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Full text of "A literary and biographical history, or bibliographical dictionary, of the English Catholics from the breach with Rome, in 1534, to the present time Volume 3"

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Nazareth Co!leg'e Library 
Nazareth, Mich. 


No. 


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Rf'ceivcd 


Class No, 


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From ___u 


SOLD BY 
THOMAS BAKER. 
7
 Newman Street, 



A 


LITERARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY, 


OR 


BIBLI OG }{A PHI CAL DICTIONARY 


OF THE 


ENGI-JISH CATHOLICS. 



A 


LITERAR\7" AND BIOGRAPHICAL 
IIISTORY, 
OR I \::,00 '6 
J3IBLIOGRAPIIICAL DICTIONARY 


OF THE 


ENGLISII CATIIOIJIf:S 


FROM 


THE BREACH 
VITH ROfiIE, IN 1534, TO THE 
PRESENT TIfi1E, 


"A whole compos'd of parts, and those the best, 
\\lith every various character exprest. .. 
DRYDEN, Epistle to Sir G. Kneller. 


BY 


JOSEPH GI LLO\V. 


VOL, III. 


BURNS & OATES. 


LO
DOK: 
GRANVILLE MANSIONS, 
28 ORCHARD STREET, \V, 


NEW YORK: 
CATHOLIC PUBLICATION 
SOCIETY CO, 
9 BARCLAY STREET, 




PRE F ACE. 


1'1 


IT will be observed that the notices in this volume are more 
exhaustive than those in the two previous ones, and that, with 
a view to give the work a value independent of any other 
Dictionary, considerable digression has been made in the way 
of genealogy, history, and statistics connected with the subject 
of Catholicity in England, 
Much of the interval between the present and last volumes 
has been consumed in the transcription of MSS" mainly for 
future use. The formation of indices to these and other of my 
collections is a slow process. Anyone with experience in this 
kind of work will know how tedious it is, and yet if a collector, 
however retentive his memory may be, intends to realize the 
value of his labours, full indices are indispensable. 
Some time after the publication of the last volume I was 
generously presented by l\lr. John W. Fowler, of Birmingham, 
with four small volumes of bibliographical notes. They consist 
mostly of collations of the works by English Catholics which he 
has met with during the last fifty years. I determined at once 
to make this valuable collection the basis of a manual to 
Catholic literature, alphabetically arranged under authors and 



VI 


l)REFACE. 


titles, and already my endeavours have proved of immense 
service to my present undertaking. 

Iy best thanks are also due to others for the loan of im- 
portant MSS. The R, R. 
Igr. \Vrennall, D,D., and the Very 
Rev. J. Lennon, D.D., the late and present Presidents of Ushaw 
College, kindly allowed me to make use of the "U shaw Collec- 
tion," frequently referred to as the "Eyre Collection," 
 vols. 
folio, and likewise of Vincent Eyre's" l'vIS. Cases, &c., on the 
Popery Laws," an immense folio of original documents and 
tracts extending to 1469 pages. The Very Rev. John Canon 
Hawksford, D.D" President of St. \Vilfrid's College, Cotton, 
lent me Dr. Hu
enbeth's "i.\'Iemoirs of Parkers," and, shortly 
after the present volume was put to press, the Rev, Austin 
Powell, of Birchley, placed in my hands a few original l\1SS. 
and some most valuable transcripts, The latter include the 
"\Vest Derby Hundred Records," "Bishop Dicconson's Clergy 
List," the" Visitations" of Bishops \Villiams and \Valton, and 
other documents chiefly relating to Lancashire. l\Ioreover, I 
am indebted to the same gentleman for a copy of the "V all a- 
dolid Diary," taken from one transcribed from the original at 
Valladolid College for the late R. R. Alex. Goss, D.D., Bishop 
of Liverpool, by the Verr Rev. \Villiam \Valmsley, V. F., of 
St. Helens. The value of such a record is so obvious that 
comment is unnecessary. In the preparation of the Howard 
notices I received much kindness from l\Ir. Philip J. C. Howard, 
of Corby and Foxcote, who liberally supplied me with books 
and l\ISS. Some of the latter I shall have occasion to make 



PREFACE. 


vii 


use of hereafter. Other obligations, for which I here express 
my gratitude, will be found duly acknowledged, I trust, in their 
proper places. 
It was intended that the letter .. K" should be completed in 
this volume, but owing to the increase in the length of the 
notices it has not been accomplished, The articles amount to 
three hundred and forty-one, besides one hundred and twenty 
subsidiary memoirs, and there are over twelve hundred biblio- 
graphical notices. 


J. G. 


THE \YO()DLA
DS, BOWDO
, CHESHIRE, 
Christmas, 1887. 



,. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 


P. I, GRANGER, MARIE, O.S.D., born 1591, foundress and first prioress of 
the French Benedictine Convent of Notre Dames des Anges at 
l\lontargis, was the daughter of John Granger, and his wife, 
Geneviève Gaudais. It is supposed that her father (or his family) 
had settled in France owing to the change of religion in England. 
He was an equerry, seigneur de la Maison Rouge, and one of tbe 
cent gentilhommes du roi, 
About 1621 she entered the Benedictine Abbey of Montmartre, 
where she was professed at the age of thirty-two, and received the 
religious name of Marie de l' Assomption. She soon conceived the 
idea of founding. a convent, and with this object sought the assist- 
ance of her brother, who was almoner to the king, prior of St. Jean 
de Houdan, and can
n of the church of Notre Dame de Paris. He 
obtained the royal assent to the foundation, and also the consent of 
Parliament. Suitable premises in the Faubourg de Montargis were 
thcn.purchast d from the Pères Recollets, who desired to remove 
into the city, and offered their convent for the establishment of some 
religious of a refonned order. Finally, Monsieur Granger obtained 
the consent of Monseigneur Octave de Bellegarde, Archbishop of 
Sens, for the establishment of the com"ent in his diocese. On May 
19, 1630, Mother Mary of the Assumption, with three professed 
nuns and several novices from Montmartre, arrived at Montargis, 
and alighted at the residence of 1\1. de Fontaine, receveur de 
domaine, the most considerable house in the town, where they met 
with a grateful reception. In the meanwhile ::\lons, Granger prepared 
the convent for their reception, and on the Feast of the Holy Trinity. 
l\1ay 26, the reverend mother made her solemn entry. Entitled to 
have an abbess, but fearing to have a Court lady imposed upon them, 
the community elec
ed to be governed by a prioress, in the person 
of Mother Granger. Later on, haying a friend in Colbert, the 
Minister of Louis XIY., they were sustained in the attitude they had 
taken. The prioress' admirable government of the community was 
brought to an early close by her premature death, March 9, 1636, 
aged thirty-eight. 



x 


.\DUITIOXS .\ND CORRECTIONS. 


Her death was a great grief to the community, ,,,,,ho lost a most 
holy mother, possessed of all the qualities requisite for an able 
superioress. She was interred in the middle of the choir of the con- 
vent, before the high altar. A monument engraved with her effigy 
was erected to her memory by the Duchesse de l\Iontbazon. This 
generous lady wished to have carried out a more pretentious design, 
representing the figure of Mother Granger on her knees, but her 
sister, and successor in the government of the community, preferred 
simplicity as more in consonance with the vow of poverty. 
All1w!cs du JIollastèrc des BéllédidÙzes de Notre Dame dt:s A1Zgcs 
de 1.1Iolltargi's, flfS., 110W at PrÙzcctllOrþe
' A lilla/lack for the Diocese 
Elf Birmingham, 1886, pp, 69, 70, 


J. From the time of its foundation in 1630, till it3 expulsion from 
France in 1792, the community of Our Lady of Angels was held in 
high repute for its strict adhesion to the rule of the Order, and on 
several occasions sent forth members to reform monasteries which 
had fallen into relaxation. The catalogue of those professed includes 
the names of members of the élite of the French noblesse, De 
Montbazon, De Dretaigne, De Luynes, De l\Iirepoix, &c., and of 
many English families of distinction. 
At the outbreak of the Revolution, the municipality and populace 
of Montargis were amongst the most lawless and violent of its 
adherents. The monastery was one of the first cbjects of their attack. 
The charters, documents, and money were taken possession of by 
the mayor and his officers, and everything of value carried off. 
\Vhen the National Assembly decreed the dissolution of religious 
communities and confiscation of their property, the mother prioress 
(De :\Iirepoix) with great difficulty procured passports, and conducted 
her community, numbering forty persons, to Dieppe. There they 
embarked on board the Prillce of TValcs, commanded by Captain 
Burton, intending ultimately to proceed to the Low Countries, 
Stress of weather obliged the captain to land his passengers at 
Shoreham, whence the refugees proceeded in carriages to Brighton. 
The arrival of the French community (Oct. 17, lï92) stilTed the 
sympathy of the sojourners at that fashionable watering-place, and 
:Mrs. Fitzherbert, who had a relative in the community, interested 
her husband, the Prince Regent, afterwalds George IV., in behalf of 
the exiles. His Royal Highness accompanied her to visit the nuns, 
spoke to each sister with the greatest kindness and affability, and, 
adèressing the prioress, invited her and her community to remain 
in England, promising them safety, and assuring them of his pro- 
tection. He also liberally aided them in their pecuniary need. 



ADDITIONS AKD CORRECTIONS. 


xi 


Their condition at the time of their landing was one of absolute 
poverty. In the strong-box of the convent is treasured to this day 
the only money (fourpence) possessed by the community on the day 
they were blown by the storm to England. In consequence of their 
kind reception by the Prince of \Yales, the nuns proceeded to 
London, where they remained for two years, supporting them- 
selves by giving lessons in French, and by the sale of needle- 
work; and benefactors, Protestant as well as Catholic, were not 
wanting. 
In 1794 the community settled at Bodney Hall, Norfolk, most 
generously lent them by l\Ir. Tasborough, nephew to one of the 
nuns, Anne (Mère de S!e. Félicité), daughter of Sir John Swinburne, 
of Capheaton, Bart, There they re-opened a school for young 
ladies, which soon gained high repute. In 181 I the community 
removed to Heath Hall, near \Vakefield, in Yorkshire, and in 1821 
to Orrell Mount, near \Vigan, co. Lancaster, a spacious mansion 
with m;Jgnificent gardens, which they purchased. There were then 
from forty to forty-t\\"o nuns in the convent, adjoining which they 
erecttd a chapel. Dom Thos. Anselm Kenyon, 0 S.B., was chaplain 
from 1827 to 1834. The premises at Orrell Mount, however, being 
found unsuitable for conventual observance, it was determined to 
sell the property and purchase land on which to erect a convent. 
In 1833 the foundation stone of the present priory of Our Lady of 
Angeis was laid at Princethorpe, \Varwickshire, where the community 
found a permanent home, in which they settled in June 1835, and 
now conduct a most flourishing school. 
The list of prioresses is as follows :-Marie Granger, of Our Lady 
of the Assumption, 1630 to death, March 9, 1636; her sister, 
Geneviève Granger, of S, Benoît, 11arch 17, 1636, to death, Oct. 5, 
1673; Geneviève Nau, of the Assumption, Oct, 7, 1673, to death, 
April 9, 1710; l\Iarie Antoinette de Beauvillier, of S. Benoît, May 5, 
1710, to death, Nov. 29, 1749; Charlotte l\lélanie d'Albert de Luynes, 
of Ste. Thérèse, Dee, 2, 1749, to April 12, 1761; 1Iarie Térèse de 
Levy, of Ste. Gertrude, April 14, 1761, to death, May I, 1784; 
Gabrielle Elizabeth de Levy l\Iirepoix, of S, Benoît, May 3, 1784, 
(transferrtd the community to England in 1792), to death, at Bodney 
Hall, March 28, 1806; Louise Elizabeth Victoire de Levy Mirepoix, 
of Ste. Agnes, April 30, 1806, to death, at Orrell Mount, May 24, 1830; 
Athanaise Ie Vaillant òu Chastelet, of S. Paul, May 28, 1830, to 
death, at Princethorpe, July 2, 1838; Agatha J oséphine Ie Vaillant 
du Chastelet, of Ste. Agnes, July 10, 1838, to death, May I, 1860; 
Françoi::;e Xaveria McCarthy (Marie Ger:eviève), l\Iay 12, 1860, to 
death, Oct, 17, 1867; Anne \Vinstanley (l\l;Jrie Athanaise), Oct. 29, 



xii 


ADLJITIOKS AKD. CORRECTIONS. 


1867, to June 9, 1873; Agnes Stonor (ì\1arie Rosalie), June 24,1873, 
to death, Sept. 6, 1887. 


P. 17, GRAY, alias GRANT, R., confirmed by the Valladolid Diary. 


P. 24, GREEN, HUGH. 
2. PORTRAIT, in the possession of the Teresian nuns of Lanherne, 
in Cornwall, formerly of Antwerp, inscribed "Ferdinando Brooks. 
Passus. 19. Aug. 1642." 


P. 36, GREENE, THOS., is entered in the Yalladolid Diary as of the diocese 
of Lincoln and l\I.A, of Oxford. He was received at Valladolid 
Oct. 24, 1590, and remained till Oct. 19, 1591, when he went to 
the English College at Seville, and there was ordained priest. 
P. 47, GREENWOOD, TERESA. A Sister John Greenwood was a religious 
in the Bridgettin
 community, formerly of Sion House, between 
15 82 and 1594. 


P.49, GRENE, FRANICS, does not appear in the Valladolid Diary. 
P. 54
 GREY, ]OHX. Bourchier ("' Hist. Ecdes.," edit, 1583, f. 132) says that 
he had the stigmata of St. Francis. the mark of which he himself 
saw on one foot. 


p, 58, GRIFFITH, MICH.\EL, was admitted into the English College at ValIa- 
dolid, Nov. I, 1602. Although he took the second missionary oath, 
Dec. 29, 1603, he left the college to join the Society in Feb. 1607. 
The Diary says he became" Rector ColJegii S. Rome," was well 
versed in Greek and Hebrew, and was a good canonist. 


P. 63, GRIi\IES, ROGER, alias GREENWAY and CADWALLADOR, vide Vol. i, 
P.369. From the Valladolid Diary it would appear that Grimes 
was his real name. Aft
r leaving Rheims he was received in the 
English College at Valladolid, Jan. 3, 1593, and was ordained priest 
there by the Bishop of TalllorC1lsi. He left for the English mission 
in the beginning of Oct. 1593, and was martyred Aug. 27, 16IO. 


P. 157, HARTIXG, J. V., 2nd paragraph, line 8, after Messrs. insert Baxendale. 


P. 161, HARVEY, J, M., alias RIVETT, must have opened his school in London 
shortly after his arrival from Rome, because John Orme is said to 
have attenàed the school for some time previous to his reception 
into the English College at Rome in Aug, 1732. Subsequently 
1\1r. Harvey removed to the ancient mission at Ugthorpe, in York- 
shire, and there continued his school. Bishop Dicconson mentions 
him as being there in lï41. Towards the close of 1745 he was 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 


xiii 


brought before three justices of the peace, charged with being a 
Popish priest and keeping a school for the education of children in 
the Popish religion. This he acknowledged, and as he refused to 
take the oaths, he was committed to York Castle, Hi!;> name 
appears in the Duke of Newcastle's warrant of detainer H for 
suspition of high treason." In the following March he was tried at 
the Lent assizes with Sir \Vm. Anderson, a Valladolid priest, "for 
being Popish priests, and, little regarding the laws and statutes of 
this realm, and not fearing the pains and penalties therein contained 
after the 25th of March, 1700, to wit, the 8th of Sept. in the 19th year 
of George II., did say l\Iass at Craythorne and Ugthorpe, and that 
office or function of a Popish priest did use and exercise in contempt 
of the said Lord the King and his laws." Several other priests were 
tried at the same assizes, and suffered long imprisonments. Sub- 
scriptions were raised amongst the Catholics for their maintenance 
and to defray the costs of their defence, in which the charity of 
Mr, Tunstall, of \Vycliff, and :\Ir. Cholmeley, of Bransby, was con- 
spicuous. After his release from prison, 
lr, Harvey withdrew to 
London. His school was probably broken up, though it may have 
been re-opened by his successor at Ugthorpe, the Rev. Edw. Ball, 
who remained there till 1757, and subsequently became a professor 
ât St. Orner's College. 


P. :!26, HAYDOCK, ROBERT, O.S.B., of the Cottam Hall family, was admitted 
into the English College at Valladolid, Nov. I, 1602. He left to 
join the Benedictines in Oct. 1603, and was professed in the monas- 
tery of St, Martin at Compostella. On the mission he used the 
alias of Benson. His great reputation as a theologian was probably 
acquired by works, though no titles have been recorded. See his 
biography in (; The Haydoc
 Papers," by the present writer. 


P. 261, HELME FAl\IILV, The Yalladolid Diary says that Hugh Helme, 
alias Tapin, of Lancashire, was admitted into the College June 10, 
1600. and took the oath on the following Dec. 28, but left to join 
the Benedictines in Sept. 1603, \Veldon says he was professed at 
Montserrat under the religious name of Bede. He was first Pro- 
vincial of York, 1620-25, and died in Durham, Jan. :!4, 1629, 
Fr. Snow, in his "Benedictine 
ecrology," apparently confuses him 
with Thomas Tunstall, alias Helmes the martyr. 
T'homas Helme, or Holme, of Lancashire, a relative of the above, 
was admitted into the English Colkge at Valladolid, March 27, 1595, 
but was transferred to the English College at Seville, where pre- 
sumably he was ordained priest. 



XIV ADDìTIOXS AKD CORRECTIOi\S. 


P.313, HIPPISLEY, Sir JOHN COXE, Bart., state
man, 1765-IR25, was re- 
ceived into the Church on his death.bed; vide Bishop Milner's 
letter to Rev. John Garbett, M.A., dated \Volverhampton, March 17, 
1826, reprinted in Oli\rer's " Collectanea S.J .," edit, 1845, p. 17 I. 


P. 320, HODGSOX, R. The exact title of the work referred to is-" A Dis. 
passionate Narrative of the Conduct of the English Clergy in 
receiving from the French King and his Parliament the Adminis- 
tration of the College of St. Orner, late under the Direction of the 
English Jesuits. Collected from the Original Memorials and 
Letters. By a Layman." Lond. 1768, 8vo., pp. 155, besides title 
and preface. 
St. Omer.s was originally founded by Fr. Persons in 1593 as a 
Jesuit College. In 1762 the French Parliament determined on the 
expulsion of Jesuits from France, and the English members of the 
Society were doomed with their French brethren. The College 
authorities, having infonnation of this design, secretly transported 
the students and their valuable effects beyond the Parliament's 
reach, across the frontier of France to Bruges, in Aug. :&762. In 
order to save the College from total sequestration from the English 
Catholics, it was arranged that it should be handed over to the 
English secular clergy, with which the Jesuits at first expressed 
entire satisfaction. Accordingly, on Sept. 7, 1762, another arrêt 
was addressed to Le Sieur Henri Tichbourne Blount, prêtre du 
Collége Anglais de Douay, to take possession of the Collége de Saint 
Omer, in the absence of Thomas Talbot, the president-elect, to 
choose professors and to open the schools. On the 30th of the same 
month the four Fathers, as related under Fr. R. Hoskins (p. 408), 
signed their "Protest." In the following month, after the Fathers 
had left the College, the Seculars took possession, and opened the 
schools in Feb. 1763-4, Shortly before the latter event, unbecom- 
ing reflections were cast upon the Seculars for not refusing to accept 
the administration of the College, and charges were brought against 
the professors at Douay College and the Carthusians at Nieuport. 
The President of the former issued a circular letter, which was a 
complete answer to these calumnies, and the Prior of the Carthu- 
sians proved that no member of his Order had taken part in the 
matter, The Jesuits then sent a memorial to Propaganda, relati\'e 
to the affairs of the College, and much private correspondence 
ensued. 


P. 4 21 , HOWARD, c., 5th line from bottom,for Dr. read Mgr. 



ADDITIOXS AXD CORRECTIOK
. 


xv 


P. 428, HOWARD, H., line 16, for Ranzoni rcad Rangoni, and for l\Ionticu- 
coili read ::\Iontecuculli. 


P. 431, 19th line, for part read port. 
P. 432, No. I, after preface i1tsert pp. xxi. 
P. 4ïo, HULL, F., No. I. He plepared a second volume (which seems not 
to have been published) of "The Flowers of the Lives of the Most 
Renowned Saincts of the three kingdoms, England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, written and collected out of the best authours and manu- 
scripts of our nation, and distributed according to their Feasts in 
the Calendar, by the Rev, Father Hierome Porter, Priest and 
Monke of the Holy Order of Sainct Benedict, of the Congregation 
of England." Doway, 1632, 4to., with engr. title and plates. 



BIOGRAPHICAL AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL 
DICTIONARY 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


Graham, John, schoolmaster, educated at the University of 
Paris, opened a school at 8, Clark's Buildings, Greenwich, in 
1823, which he continued for many years. His daughter mar- 
ried John vVhiteside, of London, Esq., son of Henry Whiteside, 
of Lancaster and London, by Jane, daughter of James Corney, 
of Lancaster. 
GilIO'Zf), Catlt. Schools z'71 E1Zg., MS. 
I. English Word-Book for the Use of Schools. By John 
Graham, schoolmaster. Lond" Nelson's School Series, 1856, 8vo. and 
IZffiO. 


Grant, Mr., schoolmaster, received his education at St. 
Omer's College. He assisted for several years in Catholic 
schools in and near London, and also in the north of England, 
after which, in 1820, he opened an academy for young gentle- 
men at Acock's Green House, three miles from Birmingham. 
He continued it for some years. 
Gillow, Cath. ScllOOls ill E1lg., filS. 
Grant, John, Esq., of Norbrook, near \Varwick, was unfor- 
tunately drawn into the conspiracy known as the Gunpowder 
Plot, which unjustly subjected the Catholics of England to more 
than a century of persecution and odium. 
Hume (" Hist.of Eng.," ed. 1795,vol. ii. p. 162) attributes this 
treason to the disappointment of the Catholics, who had expected 
indulgence on the accession of James I. No doubt this is true 
as regards the conspirators, but Lingard and other historians 
have clearly shown that the CathoHcs as a body had nothing to 
do with this plot. Indeed, on its becoming known to them, it 
VOL. III. B 



2 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[G RA. 


was they who at once apprised the Government of the danger. 
It was only when the conspirators stood in need of further 
assistance that Grant was admitted into their confidence. This 
was done by Catesby at Oxford, in the month of January, 
1604-5, on which occasion his brother-in-law, Robert \Ninter, 
likewise became privy to the scheme. Grant had married a 
sister of the vVinters of Huddington, co. \Vorcester, and at the 
time of the plot had several brothers, whom the Government 
afterwards endeavoured to associate with the conspiracy. He 
resided at Norbrook, adjoining to Snitterfield, properties which 
his ancestors had possessed for many generations, besides the 
estate of Saltmarsh, in \Vorcestershire. Fr. John Gerard, who 
no doubt was personally acquainted with him, says that he was 
"as fierce as a lion, of a very undaunted courage as could be 
found in a country; which mind of his he had often showed 
unto pursuivants and prowling companions, when they would 
come to his house to search and ransack the same, as they did 
to divers of his neighbours. But he paid them so well for their 
labour, not with crowns of gold, but with cracked crowns some- 
times, and with dry blows instead of drink and other good 
cheer, that they durst not visit him any more, unless they 
brought great store of help with them. Truth is, his mettle 
and manner of proceeding was so well known unto them that 
it kept them very much in awe and himself in much quiet, 
which he did thc rather use that he might with more safety 
keep a priest in his house, which he did with great fruit unto 
his neighbours and comfort to himself." Fr. Greenway describes 
him as a man of accomplished manners, but of a melancholy 
and taciturn disposition. J ardine, on the authority of Tanner, 
says that he had been implicated in the Esscx insurrection, and 
fined for his share in that transaction. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that Catesby and his associates 
should consider such a man a valuable auxiliary, especially as 
the mansion-house at Norbrook was conveniently situated for 
the purposes of the conspirators, being in the centre of their 
proposed rendezvous, and in the most populous part of War- 
wickshire' between the towns of Warwick and Stratford-on- 
Avon, "It was walled and moated," says l\1r. Jardine, "and 
well calculated, from its great extent, for the reception of 
horses and ammunition. At the present day little remains of 
it but its name; some fragments of massive stone walls are, 



GRA.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 


however, still to be found, and the line of the moat may be 
distinctly traced; an ancient hall of large dimensions is also 
apparent among the partitions and disfigurations of a modern 
farmer's kitchen. The identity of the house is fixed, not only 
by its name and local situation, but by a continuing tradition, 
that this was the residence of one of the Gunpowder con- 
spira tors; and still more conclusively by the circumstance, that 
an old part of the building, which was taken down a few years 
ago, was known by the name of the Powder Room." Mr, Grant 
was therefore joined with Sir Everard Digby to raise an insur- 
rection after the intended blowing up of the Parliament-house. 
When the scheme failed, and the fugitives arrived at N or- 
brook, Grant accompanied them in their flight to Holbeach 
House, on the borders of Staffordshire, the residence of Stephen 
Littleton. Here, while preparing to resist apprehension on 
N ov, 8, 1605, an accidental explosion of gunpowder nearly put 
an end to his troubles. His face was very much disfigured 
and his eyes almost burnt out. \Vithin an hour the house was 
surrounded, and Mr. Grant was taken with others and sent 
prisoner to the Tower. 
On Jan. 27, 1606, he was arraigned with six of the prisoners 
at vVestminster for being a party to the plot to blow up the 
Parliament-house, and was accordingly condemned to death. 
Three days later he was executed in St. Paul's Churchyard, 
confessing the heinousness of his offence, but declaring that his 
conscience had belied him, otherwise his sole object had been 
the cause of religion. Casaubon's statement, in his" Epistle to 
Fronto Ducæus," p. 9 I, as to the disposition of l\1r. Grant on 
the day of his execution, and as to the light in which he is 
there made to look upon his crime, has been shown to be 
untruthful. 
Morris, COlldition. of Catholics under] ames I, J' ] ardinc, GUll- 
powder Plot,. Lingard, Hist. of Ellg., ed. 1849, vol. vii. p. 69 ; 
Dodd, Ch. Hist., vol. ii. ; TÙnzcy, Dodd, vol. v. pp. 45, 47, 
I. For the publications referring to his execution, and further particulars 
of the Gunpowder Plot, see T, Bates, R. Catesby, E. Digby, G. Fawkes, 
J. Gerard, A. Rookwood, R. 'Vinter, C. Wright, &c. To these may be 
added-" A True Account of the Gunpowder Plot; extracted from Dr. Lind- 
gard's History of England and Dodd's Church History, including The 
Notes and Documents appended to the latter by the Rev. M. A, Tierney, 
F.R.S" F.S.A. 'Vith Notes and Prefatory Remarks, by Vindicator." Lond., 
Dolman, 1851, 8vo. pp. xii.-127. Published to refute a series of letters, 
B 2 



4 


BIBLIOG RAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GRA. 


or papers, in the TÙlZes, extending at intervals, from Nov. 7 to Dec. 25,1850. 
They professed to give the history of the Gunpowder Plot, "but their real 
object was to vilify the Catholics as a body, to identify the religion, 
viith the crime of the conspirators, and to make the whole Catholic com- 
munity, past, present, and to come, answerable for the atrocious contrivances 
of a few ruthless and gloomy fanatics." The Editor of the Times, seeing the 
purpose to which the annual celebration of the fifth of November might be 
turned, employed this means to denounce and to oppose the restoration of 
the hierarchy. 
On the Protestant side, Jardine's "Narrative of the Gunpowder Plot,'
 
Lond. 1857, Svo. pp, xX.-351, is undoubtedly the most exhaustive work on 
the subject from a lawyer's standpoint. Had he then been in possession of 
John Gerard's narrative, published by Fr, Morris, he would probably have 
modified many of his views. 
Grant, John, citizen and councillor of London, son of 
Henry Grant, of Hampshire, and Mary his wife, was born at 
the sign of the Seven Stars, in Birchin Lane, in the parish 
of St, Michael, Cornhill, April 24, 1620, where he was baptized 
on the following 1st of May. After receiving a fair education, 
he was apprenticed to a smallware haberdasher, a tr3;de which 
\Vood says he "mostly followed, though free of the Drapers' 
Company," Subsequently he passed through all the offices of 
the City until he entered the Common Counci], where he re- 
mained two years. He was also captain of the "Trained- 
band)J for several years, and afterwards major for two or three 
more. 
He had been brought up a rigid Puritan, and for several 
years exercised his dextrol}s and incomparable faculty in short- 
hand in taking notes of sermons, which resulted in an inclina- 
tion towards Socinianism. At length he became a Catholic, 
and his conversion necessitated the relinquishment of his business 
and the resignation of his public offices, Not satisfied with 
this, the enemies of his faith endeavoured to injure his reputa- 
tion and to endanger his life. 
On the authority of an old woman, the Countess of Claren- 
don, and of Dr. Lloyd, a divine whose brain had been affected 
by the study of the Apocalypse, Burnet gravely tells a story 
which attributes to l'1r, Grant the disastrous effects of the great 
fire of London. The bishop relates how Grant was a member 
of the board of the New River Company at Islington, and, on 
the Saturday preceding the fire, turned all the cocks and carried 
away the keys, so that when the fire broke out about two o'clock 
in the following morning, the water-pipes were found empty.. 



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OF THE ENGLISH C.\THOLICS. 


5 


The fire happened on Sunday, Sept. 2, 1666, but, unfortu- 
nately for the U historian of his own times," the books of the 
water company prove that Grant had no interest in the works 
before the 25th of that month. 
Mr. Grant died April 18, 1674, aged 54, and was buried 
four days later in St. Dunstan's Church, in Fleet Street, under 
the pews in the nave, His funeral ,vas attended by a con- 
.course of illustrious men, amongst whom his intimate friend, 
Sir \Villiam Petty, was conspicuous for his grief. 
He was esteemed, not only for his great candour and rec- 
titude, but also for his singular penetration and judgment. 
Combining study with natural ingenuity, his observations '-J:ere 
always valuable. He was a faithful friend and a great peace- 
maker, being frequently called upon as an arbitrator. The 
wide respect in which he was held has been justly recorded by 
the Oxford historian. 
By his wife, l\'lary, he seems to have had several children; 
two of whom were buried in St. l''lichael's, Cornhill, in I ó43 
.and 1662. 
rVood, A thell. OXOIl., ed. 169 I, p. 269; Lingard, Hist. of 
Eng., ed. 1849, vol. ix. p. 127; Bm'net, Hist. oj his OZl-11l 
Timc, vol. i, p. 23 I ; Dodd, Ch. His!., vol. ii. p. 426 ; Rcg. of 
St, lVlichael, Conzhill, HarZ. Soc, 
I. Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mor- 
tality. Lond. 1661, 4to,; id. 1662; Lond. 1663, 8vo. 3rd edit.; Oxford, 
1665, 8\"0. 4th edit; Lonù. 1676, 8vo. 6th edit.; and again, edited by 
Thos, Birch, D.D., U Collection of the Yearly Bills of ::\Iortality, with Grant's 
Observations, Sir \V, Petty on the Growth of the City of London. Corbyn 
Morris on the Past Growth and Present State oi the City of London." 
Lond. 1759, 4to. 
In this work \Vood says he was assisted by Sir \Villiam Petty, who had 
obtained the Professorship of Music at Gresham College through the interest 
of U his òear friend Capt. J oh, Graunt." 
2. Observations on the Advance of Excise. ::\IS. 
\Vood says that he left a MS. " about religion." 


Grant, Thomas, D.D., first Bishop of Southwark, w
s 
born in France, at Ligny-Ies-Aires, in the diocese of Arras, on 
the feast of S. Catharine, Nov. 25, 18 16. He was the son of 
Bernard Grant, who enlisted in the 7Ist Highlanders, after 
bcing driven from his home at Ackerson's Mill, near Newry, by 
.a band of incendiaries in one of the fanatical riots so common in 



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those days, and especially in those parts, between Catholics and 
Protestants. His father, whose mother, Rachel Maguire, 'was 
aunt to the celeb.rated theologian, Fr. Tom Maguire, enlisted at 
the age of eighteen, and, after about two years, married Ann 
l\lac Gowan, of Glasgow, a native like himself of the north of 
Ireland. Sergeant Grant was present at \Vaterloo, and entered 
France with the allied armies. He was in many ways superior 
to the position he occupied in the service, and had long been 
promised a commission, which he eventually purchased. On 
his retirement as quartermaster, he received the honorary title 
of captain, and dying in IVlay, 1856, was buried at The Willows, 
J{irkham, Lancashire. 
At an early age Thomas Grant had the misfortune to lose 
his mother, who died in Canada, \vhere her husband's regiment 
was stationed. Shortly afterwards it was quartered at Chester, 
and there the future bishop received his early education, under 
the care of his patron, Dr. Briggs, afterwards Bishop of Beverley. 
After three years Dr. Briggs sent him, in Jan. 1829, to St. 
Cuthbert's College, Ushaw, Durham, on one of the Lancashire 
district funds. In 1836, being then in his second year of 
philosophy, he was sent to the English College at Rome, 
where he was admitted on the I st of December, took the 
college oath, Nov. 2 I, 1837, received the tonsure four days 
later, and minor orders on the following day. There he was 
ordained sub-deacon by Dr. Brown, Bishop of Tloa, Nov. 14 ; 
deacon, in the church of the Nuns of the Visitation, Nov. 2 I ; 
and on Sunday, Nov. 28, 184 I, he was ordained priest. Imme- 
diatelyafter his ordination, he was created D.D" and soon after- 
wards was named secretary to Cardinal Acton. 
Dr. Grant was a proficient in Latin, French, and Italian; 
he was well vcrsed in canon law, and through his connection 
with Cardinal Acton, one of the most accomplished canon 
lawyers of his day, was initiated into the system of Roman and 
ecclesiastical business. As soon as he became known to the 
great men of the day, he won their esteem and admiration. 
His humility alone stood in the way of honours, which were 
even pressed upon him by Cardinal Lambruschini, then secrc- 
tary of state. On April 13, 1844, he became pro-rector, and 
on Oct. I 3 in the same year rector of the English College, in 
succession to Dr, Baggs. Soon afterwards he was appointed 
agent at Rome for the English bishops, who were then petition- 



GRA,] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


7 


ing for the restoration of the hierarchy. The present venerable 
Bishop of Birmingham, Dr, Ullathorne, was foremost amongst 
those who negotiated this important matter, and he bears the 
following generous testimony to the aid which he received 
from Dr. Grant :-" He initiated me into the elements of canon 
law, and into the constitution and working of the Roman 
congregation. He aided me in negotiations, revised my 
papers, translated them, and shaped them; and, having much 
influence at Propaganda, he used that influence in my service, 
as in the service of all the bishops. Nothing escaped his 
attention in England or at Rome that demanded the attention 
of the Vicars Apostolic, whether as individuals or as a body. 
A note from him always contained the pith of the matter, 
whilst by action he had already not unfrequently anticipated 
the difficulty. \Ve have never had an agent in my time who 
comprehended the real functions of an agent as he did. He 
never, by silence or excessive action, got you into a difficulty, 
but he got you out of many. Above all, he never left you in 
the dark." \Vhen the story of the agitation for the restoration 
of the hierarchy is written, it will be seen how much of the 
success was due to the labours of Dr. Grant. 
The joyful culmination which closed his negotiations for 
the hierarchy was the prelude of a great change in Dr, Grant's 
life. By Propaganda decree, dated June 16, I 85 I, he was 
appointed to the newly created See of Southwark. It was 
approved by Pius IX., June 22, expedited on the following 
day, and confirmed by brief, June 27, 185 I. On the succeed- 
ing July 6 he was consecrated in the chapel of the English 
College at Rome, by Cardinal Fransoni, Prefect of Propaganda. 
After his consecration the bishop took his departure from 
Rome, on Sept. 2, to take possession of his See. On his 
arrival in England he found himself personally known to 
very few, except to such as had met him in Rome, It did 
not take long, however, to find out what manner of man the 
new bishop was, and the love and confidence of his flock soon 
followed the discovery. Even many of the bitterest opponents 
of the Church became, after a short intercourse, his personal 
friends, and he was received by statesmen whose doors re- 
mained closed even against laymen identified with the 
obnoxious cause which was then agitating the bigotry of the 
country. If information was wanted at Downing Street on 



8 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


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any point where canonical law seemed to intrench upon the 
border-line of British law, the Bishop of Southwark was the 
one to whom application was made. His tact and conciliatory 
manners in dealing with public departments brought many 
difficult matters to a successful issue. To him, it may be said 
wi
hout exaggeration, the Catholic soldier owes nearly every 
religious advantage he enjoys, "All our really successful 
negotiations with the Government in his time," says Dr. Ulla- 
thorne, "for military chaplains and for navy chaplains, for miti- 
gating oppressive laws, for Government prison chaplains, have 
been directly or indirectly owing to his tact and wisdom." 
Dr. Grant revisited Rome several times; in Dec. 1854, on 
the occasion of the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate 
Conception; in June, 1862, for the cause of the Japanese 
martyrs; in June, 1867, for their canonization; and in Dec. 
1869, for the Vatican Council. 
For some time before his final visit to Rome, the bishop 
was in a dying state, He was suffering from cancer in the 
stomach, a disease which made its first appearance in June, 
1862, when he experienced intense internal pains, but was 
relieved by the skill of his physicians. In 1867 his sufferings 
became still more severe. As the time drew near for the 
opening of the Vatican Council, it was apparent that Bishop 
Grant either would be unable to travel to Rome, or that if he 
ventured on the journey it would be impossible for him to 
return. The Pope gave him an exemption from attendance, 
and the bishop at first abandoned the idea of being present at 
the Council. Some slight alleviation of his sufferings, how- 
ever, induced him to make the attempt, and he left England 
for Rome on Nov. 14, 1869. His physician, Sir William 
Gull, at the same time, gave his opinion that he would not 
return alive, The bishop was consequently prepared for the 
worst, and desired that if he died at Rome his body should 
be brought to Norwood for interment. 
When he arrived, he took up his residence in the English 
College, and seemed to have supported the fatigues of his 
journey in a wonderful manner. Every sympathy was shown 
to him in Rome, Pius IX, exempted him from taking part in 
the opening procession of the Council. He was appointed 
Latinist to the Council, and member of the Congregation for 
the Oriental-rite and the Apostolic Missions. He was to have 


4' 
 
.J . _ .' 



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OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


9 


addressed the Council on Feb. 14, 1870, but on that day was 
seized with a paroxysm of pain in the council-hall, fell down, 
and had to be carried back to the English College. He was 
somewhat better the next morning, and said Mass, He received 
extreme unction, after which he rallied a little. On 1'1arch 7, he 
was honoured with a visit in his sick chamber from Pius IX" 
and accompanied his Holiness to see the new church of St. 
Thomas of Canterbury, then in course of erection, H.e lingered 
for more than two months after this, until at last the cancer 
burst, on May. 3 I, and the good Bishop of Southwark was 
relieved from all earthly anguish, June I, 18 7 0 , aged 53. 
He was "one of the gentlest, humblest, purest, and kindest 
bishops," said the TVeckly Register, "that ever adorned the 
episcopal order by boundless charity, unceasing zeal in good 
works, unaffected piety, spotless character, utter unselfishness, 
and every other virtue that ennobles human nature and sheds 
lustre upon the priesthood. Under that meek character and 
humble deportment there were concealed a fine intellect, a large 
mass of general information, and a highly cultivated scholar- 
ship. He delighted in ministering comfort to the sad, the 
afflicted, and the destitute. His sympathy for the poor was 
inexhaustible, and it is well known that he more than once 
brought serious illness upon himself by divesting himself in the 
streets of his cloak or great-coat in bitter weather to clothe the 
naked, without inquiring where they worshipped." Pius IX., when 
he heard of his death, exclaimed, " Un altro santo in Paradiso." 
"\Vhen he was proposed for the See of Southwark," wrote 
Bishop Ullathorne, "l\igr, Barnabo told Cardinal \Viseman 
that we should regret his removal from Rome; that he had 
never misled them in any transaction; and that his documents 
were so complete and accurate, that they depended on them, 
and it was never requisite to draw them up anew. His acute- 
ness, learning, readiness of resource, and knowledge of the 
forms of ecclesiastical business, made him invaluable to our 
joint counsels at home, whether in Synods, or in our yearly 
episcopal meetings; and his obligingness, his untiring spirit of 
work, and the expedition and accuracy with which he struck 
off documents in Latin, I talian, or English, naturally brought 
the greater part of such work on his shoulders. In his gentle 
humility he completely effaced the consciousness that he was 
of especial use and importance to us." 


\\9bt)% 



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A leading Protestant journal, in reviewing his biography by 
Miss Ramsay, pays him the following tribute :-" Bishop Grant 
was a man of many spiritual graces, whose purity, self-devotion, 
and humility it will profit everyone to contemplate. . . . . 
\Vithout being in the least unpractical or wanting in shrewd- 
ness, he was utterly unworldly. Forced to lead a secular life, 
he had the virtues of that life which is called þar excellellce 
religious. An utter forgetfulness of self, a thorough mastery of 
the flesh, a humility which shrank from nothing, a charity that 
was never wearied, these virtues characterized him." 
Mgr. Virtue has added: "His life was one of constant occu- 
pation, from which he allowed neither sickness nor fatigue to 
release him. In the work of his large diocese no difficulties 
appalled him. Although he looked to prayer for everything, 
great or small, his labours were unceasing." 
Ramsay, Thomas Grant,. Brady, Episc. Success., vol. iii. 
 
Virtlte, The J}1"ollth, N.S" vol. ii. p. 24; vVcckry Register, June 4, 
I S 70 ; Tablet, vol. xliv., p. I 39. 
I. Theses ex Theologia Universa et Historia Ecclesiastica 
quas . . , . in Lyceo Pontificii Seminarii Romani ad S. Apol- 
linaris propugnandas suscipit. Thomas Grant, Collegii An- 
glorum alumnus, Sexto Kal. Sept. Romæ, 1844, 4to. pp. 23. 
2, Dr. Grant furnished the materials which enabled Mcir, Palma to write 
the historical preface to the apostolic decree by which the hierarchy in 
Engbnd was re-established, and it was he who transbted into Italian, for the 
use of Propaganda, the numerous English documents and papers which were 
sent to the Holy See during the progress of the hierarchy negotiations, The 
knowledge which the bishop acquired on this subject during his researches 
was very great. \Vhilst declining the honours which Cardinal Lambruschini: 
urged him to accept, Dr. Grant availed himself of the goodwill manifested 
to obtain permission to see such State papers as were of a strictly private 
character; and this he did by way of alleviation of the scrupulosity of Car- 
dinal Acton, whose feelings were in opposition to the expediency of restoring 
the English hierarchy at th:1t period. On this subject, see Dr. Ullathorne's 
" Hist. of the Restoration of the Catholic Hierarchy in Eng.," Lond. 1871, 
8vo.; Cath, Oþinion, vol. x. p. 164; and Miss Ramsay's Life of Dr. Grant, 
chapter v. 
3. The Hidden Treasure; or the valuo and excellence of 
Holy Mass; with a.... devout Method of hearing it with 
profit, By St. Leonard, of Port Maurice. Translated from the 
Italian, with an Introduction. Edinburgh, 1855, 18mo. ; (1857) 12mo. 
4. Meditations of the Sisters of Mercy before Renewal of 
Vows. By the late R.R. Dr. Grant, Bishop of Southwark. Lond., 
Burns & Oates, 1874, 16mo. \Vritten for the benefit of a religious community,. 



G RA.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


I I 


and reprinted from an unpublished edition of 1863. The thirteen 
leditations, 
of which the work consists, are extremely simple, touching, and full of pious 
thought, and are eminently suited for those to \\ horn they were addressed, 
5. Pastorals. His first pastoral was an appeal for the Orphanage for 
Girls at Norwood, and for their brothers at the Orphanage of North Hyde. 
The bishop's most devoted efforts were directed to the care of the orphan, 
and, by his own request, his body
now rests near to those who were dearest to 
his heart. All his pastorals display that careful thought which was the àis- 
tinguishing feature of his life. 
6. Thomas Grant, First Bishop of Southwark. By Grace 
Ramsay. Lond. 1874, 8vo. pp. vi.-491, illust. with two photo. portraits. 
This is a channingly written life, by Miss Kathleen O'l\Ieara, under the pseu- 
donym of Grace Ramsay, and gives an admirable picture of the holy bishop. 
It contains much that will be valuable to the student of English ecclesi- 
astical history, but its usefulness is impaired by the want of both table of 
contents and index. 
7. "In Piam Memoriam," an interesting biographical sketch of the bishop, 
published in The .1JIonth, New Series, vol. ii. pp. 24-30, by the R.R. John 
Virtue, Bishop of Portsmouth. 
8. Portrait
 oval, imp. fo1., J. H, Lynch, litho., impr. by 1\1. & N. Han- 
hart, from photo by Kilburn, pub. by Burns & Lambert, Aug, I, 1856, His 
bust appears on the memorial erected to his memory in St. George's Cathedral, 
Southwark. 


Grant, William Augustine Ignatius, artist and theo- 
logical controversialist, the two latter names being taken in 
confirmation, was born in 1838. Brought up amongst Scotch 
Presbyterians, his earlier religious career was clouded and 
unsettled. \Vhile quite a boy the isolation of the Presbyterian 
system led him to exchange it for Anglicanism, and in 1857, 
at the age of nineteen, his growing appreciation of the doctrine 
of the Communion of Saints, and of the position of our Blessed 
Lady in the Christian economy, brought him into the com- 
munion of the Catholic Church. But at that time he does not 
seem to have realized the Church as anything more than a 
great and widespread communion in which his favourite doc- 
trines were taught as a part of the Christian Church, To this 
period of his life belongs his little treatise, "The Communion 
of Saints in the Church of God," published in 1867, which 
Cardinal Newman, in a letter to the author, pronounced as 
being II very logical, persuasive, and calculated to do much 
good," 
For eleven years he continued in Catholic communion, and 
then, in 1868, by some extraordinary hallucination, he quitted 
it for that of the peculiar body known as lrvingites. It is said 



12 


BIBLIOGRAl)HICAL DICTIONARY 


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that some difficulty as to the dogma of papal infallibility, then 
being so much written about and so little understood by many, 
was at the root of this singular step. How he fared in this 
eccentric sect, he himself explains in his" Apostolic Lordship; 
or, Five Years with the Irvingites; and why I left them," pub- 
lished in I873. 
His personal friend, Mr. Charles Walker, a once well-known 
High Church writer, says: "He returned to Anglicanism, and 
became the champion of the Ritualists, and of that section of 
the party which composed the so-called' Order of Corporate 
Reunion.' This phase was, perhaps, the saddest; for it shows 
him to us as an exile from the City of Peace-longing, indeed, 
to find himself once more treading her golden streets, but sitting 
helplessly down by the waters of Babylon, and expecting, as 
Mahomet did in the case of the mountain, that that golden city 
would come to him! My remembrance of him as a Ritualist 
is that of one ever ready to wield his pen in defence of any 
shreds or patches of truths he could find amidst his surround- 
ings, but spiritually dissatisfied and sighing for better things." 
Mr. Walker continues: "It will ever be one of my brightest 
recollections that, having received the light of Faith myself, I 
was permitted to be the instrument of bringing this tempest- 
tossed traveller into the 'haven where he would be.'" 1\1r. 
Grant was reconciled, in I 88o
 at St. Mary of the Angels, Bays- 
water, by his old confessor, the Rev. \tV. J. B. Richards, D.D, 
On the day following the great snowstorm, in Jan. 188 I, 
he was stricken with paralysis, and, with the exception of some 
yaluable help which he gave to his friend l\1r. \Valker, he wrote 
no more. Bitter as must have been the trial to so facile an 
artist to find that his hand had lost its cunning, he felt far more 
deeply his inability to wield his pen for God and for His 
Church; and yet never a word of complaint escaped his lips. 
Towards the close of his long period of suffering, his failing 
eyesight debarred him even from prosecuting those theological 
studies which were the delight of his life, and at length he 
passed away, at his residence in Clifton, near Bristol, 1\lay 2 I, 
188 3, aged 44. 
For many years Mr. Grant resided at Peckham, London, and 
devoted himself to landscape painting, in which he attained 
considerable proficiency, even Mr, Ruskin bestowing praise on 
his efforts. But his memory will be better known as one of 



GRA.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


13 


the ablest controversialists of his day. All his writings were 
persuasive and logical, and were grounded, so to speak, in his 
thorough knowledge of the Latin tongue, wherein he delighted 
to study the pure and lofty teachings of St. Augustine and St. 
Thomas Aquinas, The writer of his memoir in the Catholic 
Times says: "Many priests were his most intimate friends; and 
it is no disparagement of their high and sacred office to say 
that they frequently had recourse to his great learning for infor- 
mation on points which had lapsed in their memory." 
Speaking of his reconciliation, Mr. \ìValker says that it was no 
hasty, ill-considered, or grudging step; "it was the deliberate 
action of one who had passed through many spiritual tribula- 
tions, and had gained experience among them; and it was a 
thorough, unreserved, and childlike submission to the Divine 
Teacher of nations." 
Mr, Grant is survived by his wife, his first cousin, whom he 
married about 1868. 
Catholic Times, June I and 15, 1883; COJJlmunicatioJls from 
Charles TValker, Esq.,- Grallt, Apostolic Lordship. 
I. The Communion of Saints in the Church of God. By W. A. 
Grant. Lond., Richardson & Son (Derby pr.), 1867, 12mo. 
In this little exposition, addressed in the first instance to Protestan ts, the 
author draws attention to that portion of the article of the Creed, "The 
Communion of Saints," which relates to the communion between members 
of the Church on earth and the saints of God in heaven. He explains the 
reasons of his own conversion, and then proceeds to develop that portion of 
the teaching of the Church commonly known as the Veneration and Invo- 
cation of the B.V.M. and the Saints. There was a later Anglican book on 
the same subject published shortly before his reconciliation with the Church 
(see K o. 6). 
2. Apostolic Lordship and the Interior Life: A Narrative of 
Five Years' Communion with Catholic Apostolic Angels. By the 
Author of "The Communion of Saints in the Church of God." 
1873, 8vo. pp. 120, Addenàum 1 f., privately printed; published under the 
title "Apostolic Lordship; or, Five Years with the Irvingites; and why I left 
them. By \Villiam Grant." Lond. 1874, 8vo.; with original title retained. 
This, Mr. \Valker says, is "a sad record of a tempest-tossed soul, trying 
to be Catholic in the midst of a system essentially anti-Catholic; of a soul 
which, having lost the rudder of the One Faith, is driven hither and thither 
in a hopeless search after truth; and the search ended, as might be expected, 
in a mere substitution of one error for another." 
On page 15, 1\1r. Grant writes, " I came to ' Apostolic Churches' from the 
Roman Catholic Communion, in which eleven years of my life had been. 
spent since I severed myself from the English Church. Familiar with the 



14 


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[G RA. 


writings of the Puritan Divines on the one hand, and with Anglo-Catholic 
Theology on the other-studious, too, of Antiquity and the Scholastic Doctors, 
I passed through Protestantism, Anglicanism, and Romanism, thanking God 
for the blessings I received, anù the knowledge of Divine things spread 
abroad in the hearts, and given forth in the writings of the Saints of God. I 
found the' Evangelists,' through whom those who come to 'Apostles · are 
received, a somewhat qu
er people," He adds that his new friends had 
'some idea that he was a" Jesuit in disguise." 
3. The English Catholic: his Attitude towards the Churches 
of the East and West; and his Duties with regard to Modern 
Claimants to Truth. Advertised as in preparation in 1874, but which 
1\1r. \Valker thinks was never published. 
4. The People's Mass Book: being the Order of the Admini- 
stration of the Holy Eucharist . . . . with the , . . . Devotions, 
literally translated, of the ancient Liturgy of the Western Church 
. . . . Bya Layman of the Church of England. (Lond. 1874), 16mo, 
5. The Catholic Doctrine of the Christian Sacrifice. 
Published whilst a Protestant. 
6. The Communion of Saints in the Church of God. Lond. 
(Palmer or Church Printing Co.), pub. whilst a Protestant, between 1876 and 
1880, and afterwards reprinted and sold by the author at his private address, 
J 3, Clifton Square, Peckham. 
7. A Defence of the Order of Corporate Reunion. In a letter 
addressed to the Vicar of St, John's, Kensington. 
\Vhich contains a full list of his works. 
8. An interesting correspondence in the Times, in Aug. 1877, between 
:i\Ir. Grant and the Bishop of Rochester, showing unmistakably the great 
force and clearness of his objections to the bishop's use of the term 
" Protestant," in a sermon delivered at St. James' Church, Hatcham. I twas 
reprinted in pamphlet form. 


Gray, Alexia, O.S.B., was professed at the Abbey of the 
Immaculate Conception of the B.V.1'1., at Ghent, June 24, 
163 I. The monastery was a filiation of the English Benedic- 
tine Dames at Brussels, and was founded in 1624. At the 
French Rcvolution the archives of the Ghent monastery were 
almost entirely lost, and owing to this fact there is nothing 
further recorded of Dame Alexia Gray, 
In 1624, " Mrs. Ann Gray" is included in Gee's" Catalogue 
of the names of such young women as to this author's know- 
ledge have been within two or three years last past transported 
to the nunneries beyond the seas," It is possible that she is 
identical with Dame Alexia. 
IVeldoll, Chronological Notes,. Gee, Foot out of the Snare
' 
Oliver, Collcetio/ls. 



G RA.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


15 


I. The Rule of the Most Blessed Father Saint Benedict, 
Patriarke of all Munkes. Gant, John Doome [1632J, sm. 8vo., ded. to 
the Hon. and R.R. Lady Eugenia Poulton, Abbesse of the English 
:i\:onastery of the Holy Order of S. Benedict in Gant, by Alexia Gray, 2 ff., 
The Breve of St. Gregory, Pope, for the confirmation of the Rule, The Bull of 
Zachary, Pope, successor to St. Gregory the Great, for the approbation of the 
Rule, 1 f., pp. 103. Dr. Oliver states that it was printed in f632. Dom 
John Cuth. Fursdon, O.S.B., pub. "The Rule of St. Bennet, by C. F.," 
Douay, 1638, 4to.; and in 1616," The Rule of Seynt Benet, imprinted by 
Richarde Pynson," was pub. in folio. 


Gray, Matthias, merchant, of l''lanchester, deserves notice 
as the founder of the " l\'lanchester and Salford Catholic School 
Society," by means of which thousands of Catholic children not 
only were preserved in the faith of their fathers, but received 
the benefits of education, accompanied with the knowledge of 
solid piety. 
The Catholics of l'ianchester, especially the poor and 
orphan children, suffered an irreparable loss in the death of 
Mr. Gray. To all the charitable societies he was not only 
a liberal subscriber, but to many a most zealous and indefati- 
gable member. As a husband, father, son, brother, or friend, 
he was without a superior, and his memory is still held in vene- 
ration. 
He was prematurely carried off by scarlet or typhus fever, 
Aug. 18, 1835, aged 37, and was interred at St. Augustine's, 
Granby Row. 
John Gray, who wrote occasional pieces of poetry, was 
probably his brother. He was the author of "A IVlonody on 
the Death of the Rev. Henry Gillow;" a poem, printed on 
a card, "To the l\lemory of Rupert Burrows Child," a young 
Catholic gentleman in Lloyd, Entwistle & Co.'s bank, who 
died July 12, 183 I, aged 20; and many other short pieces. 
Orthodox Journal, iii. 1834, p. 396, i. 1835, p. 176. 


I. Mr. Gray had long observed and lamented that a large number of 
Catholic children were deprived of the means of Catholic education from the 
overcrowded stlte of the schools in the town, or from the great distance of 
these schools from their place of residence. To add to this misfortune, many 
of these children were enticed into other schools opened for the reception of 
all religious denominations, but in which Catholic children were sure to find 
their religion painted in the most odious colours. Snares were laid to lead 
poor children into them, and to estrange them from their faith by the coax- 
ing, wheedling, and soothing manners of the managers of these schools. Gifts 



16 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[G RA. 


of money and wearing apparel, with remission of school-fees, were often 
powerful inducements for needy parents to endanger their children's faith. To 
secure these tender minds from seduction, and to induce others to spend the 
Sunday ill learning the principles of pure Christianity and the rudiments of 
education, instead of passing their time in idleness and dissipation, were 
the foremost objects of Mr. Gray's heart. He accordingly submitted a 
simple but efficacious plan to the clergy and others, for the establishment of 
branch Catholic schools at convenient distances from the large schools, thereby 
leaving no excuse for negligent parents to allow their children to remain in 
the schools of Dissenters, or spend their time in idleness and the neglect 
of their religious duties. The expense of opening and maintaining these 
schools was to be defrayed by a subscription of one penny per month, or one 
shilling per annum, from the members of the association, which was to be 
called the "Manchester and Salford Catholic School Society." The im- 
portance and utility of the scheme was so clear and obvious, that it was at 
once approved, and numbers immediately enrolled themselves as members, 
while others volunteered their aid as teachers and collectors. The Rev. 
Henry Gillow, of St. Mary's, Mulberry Street, was elected president, the 
Rev. Dan, Hearne,. treasurer, and Mr. Thos. Bamber, secretary. Public 
meetings were held monthly, at which from 300 to 900 persons were 
accustomed to attend, On July I, 1832, the first school was opened in 
Factory Lane, Salford, which was afterwards removed to a more central and 
commodious part of tbe town. \Vithin a very short time five other schools 
were opened; one in an old cotton mill in Grammar Street, near Islington; 
another in Green Street, Hulme; a third in Boardman Square; a fourth at 
Barnes Green, Blackley; and a fifth off Oxford Road, better known at that 
time by the name of Little Ireland, from its being the Irish quarter of 
Manchester. The last-named building had originally been raised by the 
Methodists with a view to proselytizing the poor Irish. Towards the close of 
the year, as stated by the Cath. Nag., vol. ii. p. 747, there were eìeven 
Sunday-schools in Manchester, Salford, and the neighbourhood, in which 
upwards of 4000 Catholic children received instruction; and yet there were 
more than 30CO unprovided for. Five hundred persons gave their gratuitous 
services in the education of these poor children, Attached to the schools 
were libraries and sick and burial societies. The library in Grammar Street 
was furnished within a very short period with 300 choice Catholic works. 
At the old school in Lloyd Street, adjoining the site of the present Man- 
chesterTown Hall and Albert Square, the library, which was established in 
Jan. 1817, consisted of a really valuable collection of books. 
At the annual meeting of the society in the Lloyd Street school-room, 
Dec. I I, 1834, the Rev. H. Gillow, the chairman, in proposing tbe toast, 
"Mr. Gray and the Catholic School Society," observed that the Society had 
provided 1300 children with education out of the small subscription of one 
shilling per annum from each individual member, and he declared that no 
other society could have been so useful an auxiliary to the Manchester 
Catholic School Board. He added, " The greatest beauty of this society is, 
that all its offices are gratuitously filled, and are efficiently discharged. 
Little Ireland, Canal Street, Sycamore Street, Bury Street, Salford, and 



GRE,] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


17 


other schools could be appealed to in proof of his assertion; and with 
reference to the gentleman whose name he had connected with the society, 
he had known him many years previously to the establishment of the 
Cath0lic School Society, had seen him a firm friend to liberty, a friend to the 
poor, and a lover of education. He had known the difficulties he had to 
encounter in the establishment of the society; but the greater his difficulties 
appeared, the more firm were his nerves to encounter them, and the more 
arduous his exertions to overcome them. His faculties, bodily, mental, and 
moral, had been employed to the furtherance of religious education and 
useful knowledge." In this year, 1834, we gather from the report of the 
Statistical Society on the Sunday-schools and scholars, in Manchester and 
Salford, that there were nine Catholic schools, with 4059 children on the 
books, in the former, and two schools. with 613 children on the books, in the 
latter town. On her Majesty's coronation-day, June 28, 1838, the Catholic 
clergy with 5000 of their day and Sunday-school scholars took part in the 
demonstration at Ardwick. 


Gray, alias Grant, Robert, Father S.J., born in Y ork- 
shire in I 594, entered the English College at Valladolid, then 
administered by the Jesuits, in Sept. 1615. Having completed 
his course of philosophy, he joined the Society in Belgium 
at the age of 24. In due time he was ordained priest, 
and taught humanities for several years at St. Omcr's College, 
where he was Prefect of Studies in 1632, and Confessor in 
16 34, an office which he held for some years. In 1644 he 
was at Liége, and in the following year he went to Toulouse. 
In 1646 he was sent to teach rhetoric in the Imperial College, 
Madrid, and he was still living in the Spanish Province, S.]., 
in I 6 5 5. 
Olz"ver, Collcctmzea SJ.,. Foley, Records S J., vol. vii. pts. 
I and 2 ; De Backer, Bib. des Escriv. S.]. 
I. Laudatio funebris Isabellæ Claræ Eugeniæ Hispaniarum 
Infantis, etc" Cum licentia. Compluti, apud Mariam Fernandez, 
Typographam Universitatis, 1655, 4to. pp. 19, 2 ff., Epistle ded. signed 
Robert Grant, S.]. 


Green, Mr., confessor of the faith, is stated in Fr, Chris- 
topher Grene's MS, to have died in Salisbury gaol, about 
15 8 9. . 
In Foxe's list of Catholics imprisoned in various places 
in 1579 appears the name of Green, a widow, at "Vinton, 
whose husband had died in prison. In the same list, John 
Green, a layman, is noted as a prisoner at Hereford. William 
Green, armiger, was indicted for recusancy at the sessions 
VOL. III. C 



18 


BIBLIOGRAPHrCAL DICTIONARY 


[GRE. 


holden for London and Middlesex, Feb. 15, 1604, and was 
thrown into prison. The name appears so often in such records 
that it renders identification almost impossible. 
Morris, Troubles, Third Series; Tierney, Dodd's Ch. Hist., iii. 
pp. 159, 160, 161, iv. p. xcii. 


Green, Hugh, priest and martyr, known upon the mission 
by the name of Ferdinand Brooks, or, as he is called in Mr. 
Ireland's Diary, Ferdinand Brown, was born about 1584, his 
father being a citizen and goldsmith in the parish of St. Giles, 
London. Both parents were Protestants, and hc was educated 
at St. Peter's College, Cambridge, where he took his degree of 
B.A. (De Marsys says M.A,), and was tutor to two young 
gentlemen of distinction, Mr. Solms and Mr. Richardson. 
Subsequently he travelled on the Continent, where the zeal 
with which religion was practised made such a strong im- 
pression upon him, that he became a convert. He was rc- 
ceived into the English College at Douay in 1609, and on 
July 7 of the following year he took the college oath and was 
admitted an alum?Uts. He was confirmed at Cambray, Sept, 25, 
16 I I, advanced to minor orders, and ordained sub-deacon at 
Arras, Dec. 17, deacon March 18, and priest, June 14, 16 I 2. 
Ten days after his ordination, on the feast of St. John 
Baptist, the young priest sang his first Mass. He left the 
college on the following 6th of August with the intention of 
joining the Order of Capuchins, but through ill-health, or some 
other impediment, he relinquished the idea and proceeded to 
the English mission. H ere for nearly thirty years he exercised 
his functions in various places, but at the time of his appre- 
hension was chaplain at Chideock Castle, in Dorsetshire, the seat 
of Lady Arundell. 
When Charles 1, in 1642, issued the proclamation com- 
manding all priests to depart the realm within a stated time, 
Mr. Green resolved to withdraw to the Continent, as many 
others had done. Lady Arundell endeavoured to persuade him 
to remain at Chideock, pointing out that the time allowed by 
the proclamation had elapsed. Mr. Green, however, who had 
not seen the proclamation, was under the impression that two 
or three days remained, and he therefore determined to proceed 
to Lyme, the next seaport, not doubting but that he had 
sufficient time to have the benefit of the proclamation, 



GRE.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


19 


On his arrival at Lyme, he was roughly accosted by a 
custom-house officer, as he was boarding a vessel bound for 
France, who inquired his name and business. 1'1r. Green can- 
didly told him he was a Catholic priest, and that as such he 
was leaving the kingdom in obedience to his Majesty's late 
proclamation. The officer answered that he was mistaken in 
his reckoning; the day fixed in the proclamation for the 
departure of priests and Jesuits having already expired. The 
officer declared that as he haçl owned himself to be a priest, he 
must be taken before a justice of the peace. Accordingly a 
constable was called, and Mr. Green was carried before a justice, 
who committed him to Dorchester gaol, notwithstanding the 
prisoner's pleading that his good intentions of obeying the 
king's orders, and his voluntary acknowledgment of his sacred 
calling, should excuse a miscalculation of two or three days.' 
On Wednesday, Aug. 17, 1642, after five months' imprison- 
ment, the holy man was tried and sentenced to death by Judge 
Foster for being a priest. It appears from the narrative of his 
martyrdom by Le Sieur de Marsys, that one of the witnesses 
against him was, or professed himself to have been, a convert. 
This man testified that he had received the holy Eucharist 
from Mr, Green's hands, that he had assisted at his Mass, and 
that he was a priest. Several Protestants confirmed this perfidy. 
The martyr received the sentence with perfect resignation, dis- 
played no animosity against his betrayers, but on the contrary 
was thankful for the great privilege of martyrdom which they 
had procured him, and, imitating the example of our Saviour, 
prayed God to pardon them. The following day was fixed for 
his execution; indeed, the furze for the fire. was carried up the 
hill, and a large concourse of people assembled in the streets 
and around the gates of the town eagerly awaiting the horrible 
spectacle. But the martyr's ardent desire was to die on the 
day our Saviour suffered, which a friend persuaded the sheriff 
to grant, though strenuously opposed by Millard, the head 
gaoler. 
It was noted that after his sentence the holy priest never lay 
down to rest. He eat but little, scarce sufficient to sustain 
nature, and yet was cheerful and full of courage to the last. 
When the hurdle was brought to the prison, he came out, 
attired in surplice and cassock, and devoutly kissed it before he 
lay down upon it. The people who lined the roads during his 
C 2 



20 


TIIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[ GRE. 


sad and painful passage were astonished at the holy joy which 
lit up the face of the martyr, who remained rapt in prayer 
until he arrived on the hill, where the hurdle was detained at 

ome distance from the gibbet, awaiting the execution of three 
women who were condemned for some criminal offence. Two 
of these poor creatures had been converted by the martyr in 
prison, and they had sent him word the night before that they 
would die in the faith. The Puritan ministers and authorities 
were determined that they should not have the comfort of the 
martyr's ministrations at their death, though he made every 
effort to approach the scaffold. The two women seeing him 
from the gallows, confessed all their sins to him aloud, and 
called to him to give them absolution before saying adieu. 
The whole happened as if it had been arranged by Providence 
that he might have the joy and satisfaction of seeing the result 
of his recent conquest crowned before he entered paradise. 
God was also pleased to reward his charity, for a Father of the 
Society of Jesus was there, disguised and on horseback. The 
martyr perceiving him, removed his cap, and elevating his eyes 
and hands to heaven, received absolution from him. 
The hurdle was then drawn up to the gibbet, where falling 
upon his knees he remained in prayer almost half an hour. 
He then embraced a little crucifix, which he gave with an 
Aglllts Dei to a devout lady. His rosary he gave to a Catholic 
gentleman, and his handkerchief to the chief gaoler. To Mrs. 
Elizabeth Willoughby, a devout lady who devoted her time to 
looking after priests in prison, he handed his breviary, and 
afterwards threw to her from the gallows his band, spectacles, 
and priest's girdle. Then turning to the people, he blessed 
himself with the sign of the cross and addressed them with an 
earnest discourse, the substance of which has been given at 
considerable length by Mrs, Willoughby and the other lady. 
He pointed out that he died for his religion and priesthood, and 
that he was accused of nothing else. He was several times 
interrupted by the ministers, who wished to dispute with him, 
but he reminded them that he had been in prison five months, 
and in all that time not one of them had come to dispute with 
him, There he would not have refused any of them, but now 
he had only time to resign his soul into the hands of God, He 
then proceeded, but it was not long before Banker, a fanatical 
mínister 'who had been a weaver, and afterwards became 



.GRE.] 


OF TIlE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


2I 


chaplain to Sir Thomas Trencher, cried out in a loud voice, H He 
blasphemcth, stop that mouth of the blasphcmcr, cast him off the 
ladder." This caused such a commotion in the multitude, that 
the sheriff requested the martyr to cease speaking. After 
silence had been secured, he continued his discourse and said 
that he had prayed for the king, for the queen, and for the 
country, every day at Mass since he had been ordained. He 
forgave his persecutors, and all those who had a hand in his 
death, and begged forgiveness for himself if he had offended 
anyone in any way. He then gave the hangman some silver, 
and desired Mrs. \Villoughby to commend him heartily to all 
his fellow-prisoners and to all his friends, and to encourage 
them on his part. He next gave his blessing to six Catholics 
who humbly besought it on their knees, making the sign of the 
cross over their heads. An attorney, named Gilbert Loder, 
now advanced and asked him if he did not deserve death, and 
believe it just. He replied, " ltly death is ltJljilSt," and so pulling 
his cap over his face, with hands clasped on his breast, he 
awaited his happy passage in silent prayer. It was nearly 
l1alf an hour before the ladder was turned, for no one would put 
a hand to it although the sheriff spoke to many, One bid him 
do it himself, but at length a country lout, with the help of the 
hangman, who sat astride the gallows, turned the ladder, upon 
which it was remarked that the martyr made the sign of the 
.cross three times with his right hand as he hung in the air. 
The people instantly cried to the hangman to cut the cord, and 
the constable held up to him a knife stuck at the end of a long 
stick, which the Catholics around did their utmost to hinder. 
The shock which the martyr received in falling stunned him for 
a time, for the hangman had been told to put the knot of the 
1"ope behind his head, instead of under the ear as was usual. 
Barefoot, the man who was engaged to quarter him, was a 
timorous unskilful fellow, by trade a barbe:r, whose mother, 
brothers, and sisters were devout Catholics. He was so long in 
dismembering him, that the martyr regained his perfect senses, 
and, sitting upright, took his butcher by the hand to show that 
he forgave him. Some of the inhuman bystanders, however, 
pulled him down by the rope round his neck, and the butcher, 
cutting open his stomach on both sides, turned the flap upon 
his breast, which the holy man feeling, put his left hand upon 
his bowels, and looking on his bloody hand, laid it down by his 



22 


J3IBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GRE.. 


side. He then lifted up his right hand, and crossing himself, 
repeated three times, "Jesll, Jesll, JCSlt, mercy!" "The which, 
although unworthy, I am a witness of," says Mrs. Willoughby, 
"for my hand was on his forehead; and many Protestants 
heard him and took great notice of it; for all the Catholics 
were pressed away by the unruly multitude, except myself, who 
never left him until his head was severed from his body. 
Whilst he was thus calling upon Jesus, the butcher did pull a 
piece of his liver out instead of his heart, and tumbling his guts 
out every way to see if his heart were not amongst them; then 
with his knife he raked in the body of this blessed martyr, who 
even then called on Jesus; and his forehead sweat, then it was 
cold, and presently again it burned: his eyes, nose, and mouth, 
run over with blood and water. His patience was admirable, 
and when his tongue could no longer pronounce that life-giving 
name Jesu, his lips moved, and his inward groans gave signs 
of those lamentable torments which for more than half an hour 
he suffered. Methought my heart was pulled out of my body 
to see him in such cruel pains, lifting up his eyes to heaven, 
and not yet dead: then I could no longer hold, but cried, Gut 
1tpOil them that did so torment him: upon which a devout gen- 
tlewoman understanding he did yet live, went to Cancola, the 
sheriff, who was her uncle's steward, and on he.r knees besought 
him to see justice done, and to put him out ;f his pain; who 
at her request commanded to cut off his head; then with a 
knife they did cut his throat, and with a cleaver chopped off 
his head; and so this thrice blessed martyr died." 
Mrs. Willoughby's graphic narrative of this horrible butchery
 
which is an illustration of the savageness often practised at 
the executions of priests, agrees substantially with that of De 
Marsys, who, if not present himself, had received it from an 
eye-witness, After the martyr's heart was found, it was put 
on a lance and shown to the people, and then it was flung in 
the fire on the side of the hill. The hill at this point was steep 
and uneven, and it seems that the force with which it was 
thrown from the point of the spear caused it to roll out of the 
fire for some distance, until it was picked up by a woman, who 
carried it away. The passions of the fanatical Puritans were 
now roused to the wildest pitch. They danced around the 
mangled remains of the holy martyr, more like devils than 
human beings, contending with one another for the nose, eyes,. 



GRE.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


23 


and other parts of the body, on which to display some revolt- 
ing mark of their hate. Their rage was still greater when they 
beheld the two Catholic ladies begging the body from the 
sheriff, who of himself was willing to grant their request. Their 
fury was consequently directed against these pious ladies, who 
would probably have been torn to pieces had they not quickly 
retired under the protection of the chief gaoler's wife. The 
fanatics were determined that the Papists should not have the 
quarters. The ladies, however, through the medium of a 
Protestant woman, later on in the day got the quarters wrapped 
in a shroud and buried near the gallows. From ten o'clock in 
the morning till four in the afternoon the mob linge
ed on the 
hill, and amused themselves with playing football with the 
martyr's head, ultimately burying it near the body, with sticks 
put in the apertures where the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth had 
been. They would have set it up on the gates of the town, 
but they dreaded a similar catastrophe to that which happened 
after the martyrdom of Fr. John Cornelius, S.J., in 1594, when 
a plague broke out and carried off most of the inhabitants. 
De Marsys states that Dorchester was the hotbed of the 
Puritan faction, which detested a Protestant almost as much 
as a Catholic. This circumstance reflects additional lustre 
around the heroic conduct of the martyr, whose cruel death 
occurred in the 57th year of his age, on Friday, Aug. 19, 
1642, the feast of his prototypes, SSe Timothy, Agapius, and 
Thecla. 
De fifarsys, De fa Mort Gloricltse de Pfltsieurs Prestrcs, 
1645, pp. 86-93; Challoner, fifemoirs, ed. 1742, vol. ii. p. 2 15 
seq.,o Dodd, Cn. Hist., vol. iii. p. 86 ; Doltay Diaries,. Oliver, Col- 
lections, p. 39. 
I. The narrative of this martyrdom, written by Mrs. Elizabeth \Villoughby 
and the lady who assisted her, was published in" Palmæ Cieri Anglicani, seu 
Narrationes eo rum quæ in Anglia contingerunt circa Mortem quam pro 
Religione Catholica VI I. Sacerdotes Angli fort iter oppetiere, à J o. Chiflet, 
sacerdote." BruxelIæ, 1645, 12mo. pp. 75. The seven martyrs are \Vard, 
Reynolds, Lockwood, Catherick, Morgan, Green, and Duckett, all of whom 
suffered under the Parliament, 1641-4. 
The rare work of De Marsys deserves some description, for besides the 
copy in his own l,ibrary, the writer is only aware of those in the British 
Museum and at Stonyhurst. Le Sieur de Marsys was a gentleman attached 
to the French Embassy in London, and was an eye-witness of most of the 
events he describes. His narrative, written in a graphic and forcible style 
contains many facts not to be found elsewhere, and was unknown to Bishop 



24 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[G RE. 


Challoner and all our martyrologists. The first portion of the work seems to 
have been printed in 1645, under the following title, " De La Mort Glorieuse 
de plusieurs prestres Anglois, seculiers et religieux, qui ont souffert Ie 
Martyre pour la deffense de la Foy, en Angleterre," s. 1., 1645, 4to., title 1 f" 
Avant-Propos, pp. 1-23, Le Martyre de plusieurs Prestres Anglois, pp, 24-177. 
The martyrs are 16 in number, and the work commences with \Vebster, 
alias Ward, July 26, 1641, pp, 24-38; seven priests, secular and religious, 
condemned Dec, 18, 1641, pp. 38-42; Barlow, Sept. 10, 1641, pp. 42-51 ; 
John Goodman, confessor, 1642, pp. 52-55; Thomas Green and A. Roe, 
Jan. 21, 16.p, pp. 55-75; Edw. Morgan, April 26, 164 2 , pp. 75-79; Lock- 
wood and Catherick, 1642, pp. 79-86; H, Greene, Aug. 19, 1642, pp. 86-93 ; 
Bullaker, Oct. 12, 1642, pp. 94-100; Holland, Dec. 12, 1642, pp. 101-117; 
Heath, April 17, 1643, pp. 117-128 i Fris. Bell, Dec. 21, 1643, pp. 128-140. 
The last two lives, he says, were written by an English Doctor of the Sorbonne 
and a Jesuit, and were sent to him after he left England. The first is that 
of John Duckett, Sept. 7, 1644, pp. 141-158; and the second that of Ralph 
Corby, S.J., same date, pp. 159-177. 
In the fullowing year the author prefaced this work with two books, and 
published the whole under the title-" Histoire de la Persecution presente 
des Catholiques en Angleterre, enrichie de plusieurs reflex ions morales, 
politiques et Christiennes, tant sur ce qui concerne leur guerre civile, que la 
religion. Divisee en trois livres. Par Ie Sicur de Marsys," s. 1., 1646, 4to" 
with frontispiece, title, with" Explication de la figure," in verse, I f., " Ex- 
plication de la figure," in prose, I f., dedication to the Queen of England, 
signed F. de Marsys, 5 ff.; "Privilege du Roy," dated Paris, April 15, 1646, 
and" Approb. des Docteurs," dated Jan. II, 1646 (signed by Rousse, Curé 
de S. Rcch, and Hen, Holden), I f., both of which only refer to "La Mort 
Glorieuse ;" Table to Book 1., 4 ff.; Table to Book 11., 4 ff.; Table du 
Martyrologe, 3 pp.; sonnet, signed F. D. L., I p. ; Livre Premier, being an 
historical sketch of the penal legis!ation, pp. 124; Livre Seconde, being a 
treatise on the injustice of the English law, which condemns priests to death 
for their sacred calling, pp. 128. Both books have the running title, "De la 
persecution des Catholiques en Angleterre," anà the second closes with" Fin." 
The third part, therefore, "De la Mort Glorieuse," seems to have been first 
issued as a separate publication. 
De Marsys apparently left London with the Duke of Gueldres, who, as 
Count Egmont, resided in England from 1640 to 1645, and witnessed eleven 
martyrdoms in London. During this period the duke obtained possession of 
a great number of relics of the martyrs, of which he gave a certificate 
(printed in the Rambler, N.S., vol. viii. p. 119), dated at Paris, July 26, 1650. 


Green, Robert, martyr, was a native of Ireland. His 
father was a Protestant, but his mother was a Catholic, and 
after her husband's death committed him to the care of her 
brother, who brought him up a staunch Catholic. Having 
married he settled in London, and eventually became a chapel- 
keeper, or cushion-keeper, in the queen's chapel at Somerset 
House. 



GRE.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


25 


In 1679 this inoffensive old man fell a victim to the 
political .intrigue of the unscrupulous Earl of Shaftesbury. 
Brown, in his H Penal Laws," tells us that this unprincipled 
minister, "who, after having alternately been the active sup- 
pGrter of the late King, the Parliament, and the Protector, 
soon after the Restoration became a leading member of the 
celebrated cabal, whose intentions certainly were the destruction 
of all civil liberty, 
nd, as it has been strongly though perhaps 
somewhat erroneously suspected, of the re-establishment of the 
Catholic religion. When their measures, therefore, had driven 
the king to the choice of one or other of these extremities- 
either to govern without a parliament, or to yield to their re- 
monstrances-this subtle courtier, perceiving that Charles had 
not sufficient firmness to persist in his designs, or to screen 
his advisers from the impeachments which were suspended over 
them, again changed his party, and became the factious leader 
of the discontented multitude." 
Such was the man who, pandering to Protestant bigotry, did 
not scruple to avail himself of such tools as Dr. Titus Oates, 
Dugdale, Tonge, Bedloe
 Dangerfield, Prance, and similar 
scoundrels. I twas Bedloe who first came forward to obtain 
the proffered reward of Æ300 for the discovery of the murderers 
of Sir Edmondbury Godfrey. The perjury of Miles Prance 
was secured to support Bedloe's evidence. Lingard (" Hist. of 
Eng.," ed, I 849, vol. ix. p. 387, note) says that Prance, repent- 
ing of his treachery, 5ubsequently confessed that he had been 
instigated by one Boyce, who "had been several times with 
my Lord Shaftesbury and with Bedloe, and he told me that I 
should be certainly hanged if I agreed not with Bedloe's 
evidence," 
The persons charged with the murder were Robert Green, 
the chapel-keeper, Law. Hill, servant to Dr. Godden, one of 
the chaplains, and Henry Berry, the porter at Somerset House, 
and they were brought to trial Feb. 10, 1678-9. Although 
the evidence trumped up against them was of the most flimsy 
description, and glared with inconsistencies between the depo- 
sitions of the two informers, and the evidence of their own 
witnesses was very strong in their favour, Scroggs, the Lord 
Chief Justice, and his brother judges, felt it incumbent on them 
to satisfy the craving of the fanatical party, and accordingly 
the accused were found guilty and condemned to death. 



26 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GRE. 


The particulars of the charge are not worth reciting. 
Shaftesbury (" Memoirs of Sir John Dalrymple," vol. i. p. 45) 
has himself characterized the whole of the Popish Plot in his 
answer to a certain lord who asked him what he intended to 
do with the plot, which was so full of nonsense as would scarce 
go down with tantum llOn idiots. " It is no matter," he re- 
plied; "the more nonsensical the better; if we cannot bring 
them to swallow worse nonsense than that; we shall never do 
any good with them." 
Mr. Green, who was a very illiterate man, and could neither 
read nor write, observed in his defence, "I declare to all 
the world that I am as innocent of the thing charged upon 
me as the child in the mother's womb. I die innocent; I 
do not care for death; I go to my Saviour, and I desire all 
that hear me to pray for me. I never saw the man [Sir 
Edmondbury Godfrey] to my knowledge, alive or dead." 
To this solemn protestation of innocence the Chief Justice 
replied: "'VVe know that you have either downright denials, or 
equivocating terms for everything: yet, in plain dealing, every 
one that heard your trial hath great satisfaction, and for my 
own particular, I have great satisfaction that you are everyone 
of you guilty." The spirit of this judicial murderer is shown 
in one of the preceding trials, that of Fr. Wm. Ireland, S.J" 
on Jan. 24, when he said to the jury after passing sentence: 
"You have done, gentlemen, like very good subjects and very 
good Christians-that is to say, like very good Protestants; 
and [alluding to an alleged reward for assassinating the king] 
much good may their thirty thousand masses do them." 
The three prisoners were removed from N ewgate, and 
suffered at Tyburn, Feb. 2IJ 1679, Mr. Green being described 
as very advanced in years. 
Smith, Accolt1zt of the Behaviour of thc fourtecn late Popish 
Malefactors, p. 9; Prance, Narrative, p. 9 seq. ß' Chattoner, 
fifemoirs, ed. 1742, vol. ii. p. 381 seq.,. .It! addeJl, His!. of the 
PCllat Laws, p. 206 seq. ß' Dodd, Ch. Hist., vol. iii. p. 275. 
I. "An Account of the Behaviour of the fourteen late Popish Male- 
factors, whilst in N ewgate. And their discourses with the ordinary-viz., 
Mr. Staley, Mr. Coleman, Mr. Grove, Mr. Ireland, Mr. Pickering, Mr. Green, 
Mr. Hill, Mr. Berry, 1\1r. Whitbread, Mr. Harcourt, Mr. Fenwick, Mr. Gawen, 
Mr. Turner, and Mr. Langhorn. Also, a Confutation of their Appeals, 
Courage, and Cheerfulness, at Execution. By Samuel Smith, Ordinary of 
Newgate, and Minister of the Gospel:' Lond. 1679, foI., title 1 f., pp. 38. 



G RE.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


27 


U A True Narrative and Discovery of several very Remarkable Passages 
Relating to the Horrid Popish Plot: As they fell within the knowledge of Mr, 
Miles Prance, of Covent Garden, goldsmith-viz., I. His Depositions con- 
cerning the Plot in General, and a Particular Design against the Life of His 
Sacred Majesty. II. The whole Proceedings touching the Murther of Sir 
Edmundbury Godfrey, and the particular Circumstances thereof. II 1. A 
Conspiracy to Murther the Right Hon. the Earl of Shaftsbury. IV. The 
Traiterous Intrigues and Immoralities of divers Popish Priests." Lond. 1679, 
foI., Order of the Council to the printer, 1 f., title I f., Epistle Dedicatory to all 
Protestants, 2 ff., pp. 40. 
"The Tryals of Robert Green, Henry Berry, and Lawrence HilI, for the 
Murder of Sr. Edmund-bury Godfrey, Knt., one of His Majesties Justices of 
the Peace for the County of Middlesex; at the King's Bench Bar at \Vest- 
minster, before the Right Hon. Sir Wm. Scroggs, Knt., Lord Chief Justice of 
that Court, and the rest of His Majesties Judges there; on Monday the 10th 
of Feb. 1678-9. Where, upon full Evidence they were Convicted, and 
received Sentence accordingly, on Tuesday the next day following," Lond. 
1679, foI., pp. 92, pub. by authority of the Lord Chief Justice. 
"The Behaviour and Execution of Robert Green and L. Hill . . . . con- 
demned. . . . for the. . . . Murther of Sir E. Godfrey; . . . . who suffered 
at Tyburn. . . . Feb. 21, 1678-9. \Vith an account of their lives." Lond. 
1678-9,4to. 
" De Process en van R. Green, H, Berry, en L. Hill, over de Mood van de 
Ridder, Edmund-Bury Godfrey. . . . den 10 Feb. 1678-9. Gedruckt na 
ne copy van London." (Amsterdam?) 1679, 4to. 
" Onnoselheyt van Hil en Grine twee Catholijeken, en Engelandt 
gehangen," 1679, 4to. 
" Fernens Epistolische continuatis der. ... Benachrichtigung wie es . . . . . 
in Engelland gegen die Catholische vorgehet . . , . \V orinn Auch . . . . 
geschen wird dass Hil und Grine . . . . unschuldig zum Todt verdambt 
. , . . Sind, etc.," printed in Philemeri Irenici Elisie Diarium Europæum, 
etc. Th. xxxix., Frankfort-on-Main, 4to. 
"Seconde lettre de Mons . . . . ou Factum pour Hil et Grine deux 
Catholiques pendus en Angleterre, etc." (1679?) 4to. 
For the numerous tracts on the Oates Plot, see under \V. Barrow, alias 
Harcourt, J, Caldwell, alias Fenwick, Earl of Castlemain, E. Coleman, 
J. Corker, J. Gawen, and others mentioned above. 
Green, Thomas Louis, D.D., born at Stourbridge in 
1799, was 
on of Francis Green, of Solihull Lodge, co. War- 
wick, and Stourbridge, co. Worcester, who was fifth son of 
John Green, of Solihull, and Alice his wife, One of Dr. 
Green's uncles, Joseph Green, died at the Franciscan convent 
at Douay, Aug. 2, 1769, having been professed about three 
months previously. Another uncle, \Villiam, settled at Bristol, 
and was the gr.andfather of the present Mr. \Villiam \Vheeler 
Green, of that city. 
At an early age he was committed (with his brother Joseph) 


. 



28 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[G RE. 


to the care of Bishop Milner, who sent him to Sedgley Park 
School, whence he removed to Oscott College, Aug. 15, 1813, 
After his ordination, in Feb. 1825, he remained at Oscott as 
procurator till 1828, when he left the college for the mission of 
Norwich, in succession to the Rev, J. M'Donnell. It was here 
that he first displayed his controversial ability. In 1830 he 
removed to Tixall, in Staffordshire, the seat of Sir Clifford 
Constable, Bart., and shortly afterwards he commenced his 
memorable struggle for the rights of Catholic burial. 
He returned to Oscott in 1846 as prefect of discipline, under 
the President, Dr. \Viseman, but after about two years, in 
1848, he was appointed chaplain at St. Mary's Priory, Prince
 
thorpe, near Coventry. In 1858 he was stationed at Mawley, 
Cleobury Mortimer, Salop, and in the following year took 
charge of the mission at Madeley, Salop. In 1860 he went to 
Aldenham Park, near Bridgnorth, as chaplain to Lord Acton, 
and there he spent the remainder of his long and honourable 
missionary life, employing his leisure in literary pursuits. 
On the recommendation of Dr. Brown, Bishop of Shrews- 
bury, Pius IX. honoured him with the doctor's cap, in recog- 
nition of the services he had rendered to religion by his vindica- 
tion of Catholic doctrine. On Oct. 20, 1868, his bishop publicly 
conferred upon him, with great ceremony in the cathedral- 
church of Shrewsbury, the well-merited degree of D.D. Shortly 
before his death he retired to Salters Hall, Newport, Salop, 
where he died, Feb, 27, 1883, aged 84. 
Cat/t, Misccl, 1829, pp. 566, 607; Catlz. ltfag., vol. v. 
p. 584 ; Orthodox] ollrJlal, vol. ii. 1833, p. 227, vol. xiii. pp. 16 I, 
188; Tablet, vol. xxxii. p. 676; Catk. Times, March 2 and 9, 
1883; Catk Directories,. The OscotiaJl, N.S., vol. iii. p. 48. 
I. A Series of Discourses on the principal Controverted Points 
of Catholic Doctrine, lately delivered at the Catholic Chapel, 
St. John's Madder Market, Norwich. Norwich, 1830, 8vo, 
The passing of the Catholic Emancipation Act in 1829 was followed by the 
establishment of societies throughout the kingdom for the promotion of the 
principles of the Reformation. Amongst other places a crusade was begun in 
the city of Norwich, At a meeting of one of these societies, known as the 
Irish Sunday School Society, held in July of that year, at which the Dean 
of Ardagh unfolded his usual roll of absurd anecdotes about the prodigies 
worked by the Bible in Ireland, a formal challenge was given to the Catholic 
clergy and laity to meet the Protestants for the purpose .of a public discus- 
sion on various controverted points of faith. Dr. Green, in consequence of 
this challenge, addressed a letter, penned with great prudence, in which he 


. 



GRE.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


29 


declined the challenge, on account of the few chances there were, "from the 
violence of party feelings, the improper motives of the champions at such 
exhibitions, the undue excitement of the hearers, and the probable enkindling 
of angry feelings and virulence among the community at large," of any real 
good being produced by the proposed public disputation. However, lest this 
should be interpreted as the result of apprehension for the solidity of his 
cause, and the immutable basis of Catholic faith, he announced his intention 
to deliver a series of sermons in his own chapel on the principal controverted 
points, and to invite public attendance, by advertisement in the newspapers, 
whenever one of these sermons was to be delivered. The sermons created such 
interest that Dr. Green consented to publish them in threepenny numbers 
fortnightly. The first was entitled "A Sermon [on Provo xvi. 25J on Private 
Judgment;' Norwich, 1829, 12mo. pp. 23. The success of Dr. Green's dis- 
courses, which were attended by many Protestants, induced the supporters of 
the Reformation to deliver a counter-series of sermons at one of their own 
churches. "An Answer to the Rev. T. L. Green's Sermon on Private Judg- 
ment," by "A Member of the Reformed Church," was published in the 
.Norwich Chronicle, but in the attempt to refute Dr, Green, the writer practically 
explained away the chief doctrines of the Reformation, insomuch that his 
defence was publicly disclaimed by another Churchman. Dr. Green followed 
his first sermon by others-" On the Infallibility of Christ's Church, being the 
second, &c." Lond. (N orwich pr.), 1829, 8vo. pp. 26; " On Transubstantiation 
as proved from Scripture alone, being the third, &c." ibid. 1829, pp. 24; "On 
Transubstantiation, not opposed to Scripture, being the fourth, &c.," ibid. 
IR29, pp. 22; "On Transubstantiation proved from Scripture, being the 
fifth, &c.," ibid. 1829. pp. 24. Others were on " Purgatory," "Invocation of 
Saints and the Use of Holy Images," &c. They were republished in a col- 
lectiv
 form in 1830, and again under the title of" Argumentative Discourses, 
with Additions," Lond. 1837, 8vo. 2nd edit. 
2. A Correspondence between the Protestant Rector of Tixall, 
and the Catholic Chaplain of Sir Clifford Constable, Bart.; with 
an Argumentative Appeal to the Lord Bishop of Lichfield and 
Coventry, on the Marriages and Funerals of Catholics and Dis- 
senters. With Notes, &c. Stafford (1834), 8vo. pp. 50. 
This correspondence between Dr. Green and the Rev, \Vm. \Vebb took 
place in the years 1832 and 1833. The parish of Tixall. with the exception of 
the glebe and parsonage, was the exclusive property of Sir Clifford Con- 
stable, and by far the greater part of the inhabitants were Catholics. Mr. 
\Vebb's predecessor died in 1822. He was of a liberal and benevolent dis- 
position, and for many years before his death did not enforce the performance 
at Catholic funerals of that part of the Protestant service which is celebrated 
Ùl the church. On the occasion of the first Catholic funeral after this rector's 
death, Dr. Green courteously informed his successor of the practice hitherto 
observed, and requested a continuance of the same favour, The congrega- 
tion likewise appealed to him on the subject. but all that could be gained from 
Mr. \Vebb was evasion, shuffling, and personality. Dr, Green then laid the 
correspondence before the rector's ecclesiastical superior, the Bp. of Lichfield 
and Coventry, with an appeal to his lordship, but the only satisfaction he 
received was an acknowledgment of the receipt of his communication. This 



30 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GRE. 


led to an agitation throughout the country to amend the law which per- 
mitted such injustice, The perseverance and zeal with which Dr. Green 
pursued the cause merits for him the lasting gratitude of Catholics. On the 
occasion of a Catholic funeral, Sept. 25, 1839, the corpse, as usual, was con- 
veyed in the first instance to the Catholic chapel at Tixall, for the celebration 
of the Catholic service for the repose of the departed soul. I t was then 
silently borne to the grave in the Protestant churchyard, accompanied by 
Dr. Green and the mourners. The doctor, attired in his ordinary dress, the 
usual Spanish or funeral cloak, and a college trencher cap, remained at the 
grave until the corpse was buried. He then retired with the relatives of the 
deceased to the public road, where he joined with them in reciting prayers for 
the repose of the departed soul. This was made the subject of a violent 
harangue at Derby by Archdeacon Hodson, on Oct. 29, 1839, who said 
" that the Romish priest had dared to usurp the power of interring one of his 
flock in the parish churchyard, according to the rites of the Romish Church "- 
Staffordshire Gazette, Nov, 2,1839. Webb had already, immediately after the 
funeral, resorted to threats, and the Catholics of the parish had met and pre- 
sented him with a memorial. The matter was ultimately laid before the 
Home Secretary. Dr. Green then obtained the opinion of Dr, J, Addams, and, 
on the feast of St. Alphonsus de Ligorio, 1841, sent it to the Marquis of Nor- 
manby, the Home Secretary, accompanied by the published correspondence 
with Mr. Webb, his circular" Letter in Reply," and the opinion of Dr. 
Addams, and notes by Dr. Green. These are printed in the Orthodox Journal, 
vol. xiii. pp, 161 and 188, Lord Normanby, having taken the opinion of the 
law-officers of the Crown, replied on Aug, 25, 1841, to the effect that the 
churchyard of the parish was recognized by the common law as the place of 
burial for all persons dying within the parish, and that it was the duty of the 
parson, subject to certain exceptions not applicable to this case, to read the 
service appointed by the rubric over every corpse there buried. 
3. A Letter addressed to the Rev. Clement Leigh, M.A., Rector 
of Newcastle-under-Line, in reply to a Sermon on Justification, 
&c., Lond. 1836, 8vo. 
4. The Truth, the Whole Truth, and Nothing but the Truth. 
The Catholic Church Vindicated. In two Letters addressed to 
the Ven. Geo. Hodson, M.A., Protestant Vicar of Colwich, Arch- 
deacon of Stafford, Canon Residentiary of Lichfield, &c. : in reply 
to his Pamphlet entitled "The Church of Rome's Traffic in 
Pardons." By the Rev. T. L. Green, Catholic Clergyman of 
Tixall, Lond. (Rugeley pr.) J838-40, 2 vols. 8vo., sep. titles and pagin., 
the second having pp. 9 6 . 
The archdeacon's pamphlet was entitled "The Church of Rome's Traffic in 
Pardons, considered in three letters, addressed to the Rev. T, L. Green, 
Roman Catholic Priest, &c." Lond. 1838, 8vo., in reply to Dr. Green's 
vindication of his Church. In the opinion of Sir Charles W olseley, " a more 
artful, arrogant, and unchristian effusion never came from the pen of a 
Churchman," and, by way of retort, the worthy baronet took up his pen to 
teach the clergy of the Church of England their duty on acts of liberality and 
Christian charity. His work was entitled, ., Catholic Clergymen versus Pro- 
testant Parsons. By Sir Charles W olseley, Bart. Occasioned by the Letters 



GRE.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 1 


of Archdeacon Hod
on, Vicar of Colwich, &c., to the Rev. T. L. Green, the 
Catholic Clergyman of the adjoining parish of Tixall." Lond. 1838, 8vo. 
This was followed by " Remarks on some parts of the Rev. T. L. Green's 
letter to the Ven. Archdeacon Hodson," by the Rev. Joseph Mendham, M.A., 
of Sutton Coldfield, near Birmingham, a great opponent of the Church, in his 
" Venal Indulgences and Pardons of the Church of Rome Exemplified," 
Lond. 1839, 12mo, 
S. The Secular Clergy Fund of the late Midland District, com- 
monly called" Johnson's Fund." Lond. 1853, 8vo" privately printed. 
The Rev, John Johnson, who died at Longbirch, June 16, 1739, was for 
many years the administrator of a fund for superannuated and disabled 
clergymen of the Midland District. 
6. Rome, Purgatory, Indulgences, Idolatry, &c. A Letter 
addressed to the Rev, George Bellett, M.A., Incumbent of St. 
Leonard's Church, Bridgnorth, in Reply to his Lecture entitled 
" The City of Rome." Bridgnorth, 1863, 12mo. pp. 60. 
In this he points out the great historical errors into which Mr. Bellett had 
fallen respecting St. Paul's imprisonment, and other important subjects, but in 
such kind and courteous terms that his opponent readily acknowledged the 
superiority of his scholarship. 
7. Indulgences, Sacramental Absolutions, and Tax Tables of 
the Roman Chancery and Penitentiary Considered, in Reply to 
the charge of Venality. By the Rev. T. L. Green, D.D. Lond., 
Longmans, 1872, 8vo. pp. XX.-20]; Lond. 1880, 8vo. pp. 214. 
The book consists of a series of letters, the greater part of which originally 
appeared in his pamphlets addressed to Archdeacon Hodson. The present 
work arose from a controversy carried on in the Midland Cou1lties Exþress, 
a Wolverhampton weekly, in the years 186]-8. Mr. C. H. Collette, a London 
solicitor, and well known as an ultra-Protestant controversialist, challenged 
Dr. Green to discuss the subject of Indulgences, The result was a rather 
long and somewhat acrimonious newspaper controversy, out of which 
Mr. Collette did not come with flying colours. He, however, published a 
pamphlet on the same subject, in which he undertook to prove that "the 
present recognized teaching and practice of the. Roman Church is a novel 
invention, unscriptural, delusive, dangerous, a pious frand, and a cheat." 
The real question at issue was not whether the Catholic doctrine as to in- 
dulgences is true or false; but, I, \Vhether they are directly a license to 
commit sin; and, 2. Whether they may be sold. This Dr. Green conclusively 
proved is not the Catholic doctrine. His work is most valuable, as it con- 
tains, in a compendious form, a complete history and explanation of Indul- 
gences, Sacramental Absolutions, and the Taxæ Cancellariæ. The notes 
and authorities are accurately copied and placed under the text they are 
intended to verify and illustrate. The Dublin Review says that it exhibits in 
every line the most careful conscientiousness. "He puts forth most clearly, 
and yet most concisely, the doctrine of Indulgences, and explains it so that 
children might understand it." 
It was attacked by Dr. Littledale in his cc Plain Reasons," and defended by 
Fr. H. J. D. Ryder in his masterly" Reply to Dr. Littledale's Plain Reasons," 



32 


BIDLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GRE. 


which led to a correspondence in The Tablet (see Dr. Green's letter, dated 
Jan. 3, 1882, vol. lix, p. 22). 
8. Dr. Green was a correspondent to the Orthodox Journal, and other 
Catholic periodicals. He joined in the controversy on the" Catholic Oath,'
 
in the Catholic fifa.J;azine (vol. iv. 1833, p. 100), and in The True Tablet 
(vol. iii. 1842, pp. 341 and 469). on the" Sale of Advowsons and Dispensa- 
tions.'! 


Green, William, D.D., President of Douay College, vide 
W m. Scott. 


Greene, John Raymund, O.P., D.D., born in Oxfordshire 
in 1655, was brought up in the royal household at London and 
Windsor, where at the age of seven he was much noticed by 
Cosmo de Medici, afterwards Grand Duke of Tuscany. As 
soon as he had arrived at a suitable age, he was sent by the dean 
and chapter of vVindsor to Magdalen College, Oxford, to be 
educated for the Established Church. At this time Fr. Philip 
Thomas Howard, O,P., afterwards Cardinal of Norfolk, was 
chaplain and grand-almoner to Catharine of Braganza, consort 
of Charles II., and by him the young man was reconciled to 
the Church. This drew upon the Dominican the anger of the 
dean and chapter of vVindsor, whose ill-feeling was intensified 
by the fact of Fr. Howard also having reconciled John Davis, 
one of their minor canons and chaplain of Magdalen College, 
Oxford. In consequence of this Fr, Howard had to retire to 
the Continent, and he was followed by l\1r. Davis and Mr. 
Greene, who arrived at the English Dominican convent at 
Bornhem, near Antwerp, Oct. 3, 1674. There Mr. Greene 
took the habit of St. Dominic, and the religious name of 
Raymund, on Dec. 9, and was professed on Dec. 15 in the 
following year. He studied his philosophy at Bornhem, but 
removed to Naples for his theology, and was ordained priest in 
16 79. 
Fr. Greene was gifted with great natural abilities, and was 
remarkable for his keenness of comprehension, so that he had 
no sooner completed his course of divinity than he was ap- 
pointed to the chair of phiJosophy, and then to that of theology 
at Bornhem. In 1686 he" accompanied the Provincial of the 
English Dominican Congregation to the general-chapter held 
at Rome, and before that assembly defended his thesis in uni- 
versal divinity with such success that he was honoured by the 
General, Fr. Antonius Cloche, with the degree of þræSCJltatlls. 



GRE.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


33 


- In 1693 he relinquished his chair of divinity to become con- 
fessor to the English convent of Dominicanesses at Brussels, 
but in the following year he was elected prior of Bornhem, an 
office which was renewed for another triennium in 1697. From 
Sept. 10, 1695, to 1698, he was vicar for Belgium, and in 17 00 
he twice attempted to reach England, but both times was 
captured by hostile cruisers, and relanded in the Netherlands. 
On Oct. 28, 1705, he was elected sub-prior of Bornhem, and in 
the following year the general-chapter at Rome conferred on 
him the degree of S. Th. 1'1ag. In Nov. 1707, he went to the 
college of his order at Louvain to teach philosophy and divi- 
nity. According to Dr. Kirk, he was elected the third rector 
of the college, in 1712, and at the end of his triennium returned 
as confessor to the Sisters at Brussels. Fr. Palmer omits this, 
and says that he went to Brussels, Nov. 22, 1712. 
On April 2, 17 I 6, he was instituted provincial of the 
English Congregation, O.S.D., and once more returned to the 
Sisters for a short time in 1719. He then came on the English 
mission, and had the care of a congregation, but in I 722 he was 
recalled for. the service of the Sisters, In 1726 he returned to 
England and became chaplain to 1\1rs, Knight, in Lincolnshire, 
probably the widow of William Knight, of Kingerby, Esq., 
where he remained until 1730, when he removed to London. 
Two years later, Oct. I I, 1732, he returned for the fourth time 
to the convent at Brussels. There he remained until he was 
seized with an attack of hemiplegia, in 1736, which deprived him 
of the use of one side. He retired to the college at Louvain, 
where he bore his sufferings with admirable patience and resig- 
nation until his happy release, July 28, 174 I, in the 86th year 
of his age. 
Palmer, Obit. Notices, D.P.,. Kirk, Biog. Collects. fifS" No. 20 ; 
Olz"ver, Collcctz"olls, p. 457; Palmer, Life of Card. Howard, 
p. I 5 1 seq. 
I. An admirable and devout Method made use of by many 
great Servants of God, inculcated by the Ven. and Very Rev. 
Father John Weymor, of pious and happy memory, to the Rev. Fr. 
Raymond Greene and the rest of his Novices, in the yeare of 
grace 1674. Augmented with many copious reasons and motives 
to suggest matter unto the devotion of young beginners, and so 
disposed as to serve for a private spiritual! recollection of 30 
days, allowing only a quarter of an houre at each time-viz., at 
morning, noon, and night for every meditation. 
JS. in the pos- 
VOL. III. D 



34 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[G RE. 


session of the Dominicanesses at Carisbrook convent, who brought it with 
them from Brussels, 
2. Processionale, O.S.D., MS., sm. 8vo" "written out for the use of 
the most truly Virtuous and very Religious Sister, Sr. Dominica Howard, 
of N orfolke. By her unworthy Brother and Servant, the most unworthy of 
all the children of St. Dominique, Bro. Raym. Greene." This beautifully 
written MS., finished in 1694, is now in the library of the Duke of Norfolk 
at Arundel Castle. 
3, A Spirituall Exercise, I\1S., 1698, 12mo. in 2 pts., at Carisbrook 
convent, 


Greene, Thomas, Carthusian, martyr, beatified by papal 
decree on the feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, Dec. 29, 
1886, was a professed monk and priest at the Charter- 
house, London, He was one of those ten brethren who were 
cast into Newgate, May 29, 1537, and so foully murdered after 
every means had been ineffectually resorted to in order to 
induce them to subscribe the oath of royal supremacy, or in 
other words to acknowledge the lawfulness of the king's pro- 
ceedings. So much blood had already flowed that it was 
judged impolitic to put them publicly to death, and therefore 
the king decided that these holy Carthusians should be secretly 
destroyed, for they had become the special object of his malice 
on account of their open disapproval of the lustful and tyrannical 
course on which he had embarked. 
To effect this purpose the ten Carthusians were immured in 
N ewgate with their hands tied behind them to the walls of 
their dungeon, so that they could neither render assistance to 
each other, nor even assist themselves, All communication 
with them was strictly prohibited, and they were left to perish 
by slow starvation and the insupportable stench of their 
dungeon, In this deplorable position they must have perished 
within a few days had their sufferings not come within the 
knowledge of the virtuous and intrepid Margaret Clement. 
This lady was the wife of a learned and pious physician, the 
friend of Sir Thomas More. By bribing the gaolers, she 
daily obtained entrance into the prison, disguised as a milk- 
maid, with a pail upon her head, and she thus supported the 
famishing religious with the milk that she brought with her. 
She also cleaned, as far as she was able, their place of confine- 
ment, and carried away the filth in her pail. This charitable 
office she continued for some days, until the king inquired if 
the monks were all dead. Being answered in the negative, he 



GRE.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


35 


expressed his surprise, and gave orders that their confinement 
should be rendered still more rigorous. After this the keeper, 
fearful for Ilis own safety, refused to permit l'irs, Clement to 
enter the prison. By an additional bribe this heroic woman 
persuaded the gaoler to allow her to climb upon the roof of 
the dungeon in which the Carthusians were confined, and by 
making an aperture was enabled to prolong their existence for 
a few days by lowering with a rope a vessel containing nourish- 
ment. But the fears of the gaoler again prevailed, and within 
sixteen days from their incarceration, Thomas Bedyll wrote 
a letter to Lord Cromwell, under date June 14, I 537, in which 
he informed Henry's infamous vicar-general that "there be de- 
parted: Brother William Grenewode, Dan John Davye, Brother 
Robert Salt, Brother Walter Pierson, Dan Thomas Greene. There 
be even at the point of death: Brother Thomas Scryven, Brother 
Thomas Redyng. There be sick: Dan Thomas Johnson, Brother 
\Villiam Horne. One is whole: Dan Bere." Of this ghastly 
list, which was no doubt read with grim satisfaction by the 
bloodthirsty monarch, but one survived the inhuman treatment 
which has been briefly narrated. Even he, Bro, \Yilliam Horne, 
after remaining for four years in durance, was hanged, drawn, 
and quartered at Tyburn, Nov. 4, 154 I, According to Chauncy, 
Fr. Greene succumbed on June 10, 1537. 
\Vhen Cromwell was- informed of the decease of these holy 
religious, he declared with an oath that he was sorry for their 
deaths, as he had intended to have treated them with still 
greater severity, 
Ha'i'CllsÏ1tS, Hi'storica Relatio dllodecilll fifartyrulll, ed, 1753, 
p. 67 seq. J' Chaullcy, Hist. aliquot 1lOstri sæculi )11 artyrulll, 
15 8 3; Cuddoll, Brit. llIartyrology, ed. 1836, p. 96; lIiorris, 
Troubles, First Series J' S trype, Eccles. lIfém., vol. i. ed. I 72 I, 
p. I 94 seq. 


Greene, Thomas, O.S.B., alias Houghton, was probably 
of the family of Greene, of Bowers House, N ateby, co. Lancaster. 
He was professed in the Spanish Congregation O.S, B. at 
Valladolid, became licentiate of divinity, and profitably spent 
many years in teaching his brethren theology at St. Gregory's, 
Douay, and at St. l\1alo, He was then sent to the English 
mission, but there it is difficult to follow him, as several priests 
of the name were in England at the time. Even the date of 
D 2 



3 6 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[G RE. 


his coming to the mission is not known. In a document in 
the State Paper Office (Dom. Eliz" vol. clxxxv. No. 90, 
I 585 ?), being a list of Englishmen in receipt of pensions from 
the king of Spain, is the name of Greene, priest, credited with 
15 crowns a month. The date seems rather early, yet it may 
refer to Thomas Greene. Fr. Snow says that he was banished 
in 1606, but Challoner refers this to Thomas Greene the 
martyr, which is in agreement with the Douay Diary. "VVeldon 
does not say that Fr. Greene was ever banished, but speaks of 
his long imprisonments and many hardships endured for the 
truth he preached. Gee, in his" Foot out of the Snare," gives 
a list of priests resident in London about 1623, in which appears 
the name of "Fr. Greene, lodging over against Northampton 
stables." 
During the great controversy respecting the lawfulness of 
the oath of allegiance imposed by James 1. in 1606, Fr. 
Greene warmly seconded Fr. Preston, alias Roger Widdrington, 
a.S.B., in favour of Catholics taking it. The Holy See having 
decided against it, and censured many of the works published 
in its favour, Fr. Greene, shortly before his death, made a 
formal recantation of what he had written in defence of the 
oath, and ended his days in peace in 1624. 
Dolan, IVcldoll'S Chroll. Notes,. Snow, Bened. Necrology; 
Gz'llow, Lane. Recltsants, MS. 
I. Appellatio ad Romanum pontificem per Tho. Greenæum et 
Tho. Prestonum. Augustæ, 1622, 4to. 
As Fr. Preston was the great champion for the oath of allegiance, this 
controversy will be treated more properly under his works. Fr. Greene no 
doubt had written more on this subject, but whether published anonymously, 
or sent to Rome in MS., does not appear. 
Greene, Thomas, priest and martyr, who assumed the 
name of Reynolds on the mission, was born, according to 
Challoner, in the city of Oxford, but De Marsys states that he 
was a native of "VVanvickshire. The latter says that he belonged 
to a very honourable and presumably wealthy family, and that 
he resided at home until he was fourteen years of age. After 
studying at Oxford, he proceeded to the English College at 
Rheims. It seems probable that he was a member of the 
knightly family of Greene, of Great Milton, co. Oxford, and 
that his mother was of the ancient family of Reynolds, of Old 
Stratford, co. \Varwick. 



GRE.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


37 


The Douay Diary states that Thomas Greene arrived at the 
college, then at Rheims, J an, 10, 1588. On March 17, I 590, he 
was ordained sub-deacon, and deacon on the following June 17. 
On Sept. 17, in the same year, he was sent with a colony of nine 
<>thers to Spain, and, after being ordained priest at Seville, was 
sent to the English mission, where his labours were attended 
with remarkable success, many Protestants being converted to 
the faith. At length, however, he was thrown into prison, 
where he was kept for several years, until he was banished in 
1606. But he returned almost immediately to his post, and 
was again apprehended and imprisoned about the year 1628. 
On this occasion he was tried and condemned to death for 
being a priest, but through the influence of the queen his sen- 
tence was respited, though he was detained prisoner for the 
remaining fourteen years of his life. During a portion of 
this time, however, considerable indulgence was granted him. 
In 1635, upon giving bond of his appearance, he was per- 
mitted to visit his friends, This was frequently repeated, 
until, in June, 1641, the clamours of the fanatical Puritan party 
rose to such a pitch that he was again committed to close con- 
finement. 
In Jan. 1642, the king was constrained by the factious 
party to issue his edict, commanding all priests under pain of 
death to leave the realm by the following April. Those who 
were confined in prison were promised release on condition that 
they -left the country within a month. There were several who 
had spent more than thirty years in prison. But the departure 
.of the king from London was followed by an outbreak of 
Puritan violence against Catholics. One Mayhew, an informer, 
appeared against Mr. Greene, who pleaded the king's promise 
of release and permission to withdraw from the country. The 
judge, before whom he was brought, replied that the king had 
been obliged to leave London, and that Mr. Greene's previous 
condemnation would now have to be carried out without any 
fresh trial, and he was removed from his prison at Westminster 
to that of N ewgate. 
On the morning of his execution, the ho]y martyr was per- 
mitted to celebrate l'Iass in his cell, after which he was laid on 
a hurdle, side by side with Dom Bartholomew Roe, a Benedic- 
tine. They were thus drawn from N ewgate to Tyburn by four 
.horses. The way was very dirty, and the two martyrs were 



3 8 


BIDLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GRE. 


almost covered with mud when they arrived at their destination. 
The roads were Jined with people, both Catholics and Protes- 
tant
, who showed almost incredible commiseration for the holy 
martyrs. On their arrival at Tyburn, Mr. Greene, with the 
sheriff's permission, addressed the assembled multitude in an 
eloquent speech of half an hour's duration. He spoke with 
undaunted courage and extraordinary cheerfulness, at the same 
time displaying such meekness and humility as to draw tears 
from the eyes of many in the crowd, Having finished his 
discourse, lIe knelt down and prayed aloud for the king, 
queen, and royal family, and for the kingdom, that they might 
all have strength and prosperity. After this he remained rapt 
in private prayer, while Fr. Roe addressed the people. Both 
priests were then ordered to climb into the cart under the 
gallows, and the ropes llaving been adjusted the cart was 
drawn away. and the two priests were launched into eternity. 
They were permitted to hang in their clothes until life was ex- 
tinct, when they were cut down, stripped, and quartered. Many 
of the bystanders dipped their handkerchiefs in the blood of 
the martyrs, and others gathered up the bloody straws or any 
other relic they could lay their hands on. 
Mr. Greene was martyred on Friday, the feast of St. Agnes,. 
Jan. 2 I, 164 I, being about 80 years of age. 
He was a man of very religious comportment, and through- 
out his long career had been assiduous in the service of God_ 
Though corpulent and hale in appearance, he was very infirm 
through his long labours and many sufferings. His temper 
was mild and courteous, and though naturally timorous in 
disposition, he displayed great courage and resolution when he 
came to die. 
De M arsys, Dc La llfort Glorieltsc, p. 5 5 seq.,. ChallOllCr,. 
Memoirs, ed. 1742, vol. ii. p. 187; Dodtl, Ch. Hist., vol. iii._ 
p. 85; DOllay Diaries. 
I. Dr. Challoner cites as his authorities for Mr. Greene's biography-Mr. 
Ireland's Douay Diary; a Relation by Fr. Floyd, S.J., MS. ; Mr. Knares- 
borough's Collections, MS. ; and Chiflet's Palma Cieri Anglicani, Antwerp, 
1645, p, 22. De Marsys, who was an eye-witness of most of the martyrdoms 
re1atecì in his book, gives many particulars which are not to be found in 
Challoner. He assisted the Duke of Gueldres in his collection of the relics 
of the martyrs of this period. In Mr. Simpson's article in the Rambler,_ 
New Series, vol. viii. p. II 4 seq., entitled "The Duke of Guldres on the 
English Martyrs," is a copy of the Duke's certificate concerning the relics. 



GRE.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


39 


which he had brought home with him to Paris. l\Ir. Greene is there caned 
" Arnold Green," and his relics are enumerated as " a thumb, a piece of burnt 
liver, a towel dipped in his blood and his nightcap which was drawn over his 
eyes when he was hanged, a sponge, a piece of linen, and a towel dipped in 
their (his and Fr, Roe's) blood, and the apron and sleeves of the torturer." 


Greene, Thomas, a gentleman held in great respect by the 
Catholics of Liverpool, was born there about the middle of last 
century. 
His father, Francis Greene, had formerly been a lieutenant 
in the royal navy, but afterwards became a captain in the mer- 
chant sen'ice. He was known as "Honest Captain Greene," 
and so noted for his judgment and int
grity that his time on 
shore was generally occupied in arbitration. He is said to have 
been one of the first to bring mahogany into this country. In 
1745 he was on a visit to his relative, .1\:1r. Eccleston, at Eccleston 
Hall. Both of them joined Prince Charles Edward, and, after 
his defeat at Preston, escaped with seven other Catholic gentle- 
men during the night. They arrived at Eccleston Hall just in 
time to change their apparel and mingle with the labourers 
going to their work at half-past five in the morning, when the 
king's officers rode up and demanded if they had been with the 
"rebels." 1'1r. Eccleston replied with assumed surprise, "I am 
planting trees," The officers saw that he was, and that part of 
the avenue of beech-trees (recently destroyed by the smoke) 
was in process of planting. They were therefore satisfied, aRd 
departed without further question. Capt. Greene married his 
second cousin, Elizabeth, daughter of Cuthbert Clifton, gent., 
son of James Clifton, of \Vard's House, Salwick (and his wife, 
Anne Brent, of the vVorcestershire family of that lJame), younger 
brother of Sir Thomas Clifton, of Clifton and Lytham, Bart. 
By this marriage Capt. Greene had issue a son, Fr. Francis 
Greene, S.]., born in Liverpool in 1744, and died at vVorcester, 
Jan. 23, 1776 (Crisp, H Cath. Registers of the City of Worcester," 
p, 7 2 ), aged 3 I ;' Thomas, the subject of this notice; Frances, 
wife of Thos. \Vest, of Eccleston Place and Cropper's Hill, 
father of Fr. Fris. vVest, S.J.; and Anne Maria, wife of Rich. 
Blundell, of Preston, gent. 
It appears that Thomas Greene was educated by the English 
Jesuits at Bruges; he was evidently a man of considerable 
culture, and could speak fluently seven languages. For a con- 
siderable time he resided in Demerara, where he possessed plan- 



40 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[G RE. 


tations, but is said to have lost his means on the emancipation 
of the slaves, He then returned to England, and resided at his 
sister's house, Cropper's Hill, St. Helens, where he died in the 
beginning of April, 1837, at a very advanced age, and was 
buried at Windleshaw. 
West family þedigrees, MS.; Gillow, Lanc. ReCltSa11ts, MS.; 
Thomas Gnaze's MS5.; Eyre, MSS,; Kirk, Bz'og. Collect., MSS.; 
Gillow, Tyldesley Diary; Palmer, Obit. Notices, O.S,D. 
}, Account of the Trial of six Roman Catholic gentlemen for 
High Tréason, and their acquittal at Manchester, on May 1, 1696, 
1834, MS. at Stonyhurst, partially printed in The ftfollth, vol. xvii., N.S., 
p. 221, under the title of" The Trial of the Lancashire Gentlemen in 1694." 
This interesting narrative differs in many respects from that given by 
Lord Macaulay in his "Hist. of Eng.," ch. xx., which was drawn from two 
accounts-one by Richard Kingston, the court scribe, in his" True History 
of the several designs and conspiracies against his Majesty's Person and 
Government, as they were carried on from 1688 till 1697," Lond. 1698, 8vo., 
and the other by a Jacobite, which has been published by the Chetham Soc., 
vol. xxviii., 1853, under the title of "The Jacobite Trials at Manchester in 
1694. From an unpublished manuscript. Edited by William Beaumont, 
Esq." A third account, originally written in French, and afterwards translated 
into English, and printed in 1696, was the production of Dr. Jacques Abbadie, 
a friend of King William, by whom he was advanced to the deanery of 
Killaloe, It is entitled "The True History of the late Conspiracy against the 
King and the Nation, with a particular account of the Lancashire Plot, and all 
the other attempts and machinations of the disaffected party since his Majesty's 
accession to the throne (extracted out of the original informations of the wit- 
nesses and other authentic papers)." 
Mr. Greene wrote this account from papers l
ft by his grandfather, John 
Greene, and from what he had heard his mother relate (between the years 
1775 and 1784) of the story told by her father-in-law, the lawyer employed by 
the families of the accused gentlemen to conduct such defence as was then 
permitted to the opponents of the Government. He was alsó assisted by the 
memory of his elder sister, Mrs, West, who died Dec. 23, 1816, aged 67. In 
a document in the possession of the writer, Mr. Greene says that he wrote 
this account, with two others, by desire of his nephew, Fr. Francis West, S.J., 
of Preston, his brother, \Vm. Ant. Aug. \Vest, Esq., and the Fathers at 
Stonyhurst. 
His grandfather, John Greene, at the time of the trial, was a young lawyer 
practising in Preston, who had served his apprenticeship at the same time 
and in the same office in Preston with Sir Thomas Bootie. His wife, Anne, 
was niece to Sir Thomas Clifton, Bart., one of the accused gentlemen, being 
the daughter of Thomas \Vestby, of Mowbreck, Esq" by Bridget, daughter of 
Thos, Clifton, of Clifton and Westby. The eight gentlemen tried at Man- 
chester were Caryl Lord Molyneux, Sir William Gerard, Sir Rowland Stanley, 
Sir Thomas Clifton, Wm. Dicconson, Philip Langton, Barthol. \Valmesley, 
and Wm. Blundell, Esquires, But besides these it was sought to implicate 
many other leading Catholics in the county, including the families of Scaris- 



G RE.) 


OF THE EKGLISH CATHOLICS. 


41 


brick, Tyldesley, Standish, Townley, Threlfall, Ashton, Eccleston, Gradell, 
Hoghton, Trafford, \V orthington, Hesketh, Anderton, Gillibrand, Sherborne, 
Shuttleworth, Greene, &c, 
The iniquity of the accusation has been fully exposed. 1\1r. Greene 
narrates how his grandfather conducted the case for the defendants and suc- 
ceeded in obtaining their acquittal. 
Some account of the author's family, which is entirely original, will not 
be out place. The Greenes were settled at Bowers House, N ateby, in the 
parish of Garstang, co. Lancaster, at an early period. A member of the 
family, Thomas de Greene, died vicar of Garstang in 1396. The present 
mansion of Bowers House was erected in place of an older building in the 
early part ofthe 17th century, as recorded by a stone bearing the date 1627, 
and the initials R. G.: G. G., which are those of Richard Greene and Grace 
his wife. It is an interesting specimen of the domestic architecture of the 
period, and is now the property of the family of the late 1\1r. \Vili. Bashall, of 
Leyland, who purchased it from the \Vakefields, to whom it had been sold by 
the Greenes about the middle of last century. There was a chapel situated 
in the upper part of one of the gables. It was a small room with a polished 
day floor, to which access was gained by a curious flight of winding stairs, and 
it was provided with a hiding-place for the security of the priest. Both 
Richard Greene and Grace his wife were staunch recusants, and their pay- 
ment of the usual penalties is regularly recorded between the years 1613 and 
1638. Richard Greene was probably a lawyer, and in 1617 was made 
executor, with Alex, Standish, to the will of Thomas Lord Gerard, of Gerard's, 
Bromley, lord of the manor of Garstang. His son, Richard Greene, married 
Dorothy, daughter of John Brockholes, of Claughton, Esq.
 and had three sons, 
Richard, John, and Thomas. In 1660 Bowers House was vested in Richard 
and John, in which year they were fined for their recusancy, The eldest 
son, Richard, had sons, Thomas and \Villiam, friends of the diarist. Thomas 
Tyldesley, in 1712-14, both of whom appear as recusants in 1679. Thomas, 
third son of Richard Greene and Dorothy Brockholes, married Margaret, 
daughter of Edward Ireland, of Lydiate Hall, Esq., and was apparently the 
father of Edward Green, alias Ireland, a priest, who held property at Fish- 
wick belonging to the mission in 1717. The history of the eldest son's 
descendants, who retained Bowers House, has not been ascertained. The 
second son, John Greene, was the father of his namesake, the Preston 
lawyer in 1694. The latter's marriage has already been given. He had 
three sons, John, of whom hereafter, Thomas, who died young, and Francis, 
the Captain before referred to. The eldest son, John, is said in the" Synopsis 
Fund, Col. S.Thomæ Lovanii" to have been born in Liverpool, about 1702. 
He was sent to the Dominican College at Bornhem, where he was professed 
July 22, 1721, and assumed the alias of \Vestby. He subsequently went to 
Paris and took his degree of B.D. at the Sorbonne. In 1731 he left Paris, 
and on June 9, 1736, he was elected the seventh rector of the Dominican 
College at Louvain, where he remained till 1743, when he came upon the 
mission as chaplain at Sunderland Hall, in Balderstone, near Blackburn, the 
seat of his second cousin, Dr. Alexander Osbaldeston, whose father and 
namesake married Catharine, one of the four daughters and coheiresses of 
John \Vestby, of Mowbreck, Esq., whose sister Anne was the wife of John 
Greene, grandfather of the Dominican. After the defeat of Prince Charles at 



4 2 


TIIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GRE. 


Preston, Fr. Greene fled into Yorkshire, but was seized at Halifax on 
suspicion of being a priest. On Oct. 10, 1745, he was brought before the 
court at the quarter sessions for the \Vest Riding, held at Leeds, and re- 
quired to take the oaths prescribed by the Act of 30 Car, II. On his refusal 
to make repeal and subscribe the oaths, he was committed prisoner to York 
Castle. After a long confinement he was released, and became chaplain at 
\Volfall Hall, about two miles from Prescot, Lancashire, where he died 
April 5, 1750, aged 48, and was buried at Huyton. After his death the 
mission at \VolfaH was abandoned, Richard \Volfall, Esq., who died in 
1718, was the last of the family resident there. 
2. Account of the destroying of the Roman Catholic Chapel in 
1746, and of the successive building of the present Chapel of 
Edmund Street, Liverpool. l\IS. 1833, at Stonyhurst. 
It was the author's father, Capt. Greene, who provided a refuge at his 
. house in Dale Street for the poor persecuted Catholics of Liverpool, after the 
destruction of their chapel in 1746, The principal matter of this MS, is 
embodied in an historical account of the Liverpool mission, written by the 
Rev. T. E. Gibson, in the Ca/h. Times, Nov. 9, 1883. 
3. Historical and Biographical Memoirs of the Jesuits in Lan.. 
cashire. MS, 
These memoirs were written for his nephew, Fr. Fris, \Vest, S.J., and 
others, for the use of the Society, and should be at Stonyhurst. They supply 
information which will add to Bro. Foley's Collectanea. Fr. Hen, Aspinall, 
alias Brent, S.J., born in 1715, was the son of 1\1r. Aspinall, and his wife 
Anne, daughter of } ames Clifton, of \Vard's House, Salwick, gent., and his 
wife, Anne Brent. His brother, Fr. Thomas Aspinall, alias Brent,S.}" was 
born in 1719, and they had a sister Anne, a nun. James Clifton and his 
wife Anne Brent had issue, besides that given by the present writer in a note 
to Bro. Foley's notice of Fr. James Clifton, S.}., a son, Cuthbert Clifton, of 
\Vard's House, who married, March 25, 1695, Dorothy, daughter of \Vill, 
\Vinckley, of Banister Hall, gent. They had issue, Fr. } ames Clifton, S.}., 
born in 1698; Fr. Thomas Clifton, born in 1700; \Villiam Clifton, gent., 
who married a Brent, and had issue, a daughter Anne, wife of Co!. Slaughter; 
Eleanor, a nun; Anne, a nun; and Mary, wife of Mr. Brent, who had issue 
several daughters who died unmarried, and a son, Henry Brent, who married 
Ellen, daughter of the heir of the ancient Catholic family of Dryers, of\Valton 
Hall, co, Lancaster, and had issue, Lawrence Brent, Esq., who died unmarried, 
Mary, married first to Mr. Totten, and afterwards to Mr. Plunket, and Frances, 
wife of Mr. Clark. The Brent estates were situated in \Vorcestershire and 
Warwickshire, and at one time the Greenes seem to have thought they had 
some claim as heirs. Mr. Greene says that Fr. \Vm. Molyneux, S.}., 7th 
Viscount Molyneux, was born Dee. 4, 1685, admitted into the Society, Sept. 7., 
1705, and was succeeded in the mission of Scholes by Fr, Thos. Weldon,S.}., 
in 1752, From the return of the high constable of \Vest Derby Hundred,. 
Oct. 16, 1716 (P.R.O., Forfeited Estates, 46 P.), it appears that Fr. John Busby, 
alias Drown, S.J., was then serving that mission, lVIr, Greene's sister Frances, 
who married Thomas \Vest, of Cropper's Hill and Eccleston Place, St. 
Helens, gent., had issue, James Underhill \Vest, Eccleston Place, who 
married Mary, daughter of Mr. Cotham, of Hardshaw Hall, gent. ; Tholll3.s. 



GRE.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


43 


\Vest; Fr. Francis 'Vest, S.J., born in 1782; 'Vill, Anthony 'Vest, died in 
infancy; 'Vill. Ant. Aug. 'Vest, who married Anne, daughter of Thomas 
Boothman, of Ardwick Place, Manchester, Esq" and has issue a son, Clifton 
'Vest, of Southport, Esq.; and \Vinifred Maria, married first to Mr. Tuohy, 
of Liverpool (by whom she had Edw. 1'hos.), and secondly to Lawrence 
Cotham, of Hardshaw Hall, St, Helens, and Bannister Hey, E
q., by whom 
she had issue a son, Wm. Penketh Cotham, and three daughters. The 
ancient Catholic family of Cottam, for such was the orthography of the 
name until comparatively recent times, was seated at Bannister Hey, 
Claughton, for several centuries. It seems to have settled in South Lan- 
cashire after the marriage with the heiress of the Penkeths. John Penketh 
Cottam, Esq" says Baines, in his" Hist. of Lanc.," printed in 1836, purchased 
the manor of Hardshaw, which was then held by his grand-nephew. Fr. 
'ViII. Cotham, S.J., was born there in 1791. 


Greenleaf, Mr., was probably the alias of an old secular 
priest, serving the mission in the neighbourhood of the Fylde, 
Lancashire, in the beginning of last century. 
Diligent research has failed to identify him. 
Dealt Gillow, Cat. of FcrllJ'halglt Lib. III S, 
I, Historicall and Controversial Entertainments. MS. 
The Rev. Edw, Melling, priest at Fernyhalgh, has left a memorandum that 
he lent this 1\15. "of old 1\1r, Greenleaf's writing," on July I, 1731, to "Mr. 
John Elston, alias Phillips, at Mr. Aspinwal's near Leeds, in Yorkshire." 
The Rev. John Phillips was the son of Richard Phillips, of Ribbleton, near 
Preston, and Anne his wife, probably a daughter of the Elston family of the 
neighbouring township of Elston, Richard Phillips was fined for recusancy 
in 1679. His son John was admitted at the English College, Rome, by Fr, 
Postgate, Dec. 22, 1697, aged 19. He was ordained priest :\larch 3,1703, and 
left the college, April 25, 1704, calling at Douay College on his way to 
England, with his schoolfellow, the Rev. James Gerard, on Sept, 13, The 
latter was thrown into gaol at Liverpool, during the persecution which 
followed 1715, where he died shortly afterwards (Rev, Xfer. Tootell's 
" Account of Lady \Vell," MS.). Mr. Phillips seems to have been stationed 
near Leeds in 1731, and it was there probably that he died, Feb. 6, 1737, o,s. 
1\1r. Greenleaf's MS. was never restored to Fernyhalgh. 


Greenway, Catherine Francis, O.S.F., was the first 
abbess of the cloister of English religious of the third order of 
St. Francis at Nieuport, in Flanders. The community was 
founded at Brussels, Aug. 9, 162 I, through the instrumentality 
of FF. Genings and Davenport, O,S. F. The convent was dedi- 
cated to St. Elizabeth, and in 1622 six ladies were professed
 
of whom 1'10ther Elizabeth \Vilcox was elected first Superior. 
In 1637 they removed to Nieuport, on account of the dearness 
of the necessities of life at Brussels. 



44 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY . 


[G RE. 


At this time Catherine was the Abbess. She resigned her 
office three years before her death, which occurred in Feb. 
1642, N.S. 
She seems to have been a lady of superior education, and to 
have been regarded with great veneration by the sisters, whom 
she governed for many years. The community removed in 
1662 to the ancient palace called Princenhoff, in the city of 
Bruges. The nuns were employed in the education of young 
ladies, and continued their peaceful and meritorious career till 
they were alarmed by the report of the near approach of the 
French revolutionists in June, 1794. On Aug. 7, in that year, 
they landed at Greenwich, and proceeded to London. In the 
same year they settled at the Abbey House at vVinchester, but 
in 1808 removed to Taunton Lodge, Somersetshire, where they 
still remain in their convent of Our Lady of Dolours. 
Olz"ver, Collectious, p. 544,. Petre, Notices of Eug. Colleges and 
COJlz1ents, p. 90; IVaddÙlg, Script. Ord. Minor. 
I. A short Relation of the Life, Virtues, and Miracles of 
S. Elizabeth, called the Peacemaker, Queen of Portugall, of the 
third Rule of S. Francis. Bruxelles, 1628, 12mo., A-V 2, in eights, 
portrait of the Saint on back of title, sculp. et excud. St, Van Schore, and on 
the last leaf, F 2, is a woodcut. It was" Translated out of Dutch; by Sister 
Catherine Francis, Abbess of the English Monesterie of S.Francis third Rules 
in BruxeIles." 
St. Elizabeth's convent appears to have met with considerable opposition 
at its establishment. " Nor was it without much difficulty," says Dodd 
(Tierney's Ed, vol. iv. p. 112), "that its inmates at length succeeded in placing 
it on a permanent foundation. In 1624 the community consisted of 25" 
members. 


Greenway, George, priest, son of Charles Greenway, of 
Tiverton, co. Devon, was born July 25, 1779, and was baptized 
by Fr. John Swarbrick, alias Edisford or Edsforth, S.]., a 
member of the Fylde family, which was intermarried with the 
Edsforths of Myrescough. 
After a preliminary education at Sedgley Park School, George 
Greenway was sent to St. Alban's College, Valladolid, to study 
for the Church, but he was ordained priest at St. Edmund's 
College, Herts, in Sept. 1803. For seventeen years (Dr. Oliver 
says), St. 1'lary's, Moorfields, London, had the advantage of his 
spirited exertions and eloquence, and he had the satisfaction of 
witnessing the opening of what was considered in those days a 
grand new church. On the occasion of the ceremony of laying 



GRE.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


45 


the foundation-stone, Aug. 5, 1817, 1'1fr. Greenway delivered a 
most eloquent sermon, calling on Catholics to complete the 
great work so well begun. His name was inscribed on the 
foundation-stone, with that of his superior in the mission, the 
Rev, Joseph Hunt, and his fellow-labourers, the Revv. John 
Devereux and John Law, as also that of the bishop, Dr. 
Poynter. Within three years the church was finished, at a 
cost of ;[26,000, and opened for Divine Service, April 22, 
1820. 
Mr, Greenway did not long survive this great event. To the 
intense regret of the congregation, he was called away in the 
prime of life, Oct. 19, 182 I, aged 4 2 . 
He was buried in the vaults of the church, which was then 
the pro-cathedral, where a mural monument records that his 
virtues and exemplary conduct had endeared him to everyone, 
and that by his death those who knew him were bereft of a 
most sincere friend. 
Oli'i-'Cr, Collections, p. 315; Cath. Miscel, vol. ii. p. 486; 
Fleming, Hist. of St, Mary's, Mooljields. 
I. Sermon delivered on the occasion of the laying of the Foun- 
dation-stone of S. Mary's, Moorfields. Lond. 1817, 12mo. 
An interesting account of Moorfields will be found in "Perambulations 
through London," Letter IX" Cath. flfiscellany, vol. ii., by W. Y. The Rev. 
W. 1\1. Fleming has published "The History of St. Mary's, Moorfields, and 
its relation to the Catholic revival in London," Lond. 1881, 12mo. pp, 32. 
2. "Elegiac Lines on the Death of the Rev. George Greenway, late chap- 
lain of St, Mary's Chapel, Moorfie1ds," Lond. 1821, 12mo, 
Greenway, John, priest and schoolmaster, son of John 
Greenway, of Tiverton, co. Devon, was born in 1 750, and, soon 
after his father's conversion, was sent to Sedgley Park School, 
in Staffordshire. Thence he proceeded to Douay College, and, 
after passing through several of the schools of humanity, was 
sent with a colony to the English College at Valladolid, 
His father and two uncles, Stafford and Charles, were converts 
to the faith. Stafford Greenway was Master of the Free School 
at Tiverton, which he was obliged to resign on account of his 
conversion, in 1757, after having held that position for twelve 
years. He died in London, April 13, 1797, aged 70. His 
wife, Lucy, survive
 until Aug. 20, 1809, aged 70, and, with 
his sister, Mary, who died May 10, 1821, aged 72, lies near 
him in St. Pan eras, London. 

lr. Greenway was ordained priest at Valladolid, afterwards 



4 6 


DIDLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GRE. 


taught divinity, and was vice-president of the college under 
l\lr. Shepherd. \Vhen he returned to England he was ap- 
pointed to the newly established mission at Gloucester, where 
he gained the respect of both Catholics and Protestants, and 
especially that of Dean Tucker. Under Mr. Greenway's 
auspices everything prospered. He opened an academy for 
young gentlemen of family, which he continued for some time, 
and thus was enabled, without being burdensome to his friends 
or his congregation, to purchase some property, and erect a 
chapel on it, dedicated to St, Peter, about 1789. 
\Vhilst dining at Mrs. Stanford's, he had an attack of 
apoplexy, of which he died eight days later, Nov. 29, 1800, 
aged 50, and was buried, Dec, 3, in his own chapel. 
l'ir. Greenway was a man of great talent, solid learning, and 
piety, but he laboured under the disadvantage of deafness. 
K .irk, Biog. Collect., III S., No. 20 ; Oli"fer, Collections, p. 3 16 ; 
Catlt. III ag" vol. iii. p. 32. 
I. He left many :\lSS. on various subjects at his death, but none of them 
appear to have found their way to the press. 
Greenway, Oswald, S.J., 'vide Tesimond, 
Greenwood, Gregory, O.S.B., was a member of the 
ancient family of this name seated at Brize Norton, in Oxford- 
shire. He was probably a younger son of John Greenwood, of 
Brize Norton, Esq., by Elizabeth, daughter of Francis Fetti- 
place, of Swyncombe, co, Oxon., Esq., the representative of an 
ancient Catholic family. In 17 16, Charles Greenwood, Esq., 
of Brize Norton, registered an extensive estate in Oxfordshire, 
Gloucestershire, and the North Riding of York, as a Catholic 
non-juror, though he made the singular declaration that he was 
not a papist, but professed to believe in the holy Catholic 
Church" as the same is expressed in the Apostles' Creed." 
Gregory Greemvood was educated at St. Gregory's 1'10nastery 
at Douay, where he was professed, Aug. I, 1688. He was 
ccllerarius in 1698, and in 1702 he was sent on the mission in 
the Benedictine South Province, filling the old family chaplaincy 
at Brize Norton, which had existed for many generations. He 
was appointed definitor of the province in 172 I ; cathedral 
prior of Coventry in I 725; provincial of Canterbury in the 
same year, a position \dlich he held until J 737; and definitor 
of the regimen from the last date u!1til his death. 



GRE.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


47 


In 1721 he seems to have left Brize Norton to become 
chaplain to the Throckmortons at Coughton Court, \Varwick- 
shire, and there he remained until his death, Aug. 3, 1744. 
JVcldon, Chroll. Notes JO S !lOLl-', BCllcd. Nccrology J' Paync, Cath. 
Non-jurors J'D. Gilbcrt Dolan, Downside RC"iJicw, vol. iv. No.2, 
p. 155 ; Kirk, Biog. Collect., fiIS., No. 21. 
I. Several plain testimonies collected from the Sacred Scrip- 
tures, and from the holy Fathers, proving and demonstrating 
the true and real presence of the body and blood of Christ, 
under the sacramental vails of bread and wine in the ever 
blessed Eucharist. By G. G. M., O.S.B. MS., pp. 182. 
2. Catechistical Instructions, or a short method of catechising 
children; divided into five parts. MS., dated Coughton, May 4,1721. 
3, Catechistical Discourses. MS., 15 vols. 
4. Discourst:Js and Instructions. 1\1S., 18 vols. 
5. A short account of the blessings of the Catholick Church, 
particularly of Holy Water, &c. MS., 8vo. pp, 120. 
6. Catechistical Instructions of Colbert, Bishop of Montpellier, 
now made English by G. G. M., O.S.B. 1\15., 4to. pp. 469, "finished 
in 1734." 
7. A short and plain account of the other World, by Father 
Lucas Pinelli. Translated by D. Gregory Greenwood. MS.,3 vols, 
All the above MSS. are preserved in the library of the Benedictine mission 
of Redditch, co. 'Varwick. 
Greenwood, Teresa, of whom the writer has failed to trace 
anything except the reference by Mr, Burke to her work. 
Burke, Hist. Portraits of the Tudor Dynasty, vol. iv, 
I. Female Prisoners' sufferings for Conscience-sake during 
Elizabeth's reign. By Teresa Greenwood. "A black-letter little 
book long out of print," Mr. Burke remarks. 
Greenwood, Thomas, D.D., martyr, took his degree of 

LA. at Cambridge in 151 I. Four years later he was elected 
fellow of St. John's College, and was a strenuous opponent of 
H ugh Latimer's preaching in the University. He was B.D. in 
15 28 , and received his doctor's cap in 1532. 
The" Catalogus Martyrum " says that Dr. Greenwood, who is 
sometimes called Greenway, resolutely refused to subscribe to 
the doctrine of the king's ecclesiastical supremacy. For this he 
was tried and condemned, and suffered during the course of 
1535, but the month is unknown. 
Thomas vVard, in describing the tyranny of Henry VIII., 
to which Protestantism owes its introduction into the country, 
says :- 



4 8 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GRE. 


" In short there were 
Two Cardinals condemn'd to death, 
And thirteen Abbots lost their breath; 
Archdeacons, Canons, seaventy four; 
Priests, Priors, Monks, five hundred more; 
. And fifty learned Doctors dy'd.'J 
* . * * * 
In all, King Henry sent to Heaven, 
About twelve hundred eighty seaven 
And more, if more had still deny'd 
His Power Supream, had surely dy'd," 
Cooþer, Atltellæ Cantab" vol. i.; Cuddon, Brit. Martyrology
 
p. 69; IVan!, England's Reformation, ed. 173 I, Canto I. p. 44. 
Greenwood, William, Carthusian, martyr, beatified by 
papal decree on the feast of S1. Thomas of Canterbury, Dec. 29, 
1886, was one of the ten monks of the Charterhouse so in- 
humanly starved to death in N ewgate by order of Henry VIII. 
He has been often confused with Thomas Greenwood, D.D. 
On June 14, 1537, Thomas BedylI, Archdeacon of Corn- 
wall, wrote to Lord Cromwell enclosing a statement of the 
condition of the ten Carthusians, who had only been committed 
to Newgate on the 29th of the preceding month. In the list 
of the departed appears the name of Brother \Villiam Grene- 
wode. Chauncy states that this poor lay-brother succumbed 
to his terrible sufferings on the 6th of June, within the octave 
of his incarceration. 
HaveJlsius, Historica Relatio duodecim Martyru1ll Cartusia- 
1lorU11l, ed. 1753, p. 70; Morris, Troubles, First Series,- 
Sanders, De Schis11late Allglicalzo, ed. 15 8 5, p. 78. 
Grene, Christopher, Father S.J" son of George Grene, 
and his wife Jane Tempest, who had left England to reside in 
the diocese of Kilkenny, was born in 1629. He was brought' 
up by his parents in Ireland until his thirteenth year, when he 
was sent to the English College, S.J., at Liége, where he 
remained five years. He then, 
 the age of eighteen, was 
admitted into the English College, Rome, Oct. 20, 1647. 
There he was ordained priest, Sept. 7, 1653, and was sent to 
the English mission, April 8, 1654. Four years later, Sept. 7, 
1658, he entered the Society of Jesus. 
It was probably about the time that Fr. Grene joined the 
Society that he returned to the Continent. Dr. Oliver states 



GRE.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


49 


that he was at Rome in 1666, when he renewed his inquiries 
amongst the oldest of the Oratorian Fathers at Chiesa N uova 
and St. Girolamo, concerning St. Philip Neri and the scholars 
of the English College at Rome. Fr. Christopher became 
penitentiary at Loretto in 1682, which he changed for that of 
the Vatican in 1686, He relinquished the latter position in 
1692, aFld was appointed confessor at the English College, 
Rome, where he died Nov. 1 I, 1697, aged 68. 
Fr. Morris says that he was a great lover of the English 
martyrs, and that he has done more than any other man to save 
the records of their sufferings from perishing, and to transmit 
to futurity materials for the history of the times of persecution 
in England. 
Oliver, Collectallea SJ. / ðIorris, Troubles, Third Serles; 
Foley, Records SJ., vols, iii., vi., and vii. 


I. The following açcount of Fr. Grene's MS. collections is extracted from 
Fr. Morris' "Troubles," Third Series: 
" Varia de persecutione in Anglia et martyribus," fo1., marked A., collected 
by Father Cresswell, now broken up or lost, 
" A number of papers, letters, &c" of the Persecution, &c.," fo1., marked B., 
at present in the Archiepiscopal archives of \Vestminster. 
A fo1. vol. marked c., now at Stonyhurst, containing Fr. Gerard's Gun. 
powder Plot, &c. 
"l\1iscell, Transcripta ex variis autographis," 4to., marked D., of which 
the only portion known to exist is Fr. Gerard's autobiography now at Stony- 
burst, 
A vol. marked E., now at St. Mary's College, Oscott, the most interesting 
portions of which form the first part of Fr. Morris' "Troubles," Third Series, 
under the title" An Ancient Editor's Note-Book." 
A vol. marked F., now in the archives of the Eng]ish College, Rome. 
A vol. marked G., now unfortunately lost or broken up. A considerable 
portion of its contents was in Spanish, It contained the" Opus imperfectum 
de vita Campiani," by Fr, Persons, the original of which, perhaps the docu. 
ment itself, is now in the Stonyhurst collection, Angl. A., vol. ii. n, 14. It also 
contained an article "De editione Concertationis Anglicana, opus imper- 
fectum Personii.:J 
A vol. marked M., in three parts, containing the chief portion of Fr. 
Grene's transcripts, one part only being now at Stonyhurst, 
A vol. marked N., in four parts, now bound in 2 vols., at Stonyhurst, 
containing Fr. Grene's earliest notes. 
A vol. marked p" in four parts, in two large 4to. vols., now at Stonyhurst, 
containing Fr. Grene's transcripts from FF. Persons, Garnett, &c. 


Grene, Francis, priest, brother to FF. Christopher and 
Martin Grene, S.]., was probably educated at Valladolid or 
VOL. III. E 



50 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIO:NARY 


[G RE. 


Lisbon. In a MS., marked Rawlinson D 173, in the Bodleian 
library, entitled" The names of those Cl(ergy) that dyed after 
Mr. Holt's being Secretary (of the chapter)," is the following 
entry which may refer to the subject of this notice-" 1 673, 
stilo novo, April the 17, dyed Mr. Francis Greene, in Holborne, 
a grave vertuous man." 
Dr. Kirk notes that a Francis Greene was confessor for many 
years to the English Benedictine Dames at Ghent, who were 
always under the jurisdiction of the bishop in whose diocese 
they lived, When incapacitated from the performance of his 
religious duties by age and infirmities, he was assisted by the 
Rev. Richard Daniel, who succeeded him after his death to the 
chaplaincy, Dr, Kirk gives no dates, but this Francis Greene 
probably died in the early part of last century, 
Oliver, Collectallea S.j., ed. 1845, p. 107 ; Kirk, Biog. Collect., 
MS., No. 20, 
I. The Voice of Truth; or, the Highway leading to True 
Peace. (Ghent) 1676, I8mo, A translation from his brother Martin's" Vox 
Veritatis," MS. 
Grene, Martin, Father S.J., son of George Grene, 
probably a member of one of the Yorkshire families of that 
name, and his wife Jane Tempest, was born in 1616, in 
Kilkenny, Ireland, whither his parents had retired, it is said, on 
account of persecution. There his elder brother Thomas was 
born, as well as his younger brother, Fr. Christopher Grene, S.J. 
After studying his rudiments in Ireland, he was sent to St. 
Orner's College, and became a member of the Society in 1637. 
In 1642 he was a professor at the College of Liége, and 
at different times scrved the offices of prefect of morals, 
minister, consultor, socius, and master of novices in the various 
colleges on the Continent belonging to English Province, S.J. 
In 1653 he came upon the English mission, and in the 
following year, Dec. 3, 1654, was solemnly professed of the 
four vows. At that time he was in the Oxfordshire district. 
After twelve years of missionary work he was recalled to 
Watten to take charge of the novices, and died rector there, 
Oct. 2, 1667, aged 5 I. 
Dr. Olivcr eulogizes his discreet zeal, unaffected piety, and 
varied talent and erudition. 
Oliver, Collectmlea Sf. : Foley, Records S J., vols. iii. and vii.; 
De Bacher, Bib. Ecriv. Sf. 



G RE.] 


OF THE EKGLISH CATHOLICS. 


51 


1, An Answer to the Provincial Letters published by the 
Jansenists under the name of Lewis Montalt, against the Doctrine 
of the Jesuits and School Divines; made by some Fathers of the 
Society in France, There is set before the Answers in this 
edition "The History of Jansenism," and at the end "A Con- 
clusion of Work," where the English Additionalls are shewed to 
deserve no answer; also an Appendix shewing the same of a 
book called" A further discovery of Jesuitisme." Paris, 1659, 8vo. 
The translation of Blaise Pascal's work was entitled" Les Provinciales : 
or, the M ysterie of J esuitisme, discovered in certain Letters written upon 
occasion of the present differences at Sorbonne, between the J ansenists and 
the Molinists, from Jan. 1656, to March, 1657, N.S., displaying the corrupt 
Maxims and Politicks of that Society. Faithfully rendered into English," 
Lond. 1657, 18mo,; Lond. 1668, 8vo, John Evelyn also published a trans- 
lation, Lond. 1664, 8vo. This was translated, apparently by an English 
divine, notwithstanding the censures and condemnation of Alex. VII., which, 
says the Jesuit translator of" The Discourses of Cleander and Eudoxe," in 
1704, "his moral divinity found a way to render them of none effect; and 
that was to change their name [The Provincial Letters] into that of the 
Mistery of Jesuitism, Upon the appearance of this book, it was thought 
advisable to apply the same antidote here, that had had pretty good effect 
abroad against the spreading poison; and so the French Answer to Pascal 
approved of by the Archbishop of l\Iechlen, and grand vicar of Liége, in 
1657, was done into English; together with an answer to the Additionals to 
Pascal's Letters. That was the work of Mr. Martin Green, and who read it 
must own it is judiciously, solidly, and unanswerably done. But then you 
must be told, that this his work was printed at Paris in 1659, a time when all 
things were in the greatest confusion here, occasioned by the different designs 
and conduct of Monk and the Rump. Hence it came to pass that very few 
copies of it could then be imported to ballance the influence of that said 
Mystery, or that of \Vhite's disciples in the new Art of Obedience and 
Government. " 
In 1651, Le P. Deschamps, jésuite, published" La Politique secrète des 
J ansénistes," which was translated into English by Fr, Thos. Fairfax, S.J., 
when the controversy about J ansenism was renewed in the beginning of last 
century, under the title" The Secret Policy of the J ansenists, and the Present 
State of the Sorbonne, with a Short History of J ansenism in Holland," ::md 
edit. 1702 (Dodd and other authorities say 1703), 24mo, For the contro- 
versy thus commenced between the English Jesuits and seculars, see under 
T. Fairfax, T. Eyre, S,J., A. Giffard, R. Gumbledon, E. Hawdrden, S. Jenks, 
J. Sergeant, R. Short, T. Southcot, F. Thwaites, H, Tootell, \Vhitt
nhall, 
R. \Vitham, &c. 
2, An Account of the Jesuites Life and Doctrine, by M. G. 
Lond. 1661, 12mo. pp. 149, 
Fr, James Forbes, S.J., Superior of the Society in Scotland, in a letter 
addressed to the Father-General Paul Oliva, dated April 10, 1680, says, 
"\Vhen I presented to his Serene Highness, the Duke of York, a book for 
his casual reading, which many years ago had been written by a certain 
Father Grene, in English, and which treats admirably of our institute, life, 
E 2 



52 


BIBLIOG RAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GRE.. 


and doctrine, the prince and his wife were so taken with reading it, that they 
wished me, as I had only that copy, to have another published, asserting that 
he would take care that so excellent and important a book, especially for 
these times, should be reprinted." 
3. Vox Veritatis, seu Via Regia ducens ad veram Pacem. MS. 
This treatise was translated into English by his brother, Francis Grene, 
and printed at Ghent, 1676, 24mo. 
4. The Church History of England, 1\1S., commencing with the 
reign of Hen. VIII. The first volume of this work was ready for the press 
when death arrested the progress of his labours. Fr. Bartoli was indebted 
to Fr. Grene for much of the information regarding English affairs in his 
" Dell' Istoria delia Compagnia di Giesu L'Inghilterra parte dell' Europa
 
descritta dal P. Daniello Bartoli, della medesima Compagnia," Roma, 1667, 
fol. pp. 620. Three of Fr. Grene's letters to his brother Christopher on this 
matter are preserved in the Stonyhurst MSS., " Anglia," vol. v. n. 67, They 
have been reprinted in Bro, Foley's "Records S.} .," vol. iii. Dr. Oliver, 
" Collectanea, S.],," ed. 1845, p. 107, appends an important note from the pen 
of a learned theologian upon Fr. Grene's advice as to the necessity of weighing 
and collating Acts of Parliament, especially regarding the subject of Anglican 
Ordinations. 
Grene, Nicholas, priest, confessor of the faith, a Marian 
priest, was committed to the Ousebridge Kidcote, York, in 
1566, where he lingered until his death, about 157 I. 
lWorris, Troubles, Third Series. 
Greswold, Robert, martyr, or, as the name is often spelt, 
Grissold, belonged to an ancient yeomanry family, seated at 
Rowington, in the parish of Henley, six miles from Kenilworth, 
co. \Varwick, and descended from the Greswolds of Kenilworth 
and Solihull. In 1716, John Grissold, of Pinley, the adjoin- 
ing hamlet to Rowington, yeoman, registered, as a Catholic, 
his property at Rowington. Another member of the family 
held property at Wootton-Wawen and Studley. Richard Gres- 
wold, who was ordained priest at Rheims in 1586, and after 
serving the mission for many years was banished in 1606, was 
probab]y a member of the Solihull family. John Grissold, 
who was so ill-used in the Tower in the same year, and at one 
time was reported to have died under torture, very likely was a 
brother of the three old bachelors of Rowington, and perhaps 
father of the subject of this notice. 
At this period there were three unmarried brothers of the 
name of Greswold residing together at Rowington, Robert, 
Henry, and Ambrose. They were staunch Catholics, and were 
of great service to the missionaries in that district. Unhappily, 
they were betrayed by a nephew, one Clement Greswold, who 



GRE.] 


OF THE E
GLISII CATHOLICS. 


53 


searched their house with a constable named Richard Smith, 
and apprehended a priest named John Sugar as he was leaving 
Rowington by the highway accompanied by a cousin of the 
betrayer, Robert Greswold, another nephew of the three old 
bachelors, and servant to IVlr. Sheldon, of Broadway, \Vor- 
cestershire. "Cousin, if you will go your way you may," said 
Clement; but Robert replied, "I will not, except I may have 
my friend with me." The two were consequently taken before 
Mr. Burgoyne, a \Varwickshire justice, who committed them to 
\Varwick gaol. There Greswold was offered a means of release, 
but his regard for 1\lr. Sugar and his zeal for martyrdom would 
not allow him to accept of it, and he remained in prison for a 
whole year. 
The two prisoners were arraigned at the \Varwick assizes, 
July 14, 1604. Judge Kingsmill asked Greswold if he would 
go to the Protestant church, and the following colloquy ensued: 
., I will not, my lord." "Then thou shalt be hanged," quoth 
the judge. U I beseech you, my lord, let me have justice, and 
let the country know wherefore I die." "Thou shalt have 
justice, I warrant thee," said the judge, "and the country shall 
know that thou diest for felony," "Wherein," asked Greswold, 
" have I committed felony?" "Thou hast committed felony," 
the judge replied, "in being in the company, in assisting and 
relieving a seminary priest, that is a traitor." "I have not 
therein committed felony," the prisoner answered. One of the 
justices of the peace then said, "Grissold, Grissold, go to church, 
or else, God judge me, thou shalt be hanged." "Then God's 
will be done," the prisoner replied. After that the judge again 
asked him if he would go to church. "I have answered you, 
my lord, enough for that matter; I will not." "Then thou 
shalt be hanged," said the judge. "I crave no favour of you, 
my lord, in this action." "\Vhat ! " said his lordship in a great 
Tage, "dost thou crave no favour at my hands? " " No, my 
lord, I crave no favour at your hands in this action." There- 
upon the judge condemned him to be hanged for accompanying, 
assisting, and relieving a seminary priest. \Vhilst pronouncing 
judgment, it is recorded, his voice faltered and his hands 
trembled. The following day he sent for the prisoner to his 
chamber, and offered him his life if he would promise to go to 
.church, which Greswold utterly refused to do. 
The ancient manuscript quoted by Dr. Challoner, and sup- 



54 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GRE. 


posed to have been written by an eye-witness, describes at 
length the martyr's demeanour on the morning of his execution. 
He suffered at Warwick, with Mr. Sugar, July 16, 1604. 
Challmler, .lVlemoirs, ed, 1742, vol. ii. pp. 5, 8 seq.,. H arl. 
Soc., Visit. of 
Varwickshire,. Payne, Ellg. Cath, Non-jurors; 
1'dorris, Condition of Catholics, p. 181 ; Fole;', Records S J., vol. iv. 
p. 373 ; D
uay Diaries. 
Grey, John, O.S.F., martyr, is said by Bourchier and other 
authorities to have been a Scotchman, but Fr, Anthony Parkin- 
son asserts that he was born of a noble English family. 
In his youth John Grey relinquished a large fortune and 
the high position to which he was born in order to embrace 
evangelical poverty. He became a Franciscan in the convent 
at Greenwich, where he remained until its suppression by 
Henry VIII., Aug. 1 I, 1534. Fr. Grey then found a refuge 
in Catholic Brabant, and eventually was elected a canon of 
Anderlecht, now a suburb of the capital of Belgium, where the 
beautiful church, dedicated to SSe Peter and Paul, still remains. 
When Queen Mary succeeded to the throne, and restored the 
Franciscans to their convent at Greenwich, John Grey resigned 
his canonry, and rejoined his brethren in their ancient monas- 
tery, in the hope of spending his days, as Fr. Gonzaga says, in 
" peace and safety." This was not to be, however, for shortly 
afterwards the queen died, and her successor, Elizabeth, having 
firmly seated herself on the throne, expelled the friars and 
suppressed the monastery at Greenwich, June 12, I 559. 
Fr. Grey, with one or two others, retired to the convent of his 
order at Brussels, where he soon acquired a great reputation 
for sanctity among his brethren. 
During the absence of Don John of Austria the Protestants 
took possession of Brussels, and the radical section of the 
party, known as les Gueux, were indulged in the most horrible 
excesses, and encouraged to put a stop by violence to the cele- 
bration of Catholic worship. At length, on June 15, 1579, a 
furious mob was gathered together and led against the friary. 
Mrs. Hope, in her "Franciscan l\lartyrs," graphically describes 
the attack. "The porter, Br. James, happened to be an 
Englishman. As soon as he caught sight of the mob he had 
the presence of mind to shut and barricade the doors, so that 
they long resisted all attempts to break through them. He 


, 



GRE.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


55 


then ran to the cells of the brethren and warned them of the 
imminent danger. Hastily collecting the altar plate and the 
few other articles of value which they possessed, they prepared 
to fly by a door at the back of the house before the mob should 
have time to surround it, and to carry with them F, Grey, who 
was very infirm. He was now seventy years of age, and was 
very reluctant to quit the holy house in which he had long 
dwelt under the same roof with his Lord. . . . . Fifty years 
had passed since he had first been driven from his home in 
Greenwich, and during all that time the crown of martyrdom 
had been the object of his ceaseless aspiration. How, then, 
could he fly, now that it was unexpectedly within his reach? 
He refused to go with his brethren. He pointed out to them 
the great risks that they ran in their flight, and exhorted them 
to remain with him instead of rushing upon the death which 
probably awaited them in the street. 'Let us stay in God's 
house,' he said. 'Where can we die so happily as in the 
presence of the Blessed Sacrament, on the holy spot where we 
hope to be buried?' But all in vain. They would scarcely 
listen to him, and as time pressed, they hurried a way. The 
English friar, Br. James, who also had long cherished the hope 
of martyrdom, alone stayed behind with F. Grey. The mob 
at last succeeded in breaking into the priory, and, finding it 
empty, they rushed to the church, where they beheld the two 
English friars on their knees before the altar of the Blessed 
Sacrament, They first attacked Er. James, and beat him till 
he lost consciousness, and they thought he was dead. They 
then fell upon F. Grey, beating him, and heaping on him the 
vilest abuse. He, not knowing what else to do, humbiy begged 
their pardon, and besought them not to be so cruel to a poor 
old man. But the ruffians cried out, 'What! shall we pardon 
thee, thou wretch of a friar!' One of them then drew his 
sword and struck him a mortal blow on the head; whereupon 
he said sweetly, 'I forgive you the wounds that you inflict on 
me: and expired." 
"When the news of what had happened was known in the 
the city," Mrs. Hope continues, "crowds assembled, weeping 
and lamenting the death of such a saint; and, as in the case of 
the martyrs of old, there was a pious contest to get hold ot 
anything that had been sprinkled with his blood. There hap- 
pened then to be in the town a man who was dying of an 



56 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[ GRI. 


incurable disease. On hearing of the death of F. Grey, he 
begged to have something dipped in the blood of the martyr 
brought to him. When he beheld it he knelt down and kissed 
it with the greatest possible reverence; and scarcely had he 
done so, when 10 ! he was snatched from the brink of the grave 
and perfectly cured, The news of this miracle spread the fame 
of F. Grey's sanctity far and near." 
Fr. Grey was deemed a martyr in defence of the Blessed 
Sacrament, and the veneration in which he was held by his 
fellow-citizens is recorded by numerous contemporaries. 
Bourchz"er, His!, Eccles., p. 127; Parkinson, Collect. Anglo- 
MinorÜica, p. 254; Hoþe, Franciscan .111ártyrs, p. 8 I ; Leydml, 
His!. Passion is Novorll1Jl, p. 66; Stryþe, Annals of the Reform., 
ed. 1735, vol. i. p. 14I. 
I. Fr. Francis Gonzaga in his history" De Origine Seraphicæ Religionis 
Franciscanæ," p, 104, distinctly says that Fr. Grey was Scotch. In a list of 
benefactors to the Scottish Seminary ultimately established at Douay, Dr. 
Oliver, under his notice of Fr. Hippolitus Curle, "Collectanea S.J.," ed. 1845, 
p. 18, includes the name of the Rev.John Grier, "de familia Lagne in Scotia 
canonicus ecclesiæ S. Petri in Anderleb, in Flandria prope Bruxellas." The 
Doctor does not give his authority for the quotation, but it appears almost 
certain that "Grier" and "Anderleb" are errors for Grei and A1lderlecht, 
Dr. Oliver's note was followed by the Rev. James Aug. Stothert, formerly a 
Catholic priest in Scotland, whose MS. collections have been edited by the 
Rev, J. F, S. Gordon, D.D., Minister of the Episcopalian Church of St. 
Andrews at Glasgow, under the title of" The Catholic Church in Scotland," 
ed. 186 9, p. 539, 
There is a manuscript account of Fr, Grey's martyrdom preserved in the 
Burgundian Library, The Martyrologies and the Bollandists assign his death 
to the 5th of June, yet all the more recent authorities place it on the 15th, 
and make the series of disturbances which culminated in his martyrdom com- 
mence on the 6th. See two interesting letters on this subject in the Tablet, 
vol. Iv. pp. 214, 271. 
Griffyn, or Griffyth, John, a Premollstratensian canon 
of the abbey of Hales-Owen, in Shropshire, was a native of 
Wales, and was educated in the college of St. Bernard in the 
north suburb of Oxford. Wood was unable to say what degree 
he took, as several of his name proceeded in canon law and 
divinity. 
He was a very pious and learned man, and his eloquence in 
the pulpit had gained him a wide reputation, On this account 
the reformers in the reign of Edward VI. were most anxious to 
secure the weight which his name would add to their theories. 
Fr. Griffyn was little acquainted with the ways of the world, 



GRI.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


57 


and at first very nearly fell a victim to their subtilty, but as 
soon as he became aware that the so-called reformers were in 
reality introducing a new religion, he at once declared his faith 
in the one holy Catholic Church, and showed himself proof 
against any temptation, to the great joy of the staunch 
Catholics. 
The date of his death has not been ascertained, but it is 
certain that he remained constant to the end, contenting him- 
self on the small pension allowed him upon the dissolution of 
his monastery. He was living in 1550, and is thought to 
have witnessed the restoration of religion under Queen lYlary. 
Pitts, De It/ust. Allgt, Script., p, 739; Wood, Athcll. OXOll., 
ed. 169 I, p. 64 ; Dodd, Ch. Hist., vol. i. 
I. Conciones Æstivales, I zmo. 
2, Conciones Hyemales, I zmo. 
3. He is also said to have written other works, 


Griffyn, or Griffyth, Maurice, last Catholic bishop of 
Rochester, a native of \Vales, was educated by the Dominicans, 
or Black Friars, and for some time studied in the convent of his 
order in the south suburb of Oxford, He was admitted to the 
reading of the sentences in July, I 5 32, and took his degree of 
B.C.L. in the following February. On April 9, 1537, IVlaurice 
Griffyn, S.T .R, was admitted to St. Magnus the Martyr, near 
London Bridge. Later he succeeded Nicholas Metcali as Arch- 
deacon of Rochester. 
When Queen Mary ascended the throne, he joined with others 
in a petition to Cardinal Pole, the papal legate, for absolution 
from the penalties he had incurred through his adhesion or 
submission to the schism of the two preceding reigns. In 
March, 1554, Cardinal Pole formally granted him absolution, 
confirmation, and dispensation, and on April I, in that year, he 
was consecrated Bishop of Rochester, by Stephen Gardiner, 
Bishop of Winchester, assisted by the Bishops of London and 
Durham, in the church of St. Saviour, Southwark. On the 
18th of that month he received restitution of the temporalities 
of the See, and on the following July 6 his appointment was 
.confirmed by the Pope in consistory, when the See was described 
as previously vacant, the Edwardian bishop, John Scorey, and 
-other bishops during the schism, being ignored. 
Bishop Griffyn died in his palace at Southwark, Nov. 20, 



58 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GRI. 


155 8 , and was buried in the church of St. Magnus, near 
London Bridge. 
Bliss, fVood's Athenæ OX01Z' J vol. ii.; Brady, Epz's. S1tCæSSi01z,. 
vol. i. pp. 55, 69. 
Griffith, Michael, Father S.J., alias Alford, born in 
London in 1587, entered the novitiate of the Society of Jesus 
at Louvain, Feb. 29, 1607. He studied philosophy in the 
college of the English Jesuits at Seville, and theology at 
Louvain. As soon as he was ordained priest he was sent to 
Naples to attend the English who frequented that city. Thence 
he proceeded to Rome, and from 1615 to 1620 he was English 
penitentiary at St. Peter's. In 1620, he was appointed socius 
to the master of novices at Liége, and about August in the 
following year he became rector of the house of tertians at 
Ghent. In 1629, Fr. Griffith was sent to the English mission. 
On landing at Dover he was arrested on suspicion of his being 
Dr. Richard Smith, Bishop of Chalcedon, for whose apprehen- 
sion the government had offered a reward of Æ200, by the 
proclamations of Dec. 1 I, 1628, and March 24, 1629. \Nhat 
raised the suspicion of his being a priest was the discovery on 
his person of a copy of the" Imitation of Christ," A Protestant 
minister was called in for his opinion, who gravely pronounced 
that the title-page of the book was more objectionable than the 
text, for the author, Thomas à Kempis, was a regular canon, 
and canonists were proscribed by English statute, and that, 
therefore, the prisoner ought not to be hastily discharged. Fr. 
Griffith was consequently conveyed to London, for his captors 
now believed him to be Bishop Smith, but as his person in no 
respect corresponded with the bishop's description, he was 
restored to liberty, through the mediation of Queen Henrietta 
Maria. 
Leicestershire was the chief scene of Fr. Griffith's missionary 
labours, and Dr. Oliver presumes that Holt was his residence. 
Bro. Foley says there is a tradition that he compiled some part 
of his works at Home-Lacey, the seat of the Scudamore family, 
which he thinks may be a mistake for Combe, in Herefordshire, 
where the Society had a residence, He assumes from the 
extent of the library at Combe, seized by Bishop Croft in 1679, 
which now forms a portion of the Hereford Cathedral library, 
that Fr. Griffith may have been there. In order to put the- 



G RI.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


59 


finishing stroke to his" Annales Ecc1esiastici," he obtained leave 
to retire to the college at St. Orner in the spring of 1652, and 
a few months after his arrival he was attacked by a fever, from 
which he died, Aug, I I of the same year, aged 65. 
The learned Benedictine, Dom Serenus Cressy, in his preface 
to his" Church History," printed in I 668, says that the venerable 
writer of the "Annales Ecclesiastici" certainly possessed in an 
eminent degree the two endowments which constitute an excel- 
lent historian-learning and fidelity; but his chief care was to 
adorn his soul with piety and virtue. 
Oliver, Collectanea SJ.,. Cressy, Cft. Hist, of Brittmry ,. Sozttft- 
'well, Ribadelleira's Bibl. Script. SJ" p. 610; Foley, Records SJ., 
vols. ii. iv. p. 469, and vii,; De Backer, Bib. des Ecriv. SJ.,. 
Dodd, Cft. Hist., vol. iii. 
I. The Admirable Life of St. Wenefride, 1635, 12mo., with a fron- 
tispiece, translated from the abstract of the life compiled in 1140 by Robert, 
prior of Shrewsbury, in the" Legenda Nova Angliæ," commonly called Cap- 
grave's" Lives of the Saints," Lond., \Vin, de \Vorde, 1516, fol., copied by 
Capgrave from the abstract in John of Tynmouth, Fr. John Falkner, S.J., 
also published a life in this year. Alban Butler, in his life of S. Wenefride, 
N ov, 3, "Lives of the Saints," ed. 1815, vol. xi. p. 68 seq., says that Fr. 
Griffith seems to have seen no other life than that in Capgrave, Both his 
and Fr. Falkner's translation have "frequent abridgments and some few 
additions from other authors, but not without some mistakes." Fr. Metcalf, 
S.J., published his Life of St. \Venefride, with some alterations and additional 
late miracles, Lond. 1712, 8vo., in which year Bishop Fleetwood wrote his 
dissertation or remarks against the life. 
2. Britannia Illustrata; sive Lucii, Helenæ, Constantini, primo- 
rum Regum et Augustorum Christianorum Patria et Fides. Cum 
appendice de tribus hodie controversis de Paschate Britannorum, 
de Clericorum nuptüs, et num olim Britannia coluerit Romanum 
Ecclesiam. Antverpiæ, Chris. Jeghers, 1641, 4to., engraved title 1 f., dedica- 
tion to Charles, Prince of \Vales, 4 pp., index 4 pp., synopsis 14 pp., pp. 4 2 4. 
Thi5 extremely rare work contains much curious matter connected with British 
history. 
3. Fides Regia Britannica; sive Annales Ecclesiæ Britannicæ 
(sæculor. xii. primorum ad annum 1189), ubi potissimum Brit- 
annorum Catholica, Romana, et Orthodoxa fides, per quinque 
prima sæcula: e Regum et Augustorum factis, et aliorum sanc- 
torum rebus è virtute gestis, asseritur. Auctore R. P. Michaele 
Alfordo, alias Griffith, Anglo Soc. Jesu theologo, Leodii, Jo. 
Mathiæ Hovii, 1663, fol. 4 vols. The title varies in each of the volumes; 
1. pp. 642 ; I I. pp.693, Fides Regia Anglo-Saxonica ab anno 500 ad 800, at the 
end of which is an address to the reader, written when the author lay con- 
cealed during the civil wars, and accounting for the unfinished state of the 



60 


DIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GRI. 


work, the two last lines of which furnish the chronogram 1645; II 1. pp, 580 
.and 156 pp. chronological index, Fides Regia Anglicana ab an. 800 ad 1066 ; 
IV., in two pts., pp, 328 and 336, Fides Regia Anglicana ab an. 1066 ad 1189. 
Cressy, in his" Church History," enlarges on his many obligations to this 
work. Bishop Fleetwood pronounces it to be a very valuable treasury of 
English ecclesiastical history, and Dibdin says it is ,: a work of no very 
ordinary occurrence, and, at the same time, of very considerable utility, as 
treating fully of the Church history of this country from the earliest period to 
the reign of Hen. I I." The author of the" Florus Anglo- Bavaricus " observes 
regarding this great work, that with the exception of Baronius and a few 
others, nothing of the sort was then extant. 
4. Cressy states that Fr. Griffith had a tender devotion to his patron, St. 
Michael the archangel, and some years before his death devised a picture of 
the saint, which he got engraved at Antwerp, with a devout prayer of his own 
<:omposition. 
Fr. Hen. More,S.}., " Hist. Provo Angl.," p. 393, has preserved a distich 
of Fr. Griffith's poem on the sacred wounds of our Lord. 
Griffith, William, schoolmaster, confessor of the faith, is 
stated by Fr. Christopher Grene, S.]. (" Collectanea F., Oscott 
College "), to have been a prisoner for recusancy at the time of 
the uproar which followed the execution of Mary Queen of 
Scots, in 1587, when his keeper consigned him to a dungeon. 
After he had suffered great misery for a fortnight, he was 
brought out of the cell, but expired as soon as he came into 
the fresh air. 
.lV/orris, Troubles, Third Series. 
Griffiths, Humphrey, martyr, in some catalogues called 
Humphrey ap Richard, or Prichard (as in Challoner), was a 
Welshman, a plain, honest, and well-meaning soul, and, as all 
authors agree, a great servant of God. For twelve years he 
had devoted his services to the afflicted Catholics of those evil 
days. He was the faithful servant of a pious Catholic widow, 
who kept the St. Catherine's \Vheel in Oxford, at whose house 
priests found a shelter and were enabled to be seen with the 
least risk on account of the house being a public inn. At 
length the officers of the university broke into the house at 
midnight and apprehended two priests, named George Nicols 
and Richard Yaxley, Thomas Belson, a Catholic gentleman, 
who had come to visit 1'1r, Nicols, and Humphrey Griffiths. 
The next morning they were all carried before the vice-chan- 
cellor, with whom were several doctors of the university. The 
following day the prisoners were again brought in irons before 
the same authority and his council and examined. They were 



GRI. ] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


61 


next! by order of the Privy Council, placed on rossinantes
 or 
jades, and conveyed to London, with their hands tied behind 
them, the two priests, for greater disgrace, having their legs tied 
under their horses' bellies. After examination by Secretary 
Walsingham, and very cruel treatment in prison, they were led 
back to Oxford to be tried at the assizes, under the same strong 
guard and in the same manner as they had come. In order that 
none of them should escape death, Sir Francis Knollys, one of the 
Privy Council, was appointed to be present at the trial to overawe 
the jury. The good widow, the hostess, was first brought in 
under the law of premunire, her goods forfeited, and herself 
condemned to perpetual imprisonment for harbouring the 
priests. The two priests were condemned to death, as in cases 
of high treason, and lastly Mr. Belson, with Griffiths, the servant, 
were convicted of having aided and assisted the priests, and 
on that account were sentenced to die as in cases of felony. 
They all received their sentences with holy resignation and 
cheerfulness, giving thanks to God for being permitted to die 
for His cause. 
On the appointed day the four martyrs were drawn to the 
place of execution at Oxford, Griffiths was the last to suffer. 
He came to the gallows with a cheerful and smiling counte- 
nance, and as soon as he had mounted the ladder turned to the 
people, and in a short speech declared himself a Catholic, and 
that it was for the confession of the Catholic faith that he was 
condemned to die, which he said he did willingly. A Protes- 
tant minister, standing by, told him he was a poor ignorant 
fellow, and did not know what it was to be a Catholic. Griffiths 
replied that he very well knew what it was to be a Catholic, 
though he could not, perhaps, explain it in theological terms; 
that he knew what he was to believe, and what he came there 
to die for; and that he willingly died for so good a cause. 
With that he was thrown off the ladder, and was ushered in to 
a better world, July 5, 1 589. 
Challoner, flfemoirs, ed, 1741, vol. i. p. 241 seq.,. Folc)', 
Records S.]., vol. iii.; lVilson, English ilIartyrologe, 1608, 
Griffiths, Thomas, Bishop, was born in London, June 2, 
179 I. Under the influence of his father, who was a Protestant, 
he was in early youth educated in the doctrines of the estab- 
lished religion, but the prayers and good example of his vir- 



62 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GRI. 


tuous mother, a fervent Catholic, soon gained him to the 
Church. His conversion greatly displeased his father, who 
threw many impediments in his way to prevent him from 
exercising his religion. The boy was in constant attendance 
at the altar in the chapel of St. George's-in.the-Fields, now 
the cathedral of Southwark, and it was he who served the 
first Mass that was celebrated there by his predecessor in the 
London vicariate, Bishop Bramston. It is said that his father 
would sometimes deprive him in the morning of his shoes and 
stockings in order to prevent him from going to serve Mass. 
But the young neophyte thought it but little pain or shame to 
go through the streets barefooted in such a cause, 
His piety and amiable disposition soon attracted the attention 
of his spiritual director, who procured his admission, in Jan. 
1805, into St. Edmund's College, Old Hall Green, near Ware. 
By dint of unwearied application he became a sound classical 
scholar, a good mathematician, and, what was more to the 
point, a profound theologian. In July, 18 14, he was ordained 
priest, and for the next four years he was employed partly in 
the care of the congregation at and around Old Hall Green, 
and partly in the presidency of the small ecclesiastical seminary 
in the" Old Hall," an ancient tenement in the rear of St. Ed- 
mund's College. On Aug. I, 1818, he removed with the 
students from the Old Hall to the new college, and was 
appointed President in succession to Dr. Bew. 
For more than fifteen years he governed St. Edmund's with 
remarkable prudence and vigilance. On the death of Bishop 
Gradwell he was appointed, in July, 1833, coadjutor, with the 
right of succession, to Bishop Bramston, V.A. of the London 
District. His brief was to the coadjutorship and See of Olena 
Ùz partibus, and he was consecrated at St. Edmund's College 
by Bishop Bramston, assisted by Bishops Penswick and \Valsh, 
Oct. 28, 1833, the feast of SS, Simon and Jude. Bishop 
Briggs was also present, and Bishop Baines preached the 
sermon. 
On July I I, 1836, Bishop Bramston died, and Dr. Griffiths 
succeeded to the London vicariate. In the following year he 
reported that the Catholics in London numbered 146,068, and 
in the rural parts of his District 11,246, making a total of 
157,314 Catholics for the entire vicariate. The population of 
London at this time was 1,500,000. In 1840 Gregory XVI. 



GRI.] 


OF THE EKGLISH CATHOLICS. 


63 


increased the number of vicariates in England, Bishop Griffiths 
being appointed by letters apostolic, dated July 3, to the new 
London District. 
The harassing work of his extensive charge at length under- 
mined his constitution. He lost the sight of one eye twelve 
months before his death, and the vision of the other was fading 
daily. He died at his residence, 35, Golden Square, London, 
Aug. 12, 1847, aged 56, and was buried in the clergy vault at 
Moorfields. 
Dr. Griffiths was a most assiduous, earnest, and conscientious 
worker. His whole soul and almost every minute of his 
time were given to the fulfilment of the duties laid upon 
him. 
Rev. Edw. Price, Dolmmt's Mag., vol. vi. p. 199; Calk. Direc- 
tory, 1847; Brady, Epz'sc. Succession, vol. iii.; Tablet, vol. viii. 
pp. 5 I 3 and 5 33. 
I. The Funeral Discourse pronounced at St. Mary's Chapel, 
Moorfields, March 27, 1833, on the late R.R. Robert Gradwell, 
D.D., Bishop of Lidda, and coadjutor in the London District. 
Lond. 1833, Izmo. 
2. Instructions and Regulations for the Fast of Lent in the 
year 1837. (Lond.) 1837, fo1. 
His Lenten pastorals were similarly published during the term of his 
vicariate; many of them will be found in the Orthodox Journal, vi. p. 13 8 ; 
vii. p. 32; viii. pp. 92, III ; x. p. 141; xi, p, 137, &c. 
3. Portrait. "The R.R. Thomas Griffiths, D,D., Bishop of Olena, and 
Vicar-Apostolic of the London District," engr. by G. A. Peria from an 
original painting, Catholic Directory, 1848, 8vo. 


Grimes, Matthew, S.J., vide BazÍer. 
Grimston, Ralph, martyr, a gentleman of ancient family, 
seated at Nidd Hall, in Yorkshire, was a great sufferer on 
account of his religion. On Nov. 18, 1593, he was twice 
examined by the president of the north, and on April 2, 1594, 
he was removed from the custody of Outlaw, the pursuivant at 
York, to the Castle. At the York Lent Assizes in that year 
he was indicted, with other Catholic gentlemen, by the Lord 
President, for harbouring and receiving seminaries. The jury 
had no other evidence than that of the President's own testi- 
mony, who, to satisfy their consciences, said that Hardesty, the 
apostate, had confessed he had been at some of the prisoners' 
houses, and he, the Lord President, would take it upon his 



64 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GRO. 


honour that it was true. Some say he brought Hardesty before 
them to avouch the same. 
Subsequently he seems to have obtained his release, but was 
again seized in company with Peter Snow, a priest from 
Rheims, on their journey to Y or k about the feast of St. Philip 
and St. James, May I, 1598, They were both shortly after- 
wards arraigned and condemned-Mr. Snow of treason, as a 
seminary priest, and IVIr. Grimston of felony, as aiding and 
assisting him, and, as it was asserted, for lifting up his weapon 
to defend him at the time of his apprehension. They both 
suffered at York, June 15,1598. 
Chal101zer, Memoirs, ed. 1741, p. 360; fif"orris, Troubles, Tlu"rd 
Serics
' Foley, Rccords Sj., vol. iii. 
Grove, John, martyr, was one of the victims of the infamous 
plots of Oates, Bedloe, Dugdale, and Prance. He was the 
nominal occupier of the Jesuits' apartments in Wilde House, 
situated in what is now called Wilde Street, the Spanish am- 
bassador residing under the same roof. Bro. Foley is very 
probably correct in his conjecture that he was a lay-brother of 
the Society, He was apprehended by Oates, accompanied by 
a king's messenger and a company of soldiers, on Sept. 29, 
1678, with Fr. Wm, Ireland, Fr, John Caldwell, alias Fenwick, 
Thomas Pickering, lay-brother, O.S.B., and Dr. Fogarthy, a 
physician. 
After suffering much in prison, he was brought to trial at the 
Old Bailey, Dec, 17, 1678, on a charge of contriving and con- 
spiring to murder the king. As in all the trials during the 
"Popish Plot" ferment, there was hardly an appearance of 
justice. The three prisoners were condemned to death, and, 
after two repríeves, Grove was drawn from N ewgate to Tyburn, 
with Fr. Ireland, and there executed, J an, 24, 16 79. 
Miles Prance in his" Discovery," printed in l\lay, 1679, en- 
deavoured to implicate a nephew of l'1:r. Grove, a Catholic of 
the same surname, who kept a school in Princes Street, Covent 
Garden. 
Cha//ollcr, Mcmoirs, ed. 1742, vol. ii, p. 376 ; Foley, Rccords 
Sj., vol. v.; Prallcc, True Narrative and Disc07)ery, p. 8; Tl'yal
' 
Dodd, Cft. Hist., vol. iii. p. 27 6 . 
I. "The Tryals of \Villiam Ireland, Thomas Pickering, and John Grove; 
for Conspiring to Murder the King: \Vho upon Full Evidence were found 



GUM.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


6S 


Guilty of High Treason at the Sessions-House in the Old-Baily, Dec. the 
17th, 1678. And received Sentence accordingly." Lond. 1678, foI. pp. 84, 
printed by order of Scroggs, the Lord Chief Justice. 
"A True Narrative and Discovery," by Miles Prance j see under Robert 
Green. 
"An Account of the Behaviour, &c.," by Sam. Smith, Ordinary of N ew- 
gate (see under R. Green) j in which an account is given of the Ordinary's visit 
to him. 
"The Information of \Villiam Lewis, Gent. Delivered at the Bar of The 
House of Commons. The 18th of Nov, 1680. Together with His further 
Narrative relating thereto, In all which is contained A Confirmation ofthe 
Popish Plot, and the Justice of the Executions done upon Grove, Pickering, 
and the Jesuites for the Design of Killing His Most Sacred Majesty. And 
discovering further the Design of the Papists to set the Navy Royal on Fire 
in Harbour; and to throw the guilt of the whole upon the Presbyterians. 
\Vith their Contrivances to take away the Life of the Right Hon, Anthony 
Earl of Shaftsbury." Lond. 1680, fo!' pp. 3I. 
"A Narrative and Impartial Discovery of the Horrid Popish Plot, carried 
on for the Burning and Destroying the Cities of London and \Vestminster, 
with their suburbs, &c. Setting forth the several Consults, Orders, and 
Resolutions of the J esuites, &c., concerning the same, And divers 
Depositions and Informations, relating thereunto. N ever before Printed. 
By Capt. \Villiam Bedloe, lately engaged in that Horrid Design, and one of 
the Popish Committee for carrying on such Fires." Lond. 1679, fol. 
"The Fm ther I nformation of Mr. Stephen Dugdale, Given to the Honour- 
able House of Commons, Pursuant to an Order of the said House, on the 
30th of Oct. 1680." Lond. 1680, foI. pp. 22. . 
" The Confession and Execution, &c." Lond. 1678-9, 4to" for which see 
under W. Ireland. 
Amongst t
 many publications in which Mr, Grove's name appears may 
be mentioned "The Tryall of Richard Langhom, Esq." Lond. 1679, fol., 
see under R. Langhom, 


Gumbleton, or Gomeldon, Richard, was the son of 
Thomas Gomeldon, of Summerfield Court, parish of Selling, in 
the county of Kent, Esq. His father is said to have been a 
jeweller in London; he was afterwards sherif[ of Kent, and died 
in I 703, leaving by Phalaties, his wife, two sons, \Villiam and 
Richard, and a daughter, Meliora, vVilliam married Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Crossley, and died without issue in 1709. 
Richard then succeeded to the estate, which he registered in 
1717, as a Catholic, under the act of I George 1., declaring that it 
was freehold, and of the annual value of ,[693 I os. lid., subject to 
a rental of ,[600 to his sister-in-law, 1'1rs, Elizabeth Gomeldon. 
Richard Gorneldon became a Catholic, and his sister also, 
but when, or under what circumstances, is not stated. It is 
said that he became a discalced Carmelite, but this is extremely 
VOL. III. F 



66 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[G UM. 


doubtful. His life, certainly, seems to have been a disgrace to 
his profession, whatever that was, whether a religious or a lay- 
man. Yet he seems to have had an outward zeal for religion, 
and was one of the loudest of those who raised their voices 
against J ansenism, when that charge was brought against the 
bishops and clergy of England in the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. In 1710 he is described as having spent his patri- 
mony, and hardly daring to show himself for fear of arrest for 
debt. Judging from the account given of him by the Rev. 
Andrew Giffard, he must have brought upon himself a derange- 
ment of intellect. He died in 17 I 8. 
His sister, l'1:eliora, married Thomas Poole, son of Sir James 
Poole, of Poole Hall, co. Chester, Bart., and after his death 
became the wife of Thomas Stanley, of Great Eccleston Hall 
and Garrett Hall, co. Lancaster, Esq. Her second husband 
was attainted and convicted of high treason for taking part in 
the rising of 1715, and his estates of Great Eccleston, Garrett 
and New Hall, in the parish of Leigh, and his residence in 
Preston, were forfeited and sold. IVlrs. Stanley's Kentish estates 
which she brought to her husband were also forfeited to the 
Crown and vested in the commissioners of forfeited estates. 
Mr. Stanley afterwards inherited Culcheth Hall, co. Lancaster, 
where he died in July, 1749, and his wife, Meliora, in the pre- 
ceding month, Their daughter and eventual heiress, l\Ieliora, 
married \Villiam Dicconson, Esq., son of Edward Dicconson, of 
Wrightington, co. Lancaster, Esq., by Mary, daughter of George 
Blount, Esq., and sister to Sir Edward Blount, Bart. The mar- 
riage of Meliora to \Villiam Dicconson is the more noticeable, 
as it was to his great-uncle, Bishop Edward Dicconson, alias 
Eaton, that Andrew Giffard gave her uncle, Richard Gomeldon, 
such a poor character in I 7 10. 
Eyre Collection, .11155., vol. i. pp. 307-8 and 340; Gillow, 
Lanc, RCel/Sallts, .1IIS,
' Kirk, Biog, Collect., filS., No.2 I; PaYlle, 
Eng. Catlt. J.VOJl"i1trors
' Foley, Rccords S.J., vol. vi., Culcheth 
pedigree. 
I. \Vhen the charge of Jansenism was brought against the bishops and 
clergy of England
 according to Andrew Giffard, in his letter dated April 3, 
]710, to Edw. Dicconson, alias Eaton, a professor at Douay, and afterwards 
V.A. of the Northern District, Richard Gomeldon, ., a chief man employed 
to bring accusations against us, is a young debauchee, who has spent his 
patrimony vivelldo luxuriose cum meretricibus, and now dares not shew his 
head for fear of arrests. He is a visionaire, who, according to his own words 



GUN.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


67 


often sees Heaven open, but oftener converses with hell, for he saics the 
devil sits by his bedside many nights, and they talk and converse familiarly 
for several hours." It was he who drew up a paper of accusations against Mr. 
Christopher Pigott, " a most laborious priest who helps ye poore people in and 
about Suthwarck, and seldom returns home from his labors untiU ten or eleven 
a clock at night." 
He also wrote a paper entitled" Several of Dr, Short's Tenets," consisting 
of about twenty propositions, " affirming that he heard ye Doctor speak them 
all." In this he seems to have been guided more by his prejudices and 
ignorance than by the love of truth, for" he made no difficulty to declare 
that the Doctor's memory was in execration to him before he knew him," and 
did not dare, when solemnly called upon, to swear to the truth, Dr. Short 
went to the venerable Father James Maurus Corker, O.S.B., "and desired to 
communicate at his hands, and after communion upon ye sacrament which 
he had received, took oath that not one off aU ye propositions was his." l\Ir. 
Giffard concludes, in his letter to Dr, Dicconson, dated June 30, 1710, " I 
have given you some part of Gomeldon's character before. I can add much 
now, and particularly he is reported to have a very notorious faculty in lie- 
ing, as being so very familiar with ye father of lies." 
Gomeldon's papers were not printed, but were distributed in manuscript, 
both in town and country. An intercepted letter written to him by Fr. 
Charles Kennett, S.J., dated Jan, 6, 1710, is given by Mr. Giffard. 
Gunston, John Chrysostom Gregory, D.D., alias 
Blunt, commonly known by the name of Dr. Sharp, son of 
John Gunston, of London, and his wife IVlary Swinburne, was 
born Oct. 12, 1693, o.s. He was brought up a Protestant and 
educated in one of the universities, probably Cambridge, where 
one or two of his name took degrees. In 17 I 5 he became 
a Catholic, and proceeded to the English College at Rome, 
where he was admitted by Fr. T. Eberson, S.J., the rector, 
by order of Cardinal Gnalterio, the protector, Feb, 23, 1718. 
After confirmation, taking the oath, and receiving minor orders, 
he was ordained sub-deacon and deacon, in March, and priest 
April 8, 17 I 9. He left the college l'vlay 9, 1720, for the English 
mission. 
For some portion of his career he laboured in London, where 
he signalized himself in the pulpit, and attracted great attention, 
I t is presu med that he is the Dr. Sharp described in 1 734 as 
canon and professor of divinity of St. l'vlartin's church in Liége, 
missionary and prothonotary apostolic. He is said to have died 
at London, June 24, 1736, aged 42. 
J{irk, Biog. Collect., MSS., Nos. 2 I and 34; Present State of 
Religioll Ù" Ellg., Ùl a letter to a Card., 1733, p. 20; Foley, 
Records S .f., vol. vi. 


F 2 



. 


68 


EIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GUN. 


1. The Charter of the Kingdom of Christ, explained in 200 
conclusions and corollaries, from the last words of our Blessed 
Lord to his Disciples; being a preservative against the principles 
and practices of the Bishop of Bangor and his Disciples. To 
which are added the sentiments of the present Oriental Church 
hereupon. . . . with a postscript to Mr, F. de la Pillonniere. 
Lond, 1717, 8vo. 
2. An Answer to a Sermon preached in London. 8vo. 
3. A Catechism for the instruction of youth. 
4. Devout and Instructive Reflections on the Lord's Prayer, 
with Penitent Sentiments for having recited it all. To which is 
added, A Devout Prayer in Time of Temptation. Translated 
from the French by J. Sharp, D.D. Revised and earnestly re- 
commended to all true Lovers of Devotion. Lond., J. Marmaduke,. 
1748, lzmo., title I f., preface pp. iii-x, pp, Il5, lines to Dr, Sharp on his 
conversion, in verse, I p. 
This is evidently not the first edition; it seems to have passed through 
several. \V. Needham advertises in 1757 an edition by Fr. P. Baker, O.S.F., 
"Devout and Instructive Reflections on the Lord's Prayer, with Penitent 
Sentiments for having recited it all, &c. Translated from the French by 
J, Sharp (alias Blunt), D.D., revised and earnestly recommended to the 
Perusal of all tlUe Lovers of Devotion by Mr. Ba-r, F.M." According 
to Marmaduke's advertisement, in 1786, it was translated from the French of 
F. Cheminais. 
5. Lives of the Saints. 
6. "John Sharp, D.D., Canon and Écolâtre of St, Martin's Church, in 
Liege, Miss, and Proth. Apost., 1734," is the inscription under an engravinf?; 
of an angel, holding a cross in his left hand and pointing with his right 
to a crown on the upper part of it, over all, the words, Tolle cruccm, si vis 
corOllam, 
Gunter, William, priest and martyr, was born in the 
parish of Ragland, Monmouth, in the diocese of Llandaff, He 
arrived at the English College at Rheims, July 16, I 583, and on 
Sept. 23, following, received the tonsure. He was ordained sub- 
deacon, Sept. 18, 1586; deacon, Dec. 19, in the same year; 
and priest, l\larch 14, I 587, 
Four months after his ordination, July 23, he left the college 
for the English mission, where he was soon apprehended and 
committed to prison. An ancient manuscript in Fr. Chris- 
topher Grene's collections says that on Aug. 26, 1588, he was 
"arraigned and condemned at Newgate, for that being de- 
manded by the commissioners whether he had reconciled any 
since he came into England, he, resolute and willing to die, 
answered he had, which his examination at his arraignment for 
that he confessed it true, he had judgment without any jury; 
and so a day after was carried to the place of execution, where 



GWY.] 


OF TIlE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


69 


the sheriff telling him that the Queen had pardoned him that 
he should not be quartered: 'It is requisite,' said he, 'for I am 
not worthy to suffer so much as those martyrs that have gone 
before me.'" 
Two days after his condemnation he was executed at a new 
pair of gallows set up at the theatre, Aug. 28, 1588. He 
.suffered, as did seven other martyrs on that day in various 
parts of London, with great constancy and joy. 
Challollcr, llfemoirs, ed. 174 I, p. 2 I I ; .J1;Iorris, Troubles, 
Third Scries
' Dodd, Cft. Hist" vol. ii. p. 104; Excmþlar Lite- 
rarUlll, DuaCl
 1617, p. 53; J;VilsolZ, E1lg. fifartyr., 1608; 
Douay Diaries. 
Gwynne, David, confessor of the faith, died about I 590, 
in the Compter, London, through the infectious state of the 
prison, where he was confined for recusancy. 
Morris, Troubles, Third Serics. 
Gwynne, or Gwin, Robert, priest, a Welshman of the 
diocese of Bangor, graduated B.A. at Oxford in 1568, but 
disgusted with the new religion, left the university, with another 
bachelor, named Thomas Crowther, and proceeded to the 
English College established by Cardinal Allen at Douay, where 
he was admitted in 157 I. There he was ordained priest in 
1575, having in the same year taken his degree of B.D. at the 
University of Douay. On the following J an 16, he was sent to 
the mission in \Vales, where his labours were attended with 
wonderful success. 
At this period there were but two bishops in England, and 
both were in prison. One was an Irish archbishop, and the 
-other was the saintly Dr. Thomas Watson, the last Catholic 
Bishop of Lincoln. On this account Gregory XIII. granted 
Mr. Gwynne a licence to bless portable altars, &c., by an 
instrument dated l\lay 24, 1578. 
The following memorandum in the Douay Diary, under date 
July 18, 1576, shows Mr. Gwynne's reputation soon after his 
first entry on the mission: "It has been signified to us that 
in \Vales many most religious and devout women, who had 
been reconciled to the Catholic faith b). the Rev. R. Gwin, 
a priest and bachelor in sacred theology, sent to England from 
hence by us, were so greatly inflamed with an admirable zeal for 
the Catholic piety and religion now become known to them, that 



70 


DIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[GWY. 


when their heresiarch and pseudo-bishop came in person to 
rout out their priest from those parts, he was straightway put 
to flight by the terror he conceived from the threats of these 
most religious women." 
He is described as a learned theologian and a most eloquent 
preacher. A document in the archives of the English College 
at Rome, printed in the Douay Diaries, says that U he rendered 
the greatest assistance, both by his labours and writings, to his 
most afflicted country." vVood says that he was living in 1591. 
Bliss, 
Vood' s A thcllæ OXOll., vol. i.; DOllay Diaries,. Dodd, 
Ch. Hist., vol. ii. p. 104. 


I. In 1591, he translated into \Velsh "The Christian Directory, or Book 
of Resolution," by Fr, Robt. Persons,S.]., which \Vood says was largely 
used and highly appreciated, and worked much good amongst the \Velsh 
people. 
2. Anton. Possivinus, " Apparat. Sac. de Scriptoribus Ecc1esiasticis," Col. 
Agrip., 1608, tom. ii. p. 342, says that he wrote several religious works in the 
\Velsh language, but he omits the titles. 


Gwynneth, John, priest, doctor of music, son of David 
ap Llewellyn ap lthel of Llyn, a vVelshman of humble position, 
went to Oxford, where a generous clergyman, recognizing his 
great natural abilities, furnished him with means to pursue his 
studies, After studying music for twelve years, during which 
period he published a large number of masses, antiphons, 
symphonies, &c" he supplicated the university that he might 
proceed in the faculty of music, and, in 153 I, the degree of 
doctor of music was conferred upon him. 
About this period he seems to have turned his attention to 
the study of divinity, and most ably confuted the Lutherans and 
Zwinglians who now began to spread their new doctrines in 
England, Henry VIII. presented him with the provostship or 
rectory, 
ina Cllyn, of Clynogfawr, but he was refused admit- 
tance by Dr. John Capon, Bishop of Bangor, subsequently 
Bishop of Salisbury, who had sided with the king in the ques- 
tion of the divorce, and preached at St. Paul's Cross, when 
Dr. Hocking and others concerned in the matter of the Holy 
IVlaid of Kent were brought from the Tower to do penance. 
In I 540 Dr. Gwynneth brought his quare illlpcdit against the 
bishop, and was ultimately instituted in Ocr. 154 I. After this. 
Gwynneth had a great dispute with Bishop Bulkley in the Star 



GWY.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


7 1 


Chamber, in 1542 and 1543, in which latter year he again 
obtained judgment upon his quare impedit. 
He was next installed in the vicarage of Luton, in Bedford- 
shire, then in the diocese of Lincoln, and enjoyed this benefice 
in 1557. He probably died before the close of Queen l\lary's 
reign. 
Bliss, Wood's Athelzæ OX01l., vol. i,; Dodl!, Ch. Hist. vol. i. ; 
Pitts, Dc Iffust. Angl. Script., p,735. 
I. My Love mournyth, &c., 1530, obI. 4to., commencing" In this boke 
ar conteynyd xx songes," words and music, 
2. \\Tood says that when he supplicated for his degree in music in 1531, 
he had composed "all the Responses of the whole year in Division-Song, 
and had published many Masses in the said song." His admission was 
granted on condition that he should compose one l\Iass against the Act 
following. He then again supplicated, "that whereas he had spent 20 years 
in the Praxis and Theory of Musick, and had published three Masses of five 
parts, and five Masses of four, as also certain Symphona's, Antiphona's, and 
divers Songs for the use of the Church, he might be permitted to proceed in 
the Faculty of Musick, that is, be made Doctor of that Faculty." This was 
granted conditionally on his paying 20 pence to the university on the day 
of his admission. 
3. The confutacyon of the fyrst parte of Frythes boke, with a 
disputacyon before, whether it be possyble for any heretike to 
know that hymselfe is one or not, And also another, whether it be 
wors to denye directely more or lesse of the fayth. (Printed by 
John Hertforde for Richard Stevenage: Saint Albans), 1536, 16mo., without 
pagination. 
4. A Manifeste Detection of the notable falshed of that Part of 
Fry the's boke which he termeth his Foundation, and bosteth it to 
be invincible. Lond, 1554, 8vo., 2nd edition. 
5. A Playne Demonstration of J. Frithe's lacke of witte and 
learnynge in his understandynge of holie Scripture, and of the 
olde holy doctours, in the Blessed Sacrament of the Aulter, 
newly set foorthe. St, Albans, 1536, 4to., B.L.; Lond. 1557, 4to.; 
written in the form of a dialogue. 
Frith was imprisoned in the Tower for his heretical doctrines, and 
eventually executed. Sir Thomas More refuted Frith's attack on the 
Blessed Sacrament, which elicited" A Doke made by John Fryth, Prysoner 
in the Tower of London, answering unto .:\1. l\Iore's Letter which he wrote 
a
aynst the fyrst lytle Treatyse that John Fryth made concerning the Sacra- 
ment of the Body and Bloude of Christ," Munster, 1533, 16mo. Frith's 
errors were also exposed by John Rastall and others. 
6. A Declaration of the State wherein. all Heretickes dooe 
leade their lives; and also of their continuall indever and propre 
fruictes, which beginneth in the 38 Chapiter, and so to thende of 
the Woorke. Londini, 1554, 4to., B.L. 
7. Declaration of the notable Victory given of God to Queen 



7 2 


BIBLIOGRAPJUCAL DICTIONARY 


[HAB. 


Mary, shewed in the Church of Luton (in Bedfordshire), 22 J1ÙY, 
in the first Year of her Reign. Lond. (1554), 8vo. 
8. Both Pitts and \V ood say he wrote other works, the title9 of which are 
not given. 


Habington, or Abington, Edward, younger son of 
John Babington, of Bindlip Castle, co. Worcester, Esq" was 
one of a band of unfortunate youths whose romantic sympathies 
with the unhappy position of the Queen of Scots brought them 
to the scaffold, Their object was to release the imprisoned 
queen, and their plans being known to Queen Elizabeth and 
Sir Francis vValsingham, the crafty secretary secretly encou- 
raged them by means of spies and renegade priests, with a view 
to using their conspiracy as an excuse for the death of the 
innocent Mary. After months of intrigue, when vValsingham 
had sufficiently entrapped the youths in his nets, they were 
apprehended and brought to trial. The indictment charged 
them with a twofold conspiracy, a plot to murder the queen, 
and another to raise a rebellion within the realm in favour of 
Mary Stuart. Of the fourteen prisoners, six admitted their 
complicity more or less as to one or other of the counts; a 
similar number were convicted as accomplices on the question- 
able authority of passages extracted from the confessions of 
the others; and two were condemned as accessories after the 
fact, because they had aided and abetted the conspirators after 
the proclamation. 
Babington was charged with being one of those appointed 
to assassinate Elizabeth on the confessions of Babington and. 
Tyrrell. The latter afterwards acknowledged in writing that 
he had falsely accused him. Savage, in his confession, abso- 
lutely declined to support the charge. In his def
nce, Babing- 
ton claimed that the evidence of a person under condemnation 
was inadmissible. lIe also cited an Act of the 13th Elizabeth, 
which required, in cases of high treason, that the witnesses 
should appear face to face, In both instances, however, he 
was overruled, and he was condemned to die. He suffered 
with six of his fellow-prisoners, Sept. 20, 1586. 
"There was much in the fate of these young men," says 
Lingard, '
to claim the sympathy of the reader. They were 
not of that class in which conspirators are generally found. 
Sprung from the best families in their respective counties, 
possessed of affluent fortunes, they had hitherto kept aloof 



RAB.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


73 


from political intrigue, and devoted their time to the pursuits 
and pleasures befitting their age and station. Probably had it 
not been for the perfidious emissaries of 1'10rgan and \Valsing- 
ham-of Morgan, who sought to revenge himself on Elizabeth, 
and of \Valsingham, who cared not whose blood he shed pro- 
vided he could shed that of l\lary Stuart -none of them would 
have even thought of the offence for which they suffered. 
There were gradations in their guilt. Babington was an 
.assassin; he -sought to promote the murderous proje
t of 
Ballard and Savage, though no particular plan had been 
selected, no definite resolution adopted. Of the rest, Babing- 
ton, Salisbury, and Dunne refused to imbrue their hands in the 
blood of the English, but offered to co-operate for the libera- 
tion of the Scottish queen; the others condemned both pro- 
jects; their real offence consisted in their silence; they scorned 
to betray the friends who confided in their honour." 
Disraeli, in his notice of "Chidiock Titchbourne," has drawn 
a pathetic picture of these youths-I( worthy of ranking with 
the heroes, rather than with the traitors of England . . . , it is 
in the progress of the trial that the history and the feelings of 
these wondrous youths appear. In those times, when the 
government of the country felt itself unsettled, and mercy did 
not sit in the judgment-seat, even one of the judges could not 
refrain from being affected at the presence of so gallant a band 
as the prisoners at the bar. 'Oh, Ballard, Ballard!' the judge 
exclaimed, 'what hast thou done? A sort [a company] of 
brave youths, otherwise endowed with good gifts, by thy in- 
ducement hast thou brought to their utter destruction and 
confusion.' " 
Dodd, Ch. Hist., vol. ii. p. 150; LÙlgard, Hist. of Ellg., ed. 
18 49, vol. vi. p. 427 seq. 
. Disracli, Curiosities of Lz"teratltre, ed. 
18 49, vol. ii. ; fiforris, Letter-Books of Sir A. Poulet
. Morris, 
T1'oubles, Second Series. 
I. ., A Dutiful Invective against the most haynous Treasons of Ballard and 
Babington, with other their adherents, latelie executed. Together with the 
horrible Attempts and Actions of the Queen of Scottes; and the sentence 
pronounced against her at Fodderingay, N ewlie compiled and set foorth, in 
English verse. for a N ew-yeares gifte to allloyall English subjects." Land. 
1587. 4to., by \Vm, Kemp. 
"The Censure of a loyal subject upon certaine noted speeches and beha- 
viour of those 14 notable Traitors (Ballard, Babington, &c.), at the place of 
their execution (Lincoln's Inn Fields), the xi. (20) and 12 (21) of September 



74 


BIBLIOGRAPIIICAL DICTIONARY 


[RAB. 


last past; wherein is handled matter of necessary instruction, &c." Lond. 
1587, 4to.; also without date; by \Vm, Kemp. 
The fourteen gentlemen who suffered in "Babington's Plot" were-Ant. 
Babington, J no. Ballard, priest, J no. Savage, Rob. Barnwell, Chidiock 
Tichborne, Chas. Tylney, and Edw. Habington, on Sept. 20; and Thos. 
Salisbury, Hen. Dunne, Edw. Jones, J no. Travers, J no. Charnock, Rob. Gage, 
and Jerome Bellamy, on the following day. 
Habington, Thomas, antiquary, born at Thorpe, near 
Chertsey, co. Surrey, Aug. 23, I 560, was the son and heir of 
John Habington, of Hindlip Castle, co. Worcester, cofferer to. 
Queen Elizabeth. At about the age of sixteen he became a 
commoner of Lincoln College, Oxford, where he remained 
three years. Afterwards he spent some years in the universities 
at Rheims and Paris, On his return to England he became,. 
like his father, a zealous partisan of the Queen of Scots, and 
connected himself with those who laboured to obtain her release. 
On this account, and for his recusancy, he was sent to the- 
Tower, where he was imprisoned for six years. It is said that 
had he not been Elizabeth's godson he would have lost his life. 
He was pardoned, however, and permitted to retire to Hindlip, 
which his father settled upon him at the time of his marriage 
with Mary, eldest daughter of Edward Parker, Baron Morley, 
by Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of vVilliam Stanley, Baron 
Monteagle. Lord l\lorley was one of the peers who sat in judg- 
ment upon the Queen of Scots. 
The laws against Catholics were now rigorously enforced, 
and it was at great peril that the services of a priest could be 
obtained. Hindlip is thought to have been erected by John 
Habington in 1572, as that date appeared in one of the parlours. 
His son determined that it should afford protection for the. 
persecuted priests. He added much to the mansion, and fur- 
nished it with most ingeniously contrived hiding-places, There 
was scarcely an apartment that had not secret ways of ingress 
and egress. Trap-doors communicated with staircases concealed 
in the walls, sliding-panels opened into places of retreat cleverly 
constructed in the chimneys, and some of the entrances, curiously 
covered over with bricks and mortar supported by wooden 
frames black with paint and soot, were actually contrived inside 
the chimneys. The situation of the house, too, upon the 
summit of the highest ground in the neighbourhood, with an 
unintercepted prospect on all sides, afforded peculiar facilities. 
for a timely observance of the approach of dangerous visitors.- 



RAB.] 


OF THE EKGLISH CATHOLICS. 


75 


N ash, on account of its uncommon construction both within 
and without, gives an engraving of Hindlip as it appeared 
shortly before it was pulled down. Such was the house which 
enabled Mr. Habington for many years to offer a comparatively 
secure refuge to priests and persecuted Catholics. 
Shortly after the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot, with which 
l\1r. Habington was not directly (if in any way) concerned, a 
proclamation was issued for the arrest of suspected traitors, and 
the facilities of Hindlip for concealment being well known to the 
government, directions were given for its examination. Sir 
Hen. Bromley, of Holt Castle, a neighbouring magistrate, was 
commissioned by the lords of the council to invest the house, 
and to search rigorously all the apartments. The magistrate 
surrounded Hindlip with over a hundred soldiers early on 
Sunday morning, Jan. 19, 1606. Fr. Oldcorne, who usually 
resided there, had persuaded Fr. Garnett to join him for better 
security. The two Jesuit lay-brothers, Nicholas Owen and 
Ralph Ashley, were also in the house. They had barely time 
to conceal themselves before the doors were broken open. Mr. 
Habington was from home on a visit to his kinsman, l':1r. Talbot, 
at Pepperhill, but returned on Monday evening. The search 
lasted for eleven nights and twelve days, until all four had been 
forced to come forth from their hiding-places through sheer 
exhaustion, otherwise they would not have been discovered. 
They were conveyed with l\lr. Habington, charged with conceal- 
ing them, to Worcester, three miles from Hindlip, whence they 
were forwarded to London and committed to the Tower. 
Owen died under torture upon the" Topcliff" rack. The rest 
were brought to the bar at the Lent assizes at vVorcester, and 
all four condemned to death. Mr. Habington, however, who 
was sentenced for harbouring Frs. Oldcorne and Garnett, was 
reprieved, owing it is said to the intercession of his father-in-law, 
Lord Morley. Mrs, Habington is credited with having written 
the letter warning her brother, Lord l\lonteagle, of the plot, and 
this, perhaps, weighed in her husband's favour. Tradition 
asserts that his pardon was accompanied with the injunction 
that he should not outstep the precincts of vVorcestershire. 
During the remainder of his life Mr. Ilabington devoted 
himself with great assiduity to the collection of materials for the 
history of Worcestershire. He surveyed it, says \Vood, "and 
made a collection of most of its antiquities from records, regis- 



ï6 


DIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[RAB. 


ters, evidences both public and private, monumental inscriptions 
and arms. Part of this book I have seen and perused, and find 
that every leaf is a sufficient testimony of his generous and 
virtuous mind, of his indefatigable industry and infinite reading." 
He died at Hindlip, Oct. 8, 1647, aged 87. 


Dodd, Ch. Hist., vol. ii. p. 422; Bliss, TVood's Athcllæ OX011., 
vol. iii. p. 222 ; Nash, Hist. of TVorcestcrshire, voL i. p. 585 ; Jar- 
di1le, GU1lpowdcr Plot
. l/1"orris, C01ldition of Catholics u1ldcr 
J as. I.
' Foley, Records SJ., vols. iii. iv.; Butler, His!. Mem., 
ed. 1822, vol. ii. pp. 176, 44 I. 


1. The Epistle of Gildas à Britain, entitled De Excidio et Con- 
questu Britanniæ. Lond. 1638. 12mo., with long preface addressed to the 
inhabitants of Britain. with portrait by Marshall; Lond. 1641, 12mo. 
This was translated during his imprisonment in the Tower. during which 
time it is said that he profited more by his studies than previously he had 
done. 
2. The Historie of Edward IV. of England. Lond.. T, Cotes, 1640, 
fo1., with portrait of Edward in a small escutcheon by Elstracke; reprinted 
in the first vol. of Kennett's Hist. of Eng. 
I n this he was assisted by his son \Villiam. It was written and published 
by desire of Charles I. 
3. The Antiquities of the Cathedral Churches of Chichester 
and Lichfield. Lond. 1717, 8vo.; reprinted under the title of .. The 
Antiquities of the Cathedral Church of \Vorcester: to which are added the 
Antiquities of the Cathedral Churches of Chichester and Lichfield':' Land. 
17 2 3, 8vo.; \Vorcester, pp. xxxV-240, index 8 pp. with title-page, and pref,tce 
and errata 2 pp.; Lichfield, pp. xlviii 62, ending with the catch-word" An." 
In his thin folio MS., from which the above was printed, Habington says 
that he gathered much of the history of the Bishops of \Vorcester from the 
collection of Thomas Talbot, the antiquary, second son of John Talbot, of 
Salisbury, co. Lane. Limping Talbot, as the antiquary was called on account 
of his lameness, obtained his materials from a ledger formerly belonging to 
the Priory of \Vorcester. 
4. The Antiquities and Survey of Worcestershire, MS., large 
folio, formerly in the custody of the Compton family. 
This formed the basis of the" Hist. of \Vorcestershire" by Dr. Nash. 
Babington's papers were purchased by Dr. Thomas for 20 guineas. Those 
relating to the cathedral were printed as in the previous note. After Dr. 
Thomas's death they came into the hands of Chas. Lyttleton, Bishop of 
Carlisle, who left them to the library of the Soc. of Antiquities. 
5. Portrait. engr. by Marshall, 12mo.. vide No. I. It is also in Nash's 
" W orcestershire,' as well as that of his wife. 


Habington, William, poet, was born at Hindlip on the 
very day of the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot, Nov. 5, 1605, 



HAB.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


77 


by which his father, Thomas Babington, narrowly escaped 
destruction on a false charge of having been connected with it. 
Be was educated in the English Jesuits' College at St. Omer, 
and afterwards continued his studies at Paris. On his return 
to England, he married Lucy, daughter of \Villiam Herbert, first 
Baron Pmvis, of Powis Castle, by Eleanor, daughter of Henry 
Percy, Earl of Northumberland. This lady was his" Castara," 
of whom Aubrey de V ere says that "no other woman has ever 
been so honourably celebrated in verse." 
The life of the poet glided quietly away, cheered by the 
society and affection of his Castara. He had no stormy 
passions to agitate him, and no unruly imagination to control or 
subdue. The stirring poìitical events, which shook the nation 
to its centre during the last years of his life, did not make him 
an active partisan. He submitted to the times, and is said not to 
have been unknown to Oliver Cromwell. He died at H indlip, 
Nov. 13,1645, aged 4 0 . 
His son Thomas succeeded to the manor of Hindlip and 
other estates, but dying without issue the family became extinct. 
In his will, dated June 9, 1721, he mentions his niece, Lucy How, 
and his kinsman, Sir vVm. Compton, to whom Hindlip passed. 
It has been remarked by Aubrey de Vere that Habingtcm's 
poems, which cluster round the name of Castara, relate to many 
subjects-Ie but the spirit of an elevated love is in them all, 
and constitutes their connecting link. The peculiar genius, 
uniting deep thought with an expansive imagination, which 
belonged to his age, is, in Habington's Castara, combined with 
a moral purity and true refinement not common in any age. 
Habington writes ever like a Christian and a gentleman, as 
well as like a poet, and few circumstances should teach us more 
to distrust the award of popular opinion than the obscurity in 
which his writings have so long remained." 
Dodd, Ch. Hist., vol. ii. p. 423, iii. p. 277 ; Nash, Hist. of 
IVorccst., vol. i. p. 585 scq.,. Chambers, Cyclop. of Eng. Lit., 
vol. i. p. 144; De Vere, .spccimcns of the Poets,. Payne, Ellg. 
Calk NOll-jllr()rs
' Allibollc, Crit. Diet., vol. i.; Nat. Encyclop., 
vol. vii. p. 78. 
I. Castara; a Collection of Poems. Lond. 1634, 4to.; 2nd edit., 
corrected and augmented, z pts., Lond, 1635, Izmo.; 3rd edit., corrected 
and augmented, 3 pts., Lond. 164-0, I ::!mo., pp. 228, with engr. frontis. by 
\,y. Marshall, title, preface, &c., II ff. ; new edit., "with a Preface and Notes 



7 8 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[RAB. 


by Chas. A. Elton, Bristol (1812), 12mo. ; also in Johnson and Chalmers' 
Eng. Poets, Southey's Early Brit. Poets, &c. 
In these poems he celebrates his wife. Part I. is entitled " The Mistress," 
prefaced by a prose description, and consists of verses addressed to her 
during his courtship. Part II., "The Friend," is preceded by a similar pre- 
face, and contains eight elegies on the death of his kinsman, the Hon. Geo, 
Talbot. Part III., "The Holy l\Ian," consists of paraphrases on the 
Psalms. In each part are included several copies of verses, a design after- 
wards adopted by Cowley. 
Aubrey de Vere's estimate of these poems is borne out by Sir S. Egerton 
Bridges CO( Cens. Lit.," viii.), who says-" They possess much elegance, much 
poetical fancy; and are almost everywhere tinged with a deep moral cast, 
which ought to have made their fame permanent. Indeed I cannot easily 
account for the neglect of them." Thomas Park says-U As an amatory poet 
he possesses more unaffected tenderness and delicacy of sentiment than 
either Carew or "Valler, with an elegance of versification very seldom inferior 
to his more favoured contemporaries." On the other hand, the Lon. Retrosþ. 
Rev., xii. 274-286, 1825, speaks of him as a middling poet of the worst 
school of poetry, possessed of the coldness without the smoothness of \Valler; 
with grace and feeling sacrificed to the utterance of clever or strange 
things; his amatory poetry without passion, his funeral elegies without grief, 
and his paraphrases of Scripture without the warmth or elevation of the 
original. Hallam (" Lit. Hist. of Europe U), whilst agreeing with all writers as 
to the purity, amiability, and nobility of Habington's sentiments, says that 
his poetry displays no great original power, "nor is it by any means exempt 
from the ordinary blemishes of hyperbolical compliment and far-fetched 
imagery." 
The poet himself says in his preface, that" if the innocency of a chaste 
muse be more acceptable and weigh heavier in the balance of esteem, than a 
fame begot in adultery of study, I doubt I shall leave no hope of competition." 
And of a pure attachment he says finely, that" when love builds upon the 
rock of chastity, it may safely contemn the battery of the waves and threaten- 
ings of the wind; since time, that makes a mockery of the firmest structures, 
shall itself be ruinated before that be demolished," 


" She her throne makes reason climb, 
\Vhile wild passions captive lie: 
And, each article of time, 
Her pure thoughts to heaven fly." 


') The Queene of Arragon; a Tragi-Comedie. Lond. 1640, fo!'; 
repro in Dodsley's CoIl. of Old Plays. 
Acted at the court of Charles I., and at Elackfriars, and published against 
the author's will. In 1664 it was revived, with the revival of the stage after 
the Restoration, when a new prologue and epilogue were furnished by Dutler, 
the author of Hudibras. According to the Retrosþ. Rev. (ubi slIþra), it 
possesses little that can be praised either in incident, character, or imagery. 
3. He assisted his father in the "Hist. of Edw. IV.," published at the 
express desire of Chas. 1., and probably gave it the florid style which \Vood 
says was thought to be more becoming a poetical than an historical subject. 



HAD.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


79 


4. Observations upon the Historie of Henry the Second's 
association of his eldest sonne to the regal throne. Land. 1641, 8vo. 
It is interspersed with political and moral reflections, similar to those 
introduced into the" Hist. of Edw, IV." 
Hackshott, Thomas, martyr, a native of Mursley, in 
Buckinghamshire, was apprehended whilst rescuing a priest, 
named Thomas Tichborne, from the hands of his keeper. It 
appears that Mr. Nicholas Tichborne heard that his relative 
was to be conducted from his prison to another place by a 
single officer, and Hackshott, who was a steady young man, 
volunteered to assist him in rescuing the priest, Planting him- 
self in the way he knocked the keeper down, and allowed the 
prisoner to escape, but was himself arrested through the 
officer's cries for help. The young man was dragged to the 
prison whence the priest had been brought, confined in a 
dungeon, and afflicted with various torments, all of which he 
endured with great fortitude. He was tried and condemned, 
and suffered with constancy at Tyburn, with Mr. Nicholas 
Tichborne, who was condemned for aiding and assisting in the 
rescue, Aug. 24, 160 I. 
Cltallo1ler, lIJé1Jloirs, ed. I 74 I, p. 399. 
Hadfield, Matthew Ellison, architect, eldest son of l\lr, 
Joseph Hadfield, and :Mary his wife, sister of l''Ir. Michael 
Ellison, agent for the Duke of Norfolk's Sheffield and Glossop 
estates, was born at Lees Hall, Glossop, Sept. 8, 18 I 2. He 
was sent with his cousin, 1'1r. 1'1. J. Ellison, who succeeded his 
father in the agency, to a Catholic academy conducted by l''Ir. 
Robinson at Woolton Grove, near Liverpool. At the age of 
fifteen he was placed with his uncle in the Norfolk Estate 
Office at Sheffield. 1\1r. Ellison, however, perceiving that his 
nephew had a decided talent for architecture, persuaded his 
father to article him, in 183 I, to Messrs. \Vood and Hirst, of 
Doncaster, a firm of high standing in the county, After three 
years, Mr. Hadfield went to London, and entered the office of 
Mr. P. F. Robinson, one of the architects who gained a pre- 
mium in the competition for the designs of the Houses of 
Parliament. These years of probation called forth all the self- 
reliant qualities of the young man, and when he returned to 
Sheffield, about 1837, he had acquired confidence and experi- 
ence to carryon business successfully on his own account. 
In 1838 he entered into partnership with his fellow-pupil 



80 


BIDLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAD. 


and friend, Mr. John Gray \Veightman, who at the time was 
engaged upon the plans of the Collegiate School, Sheffield. 
The young men threw themselves with great ardour into what 
is known as the Gothic revival, then exciting the best minds of 
the profession, and they measured and delineated many of the 
ancient ecclesiastical edifices of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. 
They had a special reputation for designs of churches and 
schools, of which they erected very many in all parts of the 
country, and in the west and south of Ireland their practice was 
also extensive. 
The early growth of the railway system furnished much 
employment to Mr. Hadfield's firm, and in association with 
Mr. John Fowler, the engineer, they designed the Gorton 
Depôt, and various stations and works on large sections of the 
Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway. 
In 1850 the firm took into partnership :Mr, George Goldie, 
and its style then became "\Veightman, Hadfield, and Goldie," 
The senior partner retired from professional life about 1858, 
1\1:r. Goldie commenced practice alone in London in 1861, and 
in 1864 l'1:r, Hadfield's only son, Charles, who had been edu- 
cated at Ushaw, and passed through the student's grade of the 
Royal Institute of British Architects, joined the firm, which has 
since been known as "M. E. Hadfield and Son." 
Mr. Hadfield was one of the earliest associates of the 
R,I.B.A., became a fellow in May, 1847, and served on the 
council during 1866-8. He also found time to take an active 
interest in Sheffield affairs, and from 1854 to 1857 was a 
member of the town council. About the same time he served 
upon the board of guardians, of which he held the position of 
vice-chairman. He was president of the School of Art from 
1877 to 1879 inclusive, and retained his seat in the council 
until his death. He was also one of the founders of the 
" Gentlemen's Club." 
lIe was an ardent Catholic, and interested himself very 
deeply in all that concerned the welfare of the Church. vVhen 
the distinguished Belgian philanthropist, l'1:gr. de Haerne, came 
to Sheffield, in 1869, to found his school for Catholic deaf- 
mutes, he found his most active co-operator in lVlr. Hadfield, 
who became its secretary and treasurer, and devoted much of 
his time to the interests of the institution. I t was in conse- 
quence of these services that in his last illness he obtained by 



HAD.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


81 


telegram from Cardinal J acobini the special favour of the 
apostolical benediction of Leo XIII. 
On May 10, 1839, Mr. Hadfield married Sarah, daughter of 
Mr. William Frith, of Sheffield, by whom he had a son, Charles, 
and three daughters. One of the latter is a nun of the Order 
of the Sacre Cæur at Brighton, and the others are sisters of 
charity in London. Mr. Hadfield's professional activity con- 
tinued until a few months before his death, which occurred at his 
residence, Knowle House, Sheffield, March 9, 1885, aged 72. 
In professional, as in private life, l\1r. Hadfield was always 
genial, tolerant, and large-hearted to those who differed from 
him, though well able to hold and express his opinions with 
weight. He was self-reliant in nature, and enthusiastic in his 
work. Of handsome presence, genial spirits, and cultivated 
talents, he made his own way in the world, rising to a high 
position in his profession, and taking a prominent though 
unassuming part in the concerns of the town of his adoption. 
Sheffield Daily Telcgrapll, IVlarch 10 and 13, 1885 ; jour1lal 
of Proceedings R.l,B.A., No. I I, p. 144; Rcport, St. johll's 
IJ1stitute for Dcaf and Dumb, for 1885, p. 9; Catn. Timcs, 
1\1 arch 27, I 8 8 5 . 


I. Mr. Hadfield's designs are too numerous to detail. In conjunction 
with Mr. \Veightman he designed the Catholic chapel at \Vorksop, erected at 
the cost of the Duke of Norfolk, in the pointed style of the Tudor period. 
The foundation-stone was laid Oct. 29, 1838 (OrtlLOdox Journal, vol. vii. 
P.31]). About the same period were built the churches at Carlton.1\Iasborough, 
New Mills, and Matlock-Bath, followed by others at Liverpool, Birkenhead, 
l\Ianchester, l\1iddlesborough, &c. Aug. \Velby Pugin, writing in 1842, paid 
Mr. Hadfield the compliment of describing and illustrating the chapel at 
Masborough, near Rotherham, in his" Review of the State of Ecclesiastical 
Architecture." In 1844 St. John's Cathedral, Salford, was commenced, one 
of the very first" revivals " of a large cruciform church with a central tower 
and spire. It is given by Eastlake (" Hist. of the Gothic Revival," chap. xiii.) 
as an instance, with an illustration, of one of the successful adaptations from 
old designs. In this case the tower and spire of Newark, the nave of 
Howden, and the choir of Selby were copied, not absolutely in proportion, 
but in detail. It was opened in 1848, and amongst contemporary critics 
elicited the admiration of Pugin. The disaffection which some critics were 
expressing as to copying too literally rather than deyeloping from ancient 
models, began soon to a!õsume a decided form in the pages of the Rambler, 
where may be seen, in its number for Sept. 1848, a view and description of 
St. John's. The articles of Mr, Capes in his review were so talented and 
convincing as to induce several architects to offer designs and suggestions 
for town churches in its pages. Mr. C. Parker, the author of "Villa Rustica," 
VOL. III. G 



82 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAG. 


Mr. VV. W. \Vardell, and Mr. Hadfield, were of this number, the latter con- 
tributing a design in the Byzantine style to the Jan, number, vol. v. 1850, 
p. II. This elicited a characteristic pamphlet from the pen of Aug. vVelby 
Pugin, entitled "Remarks on the Articles in the Rambler," which gives a 
lively insight of the progress of the revival. In it, Mr. Hadfield's round 
arched design came in for an unmerciful scathing, and expressions, more 
direct than elegant, testify to the wrong-doing of a friendly rival who could 
dream of deserting the pointed arch. Mr, Hadfield had just visited Germany, 
and had been struck by the fine Romanesque church architecture of the 
Rhine provinces. His design in the Rambler was afterwards carried out 
with some modification in St, Mary's, Mulberry St., Manchester, but the 
English Gothic of the. 14th century remained after all Mr. Hadfield's chosen 
style, as instanced in St. Mary's, Burnley, commenced in 1845, which is 
described and illustrated in the Weekly Register, vol. i., Dec. I, 1849, 
p. 280, and still more in his dzg d'æuvre, St. Mary's, Sheffield, commenced 
in 1846 and opened in 1850, which was fully described, with an illustration 
and ground plan, in the Sheffield Times of Sept. 14, 1850. The two latter 
churches are referred to by Eastlake in his" Hist. of the Gothic Revival," 1870. 
Another small chapel, dedicated to St. Benedict, Kemmerton, Gloucester- 
shire, designed by Messrs. vVeightman and Hadfield, is illustrated in The 
Weekly and flIollthly Orthodox, vol. i. p. 409, June 2, 1849. One of the 
latest works to which Mr. Hadfield gave serious attention was the Sheffield 
Corn Exchange, described and illustrated in The Architect, July, 1882. It is 
a large and richly executed building in the Tudor style, comprehending an 
hotel, the Norfolk Estate Office, and other offices and chambers with shops 
underneath, so planned as to enclose a central glazed court, the Corn Market 
itself. 
Haggerston, John, captain, wa
 the eldest son of Sir 
Thomas Haggerston, of Haggerston Castle, co. Northumber- 
land, Hart., by Alice, daughter and heiress of Henry Banister, 
of Bank, co. Lancaster, Esq. He was slain in Lancashire, 
fighting for his king during the civil wars. His youngest 
brother, a lieut.-colonel, lost his life at Preston in the same 
cause. 
Sir Thomas Haggerston, the representative of one of the 
oldest families in the north, was colonel of a regiment of horse 
and foot in the service of Charles I:, and was created a baronet 
Aug, 15, 1643. He was succeeded by his second son and 
namesake, who married, first, Margaret, daughter of Sir Francis 
Howard, of Corby Castle, Cumberland, third son of Lord 
William Howard, of N aworth, known as" Belted Will," by 
whom he had nine sons and a daughter; and, secondly, Jane, 
daughter and heiress of Sir \Villiam Carnaby, by whom he had no 
issue. Of the sons of the second baronet, the eldest, Thomas, 
who was educated at the English College, Rome, fell in the service 



HAG.] 


OF THE EKGLISH CATHOLICS. 


83 


of James II. in Ireland; William, married Anne, daughter af,ld 
ultimately heiress of Sir Philip Constable, of Everingham, Bart., 
and had, besides three daughters, of whom the third, Anne, was 
the wife of Bryan Salvin, of Croxdale, co. Durham, Esq., a son, 
Sir Carnaby, of whom hereafter; Henry, a Jesuit, died in the 
Durham District in 17 14, aged 56; John, a Jesuit, like his 
brother used the alias of Howard, and died in the same District 
in 1726, aged 65 ; and Francis, a Benedictine, assumed the 
l"eligious name of Placid, and died at Douay in 17 I 6. 
\Villiam's two eldest daughters became Benedictines at Pon- 
toise, one of them being elected Abbess of the convent in 
1753. His son, Sir Carnaby, succeeded his grandfather as 
third baronet, and married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of 
Peter l\1iddleton, of Stockeld Park and Myddelton Lodge, co. 
York, Esq. The eldest son of this marriage was Sir Thomas 
Haggerston, 4th Bart., who married Mary, daughter of George 
Silvertop, of Minsteracres, co. Northumberland, Esq., and, dying 
in 1777, was succeeded by Sir Carnaby H aggerston, 5 th Bart., 
on whose death, in 183 I, without male issue (his only daughter 
having married Sir Thomas Stanley, of Hooton, co. Cheshire, 
Bart.), the baronetcy passed through his nephews, and is now 
vested in Sir John de 1'1arie Haggerston, 9th Bart., of Ellingham, 
co, Northumberland. 
The third baronet's second son, William, assumed the name 
of Constable, and, as briefly shown under the notice of his third 
son, Charles Stanley Constable, was the lineal ancestor of the 
present Lord Herries, Charles :Marmaduke Middleton, of l\lyd- 
delton, and Stockeld Park, Esq., and Thomas Constable, of 
Manor House, Otley, co. York, Esq. 
Castlemaill,Catll.Apology,.Dola1l, TVeldon'sCltrOll. Notcs; 
Foley, Rccords SJ., vols. vi. and vii.; Kirk, Biog. Collect., filS., 
No. 47 ; Letters to tlte Editor, from Thos. COllstable, Esq, 
I. There was formerly a fine library at Haggerston, but it was destroyed 
when the castle was burnt, Feb. 19, 1687. At that time, Sir Thomas 
Haggerston, the second Bart., was Governor of Berwick Castle. He lost 
most of his writings, and sustained above [,6000 damage, narrowly escaping 
himself with his wife and family. 
As an instance of how the old Catholic families held together before the 
penal laws were removed, it may be noted that three generations proved 
sufficient to unite in the descendants of a younger son of the Haggerstons 
the blood and estates of the three ancient families of Constable, l\liddleton, 
and Maxwell. And as regards blood, the family picture of Lady \Vinifriù 
G2 



84 


nIDLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAl. 


Maxwell, the wife of \Villiam Haggerston Constable, is painted as holding in 
her hand, or presenting, a red and a white rose, to commemorate that her 
husband had in his veins, through his mother and his grandmother. a union 
of the blood of the houses of Lancaster and York that had so long been 
hostile to each other. For the l\Iiddleton pedigree shows that Elizabeth, one 
of the two daughters, and ultimately, on the deaths of Kings Henry IV., V., 
and VI., one of the coheirs of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, had by her 
husband, the duke of Holland, a son, whose daughter, Anne Holland, 
married the second earl of \Vestmoreland, whose descendant, the 6th earl, 
being attainted for his rising against Queen Elizabeth in 1571, died in 1601 
without leaving male issue. One of his three daughters and coheiresses. 
married David Ingleby, son of Sir \Villiam Ingleby, of Ripley, and one of the 
three daughters and coheiresses of this David Ingleby married Sir Peter 
::\Iiddleton, the direct lineal ancestor of the mother of \\ïlliam Haggerston 
Constable. Moreover, it is shown by the Constable pedigree that Anne, 
eldest daughter of Richard, duke of York, and eldest sister of King Edward 
IV. and King Richard 111., and widow of Henry Holland, duke of Exeter, 
who died without issue, married as her second husband Sir Thomas St. 
.Leger, and that there was issue of this marriage an only daughter, Anna, who 
married George 1\Ianners, Lord Roos, and that Catherine, one of the 
daughters of this marriage, married Sir Robert Constable, eldest son of Sir 
:\Iarmaduke Constable, who married the heiress of Everingham, and was. 
lineal ancestor of \Yilliam Haggerston Constable's grandmother, wife of his 
grandfather, \\ïlliam Haggerston 
The Haggerstons were not authors, but Sir Carnaby, the 5th Bart., who 
was one of the heirs to the barony of UmfraviH, appears as a patron of 
literature. In the" Poems" published by Capt. Charles James in 1792, is a 
pastoral, written at school in 1775, saluting Sir Carnaby as the patron of the 
poet. He addresses elegies to him, and dedicates the poetic epistle, " Petrarch 
to Laura," to Lady Haggerston. 
An interesting account of the family's connection with the Constables will 
be found in "Everingham in the Olden Time; A Lecture by Lord Herries, 
delivered in the Yillage School-room, Christmas
 1885. Published for the 
benetìt of the 1\1arket-\Veighton Reformatory School," Market-\Veighton
 
1886, 8vo. pp. 20. 
Haigh, Daniel Henry, priest, son of George Haigh, calico- 
printer, of Brinscall Hall, \Vheelton, in the parish of Leyland, 
co. Lancaster, was born there Aug. 7, 1819. His father, who 
came from H uddersfield, died when he was but a child, and his 
mother when he was only sixteen. He consequently found 
himself at that early age in the responsibility which belonged 
to the eldest of three orphan boys, who had come, in equal 
proportions, into the possession of a large fortune. \Vhen the 
time came to choose a career, he hesitated between the demands 
of trade, which in the interests of his brothers it seemed he 
ought to pursue, his own inclination towards the profession of 
an architect, and the desire of serving God in His ministry. 



HAL] 


OF THE EKGLISH CATHOLICS. 


85 


After pursuing trade for a time in Leeds, he resolved to join 
the ministry of the Anglican Church, and prepared to dcvote 
fortune and a life's service to the cause he embraced. \Vith 
this view he took up his residence with the clergymen of St. 
Saviour's Church, Leeds, to which, or to the schools connected 
with it, or to both, he contributed a considerable sum. Having 
heard from the pulpit a sermon of a kind not uncommon since 
the tractarian movement, in which the preacher, in spite of his 
place and ministry, found himself bound to teach Catholic 
doctrine, rVIr, Haigh was agitated by the incongruity. Finding 
'the preacher quite convinced of the doctrine, he resolved that 
very night, after long discussion-with that peculiar strength of 
determination which distinguished him-to seek truth at the 
fountain-head. His own determination, and the arguments with 
which it was supported, drew after him the four clergymen of 
St. Saviour's, and he and they were all shortly after advanced 
to the priesthood. l\Ir. Haigh himself ascribed his con vcrs ion 
to the writings of St, Bede. 
Proceeding to St. l\'Iary's College, Oscott, he was received 
into the Catholic Church, Jan. 1,1847. Kine days later he was 
'Confirmed, received the tonsure on l\larch 3 I, minor orders, 
April 3, the sub-diaconate, Dec, 18, the diaconate, l\Iarch 18, 
1848, and the priesthood, April 8. No sooner was he ordained 
priest than he laid the foundation-stone of a new church at 
Erdington, near Birmingham, on the feast of St. Augustine, 
apostle of England, 1848, which he erected at his own expense. It 
cost about J; 12,000, and was endowed with about J; 3000 more. 
The architect was 1'1r. Charles Hansom, and the beauty of the 
.Gothic edifice, which was the result of his and its founder's 
combined taste, has given it a place among the most famous 
specimens of the revival of Gothic architecture in England. It 
was consecrated by Bishop Ullathorne on the feast of St. 
Barnabas, 1850, and in 1876 it was furnished with a pcal of 
-eight bells. 
In a very unpretentious house by the church, ß-Ir. Haigh 
liveD till the year 1876, dividing his substance, \vhich had grown 
very small, with a family of orphans, whom he gathered about 
him and kept under his own roof. Their number was usually 
about twelve, and one of his last works before leaving Erd- 
ington was to find new homes for these recipients of his 
-Christian love. 



86 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIOKARY 


[HAl. 


J list before he retired from his mission, his long entertained 
desire that a religious community should succeed and perfect his. 
work was accomplished. A band of Benedictines of the German 
Congregation, exiles for conscience sake, took off his shoulders 
the burden of his labours. They erected a priory, dedicated to 
SS. Thomas and Edmund of Canterbury, and opened a grammar 
school at Erdington, in which both boarders and day-scholars . 
are received. 
His health was now in a declining state, and he suffered 
greatly from chronic bronchitis. He accepted an invitation to 
take up his residence at Oscott College, within a short walk of 
his own church, where he spent the two last years of his life, 
dying there, May 10, IS 79, in his 60th year. 
l''Ir. Haigh was a man of great intellectual depth and culture. 
He was a patron, as far as his opportunities extended, of every 
branch of learning; but his own bias was always towards the 
study of the past. He was a sound Anglo-Saxon scholar, and 
deeply versed in Anglo-Saxon antiquities. Another subject 
which he pursued as an aid to his historic studies was the science 
of numismatics. He was, moreover, a biblical archæologist of 
great standing. From the time of his conversion he had set 
before himself as a literary object the illustration of the Sacred 
Scriptures, with the determination to use whatever talent he 
might possess to that end. For this purpose he made himself 
deeply learned in Assyrian and Egyptian lore, and has the 
singular merit of pointing out to Egyptologists the occurrence 
of the name of Jerusalem in Egyptian records. The apparent 
absence of this name had beén a puzzle and a hindrance to the 
prosecution of research till Mr. Haigh made the discovery. But 
even greater than his Oriental know ledge was his command of 
Runic literature, on which subject he was the chief authority in 
England. 
Relics of the past, especially if they connected themselves. 
with the history of the Bible or the Church, were to him as 
books in secret characters. If patient research did not succeed 
in clearing up their meaning, his intimate knowledge of earlier 
times, and his instinctive sympathy with bygone ages, were apt 
to beguile him into filling up the gap with a theory; and his 
theory once formed, was abandoned only with a pang, But in 
.spite of his love of the past, he was no mere antiquary; he- 
lived with his whole heart in the present, and was ever ready to 



HAl.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLiCS. 


87 


devote himself unsparingly to the good of his neighbour, even 
if it were a question of only the most trifling obligation of social 
life. The time he spent in pleasing another, though only a child, 
he accounted gain, not loss. 
Rev. S. H. Sole, The Tablet, vol. liii. p. 659 ; Catholic Timcs, 
:M:ay 30, 1879, p. 2 ; Rambler, vol. vi. p. 90. 
I. An Essay on the Numismatic History of the ancient kingdom 
of the East Angles. By D. H. Haigh. Leeds. Green, 1845, cr. 8vo" 
ded. to AquiIla Smith, Esq., M.D., M.R.I.A., pp. viii-22, and 5 plates. 
2. On the Fragments of Crosses discovered at Leeds in 1838. 
Leeds, 1857, 8\'0. 
3. The Conquest of Britain by the Saxons; a harmony of the 
" Historia Britonum," the writings of Gildas, the" Brut," and the 
Saxon Chronicle, with reference to the events of the Fifth and 
Sixth Centuries. Lond., Russell Smith, 1861, 8vo. pp. xvi-367. 
4. The Anglo-Saxon Sagas; an Examination of their Value as 
Aids to History; a sequel to the "History of the Conquest of 
Britain by the Saxons." Lond" Russell Smith, 1861, 8vo. pp. xi-178. 
. 5. Miscellaneous Notes on the Old English Coinage. Lond. 
1869. 8vo. 
6. The Runic Monuments of Northumberland. Leeds, Baines, 
1870, 8vo., a paper read at the meeting of the Geological and Polytechnic 
Soc. of the \Vest Riding of Yorkshire at Sheffield, April 29, 1870. 
7, Coincidonæ of the History of Egra, with the first part of the 
History of Nehemiah, Lond. 1873, 8vo. 
8. The Compensation paid by the Kentish Men to Ine for the 
burning of Mul. Lond. 1875, 8vo. 
9. Comparison of the earliest Inscribed Monuments of Britain 
and Ireland. Dublin, 1879, 8vo. 
10. His contributions to archæological journals, home and foreign, some 
of which appeared at Copenhagen and Leipsic, were mostly reprinted privately 
without date :- 
" \Vhere was Cambodunum ?" Yorkshire Archæological Journal, 15 pp. 
" On Runic Inscriptions discovered at Thornhill," ibid. 40 pp. 
" Caer Ebraue, the first city of Britain," ibid, 12 pp. 
"The Monasteries of S. Hein and S. Hild," ibid. 43 pp, 
" Coins of Alfred the Great," Numismatic Chronicle, N .S., vol. x. 2 I pp., 
7 plates. 
" On the J ute, Angle, and Saxon Royal Pedigrees," Archæologia Cantiana, 
vol. viii. 32 pp, 
"The Coins of the Danish Kings of Northumberland," Archæologia 
CEliana, vol. vii. 57 pp. 7 plates. 
.. Yorkshire Dials;' Yorkshire Archæological Journal, pp, 93. 
"On the Dedication Stone of the Church of St. Mary, in Castlegate." 
Yorkshire Philosophical Soc., 1870. 
II. In a great work on Runic remains, issued from Copenhagen, that 
portion which deals with Runic inscriptions in the British Isles is due and 
ascribed to him with full acknowledgment. 



88 


BIBLIOGRArHICAL DICTIOJS'ARY 


[HAL. 


Hale, John, priest and martyr, beatified by papal decree of 
the feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, Dec, 29, 1886, became 
rector of Chelmsford, Essex, in 1492. On Aug. 13, 1521, he 
was inducted into the vicarage of Isleworth, at that time called 
Thistleworth, l\Iiddlesex, upon the resignation of the former 
vicar. He is said to have been a learned man, and to have 
spent his life in piety and holiness. He was endowed with 
great firmness, and courageously denounced the iniquitous 
proceedings of Henry VIII. The strength of his indignation 
led him to use the most forcible language at his command to 
stimulate the people to resist the arbitrary and unconstitutional 
action of the king, This he admitted at his trial. He was 
arraigned on April 29, 1535, on the same day with Richard 
Reynolds, a monk of Sion House, and the three Carthusian priors, 
John Houghton, Augustine \Vebster, and Robert Laurence, who 
were indicted for" that traitorously machinating to deprive the 
king of his title as Supreme Head of the Church of England, 
they did, on the 26th of April, at the Tower of London, openly 
declare and say-' The King, our Sovereign Lord, is not Supreme 
Head on .earth of the Church of England.' I! They were all 
drawn on hurdles from the Tower to Tyburn, where they were 
hanged, drawn, and quartered in the most barbarous manner, 
IVlay 4,1535. 
1110rris, Troubles, First Scrics; Cuddoll, Brit. filartyrology, ed. 
18 3 6 , p. 13; Lewis, Sallders' Allgl. Schism; Lingard, His!. of 
Ellg., ed. 1849, \"01. v. p. 39. 


Hales, Sir Edward, baronet, of Woodchurch, in Kent, was 
the son of Sir Edward Hales, who risked his person and estate 
in an attempt to rescue Charles 1. from his confinement in the 
Isle of \Vight. He was brought up a Protestant, and educated 
at Oxford under the care of Obadiah vValker, by whom he was 
convinced of the truth of Catholicity, but did not openly avow 
his conversion until the reign of James II. afforded him a favour- 
able opportunity of putting his religion into practice, when he 
was publicly admitted into the Church, Nov. 1 I, 1685. 
In the following spring the king decided to bring a test case 
of his power of dispensing Catholic officers in the army from 
the penalties to which they were liable by the statute of 25th 
Charles I I", and enabling them to hold their commissions, "any 
clause in any Act of Parliament notwithstanding.1! Sir Edward 



HAL,] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


89 


Hales was given a commission of colonel of a regiment of foot, 
which he accepted without having previously qualified according 
to the provisions of the Test Act by taking the oaths of supre- 
macy and allegiance. Arthur Godden, Sir Edward's coachman, 
then received instructions to prosecute his master for the penalty 
of L 500, due to the informer under the Act, Sir Edward 
pleaded a dispensation under the great seal, and the cause was 
heard in the court of King's Bench before twelve judges. 
Herbert, the Lord Chief Justice, presided. He was a lawyer 
whose upright and blameless conduct was calculated to give 
weight to a judicial decision. After consultation with his 
brethren, of whom only one dissented, Street, a judge of very 
indifferent reputation, the court gave judgment in favour of the 
defendant, on June 21. It declared it was part of the sove- 
reign's prerogative to dispense with penal laws in particular 
cases and upon necessary reasons, of which he was the sole 
judge. This decision gave great dissatisfaction to the Protestant 
party, and was one of the chief causes of the king's fall. 
Sir Edward was also appointed a member of the Privy 
Council, a lord of the Admiralty, deputy governor of the 
Cinque Ports, and lieutenant of the Tower of London. vVhen 
the revolution broke out, he was committed prisoner to the 
T ower, Dec. I I, 1688, where he was confined for about a year 
and a half, being ultimately released upon bail. He then left 
England, and landed at Cherbourg, Oct. I, 1690, whence he 
proceeded to the court at St. Germain. There he appears to 
have attended the king more as a friend than a statesman. 
The dethroned monarch, in consideration of his past services, 
created him Earl of Tenterden, with limitations to his brothers, 
John and Charles. He soon, however, wearied of living in 
banishment, and in 1694 applied to the Earl of Shrewsbury for 
a licence to return to England, but died without obtaining it, in 
the following year. 
The last few years of his life were chiefly spent in prepara- 
tion for a future state. He was scrupulously just in his 
dealings, regular in his habits, and remarkably charitable to 
those in distress. By the schedule annexed to his will, dated 
July, 16 95, he bequeathed L 5000 to be disposed of according 
to his private instructions given to Bishop Bonaventure Giffard 
and Dr. Thomas vVitham. He was buried in the church of 
St. Sulpice at Paris. 



9 0 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAL. 


By his wife Frances, daughter of Sir Francis Windebank, of 
Oxon., Knt., he had five sons and seven daughters. His eldest 
son was slain in the service of his sovereign, James II., at the 
battle of the Boyne. One of his daughters, Anne, became a 
religious in the English Augustinian convent at Paris. 
Dodd, Ch. His!" vol. iii.; LÙzgard, His!. of E,Zg., ed. 1849, 
vol. x. p. 207 ; Butler, Hist. llIc11l0il's, ed. 1822, vol. iii. p. 94 ; 
BcrÙzgtoll, lVlemoirs of Pmz::a1zz: p. 346; Burkc, Extillct 
Baronetage, 
I. Sir Edward left in 1\15. a journal of his life, which Dodd used in his 
"Church Hist.," vide vol. iii. pp. 421, 422, 451, &c. 
2. "A short Account of the Authorities in Law, upon which Judgment was 
given in Sir Edward Hales's Case," Lond. 1688, 4to.; id. 1689; see Bp, 
\Vm. Nicolson's Eng. Rist. Lib., ed. 1776, p. 159, and Sir J. Mackintosh's 
\Vorks, ii. pp. 64, 70, 76 and 87. 
This work elicited from \Vm. Atwood, an English barrister and Chief 
Justice of N ew York, "The Lord Chief Justice Herbert's account examined, 
&c.," Lond. 1689, 4to. Sir Robert Atkyns, Lord Chief Baron of the Ex- 
chequer, wrote "An Enquiry into the Power of dispensing with Penal 
Statutes, &c.," Lond. 1689, 4to., republished in "Parliamentary and Political 
Tracts," Lond. 1734, 2nd ed. 1741, which sums up the whole history of dis- 
pensations and denies their antiquity. He also published a reply to Chief 
Justice Herbert's review of the authorities in Hales's case, which raised the 
question of the dispensing power (see both tracts, II. State Tracts, 1200). 
Hall, John, a gentleman of estate, was executed at Tyburn, 
Nov. 28, I 572, for joining the northern rising in defence of the 
ancient faith and the rights of the people. 
Dodd, CIz, His!., vol. ii.; Stow, Cltroll., p. 673. 
Hall, John, D.D., a native of Preston or its immediate 
neighbourhood, in the county of Lancaster, was born in 1796. 
He was educated at Ushaw College, where hc was ordained 
priest in 182 I. On April 17, in that year, he commenced his 
labours in a small chapel dedicated to St. l\lichael, in Chester 
Road, IVlacc1esfield, co. Chester, which the Catholics of the 
town had just erected. A room partitioned off from the chapel 
served for his residence. The congregation at that time num- 
bered about 300. Previous to this, Macclesfield was served by 
the Rev. Rowland Broomhead from 1'1anchester, and at an 
earlier period the Catholics there were attended by the chap- 
lain at Sutton Hall, in the township of Prestbury, a seat of the 
lkllasys family, Viscounts Falconberg. 
Besides attending to his duties at 1\1acc1esfie1d he found. 



HAL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


9 I 


time to found a mission in the neighbouring town of Congleton. 
On Dec. 2 I, 182 I, he conducted a service in the kitchen of 
the only Catholic housekeeper in that town, Afterwards he 
said l'iass for about four years in a club-room in a building 
then known as the Angel Hotel, doing double duty each Sun- 
day between Macclesfield and Congleton. In 1825-6 he 
designed and erected the present chapel of St.lVlary at Congle- 
ton, with the schools underneath, and continued to serve the 
mission as before until the end of 1827. The Rev. Philip 
Orrell W2.S then appointed to Congleton, but as he only re- 
mained six months, the duty again fell upon Mr. Halt until 
l\Iay, 1830. He next directed his attention to Bollington, and 
on June 13 of the latter year he engaged two cottages there, 
and had them altered so as to serve the purpose both of chapel 
and schools. He soon drew together a congregation number- 
ing close upon 200, and at length, in 1834, succeeded in rais- 
ing the chapel of St. Gregory, the site having been generously 
given by a Protestant gentleman of the locality, l'Ir, Turner, 
of Shrigley Park. In addition to his duties of pastor, thus 
multiplied threefold, he for many years supplied the towns of 
l\Iiddlewich, Sandbach, Northwich, Knutsford, and \Vilmslow, 
his labours covering a circuit of nearly seventy miles. In 
1839 he commenced the erection of the present handsome 
church, dedicated to St. Alban, in Chester Road, Macclesfield, 
designed by the elder Pugin, and in 184 I it was opened. His 
often-expressed wish was that he might be spared to payoff 
the debt of the church, and this he achieved within about two 
months of his death. 
On the completion of his 25th year in 1'1acclesfield, in 1846, 
the congregation presented him with a mark of their esteem 
in the shape of a purse containing ;[82, which he appropriated 
to the purchase of a stained-glass window in the Lady chapel of 
St. Alban's. In 1852 Pius IX., in recognition of his zeal and 
exemplary qualities, conferred on l\Ir. Hall the degree of D.D. 
\\Then he attained the 50th year of his priesthood, in April, 
187 I, his jubilee was made the occasion of a public banquet
 
at which a presentation of 150 guineas was made to him in 
the presence of the mayor and other influential gentlemen of 
the town, the Bishop of Shrewsbury, and a large assembly of 
clergy from a distance. Congratulatory addresses were read 
from the Catholics of Macclesfield, and citizens of Dublin and 



'9 2 


BIDLIOGRAPIIICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAL. 


Philadelphia who were formerly members of his congregation. 
A further mark of personal respect was shown to him, when 
the mayor, T. U. Brocklehurst, Esq., a Unitarian, subsequently 
M.P. for the borough, went over to Rome to consult his 
Holiness, through the president of the English College there, 
as to the kind of gift which would be most appropriate to the 
aged clergyman. Pius IX. suggested a missal and a set of 
vestments. The suggestion was fully carried out by l\Ir. 
Brocklehurst, who purchased most costly vestments and an 
illuminated missal in Rome, and presented them at a public 
banquet given to Dr. Hall in Macclesfield, in Oct. 1874. 
Dr. Hall was V.G. to the Bishop of Shrewsbury and provost 
of the Cathedral chapter. He was a member of the l''Iaccles- 
field School Board from the time of its establishment until his 
death, which occurred suddenly, on Sunday morning, Oct. I, 
1876, in his 8 I st year. 
He was possessed of great patience and perseverance, and 
in his younger days his energy and industry were of a marked 
character. The love and esteem entertained for him by the 
members of his own flock-consisting at the time of his death 
of about 3000-have seldom been surpassed in the relations 
between pastor and people. The fact that for nearly twenty 
years the Doctor was afflicted with blindness-the culmii1ation 
of a weakness of vision, which at length resulted in an almost 
total eclipse-no doubt strengthened the bond of sympathy 
with his congregation. \Vith the inhabitants generally he was 
recognized as a useful, hard-working, and amiable Christian 
pastor, anxious to live in brotherhood and peace with all the 
denominations in the town, and whose difference or antagonism 
of religious belief was never aggressively obtruded as a 
stumbling-block in the way of co-operation in objects for the 
well-being of the community. 
Lynch, Hall lllelllorial,. Tablet, vol. xlviii. pp. 4 6 8, 501 ; 
Calh. Times, Oct. 6 and 20, 1876. 
I. "The Hall Memorial, Macclesfield, In Memoriam = The Very Rev. 
John Provost Hall, D.D., of St. Alban's, Macclesfie1d. Designed by :;\Ir. J. 
F. A. Lynch," Manchester (1877), fo1., 6 pp., reprinted from the Britislt 
Architect and Northcrlt ElzgÏ1zcer, l\Iarch 2, 1877. with a memoir and an 
illustration of Dr. Hall's monument. 


Hall, Richard, D.D., probably a member of the family of 
Hall, of Greatford, co. Lincoln, was matriculated as a member 



HAL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


93 


of Clare Hall, Cambridge, in Nov. 1552. Thence he migrated 
to Christ's College, where he proceeded B.A. in I 5 5 5-6, In 
the latter year he was elected a fellow of Pembroke Hall, and 
in I 559 he commenced l"LA. 
From remarks passed in his" Life and Death of the renowned 
John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester," it is apparent that during 
the reign of l''Iary, Hall was so intimate with the leading 
Catholics as to dine with the chancellor (the Bishop of \Vin- 
chester), and other lords of the council. It is also clear that he 
wrote this "Life" before his withdrawal from England, and 
probably finished it about 1559. In an early year of Eliza- 
beth's reign he retired to the Continent to avoid persecution. 
He went first to Belgium, then to Rome, and there completed 
his theological studies, and took the degree of doctor in 
theology. Returning to Flanders in 1570, he was for some 
time professor and regent of the college of Marchiennes in 
the University of Douay. At the solicitation of Dr. Allen, he 
willingly sacrificed his position to assist the recently established 
. English College at Douay. There he took up his residence, 
Dec. 14, I 576, and laboured for many years as professor of 
Holy Scripture. About the same period he was made a canon 
of St. Gery's, in Cambray. His zeal and learning had now 
become so widely known that the Bishop of St. Omer invited 
him to accept a canonry in his cathedral, and also appointed 
him official of the diocese. These latter offices he held till his 
death, which occurred at St. Orner, Feb. 26, 1603-4. 
On the south side of the rood-loft in the cathedral of St. Omer 
is this inscription :-" Dominus Richardus Hallus, Anglus, Sacrae 
Theol. Doctor, hujus Eccl. Can. Officialis. Obiit xxvi, Feb. 1604." 
Dr. Hall is always mentioned in the Douay Diaries with the 
deepest respect. He was naturally of a retiring disposition, 
and rather reserved in conversation. He was an excellent 
casuist, and a zealous promoter of ecclesiastical discipline. Pitts, 
the literary historian, made his acquaintance at Douay in I 580, 
and frequently heard him lecture in Latin and preach both in 
French and English. He mentions his great piety, charity, 
and kindness, and the universal esteem in which he was held. 
Dodd, Clt." Hist., vol. ii. p. 70 ; Doltay Diaries,. Coopcr, AtlteJlæ 
Call1ab., vol. ii.; Pitts, De fllus. Angl. Script., p. 802; Bliss, 
IVood's A tltellæ OXOll., vol. ii. p. 528; Bridgett, Life of lite Blessed 
Joltn Fislter. 



94 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAL. 


I. The Life of John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, MS. (circa 1559). 
This work was left in MS. by the author, after whose death it was deposited 
in the library of the English Benedictines at Dieulward, in Lorraine. Several 
copies of it exist, either written by Hall himself or by transcribers, and, after 
careful comparison, Fr, T. E. Bridgett, C.SS.R., arrives at the conclusion 
that the original work must have been written in or before 1559, and also in 
England, where Fisher's contemporaries were still alive, and the author could 
have access to documents. "There is," he says, "little variation between the 
MSS. - In none of them is there any reference to any event of Elizabeth's 
reign, beyond the mere fact of the country's relapse into heresy, and this is 
an addition. The latest author quoted in praise of Fisher is Cardinal Hosius, 
who wrote against Brentius in the time of Queen Mary." 
The principal transcripts of the work are in the Brit. Museum-Arundel 
MS. No. 152; Harl, MSS. 250 (imperfect), 6382,6896, 7047 (by H. \Vanley, 
from the Arundel MS. ?), 7049 (a vol. of Baker's Collections, commencing at 
f. 137, transcribed from a copy then in possession of John Anstis, on which 
Eaker has written, "this is taken from the best copy that I have seen, that at 
Caius College is not so perfect"); Lansdowne MS. 423 (a copy in an Italian 
hand of the beginning of the 18th century, from a MS. stated to have 
been then in the library of the Earl of Cardigan at Deene); and Add. MSS. 
1705, 1898 (Bibl. Sloan). At Caius College, Cambridge. is MS. 195, and at 
Stonyhurst College is an excellent MS., of which a copy is at St. Mary's, 
Clapham. 
\Vood (" Athenæ Oxon.," ed. 1691. i. 487) says," I have seen a MS. contain- 
ing the said Bishop's [Fisher's] Life, beginning thus, 'Est in Eboracensi 
comitatu, octogesimo a Londino lapide ad aquilonem Bevcrleiæ oppidum, &c.,' 
but who the author was I cannot tell; 'twas written before Hall's time, and 
'tis not unlikely but that he had seen it." 
In the middle of the 17th century a copy of the MS. fell into the hands of 
Dr. Thomas Bailey, as described vol. i. p. 104. and it was published under 
the title, " The Life and Death of that renowned John Fisher, &c.," Lond. 
1655, 12mo" with portrait of Fisher by R. Vaughan, title I f.. ded. "To 
my honoured kinsman Mr. John Questall, merchant in Antwerp," signed T. B., 
2 ff., pp. 261; 2nd edit., Land., Coxeter, 1739, 12mo., with portrait; 3rd 
edit., Lond., P. Meighan, 1740, 12mo., with portrait, R. Parr, sc., title 1 f., 
ded. 2 ff., pp, 267, including a copy of Henry VUL's will in English 
instead of the Latin extract given by Bailey; Lond. 1835, 12mo. 
Bailey introduced what he doubtless considered improvements, but in 
reality his inflated metaphors brought Hall's narrative into unmerited disre- 
pute. Fr. Bridgett is now engaged with a work which will show the un- 
exceptionable character of the original" Life of Fisher." 
2. De Schismate sive de Ecclesiasticæ Unitatis Divisione, 
Liber Unus, Lovanii, 1573, 8vo.; Duaci, 1603, 8vo. 
This work, edited with a preface by Dr. Hall, was written by Dr. John 
Young, master of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, and vice-chancellor of the 
university, who was then confined in the Wood Street compter, and is said 
to have died in prison at \Visbeach in 1580. 
3. Opuscula quædam his temporibus per necessaria de tribu9 
primariis causis tumultuum Belgicorum: contra coalitionem 



HAL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


95 


multarum religionum, quam liberam religionem vocant: Libellus 
exhortatorius ad pacem quibusvis conditionibus cum Rege Cath. 
faciendam. Duaci, 1581, sm. 8vo. 
4. Tractatus pro Defensione Regiæ et Episcopalis Auctoritatis 
contra horum temporum. Duaci, J o. Bogard, 1584, 12mo., title, epistola, 
&c., 32 pp., pp. 120, 2 ff. unpag. 
5. De Proprietate et Vestiario Monachorum aliisque adhoc 
Vitium extirpandum necessariis, liber unus . . . . Epitaphium 
. . . . A. de Ie Cambe alias Gantois. Duaci, 1585, sm. 8vo. 
Dr. Hall was a strict disciplinarian and a strong denunciator of the laxity 
of the age. Complaisance he could not do with, Thus the severity of his 
morals met with some opposition. 
6. De castitate Monachorum. 
A work which Dodd says was suppressed and never published. 
7. Orationes variæ. 
8. Latin hexameters and pentameters prefixed to the "Institutiones 
Dialecticæ" of Dr. J olm Sanderson, canon of Cambray, 1589, 
9. Carmina diversa. 
10. De Quinque partita Conscientia, I. Recta; II. Erronea; 
III. Dubia; IV. Opinabili, seu opiniosa; et V. Scrupulosa. Libri 
III. A Ricardo Hallo, Doctore Theol. et Canonico Audomarensi 
ad Illustriss. D. Joannem Saracenum, archiepiscopum et ducem 
Cameracensem, &c., et ad R. D. Warnerum de Daure Abbatem 
Aquacinctinum, conscripti. Duaci, 1598, 4to. 
Hall, Thomas, D.D., a native of London, and brother to 
\Villiam Hall, prior of the Carthusians at Nieuport, studied at 
the English College at Lisbon until he had completed his 
philosophy, when he was sent to Paris for his divinity and to 
take degrees in that university. After about six years he was 
admitted B.D., and received the diaconate. He was then 
appointed to teach philosophy in the English College at DoLiay, 
where he arrived Oct. 22, 1688, and .on Sept. 24, 1689 \vas 
ordained priest. Leaving Douay, Aug. 2 I, 1690, he returned 
to Paris to proceed in divinity, and he received his degree of D.D. 
Afterwards he was sent to the English mission, where he 
laboured for some years. He finally returned to Paris, where 
he died about 17 I 9, before he had completed his 60th year. 
Dodd says he was gifted with extraordinary natural parts, 
and was an eloquent preacher. 
Dodd, Cft. His!" vol. iii.; DOllay Diaries. 
1. A Treatise of Prayer, MS. 4to. 
2. Spondani Annales. A translation, MS. 2 vols. fol. 
3. The Catechism of Grenoble. A transbtion, MS. 3 vols. 8vo. 
4, A Collection of Lives of the Saints. A translation, MS., opus im- 
perfectum. 



9 6 


IHBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAL. 


Hall, William, Carthusian, son of Thomas Hall, a con- 
fectioner, of Ivy Lane, near St. Pa
l's, London, was educated 
in the English College at Lisbon, where he was ordained priest. 
He was sent to the English mission, an-d was appointed chaplain 
and 'preacher to James II. It \vas a saying of this prince, that 
as Dr. Ken was the best preacher among the Protestants, so 
Fr. William Hall was the best among the Catholics, 
The revolution of 1688 necessitated his retirement from the 
country, and in his voyage over the Channel he was overtaken 
by a great storm, during which he made a vow to become a 
Carthusian monk, should his life be spared. On his safe land- 
ing, having first paid a visit to his royal master at St. Germain, 
he repaired to the Carthusian convent at Nieuport, where he 
was shortly afterwards professed. 
He lived there for many years, and was some time prior of 
his convent, dying about the year 1718, 
Dodd, Ch. Hist., vol. iii.; TVood, Athcll. OXOll., vol. ii. 
I. A Sermon [on John xvi. 23, 24] preached before Her 
Majesty the Queen Dowager, in her Chapel at Somerset House, 
upon the Fifth Sunday after Easter, May 9, 1686. By William 
Hall, Preacher in Ordinary to His Majesty. Published by Her 
Majesty's command. Lond., Henry Hills, 1686, 4to., title I f., pp, 38; 
reprinted in "Catholick Sermons':' 1741, vol. ii. p. 183. 
Jones (Chetham Popery Tracts, pt. 2, p. 454), says that in p. 21 there is a 
passage evidently based on the historical facts in which originated the 
Rogations, described in the Quarterly Review, vol. lxxiv. p, 295. See Notes 
and Queries, 3rd Series, vol. v. p. 13I. 
2, Collections of Historical Matters. MS. fol. 
Hallahan, Margaret Mary, O.S.D., foundress of the 
T ertians in England, born in London, Jan. 23, I 803, was the 
only child of Edmund Hallahan and his wife Catharine 
O'Connor. Her parents were Irish and of humble position, 
though Mr. Hallahan belonged to a family which occupied a 
respectable position in society. Owing to a long series of 
misfortunes he had sunk in life, and at length found himself 
obliged to maintain his family by humble labour. Fr. John 
O'Connor, O.P., of Cork, was a near relative of :I\1rs. Hallahan. 
Margaret's education began at the day-school established at 
Somers Town by the celebrated emigré priest, the Abbé Carron. 
About the age of nine she lost her father, and her mother being 
left in very embarrassed circumstances, the Rev. Joseph Hunt, 
of Moorfields, procured the admission of the child into the 



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OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


97 


orphanage attached to th
 Somers T own school. Scarcely 
six months after her father's death, her mother followed him 
to the grave, and thus at the age of nine Magaret Hallahan 
was left in the desolation of complete orphanhood. At the 
same time a change in the arrangement of Somers Town 
Orphanage led to her dismissal. Thus the whole period of her 
school life did not exceed three years. Mr. Hunt again in- 
terested himself in her favour, and placed. her in service, where 
she appears to have remained for two years. Through the 
kindness of the same good priest, she was then received into 
the family of :Madame Caulier, the wife of a French emigrant of 
good birth, who, like many others in like circumstances, had 
been compelled to embark in trade, and had opened a lace 
warehouse in Cheapside. l\'Iadame Caulier retained her in her 
service for several years, and became warmly attached to her, 
and formed the intention of adopting IVlargaret as her child. 
She was naturally cheerful and merry, much fonder of reading 
than of needlework. So beautiful was her reading that she was 
often sent for to a house at which Rowland Hill, the well- 
known Independent minister, visited, that she might read to 
him. She was somewhat untidy, a fault that was afterwards 
thoroughly corrected, anù her temper was passionate, which she 
also at a later period brought into absolute control. vVithal she 
possessed warm instincts of liberality. But the discomforts of 
her situation became so unendurable, that, when not more than 
twelve years of age, she ran away, but was brought back by 
Madame Caulier. vVhen about thirteen she entered the service 
of a Protestant family, where for two years she was not per- 
mitted to hear lVlass. She then returned to Madame Caulier, 
but before long she again entered service in a Protestant family, 
where a painful trial awaited her. The master of the house so 
far forgot himself as to offer a gross insult to the poor servant- 
girl who should have claimed his protection. Her modesty 
was, however, defended by her own firmness and courage, and 
she at once returned to Madame Caulier, and did not again 
leave her protection until placed by her in the family of Dr. 
Morgan, who had formerly filled the post of physician to George 
III. This was about the year 1820. At his death he left her 
a legacy of .lSD, and she continued to reside, first with his son, 
and afterwards with Mrs. Thompson, his married daughter. 
Under this lady's roof Margaret remained for twenty years, of 
VOL. III. H 



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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


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which five were spent partly in London and partly in Margate, 
and the remaining fifteen in Bruges. She was intrusted with 
the care of the children of the family, but she soon won so 
much of the love and confidence of her mistress as to be 
regarded by her far more as a friend than a servant. 
The atmosphere of a Catholic country produced a great im- 
pression on Margaret Hallahan, and she soon conceived a desire 
to enter a religious state of life. Her attention was first drawn 
to the Dominican order, but for eight years her entreaties for 
admission to the tertiary, or the third order of St. Dominic, 
were constantly rejected. At length she received the habit on 
the feast of St, Catherine of Sienna, 1834, and on April 30, 
1835, she made her profession at Bruges. This step did not of 
necessity involve any change in her outward manner of life; in 
fact, she remained with l\1rs. Thompson until the autumn of 
1839, and only left then in consequence of ill-health. After 
her recovery, by the advice of the Abbé Capron, she determined 
on commencing a small community of Dominican tertiaries, 
living under religious rule, in Bruges. She proposed taking in 
invalid English ladies, or young persons requiring religious 
instruction, and with this view she hired a good house in Ese! 
Street. Difficulties of all sorts arose to obstruct her progress, 
and, at length, she was reduced to actual distress. She en- 
deavoured for a time to support herself by receiving lodgers. 
This plan likewise failed, but at this critical juncture an old and 
valued friend, Mrs. Amherst, of Kenilworth, the venerable 
mother of the late Bishop of Northampton, pressed her to 
return to England, where there was so much need of those who 
were willing to work for the glory of God. 
On April 30, 1842, l\Iargaret crossed from Belgium and 
landed in England. After a brief visit to her old friend, Madame 
Caulier, who then resided at Isleworth, and a few days spent 
with Mrs. Amherst at Kenilworth, she proceeded to Coventry as 
mistress of the girls' school attached to the mission of the Rev. 
Dr. Ullathorne, a.S.B. Within a fortnight after her arrival, Dr. 
Ullathorne was obliged to proceed to Rome in order to get his 
appointment to the bishopric of Hobart Town, in Australia, 
finally negatived. \Vhen he returned after a few months' ab- 
sence, he found that she had collected a school of two hundred 
girls whom she was teaching unaided. In 1843, Dr. Ullathorne 
commenced the erection of a new church and small missionary 



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OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


99 


priory at Coventry. 'VVhilst this was in progress he took up his 
residence in a house in Spon Street, and there was laid the first 
germ of Mother l\1argaret's community. 
The Dominican tertians were at that time unknown in Eng- 
land. However, the necessary permission was obtained, and 
on March 28, 1844, Sister Hallahan and three postulants took 
up their residence in the house in Spon Street. 'VVhen the 
priory was erected they removed there with their kind pro- 
tector, Dr. Ullathome. On June 2 I, 1846, the doctor was COl1-. 
secrated bishop, in succession to Dr. Baggs, V.A., of the \Vestern 
District, and removed to Bristol. This seemed to threaten 
destruction to the infant community. The first letter Mother 
Margaret wrote after the bishop's departure was headed by the 
words, "God alone, God alone, God alone." She never after- 
wards laid aside the use of these words, which have been adopted 
as the motto of the Congregation. The bishop, however, had no 
intention of abandoning the sisters. He procured them a house 
in Queen's Square, Bristol, in the following November, and, early 
in Lent, 1848, the community removed to Clifton, where it was 
decided to erect a convent. 1'10ther Margaret, before commenc- 
ing to build, paid a short visit to Belgium for the purpose of 
soliciting alms. The community had now so greatly increased 
that a filiation was opened at Bridgwater, in Somersetshire, in 
] uly, I 850. It was not destined to take root, however, and it 
was abandoned in April, I 85 I. 
In the year 1850, the vicar-general of the Dominican order 
began his visitation in England, and drew up a petition to be 
sent to the holy See. In this, after stating the powers and juris- 
diction over the religious sisters of the third order, which by the 
advice of the English friars he had delegated to the Bishop of 
Birmingham, Dr. Ullathorne, for life, he prays for a confirmation 
of those powers in the name both of himself and of his lordship. 
The papal rescript, granting the prayer of this petition, sahn-s 
juribus ordillarioru1Jl, is dated Aug. 3 1/,185 I. 
In the meanwhile another foundation was made at Longton, 
in the Potteries, Staffordshire, in a house called "The Foley," 
selected by Bishop Ullathorne, of which the religious took 
possession, Jan. 6, 185 I. Shortly afterwards it was determined 
to remove the novitiate to Stone. In July, 1853, 1'10ther Mar- 
garet and three professed religious took possession of the portion 
of the new convent which was then erecting. In the following 
H2 



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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


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year the whole community at Longton was transferred there. 
St. Dominic's, Stone, therefore, became the mother-house of the 
Congregation, and in course of time rose to be the finest speci- 
men of conventual buildings, probably, in all England, In 
1857, another foundation was made at Stoke-upon- Trent. 
In the autumn of 1858 it was decided that Mother Margaret 
should proceed to Rome, in order that the whole status of the 
Congregation, which had not been sufficiently established by the 
papal rescript of 185 I, might be laid before the proper autho- 
rities, and a definite decree obtained for the settlement of its 
future government. There she had an audience with Pius IX. 
On Feb. 16, 1859, she left Rome, and arrived at Stone in the 
following month. Shortly afterwards his Holiness decreed that 
the houses of the religious of the third order of St. Dominic, 
founded, or hereafter to be founded, in England, be formed into 
a Congregation, having one general superioress and one novitiate 
house. They were placed immediately under the jurisdiction 
of the master-general of the order, who exercises his authority 
through a delegate nominated by himself, his lordship, Bishop 
Ullathorne, being confirmed in that office for life. 
The latter years of Mother Margaret's life were occupied by 
extensive undertakings at Stone and Stoke, as well as by the 
establishment of new foundations at Leicester, begun in I 860 
 
Rhyl, in 1864; St. Mary Church, near Torquay, in 1864; and 
Bromley St. Leonard's, near Bow, in 1867, Two of these foun- 
dations, those namely of Leicester and Rhyl, were withdrawn 
in 1866; and the community now established at Bow was ori- 
ginally fixed at vValthamstow, in Essex, in 1866, whence it was 
removed in Nov. 1867. During the summer of 1867, Mother 
Margaret's declining health became evident, and caused great 
solicitude to the religious in all her convents. She gradually 
grew worse, and, after a long and painful illness, expired at 
Stone, May 11,1868, aged 65. 
Mother Margaret was an extraordinary woman. The firm 
will, the clear and rapid judgment, the boundless power of sym- 
pathy which won her the title of "everybody's mother," and the 
ever-present thought of God, were prominent features in her 
character which could hardly escape detection, even at a first 
meeting. The very simplicity of her speech gave a peculiar 
charm and strength to everything she said, so that the most 
common observation came home to the hearer's mind and heart 



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OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


lor 


as something almost from another world. The foundation of 
her spiritual life, continues Bishop Ullathvrne, was recollection 
in God, tbat true recollection which implies detachment from 
the creature. 
Her largeness of heart and ever-active charity in labouring 
either for the temporal or spiritual good of others, is the second 
great feature of her charity. Her greatest solicitude was towards 
orphans, next to them came the sick. The foundation of a 
hospital was the first charity to which she had longed to devote 
herself, and although she never lived to see the actual realization 
of her wishes on this head by the erection of suitable buildings, 
yet she had received and supported, before she died, upwards of 
one hundred patients in hired houses or premises on the convent 
ground, and at the time of her death the number of patients 
under her care exceeded forty. 
Such was her devotion, energy, and administrative ability, 
said Dr. Ullathorne in her funeral oration, that she was the direct 
agent in founding five convents, with poor-schools attached to 
each, two middle-schools, four churches, severai orphanages, and 
the hospital of incurables at Stone. Her motto was "God 
Alone!" and with that she headed every letter she wrote. 
The constitutions drawn under her direction from those of the 
great order, and adapted to the circumstances of the Congrega- 
tion which she governed as first prioress-provincial, have been 
adopted by similar institutions in all parts of the world. As an 
.additional illustration of the moral power which she exercised 
over those with whom she came in contact, Dr. Ullathorne said 
that when she came to Stone, in 1853, there were only fifty 
Catholics, whereas at the time of her death there were thirteen 
hundred. From her seventeenth year she was an acute sufferer 
from spinal disease, and for the last six months of her life she 
bore with heroic fortitude the most intense physical sufferings, 
which at length put an end to her devoted and laborious life, 
Biograpltical S ketc!l, 187 I
' Calk OpÙtÍOll, vol. iii. p. 16 I, vol. v. 
pp. 154, 18 7, 198; Tablet, vol. xxxiii. pp. 9 14, 947. 


1. "Life of :\[other Margaret Mary Halbh:m, foundress of the English 
Congregation of St. Catherine of Sienna of the Third Order of St. Dominic, 
By her Religious Children. With a preface by his Lordship the Bishop of 
Birmingham." Lond., Longmans, 1869, 8vo.; 2nd edit" edited by the 
.author of" Christian Schools and Scholars," Augusta Theodosia Drane (the 
Rev. Mother of St. Dominic's, Stone). Lond., Longmans, 1869, 8vo. 



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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


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"Biographical Sketch of Mother Margaret Mary Hallahan, O.S.D. 
Abridged from her Life." Lond., Longmans, 1871, 8vo. pp. 248. 
;!, Portrait, in her" Life." 


Halliday, or Holiday, Richard, priest and martyr, was 
probably the eldest son of Richard Halliday, a girdler in the 
parish of Christ Church, in the city of York, whose wife, Emma,. 
appears in the ecclesiastical inquisition as a recusant between 
the years 1576 and 1579, In consequence of her refusal to 
attend church, it was ordered, in June, I 578, that a levy be 
made on the goods of her husband, although one of the reports 
(Nov. 20, 1576) had said, "as for the substance of the same 
Richard, we think him worth little or nothing." Other recu- 
sants of this name appear in the list of Yorkshire papists in 
160 4. 
Richard Halliday arrived from Yorkshire at the English 
College, Rheims, Sept. 6 þ I 584, and John Halliday, who arrived 
there on Jan. 2, 1586, was probably his younger brother. He 
received the sub-diaconate at Soissons, March 18, the diaconate 
at Laon, May 27, and was ordained priest at the latter place, 
Sept. 23, 1589. On the following March 22 he left the college 
in company with three other priests, Edmund Duke, Richard 
Hill, and John Hogg, and landed in the north of England, where 
they were soon arrested on suspicion of being priests. They 
were all committed to Durham gaol, and there arraigned and 
condemned to death for being priests and coming into the 
realm contrary to the statute of 27 Elizabeth. They were 
hanged, drawn, and quartered at Durham, May 27, 1590. 
Four men, who were executed at the same time and place for 
felony, were so much moved by the constancy and holy death of 
the martyrs, that they protested that they would die in the same 
faith. "Sure," said they, .. they were God's priests." Several 
of the beholders, when the martyrs were offered their pardons 
if they would go to church, boldly declared that they would 
rather die themselves than any of them should relent, one of 
them, who had four children, saying, "I would to God they 
might all go the same way in making such a confession of their 
faith." Others said, U They have done their parts; if we be 
damned, it is long of ourselves. This is a preaching unto us : 
they die for Him that died for them. " vVhen the heads of the 
martyrs were cut off and held up to the people in the customary 
manner, not one would give the usual cry, "God save the- 



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OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


10 3 


Queen," with the exception of the catchpolls and a minister 
or two. 


Challoller, Memoirs, vol. i. p. 254, ed. 1741 ; Morris, Troubles, 
Third Series,. Peacock, Yorks/lYe Papists; Douay Diaries. 


Halsworth, or Holdsworth, Daniel, D.D., was born 
about I 558 in Yorkshire, where several of his name are met 
with, one of whom, Richard Houlswathe, is mentioned in the 
list of Yorkshire recusants in 1604. On June 22, 1580, Mr, 
Halsworth arrived from England at the English College at 
Rheims, from which he was sent, with a number of other 
students, to the English College at Rome the following Aug. 4. 
There he arrived, and was admitted into the college, Sept. 9, 
being then of the age of 22. 
He was ordained priest by the Bishop of St, Asaph, in Oct. 
1583. He remained in the college until Sept. 1586, and was 
one of those who petitioned for the retention of the Society of 
Jesus in the management of the college. \Vhen he left he was 
sent, with others, to collect alms for the Rheims College, after 
which he was to proceed to the English mission, but, with the 
approbation of Cardinal Allen, he remained in Italy to continue 
his studies in one of the Italian universities, where he was 
created a doctor both in canon law and divinity, and acquired 
a great reputation îor learning. He distinguished himself in 
oratory, poetry, philosophy, mathematics, and in his knowledge 
of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew. 
For some years he lived at the court of his patron, the Duke 
of Savoy, and afterwards was appointed theologian to St. Charles 
Borromeo, Archbishop of l'1ilan, and resided with him both at 
Rome and Milan. In Sept. 1591 he visited the hospice attached 
to the English College at Rome, and made a stay of five days. 
He is described in the pilgrim-book as of Salop. Dr. Bridge- 
,,'ater includes him in his list of exiles. According to Pitts, he 
died at Rome about the year 1595, 
Pitts, De Illus. Angl. Script., p. 794; FoleJI, Records S J., 
vol. vi.; Knox, Records of the Ellg. Catholics, vols. i. ii.; Peacock, 
Yorkshire Papists,. Bridgewater, Concertatio Eccles. Catk, ed. 
I 594; Dodd, C/l. Hist., vol. ii. p. 90. 


J. Virgilü Maronis Bucolica, e Latino in Græcum Idioma 
versibus translata. Authore Dan. Alsvorto, Anglo Aug. Taurini, 



10 4 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAM. 


I59 t , 8vo. The dedication to Cardinal Allen contains some curious remarks 
concerning the state of England. 
2, He wrote several other works, both in prose and in verse, which were 
never printed. 


Hambley, John, priest and martyr, alias Tregwethan, 
was born in the parish of St. Mabyn, Cornwall, where his family 
held a respectable position. He was brought up in different 
schools in his own county, where he learnt Latin, except for 
some time while he was living at home. 
In 1582, a fellow-parishioner of his, Nicholas Baldwin, who 
had been scholar at Exeter College, Oxford, lent him "The 
Reasons why Catholics should refuse to attend the Churches 
of the Heretics," written by Fr. Persons in 1 5 80. His reading 
of this work. his 
onversations with Baldwin, and his previous 
inclination to the Catholic religion, made him resolve, at 
Christmas, 1582, not to attend a Protestant service again, 
which, indeed, he never did. About the same time, to escape 
imprisonment for non-attendance at church, he went up to 
London, and lived at the Sun and Seven Stars, in Smith- 
field, till the following May, during which period he met with a 
Cornish priest, David Kemp, alias Tomson, of Blisland, and also 
with Fortescue, another seminary priest, both of whom lodged 
at the Red Lion, in Holborn. He had previously becn ac- 
quainted with them, having met Fortescue at Miçhael Baldwin's, 
in Cornwall. He was taken into the Church bý Fortescue, and 
very soon afterwards resolved to proceed to the English College 
at Rheims. He sailed from Rye and landed at Dieppe, May 4, 
and, after passing through Rouen and staying two or three 
days in Paris, he arrived at the English College, Rheims, May 28, 
I 583. There he was warmly received by Dr. Allen, and com- 
menced his studies. In the following year he received minor 
orders from the Cardinal of Guise, in the cathedral at Rheims, 
l\1arch 3 I, the sub-diaconate from the Bishop of Transalpina, 
the diaconate from the cardinal, and was ordained priest at 
Laon by the bishop there, Sept. 22, 1584. 
On April 6, 1 585, he left the college for the English mission 
disguised as a serving-man, and provided with about four 
pounds to pay for his journey. He crossed the Channel in a 
French bottom, and landed on the sands thirty miles beyond 
Ipswich. Two priests passed over with him, Morris Williams, 
a Welshman, and J amcs Clayton, the latter of whom landed at 
Newcastle. Hambley and Williams went together to.London, 



HAM.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


10 5 


and lodged for a fortnight at the Blue Boar, Holborn. They 
then separated, Hambley removing to the Red Lion, Holborn, 
and Williams remaining at the Blue Boar. He stayed in London 
about five weeks, saying l'iass, by the appointment of Fr. John 
Cornelius, S.J. (who only entered the Society in prison shortly 
before his execution in 1594), in a chamber at Gray's Inn, 
where many gentlemen attended. The chamber was at the 
entrance of the court coming from the upper part of Holborn 
and turning to the left. He also said Mass in a house near the 
great conduit in Fleet Street, on the left going towards St. Paul's, 
Hambley left London in May, 1585, and was directed by 
his countryman Nicholas Blewett to Andrew Munday, living at 
a farm of l\ir, \Vatkins in Beaminster, Dorset, where he gene- 
rally resided. Some time after Easter in the following year 
he rode over to Chard to meet a son of Sir John Fulford, who 
had arranged to be married to a young lady by Mr. Hambley 
at Munday's house, He stayed that night at an inn with Mr. 
Fulford, and the following day they were both arrested with 
the young lady at Crockhorn on their way to Munday's house. 
They were taken before the attorney-general, who committed 
Hambley to the gaol at Ilchester, and allowed Mr. Fulford and 
his intended to return home to Devonshire. 
He was tried and condemned to death for being a seminary 
priest at the sUq1mer assizes held at Taunton, Somerset, In 
his weakness he promised conformity, and he was reprieved, 
but detained in confinement with hard usage. A bed and 
twopence a day had been appointed to him, but he was obliged 
to lay on the hard boards, and only received a penny a day to 
live upon. He therefore made his escape and took refuge in 
the house of widow Brown at Knowle, near Salisbury, where 
he was directed, through Dallison, by her son-in-law, Mr. 
Barnes, a Catholic, and there he was again apprehended 
during a search on Sunday night, Aug. 14, 1586, by the Bishop 
of Salisbury and Justice Estcourt. In their presence, on the 
18th of the same month, a full confession was extracted from 
him, from which most of the particulars of his life are gathered. 
Under the date Aug. 20, 1586, in the State Paper Office, is a 
letter sent to the Privy Council signed J o. Sarum and Gyles 
Estcourte, on which Mr. Simpson remarks: "This very apos- 
tolic pastoral of a Bishop thirsting, not for the salvation, but 
for the blood of those whom he called his flock, is followed by 
the confession of Hambley, who, however he 'was bearing the 



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[HAM. 


Bishop in hand,' that is, hoaxing him with half promises of 
apostasy, did not hoax him at all with regard to his brethren, 
but ruthlessly betrayed their names, their abodes, and their 
personal marks, giving enough information about each to ensure 
his condemnation for felony, if not treason (that is, in being 
priests contrary to statute), as soon as he was caught." 
Hambley was undoubtedly frightened by the prospect of 
martyrdom, and, in Mr. Simpson's words, "he scrupled not to 
, bear in hand' his tormentors, and to make them believe that 
he would in time do all they told him; but when it came to 
the point, like some others of whom Sir Thomas Lucy com- 
plained, 'he started aside like a broken bow.''' He refused to, 
carry out his promise of conformity, and submitted his neck 
to the rope, and his bowels to the knife, rather than commit 
the sin which in a moment of weakness he had promised to 
commit. Whether he suffered under his previous condemnation 
or was re-tried at Salisbury is not very clear. Fr. Warford, 
his contemporary, relates that at his arraignment a verdict was 
found against him. The judge, lVlr. Baron Gent, addressed 
him in such soft and pathetic terms, that the prisoner's con- 
stancy appeared to the court to be staggering, and he inclining 
to conform, when a stranger stepped forward and delivered to 
him a letter. He read it again and again, and became so 
deeply affected as to burst into tears, but declined to tell the 
bystanders the cause of his distress. The next morning he 
announced in open court his deep shame for his weakness, and 
bitterly repented that the judge's solicitations and his own 
terror had for a time shaken his resolution. He added that 
now the most excruciating torments would prove most accept- 
able to him. On the following day he went rejoicing to execu- 
tion. He suffered at Salisbury about Easter, 1587. 
Rick. S impsoll, Rambler, vol. x., New Series, p. 325 ; O!i-;.lcr, 
Collectio1ls, p. 3 I 8 ; Ckalloller, Memoirs, vol. i., ed. r 74 I, p. 196 ; 
Dom. Eli:::., vol. cxcii., n. 46, P.R.O. 
Hamerton, Anthony, a captain in the royal army, pro- 
bablya younger brother of Philip Hamerton, of Monksrood, 
near Pontefract, Esq., was slain near Manchester during the- 
civil wars. 
Castlemain, Cat/t. Apology,' Foley, Records SJ., vol. v. 
Hamerton, Henry, Father S.J., schoolmaster, son of 



HAM.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


1 0 7 


Philip Hamerton, of Monksrood, near Pontefract, co. York, 
Esq., by Dorothy, daughter of Mr. Young, of Burn, near Selby, 
was born in 1646. He was educated at St. Omer's College, 
and entered the Society of Jesus, Sept. 28, 1669, He served 
the mission for many years at Pontefract and the neighbour- 
hood, where he was much esteemed for his pastoral zeal and 
disinterested labours, especially during the northern epidemic of 
putrid fever in 1682. 
About 1685 he transferred the Society's head residence in the 
Yorkshire District from York to Pontefract, where he built a 
chapel and opened a flourishing school of sixty scholars. He 
employed as an assistant a secular schoolmaster who had been 
educated in one of the Jesuit colleges, and many Protestants 
sent their sons to be instructed in Catholic doctrine. Public 
examinations of the scholars showed the great progress they 
made. \Vhen Bishop Leyburne visited the school, July 27, I68ï, 
six of the scholars complimented his lordship in short addresses 
on his happy arrival, and he expressed himself highly pleased, 
and greatly applauded Fr. Hamerton's efforts. At this visitation 
no less than 230 persons received confirmation in the chapel. 
\Vhilst others began to tremble when the first rumours of 
the Orange revolution of 1688 reached Yorkshire, Fr. Hamer- 
ton remained at his post, omitting nothing of his accustomed 
duties. He preached every Sunday morning, and in the after- 
noon explained the Christian doctrine in his chapel, which 
ordinarily accommodated a congregation of two hundred, and 
on festivals many more. There were usually fifty to sixty 
communicants, whose confessions Fr. Hamerton heard before 
Mass. \Vhen, however, the violence of the storm broke forth, 
and the mob assumed a more threatening attitude, he closed 
his chapel, dismissed his scholars, and put all things in safety. 
Shortly afterwards he sought refuge in flight, but was seized, 
probably at Wakefield, and thrust into a loathsome dungeon 
in York Castle, buying himself off from being chained by a fee 
of L 5, After remaining for some time in prison, with other 
priests, he was liberated on bail and payment of a fine. 
Upon regaining his liberty he retired in shattered health to 
Lincoln, In 1697 he was sent to Norwich, where he remained 
for two years, and then, withdrawing abroad, died at Ghent, 
Feb. 24, 17 I 8, aged 72. 
Oliver, Collectmtea S J.,. Foley, Records S J., vols. v. and vii. 



il08 


DIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAM. 


Hamilton, or Hambleton, priest, appears in Dr. \Vorth- 
ington's catalogue of martyrs as a priest of Queen 1'lary's reign, 
who was put to death at Lincoln for using his priestly office 
in reconciling penitents and for denying the supremacy of the 
queen, in 1585. 
Dodd, calling him \Villiam Hambleton, but citing the same 
authority, says he was tried and condemned at York. Challoner 
makes no allusion to him, and he is not named in other cata- 
logues of martyrs. 
Morris, The lIIoJlth, April, 1887, p. 532; Dodd, Cll. Hist., 
vo1. ii. p. 104. 
Hammond, John, priest and confessor of the faith, re- 
ceived sacerdotal orders at Douay College in 1625, in which 
year he was sent upon the English mission, where he seems to 
have used the alias of Jackson. 
Dr. Challoner says he was a man of learning and merit, 
holding a high position amongst his brethren, a member of the 
chapter, and superior of the secular clergy in the west of 
England. 
" John Hamond, alias Jackson, condemned, reprieved by 
the king, and died in N ewgate," appears in an original docu- 
ment in Vincent Eyre's" MS. Cases, &c., on the Popery Laws," 
f. 1062 (Ushaw Coi1.), printed in Lingard's "Hist, of Eng," 
(ed. 1849, voL viii, p. 645), authenticated by the signatures of 
the parties concerned, which contains the names and fate of 
such Catholic priests as were apprehended and prosecuted in 
London, between the end of 1640 and the summer of 165 I, by 
four individuals, who had formed themselves into a kind of 
joint-stock company for that laudable purpose, and who solicited 
from "the Council some reward for their services. 
It appears from Challoner that on Dec. 8, 164 I, he was 
condemned, with six other priests, at the Old Bailey sessions 
to be hanged, drawn, and quartered, on account of his priest- 
hood. At the solicitation of the French ambassador, the king, 
who himself preferred banishment to the shedding of blood, 
sent a message to both Houses of Parliament to know their 
opinion in the matter. This message, being sent by the Lords 
to the Commons on Dec, I I, and there read, resolutions in 
each case were passed that John Hammond, John Rivers, alias 
Abbot, vValter Coleman, and John Turner, priests, " shall be 
put to execution according to law." 



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OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


10 9 


However, the king, having been pleased to grant his reprieve 
to all the seven priests, on the Tuesday following, Dec. 14, 
both Houses agreed to join in a petition that his 1\iajesty would 
take off the reprieve and order all the seven to be executed. 
To this Charles, on Dec. 16, replied that he would take the 
matter into consideration. This reprieve of the condemned priests, 
who were shortly after reduced to the number of six by the death 
of one of them, was made the subject of continual objection by 
the parliament to the king, till his Majesty, answering their 
petition concerning the magazine of Hull, &c., from York, told 
them-" concerning the six condemned priests, it is true, they 
were reprieved by our warrant, being informed that they were 
(by some restraint) disabled to take the benefit of our former 
proclamation; since that, we have issued out another for the 
due execution of the laws against papists; and have most 
solemnly promised, upon the word of a king, never to pardon 
any priest without your cOhsent, who shall be found guilty by 
law; desiring to banish these, 'the six,' having herewith sent 
warrants to that purpose, if upon second thoughts you do not 
disapprove thereo( But if you think the execution of these 
persons so very necessary to the great and pious work of re- 
formation, we refer it wholly to you, declaring hereby, that 
upon such your resolution signified to the ministers of justice, 
our warrant for their reprieve is determined, and the law to 
have its course. JJ 
This unexpected answer so disconcerted the parliament, 
Lord Clarendon says, in his "Hist. of the Rebellion JJ (vol. i, 
pt. 2. p. 490), that the condemned priests were all suffered to 
linger away their lives in Newgate, though no less than eight of 
their brethren were executed in different parts of the kingdom 
within the year 1642. The date of Mr. Hammond's death has 
not been ascertained. 
Cllalloner, Memoirs, ed. 1742, vol. ii. p. 183 ; A ltslÍll, CatlLO- 
liques Plea, p. 25. 
Hanford, Compton John, Esq., born June 8, 1819, was 
the third son of Charles Edward Hanford, of W 001lash2.ll, co. 
\tv orcestcr, Esq., by Eliza, dau. of James Martin, of Overbury, 
co. "'\IV orcester, Esq. 
This ancient Catholic family was seated at an early period at 
Hanford, co, Chester. The daughter and heiress of vVm. Han- 
ford was married, first, to Sir John Stanley, and secondly, to 



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Sir Urian Brereton, and the estate of Hanford thus became the 
seat of the Breretons, Laurence Hanford, a younger son of 
Robert Hanford, and seventh in descent from Sir John Han- 
ford, of Cheshire, was the ancestor of the vVorcestershire family, 
who apparently became possessed of vVoollashall about 1536. 
They were allied with the Hungerfords, Giffards, Hornyolds, 
and other good Catholic families. In the seventeenth century 
Walter Hanford, of vVoollashall, married Frances, dau. of 
Sir Henry Compton, Knt., of Hartpury Court, co. Gloucester, 
and had issue two sons, Compton and Edward, both of them 
Catholic non-jurors in 17 17. The former's grandson, Charles 
Hanford, died without issue in 18 I 6, and vVoollashall then 
passed to the latter's grandson, Charles Edward Hanford. The 
second son, Edward, resided at Redmarley d' Abitôt, co. Wor- 
cester, and it was probably under his protection and with his 
assistance that the Benedictines were enabled to keep a school 
there in the first half of last century. 
Compton John Hanford was educated at Oscott College. 
His eldest brother, Charles Edward, died there from the effects 
of an accidental hurt, March 23, 1827. The second brother, 
J ames, died unmarried in 1840, aged 28, and thus the estate of 
W oollashall, on the death of his father, Feb. I 7, 1854, aged 72, 
came to Compton John. His sister Frances, in 1847, became 
the wife of William Lloyd Flood, of Farmley, co. Kilkenny, 
Esq. Mr. Hanford died without issue, devising his estate to 
his sister's son with the injunction to take the additional name 
of Hanîord. 
Burke, Lauded GC1l11J' ,. H arl. Soc., Visit. of Cheshirc, 1580 ; 
Pa')Jllc, E1lg. Catlt. Non-jurors J' Gillow, Catlt. Schools ill Ellg., 
MS.; Thc Oscotimz, New Series, vol. vi. p. 84. 
I. Protestantism and Catholicity compared in their effects on 
the Civilisation of Europe. Written in Spanish by the Rev. J. 
Balmez. Translated from the French version by C. J. Hanford 
and R. Kershaw. Lond., Jas. Burns, 1849, cr. 8vo., pp. xiv-452; Lond. 
1868, 8vo, 
From the preface by 1\1r. Hanford it appears that the whole work was 
edited by him, but he was indebted to Mr. Robert Kershaw, of Liverpool, for 
the translation from chapter xlviii. to the end. The French version was by 
M. Blanche. It is one of the most elaborate works of modern theological 
literature. The Lond. Athcllæu1Jl reviewing the English translation wrote, 
"Moderate in its tone, tolerant in its sentiments, and on the whole candid in 
its statements, it is one of the few works of religious controversy that main- 
tain throughout a philosophic character and spirit." 



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OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


I 1 I 


2. When Charles Dolman, the publisher, projected his" Library of trans- 
lations from Select Foreign Literature," in 1852, he obtained 1\11'. Hanford's 
assistance in the undertaking. and formed a literary council consisting of the 
following gentlemen: W. B. Mac Cabe, Esq., Rev. Dr. Cox, C. J. Hanford, 
Esq.. J. Spencer N orthcote, Esq. (subsequently D. D.), Rev. Dr. Rock, Rev. 
Dr. Russell. Ed\\'. Healy Thompson, Esq., \V. B. D. D. Turnbull, Esq., and 
Rev. J. Waterworth. 
Mr. Hanford intended to publish a translation ofFr, Hurter's" Institutions 
of the Church in the Middle Ages," being a portion of his great work on the 
Life and Times of Innocent III. He had already proposed it as a sequel to 
Balmez's " Protestantism and Catholicity compared," but his translation does 
not appear to hay been published. 


Hankinson, Michael Adrian, O.S.B., Bishop, born at 
Warrington, Sept. 29, 18 I 7, was descended from a branch of the 
Catholic yeomanry family of Hankinson, of Mason House, Lea, 
in the Fylde, which probably settled at \Voolston, in the parish 
of Warrington, early in the last century. Robert Hankinson, of 
Woolston, was convicted of recusancyat the Lancaster sessions, 
April 10, 1716. 
Michael Hankinson was professed at Broadway, vVorcester- 
shire, in 1836, and two years later was sent to St. Edmund's 
Benedictine College at Douay, where he was ordained priest in 
184 I, and afterwards became sub-prior, In 185 I he was sent 
to the mission of St. Peter's, Liverpool, but in 1854 he was re- 
called to Douay as prior, an office which he held till late in 
1863, when, in spite of his reluctance to accept such a position, 
he was nominated Bishop of Port LOl
is. 
During the six years of his episcopate, Dr. Hankinson en- 
deared himself to all by the happy mixture of firmness and 
affability which marked his character. \Vhen the terrible epi- 
demic raged in the island for three years, and carried off one- 
sixth of the population, the bishop, besides discharging his 
own episcopal duties, took upon himself the work of his priests, 
when they were stricken down by the fever. Thus he baptized, 
heard confessions, administered the last sacraments in the plague- 
stricken hovels of the poor Indians, and more than once attended 
between thirty and forty funerals in a single day, In 1868 
came the terrible hurricane which caused such destruction of 
life and property. Chapels, schools, and religious houses were 
seriously damaged, and in some instances utterly ruined. The 
Catholics of Port Louis will long remember the day when the 
bishop stood for hours up to his knees in water whilst the corpses 



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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[RAN. 


of two Christian Brothers and their scholars were being dug out 
of the ruins of their fine new schoolhouse. These many trials 
did not prevent his lordship from carrying out many excellent 
measures for the good of his flock. His most ardent wish was 
the conversion of the poor idolators, who formed three-fourths 
of the entire population ; and to attain this he obtained the 
assistance of the Jesuit Fathers from India to give missions, and 
of the "Dames Réparatrices" to educate the Indian orphans. 
He also founded several new parishes and an ecclesiastical 
college. 
Although he had not recovered from the effects of the fever, 
he hastened to Rome for the CEcumenical Council, but was 
obliged to leave by increasing illness in April. vVith difficulty he 
reached Douay in May, where, after rallying for a short time, he 
died Sept. 2 I, 1870, aged 53. 
Dr. Hankinson was a clever administrator, a man remarkable 
for his tact and sagacity, and at the same time endowed with 
an immense power of attracting the sympathy of others. From 
1862 to the date of his consecration he held the titular office of 
prior af Coventry. 
Tablet, voL xxxvi. pp, 438 and 550; S1l0W,BC11CtI. Necrology; 
Gillo'W, Lanc. ReCllSallts, MS. 
I. Catechism . . . . Translated from the French, . . . . revised 
. . . . by the Rev. Father Prior of the English Benedictines of 
Douai; etc. Lond. 1856, 12mo. "Catechism printed by permission of 
. . . . the Archbishop of Cambray. , . . Revised and corrected, Lond. 
1863, 8vo. 
2. "Eloge Funèbre de Mgr. Michel Adrien Hankinson, Evêque de Port 
Louis (Ile-Maurice), Ancien Prieur des Bénédictins Anglais de Douai, Par 
l' Abbé C. J, Destombes, Chanoine-honoraire, Supérieur de l'Institution S. 
Jean à Douai," Lille, Behague, Lond., Burns and Oates, 1870, 8vo. 
This eloquent and interesting tribute of respect is especially worthy of 
perusal and of preservation for the sake of the account it gives of the fright- 
ful calamities that overtook the island of the Mauritius in 1867. 
Hansbie, Morgan Joseph, O.P., D.D., a younger son 
of Ralph Hansbie, of Tickhill Castle, co. York, Esq., by Wini- 
fred) daughter of Sir John" Cansfield, of Robert Hall, co. Lan- 
canter, Knt., was born in 1673, He was professed in the 
Dominican convent at Bornhem, Aug. I, 1696, where he was 
ordained priest in 1698. 
After passing through several offices at Bornhem, he was ap- 
pointed in 1708 chaplain to the Benedictine Abbey at Brussels, 



RAN. ] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


113 


and in 171 I came on the English mission. He returned, 
however, to Bornhem in 1712, and in the same year was 
appointed vice-rector of the Dominican College at Louvain, of 
which he became fourth rector in 1717, 
In the latter year he must have returned to England, for he 
registered, as a Catholic non-juror, an annuity out of the manor 
of Burdale, in Yorkshire, under the Act of I Geo. 1., describing 
himself as of St James', co. 1\1iddlesex, gent. 
In 1718 he was made procurator-general for transacting 
business at Rome, but returned to Louvain in the following 
year. In I 72 I he was instituted provincial, and received his 
degree of S. Th. l'Iag. in that year. He then went to the 
mission at Tickhill Castle. In 1728 he was installed prior of 
Bornhem, and made vicar-provincial for Belgium in 173 I. In 
the latter year he was re-elected prior of Bornhem, and a second 
time provincial in 1734, when he was stationed at London. 
From [7' 38 to I 742 he was vicar-provincial in England, and in 
1743 he went to Lower Cheam, Surrey, the residence of the 
Dowager Lady Petre. 
vVhile here an incident occurred to him which might have 
been very serious. It is extracted from the London EvenÙzg 
Post of Dec, [745. A little before daybreak on Sunday, 
Dec. 22, 1745, the house was suddenly surrounded and searched 
for arms, &c., supposed to be stored there for the service of 
Prince Charles Edward. Nothing, however, was found but two 
pairs of pistols, and a man in his nightgown, concealed between 
the ceiling of the garret and the rafters. This proved to be 
Fr. Hansbie, who was carried before the justices at Croydon. 
He was apparently liberated on bail, for he continued to reside 
.at Cheam until he returned to London in 1747. Fr. Hansbie 
was a hearty Jacobite, and this being known, it was firmly 
believed that great numbers of men, horses, and arms, were con- 
cealed in subterraneous passages under the house. 
He then served the Sardinian Chapel in London, 'and in the 
same year, [747, was instituted vicar-general of England, and 
again provincial in 1748. There he died, June 5, I 750, aged 
76, "lamented in death as he had been esteemed in life, for he 
had made himself all to all, that he might gain all to Christ." 
Kirk, Biog. Collect., fiISS. No. 22; Palmer, Obit. Notices, 
D.S.D.,. O!i-iJer, Collections, p. 457; Letter of Fr. Raymund 
Palmcr to tlte writer,. PaYllc, Ellg, Catlt. Non-jurors. 
VOL. III. I 



114 


BIDLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[RAN r 


I. Philo sophia Universa. Lovanii, 171;, 4to. pp. 10. 
2. Theses Theologicæ ex prima parte (Summæ D. T. A.) de: 
Deo ejusque attributis. Lovanii, 1716, 4to. unpag. 
3. Theses Theologicæ de Jure et Justitia. Lovanii, 1717, 4to. 
pp.12. 
4. Theses Theologicæ de Trinitate, homine, et legibus. Loyanii 7 
1720, 4to. unpag. 
5. Theses Theologicæ de Virtutibus in communi tribus 
theologicis in specie, cum locis eo præcipue spectantibus_ 
Lovanii, 1721, 4to, unpag. 


Hanse, Everard, priest and martyr, beatified by papal 
decree on the feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, Dec. 29, 1886,. 
was a native of Northamptonshire, and a Cambridge man. In 
due course he took orders in the recently established church, 
and secured a valuable benefice. Two or three years later he 
was seized with a serious illness, and was induced to weigh 
carefully his position. He sent for his brother William, a priest 
of Douay College, with whom he had had many disputes on the 
subject of religion. By him he was received into the Church 7 
and, resigning his living, he passed over to Rheims, ,,,here he 
resided for nearly two years. He became a student at the 
English College there, June 1 I, 1580. was ordained sub-deacon 
Feb. 2 I, 1581, and on l\larch 25, in the latter year, received 
priest's orders. 
On April 24, 158 I, he left the college for the English 
mission, where he had not been long before he ventured to visit 
the Catholic prisoners in the 1''Iar3halsea, and was there appre- 
hended "upon suspicion of his being a priest." On being 
examined he boldly confessed himself to be a Catholic and a 
priest of the seminary at Rheims. He was thereupon cast into 
N ewgate and loaded with irons amongst thieves. At the gaol 
delivery a few days later, July 28, 1 58 I, he was brought before 
Fleetwood, the Recorder of London, and several of the judges 7 
at the Old Bailey. Two questions were put to him, though 
foreign to the matter he was charged with. One was whether 
the Pope was infallible, and the other inquired if the Pope had 
erred in his bull of excommunication and deprivation against 
Queen Elizabeth. In answer to the first question, he drew a 
distinction between the Pope's personal actions and opinions 
and his decrees er cathcdnî,o as to the second, he replied that 
it was not for him to judge the actions of others, especially 
those of his superiors, but he hoped his Holiness had done 



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OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


115 


nothing to injure his conscience. As Mr. Hanse candidly 
admitted that he had received holy orders abroad, and positively 
denied the queen's spiritual supremacy, there was no occasion 
for witnesses or a long trial. 
After his condemnation he was sent back to Newgate, where 
Robert Crowley and other ministers did their utmost to over- 
come his constancy. Irritated by their non-success they after- 
wards issued the slander that the martyr had said that treason 
to the queen was no sin before God. 
The blessed martyr was drawn from Newgate to Tyburn, 
where he was butchered with the customary cruelty. He was 
pursued to the end by the ministers, whose slander he denounced 
to the people from the scaffold. It is stated in the Douay 
Diary that when the executioner had his hand upon his heart, 
the martyr was heard distinctly to pronounce the words, 0 diem 
felicelll, He suffered on July 3 I, 158 I. 
Challoner, Memoirs, vol. i.; Doltay Diaries,. Dodd, Ch. Hist.. 
vol. ii.; Lewis, Sallders' Angl. Scltism; Bridgwatcr, C01lcer!. 
Eccl. Catlt. ill Anglia, ed. 1594, ff. 25b, 78-9, 292b, and 407b; 
PolIÙlÍ, L'Hist. Eccles. della Rivoluzioll d'I7zghilterra, p. 551. 
Hansom, Joseph Aloysius, architect and inventor of 
the hansom cab, born at York, Oct. 26, 1803, was a member 
of a staunch Catholic family long settled in that city. His 
grandfather, Richard Hansom, died at York, Sept. I, 18 I 8., 
and his widow, Elizabeth, survived him until Jan. 10, I 8 2 2
 
aged 80. She took pride in her descent from the Stonehouses, 
located in the neighbourhood of the quaint fishing village of 
Staithes, some ten miles from \Vhitby, a family which had 
preserved its religion through the whole of the persecutions. 
Their son, Henry Hansom, the father of the architect, was. 
an extensive builder in York, where he died at the age of 7 5,. 
Feb. 16, 1854, survived by his widow, Sarah, until April 14, 
I 85 6 , aged 75. 
At the age of thirteen, l'Ir. Hansom was apprenticed to his. 
father, but his tastes running more in the direction of architec- 
ture, his articles were allowed to lapse in the following year,. 
18 17, and new ones taken out with Mr. Philips, an architect of 
some ability in York. On the completion of his apprenticeship, 
in 1820, he continued with 1'1r. Philips as a clerk, doing some 
small matters on his own account, and teaching a night-school, 
I 2 



111'6 


BIELIOGRAPHICAL DICTIOKARY 


[RAN. 


in which latter occupation, while rendering service to others, he 
contrived to improve his defective education. It may be here 
Iremarked that 1'1r. Hansom was one of those men who never 
lost an opportunity of improving his mind, and would take up 
and study the most abstruse subjects. 
On April ]4,1825, he married Miss Hannah Glover, a York- 
shire lady, who died fifty-five years and a half later, and by 
whom he left surviving issue-Henry John, an architect, and 
district surveyor of Battersea under the 1\1etropolitan Board of 
,\1 orks; Joseph Stanislaus, F.R.I.B.A., partner with, and suc- 
cessor to, his father; Sophia, wife of 1'1r. George Bernard May- 
cock, an eminent designer in painted glass, &c., and member of 
the firm of Hardman Powell & Co., of Birmingham; and 
Winifred l'Iary, wife of Mr. George Edward Hardman. 
After his marriage 1'1r. Hansom settled in Halifax, where he 
took a place as assistant to 1'1r. Oates, architect, and there, for 
the first time, he had the opportunity of working in the Gothic 
branch of architecture. In this office he made the friendship 
of Mr. Edward \Velch, with whom in 1828 he entered into 
partnership, Together they were engaged on a gaol and a 
terrace of houses at Beaumaris; churches at Toxteth Park, 
LÌ\'erpool, Acomb, and Hull, all gained in competition; three 
churches in the Isle of Man; a dispensary at York, &c. In 
1831 both Mr. Hansom and Mr. \Velch sent in distinct designs, 
out under the joint names, for the Birmingham town hall
 and 
rvlr. Hansom's design, conceived in the classical style of the day, 
;after the model of a Grecian temple, was declared the first in 
merit. The work was commenced on April 27, 1832, but un- 
fortunately the estimates of the contractors proved much too 
a0\V to cover the bare cost of erection, and although great 
ångenuity and fertility of resource were displayed by lVIr. Hansom 
in economizing labour, in the arrangement and transport of the 
maTble, which had to be brought from Anglesey without the 
modern facility of railways, the contract proved disastrous to 
the builders. Under these circumstances Mr. Hansom was 
placed in the position of builder as well as architect, for the 
town commissioners had required him to become bond for the 
builders. He had endeavoured to evade such an imposition, 
but no alternative was allowed but to throw up the work alto- 
gether, and, as he put it in a pamphlet issued in 1834, he 
"was, therefore, obliged to submit or forego the object of my 



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OF TIlE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


I 17 


ambition." The result was that he was landed in bankruptcy. 
In maturer years he always blamed himself for consenting to 
such terms; but it will readily be understood that to a young 
man the temptation to acquire fame was very great. 
Coming at such a time of life, the blow was a heavy one 
to bear, and for some short time he had to content himself with 
such small works as came in his way, until 1'1r. Dempster 
Hemming, of Caldecote HalI, struck with the amount of eru- 
dition and business aptitude he displayed, put him in charge of 
all his affairs, including banking, coal-mining, estate manage- 
ment, &c., which he carried on together with his profession
 
This engagement was to come to an unexpected end. The 
way rv1r. Hemming's large fortune was dissipated is a matter 
of notoriety amongst the readers of causes célèbres, and when 
the connection ceased, :ßlr. Hansom's pecuniary position was. 
little better than before. 
It was at 1\1r. Hemming's wish that 1\Ir. Hansom perfected and 
brought out his idea for the" Patent Safety Cab," an invention 
which his busy and ingenious brain had suggested before his. 
departure from Birmingham. On Dec. 23, 1834, he took out 
his patent, and subsequently disposed of his rights to a company, 
the remuneration named being L 10,000. It is sad, however,. 
to relate, as in the case of many another inventor, that the pur- 
chase-money was never paid. Having put the company into a 
going and paying state, he retired from the management, with 
the double view of easing the company of expense and of 
devoting more time to his professional work. After this the 
company got into a bad state by mismanagement and excessive 
expenditure, and in IS 39 he volunteered to put matters straight 
within the space of three years, This he did in half the time, 
and it is believed that for this work he received the sum of 
L 300, the only money he ever received for all his time, talent, 
and labour involved. Under his management, as experience 
dictated, many improvements were made in the cab. There 
were, as usual, claimants to the credit of such improvements. 
The principle of "safety" which he studied is quite iost in the 
so-called "Hansom." This consisted in the suspended or 
cranked axle. The back seat was not in the original patent. 
Appended to the patent is another idea for a cab which was 
to be entered through the wheel, but no use was ever made of 
it, as he saw that the construction was hardly likely to stand 



118 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


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the strain of heavy traffic without unduly weighting the 
vehicle. 
This invention illustrates how quickly a habit is formed in 
these days, and how soon a name becomes historical. I t is 
given to few to see their names spelt with a small initial, a dis- 
tinction which assuredly marks extreme celebrity. The metro- 
polis would now be lost indeed without its favourite cab. "'Tis 
the gondola of London," said Lothair ; and in a climate too un- 
certain for the open fiacre of the Continent, the hansom is the 
most cheerful and airy vehicle at our command. 
In I 842 it occurred to him that the building trades and 
professions were sadly in want of some channel of intercom- 
munication and illustration, and on the last day of the year he 
brought out and founded .the Builder. \Vant of capital forced 
him to retire from the undertaking, and he had to content 
himself at the end of a year with a small payment, which 
the publishers offered him for his consent not to contest the 
right of proprietorship in the periodicaL The long con- 
tinued and present success of this pioneer of our architectural 
and building journals is an additional proof of Mr. Hansom's 
discernment. 
After this he devoted his energies almost entirely to the 
pursuit of his profession, being principally engaged on eccle- 
siastical and domestic work in the Gothic style, mostly for 
Catholics, he himself being a most devout member of the 
Church. 
From 1854 to 1859 he worked in partnership with his 
younger brother, l\lr. Charles Francis Hansom; from 1859 to 
1861, with his eldest son; and from 1862 to 1863, with 1'1r. 
Edward Welby Pugin, a union which had a disagreeable ter- 
mination. At the beginning of 1869 he took his second and 
youngest surviving son, who had previously been articled to 
him, into a partnership which lasted for eleven years, when) at 
his own request, he retired from the firm, retaining only a life 
interest in it. The last two years and a half of his life he 
devoted to the preparation for death, retaining all his mental 
faculties to the end, though sadly weak in body, which occurred 
at Fulham, June 29, 1882, aged 78. 
During his long career Mr. Hansom resided in various parts of 
the country. He commenced practice at Halifax, and was after- 
wards at Liverpool, Birmingham, Hinckley, Caldecote, London, 



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OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


119 


York, Eckington, Preston, Edinburgh, Clifton, Ramsgate, and 
.again at London from 1862 until his death. 
\Vhile he was residing in Preston, from 1847 to 1854, he 
was induced to open what was intended to be a great religious 
art school, at the Hermitage, Edinburgh, in 1852. In this he 
was warmly encouraged by Bishop Gillis, who promised to take 
half the risk. This promise the bishop was unable to fulfil, and 
1\lr, Hansom, who had simultaneously kept up his residence in 
Preston, was obliged to abandon his attempt to found an art 
school in 1854. He always, however, cherished his idea of a 
great establishment of art learning, and being brought profes- 
sionally into connection with Robert O\ven at Titherley, Hants, 
the intercourse ripened the idea. But 1\lr. Hansom felt a vacuum 
in Owen's scheme, the latter being an atheist, whereas the former 
felt the necessity of religion being the basis of Christian art. 
During the great reform and other agitations 1'1r, Hansom 
was allied with Sir Francis Burdett, Schofield, Attwood, Lewis, 
&c., and took an active part, his power of homely language 
appealing strongly to the masses. The government at that 
time contemplated his arrest, He had nevertheless strong 
Conservative instincts, which grew stronger as he advanced in 
years, 
His character was one of much power, mingled with still 
greater gentleness. Although proud of and thoroughly loyal 
to his art, he was singularly free from that professional hauteur 
which refuses to modify plans once formed, and disdains to 
consult the tastes, or may be prejudices, of others. He knew 
.how to distinguish between accidents and essentials, and did not 
shrink from sacrificing cherished thoughts and labour freely, so 
long as the sacrifice involved nothing derogatory to art or good 
taste. To the clerks and pupils under him he was full of kind- 
ness, and many there were who sought every opportunity of 
evincing the respect they entertained for him, 
Builder, vol. xliii. p, 43; Tablet, vol. Ix. p. 51 ; IVcekly 
Register, vol. lxvi. pp, 50 and 59; Cath, Times, July 7,1882, 
p, 5; J. S. Ha1lsom, Letter to Editor, Catk A1l1lual Reg., 
1 8 5 o. 
I. Pamphlet relative to Birmingham Town Hall, 1834. 
2. Lecture: First of a Series on Architecture, as delivered in 
the Music Hall, Store Street, in reference to the erection of the 
'proposed Metropolitan Music Hall. Lond, 18.p, 8vo. . 



120 


DIBLIOG RAPHICAL DICTION AR Y 


[RAN.. 


3, The Builder: A Journal for the Architect, Engineer, Ope r 
rative, and Artist, weekly, founded and edited by Mr. Hansom, Dec. 317' 
1 8 4 2 . 
No, 49, Jan, 13, 1844, contained an article reflecting on Aug, \Velby 
Pugin and his design of St. George's Cathedral, Southwark, which l\lr.' 
Hansom disclaimed in The Tablet, vol. v. p. 53, as not inserted with his. 
s,mction, or expressive of his views, but at the instance of Messrs, Cox, the 
printers, who had as
umed the power of managemeut by virtue of a deed uF 
trust, and engaged a gentleman to take part in the editing of the paper, 
4. On Nov. 
4, 1864, Mr. E. \Velby Pugin wrote an ill-advised letter to 
The Tablet, vol. xxv. p. 763, in which he reflected, in somewhat ambiguous 
and contradictory terms, on the character of Mr. Hansom and the partner- 
ship which had subsisted between them. 1\1r, Hansom being at the time on 
the Continent, his son-in-law, 1\1r. Maycock, satisfactorily cleared his repu- 
tation in a letter to the same journal, p. 779. 
5. Examples of his skill and taste are to be seen in ail parts of the king- 
dom, and some of his designs ,vere carried out in Australia and South 
America, His best and principal achievement is the noble c'hurch at 
Arundel, designed for the Duke of Norfolk, The church of the Holy Name. 
Manchester, is remarkable for the extensive application of terra-cotta, the 
roof being grained with that material. Mr. Hansom was one of the 
principal promoters oÍ the use of terra-cotta for ecclesiastical purposes, and 
some twenty years ago informed the writer that he once established a terra- 
cotta works in Durhan 1 , or the North of England, to perfect the manufacture. 
The spire, 306 ft. high, of St. Walburge's, Preston, is an exceedingly fine 
specimen of his skill. 
Hanson, William Alphonsus, O.S.B., was a native of 
Barrowford, a township in the parish of \Vhalley, co. Lancaster. 
His mother was probably a member of the ancient family of 
Hesketh of Rufford, who were Catholics at this time, and resided 
much on their estate at l\IIartholme, in Great Harwood. Mr. 
Hanson assumed his mother's name, and after his profession at 
St. Gregory's Benedictine monastery, Douay, Feb. 15, 1615, was. 
generally known as Ildephonse Hesketh. 
He was educated and ordained a secular priest at the English 
seminary at Seville, and afterwards joined the Benedictines, as. 
previously stated. He was then sent on the English mission, 
but returned to the Continent and taught philosophy, both at 
Douay and St. Edmund's, Paris. After some time he was again 
sent to England, and served the mission in Yorkshire, During 
the civil wars he was seized near York with another Benedictine, 
Fr. Francis Boniface Kemp, or Kipton, by Parliamentary sol- 
diers, who treated them with great cruelty on account of their. 
religious character. They were driven on foot by the troopers 
in the heat of summer, and so completely exhausted that they 



HAR.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


121 


both expired before arrival at their destination or soon after- 
wards. 1'1r. Blount, in his catalogue of those Catholics who 
died and suffered for their loyalty, asserts that they were slain 
"in cold blood near York. Their death is said to have occurred 
about July 26, 1644. 
_. He was probably brother to Dom l\Iaurus Hanson, O.S.B.,. 
professed in Spain, who served the mission in Lancashire, where 
he died March 15, 1630. In 1667 Richard Hanson, of Brier- 
cliffe, in the parish of \\'halley, with Ellen his wife, and their 
children Henry and l\largery, appear in the recusant rolls. 
Dola1l, TVeldoll:s Chron. Notes
' Snow, Belted. Necrology; Cllal- 
loner, filemoirs, vol. ii. p, 270, ed. 1742 ; Gillow, Lanc. Recltsa1lts, 
j1IS.
' Castlemain, Reply to the Allszuerof tilt: Catll.Apology, p. 283. 
Harborne, Richard, a major in the royal army, was dan- 
gerously wounded at lVlalpas, in Cheshire, during the civil wars, 
and died soon afterwards at Kendal, in vVestmoreland. 
He was probably a member of the family of Harborne or 
Hartburne, of Stillington, co. Durham. Of this family Edward 
Hartborne, alias Benett Lyncolne, priest, was imprisoned in 
the castle of Kingston-upon-Hull, Aug, 23, 1585. Some years- 
previous he resided with Christopher \Vatson, of Ripon (who 
died a prisoner for the faith in 1 58 I), and is described as "a 
learned and godly priest." Two other members of this family, 
apparently brothers, were Benedictines. The eldest, John Placid 
Hartburne, alias Commings or Foorde, born at Stillington, was 
ordained priest at the English College, Douay, in 1609, and 
passed to the mission in the following year, He was probably 
banished some years later, and returned to Douay and entered 
the Benedictine College there, where he was professed in 1617. 
He went to the English Benedictine monastery at Paris in 1629, 
and in 1639 he returned to the mission in the north of England, 
where he died, l\lay 30, 1655. He laboured with great zeal 
and fruit, often suffering imprisonment, and is stated to have been 
exceedingly charitable. ]\1artin Cuthbert Hartbourne, O.S.B.,. 
was likewise born at Stillington, professed at St. Gregory's,. 
Douay, in 16 I 4, and passed to the mission, where he died in 
16 4 6 . 
Castlemaill, Catll, Apology
' Morris, Troubles, Tlzird Series; 
Dolan, TVddoll'S Cilrol1, .1.Votes
' S1l0'if), Belled. Necrology. 
Harcourt, Henry, Father S.J., whose true 'name waS' 



122 


IHBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[RAR. 


Beaumont, was the third son of Sir Henry Beaumont, of Stough- 
ton, co. Leicester, Knt., by Elizabeth, d
ughter of Sir \Villiam 
Turpen, of Knoptoft, co. Leicester, Knt. He was born in 1612, 
entered the Society in 1630, and was made a spiritual coadjutor, 
May 24, 1643. After serving as camp missioner to the English 
forces in Flanders, he was sent to the English mission in the 
latter year. In 1649 he was serving the Lancashire District, 
and in 1655 he was in the Hants District. In 1672 he was in 
the Suffolk District, where he died l\íay I I, 1673, aged 61. 
Foley, Records SJ., vol. vii.; Southzl'cll, Ribadc1lcira's Bib. 
Script. SJ., p. 326; Oliz1er, Collecta1lea S.f,; Harl. Soc., Visit. 
(Jf Leicester. 
1. England's Old Religion Faithfully Gathered out of the 
Church of England. As it was written by Ven. Bede, almost a 
Thousand Years agoe (that is) in the year 698 after the Passion of 
our Saviour. By H. B. Antwerp, 1650, l:2mo. pp. 24::?, preface and 
errata 12 ff. 
Lowndes cites an edition, Antwerp, 1658, 121110., whilst Southwell, "Bib. 
Script. S.].," gives Lond, 1658, vide \V. Hurst,]. Stevens, and T. Stapleton. 


Harcourt, Thomas, Father S.J., martyr, 'z)idc Thomas 
Whitbread. 


Harcourt, William, Father S.J., martyr, vide \Villiam 
Barrow. 


Harcourt, William, Father S.J., whose true name was 
Aylworth, was a native of Monmouthshire, born in 1625. He 
entered the Society at Watten in 164 I, and having a great 
..desire for the Indian mission he passed to the Spanish province, 
to \vait an opportunity to embark for Peru and Paraguay. He 
was unable, however, to obtain a passport, and after spending 
.some time in studying theology there, he was recalled to his 
own province. He then taught philosophy for three years, 
and theology for eight more, at Liége, after which he spent 
nine years as a missioner, partly in Holland, and partly in 
England. 
\Vhilst in England he had some narrow escapes from arrest 
during the ferment raised by Oates' plot, and a large reward 
,was offered for his apprehension. He ultimately passed over 
to Holland in disguise, accompanying the Pierpoints, of Hol- 
beck Hall, Notts, with whom he resided. His constitution, 



HAR.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


12 3 


however, was broken down by his labours and sufferings in 
England, and he died at Harleim, three months after his arrival, 
Sept. 10, 1679, aged 54. 
Fr. Harcourt was a learned man, and a very successful 
teacher. He possessed great simplicity and candour of soul, 
a.nd practised severe austerities, both interior and exterior. 
Foley, Records S.J., vols. v. and vii.; Oliver, Collectallea SJ. ; 
De Backer, Bib. Ecriv. S.J. 
I. Metaphysica scholastica; in qua ab Ente par ejus V. pro- 
prietates disputando ad Deum, pleræque philosophicæ, et non 
paucæ theologicæ difficultates elucidantur. Coloniæ, 1675, fo1., with 
long dedicatory epistle to Gervase, Lord Pierrepoint. 
2. The Escape of the Rev. William Harcourt, vere Aylworth, 
from the hands of the Heretics, 1679. 1\15" in the Public Record 
Office, Brussels. Fr. Harcourt's account has been printed by Bro, Foley, 
"Records S.].," vol. V., from a copy in the Stonyhurst MSS" "Collectio 
Cardwelli," vol. i. p. 62. 


Hardesty, Robert, martyr, a young man of probity and 
piety, was apprehended by Sir \Villiam l\fallory on the suspi- 
cion of being a companion of \Villiam Spencer, a priest whom 
the knight had seized on the road some furlong behind. 
Though Hardesty denied that he knew Mr. Spencer, his horse 
and cloak were taken from him, his arms pinioned, and so 
carried through the city of York. He was there committed to 
the castle, where he gave vent to a fit of reHgious enthusiasm, 
described at some length in Fr. 1\10rris's "Ancient Editor's 
Note Book." In consequence of this he was straightforth 
carried for trial, with 1'1r. Spencer, before Lawrence Meares, a 
member of the council of the north. There being nothing to 
charge Hardesty for his life, a gaoler and his assistant were 
produced to depose that they had known him to relieve 
prisoners under their charge, and that he brought them venison 
and other relief on various occasions. On this evidence the 
young man was condemned as in cases of felony for relieving 
priests, and was executed accordingly at York, along with 
Mr. Spencer, Sept. 24, 1589. 
The name Hardesty repeatedly appears in the lists of Y ork- 
shire recusants. A student named vVilliam Hardesty was 
sent from Douay to Rome in I 58 I. In the last century there 
were two Benedictines of the name, and Fr. J ohn Tempest, S.J., 
was also known as Hardesty. 



12 4 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAR. 


lIiorris, Troubks, Tltird Scries
' Cllalloncr, lIfemoirs, vol. i. ; 
DOl/flY Diaries; Foley, Roman Diary; Peacock, Yorkshire 
Papists. 
Harding, Tholnas, D.D., a native of Bickington, or 
Combe :l\1artin, co. Devon, was educated at Winchester School, 
and was admitted a fellow of New College, Oxford, in 1536, 
after two years' probation. He completed his degree of l'LA. 
in 1542, in \vhich year he was appointed to the Hebrew pro- 
fessorship by Henry VIII., and shortly afterwards became 
chaplain to Henry Grey, Marquess of Dorchester, afterwards 
Duke of Suffolk. In this position he would no doubt meet 
with the Lady Jane Grey, but this does not prove the assertion 
of Prebendary Jones, in his U Diocesan History of Salisbury," 
that he instructed her in the doctrines of the Reformation. 
Like many other eminent divines who lived during the de- 
spotic reigns of Henry VIII. and his successor Edward VI., 
Dr. Harding either failed to appreciate the fundamental changes. 
which were taking place in the religion of the country, or con- 
formed to the times under coercion, weakly trusting that the 
strong faith of the nation would assert itself under succeeding 
sovereigns. 
In I 552 he was admitted B.D., and as soon as Queen 1'1ary 
ascended the throne, in the following year, he strongly denounced 
the changes which had taken place in religion and the aoctrines 
of the so-called reformers. In 1554 he completed his degree 
of D,D., was made prebendary of vVinchester, and on July 17, 
1555, received the appointment of treasurer of Salisbury. 
Dr. Harding was one of the first to be deprived of his pre- 
ferments after the accession of Elizabeth to the throne, and a 
more complaisant divine was installed in his treasurership in 
the beginning of Jan. I 5 59. Fearing imprisonment, he retired 
to Louvain, where he was soon followed by many of those 
distinguished exiles whom Rishton describes without exaggera- 
tion as the U flower of the universities." There they settled, 
under the friendly shelter of Philip 11., and eagerly took up 
the chaUenge. made at Paul's Cross, in the Lent of I 560, by 
John Jewel, the great Protestant champion, who had been 
placed by Elizabeth in the See of Salisbury in that year. 
Facile princeps among these able controversialists, says Sanders, 
was Dr. Thomas Harding, fellow of New College, Oxford, said 
to be the best Hebraist at the university. 



HAR.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


125 


In the midst of this controversy Pius V. assumed the pon- 
tificate, and immediately after his election turned his attention 
to the deplorable confusion of the Church in England caused 
by its episcopal denudation. In a consistory held in 1 566 he 
appointed Dr. Harding and Dr. Sanders as apostolic delegates, 
with powers to give faculties to priests in England for absolving 
from heresy and schism, and "With a special commission to make 
known the papal sentence that to frequent the Protestant Church 
-services was a mortal sin, and a practice under no circumstances 
whatever to be tolerated or justiñed. Fuller, in his "Church 
History," referring to this mission, states that "Harding and 
Saunders bishop it in England, A,D. 1568"; others have 
thought that neither of them ever again entered England. There 
some trace, however, that Dr. Harding was in England about 
that period, though probably but for a short time. 
He died in Sept. 1 572, aged 59, and was buried on the 16th 
of that month in the church of St. Gertrude, Louvain. 
All writers admit that Dr. Harding was a remarkably learned 
man. He was an excellent linguist, a solid divine, and well- 
-read in history. These abilities are displayed to great advan- 
tage in his controversy with Jewel, who, though a classical 
scholar and a good orator, was no linguist, and an entire 
stranger to the writings of the Fathers until the time of his 
penning his appeal to the first six ages of the Church. 
Dr. Harding was also of great assistance to Cardinal Allen in 
founding the English College at Douay, and his unbounded 
generosity to the distressed exiles from England is repeatedly 
extolled. 
It was he who persuaded Richard Hopkins to commence a 
series of translations from Spanish devotional works, by which 
he affirmed that more souls would be gained from schism 
than by controversial treatises. l'Tr. Hopkins in acknowledging 
this refers to Dr. Harding as a man of "greate vertue, learn- 
inge, wisdome, zeale, and sinceritie in writinge against hæresies ; 
of very godlie and famous memorie." 
Dodd, Cll. Hist., vol. ii. p. 95 ; Pitts, De Illits. AJlgl. Script., 
p. 7 68 ; IVood, Athe71æ OXOll., ed. 1691, vol. i. p. 138; Law, 
Vallx's Catechism, alld Letter to the writer,. Sanders, De Visib. 
.lI10narchia, IVirccburgi, 1592, p. 664; Stryþc, Anllals of the 
Reform, ed. 1735, vol. i. eh. xxv., xlv. and xlviii.; Hopkills, 
Godlie J.1Iedit., ed. 1582, r.:pistle. 



126 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAR
 


I. An Answere to Maister Juelles Challenge, by Doctor Hard- 
ing. Lovaine, John Bogard, 1 56-t-, 4to.; Douaie, John Bogard, 1564, 4to., 
ff. 193 besides table; Antwerpe, \Villiam Sylvius, 1565, 16mo., Gg, in eights, 
"augmented with certaine quotations and additions," &c. 
This was elicited by certain challenges made by John Jewel, Bishop of 
Salisbury, partly in his sermons at Paul's Cross, and at the Court, in 1560, 
and partly in letters to Dr. Henry Cole, wherein he challenged all men of the 
Catholic religion, without exception, upon twenty-seven articles, or rather 
portions of them, then under controversy. These were immediately responded 
to by Cole, Dorman, Feckenham, Harpsfield, Heskins, Marshall, Rastall, 
Sanders, and Stapleton, all eminent doctors, with such ability and con- 
clusiveness that many Protestant divines frankly acknowledged that Jewel 
had overshot himself in promising to conform to the Catholic Church if any 
of the Fathers of the first 600 years after Christ could be proved to have 
taught any of the said articles. His appeal to the Fathers was considered a 
mere rhetorical flight adapted to the pulpit, and not intended for strict 
scrutiny. Jewel, however, resolved to go on, and in consequence found him- 
self obliged to impose upon the world with false quotations from ancient 
writers in order to support his appeal, which he did with the same rash 
assurance as displayed in his challenge. This work appeared anonymously 
under the title of" Apologia Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ," ill 1 562, having been 
written, Strype says (" Annals," ed. 1735, vol. i. p. 284), in the previous 
year, and it was first published in Latin, with the approbation of the queen, 
and the consent of the other bishops, and afterwards translated into English, 
Greek, and other languages. The first translation, by Lady Anne Bacon, 
wife of Sir Nic. Bacon, Knt., was entitled, "An Apologie or Answer in 
Defence of the Church of England: with a brief and plain Declaration of 
the true Religion professed and used in the same. By John J uell, Bishop of 
Salisbury." Lond. 1562, 4to. ff. 70, which differs somewhat from the same 
lady's English translation of 1564- 
2. To Maister John Jeuell. Antwerp, 12 Junii, 1565, large broad- 
sheet, printed on one side only, reprinted in Strype's "Annals of the 
Reform.," ed, 1735, vol. i_, App. p. 7 1 . 
On May 27, 1565, Jewel preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, in"which he 
passed some untruthful and offensive observations on Harding's" Answer." 
This coming to the Doctor's ears, then at Antwerp, he addressed the above 
letter to the bishop, who had stated in his" Sermon" that his" Reply" was then 
in the press. He appended a letter" To the Reader," in which he drew 
attention to his request to the bishop for a copy of his printed" Sermon," of 
which he was only in possession of an abstract. Jewel's" Replie unto l'vI. 
Hardinges Answeare; by perusinge whereof, the discrete and diligent reader 
may easily see the weake and unstable groundes of the Romaine Religion, in 
27 Articles, which of late hath beene accompted Catholique," appeared in 
folio, Lond. 1565 and 1566," which was esteemed," says Francis \Valsing- 
ham, in his" Search made into l\latters of Religion," 1609, pp. 16-t--7," to have 
beene made by the joynt labours of the most learned men in EnglaRd, both 
in London and the Universities.;' He adds, "This was the cause, as 
I understood, that those doctors also of the Roman Religion that were 
in banishment devided their labours for confutation of this Reply. For 
D. Harding himself made two Rejoynders; first about one article only which 



HAR.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


12 7 


was the first; the second answered to three. D. Sanders also wrote divers 
bookes against divers of those articles, as 'The Rocke of the Church,' against 
the 4th, and another' Of the RealI Presence,' against the fifth, and a third 
booke ; Of Images,' against the 14th. D. Stapleton wrote his' Returne o( 
U ntruthes,' especially against the first 4 articles of 1\1, J ewells. Others wrote 
other bookes of divers subjects, as namely-D. Heskins his' Parliament of 
ancient Fathers for the Reall Presence;' D. Pointz of the' Reall Presence" 
in like manner; D, Allen wrote one booke of 'Purgatory,' and another of 
the 'Authority of Priests;' 1\1r. Rastall, diver5 bookes, whereof one was 
intituled 'Beware of 1\1. Jewel: another 'The Confutation of 1\1. J ewells 
Sermon at Paules Crosse,' and a third whose title is ' A Reply against a false 
named Defence ofthe Truth,' and a fourth, ' A briefe shew of the False Wares 
packt togeather in the named Apology of the Church of England;' M
 
Martian wrote a speciall booke ' Of the Crosse aud honor due unto it,' which 
was printed upon the year
 1564, and a defence of the same afterward against 
M. Calfhill." 
3. A Rejoindre to M. Jewel's Replie, by perusing whereof, the 
discrete and diligent Reader may easily see the Answer to parte 
of his Insolent Chalenge justified, and his Objections against the 
Masse; whereat the Priest sometime receiveth the Holy Mysteries 
without presant companie to receive with him, for that cause by 
Luther's Schoole called Private Masse, clearely confuted. By 
Thomas Harding, D.D. Antverpiæ, ex officina Joannis Fouleri, 15 66 ., 
4to., B.L. 
This able and exhaustive work plainly shows that there was no Catholic 
latitudinarianism in those days. He followed it with a second rejoinder- 
4. A Rejoindre to M. Jewel's Replie against the Sacrifice of the 
Masse, in which the doctrine of the Answere to the xvij Article 
of his Chalenge is defended, &c. Lovan ii, apud Joannem Foulerum, 
15 6 7,4 to . 
5. A Confutation of a book intituled an Apologie of the Church 
of England. By Thomas Harding, Doctor of Divinity. Antwerpe, 
Thon Laet, 156" 4to. pp. 351. 
Jewel now rejoined with" A Defence of the Apologie of the Churche of 
Englande, conteininge an Answcare to a certaine Booke, lately set foorth by 
M. Hardinge, and intituled 'A Confutation,''' &c., Lond. 1567, fo1., in which 
he acknowledged himself the author of the" Apologia." Charles Butler, "Hist. 
Memoirs," ed. 1822, vol. iv. P.413, says that Jewel's defence became even 
more popular with Protestants than his apology. 
6. A Detection of sundl'ie Foule Errours, Lies, Sclaunders, cor. 
ruptions, and other false Dealinges, touching Doctrine and other 
matters, uttered and practized by M. Jewel: in a booke lately by 
him set foorth, entituled, A Defence of the Apologie, &c. Louvanii, 
apud J oannem Foulerum, 1568, 4to.; id. 1569, 4to., divided into five books. 
Jewel was a miserable trimmer, and, as Dodd says, was .. so unfair, not to 
say unjust, in his quotations, that not only Harding had the advantage of 
exposing him to the world on that account, but some learned men of his own 
party became proselytes to t11e Catholic Church, when they compared his 
writings with those of the Fathers." Those who, like Prebendary Jones, in 



128 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAR. 


'his" Diocesan Hist. of Salisbury," consider that Jewel's cc Apology" is a" com- 
plete vindication of the Catholicity of the Church of England, and its justifica- 
tion in separating Ïtselffrom Rome," should avoid being misled by his undeni- 
able eloquence, but test for themselves the honesty and truth of his quotations. 
The bishop replied with" An Answere to a booke written by M. Hardynge, 
entituled, A Detection of Sundrie Fowle Errours, &c." Lond. 1568, fol.; and 
the controversy between the two then ended. 
7. History of the Divorce, MS., ascribed to him by Le Grand in his 
answer to Dr. Burnet, was more probably the work of Dr. Nic. Harpsfield. 
\Vood, "Athenæ Oxonienses," says that most of Dr. Harding's works were 
translated into Latin by Dr. \Villiam Reynolds, but for want of money they 
were never published. Dr. Reynolds, says Dodd, "Ch. Hist.," yo!. ii. p. 65, was 
.one of those Protestant divines who detected Jewel's misquotations. He had 
been a great reader of his works, and designed to translate some of them 
into Latin. His discovery of Jewel's 
ishonesty led to his conversion. 
Hardman, Mary Juliana, Sister of l\fercy, born April 26, 
181 3, who assumed the name of Mary in religion, was daughter 
of John Hardman, sen., of Birmingham, an opulent button- 
maker and medallist, by his second wife, Lydia vVareing. 
The Hardmans originally came from Lytham in the Fylde, 
co, Lancaster, being leaseholders under the Cliftons at Warton 
and Clifton-cum-Salwick. They were staunch Catholics, and 
several of them were convicted of recusancy at the Lancaster 
sessions holden Oct. 2, 1716. J ames Hardman left Lytham 
and settled at Birmingham about the middle of last century. 
His son John, born Aug. 3, 1767, entered into partnership 
with Mr. Lewis as button-makers and medallists, and in 1816 
executed a medallion for the English and Irish Catholics in 
honour of the reigning pontiff, Pius VII. He was married 
three times, first, to Juliana Wheetman, secondly, to Lydia 
\Vareing, and thirdly, to l'1rs. Barbara Sumner, ?lée Ellison. 
By his first wife he had a large family, of whom Lucy alone 
survived, and married "VVm. Powell, whose son John Hard- 
man Powell married Anne, eldest dau. of Augustus v.. T elby 
Pugin, the eminent architect. By his second wife Mr. Hard- 
man had also a large family, among whom were l'Tary and 
Juliana, Sisters of Mercy; Eliza, an Augustinian nun, first at 
Spetisbury House, and afterwards at Newton Abbot, where 
she died in 1876; and John, who married Anne, dau, of 
Geo. Gibson, of l\Tanchester, formerly of York. IV'Ir. Hard- 
man was a man of great charity. He subscribed largely to 
the founùation and support of St. Peter's chapel, the first place 
of Catholic worship publicly opened in Birmingham since the 



RAR.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


12 9 


destruction of the Franciscan chapel in the reign of James II. 
He was equally generous towards the building and furnishing 
,of St. Chad's Cathedral, and towards the bishop's house and 
schools attached to that church. Besides founding the convent 
of St. Mary's, which will be spoken of later, he left a foundation 
of L I 000 towards the maintenance of the Catholic schools of 
the town, and supplemented the endowment of St. Thomas' 
Charity, which had been founded by his friend and partner, 
Mr. Thomas Lewis. He was one of the founders of "The 
Catholic Sick and Burial Society," which began its career on 
May 2 5, 1795, and is still in existence under the title of " The 
Birmingham R.C. Friendly Society." He may be credited 
with like honour in respect of the Orphanage for Catholic Girls 
at Maryvale, as that institution arose from a similar charity 
which he had founded and supported near to his own residence. 
He died after a long and painful illness, Aug. la, 1844, aged 
77. His funeral was attended with the greatest ceremony that 
the Catholics of Birmingham had darcd to exhibit since the 
so-called Reformation. He was buried in a chantry in the 
crypt of the cathedral, which had been presented to him as a 
freehold gift by Bishop \rValsh in acknowledgment of his bene- 
factions. Bishop \Viseman, subsequently cardinal, delivered 
the funeral oration. A good portrait of him exists at St. 
Mary's Convent, Handsworth, painted by J. R. Herbert, R.A., 
representing him as kneeling, with the convent he had erected 
in the background. 
Juliana Hardman was educated in the Benedictine convent 
at Caverswall. In 184 I her father founded the convent of Our 
Lady of Mercy at Handsworth. He gave the land, erected the 
buildings, and provided everything necessary for the use of the 
sisters, at a cost of L 5335. John, 16th Earl of Shrewsbury, 
supplemented this sum by a donation of L 2000. In the previous 
year TvIiss Hardman and three other ladies, the 1'1isses Bond, 
Edwards, and Wood, offered themselves to Bishop \VaÌsh to 
form the community. Under his patronage and advice they 
proceeded to Ireland, and placed themselves under the direction 
of l\'Iother Mary Cath. lVlcAuley, foundress of the Institute of the 
Sisters of Mercy, St. Catherine's Convent, Baggot Street, Dublin. 
After 'some months they were followed by the :Misses Borini and 
Polding. They made their religious profession, Aug. 19, 184 I, 
and the next day sailed for England, from which time is dated 
VOL. III. K 



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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAR_ 


the commencement of the community at Handsworth. On 
their arrival at the convent, Aug, 2 I, they were received by 
Bishop vViseman, coadjutor to Bishop vValsh. They proceeded 
to the chapel, and a solemn Te DClllll was sung for this first 
establishment of an active community of religious women in 
the Central District, where already many convents of contempla- 
tive orders were flourishing, 
On Sept. 6, Bishop \Valsh appointed Sister Mary Juliana to. 
be the first Superioress of the convent. She filled this office 
thirty-five years out of the forty-two she spent in religious life p 
during which time fifty-nine sisters were professed at St. Mary's.. 
Amongst her many good works may be mentioned the 
foundation of a convent of her institute at Nottingham, in 
1844; the building of a House of IVlercy for respectable 
servants out of place, at Handsworth, in the same year; and. 
the erection of the church of St. Mary's, attached to the convent 
in Brougham Street, Birmingham, in 1847. She also established 
a community at St. Chad's, afterwards transferred to St. Anne'spo 
Birmingham, in the latter year, and another convent, St. 
Joseph's, vVolverhampton, in 1849. She built an almonry for 
the daily relief of the poor, and opened poor-schools in 185 o. 
She established the orphanage which had been commenced on 
a small scale by her father at Maryvale (Old Oscott College),. 
and placed it under the care of sisters of her community. Later, 
this was formed into a separate establishment under her sister p 
:Mother l\lary of the Cross, who had joined her in 1843, and 
died 
Iarch IS, 1855. In 1858 she erected a boarding-school 
for children of the middle classes; in I 872, a second set of 
elementary schools for the working classes; and in I 874 she 
established a middle-class day-school for children of both sexes. 
Only a few weeks before her death she consented, at the wish 
of her ecclesiastical superiors, to establish poor-law certified 
schools for the reception of Catholic girls in the parish of 
Birmingham, a work which has been successfully carried out 
since her death, She died at her convent after a short illness, 
March 24, I 884, aged 70. 
1'1other Juliana was, it may be said, the embodiment of the 
rule of her institute in her humility, solid piety, and self- 
sacrifice; a living rule to those whom she governed with such 
loving, wise, and gentle prudence. Her unassuming and retir- 
ing ways impressed all \\ ho came in contact with her. She 
said little, but performed great works. 



BAR.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


13 1 


Her brother John, already referred to, deserves notice. Be 
was partner with his father for many years, until, becoming 
acquainted with the elder Pugin, he became enthusiastically 
interested in the great Catholic revival of all the external 
adjuncts of religion inaugurated about that time. It was in 
1838 that he founded the well-known ecclesiastical metal-works, 
to which, in 1845, he added stained-glass works. For many 
years he was in daily communication with Pugin. In connec- 
tion with him a studio of Christian art was formed at Rams- 
gate, where for some years the cartoons for stained-glass 
windows were executed. It was then transferred to the works 
at Birmingham. 
But Mr. Hardman did not confine his attention solely to the 
English renaissance in ecclesiastical art. He was equally in- 
terested in and took an active part in the great Catholic revival 
of his time. Like his father, he was very generous, and con- 
tributed largely to St. Chad's church and schools, and to the 
various additions to St. l\lary's Convent, as well as to the 
building of St. Mary's church, Birmingham. He was also a 
benefactor to the Catholic cemetery at ::N echells, and to St. 
Chad's grammar-school, although the latter institution did not 
afterwards prosper. He displayed a deep interest in the 
tractarian movement, and was well known to the leading 
converts. He took a prominent part in collecting means
 
contributing himself 
 I 000, for the defence of Dr. (now 
Cardinal) Newman, when an action was brought against him 
by the notorious Achilli in Nov. I 85 I. He was also one 
of the promoters of the public meeting held in the town hall, 
Birmingham, Dec, I I, I 850. This meeting assisted greatly in 
stemming the tide of bigotry that had been raised throughout 
the country by the re-establishment of the hierarchy by Pius IX" 
and had resulted in the passing by parliament of that now 
abortive measure known as the Ecclesiastical Titles Act. 
The imprisonment in \Varwick gaol of Bishop Ullathorne, 
and Dr. Moore, the president of Oscott College, in May, IS 53, 
at the instance of the liquidators of the Monmouthshire and 
Glamorganshire Bank, again enlisted the sympathies of Mr. 
Hardman. - .The action, however, failed because the ecclesiastics 
mentioned were only interested as trustees for one of the dio- 
cesan missions, and they were speedily released, though not until 
heavy legal and other costs had been incurred, towards which 
l'Ir. Hardman generously contributed. Another work in which 
K2 


\ 



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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAR. 


.he took a leading part was the establishment of the Catholic 
reformatory for boys at Mount St. Bernard's, in Charnwood 
Forest, in 1855-6. 
One of Mr. Hardman's greatest works, however, was the 
foundation in St. Chad's Cathedral, Birmingham, of a choir, 
which still continues, for the performance of the Gregorian 
chant. This was done in connection with the late Rev. Henry 
Formby, and l\1r. John Lambert, of Salisbury, now K.C.B. 
After the erection of St. Chad's Cathedral he was pressed by 
Pugin upon the inconsistency of singing such music as that of 
Haydn and lVlozart in church at all, but more especially in such 
.churches as professed to be a revival, as near as the means 
available would allow, of the solemn mediæval temples which 
the England of old built to the glory of God, and which were 
never profaned by the secular strains too frequent in our modern 
churches. Hardman came slowly and deliberately into Pugin's 
views, He resolved that there should .be in England at least 
-one choir after the old model. With the hearty sanction of 
Bishop Ullathorne he gave himself up to the formation of a 
.choir ad hoc. He was gifted with a baritone voice of more than 
average compass and power. IVlany men can begin a work; few 
carry a difficult one through. Those acquainted with the details 
of choir management will understand the zeal and energy which 
alone could induce a man immersed in business to superintend 
personally, for eighteen years, the bi-weekly rehearsals of a choir, 
and to stand as cantor for that period at almost every service of 
the church. Although his munificence made him a benefactor 
<>f the choir until his death, and induced him to leave an en- 
dowment of J; 1000 for the continuance of his work, still, even 
his generosity in this respect is by no means so great a test and 
evidence of his earnestness as his persistent personal attention to 
the routine and dry work of choir practice. He was not extreme 
in his views, nor was he an exclusive theorist. All that granà 
--nass of harmonized music produced by the grea
 masters of the 
sixteenth ccntury he looked upon as an heirloom in the Church, 
but he saw at the same time that the solemnity and simplicity 
of the Gregorian chant was both best suited to the sacredness 
of the divine offices, and would serve as a standard by which to 
judge of the appositeness and propriety of such harmony as 
should be introduced into the service. 
At length he became an invalid, doubtless accelerated by his 
numerous labours, and retired to Clifton, near Bristol, where he 



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OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


133 


died, May 29, 1867, aged 55. He was buried with his father 
in the crypt of St. Chad's Cathedral, Birmingham. 
Tablet, vol. xxxi. pp, 344, 358, lxiii. 59 I ; Catlt. Times, 
April 4, 1884; Records of St. Cllad's Cathedral a1ld St. .lIfary'
 
COll1 J ellt, Birlll., MS 5.; Ortltodox Journal, 18 16, vol. iv. p. 226. 
Harman, John, Bishop of Exeter, vide John Veysy. 
Harpsfield, John, D.D., born in Old Fish Street, in the 
parish of St, Mary Magdalen, London, was the grandson of 
Nicholas Harpsfield, Esq. This gentleman in 1472 was in the 
custody of Bishop \Vayneflete, and detained in the episcopal 
prison of Wolvesey Castle, having been indicted and convicted 
of homicide, and subsequently claimed from the king's prison as. 
a clerk by the bishop, in accordance with thc ecclesiastical laws,. 
as entitled to the benefit of clergy. The offence was committed 
at Windsor Castle on Aug. 2 I, 147 I, and the bishop's com- 
mission for his purgation and delivery from VV olvesey prison is. 
dated Aug. 29, 1472, so that he probably obtained his release 
before the close of the year. 
John Harpsfield studied his classics with his younger brother 
Nicholas, at vVinchester School. Thence removing to New 
College, Oxford, he was made a fellow in 1534, and c<Jmpleted 
his degrees in arts. Afterwards he was appointed chaplain to 
Dr. Bonner, Bishop of London, and being inducted into a good 
benefice in that diocese, resigned his fellowship about 155 I. 
In the beginning of Mary's reign, having been created 
D.D., he was promoted to the archdeaconry of London, about 
1554, in the place of John vVymsley. In 1558, shortly 
before the queen's death, he was made dean of Christ Church,. 
Norwich, the former dean, John Boxall, having other duties to 
perform. 
\Vhen Elizabeth ascended the throne Dr. Harpsfield was 
obliged to resign his deanery to John Salisbury, suffragan of 
Thetford, in I 560. He was then committed prisoner to the 
Fleet, where he remained about a year, when he was discharged 
upon finding surety that he should not act, speak, or write 
against the established church, The remainder of his lifc was 
spent in great retirement and devotion in the house of one of 
his relations in St. Sepulchre's parish, where he died, Aug. 19, 
157 8 . 
He was buried in the parish church, as appears from the 
letters of administration taken out by his nearest relative, Anpe 



134 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAR. 


vV orsopp. It was probably at this lady's house that he resided. 
She was the widow of John \Vorsopp, gent., and daughter of 
Richard Baron, Esq., citizen and mercer of London, by his wife, 
Alice Harpsfield. This Baron's father, Peter, of Saffron \Valden, 
co. Essex, was a serjeant-at-law, and was drowned in the Thames. 
Fox charges Dr. Harpsfield with persecution, but it must be 
remembered that he was obliged to carry out the measures 
against the so-called reformers by virtue of his office. There is 
no record that he exceeded the commands of the Council, or 
that he infused animosity into their execution. 
Wood, Athe1lCë OXOll" ed. 1691, vol. i.; Dodd, Cll. Hist., 
vol. ii.; Maitlil1Zd, Reformation
. Tablet, vol. xlvii. p. 536; 
Har!. Soc., Visit. of Lond., 1568. 
I. Concio quædam habita coram Patribus et Clero in Ecclesia 
Faulina Londini, 26 Octobris, 1553, in Act. cap. 20, 28. Lond., 
J. Cawodi, 1553, 16mo. D 4, in eights, half sheets, printed in neat italic type. 
2. Homilies to be read in Churches within the Diocese of 
London, printed at the end of Bishop Bonner's Catechism, or " A Profitable 
and Necessary Doctrine, with certayne Homelies, and decyned thereto for the 
instruction of the people within the Diocese of London." Lond. 1554,4to., 
ibid. 1555. 
3, Disputations and Epistles for the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity, 19 April, 1554, printed in Fox's" Acts and Monuments," in 
which Archp. Cranmer took a part. 
4. A notable and learned Sermon or Homilie upon St. Andrewes 
Daye last past, 1556. Lond., Rob. Caly, 1556. 16mo. pp. 19, 
5. Disputes, Examinations, Letters, &c., printed in Fox's" Acts and Mon." 
The exact date of his death is obtained from a MS. entry in a " Psalterium 
cum hymn is," 1 528, in the library of Exeter College, Oxford. Bridgewater, 

'Concertatio Eccles. Cath. in Ang1.," ed. 1594, f. 404. asserts that he died in 
prison, a confessor of the faith, but it is more probable that he was only under 
supervision as stated by Wood. 


Harpsfield, Nicholas, D.D., confessor of the faith, a native 
úf London, was, like his elder brother John, educated at vVin- 
chester and New College, Oxford. After serving two years' pro- 
bation at the latter, he was admitted true and perpetual fellow 
in 1536, about which time he commenced to study civil and 
canon law, in which he rose to great eminence. In 1544, being 
then bachelor of civil law, he was elected principal of \Vhite 
Hall, and two years later, in 1546, he was appointed king's 
professor of Greek by Henry VIII. During the reign of 
Edward VI. he was in exile, but returned when Mary succeeded 
to the crown. In that year, 1553, he took the degree of LL.D., 



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OF THE ENGLISH CA TIIOLICS. 


135 


resigned his fellowship, and practised in the Court of Arches. In 
1554, being then prebendary of St. Paul's, he was appointed 
archdeacon of Canterbury, in place of Edmund Cranmer, brother 
to the archbishop, who was deprived on account of marriage. 
He became judge of the Court of Arches, and also dean of the 
peculiars of Canterbury in I 558, having been made a pre- 
bendary Nov. I, I 5 58, just before the queen's death. 
After the accession of Elizabeth, Dr. Harpsfield was one of 
the seven Catholic divines elected to defend the Catholic cause 
against the Protestant party in a conference devised to give an 
appearance of fairness to the intended subversion of the ancient 
faith. Immediately afterwards he was committed prisoner to 
the Tower for his refusal to acknowledge the ecclesiastical 
supremacy of the sovereign, and there he was kept during the 
remainder of his life. The date of his death has been variously 
stated, but from some obituary notices written by a contcmporary 
in a psalterium in the library of Exeter College, Oxford, it 
appears that he died Dec. 18, 1575. 
Dr. Harpsfield's life in prison was spent no less for the interests 
of the public than for the good of religion. In his eulogium 
Leyland notices that he was most promising from his very youth, 
and that in all respects his life was equal to the character he 
bore. He was an excellent Grecian, a poet, and a faithful his- 
torian, in all of which he has left examples. 
TVood, Athellæ OXOIl., ed. 1691, vol. i. p. 171 ; Dodd, Ch. 
Hist., vol. ii.; Pitts, De Illus. Allgl Script., p. 780 ; The Tablet, 
vol. xlvii. p. 536, vol. Iii. p. 110; TVatt, Bib. Brit. 
I. Impugnatio contra Bullam Honorii Papæ primi ad Canta. 
brigiam, MS. 
2. Historia hæresis Wicleffianæ, MS., a copy of which is in the 
Lambeth Lib., 1. 5. It is included in the" Hist. Angl. Eccles.," edited by Fr. 
Rich. Gibbons, S.]., pp. 667-732, from the MS, then in the English College, 
Rome. 
3. Supputatio Temporum à Diluvio ad An. 1559. Lond. 1560, in 
Latin verse. \VaU, " Bib. Brit.," credits this work to Dr. John Harpsfield, as 
does also the" Catalogue MSS. in the Cottonian Lib.," 1802, p. 425, where the 
MS. is described as "Chronicon J ohannis Harpsfieldi, a Diluvio ad An, 1559 ; 
manu propria." The catalogue description of the other MS. is "ejusdem 
versus elegiaci, ex centuriis summatim comprehensi, de Historia Ecclesiastica 
Anglorum: manu item propria," Vitellius, c. ix. 185, b. 
4. Historia Anglicana Ecclesiastica, a primis gentis susceptæ 
fidei incunabulis ad nostra fere tempora deducta, et in quindecim 
centurias distributa: auctore Nicolao Harpsfeldio, Archidiacono 



13 6 


BIBLIOG RAPHICAL DICTION AR Y 


[HAR. 


Cantuariensi. Adjecta brevi narratione de Divortio Henrici 
VIII. Regis ab uxore Catherina, et ab Ecclesia Catholica Romana 
discessione, scripta ab Edmundo Campiano. Nunc primum in 
lucem producta studio et opera R. P. Richardi Gibboni Angli' 
Societatis Jesu Theologi. Duaci, 1622, fol., title, ded., preface, index, 
&c., ff. 12, pp. 779, approb, 1 p. 
This learned work is most carefully and accurately written. Pitts states. 
that the .l\JS, from which it was printed was then in the Eng. Coil., Rome. 
The MS. in the Cottonian Library, c. ix. nu. 12, is said to be in the author's. 
own hand; another MS. copy in 2 vols. is in the Lambeth Lib. \Yood states. 
that these copies contain many things which do not appear in the printed 
volume, especially with regard to the controversies between the Court of 
England and the See of Rome. 
5. Dialogi sex, contra summi Pontificatûs, Monasticæ Vitæ
 
Sanctorum, Sacrorum Imaginum Oppugnatores; contra Centu- 
rionem Magdeburgensium, auctorum Apologia Anglicanæ 
Pseudo-martyrologorum Joannis Foxi. Antverpiæ, IS66,4to.,ibid, 1573. 
A description of this work will be found under its editor, Dr. Alan Cope, 
the author being in prison at the time of its publication. 
6. Life of Sir Thomas More, 1556, MS. 
This was compiled from materials supplied by Roper and other friends of 
the Chancellor. So much of it as relates to the divorce is included in Lord 
Acton's philobiblion publication, "Harpsfield's Narrative of the Divorce,'" 
1877, sm. 4to. pp, 5-23. 
7. A Treatise on the Pretended Divorce between Henry VIII. 
and Catharine of Arragon. By Nicholas Harpsfield, LL.D., now 
first printed from a collation of four MSS., by Nicholas Pocock,. 
M.A., late Michael Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford. Camden 
Soc., 1878, 4to. pp. iX.-344. 
This publication is mainly taken from Eyston's transcript, " A Treatise of 
Marryage occasioned by the pretended Divorce of King Henry the Eighth 
from Queen Catharine of Arragon, divided into three Bookes written by the 
Reverend and learned Nicholas Harpsfield, LL.D., the last Catholic Arch- 
deacon of Canterbury. It is a copy of a manuscript whose originall was 
taken by one Topliffe, a Pursuivant, out of the house of \VilIiam Cart or, a 
Catholicke printer, in Queen Elizabeth's dayes, and came to the hands of 
Charles Eyston, by the favour of Mr. Francis Hildesly, R.S.}. in com. Oxon. 
Transcribed by \Villiam ;Eyston, Anno Dìïi 1707." This MS, has a dedica- 
tion by Charles Eyston to his son Charles, dated East Hendred, Jan. 19,. 
J7 06 -7. . 
Mr. Eyston, in his letter to his son, says, "This manuscript was lent 
me by Mr. Thomas Hildesley, R.S.J. in com. Oxon., uncle to your aunt 
Eyston," but the transcriber, 1\1r. Eyston's younger brother, says it came by 
the favour of 1\1r. Francis Hildesley, R.S.], Mr. \Villiam Hildesley, of Ben- 
ham, Berks, an ancestor of Fr. F1Ís. Hildesley, S.}., who died in 1717, was 
seized at Lyford, with Fr. Campion, in 1581. \Villiam Carter, the printer, 
was imprisoned several times, the last occasion being in I S84, in which year 
he was executed. It is not improbable, therefore, that \\Tilliam Hildesley 
obtained possession of the 1\'15. from Topcliffe. Two copies of the MS. are 



HAR.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


131 


at New College, O>..förd, and a fourth belongs to the Grenville Library in the 
Brit. Mus. 
This treatise, written with great accuracy, was apparently finished just 
before Queen Mary's death, and under Elizabeth publicd.tion was impossible. 
I t gives an account of the illegal proceedings at Oxford in obtaining the 
university seal to the decree in favour of the divorce. The work is quoted 
by vVood against Burnet, who himself admits that he had seen it, and the 
statements are confirmed by a work published in the beginning of Elizabeth's_ 
reign, by " A 11aster of Arts," entitled "An Apology of the Government of 
Oxford against King Henry VIII." Throughout the whole of Harpsfield's 
treatise Wolsey is considered as the author, intentional or unintentional, of 
the divorce. 
Lord Acton remarks that if the work had been less technical it would 
probably have been published by \Vood or by Hearne, for they knew its 
value. His lordship's publication, "Harps field's Narrative of the Divorce" 
(1877), sm. 4to. pp. 124, commences with some extracts from the Arch- 
deacon's Life of Sir Thomas More relative to the divorce, and from p. 25 
continues with "Harpsfield's Discourse of Marriage. An Answer to a 
Dialogue in English called the Glasse of Truth." The tract alluded to treats 
of the divorce of Henry VIII. from Catharine of Arragon, and determines in 
favour of the king. It is entitled "A Glasse of the Truthe." Imprinted bý 
Thomas Berthelet (1528), 16mo" F. 4, in eights. 
8, The Life of Cranmer, MS., ascribed to Dr. Harpsfield by Joachim 
E. Le Grand, in his" Histoire du Divorce de Henry VIII. et de Catharine 
d'Aragon, avec la Defense de Sanderus, la Refutation des deux premiers 
Livres de I'Histoire de la Reformation de Burnet, et les Preuves," Paris, 
1688, 8vo. 


Harrington, William, priest and martyr, born about 
156 6 , was one of the six sons of William Harrington, of l\fount 
St. J ohn, Yorkshire, Esq., by Ann, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Fairfax and his wife, Ann, daughter of Sir \Villiam Gascoigne. 
Like many other Catholics, the knightly family of Harrington 
did not return a pedigree at the heralds' visitations ofY orkshire 
in 1563-4, 1584-5, or 1612. The Harringtons of Huyton, in 
Lancashire, were probably descended from the same stock. 
It was at the house of \Villiam Harrington's father that Fr. 
Campion received hospitality for twelve days just before Easter, 
15 81 , and composed part of his famous "Decem Rationes." In 
the following year Harrington went over to Douay, where he ar- 
rived Sept. 25, 1582, and there joined the English College at that 
time at Rheims. He left the college Sept. 7, 1584, with the object, 
apparently, of joining the novitiate of the Jesuits at Tournay, 
but, on account of ill-health, left immediately, for in the begin- 
ning of the next month the government was informed that he 
was then residing at a tailor's, next door to the White Horse in 



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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAR. 


Holborn. On this information he was apprehended, but on 
account of his youth was released, or rather sent down to his 
father to be kept in his custody, at the motion of the Earl of 
Huntingdon, then Lord President of the North. He remained 
in Yorkshire about six years and a half, and then left home 
once more and proceeded to Dover, where he took ship and 
sailed to Flushing and 1'1iddelburgh, having acquaintance there 
with one Captain vVhite. Thence he went to see his old friends 
at DOllay College, where he arrived Feb, 28, 1591, and stayed 
there six weeks. After that he passed into France on his way 
to Rheims, but was taken prisoner at St. Quentins, and detained 
there seven or eight months, probably on suspicion of his being 
a spy in the Spanish interest. On his discharge he went to 
Rheims, where he was ordained deacon, Feb. 24, 1592, and 
priest, by the Bishop of Placentia, legate in France, in the fol- 
lowing month. He left the college, June 24, for Brussels, and 
thence returned to England, having visited Namur, Antwerp, 
St. Orner's, and Calais. 
In London he passed himself off as a young man of fashion, 
.and wore a pistol, which he had borrowed of some Catholic 
friend, He was apprehended in l\1ay, 1593, in the chamber of 
Mr. Henry Donne, a young gentleman of one of the Inns of 
Court, by 1\1r. J ustice Young, who committed him to Bridewell, 
and forthwith examined him. At first he declined to acknow- 
ledge himself a priest, although he would not directly say that 
he was not. At last, probably wearied out with torture, he 
confessed that he was a priest, ordained abroad, and that he had 
come into Engiand "to give testimony of God's truth, knowing 
that most priests were executed and the Church pulled down." 
At the next sessions, about the end of June, Harrington was 
removed to Newgate, and indicted of high treason. He pleaded 
No/guilty; and on Serjeant Drew, the Recorder, asking him "how 
he would be tried," he answered, "By God and the bench." 
He was told to say, "By God and his country," but he declared 
that he would not lay the guilt of his death on a jury of simple 
men; the bench was, or should be, wise and learned, and knew 
whether the law was just and the prisoner guilty; he would put 
himself on no other trial. He was then told that judgment 
would be pronounced against him immediately. He said he 
-was prepared for it. Puzzled and struck by Harrington's reso- 
lute answers, the Recorder respited judgment, and sent him 



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OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


139 


back to N ewgate. He was then taken before the Attorney and 
Solicitor-General to be examined, and was committed by them 
to the Marshalsea, from whence he wrote the noble letter, now 
in the State Paper Office (" Dom. Eliz.," vol. ccxlv. n. 66), to the 
Lord-Keeper Puckering. 
The Christian charity, childlike simplicity, and chivalrous 
manliness of this letter cannot be surpassed. It is quite, says 
Mr. Simpson, a psychological study, revealing, as it does, the 
-co-existence within the martyr's soul of two equal desires-the 
supernatural desire of martyrdom and the natural love of life. 
Perhaps it had some influence on the Council, for he was left 
quiet in the Marshalsea till Friday, Feb. 15, 1594, when he 
was suddenly taken to N ewgate, where the sessions were being 
held, and tried on his former indictment. He was again asked 
whether he would yet put himself upon his country; he replied 
that he was resolved not to do it. The Recorder said that if 
he thought that course would save his life he was much mis- 
taken, for that they might and would pass sentence upon him. 
The martyr answered that he knew it very well, for they had a 
precedent in York, where two priests, who would not involve 
more men than necessary in the guilt of their deaths, had been 
sentenced without jury. Thus, knowing that the jury would 
find him guilty, and that the judge would have to give sentence, 
he meant to free the jury, and lay all the guilt of his death on 
the judge and the bench. After this the Recorder sentenced 
him to be hanged, drawn, and quartered, and the Chief Justice 
()ffered him his life if he would but go to the Protestant Church, 
the refusal of which Harrington begged the people to mark was 
the sole cause of his death. 
After sentence he was removed to N ewgate, where he re- 
mained until the 1'10nday following, and was thence drawn, 
bound on a hurdle, to Tyburn, and there executed with even 
more than usual barbarity, Feb. 18, 1594, aged about 27. 
R. S imþsoll, Rambler, N,S., vol. x. p. 399; OÜ'uer, Collectio1ls, 
p. 3 1 9; Challoner, lIfemoirs, vol. i.; Morris, Troubles, Second 
Series, also MOllth, Third Series, vol. i. p. 411 ; Doltay Diaries. 


Harris, James, Father S.J., was born in London, Aug. 25, 
1824. His parents belonged to the humbler classes of society, 
and gave him just as much schooling as would suffice for the 
position of life which, in the ordinary run of events, he was 



140 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAR.. 


likely to occupy. Over and above he acquired a slender know- 
ledge of Latin, owing to the kindly interest of Dr. \Vesley, 
a clergyman of the English Establishment, in which James 
Harris was brought up, He entered his career as foreman or 
clerk in a hosier's shop. In the days when the anti-corn-law 
agitation was at its height, Harris, then a youth of seventeen, 
was not only admitted upon one of the London committees, but 
was chosen, among others, to speak at a large public meeting. 
His success was complete, and he resumed his seat amidst 
unanimous cheers and waving of handkerchiefs. In honour of 
the event, his young friends invited him to a convivial enter- 
tainment, and he returned home at so late an hour that his 
anxious mother exacted from him a promise that he would once 
for all abandon such political ambitions-a promise which he 
faithfully kept ever after. Thus it was that his bright prospects 
as a public speaker and political agitator were, fortunately for 
him, nipped in the bud. 
He was converted through a poor Irish lad, who attended 
upon him in his lodgings, lending him Bishop Milner's U End of 
Controversy," A short time after, he applied for admission into 
the Society of Jesus. After considerable difficulties, he was 
finally sent to Tronchiennes, in Belgium, in order to pass 
through his two years of probation as a novice, upon which he 
entered July 3 I, 1850, After he had taken his first vows at 
the end of his noviceship, he was sent to Namur, in order to 
pursue his philosophical studies, and at the end of his philo- 
sophy he was appointed assistant-surveillant in the college. 
There he remained for some years, and thence was sent for his 
theology to Louvain, at his own instance, and completed it at 
51. Beuno's College, North \Vales, where he was ordained priest 
by the Bishop of Shrewsbury, Sept. 22, 1861. In July of the 
following year he stood .. the great act," an honour most rarely 
conferred at St. Beuno's. It is the most severe public exami- 
nation known. It is made before a large assembly of auditors,. 
in the presence of the bishop, examiners, &c., anyone of whom 
may put questions. 
After his ordination he became minister at St. Beuno's; in 
Oct. 1862, was appointed professor of ecclesiastical history; and 
in 1864 was advanced to the chair of moral theology, all of 
which offices he fulfilled to the general content of the community. 
In 1865 he went to 51. Francis Xavier's College, Liverpool, 



llAR.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS, 


14 1 


where he was employed for the remainder of his life. He was 
at first appointed spiritual father and prefect of studies, and after 
teaching with marked success was raised to the superiorship of 
the college in 1879. Towards the close of his career his health 
became seriously impaired, and whilst on a visit to his brother 
at Kentish Town, London, he was seized with a severe attack 
of illness, and died suddenly, Dec. 4, 188 3, aged 59. 
There were two special traits in Fr. Harris' character. The 
one was his intense love of his vocation, and the other, his 
exquisite humour and sense of humour. To these largely must 
be attributed the wonderful success which attended his vast 
exertions in the noble college at Liverpool, which owes much 
of its present high standing to him. His popularity was 
not confined to the students. He was equally beloved by the 
congregation attached to St. Francis Xavier's, and the admir- 
able missionary retreats which he frequently gave, have made 
his memory respected over a wild area. 
Harper, Memoir,. Bro. Foley, Lettcr to the writer
' Catholic 
Directories. 
I. "Memoir of Father James Harris, S.J. By Fr. Thomas Harper, S.J.," 
Manresa press (Roehampton), 1884, 8vo., pp. 31. 
Harris, John, priest and martyr, was executed at 
Tyburn for refusing to acknowledge the spiritual supremacy 
of Henry VIII., July 3 0 , 1539. 
Dodd, CIt. Hist., vol. i.; lVilson, Eug. Martyrologc, Cat. of 
Martyrs. 
Harris, John, was the first and principal secretary to Sir 
Thomas More, Lord Chancellor of England, who made him his 
confidant. He married Dorothy Colley, the faithful maid and 
companion of Margaret Roper. When the great chancellor re- 
turned to the Tower after his condemnation, Dorothy was there 
to receive him, with his daughter Margaret, whom he loved so 
much. Being afraid that Sir Thomas would go away after kissing 
his child, and that she would not be able to say farewell herself, 
Dorothy suddenly seized the head of Sir Thomas, as he was 
leaning over his daughter's shoulder, and with great affection 
kissed her master before all the people, upon which Sir Thomas 
said to her, "Kindly meant, but not politely done." And in 
his last letter he wrote, "I like especial well Dorothy Colley ; 
I pray you be good unto her." In one of his notes to his 



14 2 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAR. 


daughter, written in the Tower with a coal, the chancellor calls 
] ohn Harris "my friend." 
At the commencement of Elizabeth's reign, Harris retired 
abroad with his wife and family, and eventually made himself . 
very useful at Douay College. \Vhen the college removed to 
Rheims in I 578, he accompanied it with his wife and five 
children, who, with the Bristow family, were permitted to reside 
within the college. Mr. Harris then went to Namur, where he 
died, Nov. II, 1579. 
He was a man of great gravity, solid judgment, fidelity and 
probity, astonishing industry and piety, and was possessed of 
more than average learning. One of his daughters, Alice
 
married the eminent printer, John Fowler, next to whom he 
was buried in the cemetery of St. John the Evangelist at 
Namur. 
Pz"tts, .De Illlls. A lzg-l. Script., p. 771 ; Dodd, Clt. H ist., vol. ii. ; 
Lewis, Sander's Angl. Schism; J1Iorris, Troubles, First Series; 
DOltay Diaries; AlIdill, Hist. de T. fl1"ore, p. 3 I. 
I. Collectanea ex Sanctis Patribus. 
Mr. Harris possessed a profound knowledge of the writings of the ancient 
Fathers, and the learned Fleming, Jacques Pamelius, made great use of his 
work in his editions of Tertullian and St. Cyprian. 
His widow supplied Dr. Thomas Stapleton with many MSS. and letters 
for his Life of Sir Thomas More. 


Harris, Raymond, Father S.J., vide Hormasa. 


Harris, Thomas, priest, was born of humble parents, at 
Warwick, Jan. I I, 1799. From his birth he was weak and 
sickly, and was never expected to live long. The peculiar in- 
terest of his life lies in the fact that from the very beginning, 
without exterior aid-for his parents and surroundings were 
not Catholic-an inward influence seemed to mould and 
fashion his heart and mind to Catholic principles, Catholic 
thoughts, and most Catholic affections. From his earliest 
years he was endowed with an intense love of books. His 
abilities were great, his memory most retentive, and he began 
early to amass that variety of knowleòge which his great 
modesty only prevented from becoming more generally known 
and admired. 
In 1808 he removed with his family to Stratford, and was 
sent to the grammar-school in that town. In 18 14 they came 



HAR.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CA THOLICS. 


143' 


to.1ive in London, where his father kept a public-house. For 
some years, with obedience and assiduity, he continued to 
assist in the business, which was a source of the deepest 
distress to him. By economizing his time, he often obtained 
an opportunity to assist at 1'1 ass in the nearest chapels, 
. St. Thomas's (the German chapel) and the Sardinian chapel. 
He also frequently attended morning and evening prayers at 
\Vestminster Abbey, St. Paul's, and St. Martin's-in-the-Fields,. 
where he would remain kneeling for an hour at a time in 
prayer. At the age of sixteen he began to think seriously of 
becoming a Catholic, and made some inquiries about going 
abroad to study for the priesthood, but he abandoned this 
design in obedience to the will of others. 
In 1823 he went to the Independent Academy at Hoxton, 
to study there for the ministry. Dr. Harris, the then preceptor,. 
who, though of the same name, was not related, remarked to a 
friend that, "on entering the academy he was much more quali- 
fied to leave it than many who had been there their full time." 
He continued his studies until 1827, when he was appointed to 
the charge of a congregation at Alford, in Lincolnshire. Even 
here, his love for Catholicity remained unshaken, and the 
works of St. Augustine, St. Thomas of Aquin, St. Bernard,. 
&c., were his companions and his delight. \Vhilst living at 
Alford he had several severe attacks of illness, one of which 
was brought on by living a whole Lent upon bread and 
potatoes. His friends remonstrated with the manifest incon- 
sistency of his conduct, in always extolling the Church and 
upholding her discipline, yet still continuing in dissent. Never- 
theless, for full fourteen years he remained in this sad state of 
constraint. At length, in 1841, he was requested by a part 
of his congregation to resign, and he did so at once. On the 
feast of All Saints he preached his farewell sermon. 
At the close of that year he returned to London, and many 
friends eagerly sought to win him to the Established Church, 
in which they wished him to take orders. Application was 
made to several of its bishops, but every attempt to persuade 
1\1r. Harris failed. The celebrated decision on the stone aitar 
at Cambridge finally determined him against joining a system 
which thereby rejected all idea of a sacrifice and a priesthood. 
It was not until 1845, however, that he finally triumphed over 
his bashfulness and fear of acting for himself, by calling on 



144 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[BAR. 


some of the priests in London. By one of these he was intro- 
duced to Bishop Griffiths, and this interview led to his being 
received into the Church, on Whit-Sunday, 1846, by the Rev, 
E. Hearn. 
Much as he had expected from communion with the Church, 
he was not disappointed. His own feelings naturally directed 
bim towards a higher step-to minister at that altar which in 
early youth had possessed such powerful attractions for him. 
The death of Dr. Griffiths delayed the step for a season, 
However, as soon as Dr. Wiseman was appointed pro-vicar 
apostolic of the district, the matter was taken up, and 1'1r. 
Harris received the tonsure and minor orders on All Saints' 
Day, 1847, at the convent in Queen Square, Shortly after- 
wards he was ordained sub.deacon, a little later deacon, and 
priest on the feast of St. Andrew. The chaplaincy of a reli- 
gious community was committed to him, and on Sundays and 
festivals he assisted at the chapel of the Bavarian Embassy, in 
vVarwick Street, Lo.ndon, 
For the short time that remained to him he laboured to the 
extent of his strength, and to the great consolation and 
spiritual profit of the religious community to which he attached 
himself. At the beginning of March, 1849, he was seized 
with a most excruciating interior malady, which laid him, for 
the last time, on his bed of sickness. He died at the convent, 
Queen Square, March 2 I, 1849, aged 50, and was buried in 
St. John's Wood. 
Thus quietly, and unseen by men, expired, in the midst of 
mighty London, one whose virtues and holiness of life might, 
if his life had been spared, have shed a mild lustre on the 
Church. His preaching was full of affectionateness and tender- 
ness, but his voice was very feeble, and it was difficult to catch 
the original thoughts and beautiful sentiments which his words 
conveyed. 
Dublin Review, vol. xxviii. p. 94 seq.,o Cat/t. Directory, 1850. 


I. Christian Discourses on the most important sUbjects of 
Religion, intended chiefly for the instruction of Catholic Congre- 
gations. By Mr. Harris, Lond. 8vo. 
z. Journals, Letters, and Sermon Notes, MSS. 
Many extracts from these are given in an admirably written biographical 
sketch, entitled" The Priest's Hidden Life," in the Dub/Ùl Review, vol. xÀviii. 
pp. 90-122. 



HAR.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


145 


Harris, William, priest, a native of Lincolnshire, was edu- 
cated at Oxford, where he became a fellow of Lincoln College 
about 1567, being then B.A. Afterwards he proceeded l\'LA., 
but forsook the Established Church and went to Louvain, where 
he pursued his studies and was ordained priest. In I 575 he 
was admitted into the English College at Douay, and in the 
same year came on the English mission. He is referred to in 
a confession by Robert Graye, priest (" Dom. Eliz,," vol. ccxlv. 
n. 138, P.R.O.), as being at Cowdray, the seat of Viscount 
IVTontagu, in I 590. He is there described as H a tall man, 
blackish hair of head, and beard." He lived to an advanced 
age, and died in 1602. 
IVood, A thcllæ OXOIl., ed. 169 I, vol. i. p. 273 ; Dodd, CIl, His!" 
vol. ii.; Foley, Records Sf., vol. vii.; Dozeay Diaries
' Pitts, De 
Illus. A1lglia, p. 801. 
I. Theatrum, seu Speculum verissimæ et antiquissimæ Eccle- 
siæ magnæ Britanniæ, quæ ab Apostolicis viris fundata, et ab 
aliis sanctissimis Doctoribus a generationem propagata, in nos- 
tram usque ætatem perpetuò duravit. Libri decem. 
Dodd suspects that this great work was never published. 
Harrison, Alice, schoolmistress, better known as "Dame 
Alice," born at Fulwood Row, near Preston, co, Lancaster, re- 
ceived a good education, and was brought up a member of the 
Established Church. By reading Catholic books she became a 
convert, at a very early age, to the great annoyance of her 
parents, who treated her with much severity, even with corporal 
chastisement, Through all this she remained firm, and, when 
turned out of doors by her father, was induced by her friends at 
Fernyhalgh to open a school for boys and girls, at a short 
distance from the ancient Catholic chapel at Lady "VVell. This 
appears to have occurred about the commencement of the 
18th century. The Rev. Christopher Tootell, G.V., was at 
this time the pastor at Fernyhalgh, and with his assistance 
and the encouragement of the people in the surrounding district, 
who were principally Catholics, her school was soon filled with 
children from the neighbourhood, from Preston, the Fylde, 
Liverpool, Manchester, London, and other parts of the kingdom. 
She reckoned from one to two hundred pupils, to whom, with 
her assistants, she gave lectures not entirely confined to "the 
horn-book and the art of spelling." These lodged and boarded, 
some with "the Dame," and others in the cottages and farm- 
VOL. III. L 



14 6 


IHBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIOXARY 


[HAR.. 


houses in the neighbourhood, for which they paid ;[ 5 per annum, 
and IS. 6d. per quarter for their schooling. Every day she 
took the Catholic children (for she had some Protestant pupils) 
to l\1:ass at Lady \Vell, lingering a few moments to offer up a 
prayer as she passed our Lady's well in front of the ancient 
chantry. Many of the most able and zealous missioners of 
the last century were pupils in early life of "Dame Alice," and 
indeed this famous school was in reality nothing less than a 
nursery for the English colleges abroad. 
The venerable dame continued her school until she was very 
advanced in years, having .at that time under her care the 
children or grandchildren of those whom she herself had tutored 
in their tender years. Shortly before her death she retired to 
a comfortable retreat provided through the benevolence of the 
Gerards of Garswood, and there she died, about the year 1760, 
and was buried in the old Catholic cemetery at \Vindleshaw,. 
near St. Helens. 
Catlt, lI1"ag., vol. ii. p. 476; lVhittle, Hist. of Preston, vol. i. 
p. 181 ; lV/tittle, St. Marie's C/zaþcl, Fenzyhalg/t; Dean Gillow, 
Cat. of the FerJlyhalgh Lib., fiE S.
' Gillo'W, Cath. Scltools Ùl E71g.,. 
J1IS,
' ]{irk, Biog. Collect., No, 32, l1IS.; Cat/tOlico1l, Oct. 1816. 


1. The ancient traditions and interesting history of the chapel at Lady 
'VeIl, Fernyhalgh, will be referred to under the notice of the Rev. Christopher 
Tootell. The present purpose is to rescue from oblivion some account of the 
educational establishments which the per
ecuted Catholics succeeded in 
maintaining at Fernyhalgh in spite of repressive legislation. Some three years 
ago the writer spent the greatest portion of a night in the old library at 
Fernyhalgh in the endeavour to obtain an insight into the past, in which he 
\\ as rewarded with a certain amount of success. From the autographs in the 
old Latin and other class-books still remaining in the library, "In U sum 
Scholæ Sanctæ Mariæ ad Fontem," it is pretty evident that a school existed 
there at an early period; in fact, the dates appended to the scholars' names 
run almost consecutively from 1651 to the time when Dame Alice is supposed 
to have established her school in the beginning of last century. In early 
times the school was no doubt kept by the priest at Fernyhalgh, and was 
perhaps located" on ye top of ye hill, near the chapel and Lady \Vell," as 
described in the beginning of this century by Miss Singleton, of Preston, an 
old lapy who had been one of Dame Alice's pupils, and afterwards for many 
years had boarded several of her scholal s at Fernyh3.lgh. But it is evident 
that at one time the school was kept in and adjoining the ancient residence 
ot the Charnleys in Durton, at the end of the lane in which the present 
chapel is situated. It is now a farmhouse, the mullioned windows being the 
only trace of its former gentility. The Fleetwood crest has been introduced 
over the door, with the char
cteristic motto of the plunderers of Rossall 



HAR.j 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


147 


Grange, the home of Cardinal AlIen,-Homo h01Jttile lupus, In the barn 
attached to the farm, the writer discovered, on the occasion above referred to, 
an ancient table which had formerly been used in Lady \Vell school for the 
double purpose of'a desk and dining-board. Many years before he had 
heard that this table existed in the buttery of the fannhouse in which the 
school had formerly been conducted, and that its top was covered with 
initials and dates carved by the boys. Unfortunately some vandal had 
planed the surface, and thus obliterated a record which would have been 
extremely valuable. It is an unusually long and narrow table of massive 
build, supported by six turned legs of great thickn
ss, all jn oak, blackened 
with age but in a very perfect condition, The whole length of the front is 
carved, and in the panel over the centre legs is the date 1629, to which the 
initials H. C. F. have been added at a later period. Over the side legs are 
respectively the initials H. C. and A. c.; the latter refer to Hugh Charnley, 
gent., and Alice his wife; the former are probably those of his grandson 
Hugh Charnley and Frances his wife. It was the younger Hugh who by 
deed of trust, dated March 16, 1685, restored to the mission the site of our 
Lady's well at Fernyhalgh. 
The following are some of the autographs found in class-books still at 
Fernyhalgh :-Samuell Hart, his Bk., witnesse Christopher Horne, April 29th,. 
1651, Amen; Raufe Tyldesley (third son of Sir Thos. Tyldesley, knt., born in 
1644, in "Prosodia" about 1652) ; John Tootell, his booke, 1667 (a near relative 
of the Rev. Hugh Tootell, alias Charles Dodd, the Church historian, who was 
born at Durton, close to the school, in 1672, and probably studied his rudi- 
ments there); Nicolaus Sandersonus, 1673 (probably a nephew of Nic. 
Sanderson, who was born at Alston, close to Fernyhalgh, and was ordained 
priest at Rome in 1670); Thomas Goose, his book, 1685, id. 1686 (see his 
biog., vol. ii. p. 534); Thomas Lucas, his book, 1685 (Thos. Lucas, gent., of 
Barniker, near Garstang, married April 30, 1695, Martha, dau. of \Vm. 
Leckonby, of Elswick, gent.); John Melling, his book, 1703 (who took the 
college oath at Douay in 1708, and after his ordination was appointed in 1716 
to assist the Rev. Gilbert Haydock at St. Monica's convent, Louvain, His 
father, Ralph Melling, a member of the Fernyhalgh congregation, married 
the Rev. Xfer. Tootell's sister Ann, and his brother Edward, who was no- 
doubt at the school also, succeeded his uncle, Mr. Tootell, to the mission) ; 
John Plesington, his Book, 1713 (son of John Plesington, of Dimples, gent., 
who was attainted of high treason in 1716, for joining the Chevalier de St. 
George, and his estates forfeited. His great-uncle and namesake was martyred 
on account of his priesthood in 1679); Jam. Parkinson (perhaps the James. 
Parkinson who took the oath at Douay in 1734; of this Fylde family there 
were many priests) ; Richard Danyell, His Booke, 1694, id. 1703 (admitted 
into the Eng. ColI. Rome in 1704, and ordained priest there in 1710; many of 
the Daniels were at Lady 'VeIl school, see their biog. vol. ii. pp. 11-15); 
Richard Barr (perhaps of the same family as Thos. Bern. Barr, O.S.n., who 
was born at 'Vinchester in 1739); John \Vhittaker Booke, June 14, 1696 
(probably a member of the family of the Rev. Thos. Whittaker who was 
martyred in 1646). 
The foregoing names give some idea of the character and approximate 
date of the schoo1. :VIr. Penketh, alias Rivers, a relative of the Charnleys, 
W.1S the priest who built the new chapel in 1684-5. About two years later he 
L 2 



-148 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIOKARY 


[HAR. 


was succeeded by Christopher Tootell, who was joined by his nephew Hugh 
Tootell, the Church historian, about 1698. Edward Melling, another nephew, 
came as assistant to his uncle about 1708, and succeeded him on his death in 
J.727. \Vho superintended the school before this time is a matter for specu- 
lation. It is very probable that after Dame Alice established her school a 
,few of the more advanced students resided in the chapel-house, and this 
.system was continued by the Rev. Hen. Kendal, who succeeded to the 
mission on Mr. Melling's death in 1733, and also by his brother, Dr. Ceo. 
Kendal. The following are some of Dame Alice's pupils:- The Rev. Alban 
Butler, the author of the well-known" Lives of the Saints," who is said to have 
.come to the school in 1722 ; Rev. Edw. Daniel; James Bradshaw, 1753; 
Rev. John Daniel, Pres, of Douay College; Rev. Thos. Southworth, Pres. of 
Sedgley Park, and his brothers, Ralph, William, Richard, and John; Geo, 
.Kendal, D.D., and his brothers, Hugh, Pres. of Sedgley Park, Richard, and 
Robert, all priests, In one of the class-books, endorsed" In U sum Scholæ 
Stæ l\1ariæ ad Fontem," appears Rob. Ken., George Kendall, ejus Liber 1749, 
James Parker, Mr, Kendall my master, 1749 (at this time Dr. Kendall was at 
Fernyhalgh). His elder brothers, Richard and Henry Kendal, were also at 
.the school. Other pupils were-Xfer. Gradwell, Robt. Banister, Edw. Holmes, 
and Chas. Cordell, all priests; John Gillow, Pres, of U shaw College, Chas. 
Tootell, O.S.F., John \Vhite, S.J., the Rev. J oho Shepherd, of Hammersmith, 
and Rev. Joseph Shepherd, Pres. of Valladolid, with other members of that 
'family, Mr. Davison, priest at Salwick, and lVIr, Wilkinson, priest of Westby. 
Many other names could be added to this list, 
The last assistant Dame Alice had was Mary Backhouse. After the old 
lady's retirement, about 1]60, it would appear that a school was still kept at 
Femyhalgh, {or the class-books bear the autographs-Edward Richardson, 
'176r, 1762, 1766, 1769 and 1771 (perhaps two individuals of the same name), 
James Parker; and in a book printed in 1767 appears the old inscription" In 
Usum Scholæ Sanctæ Mariæ ad fontem. n In 1780 Peter Newby, a former 
pupil of Dame Alice, who had finished his education at Douay College, 
,removed his school from Great Eccleston to Haighton adjoining Fernyhalgh, 
Laurentius Teebay, 1]80, Nicholas Billington, 1787, andJames Teebay, 1789, 
appear in the class-books, He continued his school there until 1799. After 
Dean Gillow had restored Lady \Vell in 1842, the premises were occupied as 
a school for young ladies by Miss Ann Dorothy Browne, afterwards Green, 
and continued as such with great success for many years. 
Harrison, James, priest and martyr, a native of the diocese 
of Lichfield, was ordained at the English College at Rheims in 
Sept. I 583, and proceeded to the English mission in the fol- 
lowing year. 
A little before the York Lent assizes he was seized by the 
pursuivants in the house of a gentleman in that county, named 
Anthony Battie, or Bates. Both were brought to trial and 
sentenced to die, as in cases of high treason. Mr. Harrison 
was condemned for exercising his priestly office, and Mr. Battie 
for entertaining him. On the night before his execution, l'ir. 



HAR.] 


OF THE E:KGLISH CATHOLICS. 


149\ 


Harrison was informed by his keeper that he was to suffer the 
next day. Though the news was unexpected, for the judges. 
had left the city without fixing the date, he showed no sign of 
being troubled, but with a cheerful countenance sat down to. 
supper, saying, U Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we shall 
die." He was hanged, drawn, and quartered, at York, displaying 
great constancy and fervour, l'Iarch 22, 1602. 
His head was religiously preserved for many years by the- 
English Franciscans at Douay. 
Clltllloner, JWemoirs, væ, i. ; Doltay Diaries,. Dodd, Clt. Hist.,. 
vol. ii. 
Harrison, John, priest and confessor of the faith, was a.. 
member of a respectable family of the diocese of Petcrborough, 
born about 155 O. He arrived at the English College at Rheims,. 
from Paris, July 27, 1583, and proceeded as a pilgrim to Rome: 
on the following Aug. 13. On his arrival there he was admitted 
as a convictor among the alumni of the English College on 
Oct. I. He returned to Rheims on April 18, 1584, and was- 
there ordained deacon on the following Dec. 6, and priest on 
April 5,1585. 
He left the college for the English mission on Oct. 19 fol- 
lowing his ordination, but was seized a few months after his 
arrival in Yorkshire. An ancient record, printed by Fr. Morris,. 
says: "Upon l\10nday in Easter week, the house of l'Ir, Heathe 
at Cumberford searched by Thornes and Cawdwell, and lVIr. 
Harrison, a priest, there apprehended. They so cruelly used 
J\frs, Heathe at that time, tossing and tumbling her, that she" 
thereby frighted, died the Friday following." It is not impro- 
bable that Mr. Harrison was likewise roughly used on this 
occasion, for all authorities agree that he died in prison in the 
year 1586. 
Clzalloner,Jlrfemoirs, ed. 1741, vol. i. p. 190; lV/orris, Troubles,. 
Tlzird Series; Douay Diaries,. Foley, Records S.]., vol. vi.;. 
Tierney, Dodd's Ch. Hist., vol. iii. p. 169. 
Harrison, Matthias, priest and martyr, a native of Y ork- 
shire, was ordained priest at Douay College in 1597, and came 
on the English mission in the same year. He was soon cap- 
tured, and hanged, drawn, and quartered, at York, for being 3.1- 
priest, in the year 1 599. 
Cltal101zer, 1/le11loirs, vol. i.; Doltay Diaries. 



150 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAR. 


Harrison, William, D.D., third and last Archpriest, born in 
Derbyshire about I 553, entered the English College at Douay 
in 1575. Having been ordained deacon at Douay, he was sent 
to Rome in I 577 to enter the projected English College. On 
its formal establishment, April 23, 1579, he took the mission 
oath, being then a priest studying divinity in the college. On 
March 26, 1.5 8 I, he left for England, calling at the English 
College at Rheims on his way, and staying there from the 13th 
to the 22nd of May. 
He laboured on the mission until 1587, when he went to 
Paris to study civil and canon law. He returned to Rheims, 
licentiate in those faculties, Dec. 22, I 590, and left the college 
on Jan. 10, 1 591, to take charge of a small English school, 
established by Fr. Persons, S.J" at Eu, in Normandy, supplied by 
supernumerary students from Rheims, This he governed until 
1593, when the school was broken up by the civil war, some of 
the students being sent to Rheims, and others to St. o mer's, 
where Fr. Persons had founded a grammar-school. He then 
returned to Rheims as procurator, and after the removal of the 
college to Douay he resumed his studies, completed his degree 
of D.D. in the University of Douay in 1597, and was professor 
of theology in the college until 1603. 
In the latter year Dr. Harrison went to Rome, where he is 
found a visitor for eighteeR days, from Aug. 2 I, 1603, in the 
English College, He remained in Rome five years, "well 
esteemed by the Italians," says Dodd. On Oct. 29, I 608, he 
returned to Douay College, and stayed there until June 19, in 
the following year, on which day he set out for England, being 
called over upon the affairs of the clergy, who, valuing his sin- 
gular prudence, learning, and experience, desired his advice and 
approbation, 
In the February following Archpriest Birkhead's death, Dr. 
Harrison was appointed by the Holy See to succeed him, and on 
July I I, 1615, he was formally installed by brief of Paul V. 
Though the re-establishment of the episcopacy was what the 
clergy had petitioned for, Harrison's appointment was by no 
means unacceptable. He was a man of unaffected. piety, re- 
spected alike for his age and for his learning, and recommended to 
his brethren by the affability of his manners, and by the peculiar 
mildness of his deportment. \Vithout the energy or the firmness 
of some, he possessed all the honesty of mind, and all the in- 



HAR.] 


OF THE :CXGLISH CATHOLICS. 


15 1 


tegrity of purpose, which marked the most distinguished of the 
clergy. He was the friend of order, the advocate of canonical 
.government, and, though formerly known as the agent of the 
Archpriest Blackwell and the confidant of Fr. Persons, had long 
since proved himself to be the warm, though not the blind, 
supporter of the interests of his own body, 
His first care, on the arrival of his brief, was to notify his 
.appointment to his assistants, and, after charging them with the 
-preservation of discipline in their several districts, to urge them 
to employ their influence in suppressing animosities (for at that 
time differences existed between the clergy and Jesuits on 
matters of policy and government), and to cherish a feeling of 
brotherly affection among the missionaries. 
After Cardinal Allen's death the clergy had complained of a 
want of independence and interference in their affairs by the 
Jesuits. Dr. Harrison's desire was to ameliorate this condition of 
affairs. To effect this he resolved to support Dr. Kellison, the new 
president of Douay College, and to assist him in obtaining the 
removal of the Jesuit confessor imposed on the college, and the 
recall of the students from the public schools of the Fathers it' 
Douay. This after much difficulty was accomplished to the 
great satisfaction of the clergy, Dr. Harrison next turned his 
attention to the restoration of episcopal government, which his 
.own experience, and the ardent desire of the great body of 
the English Catholics, convinced him was the only form of 
government that would ensure peace and further the interests of 
religion. He repeatedly petitioned the Court at Rome for this 
object, and the papal nuncios at Paris and Brussels were made 
sensible of the necessity of the alteration. The most learned 
doctors, including Bishop, Smith,-Champney, Kellison, and Cæsar 
Clement, had exerted themselves in similar memorials, and at 
length, Dec. 20, 16 19, the archpriest himself, with his assistants, 
signed a common petition, laying open the whole matter from 
the very beginning, and supporting their case with such reason- 
ing as to preclude any counter-arguments a
ting to their pre- 
judice. Taking advantage of the negotiations for marriage 
between the sister of the King of Spain and the Prince of 
Wales, and perhaps also of the accession of a new pontiff, 
Gregory XV., the archpriest resolved to commission a special 
-envoy, John Bennett, to the Holy See, who should be charged 
with the double duty of soliciting the dispensation nccessary for 



152 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAR. 


the proposed marriage, and of obtaining, if possible, the. ap- 
pointment of one or more bishops for the government of the 
Church in England. 
The eventual result of this mission was the creation of a 
bishop in ordinary for England, Dr. \Villiam Bishop, and after 
his death a vicariate apostolic; but Dr. Harrison did not live 
to see it, for his death occurred on the very eve of the envoy's 
departure for Rome, May 11,1621, aged 68. 
Dr. Harrison suffered imprisonment, but the particulars are 
not given. After he was created archpriest he seems to have 
made Cowdray, the seat of Lord Montagu, his principal resi- 
dence. In the Record Office (" Dom. Eliz.," ccxxxviii. n. 62, 
I 59 I) there is an information: "l'/[r. Harrison, whose byname is 
Blacke or Bannester, I neede not to describe hym; you knowe 
hym well. Hee goeth in blacke rashe, and lieth aboute Hol- 
borne, I knowe not where." This description, however, more 
probably refers to Dr. Harrison's fellow-collegian, William 
Harrison, priest. 
Dodd, Ch. Hist., vol. ii.; Tier1ley's Dodd, vol. v. pp. 62 scq. 
et ccxxii. scq.,. Brady, Episc.
. BerÙzgtoll, .ll1emoirs of Pmz:;Ùzi,. 
pp. 87 seq.,. Doltay Diaries
' Foley, Records Sf" vols. i. and vi. 
I. Canon Tierney publishes Dr. Harrison's memorial to Paul V., with 
other letters and documents, in his edition of Dodd's" Ch. Hist.," vol. v, pp. 
ccxii. seq. Fr. Constable, S.J", took exception to some of Dodd's statements 
in his" Specimen of Amendments," p. 181, to which Dodd replied in his 
"Apology," p, 198. Turnbull appends some comments on the subject in his 
edition of Sergeant's" Account of the Chapter," p. 25, and further remarks 
will be found in Butler's" Hist. Memoirs," vol. ii. p. 266. 


Hart, Alban J. X., a native of England, was admitted 
into Stonyhurst College, July 13, 18 I 7. Eventually he entered 
the novitiate, but was obliged to abandon his intention to join 
the Society through ill-health. He then became a master at 
Sedgley Park School, where he remained for a few years. After 
that he proceeded to the United States, where he followed the 
same profession ìh one of the universities. He remained there 
many years, and became quite Americanized, having the regular 
nasal twang of the genuine Yankee. - 
On his return to England he took up his residence at St. 
1\lary's College, Oscott, to which he presented his valuable 
library, consisting chiefly of classical and scientific works. He 
died at \Vorcester, April 13, 1879, aged 81. 



HAR.] 


OF THE E
GLISH CATHOLICS. 


153 


Letter -of tlte Rev. J. Caswell, V.P., of Oscott,. H att, S tOllY- 
lutrst Lists. 
I. The Mind and its Creations: an Essay on I\Icntal Philosophy. 
New York, 1853, 
vo. 

. My own Language; or, the Elements of English Grammar, 
intended for beginners. Baltimore, 2nd edit. 1860, 8vo. 
3. The Hermit of the Alps. A Poem in four Cantos, and other 
Poems. Lond. 8vo., ded. to the Very Rev. Dr. N orthcote, President of St. 
:i\Iary's College, Oscott. 
4. Catholic Psychology; or, the Philosophy of the Human 
Mind. Simplified and systematised from the most approved 
authors, according to nature, reason, and experience, and con- 
sistently with Revelation. Lond, 1867, 8vo. 
The author describes it as only an abridgment of and pioneer to a larger 
work, which he considers may prove serviceable as a companion to students 
in philosophy. The use of the tenn U Catholic" in the title is explained as 
referring to the universality of the subject, and its general application to the 
human race. It is an attempt to systematize and simplify the philosophy of 
the human mind, the author having, as he says, for many years been 
employed in ascertaining the principles of natural and revealed truth, not 
with a view to entangle the truths of nature and religion, or to elevate science 
above revelation, but in order to convince the understanding by harmonizing 
faith and reason, human and divine nature, and the feelings of man's heart 
with the goodness of Almighty God. 


Hart, John, Father S.J., a native of Oxon" was educated 
in that university, where he is said to have taken degrees, though 
vVood was unable to find proof for the assertion. For some 
time before he finally decided to leave the university, he showed 
evident dissatisfaction with the new religion. At length he 
went to Douay, was reconciled to the Church, and admitted 
into the English College .in I 570. There he pursued his studies, 
took his degree of B.D. in the University of Douay in 1577, and 
was ordained priest March 29, in the following year, 
In June, 1580, he was sent to the English mission, but was 
arrested on his landing at Dover, and sent prisoner to the Privy 
Council. As Fr. Persons relates (Stonyhurst MSS., P. fol. 132): 
"And for that he was a very comely young gentleman, 
nd his 
father and friends well known, and his talents greatly liked by 
Sir Francis vValsingham, the Secretary, that had the examina- 
tion of him, they would fain have gotten or perverted him by 
secret means; and so after commendations of his person and 
protestation of goodwill by Sir Francis, as Mr. Hart himself 
told me afterward the whole story in France and Italy, he gave 



154 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAR. 


him leave to go to Oxford for three months, upon condition 
that he should confer with one John Reynolds, a minister of 
Corpus Christi College, about controversies of religion, which 
Mr. Hart accepted, both for that he desired by that occasion to 
see his friends and to settle better his temporal affairs, what- 
soever should happen, as also for that, though he were young, 
yet feared he little whatsoever John Reynolds or any other 
could say in defence of heresy against the Catholic religion. U 
At the expiration of the three months he returned to vValsing- 
:ham as resolute in faith as before, and by him he was committed 
to the 1'vlarshalsea, and on Dec. 29, 1580, was transferred to the 
.Tower. Throughout that year he persevered with constancy, and 
.on the day after Fr. Campion's condemnation he was tried with 
several who were afterwards martyred, and, like them, had sen- 
tence pronounced against him, On Dec. I, 158 I, he was to have 
been executed with Campion, Sherwin, and Bryant, but when 
.placed on the sledge his fears overcame him, and he was taken 
.back to the prison to write to vValsingham that sad and com- 
plete act of apostasy which is now exhibited in the Record 
-Office (" Dom, Eliz,," vo1. d. n. 80). It is a relief, however, to see 
that six weeks afterwards the confessor, though his was not a 
martyr's spirit, was himself again. Luke Kirby, the martyr, in 
.his Jetter from the Tower, given by Dr. Challoner, says: "1\1:r.. 
Hart hath had many and great conflicts with his adversaries. 
This morning, the loth of January (1582), he was committed 
to the dungeon, where he now remaineth; God comfort him. 
He taketh it very quietly and patiently. The cause was that 
he would not yield to l'1:r. Reynolds, of Oxford, in anyone 
point, but still remained constant, the same man he was before 
.and ever." Rishton says he was put into the pit for nine days. 
The interpretation of the change is probably to be found in the 
fact, told by Cardinal Allen to Fr. Agazzari, in a letter, dated 
Feb. 7, 1582, that Hart's mother had been to visit him in the 
Tower, and that she, " a gentlewoman of a noble spirit, spoke 
to him in such lofty tones of martyrdom, that if she found him 
hot with the desire of it, she left him on fire; and the report of 
this great deed on her part, and its merited promise, was wide- 
spread among the Catholics." 
On the anniversary of the day when he should have died his 
name reappears in Rishton's Diary, Dec. I, 1582 : "John Hart, 
priest, under sentence of death, was punished by twenty days in 



HAR.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


155 


irons, for not yielding to one Reynolds, a minister." Six months 
later he was put into the pit, for the same offence, for four-and- 
forty days. 
In the early part of I 583 he was admitted, while in prison, a 
member of the Society of Jesus, and on Jan. 21, I 585, he was 
removed from the Tower and sent into banishment with twenty 
other prisoners. Landing on the coast of :Normandy, he went 
first to Verdun, then to Rome, but died at J arislau, in Poland, 
July 19, I 5 86. 
Jl1orris, Troubles, Seco1ld Series,. Wood, At/tenæ Oxon., vol. i. ; 
Dodd, CIt, Hz'st., vol. ii. ; Oliver, Collectmlca S.f'ß' Foley, Records 
SJ., vol. vii.; Doltay Diaries,. Lewis, Smlders' Angl, Sc/tism. 
I. "The summe of the Conference betwene John Rainoldes and John 
Hart, touching the Head and Faith of the Church, Penned by John 
Rainoldes, according to the notes set down in writing by them both: perused 
by J. Hart, &c. \Vhereto is annexed a Treatise entituled, Six Conclusions 
touching the Holie Scripture and the Church, written by John Rainoldes; 
with a defence of such thinges as T. Stapleton and Gr. 
1artin have carped at 
therein." Lond. 1584, 4to.; ibid. 1588, 1598, 1609; trans, into Latin, Oxon., 
1610, fo1.; Summa Colloquia J. Rainoldi cum J. Harte de capite et fide 
Ecclesiæ, &c., ibid. 1611, 
This conference he held with Dr. Reynolds in the Tower, about 1583, 
under very unequal terms. Mr. Hart was not only totally unprovided with 
books, but was sufferin
 great infirmity from his treatment in prison, having 
been racked, as he himself relates, until his limbs were so disabled that he 
<:ould not rise from his bed for the space of fifteen days. The particulars of 
this conference are very unfairly given by Dr. Reynolds. Though he assures 
the reader that the work was published with 1\1r, Hart's consent, any im- 
partial person can detect the aàvantage taken by the editor to misrepresent 
the force of Mr. Hart's arguments. The doctor himself admitted that hi5 
defence of Protestantism was far from satisfactory. On the other hand, Mr. 
Hart acquitted himself with honour, and Camden styles him, vir þræ cætcris 
doctissÙmls. 
Hart, William, priest and martyr, beatified by papal decree 
on the feast of St. Thomas of Canterbury, Dec. 29, 1886, was 
a native of 'VVells, in Somersetshire. He became a stud ent in 
Lincoln College, Oxford, in 1 572. At this period the college 
was noted for its tendency to the old faith, which Mr. Hart very 
soon decided to embrace. He passed over to Douay, and was 
there when the college removed to Rheims in 1 578. Shortly 
afterwards he was sent to the newly established English College 
at Rome, being twenty-one years of age at the time when he 
took the college oath, April 23, 1579. There he completed his 
theology, was ordained priest, and left for the English mission, 



156 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAR. 


March 26, 1581. He called at the college at Rheims on his 
way, IVlay 13th, and resumed his journey on the 22nd. 
His labours in England were chiefly in the city of York and 
the neighbourhood, of which county he was called the apostle. 
He was extraordinarily gifted as a preacher, his eloquence being 
compared to that of Campion, The sanctity of his life had also 
a great effect in strengthening the constancy of many poor 
Catholics who were being frightened into conformity with the 
Established Church by the severity of the penal laws, vVith great 
courage, Mr. Hart assiduously visited the innumerable prisoners 
for recusancy in York, and comforted them in their afflictions. 
He was seized in his bed, after he had retired to rest on 
Christmas-day, 1582, and carried to the house of the high 
sheriff in York. In the morning he was brought before the 
lord president of the north, by whom he was committed to the 
castle and thrown into a dungeon, which was his sole apartment 
until his execution. 
His reputation attracted some of the leading Protestant 
ministers in York to his cell. He had several conferences with 
Dean Hutton, Mr. Bunny, l''Ir. Pace, and Mr. Palmer, who are 
said to have been impressed with his learning and zeal. At his 
trial at the Spring assizes the foreman of the jury returned into 
court and petitioned for a discharge, being unwilling to have a 
hand in a man's blood, 
vhose life, by all evidence, was rather 
angelical than human. The courageous and honest foreman was 
consequently discharged from his office, under severe threats that 
he should be made to answer the penalty he had incurred by 
such an action, which seemed to reflect upon the court and the 
justice of the whole nation. The jury, as directed by the judges, 
then brought in a verdict that the blessed martyr was guilty of 
exercising his sacerdotal functions contrary to law, and the 
martyr received his sentence with great calmness and resignation. 
His last six days were spent in preparation for his final exit. 
He fasted rigorously, and passed most of his nights in prayer 
and contemplation. At length, on the day of his execution, he 
was laid on a hurdle and drawn to the gallows. Bunny and 
Pace, the two ministers previously mentioneà, were there, and 
did their best to persuade the people assembled that the martyr 
was a traitor and that he did not die for his religion. Pace 
made himself particularly offensive, continually loading the 
blessed martyr with reproaches and injuries. After he was 



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OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


157 


hanged, drawn, and quartered, the lord mayor and magistrates 
exerted themselves to prevent the great number of Catholics who 
were present from securing relics of the martyr. He suffered at 
York, IVfarch 15, 1583. 
Challoller, Jrfemoirs, vol. i. ; Dodd, Ch. Hist., vol. ii.; TVood, 
Athellæ O%01Z., vol. i. ; Douay Diaries; Foley, Records SJ" vols. 
iii. and vi. ; Bridgewater, COllcert. Ecc!. Cath, Ùl Angl. ed. 1594, 
pp. 104, 293, 4 0 9. 
1. Dr. Bridgewater gives in Latin ten of his letters-to certain Catholics, to 
his spiritual sons, to his loving mother, to the afflicted Catholics in prison, to 
a noble matron, &c. At one time he had desired admission to the Society 
of Jesus, but was refused on account of his ill-health. Fr. Constable, 
" Spec. of Amendments," p, 162, took Dodd to task for not mentioning this 
fact. 


Harting, James Vincent, F.S.A., born May 17, 1812, 
in St. James' Square, London, was the eldest son of James 
Harting, of Hampstead, l\1iddlesex, Esq., by his wife, l\lary 
Anne, daughter of James \Vhite, Esq. 
\Vhile very young he was sent to Baylis House, near Windsor, 
a school conducted by Messrs. \V. H. and J. P. Butt, whence 
he proceeded to Downside College, near Bath, and from 1828 
to 1830 studied at the London University. After leaving the 
latter he spent some time in the office of his father, a solicitor 
in good practice in Waterloo Place, and at that time agent to 
the Duke of Norfolk. Upon his father's death he entered the 
office of :r-.lessrs. Tatham, Upton, and Johnson, to whom he 
was articled, and became admitted to practice as a solicitor in 
1836, in the house in Lincoln's Inn Fields (No, 24), which he 
continued to occupy until his death. 
His professional labours were principally in behalf of Catholic 
interests and the Catholic body. Allusion may be made to the 
share he had in the defence of Cardinal Newman in the great 
Achilli case, and to the active part he took in the defence of 
Cardinal \Viseman in the litigation which arose out of, or was 
traceable to, the famous "papal aggression," the restoration of 
the hierarchy in 1850. In the Norwood convent case and the 
Clapham bell case he was likewise prominently engaged. His 
appearance before the public was still more conspicuous in the 
case of the parliamentary inquiry as to convents with which 
Mr. N ewdigate's name was closely associated. On this occa- 
sion he was subjected to a long examination before a committee 



15 8 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAR. 


of the House of Commons. In 1863 he was engaged in the 
defence of U shaw College against the claims advanced by the 
five northern bishops. The case lasted five or six years, and 
was ultimately settled in favour of the bishops in the ecclesias- 
tical courts at Rome, where Mr. Harting, in company with 
Dr. Gillow, the vice-president of the college, spent a lengthened 
visit, 
Mr. Harting was the confidential legal adviser of Cardinal 
Wiseman, and his services in that capacity were in constant 
requisition. In a biographical memoir of him published after 
his death, The Tablet remarked that every bishop in England 
at the time of the re-establishment of the hierarchy, "and 
nearly everyone since then, had profited by his advice, fre- 
quently on matters involving no question of law. . . . . He had 
not only well earned the respect of his co-religionists in every 
rank of life, but had won great esteem from the members of 
his own profession, who knew him to be a man of the highest 
integrity, a sound lawyer, and a good canonist." 
In early youth he became a member and occasional contri- 
butor to the "Acts" of a somewhat distinguished Philological 
Society connected with the University of London. It was 
about this time that he became acquainted with the Rev. 
Joseph Hunter, the learned antiquary and historian. He had 
been an early friend of Mr, Harting's father, to whom he 
acknowledged his indebtedness for assistance afforded him in 
his "History of Hallamshire," published in I 8 I 9. It was 
perhaps this friendship which directed his attention to the 
study of history and antiquities, in which he was ever ready to 
place his valuable knowledge and researches at the disposal of 
his literary friends. 
On June I, 1840, Mr. Harting married Alexine, daughter of 
Colonel Robert Hamilton Fotheringham, of Kingsbridge House, 
Southampton, by whom he has left two sons-James Edmund 
Harting, Esq., F.L.S., F.Z.S., an eminent naturalist and well- 
known writer, and Robert Alphonsus Harting, Esq.-and three 
daughters, the youngest of whom is a Dominican nun at Stone. 
He resided chiefly at Kingsbury, co. l'Iiddlesex, and at Lady- 
mead, Harting, in Sussex, but died at his house in Russell 
Square, London, Aug. 30, 1883, aged 71. 
The Tablet, vol. lxii. p. 382; Gordon, His!. of Hartillg,. 



HAR.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


159 


Burke, Landed Gelttry; Mr. Harting's CorresþOlldCllCC witlt tlte 
Autltor, &c. 
I, The Holy Hour. Lond. 1851, 12mo, 
A little tractate which received the cordial approval of Cardinal \Viseman, 
and was soon out of print. 
2. A number of Mr. Harting's cases drawn up by himself were printed, 
and some of them published. Amongst these may be noted, as of public 
interest, the U De Ferrers Peerage; In the House of Lords; Case on behalf 
of Mannion Edward Ferrers, of Baddesley Clinton, in the County of 
\Varwick, Esq., claiming to be the senior coheir to the Barony of De 
Ferrers." (Lond. 1859), fol. 
U In the Matter of Stephenson's Charities, \Vestmoreland. Statement for 
the Charity Commissioners, and Appendix of Documents. By J. V. Harting." 
(Lond. 1862), 4to. pp. 36 and 96; very interesting and of local historical 
value, 
About 1873, some difference of opinion having arisen amongst the trustees 
of St. Elizabeth's Hospital, in Great Ormond Street, and erroneous im- 
pressions on the subject having got abroad, Mr. Harting was requested by 
the Archbishop of \Vestminster (Cardinal Manning) to prepare a statement 
of the case, which he did very clearly and concisely. It was published in 
pamphlet fonn, and elicited an answer from Sir George Bowyer, Bart., who 
was a great benefactor to the hospital, and one of the trustees, 
He was Cardinal \Viseman's solicitor in some troublesome differences with 
the Rev. Rich. Boyle, regarding which were published- u Correspondence 
between Cardinal \Viseman and the Rev. Rich. Boyle, in Reference to his 
Removal from the Catholic Church of St. John's, Islington," Lond. 1853, 
8vo.; "Verbatim Report of the Trial, Boyle v. \Viseman. Tried at Guildford, 
Aug. 12, 1854, from the shorthand notes úf \V. Hibbit," Lond. 1854, 8vo. 
pp. 48, in which the plaintiff charged the defendant with a libel, published 
in the Parisian Ullivers, but was non-suited; "Report of the Trial at 
Kingston," Lond. 1855, 8vo.; "Full Statement of the Causes," Lond. 
1855, 8vo. 
In 1857 he served the Cardinal in the same capacity in the action brought 
by the Abbé Roux for damages for the loss of certain documents, reported in 
four columns of The Times of April 6, which resulted in a verdict for [500. 
In 1866 he was the solicitor for the president of Oscott College, Dr. N orthcote, 
in the case of Fitzgerald v, N orthcote, which occasioned considerable com- 
ment, published in "Opinions of the Press, Letters, and other Documents on 
the late Oscott Trial" (Birmingham, 1866), 8vo. pp. 40. 
3. In the years 1837 and 1838 he made considerable researches in .the 
offices of the clerks of the peace in various counties, Middlesex, Sussex, Kent, 
Lancashire, &c., and accumulated a mass of notes concerning the registration 
of Catholic estates in the early part of last century. He also collected 
voluminous notes, genealogical and historical, on the Catholic family of 
Caryll, formerly lords of Harting and Ladyholt, in Sussex, where Cardinal 
Pole was once rector, and it is much to be regretted that he did not live to 
arrange for publication these valuable memoranda, which would haye pro\Ted 
of extreme interest to Catholics. \Yhen the Rev. H. D. Gordon wrote his 



160 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAR. 


." History of the Parish of Harting," Mr. Harting gave him much generous 
assistance. 
4. He furnished materials also to Sir Cuthbert Sharp for a new edition of 
his" History of Hartlepool," which was published in 1851. Many years 
later he assisted Canon Escourt in the preparation of his work, "The 
Question of Anglican Ordinations Discussed," Lond, 1873, 8vo. pp. xvi.-382- 
cxvi., contributing thereto some important additions, and revising the proof- 
sheets. 
Amongst other works to which he contributed information, or helped the 
authors with advice, may be mentioned Bro. Hen. Foley's" Records of the 
English Province, S.}'J" vol. iii. 1878. 


Hartley, William, alias Garton, priest and martyr, a 
native of Nottingham, became a fellow of St. J ohn's College, 
Oxford, at the time when Campion was there, and, according 
tø \Vood, was a learned man. He was converted, and going 
to Rheims, was received into the English College in Aug. 1579. 
In the following month he was ordained sub-deacon, deacon in 
Dec., and priest in Feb. 1580, and on June 16 he set out on 
foot to proceed to the English mission. 
\Vithin twelve months he came under the notice of the 
government through dispersing copies of Campion's "Decem 
Rationes" in St. l\lary's church in Oxford, during Act-time. 
On Aug. 13, 158 I, he was apprehended in Dame Cecilia 
Stonor's house, Stonor Park, near Henley, and carried prisoner 
to the Tower, with John Stonor and Stephen Brinkley, the 
printer of the "Decem Rationes." There he was confined 
until Sept. I 6, I 582, when he was transferred to another 
prison. In Jan. I 585, he was banished, put on board a vessel 
at the Tower wharf, with about twenty other priests, and landed 
on the coast of Normandy. He returned to the college at 
Rheims, but, after a short stay, courageously ventured into 
England again. Eventually he was re-arrested, and arraigned 
with another priest, named John Hewett, alias \\1 eldon, and a 
,schoolmaster named Robert Sutton. They were all condemned 
to death, the two priests on account of their sacerdotal charac- 
ter, and the layman for being reconciled to the Church. The 
three were conveyed in a cart to Mile End Green, where 
Weldon was executed; Sutton was hanged at Clerkenwell; 
and Hartley was carried in the same cart to the theatre, where 
he suffered, Oct. 5, 15 8 8. 
Raissius relates (I( Catalog. l\1artyr. Anglo Duac.," p. 52) that 
the martyr's mother was a witness of his execution, and re- 



HAR.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


161 


joiced exceedingly that she had brought forth a son to glorify 
God by such a death. 
A True Report, &c,,o Chattoller, jJIc1IZoirs, vol. i.; 
Vood, 
Athcllæ Oxon., ed. 169 I, vol. i. p. 166; Dodd, CIt. Hist., vol. ii. 
pp. 98, 106 ; Doltay Diarics,o Law, The Month, vol. xvi., Third 
Series, pp. 77 scq. 


1. "A True Report of the inditement, arraignment, conviction, con- 
demnation, and Execution of John \Veldon, \Villiam Hartley, and Robert 
Sutton; \Vho suffred for high Treason, in severall places, about the Citie of 
London, on Saturday the fifth of October, Anno 1588. \Vith the Speeches, 
which passed between a learned Preacher and them: Faithfullie collected, 
even in the same wordes, as neere as might be remembred. By one of 
credit, that was present at the same." Lond. Rich, Jones, 1588, Svo., A-C in 
fours. 
This tract is dated at the end Oct. 24, 1588, less than three weeks after 
the execution. It seems to have been written by "the learned and godly 
preacher " himself. At the head of the title-page are three woodcuts, in- 
tended to represent the busts of the three martyrs, I! in. square. One would 
suppose them to be villainous caricatures except that the third, standing 
apparently for Sutton, is not bad-looking, It was this pamphlet which led 
Mr. Law to the identification of Weldon and Hewett. 


Harvey, Edward, Father S.J., 'iJidc l\Iico. 
Harvey, John Monnoux, priest and schoolmaster, alias 
Rivett, son of Henry Harvey, and his wife l\Iargaret Rivett, 
was born in Norfolk in 1698 or 1699. 
Sir Philip Monnoux, Bart., who died in 1707, married 
Dorothy, daughter of William Harvey, of ChigweIl, in Essex, 
Esq. Probably Mr. l''Ionnoux Harvey was of this family. He 
is called "l\loxon" in the diary of the English College at 
Rome, but he spelt his name "Monox." 
He was received into the English College, Rome, March 2 3, 
I 724, at the age of 2 5, by Fr. L, Browne, S.J., the rector, 
and stated on his admission that he was a convert to the faith 
of about eleven years' standing, and had been confirmed by 
Bishop Giffard, V.A., at London. He was ordained priest by 
Benedict XIII., Sept. 18, 1728, and left the college for the 
English mission, April 6, 1729. 
His residence was in London, where the anonymous author 
-of the (C Present State of Popery in England," in 1733, says 
that he opened a school for the benefit of Catholic children, 
whom he instructed in all the principles of religion, and 
though the laws were very severe against Catholics on this 
VOL. III. M 



J62 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HARp 


head, yet he practised in the double capacity of missioner 
and schoolmaster without any disturbance. The writer adds: 
"His success induced several other priests to set up schools,. 
which soon became famous, through the good management and 
strict discipline observed by their governors, and were resorted 
to by the children of the Catholic gentry that did not cross 
the seas, and of rich merchants and tradesmen. Many also- 
came over from Maryland, Barbadoes, &c" to these schools. 
The principal of these was Twyford, where upwards of 100 
boarders were educated under the care anò direction of Father 
Fleetwood." This account is not quite accurate, for Francis 
(alias John Walter) Fleetwood was not at that time a Jesuit, 
and Twyford had then been established over forty years. 
Mr. Harvey was a zealous and successful preacher, and died 
in London, Dec. 22, 175 6 , aged about 57. 
Kirk, Biog. Collect., llIS S.; Foley, Records SJ., Romall Diary; 
Gillow, Cath. Schools Ùz E1lg., lllS.,. Present State of POþery Ùl, 
Etlg., Z'1l a Lettcr to a CardÍ1zal, 1733, p. 19. 
Harwood, Thomas, confessor of the faith, was committed 
for recusancy, about 1576, to the Ousebridge Kidcote, York,. 
where he remained for some ten years. 
He was probably the eldest son and heir of Thomas Har- 
wood, of Great Barugh, near Malton, gent. (by Ann, daughter 
and coheiress of Henry Nalton, of 1\lalton Dale, co. York), who 
was son of Matthew Harwood, of the same place, by Jane, 
daughter and heiress of Raìph Broughton, of Egton, in Pick- 
ering Lythe. Ralph Harwood was a recusant at Egton in 1604. 
In the Harwood pedigree, returned at the visitation of 1612, 
Thomas Harwood is said to have died si1lc þrole, and his 
nephew, Richard, was then twenty years of age. 
In I 586 he was accused by one Pennyngton, a prisoner 
for debt in the same prison, of writing the Life of Margaret 
Clitherow, who was martyred at York in March of that year. 
For this he was arraigned at the bar before the judges, and also 
threatened with death by the council of the north unless he 
would go to church. He yielded so far as to hear a sermon, 
hoping thereby to obtain his liberty, In this, however, he was 
disappointed, for his persecutors were not content with his mere 
appearance at church, but required him to receive the sacrament,. 
and in the meanwhile kept him in the custody of a pursuivant. 



HAT.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


16 3 


To this he would not consent, for he had no intention of 
renouncing his faith, and he even repented that he had been so 
weak as to attend church. He was then committed to the castle 
at York, and put into the" low prison," where he shortly after- 
wards died through his ill-treatment, apparently in the same 
year, 1586. 
1l1"orris, Troubles, Third Series J' Foster, Visit. of Yorkshire J. 
Peacock, Yorks/tire Papists. 
I. The Life of Margaret Clitherow. MS. . 
This was very probably used by the Rev. John Mush in his life of the 
martyr, and it is not unlikely that Harwood was the author of some portion 
of those narratives by Yorkshire recusants referred to by Fr. Morris in his 
third series of" Troubles." A recent publication is entitled" Life of Margaret 
Clitherow. By Laetitia Selwyn Oliver. With a preface by Fr, John 
Morris, S.J." Lond. 1886, 12mo. pp. 190, which does not, however, throw 
any light on Mr. Harwood's work. 


Hatton, Edward Anthony, O.P., born in 1701, was 
probably the son of Edward Hatton, of Great Crosby, co. Lan- 
caster, yeoman, who registered his estate as a Catholic non- 
juror in 1717, and whose family appears in the recusant rolls 
for many generations. 
He was educated at the Dominican college at Bornhem, where 
he was professed, MaY25, 1722. After teaching for some years, 
he was ordained priest, left the college, July 7, 1730, for the 
mission, and became chaplain to Jordan Langdale, Esq., in 
Yorkshire. Mr. Langdale was the son and heir of Philip Lang- 
dale, of Southcliffe, co. York, Esq., and married Dorothy, 
daughter of John Danby, of Croften, co. Lancaster, and relict of 
vVilliam Walmesley, of Lower HalI, Samlesbury, in the same 
county, gent. In 1739, Fr. Hatton became chaplain to Bishop 
vVilliams, O,P., V.A., of the Northern District, who resided at 
Huddlestone Hall, Yorkshire, a seat of the Gascoignes, but the 
bishop dying April 3, 1740, Fr. Hatton removed to Tong, 
in the same county, the seat of Mr. Tempest. In 1749 he 
succeeded Fr. Robt. Pius Bruce, O.P., as chaplain to Ralph 
Brandling, Esq., at The Felling, near Newcastle, but, as that 
gentleman died in the same year, he went to assist Fr. Thos. 
Worthington, O.P., at Middleton Lodge, near Leeds, who died 
there, Feb. 25, 1753-4. Fr. Hatton then took charge of the 
mission. Some time afterwards it seems that Mrs, Brandling, 
who was a Protestant, sent orders to the housekeeper at IVIid- 
M
 



1 6 4 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAT. 


dleton to strip the chapel of all its furniture, and to send it to 
The Felling. She also instructed her brother, 1\fr. Ralph Ogle, 
to take possession of the late Fr. Worthington's room. These 
proceedings were carried out in Ðec" 1755, and it was on this 
occasion that the very extraordinary occurrence happened which 
is related in the note. Fr. Hatton then removed the mission to 
Stourton Lodge, a few miles distant, where eventually, in J 776, 
he succeeded in erecting a new chapel. 
On May 2 J, I 754, he was elected provincial, an office to 
which he was again appointed, May 7, 1770. His degree of 
S. Th. Mag. was granted June 27,1767. In 1776 he com- 
menced the mission at H unslett, near Leeds, but died at Stourton 
Lodge, Oct. 23, 1783, aged 81. 
Palmer, Obit. Notices, O.S.D,
' Oli'ver, Collections, p. 458 ; 
Gillow, Lanc. ReCl/Smlts, filS.; lVeekly Reg., vol. i. p. 68 
I. Moral and Controversial Lectures upon the Christian 
Doctrines and Christian Practice. In Four Parts. By E. H. 
8vo., s, 1. et a., pp. 339. 
Thongh marked vol. i. part i" no other parts seem to have been pub- 
lished. It contains 71 lectures, principally based on the Apostles' Creed. 
2. Memoirs of the Reformation of England; in Two Parts. 
The whole collected chiefly from Acts of Parliament and Protes- 
tant Historians. By Constantius Archæophilus. Lond., Keating & 
Erown, 1826, 8vo. pp. 257 ; Lond. 1841, 8vo. 
The principle upon which this work is compiled renders it a valuable 
acquisition, for it prevents all cavilling at the facts related, the authorities 
being such as will be admitted by the most prejudiced readers. 
3. Miscellaneous Sermons upon some of the most important 
Christian Duties and Gospel Truths. MSS., 7 vols, 8vo., containing 
respectively pp, 365, 364, 361, 174, 174, 172, and 17 1 . 
4. In the " U shaw Collections," MSS., vol. ii, p. 3 I 3, is a portion of a 
letter giving a very curious account of the strange occurrence which happened 
at Middleton when the chapel was despoiled. The signature to this docu- 
ment and the name of the person to whom it was addressed are wanting. It 
commences by stating that Fr. John Catterell, O.P., then chaplain at Stone- 
croft, "has received a letter from Mr. Hatton concerning the prodigy (or 
rather the miracle). which happened at Midleton, near Leeds, in 1755." A 
copy of Fr, Hatton's letter, dated Feb. 9, 1756, then follows. In this he 
says that" Mrs. Brandling, of Felling, sent positive orders to Mrs. Humble 
and Mrs. Betty Rawson to strip the chappel of Middleton of all its furniture, 
and send it into the north. Accordingly, on Wednesday, Dec. 10, 1755, after 
they had packed up the vestments, they proceeded sacrilegiously to plunder 
the tabernacle, and having taken out the chalice, ciborium, &c., they 
attempted to take down the picture you mentioned, when, Behold the 
prodigy ! A bloody sweat broke out, and ran trickling down the picture in 



HA T. ] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


165 


great drops. as big as peas (as my informants express themselves). This 
happened between 9 and 10 o'clock in the morning. In the afternoon ofthe 
same day, I was sent for, being informed (by a letter from Mr. Humble) that 
Mr. Ralph Ogle had express orders from his sister 1\lrs. Brandling to lodge 
in the late Mr. Worthington's room; that he had demanded the key in a 
very insolent manner. and was not to be denied. Upon my arrival at 
Middleton, Mrs. Humble told me what had happened to the picture, when 
going up to it, I perceived upon it only one single drop of blood !-blood I 
think I may justly call it, since to me it seemed to have both the colour and 
consistency of blood. This astonished me very much. But as we were aU 
very busily employed the whole afternoon in removing the books, &c., out of 
the late Mr. Worthington's room, no farther notice was taken of the picture 
for that day. The \Vednesday following. Dec. 17. they ventured to take it 
down, in order to pack it up and prepare it for a journey into the north (in 
compliance with Mrs, Brandling's orders) along with the rest of the sacred 
furniture. But as soon as it was taken down three drops of blood appeared 
again upon its surface. Being alarmed a second time, they carried it into a 
room adjoining to the late Mr. \Vorthington's, where it remained (with other 
pictures, &c.) till Saturday, Dec. 27, when they determined to bring it back 
again to its old place. And while they were doing this, a third bloody 
eruption was perceived to appear, in drops as large and numerous as in the 
first. Thus. you see, there have been three different bloody sweats, at three 
different times, tho' nothing has happened to it since its being replaced in the 
chapel. I shall conclude this account with informing you that by good 
providence some few drops have been preserved upon an altar towel, which 
(from the colour of the stains) convince me. and will I believe convince any 
reasonable man, that it is true and real (tho' miraculous) blood." Fr. Hatton 
then gives the names of several eye-witnesses of the facts above related, and 
he adds that he is informed that several persons have already been at 
Middleton to take down informations in writing as he has done. 
The Brandlings were an ancient Catholic family of great possessions. 
Sir Robt. Brandling acquired Felling, co. Durham, and Gosforth, co. North- 
umberland, by marrying the dau. and heiress of John Place, Esq., in the reign 
of Henry VII I. Middleton Lodge, co. York, came to Ralph Brandling 
through his marriage with the dau. and heiress of John Leghe, Esq. His 
nephew, Ralph Brandling, Esq., eventually succeeded to the estates, and 
married, in 1729, Eleanor, dau. of . . . , Ogle, of Eglingham, Esq. Mr. 
Brandling died in 1749. His wife was a Protestant, and succeeded in bring- 
ing up her younger son Charles in her own religion. The elder, Ralph, 
unfortunately died a student at Tours in 1751, aged 21. 


Hatton, Richard, priest and confessor of the faith, is pro- 
bably identical with the second son of \;Villiam Hatton, of 
Stockton-yate, co. Chester, Esq., who is described as U a bene- 
ficed priest about Enfield" in the pedigree returned by the family 
at the visitation of Cheshire in 1580. Anyhow, Richard 
Hatton was ordained priest in the days of Queen 1'1ary, and 
was dispossessed of his benefice by Elizabeth for his refusal to 



166 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HA V. 


adopt the new religion, He seems to have secretly exercised 
his priestly office in Lancashire, for in a search made for priests 
by Sir Edmond Trafford, sheriff of that county, he was taken, 
with another priest, Thomas \Villiamson, on Jan. 17, 1583-4, 
and committed to the gaol at Salford. He was tried at the 
Manchester quarter sessions five days later, being indicted for 
high treason, with Thomas 'VVilliamson and James Bell, priests, 
for extolling the Pope's authority, &c.-in other words, for deny- 
ing the spiritual supremacy of the queen of England. He was 
condemned according to the statute, and remitted back to 
Salford gaol. Thence he was sent to Lancaster to be tried for 
his life at the Lent assizes, with the two other priests, and a lay- 
man named John Finch. They were all indicted for the same 
cause, that is for denying the spiritual supremacy, and were 
brought in guilty by the jury. - The judge, however, had only 
instructions from the Council to put two of them to death, so he 
sentenced Mr. Hatton and Mr. \Villiamson to imprisonment 
for life, with the loss of all their goods as in cases of þrc1Jlzmire. 
How long l'Ir. Hatton survived his sentence does not appear. 
His death in prison at Lancaster must have taken place within 
a very short time, for Dr. Bridgewater refers to it in his 
.., Concertatio," printed in 1 5 88. 
Gillow, Lanc. Recl/sants, 111S. ; Dodd, Clt. Hist., vol. ii. p. 98 ; 
Cltalloller, .flfemoirs, ed. 174 I, vol. i. p
 161 ; Harl. Soc., Vz"sit. 
CllCsltire, 1580. 


Havard, Lewis, priest, born at Devynock, co. Brecon, 
April 12, 1774, came of an influential Catholic family which 
appears in the recusant rolls throughout the ages of persecution. 
Lewis Havard, of Devynock, gent., and several of his relatives 
registered their estates as Catholic non-jurors in 1717. A 
pedigree of the Havards of Pontwilym is give by Theophilus 
J ones in his U History of the County of Brecknock," in 1809. 
Mr. Havard was sent to Douay College, and passed through 
all the troubles which the community suffered during the terrible 
times of the French Revolution. He was liberated with the 
other imprisoned collegians on Feb. 25, 1795, being at that 
time in the school of rhetoric, and proceeded to the new college 
at Old Hall Green, Herts, where he was ordained priest in 
1800. During his missionary career, mostly spent at St. 
Mary's Chapel, \Vestminster, he attained the reputation of a 



HAW.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


16 7 


good preacher, and was frequently called upon to deliver orations 
at the funerals of leading members of the community. At 
length he retired to Brecon, where his nephew and namesake 
served the mission, and there he died, after a long illness, on 
Good Friday, April 2, 1858, aged 84. 
His brother, the Rev. 1'1ichael Havard, received his early 
education at Sedgley Park, and died at Brecon, Jan. 22, 18 31. 
Dr. Gz"llow, Suþþressioll of Doltay Coil., 1WS.,o Lamþ. 18 5 8 , 
vol. i. p. 271 ; Cat/t. flfag., vol. iii. p. 33 ; Payne, Eng. Cat/to 
Non-jurors. 
1. Oration pronounced at the Obsequies of the late Right Rev. 
Doctor John Douglass, V.A. of the London District. Lond. 1812, 
I2mo, pp. 12. 
Delivered at the solemn dirge, on Friday, May 15, 1812, in the chapel 
attached to the Sardinian Embassy, Duke Street, Lincoln's-lnn-Fields, in the 
presence of the principal Catholic nobility and gentry in London, and of 
many Protestants of rank and distinction. Among the former was the illus- 
trious head of the Catholics of Ireland, the Earl of Fingall: and among the 
latter, the early and enlightened friend of the Catholic body, Sir John Cox 
Hippesley, Bart. Four English and six French bishops assisted in the 
ceremony, supported by twenty-six priests. The text of the sermon was 
Eccles. xliv. 14. 
2. The Funeral Discourse [on Ps. cxi. 7] delivered . . . . at the 
obsequies celebrated for the late R.R. Dr. William Poynter, 
Bishop of Halia. Lond. (1827), 8vo. 
It contains an animated eulogium of Douay College, and adduces the 
respect in which Dr. Poynter wc:s held by Dr, Milner, notwithstanding the 
.differences between the two bishops. 


Hawarden Edward, D.D., born April 9, 1662, O.S" was 
.apparently the son of Thomas Hawarden, of Croxteth, co. 
Lancaster, gent., by Jane, daughter of Edward Tarleton, of 
Aigburth, gent. 
His father was the second son of John Hawarden, of Fenil- 
street, Appleton, by Anne, daughter of John Ditchfield, of 
Ditton, gent.; the eldest son, John Hawarden, of Fenilstreet, 
married Margaret, daughter and coheiress of Will. Mere, of 
Mere, co. Chester, Esq" and, besides a son John, born in 166 I 
(whose widow Mary registered her estate as a Catholic non- 
juror in I 7 I 7 for herself and son John), had a younger son, 
William, born in 1666, who received priest's orders at Douay 
College, and was serving the mission in vVidnes under his 
mother's name of :Mere in 17 16, in which year, on April 10, he 
was convicted of recusancy at the Lancaster sessions. 



168 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HA W r 


The family of which Edward Hawarden was such a dis- 
tinguished ornament, was descended from the Hawardens, of 
Hawarden, co. Fli9t, now the seat of the Right Hon. W. E. 
Gladstone. In the 15th century, this family, or a branch of it, 
migrated to \Voolston, in Lancashire, and intermarried in suc- 
cessive generations with the leading families of their adopted 
county. In the 16th century, one of the family acquired the 
estate of Fenilstreet, in Appleton-with- Widnes, in marriage 
with the heiress of the Appletons, and from that time the 
Hawardens resided there until, towards the close of the last cen- 
tury, the family merged into that of Fazakerley, and ultimately 
into that of the Gillibrands, of Fazakerley House and Gillibrand 
Hall. The mansion of Fenilstreet contained a domestic chapel, 
in the upper part of the house, and there, or in one of the other 
residences of the family in Appleton and \Vidnes, a priest was 
maintained for the benefit of the Catholics of the neighbour- 
hood during the whole period of persecution. Ed. Hawarden's 
cousin, Rev. Wm. Hawarden, alias 1'1ere, died at Lower House, 
\Vidnes, and was succeeded by Rev. Thos. Hawarden. In 
1750 a public chapel was opened in Appleton, replaced by a 
new church in 1847, erected at a cost of ,[4000. The Rev. 
Henry Gillow was here from 1821 to his death in 1849. 
Another church was opened at vVidnes in 1865. 
The names of the Hawardens appear annually in the recu- 
sant rolls and other documents in the Record Office relating to 
the sufferings of Catholics from the commencement of the penal 
laws under Elizabeth till the reign of George I. They also 
figure in the ecclesiastical records. Charles H award en, born in 
1677, probably a son of Edward Hawarden, of Huyton-cum- 
Roby, gent., a recusant in 1679, took the college oath at Douay 
in 1694, and was a professor there in 1706. Thomas Hawarden, 
born in 1693, younger son of John Hawarden, of Fenilstreet, 
gent., and his wife Mary, took the Douay oath in I 7 I 6, and 
died V.G. on the mission at Lower House, in April, 1746. There 
were two other widows who registered their estates as Catholic 
non-jurors in 17 16-Catharine Hawarden, of Sutton (daughter 
of Bryan Lea, of Sutton, gent" by Eleanor, daughter of \Vm. 
Holland, of Sutton, gent.), and 1'1ary II award en, of Upton- 
within-Widnes, whose son, Caryll Hawarden, of Appleton, gent.,. 
married Catharine Crosbie, and had several children. The eldest 
is the subject of "The l\Iiraculous Cure of Thomas Hawarden " 



" 


HAW.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


16 9. 


by the hand of the martyr Edmund Arrowsmith, reprinted by 
Bro. Foley in his "Records S.].," vol. ii. This occurred in 
1735, when the boy was about twelve years of age. He had 
two brothers who became priests at Douay College-John, born 
in 1724, and Edward, who took the college oath in 175 1 . 
After his ordination John taught poetry and rhetoric, and carne 
on the Lancashire mission in 1754 or 1755, where he spent the 
remainder of his life, dying May 27, 1770, Edward became 
general prefect at the college, and after holding that office for 
several years came on the mission to \Vrightington Hall, where 
he resided till his death, Dec. 17, 1793. Another member of 
this family was the Rev. Thomas Russell Hawarden, who was- 
educated at Ushaw College, Durham, and afterwards went to 
the English College at Rome, where he was ordained priest, 
and was intended for the London vicariate, but on account of 
ill-health was obliged to return to his friends in Lancashire,. 
where he died, March 20, 1 835. 
Edward Hawarden (pronounced Harden) was very young. 
when he was sent to the English College at Douay, during the 
presidentship of Dr. Leyburne, some time between June 25" 
1 6 70, and 1675. There he displayed, in every stage of his 
academical course, those great talents with which he was en- 
dowed. He was ordained priest, June 7, 1686, and in the 
same year, if not sooner, was appointed professor of philosophy, 
having previously taught classics. After teaching two courses 
of philosophy, and fulfilling with universal satisfaction the 
duties of confessor and prefect of studies, the president, Dr. 
Paston, recognizing that his abilities were far above the common,. 
determined to promote him, as soon as opportunity offered, to' 
the chair of divinity. That he might be the better qualified for 
that important position, 1'1r. Hawarden took the degree of B.D. 
at the University of Douay. In the meanwhile Bishop Giffard 
had been appointed principal of Magdalen College, Oxford, of 
which most of the fellows were ejected for resisting the will of 
James II., for his IVlajesty considered that it was only reasonable 
that the Catholics, by whom nearly all the colleges in Oxford 
were founded, should at least possess one. A colony was 
therefore sent from Douay to Magdalen College, at the head 
of which was Licentiate Hawarden, who was selected for the 
express purpose of taking the chair of divinity in that college. 
He accordingly left Douay, Sept. 2 I, 1688, and was followed, 



1]0 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAW. 


on Oct. 5, by Thomas Smith, Richard Goodwin, and Ralph 
Crathorne, to study divinity, and Edward vValdegrave to study 
logic. Their stay, however, was but short, in consequence of 
-the expected revolution. Smith and Crathorne returned to 
Douayon Oct. 3 I, and Mr. Hawarden, with Dr. Richard Short, 
who had been admitted a fellow, on N ov, 16. Thus the chair 
.()f divinity at l'1fagdalen was exchanged for that at Douay, which 
Mr. Hawarden held for not less than seventeen years, with great 
,-credit to himself, and to the general satisfaction of those who 
had the privilege of studying under him. Soon after his return 
to Douay l\fr. Hawarden took the degree of D.D., and was 
appointed vice-president of the college. 
In 1702, when one of the royal chairs of divinity in the 
University of Douay became vacant, the reputation for learning 
which Dr. Hawarden had acquired was so generally acknow- 
ledged in France, that not only the bishop of the diocese and 
the chief members of the university itself, but even the secular 
.magistracy of the town-in short, the universal wishes of the 
whole province, one party excepted-solicited him to become 
.a candidate for the vacancy, It was with great difficulty that 
he could be prevailed upon to consent to this, for it was his 
ardent desire to pursue his studies in the retirement of his 
college; yet the applications were so numerous and so urgent, 
that he at length reluctantly consented. As others concurred 
with him for the honour of the chair, each one was obliged to 
give public exhibition of his abilities before the provisors and 
judges appointed to pronounce on their merits, and to name 
.the successful candidate. Some account of this concurrence 
will be found in a note. At this time there was a small but 
powerful party in the university, headed by Dr. Amon, and 
Adrian d'Elcourt, the vice-chancellor, that frequently had been 
foiled in the schools by Dr. Hawarden; and accordingly means 
were found to influence the Court to interfere in order to exclude 
the doctor by altering the measures of the university, which 
,had been authorized by special royal commission. The result 
was that, after much fruitless solicitation on the part of the 
university, the opposite faction overruled all past proceedings, 
and by mandatory letters a young man was installed in the 
place that was so justly the fight of Dr. Hawarden. It has 
þeen said that the abilities he displayed on this occasion raised 



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17 1 


much of the opposition and persecution which he afterwards 
experienced. 
The doctor had now good reason to hope that those who had 
taken offence at his candidature would cease all furthur pursuit 
of their animosity, and leave him in the quiet possession of that 
retirement he loved so much. He used to say that he believed 
I' they little 
uspected how real a kindness they had done him 
by depriving him of a preferment, which he as passionately had 
desired to be exempt from as mostly others do desire to acquire 
and possess." But such defeats as those suffered by his oppo- 
nents are not easily forgotten, and other means were dictated 
by the odiu11l tlteologicZllll to bring Dr. Hawarden down from the 
proud eminence he had obtained in the public estimation. Now 
arose all that bitterness and animosity which for years afterwards 
was shown against him, though he himself, during the five fol- 
lowing years in which he stayed at the college, never once 
resented the prejudice of his accusers, but, on the contrary, was 
observed to avoid discussing the injustice done him. 
At this period the disputes on J ansenism in France ran very 
high. The English Jesuits were amongst the most zealous 
opponents of the schism, and they were afraid lest the contagion 
should spread to their own country, although, as it ultimately 
proved, there were but trivial grounds for their apprehensions. 
Their fears seem to have made them excessively sensitive on 
the subject, and the action of some members of their society 
was construed by the seculars into an attack on the whole body 
of clergy in England, and into an attempt to obtain possession 
of the administration of Douay College. 
Some time after an end had been put to the concurrence, the 
professors at Douay received information that several hands 
were engaged in making affidavits or subscriptions against Dr. 
Hawarden, insinuating that he was teaching the doctrines of 
J ansenius, which acted very much to the prejudice of the college 
and especially to the doctor's reputation. The offence which 
was at first charged against him was put forward with great 
caution and reserve, and gradually extended to all the professors 
in the college, with one or two exceptions, though "during all 
the time he was at college," says Bishop Dicconson, "his ene- 
mies could not, nor durst attack him in the point of J ansenism." 
His dictates, surrendered in I 704, were closely examined, but 



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. 


were not found to teach or to defend the doctrines of J ansenius 
or his abettors, and no specific objection appears to have been 
formulated against him before the year I 7 I o. In the meantime 
the Catholics in England had been widely warned to beware oí 
J ansenism, with such effect in some quarters that an illustration 
is given of one lady, being in danger of death and her good 
Father not at hand, choosing rather to die without the sacra- 
ments than have a neighbouring secular clergyman. In 17077 
:l\1:ons. Bussy, the K uncio at Cologne, whose head was almost 
turned on the subject of Jansenism, took the matter upon him- 
self, and sent an information to Rome against Douay College, 
naming more especially Dr. Hawarden, and accompanying it 
with insinuations against the bishops in England. About this 
time Mr. Mayes was sent to represent the clergy at Rome, to 
be ready, if need be, to defend them against any charge that 
might be made against them, and to solicit the election of a 
fourth bishop. 
It was in that year, in Sept. 1707, that Dr. Hawarden with- 
drew from Douay to employ his learning in the service of his 
country as a missioner, for it seemed that he had been professor 
of divinity long enough, since his great ability attracted so 
much envy, and it was hoped that his removal from the college 
would leave no one against whom the least shadow of accusation 
would appear. But this proved a mistake, for no sooner had 
he gone than the war was renewed. It was reported that he 
had fled through fear, and that the college would very shortly 
be placed under the supervision of the Jesuits. The Holy See, 
however, with its habitual wisdom, required proofs of lVfons. 
Bussy's information, and a visitation of the college was ordered, 
which resulted in a complete dismission of the odious impu- 
tation. 
vVhen Dr. Hawarden left Douay, in 1707, the high estimation 
in which he was held by Dr. Smith, V.A. of the Northern District, 
induced that prelate to desire to have him near to his own 
person, and he accordingly placed him at Gilligate, in Durham. 
\Vhen the bishop made his will, in 1709, he appointed Dr, 
Hawarden one of his trustees, and left him an annuity of 1.; 10, 
on condition that he should continue to reside in the north. 
Soon after his arrival in England, Dr, Hawarden was chosen 
a member of the English chapter, and, in 17 10, was appointed 
an archdeacon. How long he resided in Durham does not 



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appear, but it is evident from the "Tyldesley Diary" that he 
was in charge of the mission at Aldc1iffe Hall, near Lancaster, 
soon after Bishop Smith's death in 171 I, for the diarist fre- 
quently records his attendance at the doctor's Mass, both at 
Aldc1iffe and in his own house in Leonard Gate, Lancaster, 
in the years I 7 I 2- I 3- 14. At this period there was no 
mission in Lancaster itself. The Catholics of the town had 
to attend the domestic chapels in Aldc1iffe Hall and Dolphin 
Lee, both estates being the property of the Dalton family of 
Thurnham Hall. Dolphin Lee, in Bulk, was for many gene- 
rations tenanted by the Ball family, and at this time the chapel 
was' served by the Rev. George Ball, who died there in Nov. 
1734. On one occasion, Christmas Eve, 1713, Squire Tyldesley 
observes in his diary, "About a I I at night went to Aldc1iffe, 
where Doctr. Harden preached gloriously." 
It was perhaps in consequence of the troubles which ensued 
after the unsuccessful effort of the Chevalier de St. George to 
regain the throne of his ancestors in 17 I 5, that the doctor, 
like so many other priests, felt it prudent to withdraw from 
Lancashire, for, in 17 I 7, the Commissioners for Forfeited Estates 
seized Aldcliffe Hall as given to "superstitious purposes." One 
half of the estate, indeed, had been left to the Church by the 
Daltons. Dr. Hawarden had been appointed "Catholic 
controversy-writer," and no doubt this also would influence his 
removal to London, where he might more easily watch the 
works issued against the Church, and have the convenience of 
books necessary to answer them. Anyhow, he was settled in 
London before I 7 19. 
It was in London that he had his celebrated conference 
with Dr. Samuel Clarke, occasioned by a work issued by the 
latter, entitled "The Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity," the 
second edition of which, with alterations, appeared in I 7 19. 
The conference was held by desire of Queen Caroline, consort 
of George II., in her l'1:ajesty's presence and that of Dr. Peter 
Francis Courayer, the French divine who obtained such favour 
in England by his defence of the validity of the English ordi- 
nations, Dr. Milner says that Mrs. Eliot, of Portarlington, one 
of the queen's maids of honour, and much in her confidence, 
was also present, His victory on this occasion was subse- 
quently crowned by his crushing" Answer to Dr. Clarke and 
Mr. \Vhiston," published in I 729. It is a remarkable fact that, 



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in recognition of his admirable defence of the Blessed Trinity
 
Dr. Hawarden received the thanks of the University of Oxford. 
The doctor did not survive this victory many years. He 
died in London, April 23, 1735, aged 73. 
Dodd, in his" Church History" (vol. iii. p. 487), speaks of 
him in highly eulogistical terms. He possessed "consummate 
knowledge in all ecclesiastical matters, scholastic, moral, and 
historical; and, to do him justice, perhaps the present age can- 
not show his equal." In his "Secret Policy," the Church 
historian also refers to his learning and humility. Bishop 
Milner, in the life prefixed to the Dublin edition of Dr. 
Hawarden's works, describes him as "one of the most profounà 
theologians and able controvertists of his age." Berington, in 
his" Memoirs of Panzani" (p. 403), calls him "the ornament 
of his college;" and Charles Butler (" Hist. Memoirs," ed. 1822, 
p. 429) says that he "distinguished himseif by many polemic 
writings, in which there is an union, seldom found, of brevity, 
accuracy, clearness, order, and close reasoning." 
Bp. Dicc01lson's Diary of DOl/ay College, 1Y1S.,o Aud. Giffard's 
Papers O1l ]mlse71ism, filS.; Dr. Short's .flISS.,. Eyre CollectioJl, 
MSS. J ' ICirk, Biog. Collect" Ko. 23, lYISS. J , Gillow, Lanc. Reclt- 
sallIs, filS. J ' Dodd, Ch. His!., vol. iii.; Douay Diaries; Gillo'ZV, 
Tyldesley Diary J' TVesl Derby HWld. Records, filS. 


I. "Usury Explain'd; or, Conscience quieted in the Case of putting out 
Money to Interest," Lond. 1696, Svo., published anonymously by Fr. ] oh11 
Huddleston, alias Dormer,S.]" which Dr. Hawarden translated into Latin 
in 1701, and sent his MS. to Rome to be examined by the Congregation of 
the Index, by whom Fr. Huddleston"s work was condemned. 
At this time there was considerable controversy about usury in England. 
Sir Thomas Culpepper, who had previously issued several tracts on the 
subject, published " A Brief Survey of the Growth of Usury in England, with 
the Mischiefs attending it," Lond. 1671, 4tO. reprinted 1690. David Jones 
wrote, " Vindication against the Athenian Mercury, concerning Usury," Lond. 
1692, 4to., repro 1696; and the controversy continued many years, the 
celebrated Dominican divine, Fr. Daniel Concina, issuing an exposition of the 
Catholic doctrine on the subject, entitled" The Dogma of the Roman Church 
respecting Usury," Naples, 1746, 4to. 
2, Dictata of Dr. Hawarden's theological lectures at Douay, MS., at 
Oscott College. 
As these dictates were made the groundwork of the accusation of ] ansenism 
against Douay College, it will be proper here to give a brief outline of the 
disputes which followed the attack, prefaced by a description of the concur- 
rence which is said to have been the cause of much of the animosity displayed 



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against Dr, Hawarden. An interesting account of the concurrence is given 
by Dr. Meynell in an original letter, dated July 4, 1702, to Mr. Tunstall, at 
Brussels (" U shaw CoIl. Collection," MSS. vol. i. p. 179), of which the following 
is an extract. "In my last I think I came to the citation of both parties to 
Tournay, and ye engagement twixt Henricus de Cerf and M. Dumont. To 
begin, therefore, where I left off that morning after ye rector had usher'd I\Ir, 
Dumont into ye school, and ye brunt there was past, [he] slipt out of ye school 
again, and mounted immediately M. CoIl's coach, and togeather with 1\1. 
ColI and Councellor Becquet, made straight for Tournay, Deleourt hearing 
this thought there was no time to lose, but took post, and tho' he sett out an 
. hour after them, and they had 4 good horses, yet he got to Tournay two 
hours before them. \Ve were in great expectation to hear ye success, which 
we did not till Sunday morning. But in ye meantime ye provisors and judges 
went on with their business, On Friday morning we were in hopes to have 
seen a second part to the same tune twixt Cerf and M. Dumont, especially 
there having been. a formal challenge. But Cerf did not come, so that 
Dumont dictated quietly. You must know his question was De recidivis and 
he brought in ye controversie of peise with a vengeance against the Jesuits. 
Six of them writ under him, and one of them stept up to bim as he came out 
and in a leering way saluted him with a ./ljice, and some say spoke some 
scurrilous things to him, but I did not hear anything more myself. Saturday 
there was a batchelor defended his 3rd these for licentiat. DeJcourt being 
out of town, and Cerf not very well, we suppos'd the clairvoiant, Doctor- 
Aman, yt renowned King's professor, would preside þour la þremiere fois, In 
fine, Doctor Hawarden went to see, and put an argument which fairly poaked 
both defendant and moderator. All that Aman could say for himself was, 
videris tibi iþsi scÙmtificus, et vellesvideri aliis scientifiws J' sed n01Z es valde 
scielltificus, and desired ye doctor to dispute no further, for neither he nor his 
defendant would answer a word j and accordingly both retreated to ye middle 
of their pulpits and there kept silence awhile, and then Aman cal'd up another 
batchelor. Ye students did shout and hoot, and laugh at a strange rate. Ye 
batchelor had not put two sylogisms till ye Doctor took up the argument, and 
presently laid em as flatt as before, which was a new occasion of laughter to 
ye school, who show'd very little respect to their new professor. Saturday 
night came 1\1. De1court from Tournay, with a flea in his ear, for ye rector 
with his associates had got there a compleat victory over him, ye parliament 
there declaring yt all was to be left in ye hands of ye provisors." 
It will be seen from Dr. Meynell's description, that much party feeling 
was infused into the proceedings, which lasted from May until August, 1702, 
for so long were the seven candidates retarded from finishing their public acts 
and exercises through the unjustifiable action ofthe Vice-Chancellor d'Elcourt, 
Dr. Amon, and their friends. Their influence with the Court at length prevailed, 
and by revoking the royal commission to the university, Dr. Hawarden was 
excluded from his well-merited honour. 
The doctrines of J ansenius were at this time exciting very great interest 
throughout France. Between the end of the concurrence and the revocation of 
the commission came the accusations of J ansenism upon the 40 Sorbonne 
doctors' .. Case of Conscience," which furnished the occasion for the attack on 
Douay College. In that year, 1702, appeared a translation by Fr. Thos. 



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Fairfax, S.J., from a work written in 1651 by a French Jesuit, Etienne de 
Champs, entitled, "The Secret Policy of the Jansenists, and the Present Statë 
of the Sorbonne, with a Short History of J ansenism in Holland." The trans- 
.Jator added a preface and the history of the schism in Holland. This he 
followed with his" Case of Conscience, Proposed to, and Decided by Forty 
Doctors of the Faculty of Paris, in favour of J ansenism," &c., 1703, 12mo., 
PP.136. In his comments, Fr. Fairfax charged the quintessence (that is, the five 
propositions) of Jansenius upon the universally received opinion throughout 
the school of St. Thomas, that "grace, by itself efficacious, is necessary to the 
.effectuating every work of piety." 
In the following year, 1704, certain insinuations were inserted in a re- 
markable preface to a translation of Père Gabriel Daniel's work, entitled, 

'Discourse of Cleander and Eudoxe, upon the Provincial Letters," Lond. 
1704, 8vo., published by an English Jesuit against the Thomists by name, as 
mot ill-wishers to the J ansenists. This was printed notwithstanding. the fact 
that the original work had been condemned at Rome on the previous J an. 17, 
1703, for renewing some points of lax morality. However, the vicars-apostolic 
abstained from interposing their authority to suppress the translation; one 
of their reasons being the danger of drawing upon" the Catholics in England 
a renewal of persecution by bringing the matter too prominently before the 
public. This abstention was subsequently made the subject of a charge 
;against them at Rome, "that they suffered condemned baoks to be read and 
dispersed in England." 
It was now that the professors at Douaybeçame aware that several persons 
were engaged in making affidavits or subscriptions against Dr, Hawarden, 
A correspondence was opened by Dr. Hawarden's detractors with a misguided 
and ill-disposed student in the college, named Austin N ewdigate Poyntz, 
generally termed the "turbulent gentleman." This young man, who was 
then in sub-deacon's orders, "after several years of a very serious and discreet 
.comportment, unhappily being so far advanced in orders, fell to ways which 
were justly thought to be not becoming his profession." The president, 
Dr, Paston, therefore removed him to the bishop's seminary at Arras, the 
superior of which after some time reported that he believed the young man 
would never be fit for the priesthood, He returned, however, to Douay with 
.such an apparent change for the better in disposition, that the president hoped 
that with patience and a fair trial he would completely amend, In this Dr. 
Paston was disappointed, for after three months the young man relapsed into 
his former conduct, and gave vent to an ungovernable temper. Finding that 
he was not to be ordained, he put himself into communication with Fr. Ant. 
\Vestby, O.S.F., who introduced him to Fr. Adam Pigott, S.J., then studying 
in the University of Douay, on whom the young man so worked as to induce 
him to believe that his superiors were Rigorists and Jansenists. Fr. Pigott, 
therefore, told him that he might obtain orders elsewhere, put him into 
communication with Fr. Lewis Sabran, S.J., rector of the episcopal seminary 
,at Liége (until his election as provincial in 1708), who promised his care and 
protection, and assured him that he could obtain him orders from the Bishop 
of Liége. Poyntz now asserted that he had heard Mr. Laur. Mayes, a pro- 
fessor in the college, once say, "were he to answer from the dictates of Dr. 
I-lawarden he should scarce make any other than the forty-two Paris 




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177 


doctors had done-viz., concerning respectful silence." When Dr. Hawarden 
. afterwards heard this, he declared that Mr. Mayes had mistaken the meaning 
{)f his words. Poyntz subsequently added to his affidavit some words con- 
cerning indulgences, beads, and scapulars, spoken in a jocular manner during 
recreation time by one or two insignificant youths in the college, which he 
pretended were the subject of every day discourse, a statement which was 
absolutely false. It is no wonder under these circumstances that Poyntz was 
dismissed from the college in Nov. 1704, He then proceeded to Fr. Sabran 
and those to whom he had delivered his subscriptions of Dr. Hawarden's 
dictates, and forthwith returned to England, where he continued to spread 
abroad calumnious assertions respecting the teaching of Jansenism at Douay, 
very much to the prejudice of the college, and especially to Dr. Hawarden's 
reputation (Bp. Dicconson's " Diary of Douay College," 1704 to 1714, M S" and 
-other documents in Fres. Eyre's Colln. MSS.). Poyntz was eventually 
.admitted by the Jesuits into the English College at Rome, July II, 1705, 
where he was ordained priest, April 3, 1706 (Foley, "Roman Diary"), and left 
the college in April, 1707, to be confessor at the Augustinian convent at 
Bruges (" Kirk, Biog. Collns.1' MSS., No, 33), 
Considering that the subscriptions made by Poyntz were in part written 
with the expres's intention of accusing Dr. Hawarden, it seems surprising 
that any reliaRce could have been placed on their fidelity, Dr. Hawarden 
was not charged with his words and their sense, but with unnatural in- 
ferences dra\O'n from his opinions, such inferences as he himself would never 
have dreamt but with horror. and detestation. But it is well known how 
subject the philosophical chicanes of the schools are to father the worst of 
consequences in obscure matters upon most approved tenets; indeed, it is 
often done upon points of faith themselves, as all must see who read heretical 
controversy. 
In the meantime the controversy waxed warm in England, an account of 
which will be found under Sylvester Jenks, Ed. Dicconson, T. Eyre, T. Fair- 
fax, A, Giffard, R, Gumbleton, C. Kennet, R. Mannock, Metcalf, Paston, 
Pigott, Postgate, Sergeant, Short, Southcot, \Vhittenhall, &c, The con- 
troversy was not so much on the doctrines of J ansenius as on the question as 
to whether there was any support given to them in England, for the clergy 
to a man repudiated J ansenism equally with the Jesuits. It is possible 
that the dispute had the merit of preventing the schism from entering 
England; but, on the other hand, it caused much unpleasantness for many 
years afterwards. 
Mter Dr. Hawarden's withdrawal from Douay a visitation of the college 
was ordered by the Holy See. By some strange intrigue, d'Elcourt. the avowed 
and bitterest enemy of the college, succeeded in obtaining his own appoint- 
ment as visitor with another, but this oversight was amended through the 
exertions of Dr. Edw. Dicconson, who appealed to the nuncio at Brussels, and, 
under more impartial visitors, the college was entirely cleared from the odious 
imputation. The visitors examined both the dictates and the members of the 
college, from the president to the philosophers, and reported, "that they found 
both the writings and persons in the house free from all suspected doctrine 
of J ansenism, or any other heresy; that they there found excellent professors 
and an exact discipline observed in the college." After this, says Dr. Robt. 
VOL. III. N 



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\Vitham, in his letter dated Aug. 9, 1712, their friends in the university, and 
particularly some Fathers of the Society from the \Valloon College, came to 
congratulate Dr. Paston and his seniors. 
3. It was not before 17IO that Dr. Hawarden was specifically charged. 
"In that year," says Bp. Dicconson, "in the discourse I had on the 28th 
June with Dr. Delcourt in the presence of Mr. L. Rigby, S.T.P., and of .!\Ir. 
L. Green, alias \Vard, he affirmed that Dr. Hawarden had said things not right 
in the concourse. But when I reasoned the cause, and said what he declared 
of his own belief of the fact (of Jansenius's book), Dr. Delcourt answered 7 
that he said something by which he showed that he would not condemn 
those who did not. To which I said, that Dr. Hawarden being pressed to 
declare whether the four bishops were among the filii iniquitatis or no, he 
waived the question, only saying that he was not judex eþiscoþorll1Jl." On 
another occasion d'Elcourt said that If Dr. Hawarden maintained that the 
Church was not infallible in obscure grammatical facts," which, if true, did 
not infer that he denied her infallibility in dogmatical facts. To these 
accusations and insinuations, when they saw the light, Dr. Hawarden replied 
that he had e)...pressly condemned the Cas de Consdc1lce J' that he had, with- 
out any hesitation, declared his acceptance of the" Constitutions" of Innocent 
X., of Alexander VII., and of Clement XI. ; that he had written a treatise 
(then, 17II, in the possession of the Rev. Cuth. Haydock) to exþressly þrove 
that tIle five þroþositiOJlS were all Ùl the AU,gllStÙzuS of Jallsenilts
' and that 
he detested, and always had detested, the errors of Jansenius, and all 
others condemned by the apostolic See. To one of the questions asked 
him, "An Jansenismum unquam probaveris?" the venerab1e man replied, 
" N e dormiens quidem; nam vigilanti, tale facinus excidere non potuit." 
This is to be found in his solemn "Declarations" made to Bishop Smith. 
Andrew Giffard, in a letter dated Nov. 29, 1709, and signed" R. c." 
(probably a misprint for"]. C."-i.c., ] onathan Cole, the alias under which 
Mr. Giffard passed), printed in Dodd's "Church History" (vol. iii. p. 524)7 
records the handsome testimony borne to the orthodoxy of the secular clergy 
by Fr, Peter Hamerton, S.J., Provincial of the Society. In that year TIp. 
Giffard, accompanied by his grand vicar, Dr. Jones, called on the provincial, 
"and desired him freely to declare if he knew of any priest in his district 
who might be justly accused or suspected of J ansenism ?" The Rev, Father, 
as a person of worth and integrity, answered, "That he knew not, nor heard 
of any such person in his lordship's whole district;" and he added, "That 
he was newly return'd from his visit in the northern parts, and that he 
neither had heard, nor did know any person in that district who could be 
accused of the said opinions of] ansenism." All the superiors of the religious 
orders testified to the same effect. 
Dodd has entered very fully, from his own point of view, into this un- 
happy dispute, which for many years estranged the love and concord that 
ever should subsist between all the members of the Church, in his cc Hist. of 
the Eng. College of Douay," and his If Secret Policy of the Soc. of Jesus,"
 
pub. respectively in 1713 and IllS; from p. 33-36 in the former, and in part 
vii. of the latter, The foregoing account will serve as a key to the names 
suppressed under initials by Dodd. Fr. Hunter, S.]" denies the accuracy of 
the statements of Dodd in his" Hist. of Douay," in a work entit1ed "A Modest 
Defence of the Clergy and Religious," 1714, 8vo., from p. 117 to p. 143, to. 



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179 


which Dodd rejoined with his" Secret Policy." Fr. Hunter replied to this 
in a manuscript, pp. 55, 4to., now at Stonyhurst, but his superiors deemed it 
better not to publish it. An examination of Bishop Dicconson's diary at 
Douay College, 1704 to 1714, and of other original letters and documents 
written by the leading actors in the dispute, both secular and religious, now 
preserved in the" Ushaw Collections," MSS., shows that Dodd has faithfully 
drawn his facts from those sources. The diary very explicitly records the 
events as they happened, with the impressions prevailing in the college. 
Berington has treated the matter in much the same light as Dodd, in his 
" Memoirs of Gregorio Panzani," Birm. 1793, 8vo. This work was answered 
by Fr. Chas, Plowden, S.]., in his "Remarks on a Book intituled Memoirs 
of Gregorio Panzani," 1 794. 
4. The True Church of Christ, shewed by Concurrent Testi- 
monies of Scripture and Primitive Tradition, in Answer to a 
Book entitled, "The Case stated between the Church of Rome 
and the Church of England." In three Parts, to which is annexed 
Four Appendices: on Images, Relics, Prayers for the Dead, and 
Purgatory, Celibacy of Priests, Communion in one kind, and the 
Liturgy in Latin, &c. Vol. i, (Lond., Thos. Meighan), 1714, 8vo., title 
and preface, pp. xviii., contents, 6 ff. unpag., pp. 293, index, 4 ff. unpag.; 
vol. ii., part iii., Lond., Thos. Meighan, 1715, 8to., title and preface, pp. xxxv.,. 
contents, 5 ff. unpag., pp. 496, index, 8 ff. unpag.; (Lond,) 1738, 8vo., 2 vols., 
2nd edit., i. pp. 293, besides title, &c.; ii. pp, 496, besides title, &c. ; repro 
Dublin
 1808, 8vo. 
It was in refutation of Chas. Leslie's" Case Stated," &c" Lond. 1712, 8vo.,. 
Ball, Barrow, and others. The Rev. Robt. Manning, au'thor of the celebrated 
and often reprinted" Answer to Lesley," termed Dr. Hawarden's work" a 
treasure to those who possess it; where all sorts of arguments-offensive and 
defensive-are lodged; and, with justice, it may be called a magazine of 
erudition." Dr. Milner refers to it in his" End of Religious Controversy," 
as one" which for depth of learning and solidity of argument has not been 
surpassed since the days of Bellarmine." It elicited "A Compassionate 
Address to those Papists who will be prevailed with to examine the cause for 
which they suffer. In Five Letters, in Answer to two Popish Books entitled 
'The Case restated,' and the 'Church of Christ shew'd by Concurrent 
Testimonies of Scripture and Primitive Tradition,'" Lond. 1716, 8vo., by 
Francis Hutchinson, afterwards Bishop of Down and Connor, which was 
answered by Robt. Manning. 
5. Discourses of Religion, between a Minister of the Church of" 
England, and a Country Gentleman. Wherein the Chief Points 
of Controversy between the Church of England and Rome are- 
Truly Stated and Briefly discuss'd. Lond, 1716, lzmo., frontispiece,. 
"Emblematical Persons," title, I f., preface pp. iii.-xvii., contents, 5 pp., 
PP.23 0 . 
I t displays in a marvellous degree the intimate acquaintance he possessed 
with ecclesiastical and controversial literature. 
6. The Rule of Faith truly stated in a new and easy Method; 
or, a Key to Controversy. All Scripture is profitable for Doctrine, 
for Reproof, for Correction, for Sustenation in Righteousness. 
N 2 



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2. Tim. iii. 16. (Lond.) 1721, pp. 12,65 pp., besides double title and pre- 
face, The first edition appears to have been pub. in 1720, 
7, Postscript; or, A Review of the Grounds already laid: To- 
gether with a Second and Third Part of the Rule of Faith. (Lond., 
T. Meighan) 1720, 12mo, pp. 344, besides 30 pp. of title, preface, and con- 
tents of Rule of Faith. 
8. Some Remarks on the Decree of King Augustus II. and of 
the Assessorial Tribunal, with other select Judges of Poland, 
'Oct. 30, 1724; Which Decree was confirm'd by the General Diet 
.at Warsaw in the same year. Together with an Answer to a 
Pamphlet entitled" A Faithful and Exact Narrative of the Horrid 
Tragedy lately acted at Thorn," exhorting Protestants of all De- 
nominations to unite and exert themselves against their Common 
Enemy. By H. E. Lond., A. Moore, 1726, 8vo. pp. 34, besides title and 
.address, 
9. Charity and Truth; or, Catholicks not uncharitable in say- 
ing that none are sav'd out of the Catholick Communion, because 
the Rule is not Universal. By H. E. Brussels, 1728, 8vo. and (Lond,) 
17 2 8, 8vo. pp. 284, besides title, preface, errata, contents and index; 1730, 
"8vo" title 1 f., preface, pp. xiv" dated June 28, 1727, contents, pp. xv.-xviii., 
pp, 28 4, index 4 ff. 
In this, perhaps his most interesting work, he replies to Chillingworth's 

'Religion of Protestants a safe way to Salvation; or, an Answer to a Book 
.entitled, f Mercy and Truth; or, Charity maintained by Catholics,' which 
pretends to prove the contrary," Oxford, 1638, EoL, reprinted, 9th edit., in 
17 2 7, Charles Butler (" Hist. Memoirs," ed. 1822, vol. iv. p. 431) gives some 
account of the propositions contained in Dr. Hawarden's work, which he says 
was held in universal esteem. It was reprinted in Dublin in 1808, and again 
jn 1809, 8vo., under the sanction of all the Irish prelates. 
10. Catholick Grounds; or, a Summary and Rational Account 
of the Unchangeable Orthodoxy of the Catholick Church. By 
H. E. (Lond.) 1729, 8vo., pp. 20; said to have been frequently reprinted. 
Many works have been issued under somewhat similar titles, which has 
-often caused confusion. The following may be noted :-" Grounds of the Old 
and Newe Religion," 1608; U Grounds of the Old Religion," 1742, by Bp. 
,Challoner; "The Ground of the Catholicke and Roman Religion," 1623, by 
Fr. P. Anderson, S.J.; "Grounds of the Catholic Doctrine," &c., 1732, by 
Bp. Challoner; and U Grounds of the Christian's Belief," 1771, by Bp. 
Homyold, 
II. An Answer to Dr. Clarke and Mr. Whiston, concerning the 
Divinity of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit; with a Summary 
Account of the Chief Writers of the Three First Ages. By H. E. 
Lond., Thos. Meighan, 1729, 8vo., title I f., preface dated July 17, 1728, pp. 
xxi., contents I p., pp. 131, index 6 ff. ; repro with his works, Dublin, 1808, 8vo. 
Some copies are without printer's name and address. 
Charles Butler (" Hist. Memoirs," ed, 1822, vol. iv.) gives an interesting 
.account of Dr. Hawarden's con(erence and controversy with Dr. Sam. Clarke, 
occasioned by the 2nd edit. with alterations, 1719, of his work entitled "The 
Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity," originally published in 1712, which he 
defended in a number of other works against the attacks of Dr. "Vells, Robt. 



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I S'l 


N elson, Esq., &c., and especially in his" Answer to the late Rev. Mr. Richard 
Mayo, containing observations upon his book entitled, 'A Plain Scripture 
Argument against Dr. Clarke's doctrine concerning the ever blessed Trinity; ,. 
and a letter to the author of a book entitled, 'The True Scripture Doctrine of 
the most holy and undivided Trinity continued and vindicated: recommended 
first by Mr. Nelson, and since by Dr. \Vaterland,''' Lond. 1719, 8vo. In Dr. 
Clarke's work was produced a more refined, and if not in a more intelligible 
at least in a more specious, form than it had previously assumed, the doctrine 
of the early Socinians respecting Jesus Christ. Tritheism, Arianism, and 
Sabellianism, Mr. Butler says, are the rocks upon which the adventurers in 
the Trinitarian controversy too often split. Dr. Clarke professed to steer 
clear of the first by denying the self-existence of the Son and of the Holy 
Ghost; of the second, by maintaining their derivation from, and subordina- 
tion to, the Father; and of the third, by maintaining the personality and 
distinct agency of each person of the Trinity. He propounded his system 
with great clearness, and supported it with considerable strength and subtlety 
of argument. But he met a powerful opponent in Dr. Hawarden, who< 
first defeated him in a conference, and finally crushed him in his work as. 
above. 
In the conference, held by desire and in the presence of her Majesty 
Queen Caroline, Dr. Clarke explained his system at some length in very 
guarded terms and with apparent great perspicuity. After he had finished, a. 
pause ensued, and then Dr. Hawarden said, "He had listened with the 
greatest attention to what had been said by Dr. Clarke, and that he believed 
he apprehended rightly the whole of his system; that the only reply that he 
should make to it was to ask a single question; that if the question was 
thought to contain any ambiguity, he wished it to be cleared of this before 
any aFlswer to it was returned, but desired that when the answer should be 
given it should be expressed either by the affirmative or negative monosyllable.". 
To this proposition Dr. Clarke assented. "Then," said Dr. Hawarden, " I 
ask, can God the Father annihilate the Son and the Holy Ghost? Answer 
me, Yes or No." Dr. Clarke remained for some time absorbed in thought,. 
and then frankly acknowledged it was a question which he had never con- 
sidered. Here the conference ended. The bearings of this searching 
question will be readily perceived. If Dr. Clarke answered " Yes," he admitted 
the Son and the Holy Ghost to be mere creatures; if he answered"" No," he 
admitted each to be absolutely God. 
It is a remarkable fact that after the "Answer to Dr. Clarke" was pub- 
lished, Dr. Hawarden received the thanks of the University of Oxford for his 
admirable defence of the Blessed Trinity. 
Wm. \Vhiston had zealously ventilated his Arianism in innumerable 
works, for which he was deprived of his Lucasian professorship and expelled 
the University of Cambridge, after which he settled in London and led a busy 
life in the vain endeavour to restore what he called Primitive Christianity. 
In 1730 he published a memoir of Dr. Clarke, who died in the previous 
year. 
12, Wit against Reason; or the Protestant Champion, the 
great, the incomparable Chillingworth, not invulnerable, being 
a Treatise in which are laid open the noble Adventures and inimi- 
table Exploits of that immortal man in defence of The Bible, as 



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he is pleas'd to call it; or rather, of all the new and contradictory 
Religions in Christendom, against the Church of Rome. By H. E. 
Brussels, 1735, 8vo. pp. 13 I, besides title, preface, contents, and errata; 
Dublin, 1808, 8vo. 
13. He left in MS. a body of theology of near twenty years' labour, which 
was preserved at Douay until the French Revolution. A copy of another very 
interesting MS, of his was formerly at the mission of New House, Newsham, 
near Preston. It is" A Brief Account of the Gunpowder Plot," In Vin. Eyre's 
" Colln. of MS. Cases, &c., on the Popery Laws," U shaw CoH., f. 70, are some 
of Dr. Hawarden's opinions on cases of conscience respecting money matters. 
14. Portrait, from an original painting at Burton Constable, engraved in 
mezzotinto by Turner, pub. by J. Booker, about 1814, 14 by 10 in. 


Hawarden, Joseph Bernard, a.S.B, schoolmaster, born 
at Eccleston, in the parish of Prescot, co. Lancaster, in 1773, 
was professed in St. Gregory's monastery at Douay, Oct. 2 I, 
1792. In September, 180 I, he was placed at Bonham, in 
Somersetshire, in succession to Dom John Basil Brindle, O,S,B., 
where he opened a school for young gentlemen, which he con- 
tinued for about twenty years. 
I n March, I 823, he was obliged to resign his position on 
account of his breaking his vows. In 1840 a serious illness 
brought him to his senses, and he sought to make reparation 
for all the infidelities, disobedience, and scandals of which he 
had been guilty, but after his recovery he again fell away. In 
his last sickness, however, he was attended by Canon Parfitt, 
and died at Hinton, near Bath, April 2 I, 185 I, aged 78. 
Though probably descended from the same source as the 
Hawardens of Appleton, his relationship was remote, He was 
the last ecclesiastic of the name, and the only one who disgraced 
his calling. 
Oliver, Collections, p. 229 ; Dolall, lVeldo1l's Citron. Notes. 


Hawarden, Savage, third son of John H award en, of 
Fenilstreet, Appleton, co. Lancaster, gent., by Elizabeth, 
daughter of Thomas Gryse, of Warrington, gent., was born 
Sept. 29, 1582. His father and all his family suffered very 
considerably for their recusancy, Savage, so named from some 
family alliance with the Savages, of Rock Savage, co. Chester, 
was educated at Eton, and elected thence to King's College, 
Cambridge, whereof he was admitted scholar, Aug. 25, 1595, 
and fellow, Aug. 25, 1602. It does not appear that he 
graduated, and it is probable that he retired from the university 



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OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


18 3 


on the renewal of the persecutions by James 1. His subsequent 
history is not recorded, 
Coopcr, AtltcJlæ Calltab., vol. ii.; GilloZCJ, Lallc. Recltsallts, 
.i1IS. 


1. Two Latin poems in the university collection, Cambridge, on the 
accession of James I., 1603. 


Hawker, Robert Stephen, poet, born at Plymouth, Dec. 
3, 180 4, was the son of James Stephen Hawker, then a medical 
man, but subsequently in holy orders and successively curate 
and vicar of Stratton, eight miles from Morwenstow. His 
grandfather was the celebrated Calvinistic divine, Robert 
Hawker, D.D., author of the well-known" l\Iorning and Even- 
ing Portions." 
As early as 182 I, he published anonymously, at Cheltenham, 
his first poems, "Tendrils by Reuben," On April 28, 1823, 
he matriculated at Pembroke College, Oxford, and in the 
following November married Charlotte Eliza Rawlegh, daughter 
and eventually heiress of Col. J'Ans, of \Vhitstone House, near 
Bude Haven, Cornwall. The next year he returned to the 
university, but in consequence of his marriage removed his 
name from Pembroke College to 1'1agdalen Hall (now Hertford 
College), where in 1 827 he gained the N ewdigate Prize Poem. 
This circumstance brought him under the notice of Dr. Phill- 
potts, of Stanhope, in Durham, who, after he became Bishop of 
Exeter, gave him his preferment. In 1828, he took his degree 
of B.A., and left Oxford. In 1829 he was ordained deacon 
by Bishop Carey, and appointed to the curacy of North Tamer- 
ton, Devon. He received priest's orders in 183 I, and in the 
following year, while at North Tamerton he published at 
Oxford the first series of "Records of the \Vestern Shore," 
simple legends connected with the wild and singular scenery 
of his own country, "done into verse" (as he expresses it) 
during his walks and rides. In Dec. 1834, he was appointed 
to the vicarage of 1'10rwenstow, in Cornwall, by Dr. Phillpotts. 
In Jan. 1835, he took up his residence in the parish with 
which his name will always be associated. This isolated 
and romantic place, where there had been no resident vicar 
for a hundred years, was then a wilderness. He built 
a bridge over a dangerous ford, the vicarage on its carefully 
.chosen and picturesque site, and the school-house, St. Mark's, 



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in a.. central situation, in order that the children of the 
surrounding hamlets might have easy access to it. He 
also restored the church well of St. John, and rescued the 
ancient church from the state of dilapidation in which he found 
it. Amidst such scenery Mr. Hawker spent his life; winning 
his people by kindness, succouring the living 2nd the dead 
whenever the sea cast a ship ashore on the perilous rocks, and 
sending forth from his solitude at intervals those "snatches 
of song" which earned him the title of "Bard of the Tamar- 
side. " 
In 1836 he took his degree of M.A., and in 1850 added to 
his labours the curacy of \Velcombe, a little parish in the neigh- 
bourhood, which he continued to serve with Morwenstow until 
his death. 
Thus for over forty years he laboured patiently, systematically
 
and successfully amongst people who thoroughly appreciated 
his labours. His sermons, says the author of his memoir in the 
lIfOY1ZÙzg Post, were brief, terse, and altogether extempore, but 
thoroughly theological and dogmatic, though in form and 
style brought down to the level of ordinary minds. He had a 
most prepossessing and commanding appearance, and always 
spoke as one with authority. His instinctive grasp of Catholic 
dogma led him to follow with keen interest all that was taking 
place in connection with the Oxford movement in the Church 
of England. His anxiety regarding the position of the Esta- 
blished Church increased with every fresh interference of the 
State. Bishop Phillpotts frequently consulted him, and his 
advice was constantly sought by his clergy. As regards the 
Exeter Synod, held after the Gorham judgment, Mr. Hawker 
is said to have been the first to recommend it to his diocesan 
as the only true and proper mode of overcoming what all then 
felt to be a very serious difficulty. He was at one with Arch- 
deacon Denison on the conscience clause, feeling confident-as 
is now being discovered by many-that the National Schools 
will in due course either fall before irreligious Board Schools,. 
or surely lose their distinctive Christian character. 
He was greatly impressed during the excitement which arose 
in 1869, consequent on the author of the first of the "Essays 
and Reviews," an authoritative printed manifesto of sceptical 
and latitudinarian opinions, being, by her Majesty, at Mr, Glad- 
stone's recommendation, nominated to the See of Exeter. But 



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185 


his deepest distress was that the Public "VVorship Regulation Bill 
should have been introduced by the bishops. It lay heavily 
upon him both night and day; so much so, that he expressed 
a resolution, a few months before his death, that in case the 
m.easure became law he would sever himself from the Esta- 
blished Church, which had "neither authority nor doctrine ; JJ 
. and when the Act was passed he declared, "the bishops are 
the traitors of their Master." He now began to recognize 
that the spiritual continuity of the old national church had 
been severed. It is no wonder, therefore, that at this crisis, 
l\lay, 1875, Mr. Hawker's thoughts were irrevocably turned 
towards the Catholic Church. ""VVhither else could he turn ? " 
Dr. Lee exclaims. 
In June of that year it was found imperative that Mr. Hawker 
should have absolute rest. After a few days spent with his 
brother, l\fr. Claude Hawker, of Boscastle, Cornwall, he decided 
to visit his birthplace, Plymouth, and there he died, on the 
morning of Aug. IS, 1875, aged 70, 
U Come to thy God in time! 
He read his native chime: 
Youth, manhood, old age past, 
His bell rung out at last." 
. R. S. HAWKER.-" Silent Tower of Bottreau." 


The evening before his death he was received into the Church 
by the Very Rev. Richard Canon Mansfield, of the Bishop's 
House, Portsmouth. To those best acquainted with the 
workings of his inner life, this step did not cause the least 
astonishment. "For I suppose," wrote his wife, "thirty years. 
at least my dear husband has been at heart a Roman Catholic. 
No one converted him, as no human being influenced him in 
the smallest degree. He quietly, during the first years of his 
having Morwenstow, read himself into his convictions, and 
embraced all the tenets of the Roman Catholic faith, and his 
heart yearned for communion with them," 
When he was told by his wife that a priest should see him 
before he died, he broke forth into the jubilant antiphon, the 
" Gloria in Excelsis," " Te Deum," and other canticles of praise. 
"Mr. Hawker," says the author of the memoir above men- 
tioned, "was at once a scholar, a poet, a theologian, and an 
antiquary-sure, reliable, and solid in all. A great reader, a 
searcher into out-of-the-way corners of literature, as well as a 



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careful and painstaking student of men and things belonging 
more especially to his native Cornwall, he was deservedly 
looked up to as an authority by hundreds who valued his 
.extensive and accurate learning, and knew his personal worth, 
though they never had the privilege and good fortune to know 
him in the flesh." 
It has been truly said that Mr. Hawker was more of a poet 
than an apostle, though this came from no lack of goodwill or 
devotion on his part, but was rather the outcome of his position. 
Everything around him, naturally, favoured the bent of his 
mind; everything around him, morally, was a clog upon his 
energies and defied his strongest efforts. 
He was known to many of the most distinguished literary 
men of the day, including the Poet Laureate, the late Canon 
Kingsley, and the late Charles Dickens. The first draft of 
some of Lord Tennyson's poems are said to have been written 
on the cliffs above l''Iorwenstow, especially" Break, break, break," 
where likewise some of the most striking of 1\1r. Hawker's own 
:poetical works were produced. 
He has been termed "a great poet, whose works are a well- 
spring of delight." His strength, however, lay chiefly in hymns 
.and ballads, but his most ambitious and incomparably his finest 
work is the" Quest of the Sangraal," which was written in the 
lonely time that succeeded his first wife's death, on Feb. 2, 1863. 
On Dec. 2 I of the following year he married, secondly, Pauline 
Anne, only daughter of Vincent Francis Kuczynski, a Polish 
nobleman in exile, who held an appointment in the State Paper 
.Office. By this marriage he had three daughters, Morwenna 
Pauline (named after the saintly daughter of Breachan, a Celtic 
king of the ninth century, whose station or stowe gave name to 
lVlr. Ha wker's parish), Rosalind, and J uliot. 
Godwin, Hawker's Poetical lVorks / The Tablet, vol. xlvi. 
p. 343 ; Baring-Gould, Life / A
'e Maria j}Iag" May, 1882 ; Lee, 
jJJ c1llorials. 
1. Tendrils. By Reuben. Cheltenham, 1821, 8vo., ded. to the friends 
.cf his early boyhood, dated Charlton, 1821; appended to his" Poetical 
\Vorks." Lond. 1879, 8vo. 
2. Poetical First Buds. By Reuben. Plymouth, 1825, 8vo., which 
gave undoubted promise of future ability. 
3. Pompeii, a prize poem, recited in the Theatre, Oxford, June 
27,1827. Oxford (1827), 8vo.; repr, 1836. 
This well-conceived and carefully written poem displays research, art, and 



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OF THE EXGLISH CATHOLICS. 


18 7 


poetical power; in fact many at the time held it to be on a level with that by 
Heber. 
4. Records of the Western Shore. Oxford, 183
, 12mo. pp. 56, in 
verse. 
5, Records of the Western Shore. Second Series. Stratton, 
1836, 12mo. pp. 52, included in "Poems, containing the Second Series of 
Records of the \Vestern Shore, First edition. The. First Series, second 
edition; and Pompeii, the Oxford Prize Poem for 1827." Stratton, 1836, 
I2mo., 3 pts. 
6, A Welcome to The Prince Albert, submitted to the Queen 
on the approach of her Majesty's l\Iarriage, by the Author of 
" Pompeii." Oxford, 1840, 8vo. in verse. Pronounced to be rather 
commonplace, 
7. Ecclesia: a Volume of Poems. Oxford, 1840, 8vo. pp. 144, 
mainly consisting of reprints of his verses then out of print. The new pro- 
ductions are all marked by that extensive knowledge of local legends, 
Christian folk-lore, and true religious sentiment, which so markedly dis- 
tinguishes most of his productions. 
8. Reeds Shaken with the Wind. Lond.,James Burns, 18.n, 16mo. 
pp. 48, ibid., 1844, first and second clusters, 
9. Rural Synods; by the Vicar of Morwenstow. Lond. 1844, Svo. 
pp.2..... 
Being Rural Dean of Trigg Major, he took a deep and active interest in 
the revi\ral of synodical action, both local, diocesan, and provincial, and, with 
his bishop's consent, held a ruridecanal chapter at Morwenstow, the first that 
had been held for centuries. He justified the meeting of the synod in church 
in the above pamphlet. 
10. The Offertory to J. Walter, Esq., of Bearwood, Berks. 
Lond. 18""4, 8vo., a letter, dated Nov. 27. 
In the autumn of 1844 there arose a considerable excitement with regard 
to the restoration of the weekly offertory in Protestant parish churches, a 
storm which some of the daily London and Exeter press did their best to 
intensify, 1\Ir. Mawker, who had openly defended the principle of the 
offertory from the plain and unambiguous directions of the Book of Common 
Prayer, was singled out by name for attack in the Times newspaper. Some 
of his letters in answer to the attack in question, though strictly confined to 
the point in dispute, were refused admittance, upon which he personally 
addressed the proprietor of that journal as above. Dr. Lee says that his 
letter is as forcible in its reasoning as it is true, charitable, and vigorous in 
its conclusions. It had a very large circulation, and was generally com- 
mended. 
II. The Field of Rephidim: a Visitation Sermon [on Exod. 
xvii. 11, 12J, in the Diocese of Exeter, written by the Vicar of 
Morwenstow; delivered in the Church of St. Mary Magdalene, 
Launceston, July 27, 1845, by T. N. Harper, B.A., curate of 
Stratton. Lond. 1845, 8vo. pp. 16. 
He had been selected by his bishop to preach a visitation sermon, but 
owing to his father's death was unable to deliver it. It was, however, 
preached by the Rev. Tho:;. 1'ortoll Harper, then a Protestant clergyman, 



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and now a distinguished Jesuit. Dr, Lee says that, " the sermon is thoroughly 
original, displays considerable thought, much power, and excellent taste, the 
taste of a far-seeing religious teacher who was a perfect gentleman." 
12. Echoes from Old Cornwall. Lond. 1846, 8vo., a small vol. of 
poems, which had considerable sale, as the author's name and powers were 
then known and appreciated far and wide. 
13. A Voice from the Place of St. Morwenna in the Rocky 
Land, uttered to the Sisters of Mercy at the Tamar Mouth; and 
to Lydia, their Lady in the Faith, "whose heart the Lord 
opened." By the Vicar of Morwenstow. Lond. (Plymouth, pr.) 1849, 
J 6mo. pp. 14. 
\Vritten to aid Miss Sellon in her efforts to restore religious life within 
the Established Church, for which she was right royally abused, says Dr. Lee, 
both by Protestants and unbelievers. 
l\1orwenstow occupies the upper and northern nook of the county of 
Cornwall, shut in and bounded on the one hand by the Severn Sea, and on 
the other by the offspring of its bosom, the Tamar river, which gushes from 
a rushy knoll on the eastern wilds of Morwenstow. This spot was the place or 
" stowe" of St. Morwenna, daughter of Breachan, a Celtic King of the ninth 
century. The Cornish retained their religion for long after the so-called 
Reformation, and even yet their Catholic traditions are not entirely eradicated. 
In 1863, Mr. Hawker put on record, in a letter to 1\1r. Godwin, the following 
forcible and characteristic opinion. " John \Vesley years ago corrupted and 
degraded the Cornish character; found them wrestlers, caused them to 
change their sins, and called it 'conversion.' \Vith my last breath I protest 
that the man \Vesley corrupted and depraved, instead of improving, the 
\Vest of England; indeed all the land." 
Mr. Hawker did much to foster Catholic traditions. The altar in his 
church was duly furnished after the Catholic model, and for more than forty 
years, in obedience to the injunction of his patron and diocesan, eucharistic 
vestments of ancient material and form were constantly used in the services. 
Some of the vestments had come down from pre-Reformation times, and were 
rich with that beautiful embroidery for which even in Rome itself England 
was so deservedly famous, 
14. Aishah Shechinah. A Poem on the Incarnation. Privately 
printed, May, 1860, in which, says Dr. Lee, the mystery, beauty, and mercy 
üf the Incarnation, are sung with perfect simplicity, as by the lips of the 
seraph, while the divine art and majestic music of every line and stanza strike 
and linger on the memory like a song from the angelic choirs. 
15. The Quest of the Sangraal. Chant the First. Exeter, 1864, 
4to. pp. 46, ded, in memory of his wife, a poem in blank verse of about 500 
lines, privately printed. 
This is his masterpiece, and many hold it to be the most noble Chris.tian 
poem of the present age, an opinion which was deliberately formed by Bishop 
Phillpotts, and ratified and approved by 1\1rs. Browning, no mean judges, 
" The Quest of the Sangraal by King Arthur and the Table Round," is a 
remarkable legend attached to Cornwall. King Arthur was born at Tintagel 
Castle, on the northern coast of the county. In after life the King frequently 
resided at the castle, and the surrounding country abounds with legends of 



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OF THE ENGLISH CA THOLICS. 


18 9 


his hunting feats. The Sangraal was the holy grail, or chalice, in which 
tradition says our Lord consecrated on l\Iaundy Thursday, and in which St. 
Joseph of Arimathea preserved the Precious Blood gathered from beneath the 
Cross. St. Joseph came as a pilgrim to England, and the miraculous 
blossoming of his staff told him it was his Lord's will he should remain in the 
land; and his cell was the foundation of the great Abbey of Glastonbury. 
But after his death the Sangraal was lost, and to find this treasure was the 
ardent desire of the holy King Arthur. 
The legend is told in exquisite style, every line breathing the spirit of 
deep and fervent piety, which is so sadly wanting in the more pretentious 
verse of Tennyson on kindred themes. Deep Catholic instincts are apparent 
-on every page. His words are full of meaning, yet never obscure nor spas- 
modic, but always musical, and as Dr. Lee remarks, "the verse seems to 
march on like the stately chant of an ancient bard; while in every sentiment 
and sentence gleams the glory of the Cross of the Crucified.'" There is 
nothing finer in the En61ish language than the close of this great poem. 
The plan of the poem had long been in his mind, and it was to have 
embraced three other chants, but he only wrote the opening lines of the 
second. 
16. Ichabod, March, 1865, issued anon. and signed" Karn-idzek," 
These beautiful verses on the death of Cardinal \Viseman show how 
-intense was his affectionate admiration, professed Protestant though he was, 
. for that great prelate. 
"Hush! for a star is swallow'd up in night! 
A noble name hath set along the sea, 
An eye that flash'd with Heaven, no more is bright: 
The brow that ruled the Islands, where is he?" 


This gave great offence to Protestants and was severely criticized. 
17. The Cornish Ballads and other Poems. . . , including a 
second edition of" The Quest of the Sangraal." Lond. (Oxford, pr.), 
1869. 8vo,; Lond. 1884, 8vo., containing the whole of his chief and best 
known poems, of which sixty-three remarkable examples are given, including 
"Pompeii," "The Quest of the Sangraal," and all his popular ballads and 
lyrics. Several hitherto unpublished poems are also embodied in the book. 
It is one of the most complete and attractive volumes ever issued. 
18. Footprints of Former Men in Far Cornwall. Lond. 1870.8\'0. 
pp. 25 0 . 
It contains a variety of curious and most readable articles, many of which 
had been previously published in various magazines and serials, but some of 
them appeared for the first time. The thirteen articles constitute a most 
interesting and attractive volume. 
19. A Canticle for Christmas; 1874, 8vo., privately printed poem. A 
very beautiful specimen of his theological tenets and rhythmical powers. 
20. Aurora: a poem. Of which twenty-five copies were privately printed 
by Mr, Hawker's friend and neighbour, Mr. \Vm. Maskell, ofBude Castle, in 
1873. It was reprinted in Dr. Lee's" Lyrics of Light and Life." Though 
mystical it has many admirers. 
21. Contributions to the Cornwall newspapers, The Catholic Instructor. 



19 0 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAW. 


edited by Canon Sing (vol. iv., "The \Vreck," " The Exile's Test," ,. The Celt 
by the Sea," " A Baptismal Ballad," pp. 366, 407. 41 I, and 432 respectively),. 
Household Words, All tIle Year Rou1ld, Tile U1lio1l Review (edit. by Dr. 
Lee, between 1863-69), Gentleman's lIIag., March, 1867 (a full and interesting 
account of l\Iorwenstow, replete with learning. research, and piety), and other 
secular publications. In Dr. Lee's work is a short essay from Mr, Hawker's 
pen concerning ., Time and Space," written in 1865, 
22. The Poetical Works of Robert Stephen Hawker, Vicar of 
Morwenstow, Cornwall. Now first collected and arranged. With 
a Prefatory Notice by J. G. Godwin. Lond. 1879, Bvo. pp. xxiv.-35 1 ,. 
with photo taken in 1864. 
It has been remarked in a review of this work in Tlze J.
f01lth (vol. xvi. 
p, 610) that, " His poems are the best biography of the man. , . . they give 
his mind and heart with all their quaint and singular features, He seldom 
committed himself to a long and elaborate poem, and the specimens of his 
workmanship in this kind are not the most characteristic pieces which he has 
left behind him. \Ve get the man more perfectly in his fugitive productions, 
and there is hardly one of these which is not good and does not bear an 
original stamp. , . . . He seems from the beginning to have had a great many 
Catholic instincts, and some of his prettiest poems are connected with the 
honour of our blessed Lady." 
23. "Memorials of the late Rev. Robert Stephen Hawker, 
1.A. Some- 
time Vicar of Morwenstow, in the Diocese of Exeter. Collected, arranged,. 
and edited by the Rev, Fred. Geo. Lee, D.C.L., Vicar of All Saints, 
Lambeth." Lond. 1876, Bvo. pp. xiv.-23-J., with photo and folding pedigree 
of Hawker family, and illustrations. 
\Vith all the tenderness and grace befitting his friend, contrasting greatly 
with Mr Baring-Gould's book on the same subject, Dr. Lee defends Mr. 
Hawker against the angry bitterness which was raised by his conversion. He 
gives vivid pictures of the secularizing of the National Church, and shows 
how every act of its rulers had its _influence upon :;\Ir. Hawker's mind, giving 
quotations from his letters which tell how keenly he felt every step on the 
downward path from his ideal. (Tablet, "01. 
lvii. p, 491.) 
24. " The Vicar of 1\lorwenstow." A Life of R. S. Hawker, M.A. By S_ 
Baring-Gould, M.A. Lond. 1876, Bvo, pp. vii.-299, with photo; iel. 3rd edit.
 
revised. 
It is not surprising that some who had listened eagerly to the voice which 
came from Morwenstow should speak of him with bitter feelings, and others 
deem him weakened in mind, when it became known that at the eleventh 
hour Mr. Hawker had submitted to the Church, In this spirit the above- 
work '''as written. 
25. "Remarks upon the recent Memoirs of the late R. S, Hawker," 18 76, 
8vo., privately printed, to which some obsen-ations are added by" 'V. 1\1.'7 
(Wm. l\laskell), a Catholic, who had known him for more than thirty years, 
with reference to Mr. Hawker's reception into the Church. The latter are 
reprinted in the Tablet, vol. xlviii. p. 108. 
26, Portrait, photographs in the above memoirs. 
Hawkins, Francis, Father, S.J., born, according to Oliver, 
in 1622, was the son of John Hawkins, IVLD., of London, 



HAW.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


191 


younger brother of Sir Thomas Hawkins, of Nash Court, Kent, 
the translator of Caussin's " Holy Court." 
Before he came of age he translated " Youth's Behaviour," 
which, at his father's request, was printed by \Villiam Lee about 
164 I. In 1649 he entered the Society of Jesus abroad, and 
was professed of the four vows, l\Iay 14, 1662. In 1665 he 
was socius to the master of novices at \Vatten ; in I 672 con
 
fessor, &c., at Ghent; in 1675, professor of Holy Scripture in 
Liége College, where he died Feb. 19, 168 I, aged 59. 
He has been confused with Dr. Francis Hawkins, chaplain of 
the Tower of London, who published "The Confession of 
Edward Fitz-Harris, Esq." Lond. 168 I, 4to., and" A Narrative 
of the Discourse" which passed between him and Fitz-Harris, 
when a prisoner in the Tower, Lond., 168 I, 4to. 
Oli'i.:er, Collectanea SJ.,. Hawkins, Youtlt's Bellaviour, ed. 
1663 ; Foley, Records SJ., vols. iii. iv. and vii. 
I. Youth's Behaviour; or, Decency in Conversation amongst 
Men. Composed in French by Grave Persons, for the use and 
benefit of their youth. Now newly turned into English by 
Francis Hawkins, nephew to Sir Thomas Hawkins, translator to 
Caussin's Holy Court. With the addition of 26 new precepts, 
writ by a grave author, which are marked x, and some additions. 
8th impression, Lond. 1663, 12mo. 
The bookseller, \Vm. Lee, in his address to the reader, says that he printed 
this little book about twenty-two years since at the request of Dr. Hawkins, 
"the Father of this young author." :md. edit., Lond. 1646, 12mo.; Lond. 
(Oct. 5) 1646, 8vo., 4th edit. ; with new additions, Lond. 1650, Dmo.; Lond, 
1652, ibid. 1653, 12mo., illustrated; Lond. 1654, 12mo.; 9th edit., Lond. 
1668, sm. 8vo. 
"Youth's Behaviour; or, Decency in Conversation amongst \Vomen. The 
Second Part," Lond. 1664, 12mo., with portr. of Lady Ferrers, was added by 
the Puritan, Robert Codrington, M.A., who translated and edited the last 
volume of Caussin's "Holy Court." It is probable that he also edited the 
later editions of Fris. Hawkin's translation with considerable alterations. 
The second part, in comparison with the first, appears to be an entirely new 
work. In his dedication to U Mistress Ellinor Pargites," and" Mrs. Elizabeth 
\Vashington, her only daughter," he hopes this" will prove as profitable as I 
have found it difficult; for although there are extant in Greek and other 
languages many excellent books concerning the instruction of youth, yet I 
never have read any that have precisely treated of the education of gentle- 
women." Hazlitt," Bib!. Collns.," remarks, "As a point of criticism, the 
second part is a piece of mere bookmaking, quite devoid of the raciness of 
the first; but the collection of Select Proverbs should be compared with 
Ray." 


Hawkins, Henry, Father, S,J., born in London in 1575, 



19 2 


BIELIOG'RAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAW. 


was second son of Sir Thomas Hawkins, of Nas
 Court, Kent, 
Knt., and his wife Anne, daughter and heiress of Cyriac Pettit, 
.of Boughton, Kent, Esq. After studying his humanities at St. 
Omer's College, he was admitted into the English College at 
Rome, March 19, 1609, and there he was ordained priest about 
1613. After two years spent in studying scholastic theology, 
he left the college for Belgium, where he entered the Society of 
Jesus. 
Soon after he proceeded to England, where he was taken 
prisoner, and in 16 I 8 sent into perpetual exile. Some time 
later he again risked his life on the mission, where he laboured, 
principally in the London district, for twenty-five years. At 
length in his old age he withdrew to the house of the English 
Tertian Fathers at Ghent, and there died, Aug. 18, 1646, aged 
7 6 . 
He is said to have renounced large expectations, probably his 
mother's estate, in order to embrace the ecclesiastical state. 
Foley, Records S J., vols. iii. vi. and vii.; Oliver, Collectallea 
S J.,. Dodd, CIt. Hist., vol. iii. 
I. "Synopsis Apostasiæ Marci Antonii de Dominis" (Archbp. of Spalato, 
in Dalmatia, and Dean of Windsor), by Fr. John Floyd (Annosus Fidelis), 
translated into English, St. Orner, 1617, 8vo. 
2. Certaine selected Epistles of St. Hierome translated into 
English, 1630, 4to. pp. 149, under the initials H. H. 
In this vol. are also the Lives of St, Paul, the first hermit, of St. Hilarion, 
the first monk of Syria, and of St. Malchus, all written by St. Jerome, pp. 150. 
3. Partheneia Sacra; or, the Mysterious and Delicious Garden 
of the Sacred Parthenes, symbolically set forth and enriched 
with pious devices and emblems of devout soules, contrived all 
to the honour of the Incomparable Virgin Marie, Mother of God, 
for the pleasure and devotion of the Parthenian Sodalitie of her 
Immaculate Conception, by H. A. Paris, Consturier, 1633, 8vo., illus, 
with 50 plates; Oliver cites" Partheneia Sacra, with Verses and Emblems," 

ouen, 1632, 8vo. A translation, the verse being above mediocrity. 
4. The Life of St. Aldegunda, translated from the French of 
P. Binet. Paris, 1636, 12mo., translated under the initials H. H. from " La 
Vie de St. Aldegonde, par P. Binet, Jesuite," Paris, 1625, 12mo. 
5. The History of St. Elizabeth, Daughter of the King of 
Hungary. Collected from various authors by N. A. S.l., 1632, 
12mo., with fine portrait by Picart, ded. to Lady Jerneghan by H, H. 
6. Fuga Sæculi; or, the Holy Hatred of the World. Conteyn- 
ing the Lives of 17 Holy Confess ours of Christ, selected out of 
sundry Authors, &c. Translated by H. H. Paris, 1632, sm. 4to. 
The preface, pp. 7, and the arguments by the translator are in verse. 
Amongst the Lives are those of St. Malachy, bishop of Connorthen in 



HAW.] 


OF THE EXGLISH CATHOLICS. 


193 


Ireland, St. Edward the Confessor, St. Anselm, Archbp. of Canterbury, and 
St. Hugh, Bp. of Lincoln. It is from the Italian of Fr. ] ohn Peter 1\laffæus, 
s.], 
Hawkins, John, M.D., younger brother of Sir Thomas 
Hawkins, of Nash Court, Knt., married Frances, daughter of 
Francis Power, of Bleckington, co. Oxon" Esq., by Prudence, 
daughter of Sir George Giffard, of l\liddle Claydon, co. Bucks, 
Knt. Besides his son Francis, the Jesuit, he had probably 
another son from whom descend the family of Hawkins of 
Tredunnock, co. IVlonmouth. 
Dr. Hawkins most likely took his degree in the University of 
Padua, He was a staunch recusant, and appears in Gee's list of 
"Popish Physicians in and about the city of London," in 1624, 
as residing in Charterhouse Court. \V ood calls him an "in- 
genious" man. 
IVood, .A.tllellæ O.rOll., ed. 169 I, vol. ii.; Foley, Records S .J., 
vol. iv. ; I-larl. Soc., Visit. OX071. 
1. A briefe Introduction to Syntax . . . . Collected . , . . out 
of Nebrissa . . . . With the Concordance supplyed by J. H. 
Lond. 1631, Svo. 
2. Discursus de Melancholia Hypochondriaca, etc, Heidel- 
bergæ, 1633,4to, 
3. The Ransome of Time being captive. Wherein is declared 
how precious a thing is Time. . . . Written in Spanish by . . . . 
Andreas de Soto . . . . Translated into English by J. H. Lond. 
1634,8vo. 
4. Particu]æ Latinæ Orationis, collectæ, dispositæ, et . . . . 
confabulationibus digestæ, etc. Land. 1635, 8vo. 
5. Paraphrase upon the seaven Penitential Psalms. . Trans- 
lated out of Italian by J. H. Land. 1635, 8vo. 
Hawkins, Sir Thomas, Knt., was the eldest son of Sir 
Thomas Hawkins, of Nash Court, Kent., Knt.-Banneret, by 
Anne, daughter and heiress of Cyriac Pettit, of Boughton-under- 
the Blean, Kent, Esq. 
The family was of great antiquity in the county of Kent, 
springing from Hawkins in the hundred of Folkestone. In the 
reign of Edward III. it became seated at Nash Court, and in the 
parish church of Boughton- Blean are still to be seen some of the 
family monuments. Sir Thomas' grandfather and namesake 
died in 1587 at the age of 10 I, and his father, the Knight- 
banneret, died April 10, 1617, aged 68. All of the family re- 
tained the faith, and suffered much persecution in consequence, 
VOL. III. 0 



194 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAW. 


several of them being driven into exile; many of them were 
nuns, and one or two were priests, In J 7 15, during the ferment 
the nation was thrown into on account of-the rising in favour of 
the rightful heirs to the throne, Nash Court was scandalously 
plundered by a Protestant mob. Every part of the furniture, 
portraits, deeds, family papers, and an excellent library, were 
burnt, and the plate carried off. The mansion was rebuilt by 
the then esquire, Thomas Hawkins, and continued to be the re- 
sidence of the family until the death of his granàson and name- 
sake in 1800, when the estates became the property of his four 
daughters and coheiresses, Lady Teynham, who died in 1826; 
Lady Knatchbull, who died in 1850 ; l\1rs. \Voodroffe, who died 
in 186 I ; and Mrs. Goold, who died in 1847. 
Sir Thomas Hawkins married Elizabeth, daughter of George 
Smith, of Ashby Folville, co. Leicester, Esq. (by Anne, daughter 
of Thomas Giffard, of Chillington, co. Stafford, Esq.), and had 
two sons, both of whom died young and without issue. He 
was probably knighted by James 1., being held in esteem for 
his learning and his talents in music and poetry. He died at 
N ash Court, and was buried near the graves of his father and 
mother towards the close of 1640, 
His niece, Sister Anne Bonaventure Hawkins, was one of the 
foundresses of the Immaculate Conceptionists, or Blue Nuns, at 
Paris, where she died in 1689, aged 79. Her nieces, Susannah 
and Anne Hawkins, also joined that community. The former, 
in religion Susannah Joseph, died abbess of her convent, June 13, 
1704, aged 60, having been professed on 1'1ay 3, 1662 ; the 
latter, in religion Anne Domitilla, went to the convent when 
but ten years of age, in Aug. 1660, and the Diary records, 
(( she was the first gentlewoman that came to this house." She 
died Aug. 12, 1684, aged 35. 
TVood, Athc1læ OXOll., ed. 169 I, vol. ii. p, 170 ; Hasted, Hist, 
of I
eJlt, vol. iii.; Paync, Catk NOll.jurors; Foley, Records S .J., 
vols. iii. and iv.; Diary of the Blue NUJls, llIS. J' Hart, Soc, , 
Visit. -of Leicester J' Burke, Lalldcd Gelltry, I 863. 
1. Odes of Horace, the best of Lyrick Poets; contayning much 
morallity and sweetnesse. Selected, translated, and in this 
edition reviewed and enlarged with many more, by Sir T. H. 
Lond. 1631, 8vo.; Lond. 1638, I2IDO. 
This translation was plagiarised by Dr. Barten Holyday in 1652. 
2. Unhappy Prosperitie, expressed in the Histories of .Ælius 



HAW.] 


OF THE E
GLISH CATHOLICS. 


195 


Sejanus and Philippa the Catanian, with observations on the fall 
of Sejanus. Translated from the French. Lond. 1632, 4to., with 
frontispiece; Lond. 1639, Izmo., front. by \V. Marshall, ded. to \Vm., Earl 
of Salisbury. 
3. The Holy Court in Five Tomes: The first, treating of Motives, 
which should excite men of quality to Christian perfection. The 
second, of the prelate, souldier, statesman, and ladie. The third, 
of maxims of Christianitie against prophanesse, divided into 
three parts, viz" divinity, government of this life, and state of the 
other world. The fourth. containing the command of reason over 
the passions. 'rhe fifth, now first published in English, and much 
augmented according to the last edition of the authour; contain- 
ing the Lives of the most famous and illustrious courtiers; taken 
both out of the Old and New Testament, and other modern 
authours. Written in French by Nicholas Caussin, S.J. Trans- 
lated into English by Sir T. H. and others. Lond., \V. Bentle
', 1650, 
foI., frontispiece and numerous portraits, very curiously divided, with several 
title pages and dedications by Sir Thos. Hawkins, to Queen Henrietta Maria, 
the Earl of Dorset, the Duchess of Buckingham, &c., pp. 522, 319, and 
Caussin's " Angel of Peace to all Christian PI inces," pp. 13. Other editions, 
Paris, 1631, 4to., 2 vols.; Rouen, J. Cousturier, 1634, fo1., with frontispiece; 
Lond. 1638, foI.; Lond. 1663, fol.; Lond. 1678, fol., 4th edit., ded. like the 
two previous editions to the Queen Mother. Ti1e later editions were probably 
edited by Robert Codrington, the Puritan, who is said to have added some 
translations of his own. Sir Thos. Hawkins was assisted by Sir Basil 
Brook, who translated "The Penitent; or, Entertainments for Lent," and 
probably" The Angel of Peace," both of which were also pub. separately. 
This work was for many years in gre3.t favour, especially amongst 
Catholics. It contains lives, with portraits, of Mary Queen of Scots and 
Cardinal Pole. 
4. The Lives and singular vertues of Saint Elzear, Count of 
Sabran, and of his Wife the blessed Countesse Delphina, both 
Virgins and Married, Written in French by R. F. Stephen 
Einet, S.J., and translated into English by Sir T. Hawkins. Paris, 
1638,8vo., ded. "to the Right Hon. J olm Erie of Shrewsbury, Baron Talbot 
Qf Goodrich, &c., and the Lady Mary his Countess." 
5. The Christian Diurnal ofF. N. Caussin, S.J., translated into 
English by T. H. Paris, 163:!, thick 18mo, ; "reviewed and much aug- 
mented," 1686, third edit., 18mo. pp. 272, ded. to the Lady Viscountess 
Savage, signed Thomas Hawkins, epistle to Madame the princess by Nic. 
Caussin. It differs slightly from" The Christian Diary of F. N. Caussin, 
S.]., translated into English by T. H.;' Lond. 1648, 12mo.; Lond. 1652, 8vo" 
which was issued rather for Protestant than Catholic use. 


Hawksley, Edward, of Bloomsgrove, near Nottingham, 
at the age of fourteen was led by accidental causes to join the 
<:onf;regation of Unitarians in Nottingham. At that age, as 
o 2 



19 6 


DIBLIOGRAI'IIICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAW. 


might be expected, he knew very little of the differences which 
have so long divided the professors of Christianity in this 
country. He, in common with many of more mature years
 
thought every religion equally good. To the Unitarian chapel 
in Nottingham was attached an extensive library, chiefly com- 
posed of Unitarian authors. To this he speedily obtained 
access, and as speedily discovered the difference between 
Unitarianism and Trinitarianism. Kotwithstanding, he became 
a decided Unitarian, and was appointed by the congregation at 
Bloomsgrove, with the approbation of the society at N otting- 
ham, to assist in conducting the services of that chapel, which 
he did for upwards of twelvemonths by regularly preaching 
on Sundays. At this time IVIr. Hawksley was a member of 
a small society of Unitarians, consisting only of ten persons, 
called the "Nottingham Berean Society," In this society
 
subjects of every description were discussed-religious, moral
 
political, social, &c. By these means a spirit of inquiry was 
awakened within him, and he never rested with any opinion 
until it appeared to him to be fixed on the immutable 
foundations of truth. In the course of these inquiries, about 
Sept. 1833, he was lent Andrew's "Review of Foxe's Book of 
Martyrs," which made a considerable impression upon him, 
He then borrowed "The Conversion of the Rev, J. A. Mason - 
from the Errors of l'Iethodism to the Catholic Faith," which 
completely revolutionized his former ideas. After this some 
printed sermons by the Rev. T. L. Green, of Norwich, subse- 
quently D.D., opened his mind to the truth of the Catholic 
Church. Providentially about this time he was introduced to 
the Rev. R. \V. \\tTillson, of Nottingham, subsequently Bishop 
of Tasmania, to whom he explained the disordered state of his. 
mind, and the anxiety he feJt to arrive at the truth. Thus by 
him he was thoroughly convinced, after three months' patient 
and unwearied investigation. He then addressed a letter to 
his former friends, the members of the "Berean Society," in- 
forming them of the change in his religious opinions, and 
stating at considerable length his reasons for uniting himself to 
the universal Church of Christ. On Jan. 5, 1834, he made a 
public profession of his faith, and the next day, being the 
Epiphany, was admitted to the sacraments of baptism and holy 
eucharist. On the same day his infant daughter was also 
baptized. After his conversion he met with many trials", 



HAW.] 


OF THE I:NGLISH CATHOLICS. 


197 


and soon afterwards emigrated with his wife and family to 
Sydney, Australia, where he apparently died. 
TVeekly Orthodox Jourllal, vol. ii. pp. 248, 26 I. 
I. The Worship of the Catholic Church not Idolatrous; a Reply 
to the Rev. W. M'Intyre's Candid Inquiry into the doctrine main- 
tained by Bishop Pol ding, in his Pastoral Address. Sydney, 
1838, 8vo. . 
Hawley, Susan, l'Iary of the Conception, first prioress 
and foundress of the English Canonesses Regular of the 
Holy Sepulchre at Liége, was the daughter of Thomas Hawley 
and his wife Judith Hawkins. She was born at New Brent- 
ford, co. l\Iiddlesex, in 1622, She would therefore be a near 
relation of Sir Francis Hawley, of Buckland House, co. Somerset, 
created a baronet in 1643, and further advanced to the peerage 
of Ireland as Lord Hawley, Baron of Donamore, in 1646, Her 
mother was of an equally ancient family. l\t the age of nine- 
teen, inspired with the resolution to found a convent abroad for 
Englishwomen, she left her father's house and passed over to 
the Low Countries. Finding many convents of Canonesses 
Regular of the Holy Sepulchre in those parts, she decided on 
that ancient order. She preferred to make her novitiate in a 
convent recently founded at Tongres, because the community 
had adopted the new constitutions, approved by the apostolical 
letters of Urban VI II., dated Dec. 18, 163 I, which were drawn 
up either by Père Louis Lallemant, S.J., or some other father of 
the Society, She received the first habit of clergess on the 
Feast of the Assumption, and on Oct. 7 of the same year, 164 I, 
was clothed and invested with the white linen surplice and 
double red cross, the distinctive mark of the Church of Jerusalem, 
In the following December, Frances Cary, of Tor Abbey, 
Devonshire, offered herself and was accepted for the projected 
foundation for Englishwomen. 
On Oct. 8, 1642, Susan Hawley was professed, and on the 
same day started from Tongres with four others, including 
:Mother Margaret, mistress of novices, who was nominated 
.superioress by the chapter at Tongres, until such time as the 
new convent should have a sufficient number of members to 
Jnake a canonical election of a prioress. 1'1iss Frances Cary 
.accompanied her countrywoman. The colony arrived at Liége 
the same day, where it had been decided to erect the new con- 
vent in order that they might have the assistance of the English 



J9 8 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAW. 


J e
mits, under whose advice the project was undertaken. At 
first they took apartments in the house of a widow, where they 
remained six weeks. In the meantime, being joined by several 
other young ladies, they hired part of a house opposite St. 
Hubert's Church, called the Barbican, where they remained two 
years. They then found means to purchq.se a large house and 
grounds, pleasantly situated on the height of Pierreuse. This 
was the house in which some English ladies had formerly re- 
sided who were known by the name of "l'lrs. \Vard's Com- 
pany." They had been suppressed, on April 30, 163 I, by the 
bull of Pope Urban VIII., and their property confiscated. 
It is not correct, as stated in the "Life of Mary vVard" (vol. ii. 
p. 455), that any of their property passed, with certain of their 
number, to the English Sepulchrines. It is possible that some 
of the ladies joined one or other of the houses of the same 
order, of which there were many in the Low Countries, and 
two in the city of Liége beside the English Sepulchrines. 
The latter took possession of their new house on Christmas 
Day, 1644. After residing there for twelve years a rebellion 
broke out in the Low Countries, and the prince-bishop of Liége 
raised a citadel, or extended the ramparts, by which a consider- 
able part of the convent grounds were included within the pre- 
cincts. The religious, therefore, addregsed a petition to the 
prince-bishop to assign them another dwelling. There was in 
the city a convent and church which had formerly been con.: 
nected with the knights of St. John of Jerusalem, but was then 
occupied by nine persons called Coquins (that is, Fratrcs 
Coqlti71i) , in allusion to their obligation to provide cooked meat 
for pilgrims. In reality they were only laymen, and, moreover, 
on account of certain irregularities, the prince-bishop had ob- 
tained leave from Rome to suppress them. The institution was 
therefore given to the Sepulchrines in exchange for the house 
in which they were living. But the Coquins refused to vacate 
the hospital, and in consequence the prince-bishop sent soldiers 
early one morning, seized the inmates, and carried them to 
prison. There they were detained until they submitted, when 
they were released and a pension for life given to each of them. 
The Maison des Coquins, or Hôpital de St. Christophe, in the 
Faubourg d'Avroy, was taken possession of by the Sepulchrines 
on April I, 1655. 
In the meantime the Sepulchrines had largely increased in 



HAW.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


19
 


numbers, so that l\lother Margaret of Tongres, who had hitherto 
governed in quality of superior by appointment only, and not by 
election, judged the community able to exist by itseI( The 
superior at Tongres, therefore, recalled her to her own convent, 
and appointed l\lother Mary of the Conception (Hawley) ad 
-interim to govern in her place. The community had not yet 
the requisite number of twelve capitulars to elect a prioress 
canonically. I t was not till after the expiration of two years, 
on N ov. 25, 1652, that she "vas capitularly chosen first prioress 
of the convent. She signalized her election by the publication 
and distribution of "A Brief Relation of the Order." In this 
work she advertised for ladies who wished to join the commu- 
nity, pensioners, and girls to be educated
 The last, however, 
for the first century after the establishment of the convent, 
seldom exceeded half-a-dozen. 
The prioress' rare talents, sanctity, and maternal care for the 
happiness and perfection of her daughters attracted many Eng- 
lish ladies, and the community soon counted between thirty and 
forty choir nuns. To the new convent, as before described, was 
attached a hospitål for pilgrims, which the nuns at first served. 
But that employment was found to be unsuitable for enclosed 
religious women, and a petition was made to the prince-bishop 
for leave to close the bospital, and to distribute the revenue in 
bread and other necessaries to the poor of the city, which was 
granted. Mother Hawley governed her community for forty- 
seven years, and in 1692 celebrated her golden jubilee of fifty 
years' profession. In 1697 she abdicated her dignity, and spent 
her retirement with great merit till her death on Christmas Day, 
1706, aged 83. 
Chaþter Reg. of Liége Convent,. Brief Relation of tile Order; 
Oliver, Collections, p. I 56 ; Burke, Extinct Baronetage. 
I. A Brief Relation of the Order and Institute of the English 
Religious Women at Liége. (Liége, 1652), 12mo, pp. 55, approb., dated 
Sept, 27, 1652, with instructions for best and shortest way to Liége, 1 f., illus. 
with plate representing an Eng. canoness regular of the Holy Sepulchre. 
This little work was probably edited for the prioress by one of the fathers 
of the English College at Liége, who continued to watch over and direct the 
community until the suppression of the Society. 
The convent was dedicated to St. Helen. When the Rev. Mother Susan 
abdicated, in 1697, Marina Dolman (of Pocklington) was elected as 2nd. 
prioress. She abdicated in 1720 (and died in 1722), and Susan Marie Cath. 
de Bouveroit was elected, and died in office in 1739. The four succeeding 



200 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAW. 


prioresses were as follows :-l\1ary Christina Percy (of Yorkshire), 1739, to 
death in 1]..1.9; Jane Mary Xaveria \Yithenburg, 1749, abdic3.ted 1770) died 
1775; Mary Christina Dennett (of Lydiate, Lancashire), 1770, to death 
1781 ; Bridget Mary Augustin \Vestby (of \Vhite Hall, Lane.), 1781, to death 
17 8 6, 
After the death of the first prioress, the community continued to increase 
and prosper, especially after the election of the Rev. Mother Dennett. It 
was she who established in the convent the devotion to the Sacred Heart, with 
all the practices now common throughout the Church, and the feast has ever 
since been kept as a holiday of obligation in this community. She also 
decided on opening a large school, and set about making the necessary 
arrangements and accommodation. Her efforts were eminently successful. 
In a very short time the pupils numbered from forty to fifty, which has been 
the average number to the present time. This undertaking did not interfere 
with the principal duty of the order, the divine office in choir. The house 
was very popular in the city, especially on account of the numerous English 
families who were attracted there by the convenience it afforded for the 
education of their sons at the Jesuits' college, or their daughters at the English 
convent. Thus when the revolution broke out, and the community wished to 
leave Liége, great opposition was made, and the townsmen kept watch on 
the convent to prevent their departure. The prince-bishop was no less un- 
willing to grant permission to move, and the necessary leave was extorted at 
length only by the interference of the English friends of the community, 
but on condition that they should not leave the diocese, and should return 
to their old abode if possible. A house was therefore taken at Maestrick, to 
which most of the valuables were sent. Barges were engaged some time after 
to convey the community àown the river, for the attacks of the revolutionary 
party, and the continual advance of the French, convinced the superiors that 
J10W was come the time foretold by Fr. John Holme, alias Howard, S.J., 
that the nuns should return to England. Fr. Holme was the last rector of 
the English college at Liége, and on the suppression of the. Society in 1773, 
took up his residence in the out-quarters of the convent, and there died in 
1783. He had been director of the community from 1764, and often spoke 
to them of going to England, then a most unlikely event, as the penal laws 
were in force. At last, on Ascension Day, May 29, 1794, having heard Mass 
at midnight in their own church, the community, escorted through the town 
by some French émigré gentlemen, went on board the barges ready on the 
river, and immediately left for Maestrick, where they remained for three 
months, The French meanwhile overran the country, and the danger as 
religious, and as English, becoming urgent, the community left for Rotterdam; 
there finding a large East Indiaman in the docks bound to London for a 
cargo, they engaged it to carry them over. They were three weeks on board, 
and entered the Thames on St. Helen's Day, Aug. 18, 1794. All this 
happened during the superiorship of Mother Bridget Mary Aloysia Clough 
(of Shrewsbury), who was elected prioress in 1786. On their arrival at 
Greenwich, the community were generously provided for in London by Lord 
Clifford and Sir \\Tm. Gerard, and remained there two months. Lord 
Stourton then placed Holme Hall. in Yorkshire, at their disposal until they 
should have a house of their own. In 1796 they transferred themselves to 
Dean House, \Vilts, and there continued to render incalculable services by 



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201 


their admirable system of education until Jan. 1799, when they removed to 
New HalI, near Chelmsford, in Essex. This property was secured for them 
by :Mr. :Michael McEvoy, who generously gave them half the purchase 
money. Thus they were brought to the dominions of" Old King Cod," the 
father of St, Helen, consort of the Emperor Constantine, and the patroness 
of the convent, The history of New Hail may be traced from a remote 
period. In the fifteenth century this ancient palace passed from the Butlers to 
the Boleyns, by the marriage of the heiress of Thomas, Earl of Ormond, with 
Sir 'Vm. Boleyn, the grandfather of Anne Boleyn. Henry \iII. took such 
a fancy to New Hall that he made it his own for a royal residence. This 
was not the first time that it had been the property of the Crown, for it had 
belonged to Edw. IV., and had been granted to the Butlers by Hell. -vII. 
The tyrant, whose iniquitous life was the cause of the destruction of the 
Church in England, gave the place a new name, Beaulieu, which, however, 
never came into common use. He erected a noble gatehouse leading into 
the principal court, and set up his anus with an inscription. The latter may 
still be seen, though transferred to the interior of the present convent chapel, 
which was once the grand hall. The inscription is:- 
" Henricus Rex Octavus, rex inclytus armis, 

Iagnanimus, struxit hoc opus egregium." 
A pleasanter association with New Hall is that of the name of Sir Thomas 
:More, who married the dau
hter of its then occupier, :\Ir. Colt. It was also 
for a time the residence of the Princess Mary, afterwards Queen, and it con- 
tinued lOyal property till her successor, Elizabeth, made it over to Tho. 
Ratcliffe, the Earl of Sussex. By him it was sold to the great Duke of 
Buckingham, the favourite of James 1. and Charles I. It was from New 
Hall that Charles started with Buckingham for Spain, to visit the court and 
negotiate for his intended match. In 165 I it fell into the hands of Oliver 
Cromwell, who exchanged it for Hampton Court. On the Restoration New 
Hall reverted to the Buckinghams, but was ultimately bestowed on General 
Monk, created Duke of Albemarle, who resided there in splendour. It then 
passed into other hands, and in 1737 it was sold to John Olminus, afterwards 
created Baron \Valtham. It was he who pulled down part of its extensive 
premises. He died in 1764, and from his son, or his son's executors, :New 
Hall was purchased for the nuns. An interesting account of New Hall will 
be found in Cath, Progress, v. 2 II. 
Mother 1\1. A. Clough died at New Hall in 1816, and the later prioresses 
are as follows :-Eliz. Mary Regis Gerard (of Bryn, Lane.), 1816, to death 
18 43; Anne Aloysia Austin Clifford, 1843, to death 1844; Anna Maria 
Teresa Joseph Blount, 1844, abdicated 1869, died 1879; Caroline Mary 
Alphonsa Corney (d. of Jno, Dolan, of London, and relict of J as. Alex. Corney, 
of London), 1869, to death 1873; and the present and thirteenth prioress, 
Julia Aloysia Austin Butler, elected 1873. 
The successors of the gooù nuns of Liége uphold their holy and ancient 
institute, and while, by the constant contemplation of the Sacred Passion of 
.our Lord and prayer for the Church and the Holy Land, they perform the 
part of "1hry," they likewise fulfil the office of" Martha " by the education 
they give to young ladies, and the gratuitous school they teach for the 
neighbouring poor. 



202 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAY. 


Haydock, George, priest and martyr, born about 1 557, 
was the youngest son of Vivian Haydock, of Cottam Hall, near 
Preston, co. Lancaster, Esq., by Ellen, daughter of vVilliam vVestby, 
of \tVestby, co. York, and Mowbreck Hall, co. Lancaster, Esq. 
The family of Haydock, descended from Hugo de Eydoc de 
Haidoc, appears to have held the manor of Cottam and some 
parts úf Ashton and French Lea, from a very remote period. 
In the survey of the wapentake of Amounderness, in 1320- 
46, Edmund de Haydoke is stated to have held part of one 
carucate of land in Ashton. The elder branch of the Haydocks 
became extinct in the male line 011 the death of Sir Gilbert de 
Haydock, of Haydock, whose daughter and heiress, Johanna, 
carried the manors of Haydock and Bradley, Bruch Hall, and 
the manor-house of Poulton-with-Fearnhead, with other estates, 
to her first husband, Sir Peter Legh, of Lyme, co. Chester, She 
married secondly Sir Richard l\101yneux, of Sefton, ancestor of 
the Earls of Sefton. 
Gilbert Haydock, lord of the manor of Cottam, 10 Henry V. 
(1422), married Isabel, daughter of \Villiam de Hoghton, of 
Hoghton and English Lea. Being related in the fourth degree, 
they were married by dispensation from Rome, dated Feb. 16, 
5 l\'Iartin V. On July 10, 1466, a commission was granted to 
Robert, abbot of Cockersand, to veil Isabel, widow of Gilbert 
Haydock. Their son and heir, Richard, married Eleanor, 
daughter of Sir \Villiam Ashton, of Croston, 3 Henry VI. 
(1455), and successive generations were allied with the families 
of Clifton of Clifton, Heton of Heton, Browne of Ribbletol1 
Hall, Osbaldeston of Osbaldeston, and other leading families 
of the county of Lancaster. 
Some curious traditions attach to the family, and none more 
so than the prophecy said to have been made by his mother, 
shortly after the birth of the martyr. \Vhile the saintly wife of 
Vivian Haydock lay on her bed of sickness for the last time, 
to add to the gloom which pervaded the moated and semi- 
fortified manor-house of Cottam, the intelligence arrived that 
her Majesty was dead, and the base daughter of Henry VIII. 
proclaimed queen. There by his wife's side stood the squire 
of Cottam, gazing into the future, which would find him a 
widower, a priest, a fugitive for conscience sake, hunted to death 
with his children in the land of his birth. He had witnessed the 
blood of his uncle spilt by the tyrant at vVhalley; he had seen 



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OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


203 


lust linked with avarice spreading desolation over the land; and 
he had watched a new doctrine, the offspring of licentiousness, 
grow up and wax strong, whilst legitimate religion was trampled 
underfoot. His wife, divining his reverie, raised herself with one 
arm, and, pointing to the motto under the Haydock arms em- 
broidered on the arras at the foot of the bed, slowly pronounced 
the words, Tristitia '(.'cstra 'i'crtefuy ill galldÙllJz! And suddenly 
clasping the baby by her side, she fell a corpse into her husband's 
arms, Little could Vivian Haydock then see how his sorrow 
shoulû be turned into joy. He was but at the outset of a long 
reign of unexampled persecution and cruelty, in which he was to 
drink to the very dregs, both in his own personal sufferings and in 
those of his family. But the prophecy foretold not the joy of this 
world, It was the crown for which martyrs suffer, and, indeed, 
was thus exemplified in every generation of the "fugitive's" 
descendants, from that hour until the family became extinct. 
A few years after lVIrs, Haydock's death, \Villiam Allen, after- 
wards cardinal, whose brother George was married to her sister, 
Elizabeth, came over to England, and during his three years' 
stay, between 1562 and 1565, visited his friends and relatives 
in Lancashire. Many were the consultations he held with 
Vivian Haydock on the threatened extirmination of religion in 
the country. In the old manor-house at Cottam and in the lordly 
tower at Hoghton, the newly-erected seat oÍ their mutual friend 
Thomas Hoghton, they reviewed the process by which the 
nation was being robbed of its birthright, and discussed pro- 
posals for remedying the evil. It was then that Vivian Haydock 
Was inspired with the determination to resign his worldly posi- 
tion, as soon as his eldest son should be old enough to take his 
place, and to devote the remainder of his life to the preservation 
of the Church in England, It was to him that Hoghton alludes 
in his pathetic ballad of .. The Blessed Conscience:" 
" And as I went, myselfe alone, 
Their came to my presènce 
A frende, who seem'd to make grate moan, 
And sayde, ' Goe. gett yo hence.' 
* * * * * 
For in this land yo have noe frende 
To kepe your consciènce." 
Hoghton withdrew to the Continent about 1569, and four 
years later, in 1573, Vivian Haydock, accompanied by one, if 
not both, of his younger sons, Richard and George, passed over 



20 4 


EIDLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAY. 


to Douay, and joined Dr. .Allen in his recently-established 
college. The eldest son, vVilliam Haydock, married Hoghton's 
half-sister, Rryde, daughter of Sir Richard Hoghton by hi
 
fourth wife, Elizabeth, daughter of John Gregson (or N orman- 
ton), of Balderstone. 
vVithin two years Vivian Haydock was ordained priest, and 
on Nov. 2 I, I 575, he set out for England to labour on the 
mission in his native county, The strict watch kept by the 
English Government probably prevented his crossing the channel 
for some little time, for in the following February he was again 
at Douay for a few days. The high opinion held by Dr. Allen 
and all the professors at Douay of Vivian Haydock's prudence, 
integrity, and experience, induced them to appoint him procu- 
rator for the college in England, which he undertook in I 58 I, 
to the general satisfaction of the clergy. The Privy Council 
was aware of this, and made great exertion to apprehend him. 
Hunted from place to place the courageous old man's strength 
at last gave way, and whilst staying at Mowbreck Hall, the seat 
of his brother-in-law, the staunch and determined recusant, John 
Westby, he received a shock which speedily laid him in his grave. 
The tradition connected with his death is stil! preserved in the 
Fylde, where it is known as "The gory head of Mowbreck Hall." 
On the Hallo\\'e' en preceding the arrest of his son George, 
Vivian Haydock stood robed in his vestments at the foot of the 
altar in the domestic chapel at l'1:owbreck, awaiting the clock to 
strike twelve, As the bell tolled the hour of midnight, the "fugi- 
tive" beheld the decapitated head of his favourite son slowly rising 
above the altar, whose blood-stained lips seemed to repeat those 
memorable words, Tristitia 'i'estra ,<'crlclltr ill gaudÙt11l! Swoon- 
ing at the horrible apparition, the old man was carried to his 
secret chamber, and when the little children called on All Souls 
for their somas cakes, to their customary acknowledgment of 
" Pray God be merciful to the suffering souls in purgatory," they 
added, II God be merciful to the soul of Vivian Haydock." His 
body was borne to its last resting-place, and laid beneath the 
chapel at Cottam Hall by his son Dr. Richard Haydcck. Even 
yet the country people say that on the eve of All-hallows the 
" gory-head" still appears over the altar in the old chapel at 
:Mowbreck Hall. 
George Haydock pr0babIy went over to Douay with his 
father in I 573, but he seems to have returned to England for 



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205 


a short time, for in June, 1577, he was re-admitted into the 
college. In I 578 he was sent, with others, to colonize the 
English College at Rome, and was present at its formal erec- 
tion
 April 23, 1579. There he was ordained deacon, but his 
health giving way under the heat of the Roman climate, it was 
thought advisable that he should return to Rheims to be 
ordained priest. Before leaving Rome he went to kiss the feet 
of his Holiness, who received him graciously, wished him God 
speed in his mission, and supplied him with funds for his journey. 
This was in Sept. 158 I, and on N 0\'. 2 he arrived at Rheims. 
On Dec, 2 I he was ordained priest, and on J an, 4, 1582, he 
celebrated his first Mass, Twelve days later he left the college 
for the English mission. 
] Ie had scarcely arrived in London when he was betrayed 
by an old acquaintance into the hands of the pursuivants. This 
man, Hankinson, was the son of one of Vivian Haydock's 
tenants at Hollowforth or Lea, and, settling in London, was of 
assistance to his son on the occasion oi his returning to Douay. 
In the meantime he had become a pervert, and, not suspecting 
the change, the martyr made straight for his house and told 
him all about himself and his intentions. The traitor at once 
made secret arrangements with Norris and Slade, two pursui- 
vants of the very worst stamp, that they should lay in wait 
near his house in St. Paul's Churchyard, and seize the priest as 
he came out. This they readily did, on Feb. 6, 1582, and 
carried their prisoner into the cathedral, where one of the 
Calvinian ministers conferred with him, and offered him liberty 
without further trouble if he would renounce the Pope. This 
Mr. Haydock steadfastly refused to entertain, and they then 
led him into the restaurant or inn wherein he had been accus- 
tomed to take his meals. There they found another priest, 
1\11', Arthur Pitts, at dinner, and, at the same table with him, 
Mr. \\7illiam Jenison, a law student. The former was at once 
recognized by Slade, for they had been students at the same 
time at Rome, the one studying letters and the other deceit, 
They were all three led off to appear before Popham, the 
queen's attorney, but in the meantime, whilst waiting for him, 
they were surrounded by a great concourse of Templars, study- 
ing the law in that college, and a keen dispute was carried on 
for nearly an hour on the subject of religion. At length, on 
Popham's arrival, they underwent their examination, of which 



206 


JUBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAY. 


Mr. Haydock has left a circumstantial account as regards his 
own in a letter to a fellow-prisoner. He was then conveyed 
to the Gatehouse for the night, and on the morrow to the Star 
Chamber, to appear before Cecil, the high treasurer, who com- 
mitted him to the Tower with l'vIr, Pitts, where they were 
received by Sir \Villiam George, then in command of the gate- 
warders and garrison, who heaped every kind of abuse upon 
them. From this ruffian Mr. Haydock was passed to the 
mercy of a man who proved himself to be still more depraved. 
It appears that on his arrest Norris offered to release Mr. Hay- 
dock if he would give him some pieces of gold. IVlr. Haydock 
pulled out his purse and paid the pursuivant what he demanded, 
but the scoundrel, perceiving that he had a considerable sum 
upon him, set his mind upon the remainder, and refused to 
keep his plighted word, He then listened attentively to learn 
to what prison the priest should be consigned, and going by a 
short road to the lieutenant of the Tower, Sir Owen Hopton, 
advised him of the gold Mr. Haydock had on his person, in 
the hope that he might be allowed at least some share of the 
plunder. Hopton, therefore, consigned him to a remote dungeon, 
and forbade access to all who might wish to visit him, so that 
the robbery might not become l
nown, Thus for fifteen months 
Mr. Haydock was confined in a most wretched condition, seeing 
no one but his gaoler except on one occasion, when a priest 
contrived to gain admittance to his cell and fortify him with 
Holy Communion. 
Shortly before his martyrdom, he was removed to another 
cell, where access to him was occasionally permitted, and he was 
enabled secretly to receive the Sacraments. Those who saw 
him were greatly edified by his humility and patience, for besides 
the hardships of his prison he was suffering from a return of the 
lingering disease contracted in Italy, which tormented him grie- 
vously day and night, frequently causing violent cramps in his 
stomach and limbs of an hour's duration. 

L\t length, on Jan. 18, I 584, he was brought before the Re- 
corder of London, Sir \\'illiam Fleetwood, who received him 
with most outrageous language, unfit for publication, and gave 
vent to his fury to such a pitch that he even stretched forth his 
fist to strike the poor priest, who merely answered: "U se your 
right, for in behalf of the Catholic faith I will cheerfully suffer 
anything." His constancy being apparent, it was resolved to 



HAY. ] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


20 7 


make away with him, and forthwith those murderous questions 
were put to him; "\Vhat he thought of the Pope, and what of 
the Queen, what authority ought in his opinion to be granted 
to the one, and what to the other?)J To these the martyr 
courageously answered in well-chosen words, that the Roman 
pontiff possessed supreme and full power of ruling the universal 
Church of Christ upon earth, and that the queen was incom- 
petent to hold this priestly dignity and authority, nor could that 
holy office be executed by a woman. This was enough, but to 
render him more odiou.s to her l\lajesty and the government, he 
was pressed until he was induced with reluctance (as he himself 
afterwards frankly confessed) to say that the queen was a heretic, 
and, without repentance, was in danger of being eternally lost, 
He was then triumphantly committed, the day being the Feast of 
St. Peter's Chair. The thought that be should be doomed for 
maintaining the authority of the chair on this very day gave 
great satisfaction to the martyr. 
Some of the extraordinary animosity displayed by the Re- 
corder perhaps may be accounted for by the fact that he was 
own cousin to Edmund Fleetwood, son of Thomas Fleetwood, of 
Vach, co. Bucks, who was at that very time endeavouring to en- 
compass the AlIens and their relatives in order to obtain 
possession of their estate of Rossall, of which his father had 
purchased the unexpired lease from Edward VI. The estate in 
olden times had been a grange belonging to the suppressed 
abbey of Dieulacres. On the very day that George Haydock 
was martyred, Rossall Grange, then the residence of Elizabeth 
Allen, the cardinal's widowed sister-in-law, was seized and 
plundered by Sir Edmund Trafford, acting in collusion with 
Edmund Fleetwood, A most scandalous trial at l\Ianchester, a 
mere mockery of the la\\', at \\'hich Fleetwood himself was 
appointed foreman of the packed jury, confirmed this robbery, 
and at the very same time Sir Edmunù Trafford made a raid on 
Cottam Hall and carried off the martyr's sister, Aloysia 
Haydock, and threw her into the gaol in Salford on account of 
her staunch refusal to abjure her religion. It is curious to find 
that Elizabeth Hankinson, the sister of the scoundrel who had 
betrayed the martyr, was also confined in the Salford gaol at 
this very time, with old Sir John Southworth, brother-in-law to 
:Mr. Haydock's uncle John \Vestby, Thomas \Voods, priest, 
Thomas Hoghton, and other relatives of the Haydocks and 



208 


BIULIOGR.\PHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAY. 


AlIens, The martyr's cousin, \Villiam Hesketh, whose mother 
was a \Vestby, was confined in the Fleet, where he had visited 
him before his arrest, and from whom he had first learned the 
intelligence of his father's death. It was \Villiam Hesketh who 
married Cardinal Allen's sister, Elizabeth, and in whose name 
an action was brought in the Duchy of Lancaster Court by 
Bartholomew Hesketh, June 29,1585, to recover some of the 
property seized at the plunder of Rossall Grange. 
On the Feast of the Epiphany, the day on which the martyr 
had been first apprehended two years before, he was brought 
from the Tower to \Vestminster Hall, and there arraigned for 
high treason with four other priests. They were all condemned 
on the following day, the Feast of St. Dorothy, to whom the 
martyr had a special devotion, which he carefully noted in the 
calendar of his breviary before presenting it to his fellow 
prisoner, the venerable Archbishop of Armagh. They were con- 
demned under the act of 1 Elizabeth c. i., for being made priests 
beyond the seas by the Pope's authority, and also for conspiring 
at Rome and at Rheims the death of the queen. It was so 
well understood that there were no grounds for the latter part 
of the accusation, that Stov: omits to mention it. 
On receiving sentence of death, Mr. Haydock returned to 
prison filled with a gladness beyond belief, and thanking God 
from his souL But while he was preparing for his eternal 
happiness, he was alarmed by a rumour industriously spread 
about the city, and which was conveyed to him in the Tower, 
that the queen had altered the sentence, and that she would not 
have any more put to death for their religion. Yet the martyr's 
confessor bid him be of good cheer, saying there was no surer 
sign that his life would shortly be taken than that such reports 
should be circulated. This, he added, was confirmed by recent 
experience, for it was usually remarked that whenever the 
Government had determined to shed blood in such cases, there 
was a few days beforehand much talk of a certain mildness 
and mercifulness implanted in the queen's nature and of her 
great abhorrence of all bloodthirstiness and barbarity, which 
was done to remove the odium from her Majesty, and make it 
appear that such deeds were against her inclinations. The 
martyr, therefore, took heart, and laid aside all fear of losing 
his crown. 
j\ few days later, having said l\lass in his cell at an early 



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209 


hour, he was bound flat upon a hurdle, in like manner with 
four other priests, and so drawn to Tyburn, \Vhen they 
arrived, Mr. Haydock, being the youngest and most delicate of 
them all, was the first to be ordered into the cart, which he 
mounted with alacrity, After the rope had been adjusted, he 
was called upon by Spencer, the sheriff (who showed himsell 
exceedingly hostile to the martyr), and certain Zwinglian 
ministers, to acknowledge his treason against the Queen. He 
replied, "I do call God to witness unto my soul, that of the 
crime whereof I am accused I am altogether innocent, and 
that therefore I have got nothing to deprecate." He then 
went on to say that he held her IVlajesty for his Queen, and 
prayed for her prosperity in all things, and on that very day 
had several times recited the Lord's Prayer for her health and 
preservation; anù furthermore that if both of them were in a 
wilderness, where he might do with her whatsoever he pleased, 
such was his disposition and loyalty towards his Queen, that he 
would not hurt her with the prick of a pin, though he might gain 
the whole world for so doing. 
The sheriff then charged him with crimes supposed to have 
been discovered since his condemnation, to which the martyr 
replied, "Nay forsooth, ye have found out no evil since then; 
but this anxiety of yours to trace out a crime shows that I 
have been unjustly adjudged to death." Then they brought 
forward the infamous informer, Anthony Munday, who pre- 
tended that he had heard him wish for the Queen's head. 
At this speech, Spencer, the other officers of justice, and the 
ministers, cried out that the execrable traitor should be dis- 
patched. But Mr, Haydock quietly refuted the charge, and 
asked Munday why he had not made that charge at his trial, 
to which the spy replied that he had heard nothing of the 
business, Then Spencer once more asked him if he had not 
called the Queen a heretic, which the martyr acknowledged, 
At this the officials and migisters gave vent to their fury, 
shouting out that he was a traitor, rebel, and unworthy of the 
light of day, intermingled with all sorts of reproaches. One of 
the ministers, who had got into the cart with him, hearing him 
praying in a low voice in Latin, exhorted him to pray in 
English, that the people might join with him, But the martyr, 
warding off the seducer with his hand as best he could, said, 
" Avaunt 1 get thee gone! There is nought in common betwixt 
VOL. III. P 



210 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAY. 


me and thee, But of all Catholics I do beg and beseech that 
they pray to our common Lord together with me and for my 
salvation, and that of the whole country." Then said some one 
of the crowd: "There are no Catholics here present." " Aye 
indeed," quoth another, "we be all Catholics." To whom the 
holy man replied, "Catholics I call them which cherish the 
faith of the holy Catholic Roman Church; God grant that 
from my blood there may accrue some increase to the Catholic 
faith." "Catholic faith," said Spencer, U the devil's faith. 
Drive on with the cart; hang the traitorous villain." 
IVlr. Haydock was not permitted to hang long after the cart 
had driven from underneath the gallows. Spencer urgently 
bid the executioner cut the rope, and the martyr fell to the 
ground in full possession of his senses, nor ceased to retain 
consciousness until, with his breast ripped open and his very 
entrails torn out with violent hands, his spirit at length rose 
gloriously triumphant ov
r all this cruelty of bloodthirsty 
fanatics, Thus he passed to his eternal reward, Feb. 12, 1584, 
aged about 27. 

Thilst in his desolate dungeon, no one being permitted even 
to visit him, he took pleasure in drawing the name and ensigns 
of the Roman pontiff with a pen, and carving them with a 
sharp instrument on the wall of his cell. Afterwards he added 
the following inscription: "Gregory XII!., on earth the supreme 
head of the whole Catholic Church," for which he was severely 
admonished by the warder, but declined to efface it, Elsewhere 
he inscribed his family motto, and it is exceedingly curious 
that, a hundred years later, Fr. Corker relates, in his "Remon- 
strance of Piety and Innocence" (p. 104), that the holy con- 
fessor, Fr. Thomas Jenison, S.J., relieved the weary hours of his 
imprisonment by extracting the following double chronogram 
(1686) out of this inscription, afterwards found in his cell at 
N ewgate, apparently in the hope that the prophecy would be 
accomplished in the joyful restoration of religion under the rule 
of the Catholic sovereign, James II. :- 
TRIsTITIA VESTRA VERTETVR I
 
GA VDIVM. ALLEL VL-\. 
YOVR SORROVV SIL'\L BE l'IADE 
VERY IOYFVLL V1\TO YOV. 
One of his relatives, probably \Villiam Hesketh, obtained 



HAY.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


211 


possession of the martyr's head, which was preserved by the 
family in the chapel at Cottam until the estate passed into 
other hands. The skull, which was taken to l'1:awdesley at that 
time, and is still there in the possession of the Finch family, is 
generally said to be that of this martyr, but, from its older 
appearance, the late Bishop Goss formed the opinion that it 
was the skull of the martyr's relative, the monk of \Vhalley, 
known to have been preserved at Cottam, 
Bridgewater, COllcertatio Ecclesiæ, ed. 1594, f. 133 ; Dowry 
Diaries,. Dodd, Ch. Hist., vol. ii.; Gillow, La1lc. Recllsants, MS.; 
Chatloner, 1Ilemoirs, vol. i. ; Foley, Rccords SJ., vol. vi.; Gillo'ill, 
HaJ1dock Paþers. 
1. Letter to a Fellow-Prisoner, concerning his examination, 
printed in Latin by Dr, Rridgwater in his" Concertatio;' p. 13+ scq. 
The history and traditions of the family will be found in "The Haydock 
Papers," by the present writer. 
Haydock, George Leo, priest, biblical annotator, born 
April I I, I 774, was the youngest son of George Haydock, of 
The Tagg, Cottam, by his second wife, Anne, dau. of \Villiam 
Cottam, of Bilsborrow, gent., and eventual heiress to her 
brothers, 
The Haydocks of the Tagg, the ancient dower-house of the 
family, adjoining the park at Cottam, were desccnded from 
George Haydock, cousin and heir-at-law to \Villiam Haydock, 
the last squire of Cottam Hall, who was outlawed after the 
Stuart rising of 1715. 
Like his elder brothers, James and Thomas, George Haydock 
was placed at an early age with the Rev. Robert Banister, who 
at that time kept a school al l''Iowbreck Hall, near Kirkham. 
This learned man had gained a high reputation during his 
twelve years' professorship of divinity at Douay College. lIe 
'Was an excellent classical scholar, and, in the judgment of the 
venerable Alban Butler, possessed the Ciceronian style in a 
-degree equal if not superior to any of his age. Gerge Hay- 
dock remained there part of three years. On Sept, 22, 1784, 
Bishop :Matthew Gibson, V.A. of the northern district, gave 
confirmation at l\Iowbreck Hall, and George Haydock received 
the additional name of Leo. In the following year, 1785, he 
was sent to DOllay College, where he was indefatigable in his 
studies. At the beginning of the French Revolution, being 
thcn in the school of :Moral rhilosophy, he effected his escape 
P 2 



212 


BIBLIOGRAI'HICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAY. 


from Douay with his brother Thomas, in company with the 
Rev, \Villiam Davis, one of the minor professors. They left 
the college on Aug. 5, 1793, and walked by Orchies to 
Tournay, where they took the diligence to Bruges, There 
they were entertained for two days by the Augustinian nuns, 
one of whom, Sister Margaret Stanislaus Haydock, was their 
sister, They then proceeded to Ostend, where the English 
consul, General Haynes, refused them a passport, as he would 
not believe but that they were French. George told him that 
he was born at The Tagg, three miles N.\V. from Preston, co. 
Lancaster. The consul replied that he knew Preston, but had 
not heard of that house, which Haydock observed was not 
surprising. He afterwards found that General Haynes had at 
one time carried a pack! The three travellers, however, suc- 
ceeded in crossing the Channel without a passport, and pro- 
ceeded by coach from Dover to London, where they arrived 
Aug. 14. 1793, amidst the congratulations of all their friends. 
The two brothers were kindly entertained for a week by 1'11'. 
J, P. Coghlan, the eminent Catholic publisher, whose wife was 
some relation of theirs. They next visited their brother James, 
then chaplain at Trafford House, near l'1:anchester, whence they 
walked home with him, a distance of over thirty miles. 
George remained at The Tagg till the end of November, when 
he was ordered by his ecclesiastical superiors to repair with 
Thomas Penswick, subsequently bishop, to Old Hall Green, near 
\Vare, co. Berts. The Rev, John Potier was at this time the 
head of the school there, and Bishop Douglass considered it the 
most suitable spot for sheltering the refugees from Douay Col- 
lege, Haydock arrived at Old Hall about Dec, 3, 1793. In the 
meanwhile a number of the Douay refugees had collected in the 
north, and in 1794 settled at Crook Hall, co. Durham, which 
was opened to continue the work of their alma mater. Five of 
the Douay students at Old Hall, who belonged to the northern 
district, signed a memorial, or round robin, addressed to Bishop 
\Villiam Gibson, praying for admission into Crook Hall. These 
were Charles Saul, Richard Thompson, Thomas Gillow, Thomas 
Penswick, and George Haydock. Hearing about Sept. 1794, 
that they were to remove to the north, the last three went to 
London, from whence Penswick proceeded home. Bishop 
Douglass called upon lVlessrs. Gillow and Haydock, and per- 
suaded them to return to Old Hall, as he earnestly wished to 



HAY.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


21 3 


have all the Douay students united in one general college yet 
to be established. This he understood was the agreement with 
Bishop Gibson. Shortly afterwards Bishop Gibson ordered the 
remaining northern students at Old Hall to repair to Crook 
Hall. Haydock left on Nov. 3, 1794, but seeing things so 
unsettled, went home, and stayed at The Tagg, reading the Vul- 
gate, &c., until Jan. 13. 1796. On that day he set out with 
his brother Thomas and Robert Gradwell, subsequently bishop, 
for Crook Hall, where they arrived four days later. Haydock 
had now to make up for lost time, as the schools had com- 
menced after the vacation in the previous August. On Aug. 9, 
1796, he defended on "Revel, TILCol., Virtues, Grace, Human 
Actions, Laws, and Sins." On July 28 of the following year, 
being then deacon, he maintained what regarded Relig. Revel. 
Incant. et Decalog, Spect.
' and on Aug. 9, 1798, he defended 
Theses TllCologicæ de Deo, Revelatiolle, Ecclesia, &c., besides, at 
his own desire, the Theologia Ulli'iJersa of the preceding year, 
which elicited great applause. On the following Sept. 22 he 
was ordained priest, and appointed general-prefect and master 
()f all the schools under poetry. Thus he continued till Jan. 26, 
1803, receiving for remuneration but five pounds during as 
many years, During this period, notwithstanding his arduous 
duties, he incessantly devoted every moment at his command to 
the study of the fathers, divines, and biblical annotators. 
Upon leaving the college, he went direct to Ugthorpe, in 
Yorkshire, but was not formally appointed to the mission till 
April 4, 1803. Ugthorpe was the poorest mission in the dis- 
trict, and was usually styled the ., Purgatory." It had also been 
long neglected. Haydock set to work at once to repair and 
enlarge the chapel at his own cost, for the endowment of the 
place was scarcely /:'27. Indeed, the income never averaged 
.above /:'40 per annum. Finding the congregation much in- 
creasing in 1808, he proposed to erect a new chapel, which he 
opened and blessed on April 10, 18 10, During this period he 
devoted his leisure to the study of the Scriptures, and composed 
.a paraphrase of the Psalms, in four quarto volumes, which, how- 
ever, was never printed. In 1808 he commenced to write the 
notes for the new edition of the Douay Bible and Rheims Tes- 
tament, projected by his brother Thomas, which was finished in 
181 4, In July 1815 Mr. Gilbert left the neighbouring mission 
()f \Vhitby to return to France, and 1'1:r. Haydock supplied there 



214 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIOKARY 


[HA Y. 


till July 1816, when he was officially appointed to the mission
 
and removed there. He had still, however, the obligation of 
attending U gthorpe in alternate weeks with Mr. Woodcock, of 
Egton Bridge; they had likewise to attend Scarborough. This. 
arrangement lasted till ] 827, with the exception of seven months. 
in 1822, when the Rev. Richard Gillow took charge of Ugthorpe 
and Scarborough. During this time he published some small 
works, On June 23, 1827, the Rev. Nicholas Rigby was placed 
at Ugthorpe, but declined to acknowledge the debt on the chapel 
due to 1'1r. Haydock. Besides this grievance, Mr. Haydock had 
a difference with his superiors relative to a gift to \Vhitby chapel 
by Sir Henry Trelawny, Bart., in 18 10, which had been trans- 
ferred to Ushaw College, His claims were disregarded, and 
l'vir. Haydock vigorously and unceasingly protested against this 
treatment. He was in consequence removed from \Vhitby to the 
mission at \Vestby Hall, in Lancashire, Sept. 22, 1830, where 
he remained for eleven months. As soon as Bishop Smith died p 
his successor in the northern vicariate, Bishop Penswick, without 
previous admonition, interdicted Mr. Haydock from saying Mass 
in his district by letter dated Aug. 19, 1831. l'1:r. Haydock 
withdrew quietly to his estate, The Tagg, where he resided in 
retirement for over eight years. He appealed to Propaganda 
twice during the year 1832, but his letters were intercepted and 
sent to the bishop against whom he appealed, which, as he said T 
.1 made bad worse." In 18 3 8 he appealed to Propaganda for the 
third time, which resulted in his faculties being restored by the 
Rev. T. Sherburne, vicar-general to Dr. Briggs in the northern 
vicariate, Nov. 18, 1839, without any explanation proffered or any 
retraction required. He was then told he might take charge 
of the mission at Penrith, where he arrived four days later. 
Penrith was a wretchedly poor mission with only a miserable 
room hired for the purpose of a chapel, the priest having to 
lodge as best he could with Protestants, for the congregation 
almost entirely consisted of labourers. At his advanced age p 
Mr. Haydock's heart might well have sunk at such a prospect. 
Nevertheless he threw himself with zeal into the work of the 
mission, and projected the erection of a church. He did not 
live to see the accomplishment of his desires, yet to his exertion 
and influence, joined with the liberality of Catherine, Lady 
Throckmorton, the Catholics of Penrith are chiefly indebted for 
their present chapel. About seven months before it was 



HAY.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


21 5 


opened, Mr. Haydock died (and was buried on the left side of 
the chancel in Penrith chapel), Nov, 29, 18 49, aged 75. 
He was succeeded in the mission by his relative, the very 
Rev. Robert Canon Smith, who opened the chapel in I 850, 
more than doubled its dimensions in 18óo, and erected a pres- 
bytery, in great measure at his own expense. 
From his very boyhood to the last week of his long life, 
Haydock continued his studious and literary habits. Arch- 
deacon Cotton, in his account of the "Rhemes and Douay" 
Testaments, says: " He does not appear to have possessed high 
scholarship; but was a pious and warm-hearted man, a most 
industrious reader, and liberal annotator," He was an assiduous 
book-collector, and accumulated an extensive library, the sale of 
which, by Mr. H. C. \Valton, of Preston, occupied a week in 
July, 185 I. Most of the works were not of great value, but 
the fly-leaves and margins of almost all were covered with 
notes by his own pen, many of which are of considerable in- 
terest, It was his habit to jot down notes on spare sheets of 
paper, on the insides of envelopes, or on old letters which he 
carefully preserved, He was also fond of drawing, and has 
handed down sketches and ground plans of Catholic colleges, 
convents, chapels, and other places of interest of which other- 
wise no impression would have been left. 
G. L. HaJ'dock, llfSS.
' GilloLV, Haydock Papers; Cottoll, 
Rltemes alld DOl/ay,. IValker, His!. of Pellritll, 2nd ed., p. 129; 
Hardzuick, Híst. of Preston
. Lamp, New Series, viii. 3 II ; 
IVeekly Register, i. 314; ]{irk, Biog. CollJls., lJ;ISS., No, 21. 
I. Douay Dictates, MSS., 1796-1798, 4to., five vols., in the possession 
of the writer. 
During the existence of Douay College, from its foundation by Cardinal 
Allen in 1568 to its suppression, Oct. 12, 1793, the students in divinity had 
annually to write the Dictates which the respective professors thought proper 
to deliver. From the commencement of the eighteenth century the ones in 
general use were those drawn up by the eminent Dr. Edw,ud Ha\\ arden and 
the venerable Alban Butler. The former's were more highly prized, and a 
notice of these celebrated Dictates will be found under the head of their author. 
After the suppression of Douay by the French revolutionists, and the destruc- 
tion of the valuable library, the scattered members of the college were 
collected in the north of England (subsequently settling at Crook Hall), and 
at Old Hall Green, in Hertfordshire. The divinity students were placed 
under the Rev. W. H. Coombes at the latter coliege, and studied Collet, 
S. Thomas, &c. But at Crook HLlll the Rev. Thos. Eyre, the pre:;ident, insisted 
upon the Douay Dictates. Hence those who could not procure copies were 



216 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAY. 


forced to spend much time in private to write them out. Haydock, therefore, 
purchased from 
Ir. J.Marshall two vols., MSS. "De Deo" and" De Ecclesiâ':' 
to supply vol. i. of the Dictates. The remaining five vols. he transcribed from 
a copy by the Re,". Thos. Eyre, written in 1769, and abridged the" Synopsis 
Sacramentorum" from a copy by the Rev. Jas. Johnson in 1767. They are 
thus entitled-II., "Synopsis Sacramentalis," pp. 662; III., " Virtutes et 
Peccata," De virtutibus theologicis, pp. 220; De Actibus humanis, pp. 124; 
De Peccatis, pp. 154, Revelatio, pp. 87, Notæ et indices, pp.[xcix. ; IV.," Leges 
et Gratia," De Legibus, pp. 120, De Gratia, pp. 444, N otæ et indices, pp. xlii. ; 
V., " Iucarnatio et Decalogi Pars I.," De Incarnatione, pp. 280, Notæ, 66 ff., 
unpag., De Decalogo, pp. 196; VI., "Decalogi Pars altera," pp. 561. 
I t easily will be conceived that much time was occupied by the students 
in writing out these Dictates. Mr, Eyre, the president and professor of 
theology at Crook Hall, was uncommunicative, and generally answered 
questions by referring to the Dictates. Bishop Penswick told Mr. Haydock 
that he was very different till Mr. John Daniel, president of Douay College, 
came in June, 1795. and assumed the presidency of Crook Hall, though Mr. 
Eyre was replaced a few days later. After Mr. Eyre's death, his successor, 
Dr. GiIlow, applied to Mr. Haydock for his Dictates, but he thought them un- 
suitable for the purpose, and advised the plan of using Collet, &c., and writing 
such things only as were required by circumstances. The idea was at length 
adopted, and Bailly, then Dens, &c., were put into the hands of the students. 
Thus a great amount of useless labour was avoided. 
2. "Theologia U niversa, quam, Deo J uvante, præside Rev, Dno. Thoma 
Eyre, S.T.P., propugnabunt, in CoIl. Cath. (vulgò Crook Hall) in comitatu 
Dunelmensi. Rev. Dom. Thomas Penswick, sacerdos, die 1 Aug, horâ 
x.Matt. et iv. Pom. Rev. Dom. Richardus Thompson, sacerdos, die 2 Aug. horâ 
x. Matt. et iv. Pom. Rev. Dom. Thomas Gillow, sacerdos, die 3. Aug. hor& 
x. Matt. et iv. Pom. Quæ vero ad Religionem Revelatam, incarnationem et 
decalogum spectant. Prius tueri conabuntur, Mag. Thomas Lupton, die 27 
Julii, ab horâ dec. Matt. ad meridiem. Mag. Josephus Swinburn, eodem die 
ab horâ quartâ Porn. ad. vesperam. Dom. Georgius Haydock, diaconus, die 
28 J ulii, ab horâ dec, Matt. ad meridiem. Dom. J oannes Rickaby, diaconus, 
eodem die ab horâ quartâ Porn. ad vesperam." 
ovi Castri, apud Edvardum 
\Valker, Typo, 1797, 4to., pp. 75, besides title and "Theses Theologicæ," 
PP.33. 
3. "Theses Theologicæ de Deo, Revelatione, Ecclesia, &c., quas Deo 
Juvante, præside Rev. Dno. Thoma Eyre, S.T.P. Tueri conabuntur, in ColI. 
Cath. (vulgò Crook Hall) in comitatu Dunelmensi. Mag. Thomas Cock, die 
6 Aug, . . . . Mag. Thomas Dawson, eodem die . . . . Mag. J oannes Brad- 
ley, die 7 Aug. . . . , Mag. Thomas Lupton, eodem die . , . . Mag. Josephus 
Swinburn, die 8 Aug. . . . Dom. J oannes Rickaby, diaconus, eodem die 
. . . . Præterca Theologiæ U niversæ Doctrinam. anno superiore traditam, 
propugnabit, Dom. Georgius Haydock, diaconus, die 9 Aug. horâ x. Matt. et 
IV. Pom." Novi Castri, apud E. Walker, Typo., 1798, 4to., pp. 24, besides 
title and" Theses Theologicæ," pp. 28. 
4. A Short Rule of Catholic Faith; chiefly taken from Francis 
Veron, D.D. By Oeo. Leo. Haydock
 MS., 1798-1800, 4to., pp. 81, in 
the possession of the writer. 
In a short preface Mr. Haydock says that he has translated the whole of 



HAY.] 


OF THE EKGLISH CATHOLICS. 


21 7 


Vernon's" Rule " with some additions in the fonn of marginal notes, &c. The 
edition which he follows is that in Hooke's" Relig. N at. et Revel. Principia." 
Dr. H. Holden's "Div. Fidei Analysis," though generally good, he says, is 
not deemed quite so accurate or concise. 
Veron's" Rule of Catholick Faith" was first translated from the French 
into English by Edw. Sheldon, Esq., Paris, 1660, 12mo. pp. 144, 
5. The Psalms and Canticles in the Roman Office, paraphrased 
and illustrated; with some choice observations of F. de Carrieres, 
Calmet, Rondet, &c. By Geo. Leo Haydock, ì\1S., 1805-6,4 vols. 4to. 
1. containing the advertisement, and numerous dissertations; II. the re- 
mainder of the dissertations and Psalms i.-Ixii.; III. Psalms lxiii.-cxxxv.; IV. 
Psalms cxxxvi.-c1., Canticles from the Old and New Testaments, Te Deum, 
the Creed, the Catholic Faith Explained, and De :\Iatrimonio. 
In a letter to his brother Thomas, which was printed and circulated in 
18II, Mr. Haydock expresses his intention of publishing the paraphrase as 
an accompaniment to some" Biblical Dissertations," which it was proposed 
to print as a supplement to the Bible when finished. This design was not 
carried into execution, and after his death the MS. fell into the hands of 
Archdeacon Cotton. 
6. The Tree of Life; or, the one Church of God from Adam 
until the 19th or 58th Century. Manchester: T. Haydock, 1809. 
In 1806 Thomas Haydock proposed to reprint and engrave Thomas 
\Yard's "Tree of Life; or, the Church of Christ represented." Lond., T. 
Meighan, in two large broadsheets. This work presents at one view an 
epitome of church history chronologically arranged, The date of its appear- 
ance is not ascertained. \Vard died in 1708, and it was probably reprinted 
some years later, for Thomas Haydock, in a letter to his brother George, 
fixes 1724 as the date of the copy in his possession. He found that George 
was already contemplating a revision with many additions and alterations, 
bringing it down to date. The" Tree of Life" was very popular with English 
Catholics. A copy of Haydock's version was presented to the Pope, and now 
hangs in the Vatican, 
In 1814 appeared a long foldin6" chart entitled" Theological History in 
Miniature: being a List of the Popes, Saints, Martyrs, Eminent Catholics, 
\Vriters, Councils, Persecutions, Heretics, and Schismatics, from the earliest 
period of Christidnity to the present time. Carefully compiled from Alban 
Butler's' Saints' Lives,' \Vard's 'Tree of Life,' · Missionary Priests,' &c. &c." 
This was a rival of Haydock's" Tree." 
\Vard may have taken the suggestion from" A Physical Account of the 
Tree of Life by Edward Madeira Arrais, Translated into English by R. 
Brown." Lond. 1683, 8vo. 
7. The Holy Bible, translated from the Latin Vulgate: dili- 
gently compared with the Hebrew, Greek, and other editions in 
divers languages. The Old Testament, first published by the 
English College at Douay, A.D. 1609, and The New Testament, 
first published by the English College at Rheims, A.D. 1582. 
With useful notes, critical, historical, controversial, and expla- 
natory, selected from the most eminent commentators, and the 
most able and judicious critics. By the Rev. Geo. Leo Haydock, 
and other divines. Enriched with twenty superb engravings. 



218 


BIllLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HA Y. 


V ol. i., Manchester, Thomas Haydock, 1812, folio, pp. 932 inclus. of title; 
vol. ii., "By the Rev. Geo, Leo Haydock," Manchester, T. Haydock, 1814, 
fot pp. 933-1383 besides title, and "An Historical and Chronological Index 
to the Old Testament," 2 ff. 
"The New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; first pub- 
lished by the English College at Rheims, A.D. 1582. Translated from the 
Latin Vulgate; diligently compared with the original text, and other editions 
in divers languages, with useful Notes, critical. historical, controversial, and 
explanatory, selected from the most eminent commentators, and the most 
able and judicious critics. Enriched with superb engravings:' Manchester, 
Thomas Haydock, 1812, fo!. pp. xii.-446, indus. of title, Historical and Chro- 
nological Index to the New Testament, 1 f.; Useful Table of References, 2 ff.; 
Table of the Epistles and Gospels, after the Roman use, 3 ff.; printed by 
T. H., at 9, Cumberland Street, Deansgate, Manchester. 
In this edition of the Holy Scriptures, the projector, Thomas Haydock, 
decided to adhere to the text of that of the Venerable Bishop Challoner, 
published in 1750. He consulted his brother George, and Bishop \Villiam 
Gibson, V.A., of the Northern district, and in a letter to his brother, dated 
Manchester, Nov. 5, 1806, says, " I like your notions respecting notes, &c., 
much better than the Bishop's, whose ideas are, I fear, rather affected with 
his bodily palzy. I hope yours and my opinion are nearly the same re
pect- 
ing the work-viz., to give rather a selection of the original notes than copy 
the whole, many of which may be replaced with others far more to the com- 
plexion of the present times. . . . . I would have you to begin immediately 
with Genesis, with a short historical introduction at the beginning of it, as 
well as the other books of the Bible and Testament. . . . . The notes I would 
make, as I promise them in þrosþectlts, historical, critical, explanatory, and 
controversial, anù their arrangement I leave entirely to yourself, only I 
certainly would, as near as might be, make the Testament and its notes equal 
in bulk the Bible, &c., not only on account of its being more interesting but 
also because the work would have a prettier appearance if the two volumes 
were equally matched in size. I would also give a short historical account 
of any great personage mentioned in the work, such as Melchisedec, the 
Evangelists, &c. Greek I would use very sparingly, and Hebrew not at aU, 
unless it may be absolutely necessary to elucidate the interpretation." 
In his" Advertisement" to the first vol., George Haydock says that he 
has inserted all Challoner's notes verbrzlim, or at least their full sense, with 
his signature attached. They are accompanied by others abridged and 
modernized from Bristow, Calmet, Du. Hamel, Estius, Menochius, Pastorini 
(or Bp. Chas. \Valmesley), Tirinus, \Vorthington, and \Vitham. To these 
must be added the editor's original observations, marked with the letter H. 
"\Ye shall reserve," he concludes, H the more elaborate Biblical disquisitions 
till the text and notes be completed, and then, if required, they may be pub- 
lished, and bound up either at the beginning or at the end of the Holy 
Bible." 
" It is not exactly true," Archdeacon Cotton remarks, "that Dr. Challoner's 
text is followed universally." In the New Testament, Dr. Troy's 179..J.edition 
is largely followed. The characteristic of the edition is its new and copious 
annotations. All the notes to the Old Testament, observes Archdeacon 
Cotton, were supplied by Mr. Haydock. "I have the original MS, from 



HAY. ] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


21 9 


which the work was printed in his own handwriting, in five small but closely 
written volumes. His diligence was unwearied; yet he found the greatest 
difficulty in keeping the press from standing still, so that, perhaps
 he òid not 
always select his notes as judiciously as he would have done if more leisure 
had been allowed him." 
The archdeacon says that the notes to the New Testament were compiled 
by the Rev, B. Rayment, Dom. Thos. Gregory Robinson, a.S.B., and some 
of the monks of Ampleforth ; those written by the former being designated 
by the letter A., and those selected from various commentators being marked 
as in the Old Testament. It is evident, however, that G. L. Haydock at first 
undertook to do it, for his brother Thomas writes to him under date Aug. 3, 
IRI I, " I fear much we shall find you too hard work, as one number will 
appear weekly. If Mr. Rayment would undertake the Scripture part it would 
give you much ease, as we would print the Bible and Testament numbers 
alternately. If you think proper you will correspond with him on this head." 
On Dec, 19 he again writes to him on the same subject, and on July 5, 1812, 
whilst acknowledging the receipt of a parcel of notes, he states that four 
numbers of the Testament and twenty-eight of the Bible are already printed, 
the twenty-ninth number of the latter being promised for the following 
Thursday. 
N otw:thstanding all the anxiety and pains bestowed upon the work by its 
indefatigable editor, it proved a financial failure so far as he was concerned. 
Towards this and other publications, he advanced his brother Thomas nearly 
[3000. This sum was entirely devoured by the canvassers and caterpillars 
who surrounded the enterprising but too good-natured printer, For further 
particulars of the editions of Haydock's Bible see Thos. Haydock. 
8. Biblical Disquisitions, MS., 4to., several vols., intended as a 
supplement to the Bible, but never printed. Perhaps these are now at 
Stonyhurst, 
9. A Treatise on the various points of difference between the 
Roman and Anglo-Catholic Churches, MS. 
10. Prayers before and after Mass, proper for Country Con- 
gregations. To which are added some Evening Prayers, for 
Sundays and Holidays. York, T. Bolland, 1822, 12mo. pp, 70, with" A 
Short Chronology of Religion during the Six Ages," 2 pp. 
1 I. A Key to the Roman Catholic Office; briefly shewing the 
Falsehood of Fox's Martyrology, the Invocation of the Saints
 
&c., not Idolatrous: the Meaning of the Litanies, &c. The 
Kalendar: containing a short account of the chief Saints: their 
titles, countries, and the year of their happy death: with a 
Variety of Prayers, etc. etc. By the George Leo Haydock. 
\Vhitby, R. Kirby, 1823, 12mo. pp. 126; in the following year were addeà, 
" Doxologies and Conflicts of Religion," pp. 8. 
It contains many curious and out of the way notes, biographical and 
otherwise. There is a chapter on "Some of the Saints, &c., who have 
illustrated \Vhitby," pp, 118-123. 
12. A Collection of Catholic Hymns; or, Religious Songs, &c. 
The third edition, corrected and enlarged, with an Appendix 
shewing the Conflicts of Religion, during 5823 years; and the 
Origin of the Eight Communions now followed at Whitby. By 



220 


BInLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAY. 


Rev. Geo. Leo Haydock. York, T. Bolland, 1823, 12mo. pp. I.t-3; it 
also appeared with the title page, " A Collection of Catholic Hymns; Third 
edition, corrected and enlarged, with A New Collection of Psalms, Hymns, 
l\Iotettos, Anthems, and Doxologies. Also, A Short Chronology of the Six 
Ages of the \Yorld. By the Rev. Geo. Leo Haydock." \Vhitby, R. Kirby, 
182], 12mo. pp. 143, Cath. Hymns, pp. 46, Chronology I f. 
In his Introduction, Haydock says that the affecting hymn composed by 
the Rev. Nicholas Postgate, of Ugthorpe, martyred in 1679, gave the first 
idea of printing at \Vhitby a small colJection of hymns when the new chapel 
was opened there by the Rev. Nic. Alain Gilbert, April IO, 1805. A second 
edition enlarged was published by T. Haydock, Manchester, 1807, 121110. 
Both were prepared for the press by Mr. Gilbert, though Haydock seems to 
have assisted him in the collection. 
13. A New Collection of Catholic Psalms, Hymns, Motettos, 
Anthems, and Doxologies. \Vhitby, R. Kirby, 1823, 12mo, Advertise- 
ment, pp. iv., Hymns, pp. 46, Conflicts of Religion, pp. 26, A Short 
Chronology of Religion, pp. 27-38. Both the Conflicts and the Chronology 
were also sold separately. 
His notes on the origin of the eight communions then followed at \Vhitby, 
with the dates ùf their establishment there, and the numbers of their con- 
gregations, are exceedingly interesting. 
14. The Method of Sanctifying the Sabbath Days at Whitby, 
Scarborough, &c. With a Paraphrase on some Psalms, &c. By 
the late Rev. N. A. Gilbert, M. Pro The second edition, with 
various additional instructions, by the Rev. George Leo Haydock, 
Ap. M. York. 1824, I zmo. pp, 71. 
1\1r. Gilbert's work was entitled, "Catholic Prayers, for the Forenoon, 
Afternoon, and Evening Services; to which is prefixed an Abridgment of 
Catholic Doctrines," \Vhitby, 18II, 12mo. pp. 103, pub. anOn. Haydock 
prefixes a short advertisement to his edition, dated \Vhitby, April II, 
182 4. 
15. Haydock's pen was never idle, but his sad experience of the pecuniary 
dangers of the press deterred him from publishing anything else. 
In 1806, it seems from a letter of his brother Thomas that he h:td written 
co An Easy Catechism," which" he had some thoughts of gi,.ing to the public." 
In 1823, from his" Conflicts of Religicn," pp. 25-6, it appears that he in- 
tended to publish an analysis of the" Ten Prescriptions ofTertullian" against 
heretics, with a short" Controversial Chronology," the Lives of S, Hilda, 
S, \Vilfrid, Father Postgate, and several other eminent Catholics who have 
illustrated the vicinity of \Vhitby. 
He frequently corresponded with the press, sometimes signing his letters 
4( Leo." At one time he was engaged in a controversy with the late Rev. G. 
Young, M,A., and the Rev. J. (or \V.) Blackburn. The latter took charge of 
the Independent chapel at \Vhitby, in 1820. In his first sermon he told his 
hearers that he was brought up a Catholic, then associated with the 
Methodists, but left them for fear of being disinherited by his father, and pro- 
fessedly became a "p:tpist" again. At length, at the age of 15, upon the 
death of his father he joined the Independents. 
At the sale of his library in 1851, the late Mr. Alderman Brown, of 
Preston, became possessed of two volumes of" Miscellaneous Extracts and 



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OF THE EXGLISH CATHOLICS. 


221 


Original Pieces," by Haydock, written in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, and 
English. Included were some of his poems, one of which, on Death, is said 
to exhibit no mean power. 
A collection of his Letters, l\Iiscellaneous Notes, and Sketches, is in the 
possession of the writer. Extracts from some of these are printed in "The 
Haydock Papers." 
16. Portrait, in oil and also in silhouette, in the possession of the 
writer. 


Haydock, James, priest, born in 1 765, was the eldest son 
of George Haydock, of The Tagg, Cottam. by his second wife
 
Anne Cottam. At an early age he was placed by his parents 
under the tuition of the Rev. Robert Banister, at Mowbreck 
Hall. Thence he proceeded to Douay College, where he was 
admitted l''lay 29, 1780. In 1786 he defended with great 
éclat his tltesis philosophire, and, after filling the office of prefect 
of the study-place for some years, besides teaching catechism, 
in which branch of his duty he excelled, he was ordained priest 
at Arras in the beginning of 1792. Soon afterwards he was. 
sent to the mission, and was appointed domestiC chaplain to 
John Trafford, of Trafford House, near l''lanchester, the lineal 
descendant of Sir Edmund Trafford, the great persecutor of his. 
ancestors, In 1 808 he removed to the mission at Lea, near 
Preston. There, whilst attending the sick of his congregation 
during a local epidemic, he took a fever, and died a martyr of 
charity a few days later, April 25, 1809, aged 43. 
He was buried at New House Chapel, Newsham, where a 
monument was erected to his memory. 
H a)Idock .J.115 s.
. Kirk, Biog. Co/lllS., .J.
I 55., No. 2 I ; Gillo'w7' 
Ha)'dock Papers. 
I. Philosophia Rationalis, Prolegomena: . . . . Ex logic a, viii. 
Metaphysica, vii. Præside Reverendo Domino Joanne Gillow,. 
philosophiæ professore. Tueri conabitur in aula Collegü Anglo- 
rum Duacenl. Jacobus Haydocke, die 23 Maii, 1786, à nonû, 
matutinâ ad undecimam. Duaci, apud Derbaix, Typo (1786), large 
s. sh., with fine engraving of the Holy Family after Bourdon. 
2. Sermons for all the Sundays and Holidays throughout the 
Year. MS. 
Most of these sermons are marked with the dates when preached, ranging 
from 1796 to 1803. 
Haydock, Richard, D.D., born about 1552, was the 
second son of Vivian Haydock, of Cottam Hall, Esq. He 
went with his father to Douay College in 1573, and four years 
later, in 1577, was ordained priest. In the next year he 



222 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAY. 


accompanied the professors and students when the college was 
transferred to Rheims. He was one of the first selected by 
Dr. Allen to commence the English College at Rome. When 
Dr. Clenock's partiality for his Welsh countrymen created 
dissensions in the college, which terminated in its being placed 
under the direction of the Jesuits, Richard Haydock was one of 
the most prominent actors. His name appears second in the 
list of those who took the college oath at its final settlement 
and formal opening, AFril 23, 1579. There he completed his 
studies, and took his degree of D.D. On the following Nov. 4 
he left the college for the English mission, having previously been 
presented by Dr. Allen to his Holiness Gregory VIII., who gave 
him his blessing and liberally provided him with funds for his 
perilous journey. 
The English Government was shortly afterwards apprised, 
by one of its numerous spies on the continent, that "Doctor 
Haddock with three other priests have passed this way," In 
his letter, now amongst the State Papers (It Dom. Eliz.," vol. clio 
:No. 74, 158 I), the informer, in furtherance of his profession, pre- 
tended to have heard a report that Fr. Persons' gold had animated 
them to some villainous attempt against her :Majesty's person. 
He cunningly added: "I cannott believe that suche wickednes 
can be fostered in the spiritte of these youthes (for they are 
yonge), notwithstanding be warie and very circumspect that if 
this Haddock come to England you now non of yd h come into 
his company, for Parsons' wrath be devilishe and have extrava- 
gant drifte and bad ends:' 
In 1582 the council received another information (" nom 
Eliz.," vol.cliv. No. 76): "Richard Hadocke preeste, who keepithe 
w th his brother at Cottam Hall, two myles from Preston in 
Lank e , or with his und three miles from his brother's house. 
His unckelrs name is John \Vestbye, and the house where he 
dwellethe is called Moorbrydge Hall in Lanck e , Dr. Allen is 
unckell unto the said Hadocke and to George Hadocke prisoner 
in the Tower." 
The doctor's eldest brother, "7illiam Haydock, of Cottam Hall, 
married Bridget, daughter of Sir Richard Hoghton, of Hoghton 
To\'Oer, co, Lancaster. He was a great sufferer for the faith, 
and his name prominently figures in the records of the Lanca- 
shire recusants, In 1584, the year of so much trouble to his 
family, he was one of those Lancashire gentlemen who had 



HAY.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


223 


awarded to them, in virtue of their recusancy, the exclusive 
privilege of furnishing each a light horseman with accoutrements 
for the service of her Majesty. At a later period (" Dom. 
Eliz.," vol. cclxvi. No. 80, Feb. 1598), he was assessed L 5 
towards the expense of raising troops for service in Ireland on 
the same account. Indeed, throughout his life he was sub- 
jected to all those cruel impositions under the penal laws which 
were devised by a tyrannical government to stamp out the faith 
of the people and to establish a new religion. In an infor- 
mation about the keeping of schoolmasters in Lancashire 
(" Dom. Eliz.," vol. ccxliii. No. 52, Oct. 1592), the following 
occurs: "Mr. Haddocke, of Cottam, he is of Allens kynrid, 
kepte a Recusante scholemaster many yares whose name as of 
the others I can learne w:hen I come into Lancashire." 
According to the Diary of the English College at Rome, 
Dr. Haydock at some period of his career in England suffered 
imprisonment for the faith. This is corroborated by Dr. 
Bridgewater, who, in his account of the cruel apprehension and 
imprisonment of Aloysia Haydock, in 1584, calls her "a 
maiden truly worthy of the noble race of Haydock, which has 
the glory of producing two confessùrs, her father and her elder 
brother, and one martyr, George Haydock, her younger brother, 
all of them most holy priests of Christ." 
After ten years of missionary labour in England and Ireland, 
playing hide and seek with the pursuivants, the doctor returned 
to the continent, and was invited to Rome by Cardinal Allen, 
who appointed him his domestic chaplain. This position he 
retained till the cardinal's death in I 594, when he was recom- 
mended for a benefice by the Spanish ambassador, El Duque 
de Sessa. He remained in Italy for some years, in close friend- 
ship with Fr. Persons, S.J " whose confidence he enjoyed. In 
1595 the English government was informed by Thomas \Vilson, 
one of its spies (" Dom. Eliz.," ccli., No. 90), that two years 
before there had been a consultation at Rome between the 
Duke of Sissons, ambassador of Spain, Cardinal Aldobrandini, 
protector of England, the Jesuit General, Aquaviva, Fr. Persons, 
prefect of the English province S.]., and others, about the resto- 
ration of the hierarchy in England. The spy professed that 
Blackwell, the archpriest, was selected for the Archbishopric 
of York, with an annual pension of 4000 crowns from Spain; 
Dr. Haydock was to fill the princely see of Durham; émd a 



224 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAY. 


third bishop was proposed for Carlisle. The two latter were to 
have pensions of 2000 crowns, The drift of the device was to 
stop the entrance of the King of Scots into England, and to 
form a strong party for the Infanta. But this, the spy added, 
was abandoned through the objections of an English priest, and 
some other plan was proposed. 
Another document in the Record Office (" Dom. Eliz.," xxxiv., 
Addenda, n. 42, II., Oct. 160 I) as-ain reveals the attention paid 
by the spies to Dr. Haydock, who is represented to Cecil as 
"Parsons' coachman, for that he keepeth his coach and horses, 
and are at his sole command, but sayeth or may say, Hos ego 
'i'ersiculos feci tlllit alter hOJlores. For it is well known unto the 
world that Dr. Haddocks is not able to keep a coach and two 
horses at Rome, for it is very chargeable, and his living small, 
besides two men to attend him; but the poor scholars pay for 
all, and whereas the college formerly was well able to maintain 
seventy scholars, now it is not able to maintain fifty, although 
the living or revenues is rather increased than decreased ; only 
except that Parsons, in despite and revenge of the scholars, sold 
away a great vineyard, the goodliest in Rome, both in vines, 
walks, fruits, houses, waters, and other necessaries whatsoever, 
and a thousand crowns under the value as would have been 
given for the same. The said lVIr. Doctor is president of the 
council at the college, and generally every afternoon do they 
sit to deliberate of all causes. The councillors names are these 
following: Parsons, judge; \Valpole, Stephens, Smythe, Owen, 
Dr. Haydock, Mr. Thomas Fitzherbert, l\1r, Roger Baines, and 
l\1r. Sweete, when he was there. 'Vhen the case is litigious, 
then Father Harrison is sent for to censure his opinion in the 
same. They cannot well agree among themselves who should 
be cardinal; some will have Fr. Parsons, Mr, Fitzherbert, l\Ir. 
Mumpsons, or Dr. Haddock, but the Pope will take an order 
for making of English cardinals, for he is well persuaded of 
their sedition, and . . . . tion bishoprics will not serve their 
turns, but must presently become cardinals." 
Soon after this, Dr. Haydock left Rome for Douay College, 
where he arrived Oct. 26, 1602. He then proceeded to Lan- 
cashire, and thence, perhaps, to Ireland. There he held the 
dignity of dean of Dublin, for in the archives of the See of 
vVestminster (vol. iii. p. 3 I I) is a memorial to the Pope, dated 
1602, to which among other autograph signatures is appended 



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OF THE EXGLISH CATHOLICS. 


225 


that of "Richardlls Hadocus, sacræ theologiæ doctor et 
Dubliniensis decanus." Filled with a desire to visit Rome once 
more, he returned to Douay, June 3, 1603, and began his 
journey thence in company with Dr. Harrison, the procurator 
of the college, who was commissioned to lay before his Holiness 
a statement of the poverty from which it was suffering at that 
time. Dr. Haydock arrived at the English College at Rome on 
the following August 27th. The pilgrim-book of the hospice 
in connection with the college states that he received, with his 
servant, ten days' hospitality. 
The remainder of his life was spent in Rome, during which 
he translated into English from the Italian Cardinal Bellarmine's 
large catechism. He then sent it to Douay for publication in 
1604. \Vorn out with continual labour and suffering, he died 
in the eternal city in the year 1605, aged about 53. 
He was probably buried, as directed in his will, at the foot of 
the altar of our Lady in the church of St. Thomas of Canter- 
bury, attached to the English College. In his will, written in 
Latin, he made bequests to St. Ursula's Augustinian Convent at 
Louvain, to his maternal aunt, Elizabeth Allen, and to his re- 
latives, Catherine Allen, Fr. Thos. Talbot, S.J., Thos. Worth- 
ington, of Blainscough Hall, co. Lancaster, Esq., Dr. Thos. 
\Vorthington, president of Douay College, &c. He made the 
English College at Rome his residuary legatee, and desired a 
marble slab to be placed over his remains, inscribed with his 
name and degree, his arms and the Haydock motto- Tristitia 
vcstra 'i'ertctur ill gaudilllll. 
Dodd, Ch. Hist, , ii.; Records of the E1lg. Caths., i. and ii. ; 
Foley, Records S J., ii" iii:, vi.; Bridgewater, Concert. Eccles., ed. 
J 594, f. 133 ; Gillow, Lanc. Recltsallts, .111 S. 


I. An Ample Declaration of the Christian Doctrine, composed 
in Italian by the renowned Cardinal, Card. Bellarmin. By the 
ordinance of our holie Father the Pope, Clement the Eighth. 
And translated into English by R. H., Doctor of Divinitie. Douay, 
1604, 8vo.; S. Omers, John Heigham, 1624, 48mo., approb. Duaci, Nov. 7, 
1603, running title" Christian Doctrine," pp. 381. 
It appeared in Latin, ., Doctrina Christiana; seu Catechismus, Arabice 
versus, per Viet. Scialic," Roma, 1613, 8vo. An English translation with 
pictures, perhaps Haydock's, was printed at Augusta, 1614, 8vo. An edition 
inWelsh appeared in 1618. 
2. "Mr. Richard Haddock to Dr. Allen, giving an account of the Revo- 
lution in the English College at Rome; wherein he was a person chiefly 
VOL. III. Q 



226 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HAY. 


employed by the malcontents," dated Rome, March 9, 1579, printed in 
Tierney's Doàd, ii. ccc1.-ccclxxi, 
The history of the transfer to the Jesuits of the administration of the Eng- 
lish secular college at Rome is a vexed question, too long and intricate to 
enter into here. Suffice it to say that Haydock supported the Jesuits, and 
the students demanàed his expulsion from the college. Besides the authDri- 
ties cited above, Haydock's action in this matter is referred to in Turnbull, 
"Sergeant's Account of the Eng. Chapter," p. 14; Tierney, "Dodd's Ch. 
Hist.," ii. 173-5, iii. 49; Hunter, " Modest Defence," p. 74; Constable, "Spec, 
of Amendments," pp. 115, 167. 


Haydock, Thomas, printer, publisher, and schoolmaster, 
born Feb. :2 I, I 772, was the second son of George Haydock, of 
The Tagg, Cottam, gent., by his second wife Anne Cottam. He 
made his preliminary studies under l\ir. Banister at 1'10wbreck 
Hall, where he remained some years, and in 1785 was sent to 
Douay College. In Aug., I ï93, just before the seizure of the 
college by the French revolutionists, being then in the school of 
natural philosophy, he effected his escape to England as related 
in the memoir of his brother George. He then proceeded to 
Lisbon, and entered the English College to continue his studies 
for the priesthood. His superiors there came to the conclusion 
that he had no vocation for the church, and so he returned to 
England towards the close of 1795, In the meantime the 
Douay refugees belonging to the northern vicariate had settled 
at Crook Hall, co. Durham. On J an. I 3 1796, he started from 
The Tagg in company with his brother George and Robert 
Gradwell, subsequently bishop, and arrived at Crook Hall four 
days later. There he commenced his third attempt for the 
priesthood, and on Aug. 8
 in the same year, he defended his 
thesis, De Gratia ct Actibus /w1Jlanis. Shortly before this, in 
the month of June, some one busied himself with casting doubts 
on Haydock's vocation for the church. The principal complaint 
seems to have been that he was" funny," that is of a humorous 
disposition. l\lr. Eyre, the president, asked his brother George 
if he thought Thomas would do for a priest? He replied that 
it was not for him to say; he had done nothing to disqualify 
himself, and the Bishop, Dr. \Vm. Gibson, had authorized him 
to come to the college. "Oh!" replied l'1r, Eyre, " when I go into 
the grounds I always see a crowd about Thomas laughing, and 
such generally end in the asylum." He himself thoroughly 
believed in his vocation, and, as he says in a letter to his brother 
James, "if there is any fault, it must be in imagining myself to 



HÃV.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


227 


have su fficient piety, strength, and resolution to fulfil my in- 
tentions. IJ }Iowever, he was advised to lea ve the college, very 
much against the wishes of his brother James, who was no mean 
discriminator of character. The Rev. Benedict Rayment also 
gave it as his opinion that "Thomas would have been the best 
of the three brothers." 
Soon after leaving Crook Hall, Thomas Haydock took a 
hDuse, No. 42, Alport Street, in Manchester, and opened a 
school. His neatly engraved prospectus announces that he in- 
tends teaching Greek, Latin, French, Portuguese, Spanish, and 
Italian, besides the usual course. In all these languages he was 
certainly qualified as a teacher, and his efforts met with fair 
success for a number of years. The task, however, was not 
agreeable to him, and his love of literature and all connected 
with it soon plunged him into an undertaking which proved his 
ruin; indeed, within two years of his arrival in :Manchester he 
began to publish Catholic works and engravings. This naturally 
interfered with his school, and eventually he gave it up, though 
from time to time when other sources failed he took to teaching 
for his subsistence. 
About 1799 he took premises in Tib Lane, and commenced 
to publish a large selection of Catholic works besides some 
valuable engravings. Thence, in I S04, he removed to tem- 
porary premises in Lever Street. Shortly afterwards he went to 
]Vlarket Street Lane, and later to Stable Street, Lever's Row. 
In I S06 he conceived the idea of publishing a new and hand- 
some edition of the Douay Bible, which was very much called 
for at that period. Financial troubles, however, interfered with 
his intention, and in March, I S09, he had recourse to his old 
plan of taking pupils, about twenty in number, At the same 
time he continued his publishing business, and made some 
financial arrangements with a :Mr. John Heys, In the following 
year he went over to Dublin to collect some large and long out- 

tanding debts. There he met with such liberal promises of 
support that he was induced to open a branch establishment, 
In the meantime Heys suddenly came down upon him with a 
claim for .(Soo, seized his stock in Manchester, which at Heys' 
own valuation was worth .(3000, and demanded immediate pay- 
ment. After five months' absence in Dublin Haydock returned 
to l\Ianchester in Jan. I S I I, and issued a circular announcing 
.that the large folio edition of the Bible would be put to press 
Q 2 



228 


DIBLIOGR.\PIUC.\L DICTIONARY 


[HAY. 


immediately. At this time he had an extensive printing estab- 
lishment in Cumberland Street, Manchester, and a shop in 
Anglesea Street, Dublin. The first number of the Bible ap- 
peared in July, 181 I, and the last sheet was struck off on Sep. 
I I, 18 14. He was still, however, in the clutches of the man 
Heys, who made him sign an agreement to allow him two- 
pence on every shilling number, 2.mounting in the aggregate to 
about L 1 000, as a condition for assisting him to print the Bible. 
The advance would not exceed L 5 00 even for a year. This 
arrangement was enforced under a threat to send Haydock to 
Lancaster, ",,,here he should lie and rot in the debtor's prison." 
One misfortune after another happened to the poor publisher. 
His managers, clerks, and canvassers robbed him and ran away, 
several of his business connections failed, and at length, in 1816, 
Heys, the worst of all his leeches, was thrown into bankruptcy_ 
Haydock wa.s then arrested for debt and suffered four months. 
imprisonment. After his release he struggled on in business in 
Lower Ormond Quay, Dublin, for many years, and subsequently 
reopened a school until his final retirement about 1840. 
During his residence in Dublin, about I 8 1 8, Haydock married 
an Irish lady, l\liss :Mary Lynch, by whom he had three children, 
all of whom died young. She died Oct. 19, 1823. After 
leaving Ireland he resided in Liverpool for some years, and finally 
removed to Preston, where he died Aug. 25, 1859, aged 87. 
He was interred in the family grave at Newhouse chapel
 
:Kewsham, His interest in The Tagg estate had long before been 
purchased by his brother and sister, both of whom had gene- 
rously come to his asistance throughout his chequered career. 
Haydock was possessed of no mean literary ability, but was 
not a commercial man, He was easy-going, sanguine, and 
enthusiastic beyond measure in his desire to spread Catholic 
literature. His trustful nature was almost invariably taken 
advantage of by those whom he employed. Many of his pub- 
lications were excellent specimens of typography, and he did 
a great work in stimulating the improvement of the London 
Catholic Press. 
Haydock 11155., -Ùl þossession of the IVriler; Tablet, xx. 580; 
CottOJl, Rllcmcs aud DOlUl)" 


I. He edited and translated several books of piety and devotion, but as 
they were all published anonymously, the titles cannot be ascertained. In a 
letter to his brother George, dated Dublin, July 22, 1819, he says: "I am 



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OF THE E
GLISH CATHOLICS. 


229 


translating two little works, 'Saints' Lives in :\Iiniature,' {rom the French, 
2 sm. vols., and 'Infernus Damnatorum,' from the Latin of Drexelius, S.J. 
I will send you over the manuscript before I put them to press." 
2. In 1832 he made arrangements for beginning TIle Catholic Pe1ZIlY JIaga- 
::Ì1le, with his brother's assistance. The first number was to appear on the 
last Saturday in Nov" and the impression was to be 5000. This was to be 
edited by himself. It does not seem to have survived its first number, if even 
that was published. 
3. In 1806 he conceived the design of publishing a " splendid and correct 
edition of the Douay Bible and Testament," with historic, critical, explana- 
tory, and controversial notes. Haydock's Bible, by which title it is generally 
known, is the work which hands his name down to posterity, and therefore 
some description of it is due. The Rev. Benedict Rayment, then of Larting- 
ton Hall, near Barnard Castle, proffered to edit the entire work, but after- 
wards withdrew. Haydock then applied to his brother George, who 
consented to undertake the task. I t was proposed to issue it in parts, 
commencing early in the spring of 1807. This arrangement was afterwards 
altered to August, but even then was not fulfilled, for the enthusiastic printer 
had got out of his depth, and was obliged to go over to Dublin to collect 
some large and long out-standing debts. His cheering reception induced 
him to open a publishing establishment there, whilst he left his business in 
:;\Ianchester under the charge of a manager, who eventually defrauded him. 
In Manchester he made some business arrangement with 1\1r. John Heys, 
who suddenly put forward a claim, seized his goods, of which the valuation 
.amoun
ed to upwards of .l3000, and threatened to sell them unless f.ßoo was 
at once paid to him. Haydock therefore returned to Manchester, and, much 
to his astonishment, found that another Catholic printer in the town, Oswald 
Syers, had announced his intention to issue a new edition of the Bible, to 
be revised by the Rev. Edward Kenyon and the Rev. Thomas Sadler, In 
.a letter to his brother George, dated Manchester, Jan. 5, 181 I, Thomas Hay- 
dock says: "You wiJ1 have the goodness not to lose a single moment in 
forwarding the work in question, as some persons in this town thought to 
have stolen a march during my absence, and have actually ordered types, 
paper, &c., for commencing it. My re-"appearance must, however, greatly 
disconcert them, and, tbo' they openly avow their determination to persevere, 
I know very well they will be obliged to give up the contest, as I can get 
more than ten subscribers for their one." Syers, having secured promises 
<>f heJp from several priests, commenced to print his Bible, and issue it in 
parts, in small folio, in :\Iarch, 181 I. I t was of indifferent e>..ecution, and was 
finished in 1813. 
The first number of Haydock's edition appeared on July II, ISII. H was 
intended to issue it in fortnightly numbers at IS. each, alternately with the 
New Testament, but after the second number it appeared weekly. The first 
impression was 1500 copies, but as subscribers soon multiplied other editions 
were printed, partly in Manchester and partly in Dublin. The last sheet 
was worked off on Sept. I I, I8q. It is difficult from Haydock's own 
descriptions to classify the various editions accurately, his difficulties 
caused them to be so much intermixed. Archdeacon Cotton's statement, 
however, may be accepted. The first title-page is as described under the 
Rev. Geo. Leo Haydock; the second bears the announcement that Mr. 



23 0 


BIELIOGRAPHIC\L DICTIONARY 


[HAY. 


Rayment and some of the monks of Ampleforth (Mr. Robicson and others) 
had agreed to prepare notes for the New Testament; Manchester, Thomas 
Haydock, 9, Cumberland Street, and at his shop, 19, Anglesea Street, Dub- 
lin, 1812; the third, Dublin, Thos. Haydock, 17, Lower Ormond Quay, 1813; 
and the fourth, Manchester, Thos. Haydock, 9. Cumberland Street, 1814_ 
He projected an abridged 8vo. edition in 1822 at Dublin, and obtained Dr. 
Troy's approbation in July of that year. He was, however, compelled to give 
up this edition to Mr. Pickering. In the later editions he had 110 interest. 
In 1845-48, Haydock's Bible was republished at Edinburgh and London, 
from the eariiest impressions, 'i/erbltlll 'l'erbo, with all its notes, in a handsome 
4to. form, bearing the approbation of the vicars-apostolic of Scotland. with 
their coadjutors, of the archbishops of Armagh and Dublin, and of the 
bishops of Belfast, \Vaterford, and Limerick. Dr. Husenbeth commenced 
an abridged edition in 2 vols. 4to., in 1850, finished in 1853. A New York 
edition in 4to. also appeared in 1832-56. 


Haydock, William, O. Cist., was a younger son of \Villiam 
Haydock, of Cottam Han, co. Lancaster, Esq., by Joan, daughter 
of \Villiam Beton, of Heton, His parents' marriage indenture 
is dated 20 Edw. IV., 1480-8 I. 
In 1536, the people of the northern counties, where the 
corruption of the court had not penetrated, banded themselves 
together and raised a great army of thirty thousand men in 
defence of their faith, their ancient rights, and the dissolved 
monasteries. The nominal command was entrusted to Robert 
Aske. From the boràers of Scotland far into the fens of Lin- 
colnshire, and to the west coast oî Lancashire, the inhabitants 
generally bound themselves by oath to stand by each other, 
" for the love which they bore to Almighty God, His faith, the 
hoiy Church, and the maintenance thereof." They complained 
chiefly of the suppression of the monasteries, of the Statute of 
Uses, of the introduction into the council of such men as Crom- 
well and Rich, and of the preferment of the Archbishops of 
Canterbury and Dublin, and of the Bishops of Rochester, Salis- 
bury, and St. David's, whose chief aim was to subvert the Church 
of Christ. Their enterprise was termed "The Pilgrimage of 
Grace," and their banners were painted with the image of Christ 
crucified, and with the chalice and host, the emblems of their 
belief. \Vherever the pilgrims appeared, the people flocked to 
their standards, and the ejected monks were replaced in the 
monasteries. Their formidable app
arance alarmed the king,. 
who eventually offered them an unlimited pardon, with an 
understanding that their grievances should be shortly discussed 
in the parliament to be assembled at York. But the people, in 



HA Y.] 


OF TIlE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


23 1 


their simplicity, were no mat,:h for the arbitrary and unscrupu- 
lous monarch and his ravenous advisers. After the army had 
been disbanded, Henry refused to keep his promise, arrested the 
leaders, and recommenced his plunder of the monasteries. 
At this time \Villiam Haydock was one of the senior monks 
in the Cistercian Abbey of \Vhalley. The.-e probably he had 
been educated and professed. He, and John Eastgate, another 
monk, supported the abbot, John Paslew, in assuming a lead in 
the ranks of the popular outburst. After the movement had 
been suppressed, through the king's treachery, they were ar- 
raigned and convicted of high treason at the spring assizes 
holden at Lancaster in 1537, The abbot was executed, 
March 10, upon a gallows erected on a gentle elevation in a 
field called Holehouses, immediately facing Pend Ie Hill and the 
house of his birth, near vVhalley. Eastgate suffered with him, 
and their bodies were dismembered, and their quarters set up 
in various towns in Lancashire, \Villiam Haydock was hanged 
t\\'o days later, in a field adjoining the abbey known by the 
name of Le Impe-yard, which signifies a nursery for young trees, 
March 12,1537, aged about 54, 
His body, for some unknown reason, was allowed to continue 
suspended on the gibbet entire, and ultimately was secured and 
secretly removed by his nephew and namesake to Cottam Hall, 
where it remained until its discovery when the mansion was 
pulled down in the early part of this century. In Lancashire 
he was generally looked upon as a martyr, and his remains were 
treated with great veneration by the Haydock family. 
Dodd, Cll. His!", vol. i.; rVltitaker, Hist. of n
ltallcy, 4th edit. ; 
Lingard, Hist. of Ellg., ed. 1849, vol. V. ; Gillo'iu, Lanc. Recl/sants, 
.III S. 


Haynes, Matthew Priestman, journalist, was a native of 
Husband's Bosworth, co. Leicester. In 1825 he was sent to 
S1. Mary's College, Oscott, as a church student, where he gave 
great promise, but his health failing, it was thought advisable 
that he should abandon his studies for the church, lIe went 
home to his father's house at Husband's Bosworth, and having 
in a great measure recovered his health, was engaged by the 
Rev, T. M. l\1'Ðonnell, the well-known priest of St. Peter's, 
Birmingham, to teach his parochial boys' school. l\Ir. M"Ðonnell 
was an ardent politician as well as a zealous priest, and as 



23 2 


BIBLIOGRAPlIlCAL DICTIONARY 


[HEA. 


Matthew Haynes was a fine orator as well as a good writer, his 
reverend patron employed him in the agitation for reform, of 
which Birmingham was the centre, and 1Vlr. l\I'Donnell one of 
the chief men under the leaders Attwood and Scholefield, Poli- 
tics soon absorbed Haynes' attention, and he gave up the post 
of schoolmaster. He tried unsuccessfully to get into parliament, 
but eventually settled down as a journalist, 
\Vhilst at Birmingham, in 1830, he published his" Enquirer's 
Guide," and shortly afterwards went over to Ireland, and under- 
took the editorship of Tke lJla)!o Telegrapk. There he married, 
on Oct. 23, 1833, Maria Louisa, eldest daughter of T. McCor- 
mack, of Tuam, Esq. 
In 1839 he removed to London, and commenced Tke Pellll)' 
Catkolic llIaga:::ille, which at first received great encouragement, 
but came to an untimely end through want of sufficient support 
before it had completed its third volume. The date of his death 
has not been ascertained. 
Tablet, vol. i., pp. 200, 367; Calk. Jfag., vol. iv., p. lxxxiii.; 
Calk, Director)', 1841, p, 186; Gillozu, Ear!;! Calk. Periodicals; 
T ablel, Jan. 29-March 19, 188 [ ; Oscotiall, vol. vi., p, 6 I. 
I. The Enquirer's Guide; or, an Exposure of the Evasive, 
Erroneous, and Inconclusive Arguments urged against Catholicity 
by the Rev. Wm. Dalton and the Rev. Wm, Crowley, addressed 
to all candid and enquiring Christians. By M. P. Haynes. 
Birmingham, 1830, 8vo., 2 pts. 
Dalton and Crowley were two aggressive Protestant clergymen who 
published several bitter pamphlets to stir up bigotry in the neighbourhood. 
2. An Interesting Account of the Extraordinary Grand Tee- 
total Galas held at Dyrham Park, Aug. 10, 1840. With Reports 
of the Speeches, &c. Lond. (1840), 8vo. 
3. The Position of the Jews, as indicated and affected by the 
return to Parliament of Baron L, de Rothschild, with consider- 
ations whether he can take his seat. Lond. 1847, 8vo. 
4. Tlte Penny Catholic Jl.faga::ille, edited by 1\1. P. Haynes, weekly, 
published by Keating & Brown, afterwards by James Brown, London; com- 
menced Sep. 7, 1839, ceased towards the close of 1840, having just commenced 
the third vol. It seems that Mr. Haynes withdrew from the editorship for 
awhile, but resumed it with the forty-seventh No., Aug. I, 1840. 
5. Mr. Haynes wrote several articles in the Oscotimz
' or, Literary Ga::ette 
if St. lJIary's, a magazine conducted by the alu1Ilni of Oscott College, the 
New Series of which commenced in 1828. 


Hearne, Daniel, priest, a native of Ireland, was educated 
and ordained at Maynooth College. He then came to England 



REA. ] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


'?"" 
-.).) 


and was appointed to the mission at Garstang, co. Lancaster, 
July 24, 1824. He remained there till N"ov, 1825, when he was 
transferred to St. Mary's, l''1ulberry Street, 1'lanchester, as 
assistant to the Rev, Henry Gill ow, senior. \Vhen St. Patrick's 
.church was opened in Livesey Street, l''1anchester, Feb. 29, 
1832, 1\1r. Hearne was given the charge of the new mission. 
He was a very active missioner, and won the affections of his 
large Irish congregation by incessant labour for both their 
temporal and spiritual welfare. He had a good address and 
took part in a celebrated religious discussion, known as the 
Bradford Controversy, in Dec. 1828. By the right use of great 
zeal, and considerable practical talent, he not only saved his 
.countrymen parishioners from the evils of Socialism, Chartism, 
and the like, but also rendered them sober, united, and peaceful. 
He communicated a great impulse to religion in Manchester by 
the estahlishment of guilds, schools, and kindred institutions. 
The disgraceful libel upon him in 1840 by the well-known anti- 
Catholic clergyman, Hugh Stowell, and the subsequent law- 
suits, in which 1\'1r. Hearne was successful, greatly increased his 
popularity. \Vith all this, however, he was afflicted with vanity, 
and was jealous of much attention being paid by his parishioners 
to either of his two curates. One of them, the Rev. Hugh 
1'1'Cormick, was voted into the chair by some committee in 
.connection with the mission or with the convent attached to 
it. This annoyed 1\1r. Hearne, who got the motion rescinded. 
On the following Sunday, about the middle of 1846, there was 
High Mass, and 1\1'Cormick seized the opportunity to attack Mr. 
Hearne in a gross manner from the pulpit. l'1:r, Hearne, who 
was the celebrant, outwardly maintained his self-possession under 
these trying circumstances until he came to the pax, when he 
turned round and addressed the congregation, solemnly denying 
the truth of the accusations, and assuring the people that he 
bore no ill-will to any man. This created a great sensation, and 
the matter was brought to the attention of the bishop, l\'Ir. 
Hearne was summoned to Liverpool and reprimanded for the 
grave canonical offence he had committed. The matter would 
have blown over with the discharge of the offending curate, but 
Mr. Hearne had not recovered his self-possession, and influenced, 
perhaps, by some differences he had with the bishop on account 
"Ûf moneys he claimed to have invested in the mission, he defied 
lJis lordship to suspend him. In consequence Dr. Brown 



234 


TIIBLIOGRAPHIC.\L DICTIONARY 


[HEAÞ 


removed him, with both of his curates, from St. Patrick's, and in 
place installed Dr. Roskell, subsequently bishop of Nottingham, 
with two other priests. 1\ir, Hearne's removal caused great ex- 
citement and ill-feeling towards the bishop on the part of the 
young Irelanders of Manchester, and a series of disgraceful dis- 
turbances in the church during divine service ensued. They 
professed that he was removed because he was an Irishman 
who had raised })imself to a position that was envied and 
coveted. They complained that in England the affections of an 
Irish congregation for their pastor were never respected, whilst 
the whims and prejudices of an English congregation respect- 
ing an Irish priest were always adopted, Finally they declared 
that Mr. Hearne was persecuted because he had the courage to 
love his country, and to advocate her interests, which were mis- 
understood, and even if understood, would not be respected. On 
the first Sunday that the new incumbent addressed the congre- 
gation he was interrupted by the misguided men, Seeing how 
vain it would be to insist with people blinded by obstinacy and 
passion, he came down from the pulpit and humbly knelt before 
the altar in silent prayer; then rising, he turned towards the 
congregation to give them his parting blessing, but he was met 
with vociferations that not his blessing but the return of :1\1r. 
Hearne was wanted. Thus matters were brought to a c1imax_ 
Pu blic meetings were held to denunciate the bishop and clergy, 
and subscriptions were set on foot to enable :Mr. Hearne to 
appeal to the Holy See. Fortunately at this period Dr. Gentili 
and Fr. :Moses Furlong, of the Institute of Charity, had just 
concluded a mission at St. \ViJfrid's, Hulme. A deputation of 
nine respectable Irishmen belonging to St. Patrick's congrega- 
tion waited upon them with an address, signed by Dr. Roskell 
and themselves, soliciting them to favour St. Patrick's with a 
similar series of sermons. To this proposal Dr. Gentili ac- 
ceded, and the mission commenced Sept. 27, 1846, I t opened 
under alarming menaces by the malcontents, two hundred of 
whom forcibly took possession of seats in the church without 
paying the usual admission penny, For some days the rioters. 
held meetings in the churchyard, and Dr. Gentili was in- 
terrupted in his discourses by disturbances in the church. 
Scuffling and uproars desecrated the sacred edifice, and on one 
occasion the doors were thrown open for the avowed purpose of 
turning out both priest and people. The police watched the 



REA. ] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


235 


proceedings, and the matter even came under the cognizance of 
the magistrates. At length a reaction set in, and, after nearly 
seven weeks, Dr, Gentili had the satisfaction of concluding the 
mission under most favourable circumstances, Nov. 12, 1846. 
Thus one of the greatest scandals that ever disturbed a Catholic 
community in England was happily terminated. 
In the meantime l\1r. Hearne had retired to \Vaterford, 
awaiting the course of events in JVlanchester, and the sub- 
scriptions which were to enable him to make his appeal to the 
Holy See. At this time things were in a very disturbed state in 
Italy, and the revolutionists had assumed a very threatening 
attitude in Rome. The clergy were insulted on every possible 
occasion, religion was decried, and the use of the dagger was by 
no means uncommon, \Vhilst 1\lr. Hearne was awaiting in 
Rome a decision in his case, he dared publicly to expostulate 
with the party of disorder for their scandalous misbehaviour in 
the Church of the Gesù. Shortly afterwards, in Aug. 1 848
 
when taking his usual evening walk in the Corso, he was attacked 
by one of these ruffians, who aimed at him three deadly blows 
with a dagger. Fortunately 1'1r. Hearne warded off the two first 
and received the stabs ill his arm and wrist. The third blow 
missed effect through his falling to the ground. After Rossi's 
assassination, he deemed it more prudent to leave Rome, and on 
Kov. 24, the same day on which Pius IX. fled, he proceeded 
to Leghorn. There he was laid up with iJIness for some \Veeks
 
but left for England on Dec, 1 6. Upon his arrival, Bishop 
Brown appointed him to the then recently established mission 
at BootIe, near Liverpool, of which he took charge, Mar, 2 5
 
1849. He remained there until Oct. 5, 1851, when he with- 
drew from the English mission for America. Sometime after 
his arrival in the States, while inspecting the erection of a new 
church, he climbed on to the building, but the scaffolding giving 
way, he was precipitated to the ground and received injuries 
which proved fatal. 
Laìty's Directories; Table!, vol. vii. 7 1 3, 7 2 7, 73 1, 74 2 ; 
Paga1li, Life of Dr. Gelllili, p. 243 seq.,. IVéekly and J1Iolltltl.J' 
Orthodox, vol. i. p. 18 ; Cat/t. 1Ilisccl., New Series, p. 85. 


I. "Hearne 'i ' . Stowell," the action for libel brought by Mr. Hearne 
against the Rev, Hugh Stowell, of Manchester,excited great interest through- 
OUt the North of England. In an address at a public meeting held in 
Manchester, April 28, 1840, for the purpose of getting up a petition to 



23 6 


BIBLI0GRAPHIC\L DICTION_\RY 


[REA. 


Parliament to withhold further grants of public money to 1\Iaynooth College, 
Stowell made a gross attack upon Catholicity, and singled out Mr. Hearne as 
an illustration of the tyranny practised by priests in the confessional. .:\lr. 
Hearne at once demanded through his solicitors the proofs for the assertion 
which Stowell pretended to have, These, of course, were not forthcoming, 
and Hearne published a letter in the illmlchester Guardian, May 17, 1840, 
denying the al
egations. Stowell, through his solicitors, then repeated his 
conviction of the truth of his allegations, and action was at once taken by 
Hearne. The case was tried in the civil court before Baron Rolfe and ajury, 
Aug, 29, 1840, and resulted in the plantiff's favour. The defendant, however, 
impeached the correctness of the charge delivered by Baron Rolfe, The 
appeal was brought bt:fore Denman, the Lord Chief Justice, in the Court of 
Queen's Bench, Nov. 27, 1841, and resulted in a complete victory for .:\lr. 
Hearne. The effect was to leave Stowell convicted of slander, under circum- 
stances of the most humiliating description (see Tablet ii. 580,734,780,787 ; 
Orthodox Journal, 1840, xi. 148, 298; xiii. 303). 
2. Address to the Catholics of St. Patrick's District (1846), s. sh, 
4to., in which :Mr. Hearne gives a few interesting statistics rel<1tive to the 
Catholic population of Manchester. These are embodied in the following 
account. 
At this period there were only five Catholic chapels in 
lanchester, 
and a mission in Salford just commenced. The old chapel in Rook-street, 
dedicated to St. Chad, was still in use; St. Mary's, Mulberry-street, had been 
opened in 1794; St. Augustine's, Granby ROIv, in 1820; St. Patrick's, Livesey- 
street, in 1832, and St. vVilfrid's, Hulme, in 1842. Further information re- 
garding the history of these missions will be found under the Revs. R. Broom- 
head, M. Gray, H. Kendal, Edw. Helmes, E. Kenyon, &c. It is evident 
from the various returns oí rtcllsants, that the Catholics of Manchester were 
more numerous in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries than is commonly 
supposed, The present object, however, is to supply a few statistics, com- 
mencing with the period at which the body had become reduced by the 
action of the penal laws to its lowest state, both in condition and numbers, 
The figures which have been put forward from time to time are of an un- 
reliable character, arising from the necessity of Catholics being nominally 
entered as Churchmen in the parish registers. Under these circumstances 
Catholics were usually baptized by a priest in private, often in their own 
houses, before the lcgal operation in the Protestant churchcs was performed, 
and consequently no entry was made in the records of the mission, I t has 
been statcd by the late :Mr. J oim Reilly, in his " Hi
tory of Manchester," that 
the number of adult Catholics in the town, in 1744, was not more than fifteen. 
The Christian Ad'Llocate states that twenty years later the number was but 
seventy. These statements are very misleading. They may possibly represent 
something like the numbers in attendance at the chapel in the house in the 
Parsonage, down the steps cut in the sandstone by the river, and its successor 
in Roman Entry, off Church Street. But thcre were priv<lte chapels main- 
tained by the Traffords, the Barlows, and other families in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the town, during the whole period of persecution, and these 
could be attended with greater secrecy and security than that in the town, 
For many ycars a chapel existed in Crumpsall Hall, the residence of the 



REA. ] 


OF THE EKGLISH CATHOLICS. 


237 


Gartsides, and at one time that of Henry Howard, Esq., which was served 
by the Rev. John Eyre for some years from 1775. Travelling missionaries 
were still in existence at this period, and they were accustomed to visit 
Catholics in their houses at certain intervals, to perform all the services that 
were requisite. 
The Catholic lIfagazine, vol. ii. p. 216, states that, according to the Catholic 
registers in l\lanchester, there were only twenty-two baptisms in 1772. Mr. 
Hearne gives the date 1775. This, on the ra
io of twenty to a baptism, which 
is perhaps the most accurate calculation for towns, situated as the Catholic 
community is at present, would represent a Catholic population of 440. In 
J781 there were, according to the same authority, fifty-five baptisms, which at 
the same calculation would give a popubtion of 1100. In a letter dated \Yeld 
Bank, Feb. 3, 1783 (" Ushaw ColI.," :\ISS., vol. ii. p, 491), from the Rev. 
John Chadwick, V.G. to Bishop Matt. Gibson, V.A., of the Northern District, 
the writer says that the Rev. Messrs. Hoghton ;md Broomhead had then 400 
communicants at Manchester. In 1788, the previous authority gi\-e5 the 
numb
r of baptisms as 117, which represents a totai popul ,tion of 2340; 
1800, bapt. 270, pop. 5400; 1802, bapt. 336, pop. 6720 ; and 1816, bapt. 553, 
pop. 11,060. \Ve are informed by a little pamphlet entitled" The Catholic 
Chapels <lnd Chaplains, with the number of their respecti\'e Congregations, 
in the County of Lancaster, as taken at the end of 1819" (Liverpool, 8vo., pp. 
7), that l\Janchester contained two chapels, served by four priests, with an 
attendance of 15,OGO Catholics, and that the mission at Trafford was served 
by one priest with a congregation of 300. -The Biblical annotator, the Rev. 
George Leo Haydock, has left it on record that :Mr, Broomhead found 1000 
Catholics under his charge when he arrived in the town in 1778, and that 
when he died, in 1820, he left 40,000. There is a great discrepancy between 
the latter statement and the return of 1819, even allowing for the higher 
multiple of twenty-five, which seems to have been generally used about this 
time in calculåting the population from baptisms. Haydock's figures probably 
refer to the whole di5trict covered by Mr. Broomhead when he first came to 
Manchester. l\Ir. Hearne (who adopts the high multiple of twenty-six), 
says that there were 1650 baptisms in 1825, or a Cathoìic population of 
33,000, on the ratio of twenty to a baptism. There were then four priests, and 
chapel room for 6100. In 1829, the year of the Catholic Emancipation Act, 
the baptisms were 1664, or at the same calculation a population of ':3,280 
Catholics. In 1830 the baptisms were 1687, or 33,740 pop. In 1845, Mr. 
Hearne again says the b<lptisms were 2950, which would give 59,000. 
There were then fourtee{l priests, and chapel room for 14,200. 
Appended is a statistical table taken from the registers of baptisms for 
1850, 1865, and 1869, to which are added official returns issued by his lord. 
ship the Bishop of Salford in a privately printed pamphlet, and the Catholic 
population figures gi \ en by Mgr. Gadd in his" Almanac of the Diocese of 
Salford" for 1886. The calculation on which the bishop's return is made 
is not stated, but it is much higher than the ratio of twenty to one. The 
Regi::.trar-General adopts a multiple close upon twenty-eight and a half for eacÌl 
birth to ascertain the population, but this multiple would be far too great in 
the case of a Catholic community such as that in :\Ianchester, 



23 8 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEA. 


18 5 0 . 


186 5. 


'" 
Os:: . 
roc 
..:i1a 
Q:1
 
c::.... 
> 
18 7.5. 


'" . 
..:
 E 
b.O-o ::I 

c3E 


:\Iissions in :\lanchester and Salford 
and the immediate ,oicinity. 


,-ë 

a; 
Jl
 
.c 


Population on the ratio 
of 20 to 1 baptism. 


186 9' 


1886. 


-- - 5,7 20 I 
S. 
[ary's, Mulberry Street 1794 5,620 4,700 4,15 8 3,168 
S. Augustine's, Granby Row 1820 12,4 20 9. 0 40 8,600 8, 18 4 4,84 8 
S. Patrick's, Livesy Street 18 3 2 19,7 80 14.9 6 0 13,480 17,]80 12,000 
S. \Vilfrid's, Hulme 18 4 2 10,120 10,620 11,000 10,67 0 7. 6 78 
Cathedral, Salford 18 44 7,5 60 14,620 14,14 0 14,63 0 9,000 
S. Chad's, Cheetham Road 18 47 11,7 00 10,200 8,44 0 8,27 2 6,84 2 
S. Anne's, Junction Street 1
:71 4,7 20 5,7 8 0 6,460 7,5 68 7,774 
Immac. Concept., Failswonh 7 60 700 880 '" 1,435 
S, Joseph's, Goulden Street 18 5 2 ' .. 6,7 8 0 4,800 4,7 08 3,49 8 
S. :'Ibry's, Levinshulme . 18 53' ... 120 200 .., 20 7 
S. Aloysius, AnI wick 18 54 '" 3,620 1,9 20 3,87 2 4,5 10 
Our Lady, Blackley 18 55 .., 5 60 1,020 ... 1,011 
S. Mary's, Swinton 18 5 6 . .. 800 94 0 ... 1,000 
All Saint's, Barton . .. 74 0 1,7 2 0 2,220 .., 9 02 
S. Anne's, Stretford 18 59 ... 3 20 160 '" 35 2 
S. Michael's, George Leigh Street 18 59 . .. .,. .. . .., 3>3 66 
S. Edward'" Rusholme , 1861 .. . 4 80 200 220 286 
S. Peter's, Salford 186 3 '" '" 2,5 60 3.674 4,9 28 
S. Alban's, Ancoats 186 3 .. . 2,140 2,160 2,33 2 1,5 8 4 
S. Francis', \Yest Gorton 186 3 ... 2,4 80 3,44 0 4,5 10 4,77 2 
S. Tames', Pendleton ., 18 7 1 I .. . ... 2,400 . .. 4,79 6 
Þatrona
e of S. Joseph, Salford . . .. .. . ..' ... 2,94 8 
S. Edmund's, :Miles Platting 18 73 . .. .. . ,,, '" 4,79 6 
Holy Ghost, Withington 18 74 ... -.. ... 26 4 
Holy Family, Ormond Street 18 7 6 '" ... -.. ... 4,510 
S. Thomas. Higher Broughton 18 7 6 '0' .. . ... ... 7 00 
S. Bedes', Alexandra Park , 18 7 6 .. . .. . . .. ... 286 
Holy Name, Oxford Road. . 118 7 6 .. . . .. -- . 1,5 80 2,068 
S. Bridget's. Bradforù 18 7 8 .. . .. . ... '" 3,212 
S. Mary's, Eccles 18 79 .., .. . ... ... 1,100 
Múunt Carmel, Salford , 1 1880 .. . -- . ... ... 3,260 
- - - -- - -- - 
73,5 20 9 0 ,5 60 89,7 20 9 1 ,75 8 10 7,101 


":\1 gr. Gadd uses the multiple of twenty-two; that of the Bishop of Salford 
is not stated, and he omits a few of the outlying missions, 
Some of the above missions originated as chapels of ease, and were for 
some time included in the returns of their mother-missions. In 1886 they 
were served by about seventy-two priests. 
3. An Address to the Irish, resident in Lancashire. Brotherly 
Love. At one of the Catholic Chapels in Manchester, an im- 
pressive Sermon on this Subject was lately delivered. S. sh. fol., 
n. d., pub. anon. 
Similar extracts from his sermons were frequently printed on broadsheets 
and widely distributed, 
4. Portrait, "Rev. Daniel Hearne. First Rector of St. Patrick's 
Church, Manchester, 1846," litho., 4to., G. Hays del. 


Hearne, Thomas, the eminent antiquary, born at \Vhite- 
\Valtham, Berks, in 1678, is said to have been received into 



REA. ] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


239 


the Church three or four days before his death, June 10, 
1735. 
This statement is supported by Bishop Tanner, in a letter 
to Dr. Rawlinson, who says that Hearne was attended by a 
priest at the time mentioned. The antiquary was on intimate 
terms with many Catholics for long before his death, Of 
these, Fr. Anthony Parkinson, O.S.F" and the Eystons, of East 
Hendred, may be specially named, In the absence of conclu- 
sive evidence of his reception into the Church, this notice is 
considered sufficient for the present. 
Dr. Kirk, Memora1ldum, 1115.
' Gent. .1.
Iag., April, 1799. 


Heath, Henry, O.S.F., martyr, in religion Paul of S. 
Magdalen, son of John Heath, was christened at St. John's, 
Peterborough, Dec. 16, 1599. His ehler brother, John, simi- 
larly appears in the parish register under date Nov. 30, 1597, 
His parents were Protestants, and he was sent to Cambridge to 
study for the ministry. At St. Benet's (latterly called Corpus 
Christi) College, he remained about five years, proceeded M.A., 
and was appointed librarian. This afforded him an opportunity 
of inquiring into the grounds of religion. He first studied the 
controversy between Cardinal Bellarmine and Dr. \Vhitaker, 
and in order to judge the better between them he devoted his 
attention to the writings of the Fathers. Before long he 
noticed the accuracy and fairness of Bellarmine's quotations 
and the fraudulent character of \Vhitaker's. His researches 
gradually led him to see that Protestantism does not rest on a 
solid basis, and he therefore resolved to pursue his inquiries. 
Even at this time he followed out the life of a religious in a 
remarkable way. Every morning, both in summer and winter, 
he rose at two o'clock and began to read. If any of his fellow- 
students wished to rise at three or four, he gladly called them, 
and by his example encouraged them to study. Four of them 
were so impressed by his sentiments and the result of his 
studies, that they not only left the college before him, but soon 
afterwards became religious, three as Franciscans and the fourth 
as a Jesuit. The apostolic spirit with which he was animated 
was so great that he openly and successÎully exposed the errors 
of the so-called Reformation. The authorities of his college, 
therefore, determined either to imprison him or to expel him 
ignominiously. On hearing of their intention he fled to London. 



240 


nIBLIOGR
\PIlIC.\L DICTIOXAR\ 


[HEA. 


His first visit was to the Spanish ambassador, whose house wag 
a well-known asylum for all poor Catholics; but most unex- 
pectedly he was refused assistance. He then applied to Mr. 
George J erningham, a noted Catholic, who took him for a spy, 
and sent him away with bitter reproaches. Thus destitute of 
friends and repulsed on all sides, he bethought him, in his 
extremity, of tl
e devotion of Catholics to our Blessed Lady, in 
whom he had hitherto but little faith. Immediately after he 
met Mr. J ern ingham, who, to his surprise, accosted him very 
kindly, After hearing his history he was conducted by him to 
a Douay priest named George 1\1 uscott, who heard his confes- 
sion and reconciled him to the Church. 
lIe was I"lOW intr"oduced to the Spanish ambassador, who 
found means to send him out of England with letters of recom- 
mendation to Dr. Kellison, president of Douay College, who 
received him kindly and admitted him amongst the convÍctors. 
Two of the English Recollects lately established at Douay 
happening to come to the college, he was much struck with 
their mode of life, and felt a strong call to embrace their Order. 
He communicated his desires to his confessor, who consulted 
the president and seniors of the college, and after due delibera- 
tion they decided to apply at once on his behalf to Fr. Jackson, 
then guardian of the convent of St. Bonaventure at Douay. In 
1623 he received the habit of St. Francis, and took the religious 
name of Paul of St, Magàalen. At the end of the year he was 
professed, and during the period, almost nineteen years, in which 
he resided in the convent he led a life of extraordinary per- 
fection. 
In Dec., 1630, he was appointed vicar or vice-president of 
his house, to which office were united those of Master of the 
Scholastics and Lector of Moral Theology. Afterwards he 
became Lector of Scholastic Theology, and finally he rose to 
the highest theological chair. In Oct., 1632, he was elected 
guardian of the convent, in which he was confirmed for three 
years longer in the second chapter of the province, June 15, 
16 34, and also declared ClIstOS cllstodlllll, with the office of 
commissary of his English brethren and sisters in Belgium. 
At the fourth provincial chapter, April 19, 1640, he was again 
appointed guardian, and also Lector of Scholastic Theology, 
In the month of Dec., 164 I, seven priests were condemned 
in England for exercising their sacred calling, and amongst 



REA.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


241 


them Fr. Coleman, O.S.F., an intimate friend of Fr. Heath. 
The news no sooner reached Douay than Fr. Heath was filled 
with a desire to follow the example of these holy confessors. 
He earnestly begged the permission of his superiors to go on 
the English mission, where he felt that _ he should gain the 
martyr's palm for which he longed. After considerable diffi- 
culty he obtained his request, and sailed from Dunkirk to 
Dover in the disguise of a sailor. He arrived in London after 
sunset wearied and fatigued, for he had. travelled barefoot forty 
miles that day, in the severity of a winter season, and on such 
little food as he could beg on the way. He went to an inn 
called the Star, near London Bridge, to which he had been 
directed, but about eight o'clock he was turned out, his room 
being required for others who could pay for it, for Fr. Heath, 
imitating the spirit of St. Francis, had declined to take any 
money with him. Overcome by fatigue he sat down on the 
doorstep of a citizen, but before long the master of the house 
came home, and, questioning the stranger, sent for a constable. 
In searching him the officer found some papers, sewn in his 
cap, which Fr. Heath had written in defence of the Church. 
He was therefore taken to the Compter prison, and in the 
morning was brought before the Lord Mayor. By him he was 
examined, and on his confessing himself to be a priest he was 
committed to N ewgate. After some days he was examined by 
a parliamentary committee, to whom he also owned that he 
was a priest. He was then brought to the bar, indicted under 
the Act of 27th Elizabeth for being a priest and coming into 
England, and found guilty of high treason, Accordingly he 
was drawn on a hurdle from Newgate to Tyburn, and there 
executed with the usual barbarities. H is head was placed on 
London Bridge and his quarters on the gates of the city. His 
martyrdom occurred in the 45th year of his age and the 20th 
of his religious profession, April 17, 1643. 
Fr, Heath was a remarkably learned man. \Vith characteristic 
simplicity he directed his studies solely to the promotion of the 
love of God in himself and his neighbour, His fine natural 
gifts were more fully drawn out by the supernatural motive 
which animated him, and he soon attained proficiency in every 
branch of theology. The sanctity of his life and death has been 
beautifully portrayed by several writers in various languages, 
:Mrs. Hope's memoir being one of the most interesting. 
VOL. III. R 



24 2 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[REA. 


It is remarkable that his father, John Heath, when a widower 
and nearly eighty years of age, passed over to Douay, was re- 
conciled to the Church in St, Bonaventure's convent, and became 
a lay-brother in the community. The good old man lived to a 
great age, and died at Douay, Dec. 29, 1652. 
Clwllollcr, Jlemoirs, ed. 1742, vol. ii. p. 243 ; .1l1ason, Certa- 
men Seraplticll1Jl, pp. 63- 126 ; De 

farsys, De la 1Ifort Glorieuse, 
pp. I I 7 - I 28; 1111's. Hope, Franciscan 111 art.yrs, pp. I 5 5 - I 86 ; 
Olz"-z'cr, Collections, pp. 553-6; Dodd, Clt. Hist, vol. iii. p. I 19 ; 
Tablet, vol. lxix., p, 152. 
I. Soliloquia seu Documenta Christianæ Perfectionis. Vener- 
abilis ac eximii patris P. F. Pauli à S. 1\'Iagdalena, Angli Ordinis 
Seraphici FF. Minorum Collegii D. Bonaventuræ Anglo-Dua- 
censium olim guardiani, ac Londini, An. 1643, 17 Aprilis, Martyrio 
coronati. Duaci, typis Balt<Ìsaris Belleri, 165 I, 12mo., title, preface, life, and 
exerci!.'es, 7 ff., pp. 18 I, pious similes, index, &c., II pp. unpag-. 
" Solil"quies ; or, the Documents of Christian Pel fection of the venerable 
and famous Fr. Paul of St. :\Iagdalen, formerly Guardian of the English 
Colledge of St. Bonaventure, of the Seraphick Order of the Fryers Minors at 
Doway, crowned with Martyrdom at London, Apr. 17th, 1643. Faithfully 
translated out of the sixth and last Latin edition." Doway, 1674, 24mo., with 
portrait; reprinted by Dolman, Lond. 1844, 12mo. 
The work was finished on the feast of St. Agnes, Jan. 2 I, 1634. It gives 
a dear insight into his saintly sou], and deserves to be in every Catholic 
library. 
2. ., The Pope's Brief," see under Dom R. B. Cox, O.S.B., vol. i. p. 583, 
was published by order of the House of Commons in Dec. 1643, ancì refers 
to the Commission appointed by Urban VIII. to the Archbishop of Cambrai 
to inquire into the recent martyrdoms, including that of Fr. Heath. The 
Duke of Gueldres, then Count Egmont, and M. de Marsys, were both pre- 
sent at the execution. The servants of the former, by his order and in his 
sight, collected as relics one of Fr. Heath's toes, three small bones, a piece 
of the windpipe, some of his burnt flesh, the straw on which he was laid to 
b
 disembowelled, four napkins dipped in his blood, and the rope with which 
he was h
mged. The duke's certificate of these and other relics was trans- 
lated and printed by :\1r. Richdrd Simpson in The Rambler, New Series, 
vol. viii. p. ] 19, The original is in the archives at LiUe. Of these relics the 
convent of our Lady of Dolours at Taunton now possesses two small pieces of 
Fr. Heath's bones about two inches square, a corporal dipped in his blood, 
and a piece of the rope with which he was hanged. 
3. Portrait. "Paulus à S. l\Iagdalena, alias Heath, Convent FF. 
\1inorum Recall. Anglorum, Duaci, Guard." &c., sm.4to., in the "Certamcn 
Seraphicum," reprinted in the English translations of his work, also in Tile 
Lamþ, Jan.-June, 1858, p. 201. 
Heath, Nicholas, last Catholic Archbishop of York, of the 
family of Heath, of Apsley, in the parish of Tamworth, was 



REA.] 


OF TIlE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


243 


borR in London about 150 I. After receiving his preliminary 
education at the then famous school of St. Anthony, London, 
he entered Corpus Christi College, Oxford, whence he removed 
shortly afterwards to Cambridge. In that university he pro- 
ceeded B.A. in 15 19-20, and in the following year was elected 
a fellow of Christ's College. In 1522 he commenced l\LA., and 
was chosen a fellow of Clare Hall, April 9, 1524. He is said 
to have been one of the chaplains to Cardinal vVolsey, who, 
visiting Cambridge on one occasion, was greatly struck with his 
talents. On Feb. 17, 153 I -2, he was admitted to the rectory 
of Hever, Kent, on the presentation of the prior and convent of 
Camberwell. 
Heath very soon brought himself under the favourable notice 
of the court, partly by his clever and witty exposure of the 
supposed revelations of Elizabeth Barton, the holy maid of 
Kent. He was therefore employed in some of the negotiations 
which arose out of the king's divorce from Catharine of Arragon, 
but to what extent he joined in those discreditable proceedings 
does not appear. In a letter from Archbishop Cranmer to 
Cromwell, supposed to have been written Jan. 5, 1533-4, is the 
following passage: U To accomplish the king's commandment I 
shall send unto you l\1r. Heth to-morrow, which, for his learning, 
wisdom, discretion, and sincere mind towards his prince, I know 
no man in my judgment more meet to serve the king's highness' 
purpose: yet for many other considerations I know no man 
more unable to appoint himself to the king's honour than he; 
for he lacketh apparel, horses, plate, money, and all things con- 
venient for such a journey; he hath also no benefice nor no 
promotion towards the bearing of his charges. . . . . And as for 
his acquaintance with the king's great cause, I know no man in 
England can defend it better than he. Nevertheless I pray 
you send him again to me, that we may confer it together once 
again before he depart hence." He was then sent with Sir 
Thomas Elliot to the court of the Emperor Charles V., and also 
.it is said to the meeting of the German reformers, held at N u- 
remberg in 1'1ay, 1534. In that year he was appointed arch- 
deacon of Stafford, and shortly afterwards he became chaplain 
to the king. In 1535 he was created D.D. by the University 
-of Cambridge, and in December of the same year he was asso- 
dated with Edward Fox, Bishop of Hereford, and Dr. Robert 
Barnes, in the embassy from Henry VIII. to the German princes 
R 2 



244 


BIBLIOGRAPIIICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEA. 


assem bled at Smalcald. There he won the admiration of l\Ie- 
lancthon, who highly extolled his learning. Bucer also subse- 
quently referred to "that excellent man Master Nicholas Heath.'
 
On Sept. 6, I 537, he was collated by Archbishop Cranmer 
to the rectory of Bishopsbourne, Kent, and to the deanery of 
South l\lalIing on the following Dec. 23. Through the same 
patronage he became rector of Cliffe, Kent, in 1538, and was 
collated to the deanery of Shoreham on 1'1ay 23, in that year. 
The latter he resigned Feb. 16, 1539-40, an annual pension f01- 
life of ;[ I 5 being reserved to him. At this period he was also 
king's almoner. 
In l\larch, 1540, he was elected to the See of Rochester by 
the prior and convent of that church. The royal assent to his 
election ,vas given on the 3 I st of that month. He was conse- 
crated bishop at St. Paul's on April 4, and ten days later had 
restitution of the temporalities of his See. A dispensation was 
granted to him to hold with his bishopric in commendam the 
archdeaconry of Stafford till the feast of St. John the Baptist, 
and the churches of Shoreham and Cliffe for life. His name 
occurs to the decree of July 9, 1540, annulling the king's mar- 
riage with the 
ady Anne of Cleves. On the following Oct. 3 
11e was sworn of the privy council at St. Alban's, and was there- 
upon joined with Dr. Thirleby, bishop elect of \iVestminster, to 
hear causes determinable in the \Vhitehall, where the Court of 
Requescs was held at that period. In the following November, 
Dr. Curwen occurs as joint almoner with the Bishop of Rochester, 
He was also appointed in the same year one of the commissioners 
to discuss certain questions relating to the sacraments, and in 
I 542 he supported Archbishop Cranmer's successful efforts to 
moderate the rigour of the act of the six articles. 
On Dec. 22, 1543, Bishop Heath was translated to Wor- 
cester; his election was confirmed by the king- on the following 
J an. 16, and he obtained restitution of the temporalities of that 
See, :ì\1ay 22, 1543-4, on which day he had licence to hold in 
commendam till Christmas following the rectory of Shoreham
 
with the annexed chapel of Otford, and the rectory of Cliffe. 
In 1545 he occurs as co-operating with Archbishop Cranmer 
in the reform of the service-books and the suppression of certain 
practices which it was professed were superstitious. In the last 
year of Henry VI! 1. he exchanged with the kinJ' for other lands 
some of the estates of the See of \Vorcester. 



REA.] 


OF TIlE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


245 


The proceedings of the reformers under Edward VI. opened 
the eyes of Bishop Heath to the evils into which the country 
had drifted during the iniquitous reign of Henry VIII. He 
defended the Catholic doctrine in the three days' disputation on 
the Blessed Sacrament held at London in Dec. 1548. Though 
a member of the commission, issued l\rlay 8, 1549, for the visi- 
tation of the University of Oxford, he at the same time opposed 
in Parliament several bills for effecting further changes in reli- 
gion. His opposition, however, was characterized by his usual 
moderation and good temper, and he was named one of the 
twelve commissioners appointed to prepare a new form of ordi- 
nation, although he had dissented from the Act passed for the 
purpose. He refused to subscribe the form agreed upon, or to 
further the novelties introduced. Thereupon, on March 4, 1550, 
he was U committed to the Fleet, for that obstinately he denied 
to subscribe to the book devised for the consecration and making 
of bishops and priests." \Vhilst in the Fleet he was examined 
as a witness on behalf of Bishop Gardiner. On Sept, 22, 155 I, 
he was brought before the Privy Council, and refused to U sub- 
scribe the book devised for the form of making archbishops, 
bishops, priests, and deacons," He also said, "there be many 
other things whereunto he would not consent if demanded, as 
to take down altars and set up tables." He was ordered to 
subscribe before Thursday, the 24th, on pain of deprivation. 
He refused, and "as a man incorrigible he was returned to the 
Fleet." He was then deposed from the See of \Vorcester, Oct. la, 
I 55 I, as Burnet remarks, U by the royal authority, not by any 
court consisting of churchmen, but by secular delegates, of 
whom three were civilians and three common lawyers." In 
June, I 552, he was committed to the custody of Ridley, Bishop 
of London, who treated him with great kindness. 
The death of the boy-monarch and the accession of Queen 
l\Iary displaced from power the noisy and fandtical minority 
which had so grievously trespassed upon the nation at large. 
In August, 1553, Bishop Heath was released from prison, and 
shortly afterwards a court of delegates reversed the proceedings 
taken against him in the reign of Edward VI., and he was re- 
stored to the bishopric of \V orcester. This restoration was not 
confirmed by the Pope, by whom Dr. Heath was formally re- 
garded as a clergyman only, because not his episcopal orders 
were deemed invalid, for he was not re-ordained, but because 



24 6 


IHDLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[REA. 


his position was not acknowledged by the Holy See, having been 
appointed to Rochester and translated to \Vorcester during the 
schism, On Aug. 22, 1553, the Duke of Northumberland 
suffered on the block the consequence of his attempt to deprive 
his rightful sovereign of her throne, and his renunciation of all 
his heresies and his sincere profession of the Catholic faith was 
generally admitted to be owing to the exhortation of Bishop 
Heath. About the same time the bishop was appointed by the 
queen lord-president of \Vales, and he obtained the royal licence 
for ten retainers. 
In Feb. 1555, Bishop Heath received from Cardinal Pole ab- 
solution, confirmation, and dispensation as Bishop of \Vorcester. 
Immediately afterwards he was appointed by the queen to the 
archbishopric of York, the temporalities whereof were committed 
to his custody on the 26th of March. The papal consistorial 
act, bearing date June 2 I, 15 55, does not, however, recognize 
Pole's confirmation of Heath as Bishop of \Vorcester. The 
pallium was granted August 23, and on October 30 a bull of 
confirmation in the archbishopric was issued. From this docu- 
ment it appears that Heath scrupled to act upon Pole's confir- 
mation, which treated him as a simple cleric, and contained a 
licence for his consecration "by a Catholic archbishop (antistitc) 
with the assistance of two or three Catholic bishops, having 
grace or communion with the Holy See." \Vhilst admitting the 
validity of Heath's ordination, as he was consecrated ill forma 
ccclesiæ, the bull merely styles him de facto Bishop of 'vV orcester, 
in conformity with the principle which seems to have ruled all 
similar cases-namely, to allow the consecration if valid, but to 
disaliow the jurisdiction as bishop over any particular See. On 
Nov. 27 he had plenary restitution of the temporalities of the 
See of York, and was enthroned in person Jan, 25,1555-6. 
Archbishop Heath received the great seal from the queen on 
Jan. I, 1555-6, when he was constituted Lord High Chancellor 
of England, and he had a licence to have sixty retainers. He 
was selected to fill that office, which had been vacant for some 
weeks, not only on account of his spotless moral character, 
orthodoxy, learning, and ability, but also because his conciliatory 
disposition was most likely to overcome obstructions to the 
measures necessary to consummate the reconciliation with Rome. 
As a judge he displayed patience and good sense, and acted 
with impartiality and integrity, but not having been trained in 



REA.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


247 


jurisprudence he got through his judicial business in such an 
unsatisfactory manner as to excite clamour from the bar, the 
suitors, and the public. 
As legate of the Apostolic See he consecrated Cardinal Pole 
Archbishop of Canterbury, :March 22, 1555-6, in the church of 
the Greyfriars at Greenwich. In the commission for the sup- 
pression of heresy he acted with prudence and advocated mode- 
ration. Indeed, had his advice been followed, it is thought that 
the sanguinary laws against heretics handed down from previous 
reigns would have been allowed to lapse. As lord chancellor 
he was obliged to sit upon the trials of Bishop Hooper, Dr. 
Rowland Taylor, and others, and to issue the writ for the exe- 
cution of his former patron Archbishop Cranmer. 
After he was made archbishop, the queen gave him Suffolk 
House, near St. George's church in Southwark, as an equivalent 
for York House, which had been taken from Cardinal vVolsey. 
But Suffolk House being too remote from the court, he obtained 
permission to alienate it, and afterwards made a purchase of 
Norwich House, or Suffolk Place, near Charing Cross. In or 
about 1558 he purchased of the queen an estate at Chobham, 
in Surrey. It consisted of a mansion, garden, orchard, and 
500 acres of land enclosed with a pale. The total value was 
E, 180 a year, the purchase-money being ;[3000, E,800 of 
which sum was the value of the timber. This purchase was on 
his own private account, but he was not unmindful of the rights 
of his archiepiscopal See, obtaining from the crown the restitu- 
tion of Ripon and Southwell, as also compensation in respect of 
the loss of vVhitehall, the ancient town residence of the Arch- 
bishop of York. 
Queen Mary made him one of her executors, and bequeathed 
him a legacy of ;[500. He delivered an oration at the conclu- 
sion of her funeral Mass in vVestminster Abbey. He dis- 
approved of the Bishop of Winchester's sermon at the funeral 
of the queen, and it is said that in consequence of this, and the 
complaint of the 1'1arquess of vVinchester, Bishop vVhite was 
committed to prison, where he remained for more than a month, 
Archbishop Heath was also one of the overseers of the will of 
Cardinal Pole, who died a few days after the queen. 
At the time of the queen's death Parliament was sitting, and 
the archbishop, as lord chancellor, announced that event and the 
succession of Elizabeth, upon whom he waited at Hatfield on 



248 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEA. 


the following day. He either received a hint, or deemed it 
prudent, to surrender the grèat seal to her l\lajesty, though he 
was retained as a me
ber of the Privy Council, and he, Sir 
William Petre, and Sir John Mason, were empowered to act on 
any emergency which might occur before the queen's arrival in 
London. . Elizabeth, though outwardly professing the Catholic 
faith during her sister's reign, now, through fear of the con- 
sequences 9f her illegitimacy, artfully suggested by certain Pro- 
testant
 whom she admitted into the council, refused to submit 
to the ecclesiastical laws, and determined to change at the first 
opportunity the form of religion and the government of the 
English church. She made her purpose manifest at once in 
many ways, but especially by silencing the Catholic preachers. 
\Nhen Oglethorpe, bishop of Carlisle, who had professed heresy 
under Edward VI., was about to say Mass in the queen's pre- 
sence and stood vested before the altar, her Majesty ordered 
him to abstain from elevating the Host at the consecration. 
In consequence of these proceedings Archbishop Heath who, 
now that the primate, Cardinal 'Pole, was dead, would have to 
crown her, refused to do so, in which he was followed by all 
the other bishops with the exception of Oglethorpe, who was 
almost the youngest of them. At her coronation she took the 
usuai oath of Christian sovereigns to defend the Catholic faith 
and to guard the rights and immunities of the church. She 
was also anointed, but she disliked the ceremony and ridiculed 
it; for when she withdrew, according to the custom, to put on 
the royal garments, it is reported that she said to the noble 
ladies in attendal1ce upon her, "..A. way with you, the oil is 
stinking." 
In the first Parliament of Queen Elizabeth, Archbishop Heath 
dissented from the Bills for the supremacy; for the handing 
over of the first-fruits and tithes to the crown; for exchange of 
bishop's lands; for uniformity of common prayer; and for the 
patentees of the lands of the bishopric of \Vinchester. His 
speech against the first of these measures is extant. He and 
Sir Nicholas Bacon, lord-keeper, were appointed to moderate the 
theological disputation between five bishops and three doctors 
on one side, and eight reformed divines on the other, which 
began at \Vestminster, l\larch 3 I, 1559. It was ingeniously 
ordered that on each day the Catholics should begin, and the 
reformers should answer. On the second morning the prelates 



REA.] 


OF THE ENGLI,SH CATHOLICS. 


249 


objected to an arrangement which gave so palpable an advantage 
to their adversaries, Bacon refus
él to listen to their remon- 
strances, and thus the conference came to. an abrupt termination. 
Two of the bishops were at once sent. to the Tower, and the 
other six disputants on the Catholic side were -bound in their 
own recognizances. On the following l\Iay I S, the archbishop, 
on behalf of himself and the other prelates, made a speech to 
the queen, exhorting her to be reconciled to the Holy. See. Her 
bold and decisive reply must have extinguished all hope, if any 
were really entertained. On July 5, in the same year, the oath 
of supremacy was tendered him. He of course declined to take 
it, and was therefore deprived of his archbishopric. The same 
fate awaited the other bishops, and before winter all Queen 
1\lary's prelates were weeded out of the church, with the ex- 
ception of Kitchin, who submitted to take the oath, and in con- 
sequence was suffered to retain the See of Landaff. A new 
episcopacy was formed under the primacy of Parker, to whom 
the deprived bishops, including Archbishop Heath, sent a letter 
of remonstrance towards the close of the year. On June 10, 
1560, the archbishop "!vas committed to the Tower, and sentence 
of excommunication was pronounced against him in Feb. 
1560-1, at which period he still remained in the Tower, but he 
was soon afterwards released on giving security not to interfere 
in the affairs of church or state. 
Dr. Heath now retired to his residence at Chobham, where 
he continued for the remainder of his life. The queen still 
entertained a high regard for him in consequence of his honour- 
able and straightforward conduct on her accession, and she 
visited him on several occasions. Nevertheless he was sub- 
jected to strict surveillance, and suffered many annoyances. 
An entry in the Privy Council register, under date June 22, 
15 6 5, directs LorJ Scrope to proceed sharply with Nicholas 
Hethe to the end he should declare why he wandered abroad. 
Later he appears to have been freed from interference, for there 
is a letter from him to Lord Burghley, dated Sept. 22, I 573, 
wherein he expresses his gratitude for having lived many years 
in great quietness of mind. In the following year, however, 
the letters of a treacherous minister, who had pretended to be 
reconciled to the Catholic Church for the purpose of betraying 
Catholics to the Government, reveal the strict watch which was 
kept upon him. Under date July 6, 1574, Davy Johnes writes 



250 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEA. 


to Francis 1'lills, vValsingham's secretary, "I do give yon to 
understand that there shall be upon Sunday sennight a l'1:ass. 
at my Lord Bishop Hethe, which was Bishop of York, and he 
cloth dwell within a little way of vVindsor as I heard say, but I 
will see afore it be long. Also there doth come thither a great 
sort." A tortnight later the spy again writes to .Mills: "I 
desire you to send me a word what your pleasure is afore 
Saturday at three o'clock afternoon, whether I shall go to 
Doctor Hethe or not, for I will travel all night an if 
you will." 
At length the archbishop died at Chobham in 1579, admill. 
istration of his effects being granted on 1'1ay 5, in that year, to 
his nephew, Thomas Heath, who inherited Chobham Park. He 
was buried next to his brother, \Villiam Heath, in Chobham 
church, under a plain marble stone in the middle of the chanceL 
The stone was afterwards broken, and the brass plate bearing 
the inscription removed, no copy of which has been preserved, 
All writers speak well of Archbishop Heath's character. He 
was a prudent prelate, devoid of craft or self-interest; zealous 
in the maintenance of the old religion, yet exercising modera- 
tion with those who disagreed with him. lIe was no advocate 
of extreme measures, and deprecated the sanguinary laws which 
his office obliged him to administer. 
Cooper, Atlto/(c Call tab. , vol. i.; Bliss, lVood's Atlte/læ OXOll.,. 
vo1. ii, p. 8 I 7 ; BradJ', Episcopal Successioll, vol. i, p. 9 I ; Dodd, 
Ch, Hist., vol. i. p, 497; Lingara, Hist. of E1lg., ed. 18 49, 
vol. vi. ; .IIi orris, Troubles, Secolld Series J' Le'Luis, Sanders' Angl. 
Schism J' Bridgezuater, COllcertatio, ed. 1594, pp. 30 I, 3 I 7, 4 I 6. 


I. Conference with John Braùford; in F oxe's "Acts and Mon.," and 
"Bradforå's \V orks," according to their version of it. 
2. Conierence with John Philpot; in Foxe's "Acts and Mon." and Phil- 
pot's "Examinations and \Vritings." 
3. A Discourse exhibited to the Queen's Council immediately 
upon Queen Elizabeth's coming in. MS. CCCC.-121, p. 99. 
4. A Speech made in the Upper House of Parliament, against 
the Supremacy to be in her Majesty; by Nicholas Hea.th, Lord 
Chancellor of England, in the first year of the Reign of Queen 
Elizabeth. 1558, printed in Touchet's "Hist. Collections," Lond. 1686, 
12mo. pp. 225-241, from a MS. entitled" A Tale told in Parliament. FOl 
Oaths the Land shall be cloathed in Mourning." MS., CCCC.-121, p. 99; 
Lond. 1688, 8vo.; in Tierney's Dodd, ii. ccxliii.; Somers' Tracts, ed. 175 J, 
i.; z"d. 1809, i. 



REA.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


25 1 


5, Letters. 
6. He took part in the compilation of "The Institution of a Christian 
Man," for an account of which see under Gardiner, vol. ii. p. 383. 
He was also concerned in the drawing up of the statutes of the cathedral 
churches of Durham, Chester, and Bristol. 
He .md BIshop Tunstall oversaw and perused two folio editions of the trans- 
lation of the Bible into English, which appeared in 1540 and 154 I; to him 
also, in 1542, the Convocation assigned the perusal of the translation of the 
Acts of the Apostles. 
7. Portrait. \Vood s::tys an original was formerly in the gallery at 
\Veston House, \Varwickshire, the seat of the Sheldons, one of whom married 
Philippa, d. and coho of Baldwin Heath, son of Th05, Hedth, of Apsley, said 
to be great-grandiather to the archbishop. He is represented as bearing some 
resemblance to Cardinal Fisher, black hair, pale face, thin and macerated, 
but his nose a little shorter than the cardinal's. 


Heath, Mrs., confessor of the faith, was the wife of :Mr. 
\Villiam Heath, nephew of the last Catholic Archbishop of 
York. 
The old saying that an Englishman's housc is his castle 
was not applicablc where Catholics were concerned, for their 
houses werc subject to constant intrusion and search, at all 
hours of the day or night, under any pretence on the score of 
religion. Upon l'Ionday in Easter week the house of :Mr. Heath 
at Cumberford, in Yorkshire, was suddenly searched by two 
pursuivants, Thornes and CawdwelI, and a priest named Harrison 
was apprehended in it. Protestant bigotry, and the terror in- 
spired by the Government, was so strong that pursuivants 
enjoyed immunity to commit almost any violence towards 
Catholics, whom they well knew could have no redress. These 
instruments of a professedly Christian religion usually behaved, 
therefore, in a way which would have disgraced any civilized 
community. When l\lr. Heath's house was forcibly entered by 
these ruffians, they so tossed and tumbled his wife in their 
cruel sport as to frighten her to such an extent that she died 
on the following Good Friday, 1586. 
Morris, T1'oltbles, Third Series. 


Heath, William, gentleman, confessor of thc faith, was 
nephew to Archbishop Heath, and resided at Cumberford, in 
Yorkshire. His relationship to the deposed Archbishop of York 
probably attracted especial attention and the most bitter persc- 
cution of himself and family. 
After enduring much suffering in \V orcester gaol, where he 



25 2 


BIDLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIOXARY 


[HEA. 


was incarcerated for three or four years, he at length was re- 
leased by death in I 590, 
Morris, Troubles, Tltird Series. 
I. Either he or his brother Thnmas, in conjunction with a gentleman 
named George Stoker ,wrote relations con erning martyrs during their time, 
preserved in Fr. Grene's " Collections," MSS. at Si.onyhurst. 
Thomas Heath inherited Chobham Park from the archbishop in 1579. 
There is a reference to him in a letter from Fr. John Hay, S.J., to Cardinal 
Allen at Rome, dated Cologne, June 26, 1589, of which the following is a 
translation: "I do not think it necessary to commend to your eminence the 
bearer of this letter, Robert Bellamy, an Englishman from London (a5 he 
says). His worth and constancy in the faith, both in England and Scotland, 
have been put to abundant test, as he will narrate to your eminence at length. 
In his behalf, and in that of two Others, Thomas Hey the and George Stoker, 
the King of Scotland, though a heretic. wrote to the Duke of Parma." 
George Stoker appears in the list of exiles in Briàgewater's "Concertatio." 
Thomas Heath, a son of one of the two brothers, Thomas and William 
Heath, probably of the latter, was on his way, with three others, to the 
English College at Rheims, in Sept. 1582, when they were seized and robbed 
by the soldiers of the Duke of Anjou. A large ransom was demanded for 
them, which sadly disturbed Dr. Allen, who knew not where to look for the 
money. Thomas Heath, however, made his escape, and arrived at the 
college, in rags and tatters, on the following Oct. 19. On Apnl 15, 1583, he 
was sent from the college, with John Ingram, one of his companions in the 
adventure of the previous year, to POllt-à-l\Iousson, to study logic under the 
fathers of the Society (" Douay Diaries" and Card, Allen's "Letters "). 
Gee, in his list of priests and Jesu;ts in and about London in 1623, names 
.. Heath, a J esuite." He was probably correct. 


Heatley, William, Esquire, born about I 764, was the son 
of James Heatley, of Samlesbury and Brindle, co. Lancaster, 
and his wife Alice; one of the five daughters and coheiresses of 
Mr. Gregson, of Balderstone, whose ancestor, the son of Gregory 
N ormanton, of N ormanton, co. York, and Balderstone, co. 
Lancaster, was commonly called Greg's son, hence the patro- 
nymic Gregson. 
The Heatleys were a wealthy yeomanry family long settled 
in Samlesbury and the neighbourhood. Hugh Heatley, a 
staunch recusant of Samlesbury, was the father of James, of 
Sourbutts Green; Hugh, a priest, living in 1683, and Ann. 
J ames, who was living in 1700, by his wife Alice, was the 
father of Hugh, James, and Peter. The last, who resided at 
\Vhittle-le-vVoods, and registered, as a Catholic non-juror, a 
freehold estate there in 1717, was the father of Fr. James 
Heatley, S.]., who died chaplain at Broughton Hall, the seat 



REA.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


253 


of the Tempests, in 1 78
, aged 67. He had also a daughter 
Ann, who, in 1735, became the wife of James vValton, of 
Illgolhead, in Broughton, yeoman, son and heir of James 
vValton, of the same, then deceased, and from whom descends 
the Rev. Thomas \\
alton, of Alston Lane, The eldest of 
the three sons, Hugh, of Samlesbury, was likewise a Catholic 
non-juror in 1717. He seems to have resided latterly at 
Dunkenhalgh, where he died in 1723, leaving by his wife Anne, 
two sons, James and \\ïlliam. The latter was born at Dunken- 
halgh in I ï 22. At that time the Benedictines were very 
strong ill this locality. possessing severa.l missions within a 
radius of a few miles. '.Villiam Heatley was sent to the 
monastery at Lambspring-, in Germany, where he was professed 
May 26, 1 ï 40, under the religious name of l'Iaurus. lIe was 
ordained in 1746, and in 1750 was sent to St. Gregory's 
College at Douay. In 1753 he was placed upon the mission 
at Cheame, in Surrey, and was elected definitor of the Southern 
Benedictine province in 1757. At length he returned to 
Lambspring and was elected abbot of the monastery, Jan. 26, 
and blest as such Feb. 10, 1762, being then thirty-nine years 
of age. Thus he continued till June I, 1802, when he was 
suspended from his office and authority by Dr. Brewer, presi- 
dent of the English Congregation, a.s.B., of which the monks 
at Lambspring were members, after having been abbot forty 
years. T\\'o months later he died, Aug. 15, 1802, aged 79. 
An undue severity and long confinement inflicted on one of 
his monks is said to have been the cause of his deposition. 
His brother James, of Samlesbury, married Alice Gregson, and 
was probably the one who purchased the Brindle estate. His 
wife died at Brindle Lodg-e, l\1ay I, 1818, aged 94, and was 
buried at Fernyhalgh, where a mural tablet in the chapel 
records her memory. They had several children-Hugh, a 
Benedictine, \Villiam, the subject of this notice, Anne, who died 
unmarried, June I, 1803, and was buried at Fernyhalgh, and 
another daughter who married and was the mother of Mrs. 
Eastwood. Hugh was born in 1757, and was professed in the 
monastery at Lambspring in 1777, assuming the religious 
name of Jerome. He was sent to the mission at Bath in 
1787, where he fell a victim to typhus fever, April 28, 179 2 . 
His cousin John Heatley, born at Samlesbury in 1752, was 
professed at Lambspring in 1776, when he took the name of 




54 


BIBLIOGR_\PIIICAL DICTIONARY 


[REA. 


Lewis in religion and remained there until his death, 1'IJ:ay 9, 
180 5. Shortly after the death of his uncle, Abbot Heatley, 
the monastery was suppressed by the Prussian Government in 
180 3, but the monks were allowed to remain till death in 
receipt of a small pension. 
Upon the death of his father, \Villiam Heatley succeeded to 
his estates. He laid out a park and erected the mansion of 
Brindle Lodge, including the old farmstead in the building at 
the back of the house. The wealth of the family had con- 
siderably increased by judicious investments in the Funds, at 
the time when they were so low owing to the threatened inva- 
sion of the country by Napoleon. He held the rank of captain 
in the Lancashire volunteers raised during that period, but 
through his popularity as a wealthy and generous landlord was 
commonly known as Squire Heatley. He was a man of genial 
and charitable disposition, and being a bachelor, devoted much 
of his time and means to furthering the interests of the church 
in Lancashire. He died at his residence, widely respected and 
lamented, July 2 I, 1840, aged 76. 
:Mr. Heatley's charities to the poor and to the church were 
innumerable. The chapels at Brindle and Osbaldeston, St. 
Alban's, Blackburn, St, Augustine's, Preston, St. Patrick's, 
Manchester, and other religious establishments, owe much to 
his munificence. The handsome church at The Willows, 
Kirkham, said to be the first Catholic church since the Refor- 
mation supplied with a peal of bells, was erected at a cost of 
J; 10,000 out of the money he bequeathed to the Rev. Thomas 
Sherburne. 
Gill07..u, Lanc. Recltsa1zts, M5.,o Dolall, TVeldoll's Chroll. J./otes; 
..
-IlOW, Bened. Necrology; Kirk, Biog. Colbzs, 1/[5. No. 23; 
Olii'er, Collections, p. 325; HaJ'dock Papers, 11155.,. Tablet, 
vols. iii. pp. 839, 85 5 ; iv. pp. 2 I, 37 ; v. p. 358 ; vii. pp. 522, 586. 


I. Some time after Mr. Heatley's decease a broadsheet was printed with 
tributary verses on his death, and a few lines were appended as a sort of 
elegy upon his qualities. On the same sheet was another poetic,11 effusion, 
entitled "The Brindle Lament: a Doggrel Ballad," which referred to Mr. 
Thomas Eastwood, the husband of 1\1r. Heatley's niece, who disputed his 
wiil on the ground of undue influence. 
2. "A Refutation of Certain Statements in the Evidence of the Rev. 
Thomas Sherburne, published in the Report of the Select Committee on 

Iortmain,;J &c. Lond, (1845) 8vo" by C. Eastwood. 
By will dated 1829, and two codicils dated respectively 1835 and 183 6 , 



REA.] 


OF THE ENG LISH CATHOLICS. 


255 


::\lr. Heatley bequeathed the bulk of his estate, both personal and real, to the 
Rev. Thomas Sherburne, vere Irving, of The Willows, Kirkham, for charit- 

ble purposes. Mrs, Catherine Eastwood, Mr. Heatley's niece, who had a 
family of nine children, was left the mansion of Brindle Lodge, with some 
330 acres in the immediate neighbourhood, at an estimated rental of about 
[500. Immediately after Mr. Heatley's death, Mr. Eastwood and his wife in- 
stituted proceedings against Mr. Sherburne, asserting undue clerical influence 
and praying for an investigation. After considerable litigation, Mr, Sherburne 
compromised with the Eastwoods, at the Liverpool March assizes of I8.p, 
by giving up [6000 and all claim to the personal estate at Brindle Lodge. 
:\lr. Eastwood, however, was not satisfied, and in the following year a peti- 
tion was drawn up to Bishop Brown, V.A. of the Lancashire district, to 
which were attached the signatures of 19+ Catholics, out of the Brindle congre- 
gation of 845, requesting his lordship to prevent confessors from making the 
wills of their penitents in their own favour, and to oblige the Rev. T. Sher- 
burne to restore the Brindle property to the natural and legal heirs. In June, 
1844. 1\1r. \Vatson presented to the House of Commons a petition from 
certain CatholIcs in Lancashire, praying the House to afford that protection 
formerly given to patrons of Catholic chapds, and that the same should be 
\'ested in laymen, and not in the Pope's vicar. It seems that this petition 
was signed by many of the Brindle Catholics in ignorance of its contents. 
The outcome of this was the Report of the Select Committee on Mortmain 
referred to in Mr. Eastwood's pamphlet, nominally issuerl in l\Irs. Eastwood's 
name. That gentleman's next move was to annoy the Rev. J. B. Smith, 
O.S,B., of Brindle chapel, which was built in 1780 on land adjoining Brindle 
Lodge. 1\1r, Heatley had done much for the mission, and occupied a tribune 
in the chapel. To this 1\1r. Eastwood laid claim, and refused to pay any 
pew-rent. He was in consequence refused admittance, and at the disturb- 
ance which ensued 1\1r. Eastwood claimed a legal assault. For this six 
members of the congregation were committed to the Preston House of 
Correction on refusing to pay the penalties of conviction at the Chorley Petty 
Sessions, 1\1arch 24, 1846. In August they commenced an action against 
the magistrates for f ,lse imprisonment, their right to interfere 111 the internal 
arrangements of the chapel being denied by the plaintiffs, who asserted that 
they had the right to resist 1\1r. Eastwood's entrance into the chapel unless he 
paid the penny demanded. The action was, however, withdrawn on some 
technical grounds. After this 1\1r. Eastwood turned the domestic oratory 
in Brindle Lodge into a bathroom, &c., became a Protestant, and now lies 
in Walton churchyard. From his correspondence in the" Haydock Papers,:' 
it appears that he removed from college two of his sons \\ ho were studying- 
for the priesthood. After his death the contents of Brindle Lodge, including 
Mr. Heatley's library, were sold by auction, and the estJ.te pnvately disp05ed 
of to 11r. \Yhitehead, a coal merchant of Preston. 
3. In I8I4 1\1r. Heatley established an education fund of [1000 at Ushaw 
College. In 1826 he gave another sum for the same purpose, which was in- 
\'ested in the French Funds, and when sold out in 1830 re,llized [1930. In 
Jan. 1843, 1\1r. Sherburne handed over to the colle
e, for a similar fund in 

Ir. Heatley's name, [800 more. On l\1 r. Sherburnes death in 1854, he 
gave the college a large amount under Mr. Heatley's private instructions. 



25 6 


BIBLIOGRAl-'HICAL DICTIOKARY 


[HEI. 


This money was eventuaUy claimed by the Bishops of Liverpool and Salford 
(representing the late Lancashire vicariate), as being beyond Mr. Sherburne's 
right to deal with the bequest outside the district. An action in the P.ipal 
colirts resulted in Üvour of the bishops, to the great loss of the college. 
4. Portrait, original oil painting, formerly at the convent adjoining St. 
Patrick's, Manchester, to which he was a great benefactor. 


Heigham, John, printer and publisher, was probably de- 
scended from a younger son of the ancient famii.y of Heigham, 
or Higham, of Higham, in Cheshire, who settled in Essex. 
\Villiam Heigham, of Dunmowe, gent., married Ann, daughter 
of John Allen, of Essex, gent., and had a son William, and two 
daughters, Alice and Anne. \;Yi1liam and Anne became 
Catholics, and were in consequence disinherited by their father, 
who sold his estate of L6aa a year lest it should pass to his 
son. About 1585, \Villiam was arrested and thrown into Bride- 
well, where he suffered intensely on account of his faith. On 
recovering his freedom he engaged himseif as a tutor to a 
gentleman whose wife was a Catholic. Later he proceeded to 
Spain and became a lay-brother in the Society of Jesus. His 
sister married 1\11'. Line, and was executed on account of her 
faith in 1 6a 1. 
Little is known of 1'1r, Heigham beyond his works and pub- 
lications. He was a man of liberal education, and seems to 
have devoted himself to the publication of works of piety and 
religious controversy, He was an exile, and resided at Douay 
and St. Omer, but chiefly at the latter, where he appears to have 
been living in 1639. By his wife, Mary Garnett, he had a son 
John, who, after studying at St. Orner's College, was admitted 
into the English College at Rome, Oct. 1 a, 1634, being then 
of the age of 17t, On account of ill-health he went to Paris 
in 1637, but returned to the college in 1645, and was ordained 
priest Feb. 24, 1646. He left Rome for the English mission 
in 1649, 
1\11', Heigham was conversant with French, Italian, Spanish, 
and Latin, as evidenced by his works. 
Dodd, Ch. Hist., vol. ii. p. 426 ; Visitations of Essex, HarZ. 
..'Ù.,c.,. Folc)!, Records, 5J., vol. vi.; JI/orris, Condition of 
Catholics, 
I. A Devout Exposition of the Holie Masse. With an Ample 
declaration of all the Rites and Ceremonies belonging to the same. 
Composed by John Heigham. The more to moove all godly 
people to the greater veneration of so sublime a sacrament. 



HEI.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


257 


Doway, 1614, 12mo.; St. Omers, 1622, 8vo., 2nd edit., reviewed and aug- 
mented by the author, title, preface, of ceremonies, 13 ff., pp. 3- 366, approb. 
dated Duaci 15 Juiii 1612; Land" \Vashbourne, 1876, 12mo. pp. 364, edited 
from the 2nd edit. by Austin Joseph Rowley, Priest. 
Shortly before, Fr. Hen, Fitzsimons, S.]., had published" The Justification 
and Exposition of the Divine Sacrifice of the Masse, and of all Rites and 
Ceremonies thereto belonging" (Doway?) 161 I, 4to. pp. 356. Heigham's 
work contains chapters on the excellency and dignity of the Holy Mass, of 
the end for which it is said, and of the devotion with which it should be heard, 
The author also describes the meaning of the altar, ornaments, and vestments, 
&c., and treats his subject mO:õt exhaustively. The book is extemely devout 
in tone, and fiJled with matter for refl
ction during the Holy Sacrifice, 
mingling with it all many quaint anecdote:; of persons punished for want of 
sufficient reverence. 
2. A Mirrour to Confesse well for such persons as doe frequent 
this Sacrament. Abridged out of sundrie confessionals by a 
certain devout Religious man. Doway, John Hcigham, 161S, I2mo, 
pp. 61, ded. "To the Right vV orshipfull and H. S. especiall Good Friend Mr. 
J. K" Doctor of Divinitie," by John Heigham; Doway, 1624, 121110., see 
Psalter of Jesus below. 
3. A Method of Meditation, translated from the French of Fr. 
Ignatius Balsom. By John Heigham. St. Orner, J6IS, 8vo, 
In Southweìl's ., Bib. Script., S.J .," p. 762, it is asserted that Fr, Thos. 
Everard was the real translator of this work. Vide vol. ii. p. 192. 
4. The Psalter of Jesus contayninge very devoute and godlie 
petitions, Newlie imprinted and amplified with enrichment of 
figures. Doway, 1618, 12mo.; Doway, 1624, 121110., with" A Mirrour to 
Confesse well," and the four succeeding works, Nos. 5, 6, 7, S, in all six 
parts, each having a distinct title page, the Psalter with separate pagination 
anà register. 
A revised edition of Rich, \Vhytford's Psalter, so long and so justly 
popular with English Catholics. 
5. Certaine very pious and godly considerations proper to be 
exercised whilst the . . . . Sacrifice of the Masse is celebrated. By 
J. Heigham. Doway, 1624, 12mo, 
6. Divers Devout considerations for the more worthy receaving 
of the. ... Sacrament, Collected byJ, Heigham. Doway, 1624,121110. 
7. Certaine advertisements teaching men how to lead a 
Christian life. Written in Italian by S. Charles Boromeus. 
Doway, 1624, 121110. 
8. A briefe and profitable exercise of the seaven principall 
effusions of the. . . . blood of. . . . Jesus Christ. Translated 
out of the French into English. . . . . By J. Heigham. Doway, 
1624, 12mo, 
9. Meditations on the Mysteries of our holie Faith, with the 
Practise of Mental Prayer touching the same. Composed in 
Spanish by the Reverend Father Lewis of Puente, of the Societie 
of Jesus, native of Valladolid. And translated out of Spanish 
into English by John Heigham. The First Tome. That which 
VOL. III. S 



25 8 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEI. 


this First and Second Tome containe is to be seene in the page 
ensuing. The Whole Discourse very profitable for Preachers, 
and for all such as are Masters of perfection. S.Omers, 1619,4to. 
PP. 784, besides title, contents, ded. by J. H., preface and approb., and at end 
table of Medit.; "Meditations on the Mysteries of our Holy Faith, together 
with a Treatise on Mental Prayer, by the Ven. Fr, Louis de Ponte, S.J., 
being the Translation from the original Spanish by John Heigham, revised 
and corrected. To which are added, the Rev. F. C. Borgo's Meditations on 
the Sacred Heart, translated from the Italian. In six volumes," Lond. 
(Derby, pr,), 1852, &c" 8vo., edited by the Jesuit Fathers. 
This translation is distinc
 from that by Fr. Rich. Gibbons, S.J., in 1610, 
vide vol. ii. p. 440. 
10. The True Christian Catholique; or, the Maner How to Live 
Christianly. Gathered forth of the holie Scriptures and ancient 
Fathers, confirmed and explained by Sundrie Reasons, apte 
similitudes, and examples. By the Rev. Fr. F. Phillip Doultre- 
man, of the Societie of Jesus. And turned out of Frenche into 
Englishe by John Heigham. S. Omers, 1622, 12mo. pp. 474, besides 
index, &c., ded. II To the Right 'Vorthy Lady, the Lady Elizabeth 'Villoughby, 
daughter to J. Thornbrough, Lord Bishopp of \Vorcester," approb. by Hugo 
Buceleus, S.J., dated Aug, 18, 1622, 
I I. Villegas's Lives of the Saints Translated, whereunto are 
added the Lives of sundry other saints of the Universal Church, 
set forth by J". Heigham. S. Omers, 1630, 4to, 
.. The" Lives of the Saints," by Fr. Alfonso Villegas was translated by 
\V. and E. Kinsman, and published at Douay in 161O-14,8vo., 2 vols. It 
again appeared in English, with additions from Fr. P. Ribadeneira in 1636, 
4to. Another translation entitled " Flos Sanctorum" was published without 
date in 4to. 
12. Via Vere Tuta; or, the Truly Safe Way. Discovering the 
Danger, Crookedness and Uncertaintie of M. John Preston and 
Sir Humfrey Lindes Unsafe Way. St. Omers, 1631, 8vo.; St.Omers, 
1639, 8vo. pp. 800. 
\Vritten in answer to the celebrated Puritan divine, Dr. John Preston, and 
Sir H. Lynde's" Via Tuta." Fr, Jno. Floyd, S.J" also wrote an answer to 
the" Via Tuta," vide vol. ii p. 303. No. 14, 
13. It is most probable that he was the author or translator of other 
works. Gee (" Foot out of the Snare;' 1624) credits him with" The Life of 
St. Catharine of Siena," 1609, but this it will be seen in vol. ii., p. 246, was 
translated by John Fenn. It was, however, dedicated to the Lady D. J. by 
John Heigham. 
The following may be his, "The Life of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ. Gathered out of the famous Doctor S. Bonaventure, and other 
devout Catholike writers. Augmented and enriched with many most 
Excellent and Goodly Documents. By J. H. The Third Edition." s.1., 
1634, 24mo. pp. 815, besides title and table, At a later period E, y, 
published his" Life of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Translated from 
the works of St. Bonaventure.:' Lond. I739, 8vo. pp. 364, besides title and 
preface. 



EEL. ] 


OF TIlE EXGLISH CATHOLICS. 


259 


Many devotional books were printed and published, and probably edited, 
by Heigham, as The Primer, St. Omers, 1623, 24mo" &c. 
14. Portrait, represented in "The Jesuits or priests as they use to 
sit at Council in England to further the Catholic Cause," printed in " Vox 
Populi," 1624, 4to., pt. ii" but of course the sketch is merely ideal. 


Heigham, Thomas, M.D., was a younger son of John 
Heigham, of Chelmsford, co. Essex, mercer, by Alice, daughter 
of l\ir. Dickenson. He must have taken his degree in one of 
the foreign universities. In 1629, under date October 3, he is 
recorded in the pilgrim-book as paying a visit to the hospice 
attached to the English College at Rome. He had no letters 
of introduction, but some of the professors or student,> knew 
him. He stayed eight days in Rome, during which time he 
dined twice in the college refectory. He is named in Owen's 
Visitation of Essex, in 1634, and was then unmarried. 
Hart. Soc" Visit, of Essex, Pt. i. p. 419; Foley, Records, SJ., 
vol. vi., p. 605, 
I. The Ghosts of the deceased Sieurs de Villemar and de 
Fontaines, by G. de Chevalier, translated by T. H. Lond. 1624, 
12mo. 


Helme, Germain, O.S.F., confessor of thë faith, was de- 
scended from an ancient family seated in Goosnargh, co. Lan- 
caster. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the family 
resided at Church House, Goosnargh, which had the date 1589 
over the door, and was only taken down about the middle of 
this century. There was a John Helme a priest here in 1478, 
.and another John Helme was curate of Goosnargh in 1583. 
An imperfect pedigree of the family is recorded in Dugdale's 
Visitation of Lancashire in 1664. Another branch of the 
family possessed l\liddleton Hall, in Goosnargh, in the sixteenth 
century; a third settled at Blackmosse, in Chipping, and resided 
there in the seventeenth century; and about the same period two 
other branches settled at Lea and Hollowforth. The name is 
as frequently spelt Helmes or Holmes as Helme, and sometimes 
it is met with as Holme. 
Germain Helme, generally called Holmes, who:::;e baptismal 
name has not been ascertained, was a native of Goosnargh. 
There were several missionary stations in that township during 
the days of persecution. The Franciscan residence of the Holy 
Cross was presented to the provincial during his visitation of 
the province in 1687, At \Vhite Hill, the seat of the Heskeths, 
S 2 



260 


BIBLIOGRArHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEL. 


was also a chaplaincy, but this was discontinued after the 
attainder of Gabriel Hesketh and his son Cuthbert in 17 16. A 
local tradition obtains that formerly a secret underground 
passage existed between \Vhite Hill and the Ashes, the seat of 
the Threlfalls, where was another chapel. At this period the Rev. 
John Appleton served the mission at \Vhite Hill. Tyldesley
 
the Jacobite squire, mentions him in his diary in 1713. Shortly 
after this a chapel was opened in a building in close proximity 
to the hall, and it was here that Fr. Germain Helme was stationed 
in the first half of last century. From here he served the 
mission at Lee House, in Thornley, founded in 1738 by Thomas 
Eccles, the representative of an ancient yeomanry family long: 
settled there, who was a Catholic non-juror in 1717, and died 
in 1743, Lee House continued to be served by the Fran- 
ciscans until about 1826, when Fr. John Davison, O.S.F., retired 
from the mission, and it was handed over to the secular clergy. 
The Rev. Fris. Trappes was then appointed to the mission, but 
owing to some disagreement with his bishop, the chapel was 
closed between 184 I and 1859, and in the latter year was 
handed over to the Benedictines, who have since served it. 
After the Stuart rising of 1745, Fr. Germain Helme, was 
seized during the revival of persecution consequent on that 
event, thrown into the castle at Lancaster for being a priest, and 
there died a prisoner in 1746. 
The following is the record in the Chapter Register, O.S.F. :- 
"In 1746, the venerable confessor of Jesus Christ F. Germanus 
Holmes, once lector of philosophy in our convent of Douay, 
who, after suffering various insults from the insolent dregs of the 
populace, from hatred of his priestly character, was consigned 
by the magistrates to Lancaster Castle, loaded with iron chains, 
where, after about four months, he fought the good fight, and 
there, as is piously to be hoped, finished his course; but not with- 
out suspicion of poison administered to him by a wicked woman," 
Towards the end of last century the mission at Goosnargh was 
removed to The Hill, the ancient residence of the Catholic 
family of Blackburne, descended from Richard, second son of 
Richard Blac"kburne, of Scorton Hall, Thistleton and Newton, 
gent. The last male descendant of this family, the Rev. James 
Blackburne, died at the English College at Lisbon in July 1754, 
when The Hill passed to his aunts and coheirs, Grace Black- 
burne, of Garswood, spinster, and Elizabeth, wife of George 



HEL.] 


OF THE EKGLISH CATHOLIC
. 


261 


Sedgwick, of N orthwich. They sold the estate to Thomas 
Starkie in 1757, and some time after this a portion of it seems 
to have been purchased for the mission. Like most of the old 
Catholic chapels in this locality, the registers of baptisms at 
The Hill chapel commence about 1770. Fr. Charles Tootell, 
O.S.F., was perhaps Fr. Helme's successor, After him came 
Fr. Charles vVilcock, O.S.F" who died at The Hill, April 8, 
1802. Some time after this Fr .Joseph Bonaventure Martin, 
O.S.F., took charge of the mission, and died there April 29, 
1834, aged 62, and was buried at Lee House. The Franciscans 
were then dying out in England, and accordingly the mission 
was transferred to the Benedictines. Dom Edw
 Vincent 
Dinmore, O.S,B., arrived at The Hill in 1833. In the follow- 
ing year he enlarged the chapel, and remained there until his 
death, July I, 1879, He was succeeded by Dom l'1:atthew 
Gregory Brierley, O.S.B., the present pastor, who opened a 
cemetery at The Hill in Feb. 1880, and a school 011 the follow- 
ing Aug, 16. 
OHl'l'r, Col/ectiolls, pp. 566, 570; Salford Alma1lac, 1886, 
P 43; Kirk. Biog. ColhlS. J1[S., Nos. 23-4; Gillow, Lanc. 
ReCl/Sallls, 1115.; Fisnzuick, Hist. of Goosllargn,. Dolall, TYeldoll's 
Cltroll. Notes,. 511ozo, Belled. Necrology; E}'re, Us/taW Co/lJzs. 
flISS. J' DOllay Diaries. 
The following notices of other members of Fr. Helme's family and its 
various branches will be found useful. 
Another Fr. Helme, or Holmes, O.S.F., was a relative of Fr. Germain 
Helme. He was cGnfessor to the nuns at Aire, in Artois, but afterwards came 
-over to the mission in England, and ultimately conformed to the Established 
Church. As a reward for his apostacy, says Dr. Milner, a living was given 
him in Essex, but he died the day he preached his first sermon. This 
happened about 1773. He appears to be the same with Fr. Thomas Helme, 
or Holmes, O.S.F., who was elected provincial of the order May 7,1740. He 
subsequently supplied the residue of Fr. Joseph Pulton's triennium, after 
which he was re-elected his successor in July, 1749, for another three years, 
and again in 1758. 
There were also several members of this family Benedictines. Dom 
Richard Helme, or Holme, O.S.B., professed at St. Gregory's monastery at 
Douay, Nov, I, 1676, was sent on the mission to the north province, and was 
chaplain to Lord Molyneux, at Sefton Hall, Lancashire, in 1697. He 
succeeded Dom Thurstan Celestine Anderton, O.S,B., who died at Sefton in 
that year. Subsequently, during the troubles which ensued on the Stuart 
rising of 1]15, Dom Rich. Helme removed to \Voolton Hall, in Much 
\Voolton, which had been purchased by the Molyneux family from the 
Brettarghs, and there he died, Dec. 18, 1717. The chaplaincy at Sefton was 



262 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEL
 


then transferred to the Franciscans, who continued to serve the mission until 
1742, when Dom James Ambrose Kaye, O.S.B" was appointed. He was 
succeeded in 1754 by Dom Rich. Vincent Gregson. O.S.n. In 1]68, Charles 
\\ïlliam :Molyneux, 9th Viscount Molyneux, conformed to the Established 
Church, and three years later was rewarded with the Earldom of Sefton. 
Finding it impossible to continue the mission longer at Sefton, Fr. Gregson 
removed to Netherton in 1792, and founded that mission. He died there 
Sept, 10, 1800, and was succeeded by Dom Stephen Hodgson, from Lawk- 
land, who remained until 180'+; Dom Richard Pope, from 1804 till his 
death, July 24. 1828; Dom Edw. Austin Clifford, 1828, till 1830; Dom 
Abraham Ignatius Abram, 1830 till death, Dec. 17, 1867; Dum Geo. 
Alban Calàwell, 1868 till 1870, when the present incumbent, Dom Thomas 
l\1aurus Shepherd took charge of the mission. Fr, Helme was succeeåed in 
the mission at \Voolton by Dom Laurence Kirby, who remained tin 1731 ; 
Dom \Vm. Laur. Champney, who died there in the following year, April 21, 
1732; Dom Thomas Placid Hutton, till death there, May, 17, 1755 ; and Dom 
Edw. Bern. Catterall, who came in 1753. In 1]65 Fr. Catterall removed from 
\Voolton Hall to a chapel, which he erected, called \Voolton Priory. This 
was probably occasioned by the sale of the hall, a spacious and lofty stone 
mansion, by the l\101yneux family to Nicholas Ashton, Esq. Fr. Catterall 
remained there till his death Sept. 9, 1]8I. He was succeeded by Dom Jno. 
Bede Brewer, O.S.B., D.D., who-retired to Ampleforth in 1818 (but returned 
to die at \Voolton, April 18, 1822) ; Dom James Calderbank, 1819, till death, 
April 9, 182 I; Dom J no. Jerome Jenkins, I8:n till 1826; Dom Sam. 
Maurus Philips. 1824, till death, April 3, 1855; and Dom Rich. Placid 
BurchalJ, D,D., to whose exertions is due the erection of the beautiful church 
of St. Mary, in the village of Much \Voolton, in 1860. He died at \Voolton, 
March 7, 1885, and was succeeded by the present incumbent, Dom Jno. 
Placid HalJ, a.S.B. Amongst the assistant priests, and those who retired to 
\Y oolton to die, are :-Dom Stephen Hodgson, who retired from Evering- 
ham in 1813, and died here April 9, 1816; L)om Joseph Bern. Short, 1 8 4 0 
till 1851; Dom Charles Fris. Kershaw, 1855, till 1858; Dom \Ym. Jerome 
Hampson, 1862, till 1867; and Dom Gregory Brierley, 1858. \Vhen the 
Benedictine nuns were driven from their abbey at Cambray, in 1795, they 
settled at \Voolton, upon the invitation of Dr. Brewer, and opened a school 
for young ladies. Dam Ralph l\Iaurus Shaw, O.S.B., was shortly afterwards 
appointed their chaplain, and removed with them to Abbot's Salford, near 
Stratford-an-Avon, in 1808. 
Dom Gregory Helme, O.S.B., also born in Goosnargh, was professed at 
St, Laurence"s monastery, Dieulward, in 1686. He served the mission in the 
north province, probably in Lancashire, and died there Aug. I I. 1696. Dom 
Thomas \Yilfrid Helme, O.S,D" born at Goosnargh. was professed at 5t. 
Edmund's, Paris, July 5, 1699, served the mission in the south province for 
three or four years, and then passed to the nonh province, and was stationed 
at Kilvington, Yorkshire. He was elected procurator ofthe province in 1725
 
and also provincicll of York from that year till 1729. He then returned to 
Paris, and was prior of St. Edmund's from 1729to 1733. In I733he received 
the titular dignity of cathedral prior of Chester, retired to St. Laurence's. 
Dieulward, in 1737, and died there Jan. 2, 1742. Bro. Peter Helme, or 



HEL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


26 3 


Holmes, O.S.B., was professed at St. Gregory's, Douay, and died there, Oct. 
26, 1674. Placida Helme, or Holmes, became a lay-sister in the Benedictine 
abbey at Ypres, March 10, 1690, and Anne Frances Helme, O.S.B., a lay-sister 
at Cambray, died at Abbott's Salford, Jan, 29, 1812 aged 25, 
Another branch of the Helme family, which adopted the orthography of 
Holmes, settled at Newsham, then in the chapelry of Goosnargh. James 
Holmes, of Newsham, by his wife Anne, was father of William Holmes, of 
Newsham and Preston, who died Oct. 17, 1855. By his first wife, the latter 
had issue two sons, J olm Holmes, of Grimsargh Cottage, gent., and the Rev. 
Peter Holmes, educated at U shaw, who took charge of the mission at Huyton, 
near Liverpool, in Oct. 1859, erected the present church in 1861, and died 
there, Sept. 4, 1882, By his second wife, Mary Mayer, Mr. \Vill. Holmes 
had issue an only daughter, Anne, the wife of Mr. \Vhittle. 
The Helmes of Lea, also descended from the Goosnargh family, were 
recusants for several generations. They were yeomen, tanners, and websters. 
The Rev, Edward Helme, son of Thomas Helme. of Lea, tanner, and his 
wife Elizabeth Barton, was born in Jan. 1725. He received his early education 
under Dame Alice, at Ladywell. Fernyhalgh, and thence proceeded to Douay, 
where he took the college oath. Sept. 2 I, 1743. After completing his course he 
taught poetry. He was professor of philosophy in 1752, and in the following 
year was also prefect of studies. He was considered "an excellent scholar," 
Shortly after this he was sent to the English mission, and was given the 
charge of the mission in and about Manchester. Previous to his arrival the 
mission was served by a priest of the name of Kendal. He was there in 
1734, and in Bishop Dicconson's list of priests in his vicariate, written 
between 1741 and 1752, he is called the Rev. Henry Kendal. Dr. Kirk says 
that it was the Rev. George Kendal. D.D., who served the Manchester mis- 
sion. It is probable that the Rev. Henry Kendal exchanged missions with 
Dr. Kendal, of Fernyhalgh, for he died at the latter in 1752. In 1754 Dr. 
Kendal returned to Douay to teach divinity, having spent twenty years on 
the mission. and it was then that the Rev. Edward Helme took charge of the 
Manchester mission. The priest at Manchester about this period also supplied 
at Sutton Downes, near l\Iacclesfield, the seat of Lord Fauconberg. There is 
a tradition that the chapel was a room near the old fruit market. behind the 
Bay Horse, and that during 
Iass a watchman had to be placed at the door 
to give warning of the approach of priest-hunters or other enemies. Reilly 
(" Hist. of Manchester," p. 259) says that the chapel was in a house in the 
Parsonage, about 1744. Other accounts say that it was down a passage in a 
building overhanging the Irwell, or in a dyehouse in Blackfriars, all of which 
descriptions may refer to the same locality. After Mr, Helme's arrival he 
seems to have removed the chapel to some premises which he purchased 
down a passage in Church Street, still known, from this circumstance, as 
Roman Entry, He continued to attend Sutton Downes, and in consequence 
the Manchester Catholics were often without Mass on Sunday. This worthy 
priest, who is always spoken of with great respect, died at Manchester, 
Oct. 16. 1773, aged 48, and was buried in the old church, between the Jesus 
chapel and the chancel arch, where his gravestone was to be seen about 
twenty years ago. It is said that when he arrived in l\Ianchester he had 
only SOIr.e twenty or thirty f.lmilies for his congregation; some statistics on 



26 4 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEL. 


this subject will be found under the notice of Daniel Hearne. Mr. Helme 
beque.ìthed [300 for the beñefit of the Manchester and Sutton Catholics, 
[200 to the former and [100 to the latter. This money was paid to the 
" l\Ianchester trustees," Oct. 18, 1775, whose names were John Cook, \Vm, 
Moorhouse, \Ym. \Valton, Benj. \Vildsmith, Nathaniel Eyre, Thos. Whit- 
greave, and Rich. Kaye, They expended it in the erection of a new chapel 
in Rook Street (now converted into a cloth warehouse in the occupation of 
Messrs. Sam. Ogden & Co.), but engaged to pay 4
 per cent. interest for the 
money in conformity with the testator's intention. Mrs. Eccleston, of Cowley 
Hill, gave [-120 to the mission in 1775. The new chapel, dedicated to 
St. Chad, was opened June 23, 1776, the Rev. John Orrell, having succeeded 
Mr, Helme, being the incumbent, On the 5th of the following month he 
advised his bishop, \\" illiam Walton, V.A. of the Northern district, that the 
prospective income of the Manchester incumbency was as follows: "Trafford 
family (precarious), [8 Ss.; Lord Fauconberg, for Sutton, [5 5s. ; two houses 
in Church Street, [II 4S.; old chapel and house (supposed), [16; cellars 
and stable of present chapel,[1 1 15s.; benches in new chapel (when all sett), 
[84-total, [136 12S." Mr. Orrell did not remain long after the opening of 
Rook Street chapel, and he was succeeded by the Rev. Charles Houghton, on 
Mar, 19, 1778; the Rev. Rowland Broomhead came from Sheffield to as
isfMr. 
Houghton, who remained many years, till he left to travel with Mr. Bauersby 
through Italy. This gave great offence to his bishop, from whom he had .not 
leave to quit his post, and in consequence he was suspended. On his return 
he became chaplain to the Stapìetons, at Carlton, in Yorkshire, and died at 
York, Sept. 7, 1797. The later history of the Manchester mission will be 
found under the notices of R. Broomhead, J. Curr, H. Gillow, G, and H. 
Kendal, E. Kenyon, &c. . 
It is worthy of notice that a niece of 1\1r, Helme, daughter to his brother 
who resided at Lea, became the \\ ife of Mr. John Turner, of Preston, and 
was mother to the Right Rev. \Vm. Turner, D.D., first Bishop of Salford. 
The last male representative of the Helmes of Lea was educated' for a 
priest at Sedgley Park, but havmg no vocation for that state, settled as a 
lawyer's clerk in Preston, became famous as the "Fulwood miser," and 
starved himself to death there about fOUl teen years ago. 


Helmes, Thomas, vide Tunstall. 


Helyar, John, divine, a native of Hampshire, was admitted 
probationer fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxfård, June I, 
J 522, at the age of nineteen, and commenced B.A, in July, 
1524. Instead of completing his degree by determination in 
the public schools in the following Lent, that of :l\1.A. was con- 
ferred upon him through the patronage of Cardinal vVolsey, who 
was struck by his great knowledge of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, 
in which he had the repute of being the first scholar of his day. 
After vVolsey's fall, which put a stop to his rising fortunes, 
Helyar supplicated to be admitted to the reading of the 



HEM. ] 


OF THE ENGLISH C.\THOLICS. 


26 5 


sentences. He does not appear to .have received further 
advancement, though he was greatly esteemed for his learning, 
as appears by his correspondence with Erasmus and others. 
He was still living in 1539. 
Bliss, Wood's Atltell. OXOl1" vol. i.; Pitts, De flllts. 
llgl. 
Scriþt. p. 706 ; Dodd, Cll. Hist., vol. i. p. 2 1 [. 
I. Comment. in Ciceronem pro M. :Marcello. 
:2, Scholia in Sophoclem. 
3. Commentaria in Epistolas Ovidii. 
4. Epitaphium D. Erasmi Roterodami. 
\Vritten in Greek and Latin with other things. 
5. S. Chrysostom, De Providentia et fato, &c. 
A translation from the Greek into Latin. 


Hemerford, Thomas, priest and martyr, born in Dorset 
about 1554, took his degree of bachelor of civil law in the 
Univer.sity of Oxford, June 30, 1575. From conscientious 
moti
es h
 quitted Hart's Hall and proceeded to the English 
college at Rheims. Its president, Dr. Allen, in a letter to Fr. 
Agazzari, S.J. (Aug, 3, 1580), then recently appointed rector 
of the English college at Rome, introduces 1fr, Hemerford to 
his notice as" vir honestissimus," and mentions that he had 
started two days. before for the eternal city, and was preparing 
himself for entering into the Society of Jesus. He was 
admitted into the English College at Rome on Oct. 9 that 
year, and in 1farch, I 583, was ordained priest by Dr. Thomas 
Gold\vell, the exiled bishop of St. Asaph. Before leaving 
Rome for -England in April of that year, Gregory XIII. granted 
to him and another priest, Ralph Bickley, a number of unusual 
missionary faculties. He arrived at Rheims on June 9. and 
on the 25th left the college and continued his journey, 
Shortly after his arrival in England he was apprehended and 
thrown into prison. He was arraigned at \Vestminster on the 
following Feb. 7, and was condemned for being a priest, with 
his four companions, Haydock, Fenn, Nutter, and Munden, 
He was then loaded with irons and cast into the dungeon 
known as the" pit" in Newgate, whence he was brought out 
and drawn on a hurdle to Tyburn and there literally butchered 
alive, Feb. 12, 1584, aged 30. 
Fr. Warford says that he was remarkable for his love of 

irginal purity, and used great severity with himself on this 
point. He was of average stature, with dark beard, stern 



266 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEN. 


countenance, yet cheerful in temper, most amiable in conversa- 
tion, and in every respect exemplary. Dr. Challoner adds 
that he suffered with great constancy. 
Challoner, lJIe7ll0irs, vol. i.; Oliz'er, Collectiolls, p. 325; IVood,. 
A thell. OXOll., ed. 169 I, vol. i. pp. 32 I, 738; Bridgewater, COll- 
certatio, ed. 1594, p. I 56b ; Doltay Diary J' Foley, Recurds, 5].,. 
vol. vi. 


I. His biography was written hy Dr. Humphrey Ely and sent to Dr. 
Bridgewater for publication in his" Concertatio," but it appears to have been 
mislaid, for he only gives a few lines about Mr. Hel1lerford. In a letter to 
the doctor in 1587 ('vide l\1orris, "Troubles," Second Series, p. :!o), Dr, Ely 
asks for its return, as he intended to publish it with others in English. 


Hemsworth, Stephen, priest and confessor of the faith, 
was probably a member of the ancient Yorkshire family of 
Hemsworth, of Garforth, Stephen being a family name. He 
was a Marian priest, and in the reign of Elizabeth was im- 
mured with others, who preferred their consciences to their 
liberty, in the north blockhouse, castle of Hull. 
Here this .. good and godly man," to use the words of the 
record, patiently breathed his last after long years of imprison- 
ment, through which he had passed" with great zeal, fervent 
devotion, secret silence, pleasant quietness, and charity towards 
God and all men," about April, 1585. 
FoIL]', Records 5]., vol. iii.; lJIorris, Troubles, Third Series / 
Foster, Visit. of Yorks/tire. 


Hendren, Joseph William, O.S.F., D,D., Bishop of 
Nottingham, was born at Birmingham, Oct. 19, 179 I, and was 
baptized by Fr, Pacificus N utt, the venerable Franciscan mis- 
sioner of that city. He was partly educated at the Franciscan 
school at Baddesley, and in his fifteenth year, Aug. 2, 1806,. 
received the habit from Fr. Grafton, O.S.F., and I was professed 
Nov. 19, 1807. He received minor orders in' the following 
summer at Abergavenny from Bishop Collingridge, O.S.F., and 
removed with the novitiate to Perthyre, Oct. 15, 1808. Four 
years later he returned to Baddesley school to teach Latin,. 
Greek, mathamatics, &c" and while so engaged was ordained 
sub-deacon by Bishop l\Iilner at \V 01 verhampton, April 4, 18 14,. 
deacon on the 26th, and priest Sept. 28, 1815. In Jan. 18 I 6,. 
he was removed to Perthyre to teach philosophy and divinity,. 
and when the small community was transferred to Aston, in 
Oct, 18 I 8, he was continued in the same employment until the 



HEN. ] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


267 


end of April, 1823, when he was appointed president of Bad- 
desley Academy. \Vhilst at Perthye he served the congregation 
at Courtfield, a distance of eleven miles, once a fortnight, during 
the absence of the Vaughan family on the continent; and 
whilst at Aston he did duty at Swynnerton, the seat of the 
Fitzherberts, every Sunday and holiday, from July 16, 1820, 
until the end of April, 1823. 
In the beginning of 1826 he was appointed to the mission 
of Abergavenny, and there remained for thirteen years. On 
Feb. 9, 1839, he commenced duty as confessor and spiritual 
director to the nuns and pensioners of the Franciscan convent 
at Taunton Lodge. 
In Jan. 1847, Bishop Ullathorne, V,A., of the \Vestern 
District, made him his grand vicar, and recommended him as 
his successor in that vicariate in 1848. His brief for this 
vicariate and the See of U ranopolis Ùl partibus was dated 
July 28, 1848, and he was consecrated at Clifton by Bishop 
UIIathorne, Sept. 10, in that year. 
On the restoration of the hierarchy Bishop Hendren was 
translated to the newly erected See of Clifton, with the ad- 
ministration of the See of Plymouth, by brief dated Sept. 29, 
18 50. In the foIIowing year, by brief dated June 27, 185 I, 
he was translated to Nottingham. 
From the time of his appointment as Dr. Ullathorne's grand 
vicar his health had been much impaired, and in 1852 he re- 
signed the See of Nottingham. On Feb. 23, 1853, he was 
translated to the See of Martyropolis -in partiblls injidelizmz, and 
in the following May went to reside in Birmingham, where he 
died Nov. 14, 1866, aged 75. 
OHlJCr Collections, p, 325 ; Brady, Episc. Succession, vol. iii. ; 
IVeekl.JI and J71"OlZtlt/y Ortltod01:, vol. i. p. 456. 


Henrietta, Anne, Duchess of Orleans, born June 16, 1644, 
was the youngest child of Charles 1. and his consort Henrietta 
:l\1aria. Her birth took place in the midst of the misfortunes of 
her royal parents. It happened at Bedford House, Exeter, at a 
time when the city was threatened with siege by the Earl of 
Essex. On the approach of the hostile army, the queen, who 
was in a very precarious state of health, sent to the Parliamentary 
general requesting permission to retire to Bath for the comple- 
tion of her recovery. Essex insultingly replied "that it was 
his intention to escort her l\Iajesty to London, where her presence 



268 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEN. 


was required to answer to Parliament for having levied war in 
England." Under these circumstances there was no course open 
to the courageous queen but to leave her infant and make her 
escape in disguise to the Continent, as related in her memoir. 
Meanwhile Charles 1. made incredible efforts to succour his 
queen, and, urged by despair, fought his way to Exeter by 
means of a series of minor victories. But it was ten days after 
the queen had sailed from Pendennis that Charles entered Exeter 
in triumph, The little princess was presented to the king, and, 
for the first and last time, the hapless monarch bestowed on his 
poor babe a paternal embrace. He caused one of his chaplains 
to baptize the infant Henrietta Anne, after her mother and her 
kind aunt of France. He relieved Exeter, and left an order on 
the customs for the support of the princess, who remained there 
for some time in charge of her governess, Lady Morton. In the 
course of 1646, Lady lVlorton escaped with the child to France, 
and joined the queen at the Louvre. Henrietta had felt the 
separation from her babe intensely, and had vowed that jf ever 
she was restored to her she would rear her in her own religion. 
The mother and child thus re-united never again were separated 
for any length of time. The sad queen seems to have centred 
her warmest maternal affection in this youngest and fairest of 
her offspring. 
In 1660 a marriage engagement was formally concluded 
between the Princess Henrietta and her cousin, Philippe, Duke 
of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV. It was in consequence of 
this that the queen-mother delayed visiting her son Charles II., 
who had been settled in his kingdom about five months. She 
now did so with the princess, whose portion had to be settled. 
After their return to France, in the following January, the 
marriage was celebrated in the queen's private chapel in the 
Palais Royal, March 3 I, 166 I. 
The withdrawal of the princess from the care of her mother 
before she was of an age to understand how to guide her course 
was very injurious, Without doing, or even thinking of evil, 
the young Duchess of Orleans plunged giddily into the vortex 
of dissipation presented by the court of Louis XIV. Her 
conduct annoyed her husband, and aggravated the uneasy terms 
on which she is said to have lived with him. Her unhappiness 
was intensified by the death of the queen-mother in 1 66 9, 
The duchess took an active part in the ncgotiation for a 



HEN.] 


OF THE ENGLISH C.\THOLICS. 


26 9 


closer union bctween her brother Charles II. and Louis XIV. in 
1668. This resulted in a secret treaty, in which, amongst 
other articles, it was agrced that Charles should publicly profess 
himself a Catholic at such time as should appear to him most 
expedient, and subsequently to that profession should join 
with Louis in a war against the Dutch Republic at such time as 
the French monarch should judge proper, It had been arranged 
that in l\lay, 1670, while Louis with his queen made a progress 
through the territory lately ceded to him by Spain, the Duchess 
of Orleans should pay a short visit to her brother Charles at 
Dover. It was hoped by the French king that she would 
induce him to depart from his intention of postponing the war 
against the States till he had made the announcement of his 
conversion. The àuchess had also a personal object in view, 
which was to procure her brother's permission to separate from 
her husband, and to fix hcr residence in England, Charles re- 
ceived her affectionately, and laboured to gratify her with 
presents and entertainments, but on both points he resisted her 
prayers and her reasoning. The French ambassador reluctantly 
consented to subscribe the treaty as it had been drawn up, and 
Henrietta, with a heavy heart, returned to her state of splendid 
misery in the court of France. 
.\Vithin three weeks from her departure from Dover, the fair 
and fascinating Henrietta was numbercd with the dead. After 
drinking a glass of cold water in her apartment in the palace 
of St. Cloud, she was seized with a shivering, succeeded by a 
burning heat, which threw her into the most excruciating tor- 
ments. Thus she continued until her death a few hours later, 
June 20, 1670, aged 26. 
Henrietta possessed all the vivacity and engaging manners of 
her brother Charles. Her accomplishments of mind and her 
graces of person were of a superior order, Her conversation 
was fascinating and animated, and in the school of adversity 
her mind had been maturcd, her manners softened. Her under- 
standing was good, and well-cultivated; her judgment was 
correct, and her taste delicate. The report that, to punish the 
infidelity of her husband, she had indulged in similar infidelities, 
was solemnly contradictcd by her in her last moments; and the 
suspicion that she had been poisoned by his order with a cup of 
succory-water, rcceived no support from the appearance of the 
body .when it was opened after death. This is the view taken 



27 0 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIOKARY 


[HEN. 


by contemporary French historians. Bossuet attended her 
death-bed, and preached at her funeral. 
Her favourite maid, Louisa de Querouäil1e, after some time, 
was invited to England by Charles II., who appointed her 
maid of honour to the queen. In a short time she became one 
of the royal mistresses, and was created Duchess of Portsmouth. 
The king first saw her at Dover, when she accompanied his 
sister. It has been said that this was by the device of Louis, 
who well knew the power of beauty over the susceptible Charles, 
It is not likely that Henrietta would lend herself to such an 
action. 
Strickland, Li'ves of tile Queens of Eng., ed. 1845, vol. viii. ; 
LÙlgmd, Hist. of Ellg" ed. 1849, vol. ix. ; lI1emoirs of Jamcs II., 
1821., vol. i.; Butler's IVorks, vol. iii. p. 269. 
I. "Lachrymæ Cantabrigienses in Obitum Henriettæ Caroli 1. Regis et 
l\Iartyris Filiæ, Ducissæ Aurelianensis." Cantab. 1670, 4to. 
" Recit de ce qui c'est passé à la mort de Henriette d'Angleterre, Duchesse 
d'Orleans." Paris, 1686, 4to., by J. B, Feuillet. 
One of the finest of Bossuet's funeral orations is that on the death of 
Henrietta Anne. It will be found in the selection as translated by Edward 
J erningham, published at Lond. 1800, 8vo.; idem, 2nd edit.; ibid. ISOI,8vo., 
3rd edit. 
2. " Biographical Sketches of Henrietta, Dutchess of Orleans, &c.," vide 
Edw. Jerningham, poet, No, 22, Lond. 1799, Svo.; ibid. 1800, 8vo. 
Henrietta Maria, queen-consort of Charles 1., young-est 
child of Henry IV. of France, and of his wife, Marie de IVfedicis, 
was born at the Louvre, Nov. 2 5, I 609. V\Then in I 62 3 the 
Prince of\\Tales passed through France on his romantic wooing 
of the Spanish infanta, he stopped a day in Paris, and was 
admitted in quality of a stranger to the French Court, where he 
saw the Princess Henrietta Maria at a ball. After the treaty 
with the infanta was broken off, by reason of the extreme 
unpopularity of the union in both countries, the first idea of a 
marriage between the prince and Henrietta of France was 
suggested by her eldest sister Elizabeth, the young queen of 
Philip IV. of Spain. The Spanish wooing had certainly 
smoothed the way; it had accustomed the English people to the 
idea of a Catholic queen. James 1. sent Lord Kensington to 
France to ascertain whether the hand of Henrietta could be 
obtained for his son, The marriage articles of the infanta, and 
the programme of the ceremony as previously agreed upon at 
Rome, formed a precedent for the terms of the wedlock that 



HEN.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


27 1 


actually took place between Charles and Henrietta, and the 
treaty was solemnly ratified, Dec. 12, 1624. One of the 
marriage articles secretly stipulated for a relaxation of the 
persecution against Catholics. James agreed that all Catholics 
imprisoned for religion since the rising of Parliament should be 
discharged; that all fines levied on recusants since that period 
should be repaid; and that for the future they should suffer no 
molestation on account of the private and peaceé:.ble exercise of 
their worship. 
The English king, however, did not live to see the celebra- 
tion of the marriage. He died March 27, 1625, and Charles, 
then in his twenty-fifth year, ascended the throne. The royal 
bethrothed of Henrietta immediately renewed the marriage 
treaty on his own authority, the dispensation of the Pope was 
obtained, and the ceremony was performed by proxy on a plat- 
form erected before the great door of the cathedral at Paris, 
1'1ay I, 1625. After some delay, occasioned by the illness of 
Louis XIII., Henrietta was escorted to England. At Dover 
she was received by Charles, at the head of the English 
nobility; the contract of marriage was publicly renewed in the 
great hall in Canterbury, and the royal couple repaired to 
\Vhitehall and thence to the palace at Hampton Court. 
The domestic happiness which the king and queen at first 
enjoyed was soon embittered by a succession of petty and 
vexatious quarrels. The former complained of the caprice and 
petulance of his wife; the latter of the morose and anti-Gallican 
disposition of her husband. He attributed their disagreement 
to the discontent of her French attendants; she and her rela- 
tions to the interested suggestions of Buckingham. That the 
servants of her household met with much to exercise their 
patience cannot be doubted, they occupied the place of English- 
men, and were consequently exposed to the hostility of all who 
might profit by their removal; and that the queen should 
undertake their defence was natural. She pleaded only for the 
strict observance of the marriage treaty. Charles, however, 
before the conclusion of six months, had resolved to send them 
back to France, He sought to spare himself the charge of so 
expensive an establishment at a time when the treasury was 
drained to the last shilling, The number of the Oratorian 
chaplains, the pomp with which they performed the service, 
and their bold, perhaps indiscreet, bearing amidst the vilifiers of 



27 2 


TIIDLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEN. 


their religion, were thought to cause, or at least to strengthen, 
the opposition of the Commons to the measures of the admin- 
istration. Indeed, strong complaints against their number and 
behaviour had been made in the Parliament which met on 
J line 18, 1625. These were probably the real grounds of the 
king's determination. At length, by royal order, the queen's 
attendants, amounting to sixty, were sent back to France, in 
Aug. 1626. Three English priests, recommended by Bucking- 
ham, received the appointment of chaplains, and six females, of 
whom four were Protestants, that of ladies of the bedchamber 
to the queen. This violent dismissal of her household was re- 
sented as a personal affront by the King of France, He even 
talked of doing himself and his sister justice by the sword. 
\Var, however, was averted by the policy of Bassompierre, who 
came to England in quality of ambassador extraordinary. He 
found the king and queen highly exasperated against each 
other, but by argument and entreaty he induced them both to 
yield. It was arranged that a new establishment should be 
formed, partly of French but principally of English servants. 
A bishop, a confessor and his companion, and ten priests, pro- 
vided they were neither Jesuits nor Oratorians, were allowed, 
and, in addition to the chapel originally prepared for the infanta 
at St. James', it was agreed that another should be built for the 
queen's use at Somerset House. This arrangement restored 
harmony between the royal couple. Charles congratulated 
himself on the dutiful and affectionate behaviour of his wife, 
and Henrietta soon obtained considerable influence over the 
heart and even the judgment of her husband. 
In the following year war broke out between England and 
France, and it was not until May 10, 1629, that peace was 
proclaimed. Meanwhile the Catholics in England were terribly 
harassed. They were even excluded from the queen's chapel 
at Somerset House, which was now served by ten Capuchins in 
place of the Oratorians. In successive proclamations a reward 
of one hundred pounds was offered for the apprehensiofl of Dr. 
Richard Smith, Bishop of Chalcedon. The magistrates, judges, 
and bishops were repeatedly ordered to enforce the penal laws 
against priests and Jesuits. IVlany were apprehended, and 
some were convicted. But the king, having ratified for the 
third time the articles of the marriage treaty, was ashamed to 
shed their blood merely on account of their reUgion. One 



HEN.] 


OF THE EI\'GLISH CATHOLICS. 


273 


only suffered the extreme penalty, through the hasty zeal of 
] udge Yelverton. Of the remainder, some perished in prison, 
some were sent into banishment, and others occasionally ob- 
tained their discharge on giving security to appear at a short 
notice. The same motive induced his majesty to act with 
lenity towards the lay recusants. In lieu of the old penalties 
he allowed them to compound for a fixed sum to be paid 
annually into the excheq!ler, the amount of which was deter- 
mined at the pleasure of the commissioners. Notwithstanding 
the rigour with which Catholics were treated, the queen was 
enabled to alleviate many of their sufferings by unceasingly 
interceding in their behalf with the king, who was more in- 
fluenced in his actions by the clamours of the puritans than by 
his own religious principles. Her majesty also interested herself 
in the internal affairs of the Catholic church in England, es- 
pecially in the controversies respecting the oath of allegiance 
and the expediency of restoring episcopal government. 
In 164 I, when the differences between the king and the 
parliament had widened to such an extent as to threaten an 
open rupture, the queen wished to apply for assistance to her 
brother, the King of France, but was opposed by Cardinal 
Richelieu. That minister had no intention that the daughter 
of his inveterate enemy, Marie de Medicis, the queen mother of 
France, who had found an asylum in England during the two 
preceding years, should enjoy the opportunity of instilling her 
opinions into the private ear of his sovereign. Some months 
later, Henrietta, terrified by the threats of her enemies, an- 
nounced her intention of accompanying her mother to the 
Continent. The commons, however, interposed, and at their 
solicitation the lords joined in a petition requesting her to 
remain. Her majesty, in a gracious speech pronounced in 
English, not only gave her assent but expressed her readiness 
to make every sacrifice that might be agreeable to the nation. 
In the following February, however, the king seeing that the 
attitude of his opponents rendered preparation for war absolutely 
necessary, sent his queen to Holland under the pretence of 
conducting his daughter Mary to her husband, but really for 
the purpose of soliciting aid from foreign powers, His majesty 
saw the queen on board at Dover. He then returned to the 
vicinity of the metropolis, from which he gradually withdrew 
to York, arriving towards the close of March 1642, the date 
VOL. III. T 



274 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEN. 


which marks the commencement of the civil wars. It was 
owing to the indefatigable exertions of Henrietta that the king 
was enabled to meet his opponcnts in the field. During her 
residence in Holland she repeatedly sent him supplies of 
arms and ammunition, and, what he equally wanted, veteran 
officers to train and discipline his forces. In Feb. 1643, leav- 
ing the Hague, and trusting to her good fortune, she eluded 
the vigilance of Batten, the parliamentary admiral, and lanàed 
in safety in the port of Burlington, on the coast of Yorkshire. 
She remained four months in Yorkshire, winning the hearts of 
the inhabitants by her affability, and quickening their loyalty 
by her words and example, Her forces were united with the 
loyalists commanded by the Earl of Newcastle, and thus that 
army was styled by the parliamentarians the" Queen's army." 
They also instilled into the people that it consisted of none but 
professed papists, anù therefore called it the" Catholic army." 
In r,íay Henrietta sent a plentiful convoy from York to the 
king at Oxford, and in the same month she was impeached of 
high treason against the parliament and kingdom. The lords 
declined the ungracious task of sitting in judgment on the 
wife of their sovereign, and, after the lapse of eight months, the 
commons yielded to their reluctance, and silently dropped the 
prosecution. In July of the same year, Charles met with 
transport his adored Henrietta in the vale of Keynton, near 
his own victorious ground of Edgehiil, and conducted her to 
Oxford. They had not seen each other for a year and five 
months. In the following September they were both spectators 
of the bloody battle of Edgehill. The change of fortune that 
befel the king's cause, and the near approach of the parlia- 
mentary forces to Oxford, necessitated the removal of the 
queen to a place of greater safety, for she was then in an 
advanced state of pregnancy. Charles escorted his beloved 
wife to Abingdon, and there, on April 3, 1644, with tears and 
forebodings for the future, this attached pair parted, never to 
meet again. She proceeded to Bath, where she sought the 
cure of an agonizing rheumatic fever, and thence sought refuge 
in the loyal city of Exeter. There. amidst the consternation 
of an approaching siege, she gave birth to the princess Henrietta 
Anne, June 16, 1644. In less than a fortnight afterwards the 
army of the Earl of Essex advanced to besiege Exeter. \tVith 
that energy of character which she had derived from her 



HEN.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


275 


mighty sire, Henry the Great, she rose from her sick bed, and 
escaped from the city in disguise. After undergoing great 
suffering and many perils she arrived at Pendennis Castle on 
June 29th. There she found a friendly Dutch vessel in the 
bay, in which she embarked, and, escaping the keen pursuit 
of an English cruiser from Torbay, landed on the coast of 
Bretagne, not far from Brest. 
It is unnecessary to follow in detail Henrietta's life at Paris 
and St. Germains. She maintained a close corrcspondence 
with Charles until his judicial murder, Jan. 30, 1649. l\1ean- 
while the royal offspring Charles, Prince of \Vales, James, 
Duke of York, Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and the infant 
princess, Henrietta, all escaped to the Continent. Soon after 
the restoration of Charles II., in 1660, Queen Henrietta visited 
England with the object of concluding the negotiation for her 
daughter's portion, and of taking possession at the same time 
of her own long-withheld dowry. She hoped likewise to 
prevent the Duke of York's marriage with Clarendon's daughter. 
After about two months she returned to France, having given 
.orders for the repairs of her dower palaces of Somerset House 
and Green wich, 
In July, 1662, she once more came to England. Fora short 
time she resided at Greenwich, pending the completion of the 
repairs of Somerset House. To this palace she made very 
splendid additions and restorations. There is a tradition that 
the queen, inheriting the practical taste for architecture, which 
caused her mother, l'iarie de 1'1edicis to design with her own 
band the Luxemburgh palace, made original drawings of all 
the buildings she added to Somerset House. Her majesty's 
chamber and closet were considered remarkable for the beauty 
of the furniture and pictures. The great stone staircase led 
down into the garden on the bank of the Thames. The echo 
<m this stair, if a voice sang three notes, made many repe- 
titions, and then sounded them all together in concert. This 
melodious echo was well adapted to the frequent concerts with 
which the musical queen made the Somerset House palace re- 
sound. She had also a beautiful gallery, which she ornamented 
in the finest taste. Her ecclesiastical establishment was re- 
instated. The Capuchins; whose convent adjoined the chapel, 
undertook the service and daily recited the divine offices in 
their habits. Sermons were preached every Sunday and 
T 2 



27 6 


DIELIOGR..:\PIIIC.\L DICTIONARY 


[HEN. 


holiday, and during Lent. The chapel itself was beautifully 
adorned, and the altar was supplied with magnificent plate pre- 
sented by the Duchess d' Aiguilon, niece of Cardinal Richelieu. 
Abbot \Nalter 1'10ntagu, brother to the Earl of :Manchester, 
was her lord almoner, and Père Lambert was her majesty's con- 
fessor. The convent of Capuchins consisted of a warden, called 
the father guardian, seven priests, the senior of whom was 
Père Cyprian Gamache, and two lay-brothers. The queen 
kept within her income; she paid all her accounts weekly; 
she had no debts. She had, as her contemporary biographer 
quaintly expresses it, "a large reputation for justice." Every 
quarter she dispersed the overplus of her revenue among 
the poor, bountifully bestowing, without consideration of 
difference of faith, her favourite charity-releasing debtors 
confined for small sums, or for non-payment of fees; likewise 
sending relief to those who were enduring great hardships in 
prison. 
Her majesty's health was now very much impaired, yet she 
was unwilling to leave London lest her chapel should be closer! 
against the Catholic congregation which usually assembled there 
under her protection. She had a conference with her son 
King Charles. She told him "that she would recover if she 
went for a time to breathe her native air, and seek health at the 
Bourbon baths, and she would do so if he would not close her 
chapel against his Catholic subjects; but if it was closed for one 
day on account of her departure, she would stay and live as 
long as it pleased God, and then die at the post of duty." 
Charles granted her request, but infinitely bewailed the neces- 
sity of separation from his dear and virtuous mother. H en- 
rietta, therefore, left London, in June, 1665, accompanied by 
the King, Queen Catherine, and most of the lords and ladies of 
their household, who attended her as far as the buoy at the 
N ore, and her son, the Duke of York, escorted her to Calais. 
The queen mother's health, however, continued gradually to de- 
cline, until at length she permitted the most able medical men 
in France to hold a consultation on her case. They prescribed 
opium, which at first her majesty positively declined, for she 
knew its effects by experience, and her famous physician in 
England, Dr. Mayerne, had warned her against it. Nevertheless 
her repugnance was overruled, the fatal dose was administered 
to her late in the evening, and she fell into a sleep from which 



HEN.] 


OF TIlE EKGLISH CA TIIOLICS. 


277 


she never awoke. Her death took place at her country palace 
of Colombe, Aug. 10, 1669. 
"It has been the custom," says Lingard, "to attribute a 
great portion of the misfortunes of Charles 1. to the control 
which this beautiful princess possessed over the heart, and 
through the heart over the judgment of her husband. But 
there is reason to believe that her influence was considerably 
exaggerated by those whose policy it was to alienate the people 
from the sovereign, by representing him as guided by the 
-counsels of a popish wife. On most questions she coincided in 
opinion with Secretary Nicholas; nor will it be rash to conclude 
that the unfortunate monarch would have fared better had he 
sometimes followed their advice." 
The story of Henrietta's second marriage with her devoted 
lord chamberlain, Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans, is entirely 
discredited by :Miss Strickland in her life of the queen. It is 
shown to have been the malicious invention of the enemies of 
the Stuarts. One sentence in Bossuet's funeral oration is suffi- 
cient to brush it aside: "Great queen, well do I know that I 
fulfil the most tender wisl1es of your heart when I celebrate your 
monarch-that heart which never beat but for him; is it not 
ready to vibrate, though cold in the dust, and to stir at the sound 
of the name of a spouse so dear, though veiled under the mor- 
tuary pall ? " 
Her heart was placed in a silver vessel, and preserved in the 
chapel of the convent at Chaillot, which the religious queen had 
founded amidst the pressure of her troubles, in July, 165 I. 
The place of her sepulture was with her royal ancestors at the 
magnificent abbey of St. Denis, near Paris. 
Lingard, Hist. of Ellg., ed. 1849, vols, vii., viii., ix.; StrÙ-fdalld, 
Lh'es of tile Queells of Ellg., ed. 1845, vol. viii. ; Dodd, Ch. Hist., 
vol. iii. p. 122. 
I. "A Relation of the Glorious Triumphs and Order of the Ceremonies 
observed in the Marriage. . . . of Charles, , . . and Ladie Henrietta Maria, 
&c." Lond. 1625, 4to. 
"Le triomphe glorieux et l'ordre des Cérémonies, &c., au 1\Iariage du 
Roy, &c." Paris, 1625, 4to. 
"Gratulatio quadrilinguis in Nuptiis Caroli I. et Pl'. Hem. Mar. Fr." 
Lond, 1625, 4to" by \Valter Quin, preceptor to Prince Henry. 
L' ::\Iusarum Oxoniensium Charisteria pro Regina Maria." Oxon. 1638, 4to. 
The queen was always called 
lary at the court of Charles 1. 
2. A coppyof-I. The letter sent by the Queenes Majestie concerning 



27 8 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEN 
 


the Col1ection of the Recusants Money for the Scottish \Varre, Apr. 17, 1639. 
II. The Letter sent by Sir Kenelm Digby and Mr.1\Iontague concerning 
the Contribution. III. The Letter sent by those assembled in London to 
every shire. IV. The names of the Collectors in each county in England 
and \Vales. And V. The l\1essage sent from the Queenes Majestie to the 
house of Commons by Master Comptroller, the 5th of Feb., 1639." Lond. 
1641, 4 t o. 
"Her Majesties answer to a message of both Houses," Lond. 1641,4to" 
concerning a rumour that the Commons had an intention to accuse her of 
high treason. 
" His 1'\la: Speech, and the Queenes Speech concerning the reasons of 
the House of Commons to stay the Queenes going to Holland." Lond, 1641, 
s.sh, fo1. 
" A copie of the Queens letter from the Hague in Holland to the King's 
Majestie residing at Y 01 ke. Sent,... by one of his Majesty's gentlemen 
ushers, Mar. 19, 16.p (o.s.)." Lond. 16-1-2, s.sh. fol. 
"Some observations upon occasion of the publishing their 1\lajesties 
Letters." Lond. 1645, 4to. 
"The Lord George Digby's Cabinet, and Dr. Goff's Negotiations; toge- 
ther with his Majesties, the Queen's, and the Lord J ermin's, and other 
Letters taken at the Battle of Sherborn, about the 15th Oct. last, Also Ob- 
servations upon the said Letters," Lond, (1\larch 26, 16-1-6), 4to., vide under 
Geo. Digby, ii. 68 seq. 
" His Majesties Declaration and Speech concerning his comming from 
\Vindsor to \Vhite-Hall , . . . Also the Queens Majesties Message to the 
Lord Generall Fairfax, . . . , concerning the King's.... Tryall." Lond. 
1648, 4to. 
"A Letter sent from the Queen of England to the King's Majestie at 
Newport concerning the. . . . treaty; . . . . Also his Majesties last conCes- 
sions for peace, delivered to the Commons, &-::-." Lond. (Oct. 12) 1648, 4to., 
a narrative. 
Letters of Queen Henrietta Maria, inc1uding her Private Correspondence 
with Charles the First. Edited by 1\1. A. E, Green. Lond. 1857 (1856), 8vo. 
The tracts appertaining to the queen during the civil war, and the period 
immediately preceàing it, are very numerous, 
3. "Discours du bon et loial sujet a la Reyne de ce Pays, touchant la 
Paix et affaires d'iceluy a la Glore ùe Charles I., Roy de Royaume seant en 
son Parleme!1t distingué en lonsses ordres selon la ,'olonté des Roys at 
Reynes, et representé par figures en Tailles douces." Paris, 1648, 4to. This 
work contains a portr,1Ït of Henrietta Maria. 
"The Queen of England's Prophicie concerning Prince Charles [narrated 
in a letter, dated Leyden, April 26, 1649J . . , . \Vith a narrative of his pro- 
ceedings; and the declar,ttion of the Low Country souldiers. Also a 
prophecy delivered to Lieut. Generall Crumwell by a Yorkshire gentle- 
woman, &c." Lond. April 30, 16-1-9, 4to. 
"The Muses' Joy for the recovery of Henrietta l\Iaria, the Queen Moth
r, 
and her Royal Branches." Lond. 1661, 4to., by John Crouch. 
,. The Speech of Her Ma. the Q. Mother's Palace, upon the reparation and 
enlargement of it, by Her Majesty." Lond. 1665, fo1. 



HER.] 


OF TIlE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


279 


" Upon Her Majesties New Buildings at Somerset House:' Lond. 166 5, 
s.sh, fo1., a poem by Sir John Denham, 
4. "History of Henrietta :ì\laria, Queen of England." Lond. 1660,8vo. 
"The Life and Death of that matchless mirrour of magnanimity, 
Henrietta Maria de Bourbon, Queen to that Blessed King and Martyr, 
Charles the First, &c." Lond, 1669, 12mo.; Lonr!. 1672, 12mo., with portr. 
by Faithorne; Lond. 1685, with portrait by Faithorne. 
"Vie de Reine Henriette," prefixed to the Funeral Oration of Dossuet, 
1669, translated into English in his" Select Sermons and Funeral Orations," 
Lond. 1800, 8vo., sæ Edw. Jerningham. 
"The Funerall Sermon of the Queene of Great Britanie [translated from 
the French]. By Thomas Carre." Paris, Vincent du Moutier, 1670, 8vo., 
pp. 52. The Rev. Miles Pinkney, alias Thos. Carr, was confessor to the 
Augustinian nuns at Paris. 
" Memoires of the life and death of . . . . Henrietta Maria de Bourbon, 
Queen to . . . . Charles the first, &c," Lond. 1671, 1 2mo., ded, to Chas. I I., 
a scarce and valuable private history. 
"The Life and Death of Henrietta, &c.," Lond., pro for Dor!TIan Newman, 
1685, 8vo, ; repr. in G. Smeeton's Tracts, vol. i. 18zo, 4to. 
"Histoire d'Henriette d'Angleterre," 1720, 12mo., with portr, 
"La \'ie de tres haute et tres puissante Princesse Henriette Marie de 
France, Reyne de Grande Bretagne." Paris, 1690, 8vo, 
In the first vol. (pp. 242-260) of Madame F. B. de Motteville's " Memoires 
pour servir à I'Histoire d'Anne d'Austriche," Amst., 1723, 5 tom. Izmo., is an 
edited narrative of the queen. It is headed" Abrege des Revolutions 
d'Angleterre," and is thus introùuced by the editress, "Recital made by the 
queen of England, Henriette Marie, daughter of Henri Quatre and Marie de 
1\Iedicis in the mon,\stery of the Virgins of S1. Mary de Chaillot, of which 
she was foundress, written by Madame de 
lotteville, to whom this princess 
dictated." 
5. Portrait, "Serenissima, Potentissima Domina Henrietta Maria, 
Dorbonia, Dei Gratia 1\1agnæ Britanniæ, Franciæ, et Hiberniæ Regina, &c, 
Henrici IV., Galliarum et N ,lVarræ Regis Fi1. Illustrissimi et Reverendissimi 
Domino D. Carlo Vanden Dosch, Drugensium Episcopo, perpetuo ct here- 
ditario Flandriæ Cancellario, ut omni genæ erudltionis laude norentissimo, 
ita singulari bonarum artium fautori et patrono, iconem hanc, cujus Pro- 
totypen viroris coloribus expressam inter ejus cimeha spectantur, Lub. Mer. 
Dedicabat l\Iast. Antonius Civis Antverp," A. van Dyck, pinx., P de J ode, sc. 
" Henrietta Maria, Regina," \V. Faithorne, f. 
"Henrietta Maria, King Charles the first's Queen," A. van Dyck, p., \V. 
Hollar, sc., 1164 f. 
"Henrietta Maria, by the Grace of God, Queen of England, Scotland, 
France, and Ireland, &c.," \V. Hollar, f. 
" Henrietta 
laria, Consort to King Charles I.," A. van Dyck, p. 
" He
rietta Maria, \Vife of King Charles I. with h:::r husband." 
Herbert, Lady Lucy, prioress, O.S.A.) born in 1669, 
was the- fourth daughter of \Villiam. third Baron and first Earl 
and l\1:arquess of Pow is: who was created a duke by the exiled 



280 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HER. 


monarch, James I I., at the Court of St. Germain, about 1692. 
Her mother was Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Somerset, 
Marquess of \Vorcester. 
Feeling a strong desire to embrace the religious state, Lady 
Lucy visited most of the English convents on the Continent, 
at some of which she was received in state, with lighted tapers, 
&c. On Feb. 22, 1692, she was conducted by Fr, Sabran, S.J., 
the queen's chaplain at St. Germain, to the priory of the English 
canonesses of St. Augustine at Bruges. The simple cordiality 
of her greeting impressed her more than her previous recep- 
tions, and she at once declared that this was the house of her 
choice. On the following March I st she received the habit, and 
on the 17th of the same month was clothed, the ceremony 
being performed with all the solemnity permitted by the dis- 
turbed state of the times. In religion she took the _ name of 
Sister Teresa Joseph, and on June I, 1693, she was professed. 
On March 5, 1709, she was elected prioress of the convent 
in succession to l\lother 1'1ary \Vright, who died on the 27th of 
the previous month. She had already filled the" office of pro- 
curatrix for two years. 
After the unsuccessful rising in favour of the rightful heirs 
to the throne in 1715, Lady Lucy's sisters, the Lady Montagu. 
and Lady Nithsdale, visited the convent and stayed for some 
time; the former returned in 1738 with the intention of ending 
her days there. 
During Lady Herbert's long government the convent in- 
creased in numbers and flourished exceedingly. She enlarged 
the inclosure, erected a new house for the chaplain, and rebuilt 
the church, which, though small, was very beautiful. Tne fine 
marble altar erected in 1738 was brought from Rome at great 
cost. At length she departed this life, leaving the whole com- 
munity in true affliction for the loss of so great an example of 
all virtues, Jan. 19, I 744, aged 75. 
H She was endowed," says the chronicle of the convent, H with 
all religious virtues, an extreme piety and devotion, exactitude 
in all religious duties, a well-grounded mortification, a profound 
humility, a most ardent devotion to our Redeemer Ì)r the Holy 
Sacrament of the Altar. . . . . lIer meekness and sweetness of 
temper rp-ndered her amiable to everyone, both equals and in- 
feriors. She had an heroic courage to overcúme all àifficulties 
in anything she undertook for the glory of God." 



HER. ] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


281 


.J.1[(}J/'ris, The DC'iJotiolls" Dodd, Ch. Hist., vol. iii. p. 447; 
Petre, Notices of Ellg. Colleges, &c., p. 55 j Kirk, Biog. Collects., 
JvI5., No, 43. 
I. Several Excellent Methods of Hearing Mass with fruit and 
benefit according to the institution of that Divine Sacrifice and 
the intention of our Holy Mother the Church, With Motives to 
induce all good Christians, particularly Religious Persons, to 
make use of the same. Collected together by the Right Honour- 
able Lady Lucy Herbert of Powis, Superior of the English 
Augustin nuns. Bruges, John de Cock, 1722, 8vo., pt. 
 has a separate 
pagination and register; Bruges, 1742, IZt110.; (London), 1791, 12mo., pp, 
140, besides Index 2pp., repro in ., The Devotion3," 1873. 
2. Several Methods and Practices of devotions appertaining to 
a Religious Life. Bruges, 17..).3, 12t110. ; (Lond.), 1791, IZ1110" pp. 248, 
besides Index 3 pp., and Prayer 
 pp.; repro in "The Devotions," 1873, 
3. Motives to excite us to the frequent Meditation of our 
Saviour's Passion. Bruges, 1742, 8vo. ; (Lond.), 1791, IZffiO., pp. 110; 
reprint
d in "The Devotions of the Lady Lucy Herbert of Powis. Formerly 
Prioress of the Augustinian Nuns at Bruges. Edited by ] ohn Morris, S.]." 
London, Burns & Oates, J 873, I zmo., pp. xxii.-492, òivided into 3 pts. 1. 
Several :Methods and Practices of Devotion appertaining to a religious life. 
II. Several exceÍlent methods of hearing mass, III. Meditations 011 our 
Saviour's p'assion; on the motives for honouring our Blessed Lady, and for 
-each Sunday of the month. 
4. The Pearl of the Sanctuary, or Devotions to Jesus in the 
adorable sarcifice and Blessed Sacrament. Compiled in . . . . 
1709 by . . . . Lady Lucy Herbert. Lond. 1861, IZffiO., edited by 
Miss A. M. Stewart, 


Herbert, William, ,,-,ide l\Iarquess of Powis. 


Herman, Mr., confessor of the faith, is named in Foxe's 
list of Gatholics, imprisoned in various places in 1579, as having 
died in prison previous to that date, at which time his widow 
was still in prison at \Vinton. 
Tierney, Dodd, Ch. Hist., vol. iii., p, 160. 
HeroJ?, Giles, martyr, was the son and heir of Sir John 
Heron, Knt., ma
ter of the jewel-house, by his first wife, daughter 
of Griffith Reade, of vVales. 
Sir John was the son of \Villiam Heron, of Ford Castle, 
Northumberland, which remains to this day a fine specimen of 
an old Border castlc. Full of ancient woodwork and other 
objects of antiquarian interest, the grey turreted and battle- 
mented pile rises from the midst of carefully-tendered grounds. 
Its chief attraction is its association with the luckless James IV, 



282 


BIBLIOGRAPIIICAL DICTIONARY 


[HER. 


of Scotland, who fell at the battle of Flodden Field. The room 
in which he slept on Sept. 5, 15 13, in the tower bearing his 
name, still remains in its original state; there is the canopied 
bedstead, the curiously-carved cabinet, and the original tapestry 
on the walls. During the restoration of the castle a secret 
staircase was discovered, built in the thickness of the walls.. 
connecting the monarch's room with that below, which was 
occupied by Lady Heron, from whom, probably, the Earl of 
Surrey gained that information concerning the disposition of 
the royal forces which prompted him to make the strategical 
move round by Twizel Bridge which pïoved so fatal to Scot- 
land. From Ford Castle, too, it is said that Surrey sent James 
the challenge to decide the day by single combat. 
Giles Heron married Cicely, youngest daughter of Sir Thomas 
l\lore, the lord chancellor. The date of his marriage is not 
stated, but the chancellor refers to his son-in-law Heron in a 
letter to his \YÏfe in Sept. 1526. Heron's step-mother, Eliza- 
beth, second wife of Sir John Heron, was the daughter of John 
Roper, of \\'ellhall and S1. Dunstan's, Kent, thus forming a 
closer connection with the chancellor's family, for her nephew, 
William Roper, of Eltham, clerk of the King's Bench, was the 
husband of Sir Thomas l\10re's eldest daughter l\Iargaret. This. 
relationship to the great chancellor was in itself sufficient to 
procure Giles Heron the ill-will of Henry VIII. and his council. 
After the tyrant had wreaked himself with the blood of Sir 
Thomas in 1535, he followed up his vengeance by committing 
to the Tower the martyr's only son, John 1'10re, his sons-in-law, 
\\'illiam Roper, John Dancy, and Giles Heron, as also his family 
tutor, Dr. John Clement, They were presented with the new 
oath of Henry's spiritual supremacy, but all refused to take it. 
According to Dr. Stapleton, they were eventually released; but 
if it is true that Giles Heron recovered his liberty, it was not 
a permanent release. A few years later he was included in a 
parliamentary attainder, with the prior of Doncaster and five 
others, and condemned to death for the same cause, the denial 
of the king's ecclesiastical supremacy. Accordingly the seven 
martyrs were drawn to Tyburn, and there hanged and quartered,. 
Aug. 4, 154 0 . 
1'1r. Heron had two sons and one daughter. Of the sons, 
Thomas is the only one named in the pedigrees, in one. of 
which he is stateà to have married Cicely, daughter of Barthol. 



HER.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


2 8 3 


Ickell, and to have died s.p. The daughter, Anne, married, 
first, a member of an ancient Northumbrian family of Horsley, 
and, secondly, J\fr. Osborne. 
lVilsoll, EnglÙh .J.jfartyrology,. Harl. Soc., Visit, of Notts.,o 
Ùl., Visit, of Yorks. J. id., Visit. of Essex, PI.,. Le"Luis, Sanders' 
.Anglican Schism, p. 151; Sanders, Scltis1ll, A'lzgl., ed. 1585 ; 
Dodd, CIt. Hist., vol. i. p. 206; Hodgson, Hist. of Nortlwlllbcr- 
land, vol. ii.; Peerage, TeYllltalll pedigree; Audill, Stapletoll's 
Histoire de Thomas Afore, pp. 82, 209, 233, 373, and 3 86 . 


Herries, William Constable-Maxwell, Baron Herries 
of Terregles, in the Peerage of Scotland, born Aug. 25, 1804, 
was the eldest son of 1'1armaduke \Villiam Constable-::\Iaxwell, 
Esq., of Carlaverock Castle, Dumfries, and Everingham Park, 
Yorkshire, by his wife Theresa Appolonia, daughter of Edmund 
\Vakeman, of Beckford, co. Gloucester, Esq. He was educated 
with his brothcr at Stonyhurst College, which he entered Sept. 
24, I S I 4. 
His father was the eldest son of \Villiam Haggerston, second 
son of Sir Carnaby Haggerston, of Haggerston Castle, co. N orth- 
umberland, Bart., by Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Peter 
IVliddleton, of Stockeld Park and Myddelton Lodge, co, York, 
Esq. \Villiam Haggerston succeeded, through his grandmother, 
Anne, the wife of vVilliam Haggerston, Esq., to the estates of 
her father, Sir Philip Constable, of Everingham, Bart., and assumed 
the name of Constable. In 1758 he married Lady \Vinifred 
l\Iaxwell, only surviving daughter and hèiress of \Villiam, Lord 
l'Iaxwell, titular Earl of Nithsdale, by his wife, Lady Catharine 
Stewart, daughter of Charles, fourth Earl of Traquair, who would 
have inherired, but for the attainder of her grandfather, the 
B3.rony of Herries of Traquair. The eldest son of this marriage, 
l\'Iarmaduke \Villiam (Haggerston) Constable, became seised of 
the Constable and 1'1axwell estates, and assumed the additional 
name of :Maxwell; \Villiam (Haggerston) Constable, the second 
son, succeeded to the 1'1iddleton estates, and assumed that name; 
and Charles (Haggerston) Constable inherited the l\lanor House, 
Otley, part of the :Middleton estates, and, having married Eliza- 
beth, sister and I:eiress of Sir \Villiam Stanley, of Hooton, co. 
Chester, Bart., assumed the name of Stanley-Constable. 
In 1848 an act of parliament was passed, by which l\h. 
\Villiam Constable-l\1axwell and all the other descendants of 



28 4 


InULIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HER. 


the body of \;Villiam Earl of Nithsdale were restored in blood. 
Thereupon 1\1r. Constable-Maxwell presented a petition to her 
majesty, praying to be declared and adjudged entitled to the 
honour and dignity of Baron Berries of Terregles. This peti- 
tion was referred to the House of Lords, and on June 23, 1858, 
the ancient Scottish Barony of Berries of Terregles, created in 
14 8 9, and borne by the last Earl of Nithsdale, was restored in 
IVlr. Constable-lVlaxwell's person as eleventh baron. 
In 1835 he married l''Iarcia, eldest daughter of the Hon. Sir 
Edward Marmaduke Vavasour, Bart. (younger son of Charles 
Philip, sixteenth Lord Stourton), by l''Iarcia Bridget, only 
daughter of James Fox-Lane, of Bramham Park, Yorkshire, Esq. 
By this lady, who survived him, Lord Berries left a family of 
sixteen children, of whom the eldest son, Marmaduke Francis, 
l\laster of Berries, born Oct, 4, 1837, suq::eeded his father as 
twelfth baron, and having married, ...\ pril 14, I 875, the Bon. 
Angela Mary.Charlotte Fitzalan Howard, daughter of Lord 
Howard of Glossop, has recently been created a Baron of the 
United Kingdom. His lordship died in Berkeley Square, 
London, Nov. 12, 1876, aged 72, and was interred at Evering- 
ham. 
H is lady survived him seven years, and died at Rome Nov. 18, 
1883, aged 67, her remains being removed to Everingham for 
interment. Her life had been one of prayer and good works, 
During the latter years of her husband's life, with his approval 
and generous help, she established a Convent of Poor Clares 
Colettines in York, and continued for many years to be the 
chief benefactress and support of those excellent religious. By 
persevering efforts she obtained means to build for them a con- 
vent, with a chapel and a garden enclosed within protecting 
walls. The devotion of Lady Berries to the great patriarch, 
St. Francis of Assisi, was her incentive to this great undertaking, 
and she did not relax in her labour of begging until the house 
was actually established, and the nuns able to provide for them- 
selves. After the death of Lord Herries, the Dowager Lady 
Berries resided chiefly in Scotland, and her zeal for the spread of 
religion in that country suggested to her the pious thought of 
establishing a convent there in which the perpetual adoration 
of the l\lost Boly Sacrament might be practised, and might so 
win for the land its restoration to the ancient f2ith. In the 
face of every kind of difficulty, she began by inviting contribu- 



RES.] 


OF THE EXGLISH CATHOLICS. 


28 5 


tions from all her friends, and at length, after unflagging efforts, 
she found herself able to begin the building on a piece of land 
generously granted by her sQn, the present Lord Herries. She 
obtained the consent of the Benedictines of the Perpetual Ado- 
ration at Arras to establish the convent, but she did not live to 
see them take possession. She went to Rome to obtain a dis- 
pensation from the Pope to allow her to become a Visitation 
nun, she being one year past the age at which widows are ad- 
mitted into that order, There she died, after a few days' illness, 
at the feet, so to speak, and with the special blessing, of the 
Vicar of Christ. 
Tablet, vol. xliv. p, 659, vol. xlviii. pp. 663, 694, vol. lxii. 
pp. 82 I, 90 I ; flatt, Sto1ly/wrs! Lists J' jnJ/CS, JJlisc. Ped., .1.JI S. 
I. In the correspondence which ensued upon 1\Ir, Gladstone's Expostu- 
lation referring to the decree of the Vatican Council as regards the in- 
fallibility of the Pope, Lord Harries wrote a letter to the Times under date 
Nov. 14, 18 74. 
2. For much historical and geneological information, see "The Hook 
of Carlaverock," Edinburgh, 1873, 4to. 2 vols., edited by \Vm. Fra3er from 
materials collected by the Hon, J\Iarmaduke Constable-Maxwell of Terregles, 
brother of Lord Herries, who died in 1872. 
See also" Everingham in the Olden Time: a Lecture by Lord Herries." 
Market \Veí
hton, 1886, 8vo, pp.20. 
3. "A Funeral Discourse, etc., on Marcia Baroness Herries. By Fr. Peter 
Gallwey, S.J." Lond. 1883, 8vo. 


Herst, Richard, martyr, 'vide Hurst. 


Hesketh, John, priest, was a younger son of Thomas 
Hesketh, of 1'1aynes Hall, Little Singleton, co. Lancaster, Esq., 
by Tv1argaret, daughter and heiress of George Talbot, of New 
Hall, Clayton-Ie-dale, Esq., younger son of Sir John Talbot, of 
Salisbury Hall, Knt. 
He studied his humanities at St. Orner's College, and entered 
the novitiate S.J., at \Vatten, Sept. 7, 1699. He seems to have 
left the society very soon, for his name does not appear in the 
catalogue of the members in 170 I. In 1710 he was con- 
fessor at the English Benedictine Abbey at Dunkirk, but how 
long he remained there does not appear. He was living when 
his brother \Villiam registered his estate in 1717, being then 
in receipt of an annuity. 
G illow, Lanc. ReCl/Sallls, lit S. J' Folc)', Records S J., vols. 
vi. and vii. 



286 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[BES. 


I. The Devotion cftha Infant Jesus. 1710, MS. 
This devotion was promoted by Fr. Hesketh whilst director to the nuns. 
It is deàicated "To my dear sisters in Christ, Evangelical Perfection and 
Eternal Benediction," and begins, "I endeavoured by word of mouth to im- 
print in all your hearts," and goes on to speak of " the great desire I have of 
your penection," and is signed" J. H." The 1\15. is now at St. Scholastica's 
Abbey, Teignmouth. 
Hesketh, Richard, gentleman, baptized at Great Harwood, 
July 28, 1562, was the third son of Sir Thomas Hesketh, of 
Rufford and 1'lartholme, Knt., by Alice, dau. of Sir John Hol- 
croft, of Holcroft, Knt. His eldest brother, Robert Hesketh, 
married l\Iarie, dau, of Sir George Stanley, of Cros') Hall, 
I(nt., marshal in Jreland. The Heskeths of Rufford at this 
period were Catholics, and their names frequently appear in the 
recusant rolls. Richard Hesketh joined the English refugees 
on the Continent, a11d in all probability served in Sir \Villiam 
Stanley's regiment in Flanders. On the death of Henry 
Stanley, fourth Earl of Derby, in Sept., 1592, Richard Hesketh 
was commissioned by Sir \VilIiam Stanley and Fr. Holt. S.J., 
to negotiate with his son and successor, Ferdinando, Lord 
Strange, relative to the succession of the crown. The new 
earl was third in descent from Henry VII., whilst the Stuarts, 
though of the older linê, were fourth in descent. It cannot be 
doubted that Lord Strange had at one time entertained pro- 
posais to be made king after the death of the queen. It is 
asserted that this was the burèen of Hesketh's mission, sup- 
ported with promises of Spanish assistance. The exact nature 
of his commission, however, is by no means certain ; Dodd rc- 
pudiates the allegations ascribed to Hesketh on the scaffold. 
Lord Derby delivered Hesketh to the council, and he was 
arraigned and condemned for high treason. He was executed 
at St. Albans, Nov. 29, 1593, aged 3 I. 
The sudden death of Earl Ferdinando in the following April, 
was insinuated without any foundation to be the result of poison 
administered to him in revenge for his treachery, It might 
with equal, if not more probability, be ascribed to the ruling 
poiiticians. 
l\1r. Hesketh was cousin to Roger Ashton, who was executed 
at Tyburn for procuring a dispensation from Rome to marry a 
second cousin, and for entertaining seminary priests. Ashton, 
was a captain in Sir \Villiam Stanley's regiment, and this, 
doubtless, was the underlying motive for his execution, 



RES.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


28 7 


Dodd, Cft. Hist., vol. ii., p. 160; Collier, CIt, Hist., vol. vii., 
p. 253 ; Strype, A JlJlals, 2nd ed., 103-4; Records of tlte 
Ellg. Catholics, vol. ii,; Gillow, Lanc. RCcllsallts, .1I1S. ; Estate 
of E1lg. Fugitiz'es, I 595, p, 7 2 ; Heywood, Allen's Defence of 
Stanley. 
Hesketh, Roger, D.D., a younger son of Gabriel Hesketh, 
of vVhitehill, Goosnargh, co. Lancastcr, gent., by Anne, daughter 
of Robert Simpson, of Barker, in Goosnargh, was born in 
16 43. 
This honourable branch of the Heskeths of Rufford was de- 
scended from Gabriel Hesketh, of Aughton, gent., by his second 
wife Jane, daughter of Sir Henry Halsall, of Halsall, Knt. 
Their second son, Sir Thomas Hesketh, Knt" was bencher and 
reader at Gray's Inn, Attorney-General, co. Lancaster, under 
Queen Elizabeth and James I., one of the court of wards and 
liveries, and also a member of the council north at York. He 
represented Preston in Parliament in 1586, and Lancaster in 
1597 and 1603. It was he who acquired the estate of vVhite- 
hill, in Goosnargh, and also the 1'1anor of Heslington, near 
York, and dying without issue left both of those e
tates to his 
younger brother Cuthbert. The latter bequeathed Heslington 
to his eldcst son, Thomas, and Whitehill to his third son 
Gabriel, the father of the subject of this notice. Thcre was a 
chapel at \Vhitehill, the altar in which had a curious marble re- 
rcdos, A local tradition obtains that formerly thcre existed a 
secret underground passage from \Vhitehill to the Ashes, the 
ancient residence of the Catholic family of Thrclfall, wherein 
was another domestic chapel. 
Roger Hesketh went over to the English College at Lisbon 
with his elder brother George, and after his ordination W2.S 
made Procurator of the College in 1697, and Confessarius in 
1672. In Jan., 1676, he began to teach philosophy, and in 
1677, divinity, On Dec. 6, 1678, he was appointed Vice- 
President, and continued to fill that office till he was recalled to 
England by Bishop Leyburne, in 1686. He left Lisbon, April 
29, in that year, but not till he had taken his degree of D.D. 
vVhen Dr. vVatkinson wished to resign the government of 
Lisbon Collegc, Dr. Hesketh was judged the most suitable 
successor, and he accordingly received the patent for that 
purpose from the chapter. Dr. \Vatkinson, however, was pre- 
vailed upon by the inquisitor-general to retain his office, and to 


... 



288 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[RES. 


this the chapter assented. In 1694, Dr. Hesketh was elected 
a capitular, and in 17 10 he assisted at the general chapter, in 
which Dr. Robert Jones, the sub-dean, presided in the place of the 
dean, Dr. Perrott, whose infirmities prevented his attendance. 
The scene of Dr. Hesketh's missionary career is not stated, 
It was probably in his native county. He is said to have 
laboured assiduously in the conversion of souls till his death, 
when, to borrow the expression of the annals of his college, 
"full of days, he fell asleep in the Lord," in the year I 7 I 5, 
aged 7 I. 
Bartholomew Hesketh, O.S.B., an elder brother of the doctor, 
was professed in the Benedictine monastery at Dieulward in 
1653, when he adopted the religious name of Gregory. He was 
sent to Lancashire, and served the Benedictine mission at Fish- 
wick Hall, near Preston, the ancient seat of the Eyves family. 
This good Catholic family about the same time settled at 
Ashton-super-Ribble, and the Fishwick Hall estate fell into the 
hands of the Molyneux family of Sefton, under whom it had 
probably been held during a succession of long leases. Caryll, 
third Viscount l\101yneux, during the reign of James II., granted 
the hall and estate to the Benedictines 011 lease for the lives of 
Frs. James Mather, Aug. Hudson, and Gregory Helme. Fr. 
Hesketh had the charge of the mission, and he erected a new 
chapel adjoining the hall, and provided it with two bells and an 
organ. The Catholics of the neighbourhood had not possessed 
such a chapel for more than a century. But the revolution of 
1688 silenced the bells of Fishwick, and the strains of the 
organ were no longer heard, lest the ears of "sensitive" Pro- 
testants might be offended. Fr. Hesketh, however, remained at 
Fishwick until his death, Jan. 25, 1694-5, when he was interred 
in the family burial-place at Goosnargh on the following 
Fe.bruary I. He was succeeded in the mission by Fr. Fris, 
\Vatmough, O.S.B., who left for Rome in 1698. In 17 I 6 the 
estate was seized by the commissioners for forfeited estates, as 
devoted to "superstitious uses," and after that the Catholics o.f 
the neighbourhood seem to have met for divine service in the 
chapel at Ribbeton Lodge, the 
eat of the Brewers. A ba'rn in 
Fishwick, belonging to Mr. Smith, grandfather of the R. R, Dom 
Cuthbert Smith, O.S.B., ,,,as also used for mass some time 
previous to 1762. 
Several other members of this family were Benedictines, 



RES.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


289 


notably Dom Roger Jerome Hesketh, son of Cuthbert Hesketh, 
of \Vhitehill, professed at Douay, Sept. 2 I, 1639, and sent to 
the mission in Lancashire, where he became procurator of the 
northern province in 1657. From 1675 -8 he was director to 
the nuns at Paris, and in the latter year returned to the mission 
in London. There he was arrested during the excitement 
raised by the impostor Oates. He was brought to the bar in 
company with Fr. Anthony Hunter, S.J., but Oates, who knew 
neither of them, swore that the latter was Fr. Hesketh, and that 
he had formerly been well acquainted with him, and knew him 
to be a Benedictine priest. The Jesuit was accordingly con- 
demned to death in the name of the Benedictine, who was dis:- 
charged, as Oates declared he did not know him and had nothing 
to say about him. Fr, Hesketh was ready to have acknowledged 
his name if he had been asked, but under the circumstances it 
was thought better that he should not needlessly sacrifice 
another life. Thus, after fifteen months' imprisonment in N ew- 
gate, he was allowed to retire abroad, and going to Douay, was 
made prior of St. Gregory's monastery. After holding that 
office from 168 I to 1685, he probably returned to Lancashire, 
and died at an advanced age about the year 1693. 
]{irk, Biog. Colbls. filS 5., No. 23; Gillow, Lanc. Recltsants, 
1115.; Forfeited Estates Papers, P.R. 0., F. I, F. 2, S. 94, 
P. 134, S. 54 ; Fish-wick, His!. of Goosllargk,o Catk. ]tfag., vol. vi. 
p. 104; Dolan, TVeldoll's Ckroll. Notes J' Snow, Bened. Nec- 
rology. 
I. In a MS. collection of Latin verses composed by various students of 
Lisbon College, referred to in the Cath, Jlág., vi. 105, is a long juvenile per- 
formance by Dr. Hesketh in praise of his native country. 
2. "A Treatise of Transubstantiation," one of the numerous anonymous 
tracts published during the reign of James I I. Dodd, in his (, Certamen 
Utriusque," says it was against John Patrick, M.A., preacher at the 
Charterhouse, and therefore must have been in reply to one of the two 
following works by that author: "Transubstantiation no doctrine of the 
primitive fathers, being a defence of the Dublin Letter herein against the 
Papist Misrepresented and Represented, part ii. cap. 3," Lond, 1687, 4to. pp. 
72; or, cc A Full View of the Doctrines and Practices of the Ancient Church 
relating to the Eucharist. \Vholly different from those of the present Roman 
Church, and inconsistent with the belief of Transubstantiation, Being a 
sufficient confutation of Consensus Veterum, Nubes Testium, and other late 
Collections of the Fathers, pretending to the contrary." Lond. 1688. 4to. pp. 
xi.-202. 
For this controversy, see under John Gother, vol. ii. pp. 541-3. Also Jones' 
Chetham Popery Tracts. 
VOL. III. U 



29 0 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[RES. 


Hesketh, Thomas, Esq., of Heslington, co. York, was 
the eldest son ot Cuthbert Hesketh, of \Vhitehill, co Lancaster, 
gent., by Jennet, daughter of John Parkinson, of \Vhinney 
Clough, His father inherited Heslington from his elder brother 
Sir Thomas Hesketh, Knt. 
Thomas Hesketh was slain in the service of Charles 1., in 
l\lanor- Yard at York. He married Jane, daughter oÍ Alder- 
man Brooke of York, and his son Thomas Hesketh of Hesling- 
ton, Esq., married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir \Valter Bethill, of 
Alne, co. York, and grand-daughter of Sir Henry Slingsby, 
Bart. Their only child, Anne Hesketh, carried the estate to 
her husband James Yarburgh, of Snaith Hall, lord of the 
maflors of Yarburgh, Snaith, and Cowick. He was godson to 
James II., and one of his l\lajesty's pages of honour. He 
afterwards became a lieut.-colonel in the Guards, and died in 
1728. His wife died in April 1718, the last of the Heskeths 
of Heslington. 
Cillo'Lu, Lanc, Rescl/salzts, 1115.,. Bl/rke, C01llmoners. 
Hesketh, Thomas, a major in the royal army, was slain 
at l\Ialpas, in Cheshire, during the civil wars. He was appa- 
rently the eldest son and heir of Robert Hesketh, of Rufford, 
Esq., by his first wife, 1'lary, daughter of Sir George Stanley, 
K.nt., marshall in Ireland, and sister and heiress of Henry 
Stanley, of Cross BaH, Lancashire, Esq. The major, who 
figures in the recusant rolls in the reign of Charles 1., was 
thrice married, first to Susan Powes, a Shropshire lady, secondly 
to Jane Edmondson, and thirdly to Catharine, daughter of 
Alexander Breers, of Lathom, co, Lancaster, gent., but died 
without issue in Nov. 1646. 
Previous to this time most of the Rufford Heskeths were 
recusants. 
Cillo'LL', Lanc. Recl/sants, .illS.,. Castlemai1l, Catk Aþology; 
CCJlcalogyc of tlze Heskaytlzes. 
I. Good accounts of this family and its various branches will be found in 
"The Genealogye of the worshipful and auncient familie of the Heskaythes, 
of Ruffourd in Lancashire. Copied from the original Roll in the possession 
of Sir Thomas George Fermor-Hesketh, of Rufford, Rlrt. Together with 
The Hesketh Pedigrees from the Yisitations of Lancashire, 1613, 1664, &c." 
Lond. privately printed, 1869, 4to. pp. 14, besides title-page and plate of arms. 
See also Abram's" Hist. of Blackburn." 


Hesketh, Thomas, a captain of horse in the service of 



RES. ] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


29 1 


Charles 11., was the second son of Thomas Hesketh of l\faynes 
Hall and Little Poulton Hall, co. Lancaster, Esq., by his first 
wife Anne, daughter of Simon Haydock, of Heysandforth, co. 
Lancaster, Esq. \Vhilst but a young man he was slain in a 
skirmish at Brindle, near Preston, during the king's march to- 
wards \Vorcester in 165 I. 
This excellent Catholic family was descended from the 
Heskeths of Aughton, a branch of the Heskeths of Rufford, 
and settled in the sixteenth century, first at Little Poulton Hall, 
and then at The l\'Iaynes, in the adjoining manor of Little 
Singleton. \Villiam Hesketh, Esq., of The l\Iaynes, who was 
buried at Poulton, May 22, 175 I, married :Mary, daughter of 
John Brockholes, of Claughton Hall, Esq. Her brother 
\Villiam Brockholes, dying without issue, devised the Claughton 
estates to his nephew Thomas Hesketh, who assumed the name 
and anns of Brockholes. He died in 1766 and was succeeded 
by his brother Joseph Hesketh Brockholes, who married, in 
1768, Constantia, daughter of Thomas Fitzherbert, of Swynner- 
ton Park, co. Stafford, Esq. This gentleman died without 
surviving issue in 1783, and bequeathed the Hesketh and 
Brockholes estates to his brother J ames for life, who was not 
married, with remainder to his brother-in-law \Villiam Fitz- 
herbert, third son of Thomas Fitzherbert, with instructions to 
assume the name of Brockholes. l\Ir. Fitzherbert Brockholes 
was succeded by his son Thomas Fitzherbert Brockholes, who 
died a bachelor, Dec, 21, 1873. His nephew James Fitz- 
herbert Brockholes then inherited the estates, and on his death 
without issue the e
tates passed to his relative the present 
\Villiam Fitzherbert Brockholes, Esq. 
In the last generation of the Heskeths, besides the three 
brothers who assumed the name of Brockholes, there were two 
<others ecclesiastical students, and several sisters, spinsters and 
nuns. \Villiam Hesketh, bor.n l\lay 14, 171ï, was probably 
educated at St. Omer's College, and entered the Society of Jesus 
at \Vatten, Sept. 7, 1735, He returned to England in ill- 
health before he was ordained priest, and died Dec. 30, 1 741, 
aged 24. His brother, Roger Hesketh, was born in July, 
17 2 9, and after studying his humanities at St. Omer's College 
was admitted into the English College at Rome as a convictor, 
Nov. 3, 1750, by order of Cardinal Lante, and began his cours
 
.of philosophy. On Aug. 23, 1752, he left the college to enter 
V 2 



29 2 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HES. 


the novitiate, S.]., at \Vatten, but his health failed, and he 
returned to Lancashire. where he died :l\Iarch 8, 1767. At 
Rome he assumed his grandmother's name of Talbot. Of the 
sisters, l\lary, Aloysia, and Catherine l\Iary Frances went to the 
Benedictine Abbey at Ghent in 1756. After the community 
fled from Ghent it was eventually gathered together, in 1795, 
in a house opposite to St. \Vilfrid's, in Chapel Street, Preston. 
There the nuns opened a school for young ladies, and in I ï97 
Dame Catherine l\1ary Frances Hesketh was elected abbess. 
Thus she continued until her death, Nov, 24, 1809, in the 
8 I st year of her age, and the 54th of her religious profession. 
She was buried beside many of her nuns at Fernyhalgh, where 
a white marble tablet was erected to her memory. Other 
sisters were-1'1argaret, who resided at Ormskirk, and died un- 
married in 1764; Anne, who died unmarried and was buried 
at Poulton in 1758; and Frances who died young and was 
buried at Poulton in 1732. 
Castlcmain, Catlt. Apol.; Gillow, Lanc. Rccltsants, M s.,o Kirk,. 
Biog. ColblS. JIS., No. 23. 


Heskin, or Heskyns, Thomas, a.p., D.D., was a native 
of Heskin, in the parish of Eccleston, co. Lancaster. The family 
seems to have lost its territorial position in the township some 
time in the seventeenth century, when the hall was replaced by 
a new structure, which was taken down at the beginning of this 
century, and a farm-house now occupies the site. The Hcskins 
were staunch recusants, and appear annually in the returns. 
Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Heskyne de Heskyne, and Janet, wife 
of Robert Heskyne of the same, appear in the roll of 5 J ac. I., 
1606-7. The will of Hugh Heskin, of Heskyn, was proved in 
1618. At later dates descendants of the family were returned 
as recusants of Halsall and Latham, some of whom were con- 
victed so late as 17 16. J Iugh and Henry were family names. 
Thomas Heskin, after studying for twelve years at Oxford, 
was created M.A. of Cambridge in 1540, being then priest and 
fellow of Clare Hall. In 1548 he proceeded B.D. in the same 
university, and it is recorded that on June I I, in the following 
year, the Edwardian Commissioners for the visitation of the 
university had before them ten or eleven of Clare Hall for the 
purgation of Mr. Heskin. \Vhen it was proposed to suppress. 
that college, in order to unite it to Trinity Hall, he signed a 



HES.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


293 


paper, stating that, as an obedient subject to the king, he was 
content to give place to his authority in the dissolution of the 
college of Clare Hall, though his consent was not agreeable to 
the same by reason of his oath to the college. He occurs as 
rector of Hildersham, Cambridgeshire, from 1551 to 1556. 
During 1'1ary's reign, in 1557, he commenced D.D., and was 
collated by Cardinal Pole to the chancellorship of the church of 
Sarum, by mandate dated Oct. 27) I 558. In the following 
month he was admitted to the vicarage of Brixworth, N orth- 
amptonshire, on his own petition, that benefice being in his gift 
as Chancellor of Sarum, 
\Vhen Elizabeth changed the religion of the country, Dr. 
Heskin refused to subscribe to her spiritual supremacy, and in 
consequence he was deprived of all his preferments in Aug. 
1559. Thcreupon he withdrew to Flanders, became a Domi- 
nican, and \",Tas appointed confessor to some English nuns of 
that order at Bergen op Zoom, where they had been permitted 
to retire from England in the first year of Elizabeth's reign. 
Some years later he secretly visited England, for in I 569 Dr. 
Philip Baker, provost of King's College, Cambridge, was charged 
with having entertained him. The famous papist, it was stated, 
had been brought to his table at Cambridge in the dark, and 
conveyed away in the like manner. 
Dr. Heskin was greatly esteemed for his zeal and learning. 
I t is not known when or where he died. 
Cooper, Atllcllæ Cmltab, vol. i. p. 419 ; Pitts, De Illus. Allgl. 
Script, p. 765 ; Dodd, Ch. Hist' J vol. i. p. 525 ; Gillozv, Lanc, Re- 
alSallts, .AI S. 
I. The Parliament of Chryste avouching and declaring the 
enacted and receaved Trueth of the Presence of his Bodie and 
Bloode in the Blessed Sacrament, and of other Articles concern- 
ing the same, impugned in a wicked Sermon by M. Juel; called 
and set forth by Thomas Heskyns, Doctour of Dyvinitie. Wherein 
the Reader shall fynde all the Scripture commonlee alleaged out 
of the Newe Testamente Touching the Blessed Sacrament, and 
some of the olde Testamente plainlie and truly expounded by a 
Nombre of holy and learned Fathers and Doctours. Brussels, 
1565, fo!'; Antwerp, 1566, fo1. ff, cccc., besides title, address to 1\1. Jo. Juell, 
prologue, portrait, and plate SS, Miraculosum Sacramentum. 
This learned confutation of Jewell on the Eucharist W3S replied to four- 
teen years later by \Villiam Fulke, in two publications, entitled, "Heskins' 
Parliament Repealed; with a confutation of Saunders' Treatise of \V orship- 
jng Images," Lond. 1579, 8vo., and "D. Heskins, D. Saunders, and M. 



294 


BIBLIOGRAPIIICAL DICTIOK.\RY 


[HEW. 


Rastel, accounted (among their faction) three Pillars and Archpatriarchs of 
the Popish Synagogue, overthrowne and detected of their severall blasphemous 
Heresies," Lond. 1579, 8vo. 
2. Portrait, on wood, folio, frontispiece to the Antwerp edition of his 
work. 


Hewett, John, alias Weldon, priest and martyr, son of 
\Villiam Hewett, of York, draper, is said to have been born at 
Tollerton, in the North Riding. For some time he was a stude'nt 
in Caius College, Cambridge, whence he. went to the English 
College, then at Rheims, where he received the tonsure and 
minor orders on Sept. 23, 1583. After he had been ordained 
deacon he returned to his native country, probably op account 
of ill-lH'alth, and was at once arrested. On Aug. 23, 1585, the 
keeper of the recognizances in the castle of Kingston-upon-Hull 
certified that. he had received him into his charge. He was 
banished after a short imprisonment, and landed in France with 
twenty-one priests from the gaols at York and H ulJ, and on the 
following Nov. 7 arrived at Rheims again. In Jan. 1586 he 
left the college in company with two priests. According to the 
narrative of his execution, he was ordained priest at Paris, but 
this may be a mistake for Chalons. In the early part of 1587 
he was apprehended at Gray's Inn, in the chambers of John 
Gardener, of Grove Place, co. Buckingham, Esq., and was again 
banished. On Sept. 30, 1588, a list of seminary priests in the 
prisons in and about London, printed by Strype, includes the 
name of John \Veldon. He also used the alias of Savell. 
It appears that when he was banished he was lande
 in the 
Low Countries, where he was arrested by the Earl of Leicester, 
under pretence that he had come there to murder his lordship, 
He was sent over to England, but the earl's sudden death, on 
Sept. 4, I 5 8 S, delayed his trial for a short time. In the be- 
ginning of October he was brought before the Lord Chief Justice, 
the Lord l'Iayor, the Recorder (Sergeant Fleetwood), &c., and 
indicted for having been ordained priest at Paris, by authority 
derived from the See of Rome, and entering into England to 
execute his office of a seminary priest, contrary to the laws of the 
realm. Hewett took exception to the indictment as false, and de- 
murred to his being tried by the impannelled jury, for he was 
loath, he said, that those ignorant men who did not understand 
his case should be burthened with his blood. He therefore re- 
ferred the matter to the consciences of those sitting in judgment 



HEY.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


295 


upon him. Notwithstanding that he proved the injustice of the 
indictment, and that he had been sent a prisoner into the country 
by the Earl of Leicester, the Recorder, with the consent of the 
Lord I\layor and the other judges and justices, proceeded without 
a jury to sentence him to be hanged, drawn, and quartered, 
The next day he was conveyed through the city of London, 
with 'VVilliam Hartley, priest, and Robert Sutton, layman. 
Hartley was executed near the Theatre, Sutton was hanged at 
Clerkenwell, and Hewett at Mile End Green, Oct. 5, 1588. 
Standing in the cart at l\1ile End Green, the martyr disputed 
with the preachers, whilst one of them went to the Court to 
know the queen's pleasure concerning his quartering. Her 
majesty was found so favourable that she would have him 
merely hanged. In the meantime he refuted the fallacious 
statements of the minister who was disputing with him, be- 
having in all respects with great constancy and discretion. 
Challoner and other writers have been misled by Hewett's 
alias of'VVeldon, and have made two martyrs of one person. This 
has been conclusively shown by l''lr. T. G. Law in his interesting 
paper. on "The l\'lartyrs of the Year of the Armada," published 
in The J1Ionth. 
A True Report, &c..; La'Ll!, fifollth, vol. xvi., Tltird Series, 
pp. 7 1- 8 5; Chatlollcr, l/lemoirs, ed. 174 I, vol. i. pp. 234-6; 
Lewis, Sallders' Allgl. Schism, p. 33 I ; fiforris, Troubles, Third 
Series,. Doltay Diaries. 
I. "A True Report of the Inditement . . , . of John \Veldon, &c." Land. 
15 88 , 8vo. See under \V m., Hartley, No. I. 


Heywood, Ellis (or Elizeus), Father, S.]., born at London 
in 1530, was the eldest son of John Heywood, the epigram- 
matist. After receiving a preliminary education in London, he 
was sent to Oxford, and in 1547 was admitted probationer- 
fellow of All 
ouls' College, where he took the degree of D.C.I.. 
in I 552. Unable to reconcile his conscience with the doctrines 
of the reformers, he withdrew to the Continent, and travelled 
through France and Italy. During part of this time he was 
entertained by Cardinal Pole, who appointed him one of his 
secretaries. He does not appear, however, to have accompanied 
the cardinal to England in the reign of Queen Mary, for in 
155 6 he was settled at Florence, where he published his book 
It jJ;Ioro. 



29 6 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEY. 


About 1566 he seems to have gone to the university at 
Dillengen, in Bavaria, and there entered the Society of Jesus in 
December of that year. After labouring for some time in the 
instruction of the ignorant in the rudiments of the Catholic reli- 
gion, in which duty he took a singular delight, he was sent to 
Antwerp, where he filled the office of spiritual father and preacher 
at the professed-house of the Society. \Nhen the college was 
attacked by a mob. of fanatics, and the community violently 
expelled, Fr. Heywood took refuge at Louvain, where he died, 
Oct. 2-12, 1578, aged 48, 
A copy of his will, dated Dillengen, Dec. 26, 1566, is pre- 
served in Angl. Hist., vol. i., in the archives S.J. at Rome. 
I--Vood, Atlte1Zæ O%OIZ., ed. 1691, vol. i, p. 140; Dodd, Ch. 
Hist. vol. i. p. 146; Foley, Records SJ., vol. i. p. 388, vii. pt. i. 
p. 349 ; Oli'L1er, Collectmzea 5.]., p. I 15. 
I. n Moro d'Heliseo Heiuodo Inglese. All' Illustrissimo 
Card. Reginaldo Polo. Fiorenza, 1556, 8vo., lib. ii. pp, 180. 
It is a fictitious dialogue in Italian, the scene of which is laid in the house 
of Sir Thomas More at Chelsea, whose conversations with the learned men of 
his time are represented. The work is extremely rare. 
2, He is said to have written other works, printed abroad, the titles of 
which have not been preserved. 


Heywood, Jasper, Father, S.J., younger brother of 
Ellis, was born in London in 1535. For some little time he 
was page of honour to the Princess Elizabeth. In 1547 he 
was sent to Oxford, and in 1553 took his B.A. degree, and was 
admitted fellow of 1'1erton. There he remained for about five 
years, "in all which time," as Anthony \Vood quaintly says, "he 
bore away the bell in disputations at home and in the publick 
schools." In I 558 he received for the third time an admoni- 
tion from the warden and senior fellows of his college, "for he 
and his brother Ellis Heywood were for a time very wild, to the 
great gricf of their father." He therefore resigned his fellow- 
ship to prevent expulsion, April 4, 1558, In the following 
June he took the degree of M.A., and in November he obtained 
a fellowship at All Souls. This he was compelled to resign 
for non-compliance with the new order of things after the 
accession of Elizabeth. 
Being already ordained priest, he went to Rome, where he 
was admitted to the Society of Jesus, May 21, 1562. He 
then taught philosophy, and repeated theology for two years at 



HEY.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


297 


the Roman College, after which he was sent to the Jesuit 
College at Dillengen, in Bavaria. There for seventeen years 
he was professor of .Moral Theology and Controversy, took the 
degree of D.D., and was professed of the four vows in I 570. 
After the Society had decided to enter upon the English 
mission, Fr. Persons wrote from England urgently imploring 
Pope Gregory XIII. and the General of the Society to 
send more labourers into the vineyard, especially naming Fr. 
Jasper Heywood. His Holiness, therefore, wrote an autograph 
letter to the Elector of Bavaria, by whom the father was much 
esteemed, desiring him to send him with all speed. 
Fr. Jasper arrived in England in the summer of I 58 I, with 
Fr. 'VVm. Holt, and together they converted two hundred and 
twenty-eight persons to the Catholic faith, within three months, 
in Staffordshire alone. Fr. Persons had been compelled to 
withdraw to the Continent before his arrival, and consequently 
Fr, Heywood was appointed superior of the English mission S.J, 
Soon i(ter his arrival Fr. Heywood, in virtue of his position, 
took an active part in the controversy on the necessity of 
Catholics in England maintaining the rigid fasts customary in 
Catholic times, He imprudently allowed himself to lean so 
much to the party of relaxation as to appear to weaken the 
very obligation of fasting at all, and in consequence he was 
recalled from England by his superior. Fr. Heywood presum- 
ably based his opinion upon the substitution of the Roman for 
the Salisbury, York, Canterbury, and other English rites, which 
change was introduced by the seminary priests. The law was 
not on his side, as Fr. :l\1orris tells us, for the obligation of the 
English fasts remained for two centuries after this, until Pope 
Pius VI., in 1777, transferred the vigils through the year to 
the 'VVednesdays and Fridays in Advent, and in 178 I abrogated 
the Friday fast. The abstinence on Saturdays, the rogations, 
and St. Mark, Pius VI. left in force as " a pious custom descend- 
ing from ancient times," but Pius VIII. dispensed the English 
Catholics from its observance in 1830. 
In 1583-4 he eluded the pursuivants and searchers, and 
with extreme difficulty, on account of the infirmities he suffered 
from the gout, embarked on board a vessel bound for Dieppe. 
'VVhen almost in sight of the port, however, a violent gale arose, 
which drove the vessel back to the English coast. Upon land- 
ing, Fr. Heywood was arrested on suspicion of being a priest. 



29 8 


BIDLIOGRAPIlICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEY. 


He was carried to London in chains, and committed to the 
Clink prison Dec, 9, 1583. He was frequently examined by 
the council, and urged by various promises and threats to con- 
form to the new religion; he was even offered a bishopric if he 
would yield. On Feb. 5, 1584. he was brought to \Vestminster 
to be arraigned with George Haydock and other priests, but 
for some reason this scheme was withdrawn, and he was conveyed 
by water to the Tower. There he was imprisoned for nearly a 
year, suffering greatly from the gout and the loathsomeness of his 
dungeon. At length, on Jan. 2 I, 1584-5, he was put on board 
a vessel, with twenty other prisoners for conscience' sake, and 
landed on the coast of Normandy, He proceeded to the college 
of the Society at Dôle, in Burgundy, and four years later (I 589) 
to Rome; thence to Naples, where he was usefully employed as 
far as his broken constitution allowed, and died a holy death p 
Jan, 9, 159 8 , aged 63, 
\Vood says that he was noted as a disputant at Oxford. His 
great knowledge of Hebrew and his general learning is admitted 
by all wri ters. 
Foley, Rccords SJ., vols. i., iv" and vii., pt. i,; Oliz'er, Collcc- 
tmIca SJ.,o Dodd, CIz. His!., vol. ii.; IVood, Atlt. Oxou., ed. 
169 I, vol. i. p. 252 ; llfcrris, Troubles, Second Series; Bridge- 
water, C01lcertatio Eccles. ed. 1594, p. 409; Lewis, Sanders' 
Angl. ScllÌslll. 


1. The sixth Tragedie of Lucius Anneus Seneca, entitled 
Troas, newly set forth in Englyshe by Jaspar Heywood, Student
 
in Oxenforde, anno Domini 1559. Lond., Ric. Tottyl, Izmo., sign, 
A to F 3, in eights; 1563, 12mo.; "The sixth Tragedie of L. A. Seneca, 
entituled Troas, with divers and sundry Addicions to the same, newly set 
foorth in English by Jasper Heywood, Studient in Oxenforde," Lond., 1'hos. 
Powell for Geo. Bucke, 16rno., sign. A to F 3, in eights, ded. to Queen 
Elizabeth by the translator; repro in Thos. Newton's edition of Seneca's 
tragedies, Lond. 1581, 4to.; again, 1591, 4to. 
2. The seconde Tragedie of Seneca intituled Thyestes faith- 
fully englished by Jaspar Heywood, Fellowe of Alsolne College: 
in Oxforde. Lond., Thos. Berthelettes, 1560, 16rno., title, &c., 16 ff., then 
sign. A to E 6, in eights; ded. to Syr John :\Iason, Knt. The title-page has 
one of Berthelett's well-used wood-cut borders bearing the date 1534. Repr. 
by Thos. Newton in 1581. 
3. The first Tragedie of Lucius Anneus Seneca, intituled 
Hercules furens, translated into English Metre by Jaspar Hey- 
wood, Student in Oxford. Lond., Hen. Sutton, 1561, 16rno., sign. A. in 
fours, 13 to 1\1, in eights, ded. to Syr \Vrn. Harbert, Knt., Lorde Harbert, of 



HEY.] 


OF TIlE ENGLISH C\THOLICS. 


299 


of Cardyffe, Earle of Pembrocke. The Latin text faces the translation. 
Reprinted in Thos. Newton's edition of Seneca's Tragedies, Lond. 1581, 4to. 
4. \ \' ood says he wrote and published a compelllliulll of Hebrew grammar, 
a short and easy method, reduced into tables. 
5. Various poems and devices, some of which are printed in "The 
Paradise of Daynty Devises," Lond, 1573, 4to. ; repr., Brit. Bibliographer, 
III., 1810, 8vo, ; again in ,. Seven English Poetical Miscellanies," by J. P. 
Collin, 1867, 4to. 
Heywood, John, dramatist, a native of North :Mimms, 
near St. Alban's, co. Hertford, was educated at Broadgate 
Hall, Oxford. His natural wit and humour ill-suited him for 
an academical career, so he left the university and proceeded to 
London, where he was patronised by Sir Thomas l\Iore, and 
speedily became a great favourite with Henry VIII., who re- 
warded him handsomely. 
During the reign of Edward VI. his staunch adherence to 
the ancient faith necessitated his withdrawal from Court, but 
in the folJowing reign he was reinstated in the royal favour on 
account of "the mirth and quickness of his conceits." Queen 
Mary frequently admitted him into her presence, purposely to 
relieve her mind, and give it some relaxation by listening to 
his entertaining remarks. This continued even during the last 
sickness of the queen, Shortly after the accession of Elizabeth 
he was constrained to withdraw from the country in order to 
preserve his conscience, "which is a wonder to some," says 
Anthony \Vood, "who will allow no religion in poets, that this 
person should, above all of his profession, be a voluntary exile 
for it." He took up his residence in l\fechlin, in Brabant, where 
a number of English exiles for conscience' sake had settled. 
There he died and was buried abolJ. t I 565. 
He left behind him several children, to whom he had given 
a liberal education, Fathers Ellis and Jasper Heywood being 
of the number. His daughter Elizabeth, a devout Catholic, was 
the mother of John Donne, Dean of S1. Paul's. 
Heywood is justly credited with being one of our earliest 
dramatic writers of the period which intervened between the 
moral plays and the introduction of the modern drama. None 
of his dramatic pieces extend beyond the limits of an interlude, 
"a species of writing," says l'Ir. Collier, "of which he has a 
claim to be considered the inventor," \Varton speaks in terms 
of disparagement of the plot, humour, and character of his 
works, remarking that the miserable drolleries and the .<:on- 



300 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HEY. 


temptible quibbles with which his little pieces are pointed, 
indicate a great want of refinement, not only in the composi- 
tion, but in the conversation of our ancestors. The elder Dis- 
raeli says that" his quips, and quirks, and quibbles are of his 
age, but his copious pleasantry still enlivens," and adds that 
more of his table-talk and promptness at reply have been 
handed down to us than of any writer of the times, Though 
far from being a learned man, he displayed no small skill and 
talent in exposing the follies and corruptions of his age. The 
favour with which he was regarded as a jester was greatly 
enhanced by his skill in vocal and instrumental music. 
Wood, Atlte1læ Oxon., ed. 1691, p. 115; Dodd, Cil. l-list. 
vol. i. p. 369; rVal'toll, Hist. of Ellg. Poetry; Disraeli, Ameni- 
ties of Literature. 
I. A mery Play between the Pardoner and the Frere, the 
Curate and Neybour Pratte. Lond., \V. Rastell, 1533, fot ; fac-simile 
repr., 1819; repro cr. 8vo., Chiswick Press, 1820. 
Although not printed before 1533, it must have been written before 152 I, 
2. The Play of Love; or a new and a very merry Enterlude of 
all maner (of) Weathers. Lond., \V. Rastell, 1533, sm. fo1.; Lond., 
Robt. \Vyer, n. d., 4to., a reprint of RasteU's edit. 
3. A mery Play betwene Johan the Husbande Tyb the Wife, 
and Syr Johan the Prest yr. By John Heywood. Lond., Wm. 
Rastall, 1533, fol., pp, 16; repro by \Vhittingham at Chiswick, 1819, 8vo, 
4. The Play called the foure PPs., A newe and a very merry 
Enterluàe of a Palmer, a Pardoner, a Potecary, and a Pedler. 
B.L. Lond., \V m. 1\1 yddylton, (I545?) unpag., 4to.; Lond., Mo. AUde, 1569, 
4to., unpag.; again without printers name or date; repro in Dodsley's Coll. 
of Old Plays, vol. i.; and in " The Ancient British Drama," vol. i. 
It is a dispute between the four characters as to which shall tell the 
grossest fabehood. An accidental assertion of the palmer that he never saw 
a woman out of patience in his life, takes the rest off their guard, all of whom 
declare it to be the greatest lie they ever heard, and the settlement of the 
question is thus brought about amidst much mirth. 
5. Of Gentylnes and Nobylyte. A Dyaloge between the Mar- 
chaunt, the Knyght, and the Plowman, compiled in Maner of an 
Enterlude, with divers Toys and Gestes added thereto to make 
mery Pastyme and Disport. (Lond.), Jno. Rastell, (1535), sm. fo1., sig. 
to C iv.; Lond. (1829) 4to. 
6. The Pinner of Wakefield, a Comedie. 
7. Philotas Scotch, a Comedy. 
\Varton says, "His comedies, mo:ot of which appeared before 1534, are 
destitute of plot, humour, or character, and give us no very high opinion of 
the festivity of this agreeable companion. They consist of low incident and 
the language of ribaldry. But perfection must not be expected before its 
time." 



HEY. ] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


301 


8. \Vood questions if he was not the author of an interlude of youth, 
printed in London in black-letter temp, Hen. VIII. 
9. A Dialogue of Contayning in effect the Number of al the 
Proverbes in the English Tongue compact in a Matter concern- 
ing two Marriages. Lond., Tho. Berthelet, 1546, 4to., first edit. ; 1547. 
4to,; 15+9; 1556; ., Newly overseen and somewhat augumented, Lond. 1561, 
8vo.; Lond., J no. Marsh, I 5ï6; 'The Proverbs and Epigrams of J, H., etc.,' 
Spencer Soc., 1867, 4to. ; The Proverbs of J. H. Being the' Proverbes' of 
that author printed in 18+6. Edited with notes and introJuction by J, 
Sharman," Lond. 1874, 8vo. 
Of this \Varton says, " All the proverbs of the English language are here 
interwo\"en into a very silly comic tale." 
10. A Balade specifienge partly the Maner, partly the Matter, 
in the most excellent Meetyng and lyke Marriage betwene our 
SovE\raigne Lord and our Soveraigne Lady, the Kynges and 
Queenes Ifighne9. Lond., \Vm. Dyddell, large single sheet, B.L.; repro 
in " Had. .:\Iiscell.," vol. 10. 
I I. The Spider and the Flie. B.L. Lond., 1556, 4to., with wood-cut 
full-length portr. of the author at the back of title; Lond., Thos. Powell, 1556, 
4to., B. L.; with his \V orks, 1562. 
This allegorical poem, in seven line stanzas, divided into ninty-eight 
chapters, with a cut to each, is his longest production, It is one of the first 
works so profusely illustrated, and was held in high estimation in Queen 
Mary's reign. It was intended to vindicate the administration of justice in 
the Queen's reign. At the end is "The Conclmion, with an Expossission 
of the Auctor, touching one piece of the latter part of this Parable," in which 
we are informed that by the spiders are meant the Protestants, the flies, the 
Catholics, the maid, Queen Mary, her broom, the civic sword, her master, 
Christ, and her mistress, Mother Church, The book was naturally very 
much disliked by Protestants, whose opinions of the author in consequence 
shew considerable bias. 
12. A breefe Balet, touching the traytorous Takynge of Scar- 
borrow Castel (1557). Lond., Thos. Powell; repro in "Har1. Miscell.," 
vol. 10. 
13. A description of a most noble Ladye adviewed by John 
Heywoode, MS. Har1., No, 1703, fol. 108. 
A poetical portrait of Queen Mary printed entire in Park's edition of 
\Valpole's Royal and Noble Authors. 
q. Poetical Dialogue concerning witty-i.e., wise and witless. 
MS., HarJ, 367, fo1. 110, Brit. l\Ius. 
15. A Dialogue on Wit and Folly. By John Heywood. Now 
first printed. To which is prefixed an account of that Author, 
and his Dramatic Works, by F. W. Fairholt. Percy Soc., 1846, 
vol. 65. 
16. John Heywoodes Woorkes; a Dialogue, conteyning the 
number of the effèctual proverbes in the English tongue compact. 
in a matter concerning two maneI' of marriages. With one 
hundreth Epigrammes: and three hundreth of Epigrammes 
uppon thre hundreth Proverbes; and a fifth hundred of Epi.. 



302 


BIBLIOGRAPIIICAL DICTIONARY 


[HI G. 


grammes. Whereunto are newly added, a sixte hundreth of 
Epigrammes, by the said John Heywood. Lond., Thos. Powell, 
1562, 4to., B.L. ; Lond., H. \Vykes, 1566, 4to. ; Lond., Tho. l\Iarshe, 1576, 
4to. ; ibid., 1577 : ibid., 1587; Lond., Felix K yngston, 1598, 4to. 
17. Portrait, full length, attired in a fur-gown, something resembling that 
of a master of arts, the sleeves only reaching to the knee; round cap, face 
clean shaved, dagger hanging from girdle; wood-cut in "The Spider and the 
Flie." 


Higgons, Bevil, historian, born in 1670, was a younger 
son of Sir Thomas Higgons, of Grewell, co. Hampshire, Knt., 
by his second wife, Bridget, dau, of Sir Bevil Granville, of 
Stow, co, Cornwall, Knt" and sister of John Granville, Earl of 
Bath. She was the widow of Simon Leach, of Chudleigh, co, 
Devon, Esq, At the age of sixteen he became a commoner of 
St. John's College, Oxford, in Lent Term, 1686. After some 
years he removed to Cambridge, and subsequent]y entered the 
l\'1iddle Temple. He was a firm adherent to the house of 
Stuart, and is said to have accompanied James II. into exile 
in 1688, but this is doubtful. In 1696 he was in England, 
and his name was included in the proclamation against the 
supposed conspiracy of that year. He was arrested with his 
elder brother George, and confined in N ewgate, but both were 
soon discharged from custody. Shortly after he withdrew to 
France, where he died in March 1735, aged 65, 
Higgons probably became a convert in France. 
Bliss, TVood's Athellæ OXOll., vol. iv. p, 714; Rose, Biog. 
Diet. J' Hal'/. Soc., Le lVe'l'e's 1<1lights JO Higgolls, SILOr! View. 
1. Poems. " A Poem to Sir Godfrey Kneller drawing the Lady Hide's 
Picture;" "A Song on a Lady indisposed;" "To a Lady: who, raffling for 
the King of France's Picture, flung the highest chances on the dice; " "On 
the Lady Sandwich's being stayed in Town by the immoderate Rain; " all of 
which are in Dryden's "Examen Poeticum," being the third part of 
Miscellany Poems. Lond. 1693, 8vo. 
He also wrote" A Poem to Mr. Dryden on his translation of Persius," 
2. The Generous Conquerour: or the Timely Discovery; a 
Tragedy. Lond. 1702, 4to. 
3. A Short View of the English History: With Reflections, 
political, historical, civil, physical, and moral, on the reigns 
of the Kings, their characters, and manners, their succession to 
the throne, and all other remarkable incidents, to the Revolution 
1688. Drawn from authentick memoirs and manuscripts. By B, 
Higgons, gent. Lond. 1723, 8vo., pr. viii.-435, postscript pp, 4; Hague, 
1727, 8vo.; Lond. 1733, 8vo,; Lond. 1736, 8vo.; Lond. 1748, 8vo. 
In his preface the author says that it is a maxim not to \\ rite the history 



HIL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 0 3 


of one's own times, for truth "can only be safely look'd on through the 
distance and mist of time." For this reason he "let these papers lie 
covered with dust these twenty-six years, till every person concerned in the 
transactions mentioned was removed from the stage." His work is certainly 
written with judgment and impartiality. 
4. Historical and Critical Remarks on Bp. Burnet's History of 
His own Time. By B. Higgons, gent. Lond., P. Meighan, 1725, 8vo. 
pp. 454, besides title and preface 4 ff.; Lond. 1727, 8vo., with additional 
remarks, &c.; repr, as vol. ii. of his" Historical \Vorks," vol. i. being his 
"Short View," Lond. 1736, 8vo. 
In this work he exposes Burnet's want of veracity, saying of him in his 
preface that "It is very evident that revenge has absolutely guided him 
through his History, that passion more predominant than the rest seems to 
have animated the whole design, and has so wrenched his reason, and 
darkened his understanding, as to make him sometimes fall into the grossest 
absurdities, and must convince his reader that he was a much weaker man 
than the world believed him." Burnet had left instructions that his History 
should not be published until six years after his death, and, in fact, the first 
volume did not appear until 1724, and the 2nd. in 173-1-. 
5. A Poem on the Glorious Peace of Utrecht. Lond. 1731, 8vo, 
6. History of the Life and Reign of Mary, Queen of Scots, and 
Dowager of France. Dublin, 1753, 8vo. 


Hildesley, John, schismatical bishop of Rochester, was of 
the family of that name seated at Beneham, co. Berks, originally 
descended from the Hildesleys of Hildcsley in the same county. 
From his very childhood he displayed a religious tendency and 
a love of study, and his parents discerning it, being people of 
means, placed him under the tuition of a Dominican friar, 
\Vhen grown up he joined the Dominicans at Bristol, and 
thence proceeded to their house in the south suburbs of Oxford 
to study for degrees. In l\1ay, 1527, he supplicated to be 
admitted to the reading of the sentences, 2nd in I 532 he 
stands recorded as R.D, Afterwards he was created D.D., 
though it seems to be uncertain whether this degree was taken 
here or at Cambridge, of which university he is known to have 
been a member, for subsequently Archbishop Cranmer recom- 
mended him as Prior of the Dominican house there. I n I 5 33 
he was prior of the Dominicans of Bristol, and preached in that 
city against Hugh Latimer. In April 1534, he was appointed 
provincial of his order, and placed in commission to take the 
acknowledgments of the king's ecclesiastical supremacy from 
certain religious houses. His compliance to the royal wishes 
obtained him the See of Rochester, vacant by the death of 
Cardinal Fisher, and he was consecrated Sept. J 8, 1535. 



3 0 4 


BIBLIOG RAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[RIL. 


On Nov. 20, 1538, he, as perpetual commendatory and prior · 
of the house of Black Friars, London, surrendered it into the 
king's hands. Six days later he preached at St. Paul's Cross, 
and there exhibited the professed blood of Hales,," affirming the 
same to be cJarified honey ooloured with saffron. 
J?-t "length his eyes 'yere opened to the dev
station and 
irreligion into which the Court policy was hurrying: the nation, 
and in 1539 he opposed the bill 9f the Six Articl
s, but too late 
to make ::I.mends for the assistance he had given to. those who 
in their rapacity were destroying the fabric of the cliurcþ. Some 
writers have placed his death at the end of the previous year, 
hut this is clearly an error. He was accounted a learned man, 
though with this opinion \Vood appears to differ. . . 
Bliss, TVood's Athcllæ O:mll., vol. i. p. I 12 ; Dodd, CII. Hist., 
vol. i.; Cooþcr, A tltenæ Calltab., vol. i. 
I. The Manual! of 'Prayers; or, the Prymer, in Englyshe and 
Latin, set out at length, with the PysJles and Gospels in Englyshe. 
Lond. 1539. 4to., ded. to Thomas Lord Cromwell, by whose command it 
was published. . 
"The Primer in Englishe, moste necessarye for the Educacyon of Chyl- 
dren, abstracted out of the :\Ianuall of Prayers.; or Primer in Englishe and 
Latin." Lond. 1539, I6mo. 
2. De Veri Corporis Jesu in Sacramento. 
Also dedicated to Cromwell, and is alluded to by John \Vhite, warden 
of the college near \Vinchester, afterwards successively bishop of Lincoln and 
'Vinchester, in a latin poem entitled" Diacosia-1\1artyrion,'" Lond. 1553, fo1. 
3, Resolutions concerning the Sacraments. 
4. Resolutions of some questions relating to bishops, priests, 
and deacons. . . 
5. He was also concerned in the compilation of "The Institution of a 
Christian man," commonly called the Bishops' Book, in 1534. 
Hildeyard, Thomas, Father, S.J., of an ancient York- 
shire and Lincolnshire family, was born in London, 1'1arch 
3, 1690. He was educated at St. Omer's College, entered the 
Society Sept. 7, 1707, and was professed of the four vows 
Feb. 2, 1725. After teaching philosophy, theology, and 
mathematics at Liege, he was sent to England, and for many 
years served the mission in the South \Vales district. For 
upwards of twenty years he was chaplain to the Bodenhams at 
Rothenvas Court in Herefordshire. In Sept. 1743 he was 
declared rector of that district, the college of S. Francis Xavier, 
and died in that office at Rotherwas, April 10, J 746, N.S., 
aged 56. 



HIL, ] 


OF THE EKGLISII CATHOLICS. 


3 0 5 


He was buried in the ancient family chapel adjoining the 
mansion at Rotherwas. Dr. Oliver records the inscription on 
his gravestone, eulogizing his piety, charity towards his neigh- 
bours, integrity and modesty, as likewise his erudition. He 
was a scientific mechanic, and a pr6)found student of the .works 
of Fr, Gaspar Schott, S.]., the Germ
n Archimedes, whò gied 
May 20, 16!J6. 
Olivcr;, Collectallca SJ.,. FOltJ/, Records SJ., vols. v., p. 907 ; 
vii., p. 36ó.. 
I. Lec.turès on Penance, l\1S. (taken down by Fr. \Valter Shelley), 
now at the Presbytery, St. George's, \V orcester. 
. 2. Fr. Caballero, in his supplement to the "Bibliothec
 Scriptorum, S.J.," 
Rome; 1814; states, p. 57, that Fr. Hildeyard publisbed a description of hi:; 
invented time-piece. Some of his ingenious astronomical clocks arè said to 
be at Holt and Rotherwas. 


Hill, Edmund Thomas, O.S.B., D.D., alia
 Buckland, 
born in Somersetshire about 1 563, is said to have been a 
minister in the. Church of England. lIe became a Catholic, 
and went to Rheims, where he was admitted into the English 
College Aug. 21, 1590. He left for Rome Feb. 16, 1593, 
and was admitted into the English College IVlarch 23, and took 
the oath Oct. 3 in that year. He was ordained subdeacon in 
the following Dec., deacon in l\1arch, 1 594, and priest on the 
12th of the latter month, On Sept. 16, 1597, he was sent to 
the English mission. 
He was probably the priest named in the letter of \Villiam 
Pole to his uncle, Sir John. Popham, the lord chief justice, dated 
J an, 18, 1599, as "the corrupter and seducer of Sir Robert 
Bassett," and the "blasphe-ment fellow, lately consorting with 
Sweet [J olm, S.J.], that lewd fellow." Sir Robert had been 
converted by Hill, and was then preparing to travel with him. 
Pole suggests the "stopping of this travel, and imprisonment 
of that most pernicious lewd man HilI, who otherwise will be 
the overthrow of the gentle nature of Sir Robert." In the 
following year \Nood says he was living at "Phalempyne 
beyond the sea," and published his "Quatron of Reasons," 
being then D,D, Dodd, in his "Certamen utriu
que," says 
that he had been chaplain to Queen Elizabeth, but this is 
perhaps a mistake. At the English College at Rome he had 
taken part with Anthony Champney, and many others who 
were afterwards distinguished men, in objecting to the adminis- 
VOL. III. X 



3 06 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HIL. 


tration of the college by the Jesuits. In the early part of 
1602, Fr. Rivers, S.J " states, "last week one Dabscomtes' 
house was searched in London by Sir Anthony Ashley, çme of '. 
the clerks of the. council, being thereunto called and required 
by Atkinsòn, the priest [apostate], under pretence of appre- 
hending. a Jesuit that would kill the king, a jest now over 
stale. In that search one' Hill, an appellant priest, a western 
man, was taken, and with him some eight persons (but neither 
saying l''Iass or l\Iattins). All were sent to Newgate, but since, 
all but the priest are released upon "bail to appear at the 
sessions." How 10ng he remained in N ewgate does not 
appear. He was again iq prison in 1612, when he was con- 
demned to death for being a priest. but -was reprieved and 
banished in the following year, \Vhilst in prison he received 
the Benedictine habit by commission from Dom Leander of S, 
l'Iartin, and after his release he was professed Oct. 8, 1613, 
under the religious name of Thomas of St. Gregory. 
After labouring f<3r many years on the mission, where he was 
distinguished by his singular zeal and piety, he retired in his 
old age to St. Gregory's monastery at Douay, and there died 
Aug. 7, 1644, aged about 8 I. 
\Veldon gives his age as 84, his priesthood 53. his religious 
profession 33, and his labours in the apostolical mission 5 o. 
He states that he first det
cted the error of the Illuminati, who 
expected the incarnation of the Holy Ghost from a certain 
young virgin, but does not say how he made his exposure 
public. 
TVood, Athcnæ OXOJl., ed. 169 I, vol. i. p. 499; Dodd, Cft. 
Hist., vol. ii. p, 160; Dolall, TVeldo/t's Chroll, Notes
. SIlO'LU, 
BClled. Necrology
' Folc)', Records SJ., vols. i. iv.and vi.; Dolan, 
DozUJlside Reviezu, vol. iii. p. 256; Challoller, 111 emoirs, ed. 
1742, vol. ii. p. 88. 


I. A Quatron of Reasons of Catholike Religion, with as many 
briefe reasons of refusall. Antwerpe, 1600, 8vo. 
George Abbot, Dean of \Vinchester, afterwards Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, "at the intreaty of others," spent a year and a half (1603-4) in pre- 
paring a reply to this work, and to the republication in 1599 of Richard 
Bristow's" Briefe Treatise, . . . or Motives unto the Catholike Faith." 
Abbot's work was entliled, "The reasons which Dr. Hill hath brought for 
the upholding of Papistry unmasked and shewed to be very weak," &c., 
Oxon. 1604, 4to., ded. to Lord Buckhurst, who had just been created J;:arl of 
Dorset. Strype (" Annals," ii. ed. 1735, p. 336) says that Hill's work was a 



HIL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 0 7 


new version in twenty-five reasons of Bristow's "Motives," in forty-eight, 
"but containing much of the form and manner, and all the matter for the 
_' ground thereof." Abbot's intemperate pamphlet was an attempt to prove 
the weakness of t
n of Dr. Hill's reasons. 
Fris. Dillingham, B.D., of Cambridge, also wrote a reply, entitled, "A 
quatron of reasons, composed by Dr. Hill, unquartered and proved a quatron 
of follies,.,- Cambridge, 1603, 4to, It was not, however, worthy of notice. 
2. The Piaine Path Way to Heaven. Meditacions or Spirituall 
discourses and illuminations upon the gospells of all the yeare ; 
for every daie in the weeke, on the Text of the gospells; com- 
posed and sett further by Thomas Buckland, of the order of 
Saint Benedict. Douay, Martin Bogart, 1634. Izmo., pp. 870; ibid. 1637. 
A MS. of this work, dated 163-1-, perhaps the original, is at Oscott, see Oscott 
Catalogue by Rev. \\?m. Greaney, V.P., No, 553, p. 51. The title there 
given varies slightly from the above, 
The work includes" A little Treatise, how to find out the true Fayth, 
composed by T. B." 


Hill, Laurence, martyr, a Lancashire man, was probably a 
native of \Vidnes, where recusants of his name resided for 
many generations. Robert Hill, sen.; and Robert Hill, jun., 
coopers, with their wives, were fined there in 1667. \Villiam 
Hill, of \Vidnes, was a recusant in 1679, and on April 10, 1716, 
Laurence and Robert Hill, of \Vidnes, were convicted as popish 
recusants at the quarter sessions held at Lancaster. 
Leaving Lancashire, Laurence Hill went up to London, 
where he became a servant to Mr. 
avenscroft. During his 
service he married Mary Gray, a domestic in the same family. 
In 1670 he entered the service of Dr. Thomas Godden, chaplain 
to Queen Catharine, at Somerset House. In 1678 he fell a 
victim to the machinations of the Earl of Shaftesbury. One of 
his lordship's tools, :l\Iiles Prance, accused Hill of being 
accessory to the murder of Sir E. Godfrey. He was appre- 
hended and brought to trial Feb. 10, 1678-9, with Robert 
Green and Henry Berry. !)rance's evidence was that Sir E. 
Godfrey had been strangled by Green, and that Hill had 
conveyed the body to Primrose Hill. He afterwards acknow- 
ledged before the king and council that he "had perjured himself. 
Notwithstanding the character of the evidence for the prosecu- 
tion, and the strength of the defence, justice had to give place 
to the popular fury raised ag"ainst the church. and these poor 
innocent men were condemned to åeath, Hill was executed 
with Green at Tyburn, Feb. 21. 1678-9. 
From the scaffold he addressed the people, declaring his 
X2 



3 08 


JHHLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[RIL. 


innocence, and that he died, as he had lived, in the Catholic 
faith. ...'\. little before he had written to his wife, charging her 
to bear no resentment against those who were the occasion of 
his death. He died in perfcct forgiveness, praying God to 
preserve the nation and lay not innocent blood to its 
charge. 
Challoner, lIIclIloir s, ed. 1742, vol. ii, pp. 381 -4; Dodd, Ch. 
His!., vol. iii. p. 277; Gillozu, Lanc, Recl/san!s, fiI,S. 
1. "An Account of Lau, Hill, together with the paper that was found in 
his pocket when he was executed for the murder of Sir Edmondbury 
Godfrey." Lond. 1679, 4to. 
For other publications referring to Hill's trial and death, and the plot 
against the Catholics, see under Rob. Green, J no. Grove, &c, 
Hill, Nicholas, gentleman, a native of London, was first 
educated at Merchant Taylors' School, and afterwards at St. 
John's College, Oxford, where he was admitted a student, in 
1587, at the age of seventeen. In 1592 he was fellow of that 
college, and took his degrees in arts. He was remarkable for 
his whimsical philosophy. Edward Vere, the spendthrift Earl 
of Oxford, made him his secretary, and also his companion, 
until the earl's projects and extravagancies had almost ruined 
his vast estate. Henry, Earl of Northumberland, then befriended 
him, and held him in as great esteem as Lord Oxford. 
Robert Hulls, the geographer, was an intimate acquaintance 
of Mr. Hill, and says that he was obliged to leave England in 
the beginning of the reign of James 1. through a kind of con- 
spiracy. It appears that a Mr. Basset, of U mberley, in 
Devonshire, a descendant of Arthur Plantagenet, Viscount 
Lisle, natural son of Edward IV., pretended to be the heir to 
the crown. Hill is said to have favoured this claim, and in 
consequence was forced to fly into Holland, and settled at 
Rotterdam with his son Laurence, where he practised as a 
physician. At length his son was seized with the plague, 
which so affected 1'1r. Hill's mind that he went into an 
apothecary's shop, swallowed a dose of poison, and died on the 
spot. This is supposed, according to this very unreliable story, 
to have occurred in 16 I O. His widow was living near Bow 
Church, in London, in 1636. \Vood observes that l\Ir. Hill 
possessed good parts, but was too humorous; that his writings 
were peculiar and affected, and that he entertained fant2stical 
notions in philosophy. He lived most oÍ his time a Catholic, 



ElL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 0 9 


and so he died. The honest Oxford historian could not believe 
that his death was either that of a fool or a madman. 
Dodd, Ch. Hist., vol. ii. p. 429; TVood, Athc1læ Oxon., vol. i, 
I. Philo sophia Epicurea, Democritiana, Theophrastica, pro. 
posita simpliciter, non Edocta. Accedit A. Politiani Pane- 
pistemon. Parisiis, 16uI, 8vo. ; Gen, 1619, Izmo. ; Colon, Alobr., 1619, 
Svo.; ded. to his young son Laurence. 
This occasioned Ben Jonson's epigram, 
" Those Atomi ridiculous 
\Vhereof old Democrite and Hill Nicholas, 
One said, the other swore, the \Varld consists." 
2. Several imperfect MSS. were left in his widow's possession. 


Hill, Richard, priest and martyr, a native of Yorkshire, 
arrived at the English College at Rheims, :May 15, 1587. He 
was ordained subdeacon at Soissons, with two other Yorkshire 
students, John I-Iogg and Richard Holiday, March 1.5, 1589, 
On the following May 27 they all three rcceived the diaconate 
at Laon, and priesthood on Sept. 23. On lVlarch 22, 1590, 
they left the college for the English mission in company with 
1''Ir. Edmund Duke, who had just returncd from Rome. They 
landed in the north of England, anù, travelling together through 
the country, with which they were not well acquainted, they 
were arrested upon suspicion in a village where they had stayed 
to rest. They were carried before a neighbouring justice of the 
peace, who, upon examination, found them to be prièsts, and 
committed them to Durham gaol. There they were at once 
attacked by some of thc prebendaries of the cathedral as well 
as by some other ministers, whom, Dr. Champney says, they 
confuted. But the recent enactment of the 27th Elizabeth was 
more effectual in stopping their mouths. They were arraigned 
and condemned to death for being priests, made by authority 
of the Holy See and coming into England, and were all 
four hanged, drawn, and quartered at Durham, l\lay 27, 1590. 
The meekness and cùnstancy with which they suffered edified 
many and was the admiration of all. From a letter of the 
Rev. Cuthbert Trollop, priest, it appears that a circumstance 
which occurred after the execution was noted as very extraor- 
dinary. The well out of which the water was drawn to boil 
the quarters of the martyrs suddenly dried up, and so continued 
for many years. The following extract from the Dud/am 



3 1 0 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIOKARY 


[HIL. 


RegiStcr relative to their execution is also curious :_u 159 1 . 
Edmund Duke, Richard Holyday, John Hogge, and Richard 
Hill, seminary priests, 1'1ay '27. Robert Naire, of Hardwick, 
and his bride were spectators of the tragedy, and so impressed 
by the courage and constancy of the sufferers that they became 
Catholics, and their descendants have adhered to the faith to 
the present day, The bride was Grace, daughter of Henry 
Smith, and niece of John Heath, of IZepyer; and her father 
was so provoked by her conversion that, in his will, he called 
her his' graceless Grace,' and made her a bequest clogged with 
a condition which precluded its acceptance by any conscientious 
mind." 


ChallOllcr, Mcmoirs, vol. i,; DOllay Diaries
' Dodd, CIt. Hist., 
vol. ii.; Newcastle Daily Chrollicle, March 22, 1865 ; Morris, 
Troubles, ThÙ
d Series. 
Hill, William, mnemonicalist, was a member of a staunch 
Catholic family long resident in Salford or the neighbourhood 
of Eccles, where he was born about 1806, For many years he 
was employed as a salesman or bookkeeper in the calico- 
printing firm of Daniel Lee & Co., of l\1anchester. Ultimately 
he retired from business, and, after some years, died at his resi- 
dence, Rose Bank, Patricroft, April 2, 1881, aged 75. 
He had several relatives in the Church, and his son and 
namesake is now a priest in the Salford diocese. 
Almatlack of tlte Diocese of Saiford, 1882 ; þersonal acquaint- 
allce, 
I. Fifteen Lessons on the Analogy and Syntax of the English 
Language, for the use of adult persons who have neglected the 
study of grammar. Huàdersfield, 1833, 12mo.; frequently reprinted. 
In this he endeavours" to disrobe the subject of the mysticism which had 
hitherto always hung about it," and to present it in a more simple and invit- 
ing form. 
2. The Rational School Grammar and Entertaining Class 
Eook. By W. Hill. Manchester, ISmo., pp. v,-95, 5th ed., the style and 
language being simplified to suit the capacity of children. 
3. A Companion to the Rational School Grammar, &c. Manches- 
ter, 12mo., containing selections most carefully arranged and adapted to the 
instructions contained in the successive lessons. 
4. The Grammatical Text Book for the use of Schools. l\Ian- 
chester, Izmo., in which the bare
 naked principles of grammar, expressed as 
concisely as possible, are exhibited for the memory. 
5. Progressive Exercises, selected from the best English 



HIL,] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 I I 


Authors, and so arranged as to accord with the progressive 
lessons in the" Fifteen Lessons." Manchester, 12mo, 
6. The Complete English Exposition and comprehensive School 
Spelling 
ook. Combining all the advantages of all the modern 
expositions, with several important improvements never before 
introduced. Manchester, l:2mo. 
7. The Educational Monitor; a new system, which will enable 
the student to fix knowledge rapidly in the mind. . . . To which 
are added Lessons for practice in Geography, Chronology, 
French, German, and Latin. Lond. (l\Ianchester pr.) 1847, 18mo. 
8. The Educational Monitor. Part I. Spelling Lessons, to 
which are added Reading Lessons. . . . in which the principles 
of the Educational Monitor are applied to education from its 
earliest stages. Lond. (Manchester) 1848, 8vo. 
9. The Memory of Language and Rhyming Mnemonical Expo- 
sitor. Lond. (;\Ianchester pr.) 1852, 121110., 5th edit,. pp. 180. 
This little work received high commendation in the press. 
10. The Catechism made easy to learn, easy to teach, easy to 
remember; to which are added, several Lessons of Music, 
easily taught, which will fix permanently in the mind, in a few 
minutes, the notes on the stafI:
 and the keys upon the pianoforte. 
Lond. (Manchester pr.) 1854. l:2mo. 
II. The Mnemonical Alphabet. 1\Ianchester, 1858, 12mo, 
12. How to Teach the Alphabet in a few hours. Lond. (Man- 
chester pr.) 1865, 16mo. 
13. Memories for the Million; or, how to teach students to 
remember, byanew invention of word-power, anything.... which 
they wish to bear in mind. Manchester, 1875. 16mo. 
14. Poems. Several of his compositions will be found in The Lamþ 
(vol. vi. 1853, p. 410; vii. 1854, PP. 53, 135; 1857, i. p. 105; 1858, i. p. 103), 
entitled, "The \V orking Man's Church," "A Nuptial Present," "The Me- 
chanic's Evening," "God Bless the Ancient Church," "The Catholic Factory 
Child," 
He also wrote "Barton Manor House-Ellen de Booth. A Tale" 
(Lamþ, vii.), into which he weaves his system of mnemonics, and introduces 
verses of his own composition, 
15. Lectures. :Mr. Hill was a frequent lecturer, "On the practical im- 
provement of the moral, social, intellectual, and religious condition of the 
working classes of the Catholic community" (Lamþ, 1856, i. 47), "Lancashire 
Catholic traditions" (Tablet, xxxi. 167, 1867). &c. &c. 


Hills, Henry, printer, of Black Fryers, London, was printer 
to Oliver Cromwell, Charles II., and James II., and served the 
office of Master of the Stationers' Company in 1684. His 
conversion in the latter reign brought down upon him a shower 
of abuse, and a scurrilous epigram was written upon his doing 
penance. For a short time from Jan. 10, 1709, he and 
Thomas Newcombe were printers to Queen Anne, under a 



3 1 2 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HIL. 


reversionary patent for thirty-four years, granted Dec. 1665, 
on the expiration of a patent then held by the Barkers, in 
which family it had continued - from the reign of Elizabeth. He 
was a great retailer of cheap sermons and poems, which it is 
asserted he pirated and printed upon bad paper. In 1710 he 
pirated Addison's "Letters from Italy," and this, with other 
circumstances of the like kind, led to the direction, in the Act 
of 8 Anne, that fine paper copies of all publications should be 
given to the public libraries. He died in 1 7 1 3. 
Nter his death his stock was advertised to be disposed of at 
the Blue Anchor, Paternoster Row, in Nov. 1713. His son, 
Gillam Hills, also a printer, died Oct. 18, 1737. The Rev. 
Robert Hills, alias Hyde, is supposed to have been ånother 
son. 
TilllPerleY2 Diet. of Printcrs / J{irk, Biog. Colleets., lJ!SS. 
I. "A view of part of the many Traiterous Actions of H[ enry] H[illsJ 
senior, sometimes Printer to Cromwe], to the Commonwealth, to the Ana- 
. baptist Congregation, &c." Lond. 1684, s.sh. fo1. . .- 
"The Life of H. H[ills], with the relation at large of what passed betwixt - 
him and the Taylor's wife in Blackfriars, &c," Lond. 1688, 8vo. This Ïs 
attributed to Hills himself. It has addresses to the reader by \Vl11. Kiffin 
and Dan, King. 
., A Dialogue between a Pedler and a Popish Priest, &c.," Lond, 1699, 
Smo., by John Taylor, the \Vater Poet, with a prèface by Henry Hills. Tqe 
original \\
as published in 1641. 


Hills, Ro bert, alias Hyde, priest and schoolmaster,_ born 
in London, March 3 I, 167 I, O.S., is presumed to have been 
the son of the well-known printer, Henry Hills, who becß.me a 
Catholic during the reign of James II. Thi
 quite accords with 
Robert's taking the oath of profession of faith at Douay College, 
Oct. 4, 1689. The missionary oath he took April 1 7, 1691. 
In England he was conspicuous amongst his brethren for his 
zeal for religion. The Rev, Gerard Saltmarsh refers to .his 
being placed over a school for boys at Hammersmith, without, 
however, assigning any date. He was afterwards appointed to 
the mission at \Vinchester, where he died Jan. 15, 1745, 9. S ., 
aged 73. 
He was a member of the chapter, to which he bequeathed 
;/; 5 00. 
Kirk, Biog. Colleet., lJISS., No, 23; Huscllbetlt, Hist. of 
Sedglc)1 Park, p. 4 ; Rccords of tlte Eng. Ca tits. , vol. i. 



HOB. ] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 1 3 


I. The name was often spelt Hill, which ma); possibly have added to the 
confusion made between Fr. Augustine HilI, O.S.F., and Fr. Robt. Hill, 'i/cre 
Hutton, S.J
 It was Fr. Aug. Hill, O.S.F., who was chaplain to Sir Henry 
Tichboine, near \Vinchester, and no doubt it is his portrait which appears in 
the celebrated Tichborne-dole picture by Tilbourg in 1670, described in the 
key as "No. 13, Rev. R. Hill, who died ,at a very advanced age, Sept, I...J., 
1692." It is clear that the key was written long after the picture was 
painted, and this may easily account for the error in the initial letter of the 
chaplain's Christian name. Fr. Aug. Hill, alias Dacre, son of \\Tm. Hip, 
was born at Fareham, Hants, in Sept. 1633. His parents were Catholics of 
the middle-class, and grounded him well in religion. He studied Greek and 
Latin at home, syntax at Claremont College, and rhetoric at St.Omer's. On 
Nov. 14, 1649, he was admitted into the' English Colle
e, Rome; as a 
convictor, with Henry Tichborne, son of his patron, Michael Tichborne, Esq. 
He left.the college Sept. 29, 1651, and proceeded to the English Franciscan 
monastery at Douay, where he took the habit. As already stated, it was he 
who died at Sir Henry Tichborne's in 1692, and not, as Bro. Foley imagines 
(" Records S.J .," v. vi. vii.), Fr. Robert Hutton, alias Hill, S.J. 


Hobbs, Robert, abbot of \Voburn, martyr, is first met with 
a
 abbot of the Cistercian monastery at \V oburri, Bèdfordshire, 
in 1 524. It is possible that he is the same with Robert Hobys, 
a- native of Peterborough, who was elected from Eton. to King's 
Cõl1eg
, Cambridge, in 1495. . He proceeded B.A. in 1499- 
1500, M.A. in 1503, was one of the esquire bedels, 
nd by 
, grace, ÏI
 1-506, was constituted registraryof the university, an 
office of which he appears to have been the first holder. He 
is also said to have been sometime superintendent of the works 
at Great St. l\Iary's. 
After the king had éntered uPQn his lustful course, and 
determined to seize the property of the monasteries and crush 
those who dare to disapprove of his actions, the abbot was 
apprehended and a number of accusations brought against him. 
None of these charges amountcd to treason, unless the denial of 
Henry's spiritual supremacy might be considered as such. The 
abÐot acknowledged that he had omitted to declare from the 
pulpit the king's ecclesiastical supremacy, not from any malice, 
but from scruples of conscience. The other accusations were 
to the effect that he had lamented the afflictions which religion 
was suffering, and that he had exhorted his brethren to pray 
for God's help. He had expressed wonder that the king could 
not be satisfied with his virtuous and legal wife, Queen Kathe- 
rine; he had frequently supported the traditions of the Fathers 
. of the Catholic Church, and condemned the new sects as erro- 



3 1 4 


TIITILIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[noc. 


neous; he had said that the new translation of the Bible was 
faulty in many places, U whiche hereafter may be cause of myche 
crror;" and he was accused of saying, U \Volde Godde for his 
mercy take me ought (of) this wreched worlde and miserie I am 
nowe in: and ,,"olde Godd I hadd suffered with thos gudd men, 
the Bishoppe of Rochester, Sir Thomas 1'10re," &c. 
Such were the charges brought against the good abbot. But 
his death and that of two others was resolved upon, and nothing 
which he and his brethren could urge in their defence recei
ed 
attention. He was executed, probably without the semblance 
of a trial, in front of his abbey, together with his prior and the 
vicar of Puddington-with-Hinwick, in 1'1 arch, 1537, 
Cuddoll, .hlodcrll Brit. .hI artyrology, ed. 1836, p. 87; TVilsoll, 
Ellgl. l1Iartyrologe J. Sallders, De Orig. ae prog. Scltism A'llgl., 
ed, 1586; Burllet, Hist. of tlte Reform" ed. 1679, vol. i. ; COoplY, 
Atltcllæ Calltab., vol. i.; Dugdale, lIIollastieo1l, ed. 1846, vol. v. 
p, 47 8 . 
I. Robert, Abbott of Wooburn; his ãeclaration concerning 
certain charges against him. MS., Cotton Lib., Brit. Mus., Cleop, 
E. iv. 3
. 
This document appears to be a rough draft, written by the abbot himself,. 
in a hand difficult to decipher, and in language not always intelligible. It 
completely refutes the opinion that he was accused of treason. 
One of the accusations was, "concerning a book made by Sir J oim 
Mylward, priest of Todyngton, and of causing one Dampne \Yilliam Hamp- 
ton to write the same, entitled 'De Potestate Petri.' " 
2. "The Abbot and Convent of Wooburn; their original submission ta- 
the King, and desire for the continuance of his protection." MS., Cotton 
Lib., Cleop. E. iv. 55. 


Hockenhull, John, Esq., confessor of the faith, was the 
eldest son and heir of \Vm. Hockenhull, or Hocknell, of Prenton, 
in vVirrall, co. Cheshire, by 1'1argt., dau. of James H urlston,. 
of Chester. This ancient family, descended from the Hock- 
enhulls of HockenhulI, co. Chester, became extinct in 1782. 
l\Ir, Hockenhull succeeded his father to the estate, and married 
1\1 a rgt., dau. of Peter Hockenhull, of Hockenhull, Esq. He 
had a son and namesake born in 1 575, besides several other 
children. 
At the summer assizes of 1582, Mr, HockenhulJ, who at 
that period may have rcsided on his Lancashire estate, was 
convicted of recusancy and committed to prison by the judges 
on circuit in the northern parts, John Clenche and Francis 



ROD.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 1 5 


Gawdry. They informed the Privy Council by letter, dated 
Aug. 3 I, 1582 (" Dom. Eliz.," voL clv., No. 35), of what they 
had done, and that 1'1r. Hockenhull's penalty was ;[20. On the 
13th of the following October (" Dom. Eliz,," voL clv" Ko. ï6), 
Edmund Trafford and Robert \Vorsley wrote to the council 
that their prisoners for recusancy in the gaol at Salford, amongst 
whom "John Hocknell, Esq." is named, still continued ., in 
their former obstinate opinions," and neither did they see any 
likelihood of conformity in any of them. In another document 
in the Record Office (" Dom. Eliz.," vol. clxvii., Ko. 41, 
J an, 23 (?), 1584), being a list of the recusants then in gaol at 
Salford, l\Ir. Hockenhull's name still appears. After June 17, 
1584, he is lost sight of in the official records; but it is briefly 
stated in a contemporary document, published by Fr, l\Iorris, 
that l\Ir. Hockenhull was killed by his keeper in prison. His 
-inquisition post mortem is dated 32 Eliz. 1 5 89- 1 590" the 
approximate date ascribed to Fr. 1'10rris' 1'15.; yet Ormerod 
says he died April 23, 159 I. 
Ormerod, Hist. of Clteshire, vol. ii. p. 293 ; Harl, Soc" VÚit 
of Cheshire, 1580; Gillow, Lanc. Rccltsants, i11S. J' .lI1orris 
Troubles, Third Series J' CIte/it. Soc., Harland's Lanc. Lieut., 
pt. ii. p. 135 ; Lyso1ls, Hist, of Cheshire. 
Hodges, Nicholas William, journalist, of Kidderminster, 
became a convert during the period of the "Tractarian l\Iove- 
ment." In 1 8 5 7, and for some time, he was one of the editors 
of the TVeekly Reglster at London. 
Shall', The McPhersolls, p. 170; Tlte Lamp, 1857, vol. i. 
p. 3 8 I. 
I. Masonic Fragments; to which is prefixed a Calendar for 
the Province of W orcestershire, and Statistics of the Lodges 
and Royal Arch Chapters, holding Warrants under the Grand 
Lodge and Grand Chapter of England. Lond. (Kidderminster pro 
1851) 12mo. 
2. The Catholic Hand-Book. A History of the Metropolitan 
Missions, with a Description of One Hundred Churches and 
Chapels of the Dioceses of Westminster and Southwark. Lond., 
Dolman, 1857, 8vo, pp. xx.-175, iUus. with views of Churches, &c. 
This is a valuable little work. It embraces the history of about 100 
missions in Middlesex and the adjoining counties. The introduction also 
contains a sketch of the leading points in the history of Catholicity in 
London, well worthy of pel usal. 
Hodgson, Anthony, bookseller, born in 1780, was a native 



316 


EIBLIOGR.\PIIIC.\L DICTIO
ARY 


[HOD. 


of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, where his forefathers, impoverishcå by 
fines and confiscations on account of their recusancy, had resided 
for a lengthened period. They were descended from an ancient 
and wealthy Catholic family seated in different places in the 
counties of Durham and York. In 1598 V\Tilliam Hodgson, of 
the l\lanor House, Lanchester, co. Durham, Esq., was reported 
by Toby l''1atthews, Bishop of Durham, to be a ., perilous" 
papist, and an old officer and follower of the Earl of \Vestmore- 
land. Indeed, the bishop had heard that his son, John Hodgson, 
was married to the Lady Catherine Grey, the earl's daughter. 
It was in this year, J 598, that \Villiam Hodgson made his will. 
In it he leaves a bequest to Jane, youngest daughter of 1''1r. 
Henry Lawson, of Nesham. It was this lady who afterwards 
married John Hodgson, and not the Lady Grey as the bishop 
suspected. ...\nthony Hodgson, the subject of this notice, was 
fifth in descent from this John Hodgson. The Hodgsons were 
several times allied with the Lawsons, one of whom, Henry 
Lawson, married the sister and eventual heiress of Sir Robert 
Hodgson, of Hebburn, Knt. 
l\lr. Hodgson probably received his education in the college 
at Crook Hall, afterwards transferred to Ushaw. His business 
in Newcastle was that of a hatter, but his zeal for religion and 
his literary tastes induced him to add to his commercial pursuits 
the very unprofitable branch of a Catholic bookseller. He was 
a great student of English Catholic history, more especially of 
that in any way connected with his native district. He contri- 
buted many well-written articles to the Catho1ic periodicals of 
the first half of this century, which display considerable re- 
search, He lost his wife, 1\'1ary, Jan. 10, 1 867, aged ï ï, and 
two years later he himself died at Newcastle, Feb. 10, 1869, 
aged 89. 
His son, Nicholas 
Iaurus Hodgson, a.S.B., born Aug. 9, 
1815, in due course was sent to Ushaw College, where he 
remained four years, In Nov., 1830, he went to the Benedic- 
tine College at Downside, near Bath, where he was professed, 
June 24, 1834. He was ordained priest, Nov. 8, 1840, and 
successively held the offices of prefect of studies, professor of 
divinity, and sub-prior, In JUly, 1850, he was elected prior 
of the monastery, but his humility caused him to decline the 
proffered honour. He then supplied at Princethorpe until the 
following October, when he was appointed to the mission at 



HOD.] 


OF TIlE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 1 7 


Bath. This he exchanged for St. Mary's, Studley, co. \Varwick, 
in 1 855. and remained there till 1858. In the last year he 
went to Holme, in Yorkshire; thence to Belmont, 1859-60; 
Cheltenham for a short time; and, at the close of 1860, to 
Blackmore Park, co. \Vorcester, There he was seized with 
paralysis eight weeks before his death, which caused him to 
retire to the abode of his friend, Dom James Nic. Kendal, at 
Redditch, co, \Varwick, where he died, Dec. 5, 1862, aged 47. 
I-Ie was endowed with talents of the highest order, and, gifted 
with the spirit of ceaseless labour, he had become one of the 
most accomplished scholars of his. time. He had a younger 
brother, Anthony, who dieà at Newcastle, July 29, 1859, 
aged 34. 
Catlt. J11ag., vol. i. p. 775; Calk. Director)!, 1868, p. 54, 
1870, p. 79; Lamp, 18 59, vol. ii. p, 127; Olh.'cr, Collectiolls, 
p. 327; Tablet, Dec. 20, 1 8Ó2; Snow, Bated. Necrology, 
I. :!\1iscellaneous articles, chiefly antiquari
n, historical, or biographical, 
contributed to Catholic periodicals, amongst which may be noted-Catholic 
.1
fiscdlaJlY, vi., "Equestrian Statue of James I I. at Newcastle," p. 232 ; 
" Swinburne Castle," p. 313; "A Drief Historical Account of the Catholic 
Ch.1pel, Newcastle-upon-Tyne," p. 384; New Series, 1830, "Memoir of 
Marmaduke TunstaiJ," p. 13...J.. Cath. lIIag. i., "A Short Account of the 
RR. Georg
 Hay, D.D., Bishop of Daulis and Y.A. of the Lowland District 
of Scotland," p. 276; "Present State of the Catholic Religion in Edinburgh 
and \\ïgtonshire, or "
est Galloway," p. 303; "Ampleforth College," P.493 ; 
"The R. R. Thos. Smith, D.D. V.A., N.D,," p. 494. IFeekly Orthodo:r.lollrnal 
-i., "The Old Catholic Chapel of St. Edmund and St. Cuthbert in Gateshead," 
p. 145; "Nevil's Cross, near Durham," p. 225; "North Shields Catholic 
Chapel," p. 241; "St. Denet 13iscop's Edl in J arrow Church," p. 257 ; 
" St. Dede's Chair in ]arrow Church," p. 205 ; 'c Ruins of J arrow Mona5tery," 
p. 273; c. Darlington Catholic Chapel," p. 289; "A Brief Account of the 
Religious Institutions Suppressed at the so-called Reformation in . . . . 
Newcastle," and the subsequent history of Catholicity in the town, pp. 353, 
361,369, 377; ii., "Rev. John GllIo\'., D.D., late President of Ushaw Col. 
leg
," p. 49; "A True Scotch Bigot," p. 53; "Stella Catholic Church," 
pp. 113, 12...J.; "St. Gregory's College, Downside," 367; Review of Mgr. 
Hulme's Reply to Aristogeitrn, pp. 423.436, 453, 472; "Callal}' Castle," 
p. 431 ; iii., "The Yen. and R. R. Charles \Valmesley, Lord Bishop of Rama, 
V.A. \\T.D.," p. 6;; "Bishop \Vearmouth Cìtholic Church," p. 97; "The 
R.R. John Horniho]d, D.D.," p. 161; "The R.R. \Vm. Gibson, D.D.," 
p. 275 ; "Catholic School, Newcastle," p. 389; iv., "The B-auties of the 
Christian Religion;' p. 49, &c.; "Monkish Ignorance," p. 117; "The R. R. 
Richard Challoner, D.O.," p. 173; "Memoir of Marmaduke 1\mstall," 
p. 229; .. Kewcastle Controversy," pp. 235, 297; "Swinburne Castle," 
p. 305. LOI/d. and Dublin Orthodo_t: Journal, i., "The Chapter-House of 
the Cathedral of Durham," p. 33; "Ampleforth College," p. 65; Letter, 



3 18 


BIBLIOGRAPIIICAL DICTION
\RY 


[HOD. 


p. 185; "The Convent at the Bar, York," p. 289; "Ancient Confraternity 
of the Rosery," p. 358 ; " Lartington Hall," p. 385 ; "An Awful Scene," p. 398 ; 
ii., .. St, 
lartin's Church, Canterbury," p. I; ., Stonyhurst College," p. 49 ; 
" St. :\[ary's College, OScolt," p. :289; iii., " Biography of Lady Haggerston," 
p. 32; "The 
 uns of St. Bartholomew, late Anderson Place, Newcastle," p, 
113; iv., "The Old Catholic Chapel, Gateshead," p. 320. Most of these 
articles are accompanied by illustrations. 


Hodgson, Charles, Father, S.J., born at Little Plumpton, 
Lancashire, Nov. 20, 1742, was a member of. a Catholic 
yeomanry family, which suffered very considerably for its faith. 
\Villiam Hodgson, of Plumpton, yeoman, his wife, and their 
daughter Elizabeth, appear annually in the recusant rolls from 
1592 to 1614. James Hodgson, of \Vestby-cum-Plumpton, 
was fined in 1626; and between 1667 and 1680 John Hodg- 
son, of the same, appears in the returns of the Lancashire 
recusants. On Jan. 15, 17 16, \Villiam, Robert, and James 
Hodgson, of Little Plumpton, were convicted of recusancy at 
the Lancashire quarter sessions. In the following year \Villiam 
registered his estate in accordance with the Act of 1 Geo. I. 
Robert and James were probably his sons, and most likely one 
of them was the father of the subject of this notice. For a long 
time the mission at \V estby-cum- Plumpton was served by the 
Jesuits, the chapel being in \Vestby Hall, a mansion belonging 
to the Clifton family. In 1717 the commissioners for forfeited 
estates seized the chapel fittings and the household effects of 
the resident priest, Fr. Edw. Barrow, S.J., and for some time 
the chapel in the hall was closed, 1\1 ass, however, was con- 
tinued in the house of \Villiam Hodgson in Little Plumpton, 
and later in his house at 1\1oss Side, \Vhere he appears to have 
died in 1726. In 1742, either the old chapel at \Nestby Hall 
was repaired and reopened for the use of the Catholics of the 
district, or a new chapel was erected in the yard adjoining the 
hall, which was then a farmstead. 
Charles Hodgson \Vas sent to the Jesuit College at Liége, 
and was admitted into the Society Sept. 7, 1760. For six 
years he taught in the college, and also filled the office of 
prefect, &c., having an excellent reputation as a scholar. At 
length he had the misfortune to lose his reason, and was 
removed to an asylum at Antwerp, when
 he died, Oct. 15, 
1805, aged 63. 
His brother James, born l\Iay 2, 1744, was admitted a 
member of the Society of Jesus, Sept. 7, 1763, but died a 



HOD.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 1 9 


scholastic at Liége, :\lJ:ay 19, 1770, aged 26. A third brother, 
John, born Nov. 175 I, joined the Society Sept. 7, 1769. In 
1799 he succeeded Fr. Andrew Thorpe, S.]., at Dunkenhalgh, 
Lancashire, the seat of the Petres, where he died, April 27, 
1807, aged 56, and was interred in the old parish churchyard 
at Preston. 
Oli"uer, Collecta/lea, S.J. J' Gillow, La1lc. ReCl/Sallts, .1IIS. 
I. Two of his odes, " Eia Veloces" and" Dum Plausus," were pubiished 
amongst the metrical pieces addressed by Liége College to the Prince Bishop 
Velbruck in 1772. 
Hodgson, Joseph, S.T.P., son of George Hodgson and 
his wife Mary Hurd, of London, was born .L\ug. 14, 1756. In 
1766 he was sent to Sedgley Park School, then recently 
established in Staffordshire, where he remained three years. 
Thence he proceeded to Douay College, where he was admitted 
Dec. 18, 1769. His progress in his studies and in piety gained 
him general admiration, and after he had finished his course he 
was retained in the college as a professor. He first taught 
philosophy and then divinity. The latter chair he filled when 
the French revolutionists seized the college, of which he was 
then vice-president. He was imprisoned with the rest of the 
professors and the students, first at Arras and afterwards at 
Doullens. l\lr. Hodgson frequently alluded to the fact that 
"he was the last of all to quit the college." 
On the liberation of the collegians, Feb. 25, 1795, he was 
placed in the arduous mission of St. George's-in-the-Fields, 
London, where he laboured hard for many years At length 
he was removed to Castle Street, and was V.G. to Bishop 
Douglass and afterwards to Bishop Poynter. At the same 
time he had the spiritual care of the ladies' school at Brook 
Green, Hammersmith, where he died, Nov. 30, 182 I, aged 65. 
Mr. Hodgson was a good classical scholar, a .sound theo- 
logian, and a zealous missioner. He was held in great respect 
by all who knew him. 
l<irk, Biog. Colllls., MSS., No. 24; Dr. Gillo'W, Suþþrcssiolt 
of Doltay College 111S... HUsclibetll, Hist. of Sedgley Park, p. 24 ; 
DOllay Diaries. 
I. Narrative of the Sei.zure of Douay College, and of the 
Deportation of the Seniors, Professors, and Students to Dour- 
lens. By the Rev. Joseph Hodgson, V.G.L.D., in a Letter to a 
Friend. Printed in the Catholic JIagazÙle, i. 1831, pp. q-26, 89-101, 137- 



3 20 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HOD. 


14 8 , 208-216, 268-2ï6, 333-339; continued by other hands, 397-4 0 2, 45ï-- 
466,683-4, vol. il. p. 50-60, 255-262. 
This account was written soon after the author arrived in England, 
and was not intended for publication, being left by him in a very unfinished 
state, Yet it contains many interesting facts, and has been tral15lated into 
French, and forms the principal part of "Le Collége Anglais de Douai pen- 
dant la Révolution Françai5e (Douai, Équerchin & Doullens), traduit de 
l' Anglais, avec une introduction et des notes par M. l'abbé L. D,mcoisne." 
Douai, 1881, 12mo, pp. Ixxxi-21I, with portrait of Card. Allen. 


Hodgson, Ralph, Esq., of Lintz. co. Durham, born about 
1730, was descended from an ancient Catholic family long 
seated in that county. In 17 17 Mary Hodgson, of Gateshead, 
co. Durham, widow of Ralph, who was son of Richard and 
Elizabeth Hodgson, registered, as a Catholic non-juror, an 
annuity out of an estate at Tanfield. She had a son and three 
daughters to maintain, all under age. One of these would 
apparently be the father of the subject of this notice, At the 
same time Richard Hodgson, of Gateshead, gent., registered his 
life estate at Tanfield, his son Ralph being named as the lessor. 
He also returned a life estate in a third part of coal mines in the 
manor of Benwell, in Northumberland, the tenant paying him 
I IS. 6d. a ton royalty. 
l'Ir. Hodgson received part of his classical education at Douay 
College, and finished his studies at Paris. After his return to 
Englanù he married one of the daughters and co-heiresses of 
Roger Strickland, of Catterick, co. York, Esq., nephew of Sir 
Thomas Strickland, Admiral of the Fleet in the reigns of 
Charles II. and James II., who followed the fortunes of the 
latter monarch, and died in France in 1694. By this marriage 
Mr. Hodgson left an only daughter and heiress, Catharine, wife 
of Thomas Selby, of Biddleston, co. Northumberland, Esq, l\Ir. 
Hodgson died in 1773. and his daughter, l\:Irs. Selby, in 1826, 
aged 65. 
J'{irk, Eiog. Collus., J/SS., No. 42 ; Burke, Landed Gelltry; 
Pa)'Jlc, Catlt. NOll-jurors
' Cnth. flIng., vol. ii. p. 259. 
I. A Dispassionate Narrative. 
The date of this publication is not stated. The author's name is some_ 
times spelt H odshon. 


Hodgson, Sydney, martyr, a convert, was apprehended by 
Topcliffe, the priest hunter, whilst attending l'ras
 in the house 
of l\Ir. Swithin \VeIls, in London, when Topcliffe and his men 



HOG.] 


OF THE EXGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 21 


broke into the house, the celebrant, Fr. Edmund Genings, was 
just at the consecration. Some of the gentlemen present, 
therefore, resisted the entrance of the intruders until the Mass 
was finished, and then submitted themselves prisoners. Hodgson 
was broubht to trial with the rest on Dec. 4, and was indicted 
for receiving and relieving priests, and for being reconciled to 
the church of Rome. Choosing to die for his religion rather 
than save his life by occasional conformity to the establishment, 
he was executed at Tyburn Dec. 10, 1591. 
Challoner, .I.Jlcllloirs, ed. 174 I, i. 270, 286 ; Dodd, CIt. His!. 
ii. 160; Morris, Troubles, Third Series. 
Hogarth, William, D.D., first bishop of Hexham and 
Newcastle, born Mar, 25, 1786, was a native of Dodding 
Green, in the vale of Kendal, vVestmoreland, where his an- 
cestors were yeomen and had resided for a long period. On 
Aug. 29, 1796, he was admitted with his elder brother Robert 
into the recently established college at Crook Hall, Durham. 
He received the tonsure and four minor orders from Bishop 
vVilliam Gibson, at Durham, Mar. 19, 1807, and on April 2, 
1808, was ordained subdeacon. In 1808 the college removed 
to Ushaw, where he received the diaconate from the same 
prelate, Dec. 14, in that year, and was ordained priest Dec. 
20, 1809. He was destined by the bishop for the mission of 
Blackbrook, in Lancashire, but the president of the college de- 
cided to retain him as a professor, and appointed him general 
prefect and teacher of one of the humanity schools. Soon 
afterwards the administration of the college finances was en- 
trusted to him, at a time when the burthen of debt was very 
great. During the seven years he remained at the college as a 
professor he was seldom in bed before midnight, and at five in 
the morning he was always at his post. 
On Oct. 3 I, 1 8 16, he left the college for the chaplaincy at 
Cliffe HalI, where he remained until Nov. 9. 1824, when the 
congregation was united to the mission at Darlington, to which 
he removed. At this period his congregation in that town is 
said to have numbered but two hundred, whereas at his death it 
had increased to three thousand, For many years he discharged 
the duties of vicar-general to Bishops Briggs, :Mostyn, and 
Riddell, and on the death of the latter he was appointed to 
succeed him in the vicariate of the northern district. 
VOL. III. Y 



3 22 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HOG. 


His election to the vicariate was on July 17, and his brief for 
the see of Samosata illþartiblls was dated July 28, 1848. He 
was consecrated by Bishop Briggs at St. Cuthbert's College, 
Ushaw, Aug. 24, 1848, assisted by Bishop Brown and Bishop 
Wareing, On the restoration of the heirarchy, Dr. Hogarth 
was translated to the newly-erected see of Hexham by brief 
dated Sept. 29,1850. In 1861, in a propaganda congregation 
held April 22, it was decreed that Newcastle should be the 
cathedral city, and that it should be entitled the see of Hexham 
and Newcastle. This decree was approved by the Pope Mar. 7, 
and was expedited May 23, 186 I. 
Bishop Hogarth was the first of the restored hierarchy to 
sign a public document with his new title as "William, Bishop 
of Hexham,". in defiance of the threatened consequences of the 
Ecclesiastical Titles Bill. 
He resided at Darlington until his death, which was sudden, 
although it occurred when he was within a few weeks of com- 
pleting his eightieth year. He was seized with an attack of 
paralysis, of which he expired in the afternoon of the next day, 
Jan. 29, 1866, aged 79. 
His remains were removed to Ushaw and deposited in the 
cloisters of the college cemetery on Feb. 6. The inscription on 
his tomb is recorded by 1\-ir. Maziere Brady, as well as that on 
the elegant obelisk of polished granite, thirty feet high, raised 
to his memory at Darlington, from designs by the younger 
Pugin. 
Shortly before Dr. Hogarth's election to the northern 
vicariate, Bishop Ullathorne described him in a memorial to 
propaganda, "as a man of energetic character, who had evinced 
for long years a marked capacity for business." On his monu- 
ment at Darlington he is called "the father of his clergy and 
the poor, who by a saintly life, great labours and charity un- 
bounded, won love and veneration from all." It was said at his 
funeral that every chapel or church in the whole of the four 
northern counties were either built or enlarged under his 
management. 
His brother, the Rev. Robert Hogarth, died at the ancient 
mission at Dodding Green, Feb. 7, 1868, aged 84. 
Brady, Episcop. SlICC., iii.; Tablet, vol. xxx., pp. 86, 103; 
Catk. .ß1Ùcel" vol. iv. p. 3 8 5. 



HOG.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 2 3 


J. Besides his pastorals, Dr. Hogarth's name appears to a very exhaustive 
nistorical statement of the mission at Dodding Green, which arose out of the 
-claim of Edw. Riddell, of Cheeseburn Grange, Northumberland, Esq., to the 
right to appoint the pastor-incumbent, It is entitled, "In the Matterof Stephen- 
son's Charities, \Vestmoreland. Statement for the Charity Commissioners and 
Appendix of Documents." (Lond.) 4to. pp. 36 and 96, dated July 16, 1862, 
drawn up by James Vincent Harting. solicitor, of 24, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 


Hogg, John, priest and martyr, a native of Yorkshire, 
probably of the recusant family of this name resident within the 
mission of Ugthorpe, in the parish of Lythe, arrived from 
England at the English College at Douay, Oct. 15, 1587. He 
received the subdiaconate at Soissons 1'lfar. 18, and the diaconate 
at Laon May 27, and was ordained priest at the latter town 
Sept. 23, 1589. On the following Mar. 22, he left the college 
for the English mission in company with three other priests, 
Edmund Duke, Richard Hill, and Richard Holiday. All four 
landed in the North of England and were alm05t immediately 
arrested and committed prisoners to Durham. There they were 
arraigned and condemned to death for being priests, and exe- 
.cuted with the barbarities usual in such cases, May 27, 1590. 
Further particulars of this martyrdym will be found - in the 
memoir of Richard Hill. 
C/wlloner, IJ.f"cmoirs, vol. i.; DOllay Diaries,. Peacock, York- 
s/tire Papists. 
Hoggard, or Huggard, Miles, poet, is said to have been 
the first layman who had not received a monastic or academical 
education who appeared in print against the fanaticism of the 
so-called reformers. Be this as it may, he was undoubtedly a 
learned man, and possessed of genuine piety and extraordinary 
zeal for his faith, One of his opponents, Thomas Haukes, in 
l1is own report of a disputation he had with Hoggard, in which 
the latter had the best of it, taunts him with being a hosier and 
dwelling in Pudding Lane, London, Dr. 1'lfaitland questions if 
Hoggard was a hosier, and remarks that he knows of no other 
authority for the assertion than that of the facetious Haukes, 
.f< who was, perhaps, only answered according to his folly." 
Many of the leading reformers attacked him in terms of 
bitterness and scurrility. They undoubtedly considered him an 
opponent whom it was easier to abuse than refute. His friend- 
ship with Bishop Bonner, whose confidence he enjoyed, is eVl- 
Y2 



3 2 4 


BIBLIOGRAPHIC.\L DICTIONARY 


HOG.} 


dence of the esteem in which he was held by the Catholic 
party, 
The date of his death is not stated. He ,,,as living in 155 6 , 
and probably died before the close of 1'lary's reign, to whom he 
dedicated one of his works, signing himself, "Serveaunte to the 
Quene's Highness." 
Bliss, IVood's Atlu:lI. OXOll., vol. i.; Dodd, Cll. Hist., vol. i. 
p. 206; Fox, Acts alld lIloll., vol. ii., ed. ] 591; flfaitlalzd,. 
Reformation,. Pitts, De IlllIs. Angl. Script., p. 752. 
I. The Abuse of the Blessed Sacrament of the Aultare. A poem, 
published towards the close of the reign of Henry VIII., in defence of the 
Blessed Sacrament. 
This was soon attacked, and Robert Crowley wrote "The Confutation of 
the mishapen Aunswer to the misnamed, wicked Ballade, called, The Abuse 
of ye blessed Sacrament of the Aultare; wherein thou hast, gentle reader, 
the right understandynge of al the places of Scripture that Myles Hoggard, 
wyth his learned counsail, hath wrested to make for the transubstanciacion 
of the bread and wyne." Lond. 1548, F. JO, in eights. The whole of Hog- 
gard.s poem is introduced and treated piecemeal. 
2. The Assault of the Sacrament of the Altar; containyng as 
well six severall Assaults, made from tyme to tyme, against the 
said blessed Sacrament; as also the names and opinions of all 
the heretic all Captains of the same Assaults. Written in the 
year of our Lord, 1549, by Myles Huggarde, and dedicated to 
the Quene's most excellent Maiestie, being then Ladie Marie; 
in whiche tyme (heresie then reigning) it. could take no place. 
Lond. Robt. Caly, 1554, 4to., in verse. 
3. A new treatyse in maner of a Dialoge, which sheweth the 
excellency of maÏi.es nature, in that he is made to the image of 
God, and wherein it restyth, and by howe many wayes a man dothe 
blotte and defyle the same image. (Lond, 1550 ?), B. L., Rob. \Vyre, 
4to., in verse. His name appears in the last stanza but one of "The 
Lenvoy." 
4. A Treatise of three Weddings. 1550, 4to, 
5. A Treatise declaring howe Cryst by perverse Preachyng 
was banished out of this Realme; and how it hath pleas'd God 
to bring Cryst home againe by Mary our moost gracious Quene. 
Lond. R. Caly, 1 55<
, 4to., B. L., A-E 2, in fours, in seven-line stanzas, ded. 
to the Queen. . 
6. A Treatise, entitled the Path- Waye to the Towre of 
Perfection. Lond. Robt. Caly, 1554, 4to., sig. E 4; Lond. 1556, 4to., in 
verse. 
An analysis of the work will be found in Brydges' "Brit. Bibliographer," 
pt. iv. 67-73. 
7. A Mirrour of Love, which such Light doth give, That all 
men may learn, how to love and live. Land., Robt. \Vyer (1555), 4to. 
In verse, ded. to Queen Mary, U Mense :Maii, 1555." 



HOG.] 


OF THE E
GLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 2 5 


8, The Displaying of the Protestants, and sondry their Prac- 
tises, with a Description of divers their abuses of late frequented 
within their malignaunte churche. Perused and set forte with 
thassent of authoritie, according to the order in that behalf 
appointed. Lond., Robt. Cali, Mense Junii, 1556, B. L., 8vo., ff. 130, be- 
sides table. 
This work, which did not bear the author's name, raised a storm amongst 
the Reformers, who heaped upon him every kind of abuse both in verse and 
prose. John Bale, the fanatical and coarse-minded Bishop of Ossory, ridi- 
culed him for trying to extract approval: of fasting from Virgil's "
<Eneid" 
and Cicero's "Tusculanarum Quæstionum," and printed some of the verses 
against him, in Latin, in the second edition of his "Illus. Majoris Brit. 
.':>criptorum," Basle, 1557-9, fo1. John Plough wrote" An Apology for the 
Protestants," which he published at Basle, where he resided during Mary's 
reign. Dr. Lawrence Humphrey, \Villiam Heth (an exile at Frankfort dur- 
ing the same reign), and others, joined in the attack upon
 Hoggard. Fox 
3.nd Strype reproduced Thomas Haukes' account of his disputation with Hog- 
gard, in which, after asking him if he was not an hosier and dwelt in Pudding 
Lane, Haukes terminated the discussion with-" ye can better skIll to eat a 
pudding, and make a hose, then in Scripture eyther to answere or oppose." 
This coarse and poor wit was characteristic of such fanatics, and highly 
appreciated in those days. 
9. A Short Treatise in Meter upon the cxxix. Psalme of David, 
called De Profundis. Lond., Robt. Caley, 1556, 4to, 
10. New ABC, paraphrastically applied as the State of the 
World doth at this day require. 1557,4to. 
I I. A collection of his songs and religious poems is in the Brit. Museum, 
MS. 15,233. 
Hoghton, Radcliffe, captain in the royal army, was the 
fourth son of Sir Richard Hoghton, Knt. and Bart., of Hoghton 
Tower, by Kath., dau. of Sir "Gilbert Gerard, of Gerard's 
Bromley, co. Stafford, Knt" 1'Iaster of the Rolls. Upon the 
tragic death of his father, Thomas Hoghton, in 1589, Sir 
Richard was taken in ward by the IVlaster of the Rolls and 
brought up a Protestant, though all his ancestors had been 
Catholic, His brothers and sisters, however, were brought up 
in th
 faith by their mother, and it was, perhaps, through them 
that Radcliffe IIoghton became a Catholic. He was present at 
the Preston guilds of 1622 and 1642, and was slain there, 
fighting for his sovereign, some time after the latter date. 
CastlcmaÍ1l, Catk. Aþol.,o Gillo'iu, Lanc. ReCltsaJlts, J1IS.,o 
A bram, Preston Guild Rolls. 
Hoghton, Thomas, Esq., born in 15 17, was the eldest son 
and heir of Sir Richard Hoghton, of Hoghton, co, Lancaster, 
Knight of the Shire, I Ed. VI., I 547, by his first wife Alice, 



3 26 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HOG. 


daughter and co-heiress of Sir Thomas Assheton, of Ashton- 
under-Lyne, and cousin and heiress of Sir James Harrington, of 
Wolfedge, co, Northampton, Knt. 


"E'er since the Hoghtons from this hill took name. 
\Vho with the stiff, unbridled Saxons came," 


are lines in the poetic address with which James the First was 
welcomed on his visit to Hoghton Tower in 16 I 7. Sir Richard's 
father, Sir \Villiam Hoghton, received the honour of knighthood 
on St. James' Eve, 22 Edw, IV., at the same time and under 
the same circumstances that his elder brother, Sir Alexander, 
was made a knight-banneret in recognition of his valiant beha- 
viour under the Duke of Gloucester in Scotland. He married 
l\lary, daughter of Sir John Southworth, of Samlesbury, Knt. 
On the death of his father, Aug. 5, 1558, Thomas Hoghton 
succeeded to his extensive estates. Some few years previously 
he had married Catherine, daughter of Sir Thomas Gerard, of 
Bryn, and had a son, Thomas, and a daughter, Jane, born about 
I 557, who became the wife of James Bradshaigh, of The 
Haigh, Esq. Between the years 1563 and 1565, Thomas 
Hoghton replaced the old manor-house at Hoghton Bottoms 
by the imposing erection which still rears its majestic towers 
on the summit of Hoghton Hill. At this period, \Villiam 
Allen, afterwards cardinal, visited Lancashire, and was a guest 
at Hoghton Tower. In common with the gentry and people of 
Lancashire, Hoghton repudiated the new religion which was 
being forced upon the country, Every kind of pressure was 
devised by the council to drive the people into attendance at 
the Protestant service. Fines and imprisonment were inflicted 
in rapid succession, inquisitorial commissions were established 
in the country, and Catholics were outlawed and deprived of all 
protection. Under these circumstances, feeling that he could 
not remain in the country anò keep his conscience, Hoghton 
took the advice of his friend, Vivian Haydock (whose son vVilliam 
married Hoghton's sister Bryde), and in 1569, or the beginning 
of the following year, he hired a vessel and sailed from his. 
mansion of The Lea, on the Ribble, to the coast of France, and 
thence proceeded to Antwerp. For this he was declared an 
outlaw, and possession was taken of his estates. On 1'1arch 17. 
157 6 , his half-brother Richard, ancestor of the Hoghtons of 
Park Hall, in Charnock Richard, obtained a license from Queen 



HOG.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS.] 


3 2 7 


Elizabeth to visit the exile in Antwerp, with intent to persuade 
him to submit to the royal pleasure, Hoghton was anxious to 
return, but could not make terms with the Court to retain his 
religion; he, therefore, remained in exile until his death, which 
occurred at Liége, June 2, 1580, aged 63, 
In the words of the last stanza, which has been added to his 
pathetic ballad of" The Blessed Conscience "- 


" Hys lyfe a myrour was to all, 
Hys death wythout offence; 
Confessor, then, lett us hym call, 
o blessed conscyènce." 


He was buried in the church of St. Gervais, where a handsome 
monument was erected to his memory, bearing his arms and a 
suitable inscription. He had been of great assistance to Dr. 
Allen in founding Douay College, and on July 5, [590, his body 
was carried from Liége to Douay, and translated to its final 
resting-place, sub Sea-bello sU1Jl1Jli Altarzs ad eornu Epi'stolæ, 
when the first High l\1ass was sung in the neN church belonging 
to the English college, July 13, 1603. He had charged his 
executors to remove his body to the place where his ancestors 
lay, in the parish church of Preston, of which the Hoghtons 
were patrons, when God should have mercy on his country, and 
restore to it the Catholic faith and service. 
His son and namesake, Thomas Hoghton, went with his father 
into exile, and was not recognized on the escheat in I 580, He 
was placed with Dr. Allen at Douay College, whence he left to 
visit his father in Brabant in 1577. He probably returned, for 
he matriculated in the University of Douay, was ordained priest, 
and proceeded to the English mission. He had no sooner 
arrived in Lancashire than he was seized and thrown into 
Salford gaol, where great numbers of recusants are confined. 
There his name appears in the list of priests returned to the 
council by Edmund Trafford and Robert \Vorsley on April 13, 
1582. He was one of those who "do still contynue in their 
obstinate opynions; neyther do wee see anye likelyhoode of 
conformytie in any of them." His name continues in the lists 
of recusants imprisoned at Salford until Jan. 23, 1584, after 
which it is lost sight of, and, in all probability, he went to swell 
the great band of confessors of the faith who perished in prison 
unrecorded. 



3 28 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HOG. 


The half-brother of the exile, and, curiously, his namesake, 
Thomas Hoghton, was slain in a feud by the Baron of Newton 
in 1589, and his eldest son, being a minor, was given in ward 
to Sir Gilbert Gerard, the Master of the Rolls, to be brought up 
a Protestant. This system of gaining over Catholic families to 
the new religion was constantly practised, as in the case of Sir 
Roger Bradshaigh, the descendant of the exile, Thomas Hoghton, 
All the rest of the family retained the faith, and the Hoghtons 
would still have been Catholic but for this unjust proceeding. 
Gillo'Zu, The Ha)'dock Paþers,. 1(;10%, Records of tIle Ellg, 
Catholics, vols. i. and ii.; Dodd, Cft. Hist., vol. ii. p. 172. 
I. The Blessed Conscience. A ballad, consisting of twenty-three 
eight-line stanzas, first printed by Peter \Vhittle, F,S.A., fr
m the recitation 
of a Lancashire fiddler, Preston, 8vo., pp. 8; also in "The Pictorial Book of 
Ballads," by J, S. Moore, Esq., Land. 1848, 8vo. 2 vols.; "Ballads and 
Songs of Lancashire." by John Harland, F.S.A., Lond. 1865, 8vo.; and 
" The Haydock Papers," by Joseph Gillow. There are several copies of the 
bdlad in l\IS.; the versions vary slightly. 
It is most pathetic, and historically accnrate ; every incident being capable 
of verification. In it the author bewails his hard fate, and narrates the 
cause of his exile and the circumstances which attended it. 


Hoghton, William, Lieut.-colonel in the royal army, was 
the son of Richard Hoghton, of Park Hall, in Charnock 
Richard, co. Lancaster, Esq., by his second wife, Catherine, 
daughter of George Rogerlye, of Park Hall, in Blackrod, Esq. 
and his wife Margaret, daughter of\Villiam Skillicorne, of Prees 
Hall, Esq. 
His father, Richard Hoghton, was son of Sir Richard 
Hoghton, of Hoghton Tower, by his fourth wife, Anne, daughter 
of Roger Browne, though he was born out of wedlock. During 
the exile of his elde
:t brother, Thomas Hoghton, he resided at 
the Tower and managed the estates. After the exile's death 
in I 580, he settled at Park Hall, an estate of the Hoghtons 
in Charnock Richard, and on Oct. 10, 1605, the manor of 
Charnock Richard was formally granted to him by his nephew, 
Sir Richard Hoghton, Bart., who also executed a deed of 
sale to him - of other lands in Euxton, Dec. I 5, 1607. On the 
following Jan. 12, Richard Hoghton entailed Park Hall and 
the l\lanor of Charnock Richard to himself and his heirs, and 
on Aug, 9, 16 I 0, his nephe-w., Sir Richard, executed a quit- 
claim of the manor he had sold to him. These details are 



HOG.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 2 9 


given to correct the pedigree entered by Sir Richard St. George 
in 16 [3. Richard Hoghton's first wife was :Mary, daughter of 
Ralph Rishton, of Pontalgh Hall, Esq., and by her he had a 
son, John Hoghton, born about 1577, and two daughters. 
John's name frequently appears in the recusant rolls. He 
married Isabel, daughter of Henry Rogerlye, of Lytham, gent., 
third son of George Rogerlye, of Lytham, and his wife Ellen, 
daughter of Cuthbert Clifton, of Clifton, Esq., and had issue three 
daughters and co-heiresses, Catherine, wife of James Holland, of 
Dalton, Margaret, and 1'lary, wife of Edw. 'Northington, of 
\ Vharles, gent. 
On Aug. 7, 1615, Richard Hoghton made a settlement of 
lands in Charnock Richard, &c., on the occasion of the marriage 
of his son \Villiam with 1'larie, third daughter of John Gascoigne, 
of Barnbow Hall, Yorkshire, afterwards created a baronet, By 
this lady vVilliam had two sons, Richard and John, and two 
daughters, one of whom, Dame l\lary Eugenia, O. S. B" born 
at Park Hall in I 62 I, died at Cambray, l\ilar. 12, 170 I, 
aged 80. Richard Hoghtûn, the father, dieà N ov, 24, 1624, 
having settled Park Hall upon his younger son vVilliam, owing 
it is said to his elder son, John, who was living in 1642, having 
very much annoyed him hy his conduct, as related in the life of 
Fr. Lau. Johnson, the martyr. 
After his wife's death, vVilliam Hoghton married, secondly, 
Margaret, daughter of Nicholas VV orthington, of Shevington, 
gent., a staunch recusant. This lady must have been somewhat 
advanced in years, for she was fined for recusancy in 1603, 
when she could not have been less than sixteen. By her he 
had no children. The civil war now breaking out, vVilliam 
Hoghton received the lieut.-colonelcy of the regiment of horse 
raised and co
manded by Co!. Thomas Dalton, of Thurn ham, and 
was slain in the first b_attle of Newbury, Sept. 20, 1643, aged 45. 
I t is curious that Co!. Dalton received his mortal wounds at 
the second battle of Newbury, Oct. 27, and died Nov. 2, 1644, 
Co!. Hoghton's grandson and namesake married the daughter 
and ultimate heiress of Robert Dalton, of Thurnham, Esq., son 
of the co
one], and his son John Hoghton assumed the name 
and arms of Dalton about 17 10. The family became extinct 
on the death of 1'1iss Elizabeth Dalton, of Thurnham Hall, in 
186 [, when the estates passed to the Fitzgeralds, and are now 
held by Sir Gerald Dalton-Fitzgerald, Bart. 



330 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HOL. 


Castlemm'n, Catlt. Apol.,. Gillow, Lanc. ReCllsants, 111S.; 
Gillow, The Haydock Pàpers. 
I. Some account of the mission at Park Hall will be of interest. In 
1577, the martyr, Fr. Lau, Johnson, alias Richardson, was chaplain to. 
Richard Hoghton, at Park HalJ. His trials, and the reason for relinquishing 
the chaplaincy, are related in his memoir. Rich, Scholes and Mr. ffawcett 
were his successors, The Rev. Edward Booth, alias Barlow, died at 
the hall in 1719, in his 81st year, having filled the chaplaincy many years. 
The hall ceased to be the residence of the family after the death of \Villiam 
Hoghton in 1710. He had suceeded to Thurnham on the death of Robert 
Dalton in 1704. At this time, and for many previous years, there was a 
Benedictine mission at Low Hall, the seat of the Langtons, of which Dom 
John Placid Acton was the chaplain in 1699, and died there in 1727. In the 
meantime Dom Edward Hoghton, a younger son of \Villiam Hoghton and 
Elizabeth Dalton, was ordained priest at Lambspring in 1720, and came on 
the mission in Lancashire. He was placed at his paternal seat of Park Hall,. 
where he was born. Hitherto Park Hall had been served by the secularsÞ 
On the death of Fr. Acton, in 1727, Low was joined to the mission at Park 
Hall, which Fr. Hoghton served, together with that at Hindley, until his death 
at Park HaU, Aug. 26, 1751. The chaplaincy at the hall then ceased, and 
the mission appears to have been served from Standish Hall until Dom Evan 
Anselm Eastham, O.S.B., came to Low Hall 'in 1758. In 1765 Low Hall 
was sold to the Duke of Bridgewater by Edward Philip Pugh, of Coytmore,. 
Carnarvonshire, whose uncle, William Pugh, inherited it in 1733 from his 
uncle, Edward Langton, the last of his family. Fr. Eastham therefore 
removed the mission to Strangeways, in Hindley, a seat of the Culcheths, of 
Culcheth Hall. He remained there till 1773, when he was succeeded by 
Dom George Edmund Duckett, O.S.B. In 1788 he built a chapel at Hind- 
ley, to which he removed the mission in the following year, and died there
 
March 24, 1792. The Benedictines who followed were-Dom John Placid 
Bennet, 1792-3; Dom Andrew Bern, Ryding, 1792-7; Dom William Henry 
Dunstan \Vebb, 1797-1801, who returned todie there May 8,1848; DomJohn 
Laur, Forshaw, 1801-5; Dom Richard Marsh, 1805-7; Dom Thomas Austin 
Appleton, 1806-36; Dom \Villiam Placid Corlett, 1836-63; Dom Richard 
Cyprian Tyrer, 1862-4; Dom Thomas Aug. Bury, 1864-70; Dom John- Ilde- 
phonsus Brown, 1870-72: Dom John Cuth. Murphy, 1872-83; Dom Fris. 
Paulinus Hickey, 1883 to the present time. A new church was opened in 1869. 
. Holden, George, captain in the royal army, was slain at 
Usk, in Monmouthshire, during the civil wars. He was 
apparently the son of Richard Holden, of Crawshaw, third son 
of Richard Holden, of Chaigley, gent., and Eleanor, dau. of 
Miles Gerard, of Ince, both annually recusants for long previous 
to 161 3-4. The eldest son of Richard and Eleanor, John 
Helden, gent., succeeded to Chaigley IVlanor, and married 
Elizabeth, dau. of Edw. \Vorthington, of vVharles, gent. He 
died in 1637, leaving two daughters, Ann, wife of Robt. 



HOL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


33 1 


Hesketh, of the \Vhitehill family, who died s.p., and l'Iary, 
eventual heiress, wife of Thomas Brockholes, of Claughton. 
After the death of Dr. Henry Holden the Chaigley was sold in 
1665 to Richard Sherburne, of Stonyhurst, Esq. Richard 
Holden, the third son, resided at Crawshaw, and is described in 
the recusant rolls for 1626-7 as a yeoman. His wife, Mar- 
garet, was fined at the same time, besides the Misses Elizabeth 
and Anne Holden. This Richard was probably the father of 
the Rev. Henry Holden, of Thurnham, and the Rev. John 
Holden, a secular clergyman serving the mission in the neigh- 
bourhood of his native place in 1675. Richard Holden, of 
Crawshaw, who registered a leasehold estate in Holden, Bailey, 
and Chaigley, in accordance with the Act of 1. Geo. 1. in 
17 I 7, ,vas their grand-nephew, and the gentleman fre- 
quently alluded to by Tyldesley, the diarist, in 17 12 - 13- 14. 
The family was a younger branch of the Holdens of Holden, 
and seems to have settled at Chaigley, in the parish of Mitton, 
about the middle of the 16th century. 
The descendants of Richard Holden, the Catholic non-juror 
of 17 I 7, have preserved for many generations certain relics, 
consisting of a skull, vestments, chalice, remains of wax candles, 
and other altar furniture, with which the following tradition is 
connected. 
In the times of persecution a priest of the name of I-Iolden 
was beheaded at Chapel House Farm, in Chaigley, whilst in 
the act of saying Mass at the altar. The head was thrown 
over the fence into an adjoining field, and l\'1rs. Holden, of 
Crawshaw, gathered it into her apron and took it into the 
house. She also secured all the objects in the chapel at the 
time the priest was murdered, and these were religiously pre- 
served as relics, even to the candles burning on the altar. 
These were lately in the possession of Mr. Ralph Holden, of 
Woodplumpton. In the missal is written Dieses geltürt ltllSerm 
JJf arter, "this belongs to our Martyr," Und ltllSerm liebelt Pfilp, 
"and to our dear Philip." From this it has been thought that 
the martyr's name was Philip Holden, but the martyr and 
Philip were probably distinct individuals, for no one of the 
name of Philip can be traced in the Holden family. In the 
missal also appear the following words, written in an old 
hand, Ex lib: Hen. Joltnsolli, thus showing that the book 
originally belonged to Dr. Holden. A document in the 



33 2 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HOL. 


possession of the Rev. T, E. Gibson, which he supposes 
to be written between 1640 and 1650, is evidence of the 
existence of a priest of the name of "Mr. Houlden," about the 
time of the civil wars. 
It is well known that the Cromwellians visited Stonyhurst 
and the district during this period, and there are strong reasons 
for believing that the Holden tradition is substantially correct. 
CastlelllaÙz Catk Apol.,o TV. A. Abram, Palatinc Plote-book, 
vol. ii. p. 127; 1IIgr. Grad'Lue!l, letter to tlte 'if../riter,o Gillow, 
Lallc. Recllsallts, 1115.; Tablet, vol. xxxi. p. 459. 


Holden, Henry, D.D., second son of Richard Holden, of 
Chaigley, co. Lancaster, gent., and Eleanor, his wife, staunch 
recusants, was born in 1596, At the age of twenty-two he was 
admitted into the English College at Douay, Sept. 18, 1618, 
where he assumed the name of Johnson. After studying phi- 
losophyand divinity, he left the college, July 15, 1623, and pro- 
ceeded to Paris, where he entered his license at the Sorbonne, 
completed his degree of D.D., and, having greatly signalized 
himself, was appointed a professor in that university. 
Dodd says that he held great influence at the Sorbonne, and 
took an active part in the debates. Fr. Plowden, S.]. (Remarks 
on BerÙzgtoll's Pallzmzi, p. 266) does not allow this, citing as his 
authorities two of Dr. Holden's bitterest enemies, Dr, Robert 
Pugh and Dr. George Leyburne. The character given by the 
former is so extreme, that little or no value can be attached to 
it: "Besides his title of Dr. of Divinity at Paris, he had little 
to make him esteemed. He never could write ten lines of true 
Latin; and his philosophy and divinity were proportional. Yet 
his presumption was so great, that he thought none equal to him 
except the all-knowing Blackloe, as he used rashly to call him." 
Dr. Pugh adds, that" the Bishop of Chalcedon used to say of 
him, that he was an unlearned, presumptuous, and rash man." 
Such language-the veracity of the latter quotation being ex- 
tremely doubtful-is not likely to hurt Dr. Holden's reputation. 
Dodd continues, that he never sought after preferment, but was 
content with his appointment as penitentiary at the church (or 
seminary attached thereto in 1644) of St. Nicholas du Char- 
donnet, where he was much consulted on difficult points of mor- 
ality and in private cases of conscience. A rogue once took 
advantage of him in this respect to rob him of all his money. 



HOL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


333 


The stranger was admitted into his apartment on the pretence 
of consulting him, and forced him under threats of immediate 
death to open his trunk and deliver up all the valuables in his 
possession. 
From the diary of the Blue Nuns it appears that he was one 
of the grand vicars of the Archbishop of Paris, yet this did not 
prevent him from taking a deep and active interest in the 
affairs of the English secular clergy, by whom he was held in 
great respect, According to the "Relation of the Regulars," 
quoted by Berington in his J1lemoirs of Pan:;allz: he was des- 
patched to Rome to assist the chapter's agent, the Rev. Peter 
Biddulph, alias Fytton, whom they feared" was too gentle 
a negociator." This was shortly after the enforced flight of Dr. 
Richard Smith, the Bishop of Chalcedon, to Paris, in 163 I, and 
his unfortunate letter of resignation of his episcopal charge, 
when the clergy had good reasons to apprehend the sup- 
pression of the chapter by Urban VIII. "The efforts of 
Holden were solely bent to procure a confirmation of the 
chapter, as all hopes were vanished of re-establishing the 
episcopal dignity." His petition was rejected, and he returned 
to Paris. 
In 1647 he petitioned the House of Commons (see ...Vote 1 I) 
for toleration for Catholics, on condition of their taking the oath 
of allegiance, having titular bishops as independent of the Pope 
as those of France and other catholic states, both regulars and 
seculars being subject to those prelates who would answer for 
the loyalty of all those recognising their authority, and would 
abstain from illegal action in marriages, wills, &c. 
After Bishop Smith's death in 1655, Mr. Fytton was again 
sent to Rome as the agent of the chapter on the same business, 
when Innoc
nt X. is reported to have said: ., I will not dis- 
approve of your chapter, but will let you alone with your 
government." At this period the appointment of a bishop was 
ardently desired by the clergy, and they strongly felt the 
reluctance of the Holy See to grant it, which they attributed to 
the opposition of the Jesuits and regulars. To further the 
wishes of the clergy, Thomas \Vhite, alias Blackloe, an eminent 
divine, published a work entitled "The Grounds of Obedience 
and Government," which attracted great attention. \Vhite was 
supported by Sir Kenelm Digby and Dr. Holden, and in 1 6 57 
a correspondence between the three was published, which 



334 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[nOLo 


obtained the name of "Blackloe's Cabal." White's opmlOns 
gave great offence to the opposite party, and some of his works 
were censured at Rome. Dr. Holden, the venerated William 
Clifford, the learned Miles Pinkney, alias Thomas Carr, and 
many moderate men, disapproved of the extremity to which the 
outcry raised against him was carried. Dr. Holden came for- 
ward in his defence in 1657, but with little effect on the 
tongues of his adversaries, who stigmatised the leading men of 
the clergy, and particularly of the chapter, as the abettors of 
error under the appelation of Blackloists. Dr, Holden did not 
approve of all White's opinions, and, while believing him to have 
been too severely dealt with, exhorted him to submit and to 
condemn the errors of which he was censured. This he did in 
the most solemn manner, and yet did not satisfy his adversaries. 
A letter to this effect was written by Dr. George Leyburne to 
Dr. Holden, and White immediately signed a second formula of 
absolute and unqualified submission. Notwithstanding, fresh 
censures were passed upon him, and, though the humble sub- 
mission of White was as persevering as the attacks of his 
enemies, Blackloism continued until J ansenism became the order 
of the day. 
When the convent of the Third Order of St. Francis re- 
moved from Nieuport, in Flanders, to Paris, in 1658, Dr. 
I-!olden was extremely kind to them in their distress, which the 
nuns refer to with gratitude in their diary. In the month of 
Nov. 1659, owing to the refusal of Monsgr. Ie Cardinal 
de Retz, Archevesque de Paris, to permit religions of the order 
of St. Francis to settle in Paris, Fr. Angelus Mason, O.S.F., the 
provincial of the English Province, handed over the guardian- 
ship of the nuns to the clergy, in the presence of Dr. Holden, 
whom the archbishop appointed to be their superior. In the 
following month Dr. Holden procured them a commodious 
house in the suburbs of St. Anthony. In April, 1661, Fr. 
Angelus Mason drew up a petition to the Holy See for per- 
mission for the nuns to change from the Third Order of St. 
Francis to the rule of the Immaculate Conception of our 
Blessed Lady, in which he was seconded by the archbishop and 
Dr. Holden. On the eve of the following feast of the Im- 
maculate Conception, Dr. Holden, being then confined to a bed 
oÍ sickness, sent word to the convent that the Pope had des- 
patched a bull for the adoption of that holy institute, and 



HOL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CA TIIOLICS. 


335 


instructed them to make their profession on the feast. He con- 
tinued their superior to his death. 
In June, 166 I, Dr. Holden went to England, and whilst re- 
turning in the following September, experienced a very rough 
passage across the channel, contracted a quartan-ague, and 
died in March, 1662, aged 65. 
He left most of his furniture and effects to the convent of the 
Blue Nuns, besides a bequest of 3 00 pistoles. 
Charles Butler says that none of the English divines settled 
abroad attained greater celebrity than Dr. Holden. No man 
took more pains, and was more successful, says Dodd, in sepa- 
rating the approved tenets of the church from the superstructure 
of school divines. His orthodoxy was without reproach, though 
some have misrepresented him in the point of J ansenism, more 
especially Fr, Sirmond, S.J., who took the liberty to mention him 
as one of that party in his Bibliotlteca J mlse/lÍana. 
Dodd, CIt. Hist., vol. iii, p. 297; Diary of tlte Blue NUllS 
lIIS.,. Butler, Hist. fiIem., ed. 1822, vol. ii. p. 416, 426-9, 
iv. 426 ; Berington, j}Iem. of PanzmlÍ, pp. 277, 294; Dodd, 
Secret Pol, p. 208; J. G. Alger, Palatine Notebook, vol. ii. 
p. 56; Plowdell, Remarks OIl llIem. of Pallsani, 
I. Divinæ Fidei Analysis, seu de fidei Christianæ resolutione, 
libri duo, cum Appendice de Schismate. Parisiis, 1652, 8vo.; Co!. 
Agrip. 1655, 8vo.; Paris, 1685, 12mo.; Paris, Barbou, 1767, 12mo., with brief 
life from Dodd, pp. xxiv.-456. Translated-" The Analysis of Divine Faith: 
or Two Treatises of the Resolution of Christian Belief; with an Appendix of 
Schism. \Vritten by Henry Holden, Doctor of Divinity, of the Faculty of 
Paris. Translated out of Latine into English by W. G. Whereunto is 
annexed an Epistle of the Author to the Translator, in Answer of Dr. Ham- 
mond and the Bishop of Derry's Treatises of Schisme." Paris, 1658, 4to. 
title I f., translator's preface 3 ff., author's preface and table 14 ff., PP.471. 
The Epistle of the Author to the Translator (William Graunt) is dated Paris, 
May I, 1654. 
" It is an excellent work," says VAvocat, " and comprises, in a few words, 
the whole economy of religion." Charles Butler says: "His object was to 
state with exactness, and in the fewest words possible, all the articles of 
Catholic faith, distinguishing these from matters of opinion. \Vith this view 
ne succinctly states the subject of inquiry and the points immediately con- 
nected with it; and, after a short discussion of them, inquires, in reference 
to the subject before him, Quld necessariò cndend/tlll.'l The solution of this 
question concludes the article." 
Prefixed to the 2nd edit. of the "Analysis" is his "Tractatus de Usura," 
or " Epistola de Natura fænoris ad nobilissimum quemdam amicum suum," 
dated Sept. 5, 1648, and in the Appendix his H Tractatus de Schismate U 
against the Bishop of Derry. 



336 


BIDLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HOL. 


Dr. John Bramhall, successively Bishop of Derry and Archbishop of 
Armagh, published his "Vindication of the Church of England against 
Criminal Schism," Lond. 165+, Svo., which was answered by John Sergeant's 
" Schisme Disarm'd of the defensive weapons lent it by Dr. Hammond and 
the Bishop of Derry," Paris, 1655, 8vo, Dr. Henry Hammond's work was 
entitled, "Of Schism; or a defence of the Church of England against the 
exceptions of the Romanists," Lond. 1653, 8vo, He then rejoined with his 
" Reply to a Catholick Gentleman's Answer to the most material parts of 
the Book of Schisme," Lond. 1654, 4to., and "The Disarmer's Dexterity 
examin'd, in a second defence of the Treatise of Schism," Lond. 1656, 4to, 
Bramhall also rejoined, and then Sergeant published his "Schism Dis- 
pach't, or a Rejoynder to the Replies of Dr. Hammond and the Lord of 
Derry," 165ï, 8vo. It was now that Dr. Holden came forward with his 
" Epistle of the Author to the Translator," published with the English trans- 
lation of his "Analysis." Bramhall followed with his "Schism Guarded 
Against, and beaten back upon the right owners," Lond. 1658, 8vo., and 
Hammond published his" Dispatcher dispatched, . . . with Reflections on 
Dr. Holden's Strictures on the Tract of Schism," Lond. 1659, 4to. But the 
continuation of this controversy more properly belongs to the notice of Ser- 
geant's works. 
Benj. Laney, D.D., successively Bishop of Peterborough, Lincoln, and 
Ely, attacked the "Analysis" in a book of "Questions proposed to the 
Author," and the following works must be added to the bibliography of the 
subject :-" Divinæ fidæi analysis, Theologiæ bursus Completus," tom. vi. 
1839, Svo., edited by J. P. Migne; again, in "Bibliotheca regularum fidei," 
tom. ii. 1844, 8vo., edit. by J os. Braun; "Quid de invocatione Sanctorum; 
Quid de Re1iquiis ; Quid de Imaginibus necessario exedendum ?" Thesaurus 
Theologiclls, &c., tom. ix. 1762, 4to, 
2, Answer to Doctor Laney's Queries concerning certain 
points of controversy. 
3. Viro clarissimo Féret S. Nicolai de Cardineto Pastori, 
Hlust. Pariensis Archiepiscopi Vicario Generale, Henricus 
Holden, S.D. Dated Feb. 5, 1656, printed in the" Analysis." 
4. Viro sapientissimo Antonio Arnaldo, Doctori Sorbonico, 
Henricus Holden, S.D. Dated April 22, 1656, printed in the later 
editions of the "Analysis," with the letter of Arnauld, the Jansenist, to 
which it was a reply. 
Dr. Holden was unfavourable to J ansenism, Mr. Butler quotes a pas- 
sage from his letter, in which he says: "The work of Jansenius I never read, 
not so much as a page, or even a section of it. But as I find th:1t J ansenius, 
and the five propositions extracted from it (which I condemned from the 
first), were condemned by Innocent the Tenth-from my respect to so great 
and so sacreà an authority, I condemn-in the same sense in which they 
were condemned by him- J ansenius and his propositions." He subscribed the 
celebrated censure of the Sorbonne on the letter of Arnauld to the Duke of 
Liancour, but wished his apology for it to be received. 
5. Dr. Holden's Letter to a Friend of his, upon the oécasion of 
Mr. Blacklow (or rather T. Wbite)'s submitting his Writings to 



HOL.] 


OF THE ENGLISI l CATHOLICS. 


337 


the See of Rome, together with a copie of the said Mr. Black. 
low's Submission. [Paris, [657] 4to. 
This refers to the prohibition of Blackloe's "Tabulæ Suffragiales," Paris, 
1657, I2mo. It was also printed under the title: "A Letter written by 
Mr. H. H. . . . . touching the prohibition at Rome of 1\1r. Blacklow's book, 
intituled, Tabulæ Suffrdgiales:' [Douay? 1657] 16mo. pp. 16. 
Dr. Holden, in his letter dated P.lris, Aug. I, 1657, speaks confidently of 
the solidity of \-Vhite's fundamental doctrine, but adds: "I confess, that 
omitting voluminous citations of skeptick fancies, and endeavours to incite 
divines to seek for real science, and to show how connatural true divinity is 
to the better portion of man, he useth divers expressions and manners of 
speech not common to our schools, and he hath several exotick and peculiar 
opinions which (be it spoken with due res
ect, tho' in opposition to so great 
a scholar and so learned a man) are much different from my sentiments:' 
(Dodd, " Ch. Hist.," iii. 354), 
6. N ovum Testamentum brevibus annotationibus illustratum. 
Paris, 1660, I2mo. 2 vols., with marginal notes. 
7. Henrici Holdeni Theologi Parisielll:ds Epistola brevis ad 
illustrissimum D,D. N.N., Anglum, in qua de 22 propositionibus 
ex libris Thomæ Angli ex Albiis excerptis, & a facuItate theo- 
logic a Duacena damnatis, sententiam suam dicit. Paris, Jan. IS, 
1661, printed in his" Analysis," and probably separately. 
8. A Letter to Mr. Graunt, concerning Mr. White's Treatise, 
De Medio Animarum Statu. Paris, 1661, 4to.; also printed in Latin, 
"Henrici Holdeni theologi Parisiensis Epistola ad amicum suum W. G. 
In qua de questione in libello De 1\1edio Animarum Statu agitata, judicium 
suum declarat." 
\Vhite, or Blackloe, maintained in his "De Medio," published in 1659, 
that souls in purgatory remain there till the last juàgment; that the torments 
of hell are not corporal, but consist in remorse; that its inmates are therefore 
less pitiable than on earth; and that the Pope is not infallible. The conse- 
quences deducible from this system are irreconcilable with the Catholic doc- 
trine of purgatory, and it is no wonder, therefore, that the book gave scandal. 
In his criticism of \Vhite's crabbed style and manner of speech, Dr. Holden 
says: "His doctrine is so far from taking that effect, which I suppose he 
would have it, that is, to be admitted and received, at least among the more 
learned sort of men, that contrary wise it is thrown by and neglected, if not 
quite blasted, at first sight." 
9. A Check; or enquiry into the late act of the Roman In- 
quisition, busily and pressingly dispersed over all England by 
the Jesuits. Paris, 1662, 4to. 
Dodd (" Ch. Hist." iii. 354) gives an abridgement of this phamphlet, 
which appears to have been also published in Latin. 
10. A Treatise on the Truth of Christianity, MS., sent by the 
author to a friend in England for perusal, by whom it was lost during the 
civil war. It would seem that the design of the work was printed in two sheets, 
"Præfatio ad amplum opus de veritate Religionis Christianæ,>' Parisiis
 
4to. Dodd laments the destruction of this work, which he describes as a 
public loss. In it Holden first established the existence of a. Deity, chiefly 
VOL. III. Z 



33 8 


TIITILIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HOL. 


from the existence of creatures, and hence he inferred the necessity of sub- 
jection, or natural religion, from the insufficiency whereof he deduced revealed 
religion. Then he proceeded to demonstrate the divine origin of the Jewish 
dispensation from undeniable m l.rks. Afterwards he applied these marks to 
the Christian religion, appropriated them to the faithful in communion with 
the See of Rome, and concluded that the Deity, natural religion, the Jewish 
religion, Christianity, and the Catholic religion, as professed by those in 
communion with the Holy See, stood upon the same basis and was supported 
by the same arguments. 
1 I. There is a considerable collection of Dr. Holden's letters in Dr. Robt. 
Pugh's "Elackloe's Cabal," the 2nd edit. of which appeared in 1680. Re- 
marking on this book, Charles Butler (" Hist. Memoirs," ed, 1822, ii. 414) 
says: "The publication of the private letters inserted in it is unjustifiable: 
some expressions in these are censurable; but they do not warrant either 
the harsh expressions which the editor applies to them or the consequences 
which he draws from them." Fr. Plowden, in his" Remarks on Berington's 
Panzani," appends the following short document-" Scriptum ab Eximio 
Domino Henrico Holdeno, S.T. Doctore Sorbonico exhibitum Parlamento 
.-\nglicano, anno Domino 1647, pro regimine Catholicorum Angliæ,7I 


Holden, Henry, priest, was probably nephew of his learned 
namesake, and son of Richard Holden, third son of Richard 
Holden, of Chaigley, co. Lancaster, gt::nt. Like his brother 
George, he was an officer in the royal army during the civil 
wars, and after the king's final overthrow he went over to his 
uncle at Paris, resolved to withdraw from the world. Thence 
he proceeded to Douay College, where he was admitted and 
took the oath, Jan. I, 1649. "He answered to Aristotle's 
books of physicks, Jan. 15, 1652," says Dodd, ., and to the 
whole course of philosophy, July 12, the said year; Mr. John 
Singleton being moderator." 
After his ordination he was sent upon the mission in Lanca- 
shire. Either he or his uncle, Dr. Henry Holden, when on a 
visit to England, supplied the mission at Singleton for a short 
period some time between 165 I and 1655. His permanent 
settlement, however, was the chaplaincy at Thurnham Hall, the 
residence of l'irs, Dalton, whose husband, Colonel Thomas 
Dalton, died Nov. 2, 1643, from wounds received at the second 
battle of Newbury, Co!. Dalton commanded a regiment of 
horse, which he had himself raised in deÍence of his sovereign, 
and Mr. Holden held a commission under him, 
His name appears to a document of the constitutions of the 
Secuiar Clergy Fund, dated Feb. 28, 1675, which the informer, 
Robert Bolron, in imitation of Oates and his cOlifn.\res, tried, in 



HOL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


339 


1680, to impose upon the public as a "Damnable Popish Plot" 
at Stonyhurst. To this document the signature of John Holden, 
a secular priest, also appears. He was, presumably, brother to 
Henry. 
l\lr. Holden continued to serve the mission at Thurnham 
after Co!. Dalton's son Robert, the last male descendant of the 
family, succeeded to the estates, and died there, at an advanced 
age, in 1688. 
His will, dated Thurnham, J tine 20, 1686, with letters of 
probate and administration, April 4, 1688, is still in the old 
Cockersand Abbey chest in the chapel at Thurnham, now the 
property of Sir Gerald Dalton-Fitzgerald, Bart. 
Dodd, Ch, Hist., vol. iii. p. 299 ; Doltay Diaries; Gillow, Lallc- 
RecltsaJlts, 1/1S. J' Gillow, PalatÙte Note-book, vol. ii. pp. 8, 41, 
I. Meditations upon the principall Obligations of a Christian. 
Taken out of Holy Scripture, Councells, and Fathers. M S, 410. 
pp. 177, in the possession of the writer. 
The MS. is in the hand of a scribe, with marginal notes and references 
in that of the author. The" Meditations" show great learning and research, 
and prove the author to have been a man of superior literary attainments. 


Holden, John, Father, S.J., born at Bonds, Garstang, 
co. Lancaster, 1'1ay 6, 1797, studied his humanities at Stony- 
hurst College, where he was admitted Sept. 18, 1812, and 
thence proceeded to Oscott College in 1823 for his theology. 
At Oscott he was ordained priest Oct. 6, 1825, and was sent 
to establish a mission at Thetford, in Norfolk. He remained 
there until the close of 1839, when he returned to Stonyhurst 
and was admitted into the Society of Jesus, Feb, 2 I, 1840. 
In 1842 he was appointed to the mission of Spinkhill, in Derby- 
shire, but in the following year removed to that at Lowergate, 
Clitheroe, Lancashire. On Aug. 23, 1847, he took charge of 
the mission at Lincoln, where he remained until 1859, when he 
became procurator at St. Beuno's College. In 1861 he re- 
moved to IVlount St. Mary's College, Spinkhill, Derbyshire, 
where he died, June 30, 186 [, aged 64. 
Foley, Records S.]., vol. vii.; Cat/to Directories J- Cath. fiIisccl, 
vol. vi. p. 142; Truthteller, vol. v. p. 145; Hat!, StollyhuYst 
Lists. 
I. In Oct. 1826, 1\1r. Holden attended a meeting of the "Thetford Bible 
Society," and protested against the calumnious assertions regarding the 
Catholic Church in the speech of Professor Scholefield, of Cambridge. This 
Z 2 



34 0 


InnLIOGRAPHIC\L DICTIO
ARY 


[HOL. 


interruption elicited observations from the editor of the Nor'iì./Ïch and BllIJ 
Post. 1\1r. Holden then issued a printed cil cuIar, àated The Cannons, 
Thetford, Oct. 13, 1826, which was similarly replied to by the R
v. T. D. 
Atkinson. Mr. Holden rejoined with a second circular, dated Oct. 19, and 
on Oct. 20 republished his circulars with a third letter. Then appeared- 
" Authorities to prove that the Church of Rome, both in Doctrine and Prac- 
tice, prohibits the Reél.ding of the Holy Scriptures. By the Rev. T, D, 
Atkinson, 1\1.A., late fellow of Queen's College, Cambridge, and now curate 
St. Mary's, Thetford." 1826, 8vo.; 2nd edit. id. ; which elicitea- 
2. A Discharge of Grape Shot against" Authorities," &c. . . . . 
To which is subjoined, A General Salute to his other Charges 
against the Catholic Church; with a Postscript in Answer to 
his" Additions" in the Second Edition. By the Rev. J. Holden
 
"creature of the Pope." Lond., Andrews, 18:!6, Svo. 
3. In July, 1826, he issued an appeal for the chapel he was erecting at 
The Canons, Thetford, in which he says: "Fram the Reformation up to the 
present time, this distressed flock ha,-e had no schools for the instruction of 
their youth, and no chapels nearer than Bury St. Edmund's, twelve miles to 
the south of Thetford; Buckellham, now removed to Oxburgh, sixteen miles 
on the north; Norwich, twenty-nine miles on the north-east; Thelveton, a 
private chapel, twenty miles on the east; and another private chapel, ;JlJout 
thirty miles on the west. Add to this, that no efficient priest has ever re- 
sided in Thetford, or in the nei:;hbouring towns or villages, longer than three 
or four years," 


Holden, Joseph, D.D., a native of Lancashire, dcscended 
from the Chaigley family, was educated at Douay College. 
whence he proceeded to St. Gregory's seminary at Paris, which 
he entcred as a student in philosophy in 1723, and was there 
ordained l'Iay 23, ::: 728. He took his degree of D.D. at the 
Sorbûnne, l\1arch 20, 1734. and soon after proceeded to the 
English mission, and was stationed at \Vycliffe, in Yorkshire. 
On the death of Dr. :Matthew Bcare, fifth superior of St. 
Gregory's. Paris, Bishop Stonor presented Dr. Holden as his 
successor; but it was with difficulty that the confirmation of 
Mgr, Vintimille, archbishop of Paris, could be obtained, for 
.. some busy people had whispered to the archbishop that Dr. 
Holden was to be suspected for his principles, or want of sub- 
mission to the decrees of the Church. But Dr, Holden abun- 
dantly cleared himself before I\;Igr, Robinet, one of the G.V. of 
the archhishop, by signing his submission to all the decrees in 
question, which satisficd both the archbishop and his vicar." 
IIis letters patent were accordingly signed Dec. 3, 1743, 
The finances of the seminary were in a bad state whcn Dr. 
TIeare died, and àid 110t improve in Dr. Holden's time, so that 



HOL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH C\THOLICS. 


34 1 


he was obliged to take p
nsioners, such as Sir Charles J erning- 
ham and his brother Edward, 1\lr, Ralph Standish, and others, 
who had no intention to take degrees or to enter into the eccle- 
siastical state. Similar necessity occasioned the adoption of the 
same plan during the superiorship of Doctors Charles Howard 
and John Hew, \Vhile superior, Dr. Holden purchased houses 
in the Rue des Tours for the seminary, but the attorney ran 
away with the purchase-money, which involved the doctor and 
seminary in difficulties and debt. His 1\IS5. were seized by his 
creditors, among the rest a valuable course of divinity, which 
was adopted by one of the bishops in France in his seminary. 
Edward, Duke of Norfolk, called the good duke, was a con- 
siderable benefactor to St. Gregory's on this occasion, 
The writer of the historical account of the seminary in the 
Catholic 111 aga:;Ùze, vol. iii., gives the following description of 
the doctor: II Dr, Holden was less courteous in his manners 
and less gentle in his temper than his amiable predecessors. 
From a letter which, on Oct. 30, 1744, the Rev. Alban Butler 
addre3sed to him, in self-defence, it appears that the doctor was 
suspicious, irritable, and difficult to be appeased. Though im- 
prudent in his conversation on the prevalent errors of the time, 
he was grievously offended with his best friends who ventured 
to insinuate a few words of caution; and implacable against 
those who doubted the purity of his principles." 
The Archbishop of Paris, 1'1. de Beaumont, renewed hi::; 
patent at the expiration of the first term of six years in 1749, 
but positively refused to extend it any further in 1755. Dr. 
Holden, therefore, withdrew from the seminary, but continued 
to reside at Paris as a private individual, and died there, 

I arch I 8, I 767. 
Several other members of this family have since become 
ecclesiastics, amongst whom may be mentioned the Rev. Thomas 
Holden, who died at Rome Oct. 20, 1848, and the Very Rev. 
Richard Canon Holden, now of Huyton, near Liverpool. 
l
irk, Biog. Collect., 
o. 24, lVIS q ' Calk ilfag., vol. ii. p. 259, 
vol. iii. p. 100. 


I. Dr. Holden's name appears in the list of Douay writers, but unless 
.the course of divinity, which was seited by his creditors with his 1\155., wa-i 
printed, it does not appear that he published anythin
. 


Holdsworth, Daniel, D.D., '(-,ide Halsworth. 



34 2 


BIDLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HOL. 


Holford, Peter, priest, born about 1690, was a younger 
son of Thomas Holford, of Cheshire, Esq., and his wife lVlary 
Wrath, a junior branch of the Holfords, of Holford and Los- 
tock-Gralan, co. Cheshire. He was brought up in the Pro- 
testant religion, but quitting his home, unknown to his parents, 
he was received into the church by Mr. John Jones, alias Vane
 
the London agent of the English College at Lisbon. There he 
was sent by Bishop Giffard, in Oct. 1708, at the age of 18, 
and he then assumed the alias of Lostock. Having finished his 
divinity, he was appointed professor of philosophy in Sept. 
17 1 I. He was ordained priest Oct. 30, 17 I 2, and in the same 
year was appointed prefect of studies. 
On July 16, 1718, Mr, Holford left Lisbon to pursue his 
studies at the Sorbonne, and was received by Dr. lngleton into 
the English seminary at Paris, Aug. 19, on the recommendation 
of Bishop Stonor. Shortly before his death he was appointed 
director to the nuns at the English Benedictine Convent at 
Paris, where he was suddenly taken ill, and died Aug. 3 I, 
I 722, aged 32, 
" He was a man," says Dr. lngleton, "oÍ very eminent parts, 
accompanied with a great sweetness of temper, and an exem- 
plary humility." His nephew, Peter Holford, Esq., more than 
once mentioned to Dr. Kirk that his uncle was never heard of 
by his relatives after he quitted his parents' roof. He added that 
Ilis father, the Rev. Peter Holford's elder brother, firmly believed 
that he once saw his brother enter his study and walk through 
it into an adjoining room, but when followed, could not be 
found. This nephew, Peter Holford, of \Vootton Hall, co. 
vVarwick, Esq., was also born at the family seat in Cheshire. He 
was his father's second son, and was sent to Christ Church 
College, Cambridge, for the purpose of taking orders. He 
accordingly applied himself to the study of divinity, but be- 
coming dissatisfied with the reasons assigned for the grounds of 
the reformation, he ventured to propose his difficulties to some 
clergymen of the Established Church, and even to the then 
Bishop of London. Their answers, he informed Dr. Kirk, in- 
stead of allaying, increased his difficulties, till at length he de- 
termined to leave his home and his friends. Unknown to 
them he went to London with his sister Elizabeth Holford. 
There they introduced themselves to Bishop Challoner, by whom 
they were instructed, received Ï!1to the church, and confirmed. 



HOL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


343 


They then went abroad, and, having placed his sister in a 
convent, 1\'1r. Holford thought of entering the army in order to 
support both himself and her, their parents having turned their 
backs upon them as soon as they heard of their conversion. But 
the moral dangers of that state of life having been represented 
to him by his friends at Douay, he lived some time in retire- 
ment at Cambray. On his return to England. a commission he 
received from Dame Jousepha Carrington. O.S.B., of the convent 
at Cambray, to her sister Constantia \Vright, widow of John 
\Vright, of Kelvedon, Esq., introduced him to that lady, whom 
he afterwards married. These two ladies were the daughters of 
Francis Smith, of Aston, co, Salop, Esq., and his wife Catherine 
Southcott. On the death of the last male heir of the Smiths, 
Viscount Carrington, in 1758, the family estates devolved in 
equal moieties on his two nieces, :1\1rs. Holford and her sister the 
nun. 1\lrs. Holford's first husband, John \Vright, died Dec. 2. 
175 I. 1\lr. Holford thus became possessed of the estates of 
Lord Carrington at \Vootton. By this marriage he had 
two children, one who died young, and another, Catherine 
11aria, his sole heiress, who married in 178 I. Sir Edward 
Smythe, of Acton-Burnell, Shropshire, and Eshe Hall, Durham, 
J:3art. Mr. Holford died at Acton-Burnell, July 17, 180 3. the 
anniversary of the death of his wife, and his sister died at 
\'Tootton, April 28, 18 14, aged 8 I. Dr. Kirk. who knew him 
well, says he had a cultivated mind, and was a sincere convert 
and an exemplary Catholic, 
Catll, Mag. vol. iii. p. 148; Kirk, Biog, Colket., MS., Nos. 
27 and 42; Paync, Bug. Cath. N01lj'urors, p. 59; FDIc}!, 
Records SJ., vol. vi. p. 389; L')!solls, Cheshire. 
I. Paradoxa Physico Thomistic a, March, 1716, a thesis dedicated 
to Cardinal N uro de Cunha, inquisitor-general in Portugal. 


Holford, Thomas, priest and martyr, a native of Cheshire, 
was no doubt a member of the family seated at Holford, or one 
of its off..c;hoots. The Bishop of Chalcedon's catalogue says 
that he was born at Aston, a township in the parish of Acton, 
the name assumed by the martyr on the mission. His father 
was a minister, and he himself became tutor to Sir James 
Scudamore, of Holm Lacy, co. Hereford, and his two brothers, 
Henry and John. In 1579, a priest named Richard Davis, alias 
\Vingfield, came over from Rheims to visit his parents in Here- 



344 


DIBLIOGRAl'IIICAL DICTIONARY 


[HOL. 


ford. He sent for 1'1r. Holford, and, in his own words, "so dealt 
with him, gratia Dei co-opermltc, that hefore I knew anything of 
it, he was gone to Rheims." 1'1r. Holford arrived at the English 
College at Rheims Aug. 18, 1582. He received the sub- 
diaconate at Laon l\Iarch 3, 1583, and was ordained deacon and 
priest there on the following April 7. He celebrated his first 
Mass on April 2 I, and on 1'1ay 4 he left the college for the 
English mission. 
About four years after his conversion, IVIr. Holford again met 
Mr. Davis, who told him that he was living at Uxendon l\1anor, 
at Harrow-on-the-Hill, the seat of Richard Bellamy, Esq., one 
of the most famous refuges for priests in the south of England. 
In response to his invitation, Mr. Holford paid Uxendon a visit, 
"where, to his welcome, at his first coming," says 1\1r. Davis, 
"the house was searched upon All Souls' Day (1584), and 
when :Mr. Bavin (Bevant) was making a sermon. The pur- 
suivants were Newall and \Vorsley ; but we all three escaped. 
After that he fell into a second danger, in the time of .the 
search for Babington and his company (.July, 1586), of which 
tragedy Sir Francis \Valsingham was the chief actor and con- 
triver, as I gathered by IVIr. Babington himself, who wé.ls with 
me the night before he was apprehended; for after he, l'Ir. 
Holford, had escaped two or three watches, he cåme to me (at 
Uxendon) and the next day the house where I remained was 
searched, but we both escaped by a secret place, which was 
made at the foot of the stairs, where we lay, going into a hay- 
barn." 
"\Nhich troubles being passed," :Mr. Davis continues, ":\Tr. 
Holford, the next year after, went into his own country, which 
was Cheshire, hoping to gain some of his friends there unto the 
Catholic church; but there he was apprehended and imprisoned 
in the castle of \Vest Chester [i.e., Chester], and from thence 
was sent with two pursuivants (as I take it) to London; who 
lodging in H olborn, at the sign of the Bell, or the Exchequer, 
I do not well remember whether [Topcliffe says in the Strand], 
the good man rising about five in the morning, pulled on a 
yellow stocking upon one of his legs, and had his white boot 
hose on the other, and walked up and down the chamber. One 
of his keepers [Topcliffe says the sheriff's men of Cheshire] 
looked up, for they had drank hard the night before, and 
watched late, and seeing him there, fell to sleep again. vVhich 



HOL.] 


OF THE EKGLISH CATHOLICS. 


345 


he perceiving, went down into the hall. The tapster met him. 
and asked him '\Vhat lack you, gentleman?' But the tapster 
being gone. 1\1r. Holford went out, and so down Holborn to the 
Conduit, where a Catholic gentleman meeting him (but not 
knowing him) tJ20ught he was a madman. Then he turned into 
the little lane into Gray's Inn Fields. where he pulled off his 
stocking and boot hose. \Vhat ways he went afterwards I 
know not; but betwixt ten and eleven of the clock at night, he 
came to me where I lay [at Uxendon 1'1anor] about eight miles 
from London. He had eaten of nothing all that day; his feet 
were galled with gravel stones, and his legs all scratched with 
briars añd thorns ([or he dared not to keep the highway) so that 
the blood followed in some places. The gentleman and mistress 
of the hOt)se caused a bath of sweet herbs to be made, and their 
two daughters washed and bathed his legs and feet ; after which 
he went to bed." This happened in 1587, and the account of 
his kind reception by Richard Bellamy and his family is corro- 
bo
ated by Richard Topcliffe, the pursuivant, in his "Excep- 
tions" to a petition in favour of the Bellamys, presented to 
Lord-Keeper Puckering shortly afterwards. 
Aft.er this escape l\Ir. Holford avoided London for a time, and 
from another account it appears that he went into Gloucester- 
shire. 'In 1588 he returned to London to purchase a suit 
of clothes. "at which time:' continues l\Ir. Davis, " going to )\1r. 
Swithin \ V el]g' House, near St, Andrew's Church in Holborn, to 
serve God (to say l'Iass), Hodgkins, the pursuivant, espying him 
. as he came forth, dogged him into his tailor's house, and there 
apprehended him." He was arraigned and condemned for re- 
ceiving orders abroad and coming into the realm. After his 
condemnation the man who was the cause of his apprehension 
visited him in prison, and on his knees, with tears, begged his 
forgiveness. " He continued," says the account before referred 
to, "most zealously in doing his function unto his very death. 
That very day he suffered, having offered the most Divine Sac- 
rifice, and made a very fervent and forcible exhortation to many 
Catholics there present in secret for their perseverance in the 
Catholic faith, as he was at his nine-hour (i.e., saying None) or 
thereabouts, word was brought him that the executioners staid 
for him at the prison gate; he, desiring their patience a little, 
ended his service, blessed and kissed the company, and so de- 
parted to his martyrdom, wherein he abode such inhuman cruel 



34 6 


BIDLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HOL.. 


butchery that the adversary preachers exclaimed in their ser- 
mons against it." He was executed at Clerkenwell, four other 
priests and three laymen suffering in the same cause in other 
parts of the city, Aug. 28, 1588. 
It is related in an ancient document that a gentleman in 
Glouccstershire, probably the one with whom Mr. Holford 
resided, was very much troubled and molested, and suffered a 
long imprisonment, for having '( the bloody shirt of the blessed 
martyr, 1\1r. Holford, wherein he was executed." He seems to 
have used the alias of Bude (Dr. Oliver says Bird) whilst in 
G loucestershire. 
Challoller, l1Icllloirs, vol. i, p. 2 I 3, ed. 174 I ; llIorris
 
Troubles, S ecolld and Third Series; DOllay Diaries; Dodd, Ch. 
Hist., vol. ii. p. 6 I ; T. G. La'LL', The A1oll/h, vol. xvi" Third 
Series, p. ï 7; Oli'Lrer Collectiolls, p. 103. 
Holdforth, James, Esq., born June 14, 1778, was son of 
Joseph Holdforth, an extensive silk manufacturer in Leeds, and 
his wife Elizabeth Saxton. His father was a staunch Catholic, 
and was supposed to be descended from the Holdforths of 
Newborough, in thc township of Dutton, Cheshire, a younger 
branch of the ancient family of Holford of Holford. 
He was one of the twenty-two gentlemen placed in the first 
commission of the peace for Leeds under the municipal act in 
1836. At the first election of members of the town council 
under that act, he was returned as a councillor for the east 
ward, was the same month included in the first list of alder- 
men, and in Nov., 1838, had the honour of chief magistrate 
conferred upon him. lIe was supposed to be the first Catholic 
mayor in England since the so-called reformation, and his 
election caused considerable discussion and difference of opinion 
in the council as to whether he was legally qualified for the 
office, he having omitted to subscribe to the oath required to 
be taken by Catholics. The opinion of counsel was taken, 
which was to the effect that the election was valid, and on the 
strength of this the mayor resumed office. In consequence of 
this decision, however, three of the aldermen refused to act, 
and others were appointed in their places. 1\1r. Holdforth 
was afterwards admittcd to be one of the most assiduous and 
painstaking mayors that Leeds ever produced. During the 
earlier part of his life he was identified with all public matters 



HOL.] 


OF THE E:NGLISH CATHOLICS. 


347 


connected with the town. Parliamentary and municipal reforms 
were objects to which he gave an earnest support, and he was 
always found co-operating with the advocates of these im- 
portant measures. 
Though staunch in his religion, he never failed to show a 
careful regard for the conscientious opinions of others. He 
took an active part \vith Mr. Edward Baines, :\1r. T. \V. Tottie, 
and the leaders of the liberal party in Yorkshire, in carrying 
the catholic emancipation bill, and was a friend and corre- 
spondent of Daniel O'Connell, Sheil, O'Gorman :Mahon, and 
other leaders of the movement. He entertained Cardinal 
\Viseman in Feb. 1853, and also l\Igr. de lVlazenod, Bishop of 
IVlarseilles, founder of the oblates of :Mary Immaculate, on the 
occasion of his visit to the oblates of :Mount St. 1'1arie's, Leeds, 
in Aug., 1857. He was president of the Leeds Catholic 
Institute, and his liberal support was ever given to the struggling 
missions in the town, of which, indeed, he and his father may 
be said to be founders. His charities generally, and his sym- 
pathy for the poor, were conspicuous. For many years he 
entirely supported a ragged school in the east ward, where his 
silk factory was situated. 
He married 1'1ary, daughter of Thomas Dempsey, of Laurel 
House, Toxteth Park, Liverpool, and his wife J annet, daughter 
of.Thomas Charnley, of Liverpool, a descendant of the Charn- 
leys of the Fylde, by whom he left a numerous family. He 
died at his residence, Burley HilI, Leeds, ] uly 13, 186 I, aged 
83, 
Tablet, xxii. 485 ; Taylor, Biog. Lcod. 7' Lamp, v. 250. 
I, Mr. Holdforth at his own expense greatly assisted the Leeds Catholic 
Institute in the distribution of pamphlets calculated to diminish bigotry. 


Holland, Catharine, O.S.A., daughter of Sir John Hol- 
land and his wife, Lady Sands, was born in 1635. Sir John 
was a rigid Protestant, and severe in his temper, His lady, on 
the contrary, was a zealous Catholic, and amiable in her dis- 
position. Her husband had espoused her through worldly and 
interested motives, yet was sensible of her great worth, and 
frequently called her u the mirror of wivt:s." He would often 
repeat to his daughter, "Imitate your mother in all things but 
her religion." Lest his children should imbibe the religious 
principles of his virtuous lady, Sir John removed them entirely 



3
8 


13IBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTION
\RY 


[HOL. 


from her care, and attended to their education himself. He 
taught his daughter Catharine to read and write, and obliged 
her when she heard a sermon to write it down as nearly word 
for word as possible, and severely punished her when he was 
not satisfied with her performance. Thus she was brought up, 
without any real friend in whom to confide, for she was seldom 
allowed to converse ,,'ith her mother. As she advanced in 
years she spent her time in the society of girls of her own rank 
whose days were absorbed in pleasure. But the comforts afforded 
by religion were wanting, and she would frequently say to her- 
self, " The religion I follow seems to be but an empty shadow; 
there must be one true and only faith. Where can I find it? " 
Owing to the disastrous course of the civil wars, Sir John 
removed his family to Holland, and there settled them in 
Bruges about 165 I. It was then she first had an opportunity of 
seeing what the Catholic religion was, and of hearing Mass. 
" Here is God truly served," she said to herself, and prayed 
that He would enlighten her mind. But very soon an order 
arrived from her father for the family to return to Holland, and 
fix its residence at Bergen-op-Zoom. There she mixed in 
the whirl of society, though at times her soul was sorely dis- 
tressed with a craving for the knowledge of God. After 
some years her father allowed her to return to Brabant, where 
she might see her mother. vVithin two years, though she did 
not speak to her mother on the subject of religion, she deter- 
mined to become a Catholic, and wrote to her father in England, 
giving him her reasons for her conversion. He was very 
angry, and tried his utmost to prevent it. He joined his 
family, and after the restoration returned with them to England 
in 166 I. In order to allay suspicion and to obtain more 
liberty 1'1iss Holland affected to turn once more to the pleasures 
of society. But her mind was fixed, and she addressed a letter 
to Lady Bedingfeld, the superioress of the Augustinian convent 
at Bruges, in which she explained her desires and the peculiar 
circumstances in which she was placed. This lady consoled her 
and directed her to her aunt, who resided in London, and a 
regular correspondence followed. Sir John was under the 
impression that his daughter had laid aside all idea of chang- 
ing her religion, and to prevent, as he thought, the possibility 
of her recurring to her late opinions, introduced her to the 
Bishop of \Vinchester. \Vhat passed at their interview is 



HOL.] 


OF TIlE E:KGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3-1-9 


related by hersel[ She obtained a complete victory over the 
bishop, and was confirmed in her decision. 
:Miss Holland now began to think of withdrawing from her 
father's house, and of retiring to Flanders. Sir John resided 
in Holborn, and the gate of his garden opened into Fetter 
Lane. His daughter had discovered that two priests lodged 
in this street. To these, therefore, she repaired, informed them 
of her situation, and begged their advice. They listened to 
her with respect, gave her some information with regard to the 
Catholic religion, and advised her to follow her conscience. 
The priests, however, belonged to a religious order, and their 
superior forbade them to interfere in any manner in her case, 
lest the Catholic body in general should be made to suffer, for 
Sir John possessed great power and influence. This was a 
great blow to l\liss Holland, for she had made all her arrange- 
ments to carry out her purpose. She then wrote to the 
cautious superior, concluding her letter, "Go, I will, cost what 
it may, and though man should forsake me, I know God will 
not." She therefore again wrote to the superioress at Bruges, 
and shortly afterwards fled from her father's house and arrived 
safely at the convent. 
After a very short delay she took the religious habit, and, 
when the time of her profession drew near, wrote to her father 
for his pardon and consent to the step which alone could make 
her happy, This he eventually gave, and even remitted, through 
the intercession of Henry, Duke of Norfolk, the [nur hundred 
pounds necessary for her pension. The Duke himself led her 
to the altar Sept. 7, 1664, when she made her solemn pro- 
fession. At Bruges she passed the remainder of her holy life, 
and died Jan. 6, 1720, aged 85. 
She was endowed with great natural talents, sound sense, 
and ready wit, all which may be easily discerned in her writ- 
ings. Her happy dispositions for piety were conspicuous in the 
exactitude with which she acquitted herself of her regular duties. 
Catn. 11Iiscel., vol. iv" pp. 245, 293. 


I. Spiritual dramas and fugitive pieces of poetry. 
2. Several tr:onslations from French and Dutch works of piety. 
3. The Reasons why she became a Catholic. 


Holland, Guy, Father S.J., alias Holt, born in Lincoln- 
shire about 1587, passed B.A. at Cambridge. Being con- 



350 


DIDLIOGRArHICAL DICTIO
ARY 


[HOL. 


verted, he went to the English Coilege at Valladolid, where 
he was admitted Nov. 26, 1608. He was ordained priest, 
sent to England in May, 1613, and there joined the Society 
in 1615. At length he was seized, with other Fathers, by 
pursuivants, in 1'1arch, 1628, at the London residence and 
noviciate of the Society in Clerkenwell. On July 14, of that 
year, he was professed of the four vows. His labours were 
chiefly spent in the London district, and that of Oxford, the 
Society's residence of St, 1'1ary, of which he was once superior. 
He died in England, Nov. 26, 1660, aged 73. 
He is described as a virtuous and prudent man, a great lover 
of books, and possessed of an accumulated treasure of learning 
from his extensive reading. 
Alcgambe, Southwell's Bibl. Scriþt. Soc., p. 3 1 I; Foley, 
Records SJ, vols. i., vii.; Olh::cr, Collectanea S J,,. Valladolid 
Diary, lJI5. 
I. The Grand Prerogative of Human Nature; concerning the 
Immortality of the Soul. By G. H. Gent. Lond. 1653, 8\'0. 
2. He left other works ready for the press, stopped by the censors, owing to 
one or two points in which he rather deviated from the common opinion of 
the doctors. 


Holland, Henry, B.D., a native of Daventry, Northamp- 
tonshire, was educated at Eton, whence he was elected a scholar 
of St. John's College, Oxford, in 1565. After proceeding B,A., 
he felt so dissatisfied with the progress of the new religion that 
he withdrew to the Continent, and visited several places in 
Flanders. Eventually he went to the English College at Douay, 
and was admitted an alumnus in 1573. He matriculated at 
the University of Douay, and in 1577 and 1578 proceeded 
B.D. After being ordained deacon on April 6, 1577, he left 
the college on the following l\1ay 
 8, for England, to transact 
some private business, but returned on the following Sept. 4. 
\JVhen the college removed from Douay to Rheims in IVlarch, 
1578, l'IL Holland shared in the troubles caused by the revo- 
lutionary party then in power at Douay, and was again away 
from the college between June 7 and N ov, I 5 in that year. lIe 
accompanied Dr. Allen to Paris on April 29, 1579, returned 
to the college on the following IVlay 18, and on March 19, 
1580, was ordained priest. 
For some years before Mr. Holland was sent to the English 
mission, in 1582, he was engaged, with other members of the 



HOL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


35 1 


-college in the translation of the Bible into English. After a 
few years) labour on the English mission he returned to Douay) 
resumed his academical studies, and was created licentiatè of 
divinity, Sept. 22, 1587. He was then invited to become pro- 
fessor of divinity and Scripture-reader in the monastery of 
Anchine, near Douay, where he remained till his death, at an 
advanced age, Sept, 28, ] 62 5. 
He was buried in the cloisters of the monastery, and a 
monument was raised over his remains bearing the epitaph 
recorded by vVood. 
lVood, Athcnæ OXOlt., vol. i. p. 424, ed, 1691; Demay 
Diaries; Dodd, Ch
 Hist., vol. ii. p. 382. 
I. Urna Aurea, vel in Sacro-Sanctam Missam, maximeque in 
Divinum Canonem Expositio. Duaci,1612, 12mo. 
2. De Sacrificio Missæ. Duaci) 1609) Izmo., cited by \Vood. 
Late in last century 3 vols, with this title were pub. by the Abbé F. Plowden. 
3. De Venerabili Sacramento. Also cited by \V ood, and perhaps 
the same as "U rna Aurea." 
4. Carmina Diversa, says \V ood, "with other things printed beyond 
the seas, which seldom or never come into these parts.') 
5. Vita Th. Stapletoni, in the .. Opera quæ extant omnia Stapletonii," 
Paris, 16zo, 4 vals. faL, a work probably edited by l\Ir, Holland. To 
render this edition complete, Stapleton's English pieces were translated into 
Latin. 


Holland, Hugh, poet, born at Denbigh, in \tVales, was the 
son of Robert Holland, who is said by Aubrey to have descended 
from the Earls of Kent of his name. His mother was of the 
family of Payne, of Denbigh. He was educated at \tVestminster 
School under the celebrated Mr. Camden, whence he was elected 
to Cambridge in 1589, and became a fellow of Trinity College. 
Subsequently he travelled on the Continent, became a Catholic, 
and visited Rome) "where his over free discourse betrayed his 
prudence," says \Vood. He then went on a pilgrimage to the 
Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, and on his return journey touched 
at Constantinople," where he received a reprimand from the 
English ambassador for the former freedom of his tongue." 
On his return to England, Holland resided for some years as 
a sojourner at Oxford, for the sake of the public library, and 
lodged in Baliol College. He then removed to \tVestminster) 
where he died, and was buried in the south part of the Abbey 
church, near the door entering into the monuments, July 23, 
16 33. 



352 


DrDLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIOK.\.RY 


[HOL. 


He left a son," Arbellino" Holland, of \\.estminstcr, gent... 
who took out letters of administration to the estate of his 
father, who is descrihed as a widower. 
\Vood mentions an epitaph, written by Holland, in which 
he styles himself" miserimus peccator, musarum et amicitiarum 
cultor sanctissimus," &c, Fuller, in his" \Vorthies," .says that 
he was an excellent Latin poet, and speaks favourably of his 
English verse, which others have thought worthy to classify with 
the best of his times. 
IVood, Atltcllæ OXOll., vol. i. p. 497, ed. 1691 ; Dodd, Ch. 
Hist., vol. iii. p. 67; Cltester, IVcstlllinstcr Abbey Reg. 
I. Pancharis-the First Book. Lond. 1603, Sill, 12mo. 
The eminent French poet, John Bonnefon5, published his "Pancharis," 
which was 50 much admired, at Paris, in 1588, 12illO, 
2. A Cypres Garland for the Sacred Forehead of our late 
Soveraigue King James. Land. 1625, 4to. I:! ff, a poem. 
3. Prefixed to the first edition of Shakespeare's works, Lond. 1623, fol.. 
are verses "Upon the Lines and Life of the F,lmous Scenicke Poet, Master 
\Villiam Shakespeare," signed Hugh Holland. 
4. A Description of the chief Cities in Europe. MS., in ver
e. 
5. A Chronicle of Queen Elizabeth's Reign. 1\1S. 
6. The Life of William Camden, Clarenceaux King at Arms. 
MS. 
7. \Yoml says that he wrote other works. 


Holland, Robert, gentleman, confessor of the faith, was 
probably a younger son of the staunch Catholic family of 
Holland of Sutton, co, Lancaster. He was condemned, accord- 
ing to the statute, for seven months absence from church at the 
Manchester assizes in Jan., 1584, and committed, with a great 
number of Lancashire ladies and gentlemen, to the prison for 
recusants in Salford. There he remained for s
me time, and at 
length was sent up to London 2nd imprisoned in the Marshalsea. 
In a report, in 1586, by Nicholas Berden, \Valsingham's noto- 
rious spy, l'Ir, Holland is mentioned with a number of other 
laymen lying in that prison for recusancy, with the remark, 
"These net!1er welthy nor wyse, but all very arrant." After 
very great suffering he died in the lVlarshalsea prison in June, 
1586, aged 4 8 . 
Bridgezí!ater, Concertatio Eccles. Catltol., ed. 1594, ff. 299, 
410; Dom. Eli::., vols. clxvii., n. 40, 41, cxcV., n. 74, P.R.G. ; 
Gillow, Lanc. Recltsants, 1I/S.,. .i.J/orris, Troubles, Tltird Series. 



HOL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


353 


Holland, Seth, Dean of'VVorcester, confessor of the faith, 
was educated at All Souls', Oxford, where he was admitted 
:M.A. l\larch 20, 1538. Subsequently he proceeded B.D., and 
became Rector of Fladbury, in 'VVorcester. Cardinal Pole ap- 
pointed him his chaplain, and about the year 1555 he was 
made Ptebendary of \Vorcester. In that year the cardinal 
placed him in the wardenship of All Souls, which he resigned 
before the queen's death in 1558. About l\lichaelmas, 1557, 
the deanery of \Vorcester was conferred upon him, and about 
the same time he received the rectorship of Bishop's Cleeve! 
co, Gloucester, upon his resignation of the rectory of Fladbury. 
Shor
ly before l\1ary's death, Cardinal Pole, then lying in his 
last sickness, sent a letter to the queen, in which he said: U I 
send you the Dean of \Vorcester, my chaplain, whose _fidelity I 
have long approved, and in treat your Grace to give credit to 
whatever he shall say on my behalf. I make no doubt but you 
will be satisfied with it, and I beg of Almighty God to prosper 
you to his honour, your own comfort, and the welfare of this 
real m." 
\Vhen Elizabeth ascended the throne Holland refused to 
conform to the new religion, and in consequence was deprived 
of all his spiritualities in Oct. or Nov., 1 559, and committed a 
close prisoner to the l\Iarshalsea. He was treated with extreme 
harshness, probably on account of his intimate relations with the 
late cardinal, and there he died in 1 560. 
IVood, Athe1Zæ OXOll., vol. i., ed. 1691 ; Dodd, Cll, Hist., vol. Í. 
p. 5 10; Bridgewater, COllccrtatio Eccles. Cathol., ed. 1594; 
Phillips, Life of Reg. Pole, vol. ii. p. 277; J[aitland, Reformatioll, 
p. 445 ; Burrows, Worthies of All Soltis', p. 77. 


Holland, Thomas, Father S. J., alias Sanderson and 
Hammond, martyr, born at Sutton, in Lancashire, in 1600, 
was probably the son of Richard HoHand, of Sutton, gent., and 
Anne, his wife, both of whom were heavily fined for their recu- 
sancy in 1597, 1603, and subsequent years. His parents, says 
De Marsys, had always been remarkable for their piety and 
their constancy to the faith. Even after Mr. Holland's death, 
his wife was forced to pay her fines, and her name appears 
in the roll for 1634. The ancient family of Holland, of Sutton 
Hall, had resided there from a remote period, anù were allied 
with some of the best families of the county of Lancaster. 
VOL. III. A. A 



354 


BIBLIOGRAPIHCAL DICTIONARY 


[HOL. 


They returned pedigrees at the visitations of I 567 and 1664, 
In 1717, Thomas Holland, of Sutton Hall, gent., registered his 
estate as a Catholic non-juror. He was the son of Edward 
Holland, of Sutton, gent., and his wife, Esther, both recusants 
1n 1679, and he himself was convicted as a "popish recusant" 
at the Lancaster quarter-sessions, .A.pril 10, 17 I 6. Offshoots of 
this family were seated in Roby, Whiston, Up Holland, and 
adjoining townships, and eider branches were long settled at 
Denton and Clifton. 
Thomas Holland was sent to the English College at St. Omer 
whilst very young. There he remained for about six years, 
admired by all his fellow-students for the sweetness of his dis- 
position, his piety, and his eloquence. 1'10re than once he was 
chosen by the votes of the students prefect of the sodality of 
our Blessed Lady. After finishing rhetoric, he was sent, in 
Aug. 162 I, to the English College at Valladolid, to continue 
his studies, and took the missionary oath on the feast of St. 
Thomas of Canterbury, 1622. 'VVhilst there, the Prince of 
Wales, afterwards Charlt
s 1., visited Madrid for the purpose of 
negotiating a treaty of marriage with the Infanta Maria. It was 
thought proper that the youth of England, who were pursuing 
their studies in Spain, should welcome their future sovereign 
with a display of their loyalty, and of their reviving hopes of 
more favourable times for their religion. This was intrusted to 
Thomas Holland, who was sent for the purpose from Valladolid 
to Madrid, In the name of the rest he assured his royal 
highness of their loyalty and good wishes in a Latin oration, of 
which the prince was pleased to express his admiration and 
approvaL 
After completing a course of three years' philosophy, he was 
obliged to leave Spain on account of ill-health. He returned 
to Flanders, entered the novitiate of the Society of Jesus at 
Watten, studicd his theology at Liége, and was there ordained 
priest. Having spent some time as minister at Ghent, he re- 
turned to St. Omer, where all accounts agree in stating that he 
was one of the most successful prefects of th
 college. On 
l\lay 28, 1634, he was made a spiritual coadjutor at Ghent, 
and in the following year, being in a very bad state of health, 
he was sent to the English mission in the hope that the change 
would be beneficial to him. 
His native air proved of no advantage to his health, yet he 



HOL. ] 


OF THE E
GLISH CATHOLICS. 


355 


was a most zealous and active missioner. He was very inge- 
nious in disguising himself, and was thus able to venture out 
more frequently than other priests. He would change his wig, 
his beard, and his clothes, so as to appear sometimes as a 
cavalier, at others as a merchant, or even as a servant. ] [e 
could speak French, Flemish, or Spanish, as occasion required, 
and could imitate a foreign accent to perfection, so that even 
his most intimate friends frequently could not recognize him. 
By these artifices, very necessary in those unhappy times, he 
was able to render great service to the persecuted Catholics 
in London, where he resided. The pursuivants, who were con- 
stantly on his track, at length seized him in the street on the 
feast of St. Francis of Assisi, Oct. 4, 1642. He was committed 
to what was then called the New Prison, in the suburbs of 
London, where he was detained for about two months, as it 
could not be proved that he was a priest. At the approach of 
the sessions he was transferred to N ewgate, and, on Dec. 7- 1 7, 
arraigned at the bar of the Old Bailey for being a priest. His 
accusers were three pursuivants and an apostate Jesuit, Thomas 
Gage, brother to the Rev, George Gage and the gallant Colonel 
Sir Henry Gag-e. The martyr ably defended himself, and showed 
that no evidence had been produced that he was a priest. The 
judge asked him if he would swear that he was not a priest, but 
to this Father Holland replied that it was not customary in the 
English law for the accused to dear himself by oath, but that 
the charge laid in the indictment had to be proved, or else that 
the accused be acquitted. His defence was much applauded by 
many of those in court, but the jury brought him in guilty of 
being a priest, though the Lord l\Iayor himself, and another 
person on the bench, declared that it was not in accordance 
with the evidence. The court was adjourned until the next 
:Saturday, Dec. 10-20, when Fr. Holland was again placed at 
the bar and condemned to death by the Recorder. He was 
then sent back to Newgate to await his execution two days 
later. There he was visited by great numbers of people of all 
-degree, including Le Sieur de Lisola, the ambassador oi his 
imperial majesty at London, who sent a painter to take his 
likeness. The Duc de Vendosme, who was then in London, 
.offered to intercede for his life, but the martyr, humbly thanking 
his grace, begged him not to do so. 
On the l'Ionday following his condemnation, Fr. Holland 
A.\.2 



35 6 


HIDLIOGR.\l'IIICAL DICTION.c\.IZY 


[HOL p 


was brought out of Newgate about ten o'clock in the morning, 
laid upon a hurdle, and drawn to the gallows at Tyburn. A 
great multitude followed the procession, but it was remarked 
that the sheriffs of London and 1'1iddlesex were absent, a cir- 
cumstance which had never happened, during this Parliament 
at least, at the execution of any priest who had suffcred at 
Tyburn. Various reasons \\'ere suggested for their absence; 
many thought that they were unwilling to be present at the 
judicial murder of one whose conviction and condemnation were 
contrary even to the savage penal laws, It is certain that the 
Sheriff of London had applied to Parliament for a respite, but 
had been refused. The sergeant in charge of the hurdle is said 
to have replied to those who asked him in the streets about the 
prisoner, that he was going to die contrary to law, right, and 
justice. An immense multitude gathered around the place of 
execution, in which the Spanish ambassador and almost all his 
suite were conspicuous. Having been unbound, the martyr 
stood erect, and addressed the assemblage in a speech which is 
given at considerable length in his memoirs. He was proceed- 
ing \vhen he was cut short by the ordinary of N ewgate, who 
interrupted him by a number of impertinent questions and pro- 
positions. Gregory, the executioner, then adjusted the rope
 
the cart was drawn away, and the martyr was left hanging till 
he expired. The ordinary of 1\ ewgate, fearing the effect that 
the unusual and angelical appearance of the martyr's countenance 
might produce upon the people, wanted the hangman to cut him 
down and disembowel him before he was dead, but the man was 
more humane than the minister, and \vould not comply. Fr. 
Holland suffered on Dec. 12-22, 1642, aged 42. 
He was regarded with great veneration by Catholics, and even 
Protestants expressed their admiration of the way in which he 
died. It was a marked proof of the respect entertained towards 
him that he was honourably spoken of everywhere, and that no 
idle ballads, usual on such occasions, were sung in the streets,. 
or were any insulting words uttered against him. In the words 
of one of his biographers, Fr. Ambrose Corbie, S,J., " His true 
character was, that he had extraordinary talents for promoting 
the greater glory of God, and that he made an extraordinary 
use of them. His knowledge in spirituals was such that he was 
termed · the library of piety' -bibliotlü'ca þietatis." 
De J.1fars)'s, Dcla llIort GlorÎcltsc, 1645, pp. 101-117; Cltal- 



.HOL.] 


OF THE EXGLISH CA TIIOLICS. 


357 


IOller, J1Iellloirs, vol. ii. p. 237, ed. 1742 ; Foley, Records S.j" 
vols. i" vii.; Oli7'er, Collcctallca S.].,. Corbie, CertalllCll Triplcr, 
1646, pp. 1 -46; Gillozu, Lanc. RCCl/Sallts, 111 S.,o Valladolid 
Diary, 11[5. 
I. Certamen Triplex a tribus Socict. J esu ex Provincia Anglicanâ sacer- 
.dotibus, R.R. P.P. Thoma Hollando, Rodulpho Corbæo, Henrico l\1orsæo, 
Intra proximum Quadriennium," &c. Antv. 16-1-5, 121110.; :\Ionachii, 164-6, 
12010.; trans. into Engl. by \V. B. Turnbull. Lond, 1858, 12010. 
An account of this work will be found under its author, Fr. Amb. Corbie, 
S,]., vol. i. 56. 
2. Portrait. " P. Thomas Hollandus, Anglus è Socte. J esu, Londini, 
22 Decemb. 1642, à Puritanis, suspensus et in quatuor partes dissectus eo 
.quod sacerdos esset Cathæ, Ecclesiæ Romanæ." Small oval, in the " Cer- 
tamen Triplex," 164;, 16-1-6, 1 6 58; The Lamþ, 18 5 8 , p. 57. 
Another miniature portrait is preserved by the Teresian Nuns at Lan- 
herne, Cornwall, formerly of Antwerp. It has been published in photo. by 
the \Voodbury Process Co, 
]. An account of some of the martyr's relics will be found in '
The Duke 
.of Gue1dres on the English :\lartyrs," by Richard Simpson, Esq., Rambler, 
viii. new series, p. 121. 
Hollings, Edmund, M.D., a native of Yorkshire, born 
about 1554, became a commoner of Queen's College, Oxford, 
in I 570, where he took a degree in arts four years later. 
Becoming dissatisfied with the ever-shifting doctrines of the ne\\r 
religion, he quitted Oxford and passed over to the English 
.college at Rheims, where he was receiveà rt'Iay 14, 1579. On 
the following Aug, 2 I, he left the college to proceed on foot to 
Rome, in company with several others who were admitted into 
the English College there in the following October. Hollings, 
however, does not appear to have entered the college, as asserted 
by Pitts, though the literary historian is supported by an English 
spy in his report to the government that Hollings was one of 
the Pope's scholars in the college in 1581. 
From Rome he went to Ingolstadt, in Bavaria, where he 
entered the university, and devoted himself to the study of 
lnedicine, took his degree in that faculty, and was appointed 
,public professor. Thus he spent the remainder of his life, and 
.died at Ingolstadt 1'1arch 26, 1612, aged 58. 
He obtained a wide reputation by his works and lectures, and 
'\vas held in esteem by all who had the privilege of his acquaintance. 
Pitts, De lllus. Angl. Script., p. 815 ; Bliss, TVood's Atllcllæ 
,OX01Z., vol. ii. p. 114; Dodd, Cft. His!., vol. ii. p. 430; l
llo:r. 
Records of tile E1Zg. Catlls" vol. i. 



358 


InnLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIOKAR Y 


[HOL
 


I. De Chylosi Disputatio, etc. Ingolstadii, 1592, 8\'0. 
2. De Salubri Studiosorum Victu. lngolstad. 1602, 8vo. 
], Theses de Medicina, many of which werc published at Ingol- 
stadt. 
4. Poëmata Varia. Ingolstad.8vo. 
5. Orationes et Epistolæ. Ingolstad.8vo. 
6. Medicamentorum <Economia nova, seu Nova Medicamentor 
 
in Classes distribuendor. ratio. Ingolstad. 1610, 8\'0. ; ibid. 1615. 
7. Ad Epistolam quandam à Martino Rolando, Medico Cæsario,. 
de Lapide .Bezoar; et Fomite Luis Ungariæ. Ingolst. 161 I, 8vo. 
Holman, George, Esq., born in 1630, was the son of Philip 
Holman, of \Varkworth Castle, co. Northampton, Esq. The 
erection of the fine old mansion of \Varkworth, near Banbury,. 
dating from 1592, was commenced by the ancient proprietors of 
the manor, the Chetwodes, from whom it was purchased, in 1629, 
by Philip Holman, who completed the castle. Philip Holman had 
formerly been a scrivener in London. His son George became a 
Catholic, and is styled by Anthony à \Vood, who visited \Vark- 
worth in 1659, " a melancholy and bigoted convert." From this 
time \Varkworth became a refuge for persecuted priests, and the 
Catholics of the neighbourhood had an opportunity of attending 
the functions of the Church in the chapel within the castle. 
Upon the death of his father, Oct. 19, 1673, George 
Holman inherited the extensive estates of the family in the 
counties of Bucks, Hereford, Northampton, Oxon, Southampton,. 
and Surrey, besides valuable property in the city of London. 
About 1687 he married the Lady Anastasia, daughter of\Villiam 
Howard, Viscount Stafford, one of the most illustrious victims of 
Oates' plot in 1680. By this lady Mr. Holman had four 
children-\Villiam, his successor; Charles, who died April 9,. 
17 1 7, aged 25 ; Anne, born Oct. 2 I, 1695, who married her 
first cousin, \\?illiam Stafford Howard, second Earl of Stafford,. 
and died May 2 I, 1725, aged 29; Mary, wife of Thomas Eyre,. 
of Hassop, co. Derby, Esq.; and Isabel. 
Mr. Holman was remarkable for his charities. It was he 
who presented Dr. John Betham, the Superior of St. Gregory's 
Seminary at Paris, with twenty thousand livres to assist him in 
removing the establishment to more convenient premises in the 
Rue des Postes in 1685. He was also very generous in defray- 
ing the expenses of candidates for the ecclesiastical state. It 
is no wonder, therefore, that his loss was greatly felt when he 
died at vVarkworth 1'1ay 19, 1698, aged 67. 



HOL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


359 


Lady Anastasia continued his good works for many years, 
till her death, l\lay 28, 1719, aged 73. 
His eldest son, \Villiam Holman, was sent to Douay College 
after his father's death. On Sept, 20, 1704, he ran away 
from the college" for fear of a whipping, he being a little boy, 
and only at ye end of grammar," says Dr. Edw. Dicconson, in 
his college diary. Though pursued, he got to Brussels, where 
both he and the postilions of his chaise fell short of money. 
This forced him to apply to his aunt, the Lady :Mary Stafford, 
a nun at The Spellicans, who supplied him with money and 
clothes, whilst she communicated with his uncle, the Earl of 
Stafford. His lordship would not allow him to return to Douay, 
because the president, Dr. Eclw. Paston, addressed his letter 
"à lVlonsieur Ie Comte de Stafford," at which he took offence, 
saying that he was a prince, and therefore it should have been 
addressed, "à son Excellence Monseigneur." The boy was 
then sent to Harcourt College, at Paris, with a tutor, l\lr. Lea, 
a young gentleman and a convert. On his return to England 
he settled at vVarkworth, and married, first, Mary Alexandrina 
Sophia, daughtcr of Fris. Egon, Baron of Gümnich, in Germany, 
and, secondly, l\Iary, daughter of Henry \Vells, of Brambridge, 
co. Hants, Esq., who afterwards became the wife of Sir George 
Browne, Bart. Dying without children, Oct. I I, 1740, aged 52, 
he bequeathed his estate to his nephews, Francis and Rowland 
Eyre. The latter sold his moiety 
oon after he came into 
possession, and the other moiety was disposed of after the death 
of Francis in 1804, whose son and namesake became fifth Earl 
of Newburgh in 181 4. WarJ
worth Castle was taken dcwn two 
years after its sale. The destruction of the mansion was so 
complete that not a stone now remains to mark its site. In 
disposing of his estate Lord N ewburgh was not unmindful of 
the Catholics in the district, for in I 806, the year after the 
property was sold, he built a small chapel at Overthorpe, about 
half a mile from \Varkworth, and there the mission remained 
until the opening, in 1838, of the present church of St. John at 
Bunbury. 
I{irk, Biog. Colllls., fl/SS., No. 42 ; Rp. DiccoIlS011'S Diay)', 
.lI1
)'.,. Baker, Hist. of Northampto/l, vol. i.; Dolmall, flIerr)' 
Ellg., No. 53, p. 275 scq. 
I. Dryden has a sonnet (see his poems) on the marriage of AnastasiaStafforð 
and George Holman, Esq. 



360 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HOL. 


2. \Yith the generosity of the Holman family and the mission at \Varkworth 
three of our most eminent Catholic writers are closely associated. The Rev. 
John Gother was chaplain at \Varkworth for some years before his death on his 
voyage to Lisbon in 1704; Bishop Challoner was the son of the housekeeper 
at Warkworth, and was sent to Douay College by Mr. Gother, with the 
assistance of Lady Anastasia Holman; and Alban Butler, born at Appletree, 
about seven miles from \Varkworth, in 1710, was indebted for great part of 
his education to \ViHiam Holman. At a later period the Franciscans served 
the chaplaincy, and the graves of some of them were found when the castle 
was pulled down. Fr. Charles Bonaventure Bedingfield, O,S.F_, was chap- 
lain for many years. He was there in 1756, but died at Douay June 5,'178
, 
aged 84. Fr, Bernard Stafford, alias Cassidy, S.J., was chaplain in 1764 and 
subsequent years. The Rev. Pierre Julien Hersent, an exiled French priest 
from the diocese of Coutances, was the last chaplain of the Eyre family at 
\Varkworth and Overthorpe. He held that position for nearly thirty years, 
and was about to remove the mission to Banbury, for which he had collected 
funds, when he was frustrated by death, July 27, 1833. "He was buried 
.It Overthorpe, but on completion of St. John's at Banbury his remains 
were transferred to the vaults beneath the new church. The Rev. Joseph 
Fox, who succeeded 1\11'. Hersent, commenced the erection of St. John's from 
the designs of the architect Derick. Mr. George T. C. Dolman, in his article, 
" Banbury, Past and Present" pIe1 ry England, Sept. 1887), describes it as 
one of the most pleasing of our modern Catholic churches dati
g from the 
earlier days of the Gothic revival. :Mr. Fox died Dec. 10, 1835, and the 
completion of the church was reserved for the Very Rev. \Vrn. Tandy, D.O., 
afterwards canon of Birmingham. The latter retired from the charge of the 
mission in 1864. It was he who introduced into England the congregation 
of the Sisters of Charity of St. Paul the Apostle, whom he invited from the 
mother-house at Chartres in 1846. At Dr. Tandy's death in 1886, this 
congregation numbered, in this country, no less than fifty houses and 300 
profes::ed religious. The Sisters had the good fortune, on their arrival at 
Ban bury, to secure the remaining premises of the old hospital of St. John the 
Baptist, which had been suppressed by Henry VIII. It has since been 
known as St. J olm's Priory. The Rev, J. H. Souter, now canon and president 
of Oscott College, succeeded Dr. Tandy in 1864, and remained at Banbury 
till 1873, when the Rev. C. J. Bowen, the present pastor, took charge of the 
mission. 


Holmeby, -, a major in 
Henley during the civil wars. 
shire family. 
CastlcmaÙz, Catlt. Aþo!. 


the royal army, was slain at 
He was probably of a Lincoln- 


Holmes, German, 'i,ide ] lelme. 


Holmes, Robert, priest and confessor of the faith, a native 
of the diocese of Carlisle, was admitted into the English College 
at Rheims, July 4, 1579. He received the tonsure and sub- 



HOL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 61 


.diaconate at Laon, in September of that year, the diaconate in 
December, was ordained priest :March. 10, 1580, and left the 
.college for the English mission, April 14, 158 I . 
From reports to the council by Thomas Dodwell, the spy, it 
.appears that Mr. Holmes' mission was chiefly in Southampton- 
-shire, and that he used the aliases of Finch and Fisher. Under 
his intelligence of priests and receivers in Southamptonshire, 
the spy says, "l\iy Lady \Vest, of \Vinchester, keepeth Fisher, 
.nÜas Holmes, in her house for the most part. And also enter- 
taineth Askew, alias Nutter; Stone, alias Gunn ; Pilcher, alias 
Forster; Lasey, alias Dickinson; which is now apprehended 
and in Newgate." Later on, he adds, "Mr, Tichbourne, some- 
times of Porchester, who, remaining at Rougewood, receiveth 
Askew, Fysher, Younge, Gardener, and any other seminary priest 
that comes." The" certificate of search in Holborn and other 
places thereabo
ts, Aug. 27, 1584, by Sheriff Spencer," gives 
an account .of l\ir, Holmes' apprehension: "In the house of 
Gilbert \Velles. Robert Holme, alias Finch, clerk, a Jesuit 
priest, close prisoner in Newgate; Robert Aden, gentleman; 
Felix Smith, yeoman, close prisoners in the Counter, \Vood 
Street. There is of the s2.id Finch's a silver chalice, a silver 
saucer, a super-altar, a pyx, a box of wafer cakes, with divers 
Papish toys, lVIass books, portasses, and divers other Papistical 
books of invocation to saints, and divers other naughty books, 
a cope, and all other things appertaining to a Massing priest." 
:i\Ir. Gilbert \Vells was brother to Swithin \Vells, Esq., the 
martyr, and he was himself, as Challoner says, "a worthy 
.confessor." 
Aft
r his apprehension, Dr. Bridgewater says, l'ir. Holmes was 
kept prisoner for two months in a dark coal hole, situated 
between places of convenience, and there left to rot on the bare 
.ground. At the earnest suit of friends he was removed to a 
more healthy cell in the prison at Newgate, but he had sunk 
too far to recover, and he died within two days. His death 
appears to have occurred in Oct. 1584. 
DOllay Diarirs,. Bridge'Z.oater, COllccrtatio Eccles. Cat/LO/. ill 
A/lgl, ed. 1594, f. 412; Foky, Records Sj., vol. vi.; Challoncr, 
Memoirs, ed. 1741, pp. 166-7; Ticrnc)', Dodd's Cll. Hisl., 
'vol. iii. p. 169. 


Holt, Willian1, Father S.J., born in Lancashire in 1545, 



3 6 2 


IHDLIOGRAPIIICAL DICTIOJS"ARY 


[HOLÞ 


was most likely a member of the ancient family of Holt, of 
Stubley. After studying his rudiments at home, he became a 
student at Brasenose, and afterwards at Oriel College, Oxford,. 
where he appears to have taken his degrees of B.A. and IVLA. 
In 1573 he was incorporated in th
 latter degree in the 
University of Cambrìdge, Being dissatisfied with the new 
religion, to \vhich he had only occasionally conformed, he re- 
paired to Douay College in the beginning of I 574. 
After three years' theology he was ordained priest in I 576,. 
and in the same year was sent to Rome to await the opening 
of the English College, which Gregory XIII. was about to 
establish by the conversion of the ancient English hospice into 
a seminary. He, however, entered the Society of Jesus May 15,. 
I 578, and in the following April, through disagreements between 
the English and \Velsh scholars, the English College was placed 
under the government of the Jesuits. At the conclusion of his 
noviceship, Fr. Holt repeated theology for two years, when, at 
the urgent request of FF. Persons and Campion for assistants in 
England, he was sent over, with Fr. J aspar Heywood, soon after 
July, 158 I. Having spent a short time in missionary labour, 
principally in Staffordshire, where he made many converts,. 
he was sent by Fr. Persons on a special mission to Scotland 
with letters from the unfortunate Queen of Scots. then a close 
prisoner in England. 
At this time King James had again fallen under the absolute- 
control of the Scottish lords of the English faction, and Henry 
of France despatched agents to Edinburgh, that they might aid 
the young prince to regain his liberty, and associate himself 
with his mother on the throne. They were opposed by the 
English agents, who, in lVlarch, I 583, procured the arrest, at 
Leith. of Fr. Holt, who had just started for Romc with de- 
spatches from Lord Seton. In the following June the young. 
king recove:ed the exercise of the royal authority. This 
revived the hopes of the royal captive in England and of her 
adherents in France. At a meeting held in Paris it was pro- 
posed that the Duke of Guise should land with an army in the 
south of England, that J ames, with a Scottish force, should enter 
the northern counties, and that the Engìish friends of the house 
of Stuart should be summoned to the aid of the injured Queen 
of Scots. This project was communicated to lVIary through 
the French ambassador and to J ames through Fr. Holt, still a 



HOL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH C.\TIIOLICS, 


3 6 3 


prisoner in the castle of Edinburgh. The king, says Lingard
 
immediately expressed his assent, but his mother, aware that 
her keepers had orders to deprive her of life if any attempt 
were made to carry her away by force, sought rather to obtain 
her liberty by concession and negotiation. 
On hearing of Fr. Holt's arrest at Leith, Queen Elizabeth 
sent instant orders to her agents at Edinburgh to insist that he 
should ,. be put to the bootes," in order to extort from him the 
secret of the correspondence and plans of the Catholics in 
England. Though placed on the rack, Cardinal Allen says, 
"he admirably preserved both faith, courage, and taciturnity,'r 
and no important disclosure was drawn from him.. The king 
refused to deliver him up, but detained him prisoner in the 
castle till about August, 1584, when he was set at liberty and 
ordered to quit the country. He returned to Flanders, visited 
the English College at Rheims, and in 1586, being summoned 
to Rome, was appointed rector of the English College Oct. 24, 
in that year. After governing the college for about a year and 
a half he was sent, in 1588, to Brussels, where he resided for 
about ten years as agent of the IZing of Spain and the adminis- 
trator of the funds devoted by that monarch to the support of 
the English exiles, 
At this period the English Catholics were divided into the 
Scottish and Spanish factions. Fr, Holt, Canon Tierney says, 
was a zealous advocate of the Spanish succession. " He was a 
man of character and talent; but the austerity of his manners 
was embittered by the violence of his politics; and the' tyranny' 
of Fr. Holt soon became a topic of loud and unceasing com- 
plaint among the members of the opposite party. Holt, 
however, though condemned in private by his friends for the 
severity of his demeanour, was still publicly defended by them 
against the attacks of his opponents. Hence, by degrees, the 
hostility, first pointed against the indiviàual, was at length 
turned against his party. Political animosity was converted 
into religious discord; charges and recriminations followed each 
other in rapid succession; and almost at the same moment that 
the students at Rome were denouncing the conduct, and calling 
for the removal, of the fathers, the exiles in Flanders were 
besieging the Pontiff with their complaints, and enforcing, by 
their petitions, the prayer of the scholars against the Society." 
The dissension continued for some years, the Scottish faction 



3 6 4 


13IBLIOGRAPIIICAL DICTIONARY 


[HOL. 


· being headed by Charles Paget and Thomas IVlorgan. In its 
.earlier stage Cardinal Allen wrote to Paget, under date Jan. 4, 
159 I, in reference to his charges against Fr, Holt, that the 
.accusations against him were of such a general character, and 
so entirely unsupported by proof, that he must be allowed to 
suspend his judgment until part at least of the indictment was 
established. Referring to Fr. Holt, the cardinal says: "The 
estimate I have formed of his piety and fidelity has endeared 
him to me. I have in all confidence availed myself of his 
services in England and Scotland, and at the place of his 
present sojourn in Belgium, He has ever conducted himself 
weU, and so as to win the approval of our leading men." After 
the cardinal's death, in 1594, the quarrel was carried on with 
increased intensity. To counteract the efforts of the Scottish 
faction, says Canon Tierney, "the Jesuits naturally turned to 
the evidence that was proffered by their friends; and two 
papers, declaratory of the zeal and prudence, both of the fathers 
in general and of Holt in particular, were drawn up and circu- 
lated for subscription. The first was signed by seven of the 
.superiors of Douay [Nov. 12, 1596]; the other [in the same 
month] by eighteen clergymen [including Dr. Thomas \Vorth- 
ington, afterwards S.]., who travelled up and down to obtain 
the subscriptions], and ninety-nine laics, including soldiers and 
women. \Vith the means by which some of these signatures 
were obtained, no less than with the nature of many of the 
signatures themselves (that of Guy Fawkes was amongst them), 
there is every reason to be dissatisfied. However, the matter 
seems to have been partially examined by the Cardinal Arch- 
duke Albert. Of the charges agair.st Holt, some were thought 
to be unfounded, some were trivial, and othèrs doubtful. Instead 
of being removed, he was admonished to be more conciliatory 
in his manners; and, for the present, the dispute was allowed 
to slumber. It is right, however, tù add, that the decision, as 
to the merits of the charges against him, was framed in accord- 
ance with the private report of Father [Provincial] Oliver 
lVlanareus and Don [John Baptist] de Tassi; that this report 
was founded, not so much on evidence of facts, as upon a wish 
to prevent an inquiry that might be injurious to the Society; 
but that, at the same time, Manareus was strongly impressed 
with the conviction that no permanent tranquillity could be 
established until Holt was removed from Brussels. The real 



HOL. ] 


OF THE EKGLISII CATHOLICS. 


3 6 5 


motive of his retention, as assigned by Persons, evidently was · 
that his services were deemed necessary to the promotion of 
Ferdinand's designs against England." 
" In order to bend somewhat to the storm," says Bro. Foley, 
citing Fr. :More, " Holt was succeeded by Fr. \Villiam Baldwin, 
and retired to Spain." In an ancient narrative of the founda- 
tion, by Lady :Mary Percy, of the English Benedictine convent 
at Brussels, it is said that Fr. Holt, who was confcssor to the 
foundress, and greatly assisted her in her undertaking, celebrated 
the first Mass in the convent, Aug. 15, 1598, and in the same 
month left Brussels for Rome, and thence was sent to Spain. 
He had scarcely reached Barcelona, Fr. l'Iore says, when he 
breathed his last, in I 599, aged 54. 
lVlore, Hist. ftliss, Angl. SJ, p. 270 ; Lingard, Hist. of Eug., 
cd. 1849, vol. vi,; TienlC)l, Dodd's CIt. Hist., vol. iii. pp, 30, 39 ; 
OIi'ï.1er, Collectallea, SJ.,. Foley, Records SJ., vol. vii. pp. 368, 
123 I ; Knox, Records of the Ellg. Catholics, vols. i. and ii.; 
Dodd, Clt. Hist., vol. ii. p. 147; Turnbull, Sergeant's AccOll1zt of 
The Clwpter, pp. 6, I [, [2; Turllbull, LabmlOff's Letters of 
l1fary Stuart,. Edin. Cath. .1.11ag., 1838, p. 487; Cooper, Athell. 
Calltab" vol. ii. 
I. Quibus modis ac mediis religio Catholica continuata est in 
Anglia, durante 38 annorum persecutione, et eadem, Die pro- 
tegente gratia, conservari posse videtur. 1596, MS. in the archives 
of the see of \Vestminster, ix, 443, printed in "Records of the Eng. Catho- 
lics," i. 376-384, translated into English in "Records S.],," vii. 1238-1245, 
2. In the appendix to Tierney's Dodd, iii., are many letters referring to 
Fr, Holt, with the attestation in his favour; see also Appendix, vol. V. pp. 
iv.-vi. 
3. Original letters-To Thos. Philipson, principal of St. Mary's BalI, 
Oxford, April I, 1580, desiring him to give up a feather-bed and certain 
books to Mr. Edward Rishton, "Dom. Eliz.," vol. cxxxvii. n. 2, P.R.O.; 
to the Card. Protector at Rom.e, June 6, 1593, "Lansdown MS.," vol. xcvi, 
n. 85, Brit. :J\Ius.; to Hugh Owen and Rich. Bayley of Bruss('ls, partly in 
cipher, 1598, "Dom. Eliz.," cclxviii, n. 79, P.R.O, In the Cottonian Lib., 
Brit. Mus., is an extract from a deciphered letter found on Fr, Holt, and 
sent, as he affirmed, by \Vm. Gibbe in Spain to \Vm. Brereton, alias \Vatts, 
mentioning a scheme to carry off the King of Scots, dated Aug. 26, 1582 
., Cal.," c, vii. 22 b. In the same collection is a letter in Italian from Alex. 
Seton to the General of the Jesuits at Rome, acquainting him with the late 
event in Scotland, found on Fr. Holt, dated Nov. 5, 1582, <. Cal.," c. vii. 56. 


Holtby, Lancelot, lieut.-colonel in the royal army, was the 
eldest son of Robert Holtby, of Sancton, in the East Riding of 



3 66 


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 


[HOL. 


York, gent., by l'iargery, daughter of Lancelot Bullock, of South 
Holme, co. York, Esq. His father was the fourth son of 
Lancelot Holtby, of Fry ton, parish of Hovingham, in the North 
Riding, Esq., and for some years conformed to the church 
established by law, till he was moved by his elder brother, 
Fr. Richard Holtby, S.J" to return to the faith. To avoid 
persecution he removed to a mansion called Beamish, in the 
township of Chester-Ie-Street, co. Durham, and there he was 
again visited by Fr. Holtby, who received his children into the 
Church. These consisted of four sons and three daughters. 
Mr. Holtby, however, was not lost sight of by the Council of 
the North, and, on his refusal to take the oath, he was despoiled 
of his goods and consigned to perpetual imprisonment, leaving 
his wife and children to be supported by the liberality of friends. 
He was dead in 1617. 
George, the second son, made his early studies in a school at 
Knaresborough, where no doubt the colonel was also educated. 
Through the instrumentality of his uncle, the Jesuit, he went to 
St. Omer's College, and thence to the English College at Rome, 
where he was ordained priest in 1616. He entered the Society 
of Jesus at Louvain in the following year, and died on the 
English mission, Oct. 3 I, 1669, aged about 77. The third 
son, Robert, also went to Rome, where he was ordained priest 
Aug. 10, 162 I, and was sent to the English mission April 29, 
1623, The fourth son was l\latthew. 
The colonel was slain at Bransford, co. \Vorcester, probably 
about the date of the battle of \Vorcester, Sept. 3, 165 I. 
Castlt:maÙz, Cath. Apo!.,. Foster, Visit, of Yorkshire,. Folt)" 
Records Sj" vols. iv., vi., vii. 


Holtby, Richard, Father S.J., alias Andrew Duckct, 
Robert North, and Richard Fetherston, born at Fry ton in 
155 2 -3, was second son of Lancelot Holtby, of Fry ton, co. York, 
by Ellen, daughter of l'Ir. Butler, of Nunnington, in Ryedale, 
.co. York. His eldest brother, George Holtby, of Fry ton, Esq., 
married, secondly, Elizabeth, daughter of Roger l\1eynell, of 
North Kilvington, co. York, Esq. This lady was a staunch 
Catholic, and in 1593 was delivered up by her husband to the 
inquisitors, the President of the North and the Bishops of York 
and Durham, who imprisoned her at York. She seems to have 
been fortunate, however, in obtaining her release, for in 160 4 



HOL.] 


OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS. 


3 6 7 


she was reported to be living with her husband at Fry ton, in 
Hovingham, and then a recusant of eleven years standing. 
Anthony Holtby, the third son of Lancelot, was also a Catholic, 
and a great sufferer for the faith. The fourth son was Robert, 
mentioned in the previous notice; and the fifth son, Oswald. 
After studying his rudiments in various local schools, Richard 
Holtby proceeded to Cambridge, but after a short stay removed 
to Oxford, where he was admitted, in I 574, at Hart Hall, 
44 during the principality of Philip Rondell, who had weathered 
out several changes of religion, though in his heart he was a 
Papist, but durst not show it." \Vood adds, that" many persons 
who were afterwards noted in the Roman Church were educated 
under Rondell;" and, with regard to Richard Holtby, that 
Alexander Briant, the martyr, and he were at Hart Hall 
together, and that Holtby became tutor to Briant, a tutor, he 
says, "sufficiently addicted to Popery," There he taught philo- 
sophy, and was about to take his bachelor's degreè, but hi.; 
sympathies, as well as those of his scholars, being Catholic, and 
the necessity of attending public prayers pressing on him for a 
decision, he resolved to sacrifice his position and go over to the 
college at Douay. On Aug. 3, 1577, he reached the college 
by way of Antwerp, in company with l\Ir. Fowler, who after- 
wards accompanied Dr. Allen to Rome, I lis theological course, 
previous to his ordination, was exceedingly short. On Feb. 23, 
1578, he received the subdiaconate at Cambray, and was 
ordained priest there on the 29th of the following month. In 
the meantime the college had removed to Rheims, where he 
followed on April 9 There he continued his theological studies 
till his departure for the English mission, Feb, 26, 1579, His 
labours were in the northern counties, and it was during this 
time, in 158 I, that Fr. Campion stayed with him whilst he was 
preparing his famous "Decem Rationes." 
In the spring of the following year he determined to join the 
Society, and rode to London for that purpose. Fr, Jasper 
Heywood, S.J., the superior in England, was then absent from 
town, so ] Ioltby at once sold his horse, and with the proceeds 
took ship for France. lIe made his way to Paris, where he 
was aàmitted into the Society, and in the beginning of I 5 8 3 
entered his novitiate at Verdun. He then spent four years in 
the study of theology in the University of Pont-à-l'iousson, and, 
about 1 587, was appointed superior of the Scotch college there. 



3 68 


DITILIOGRAPlIICAL DICTIOKARY 


[HOL.. 


At this time the plague was prevalent in Pont-à-Mousson, and 
Fr, Holtby was obliged to s
nd away the students of his college
 
Thirteen only remained in the house, and of these he buried ten 
with his own hands. One he carried on his broad. shoulders 
through the midst of the city to be buried in the fields. Holtby. 
and two l
y-brothers were. the sole survivors, and it was noted 
that the only remedy they employed was to wash their faces 
with vinegar. After a little while spent at Trèves and Mayence 
to recruit, he returned to Pont-à-Mousson, which he left in 1589 
for the English mission. 
His long missionary career, during which his labours were 
never interrupted either by a day's illness .or by arrëst at the 
hands of any pursuivant, was mostly spent in Durham. He 
chiefly resided with John Trollope, at Thornley, or Thornlaw, 
about six miles from Durham, or with Robert Hodgson, of 
Hebburn, in the same county. On the martyrdom of Fr. Henry 
Garnett, in 1606, Fr. Holtby succeeded him as superior. This 
was a trying position, for at this time the great question was 
the lawfulness of taking the oath of allegiance framed by 
J ames I. Fr. Holtby, however, sho.wed great prudence; he 
forbade the Jesuits to write or preach against the oath, but left 
them free to give advice to all who consulted them, In the 
meanwhile he kept Rome fully informed on the matter, and 
after the censure of the oath by Paul V. firmly denounced it. 
On ceasing to be superior in 1609, Fr. Holtby left London, 
where he seems to have resided