queen's College, Oxford, in J 686. He took 
the Degree of 
f. A. in 1694; and \yas elected Fellow of his 
College in 1696, having previously distinguished himself, in 
the University, by several publications that she,ved diligent 
research and much Antiquarian learning. One of these, 
dedicated to Dr. Tenison, then Bishop of Lincoln, gained for 
him the favourable notice of that Prelate, who soon after,vards 
became Archbishop of Canterbury and appointed him, first, 
Librarian and then, Domestic Chaplain, at Lambeth. His 
relation to the Primate led him to take a prominent part in 
the disputes of those times bet,veen the T"fO Houses of Con- 
vocation; and his services ,yere rewarded by a series of Pre- 
ferments, among which ,vere the Rectory of Lambeth and the 
Archdeaconry of Surrey. 
In J 7 I 6, upon the death of his Patron and the promotion of 
Dr. 'Vake, then Bishop of Lincoln, t.o the Archbishopric, he 
was appointed Bishop of Lincoln; and in 1723, ,,-as translated 
to the See of London. There he found full scope for his 
great abilities in transacting business; especially during the pro- 
tracted decline of Archbishop lVake, whose duties, in many in- 
stances, devolved on him. A general expectation that he ,vould 
succeed the Primate, for ,yhom he had long and efficiently 
acted, was in the e'?ellt disappointed. Surviving the Arch- 
bishop many years, he continued to preside over the Diocese 
of London and persevered in the labours of a faithful chief 
Pastor of CHR[ST't S Church, until he died in 1748. 
Of his numerous 'V' orks one of the principal is the "Codex 
Juris Ecclesiastici Anglicani," which was originally published 




86 


by himself In 1713; but, in a Second Edition, ,,,ith large 
additions from Papers left by the Author, at Oxford, in 1761. 
He edited, in I 738, three vols. folio, entitled: " A Preser- 
" vative against Popery; a Collection of Discourses upon the 
"principal heads of Controversy between Protestants and 
" Papists, being written and published by the most eminent 
"Divines of the Church of England, chiefly in the Reign of 
" James II." This excellent work has been republished, with 
some additions, in eighteen volumes octavo, London, 18 4 8 , 
18 49. 


-. 



DIRECTIONS 


GIVEN TO 


THE CLERGY 


OF THE DIOCESE OF LONDON, 


I
 THE YEAR l\JDCCXXIV. 


Reverend brethren, 
"r HEN it pleased his majesty to translate me to the see of 
London, upon the death of a pious predecessor no\v with God, 
I was very sensible of the great weight and difficuity of the 
charge, as requiring almost perpetual attendances of one kind or 
another, and entangled with a greater variety of emergencies 
and III ore exposed to the observation and censure of the world, 
than the administration of any other diocese. But as I was 
called to this charge without any application or endeavour on my 
own part, I considered it as a providential appointment and 
firInly trusted that the same God, whose providence had called 
me to it, would graciously direct and support me in the discharge 
of it, to his glory and the good of his church. 
And next to the divine goodness, upon which I humbly rely 
for such a n1easure of wisdom and understanding and 'Such 
strength of body and resolution of mind, as a station of so llluch 
labour and difficulty requires, I IllUst depend upon the kind and 
unanilnous assist.ance of you, IllY reverend brethren; and 1 doubt 
not but }'OU will be ready on all occasions to join with nle in 




88 


TIle Bishop of London's 


preservIng and establishing order and discipline within this 
diocese; \yhich, as it is adorned with the capital city of the 
kingdolll, fron1 whence, as froin a fountain, good and evil are 
derived to all parts of the kingdom; and as it may well be pre- 
sumed to abound with persons of greater learning, knowledge 
and experience, than any other diocese; ought upon both these 
accounts to be a pattern of order and discipline to the whole 
nation. And nlore particularly ought it to be the pattern of a 
regular behaviour in the clergy and of an exact perforinance of 
the public offices of the church; upon \vhich two it Dlay Illost 
truly be said that national piety and religion do nlainly depend; 
nothing being Dlore clear in experience than that the spirit of 
piety and religion decays >1' increases in particular parishes, 
according as the inculllbent sets a good or bad exalnple, and 
the public offices in the church are reverently or negligently 
perfornled. 
For the promoting these good ends, I choose, at my first 
coming to you, to put into your hands SOllie rules and obserya- 
tions, \vhich more particularly relate to those t\yO iinportant 
points. For though I doubt not but as Illany of the clergy of 
this diocese as have been a long time incunlbents in it and have 
reaped the full advantage of books and conversation, ,yhich is its 
peculiar blessing, are abundantly instructed in the several 
branches of the pastoral office; yet it must be renlelnbered, that 
there are many others, whose age observation and experience 
are much less; and to theIr! therefore I would be understood 
11l0re especially to apply InyseIf, in suggesting such rules as are 
of n10st constant use and seeill to DIe to be n10st needful, for 
discharging the nlinisterial function, \vith honour to the church 
and edification to the people: resolving also to put then1 into the 
hands of those who will have yet greater need of theIn, Ilnean, 
all such as I shall hereafter appoint to parochial cures, whether 
by institution or license. And if the rules which I have laid down 
shall be thought plain and obvious, it is a sufficient answer that 
they are useful: since it may be truly said of all rules for the 
conduct of hun1an life in any branch whatsoever that, the lllore 
plain the rule is, the nlore Î1nportant the duty. 
And because I shall begin with the decent and regular 
perfonnance of the public offices of the church; that which I 
lnust mention in the first place, as 
L general preparation for the 
rest, is, 



Directions to Ids OleJ
!/, 17
4. 


289 


1. The decency of the place in which those offices are to be 
perforn1ed, in point of repairs, cleanliness and all accomn10dations 
of books, vessels, vestn1ents and other things, which the rubrics 
and canons of the church suppose and require. For nothing is 
more certain than that the solemn appearance of the place is the 
11leanS of begetting a reverence in the minds of the persons, and 
a suitable honour for the public worship of God; and, on the 
other hand, all mean and unseemly appearances in the house of 
God and all neglects of the decent and necessary preparations 
for his public worship, beget an indolence and inactivity in the 
minds of the congregation and a contempt, or at least a disre- 
gard, of the worship itself. So that the observation is ordinarily 
true that the want of decency and cleanliness in the house of 
God is a sign of the want of true piety and devotion in the hearts 
of the people. God be thanked, there has of late years been an 
unusual zeal in this nation for the repairing and beautifying 
parochial churches and furnishing them with all proper ac- 
commodations for the decent and orderly perfornlance of divine 
service: but where that spirit has not yet prevailed and the 
churches appear to need it, I 111Ust beseech you to do all that is 
in your power to raise it among the people; and particularly, 
I must beseech every rector to set his parishioners a good ex- 
anlple upon this head, as well as others, by keeping his chancel 
'not only in good repair, but in a decent condition. 
The decency and solen1nity of the place being thus provided 
for; that which con1es first under consideration an10ng the duties 
to be perforn1ed in it is, 
II. The reading of divine service to the congregation. An 
office that is usually reckoned a luatter of course, which all 
clergymen are equally capable of perforn1ing and which they 
can hardly perforrl1 an1iss; and yet it is n10st certain that the 
edification of the people and the honour of the liturgy itself 
depend a great deal upon the luanner of performing it; that is, 
upon the reading it audibly, distinctly ànd solenlnly. It is an 
absurdity and an iniqnity, which we justly charge upon the 
church of Rome, that her public service is in a tongue unknown 
to the people; but though our service is in a known tongue, it 
lnust be owned that, as the reading it without being heard makes 
it to all intents and purposes an unknown tongue, so confused 
and indistinct reading, with every degree thereof, is a gradual 
approach to it. The dissenters object against our public liturgy, 


IJ 




90 


The Bishop of Londun's 


that it is cold and lifeless and unaffecting: but though the 
objection has no force in itself (what they call cold and lifeless 
being no more than grave and serious, as all public liturgies 
ought to be) yet \ve may give it very great force by running 
over the service in a cold and unaffecting manner. Our people 
themselves are too apt, in their own minds, to vilify and depre- 
ciate this part of our public service, as that which is ready com- 
posed to the minister's hand and requires no further talent than 
the bare reading; but \ve find by experience to \vhat degrees 
this objection vanishes, and ho\v devoutly and reverently the 
service is attended to, where it has the just advantage of being 
read in a distinct, solemn and affectionate manner. In a word, 
it is in vain to hope that the people will be zealous, if they see 
the minister indifferent, or that any service will be duly attended 
to, \vhich is not recommended to them as a matter of great 
concern and Ï1nportance, by being perfonned in a serious and 
affecting way; and whenever we perform it carelessly and pre- 
cipitately, we nIust forgive them if they believe that ,ve ac- 
count it a task and a burden to us, which we are willing to get 
rid of with as little trouble and in as short a time as we can: 
a consideration that \vill oblige me to resist, to the utmost of 
nlY power and where there is not the most evident necessity, all 
attell1pts in ministers to charge themselves with the performing 
of divine service on any Lord's day more than twice; as it is a 
practice which for the most part nlust render the service less 
affecting and edifying as to the people, and almost unavoidably 
dra\vs the reproaches I have lnentioned, both upon the liturgy 
and the n1Ïnister. 
I an1 aware that the duty \vhich I anI now pressing is not 
equally in every one's power; all luen having not an equal 
strength and felicity of voice. And, considering ho\v nluch 
depends upon these qualifications, in order to an useful and 
honourable discharge of the ministerial office, it is 1l1uch to be 
\visheJ that greater regard ,vere had to then1, in n1aking choice 
of persons for the sacred function; and particularly, that in the 
education of those \vho are designed for the ministry, the right 
forming of the voice "'ere lnade one special care frotH the very 
beginning, in our schools, as well as universities: a care, which 
however omitted by others, it is to be hoped will not be forgot- 
ten by such clergyn1cn who have sons that are intended for the 
lninistry; because they know by experience and cannot but 



Di1'ections to ltis Oler!}!!, 17Q4. 



91 


sensibly feel, the great hnportance and advantage of it. In the 
Dlean titue, with regard to those ,vho are already admitted to 
holy orders, I Inust beg leave to observe that. as on one hand 
there are few whose perfections and abilities in this way are so 
conlplete by nature as to supersede all endeavours after further 
improvement; so, on the other hand, there are not Inany, whose 
natural talents are so very defective and unhappy as to be 
incapable of being bettered by care and observation. At least, 
it is very certain that none are so irregularly framed as not to 
be capab1e of officiating in a devout and serious manner, such as 
shall she\v that the person who officiates is himself thoroughly 
affected; and this, ,,,here it appears, makes such a strong and 
constant impression upon t.he minds of the congregation as goes 
a great ,yay to atone for other failings, which they see to be 
natural and unavoidable. But a supine, careless and indevout 
way of perfol'lning divine service is utterly inexcusable both 
with God and man. 
'Vhen lllinisters have given it the utInost advantages they can, 
they will find it to be all little enough to keep up the attention 
and devotion of the people; ,vhose nlinds are overwhelmed with 
worldly cares and too little accustouled to spiritual exercises of 
any kind. However, nlinisters who officiate in that devout and 
affectionate way do a great deal towards the raising in thenl a 
spirit of devotion; and nlore they cannot do, unless the people 
will be persuaded to the practice of family devotion; which 
would hinder the mind frolll being drowned in worldly thoughts 
and habituate it to the moving and approaching towards heaven; 
and ,vhich therefore I nlust entreat you to pro)note in your 
several parishes to the utmost of Jour power, with this view, 
among others, that greater degrees of attention and devotion 
may be seen in our public assen1blies. For the sanle end, I 
will take this occasion to mention one thing n10re; and that is, 
the practice of saying grace before and after nleals; which, 
howeycr small it may see)l1, yet being a devout acknowledgn1ent 
of the providence of God over us and of our dependence upon 
him, it would be another good means of keeping up a spirit of 
piety and devotion in falnilies, if it were brought into constant 
practice. 
III. Besides that part in our public devotions which properly 
belongs to the Ininister, there is another, which, though it 
belongs to the whole body of the congregation. will haròly be 
uQ 



29
 


Tlte Bishop of London'8 


performed in a decent and edifying n1anner, without sOlne pre- 
vious care and assistance on his part; I mean the singing of 
psalms. This is a divine and heavenly exercise, which the 
scripture recommends to us as one special means of edification; 
and being then in its greatest perfection, when it is perforo1ed 
by Christians in a joint harmony of heart and voice, it has been 
ever accounted a standing part of public devotion, not only in 
the Jewish but in the Christian church. And in the church of 
England particularly, whose Sunday-service is made up of three 
offices, which were originally distinct and in their natures are 
so, there is the greater need of the intervention of psalmody, 
that the transitions froln one service to another may not be too 
sudden and abrupt. This exercise therefore, being a part of our 
public devotions and very useful when it is duly and regularly 
performed, n1ust not be forgotten, while we are considering of 
proper rules for decency and edification in the church; especi- 
ally, since it is so plain in experience that, where no care is 
taken in this nlatter, the perforlnance will be very indecent and 
indeed shocking. 
To prevent that, and to provide for due solelunity in this part 
of our public service as well as the rest, I have often wished 
that every minister would take the trouble of directing the 
choice of proper psaln1s; or rather that they would once for all 
fix and establish a course of psalms, to be given out and sung in 
their order. By \vhich means, the congregation might be fur- 
nished \vith those which are most proper and also with a due 
variety; and, by degrees, the most useful parts of the Book of 
Psalms would be in1planted in the minds of the people and 
become familiar to theine 
With a view to those good ends, and by way of assistance to 
the younger clergy, I have subjoined to these directions a course 
of singing-psahns; \vhich may be gone through every six 
11lonths, and is so ordered, as to consist of a proper lnixture, 
1. of praises and thanksgivings, 2. of prayer to God and trust in 
hiln, and, S. of precepts and Inotives to a godly life. But when 
I put this into your hands, I would not be understood to direct, 
but only to recol11mend the use of it; leaving you at full liberty 
to choose any other parts of the Book of Psahns which you may 
judge proper; provided you leave not the choice to the parish 
clerk, ,vhich I earnestly desire you will not. 
And, to the end the psahns so chosen lllay be sung in a Dlore 



Directions to his Olergy, 1 724. Q9
 
decent tnanner, it is further to be wished that the people of 
every parish, and especially the youth, were trained up and 
accustomed to an orderly way of singing some of the psalnl tunes 
which are most plain and easy and of most common use; since 
that is the proper season of forming the voice as well as the 
mind, and the regularity into which it is then cast with great 
ease will remain with them during life, and not only enable them 
to contribute their part to the decency of this performance, but, 
even for the sake of that talent, \vill incline them to be constant 
in attending the public service of the church. 
But when I recommend the bringing your people, whether 
old or young, to a decent and orderly way of singing psalms, I 
do by no means recommend to you or them the inviting or 
encouraging those idle instructors, who of late years have gone 
about the several countries to teach tunes uncommon and out of 
the way; (which very often are as ridiculous as they are new; 
and the consequence of which is that the greatest part of the 
congregation, being unaccustomed to them, are silenced and do not 
join in this exercise at all;) but my meaning is, that you should 
endeavour to bring your whole congregation, men and ,vomen, 
old and young, or at least as many as you can, to sing five or six 
of the plainest and best known tunes, in a decent, regular and 
uniform manner, so as to be able to bear their part in them 
at the public service of the church, 
'Vhich last advantage, of bringing the whole congregation to 
join in this exercise, will be best obtained, especially in country 
parishes, by directing the clerk to read the psalm line by line, as 
they go on; by ,vhich means, they who cannot read will yet 
be able to bear a part in singing; and even they who can nei- 
ther read nor sing will re
eive, from the matter of the psaln1, 
both instruction in their duty and improvenlent in their 
devotion. 
Under this head, I must take notice of the choice of parish 
clerks, who are assistants to the minister in performing divine 
service and are still in his nomination, by canon in all places, 
and by custonl also in most. And upon this account., their qua- 
lifications, "of honest conversation and sufficiency for reading, 
writing and singing/yare specially provided for in the ninety- 
first canon of our church; which was made on purpose to guard 
against the indecencies that parish clerks, who are not duly qua- 
lified, always bring into the public worship. In conformity to 




9-t 


The Bishop of London's 


which canon, it is to be hoped that, as there shall be occasion, 
n1Ïnisters (setting aside all private regards and applications) will 
choose such persons to be their clerks as are known to be of 
sober conversation and of ability to perform the part that 
belongs to thelli (especially in the point of psalmody) decently 
and laudably. 
If what I have said under this head, concerning psaln10dy and 
the qualifications of parish clerks, shaH be thought a descending 
to points too little and unworthy of regard, let it be remembered 
that nothing can be called little, ,vhich conduces in any degree to 
so great an end, as is the decent, and orderly perforn1ance of the 
public 'worship of God. 
But to return to the duties which belong to the Ininistcr 
alone. 
IV. 'Vhat has been said under the second head, concerning 
the advantages of reading in a distinct and affectionate manner, 
equally holds in the duty of preaching; the effects and impres- 
sions whereof, \vith the several degrees of theIn, do net 1110re 
depend upon anyone thing than the manner of delivering. 
'Vhen Demosthenes was asked, 'V hat was the first qualification 
of a good ora tor? his ans\ver ,vas, Pronunciation; and being 
further asked, what was the second? and after that, what was 
the third? he still ,vent on to answer, Pronunciation; ut eam 
videri posset, non præcipuam, sed solam, judicasse, as Quintilian 
adds, ,vho relates the passage. Thus it always has been and 
always will be, in mixed and popular assenlblies. And the pro- 
per inference frolll thence is not to fall into complaints that 
elnpty sounds should in so lllany instances obtain greater praise 
and a lllore favourable acceptance, than good sense expressed in 
proper language; but let the inference be, an endeavour to 
reconunend good sense by the advantage of good elocution. For 
it is in vain to contend against experience; and in experience 
nothing is more plain and certain than the great Ï1nportance of 
a distinct and graceful elocution, both to the honour of the 
preacher and the edification of the hearers; and therefore an 
endeavour after it is a justice that is owing as ,veIl to your 
own cOlnpositions as to the souls which are c01l1mitted to 
your care. 
But although the ehurch having COlllposed a public service to 
our hands, all that is required on our part is the reading it in 
... distinct, serious and affectionate Inanner; yet the work of 



Directions to Ids Olerg!/, 17Q4. 



95 


preaching, being now left by the church entirely to incumbents, 
requires an additional care as to matter, method and other cir- 
cun1stances. In speaking to which heads I would not have it 
understood, as if my design were to enter into t.he general rules 
of preaching: this has been often done already by much abler 
hands: and my only aim is to give a ('heck to SOlne particular 
irregularities in this way, ,vhich young men are apt to fall 
into and which, in my opinion, tend to defeat the main ends 
of public preaching, especially in mixed and popular congre- 
gations. 
To prevent this, it Inust be always remembered, in the first 
place, that we are Christian preachers and not barely preachers 
of morality. For though it is true that one end of Christ's 
coming was to correct the false glosses and interpretations of the 
luorallaw and, in consequence thereof. one end of his instituting 
a n1inistry must be, to prevent the return of those abuses, by 
keeping up in the minds of luen a true notion of natural religion 
and a just sense of their obligations to the perfonnance of moral 
duties; yet it is also true that the main end of his coming 
was to establish a ne,v covenant ,vith mankind, founded upon 
new tenns and new promises; to shew us a ne\v way of obtain- 
ing forgiveness of sins and reconciliation to God and eternal 
happiness; and to prescribe rules of greater purity and holiness, 
by way of preparation for greater degrees of happiness and 
glory. These (that is, the several branches of what ,ve may call 
the mediatorial scheme, ,,,ith the several duties annexed to and 
resulting from each branch) are, without doubt, the n1ain ingre- 
dients of the gospel state; those, by which Christianity stands 
distinguished from all other religions, and Christians are raised 
to far higher hopes and far greater degrees of purity and per- 
fection. In which views it would seem strange. if a Christian 
preacher were to dwell only upon such duties as are comn10n to 
J" ews, Heathens and Christians; and were not 1110re especially 
obliged to dwell on and)nculcate those' principles and doctrines, 
which are the distinguishing excellencies of the Christian reli- 
gion, and by the knowledge and practice of which, more especi- 
ally, every Christian is entitled to the blessings and privileges of 
the gospel covenant. 
But yet so it is. that these subjects are too much forgotten 
among young preachers; who, being better acquainted with 
morality than rlivinity, fall naturally into the choice of moral 



Q96 


Tlte Bishop of London's 


rather than divine subjects and will of course do so, till the two 
subjects are equally considered and understood. And this par- 
tiality (if I may so call it) to one above the other seems to have 
had its rise from the ill tilnes, when, the pulpits being much 
taken up with some favourite points of divinity, discourses upon 
moral heads were less common; and after those times were over, 
their successors, upon the Restoration, desirous to correct that 
error and to be upon the whole as little like their predecessors 
as lllight be, seem to have fallen into the contrary extreme; 
that probably in Inany places the heads of divinity began so 
to be as rarely treated of, as the heads of morality had been 
before. 
The thing therefore, \vhich I would reconlmend to young 
preachers is, to avoid both the extrenles, by ordering the choice 
of t.heir subjects in snch a manner that each of those heads may 
have its proper share and their hearers be duly instructed upon 
both. Only, \vith these caut.ions in relation to moral subjects; 
that, upon all such occåsions, justice be done at the sanIe tinIe 
to Christianity, by taking special notice of the improvenlents 
which it has made in each branch of the moral scheme, and 
\varning their hearers not to rest in the righteousness of a moral 
heathen, but to aspire to Christian perfection; and, in the next 
place, that all moral discourses be enriched by examples and 
illustrations from scripture; \vhich, besides its being nIore fa- 
miliar to the people than any other \vritings, has in it such a 
noble plainness and sinIplicity as far surpasses all the beauties 
and elegancies t.hat are so llluch adnlÏred in heathen authors. 
To which give me leave to add a third observation, with regard 
to the doctrines and duties, peculiarly belonging to the Christ- 
ian scheme or the ne\v covenant; that the true ,vay to secure 
to these their proper share, is the setting apart some certain sea- 
sons of the year for catechetical discourses, whether ill the way 
of expounding or preaching; which being carried on regularly, 
though at different tinIes, according to the order and method of 
the Church Catechism, \"ill lead the 111inister, as by a thread, to 
the great and fundanIental doctrines of the Christian faith; and 
not only to explain them to the people, but to layout the parti- 
cular duties \vhich more inInlediately ßO\V frolll each head, toge- 
ther ,vith the encouragenlents to the performance of them; that 
so principle and practice may go hand in hand, as they do 
t.hroughout the \vhole Christian scheme, and as they certainly 



Directions to kis Gle1:qy, 17Q4. 


297 


ought to do throughout the preaching of every Christian minis- 
ter. This was the foundation of that standing rule alnong our 
ancestors, to proceed upon every head, expressly, by way of 
doctrine and use; and however the terms may be discontinued, 
the things never nlust, if we resolve to preach to the true edifi- 
cation of our hearers. And, with the same view, it seenlS neces- 
sary to add one rule more, which is, that in our sermons the 
doctrinal part be conlprised in as narrow a compass as the 
a- 
ture of the subject will fairly bear, that so sufficient room 
may be left for a distinct and particular enforcement of the 
practical duties resulting from it, and not barely for a brief and 
superficial mention of theIn, which is too often the case and 
must unavoidably be so, where too large a scope is given to the 
doctrinal part. 
This is an error, into which young men are naturally led by 
the practice in the universities; where sermons being required 
rather as an exercise of the preacher, than for the instruction 
and edification of the hearers, greater allowances may be nlade 
for theory and speculation: but this is a nlischievous indulgence 
in other congregations, over which ministers are professedly ap- 
pointed as public teachers, to instruct and edify their people, and 
not to make proof of their own abilities. 
The same is to be said of the choice of unCOInmon subjects, 
and the treating of those that are common in an uncommon and 
refined ,vay; which gains great applause in our universities, as a 
testimony of good parts or great reading: but in popular con- 
gregations it answers not anyone of those wise ends, for which 
pu blic preaching ,vas instituted. 
In like manner, close argument and a long chain of reasonings 
and consequences from the mere nature of things, are very 
useful and laudable before a learned audience, who have capaci- 
ties to comprehend and follow them; but in other audiences, 
the reasonings may easily be so close as to be unintelligible; 
and therefore, in condescension to nle
ner understandings, they 
must be loosened and disentangled by proper divisions and ren- 
dered plain and obvious by such examples and allusions as are 
most familiar to the people. 
If the submitting to these things shall be thought a diminution \ 
to preachers \vho are capable of the more close and refined ,yay, 
it must be l'emembered that the being able to make things plain 
t.o the Dleanest capacities is no ordinary talent; that in all cases I 




98 


The Bishop of London's 


! he must be allo\ved to speak best, who speaks things that arise 
most naturally from the subject in hand; and that, particularly 
in thp ,york of preaching, the faculty of discoursing pertinently 
upon all subjects, in a distinct Inethod and proper language, 
with as close reasoning as the audience can bear and no closer, 
is a very great perfection, not to be attained but by a clear 
understanding and a solid judgment, improved by long exer- 
cise and an intinIate acquaintance with the best and most ju- 
dicious authors. 
Against these and all other errors, into which young preach- 
ers are apt to fall, I kno,v no better general remedies than these 
two: the first, that when they have pitched upon their subject 
and considered ,vhat the heads are which it naturally suggests, 
they weigh each head separately, and fill everyone of them 
with hints of proper matter, before they begin to compose. By 
this nIeans, the discourse will be more solid and the several 
parts of it duly connected; and ,vhen they have before their 
eyes and in one view, all the heads to be treat.ed of, they ,viII 
take c
re that the \vhole be uniform and that no greater share 
be allowed to anyone head than is consistent ,vith their doing 
justice to the rest. The second is that, before they go on to 
conlpose, they make references, under each head, to such proofs 
and examples of scripture, as tend to confirm or explain the 
several doctrines to be treated of; by \vhich means, the text and 
phrases of scriptures (the best elnbellishments of all religious 
discourses) will spread themselves into every branch and be 
sure to be taken in, 'where the application of them is most easy 
and pertinent; as they ,viII also suggest many proper and useful 
thoughts in t.he ,vhole course of the conlposition ; there being no 
doubt but the Spirit of God is best able to acquaint us with the 
motives and arguments which are most effectual for the propa- 
gating religion and the reforming of mankind. 
The holy scriptures are our great rule both of faith and prac- 
tice; but the precepts and examples contained in them are not 
ranged into one vie,v under the several heads of duty, but are 
mixed and dispersed throughout the sacred books. And though 
those books are in the hands of the people and ,vill not fail to 
give great light and good impressions, when they are seriously 
and frequently read by them; yet it must be owned that the 
weight and conviction, \vhich they carry in them, are much in- 
creased, ,vhen the several places of the same import and ten- 



]Jir'ections to ltis Clergy, 1724. 


299 


dency are laid together and con1pared and are applied to the 
mind in their united strength. A work, which cannot in reason be 
expected froll1 the generality of the people, unless they had more 
leisure and greater abilities; and a ,vork, therefore, that cer- 
tainly belongs to the ministers of God's word, who have both 
leisure and abilities and who cannot lay a better foundation of 
sound and useful preaching, than in this ,vayof digesting the 
precepts and examples of scripture and making them mutual 
explications and enforcenlents of one another. 
Every minister declares, at the time of his ordination, that he 
is determined to instruct the people conlmitted to his charge out 
of the holy scriptures and that he will be diligent in reading 
and studying them. And I anI fully persuaded that this 
n1ethod of conlparing scripture with scripture.) which is so very 
beneficial to the people in plain and practical points, will also be 
found upon trial to be the best lnethod that a minister can take, 
in order to form a just notion of the spirit of religion in general 
and of the meaning of such particular passages as are less plain 
and need explication. Whether the difficulty arise from the 
phrase and language of scripture, or from some peculiar offices 
and usages of those ancient times, or from any seeming incoher- 
ence in the reasoning and argument: in all these cases, and I 
will add, in all other difficulties, of what kind soever, the 
frequent reading of holy writ, till the stX1e and spirit of it be- 
comes fanliliar to us, and the comparing particular passages with 
others of like nature and tendency, ,viII appear to be our best 
help and most sure guide. And whoever has patience and 
resolution enough to proceed and persevere in this way, though 
he may go on slowly, will go on surely and find hinlself in the 
end a far greater proficient than those who, neglecting this 
method, shall w hoUy betake themselves to assistances of other 
kinds. Not that any assistance is to be neglected, which may 
furnish us with knowledge of so high and valuable a nature; 
but my meaning is that, in general, b\"l'ipture is the best inter- } . 
p re ter of se ipture, and that the conl p ãring scripture ,vith scrip- ( 
ture is the surest way to the true understanding of it; and 
therefore, that recourse ought not ordinarily to be had to the 
other ways (however seemingly more short and easy) till this 
has been fully tried and the nlind still calls for further light 
and assistance. It was the saying of a great man that the time 
which he thought he spent best was bet,veen his Bible and his 



300 


The Bishop of London
s 


Concordance: and however expositors may be useful and even 
necessary, upon sonle particular points, yet it is very certain 
that no person, who is possessed of those t\VO and has not at 
least a cOlnpetent knowledge of the holy scriptures, can fairly 
charge his want of kno\vledge upon the want of books: on the 
contrary, it can be a ,vant of nothing but industry and applica- 
tion in the business of his profession. 
But \vhatsoever means or helps of other kinds we lnay have 
recourse to for the right understanding of the holy scriptures, 
there are two which will be always necessary, and which are 
equally in everyone's power, viz. a sincere desire to know the 
,viII of God, in order to practise it when known; and earnest 
prayer to him for the assistance of the Holy Spirit, in all 
our inquiries concerning the revelations
 which he has made to 
mankind. 
V. But, notwithstanding the greatest care and most serious 
endeavours in ministers to render their discourses useful and 
edifying, ,ve must not expect that preaching will have its full 
effect, unless there be some preparation also on the part of the 
hearers. For as no discourses in any art or science can be tole- 
rably understood, where the general terms and principles be- 
longing to them are not learnt in the first place; so those 
particularly of religion must in great measure be lost, unless the 
people be prepared to receive and apprehend them, by a general 
knowledge of the language and principles of Christianity. This 
shews us the great necessity there is to be careful and diligent 
in the work of catechising, or instructing youth in the general 
principles of religion; because upon t.hat it nlainly depends, 
whether our preaching shall be successful or not; in other 
words, whether people shall be capable or uncapable, during 
life, to hear and read religious discourses with profit and delight. 
And as none who is a faithfullaoourer in God's vineyard can be 
indifferent, whether the seed which he sows shall grow up or 
die; so, in proportion to everyone's desire to see that seed grow 
up to perfection, ,viII his care and diligence be to prepare the 
soil for the kindly reception of it: a preparation, which must be 
begun in repeating the Catechism by heart; but, if it end there, 
will not av
il much to the purpose of profitable hearing. And 
therefore it is of great use, and indeed necessity, that children 
be likewise obliged to con1mit to melnory such plain texts of 
holy scripture as confirm and illustrate the several branches of 



Directiolls to kis Clergy, 17
4. 


SOl 


the Church Catechislll, and that, as they grow up, they be ex- 
horted to peruse and consider sonle of those larger catechisms, 
which give a more particular insight into the Christian faith and 
which therefore may be properly said to finish the preparation 
that we are now speaking of. 
VI. The directions which I have been hitherto offering re- 
late to the performance of public duties and offices in the church. 
But you are not to reckon yonI' ministerial cares at an end as 
Boon as these are over; there being other pastoral duties of 
a more private nature, to which you are equally obliged, though 
not in law as incumbents, yet in conscience as the nlinisters 
of Christ. 
For instance, dissuasives from vice in general, or even from 
this or that. particular vice, when delivered from the pulpit, may 
possibly not be heard by the persons who are most guilty; or 
if they be heard, men are apt to be partial to themselves, and 
not to reckon that what is delivered equally to all concerns 
them more than their neighbours; or those general dissuasives 
may be capable of additional strength from particular circum- 
stances in the condition of particular persons; the mention of 
which in public would be more apt to harden than reform. In 
these and the like cases, ministers will ofttimes see very great 
need of private admonition and reproof; and if those prove in- 
effectual, there is one step further, which they either ought to 
make themselves or procure to be made by the officers of the 
church, and that is, the presenting of obstinate offenders to the 
spiritual power, to bring thenl to public shanle and to deter 
others from falling into the like practices; and so to deliver the 
Christian name from the scandal of open and barefaced wicked- 
ness, and our church from the reproach of suffering it to go 
on with impunity and in defiance of her la\vs. Two vices I will 
name in particular, which are more conlmon and more daring 
than the rest, drunkenness and swearing: but notwithstanding 
they are so very comnIon, and that t
e canon concerning pre- 
sentments makes express mention of those two by name, yet I 
believe they are seldolll found among the crimes presented: for 
what reason I cannot conceive, unless it be that the laws of the 
state have appointed temporal penalties for them. But as there 
is nothing in those laws that has taken away the authority 
of the church, so is there no cause why the exercise of that 
authority in these particulars should be discontinued; at least, 



SOQ 


The BisltOl) of London's 


till we see the teluporal hnvs executed with greater zeal 3nd 
better effect. 
In the next place, there may be those under your care, who 
are troubled in mind or amicted with scruples; and as Christ, 
in the \vords of the prophet, 'was sent to 'bind 'lip the 'brolcen-hearted, 
\vhich our Saviour also has specially applied to himself; there 
can be no doubt but you are obliged to attend the saIne \vork 
and to consider yourselves, in this respect aluong others, as his 
ministers upon earth: endeavouring to discharge this branch of 
your office \visely and prudently, and to be able to resolve 
doubts and difficulties ,vhich relate to conscience, by a competent 
knowledge in casuistical divinity. 
This is oftentinles the case of sick persons; \vhom a lowness 
of spirits naturally subjects to doubts and distrusts, either wholly 
groundless or far nlore dark and dislnal than they need be; and 
\vho in that condition are great objects of your compassion. Or 
it nlay happen in other instances, that the fears are too well 
founded upon the sense and consciousness of a wicked life; and 
in that case they have still the more need of your counsel and 
assistance, to direct thetu in the great affair of their souls and 
the nlost probable methods \vhich then relllain, of luaking their 
peace \vith God. Or, though there be no doubts or fears of any 
sort, yet the bare \veakness of body and mind calls for your 
assistance in prayer to God; \yhich, besides the other effects, is 
usually a great cOlllfort and refreshment to thenI. Upon these 
accounts our church has made it one part of the business of 
every lllinister to visit the sick; and there relnains yet one 1110re 
duty in case of their recovery, nanlely, to Le often pressing thenl 
to a serious reflection upon the danger they have been in and a 
remembrance of their solenln vows and pronlises, while they had 
death before their eyes. 
And \vhile I am Iuentioning the pastoral duties of a more 
private nature, I must not onlit that of lnaking peace and cOln- 
posing differences al110ng neighbours; a \vork, which certainly 
belongs to the preachers of peace and the ministers of the God 
of peace, and for which they are generally nluch better qualified 
than other men, by their equal influence over both parties and 
the equal relation they bear to both. Accordingly our Church, 
in her Ordination-Service, requires of every person, who is to be 
ordained, a solemn declaration and proluise "that he \viII main- 
tain and set forwards, as much Jieth in hilu, quietness, peace 



Di1'ectlulls tu ltis Ole'i:qy J 1724. 


JOS 


and love fi1l10ng all Christian people, and especiaIIy among theln 
that are or shall be committed to his charge." 
These and the like duties of a pastoral kind (which I call 
private, by way of distinction froIll the public duties in the 
church) do ilnlnediately result froln the nature of your office and 
ministry, but are not so strictly bound upon you by the laws of 
church and state as the public duties are: a circumstance 
which adds much to the honour, as ,veIl as merit, of discharging 
them diligently; since the nlore this appears to be the effect of 
your own choice and inclination, the more it endears you to the 
people and is the strongest testimony both to them and your- 
selves that you are acted, in the whole course of your ministry, 
by a true principle of conscience and a tender concern for the 
souls of men. 
VII. But besides public instructions fronl the pulpit and 
adnlonitions and reproofs in a private ,vay, there is another sort 
of teaching, which is no less effectual, and that iS J by our lives. 
This is a daily and hourly lesson to the people; and that, with- 
out which all other lessons arc fruitless and ineffectual. And 
for this reason, even the heathen writers made it a necessary 
qualificp4-ion of a good orator, that he should be a good nlan; 
one, whose reputation for probit.y and sincerity might be a 
pledge of his dealing honestly with them and might by conse- 
quence give every persuasion and argulnent its full force. 1\1uch 
nlore is this a necessary qualification in a Christian orator, the 
great design of whose preaching is to persuade men to be good, 
upon the considerations of duty to God and of future rewards 
and punislnnents; and it would be an extraordinary denland on 
our part, if we should expect to be thought sincere and in earnest 
in persuading others to be good upon those motives, on any less 
terms than the being very good ourselves; not only in those 
negative degrees which pass in COlnmon account for goodness 
(the not being drunkards, nor swearers J nor profane, nor unclean 
and the like) but that goodness, I mean, which consists in a 
steady and unifornl exercise of the graces and virtues of the 
Christian life; that which nlakes us fit to instruct and reprove 
and to be patterns and examples to the flock of Christ. 
With those views of instruction, reproof and exalnple and the 
unhlan1able character, which these offices require, every clergy- 
nlan solemnly promises at his ordination 
, That he will be dili- 
gent to frame and fashion not only his own life, but also the lives 



304 


The Bisltop of Londun's 


of his fainily, according to the doctrine of Christ, and Inake both 
himself and them, as much as in him Iieth, wholesome exanIples 
and patterns to the flock of Christ." And the rules of the church 
have descended to the minutest circumstances in their outward 
denIeanour and even appearance; to the end every thing about 
theln may be grave and serious, and renIote from the gaieties 
of the world: more particularly their habit; which hath been 
ever considered as a certain nlark of distinction from the laity, 
not only in the time of their officiating, but also in their 
travels; and which, being such as is suitable to their office and 
character, is justly accounted a token of inward seriousness and 
composedness of nlind, and (as the canon of our church expresses 
it) " is one good Dleans to gain them honour and estimation 
from the people." 
For the same ends, the la\vs of the church in all ages have 
restrained clergymen froln many freedoms and diversions, which 
in others are accounted allowable and innocent: being either 
such exercises as are too eager and violent and therefore 
unagreeable to that sedateness and gravity, which becomes our 
function; or such ganles and sports as frequently provoke to 
oaths and curses, which \ve can neither decently hear, DOl", at 
that time, seasonably reprove; or such concourses and meetings 
as are usually accompanied with jollity and intemperance, with 
folly and levity and a boundless liberty of discourse; which are 
very unfit for the eyes and ears of devout and serious Christians, 
and among which tenlptations it is by no lneans proper to trust 
so nice and tender a thing as the reputation of a clergJrnan. 
'I'he canons of our own and other churches abound with cautions 
and prohibitions of this nature: and the \visdom of them is fully 
justified in experience; by which (if we \viII but make our own 
observations) it \viII be found very clear that the different de-' 
grees of respect and authority, \vhich ministers enjoy, depend 
upon no one thing so much as their Inixing or not mixing with 
the laity in those diversions and freedoms of life. It is t.rue, the 
subn1Ïtting to such nlixtures n1ay gain them the reputation of 
. 4 good-nature; but that reputation Illay be easily got and main- 
tained \vithout it, and is certainly bought too dear, at the 
expense of their proper character, as ministers of the gospel. 
Or, it lnay endear them to free and irregular livers, who delight 
in nothing more than to see clergynlen willing to beCOlne 
sharers in their irregularities. But \vhether that, in the end, 




 


.Dirrections to h:is Olergy, 17Q4. 


305 


proves the foundation of inward respect or inward contempt, is 
too plain to be made a question. 
'TIll. This is a snare into "hich the younger clergy are Illost 
apt to be drawn, and 1 know but one way that will effectually 
prevent their falling into it; which iS J the entering into a course 
of studies suitable to their profession, particularly of the holy 
scriptures; with a resolution to go through and finish that course, 
in the best manner that they are able and their circumstances 
will admit; out of a laudable desire, not only to be qualified in 
all respects for the discharge of their duty, but also to improve 
and enrich their own minds and not to remain strangers to any 
parts of knowledge, which it is proper for divines to be ac- 
quainted with. This will always secure to them an agreeable 
entertainnlent at home; and whenever they desire diversion 
abroad (which it is far from my intention to discourage) it will 
incline them to seek it chiefly among their own brethren and 
among the most serious and knowing part of the laity; and 
there the pleasure will be doubled by the nlutual improvement 
of one another, ,vithout danger of giving scandal and without 
temptation to irregularities of any kind. 
And there is the greater need, in our days, to press upon the 
clergy a diligent application to the studies of their profession, 
with regard as well to the dissenters, whose teachers, generally 
speaking, are more learned than in former days, as to the 
papists, who are more diligent than ever in corrupting and 
seducing the members of our communion. Against the assaults 
of both these, the parochial clergy cannot furnish themselves 
with any better arm our than those excellent treatises 'which 
were written by the London divines in the reigns of king 
Charles and king James the Second. :But, besides the attacks 
from those two quarters, there is in our days a further need of 
study and application in the clergy, with regard to the younger 
gentry; too many of whom, out of a love ûf novelty and under 
pretence of thinking with freedon], are become zealous advocates 
for such doctrines and principles as subvert the Christian faith 
and destroy the divine mission and authority of a Christian 
ministry and a Christian church. The broaching of these 
schemes carries in it a show of new discoveries and of a pene- 
tration, which disdains to go on in the common road and, in both 
these respects, is calculated to feed the vanity of young men; 
who are therefore eager on all occasions to Ji
cover and main.. 
x 



306 


Tlw Bisltop of London's 


tain their sentiulents and think it no sHlnll nlat-ter of tritunph, 
when they lueet with clerg)"nlen unacquainted \vith the cause 
and not able to manage the dispute against theine This is an 
open attack upon our comlnon Christianity, \vhich it is the more 
inlnlediatü work of the 11linisters of the gospel to maintain; and 
as lnanyas shall take care to furnish themselves with proper and 
sufficient arluour for that end and shall employ it zealously, as 
they see occasion, against these enenlies of religion, will be ac- 
counted faithful soldiers of Jesus Christ. Especially, if to their 
study and reasoning, by which they are able to bear up against 
the attacks of freethinkers, they add the powerful argument of 
an exelnplary and truly pastoral life; which is a sort of argu- 
ment that is easily understood by the people and carries in it an 
irresistible force. No doubts \viH ever gro\v in the minds of 
," 1 the people \vhether that pastor is a messenger and anlbassador 
of Christ, \vhom they see diligent in inforn1Íng them, both by 
, doctrine and exanIple, concerning the will of Christ; nor can 
they ever be persuaded that they are not his shepherds and his 
stewards, who watch over their flocks with such caro as beconles 
those that believe themselves accountable to their Lord and 

laster . 
And that you nlay never be unnlindfiIl of the relation, \vhich 
you bear to Christ, and of the duties inculubent upon you in 
consequence of that relation, I must earnestly recomnlend to you 
a frequent and serious perusal of the forms of ordination, especi- 
ally that of priests; \vhere, together with that relation, you will 
see the solemn engagements, \vhich )'oU entered into at the tÍIne 
of your ordination, and find the chief offices of the ministerial 
function distinctly laid out; and all this in such an excellent 
and lively nlanner as cannot fail of nlaking great impression 
upon a serious nlind. 
The two qualifications last lnentioned, nalnely, a good life 
and a serious application to the study of divine matters, are the 
principal ingredients in the character of a clergYlnan; those, 
,vithout 'which he cannot only do no service in the church of 
Christ, but must bring dishonour to his profession and great mis- 
chief to the soul
 of men. On those accounts, it becomes the 
duty of every clergYlnan not only to be possessed of those quali- 
fications hiIl1self, but also to use his utnlost endeavour that none 
but such as are possessed of thell1 be adnlitted to holy orders or 
the cure of souls; and much nloro to take care that he be not 



Directions to his Clergy, 17
4. 


307 


aecessary to such admissions, by joining in undue testitnonials 
for those ends. It is a duty \vhich every man owes to truth, not 
to give his testimony to things which he either kno\vs to be 
false or does not kno\v to be true: it is a duty which every 
clergyman owes to his bishop, not to deceive and impose upon 
hÏIll: it iS I further, a duty \vhich he owes to the church where- 
of he is a member, not to be the means of sending into it igno- 
rant and unworthy ministers: and, last of all, it is a duty which 
he owes to his own soul, not to involve it in the guilt of all that 
mischief which such ministers do to the souls of others and of 
all that scandal and reproach which they bring upon their pro- 
fession and order. By these and the like considerations, every 
clergyman must arm himself against the importunities which are 
usual on such occasions, and against all the argulnents of com- 
passion and friendship and neighbourhood. And whoever con- 
siders this matter aright will not only refuse to join in undue 
testimonials, but must think himself obliged, when he sees II 
others joining in them, to convey beforehand such private inti- 
mations as may lead the bishop to further inquiries and hinder 
him from proceeding, till he shaH have given himself proper 
satisfaction in some other way. 
IX. From the distinction mentioned under the sixth head, 
between public duties, to which ministers are strictly obliged by 
the laws of the church, and the duties of a more private nature, 
which, though not so strictly bound upon then1 by the laws, are 
very important branches of the Ininisterial office; from that dis- 
tinction, I say, there arises another duty, namely, residence; as 
this is necessary to the due discharge of all those pastoral offices 
which are of a more private nature. And I choose here to 
resunle that distinction, as a proper ground of the duty of resLl 
dence, because it has been urged to me by some, as a sufficient 
reason why I nlight indulge non-residence, that they should be 
near enough to perform the duties of tþ.e Lord's day in person, 
and if any necessary business should fall out on the "reek-days, 
as buryings, christenings, or the like, some neighbouring clergy- 
man ,vould be ready to attend. A \vay of reasoning which rests 
upon this supposition, that there are no ministerial duties but 
such as are made expressly necessary by the laws: and it will 
appear to be very wrong reasoning, when it is considered how 
many excellent ends there are, which either cannot be attained 
at all, or at best in a very Í1nperfect manner, without personal 
x 2 



308 


The Bishop of London's 


residence. Such are, a daily oversight and inspection, and, by 
that n1eans, a constant check and restraint upon evil practices of 
all kinds and upon the growth of corrupt custonlS and habits 
anlong the people: Buch are also, a more intin1ate knowledge of 
their spiritual estate, and occasional exhortations and reproofs, 
I and, that which exhorts and reproves most effectually of all, the 
daily sight and influence of a good example: to which we nlust 
add, the being always at hand to observe and compose differ- 
ences, before they grow too strong; and to assist the rich \vith 
counsel, the sick with comfort, and (according to your abilities) 
the poor and distressed with seasonable relief; and to perforlu 
among them all neighbourly and charitable offices of the like 
kinds, which are not only. excellent in themselves, but are the 
Ineans of endearing ministers to their people and of opening a 
passage into their hearts for spiritual instructions of all sorts. 
I aln aware that there is one case which nlakes constant resi- 
dence impracticable, and God knows it is a case too common in 
11108t dioceses, nalnely, the insufficiency of a nlaintenance; \vhicb 
renders it necessary for the bishop to comnlit the care of n10re 
than one parish to one and the same hand; and, in such cases, 
we can only exhort and entreat nlinisters to have those good 
ends seriously in their thoughts and to endeavour after them as 
far as sllch unavoidable absence will permit. But the cases 
which I no\\' mean are those of convenience only, not of neces- 
sity; and nIY desire is, to obviate all applications for indulgence 
on sueh occasions, by convincing the clergy that personal resi- 
dence is of too great importance in the 111illisterial office to be 
sacrificed to private convenience. 
I an} also aware that there are cases, in which the laws of 
church and state suppose and permit ministers to be absent from 
their cures; particularly the caee of pluralities and of residence 
in cathedral churches: but, in regard to these, it is my duty to 
take care that such absences be not 1110re long and more fre- 
quent than the laws intend and direct. By the express tenonr 
of the dispensation, every pluralist is bound to preach thirteen 
sennons every year at the place where he does not ordinarily 
reside, and to keep hospitality there for two months; and by the 
forty-fourth canon of our church, every bishop is enjoined to 
take care that all such residentiaries of his cathedral church as 
have also parochial cures, be obliged to return to them as soon 
as ever their statut.able residence is perfonned. Nor is it a suf- 



Directions to his OkrO!l, 17Q4. 


309 


fìcient plea for the habitual absence either of pluralists or resi- 
dentiary-canons, that they have curates under then1 of good 
abilities and with sufficient salaries, who officiate in their stead. I 
For though it is to be hoped, on one hand, that all curates will 
remember that, in t.he eye of the la\v and in the sight of God, 
they stand chargeable 'with the cure of souls; and, on tIie other 
hand, that all such incumbents, who enjoy those additional ad- 
vantages, will freely and of their own accord allow such salaries I 
to their curates as are sufficient and reasonable; yet is there a 
great difference, in the point of ability to do good, between in- 
cumbents and curates. The curates, ordinarily speaking, must 
be supposed to have less knowledge and less experience in their 
profession, and not to have near so much influence and authority 
as incull1bents personally residjng: and, not to insist upon the 
natural relation there is between a pastor and his people, a shep- 
herd and his flock, which certainly ought to rest upon the n1ind 
of every pastor, it will be hard to persuade the people that the 
care of their souls is the thing at his heart., if they receive not a 
reasonable share of pastoral offices, by way of return for the 
revenues of the church. 
From hence it appears that where the law indulges non-resi- 
dence, it does not intend a total discharge from the care which 
was originally conl1uitted to incumbents, but only a discharge so 
far as it necessarily follows f"ronl the ground and reason of such 
indulgence; and when that ceases, the obligation to a personal 
care and attendance returns of course. And even in the tilues 
of necessary absence luany things may be done by an incumbent 
to shew that he is far from reckoning himself discharged frolH 
all lUanneI' of care: the needy may be relieved, poor children 
may be sent to school, useful books may be distributed, inquiries 
n1ay be n1ade frolll tin1e to tilne concerning the state of persons 
and things, and proper directions may be given to the curate for 
his behaviour and studies, that he may be trained up t.o be an 
useful preacher and a prudent pastor, and thoroughly qualified 
for a parochial cure of his own, whenever it shaH please Provi- 
dence to call him to it: a circun1stance, which makes some 
aluends to the church for the mischiefs of non-residence and has 
doubtless a good effect, where learned and experienced incun1- 
bents luake it their care to direct young persons in the study of 
divinity and to frame their minds to a pastoral life. 
But, with whatever n1isfortunes, luischiefs and inconveniences 



310 


The Bis/top of L,ondon's 


non-residence may be attended in itself and by unavoidable 
necessity, it is certain that these ought not to be increased 
beyond ,vhat the laws allow and natural necessity requires; but, 
on the contrary, to be made up and balanced by an exact observ- 
ance of the rules, which the church has laid down for the sup- 
ply of the cures. Every incumbent has the cnre of souls 
committed to him by the bishop; and he needs no other com- 
nlission, while he continues to attend that cure in person. But 
if either the law discharge him from constant residence, or the 
bishop dispense with it, on account of health, or for other rea- 
sonable cause; in those cases he has no po\ver, in virtue of his 
first comlnission, to transfer the cure to ,,,hat hand he pleases, 
but, upon such failure of personal attendance, the bishop is the 
proper judge of the fitness of the
erson ,vho shall be appointed 
to the cure. And if he were not the judge, the consequence 
must be (\vhat I have too often found by experience) that nUln- 
bel's of cures will remain in the hands of persons, concerning 
whose abilities, nlorals, opinions and even orders, the bishop 
has not the least satisfaction. An abuse, so un,varrantable in 
itself and so pernicious in the consequences that I shall think 
Inyself much wanting to my duty, if I do not put in execution 
the laws of the church upon this head; especially since his grace 
the lord aarchbishop of this province, in his directions to his 
suffragan bishops, hath expressly recolllmended to us, " That we 
make diligent inquiry concerning curates in our several dioceses, 
and proceed to ecclesiastical censures against those ,vho shall 
presume to serve cures, without being first duly licensed there- 
unto; as also against all such incumbents ,,,ho shall receive 
and employ them, \vithout first obtaining such license." Or, 
at least, without satisfying the bishop concerning the characters 
of the persons they employ, till such license Inay conveniently be 
obtained. 
And when I am speaking of curates \"ho enter upon pa.rochial 
cures \vithout the license or kno\\ledge of the ordinary, I cannot 
. omit to take notice of the very mischievous and irregular prac- 
tice of obtaining titles to cures, for the single end of obtaining 
holy orders in virtue of such titles, \vithout any intention to 
serve the cures. This is a shanleful inlposition upon bishops, 
and defeats the ,vise end of the thirty-third canon of our church, 
which was to prevent the needless nulltiplying of clergymen, 
a Archbishop Wake. 



Difections to his Clcr.f/Y, 1724. 



11 


beyond what the present occasions of the church require; and 
this, ,,,hen it happens, exposes the church to contempt and the 
persons to reproach, and lays the III under temptations to sublnit 
to mean and sometimes indirect Inethods of application for pre- 
ferment, and gives great advant.age to mercenary patrons. To 
prevent those evils as much as may be, I shall insist upon a 
solenIn declaration to be made by every incumbent who gives a 
title for orders, that such title is true and real; according to a 
b form, which is printed for that purpose at the end of these 
Directions and which I expect to be the standing fornl of all 
titles that are sent to me. 
X. Hitherto I have applied l11yself to you, as you stand 
intrusted by God and his church with the administration of 
divine offices and the care of souls. I must now say somewhat 
concerning another kind of trust, which is not indeed so high 
and important in its nature, but Jet is such as cannot with a 
good conscience be neglected; I mean the patrimony of the 
church; without which ,ve could not, humanly speaking, have 
established cures, nor by consequence those many advantages of 
constant personal residence, which I have enumerated under the 
last head. Religion therefore is nearly concerned, that due 
care be taken to preserve and continue things, which are such 
manifest supports to it. And I need not say on ,vhom that care 
rests, since all our Ia,vs consider the church as in a st.ate of mi- 
nority and pupilage, and every incumbent as the guardian, for 
the time being, of the rights of his own church; who therefore 
stands obliged to transmit thenI entire to his successors and is 
guilty of a breach of trust, if through his neglect the church 
shall suffer loss or diminution in profits or conveniences of any 
kind; if the houses shall run to decay, or the glebe be injured in 
tillage, fences or trees; or the tithes be diminished by undue 
compositions and by custonIS and moduses growing and gaining 
strength in his time. 
'Vhere no house is, the law does i;,öt think it reasonable to 
inflict the penalties of non-residence; and therefore it takes great 
care, where houses are, to keep them in due repair; not only in 
a habitable, but, as an ancient constitution of our church ex- 
presses it, in a decent state; such as is suitable to the character 
of :t clergyman and to the condition of a person who has had a 


b This form has been omitted, as being no longer in general use. 



31
 


The Bishop of London's 


liberal education, and such as may nlake personal residence easy 
and agreeable. This is \vhat the laws of the church require of 
every clergyman, under severe penalties: but IllY present busi- 
ness is not to explain the obligation of la\v, but to enforce the 
obligation of conscience; having far more delight to see justice 
done to the church freely than by constraint; and kno\ying 
ho\v much more agreeable it is to the sacred character and 
function, to be led into what is right by a sense of duty and 
conscience than to be driven into it by the threatenings and 
penalties of the la\v. And a matter of conscience this certainly 
is, not only in itself, as it is the betraying a trust which the 
church cOInmits to incunIbents; but in the consequences also, as 
it brings a great charge and difficulty upon the successors and, 
which is no sillall aggravation of the injustice, a charge that 
might have been prevented at very little expense, by an early 
care in the predecessors; the failings in fabrics being like those 
in our bodies, cured and amended at small expense, if taken 
in tinIe, but by delays becoming very chargeable and ofttÏInes 
incurable. 
The thing then to be guarded against in this matter is delay; 
which must occasion a heavy burden somewhere: if upon the 
incumbent himself, it is great folly; if upon his successor, it is 
great injustice. Nor is it enough to satisfy the conscience under 
such delays, that their executors "rill be accountable to the next 
successor; since they kno\v that the utmost ,vhich the law itself 
allows in that case, though generally much Illore than would 
have prevented the mischie
 bears no kind of proportion to the 
real danIage which the successor sustains by such delay. 
'Vhen I spake, under the last head, of the many mischiefs of 
non-residence, I industriously reserved one of theln for this 
place, viz. the decay and ruin of parsonage-houses. It may be 
supposed, ordinarily speaking, that clergymen will provide for 
decency in the places ,vhere they dwell, not only from a sense of 
duty to God and the church, but for their own convenience 
and credit and to secure themselves from the contelnpt of their 
neighbours. But we see too little of this, ,vhere incumbents do 
not personally reside; the houses, in that case, usually falling 
into the hands of farmers, who are no further concerned, either 
in conscience or credit, than to keep theI11 in a mere habitable 
condition. And ,vhere pluralists, who enjoy a double portion, 
can prevail with thenlselves to leave the houses of the church to 



Directions to Ids Clerfl!J, 1724. 


313 


the mercy of such inhabitants, they must have forgotten not 
only the obligations, \vhich rest upon theln in common with 
other incumbents, but also how unseemly it appears in thenI, to 
be less forward in doing right to the church, the more she 
enables them to do it; to be less kind to her, the more bountiful 
she is to them. 
The mischief and injustice which attend those neglects in the 
repairing of parsonage-houses do equally attend the neglect of 
chancels, the care whereof is assigned, by the laws of the 
church, to rectors; who, by bestowing upon them a decency 
suitable to that most sacred office of our religion to which they 
are appropriated, do not only invite the parishioners to preserve 
the church in a clean and decent state, but also leave the neigh- 
bouring impropriators \vithout any colourable excuse, if they do 
not right to the chancels under their care; which undoubtedly 
they will be less forward to do, as long as they can be kept in 
countenance by the neglect of spiritual rectors. 
The like reasoning frOllI the obligation of conscience will 
equally hold with regard to the possessions of the church; both 
as they are a trust in the hands of the present incumbents, and 
as the neglect or abuse of them is a great damage and injury to 
the successors. In the case of temporal possessions, if one is 
tenant of an estate for life only and destroys the woods, or lets 
the houses and fences run to ruin, or uses the grounds otherwise 
than in a fair and husbandlike way; the law accounts all this a 
plain injustice to the next heir, and accordingly, at his motion, 
will give satisfaction for the damage done and put a stop to such 
abuses for the time to come. In the case of ecclesiastical posses- 
sions, the next incumbent is not known, and patrons ofttilnes 
live at a distance, or nlay not think fit to give thenlselves the 
trouble of interposing; but inasmuch as the being a tenure for 
life only is the foundation of the injustice, the crime is the very 
same here as in the case of temporal possessions; and the less 
hold the law takes of it, the greater need there is to urge and 
enforce the obligations of conRcience and to beseech incum- 
bents to have a watchful eye over their agents and tenants, that 
the glebes be not abused by them, either in those or any other 
respects. 
In like manner and upon the same obligations of conscience, 
great care ought to be taken in the ordering and management of 
tithes; that no unreasonable conlpositians be made, nor permit- 



314 


The Bishop of London's 


ted at any hand to gro\v into moduses; \vhich ha
e already 
swaIlo\ved up so large a share of the patrimony of the church 
beyond the possibility of a retrieve, and which therefore ought 
to be immediately broken, \vhere they are not yet arrived to a 
legal establishment. Nor must the clergy, \vhen there is need 
to call in the assistance of the law, be discouraged by the fear of 
being thought litigious; since" besides t.he special obligations 
upon them not to see the church injured, they have certainly 
the same privilege \vith other men, to maintain their own just 
rights. So far are the clergy from deserving such a censure 
that it is to be feared they are rather more easy and indulgent 
than is fairly consistent with their duty to the church; and if 
inquiry were to be made into all the suits that have been com- 
menced for tithes it would be found that the instances, in which 
they have miscarried, bear no kind of proport.ion in point of 
number to those, in which they have prevailed. But if any 
clergyman shall have entered unhappily into settled engage- 
ments for his own time, the church may however expect this 
justice from him, that he take care to inform his successors, 
either by an entry in the register-book of the parish, or by some 
other method equally proper and sure, that such continuance of 
the selfsame payments through a succession of years was owing 
not to any legal composition or modus, but to special agreements 
bet\veen him and the parishioners. 
J doubt not but those prejudicial compositions, \vhich are slid 
by degrees into settled 1110duses, have been o\ving in many in- 
stances to the supineness and negligence of incumbents; but I 
an1 also afraid that in sonle instances they may have been owing 
to a far worse cause, and that is, bonds of resignation, exacted 
by patrons and given una\vares by clergymen; \vhich are not 
only inconsistent with the oath agD.inst sill10niacal contracts and 
contrary to the laws of the church in all ages and, upon both 
these accounts, an unhappy entanglement to the minds and con- 
sciences of clergymen; but are also the means of enslaving them 
during life to the will and pleasure of patrons, and particularly 
of tempting theln to sublnit to all the most unreasonable agree- 
ments and compositions for tithes which can be proposed. 
These things are but small in comparison of the duties \vhich 
Inore inunediately belong to the pastoral office; but the mis- 
chiefs occasioned by the neglect of thel11 are not sl11aII; nor 
ought. any thing to be so accounted, which is a necessary nleans 



D-irections to kis lJlerg!l, 17
4. 


315 


to preserve the rights of the church, and to enable the parochial 
clergy to go through their pastoral labours with conlfort and 
success. In the pursuit of which excellent ends, you shall al- 
,vays be sure of the best assistances that are in DlY power; and 
you cannot fail of a special blessing from Heaven upon your un- 
dertakings, while you continue to express your zeal for the 
honour of God and the salvation of souls, by a faithful and 
conscientious discharge of all the parts of the ministerial 
function. 
And now, my brethren, having laid before you what I 
thought proper concerning the public service of our church and 
the provisions for a public ministry to attend that service, and 
having suggested such rules, in relation to both, as seem to me 
to render them most effectual for the great ends of religion; I 
nlust beg leave to DIention one thing more, and that is, the ob- 
ligation that lies upon us all, not only to make the due adminis- 
tration of these a blessing to our o,vn time, but also to do all 
that lies in our power to ensure the enjoynlent of theln to our 
latest posterity. In pursuance of this, c I must entreat you to be 
very diligent in inculcating upon your people this most plain 
and important truth, that there is no means, under God, of con- 
tinuing these invaluable blessings to us or our posterity, but a 
zealous and resolute maintenance of the succession to the crown 
in the protestant line; there being no thought Dlore visionary, 
nor any reasoning more absurd, than the supposing that a pro- 
testant service and a protestant ministry can prosper or subsist 
under a popish prince. Put them in mind (as many, I D1ean, 
as 'did not see it, or seem to have forgot it) that the experiment 
has been already tried, and not only failed, but that the swift 
progress which was then made towards the destruction of our 
religious rights left the nation a most convincing proof of what 
they are to expect from a popish prince; all princes of that 
religion being equally bound in conscience to endeavour the 
extirpation of a prot.estant church. And let me further entreat 
you to urge upon particular persons, as JOu see occasion, the 
regard they o\ve to their religion and country; and also, ho,v 
abolllinable it must appear to all honest and sober minds, to find 
the general tenor of their actions and discourse a direct contra- 


c This was added upon occasion of the plot, which had been laid and car- 
ried on a little before that time, for ahrogating the protestant succession and 
setting a popish pretender on the throne. 



316 The Bishop of London's Directions to kis Olerg!l, 1724. 
diction to their oaths. Above all, let me beseech you to make 
it your care, that every thing in your own conduct and conver- 
sation be exactly agreeable to the oaths you have taken; and 
particularly, fail not to let your parishioners hear the king and 
the royal family constantly prayed for before sermon by name; 
which I must peremptorily insist upon, as well in compliance 
\vith the canon of our church to that purpose as to remove a 
reproach which the omission of it must occasion, as if such 
clergymen had not taken the oaths sincerely, and therefore are 
,villing to avoid, as nluch as they can, all public notice of the 
king and the royal family and all expressions of regard and 
respect to them: an opinion, ,vhich being joined to the remem- 
brance of their having taken the most strict and solemn oaths of 
fidelity and abjurat.ion, must lessen the reverence of an oath in 
the minds of the people and weaken the credit and authority of 
the clergy and be a great hinderance to the success of their 
ministry in general. 
Finally, I must entreat you to go one step further in your 
expressions of zeal for the king and the protestant succession; 
and that is, to endeavour to remove out of the minds of your 
people all those unjust jealousies and prejudices against his ma- 
jesty and his administration, which you see sown among them 
by the professed enemies of his government, with a design to 
overthro,v it. And this I may and ought to press with the 
greater freedom and earnestness, both because the diligence of 
the enemy in sowing jealousies and spreading misrepresentations 
is incredible; and also because I can declare, \vith the greatest 
sincerity, that I am firmly persuaded that our good and gracious 
king has nothing more in his desire and intention than to pre- 
serve the constitution, as it stands established both in church 
and state. 



THE CHARGE 


OF 


EDl\IUND, LORD BISHOP OF LONDON, 


TO THE 


CLERGY OF IllS DIOCESE, &c. 


Reverend hrethren, 
I. 1V HEN I held my prÏ1nary visitation of this diocese, I 
put into the hands of the clergy a book of Directions, relating 
to the due discharge of the ministerial office and the several 
branches of it. And having made it a rule ever since to put 
the same into the hands of every person who has been instituted 
or licensed by DIe, as containing the several heads of duty, 
which I judged necessary to be attended to by everyone 
,vho takes upon him the cure of souls; having, I say, done 
this, there has been no need to speak to you upon those heads, 
in the several visitations which I have held since. And there- 
fore I have usually chosen for 111Y subject on these occasions 
such incidents relating to the church or clergy or religion, as 
have fallen out between the several visitations; in order to give 
you a clear insight into the facts and to make such applications, 
for our conduct and practice, as they naturally led to. And this 
is the n1ethod which I shall continue at present; but I must first 
entreat your patience, while I further press and enforce one 



318 


The B-isllol J of London's 


particular branch of the forenlentioned Directions. \Vhat I lnean 
is, the distinction that is there made between duties legal, the 
neglect of \vhich is punishable by the laws of church and state, 
and duties pastoral, which are not expressly enforced by laws 
and penalties, as the others are, but yet are bound upon us by 3, 
more sacred tie, and that is, the obligation of duty and conscience, 
founded upon a serious sense of the nature and ends of the 
ministerial function, and of the ilnportance or rather necessity 
of those pastoral labours, to,vards a successful discharge of it. 
Such are, private admonition and reproof; the taking the 
ad vantage of sickness or other calamity (which are apt to open 
the mind to instruction) to infuse into your people serious and 
good thoughts and such as may Inake the most lasting ÏInpres- 
sion; to endeavour to convince and reform those \vho are found 
negligent in the great duty of resorting to the public service of 
the church, or not careful enough to be present at the beginning 
of it; and, to bring all, in general, to a just sense of the obliga- 
tion they are under, to give a diligent attention of the mind in 
all the offices of r
ligion, ,vhether public or private. To which 
I must add, as a branch of the pastoral office which is never to 
be forgotten, private exhortation to parents and masters, where 
it is found needful, to fit and prepare the youth under their care 
to be publicly catechised, together with those of their neigh- 
bours; and further, to accustom their children, from the begin- 
ning, to a regular attendance upon the public worship of the 
church, with a decent and orderly behaviour therein; and, to 
check the first tendency they observe in them to any irregu- 
larities in life: duties \vhich are of great importance to religion, 
and to which parents and masters are strictly obliged, in pursu- 
ance of the powers that God has given them over their children 
and servants. But yet, in many c
ses, it will require some care 
and pains on the part of the minister, to make parents duly 
sensible either of the importance of those duties or the special 
obligation they are under to perform theln. And would to God 
they could be further convinced ho,v many and great blessings, 
spiritual and tenlporal, the practice of family devotion \volIld 
procure to then1 and their household; and ho,v just and reason- 
able a thing it is, to express their thankfulness to God for the 
support.s of life and to beg a blessing upon thenI, as oft as they 
feed upon the fruits of his bounty. 
II. These private applications, though no part of the legal and 



Oharge to ltis Olc')'!JY, 1741, 174Q. 


319 


ordinary offices of the church, arc of great moment towards the 
preserving anlong our people a serious sense of religion; or 
rat.her, are absolutely necessary to the giving the legal offices their 
due effect. 
Ien, for instance, are not over-forwnrd in applying 
to themselves the public admonitions which are heard from the 
pulpit nor apt to be duly affected in hearing them, unless they 
be privately put in mind, as there is occasion, of the more par- 
ticular concern they have in them. Next, if men can be brought 
to serious thoughts and resolutions, in the time of sickness or 
other calaulit.y, by private applications, it may reasonably be 
hoped that from thenceforth the exhortations of a more public 
nature, while they find themselves in health and at ease, will 
take the faster hold of theine Again, if men will not attend the 
public worship of God, or, attending it, will behave theulselves 
there in a thoughtless and negligent manner, it is, to them, as if 
there were no public worship at all. And lastly, if children be 
not early instructed in the general principles of their religion, 
but remain strangers to the sense and meaning of the ternlS 
under which they are couched, the public discourses they after- 
wards hear will neither be understood nor relished by then1; at 
least, will lose much of the instruction they 'would have con- 
veyed and the impression they would have made, if the hearers 
had been duly prepared, first, by a general knowledge of the 
principles of their religion, and next by an habitual reverence 
for the public devotions and instructions of the church; as ordi- 
nances of God's own appointInent, and as a special means of 
obtaining his grace and favour, to all those who religiously 
attend them. 
By this it appears, of how great inlportance or rather neces- 
sity, these pastoral duties are, as well for the giving the legal 
duties their operation and effect, as for the keeping up a true 
spirit of religion among our people. And surely, there never 
was a time when religion did more earnestly call for those 
pastoral endeavours to support it; Gr rather, to preserve it in 
being. Nothing is more evident than that a great looseness" 
both in principle and practice, is graduaHy descending to thE.. 
middling rank, under the influence and authority of higher 
exanlples, and through a too great disposition in corrupt nature 
to approve and follow them. And nothing can hinder this 
infection from descending lower anrl. lower, till it becomes 
general, and ,ve upon the point of being overwhelmed by it, but 



3
O 


The B-isltop of London's 


a diligent endeavour, on the part of the parochial clergy, to check 
and resist it; particularly in the methods already luentioned, 
and such others of the like kind as tend to establish the people 
committed to their care, both in the principles and the practice 
of the Christian religion. 
III. I need not tell you ,vhat gross representations have been 
made both here and in the Plantations, as if the generality of the 
clergy of the church of England were shamefully renliss and 
negligent in the pastoral office. This slander upon our church 
and clergy has been publicly spread and avowed in a very 
unworthy and licentious lllanner, and has received a reprehen- 
sion, though lllore gentle than it deserved, in a late pastoral 
letter against the enthusiasm of these days. But however, the 
reproaches of those men may be so far of use to us, as to be made 
a fresh incitement to care and diligence in the offices belonging 
to our function; that, after the example of St. Paul in a like case, 
,ve may C'ltt off all occasion of slander fron't them who desire 
occasion. And since it is not to be expected that, amongst such 
a nUlnber of clergynlen, there should be in all the same degree 
of zeal and activity in the discharge of their duty; those of them, 
\vho have been hitherto less zealous and less active than their 
neighbours, llluSt increase their diligence, upon this, among 
other motives, that they nlay cut off all occasion of slander froln 
those \vho seenl not to be ill pleased with any handle for it. And 
,ve must all of us remember that we cannot do greater justice 
and honour to our established church than by luaking it appear, 
in fact and experience, that its rules and orders, pursued and 
invigorated as they ahvays ought to be, are an effectual means of 
promoting piety and goodness among the members of it; an 
honour for which it lllust at all tiules be nuånly indebted to the 
care and vigilance of parochial ministers. 
It is nO\Van hundred years since the like clamours were raised 
and propagated throughout the nation against the established 
clergy; as a body lazy and unactive in the ,vork of religion, and 
whose defects in the discharge of their duty did greatly need to 
be supplied by itinerant preachers. And these preachers, under 
a notion of greater zeal and sanctity, and by pretences to more 
than ordinary measures of the Spirit, dre\v after them confused 
lllultitudes of the lo\ver rank and did all that was in their power 
to lay waste the bounds of parochial conlmunion and to bring 
the established service into disgrace. And we cannot have a 



Charge to Ids Olero!!, 1741, 1742. 


3
1 


lllore pregnant testimony, how mischievous such practices are to 
religion and how productive not only of confusion, but of 
blasphenlY, profaneness and the most wicked and destructive 
doctrines and practices, than these and the like effects, which 
they then had, as they are set before us at large in the histories 
of those times. A sufficient warning to all ,vho have a serious 
concern for religion and a just regard to public peace and order 
in church and state, to use their best enùeavours to oppose and 
suppress that spirit of enthusiasm, which is now gone out and 
which cannot be opposed and suppressed more effectually than 
by preserving the bounds of parochial communion and opposing 
all breaches upon them; and then by every ll1inist.er"s satisfying 
his people, ill the course of a regular life and a diligent discharge 
of all duties and offices, pastoral as ,veIl as legal, that they need 
no other instruction, nor any other means and helps for the 
saving of their souls, than those which the church has provided 
for them; on supposition that the people, on their parts, wiII 
seriously enIbrace those l11eans and helps and religiously con- 
form to the established worship and discipline and subnlit to the 
advice and instructions of those, to whom the providence of God 
has comn1Ïtted the care of their souls. 
IV. And for the keeping up this good disposition among your 
people, let them be made sensible of the excellencies of the 
public offices of our church; as a service that comprises all and 
every branch of Christian devotion - confession of sins and 
declaration of pardon to penitent sinners-a suitable and edifY- 
ing mixture of psalms and hynIns and the scriptures of the Old 
and New Testanlent-acknowledgments of our own ,veakness and 
addresses to God for spiritual aid and strength - confessions of 
faith and remembrances of duty to God and our neighbour, as 
set forth in the Ten Commandnlents, with the prayer, after every 
branch, to incline the heart to the performance of it-supplica- 
tions for averting all evil and prayers for obtaining all good, to 
soul, body and estate-intercessions fot blessings to others and 
thanksgivings for nlercies to ourselyes-special prayers for t.he 
divine blessing upon kings and counseIIors, civil nlagistrat.es 
and spiritual pastors; as those, through whose pious and wise 
adn1Ïnistration, national blessings and benefits, spiritual and 
tenlporal, are in the ordinary course of providence conveyed to 
nlankind-together with particular prayers and thanksgivings, 
adapted to particular seasons and occasions-to which are added 
y 



g

 


The Bishop of London"'s 


proper offices for a devout and solemn administration of every 
Christian ordinance and institution-and the whole conceived, 
as public liturgies always have been and always ought to be, in 
a language that is grave, serious and expressive; without any 
of those irregular flights and redundances, from which extem- 
pore prayer is seldom free; and least of all, that sort of it, 
\vhich presumptuously fathers itself upon an immediate dictate 
of the Spirit of God. 
I have only to add upon this head that, next to the internal 
excellencies of the liturgy itself and that knowledge or rather 
feeling of those excellencies, which a reverent regard and atten- 
tion \vill breed in the heart of every Rincere worshipper; next to 
these, I say, nothing contributes more to the possessing the 
minds of the people \vith a due sense of those excellencies than 
the minister"'s giving the offices, throughout, the just advantage 
of being performed in a solemn, serious and affectionate 
lllanner. 
And as to a personal respect to yourselves and a due regard 
to your instructions; the apostle has plainly pointed out the 
\vay to secure these, \vhen he grounds the obedience and esteem 
of the people upon the watchfulness and diligence of the pastor. 
His lesson to the people is, Ohey them that have the rule over 
!IOU and suhmit !!01trselves; and why 
 hecause the!! watch lOT 
!!our souls, as they that must give an account. And again, Es- 
temn those who are over you in the Lord, 'Ver!! highl!! in love; and 
\vhy 
 for their wor7c"'s sa7ce.- Where there is a due \vatchfulness 
and working on one side, there \vill very rarely be ,vanting a 
due love and esteem on the other. 
V. I have taken notice before that one branch of these 
pastoral duties, that every minister is bound to discharge, is 
admonition and reproof; ,vhich cannot bo performed from the 
pulpit, without the danger of hardening, instead of refornling. 
And this being, in truth, the most difficult part of the ministerial 
office, and yet highly necessary to be done, and also done in 
such a manner as may make the greatest impression and give it 
the most lasting effects; I cannot onlit to Inention one expedient, 
\vhich may make that \vork less difficult to nlinisters and more 
effectual upon their people. What I mean is, the having in 
their possession some Snlan tracts against particular vices and 
the more notorious defects in duty, to be occasionally put into 
the hands of those, who are found to be going on in any habitual 



Oharge to Ids Olergy, 1741, 1742. 


3
3 


sin, either of commission or omission, and so to need a more 
close and forcible application; \vhether it be by way of restraint 
from vice or incitement to duty, as the case requires. As this 
is the gentlest method of proceeding, there is the least hazard of 
giving offence; and as the tracts themselves are both short and 
plain, they are nlost likely to be read and considered; pnd they 
make a much deeper ilupression upon the mind than either 
general admonitions from the pulpit or particular adn1onitions 
by word of mouth. A great variety of tracts, calculated for 
that use, is constantly provided by the Society for promoting 
Christian Knowledge a ; the lnembers whereof are entitled to as 
many as they apply for, at one half of the prilne cost; which 
reduces the price to a trifle. And, that no part of my diocese 
might want the convenience of being furnished with them as 
they see occasion, the incumbents of the several nlarket-towDS 
have readily agreed to take the trouble of becoming nleInbers of 
the society and so have put themselves in a condition to furnish 
their neighbours, whether clergy or laity, with as many as they 
shall need. 
This nlay seem, at first sight, to be a matter of small moment, 
but in the effects it will be found by experience not to be small. 
And great need there is in this degenerate age to have recourse 
to all expedients, whether great or small, for putting a stop to 
the growth of vice and wickedness and for raising and keeping 
alive a spirit of religion among us; the first, to avert the judg- 
ments of God from falling upon a sinful nation; and the second, 
to nlake us a proper object of his mercy and forbearance. Vice 
is grown bold and headstrong and has wen nigh broken loose 
from the last restraint, that of shame. And though the powers 
put into the hand of the civil magistrate for restraining and sup- 
pressing it are very great, the fruit and effect of those powers 
is found by experience to be very small. N or is it to be ex- 
pected that the spiritual powers should be able effectually to 
encounter it in the way of discipline and censure, \vhile they are 
fettered to such a degree and liable to be interrupted in almost 
every step they take. 
And as to t.he clergy; the utn10st they can do in the ,vay of 
punishluent is, in the most prudent and respectful manner, to 
put the magistrate in mind that the authority with which he is 
intrusted is not only for the preserving of peace, but likewise for 
a At their office No. 67 Lincoln's Inn Fields. 
y
 



g
4 


The Bishop of London's 


the punishment of vice; one as a duty he owes to his prince, 
and the other as a duty he o\ves to his God. Both these are the 
duty of civil magistrates; and it is greatly to be wished that a 
due regard may always be had to both in the appointment of 
them; and much to be wondered that any magistrate, who is 
otherwise a serious person and frequents the public service of 
t.he church and appears to have a sense of duty in all other re- 
spects, should need to be put in mind of this branch of it, when 
the scripture so expressly charges it upon him and when he is 
so frequently reminded of it in our own liturgy; \vhich makes 
it the prayer of him and of the whole congregation, "that all 
who are in authority may truly and indifferently n1Ïnister jus- 
tice, to the punishlnent of \vickedness and vice and to the main- 
tenance of true religion and virtue." 
IT pon the whole; till \ve see a greater probability that 
national \vickedness and vice will be restrained and kept under 
in the way of authority, coercion and censure, the great refuge 
of religion must be in the parochial clergy; and to their pastoral 
labours, under the divine blessing, the nation will be chiefly 
indebted, if vice do not grow triull1phant and God do not visit 
us with some remarkable judgment; or, which is the heaviest 
judgment of aU, give us over and relnove his candlestick from 
among us. 
This is a melanch01y subject.; and the thought of national 
judgments an uncolnfortable scene; but yet no \vay unfit to be 
opened and represented before those who, by their vigilance and 
activity in their several stations, have it so much in their power 
to prevent them. 
And though you may not find such a measure of success as 
might be expected from your pastoral labours, be not dis- 
couraged, but labour on. Some of the good seed you now sow, 
thòugh seemingly dead for thE=' present, may hereafter, by the 
blessing of God, take root and spring up; or if it do not, you, 
ho\vever, are sure of your reward from God. 
The earnest wish of religious and good men always has been 
and ahvays will be, to see the \vorld grow better; and it is nlore 
peculiarly the duty of the ministers of the gospel to use their 
best endeavours to make it better. But it must be remembered, 
at the same time, that it is a great work to keep it from growing 
worse. And therefore, though that part of the vineyard which 
the providence of God hath comlnitted to your care should not 



Oharge to his Olergy, 1741, 174
. 


J
5 


increase in fruitfulness so sensibly as you could wish, do not 
despond nor be discouraged, as if you were an unprofitable la- 
bourer; but consider, for your comfort, how soon it would be 
overrun with thorns and briers (the fruits of the seed sown by 
the wicked one) if you did not watch their growth, and use the 
best methods you can to keep them under or root them up, and 
to sow the seeds of religion and piety in their stead. 
VI. Next to the care of promoting the practice of religion in 
our particular stations, there is a general obligation upon us all 
to use our best endeavours to preserve and maintain the legal 
establishment of it in this church and nation, as the most sure 
foundation, not only of preserving peace and order in church 
and state, but also of preserving and promoting religion and 
the practice of it, within the several districts, which that esta- 
blishment has fixed; provided there be no failure, either on the 
part of the minister or on the part of the people. And where 
either of these is the case, the constitution cannot justly be 
charged, if it fail of attaining the ends of its establishnlent. 
There are three sorts of people anlong us who, though of dif.. 
ferent principles and views, do yet agree in their enmity to the 
established church: they who disavow all revelation; they who 
are against all establishments, as such; and they who dislike 
our present establishment. These, all together, are a formidable 
body of men; ready to join, upon any fair prospect, in an at- 
tempt upon the constitution of our church; and therefore ought 
to be diligently watched and guarded against by all the true 
lovers of it. 
As to the first sort of enemies, they who disavow all revelation; 
it is not to be wondered that they contend with so much earn- 
estness for no establishment, because they know ho\v greatly a 
regularity, order and uniformity, in the public exercise of reli- 
gion, tends to preserve the honour of it and to defeat their 
schemes for' promoting infidelity. Of the truth of \vhich we 
need no other evidence than the particular zeal, 'which has been 
shewn by the chief patrons of infidelity, against all religious 
establishments, under colour of their being destructive of the 
general liberties of manliind; whereas, in truth, they are de- 
structive of nothing but of that general licentiousness in princi- 
ple and practice, to which the schemes and pursuits of these 
people have so visible a tendency. And they know very well 
what they do, when they a.re contending for such a confused and 



326 


Th(! Bis/tOp of London's 


irregular state of things as not only naturally tends to expose 
religion to reproach and contempt, but has been found by 
experience so to do. 
And therefore it has sometÎ1nes been a matter of wonder with 
nle that the second sort of enelnies, those, I mean, ,vho profess 
a serious regard to religion, but are yet against any national 
establishlnent, should not see that they are doing the work of the 
common enemy; especially when a nation of gathered and inde- 
pendent congregations, without any fixed parochial districts, is, 
at first sight, so very big with confusion; and \vhen they cannot 
but know what a nlonstrous degree of profaneness, enthusiasm 
and immorality it produced, when the experiment \vas made in 
the days of their forefathers. 
As for the third sort; those who are satisfied concerning the 
expedience, if not necessity, of a national establishment, but are 
dissatisfied with the present; it is time enough to enter into 
reasonings with them, when they have agreed among themselves 
what the establishment is, which they would introduce in the 
place of the present. They have, indeed, in many of their 
writings, raised exceptions against our liturgy and sonle other 
parts of our constitution; (and what human constitution ,vas 
ever perfect
) but what they have hitherto done in that way 
has been nlainly to justify their separat.ion from the national 
church and goes little further than to the pulling do\vn the 
present fabric. But, surely, it is most unreasonable in them to 
expect that anyone \vho is well satisfied with the present 
should be willing to part with it, till he has a full and entire 
vie\v of \vhat is to succeed in its place; i. e. till he is enabled to 
form a judgment for himself; first, which of the two is most 
agreeable to the word of God and the practice of the first and 
purest ages; and next, which of them is best calculated to an- 
swer the ends of peace, order and unity in the church, and 
makes the best provision for the instruction and edification of 
every particular member of it. 
VII. Next to a sincere zeal and endeavour to keep up a 
serious sense of religion among your people and a reverent regard 
to our established \vorship in subservience to that great end, 
there is another point which also demands your care, nalnely, 
the established provision, which our constitution has made, to 
support the clergy \vith comfort under their pastoral labours; 
and which, in that respect, is directly subservient to the great 



Okarge tu Ids Clergy, 17.J.l, 174
. 


Jfl7 


end of religion. What I mean is, the l'atrin1ony of tbe church 
and the conveying it to tbe successive incumbents, unhurt and 
undin1inishcd. A caution, which I know you will not think un.. 
seasonable to be repeated b, when you remember the two attacks 
that have been n1ade in parlian1ent; the first, commonly called 
the Tithe Bill; and the second, of a later date, and distinguished 
by the name of the Quaker's Bill; both of them indeed de- 
feated in the first attempt, but, I doubt, not so as to discourage 
a second. 
You may remember that the design of the Tithe Bill was to 
establish exemptions from tithe for ever, if in a certain number 
of years no tithe at all had been paid. This, if the bill had suc- 
ceeded, would, as to exemptions, have made an entire change in 
the present law of tithes. A s the law now stands, the incum- 
bent is entitled at all times to sue for tithe of common right, and 
the proof of the exelnption rests upon the occupant and land- 
holder. But, if such a bill shall ever succeed, the proof will be 
put upon the incumbent; and he will fail in his suit, unless he 
can shew that tithe has been paid within the time limited by the 
act. And this, a new incuD1bent may not be able to do; partIy, 
because no tithe may have reaUy been paid within the tiD1e, 
through private agreements or personal indulgences, by one or 
more of his predecessors, or through a natural inactivity, or an 
unhappy inability to sue for it; and partly, through the difficul- 
ties of making proof of payment of tithe, where it really has been 
paid within the time; whether through a negligence in keeping 
accounts by former incumbents, or through the concealment of 
those accounts by their executors; or through the fear of the 
poor to displease the rich, and an unwillingness in one neighbour 
to be witness against another. The manifold and visible incon- 
veniences which such a bill must bring upon the church, if it 
should pass into a law, make it the duty as well as interest of the 
whole body of the clergy, not only to do all that is in their 
power to obstruct it, but in the nlean time to be guarding care- 
fully against the consequences of it, if (which God forbid) it 
should ever succeed; by getting the best information they can 
of the ground and foundation upon which the claim of exclnp- 
tion rests, and whether it be such as the law will support; and 
if it be not, to enter into proper Ineasures for overthrowing it, 


b See Directions, above, p. 31 I. 



3
M 


rite BisltOp of London's 


while it is in their power and before it receives a final establish- 
Inent from such a la\v as we are now speaking of, \vhich has been 
already attempted with great zeal and may probably be at- 
tempted again: and as to moduses also, to take care to vary 
their agreements and compositions for tithe; and having.. from 
time to time, made due entries of such variations, to give special 
direction that the evidences thereof be faithfully transmitted to 
their successors. 
And to induce incumbents the more effectually to provide 
against all encroachments upon the patrinlony of the church, 
\vhether by exenlptions or moduses, they must always remember, 
that as they are the proprietors for their o\vn time, and that by 
as good a title as any other e$tate is enjoyed, \vhatever the ene- 
nlies of the clergy may pretend to the contrary; so they are 
likewise guardians and trustees for God and his church; and, as 
such, are bound in conscience to use an reasonable care that 
the rights of their respective churches be by them transmitted 
entire to succeeding incumbents. 
I need not say nluch of the other attack that ha
 been made 
upon the patrimony of the church, I mean, the Quaker's Bill; 
both because it is of a later date, and because the mischievous 
consequences of the bill, while it ,vas depending in parlialnent, 
,vere published to the world, and cannot be so soon forgotten by 
the clergy, whose more immediate conoern it is. It is enough to 
say in general that, if it had passed into a law, the \vhole body 
of the clergy would, in innumerable cases, have been deprived 
at once of the benefit of the established courts of the realnl, 
ecolesiastical and temporal; that all apprehension from those 
oourts and the exact and regular proceedings therein, which at 
present do in many oases discourage the Quakers from being so 
vexatious to the clergy as their principles lead them to be, 
\votdd then be removed; that, if these restraints were removed.. 
inounlbents \vould be exposed to all the arts, oonceahnents and 
vexations, that they have reason to expect from a people, who 
think the clergy have no right to tithe and who are so far from 
owning an obligation to pay that they think themselves bound 
in conscience to do all that is in their power to avoid it. These 
are difficulties, which the passing such a bill into a la,v ,,,ould 
bring, more or less, upon the whole body of the clergy; but which 
\vould fall most heavily upon the poor vicars, whose all \yotlld 
frequently COlue within the compass of such an act; and, as it 



Oharge to ltis Ole

gy, 1741, 174Q. 


3Q9 


consists of s111al1 tithes which are not so easily ascertained, does 
greatly need the assistance of the estab1ished courts for that end. 
And God knows, with all the assistance that the laws can give, 
the clergy find it difficult enough to bear up against the many 
advantages which the Quakers, as a kind of body corporate and 
that of no small influence and zeal, are known to be in possession 
of. And ho\v greatly would the difficulty be increased, if the 
present advantages of the laws should be taken from them! 
VIII. To conclude: As the laws of the land are on the side 
of the church, it is not only her interest, but her duty, on all 
proper occasions, to take the benefit of thenI and to endeavour 
to defeat all attempts that may be made to deprive her of that 
benefit. But, at the sanIe tilne, it must be remenlbered that 
against all manner of attempts, whether upon the constitution or 
upon the rights of the church, our best defence and greatest 
security will ahvays be, the love and esteem of our people; and 
the only true way to be sure of this is, an exelnplary life, a cir- 
cU111spect behaviour, a diligent discharge of the duties of our 
station and a visible concern for the good of souls. These, I 
say, will, in all events, be the best security to our church that 
hU111an helps can afford and the most likely means of engaging 
God to support and defend it; especially if, together with our 
o\vn endeavours, we fail not to make our earnest prayer to him, 
to preserve it both in outward peace and Ìn\vard purity: for its 
outward peace, to pray in the words of one of the collects of our 
church, " that the course of this world may be so peaceably 
ordered by his governancB, that his churoh may joyfully serve 
him in all godly quietness :" and for inward purity, in the words 
of another collect, "that he will keep his household the church 
in oontinua1 godliness; and that it may be devoutly given to 
serve him in good ,vorks, to the glory of his name, through 
J eSllS Christ our Lord.'') 



INSTRUCTIONS 


TO 


THE CLERGY 
OFT 1-1 E D 1 0 C ESE 0 F T U A 1\1, 
BY JOSIAH HORT, 


LATE LORD ARCHBISHOP OF TUAM, 


A THIS 


PRIlVIARY VISITATION 


Held there on WEDNESDAY, July 8, MDCCXLII. 



J OSIAIl HORT, a native oî 
Iarshfìeld, in Gloucestershire, 
,yas educated at an Academy in London for training Ministers 
among the Dissenters, under Mr. Thomas Ro\ve, a Non-con- 
formist of eminence, at the close of the Seventeenth and in the 
beginning of the Eighteenth Century. The celebrated Dr. 
Isaac Watts, who was sent to the same Academy in 1690, ,vas 
one of his fello\v-students there; and has recorded of him that 
" he was the first genius in the Academy." A proof that the 
friendship, thus begun, \vas continued through life, is fhrnished 
by a Letter from him to Dr. Watts, written only a fe\v years 
before his death and subscribed: "your old friend and affec- 
"tionate servant.'
 The interval bet\veen the completion of 
his studies and his conformity to the Church of :England (spent, 
according to some accounts, in the charge of a Dissenting con- 
gregation) \yas but short; for it \vas doubtless \vith a vie\v to 
qualify himself for Episcopal Ordination that in April, 1704, he 
entered Clare Hall
 Cambridge. "Tithout staying to graduate, 
he \yas, in 1705, admitted to Deacon's Orders by Dr. More, 
Bishop of Nor\yich, and to Prieses Orders by Dr. Simon 
Patrick, Bishop of Ely. In 1709, he accompanied the Earl 
(after\vards Marquis) of '\Vharton, as Chaplain, \vhen that 
Nobleman, soon after the change of Ministry, \vhich follo\yed 
the death of Prince George of Denmark, "
ent over to Ireland, 
as Lord Lieutenant. The Earl \yas quickly recalled and suc- 
ceeded by the Duke of Ormonde; not, however
 before he had 
nominated his Chaplain to a Rectory in the Diocese of Meath. 
A dispute having arisen respecting the right of the Crown 
to present, the affair \yas not finally settled in Mr. Hort's 
favour until 17 17, ,vhen he quitted a Benefice in Buckingham- 



334 


shire, \vhich he had in the meantime received from the Lord 
Chancellor Co,vper, and returned to Ireland. In the next 
year, he was appointed to the Deanery of Cloyne, and in 1720 
removed to that of Ardagh. He ,vas consecrated Bishop of 
Ferns and Leighlin, on the 26th of February, 17 Z J; trans- 
lated to the See of Kilmore and Ardagh, in 1727; and raised 
to the Archbishopric of Tuam, in 1742. He died at an 
advanced age in 1751, having been distinguished for zeal and 
beneficence in the successive scenes of his Pastoral labours and 
particularly in the Diocese of Tuam, ,vhere his memory is still 
gratefully cherished. In 17
8, he published a volume of Ser- 
mons, inscribed to the Clergy of his Diocese, to ,vhom he 
accounted for the publication by representing himself as "dis- 
" abled from Preaching by an over-straining of his voice in 
" the Pulpit many years before." 



INSTRUCTIONS 


1'0 


THE CLERGY 


OF THE DIOCESE OF TU Al\l, &c. 


:ßI!I reverend brethren, 
THE providence of God having called l11e to the government 
of this diocese, I have judged it not improper for me to commu- 
nicate my thoughts to you \vith regard to the execution of your 
ministerial office, in order to the edification and salvation of the 
souls respectively committed to your charge. 
To this end I shall reduce what I have to say to you under two 
general heads: 
The first relates to your conduct in the actual performance of 
divine offices in the house of God. 
The second relates to your behaviour at large towards your 
parishioners. 
In speaking to the former, I shall confine myself to these four 
branches of your office, nan1ely, preaching, praying, catechising 
and expounding the holy scriptures. 
I shall begin with preaching, which is one of those means 
appointed by our Saviour, for the enlightening the minds, 
awakening the consciences and refonning the manners of your 
hearers. In order to a.nswer these great ends, some degree of 
skill and address, as well as of pains and study, will be requisite: 
and I shall, for the sake chiefly of such of you as have not been 
long in holy orders, communicate my sentilnents wit.h regard to 
t.he subject, the composition, the style and the pronunciation of 
a sermon. 



336 


Hort's Instrltctions to the Ole'iYJ!I 


The subject of a sermon ought to be some point of doctrine 
that is necessary for a Christian to know; or some duty that is 
necessary for hirn to pract.ise, in order to his salvation. I speak 
this in opposition to subtile questions and curious speculations, 
that are above the common level of the auditory, and which have 
often no other effect than to disquiet the minds and consciences 
of those who do not rightly understand them; and if they please 
curious and itching ears, yet will edify no man in faith and a 
good life. 
Upon this occasion I \vould recommend it to young preachers 
especially, to con1pose a set of sermons upon the chief articles of 
the Christian religion, according to their natural order and 
dependence. By this means. they will improve their own know- 
ledge at the saIne tilne that they are teaching their hearers: 
but this should be done in the plainest and easiest manner, lay- 
ing aside metaphysical niceties and the jargon of the schools, and 
especially avoiding to explain mysteries; for this is generally 
giving \vords and terms without lueaning; and no nlan has ever 
succeeded in the attempt. 
When a useful subject is chosen, the next care of the preacher 
is to find out some proper and pertinent text, that will naturally 
lead hin1 to pursue his subject, and that \vill yield him those 
doctrines and practical deductions which he had in his vie\v, 
without force and torture. For \vant of this, the whole operation 
will be laborious, obscure and perplexed to the COD1poser; and 
the discourse will be void of that perspicuity, which is necessary 
to engage the attention of the hearers. And I an1 sure there is 
no \vant of such texts upon all subjects in the Bible. 
It has given me disgust to observe in some preachers a certain 
affectation of choosing such texts as appear remote and foreign 
to their subject, that by this means they may have opportunity 
of shewing their wit and ingenuity in fetching that out of a text, 
which nobody in1agined could be in it. They would do some- 
thing miraculous, like bringing water out of a dry rock in the 
\vilderness, in order to surprise their auditory; but this will 
ever give distaste to good judges, and there is no occasion for 
putting one text upon the rack, to Inake it speak that \vhich 
would naturally and easily arise out of another, that might as 
well have been chosen in the roonl of it. 
When a useful subject and a pertinent text are chosen, the 
next ,vork is con1position, or the ranging of such thoughts as 



of the Diocese of Tuan2. 


SS7 


naturally n,rise upon the subject, into n, convenient order and 
luethod : this will be the plan of his discourse; and the cOlnpo
er 
will reap no snIall advantages fro111 this practice. 
First, As it will help hin1 to enter all his loose and detached 
thoughts in their proper places, for want of which sonle of thelu 
n1ay escape hin1 when he COllies to the finishing part. 
Secondly, It will lead hin1 to break his 8ern1011 into heads, 
which is absolutely necessary for giving strength and clearness 
to the whole and for engaging the attention of the audience; 
which will be soon blunted and tired with hen,ring an harangue 
,vhere all the parts are run into one general lliass, and nothing 
distinctly and specially offered to the understanding. 
Thirdly, The 111eInory of the hearers will be greatly relieved; 
for 3, Se1'l110n thus broken into particular heads will be better ill1- 
printed and l110re easily recollected, by reason of the depend- 
ence and connection of the parts, where one draws n,nother after 
it like the links of a chain. 
And lastly, It will give the preacher an opportunity of inter- 
spersing apt texts of holy scripture for the support or illustration 
of every particular head. 
There n1ay inde
d be a faulty extreIl1e on this hand; for I 
haye heard a sermon that has been so overloaded with texts of 
scripture that the thread of the reasoning was in a manner lost 
and the whole looked like a piece of rich patchwork, without 
any ground appearing at the bottoln. But the other extreme, 
of a penury of sacr(!d texts, prevails too nluch in our nlodern 
and refined conI positions; which, for that reason, nlay rather be 
called orations than sern10ns. 
A. due luedi lUll- therefore ought to be observed in this case; 
but of the two, the latter extrenle is 1l10st blall1able; for a 
sern1011 will appear lean and unsatisfYing to a religious palate, 
when it is not sufficiently larded with scripture, but the whole is 
Inade to rest on the reasonings of the preacher, unsupported by 
the authority of God's word. 
By this n1eans likewise he will becon1e an expert textuary, 
which is the first excellency of a Christian divine; and the 
people will occasionally be made acquainted with the holy 
scriptures. 
Now this is what I call n, sern1011, in contradistinction to an 
oration, which by one uniforn1 flow of eloquence, without proper 
breaks and di yisions, glides like a snIooth strean1 over the soul, 


z 



338 


[lort's Instructions to tIle Olergy 


leaving no traces behind it. Tho ,yord thus delicately sown 
lnay, like a concert. of nlusic, delight the ear while it lasts, but 
dies with the sound, and the hearer will carry little hOI11e, besides 
a renlenlbraI1ce that he was sweetly entertained. 
The effect of this \viII, \yhere there are any kind of talC'nts for 
it, be a good style; by \vhich I would be understood to mean 
that sin1plicity and propriety of language, which clearly conveys 
the sense of the speaker in to the lllind of the hearer . 'V hen 
therefore, by the luethod before prescribed, the preacher is bû- 
COIne n1aster of his subject and has ranged all his nlaterials fitly, 
fit. \vords and expressions wil1 readily offer thelnselves to answer 
to his clear ideas; for nothing perplexes t.he style but a confused 
and perplexed manner of thinking. 
lIe therefore \vho ,vonld convince and persuade his hearers 
should above all things ain1 at that. perspicuity and silnplicity, 
which are the greatest ornaments of language: whereas, on the 
contrary, a tawdry style, garnished with flowers of rhetoric and 
flights of fancy, which are incident to young preachers, n1ake8 
only a bright confusion, that glares upon the Blind \vithout 
enlightening it. 
As to the doctrinal part of a sermon, the style cannot. be too 
plain and chaste, though it need not descend to be base and 
vulgar (for there is a wide difference between these two) 
because it is addressed to the understanding; but as the practi- 
cal part is designed to lllove the affections and passions, the style 
n1ay rise, and grow \Varlll with SOUle height.enings of imagination, 
the better to answer that purpose. 
I have only t\VO short renlarks to add on this heacl. The 
first relates to the introduction, the second to the conclusion of n 
sern10n. 
As to the foriner, if an introduction be necessary, it should 
always be short, pertinent and leading as soon as may be to the 
main subject of the discourse. If the text needs any light fron1 
what goes before and follows it, this should be collected and 
brought to bear upon the text with the utIuost brevity and clear- 
ness; for people are naturally Ï1npatient to kno,v what the 
minister would be at, and t.o have him take his 11lain business in 
hand. 'Yhen I hear a preacher set out with a general prealllble, 
that has no illlinediate relation to his text and can never carry 
hilll to it but. by a lnighty circull1ference, I easily conclude with 
n1yse]f what I ain to f'xpect in the soquel of the discourse. 



oj' the Diocese of Tuam. 


SSg 


"Tith regard to the conclusion of a senuon, it should be 
always practical and persuasive to a good life; it should consist 
of exhortations and 1110tives proper to enforce such duties and 
virtues as luay pertinently arise fronl the doctrines and positions 
before laid do\vn. For the great end of preaching is to nlake 
l11en better: Jnere knowledge l)l
t into the he[td, if it does not 
penetrate to the heart and frOln thence diffuse itself into the 
life and conversation, beconles not only useless but hurtful, as 
it will turn to a Ulan's greater condeulnation. 
I shall dismiss this general head with sonle remarks upon the 
subject of pronunciation or elocution. And here I n1ust observe 
to you that no one Dlanner of pronunciation will befit every 
8ernlon, nor every part of the saDle sermon, but that it nlust be 
diversified according to tbe nature of every period; it is impos- 
sible therefore to give precise rules where so great a variety of 
circunlstances will arise, which require :1 different nlodification 
of voice and action; but every preacher 111Ust, in :1 good 
degree, be left to the direction of his own judgnlent and the 
best exanlples. 
A II that I shall therefore atteIl1pt. under ihis head is to pro- 
pose SOl11e general rules that will extend to all cases and that 
nlay be of use for correcting some COlnn10n faults and rnistakes. 
The first is, to pronounce every word and syllable distinctly, \ 
and to beware of sinking at the close of the period. This is 
undoubtedly the first and chiefest excellence of pronunciation, 
because the very end of speaking is so far lost, as it is not dis-' 
tinctIy heard. 
I would not be here understood to recomnlend that heavy and. 
p hle g nlatic deli very that retails out words by theii: syllables; for 
this is more properly to be callcd spelling than speaking and is 
apt to t.ire 111e11"8 patience and lull t.hem to sleep: but I 111ean 
that articulate expression, with rests and pauses properly inter- 
posed, which shall break and distinguish the parts of n period 
according t.o the sense; and herein consists the propriety and 
beauty of elocution, which both speaker and hearer will sensibly 
enJoy, 
This rule is calculated for the cure of two faults that arc not 
unfi'equent; one is a thick and confused delivery, which runs 
syllables and words into one 111ass, so that the ear cannot wen 
separate theIl1 and tho hearer is forced to Blake up the sense by 
conjecture, The other is a rapiJity of speech which runs off too 
z 

 



340 


Horts Inst/ 1 ltctions to the Olergy 


fast to ilnprcss any distinct idea, on the nlind, by which lueans 
both the pleasure and profit of a serlnon are in great measure 
lost. A little tilne and practice win certainly cure this fault, 
\vhere there is no nat.ural defect in the organs. 
The second rule I would mention is, to be careful not to 
exceed the cOlnpass of t.he voice. There is a certain ne pllts ultra 
to the organs of speech ill eyery nlan, and his own feeling alone 
can teach hinl where it lies: if he goes beyond this, hi
 pronun- 
ciation will be harsh, unnlusical and disagreeable both to hiul- 
self and to his hearers, who cannot receive with pleasure what 
they perceive he delivers with pain and violence; besides, that it 
is inlPossible for hitn duly to tell1per and govern his yoic{! under 
these unnatural strainings aiid efforts. 
'f It is a great Inistake to ÏInagine that a voice nlust needs be 
(, ,veIl heard, luerely because it is loud. rrhis is indeed a noble 
foundation for art and skin to work upon; but without the aid 
of these, it is often swallo,ved up and lost in itself. 
A Illoderato strength of voice, ,vith a due articulation of word$ 
and distinction of pauses, will go further, even in a large congre- 
, gation, than the thunder of an unsldlful tongue; and this is that 
· suaviloquentia, that IneIlowlless and sweetness of speaking, so 
nluch praised in sonle of the Ronlan orators, in opposition to the 
rusticity of noisy decIaÏ1uers. 
Let llle here add, by way of caution, the danger of forcing and 
straining the internal organs. I wish I were not an unhappy 
exalnple of this kind, and that I did not to this day feel the sad 
effect.s of making too violent efforts in the pulpit Inany years 
ago: frolH lllY own experience therefore let me adyise young 
preachers, who have not the most robust lungs, to have recourse 
to art and 11lanagelllent rather than to force, for suppl)'ing that 
defect. 
The third rule I would recOllltnend to you is to observe one 
even and unifonn Inanner of pronunciation. I" ould not be 
here understood to 11lean that a preacher is to confine hinlself to 
one silnple note or sound, or to one degree of tilHe and nlotion 
frolll the beginning to tho end of his discourse; for this is that 
'JJlonotonia, or una quæda17
 spiritus ac soni intcntio, which the 
great teacher of ROlnan oratory explodes. It3Q!! ld be 11l0st 
absurd to do this, unless every thought. and every 
s ion "'ere 
perfectly alike. The 
pirit and beauty, and, I may say, the very 
essence of pronunciation, lie
 in pro!)er enlphases and accents, 



(1
 llw Dioces(' of TU(I/Jl. 


3
1 


and in vnl'Jing the notes find tilnes pursun.nt to the diversitJ of I 
sentilnents and occasions. 
But I anI levelling this rule against that subsu1tory way of 
delivery, that rises like a stonll in one part of the period n.nd 
presently sinks into a dead cahn, that wiU scarce reach the ear. 
I allow that eleyations and softenings of the voice, judiciously 
nlanaged, are both ornamental and useful; but those sudden 
starts and explosions are 1110St ungraceful and unbecoming the 
gravity of the pulpit, and are of no use, thn.t I can think of, 
unless it be to startle a hearer that happens to be asleep: and 
the other extrclue of sinking below the ear is still Inore 
ridiculous; for words which cannot be heard may as well not be 
spoken. 
The fourth and last general rule I would suggest is to 
distinguish carefully between the doctrinal and practical part of 
the discourse, in the luanneI' of your pronunciation. The inten- 
tion of the doctrinal part being to enlighten the understanding 
and to lead it to the knowledge of truth, by cool reasoning and 
nrgumentation; all that is proper and necessary here is that 
silupJicity of accent and eluphasis, which n1ay serve to point out 
where the force of the argunlent lies; and no luan, who is master 
of his subject, can greatly err in this part. 
But the practical part of a sernlon requires a very different con- 
duct; for the n1ind having been before sufficiently enlightened 
and the nature and obligation of virtue clearly proved, the inten- 
tion is now to persuade the win to en1brace it; to which end the 
passions are to be excited to COlne in to assist the reason. 
And here it is that the pathetic alluren1ents of 'Toice will be use- 
ful and proper: for experience shews us the power of the out- 
ward senses in this case, and particularly that action and lllotion, 
skilfuUy presented to the eye, and musical sounds, received by 
the ear, produce wonderful effects on our passions and affec- 
tions. It is therefore necessary, when your design is to raise 
fear or hope: joy or sorrow, love or natred, to vary the nction 
and pronunciation fronl cool and sedate to that which is Inore 
\VarIn and Hluving; in order to touch the spring of tha t passion, 
which you would luake use of to answer your end. 
To descend to particulars in this case is inlpossible, because 
the variety is infinite. The simple accents required in reason- 
ing are few and easy, and good sense alone will direct these; 
but the various 111odulations of the voice, which render tone and 



3-t2 


IIvr{':( IJU5tl'Uct iuns tv the UleJ:qy 


c3,dence harnlonious, are talents of quite another kind: for the
e 
being in reality nothing but different notes in the scale of lllusic, 
require a l11usical ear to fOrITI and direct then1; and where this 
natural giÎt is wanting, the preacher will fall into discords and 
, only expose hiIllself by his attelnpt. 
For t.his reaS0n, the safest way ia, generally, of t.he two 
extrelues, to 
void that of running into too luuch tone and 
cadence; his defect on this side ,viII, at the worst, only not 
pleaso, but an error on the other side will disturb and displease; 
and it l11ay 1110reO\Tor carry the appearance of affectation and 
scIÏ-opinion, which will expose hinl to contempt and censure. 
I COlne next to the second branch of your office in the church, 
and that is reading the public prayers; and, I do assure you, 
there is no littIe slíÌll required to do this as it ought to be Jone. 
I can it indeed reading the prayers, in c0l11pliance \vith the 
.. conUTIon phrase; but speaking properly, prayers ought to be 
prayed and not read. 
'fhere is a certain propriety of accent, cadence and gesture, 
that befits the sole1l1nity and seriousness of devotion; and where 
this is duly observed, the nlinister will find it a great help, both 
to wal'ln his own heart and to draw out the attention and affec- 
tions of the congregation. I do allo,v that praypr is a spiritual 
duty and is properly the action of the s()ul: but experience 
she,vs us to be so lllade and compounded as that our souls 
receive great in1}Jressions and changes from our outward senses. 
.r\nd therefore the Ininister should chooso those accents and 
gestures that are n10st apt and proper to excite his own elevotion, 
as well as that of the people; he should pray to their eyes and 
pray to their ears, as the readiest way to affect their hearts. 
TIut he nlust at the sarne tillle carefully avoid theatrical accents 
and gestures; all affectation is offensive to good judges; but 
that of the theatre is of all others the most unbecol11ing the house 
of God, and will disgust serious persons. A ud yet if accents 
and diversification of voice be ,vhoBy rejected, the prayers will 
seenl cold and lifeless, the attention will languish and the devo- 
tion lose its spirit and fervour. 
There is likewise a due lllediuIl1 to be observed in the t.itne 
and 1110Vemí'nt of prayers: if they are rea,d too fast, they cannot 
in1prcss the soul with due sentilllents and affections as the lnin- 
istcr proceeds; on the other hand. slo\v and heavy reading will 
111ake tho work dull and tiresol1u'; and the ilnpaticnt hearer will 



o.f flu} Diocese of TU(lu/;. 


343 


be apt to let loose his thoughts to wander upon foreign subjects 
or perhaps con1po
e hin1self to rest. 
So that it requires SOHle degree of judglllent to steer between 
these extrell1es; and the reading of the public prayers is an art, 
which all clergYlnen should set thelnselves to acquire by study 
and practice and by copying after the best ex
tlnples. 
And Jet I fear that it is too Inuch neglected by those who are 
newly ordained; and that, when they COlne first into the desk, 
they strike at randoln and without any regard to propriety, into 
a certain Inanner of reading, which every body observes to be 
wrong but thelnselvés; titne and use ,vill soon render this falni- 
liar; and as they never discover the fault, it becoines a habit, 
and they Deyer think of correcting it afterwards. 
It is indeed difficult to change a bad n1anner; but difficult 
things may be done and often D1ust be done. And to make 
this point 1110re easy, I will give you one short rule, which Inay 
be of use both to such clergymen as are yet to forin their man- 
ner and to those who have habituated theIl1Selves to an im- 
proper one; and it is this: let a ll1inister, when he opens his 
book, possess his soul with this thought; that he is going to 
address hinlself to the great 
Iajesty of heaven and earth, \vho 
knows all his thoughts and beholds all his actions; and that he 
is in the inllnediate presence of this adorable Being, who is very 
jealous of his honour; I say, let. hilll possess his soul duly with · 
this consideration and he ,viII naturally fall into all the pro - . 
prieties of prayer. 
The third branch of your office is that of public cat.echising. 
The compilers of our liturgy acted very prudently in Inaking 
the Church Catechisrn short and sU1l1nlary, for fear of overbur- 
dening the nlemory and rendering it distasteful and irksoIlle. 
For this reason they did not support the doctrines and duties, 
there laid down, with proofs out. of the holy scripture, taking it 
for granted, that this part would be supplied by the pastors of 
the church: this has accordingly Leen done by l11any of our 
bishops and learned divines, in their printed expositions of the 
Church Catechisnl; descending to 111any particular questions 
and answers, which naturally branch out fronl the general heads 
of that SUllllnary. 
..A..nlong these I HUlst nlcntion and recoDunend one in pal'ti- 
cular, cOlnposed by that Inost excellent prelate z (now with God) 
z Edward Synge
 D. D. who was .Archhi8hop of Tuam from 1716 to 17-1 I. 



f
 1-4 


IIort's Instl'uctions to the Clel
(j!l 


,vho was nlY illlnlediate predecessor in this dioc(1se and province, 
in whose steps I beseech God to give l11e grace to tread. 
'Vith regard to children, the chief use of catechislllS is to 
treasure up the nlaterials of knowledge in their nlenlories, though 
they nlar perhaps enter very little into the sense of thenl: but 
as their understandings ripen with tilDe, anò their appetite for 
knowledge increases, it will be no SIll all advantage that they 
have the words and sentences reaùy stored up for use; for they 
will easily put sense to thenl hereafter, and then it is that a 
]))ore copious exposition becoilles seasonable and necessary: 
however, no pains should be spared for enlightening theln at 
present according to their capacities. 
And J anI afraid that too .TIlany of your parishioners \vho are 
of nlature age, and even SOllle who are advanced in years, have 
neod to be taught ,,,hat are the first principles of the oracles of 
God. 8hal11e will hinder such frolll cOIning to be catechised 
like children, but that shalne win be covered by Jour putting in 
practice the lnethod I anI recol1unending; for light and know- 
ledge will be obliquely conveJerl into their lninds, find you ,viII, 
by instructing children in their presence, instruct thell1 at the 
saIne tinIe, without exposing their ignorance. 
In such parishes as afford fi sufficient auditory at the evening 
service, this work luay be then 1110st conveniently perforlued, till 
the short days COllie in; but where the parishioners lie relnote 
froln the church, the lllorning will be the fittest tlnle. J twill 
indeed prolong the service for half an hour; but they who conle 
to worship God but once in seven days lllay look upon this as 
an easy cOlnposition; and if the n1inister should not grudge his 
pains, it will be hard if they should grudge their tinle, when they 
have no worldly business upon their hands. 
If you should at the sanIe tilll0 take occasion to explain and 
enforce the doctrines of protestantisln and of the eShl,blished 
church, it lnight be of great use to fortify your people and pre- 
vent apostasies, and perhaps to bring over such as nlay have the 
curiosity to be your hearers. And to speak the truth, there is 
no other way of effecting this properly upon reasonable creatures 
and Christian, than the way of reasoning and conviction. Coer- 
cive laws nlay restrain and disable those who a YOW principles 
that are delStructive to the church anti 8tate, and coercion in 
those cases is wise and necessary; but they can never convince 
any body: they nlay tie up JHen'S hands and tongucs
 but never 



úf lIte Diocese of Tuanz. 


345 


reach their hearts; this is only to be clone by enlightening the 
]]}ind and working properly upon the conscience. 
I n1ust therefore, 1UY rcyerend brethren, 11108t earnestly press 
you to be assiduous in the discharge of this part of your office; 
declaring, at the sanIe tiI11e, that I shall distinguish with my re- 
gards such Ininisters and curates as shall distinguish thelnselves 
by their diligence upon this and the following head; 
'''
hich is, fourthly, the reviving of that ahnost antiquated 
exercise of expounding the holy scriptures to your congre.. 
gations. 
I aIn afraid the bulk of your people are very little acquainted 
with this divine book; sonle for want of inclination to read it, 
and others for want of proper helps for understanding it; and 
yet this is the book that is able to mal'e them 'lcise unto salvation a. 
This book is the great rule of their faith and practice, and 
according to this book they nlust be judged at the last day. 
'Vho then should teach theu1 to understand it but their pas.. 
tors, who are caIled by that honourable nalne, because they are 
to .tèed tlteir people u'ilh knou.:led.Qe and 'ltnclerstandinp b? For the 
priest's lips should leep Ænou;ledge, and the!! :5ltould seek tIle law 
at ltis 'JJ20uth; fm o he is the 'lnessenger of tlte Lopd of Hosts C . 
By this l11e3:nS you will by degrees lead those into the know.. 
ledge of the holy scriptures, who will not be at the pains} or 
Inay want leisure, to read then1 a,t honle; or if they do read, yet, 
for want of conUl1entators, arc sometilncs at a loss for the true 
sense. 
Let nle add that this exercise will be of no slllall advantage 
even to yourselves, as it will lay JOu under a necessity of study.. 
ing the word of God, which you are by profession and prolllise 
at your ordination, bound to do : for n clergYlnan can no Inore be 
un skilful in the holy scriptures, without great shanle and reproach, 
than a lawyer in the la\v. 
The Epistles and Gospels all(l Lessons for the day will 
furnish JOu with choice of subjects' for this work, which will be.. 
conIC easy and falniliar to the Ininistcr, after he has once nIade 
hilnself Inastet" of the sense and connection, And the saIne 
notes will generally serve, as the sallIe portions return in an 
annual rotation. 
nut let IHe not ÙC 11lisul1l1érstood: I aln not recollllnending 


a 2 Tim. iii, Ij. 


b Jer. iii, 15. 


c 
Ia1. ii, 7. 



S.J.6 


Hort's Instruct-ions to the Clergy 


this as an additional task, over and above the serlnon, but to be 
substituted sonlctilnes in the place of it; and which, in Iny judg- 
HIcnt., will be more profitable; especially if care be taken to 
Blake such practical inferences and applications, in the course of 
the exposition, as Inay naturaIIy arise out of the text. This ,,,ill 
indeed ll1ake it a sernlon in another shape; with this difference 
only, that the variety of subjects and incidents ,vill enliven the 
attention and give a l110re agreeable as ,veIl as instructive en- 
tertainll1ent to the audience j who, I dare say, ,vill come ,vith a 
better appetite to this exercise, ,,,,hen judiciously perfonned, and 
fill your churches better. 
It ,vill renlain in the l11inister's discretion to interpose a ser- 
Ulon when he pleases; but he will do well to note dO'wn those 
Sundays, in order to expound in the follo,ving year those por- 
tions of holy scripture, \vhich by this ll1eans ,vere omitted. 
And if the people were achnonished to bring their Bihles ,vith 
theIu, according to the good old practice of our ancestors, and to 
accompany the minister as he reads and expounds, they would 
understand and retain it better and be enabled to spend an hour 
lnost profitably in recollecting and re.peating to their fanlilie.s 
,vhat they had heard at church. 
I \ I f this custom, practised in the times of puritanisln, was laid 
, aside in a licentious age, when all seriousness in religion gre,v 
out of fashion, let us not be ashamed to revive it; for it is no 
I 
. shalne to learn that ,vhich is good froin any body. After all, if 
a sennon in fornl should, in COlllpliance with custom, be found 
indispensable, it may however be shortened to allow for the tÍlne 
that had been spent in the exposition. 
I conle now to the second general head I proposed to speak to, 
viz. your duty at large and out of the house of God. 
The first I should ll1ention is the visitation of the sick. And let 
Ine assure you that this is a very critical office at certain conjunc- 
tures, and that great discretion is required for the right c1ischarge 
of it; for there llla)' be danger in adnlinistering either too llluch 
fear or too 11luch hope. 
To awaken a sick Ulan to reflect upon his past life and to ca1l 
his sins to rClnelnbrance, in order to a particular repentance, 
\vill be of great use to hinl; but carc Blust be taken not to 
throw hilll into despair of God's 111crcy and forgiveness; for 
this will prevent his repentance and shut tho door of 11lorcy 
against hin1. 



if the Diocese of Tuam. 


3-t7 


On the other hand, to set only the mercy of God before hinl 
nnd deal out hope too liberally, \\ill be the way to Blake hinI 
secure at a time, when his soul is in the utInost danger and 
when repentance i
 all that he has for it. .And by-standel's 
win be too apt to lay hold of such sweet doctrine to their own 
undoing. 
I anI afraid. it is too frequent for wicked livers, when they 
apprehend the approaches of death, to send for the n1Ïnister, in 
order to receive the cOllul1union and absolution as a kind of 
l)assport, which they hope will do their business at once and 
carry thel11 by a short way to hea yen; and indeed this is a very 
short way, if it would do. But alas! we do not find in the holy 
scriptures that the way is quite 80 easy; on the contrary, we 
find that repentance and a good life are the only sure foundation 
of hope and con1fort at the hour of death. For this reason a 
l1Iinister ought not to be too ready with his absolutions; nor 
has he any warrant for it, unless the proofs of repentance be 
strong and the sick person 11ll!nbly and earnesUy desire it; in 
which case only, the rubric direct.s absolution to be given. 

-\nd even then, it will be very proper for the minister to , 
übserve that he has no power to forgive sins absolutely; but 
that all that he can do is to declare, for the con1fort of the sick, 
that God forgives hinl, in case his repentance be sincere and 
his heart thoroughly changed. 
I confess that, when things are con1e to the last extren1Îty, re- 
pentance is all that is in the power of a dying 111:1n, after a bad 
life: but God only knows, whether it be the nIere effect of 
terror, or whether the heart be so changed as, in case of re- 
covery, would have operated to a virtuous life. Charity, ,yhich 
hopeth aU things, will make the best of it; but it is a very poor 
refuge; and as it would be cruel to refuse a dying luan that 
little comfort which his case 111ay possibly adnlit, so it would 
encourage presun1ption in the living to give too Inuch. 
But the case is quite otherwise with regard to a virtuous and 
godly l11an in his last mOlncnts; here none of these cautions arc 
necessary, but the u1inister nw.y safely pour the oil of" joy and 
hope with profusion into his soul. 
But the visitation of the sick is only an occasional branch of tt 
pastor's duty, and thoro is another of lunch greater Í1llporta11cO 
and extent, and that is, 



;348 


lIoJ'ts Instructions to tlte Cia,!!!! 


Secondly, His yisiting all his parishioners at their houses in a 
stated and a regular course. By this nleans only can he ]earn 
the true state of their souls and all their spiritual wants. In 
the church he is to speak and they to hear only; but his 
falniliar conversation will give thelll an opportunity of speaking 
in their turns and of opening to hilll their doubts and scruples 
of conscience; their fears, their tenlptations and their ignorance; 
and he ,viII take fit occasions to adnlonish and reprove thenl 
privately, without exposing them to shaule, according to our 
Saviour's advice. The tenderness and regard t.o the character 
and credit of an offender nlust naturally tend to soften and re- 
clainl him; but if after repeated adillonitions he should prove 
obstinate and incorrigible, then, and not till then, is he to be put 
to open shalne. Presentments, exconllliunications, judicial cen- 
sures and penances, are always to be the last resort, when 
private adtl1onitions and expostulations have been repeated 
,vithout effect. 
If there be dotuestic quarrels and dissensions, the discreet 
advice of the Ininister may heal thenl and restore unity and 
peace and lllutual affection between husband and wife, parents 
and children, brethren and sisters. If reciprocal passions or ill 
offices have set neighbours and friends at variance and given 
rise to vexatious prosecutions and lawsuits, which are often 
occasioned by a luere lllisunderstanding of one another (or by 
Inalicious whispers and insinuations), he \rill set things in a 
better light and 11lo11ify them to a better tenlper; and bring 
then1 to decide their differences by the cheap and Christian way 
of arbitration, to the saving of fanlÎlies froln utter ruin. And 
indeed I have observed that, when once a 11linister has, by his 
discreet, peaceaLle and upright behaviour, estaLlished hill1self 
in the good opinion and confidence of his parishioners, he be- 
COllles froln that titue a general arbiter and judge alnong theIn, 
and all their little strifes are readily subluitted to his decision. 
By the saine lneans also he will learn if the worship of God 
be kept up in f
tlnilies, as it ought; he will discover ,vhat good 
books are used all10ng thenl and what bad ones, which Illay tend 
to corrupt their principles and lllanncrs. He will find if seduc- 
ers have been privately at work in his parish, to practise on the 
ignorant and unstable and lead thCln astray; and this ,viII give 
hitll an opportunity to set thenl right and fortify them. And I 



of the Diocese of Tuaì'Jt. 


349 


fear there ,vas never 1110re occasion for the vigilance of n1inisters 
in this case, than in these days, when the flock of Christ is beset 
with wolves of various denoll1inations. 
To nanle no l11ore, he will learn from his o,vn eyesight the 
rlistresses and wants of the poor fan1Ïlies in his parish, which win 
l11o,.e hinl both to extend his own charity and to solicit that of 
others, for their relief. 
These and a thousand other good ends are to be obtained only 
by the diligence of a pastor in visiting his parishioners at their 
houses; so that, if he should content hÎ1nself with officiating in 
the church only and having barely a face-linowledge of thenl, he 
willlea,.e a great part of his duty undone. 
It is incredible how far this practice would go towards refOrll1- 
iug t.he people and especially those of the lower rank; for though 
he is doing no n10re than his bare duty, yet they would 111istake 
it for a great honour and condescension on his part, to visit thenl 
fanÚliarly in their hOlnely cottages; and, by thus gaining their 
hearts, he would find then1 soft to his good iU1pressions and 
patient under his reproofs. 
I hope, therefore, my reverend brethren, that you will be 
particularly assiduous in this branch of your duty; and that., for 
the 1110re easy and effectual pel'forlnance of it, you will divide 
your respective parishes into convenient districts, to be visited by 
you in a staterl course. 
N eerl I observe to you, in the third and last place, that the 
exaluple of a virtuous and holy life in a minister will have Inore 
effect upon his people, than a thousand discourses froln the 
pulpit, be they never so excellent 
 
The bulk of Il1ankind are n1uch easier led by the eye than thf\ 
ear; and though he should preach like an angel, yet they will 
despise his doctrine, if they do not read it in his life: but, when 
he shews hinlself in all tkings a pattern of good works and pre- 
sents in his own life n fair copy of all those gracea and virtues 
which he reco1l1n1ends fron1 the pulpit, his people ,viII believe 
hilll to be in good earnest, and that his sincere ailn is to save 
their souls as well as his own. IIis hun1Ïlity, nleekness and 
forgi\Teness, his charity and 1110d.eration, his tenlperance and 
sobriety, his grave, prudent and peaceable behaviour, his encou- 
ragelnent of religion and devotion in his own fanlily, will procure 
reverence and authority to his person, attention to his preach- 
ing and a zeal to iluitate hi
 virtues: they will think such a 



350 


Hopt's Instructions tú the Clerg!/ 


labourer uJortltY of his hire; and he nlust be of [t very perverse 
telnper indeed, who ,viII not cheerfully render hinl his dues. 
I HUlst here I1lake one observation, which lnost naturally 
arises out of this head; and that is the indispensable duty of 
residing on your respective cures; for it is of the nature of eX:Ul1- 
pIes to be present and before the eye; so that [t n1inister, ,vho does 
not live alnong his flock, can never be an exaulple to theine 
I Inight. here lìlention, as a lo,ver consideration, the convenience 
of resiùence to yourso1ves; not. only for the hetter ilnprovenlent 
of your glebes anrl t.he providing of l110re cOlnfortable habitations 
for yourselves and successors and being in the 111idst of your 
business; but also for avoiding all pretences of withholding fronl 
)'ou your legal dues. · 
'Vhen a Ininister is not resident, either in person or by his 
curate, the parishioners are ready to plead (and indeed with too 
lunch colour) that they do not receive tho valuable consideration 
of their tit.hes. 
In strictness of la\v there is no foundation for this pIca, 
because tithes are not the property of the tenant or the landlord, 
bnt free donations to the church by the piety of ancicnt tilnes ; 
\vhich by unlucky accidents are fallen into the hands of n1ere 
laynlcn, ,,,ho can do no spiritual service for the same: and in 
fact all estates subject to tithes were trans111itted or purchased, 
suLject to this incumbrance; for which the purchaser n1ust have 
paid a greater price and the fanner :1 higher rent, if they had 
been tithe-free. Every TIlan therefore n1ust consider hilnself not 
as a possessor in property, but as a trustee of the tenth part of 
the produce; which he holds in trust for the use of the parish 
H1inister; and which he cannot without injustice withhold and 
apply to his own nse, since he has no title to it. 
And the case is beconle t.he san1P, ,,,here there are Iay-ilnpro- 
pria tors; and yet these receive their tithes \vith less grumbling 
and opposition, though they can neither pray nor preach as a 
consideration for the same. 
The nonresidence t.herefore of the lninister, or even his 
neglects of duty, are a mere pretence set up against paying 
tithes; and I alll afraid that if he would graciously renlit his dues. 
too luan y of these claluourers ,voulcl readily di.
pensc ,,,ith his 
residence. 
But give 111e leave to obseryc, on the other hand, that, if in 
law the 111inistcr be entitlerl to his tithes, the parishioners arc in 



of the Diocese of TUaJJl. 


331 


good conscience and by the rules of the gospel anà the will of 
the donor, entitled equally to his spiritual cares and labours in 
tho execution of his office for the goorl of their souls. If he 
'reaps thei1
 carnal tldugs, it is in consideration that he shall SOlD 
'Unto theJJt sp;"itllal things; and fiS he is partaÆer of the altar, he 
is required to 
()ait at the altar d ; and therefore if he proyes ren1Ïss 
in the discharge of his duty, if he is not at hand to watch over 
his flock, to feed and to guard theIn, he Blust not ,\-onder if they 
are untoward and difficult in the payn1ent of their dues; for 
though tIle law be with hiln, Jet they will justly set up the equity 
of the gospel against him. 
I cannot disnlÍss this general head without putting you in 
Blind of one duty more which, though it be not properly canon- 
ical and within ll1Y province, yet is truly of religious considera- 
tion. 
I an1 speaking of that provision for your faluilies, by a prudent 
lllanagenlent of your inCOl1leS, \vhich every luan is bound by 
the laws of God and of nature to nlake. St. Paul's adillonition 
in this caso is at least as binding as any canon of Ollr church: 
If anyone p1"0'Cide not .(01' llis ou:n and especially for those of 
!tis own house, lw hath denied the faitlt, and is worse than an 
infidel e. 
A.nd I a111 sorry to observe that the 111elllories of n1any 
cIergynlen lie under just reproach for their neglect of this duty, 
,vhich the laws of God and nature oblige every nlan to do. If 
a clergyman happens to have a tClnporal estate, sonlething will 
rCluain for the support of his f(lIuily who survive hilll; but 
where his benefice is his only fund, he lllust want natural affection 
and justice, or to suppose the best, he lllust be void of all thought, 
who spends it as fast as it COlnes in, without laying up SOllle 
part of it for their support. \Vhether it be owing to indolence 
or bad nlanagell1ent, or to idle projects, or whet.Jher his ir..coJne be 
expended in entertainl11ents and high living, falsely called hospi- 
tality, though it Inay 11101'e properly be called prid.e and ostenta- 
tion; yet it 11lakes no difference with respect to theIn, when 
there is nothing left for their subsistence. 
He would disdain to be told, that the only refuge of his widow 
HUlst be in some charity-house; and that his daughters, after 
being delicH/tely bred, n1ust be quartered as Innllble cOlnral1ions 


d I Cor. ix, 1 I, 13. 


e I Timothy Y, 8. 



g:3
 


IIorts I,lSt,'llCtiolls to the Olergy 


upon sOlne good lady; ,,,here, if they are treated better t.han 

ervants, in point of cerClllony and respect, yet their condition is 
so far worse, as they serve without wages; or if this should not 
Le their good fortune, they 111USt be exposed to snares and 
telnptations and at last perhaps fall a prey to sonle rich invader 
of their virtue, for the sake of a Inaintenance: I say, he would 
disdain to be told this, and yet he is taking the ready way to 
bring things to this issue. }1'or he well knows that he is only a 
tenant for life and that, as he spends all while he lives, all his 
funds HUlst die \vith hilu. 
IIow D1uch better would it be for such a one to retrench all 
superfluities in good tilue and enter upon a new econon1)'! 
'Vhat if he should not treat 1\-ith wine, and rivalluen of perma- 
nent fortunes in his entertainulents; what if his wife and daugh- 
ters were not to shine in silks, but be nlodestIv clothed in decent 
stuffs, and the savings laid up for their fortunes; would any 
,vise nlan think the \vorse either of hilu or them 
 :So; his pru- 
dence and their IUlluility ,,"ould be universally applauded and 
,,"ould be set up as an exalnple to other falnilies in the like cir- 
CUIllstances. 
I should therefore think it a Inost laudable resolution in every 
clergynlan, who is not possessed of a telnporal estate, to lay up 
one half, or one third, or at the least one quarter of his incolue, 
according as the thing will bear, for the future occasions of his 
faluily; and to look upon such sa.vings as not at all his own, but 
sacred to their use. 
It reulains only that I exhort you to that which is not so pro- 
perly to be called a distinct and separate head of duty, as a III ode 
or quality that ought to run through all the rest: I anI speaking 
of zeal, or that fervent de
irc of doing good to the souls of your 
parishioners, which will anilnate and enliven every part of Jour 
duty. This is opposed to that indolence and lukewü,rluness of 
spirit, which always proceeds with indifferen
e and slothfulness 
in business; which does what is barely required and no l11ore, 
and therefore generally underdoes in every thing. To such 
tenlpers every thing goes up hill and against the grain; and 
is perforllled as if it \vere a task, which is done only because it 
Innst be done. 
But a principle of zeal will turn our duty into deIight and 
Inake us active and diligent; it will overCOIne all difficulties and 
spare no pains in proilloting the honour of God and the salva- 



oj'tll Diurese uJ'Tuarn. 
tion of those soulg that arc COllllnitteù to our charge. ()l1r 
Sayiour gives John the character of a burnÙlg and a shining 
lZQnt f, shining by tho light of his doctrine and burning by the 
warIuth and activity of his zeal: and the sallie should be the 
character of every luinister of the gospel. 
I n order therefore to excite you to the effectual discharge of 
your spiritual offices with this laudable telllper of lllind, I shall, 
as I proposed, lay before you some lllotives and considerations, 
which, if duly attended to, cannot fail of success. 
The first shall be taken frolll the nature of that trust, which 
with Jour own consent has been cOInn1Ítted to you. The souls 
of your parishioners are your iuunediate charge, and JOu are to 
guide then1 in the way to eternal salvation. Hence it is that the 
office of a 111inister is represented in the holy scriptures under 
Inetaphors and characters importing a very high trust. 
You are called shepherds. who are to feed the flock of Christ, 
by enlightening their Iuinds with the knowledge of divine 
truths; to establish their faith and influence then1 to the prac- 
tice of virtue. 8inwn, SJn of Jonas, lovest tlw'lt fine? says our 
Saviour; Feed m!1 sheep?;; which he repeats three tilues. The 
trust is c0111prised in three words, but so big with inlportallt 
Inatter as luight fill a voltune. However, you 111ay observe the 
principle and spring froin whence it is inferred and enforced: 
Lorcest tlwlt me P strongly inlplying that, wherever there i8 n, 
true love for our blessed Saviour, it will naturally operate by a 
zeal for prollloting the salvation of those souls, for whom he shed 
his I110St precious blood. 
As shepherds, JOu are likewise instructed to guard your 
flocks froin spiritual eneIl1ics and dangers, especially as they are 
surrounded with those who will be assiduous to pervert and 
corrupt both their faith and l11anners. For this reason a good 
1)3.stor will always have an eye upon his flock, to confirn1 those 
that are wayering, and to reclaiul and recover such as have been 
led astray, being selluced by cunning iten 'wlto lie in 'lcait to 
decetve; for those wolves have ever haunted about Christ "Is fold. 
And it is in the saIne view and for the saIne purposes that you 
are called watchnlen; for you are to watch oyer the taith and 
n10l'a1s of yonr people and guard thenl against infidelity, idol- 
atry, false doctrines, corrupt religions. evil CUSt0l11S and imrnoral 


353 


f John v, 35. 


go John xxi, 16. 


Aa 



55
 


Hort"'s Instrnctions to tit' Clerl/!1 


practices. Son of }}
an, says God to the prophet, I have 'lnacl 
tltee a watekJJ
an over tlte lto'ltse of Israel,. and tho end follows, 
nttlllely, to l,Darn the u)iclced frorn ltis evil way. St. Paul takes 
np the allusion, Ohey tltmn tltat Ilave tIle rule ovei' you, for tIle!! 
watel" for your sou/s h . 
And here I cannot but repeat the hint of the necessity of 
residence, which is so clearly and strongly iU1plieù in those 
u1etaphors; for an absent and rall1bJing shepherd 11111st needs 
neglect the safety of his flock, and a \vatchlnan or sentinel will 
be punished, if he leaves his post. 
And lastly, to name no 1110re, you are stewards of tIle rn..?fsteries 
of God i, and dispensers of the means of salvation in his church. 
The church is Christ's hous;hold or falnily; and it is Jour office 
to adtninister their spiritual food to theIn, even tIle s'Ùleere 
nil1c of 
the u'ord, that. so they may gr()1J) in grace and in the knowledge 
of God th,eir Saviour. 
Now these metaphors of a shepherd, a \vatchman and a ste\y- 
ard express, in a most significant and lively l11annel\ the nature 
of that trust which is con1mitted to everyone who has taken 
upon him the holy character; and shew that he is responsible 
for the souls of his parishioners. 
And as every trust must one time or other be accoun ted for, 
this leads n1e to the other motive, proper to excite you to a zeal- 
ous and diligent discharge of your office; nanlely, that you will 
1110st certainly be called to a strict account for the san1e. This is 
strongly urged by St. Paul, in the place before Inel1tioned, as an 
argunlent both to minist.ers and people to discharge t.heir duties 
reciprocally; Obey tlte
n that rule over 1/01t, for tlte!! watcll for 
!JOWl' souls as those 'lDho 
nnst give aeco
tnt. 
And what account will a lukewarm, slothful and negligent 
minister give at tl1at day, if hiF unhappy parishioners should 
turn evidences against him and, in excuse for their own faults, 
plead that they miscarried through his neglect? ,viII he plead 
his obedience to the canons and rubrics and that he perforrned 
} every service, which the letter of the la\v required? Let nle as- 
sure you, my reverend Lrethren, that this plea will not be arlnlit- 
ted before the great Judge and that the Father and Lover 
of souls requires runch nlore at your hands. 
I Canons and rubrics are useful instrtunents for ]{eeping up 


h Hebrews xiii, 17. 


I Cor Ì\
, I. 



of tlte Diocese of TuaJ}l. 



j55 


external discipline, order and decency in an established church; ( 
and it is sUlall merit in a clergylnan to obey these, because he 
will be exposed to ecclesiastical censures for his neglect. But if 
he contents himself with this legal observance and goes no fur- 
ther, he will be fm/;nd Iwanting when he comes to be weiglwd in 
the balance. His heart and soul must be set upon his \vork; he · 
must give up the best of his tillle and pains to it, labouring in . 
season and out of season k, perfornling many things as a volun- J 
teer, which laws do not and cannot prescribe; or he will never I 
stand the inquisition of the great day, but be ranked in the ' 
nunlber of unprofitable serrants. This day of reckoning nlust , 
come; it is what you preach to others and it is what you should , 
seriously consider Jourselves, lest, after p'peaclting to tken];, you 
yourselves should he castaways 1. 
But as dreadful as this day will prove to slothful and nlerely 
canonical pastors, it will be no less joyful and happy to those, 
,vho have been zealous and diligent in saving the souls com- 
nlitted to their charge. 'Vith what pleasure will every such 
Ininister appear at the head of his happy flock before the great 
Shepherd and in his own words say, Those thou gavest 1ne I 
have læpt, and none of them.! is lost! The light of his doctrine 
and the living light of his example did not shine in vain, even 
with respect to hinlself, before his people; for' they that t
trn 
tnany to lj'ighteOl/;sness shall shine as tlte stars for ever and ever m . 
If any further motive were necessary, though one would think 
it should not, you n1ay turn to the Office of Ordination, and 
refresh your memories with the solemn promises you luadc at 
your adluission to the order of priests; and I would earnestly 
advise every clergyman to read over that Office once at least in 
every year, because stale prolllises are too apt to be forgotten. 
Having thus, n1Y reverend brethren, delivered IUY thoughts to 
you, though very imperfectly, upon SOlue of the chief branches 
of your sacred function, I hope you will receive them favollrably, 
and that they will not be quite unprofitable; and especially to 
such of you as have not long been adnlitted to the cure of 
souls. 
I shall, by God's assistance, endeavour to cooperate with you 
for promoting the great ends of your ministry; I shall rejoice to 
live in harn10ny and a good understanding with you 
 I shall be 
happy in your esteem and affection and in giving you the best 
k 2 Tim. Ï\', 2. 1 I Cor. ix, 27. m Daniel xii, 3. 
Aa2 



356 


11ol'ts In
tructions to the (}lergy 
c. 


proof'S of tuine. If any of you should ne('d adnlonition, you will 
renlelnber that it is 111Y duty to give it, and yours to take it in 
good part: and I hope always to give it in the spirit of lneek- 
nes and with a due regard to the dignity of your character. I 
shall be apt to take good ÏIllpressions of you and slow to believe 
things un\vorthy of you; and would hope that this disposition of 
charity and benevolence will be I1lutual. I shall cheerfully 
assist you, as far as I anl capable, with IUY advice and with IUY 
prayers in your behalf; and I hope I shall not want the benefit 
of your advice as there shall be occasion; and especially of your 
prayers, that God ,viII enable nlC by his grace to discharge faith- 
fully the great trust committed to me, for the promotion of his 
glory and the edification of this diocese: that so, when the great 
Shepherd shall require an account of the flocks CODIDlittf'd to our 
charge, you and I may be able to give it up with cheerfulness, 
and enter' into the Joy of our Lord. 
I shall conclude ,vith those awful words of God to the prophet 
Ezekiel in his 33d chapter. 0 son of man, I have set tltee a 
'watchJnan 
tnto the llmtse of Israel; thel"efore {holt shalt hear tlte 
'lVord at 'In!! mouth, and 'll'arn then't fron't me. JVhen I say unto 
tlte 'wicked, 0 wicked man, t!tou shalt s1trely die; if tlwu dost not 
speak to warn tlte 
()iclæd froìJ
 ltis 
vay, t!tat 
vicked n
an shall die 
in 'tis 
.niq
âty; but his blood will I require at thine hand. 
Ne1)erthele
s, if tho'll warn the wiclæd of his 'l()ay to tu/rn frorn ,it; 
if he do not turn fro'ln his 'U'ay, he shall die in his i1ziqU1'ty; hut 
thou hast delivered thy soul. 



r -L\.l
 0 C 111.L\.1
 I A : 


OR, 


INSTRUCTION
 TO THE CLER(
Y, 


I
 THE DISCHARGE OF THEIR 


PAROCHIAL DUTY, 


BY THE RIGHT REVEREND 


THO
IAS 'VILSON, D. D. 


J,ÜHV BI
HOP OF 80VOR 
\:\"D 
I.AN 



l'IIO
l.L\.S "
ILSOX ,,,as born at Burton, in Cheshire, on 
the 20th of December, 1663, "of honest parents, fearing GOD." 
From a school at Chester, he ,yas removed to Trinity College, 
Dublin, ,,-here he at first studied for the l\Iedical Profession 
but soon changed his purpose and prepared himself for the 
ministry of the Church. lIe was ordained Deacon by the 
Bishop of Kildare, on St. Peter's day, 1686; and, in December 
of the same year, licensed to a Curacy in the Parish of "Tin_ 
,vick, Lancashire, by the then Bishop of Chester. fIe ,vas 
adlnitted to Priest's Orders in 1689. fIe became Domestic 
Chaplain to the Earl of Derby and Preceptor to his son, in 
1692. His conduct ,vas marked by such disinterestedness and 
integrity as gained for him the entire confidence of the noble 
falnily and a most beneficial influence over its members. In 
1697, he modestly declined the offer of the Bishoprick of the 
Isle of 
Ian, which the Earl, as Patron of the See, made to 
him; and it ,yas not until the I{ing ('lrilliam Ill) haù, in the 
following year, threatened to fill up the vacancy, ,,-hich had 
continued too long, that Lord Derby could prevail on his 
Chaplain to accept the Preferment. He ,vas thus (to use his 
own expression) "forced into the Bishoprick." 
In 1 707, each of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge 
conferred upon hin1 the Degree of D. D. Some years after- 
,,-ards, a vigorous enforcement of lHscipline in his Diocese led 
to his temporary imprisonment and involved hin1 in consider- 
able expences. An appeal to the King in Council vindicated 
the character and proceedings of the injured Prelate; and 
liberal contributions somewhat lessened the pecuniary burden, 
,yhich had been laid upon him. On three several occasions, 
in the Reigns of Queen ...\nne, of George I and of George II 



360 


(once before, and t\vice after, his sufferings in the cause of the 
Church) an English Bishoprick "as even urged on his accept- 
ance; but in vain. 1"he latest of these proposals occurred in 
] 735, ,,'hen he paid a final visit to England and \yas intro- 
duced to l{ing George II and Queen Caroline. "See here, 
my Lords" (said the Queen to several Prelates, attending her 
Levee) "is a Bishop, \\"ho does not conle for a translation." 
" No indeed; and please your Majesty" (said the good Bishop) 
" I will not leave my \yife in myoid age, because she is poor." 
Having entered on the 93rd year of his age and the 58th of 
an Episcopate, marked, through its \vhole course, by primitive 
- 
simplicity, piety and zeal, he died on the 7th of March, 1755. 
He has justly earned the title of the Venerable and Apostolic 
Bishop of Sodor and Man, and ",ill retain it, as long as the 
English language shall preserve the nunlerous \vritings, prac- 
tical and devotional, which he has left behind and by ,,'hich 
H he, being dead, yet speaketh" to the Church of CHRIST. 


The Life of Bishop 'Vilson, consisting of authentic notices 
and memorials chiefly furnished by his Son, Dr. Thomas 
"Tilson, is prefixed to a complete Edition of his Works, pub- 
lished at Bath in 1796. And a more recent Biography, by 
the Revd. Hugh Sto\vell, has gone through several Editions. 



THE I. REF ACE. 


TIlE venerable author of the folIo\ving Instructions to 
the Clergy presented a copy of theIn, in lnanuscript, 
to every clergynlan in his diocese; and, as they are 
adlnirably adapted to the end for ,vhich they ,vere 
designed, \\?e may reasonably presume that this instance 
of his lordship's affectionate concern for his clergy and 
people ,vas attended ,vith the happiest effects. 


The Instructions comprehend several of the nlost in1- 
portant branches of the pastoral office; and, as they are 
the fruit of long experience in the ,york of the 111inistry, 
and that too the experience of Bishop 'ViIson, they carry 
their o,vn recommendation ,vith thenl and lviI1, \ve doubt 
not, be favourably received bJ the reverend body, for 
whose use they arc intended and to ,vhom they are ll108t 
rcspectfully offered. 



'1'0 


1
 II E C 1
 E I
. G Y 


OF THE 


DIOCESE OF SODOR AND 
ll\N. 


Bishop's-Court, :\Iarch 3, 1708. 


J.1I!I deal' bretltren, 
I PERSUADE DI)'self that you will take the following advice 
well froln l11e, because, besides the authority (}od has given nl0.7 
I have always encouraged you to give me your assistance to 
enable DIe to discharge my duty. 
Every return of Lent (a tilDe ,,,hen people were wont either 
to call themselves or to be called to an account) should put us, 
above all men, upon exal11ining and judging ourselves, because 
we are to answer for the faith and Dlanners of other
 as well as 
for our own; and therefore this is a very proper season to take 
an account both of our flocl<:s and of ourselves, which would 
Inake our great account less hazardous and dreadful. 
Let IDe therefore entreat you, at this tinle
 to do what I alwaYb 
have obliged Iuyself to; nanlely, carefully to lool\.. over your 
ordination vows. I t is very cOll
lnel1dable to do this every 
Elnber- week, but it would be unpardonable negligence Dot once 

t year to consider what we have bound ourselves to and taken 
the 
acranlent upon it. 
In the first place, therefore, ij
 lee li
crv indeed 'ilbOl,'ul h!J the 
1Iol!! Glwst and trul!! c(llled to the IllÍlt;istr!J of tlte church. as we 
declare(l we \\ere, thi8 will appeal' in our conduct ('yer since. 



:364 


BishOjJ JVilson's Pal'oclâal-ia : 


Let us then consider whether our great ainl has been to prolnote 
tho glory of God with which we were intrusted and the eternal 
interest of the souls con1nlitted to our charge, aceording to the 
vows that are upon us? If not, for God's sake let us put on 
resolutions of better obedience for the tinle to come. 
The holy scriptures are the rule, by which we and our people 
are to be judged at the last day; it is for this W{' solen1nly pro- 
lllise, to he diligent in readillg and to instrztct our people out of 
tlie sauw 1ioly sCl'iptztres. They do indeed sufficiently contai/
 all 
doctrine Iwcessary to eternal salvation (as ,ve profess to believe) 
but then they nlu
t be carefully studied, often consulted and 
the Holy Spirit often applied to for the true understanding of 
thenl; or else in vain is all.our labour, and we are false to our 


YO\YS. 
Upon which heads it will behove us to consider, ho\v 111tlCh 
,ve have neglected this necessary study;-ho\v often we have 
contented ourselves with reading just so much as we were 
obliged to by the public office
 of the church !-Ho\! apt such 
as read not the holy scriptures are to run to other books for 
n1atter for their sermons; by which Ineans they have been too 
often led to speak of errors and vices, which did no way concern 
their hearers, or of things above their capacities :-and it has 
often appeared that they thelnselves have scarce been convinced 
of (and of course have not been heartily in love with) the truths, 
,vhich they have recommended to others; which is the true 
reason why their sermons Inay have done so little good. 
But when a man is sensibly affected with the value of sonls, 
,vith the danger they are in, with the manner of their redenlP- 
tion and the price paid for them; and is ,veIl acquainted with 
the New Testal11ent, in which all this is plainly set forth ;-as he 
will never \vant Dlntter for the b(1st sermons, so he will neyer 
,vant arguments sufficient to conv
nce his hearers, 11is own heart, 
being touched with the ilnportance of the subject. U uder this 
head, we nlust not forget to charge ourselves with the neglect of 
catechising 
 for, as it is one of the 111081 ncce:ssary duties of the 
Ininistry, so it is bound upon u
 by laws, canons, rubrics and 
constitutions, enough to a,val{cn the lTIOst careless :,unong us to a 
Blore diligent. discharge of this duty. 
J
ut though we 
houId be nev('r 
o cliIigpnt in thcsr duties, if 
onr pOl1y{\rsntion np not prlifying-. we .
hal1 only bring the
( 



or IIl
truction.;; to ltis Ole'ì:qy. 


365 


ordinances into conteIupt; and therefore, when a priest is or- 
dained, he prolnises, b..1J God's help, to frallze and fasldon ltimself 
and family, so as to 'Inale botlt, as uluclt as in 'lint lieth, 
l)holes(J'Jne 
examples and jJatterns of tlie floclå- of Ollrist. 
Under which head it will be fit to consider what offence we 
may have given, by an unwary conversation, by crinlinalliLerties, 
&c. that we Inay beg God'ls pardon and Inake sonle alnends by 3, 
nlore strict behaviour for the future; that ,ve may be examples 
to the flock, teaching then1 sobriety, by our strict telllperance ; 
charity, by our readiness to forgive; devotion, by our ardent zeal 
in the offering up their prayers to God. 
They that think all their work is done when the service of 
the Lord's day is over, do not remenlber that they have pro- 
nlised to use both public and private monitions, as well to the sick 
as to the whole, within their cures, as need shall require, and 
as occasion shall be given. Upon this head, let us look back 
and see how often we have forborne to reprove open offenders, 
either out of fear or froln a sinful modesty, or for worldly 
respects :-considerations, which should never conle in com- 
petition with the honour of God, with which a clerg)'nlan 
stands charged. 
Let us consider how few we have admonished privately; ho\v ' 
few we have reclaimed; and how l11any, who are yet under the 
power of a sinful life, \vhich we n1Îght have reclaimed by such 
admonitions ! 
Let us consider how many have been in affliction of luind, I 
body or estate, without any benefit to their souls, for want of 
being made sensible of the hand and voice and design of God 
in such visitation! How n1an)' have recovered froll1 the bed of 
sickness without becol11ing better men, only for want of being 
put in Inind of the fears they were under and the thoughts they 
had and the pron1ises they Inade, when they were in danger!- 
IÆ,stly, how nlany have lived and died in sin, without luaking 
their peace with God or satisfaction and rest.itution to nlan, for 
want of being forewarned of the account they were to give! A 
negligence which we cannot reflect upon without tren1bling. 
It will here likewise be proper to consider how nlany offenders 
have escaped the cen
ures of the church through our neglect, 
by which they 111ight have been luunbled for their sins, and 
others restrainf'd frotn falling into tho like nliscarriagt.s.-Othel' 



3Gü 


Bishop nTilsún's Papocltialia : 


churches lalnent the \vant of that discipline, which we (blessc(l 
be God) can e'{ercise. I-Io\V great then is the sin of those who, 
by laziness or part.iality, ,vould bring it into disuse! 
Because a great deal depends upon the manner of our perfonu... 
ing divine offices, ,ve ought to reflect upon it, how of ton we read 
the prayers of t.he church with coldness and indevotion and 
administer the sacralnents \vith an indifference unworthy of the 
holy Inysteries; by which it conIes to pass that some despise and 
SOlne abhor the service of God! Let us detest such indevotion, 
and resolve upon a beconling seriousness when ,ve offer up the 
supplications of the people to God, that they, seeing our zeal, 
l11ay be persuaded that it is not for trifles ,ve pray, nor out of 
custon1 only that ,ve go to cllurch. 
The great secret of attaining such an affecting way is to be 
constant and serious in our private devotions, which will beget 
in us a spirit of piety, able to influence our voice and actions. 
Having thus taken an account of our own engagenlents and 
heartily begged God's pardon for our on1Ïssions and prescribed 
rules to ourselves of acting suitably to our high calling for the 
future, ,,,e shall be better disposed to take an account of our 
flock: always rel11elnbering, that our love to Christ is to be 
expressed by feeding his sheep. 
I have observed with satisfaction that In08t people, who by 
their age are qualified, do come to the Lord's supper at Easter. 
Now it is llluch to be feared that f';uch as generally turn their 
backs upon that holy ordinance at other titues, do come at this 
titne }nore out of custom, or to con1ply \vith the la,,"s, than out of 
a sense of duty. 
This is no way to be prevented, but by giving theul a true 
notion of this holy sacrament, such as shall neither encourage 
the profane to eat and drink thpir own daulnation, nor discourage 
well-meaning people frOIH receiving the greatest con1fort and 
support of the Christian life. 
To this end it will be highly conducive (and I earnestly recom.. 
Inend it to you) to luake this the subject of a good part of J'our 
sermons during Lent. But let them be plain and practical dis- 
courses, such as Inay set forth the nature, end and benefits of 
the Lord's supper. That it is to keep up the ren1embrance of 
the sacrifice and death of Christ, whereby alone ,ve obtain 
remission of our sins and all other benefits of his passion. That 



OJ' Instructions to !tis Cler.q!l. 


367 


it is a 1113,rk of our being llleinbers of Christ's church, a token of 
our being in covenant with God. That a sinner has nothing but 
this to plead fOI' pardon, when the devil or his conscience accuse 
hiln before God. That we ought to receive as often as conveni- 
ently we can, that, as Peter Dalnian expresses himself, "the 
old serpent, seeing the blood of the Lal11b upon our lips, 111ay 
trmnble to approach us." That.J esus Christ presents before 
God in heaven his death and merits, for all such as duly reluem- 
bel' thenl on earth. 
Let thelll know that. a Christian life is the best preparation;- 
that God respects sincerity of heart above all things; which 
consists in doing what God has cOlluuanded us, to the best of our 
knowledge and power. 
Let them know the danger of unworthy receiving, without 
full purposes of anlendinent of life. And that they 111ay know 
wherein they have offended and that they may have no cloke 
f01' t!teil' sin, it would be very convenient, SOlne Sunday before 
Easter, to read to them SOllle heads of self- examination (leaving 
out such sins and duties, in which none of thenl are concerned) 
such as you will find at the latter end of the Whole Duty of :1\lan 
and in lllany other books of devotion. 
But to nlake your sernlons more effectual (and I desire it and 
require it of you) that you take an account of the state and 
condition of your particular flocks, during the approaching sea- 
son and visit and deal in private with those, upon ",honl your 
sernlons have probably had no influence. 
Let them know that t.he church obliges you to deny them the 
Llessed sacraillent, 'which is the 111eans of salvation" until JOu can 
be satisfied of their reforlnation. 
Let such as live in n1alice, envy or in any other grievous 
crinle and yet come to the holy table as if they were in a state of 
salvation; let theln be told that they provoke God to plague 
them with his judgn1ents. 
Adillonish such as are litigious and vex their neighbours with- 
out cause, that this is contrary to the spirit and rules of Christi- 
anitv ;- that this holy sacralnent either finds or nlakes all COln- 
w w 
nlunicants of one heart and lllind, or mightily increases their 
guilt that are not nlade so. 
Tell such as are wont, before that solemn season of receiving, 
to forbear drinking and their other vices,-that fast and pray 



S6
 


Bishup TfTil.;;un's POÎ
ocldalia: 


for a few day
 ;-tell then1 plainly that none of these exerei8eB 
are acceptable to l
od, which are not attended with a111enlhl1cnt 
of life. 
Rebuke severely such as despi
e and profane the Lord's-day; 
111ake then1 sensible that a curse lllUSt be upon that fiul1ily, out 
of which none goes to church to obtain 3, blessing upon thos(\ 
that stay at hon1e. 
Tell such as have submitted to church censures and are not 
becoIne better n1en, how abolninable that hypocrisy is, that 111ade 
them utter the nlost so]en1n proll1ises, which they never nleant 
to keep. 
By this luethod you will answer the ends of that rubric 
before the Comulunion, which requires all persons that design 
to receive to signify their l1alnes to the curate at least SOBle tinle 
the day before-an order \vhich, if observed, \vould give us rarp 
opportunities of adlllonishing offenders, who yet do not think 
thenlseh-es in danger. 
Lastly, in Inaking this visitation you ,vill see what children 
are uncatechised, what falnilies have no face of religion in 
them, &c. 
J3ut for God's sake relneInber that, if an this is not done in the 
spirit of meekness, with prudence and sweetness, you will never 
attain the end proposed by such a visitation of your parish. 
Do but consider with what goodness our blessed 
Iastcr 
treated with sinners, a.nd you will bear much in order to reduce 
them. At the sanle time fear not the face of any nlan, while you 
are engaged in the cause of God and in the ,yay of your duty. 
He will either defend you or reward your sufferings; and can, 
'when he pleases, terrify gainsayers. 
It is true, all this is not to be done without trouble; but then 
consider what grief and weariness and contClnpt our l\Iaster 
underwent, in turning sinners fron1 the power of Satan unto God: 
and as he saw the travail ofltis soul, so shall \ve roap very great 
benefit by it even in this world. 
"r e shall have great satisfaction in seeing our churches 
thronged with COllllllunicants, who COIne out of a sense of duty 
Inore tha.n out of 3, blind obedience. We shall gain a wonderful 
authority anlongst our people. Such as have any spark of grace 
\vi]] love and respect you for your frienùly adn10nition: such a
 
haye none, will however re\'erence you and stand in awe of you. 



or I'lst,'uctions to his Clergy. 


3U9 


And they that pay you tithes will by this be coñvinced that it 
is not for doing nothing that you receive them, since your calling 
obliges you to continual labour and thoughts of heart. 
That you nlay do all this with a spirit of piety ,vorthy of the 
priesthood, you have two excellent books in Jour hands, The 
Pastoral Care, and The Country Parson, which I hope I need 
not enjoin you to read over at this tilne. 
I considered that the best men have sometimes need of being 
stirred up, that they may not lose a spirit of piety, which is but 
too apt to languish. This is all the apology I shall make for this 
address to )'ou at this time. 
Now that both you and I may give' a comfortable account of 
our office and charge, as it is the design of this Jetter, so it shall 
be my hearty prayer to God. 
I am your affectionate brother, 


THO
IAS SODOR AND 
IAN. 


sb 



I> A It 0 C IlIA L I -1\. 


. 


OF CONFIR
IATION. 


Of answering the ends of this apostolical institution. 
THERE is no question to be Blade of it but that nlost of that 
ignorance, inlpiety, profaneness, ,vant of charity, of union 
and order, which we conlplain of, is owing to the neglect or 
abuse of this one ordinance; which being appointed by the 
apostles and practised even when baptism 'vas adn1Ìnistered to 
people of full age a , it is no ,vonder that God punishes the con- 
telnpt of it, by withholding his holy Spirit and those graces 
\vhich are necessary and would certainly accolnpany the religious 
use of it. 
If this were well considered and pastors would resolve to 
discharge their duty in this particular faithfully, ,ve should soon 
see another face of religion: Christians ,yould be obliged to 
study their religion and to think it something more than a work 
of the lips and of the Inenlory, or the nlere CustOlU of the place 
where they live. And being nlad sensible of their danger (being 
liable to sin, to deatlt and to darnnation) this \vould Dlake them 
serious and thoughtful and inquisitive after the luanneI' of their 
redemption and the nleans of salvation ;-and their consciences 
being awakened and infornled, sin \voltld beco111e more uneasy to 
then1 and virtue 1110re acceptable. In short, by this nleans 
people would know their duty, the sacralnents ,yould be kept 
frotH being profaned and pastors would be respected and obeyed, 
as being very truly the fathers of their flock. 


a Acts viii, 17. 



Bp. JVilson's InstJ'llCt-ions to his Ole)"!JY. 371 
And certainly no greater injury can be done to religion than 
to t:Juffor young people to come to confirmation, before they 
know the reason of this service and have been well instructed 
in the principles and duties of Christianity. This being the very 
tinle of seasoning their luinds ,vith sound knowledge, of fortify- 
ing their wills ,vith sober resolutions and of engaging them to 
piety, before sin has got the possession of their affections; this 
being also the tiIne of qualifying theln to receive benefit by all our 
future labours andofarnling them against apostasy, heresy, schisnl 
and all other vices, to which ,ve are subject in this state of trial. 
In short, I do not know how a clergYluan could possibly 
spend one month better than by leading young people, as it 
were, by the hand, into the design of Christianity, by SOlne such 
easy method as this following: if which, deliberately proposed 
to every single person in t.he hearing of all the rest (who should 
be obliged to be every day present) and fanliliarly explained, 
not the most ignorant (supposing he had learned, as he ought, 
the Church Catechism) but ,,"ould be able to give a reason of tlte 
hope that is in hin
; and his faith being thus built upon a solid 
and sure foundation, ,,"ould, by the grace of God now iluparted 
to hinl in a greater Ineasure, \vithstand all future trials and 
teIuptations. 


The metltad of clealinq witlt young Ohristians, in o'1'der to fit tltern 
for conþr Jìzation. 
I DO not ask JOu, whether you believe in Goel: you cannot 
open your eyes but you must, by the world that you see, 
acknowledge the God that nlade it and does still preserve it;- 
that He is infinite in power, in wisdom and in goodness ;-that 
in Him ,ve live and move and have our being; -that He is 
therefore worthy of all the love and. service that we can possibly 
pay Hitn. 
Ho\V' then do you think it COlues to pass, that so nlany who 
profess to know God, do yet in tlteir 'lco'ples deny hÙn b? 'Vh)', this 
shews plainly t.hat man is fallen fronl that good estate in which 
God created him. He knows that he ought to live righteously, 
as in the sight of an holy and just God ;-that he should be 
afraid of doing any thing to offend so powerful a Being ;-that 
he should love and strive to please him, upon whose goodness 
he depends; and that he should obey all his laws. And yet 
b Titus i, 16. 
ßb
 



37
 


Bishop JVilson's Parochialia: 


be cannot prevail with himself to do \vhat he is persuaded he 
ought to do. 
This lllay convince you that man's nature has been sadly 
corrupted some ,vay or other; we having, in everyone of us, the 
seeds of all manner of wickedness, which, if not kept under, \vill 
certainly grow up and be our ruin. 
No\v, the holy scriptures tell you how this came to pass; 
nan1ely, that our first parents being created perfect (that is, able 
to know and obey any law that God should give them) God 
gave thellI the la\v of nature and right reason to live by, and 
required of thenl a perfect obedience, with this assurance, that 
they should never die, if they did not transgress one particular 
cOlllllland-of not eating the forbidden fruit, which command 
\\'as given them both to try their obedience and to keep their 
appetites in subjection. 
Now, they did transgress this command and thereby became 
subject to sin, to death-the reward of sin-and to the wrath of 
God; for God withdre,v the supernatural po\vers and graces 
which he had given theIn, so that no\v, though they kne\v ,vhat 
\"as fit to be done, yet had they no longer power to perform it; 
\vhich would certainly have driven thenl to despair, but that 
God ,vas pleased illlinediately to comfort then1 \vith this promise, 
that a titHe \vas conling when he would send one to redeem 
thelu and their posterity froni this lliiserable bondage; and that 
he would then receive thenl again into favour, upon reasonable 
conditions. 
In the Ineal1 tilHe, Adaln begat a race of children after his (}wn 
likeness c ; that is, with such a corrupt nature as his own was now 
becollle; and his posterity grew every day 1110re and nlore 
wicked, till at last God destroyed the \vhole world (except eight 
persons) by a flood. 
JJut this did not destroy the seeds of sin which ,vas in them, 
for by these eight pel'sons the world was peopled with a -race of 
men, who in a short tin1e did quite forget and forsake God; and 
for the nlost part becalne the subjects of the devil and \vere 
led captives by him at his ,vine 
,At last, God remeulbered his pronlise, and resolving to 
mend that disorder \vhich sin had caused in the world, he sent 
his Son to take our nature upon hilll and to give Inankind 
l.
surance that God \vould be reconciled to them upon very 
c Genesib v, 3. 



or Instrztctions to his Olergy. 


373 


Inerciful conditions; nan1ely, if they would renounce the devil, 
who first tempted man to sin, and accept of such laws and rules 
as were necessary to change their nature, which was no\v become 
prone to evil continually. 
Now, to assure them that Jesus Christ came with this message 
from God, he did such miracles as none but God could do; and 
to convince us how much he loved us and what a 8ad thing sin 
is (which nothing but his death could atone for) he gave his 
life a ransom for us; the punishn1ent due to 
tS being laid on 
him. 
And God, to let us know that he was well pleased with what 
his Son had done and taught and sltffèred, raised hitn to life, after 
he had been crucified and received him up into heaven, and gave 
him all power in heaven and in earth, and sent down the Holy 
Ghost, with mighty power, to set up his kingdom, which is his 
church, among men ;-to destroy the kingdonl of Satan, ,vho 
hitherto had ruled \vithout control ;-and to free nlankind from 
the tyranny and slavery of sin. 
In order to this, the Holy Ghost appointed certain persons 
(who are called Christ's ministers) and gave theln power to 
receive into his church all such as \voldd promise to obey his 
la ws. 
Your parents therefore took care (as the Jews did by their 
children) to consecrate you to God and Christ as soon as you 
\vere born. And this they did by baptislll (as Jesus Christ had 
commanded) by which holy ceremony you were dedicated t.o 
God, who 'inade you; to Jeszts Christ, who redeemed you; and to 
the Holy Ghost, who sanctifieth all God's chosen servants. 
Thus you were translated (or taken) out of the kingdom of 
darkness into the kingdonl, protection and government of Jesus 
Christ d : and being thus received into Christ's church, you becan1e 
a child of God and an heir of the kingdoul of heaven. 
But then you are to consider, that before you were adulitted 
to this. favour, your sureties prolllised for you, that when you 
should come to age, you should in your own person and with 
your own free consent, renounce the devil and all his works, the 
world and all its wicked customs, and the flesh with all its sinful 
lusts :-that you should believe in God, that is, receive the 
gospel as a rule of faith; and obediently keep God'ls cOlnmand- 
ments. 


d Col. i, 13. 



374 


Bishop JVilson's Parocltialia: 


You are no\v therefore called upon to do this before God, 
\vho kno,vs all the secrets of your hearts ;-before God's minister, 
who will charge you very solemnly to be sincere ;-and before 
the congregation, who \vill be witnesses against you, if you shall 
break your vows. 
I must tell you further that to root or keep out evil habits 
and to get habits of virtue and to live as becomes a Christian, is 
not so easily done as pron1Ísed. 
Yon \vill be obliged to take pains, to \vatch and pray and 
deny yourself and even lay down your life, rather than deny 
your profession or dissenlble it. 
But then you ,viII not think this too much, \vhen you consider 
that it is for your life and that it is to escape eternal death. 
For Jesus Christ has Inade kno,vn to us that this life is a 
state of trial and only a passage to another life, ,vhere Goà will 
take an account how' all nlen have behaved thenlselves here and 
appoint them a portion suitable to what they have done in the 
body, \vhether good or bad: When they that have done good, 
shall go into life everlasting; and they that have done evil, into 
everlasting misery. 
Now, that you may not despair of going through the \vork of 
your salvation and getting the victory over all your enemies, 
.J esus Christ hath sent down his holy Spirit to be communicated 
hy tlte laying on of hands e , to all Euch as are disposed to receive 
him; by which Alnlighty Spirit all your enemies shall be 
subdued, all your lusts nlortified, your corruptions rooted 
out and your soul purified; so that, when you die, you will 
be fit to be carried to the quiet and happy regions of para- 
dise, where the souls of the faithful enjoy perpetual rest and 
happiness. 


Every Christian, who is preraring binlself for confirmation, 
ought to have this or SOlne such short account of the nlethod of 
divine grace read to him distinctly (and explained where there 
is need) once every day for one nlonth, at least, before that holy 
ordinance; that he may remember it as long as he lives and be 
able to give a reason of the !tolJe t!tat is in hÙn. 
But, forasmuch as he is to renew his vows before God, who 
\vill be provoked \vith the hypocrisy and impiety of those, who 


e Acts viii, I 7. 



OJ'' Instr
tct1'ons to ltis Clei:fJ!lo 


375 


promise what they do not understand, or what they do not think 
of performing, a good pastor will not fail to ask every person, in 
the presence of the rest (that by hearing them often they nlay 
be better able to remember them) sonle such questions as these 
following: 


01 renouncing the Devil, 
c. 
ARE you convinced that you ought to love God, as he is the 
author of all good, and upon whom you depend for life and breath 
and all things 
 
'Vhy then consider that you cannot possibly love God, un- 
less you renounce the love of eyery thing that Inay displease 
hinl. 
Do you know that all sin is displeasing to God, as being the 
transgression of his law f 
 
Do you therefore renounce all sin and every thing that would 
draw you from God 
 
Do you renounce the devil, the great enemy of God and man; 
all his 'works, such as pride, malice, revenge and lying; and wicked 
men, which are his agents 
 
Do you know that this is not the ,vorld you ,vere nlade for; 
that it is only a passage to another 
 
Do yon then renounce the world,' that is, an evil customs, all 
that is wicked or vain, all covetous desires and inordinate love 
of riches or pleasures or honours,-which are the ,vodd's idols 
and dra\v the heart fronl the love of God? 
'ViII JOu renounce and abhor all !fouthfitllusts, all sins of im- 
purity and uncleanness, and all sins which lead to these; such as, 
gl
tfton!/ and drunkenness, filthy 'words and songs, intemperance and 
an idle life ? 
Do you kno,v that it is a very hard thing to break off evil 
habits? 
Will you then call yourself often to an account, that you 
Dlay repent and alnend, before sin and hell get dOluinion over 
you
 
Will you be careful to avoid all temptat.ions and occasions of 
sin, and especially of f:l1ch sins as you are most apt to fall into 
 
'ViII you keep a strict watch over your heart, remembering 
that adulteries, murders, thefts and all manner of "ickedness 
proceed from thence 
 


f I John iii, 4. 



376 


Bishop Wilson"s Parochialia: 


Since heaven and happiness eternal are blessings too great to 
be attained \vithout labour and pains, will you resolve in earnest 
to enter in at the strait gate, cost what trouble it will? 
,V ill you be temperate in all things, deny yourself and use 
such abstinence as, the flesh being subdued to the spirit, you 
may in all things obey all godly motions 
 
Are you convinced that the po,ver to do good is from God 
 
\Vill you then pray to God daily that his holy Spirit ll1ay in 
all things direct and rule your heart? 
And will you take care to remenlber this great rule of the 
gospel, - that he, that makes use of God's grace, shall have 
still more grace; and he, that neglects it, shall lose what he 
h
h? · 


Of faith in God, in Jesus Ohrist, 
c. 
YOU know it is your duty to helieve in and to love God. 
. That you Inay do so truly, you nlust often think of God as the 
author and fountain of all good; you must pray to him, give him 
thanks, and always Bpeak of him with great reverence. 
'ViII you resolve to do so ? 
And if you set God always before you and renlember that he 
hates all iniquity, that he sees all you do or speak or tldnk, this 
will fill your heart \vith godly fear. 
Are you persuaded that nothing does happen in the \vorld 
\vithout God's knowledge and perlnission 
 
'Vill you then trust in the Lord wit.h all your heart and rest 
assured that neither nlen nor devils can hurt you \vithout his 
leave! 
'Vill you consider afflictions as coming from the hands of a 
good God and therefore to be borne with patience, sub1nission 
and a firm faith that all things work together for good to those 
that fear God? 
The holy scripture, as ,veIl as sad experience, assures us that 
our nature is corrupt and prone to evil continually. Are you 
truly sensible of this 
 
If you are, then you know for certain that you are liable to 
the wrath of God and that there is a necessity of a Redeemer 
to make your peace with God and to shew you ho,v to please 
him. 
Know then that it ,vas for this reason that the Son of God 
took our nature upon him, that he might suffer what we had 



or Instructions to his Olergy. 


377 


deserved to suffer, and that God laid on hiln the iniquities of us 
all, and that he hath obtained everlasting redemption for all them 
that obey hinl. 
Are you then persuaded that such as do not lay hold of this 
mercy n1ust suffer the ,vrath of God in their own persons 
 
Are you then resolved to fly to God's mercy, for Christ's sake, 
to obey his laws and follo\v his example? 
'Vill you always endeavour to do what you believe Christ 
would do, if he were in your place and circumstances 
 
'ViII you set before your eyes his s'lffferinps, his humility, his 
patience, his charity and his sulnnission to the will of God, in 
order to direct, to support and comfort you in all your troubles? 
And remember that Jesus Christ is now in heaven, in his 
hlunan nature, evernlore interceding for all that go to God 
by him. 
Do you firnlly believe all that God hath made known to us by 
his Son 
 
Do you believe that we must all appear before t.he judgment- 
seat of Christ, by \vhose righteous sentence, they that have done 
good shall go into life everlasting and they that have done evil 
into everlasting misery? 
"\Vill you then live like one that believes all this; being care- 
ful of all your thoughts, words and actions, which must then 
be judged 
 
Do you know that in baptism we are dedicated to the Holy 
Ghost, because it is he, who must sanctify our nature and fit us 
by his graces for heaven? 
'ViII JOu then pray earnestly to God, and especially at this 
titne, t.o give you this blessing, since he himself hath promised 
to 9'ive the Holy Spz.rit to the'Jn that ask hÙn? 
'ViII you order your life according to that \yord, \vhich he 
inspired, and take care not to grieve him by continuing in any 
known sin? 
And since you are taught and governed by a bishop and 
pastors comnlissioned by the Holy Ghost g, will you therefore 
live in obedience to them, to whom Jesus Christ Inade this 
promise h : Lo, I arll with you alway, even unto the end of th.e 
'world? 
'''ill you treat all Christian people with love and charity, 


g Acts xx, 28. 


h 
Iatth. xxviii, 20. 



378 


Bishop Wilson's Par'ochialia: 


as being members of that body, of \vhich Jesus Christ. is the 
head 
 
'ViII you hope for forgiveness of sins for Christ's sake only 
and believe that the goodness of God ought to lead JOU to 
repentance 
 
Do you believe that there \vill be a resurrection both of the 
just and unjust 
 
Do you faithfully believe that after this life there will be a 
state of endless happiness or endless misery 
 
Remember then that a saving faith purifietlb the heart; and 
that a good faith must be kno,vn by its fruits, as one tree is 
known fronl another. 


.. 


Of obedience to God's com'inands, &c. 
ARE you persuaded that the design of all true religion is to 
make men holy, that they may be happy 
 
Do you think that man is able to find out a ,vay to please God, 
and to govern himself by his own reason? 
So far from it that, \vhen God left men to themselves (as he 
did the heathens) they chose the most foolish and abominable 
ways of serving their gods and fell into ,vickednesses scarce fit 
to be named i. 
'Vill you then make the law of God the rule of your life 
 
Will you be careful not to love or fear any thing more than 
God 
 for that \vould be your idol. 
Will you ,vorship God with reverence; that is, upon your 
knees, when you ask his pardon or blessing; standing up, ,vhen 
you praise him, and by hearing his ,vord with attention 
 
'ViII you honour God's nanle, so as not to use it but with 
seriousness 
 
Will you abhor all manner of oaths, except ,vhen you are 
called before a magistrate; and ,viII you then speak the truth, 
as you hope the Lord ,viII hold you guiltless 
 
Will you remember to keep holy the Lord's day, as that ,vhich 
sanctifies the ,vhole \veek 
 
,V ill you honour your parents and be subject to the higher 
powers, obeying all their la\vful conlnlanòs 
 
'ViII you reverence your pastors and take in good part all 
their godly adnloni tions 
 


i Rom. i. 



or Instructions to his Olergy. 


379 


Will you be careful not to hurt or wish any man's death, not 
be glad at misfortunes or grieve men without cause 
 
'ViII you be gentle and easy to be entreated, that God for 
Christ's sake may be so towards you 
 
'ViII you remember that whoredom and sins of inlpurity will 
certainly keep men out of heaven 
 
Do you believe that restitution is a necessary duty (where it 
can be made) without w
ich there is no forgiveness 
 
If you believe this, you will never wrong any body by force, 
fraud or by colour of la\v; you wiII pay all your just debts and 
never take advantage of any man's necessity. 
'ViII you remember that the God of truth hateth lying,-that 
the devil is the father of lies,-and that liarsJl slanderers and 
backbiters, are to have their portion in the lake that b'lcrneth 'with 
fire and brÏ1llstone k ? 
'ViII you endeavour to be content with your own condition, 
neither envying that of others nor bettering your own by unjust 
ways? 
'Vill you in all your actions have an eye to God; and say to 
yourself, I do this or forbear that, because God hath commanded 
11ze ? 
'ViII you remember this good rule, never to undertake any 
thing which you dare not pray God to prosper 
 
Are you convinced that all power to do good is from God; 
and that without his grace you cannot keep his commandments 
 
Will you then pray to God daily, that his holy Spirit may in 
all things direct and rule your heart ? 
J.\;Iay the gracious God enable you to do what you h3Jve now 
resolved upon. 
You are now going to profess yourself a member of the church 
of Christ. 
'ViII you then endeavour to becolne a ,vorthy member of that 
society 
 
'ViII you make the gospel of Christ your rule to walk by, and 
obey them that are over you in the Lord 
 
'ViII you promise, by the grace of God, to continue in the 
unity of this churchJl of which you are now going to be made a 
complete member 
 
If you should be so unhappy as hereafter to faU into any 


k Rev. xxi, R. 



380 


Bishop Wilson's Parochialia: 


scandalous sin, will you patiently submit to be reformed by godly 
discipline? 
Will you be very careful not to let wicked and profane people 
laugh you out of these holy purposes and resolutions, remem- 
bering the words of J eSllS Christ; He that denieth me, him will 
God den!! ? 


If this short method were conscientiously observed by every 
curate of souls, for thirty or forty days before every confirmation, 
and two or three hours every day spent in reading deliberately 
the short account of religion and in asking every particular 
person the questions, in the hearing of all the rest (which 
according to our constitution ought not to be above thirty or 
forty at one tÍIne) I will venture to say that the remen1brance 
of this dut!! would be of more comfort to a pastor on his death- 
bed than of all the rest of his labours. 


A pra!!er that ma!! be used ever..lJ day during the time of 
instruction. 


o LORD, graciously behold these thy servants, who, accord- 
ing to the appointments of thy church, are going to dedicate 
themselves to thee and to thy service. 
Possess their hearts with such a lively sense of thy great 
mercy, in bringing them from the power of Satan unto God ;- 
in giving them an early right to thy covenant and an early 
knowledge of their duty; that" with the full consent of their 
wills, they n1ay devote themselves to thee; that so they n1ay 
receive the fulness of thy grace and be able to \vithstand the 
temptations of the devil, the world and the flesh. 
Continue them, 0 Lord, in the unity of thy church and grant 
that they n1ay improve all the means of grace vouchsafed them 
in this church, of \vhich they are members. 
Preserve in their minds a constant remembrance of that love, 
which they are going to renew before thee and thy church. 
That kno\ving they are the servants of the living God, they 
may walk as in thy sight, avoid all such things as are contrary 
to their profession and follo\v all such as are agreeable to the 
same. 
o Lord, who hast made then1 thy children by adoption, bring 
them in thy good time to thine everlasting kingdoll1, through 
Jesus Christ our Lord. A 1nen. 



or Instr'uctions to his Olergy. 


381 


OF THE LORD'S SUPPER. 
The method of 
.nst'J'ztctz'ng such as have heen confirmed, in order to 
prepare them for this holy ordinance. 
IF Christians do frequently turn their backs upon this sacra- 
ment and are not concerned to have it often administered or 
seenl little affected when they do partake of it, one llIay certainly 
conclude, they never truly understood the meaning of it. 
This ll1ight surely, in some measure, be prevented, if due pains 
were taken to give young people a distinct knowledge of tit is 
most important duty
. and of the manner of pr
paring theln- 
selves for it, before they should be adulitted the .first tinw to 
the sacralllent; for want of which, very lllany continue in a 
gross ignorance both of the nleaning and benefits of this ordi- 
nance all their days. 
A good pastor, therefore, will not suffer anyone to come to 
the holy communion, until he has taken pains to exanline and 
inform hinI very particularly concerning the meaning of this 
ordinance and the ends for ,vhich it ,vas appointed ;-,vhat this 
sacranlent obliges Christians to and the benefits they luay expect 
from it ;-with what dispositions a Christian should COBle to it, 
and the great sin of despising it. 
The young Christian should, for instance, be put in nlind that. 
as there \vere in the Jewish, so there are in the Christian church, 
two sa cra'in en ts . 
That the sacranlent of baptism ,vas ordained by Christ for 
admitting us into his church upon certain conditions, \vhich such 
as are baptized in their infancy are to perfonn, ,vhen they come 
to age. 
And the holy supper he ordained, that Christians might have 
an opportunity of renewing their baptislual vows, which they 
are but too apt to forget and of Inaking their peace with God, 
when they had broke his laws and desire sincerely to return to 
their duty. 
Now, as Jesus Christ did hy his death make our peace with 
God and obtain eternal redemption for all tltern that obey lâ'Jl
, ,va 
Christians, in obedience to his cOlllllland, do keep up the re- 
membrance of his death until his coming again, after this solemn 
'lnanneJ'I. 
First, As God is the I\:ing of all the earth, we offer un to him 
the best things that the earth affords for the life of nlan, namely, 



382 


Risho}) 1VilsQn's Parocltialia: 


bread and wine, as an acknowledgment that all \ve have, whether 
for the support or comfort of our lives, is owing entirely to his 
bounty. 
The bread and wine being placed upon the altar (by \vhich 
they are sanctified, that is, set apart for holy uses) we then pro- 
ceed to give God thanks for his Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, who 
is the life of our so
tls, after this manner: 
The priest, by doing what Christ did, by prayer and thanks- 
giving, by breaking the bread and pouring out the wine, obtain- 
eth of God, that these creatures beconle, after a spiritual manner, 
the body and blood of Ghrist, by receiving of ,vhich our souls 
shall be strengthened and refreshed, as our bodies are by bread 
and ,vine. · 
For all this is done to represent the death of Jesus Christ 
and the mercies which he has obtained for us; to represent it 
not only to ourselves but unto God the Father, that as the 
prayel's and alms of COfl'nelius are said to llave gone up for a 'lne- 
morial bejofl'e God, so this service may be an argunlent with his 
divine l\lajesty to relnember his Son's death in heaven, as ,ve do 
on earth, and for his sake to blot out our sins and to give us all 
an interest in his Inerits. 
After this \ve all receive the bread and wine (being thus 111ade 
the body and blood of Christ) in token of communion ,vith 
Christ, our head, and \vith all his members. 
And that we lnay have a nlore lively sense imprinted upon 
our souls, of the love of God, of the kindness of our Redeemer, 
and of the benefits he has by the shedding of his blood obtained 
for us, the minister of God applieth the nlerits of Christ's death 
to t.he soul of every faithful receiver, in these ,vords: Eat and 
drink thz.s in remernbrance that Christ died for thee, and that lte 'Jnay 
preserve thy body and SO'ltl unto eternal life. 
By eXplaining the ll1eaning of fltis ordinance after sonle such 
falniliar way as this, a young Christian ,viII see, 
That, by joining in this sacrament, we keep up the remen1brance 
of Christ's death, which is our salvation: 
We plead with God for pardon, for his Son's salce, after a way, 
which his Son himself appointed: 
'Ve are hereby more firnlly united to Christ, our head, and to 
the church, \vhich is his body: 
And lastly, ,ve do hereby express our faith and hope of his 
conling again to reward his faithful servants. 



Oí' InstTuctions to ltis Olergy. 



83 


Now, these being duties of the greatest concern to Christians, 
it is no wonder that the church, directed by St. Paul, very 
seriously exhorts all Christians to exanline and to prepare them- 
selves for this holy ordinance; for if a Christian should presume 
to come to the Lord"s table without knowing what he is going 
to do, without repentance, ,vithout purposes of leading a Christ- 
ian life, without faith in God's lnercy through Christ, without a 
tkanlcfullteart and without charity, he will receive a curse instead 
of a blessing. 
llecause nlany Christians, therefore, especially the )Tounger 
sort, lllay not know upon what heads and after what rranner 
they ought to examine themselves, or lest they should do it by 
halves, or perhaps not at all, a faithful pastor will shew thenl the 
way, by examining them hinlself, after lhis or some such like plain 

ltethod. 


Concerning their repentance. 
DO you kno,y that God will not accept of the service of such 
as live in the practice of any known sin 
 
Let me therefore advise you, as you loye your soul, to con- 
sider seriously, whether you are subject to any evil habit, either 
of l!J'ing or swearing or drinking; or of any sin of 'uncleanness; 
or of an idle life, which will lead to these 
 And if you find you 
are, your duty is to judge yourself, to beg God's pardon and to 
anlend your life. 
'Vill you do this, and in obedience to God, because he requires 
it 
 
'ViII you proluise sincerely to avoid all occasions of sin, espe- 
cially of such sins as you have been ll10st apt to fall into 
 
If through ,veakness or tenlptation you commit any sin, will 
you forthwith confess your fault to God, ask his pardon, and be 
lllore careful for the time to come? 
'ViII you endeavour to live in the fear of God, always 
relllenlbering that a good life is the best preparation for this 
sacrament 
 
'ViII you constantly pray for God's grace and assistance, with- 
out which all your good purposes will come to nothing 
 
'Vill you strive to keep your conscience tender and awake, 
that YOll lllay know ,vhen you sin and that your heart may not 
be hardened, which is the greatest judgnlent ? 



584 


Bishop Wilson's Parochialia: 


Lastly, Will you be careful to keep a watch over yourself, that 
you may not fall into the sins you have repented of
 
And will you often examine into the state of Jour soul, espe- 
cially before you go to the Lord's table, that you n1ay see whether 
you grow in grace and get the mastery over your corruptions 
 
For if you do so, you are certainly under the governUlent of 
God's holy Spirit. 


Concerning a Ohristlan's PU'ì1Joses of leading a new, that is, a 
Ohristian life. 
DO you sincerely purpose to make the law of God the rule of 
your life 
 
',ViII you do \vhatever you believe will please God, and avoid 
\vhat you kno\v or suspect will displease hiln 
 
'ViII you shew that you believe and fear and love God with all 
your heart, by being fearful of offending him, by giving him 
thanks for his nlercies and by praying to hin1 daily for pardon, 
for grace and for protection 
 
Will you have a great regard for every thing that belongs to 
God, his name, his house, his day, his ministers and lùs word? 
'ViII you be careful to attend the public worship of God, and 
especially upon the Lord's day, as you hope for God's blessing 
the \vhole \veele following 
 
Will you be sure to behave yourself reverently in God's house, 
not sitting at your ease ,vhen you should stand or kneel, lest your 
prayers becon1e an abomination? 
'ViII you reverence and obey your parents, your governors 
and your betters, and especially s'uck as are over !IOU in the 
Lord 
 
Will you endeavour to live peaceably and charitably with all 
lnen, avoiding all n1alice, revenge, ill-will and contention 
 
'ViII you be chaste, sober and te1l1perate, as beconles a mem- 
ber of Christ and his fan1Íly, avoiding all excess in meat and 
drink, and an idle life, which are the occasions of sins not fit to 
be named an10ngst Christians 
 
'ViII you be true in all your dealings, avoiding all wrong, 
oppression and extortion 
 
And will you reluelnber that \vithout restitution, where it can 
be made, there is no acceptance with God 
 
Will you be careful to speak the truth, avoiding the sins of 



or Instructiolts tv lÛs Clm:fJ!J. 


385 


lying, of l)erjury, of tale-bearing and ll1eddling with Inatters 
which do not belong to you, 
s things hateful to God and 111a11 
 
'ViII you be content with your lot, ,vhatever it be; neither 
coveting what is another's, nor envying his prosperity, nor being 
glad at his calalnities 
 
Lastly, Will you do these things out of the love ana reverence 
you bear to God, whose laws they are 
 
And will you seriously beg of hinl to write all these laws In 
your hearts and to incline and enable you to keep thenl 
 


How a Christian, should exautÍne wlwtlter he hath a lively faitlt in 
God's 'lnerc!I throu.gh Cltr'Ïst. 
AS the blood of the paschal lamb sprinkled upon their doors 
was that which saved the Israelites froln death, so the blood of 
Jesus Christ is that which saves all Christians that partake of it. 
Do you steadfastly believe this? 
Do you trust in Jesus Christ, and in what he has done and 
suffered for you, and in him only, for pardon and salvation 
 
Do you firnlly believe that Jesus Christ is now in heaven, 
interceding with God, by virtue of his death, for all such as on 
earth do religiously keep up the renlelllbrance of that his death, 
until his coming again 
 
Your faith being built upon the promises of God in Jesus 
Christ, and all his proluises being on condition that we live as 
becomes Christians, will you seriously purpose to do so 
 
And will you remember not to presume on God's n1ercy, or 
expect that he will cOllullunicate his graces, while you continue 
under the power of a sinful life 
 


How a Cltristian .may know wltether he has a thaniful re1ìWln- 
hrance of C'kr.zst's deallt. 
DO you desire to have a thankful rCIlleIubrance of Christ's 
death! 
'Vhy then consider what he has done for you and for all 111an- 
kind, to recover us from a state of sin and lllisery. 
'Ve w:ere all enenÛes to God b!l 'wicked 
corks. J eSllS Christ 
undertook to restore us again to God's favour. God therefore 
laid 01
 him the iniquities of us all: for the 8ake of his death, 
God was pleased to overlook the untowardliness of our nature, 
to forgive us our sins, to look upon us as his children, to give us 
c c 



886 


ß.ishop tV1'lson's Parockialia: 


all the grace and assistance which we shall want; and, if we 
behave ourselves like his children in this state of trial, he will 
for Christ's sake make us happy to all eternity when 've die. 
You see what reason we have to remelnber his death with 
thankful hearts. 
"\Vill you therefore keep these things in your heart, and she,v 
your thankfulness for the sanle, by living like one who has been 
redeemed from death and from danlnation 
 
And will you be sure to remember this; that Jesus Christ did 
indeed die to redeem us fron1 death and hell! But then he Blust 
first redeenl us from this present evil world, from our vain 
conversation and from all iniquity; that is, he must nlake us 
holy that ,ve 111ay be happy, for without holiness no man can see 
the Lord. 


How a Ohristian 'l1Zall exaJJÛne and know 'whether Ite is in charity 
with all men. 
OUR Lord Jesus Christ having by his death restored all 
mankind to the favour of God, he only expects this of us; that 
,ve should love one another as he loved us. 
To this end he hath appointed that in this sacralnent 've 
should all, as members of one family, of ,vhich he is the nlaster, 
as members of one body, of which he is the head, that ,ve should 
eat of one bread in remenlbrance of his death, and in token of 
that strict union, ,vhich there ought to be amongst Christians. 
'ViII you then 'lvallc in love, as Cltrist !tatlt loved us, an(l given 
ltimself for 'Us ? 
Will you consider whether you have given any just occasion 
of offence, or injured any body, so as that )10U ought to ask their 
pardon and make them restitution 
 
A nd that no worldly shame may hinder you from doing so, 
you shall hear the very direction of Christ hinlself :-
latth. v, 

3, 
4, If thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there 'rememherest 
that thy brother hatlt augld against thee; leave there tlt.lf gift hefore 
the altar, and go thy 'way; first he reconciled to thy hrother, and 
then come and offer tlty gift. 
Will you therefore desire forgiveness of all such as you have 
offended? 
And do you forgive all that have offended you? 
Can you heartily pray for every body; and will you do so 
 



or InstructiollS tu ltis Clergy. 


S
7 


'Vill you (as the apostle <lirects) love, not in word only, hut in 
dæd and in truth, that is, doing good, as well as giving good 
words? 
You will see Jesus Christ every day in some of his members; 
sonle naked, some hungry, some in affliction, sOJue wanting 
cOlufort, others instruction: will you, for his sake, be kind to 
them, according to their wants and your power to help thenl? 


Aft.er this, a good pastor "ill let the young Christian see the 
benefits of receiving as often as he has opportunity and the 
great sin of turning his back upon this ordinance. 
He ,viII, for instance, put him in 111ind that all Christians 
being obliged to exaluine thelnselves before they go to this 
sacraluent; this will keep them from falling into a state of sin 
and security. 
That if we find ,,'e grow in grace, we shall have the greatest 
comfort; and if we have not got ground of our corruptions, this 
will make us n10re careful. 
That our faith will hereby be strengthened, when we call to 
remen1brance what Jesus Christ hath done for us, and that 
his love and his power are still the same, if we strive to deserve 
his favour. 
Lastly, That, by duly partaking of this holy ordinance, we 
shall conle to such a state that it will be uneasy to us to offend 
God, and the very pleasure of our souls to obey his laws. 
On the other hand, if a Christian turns his back upon this 
sacranlent (without good cause) he transgresses an express 
conlmand: Do this in renzembrallce of iJle. He shuts hilnself 
out of Christ's fan1Íly; he lives without hopes and without 
prOllllses. 
If therefore he ask how often he should receive this sacra- 
ment, he ought to have an answer in the words of an ancient 
writer: "Receive it as often as you can, that the old serpent, 
seeing the blood of the true Paschal Lalub upon your lips, 
may tremble to approach you." 
And if to these instructions a pastor exhort the young Christian 
t.o be very careful not to separate fronl the church, in unity with 
which he may expect the Holy Spirit and all other benefits of 
Christ's passion: and if he likewise require hiln, at all titnes 
hereafter, before he designs to comnlunicate, to give his pastor 
an account of it (in obedience to the orders of the church) that 
cc
 



SS8 


Bishop JfTils01
'S Parocltialia: 


he may receive further advice as there shall be occasion, he 
will have done a ,york ,vorthy of a good pastor and will un- 
doubtedly receive a good reward for so doing. 


CONCERNI
G F A
lIL Y PRAYER. 


THE very learned and pious bishop Pearson took occasion 
very often and publicly to bless God that he wa
 born and bred 
in a fan1Ïly, in which God was worshipped daily. And certainly, 
it is a duty \vhich entails very nlany blessings on posterity; for 
which reason a pastor should labour with all his Inight to intro- 
duce it into every fan1Ïly under his charge; at least, he should 
give neither himself nor his people any rest, till he has done all 
that lies in his power to effect so good a work; which if he does 
not do, this very intimation will one day rise up in judgnlent 
against hinI. 
And in truth this duty is so reasonable and advantageous 
that a nlan, who will but set about it in good earnest, ,,,ill find 
people less backward than at first he would iluagille. 
To acknowledge God to be the giver of all good gifts ;-to put 
a luan's self, his wife, his cltildren, his servants, and all that 
belongs t.o hinl under God's protection ;-to ask fronl hin1, as 
frOllI a father, whatever \ve want and to thank hiln for ihe fa- 
vours we have received; -these are duties, \vhich the reason of 
luankind closes with as soon as they are fairly proposed. 
And then the advantages of fan1Ïly worship will be evident to 
the nleanest capacities. 
First, To begin and end the day with (Jod, \vill be the likeliest 
\vays to lllake servants faithful, children dutiful, wives obedient 
and kztSbands sober, loving and careful; everyone acting as in 
the sight of God. 
Secondly, rrhis will be a lllighty check upon everyone of the 
faluily and will be a Ineans of preventing Inuch wickeùness;- 
at least, people will 
in with reillorse (which i.
 nIuch better 
than with a seared conscience) when everyone knows he must 
go upon his knees before he sleeps. 
Thirdly, This is the way to entail piety upon the generations 
to come. 'Vhen children and servants, conling to have families 
of their 0\\11, cannot be easy, till they fall into the salue pious 
.1uethod which they have been long used to. TJ'ain .ap a ckild 



or In.ç[,'uctio'Yts to !tis Ole'rgy. 


389 


in the 'Way he skould go, and 'l()hen he is old he 'will 'not depart fr01n 
it; nor perhaps his children after him for many generations. 
But if there are persons, upon WhOlTI these motives n1ake no 
impressions, let them know the evil consequences of neglecting 
this duty:- 
That (he curse of (he Lord is in the nO'ltSf! of the ?üiclæd m . 
Pour out thine indignation, saith the prophet n (that is, God 
,viII do so) upon the fan
ilies that call not 'Upon thy nan'lt? 
Add to this, that ignorance, profaneness and a curse must of 
necessity be in that fan1ily, where God is not o\vned; where, as 
one observes, not a creature but is taken care of, not a swine but 
shall be served twice a day, and God only is forgotten. I say 
he Inust be worse than a heathen, whom these considerations do 
not influence. 
I know of no reason that can be offered why every family in this 
diocese might not be brought to observe this duty, except this 
one; that very nlany cannot read and are too old to learn the 
prayers provided for them; (though it \yould be well if all that 
can read did conscientiously discharge this duty!) Now, ,,,here 
this is indeed the case, I nlake no question but that, with half 
an hour's patience and pains, a pastor n1ight bring the most 
ignorant person to observe this following method of orderly 
devotion: 
First, Let him speak to his falnily and say, Let us confess our 
sins to God, saying, 
Remember not, Lord, our offences, nor the offences of our 
forefathers; neither take thou vengeance of our sins: spare us, 
good Lord, spare thy people, whom thou hast redeemed with thy 
most precious blood, and be not angry with us for ever. 
Then let him say to the family, Let us praise God for all his 
. . 
merCIes, saYIng, 
Glory be to the Fatker, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost; 
.A s it 'll)as in the beginning, is nOlO, and ever shall he, world 
without e,
d. Amen. 
Then let him say to the family, Let us pray for God's blessing 
and protection, saying, 
Our Fatner, u:hich art in hea1:en, (.
c. 
And then let him conclude the whole, saying, 
Tile grace of our Lord JesZls Ghrist, and tne lore of God, and 
the fellowship of the Holy Gnost, be 'lcith IllS all evermore. Amen. 


m Provo iii, 33. 


n Jer. x, 25. 



390 


Bishop JVilson' s l
arochialia : 



rhere is not one person but can say these prayers already 
and only wants to be put into a method of saying them after this 
orderly manner; and I am sure the cOlllfort and blessing of 
bringing all our people
 that cannot read, to this would be un- 
speakably great both to them and to ourselves; and for t.he love 
of God, let it be attenlpted in good earnest. 


AN AD:\10NITION PROPElt FOR PARENTS. 


l\10ST parents are concerned for their children's present 
welfare and too often renoun
e a good conscience rather than not 
provide for them, while fe\v are careful to give them such in- 
structions and examples as, by the grace of God, may secure 
them an eternal inheritance. 
They should therefore be often put in mind of their duty in 
this particular, that they Inay not have the tornlent of seeing 
their children for ever ruined by their negligence. 
I t is a strange stupidity, and they should be told of it, for 
parents to be much concerned to have their children dedicated to 
God in baptisnl, and yet utterly unconcerned ho\v they behave 
themselves afterwards. 
The least that parents can do is, to instruct, or get their chil- 
dren instructed, in the principles of the Christian religion ;-to 
pray for them daily, and to see that they pray daily for thenlselves; 
to possess their 111inds \vith a love of goodness, and with an 
abhorrence of every thing that is ,vicked ;-and to take care that 
their natural corruption be not increased by evil examples. 
I t is a sad thing to see children under the very eye of their 
parents and too often by their exan)ples, getting habits of vanity, 
of idleness, of pride, of intemperance, of lying and pilfering, of 
talebearing and often of uncleanuess, and of nlany other sins, 
\vhich might be prevented by a Christian education. 
Parents therefore should be nlade sensible of their great guilt, 
in suffering their children to take evil ways. They should be 
often told that, human nature being extreulely corrupt, ,ve need 
not be taught and be at pains to go to hell; we shall go 
thither of course, if we do not Inake resistance and are not 
restrained by the grace of God and our o,vn care and endeavour. 

rhey should kno\v (however loath they are to hear it) that 
they arc their children'8 worst enemies) ,vhcn they will see no 



or Instr
tctions to his Olm"!!!!. 


391 


faults in theIu,-connive at what ought to be corrected,-and 
are eyen pleased with what ought to be reproved. 
lIe that spareth his rod, saith Solonlon 0, hateth Ids son (that is, 
acts as if he really did so) ; but he tkat loreetk Ids son chastenetlt kin'/; 
betimes, that is, before he grows headstrong and before he is 
corrupted by evil habits. For II cldld left to himself hringeth his 
'Inotner to shamep. 
In short, a parent, ,,,ho has any conscience of his duty, will 
not suffer the least sin to go unreproved or without due cor- 
rection; but then he will take the apostle's adviceq, not to 
provoke their children to wrath, by a causeless or too great severity, 
lest they be discouraged, and thereby their children's love, both 
for religion and for themselves, be lessened. 
'Vhen children are grown up to years of discretion, parents 
should be admonished to.fit thmn fo'l' confirrnation ;-a privilege, 
which both parents and children would very highly value, if 
t.hey were luade to understand the worth of it, which of all 
things a pastor should take care to explain to them. 
In the next place, it would be great charity for a clergy- 
Dlan to interpose his good offices (at least to offer his advice) 
when parents are about to dispose of their children in marriage 
upon luere worldly considerations, and very often for little con- 
veniencies of their own, without any regard to their children's 
future ease and welfare. 
It is seldonl that either parents or children pray for God's 
direction and blessing upon an undertaking, which is to last as 
long as life; but run on headlong, as humour or passion or 
\vorldly interest lead them, which is the true occasion of so many 
indiscreet choices and unfortunate 'marriapes, which a pastor should 
prevent as much as Inay be, by adll10nishing Christians of their 
duty in this particular, both publicly and in private conversation. 
And when parents are providing for their children, let this 
consideration be always present with them both for their own 
and their children's sake: Better is a little 'With rigldeousness 
(that is, honestly gotten) tItan preat 'revenues Wit/lOut rright r . 
'Vhen a curse goes along with a portion, it is often the ruin of 
the whole family. These were the remarkable words of the 
pious judge Hale to his children: "I leave JOu but little, but it 
will wear like iron." 
Lastly, A pastor's advice would be very seasonable and should 
o Provo xiii, 24. P Prox. xxix, 15. q Co!. iii, 21. r Provo xvi, 8. 



3g
 


Bishop TVilsQn's Parocllialia: 


be often repeated to such parents as are squandering a\vay the 
inheritance, which \vas left them by their forefathers, and left 
then} in trust only for those that should con1e after them; de- 
priving their children of their right, exposin
 them to hardships, 
to telnptations, and to curse their memory. Considerations 
which should n1ake their hearts to ache and force them to put 
an end to that idleness and intelnperance, which are the occasion 
of so much sin and mischief. 


INSTRUCTIONS PROPER FOR YOUNG PEOPLE. 


. 
IT is the great misfortune of !foul!t that, \vanting expe1rience, 
J1td.rJ1nent, and very often friends capable of giving them good 
advice and following the bent of their passions, they love an_d 
seek such company and pleasures as serve to strengthen their 
naturaÌ corruption, which, if not prevented by charitable advice, 
will be their ruin. 
And certainly a pastor has much to answer for, \vho does not 
lay hold of eyery occasion of shewing young people their danger 
and their duty. 
The first thing a youth should be made sensible of is this: 
That he has in himself the seeds of all manner of sin and 
\vickedness, which will certainly spring up and be his nlin, if he 
does not ,vatch against it and pray daily for God '8 grace to 
preserve him from it : 
rrhat the \vickedest man he kno\vs ,vas once as capable of sal- 
vation as he thinks himself to be; but by provoking God to leave 
him to hilnself, sin and hell have got the dominion over him: 
And that therefore it is the greatest judgment that can fall 
upon any man, to be left to himself. 
To conle to particulars: 
First, Young people are apt to be headstrong and fond of their 
own 'lCays, and should therefore be told 'what God declares by 
Solomon s; Poverty and shame shall be to hÚn that refuseth instruc- 
t ion; but he tkat re.qardetlt reproof sllall be honoured.- That there 
is a way that seemetk ripht to a rnan, hItt the end thereof are the u.ays 
of death. 
Secondly, They love idleness naturally, and therefore should 
be put in mind,-that slotlifulness castetl!J into a de('jJ sleep, that 
S Provo xiii, 18. xiv, 12. 



or Instructions to his Olergy. 


393 


is, makes IHen as careless of what win become of them, as if they 
,vere fast asleep; and that dro'lvsiness 'will corer a 'Jnan 'lV'lth rags. 
Above all, they should be put in mind of our Lord's sentence, 
Oast !Ie tIle 'ltnprofitable servant into outer darkness. 
Thirdly, This being the age of sensuality, libe'ì'tinism and vanity; 
it n1ust be 3, great grace and very frequent instnlctions, that 
must secure Joung people from ruin. 
1'hey should therefore be often told, 
That fools (and only fools) make a mock of .
in, it being too 
dreadful a thing to be laughed at: 
That 'lvhored01n and w'l.ne taÆe away the heart; that is, make a 
man a mere brute: 
That lyin.q lips are an aDonzination to the Lord, and that SUJear- 
ing and cursing are sins easily learned, but hard to be left oft: 
and will be punished most severely : 
That evil cornm'ltnications 'Icill corrupt good manners: 
That therefore young people should not, at their peril, run 
into unknown company and temptations, depending upon their 
own strength and good resolutions.-They should be told, 
That nobody is very wicked at once ;-that there are few but 
had some time good notions, good purposes and good hopes j- 
and those that are profligately wicked became so after this man- 
ner: they took delight in loose and wicked company; then they 
neglected to pray for grace; then they cast off the .fear of God; 
then holiness; after that 'lnodesty; then care of reputation ;- 
and so contracting evil habits, they became at last abandoned of 
God and left to themselves. 
Fourthly, 
\. good pastor win not forget to exhort young 
people to flee youthful lusts and all sins of impurity, filthy songs 
and filthy stories, which leave cursed impressions upon the 
soul, do grieve God's holy Spirit, which ,vas given them at 
baptism and at confirmation, and provoke him to forsH,ke then1 ; 
and then an evil spirit lllost certainly will take them under his 
governnlent. 
Fifthly, Such as have parents should be exhorted to love, 
honouï'" and obey them: That, as the a.postle saith t, it may he 
well with tllmn, and tlzat tlley 'may live long on th.e earth.-That 
they may escape that curse pronounced, Deut. xxvii, 16. Cursed 
is he that setieth light hy his fatlwp and mother ;-and that of the 
'Vise l\Ian 11, The eye fhat '1n0 c/æth, at his falhe}'" and despiseth to 
t Ephesians vi, 3. n Prov. xxx, 17. 



394 


Bishop Wilson's Parochialia: 


obey his 'Jnother, the ravens of the valley shall pick it out; that is, 
such a one shall act in every thing he does as if he 'vere blind. 
In short, children, as they hope for God's favour and blessing, 
should strive to please their parents ;-be grieved ,vhen they 
have angered them ;-take their advice kindly and follow it 
cheerfully ;-and never marry without their consent, as they 
hope for happiness in that estate. 
Above all things,-young people should be obliged to observe 
the Lord's nay :-they should be taught to reverence God's 
house and God"s ministers, who pray for them and are to give an 
account of their souls. 
They should be exhorted to pray daily for thenlselves, and 
against being led away by the violence of evil customs and the 
,vays of the world, ,vhich they have renounced at their baptism. 
And \vhen they have run into errors (\vhich they are but too 
apt to do) they should be nlade sensible of the ruin they are 
bringing upon thelllseives, that they may return to a better 
]nind and, after the exall1ple of the prodigal in the gospel, beg 
God"s pardon and sin no III ora ; being often forewarned that 
God \vill, one tilHe or other, 'lnalce them to possess tlte iniqu'ities of 
their youtlt Y. 


OF 'VORLDL Y-
IINDEDNESS. 
A PASTOR \vill find that worldly-'}nindedness is one of the 
most universal diseases of his flock and the most difficult to be 
cured. 
People see an absolute necessity of taking care for themselves, 
and duty obliges thelli t.o provide for their families. 
But then this care very often increases beyond necessity, and 
\vhat ,vas at first a duty beconles at last a sin; when Christians 
begin to set their hearts upon the world, to place their happiness 
in its favours, to dread its frowns and to depend upon it as a 
good security against future evils. 
Now, the consequence of such a love for the \vorld \vill be, 
that Jnany Christian duties must give place to \vorldly business; 
the very commands of God shall often be broken to gain worldly 
ends; lnen shall Inake a luere idol of the world; love a nd fear 
and think and depend upon it Inore than upon God; and \"ill at 
y Job xiii, 26. 



or Instructions to his Clergy. 


395 


last be so bewitched and blinded with it that they shall not see 
the sin and vanity of all this, until the approach of death opens 
their eyes, and then they see the folly of their choice, but see too 
that it is too late to make a better. 
In short, it is bard to live in the world and not to love it; and 
nothing in nature can prevent or cure this disorder, but a sincere 
belief of the gospel and a resolute practice of the duties of Christ- 
ianit y . 
For the Christian religion lets us l{now that while we are in 
this world we are in a state of banishment ;-that here we have 
no abiding place ;-that God has made our life short, on pur- 
pose that we may have no pretence to set our hearts on this 
\vorld ;-that it is a dreadful thing for a man to have his portion 
in this lifez;-that a 111an's true happiness does not consist in the 
abundance of the things which he possesseth ;-and that God 
hath ordained that all things here shall be uncertain and full of 
troubles, t.hat we n1ay be led lTIore easily to set our affections on 
tIlings above, not tl
ings on the earth. 
And forasmuch as it is found by sad experience that, the more 
luen have, the lllore fond they will be of the \yorld, Christians 
should be often advised to receive its favours with a trembling 
hand and to rCll1ember that, the more a man has, the more he 
must account for, the greater danger he is in and the more pains 
he Inust take to pre,
erve himself from ruin ;-for it was not for 
nothing that our Lord said, How hardl!! shall they t/
at ha've r'iches 
enter into lIte kÙzgdont of Ileaven ! 
In short, there is no greater hindrance to piety than the love 
of the world; God therefore having made that and the care of 
our souls the great business of our lives, he has bound himself t.o 
take care of us, and that we shall want nothing that is necessary 
for this life. Take no tlw
tglll, saith our Lord 3, for your life, what 
!Ie shall eat j nor for your bod!!, what ye shall put on. Does not 
J/mtr heavenly Fatlter feed the fowls of the air? Does he not know 
that ye are better than tltey, and that ye have næd of these things? 
Let not therefore Christians flatter themselves with the hopes 
that worldly business will excuse thenl fronl serving God; our 
Lord has already t.old us what sentence such people must ex- 
pect h : Not one of those 'Jnen shall taste of l1ZY supper. That is, 
those that were so taken up about their oxen, their fields and 


z Psalm xvii. 


a l\Iatthew vi, 25. 


b Luke xiv, 24. 



396 


Bishop W'ilson's Parochialia: 


their worldly business, that they would not mind their Lord's 
invitation. 
And indeed our Lord tells us in another place c , that the very 
,vord of God ,viII be lost on those ,vhose hearts are fun of 
the cares of this world, 
()hich c'tolce the 'word, and it becometk 
unfrzÛtfltl. 
Rut then Christians have another way of deceiving themselves, 
and that is, with the hopes of reconciling a love for the w01"ld with 
the love of God. 
And yet our Lord Christ assures us that they are as utterly 
inconsistent as light and darkness; that no man can serve two 
rn,asters; and that whoever will be a friend of the 
()orld is the 
enemy of God. - 
To conclude: All Christians are by their profession obliged 
not to love the world. 
They are also obliged to use all proper Ineans to prevent this 
love, which \vould otherways ruin them. 
Especially, they are obliged to great \vatchfulness and earn- 
est prayers for God's grace to keep them from becoming slaves 
to the world ;-from placing their confidence or happiness in 
it ;-fron1 taking delight in the possession of it ;-from distract- 
ing cares about it;-from taking unjust ways to better or Eecure 
their portion in it ;-froll1 being extremely grieyed at the loss of 
it, or unwilling to part with it, when God so orders it ;-from an 
hard heart and a close hand, \vhen the necessities of the poor 
call for it. And lastly, from being diverted, by the hurry of this 
\vorlrl, fron1 the thoughts of the world to come. 
For 'what u,ill it profit a man, if he should gain tile whole 'world 
ancllose l
is own soul ?-Renlember Lots '/ .ife. 


AD'7"ICE TO 
IEN OF ESTATES. 

IEN of estates are but. too apt to abuse the advantages they 
have above others, and they are unwilling to hear of it; they 
imagine they are above advice, and for that reason they are in 
most danger. 
But whatever they fancy, a good pastor will 
hew then1 their 
danger and their duty, u
kether they 'lD'ill hear or u"hethn w the!! 1cill 
foròear. 


c Luke viii, 14. 



or l/lstructiUllts to lLis Clergy. 


397 


Now, such persons being subject to idleness, to intemperance 
and to bear ltard upon their poor neighbours, they should ha\e 
prudent hints given thenl to avoid these sins wlâch do easil!J 
beset tltent. 
That such, for instance, who have plenty without taking pains, 
Inay not contract an habit of idleness, which is the IJarent of 
infinite evils; (a lllan that has nothing to do being ready to do 
any thing that the devil shall tenlpt hinl to ;)-a dislike to busi- 
ness ;-a love of ease ;-a dependance upon an estate 1110re than 
upon God's providence ;-running into company to pass away 
tilue; a neglect of faillily duties ;-an evil exalnple to children 
and servants ;-an estate going to ruin for want of God's bless- 
ing and an honest care. 
And though no man can call such a person to an account for 
leading an idle and a useless life, yet God often does do it; 
and hence it is we so often see fanlilies of an ancient standing 
broke, and estates crunlbled into pieces, because the owners 
thereof ,vere above taking pains and neglected to pray for God's 
blessing upon their estates and faluilies. 
It will be great charity therefore, however such people will 
take it, in a pastor to put thenl in mind, 
That ,ve are none of us proprieto'ps, but only steu:ards; for 
the whole earth is the Lord's, and he disposes of it as he 
pleaseth : 
That such as have received Inore than others have more to 
account for: 
That if they only seek to please thenlselves, they may justly 
fear the sentence of the rich man d ; Rellle}}
bel' that thou in thy 
lifeti1ne 'l'eceivedst thy good things, for 'l(."llÍcl" thou art nOUJ tor- 
mented : 
That not only the wicked, but even the unprofitable servant, 
was cast into outer darkness: 
That if men have estates, they have greater opportunities of 
gaining God's favour, by doing good to others: 
That if they have Inore tÏ1ne to spare, they have 11lore time 
and more reason to serve God: 
And if they feel not the affiictions of poverty, they are lllore 
obliged to assist and help them that do. 
But if, in
tead of doing so, they consunle their estates upon 


d Luke xvi, 25. 



398 


B.ishop JfTilson's Parockialia: 


their lusts; and when having received nlore favours from God, 
they should be eX:llnples and encouragers of religion, they be- 
come themselves the greatest contemners of religion j-if their 
plenty Inakes them forget God, and their power more trouble- 
some to their poor neighbours, then an estate is a curse and 
not a blessing. 
In short, those that have estates should be charged, as the 
apostle directs e, not to he ldgl
minded; ,wt to trust in 'll'/lce'rtain 
riches, hut in the livz.ng God; tl
at t/leY do good; that they he rich 
in good works; ready to distribute, willing to cOll
?nunicate; laying 
up in store for tl
eJnselves a good foundation against the tirn
e to come, 
that they ?naylay hold on eternal life. 
They should be exhorted to give God thanks for his favours; 
to lay by a reasonable certain proportion of their incomes, to be 
besto,ved in works of piety and charity; to be exanlples of in- 
dustry, sobriety and godliness to their children, falnilies and 
ncighbourhood. 


CONCERNING THE POOR. 
THE poor being God's peculiar care, they ought to have a 
great share in the concern of his Ininisters, to relieve, to instruct 
and to comfort theIne 
For nature being averse to contempt and sufferings, \vhich are 
often the lot of poor people, they are therefore too apt to charge 
God foolishly for the unequal distributions of his providence; 
so that their nlinds must be satisfied and their spirits supported 
by such considerations as these: 
First, That Jesus Christ himself, though Lord of the whole 
creation, yet Inade it his choice to be born and to live in 
poverty; to convince the poor that that condition is not un- 
happy, if they do not make it so by their ilnpatience. 
Secondly, That there is no state ,vhatever but has its proper 
difficulties and trials; and the 
"iclt especially, ,vho are so llluch 
envied, are often forced to confess that, as our Lord has told 
us, a 'lnan's life and l
appiness consi:5teth not in tlte abundance of the 
things wlde/" he possesseth.- And as to the next world, the poor 
have much the advantage of the rich, in wanting so Inany telnp- 
tations to the ruin of their souls; -and in the less account they 


C I Timothy vi, 17. 



or Instructions to ltis Clergy. 


399 


have to make for what they have received. And then the poor 
(as an excellent poet expresses it) 
- will bless their poverty, who have 
No reckonings to make when they are dead. 
Thirdly, They should be put in Inind that God has Inade 
poverty the lot of Inany of his dearest servants, fitting them for 
future and eternal happiness by the short affiictions of this life; 
\veaning their affections from things tenlporal and forcing 
them, as it were, to look for rest and ease and an inheritance 
elsewhere. 
Fourthly, Let them therefore be often exhorted to pUJt their 
trust in God, wlw is the helper of the friendless. 
To have much in their thoughts the joys of heaven, which 
will enable them, as it did our Lord hÏInself, to bear with 
patience the hardships of their condition; not to envy such as 
are in better circumstances, nor to endeavour to better their own 
by unjust ways. But to believe assuredly that, if it is not their 
own fault, God will make them sufficient amends in the next life 
for what he denied them in this. 
Thus poor Lazarus no sooner expired, but he ,vas carried by 
the angels into Abrahanl's bosom, to enjoy perpetual rest and 
felicity. 
Let them therefore be comforted with such scriptures as these: 
Yoltr heavenl!! Father knows what things ye have need of Cast 
tlwrefore all !!oztr care upon ltim, for lw caretlt for YOZt f. 
Be content with such things as ye ltave, for God hatlt said, I will 
never leave thee, nor forsa/(e tltee g. 
Better is a little with the fear of the Lord, than great treas
tl'e and 
trozthle therewith h . 
Hath not God clwsen the poor of this world, rich in faith, and heirs 
of the lcingdonz which lte hath pl-01nised to them that love hÍ1n i ? 
But then they nlust be put in nlind often to pray to God, 
to deliver thenl froln the sins to which their poverty might tenlpt 
them. 
Not to give thenlselves up to sloth and idleness, but to do 
what they well can for an honest livelihood; to bring up their 
children in the fear of God, and to be sure not to set thenI evil 
examples-of Inurmuring against God, of coveting what is an- 
other's, of filching and stealing; for if they should be guilty of 


f I Pet. v, 7. 


g Heb. xiii, 5. 


h PrO\T. XY, 16. 


i James ii,5. 



400 


Bislwp JVilsú/t's Parúclâalia : 


any of these sins, they ".ill lose all title to the pron1ise of J e8US 
Chris t k, Blessed are ye pOOl., for your's is tlte kingd01Jl of Iteaven. 
And if to these exhortations a clergyman adds his alms, or 
procures the charity of such as are more able than himself, he 
will discharge a very material part of his duty and he will 
have the prayers of those ,vho have the freest access to the 
throne of grace. 


'ro PERSONS IN AFFLICT lOX. 


lJIA1V (as Job saith I ) being born to tro'ltble, a pastor can hardly 
visit his flock but he will meet with SOlne who ,viII want words 
of comfort; \vith which therefore he should be always furnished, 
both to guide and to support the spirits of the afflicted. 
For Christians in affliction are but too apt to distract theu1- 
sel ves and increase their burden, by considering only ,vhat 
flesh and blood suggest, not what faith and religion propose for 
their support and conlfort. 
They are too apt to charge God foolisltly ;-to be angry with 
those, \VhOlli he has made or pern1Ïtted to be the instrulllents of 
their affliction;- to grow ùp-jected and llielancholy upon the 
thoughts of the sins, which they suppose have provoked God to 
visit them i-and lastly, to despair of ever seeing an end to their 
sorrows. 
Here then the pastor's help will be seasonable and charitable; 
for he will teach such as are in trouble to seek cOlufort in God 
and in the aids of religion. 
He ,viII convince them (for instance) 
That events are not left to chance, but that all things COlne to 
pass by the appointn1ellt or perIni
sion of God: 
'That the very hairs of our head a'J'e all nundJel'ed: 
That we are nnder God's care, as weB when he suffers us to 
be troubled as when he sn1Ïles upon us: 
That he is a very undutiful child, who will love and obey his 
father just as long as he pleaseth him and no longer: 
That God has a right to try whether Christians are sincere 
or not; that is, ,vhether they will believe hilll to be their God 
and Father, as well when he corrects as when he gives theln 
their desires : 


k Luke vi, 20, 


1 Chap. v, 7. 



or lm
tì'uctions to his Clel"9/J. 


401 


That we are in darkness and rlo not ourSìelve
 know what 
,vould be best for us : 
That God has made no earthly cOlnforts full and lasting, on 
purpose that Christians, seeing the vanity of all worldly enjoy- 
nlents, 111ay not desire to set up their rest llere but be obliged to 
think of another life, where all tears will be wiped away: 
That God often punishes us in this world, that he lnay not be 
obliged to punish us hereafter: 
That the best of men have need of being awakened into a 
sense of their duty and danger: 
That a disciple of Jesus Christ nlust take part in the sufferings 
of his Lord and 
Iaster, as he hopes to be a partaker of his glory; 
for if u:e sziffer 'with hi1n, 'we shall also reign with him. 
It is thus a Christian may be taught to sublnit to God's 
dispensations and to make an advantage of what the ,vorld calls 
'lniifortunes, a.ffiictions, calaulities, Judgnwnts: and that, instead 
of being impatient, fretful or døJected, he should rather rejoice in 
tribulation, in 'wrongs, in losses, in su.f!êrinps, anù be glad that he 
has a proper occasion of offering his zf.ill a sacrifice to the will of 
God, which is a nlost acceptable oblation. 
When a pastor has made his distressed patient sensible of the 
reason and benefit of a.fllictions, he will then proceed to shew him 
how to quiet the disorders of his soul. 
He will advise him (for instance) not to torment himself about 
the cause of his troubles or the instrulnents of his afflictions, or be 
over anxious concerning the isslte of them. For this ,vill only 
create roexation, frnitless conplaints and a sinful distrust, which 
are all the effects of pride and self-love, and serve only to bereave 
hilu of that peace of mind, which is necessary to carry hinl 
through his trials with the resignation of a Christian. 
lIe will then shew hiln that, by being brought into these cir- 
cun1stances, whether his afflictions be for tr'ial or punisltulent, he 
has a special title to the favour of God and to luany great and 
precious promises, provided he su1mits to God's order and 
appointment. For God has declared hilTIself to be the helper of 
the friendless; the comforter of the afflicted; a light to then1 
that are in darkness and know not what way to take. lIe has 
promised to be a father to the fatherless and an ltusband to the 
'Uyidow; that he will undertake the cause of the oppressed anù 
of such as call upon hirn in their distre
Sì. So that no nlnn ought 
Dd 



40Q 


BisltOp JVilson's Parocltialia : 


to think hinlself destitute and nliserable, who has God to fly to 
and God's word for his cOlufort. 
U pOll the first approach of troubles, therefore, his spiritual 
guide will direct hin1 to fall down before God-to hun1ble hin1- 
self under his afflicting hand-to acknowledge that God's i
tdg- 

nents are r
(]ltt, and tltat he of.vel,!! faitlifulness has caused ldJ,t to be 
troltbled; beseeching God that he may make good use of his 
troubles ;-to cast his whole care upon God, trusting in his wis- 
don1 to know and his goodness to appoint what is best for hin1 ; 
resol ving, by the grace of God, to Inake that his choice which b.e 
has prayed for all his life, that God's wi1l1nay be done. 
He will also assure him that þ let his luind be never so much 
disordered and his soul oppressed with sorrow, God CD n support 
and cOlnfort hilll; that he has a prolnise of the sanle grace, which 
enabled St. Paul to take pleasure in aiflictions, in persec
ttions, in 
infirlnities, in re})roacnes; which enabled the first Christians to 
take ioyfully the spoiling of their goods, knowing that they had in 
heaven a better and an enduring slthstance m; which enabled 
holy Job, under the severest trials, to subluit without repining to 
God's appointment, saying only, The Lord gace, and tlte Lord hatk 
taken away. Bles8ed be the nallM of the Lord. 
Lastly, His pastor will ten him, that St. Jalnes is so far fronl 
looking upon the case of the afflicted as desperate that he affirnl- 
eth-Blessed 
.s the man that endureth ternptation / for 1.cken he is 
tried (that is, approved) he shall receive a crown of Ufe þ 'which 
fadeth not away. 
And sure no man wiM think his o\vn case hard, whatever his 
afflictions 1nay be, when he Í8 put in luind of the sufferings of 
Christ his Lord and 
Iaster, who had not where to lay his head; 
-who was set at nought by those he can1e to save ;-who was 
called a dealer with the devil, a glutton and a wine-bibber;- 
who was assaulted by all the powers of hell, so that his soul ,vas 
sorrowful even to death ;-was betrayed by one disciple and for- 
saken by all the rest ;-was falsely accused by the Jews, set at 
naught by Herod, unjustly condenlned by Pilate, barbarously 
treated by the soldiers, \vas led as a sheep to the slaughter and 
suffered death, even the death of the cross. 
This was the treatn1ent, which the Son of God luet with when 


m Hebrews x, 34. 



01' InHtl'ltctiollS to his Olel:qy. 


1-03 


he was on earth; and this will silence all c01l1plaints, or else we 
are very unreasonable indeed. 
But after all, our greatest conlfort is this: that this .Jesus, who 
himself was a man of sorrows and acquainted witlt grief; who felt 
the weaknesfö; of hunlan nature and the troubles to which we are 
subject: this Jesus is our advocate with the Father; who for his 
sake will not sujfer us to be ternpted above l.cnat we are able to bear, 
but will enable us, as he did St. Paul, in whatever state we are to 
be therewitlt content. 
TVherefore, let tne,n that suffer according to tke will of God com- 
m,it the keeping of their souls unto hhn in well-doing as unto a faith- 
fulOreator n . 


EXHORTATIO
S PROPER FOR SER,r ANTS. 
SERV ANTS luake a considerable part of every clergyman'ls 
charge and will always stand in need of a particular application. 
They have as many duties and telnptations as other Christians 
and have need of as much care-to implant the fear of God in 
their hearts-to encourage then1 to bear with patience the 
difficulties of their state-to teach theln the duties of their 
calling-and to secure them fronI such sins as they are most 
subject to. 
Servants ought not to imagine that the nleanness of their con- 
dition will free them from being accountable to God for their 
behaviour in that state of life, in which his providence has placed 
then1. They are as capable of eternal happiness and as liable to 
eternal misery as the Inasters they serve; and as strict an account 
will be required of then1. And therefore the apostles are very 
l}articular in setting down the duties of their calling and the sins 
they ought to be Inost careful to avoid. 
For exan1ple :-That they should be diligent in their husiness, 
not with e!/eserrice, as men-pleasers, but as the sercants of Christ, in 
singleness of heart, fearing God ; knowing that of the Lord the!! shall 
'receive a reward o. 
They should be often put in mind to nlake a conscience of their 
Inaster's interest, that nothing under their care be lost or wasted 
by theil' negligence. This is to shew all.qood fidelity P. 


n I Peter iv, 19. 


o Col. iii, 22, 24. 
Dd2 


P Titus ii, 10. 



404 


Bis/top lVilson's Par;'ochialia : 


To be exactly just and honest; not purloining, as the apostle 
speaks l but ren1embering that he ,vas an ?tnjust steward and not 
to be imitated by any honest servant, who made hiInself friends 
at his Inaster's costq. 
To bear with patience the orders and the reproofs of those, to 
,vho111 they are subject, not only to the good and gentle, but also to 
the froward. St. Peter saith expressly, that such sublnission is 
not only a duty, but a duty acceptable to God r . 
They should have a strict charge given thetn to avoid lying, 
,vhich is hateful to Gods, and talebearing, which is the occasion 
of much sin and lnischief. Not to corrupt their own or others' 
hearts and memories with 
filth!l stories, l.vicked songs or profane 
expressions. Never to be tempted by the authority of a wicked 
master or by the example of a ,vicked fello\v-servant, to do any 
thing ,that is u1
iust, ext1'aroagant or any way unlawfitl. To 
avoid sloth and idleness, \vhich are very bad characters of a 
servant. 
They should be often called upon to be careful to keep the 
Lord's day holy. 
Servants have a special right and interest in that day, given 
them by God hin1self-110t to spend it in idleness and vanity, 
but in going to church and hearing God's word and begging his 
grace, conlfort and blessing, that, \vhatsoever their lot is in this 
life, they may not fail to be happy in the next. 
For this reason they should be put in Inind that their state of 
life does not excuse them from praying to God daily as ,veIl as 
they can, that they nlay faithfully discharge their duty and 
patiently bear the burden laid upon thenl; which the lneanest 
servant will be better content with, if he is put in mind of our 
blessed LordI ,vho, though he ,vas the Son of the 
Iost High, yet 
he took upon him the condition of a servant, to teach us hu- 
mility and that the lowest condition is acceptable to God, where 
people are careful to do the duties of such a state. 
Lastly, Servants should know that labour is the punishment 
of sin appointed by God hinlself, who passed this sentence upon 
Adam t , In the sweat ofth!I face shalt thou eat bread; condemning 
him and his posterity to labour and toil, that they nlight look 
for rest in he
ven, since there is so little true satisfaction on 
earth. So that such as accept of this punisluuent, in subn1ission 


q Luke xvi, I. 


r I Pet. ii, 18, 20. 


S !)rov. vi, 17. 


t Gen. iii, 19 



or Instructions to his Ole'J"9!/. 


40.t) 


to the appointInent of God, have indeed a better title to pardon 
and happiness than such as spend their lives in ease and 
pleasure. 


OF DEALING \VITH FORl\IAL CHRISTIANS. 
THERE is not a more desperate estate than that of the 
fOrJ/
al Ohristian, who has the outward sllow of godliness, but 
denies the power thereof; who performs the COlnmon duties of 
Christianity ,,,ithout any great concern to do them well;- 
believes in God without sense of his presence or thoughts of 
being accountable to him; and in Jesus Ohrz.st, without feeling 
the want of a Redeemer; without considering the life of Christ, 
,vhich he ought to imitate, or the gospet which is his rule to 
,valk by; -wlw believes in the Holy Ghost, without thinking how 
much he stands in need of his aids; without considering the 
enemies he has to deal with, the difficulties he shall meet with, 
the self-denial he is to undergo, or the good works he must 
abound in, as he hopes for heaven. 
In short, he hopes for hea ven with the indifference of one 
who scarce thinks of going thither, and believes eternal tonnents 
,vithout being concerned to avoid them. He knows he ought. to 
do more than he does, but he has 80me faint hopes that. what he 
does may secure him from hell. 
No\v, this being the case of an infinite number of people, a 
pastor can hardly look abroad without meeting with one or other 
of these formal, indifferent, thoughtless Christians, who live 
without fear of dying, and, if not hindered by tilnely care, will 
die unhappily. 
These Christians therefore should be often put in mind of 
God's displeasure against such as pretend to be his servants, 
without any concern to serve him faithfully;- of the folly of 
being indifferent, when a man's soul lies at stake ;-of the abso- 
lute necessity of an inward conversion as well as of an outward 
religion ;- of the very great sin of neglecting or abusing the 
means of grace, which God vouchsafes unto us. 
Re will shew him moreover that withmtt a lively faith it will 1 
be impossible to please God ;-that without a serious repentance 
there is no fOl'giveness ;-and that without holiness no man shall 
see the Lord. 
In short, such Christians should have no rest, until they shall 



406 


ßisltop TVilson"s P(u'ockialia : 


be forced, out of a sense of their danger, to ask in good earnest, 
fVhat shall it profit a man, if he sltall gain the 'lvltole 'world and 
lose his own soul? And that it was not for nothing that he conl- 
nIanded his followers-to seek the kingdom of God in the first 
place and before all other things. 
He \vill then shew him, that. all outward ordinances from the 
beginning \vere appointed either to create or to prollwte or to 
secztre a lively sense of God and of the duties ,ve owe hinl 
alllongst men. 
And as these ordinances are not at our peril to be neglected, 
so neither are they to be depended upon, unless they lead us to 
the love of God and of our neighbour, and beconle a Ineans of 
recovering in us the iluage of God, in ,vhich we were created, 
,vhich consists in righteozlsnes and true !toliness. 
",'Then he has convinced theIn of this, he will exhort them to 
lose no tilDe, but to beg of God to increase their faith-to plant 
his fear in their hearts-to a waken in them an hearty concern 
for their souls, and to give thenI such a measure of hope and love 
of God as may enable thenI to OVerCOll1e the difficulties, the 
temptations and the dangers of a Christian life. 
And the good pastor will not fail to add to these endeavours 
his own earnest prayers that God, of his great Dlercy, would 
awaken the careless ,vorld into a better sense of religion and 
care for their souls; that nlen luay desire in good earnest to 
serve God and be solicitous ho,v to do it DI08t acceptably, with- 
out abusing the means of grace, or deluding themselves with the 
foolish hopes of serving God and Inam1110n, of being indifferent 
here and happy hereafter. 


OF DEALING WITH HABITUAL EVIL LI'TERS. 


TO visit people of this character, \vhen they come to die, is 
80 frightful and so difficult a part of a clergyman's duty that one 
,vould be at any pains to prevent so affiicting and so uneasy 
a task; and ,vhich can only be prevented by dealing ,vit.h such 
people very often and plainly, while they are in health. 
By representing to theln the danger they are in, while they 
live in open rebellion against God: that, as sure as God is just, 
he will call then1 to a severe account for the abuse of his good 
creatures-for dcfiling their own bodies-for tenIpting others 



0,' Instructious to his Clerg!!. 


407 


to f:in-for 111ispending that very time, which God has given 
them to work out their salvation-for the evil exalllple they 
give- for leading an idle and unprofitable life- and for dis- 
honouring God, his lazes, his name, his n'ord and his day. 
Upon all which accounts, they are under thp displeasure of 
Abnighty God; his judgments are hanging over their heads 
continually; nor have they any hopes of lllercy but by a speedy 
repentance. 
For (as it is plain frolH God's word u) the sentence of eternal 
death is already pronounced against them, and God only knows 
how soon it may be executed. IVho'J'emongers, dr1lnJ:ards, 
'itnJust, prqfåne and even the unprofitable, shall not inherit the 
kingdolll of heaven, but shall be cast into outer darkness, wke,'e 
the 'l()or'JJ
 dieth not, and wlwre the fire is not quenched. 
By doing this faithfully, a pastor will keep the conscience and 
the fears of a sinner awake; he wiII sin at least with uneasi- 
ness; and finding that sin is a 'real sla very, he may perhaps at 
last resolve to seek for ease in the ways of God's comnlandlnents. 
That he may do so, \ye ought to set before hin1 the happiness 
which he is yet capable, by God
s grace, of obtaining; for the 
very design of the gospel (as Jesus Christ hin1self' teIIs St. Paul x ) 
is, to t1trn 1i'ten frOJn darkness to light, and fr01n the pozeer of Satan 
unto God, tltat they may receive forgiceness of sins, and an 
inheritance a1J
ongst then
 that are sanctified hy faitl" in Ollrist 
Jesus. . 
After this a pastor lllust endea your to drive hin1 from all his 
holds of false hopes and vain purposes. For instance -of 
repenting time enough hereafter; as if sinners could repent when 
they please, or as if it were enough to be sorry for one's sins, 
which a ll1an l1lay be, when it is too late to alnend and to hring 
forth f'J''Uits meet for repentance. 
Let hÜll therefore see that, by deferring his repentance, he 
makes it still more difficult to repent; and that, "hen once he 
has fillerl up the 111eaSUre of his sins, he Blust after that expect 
neither grace nor pardon. 
Lest he should depend upon the goodness and longsuffering 
of God, let hilll know that iltis ought to lead him to repentance. 
That it is a great Inercy that God, notwithstanding all a sin- 
ner has done to provoke hil11, will yet restore hin1 to favour, and 
be a father to hin1. 


U Galatians v, 19. 


x Acts xx\ri, 18. 



408 


Bishop 
Vilson"s P aruckialia : 


Let hÎ1n know that there is certainly evil towards that n1an 
who sins and prospers in his sin, it being a sign of God's great- 
est displeasure, and that he leaves such a man to himself: a 
condi tion the most to be dreaded. 
Let hin1 be assured that, if once the sentence of the unfruitful 
tree is passed, Cut it down
. why cU1nberetl" it the ground? the 
prayers and tears of the whole ,vorld cannot save it. . 
And lastly, endeavour to convince him that God is Just as well 
as good, and that he has already shewn that his mercy and good- 
ness can be provoked, since he has condemned creatllres of a 
n1uch higher and better order than ,ve are, even the very angels 
themselves, when they rebelled, which he hath reser-ved in ever- 
lasting chains ztnto the Judgll
ent of the great day. 
After this, represent to hiln the mercy of God, in sparing hinl 
so long and in not cutting him off in the Inidst of his sins; his 
readiness to forgive such as truly turn unto hinl; and t.hat there 
is JOY in lteave'JZ over a sinner that repentetk. 
And that he n1ay not think his case desperate (as great sin- 
ners are apt to do \vhen their consciences are awake) or that 
it is a thing Í1npossible to overcome the evil habits he has con- 
tracted; let him understand that, as the goodness, so the power 
of God is infinite; that the same Spirit, which raised up our Lord 
Jesus Christ from the dead, can raise a sinner from the death of 
s in unto a life of rigldeousness. 
This let him steadfastly believe and use his endeavours, and 
such a faith will work wonders. 
Now, if a sinner is once brought to a sense of his evil condition 
and has thoughts of becolning a new luan, he will still want his 
pastor's assistance and advice, what methods to take in order to 
his sincere conversion. 
And first, he must be told plainly that he has a work of 
labour and difficulty to go through, such as will require thoughts 
of heart, great patience, earnest prayers and earnest endeavours, 
self-denial and perseverance; but then he must consider that it 
is for Iûs life, and that Jesus Christ has told us that strait is the 
gate and narrow is the way iltat leadeth unto life. 
He must then be 111ade sensible that., as of him
elf he can do 
nothing, so by the grace of God he can do every thing that God 
requires of him, ,vhich he must pray for with the concern of one 
that is in earnest. 
To his prayers he nlust add his best endeavours; that is, he 



Vi' Instructions to his Clergy. 


409 


must avoid the occasions of sin, keep out of the way of tempta- 
tions, avoid all company that may any way divert his thoughts 
frorn his holy purposes ;-he must fast, and deny himself a great 
many things which his corrupt heart hankers after. 
,And if these things appear difficult unto him, let hirn ask 
hirnself, whether it is better to do so now than to àwell with 
everlasting burnings hereafter? 
A sick man for his health will do all this: he will avoid COIIl- 
pany; he will observe rules; he will take very bitter potions, 
he will endure very many things to make the remainder of a 
short life cOlnfortable. A sinner, that considers that his soul lies 
at stake and that eternal happiness or misery will be the event, 
,viII not think any thing too lnuch which God prescribes. 
Lastly, if to these pious endeavourõ a pastor adds his own 
prayers for the sinner that God would touch his heart, take 
from him all obstinacy and blindness ;-that he would awaken 
hinl, give him a lively sense of his sad condition ;-caU him to 
repentance, enable hin1 to break aU his bonds, graciously forgive 
hinI, and give hilll all those helps that are necessary to becolne 
a ne\v creature: a pastor (whatever is the consequence) wiU 
have the comfort of having done a good work and his duty. 


NECESSARY INSTRUCTIONS FOR SUCH AS ARE 
UNDER THE CENSURES OJ.i' THE CHURCH. 


'VHA T the church of England so passionately wishes for 
(nalnely, that godly discipline nlay be restored) this church, by 
God's favour, does actually enjoy. NotorioltS sinne1
s are put to 
open penance, and p
tnished in this world, t!tat their souls rnay be 
saved in the day of the Lord, and tn,at o tlters, ad'lnonislted by their 
example, fnay be 'Jì'lore afraid to offend. 
N ow to Inake this a real blessing to our church and people, it 
is necepsary that they should be often and plainly told the 
lueaning and reason of church discipline. 
They should be told, for instance, that the church is Christ's 
falnily;-that all the meTIlbers of Christ"s family ought to be 
blalneless and holy, as they hope for any re,vard frolll him;- 
that none are admitted into his household, but such as do 
solemnly prolnise to live as becolues his servants ;-that therefore 
such as, after this, turn disorderly livers, are first to be rebuked, 



410 


Bishop JVilson's Pa'J'ocllialia : 


and by fair nleans, if possible, brought to reason; if not, to be 
turned out of his house, till they become sensible of their error; 
which if they do, and give sincere marks of their repentance, 
they will be readmitted into the church and partake of its 
privileges as formerly. 
Now that all this Inay be orderly performed, Jesus Christ 
himself ordained his apostles and gave theln power to ordain 
others, to be the stewards of this his falnily. To theln he gave 
the keys of his house, with full power to receive such as they 
should find worthy, and to shut out the un\yorthy. 
For the faithful discharge of which trust. they will be account- 
able to hiIn, their Lord and Master; which consideration ought 
to Inake them very careful-to do notlting by preju,dice or parti- 
alityY: to use the power wltich the Lord hath given then
 for 
edification, and not for the destruction of his people z. 
Then let your people kno\v, that our power is purely spiritual; 
and that when we force people by fines and imprisonments to 
subluit to discipline, this is by the laws of the land, and we 
execute those laws, not properly as Christ's ministers, but as 
subjects to the civil power: for when princes becalne Christians 
and were persuaded that they were answerable to God for the 
manners of their subjects, they endeavoured to ease thenlselves 
of that burden, by putting it into the hands of churchmen, 
,vhich has had this unhappy effect, that Christians are often 
more afraid of ,vorldly punishnlents than of being denied the 
holy sacran1ent and other ordinances of the Christian religion, 
prescribed for their salvation. 
Christians therefore should be lllade 8ensible that, as by bap- 
tiSlll they are made members of Christ's church and fami]y, 
children of God; that is, have a right t.o apply to God with the 
freedom of children and heirs of the kingdom of heaven; so, by 
church censures, they are verily cut off from these privileges, 
until they sincerely repent of their sins and are restored by 
Christ's ministers to the peace of the church. 
If any are so fooli8h as to say (as some have done) that they 
can go to another clturch, ask thenl, as the apostle did 3, Is Ohr,ist 
divided? that is, is he the head of a party and not of the whole 
church! Is not our's a member of that church? Have not Christ's 
ministers here the same authority from their Lord as any other 
Christian bishops and pastors, viz. the authority of binding and 
Y I Tim. v, 21. z 2 Cor. xiii, 10. a I Cor. i, 13. 



or InstructiofU; to his Clergy. 


411 


loosing? And, if we proceed according to the rules of the gospel 
and our sentence be confirmed by Christ, what will it profit 
theIn, if, for want of being reconciled by their proper pastor, 
they shall be shut out of hea ven 
 
Read therefore the cOlnmission which Jesus Christ has given 
us; read it to thetn out of his word b: Verily 1 say unto you, 
JTThatsoever ye shalt bind on earth (proceeding according to the 
rules of the gospel) shall be bmtnd in heaven, &c. and
 He that re- 
ceireth wlwmsoever I send, receiveth me C . And 'whoso despiseth 'lne, 
or 
vholnsoever I send, despiseth God that sent me d . 
Let people In10w that we take no pleasure in using our 
authority; that we do not desire to lord it over God's heritage. 
Our ailn and endeavour is to oblige sinners to change their 
course of life and be converted, that their souls may be saved; 
and that whenever they give us hopes of a sincere repentance, 
we receive them with open arms and joyful hearts. 
Convince them that it is not to expose offenders that we 
oblige them to do public penance, but that they may give glory 
to God and declare to an the world that, since they have been 
so unhappy as to dishonour God by breaking his laws and 
despising his authority, they are heartily sorry for it, and think 
it no shalne to own it after any manner the church shall order; 
believing that such a sublnission to God's ministers will be 
acceptable to God himself and a means of obtaining his pardon 
through their intercession. 
Assure then1 that in the primitive times Christians begged 
with prayers and tears to be admitted to public penance, as the 
only "Tay to obtain the pardon of their sins; they looked upon 
it as nluch a favour, as if a man, who had forfeited his life or 
estate, could have thenl restored upon acknowledging his crinles 
and pron1Ïsing al11endment. 
Lastly, let thenl know for certain that, if the church should 
not take notice of them, but admit t
em to her holy offices and 
sacraments} while t.hey continue impenitent, this ,vould be no 
more a blessing to thenl than it was to Judas, of whom the devil 
took Inore sure possession, after he had received the sacrament 
from our Lord's own hands. 
By taking pains to instruct penitents (and your people too out 
of the pulpit) in these particulars, 


b )'latth. x\'iii, 18. 


c John xiii. 20. 


d Luke x, 16. 



412 


Bi$lwp JVilson's ParocltÍalia: 


Offenders \vill be brought to a sense of their evil condition ;- 
they will perform penance after an edifying Inanner. 
You will pronlote the honour of God, the good of sinners, the 
truth of religion and the public weal and secure the authority 
of the church. 


OF VISrrING THE SICK. 


IF one seriously considers how the generality of Christians go 
out of the world, how ill prepared for eternity, and how seldonl 
such as recover make that good use of sickness which God 
designs by such visitations; bne cannot but wish that such as 
have the care of souls ,vould think in good earnest how to 
improve such n10111entous occasions to the best advantage. 
Anù surely a good pastor must have a great concern upon his 
spirits, when any of his flock are visited with sickness. 
For if the sickness shall be unto death, here is a soul, 
in a few days, to enter upon a state of endless happiness or 
endless misery :-a thought which should Inake one's heart to 
tren1ble. 
But if the sick person shall recover and is not bettered by 
his sickness, here is, perhaps, the last opportunity, ,vhich God 
may afford that luan of seeing the error of his ways, for ever 
lost; and ,vhere the blame ,vill lie, God himself has told us d : 
He is taken away in his iniquity, but his blood will I require at the 
'watchn
an's hand. 
Why, ,vhat could the watchn1an do? He could at least de- 
liver his own soul. But he n1ust do a great deal more: so saith 
the Spirit of God by Elihu e: JfThen a man is chastened with pain 
"-port his bed, and his soul drau.'eth near 'ltnto the g'J'ave: if there be 
'with hi1n an interpreter, that is, one able to explain the Ineaning 
and use of such visitat.ions; if he say, I have sinned, and it 
profited rne not, that is, if he be brought to true repentance; then 
1vill God be gracio
ts 'ltnto lti}J
, and his SO'ltl sllall see the ligltt. Lo, 
all these things 'worketh God oftentimes with 'JJ
an, to bring hack his 
soul frmn the pit, to be enlipntened u)itl" tIle light of the living. 
In short, sickness, whether nlortal or not, cOIneth not by 
chance, but is a warning for nlen to prepare for eternity. And 


d Ezek. xxxxiii, 6. 


e Job xxxiii. 



01" Instructions to his Olergy. 


413 


it mightily concerns such as have the care of souls not to lose 
such occasions of doing the greatest good to the souls of men, 
always remembering that, I 'was sick and ye 'V.isited 'file not f, is 
one of those reasons, for which men will be shut out of heaven. 
Now, the design of this paper is-to propose a 111ethod of 
answering the ends of the church in bel' excellent Office for 
visiting tlte sick. That such as are put into our hands, by the 
providence of God, may be dealt with as their needs require: 
whether it be to exan1ine the sincerity of their faith and repent- 
ance, or to receive their confession and adn1inister absolution to 
such as earnestly desire it; or to awaken the consciences of the 
careless; to comfort dejected spirits; or lastly, to exhort such 
as recover to consider the mercy they have received and to 
dedicate the remainder of their lives to the service of God. 
And, in the first place, a good pastor will not always stay till 
he is sent for. He knows t.hat the repentance of the dead comes 
too late and that the fear of death, which is to detern1ine a man's 
state to all eternity, will make lnen willing t.o hear reproof and 
to t.ake advice: such an opportunity, therefore, he will not lose, 
if he can possibly help it. 
They that on1it the salutation-Peace be to this house and to 
all that dwell in it, or pronounce it so low as not to be heard, 
have not well considered the authority they have, as ministers 
of Christ, to offer peace and salvation to all that are disposed to 
receive itg. 
If the short litany and pray(]'J's following be said with delibera- 
tion and devotion, there cannot better be made use of: besides, 
they are the voice of the church, which will be sure to be heard 
at the throne of grace. 
After these follow two exhortations, which should never be 
omitted; but then they should be read with very great delibera- 
tion, that the sick person may \veigh what is said and receive 
instruction and cOD1fort fron1 it. 
And now, foraslnuch as a well-gt0unded faith in God will be 
the sick person's best defence against the assaults of the devil h, 
who will be sure to tenlpt him, either to despair of God's 111ercy 
or to presume upon his own righteousness or to be impatient., 
and to charge God foo!Z.shly; the church, therefore, in the next 
place directs us-to examine the sick person "Is faith, that is, whe- 



Iatth. xxv, 43. 


g 
latth. x, 13. 


h Eph. vi, 16. 



414 


Bishop Wilson's J)arocltialia : 


ther he believes as a Christian ll1an ought to do, or no: and in 
order to that, to ask him-Dost thou helieve in God the Father 
.41mighty, &0. ? 
But lest sick people and such as are of slow understanding 
should profess with their lips what they are not able to apply 
to their soul's comfort; it ,vill be highly charitable and useful, 
after repeating the Creed, to propose the use that ought to 
be made of it, in short questions, after some such way as this 
following: 
Do you believe that it is God, who ordereth all things both in 
hea ven and on earth 
 
Then you must believe that nothing can come by chance; and 
that, as our Lord saith, even a sparrow does not die wUlw'ut God's 
knowledge and his leave. 
Do you believe that this present visitation of your's is frotn 
God
 
If God is our Father, his correction must be for our good. 
Do you firmly believe this; and that this sickness is ordered 
by him for some special end? 
'rhen consider for ,vhat ends a loving father corrects his child: 
either he is careless or disobedient or forgets his duty; or takes 
such \vays as \yould ruin himself, if he were let alone. 
Is not this your case? 
To be sure, if it ,vere left to your o,vn ordering, you \vould 
never choose afflictions; but God sees that it is good for you to 
be in trouble; or it may be, God will try whether you will love 
and trust in him, as ,veIl in sickness as in health. 
'ViII you therefore, like a dutiful child, be thankful that your 
heavenly Father takes so nUlch care of you 
 
Will you endeavour to bear your sickness patiently and 8ub- 
mit to God's will, whether it be for life or for death 
 
Does not this affliction convince you that nothing deserves 
our love but God, since no being else can help us in the day of 
adversity 
 
'Vill you therefore, in tIle first jJlace, make application to God 
by prayer for an happy issue out of this affliction? 


J ESU8, you kno\v, signifies a Saviour,. and we all hope that he 
will be a Saviour to us. But this he will not be, unless we obey 
hinl as our Lord, that is, as our ruler and lawgiver. 
Y 011 must therefore consider wherein yon have broke his 



or Instructions to his Clergy. 


415 


laws, and you lnust repent of it, ask God's pardon and resolve to 
do so no more, as you hope that he will be a Saviour to y(}u. 
You believe tl
at he was conceived hy the Holy Ghost, and horn 
of {he Virg'in lJIary. 
'Vhy then you are sure that he is the Son of God, he is ahle to 
save sltck as cOJl
e unto God hy hin
; and as he was born of a 
\voman and took our nature upon him, he knows, for he has 
felt, our ,veaknesses and will pity our infirmities. 
You believe tl
at l
e suffered under Pontius P,ilate, was cr'ltcified, 
dead and huried. 
Are you not then hereby convinced what a sad state man was 
in, when God could not be reconciled to him, till his own Son 
had suffered what man had deserved to suffer 
 
And do not you see, at the same tinIe, that no true penitent 
need despair, since here is a sufficient price paid for our redemp- 
tion 
 
Neither ought you to doubt, that God will deny us any thing, 
since he spared not kis own Son, hut gave kim up for us all. 
Do you therefore place all your hopes of mercy in Christ's 
death and in the promises of God, for his sake, made to us? 
'ViII you endeavour to follow the example of your Lord and 
Saviour, who bore with submission and patience whatever God 
thought fit to lay upon him 
 
And will you renlember that he did so, though his very judge 
foztnd no fault in him? But we suffer }ustly, f01" we receive the due 
rewards of ou'J" deeds. 
And lastly, you will do well to remember the dJing \vords of 
our Saviour; and when you come to die, commend ,!/o
tr spirit into 
the hands of God. 
You believe that Jesus Ckl"ist rose again the third day from the 
dead. 
"rhy then you are sure that his sufferings and death were well 
pleasing to God, who otherwise would not have raised him to 
life again. 
And though your soul, when you die, shall go into an unknown 
,vorld; yet, if you die in the favour of God, you \vill have the 
sanIe God to take care of you that Jesus Christ had. 
And lastly, you are hereby assured that God, who raised 
Christ frorn the dead, will also quicken our rnortal hodies; for so 
he hath declared in his word. 
Since you believe that Jesus Christ ascended into hea1
en, and 



416 


Bishop JVil
on's Pa'j'ochialia: 


sitteth at the right hand of God, you must conclude that all power 
in heaven and in earth is committed unto hinl. 
And can there be greater comfort for a sinner than this; that 
he ,vho died for us is ever ,vith God, pleading the cause of his 
poor creatures that come unto God by him? 
Though therefore, for your own sake, you cannot look for 
favour, )Tet for Jesus' sake you nlay, who e.ver li'Ceth to make inter- 
cession for us. 
'Yill JOU therefore endeavour to set your heart above, ,,,here 
your Saviour is ? 
And that you may do so more earnestly, remember your 
Saviour's words, when he was leaving the world: I go to prepare 
a place for you, that wllere I m,!le may he also. 
You believe that Jesus Christ shall cmne to Judge hoth the quick 
and the dead. 
If you believe this so truly as you ought to do, you ,viII take 
care to judge yourself beforehand, that you may not be con- 
demned of the Lord, when he cometh to judge tIle 'Woí"ld in 
'l'zghteousness. 
'Vill you therefore exanline your life and see ,vherein you have 
offended, that you Inay repent and make your peace with God, 
remembering that, as death leaves you, judgment will find you? 
Ho,vever, you have this to comfort your soul, if you are sin- 
cerely penitent, that he who kno,vs our infirmities, he who died 
to redeem us, is to be our judge. 
And God grant that you 11lay find mercy in that great day. 


You profess to helieve in the Holy Ghost, to ,,,honl you ,vere 
dedicated in baptism, and hy 'U"hich you 'lDeJ"e sealed to the day of 
redemption. 
No\v, if you have grieved this IIoly Spirit and by wicked works 
have driven hinI froln you, you Inust sadly repent of it and earn- 
estly pray God to restore hiln, \vithout whose aid you can never 
be sanctified, never be happy. 
And when you call yourself to an account, consider whether 
you have lived in obedience to those, 
vhom the Holy Ghost has set 
over you,. that is, the 111inisters of the gospel. 
Do you propose to live and die in tlte communion of this church, 
in which you were baptized? 
Our Lord tells you ,,,hat a blessing it is to be a Inelnber of 
that church, of which he is the head. 



or Instructions to !'is Olergy. 


417 


I am (saith he) the vine, ye are tlte branches; as tlle branches 
cannot bear fruit, 'Unless they abide in the reine, no 'more can ye, 
unless ye abide in rne. 
In short, a member of Christ's church has a right to the 
forgiveness of sins-to the favour of God-to the ßJerits of 
Christ - to the assistance of the Holy Ghost - and to the 
ministry of the holy angels :-blessings, which you cnn never be 
sufficiently thankful for. 


Do you firnlly believe that God, in consideration of Christ's 
sufferings, will forgive all such as with hearty repentance and 
true fai th turn unto him ? 
But then )'oU must consider that fOr'gÜ'eness of sins is to be 
hoped for only in God"s own way, that is, by the n1Ïnistry of 
those, to whom God has c01n9tÛited the word of reconciliat'ion. 
And that the promise of forgiveness of sin should be no pretence 
fo'r continuing in sin in hopes of pardon. 
Do you believe that we shall all rise again, some to e'Cerlasting 
hajJpiness and SOlne to everlasting misery? 
If this faith be in you of a truth, it will convince you of the 
vanity of this world, its profits, pleasures, honours, fanle and its 
idols; so that you will not, as unbelievers do, look for your 
portion here. 
Do not you see what a nlercy it is, when God punisheth sin- 
ners in this life, since they whose punishlnent is deferred till the 
next must suffer everlastingly 
 
And if the difficulties of repentance and an holy life affright 
you, consider this one thing, TVho can du'ell with everlasting 
hurnings ? 
Remember the words of Christ to the penitent thief-This 
day shalt thou be w'ith rne in paradise. 
Let the expectation of that happy day and a faith and hope 
full of immortality make you diligent to "'Jnake YOU'P calling and 
election su're, and sweeten all the trouble and difficulties of 
doing it. 
And may Alnlighty God strengthen and increase your faith, 
that you nlay die in this belief and in the peace and communion 
of the church. A'men. 


The sick Christian haying thus professed his faitk in God, the 
next thing necessary to be inquired into is the truth of his 
Ee 



418 


Rislwp 1Vilson's J}((J'ocldalia : 


repentance. The church therefore orders that now the n1Ïni"Jter 
shall cxamine (not exhort him to it only) whether he repent hirn 
truly of all his sins. 
And verily the church in tltis consulted the necessities of sicA 
persons, ,,,ho are not able to attend to long exhortations and 
are too apt to forget what is said to then1 after that manner; and 
D1ay be brought to kno,v the true state of their souls by 
exa1}
ining them, that is, by short, plain and proper questions; 
of which hereafter. 
In the mean time, a prudent pastor will find hinlself oùliged 
here to consider more particularly the circumstances of the 
person with whom he has to do, that he may examine his 
repentance accordingly. .. 
For instance, Christians are not ahvays sensible of their own 
ailnlents. 
First, SOlue are very ignorant and know not why they live, or 
,vhat will become of them when they die. 
Secondly, Some are 'Vainly confident and must be humbled. 
Thirdly, SOlne are too rnuch clpjected and must be cOluforted. 
Fourthly, Some are hardened and IUUSt be awakened. 
Fifthly and lastly, Such as hope to recover ,viII be a{>t to put 
off their repentance and reject the counsel of Go 1 for their 
good. 
No\v, sOluething in all these cases should be said, to dispose 
the sick to a sincere repentance. 
1. To such as are rceJ"Y ignorant. 
Such as are ignorant should be made sensible that this life is 
a state of trial and a passage only to another. . 
. That God has given nlcn reason and conscience and has also 
given them laws to walk by. 
That after this life we rnust all appear befo1
e the judgnzent-seat 
of Christ, who will rcltder to eve}"!! 
nan according to his deeds i . 
That slwl/; as Ita ve donø good, sltall go into lijè everlasting; and 
sZl;ch as hat'e done evil, -into everlasting rniser!J. And. that thus it 
,vill be, \vhether men lay these things to heart or not. 
And the only comfort a sinner has is this, that God. for Christ's 

ake will accept his sincere repentance. 
I require you, therefore, as JOu value Jour soul, to Inake 
).our peace with (j-od speedily. And that you n1ay know wherein 
i Rom. ii, 6. 



or Instruclion,ç to his Glc1'.'IY. 


419 


you have offended, I will set before )'oU the law of God, to the 
end you 111ay juùge yourself and call on God for lTICrcy, as 
often as I shall put you in 111ind. of any sin you have been 
guilty of. 


Q. To suclt as are voi-nl!! confident. 
Such as are confident of their own righteousness, or depcnd 
upon an outward profession of Christianity, should be put in 
nlind of our Lord's words to the Pharisees k: ye are they tltat 
Justif!J !Jourselves hefore 'men, hut God knowetlt your hearts. 
They should be told that the publican who durst not lift up 
his eyes to kea
en, but smote upon his hreast, saying, God he 
,nercifitl unto 'JIUJ a sinner, returned justified before him, who 
thought too well of himself. 
A nd that our Lord invited such only as ,vere u:eary únd 
heavy laden to come to hilu, becauHe these only are prepared to 
becon1e his true disciples. 
Thou sayest tllat thou art riclt and !tast need of nothing (saith 
our Lord to the church of Laodicea) and knowest not that thou 
art wretched and mise1"ahle and poor and hlind and naked l . 
You see how sad a thiIJg it is to have too good an opinion of 
one's self. 
And it is only because Christians do not consider the many 
duties that they have olnitted and the many sins they have been 
guilty of
 that makes thenl speak peace to their SO'ltls. 
In the laws of God, therefore, which I anI going to set before 
you, you will see, as in a glass, the charge that is against you; 
:lnd I require you to judge yourself, as you expect favour frOIH 
o-od. 


3. To sucl" as u'ant cornfu1.t, being dejected. 
And first, if the sick person is under agonies of lllind, on 
account of sonle great sin or wickedness long lived in, a vrudent 
pastor will not too hastily speak peace to hÌ1n; he will rather 
endeavour that he Il1ay continue to sorrOlD aftep a godly .
Ol't: 
that is, not so much for having offended against a God, ll"ho can 
destroy both hody and soul ,in ltell, but as having offended a 
gracious Father, a l11erciful Saviour and an holy Spirit. 
Such a sorrow as this will not lessen a Christian's horror for 
sin, but willluake hill1 l110re hUluble, luore fearful of offending ;- 
k Luke x ,'i, 15. 1 Revelation iii, 17. 
EeQ 



4
O 


Bishop JT/ïlson's Paroclìialia: 


acknowledging God"s justice and his o,vn unworthiness, but yet 
resolving to lay hold of the promises of n1ercy, for Christ's sake, 
to penitent sinners. 
But then, there being a sorrow that 'worketlt death, making 
sinners impatient, doubting God's goodness, questioning his 
promises, neglecting repentance ;-such a sorro,v is to be resisted 
and discouraged, as a ten1ptation of the devil, being the effect 
of pride and of an unwillingness to submit to God. 
But if the sick person's sorrow proceeds, as it too often does, 
from mistakes concerning God: the extent of Christ's sufferings; 
the unpardonableness of some sins and some states; the sincerity 
of his o\vn faith and repentance; he is then to be c01l1forted with 
such truths as t.hese : -. 
That God deligltteth in nwrcym. 
That he is gracious and merciful, abundant in goodness and 
tr
ttll, forgiving iniquity, and transgression and sinn. 
That the devil, knowing this, uses all his arts and endeavours 
to tempt sinners to despair. 
That therefore God hil11self bids us to call upon ltÙn in time of 
trouble, and he will heal' 'Us. 
Nay, he calls hÎInself a fatller, on .purpose that sinners Inay 
consider ho,v a father would deal with his own child, when he 
saw hinl truly sensible of his errors. 
That Jesus Ohrist canle into the world to save sinners 0, even 
such as 'were lost P: Tltat he ece1'" li vetIl to 'lnake intercessz.on fop 
usq. 
.A.nd ,ve have his o\vn prolnise for it; He that conzeth 'Unto 
fne, I will Í1
 no u:ise cast out r ; and, He that helz"evetll in hint 
shall receive rem,ission of sins S . 
That the gospel is a most graciolls dispensation, requiring only 
such an obedience as a poor frail creature can pay. 
That that faith is not to be quest.ioned ,vhich purifieth the 
Iwart t ; wlu"ch 'lDorketh òJj love u ; that is, n1akes us do what ,ve 
can to please God; and which resisteth tenlptations and enables 
us to overcome them. 
That wherever aU1endment of life folIo,veth such a faith as 
this. there is trzw re]Jentance: and that where there is sincerity, 
there our obedience will be accepted, though it is not perfect as 
the law requires. 
m :Micah vii, 18. 
p 
latt. xviii, I I. 
t Acts xv, 9. 


n Exod. xxxiv, 6, 7. 
q Heù. vii, 25. r John vi, 37. 
'.1 Gal v, 6. 


o I Tim. i, I,f). 
s Acts ii, 38. 



or Instructio/ls to his Clergy. 


4Ql 


In short, no man will have reason to despair, if he considers, 
that God doet! nothing in vain: and that if he visits a sinner; if 
he exhorts hinl by his nlinisters; if he touches his heart; if he 
gives him tinle to consider his ways, when he might have taken 
him away without warning; why, it is because he designs to be 
gracious, if the sinner is not wanting to hÏ1nself. 
I will therefore set before you the law of God, not to affright 
you, but that you may know and confess and forsalæ !joll'r sin and 
find fJilercy, as God katlt promisedx.. 


4 To such as are hardened in u:ickedness and must he 
a wakened. 
'l'his is indeed a 11lelancholy case; but a good pastor, while 
God continues life, will continue his endeavours, for he does not 
know but this is God's time. 
He will therefore try what the su;ord if the Spirit will do, that 
fcord which, the saIne Spirit tells us, is profitable for correction 
as well as for instructionY. 
He will therefore put him in lnind that, if he dies in his sins 
unrepented of, he will go out of the ,vorld a professed enemy to 
that God, 'lvllO can destroy both hod!! and soul in hell; '{cliO 'will, as 
the holy Scriptures assure us, take 'Vengeance on all the,n that know 
not God and tlutt ohey not the gospel oj' our Lord Jeslls Ohrist, and 
'll,ho shall he punished 'with everlasting destructiou z . 
He will let him know that this 11lay be his condition in a few 
days; for our Lord assures us that, as soon as ever the wicked 
Juan died, he was carried to hell a. 
That this is the last till1e, perhaps, that ever God will afford 
you to beg his pardon; and you will be desperately nlad to 
neglect it. 
I t is true, God is not willing tkat any should perish, and he 
can conquer the stubbornest heart, but he will not do it by 
force. 
He has shewn his mercy in afHictl!'g your body and in taking 
frOITI you the power to do evil. 
'''hat is this for, but that you lnay open your eyes and see 
your danger and ask his pardon and beg his assistance and be 
delivered from the severity of his \\Tath, which you must cer- 
tainly feel, without a speedy repentance 
 
It Inay be, you do not know the cltarge that is against !IOU; 
x Isaiah lv, 7. y 2 Tim. iii, 16. z 2 Thess. i, 8, 9. a Luke xyi, 23. 



4512 


BishoJ} rV'ilson's J)aruchialia: 


I will therefore repeat to yon the substance of those laws, \vhich 
)"on have broken and by which you must be judged. 
If you have any concern for your soul, if JOu have any fear of 
God in your heart, JOu will hear and judge and condenln 
Jourself, that you nlay escape in the dreadful judgment of the 
last day. 
5. To such os, in hopes of reco'Cel
Y, put off their 'J'ejJentance. 
Such should be made sensible-that sickness is not only the 
Pltnisll1nent, but the re1Jwdy 0.( sin b. 
That it is the chiefest of those ways, by which God shews luen 
their sin-by ,vhich he discovers to then1 the vanity of the world 
that Lewitches theIn-by wl,ich he takes down the pride of the 
heart and the stubbornness of the will, which has hindered their 
converSIon. 
In short, it is Gad's tilne : so that not to repent in sickness is 
in effect to resolve never to repent. 
}i"'or ,vhat shall incline a 111an to repent when he recovers, 
which does not nlove hin1 now? 
. 
I-lis hopes of heaven and his fea.rs of hell wiII not be greater 
then than now. 
And it would be the utU10St presunlptioll to expect that God 
,vill give that Inan an extraordinary degree of grace, who despises 
the n10st usual n1eans of conversion. 
À pastor, therefore, will set before hiln the law of God, which 
he has transgressed, that he 11lay see the need he has of repent.. 
ing, and that he Iuay not provoke God to cut hitn off before his 
tilHe, because there is no hope of a luendluent. 


}).xa'l1zination iftlle sicl
 person's repentance. 
])E.A RL Y beloved, you are, it luay be, in a very short tiIne to 
appear before (j-od. 
I must therefore put you in mind that Jour sah'ation depends 
upon the truth of your repentance. 
Nü\v, forasn1ueh as you becalue a sinner by breaking the laws 
of God, you have no way of being restored to God's favour, but 
by seeing the nUluber and the greatness of your sins, that you 
1l1LL)" hate thenl heartily, hUllent theu1 sorely and cry nlightily to 
(
od for pardon. 


b )Iicah yi, 9. 



or I/lst,'uctions to his Olergy. 


4
3 


I will therefore set before you the laws of God, by which God 
will judge you; and I will ask you such questions as n1ay be pro- 
per to call your sins to your rCilleInbrance; and you will do weU, 
,vherever you shall have reason, to say with the publican-God 
be merciful 'Unto me, for I have offended in tltis or that thing. 
And be not too tender of yourself; but remember, that the 
more severe you are in accu
ing and condemning yourself, the 
more favour you Inay expect frolH God. 


l'"'our duty to God, you know, is to fear him, to love ltim, to trust 
in hi1n, to honour and to oóey kÙn. 
Consider, therefore, seriously-Have you not lived, as if there 
,vere no God to call you to an account? 
Has the knowledge of God's almighty power and his spvere 
justice nlade you fearful of offending hinl ? 
Are )'OU convinced that you have not loved God so nluch as 
his g-oodness and care of you deser,.ed 
 
Has the love of God luade you desirous to please him? 
Have you so put Jour trust in God as to be contented with 
what he has appointed, without murnluring and without ques- 
tioning the wisdoln of his choices .
 
I-fave YOU not been unthankful for God's nlercies? 
oJ 
Have you never, as you know of, taken any false oath? 
Have you never been accustonled to swear, to curse or to take 
God's nan1e in vain? 
Have you not very often spent the Lord's day idly? 
Have JOll not been careless and irreverent in God's house 
 
Have you been careful to pray to God daily for his pardon, 
his grace and his protection? 
Have you constantly received the Lord's supper, when )70U 
have had an opportunity 
 
Have JOu never gone profanely to the sacraluent, without 
examining yourself and without purposing to lead a new life? 
I-Iave you not despised God's word, his luinisters or his 
house? 


Yoztr dut!/ tv !I'ou}' neighbOltr ,is to love hiJ}
 as yoursf'lj: 
I-Iave you so loved all lHen as to wish and pray sincerely for 
their welfare 
 
Have you not. hated your cnenlies 
 
Have JOU paid due reverence in heart, in word, in behaviour, 



424 


BisltOj) TVilson's Parockialia : 


to your parents and to all such as \vere over you in place and 
authority? 
Have JOU not been subject to sinful, unadvised anger? 
Have you never done any thing to shorten the life of your 
neigh Lour? 
I-Iave you not lived in Inalice or envy, or wished any man's 
death? 
Ha ve you not been accustomed to So\V strife and dissension 
alnongst your neighbours? 
IIave you not fanen into the sins of drunkenness, gluttony, 
tippling or an idle life? 
Jlave you kept yourself free frOlll the sins of whoredom, 
impurity or uncleanness? .. 
IIa,Te you none of the sins of injustice, extortion or of any 
"Tay \"ronging your neighbour, to answer for? 
Have JOU not been unfaithful in any matters of trust com- 
n1itted to you? 
Have you not been subject to the evil habits of lying, slander- 
ing or talebearing? 
Have you never given false eyidence, outfaced the truth or 
countenanced an evil cause? 
Have you not been pleased with evil reports; and have you 
not been too forward to propagate them? 
IIave you not been vexatious to your neighbour and grieved 
hiln without cause? 
IIave you not been dissatisfied with the condition which God 
allotted you? 
IIave you not cO\Tcted your neighbour's goods, envied his 
prosperity or been pleased with his 111isfortunes 
 
IIave you done to others as you wish they should have done 
to you? 
Can you call to n1ind any injury or injustice, for which you 
ought to ask pardon or mal{e restitution? 
And relnen1bcr you are told the truth, that the unrighteous 
and unjust shall not enter the kingdoI11 of heaven. 
Is there any body that has grievously wronged you, to whom 
you ought to be reconciled? 
llen1cluber that, if JOu forgive not, you will not be forgiven; 
and that he will receive judglnent wit/tOut me1'cl/, who hath sheu:ed 
no lIwrc!I. 

\rc you therefore in charity with all the world! 



or Instructions to ltis Clergy. 


4
5 


IIaNe you been kind to the poor according to your ability? 
And rel11elnber that, the n10nlent Zaccheus resolved to do right 
to every body and. to be kind to the poor, our Lord tells hiln 
that salvation 'leas then to come to his house. 
You would do well therefore, as a proof of your thankfulness 
to God, to be liberal to the poor, according to your ability. 
And if you have not already settled your worldly concerns 
and declared what you owe and what is owing to you; it is fit 
you do so now, for the discharging a good conscience and for 
preventing n1Ïschief after your death. 
And be very careful that, in D1aldng )Tour will, you do no 
"Tong, discover no resentment, that the last act of Jour life may 
be free from sin. 
And now I win leave you for a while to God and to your 
own conscience; beseeching him to discover to you the cbarge 
that is against you; that you may know and confess and 
bewail and abhor the errors of your life past; that your sins 
may be done away by his mercy and your pardon sealed in 
heaven, hefore you go hence and be no more seen. 


CONCER
ING CONFESSION AND ABSOLUTION. -p.,. 


CONCERNING confession, archbishop Usher has these 
words: "No kind of confession, either public or private, is 
disallowed by our church, that is any war requisite for the due 
execution of the ancient power of the keys, which Christ 
bestowed on the church c." 
Concerning absolution, bishop Andrews hath these words: 
(t It is not said by Christ, JVlwse sins ye wish and pray for, or 
declare to be remitted; but, JVhose sins !Ie reln,it :-to which he 
addeth a prolnise, that he will make it good and that his 
power shall accolnpany the power he has givcn thel11 and the 
lawful execution of it in his church for ever." 
And indeed the very saIne per
ons baptize for the remission 
of sins, and adn1inister the Lord's supper as a seal of the for- 
giveness of sins to all worthy cOlnmunicants. 
It is not water that can wash a\vay sin, nor bread and wine; 
but these rightly administered, by persons truly authorized, and 
to persons duly qualified by faith and repentance. And thus 


c Answer to the Jesuit, p.8.t- 



4Q6 


Bishop JVilson's Parochialia : 


absolution henefiteth, by virtue of the power ,vhich Jesus Christ 
has given his nlinisters d . 
In short-our Lord having purchased the forgiveness of sins 
for an mankind, he hath committed the ministry of reconciliation 
to us; that having brought men to repentance, ,ye may in Chrisfs 
nanle, and in the person of Christ e , pronounce their pardon. 
And this will be the true way to lllagnify the po\ver of the 
keys, which is so little understood or so much despised; namely, 
to bring as many as possiLly we can to repentance, that we 
may have more frequent occasions of sealing a penitent"s pardon 
by our ministry. 
And now, if the sick person has been so dealt with as to be 
truly sensible of his condition, he should then be instructed in 
the nature and benefit of confession (at least of such sins as do 
trouble his conscience) and of absolution. 
For instance-he should be told that, as under the la,v of 

Ioses, God 111ade his priests the judges of leprosy f and gave 
theln rules, by which they ,vere to detennine who were 
lean 
and fit to enter into the congregation (which was a type of 
heaven) and who ,vere not clean: 
Even so, under the gospel, he has given his priests authorit.y 
to judge sin, which is the leprosy of the soul. He has given 
them rules to judge by, with aut.horitJ to pronounce their par- 
don, if they find thenl qualified; for this is their comn1ission 
frolli Christ's own mouth, JJTlwsesoever sins !Ie remit, tkey are 
'renÛtted 'Unto the}}
. 
But then we dare not take upon us to exercise this authority, 
until sinners give such signs of a sincere faith and true repent- 
ance, as may persuade one charitably to believe that alnendluent 
of life win foIlo\v, if God shall think fit to grant thenl longer tinlc. 
.1\ t the same tinle, therefore, that we are bound to encourage 
penitents earnestly to desire absolution and to exhort them to 
receive the Lord's supper, as a plerlge to assure them of pardon; 
,ve nlust sincerely adlHonish thenl not to hope for any benefit 
either frolH the one or the other, but upon condition of their 
sincere repentance. 
It. will be proper, therefore, before absolution, and for nlore 
satisf
lction, to ask the sick person 
onle such questions as these: 
IIave JOU considered the sins which you have been DI0st 
sul.ject to ? 
d John xx, 23. e 2 Cor. ii, 10. f Lev. xiii. 



or Instructions to ltis Clergy. 


:t
7 


Are you convinced that it is an e'Cil thing and bitter to jòrsako 
the Lord? 
.Are you resolved to avoid all ten1ptations and occasions of the 
sins you have now repented of 
 
Do you verily believe that you shall not fall into any of these 
. . 2 
Sins agaIn. 
If you should do so, will you inunediately beg God's pardon, 
and be more watchful over yourself? 
'Vill you strive with aU your Inight to overCOlne the corruptions 
of your nature, by prayers, by fasting and by self. denial ? 
Do you purpose, if God shall prolong your days, to bring fort/I, 
fru'Üs 
neet for repentance? 
.,A.re you in perfect charity with all the worlel 
 
Every Christian, whose life has been, in the main, unblalu- 
able, and whose repentance has thus been particularly exanlined, 
and who has given a satisfactory answer to these questions, ought 
not to leave the world without the benefit of absolution, which 
he should be earnestly pressed to desire and exhorted to dispose 
hÏ1nself to receive, as the church has appointed. 


COXCER
IXG HAJ3ITUAL SINNERS. 


T F a person of this character be visited with sickness, a pru- 
dent pastor will not presently apply con1fort, or give hinl assur- 
ances of pardon; he will rather strive to increase his sorrow to 
fo'uch a height as, if God 8hould spare hinl, Inight produce a 
repentance not to he 'repented of 
It was thus (as Dr. H:unmond observes) that God hÌInself 
dealt with such kind of 
inners g. 
The c/Ûldren of Is'rael did evil again; that is, they went on in their 
wickedness, upon which God sorely distresses theIne They cried 
unto God, but he answers theIn, I n'ill deliver !lOll: no morc. I-low- 
ever, this did not n1ake them utt.erly to despair; for they knew 
that his 111erey had no bounds; they therefore stilI went on to 
apply to hiln for pardon and help and resolved to do what was 
at present in their power towards a reformation ;-at last, God 
was prevailed on to accept and deliver them. 
...\nd thus should we deal with habitual sinners :-we should 
not óreaÁ
 the bru ised 'reed ;-we should indeed give thenl assur- 
g Judges x, 6-16. 



4Q8 


Bishop JVilson's Pa/
ochialia : 


ances of pardon, upon their sincere repentance: but., forasmuch 
as it is very hard even for themselves t.o kno\v whether their 
sorro\v and resolutions are such as \vould bring forth fruit an- 
swerable to anlendnlent of life, all that a confessor can do is to 
exhort such persons to do all that is in their present power;- 
to take shaDle to thelnselves ;-to give glory to God in a free 
confession of their crinles (which St. J allIes saith is of great use 
to\vards obtaining t.heir pardon)-to pray without ceasing ;-to 
warn others t.o be\vare of falling into the same sad condition ;- 
and to consider that a wicked life, to ,vhich God has threatened 
eternal fire, cannot be supposed to be forgiven by an easy 
repentance. 
And though the church has no rules in this case to go by but 
such as are very afflicting, yet God is not tied to rules; he sees 
,vhat is in Dlan and may finally absolve one, \vhoJll his ministers 
dare not, until after a long probation they have reason, in the 
judgment of charity, to believe that his repentance is sincere. 
And this a prudent pastor will be careful to observe, both to 
prevent the scandal of an hasty absolution and because he 
knows such D1Ïnistrations do no good to those that receive 
thenI. 


'fO SUCH AS H.A. 'TE RECOVERED FROßI 
SICI(NESS. 


AND, in the first place, a pastor should be very careful to 
put his people in Inind that the first fruits of health should 
always be offered to God. 
And forasmuch as there is nothing more cornmon nor nlore 
to be lanlented than for people in sickness to make very solemn 
promises of better obedience and, upon their recovery, to forget 
all and to return to their fornler careless life ;-a pastor win 
warn them betilnes ho\v God hates such backslidings, ho\v un- 
thankful, ho\v provoking it is, and the readiest \yay to draw 
do\vn a \vorse evil, or to be given over to a reprobate Dlind. 
And indeed a Inan that has received the sentence of death in 
himselt:-that has :seen the hazard of a death-bed repentance- 
that has felt the horror of sin, when it is most frightful ;-for 
such a person to grow secure, is an aluazing instance of the cor- 
ruption of our nature; and therefore it will require a pastor's 
greatest care to prevent a relapse. Especially to guard his people 



or Instructions to his Clergy. 


4f<9 


against general purposes of amendment, \vhich lull the nlind 
asleep; and before people are a,vare, they are just where they 
\vere before sickness sei.led thenl. 
A love for sin returns ;-God is provoked and grace with- 
drawn j-and every relapse makes a Christian's case more 
desperate. 
A Christian, therefore, who is in good earnest, must be put 
upon rectifying the errors of his life immediately, as he hopes for 
nlercy, whenever God visits hilll again. 
If an idle life has been his fault, he must take to business ;- 
if intemperance, he must at his peril be sober ;-if he has been 
given to appetite, to ease and to luxury, he must deny himfelf 
and labour to mortify these corrupt affections ;-if he has ob- 
served no method of living, he nl11st for the future fix proper 
times for prayer, for fasting, for retirenlent and for calling him- 
self to an account. In short, he ll1ust avoid, as much as possible, 
all occasions and temptations to sin j-if he is overtaken in 
a fault, he must imnlediately repent of it and be nlore careful; 
he must not be discouraged with the difficulties he will n1eet 
,vith, for the power of God is sufficient to nlake a virtuous life 
possihle, easy and pleasant, to the weakest Christian that depends 
upon his grace. 
Let hin1 t.herefore be exhorted to persevere in his good resolu- 
tions ;-to depend upon God's power and promises to assist hinl, 
to pray daily for light to discover and for strength to overcome 
- the corruptions of his nature ;-and lastly" to be always afraid 
of backsliding :-and then sickness and death, whenever they 
come, will be a blessing. 
And as a fait.hful discharge of this duty will give a curate of 
souls the greatest con1fort at the hour of death, so there is 
nothing doth 1110re preserve the authority, which a faithful 
pastor ought to have over his flock. 




A LETTElt 


ADDRESSED TO 


THE CLERGY AND LAITY 


OF HIS 


PRO V I NeE, 


BY 


'VILLLA.
I, LORD ARCHBISI-IOP OF CANTERBURY. 



.. 



,V ILLIAM Ho"rLEY, whose father ,vas Incumbent of 
Ropley, in Hampshire, ,vas born there in 1765. He ,vas edu- 
cated at Winchester School. From thence he proceeded, at the 
customary age and standing, to N e\v College, Oxford; 'vhere 
he ,vas admitted Scholar in 1783 and elected Fello,v in 1785. 
Subsequently, he vacated his Fel1o\yship of New College, upon 
being chosen Fello,v of Winchester CoHege. He ,vas appointed 
Canon of Christ Church, in 1804; and Regius Professor of 
Divinity, in 1809. The Bishoprick of London having become 
vacant in 18 13, he was nominated by the Crown to that im- 
portant See, ,vhich is very seldom recorded to have been filled 
otherwise than by translation. After fifteen years of assiduous 
and successful labour in the cause of Religion, he ,vas advanced 
to the Archbishoprick of Canterbury. He died in 1848; 
having displayed in the Primacy, through t\venty years of more 
than ordinary trial and difficulty for the Church, administrative 
abilities of the highest order, together ,,"ith such combined 
meekness and dignity, moderation of spirit and firmness of 
purpose as furthered his usefulness in every department of 
that various service, which his eminent station required him 
to render to <!OD and his country. 


pf 



ARCHBISHOP HO'VLEY'S LETTER. 


FOR a considerable time past my attention has been anxiously 
turned to the divisions in the Church, occasioned by differences 
of opinion with respect to the intention of certain rubrical direc- 
tions in the Liturgy and diversities of practice in the perforlll- 
ance of Divine Service. These questions, relating to 111atters in 
thelnselves indifferent, but deriving in1portance from their con- 
nection with the nlaintenance of unifonuity and order in the 
solemn ministrations of the Church, are rendered difficult by the 
ambiguity of the rubrics in sonle instances, and, in all, by the 
doubts which nlay arise as to the weight which should be allowed 
to general usage, when it varies from the written law. It is 
partly on these accounts, and partly frollI uncertainty with re- 
spect to the extent of the powers comnlitted to the Archbishop 
of the province, in the preface to the Book of Common PraJer, 
for the resolution of doubts in regard to the contested points, 
that I have not felt myself justified in expressing an authorita- 
tive opinion upon questions, occasionally submitted to tue on 
these subjects. I was, indeed, willing to hope that these con- 
troversies, like many of lnuch greater inlportance which have 
for a season disquieted the Church, \vould Le suffered to Jie 
away of thell1selves, when the argulllents on each side had been 
thoroughJy sifted, fronI t.he good sense of the parties engaged in 
thenI and the general conviction of their unprofitableness. But 
having been disappointed in this expectation and considering 
the tendency of continued agitation to weaken the sacred bond 
of affection, which ought to unite the clergy and laity as lnenl- 
bers of one body in Christ, I hold it :1 duty to come forward, in 
the hope of allaying aniUlosities and putting a stop to dissensions, 
which are shown by experience to be not only unedifYing Lut 
l1Iischievous. 'Vith this view I would call your attention to a 
few considerations, which, with persons "ho are desirous of 
peace, win, I trust, have their due weight. 
Fffl 



436 


Archbishop Howley's Letter. 


I t has long been observed that, in the perfOrIl1anCe of Divine 
Service in the generality of our parochial churches, there has 
been a deviation, in certain particulars, from the express direc- 
tions of the rubric, and that, in sonle cases, a difference in 
respect to the sense of the rubric has led to a diversity in prac- 
tice. In regard to such points, in themselves non-essential, the 
most conscientious clergymen have felt themselves justified in 
treading in the steps of their predecessors; and hence the irre- 
gularity (for all departure from rule is irregular) which seems, in 
sonle instances at least, to have existed from the beginning, 
became inveterate. There have, I apprehend, at all times been 
clergymen, \vho have been distressed by this inconsistency; and 
of late years it has been règarded by many excellent men as 
irreconcilable \vith the obligations, \vhich they took upon them- 
selves on their admission into holy orders. Under t.he influence 
of these scruples, they thought it right to adhere as closely as 
possible to the letter of the rubric in their ministrations: ,vhilst 
others of their brethren, not less conscientious, have been deter- 
Inined by considerations, in their estimation of great ,veight, to 
follow the usage, which they found established in their respective 
churches. Under these circumstances, a diversity of practice has 
arisen, which is not only inconsistent with the principle of uni- 
fOrJl1ity maintained by the church, but is sometimes associated in 
the minds of the people \vith peculiarities of doctrine and gives 
birth to suspicions and jealousies, destructive of the confidence 
,vhich should always subsist between the flock and their pastor. 
To prevent the increase of an evil, ,vhich might terminate in 
actual schisms, ,vas confessedly 1110st desirable; and the Inost 
effectual mode of accomplishing the object, it has been thought, 
would be found in general confon11ity to the rubric. Universal 
concurrence in this easy and obviou
 regulation \vould have com- 
bined the several advantages of securing cOlnpliance with the la\v 
of the church and the land, of putting a stop to unauthorized 
innovations and of excluding party distinctions, in their charac- 
ter decidedly un-Christian, from the public worship of God; and 
I cannot but regret that nleasures \vhich, ,vith a view to these 
good purposes, have been recommended by high authorities, 
should not have been received with unaninlous acquiescence, as 
the Ineans of rest.oring order and peace, ,vithout any departure 
frolll the principles of the church, or offence to the most scrupu- 
lous conscience. 



Archbishop Howle!J's Letter. 


437 


At the same time I am sensible that those who object have 
much to allege in their justification. If the written la\v is against 
them, they plead an opposite usage, in parochial churches at 
least, reaching back, perhaps, to the time when the intention of" 
the lawgiver was best understood, superseding its literal sense 
and determining its real meaning; they appeal to the general 
consent of bishops, clergy and laity, implied in the absence of any 
effectual interference during so long a period; they object to the 
sudden revival of rules which, in their opinion, are obsolete, and 
still more, to their rigid enforcement after so long a term of 
abeyance. In fairness to thenl we must allow that this dislike 
of alterations in the manner of worship to which they have been 
accustomed fronl their infancy, proceeding, as it does, from 
attachment to the ordinances of the church, ought not to be 
visited with unkindly censure; and we can hardly be surprised 
at any change being regarded with suspicion, when so tnany 
attempts have been made to introduce innovations, which are 
reaIly objectionable, and tend, as far as they go, to alter the 
character of our church. It Illust also be granted that the 
intention of the church is not always clearly discoverable from 
the language of the rubric, nor detern1Ïnable with absolute cer- 
tainty from the records of early practice. In such cases it may 
with some show of reason be said t.hat, as the eminent men 
to whom the several revisions of the liturgy,vere successively 
entrusted, did not see the necessity of giving directions so precise 
as to ensure a rigid confornlity in every particular, we nlay be 
contented to acquiesce in slight deviations from rule, suggested 
by convenience and sanctioned by long usage. 
No\v, whatever nlay be the force of the arguments on eit.her 
side, a difference of opinion will probably always exist in regard 
to the contested points. But all parties will concur in regarding 
these points as of far less importance than the maintenance of that 
mutual confidence, which, next to support from above, fonns the 
main strength of the church, produ
ing the harmonious coopera- 
tion of its several t11embers and disposing the people to look up 
with reverence to their pastor, as their spiritual instructor and 
guide. In whatever degree or by whatever means the tie of 
affection is loosened, a proportionate din1Ínution will follow of 
that moral influence, on which the efficiency of the clergJman's 
teaching will always depend. 
The case then, if fairly considered with reference to the 



438 


Archhishop Howley's Letter. 


existing dissensions, and the results to be expected fronl their 
continuance, will show the necessity of mutual forbearance to 
the peace and the honour, I may even say, to the safety, of the 
church. The laity, it may be hoped, ,viII see the propriety of 
respecting the consciences of such of the clergy as have held 
themselves bound to strict compliance with the express direc- 
tions of the rubric, \vithout regard to former disuse; and thp 
clergy will perceive the expediency of not pressing too harshly 
or abruptly the observance of la\vs ,vhich, having by then1sclves 
and their predecessors been long suffered to sleep, have now the 
appearance of novelty. I am fully alive to the importance of 
uniforlnity in the celebration of Divine Service; but I think it 
,vould be purchased too dea ly at the expense of lasting divi- 
sions-a consequence which, I trust, will be averted by a sus- 
pension of the existing disputes. l\fy hope of such an adjustIllent 
is grounded on the wisdom, temper and piety, which are engaged 
on both sides of the question. A settleulent, which would have 
the sanction of law, is at the present moment impossible; anð, 
were it possible, could hardly be attenlpted with hope of success, 
till the subsisting excitenlent has been allayed by time and 
reflection. But til