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Full text of "John William Burgon, late Dean of Chichester : a biography, with extracts from his letters and early journals vol.1"

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LIFE OF DEAN BURGON 


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'OL. J. 


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JOHN \VILLIAM BURGON 


LATE DEAlv OF CHICHESTER 


Jt @'íogr"vß
 


rVI7H E
YTRACTS FROJI HIS LETTERS A-iVD 


EARLY JOURNALS 


V, I 


'2.. <61 \DC)!, 
J3l)t - 


Rv EDWARD IVIEYRICK GOULBURN, D.D., D.C.I.Jo 
() 


SOMETIME DEAN OF NORWICH 


IN TWO VOLUMES: WITH PORTRAITS 


VOL. I 


116329 


LONDON 
JOHX l\IURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 


18 9 2 


IBR 


, 


. \ 


.. 



i I 
....' .' 



TO THE RIGHT REVERE
D FATHER IX (;OJ) 


RICHARD 


LORD BISHOP OF CHICHESTER 
WHOSE UXVARYIXG KI:\'D
ESS A:\'D TRUE FRIENDSHIP 
THE SUBJECT OF THIS BIOGRAPHY 
-\CCOUNTED TO BE ONE CHIEF SOURCE OF THE IL-\PPI:\'FSS t)F H]
 
LIFE AT CHICHESTER 
AXD WHOSE SERMO:" O:\' THAT 
IO"CRXFUL SU:"DA Y 
ACGUST 5, 1888 
IS DEAX BURGOX'S BEST AND )IOST ELOQUENT EGLOGY 
[HIS WORK IS (BY PER:\I1SSION) I:"SCRIBED 
WITH 
EXTDIENTS OF AFFECTIOXATE ESTEE:\1 AND VEXERATIOX 
AXD WITH GRATIT"CDE FOR ASSISTAXCE RECEIVED IX IT 
BY THE AUTHOR 


LIBRARY Sf. ^, ^ ,Y'S COtLEG . 



.. 


"Cro1orRs b}2 tbe (ate IDean j13urgot1. 


--++ - 


THE REVISION REVISED.-THREE ESSAYS FROM THE · {JJAR- 
TERLY REVIEW.' (I) NEW GREEK TEXT; (II) NE\\ ENGLISH 
VERSION; (III) \VESTCOTT AND HORT'S TEXTUAL THEORV. Corrected 
and Enlarged. \Vith a Dissertation on 1 Timothy iii. 16. 81'0. 14 s . 


-++- 


THE LIVES OF TWELVE GOOD MEN. 


:\IAHTIN JOSEPH ROUTH. 
HUGH JAMES ROSE. 
CHARLES l\IARRIOTT. 
EDWARD HAWKINS. 
SA:\IUEL \V1LBERFORO.. 
J{ICHARD LYNCH COTTOS. 


RICHARD GRES\\ ELL. 
HENRY OCTAVIUS COX
. 
HENRY LOr\GUEYILl E l\(ANSI<.L. 
\VILLIA:\I JACOBSON. 
CH-\RLFS PAGE EDES. 
CHARLES LONGUET HIGGIN<;. 


.l. IVe7v Editi011, 'witll Portraits OJ tIle Author alld tht: 
T1uel7.'e Good /lIen. One V011l11l
1 8110. 165. 



PRE F ACE. 


-++- 


IT may perhaps be quebtioned. even by some of those 
vlho greatly esteen1ed and admired John William Bur- 
gon, ,vhether his claims to be gratefully remembered by 
the Church, and had in honour by future generations of 
English Christians, might not have been satisfied by a 
short l\Iemoir,-,vhether the part he played in ecclesias- 
tical affairs, and in the history of religious thought during 
the past half-century. ,vas of sufficient importance to 
justify so detailed a record of his life as is attempted in 
these volumes. The author entirely thinks it was so, and 
for the following reason. Burgon was in this country 
the leading religious teacher of his time, who brought 
all the resources of genius and profound theological 
learning to rebut the encroachments of Rationalism, 
by maintaining inviolate the integrity of the written 
\y ord of God as the Church has received it; by pointing 
out its depth, its versatility of application, and absolut
 
inexhaustibility of significance; and by insisting upon it
 
paraU10unt claims to the hUluble and reverent reception of 



Vlll 


LIFE uP DEAN BURGON. 


Inankind, as having been" given by Inspiration of God:' 
That Rationalism has been in our times largely under- 
mining the simple faith of our Bishops and Clergy, as 
well aR our laity, in those parts of the Divine Testimony 
which seem to present gifficulties either to the under- 
standing or moral sense, there are unhappily only too 
many evidences on all sides of U
. ,; By faith we 
tand " 
'Spiritually. And the great object of faith,-the stay 
and support on \vhich it assures itself in ten1ptation 
and trial,-is the \Y ord of God. Rationalism therefore 
busies itself industriously "Tith the 'V ord of God,-to 
see whether it cannot call in question its certainty, and 
throw doubt upon its infallibility. The initial question 
of Rationalism, the question by \vhich the Evil One suc- 
ceeded in supplanting the loyalty of our first n10ther to 
her Creator, was, "YEA, HATH GOD SAID 
 " ,. Is His 
Word genuine? Is it authentic? Are you sure that it 
was He who spake to you 
 Are you sure of ,,"'hat He 
spake? And if indeed He uttered the vexatious restric- 
tion which prevents your enjoYlnent of a tree' good for 
food,' and' pleasant to the eyes,' and' a tree to be desired 
to lllake one ,,
ise,' how does that restriction cOll1port 
\vith His goodness and His desire to lllake you happy?" 
This was pure Rationalism in the germ thereof, and as 
it came from the mouth of its author. And it ,vas to 
receive subsequent developlnent
 in the history of the 
Church. Sadducaism ,vas its great developlnent in the 
Church of the Old Dispensation. And Sadducaisn1 out- 
lined with great exactness the features of lllodern 
Rationalism. "\Vithout rejecting the Scriptures of the Old 



PREFACE. 


IX 


Testament, as the Jewish Church had received them, the 
Sadducees declined to interpret theln in the obvious sense 
which ,vas ordinarily and traditionally attached to them: 
they eXplained a,yay,-it is hard to say how, but pro- 
bably by some convenient allegorizing-such passages 
as ,yere understood to assert a life after death, and a 
world above and beyond the senses ;-" the SadduceeH 
say that there is no resurrection. neither angel nor 
spirit." Now the two nlethods of modern Rationalism 
are to call in question, wherever it can. the genuineness 
of much ,vhich bas hitherto passed as Holy Scripture, 
and, "where it cannot do this, to offer natural explanations 
of the supernatural, and to regard the narrati ve, ,vher
 
it presents difficulties, not as historical in the strict 
sense, but as an instructive legend or fable. And thp 
fundanlental fallacy of all such methods ,viII be found to 
be an entirely ,vrong and derogatory mental attitudp 
taken up at the uutset to,vardb what the Church 
presents to us as the ,,-r ord of God. That \Y ord i
 
conceived of as an ordinary book, to be subjected to 
criticism of exactly the saIne kind as that which is 
applied to Livy, or Herodotus, or Homer, by way of 
discriminating the genuine Ïrom the spurious, the au- 
thentic from the fictitious. The student is not in the 
cell of an oracle, listening devoutly on his knees for the 
response of the Deity, but in the dissecting room of an 
anatolnist, going to work with the scalpel upon a body 
which he conceives of as dead, but ,vhich really in the 
n1Ïnutest member of it is instinct \\..ith the Divinl' 
Life,-the breath of the Holy Ghost. 'Yhen shall "'"(> 



x 


LIFE OF DEA1{ BURGO}."r. 


learn that no profit is to be had froln God's Oracles,- 
aye, and no progress to be made in the right under- 
standing of them-unless they are approached in quite 
a different spirit 
 "When ye received the \yord of God 
which ye heard of us, YE RECEIVED IT KOT AS THE "'ORD 
OF 
IEN, BUT AS IT IS IN TRUTH, THE "r ORD OF GOD, 
WHICH EFFECTU ALL Y \VOHliETH ALSO IN YOU THAT 
BELIEVE." 
N ow this view of Holy Scripture as, in virtue of its 
having been "given by Inspiration of God," altogether 
unique in its character and its clailns upon nlankind, 
Burgon stoutly and consistently defended in our time 
against the underminings and corrosions of Rationalism, 
bringing to the defence, as has been said, (what thousand
 
of those \vho entirely concur \yith his vie\vs have not 
to bring,) talents, accolnplishments, and learning of the 
highest order, and that patient indefatigable industry of 
research, "\vhich never jump
 prematurely at conclusions. 
ho.wever attractive, but toils and plods on, in the 
assurance that the highest \Visdom reveals herself only 
to those who besto\v upon her the miner's toil, "seeking 
her as silver, and searching for her as for hid treasures." 
That in protesting for the grand truth, to the main- 
tenance of which he consecrated his life, he · was guilty 
of occasional extravagances; that the very impetuosity 
of his zeal for the integrity of God's "r ord and its para- 
Inount claillls carried him away now and then into sallies 
of the pen, which it would have been better to restrain. 
and perhaps sometÏ1nes led him to take up positions not 
altogether defensible,-may be freely admitted, without 



PREFACE. 


. 
Xl 


In the least disparaging the .value of the great ,york 
,vhich he did, or the grandeur of the position which he 
held, as the brave champion in a rationalizing genera- 
tion of God"s Inspired 'YoI'd. No great cause was ever 
n1aintained successfully ,,"ithout infirmities of temper 
and extravagances of statement in its champions. The 
Reformation might have been strangled in its birth, had 
it not been for Luther. But fe,v indeed of those who 
ackno,vledge the deep indebtedness of the Reformed 
Church to Luther, "Tould care to defend all his para- 
doxical assertions about good works, or the slur passed 
by hiIn upon the Epistle of St. James as "an epistle of 
straw." 

Ioreover, in a state of society, ,vhen a fresh originality 
of character seems, under the levelling tendencies of the 
day, to have become almost extinct among us, a strong 
vivid individuality, like that of John 'Yilliam Burgon- 
especially when it is an individuality ,vhich has con- 
secrated itself to a grand cause,-seems to deserve a 
distinct and detailed record. The very circumstances 
of Burgon's birth and breeding contributed to give him 
an originality of character possessed by fe\v indeed 
an10ng the English clergy of his day. Of foreign ex- 
traction by the mother's side, with a strong infusion of 
Smyrniote blood in him (which of itself accounts to a 
great extent for that perfen:idum iJlgeJliuJJl of his, which 
was always breaking forth); destined originally for a 
n1ercantile life, and leading it till he had attained an age, 
ten years in advance of that at which young English- 
men usually go to College; familiar too, long before 



.. 
xu 


LIFE ûF DEAJo.'" BURGO.LY. 


he came up to Oxford, ,vith poets, artists, archæologists. 
literary men,-his antecedents, so entirely out of the ordi- 
nary groove, gave a peculiar complexion to his character 
throughout life, and made other men, ho,vever gifted. 
lllore or less tanle in cOlnparison ,vith hitn. But quitp 
. 
independently of external circumstances, ,vhich may 
have contributed to form his character, the character 
itself was one of great originality, ,,
ith a vivid colour, 
and an indomitable force of will all its ü,vn. This force 
of will, ,vhile it gave him a tenacity of purpose in carry- 
ing into effect everything he undertook, by its very 
unyieldingne
s failed entirely to carry others ,vith it. 
Compromise ,vas a ,yord unknown to hiln 
 he was in- 
capable of making the smal1est conce
sion to those who 
differed froln him; perfectly assured of the truth of hi
 
own conclusions, he ""as also perfectly assured that those 
,vho arrived at different conclusions ,,"'ere in the ,vrong : 
and therefore he stood and acted alone, and never had (a
 
indeed he never cared to have) a follo,ving among hiR 
equals. N ever, it is thought, ,vere t,vo members of the 
same Communion so singularly contrasted in character 
as he and Archbishop Tait, ,yhosp biographers have 
recently presented the Church and the world with so 
faithful and so graphic a portraiture of that very con- 
siderable figure in the English Church of our day. Here 
,vas a born ruler of men, a Ulan ,vho had the secret of 
carrying his own point with others, but carrying it (a:s 
only it can be carried in a free society, every member of 
,vhich has a voice of his own,) by conceding whatever 
he did not think to involve a vital principle, in order that 



PREFACE. 


XlII 


what ,vas vital might be maintained and preserved. Thus 
the Archbishop became a great social force, not only 
in the Church, but in the State ;-his weight ,vas dis- 
tinctly felt, and consciously ackno,vledged, in the Upper 
Chamber of the Legislature. The Dean, though ardently 
beloved and profoundly revered by his disciples, ,vas no 
social force at all. His work lay in literature, not 
in affairs. He attracted by overwhelming kindness; 
he attached others by the strongest ties of gratitude, 
affection, sYlnpathy; but he was no ,yielder of move- 
ments, nor leader of men; God had not formed him 
to be so. Other points of vivid contrast bet,veen thp 
two characters ,vill probably strike those ,vho ,vere 
acquainted with both nlen,-such as the calm, deliberate 
judgment of the one, the passionate impulsiveness of the 
other; the phlegmatic t
mperament of the one, the 
excessive sensibility of the other; the ultra-Liberalism 
of the one, the old-fashioned Toryism (not only by he- 
reditary sentiment, but also by mental constitution) of 
the other; the somewhat prosaic, unæsthetic mind of the 
one, and the exuberant poetry, romance, and artistic pro- 
clivities of the other ;-contrasts which cease only \vhen 
one reaches the lowest deep of both characters, ,vhere 
it is seen clearly enough that both were In en of prayer, 
and both men of God. And ,vhen the survey both of 
the contrasts and of the funclalnental harmony is conl- 
pleted, the truth is realised of that profound and ,veighty 
saying of the Apostle's; "N o\v there are diversities of 
gifts, but the same Spirit. And there are differences of 
administrations, but the same Lord. And there are 



. 
XIV 


LIFE OF DEAN BURGON. 


diversities of operations, but it is the same God which 
worketh all in all." 
But putting on one side the interest of the character 
which it is the purpose of these pages to depict, thf1 
author ventures to hop
 that the work Inay be regarded 
as a humble contribution to the Church history of our 
times-tinles characterized by a restless fernlentation of 
thought on all religious questions, and by the equally 
restless movement which must al"\\rays follow upon such 
fermentation. If the revie\v of these tilnes has been in 
the main a saddening one, if the movements and changes 
have seemed to take a ,vrong direction, and if at present 
the outlook upon religious thought in this country is 
as dismal as it well can be, Rationalism speaking out 
more confidently than ever its insinuations as to the 
fallibility both of the written and the Personal \V ord of 
God, '''Titer and reader alike must console themselves 
with the thought that a deference is due to accomplished 
facts, as having been, even ,vhen calamitous, brought 
about in the order of Divine Providence (as punishments. 
it may be, of the Church's sin) ; anrl that there are still the 
"seven thousand in Israel," "the remnant accol'ding to 
the election of grace," who value the Inspired Volume of 
Holy Scripture above aU earthly treasul'e, and "\vhose 
simple child-like faith in its testimonies is proof against 
all the suggestions of its fallibility thrown out by the 
(so-called) Higher Criticism. In the hearts of al] such 
persons the memory of John William Burgon will bp 
embalmed for ever. 
In concluding this Preface, the author desires to 



PREFACE. 


xv 


remind the reader that Burgon himself has not yet said 
his last "\vord on the subject nearest his heart. The 
Church yet anticipates the great work, to the prepara- 
tion of ,vhich he devoted the better part of his life, but 
which he ,vas not permitted to complete,-his cc Exposi- 
tion of the true principles of the Textual C'l'iticÏ8'ìJl of the 
New Testament, and the Villdicati01t and E8tablishment oj' 
the Traditional Text by the application oj
 those pri'llCiple.{t." 
It is confidently expected that this work, no,v in pro- 
cess of completion under the able editorship of the 
Reverend Ed"\vard Miller, will, when it makes its ap- 
pearance, set its seal upon the fame of Eurgon as a 
Textual Critic of the highest order, equally indefatig- 
able in research, cautious in judglnent, and keen in 
acumen. 
The enthusiastic affection, ,vhich Burgon inspired in 
those "\vho knew hiIn ,veIl, and came under his influence. 
has been the means of procuring for the author a vast mas
 
of materials, both in the shape of letters, and written con- 
tributions; and he is quite sensible that by far the 
greater part of the interest of his work is due not to 
his o\vn share in it, but to communications made to hinl 
by the friends of the deceased. To enumerate all thosp 
who have made these helpful communications to him. 
would be to fill several pages with nanles,and thus materi- 
ally to lengthen the Preface. Let it suffice, while cordially 
thanking all contributors, whatever shape their con- 
tributions may haye taken, to acknowledge his special 
obligations to 
lr. Robert Harry Inglis Palgra ve, of Great 
Yarmouth, the letters lent by whonl (addressed to thp 



XVl 


LIFE OF DEAÞ,T BURGON. 


late 
ir. Dawson Turner) will be found to constitute 
the chief interest of the earlier part of the work; to 
}Irs. Samuel Bickersteth, a typical disciple of Burgon's, 
whose letters to her sho,v, better than any description 
can do, the affectionate ties ,vhich bound him to the 
. 
younger members of his flock; to the 'T enerable Arch- 
deacon Paln1er, who has given all sorts of aid, in- 
cluding a lllost able and interesting paper upon Burgon's 
lninistry at Finmere; to the Reverend R. G. Living- 
stone, ]Tello,y and Tutor of Pembroke College, Oxford, 
who, like other of Burgon's former curates, writes ,vith 
a warrnth of affection and liveliness of appreciation 
about him, ,vl1Ích sho,ys what he ,vas to his colleagues 
in the 
Iinistry; to the Reverend Alfred Hensley, of 
Cotgrave Rectory, his earliest Oxford friend, who, de- 
spite some differences of opinion, clung to hiln to the last 
,vith unabated affection; and to Lord Cranbrook, "\vho 
had the discrimination to see his singular lllerits, and 
the claims ,vhich he had established upon the gratitude 
both of the Church of England and the University of 
Oxford, and ,vho was doubtless the means of procuring 
for him SOlne recognition of these claims, in the very 
lllodest preferment to ,vhich quite late in life he 
attained. 
'Ve, his friends, deeply deplore him. not only from the 
warm personal love ,vhich ,ve entertained for hin1, but also 
from its seeming to us, in our purblind view of capacities 
and coming emergencies, that in the great struggle ,vhich 
is impending for the genuineness, authenticity, and in- 
fallibility of the Holy Scriptures, he was the man, w.ho 



PREFACE. 


xvn 


from his studies, his geniu
, his faithfulness, could 
most effectively have helped the cause of Divine Truth. 
But be we assured it is best as it is. As regards the 
cause, God has many other arrows in His quiver, and 
can and will raise up "the man of His right hand," and 
"lnake him strong for His o,vn self." And as regards 
our friend,-while we have lost, not indeed his sym- 
pathy nor his prayers, but his counsel, and that access 
to him which was so enlivening and so edifying,-it is 
our comfort to think that he has been spared from 
witnessi.ng the more recent developments of a Rational- 
ising Criticism and a Latitudinarianising Theology, 
and that 


THE RIGHTEO"CS IS TAKEN A'YAY FRO
I THE EVIL 
TO COME. 


ERIGHTON, 
Septem.ber 18, 1891. 


YOLo I. 


b 




CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 


-++-- 


CHAPTER 1. 


THE EARLY LIFE 


(From his Birth [Aug. 2 I, 18 I 3] to his 1\iatriculation at 
Oxford [Oct. 21, 184IJ.) 


CHAPTER II. 


THE OXFORD LIFE: FIRST PERIOD 


(From his l\Iatriculation [Oct. 21, 1841] to his Admission 
into the Order of Deacons [Dec. 24, 1848].) 


THE OXFORD LIFE: SECOND PERIOD . 


('Vest Ilsley, 'Vorton, and Finmel'e [Dec. 24, 1848-J une 6, 
18 53].) 


THE OXFORD LIFE: THIRD PERIOD 


(From his leaving Finmere [June 6, 1853J to the commence- 
ment of his tour in Egypt, the Arabian De:sert, and 
Palestine [Sept. 10, 1861 ].) 


THE OXFORD LIFE: FOURTH PERIOD 


(Tour in Egypt, the Sinaitic Peninsula, and Palestine 
[Sept. 10, I861-July 18, 1862].) 


PAGE 
1 


114 


162 


21 9 


29 2 



. 



LIFE OE' DEAN BURGON. 


. I 


CHAPTER I. 


THE EARLY LIFE. 
From his Birth [Aug. 21, 1813] to his .llIatriculatiolt at 
O:J'fo
'd [Oct. 21, 1841.] 
11' is usual to begin a Biography with SOlne notice of 
the ancestry of the person ,vhose life is to be recorded. 
If a prelude of this sort is in any and every case suitable 
and appropriate, nluch more so is it in the case of the 
subject of this lllemoir, JOH
 'VILLIA){ BURGo
. For 
,,
ith nlany other striking characteristics he combined a 
perfect passion for pedigrees, 
nd a remarkable industry 
in the investigation of them. Among lllany other ,yorks 
of a character ,,
hony dissimilar, he has left behind hinl 
a series of papers which he entitled" Parentalia," being 
the results of a research into the pedigrees of his father 
and mother; a research to which, besides prosecuting it 
at odd moments, he devoted a tour in the 'Yest Riding 
of Yorkshire during the autumn of 1840. In a letter 
descriptive of this tour, ,vhich he addressed to his great 
friend 
Ir. Dawson Turner, of Great Yarmouth, under 
date Dec. 2, 1840, other extracts fronl ,vhich will be 
given lower down, he ,,-rites:- 
" At the risk of being laughed at, I must tell you what 
I principally ,vished to do, in taking the queer tour I am 
going to describe. 'Vithout such an explanation, you 
,,
in set me down for a tasteless ass, ,vith all the world 
YOLo I. B 



2 


LIFE OF DEAN BURGON. 


Lefore me, to select the West Riding of Yorkshire for the 
scene of lIlY summer pilgrimage. I ,vished to fill up thp 
,vanting links in lIlY pedigree, and to investigate the 
history of lIlY ,yorshipful progenitors by a local inspec- 
tion of ,yills, parish registers, and the like. So ,vith 
a little portfolio of mellloranda collected in previouç; 
years, a map, and :d1y sketching apparatus, I started 
 
and Tom" [his younger brother] ",vas the cOlllpanion 
of lIlY wanderings aforesaid." 
This tour added considerably to the genealogical par- 
ticulars respecting his ancestry, ,vhich he had been for 
several years previously engaged in collecting; and the 
fresh particulars ,yere incorporated in the" Parentalia." 
After a lengthy introduction, telling his reader ho,v he 
wa
 first "put on the right scent" in his genealogical 
researches; ho,v difficult any such work proves" "Then 
accuracy and detail are ainled at" (" the age of a maiden 
aunt being sOlIletimes as great a mystery as any of an- 
cient Eleusis "); how nluch still remains to be done by 
him in the way of research" at Doctors' Commons, at the 
Rolls' Chapel, and other siIllilar repositories "; and ho,v 
he is "wholly unable to sympathize ,vith Inen ,yho are 
strangers to an interest" in such enquiries, he divides his 
subject thus: "
Iy plan is silnply this. 
Iy prefatory 
lllatter is follo,ved by (I) a dissertation on oUr fan1Íly 
nalne; (2) some account of the several families ,vho have 
borne that 
urname; (3) some account of our o,vn falnily. 
This genealogical and biographical sketch is accolIlpanied 
by a pedigree and abstracts of ,vills, etc. Then conles a 
short account of the De C'ramer falnily" [his mother's] ; 
. . . . . . . "then of the Johnson family, and the families of 
J.1Iztrdoch and Broomer; . . . . . . then of Eyre. After ,,
hich 
conle some notices of Rose. These are followed by a 
series of pedigrees of BllrgO'Jl, from ,vhich a collateral 
descent alone is to be traced." He labours learnedly to 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


" 
.) 


prove that the name Burgon, or Le Burgon, "silnply 
signifies 'the Burgundian,' the native of Bourgogne or 
Burgundy." From the lnass of "Dryasdust" genea- 
logical details there emerges every no, v and then (a
 
could not fail to be the case with one so brimful of sen- 
tilnent) the sentiment of the "
Titer; as, .w"hen he COlnes 
to the Burgons of Silkstone, in the ,,-rest Riding of Y ork- 
shire (" a village/' as he writes to 
Ir. Da,vson Turner, 
" degraded. by its coal-mine, and by the vices such a 
neighbour is ever productive of ") ; 
"It is a pleasure to think that Sill.:stoJle ,vas the fir
t 
parish in this part of Yorkshire ,vhich was christianized, 
-that from this spot, as froll1 a centre, the rays of 
Gospel-light first disselninated then1selves over tht' 
neighbourhood. 1\ly forefathers therefore enjoyed in 
a peculiar degree the priviledges" (in these early day
 
he ahyays F;pells the word thus, as was the fashion 
fonnerly), "and chyelt all10ng the hills ,yhich ,yere first 
ilnprinted by 'the beautiful feet of theln "Tho preach the 
Gospel of peace: 
, 
He has not put upon record anything relnarkable as 
to his ancestry on the father's side; but as to his lnother's 
father, the Chevalier de Cramer, Austrian consul at 
Slnyrna (,,,,ho ,vas born at Cologne, Feb. 10, 1757, and 
died at SlnjTna, Nov. 9, 1809), he tells this story, ,vhich 
,viII be read ,vith interest for its o,yn sake, and lnore 
tspecially in connexion ",\\Tith the character of the teller. 
The Chevalier'
 antecedents were these :-
IeetinO" ,,,,ith 
ö 
indifferent success in COffilnerce, he changed his line of 
life, and having been thrown across an American gentle- 
lnan (one Isaac Cramer 1), ,vho took a strong fancy to 


1 The original form of the Cheva- 
lier's name was C1'emer; but Isaac 
Cramer made him his heir on con- 
dition of his taking the name of 


Cramer,-a proce
s easily effected 
by the change of a single vowel. 
The change, however, was duly 
legalized. 


B2 



4 


LIFE OÞ' Db'AN BURGON. 


him, and furnished him ,vith the necessary funds, he 
studied la,v and diplomacy at the University of Vienna, 
and so distinguished himself in this more congenial 
sphere, that in 1777 he was appointed Austrian Consul 
at Smyrna. Ho,y he became Chevalier ,yill be seen hy 
the follo,ving anecdote, given in one of the notes to the 
" Parentalia." 


" \Vhen Napoleon ,vas at Jaffa " [
Iarch 4 to 14, 1799], 
"the French Church of St. Polycarp at SI11yrna ,vas 
treated by the Turks as part of the spoil of the enemy. 
I
arasman Oglu 2, ciailning to be the lawful proprietor of 
the church by right of conquest, sold it to the Greeks for 
the sum of 50,000 thalers, 30,000 of "Thich were actually 
paid into his hands by the Greek purchaser. .A few 
Turki
h soldiers had already entered the church, and 
seated theI11selves upon the altars. At this juncture 
intelligence of the outrage ,vas brought to Iny grand- 
father by the Curé of the church. 'Sir,' he said, , there 
is no French Consul here for l11e to apply to. To hÏ1n of 
right would belong the duty of defending this church froln 
sacrilegious invasion. But your faith supplies a suffi- 
cient reason ,yhy you should stand forth as the defender of 
the Church of St. Polycarp.' Not an instant 1yaS to be 
lost. ßly grandfather had not even til11e to draw on hi
 


2 Reader
 of Byron will be re- 
minded of Giaffir's recommendation 
to Zuleika (in "The Bride of Ahy- 
dos It) of the bridegroom he had 
selected for her,-a kinsman of this 
very" Karasman Oglu.1t 
"a braver man 
'Yas never seen in battle's van. 
,y e 
Ioslem reck not much of 
blood; 
But yet the line of Carasman 
L nchanged, unchangeable hath 
stood 


}'irst of the bold Timariot bands, 
That won and well can keep their 
lands. 
Enough that he who comes to woo 
Is kinsman of the Bey Oglou." 
The note on this passage says; 
"Carasman Oglou, or Kara Os- 
man Oglou, is the principal land- 
owner in Turkey; he governs 
JVlagnesia. Those who, by a kind 
of feudal tenure, posses!'! laud on 
condition of service, are called 
Timariots." 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


5 


boots. He hastily put on his uniform, and seizing the 
Austrian banner, repaired alone to the scene of outrage. 
He quickly drove out the one or t,vo Turks, "Thorn he 
found ,vithin the sacred edifice, and took up his station 
on the threshold, grasping the Austrian flag, ,,,,hile the 
banner of France floated about him. It ,vas not long 
before Karasman Oglu appeared in person, attended by 
about t,,,"o hundred Janissaries. Finding the entrance of 
the church so guarded, he called upon my grandfather 
instantly to ,yithdra,v. The other refused. 'This church,' 
said the Turkish Prince, ',vas French property, and by 
right of conquest has become mine.' The other replied 
that a possession of the Church cannot change hands like 
a secular estate, and may on no account be forfeited. 
The Turk advised the other not to resort to extrelniti
s, 
declaring that he was resol yed to obtain possession of an 
edifice which he had already sold. l\fy grandfather for 
all reply drew his sword, and vowed that no one should 
enter that church except by pulling do,vn the Austrian 
banner, nor cross that threshold except over his dead 
body. His firmness trilunphed. He saved the church of 
St. Polycarp, and ,yon for hhnself the abiding fl'iench;lÚp 
of KaraSlnan Oglu, who, by. the way, refused to refund 
the 30,000 thalers, declaring they ,vere the price of the 
trouble he had already taken in the affair, 20,000 thalerR 
lnore being required for the actual transfer of the pro- 
perty. 'Vhen the story of his heroisnl was related to 
the Pope, lny grandfather ,yas created a count of ROine 3. 
To this day, on the anniversary of its rescue out of the 
hands of the infidels, a l\lass is celebrated in the church 
of St. Polycarp to the lnemory of Alnbroise Hermann 
de Cralner." 
It is impossible for anyone who knew John \Yllliain 
Burgon n?t to recognise in hiIn that chivalrous gal- 


3 In a note to the" Parentalia " 
he says; "l\Iy maternal grand- 
father received his lettres de noblesse 
28th Feb., 1800; and by a Bull of 


Pope Pius VII, dated 30th f-;ept., 
1802, was created a Chevalier of 
the Order of Christ." 



6 


LIFE OF DEAN BURGOll. 


lantry, that utter carelessness of "That might be the 
consequences of a generous action to hiulself, which bad 
COlne do,yn to biln in the current of the Chevalier's 
blood. He ,yas just the Ulan, had he been a soldier, to 
have put hill1self at the head of a fOI'lorn hope, and, 
grasping th{\ bannet of England, to lead it into the 
breach. He has been called, with something approaching 
to a sneer, "tbe chalnpion of impossible orthodoxies." 
SuLstituting for the ,yord "ill1possible," "offering diffi- 
cuI ties to belief" (as "That really orthodox creed does 
not? the difficulties of belief are the trial to ,vhich God 
submits our faith), we his friends, ,vho mourn hi
 los
, 
not for our ow.n sake only
 but still more for that of 
the Church, accept that description of hill1. In the 
true spirit of his maternal grandfather he planted 
hin1self resolutely in the door,vay of the sanctuary of 
the Faith, and grasping the banner of Divine Truth, 
he vo,yed that thp rationalist's desecrating foot should 
never enter, except by pulling down the banner. 
"nor cross that threshold except over his o,vn dead 
l,ody." 
There ,vas another person of SOlne mark among his 
ancestry, of "yhom something may here 1e said,-his 
lllother's aunt, 
Irs. 13ald,vin (née 
Ialtass), of ,vhom he 
hilnself wrote an obituary Jlotice in the 'GelltlemaJl' 8 
JJlafJa.dne' for December, 1R39. The extraordinary 
lJeauty of this lady,-whose portrait by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, with an ancient coin of Sn1yrna (her native 
place) in her band, is still to be seen in Lord Lans- 
downe's gallery at Bowood,-created a great sensation, 
both at Vienna and in London, procured for her atten- 
tions from the Prince of V{ ales, after,vards George IV, 
and elicited even from Dr. Johnson a burst of chnnsy 
amorousness. 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


7 


'
In all the pride of youth and beauty," ,vrites 
her O'reat nephe,v to the ' Gentleman's l11agazÏ11e,' "she 
,v.as brought before the aged and infirln sage, whose 
cu riosity had been aroused by the story of her foreign 
birth, and residence in distant lands. Johnson asked 
her ,vhat ,vas the colour of the Abyssinians 
 }\iII's. 
Bald,vin replied that she did not know. 'But ,vhat 
colour do JOu thiJlk they are 
' persisted the author of 
Rasselas. After SOlne hesitation, and rene,ved professions 
of utter ignorance on the subject, ::\lrs. Balclw-in said that 
she supposed they ,vere úrOlcJt. The doctor next said 
that he should like to give her a kiss; and the husband's 
pern1Ïssion having been obtained, a kiss ,vas fOl'lllally 
inflicted. 
lrs. Balchvin could never forget the for- 
bidding exterior of her Platonic admirer, and the servile 
adulation of his future biographer." 

Irs. Bald,vin had infinllities of temper, it appears (for 
,,
hich, however, great excuses and allo,vances were Inade 
by those acquaintetl ,vith her circumstances), and in a 
letter to 
Ir. Da,vson Turner, accompanying the obit.uary 
sketch aboye cited, her nephe,v, who, " kno,ving that she 
,vas living quite alone, and but indifferently off, used to 
pay her a periodical visit," describes amusingly ho,v the 
loss of a penny had on one occasion made her violate the 
son of Sirach's precept, "Be not as a lion in thy house, 
nor frantic among thy servants." She ,vas stOI'llling at 
her maidservant. "On such occasions I used to sit 
quietly and say nothing; for though I verily believe 
she loved me exceedingly (silnply because I used al,vays 
to be very respectful to her), I dared not begin any 
buffoonery, such as ' "Tell, Aunt; it certainly is a very 
bad business, but I'll soon find it for you,' and then by 
a piece of legerdemain funlble a penny out of IllY pocket; 
for she was so sellsitive, so extremely sl11'eu)(l, so clear 
sighted in spite of her obliquity of luental vision, so 
clever in spite of all her absurdities, that one would 



8 


LIFE OF DEA
-r BURGO.LY. 


have been infalJibly detected, and, if detected, rebuked 
in the Inanner one does not like to be rebuked hy 
a woman, young or old." He dutifully accounts for 
these occasional outbursts by her having been alter- 
nately spoiled by adulation, and soured by unkindness 
 
but doubtle:ss she "
ns naturally a ""'Olnan of strong and 
passionate telnper,- and those ,,"'ho love hilll Lest, and 
esteenl hinl 1110st, ,vill be the last to deny that he too 
inherited a share of this characteri
tic of his In other' 
 
fan1Ïly, ,,
hile entirely free at all times froln resenbnent 
and personal dislike. 
But to C0l11e to his inlmediate progenitors. 
JOHN 'VILLTA:\I BURGOX ,vas born at Slnyrna, August 
2 I, 18 I 3. His parents ,vere ThOlnas Burgon, of London, 
merchant (born Aug. I, 1787), and Catharine 
Iarguerite 
de Cramer 4 (born Aug. 7, 1790), eldest daughter and child 
of the Chevalier Alnbroise Herlnann de Cral11er, Austrian 
Consul at SlnJrna (some particulars of whose life have 


f It may be convenient here to 
give a pedigret: of the descendants 
of l\lr. and l\Irs. Thomas Burgon, 
in reference to the members of the 


family who are mentioned or al- 
luded to in this narrative, as also 
to show who are its present repre- 
sentatives. 


I 
Sarah Caroline 
Burgon ", 
b. J lily I, 
1812, 
d. Apr. 6, 
188 9. 


Thomas Burgon, Esq., -,- Catharine 
Iarguerite de 
b. Aug. I, 1787, I Cramer, 
d. Aug. 28,1858. b.Aug. 7,1790, d. 
ept. 7, 18 54. 
I I I 
Thomas Emily Helen 
Charles, l\lary, Eliza b, 
b. June 25, b. Feb. 16, b.l\lay 28, 
1816, 1819, 1823. 
d. Feb. 14, d. l\lay 6, 
1872. 18 7 1 . 


I 
JOHN 
\YILLlA:\f, 
b. Aug. 2 I, 
181 3, 
d. Aug. 4, 
1888. 


I 
Catharine 
:l\1argaret, 
b. Oct. 27, 
1828, 
a. Apr. 28, 
18 3 6 . 


a Married (May 24. 1838) to the Rev. Henry John Rose. Rector of Houghton Con- 
quest and afterwards (1866) Archdeacon of Bedford. who died Jan. 31. 1873. The
' had 
five children, four ofwhoru survive,-Emily Susannah, Hugh James [d. IbiS], 'Yilliam 
Francis (Vicar of 'Vorl e). Anna Caroline, Gertrude l\Iary. 
b l\Iarried (Ju]y 26, 1853) to Charles Longuet HiKgins, Esq., of Turvey Abbey, 
Beds. 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


9 


been gIven above), by Sarah 
raltass, daughter of 
'Villiam MaItass 5, a merchant of Smyrna. )11'. Thomas 
Burgon's family had for many years been connected ,vith 
the connnerce of the City of London. He ,vas a Turkey 
merchant and a member of the Court of Assistants of the 
, 
Levant Company, ,,
hich position gave hi In a voice in the 
lnanagelnent of the Company's affairs and the appoint- 
ment of its officers. The Company, ,vhile it existed, 
enjoyed a lnonopoly of the trade in the Levant; but 
in the first quarter of this century monopolies ,vere 
becoming out of keeping w.ith the spirit of the tilne
; 
and by an Act of Parlianlent passed in 1826 (6 Oeo. IV. 
cap. H3) the Levant COlnpany, ,vhich had long carried 
on a thriving business, ,vas abolished. 1\11'. Burgon's 
house, ,vhich ,vas an old established one and had ex- 
cellent connexions in the Levant, maintained its ground 
for some tinle; but the cOlnpetition ,vhich the abolition 
of the COlnpany introduced into the trade, told l110re 
and more unfavourably npon it, and having struggled 
vainly for some fifteen years against losses, ,vhich to- 
wards the end of that tÌlne 
"huddled on" its "back, 
Enough to press a royal lnerchant down, 
And pluck cOlllmiseration of his state 
From brassy bosoms, and rough hearts of flint,
' 


5 l\Irs. Thomas Burgon. there- 
fore, was on her mother's side Eng- 
lish, as on her father's Austrian. 
l\I1'8. Baldwin (née Jane l\Ialtass) 
was her mother's younger siste,'. 
The mother, however, of Sarah ::Mal- 
tass (afterwards :Madame de Cra- 
mer) and of Jane l\laltass (after- 
wards :r.lr
. Baldwin) was one 
l\Iargoton Ickhard (or, Icard). Of 
what nationality was this lady? 


Dean Burgon is often 8aid to have 
been of Greek extraction. But 
how? If l\Iargoton Icard (his mo- 
ther's materna.l grandmother) were 
Greek, he would have had Greek 
blood in his veins. But probably 
the word Greek is used loosely to 
denote a Smyrniote. 
Irs. Thomas 
Burgon was a Smyrniote, as having 
been born and bred at Smyrna. 
where her family resided. 



10 


LIFE OF DEA.J..Y BURGO
"'. 


at length collapsed in August 1841, and began to ,yind 
up its affairs, a calalnity Inelnorable principaHy for the 
eftect it had upon the fortunes of the subject of this 
Biography, for, had it not occurred, he ,vould never pro- 
hably have felt at liberty to gratify ,vhat had long Leen 
the cherished \yish 'Of his heart, anù to enter the 8acred 
l\Iini:stry of thl' Church. l\Ir. Tholnas Burgon, though 
in the earlier part of his life distracted by the calls and 
('ares of businef;s, incidental to the position of the head of 
a great mercantile house, made hiInself, under the prolnpt- 
Ïng of a natural instinct, one of the most elninent anti- 
quarians of his tilne. So innate in hilIl ,vas the passion 
for research into the monuments of antiquity, that, as 
a child, he is :saill to have buried halfpf'llce in his 
father's garden, and to please hÏ1nself ,vith digging thelIl 
up again, and nlaking believe that they ,yere old coin
 
discovered by excavation. As his son inherited fruin 
hill1 this propensity for arch(
ology, and in his early 
tlays contributed several articles to the ']{umiSJJlatlc 
.'(J1l J'ual,' besides a paper to the 'GelltlemaJt' 8 lJlagazÙte' 
.( On a cairn in the Isle of Skye 6," it ,vill not be out of 


6 Here are two private memo- 
randa of hii! own. 
.. )Iy contributions to Akerman's 
'
Xllmismatic Journal' were as 
follows :- 
1. Review of.l\Iillingen's ' Sylloge 
of Ancient Unedited Coins of Gre
k 
Citiexaud Kings' [Oct. 1837]. No. 
\-1. Art. xiii. p. 8 I. 
2. On the Current Coins of Great 
Britain, con
idered as works of Art 
[Nov. 1837J. No. VII. Art xvii. 
p. 1 2 I. 
3. Review of the .l\Iarquis de 
L . . . . . 's ' Description de quclques 
JIédailles iuedites de Massilia,' etc. 


[Apr. 1838J. No. VIII. ....\.rt. xxvii. 
p. 23 ï. 
4. Pistrucci's Invention: A letter 
to the Editor [June 1838] Num. 
Cbron. No. I. Art. vii. p. 53. 
5. On the Amelioration of the 
Coinage, A.D. 1560 [.l\Iay, 1839]. 
No. V. Art. IV. p. 12. 
6. On a hoard of Pennies of 
Henry II. found in Bedfordshire 
[June 1839J. No. V. Art. XI. 
p. 54. 
7. On a new .l\lethod of obtaining 
Representations of Coins [Jan. 
18 4 1 J." 
And again; 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


I I 


place here to re-produce the obituary notice of 
Ir. 
Thomas Burgon, ,vhich appeared in the 'AthenæuJJl' of 

ept. I I, 1858:- 
"In the death of )11'. Thon1as Eurgon the ,,,"orld of 
collectors and connoisseurs of ancient art has lately 

uffered an irreparable loss. He ,vas long and honour- 
ably kno\vn for his experience and judglnent on matters 
connected ,vith antiquities and painted vases: but 1110re 
e::;pecially in Greek and ROlnan luetallurgy. His dictum 
respecting the genuineness of a \vork of Art belonging 
to these branches wa:s aln10::,t infallible, and not a fe,v 
instances could be brought to bear in ,vhich the judg- 
lllent of foreign authorities deferred to his. To classic 
learning he had no pretension; and all his scholarly 
attaiulnents appear to have been purely the result of 
his devotion to the relics of antiquity. In early life, 
ß1r. Burgon ,vas occupied in conlmerce, and his long 
residence at Sm)-rna as a Greek merchant afforded him 
pecuJiar opportunities of becoming practically acquainted 
,yith the various circumstances under ,vhich particular 


" ßly contributions to the 'Ge,l- 
tleman's J.llagazine' are as fol- 
lows :- 
1. A memoir of poor Boddingfon. 
See the Obituary of the It [Feb. 
18 3 8 . Kew Seties, vol. ix. p. 2II. 

o signature&.) 
"2. Strictures on the Review of 
Tytler's Book-Defence of Tytler's 
,-iews." [July 1839. Vol. xii. 
"K ew Series, p. 22. "A lover of 
Historic Truth."] 
" 3. A .Memoir of )Irs. Baldwin. 

ee the Obituary for" [Dec. 1839. 
1'\ ew 
eries, vol. xii. p. 656. .K 0 
signature.] 


"4- A reply to Bolton Corney 
(refu
ed) . 
5. .A reply to ::\Ir. .John Bruce 
.on the orthography of Shakspeare's 
name." [
larch 1840. V 01. xiii. p. 
264. Siglled,J ohn 'Villiam Burgon.] 
"6. _\. review of Rose's Sew 
General Biographical Dictionary." 
[May 1840. Vol. xiii. p. 497. Ko 
signature.] 
"7. A reply to l\Ir. Bruce'8 Reply 
to my former letter b." 
"8. On a cah n in the Isle of 
Sk)'c." 
"9. A letter on D. Turner's book 
of painted screens d :' . 


a The insertions in square brackets are not in the original memorandum, the 
hiatuses of which have been filled up by a reference to the' Gentleman's ...lIagazine: 
b [.l\Iay 1840. Yolo xiii. p. 474. Signed, John William Burgon.] 
c SkJ'." [Jan. IS-H. Vol. :xv. p.33. Signed, J. 'V.B.] 
d [Oct. 1S41. Yol. xvi. p. 375 Sif)ned, J. 'V. B.1 



12 


LIFE OF DEAN BURGOlt. 


objects ""ere to be found. In his vocation he was 
necessarily a traveller; but his O'Vll choice may, pro- 
bably, have kept hiIn so much alnong the Islands of the 
Archipelago. He ,vas at one tilne as much an explor- 
ator as a collector, and his researches and excavations 
in the Island of 
relos (Jlilo) have tended considerably 
to enrich the stores .of the British 
luseum. At Athens, 
also, 1\11'. Burgon carried on extensive excavations, and 
discovered Inany fine vases, especiaHy the celebrated 

[inerva one, containing burnt bones, ,vit h the inscription 
upon it, 'Tov ' A8EVE8EV ) A8Àov ElfLt.' from ,vhich the 
accidental omission of a letter puzzled Bröndsted 7 and 
all the learned ,v.orld for a considerable tinle. His 
entire collection passed some fifteen years ago to the 
British 
luseunl. Having so long had dealings ,yith the 
Turks, 1\11'. Burgon ,veIl kne,v ho,v to pursue and to 
obtain ,,"'it-hout suspicion object::; of value that had been 
discovered. His taste and judglnent on Greek coins ,vere 
nnparalleled; and at an early period of his career, the 
eminent connoibseur, Payne Knight, whose bronzes 
and coins no","'" forln so iInportant a part of the British 

I useunl, purchased froin hinl a handful of Greek coins, 
not indeed for an enorinous price, but for (at that 
time) a very large sum. Late in life Mr. Burgon found 
a quiet retreat in the l\ledal Room of the British 

Iuseum, where his ,vonderful nlemory and quick detec- 
tion of forgeries ,vere of especial value in regulating the 
nlunerous acquisitions made by that departlnent, and 
7 The Panathenaïc Amphora in [London, A. J. Valpy, .l\1..A.J,-a 
question was founel by .l\Ir. Burgon translation of which monograph into 
at Athens, near the old Acharnian French was the earliest published 
Gate, in the year of his eldest son's work of the subject of the present 
birth (1813). The letter accidentally Biography. The whole inscription, 
omitted by the copyist from the taken out of the archaïc Greek 
inscription on this Amphora is the spelling (which does not recognise 
third E of the word A(JEJlE(JEJI. As long vowels) runs thus: TWJI 
the word appears on the Amphora, 'A(}
lIT)(}EJI å(JÀC1JJI flp,í j-" I am [one] 
it is A(}ElIE(}JI. The Chevalier of the prizes from Athens." It is 
Bröndsted restored the missing written from right to left, like 
letter in his l\Ionograph on Pan a- Hebrew. 
thenaïc Vases published in 1832 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


I'" 
" 


where his courtesy and readiness to convey information 
to visitors 'v ill ever be remenlbered ,vith thankfulness. 
He died on the 28th of August, in Burton Crescent, 
aged sev
nty-one." 
Before we part company with Mr. Thomas Burgon it 
nlay interest the reader to be presented ,vith a short 
sketch of his character dra ,vn by his so
 in a letter to 
his intÏ1nate friend 
Ir. Fello,vs; "He is very anti- 
poetical-never read a romance in his life-a high Tory 
and high Churchman-the creature of habit-fond of 
matter-of-fact reading and conversation-still fonder of 
chewing the cud of his own thoughts over his pipe-in 
a great n1easure self-taught-that is to Bay all his pursuits 
were struck out and fono\\
ed alone-not too rich-and 
having the care of a great business. . . . Before quitting 
the subject however I must tell you that he likes and 
esteems you, and, being a l1l0st indulgent parent-in- 
dulgent to a fault-in no ,yay opposes my fondness for 
you and yours, tho', in his dry ,yay, he "onders at 
times ,vhat our correspondence can be all about." -If 
the son has rightly conceived the father's character, ,ve 
must suppose that the strong element of poetry, senti- 
Inent, and romance, ,vhich was so marked an ingredient 
in his o,vn mind, came to him from his mother. 
Here is an extract from ' .JI71,,-
ic a71d Friends, OJ' Pleasant 
Recollections C?f a IJilettante,' (a work by 'Yilliam Gardiner, 
of Leicester, [1838, Longmans ]), ,vhich gives a sOlnewhat 
lively picture both of :Mr. and 
Il's. Burgon. [V 01. I, pp. 
4 22 -3]. 
" Dr. Reid also introduced me to his near neighbours, 

Ir. and 
Irs. Burgon of Brunswick Square. 
Ir. Burgon, 
our Consuls at Smyrna, is respectably noticed by Clarke 


8 It may be queried whether :Mr. Burgon was ever British Consul at 
Smyrna. Undoubtedly he was a Turkey :Merchant who had resided there. 



14 


LIFE OF DEA.
V BURGO-,-V. 


in his Travels as a Collector of Grecian Antiquities. 
He eJnployed not less than t,venty men at Athens in 
constantly digging for curiosities, and the coins he ha
 
collected are considered rare and of great value. The 
inl prcssions of S0111e are as fresh a
 if just COlne fronl 
the nlint. 
Ir. Taylor COlnbe, one of the Curators of 
the British 
Iuseulll, spent the evening "\vith us," [at the 
Burgons' house in Bruns\vick Square J, "and I was 1l1ueh 
instructed by the kno,vledge he displayed upon all the 
Greek antiquities. He particularly achnired a gold coin 
of Alexander, the hehnet in such high relief that it 
projected ,vith an inconvenient degree of sharpness.- 
He pronounced it superior to anyone in the 
luseunl, 
and said it "'"as ,,-orth fifty tilnes its ,veight in gold. 
But the BlOSt invaluable of 
Ir. Burgon's eastern 
treasures ,yas his ,yife, a native of Greece o . Though not 
beautiful, her f01'ln and manners ,vere singularly elegant. 
I could not but notice the peculiarity of the Grecian 
outline in the nose fornling an ah1l0st straight line ,yith 
the forehead. and the peculiar Jength of her neck. She 
spoke, with great facility, B10st of the European 
languages, and had a fine taste in 111usic. I tendered 
Iny service in choosing her a grand pianoforte at Broad- 
,,"ood's. In going there, I cOBlplimented her upon her 
,valking, ,vhen tu my surprise she replied; 'I ,valk 
pretty ,yell, consider I learn only tree year. In my 
ov{n country I al,vays 'vas carried.' This lady realised 
in her person all the epithets ,vhich the poets of old 
have bestowed upon the female forln and grace of the 
Circassian ,voluen." 



Ir. Thon1as Burgon ,vas ,yell known to, a!ld on 
intimate terms ,vith, many of the literary, artistic, and 
scientific nlen of his d3,y, Rogers, the poet, as will appear 
a little later in this chapter, v{as one of them; C. R. 
Cockerell, the celebrated architect, another. In the year 
after John William Burgon's birth the family moved from 


9 Mrs. Burgon's nationality has been discussed in a previous note. [See 
above, p. 9, note 5.] By" a native of Greece" is meant a Smyrniote. 



TllE EARLY LIFE. 


15 


Smyrna to England. stopping at Athens in their ,yay. 
Here they accidentally encountered )11'. Cockerell; and 
the father showed his friend with some pride the eldest 
son, ,yho had been born to hÏIn at Smyrna rather Inore 
than seven months ago. Then follo,yed a freak of )1r. 
Cockerell's, ,yhich borrowed part of its point from the 
circumstance of 
Ir. Thomas Burgon's having in the 
preceding year discovered at Athens the Panathenaïc 
Vase above referred to, and gained a naine in con- 
sequence among the ,,-
araJlt8 and virtuosos of the day. 
"He carried me up to the Parthenon on his shoulders" 
(says a memorandum of the late Dean Burgon's), "and 
dedicated me to 
Iin6rva at Athens on Sunday 3rc1 of 
April, 181-+." And the perpetrator of the freak attestB 
the fact, and gives it a happy turn in the follo\ying 
Ietter:- 


" 20 July, 1842. 
"
Iy dear John,-I can indite nothing more interesting 
to JOU or to me on this page than the reininrler that 
about the year 1813" [the exact date. hO""Tever, is that 
given in the memorandum,-:-Sunday April 3, 1 R [4] "I 
dedicated you to the Athenian goddess of "\Visdonl. 
carrying you up to the Acropolis in my arms" (it 
doubtless was so; the child ,youid be too young to sit 
on a man's" shoulders," though it may have been raised 
to that position for a moment in the act of dedication). 
"""Thich I should be very sorry to do now, and in C0111panV 
,,-ith your father and mother. aJ 
"You have sho,vn me that Iny labour "Tas not in 
vain; for from Athenian you have no,y devoted yourself 
to Divine 'Yisdom, and I doubt not ,vill do credit to 
us all 


"Affectionately yours, 
"C. R. COCKERELL." 



16 


LIFE OF DEA.J..V BURGO.J..V. 


Here is an earlier letter to him from 
Ir. Cockerell, 
adverting to the dedication at the Parthenon, ,vritten 
in reference to his article in Akerlnan's '1.YÚ mis})}atic 
Journal,' "On the Current Coins of Great Britain, con- 
sidered as "T orks of Art" (Nov. 1837). 


" 
l Y dear Burgon,- 'Yhen I had the pleasure of thank- 
ing you for your essay on our coinage, I ,vat) really not 
qualified (by the hasty vie, v of it) to endure any cross- 
questioning on the subject. Since then I have read it 
1nore carefully, and ","ith very great pleasure, as ,veIl as 
instruction. 
" I think the criticism most apt and valuable, and 
hope you ,vill circulate it. The ideas thro,vn out are 
ingenious, and often beautiful, and very creditable to 
you. The justice done to Pistrucci is also a ,vorthy act, 
though I think Pistrucci over-rated, and ditler ,vith you 
on the St. George and Dragon as a cOluposition, and ,vill 
satisfy you of its absurdity any day you pIea
e, or I ,viII 
eat one.- Then I think the lively, good humoured, and 
Slnart 11lanner (,vithout flippancy) in ,vhich you have 
written the article is entirely Platonic (1) 1, and a style 
never to be lost sight of on all subjects, because it is 
Athenian, giving' to science a milder air, and luaking art 
but nature.' 
c; Go on and prosper; be assured that these elegant 
tastes ,vill lllake you more really prized and more really 
h3,PPY, than if you ,vere to be Lord 
Iayor, lnonopolizer 
of the Turkey Trade, cloathed outside with fine linen and 
inside ,vith turtle, in short, than if you were a Basha,v 
of four Tails. - I feel to have dedicated you to the 
Athenian GOlldess to some purpo
e, and trust you ,viII 
relnain a faithful devotee. 


" Ever yours, 
"C. R. COCKERELJ-l." 


1 The writer has doubts wl1ether 
the word used by 
Ir. Cockerell is 


"Platonic," his band writing being 
here and there difficult to read. 
E. 
I. G. 



, 
THE EARLY LIFE. 


17 


It should perhaps be said, as eyen great reputations (10 
not in these days of rapid movement long survive, that :\11'. 
Cockerell ,vas very eminent a
 an architect, and also as a 
nlan of general cultivation, and had spent many of his early 
years in the study of ancient architectural remains in 
Greece, Rome, Sicily, and .Âsia 
linor, froIn ,vhich circum- 
stance he Ïlnbibed a predilection for the classical style of 
architecture. He ,vas architect of the Bank of England. 
Like Inost of Burgon's early friends, he was considerably 
older than Burgon himself,-a full quarter of a century. 
It is a curious circumstance, the memory of which still 
survives in the Burgon family, in connexion ,vith 
John 'Yilliam's inborn propensity to the use both of 
the pen alid the pencil, that, before he was two years 
old, and when he could only speak a few ,vords of 
n10dern Greek, which he had picked up from his mother 
and his nurse, he would imitate the action of writing 
,vith his little hand on the table, saying, ypácþw, ypácþw! 
(Grapho, Grajjho ; " I ,vrité," " I write.") His parents often 
mentioned with amusement this incident of his earliest 
years; and added that "Jo
nny ,vas never happy, unless 
he had a pencil in his hand." 
Having received instruction from his mother during 
the first eleven years of his life, young Burgon was sent 
to a school at Putney, kept by 
lr. "T atts, October 2, A.D. 1824. 
1824. He had already acquired the rudiments of draw- Æt. II. 
ing at home, under the private tuition of )11'. 'Yoodley; 
and it is characteristic of him both that one of his early 
sketches (he had made attempts at drawing ancient 
vat;es when he was only five years old) should be a 
dra,ving of his first school, and also that his first letter 
from ::;chool to his n10ther is to ask her acceptance C" as 
I kno,y that you are fond of poems") of a book of poems 
(( by )11'. Alaric 'Yatts, ,,-ho is 
lr. 'Yatts's brother." 
VOL. ?". C 



18 


t 
LIFE OF DEAN BURGO.LY. 


In connexion våth his school life at Putney his sur- 
viving si
tel' writes :- 
"Fronl a very early age my brother was a most 
religiously disposed boy. I haye heard Iny mother say 
that at his first school (
lr. 'Y atts 's, at Putney) it 
,vas his custom. besides sho"ing kindness to and sup- 
porting any little boys in trouble. to protect a French 
boy, ,vho "ras a R0l11an Catholic, ",.hile Raying his 
prayers. J. 'V. B. used to keep guard at the door of 
their bcl1rooIn, and give notice of the approach of his 
torInentors... Fr01n infancy he ,va
 I should SHY, won- 
derfully pure. thoughtful, liberal. and loving to the poor. 
I have heard Iny Illother say t
1at, "hen quite a little 
boy. he "ould occupy himself of an evening in making 
little artieles of ,yorsted ,york for a poor 'Y01nan ("Tho 
sat "ith her basket n0ar our hou
e in EruIHn,ick 
Square) to sell. He ,vould take the articles to her him- 
8elj-: and on his return ,vould descrihe to our lnother 
her thankfulness, and say (she had ble.'î8erl hinl.' This he 
d ,velt upon, and seemed to appreciate. These visits to 
the poor 'VOlnan afforded him the liveliest pleasure." 
A. n. 1828. In the summer of I Rz8, ,,
hen he had not been quite 
Æt. IS. four years at Putney, ,vhere latterly he does not appear 
to have been happy, he ,vas renloved to a school at Elack- 
heath. and placed under the charge of 1\11'. Greenla\v. 
Several of his letters to his parents from both schools 
have been preserved. 'Vhile their topics are the ordinary 
topics of schoolbo}s' letters, they sho,v every now and 
then, as might be anticipated, an intel]igence and an 
interest in certain branches of knowledge (not in the 
regular schooI-,vork) above the average; and they 
derive a certain importance, in. connexion "7ith his life 
and character, from the follo,ving memoral1duln Inade by 
him respecting them when he came of age, \vhich. even 
if it sho\vs perhaps a little sense of self-importance, 
sho\vs a]so a power of introspection not very common at 
the age of twenty-one. 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


19 


,. .Lllemoranrlum. To-day, by mere chance, I stumbled on 
this bundle of letters, .written for the 1110st part by myself 
from school at an early period,-and I lay them aside, 
thinking that at some future day they may be interesting. 
"From a hasty glance over their contents, I perceive 
that I ,vas I ú years ago much the same creature that I 
am no,v. I notice the same love úf books and of study, 
the same hatred of school and contell1pt for the society 
of my equals in age, ,vhich since I ,vas 11. and first went 
to school, I have never been able to shake off," (he 
ah,ays, in his earlier clays, lived ,vith D}en older than 
himself), ,; the same love of quiet, and consequent love 
of hOIne
 the saIne in-health. ,vhich is after all at thf' 
root of half the evils of life ; in fact I perceive that, save 
in a generaI1lla/lliJle8.
, which at 21 everyone must more or 
less acquire, the 10 Jrears in question have produced very 
little alteration in the ,naterials of my moral organisation. 
" Good-night to you.-Sunday Night, 1 o'clk. 
" J nne 8th, I 834, 
,. JOHN \V. BURGON." 
A fe\y short extracts from these schoolboy letters are 
here sn bj oined, sho"ring the affectionateness and dome
- 

icit y of his character, and. his interest (even at that 
early age) in antiquities, and in the vindication of the 
truth of the Holy Scriptures. 
Aug. 22, 1828 [Æftat. IS]. (Returning, with his younger 
brother Thomas, to school at Blackheath.) To his 
:àlother. 
" I anl sure the reason why the boys do not n1ind so 
much leaving hOlne is, because they do not feel the same 
happiness in their circle at home. \vhich proceeds from 
that mutual affection \vhich we alw.ays have, and I am 
sure ,ve ever ,vill enjoy." 
Blackheath, Oct. 27, 1828 [Ætat. IS]. To his Father. 
"I heard froin Greenla"T" (the master of his school) 
" that a 'lnumm.ylately arrived from Eg:ypt has been dis- 
covered to have been the high priest of Pharaoh, by 
C2 



20 


LIFE OF DEA...Y BURGO
V. 


111eanf:; of the hieroglyphics, in ,vhich great improvelnents 
arc lnaking. This event i
 perhaps as excellent a proof 
of the truth of Scripture History as can be produced for 
the conviction of the incredulous, and I dare say it "'Till 
make many a fe11o,v, "\vho is fond of being thought 
relnarkable in his nQ.tions, &c., appear a lnost egregious 
as
."-In tbis la.st obseryation there is surely an augury 
of much that ,vas to COlne after. 
His account of his Confinuation (by Bishop 
Iurray of 
Rochester) ,vill be read ,vith interest. It sho,vs his serious- 
ness in attending the Ordinance, though not the 
ensibility 
,vhich ,vas so lnarked a feature of his character. 


A. D. 1829. 
Æt. 16. 


Blackheath, 
lay 26, 1829. To his Father. 
" I thought it a very sole11111 ceremony; but IllY C0111- 
panÍons seeln to think very little about it. One thing 
though I thought very aLsur( 1; several of the 'YOlnen 
and girls \vere in tears!!! N o"r )11'. G. has been kind 
enough to explain to us all, so often. and so fu11y, the 
whole rneaning and purpose of Confirlnation, that I ,vas 
very far froln anything like this; and indeed. to tell 
you the truth. this circumstance provoked lny laughter 
in spite of IHyself. I see nothing further to be inlplied, 
than that you o,vn that you are old enough to perceive 
the necessity of doing your duty, and the propriety of 
,yhat has been promised in your naIne, ,vhen an infant, 
and that in confessing your belief in Christ, you under- 
take to do your best to do ,vhat is right. Three serlnons 
I have heard, and t,vo I have read on the subject, and 
this is ,vhat I extract froll1 them. The bishop beemed 
young. He ,,,,as attended by a great ll1any clergymen. 
I enclose a little sketch of hiIn fro1l1 memory. "\Vhich I 
think is rather like 2." 


2 It surprises us to find in his 
Journal of the year 1834-the year 
in which he came of age-this 
entry: " l\Iarch 28, Good Friday. . . 
Took the 
acrall1ent for the second 
time in my life." The date of his 
first COl1llllunion does not seem to 


be recorded; but it appears strange 
that in the five years which had 
elapsed since the Confirmation of 
one so religiously minded from boy- 
hood, he should have only com- 
municated twice; more especially 
as hi::; attendance at Church on 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


It IS very Inany years SInce the writer sa,v Bishop 

Iurray 
 but "the 
little sketch" (in 
pencil,- the slightest 
thin()' in the ,yorld 
o 
-done ,vith wonder- 
fully few strokes) 
seems to summon 
back the stately 
and dignified pre- 
sence of the Bishop 
with his wig. Be- 
neath it is written 
by the draughts1l1an, 
"Bishop of Roches- 
ter, 
Iay 26, 1829." 
It may be men- 
tioned here that in 
later life Burgon, 
who, as has been said, received instruction in dravting 


...:=:::----: - 


fl4;1
-k 

/. .tl. /
.y. 


Sundays (frequently twice, and not . 
unfrequently thrice) is carefully 
noted, and observations are 
usually made on the preachers he 
hears. It must be remembered 
however that it is quite ofIate years 
that the desirableness of frequent 
Communion has been recognised in 
our Church, and admonitions to it 
and opportunities for it given, and 
that in the earlier part of the 
century the notion of something 
terrible and repelling in connexion 
with the great Ordinance (" as if a 
different God entered the Church 
after the sermon'" as an eminent 
divine of those days well and 
pointedly said) prevailed yery 


21 


widely, and kept a persistent hold 
even upon the minds of those who 
were quite bent on doing their 
duty, and were very attentive to 
other religious observances. l\Iis- 
taken as this notion undoubtedly 
was, it yet furnished a security 
against irreverence and the dis- 
pensing with previous preparation; 
and it may be gravely questioned 
whether, since this security bas been 
swept away, good Christians have 
not been somewhat the losers in 
edification. Constant Communion 
implies a life of constant watchful- 
ness and prayer, and only in as
ocia- 
tion with those conditions can a 
blessing be expect
d upon it. 



22 


LIFE OF DEAÞ{ BURGON. 


before he went to school, from ßlr. Woodley, han a few 
lessons from Dibdin in landscape-painting; in which 
he attained great proficiency, as l11ay be seen from the 
beautiful ,vater-colour dra ,vings ",vhich he marle in the 
course of his tour to Egypt and Palestine. 
His desire to take lIuly Orders dated fron1 hi
 earliest 
youth, and it was only in deference to his father's strong 
,vish, and out of his o,vn sense of the duty of filial 
obedience, that he ,yent into the counting-house after his 
renloval froln school. "lIe tlisliked it Inore than I can 
tell " ("Trites his surviving sister), ,; and found relief 
only in the pursuit of Poetry and Art during his .leisure 
Inolnents, ,vhen he returned from the city.
' 
And thus we are brought to the year (I H30) succeeding 
his Confìrnlation, "Then he COlnmenced a book of extracts 
from his reading ,vith the follo\ving melnoranduln, ,vhich 
shows his thoughtfulness at that early age, and his serious 
determination to hnprove his mind :- 
"I have no,v attained illY I Îth year; and although in 
the course of the last I 0 years I have perused several 
works, the rontents of n1any, and the titles of a still 
greater number. have escapeclIny recollection. Thi
 Inay 
have been partly o,ying to my youth; but must, I think, 
be principally attributed to Iny never having preserved 
extracts fron1 thein, or cOlllmitted to paper Iny opinion 
of their contents: f,uch a custon1 ,vouId have inducer} nle 
to read ,vith greater care. and by lea ding 111e to reflect 
on "That I had read, Inight have materially a
sisted 111e 
in fornling my judglnent and taste.-Although I have 
suffered so Inany year:-; to elapse ,yithout doing this, I do 
not intend any longer to do so; but as I read, shall note 
in this book everything that may appear interesting or 
worthy of ob
ervation. 

, For my note book. 
"(Signed) J. \V. BURG ON. 
-' Aug. 27, IH3 o ." 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


2'" 
J 


It should be added that, by way of completing his 
education, he attended lectures at the london U niver- 
sity, ""here he gained a prize for the best Essay in the 
Junior Class. at the conclusion of the Session of 1 R29-30. 
And no\v it \vill be ,veIl, before going further, to take 
a general vie,v of his occupations and surroundings 
during the eleven years ,vhich ,vere to elapse bet,veen 
1H30 and 1841. He ,vas taken into his father's count- 
ing-house, in the expectation that he ,,"'ou ld one da.y 
succeed to the headship of it. The ,york, ahvays most 
distasteful to hilIl, occupied most of his mOTnings, and 
often detainefl him, especially on "Turkey Post days," 
tin a late hour in the evening. But so extraordinary 
was his Inental energy, that he not only (as ,vill be seen 
further on) compesed his 'Lifè and l'ime8 oj' Gre8flam,' 
and many other 1iterary pieces
 both in prose and roetl'Y, 
of a more fugitive and less substantial character, but 
found tirne, chiefly by sitting up to a very late hour, to 
beconle versed in several departnlents of Art and 
Archæology, in the kno\vledge of rare and old beoks, of 
pictures and engravings, and in the study and criticism 
of Shakspere. And ,ve are to think of hÍ1n as Inoving, 
from his schocl-days on\yarcl, in the society of Inen of 
high cultivation. and literary cr artistic eminence, ,vho 
,vere frequent guests at his father's house. This fell in 
with his intellectual leaning. w'hich ,vas tow'ards research 
and literature in all its forms, anJ also with his moral 
ten1perament, \vhich ,vas of an aspiring character,-a 
leaning and a temperament recegnised by hiulself in the 
men10randum ,vhieh he Iüacle on con1ing of age, and ,vhieh 
has been given above: "I notice the same love of books 
and of btudy, the same . . . . . contempt for the society of 
nlY equals in age, ,vhich . . . . since I first ,vent to school 
I have never been able to shake off." (See above J p. 19.) 



24 


LIFE OF DEAN BURGOJ.;T. 


A few are here mentioned, ,yhose names are constantly 
}'e-appearing in his J ournalB and Letters, and ,vhose 
tastes antI studies were no doubt in SOlne Ineasure com- 
municated to him and contributed to the formation of 
his mind. 1\11'. Cockerell has already mHde his appearance 
in our narrative. Thòmas Leverton Donaldson [b. 1795] 
was another celebrated architect, and connoisseur of Art, 
,vho ,vas on intimate ternlS ,vith the Burgon family. 
Then, in the departInent of travel, besides Sir Charles 
Fello,,"'s, ,vho ,vill be mentioned at length presently, 
there ,vas 
Ir. Frederick Cather\yood, the author of 
, Tra'Cels in Yucafall.' Sir Richard \Yestmacott, the sculptor 
[b. 1775, d. 1856], ,veIl kno,vn as having executed the 
bronze Achilles in Hyde Park, the statue on the Duke of 
York's column, and several of the monuments of public 
Dlen in St. Paul's Cathedral, ",vas another lnelnber of the 
saIne circle. James 
Iillingcn [b. 1774, d. J 845] had been 
a very early friend of 
Ir. Tholnas Burgon, and "'vas in 
entire sympathy with his tastes and pursuits, having 
,,"'ritten on the" Ancient lTnedited Coins of Greek Cities 
anù Kings, from various Collections, principally in Great 
Britain [1837: 4to ]," and on many sinlilar subjects, and 
being possessed of great critical acumen in judging of 
coins, genls, and antiquities in general. He lived at 
Florence, but frequently visited England in the sumlner, 
and, ,vhen he did so, never failed to nlake his appearance 
(al,vays duly noted in John 'Villiam Burgon's journal) 
in Bruns,vÌck Square. Dr. Leemans, a Dutchlnan, 
" Conservateur " of the 
luseunl at Leyden, "Tho can1e to 
England to study Egyptian Antiquities in the British 
Museum, received Hluch kindness fro III 
Ir. Burgan 
senior, and ,vas constantly in the house, as John 'Yilliam 
records, ,vhen little" Kitty," the treasure and joy of the 
whole family, ,vas snatched away by death. Dr. Lepsius, 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


25 


a "German, was introduced to the Burgons by Dr. 
Leemans. He ,vas a great student of Hieroglyphics and 
a learned Egyptologist, becaIlle Keeper of the Egyptian 
l\luseum at Berlin, and "vas appointed leader of the 
great scientific expedition sent out by the Prussian 
Government to Egypt, of which he ,yrote a description 
in several ]arge volumes. Of English literary men, 
,vhose nalnes are familiar to all, there were several ,vho 
maintained friendly relations ,vith the family. Th
 
poet Rogers ,vas one of these; and the following account, 
extracted from John \Villiam's Journal, of a conversation, 
which he had the honour of holding with Rogers at his 
father's table: ,vill be read with interest, as thro,ving 
light both on his o,yn character and that of the poet. 
H Aug. 4, 1832." [./Elat. 19]. "Rogers dined ,vith 
us. After dinner the follo,ving conversation took place 
bet,,"'een us as nearly as I can remember. I asked him 
how his ne,v edition ,vent on. He sail I, 'But t;lo,vly, it 
being in the hands of the engravers.' 1Yhen I asked 
after 
Ioore, what he ,vas at, &c., he told me he talked 
of a long poem ,ve are some day to see of his. Rogers 
is a queer Inan: he thinks me too young, I suppose, to 
Inerit his confidence, or even to deserve being can versed 
with. I ,vas afraid of being troublesome, and therefore 
said no more on the su lÓect . . . . . .. I then 0 b
erved ; 
, 'Yhat a pity it is that the poet cannot exercise the same 
power as the sculptor, and, after he has concei vecl SOl11e- 
thing grand, commission another to execute it for him! 
:For,' I added, , the charming part of the task is the con- 
ception; the execution is laborious, and takes up time.' 
'Then,' said Rogers,' how much Byron ,vould have left 
us! He ,vould. have sicktuerl us!' I begged hÜn to 
recall that ,vorù. "V e might then have had an accunlU- 
lation of plea81fJ'e

,' said I. He snÜled, but said nothing. 
I asked hiln ,vhat quality must ,ve consider as most 
essential for a poet to possess,-inlagination, judgnlent, 
COllunon sense, or what 
 He replied, he supposed 
Ï1nagination, though common sense ,vas indispensable. 'It 



2Ó 


LIFE OP DEAN BURGO.fl. 


is a pity,' said he, , Ryron had not more comn1on sense. 
I Raid nothing. 'Homer,' he added. 'had more COlTImOn 
sense than any poet ,yho ever lived.'-The conversation 
at table turned on Death (violent Death principal1y; for 
they ,vere discussing the proposed reform in criminal 
punislul1ent). Donaldson ob
ervcd that ho did not see 
,vhy that extrenle dègree of fear should be nlanifested at 
the prospect of Death. The ans,ver seemed to relnain 
,vith Rogers, "Tho replied; , Yon are the fir
t man that 
I ever beard sny so.' Then, after a pause 
 'Shakspere 
has expre
sed the sentilnent better than anyone else; 
"Aye, but to die-to go \ve kno\v not ,vhither," &c.' " 
Here i
 :lllothcr account froln his journal of a dinner 
at l\Iiss Rogers', at 'v hich he met the poet, and three 
painters,- "r estall (, he teaches the Princess Victoria 
dra,,
ing, and love
 her as his o,vn child"); Leslie ("' a 
fine n1an, ,vith an intelligent, agreeable face. . . . his \vife 
is said to lJe the original of all his ladie
 "); and Ottley 
e'strong in a particular branch of painting, very con- 
descending and conununicative, and possessing much of 
the'ITIilk of human kindness' "). 
"Tuesday, I 5th" (the year and month are not given. 
Perhaps it ,vas December, IH3J, or perhaps illarch, 1 R36; 
-the 1:.th of both these lTIonths fell on a Tuesday). 
" Sanluel Rogeïs I have often scrihbler1 about. He has 
a peculiar ,yay, and one ,yl1Ïch it is difficult to describe; 
for 111 J/lurte po rule gi vt'
 one no notion of tone and 1110 Jl1l('r. 
His' God bless me' is as conÜcal as a long paragraph 
froln the lips of a COllllnOn man....... 'Yhen )liss 
Ottley had ended a EttIe ::,ong, 'That is Italian,' said 
Rogers, 'eh 
 J ßliEs Ottley tùld hiln that it "Tas Spanish. 
'Ah 
 Spanish,' obRerved the poet, "\\Tithout the least 
alteration of feature or tone,-" I didn't kno,\ ,yhether 
I ,vas in Italy or Spain.' . .. In the course of the even- 
ing I asked hinl \yhether he had ever seen Johnson. 
, No,' said Rogers,' I never did.' I pressed him a little 
closer. 'e'nce,' said he, , 'v hen I ,vas a very young Ulan, 
younger than you, I "Tas passing Bolt Court "Tith a 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


27 


schoolfellow, and I proposed that ,ve should pay Johnson 
a visit. Eut when I laid D1Y hand on the knocker my 
courage failed me.' , Have JOu not often repented it 
since? ' , Yes; for I should have had a story to tell. I 
dare say he ,voulJ. have received us kindly; and if he 
had not, I don't kno,v that I should have minded it.' 
"
 e ,,-'-ere (ljsturbed from the conversation lJY the sound 
of the guitar in t.he next room. . . . The conversation at 
table turned principally on painting and painters- 
V andy ke and so on. In ans,ver to an inquiry RGgers 
told me tha,t Gainsborough's ' Boy in Blue' ,vas a ú}'a
ïll'a 
occasionëd by Reynolds having said that blne was not a 
good colour for the IJrincipal light in a picture. The 
original was the son of a coachmaker in Long Acre." 
And here another of his breakfasting ,vith the poet 
in company with his brother. 
" This Inorning TonI and I breakfasted at St. James's 
Place ,vith 
Ir. Rogers. 'Ve ,vere invited for half-past 
nine, and took care to be punctual. I think Rogers so 
interesting a person, that I shall set down everything 
that passed as nearly as I aln able. 
" We found the breakfast on the table, and the Poet 
writing at a little side-table. He 1'ose to receive us, 
remarking that he vtas sorry that it ,vas such a dull dayo 
I replied that everything ,vould be bright ,vhere ,ve 
were,-with ,vhich I think" he ,vas pleased; and then in 
compliance with our entreaties he c<?ntinuecl his letter. 
" vVe alnused ourselves in the meantime with his 
pictures, and happened to be contelnplating a most inter- 
esting bust of .Pope by Roubiliac, when he ceased ,vriting. 
He CèU11e near us, and talked to us about Pope, and that 
bust, ,vhich is an original. Sir R. Peel has the ])1arble 
which ,vas executed ii'onI it, and ,vhich is not nearly so 
beautiful as the model. Rogers made us notice the 
character of the mouth, and the intellectual formation of 
the head. Then he alluded to Pope's deforn1ity, and we 
agreed that 1\lillingen resembled Pope in SOlne respects. 
\Vhen we sat do,vn to Lreakfast, I observed to 1\11". 
Rogers that I never approached his house "\vithout feel- 



28 


LIFE OF DEA.1V BURGOJ:.l. 


ing that I trod on holy grouncl,-so lllany eminent men 
had Ï1nprinted it ,vith their footsteps. lIe smiled, and 
told us that he certainly could nurnbcr alnong his guests 
some great names. 'After I had been here four ,veeks,' 
said he, 'Fox caIne to pay me a visit, and there has 
scarcely been a greater luan than he.' Iren1Ïnded him 
of Sheridan, Scott, Byron, &c. fIe assented, and observed 
that Sheridan had often heen at his house. 'Oh, yes,' 
said I, 'we kno,v that wen fron1 Looks.' . . . I told him, 
à pr()jlo.f{ of Sheridan, that I diù not think he ,vas enough 
regarded in the light of a ,yarning ;-,yith such splendid 
talents, to have lived so unhappily and died so mh,erably! 
, Yes,' said Rogers, , I think so too. If he had had one 
vice mure, hi
 hi
tory ,yould not have been such a warn- 
ing as it is,-had he had the littleness to love money, 
and the meanness to hoard it.' 
"He said, speaking of hi
 illustrious guests, that 
nothing would satisfy Queen Caroline, short of paying 
hill1 a visit; and she caIne. 
" I happened to luention the name of Gray incidentally; 
ana I an1 glad I diJ so, for it led to S0111e interesting 
conversation on the part of Rogers. I discovered that 
he has lny taste for old associations and classic haunts in 
perfection. He tolJ us where Gray lived (which with 
some other particulars I shall note dOV\Tn in my life of 
Gray) and perceiving the pleasure it gave us to hear him 
talk about such things, told us ,vhich ,vas Dryden's 
house, ,yhich Ne,vton's, anù ,vhich Lord .illansfield's 
(Pope's l\Iurray). 
"The hint for Dryden's house he had found (it seeIns), 
in Spence's anecdotes, a book of ,vhich he is extremely 
fond, and ,yhich he sub
equently nlade his man-servant 
bring do,vn stairs for hiD1 to refer to. Gray's he ,vas 
told of by 
Ir. Nicholls, and N e,vton's he di
covered in 
,valking through St. 
Iartin' s Street. He noticed a 
curious little construction at the top of a house in that 
street, on ,vhich he thought he could discern the ,vord 
J:Yer!oui inscribed. He \vent in and found a boy scraping 
the floor of the lo,ver rOOln, and he enquired of him the 
meaning of the little pigeon-house on the roof. The 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


29 


boy said that an old llian nallied N e,vton used to sit up 
and ,vatch the stars froln that little building all night. 
, N o,v,' said Rogers, 'no one notices such things!' .. . 
\Ve expressed our satisfaction at finding him as fonel as 
ourselves of such things. 'I live upon such recollections,' 
he replied, 'I think of nothing else all day. . . . \Vhen 
W ords\vorth came to see me the other day, I took him 
to see Dryden's house and Ne"\vton's observatory.' He 
reminded us that Addison used to live ill St. James's 
Place, but he did not kno,v the number. 
"To return to Gray. I told him that I had seen Grar's 
rooms at CaIn bridge, and the bar of iron which he had 
caused to be fixed outside his ,vindo,vs, to effect his 
escape in case of fire. 'Is it there still l' said Rogers; 
'I remember 
Ir. Canning's narrative of the circum- 
stance which occasioned Gray's departure from Peter 
House. Some frolicsome young men placed a tank of 
-,vater uncleI' his ,vinclow= and calleel out fire. Up flew 
the ,vindo,v, and out came Gray ,vith his fire-escape, 
,vhich necessarily conducted him into the tank prepared 
for his reception. The young TIlen apologized, alleging 
that they Ineant to have called out 'Irate/'; but that in 
their confusion they calleel out fire instead. Gray left 
the College, contenting himself with observing that the 
College was noisy, and the young men troublesome.' 
'" I ,vas always from a boy fond of Gray,' said Rogers. 
. . . ' Gray was a nervous, perhaps a finical lllan; but he 
comlnanded the greatest respect. Lord St. Helen's, ,vho 
is alive and ,,yell at 85 (1), told me that, ,vhen he went up 
to Trinity College as a boy, he took with him a letter 
for Gray, ,vho came next morning to pay him a visit, 
attended by three of his friends-Stonhe\ver, Palgra ve, 
and another. They did not come as if in conversation, 
in a group, or two and two; but they ,valked in a ]ine, 
one after the other. On their departure the young Inen 
of the College, "" ho were asselnbled in the quadrangle to 
see Gray come out, all took off their caps to him.' 
"\Yhile on the subject of interesting sites, Rogers 
renlarked to us ho,y fe,v persons passing 
1i1k Street and 
Breaù Street, remembered 
Iilton and Sir Thomas 
Iore, 



3 0 


LIFE OF DEAN BURGO.;.V. 


who \vere born there. lIe praised )Iackintosh's life of 
the latter, and in rema.rking on the character of Sir 
Thomas. insil:;tBd that he did not ùie for the sake of 
Pupish Suprenlacy, but that he died for.fi'eer1olJl qf opiuion. 
'Ye talked a 1ittle about Eg
?ptian antiquities,-a study. 
as Rogers observed, in ,vhich so llluch relnains to be 
learn(,d l)y thoðr ,yho ,yiH concentrate their attention. 
,. \Yhen ,YO arose froln breakfast. H,ogers told us that 
the Dlahogany pier, ,,,-I1Ïch stands in his dining-rooIn, and 
supports a vase, ,vas the ,vork of Chantrey when he 
,yorked for 5'
, per clay 3 . 
H Turning to one of his pictures. he Inn(le a remark to 
Ton1 ,vhich llispleased me ;-it displayed, I thought. such 
a ,vant of tabte. '\V est,' said he, , used to refuse .;tJ 1000 
for that picture'; and in a silnilar strain he ,youlcl relnark 
of other ol
ccts, as if the money value of the objects 
around hiul ,yas of any moment. 
"I 'Ya
 111can,vhile engaged in lnaking some 111emO- 
randa from his copy of Gray, which had belonged to 
Cole 4, the antiquary. I ,vas amused to see that Rogers 
has another of my ,veakne
::ses, viz., that of ,vriting in 
his books. and ,,,hen he 111eets ,vith anything ,yhich 
interest8 him, ncting the page at the end of the volume, 
-a trick of lny o "\yn. Gray appears indeed to be one 
of Rogers' fa vourites ;-- he 
olq lIle that he ,vas an 
espccial ol
cct of his adn1Ìration from bo}hood. Hence, 
obviously, Rogers' ., Ode to Superstition,'-,vhich I re- 
marked to him. I told hiln too, that I thought his 


3 There is an anecdote, which the 
writer is unable to trace to its 
source, of Chantrey himself having 
seen tliÏ::; mahogany pier. when he 
was brea.kfasLing with Rogers, and 
Ilaving asked the poet if he could 
call to mind the name of the man 
who made it. On Rogers' saying 
that he could not, and that it was 
made by SOlf.e poor working man, 
Chantrey i
 said to have replied, 
"That man was myself." 
f The Rev. 'Villiam Cole, the 


A.ntiquary, wa"J born in 1714 and 
died in 1 782. He graduated at 
Cambridge, where he was the College 
friend of \Valpole, l\Ia90n, and Gray. 
He lleld the benefices of Hornsey, 
Bletchley in Bucks, and Burnham, 
near Eton. He left to the Bl"iti:-;h 
l\Iuseum fifty folios of .:\lanuscript 
Antiquarian Collt'ctions. It was 
]1Ïs intt-ntion to compose an Atkenæ 
Canlubrigiense.'1, as a companion to 
Anthony Wood's .A thellæ O.rOll"Ï- 
Crises. 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


3 1 


genius very Inuch resembled that of Gray; they both 
have \Yl'itten so little and so well. . . . \Ye \vent up into 
the drawing-room, and after looking a little at his va
es, 
left hiln. He is certainly a very aillusing gentleman-like 
man, and haB the courtier-like art to Inake it appear that 
he is receiving a favour, \vhile it is quite obvious that he 
is, on the contrary, conferring a considerable one." 
Having seen \vhat \vere the literary surroundings of 
John \Villialn Burgon in his early life, \ve no\v return to 
our narrative, "Thich "Te left off \vith the memorandum 
made by him in his note-book, at the age of 17, in the year 
18 3 0 . The follo\ving year, 1831, ,vas Inarked by the A.n. 1 8 3 1 . 
formation of a very strong early friendship,-aln1ost of Æt. 18. 
the Pylades and Orestes type,-such as young men are 
apt to forln in their premÙ?re jeullesse, such as one "Those 
nature \vas so intense and passionate ,vas certain to forln. 
His first acquaintance \vith the object of this friendship 
is thus briefly recorded in the diary, \vhich he appears to 
have comlnenced in the previous year:- 
"
Ionday, Oct. 31, 18.11. "'Tent to 
Ir. Booth's-a 
small dance--met a 
lr. Fello\ys-a delightful.tellow, \vho 
has seen Byron and H. K. \Vhite, and kno\vs 1\loore, &c., 
&c., &c.-very agreeable evening." 
In the autumn of the follo\\Ting year the friendship 
thus begun was cemented by a tour \vhich the friends 
made together in Del' ?yshire and N ottinghamshire. 
"ßr10nday. Sep. 17, 1832. Drank tea \vith Fellows- A.n.1832. 
planned trip to N o ttingh alll shire and Derbyshire." Æt. 19. 
The trip began on Sept. 21, "\vhen they left London 
for N ottinghaln, and ended on \Vednesday, Oct. 3, 
'when they returned by the night coach froln N ot- 
tingham to London. l\Jatlock, Bakewell, Haddon Hall, 
Chab.nvorth, the Peak, Dove-dale (" the Inost lovely 
spot in the world "), Alton Towers, Southwell, N e
stead 



3 2 


LIFE OF DEAÞ.,T BURGO...Y. 


Abbey, Anllesley, and Hucknall (the pla
e of Lord Byron's 
hurial) ,vere all visiteJ. The last occ
sion uf course ò.iù 
not fail to elicit verses froill Burgon (" ,vritten in the 
Book at Hucknall Church "); Byron's poetry al,vays had 
a special charm for him, all the more frolll that vein of 
sallness and nlelan
huly which runs through it, and 
,vhich, though overlaid and concealed occasional1y by the 
exuberant and even extravagant frolicsollleness of his telll- 
perament, ,vas a real constituent of his own mind. He him- 
self recognises this tendency of his nlÍnd, and the colour 
,vhich his o,vn verses took froin it, in hi
 correspondence 
,vith :Mr. Fello,",'"S a lnonth or t,yO after the Derbyshire tour. 
"Tuesday Night, Nov. 1.1, J832. Do you remeillber 
the fe,,'" words that pa

ed between us SOl11e hours ago, 
about the Inelancholy that runs thro' IllY poetry 1 For- 
give a midnight apology. 
Oh! Llalne not if I sOinetiines ,vake 
A note thy friendship deems too sad- 
I 11'07l[rl not, if I cO/fld, forsake 
That l11oul'nful note, for one Inore glad! 
Perchance you dceln my spirits light, 
Because these lips are ,yont to jest 1 
Alas! they share the glooln of night 
\Yhen left, unmoved, ,vithin nlY breast. 
The harp beneath the n1Ínstrel's touch 
Oft utters such a blissful tone. 
That you, to hear, Blight deem that such 
"r ere uttered by its strings, alone. 
But let the breath of heaven fly 
U ncheck' d an1Ïd those trenl bling wires,- 
Go. hear the deep impassioned sigh 
They render as each breath expires! 
Then tell-oh! tell me ,vhich you cleeln 
To be in truth their proper strain- 
The minstrel's gay, enchanting theIne, 
Or those self-uttered notes of pain 1 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


33 


Such are my feelings, ev'n if bliss 
Is sometimes offered to Ine here, 
1\f y heart relninds me that it is 
The prelude to a future tear. 
And thus froll1 childhood have I learned 
To 
ee things in their darker view; 
For even then my joys ,vere earned 
By drinking deep of sorro,v too. 
Then blame not, if I sOlnetimes ,vake 
A note thy friendship deems too sad; 
I could not, if I would, forsake 
That Inournful note for one Inore glad!" 



Ir. (after,yards Sir Oharles) Fello,vs was a very con- 
siderable man,-perhaps the Inost distinguished archæo- 
logical explorer and discoverer of this century. He was 
born at Nottingham in 1799, and thus ,vas senior by 
fourteen years to Burgon, -a seniority which character- 
ized ahnost all the early friends of the subject of this 
Biography. Not only his love of archæo]ogical research, 
but his great artistic aptitudes and his extraordinary 
genius for dra"ving, were links uniting hÍ1n to Burgon, 
,vho was sÍInilarly endowed. He it ,vas who discovered 
(in 1827) the present route to the summit of l\Iont 
Blanc, ,vhich superseded the route previously taken 
by travellers, and ,vho in his first expedition to Asia 
l\linor discovered the ruins of Xanthus, the ancient 
capital of Lycia, and in his second thirteen other an- 
cient cities. These Asiatic discoveries are recorded in 
a volume of some 500 pages published by 1\11'. :\Iurray 
in 1852, entitled 'Tra
'el8 a71d Researches Ùt .Asia 111inor, 
more pal"t icularl!! in the Pl'oz.hzee of Lycia,' -a work 
which will be found as interesting to the general reader 
as it is to connoisseurs in Archæology. In reading 
over the letters addressed by Burgon to this gentleman, 
VOL. I. D 



34 


LIFE OF DEAJ..V BURGO}.,T. 


we are struck by the CirCUlTIstance that, although 
Ir. 
Fello\vs had so lnuch the advantage of him Loth in 
age, and in regard of a recognised position alTIOng the 
literary and scientific circles of London, their fan1iliarity 
seenlS to ha ye been as unrestrained as if the t\\TO had 
been 
tarting in life together. Burgon thinks that he 
nlay talk any nonsense to Fello\vs, and yonts upon hiIn 
the Dl0st atrociously bad puns 
 nor is there any of that 
self-restraint, and d
sire to \vrite ,,,hat is \yorth reading, 
which characterizes his letters (for exalTIple) to ::\11'. 
Ða\vson Turner, to )11'. Hunter, ana to 
lr. Tytler. 
Indeed a vein of punning and poetizing runs through 
all his letters to this early friend, to \vhom he was 
evidently, despite one or t\yO occasional IniRunderstand- 
ings (\vhich only proved the truth of the old adage. "The 
resenbnents of lovers are the rene\vals of love "), lnost 
deeply and, one 111ay :-;ay, sentimentally attached. 
Ir. 
Fel1o\vs had given him a ring containing a fragnlent 
of granite taken froln the surrnnit of l\Iont Blanc: and 
of course Burgon bursts into rhynlc forth,vith. Here is 
his effusion :- 


I. 
., l\[y ring! though I prize thee (and ahnost divine 
Is the charm Friendship lendb to that circlet of 
thine ), 
'Vhen I think of thy dwcHing on Earth'::; highest 
hill, 
There'8 a lustre comes o'er thee that'8 holier still! 


2. 
F or the pu1'e
t of sno\v, and the freshest of dew, 
Unseen, sinking on thee, have hallo\ved thee too; 
And h ow oft, ere it gladdened the valleys below, 
Has the breeze cooled its wings on thy dwelling of 
snow! 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


35 


3. 
If the tale be a true one our fathers have told 5 
(And ,vho'd not believe them 
), that Ange]s of old 
Full oft from theil' world of enchantment have flown, 
To count the bright eyes that enliven our own, 


4. 
The peak, where this granite once grew, must have 
been 
The first trace of Earth they could ever have seen; 
And 'Yho-oh! ,vho kno"\vs, in their flight thro' the 
all', 
Ho,v often they've lingered to rest themselves there 
" 


1\11". Fello"\vs took a strong interest in ancient clocks 
and "Tatches, a curious collection of which was left by 
his ,vidow, Lady Fellows, to the British l\Iuseum; and 
we find from their correspondence that Burgon, out of 
the resources of his extensive reading (the pursuit of his 
evenings when the business of the counting-house was 
over), sent his friend several pertinent and helpful 
lnemoranda on that subject. It seelns that on one 
occasion 1\11". Fellows had pressed upon him the accept- 
ance of a great curiosity, "\vhich from his intense love for 
antiquities, and objects associated with great men, he 
,vould naturally have much desired to possess,-a watch 
"\vhich had belonged to Milton. But with his usual 
chivalrous delicacy of feeling, Burgon ,vould not deprive 
his friend of so great a treasure.-It lnay be added that 
on religious subjects the friends entertained different 
opinions, of a sufficiently serious character; but these 
differences do not seeln on either side, certainly not on 

Ir. Burgon's, to have created any coolness, or to have 
diminished their intimacy and the interest which they 


5 An allusion to Gen. vi. 2; "The be the Angels) "saw the daughters 
sons of God" (by many supposed to . of men that they were fair," &c. 
D2 



3 6 


LIFE OF DEAN BURGON. 


felt in one another. Both parties candidly avo,ved their 
convictions, and maintained them argul11entatively, and 
there the matter ,,,as allo,ved to drop,-there ,vas no 
breach of Inutual confidence or esteem. Burgon's tone 
on the subject Inay be gathered frOllI a single passage of 
a letter to )11'. Fello
vs ,,
hich bears date July 2 I, ] 833. 
,. A'S reo-ards what vou have stated abou t reli o'ion I 
b J 0 , 
have only to Ray ,vhat I have often said before, and 
,vhat I shall often say again. I believe the .
iJlc(,J'il!l, and 
'JlOt the nat If J'e, of our peculiar modes of regarding the 
Deity, ,yill be one day called in question. I believe, in 
spite of all that St. Athanasius has ,vritten on the 
subject. that the Turk, ,vho in a broiling sun thrice a 
day prostrates himself on the soil, and, though there is 
not a soul ,vho behollls hill1, offers in that position his 
adoration to his God, has a much better chance of going 
to Heaven than the Christian, ,vho is as regular in his 
weekly round of crilne at3 he is in his appearance on 
Sunday 
lornings at Church. Such is my creed 
 and. if 
it "yere not, you 111UY very easily buag-ine that I should 
weary you day and night ,,
ith intreaties to think as I 
think, and to see as I see. ....... 
"The 'v onder is KOT that certain divine points f\hould 
be incomprehensible: hut the ,yonder is that .finite 
reason should be able to comprehend .
o man!! of the 
designs of IJljiJlÏl!l. 'Ye believe sundry luatters in every 
day life, though we cannot eXjJlaiu them ;-' So let it be 
\vith Cæsar.") 
Quite in harn10ny with this last thought are the fine 
lines ,yhich he sends to 
'lr. Fello"Ts in the letter, in 
,vhich he announces to hÎln his having ,von Lord 
Iayor 
Copeland's prize for the best .. Essay on the Life and 
Character of Sir Tholnas Greshaln." It ,vill be adu1itted 
that the image, by which he illustrates the sentiment 
that in t,he future state ,ve, "",hose kllo,vledge here has 
been so partial, shall "kno"\Y even as \ye are kno,vn," is 
graceful and beautiful:- 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


37 


&: Cold, prone to err, incredu]ous, and slow, 

lan kno,,,s alas! ho,,, little here 1)elow, 
Tn vain atten1pts, ,vith vision so confined, 
To scan the ,yorks of the AlnlÌghty 1\Iind, 
Or of the little, ,vhich 'tis his to scan, 
To cOlnprehend the cOlnplicated plan. 
\ et ,vill the clay arrive-no distant day- 
"\Yhen, like thin mists before the morning's ray, 
One glance fron1 the On1nipot.ent shall roll 
Error, and doubt, and darkness from his soul. 
The mind, which, destined for a higher sphere, 
Toiled darkly on through gloom and sorrow here, 
\Vill wake in ,visdoln, and at once expand 
In the mild cliInate of 'that better land' ! 
So fared the lily, "rhich I saw lift up 
Above the Ouse its alabaster cup; 
Fair as it seemed, while yet beneath the wave, 
No sign ,vhate'er of loveliness it gave; 
But when at last it rose above the stream, 
Like one that ,,"'akens from a gloomy dream 
It opened its bright eye, and far and wide 
Burst into beauty o'er the azure tide." 
"Y ou understand of course that the ""rater-lily yields 
no blossom tin it emerges from the waters. 
" It is past I o'clock. Good night, dear F. 
"J. W. B." 


One more of his letters to 1\11'. Fellows, which reveal
 
much of his moral and intellectual character at this early 
date, will be presented to the reader at the end of the 
Chapter. 
\Ve pass on now to the date of his earliest publication, A. D. 18. 1 3. 
] H33, when he had reached the age of twenty. This, as Æt.20. 
has been said, was a translation 6, which was published in 


6 The Title Page of this work is 
in full, "l\Iémoire sur les Vases 
Panathénaïques, adressé, en forme 
de lettre, à M. ,Yo R. Hamilton, 


par Ie Chev r . P. O. Bröndsted, et. 
traduit de l'Anglais par J. "V. 
Burgon. Avec six plancheEl." 
[Here follows a representation of 



"'8 

 


LIFE OF DEAN BURGON. 


Paris, of Chevalier Bröndsted's monograph on Panathe- 
naÏc Vases. The discovery by his father in 18 13 of the 
Panathenaïc Amphora, the inscription on which had 
given rise to a question, ,vhich Bröndsted in this 
monograph settles, naturally had. great interest for him; 
(" comme la découverte du premier vase panathénaïque," 
he says in the "avant-propos" of his translation, "fut 
faite par mon père à Athènes, il est naturel que j "aie dû 
sentir un intérêt particulier et, pour ainsi dire, personnel, 
pour tout ce qui concerne l'explication de ces monuments 
reluarquables"), and he seeIllS to have thought that it 
would be useful to present in a language" plus répandue 
sur Ie continent" an essay ,vhich he characterises as 
,. rempli d'érudition et de recherches profondes." -No 
more need be said of this earliest publication of J. W. 
Burgon's than that it shows not only his deep interest, 
,vhich, as ,ve have already said, ,vas hereditary with him, 
in antiquarian research, but also a mastery over the 
French language attained at an early age, which enabled 
him to speak and ,vrite it like a native. 
The memorandum made by him on the year of his 
cOIning of age [1834] has been given above [see p. 19]. 


A.D. 1834. 
Æt. 21. 


the obverse and reverse of an old 
silver didr::l.chm in 1\Ir. Thomas 
Burgon's collection, which Bröncl- 
sted determined to be not Aeginetan 
(as he had at first thought) but 
Athenian, and to have been struck 
with some reference to the Pana- 
thenaïc festivals, the vase on the 
obverse of the coin being precisely 
similar in form and proportion 
to all the Panathenaïc amphorae 
hitherto discovered]. t. Paris, Li- 
brairie de Firmin Didot Frèrfs, 
Rue Jacob, No. 24, 18 33." 
The Title Page of the original 
work of Bröudsted is :- 


"On Panathenaïc Vases, and on 
the HoJy Oil contained in them; 
with particular reference to some 
Vases of that description now in 
London: Letter addres!':ed to \V. 
R. Hamilton, Esq., by Chev r . P. O. 
Bröndsted. From the Transactions 
of the Royal Society of Literature, 
Vol. II. Part I. L('ndon: A. J. 
Yalpy, M.A., Printer to the Society, 
1832." Facing the Title Page is a 
fine engraving of )Ir. Thomas 
Burgon (in the fifty-first year of his 
age) as the discoverer of the first 
Panathenaïc Vase. 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


39 


In the early part of the year 1835 we find him ad- A.D. 18 35. 

 I . I h S th . Æt. 22. 
dressing the 10 lowIng etter to t e poet, ou ey, In 
view of a new edition by Southey of Cowper's works, 
which had been announced. It is to be regretted that 
Southey's answer is not now to be found among Burgon's 
papers, though the envelope is forthcoming which con- 
tained it, and on which is written, "From the poet 
Southey-in acknowledgement of an anecdote of Cowper, 
comnlunicated to him by me. J. Vl. B., 
Iarch 9, 18 35." 
" I I Brunswick Square, London, 14 Feb., 1835. 
" Sir,-In looking over the list of forthcoming publi- 
cations, I see with much satisfaction that a new edition 
is pron1Ïsed us of the ,yorks of that beautiful poet and 
excellent Inan, Co\vper.- What lTIakes this intelligence 
yet more agreeable is the promise that the present volume 
will be edited by yourself, and accompanied by a life of 
the poet. from your own gifted pen. 
" On this occasion, though a perfect stranger, I take the 
liberty (and I hope it is an excusable one) to communi- 
cate to you a little anecdote respecting Co,vper, which 
is not perhaps so trivial as to be altogether undeserving 
of the notice of a Biographer. . . . A friend of mine, who 
lives ,vithin a few miles of "Teston, and whose father 
,vas well acquainted with Cowper, tells me that in the 
beginning of 1833, having occasion to visit Weston, he 
went over Cowper's house, -to see it Ùz statu quo for the 
last time, as a farlner, who had j-ust taken possession of 
the place, was in the act of painting and ,vhite\vashing 
the rooms to render them habitable.-In the course of 
his survey (and .you may.imagine it was rather a curious 
one) Iny friend tells me that behind one of the shutters 
in an upper room, he found the following lines written 
in pencil, which he immediately recognised as being in 
the hand-writing of Cowper- 
'Farewell, dear scenes for ever closed to me! 
Oh! for what sorro,v must I no,v exchange you. 
July 28, 1795.' 



40 


LIFE OF DEA.}.,T BURGON. 


"What gives interest to these verses is the CirCUlll- 
stance of the date, which, I believe, i:s the very day that 
Cowper left 'Yeston for Norfolk. . . . I have preserved 
this anecJote; for it seen1S to Ine characterir.tic of the 
man.-He has he en contelnplating the accustomed pros- 
pect from the ,vindo,v, perhaps for the last tilne, and he 
unburthened his ev
r melancholy ill-boding heart by 
writing a verse behind the shutter! I long to read your 
censure 7 of Co,yper.-In the Ineantilne I aln, Sir, ,vith 
much respect and admiration, .. 
",.... our obedient servant, 
"J. ,Yo B." 


Thi8 :rear (I R35) ,vas D1arked by his becoming ac- 
quainted with Patrick Fraser Tytler, of ,vholl he ,vas 
to puh1ish a )Iemoir at the end of I H5H, nearly a quarter 
of a century later. In that melnoir [po 239-, ed. 2] he 
says :- 


,
 ,yo e " (Tytler and himself). "first 111et at :\lr. Rogers', 
in St. Jalnes' Place; but did not hecolne acq
ainted 
until I met hiln (19th Decelnber, J H35,) at the Chev. 
Bröndsted's, a learned Danish antiquary, and aCCOln- 
plished traveller, who ,vas lodging at Pal1iano's in 
Leicester Square. The party at Bröndsted's being small, 
and my o,vn youthful pursuits being of a kindred nature 
to 1\11'. Tytler's. I remen1ber regarding him as a lawful 
prize, and lnaking the n10st of the opportunity to di,scover 
froln him something about the nature and extent of the 


T The word cprtainly seems to be 
" censure," which is generally used 
of an 'ltnfavourable judgment. Oc- 
casionally however 
like its Latin 
original censltra) it means merely 
a judgment or opinion, whether 
favourable or unf
votlrable. J. W. 
B.'s mind was thoroughly imQued 
with Shakspere's phraseology. And 
in Poloniu::;'s often-quoted advice to 



 
 
'. 


1.-_. 


Laertes (Hamlet I. 3. 69) we find 
"Take each man's censure, but 
reserve thy judgment." 
And again in Richard III (ii. 2, 
144) ; 
"l\Iadam,-and you my mother, 
-will you go 
To give your censures in this 
weighty business?" 



 e' . .1. 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


4 1 


:àI8. stores in our great national repositories. Enthu- 
siastic he certainly found me, and observant. if not 
learned, in such nlatters. The first note I ever received 
from hÏ1n, (February, 1836,) reminds me that I called 
his attention to the curious COllunon-place Book of Lord 
Burghley's alnong the Lansdo,vne 1\188.. ,vhich contained 
several entries of interest to himself. His affability. and 
the patience ,vith "\vhich, though his years fully dou LIed 
lnine, he surrendered hÍ1nself for the whole evening to so 
unprofitable a conversationist, I ,yell remelnber; as well 
as the gratification I experienced at forming the ac- 
quaintance of one "hose tastes and ,vhose lnanners were 
so entirely congeniaL" 


It was not until three years later (I H38) that the 
acquaintance thus forlned ,vith Tytler ripened into close 
friendship. 


" Circumstances " (doll btless, his researches for mate- 
rials for the 'Life and Times of Gre...ha,))l ') "led me in 
the beginning of the year 1838 to apply for permission 
to inspect the DOlnestic and Flemish Correspond- 
ence of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, preserved in the 
State Paper Office. 1\11'. Tytler ,vas then the only person 
reading there; and it is needless to Ray that the hond of 
a common study, constantly pursued in the same room, 
drew us very much together. \Yhen the Office closed, 
we discussed as we walked home the questions on ,vhich 
,ve had been respectively engaged, and the papers "yhich 
had pas
ed under our eyes. Not unfrequently, at the 
Office, one stole across to the desk of the other, docu- 
ment in hand: and In any an interesting conversation 
ensued, by which it is needless to say that I ,vas very 
much the gainer. Though but a novice in such studies. 
I ,vas passionately fond of them; and, I suppose, made 
up some,vhat in enthusiasln and application for ,vhat I 
wanted in knowledge. . . . He treated me like a younger 
brother; invited lue often to his house, and admitted lne 
freely to his confidence. I grew very fond of him indeed, 
and it made me happy to fil!d that he was equally fond 


LIBRARY ST. 


. Y'S COtLEGI 



4 2 


LIFE OF DEA.A' BURGO}{. 


of me" [Burgon's ")Ielnoir of P. F. Tytler, London: 
18S9,Pp. 26 3,4]. 
There can be no doubt that Tytler exerted a consider- 
able influence upon Burgon, though it was one which 
Burgon wa
 already thoroughly predisposed to receive. 
There ,Yas a "ronderful homogeneousness both of intel- 
lectual and moral tastes bet,veen the two loen. Tytler 
,vas a great adept at comic sketches, ,vitness his si
ter's 
descliption of him, as given in Burgon's 
[emoir, 
p. 297,-,vhich description, "\\rord for ,vord, might have 
been "rritten for Burgon, although in point of fact it was 
written for Tytler. One of his favourite amusements 
"
as to dra 'v comic 
ketches for young children, ,vith 
,yhich he illustrated his letters to them, and of ,vhich 
some specilnens ,viII be given at a later period of this 
,vork.-And deep would be Burgon's sympathy ,vith 
this beautiful eulogy upon children, ,vhich he has quoted 
from Tytler [
Iemoir, pp. 13 2 , 133]:- 
"In recalling the many days of happiness ,yhich I 
have enjoyed, I am not sure but that (next to my own 
domestic circle) the memory rests "rith the greatest 
pleasure on the hours I have spent alnongst children. 
Amongst men and women, we are perpetually meeting 
,vith all that overcasts the original excellence of our 
nature; ,vith an1bition, interest, pride, vanity; ,vith the 
jarring of contending interests and opinions, the false 
assumption of kno""rledge, the doublings of affectation, 
the tediousness of egotisln, or the repinings of disappoint- 
ment. All these are perpetually elbowing us in our 
intercourse 1vith men. "Tith children, we see Nature 
in its real colours, and happiness unsullied as yet by an 
acquaintance ,vith the world. Their little life is like 
the fountain ,vhich springs pure and sparkling into the 
light, and reflects for a while the sunshine and loveliness 
of Heaven on its bosom. Their absence of all affecta- 
tion, their ignorance of the arts of the ,vorld, their free 



THE EARLY LIFE. 


43 


expression of opinion, their ingenuous confidence, the 
beautiful aptitude with ,vhich their minds instantly 
em brace the doctrine of an over-ruling Providence, and 
the exquisite simplicity and confidence of their addresses 
to the Father in Heaven; that unforced cheerfulness, 
that' sunshine of the breast,' ,vhich is only clouded by 
, the tear forgot as soon as shed' ;-all this is to be found 
in the character of children, and of children only:' 
In introducing these sentiments of his friend's, Burgon 
tel]s us that he sympathizes with them entirely. Those 
who kne,v him would not need to be told so. Every 
,vord might have been written by himself. 
"J. \V. B.'s tenderly kind feeling for us as children," 
writes his surviving sister, many years younger than him- 
belf, ",vill always dwell in my heart. l\lany a time, ,vhen 
we were little, and ill in bed, he ","ould, though pressed 
for time, before accompanying our father to the City, 
hastil y dra 'v several pictures for us to paint, and bring 
them up to us, with a plate of colours rubbed from his 
own paint-box, to afford us amusement through the day. 
Then, ,vith Inany kisses and kind vlords, he would 
promise to come up and see us immediately he returned 
home,-a promise he ?ie/cel' failed to keep." 


The record of the .year 1835 must not pass over '
lith- 
out some notice of his visit to Shakspere's birth-place, 
which is thus briefly recorded in his diary:- 
"1835, Oct. 27, Tuesday. Drew Shakspeare's House- 
went over it-Inade impressions of his tombstone, &c. . . . 
I slept in Shakspeare's House-clrew and rhymed. (!<'it's" 
-his youngest sister's-" 7th Birthday.") 
He was on a ten days
 tour ,vith one of his sisters, in the 
course of which they saw vVoodstock, Blenheim, Charle- 
cote, Hampton Lucy, and Stratford-on-A von. The night 
of the 27th was spent by hi ill on an oaken settle in the 
room shown as the birth-place of Shakspere, with the 



44 


LIFE UF DbA
Y BURUUiY. 


expectation, as many years after he told the Rev. John 
Pickford, that the poetic afflatus ,youId visit him; but 
h
 added that he a"oke in the grey da"
n, cold and 
uncomfortable, and experienced no elevating sensation 
,vhatcver. 1\11'. Pickford, ,vho "
as present in the family 
circle at Turvey, ,vhen Dean Burgon (as he then ,vas) 
narrated this disappointing experience, and ,vho is "ell 
versed (if any Inan ever was) in old traditions and the 
habits of thought of bygone generations, ,vrites in 
reference to this incident as follo,,
s :- 
" Perhaps J. 'Y. 13., ,vhen he spent the night on the 
oak-settle at Stratford-on-A von, Inight have been think- 
ing of ,,
hat Persius says in his exordium:- 
'
ec in bicipiti somniâsse Parnasso 

Ien1Ïni, ut repente sic poëta prodirem.' 
(
or on Parnassus' t\vo-peaked height 
Remember I t' have dreamed at night, 
And then woke up in t,vilight gray, 
A poet at the spring of day.) 
"I fancy this idea is very universal. The 'Ve18h 
proverb says that 'the man who sleeps on Sno,vdon 
,viII a wake a poet.' \Yhen Dean Burgon told me of 
it, I quoted (in reference to the rawness of the early 
October morning, "rhich had disenchanted hiln) the lines 
of Hudibras:- 
'\Vhen, like a lobster boiled, the morn 
From black to red begins to turn.'" 


It will be seen that in the follo,ving year (1836) he 
did experience" a rapture," in rather more favourable 
physical surroundings, over 11IiltoJl'<-f? house. 
It is possible that some may regard the incident of 
passing the night on the oak -settle as a fantastic freak, 
a piece of levity inconsistent with seriousness of character. 
But the truth is that, from a very early age, the study to