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Tis ovv &pa f) xctpts, ^ Trdvrcas rj rov aytov Tlvevfiaros x vffls V * v TCUS 
KapSiais r)fjL(2v yivop.tvr)) /caret r^jv rov Hav\ov <^<avi]v . . . avrovpybv &pa 
rb Ili/eOyna ev "TjfJuv, dA.rj0ws oeyid^ov nal tvovv -^/ias eavrip Stct rrjs irpbs 
adrb ffvvcupelas, Geias re Qvfffas diror\ovv KOIVWVOVS. 

S. CYRIL. ALEX. Thesaur. de Trin. Assert, xxxiv. 

Si dicatur : In sanctam Ecclesiam Catholicam, hoc est intelligendum aecundum 
quod fides nostra refertur ad Spiritum Sanctum, qui sanctificat Ecclesiam, ut sit 
sensus : Credo in Spiritum Sanctum sanctificantem Ecclesiam. 

S. THOM. Sum. Theol. 2 da 2<^ Quces. 1. Art. 9. ad 5. 









To whom can I more fittingly dedi- 
cate the following pages than to you, with whom 
I have spent eight of the happiest years of my 
life ? If the book has no worth in itself, at 
least it will express my affection. It was written 
last year under the quiet roof of S. Mary of the 
Angels, at a time when I had no thought of 
being parted from you ; if, indeed, I may call 
that a parting which, though it suspends our 


daily and hourly meeting in community, unites 
us doubly in the bonds of mutual confidence 
and service. Nevertheless, though written in 
other days, I see no reason why it should not 
be published now. 

Such, as it may be, you will there find the 

result of the days which are now, I fear, not 
to return. S. Augustine says, ' Otiuni sanctum 
qussrit charitas veritatis. Negotium justurn sus- 
cipit necessitas charitatis. Quam sarcinam si 
nullus imponit, percipiendas atque intuendas va- 
candum est veritati.' * I cannot say that our 
life together had much leisure in it, but it had 
times of quiet and many helps, and facilities of 
theological reading and calm thought, which I 
can hardly hope for again. The ' Sarcina ne- 
gotii ' has been laid upon me, and I must bear 
my burden as I may. 

You will, I hope, see in these pages nothing 
contrary to the spirit of our glorious Father and 

* S. Aug. De Civit. Dei, lib. xix. c. 19. torn. vii. p. 563. 


Patron, S. Charles, who has always seemed to 
me to represent in an especial way, not so much 
any particular doctrine of the Faith, as the Di- 
vine authority of the Church, expressed by its 
Councils, its Pontiffs, and its continuous livihg 
and infallible voice. And this appears to me the 
truth which the great religious confusions of the 
last three hundred years have completely effaced 
from the intelligence of the greater part of our 
countrymen. S. Charles would seem, therefore, 
to have a special mission to England and to the 
nineteenth century. 

I hope, too, that in these pages will be found 
nothing inconsistent with the injunctions of our 
Eule, which binds us ' ad studium culturamque 
disciplinarum Theologicarum quas pro consilio 
Sancti Caroli ad normarn Tridentini Concilii ex- 
actse maxime sint ; eoque pertineant ut Komanse 
Sedis auctoritas splendescat.'* If we are to 'serve 
our generation by the will of God,' it must be 
by the boldest and clearest enunciation of the 

* Instit. Oblatorum S. Caroli, &c., p. 11. 


great principles of Divine certainty in matters of 
Faith, and by pointing out the relations of Faith 
to human knowledge, scientific and moral. 

On this will depend the purity of Catholic 
education; and the reconciliation of ' Faith with 
science and dogma with free-thought,' pro- 
blems insoluble to all who reject the infallibility 
of the Church, because by that rejection they de- 
stroy one of the terms of the question. On this 
also will depend many practical consequences of 
vital moment at this time : such as the relations 
of the Church and of the Faith to the political 
and social changes of this age: the limits of 
true and of false liberty of the intellect and the 
will, in individuals and in societies of men, for 
which the Sovereign Pontiff has lately given to 
us, in the Encyclical of last year, an outline and 
guidance worthy of the Supreme Teacher of the 
faithful. But it is not my object to anticipate 
the matter of this book, nor to do more than 
to point to subjects of which, I trust, if God so 
will, I may have time to speak hereafter. 


I remember in one of the last nights when I 
was watching by the dying-bed of our dear and 
lamented Cardinal, that these thoughts, on which 
I had heard him so often speak with the abun- 
dance and vigour of his great mind, came with 
a special vividness before me, and I thanked 
God from my heart for having laid upon us this 
work through the wisdom of our great Pastor 
and Friend who was so soon to be taken from 
us. To him we owe the direction which every 
year more luminously shows to be the only true 
remedy, both intellectually and spiritually, for 
the evils of our time and country. I little 
thought at that hour that I should date these 
words to you from under the same roof, where 
everything speaks to me, all the day long, of his 
memory and of our loss. 

Persevere, then, Eeverend and dear Fathers, 
in the path into which he led us. The English 
people are fair and truthful. They are listening 
for a voice to guide them in the midst of their 
contradictory teachers. The errors of the last 


three hundred years are passing fast away. 
Preach the Holy Catholic and Eoman Faith in 
all its truth, and in all its fulness. Speak, as none 
other can, with the authority of God and His in- 
fallible Church. Preach as the Apostles preached, 
and, as the Eule enjoins, with a 'sancta et virilis 
simplicitas,' with a holy and manly simplicity. 
Contend with men, as a loved and honoured 
friend has said of the Apostles, * They argued 
not, but preached ; and conscience did the rest/ 
If what I here offer you may help you, use it. If 
it come short, follow out the same studies and 
fill up what I have left imperfect. 

If I had been able, as I thought, to go to 
Eome before publishing these pages, I should 
have submitted them to examination before I 
made them public. As it is, I can only com- 
mend them to the censure of those who can 
correct me if I shall have erred, and above 
all to the unerring judgment of the Holy See ; 
taking S. Bernard's words as my own : ' Quae 
autem dixi, absque prajudicio sane dicta sint 


sanius sapientis. Eomange prassertirn Ecclesias 
auctoritati atque examini totum hoc, sicut et 
castera quas ejusmodi sunt, universa refero : ipsius 
si quid aliter sapio, paratus judicio emendare.'* 

My prayers, day by day, are offered up for 
you at the altar that every grace may prosper 
you and the Congregation of S. Charles. 

Believe me, Eeverend and dear Fathers, 

Always your very affectionate Servant 
in Jesus Christ, 

* H. E. M. 

8 YORK PLACE : July 15, 1865. 

* Epist. ad Canon. Lugdun., torn. i. p. 76. 


(pp. 1-34.) 

Object and method of the work. A Divine Teacher always present. 
Reason either a disciple or a critic. Rationalism true and false. In 
the former sense it signifies the use of the reason in testing the 
evidence of a revelation alleged to be divine, or in perceiving the har- 
mony of the Divine Revelation with the human reason. In the latter 
sense defined to be an abnormal and illegitimate use of the reason. 
Divided into perfect and imperfect, or fully-developed and incipient. 
1. The former assumes reason to be the fountain of all knowledge 
relating to God and to the soul, and therefore the source, measure, 
and limit of what is credible in the theology of natural religion, to 
the exclusion of all supernatural revelation. 2. The latter assumes 
reason to be the supreme test or judge of the intrinsic credibility of 
revelation admitted in the main to be supernatural. Both kinds of 
Rationalism are one in principle : both lower the reason. Incipient 
Rationalism in the Anglican Church. The Church teaches that 
Faith is an infused grace which elevates and perfects the reason. 
Object of the present work to show : 1. That to believe in Revelation 
is the highest act of the human reason. 2. That to believe in Reve- 
lation, whole and perfect, is the perfection of the reason. 3. That 
to submit to the Voice of the Holy Spirit in the Church is the 
absolute condition to attain a perfect knowledge of Revelation. 
4. That the Divine Witness of the Holy Spirit in the Church antici- 
pates the criticism of the human reason, and refuses to be subject to 
it. The four bases or motives of Faith are : 1. That it is a violation 
of reason not to believe in the existence of God. 2. That it is a 
violation of our moral sense not to believe that God has made Him- 


self known to man. 3. That the Revelation He has given is 
Christianity. 4. That Christianity is Catholicism. Each of these 
four truths certain by its own proper evidence, and each also con- 
firmatory of the other. 

Christianity the summing up and final expression in the Person of 
JESUS CHRIST, of all the truths of the natural and supernatural order 
in Judaism and Paganism. Other religions fragmentary and local. 
Belief in the Holy Trinity leads to believing in Catholicism. 

Three Divine Persons : three Divine offices the Father and 
Creation ; the Son and Redemption ; the Holy Ghost and the Church. 
sending, advent, and office of the Holy Ghost through the Incarnate 
Son, and after the day of Pentecost. The Eternal Procession of the 
Holy Ghost completes the mystery of the Holy Trinity ad intra ; 
the Temporal Mission of the Holy Ghost completes the revelation of 
the Holy Trinity ad extra. 

Testimony of S. AUGUSTINE. The Author's retractation of three 
errors : 1. Of false rule of Faith. 2. Of false theory of unity. 3. Of 
false view of the position of the Roman Pontiff Unity of the Church 
indivisible and singular. Passing away of the so-called reformation. 


(pp. 3586.) 

In the Baptismal Creed the article on the Church is united to the 
article on the Holy Ghost, to signify that the union between the Holy 
Ghost and the Church is divinely constituted, indissoluble and eternal. 
By this union the Church is immutable in its knowledge, discern- 
ment, and enunciation of the truth. 1. Proved from HOLY SCRIPTURE, 
8. John xiv. xvi., Eph. iv., Rom. xii., 1 Cor. xii. 2. Proved by pas- 
sages from the Fathers, S. IREN^EUS, TERTULLIAN, S. AUGUSTINE, S. 
THE GREAT. Two conclusions follow : 1. The present dispensation 
that of the Holy Spirit. 2. It differs from His presence and office 
before the advent of JESUS CHRIST in many gifts, graces and mani- 
festations, and principally in five ways : 


I. The Holy Ghost came before into the world by His universal 
operations in all mankind, but now He comes through the Incarnate 
Son by a special and personal presence. Proved from H. SCRIPTUBE, 

II. Before the day of Pentecost the Mystical Body of Christ was 
not complete : the Holy Ghost came to perfect its creation and organi- 
zation. The Constitution of the Body was deferred until the Head 
was glorified. 1. Christ, as Head of the Church, is the fountain of 
all sanctity to His mystical Body. Col. i. 19, Eph. i. 22. S. GREGORY 
THE GREAT and S. AUGUSTINE. 2. The sanctification of the Church 
is effected by the gift of the Holy Ghost. Eph. ii. 22, Rom. v. 5, 
1 Cor. iii. 16. S. ATHANASIUS and S. CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA. 3. The 
Holy Ghost dwells personally and substantially in the mystical Body, 
which is the incorporation of those who are sanctified. 4. The 
members of the mystical Body who are sanctified, partake not only 
of the created graces, but of a substantial union with the Holy 
Ghost. 5. The union of the Holy Ghost with the mystical Body, 
though analogous to the hypostatic union, is not hypostatic ; foras- 
much as the human personality of the members of Christ still 
subsists in this substantial union. References to PETAVIUS and 


III. The Holy Ghost came at Pentecost to constitute a union between 
Himself and the mystical Body that would be absolute and indis- 
soluble. Before the Incarnation He wrought in the souls of men, 
one by one. His presence, therefore, was conditional, depending on 
the human will, as it is now in individuals as such ; but in the 
Church His presence depends on the Divine will alone and is there- 
fore perpetual. 1. The union of the Holy Ghost with the Head of 
the Church, both as God and as Man, is indissoluble. 2. There will 
always be a mystical Body for that Divine Head, although indi- 
viduals may fall from it. Three divine and eternal unions, (1.) Of 
the Head with the members, (2.) Of the members with each other, 
(3.) Of the Holy Ghost with the Body, constitute the complete 
organization of the Church. Its endowments are derived from the 
Divine Person of its Head, and the Divine Person who is its Life. 
It receives a communication of the perfections of the Holy Ghost. 
It is imperishable, because He is God ; indivisibly one, because He 



is numerically one ; holy, because He is the fountain of holiness ; 
infallible, because He is the Truth. Its members not only called or 
elected, but aggregated or called into one. The Church, therefore, is 
a mystical person, not on probation, but the instrument of probation 
to others. 

IV. Before the Incarnation the Holy Ghost wrought invisibly : now 
by his Temporal Mission He has manifested His presence and His 
operations by the Visible Church of Jesus Christ. 1. The Church is 
the evidence of the presence of the Holy Ghost among men, the 
visible incorporation of His presence: (1.) By its supernatural and 
world- wide unity. S. AUGUSTINE quoted. (2.) By its imperishable- 
ness in the midst of the dissolving works of man. (3.) By its 
immutability in doctrine of faith and morals. 2. The Church is the 
instrument of the power of the Holy Ghost: (1.) By the perpetuity 
and diffusion of the light of the Incarnation. (2.) By the perpetuity 
of sanctifying grace by means of the Seven Sacraments. 3. It mani- 
fests for various ends and at various times His miraculous power. 

4. It is the organ of His voice. 

General Summary. From the indissoluble union of the Holy 
Ghost flow : 1. The three properties of UNITY, VISIBLENESS and 
PERPETUITY; 2. The three endowments, namely; INDEFECTIBILITY 
in life and duration, INFALLIBILITY in teaching, and AUTHORITY in 
governing ; 3. The four notes, namely, UNITY, SANCTITY, CATHOLICITY, 

V. Before the Incarnation the Holy Ghost taught and sanctified 
individuals, but with an intermitted exercise of His visitations ; now 
He teaches and sanctifies the Body of the Church permanently. 

Three possibly conceivable Kules of Faith ; 1. A living Judge and 
Teacher, or the Divine Mind declaring itself through an organ of its 
own creation. 2. The Scriptures interpreted by the reason of indi- 
viduals. 3. Scripture and Antiquity. The two last resolvable into 
one, namely, the human mind judging for itself upon the evidence 
and contents of revelation. Its refutation. False theory of a Church 
once undivided and infallible and afterwards divided and fallible. 

5. CYPRIAN and S. BEDE quoted. 

The office of the Holy Ghost as Illuminator consists in the follow- 
ing operations : 1. In the original revelation to the Apostles. 2. In 


the preservation of what was revealed. 3. In assisting the Church 
to conceive, with greater fulness, explicitness and clearness, the 
original truth in all its relations. 4. In denning that truth in 
words. 5. In the perpetual enunciation and propositions of the 
same immutable truth. De Locis Theologicis : (1.) Voice of the 
Living Church, (2.) The Holy Scriptures, (3.) Tradition, (4.) The 
decrees of General Councils, (5.) The definitions and decrees of 
Sovereign Pontiffs speaking ex cathedra, (6.) The unanimous voice 
of the Saints, (7.) The consent of Doctors, (8.) The voice of the 
Fathers, (9.) The authority of Philosophers, (10.) Human History, 
(11.) Natural Eeason. 



(pp. 87125.) 

Two ways of treating this relation : 1. In those who do not believe. 
2. In those who do believe. In the former case Eeason must, by 
necessity, ascertain, examine, judge, and estimate the evidence of 
the fact of a revelation, its motives of credibility and its nature. In 
the latter case it submits as a disciple to a Divine Teacher. S. 
THOMAS quoted to show the office of reason in regard to revelation ; 
1. Faith presupposes the operations of reason, on the motives of 
credibility for which we believe. 2. Faith is rendered intrinsically 
credible by reason. 3. Faith is illustrated by reason. 4. Faith is 
defended by reason against the sophisms of false philosophy. 

The relations of reason to revelation are principally five : 

I. Reason receives Revelation by intellectual apprehension. Analogy 
of the eye and light. Knowledge of God both in Nature and Reve- 
lation a gift or infusion to man, not a discovery by logic or research. 
Reference to VIVA. What was revealed by our Lord and the Holy 
Ghost inherited and sustained by the Church. 

II. Reason propagates the truths of Revelation. The Divine Com- 
mission to the Apostles. Faith came by hearing. 

a 2 


III. Reason defines the truths of Revelation divinely presented to 
it. The Creeds, General Councils, Definitions, and the science of 

IV. Season defends Revelation. 1. Negatively, by showing the 
nullity of arguments brought against it : 2. positively, by demon- 
strating its possibility, fitness, necessity, and reality. Sketch of the 
history of Theology. The ancient Apologies of the early Fathers. 
The Greek and Latin Fathers. S. JOHN OF DAMASCUS, De Orthodoxa 
Fide in the eighth century. LANFRANC and S. ANSELM in the 
eleventh. Cur Deus Homo. S. BERNARD and ABELARD. PETER 
TURA, S. THOMAS. Summa Theologica. The Dominican and Jesuit 
Commentators. The Council of TRENT. History of Dogma. 

V. Reason transmits Revelation by a scientific treatment and tra- 
dition. Theology though not a science proprie dicta, may be truly 
and correctly so described. The definition of Science in Scholastic 
Philosophy taken from ARISTOTLE. The sense in which Theology is 
a Science. Opinions of S. THOMAS, CAJETAN, VASQUEZ, and GREGORY 
OF VALENTIA. Fourteen General Conclusions stated as propositions. 



(pp. 126171.) 

Object of this chapter to trace an outline of the history of the 
Doctrine of INSPIRATION. 

I. In every century there have been objectors, gainsayers and un- 
believers, from Cerinthus, Marcion, and Faustus the Manichsean, to 
Luther, Spinoza, Paine, and modern rationalists. 

II. Doctrine of INSPIRATION in the Church of England. Eeferences 
to HOOKER, WHITBY, and Bishop BURNET. Various modern opinions. 
The Essays and Reviews. 

III. The Catholic Doctrine of INSPIRATION. Five points of faith. 


1. That the writings of the Prophets and Apostles are Holy Scripture. 

2. That God is the Author of the Sacred Books. 3. That the Sacred 
Books are so many in number and are such by name. 4. That these 
books in their integrity are to be held as sacred and canonical. 5. That 
the Latin version called the Vulgate is authentic. 

First period of simple faith, The Fathers both of the East and 
West extend the Inspiration of the Holy Ghost to the whole of 
Scripture, both to its substance and to its form. Proved from S. 

Second period of analysis as to the nature and limits of Inspira- 
tion. Two schools of opinion. 

1. Every particle and word of the Canonical books was written by 
the dictation of the Holy Spirit. TOSTATUS. ESTIUS. Faculties of 
Theologians generally. 

2. The whole matter of Holy Scripture was written by the assistance 
of the Holy Spirit, but not the whole form dictated by Him. BELLAR- 
MINE, the Jesuit Theologians, and the majority of recent writers 
on the subject. Opinions of Luther and Erasmus. Discussion caused 
by the propositions of Lessius and Hamel. P. Simon and Holden. 
Definition of Inspiration, Revelation, Suggestion, and Assistance. 

Inspiration includes : 1. The impulse to put in writing the mat- 
ter which God wills. 2. The suggestion of the matter to be written. 

3. The assistance which excludes liability to error. Theologia 
Wirceburgensis. Statement of supposed difficulties. Eeply to ob- 
jections gathered from S. JEROME. In what sense the Vulgate is 

Whensoever the text can be undoubtedly established, the supposition 
of error as to the contents of that text cannot be admitted. Where- 
soever the text may be uncertain, in those parts error may be present 
this would be an error of transcription or translation. 1. The 
Holy Scripture does not contain a revelation of the physical sciences. 
2. No system of chronology is laid down in the Sacred Books. 3. 
Historical narratives may appear incredible and yet be true. S. 
AUGUSTINE quoted. 





(pp. 172209.) 

Christianity neither derived from Scripture, nor dependent upon 
it. What the Incarnate Son was to the Scriptures of the Old Testa- 
ment, that the Holy Ghost, servatd proportione, is to the Scriptures 
of the New. England has hitherto preserved the belief that 
Christianity is a Divine Revelation, and that the Holy Scripture is 
an inspired Book. Fruits of the Reformation in other countries. 
In the Catholic Church the relations of the Holy Ghost to the 
interpretation of Scripture are : 

I. The Revelation of the Spirit of God was given, preached, and 
believed before the New Testament existed. S. IBEN^EUS quoted. 

II. This Revelation was also divinely recorded before the New 
Testament Scriptures were written. 1. Upon the minds of pastors 
and people. 2. In the Seven Sacraments. 3. In the visible worship 
of the Church. 4. In the early creeds. Table of the dates of the 
Books of the New Testament. 

III. The Science of God, incorporated in the Church, is the true 
key to the interpretation of Scripture. The unvarying witness of 
the Catholic Faith contrasted with the divers interpretations of 
Protestant sects. 

IV. The Church is the guardian both of the Faith and of the Scrip- 
tures. It received both from its Divine Head. It alone witnesses to 
both : 1. "With a human and historical testimony. 2. With a divine 
and supernatural testimony. 

V. The Church is not only the interpretation, but the interpreter of 
Holy Scripture. Refutation of the Protestant theory of private in- 
terpretation. How the Divine Scriptures become human. S. JEROME 
quoted. Scripture abused by heretics. S. AUGUSTINE and VINCENT 
OF LEBINS quoted. Anecdote of HENRY III. of England and S. 
Louis of France. Answer to two accusations brought against the 
Church; 1. That it supersedes to so great an extent the use of 


Scripture in the devotions of the people ; and, 2. That it enunciates 
its doctrines in an arbitrary and dogmatic way, regardless of the facts 
of Christian antiquity and history. In the Church alone the Scrip- 
tures retain their whole and perfect meaning. Examples given. The 
Church has a profound sense of their sacredness. Illustrations from 
the lives of S. PAULINUS, S. EDMUND, and S. CHARLES. 



(pp. 210248.) 

Christianity has been preserved pure. Analogy between the 
Church in Eome in the fourth century and in England in the pre- 
sent. Signs of the dissolution of the various forms of Protestantism. 
The real question between the Catholic Church and all Christian 
bodies separated from it not one of detail but of principle. Charge of 
corruption brought against Catholic doctrines. God alone can reform 
His Church. The ' Unction from the Holy One' always present to 
preserve the Faith. Proof from 1 S. JOHN ii. drawn out in full. 
As a consequence of this truth it follows : 

I. All the doctrines of the Church to this day are incorrupt. 

II. They are also incorruptible. 

III. They are also immutable. Change of growth different from 
that of decay. Sense in which the doctrines of the Church are said 
to grow; e.g. the dogmas of the Holy Trinity, of the Incarnation, 
of the Blessed Eucharist, and of the Immaculate Conception. In 
Protestantism the doctrines of Christianity have suffered the change 
of decay. 

IV. The doctrines of the Church are always primitive. The 
Church ever ancient and ever new. 

V. They are also transcendent because divine. In the super- 
natural order, Faith must come before understanding. S. AUGUSTINE 
quoted. Credo quia impoSsibile. The Holy Spirit is the Author and 


Guardian of the Tradition of Christian Truth. He diffuses the light 
by which it is known, and presides over the selection of the terms in 
which it is defined and enumerated. Objection against Dogmatism, 
The Theology of the Nineteenth Century should be moral and spiritual. 
Answer to objection. Analogy of philosophical truths. Dogmatic 
Theology consists in the scientific arrangement of the primary and 
secondary orders of Christian truth. A dogma is the intellectual 
conception and verbal expression of a divine truth. Consequently it 
cannot essentially change. Answer to objection that Dogmatic 
Theology is barren and lifeless. Theology divided into Dogmatic, 
Moral, Ascetical, and Mystical. Their mutual relations. Use made 
of Catholic sources by Protestant writers. Devotions of the Church 
founded on its doctrines : e.g. The Blessed Sacrament, The Sacred 
Heart, The Passion, etc. The Spiritual Exercises of S. IGNATIUS. 
Summary and Conclusion. 

(pp 249277.) 






BEFORE the reader proceeds to the following pages, 
I wish to detain him with a few introductory words. 
1. Some time ago my intention was to publish a 
volume of Sermons on Eeason and Kevelation as a 
sequel to those on Ecclesiastical Subjects. In the 
preface to that volume I expressed this purpose. But 
when I began to write I found it impossible to throw 
the matter into the form of sermons. I do not ima- 
gine that the following pages have any pretensions 
to the character of a treatise, or any merit beyond, 
as I hope, correctness and conformity to Catholic 
theology. But I have found it necessary to treat 



the subject in a less popular form than sermons 
would admit, and to introduce much matter which 
would be out of place if addressed to any such 
audience as our pastoral office has to do with. I 
was therefore compelled to write this volume in the 
form of a short treatise, and though I am fully con- 
scious of its insufficiency, nevertheless I let it go 
forth, hoping that it may help some who have not 
studied these vital questions of our times, and pro- 
voke others who have studied them to write some 
work worthier of the subject. 

Another departure from my first intention was 
also forced upon me. When I began to consider the 
nature and relations of Eeason and Bevelation, I 
found myself compelled to consider the Author and 
Giver of both,, and the relations in which He stands 
to them, and they to Him. This threw the whole 
subject into another form, and disposed the parts of 
it in another order. I found myself writing on the 
relations of the Divine Intelligence to the human ; 
but as these intelligent and vital powers are personal, 
I was led into that which seems to me, in the last 
analysis, to comprehend the whole question of Divine 
Faith, the temporal mission of the Holy Grhost, and 
the relations of the Spirit of Truth to the Church, to 
the human reason, to the Scriptures, and to the 


dogma of Faith. In ascending this stream of light, I 
found myself in the presence of its Fountain, and I 
have been unable, whether it be a fault or not, to con- 
template the subject in any other way. It seems to 
me as impossible to conceive of the relations of Reason 
and Eevelation without including the Person and 
action of the Spirit of Truth, as to conceive a circle 
without a centre from which its rays diverge. I do 
not deny that by intellectual abstraction we may do 
so, but it would be to mutilate the diagram and 
the truth together. 

2. Now my object, in the following pages, is 
to show that the reason of man has no choice but to 
be either the disciple or the critic of the revelation 
of Grod. The normal state of the reason is that of a 
disciple illuminated, elevated, guided, and unfolded 
to strength and perfection by the action of a Divine 
Teacher. The abnormal is that of a critic testing, 
measuring, limiting the matter of Divine revelation 
by his supposed discernment or intuition. The 
former is the true and Divine Rationalism ; the latter, 
the false and human Rationalism. 

Now as, in the following pages, the words rationalism 
and rationalistic occur, and always in an ill sense, it 
will be well to say here at the outset in what sense I 
use it, and why I always use it in a bad signification. 

B 2 


By Kationalism, then, I do not mean the use of the 
reason in testing the evidence of a revelation alleged 
to be divine. 

Again, by Eationalism I do not mean the perception 
of the harmony of the Divine revelation with the 
human reason. It is no part of reason to believe 
that which is contrary to reason, and it is not Eation- 
alism to reject it. As reason is a divine gift equally 
with revelation the one in nature, the other in 
grace discord between them is impossible, and har- 
mony an intrinsic necessity. To recognise this 
harmony is a normal and vital operation of the reason 
under the guidance of faith ; and the grace of faith 
elicits an eminent act of the reason, its highest and 
noblest exercise in the fullest expansion of its powers. 

By Eationalism I always intend an abnormal and 
illegitimate use of the reason, as I will briefly here 
explain. The best way to do so will be to give a 
short account of the introduction and use of the term. 

Professor Hahn, in his book, ' De Eationalismi, qui 
dicitur, vera indole, et qua cum Naturalismo con- 
tineatur ratione,' says, 'As to Rationalism, this 
word was used in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries by those who considered reason as the 
source and norm of faith. Amos Comenius seems 
first to have used this word in 1661, and it never 


had a good sense. In the eighteenth century it was 
applied to those who were in earlier times called by 
the name of Naturalists.' l 

6 Naturalism, as Staiidlin says, 'is distinguished 
from Rationalism by rejecting all and every revela- 
tion of Grod, especially any extraordinary one, through 
certain men. . . . Supernaturalism consists in 
general in the conviction that God has revealed 
Himself supernaturally and immediately. What is 
revealed might perhaps be discovered by natural 
methods, but either not at all, or very late, by those 
to whom it is revealed.' 2 

Bretschneider says that the word 'Rationalism has 
been confused with Naturalism since the appearance of 
the Kantian philosophy, and that it was introduced 
into theology by Reinhard and Grabler. An accurate 
examination respecting these words gives the follow- 
ing results. The word Naturalism arose first in the 
sixteenth century, and was spread in the seventeenth. 
It was understood to mean the theory of those who 
allowed no other knowledge of religion except the 
natural, which man could shape out of his own 
strength, and consequently excluded all supernatural 
revelation.' He then goes on to say that theologians 

1 H. T. Rose's State of Protestantism in Germany, Introd. xx. 

2 Ib. XYiii. 


distinguish three forms of Naturalism. First, Pela- 
gianism, which admits revelation, but denies super- 
natural interior grace. Secondly, a grosser kind, 
which denies all particular revelation, such as modern 
Deism. Lastly, the grossest of all, which considers 
the world as Grod, or Pantheism. 1 Upon this it is 
obvious to remark, that the term Kationalism has 
been used in Germany in various senses. It has 
been made to comprehend both those who reject all 
revelation and those who profess to receive it. 2 The 
latter class, while they profess to receive revelation, 
nevertheless receive it only so far as their critical 
reason accepts it. They profess to receive Chris- 
tianity, but they make reason the supreme arbiter in 
matters of faith. ' When Christianity is presented to 
them, they inquire what there is in it which agrees 
with their assumed principles (i.e. of intrinsic credi- 
bility), and whatsoever does so agree they receive as 
true.' Others again affect to allow f a revealing 
operation of Grod, but establish on internal proofs 
rather than on miracles the Divine nature of Christi- 
anity. They allow that revelation may contain much 
out of the power of reason to explain, but they say 
that it should assert nothing contrary to reason, but 

1 H. T. Rose's State of Protestantism in Germany, Introd. xx. xxi. 

2 Ib. xxiii. 


rather what may be proved by it.' But, in fact, such 
divines reject the ' doctrines of the Trinity, the Atone- 
ment, the Mediation and Intercession of our Lord, 
Original Sin, and Justification by Faith.' 

I need not prolong these quotations. They suffice 
to show that Rationalism has various senses, or rather 
various degrees ; but, ultimately, it has one and the 
same principle, namely, that the Reason is the supreme 
and spontaneous source of religious knowledge. It '' 
may be therefore distinguished into the perfect and 
imperfect Rationalism, or into the fully-developed 
and the incipient Rationalism, and these may perhaps 
be accurately described as follows : 

1. The perfect or fully-developed Rationalism is 
founded upon the assumption that the reason is the 
sole fountain of all knowledge relating to God and to 
the soul, and to the relations of God and of the soul. 
This does not mean the reason of each individual, but I 
of the human race, which elicits from its own intel- 
lectual consciousness a theology of reason, and trans- 
mits it as a tradition in the society of mankind. 

The reason is therefore the source and the measure j 
or the limit of what is credible in the theology of j 
rational religion. This, necessarily, excludes all 
supernatural revelation. 1 

1 Rose, ut supra, xxv. xxvi. 


2. The imperfect, or incipient,, Eationalism rests 
upon the assumption that the reason is the supreme test 
or judge of the intrinsic credibility of revelation ad- 
mitted in the main to be supernatural. It is easy to 
see that nothing but the inconsequence of those who 
hold this system arrests it from resolving itself into its 
ultimate form of perfect Eationalism. In both the 
reason is the critic of revelation. In the latter, it re- 
jects portions of revealed truth as intrinsically in- 
credible ; in the former, it rejects revelation as a whole 
for the same reason. The latter criticises the contents 
of revelation, accepting the evidence of the fact, and 
rejects portions ; the former criticises both the con- 
, tents and the evidence, and altogether rejects both. 

Now, it is evident that in England we are as yet 
in the incipient stage of Kationalism. Materialism, 
Secularism, and Deism are to be found in individuals, 
but not yet organised as schools. Eationalism in the 
perfect form is also to be found in isolated minds ; 
but the incipient, or semi-Eationalism, has already 
established itself in a school of able, cultivated, and 
respectable men. I need not name the writers of 
whom Dr. Williams, Mr. Wilson, and Dr. Colenso are 
the most advanced examples. In this school most of 
the followers and disciples of the late Dr. Arnold are 
to be classed. It does not surprise me to see the 


rapid and consistent spread of these opinions ; for ever 
since by the mercy of Grod I came to see the principle 
of divine faith, by which the human reason becomes 
the disciple of a Divine Teacher, I have seen, with 
the clearness of a self-evident truth, that the whole of 
the Anglican reformation and system is based upon 
the inconsequent theory which I have designated as 
incipient Eationalism. It admits revelation, but it 
constitutes the reason as the judge by critical inquiry 
of the contents of that revelation, of the interpretation 
of Scripture, and of the witness of antiquity. 

The Church teaches that faith is an infused grace 
which elevates and perfects the reason; but as 
rationalists allege that faith detracts from the per- 
fection of reason, my object will be to show : 

1. That to believe in revelation is the highest act 
of the human reason. 

2. That to believe in revelation, whole and perfect, 
is the perfection of the reason. 

3. That to submit to the Voice of the Holy Spirit 
in the Church is the absolute condition to attain a 
perfect knowledge of revelation. 

4. That the Divine witness of the Holy Spirit in 
the Church anticipates the criticism of the human 
reason, and refuses to be subject to it. 

Lest anyone should imagine that in these propo- 



sitions I limit the activity and office of the human 
reason in matters of faith, I will add also the follow- 
ing propositions : 

1. It would be a violation of reason in the highest 
i degree not to believe that there is a Grod. To be- 
lieve that this visible world is either eternal or self- 
created, besides all other intrinsic absurdities in tfre 
hypothesis, would simply affirm the world to be Grod 

1 in the same breath that we deny His existence. It 
would be a gross and stupid conception of an eternal 
and self-existent being; for to believe it self-created 
is a stupidity which exceeds even the stupidity of 
atheism. But if the world were neither eternal nor 
self-created, it was made ; and, if made, it had a 
maker. Cavil as a man will, there is no escape from 

! this necessity. To deny it is not to reason, but to 
violate reason ; and to be rationalists, by going con- 
trary to reason. 

2. Secondly, it would be a violation of the moral 
sense, which is still reason judging of the relations 
between my Maker and myself, not to believe that He 
has given to me the means of knowing Him. The 
consciousness of what I am gives me the law by which 

j to conceive of One higher and better than I am. If I 
am an intelligent and moral being, and if my dignity 
and my perfection consist in the perfection of my 


reason and of my will, then I cannot conceive of a 
Being higher and better than myself, than as One who 
has, in a higher degree, those things which are the best 
and highest in myself. But my intelligent and moral 
nature, and the right exercise and action of its powers, 
is the highest and best that is in me. I know it to 
exceed all the other excellences which are in me. It 
exceeds, too, all the perfections of other creatures to 
whom gifts of strength and instinct have been given, 
without reason and the moral will. 

I am certain, therefore, that my Creator is higher 
than I am in that which is highest in me, and 
therefore I know Him to be a perfect intelligence 
and a perfect will, and these include all the perfec- 
tions of wisdom and goodness. I say then it would 
violate the moral sense to believe that such a Being 
has created me capable of knowing and of loving 
Him- capable of happiness and of misery, of good 
and of evil, and that He has never given to me the 
means of knowing Him, never spoken, never broken 
theete7n^^iTeTac^n5y*a sign of His love to me, on 
which depend both my perfection and my happiness. 

Now it is certain, by the voice of all mankind, 
that God speaks to us through His works that He 
whispers to us through our "natural conscience that 
He attracts us to Him by instincts, and desires, and 


aspirations after a happiness higher than sense, and 
more enduring, more changeless, than this mortal 
life. Grod speaks to me articulately in the stirring life 
of nature and the silence of our own being. What is all 
. this but a spiritual action of the intelligence, and the 
will of God upon the intelligence, and will of man ? 

and what is this but a Divine inspiration ? Critically ii 

/ ''' * ' "' " ' I|, 

and specifically distinct^ as inspiration and revelation i 

in their strict and theological sense are from this 
inward operation of the Divine mind upon mankind, 
yet generically and in the last analysis it is God speak- 
ing to man, God illuminating man to know Him, and 
drawing man to love Him. The inspiration and 
revelation granted to patriarchs, prophets, apostles, 
seers, and saints, are of a supernatural order, in 
which the lights of nature mingle and are ele- 
vated by the supernatural and divine. These mani- 
festations of Himself to men are bestowed upon us 
out of the intrinsic perfections of His own Divine 
attributes. He created us as objects whereon to 
exercise His benevolence. His love and His goodness 
are the fountains of the light of nature. His image, 
in which He has created us, by its own instincts turns 
to Him with the rational and moral confidence that 
if we feel after Him, we shall find Him. And His 
love and His goodness are such, that our yearnings 


for a knowledge of Him are satisfied not only by the 
light of nature, but through His grace by the super- 
natural revelation of Himself. 

3. Thirdly, I am certain, with a certainty which is 
higher than any other in the order of moral convic- 
tions, that if there be a revelation of Grod to man, that 
revelation is Christianity. The reason of this belief 
is, that I find in Christianity the highest and purest 
truth, on the highest and purest matter of which the 
human intelligence is capable; that is to say, the 
purest Theism or knowledge of Grod, the purest 
anthropology or science of man, and the purest 
morality, including the moral conduct of Grod towards 
man, and the moral action of man towards Grod. 
These three elements constitute the highest know- 
ledge of which man is capable, and these three are 
to be found in their highest and purest form 
Christianity alone. All the fragments or gleams 
original truth which lingered yet in the religions and 
philosophies of the world are contained, elevated, 
and perfected in the doctrine of the Holy Trinity, and 
of the Divine perfections revealed in it ; in the 
doctrine of the Incarnation, and the perfections of 
our manhood manifested in the person of Jesus 
Christ ; and in the Sermon on the Mount, interpreted 
by the example of Him who spoke it. In these three 


revelations of the Divine and human natures, Grod 
has made Himself known to us, as the object of our 
love and worship, the pattern of our imitation, and 
the source of our eternal bliss. Now no other pre- 
tended revelation, no other known religion, so much as 
approximates to the truth and purity of the Christian 
faith. They are visibly true and pure only so far as- 
they contain germs of it. They are visibly impure 
* and false wheresoever they depart from it. They 

(bear a twofold testimony to its perfection, both where 
"""' ' "" ' m """". ^ --_I'U'CU1 

they agree and where they disagree with it. And 

that which is true of Christianity, viewed objectively 
in itself, is also visibly true when viewed subjectively 
in its history. Christianity has created Christendom ; 
and Christendom is the manifestation of all that is 
highest, purest, noblest, most Grod-like in the history 
of mankind. Christianity has borne the first-fruits 

fgfewrWMfWiMfc^MMWM** v ~~~~~^^^^^^MHB** l ** titllll ^*^ m *^ t * 11 *** 

of the human race. 

4. Fourthly, Christianity, in its perfection and its 
\^ f* } purity, unmutilated, and full in its orb and circum- 
ference, is Catholicism. All other forms of Christianity 
are fragmentary. The revelation given first by Jesus 
Christ, and finally expanded to its perfect outline by 
the illumination of the day of Pentecost, was spread 
throughout the world. It took possession of all 
nations, as the dayspring takes possession of the 


face of the earth, rising and expanding steadily and 
irresistibly. So the knowledge of Grod and of His 
Christ filled the world. And the words of the prophet 
were fulfilled, ' The idols shall be utterly destroyed' ; l 
not with the axe and the hammer only, but by a 
mightier weapon. f Are not my words as a fire, and as a 
hammer that breaketh the rock in pieces ? ' 2 Idolatry 
was swept from the face of the world by the inunda- 
tion of the light of the knowledge of the true Grod. 
< The earth shall be filled, that men may know the 
glory of the Lord, as waters covering the sea.' 3 The 
unity and universality of Christianity, and of the 
Church in which it was divinely incorporated, and of 
Christendom, which the Church has created, exclude 
and convict as new, fragmentary,, and false, all forms 
of Christianity which are separate and local. . 

Now these four truths, as I take leave to call them, t3 . 
first, that it is a violation of reason not to believe in 
the existence of Grod ; secondly, that it is a violation 
of our moral sense not to believe that Grod has made 
Himself known to man ; thirdly, that the revelation 
He has* given is Christianity ; and, fourthly, that 
Christianity is Catholicism these four constitute a 
proof the certainty of which exceeds that of any other 
moral truth I know. It is not a chain of probabilities, 

1 Isaias ii. 18. 2 Jer. xxiii. 29. 8 Hab. ii. 14. 


depending the one upon the other, but each one 
morally certain in itself. It is not a chain hanging 
by a link painted upon the wall, as a great philoso- 
phical writer of the day well describes the sciences 
which depend upon a hypothesis. 1 These four truths, 
considered in the natural order alone, rest upon the 
~ \ reason and the conscience, upon the collective testi- 
mony of the highest and purest intelligences, and 
! upon the maximum of evidence in human history. 
1 The intellectual system of the world bears its witness 
to them; the concurrent testimony of the most elevated 
races of mankind confirm them. They are not four 
links of an imaginary chain, but the four corner- 
stones of truth. ( Sapientia sedificavit sibi domum.' 
And the house which the wisdom of God has built to 
dwell in is the cultivated intellect, or reason of the 
mystical body, incorporated and manifested to the 
world in the Visible Church. This wisdom of God 
has its base upon nature, which is the work of God, 
and its apex in the Incarnation, which is the manifes- 
tation of God. The order of nature is pervaded with 
primary truths which are known to the natural 
reason, and are axioms in the intelligence of mankind. 
Such, I affirm, without fear of Atheists, or Secularists, 
or Positivists, are the existence of God, His moral 

1 "Whewell's History of the Inductive Sciences, vol. i. p. 16. 


perfections, the moral nature of man, the dictates 
of conscience, the freedom of the will. On these 
descended other truths from the Father of Lights 
as He saw fit to reveal them in measure and in season, 
according to the successions of time ordained in the 
Divine purpose. 

The revelations of the Patriarchs elevated and 
enlarged the sphere of light in the intelligence of 
men by their deeper, purer, and clearer insight into 
the Divine mind, character, and conduct in the world. 
The revelation to Moses and to the Prophets raised 
still higher the fabric of light, which was always 
ascending towards the fuller revelation of Grod yet 
to come. But in all these accessions and unfoldings 
of the light of God, truth remained still one, har- 
monious, indivisible ; a structure in perfect symmetry, 
the finite but true reflex of truth as it reposes in the (/w^4 
Divine Intelligence. 

What is Christianity but the summing up and 
final expression of all the truths of the natural and 
supernatural order in the Person of Jesus Christ? 
God has made Him to be the ava/cefaXalcoa-is, or 
recapitulation, of all the Theism, and of all the 
truths relating to the nature of man and of the 
moral law, which were already found throughout the 
world; and has set these truths in their place and 



proportion in the full revelation of ' the truth as it is 
in Jesus.' S. Paul compares the Incarnation to the 
Divine action, whereby the light was created on the 
first day. ' Gk>d, who commanded the light to shine 
out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give 
the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the 
face of Jesus Christ.' l 

And here, perhaps, I may repeat the words in 
which I expressed the same truth some twenty years 

* By the unity of doctrine or faith the Church has 
taken up all philosophies, and consolidated them in 
one. Whether by the momentum of an original 
revelation, or by the continual guidance of a heavenly 
teaching, or by the natural convergence of the reason 
of man towards the UDseen realities of truth, it is 
certain that all thoughtful and purer minds were 
gazing one way. As the fulness of time drew on, 
their eyes were more and more intently fixed on one 
point in the horizon, e more than they that watch for 
the morning;' and all the lights of this fallen world 
were bent towards one central region, in which at last 
they met and kindled. The one Faith was the focus 
of all philosophies, in which they were fused, purified, 
and blended. The eternity, the uncreated substance, 

1 2 Cor. iv. 6. 


the infinity of goodness, wisdom, and power, the trans- 
cendent majesty, the true personality, and the moral 
providence of the One supreme Maker and Ruler of 
the world was affirmed from heaven. The scattered 
truths which had wandered up and down the earth, 
and had been in part adored, and in part held in un- 
righteousness, were now elected and called home, and 
as it were regenerated, and gathered into one blessed 
company, and glorified once more as the witnesses of 
the Eternal. 

e Grod was manifested as the life of the world, and 
yet not so as to be one with the world ; but as dis- 
tinct, yet filling all things. Grod was manifested as 
the source of life to man. The affinity of the soul of 
man to (rod was revealed ; and the actual participa- 
tion of man, through the gift of grace, in the Divine 
nature, and yet not so as to extinguish the distinct 
and immortal being of each individual soul. 

'In thus taking up into itself all the scattered 
family of truth, the one Faith abolished all the inter- 
mingling falsehoods of four thousand years. There- 
fore it follows, as a just corollary, that in affirming 
the unity and the sovereignty of Grod, it annihilated 
the whole system of many subordinate deities. It 
declared absolutely that there is no God but one ; 
that all created being is generically distinct, and has 

c 2 


in it no Divine prerogative. It taught mankind that 
the wisest and the best of earth pass not the bounds 
of man's nature ; that the passions and energies of 
mankind are, by (rod's ordinance, parts of man's own 
being; that they are not his lords, but themselves 
subject to his control ; that the powers of nature are 
no gods, but pressures of the one Almighty hand; 
and that the visible works of God are fellow-creatures 
with man, and put under his feet.' l 

To say that Christianity is Catholicism, and Catho- 
licism is Christianity, is to utter a truism. There 
was but One Truth, the same in all the world, until 
the perverse will and the perverted intellect of man 
broke off fragments from the great whole, and de- 

0*JT t&i ne( l them in combination with error, ' holding the 
truth in injustice' that is, imprisoned in bondage to 
human falsehood, and turned against the Eevelation 
r\ Pta/v4l God. There cannot be two Christianities, neither 
U<*v C*<Ju-^-g can a fragment be mistaken for the whole. The 
mountain has filled the whole earth, and the drift and 
| detritus which fall from it cannot be taken, by any 
illusion, to be the mountain. The unity of Chris- 
? j tianity is its identity with its original, and its identity 
in all the world. It is one and the same everywhere, 

The Unity of the Church, pp. 205, 206. 


and therefore it is universal. The unity of Chris- 
tianity is related to its universality, as theologians say 
of God, who is One not so much by number as by 
His immensity, which pervades eternity and excludes 
all other. So it may be said there is one truth which 
pervades the rational creation in various degrees from 
the first lights of nature, which lie upon the circum- 
ference, to the full illumination of the Incarnation of 
God, which reigns in its centre; and this divine order 
and hierarchy of truth excludes all other, and is both 
the reflex and the reality of the Truth which inhabits 
the Divine Intelligence. When then I say Catholi- 
cism, I mean perfect Christianity, undiminished, full- 
orbed, illuminating all nations, as S. Irenseus says, 
like the sun, one and the same in every place. 1 It 
seems to me that no man can believe the doctrine of 
the Holy Trinity in its fulness and perfection without 
in the end believing in Catholicism. For in the 
doctrine of the Holy Trinity are revealed to us Three 
Persons and three offices the Father and Creation ; 
the Son and Eedemption ; the Holy Ghost and the 
Church. Whosoever believes in these three Divine 
Works, holds implicitly the indivisible unity and the 
perpetual infallibility of the Church. But into this, 

1 S. Iren. Contra H&ret. lib. i. cap. x. sect. 2. 


as it will be the subject of the first of the following 
chapters, I shall not enter now. 

I will make only one remark upon it in explana- 
tion of the title of this volume. By the Temporal 
Mission of the Holy Ghost, Catholic theologians un- 
derstand the sending, advent, and office of the Holy 
Ghost through the Incarnate Son, and after the day 
of Pentecost. This is altogether distinct from His 
Eternal Procession and Spiration from the Father 
and the Son. Now it is remarkable that the schisma- 
tical Greeks, in order to justify their rejection of the 
Filioque, interpret the passages of the Scriptures and 
of the Fathers in which the Holy Ghost is declared 
to proceed or to be sent from the Father and the Son, 
of His Temporal Mission into the world. On the 
other hand, in these last centuries, those who have 
rejected the perpetual office of the Holy Ghost in the 
Church by rejecting its perpetual infallibility, inter- 
pret the same passages, not of the Temporal Mission, 
but of the Eternal Procession. 

The Catholic theology, with the divine tradition of 
faith which governs its conceptions and definitions, 
propounds to us both the Eternal Procession and the 
Temporal Mission of the Holy Ghost, from the Father 
and the Son the one in eternity, the other in time ; 
the eternal completing the mystery of the Holy 



Trinity ad intra, the temporal completing the reve- 
lation of the Holy Trinity ad extra. 

In commenting on the sin against the Holy Grhost,, 
S. Augustine says : f And for this cause both the 
Jews and such heretics, whatsoever they be, who be- 
lieve in the Holy Grhost, but deny his presence in the 
body of Christ that is, in His only Church, which is 
no other than the Church, one and Catholic without 
doubt are like the Pharisees who, at that day, though 
they acknowledged the existence of the Holy Spirit, 
yet denied that he was in the Christ.' He then 
argues as follows : ( For to Him [the Spirit] belongs 
the fellowship by which we are made the one body of 
the only Son of Grod ; . . . wherefore,' he says again, 
6 Whosoever hath not the spirit of Christ, he is none 
of His. For, to whom in the Trinity should pro- 
perly belong the communion of this fellowship but to 
that Spirit who is common to the Father and the 
Son ? That they who are sejmrated from the Church 
have not this Spirit, the Apostle Jude openly de- dx 
clared.' In these passages S. Augustine distinctly 
affirms that, to deny the office of the Holy Grhost in 
the Church, is to deny a part of the doctrine of the 
Trinity. So again, speaking of the absolution of sin, 
S. Augustine ascribes it to the operation of the Three 
Persons. 'For the Holy Grhost dwells in no one 



without the Father and the Son; nor the Son without 
the Father and the Holy Ghost; nor without them 
the Father. For their indwelling is inseparable whose 
operation is inseparable. . . . But, as I have already 
often said, the remission of sins, whereby the king- 
dom of the Spirit divided against Himself is over- 
thrown and cast out and, therefore, the fellowship 
of the unity of the Church of God, out of which the 
remission of sins is not given is the proper office of 
the Holy Ghost, the Father and the Son cooperating ; 
for the Holy Ghost Himself is the fellowship of the 
Father and the Son. . . . Whosoever therefore is 
guilty of impenitence against the Spirit, in whom the 
unity and fellowship of the communion of the Church 
is held together, it shall never be forgiven him, be- 
cause he hath closed against himself the way of 
remission, and shall justly be condemned with the 
spirit, who is divided against himself, being also 
divided against the Holy Ghost, who, against Himself, 
is not divided. . . . And, therefore, all congregations, 
or rather dispersions, which call themselves churches 
of Christ, and are divided and contrary among them- 
selves, and to the congregation of unity which is His 
true Church, are enemies : nor because they seem to 
have His name, do they therefore belong to His con- 
gregation. They would indeed belong to it if the 



Holy Grhost, in whom this congregation is associated 
together, were divided against Himself. But, because 
this is not so (for he who is not with Christ is against 
Him, and he who gathers not with Him scatters), 
therefore, all sin and all .blasphemy shall be remitted 
unto men in this congregation, which Christ gathers 
together in the Holy Ghost, and not in the spirit 
which is divided against himself.' l 

Like as in the old world the divine tradition of 
the knowledge of (rod was encompassed by corrupt 
and fragmentary religions, so the divine tradition of 
the faith is encompassed by fragmentary Christian- 
ities and fragmentary churches. The belief in the 
unity of Grod, before the Incarnation, was broken up 
into the polytheisms of Egypt, Greece, and Rome. 
Since the Incarnation this can not be. The illumi- 
nation of the Word made flesh renders impossible all 
polytheism and idolatry. The unity and the spiri- 
tuality of the eternal (rod are now axioms of the 
human reason. But, as S. Augustine profoundly 
observes, the analogy still holds between the errors 
of the old creation and of the new. Satan, as he 
says, c can no longer divide the true (rod, nor bring 
in among us false gods, therefore he has sent strifes 
among Christians. Because he could not fabricate 

1 8. Aug. Sermo LXXI., in Matt, xii., torn. v. pp. 386, 398, 401, 403. 


i many gods, therefore he has multiplied sects, and 

. sowed errors, and set up heresies.' l 

And here I desire to fulfil a duty which I have 
always hoped one day to discharge ; but I have 
hitherto been withheld by a fear lest I should seem 
to ascribe importance to anything I may have ever 
said, I mean, to make a formal retractation of cer- 
tain errors published by me when I was out of the 
light of the Catholic faith, and knew no better. I do 
not hereby imagine that anything I may have written 
carries with it any authority. But an error is a denial 
of the truth, and we owe a reparation to the truth ; 
for the Truth is not an abstraction, but a Divine 
Person. I desire therefore to undo, as far as I may, 
the errors into which I unconsciously fell. They are 
chiefly three; and these three are the only formal 
oppositions I can remember to have made against 
the Catholic Church. They were made, I believe, 
temperately and soberly, with no heat or passion 
without, I trust, a word of invective. 

1. First, in the year 1838, 1 published a small work 
on ( The Eule of Faith/ in which, following with im- 

1 'Unum Deum nobis dividere non potest. Falsos deos, nobis 
supponere non potest.' . , . 'Lites immisit inter Christianos quia 
multos deos non potest fabricare : sectas multiplicayit, errores senri- 
navit, hsereses instituit.' 


plicit confidence the language of the chief Anglican 
divines, I erroneously maintained that the old and 
true rule of faith is Scripture and antiquity, and I 
rejected as new and untenable two other rules of faith, 
first, the private judgment of the individual ; and, 
secondly, the interpretations of the living church. 

2. Secondly, in 1841, I published a book on the 
' Unity of the Church,' in which I maintained it to be 
one, visible, and organised, descending by succession 
from the beginning by the spiritual fertility of the 
hierarchy. But while I thought that the unity of 
the Church is organic and moral that the organic 
unity consists in succession, hierarchy, and valid 
sacraments, and the moral in the communion of 
charity among all the members of particular churches, 
and all the churches of the Catholic unity, I erro- 
neously thought that this moral unity might be 
permanently suspended, and even lost, while the 
organic unity remained intact, and that unity of 
communion belongs only to the perfection, not to 
the intrinsic essence of the Church. 

3. Thirdly, in a sermon preached before the Uni- 
versity of Oxford on November 5, 1843, speaking of 
the conflicts between the Holy See and the Crown of 
England, I used the words : ( It would seem to be 
the will of heaven that the dominion of the Koman 


Pontificate may never be again set up in this Church 
and realm.' 

Now I feel that I owe a reparation to the truth for 
these three errors. Beyond these, I am not -aware 
that, for any published statements, I have any repa- 
rations to make. And I feel that, as the statements 
were not declamations, but reasoned propositions, so 
ought the refutation to be likewise. 

The whole of the following work will, I hope, be 
a clear and reasoned retractation of those errors, 
so that I need now do no more than express, in the 
fewest words, what it was which led me in 1851 to 
revoke the statements I had made in 1841 and 1838. 

It was, in one word, the subject of this volume, 
the Temporal Mission of the Holy Grhost. As soon 
as I perceived the Divine fact that the Holy Spirit 
of G-od has united Himself indissolubly to the mys- 
tical body, or Church of Jesus Christ, I saw at once 
that the interpretations or doctrines of the living 
Church are true because Divine, and that the voice 
of the living Church in all ages is the sole rule of 
faith, and infallible, because it is the voice of a Divine 
Person. I then saw that all appeals to Scripture 
alone, or to Scripture and antiquity, whether by 
individuals or by local churches, are no more than 
appeals from the divine voice of the living Church, and 


therefore essentially rationalistic. I perceived that 
I had imposed upon myself by speaking of three 
rules of faith ; that the only question is between two 
judges the individual proceeding by critical reason, 
or the Church proceeding by a perpetual Divine 
assistance. But as I shall have to touch upon this 
in the first chapter, I dismiss it now. 

As to the second point, the unity of the Church, 
I had not understood from whence the principle of 
unity is derived. It had seemed to be a constitutional 
law, springing from external organisation, highly 
beneficial, but not a vital necessity to the Church. 
I seemed to trace the visible Church to its Founder 
and His apostles as a venerable and world-wide 
institution, the channel of grace, the witness for Grod, 
and the instrument of the discipline and probation 
to men. 

I had not as yet perceived that the unity of the 
Church is the external expression of the intrinsic and 
necessary law of its existence ; that it flows from the 
unity of its Head, of its Life, of its mind, and of its 
will ; or, in other words, from the unity of the Per- 
son of the Incarnate Son, who reigns in it, and of the 
Holy Ghost, who organises it by His inhabitation, 
sustains it by His presence, and speaks through it by 
His voice. The external unity, therefore, is not the 


cause but the effect of a vital law, which informs 
and governs the organisation of the Mystical Body, 
springing from within, and manifesting itself without, 
like as the animation and development of the body 
of a man, which springs from a vital principle, one 
and indivisible in its operations and its essence. All 
this escaped me while my eyes were holden in the 
way of twilight where I had been born. The more I 
read of Anglican writers upon the Church, such as 
Hooker, Field, Bilson, Taylor, Barrow, the more con- 
fused all seemed to become. The air grew thick 
around me. When from them I came to the Fathers, 
the preconceived modes of interpretation floated be- 
tween me and the page. The well-known words of 
S. Cyprian, ' Unus Deus, unus Christus, una Ecclesia,' 
read to me 'One God, one Christ, one Church,' of 
many branches, many streams, many rays; one, 
therefore, in the trunk, the fountain, and the source, 
but not one by a continuous and coherent expansion 
and identity. I seemed to see the old dream of 
organic unity surviving where moral unity is lost. I 
failed to see that in this I was ascribing to Grod a 
numerical unity, to Christ a numerical unity, to the 
Church a numerical plurality; that I was playing 
fast and loose, using the word One in two senses; 
that while I confessed that Grod is one to the 


exclusion of plurality and division, and that Christ 
is one to the exclusion of plurality and division, I 
was affirming the Church to be one, including divi- 
sion and plurality, and that in the same breath, and 
by the same syllables. Nothing but a life-long 
illusion, which clouds the reason by the subtleties of 
controversy, could have held me so long in such a 
bondage. But nothing, I believe, would ever have 
set me free if I had not begun to study the question 
from a higher point that is in its fountain namely, 
the Mission and Office of the Holy Grhost. When I 
had once apprehended this primary truth, both Scrip- 
ture and the Fathers seemed to stand out from the 
page with a new light, self-evident and inevitable. 
I then, for the first time, saw a truth of surpassing 
moment, which for my whole life had escaped me; 
namely, that One means One and no more. The 
unity of Grod, and of Christ, and of the Church is 
predicated univocally, not ambiguously. Grod is one 
in Nature, Christ one in Person, the Church one in 
organisation and singularity of subsistence, depending 
on its Head, who is One, and animated by the Holy 
Grhost, who is likewise One, the principle of union to 
the members, who constitute the one body by the in- 
trinsic unity of its life. I could then understand why 
S. Cyprian not only likens the Unity of the Church 


to the seamless robe of Jesus, but also the weaving of 
that robe to the formation of the Church, which, he 
says, is woven desuper, 'from the top throughout/ 1 
by heavenly Sacraments ; that is, its unity descends 
from its Head, who impresses upon His mystical body 
the same law of visible and indivisible unity which 
constitutes the perfection of His natural body. 

Such, then, is a brief statement of the reasons why, 
though I still believe the Book on ' the Unity of the 
Church' to be in the main sound and true in what 
relates to the visibleness and organisation of the 
Church, I must retract all that relates to the loss of 
moral unity or communion. 

Nevertheless, for an adequate expression of my 
reasons, I must refer the reader to the following 

Lastly : as to the Pontificate of the Vicar of Jesus 
Christ, this is neither the time nor the place to enter 
into the subject. I may say, however, in a word, that 
the point last spoken of prescribes a truer belief in 
the office of the Head of the Church on earth. The 
Primacy of honour, but f not of jurisdiction,' among 

1 ' Unitatem ilia portabat de superiors parte venientem, id est de 
ccelo et a patre venientem, quse ab accipiente ac possidente scindi 
omnino non poterat, sed totam simul et solidam firmitatem insepara- 
biliter obtinebat.' S. Cyp. De Unit. Eccles., Opp. p. 196. Ed. Baluz. 


a plurality of divided Churches, is an illusion which 
disappears when the true and divine unity of the 
kingdom which cannot be divided against itself rises 
into view. I saw in this the twofold relation of the 
visible Head of the Church ; the one to the whole 
Body upon earth, the other to the Divine Head, 
whose vicar and representative he is. A new history 
of Christendom then unrolled itself before me, not 
that of our Lord as written by the Jews, but by His 
own Evangelists. I understood, what I never saw 
before, the meaning of Supreme Pontiff, and of Vicar 
of Jesus Christ. I acknowledge, therefore, that in 
1843 I spoke rashly, or rather ignorantly in unbelief. 
But into this I cannot further enter now. I may 
refer to a volume on the ( Temporal Power of the 
Pope ' as expressing more fully that which I did not 
so much as see afar off when I uttered the words 
which I hereby retract. 

All things around us tell of one of those periods 
which come, from time to time, upon the Church and 
the bodies which surround it. Three hundred years 
have revealed at length the intrinsic anarchy and 
rationalism of the so-called Eeformation. It is pass- 
ing away before our eyes. The men of to-day re- 
luctantly and unconsciously are undoing what their 
fathers did justifying the Church of God by their 


unwilling testimony. The followers of human guides 
are disbanding and dispersing on every side; some 
further and further from the Light, deeper into the 
land ' ubi umbra mortis et nullus ordo ; ' others are 
turning back towards the illumination which hangs 
over the world in the Church of God. They are 
wayfaring painfully and in fear towards the east, 
meeting the dayspring which is rising upon them, 
journeying into the sun, which is as the light of 
seven days, the Person of the Spirit in the Church 
of Jesus Christ. 

But it is time to make an end. With these few 
words of introduction, therefore, I will leave the sub- 
ject, with the prayer that the same Holy Spirit of 
Truth, Who has brought me out of darkness into the 
light of Divine Faith, may likewise reveal to others 
His perpetual office, as the Divine and Infallible 
Teacher among men. 




IN this chapter my purpose is to show the relation of 
the Holy Spirit to the Church or Mystical Body of 
Jesus Christ. It is not by accident, or by mere order 
of enumeration, that in the Baptismal Creed we say, 
* I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic 
Church.' These two articles are united because the 
Holy Spirit is united with the Mystical Body. 
And this union is divinely constituted, indissoluble, 
eternal, the source of supernatural endowments to 
the Church which can never be absent from it, or 
suspended in their operation. The Church of all 
ages, and of all times, is immutable in its knowledge, 
discernment, and enunciation of the truth; and 
that in virtue of its indissoluble union with the Holy 
Ghost, and of His perpetual teaching by its living 
voice, not only from council to council, and from age 
to age, with an intermittent and broken utterance, 
but always, and at all times, by its continuous enun- 

D 2 


elation of the Faith, as well as by its authoritative 
dogmatic decrees. 

In order to show that in what follows I am but 
repeating the language of the Scriptures, Fathers, 
and Theologians, I will begin by quotations, and 
afterwards draw out certain conclusions from them. 

I. And first, the testimonies from Scripture, which, 
being familiar to all, shall be recited as briefly as 

Our Lord promised that His departure should 
be followed by the advent of a Person like Himself 
another Paraclete the Spirit of Truth, who pro- 
ceedeth from the Father : * I will ask the Father, and 
He shall give you another Paraclete, that He may 
abide with you for ever. The Spirit of Truth, whom 
the world cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, 
nor knoweth Him: but you shall know Him; because 
He shall abide with you, and shall be in you.' l 

'The Paraclete the Holy Grhost whom the 
Father will send in My name, He will teach you all 
things, and bring all things to your mind, whatsoever 
I shall have said to you.' 2 

( It is expedient for you that I go : for if I go not, 
the Paraclete will not come to you ; but if I go, I 
will send Him to you.' 3 

1 S. John xiv. 16, 17. 2 Ib. 26. 3 Ib. xvi. 7. 


'When He, the Spirit of Truth, is come. He will 
teach you all truth. For He shall not speak of Him- 
self; but what things soever He shall hear, He shall 
speak ; and the things that are to come He shall shew 
you. He shall glorify Me ; because He shall receive 
of Mine, and shall shew it to you. All things what- 
soever the Father hath, are Mine. Therefore I said, 
He shall receive of Mine, and shew it to you.' l 

The fulfilment of this promise ten days after the 
Ascension, was accomplished on the day of Pentecost 
by the personal Advent of the Holy Grhost, to abide 
for ever as the Guide and Teacher of the faithful, in 
the name and stead of the Incarnate Son. I forbear 
to quote the second chapter of the book of Acts, in 
which this divine fact is not only recorded but de- 
clared by the Holy Spirit Himself. 

S. Paul has traced out the events and succession in 
this divine order, connecting them with the creation 
and organisation of the Church, where he says, ' One 
body and one spirit: as you are called in one hope 
of your calling. One Lord, one faith, one baptism. 
One Grod and Father of all, who is above all and 
through all, and in us all. But to every one of us is 
given grace according to the measure of the giving of 
Christ. Wherefore He saith, "Ascending on high 

1 S. John xvi. 13-16. 


He led captivity captive ; He gave gifts to men." 
Now that He ascended, what is it, but because He 
also descended first into the lower parts of the earth? 
He that descended is the same also that ascended 
above all the heavens, that He might fill all things. 
And He gave some apostles, and some prophets, and 
other some evangelists, and other some pastors and 
doctors. For the perfection of the saints, for the 
work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of 
Christ ; until we all meet into the unity of faith, and 
of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect 
man, unto the measure of the age of the fulness of 
Christ : that henceforth we be no more children tossed 
to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doc- 
trine by the wickedness of men, by cunning craftiness, 
by which they lie in wait to deceive. But doing the 
truth in charity, we may in all things grow up in 
Him who is the Head, even Christ ; from Whom the 
whole body, being compacted and fitly joined toge- 
ther, by what every joint supplieth, according to the 
operation of the measure of every part, maketh in- 
crease of the body unto the edifying of itself in 
charity.' * 

The same delineation of the Church as the Mystical 
Body runs through the epistles to the Komans and 

1 Ephes. iv. 4-16. 


the Corinthians. ' For as in one body we have many 
members, but all members have not the same office ; 
so we being many are one body in Christ, and every 
one members one of another.' 1 

Again to the Corinthians, after enumerating with 
great particularity the gifts and operations of the 
Holy Grhost he adds, that ' All these things one and 
the same Spirit worketh, dividing to every one accord- 
ing as he will. For as the body is one and hath many 
members ; and all the members of the body, whereas 
they are many, yet are one body ; so also is Christ. 
For in one Spirit were we all baptized into one body^ 
whether Jews or Gentiles, whether bond or free ; and 
in one Spirit we have all been made to drink. For 
the body also is not one member, but many. . . . 
Now you are the body of Christ, and members of 
member.' 2 

I will quote only one other passage. e According 
to the operation of the might of His power, which 
He wrought in Christ, raising Him up from the dead, 
and setting Him on His right hand in the heavenly 
places, above all principality and power, and virtue 
and dominion, and every name that is named, not 
only in this world, but also in that which is to come. 
And hath subjected all things under His feet; and 

1 Kom. xii. 4, 5. 2 1 Cor. xii. 11, 12, 13, 14, 27. 


hath made Him head over all the Church, which is 
His body, and the fulness of Him, who is filled all 
in all.' 

In these passages we have the interpretation of S. 
John's words: e As yet the Spirit was not given, 
because Jesus was not yet glorified.' 2 

The Ascension that is, the departure of the Second 
Person of the Holy Trinity was hereby declared to 
be the condition ordained of (rod for the advent of 
and perpetual presence of the Third. And the coming 
of the Holy Grhost is likewise declared to be the 
condition of the creation, quickening, and organisation 
of the mystical body, which is the Church of Jesus 

II. Next, for the teaching of the Fathers ; and first, 
S. Irenseus, who may be said to represent the mind 
of S. John and of the Church, both in the East and 
in the West, paraphrases as follows the above passages 
of Scripture: 

In drawing out the parallel of the first creation 
and the second, of the old Adam and the new, and 
of the analogy between the Incarnation or natural 
body and the Church or mystical body of Christ, he 
says : 3 ' Our faith received from the Church, which 

1 Eph. i. 19-23. 2 S. John vii. 39. 

3 S. Iren. Cont. Hceret. lib. iii. cap. 24. 


(receives) always from the Spirit of God as an excellent 
gift in a noble vessel, always young and making 
young the vessel itself in which it is. For this gift 
of God is intrusted to the Church, as the breath of 
life (was imparted) to the first man, to this end, that 
all the members partaking of it might be quickened 
with life. And thus the communication of Christ is 
imparted; that is, the Holy Ghost, the earnest of 
incorruption, the confirmation of the faith, the way 
of ascent to God. For in the Church (he says) God 
placed apostles, prophets, doctors, and all other 
operations of the Spirit, of which none are partakers 
who do not come to the Church, thereby depriving 
themselves of life by a perverse mind and by worse 
deeds. For where the Church is, there is also the 
Spirit of God ; and where the Spirit of God is, there 
is the Church and all grace. But the Spirit is truth. 
Wherefore they who do not partake of Him (the 
Spirit), and are not nurtured unto life at the breast 
of the mother (the Church), do not receive of that 
most pure fountain which proceeds from the Body of 
Christ, but dig out for themselves broken pools from 
the trenches of the earth, and drink water stained 
with mire, because they turn aside from the faith of 
the Church lest they should be convicted, and reject 
the Spirit lest they should be taught.' 


Tertullian says, speaking of the Baptismal Creed : T 
' But forasmuch as the attestation of (our) faith and 
the promise of our salvation are pledged by three 
witnesses, the mention of the Church is necessarily 
added, since where these are that is, the Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost there is the Church, which is 
the Body of the Three.' 

S. Augustine, in expounding the Creed, remarks 
on the relation in which the article of the Church 
stands to the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. He says : 2 
e ln like manner we ought to believe in the Holy 
Ghost, that the Trinity, which is God, may have its 
fulness. Then the Holy Church is mentioned ; . . . 
the right order of the confession required that to 
the Trinity should be subjoined the Church, as the 
dwelling to the inhabitant, and as His temple to the 
Lord, and the city to its builder.' 

Again he says : 3 ( For what the soul is to the body 
of a man, that the Holy Ghost is to the body of 
Christ, which is the Church. What the Holy Ghost 
does in the whole Church, that the soul does in all 
the members of one body. But see what ye have to 
beware of, to watch over, and to fear. In the body of 

1 TertuL De Bapt. sect. vi. ed. Eigalt. p. 226. 

2 S. August. Enchirid. de Fide, etc. cap. 56, torn. vi. p. 217. 
8 S. August. Sermo in Die Pentecost, i. torn. v. p. 1090. 


a man it may happen that a member, the hand, the 
finger, or the foot, may be cut off. Does the soul 
follow the severed member? While it was in the 
body it was alive ; cut off, its life is lost. So a man 
is a Christian and a Catholic while he is alive in the 
body; cut off, he becomes a heretic. The Holy 
Grhost does not follow the amputated limb. If there- 
fore ye would live by the Holy Grhost, hold fast 
charity, love truth, desire unity, that ye may attain 
unto eternity.' 

And again : l ' Paul the Apostle says, " One body, 
one spirit." Listen, members of that body. The 
body is made up of many members, and one spirit 
quickens them all. Behold, by the spirit of a man, 
by which I myself am a man, I hold together all 
the members ; I command them to move; I direct the 
eyes to see, the ears to hear, the tongue to speak, the 
hands to work, the feet to walk. The offices of the 
members are divided severally, but one spirit holds 
all in one. Many are commanded, and many things 
are done ; there is one only who commands, and one 
who is obeyed. What our spirit that is, our soul 
is to our members, that the Holy Grhost is to the 
members of Christ, to the body of Christ, which is 

1 S. August. Sermo in Die Pentecost, u. torn. v. p. 1091. 


the Church. Therefore the Apostle, when he had 
spoken of the one body, lest we should suppose it 
to be a dead body, says : " There is one body." I 
ask, Is this body alive? It is alive. Whence? 
From the one Spirit. " There is one Spirit." ' 

To this may be added a passage which has been 
ascribed to S. Augustine, but is probably by another 
hand. 1 ( Therefore the Holy Grhost on this day 
(Pentecost) descended into the temple of His apostles, 
which He had prepared for Himself, as a shower of 
sanctification. (He came) no more as a transient 
visitor, but as a perpetual comforter and as an eternal 
inhabitant. . . . He came therefore on this day to 
His disciples, no longer by the grace of visitation and 
operation, but by the very Presence of His Majesty ; 
and into those vessels, no longer the odour of the 
balsam, but the very Substance of the sacred Unction 
flowed down, from whose fragrance the breadth 
of the whole world was to be filled, and all who 
came to their doctrine to be made partakers of 

From these principles S. Augustine declares the 
Church to possess a mystical personality. He says : 3 
'The Head and the body are one man, Christ and 

1 S. August. Sermo in Die Pentecost, i. torn. v. Append, p. 308. 

2 S. August. In Psal. xviii. torn. iv. pp. 85, 86. 


the Church are one man, a perfect man; He the 
bridegroom, she the bride. "And they shall be 
two," he says, " in one flesh." ' 

And again he says : } ' Therefore of two is made one 
person, of the Head and the body, of the bridegroom 
and the bride.' And further : * If there are two in 
one flesh, how not two in one voice ? Therefore let 
Christ speak, because in Christ the Church speaks, 
and in the Church Christ speaks, both the body in 
the Head, and the Head in the body.' 2 ' Our Lord 
Jesus Christ often speaks Himself that is, in His 
own Person, which is our Head oftentimes in the 
person of His body, which we are, and His Church ; 
but so that the words are heard as from the mouth 
of one man, that we may understand the Head and 
the body to consist by an integral unity, and never 
to be put asunder, after the manner of that matri- 
mony of which it is said " two shall be in one flesh." ' 

The following words of S. Gregory Nazianzen teach 
expressly the same doctrine : 3 ' But now the Holy 
Ghost is given more perfectly, for He is no longer 
present by his operation as of old, but is present with 
us, so to speak, and converses with us in a substantial 

1 S. August. In Psal. xyy. pp. 147. 

2 Ibid. In Psal. xL p. 344. 

3 Orat. xli. in Pentecost, torn. i. p. 740. 


manner. For it was fitting that, as the Son had 
conversed with us in a body, the Spirit also should 
come among us in a bodily manner ; and when Christ 
had returned to His own place,, He should descend 
to us.' 

S. Cyril of Alexandria likewise says: 1 'What then 
is this grace ? It is that pouring forth of the Spirit, 
as S. Paul says.' ' Therefore the Holy Ghost works 
in us by Himself, truly sanctifying us and uniting us 
to Himself, while He joins us to Himself and makes 
us partakers of the Divine nature.' ^ 

1 Thesaurus de Trin. Assertio xxxiv. torn. v. p. 352. 

2 ' Sic igitur, cum fidelibus ac justis impertiri communicarique 
Spiritus Sanctus legitur, non ipsamet illius persona tribui, sed ejus 
efficientia videri potest ; idque communis fere sensus habet eorum, 
qui in Patrum veterum lectione minus exercitati sunt. Quos qui 
attente pervestigare voluerit, intelliget occultum quemdam et inusi- 
tatum missionis communicationisque modum apud illos celebrari, 
quo Spiritus ille divinus in justorum sese animos insinuans, cum illis 
copulatur ; eumque non accidentarium, ut ita dicam, esse, hoc est 
qualitate duntaxat ilia coelesti ac divina perfici, quam in pectora 
nostra diffundit idem ccelestium donorum largitor ac procreator 
Spiritus, sed ovffKatiir), hoc est substantialem, ita ut substantia ipsa 
Spiritus Sancti nobiscum jungatur, nosque sanctos, ac justos, ac Dei 
denique Filios effieiat. Ac nonnullos etiam an ti quorum illorum 
dicentes audiet, tantum istud tamque stupendum Dei beneficium 
tune primum hominibus esse concessum, postquam Dei Filius homo 
factus ad usum hominum salutemque descendit, ut fructus iste sit 
adrentus, ac meritorum, et sanguinis ipsius, veteris Testament! justis 
hominibus nondum attributes ; quibus " nondum erat Spiritus datus, 
quia Jesus nondum fuerat glorificatus," ut Evangelista Joannes scribit. 

' Verum, antequam testes in medium adducam Grsecps illos Latinos- 


S. Gregory the Great, summing up the doctrine of 
S. Augustine, writes as follows : l ' The holy universal 
Church is one body, constituted under Christ Jesus 
its Head. . . . Therefore Christ, with His whole 
Church, both that which is still on earth and that 
which now reigns with Him in heaven, is one Person ; 
and as the soul is one which quickens the various 
members of the body, so the one Holy Spirit quickens 
and illuminates the whole Church. For as Christ, 
who is the Head of the Church, was conceived of the 
Holy Ghost, so the Holy Church, which is His body, 
is filled by the same Spirit that it may have life, is 
confirmed by His power that it may subsist in the 
bond of one faith and charity. Therefore the Apostle 
says, " from whom the whole body being compacted 
and fitly joined together maketh increase of the 
body." This is that body out of which the Spirit 
quickeneth not; wherefore the blessed Augustine 
says, "If thou wouldst live of the Spirit of Christ, 
be in the Body of Christ." Of this Spirit the 
heretic does not live, nor the schismatic, nor the 
excommunicated, for they are not of the body ; but 

que Patres, teste utar optimo omnium ipsomet Spiritu ; qui idipsum 
in sacris litteris tarn ssepe, tarn aperte prsedicavit, ut omnem hsesita- 
tionemsustulissevideatur.' Petavius,Zte Trin. lib. viii. cap.iv.p. 128. 
1 S. Greg. Expos, in Psal. v. Pcenit. torn. iii. p. 611. 


the Church hath a Spirit that giveth life, because it 
inheres inseparably to Christ its Head : for it is 
written, " He that adhereth to the Lord is one spirit 
with Him." ' 

In this passage S. Gregory traces out : 

1. The Head ; 

2. The body ; 

3. The mystical personality ; 

4. The conception ; 

5. The intrinsic and extrinsic unity of the Church, 

and the grace of sanctity and life, which is 
given by the Church alone. 

Hitherto I have refrained from doing more than 
trace out the meaning of the passages of Scripture 
and of the Fathers above cited. I will now go on to 
draw certain conclusions from them. 

And, first, it is evident that the present dispensa- 
tion, under which we are, is the dispensation of the 
Spirit, or of the Third Person of the Holy Trinity. 
To Him, in the Divine economy, has been committed 
the office of applying the redemption of the Son to 
the souls of men, by the vocation, justification, and 
salvation of the elect. We are, therefore, under the 
personal guidance of the Third Person as truly as 
the Apostles were under the guidance of the Second. 
The presence of the Eternal Son, by incarnation, was 


the centre of their unity ; the presence of the Eternal 
Spirit, by the incorporation of the mystical body, is 
the centre of unity to us. 

Again, it is evident that this dispensation of the 
Spirit, since the incarnation of the Son, and from 
the day of Pentecost, differs in many critical and 
characteristic ways from His presence and office in 
the world before the advent of Jesus Christ. It 
differs not only in exuberance of gifts and graces^ 
nor only in its miraculous manifestations, nor again 
in its universality, as if what was given before in 
measure was given afterwards in fulness, but in a 
deeper way, that is, in the office which He has as- 
sumed, and in the manner of His presence. 

I. And, first, the Holy Grhost came before into the 
world by His universal operations in all mankind, but 
now He comes through the Incarnate Son by a 
special and personal presence. 

As the Son of God has both an eternal generation 
and a temporal mission, that is, His eternal genera- 
tion from the Father, 1 and His temporal advent by 
incarnation, so the Spirit of Grod has likewise an 
eternal procession and a temporal mission from the 
Father and the Son. The eternal mission is the 
Passive Spiration, whereby the Person and relations 
1 Petav. De Trinitate, lib. viii. cap. 2. 


of the Holy Grhost to the Father and to the Son are 
eternally constituted. And this by the Fathers and 
Theologians l is called His eternal procession. The 
temporal mission of the Holy Grhost began from the 
day of Pentecost, when He came to us through the 
incarnate Son. S. Augustine teaches that this was 
signified by the material breath with which Jesus 
breathed upon His Apostles, when He said, ( Eeceive 
ye the Holy Grhost.' 2 It was the symbol and pledge 
of the gift which He had promised to them. It was 
reserved till He should be glorified. Then, on His 
Ascension to the right hand of Grod, the Holy Grhost 
was sent from the Father and the Son incarnate. 
S. Augustine calls the day of Pentecost the Dies 
Natalis or Nativity of the Holy Grhost. The Spirit of 
Grod had wrought before throughout the whole race 
descended from the first Adam. He came now by a 
special and personal mission to work in the children 
of the second Adam. The first Adam by sin forfeited 
for himself and for us the presence and grace of the 
Holy Grhost; the second Adam has restored to His 
children the presence and the grace which had been 
lost; but with this difference the first Adam was 

1 Petav. De Trinitate, lib. vii. cap. 18, sec. 5, 6. 
8 S. August. De Gen. ad Lit. torn. iii. p. 260. De Trin. lib. iv. 
torn. viii. p. 829. 


man, the second Adam is (rod. The first, though 
sinless, was capable of sinning ; the second, being 
God, could not sin. The Holy Ghost proceeds from 
the second Adam to us who are born again in the 
new creation of God. 

What has here been stated is expressed by S. Tho- 
mas as follows : On the question whether mission 
be eternal or temporal only, he says, ( It is to be said 
that in those things which imply the origin of Divine 
Persons a distinction is to be observed. For some 
things, by their signification, imply only the relation 
to their principle, as procession and going forth ; and 
some, together with the relation to their principle, 
determine the end for which they proceed. Of these 
some determine the eternal end, as generation and 
spiration ; for generation is the procession of a Divine 
Person in the Divine Nature, and spiration, taken 
passively, implies the procession of love subsisting (in 
the nature of God ). Other things with the relation to 
their principle imply the temporal end, as mission 
and gift ; for a thing is sent for this end that it may 
exist in another, and given to this end that it may be 
possessed. But that a Divine Person should be pos- 
sessed by any creature, or should be in it by a new 
mode of existence, is something temporal. Therefore 
mission and gift in things divine are predicated in a 

E 2 


temporal sense alone ; but generation and spiration 
are predicated only of eternity. But procession and 
going forth are predicated in things divine both 
eternally and temporally. From eternity He pro- 
ceeds as Grod, but temporally as Man also by a visible 
mission; and also that he may be in man by a 
mission which is invisible.' 1 And further, he adds, 
speaking of the mission of the Holy Grhost, ' But the 
visible mission was fulfilled to Christ in His baptism 
under the form of a dove which is a fruitful crea- 
ture to manifest the authority of bestowing grace 
by spiritual regeneration which was in Christ. . . . 
But in the transfiguration, under the form of a 
shining cloud, to manifest the exuberance of His 
teaching. . . . But to the Apostles, under the form 
of breath, to manifest the power of the ministry in 
the dispensation of sacraments ; wherefore He said to 
them, "Whosesoever sins you forgive they are forgiven 
unto them." But in tongues of fire to manifest the 
office of teaching, wherefore it is written, "They 
began to speak with various tongues." But to the 
Fathers of the Old Testament it was not fitting that 
the mission of the Holy Grhost should be visibly 
fulfilled, because it was fitting that the visible mis- 
sion of the Son should first be fulfilled before that of 
1 Divi Thomse Sum. ThcoL, prima pars, quaest. xliii. artic. 2. 


the Holy Ghost, forasmuch as the Holy Ghost mani- 
fests the Son, as the Son manifests the Father. But 
visible apparitions of Divine Persons were made to 
the Fathers of the Old Testament, which, however, 
cannot be called visible missions, because they were 
not made, as S. Augustine says, to designate the 
inhabitation of a Divine Person by grace, but to 
manifest something else.' l 

After profusely expounding these articles of S. 
Thomas, Suarez adds the following words, which are 
very much to our purpose : 2 ' And here a distinction 
may be noted between the mission of the Word . . . 
and this mission of the Spirit ; . . . that the mission 
of the Word is without merit given by the charity of 
God alone, according to the words of S. John, " God 
so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten 
Son:" but the mission of the Holy Ghost is given 
through the merits of the Word, and therefore the 
Spirit was not given until Jesus was glorified. Which 
Christ Himself also declared, saying, " I will pray the 
Father, and he shall give you another Paraclete." ' 

II. The second characteristic difference is, that the 
Holy Ghost came to create the mystical body of Christ. 

1 Divi Thomse Sum. TheoL, prima pars, quaest. xliii. artic. 7. 

2 Suarez, Comment, in Primam Partem D. Thoma, lib. xii. cap. 6, 
sect. 26, De Missione Personarum. 


Until the day of Pentecost the mystical body was 
not complete. There could be no body till there 
was a Head. There was no Head until the Son was 
incarnate ; and, even when incarnate, the completion 
of the body was deferred until the Head was glori- 
fied ; that is, until the Incarnate Son had fulfilled 
His whole redeeming office in life, death, resurrection, 
and ascension, returning to enthrone the Humanity 
with which His eternal Person was invested, at the 
right hand of the Father. Then, when the Head was 
exalted in His supreme majesty over angels and men, 
the creation and organisation of the body was com- 

All that had gone before was but type and shadow. 
The people of Israel, organised and bound together 
by their Priesthood, and by the ceremonies and ritual 
of the Tabernacle and the Temple, had but ( a shadow 
of things to come, but the body is Christ's.' l It 
was a Church after the measures and proportions 
of the times which then were. But it had no Incar- 
nate Head, no Divine Person proceeding from that 
Head to inhabit and to guide it. Its sacraments 
were shadows, working ex opere operantis, by the 
faith of the receiver, not by the divine virtue which 
went out from them. Its sacrifices and priesthood 
1 Col. ii. 17. 


were real in relation to the order which then was, but 
only shadows of the sacrifice and priesthood of the 
Incarnate Son, and of His Church which is now. 1 

What has here been affirmed may be proved by 
the following propositions : 

(1.) That Christ, as Head of the Church, is the 
fountain of all sanctity to His mystical body. ' In 
Him it hath well-pleased the Father that all fulness 
should dwell.' 2 ' He hath made Him Head over all 
the Church, which is His body, and the fulness of 
Him who is filled all in all.' 3 S. Gregory the Great 
says : ' For the Mediator between God and men, the 
man Christ Jesus, has present always and in all things 
Him who also proceeds from Himself by substance, 
namely, the same Spirit. In the saints who declare 
Him He abides, but in the Mediator He abides in 
fulness. Because in them He abides by grace for a 
special purpose, but in Him He abides by substance 
and for all things.' 4 S. Augustine says : e Is there 
then any other difference between that Head and the 
excellence of any member beside, that all the fulness 

1 I am aware that Tournelly appears to be contrary to this state- 
ment; but not only the stream of theologians is against him, but his 
argument, though perhaps not his words, may be shown to agree in 
substance with what is stated in the text, De Ecclesia, qusest. i. art. 3. 

2 Col. i. 19. Eph. i. 22, 23. 
4 S. Gregor. Moral, lib. ii. cap. ult. torn. i. p. 73. 


of the Divinity dwells in that body as in a temple ? 
Plainly there is. Because, by a special assumption 
of that Humanity, one Person with the Word is con- 
stituted. That assumption then was singular, and 
has nothing common with any men by whatsoever 
wisdom and holiness they may be sanctified.' l And 
again he says : ' It is one thing to be made wise by 
the wisdom of God, and another to bear the Person- 
ality of (rod's wisdom. For though the nature of the 
body of the Church be the same, who does not under- 
stand that there is a great distance between the Head 
and the members ? ' 2 

(2.) That the sanctification of the Church is ef- 
fected by the gift of the Holy Ghost. Forasmuch as 
it is s built together into an habitation of God in the 
Spirit ; ' 3 ( and the charity of God is poured out in 
our hearts by the Holy Ghost who is given unto us.' 4 

This proposition needs no further proof than the 
fact, that the Church is gathered from the world by 
baptism, and that into every soul rightly baptized 
the graces of Faith, Hope, and Charity are infused, 
together with the seven gifts, and a substantial union 
of the Holy Ghost with the soul is constituted. The 

1 S. August, torn. ii. Ep. clxxxvii. 40, p. 691. 
- De Agone Christiana, cap. 22, torn. vi. p. 254. 
3 Eph. ii. 22. 4 Eom. T. 5. 


sanctification therefore of souls is effected, not only 
by the effusion of created graces, but also by the per- 
sonal indwelling of the Sanctifier, and by their union 
with the uncreated sanctity of the Spirit of God. 
4 Know you not that you are the temple of God, and 
that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you ? . . . For 
the temple of Grod is holy, which (temple) you are.' l 
S. Athanasius says : ( We abide in God, and He in us, 
because He hath given us of His Spirit. But if by 
the presence of the Spirit who is in us we are made 
partakers of the Divine Nature, he is beside himself 
who shall say that this is done by a creature, and not 
by the Spirit of God. For the same cause He is in 
men, and they in whom He is are deified. But He 
who deifies, beyond all doubt, His nature is the nature 
of God.' 2 Again, S. Cyril says: 'Christ is formed 
in us by the Holy Ghost imparting to us a kind of 
Divine form by sanctification and justification.' 3 

(3.) That the Holy Ghost dwells personally and 
substantially in the mystical body, which is the in- 
corporation of those who are sanctified. This follows 
from the last, and needs no further proof. 

(4.) That the members of the mystical body who 

1 1 Cor. iii. 16, 17. 

8 S. Athan. Ep. I. ad Scrapionem, cap. 24, torn. ii. p. 672. 
3 S. Cyril. Alex. In Isaiam, lib. iv. orat. 2, torn. ii. p. 591. Ed. 
Paris, 1638. 


are sanctified, partake not only of the created graces, 
but of a substantial union with the Holy Ghost. This 
has been already proved above. 

(5.) That this substantial union of the Holy Ghost 
with the mystical body, though analogous to the 
hypostatic union, is not hypostatic ; forasmuch as 
the human personality of the members of Christ still 
subsists in this substantial union. 1 

I forbear to add more to this second distinction ; 
but I would refer those who desire to see it fully 
treated, to the tenth chapter of the Sixth Book, De 
Incarnatione Verbi, in the Theologia Dogmatica of 
Thomassinus. We may therefore proceed to another 

III. Thirdly, a further characteristic difference is 
constituted by the indissoluble union between the 
Holy Ghost and the mystical body. Before the 
Incarnation, the Holy Spirit wrought in the souls 
of men one by one, illuminating, converting, sanc- 
tifying, and perfecting the elect. But the union 
between His presence and the soul was conditional on 
the correspondence and fidelity of the individual. It 
was a dissoluble union, and in the multitudes who fell 
from grace it was actually dissolved. In the faithful, as 
in Enoch and in Daniel, that union was sustained to 

1 Petav. De Trinitate, lib. viii. cap. 7, 12. 


the end. In the unfaithful, as in Saul and in Solo- 
mon, after their great graces, it was dissolved. We 
also are under the same law of individual probation. 
If we persevere in faith, hope, charity and contri- 
tion, the union between us and the presence of the 
Holy Spirit in us remains firm. If we fail, we dis- 
solve it. It is therefore conditional, depending upon 
our finite, frail and unstable will. And yet such is 
the strange and superficial view of those who have 
been deprived of the perfect light of faith by the 
great spiritual anarchy of the last three hundred 
years. Having lost the conception of the Church as 
distinct from a multitude of individuals told by num- 
ber, they suppose the union of the Holy Spirit with 
the Church to be also conditional and dissoluble. 

It is manifest, however, that the union of the Holy 
Grhost with the Church is not conditional, but absolute, 
depending upon no finite will, but upon the Divine 
will alone, and therefore indissoluble to all eternity. 
For it is constituted (1) by the union of the Holy 
Grhost with the Head of the Church, not only as Grod 
but as Man, and in both these relations this union is 
indissoluble. It is constituted further (2) by His union 
with the mystical body, which, as a body, is impe- 
rishable, though individuals in it may perish. There 
will never come a time when that body will cease to 


be, and therefore there will never come a time when 
the Holy Grhost will cease to be united to it. The 
mystical body will exist to all eternity in the perfect 
number of the blessed. These Divine unions, namely, 
First, of the Head with the members ; next, of the 
members with each other ; and, lastly, of the Holy 
Grhost with the body, will be likewise eternal. And 
in the state of glory the perfect personal identity 
and perfect mutual recognition of the saints in all 
their orders will perpetuate that which here consti- 
tutes the symmetry and perfection of the Church. 
But that which shall be eternal is indissoluble also 
in time the union, that is, of the Spirit with the 
body as a whole. Individuals may fall from it as 
multitudes have fallen ; provinces, nations, parti- 
cular churches may fall from it ; but the body still 
remains, its unity undivided, its life indefectible. 
And that because the line of the faithful is never 
broken ; the chain of the elect is always woven link 
within link, and wound together in the mysterious 
course and onward movement of truth and grace in 
the hearts and wills of the regenerate. The line of 
faith, hope, and charity is never dissolved. The 
threefold cord cannot be broken, and the ever-blessed 
Trinity always inhabits His tabernacle upon earth 
the souls of the elect, who < are builded together into 


an habitation of God in the Spirit.' l The union 
therefore of the Spirit with the body can never be 
dissolved. It is a Divine act, analogous to the 
hypostatic union, whereby the two natures of Grod 
and man are eternally united in one Person. So the 
mystical body, the head and the members, constitute 
one mystical person ; and the Holy Grhost inhabiting 
that body, and diffusing His created grace throughout 
it, animates it as the soul quickens the body of a man. 
From this flow many truths. First, the Church is 
not an individual, but a mystical person, and all its 
endowments are derived from the Divine Person of 
its Head, and the Divine Person who is its Life. As 
in the Incarnation there is a communication of the 
Divine perfections to the humanity, so in the Church 
the perfections of the Holy Spirit become the endow- 
ments of the body. It is imperishable, because He 
is Grod ; indivisibly one, because He is numerically 
one ; holy, because He is the fountain of holiness ; 
infallible both in believing and in teaching, because 
His illumination and His voice are immutable, and 
therefore, being not an individual depending upon 
the fidelity of a human will, but a body depending 
only on the Divine will, it is not on trial or probation, 
but is itself the instrument of probation to mankind. 
1 Epb. ii. 22. 


It cannot be affected by the frailty or sins of the human 
will, any more than the brightness of the firmament by 
the dimness or the loss of human sight. It can no more 
be tainted by human sin than the holy sacraments, 
which are always immutably pure and divine, though 
all who come to them be impure and faithless. What 
the Church was in the beginning it is now, and ever 
shall be in all the plenitude of its divine endow- 
ments, because the union between the body and the 
Spirit is indissoluble, and all the operations of the 
Spirit in the body are perpetual and absolute. 

The multitude and fellowship of the just who, 
from Abel to the Incarnation, had lived and died in 
faith and union with Grod, constituted the soul of a 
body which should be hereafter. They did not con- 
stitute the body, but they were waiting for it. They 
did not constitute the Church, which signifies not 
only the election but the aggregation of the servants 
of Grod; not only the calling out, but the calling 
together into one all those who are united to Him. 
Some of the Fathers do indeed speak of them as the 
Church, because they were to the then world what 
the Church is now to the world of to-day. They 
belong also to the Church, though it did not then 
exist, j ust as the Lamb was slain from the foundation 
of the world, though the sacrifice on Calvary was 


four thousand years deferred. All grace was from 
the beginning given through the Most Precious 
Blood, though as yet it had not been shed. So the 
mystical body had its members, though as yet it 
was not created. They were admitted to it when 
the kingdom of heaven was opened to them and the 
Incarnate Word was exalted to His glory as Head 
over all things to the Church. 

As then till the Incarnation there was no Incarnate 
Head, so till the day of Pentecost there was no com- 
plete organisation. The members were not united to 
the Head, nor to each other, nor as a body to the Holy 
Grhost. But it is these three Divine unions which 
constitute the organisation of the mystical body. And 
these three unions were constituted by the mission of 
the Holy Grhost from the Incarnate Son, and by His 
descent and inhabitation in the members of Christ. 

IV. The fourth difference is that whereas the Holy 
Grhost wrought invisibly before the Incarnation, He 
has by His temporal mission manifested His presence 
and His operations by the Visible Church of Jesus 

1. The Church is the evidence of His presence 
among men. Before the Incarnation He wrought un- 
seen, and by no revealed law of His operations. Now 
He has assumed the mystical body as the visible in- 


corporation of His presence, and the revealed channel 
of His grace. The Visible Church is a creation 
so purely divine, and its endowments are so visibly 
supernatural, that it can be referred to no cause or 
origin below God. 

(1) The Church witnesses to the presence of a Di- 
vine Person by its supernatural unity. The first for- 
mation of its unity by the assimilation of the intel- 
lects and wills of men who had never agreed before, 
and of nations, races, and kingdoms perpetually anta- 
gonist, and perpetually contending about everything 
but the faith, is a work self- evidently divine. 

The wonderful world-wide coherence of this unity, 
resisting all the solvents of human subtlety and all 
the efforts of human strength, and perpetuating itself 
through all antagonisms and through all ages un- 
divided and indivisible, is evidence of a power higher 
than man. S. Augustine asks : ( What did the advent 
of the Holy Ghost accomplish ? How did He teach 
us His presence ? How did He manifest it ? They 
all spoke with the tongues of all nations. . . . One 
man spoke with the tongues of all nations. The 
unity of the Church is in the tongues of all nations. 
Behold here the unity of the Catholic Church diffused 
throughout the world is declared.' l Again : ' Where- 
1 Serm. in Die Pent., n. torn. v. p. 1091. 


fore as then (Pentecost) the tongues of all nations, 
spoken by one man, showed the presence of one man, 
so now the charity of the unity of all nations shows 
Him to be here.' 2 

(2) Secondly, it witnesses for a supernatural pre- 
sence by its imperishableness in the midst of all the 
works of man, which are perpetually resolving them- 
selves again into the dust out of which they were 

(3) Thirdly, the Visible Church witnesses to the 
presence of the Spirit of Truth by its immutability 
in doctrine of faith, and morals. 

And all these truths point to the presence of a 
Divine Power and Person, by whom alone such gifts 
could be communicated to men. The visible in- 
corporation of the Church therefore becomes the 
manifestation of His presence. * One body, one 
Spirit,' is not only a fact, but a revelation. We 
know that there is the Spirit because there is the 
body. The body is one because the Spirit is one. 
The unity of the Holy Grhost is the intrinsic reason 
of the unity of the Church. Because His illumina- 
tion is one and changeless, its intelligence is one 
and immutable. Because His charity never varies, 

1 Serm. in Die Pent. m. torn. v. p. 1094. 


therefore the unity of its communion can never be 
suspended. He organises and unfolds the mystical 
body, His own presence being the centre of its unity 
and the principle of its cohesion. What the dove 
was at Jordan, and the tongues of fire at Pentecost, 
that the one visible Church is now ; the witness of 
the mission, advent, and perpetual presence of the 
Spirit of the Father and of the Son. 

2. It is, further, the instrument of His power. 

And that, first, by the perpetuity and diffusion of 
the light of the Incarnation throughout the world 
and throughout all time. 

Next by the perpetuity of sanctifying grace. And 
that by the perpetuity of the Seven Sacraments, which 
initiate and envelope the whole spiritual life of man 
from birth to death, sanctifying the soul in all its 
ages, and relations to (rod and to human life, and 
organising the Church perpetually, multiplying its 
members by baptism, renewing the body as it is 
diminished by natural death, propagating by the 
spiritual generation the line of its pastors, and giving 
to it a supernatural centre and solidity in the sacra- 
ment of the altar, which in the midst of the other 
sacraments, that are transient, abides for ever, the 
permanent presence of the Word made flesh in the 
tabernacle of God with men. 


3. Thirdly, in virtue of the perpetual presence of 
the Holy Ghost united indissolubly to the body of 
Christ, not only the ordinary and sacramental actions 
of grace are perpetual, but also the extraordinary 
operations and gifts of miracles, visions, and pro- 
phecy abide always in the Church, not in all men, 
nor manifested at all times, but present always, dis- 
tributed to His servants severally at His will, and for 
the ends known to His wisdom, sometimes revealed, 
sometimes hidden from us. 

4. Lastly, the body of Christ is the organ of His 

Our Lord has said, e He that heareth you heareth 
me.' ' Ye shall be witnesses unto me.' ( Go ye into 
all the world and preach the Gospel to every creature.' 
'He that despiseth, despiseth not man, but God.' 1 
How should these things be true, or rather how should 
not these words be most illusory and false, if the per- 
petual, living voice of the Church in all ages were not 
identified with the voice of Jesus Christ ? S. Augus- 
tine asks, as we have already seen, with the point and 
power which is his own, If the body and the head, 
Christ and the Church, be ' one flesh, how are they 
not also one voice ? ' ' Si in carne una, quomodo 
non in voce una ? ' 

1 1 Thess. iv. 8. 
F 2 


To sum up, then, what has been said in the lan- 
guage of theology. 

1. First, from the indissoluble union of the Holy 
Spirit with the Church flow the three properties of 
Unity, Visibleness, and Perpetuity. 

Unity is the intrinsic unity of intelligence, will, 
and organisation, generated from within by the 
unity of the Person and the operation of the Holy 
Grhost. The property of Unity is not extrinsic and 
constitutional, but intrinsic and essential. 

Next, the property of Visibleness is a necessary 
consequence of the constitution of a body or a society 
of men bound by public laws of worship and practice. 

Lastly, Perpetuity is a necessary consequence of 
the indissoluble union of the soul with the body, of 
the Spirit with the Church. 

2. From the same indissoluble union flow next 
the endowments of the Church ; namely, Inde.fecti- 
bility in life and duration, Infallibility in teaching, 
and Authority in governing the flock of Jesus Christ. 

These are effects springing from the same sub- 
stantial union of the Holy Spirit with the Church, 
and reside by an intrinsic necessity in the mystical 

3. Lastly, the four Notes: Unity, which is the 
external manifestation of the intrinsic and divine 


unity of which we have spoken. Unity, as a property, 
is the source and cause of unity as a note. Next, 
Sanctity, which also flows by a necessity from the 
union of the Holy Ghost, the Sanctifier, with the 
mystical body, to which a twofold sanctity is im- 
parted : namely, the created grace of sanctity which 
resides in all the just; and the substantial union 
of the just with the uncreated sanctity of the Holy 
Grhost. Thirdly, Catholicity, or universality, that is, 
not mere extension, but also identity in all places ; 
and, lastly, Apostolicity, or conformity with its ori- 
ginal the mission and institution of the Apostles. 

These four notes strike the eye of the world, be- 
cause they lie upon the surface. But the endow- 
ments and the properties are the ultimate motives 
into which the faithful resolve their submission to 
the Church of God. They believe, through the 
Church, in Him who is the fountain of all its super- 
natural gifts, Grod the Holy Grhost, always present, 
the perpetual and Divine Teacher of the revelation 
of God, ' the Truth as it is in Jesus.' 

V. The fifth and last distinction I will note between 
the presence and manner of operation of the Holy 
Ghost before the Incarnation and His own Temporal 
Mission in the world is this: whereas, before that 
epoch of the Divine Economy, the Holy Spirit taught 


and sanctified individuals, and spoke by the Prophets 
by virtue of His light and power, but with an inter- 
mittent exercise of His visitations, now He is present 
personally and substantially in the body of Christ, 
and both teaches and sanctifies, without intermission, 
with a perpetual divine voice and a perpetual sancti- 
fying power ; or, in other words, the divine action of 
the day of Pentecost is permanent, and pervades the 
world so far as the Church is diffused, and pervades 
all ages, the present as fully as the past, to-day as 
fully as in the beginning ; or, again in other words, 
both theological and conventional, the living Church 
in every age is the sole divine channel of the revela- 
tion of Grod, and the infallible witness and teacher 
of the truths therein revealed. 

Before I enter further into the exposition and 
proof of this proposition, I will at once point out 
its bearing upon what is called the Eule of Faith, i. e. 
the test whereby to know what we are to believe. 
In the last analysis there can be conceived only three 
such rules ; namely 

1. First, the voice of a living judge and teacher, 
both of doctrines and of their interpretation, guided 
by the assistance of the same Person who gave 
the original revelation, and inspired the writers of 
Holy Scripture, or, in other words, the same Holy 


Spirit from whom in the beginning both the Faith 
and the Scriptures were derived, perpetually pre- 
serving the same, and declaring them through the 
Church as His organ : 

2. Secondly, the Scripture, interpreted by the 
reason of individuals in dependence on their natural 
and supernatural light : or, 

3. Thirdly, Scripture and antiquity, interpreted 
both by individuals, and by local or particular 
Churches appealing to the faith of the first centuries 
and to the councils held before the division of the 
East and West. 

Now, it will be observed, that these three proposi- 
tions resolve themselves into two only. They do not 
so much enunciate three rules, as two judges proceed- 
ing by two distinct processes. The first is the living 
Church proceeding by the perpetual presence and 
assistance of the Spirit of God in the custody and 
declaration of the original revelation. 

The two last are resolvable into one ; that is, the 
individual reason proceeding either by Scripture 
alone, or by Scripture and antiquity. But these are 
identical processes. The matter differs in its nature 
and extent, the process is one and the same. 

There can be ultimately no intermediate between 
the Divine mind declaring itself through an organ 


of its own creation, or the human mind judging for 
itself upon the evidence and contents of revelation. 
There is or there is not a perpetual Divine Teacher 
in the midst of us. The human reason must be 
either the disciple or the critic of revelation. 

Now I shall dismiss at once the rule which con- 
stitutes the individual as the judge of Scripture, or of 
Scripture and antiquity. It is already rejected even 
by many Protestants. They who hold it in either form 
are of two classes : either pious persons, who make 
a conscience of not reasoning about the grounds of 
their faith, or such as are still as many were once 
simply entangled in a circle which is never discovered 
until the divine fact of the presence and office of the 
Holy Grhost in the mystical body becomes intelligible 
to them. 

The only form of the question I will now notice is 
as follows: There are some who appeal from the 
voice of the living Church to antiquity ; professing to 
believe that while the Church was united it was 
infallible ; that when it became divided it ceased to 
speak infallibly; and that the only certain rule of 
faith is to believe that which the Church held and 
taught while yet it was united and therefore infal- 
lible. Such reasoners fail to observe, that since the 
supposed division, and cessation of the infallible voice, 


there remains no divine certainty as to what was 
then infallibly taught. To affirm that this or that 
doctrine was taught then where it is now disputed, is 
to beg the question. The infallible Church of the 
first six centuries that is, before the division was 
infallible to those who lived in those ages, but is not 
infallible to us. It spoke to them ; to us it is silent. 
Its infallibility does not reach to us, for the Church 
of the last twelve hundred years is by the hypothesis 
fallible, and may therefore err in delivering to us 
what was taught before the division. And it is cer- 
tain that either the East or the West, as it is called, 
must err in this, for they contradict each other as to 
the faith before the division. I do not speak of the 
protests of later separations, because no one can 
invest them with an infallibility which they not 
only disclaim for themselves, but deny anywhere to 

Now, this theory of an infallible undivided Church 
then and a Church divided and fallible now proceeds 
on two assumptions, or rather contains in itself two 
primary errors. It denies the indivisible unity of 
the Church, and the perpetual voice of the Holy 
Grhost. And both these errors are resolvable into 
one and the same master error, the denial of the true 
and indissoluble union between the Holy Ghost and 


the Church of Jesus Christ. From this one error all 
errors of these later ages flow. 

The indissoluble union of the Holy Grhost with the 
Church carries these two truths as immediate conse- 
quences : first, that the unity of the Church is abso- 
lute, numerical, and indivisible, like the unity of 
nature in Grod, and of the personality in Jesus Christ : 
and secondly, that its infallibility is perpetual. 

(1.) S. Cyprian says, ' Unus Deus, unus Christus, una 
Ecclesia.' And this extrinsic unity springs from the 
intrinsic that is, from the presence and operations 
of the Holy Grhost, by whom the body is inhabited, 
animated, and organised. One principle of life can- 
not animate two bodies, or energise in two organisa- 
tions. One mind and one will fuses and holds in 
perfect unity the whole multitude of the faithful 
throughout all ages, anfl throughout all the world. 
The unity of faith, hope, and charity the unity of 
the one common Teacher renders impossible all 
discrepancies of belief and of worship, and renders 
unity of communion, not a constitutional law or an 
external rule of discipline, but an intrinsic necessity 
and an inseparable property and expression of the 
internal and supernatural unity of the mystical 
body under one Head and animated by one Spirit. 
It is manifest, therefore, that division is impossible. 


The unity of the Church refuses to be numbered in 
plurality. To talk of Koman, Greek, and Anglican 
Churches, is to deny the Articles, c I believe in the 
Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church,' and the 
Divine relation constituted between them. The re- 
lation is a Divine fact, and its enunciation is a Divine 
truth. S. Bede says, with a wonderful precision and 
depth, 'If every kingdom divided against itself is 
brought to desolation, for that reason the kingdom 
of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost is not divided.' ' 
(2.) And next, as the unity is perpetual, so is the 
infallibility. Once infallible, always infallible : in the 
first, in the fifth, in the fifteenth, in the nineteenth 
century : the Divine Teacher always present, and the 
organ of His voice always the same. A truncated in- 
fallibility is impossible. To affirm that it has been 
suspended because of the sins of men, denies the per- 
petuity of the office of the Holy Ghost, and even of His 
presence ; for to suppose Him present but dormant, is 
open to the reproach of Elias; to suppose His office to 
be suspended, is to conceive of the Divine Teacher 
after the manner of men. And further : this theory 
denies altogether the true and divine character of the 

1 'Si autem omne regmun in seipsum divisum desolatur ; ergo 
Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti regnum non est divisum.' Horn. Ven. 
Bed. in cap. xi. S. Luc. 


mystical body as a creation of God, distinct from all 
individuals, and superior to them all : not on proba- 
tion, because not dependent on any human will, but 
on the Divine will alone ; and, therefore, not subject to 
human infirmity, but impeccable, and the instrument 
of probation to the world. All these truths are denied 
in a mass by the assertion that the Church has been 
divided, and has, therefore, been unable to teach, as it 
did before, with an infallible voice. And not these 
truths only are denied, but many more, on which the true 
constitution and endowments of the Church depend. 

We will now return to the fifth difference of which 
I began to speak, namely, the perpetual plenitude of 
the office and operations of the Holy Grhost in all 
ages, in and through the Church, both as the Author 
of all grace by ordinary and extraordinary super- 
natural operations, and as the Witness, Judge, and 
Teacher of all truth in and by the Church, the organ 
of His perpetual voice to mankind. 

It is, I believe, admitted by all that the sacramental 
and sanctifying graces of the Holy Spirit continue to 
this day as they were in the beginning ; or, in other 
words, that the office of the Holy Grhost as the Sanc- 
tifier is perpetual in all its fulness. 

How is it that anyone can fail to perceive that 
the condition of our sanctification is Truth, and that 


the perpetuity of the office of the Sanctifier presup- 
poses the perpetuity of the office of the Illuminator ? 
These two prerogatives of the Holy Ghost are coordi- 
nate, and I may say commensurate that is, both 
continue to this day in all fulness as at the first. 

Now, the office of the Holy Spirit as the Illumi- 
nator has a special promise of perpetuity. It is 
under the character of this Spirit of Truth that our 
Lord promises that He should 'abide with us for 
ever.' l ' He shall bring all things to your mind,' 2 
not to the Apostles only, but to all 'who should 
believe in their word.' 

And this office of the Holy Grhost consists in the 
following operations : First, in the original illumina- 
tion and revelation in the minds of the Apostles, and 
through them to the Church throughout the world. 

Secondly, in the preservation of that which was 
revealed, or, in other words, in the prolongation of 
the light of truth by which the Church in the begin- 
ning was illuminated. The Light of the Church 
never wanes, but is permanent. ( The city has no 
need of the sun, nor of the moon, to shine in it. For 
the glory of Grod doth enlighten it ; and the Lamb is 
the lamp thereof.' 3 

Thirdly, in assisting the Church to conceive, with 

1 S. John adv. 16. 2 S. John xiv. 26. 3 Apoc. xxi. 23. 


greater fulness, explicitness, and clearness, the origi- 
nal truth in all its relations. 

Fourthly, in denning that truth in words, and in 
the creation of a sacred terminology, which becomes 
a permanent tradition and a perpetual expression of 
the original revelation. 

Lastly, in the perpetual enunciation and proposi- 
tion of the same immutable truth in every age. The 
Holy Spirit, through the Church, enunciates to this 
day the original revelation with an articulate voice, 
which never varies or falters. Its voice to-day is 
identical with the voice of every age, and is therefore 
identical with the voice of Jesus Christ. ( He that 
heareth you heareth Me.' It is the voice of Jesus 
Christ Himself, for the Holy Grhost ' receives ' of the 
Son that which f He shews to us.' 1 

And this office of enunciating and proposing the 
faith is accomplished through the human lips of the 
pastors of the Church. The pastoral authority, or the 
Episcopate, together with the priesthood and the 
other orders, constitute an organised body, divinely 
ordained to guard the deposit of the Faith. The 
voice of that body, not as so many individuals, but 
as a body, is the voice of the Holy Ghost. The pas- 
toral ministry as a body cannot err, because the Holy 

1 S. John xvi. 


Spirit, who is indissolubly united to the mystical 
body, is eminently and above all united to the hier- 
archy and body of its pastors. The Episcopate united 
to its centre is, in all ages, divinely sustained and 
divinely assisted to perpetuate and to enunciate the 
original revelation. It is not my purpose here to offer 
proof of this assertion. To do so belongs to the 
treatise De Ecclesia; but I may note that the promise 
of the Temporal Mission of the Holy Grhost was made 
emphatically to the Apostles, and inclusively to the 
faithful ; and emphatically, therefore, to the succes- 
sors of the Apostles in all ages of the Church. c He 
shall give you another Paraclete, who shall abide 
with you for ever, even the Spirit of Truth.' Again, 
it was to the Apostles as emphatically, and therefore 
to their successors with equal emphasis, that our 
Lord, when He constituted them the sole fountain of 
His faith and law and jurisdiction to the world, 
pledged also His perpetual presence and assistance 
'all days, even unto the consummation of the 
world.' And once more, it was to Peter as the 
head and centre of the Apostles, and for their sakes 
and for their support in faith, that our Divine Lord 
said, 6 1 have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not, 
and when thou art converted confirm thy brethren.' 
It is needless for me to say that the whole tradition 


of the Fathers recognises the perpetuity of the Apo- 
stolic College in the Episcopate diffused throughout 
the world. S. Irenaaus declares it to be anointed 
with the the unction of the truth, alluding to the 
words of S. John, e You have the unction from the 
Holy One, and know all things.' ' And as for you, 
let the unction which you have received from Him 
abide in you. And you have no need that any 
man teach you ; but as His unction teacheth you 
of all things, and is truth, and is no lie. And as it 
hath taught you, abide in Him.' l 

And thus the revelation of Grod is divinely pre- 
served and divinely proposed to the world. A Divine 
revelation in human custody is soon lost ; a Divine 
revelation expounded by human interpreters, or 
enunciated by human discernment, puts off its Divine 
character and becomes human, as S. Jerome says of 
the Scriptures, when perverted by men. 

So it might be said of the Church. But God has 
provided that what He has revealed should be for 
ever preserved and enunciated by the perpetual pre- 
sence and assistance of the same Spirit from whom 
the revelation originally came. And this gives us 
the basis of divine certainty and the rule of divine 

1 S. John ii. 20-27. 


( 1 ) The voice of the living Church of this hour, 
when it declares what Grod has revealed is no other 
than the voice of the Holy Spirit, and therefore 
generates divine faith in those who believe. The Bap- 
tismal Creed represents at this day, in all the world, 
the preaching of the Apostles and the faith of Pente- 
cost. It is the voice of the same Divine Teacher who 
spoke in the beginning, enunciating now the same 
truths in the same words. 

(2) Holy Scripture, known to be such, and rightly 
understood, is certainly the voice of the Holy Grhost, 
and likewise may generate acts of Divine faith. 

(3) Whatsoever Tradition is found in all the 
world, neither written in Scripture nor decreed by 
any Council of the Church, but running up beyond 
the Scripture and the General Councils, is, according 
to S. Augustine's rule, certainly of divine origin. 1 

(4) The Decrees of General Councils are un- 
doubtedly the voice of the Holy Grhost, both because 
they are the organs of the active infallibility of the 
Church, and because they have the pledge of a special 
divine assistance according to the needs of the Church 
and of the Faith. 

(5) The Definitions and Decrees of Pontiffs, speak- 
ing ex cathedra, or as the Head of the Church and 

1 S. Aug. De Bapt. cont. Donat. lib. iv. 31, torn. ix. p. 140. 


to the whole Church, whether by Bull, or Apo- 
stolic Letters, or Encyclical, or Brief, to many or 
to one person, undoubtedly emanate from a divine 
assistance, and are infallible. 

S. Augustine argues as follows of the Head and the 
body : ( Therefore as the soul animates and quickens 
our whole body, but perceives in the head by the 
action of life, by hearing, by smelling, by the taste, 
and by touch, in the other members by touch alone 
(for all are subject to the head in their operation, 
the head being placed above them for their guidance, 
since the head bears the personality of the soul itself, 
which guides the body, for there all the senses are 
manifested), so to the whole people of the saints, as 
of one body, the man Christ Jesus, the Mediator 
between Grod and man, is head.' 1 

Now the Pontiffs, as Vicars of Jesus Christ, have a 
twofold relation, the one to the Divine Head of the 
Church of whom they are the representatives on earth, 
the other to the whole body. And these two relations 
impart a special prerogative of grace to him that 
bears them. The endowments of the head, as S. 
Augustine argues, are in behalf of the body. It is a 
small thing to say that the endowments of the body 
are the prerogatives of the head. The Vicar of Jesus 

1 De Agone Christiano, cap. xxii. torn. vi. p. 254. 


Christ would bear no proportion to the body if, while 
it is infallible, he were not. He would bear also no 
representative character if he were the fallible witness 
of an infallible Head. Though the analogy observed 
by S. Augustine between the head and the members 
cannot strictly apply to the Vicar of Christ and the 
members upon earth, nevertheless it invests him with 
a preeminence of guidance and direction over the 
whole body, which can neither be possessed by any 
other member of the body, nor by the whole body 
without him, and yet attaches to him personally and 
alone as representing to the body the prerogatives of 
its Divine Head. The infallibility of the Head of 
the Church extends to the whole matter of revelation, 
that is, to the Divine truth and the Divine law, and 
to all those facts or truths which are in contact with 
faith and morals. The definitions of the Church 
include truths of the natural order, and the revelation 
of supernatural truth is in contact with natural ethics, 
politics, and philosophy. The doctrines of the con- 
substantiality of the Son, of transubstantiation, and 
of the constitution of humanity, touch upon truths 
of philosophy and of the natural order, but being in 
contact with the faith, they fall within the infal- 
libility of the Church. So again the judgments of 
Pontiffs in matters which affect the welfare of the 

G 2 


whole Church, such as the condemnation of proposi- 
tions. In all declarations that such propositions are, 
as the case may be, heretical or savouring of heresy, 
or erroneous, or scandalous, or offensive to pious 
ears, and the like, the assistance of the Holy Spirit 
certainly preserves the Pontiffs from error ; and such 
judgments are infallible, and demand interior assent 
from all. 

(6) The unanimous voice of the Saints in any 
matter of the Divine truth or law can hardly be 
believed to be other than the voice of the Spirit of 
God by the rule, ( Consensus Sanctorum sensus Spi- 
ritus Sancti est.' l 

And though there is no revealed pledge of infalli- 
bility to the Saints as such, yet the consent of the 
Saints is a high test of what is the mind and illumi- 
nation of the Spirit of Truth. 

(7) The voice of Doctors, when simply delivering 
the dogma of the Church, is identified with the voice 
of the Church, and partakes of its certainty. But in 
commenting on it they speak as private men, and 
their authority is human. 

(8) The voice of the Fathers has weight as that 
of Saints and of Doctors, and also as witnesses to 

1 Melchior Canus, De Locis TheoL, de Sanctor. Auct. lib. vii. 
cap. iii. concl. 5. 


the faith in the ages in which they lived, and yet 
they cannot generate divine faith nor afford a divine 
certainty. As S. Gregory the Great says : ' Doctores 
Fidelium discipulos Ecclesise.' They are taught by 
the Church ; and the judgment of a Council or a 
Pontirf is generically distinct from the witness or 
judgment of any number of Fathers, and is of a 
higher order, and emanates from a special assistance. 

(9) The authority of Philosophers is still more 
evidently fallible, because more simply human. 

(10) The authority of Human Histories is more 
uncertain still, and can afford no adequate motive 
of divine certainty. 

(11) The Reason or Private Judgment of indi- 
viduals exercised critically upon history, philosophy, 
theology, Scripture, and revelation, inasmuch as it is 
the most human, is also the most fallible and uncer- 
tain of all principles of faith, and cannot in truth be 
rightly described to be such. Yet this is ultimately 
all that remains to those who reject the infallibility 
of the living Church. 

In conclusion, if the relation between the body and 
the Spirit be conditional and dissoluble, then the 
enunciations of the Church are fallible and subject to 
human criticism. 

If the relation be absolute and indissoluble, then 


all its enunciations by Pontiffs, Councils, Traditions, 
Scriptures, and universal consent of the Church, are 
divine, and its voice also is divine, and identified with 
the voice of its Divine Head in heaven. 

But that the relation between the body and the 
Spirit is absolute and indissoluble, the Theologians, 
Fathers, Scriptures, and the universal Church, as we 
have seen above, declares. 

And therefore the infallibility of the Church is 
perpetual, and the truths of revelation are so enun- 
ciated by the Church as to anticipate all research, and 
to exclude from their sphere all human criticism. 




IN the last chapter I have, I trust, established the 
indissolubility of the union between the Holy Spirit 
and the Holy Catholic Church; from which follows, 
by necessity, its perpetual infallibility, both active 
and passive. I have indicated, at least in outline, 
the organs through which that infallibility is exercised, 
and have noted the degrees of authority possessed by 
them, and the kind and degrees of assent required 
by the acts and words of the Church or of its members. 

In the present chapter I purpose to trace out the 
relation of the Holy Spirit to the reason of man, both 
the collective reason of the Church and the individual 
reason of its members taken one by one. 

Now there are two ways in which the relation of 
the Holy Spirit delivering the revelation of God to 
the human reason may be treated. 

1. First, we might consider the relation of reve- 


lation to reason in those who as yet do not believe ; 
that is, in the examination of evidence to establish 
the fact of a revelation, and to ascertain its nature. 

2. Secondly, the relation of revelation to reason 
after the fact has been accepted. 

In the first case the reason acts as a judge of evi- 
dence, in the second it submits as a disciple to a 
Divine Teacher. 

In the former case the reason must, by necessity, 
act as a judge in estimating the motives of credi- 
bility. Adults in every age become Christian upon 
being convinced by the proper evidence that Chris- 
tianity is a divine revelation. This process of 
reason is the preamble of faith. Once illuminated, 
the reason of man becomes the disciple of a Divine 

Such was the state of those who in the beginning 
came as adults to Christianity. Now they are the 
exceptions in Christendom. The rule of God's deal- 
ings is that revelation should be, not a discovery, 
but an inheritance. To illustrate my meaning I may 
say Adult baptism was at first the rule, now it is the 
exception; Infant baptism is the rule of God's dealing 
with us. So we inherit revelation before we examine 
it; and faith anticipates judgment. Again, to state the 
same in other words, there are two ways of considering 


the relation of reason to revelation, the one according 
to the logical and the other the historical order. 


S. Thomas treats it in the logical order. He says 
that science or rational knowledge is useful and 
necessary to faith in four ways: (1) Faith presup- 
poses the operations of reason on the motives of 
credibility for which we believe. (2) Faith is ren- 
dered intrinsically credible by reason. (3) Faith 
is illustrated by reason. (4) Faith is defended by 
reason against the sophisms of false philosophy. 1 

It will perhaps be easier if we take the historical 
order, because it follows more simply the method of 
(rod's dealing with us. We will therefore treat first 
of the rule, and hereafter, so far as needs be, of the 

I speak then of the relations of reason to revelation 
in those who are within the light and tradition of truth. 

I. The first relation of reason to revelation is to 
receive it by intellectual apprehension. It is like 
the relation of the eye to the light. There are, I 
may say, two kinds of sight, the passive and the 
active ; that is, in plain words, there is a difference 
between seeing and looking. In the former the will 
is quiescent, in the latter it is in activity. We see 

1 Sanseverino, I principali Sistemi della Filosofia sul Criteria. 
Napoli, 1858, p. 14. 


a thousand things when we look only at one; we 
see the light even when we do not consciously fix 
the eye upon any particular object by an act of the 
will. So the intellect is both passive and active. 
And the intellect must first be in some degree pass- 
ively replenished or illuminated by an object before 
it can actively apply itself to it. What is this but 
to go back to our old lessons in logic, to the three 
primary operations of the mind apprehension, judg- 
ment, and discourse or process of reasoning ? Now 
the apprehension of our logic is what may be called 
the passive relation of the reason to revelation, by 
which it apprehends, or understands, or knows, call it 
which we will, the meaning or outline of the truth 
presented to it before as yet it has made any act 
either of judgment or of discourse. 

And this may be said to be the normal and most 
perfect relation of the reason to revelation. It is 
the nearest approach which can be made in this 
world to the quiescent contemplation of truth. It is 
the state into which we return after the most pro- 
longed and active process of the intellect ; the state 
to which we ascend by the most perfect operations of 
reasoning. The degrees of explicit knowledge deepen 
the intensity of knowledge; but the difference of 
knowing Grod as a child and knowing God as a 


philosopher is not in kind but in degree of discursive 
knowledge, and the knowledge of the philosopher 
may be less perfect than the knowledge of the child. 

The proof of this appears to be evident. Eevelation 
is not discovery, or rather revelation is the discovery 
of Himself by Grod to man, not by man for himself. 
It is not the activity of the human reason which 
discovers the truths of revelation. It is Grod dis- 
covering or withdrawing the veil from His own 
intelligence, and casting the light of it upon us. 
These are truisms; but they are truths almost as 
universally forgotten and violated in the common 
habits of thought as they are universally admitted 
when enunciated. 

We may take an illustration from science. Astro- 
nomy is a knowledge which comes to us by discovery. 
It was built up by active observation, and by reason- 
ing. A tradition of astronomy has descended to us 
from the highest antiquity, perpetually expanding 
its circumference and including new regions of truth. 
But its whole structure is the result of the active 
reason. Even star-gazing is an active process of 
search. Chemistry again is still more a science of 
discovery, of experiment, of conjecture, and of active 
inquiry after secret qualities in minerals, vegetables, 
gases, and the like. Hardly any part of it can be 


said to be self-evident, or to anticipate discovery. 
Much more all the truths which come by the appli- 
cation of science, by the crossing, as it were, of the 
races and families of truths in the natural world. 

All these branches and provinces of human know- 
ledge may be called discoveries, not revelations. 
They are the fruits of an intense, prolonged, and ac- 
cumulated cultivation of the human reason, and of the 
distinct soil or subject-matter of each region of truth. 

Such may be called the genesis of science. But 
the relation of science to revelation is not our subject. 
I speak of it only to show the difference between the 
relation of reason to natural science and to revelation, 
and so dismiss it. When we come to revelation, the 
process of the reason is inverted. We start from a 
knowledge which we have not discovered, which we 
passively received, which we may cultivate for ever 
without enlarging its circumference or multiplying 
the articles of faith. 

It is impossible to quote Scripture without seeming 
to use it in proof. But I quote it now, not as proof, 
but only as the best formula to express my meaning, 
which must be proved indeed by other proper reasons. 

First, then, though the existence of Grod may be 
proved by reason and from lights of the natural 
order, it is certain that the knowledge of (rod's 


existence anticipated all such reasoning. The theism 
of the world was not a discovery. Mankind pos- 
sessed it by primeval revelation, was penetrated and 
pervaded by it before any doubted of it, and reason- 
ing did not precede but follow the doubts. Theists 
came before Philosophers, and Theism before Athe- 
ism, or even a doubt about the existence of Grod. 1 
S. Paul says that 'the invisible things of Him from 
the creation of the world are clearly seen, being un- 
derstood by the things which are made, His eternal 
power also and divinity, so that they are inexcus- 
able.' 2 The word seen signifies that Grod reflects 
Himself from the face of His works, and that the 
human intelligence, which was illuminated with the 
traditional knowledge of Grod, could read by reason- 
ing the proofs of His existence in that reflection. 
These primary truths, therefore, of natural theology 
are propounded by the visible world to the reason of 
man. The knowledge of the existence of God pervaded 
the human intelligence as a traditional axiom, an in- 
herited light, a consciousness of the human family 
anterior to all reflections upon the proofs, or analysis 
of the evidence from which it springs. The alleged 

1 Viva, Theses Damnatce. Prop, de Peccato Philosophico ab Alex. 
VIIL damn. Pars iii. p. 13, sec. 12. 

2 Rom. i. 20. 


instances of individuals and races without the know- 
ledge of God are anomalies in the history of man- 
kind, and errors in philosophy. 

What is true of natural is still more true of 
revealed theology. The knowledge which God has 
discovered of Himself came to man by gift and by 
infusion, not by logic nor by research. 6 God who at 
sundry times and in divers manners hath spoken to 
us in time past by the prophets, has in these last days 
spoken to us by His Son.' l ' The Word was made 
flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, 
the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of 
grace and truth.' e God, who commanded the light 
to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts.' 2 

The Incarnation was the revelation of God by per- 
sonal manifestation and immediate illumination of 
the human reason. The Disciples knew Him gra- 
dually, not by gradual processes of discovery, but by 
gradual revelation of Himself. The light of 'the 
face of Jesus Christ ' was the source of their illumi- 
nation. As He gradually revealed Himself by His 
miracles, His words, His passion, His resurrection, 
His ascension, their apprehension of His Godhead 
and His power enlarged its circle, and their con- 
sciousness of His Divine personality and power 

1 Heb. i. 1. 2 S. John i. 14 ; 2 Cor. iv. 6. 


pervaded all their intellect with the evidence of a 
supernatural light. What Jesus was to His Disciples 
the Holy Spirit was still further to the Apostles. The 
day of Pentecost filled up the whole outline of the 
revelation of which Jesus was both the subject and the 
first Discoverer, that is, Reveal er to the human reason. 

But these are self-evident truths. The collective 
intelligence of the Apostles was the centre and spring- 
head of the collective intelligence of the Church. 
The Church is composed of head, body, soul, intel- 
ligence, and will; and the illumination of truth 
pervades it in all its faculties, and sustains in it a 
perpetual consciousness of the whole outline of reve- 
lation. All that Jesus revealed in person or by His 
Spirit hangs suspended in the mind of the Church. 
It was not discovered by it, but revealed to it, and 
received by the quiescent intellect, which thereby 
was illuminated by a divine light. Its activity was 
elicited by the infusion of revealed truth, and the 
intelligence of the Church apprehended and com- 
prehended by an active knowledge the revelation it 
had received. 

And thus truth became an inheritance, descending 
from generation to generation, anticipating all dis- 
covery, search, or doubt, .and filling the intelligence 
with its light, taking possession of it by a divine 


operation. It is sustained indeed by the presence of 
a Divine Person and an infallible Teacher. But this 
latter point does not enter at present into the matter 
before us, which is to consider of the relations of the 
reason in individuals, or of the faithful as a body, to 
the deposit of revelation, and not the relations of the 
* magisterium Ecclesiae,' or of the operation of the 
reason of the Church under the assistance and as the 
organ of an infallible Teacher. This would need a 
separate treatment, and involve another class and 
series of questions, and must be reserved for another 

II. The second relation of the reason to revelation 
is to propagate the truth it has received. ' Gro ye 
and make disciples of all nations.' l ( Freely have ye 
received, freely give.' 2 They were the messengers 
of a Divine Teacher, the witnesses of an order of 
divine facts. The reason of the Apostles diffused 
what it had received. They enumerated what they 
had learned, not as discoveries nor as conclusions 
of dialectics nor as philosophies nor as criticisms 
but as declarations of the Divine mind and will. 
( The Jews require signs, and the Greeks seek after 
wisdom : but we preach Christ crucified, unto the 
Jews indeed a stumbling-^lock, and unto the Gren- 

1 S. Matt, xxviii. 19. 2 S. Matt. x. 8. 


tiles foolishness ; but unto them that are called, both 
Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the 
wisdom of God.' ] 

The reason of mankind, in like manner, received 
the revelation declared to it both by the lights of 
nature and by the lights of Pentecost. ( I was found 
of them that did not seek me ; I appeared openly to 
them that asked not after me.' 2 

The preaching of the Apostles was an affirmation 
of truth ; not as a problem to be proved, but as a 
revelation to be believed. As when our Divine Lord 
said, 'Search the Scriptures,' He did not rest the 
proof of His own Divine personality, mission, and 
truth upon the private judgment of His hearers ; so 
the Apostles, when they preached Jesus at Berasa or 
at Athens, referred their hearers to Scripture and to 
nature, not as if their preaching depended upon 
these, but because their preaching was the key and 
fulfilment of the meaning both of Scripture and of 
nature. What they had apprehended from the lips 
of a Divine Teacher, they declared in His name to 
the apprehension of other men; and in this tradi- 
tion of truth from intelligence to intelligence, the 
reason in its quiescent apprehension was filled with 
an absolute certainty which- anticipated all enquiry. 
1 1 Cor. i. 22, 24. 2 Isaias in Rom. x. 20. 



The searching of Scriptures added nothing objec- 
tively to the light and certainty of the truth delivered 
to them. It only assured them subjectively that 
what the Apostles taught was what nature and Scrip- 
ture taught likewise, so far as they extended. To 
the Athenians S. Paul was a babbler and a word- 
sower, and Jesus and the Eesurrection were strange 
gods, till they believed the Apostle to be a teacher 
sent from Grod. They then believed not anything 
they had discovered, but what they heard. 

III. A third relation of reason to revelation is to 
define the truths divinely presented to it. What 
was apprehended was immediately clothed in words. 
The intellect invests its thoughts in words as it ap- 
prehends them. The illumination of the day of 
Pentecost found utterance at once in many tongues. 
It clothed itself in the words of many languages; 
and those words certainly were not chosen without 
the assistance of the same Divine Teacher who 
revealed the truths which they expressed. The first 
definitions of the Christian Faith are the Articles of 
the Baptismal Creed. We may pass over the historical 
traditions of the time and place of its first composi- 
tions. It is enough for our purpose to say, that the 
same doctrines, in the same order, and, so far as the 
diversity of language admits, in the same words, were 


delivered to the catechumens and to the baptized 
throughout the world. In S. Irenaeus, Tertullian, 
Origen, S. Cyprian, and S. Gregory Thaumaturgus, 
the outline of this universal creed may be read. The 
Churches of Csesarea, Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, 
in the East ; of Borne, Aquileia, Eavenna and Tours, 
of Graul, Africa, and Spain, in the West, taught them 
in the same terms and order. In S. Cyril of Jeru- 
salem in the East, and in S. Nicetas in the West, 
the Baptismal Creed may be found expounded. In 
the Councils of Nice and Constantinople it was more 
explicitly declared. In all this, the reason of the 
Church denned by a reflex act, the truths of which it 
was possessed. 

Again : the Church in its General Councils has 
lineally defined the original revelation according to 
the needs of each successive age. The eighteen 
General Councils are one continuous action of the 
same mind, preserving the identity of truth, and 
defining it by a growing precision of expression. 

In like manner, the theology of the Church consists 
chiefly in an enunciation of revealed truths. Its 
dialectical, or polemical, processes are not its primary 
operations. S. John, who is called the Theologian, 
may be taken as a type of the sacred science. The 
heavens were opened to him, and the throne and the 



heavenly court, the history and future of the Church 
were revealed. What he saw he fixed in words. 
What was visible in the heavens he transcribed upon 
the page of the Apocalypse. It was a process of 
apprehension and description, by which the structure 
and action of the kingdom of God in heaven and 
earth was delineated. 

Such, in its primary operation, is the nature of 
theology which defines and enunciates the divine 
truths and facts of revelation, and presents them in 
their manifold unity, symmetry, and relations, and 
that in three distinct spheres or circles of truth : first, 
the original Eevelation ; secondly, the definitions 
framed of apostolical tradition, of pontiffs, and of 
councils ; and thirdly, the judgments and dogmatic 
facts, in which the Church speaks infallibly. 

In all this the reason is as a disciple who intelli- 
gently apprehends, rehearses, and defines the truths 
which he has received. 

IV. A fourth relation of reason to revelation is to . 
defend it. And this may be in two ways, negatively 
and positively. 

By negatively I mean that the reason can demon- 
strate the nullity of arguments brought against 
revelation, either by showing their intrinsic in- 
validity, or by the analogy of the facts of nature. 


But in this process the reason does not assume to 
demonstrate the truth of revealed doctrines, which 
rest upon their own proper evidence. It is reason 
against reason. Reason contending for revelation 
against reason contending against it. All the while 
revelation stands upon its own basis, that is the 
natural and supernatural witness, or consciousness 
and illumination of the Church. The argument 
against objectors simply clears away what may be 
called the criticism or rationalism of the human 
reason opposing itself to the revelation of the Divine. 

The positive defence of theology occupies itself 
with demonstrating the possibility of revelation, its 
fitness, its probability, the necessity of a revelation, 
and the fact. 

The first and simplest form of this defensive 
operation of the reason is to be found in the ancient 
Apologies, such as those of Justin Martyr, Tertullian, 
Arnobius, Minueius Felix, in which the possibility, 
probability, and fitness of revelation are assumed, 
and the whole effort of the apologists is directed to 
prove the fact, and that Christianity is that revela- 
tion. But this is addressed not to those who are 
within the Church, but to those who are without ; 
that is, to Jews and Gentiles. 

In these Apologies we find the simple enunciation 


of the doctrines of faith, but no system or method of 
theological science. 

It is remarkable how little trace of scientific 
theology is to be found in the Oriental Church. 
Exuberant as it was in expositions of Holy Scripture, 
and in dogmatic treatises on the mysteries in contro- 
versy during the period of the four first General 
Councils, of which the Commentaries of Origen and 
S. John Chrysostom, and the works of S. Athanasius, 
S. Gregory of Nyssa, S. Gregory of Nazianzum, 
S. Basil, and S. Cyril of Alexandria, are witness, 
nevertheless there is hardly to be traced any at- 
tempt at a theological method or complete scientific 
expression of revelation. Dialectical, exact, and 
positive as S. Augustine is, it cannot be said that 
a scientific method of theology is to be found in 
his works. Some theologians are of opinion, that 
traces of such a scientific treatment are to be 
found in the writings of Theophilus of Antioch, 
Clement of Alexandria, S. Cyril of Jerusalem, Lac- 
tantius, and others ; but in truth the first writer in 
whom anything of scientific arrangement or com- 
pleteness of method is to be found is S. John of 
Damascus in the eighth century. And it may be 
said that his work, c De Orthodoxa Fide,' is both the 
first and the last to be found in the Oriental Church, 


so stationary and unreflective, it would seem, has the 
Oriental mind become since its separation from the 
centre of spiritual and intellectual activity, the Chair 
of S. Peter. Since S. John of Damascus, I hardly 
know what the Greek Church has produced, except a 
few meagre Catenas of the Fathers upon certain 
books of Holy Scripture, the works of Theophylact, 
a body of miserable Erastian canon law, a few still 
more meagre catechetical works, and many virulent 
and schismatical attacks upon the Primacy of the 
Holy See. It may be truly said that the history of 
the human intellect in the last eighteen hundred 
years is the history of Christianity, and the history 
of Christianity is the history of the Catholic Church. 
It is in the Catholic Church that the human intellect 
has developed its activity and its maturity, both 
within the sphere of revelation and beyond it. 

It was not before the eleventh century that 
theology assumed a scientific and systematic form. 
Italy and France may claim the precedence, because 
the two who led the way in this work were born in, 
or reared by them ; but it is no little glory to England 
that they were both Archbishops of Canterbury, 
Lanfranc and his disciple S. Anselm. It was another 
Archbishop of Canterbury who gave to the theo- 
logical studies of England a scientific direction by 


introducing into the University of Oxford the study 
of Aristotle ; which, strange to say, endures to this 
day I mean S. Edmund. After these came Hugh 
and Eichard of S. Victor, Hildebert of Tours, 
Eobert Pool, Otto of Frisingen, S. Bernard, and 
others. It was at this period that the first explicit 
collision took place between reason ministering to 
revelation as its disciple, and reason dissecting it as 
a critic ; that is, between S. Bernard and Abelard. 

There may be said to be three epochs in the 
science of theology. 

S. Anselm is not untruly thought to be the first 
who gave to theology the scientific impulse which 
has stamped a new form and method on its treat- 
ment. His two works, the ' Cur Deus Homo,' or 
( Eatio Incarnationis,' and that on the Holy Trinity 
called ' Fides quserens Intellectum DivinsB Essentiae 
et SSmae Trinitatis,' may be said to mark the first 
of the three epochs in theological science. The chief 
axiom of S. Anselm's theological method may be 
expressed in his own words ' Sicut rectus ordo exigit 
ut profunda Christianse fidei prius credamus quam ea 
praBSumamus rations discutere, ita negligentia mihi 
videtur, si postquam confirmati sutnus in fide, non 
studemus quod credimus intelligere.' l 

1 Cur Deus Homo, lib. i. c. 2. 


The second epoch was constituted by the f Liber 
Sententiarum ' of Peter Lombard, which formed the 
text of the Schools for nearly two centuries. Alex- 
ander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, S. Bonaventura, 
S. Thomas, and many more commented on the Book 
of the Sentences, and formed the School of the Sen- 
tentiastse, who were fated to pass away before the 
greater light of the third epoch. 

The third epoch was made by S. Thomas. It is 
indeed true that England may claim somewhat of 
this glory. Before the Summa Theologica of S. 
Thomas, Alexander of Hales had formed a Summa 
Universae Theologia?, which would have inaugurated 
a new period, had not the more perfect amplitude, 
order, and unity of S. Thomas cast all others into 
shade. From this time the Book of the Sentences 
gave way to the Sum of Theology as the text of the 
Schools, and the Sententiastae yielded to the Sum- 
mista3. From this time onward two great streams of 
scientific theology flow towards us, the one of Domi- 
nican commentators on the Sum of their great 
doctor, such as Caietan, Sylvius, the Sotos, and 
others ; the other, which sprung later, of Jesuit com- 
mentators, Suarez, Vasquez, De Lugo, and the like. 

Since the Council of Trent, another mode of treat- 
ing theology has arisen. The controversy with the 


pretended appeal to antiquity, threw the Catholic 
theologian more and more upon the study of the 
History of Dogma ; and theology assumed what is 
called the positive method. Nevertheless, the Scho- 
lastic method still held and holds to this day its 
ascendency. And that because it represents the in- 
tellectual process of the Church, elaborating, through 
a period of many centuries, an exact conception and 
expression of revealed truth. The Scholastic method 
can never cease to be true, just as logic can never 
cease to be true, because it is the intellectual order 
of revealed truths in their mutual relations, harmony, 
and unity. To depreciate it is to show that we do 
not understand it. The critical and exegetical studies 
which are tributary to it may be advanced and cor- 
rected, but the form of the Scholastic theology has 
its basis in the intrinsic nature and relations of the 
truths of which it treats. All else is subordinate and 

V. The last relation of which I will speak is that 
of transmitting theology by a scientific treatment and 
tradition. The mind or intelligence of the Church 
has had, as we have seen, many relations to the 
revelation entrusted to it, namely, that of passive 
reception, from which arises the consciousness of 
supernatural knowledge ; that of enunciation, which 


presupposes apprehension or conception of the truths 
received; that of definition, or the precise verbal 
expression, and the orderly digest of the doctrines of 
faith ; that of defence, by way of proof and evi- 
dence ; and, finally, by a scientific treatment and 
tradition. I say scientific, because theology, though 
not a science proprie dicta, may be truly and cor- 
rectly so described. 

The definition of Science, according to both philo- 
sophers and theologians, is c the habit of the mind 
conversant with necessary truth,' that is, truth which 
admits of demonstration and of the certainty which 
excludes the possibility of its contradictory being 
true. According to the Scholastic philosophy, Science 
is defined as follows : 

Viewed subjectively, it is f The certain and evident 
knowledge, of the ultimate reasons or principles of 
truth, attained by reasoning.' 

Viewed objectively r , it is 'The system of known 
truths belonging to the same order, as a whole, and 
depending upon one only principle.' ! 

This is founded on the definition of Aristotle. In 
the sixth book of the Ethics, ch. 3, he says : ' From 
this it is evident what Science is ; to speak accurately, 

1 Sanseverino, Elementi di Filosofia Speculativa, vol. i. pp. 130, 131. 
Napoli, 1862. 


and not to follow mere similitudes, for we all under- 
stand that what we know cannot be otherwise than 
we know it. For whatsoever may or may not be, as 
a practical question, is not known to be or not to 
be. For that which is known is necessary ; there- 
fore eternal. For whatsoever is necessary is simply 

Such also is the definition of S. Thomas, who says, 
' Whatsoever truths are truly known, as by certain 
knowledge (ut certa scientia), are known by resolution 
into their first principles, which of themselves are im- 
mediately present to the intellect ; and so all science is 
constituted by a vision of the thing as present, so that 
it is impossible that the same thing should be the object 
both of faith and of science, because, that is, of the 
obscurity of the principles of faith.' l Nevertheless, 
he affirms that from principles accepted by faith, 
truths may be proved to the faithful, as from prin- 
ciples naturally known to others; and that, therefore, 
theology is a science : but this, as Vasquez shows 
from Caietan, is to be understood not simply, but re- 
latively non simpliciter, sed secwndum quid. The 
opinion of Caietan, founded on S. Thomas, is, that 
theology is to be understood in two ways as it is in 
itself, and as it is in us. The former is as it is in Grod 

1 D. Thorn. De Veritate, qusest. xiv. art. 9. 


and the blessed, which is properly science ; the latter, 
as it is in us, as 'viatores,' in which state it is a 
science subalternate, deriving its principles from the 
science in (rod by faith, and therefore not to be called 
properly a science. l The Thomists generally seem 
to have held 'that theology in us, as "viatores," when 
deduced from articles known by divine faith only, is 
true and proper science, not only in itself, but as it 
is in us; but, nevertheless, imperfect in its kind.' 2 
But the more common opinion among the Scholastic 
theologians affirms that theology in us, ' viatores,' as 
it is in us, is not true and proper science. Such is the 
opinion also of Vasquez, and of many quoted by him. 
The summary of the question is given by Gregory 
of Valentia, who says : ' That theology is not science 
is taught by Durandus, Ocham, Gabriel, and others, 
whose opinions I hold to be the truest. The founda- 
tion of all these is most certain, namely, that it is of 
the essence of science, according to Aristotle, that the 
assent elicited by it should be evident ; for he who 
knows, must know that the thing cannot be other- 
wise than he knows it to be. But the habit of theo- 
logy does not elicit such an assent. For theological 
assent must be resolved into two, or at least one 

1 Vasquez, vol. i. pp. 10, 11 ; Caiet. in S. Thorn. Sum. Theol. Pars I. 
qusest. i. art. 2. 2 Ibid. p. 11. 


proposition resting on faith, which cannot be evident. 

Therefore, theological assent is not evident 

But- this does not detract from the dignity of theo- 
logy. For though it be not a proper science, it is a 
habit absolutely more perfect than any science.' 1 

Gregory of Valentia goes on to say, 'Let theology, 
then, be neither science in itself as the philosophers 
describe it nor properly a science subalternated to 
the science of Grod and of the blessed, but only im- 
proprie, by reason of a certain similitude which it 
bears to sciences which are properly subalternated to 
higher sciences, because it proceeds from the asser- 
tions of faith, or from principles which are known by 
the knowledge and science of God and of the blessed. 
Yet nevertheless by the best of rights it may be called 
a science, because, absolutely, it is a habit more per- 
fect than any science described by philosophers.' 2 

Gregory of Valentia proceeds to show that theo- 
logy is more perfect than science properly so called. 
He does so by affirming that it is wisdom. This he 
proves by showing that it has the ' three conditions 
of wisdom. First, it treats of the highest and uni- 
versal truths. Secondly, it is so called in Scripture. 
Thirdly, it may be proved to be so by the authority 

1 Greg, de Val. disp. i. qusest. i. punct. 3. 

2 Ibid, punct. 3. 


of Aristotle; because the five conditions required by 
him in wisdom, and found by him in metaphysics 
the highest wisdom in his esteem are fulfilled in an 
eminent degree by theology.' First, it deals with 
universals. Second, with things the most removed 
from sense. Third, it is a most certain habit of the 
intellect, proceeding from the most certain causes. 
Fourth, it is self- caused, and not caused by any other 
science. Fifth, it is directed by no other science, 
but directs itself and all other sciences. 1 

( Theology, then,' as Vasquez says, f does not mean 
any kind of knowledge of God, for so faith also 
might be called theology; nor does it mean the 
knowledge by which we know how to explain and to 
defend that which is delivered in Scripture : but by 
theology is understood a science by which, from prin- 
ciples revealed in Scripture, or by the authority of 
councils, or confirmed and believed by the tradition 
of the Church, we infer other truths and conclusions 
by evident consequence.' 2 

Following the principles here laid down, theology 
may be called a science. First, because it is a science, 
if not as to its principles, at least as to its form, 
method, process, development, and transmission. And 

1 Greg, de Valent. disp. i. qusest. i. punct. 4. 

2 Vasq. in S. Thorn, disp. iv. art. 2. 


because, if its principles are not evident, they are, in 
all the higher regions of it, infallibly certain; and 
because many of them are the necessary, eternal, and 
incorruptible truths which, according to Aristotle, 
generate science. 

Kevelation, then, contemplated and transmitted in 
exactness and method, may be called a science and 
the queen of sciences, the chief of the hierarchy of 
truth ; and it enters and takes the first place in the 
intellectual system and tradition of the world. It 
possesses all the qualities and conditions of science 
so far as its subject-matter admits ; namely, certainty 
as against doubt, definiteness as against vagueness, 
harmony as against discordance, unity as against 
incoherence, progress as against dissolution and 

A knowledge and belief of the existence of Grod 
has never been extinguished in the reason of man- 
kind. The polytheisms and idolatries which sur- 
rounded it were corruptions of a central and domi- 
nant truth which, although obscured, was never lost. 
And the tradition of this truth was identified with 
the higher and purer operations of the natural 
reason, which have been called the intellectual 
system of the world. The mass of mankind, how- 
soever debased, were always theists. Atheists, as 


I have said, were anomalies and exceptions. The 
theism of the primeval revelation formed the intel- 
lectual system of the heathen world. The theism of 
the patriarchal revelation formed the intellectual 
system of the Hebrew race. The theism revealed in 
the incarnation of God has formed the intellectual 
system of the Christian world. ( Sapientia sedificavit 
sibi domum.' The science or knowledge of God has 
built for itself a tabernacle in the intellect of man- 
kind, inhabits it, and abides in it. 

The intellectual science of the world finds its per- 
fection in the scientific expression of the theology of 
faith. But from first to last the reason of man is 
the disciple, not the critic, of the revelation of God : 
and the highest science of the human intellect is 
that which, taking its preamble from the light of 
nature, begins in faith ; and receiving its axioms 
from faith, expands by the procession of truth from 

From what has been said many conclusions follow, 
which can only be stated now by way of propositions. 
To discuss them would need many chapters. It is 

1. First, that the highest and most perfect operation 
of the reason in respect to revelation presupposes the 
reception of revelation by faith, of which the whole 



structure of scientific theology, and the contempla- 
tion of truth by the intellect illuminated by faith, 
are both example and proof. 

2. Secondly, that the highest discursive powers of 
the reason are developed by revelation, which elevates 
it from the contemplation of the first principles and 
axioms of truth in the natural order to a higher and 
wider sphere, unattainable by the reason without 

3. Thirdly, that reason is not the source nor the 
measure of supernatural truth ; nor the test of its 
intrinsic credibility. 1 This principle has been lately 
affirmed by Pius IX. in the recent Brief to the Arch- 
bishop of Munich. 

4. Fourthly, that the Church alone, by Divine illu- 

1 In the Brief of Pius IX. to the Archbishop of Munich the con- 
trary to this is expressly condemned. < Hinc dubitare nolumus, quin 
ipsius conventus viri commemoratam veritatem noscentes ac profit entes 
uno eodemque tempore plane rejicere ac reprobare voluerint recentem 
illam ac prseposteram philosophandi rationem, quse etiamsi divinam 
revelationem veluti historicum factum admittat, tamen ineffabiles 
veritates ab ipsa divina revelatione propositas humanae rationis 
investigationibus supponit, perinde ac si illse yeritates rationi sub- 
jectse essent, vel ratio suis viribus et principiis posset consequi intel- 
ligentiam et scientiam omnium supernarum sanctissimse fidei nostrse 
veritatum, et mysteriorum, quae ita supra humanam rationem sunt, 
ut hsec nunquam effici possit idonea ad ilia suis yiribus, et ex natura- 
libus suis principiis intelligenda, aut demonstranda.' Litt. Pii PP. 
IX. ad Archiep. Monac. Dec. 21, 1863. 


mination and assistance, knows, teaches, and autho- 
ritatively imposes belief in matters of revealed truth. 

5. Fifthly, that theological science, or the operation 
of reason and criticism upon revealed truth, does not 
generate faith ; but that faith, through the operations 
of the illuminated reason, acting as a disciple and 
not as a critic, generates theological science. 

6. Sixthly, that if theology in its highest form 
may not be properly called science, by reason of the 
obscurity of its principles ; much less may historical 
and biblical criticism be elevated to the character of 

7. Seventhly, that to erect historical and biblical 
criticism, or theology founded on it, into a science 
which is to form the public opinion of the Church, to 
control the hierarchy, and to conform to itself even 
the judgment of the Holy See, is to invert the whole 
order of the Divine procedure which has committed 
the custody and enunciation of revealed truth to the 
Church, in its office of witness, judge, and teacher. 

8. Eighthly, that the Church, acting judicially and 
magisterially, is the creator of theological science, 
and controls it by its decisions, which are infallible. 

9. Ninthly, that the converse of this would subor- 
dinate the Ecclesia docens to the Ecclesia discens. 

10. Tenthly, that this subordination of the objective 

I 2 


faith and science of the Ecclesia docens to the sub- 
jective faith and science of its individual members 
is of the nature of Gnosticism, Illuminism, and of 

11. Eleventhly, that in the ultimate analysis, this 
procedure would constitute the critical science of the 
natural reason as the coordinate test of revealed 
truth by the side of the supernatural discernment of 
the Church. 

Though I cannot enter upon any of these pro- 
positions now, I am unwilling to pass over a passage 
of remarkable beauty bearing on this principle in 
the works of S. Francis of Sales. 

6 In a general council, the controverted points of 
doctrine are first proposed, and theological arguments 
are employed to discover the truth. These matters 
having been discussed, the bishops, and particularly 
the Pope who is their head, conclude and decree 
what is to be believed; and as soon as they have 
pronounced, all acquiesce fully in their decision. 
We must observe, that this submission is not founded 
on the reasons which have been alleged in the pre- 
ceding argument, but on the authority of the Holy 
Ghost, who, presiding invisibly at the council, has 
concluded, determined, and decreed by the mouth of 
His ministers, whom He has established pastors of 


the Church. The arguments and discussions are 
carried on in the porch ; but the decision and acqui- 
escence, by which they are terminated, take place 
in the sanctuary, where the Holy Spirit specially 
resides, animating the body of the Church, and 
speaking by the mouth of the bishops, according to 
the promise of the Son of Grod.' l 

12. Twelfthly, that if coordinate, unless submis- 
sive, the critical reason makes itself superior. 

13. Thirteenthly, that the superior test is ulti- 
mately the sole test of truth, which would be thereby 
placed in what is called the scientific reason, that is 
to say of individuals. 

14. Fourteenthly, that the scientific reason would 
be thereby constituted as the ultimate measure and 
source of truth, which is pure Rationalism, of which 
the method laid down in the work called 'Essays 
and Reviews ' is the most recent example among us. 

I conclude, then, as I began, that the reason is the 
disciple, not the critic, of revelation ; and that the 
relation of docility to divine light and to a divine 
guide is not only consistent with the elevation and 
development of the human intellect, but the true 
and only condition of its highest powers and of its 
scientific perfection. And of this the intellectual 

1 S. Francis of Sales, Treatise on the Love of G-od, b. ii. c. xiv. 


history and state of Christendom is evidence. I 
cannot better express my meaning than by words 
used on the same subject on another occasion : 

6 In a word, it is not science which generates 
faith, but faith which generates science by the aid 
of the reason illuminated by revelation. In what 
I have hitherto said, I have assumed one truth 
as undeniable and axiomatic, namely, that God 
has revealed Himself; that he has committed this 
revelation to His Church ; and that He preserves 
both His revelation and His Church in all ages by 
His own presence and assistance from all error in 
faith and morals. Now, inasmuch as certain primary 
truths which may be naturally known of God and 
the soul, and of the relations of the soul with 
God, and of man with man ; that is, certain truths 
discoverable also in the order of nature by reason or 
by philosophy are taken up into and incorporated 
with the revelation of God, the Church, therefore, 
possesses the first principles of rational philosophy 
and of natural ethics, both for individuals and for 
society. And, inasmuch as these principles are the 
great regulating truths of philosophy and natural 
morality, including natural politics, the Church has 
' a voice, a testimony, and a jurisdiction within these 
provinces of natural knowledge. I do not affirm the 


Church to be a philosophical authority, but I may 
affirm it to be a witness in philosophy. Much more 
when we come to treat of Christian philosophy or the 
TheodicaBa, or Christian morals and Christian politics ; 
for these are no more than the truths of nature 
grafted upon the stock of revelation, and elevated 
to a supernatural perfection. To exclude the discern- 
ment and voice of the Church from philosophy and 
politics, is to degrade both by reducing them to the 
natural order. First, it pollards them ; and next, 
it deprives them of the corroboration of a higher 
evidence. Against this the whole array of Catholic 
theologians and philosophers has always contended. 
They have maintained that the tradition of theological 
and ethical knowledge is divinely preserved, and has 
a unity in itself; that there is a true traditive philo- 
sophy running down in the same channel with the 
divine tradition of faith, recognised by faith, known 
by the light of nature, and guarded by the circle of 
supernatural truths by which faith has surrounded 
it. In saying this, I am not extending the infalli- 
bility of the Church to philosophical or political 
questions apart from their contact with revelation ; 
but affirming only that the radical truths of the 
natural order have become rooted in the substance of 
faith, and are guaranteed to us by the witness and 


custody of the Church. So likewise, as the laws of 
Christian civilisation are the laws of natural morality 
elevated by the Christian law, which is expounded 
and applied by the Church, there is a tradition both 
of private and public ethics or, in other words, of 
morality and jurisprudence which forms the basis of 
all personal duty, and of all political justice. In 
this, again, the Church has a discernment, and there- 
fore a voice. A distribution of labour in the culti- 
vation of all provinces of truth is prudent and 
intelligible. A division of authority and an exclusion 
of the Church from science is not only a dismem- 
berment of the kingdom of truth, but a forcible 
rending of certain truths from their highest evidence. 
Witness the treatment of the question whether the 
existence of God can be proved and whether God 
can be known by natural reason in the hands of 
those who turn their backs upon the tradition of evi- 
dence in the universal Church. Unless revelation be 
an illusion, the voice of the Church must be heard in 
these higher provinces of human knowledge. " New- 
ton," as Dr. Newman says, " cannot dispense with 
the metaphysician, nor the metaphysician with us." 
Into cosmogony the Church must enter by the doc- 
trine of creation ; into natural theology, by the 
doctrine of the existence and perfections of God; 


into ethics, by the doctrine of the cardinal virtues ; 
into politics, by the indissolubility of marriage, the 
root of human society, as divorce is its dissolution. 
And by this interpenetration and interweaving of its 
teaching the Church binds all sciences to itself. 
They meet in it as in their proper centre. As the 
sovereign power which runs into all provinces unites 
them in one empire, so the voice and witness of the 
Church unites and binds all sciences in one. 

( It is the parcelling and morselling out of science, 
and this disintegration of the tradition of truth, 
which has reduced the intellectual culture of England 
to its present fragmentary and contentious state. 
Not only errors are generated, but truths are set in 
opposition ; science and revelation are supposed to 
be at variance, and revelation to be the weaker side 
of human knowledge. 

'The Church has an infallible knowledge of the 
original revelation. Its definitions of Divine Faith 
fall within this limit; but its infallible judgments 
reach beyond it. The Church possesses a knowledge 
of truth which belongs also to the natural order. 
The existence of God His power, goodness, and 
perfections the moral law written in the conscience 
are truths of the natural order which are declared 
also by revelation, and recorded in Holy Scripture. 


These truths the Church knows by a twofold light 
by the supernatural light of revelation, and by the 
natural light which all men possess. In the Church 
this natural light is concentrated as in a focus. The 
great endowment of common sense that is, the 
communis sensus generis humani, the maximum of 
light and evidence for certain truths of the natural 
order resides eminently in the collective intelligence 
of the Church ; that is to say, in the intelligence of 
the faithful, which is the seat of its passive infal- 
libility, and in the intelligence of the pastors, or the 
Magisterium Ecclesice, which is the organ of its 
active infallibility. That two and two make four, is 
not more evident to the Catholic Church than to the 
rest of mankind, to S. Thomas or S. Bonaventura, 
than to Spinosa and Comte. But that Grod exists, 
and that man is responsible, because free, are moral 
truths, and for the perception of moral truths, even 
of the natural order, a moral discernment is needed ; 
and the moral discernment of the Church, even of 
natural truths, is, I maintain, incomparably higher 
than the moral discernment of the mass of mankind, 
by virtue of its elevation to greater purity and con- 
formity to the laws of nature itself. 

* The highest object of human science is Grod ; and 
theology, properly so called, is the science of His 


nature and perfections, the radiance which surrounds 
" the Father of lights, in whom is no change, neither 
shadow of vicissitude." Springing from this central 
science flow the sciences of the works of Grod, in 
nature and in grace ; and under the former fall not 
only the physical sciences, but those which relate 
to man and action as morals, politics, and history. 
Now, the revelation Grod has given us rests for its 
centre upon God Himself, but in its course describes 
a circumference within which many truths of the 
natural order relating both to the world and to man 
are included. These the Church knows, not only by 
natural light, but by Divine revelation, ajid declares 
by Divine assistance. But these primary truths of 
the natural order are axioms and principles of the 
sciences within which they properly fall ; and these 
truths of philosophy belong also to the domain of 
faith. The same truths are the object of faith and 
of science ; they are the links which couple these 
sciences to revelation. How, then, can these sciences 
be separated from their relation to revealed truth 
without a false procedure ? No Catholic could so 
separate them, for these truths enter within the 
dogma of faith. No Christian who believes in Holy 
Scripture could do so, for they are included in Holy 
Writ. No mere philosopher could do so, for thereby 


he would discard and perhaps place himself in oppo- 
sition and discord with the maximum of evidence 
which is attainable on these primary verities, and 
therefore with the common sense not only of Chris- 
tendom, but of mankind. In this I am not advocat- 
ing a mixture or confusion of religion and philosophy, 
which, as Lord Bacon says in his work " De Aug- 
mentis Scientiarum," will undoubtedly make an 
heretical religion, and an imaginary and fabulous phi- 
losophy, but affirming that certain primary truths 
of both physical and ethical philosophy are delivered 
to us by revelation, and that we cannot neglect them 
as our starting-points in such sciences without a false 
procedure and a palpable forfeiture of truth. Such 
verities are, for instance, the existence of God, the 
creation of the world, the freedom of the will, the 
moral office of the conscience, and the like. Lord 
Bacon says again, (i There may be veins and lines, 
but not sections or separations," in the great con- 
tinent of Truth. All truths alike are susceptible of 
scientific method, and all of a religious treatment. 
The father of modern philosophy, as men of our day 
call him, so severe and imperious in maintaining the 
distinct province and process of science, is not the 
less peremptory and absolute as to the unity of all 


truth and the vital relation of all true science to the 
Divine philosophy of revelation.' 

We are as little dazzled by the intellectual develop- 
ment of the Anticatholic science as by the pretensions 
of modern democracy. We see both going to pieces 
before our eyes. And ex parte intellectus et ex parte 
voluntatis we submit ourselves to the Church of 
God, the mother and mistress of Christian science 
and Christian society, as our only guide and only 
redemption from the aberrations which spring from 
the reason, and the confusions which spring from the 
will of man. 




THE two divine truths which reign, and will reign 
for ever over the whole kingdom of faith and of 
theology, are the infallibility of the Church, and 
the inspiration of the Scripture ; or, in other words, 
the relation of the Holy Spirit of God to the Word 
of Grod written and unwritten. 

These two divine truths, when contemplated as 
doctrines or rather these two divine facts, when con- 
templated in the supernatural order of grace have 
had, like other dogmas, -their successive periods of 
simple affirmation and simple belief incipient con- 
troversy and partial analysis and will probably have 
their formal contradiction, their last analysis, and 
their final scientific definition. 

The history of the infallibility of the Church and 
of the inspiration of Holy Scripture will then be 
written like as the history of the Immaculate Concep- 


tion, which has now been closed by the dogmatic Bull 
of Pius IX. 

It is far from my thoughts to pretend to give here 
the history of so great and delicate a doctrine as 
Inspiration, but it may not be unseasonable to trace 
a slight outline of a subject which has now fixed 
upon itself an anxious attention in our country 
at this time. The Protestant Keforrnation staked 
its existence upon the Bible; and as Protestants have 
extensively denied or undermined its inspiration, no 
other subject can be so vital to their religion, or more 
opportune for us. 

The Church of England has lately been thrown 
into much excitement, and public opinion has been 
not a little scandalised, by the appearance of works 
denying in great part the inspiration of Holy Scrip- 
ture. And yet there is nothing new in the rise of 
such errors. Error has its periodic times. What is 
passing now, has returned in every century, almost 
in every generation. It is not new to the Catholic 
Church to have to combat with the depravers of 
Holy Writ ; for there has been a line and succession 
of gainsayers who have denied the Divine veracity 
and authenticity, either in whole or in part, of the 
written Word of God. Even in the lifetime of S. 
John, the Cerinthians rejected all the New Testa- 


ment except the Grospel of S. Matthew and the Book 
of Acts. In the second century, the Carpocratians re- 
jected the whole of the Old Testament ; Marcion and 
Cerdon denounced it as the fabrication of an evil 
deity, and acknowledged only the Grospel of S. Luke 
and the Epistles to Timothy and Titus. In the third 
century the Archontici rejected the Old Testament; 
the Apellitae, the Severiani, and the Eucharitae re- 
jected most of the Old Testament and of the New. 
In the fourth, the Alogi, the Gnostics, and the 
Manichseans rejected the greater part both of the 
Jewish and of the Christian Scriptures. Faustus 
the Manichsean, and others, against whom S. Ambrose 
and S. Augustine wrote in the fourth and fifth cen- 
turies, accused the Old Testament of immorality, 
contradiction, and intrinsic incredibility, as others 
have done since. The Apocryphi received only the 
Prophets and Apostles. In the eighth century, the 
Albanenses, Bajolenses, Concordenses names known 
only to students repeated the errors of Marcion. 
Herman Eissuich, in the fifteenth century, rejected 
the whole of Scripture as imperfect and useless : David 
Georgius revived this impiety in the sixteenth cen- 
century. Luther and his followers rejected the 
Epistle of S. James, the Hebrews, the third of S. 
John, the second of S. Peter, and the Apocalypse. 


The Libertini held all the Scriptures to be fables. 
The Ambrosians, claiming for themselves divine re- 
velations, despised both the Old Testament and the 
New. This brings us to the seventeenth century, in 
which modern infidelity began to appear, and the 
Eationalistic criticism to arise. In the eighteenth 
and the present century there is no book of the Old 
or New Testament which has not been rejected by 
some among the Rationalistic or Neologian critics 
of Grermany. The author to whom the modern 
errors on the subject of Inspiration may be ascribed 
is Spinoza. He first reduced to a complete state- 
ment all the objections which can be brought against 
it. He was the father of the sceptical criticism 
which in the seventeenth century inundated Holland 
and Grermany, and found its way over into England. 
It is a remarkable fact that Schleiermacher, whose 
writings have extensively propagated the Rationalistic 
movement both in Grermany and in England, sacrificed 
a lock of his hair as a token of pious veneration on 
the grave of Spinoza. 1 After Spinoza, Le Clerc, in 
1685, published his letters entitled 'Sentimens de 
quelques Theologiens de Hollande,' which excited 
a great sensation, especially in England. They were 
a mere reflection of Spinoza. 

1 Lee on Inspiration, App. C. p. 450. 


It is, therefore, no new thing in the history of the 
Church, nor, indeed, in the history of England since 
the Eeformation. From the Deistical writers down 
to Thomas Paine, there has never wanted a succession 
of critics and objectors who have assailed the extrin- 
sic or intrinsic authority of Holy Scripture. 

So far it is no new thing. But in one aspect, in- 
deed, it is altogether new. It is new to find this 
form of scepticism put forth by writers of eminence 
for dignity and personal excellence, and mental cul- 
tivation, in the Church of England ; by men, too, who 
still profess not only a faith in Christianity, but 
fidelity to the Anglican Church. Hitherto these 
forms of sceptical unbelief have worked outside 
the Church of England, and in hostility against 
it. Now they are within, and professing to be of it 
and to serve it. Unpalatable as the truth may be, 
it is certain that a Eationalistic school imported from 
Germany has established itself within the Church of 
England ; that its writers are highly respectable and 
cultivated men, and that though they may be few, 
yet the influence of their opinions is already widely 
spread, and that a very general sympathy with them 
already extends itself among the laity of the Angli- 
can Church. This is certainly a phenomenon alto- 
gether new. 


Before entering upon the subject of this chapter, 
it would seem, therefore, to be seasonable to examine 
briefly the present state of the subject of Inspiration 
in the Church of England, and contrast with it the 
teaching of the Catholic Church upon this point. 

And first, as to the doctrine of the Church of Eng- 
land on Inspiration, it is to be remembered that 
though the Canon of Scripture was altered by the 
Anglican Eeforrnation, the subject of Inspiration was 
hardly discussed. The traditional teaching of the 
Catholic Theology, with its various opinions, were 
therefore passively retained. The earlier writers, 
such as Hooker, repeat the traditional formulas re- 
specting the inspiration and veracity of Holy Scrip- 
ture. Hooker's words are, c He (that is, Grod) so 
employed them (the Prophets) in this heavenly work, 
that they neither spake nor wrote a word of their 
own, but uttered syllable by syllable as the Spirit 
put it into their mouths.' l Such was more or less 
the tone of the chief Anglican writers for a century 
after the Eeforrnation. 

Perhaps the best example of the Anglican teaching 
on the subject will be found in Whitby's general 
Preface to his < Paraphrase of the Grospels.' His 
opinion is as follows. He begins by adopting the 

1 Works, vol. iii. p. 62. Ed. Keble. 
K 2 


distinction of the Jewish Church between the e Pro- 
phets ' and the 6 Chetubin,' or holy writers, and there- 
fore between the ' inspiration of suggestion ' and the 
6 inspiration of direction.' 
He then lays down 

1. First, that where there was no antecedent know- 
ledge of the matter to be written, an inspiration of 
suggestion was vouchsafed to the Apostles ; but that 
where such knowledge did antecedently exist, there 
was only an inspiration exciting them to write such 
matters, and directing them in the writing so as to 
preclude all error. 

2. Secondly, that in writing those things which were 
not antecedently known to them, either by natural 
reason including education, or previous revelation 
e. g. the Incarnation, the vocation of the Grentiles, the 
apostacy of the latter times, the prophecies of the 
Apocalypse, they had an immediate suggestion of 
the Holy Spirit. 

3. Thirdly, that in all other matters they were 
directed so as to preclude error, and to confirm the 
truth whether by illumination in the meaning of the 
previous revelation, or by reasoning. 

4. Fourthly, that in the historical parts of the New 
Testament they were directed in all that is necessary 
to the truth of the facts related, but not as to the 


order or accessories of such events, unless these things 
affected the truth of the facts. 

5. Fifthly, that in relating the words or discourses 
of our Lord and of others, they were directed so as 
to preclude all error as to the substance, but not so 
as to reproduce the words. 

6. Lastly, that the inspiration or divine assistance 
of the sacred writers was such as ( will assure us of 
the truth of what they write, whether by inspiration 
of suggestion, or direction only ; but not such as 
would imply that their very words were dictated, or 
their phrases suggested to them, by the Holy Ghost.' l 

In Bishop Burnet may be seen a somewhat less 
explicit tone. He says, ' The laying down a scheme 
that asserts an immediate inspiration, which goes to 
the style, and to every tittle, and that denies any 
error to have crept into any of the copies, as it 
seems on the one hand to raise the honour of Scrip- 
ture very highly, so it lies open on the other hand 
to great difficulties, which seem insuperable on that 
hypothesis.' 2 

Such was the current teaching of the most respect- 
able class of Anglican divines, men of true learning 

1 Whitby's Paraphrase, Gen. Pref. p. 5-7. Ed. London, 1844. 

2 Burnet, Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles, p. 117. Ed. 


and of sound judgment, in the best century of the 
Church of England. But I need quote no more. 
Let us now examine one or two of the modern 
opinions on the same subject. 

A member of the University of Oxford writes as 
follows : ' The Bible is none other than the voice of 
Him that sitteth upon the throne. Every book of it, 
every chapter of it, every verse of it, every word of 
it, every syllable of it, every letter of it, is the direct 
utterance of the Most High.' l A member of Trinity 
College, Dublin, writes as follows : ' The opinion 
that the subject-matter alone of the Bible proceeded 
from the Holy Spirit, while its language was left to 
the unaided choice of the various writers, amounts to 
that fantastic notion which is the grand fallacy of 
many theories of Inspiration ; namely, that two dif- 
ferent spiritual agencies were in operation, one of 
which produced the phraseology in its outward form, 
while the other created within the soul the concep- 
tions and thoughts of which such phraseology was 
the expression. The Holy Spirit, on the contrary, 
as the productive principle, embraces the entire 
activity of those whom He inspires, rendering their 
language the Word of God. The entire substance 

1 Burgon, Inspiration and Interpretation of Holy Scripture, p. 89, 
quoted by Dr. Colenso, part i. p. 6. 


and form of Scripture, whether resulting from 
revelation or natural knowledge, are thus blended 
together into one harmonious whole.' l Once more. 
Dr. Arnold writes as follows: c An inspired work is 
supposed to mean a work to which Grod has com- 
municated His own perfections ; so that the slightest 
error or defect of any kind in it is inconceivable, and 
that which is other than perfect in all points cannot 
be inspired. This is the unwarrantable interpretation 
of the word Inspiration. . . . Surely many of our words 
and many of our actions are spoken and done by the 
inspiration of God's Spirit. . . . Yet does the Holy 
Spirit so inspire us as to communicate to us His own 
perfections ? Are our best works or words utterly free 
from error or from sin?' 2 Mr. Jowett, in his well- 
known Essay on the 'Interpretation of Scripture,' after 
reciting the commonly-received theories of Inspira- 
tion, proceeds as follows : c Nor for any of the higher 
or supernatural views of Inspiration is there any foun- 
dation in the Gospels or Epistles. There is no appear- 
ance in their writings that the Evangelists or Apostles 
had any inward gift, or were subject to any power 
external to them different from that of preaching or 

1 Lee on the Inspiration of Holy Scripture, pp. 32, 33. 

2 Arnold's Sermons, quoted by Stanley, The Bible, its Form, and 
its Substance, Preface, vii. viii. ix. 


teaching which they daily exercised; nor do they 
anywhere lead us to suppose that they were free 
from error or infirmity. . . . The nature of Inspira- 
tion can only be known from the examination of 
Scripture. There is no other source to which we can 
turn for information ; and we have no right to assume 
some imaginary doctrine of Inspiration like the in- 
fallibility of the Eoman Catholic Church. To the 
question What is Inspiration? the first answer 
therefore is, That idea of Scripture which we gather 
from the knowledge of it.' l Dr. Williams says, ' In 
the Bible, as an expression of devout reason, and 
therefore to be read with reason in freedom, he 
[Bunsen] finds a record of the spiritual giants whose 
experience generated the religious atmosphere we 

I do not undertake to do more than recite these 
opinions of clergymen of the Church of England. 
It is not for us to say what is the authoritative doc- 
trine of that body ; but it has been recently declared 
by the highest Ecclesiastical tribunal, that the views 
of Inspiration last given are not inconsistent with 
the Anglican formularies. Dr. Lushington expressed 
himself as follows : f As to the liberty of the Anglican 
clergy to examine and determine the text of Scrip- 
1 Essays and Reviews, pp. 345, 347. 


ture, I exceedingly . . . doubt if this liberty can be 
extended beyond the limits I have mentioned, 
namely, certain verses or parts of Scripture. I think 
it could not be permitted to a clergyman to reject 
the whole of one of the books of Scripture.' l 

It is evident from the above quotations that the 
theory of Inspiration among many prominent men in 
the Anglican Church has been moving in the direc- 
tion of the Grerman Neology. 

Let us now turn to the Catholic doctrine. The 
Catholic Church has expressed itself authoritatively 
on the subject of Holy Scripture and its Divine 
character in the following points : 

1. That the writings of the Prophets and Apostles 
are Holy Scripture ; or in other words, that certain 
sacred books exist in its custody in which the 
'veritas et disciplina' of Christ is partly contained; 
' perspiciens hanc veritatem et disciplinam contineri 
in libris scriptis et sine scripto traditionibus.' 2 

2. That Grod is the Author of these sacred books. 
It declares both the books and the traditions to be 
given to the Church, 'Spiritu Sancto dictante,' by 
Grod Himself, and that He is the Author of all such 
books and traditions, both of the Old and of the 

1 Judgment Bishop of Salisbury versus Williams, p. 16. 

2 Condi. Trid. sess. iv. 


New Testament: 'omnes libros tamVeteris quam Novi 
Testament! quum utriusque unus Deus sit auctor.' l 

3. That the sacred books are so many in number, 
and are such by name; that is, the catalogue or 
canon of the Old and New Testament. The canon 
declared by the Council of Trent is that of the 
Council of Florence in the fourteenth century, of 
Constantinople in the sixth, of Carthage in the 
fourth, and of the Pontifical declarations of S. 
Innocent and S. Grelasius. 

4. That these books in their integrity, and with 
all their parts ( libros integros cum omnibus suis 
partibus,' are to be held as sacred and canonical; 
that is, to be inspired, and to have Grod for their 
Author, which excludes the supposition that any 
part of such books is merely of human authorship, 
and therefore that falsehood or error can be found 
in them. This declaration, though made explicitly 
of the Latin version called the Vulgate, applies a 
fortiori to the Holy Scriptures objective sumptse. It 
is made also under anathema. 

5. That the Latin version called the Vulgate is 
authentic, ' pro authentica habeatur.' 2 

These five points are, I believe, all that the 
Catholic Church has authoritatively declared. To 

1 Condi. Trid. sess. iv. 2 Ibid. 


these every Catholic yields assent. But beyond 
these nothing is of obligation. And whatsoever I 
may add belongs to the region, not of faith, but of 
theology, not of the Councils and Pontiffs, but of 
the Schools. 

And first we will begin with the period of simple 

The Catholic Church, in inheriting the canon of 
the Hebrew and of the Hellenistic books from the 
synagogue, inherited with them the belief of inspira- 
tion current among the Jews, by whom the opera- 
tions of the Divine Spirit were believed to extend 
to the whole substance and form, the sense and the 
letter, of Holy Scripture. 

Such was evidently the belief of the early Christian 
writers. The writings of the Fathers both of the 
East and West show that they extended the in- 
spiration of the Holy Grhost to the whole of Scrip- 
ture, both to its substance and to its form ; so that 
it is altogether pervaded by the mind, voice, and 
authority of Grod. 

For instance, S. Irenaeus says, 'The Scriptures 
are perfect, being dictated by the Word of Grod and 
by His Spirit.' ] 

1 Contra Hcer. lib. ii. c. 47. 


S. Macarius says, ( Grod the King sent the Holy 
Scriptures as His epistles to men.' l 

S. John Chrysostom says, f What things the Scrip- 
tures promulgate, the Lord promulgated.' 2 Again, 
6 All that is in Scripture we must thoroughly ex- 
amine ; for all are dictated by the Holy Grhost, and 
nothing is written in them in vain.' 3 Again, ( The 
mouth of the Prophet is the mouth of Grod.' 4 Again, 
6 The Divine Scripture declares nothing vaguely or 
without intention, but every syllable and every point 
has some mystery hidden in it.' 5 Not an iota, not 
a point, in Scripture is there in vain. 6 Again, 
6 Nothing in the Divine Scriptures is superfluous, for 
they are dictated by the Holy Grhost.' These might 
be extended to any length. S. Basil says, 'Let 
therefore the Scriptures, which are inspired of God, 
decide for us.' 7 S. Grregory of Nazianzum says, f But 
we who extend the diligence (i. e. the operation) of 
the Spirit even to every, the least point and line (of 
the Scriptures) will never grant, for it is not right 
we should, that even the least actions by them com- 
memorated were written without intention.' 8 S. 

1 Horn. XXXIX. p. 476. 2 Horn. De Lazaro, torn. i. p. 755. 

3 Horn. XXXVI. in 8. Joan. * Horn. XIX. in Acta App. 
5 Horn. XVIII. in Genesim. 6 Horn. XXI. et XLIL in Gen. 

7 Epist. ad Eustathium. 

8 Oratio Secunda, sect. cv. torn. i. p. 60. 


Gregory Nyssen says, * Whatever the Sacred Scrip- 
tures declare are the utterances of the Holy Ghost. 
Therefore, the holy Prophets filled by God are in- 
spired by the power of the Holy Ghost, and the 
whole of Scripture is therefore said to be divinely 
inspired.' l I will only add one more. S. John 
Damascene says, 6 The Law, Prophets, Evangelists 
and Apostles, Pastors and Doctors, spoke by the Holy 
Ghost ; so that the whole Scripture inspired by God 
without doubt is useful.' 2 

For the Latin Fathers, passages might be indefi- 
nitely multiplied. The following will suffice. S. 
Augustine says of the Scripture, ' In it God Himself 
speaks.' 3 * Holy Scripture is the handwriting of 
God,' 4 * the adorable style and pen of the Spirit of 
God.' 5 'The faith wavers if the authority of the 
Divine Scriptures is shaken.' 6 ' They are labouring 
to destroy the authority of the Holy Scripture, who 
ascribe to it any falsehood.' 7 e In Scripture there 
is no place for either emendation or doubt.' 8 

1 Orat. VI. cont. Eunom. torn. ii. p. 605. 

2 De Fide Orthod. lib. iv. c. 17. 

S. Aug. Confess, lib. xiii. cap. 44, torn. i. p. 241. 
S. Aug. Enarrat. in Ps. cxliv. cap. 17, torn. iv. p. 1620. 
S. Aug. Confess, lib. vii. cap. 27, torn. i. p. 143. 
S. Aug. De Doct. Christ, lib. i. cap. 41, torn. iii. p. 18. 
S. Aug. De Sanct. Virg. cap. 17, torn. vi. p. 348. 
8 S. Aug. contr. Faust, lib. xi. capp. iv. and v. torn. viii. pp. 221, 222. 


S. Gregory the Great says, ' The Author of the 
book is the Holy Ghost. He therefore wrote these 
things who dictated them to be written. He Him- 
self wrote who inspired them in the act of writing. 1 
Whatsoever the Fathers declare in the sacred oracles, 
they declare not from themselves, but they received 
them from God.' 2 

S. Ambrose, speaking of the sacred authors, says, 
6 They wrote not by art, but by grace. For they 
wrote those things which the Spirit gave them to 
speak.' 3 

Such are the statements of three of the four great 
doctors of the Church. 

It is clear that these Fathers had no thought of 
error or uncertainty in the sacred text, but extended 
the dictation of the Holy Spirit to the whole extent 
of the books of the Old and New Testament as 
simply the Word of God. They may be taken to 
represent the mind of the whole Church in the ages 
which went before the period of controversy as to 
the nature of Inspiration. 

The next period of the subject is that of analysis 
as to the nature and limits of Inspiration. But as I 

1 S. Greg. MOT. in Job, praef. cap. i. sect. 2, torn. i. p. 7- 

2 S. Greg. Lib. iii. in prim. Beg. cap. i. sect. 8, torn. iii. pars. 2, p. 115. 

3 S. Amb. Epp. class, i. epist. viii. sect. i. torn. iii. p. 817. 


am not pretending to write its history, all I will 
attempt is to state the two opinions which exist 
among Catholic theologians since the Council of 

1. The first is that of the older writers, who main- 
tain that every particle and word of the Canonical 
books was written by the dictation of the Holy Spirit. 

Such, as I have shown, was certainly the language 
I will not say the opinion of most of the Fathers 
both of the East and of the West. They spoke of 
the New Testament much as the Elder Church spoke 
of the Old. I say the language not the opinion 
because it is evident that they were occupied with 
the sole intention of affirming the Canonical books 
to be the Word of Grod, without entering analytically 
into the questions which a later criticism forced upon 
the Scholastic theologians. 

This opinion is stated by Habert in the Prole- 
gomena to his Theology as follows : ' Tostatus on 
Numbers, chap, xi., Estius on 2 Timothy, chap, iii., 
and many theologians of weight, affirm that every 
word was inspired and dictated by the Holy Spirit, 
so that the composition and style of the language 
is to be ascribed to Him.' l 

The Faculties of Louvain and Douai censure the 
1 Habert, Proleg. in Theol. pp. 41, 42. 


opposite opinion as a departure from orthodoxy. So 
in their censure they declare, c It is an intolerable 
and great blasphemy, if any shall affirm that any 
otiose word can be found in Scripture. All the 
words of Scripture are so many sacraments (or mys- 
teries). Every phrase, syllable, tittle, and point is 
full of a divine sense, as Christ says in S. Matthew, 
" a jot or a tittle shall not pass from the law." ' They 
go on to quote S. John Chrysostom, S. Augustine, 
S. Bernard, and the Fathers generally. 

Melchior Canus is supposed to be of this opinion. 1 
In his second book De Locis TheoL, after stating 
and refuting the opinions ( of those who thought 
that the sacred writers in the Canonical books did 
not always speak by the Divine Spirit,' he esta- 
blishes the following proposition : that c every 
particle of the Canonical books was written by the 
assistance of the Holy Spirit.' He says, 'I admit 
that the sacred writers had no need of a proper 
and express revelation in writing every particle of 
the Scripture; but that every part of the Scripture 
was written by a peculiar instinct and impulse of 
the Holy Grhost, I truly and rightly contend.' 
After saying that some things were known to 
them by supernatural revelation, and others by 
1 Melchior Canus, Loc. TheoL lib. ii. cap. xvii. 


natural knowledge, he adds, ( that they did not need 
a supernatural light and express revelation to write 
these latter truths, but they needed the presence and 
peculiar help of the Holy Ghost, that these things, 
though they were human truths, and known by na- 
tural reason, should nevertheless be written divinely 
and without any error.' 

The same is also the teaching of Banez, and of 
the Dominican theologians generally. 

2. The other opinion, which is that of Bellarmine, 
and I believe I may say, of the Jesuit theologians, 
and of a majority of the more recent writers on In- 
spiration, is, that the whole matter of Holy Scrip- 
ture was written by the assistance of the Holy Spirit, 
but not the whole form dictated by Him ; or, in other 
words, c res et sententias' the sense and substance; 
4 non verba et apices' not every particular word or 

But, before we enter into the detail of this ques- 
tion, it may be well to give, in a few words, the 
history of a controversy which, in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, promoted the analysis of the 
subject, and left it in its present form. It may be 
said to have arisen out of the excesses of the Lutheran 

The account given by Mosheim of the opinions of 


Luther and of the Lutherans is as follows. He says 
that Luther taught that the matter of the Holy Scrip- 
ture that is, the truths contained in it are from the 
Holy Grhost ; but the form that is, the style, words, 
phrases, and construction are from the writer. When 
Catholic theologians replied that this opened the way 
for error into the sacred text, certain followers of 
Luther went into the other extreme, and taught, as 
the younger Buxtorf, 1 that the Hebrew vowel-points 
and accents are inspired. 

It appears also that Erasmus expressed himself at 
one time with very little caution. In his commen- 
tary on the 2nd chapter of S. Matthew, he said, 
* Sive quod ipsi Evangelists testimonia hujusmodi 
non e libris deprompserimt; sed memoriae fidentes, 
ita ut lapsi sint.' ' Whether it be that the Evange- 
lists did not draw their narratives from records, but 
trusted to their memory, and so fell into error.' 
Eckius wrote to him, 'Audi, mi Erasme, arbitrarisne 
Christianum patienter laturum Evangelistas in Evan- 
geliis lapsos ? Si hie vacillat S. Scripturse auctoritas, 
quae pars alia sine suspicione erit?' 2 Erasmus was 
attacked by the Salmanticenses and other Spanish 

1 Lee on Inspiration, Appendix C. p. 436. 

2 Lee on Inspiration, Appendix C. p. 437. Erasmi Opp. ep. 303, 
torn. iii. 296. 


theologians. He afterwards explains himself, though 
not very firmly or frankly, but the objectionable 
words were erased from the next edition of his Com- 

The next discussion on the subject of Inspiration, 
among Catholic theologians, arose during the Jan- 
senist Controversy. In 1586, Lessius and Hamel, in 
their lectures at Louvain, taught the following pro- 
positions : 

1. ' Ut aliquid sit Scriptura Sacra, non est neces- 
sarium, singula ejus verba inspirata esse a Spiritu 
Sancto.' ' That a book be Holy Scripture, it is not 
necessary that every word of it be inspired by the 
Holy Ghost,' 

2. f Non est necessarium ut singulse veritates et 
sentential sint immediate a Spiritu Sancto ipsi Scrip- 
tori inspiratae.' ( It is not necessary that every truth 
or sentence be immediately inspired into the writer 
by the Holy Grhost.' 

3. f Liber aliquis (qualis forte est secundus Macha- 
bseorum) humana industria sine assistentia Spiritus 
Sancti scriptus, si Spiritus Sanctus postea testetur 
nihil ibi esse falsum, efficitur Scriptura Sacra.' l ' A 
book (such as perhaps the 2nd of Maccabees), written 
by human industry, without the assistance of the 

1 See Theol. Wirceburg. torn. i. p. 23. 
L 2 


Holy G-host if the Holy Spirit afterwards testify 
that nothing false is contained in it becomes Holy 

These propositions were at once assailed. The 
Archbishops of Cambrai and Mechlin sent them to the 
Faculties of Douai and Lou vain. 1 They were con- 
demned by both. The third was especially censured. 
Estius, who drew up the censure, in his 'Commentary 
on the Epistles ' gives his own opinion as follows : 
* From this passage it is rightly and truly established, 
that all the sacred and canonical Scripture is written 
by the dictation of the Holy Ghost ; so that not only 
the sense, but every word, and the order of the words, 
and the whole arrangement, is from Grod, as if He 
were speaking or writing in person. For this is the 
meaning of the Scripture being divinely inspired.' 2 

Lessius and Hamel appealed to the Sorbonne. The 
Faculty of Paris did not approve either of the Jesuit 
propositions, nor of the censures of Louvain and 
Douai. The Faculties of Mayence, Treves, Ingold- 
stadt, and Rome disapproved the censures ; but 
Sixtus V. imposed silence until the Holy See should 
pronounce. The subject has never been decided. 
The censures are given by D'Argentre, in his e Col- 

1 See Theol. Wirceburg. torn. i. p. 23. 

2 Estii Comment, in Ep. 2 ad Timoth. cap. iii. 16. 


lectio Judiciorum de novis Erroribus,' and the Jesuit 
propositions are defended by P. Simon, in his ' His- 
toire Critique du Texte du Nouveau Testament.' l 

About fifty years after, that is in A.D. 1650, Holden 
published his ' Divinae Fidei Analysis,' in which he 
maintained a theory of inspiration which is certainly 
open to some, if not to all the censures which were 
directed against it. I hope, however, that his ortho- 
doxy may be maintained, though somewhat at the 
expense of his coherence. 

The passage which caused the censure of P. Simon 
is to be found in the fifth chapter of the first book, 
and is as follows : ' Auxilium speciale divinum prse- 
stitum auctori cujuslibet script!, quod pro verbo Dei 
recipit Ecclesia, ad ea solummodo se porrigit, quse vel 
sint pure doctrinalia, vel proximum aliquem, aut ne- 
cessarium habeant ad doctrinalia respectum: in iis 
vero quse non sunt de institute Scriptoris vel ad alia re- 
feruntur, eo tantum subsidio Deum illi adfuisse judic- 
amus, quod piissimis cseteris auctoribus commune sit.' 2 

This, at first sight at least, would seem to imply 
that in all matters not of faith or morals the inspired 
writers were liable to err like any other pious men. 
Nevertheless, in three places Holden affirms that the 

1 Simon, Histoire, &c., ch. xxiii. 

2 Divines Fidei Analysis, lib. i. c. v. p. 48. 


books of Scripture are absolutely free from all error. 
In the first section of the same chapter he defines 
the Scripture as a document containing truth, and 
nothing ' a veritate quacunque dissonam vel alienam.' 
In the third he says, f Quamvis enim nullam com- 
plectatur Scriptura falsitatem.' In the third chapter 
of the second book he says, ( Quamvis falsitatis 
arguere non licet quicquid habetur in Sacro Codice, 
veruntamen quae ad religionem non spectant, Catho- 
licae Fidei articulos nullatenus astruunt.' It is 
evident, then, that he denied the presence of any- 
thing false or erroneous in Holy Scripture; that if 
he limited the infallible assistance of the Holy Spirit 
to matters of faith and morals, he supposed that the 
whole of the sacred text was written by such assistance 
as, in fact, excluded all error; or, in other words, 
that if the sacred writers in other matters might have 
erred, they never did. 

I notice this because it is well to show how little 
the name of Holden may be quoted by those who, at 
this day, maintain that the inspired writers, in matters 
not of faith and morals, did err ; and because even 
the writer in Bergier's Dictionary seems so to re- 
present him, aod, I regret to add, Pere Matignon. 1 

We have now before us the main lines of opinion 

1 La Liberte de Vesprit humain dans la Foi Catholique, p. 187. 


which have existed among Catholic divines on the 
subject of Inspiration. They have never been much 
modified to this day. The one affirms the inspiration 
both of the matter and the form of Holy Scripture ; 
the other, of the matter only, except so far as the 
doctrine of faith and morals, all error of every kind 
being excluded by a special and infallible assistance. 
To these two opinions some would add that of Holden 
as a third; namely, that this special assistance is 
limited to faith and morals, all error being neverthe- 
less excluded, though the assistance in other subject- 
matters is only of an ordinary kind ; but, I think, 
without sufficient foundation, for the reasons I have 

In order to appreciate more exactly the reach of 
these opinions, it will be well to examine them some- 
what more intimately, and to fix the sense of the 
terms used in the discussion of the subject. 

(1) First, then, comes the word Inspiration, 
which is often confounded with Revelation. 

Inspiration, in its first intention, signifies the 
action of the Divine Spirit upon the human, that is, 
upon the intelligence and upon the will. It is an 
intelligent and vital action of Grod upon the soul of 
man ; and ' inspired' is to be predicated, not of books 
or truths, but of living agents. 


In its second intention, it signifies the action of the 
Spirit of God upon the intelligence and will of man, 
whereby any one is impelled and enabled to act, or 
to speak, or to write, in some special way designed 
by the Spirit of God. 

In its still more special and technical intention, it 
signifies an action of the Spirit upon men, impelling 
them to write what God reveals, suggests, or wills 
that they should write. But inspiration does not 
necessarily signify revelation, or suggestion of the 
matter to be written. 

(2) Secondly, Revelation signifies the unfolding 
to the intelligence of man truths which are contained 
in the intelligence of God, the knowledge of which 
without such revelation would be impossible. Men 
may be the subjects of revelation, and not of inspira- 
tion ; and they might be the subjects of inspiration, 
and not of revelation. 

(3) Thirdly, Suggestion, in the theory of inspi- 
ration, signifies the bringing to mind such things as 
God wills the writer to put in writing. All revelation 
is suggestion, but not all suggestion revelation ; be- 
cause much that is suggested may be of the natural 
order, needing no revelation, being already known by 
natural reason, or by historical tradition and the like. 

(4) Fourthly, by Assistance is understood the 


presence and help of the Holy Spirit, by which the 
human agent, in full use of his own liberty and 
powers such as natural gifts, genius, acquired culti- 
vation, and the like, executes the work which the 
Divine Inspiration impels him to write. 
There are three kinds of assistance. 

(1) First, there is the assistance afforded by the 
Holy Spirit to all the faithful, by which their intelli- 
gence is illuminated and their will strengthened, 
without exempting them from the liability to error. 

(2) Secondly, there is the assistance vouchsafed to 
the Church diffused throughout the world or congre- 
gated in council, or to the person of the Vicar of 
Jesus Christ, speaking ex cathedra, which excludes 
all liability to error within the sphere of faith and 
morals, and such facts and truths as attach to them 
(of which relations the Church is the ultimate judge), 
but does not extend to the other orders of purely 
natural science and knowledge. 

(3) Lastly, there is the assistance granted as a 
6 gratia gratis data ' to the inspired writers of the 
.Holy Scripture, which excludes all liability to error 
in the act of writing, not only in matters of faith and 
morals, but in all matters, of whatsoever kind, which 
by the inspiration of God they are impelled to write. 

The Jesuits, in the ' Theologia Wirceburgensis,' 


sum up the subject in the following way: The 
authorship of (rod ' may be conceived in three ways. 
First, by special assistance, which preserves the 
writer from all error and falsehood. Secondly, by 
inspiration, which impels the writer to the act of 
writing, without, however, destroying his liberty. 
Thirdly, by revelation, by which truths hitherto 
unknown are manifested.' They then affirm, 'that 
God specially inspired the sacred writers with the 
truths and matter expressed in the sacred books.' * 

Perhaps it may be more in accordance with the 
facts of the case to invert the order, and to say 
that what we call Inspiration, in the special and 
technical sense, includes the three following opera- 
tions of the Holy Grhost upon the mind of the sacred 
writers : 

(1) First, the impulse to put in writing the matter 
which Grod wills they should record. 

(2) Secondly, the suggestion of the matter to be 
written, whether by revelation of truths not previously 
known, or only by the prompting of those things which 
were already within the writer's knowledge. 

(3) Thirdly, the assistance which excludes liability 
to error in writing all things, whatsoever may be 
suggested to them by the Spirit of Grod to be written. 

1 Theol. Wirceburgensis, torn. i. pp. 15, 16. 


From this follow two corollaries : 

1. That in Holy Scripture there can be no false- 
hood or error. 

2. That G-od is the author of all inspired books. 

The enunciation of these two axioms of Christi- 
anity has elicited in all ages a series of objections. 
It would be impossible to enumerate or to recite 
them all : I will, therefore, take only the chief cate- 
gories, so to say, of the difficulties which are sup- 
posed to exist in Holy Scripture. 

1. First, it was alleged by the Manichaeans or 
Marcionites that the Old Testament was both evil 
and discordant with the New. S. Augustine wrote a 
book called ' Contra Adversarium Legis et Prophe- 
tarum,' in refutation of a manuscript said to be found 
at Carthage in a street by the sea-shore, and read in 
public to the people, 'multis confluentibus, et ad- 
tentissime audientibus.' The sum of the book was, 
that the maker of the world was evil, and the creator 
of evil ; that he was cruel, because he inflicted death 
for trifling causes, as on the sons of Heli, also upon 
infants and innocents; that he could not be the true 
God, because he delighted in sacrifices : and that the 
Flood was not sent because of sin, because mankind 
was worse after it than before. 1 I need not give 

1 S. Aug. torn. viii. p. 550. 


more examples : I quote these only to show that this 
form of objection is not new. 

2. Secondly, it has been objected that the Evan- 
gelists are discordant with each other. This also was 
treated by S. Augustine, by S. John Chrysostom, and 
has produced a whole Bibliotheca of Harmonies. 

3. Thirdly, that the Holy Scriptures contain errors 
in science, history, chronology, and the like. 

This objection is chiefly of modern date. The late 
Dr. Arnold expresses himself as follows : ' I would 
not give unnecessary pain to any one by an enumera- 
tion of those points in which the literal historical 
statement of an inspired writer has been vainly de- 
fended. Some instances will probably occur to most 
readers ; others are, perhaps, not known, and never 
will be known to many.' 1 His disciples naturally 
follow the same line. The writers of the f Essays and 
Keviews ? are bolder and more explicit. 

It is, however, with surprise that I find the Abbe 
Le Noir writing in these terms : ( There are in Holy 
Scripture faults of geography, chronology, natural 
history, of physical science of science generally ; 
in short, perhaps, also philosophical inaccuracies, 
and literary errors against real and unchangeable 
good taste.' These faults, he says, concern < the idea 

1 Dr. Stanley on the Sible &c., Preface, p. ix. 


itself,' that is, the matter of Holy Scripture, not the 
form only, and are not to be explained by errors of 
copyists.' l 

4. Fourthly, that the Holy Scripture contains 
expressions of hope, uncertainty, and of intentions 
never accomplished ; of advice declared to be simply 
personal, not of Divine suggestion ; all of which are 
evidently of human authorship, and therefore liable 
to error. 2 

1 Dictionnaire des Harmonies de la Raison et de laFoi, pp. 921, 2. 

2 In order to show that the inspired writers did not always write 
by inspiration, and that what they wrote without inspiration they 
wrote only as men liable to error, a well-known writer has lately 
quoted such passages as the following from the commentaries of 
S. Jerome on the words of S. Paul: 'Although I be rude in speech, 
yet not in knowledge ' (2 Cor. xi. 6). 

' Therefore Hebrew of the Hebrews as he was, and most learned in 
his vernacular tongue, he was not able to express the profundity of 
his meaning in a language not his own : nor did he much heed the 
words so long as the sense was secure' (S. Hierom. Com. lib. iii. 
ad Oral. cap. vi. torn. iv. p. 309). 

Again on the third chapter to the Ephesians he says : ' He, there- 
fore, who committed solecisms in his words, and could not express 
an hyperbole or complete a sentence, boldly claims for himself 
wisdom, and says, according to the revelation the mystery is made 
known unto me ' (Ib. ad Ephes. cap. vi! lib. ii. p. 348). 

Once more, in the Epistle to Algasia on the words, ' Although I 
be rude in speech, yet not in knowledge,' he says : ' Paul said this 
not out of humility but in truth of conscience.' ... ' He does not 
fully express his profound and recondite meaning by his speech, and 
though he himself knew what he said, I conceive that he was not 
able to transfer it in speech to the ears of others' (Ib. torn. iv. 
p. 204). These passages might be easily multiplied, and others 


5. Fifthly, that much of the matter of Holy 
Scripture is intrinsically incredible. Passing over 
all other examples of this objection in the past, 
and in other countries, I will name only the works 
of Dr. Colenso on the Pentateuch. 

6. Sixthly, that the text, by reason of innumerable 
variations, is uncertain, and that the authority of 
the Book is thereby shaken ; for if the text be un- 
certain in one part, we do not know that it is not 
uncertain in others. 

I do not at all underrate the importance of meet- 
ing these objections, which has been already done 
again and again in past centuries. But error, as I 
have said, seems to have periodic times, and to 
return upon us ; not, indeed, identical, nor in the same 

also where he speaks as a man carried away by human infirmity 
(ad Gal. cap. v. ib. p. 293). 

These passages not only fall short of the conclusion for which they 
are quoted, but overturn it. For S. Paul expressly affirms that 
though he was rude in speech he was not in knowledge, which S. 
Jerome interprets to be his consciousness of ' profound and recondite 
meanings,' and also of wisdom. But this excludes the supposition 
of all error. For solecisms in words and the limitations of a lan- 
guage not his own, did not cause the utterances of divine truth to 
Become erroneous. The Greek of S. John is not Attic, but his 
Gospel is free from all error. A Jew of Tarsus might speak Greek 
rudely, but the matter revealed to him was not thereby infected 
with human error. The above passages may indeed be quoted 
against the extreme theory of literal inspiration, but not to prove 
that the inspired writers were liable to error. 


precise forms, but still the same errors under new 
aspects, and attaching to other portions of the truth. 
As I do not now attempt to discuss the large questions 
I have here enumerated, I will do no more than add 
one or two general reflections. 

1. And first it is to be observed, that the Church in 
declaring the Vulgate Version to be authentic, does not 
declare that the existing text is free from uncertainty. 

By authentic, the Church intends to say authori- 
tative in the sense of jurisprudence, in which an 
' authentic document ' signifies a writing which is 
conclusive in evidence. Such writings may be of 
three kinds: 1. Autographa, or the original docu 
ments ; 2. Apographa, or copies agreeing with the 
original ; and, 3. Translations in versions which are 
called authentic in a wider sense, conformity of 
substance with the original being secured. 

Again, authenticity is either intrinsic or extrinsic. 
Intrinsic authenticity in autographa signifies that 
the writing is original, and in the hand of the writer; 
in apographa, or copies, and translations, that they 
are conformable to the original. Extrinsic authen- 
ticity is the external evidence by which the intrinsic 
authenticity is established. 

Authenticity is again divided into absolute and re- 
lative. 1. J.&SG toe authenticity signifies conformity 


with the original both in matter and form, and in 
things both of great and of light moment ; in a 
word, in all things which constitute the perfection of 
the original, to the exclusion of fault or defect. 2. 
Relative or respective authenticity signifies con- 
formity as a whole, but not to the exclusion of 
lesser faults or defects. 

Now, by declaring the Vulgate to be authentic, the 
Church signifies that it is in conformity with the 
original Scriptures, and that it has not been vitiated 
either by the malice or the carelessness of the trans- 
lators. But theologians of great weight interpret 
this declaration to signify, that the authenticity is 
not absolute, extending to jots and tittles, but rela- 
tive or respective, extending to the substance and 
to all the chief parts of the text; that is, to the 
doctrine of faith and morals, and to all the 
histories, facts, and sayings which are contained 
in it. 

In this sense the Council of Trent declared the 
Vulgate to be authentic ; but in doing so it did not 
detract from the authenticity of the Greek or the 
Hebrew Scriptures. 1 

And this is the more evident from the fact that 
two editions of the Vulgate were published, the one 

1 Theologia Wirceburgensis, torn. i. p. 35. 


by command of Sixtus V., the other of Clement VII., 
with numerous corrections of the text. 

It is clear, therefore, that the Church has never 
pronounced any version to be identical in every jot 
or tittle with the sacred original. 

And this leads us to a train of thought very 
seasonable at this da}^. At this moment there exists 
in the Christian world an almost inconceivable multi- 
tude of copies of the Bible, in I know not how many 
tongues. The art of printing has multiplied them 
with a rapidity and a profusion which would be 
almost miraculous not only to a mediaeval transcriber, 
but to Caxton and Aldus. As we trace this wide 
stream upward through the last three centuries, it 
becomes narrower and narrower, until we reach the 
time when printed volumes disappear, and a number 
of manuscripts many indeed, but in proportion to 
the printed copies indefinitely few is all that repre- 
sents the written Word of God. If we trace this 
stream of written tradition upwards, it becomes nar- 
rower still. Without doubt, the copies and versions 
of Scripture were always numerous ; and multitudes 
have perished by age and other causes : multitudes 
have ceased to exist since the art of printing ren- 
dered a manuscript an unwieldy and wearisome 
book. Nevertheless, the ancient manuscripts are still 



the chief criteria for the correction of our printed 
text. And of these none is to be found of an earlier 
date than the fourth century. Some twenty or thirty 
principal manuscripts in Greek, and about forty in 
Latin, are all that appear to remain to us of a trust- 
worthy kind. Of course, I do not forget the texts 
which are incorporated in the works of the Fathers, 
and in the Lectionaries or Antiphonaries. But we 
are now speaking of texts or manuscript copies 
representing the great and Divine Original, which is 
now, like the body of Moses, withdrawn by the Divine 
Providence from the custody of man. This is a won- 
derful fact ; and wonderful also it is that we so little 
reflect upon it. In the heat of their controversies, 
men contend as if their Bibles were attested fac- 
similes, stereotyped or photographed copies of the 
autograph of S. John and S. Paul; utterly incon- 
siderate of the long tract of human agency by which 
the Scriptures have come down to them, and all the 
while refusing to believe in the Divine office of the 
Church, which has guarded and authenticated the 
written Word of Grod to us by its unerring witness. 
The authenticity, intrinsic and extrinsic, of each 
particular writing of the New Testament, was known 
and guaranteed by those to whom the several inspired 
writers committed it. The Church, by the inter- 


change of these testimonies, and by the collection of 
the books so attested, formed the canon, in which it 
recognised the revelation it had already received., and 
spread throughout the world, before the canon was 
collected. The Scripture corresponded with this 
great Original, as the Tabernacle corresponded after- 
wards, with the Pattern which was shown to Moses 
in the Mount. The Church is the sole judge of the 
intrinsic authenticity, and alone knows the hand- 
writing of the Author of the Sacred Books, and the 
autograph of the Spirit of Grod. 

The next observation to be made is, that although, 
by the assistance of the Holy Spirit, the Church 
both knows, and at all times can declare with divine 
certainty, the doctrine of faith and morals committed 
to its charge ; and although it can also declare, and 
has declared with divine certainty, the existence of 
Holy Scripture, the catalogue or canon of the Sacred 
Books, the inspiration of the writers their im- 
munity, and therefore the immunity of their writings, 
from all falsehood or error, nevertheless, it has 
hitherto only declared the Vulgate to be authentic, 
and that, as I have already shown, with the relative 
or respective authenticity, which does not exclude 
the errors of translators or transcribers. It has 
never as yet declared any text to possess immunity 

M 2 


from the errors of translations or transcriptions, 
nor that transcribers or translators are exempt from 
the liability to err. The custody of the faith resides 
in the sphere of the Divine illumination, which per- 
vades the Church with its active and passive infal- 
libility. The custody of the material documents of 
Holy Scripture resides in the office of the Church, as 
a Divine witness to the facts of its own history, and 
of the Divine gifts committed to its trust. The 
Scriptures were indeed written by an impulse and 
assistance of (rod, and as such, are Divine endow- 
ments to the Church ; but the material volumes, the 
manuscripts or parchments, were not a part of the 
deposit, like the Divine truths revealed to the 
Apostles, nor like the holy sacraments divinely in- 
stituted by Jesus Christ. 

It follows from what has been said, 

1. That whensoever the text can be undoubtedly 
established, the supposition of error as to the contents 
of that text cannot be admitted : but, 

2. That wheresoever the text may be uncertain, 
in those parts error may be present. 

But this would be not error in Scripture, but in 
the transcription or translation of the Scripture, 
and would be due, not to the inspired writer, but to 
the translator or transcriber. 


That such a supposition may be entertained, is 
evident from the fact that the variations in the 
versions are stated by some writers at 30,000, by 
others at 40,000, by others at 100,000. That varia- 
tions existed already in S. Augustine's time is evident 
from his answer to Faustus the Manichsean, to whom 
he says, ( If anything absurd be alleged to be there 
(i. e. in Holy Scripture), no man may say, The author 
of this book did not hold the truth. But (he must 
say), either the manuscript is faulty, or the translator 
was in error, or you do not understand it.' 1 In 
these words S. Augustine has provided an answer 
for our days as well as for his own. It would seem 
that these three suppositions suffice to cover the 
difficulties alleged against the historical character 
and intrinsic credibility of Holy Scripture. 

1. First, it is evident that Holy Scripture does 
not contain a revelation of what are called physical 
sciences ; and that when they are spoken of, the lan- 
guage is that of sense, not of science, and of popular, 
not of technical usage. 

2. Secondly, no system of chronology is laid down 
in the Sacred Books. There are at least three chro- 
nologies, probable and admissible, apparently given 
by Holy Scripture. It cannot be said, therefore, that 

1 S. Aug., Contra Faustum, lib. xi. c. 5, torn. viii. p. 222. 


there are chronological faults in Holy Scripture, for- 
asmuch as no ascertained chronology is there declared. 

3. Thirdly, historical narratives may appear in- 
credible and yet be true ; and may seem irrecon- 
cileable with other history, and yet the difficulty may 
arise simply from our want of adequate knowledge. 
A history may seem improbable, and yet be fact 
after all. 

The most certain and exact sciences have residual 
difficulties which resist all tests, and refuse all solu- 
tion. The sciences most within our reach, of the 
natural order, and capable of demonstration, not 
only have their limits, but also phenomena which 
we cannot reconcile. How much more Eevelation, 
which reaches into a world of which eternity and 
infinity are conditions, and belongs to an order above 
nature and the reason of man ! It is no wonder that 
in the sphere of supernatural science there should 
be residual difficulties, such as the origin of evil, 
the freedom of the will, the eternity of punishment. 
They lie upon the frontier, beyond which, in this 
world, we shall never pass. Again, what wonder 
that the Holy Scriptures should contain difficulties 
which yield to no criticism, and that not only in the 
sphere of supernatural truth, but also of the natural 
order that is, of history, chronology, and the like ! 


To hear some men talk, one would suppose that they 
were eye-witnesses of the creation, observers of the 
earth's surface before and after the Flood, companions 
of the patriarchs, chroniclers of the Jewish race. 
The history of the world for four thousand years, 
written in mere outline, with intervals of unmarked 
duration genealogies which cannot be verified by 
any other record, events which are the cnraf \syo/jueva 
of history may well present difficulties, and apparent 
improbabilities upon the surface, and yet after all be 
true. The same historical event, viewed from differ- 
ent sides, will present aspects so different, that the 
records of it may be apparently irreconcileable ; and 
yet some one fact or event not preserved in the 
record would solve and harmonise all. It may be 
from ' intellectual obtuseness,' or ( want of the critical 
faculty,' or ( obstinate adherence to preconceived be- 
lief,' but it makes little impression on me to be told 
that S. Stephen, in Acts vii. 16, fell into an historical 
error in saying that Jacob was buried in Sichem. I 
confess that I cannot explain the difficulty, and that 
the explanations usually given, though possible and 
even probable, are hardly sufficient. Nevertheless, 
I am not shaken in the least as to the divine axiom, 
that Holy Scripture is exempt from all error. Whe- 
ther it be a fault in the manuscript, or in the 


translator, or only a want of our understanding, I 
cannot tell ; but an error in Scripture most assuredly 
it is not, and our inability to solve it, is no proof 
that it is. There it stands, an undoubted difficulty 
in the existing text and not the only one ; and yet 
all together will not shake our faith in the immunity 
from error which was granted to the sacred writers. 

Nor, again, when we read in one place that King 
Solomon had 4,000 stalls for horses, in another 
40,000 ; nor that king Josias began to reign at eight 
years of age, in another place at eighteen. I cannot 
explain it. But I can imagine and believe many 
solutions except one, namely, that the inspired writers 
contradicted themselves, or that in this they were 
not inspired. 

So likewise, when I am told that the history of the 
Pentateuch is intrinsically incredible; that half a 
million of men could not be slain in one battle ; that 
the people in the wilderness could not have survived 
without water; that to furnish the paschal lambs 
would require I know not how many millions of 
sheep ; that, according to sheep-masters in Yorkshire 
and Natal, this would require I know not how many 
millions of square acres of grass; that the priest 
could not carry every day a bullock, with his head, 
and hide, and inwards, and appurtenances, six miles 


out of the camp, and the like; I confess that it makes 
little impression on me. It reminds me of the 
Athenian, who having a house to sell, carried about 
a brick in his pocket as a view of the premises ; and 
of another, who showed in his olive garden the well 
out of which his forefathers used to drink ; to which 
his friend testing history by mensuration, and yet 
believing said, 'What long necks they must have 
had ! ' I do not profess to be able to understand all 
the difficulties which may be raised. The history 
shows to me afar off like the harvest-moon just over 
the horizon, dilated beyond all proportion, and in its 
aspect unnatural; but I know it to be the same 
heavenly light which in a few hours I shall see in a 
flood of splendour, self-evident and without a cloud. 
So I am content to leave, as residual difficulties, the 
narratives which come down from an age, when as yet 
the father of secular history had not been born. 
Why should we assume that we must render an 
account of all difficulties in Scripture any more than 
in revelation, or in revelation any more than in 
science ? Why should we be ashamed of saying with 
S. Augustine, ' Let us believe and immoveably affirm 
that in Scripture falsehood has no place.' 1 ' As for us, in 
the history of our religion, upheld by Divine authority, 

1 S. Aug. Ep. 82, ad Hier. torn. ii. p. 198. 


we have no doubt that whatsoever is opposed to it is 
most false, let the literature of the world say what it 
will of it.' l ( We cannot say the manuscript is faulty, 
for all the corrected Latin versions have it so ; nor that 
the translator is in error, for all the corrected Greek 
have it so. It remains that you do not understand 
it.' 2 ' Even in the Holy Scriptures themselves, the 
things of which I am ignorant are many more than 
the things which I know.' 3 f Adore in the Grospel 
what you do not as yet understand, and adore it all 
the more in proportion as it is now hidden from 
you.' 4 These may be hard sayings to the nineteenth 
century; but they are the judgments of reason illumi- 
nated by faith, c which is yesterday, and to-day, and 
the same for ever.' 

And if it should seem irrational and perverse to 
shut our eyes to difficulties, as men say, we can but 
answer We neither derive our religion from the 
Scriptures, nor does it depend upon them. Our 
faith was in the world before the New Testament was 
written. The Scripture itself depends for its attesta- 
tion upon the Witness who teaches us our faith, and 
that Witness is Divine. Our faith rests upon an 

1 S. Aug. De Civ. Dei, lib. xriii. cap. 40. torn. vii. p. 522. 

2 Ibid. Cont. Faust, lib. xi. c. 6. 

3 Ibid, ad Inquis. Januar. Ep. LV. torn. ii. p. 143. 

4 Ibid. Serm. LI. de Concor. Matt, et Luc. torn. v. p. 285. 


order of divine facts which was already spread 
throughout the world, when as yet the Grospel of 
S. John was not written. Of what weight are any 
number of residual difficulties against this standing, 
perpetual, and luminous miracle, which is the con- 
tinuous manifestation of a supernatural history 
among men; a history, the characters, proportions, 
and features of which are, like the order to which it 
belongs, divine, and therefore transcend the ordinary 
course of nations and of men. One of these divine 
facts, and that, which is the centre and source of all 
our certainty, is the perpetual Voice of the Church 
of God. That Voice has declared to us that the 
Sacred Books were written by inspiration, and that 
whatsoever those books contain, howsoever it may 
surpass the bounds of our experience, and refuse the 
criteria of our statistics, and the calculus of our 
arithmetic, is simply to be believed because it is 
divinely true. 





IN the last chapter we have endeavoured to ascertain, 
according to the tradition of the Catholic faith and 
theology, the relation of the Holy Spirit to the 
letter and to the substance of Holy Scripture. We 
may now go on to trace the relation of the same 
Divine Person to its interpretation. 

At the close of the last chapter, it was affirmed 
that Christianity was neither derived from the Scrip- 
tures of the New Testament, nor is dependent upon 
them : that it was derived from, and that it still 
depends upon the order of divine facts introduced 
into the world by the Incarnation; among which 
facts, one is the perpetual presence of a Divine 
Teacher among men. In the present chapter, then, 
we will trace the relation of this Divine Teacher to 
the interpretation of Scripture. The faith teaches 
us that what the presence of the Incarnate Son in 


the years of His ministry was to the Scriptures of the 
Old Testament, that the presence of the Holy Grhost 
is, servata proportione, to the Scriptures of the New. 
Now the Jews were not more unconscious of the 
presence of a Divine Person among them than the 
multitude of men at this day. 

We read in the fourth chapter of S. Luke's Grospel, 
that on a certain Sabbath day our Lord 6 went into 
the synagogue, according to His custom,' and that 
' He stood up to read.' l The Sabbath rose upon 
Nazareth that day like any other, and the people of 
Israel went to their synagogue as at other times. 
Jesus was there, according to His custom ; and He 
stood up to read as others were wont to do. The 
Book of Esaias the prophet was given to Him ; and 
as He unrolled it, He found the place where it 
was written, ' The Spirit of the Lord is upon me. 
Wherefore He hath anointed me to preach the 
Grospel to the poor.' c And when He had folded 
the book, He restored it to the minister and sat 
down.' Then He said: ' This day these words are 
fulfilled in your ears.' That day was a day of visi- 
tation. The Messiah was come, but they knew Him 
not. With the Scriptures in their hands, they did 
not recognise the Divine Person of whom the 
1 S. Luke iv. 16-19. 


Scriptures spoke. He was come fulfilling the prophe- 
cies ; but they believed Him to be the carpenter, the 
son of Joseph. There was a Divine Teacher in the 
midst of them, but they thought His voice was hu- 
man. He interpreted to them the sense, and con- 
firmed the authenticity of the Books of Moses and of 
the Prophets with a Divine witness ; but they rejected 
both His testimony and His interpretation. With the 
Books of the Law in their hands, they rejected the 
Lawgiver, and appealed from Him to it, from the 
living voice of a Divine Teacher to the letter of the 
Scriptures, interpreted by their own human com- 
mentaries. It is of this perversity S. Paul says, " The 
letter killeth, the Spirit quickeneth.' l S. Augustine 
says, c The Jew carries the volume, by which the 
Christian believes.' 2 Now was this a transient visi- 
tation, or is there still in the midst of us a Divine 
Person the living Interpreter of the Holy Scrip- 
ture the Gruardian both of the letter and of the 
sense of Holy Writ ? 

This is a vital question vital at all times most 
vital now in England. Because hitherto England 
has preserved two things ; not wholly, indeed, but with 
less of mutilation than other Protestant countries ; 
namely, a belief that Christianity is a divine revela- 

1 2 Cor. iii. 6. 2 S. Aug., Enarr. in Psalm. Ivi. torn. iv. p. 534. 


lation, and that the Holy Scripture is an inspired 
Book. These have been hitherto the foundations of 
English Christianity. But they have been secretly 
and silently giving way. At the present day, many 
reject Christianity altogether ; and many who profess 
to believe in Christianity reject the inspiration of a 
large part of the Scriptures. And these things are 
the forerunners of a flood which has already swept 
the belief in Christianity and in the Scriptures from 
the greater part of Lutheran Germany. If Luther 
should rise from the dead, he would not recognise 
his own work nor his own posterity. And in Ger- 
many there appears to be no signs of rising again 
from this spiritual death. In France some seventy 
years ago, a flood of infidelity burst upon the land, 
and carried all before it. The Church was swept 
away. An infidel empire reigned not only by force, 
but by infidel philosophy, and by infidel education. 
But France has risen again from the dead, and 
Christianity and the Church in France is restored to 
all its power and purity. Its hierarchy, priesthood, 
and religious are more vigorous and faithful than 
ever. And despite of indifference and infidelity in 
individuals, the French people, as a people, are 
Christian in faith and works. What has saved 
France but the Church of God the supernatural 


witness, endowments, and power of the holy 
Catholic and Eoman Church? But what shall sa\e 
England from the unbelief which is impending as an 
inundation ? The Eeformation has mined the bar- 
riers against scepticism and unbelief. Doubt has 
been generated, age after age, upon every doctrine 
of Christianity and every book of Scripture. It 
seems to hang in the atmosphere, and to find its 
way impalpably into all minds ; not of the irreverent 
and irreligious only, but even of the higher and the 
better. And what wonder, when pastors and bishops 
of the Church of England are leaders in this secession 
from the Truth. Is there then no power of rising 
again for England ? Is it like Germany, or like 
France ? Is there any barrier to unbelief ? any wit- 
ness for divine faith present in this country to raise 
it again from the ruin into which the flood of unbelief 
is visibly bearing it away ? I believe there is. Narrow 
and hardly visible as it now may seem, nevertheless 
as the legal Christianity of England dissolves and 
passes away, the Catholic and Eoman Church spreads 
itself with a steady and irresistible expansion. It is 
indeed a wonderful reverse to human pretension and 
to human pride, to see at this hour the Catholic and 
Eoman Church in England standing out as the one 
and only consistent and inflexible witness and keeper 


of Holy Writ, the sole guardian of Scripture, both 
of its sense and of its letter, and therefore the only 
Scriptural Church, teaching the only Scriptural reli- 
gion to the English people. 

It seems hardly necessary to say that Christianity 
was not derived from Scripture, nor depends upon 
it ; that the master error of the Eeformation was the 
fallacy, contrary both to fact and to faith, that Chris- 
tianity was to be derived from the Bible, and that 
the dogma of faith is to be limited to the written 
records of Christianity ; or in other words, that the 
Spirit is bound by the letter ; and that in the place 
of a living and Divine Teacher, the Church has for 
its guide a written Book. 

It is to this fallacy I would make answer by draw- 
ing out what is the relation of the Holy Spirit to the 
interpretation of the written Word of God. 

I. First, then, it is evident that the whole revela- 
tion of Christianity was given by the Spirit of God, and 
preached also and believed among the nations of the 
world before the New Testament existed. The know- 
ledge of God through the Incarnation, and the way 
of salvation through grace, was revealed partly by 
our Divine Lord, and fully by the Holy Ghost at 
His coming. The faith or science of God was infused 
into the apostles by a divine illumination. It was 



not built up by deduction from the Old Testament, 
but came from (rod manifest in the flesh, and from 
His Holy Spirit. It was in itself the New Testa- 
ment, before a line of it was written. It was a 
Divine science, one, full, harmonious and complete 
from its central truths and precepts to its outer cir- 
cumference. It was traced upon the intelligence of 
man by the light which flowed from the intelligence 
of Grod. The outlines of truth as it is in the Divine 
Mind, so far as (rod was pleased to reveal, that is, 
to unveil it, were impressed upon the human mind. 

This truth was preached throughout the world 
by the apostolic mission. They were commanded 
to e preach the Grospel to every creature,' and ( to 
make disciples of all nations.' And what Jesus com- 
manded, the apostles did. They promulgated the 
whole of Christianity. They baptized men into the 
faith of Jesus Christ. But before they baptized any 
man he became a disciple : that is, he learned the 
faith. The Faith was delivered to him in the articles 
of the Baptismal Creed, as the law was delivered in 
the Ten Commandments. These two summaries con- 
tain the whole truth and law of Grod. And every 
baptized person, according to his capacity, received 
the explicit knowledge of all that is implicitly con- 
tained in them. But what was the source of this 


perfect science of (rod in Jesus Christ ? It was no 
written Book, but the presence of a Divine Person 
illuminating both the teachers and the taught. 

And this universal preaching of the apostles was 
written by the Spirit upon the intelligence and heart 
of the living Church, and sustained in it by His pre- 
sence. The New Testament is a living Scripture, 
namely the Church itself, inhabited by the Spirit of 
God, the author and writer of all revealed Truth. 
He is the Digitus Paternce dexterce, 'the finger of the 
right hand of the Father,' by whom the whole reve- 
lation of the New Law is written upon the living 
tables of the heart. S. Irenasus, the disciple of 
Polycarp, the disciple of S. John, writing fifty years 
after the death of the last apostle, asks : ( What if 
the apostles had not left us writings, would it not 
have been needful to follow the order of that tradi- 
tion which they delivered to those to whom they 
committed the churches ? to which many of the bar- 
barous nations who believe in Christ assent, having 
salvation written without paper and ink, by the Spirit 
in their hearts, sedulously guarding the old tradi- 
tion.' l 

This was a hundred and fifty years after the Incar- 
nation. During all this time, which is nearly four 

1 S. Iren. adv. Hseres. lib. iii. cap. 4, p. 178. 
N 2 


generations of men, on what had Christianity de- 
pended for its perpetuity but upon the same Divine 
fact which was its source, the presence of a Divine 
Person inhabiting the mystical body or Church of 
Jesus Christ, and sustaining the original revelation 
in its perfect integrity ? 

II. But, secondly, this revelation was also divinely 
recorded before the New Testament Scriptures were 

It was written, as I have said, upon the mind of 
the pastors, or the Ecclesia docens, the Church teach- 
ing the world ; and upon the mind of the flock or the 
Ecclesia discens, the Church learning throughout the 

It was recorded and incorporated in the Seven 
Sacraments of Grace, which are, each one of them, 
Truths of revelation permanently embodied and 
proposed to faith. The sacrament of Baptism incorpo- 
rates, so to say, the doctrines of original sin and of re- 
generation ; the sacrament of Penance, the absolution 
of sin after Baptism, the cleansing of the Precious 
Blood, the power of contrition, the law of expiation ; 
the sacrament of Confirmation, the interior grace and 
the seven gifts of the Holy Grhost ; the sacrament of 
Order, the divine authority, unity, and power of the 
Hierarchy of the Church ; the sacrament of Matri- 


mony, the unity and indissolubility of Christian 
marriage, the root of the Christian world ; and so on. 
Each one embodies, teaches, and requires faith in a 
constellation of Christian truths ; and the Seven 
Sacraments of the Church are a Becord, or Scripture 
of (rod, anterior to the written Gospels of the Evan- 
gelists. Much more, the Divine worship of the uni- 
versal Church, of which one of these seven Sacra- 
ments is the centre, namely the sacrifice and sacrament 
of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ. The incar- 
nation, redemption, and consubstantial union of the 
Mystical Body with its Head, the communion of 
saints and of souls departed, are therein incorpo- 
rated and manifested. All truths congregate around 
the altar, as all truths radiate from Jesus Christ. 
The whole revelation of Christianity is reflected in it. 

But the Church, its sacraments, and its worship 
were spread throughout the world before as yet the 
books of the New Testament were written. 

It was not till the faith had been everywhere 
preached, believed, defined in creeds, recorded in the 
mind of the universal Church, embodied in sacraments, 
and manifested in its perpetual worship, that the New 
Testament was formed. By the inspiration and im- 
pulse of the same Divine Teacher who had already 
revealed the whole Truth to the apostles, it was for 


the most part put in writing. I say for the most part,- 
because the written Scripture is not coextensive with 
the Eevelation of Pentecost, nor with the preaching 
of the apostles. The written Scripture presupposes 
and recognises in those to whom it is addressed the 
knowledge of the whole Truth. It is to the Church, 
guided by the Spirit of (rod, what the writings and 
letters of a man are to his personal identity. They 
would recognise all, but record only a part ; imply 
many things, and express only such things as fall 
within their scope. 

The most elementary knowledge of Christian his- 
tory is enough to prove this. The first Gospel, that 
of S. Matthew, was not written till five years after 
the ascension, and then in Hebrew only. In Greek 
it did not exist for five or six years later ; that is, for 
ten years at least, none of the four Gospels, as we 
possess them, was written. The second Gospel, that 
of S. Mark, was written about the same time. The 
third, twenty-four years after. For the first twenty 
years there were only two Gospels, and those in 
Greek. The fourth Gospel, that of S. John, was 
not written till about sixty years after the ascension. 
Where then, till the end of the first century, or for* 
two generations of men, were the four Gospels, which 
people seem to imagine were distributed by the 


twelve Apostles to their converts on the day of Pen- 
tecost ? 

The earliest of the Epistles was written about fif- 
teen years after our Lord's ascension the latest more 
than thirty years after that event. 1 But all these 
books are limited in their scope. Even the four 
Gospels treat only of the incarnation and earthly life 
of Jesus. -The Book of Acts is but a fragment of the 

1 The following are the dates of the Books of the New Testament, 
according to the ordinary Catholic and Protestant authorities. 
Either will equally establish the argument of the text, as they differ 
but very slightly. 

A. D, 

A. D. 

S. Matthew 

. 39 


S. Mark . 



S. Luke . 

. 57 

...... 63 

S. John . 



The Acts . 

. 63 




1 Corinthians . 

. 57 


2 Corinthians . 

. 57 









. 62 



. 62 


1 Thessalonians 

. . 52 


2 Thessalonians 

. 52 


1 Timothy 

. 66 


2 Timothy 

. 66 







Hebrews . 


. 62 


history of S. Peter and S. Paul. The Epistles are 
local and occasional, and even private and personal 
in their nature. And all these books for generations 
were known only by those parts of the Church to 
which they were dedicated and entrusted. They 
were not collected into a volume, that is the New 
Testament, as men call it, did not exist until a hun- 
dred years at least after the ascension. During all this 
century, martyrs, confessors, saints and penitents 
multiplied in all the world. The apostolic mission 
had become a universal tradition. The Church on 
earth rested on the sunrise and the sunset, upon 
Spain, and upon India. The Heavenly Court had 
already received the saints of three generations of 
men. But during all this time what was the source of 
their Christianity, and what its support ? Certainly 
no book, not even the New Testament Scripture, but 
the New Testament 'in spirit and in truth,' the 
revelation of the day of Pentecost, given and sus- 
tained by the presence of the Holy Spirit in the 
Church, the divine and perpetual Teacher of the 
world. This is the original, of which the written 
Scripture is but a partial and subsequent transcript, 
recognising, indeed, the whole circle of divine truths 
and the whole order of divine facts in the faith and 
Church of Grod upon earth, but reciting only portions, 


and pointing to the living and Divine Teacher as the 
only guide into all truth. 

III. From this it follows further, that this science of 
(rod, incorporated in the Church, is the true key to 
the interpretation of Scripture. It was in possession 
throughout the world; it was perfect everywhere 
before the books of the New Testament were written. 
It bore witness to the whole revelation of the day of 
Pentecost; it fixed the meaning of the Scriptures by 
the evidence of divine facts. 

The Socinians and Unitarians tell us now, as the 
Arians and Sabellians told us of old, that the doctrine 
of the Holy Trinity is not to be read in the New 
Testament; but it was preached and believed through- 
out the world before the New Testament was written. 

Presbyterians, Independents, and other Protestants 
tell us now as the Acephali and others told us of old, 
that a hierarchy, an episcopate, and a priesthood are 
not to be found in the New Testament ; but there 
was a hierarchy ruling over the pastors of the 
Church, an episcopate feeding the flock, and a priest- 
hood offering the holy sacrifice at the altar among 
all nations of the world before the New Testament 

There are Puritans of every shade and Anglicans 
of many opinions, who tell us that the Church is an 


invisible body seen only by faith and by (rod ; that 
its unity is only moral, not numerical; that it is 
divisible into many parts, or branches, and that the 
New Testament does not exhibit the Church as visible 
to the eye, numerically one, and indivisible in its 
unity. But before the New Testament was, the 
Church had expanded from east to west, visible by 
its organization, absolute and exclusive in its unity, 
which the divisions and apostasies of men could 
neither divide nor multiply. 

We are told that there are only two sacraments 
of the new law, and that they do, or do not confer 
grace, according as the multiplicity of Protestant 
errors is pleased to opine ; that there is no sacrifice 
under the Gospel, no real and personal presence of 
Jesus in the Holy Eucharist. But the Christians 
throughout the world had received and professed 
their faith in the seven sacraments of grace, and 
the perpetual sacrifice and universal presence of the 
Word made flesh in the Holy Eucharist had already 
filled the Church with the consciousness of a Divine 
manifestation before as yet the canon of the New 
Testament was completed. 

Finally, we are told that in the New Testament 
there is to be read no successor of S. Peter, no vicar 
of Jesus Christ. But before the New Testament was 


collected and diffused, all the world recognised one 
pastor as chief over all, reigning in the place of Peter 
from his See in Eome. 

The faith and the Church then were the key of 
interpretation. They who read the New Testament, 
read it in the light of the day of Pentecost and within 
the circle of the universal Church in which they be- 
held the order of divine truths or facts, which the 
New Testament Scriptures recognise and presuppose. 
This was both the actual and the scientific key to 
their true interpretation*. 

IV. From this it is further evident that the Church 
is the guardian both of the faith and of the Scriptures. 

It received both from its divine Head. And it 
alone received the custody of the divine revelation 
and of its inspired books. It received from the Church 
of old, the books of the old law confirmed by the 
divine witness of Jesus himself; from the synagogue, 
the later books ; and from the evangelists and apos- 
tles, their inspired writings, of which it knew the 
authenticity and genuineness both by extrinsic and 
intrinsic evidence. 

And as the Church alone received both the faith 
and the Scriptures, it alone witnesses to both, and 
that with a twofold evidence ; first with a human and 
historical testimony, resting upon its own personal 


knowledge of the authenticity of those books, an evi- 
dence abundant to attest their veracity ; and secondly 
with a divine and supernatural testimony, resting 
upon its own spiritual consciousness of the truth 
contained in those books. The witness therefore of 
the Church is twofold, natural and supernatural, 
human and divine : sufficient in the lower, and in- 
fallible in the higher sphere of its testimony. 1 

Take it even on the lowest ground. In human 
jurisprudence the most certain rules of interpretation 
are to be drawn from the judgments of the learned, 
the precedents of tribunals and cotemporaneous ex- 
position. The two first are sufficient in most cases, 
the last is held to be certain as an exponent of the 
meaning of a law and of the mind of the lawgiver. 
But in the Church we have all this and more. We 
have both the judgments of doctors and the decrees 
of councils ; and we have more than this, the cotem- 

1 It is strange to read such words as the following : ' The value 
of internal evidence always, perhaps, the foundation of Christian 
belief everywhere drawn out into philosophy by Anselm, has now 
been recognised in theory as well as in practice, in theology as well 
as in philosophy.' Theology of the Nineteenth Century. Fraser's 
Magazine, No. CCCCXXII. p. 259. What has generated the internal 
evidence of Holy Scripture in the mind of the Christian world, but 
this twofold witness of the Church ? and of what avail is the alleged 
internal evidence apart from the Church, still less opposed to it? 
The Essays and Reviews are answer enough. 


poraneous exposition of the books of the New Testa- 
ment by the divine facts which existed before the 
Scriptures, and are the key to their sense the Faith, 
the Church, and the Sacraments spread throughout 
the world. 

The tradition of the Church, then, contains in it all 
the principles of certainty which govern the science 
of human jurisprudence. But it contains more. 
The tradition of the Church is not human only, but 
also divine. It has an element above nature, the 
presence of a divine illumination, so that not only 
the testimony but the discernment of the Church 
is supernatural. It delivers to us both the original 
revelation and the Scripture with an infallible cer- 
tainty, and we receive both from the Church by an 
act of divine faith. 

V. And this brings us to a last truth, that the 
Church is not merely the interpretation but the 
interpreter, and is divinely guided in applying this 
key to the Holy Scriptures. Before the New Testa- 
ment was written, it was the living witness for the 
truth, the organ of the Divine and perpetual voice, 
which in all nations declared the original revelation. 
Its authority as a teacher rests upon its commission 
and its infallibility, that is upon the command of its 
Divine head, and the assistance of the Holy Grhost. 


The theory that the Church can err could only 
arise in minds which have lost the faith of what the 
Church is. Can it be believed that the mystical body 
of Christ which is indissolubly united to its Divine 
Head in heaven, should go about on earth teaching 
falsehoods in His name ? Is it credible that the 
Church, which is the dwelling-place of the Spirit of 
Truth, should wander from the revelation which 
radiates from His presence as light from the sun? 
The Church in the beginning knew the whole revela- 
tion of Grod, and knows it in every age with a 
perception which is never obscured, and a conscious- 
ness which is never suspended. The illumination 
which pervades its intelligence, unites with the 
inspiration of the New Testament as two lights pass 
into one. 

The Church diffused throughout the world, both 
pastors and people are filled by a consciousness of 
this faith. And in the light of this consciousness 
the whole sense of Scripture, I do not say in all its 
contents, but in all that bears upon the faith and law 
of Grod, is instinctively clear to it. The indissoluble 
union between the Holy Ghost and the mystical body 
secures to it in all ages its passive infallibility in 
believing. The Church congregated in council has 
a special assistance to discern and to declare the 


original revelation, and therefore the sense of Scrip- 
ture, so far as tfyat revelation is contained in it or 
reflected by it. The Episcopate has the grace or 
unction of truth, and when assembled in council has 
a special assistance and direction in its judgments. 
General councils are infallible because the Church is 
so. They are the organs of its discernment and its 

And what is true of the Church as a whole, and 
of councils as its organs, is true also of its head. 
The endowments of the body are the prerogatives of 
its head, who is the centre of the Divine tradition, 
and the focus of its supernatural illumination. The 
head of the Church has also, as we have already 
seen, a twofold relation, the one to the whole body 
upon earth, the other to its Divine Head in Heaven, 
which invests him with an eminent grace and assist- 
ance of the Holy Spirit, whose organ he is to all the 
Church and to all the world. The accumulation of 
all the evidence, human and divine, and of all the 
lights, natural and supernatural, by which the reve- 
lation of G-od is known or declared, and the books of 
Holy Scripture, both in their letter and their sense, 
are guarded and authenticated, resides by a special 
endowment in the visible head of the Church on 


Do I seem to be making a large claim in behalf of 
the Vicar of Jesus Christ ? Does not every one who 
rejects the living voice of the Church virtually make 
the same claim for his sect and for himself? He 
disclaims infallibility, but he is confident that he is 
in the right: that the Catholic interpretations of 
the Scripture are erroneous, and his are certain. 
Churches that are fallible, it seems, never err, at 
least in their own esteem ; and all the multiplication 
of their perpetual contradictions fail to bring them to 
a sense of their aberrations. It is strange on what 
suicidal arguments men will rest themselves. At 
one time they say that Scripture is so clear and self- 
evident in its teaching that no humble mind can fail 
to see its true meaning. If so, why do they contra- 
dict each other and themselves at different times? 
And if so clear, is it not equally so to the Christians 
of all races and ages who in it have unanimously read 
the Catholic and Eoman faith ? 

Again, it is said that the reason is enough to 
discern the true meaning of the Bible. Why, again, 
are they who hold this principle in irreconcilable 
conflict ? 

And if the individual reason is a sufficient 
criterion of the sense of Scripture, is not the reason 
of S. Thomas, or of Suarez, or of Bellarmine to be 


trusted, much more the collective reason of the 
Church of all ages and of all people upon earth ? 

Once more, it is said that there is a special promise 
that all who read the Scripture with prayer, should 
be led into all truth. Again, the truth is but one ; 
why do they who go by this rule interminably con- 
tradict each other ? But did not S. Augustine, and 
S. Athanasius, S. Chrysostorn, and S. Cyril of Alex- 
andria read Holy Scripture with prayer to under- 
stand it ? Have not the saints in all ages ? Have 
they not received the supernatural guidance and 
instruction promised, as we are told, to all ? Do 
they not all agree in every jot and tittle of the 
doctrines declared by them as the sense of Holy 
Scripture ? And is not the unanimous consent of 
the saints the sense and voice of the Spirit of God ? 
Certainly if there be a promise of guidance into the 
sense of Scripture made to individuals, the same is 
enjoyed by the saints one by one, much more by 
them altogether, still more by the whole Church 
of (rod, whose collective illumination is a perpe- 
tual emanation from the presence of the Spirit of 

Such then is the assertion with which I set out. 
There is among us now, as there was in the begin- 
ning, a Divine Person, the author and teacher of 



the whole revelation of Christianity, the guardian 
of the Sacred Books, and the interpreter of their 
sense : and the Church in all ages, one and undivided, 
is the perpetual organ of His voice. 

From all that has been said it follows that the 
Scriptures separated from the Church perish. The 
appeal from the living voice of the Church to the 
letter of Scripture destroyed the Divine custody of 
the letter and of the sense of the Sacred Books. It 
has needed centuries to unfold the whole reach of 
this false principle, but it has most surely borne its 
fruits. The canker fastened upon the root, and has 
been spreading in secret through the sap to the 
trunk, and throughout the spread of the branches 
even to the utmost spray. 

First ; the interpretation of Holy Scripture was 
lost in the contradictions and confusions of human 
teachers. And when the right sense is lost, the 
Scripture is lost. Just as a man's will is his will only 
in the sense intended by him, and in no other : and 
his will ceases to be his will when it is interpreted 
against or beside his intention. S. Jerome says, 
( The Grospel consists not in Scriptures, but in 
the sense ; not on the surface, but in the marrow ; 
not in the foliage of words, but in the root of truth.' 
Again he says, e The Divine Scriptures when misintei- 


preted by men become human.' l So that, after all, 
the most scriptural are often the most unscriptural. 
Vincent of Lerins says that heretics have always 
been conspicuous for an obtrusive abundance of 
quotation. 2 S. Augustine calls the texts which 
human teachers misinterpret, ( the shower of snares,' 
pluvia laqueorumf of which the Psalmist speaks. 

But when the interpretation goes, faith in the in- 
spiration of Scripture speedily follows. The course 
of Biblical criticism, both in Germany and in Eng- 
land, shows that men do not long believe in the 
divine inspiration of books which are rendered in- 
credible by misinterpretation. 

The school which is becoming dominant in the 
Anglican Church and in the Universities, by reason 
of its scholarship and attractiveness, has already re- 
jected the inspiration of large parts of Holy Scripture : 
and reduced the nature of inspiration to limits far 
short of the truth. 

To deny the inspiration of certain books, or parts 
of such books, is to deny such documents to be Scrip- 
ture : that is, to deny the genuineness, authen- 
ticity and identity of these books. So ' their speech 

1 S. Hier. Com. in Gal. cap. i. torn. iv. p. 230. 

2 Vine. Lirin. Common, cap. xxv. 

3 S. Aug. Enarrat. in Ps. x. sec. 10, torn. iv. p. 64. 



spreadeth like a canker.' 1 It is come then to this, 
that the system which founded itself upon the claim 
to be essentially and above all Scriptural, is ending 
in denying the inspiration and authenticity of Holy 

The guardianship of the Church being forfeited 
by the act of separation from its unity ; even the 
fragmentary Christianity which the separated bodies 
carried away with them has dissolved, and the Sacred 
Books have lost the divine evidence of their inspira- 
tion and veracity. 

What has hitherto been said will both explain and 
refute two accusations commonly brought against the 
Catholic Church, the one that it supersedes to so great 
an extent the use of Scripture in the devotions of its 
people ; the other, that it enunciates its doctrines in 
an arbitrary and dogmatic way, regardless of the 
facts of Christian antiquity and history. 

Now, as to the former. In one sense it is simply 
unmeaning and untrue to say that the Church super- 
sedes the use of Holy Scripture in the devotions of 
its people. Of what is the Missal, the Breviary, the 
Kitual, and all the public services composed but of 
the very text of Holy Scripture ? Every doctrine of 
the faith, every sacrament, every festival, is ex- 

1 2 Tim. ii. 17. 


hibited in the very words of the inspired books. 
Every doctrine and sacrament becomes the centre 
round about which the prophecies, types, and fulfil- 
ments recorded in Holy Scripture are gathered. They 
are clothed in a tissue of the inspired words, chosen 
out and interwoven together with a supernatural dis- 
cernment and combination. They who by the grace 
of God have come from the wilderness into the true 
fold, can perhaps alone fully appreciate the change 
from the level and dim surface of the Sacred Text as 
read out of the Church, to the luminous distinctness, 
the splendour, and the beauty of the very same words 
when they are proclaimed by the voice of the Church 
in the acts of its public worship. From every page 
of Scripture words hitherto passed over seem to rise 
up as prophets, seers, and evangelists, and to speak 
with an articulate and living voice of the presence 
and power of the kingdom of (rod. It is as if David, 
and Esaias, the Beloved Disciple, and the Apostle 
of the Gentiles were speaking to us and worship- 
ping with us. But the objection is perhaps chiefly 
intended in respect to the private devotions of the 
people, to whom books of devotion written by unin- 
spired men, rather than the Old or New Testament, 
are generally given. Now, there is at first sight a 
semblance of truth in the objection. It is perfectly 


true that manuals of devotion are distributed rather 
than Bibles, and for many sufficient aod, we should 
have thought, self-evident reasons. 

From what has been already said, it is manifest 
that the revelation of Divine truth and will was 
anterior to all Scriptures and independent of them : 
that it was full, complete, and harmonious in itself : 
that it was perfect in its unity, order, and relation 
of truth with truth. But it is equally manifest 
that the Scripture afterwards written, though it 
recognises, presupposes and refers back to this reve- 
lation, does not contain it as a whole, and what it 
does contain is to be found, not in order and com- 
pleteness, but detached and scattered, so to speak, 
here and there through the Sacred Text, which treats 
also of local, personal, and transitory events. It is 
perfectly true, therefore, that the Church puts into 
the hands of its people books of devotion which 
represent the whole order and completeness of reve- 
lation, and not the partial and unordered aspect of 
Scripture. Those books contain the Baptismal Creed, 
which enunciates in compendium the whole dogma of 
faith ; the Divine Law of the Ten Commandments, 
as perfected by the Grospel, not the extinct Sabba- 
tical injunctions of the Jews ; the mysteries of the 
Holy Trinity, of the Incarnation and Passion ; of 


the Holy Sacraments, their divine intention and 
supernatural grace, with the practices and counsels of 
penance and piety, whereby to prepare for their re- 
ception, and the like. The Church teaches its people 
now to worship and adore the Divine Presence in the 
midst of us, as it did before the Scriptures were 
written : as it did, too, when the millions of Christen- 
dom had no Scriptures in their hands, because the 
modern invention of printed books was not as yet 
known, when, too, they could not have read those 
books even if they had possessed them : which was 
always the state of the multitude, and probably 
always will be, to the end of the world. Grod has pre- 
pared for the poor and the unlearned a rule of faith, 
and a practice of devotion, full, unerring, and com- 
passionately fitted to their needs, anterior in time to 
all Scriptures, and essentially independent of them. 
But as the objection is not confined to the poor, so 
neither must the answer be. And perhaps there can 
hardly be found a more pointed and exact illustration 
of the argument of this chapter. 

It is certain, then, that the practice of Catholics is 
not so much to make use of the text of Scripture in 
their devotions as of devotional books. But of what 
are those books composed ? Take, for example, the 
whole class of books used for meditation or mental 


prayer. They are from first to last the text of Holy 
Scripture expounded and applied. Such books are 
almost innumerable in the Catholic Church. The 
spiritual exercises of S. Ignatius, and all the exposi- 
tions and commentaries upon them, and all the count- 
less volumes of meditations for every day in the year 
which have sprung out of them, what are all these 
but Holy Scripture brought home to the people 
in the minutest and most practical way ? Out of the 
Catholic Church such works hardly exist. English 
Protestants have certain Commentaries on Holy 
Scripture ; but these do not supply that which the 
Catholic Church multiplies and puts into the hands 
of its people with such abundance, that no thoughtful 
Catholic is without a book of devout meditation upon 
Holy Scripture. 

I do not here stop to answer the strange and ex- 
travagant pretensions of using Holy Scripture e with- 
out note or comment.' It is enough to answer, God 
has given a note and comment on Holy Scripture 
which no man can exclude if he would. No man can 
disregard without sin, the Church, the Faith, the Holy 
Sacraments, and finally the Living Voice of His Spirit 
speaking through the Church in every age, as in the 
age before the Scriptures were written. 

But, finally, there is one more practical and com- 


plete answer to this objection. Catholics readily 
admit that they do not go to the text of Scripture 
for their devotion, as others do who are out of the 
unity of the Church. The reason cannot be better 
given than in the words which history ascribes to one 
of our English kings. It is said that Henry III. of 
England was asked by S. Louis of France why he 
went so often to mass, and so seldom to sermon ; he 
answered : ' Because I had rather speak face to face 
with my friend, than hear about him.' It is the 
consciousness of the presence of Jesus, Grod and man 
in the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar which draws 
all eyes and all hearts round about Him to the point 
where He is personally present. S. Augustine says 
that the Scriptures are ' the Epistles of the King ' 
sent to us. 1 But when the King is with us we lay 
up His Epistles, and speak with him : as friends read 
the letters of an absent friend, but turn to him when 
he is among them. The perpetual, daily, hourly 
worship and communion with our Divine Master, 
which is equally intelligible, personal, and all-suf- 
ficing to the rich and to the poor, to the learned and 
to the little child, and indeed more realised and 
known by the hearts of the poor and of children 
than by any others this it is which renders the text 
1 S. Aug. in Psalmos, torn. iv. 1159. 


of Holy Scripture, loved and honoured as it is, less 
necessary to the disciples of the Church of Jesus 

The other objection I shall touch but briefly. It 
is often said that Catholics are arbitrary and positive 
even to provocation in perpetually affirming the in- 
divisible unity and infallibility of the Church, the 
primacy of the Holy See, and the like, without re- 
gard to the difficulties of history, the facts of an- 
tiquity, and the divisions of Christendom. It is 
implied by this that these truths are not borne out 
by history and fact : that they are even irreconcilable 
with it : that they are no more than theories, pious 
opinions, assumptions, and therefore visionary and 

We very frankly accept the issue. No Catholic 
would first take what our objectors call history, fact, 
antiquity and the like, and from them deduce his 
faith ; and for this reason, the faith was revealed 
and taught before history, fact or antiquity existed. 
These things are but the basis of his faith, nor is the 
examination of them his method of theological proof. 
The Church, which teaches him now by its perpetual 
living voice, taught the same faith before as yet the 
Church had a history or an antiquity. The rule and 
basis of faith to those who lived before either the 


history or antiquity of which we hear so much ex- 
isted, is the rule and basis of our faith now. 

But perhaps it may be asked : ( If you reject his- 
tory and antiquity, how can you know what was re- 
vealed before, as you say, history and antiquity ex- 
isted ? ' I answer : The enunciation of the faith by 
the living Church of this hour, is the maximum of 
evidence, both natural and supernatural, as to the 
fact and the contents of the original revelation. I 
know what are revealed there not by retrospect, but 
by listening. 1 

Neither is this the Catholic method of theological 
proof. Let us try it by a parallel. Would those who 
so argue, try the doctrine of the Holy Trinity by 
the same method ? Would they consider it arbitrary 
and unreasoning to affirm that Grod is one in nature 
and three in person, until we shall have examined 
the history and facts of antiquity that is, until we 
shall have heard and appreciated the Sabellian, 
Arian, Semiarian, and Macedonian heresies ? Or take 

1 No better sample of unconscious Rationalism can be given, 
though I quote it with regret, than the following words : ' To discern 
the sacred past by the telescopic power of genius, and by the micro- 
scopic power of scholarship, is one of the chief ends for which 
universities and cathedrals are endowed, and for which theology 
exists.' Theology of the Nineteenth Century. Fraser's Magazine, 
No. CCCCXXIL p. 256. 


the doctrine of the Incarnation. Are we to take the 
Monophysite, Monothelite, and Apollinarian heresies, 
and modify a doctrine of the Incarnation in conform- 
ity to these facts ? Was not the doctrine of the Holy 
Trinity and of the Incarnation revealed, preached, 
and believed throughout the world before there were 
Sabellians or Nestorians to deprave these truths ? 
Was not the unity and infallibility of the Church and 
the primacy of the Holy See instituted and believed 
throughout the world before Montanists, or Acephali, 
or Donatists, or Greeks arose to gainsay these facts ? 
In truth, and at the root, is not this inverted and 
perverse method a secret denial of the perpetual 
office of the Holy Ghost ? The first and final ques- 
tion to be asked of these controversialists is : Do you 
or do you not believe that there is a Divine Person 
teaching now, as in the beginning, with a divine, and 
therefore infallible voice ; and that the Church of 
this hour is the organ through which He speaks to 
the world ? If so, the history, and antiquity, and 
facts, as they are called, of the past vanish before the 
presence of an order of facts which are divine 
namely, the unity, perpetuity, infallibility of the 
Church of God: the body and visible witness of the 
Incarnate Word, the dwelling and organ of the Holy 
Ghost now as in the beginning : the same yesterday, 


to-day, and for ever : its own antiquity and its own 

Let no one suppose that Catholic theologians, in 
refusing to follow the inverted and rationalistic me- 
thod of extracting dogmas from the facts of history, 
for a moment either abandon the facts of history as 
insoluble, or conceive that they are opposed to the 
doctrines of faith. The Fathers were the children 
and the disciples of the Church. They learned their 
faith from it, and they expressed it partly in the 
words the Church had taught them, partly when, as 
yet, the Church had not fixed its terminology in lan- 
guage of their own. In the former, the Church recog- 
nises its own voice ; in the latter, it knows their in- 
tention even when their language is less perfect. And 
when they err, the Church both discerns and corrects 
it : for the Church was their guide and teacher, not 
they hers. If any one desire to see both proof and 
illustration of what is here said, let him examine the 
treatises of Petavius on the Patristic language re- 
lating to the Holy Trinity ; or, to refer to a more 
accessible work, let him turn to the language of the 
Fathers on the Immensity of the Son in a well-known 
work on the Development of Christian Doctrine. The 
havoc made not only with the writings of the Fathers, 
but with the doctrines of faith, by those who profess 


to interpret them, apart from the lineal tradition of 
the Church, is evidence enough of the falseness of 
this method. 1 The only Father in whom, it is said, 
the Church has noted no error, is S. Gregory of 
Nazianzum. The Church can freely criticise the 
works of its own disciples : for while they may err, it 
cannot. And the imperfect conceptions and imper- 
fect definitions of individual fathers of an early age 
are rectified by the mature conceptions and authori- 
tative definitions of the Church in a later. The ma- 
turity of theology is not antiquity, but its later days ; 
and language which was blameless in earlier and 
simpler times, may become heterodox in after ages : 
for example, the procession of the Holy Ghost from 
the Father through the Son, the Immaculate Nativity 
of the Mother of Grod, and the like. Again, language 
which once was heterodox may become the test of 

1 As a reductio ad impossibile, and I may say, ad absurdum, the 
following words suffice: 'We must get rid of our preconceived 
theories of what the Bible ought to be, in order to make out what it 
really is. The immense layers of Puritanic, scholastic, papal, and 
patristic systems, which intervene between us and the Apostolic or 
Prophetic Ages the elevation of the point of view on which those 
ages stand above our own aggravate the intensity of the effort to 
the natural sluggishness of the human heart and intellect.' Theology 
of the Nineteenth Century. Fraser's Magazine, p. 255. It would be 
still harder to reconcile the ' immense layers ' of this counsel with 
the simplicity of the Divine action, whereby in all ages, pauperibus 
evangelizatur, ' to the poor the Gospel is preached.' 


truth, as the Homoousion, which was condemned by 
the Council of Antioch in the Sabellian sense, and in 
half a century was inserted in the Creed by the Coun- 
cil of Nice. No critic except the living and lineal judge 
and discerner of truth, the only Church of God, can 
solve these inequalities and anomalies in the history 
of doctrine. To the Church the facts of antiquity 
are transparent in the light of its perpetual conscious- 
ness of the original revelation. 

Lastly, it is evident that in the Church alone the 
Scriptures retain their whole and perfect meaning. 
We hear to weariness of 6 the Bible and the Bible 
alone ; ' but how is it that men forget to add, and 
' the right sense of the Bible ? ' For what can add to, 
or take from, or mutilate the Bible more profoundly 
than to misinterpret its meaning ? Is it Scriptural to 
say that f This is my body ' does not signify that it is 
His body ; or e Whosoever sins ye forgive ' does not 
convey the power of absolution ; or ' Thou art Peter, 
and upon this rock ' does not mean that ( Peter is 
the rock ; ' or ' They shall anoint him with oil ' does 
not intend the use of oil? Surely the Scriptural 
Church is that which takes these words in this sense 
of the divine facts and sacraments, which were be- 
lieved and venerated in the world before the Scrip- 
ture was written. 


Nay, more, the Church so honours the written 
Word of Gk>d, that it acts upon its lightest word. It 
is a strange thing to hear men say that such and such 
doctrines are incredible because so little is said of 
them in Holy Scripture. Is truth measured by 
quantity? How many divine words are needed to 
overcome the unbelief of men? How often must 
Grod speak before we obey Him ? How many times 
must He repeat His revelations before we will submit 
to His divine voice ? Does not every spark contain 
the whole nature of fire ? Does not every divine 
word contain the veracity of God ? The Church of 
Grod recognises His voice in every utterance, and 
honours the divine will revealed in the fewest sylla- 
bles. The words ' He that loveth father or mother 
more than me is not worthy of me,' has filled the 
world with disciples. ' Whosoever shall lose his life 
for my sake shall find it,' has multiplied the army of 
martyrs. ' Whosoever shall confess me before men,' 
has made the weakest dare the power of the world. 
* If thou wilt be perfect, sell all that thou hast,' has 
created the state of voluntary poverty. The twenty- 
fifth chapter of S. Matthew has filled the Church with 
the orders of active charity. ' Mary hath chosen the 
better part,' has created and sustained the life of 
contemplative perfection. These single words, once 


spoken, are enough for the disciples of the Church, 
which is the dwelling of the Holy Spirit of Truth, 
the Author of the Sacred Books. It is this profound 
faith in their sacredness which made S. Paulinus lay 
them up in a tabernacle by the side of the Taber- 
nacle of the Blessed Sacrament ; and S. Edmund 
kiss the page of the Bible both before and after 
reading it; and S. Charles read it kneeling, with 
bare head and knees. So the Church cherishes its 
least jot or tittle, and guards it as a deposit dearer 
than life itself. And now it is every day becoming 
manifest that in the flood of unbelief pouring at this 
time upon England, the sole barrier to the inundation, 
the sole guardian and keeper of Holy Writ in all the 
integrity of its text and meaning, the sole divine 
witness of its inspiration, the sole, immutable, and 
unerring interpreter of its meaning is the Catholic 
and Koman Church. 




THERE now remains but one other subject on which I 
purpose to speak. It has been affirmed in the last 
chapter that Christianity whole and perfect was an- 
terior to the records of Scripture and independent of 
them. It remains now to show that Christianity has 
been preserved ( pure . . . and unspotted from the 
world,' that the illumination of Divine Truth, in the 
midst of which the written record lies encompassed as 
by a living and intelligent light, sustained by a living 
and Divine Teacher, is at this day as it was when it 
came from the Father of lights, without change or 
shadow of alteration. And this we shall see more 
clearly by tracing the relation of the Holy Spirit to 
the tradition of the dogma of faith. 

But before I enter upon this point I am irresistibly 
drawn to say a few words on the analogy between the 


Church in Eome in the fourth century, and in England 
in the present. 

For three hundred years the mightiest empire the 
world ever saw strove with all its power to drive the 
Church of Grod from off the face of the earth. All that 
force could do was tried, and tried in vain. The 
Church withdrew itself, but was still visible. It wor- 
shipped in catacombs, but bore its witness by martyr- 
dom. When the storm was over-past, it ascended 
from the windings of the catacombs to worship in the 
basilicas of the empire. It must have been a day full of 
supernatural joy, a resurrection from the grave, when 
the Christians of Eome met each other in the streets 
of the city by the light of the noonday sun. In those 
three hundred years a change altogether divine had 
passed upon the empire. The world from which 
the Church withdrew itself was compact, massive, 
irresistible in its material power, its gross paganism, 
and its profound immorality. The world which met 
the gaze of the Church at its rising was altogether 
changed. Christianity had penetrated on every side. 
It was in all its provinces, in all its cities, in Eome 
above all, in its legions, and its fleets, in the forum, 
in the senate, and in the palace of the CaBsars. The 
heathen world was dissolving and passing away by 
the two-fold action of an internal disintegration, and 

P 2 


of the expansion of the light of faith. The outlines 
of the Christian world were already traced upon 
the earth, and its rudiments were rising into visible 
unity and order. The image of the city of (rod 
hovered above the tumults and confusions of man- 
kind, awaiting the time when the Divine will should 
clear from the circuit of the Kornan world that which 
hindered its peaceful possession. 

Like to this in many ways is the change which 
is now before our eyes. I pass by the history of 
wrongs and sufferings which are now no more. It is a 
grievous and fearful tale, to be forgotten, if it may. 
Let us turn to brighter things. For three hundred 
years the Church in England has worshipped in secret, 
withdrawn from the sight of man. After all its 
wounds it lived on, a vigorous and imperishable life, 
and came forth once more, ascending from the cata- 
combs to offer the Holy Sacrifice in stately sanctuaries, 
and the light of noon. 

It is now thirty years since it rose again from its 
hiding-place ; and the world which meets its view is 
far other than the world which drove it before its 
face. It sees no more the whole people of England, 
under a dominant hierarchy, armed with the power 
of law to persecute even to death the priest who offers 
the holy sacrifice, and to force an outward uniformity 


upon the whole population. It does not any longer 
see the Anglican Church sole and exclusive in its 
privileges, and asserting authority over the English 
people. The days of its supremacy are long gone. 
England is now in the possession of a multitude of 
sects, among which the Church of the Eeformation 
finds its place and its kindred as one among many, 
richer and more favoured by the higher classes, but 
content with its wealth and place, and the toleration 
which it shares with others. 

There are signs upon the horizon over the sea. 
Protestantism is gone in Grermany. The old forms 
of religious thought are passing away. They are 
going in England. Separation has generated sepa- 
ration. The rejection of the Divine Voice has let 
in the flood of opinion, and opinion has generated 
scepticism, and scepticism has brought on conten- 
tions without an end. What seemed so solid once is 
disintegrated now. It is dissolving by the internal 
action of the principle from which it sprung. The 
critical unbelief of dogma has now reached to the foun- 
dation of Christianity, and to the veracity of Scripture. 
Such is the world the Catholic Church sees before it 
at this day. The Anglicanism of the Eeformation is 
upon the rocks, like some tall ship stranded upon 
the shore, and going to pieces by its own weight and 


the steady action of the sea. We have no need of play- 
ing the wreckers. It would be inhumanity to do so. 
God knows that the desires and prayers of Catholics 
are ever ascending that all which remains of Chris- 
tianity in England may be preserved, unfolded and 
perfected into the whole circle of revealed truths and 
the unmutilated revelation of the faith. It is inevi- 
table that if we speak plainly we must give pain and 
offence to those who will not admit the possibility 
that they are out of the faith and Church of Jesus 
Christ. But if we do not speak plainly, woe unto us, 
for we shall betray our trust and our Master. There 
is a day coming, when they who have softened down 
the truth or have been silent, will have to give ac- 
count. I had rather be thought harsh than be con- 
scious of hiding the light which has been mercifully 
shown to me. If I speak uncharitably let me be told 
in what words. I will make open reparation if I be 
found in fault. 

Now what I wish to show in this chapter is, that the 
real ultimate question between the Catholic Church 
and all Christian bodies separated from it, is not one of 
detail, but of principle. It is not a controversy about 
indulgences, or purgatory, or invocations and the like, 
but of the divine tradition of dogma, its certainty 
and its purity. The Catholic Church teaches that, 


as the preservation of the world is creation produced, 
and a continuous action of the same omnipotence by 
which the world was made, so the perpetuity of 
revelation is sustained by the continuous action of 
the same Divine Person from whom it came. 

All bodies in separation from the Church justify 
their separation on the alleged necessity of reforming 
the corruptions of doctrine which had infected the 
Church and fastened upon the dogma of faith. But if 
the same Person who revealed the truth still preserves 
it, then it is as unreasonable for man to profess to 
reform the Church of Grod as it would be to endeavour 
to uphold or to renew the world. Men may gird a 
dome, or reform a political society, but they can no 
more reform the Church of (rod than they can give 
cohesion to the earth, or control the order of the 
seasons or the precessions of the equinox. 

(rod alone can reform His Church, and He re- 
forms it by itself acting upon itself, never by those 
who refuse to obey it, and oppose its divine voice. 
Grod has reformed the Church by its Pontiffs, and its 
Councils. A great part of the Pontifical law, and 
the greater part of the decrees of Councils, as for in- 
stance, of Constance and of Trent, are occupied with 
the reformation not of the doctrines of the Church, but 
the sins of men. As each man can reform himself 


alone, so the Church alone can reform itself. But 
this reformation does not enter into the divine 
sphere of the faith or law of Jesus Christ, which is 
always pure and incorrupt, but into the wilderness of 
human action, human traditions, and the sins which 
by human perversity are always accumulating. 

Now my purpose is to show that the confusions, 
contentions, and spiritual miseries which hare fallen 
upon England, and which afflict us all both in public 
and in private, have come from the pretension of 
reforming the Church of Grod. And to do so, it will 
be enough to show, that Grod has so provided for His 
Church as to render such a reformation not only 
needless but impossible. 

S. John writing to the faithful at the close of the 
first century, says : e You have the unction from 
the Holy One, and know all things. . I . Let 
the unction which you have received from Him abide 

man teach 
all things, 

and is truth, and is no lie : and as it has aught you, 
abide in Him.' 1 

These words plainly affirm : 

1. That they had already received the unction of 
the Spirit of Truth ; and therefore that they had no 

1 1 S. John ii. 20-27. 

in you. And you have no need that 
you ; but as His unction teacheth you ol 


need to seek for a knowledge which they did not 
possess, because they had already received it. 

2. That they had no need of human teachers, 
because they were already under the guidance of a 
teacher who is Divine. 

3. That this unction was not partial but plenary, 
and taught them f all things,' that is the ivhole reve- 
lation of the Faith. 

4. That this unction is truth, absolute and perfect. 

5. That it is f no lie,' is unmixed with any false- 
hood, error, or doubt. But this unction is the Holy 
Ghost, who, as we have abundantly seen in the first 
chapter, rested first upon the head of our Great 
High Priest Jesus, the Head of the Church, and 
from Him descends upon His body which is the 
Church, and goes down to the skirts of His clothing, 
to the least of His members, so long as they faithfully 
abide in Him their head, through the Church which 
is His body. 

I do not know in what words the infallibility of 
the Church and the immutability of its doctrines 
can be more amply affirmed. For they declare (1.) 
that by virtue of the perpetual presence of this 
unction which is the Holy Ghost, the Church pos- 
sesses the whole revelation of God; (2.) that it is 
preserved by Divine assistance, unmixed, and in all 


its purity ; and, (3.) that it is enunciated perpetually 
through the same guidance by a voice which can- 
not lie. 

Now let us draw out the consequences of this 

1. The first is that all the doctrines of the Church 
to this day are incorrupt. I mean that they are as 
pure to-day as on the day of Pentecost; and that, 
because they are the perpetual utterances of the 
Spirit of Truth, by whom the Church both in teach- 
ing and believing is preserved from error. Indivi- 
duals may err, but the Church is not an individual. 
It is the body of a Divine head united indissolubly 
to Him. It is the temple of the Holy Grhost united 
inseparably to His presence. The illumination of 
the Spirit informs the collective and continuous in- 
telligence of the Church with adequate and precise 
conceptions of revealed truth, and the assistance of 
the Holy Spirit guides and sustains the Church in 
the adequate and precise enunciation of those con- 
ceptions. And this, as we have seen, constitutes the 
active infallibility of the Church as a teacher, exempt 
from error because guided by a Divine Person. The 
Church being the organ of His voice, the articulations 
are human but the voice is Divine. 

To deny this is to deny the perpetuity of truth, 


and the office of the Holy Spirit as the perpetual 
guide of the faithful. But if there be no Divine 
teacher there is no Divine certainty, and faith de- 
scends to opinion based upon human evidence and 
criticism. But this, as we have seen, is rationalism, 
incipient or absolute, explicit or implicit. 

2. But the doctrines of the Church are not only 
incorrupt but incorruptible. To be incorruptible is 
not only a fact but a law of their nature. For this 
cause we deny the possibility of a reformation of the 
Church as a witness or teacher of faith and morals. 
The need of such a reformation can never exist. It 
is the permanent and incorruptible doctrine of the 
Church which is the instrument of all reformation. 
If it be corrupted, how shall it reform or restore 
others from corruption? If the salt have lost its 
savour, wherewithal shall it be salted ? 

I am not denying the existence of error and cor- 
ruption in Christendom. There has been enough of 
all kinds in every age ; but they have been the errors 
and corruptions of individuals, not of the Church. 
They have existed within the Church till the Church 
cast them out. They never fastened upon the Divine 
tradition of dogma, nor mingled themselves in the 
Divine utterances or enunciations of the doctrines 
of faith. The errors of individuals cannot prevail 


against the Church. Individuals depend on the 
Church, not the Church on individuals. The Church 
depends on its Divine Head, and upon the perpetual 
presence of the Divine Person who inhabits it. The 
Church, therefore, has an independent, absolute, and 
objective existence. It is a Divine creation depend- 
ing upon the Divine will alone, the instrument of 
probation to mankind. It is the Sacrament of Truth 
which remains always the same whether men be- 
lieve or no. Just as the Holy Eucharist is always 
the same in the fulness of its Divine sanctity and 
grace, even though the priest who consecrates and 
the multitude who receive it be in sacrilege ; and as 
the light of the sun is always the same in unchanging 
splendour though all men were blind ; so with the 
truth and sanctity of the Church. , No human error 
can fasten upon the supernatural consciousness of 
the truth which pervades the whole mystical body, 
and this passive infallibility preserves the doc- 
trines of the faith whole and incorruptible in every 

All this is more emphatically true of the 
Teaching Church. The pastors of the Church may 
err one by one, but the pastoral body can never err. 
The chief Pastor is in the midst of them, and they, 
as His witnesses and messengers, constitute the 


magi&terium Ecclesice, the authoritative voice of 
the Church speaking in His Name. Here and there 
individuals among them, one by one, have erred, but 
their error has never fastened itself upon the authori- 
tative mind and voice of the Church. Every age of 
the Church has had its heresy ; some ages have had 
many ; almost every heresy has had a pastor of the 
Church for its author ; sometimes a heresy has spread 
wide both among pastors and flock ; multitudes have 
been infected by it. But the mind and voice of the 
Church has never changed, never varied by an accent 
or by an iota. As every age has had its heresy, so 
every heresy has been cast out ; some sooner, some 
later, some with ease, because they were superficial 
and weak ; some with difficulty, because they were 
tenacious and strong, like the diseases of a living 
body, of which some are upon the skin, some in the 
substance, but all alike are cast out by the vigour of 
health and life. In this way every heresy has been 
expelled. What mark did Sabellianism, Arianism, 
Nestorianism, leave upon the mind or voice of the 
Church ? Not a trace nor a tarnish of falsehood or of 
evil, but only a new precision of conception and ex- 
pression, a new definition in the mouth of its pastors, 
and a more explicit faith in the hearts of its people. 
The Church is the teacher of the pastors, as the 


pastors are the teachers of the flock. Doctores fide- 
Hum discipulos Ecclesice, as S. Gregory says, and the 
collective body of its pastors is the organ of the Holy 
Spirit of truth, and their voice is the active infalli- 
bility of the Church. And the mind and voice of the 
Church are supernatural. I mean the world- wide 
and continuous intelligence of the Church of all 
nations and in all ages, which testifies as a witness 
both natural and supernatural, to the facts of the 
Incarnation and of Pentecost ; and decides as a judge 
with a supernatural discernment, and enunciates the 
whole revelation of Grod as a teacher having authority 
because of the divine illumination, the divine cer- 
tainty, and the divine assistance which abides with it. 
From what I have said it will be understood how any 
individuals, people, or pastors may err, and yet their 
error leave no stain or trace upon the mind and voice 
of the Church, either in its belief or in its teaching ; 
and how not only the truth in itself is incorruptible, 
as it must be, and also its revelation, for that is Grod's 
act, but likewise its tradition and enunciation in 
the world, for these also are divine actions within 
the sphere of the human intelligence and human 
speech, whereby both the thoughts and words of 
the Church are divinely assisted to perpetuate the 
original revelation of the continuous operation of 


the same Divine Person who revealed the faith to 

3. But that which is incorruptible is immutable, 
and the doctrines of the Church are the same to-day 
as in the beginning. All corruption is change, but 
not all change corruption : there is a change which 
destroys, and a change which perfects the identity of 
things. All growth is change. A forest tree in its 
majesty of spread and stature, has perfect identity 
with the acorn from which it sprung, but the change 
of ages which has passed upon it, perfects its identity 
by unfolding its stateliness and beauty. 

But all decay is change. When the tree of the 
forest droops its branches, dies, and falls into the 
dust about its root, this change is corruption. 

Now in this latter sense change is impossible in 
the doctrines of the Church, for Grod is not the God 
of the dead but of the living. His Church is the body 
of His Son, and has life in itself, and all its doctrines 
and sacraments are the expressions of the character 
of His life which quickens it. 

Take the history of any doctrine in proof. Trace 
the dogma of the Holy Trinity from the Baptismal 
formula to the Baptismal creed, to the definitions of 
Nice and Constantinople, and to the precision of the 
creed of S. Athanasius. There is here growth, ex- 


pansion, maturity, and therefore change, but absolute 
identity of truth. So again trace the doctrine of the 
Incarnation from the simple formula, ' the Word was 
made flesh,' to the definitions against the Mono- 
physites, the Monothelites, the Apollinarians, to the 
Cur Deus Homo of S. Anselm, and the treatises of 
Suarez ; the intellectual conception and verbal ex- 
pression have received a vast expansion, but the 
truth is identical, namely, God Incarnate, two perfect 
natures in one Divine person. Or once more, the 
doctrine of the Blessed Eucharist in all its aspects as 
a Sacrament, and as a Sacrifice, and as an object of 
adoration is no more than the words ' This is My 
body,' in the fulness of their intellectual conception. 
And lastly, the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception 
is no more than the last analysis in a long series of 
intellectual processes by which the belief of the whole 
Church from the beginning in the absolute sinlessness 
of the mother of (rod has found its ultimate expres- 
sion. These four doctrines, as they are propounded 
now, are identical with the same four doctrines as 
they were propounded in the beginning. They have 
been unfolded into more explicit enunciation by a 
more precise intellectual conception and a more exact 
verbal expression, but they are the same in all their 
identity. Just as the gold from the mine is always 


the same though in the succession of times and 
dynasties it receive new images and superscriptions. 
So far, then, truth may grow but never change. 

Such, however, is not the case with doctrines 
which are separated from the unity of the Church 
and the custody of the Divine Teacher who sustains 
the Faith. Trace the history of the Holy Trinity 
from Sabellius to Socinus, or of the Incarnation from 
Nestorius to Strauss, or of the Holy Eucharist from 
Luther to the present sacramentarian unbelief which 
overspreads England ; or the article of the One Holy 
Catholic Church from the Reformation to this day in 
England alone, and in the Anglican Church only, in 
which no definition can be obtained whether the 
Church be visible or invisible, numerically one or 
only morally one, that is, divisible into many parts 
and yet called one, though it be a plurality of inde- 
pendent and conflicting bodies. This is change in- 
deed, in which the identity of doctrine is lost. The 
oak has mouldered and fallen into its dust. 

This then is what I mean by the immutability of 
doctrines. jff ne y are identical in number and in 
kind. Their disc and circumference are now as they 
were when they were first traced on the minds of the 
Apostles by the light of the Spirit of Grod. They 
have come down to us through all ages, and in the 



midst of all heresies, illuminating all intelligences 
and conforming them to the truth, but receiving no, 
tarnish or soil from the human intellect, just as the 
light of heaven pierces through the mists and pes- 
tilences of the world, and is in contact with all its 
corruptions and impurities without a shadow of stain 
or alteration. 

The doctrines of the Church then are as unmixed 
as the light ; and undiminished in all the perfections 
of truth, which like Jesus ' is yesterday and to-day, 
and the same for ever.' 

4. And from this a fourth truth immediately fol- 
lows, that the doctrines of the Church in all ages are 
primitive. It was the charge of the Eeformers that 
the Catholic doctrines were not primitive, and their 
pretension was to revert to antiquity. But the appeal 
to antiquity is both a treason and a heresy. It is a 
treason because it rejects the Divine voice of the 
Church at this hour, and a heresy because it denies 
that voice to be Divine. How can we know what 
antiquity was except through the Church ? No indi- 
vidual, no number of individuals can go \|ack through 
eighteen hundred years to reach the doctrines of an- 
tiquity. We may say with the woman of Samaria, 
6 Sir, the well is deep, and thou hast nothing to draw 
with.' No individual mind now has contact with 


the revelation of Pentecost, except through the 
Church. Historical evidence and biblical criticism 
are human after all, and amount at most to no more 
than opinion, probability, human judgment, human 

It is not enough that the fountain of our faith be 
Divine, It is necessary that the channel be divinely 
constituted and preserved. But in the second chap- 
ter we have seen that the Church contains the foun- 
tain of faith in itself, and is not only the channel 
divinely created and sustained, but the very presence 
of the spring-head of the water of life, ever fresh 
and ever flowing in all ages of the world. I may say 
in strict truth that the Church has no antiquity. It 
rests upon its own supernatural and perpetual con- 
sciousness. Its past is present with it, for both are 
one to a mind which is immutable. Primitive and 
modern are predicates, not of truth, but of ourselves. 
The Church is always primitive and always modern 
at one and the same time; and alone can expound 
its own mind, as an individual can declare his own 
thoughts. ' For what man knoweth the things of a 
man, but the spirit of a man that is in him ? So the 
things also that are of Grod no man knoweth, but the 
Spirit of Grod.' l The only Divine evidence to us of 

1 1 Cor. ii. 11. 


what was primitive is the witness and voice of the 
Church at this hour. 

5. But lastly, though the Catholic doctrines are 
incorrupt, incorruptible, immutable, and therefore 
always primitive by virtue of the Divine custody and 
enunciation of the Spirit of Truth, nevertheless they 
are transcendent ; that is, they pass beyond the limits 
and horizon of our reason, and that because they are 
truths of the supernatural order. They belong to a 
world of which all the proportions surpass and over- 
whelm our powers of thought. They are not discoveries 
of the reason but revelations of Grod, and as such, to 
be received by faith. They must first be believed 
before they can be understood, for faith generates 
intelligence. S. Augustine said to the heretics of 
his day, ' Intellige ut credas verbum meum : sed 
crede ut intelligas verbum Dei.' 'Understand what 
I say that you may believe it. Believe what (rod 
says that you may understand it.' How should we 
know the supernatural order, its limits, operations, 
and doctrines except Grod had revealed it ? 

And these truths are but revealed in part, and 
can therefore only be known in part. They are 
like the path of a comet which eludes our calcula- 
tion, or like electricity which renders no account of 
itself, or like the pencil by which the sun draws the 


images of nature : all these are facts undoubted, in- 
dubitable, yet inexplicable; and, if they were not 
known scientific truths, would be incredible. So it is 
with the truths of revelation : for instance, the origin 
of evil, the freedom of the will under the operation of 
grace ; the end of evil ; the eternity of punishment ; 
the solution of the world and of the life of man as a 
probation for eternity. 

And yet these very doctrines, because they are 
transcendent, are all the more evidently divine. They 
have the perfection of God upon them. They surpass 
our finite intelligence, because they are the outlines 
of truths proportionate to the infinite intelligence. 
If they presented nothing that I cannot understand, 
they would present nothing that I might not have 
invented. ' Credo quia impossibile ' is a great truth, 
though a paradox. If it were possible to man, there 
would be no need of the revelation of God. The 
footprint of a man betokens man. The footprints 
of God point to a Divine Presence as their only cause. 
The only feet which could impress them are those 
which walked upon the water. For instance, the 
doctrine of the Holy Eucharist, of the Communion 
of Saints, of the Church, one, visible, indivisible, 
with its supernatural light and divine infallibility, 


all these point to a wisdom which transcends our 
reason, as heaven transcends the earth. 

Such, then, is the tradition of dogma which de- 
scends perpetually in the Church, and such the rela- 
tion of the Holy Spirit of Truth to that tradition. 
He is its Author and its Guardian. He both diffuses 
the light by which it is known and conceived, and 
presides over the selection of the terms in which it 
is defined and enumerated. 

And here I might leave the subject, but that, in 
this day, the old pretension of reforming the dog- 
matic teaching of the Church has been renewed 
under a more specious form. It is now alleged that 
the old dogmatic formulas were a true expression of 
the rude and uncultured religious thought of the 
early or Middle Ages : that the progress of the 
human intelligence in the matter of Christian 
thought demands a new expression ; that this ex- 
pression will not be dogmatic, but f moral and spiri- 
tual ; ' that the nineteenth century has a theology 
of its own, which, if not already formed, is forming 
under intellectual and spiritual impulses, the mo- 
mentum of which is irresistible. The old Catholic 
dogmatism is said to be dead and only cumbering 
the ground. This is a reformation upon the Refor- 


mation. All dogmatism Lutheran, Calvinistic, and 
Anglican must yield to a newer, deeper, more spiri- 
tual insight into the moral idea of Christianity. Let 
us examine these pretensions a little, and then con- 

In a former chapter I have affirmed that the 
truths known to the natural reason, or by the light 
of nature, have been transmitted as an intellectual 
tradition in the society of mankind. These truths, 
which relate to the existence and perfection of (rod, 
and to the moral nature of man, are 'permanent 
and immutable. They constitute what is called na- 
tural theology and philosophy. Upon the basis of 
these certain, fixed, and permanent truths has been 
raised a structure of metaphysical and ethical sys- 
tems, which are related to the primary philosophy 
as dialects are related to a language. Such are the 
philosophies which have multiplied themselves both 
before the faith entered into the world and since. 
Now these secondary formations or philosophies are, 
in great part, tentative, uncertain, mutable, and 
transient. They arise and pass away without at all 
shaking the permanence of the primary stratum upon 
which they all repose. The enunciation of these 
primary truths may be called the axioms or dog- 
mas of philosophy. I affirm that these dogmas of 


philosophy are fixed and immutable, because the truths 
they express are so. For instance, the existence of 
(rod, His moral perfections, the moral nature of man, 
his freedom of moral action, his responsibility, and 
the like, are fixed and immutable truths. They are 
as true and certain now as they were in the begin- 
ning. They can never become more or less true, 
fixed, or certain, but continue permanently in the 
same certainty and veracity. For this reason the 
verbal expression or dogmatic form of them is like- 
wise fixed and permanent. The cry or the pretension 
of a new philosophy to replace the old, contains a 
tacit denial of the certainty of these primary truths. 
It is scepticism under a mask. In the order or 
sphere of the secondary or deductive philosophies 
there may be many modifications and steps of pro- 
gressive exactness. The former are the axioms of 
the human reason, which stand for ever, like the 
lights of the firmament, steadfast and changeless. 

The same may be said of the scholastic theology, 
which consists in a scientific treatment of revealed 
truths, both of the primary and of the secondary order. 
Those of the primary order are the truths which are 
expressly revealed ; those of the secondary, the con- 
clusions which are deduced from them by process of 


Now the former order of primary truths is perma- 
nent and immutable. In the secondary order of 
deductions it is possible that verifications and modi- 
fications may from age to age be admitted. But the 
tradition or transmission of this whole order of truths, 
both primary and secondary, constitutes the theology 
of the Church. And this c Science of God ? distri- 
butes itself according to its subject matter into dog- 
matic, which treats of God and His works in nature and 
grace; into moral, which treats of the relations of man 
to God and to his fellows ; into ascetical, which treats 
of the discipline of penance and obedience ; and into 
mystical, which treats of the union of the soul with 
God, and its perfection. Now all these four branches 
of theology have their primary and their secondary 
truths. The latter spring from the former and re- 
pose upon them. In the latter we may conceive of 
a progressive exactness, always retaining their con- 
tact with the primary truths, which are the base of 
all. But the primary truths are truths of revelation, 
the knowledge of which resides immutably in the 
intelligence of the Church. They are fixed truths, 
and their verbal expressions are fixed dogmas, true in 
every age, and not less or more true than they were, 
nor ever will be. For what is dogma but the intel- 
lectual conception and verbal expression of a divine 


truth ? But as these truths can never vary, so neither 
the conception and expression of them. An immu- 
table body casts an immutable shadow. A fixed form 
describes a fixed outline upon a mirror. The original 
never varies, therefore the reflection cannot. Of an 
eternal truth the image must be always the same. 
For instance, the unity of God is an eternal truth. 
The proposition that God is One is a dogma ; that He 
is One in nature, Three in person ; that the Three 
Persons are co-equal and co-eternal ; that God is 
infinite in His perfections ; that the Father is the 
fountain of Godhead ; that the Son is eternally be- 
gotten of the Father alone ; that the Holy Ghost 
eternally proceeds from the Father and the Son, and 
the like, which might be indefinitely multiplied in 
enumeration, are eternal truths, and their outlines 
reflections and images on the human intelligence, 
both of the Church and of the individual, are fixed 
and immutable dogmas. 

So again to take another order of truths. That 
God created the world ; that God is present with His 
creation ; that He governs it in the order of nature ; 
that His mind and will are its laws both in their 
permanent operations and in their exceptional sus- 
pension and change all these are divine truths, and 
the verbal expression of them are dogmas ; permanent 


because the truths are immutable, and immutable 
because true. 

Again, that God has redeemed the world ; that the 
Son was made man of a virgin mother ; that He lived 
on earth, taught, worked miracles, chose and ordained 
apostles, founded His Church, instituted sacraments, 
died, rose again, ascended into heaven, sent the 
Holy Ghost to abide and to teach in His stead for 
ever all these are both divine truths in their own 
objective subsistence, in the order of divine facts, 
and also dogmas in their intellectual conception and 
verbal expression; and as these truths can never 
become less true, nor lose their value or place or 
relation to the will of God, and to the soul of man, 
so neither can the dogmas which express them. 

And lastly, that I may not waste more time over 
a subject which, but for the almost incredible con- 
fusions of thought and language now prevalent, I 
should not so much as have introduced that the 
Church is one and indivisible, singular in existence, 
the temple of the Holy Ghost, and the organ of His 
voice ; indefectible in its life, immutable in its know- 
ledge of the truths revealed, and infallible in its 
articulate enunciation of them ; that the sacraments 
are channels of grace, each after its kind ; that the 
operations of the Holy Ghost as the illuminator and 


sanctifier of the Church and of its members are per- 
petual : to go no further all these are divine and 
permanent and immutable truths, and therefore 
the intellectual conception and verbal expression of 
them become fixed and unchangeable dogmas. 

What then is dogmatic theology, taken as a whole, 
with all its contents, but the intellectual conception 
and verbal expression of the revelation of Grod, 
truth by truth, and therefore dogma by dogma ; a 
fixed, permanent, and immutable transcript upon the 
human mind, and a perpetual and changeless enun- 
ciation of the same truth with all its intrinsic truths 
which constitute its perfect outline and complete 
integrity ? 

I can perfectly understand the consistent rationalist 
when he rejects dogmatic theology, because he disbe- 
lieves the whole order of divine truths and facts which 
it expresses. When the body falls the shadow vanishes. 
When the original ceases to exist, the reflection passes 
away. This is intelligible and coherent. Again, 
when the inconsistent and incipient rationalist rejects 
those facts of dogmatic theology, or those particular 
dogmas which express certain particular truths and 
facts which he disbelieves, this also is intelligible 
and consistent. But when he, professing to retain a 
belief in the divine truths arid facts of Christianity, 


denounces dogmatic theology and the tradition of 
dogma, this in educated and cultivated men is an 
intellectual obliquity which suggests one of two 
solutions, either that from want of systematic and 
orderly study he has only an incomplete and frag- 
mentary knowledge of what dogmatic theology is, 
or that a warp in the moral habits and temper 
which influence the intellect, or at least the tongue, 
makes him less than his own proper stature as a 
reasoner. And yet this language is not only heard 
from writers of high name and true cultivation, but 
is becoming prevalent, and rising into the ascendent 
at this time. 1 

1 An instance of this may be seen in a paper entitled Theology of 
the Nineteenth Century, in the number of Fraser's Magazine already 
quoted, in which the writer, after everywhere denouncing dogmatic 
theology, especially the scholastic, speaks as follows : ' May I take 
as an illustration the very corner-stone of Christianity, the Divine 
subject of the Gospel of history? A common mode of dealing 
with this sacred topic has been to take certain words Christ 
Messiah Son of Grod Son of Man two natures. one Person 
two wills one substance, and without defining the meaning of these 
words, without describing what moral or spiritual truths were in- 
tended to be conveyed by them, to arrange them in the most logical 
way that could be found, and to justify that arrangement by sepa- 
rate Scripture texts ' (p. 262). This kind of theology the writer 
designates as ' barren.' But in this passage the writer seems to show, 
either that he has never studied dogmatic theology, in which every 
term such as nature, person, will, substance, &c., has as precise and 
definite a value as the algebraic symbols ; or, that he does not 
know the limits of dogmatic and mystical theology, under which 
' the moral and spiritual truths ' are classed and treated. 


If such writers and reasoners would only be so 
good as to state positively what truths and facts of 
Christianity they do really hold, we should be better 
able to understand them. But it is to be feared that 
to extract this confession would lay open a great 
waste of unbelief which lies hid under a cloud of 
words. Such a test would inevitably produce one of 
two consequences. Either it would show that under 
the rejection of dogmatic theology lies concealed a 
tacit denial of the Divine truths and facts which it 
expresses ; or that such theologians, when constrained 
to put into definite words what Divine truths and 
facts they do believe, would be convicted, within that 
circle, of being as dogmatic as those they assail. None 
but obscure or inconsecutive minds can long play fast 
and loose between affirming Divine truths and de- 
nouncing dogmatic theology. 

One frequent cause of all .this confusion is to be 
found in the fact, that among non-Catholic writers, 
above all in England, the distinctions and boundaries 
of dogmatic, moral, ascetic and mystical theology are 
lost. Men speak of theology, meaning dogma only ; 
and seem to be unconscious of the other branches of 
Divine truth, and the separate cultivation which the 
Church has given to them. Nothing proves this 
more evidently than the astonishing assertion that a 


dogmatic treatise on the Incarnation is barren because 
it does not teach us what was ( the real mind ' and 
( the delineation of the character ' of our Divine 
Lord : l and again, ' It is about as true to say that a 
human friend raises and benefits us in proportion to 
the correctness of our theory of his character, as to 
say that (rod does so in proportion to the accuracy of 
our speculative creed.' 2 As a parallel to these state- 
ments I would say: * Astronomical demonstrations are 
barren because they do not teach us "the real mind," 
nor " delineate the character " of God. Correct know- 
ledge is useless because it does not alone raise and 
benefit those who possess it.' Can there be found in 
all the writers and preachers out of reverence to the 
saints, fathers, doctors, theologians of the Catholic 
Church I will not so much as name them anyone 
so senseless as to imagine that dogmatic theology is 
directed to the delineation of the character of our 
Divine Master, or that correct intellectual knowledge 
of the whole science of Grod without the illumination 
and correspondence of the heart and will could 'raise 
and benefit,' if that means sanctify and save, those who 
possess it ? This seems to be a solemn or a superficial 

1 Theology of the ^Nineteenth Century, Fraser's Magazine ut supra, 
p. 282. 

2 Spectator, March 25, 1865, p. 331. 


trifling with sacred things ; in which men might learn 
if they had the will, and are therefore culpable, if 
being ignorant they affect to criticise or to teach. If 
they would give themselves the trouble to open the 
first book of elementary theology, they would learn 
that dogmatic theology is directed to the intellect and 
mystical theology to the will : that dogmatic theology 
is said to perfect the intellect because it elevates and 
informs it with revealed truth, and thereby conforms 
it to the Divine intelligence in so far as these truths 
of revelation are known. It is therefore both true 
and evident that dogmatic theology does most lumi- 
nously and supernaturally ( raise and benefit ' the 
human intelligence. It makes a man capable of serv- 
ing God by the 'reasonable service' of faith. Whether 
he does so or not, depends upon moral conditions, that 
is, upon the conformity of the will to the dictates of 
his reason, which has thus been already conformed to 
the truth and mind of Grod. 

But it is not from dogmatic theology, but from 
moral theology, that a man must learn the obligations 
of the Divine will upon the human will. Dogmatic 
theology enunciates to us the Divine truth : moral 
theology expounds to us the Divine law. The first 
formation of the will is accomplished by moral 
theology. Its maturity is committed to ascetic, its 


perfection to mystical theology. But these last three 
provinces of theology, under which falls all that re- 
lates to the moral character of Grod and of our Divine 
Lord, and all that relates to the interior and spiritual 
life of Grod in the soul, and of the soul in Grod, seem 
to be wholly unknown to the confident critics of these 
days. In all the theology, so to speak, of the Angli- 
can Church, I know of no attempt to treat of moral 
theology or to supply the blank and void which the 
Eeformation has made in this province of the Divine 
truth, except Andrewes' ' Exposition of the Ten 
Commandments,' Taylor's 'Ductor Dubitantium,' and 
Sanderson's ' Cases of Conscience.' And I know of 
no three works that have fallen into more utter ob- 
livion. The other writings of all three are known, 
read and quoted, but most rarely are these moral or 
ethical writings so much as named. And yet Taylor 
staked his fame on the 'Ductor Dubitantium :' but 
the atmosphere in which he left it was fatal, and 
would not suffer it to live. Of the ascetical and 
mystical theology, excepting Taylor's ( Holy Living 
and Dying,' what one book can be named which pre- 
sents a detailed treatment, or so much as an outline, 
of the spiritual and interior life? And yet it is 
out of the midst of this barrenness and desolation 
that the voices are lifted up to denounce dogmatic 



theology because it does not direct itself to fulfil that 
which the Church accomplishes with an exuberance 
of culture in its moral, ascetical and mystical theology, 
while the Protestant and Anglican systems never ac- 
complish at all. It is a significant fact that the devo- 
tional books in the hands of Protestants are to a great 
extent translations or adaptions of Catholic works. 

Now I have been led to say thus much in order to 
preclude certain objections which may be expected 
to what I have affirmed in this and the previous 
chapters on the tradition of dogma, and the dogmatic 
theology of the Catholic Church ; and I do so the 
more carefully, because the scope of this work has 
hitherto limited our thoughts to the truths of revela- 
tion, as they are impressed by the divine intelligence 
upon the human reason. But it is impossible for 
me to do more than recognise in passing the vast and 
wonderful structure of moral wisdom rising from the 
basis of the revealed perfection and law of Grod which 
is contained in the moral theology of the Church. 
The works of the moral theologians form a library 
by themselves. One of them alone in his writings has 
quoted and consulted nearly eight hundred authors 
of all nations. The elaborate and perpetual study of 
jurists upon the common and statute law of the 
realm is a faint analogy of the scientific and exact 


treatment of the natural and revealed law of Grod by 
the councils and theologians of the Church ; which, 
in expounding that law, has a divine assistance guard- 
ing it from error. 

Of the ascetical theology I will not here attempt 
to speak ; but if any one will trace down the line of 
writers from S. Nilus and Cassian to the present day, 
who have treated specifically and in minute detail of 
the way and instruments of conversion and penance, 
and of the example and character of our Divine Lord 
in His active life, they will seem to survey the reaches 
of a great river from some height, where the breadth, 
depth, and fulness of the stream can be seen at a 

But the exhibition of the moral and spiritual 
significance of Christianity is to be seen in its fulness 
and maturity nowhere as in the mystical theology of 
the Catholic Church. First of all in the devotions of 
which the Incarnation is the object, as, for instance, 
in the devotion of the Holy Name of Jesus, of which 
S. Bernard, and S. Bernardine of Sienna, the B. John 
Colombini, and S. Ignatius are the four chief foun- 

Next in the devotion of the Blessed Sacrament in 
all its forms and manifestations, of which S. Anselm, 
and S. Bonaventure, and S. Thomas are luminous 



examples, in the midst of a cloud of saints and ser- 
vants of Grod, who by their lives, their preaching, 
and their writings, have exhibited the mind and 
delineated the character of Jesus, both as Grod and 
man, with a fulness, vividness, tenderness, intimacy 
and truth, to which no uncatholic writer upon record, 
in any age of the world, has ever approached so much 
as afar off. 

Again, in the devotion of the Sacred Heart, which 
is emphatically and articulately the expression of 
that aspect of the Incarnation and of the Blessed 
Sacrament which exhibits the mind and character, 
the personal love and personal relation of our Divine 
Lord to us, and ours to Him again. From S. Au- 
gustine to the Blessed Margaret Mary, there is an 
unbroken line of saints and writers who not only 
exhibit this personal aspect of our Saviour to us, but 
who are witnesses of what the Church, all through 
those centuries, was teaching to its children. From 
the time of the Blessed Margaret Mary to this day, the 
multitude of writers who have brought out this moral 
and spiritual idea of the Incarnation is literally almost 
without number. There is hardly a spiritual writer 
who has not treated or touched upon it. There is not 
a manual of devotion or a book of prayer in which it 
is not prominently set forth. 


Moreover, every year by the festivals of the Holy 
Name, the Blessed Sacrament, and of the Sacred 
Heart, this spiritual teaching is made perpetual and 

It is beyond my present purpose to do more than 
mention the Devotions of the Crucifix, of the Five 
Sacred Wounds, of the Passion, of the Most Precious 
Blood with all the feasts and practices of mental 
prayer founded upon them. What are these but the 
most vivid and intimate delineations of the mind and 
character of our Divine Eedeemer ? 

Lastly, for I cannot here pursue the subject, let 
any one with the least claim to be a scholar examine 
the four families of mystical writers, saints, and theo- 
logians, which, like the four rivers of Paradise, water 
the Church of (rod; namely, the Benedictine, the 
Dominican, the Franciscan, and the Jesuit ; espe- 
cially the last, in its innumerable works on the 
spiritual exercises of S. Ignatius; and if he be a 
competent scholar and a candid man, I am confident 
that he will acknowledge first, that no communion or 
body separated from the Catholic and Eoman Church 
has ever produced any exhibition of the mind and 
character of Jesus, or of the moral and spiritual idea 
of Christianity, I will not say equal in proportion 
or in fulness, but so much as like in kind, to the 


mystical theology which, traceably from the fifth cen- 
tury to the nineteenth, has watered the Church of Grod. 
The words of the psalmist may be truly said of this 
stream of the waters of life, ever full and overflowing 
its banks e fluminis impetus laetificat civitatem 
Dei.' And next, he will be constrained to confess that 
all this exuberance of the interior spiritual life has 
diffused itself throughout the Church under the 
direction of the most rigorous and inflexible dogmatic 
theology, which has hung suspended with all its con- 
stellations of truths over the surface of this inunda- 
tion of spiritual life, like the firmament over the sea. 
Certainly dogmatic theology does not treat of the in- 
terior life either of the Head or the members of the 
Church ; but it generates the piety and the prayer 
which sanctifies the soul through the truth, and the 
mystical theology which directs and sustains it. 

Thus much I have thought it necessary to say, in 
order to anticipate the objection that the tradition of 
dogma is a tradition of dry and lifeless formulas ; 
and to show that while dogmatic theology is pro- 
gressive in all the secondary operations of deduction 
and definition, it is fixed and permanent in all the 
primary dogmas which express the eternal and im- 
mutable order of divine truths and facts. In all the 
expansion and advancing analysis of theological 


science it never parts from its base. It reposes im- 
mutably upon the foundation of divine truths and 
facts, which being divine, are changeless. 

To what has been hitherto advanced, I will only 
add one general conclusion. Unless all that I have 
said be false, then the accusation against the Catholic 
doctrines as corruptions, and innovations, as dry, life- 
less, transient formulas, cannot by the necessity of 
the case be true. If God had so given and left His 
revelation, that the custody of it depends upon the 
intellect and the will of man, wounded as both are by 
sin, then corruptions, changes, and innovations would 
be not only inevitable, but the law of its transmis- 
sion. But this i$ contrary not only to the divine 
procedure and perfections, but to the explicit terms 
of the revelation itself. God has declared Himself 
to be, not only the Giver, but the Guardian of His 
own truth ; not only the Promulgator, but the Per- 
petuator of the light of Pentecost. Now it is this 
which is denied, when the Catholic doctrines are de- 
nounced as corrupt, and the dogma of faith as out 
of date. It is, as I said, no question of detail, but of 
the whole Christian dispensation. Either God the 
Holy Ghost inhabits the Church for ever, and His 
unction full and perfect, which e is truth and no lie,' 
that is the whole truth unmixed and pure, is with the 


Church at this hour, or it is not. If He be not 
with it, and if that unction does not abide with it, 
then its doctrines may be as corrupt, as novel, as 
distorted, as lifeless, as arbitrary as the perversity of 
the intellect and will of man can make them. The 
line of heresies from Gnosticism to Protestantism are 
example and proof. 

But if He still abide in the Church as its Divine 
Teacher and Guide, then it follows beyond all con- 
troversy that the doctrines of the Church are His 
utterances, and that in all ages they abide as the 
radiance of His presence, incorrupt, incorruptible, 
immutable, and primitive, as on the day when He 
descended on His apostles. And the words of God 
by the prophet are fulfilled in Jesus the Head, and 
in the Church His body : ' My Spirit that is in thee, 
and my words that I have put in thy mouth, shall 
not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of 
thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, saith 
the Lord, from henceforth and for ever l ; ' that is, of 
the Holy Catholic and Eoman Church, and of the 
Vicar of the Incarnate Word on earth. 

1 Isaias lix. 21. 



For the convenience of readers who may not have at hand the 

books quoted in the text, 
in full 

following passages are 

PAGES 23-25. 

S. AUG. Sermo LXX1., in Matt, xii., torn. v. pp. 386, 
401, 403. 

Ac per hoc et Judaei et quicumque hseretici Spiritum 
Sanctum confitentur, sed eum negant esse in Christ! cor- 
pore, quod est unica ejus Ecclesia, non utique nisi una 
catholica, procul dubio similes sunt Pharisaeis, qui tune 
etiamsi esse Spiritum Sanctum fatebantur, negabant tamen 

eum esse in Christo Ad ipsum enim pertinet 

societas, qua efficimur unum corpus unici Filii Dei 

Unde item dicit, Quisquis autem Spiritum Christi non 
habet, hie non est ejus. Ad quern ergo in Trinitate proprie 
pertineret hujus communio societatis, nisi ad eum Spiritum 
qui est Patri Filioque communis ? Hunc Spiritum quod 


illi non habeant, qui sunt ab Ecclesia segregati, Judas 
apostolus apertissime declaravit. 

Neque enim habitat in quoquam Spiritus Sanctus nisi 
Patre et Filio : sicut nee Films sine Patre et Spiritu 
Sancto, nee sine illis Pater. Inseparabilis quippe est habi- 
tatio, quorum est inseparabilis operatic. . . . Sed ut jam 
non semel diximus, ideo remissio peccatorum, qua in se 
divisi spiritus evertitur et expellitur regnum, ideo societas 
unitatis Ecclesiae Dei, extra quam non sit ista remissio 
peccatorum, tamquam proprium est opus Spiritus Sancti, 
Patre sane et Filio cooperantibus, quia societas est quodam 
modo Patris et Filii ipse spiritus Sanctus. . . . Quisquis 
igitur reus fuerit impcenitentise contra Spiritum, in quo 
unitas et societas communionis congregatur Ecclesiae, nun- 
quam illi remittetur : quia hoc sibi clausit, ubi remittitur : 
et merito damnabitur cum spiritu qui in se ipsum divisus 
est, divisus et ipse contra Spiritum Sanctum qui in se 
ipsum divisus non est. . . . Et propterea omnes congre- 
gationes, vel potius dispersiones, quse se Christi Ecclesias 
appellant, et sunt inter se divisae atque contraries, et 
unitatis congregation!, quaa vera est Ecclesia ejus, inimicae, 
non quia videntur ejus habere nomen, idcirco pertinent 
ad ejus congregationem. Pertinerent autem, si Spiritus 
Sanctus, in quo consociatur haec congregatio, adversum se 
ipsum divisus esset. Hoc autem quia non est ; (qui enim 
non est cum Christo, contra ipsum est ; et qui cum illo 
non congregat, spargit :) ideo peccatum omne atque omnis 
blasphemia dimittetur hominibus in hac congregatione, 
quam in Spiritu Sancto, et non adversus se ipsum diviso, 
congregat Christus. 



PAGE 40. 
S. IREN. Cont. Heeret. lib. iii. cap. 24. 

In fide nostra, quam perceptam ab Ecclesia custodimus, et 
quse semper a Spiritu Dei, quasi in vase bono eximium 
quoddam depositum juvenescens, et juvenescere faciens 
ipsum vas in quo est. Hoc enim Ecclesiae creditum est 
Dei munus, quemadmodum ad inspirationem plasmationi, 
ad hoc ut omnia membra percipientia vivificentur ; et in 
eo deposita est communicatio Christi, id est, Spiritus 
Sanctus, arrha incorruptelae, et confirmatio fidei nostrse, et 
scala ascensionis ad Deum. In Ecclesia enim, inquit, 
posuit Deus Apostolos, Prophetas, doctores, et universam 
reliquam operationem Spiritus : cujus non sunt participes 
omnes, qui non currunt ad Ecclesiam, sed semetipsos 
fraudant a vita, per sententiam malam, et operationem 
pessimam. Ubi enim Ecclesia, ibi et Spiritus Dei ; et ubi 
Spiritus Dei, illic Ecclesia, et omnis gratia : Spiritus autem 
veritas. Quapropter qui non participant euin, neque a 
mammillis matris nutriuntur in vitam, neque percipiunt de 
corpore Christi procedentem nitidissimum fontem : sed 
effodiunt sibi lacus detritos de fossis terrenis, et de coeno 
putidam bibunt aquam, effugientes fidem Ecclesise, ne tra- 
ducantur ; rejicientes vero Spiritum, ut non erudiantur. 

PAGE 42. 
TERTUL. De Bapt. sect. vi. ed. Rigalt. p. 226. 

Quum autem sub tribus et testatio fidei, et sponsio salutis 
pignerentur, necessario adjicitur Ecclesise mentio : quoniam 


ubi tres, id est Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus, ibi 
Ecclesia, qua? trium corpus est. 

PAGE 42. 
S. AUG. Enchirid. de Fide, etc. cap. 56, torn. vi. p. 217. 

Sic credere nos et in Spiritum Sanctum, ut ilia Trinitas 
compleatur, qua? Deus est ; deinde Sancta commemoratur 
Ecclesia. . . . Rectus itaque Confessionis ordo poscebat, ut 
Trinitati subjungeretur Ecclesia, tamquam habitatori domus 
sua, et Deo templum suum, et conditori civitas sua. 

PAGE 42. 
S. AUG. Sermo in Die Pent. I. torn. v. p. 1090. 

Quod autem est anima corpori hominis, hoc est Spiritus 
Sancti corpori Christi, quod est Ecclesia : hoc agit Spiritus 
Sanctus in tota Ecclesia, quod agit anima in omnibus 
membris unius corporis. Sed videte quid caveatis, videte 
quid observetis, videte quid timeatis. Contingit ut in 
corpore humano, irnmo de corpore aliquod praecidatur mem- 
brum, manus, digitus, pes; numquid praecisum sequitur 
anima ? Cum in corpore esset, vivebat ; praBcisum amittit 
vitam. Sic et homo Christianus Catholicus est, dura in 
corpore vivit; prgecisus ha3reticus factus est, membrum 
amputatum non sequitur Spiritus. Si ergo vultis vivere 
de Spiritu Sancto, tenete caritatem, amate veritatem, desi- 
derate unitatem, ut perveniatis ad aeternitatem. 


PAGE 43. 
S. AUG. Sermo in Die Pent. II. torn. v. p. 1091. 

Paulus dicit Apostolus : unum corpus et unus spiritus. 
Membra nostra attendite. Multis membris constitutum 
est corpus, et vegetat membra omnia unus spiritus. Ecce 
humane spiritu, quo sum ego ipse homo, membra omnia 
colligo : impero membris ut moveantur, intendo oculos ad 
videndum, aures ad audiendum, linguam ad loquendum, 
manus ad operandum, pedes ad ambulandum. Officia 
membrorum dispartita sunt, sed unus spiritus continet 
omnia. Multa jubentur, multa fiunt: unus jubet, uni 
servitur. Quod est spiritus noster, id est anima nostra, 
ad membra nostra ; hoc Spiritus Sanctus ad membra 
Christi, ad corpus Christi, quod est Ecclesia. Ideo Apo- 
stolus, cum corpus unum nominasset, ne intelligeremus 
mortuum corpus : Unum inquit corpus. Sed rogo te, 
vivit hoc corpus ? Vivit. Unde ? De uno spiritu. Et 
unus spiritus. 

PAGE 44. 
S. AUG. Sermo in Die Pent. I. torn. v. Append, p. 308. 

Ergo Spiritus Sanctus in hac die ad prasparata sibi 
Apostolorum suorum templa, velut imber sanctificationis 
illapsus est, non jam visitator subitus, sed perpetuus con- 
solator, et habitator geternus. . . Adfuit ergo in hac die 
fidelibus suis non jam per gratiam visitationis et opera- 
tionis, sed per ipsam prsesentiam majestatis : atque in vasa 
non jam odor balsami, sed ipsa substantia sacri defluxit 


unguenti, ex cujus fragrantia latitude totius orbis im- 
pleretur, et appropinquantes ad eorum doctrinam, Dei 
fierent capaces et participes. 

PAGE 44. 
S. AUG. In Psal. xviii. torn. iv. pp. 85, 86. 

Et modo urnis homo in omnibus gentibus linguis omni- 
bus loquitur, unus homo caput et corpus, unus homo 
Christus et Ecclesia, vir perfectus, ille sponsus, ilia sponsa. 
Sed erunt, inquit, duo in came una. 

PAGE 45. 
S. AUG. In Psal. xxx. torn. iv. p. 147. 

Fit ergo tamquam ex duobus una quaedam persona, ex 
capite et corpore, ex sponso et sponsa. ... Si duo in 
carne una, cur non duo in voce una? Loquitur ergo 
Christus, quia in Christo loquitur Ecclesia, et in Ecclesia 
loquitur Christus \ et corpus in capite, et caput in corpore. 

PAGE 45. 
S. AUG. In Psal. xl. torn. iv. p. 344. 

Commendamus autem saspius, nee nos piget iterare quod 
vobis utile est retinere, Dominion nostrum Jesum Christum 
plerumque loqui ex se, id est, ex persona sua, quod est 
caput nostjyim ; plerumque ex persona corporis sui, quod 
sumus nos et Ecclesia ejus ; sed ita quasi ex unius hominis 
ore sonare verba, ut intelligamus caput et corpus in imitate 


integritatis consistere, nee separari ab invicem : tamquani 
conjugium illud, de quo dictum est, Erunt duo in carne 
una. Si ergo agnoscimus duos in carne una, agnoscamus 
duos in voce una. 

PAGE 45. 
S. GKEG. NAZIAN. Orat. xli. in Pentecost, torn. i. p. 740. 

To Se vvv, reXewrepov, OVK eri ivepyeiq. TrapoV, we Trporepov, 
e, u>e av fiTroi ne, crvyytrofievov re feat avp.- 
eTrpeTre yap, Ytov <rwjuariKwe ^tv 6/itXr/- 
<7avroc, Kai avro <j>avvjvai aw^dTiK&Q' KCLL Xptorov 
tavroV 7raveX0orroc, iiceiro irpOQ 

PAGE 46. 
S. CTHIL. ALEX. Thesaurus de Trin. Assertio xxxvo. torn. v. p. 352. 

T/e ovv apa ^ X"l te > ^ iravTbtQ rj TOV ayiov Ilvev/zaroc "xyaiQ 
>; ey rate KapSiaig rjfjuttv yivo^iv^ KO.TO. TTJV TOV TlavXoi; 
fywvrjv . . . avTOvpyov apa. TO Ilvfvyua iv fyuTv 
ayia^ov cat lvo!^ fyuae eavrw ^ta r^e Trpoe avro 
Betas re vvewQ cnroTeXovv KOIVWVOVQ. 

PAGE 47. 
S. GKEG. Expos, in Psal. v. Pcenit. torn. iii. p. 511. 

Unum quippe corpus est tota sancta universalis Ecclesia, 
sub Christo Jesu, suo videlicet capite, constituta. Unde 
ait Apostolus : Ipse est caput corporis Ecclesice, qui est 
principium, primogenitus ex mortuis. Ipsa est enim quae 


per Prophetam jucundatur, et dicit ; Nunc exaltavit caput 
meum super inimicos meos. Pater eniin Filium, qui est caput 
Ecclesiae, super inimicos ejus exaltavit, cum destructo 
mortis imperio, in suae ilium majestatis aequalitate con- 
stituit, cui et dixit: Sede a dextris meis, donee ponam 
inimicos tuos scdbellum pedum tuorum. Christus itaque 
cum tota sua Ecclesia, sive quae adhuc versatur in terris, Rive 
qua3 cum eo jam regnat in coelis, una persona est. Et sicut 
est una anima quae diversa corporis membra vivificat, ita 
totam simul Ecclesiam unus Spiritus Sanctus vegetat et 
illustrat. Sicut namque Christus, qui est caput Ecclesiae, 
de Spiritu Sancto conceptus est: sic sancta Ecclesia quae 
corpus ejus est, eodem Spiritu Sancto repletur ut vivat : 
ejus virtute firmatur, ut in unius fidei et caritatis compage 
subsistat. Unde dicit Apostolus: Ex quo totum corpus per 
nexus et conjunctions subministratum et constructum crescit 
in augmentum Dei. Istud est corpus, extra quod non vivi- 
ficat spiritus. Unde dicit beatus Augustinus : Sivisvivere 
de spiritu Christi, esto in corpore Christi. De hoc spiritu 
non vivit haereticus, non vivit schismaticus, non vivit ex- 
communicatus : non enim sunt de corpore. Ecclesia autem 
spiritum vivificantem habet, quia capiti suo Christo insepa- 
rabiliter adhaeret. Scriptum est enim: Qui adhceret Domino, 
unus spiritus est cum eo. 

PAGES 51-53. 
DIVI THOM^: Sum. Theol. Prima Pars, quaest. xliii. art. 2, 7. 

Respondeo dicendum quod in his quag important originem 
divinarum personarum, est qusedam differentia attendenda. 


Quaedam enim in sua significatione important solum habitu- 
dinem ad principium, utprocessio et exitus. Quasdam vero 
cum habitudine ad principium determinant processionis 
terminum. Quorum qugedam determinant terminum aeter- 
num sicut generatio et spiratio ; nam generatio est processio 
divinae personse in naturam divinam, et spiratio passive 
accepta importat processionem amoris subsistentis. Quaedam 
vero cum habitudine ad principium important terminum 
temporalem, sicut missio et datio. Mittitur enim aliquid 
ad hoc ut sic in aliquo, et datur ad hoc quod habeatur. 
Personam autem divinam haberi ab aliqua creatura, vel 
esse novo modo existendi in ea, est quoddam temporale. 
Unde missio et datio in divinis dicuntur temporaliter tan- 
turn ; generatio autem et spiratio solum ab aeterno ; proces- 
sio autem et exitus dicuntur in divinis et seternaliter, et 
temporaliter ; nam Filius ab seterno processit, ut sit Deus ; 
temporaliter autem, ut etiam sit homo secundum missionem 
visibilem, vel etiam ut sit in homine secundum invisibilem 

Facta autem est missio visibilis ad Christum in baptismo 
quidem sub specie columbse, quod est animal fecundum, ad 
ostendendum in Christo auctoritatem donandi gratiam per 

spiritualem regeneration em ; In trans- 

figuratione vero sub specie nubis lucidae, ad ostendendum 
exuberantiam doctrinae ; . . . . Ad apostolos autem 
sub specie flatus, ad ostendendam potestatem ministerii in 
dispensatione sacramentorum ; unde dictum est eis, Quorum 
remiseritis peccata, remittuntur eis. Sed sub linguis igneis, 
ad ostendendum officium doctrinse : unde dicitur, quod 
cceperunt loqui variis linguis. Ad patres autem veteris 


Testament! missio visibilis Spiritus Sancti fieri non debuit; 
quia prius debuit perfici missio visibilis Filii quam Spiritus 
sancti, cum Spiritus Sanctus manifestet Filium, sicut Filius 
Patrem. Fuerunt autem factse visibiles apparitiones divi- 
narum personarum patribus veteris Testament! ; quae 
quidem missiones visibiles dici non possunt, quia non 
fuerunt factas (secundum Augustinum, lib. 2, de Trin. cap. 
17, circa fin.) ad designandum inhabitationem divinaa 
persons per gratiam, sed ad aliquid aliud manifestandum. 

PAGE 53. 

STTAREZ, Comment, in Primam Partem D. Thoma, lib. xii. 
cap. 6, sect. 26. 

Unde notari potest discrimen inter missionem Verbi, et 
hanc missionem Spiritus (idemque fere est de aliis), quod 
missio Yerbi absque merito, sola Dei charitate facta est, 
juxta illud Joan. 3. sic Deus dilexit mundum, ut Filium 
suum unigenitum daret: missio autem Spiritus Sancti ex 
merito Verbi facta est : ideo enim non fuit Spiritus datus, 
donee Jesus fuit glorificatus. Quod etiam significant ipse 
Christus dicens : Ego rogabo Patrem, et alium Paracletum 
dabit vobis. 

PAGE 55. 
S. GREG. Moral, lib. ii. cap. ult. torn. i. p. 73. 

Mediator autem Dei et hominum homo Christus Jesus, 
in cunctis eum et semper et cbntinue habet praesentem : 
quia et ex illo isdem Spiritus per substantiam profertur. 
Recte ergo et cum in sanctis praedicatoribus maneat, in 


Mediatore singulariter manere perhibetur: quia in istis 
per gratiam manet ad aliquid, in illo autem per substantiain 
manet ad cuncta. 

PAGE 56. 
S. AUG. Ep. clxxxvii. 40, torn. ii. p. 691. 

An etiam praeter hoc, quod tamquam in templo in illo 
corpore habitat omnis plenitude divinitatis, est aliud quod 
intersit inter illud caput et cujuslibet membri excel- 
lentiam? Est plane, quod singulari quadam susceptione 
hominis illius una facta est persona cum Verbo. . . . 
Singularis est ergo ilia susceptio, nee cum hominibus 
aliquibus sanctis quantalibet sapientia et sanctitate prse- 
stantibus, ullo modo potest esse communis. 

PAGE 56. 
S. AUG. De Agone Christiana, cap. 22, torn. vi. p. 254. 

Aliud est enim sapientem tantum fieri per Sapientiam 
Dei, et aliud ipsam Personam sustinere Sapientise Dei. 
Quamvis enim eadem natura sit corporis Ecclesise, multum 
distare inter caput et membra cetera quis non intelligat ? 

PAGE 57. 
S. ATEAN. Ep. I. ad Serapionem, cap. 24, torn. ii. p. 672. 

Et Se rrjf TOV Ilvevjuaroc juerovfftci ytvdjuefla KOivwvol 
<t>vffb)Q' ^a'tvotr CLV TieXe'ywv TO Jlvevfjia rrJQ KTiffrrje 0v<rwc, 
Kal p.r) rrje TOV deov. $ta TOVTO yap KO.I kv olc ytVerat, OVTOL 

a 2 


dEOTTOtOVVTCLl' fl > 007TOl7, OVK afJLfylftoXoV OTl J] TOVTOV (f)VCriC 

Qeov i 

PAGE 57. 
S. CYRIL. ALEX. In Isaiam, lib. iv. orat. 2, torn. ii. p. 591. 

M.op(f>ovrai ye ^v iv i]}juv 6 Xptoroc, iviivrog fj/juv TOV ayiov 
TrnvparoQ deiav nva juoprfxutrtr, IL aytaoyzov KCU SiKatoffvvrjg. 


PAGE 64. 

S. AUG. Sermo in Die Pent. II. torn. v. p. 1091. 

Quid ipse adventus Spiritus Sancti, quid egit? Prae- 
sentiam suam unde docuit ? unde monstravit ? Linguis 
omnium gentium locuti sunt omnes. . . . Loquebatur 
unus homo linguis omnium gentium : unitas Ecclesiae in 
linguis omnium gentium. Ecce et hie unitas Ecclesiae 
catholics commendatur toto orbe diffuses. 

PAGE 65. 
S. AUG. Sermo in Die Pent. III. torn. v. p. 1094. 

Quamobrem sicut tune indicabant adesse Spiritum Sanc- 
tum in uno homine linguae omnium gentium : sic eum 
nunc caritas indicat unitatis omnium gentium. 

PAGE 81. 

S. AUG. De Bapt. cont. Donat. lib. iv. 31, torn. ix. p. 140. 

Quod universa tenet Ecclesia, nee Conciliis institutum, 
sed semper retentum est, non nisi auctoritate Apostolica 
traditum rectissinie creditur, 


PAGE 82. 
S. AUG. De Agone Christiana, cap. 22, torn. yi. p. 254. 

Quomodo ergo anima totum corpus nostrum animat et 
vivificat, sed in capite et videndo sentit et audiendo et 
odorando et gustando et tangendo, in ceteris autem membris 
tangendo tantum ; et ideo capiti cuncta subjecta sunt ad 
operandum, illud autem supra collocatum est ad consulen- 
dum ; quia ipsius animae, quas consulit corpori, quodam 
modo personam sustinet caput, ibi enim omnis sensus 
apparet : sic universo populo sanctorum tamquam uni 
corpori caput est Mediator Dei et hominum homo Christus 

PAGE 84. 

MELCHIOE CANTJS, De Locis Theol. de Sanctor. Auct. lib. vii. 
cap. 3, concl. 5. 

Quinta igitur conclusio e%t. In expositione Sacrarum 
litterarum communis omnium Sanctorum Veterum intelli- 
gentia certissimum argumentum theologo praastat ad theo- 
logicas assertiones corroborandas : quippe cum Sanctorum 
omnium sensus Spiritus Sancti sensus ipse sit. 

PAGE 89. 

SANSEVERINO, I principali Sistemi della Filosofia sul Criteria . 
Napoli, 1858, p. 14. 

E veramente 1' Angelico ha costantemente inculcate la 
uecessita ed utilita della scienza per riguardo alia Fede, e 


le ha dedotte da quattro capi i quali sono quest! : la Fede 
presuppone la scienza, si rende credibile per la scienza, e 
illustrata in qualche modo con la scienza, e dalla scienza 
vien difesa contra i sofismi della falsa filosofia. 

PAGE 93. 

VIVA, Theses Damnatee. Prop, de Peccato Philosophico ab 
Alex. VIII. damn. pars. iii. p. 13, sec. 12. 

Deinde dato, quod metaphysice contingere possit omni- 
moda Dei ignorantia invincibilis in eo, qui peccat, ut 
proinde metaphysice dari possit peccatum pure Philoso- 
phicum : Nihilominus de facto est moraliter impossibilis 
isthaec ignorantia, qua excusetur homo a reatu odii Divini, 
et pcenae seternas, dum ponit humano modo actum graviter 
disconvenientem naturaa ratipnali, ac rationis dictamini ; 
unde peccatum pure Philosophicum est saltern moraliter in 
praesenti providentia impossibile. Ratio est, quia in pras- 
senti providentia non datur ignorantia Dei invincibilis in 
hominibus ratione utentibus. 

PAGE 107. 

SA^SEVERINO, Ekmenti di Filosofia Speculative*, vol. i. pp. 130, 
131. Napoli, 1862. 

Essa [la scienza] viene considerata sotto un doppio 
rispetto, 1'uno oggettivo, e 1' altro subbiettivo ; per il primo 
essa significa un sistema intiero di cognizioni dimostrate e 
dipendenti da un solo principio, come gli anelli di una 
stessa catena ; per il secondo si definisce ; una cognizione 


certa ed evidente deW ullime ragioni delle cose ottenuta 
merce del ragionamento. 

PAGE 107. 
AKIST, Ethics, book vi. chap. iii. 

'E7Tt0TJ7/*77 JJLEV OVV TL EffTLV, EVTevOeV 0ttVpOV 1 ^1 ClKpl- 

fioXoyeiffdai Kcu pr) aicoXovdeiv TCUQ ofjtotorrjfftv. Tlavrez yap 

vTroXapftavofjLEVj a 7rtcrrdjue0a, p,fi e^e^aO 

ra ^' iv^e^opera aXXwc, OTCLV 'ifa rov dewpelv 

el 'ianv 7) /z//. 'E^ avayxriG apa eeri TO iir torero v. 

PAGE 108. 
D. THOM. De Veritate, quaest. xiv. art. 9. 

Quascumque sciuntur proprie, ut certa scientia, cogno- 
scuntur per resolutionem in prima principia, quas per se 
praesto sunt intellectui ; et sic omnis scientia in visione rei 
prsesentis perficitur : unde impossibile est, quod de eodem 
sit fides et scientia. 

PAGE 109. 
D. THOM. Sum. Theol. Prima pars, quaest. i. art. 2. | 

Eespondeo. Dicendum, Sacram Doctrinam esse scien- 
tiam. Sed sciendum est, quod duplex est scientiarum 
genus. Quaedam enim sunt, quse procedunt ex principiis 
notis lumine naturali intellectus, sicut Arithmetica, Geo- 
metria, et hujusmodi. Quaadam vero sunt, quae procedunt 
ex principiis notis lumine superioris scientiae : sicut 


Perspectiva procedit ex principiis notificatis per Geome- 
triam ; et Musica ex principiis per Arithmeticam notis. Et 
hoc modo Sacra Doctrina est scientia, quia procedit ex 
principiis notis lumine superioris scientist, quae scilicet est 
scientia Dei et Beatomm. 

PAGE 109. 
VASQUEZ, Disp, in I c. D. Thorn, vol. i. pp. 10, 11. 

Bifariam ergo Caietanus accipit Theologiam, unam dicit 
esse Dei, et Beatorum ; alteram vero viatorum ; hanc po- 
sterior em rursus dividit in Theologiam secundum se, et 
prout est in nobis. . . . Asserit igitur in viatoribus 
esse imperfectam scientiam, hoc est, non vere et proprie 
scientiam, sed scientiam subalternatam. 

Quarta sententia [opinio Alberti et Thomistarum] satis 
communis inter recentiores est, Theologiam viatorum ex 
articulis sola fide divina creditis deductam, esse vere et 
proprie scientiam, non tantum secundum se, sed etiam, ut 
est in ipsis viatoribus, imperfectam tamen in suo genere. 

Ultima igitur sententia magis communis inter Schola- 
sticos affirmat Theologiam viatorum, ut in ipsis est, non 
esse vere et proprie scientiam. 

PAGE 110. 

GREG. DE VALENTIA, Disp. 1. in I. c. D. Thorn, quasi, i. 
punct. 3, torn. i. p. 22. 

Theologiam igitur non esse proprie scientiam talem, 
qualem Aristoteles descripsit, docet Durandus, Arimin., 
Ocham., Gabriel., Marsil., et alii, quorum sententiam puto 


verissimam. Fundamentum enim horum omnium est cer- 
tissimum, nempe quod de ratione scientias secundum Arist. 
est, ut assensus ab ea elicitus sit evidens : cum oporteat, 
eum qui scit, cognoscere, non posse rem aliter se habere, 
atque adeo assentiri immobiliter. Sed habitus Theologies 
non elicit talem assensum. Ergo non est scientia talis, 
qualis ab Arist. describitur. Assumptio probatur. Nam 
assensus Theologicus debet resolvi in duas autem saltern in 
unam propositionem fidei, quse non est evidens. . . . 
Nee propterea decedit aliquid de dignitate Theologize. 
Etsi enim proprie scientia non est, est tamen habitus per- 
fectior simpliciter, quam scientia. 

PAGE 110. 
GREG. DE VALENTIA, Ibid. p. 32. 

Maneat ergo Theologian! neque secundum se quidem 
esse scientiam talem, qualem descripserunt Philosophi ; 
neque proprie scientiam subalternatam scientiae Dei et 
Beatorum, sed tantum improprie, propter nonnullam simi- 
litudinem, quam habet cum proprie subalternatis, hoc ipso 
quod procedit ex assertionibus fidei, tanquam ex principiis 
quae sunt notae per scientiam Dei et Beatorum. Et nihilo- 
minus tamen optimo jure scientiam appellari, eo quod est 
absolute perfectior habitus, quam ulla scientia descripta a 

PAGE 111. 

GREG. DE VALENTIA, Ibid, punct. 4, p. 44. 
Theologiam esse sapientiam potest probari, PRIMO, ex 
ipsa vocis notione. Nam cum Theologia in suo genere 


consideret res divinas, et certissime, et per altissimum, ac 
maxime universale principiuin, per revelationem scilicet 
divinam, maxime proprie est sapientia. SECUNDO, con- 
firmatur ex phrasi Scripturse, quae talem scientiam simpli- 
citer vocat sapientiam, 1 Cor. 2, Sapientiam loquimur inter 
perfectos, et cap. 12, Alii datur sermo sapientice. TERTIO, 
probatur auctoritate et exemplo Aristotelis, qui lib. i. Met. 
habitum scientificum existimat nominandum esse sapientiam, 
si habeat quinque conditiones, quas habet longe pra3stantius 
Theologia, quam ulla scientia humana. PRIMA conditio est, 
ut eo habitu cognoscantur omnia quodammodo in uni- 
versali. SECUNDA, ut circa maxime difficilia, et a sensibus 
remota versetur. TERTIA, ut sit certissimus habitus pro- 
cedens ex certissimis causis. QUARTA, ut sit causa sui, et 
non alterius scientise. QUINTA, ut ab alia scientia non 
dirigatur, sed dirigat ipse, et judicet scientias alias. 

PAGE 111. 

VASQTJEZ, In I. c. D. Thorn. Disp. IV., art. ii. cap. 1, 
torn. i. p. 9. 

Sed nomine Theologia3 significamus scientiam, qua quis 
ex principiis in Scripturis revelatis, vel Conciliorum aucto- 
ritate, ant Ecclesias traditione firmatis, et creditis, infert 
alias veritates, et conclusiones, per evidentem consequen- 

PAGE 117. 

S. FRANCOIS DE SALES, Traite de V Amour de Dieu, liv. ii. 
chap. xiv. (Euvres Completes, tome iv. p. 229. 

Vous avez ouy dire, Theotime, qu'es Conciles generaux 
il se fait de grandes disputes et recherches de la verite, par 


discours, raisons et arguinens de Theologie : mais la chose 
estant debattue, les peres, c'est-a-dire, les evesques, et 
specialement le Pape, qui est le chef des evesques, con- 
cluent, resolvent, et determinent ; et la determination 
estant prononcee, chascun s'y arreste et y acquiesce pleine- 
ment, non point en consideration des raisons alleguees 
en la dispute et recherche precedente, mais en vertu de 
1'authorite du Sainct-Esprit, qui presidant invisiblement es 
Conciles, a juge, determine et conclu par la bouche de ses 
serviteurs qu'il a establis pasteurs du Christianisme. 
L'enqueste done et la dispute se fait au parvis des prestres, 
entre les docteurs ; mais la resolution et 1'acquiescement se 
fait au sanctuaire, ou le Sainct-Esprit, qui anime le corps 
de 1'Eglise, parle par les bouches des chefs d'icelle, selon 
que Nostre- Seigneur 1'a promis. 


PAGE 139. 
S. IREN. Cant. Har., lib. ii. cap. 28, al 47. 

Scripturse quidem perfectae sunt, quippe a Verbo Dei et 
Spiritu ejus dictaB. 

PAGE 140. 
S. MA CAR. Horn, xxxix., p. 476. 

Tac & yjoa^ac hxnrfp fTrioroXae aTreoroXev o j3aai\si>G 


PAGE 140. 
S. CHKTS. De Lazaro, Concio iv., torn. i. p. 755. 

*A 3f at y|oa0at fyOtyyovrai, ravra 6 

Horn, xxxvi. in Joan.) torn. viii. p. 206. 

OVTU) Kai iv rate SeiaiQ ypa^ate, twra ev / piav Kepaiav 
OVK aZfjfjiiov Trajoa^joajuetv, d\Aa Travra Siepevvciffdai ^P'/* 
TTVEVfictTi yap ayity Travra. etjOTyrat, /cat ov^ev TrapiXicov kv 

Horn. xix. in Acta Apost., torn. ix. p. 159. 

Kttl TO OTOjUa TUJV 7TpO<pr)Tu>l', (TTOfJia tffTl TOV 

Horn, xviii. in Gen., torn. iv. p. 156. 
ev yap avrXwe Kai a*g erv^ev tydlyyeTat // S'e/a 
a\Xa /cav o-uXXa/3/} rvyxav?/, KaV /cepata yut'a, 

e. m Gen., torn. iv. p. 180. 

v^t yap <rvXXa/3r/, oi/^e Kepaia pia eortv iyKEt^iivri irapa 
TTO\VQ ivairoKeirai ^rjffavpOQ iv rw /3a0et. 

. .r^Y. tn 6rew., torn. iv. p. 425. 

i>e yap truXXa/3//^, or/Be Kepaiav Traparpe^eLf \pr] rwv kv 

S. BASILITTS, ^p. 189, arf Eustath., torn. iii. p. 277. 
'H SeoirvevvTOs r^uv ^tatrryaarw ypa^j?. Cf. p. 66. 


PAGE 140. 
S. GREG. NAZIAN. Orat. ii., torn. i. p. 60. 

ce o Kcu 

TOV Trvevfiaroc; Tr)v aicpifieiav eX*:ovree, ov VOTE ^e^opeda, ov 
yap offLov, ovde rag eXa^toras Trpafctg elKij 
rote avaypa^affi, KO.I ptxpt TOV irapovros 

PAGE 141. 

S. GREG. NTSS. Orat. vi. cont. Eunom., torn. ii. p. 605. 
"Offa f] Seta ypa^f/ Xtyei, TOV Trvevjuarog elffi TOV ayiov 
wva/. . . . KCU Sta rovro Trdtra ypa<f)rj StoTrvevffTOQ Xeyerat, 
a ro TfJ ^et'ag epTrvevcrewQ elvai difiaffKaXlav. 

PAGE 141. 
S. JOAN. DAMAS. De Fid. Orth., lib. iv. cap. 17. 1 

Aia Trvevjuaroe roivvv ay/ov, ore ro/ioe K'at ol 
vayy\iffTai KOI aTrooroXot, KCU Trot^tVeg IXaX^trai/ K'at 
Trdffa roivvv ypatyil SeoirvevffTOQf TTO.VTH)Q KCU 

PAGE 141. 

S. AUG. Confess., lib. xiii. cap. 44, torn. i. p. 241. 
homo, nempe quod Scriptura mea dicit, ego dico. 

Enarrat. in Psal cxliv., cap. 17, torn. iy. p. 1620. 
Scriptura Dei manere debet, et quoddam chirographum 
Dei, quod omnes transeuntes legerent. 


Confess., lib. mi. cap. 27, torn. i. p. 143. 

Itaque avidissime arripui venerabilem stilum Spiritus 
tui, et prae ceteris Apostolum Paulum. 

De Doct. Christian., lib. i. cap. 41, torn. iii. p. 18. 

Titubabit autem fides, si divinarum Scripturarum vacillat 

De Sanctd Virg., cap. 17, torn. vi. p. 348. 
Hoc ad manum habent . . . ut dicant hoc auctorem libri 
non verum dixisse. . . . Atque ita dum ea quse opinantur, 
defendere quam corrigere malunt, Scriptures Sanctae au- 
ctoritatem frangere conantur. 

Cont. Faustum, lib. xi. cap. 5, torn. viii. p. 222. 

In ilia vero canonica eminentia sacrarum litterarum, 
etiamsi unus Propheta, seu Apostolus, aut Evangelista 
aliquid in suis litteris posuisse ipsa canonis confirmatione 
declaratur, non licet dubitare quod verum sit: alioquin 
nulla erit pagina, qua humanae imperitiaa regatur infirmitas, 
si librorum canonicorum saluberrima auctoritas, aut con- 
temta penitus aboletur, aut interminata confunditur. 

PAGE 142. 

S. GKEG. Mor. in Job, Prcef. cap. i. sect. 2, torn. i. p. 7. 
Auctor libri Spiritus- Sanctus fideliter credatur. Ipse 
igitur haec scripsit, qui scribenda dictavit. Ipse scripsit, 
qui et in illius opere inspirator extitit, et per scribentis 
vocem imitanda ad nos ejus facta transmisit. 


Lib. Hi. in prim. Reg., cap. i. sect. 8, torn. iii. pars 2, p. 115. 

Quoniam elect! Patres quidquid per sacra eloquia lo- 
quuntur ; non a semetipsis, sed a Domino acceperunt. 

PAGE 142. 

S. AMB. Ep. viii., sect. 1, torn. iii. p. 817. 

Non secundum artem scripsenmt, sed secundum gratiam, 
quse super omnem artem est ; scripserunt enim quae Spiritus 
iis loqui dabat. 

PAGE 143. 
HABERT, Theol. Dogmat. et Moral. Proleg., torn. i. pp. 41, 42. 

Q. 3. Singula Scriptures verba suntne a Spiritu Sancto 
inspirata et dictata, ita ut vocabulorum compositio et stylus 
ad ipsum referenda sint ? 

E. Duplex est in Scholis opposita sententia ; Tostatus 
in cap. xi. Num., Estius in cap. iii. II. ad Tim., et plures 
graves Theologi illud affirmant, imo Lovanienses et Dua- 
censes sententiam oppositatam notant, ut minus ortho- 
doxam, sic enim inquiunt in suis censuris; Intoleranda 
prorsus et grandis blasphemia est ; si quis vel verbum as- 
serat in Scripturis inveniri otiosum. . . . Singula verba 
Scripturarum singula sunt Sacramenta, singuli sermones, 
syllabce, apices, puncta divinis plena sunt sensibus, ait enim 
Christus Matth. v.jota unum, aut unus apex non prceteribit 
a lege. . . . 

Bellarminus tamen et alii Theologi sat communiter 
negant Spiritum Sanctum inspirasse et dictasse omnia et 


singula Scriptures verba. Dico, omnia, concedunt enim ea 
fuisse inspirata, quibus exprimuntur mysteria, et alia gra- 
viora, quse captum scriptoris sacri superant, cum ad ex- 
ponenda, quse adeo ab humanis sensibus remota sunt, 
naturalis loquendi facultas non videatur sufficere ; sed 
contendunt in facilioribus et perviis, puta in historiis de- 
scribendis, Spiritum Sanctum scriptoribus sacris permisisse 
verborum dilectum, specialiterque dumtaxat adstitisse ne 
alicubi laberentur. ... Quare illi ut probabiliori et 
communiori subscribendum videtur. 

Neque vero ex hac sententia sequitur sacram Scripturam 
integraliter sumptam, non esse verbum Dei . . . . 
namque res omnes et singulge sententise inspiratse sunt, 
deinde verba ipsa saltern confuse a Spiritu Sancto simul 
subministrata esse intelligitur. 

PAGE 143. 
ESTIUS, Com. in II. Tim. Hi. 16, torn. ii. p. 826. 

Recte igitur, et verissime, ex hoc loco statuitur omnem 
Scripturam sacram et canonicam Spiritu Sancto dictante 
esse conscriptam ; ita nimirum ut non solum sententise, sed 
et verba singula, et verborum ordo, ac tota dispositio sit a 
Deo, tamquam per semetipsum loquente, aut scribente. 

PAGE 150. 

MATIGNON, La Liberte de I 'Esprit humain dans la Foi 
Catholique, p. 187. 

Holden a pense que la Bible ne perdrait rien de sa 
dignite ni de son inspiration, quand meine il s'y serait 


glisse quelque erreur de detail, insignifiante au point de 
vue de la religion et de la morale. Cette opinion hardie a 
ete censuree par la Sorbonne ; nous ne croyons pas pour- 
tant que 1'Eglise 1'ait absolument condamnee. 

PAGE 154. 
Theol. Wirceburg., torn. i. pp. 15, 16. 

Triplex concipi potest modus, quo Deus rnentem scri- 
ptoris alicujus afficiat. l us est specialis assistentia, stans in 
peculiar! auxilio, quo Deus ita adest scriptori, ut ne inter 
scribendo erret aut mentiendo, aut falsum proferendo, aut 
defectum quemcumque committendo, qui impediat, ne 
scriptio ad Dei directionem referri queat : 2 US est inspira- 
tio, quae praster specialem assistentiam dicit incitationem 
quamdam interiorem motumque insolitum, quo quis ad 
scribendum impellitur, sine rationis tamen et libertatis 
periculo : 3 US est revelatio, quas memoratas inspiration! 
superaddit veritatis antea ignotas factam divinitus manife- 

Dico I. Deus res saltern seu veritates et sententias, in 
libris sacris expressas, Scriptoribus sacris specialiter in- 

Dico II. Deus non videtur specialiter inspirasse semper 
sacros Scriptores quoad singula etiam verba et phrasin. 

PAGE 159. 
Theol. Wirceburg., torn. i. pp. 26-35. 

Dico I. Vulgata versio Latina est authentica. 
Dico II. Tridentinum duntaxat declaravit, vulgatam 


esse respective authenticam, scilicet in his, quse ad fidem et 
mores pertinent. 

Observa I. Cum in decreto TRID. hactenus examinato 
Vulgata solum cum aliis Latinis editionibus comparata de- 
claretur authentica ; aperte colligitur, per hanc declara- 
tionem nihil derogari authentiae, quam Grsecis Hebraeisque 
fontibus praeter Protestantes multi Catholici, et version! 
LXX. Interpretum contra priores plerique postremi tri- 

PAGE 165. 
S. AUG. Cont. Faust, lib. xi. c. 5, torn. viii. p. 222. 

Ibi si quid velut absurdum moverit, non licet dicere, 
Auctor hujus libri non tenuit veritatem : sed, aut codex 
mendosus est, aut interpres erravit, aut tu non intelligis. 

PAGE 169. 
S. AUG. Ep. 82, ad Hier. torn. ii. pp. 190, 198. 

Ego enim fateor caritati tuae, solis eis Scripturarum 
libris, qui jam canonici appellantur, didici hunc timorem 
honoremque deferre, ut nullum eorum auctorem scribendo 
aliquid errasse firmissime credam. 

Dum tamen a scribentibus auctoribus sanctarum Scri- 
pturarum, et maxime canonicarum, inconcusse credatur, et 
defendatur omnino abesse mendacium . . . mentiendi 
utique non est locus. 


PAGE 170. 

De Civ. Dei, lib. xviii. cap. 40, torn. vii. p. 522. 

Nos vero in nostrae religionis historia, fulti auctoritate 
divina, quidquid ei resistit, non dubitamus esse falsissimum, 
quomodo libet sese habeant cetera in ssecularibus litteris. 

PAGE 170. 
Cont. Faust, lib. xi. cap. 6, torn. viii. p. 222. 

Proinde, quia ex apostoli Pauli canonicis, id est, vere 
Pauli epistolis, utrumque profertur, et non possumus dicere, 
aut mendosum esse codicem, omnes enim Latini emendati 
sic habent ; aut interpretem errasse, omnes enim Grseci 
emendati sic habent : restat ut tu non intelligas. 

PAGE 170. 
Ad Inquis. Jianuar. Ep. L V. torn. ii. p. 143. 

Quod non solum in aliis innumerabilibus rebus multa 
nie latent, sed etiam in ipsis sanctis Scripturis multo nesciam 
plura quam sciam. 

PAGE 170. 
Serm. LI. de Concor. Matt, et Luc. torn. v. p. 285. 

Honora in eo quod nondum intelligis ; et tant6 magis 
honora, quanto plura vela cernis. . . . Vela faciunt 
honorem secreti : sed honorantibus levantur vela. 
T 2 



PAGE 174. 
S. AUG. Enar. in Psalm. Ivi. torn. iv. p. 534. 

Codicem portat Judaeus, unde credat Christianus. 

PAGE 179. 
S. IREN. Cont. Haeres. lib. iii. cap. 4, p. 178. 

Quid autem si neque Apostoli quidem Scripturas reli- 
quissent nobis, nonne oportebat ordinem sequi Traditionis, 
quam tradiderunt iis quibus committebant Ecclesias. Cui 
ordinationi assentiimt multse gentes barbarorum, eoram qui 
in Christum credunt, sine charta et atramento scriptam 
habentes per Spiritum in cordibus suis salutem, et veterem 
Traditionem diligenter custodientes. 

PAGE 194. 

S. HIEE. Com. in Gal. cap. 1, torn. iv. pp. 230, 231. 

Marcion et Basilides et caeterse Hereticorum pestes non 
habent Dei Evangelium : quia non habent Spiritum San- 
ctum, sine quo humanum sit Evangelium quod docetur. 
Nee putemus in verbis Scripturarum esse Evangelium ; sed 
in sensu. Non in superficie ; sed in medulla. Non in 
sermonum foliis ; sed in radice rationis. . . . Grande 
periculum est in Ecclesia loqui, ne forte interpretatione 
perversa, de Evangelic Christi, hominis fiat Evangelium : 
ant quod pejus est, diaboli. 


PAGE 195. 
VINC. LIRIN. Common, cap. 25. 

Hie fortasse aliquis interroget, an et hceretici divince scri- 
pturce testimoniis utantur. Utuntur plane, et vehementer 
quidem, nam videas eos volare per singula quagque sanctje 
legis volumina. 

PAGE 195. 
S. AUG. Enar. in Ps. x. torn. iv. p. 64. 

Non enim Prophetee tantum, sed omnes verbo Dei ani- 
mas irrigantes, nubes dici possunt. Qui cum male intelli- 
guntur, pluit Deus super peccatores laqueos. . . . Et 
hie igitur eadem Scripturarum nube, pro suo cuj usque 
merito, et peccatori pluvia laqueorum, et justo pluvia uber- 
tatis infusa est. 




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on Political Terms 

on the Romance Languages 

LIDDELL and Scorr'sGreek- English Lexicon 

Abridged ditto 

LINDLEY and MOORB'S Treasury of Botany 
LONGMAN'S Lectures on the History of Eng- 

LOUDON'S Encyclopasdia of Agriculture.... 

Cottage, Farm, 

and Villa Architecture 

LOWNDES'S Engineer's Handbook 

Lyra Domestica 







-Trees & Shrubs 

MACAULAY'S (Lord) Essays 
History of Engl 


. and 1 

Lays of Ancient Rome. 25 

Miscellaneous Writings 9 

Speeches 7 

Speeches on Parliamentary 

Reform 5 

MACDOUOALL'S Theory of War 1! 

M ARSHM AN 's Life of Havelock 6 



McCci.i,ocH's Dictionary of Commerce 27 

Geographical Dictionary II 

MACFI'S Vancouver Island 22 

MAGUI RE'S Life of Father Mathew 4 

-Rome and its Rulers 4 

MALIXO'S Indoor Gardener ................. 13 

M ASSET 's History of England .............. 

MASSINGBKRD'S History of the Reformation. . 
MAUNDBH'S Biographical Treasury ......... 

-- Geographical Treasury ........ 

__ Historical Treasury ............ 

_ Scientific and LiteraryTreasury 
- Treasury of Knowledge ........ 

Treasury of Natural History .. 

MAD RY'S Physical Geography 

MAY'S Constitutional History of England. . 1 

MELVILLE'S Digby Grand .................... 24 

- General Bounce ................ 24 

__ Gladiators ...................... 24 

__ Good for Nothing ............... 24 

- HolmbyHouse .................. 24 

- Interpreter ...................... 24 

__ Kate Coventry .................. 24 

-- Queen's Maries .................. 24 

MENDELSSOHN'* Letters ...................... > 

MBNZIES' Windsor GreatPark .............. 18 

__ on Sewage ........................ 18 

MERIVALB'S(H.) Colonisation and Colonies 11 

__ Historical Studies .......... 2 

- (C.) Fall of the Roman Republic 2 

- Romans under the Empire 2 
--- on Conversion of Roman 

Empire .................................... * 

MILKS on Horse's Foot ...................... 20 

- On Horses' Teeth .................. 26 

- on Horse Shoeing ..................... 26 

- onStables .......... . ................. 26 

Mm. onLiberty ............................ 6 

- on Representative Government ...... 6 

- on Utilitarianism ..................... 6 

MILL'S Dissertations and Discussions ....... 6 

- Political Kconomy .................. t 

- System of Logic .................... 6 

- Hamilton's Philosophy .............. 

MILLER'S Elements of Chemistry .......... 14 

MONSELL'S Spiritual Songs .................. 21 

-- Beatitudes ...................... 21 

MONTAOU'S Experiments in Church and 

State ................................ . ....... 19 

MONTGOMERY on the Signs and Symptoms 

of Pregnancy .............................. 14 

MooRE'sIrish Melodies ......... . ........... 25 

- LallaRookh ...................... 25 

- Memoirs, Journal, and Correspon- 
dence ....................... ............... 5 

- Poetical Worka .................... 25 

MORELL'S Elements of Psychology ......... 9 

- Mental Philosophy ............... 9 

Morning Clouds ............................ 20 

MORTON'S Prince Consort's Farms .......... 17 

MOSHBIM'S Ecclesiastical History ........... 20 

MOLLER'S (Max) Lectures on the Science of 

Language ................................. 

- (K. O.) Literature of Ancient 
Greece .................................... 

MURCHISON on Continued Fevers ............ 

MO-HE'S Language and Literature of Greece 

New Testament, illustrated with Wood En- 15 

gravings from the Old Masters 

NEWMAN'S History of his Religious Opinions 

NIOHTIN G ALB'S Notes on Hospitals 28 

ODLINO'S Course of Practical Chemistry 1 

Manual of Chemistry ) 

ORMSBY'S Rambles in Algeria and Tunis.... 23 
OWEN'S Comparative Anatomy and Physio- 
logy of Vertebrate Animals 12 

OXBIVHAM on Atonement 21 

'ACRE'S Guide to the Pyrenees 23 

PAGET'S Lectures on Surgical Pathology. . 15 

Camp and Cantonment 22 

PBRBIRA'S Elements of Materia Medica.... 15 

Manual of Materia Medica 15 

PERKINS'S Tuscan Sculptors 16 

PHILLIPS'S Guide to Geology 12 

Introduction to Mineralogy 12 

PIESSE'S Art of Perfumery 17 

Chemical, Natural, and Physical 

Magic 17 

Laboratory of Chemical Wonders 17 

PI ay time with the Poets 26 

Practical Mechanic's Journal 17 

PRESCOTT'S Scripture Difficulties 19 

PROCTOR'S Saturn 10 

PYCROFT'S Course of English Reading 7 

CricketField 26 

CricketTutor 26 

Cricketana 26 

READE'S Poetical Works 25 

Recreations of a Country Parson, SECOND 


REILERY'S Map of Mont Blanc 22 

RIDDLE'S Diamond Latin-Ensrlis-h Dictionary 8 

First Sundays at Church 21 

RIVKRS'S Rose Amateur's Guide 13 

ROGERS'S Correspondence of Greyson 9 

Eclipse of Faith 9 

Defence of ditto 9 

Essays from the Edinburgh Review 9 

Fulleriana 9 

ROORT'S Thesaurus of English Words and 

Phrases 7 

RONALDS'S Fly-Fisher's Entomology 26 

ROWTON'S Debater 7 

RUSSELL on Government and Constitution. . i 

SAXBY'S Study of Steam 27 

Weather System 1 1 

SCOTT'S Handbook of Volumetrical Analysis 14 

SENIOR'S Biographical Sketches 5 

. Historical and Philosophical 

Essays 3 

Essays on Fiction 24 

SEWELL'S Amy Herbert ...% 24 

Ancient History 2 

Cleve Hall 24 

Earl's Daughter 24 

Experience of Life 24 

Gertrude 24 

Glimpseof the World 24 

History of the Early Church 3 

Ivors 24 

Katharine Ashton 24 

Laneton Parsonage 24 

Margaret Perciyal 24 

Night Lessons from Scripture .... 20 

Passing Thoughts on Religion.... 20 

Preparation for Communion 20 

Readings for Confirmation 20 

Readings for Lent 20 

Self-Examination before Confir- 

mation go 

Stories and Tales 

Thoughts for the Holy Week 20 

Ursula 24 

SHAW'S Work on Wine 

SHEDDEN'S Elements of Logic 

Short Whist 

SHORT'S Church History 


SIMPSON'S Handb ok of Dining 27 

SMITH'S (vSouTnwooD) Philosophy of Health 28 
(J.) Voyage and Shipwreck of St. 



SMITH'S (G.) Wesley an Methodism 3 

(.SYDNEY) Memoir and Letters 6 

Miscellaneous Works 9 

Sketches of Moral Philo- 
sophy 9 

Wit and Wisdom 9 

SMITH on Cavalry Drill and Manoeuvres 27 

SOUTHEY'S (Doctor) 7 

Poetical Works 25 

SPOHR'S Autobiography 4 

Spring and Autumn 20 

STANLEY'S History of British Birds 13 

STEBBING'S Analysis of MILL'S Logic 7 


p OLE 4 

STEPHEN'S Essays in Ecclesiastical Bio- 
graphy 5 

Lectures on the History of 

France 2 

STIRLING'S Secret of Hegel 10 

S TONEHENGE on the Dog 25 

on the Greyhound 25 

T ASSO'S Jerusalem, by JAMES 25 

TAYLOR'S (Jeremy) Works, edited by EDEN 20 

TENNENT'S Ceylon 12 

Natural History of Ceylon 12 

THIHLWALL'S History of Greece 2 

THOMSON'S (Archbishop) Laws of Thought 7 

; J.) Tables of Interest 28 

Conspectus, by BIRKETT 15 

TODD'S Cyclopsedia of Anatomy and Phy- 
siology 15 

and BOWMAN s Anatomy and Phy- 
siology of Man , 15 

TBOLLOI-E'S Barchester Towers 25 

Warden 25 

Twiss'sLawof Nations 27 

TYNDALL'S Lectures on Heat 11 

UKE'S DicUonary of Arts, Manufactures, 

and Mines 16 

VAVDER HCEVEN'S Handbook of Zoology.. 12 

O *. 

VAUGHAN'S (R.) Revolutions in English 

History ] 

(R. A.) Hours with the Mystics 10 

VILLAKI'S Savonarola 4 

WATSON'S Principles and Practice of Physic 14 
WATTS'S Dictionary of Chemistry. . . . 
WEBB'S Celestial Objects for Common Tele- 
scopes ji 

WEBSTER & WILKINSON'S Greek Testament 19 

WKLD'S Last Winter in Rome 23 



by GLEIO | 4 

WEST on the Diseases of Infancy and Child- 
hood 14 

WHATELY'S English Synonymes 5 

Logic 5 

Remains g 

Rhetoric 5 

Sermons 22 

Paley's Moral Philosophy S2 

WHEWELL'S History of the Inductive Sci- 
ences 3 

Whist, what to lead, by CAM 28 

WHITE and RIDDLE'S Latin-English Dic- 
tionary 8 

WILBERFORCE (W.) Recollections of, by 


WILLIAMS'S Superstitions of Witchcraft 9 

WILLICH'S Popular Tables 28 

WILSON'S Bryologia Britannica 13 

WOOD'S Homes without Hands 12 

WOODWARD'S Historical and .Chronological 

Encyclopaedia 3 

YONGE'S English-Greek Lexicon 8 

Abridged ditto 8 

YOUNG'S Nautical Dictionary 27 

You ATT on the Dog 27 

onthe Horse 2?