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Full text of "History of the University of Dublin : (founded by Queen Elizabeth) ; its origin, progress, and present condition ; with biographical notices of many eminent men educated therein ; illustrated by views of its buildings, and the academic costumes, etc. worn in this venerable seat of learning"



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HISTORY : , 




UNIVERSITY OF DUBLIN, 

(FOUNDED BY QUEEN ELIZABETH,) 

ITS ORIGIN, 
PROGRESS, AND PRESENT CONDITION, 



WITH 



13tograpf)tcal Notices of mang IBmtnent JBeti etiuratetr tijmfn. 



ILLUSTRATED BY 

VIEWS OF ITS BUILDINGS, AND THE ACADEMIC COSTUMES, ETC., 
WOEN IN THIS VENEBABLE SEAT OF LEAKNINGr. 



BY W. B. S. TAYLOR, F.M.A., ETC., 

AND HON. SECRETARY TO THE SOCIETY FOR DIFFUSING INFORMATION UPON THE 
CRIMINAL CODE OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



" Verily 1 say unto you, Wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached in the whole world, there 
shall also this, that this woman hath done, be told for a memorial of her." MATT. xxvi. 13. 



LONDON : 

PRINTED FOR T. CADELL : AND J. GUMMING, DUBLIN. 



MDCCCXLV. 



LONDON : 
GEORGE WOODFALL AND SON, 

ANGEL COURT, SKINNER STREET. 




TO 



THE EDUCATED CLASSES 



OF 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



MY LORDS, LADIES, AND GENTLEMEN, 

IN offering this tribute of respect to the greatest 
power in the British Empire the power established 
upon, and supported by, highly cultivated human in- 
tellect, which embraces within its ample scope all that 
is valuable in thought, and practically useful and 
agreeable in action, connected with the interests of 
mankind, the author hopes that his meaning may not 
be mistaken. 

The work now respectfully offered to the notice of 
those whose powers of judgment in these affairs 
is supreme, because legitimate, is " A HISTORY OF 
THE UNIVERSITY OF DUBLIN;" or, as it might be 
termed, " A History of the Academic Mind of Ire- 
land for the last two hundred and fifty years," that 
being about the space of time which has elapsed since 
its foundation. And as this is the first regular history 
of the origin, progress, and present condition, pub- 
lished, of that seat of classical and scientific learning, 
with notices of the illustrious and eminent men who 
have been educated within its precincts, and who have 
set, in the path of youth, the light of an inspiring ex- 
ample, inculcating the discipline of thought, and the 



DEDICATION. 



pleasures of a mental existence; the author hopes 
that the subject will plead his excuse for adopting this 
mode of appeal to the most competent tribunal of 
literary merit in existence ; especially as he has felt 
it to be his bounden duty to state some facts inti- 
mately connected with this history, and with which 
he has long been acquainted, in language, not dif- 
ficult to be comprehended, but rather opposed to the 
commonly received and conventional notions, or po- 
litical mannerism, which have hitherto unhappily 
prevai'ed upon some important public subjects con- 
nected with Ireland, also deeply affecting the re- 
ligious, moral, and humane character of the British 
people, and into which they should carefully make an 
investigation ; after which he has no doubt that they 
will sympathize with the view he has sketched out, of 
the unworthy policy which has for so many centuries, 
with one or two short exceptions, been practised to- 
wards Ireland ; and which is neither consistent with 
the duties of humanity, nor the mild and peaceful 
spirit of THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST. And the Author 
earnestly prays that the great class, which he has the 
honour of addressing, will then strenuously urge upon 
the notice of the present enlightened government, 
which appears to contemplate a change of system, the 
propriety and necessity of treating Ireland precisely in 
the same way, with respect to their feelings, interests, 
and political condition, as they do Yorkshire, or any 
other portion of England or Scotland. Such a power 
taking the field in the cause of Religion, Justice, 
and Humanity would be irresistible, and that desirable 
object would be obtained; for it is in such cases, 
and such only, that the noble truism holds good: 
Vox Populi, Vox Dei. Then would Ireland become, 
throughout its entire area, as peaceful and as easily 
governed, as Kent, Essex, or Surrey ; the Repeal folly 
would die a natural death, and Irish demagogues would 
shrink into their natural dimensions; even the art and 
mystery of Demagogy itself, would fall to a very low 
discount, instead of being, as it long appears to have 
been, at a premium. All this great work the edu- 



DEDICATION. V 

cated classes of this great empire can attain, and 
ought to obtain, if they hope to hear the joyous sounds, 
" Come ye blessed children of my Father." Then 
would educated humanity, not only dry up the orphan?/ 
and the widows' tears, and make their hearts to sing for 
joy, and cause that moral desert to blossom as the 
rose, but they would prevent those political crimes 
which awfully increase the stock of widows and of 
orphans in that unhappy land, that Aceldama of po- 
litical knavery. Then indeed might the humane 
and just authors of such glorious results be truly said 
to give "glory to God in the highest; on earth 
peace, and good-will towards men." 

With the most profound respect, 
I have the honour to be, 
My Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen, 
Your most devoted, 

And very humble servant, 
WM. BENJ. SARSFIELD TAYLOR, 

Hon. Sec. to the Society for Diffusing Information upon Capital Punishment ; 
Founder and President of the Living Model Academy, &c. 

20, Featherstone Buildings, near Gray's-Inn, 
Dec. 24, 1844. 



CONTENTS. 



IN consequence of the new mode adopted in this work of placing 
head-lines to the pages which inform the reader of the subject of 
each page, this table will only give the general indication of the sub- 
jects, and direct to the parts where they may readily be found. 

Founders of the University, and particulars of Endowment, original 
Statutes, &c., page 1. Great changes made in the Constitution of the 
University, 21. The New Charter, 23. Provost Chappie's Character, 
25. His Conduct, 29. Charges against him, 31. Irish Rebellion 
of 1641. Use of the Liturgy interdicted in College by the English 
Parliament, 38. Cromwell's Visit to Ireland. The late Archbishop 
Ussher's Library removed into College, 40. Dr. Jeremy Taylor ap- 
pointed Vice-Chancellor, 41. The Duke of Ormond, 43. A New 
College proposed, 44. Tobe named King's College, not proceeded with. 
Civil War in Ireland between King William III. and King James II., 
49. University plundered by King James's army, 50. Intended to 
destroy the Library, 54. The Bill of Attainder, 55. Its atrocious 
Nature, 57. First Secular Day celebrated, 58. The Irish Parlia- 
ment favours the University, 61. The House of Commons votes 
5,000 to college. Archbishop King's Divinity Lecture, 65. Eras- 
mus Smith's Professorships, 66. A contested Election in College, 
68. Increase of Students. Of Buildings, 69. Bishop Berkeley's 
Gold Medal, 71. Parliament votes 20,000 to College for buildings, 
72. Regius Professor of Divinity, 76. Andrews Professor of As- 
tronomy. Another contested Election, 178. Professorship of 
Modern Languages, 80. Litigation with Dr. Andre ws's Relatives, 81. 
Provost and Fellows petition Parliament, 92. Professorship of 
Astronomy settled, 97- Gold Medals instituted, 103. The Donne- 
Ian Lecture, 104. Bishop Law's Mathematical Prizes, 105. Dr. 
Downe's Divinity Premium, 106. Dr. Madden's Fellowship Prizes, 
109. His Character, 111. Parliament demands to see the Univer- 
sity Charter, 113. College Lands in Dublin, 115. Section III. 
College deprived of one Representative by the Union, J 16. Act for 
a complete-School of Physic, 117. Section IV. Divinity Lecture, 
119. Recent Improvements in, 122. Additional Professorships, 

123. Visit of King George IV. to the University, (1821,) 124 

Grand Banquet in College, 131. Chapter IV. Section I. Govern- 
ment of the University, 136. Professors, &c., 139. Section II. 
Examination at Entrance, 142. Term Examinations, Exercises, c., 
143. Exercises for Degrees, 144. Section III. Regulations for the 
Undergraduate Examinations, 146. Fees for each Degree, 149. 
Honours and Prizes, 150. Undergraduate Course, 151. Modera- 
torshipsin Mathematics and Physics, 155. Classical Moderatorships, 
156. Undergraduate Lectures, 157. Divinity Lectures, 159. 



viii CONTENTS. 

Course for the Divinity Examination, 160. Lectures of the Candi- 
date year, 162. Public Lectures, 163. Lectures of Graduates, 168. 

Public Lectures. Modern Languages, 165. School of Medicine, 

165. Chemical and Botanical Lectures, 169. Natural History, 170. 
Premiums of Fellowship Examination, 172. The Primate's He- 
brew Prizes, 173. Bishop Law's Prizes. Gold Medals, 175. Mo- 
derators at Degree Examinations, 176. Medals for Modern Lan- 
guages, 177. Prizes in Political Economy; in Biblical Greek, 177. 

Chapter V. Section I. Exhibitions, 178. Divinity Professor's 

Premiums, 179. Archbishop King's Divinity Prizes, 180. The 
Royal Scholarships, &c., 181. Section II., The Elrington Theolo- 
gical Prize, 185. The Lloyd Exhibitions, 187. Professorship of 
the Irish Language, Regulations, &c., 189. School of Engineering, 
195. Exhibitions by the Academic Association, 198. The Histori- 
cal Society, 199. Its Revival in 1843, 202. Choral Society, 204. 
College Charges, 210. University Patronage a , 211. List of Dona- 
tions to College, 213. University Officers, ranks in the, 218. Bur- 
gesses returned to Parliament, 220. Chapter VI. Section I. Pro- 
vosts of the University, 227. List of Vice-Provosts, 262. Offices 
of Proctor, Censor, Registrars, 263. Personal Rank in College, 265. 
Complete List of Fellows b , 267. Fellowship Examinations, &c., 
287. Architectural description of the University, 293. Principal 
Front. Museum. Chapel. Theatre. Dining Hall. Historical 
Society's Chambers. Parliament Square. Section II. The Library. 
Fagel Room. MS. Room, Coins, &c. Benefactors and Dona- 
tions to the Library. To the MS. Library. Lending Library. 
University Press. Section V. Anatomical Theatre. The Provost's 
House, 334. Improving the Park, &c. Improved Moral Dis- 
cipline and Government. On Irish Students being sent to Eng- 
lish Universities. Its absurdity, 340. Duty of an Historian. Ab- 
senteeism very injurious, 347. The Observatory. Dr. Brinkley, 
349. Meridian Room, and Circle, 353. Parallaxes of Fixed Stars, 
356. The Botanic Garden, 357. Ancient Irish Authors, and State 
of Learning, in Ireland, 359. Eminent Persons Educated in Dublin 
University, their Works, &c., 365. Conclusion, 501. 

Under this head some of the livings appear vacant, and another has since 
become so; these are now filled up. The Rev. Thos. M'Neece, A.M., Arch- 
bishop King's Lecturer in Divinity, has succeeded to Arboe ; and the Rev. Mr. 
Atkins to Tullyagnish, in the room of Boyton, deceased. The Rev. H. H. 
Harte holds Drumragh, with Cappagh. 

b Since the list referred to was printed, we have received the names of the three 
Fellows elected in 1844, viz.: Mr. Galbraith, for Dr. Prior, deceased; Mr. 
M'lvor, for Dr. Phipps, deceased; Mr. Houghton, (under the celibacy repeal Act 
of 1 840. ) 




27176 

PREFACE. 



THE ensuing Work is intended to embrace all the 
topics of interest connected with the UNIVERSITY OF 
DUBLIN. It will contain, besides an account of the 
Foundation, and a narrative of the circumstances of 
its earlier History, Biographical Sketches of the Pre- 
lates and other eminent men whom it has educated, 
with a detail of the regular Succession of Provosts and 
Fellows, and Notices of Benefactions from the earliest 
period to the present time. It will be also illustrated 
with coloured Engravings of the Academic Costumes 
and Vignette Views from Drawings made on the 
spot, in which the Architecture and Scenery of the 
College are accurately represented, and the scale, as 
well as the mechanical appearance of the work, ap- 
proaches that of " Dyer's Cambridge," except that 
this is comprised in one volume. The Author takes 
this opportunity of gratefully acknowledging the kind 
attention of those Members of the University who 
have facilitated his inquiries, and enabled him to col- 
lect the requisite materials for so arduous and respons- 
ible an undertaking; and in committing the result 
of his labours to the public opinion, he trusts it will 
be found that the work has been impartially designed, 
and executed with fidelity. 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE foundation of most of the Universities of Europe 
took place at a time when the union of the characters 
of Scholar and Churchman made the patronage of 
learning an act of piety, and while there was yet a 
mystery about learning which gave it, in the opinion 
of mankind, a preternatural virtue. It was then that 
the affluent endeavoured to propitiate Heaven by erect- 
ing an asylum for learned men, even more than to 
immortalize themselves by inscribing their epitaph 
upon a monument consecrated to erudition. And thus 
a devotional sentiment, as much as a desire of fame or 
the generous love of letters, gave rise to the establish- 
ment of Colleges and Halls. 

Of such institutions some have disappeared, but 
the greater number still remain, with augmented re- 
sources and elevated character. Even the very bar- 
barism that prevailed at the time of their formation 
has contributed to the solemn feeling which they can 
at present inspire. It throws round their origin an 
indistinctness which blends it into the distance of a 
fabulous and picturesque antiquity, so that the interest 
which their services to society excites is greatly in- 
creased by their participation in the little that is known, 
and the much that is imagined of the events of earlier 
time, before records were faithful, or history ceased to 
be romantic. But although the University of Dublin 
does not lose its origin in that very remote sera, which 
gives to institutions, as well as to men who have any 
moral worth, an aspect that commands veneration, 
yet it has a character not less exalted and estimable 
than similar establishments which possess tfee van- 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

tage-ground of earlier history, and claim respect not 
more on account of their existing merits than by im- 
memorial prescription. If, however, the materials of 
the historic narrative of the latter are more attractive 
than those which supply the account of this compara- 
tively modern society, it should be recollected that 
they must be also in some respect less authentic. 
With their distant sera, what may be called the poetic 
age of social life is romantically connected, and when 
facts have perished, the lapse is supplied by the more 
interesting detail of legendary narration. 

It must, however, be confessed that, as monuments 
of national pride and literary affection, the ancient 
Universities have the advantage over those of more 
recent endowment. As it cannot be forgotten that 
they were once the exclusive depositories of whatever 
relics of learning had been collected from the ruins of 
civilized states, and which were by them preserved 
afloat upon the inundation of barbarism until the 
waters had subsided ; they have also names asso- 
ciated with their history antecedent to the existence of 
the latter, which the civilized world at present recog- 
nises with gratitude : the fathers of European erudi- 
tion, whose masculine energies and patriarchal virtues 
give their memories the expression of simple and au- 
gust example. Besides, the early light of knowledge 
in passing through the moral gloom receives a rich- 
ness favourable for effect, and like the rays that illu- 
mine the vista of a gothic aisle, seem endued with a 
more sacred splendour. Thus have those institutions 
been put under the protection of piety and the imagin- 
ation ; and accordingly for centuries their dominion 
was, at the same time, venerable and despotic. 

In later years, the merits of Universities have been 
disputed, and unmitigated censure on the one side, 
has called up unqualified commendation on the other. 
They, as at present conducted, are not fairly the sub- 
ject of either; for, although founded on a principle 
productive of great utility, they possess some defects 
of system which narrow the sphere of its operation. 
When first established, their importance was in- 



INTRODUCTION. Xlll 

calculable. They collected the learned, who were few, 
and gave them a compact and honourable confede- 
racy against the ignorant, who were powerful and many. 
They gave rise to the plan of collective exertion and 
emulative industry, which encouraged the energies of 
the mind and advanced the progress of discovery more 
than any solitary and detached application : and they 
supplied a continued growth of cultivated talent for 
the demands of successive generations. 

They treasured the materials of knowledge, saved 
from the wreck of that moral world which had been 
passed over by a desolating ignorance, and arranged 
them as bases of new acquisitions. 

Being protected by royal favour and individual 
opulence, and having a munificent patronage and a 
chartered authority, they possessed that station which 
gave to the Body a political importance, and conferred 
honour upon the individual. 

The institution of Degrees was a kind of moral 
investiture, by which what may be called the manorial 
rights of learning, and its title to the tribute of public 
esteem, were solemnly granted and conferred. Thus 
self-respect, without which nothing great is ever per- 
formed, was sustained in the mind devoted to learn- 
ing, at a time when the feudal institutions of society 
made every man, who was not a soldier, a slave ; and 
when ancestral bearings had a tyrannic ascendant over 
the nobility of virtue. 

The splendid exception which the piety of religious 
men, and the wise liberality of monarchs, made in 
the case of scholars, gave them the stimulus and 
capability of great performances. They became 
ardent and indefatigable, because the path of glory 
was opened to their exertions, and achieved what it is 
the astonishment of later days could have been com- 
prised within the limits of human life. They were 
then far in advance of the age, but their conscious- 
ness of superiority at length produced relaxation ; they 
rested to enjoy their triumphs while there were yet 
other worlds to conquer, and the emoluments which 
at first enabled them to proceed, gave them, subse- 



INTRODUCTION. 



quently, opportunities of ease. Society, always in 
motion, began to gain upon them, and even accident 
contributed to effect a revolution, by which their in- 
fallibility was deposed. The invention of Printing, 
which reduced the monopoly of learning, and the dis- 
covery of the Compass, that gave rise to an unex- 
ampled boldness in commercial adventure, threw open 
sources of information over which they had no con- 
trol, and animated mankind with a general impulse 
towards improvement, that gained continually upon 
the stately and formal advances of scholastic ambition. 

Had scholars then observed the altered character 
of the times, and modelled their institutions to the 
gradual but certain revolution which the world was 
silently and grandly undergoing, their dominion would 
have been confirmed, and the union of lighter litera- 
ture with practical knowledge and solid erudition, 
must have made their usefulness complete, and have 
given, through their means, to the fabric of society, 
the best disposition of ornament and strength. But 
scholars, accustomed to recluse and abstracted exer- 
tions, isolated from the mass of busy and variable 
society, were little acquainted with the affairs of the 
world, and knew nothing of the actual influences 
which, as far as human agency extended, were alter- 
ing the course of its moral direction. 

Within the sacred penetralia of their temple, the 
priests of the classic altar, engaged in the service of 
a speculative world, heard, but as a distant sound, the 
noisy existence of practical man. Antiquity fascinated 
them, while modern life was not elevated enough even 
for casual attention. The useful was sacrificed to the 
curious ; and they disdained as vulgar what was not 
expressed according to the ancient rules, and clothed 
in terms hallowed by the usages of erudition. At- 
tributing too high an influence to the powers which 
they had, they neglected to avail themselves of agencies 
still more effective. The intercourse of life, and the 
tuition of experience, gave to the general mind 
gradual advancement, while Colleges, remaining 
stationary, appeared by a mistake of the intellectual 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

vision, to be retrograding, because the age was pro- 
gressive in its approaches to various and consummate 
refinement. 

In later times, however, a more liberal spirit has 
visited, and, to a great extent, reformed the Uni- 
versities. The imperious intellect of Bacon success- 
fully rebelled against the tyranny of forms. He 
erected the presiding power of Reason on the ruins 
of an erroneous Philosophy, while delusive theories 
disappeared before the light of his experimental wis- 
dom. The works of Locke accomplished the over- 
throw of the despotism erected on the Aristotelian 
doctrines, which, although they might have been 
originally useful, his clear reason justly regarded as 
antiquated. 

In the earliest period of the revival of letters, in- 
deed, it is not surprising that such doctrines held over 
the learned an uncontrolled dominion. Dissociating, 
as they did, the mind from the common circumstances 
of life, they fostered the pride of superiority, and, 
while speaking the language of a mystical intelligence, 
upheld the first sentiments which the vulgar enter- 
tained towards the majesty of learning. Besides, they 
might have been productive of good, by leading to 
those acute and subtle distinctions which kept the 
sagacity exercised and invigorated, in abstract matters, 
at a time when the actions of the world were so near 
the simplicity of the barbarous state, as to afford no 
field for philosophic contemplation. Perhaps, also, 
the infancy of the human mind required the guidance 
of a harsher and more formal authority than became 
its character on approaching maturity, when the in- 
struction that unbends into an elevated companion- 
ship must be more consistent with the age of manly 
attainments. The first efforts of the intellect are on 
the side of the imagination, and there might have 
been a necessity for the discipline of a stern and 
austere tuition to counteract the prevailing fascination 
of romance. But when the human mind was suf- 
ficiently strengthened to make a discerning and sober 
application of its powers, and when the multiplied re- 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

lations of human intercourse called into the real actions 
of society every mental attribute, then, at least, a 
more benignant and less recluse system of instruction 
was required, which might combine the theories of 
the schools with the business of Ynen, and give to 
reason the support of a chastened imagination, and a 
liberalized experience. 

Accordingly, scholastic studies have been lately ex- 
tended to embrace much of recent discovery, while 
their original sternness has been ameliorated by a 
mixture of instruction more congenial with the spirit 
of the age, and more agreeable to the progress of im- 
provement. But in the work of innovation. Colleges, 
as was to be presumed, have proceeded with rather 
too much of that jealous circumspection natural to 
those bodies, whose habits had been so long unaltered 
as to become almost constitutional. But though some- 
thing yet remains undone, much has been performed. 
Among other proofs of relaxation in the ancient dis- 
cipline, the introduction of the study of the common 
law at Oxford is the most remarkable. A branch of 
knowledge which sprang from the unsophisticated 
sense and every-day experience of mankind, was not, 
till lately, thought deserving of a place among the 
sciences which a meditative philosophy had created 
and arranged. For centuries the Imperial Code, 
which contained the methodized principles of Roman 
degeneracy, was cultivated with delight by the learned 
among a free people, and the baseness of those prin- 
ciples was overlooked in the admirable economy with 
which science had arrayed them. It was, therefore, 
long allowed to burden the memories and expatriate 
the sentiments of British youth ; but no sooner did 
the University admit the study of those British laws, 
the offspring of homely wisdom, operating upon actual 
occurrence, than genius arose to give their vigorous, but 
apparently ill-combined, energies unity and order; and 
although tyranny is of simpler elements than freedom, 
yet the Commentaries of Blackstone exhibit a system 
no less lucid and philosophical than that of the 
Pandects of Justinian. Such an instance may suffice 



* 

INTRODUCTION. ^ xvii 

to show the advantages that must result fronh-^a more 
intimate connexion, than has yet existed, between the 
discipline of Colleges, and that information which is 
most useful in the intercourse of society. It proves 
that, from such an union, the one would acquire ad- 
ditional value, and the other receive symmetry and 
elevation ; and that the business of life, and the 
science of the schools, would thus have their interests 
mutually promoted. 

That the spirit of improvement in the College of 
Dublin has, at least, kept pace with that observed in 
other institutions of the same nature, is evident from 
the fact, that many important branches of its system, 
more espically Theology, Mathematics, Ethics, and 
Astronomy, have received within the last few years a 
new and most effective arrangement ; the Divinity 
course, now so greatly admired, being the work of the 
late Dr. Lloyd, D.D., and the present Bishop (Dr. 
O'Brien) of Ossory. Mathematics also are placed on 
a superior foundation, and the present Professor (Dr. 
M'Cullogh) is justly considered one of the ablest 
mathematicians in Europe. The Professors of those 
sciences have introduced the most valuable works 
relating to them, either recently published, or not 
before admitted, with a view to make those great 
departments of knowledge as splendid and useful as 
the most comprehensive plan of education demands. 
Lectures also on Natural History, on Political 
Economy, on Moral Philosophy, on Biblical Greek, 
on the Irish Language, and on Civil Engineering, 
have been instituted \ and the Professors appointed to 
these offices have conducted them in a manner highly 
beneficial to the student. A Botanical museum has 
been established, and a Curator appointed; a Pro- 
fessor of Geology, and likewise a Numismatist. The 
institution of Moderatorships is also of very recent 
date ; they rank first and second, and are objects of a 
high and honest ambition. In each of the three de- 
partments of Mathematical and Physical science, 
Ethical science, and Classics, two descriptions of 
medals are given, wherein formerly only two single 

b 



Vlll INTRODUCTION. 

medals were given, viz., one in science, and one in 
classics ; and improvements, equally great, have 
been most liberally added to every other part of the 
College course, and receive the benefit of innovations 
equally desirable and judicious ; and the entire system 
has been beautified, as well as essentially improved, 
by an effective alliance with that polite literature 
which diffuses round learning a grace and amenity, 
and which makes the hoarded treasures of the cloister 
increase the embellished acquisitions of the world. 
And to promote this very desirable object, the library 
has been placed on quite a new footing, and is now 
one of the best ordered and best furnished to be found 
in Europe; and to make it so, not less than 18,000 
have been expended on it, within the last few years, 
from the funds of the University. 

But, in whatever way its future operation may be 
directed, it is certain that what has been already done 
by the University of Dublin affords much matter for 
encomium. It preserved from extermination that 
learning which political events had almost driven out 
of Ireland. It incited to literary pursuits that genius 
which might have been otherwise lost in obscurity or 
been actively engaged in a less ingenuous ambition. 
It collected, from the most distant parts of the island, 
that class of youth who were to be entrusted with the 
highest offices in society, and associated them in pre- 
paration for those duties which it was for the interest 
and honour of their country that they should harmo- 
niously fulfil ; and it relieved those of the highest 
birth from the alternative of either remaining at home 
in ignorance, or emigrating for instruction. As a 
subject of literary curiosity, it is true, that extreme an- 
tiquity does not give it the charm of its perspective; 
but yet it is not so modern as to be identified with the 
novelties of the times. It has age enough to make 
inquiry interesting, and sufficient moral circumstance 
to render its history instructive. The fame of great 
men has given it splendour the tuition of the young 
mind has created towards it affection. In every walk 
of liberal exertion, in the pulpit, in the senate, at the 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

bar, and in the field, those whom it has educated 
for distinction are to be found ; and wherever phi- 
losophy has a name, the labours of those whom it 
has given to her cause must have a remembrance. 
But this asylum of letters did not always en- 
joy that serene and tranquil station which such a 
name would imply. Its fate sympathized with the vi- 
cissitudes of the country ; and the political misfor- 
tunes which disturbed the repose of Ireland, frequently 
menaced it wdth ruin. Yet it will be found, in pro- 
portion to its resources, to have given the world as 
many eminent scholars, divines, and philosophers, as 
any that have the advantage of the most ancient famo 
and munificent protection. 

The great duties of an historian are selection of 
authentic materials and fidelity in narration. As to 
the first, the author wishes to observe that he has 
consulted all the authorities to which he had access, 
more especially such as were preserved in the College 
Library and in the British Museum, and he has not 
selected any, the character of which was not unques- 
tionable. As to the second he is not fearful, in the 
discharge of such a duty, of offending any well-regu- 
lated understanding. Whenever party prevails, mis- 
conception may be expected ; but to the malevolent 
who falsify, and to the prejudiced who will not under- 
stand, he makes no appeal. Whether within the 
walls of college or without, he is not conscious of af- 
fording to one candid mind a cause for ungracious ob- 
servation ; and he is equally certain that he has not, 
by any sacrifice of truth, endeavoured to avert the un- 
just sentence of the illiberal, or conciliate the favour 
of the interested. 



THE 

HISTORY 



OF THE 



UNIVERSITY OF DUBLIN 



CHAPTER I. 

SECTION I. 

THE state of learning in Ireland, for some time prior 
to the foundation of the existing University, appears to 
have been upon the decline. At a very early period, 
however, the cultivation of the current literature of the 
age gave to that island some celebrity a . It is not 
therefore to be inferred, from the lateness of the sera at 
which their great scholastic institution arose, that the 
Irish were slow to apprehend the advantages of a 
liberal education ; on the contrary, their love of learn- 
ing has been always so general and ardent as to form a 
part of the national character b ; but the unhappy cir- 
cumstances of their political history sufficiently ac- 
count for the depression which literature suffered, and 
the unprotected state in which it continued to remain 
until the accession of Elizabeth. That Sovereign, 
whose policy was of a grand and comprehensive kind, 
attracted round the throne men whose natural powers 
and liberal attainments conferred upon her govera- 

a Bede, Eccles. Hist. lib. 2, 3, and 4, &c. Alcuin, lib. 2, c. -i. 
Eric d'Auxerre, lib. 1, &c. 

b Mosheim, Eccles. Hist. 8th century, &c. 

B 



2 HISTORY OF THE 

men! the character of security and honour, and ex- 
tended the benefits of her parental sway to its remotest 
dependencies. Her statesmen were equally well versed 
in books and the world ; and to the sentiments of phi- 
losophers they united the practical qualifications of 
civil wisdom : hence they were at the same time the 
patrons of learning and the preservers of an empire. 
In a reign so distinguished for the labours of a wise 
and humanizing policy, it is not surprising that the 
plan of connecting Ireland with the sister kingdom, 
by an identity of sentiment and an assimilation of 
moral character, should be adopted ; and that, as a 
preliminary step, some authentic protection should be 
given to learning, and a place fixed for the seat of let- 
ters and the sciences. The lateness of the period was 
greatly compensated by the splendour of the sera ; and 
it is no small honour to the University of Dublin, that 
it was founded by a monarch who saved Europe from 
the aggression of a Gothic dominion, and confirmed 
to her people the inestimable benefit of a free press. 
However, it was not the first collegiate establishment 
which that country had seen. Long before its exist- 
ence some attempts had been made to erect one, the 
last of which was attended with partial success. 

We find that, at so early a period as the year 1312, 
Pope Clement V., then in the seventh year of his ponti- 
ficate, issued a bull, upon the application of Archbishop 
Lech, as it was expressed, " for the foundation of a 
University for Scholars in Dublin ;" but the prema- 
ture death of the archbishop prevented the plan from 
being carried into execution. In the year 1320, how- 
ever, Alexander De Bicknor did actually found an 
university in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, and ob- 
tained for it, as was at that time necessary, the con- 
firmation of the reigning pontiff, John XXII. ; but the 
state of the country having at first precluded the ap- 
propriation of funds adequate to its maintenance, it 
soon declined, and was eventually overthrown. Thus 
at a time when the revival of letters was agitating the 
elements of genius in Europe, Ireland could only boast 
the memory of plans devised for instruction, but never 



UNIVERSITY OF DUBLIN. 3 

executed ; or the ruin of such projects as had been 
realized only to an extent which served to repress the 
growing spirit of improvement*. 

Such was the state of things when .the politicians of 
the school of Elizabeth assumed the direction of af- 
fairs. The sagacious views of statesmen often pro- 
duce the effects of liberality, especially when the so- 
vereign, however naturally imperious, possesses that 
genius which understands the dignity and strength of 
a government traced upon great design and founded 
in affection, Of the number of celebrated men whose 
merits had given them a conspicuous place in the dis- 
cerning approbation of Elizabeth, was Sir John Per rot, 
who, after many marks of royal favour, was at length 
appointed to the high and responsible station of lord 
deputy of Ireland. In that office he had much oppor- 
tunity of observing the mischievous effects of a policy, 
which had for centuries overlooked or studiously 
counteracted the great moral resources of the country, 
and allowed that spirit of enterprise to waste itself in 
internal feuds, which, if well directed, would have 
performed the achievements of civilization, and ex- 
tended the fame and power of the empire. Being a 
man of a vigorous benevolence, he made great exer- 
tions to ameliorate the condition of the people, and 
hoped, by the removal of unwise distinctions, to give 
Ireland a common feeling with a nation to which she 
had not been yet more than politically allied. As 
England was rapidly rising from comparative rude- 
ness into commercial wealth, and that state of informa- 
tion which foreruns a graceful prosperity, he justly 
concluded that mere acts of parliament could never 
produce a sincere coalition between two countries 
in different stages of mental progression, or rather 
while one was invigorated and the other repressed. 
It was necessary, for the real union of both, that there 
should be a sympathy of habits, and a perception of 
mutual interest ; to produce which, it was essential 
that Ireland should be wrought upon by the gradual 

a In 1568, Sir Henry Sydney attempted, but in vain, to restore De 
Bicknor's University. Vide Campion, p. 5. Hollinshed, p. 69. 



4 SIR JOHN PERROT'S PLAN. 

but effective power of education, and therefore it be- 
came requisite tbat some institution might be erected 
to afford encouragement to learned men, and to be- 
come a privileged place whence they might diffuse 
through society the benignant influence of liberal in- 
struction. 

The plan which he conceived for carrying his en- 
lightened purpose into effect, was, to dissolve the Cathe- 
dral of St. Patrick, and appropriate the revenues to 
the foundation and maintenance of two Universities ; a 
plan which, in the impoverished circumstances of the 
country, he thought more eligible and less subject to 
delay than any which should contemplate, in the first 
instance, the aid of public benefaction. There is extant 
a letter of his to the then lord treasurer of England, 
which, with a very forcible quaintness of expression, 
advances the reasons on which he supports the expe- 
diency of his design, as appears from the following 
extract : " That whereas there is no place for the 
Courts of Law, save only an old hall in the castle of 
Dublin, dangerously placed over the munition of 
powder, that the cathedral of St. Patrick, being spa- 
cious and large, would sufficiently serve for all the 
several Courts, and there being a want of a storehouse 
for grain and other provisions, and no fit place for it, 
whereby the waste in victualling is the greater, that 
the canons' house environing the church might aptly 
serve for an Inn of Court, to bestow the judges and 
lawyers in, in exchange for which their Inns of Court, 
lying commodiously over the river and hard by the 
bridge for loading and unloading, might as aptly serve 
for a storehouse and granary. That there being two 
cathedrals in Dublin, this being dedicated to St. 
Patrick, and the other to the name of Christ, that St. 
Patrick's was had in more superstitious reputation than 
the other, and therefore ought to be dissolved. That 
the revenues of St. Patrick are now about four thou- 
sand marks per annum, which would serve to begin 
the foundation of two Universities, and endow a couple 
of colleges in them with one hundred pounds per 
annum a-piece, and the residue may be employed in 



SIR JOHN PERROTS PLAN. 5 

the reparation of said church and houses, and be an- 
nexed unto Christ Church by way of augmentation of 
the choir." His purpose, in the words of Sir James 
Ware, was, " To have settled six masters in each of 
the colleges, and one hundred scholars to be instructed 
by them in learning, civility, and loyalty. The six 
masters to be chosen out of the most learned residen- 
tiaries of the said cathedral who were in vicissitudes, 
three and three of each college to have resided and 
kept hospitality in the several prebendaries whereunto 
the cure of souls was annexed ; and those intentions," 
he adds, " would have been very laudable had they 
been better formed than on the ruin of so ancient a 
cathedral." 

However, the administration of Sir John Perrot had 
not the honour of bequeathing this splendid boon to 
Ireland. He was soon after unfortunate enough to 
give cause of displeasure to the Queen, and was re- 
moved before any part of his plan had time to be 
matured. 

The biographer of Sir John Perrot attributes his 
disgrace to the intrigues of Archbishop Loftus, sup- 
ported by the powerful interest of his friend the lord 
treasurer of England ; and states that the archbishop 
was excited against him, on account of his cupidity 
having taken alarm, at the proposal for dissolving a 
cathedral, in which he had great beneficiary interest, 
by means of long leases and other estates thereof 
granted to himself and connexions. Other writers, 
however, contend for the purity of the motive on which 
his opposition to that statesman was founded ; and 
refer it to a strong sense of duty in defending his 
church from an encroachment, which he considered 
nothing better than an act of profanation. What may 
have been the real cause of this churchman's ani- 
mosity towards a man who was certainly of a high 
character in principle and understanding, is not a sub- 
ject for discussion here ; it may suffice to know that 
the fall of the deputy did not cast oblivion over that 
part of his design which had previously met with the 
concurrence of every well disposed mind. Elizabeth 



ARCHBISHOP LOFTUS'S PLAN, 



herself did not lose sight of the project, when, for 
some reason now only supplied hy conjecture, she de- 
prived its author of her royal favour. 

The archbishop was given to understand that it 
would be an acceptable service to her Majesty, if he 
could devise any means of realizing at least some part 
of the idea of Sir John Perrot, so as to confer the es- 
sential advantage of it upon the country, at the least 
possible expense to the public revenues. The affair 
was accordingly taken up by the archbishop, with the 
animated zeal that characterized his operations ; and 
he soon found the means of accomplishing it without 
trespassing upon the revenues of the church, in de- 
fending which he had lately evinced so much resolute 
alacrity. There was at that time in the hands of the 
corporation of Dublin a piece of ground of no great 
value, which had formed the " scite, ambit, and pre- 
cinct" of the Augustinian Monastery of All-Saints, a 
Priory of Aroasian Canons, founded in the year 1166, 
by Dermot M'Murrough, king of Leinster. It had 
been one of those ecclesiastical endowments which in its 
day possessed important privileges, as the prior en- 
joyed a seat and suffrage in the House of Lords. Its 
patronage had been conferred by Pope Honorius III. 
upon Henry de Londres, Archbishop of Dublin, and 
his successors ; but at the suppression of monasteries 
by Henry VIII. the mayor and corporation of that 
city had become possessed of it by royal grant. The 
buildings were in ruin, but the ground on which they 
stood appeared to Loftus as calculated to form a most 
eligible site for the meditated University. 

His Grace no sooner conceived the idea than he 
hastened to execute it, and immediately prepared to 
interest his civic brethren in the national work. For 
that purpose he applied to the mayor and common 
council, and, on two several occasions, addressed them 
in elaborate speeches, in which he laid before them 
the Queen's intention of founding a University in Ire- 
land j suggested the advantages which a society of the 
kind would bring to their city, and urged them to 
seize upon an opportunity so favourable for having it 



GENEROSITY OF THE DUBLIN CORPORATION. 7 

established near them, by granting a place upon which 
the building might be immediately erected. His elo- 
quence is described by an old writer as being very 
pathetic ; and certainly in the present instance his 
powers of persuasion did not desert him. The mayor 
and common council complied with his request, and 
the monastery of All-Saints and the lands adjoining 
were in consequence granted for the purpose explained. 
The greatest obstacle in the way of the undertaking 
having been thus surmounted, his Grace deputed 
Henry Ussher, afterwards Archbishop of Armagh, to 
execute the formal matter of petitioning the Queen for 
her royal charter, and also for a licence of mortmain, 
to enable the new corporation to hold the lands granted 
by the city. The prayer of the petition was, of course, 
graciously complied with : and a licence of mortmain 
passed the seals by warrant, dated the 29th December 
1590, for the grant of the abbey, which is recited to 
be of the yearly value of twenty pounds, and for the 
foundation of a college, by way of corporation, with a 
power to accept such lands and contributions for the 
maintenance thereof, as any of her Majesty's subjects 
would be charitably moved to bestow to the value of 
four hundred pounds per annum. 

On the 3d of March following, letters patent passed 
in due form, pursuant to the said warrant, by which, 
first, a college is appointed to be erected to be the mo- 
ther of a University in a certain place called Allhal- 
lows near Dublin, for the education, institution and 
instruction of youth in the arts and faculties, to en- 
dure for ever. Secondly, that it be called COLLEGIUM 
SANCT^: ET INDIVIDU^: TRINITATIS JUXTA DUBLIN 
A SERENISSIMA REGINA ELIZABETHA FUNDATUM. 
Thirdly, that it consist of ONE PROVOST and THREE 
FELLOWS, in the name of more, and of THREE SCHO- 
LARS, in the name of more. Fourthly, that Adam 
Loftus, D.D., Archbishop of Dublin and Chancellor 
of Ireland, be first Provost of the said College, and 
Henry Ussher, A.M., Luke Challoner, A.M., and 
Launcelot Moyne, A.B., be the three first Fellows, and 
Henry Lee, William Daniel, and Stephen White, be 



8 TERMS OF THE CHARTER. 

the three first Scholars, respectively in the name of 
more. Fifthly, that the said Provost, Fellows, and 
Scholars, and their successors for ever, he a hody po- 
litic and corporate, by the name of THE PROVOST, 
FELLOWS, AND SCHOLARS OF THE COLLEGE OF THE 
HOLY TRINITY, FOUNDED BY QUEEN ELIZABETH, 
NEAR DUBLIN ; and that they and their successors be, 
by that name, capable to purchase, take and possess 
any manors, lands, tenements, and hereditaments, to 
them or their successors for ever ; either from the 
Queen, her heirs and successors, or from any other 
person, for their support and maintenance, to the 
value of four hundred pounds ; notwithstanding any 
statutes of mortmain, (so as such lands be not held of 
the crown immediately, or in capite, in demesne or 
service,) and that they may sue or be sued, implead 
or be impleaded, by such name, in all causes and 
actions, real, personal, and mixed, and in all courts, 
spiritual and temporal, in Ireland or elsewhere ; and 
further, that they have a common seal for transacting 
their business. Sixthly, that when the vacancy of the 
provostship shall happen, either by death, resignation, 
departure, deprivation, or otherwise, that the surviving 
fellows and their successors, or the major part of them, 
may elect another fit provost, within three months after 
such vacancy ; and upon the vacancy of any fellow- 
ship or scholarship, the provost and surviving* fellows, 
or the major part of them, may elect one to succeed, 
in two months after such vacancy. Seventhly, that 
the provost, fellows, and scholars may make and con- 
stitute laws and statutes from time to time, for the 
better government of their body, and may select such 
out of the statutes of Oxford and Cambridge as they 
shall judge proper for their purpose ; and especially 
that nobody else should profess or teach the liberal 
arts in Ireland, without the Queen's special licence. 
Eighthly, that the students of the college may have 
the power of obtaining the degree of bachelor, master, 
and doctor, and all the arts and faculties at a proper 
time from their admission; provided that when the 
fellows thereof should have completed seven years in 



LORD BURLEIGH ITS FIRST CHANCELLOR. ( J 

their office, from the time of their taking their degree 
of master of arts, that they may be displaced from 
their fellowship and others elected in their room ; 
for the benefit of the church and kingdom at large. 
Ninthly, William Cecil, Baron of Burleigh, Lord 
Treasurer of England, being appointed by the patent 
the first CHANCELLOR, it was provided, that from time 
to time the provost and major part of the fellows 
should have the election of a chancellor, which chan- 
cellor or his vice-chancellor, together with the arch- 
bishop of Dublin, the bishop of Meath, the vice-trea- 
surer, the treasurer at war, the chief justice of the 
chief place in Ireland, and the mayor of the city of 
Dublin, all for the time being, or the major part of 
them, who shall be called VISITORS, shall determine 
all strifes, actions and controversies arising in the 
college, which the provost and major part of the fel- 
lows cannot compose; and shall have the power to 
correct and punish all the more grievous offences 
which shall be left unpunished by the Provost and 
Fellows. Tenthly, that for obtaining all degrees 
among themselves, they have the liberty of performing 
all acts of scholastic exercise in such manner as the 
Provost and major part of the Fellows should think 
proper, and for that purpose may elect all necessary 
officers, whether vice-chancellor, proctor, or proctors. 
Eleventhly, that the Queen's subjects and officers 
have full liberty for the granting such aids for the 
better constituting, maintaining and supporting the 
said college as they shall think proper. Twelfthly, 
that all the goods, chattels, lands, tenements, and here- 
ditaments belonging to the PROVOST, FELLOWS, AND 
SCHOLARS of the said college, shall be for ever after. ex- 
empted from all burdens, taxes, talliages, cesses, sub- 
sidies, exactions, compositions and demands whatso- 
ever, whether in time of war or peace. 

The next consideration was the providing a sum to 
forward the erection of the buildings, and to meet 
other charges incidental to the commencement of the 
newly organized society. But the state of the country 
was not at that time very favourable to the further- 



10 FIRST STUDENTS ADMITTED IN 1593. 

ance of benevolent designs ; it had been so long a prey 
to internal dissensions, that its habits were rendered 
warlike, as its resources were impoverished; there 
was neither industry among the humble, nor riches 
with the great, and former governments, though aware 
that the causes of animosity between the English 
settlers and the natives gave rise to frightful disorders, 
rather fomented than suppressed them, either from an 
error in policy or an avarice of confiscation. Just at 
this time, indeed, there was an apparent tranquillity, 
but it was only the stillness of that intense alarm which 
foreruns the crisis of some commotion. 

However, the promoters of this national work were 
not deterred from making an appeal to the public 
bounty, and accordingly, on the llth of March, 1591, 
the lord deputy Fitzwilliam and the privy council is- 
sued circular letters to the principal gentlemen of the 
counties, requesting their benevolent assistance in the 
execution of so laudable an undertaking. There were 
likewise special persons deputed into every barony in 
the kingdom, furnished with the names of those to 
whom it would be proper to apply, so earnestly did 
government interest itself in the promotion of this great 
object. The amount of the subscription procured 
by those means does not appear, but it may be in- 
ferred that it was not very considerable, from the re- 
turns of Robert Taaffe, one of the persons delegated 
on that embassy of solicitation, who complains of the 
prevalent inability which he found, even among those 
who were well disposed towards the British govern- 
ment, to afford a liberal compliance with his request. 

Notwithstanding the sums contributed were far be- 
low what, under happier circumstances of society, 
might have been expected, yet that did not prevent 
the commencement and rapid execution of the work. 
On the 13th of March, 1591, the first stone of Tri- 
nity College, Dublin, was laid with great solemnity, 
by Thomas Smyth, mayor of the city, and on the 9th 
of January, 1593, the first students were admitted. 
But trouble soon overcast a beginning so auspicious. 
The plan of the University, which had been so long 



NECESSITIES OF THE UNIVERSITY. 11 

projected, before the conflict of rival interests or the 
state of public affairs allowed it to take a real form, 
seemed to have advanced thus far only to make its 
failure more severely remembered. Civil war, as de- 
structive as that barbarous violence which had often 
before caused history to mourn over lands once emi- 
nent for science and politeness, threatened to over- 
throw this temple of learning in the moment of its 
dedication : so that erected, as it was, to promote the 
moral interests of the country, it appeared to be des- 
tined only to partake of her calamities, and augment 
the ruin which it was intended to avert. 

The endowments, of which it had become possessed 
by the munificence of its illustrious founder, lay chiefly 
in the province of Munster, where the rebellion of 
Tyrone now raged with implacable fury, and where 
were seen all the circumstances of armed contention, 
except discipline and the laws of war. In such a 
state of things, when the fierceness of party breathed 
nothing but ravage and desolation, the revenues of the 
college were rendered nugatory ; and the foundation 
must have been as effectually dissolved, as if its charter 
had been rescinded, were it not for the anxious in- 
terest which Archbishop Loftus evinced towards its 
welfare. That spirited prelate happened at the time 
to be one of the lords justices, on whom the civil go- 
vernment of Ireland devolved ; and the authority of 
his high station enabled him, without much delay, to 
realize his beneficent intentions. He made the ne- 
cessities of the University a consideration of state, and 
the urgency of the crisis was met by a prompt appli- 
cation of relief, which secured it from the immediate 
shock of perilous events. The relief allowed by the 
lords justices, and expressed to be in regard of the 
decay of the revenues of the college, in those times of 
rebellion, and because the same was of her Majesty's 
princely foundation, consisted in the grant of a " con- 
cordatum of forty pounds per annum, and an allow- 
ance of six dead payes, (morte payes,) out of such 
cheques as should be imposed on her Majesty's army." 
Afterwards, in 1597> the said grant was recited by 



12 ELIZABETH'S INTEREST IN ITS BEHALF. 

the celebrated and unfortunate Earl of Essex, then the 
lord lieutenant of Ireland, who confirmed the same, 
and ordered it to be continued during pleasure ; the 
concordatum of forty pounds to be paid quarterly, and 
the dead payes, amounting to upwards of seventy 
pounds a year, to be paid every month. 

In November of the same year, Archbishop Loftus 
and Sir G. Carey being then lords justices, the fel- 
lows and corporation of the college petitioned them 
for present relief; setting forth the general decay of 
the college rents in the then general revolt, whereby 
they were reduced to great necessity, and the means 
of holding their society together almost exhausted. 
This petition succeeded in procuring them a warrant 
on the 30th of that month, for the payment of a weekly 
stipend of forty shillings, which, in the words of a 
curious document that shews the extreme ingenuity of 
the financiers of that day, was to arise out of the en- 
tertainment appointed for a Cannoneer ; to continue 
until the vice- treasurer should receive a warrant to the 
contrary. On the 29th of January, the lords justices 
and council issued another concordatum in behalf of 
the college, reciting, that forasmuch as by several lord 
deputies, lord justices, and late lord lieutenant, there 
has been granted to the provost and some of the fel- 
lows of Trinity College, Dublin, a concordatum of 
forty pounds yearly, for keeping a public and standing 
lecture unto the State ; and that by the death of 
Mathias Holmes, late fellow of the College, the same 
place is fallen void ; they therefore order, that the 
said college should have, as of her Majesty's bounty, 
for the better maintenance of the provost and to the 
use aforementioned, the said sum of forty pounds 
yearly, to be paid for them out of such fines, imposts 
of wines, and other casualties, as should come to the 
vice-treasurer's hands, to be paid, until contrary di- 
rections be issued. The following year her Majesty 
took the interest of the learned body into her own 
special consideration ; and by privy seal, dated the 3d 
of April, she not only confirmed the foregoing grants, 
but made an additional one, which increased the 



QUEEN ELIZABETH'S BOUNTY. 13 

amount of her former benefactions by two hundred 
pounds per annum ; " being informed," says her Ma- 
jesty, " by letters from Ireland to our council here, 
that the college is in danger to be dissolved, the main- 
tenance being entirely taken away, and no benefit re- 
ceived of our late grant of concealments, in regard of 
the troubles ; and that, as you have signified, you 
have supplied them with some means of their continu- 
ance together, until our pleasure be signified on that 
behalf: We are pleased, out of our princely care for 
the maintenance of that college, being of our founda- 
tion^ and for the establishing so great a means of in- 
struction for our people, to grant unto the provost, 
fellows and scholars, both a confirmation and continu- 
ance of those means which you have formerly granted 
unto them, and likewise a further supply of two 
hundred pounds per annum, out of the wards, liveries, 
reliefs, intrusions, alienations, fines, and other casual- 
ties, which shall come to our hands, (our impost reve- 
nue of our lands there, and treasures sent from hence 
only excepted,) to be paid quarterly, and to be con- 
tinued until they shall enjoy the benefit of our former 
grant of concealments ; and further, that our said 
grant be paid to the college before any concordatum 
or grant heretofore passed, or hereafter to be passed, 
out of any part of the aforesaid casualties ; and if the 
said casualties do not amount to two hundred pounds 
in any one year, by reason of the troubles, then that 
the said college be answered the arrearages out of the 
casualties which shall come to our hands the next 
year, and so, from time to time, until they shall receive 
the full benefit of the grant." And as an immediate 
consequence of these aids, the first commencement 
was held in this college, on the 24th of February, 
1601, (just eight years from its opening,) when a 
number of the Fellows and Students commenced 
Doctors, Masters, or Bachelors in the various facul- 
ties of divinity, law, and medicine. 

Thus were the dangers which menaced the Uni- 
versity in its earliest existence most happily averted, 
and its security, in the hour of imminent peril, in- 



14 ORIGIN OF THE LIBRARY. 

sured by a monarch, whose great genius enhanced the 
honour of the protection. The benignant example 
of the Queen was not lost upon succeeding monarchs. 
James I., a prince ambitious of the title of scholar, 
settled on the college a pension of four hundred pounds, 
payable out of the Exchequer ; and also endowed it 
with large estates in the province of Ulster, a portion 
of Ireland on which he exerted his talents for experi- 
mental legislation with a confidence not discredited by 
the event. 

SECTION II. 

The library, which forms so splendid a part of the 
collegiate establishment, was commenced in the year 
1603, and originated in a circumstance, to which in 
the history of no other nation is there any thing simi- 
lar. In that year, the affairs of Ireland having been 
somewhat composed, by the suppression of Tyrone's 
rebellion, and the expulsion of the Spaniards from Kin- 
sale, the army determined upon doing some noble act, 
which might be a continual memorial of the gallantry 
of military men, and at the same time expressive of 
their own respect for the interests of learning and reli- 
gion. With such a view they raised among themselves 
the sum of one thousand eight hundred pounds, in those 
days a very great subscription, and then resolved that 
Dr. Challoner and Mr. James Ussher should have the 
said sum paid into their hands for the purchase of such 
books as they might think most suitable to the forma- 
tion of a library, to be annexed for ever to the newly 
created University of Dublin, as a testimony of their 
esteem for literature, and regard for the improvement 
of the youth of Ireland. The learned persons who 
were delegated upon so honourable a mission under- 
took it with pleasure, and performed it with that talent 
and assiduity which justified the selection. They came 
over to England for the purpose of better discharging 
their trust, where they obtained the best works that 
were to be met with, in the most important depart- 
ments of knowledge, and procuring others of a valu- 



COLLEGE SENDS MEMBERS TO PARLIAMENT. 15 

able character from foreign countries, laid the found- 
ation of that long accumulated and magnificent pile of 
various literature, which has given to the University 
the most useful and admirable of its attractions. It 
is worthy of observation, that at the same juncture, 
Sir Thomas Bodley was in London, making similar 
purchases for his newly instituted library at Oxford ; 
between him and the Irish gentlemen a friendly inter- 
course took place, by which the objects of both were 
reciprocally promoted ; so that the famous Bodleian 
library, and that of the University of Dublin, the two 
most superb monuments of learning in the empire, 
commenced at the same time, and under the auspi- 
cious circumstance of enlightened co-operation. When 
we recollect how much literature suffered from the 
barbarous spirit with which ancient war was waged, 
and from the casualties which have attended it at 
all times ; when we call to mind the many instances 
of all that is sacred and venerable being involved in 
the promiscuous ruin of its course, whether impelled 
by ferocity, or a more disciplined ambition, and when 
we consider how often the agents of its evils partake 
of its character, and become regardless of the arts 
of peace from habits of inhuman excitation, we shall 
view with a peculiar sentiment this act of the Irish 
army who consecrated the offerings of victory to the 
humanizing spirit of improvement. The long col- 
lected and stupendous mass of Alexandrian know- 
ledge, representing the various intellect and genius of 
civilized man, was as fatally visited by the fortunes 
of the accomplished Julius, as by the exterminating 
ignorance of a barbarian caliph, while the military 
origin of the library of Dublin College forms a sin- 
gular and beautiful contrast with those events of war 
which history has viewed through unaffected tears, 
and with indignant remembrance. 

In the year 1614, the University was raised to an 
important political rank, by obtaining the privilege of 
sending two members to parliament ; the elective 
franchise being vested in the provost, fellows, and 
scholars as the members of the corporation for the 



16 FIRST PUBLIC COMMENCEMENT, (1616.) 

time being. It continued to exert that privilege with 
little interruption for nearly two centuries, and most 
usually elected men of eminent qualifications, but 
by the Act of Union it was limited to a single re- 
presentative a . The enlightened character and high 
feeling of the electors, make it an object worthy the 
ambition of the first talents and scholarship to contend 
for the honour of their suffrages ; it is therefore often 
severely and interestingly contested, and never con- 
ferred but upon such intellectual claims as preserve 
the value of the distinction. The following resolution 
is taken from the journals of the Irish House of Com- 
mons, and was entered in the second session of that 
parliament, whose sittings commenced in Dublin in 
the year 1613, and is introduced here on account of 
its recognising the charter of enfranchisement, as re- 
cently bestowed. "It is agreed (15 Oct. 1614) that 
warrants may be awarded from the house to the rolls 
for bringing in unto the said committee, on Monday 
next in the afternoon at two of the clock, the fiants 
and enrolments of two several charters, viz. one lately 
granted to the college near Dublin, the other to the 
town of Newcastle near Lyons, enabling them to send 
burgesses to the parliament ; and the officers of the 
rolls to be required to attend the said committee from 
time to time during the sessions, with such other new 
charters as they shall desire to peruse or see, con- 
cerning the sending of burgesses to parliament." 
Com. Journ. Vol. I. p. 15. 

The first public notice we can find of the cele- 
bration of a Commencement in this college took place, 
as we have stated, in February, 1601. A full descrip- 
tion of another of these important ceremonies appears 
in a very scarce work, printed in Dublin, A.D. 177^ 
entitled, " Desiderata CuriosaB." 

It is therein stated, that " On the 18th of August, 
1616, there was a great Commencement holden in the 

a By the Act of the 2nd of King William IV., called " The Re- 
form Act," the privilege of returning two representatives to the 
Imperial Parliament, has been restored to this University. 



FIRST PUBLIC COMMENCEMENT, (1616.) 17 

University of Dublin," but tbe acts of disputation 
were not, as it appears, performed within the college, 
" because the rooms were very small," but in the 
choir of St. Patrick's Cathedral, according to the fol- 
lowing arrangements : 

The number of doctors that proceeded that day were, 
in theology, five, videlicet : 

" Dr. Jones, Lord Chancellor, and ") -R r 

Dr. King, Bishop of Elphin. / **? ' 

Dr. Ussher, ^ 

Dr. Richardson, and vln public disputation. 

Dr. Walsh. ) 

Bachelors of Divinity, 3. 

Masters of the Arts," 15. 

Bachelors of the Arts, 17. Being in all 38 Gra- 
duates that commenced, with two others incorporated." 

It is evident that the proceedings on this occasion 
did excite considerable public attention, and appear 
to have been conducted with much pageantry, as we 
find them described in the above work, the style of 
which displays the quaintness of that period, although 
the description is very graphic. It goes on to say 

" The manner of this Commencement was accom- 
plished in the following order : First, Dr. Hampton, 
Lord Archbishop of Ardmagh and ' Primate of all 
Ireland,' who having many years before proceeded 
Doctor in Theology, in the University of Cambridge, 
was now, at this Commencement, incorporated into the 
University of Dublin, and was senior Doctor and mo- 
derator of theological acts in the commencement : so, 
upon the day appointed, (18th of August,) the said 
Dr. Hampton, Lord Primate, together with the Pro- 
vost, Fellows, and Scholars of the House, passed from 
the College, through the city of Dublin, in very 
stately order, for the Lord Primate, and other ancient 
doctors, and also those that were to proceed doctors, 
were every one attired in scarlet robes with doctors' 
hoods : also the Bachelors of Divinity, the Masters and 
Bachelors of Arts, were attired in such other scholar- 
like attire as appertained to them which made a very 

c 



18 FIRST PUBLIC COMMENCEMENT, (1616.) 

beautiful appearance to the sight of all men ; and they 
were farther graced with the presence of the Lord 
Deputy, the Lord Chancellor, Sir Thomas Ridgeway, 
Knt., Treasurer, and the Treasurer at War, with 
divers other of the council who followed after them, 
and sate in the cathedral to hear their disputations 
and discourses, which were performed as followeth : 

" First, on entering St. Patrick's Cathedral, the 
Masters and Bachelors of Arts sat down in the places 
appointed for them, each according to his degree. 
Likewise, Dr. Dunne, being a Doctor in the Civil Law, 
and Vice-Chancellor of the University, took his place 
which was appointed for him in the choir, and then 
Mr. Anthony Martin, Proctor for the College, as- 
cended up into one of the pulpits, as Moderator of the 
Philosophical Acts ; and the Lord Primate, who was 
Father for the day, of the Theological Acts, with 
those three who were to proceed in the public disputa- 
tion, as also two Bachelors of Divinity, did ascend up 
to their places which were appointed for them on the 
right side of the choir ; and when the Lord Deputy, 
and the Lord Chancellor, and the Council were placed, 
and all things in good order, Dr. Dunne, the Vice- 
Chancellor began an oration in Latin, being as an in- 
troduction into all the Acts of that day's dispensation, 
which he performed learnedly ; and when he had 
ended his oration, the Primate began another, also in 
Latin, commencing the Act of Divinity, and those 
that were to commence doctor. 

" This oration contained a long discourse, in which 
he administered four academical consequences as here 
do follow in order : 

" 1st. He set them in his chair. 

" 2nd. He gave them square caps. 

*' 3rd. He delivered to them the Bible. 

" 4th. He put rings upon their fingers. 

" These ceremonies were ministered separately to 
each of them. First, to Dr. Ussher, then to Dr. 
Richardson, and lastly to Dr. Walsh. The Lord 
Primate expounding to them the signification of each 
ceremony. 



FIRST PUBLIC COMMENCEMENT, (1616.) 19 

" This manner of commencement was never used in 
Ireland before this time. 

" Now all things being thus performed by the Lord 
Primate, Dr. Ussher went down into the choir, and 
ascended up into one of the pulpits, where he made a 
sermon-like oration upon the text, ' Hoc est corpus 
meum,' and after a long discourse thereon, the other 
two doctors (Richardson and Walsh) disputed with 
Dr. Ussher upon the same point ; in which disputa- 
tion, the Lord Primate, who was Father of the Theo- 
logical Acts, was also Moderator ; and having finished 
the Act, they 'rose up and returned to Trinity College, 
where a stately dinner was provided for the Lord 
Deputy and Council, and thus were completed all 
things concerning the acts of commencement in the 
University of Dublin, to their high credit and com- 
mendation. 

" The total sum of all the graduates that have com- 
menced in this University from the first foundation 
thereof to this present year, 1616, inclusive, contain- 
ing the space of 23 years, viz. In Divinity, 7 > in 
Civil Law, 1 ; in Physic, 1 ; Bachelors in Theology, 
7 ; Masters of Arts, 38 ; Bachelors of Arts, 53 ; 
Bachelors of Music, 2. Total graduates, 109. 

" Besides 1 Doctor and 2 Masters of Arts who 
were incorporated." 

The account closes with a pious wish, that as Alma 
Mater had brought forth such a learned offspring in 
her early years, " she would, in a more mature period, 
(God blessing her increase,) produce multitudes of 
learned children, who shall flourish in the church, and 
commonwealth, to the glory of God, and advancement 
of the Christian religion." 



SECTION III. 

Referring to the list of members and students no- 
ticed in the foregoing section, who commenced doctors 
and bachelors of divinity, it is evident that a lecture- 
ship in divinity must have existed in the college from 



20 PROFESSORSHIPS. 

the time of its foundation. Yet it is also certain that 
it did not, for many years, assume the character of a 
regular university professorship ; an anomaly that may 
only be accounted for by the very slender condition of 
the collegiate funds, which could not afford it a proper 
endowment ; yet, under these circumstances, we find 
Dr. Luke Challoner, recorded as the first Divinity 
Lecturer ; and to him succeeded, in 1607, Dr. James 
Ussher, afterwards Archbishop of Ardmagh, &c. That 
distinguished prelate held the theological chair until 
he was made Bishop of Meath, in 1621, when Dr. 
Samuel Ward, of Ipswich, was appointed to it ; and 
thus there was a regular succession of divinity lec- 
turers, excepting about twenty years, during the govern- 
ment of " The Commonwealth." It was not, however, 
until 1674, that this important professorship was pro- 
perly endowed. This was done by letters patent is- 
sued expressly for that purpose by King Charles II., 
directing that certain lands, being a part of those then 
given to the college by the Act of Settlement, should 
be allocated for that purpose ; and the professor was 
then recognised by the royal letter as an officer of the 
University, with all the privileges connected with the 
office. Considerable changes and improvements have 
since been made in this professorship, in the reign of 
King George III., as we shall notice in their chrono- 
logical order. 

The professorship of Law does not appear to have 
had any regular endowment or salary for its support, 
any more than the foregoing professorship. By the 
original statutes of the University " the study of the 
law" had been provided for, (Stat. Coll. cap. xviii.) 
By this it was enacted, that " one of the Fellows 
should devote himself to the profession of the Law," 
and the Fellow so appointed was bound to deliver, 
within two years after his election, a lecture in that 
faculty, once in each term. 

It was not until A.D. 1668, that this professorship 
was established as it now stands by letters patent 
from King Charles II., which granted a proper en- 
dowment out of the lands granted by Act of Settle- 



THE ORIGINAL CHARTER. 21 

ment, to the officer, " as Regius Professor of the 
Canon and Civil Laws ;" when Dr. Henry Styles, 
LL.D., was elected the first professor under the new 
regulation. 

The professorship of Medicine, the third faculty 
taught here, appears to have originally existed under 
similar circumstances to those of Divinity and Law ; 
and it is somewhat remarkable, that there does not ap- 
pear ever to have existed any charter, or royal letter, to 
establish in this institution a Regius Professorship of 
Medicine, distinct from the Medical Fellowship. Al- 
though, as we have seen, the Law Fellowship was 
recognised by the letter of King Charles II. Yet it 
cannot reasonably be doubted that the persons de- 
scribed in the college statutes as Jurista and Medicus, 
were the proper and acknowledged professors of these 
faculties ; and this view of the case is fully corro- 
borated by the statutes of Bishop Bedell, where we 
find these University Officers invariably styled Pro- 
Jessores Jurisprudentice et Medicince. 

With regard to the offices of " Regius Professor of 
Physic," and the Medical Fellowship, they appear to 
have been originally held by one person until the Re- 
storation, ever since which period, these two places 
have been kept distinct, and except in two instances, 
namely, those of Dr. Stearne, M.D., and Dr. Hel- 
sham, M.D., they never have been held by the same 
person. 

In the year 1637 the constitution of the college un- 
derwent essential alterations. By the original charter, 
several visitors had been appointed with concurrent 
authority, to correct abuses of magnitude, to deter- 
mine causes of grave and serious nature, and to act as 
a court of appeal from the ordinary scholastic tribunal 
of the provost and board. But it was now found that 
the number of visitors, instead of accelerating busi- 
ness, tended to impede it, and that the opinion which 
was intended to be decisive, only transferred conten- 
tion to a more elevated ground. The principal cause 
of collegiate dispute and animosity, at that time, was 
the election of provost, which by charter devolved on 
the fellows, or the majority of them. While they 



22 THE NEW CHARTER. 

were very few, this privilege did not occasion any 
serious inconvenience, but when from three, their ori- 
ginal number, they increased to seven, the excitement 
towards power introduced the spirit of party ; and 
philosophers were induced to pass the limits of their 
accomplishments to maintain an ill-graced rivalry in 
the arts of political intrigue. But there was another 
source of contention ; the frequent and fatal visita- 
tions to which the metropolis was subject in those 
times from the plague, made the fellows provide 
against any great or sudden diminution of their 
number by the appointment of a sort of associate fel- 
lows, called probationers, who were to succeed, by 
seniority, to the vacant fellowships as they might oc- 
cur. By this plan there were always persons of ac- 
credited qualifications to supply such losses in the 
superior ranks of the corporation, as from remaining 
unfilled, would be productive of inconvenience or delay 
to the collegiate proceedings. Those probationers 
were nine in number ; and in course of time, not 
being content with expectancy founded upon casual- 
ties, began to assume the name, and insist upon en- 
joying the privileges of fellow ; especially that im- 
portant one of a vote in the election of provost. In 
the propriety of those claims, the regular fellows could 
not be persuaded to acquiesce ; and as the former per- 
sisted in their demands, the college was degraded into 
an arena of disputed rights and controverted decisions. 
Whether a sincere desire to deliver the college from the 
indecorous flame of cabal and disquietude, or whether 
a motive of personal interest actuated the provost on 
this occasion, let other facts decide, but it is certain 
that by his exertions recourse was had to the sovereign 
power ; and the corporation in consequence surren- 
dered its charter into the hands of the king, and re- 
ceived a new one, accompanied by a body of statutes 
framed by Archbishop Laud, then chancellor, upon 
the model of the existing codes of the Cambridge Uni- 
versity. Those statutes endeavoured to give the liti- 
gated point a final adjustment, as will best appear by 
a comparative view of the new and old constitution, 
as to their several differences, in order. 



THE NEW CHARTER. 23 

In the First place, by the original charter, the right of 
electing a provost had been conferred upon the fellows, 
or the majority of them. By the new charter that great 
cause of contention was removed, as the appointment 
was reserved to the crown, and the office made dona- 
tive. Secondly^ by the first charter the office had 
been limited to seven years, from the time of com- 
mencing Master of Arts. By the second charter, it 
was enlarged to an optional tenancy for life. Thirdly, 
according to the first charter, the number of fellows 
was three, subsequently increased to seven, and they 
of equal authority. By the new charter, the number 
of fellows was augmented to sixteen, by which arrange- 
ment the seven former fellows and the nine proba- 
tioners were recognised under the distinguishing names 
of Senior and Junior Fellows. To the former the 
government of the college was exclusively committed 
under the visitatorial power, while the duty of the 
latter was to prepare pupils for the quarterly examin- 
ations ; and their right was, to succeed in turn to 
the vacancies as they occurred at the senior board. 
Fourthly^ by the first charter it had been provided, 
that, on a vacancy of a fellowship or scholarship, the 
place should be filled up within the two months en- 
suing ; and the right of election in both instances had 
been vested in the provost and the majority of the 
fellows. The new charter ordained, that, on the va- 
cancy of a senior fellowship, the same should be sup- 
plied within three days after it was made known, by 
a majority or equal number of the surviving senior 
fellows, together with the provost ; and, upon the va- 
cancy of a junior fellowship, or scholarship, that the 
same should be filled up by the provost and senior 
fellows, or the major part of them, on the Monday 
after Trinity Sunday ensuing. Fifthly, by the first 
charter, the provost and senior fellows had the power 
to frame laws from time to time, for the better govern- 
ment of the college ; and to incorporate with their 
code, or modify to its provisions, such as they thought 
proper to select for the purpose, from among those of 
Cambridge and Oxford. By the new charter, the 



24 THE NEW CHARTER. 

king, with the consent of the provost, fellows, and 
scholars, reserved the power to himself; the former 
statutes were declared null and void, and a new code 
(as has been mentioned) given them by their royal 
patron. But, in cases omitted to be provided for in 
the new statutes, a power was given to the provost 
and the major part of the senior fellows, to institute 
laws, which, if confirmed by the visitors, and not re- 
pugnant to those presented by the king, should remain 
in force until the provost and major part of the senior 
fellows, with consent of the visitors, should think pro- 
per to rescind them. Sixthly, the mortmain licence 
was enlarged to two hundred pounds per annum be- 
yond what the former licence had authorized. Se- 
venthly, by the first constitution, the visitatorial power 
had been divided among several parties, whereby its 
efficacy was destroyed, namely, the chancellor, or vice- 
chancellor, the Archbishop of Dublin, the Bishop of 
Meath, the vice-treasurer, treasurer of war, the chief 
justice of the King's Bench, and the mayor of the 
city of Dublin, all for the time being. By the new 
constitution, that power was thought to be rendered 
more prompt and efficient by being confined to the 
chancellor, or his vice-chancellor, and the Archbishop 
of Dublin ; though certainly the removal of the mayor 
from that honour was a most ungracious return for 
what the college owed to civic liberality. The charter 
of Charles also recites that part of the charter of Eli- 
zabeth, which granted to the college an immunity from 
all taxes, talliages, cesses, subsidies, and feudal ser- 
vices whatsoever, and gives it full confirmation. 

Some important changes were also made in the col- 
lege educational system. The Irish, Hebrew, and 
Mathematical lectures, which existed from the founda- 
tion of the institution, were abolished, but to soften 
this matter somewhat, it was ordered by statute, that 
one of the senior fellows should be annually elected 
(20th of November) to the office of Greek Lecturer ; 
and who was bound to give three lectures in the 
Hall during each term, to all Bachelors in Arts and 
scholars of the sophister classes. 



PROVOST CHAPPELLS CHARACTER. 25 

Thus Charles, with the assistance of Laud, legislated 
for the University of Dublin, and may he considered 
its second founder, as he gave it a constitution by 
which its entire economy was in a great measure re- 
modelled ; in some instances indeed for the better, 
but in others, perhaps, his code evinced too much of a 
monastic and arbitrary spirit. It was not received 
with general satisfaction in college, though the pro- 
vost was decidedly its advocate ; he was indeed sus- 
pected of having been personally active in carrying 
the most objectionable parts of the new regulations, 
from a desire of rendering his power more independ- 
ent than was compatible with the welfare of a society 
which had never before been habituated to an unqua- 
lified obedience ; however that may be, his subsequent 
conduct far transgressed the bounds even of his newly 
created authority, and gave rise to proceedings which 
make it necessary to speak of him, and the transactions 
of his time, somewhat at large. 

In the year 1634, the Reverend William Chappell, 
who had been educated in Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge, was appointed provost, and continued to ad- 
minister that office unsworn until the year 1637, when 
the new statutes were introduced, on which occasion 
he took the oath prescribed, and proceeded to exer- 
cise his increased powers with renovated activity. He 
was a man of imperious temper, and of some fame for 
controversial acuteness and acrimony ; but was rather 
a rigorous disciplinarian than a friend to merit, or a 
conscientious protector of learning. He was more 
solicitous for his own elevation than for that of the 
society over which he did not so truly preside as do- 
mineer. His love of wealth was as vehement as his 
eagerness for power ; the former led him to commit 
acts inconsistent with solemn duties, and to injure the 
property of which he should have been the vigilant 
guardian ; the latter led him to innovate imtempe- 
rately in order to prove his authority transcendant : 
by means of both he excited in college some alarm but 
more aversion, and multiplied enemies rather than 
created slaves ; accordingly complaints were preferred 



26 THE IRISH, HEBREW, AND 

against him, and his conduct became a subject for 
parliamentary inquiry. 

Just before the foundation of the University, Ireland, 
as has been observed, was destitute of the means of 
public instruction ; the great mass of the Irish people 
had no intercourse with the English settlers, or their 
descendants : dissimilar in temperament and habits, 
and still more removed by mutual acts of injury and 
reprisal, the former preserved their language as a 
distinct mark of total separation. It was in vain to 
enact penal statutes to compel its disuse, the attach- 
ment which was before affectionate, then became de- 
votional ; they regarded the language obtruded upon 
them as the last badge of debasement, while their 
own appeared to them in all the sacred character of 
independence, and, like a proscribed faith, was con- 
secrated by adversity. It was therefore made a point, 
soon after the erection of the college, to encourage 
the natives to receive the advantages of a liberal edu- 
cation, that they might be the most efficient instru- 
ments of diffusing knowledge among their country- 
men ; and a lecture was even established for teaching 
the Irish language, that the students from those parts 
of the island where it had been disused, might be the 
better enabled to instruct those who adhered to their 
former habits and prejudices with affectionate and 
sullen resolution. At all events it was to be presumed 
that the language itself would gain them a favourable 
audience, and that the opinions it conveyed would be 
more intelligible and persuasive, than if offered 
through the medium of one but little known, and less 
respected. The good policy of the measure is said 
to have been evident, from the success which attended 
the exertions of those who pursued that mode of 
making the result of prejudice counteract its cause, 
by using it as the vehicle for that knowledge which 
produces the same liberal effects in every language in 
which it can gain the attention of the human mind. 
The statute of the 28th of Henry VI II., went upon 
a different principle, and one congenial with the less 
civilized character of its times, when it enacted, 



MATHEMATICAL LECTURES SUPPRESSED. 27 

" that all who would acknowledge themselves his 
highness' s true and faithful subjects should speak the 
English tongue." " A policy," says an old writer, 
" the goodness of which is not very discernible, par- 
ticularly when we consider how stiffly the nation ad- 
hered to their original language ; yet this lecture was 
undoubtedly a most benevolent mode to find an ex- 
pedient for informing them of the truth ; besides, it 
was quite consistent with the dignity of an University 
to chirish every legitimate mode of advancing the in- 
terests of learning." The conduct of England itself, 
in a ' similar case, furnishes a memorable warning 
against the principle of forcing upon a people, how- 
ever subdued, a language alien to their feelings ; and 
proves, that violent expedients to destroy national dis- 
tinctions are not so effective as the milder measures 
which lead to a gradual and mental conformity. 
There was a time when the Norman French was the 
language of the court and of the law ; but the people 
of England indignantly rejected its imposition in the 
same degree that it was imperiously enforced. Had 
William endeavoured to enlighten and conciliate, he 
might in time have succeeded, but his means were 
not as judicious as his intentions were ardent ; and 
the consequence has been, that the Norman tongue, 
and the dynasty of the conqueror, are extinct, but 
the language which he proscribed has become im- 
mortal. 

It was one of the causes of complaint against the 
provost, that he suppressed the lecture intended for 
the purpose described ; he also abolished the Hebrew 
and Mathematical lectures, and made so many other 
essential and arbitrary innovations in the academic 
system, that the friends of the University felt them- 
selves called upon to make an effort to prevent its 
total subversion, as it was daily becoming more and 
more enfeebled in literary spirit, and was on the verge 
of being fatally abased in reputation ; but what was 
more criminal, he violated his oath by holding the 
provostship after he was elevated to the mitre, and 



28 PARLIAMENTARY ENQUIRY 

leased college lands, to the disadvantage of the cor- 
porate interests, for his own private emolument. 

The information which was laid before the House 
of Commons, occasioned a serious investigation ; a 
committee was therefore appointed for the purpose of 
examining into the truth of the charges, and report- 
ing upon the state of the University. The proceed- 
ings which followed shew the great importance which 
parliament justly attached to the interests of the college, 
and also prove to what an almost ruinous state it was 
reduced by the man whose cupidity and violence was 
paramount to all that is sacred in duty, and exalted 
in ambition. The following account of the proceed- 
ings is extracted from the journals of the Irish House 
of Commons, and contain the several entries relating 
to the case in their regular order. 

" It is ordered (23 Feb. 1640) that the persons un- 
dernamed shall take into their serious consideration, 
all matters whatsoever concerning the college, and 
touching the reformation of the grievances thereof; 
and the said committee to divide themselves into as 
many sub-committees as they please, who are to sit 
upon the same when and where they think proper. 

" Whereas (27 Feb. 1640) by an order dated the 
23rd of February, a select committee was appointed 
by this house, to repair to the college of Dublin, as 
well for examining all charters granted, and patents 
belonging to said college, as statutes and ordi- 
nances now of force therein, and likewise for hearing 
and considering of all grievances and innovations by 
disorderly government introduced there ; according to 
which order the said committee repaired unto the 
said college, and intimated unto the provost and 
fellows thereof the effect of the said order, expecting 
to have received a relation of grievances from some 
of the students ; but information was given to several 
of the said committee that there was, amongst other 
statutes there established, a statute lately made, 
whereby it is ordered, ' That if any student or mem- 
her of that society shall offer to exhibit any complaint 



ON CHAPPELL'S CONDUCT. 



concerning the misgovernment, or least grievance of the 
said house to any other than the provost and fellows 
of the same, that he or they so complaining shall 
forthwith he suspended or expulsed ;' by which means 
none of the said students dare exhibit any complaint 
of their grievances : it is therefore this day ordered, 
that if any such statute there be, the same shall be in 
this particular void and of no effect as if no such 
statute had been made ; and that it shall be free for 
any of the said scholars, students, or others, to pre- 
sent and exhibit to the said committee all manner of 
grievance concerning the misgovernment there or any 
manner of rights belonging to the said college, either 
wrongfully detained or unjustly made away ; and it is 
further ordered, that no student whatever shall suffer 
under the penalty of that or any other statute to that 
effect, there established, for setting forth, informing 
or discovering the several evils, grievances and mis- 
demeanours, under which the college now groan eth : 
for declaration whereof it is lastly ordered, that this 
order shall be forthwith published, in such manner 
and form as to the said committee shall seem fit. 

" It is ordered (4 March, 1640) upon question by 
this house, that the government introduced into the 
college by the late provost, now bishop of Corke, and 
used there since the procuring of the late charter, (13 
Caroli,) hath subverted the antient and first foundation 
thereof, and must tend to the discouragement of the 
natives of this kingdom, and is a general grievance. 

" It is ordered upon question, that the committee ap- 
pointed to consider of the grievances of the college, 
shall draw up a charge against the late provost, now 
lord bishop of Corke, since his time of government in 
the college, and present the same to this house ; and 
that the clerk of the rolls shall deliver unto the said 
committee, copies of the several charters and other 
writings that belong to the college, gratis ; and the 
now provost and fellows of the college are to deliver 
gratis to the said committee, of such charters, statutes 
and writings as the said committee shall demand, and 
think fit to be copied for their better information ; 



30 THE CHARGES CONTINUED. 

and that William Newman and Robert Conway shall 
he forthwith sent for by the serjeant at arms, and 
answer here unto such matters as shall be objected 
against them. 

" It is ordered that the committee formerly appointed 
to hear the grievances of the college of Dublin, shall 
forthwith repair to the lords, and humbly desire that 
the lord bishop of Corke may be speedily sent for, 
to answer to such things as by this house shall be ob- 
jected against him, concerning his evil government 
and practices used at the college at the time of his 
being provost therein, and voted in this house to be 
grievances. 

" State of the case of the college of Dublin, (18 Feb. 
1640,) for so much as hath been reported to the house 
for the grievance thereof. 

" Queen Elizabeth by a charter dated the thirty- 
fourth year of her reign, in these words, c Pro ea cura 
quam de juventute regni nostri Hibernici pie et libe- 
raliter erudienda singularem habemus,' &c., on sup- 
plication made by Henry Ussher, in the name of the 
citizens of Dublin, did erect and found the college 
near Dublin to be a college and university per nomen 
prsepositi, sociorum et scholarium collegii Sanctse 
Trinitatis reginse Elizabeths juxta Dublin. 

" And amongst other things, gave them power by 
that charter, of electing their provost when voidances 
should happen of that place ; and also power of mak- 
ing laws and statutes for the better government of 
that college, to be made by the provost and fellows of 
that college. 

" And likewise appointed them thereby visitors, viz. : 
the chancellor and vice-chancellor of the University, 
the archbishop of Dublin, the bishop of Meath, the 
vice-treasurer, the treasurer at wars, the lord chief 
justice of his majesty's court of chief place, and the 
mayor of Dublin. 

" Statutes were an tiently made, where by the elections 
and the whole government were reposecl in the pro- 
vost and seven senior fellows ; and thereby also 
among other things, the provost and fellows were to 



THE CHARGES CONTINUED. 31 



take an oath, when they or any of them wer 
to any of their places ; and by the said statute^ the 
natives of this kingdom were directed to be preferred 
to scholars' place and to fellowships in that college, 
before any other subjects of his Majesty's dominions, 
cseteris paribus." 

" About August 1634, Mr. Chappell became provost, 
and continued provost, unsworn, until Trinity 1637. 

" About May, 13 Caroli regis, a charter was pro- 
cured to the provost, fellows and scholars of the said 
college, hy which charter the antient charter seemed 
to be confirmed in part. 

" But the nomination or donation of the provostship 
thereby was reserved or resumed to his Majesty. 

" The statutes formerly in force, by that charter were 
annulled, and statutes annexed to that late charter, 
which were signed with his Majesty's hand, and with 
the hand of the archbishop of Canterbury ; and 
thereby it was further commanded, that these new 
statutes and none other should be observed, unless 
his Majesty should be pleased to add to them, or to 
change them as to his Majesty might seem meet. 

" And by the said charter it was ordained, that the 
chancellor, or in his absence, the vice-chancellor, and 
the archbishop of Dublin, should be thereafter the 
visitors ; all which alterations among others were 
made, as the charter sayeth, ' Cum assensu prcepositi, 
sociorum et scholarium ; ' and yet there appeareth 
but two of the fellows that consented to that act and 
deed, viz., William Newman and Robert Conway, so 
that those two, together with the provost, seem the 
only persons of the college that wrought that change, 
and by their consent would bind the whole college. 

" And those, two such fellows, as by the visitors, at 
a visitation held the twentieth of July 1636, were de- 
prived of their fellowships. 

" By the late statutes it also appeareth, that the pro- 
vost should not hold a bishoprick while he continued 
provost, and the natives ought to be preferred as they 
were to be by former statutes. 



32 THE CHARGES CONTINUED. 

" Upon the acceptance of the late charter and 
statutes, the provost on Trinity Monday, 1637, took 
the oath to the new statutes, which oath during the 
continuance of the former statutes he would not 
take. 

" The provost before and after the new statutes and 
his oath taken, put back the natives which ought to 
be preferred to scholarships or fellowships in that 
college, and before and after fetched in strangers of 
his pupils in Cambridge, and others of his purpose, 
though less learned than the natives, and preferred 
them to the fellowships and offices in the college and 
government, as also some to the scholars' places less 
worthy than the natives. 

" Those that were preferred to fellowships having 
spent little or no time in their studies in this college, 
were suddenly so put into them as though they had 
been sent for to accept them, when the natives which 
expected them, were prevented by them. 

" The Mathematick and Hebrew Lectures were by 
the said provost put down, and other exercises of 
learning. 

" The natives of the kingdom by such practices have 
been infinitely grieved, disheartened and discouraged 
to follow their studies and civility. 

" The donation resumed, if it so hold, strangers are 
likely to come in to favour strangers. 

" The mayor of Dublin, at whose instance the college 
was founded, and the scite and lands on which the 
college stands, by him given, was ungratefully put 
forth from being a visitor. 

" And the two visitors which are appointed, are not 
able to redress the grievances and abuses in govern- 
ment ; for that by express words in the late charter, 
' In gravioribus negotiis,' the vice-chancellor and 
archbishop of Dublin can do, nor determine nothing 
without the approbation of the chancellor, who now is 
the archbishop of Canterbury, and they must be void. 
The provost after his acceptance of the bishopricks of 
Corke and Rosse, continued provost of the college 



THE CHARGES SENT TO KING CHARLES I. 33 

above two years, contrary to those statutes to which 
he was sworn. 

" There is not among the senior fellows who govern 
all with the provost, but only one native now there. 
And whereas by the first charter, fellowships were to 
be but for seven years, by the new charter they are to 
continue their fellowships for life, so as the averseness 
settled in those strangers towards the natives is not 
like to be removed in their lifetime if not extraordina- 
rily redressed. Signed, &c. 

" It is ordered upon question, that the state of the 
cause for so much thereof as hath been reported to 
the house concerning the grievance of Trinity College 
near Dublin, shall be drawn up by the committee ap- 
pointed for those grievances ; and the same being by 
them presented to the speaker of this house, he is to 
send it so drawn to the committee of this house now 
in England, together with a letter to be written by the 
speaker, recommending the same to their care, and 
requiring them that with the advice and assistance of 
the most reverend father the lord primate of Armagh, 
his grace, they should supplicate his Majesty for 
speedy redress of the said grievances ; and that the 
same may be done, if his Majesty shall so think ift, 
by an act of parliament, to be passed in this kingdom, 
discharging the new charter and statutes, and re-esta- 
blishing the first foundation and charter ; with such 
further clause and clauses as for the more successful 
propagation of learning in this kingdom to the natives 
thereof, as shall be thought fit by his Majesty, with 
like advice, to be inserted. 

" It is ordered (4 die Junii, 1641) that John Hard- 
ing, D.D., is strictly hereby required to attend the 
hearing of the cause concerning the college griev- 
ances against the Lord Bishop of Corke, to declare 
his testimony therein as he shall be then required ; 
and that the persons undernamed are especially ap- 
pointed by the house to attend the prosecution of the 
charge against the Lord Bishop of Corke. 

"It is voted by this house, (8th die Junii, 1641,) 
nullo contradicente, that all and every the proceed- 

D 



34 THE COLLEGE ELECTION INTERDICTED. 

ings of William Chappell, late provost of Trinity 
College near Dublin, and now Lord Bishop of Corke 
and Rosse, since he assumed upon himself the office 
of being provost of the said college, and during his 
continuance in the said office, as they are expressed 
in the several articles exhibited against the said 
William Chappell, are great grievances and fit to re- 
ceive redress. 

"It is ordered that the provost and fellows of Trinity 
College near Dublin shall this Trinity Monday next, 
and also hereafter, forbear the election of students to 
fellowships and scholars' places in the said college 
until this house give further direction therein. 

"Whereas (2 die Augusti, 1641) by occasion of an 
order of this house, requiring the provost and fellows 
of Trinity College not to proceed to the election of 
scholars to scholars' places in the college till this 
house give further order therein, for as much as in- 
formation hath been given that Malachy Morgan, 
John Lissagh, and several other natives of this king- 
dom, have presented themselves to sit for scholars' 
places, and by means of the said former order the 
provost and fellows of the said college may not except 
any the natives from such scholarships ; and for that 
it hath been in some particulars heretofore used, that 
before the days of election of such scholars' places, the 
allowances and benefits of scholars' places have been 
permitted and allowed to several scholars ; it is there- 
fore ordered by the house that the provost and fellows 
of the said college shall forthwith take the several 
natives now ready to sit for scholarships into their 
consideration, and preferring those natives bred in 
the schools of Dublin before other natives, they, ac- 
cording to their several abilities in learning, may be 
allowed the benefit of scholarship from Trinity 
Monday last, to the end the natives may not suffer 
by any neglect of them until the time when they pro- 
ceed to their due election. 

"Whereas (7 die Augusti, 1641) a complaint hath 
been made against the late provost the now Bishop of 
Corke, among other things that he made several 



THE IRISH REBELLION. 35 

leases of the college lands, to the hindrance of the 
college and disimprovement of their revenue ; and for 
that the state of the charter of the college, and the 
order of the government to be observed for the future, 
be under the consideration of this house ; and for 
that information is given to this house that several 
persons suspecting the estates made heretofore will be 
found fraudulent, and for that avoided, and that some 
of the tenants of the lands of the said college seek to 
take new leases of their lands, and several others seek 
confirmation of their former leases from the now pro- 
vost and fellows ; it is ordered by this house that the 
now provost and fellows shall make no lease of any of 
the said college lands, nor confirm any such lease 
already made till this house give further order 
therein." 

SECTION IV. 

In the month of October, 1644, the Irish rebellion 
occurred ; the sudden and awful violence with which 
it in a moment disturbed all the relations of society, 
and covered the country with scenes of memorable 
affliction, has seldom been surpassed by any event 
which the historian has recorded. The sanguinary 
rage of the rebels was at first but too successful, and 
many of those who escaped the first surprise, and 
carnage which accompanied it, fled into England, 
then itself upon the verge of an alarming crisis. It 
was at this time that the venerable Bedell, who had 
been provost of the college, and was then Bishop of 
Kilmore, a scholar of profound attainments, and a pre- 
late possessing every Christian virtue united to manners 
the most conciliating, fell into the hands of the insur- 
gents, who, although animated against protestants in 
general with the wildest ferocity, not only abstained 
from any attempt upon his life, but paid him that 
personal deference which the reputation of his singular 
worth inspired. He was however detained a prisoner 
in Cloghouter Castle, where he experienced every 
mark of respect ; but being full of years and much 
afflicted by the dreadful situation of a country for 



36 CHAPPELL ABSCONDS. 

whose improvement his life had been benevolently 
active, he did not long survive the event. In the 
month of March, 1642, he died, and was interred by 
the rebels, who came from all parts to his funeral, 
with the rude but expressive solemnity of military 
honours. 

After the breaking forth of the rebellion Chappell, 
then Bishop of Cork and Ross, fled to his native 
country, and continued to reside there until his death*. 
In the mean time greater events than the grievances of 
the University occupied the attention of government. 
Parliamentary proceedings were for the present at an 
end ; and the prompt and vigorous movements of a 
military system succeeded to the deposed authority of 
the laws. At this time the revenues of the college 
severely experienced the malignant influence of the 
times ; and as most of its opulent protectors were 
driven from the kingdom or reduced to poverty, and all 
regard for learning and its serene occupations was 
lost in the noise of arms, the institution was in danger 
of being utterly subverted. The rebel power being at 
length completely suppressed, and the order and con- 
fidence of society somewhat restored, a parliament was 
summoned, which met in the beginning of the year 
l64/7> but was dissolved the next by Cromwell's party, 
of whose power it did not stand in awe, and to whose 
views it was not subservient. During its short exist- 
ence, the proceedings with respect to Chappell were 
again taken into consideration, as appears by the fol- 
lowing extracts from the journals. 

A MESSAGE FROM THE LORDS BY MR. JUSTICE 
DONNELLAN ALONE. 

" That there is a petition presented to their lordships 
by the Bishop of Corke, which was presented to the 
house five years or upwards. 

"ANSWER TO THE MESSAGE. 

" That it is a great respect done by the lords con- 
cerning the college, before whom the information 

a At Derby, Whitsunday, 1649. 



THE CHARGE AGAINST CHAPPELL RENEWED. 37 

came ; it is concerning the being of it. The house 
taking into consideration the destruction of the 
college, the house doth therefore desire the house of 
lords to have patience, until they have repaired unto 
the college, which will not he any long time, and 
then this house will give a final answer thereto. 

" It is ordered that the persons undernamed are ap- 
pointed a committee to view and peruse the articles 
exhibited against William Chappell, now Bishop of 
Corke and Rosse, late provost of the college of 
Dublin, and his answer thereunto. 

" And that the said committee have full power and 
authority to send unto the fellows of the college, or 
any of them, or any other concerned therein, or any other 
person or persons whatsoever, as they shall think fit ; 
which said committee are to meet in this house at 
two of the clock on Monday next in the afternoon, 
and to adjourn themselves from time to time, and to 
such time and place as they shall think fit, and make 
report thereof to this house. 

66 Committee of the college adjourned (17 die Maii, 
1647) until the 20th day, at two of the clock in the 
afternoon. 

"It is ordered (20 die Maii, 164-7) that this com- 
mittee doth adjourn themselves until the 24th day, at 
two of the clock in the afternoon ; and that Mr. 
Hamilton (chairman) write to the fellows and students 
of the college. 

"COMMITTEE FOR THE COLLEGE, 24 DIE MAII, 1647. 

"The provost and fellows of Trinity College, Dublin, 
are desired to certify this committee by Friday next, 
at two of the clock in the afternoon, in this house, 
under their hands, whether they think it inconvenient 
that the proceedings by the said house against the 
late provost of the said college, now Bishop of Corke 
and Rosse, should be deserted. 

Adjourned to Friday next. 



38 THE ENGLISH LITURGY INTERDICTED. 

" A MESSAGE FROM THE LORDS (2 DIE JUNII, 1647) 
BY MR. BARON HILTON. 

" The house was pleased to send the messengers, and 
they gave a general account, but no particular one 
especially concerning the college. 

" IN ANSWER TO THE MESSAGE FROM THE LORDS. 

" It is ordered, that Mr. Roger Burton, and Captain 
Theodore Schoute, and as many as please to accom- 
pany them, are forthwith to repair to the house of the 
lords, and to give an account as well of all other busi- 
ness, as especially the petition of the college. 

" MEMORANDUM, 12 DIE JUNII, 164/7- 

" The report made by Mr. Archibald Hamilton 
concerning the college : 

" It is ordered, that Mr. Recorder of Dublin, and 
as many as please to accompany him, are forthwith to 
repair unto the House of Lords, concerning the busi- 
ness of the college, and to declare unto their Lord- 
ships the reasons which do induce this house to con- 
tinue the prosecution of the cause against the Bishop 
of Cork and Rosse, late Provost of Trinity College, 
Dublin, in this house." But the Parliament was soon 
after dissolved. 

It was in the latter end of the year l64/7> that com- 
missioners appointed by the English parliament landed 
in Ireland to settle the affairs, religious and political, 
in conformity with the new state of things in Eng- 
land, then supposed to be essentially revolutionized. 
The first act of the commissioners was, to interdict 
the use of the English liturgy ; and the clergy in ge- 
neral ceased to officiate ; but at this crisis the college 
gave a remarkable proof of the uncompromising spirit 
of virtue by which its adversity was dignified. 

Anthony Martin, the Provost, who was also Bishop 
of Meath, persisted in reading it, and actually preached 
against the innovation of the times, with an apostolic 
freedom, that nothing but the conscientious sense of 
what he considered a sacred duty could have inspired. 
The people, who never feel so deeply the power of re- 



CROMWELL VISITS IRELAND. 39 

ligion as in times of persecution and calamity, resorted 
thither in great numbers, and delighted to hear his 
fearless and impressive exhortations. His conduct 
will appear the more exemplary, when it is known 
that the plague was then consuming those whom the 
sword had spared. Nothing, however, could induce 
him to desist from the public exercise of his functions, 
and he fell the lamented victim of that dreadful dis- 
temper, after having, during the space of three years, 
contended for what he conceived to be the truth, with 
a firmness that made his enemies respect the man, 
whom their power could not overawe, and whom the 
adversity of his cause could not deter from its perilous 
vindication. The vacancy occasioned by his death 
gave the parliament an opportunity of appointing 
Samuel Winter, chaplain to the commissioners, to the 
important trust of presiding over the University, which, 
during his continuance in office, he modelled so as to 
meet the approbation of his patrons ; and it in con- 
sequence became a school of polemic controversy, in- 
stead of an institution of peaceful religion and the 
sciences. 

SECTION V. 

In the year 1649 Cromwell visited Ireland in per- 
son ; and so impetuous, sanguinary, and successful 
were his military enterprises there, that the tradition- 
ary character which he bears among the native Irish, 
even at the present day, partakes less of the splendid 
fame of the able chieftain, than of the ghastly renown 
of a destroying spirit ; and he is remembered, not as 
an armed missionary of a civilized cause, but as a 
being possessing a preternatural love and power of 
destruction. He certainly spread much misery and 
desolation throughout the kingdom, from which the 
frightful traces of the late rebellion had not been yet 
effaced ; and after performing many acts of exemplary 
vengeance, he left the Irish people more repressed 
than subdued, and more tranquil than contented. He 
afterwards summoned a parliament at Westminster; 



4<0 ARCHBISHOP USSHER'S LIBRARY. 

upon which occasion, to shew his great contempt for 
the independence of Ireland, he summoned thirty 
members from that kingdom as the legislative vassals, 
who were to perform, on the part of their country, the 
last ceremonies of its humiliation. The college was 
exempted from any communion in this melancholy 
service, as Cromwell did not call upon it to return any 
representatives. 

It was Cromwell's army that purchased for 22,000 
the valuable library of Archbishop Ussher, who, at the 
commencement of the Irish rebellion, had been obliged 
to fly ; and who, after the confiscation of his property, 
was allotted a residence in London, where he died, 
A.D. 1655. His library, which had been conveyed, after 
its purchase, to the castle of Dublin, was subsequently 
transferred to Trinity College, and added to its own ; 
as appears by the following order, extracted from the 
Journals of the House of Commons, dated the year 
after the Restoration. 

" Ordered (31 die Maii, 1661) that the Vice-Chan- 
cellor, and Provost of the College of Dublin, and Mr. 
Richard Lingard, together with such others as they 
shall take to their assistance, be decreed, and are 
hereby empowered, with all convenient speed, to cause 
the library, formerly belonging to the late lord pri- 
mate of Armagh, and purchased by the army, to be 
brought from the castle of Dublin, where now they 
are, unto the said college, there to be preserved for 
public use ; and the said persons are likewise to take a 
catalogue of all the said library, both manuscripts and 
printed books, and to deliver the same into this house, 
to be entered in the journal book of the house. And 
it is further decreed, that the said Vice-Chancellor, 
Provost, and Mr. Lingard, do wait upon the right 
honourable the lords justices of this kingdom, and ac- 
quaint their lordships with the contents of this order, 
humbly begging of their lordships leave to have ad- 
mission into the castle for the use aforesaid, and at 
what time their lordships shall appoint." 

In 1652, The Commissioners of the Parliament of 
the Commonwealth of England, for the affairs of Ire- 



DR. JEREMY TAYLOR MADE- VICE-CHANCELLOR. 41 

land, founded a public professorship of mathematics 
in this University, and thus restored to this institu- 
tion one of the essential parts of human knowledge, 
which had been suppressed most improperly by Arch- 
bishop Laud and Provost Chappell, when they re- 
modelled the college statutes. 

At the Restoration, the existing fellows, who had 
been chosen by the party of Cromwell, on account of 
their zeal for his cause, were, with a single exception, 
all removed a . It was remarkable at this time, that 
the cultivation of learning had been so much discou- 
raged by the repeated calamities which had fallen upon 
the nation, that there were few members of the Uni- 
versity qualified to fill the vacant places. 

The person appointed to the station of provost, was 
Dr. Thomas Seele, a native of Dublin, who had been 
educated in the college, and whose character was esti- 
mable in morals and literature. A new set of fellows 
were also chosen, mostly from Cambridge and Ox- 
ford; but as the ordinary mode of election prescribed 
by the statutes could not, in this instance, be observed, 
as they required to that and other acts of the board, 
the concurrence of the provost and four senior fellows, 
a writ of mandamus was issued to authorize their ad- 
mission. 

At that period the Duke of Ormond was chief go- 
vernor of Ireland ; a nobleman whose views were en- 
lightened, and who took an anxious interest in the 
welfare of the University. As its affairs had been 
thrown into great disorder, he selected the most com- 
petent person he could find, for the important task of 
renovating them. Dr. Jeremy Taylor, the pious and 
celebrated Bishop of Down, a man whose virtues 
breathed as much of the primitive simplicity of reli- 
gion as his eloquence partook of its inspiration, was 
the person fixed upon for that important duty. By 
his judicious management as vice-chancellor, the cha- 
racter of the college was retrieved, and its disordered 

a Dr. John Stearne, M.D. founder of the College of Physicians, 
and the first president of that distinguished Institution. 



42 HIS JUDICIOUS MANAGEMENT. 

system so arranged as to give great satisfaction to the 
lord-lieutenant. 

It was the peculiar merit of this venerable prelate, 
that he always made whatever station he held serve to 
the diffusion of peace and charity, without which reli- 
gion can have no real existence. His mind, though 
tenacious of truth, was never divested of Christian 
kindness and humility ; his talents, his conduct, and 
his authority, were all on the side of conciliation, and 
his zeal as a preacher of the gospel, totally free from 
spiritual pride, was only to he seen in the force of his 
reasoning, and the example of a life of beneficent 
virtue. 

In the year 1661, he preached before the University 
a sermon, shewing how the scholar shall become most 
learned and useful. This, which was one of his most 
instructive and eloquent discourses, was afterwards 
published in London. In the preface to it he says, 
(speaking of peacefulness,) " I first spake my thoughts 
of it before the little but excellent University of Dub- 
lin. They were pleased, with some earnestness, to 
desire me to publish it to the world." In the sermon 
he says, " If it were not that there are many who are 
homines multse religionis, nullius psene pietatis, it 
would not be that there should be so many quarrels 
in and concerning that religion, which is wholly made 
up of truth and peace." 

The duke wisely deemed it a most important part 
of his administration to inspect the discipline, en- 
courage the studies, and promote the interests of the 
University and its several members. He was there- 
fore desirous of opening the avenues of preferment to 
those whose morals and attainments in college made 
it likely that their promotion would prove a national 
benefit. He wished also to stimulate the exertions 
of students, by the example of honourable success 
in those by whom they had been preceded. But his 
enemies in England, with a view to detract from his 
consequence, having persuaded the king to nominate 
an Englishman to an Irish bishoprick, without his 



THE DUKE OF ORMONDES LETTER. 43 

concurrence or recommendation, he made the follow- 
ing communication of his sentiments on the subject to 
the secretary of state. 

" It is fit that it be remembered that near this city 
(Dublin) there is a University of the foundation of 
Queen Elizabeth, principally intended for the educa- 
tion and advantage of the natives of this kingdom, 
which hath produced men very eminent for learning 
and piety, and those of this nation, and such there are 
now in the church, so that, while there are such, the 
passing them by is not only, in some measure, a vio- 
lation of the original intention and institution, but a 
great discouragement to the natives from making 
themselves capable and fit for preferment in the church, 
whereunto, if they have equal parts, they are better 
able to do service than strangers ; their knowledge of 
the country and relations in it giving them the advan- 
tage. The promotion too of the already dignified or 
beneficed, will make room for, and, consequently, en- 
courage young men, students in the University, which 
room will be lost, and the inferior clergy much dis- 
heartened, if, upon the vacancy of bishopricks, persons 
unknown to the kingdom and University, shall be sent 
to fill them, and be less useful there to church and 
kingdom than those who are better acquainted with 
both." 

The above cited opinion of the Duke of Ormond 
will not be considered illiberal, when it is recollected 
that the state of Ireland was, in his time, that of an 
unsettled, and, still more, suspected country ; which 
had experienced from its rulers more of jealous vigi- 
lance than of a conciliating attention ; by which moral 
obedience was destroyed on one side, and confidence 
banished from both. He wisely concluded that a dif- 
ferent mode of government would better serve the in- 
terests of the two countries, and prove that the one 
had that spirit of civilization to which she laid claim, 
and the other was not insensible to kinder treatment. 
He therefore endeavoured to confer those offices of 
power and influence upon men who were acquainted 
with the habits and temperament of the people ; who 



44 A NEW COLLEGE PROPOSED. 

had some sympathy with their condition, and were not 
likely to treat them with that neglect or severity which 
banished affection, and discountenanced improvement. 
It was indeed a notorious fact, that, with few excep- 
tions, those who were sent to that country for the pos- 
session of rank, and the receipt of large emoluments, 
regarded their Irish promotion as only a splendid 
exile ; and, instead of taking any pains to diffuse in- 
formation, and cultivate esteem, kept their attention 
fixed on the seat of power in another place, and ar- 
dently looked up to the hope of preferment at home. 
It was not therefore surprising that they neglected or 
despised the interests of a country, which was not that 
of their early connexions or ultimate ambition. 

SECTION VI. 

Soon after the Restoration it was thought that the 
University might be rendered more extensively useful 
in diffusing the knowledge of the liberal arts through- 
out Ireland, by the endowment of another college upon 
its foundation ; a provision was even made for that 
purpose by a clause in the Act of Settlement ; this 
evinced the high opinion which the framers of that 
act entertained of the utility of the existing college, 
and their desire to call its principle into still more 
vigorous and efficient action. Had the plan been car- 
ried into effect, there can be no doubt but it must have 
proved highly beneficial to the country, and although 
the present college might not in that case be so very 
opulent as it is, yet it would have a character better 
known, and of course more valued in the empire : the 
rivalry which would naturally exist between the two 
institutions, could not fail to raise the reputation of 
both ; the pride of advancing their respective col- 
leges, would inspire the members individually with the 
zeal of letters, beyond what can exist in a solitary esta- 
blishment ; the several professors would feel the in- 
cumbent necessity of pushing their labour further than 
the discharge of their daily duties required ; their 
learning would guide them into the region of dis- 



TO BE NAMED " KING'S COLLEGE." 45 

covery, and they would not neglect the great agency 
of the press, to establish themselves as the tutors of 
men and the rivals of philosophers, as well as the in- 
structors of the rising youth of Ireland. The splendid 
individual exceptions which we now see, would form 
the general rule, and the literature of the country 
would share in the prosperous fame of its University. 
The following extracts from the Act of Settlement 
will shew how sincerely the legislature seconded this 
liberal intention. 

" Provided also, and be it enacted by the authority 
aforesaid, that the lord-lieutenaut or other chief go- 
vernor or governors of the kingdom of Ireland for the 
time being, by and with the consent of the privy coun- 
cil, shall have full power and authority to erect an- 
other college to be of the University of Dublin, to be 
called by the name of the King's College, and out of 
all and every the lands, tenements and hereditaments 
vested by this Act in his Majesty, and which shall be 
settled or restored by virtue thereof, to raise a yearly 
allowance for ever, not exceeding two thousand pounds 
per annum, by an equal charge upon every one thou- 
sand acres of land or lesser quantity proportionably, 
and therewith to endow the said college so as aforesaid 
to be erected ; shall be settled, regulated and governed 
by such laws, statutes, ordinances and constitutions, 
as his Majesty, his heirs or succesors, shall, under his 
or their great seal of England or Ireland, declare or 
appoint." (ft vol. Irish Statutes, 2 chap. 345.) In the 
year 1662, Parliament paid an honourable tribute to 
the memory of Ussher, whose great talents, learning, 
and integrity made him known and esteemed all over 
Europe, but did not exempt the close of his life from 
severe affliction. As he had been instrumental in 
founding the University, and was besides one of its 
first and most distinguished fellows, it is gratifying to 
be enabled to record a vote of the House of Commons, 
by which, after his death, the sum of five hundred 
pounds yearly, was granted to his daughter for ever, 
her father's property having been ruined by the 
troubles which drove him out of Ireland. The rea- 



46 ANNUITY TO PRIMATE USSHER'S HEIRS. 

sons set forth in the vote are equally creditable to the 
virtues and abilities which gave occasion for that na- 
tional testimonial, and to the legislature that awarded 
to the representatives of such a benefactor of his 
country, part of the debt which the nation owed his 
immortal services. If so laudable an example were 
acted upon in all like cases, literature could not have 
so often to lament the neglected or destitute state in 
which the posterity of men of extraordinary fame are 
sometimes allowed to languish. While worthless re- 
lics are preserved as invaluable, the most obvious and 
useful proof of veneration is often withheld ; but it 
should be recollected that even a Shakspeare or a 
Milton may have had little besides a splendid name to 
bequeath to his descendants, whom the nation there- 
fore is bound to protect, as sharing with them in the 
glory of their ancestor. The following is a copy of the 
ordonnance of the legislature on the foregoing occa- 
sion. 

" 27 die Junii, 1662. Ordered, upon question, 
that the address as it was reported from the commit- 
tee, and had unto the house concerning the settling 
of five hundred pounds per annum on the heirs of the 
most reverend father in God, James Ussher, late lord 
primate of all Ireland, deceased, be and is hereby 
agreed unto by this house, and to be entered amongst 
the acts, ordinances, and orders of this present parlia- 
ment. 

" This house having taken into serious considera- 
tion the most eminent piety and profound learning of 
that great luminary of religion, James Ussher, late 
Lord Archbishop of Armagh, Primate and Metro- 
politan of all Ireland, deceased, and the happy and 
successful application of those great endowments in his 
elaborate works, to which not only all his Majesty's 
kingdoms but also the remotest parts into which the 
light of the gospel hath shined, owe a grateful and 
lasting acknowledgment, and considering that it is 
notoriously known that upon no other account than 
his unshaken faith to God and his unspotted loyalty 
to his late Majesty, and to his Majesty our now sove- 



ANNUITY TO PRIMATE USSHER'S HEIRS. 47 

reign, he drank so deep of that bitter cup of affliction 
which the late rebellion and the late usurpation in 
these kingdoms tempered, that his personal wants and 
forlorn estate were such and so great, as some of the 
neighbouring princes, though of different religion, in- 
vited him to repose himself under their protection, 
with the allowance of an honourable support, which his 
great attachment to the principles he had long adopted, 
caused him respectfully to decline, choosing rather to 
bear the worst of wants. and miseries, lest it might be 
scandalously urged that he had deserted that cause of 
which he had been so constant an assertor. This 
house being therefore desirous to deliver over to pos- 
terity a testimony of the unanimous respect which this 
kingdom bears to the memory of that most pious and 
learned prelate, and the just sense they have of his 
heavy sufferings, which render his only child and nu- 
merous grandchildren objects worthy great and extra- 
ordinary consideration. And considering also that 
this house do humbly hope that his sacred Majesty 
will graciously consider the posterity of that so highly 
suffering and so eminently meriting a prelate. 

" This house therefore, upon all those and several 
other weighty considerations, do order : 

" That the undernamed persons, or any seven of 
them, be a committee of this house, to attend upon 
the right honourable the lords justices, and signify to 
their lordships, that it is the humble desire of this 
house, that their lordships and the council would be 
pleased to transmit to his Majesty in due form, a bill 
for granting unto Elizabeth, Lady Terrill, the late 
daughter and heir of the said late Lord Archbishop 
of Armagh, who is the wife of Sir Timothy Terrill, a 
great sufferer for his loyalty to his Majesty and his 
royal father, so much lands, tenements, and heredita- 
ments lately held in fee, or which paid chief ries to the 
church in this kingdom and not already disposed of, 
as are of the yearly value of five hundred pounds ster- 
ling per annum, ultra reprizas, and that the said lands, 
tenements, and hereditaments, by the lord lieutenant 
and council to be set unto her, her heirs or assigns, 



48 COLLEGE EXEMPTED FROM HEARTH-TAX. 

after all lands, tenements, and hereditaments of that 
kind, which by the Act, intituled * An Act for the 
better execution of his Majesty's gracious declaration 
for the settlement of his kingdom of Ireland, and 
satisfaction of the various interests of adventurers, 
soldiers, and others, his subjects,' those acres ap- 
pointed for archbishops and bishops, and for the Pro- 
vost of Trinity College, near Dublin, and after the 
five hundred pounds a year, by a former vote of this 
house desired to be granted to the Most Reverend 
Father in God, John, now Lord Archbishop of Ar- 
magh, Primate and Metropolitan of all Ireland, shall 
be set out to them accordingly, to have and to hold to 
the said Lady Terrill, her heirs and assigns for ever, 
under such rents and services as were formerly paid or 
rendered thereout to the church, and submitting there- 
out to be reserved to his Majesty out of the premises, 
unto the judgment of the lord lieutenant or other chief 
governor for the time being with the advice of the 
council." 

The next notice taken of Trinity College in the 
journals of the parliament occurs in an order of the 
house, by which it is exempted from the hearth tax : 
that impost had been abolished in England after the 
revolution, as vexatious and inquisitorial, but it con- 
tinued in Ireland to the year 1820. 

" 30TH DIE AUGUSTI, 1662. 

" Ordered, upon question, that Trinity College, 
near Dublin, be exempted from paying any chimney 
or hearth tax, and that a clause to that effect be in- 
serted in the bill for raising such monies." 

About the year 1660, Arthur, Earl of Donegal, 
founded in the college a Lecture in Mathematics, and 
endoweditwith a salary of ,IOper annum, which, allow- 
ing for the alteration in the value of money at this time, 
would be about equivalent to 100 a year. The earl 
presented to the office during his life, but then be- 
queathed that right to the college, and in the year 
1675, we find the first notice of the provost and board 
having exercised that privilege, and at the same time 



THE CIVIL WAR IN IRELAND. 49 

to have united this foundation to the public Professor- 
ship of Mathematics, which in the year 1652 the Par- 
liament Commissioners of the Commonwealth founded 
in this University, and which was held by Dr. Miles 
Sumner, from the above date until his decease in 1675. 



CHAPTER II. 

SECTION I. 

THE University being again restored to that tran- 
quillity so congenial with its legitimate objects, con- 
tinued to pursue its proper duties, and grow calmly 
upon the public favour until the period of the Revo- 
lution. It was then once more unhappily forced into 
collision with the political world. That event, which 
in England renovated a kingdom without the sacri- 
fice of a citizen, and changed a dynasty by acclama- 
tion, was not as immediately auspicious to the fortunes 
of Ireland. It plunged that nation into the calamities 
of civil war, maintained by parties equally fierce, and 
perhaps mutually vindictive ; it retarded the regular 
course of improvement by the revival of ancient feuds, 
or the creation of such as have outlived the causes 
that produced them ; and it gave to the fierce and 
vulgar love of party, an alarming ascendant over the 
exercise of reason and the peaceful spirit of religion, 
which has ever since tended to keep the Irish people 
divided and unhappy, and amongst these lamentable 
consequences, the total ruin of this peaceful seat of 
learning had well nigh been completed, as we shall 
presently make manifest. 

It appears from an entry in the book marked D., 
in the college registry, that on February the 16th, 
1788-9, it was agreed on by the Vice- Provost and 
Senior Fellows, " That 200 of the college money 

E 



50 THE COLLEGE PLUNDERED. 

should be sent into England for the support of those 
Fellows that should be forced to fly thither." 

At the same time the danger of staying in the col- 
lege seemed so great that it was judged reasonable for 
all those that thought fit, to withdraw themselves from 
the college for their better security ; and that they 
should have liberty to adopt that course. 

" About the 19th" of the same month, as we find 
in the above book, " all the horse, foot, and dragoons 
in Dublin garrison were drawn out and posted at se- 
veral places in the town, from whence they sent par- 
ties, who searched the Protestants' houses for arms, 
whilst others were employed in breaking into stables 
and taking away all the horses. Two companies of 
foot, commanded by Captain Talbot, of the royal regi- 
ment of foot-guards, marched into the college, searched 
it thoroughly, and took away those few fusils, swords, 
and pistols that they found. At the same time a 
party of dragoons broke open the college stables, and 
took away all the horses found therein ; the foot soldiers 
continued in the college all night, and next day they 
were drawn off. 

" On the same day it was agreed on by the Vice- 
Provost and Senior Fellows, that the Fellows and 
Scholars should receive out of the college trunk, (the 
two hundred pounds not having been sent into Eng- 
land as was designed,) the salaries for their respec- 
tive fellowships, offices, and scholarships, which will be 
due at the end of this current quarter, together with 
their allowances for commons for the said quarter." 

It further appears from the same book, that " on the 
1st of March following, Dr. Browne, Mr. Downes, Mr. 
Barton, Mr. Ash, and Mr. Smith embarked for Eng- 
land. They were soon after followed by Mr. Scroggs, 
Mr. Reader, Mr. Lloyd, Mr. Sayers and Mr. Hassett, 
or Blennerhasset ; Mr. Patrickson died in a few 
weeks after, and (of the Fellows) only Dr. Acton, 
Mr. Thewles, Mr. Hall, and Mr. Allen, remained in 
the college." 

" On March 12th, King James II. landed in Ire- 



KING JAMES II. HOSTILE TO THE COLLEGE. 51 

land, and upon the 24th of the same month, being 
Palm Sunday, he came to Dublin ; when the college, 
with their vice-chancellor, waited upon him, and Mr. 
Thewles made a speech, which he seemed to receive 
kindly, and promised them his favour and protection." 

The entries from which the above extracts have 
been taken, were made at the time, by the proper of- 
ficers of the college. Yet we find that the royal im- 
becile, who thus promised solemnly to protect this 
peaceful institution, did, on the 6th of September fol- 
lowing, seize this very college, changing it into a mi- 
litary garrison. On the 16th, he turned out the scho- 
lars, and sent six fellows and masters as prisoners 
to the main guard. On October the 21st, he seized 
the chapel and library. Yet, notwithstanding these 
acts of tyranny, Dr. Acton, the vice-provost, perse- 
vered in preserving the remnant of its privileges, and 
elected officers on the 20th of November, 1689; but 
he, unhappily, did not long survive this dangerous act 
of duty ; he died about the close of the following 
month, his death having been hastened by affliction. 

In the month of April, 1689, King James assem- 
bled a parliament in Dublin, to which the University 
sent two representatives, namely, Sir John Mead and 
Mr. Coghlan, both celebrated lawyers. It was with 
some difficulty that the college prevailed upon these 
gentlemen to undertake the honourable but dangerous 
service, as they were not friendly to the measure pur- 
sued by the bad advisers of James, and they could not 
expect, by opposing them, to do any thing else in 
reality than proscribe themselves. After a short and 
ineffectual struggle with the prevailing party, they 
absented themselves, to escape the vengeance of those 
whom they vainly resisted, and the odium of actions 
over which they had no control. 

Amongst the most indiscreet of those counsellors, 
to whose advice James was indebted for losing the last 
sympathies of the people, was the Lord Tyrconnell, 
chief governor of Ireland ; a minister who, incapable 
of any great design for restoring the fortunes of his 
royal master, possessed a great share of that officious 

E 2 



52 UNJUST TREATMENT OF COLLEGE. 

zeal, which is a bad substitute for ability and pru- 
dence. To a mind like his, it would have been a 
matter of satisfaction to effect the ruin of the Uni- 
versity ; but as James had pledged himself, imme- 
diately after landing in Dublin, not only to protect the 
members of the college, but to increase rather than 
diminish the number of their privileges, it was neces- 
sary to resort to some contrivance which might exas- 
perate the king to a breach of his engagement, or by 
lowering its character, bring down upon the institu- 
tion the heavier evil of the censure of society. He 
soon conceived a project worthy of his capacity and 
intentions. There was among the number of his de- 
pendents one whose name was Doyle, by nature and 
education fitted to be the agent in such an enterprise. 
He was a person very illiterate, and still more im- 
moral, on which account Tyrconnell selected him for 
collegiate honours ; and persuaded the king to pre- 
sent a man notoriously unqualified, to the office of 
senior fellow. In a crisis so alarming, the provost 
and board behaved with prudence and firmness. They 
saw, on one side, the abasement of the character of the 
college, if such an associate should be admitted, and 
on the other the vengeance of an offended authority, 
which might effect its ruin, in case of his rejection. 
But Doyle's own mismanagement put it in their power 
to take a middle course, of which they instantly availed 
themselves. In obtaining a dispensation, he had, 
through ignorance, neglected to procure an exemption 
from the oath of fellow, in which that of supremacy 
was of course included. The provost, accordingly, 
tendered the oath, which Doyle, as was foreseen, afraid 
of incurring the displeasure of his party, refused ; and 
was immediately denied admission. Finding remon- 
strances and threats in vain, he preferred a complaint 
to his patron, Tyrconnell, and his case became a sub- 
ject of legal inquiry. The excess to which party spirit 
was, at that time, carried, allowed nothing to be sa- 
cred from its influence ; the highest offices of the law 
were degraded to the service of faction ; it was not 
therefore a matter of surprise, that, when Dovle's case 



FELLOWS DRIVEN OUT OF COLLEGE. 63 

came to be heard, such personages as Chief Justice 
Nugent, Baron Rice, and the Attorney-General Nugle 
should have appeared as his advocates. How ever, the 
character of the man shewed itself in so unfavourable 
a light, that even his most zealous friends became 
ashamed of making him an object of public interest, 
and, under the subterfuge of ordering Doyle to pro- 
cure another dispensation, they were content that the 
affair should fall to the ground and be forgotten. 

A case nearly similar occurred, with respect to a 
person of the name of Green, in whose behalf a man- 
damus was issued, directed to the provost and fellows ; 
by which, after reciting that the statutes of the col- 
lege were liable to be changed and qualified according 
to the royal pleasure, Dr. Arthur Green was presented 
to the office of senior fellow ; but it does not appear 
that he was ever admitted. 

The sentiments which Tyrconnell held with respect 
to the University were soon afterwards more clearly 
manifested. The foundation, at that time, consisted 
of a provost, seven senior and nine junior fellows ; who 
were chiefly maintained by a pension out of the ex- 
chequer, granted in perpetuity by King James I. 
This pension Tyrconnell, in an impatient spirit of re- 
venge, caused to be withheld, and was inflexible in 
refusing, as lord-lieutenant, to grant a warrant for its 
payment. The result must have been, the virtual ex- 
tinction of the corporate body ; for although its 
charter was not annulled, its maintenance was with- 
drawn, and distress must have eventually produced 
the effect of dissolution. 

But his anxiety for its ruin could not admit of de- 
lay ; and having inspired the mind of the king with 
the same implacable animosity towards the residence 
of Irish literature which filled his own, the conse- 
quences were nearly as destructive as his malevolence 
could have desired. 

The strong arm of power now fell heavily on the 
peaceful institution. The provost and fellows were 
contumeliously driven out; the public and private 
furniture, books, communion plate, and other property 



54 INTENT TO DESTROY THE LIBRARY. 

were seized, and thus a useful and respected body of 
men were, without colour of law, expelled from their 
freeholds, and divested of their chartered rights, 
whose only crime was an inflexible adherence to the 
rules of their society and a dignified resistance to ar- 
bitrary power. 

By such violent conduct towards the University, 
James not only attempted to render the bounty of his 
illustrious predecessors unavailing, but also violated his 
own most solemn promise to protect its interests, and, 
suffering his bad passions to annul his engagements, 
proved that he esteemed the royal faith less sacred than 
the prerogative. 

But rigorous as such proceedings were, they did 
not satisfy the malignity which had excited them. It 
was determined that the very mansion of philosophy 
should be visited with signal degradation, and accord- 
ingly the buildings so long consecrated by the resi- 
dence of literature, were applied to the purpose of a 
barrack, and many of the rooms made use of as places 
of confinement for the suspected. Even the chapel 
was converted into a magazine for gunpowder, and the 
whole establishment wantonly defaced by the licen- 
tious soldiery. It was then that the most ignorant 
and furious of the adherents of the Stuarts desired to 
consummate those mischiefs by giving the library to the 
flames, and that noble collection of books and manu- 
scripts must have suffered a fate like that which, under 
the barbarous triumph of an Omar, consumed the vast 
learning of the ancient world, were it not for the good 
sense of two individuals, who, although attached to 
the fortunes of James, were free from his intolerance. 
The name of one of these enlightened men was Moor, 
that of the other M'Carthy, both clergymen of the 
Roman Catholic persuasion ; the former of whom ex- 
erted his interest to be appointed provost, and the other 
obtained the office of librarian ; in which stations they 
so effectually interposed their authority for the conserv- 
ation of the magnificent but devoted pile, that they 
restrained their party from an act of senseless crime, 
and saved literature a memorable calamity. 



THE BILL OF ATTAINDER, 55 

To the efforts of Moor, while invested with the au- 
thority of provost, the college was indebted for benefits 
of an important nature. With a fidelity to the cause 
of learning worthy of the most benignant times, he 
made every exertion to protect from utter ruin the 
property of the institution and of the members, and 
succeeded in securing what yet remained of it from 
further pillage and abuse. He also endeavoured to 
mitigate the severe treatment which the prisoners ex- 
perienced ; and, to perfect his good offices, dissuaded 
the king from carrying into execution a design, with 
which one of his advisers named Petre had inspired 
him, of conferring the college and all its rights on the 
Jesuits. He could not, however, prevent the members 
from being all put under arrest ; but the interest which 
the Bishop of Meath, Vice- Chancellor, had with Simon 
Luttrell, Governor of Dublin, afterwards procured 
their enlargement, on the severe conditions that three 
of them should not be seen together upon pain of 
death. 

Notwithstanding those vindictive proceedings, the 
college was not included in the bill of attainder, en- 
acted against the principal persons of the opposite 
party, by that parliament which James had summoned 
in Dublin on his arrival. For so extraordinary an 
exemption it was indebted to the zeal and abilities of 
Mr. Coghlan, who has been already spoken of, as one 
of the representatives of the University. 

It has been observed, that after a short but active 
attention to his legislative duties, Mr. Coghlan, de- 
spairing to do any good by his public services, absented 
himself, as did his colleague, from his place in parlia- 
ment, both being in danger from opposing the predo- 
minant spirit of the house. Soon afterwards the famous 
bill of attainder was introduced, and Mr. Coghlan 
was ordered to attend, by a message from the speaker, 
as one of the burgesses of the University, that he 
might give in the names of the absent members of the 
college. He endeavoured to excuse himself, but was 
answered by another summons, on which, after having 
conferred with Dr. Acton, the Vice- Provost, he at- 



56 COLLEGE ESCAPED BILL OF ATTAINDER. 

tended in his place, and moved that the college hutler 
should be sent for, who had the care of what are called 
the huttery books, in which the names of all the 
members of the college are inserted, alleging, that with- 
out his production of the books, he could not make 
out the list required ; the motion was agreed to, and 
the serjeant-at-arms instantly dispatched to bring the 
butler to the bar. But the butler had, in compliance 
with the instructions previously received from Mr. 
Coghlan, absconded, with the design of keeping out of 
view during the whole of the affair. The house being 
anxious to pass the bill, could not delay for the pur- 
pose of enforcing his attendance, by which means the 
college was exempted from the dreadful operation of 
the bill of attainder. 

It was Mr. Coghlan who also discovered the true 
nature of the bill of attainder, for the party whose con- 
trivance it was, had hurried it through the house, nor 
did they allow it to be published, intending only to 
make it known as opportunities occurred for carrying 
it into execution. Even James himself was not ac- 
quainted with all its provisions. His most zealous 
adherents found it necessary to conceal from him, that 
in following up their own plan of proscription, they 
had infringed upon the prerogative of which he was so 
tenacious, by depriving him in this instance of the 
dispensing power. The circumstances which Mr. 
Coghlan took advantage of in order to procure a sight 
of the bill, and which fully exposed the malice of its 
authors, were as follow : When the Earl of Seaforth 
returned from France with King James, he heard that 
his friend Sir Thomas Southwell, a man of different 
politics from his own, was then lying under sentence 
of death, in hourly expectation of being executed, for 
keeping arms in his house to repel the attacks of the 
king's partisans ; it being made a capital offence by 
the Act for one of the opposite party to hold arms 
even for his own protection. The earl, though de- 
votedly attached to the cause of the Stuarts, yet still 
more alive to that spirit of honour and humanity which 
characterizes the true soldier, for he was a lieutenant- 



ATROCIOUS NATURE OF THE BILL. 5J 

general in James's army, went to visit him in prison 
at Galway, stayed the execution, and undertook to 
procure his pardon from the king* 

His application to that effect was granted, and 
orders were given to draw up the necessary legal form ; 
Mr. Coghlan was the person employed for that pur- 
pose. He undertook the task the more willingly 
because it gave him an opportunity to procure a 
sight of the bill, and he declared he could not regu- 
larly draw up the warrant without such inspection. 
Upon this the earl obtained an express order from the 
king to have a copy delivered to him, and it was the 
only copy that was ever taken of the Act after having 
been enrolled. So anxiously was the secret guarded, 
that the earl had only leave to shew it to his lawyer, 
with whom he could not allow it to remain more than 
a day. Mr. Coghlan had it immediately copied, and 
drew up the warrant with a full non obstante to the 
act of attainder. The earl carried it to the Attorney- 
General, Sir Richard Nagle, to have a fiat for it ; this 
officer was exceedingly displeased at the transaction ; 
declaring the king could not grant the pardon, as the 
Act had deprived him of the power of dispensing with 
it. When this was told the king, he was very indig- 
nant ; such an attack upon his principles of sove- 
reignty he was not prepared to expect from his friends, 
and he accordingly expressed himself with great anger 
on the occasion ; however, Sir Thomas was pardoned, 
but it is evident he owed it in a great degree to the 
skill and firmness of the member for the University. 

It may not be improper to mention, that the gene- 
rous nobleman above alluded to, was descended from 
that Colin Fitzgerald, an Irish chief, who, when hunt- 
ing with Alexander III., King of Scotland, saw the 
monarch suddenly unhorsed by the furious onset of a 
red stag, and before his attendants could come to his 
aid, the enraged animal would have inevitably de- 
stroyed him, had not Fitzgerald rushed forward, and 
being a man of great physical power, seized the stag 
by the antlers close to the head with one hand, and 
clove him down with his broadsword. The king was 



58 FIRST SECULAR DAY CELEBRATED (1693). 

so well pleased with this instance of courage and 
friendship, that he immediately created him earl of 
Seaforth, and bestowed on him other marks of the 
royal favour. 

Affairs remained in a state of awful uncertainty 
until James's defeat at the Boyne decided the destinies 
of Ireland once more. When the news of that event 
reached Dublin, the followers of James, among whom 
were his foreign auxiliaries, rendered desperate by de- 
feat, and like all armed people under similar circum- 
stances, becoming relaxed in discipline, intended, it is 
said, to fire the city ; the alarm of such a project 
threw the citizens into the greatest confusion, but Cap- 
tain Robert Fitzgerald, son to the Earl of Kildare, and 
ancestor to the present Duke of Leinster, then a prisoner 
in the college, with about fifty others, succeeded by a 
bold effort in escaping from confinement, and securing 
the castle, intimidated the malcontents, and prevented 
the execution of so atrocious a design. 

SECTION II. 

From the evils produced by civil war, the college 
seems to have recovered very rapidly, as it would ap- 
pear, by the kindness of the government, and the great 
assiduity of those who were at the head of the institu- 
tion ; for we find that on the 9th of January 1693, 
the college having completed a century from its founda- 
tion, the first secular day was celebrated with a pomp 
and solemnity which was the greater on account of the 
thankfulness felt for having escaped the recent cala- 
mity which threatened its ruin. Dr. A she, afterwards 
Bishop of Clogher, preached, and has received from 
an old writer the commendation of having made " a 
notable entertainment for the lords justices, privy 
council, lord mayor and aldermen of Dublin." The 
provost delivered a learned and ingenious sermon on 
the subject of the foundation of the college ; the text 
was applied to the royal foundress, Queen Elizabeth, 
and was taken from St. Matt. xxvi. ver. 13. " Verily 
I say unto you, wheresoever this gospel shall be 



PARLIAMENT FAVOURS THE COLLEGE. 59 

preached in the whole world, there shall also this that 
this woman hath done be told for a memorial of her." 
In the afternoon several Latin orations were spoken 
by the scholars in honour of the queen and the suc- 
ceeding sovereigns, and an ode composed by Mr. Tate, 
the poet laureat, who had been educated in the col- 
lege, was performed by the principal gentlemen of the 
kingdom. " A very diverting speech" was made in 
English by the terrse filius, a fictitious character, who, 
according to the taste of the age, was allowed, in times 
of public festivity, to create merriment by a privilege 
similar to that enjoyed by a king's jester. At night, 
the college, the city, and many towns of note through- 
out Ireland were brilliantly illuminated. 

The affairs of Ireland, after having continued in a 
state of warfare, highly unfavourable to literature, for 
more than half a century, being at length set at rest 
by the treaty of Limerick, men's minds were more 
free to attend to the culture of liberal education, and 
the University soon became an object of national im- 
portance and of parliamentary attention, for we find 
in the journal of the Irish House of Commons, the fol- 
lowing extracts, dated October 29, 1703. 

Ordered, that leave be given to bring in the heads 
of a bill to enable the bishops of this kingdom, and 
likewise the college of Dublin, to make leases for lives 
renewable for ever, of the lands belonging to their 
respective bishoprics and of the lands belonging to 
the college of Dublin, and that Mr. Singleton, Mr. 
Conotty and Dr. Coghill do prepare and bring in the 
same. 

In the year 1709* a serious disagreement happened 
between the lords and commons with respect to a 
grant to Trinity College. It appears that some time 
before, a person named Forbes was expelled the Uni- 
versity, for expressing political opinions hostile to the 
principles of the revolution ; the college having 
petitioned Parliament for a sum to enable them to 
erect a new library, the House of Commons addressed 
the Queen through the Lord-lieutenant as was usual, 
and mentioned in their address the expulsion of 



60 FIVE THOUSAND POUNDS GRANTED 

Forbes as an argument to prove the loyalty of the 
learned body, for which the public bounty was re- 
quired; the grant passed, but the House of Lords took 
offence at their proceeding, and in an address censured 
the grounds on which the prayer of the petition had 
been complied with ; this produced from the Commons 
a strong remonstrance, in which they charged the 
other house with an infringement of their privileges ; 
the contention, however, seems to have terminated 
there ; the following extracts contain the particu- 
lars. 

" MERCURII, 1 DIE JUNII, 1?09. 

"A motion being made that this house would become 
suitors to her Majesty, to extend her royal bounty to 
the provost, fellows, and scholars of Trinity College 
near Dublin, to enable them to erect a library in 
said college. 

" Resolved that this house, taking into consideration 
the proceedings of the University of Trinity College, 
near Dublin, in censuring Edward Forbes by degrad- 
ation and expulsion, for speaking dishonourably of, 
and aspersing the memory of his late Majesty, King 
William the Third, and also the steady adherence of 
the provost, fellows, and scholars of said college to 
the late happy revolution, her present Majesty's go- 
vernment, and the succession to the throne as by law 
established, for the encouragement of good literature 
and sound revolution principles, do address His Excel- 
lency the Lord-lieutenant, that he will lay before her 
Majesty the humble desire of this house, that five 
thousand pounds be bestowed by her Majesty on the 
provost, fellows, and scholars of Trinity College, near 
Dublin, for erecting a public library in the said col- 
lege." 

The following is the remonstrance of the House of 
Commons in consequence of, and in reply to the ad- 
dress from the House of Lords. 

" S ABB ATI, 4 DIE AUGUSTI, 171 J. 

" A motion having been made, and the question be- 
ing proposed, that this House having on the first of 



TO BUILD THE COLLEGE LIBRARY. 6l 

June, one thousand seven hundred and nine, come to 
the following resolution, (here the foregoing resolution 
is recited at full length,) which resolution heing laid 
before the Queen's most excellent Majesty, and her 
Majesty having been graciously pleased to order that 
five thousand pounds be paid to the provost, fellows, 
and scholars of Trinity College, near Dublin, in com- 
pliance with our aforesaid application, as appears by 
His Grace the Lord-lieutenant's speech to both houses 
of Parliament, and the Lords having in their address 
to her Majesty, agreed on the lyth of July last, in- 
serted the following words, viz. ' Your Majesty has 
also extended your royal bounty to the College of 
Dublin, and at such a juncture as must testify to the 
world, that what your Majesty bestowed, was not given 
to promote those principles upon which it was first ap- 
plied for.' 

. " That the Lords in the address have highly in- 
fringed the rights, privileges and liberties of the Com- 
mons, misrepresented her Majesty's condescension to 
their humble application, and have unjustly insinuated 
(to the dishonour of this house) that the principles 
for encouragement of which the aforesaid application 
was made, were such as her Majesty disapproved." 

The numerous and formidable interruptions with 
which the University was assailed and afflicted almost 
from its very commencement, will readily account for 
the slow progress with w r hich its course of studies had 
been marked until the early part of the eighteenth 
century ; for we do not find any mention of lectures 
in anatomy, chemistry or botany in the college course, 
until the year 17 10. In June of that year ground 
was appropriated within the college park for a labora- 
tory and anatomical theatre ; and on opening the 
building in the following year, Dr. Hoyle lectured in 
anatomy ; Dr. Griffith, in chemistry, and Dr. Nichol- 
son in botany. Considerable improvements were made 
in these professorships, as we shall notice farther on. 

The next circumstance connected with the college 
which came before Parliament was an inquiry into the 
right claimed by the members of the college to vote 



62 DISPUTE OF THE RIGHT OF VOTING 

for member of parliament for the city of Dublin. It 
seems that the resident students had, for some time 
past, laid claim to the exercise of the elective fran- 
chise for the city, and insisted that the occupancy of 
chambers in college, entitled them to vote for repre- 
sentatives in the same way as if they enjoyed the free- 
dom of the corporation. The original ground for that 
notion cannot now be ascertained, but it might have 
had some reference to the original grant of lands made 
by the civic body for the site of the University ; it 
was, however, in some instances, carried into effect, and 
would have been established as a customary right, but 
that in the year 1713, the corporation resisted it, and 
brought the case before the cognizance of parliament, 
by a complaint of the infringement of their chartered 
privileges. The following proceedings took place in 
consequence, and terminated in deciding the question 
of right in favour of the city. 

" JO VIS, 3 DIE DECEMBRIS, 1713. 

" Ordered, that the vice-provost of the college of 
Dublin do lay before this house, the register books of 
the college ; in which the names and ages of all the 
members of the college that voted in the election of 
representatives in Parliament for the city of Dublin 
were entered. 

" SABBATI, 5 DIE DECEMBRIS, 1713. 

" Ordered, that the vice-provost of the college of 
Dublin do direct the proper officer of the college to 
bring in a list of such scholars as have chambers by 
courtesy, and by what title such as have chambers in 
their own right hold the same, and what interest they 
have therein. 

" MARTII, 8 DIE DECEMBRIS, 1713. 

" The provost's sizer attending at the door, was called 
in, and delivered at the bar a book of the names of 
the students admitted into the college of Dublin, the 
title of which being read, 



DECIDED IN FAVOUR OF THE CITY. 63 

" Ordered, that the same do lie on the tahle for the 
members' perusal. 

66 LUN.E, 14 DIE DECEMBRIS, 1713. 

" Thomas Hudson, provost's sizer, delivered in at 
the table a list of such as have chambers in the college, 
with their ages. 

" MARTII, 15 DIE DECEMBRIS, 1713. 

" Resolved, that no fellow, scholar, or student of Tri- 
nity College, in Dublin, has any right to vote in the 
election of members to sit in Parliament for the city 
of Dublin, upon account of their having chambers in 
the said college." 

In the years 1717 an d 17^1 the provost and board 
petitioned Parliament for an augmentation of the royal 
bounty towards defraying the expenses of the library ; 
for the erection of which they had received five thou- 
sand pounds in the year 1709, from Queen Ann in 
compliance with an address of the House of Commons. 
That sum was found insufficient to complete the work 
according to the design on which it had been com- 
menced, and the choice of which reflected great credit 
upon the spirit and taste of the governors of the col- 
lege, who could not have better applied the public 
bounty, than in the construction of an edifice, which, 
in extent, symmetry, and classical splendour, no one 
can behold without acknowledging it one of the noblest 
temples that has been erected to literature in any 
country. 

This is not the place to enter into a particular de- 
scription of this great work, but it may be observed 
here, that the internal state of Ireland had been for 
centuries adverse to the prosperity of learning and the 
arts, yet the library of Dublin college would have been 
worthy of a nation in profound peace, and in an era 
of the happiest refinement. The following passages 
prove the readiness with which parliament seconded 
the intentions of the heads of the college on that oc- 
casion. 

" A petition of the provost, fellows, and scholars of 



64 THE COMMONS VOTE 5000 TO COLLEGE. 

Trinity College, near Dublin, setting forth, * that 
pursuant to the address of the House of Commons in 
one thousand seven hundred and nine, the petitioners 
received five thousand pounds, and have faithfully 
and carefully laid it out towards erecting a library, 
but that the said sum is not sufficient to finish that 
work, and declaring their resolution to instruct the 
youth under their care, in principles of zeal and affec- 
tion. to the constitution in church and state, and of 
duty and loyalty to his Majesty, King George, and his 
royal family,' was presented to the House and read. 

" Resolved, that this House do address His Grace 
the Lord-lieutenant that he will lay before his Majesty, 
the humble desire of this house, that his Majesty will be 
pleased out of his royal bounty to give to the provost, 
fellows, and scholars of Trinity College, near Dublin, 
such sum or sums, not exceeding five thousand pounds, 
as he shall from time to time judge necessary to be 
expended towards finishing the library of said col- 
lege. 

" Ordered, that such members of this house as are 
of his Majesty's most honourable privy council, do at- 
tend His Grace the Lord-lieutenant with the said ad- 
dress, and lay the same before His Grace. 



" DIE DECEMBRIS, 

" Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer reported from the 
committee appointed to attend His Grace the Lord- 
lieutenant with the address of this House in favour of 
Trinity College, Dublin, that they had attended His 
Grace accordingly, and that thereupon His Grace was 
pleased to return the following answer : 

" I will lay the address of the House of Commons in 
favour of the college before his Majesty, and I make 
no doubt but his Majesty will comply therewith, in 
regard of the duty and zeal they have shewn to his 
royal person and government." 

Dr. William King, Archbishop of Dublin, gave 
to the college, in A.D. 1718, a sum of 500, to found 
a Divinity Lecture, for the better instruction of such 
Bachelors of Arts as intended to enter into holv orders. 



KING'S DIVINITY LECTURE. 6,5 

On Dr. King's decease, in 17^9, a further sum of 
500 was devised to his nephew, the Rev. Robert 
Dougal, " In trust to purchase a further maintenance 
for the said lecturer." This endowment was annexed 
to a lectureship which had been previously supported 
in the college ; it was an annual office, and constantly 
held by a senior fellow ; the salary being small, it was 
indispensably held with other places ; but this has all 
been changed and greatly improved some years since, 
by resolutions of the provost and board of senior fel- 
lows, who have rendered this lectureship properly effi- 
cient in the Divinity education of the students, by deter- 
mining that the office of Archbishop King's lecturer 
shall always be held by a junior fellow, who must re- 
sign his pupils, and is ineligible to any college office 
except that of University Preacher. He can hold the 
office until elected a senior fellow, or be removed by 
death, resignation, deprivation, or other cause. The 
salary annexed to the office is seven hundred pounds. 



" 6 DIE OCTOBRIS, 

" A petition of the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars 
of Trinity College, near Dublin, setting forth, 'that the 
sums already granted for finishing the library, though 
expended with the utmost care and frugality, 'are found 
insufficient for that purpose, and giving fresh assurance 
of their inviolable attachment to the late happy revo- 
lution, and the present establishment under his Majesty 
King George, and that they will always continue to 
discountenance and exterminate, as far as in them 
lies, all principles of a contrary tendency,' was pre- 
sented to the House and read. 

" Resolved, that the House do address his Grace the 
Lord Lieutenant that he will lay before his Majesty the 
humble desire of this House that his Majesty will be 
pleased out of his royal bounty to give to the provost, 
fellows, and scholars of Trinity College, near Dublin, 
such sum or sums, not exceeding five thousand pounds, 
as shall from time to time be judged necessary to be 
expended for finishing the library of said college." 

In the year 1724 an act of parliament was obtained 



66 ERASMUS SMITH'S PROFESSORSHIPS. 

to authorize the further application of the rents and 
profits of the lands and tenements formerly given hy 
Erasmus Smith, Esq., for charitable uses. Under the 
regulations of this act the Professorships of Natural 
Philosophy and Oratory were founded in the manner 
following : 

" That from and after the first day of May, 1?24, 
there he founded and continued for ever in the col- 
lege, two public lectures ; that is to say, one of Oratory 
and History, and the other of Natural and Experi- 
mental Philosophy ; and the provost and senior fel- 
lows are hereby empowered and required, on or be- 
fore the said first day of May, to examine all such 
candidates as shall stand candidates for the said 
lectures in the said college, at such times and in such 
places as the said provost and senior fellows shall think 
fit ; three weeks' notice being first given, and affixed 
on the said college gate. 

" That the provost and senior fellows shall, within 
ten days after such examination, certify and return to 
the governors of the schools of Erasmus Smith, two of 
the best qualified and deserving of the said candidates, 
to be by them approved, as public lecturers in the col- 
lege. And in case the persons whose names shall be 
returned shall not be approved of by the said go- 
vernors within three months after they shall be so re- 
turned, then the provost and fellows shall proceed to 
a new election as before, and return the name of the 
party to the governors, until an approved person shall 
have been chosen. 

" The persons thus appointed shall continue in this 
office only for such time as the said governors shall, 
by letter, limit and appoint. They are publicly to 
teach and instruct the students and members of the 
said college in such parts of Oratory and History, 
Natural and Experimental Philosophy, at such times 
and places as the provost and board shall appoint. 

" That every professor so appointed shall annually, 
whilst he holds the office, read publicly four lectures, 
on days and at places appointed by the provost and 
board, and shall present to the governors two of his 



A CONTESTED ELECTION IN COLLEGE. (>7 

lectures yearly, to be printed and published if they think 
proper. The lecturers' places are to be filled up by some 
members of the college within three months after they 
become vacant. 

" When a student, scholar, or any other member of 
college to whom any of Erasmus Smith's Exhibitions is, 
or has been payable, shall be a candidate for those of- 
fices, such scholar, student, or member (cseteris paribus) 
shall at all times in such election be preferred before 
all other persons. 

" In case of any lecturer so appointed being a fel- 
low, or becoming one afterwards, and when he has been 
permitted to continue in this office to the time of his 
resigning his fellowship, such professor shall only be 
allowed to hold his office for such longer time after 
the resignation of his fellowship as shall appear to the 
provost and board expedient to enable them to provide 
that the lecture may be continued with the least in- 
terruption by his successor ; but the officer is not to 
hold his office on any pretext for more than six months 
after resigning his fellowship. And if any such public 
lecturer shall be removed from his fellowship in the 
college, then his office of lecturer shall be vacated by 
such removal, and the provost and board are to notify 
such removal to the treasurer and board of Erasmus 
Smith." 

In the year 1739, there was a severe contest for the 
honour of representing the University, which gave 
rise to an investigation before a committee of the 
House of Commons on the petition of Philip Tisdall, 
a candidate, against the return of the sitting members ; 
the results will be seen by the ensuing passages from 
the journal. 



" 



VENERIS, 2 DIE NOVEMBRIS, 1739. 



" A petition of Philip Tisdall, Esq., complaining of 
an undue election and return for the College of Dublin, 
was presented to the House, and read. 

" Ordered to be referred to the committee of privi- 
leges and elections, and that they do examine the 



68 A CONTESTED ELECTION. 

matter thereof, and report the same, with their opinion 
thereon, to the House. 

" Ordered, that it be an instruction of the commit- 
tee of privileges that they do hear the matter of the 
petition of Philip Tisdall, complaining of an undue elec- 
tion and return for the College of Dublin, on Tuesday 
the <27th instant." 

" JOVIS, 29 DIE NOVEMBRIS, 1739- 

" Dr. Trotter, according to order, reported from 
the committee of privileges and elections, that they 
had heard the matter touching the election and return 
for the College or University of Dublin, and had come 
to several resolutions thereupon, which he read in his 
place, and afterwards delivered in at the table, where 
the same were read and agreed to by the house ; and 
are as follows : 

"' Resolved, that it is the opinion of this committee 
that Alexander Macauley, Esq., is not duly returned 
a member to serve in this present parliament for the 
College or University near Dublin. 

" ' Resolved, that it is the opinion of this committee 
that Philip Tisdall, Esq., is duly elected a member 
to serve in this present parliament for the College of 
Dublin.' 

" Ordered, that the clerk of the crown do attend this 
house immediately and amend the return by razing 
out the name of the said Alexander Macauley and in- 
serting the name of Philip Tisdall instead thereof. 

" And Mr. Madden, deputy clerk of the crown, at- 
tended, and according to order, amended the return 
for the College of Dublin by razing out the name of 
Alexander Macauley, Esq., and writing the name of 
Philip Tisdall, Esq., instead thereof." 

SECTION III. 

In 1751, the number of students had increased so 
much as to make it necessary to enlarge the college 
buildings for their accommodation. No fund was ori- 
ginally set apart for that purpose, as in the then state 
of Ireland such an event had not been contemplated ; but 



GREAT INCREASE OF STUDENTS. 69 

the comparative repose which the country at this time 
enjoyed in its domestic interests made the influence of 
learning rapidly gain ground, and brought candidates 
to the walks of classic ambition from the furthest 
parts of the kingdom. 

It was then becoming apparent that the affection 
which the natives of that country have ever displayed 
for useful and extensive learning, only required poli- 
tical tranquillity to allow the development of its latent 
powers, to produce the most beneficial consequences. 
An application by petition was therefore made to Par- 
liament by the Provost, Fellows and Scholars, for a 
sum of money to enable them to carry the requisite 
alterations into effect. This petition was received by 
the legislature with expressions of a just sense of the 
important interests for which it pleaded ; and the 
House of Commons voted such sums as enabled the 
applicants to complete the principal Square, and also 
to finish the elegant west front of the College, the 
latter part being particularly admired, both for its 
academic character and as a classic ornament to the 
metropolis. 

The following extracts from the Commons' Journals 
will best explain the feeling of that House. 



" JO VIS, 31 DIE OCTOBRIS, 

" A petition of the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars 
of the College of Dublin, setting forth, that the said 
college does not contain chambers sufficient for lodg- 
ing the number of young gentlemen who, for several 
years past, have been sent thither for their education, 
and that many of the buildings of the said college are, 
from length of time, become ruinous, and are not ca- 
pable of being restored ; that by the statutes of the 
college no provision is made for new buildings, or for 
any other but the common annual repairs of the build- 
ing originally provided, notwithstanding which, the 
petitioners have expended several large sums, which 
by great care they have saved out of the ordinary ex- 
penses of the college, on necessary public buildings, 
and to increase the number of chambers for the recep- 
tion of students. 



70 INCREASE OF BUILDINGS. 

" That the petitioners have expended in manner 
aforesaid, all moneys which they have been able to 
spare from the indispensable uses of the college, and 
have it not in their power to add further to the build- 
ings, or to rebuild such of them as have become 
ruinous. 

"It further states, that the petitioners have always 
instructed, with the greatest care, the youth confided 
to their charge, in the principles of zeal and affection 
to the constitution as by law established in Church and 
State, and of duty and loyalty to the Royal Family." 

To this application the following answer was re- 
turned : 

" Resolved (nem. con.) that the House do address 
his Grace the Lord-Lieutenant, that he will lay be- 
fore his Majesty the humble desire of this House, 
that his Majesty will be pleased, out of his royal 
bounty, to give to the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars 
of Trinity College such sum or sums, not exceeding 
5,000, as he shall think fit, to be expended towards 
rebuilding and adding to said college." 

This address was ordered to be presented by mem- 
bers of the house who were of the Privy Council. 

Having obtained the foregoing grant, the heads of 
the college appear to have proceeded very satisfactorily 
with the objects proposed in their petition: much ad- 
ditional accommodation was obtained for the residence 
of students, yet the demand for chambers appears to 
have increased steadily. This was occasioned by the 
great improvement in the wealth, taste, and general 
knowledge of the people, which rendered it indis- 
pensable that their national University should be ex- 
tended, not only in its domestic plan, but that the aid 
of architecture should be called in, to bestow upon 
its external appearance that character of collegiate 
dignity which should ever belong to these valuable 
institutions : and finding that the Government, as 
well as the Parliament, were favourably disposed to 
assist in this very desirable object, the Provost, 
Fellows, and Scholars did, in November 17.53, send up 
a petition to the House of Commons, praying "for 
aid to enable them to rebuild the west front of said 



BISHOP BERKELEY'S GOLD MEDALS. 71 

College ;" and without delay the House passed a resolu- 
tion unanimously, to present an address to his Ex- 
cellency the Lord Lieutenant, requesting his lordship 
to lay before the King the humble desire of the House 
of Commons, that his Majesty would be pleased out 
of his royal bounty to give to the petitioners (named) 
" such sum or sums, not exceeding 20,000, as his 
Majesty should think fit, to be expended in rebuild- 
ing and making additions to said College." And 
such was the desire of the Government to second the 
zeal and liberality of the Irish Legislature, that on 
the third day after the above resolution had been 
passed, Mr. Conway, then Secretary of State for 
Ireland, reported to the House, that their address to 
his Excellency the Lord Lieutenant in favour of the 
College had been presented to his Excellency, who 
upon reading it was pleased to return the following 
answer. 

" I will immediately transmit the address of the 
House of Commons in favour of the College to his 
Majesty, and I make no doubt of his Majesty's con- 
tinuing his royal favour to that loyal and learned 
society." 

This assurance of the Viceroy appears to have 
been very well founded, for with the supplies arising 
from the munificent grant to which it alludes, the 
heads of the college went on steadily with their im- 
provements in building for about two years, when we 
find that, in November IJ55, another application was 
made to Parliament for additional aid towards com- 
pleting the works in progress. 

In the year 1752, Dr. Berkeley, the celebrated 
Bishop of Cloyne, being anxious to promote the study 
of the Greek language, gave a benefaction of one hun- 
dred and twenty guineas and a medal die to the Pro- 
vost and Board, for the purpose of having gold medals 
struck, two of which were to be given annually, for 
ever, as an encouragement to Bachelors of Arts to 
increase their knowledge of that language. 

To this proposition the Provost and Board at once 
assented, and directed that these medals should be given 



72 20,000 VOTED BY PARLIAMENT. 

to the middle bachelors, who have attended the lec- 
tures of the Regius Professor of Greek with remark- 
able diligence for two academic years, commencing 
with the term in which they received their Bachelor's 
degree. We do not, however, find any record of the 
presentation of these medals until the year 1781, and 
from that time down to 1821, ten years of that period 
have no record of the parties' names who received 
these medals, and one year (1817) the medals were 
not given; but from 1821 to the present time the 
names have been regularly recorded. 

The comparative and indeed almost complete relief 
which Ireland experienced from the suppression of 
domestic wars and foreign intrigues during the last 
sixty years, (from 1692,) had increased this community 
so much, that its buildings could no longer afford 
proper accommodation to the students who crowded 
here to obtain by education the means which it offered 
them to obtain the honours and emoluments of pro- 
fessional life. 

The Corporation therefore applied to Parliament 
for aid to rebuild the old, and erect new buildings 
and halls sufficient to supply the increased demand. 
For this purpose the following document was pre- 
sented to the House of Commons on the first of No- 
vember, 1755. 

" 1ST OF NOVEMBER, 1755. 

" A petition of the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars of 
the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of 
Queen Elizabeth, near Dublin, praying aid to enable 
them to rebuild the front of said College, was pre- 
sented to the House and read. 

" Resolved, nem. con., that an humble address T)e 
presented to his Excellency the Lord Lieutenant that 
he will lay before his Majesty the humble desire of 
this house, that his Majesty will be pleased, out of his 
royal bounty, to give the Provost, Fellows, and 
Scholars of Trinity College, near Dublin, such sum 
or sums, not exceeding 20,000, as he shall think fit 
to be expended towards rebuilding and adding to said 



5000 VOTED BY PARLIAMENT. 73 

College." This was promptly attended to, as we find 
by the following documents. 

" 3RD OF NOVEMBER, 1755. 

" The Right Hon. Mr. Secretary Con way reported 
to the House, that their address to his Excellency the 
Lord Lieutenant in favour of Trinity College near 
Dublin had been presented to his Excellency, who 
therefore was pleased to return the following answer. 

" ' I will immediately transmit the address of the 
House of Commons in favour of the College to his 
Majesty, and I make no doubt of his Majesty con- 
tinuing his royal favour to that loyal and learned 
society.'" With the liberal supply thus promptly 
afforded, the renovation and improvement of the 
College halls and chambers was carried on with great 
alacrity for two years, when another supply became 
indispensable, as the following extract will show. 

" 2 DIE NOVEMBRIS, 1757- 

" A petition of the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars of 
the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of 
Queen Elizabeth, near Dublin, setting forth that his 
Majesty, in pursuance of the address of this honour- 
able House, was graciously pleased, since the last 
session of Parliament, to give the petitioners the sum 
of 5000, to be expended towards rebuilding and 
adding to the said College ; that the petitioners have 
since proceeded with the greatest diligence to rebuild 
one side of the first court entering into the said 
College, in which they have been greatly delayed by 
the difficulty of finding a sufficient foundation ; that 
the petitioners find it will be necessary to rebuild the 
front of the said College, but as the sum received will 
not be sufficient for that purpose, and as no provision 
is made by the statutes of said College for the ex- 
pense of any new buildings, or for any other but the 
annual necessary repairs of the buildings originally 
erected, the petitioners find themselves disabled from 
proceeding in the said undertaking unless assisted 
therein by further bounty of this house ; that the 



74 PARLIAMENT VOTES 20,000 TO COLLEGE. 

petitioners have always attended with the utmost care 
to educate the youth committed to their charge in 
principles of duty and loyalty to his Majesty, and zeal 
for the Protestant succession as happily established in 
his royal house, and praying the house to take the 
premises into consideration, and to do therein as to 
the House shall seem proper, was presented to the 
House and read. 

"Resolved nem. con., that an humble address be 
presented to his Grace the Lord Lieutenant, that he 
will lay before his Majesty the humble desire of the 
House, that his Majesty will, out of his royal bounty, 
be pleased to give to the Provost, Fellows, and 
Scholars of Trinity College, Dublin, such sum or 
sums, not exceeding 5000, as he shall think fit, to be 
expended towards rebuilding and adding to the said 
'College. 

" Ordered, that such members as are of the Privy 
Council do attend his Grace the Lord Lieutenant 
with the said address." 

Like the previous appeals, this one was attended 
to in the most ready and cordial manner, of which 
good feeling on the part of the monarch and ministers, 
the following papers are the best evidence. 

" JOVIS, 3 DIE NOVEMBRIS, 17<59- 

" A petition of the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars 
of the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of 
Queen Elizabeth, near Dublin, was presented to the 
House and read, setting forth that his Majesty, in 
pursuance of the address of the House, was graciously 
pleased since the last session of Parliament to give 
the petitioners 20,000, to be expended in finishing 
the north side of the first court entering into the 
said College, and in rebuilding the front of said 
College ; that the petitioners have with all possible ex- 
pedition and care finished the said north side, and are 
now rebuilding the front, but as the sum received will 
not be sufficient for that purpose, and as no provision 
is made by the statutes of said College for the ex- 
pense of any new building, or for any but the annual 



THE LIBERAL FEELING CONTINUED. J5 

necessary repairs of the said buildings originally 
erected, the petitioners find themselves disabled from 
completing and finishing the said undertaking, unless 
assisted therein by the further aid of the House ; that 
the petitioners have always attended with the utmost 
care to educate the youth committed to their charge 
in the principles of duty and loyalty to his Majesty, 
and zeal for the support of the Protestant succes- 
sion, as happily established in his royal house, and pray- 
ing the House to take their case into consideration. 

" Resolved, nem. con., that an humble address be 
presented to his Grace the Lord Lieutenant, that he 
will lay before his Majesty the humble desire of the 
house, that his Majesty will be pleased, out of his royal 
bounty, to give to the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars 
of Trinity College, near Dublin, such sum or sums, 
not exceeding 10,000, as he shall think fit to be ex- 
pended in completing the building now carrying on in 
the said College. 

" Ordered, that the said address be presented to his 
Grace by such members of this House as are of his 
Majesty's most honourable Privy Council. 

" 9TH DIE NOVEMBRIS, 17 5Q. 

" The Right Hon. Mr. Secretary Rigby reported 
from the committee appointed to attend his Grace 
the Lord Lieutenant* with the address of this house, 
in favour of Trinity College near Dublin, that they 
had attended his Grace accordingly, and that there- 
fore his Grace was pleased to return the following 
answer. 

" * I will immediately transmit the address of the 
House of Commons, in favour of the College, to his 
Majesty, and make no doubt of his Majesty con- 
tinuing his royal favour to that loyal and learned 
society." ' 

SECTION IV. 

In 1761, King George III. constituted (by the 
statute de professoribus} the Professorship of Divinity 

The Duke of Bedford. 



76 THE REGIUS PROFESSORSHIP OF DIVINITY. 

into a Regius Professorship, and placed it under the 
following regulations : viz. 

1st. That the Professor be elected from the senior 
fellows of the College within three months after 
knowledge of a vacancy, by the Provost or Vice 
Provost and major part of the Senior Fellows. 

Immediately after his election, the Professor must 
vacate his Fellowship, and resign all the right, power, 
and privileges of a Fellow. 

Those privileged to attend this lecture are, the 
Bachelors of Arts, except those who are engaged in 
the study of Law or Medicine and all Masters of 
Arts of the first and second years. 

The Professor is bound to deliver a prelection at 
the beginning of each term, wherein he is to lay before 
his auditors and explain to them the order and sub- 
jects of the studies appointed for that term. He is to 
lecture twice a week during term, explaining the 
Holy Scriptures, and discussing the controversies with 
the enemies of Christianity and the antagonists of 
our church. The Professor shall also give lectures 
and hold examinations in Ecclesiastical History, and 
shall select the books (with the approval of the 
Provost and Senior Fellows) in which the students 
are to be examined. He is to prescribe the Theo- 
logical exercises, and act as moderator in disputations 
for degrees in Divinity. 

The Professor is also to preach before the Uni- 
versity on four appointed Sundays in the year, in 
defence of the Christian religion. The first Pro- 
fessor under the new statute was B rabazon Disney, D.D. 

The Professorship of Feudal and English Law, was 
also founded by statute in this year. The Professor 
is elected by the Provost and Fellows, and must be a 
barrister of two years' standing. 

This officer may be elected for life or for a term of 
years, at the discretion of the electors. If he be a 
Fellow of this College, he must be appointed for life, 
and then resign his Fellowship. Immediately on his 
being elected, the Professor is admitted and sworn by 
the Provost or Vice Provost in the College Chapel. 

Dr. Francis Stoughton Sullivan, LL.D., was the 



ANDREWS S PROFESSORSHIP OF ASTRONOMY. 77 

first person elected to this professorship : he was not 
a Fellow. 

In the year 1762, an important addition was made 
to the College course by the founding of three new 
professorships by the Trustees of Erasmus Smith's 
Charities. These professorships were placed under 
similar regulations to those already founded by that 
Board. They were those of Mathematics, History, 
and the Oriental Languages, the former professorship 
of Oratory and History being restricted to Oratory 
only, and a distinct professorship of Modern History 
founded. 

In 1769 the Right Hon. Philip Tisdall was elected 
for Ardmagh and also for this College ; he made his 
election for the latter place. In the same year, the 
Right Hon. Francis Andrews was elected for Bally- 
shannon and Londonderry ; he made his election for 
the former borough. 

16th of March 1772. A bill was brought into 
Parliament to vest the estates of Dr. John Stearne, 
Bishop of Clogher, in trustees appointed for carrying 
the charitable and other bequests of his will into exe- 
cution. 

In the year 1774 another important, and indeed 
essential Professorship to the course of University 
education, was provided for by the munificent bequest 
of Provost Andrews, who in that year left a sum of 
3000 to the College, to be expended in erecting and 
furnishing an observatory, and in providing proper in- 
struments for the purpose of making astronomical ob- 
servations in such places as the Provost and Senior 
Fellows should think most suitable for that purpose. 
Dr. Andrews also left the annual sum of 250 for 
ever, to be applied in paying the salaries of a pro- 
fessor of Astronomy, and of a person skilful in taking 
astronomical observations, and such other assistants 
as the Provost and Board shall appoint. There was 
no time lost by the heads of the College to carry 
into effect the intentions of the testator, but their 
object was unexpectedly retarded for some time by an 
opposition which they met with from some relatives 



78 CONTESTED ELECTION AT COLLEGE. 

who were also devisees of the late Provost Andrews ; 
and who, in May, 1780, petitioned the House of 
Commons, in which they prayed the honourable 
House to interfere and investigate certain strong facts 
therein stated, of alleged injustice to which they had 
been subjected by the conduct of Dr. Andre ws's suc- 
cessor, (Provost Hutchinson,) in evicting them from 
the leasehold property which had been devised to 
them by Dr. Andrews. An abstract of the proceed- 
ings in this curious and rather complicated case could 
hardly be given with sufficient clearness to be satis- 
factory to any readers but those of the legal profes- 
sion, besides which it may be useful to shew, that be- 
quests if not made with the greatest possible accuracy, 
may prove injurious instead of beneficial to the 
devisees for whose advantage they may be devised, 
as the statements at pages 81, &c., will prove. 

On the 8th of December, 1775, it was ordered 
that the committee of the whole house, on the paving 
bill, should be empowered to raise a clause to remit 
the annual sum to be paid by the Corporation of 
Trinity College, Dublin, for paving, flagging, &c., such 
places as they have been accustomed to pave, flag, &c., 
which was done. 

The following year a disputed election occasioned 
the following proceedings : 

" A petition of the Right Hon. Philip Tisdall, com- 
plaining of an undue election and return for the 
borough of the College of the Holy and Undivided 
Trinity of Queen Elizabeth, near Dublin, was read. 

" Ordered, that said petition be taken into con- 
sideration on the 13th day of July next." 

On the 27th of October 1777, the petition of 
Robert Madder and George King, on behalf of them- 
selves and others, the electors of the College, &c., 
near Dublin, was presented to the House and read. 
It charges the Right Hon. Hely Hutchinson, Provost, 
with partiality as returning officer, and states that 
the Right Hon. Philip Tisdall had a fair majority of 
legal votes over Richard Hely Hutchinson, Esquire, 
although the latter was declared duly elected by the 



PETITION AGAINST RETURN OF R. H. HUTCHINSON. 79 

Provost : the petitioners conceive themselves highly 
aggrieved by said return, and request, on behalf of 
themselves and other electors, that the House will order 
the name of the said Right Hon. H. Hutchinson to 
be expunged from the list, and that a new writ may 
issue for the election of a member for said borough 
in his room, (Mr. Tisdall died pending the business,) 
or for other relief. It was ordered that the petition 
should be taken into consideration on the 23rd of 
January following. 

The committee met accordingly, and, after several 
adjournments, came at last, on the 9th of February, to 
the following decision, viz. 

" Mr. Thomas Loyd reported that the select com- 
mittee appointed to try and determine the merits of 
the petition of Robert Madder and George King on 
behalf of themselves and others, the electors of the 
borough of the College of Queen Elizabeth near 
Dublin, complaining of an undue election and return 
for the said borough have determined : 

" ' That Richard Hely Hutchinson, Esquire, was not 
duly elected, and ought not to have been returned a 
burgess to serve in this present Parliament for the 
said borough of the College of Queen Elizabeth near 
Dublin." His name was accordingly erased, and a 
writ issued for a new election. 

SECTION V. 

The serious dispute before alluded to, commenced 
at this time, between the devisees of the late Pro- 
vost Andrews and the corporation of the College; 
the affair was brought before Parliament, as we shall 
see presently. 

VENERIS, 12 DIE MAII, 1780. 

" Resolved, that an humble address be presented to 
his Excellency the Lord Lieutenant, that he will be 
pleased to give directions to the proper officer to lay 
before the House the memorial presented to the Lords 
Justices by Dr. F. Andrews in the year 1759, praying 



80 PROFESSORSHIP OF MODERN LANGUAGES. 

an augmentation of salary to the Provost of the 
College*. 

" Ordered to be presented by such members as are 
of the Privy Council." 

In the year 1777 during the Provostship of the 
Right Hon. John Hely Hutchinson, another im- 
portant addition was made to the system of education 
in this University; this was the founding of the two 
Professorships of Modern Languages. In pursuance 
of the provost's application for that purpose, King 
George III. caused the following royal letter to be 
issued in October 177 6, directed to the Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland. 

" Whereas our right trusty and well beloved 
counsellor John Hely Hutchinson, Provost of our 
College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen 
Elizabeth, near Dublin, has introduced into said 
College, two professors or teachers of Modern Lan- 
guages, the one of whom teaches French and German, 
and the other the Spanish and Italian languages. 
Now we being desirous of supporting the intentions 
of our said Provost, for the good of our said College, 
have given and granted to the Provost, Fellows, and 
Scholars of the College, yearly, the sum of two hundred 
pounds, payable out of such of our revenues in our 
said kingdom of Ireland, as are liable thereto, to 
commence from the 29th day of September last, and 
to be payable half-yearly, on the 2,5th day of March 
and 29th day of September. One hundred pounds 
of said sum to be paid yearly, to a professor or teacher 
of the French and German, and the other one hundred 
pounds to be paid yearly to a professor or teacher of 
Spanish and Italian. The said professors or teachers 
to be resident in the said College, and to be subject 
to such regulations and orders as the Provost and 
Fellows shall from time to time make for their direction 
and government. The said professors or teachers to 
be appointed by us, our heirs and successors, during 
our pleasure." 

* Dr. Frapcis Andrews. 



PETITION OF DR. ANDREW s's DEVISEES. 81 

In 1785, the professorship of French and German 
was divided into two, when Lieut.-Col. Hamilton was 
appointed professor of German, and the Rev. T. 
Bassonet, professor of French ; but in 1?97 the two 
languages were again united under one professor. 

The following is the entry in the Journal of the 
13th of May 1780, to which we have alluded at 
page 79- 

" A petition of Robert Gamble and George Gamble, 
Esq., and Mrs. Sarah Norman, the devisees named 
in the will of the late Right Hon. Francis Andrews, 
deceased, was presented to the House and read, setting 
forth, that the said F. Andrews, who was provost of 
Trinity College near Dublin, departed this life the 
12th of June, 1774, having first made his last will and 
testament in writing, and thereby did devise his lease- 
hold interests in the counties of Galway and Meath 
to his mother for life, subject to the sum of 10 a 
year to the Infirmary of the county of Galway, and 
also of 10 a year to the Infirmary of the county of 
Meath ; and did will and direct that after the decease 
of his said mother, his leasehold interest in the county 
of Galway should go to the petitioner Robert Gamble, 
subject to an annuity of 100 therein mentioned ; and 
did direct that his said leasehold interest in the county 
of Meath should go to the petitioner George Gamble, 
subject to an annuity of 100 to the petitioner Sarah 
Norman for her life ; that the said testator by his will 
devised all his paternal estate situate in the county of 
Antrim, of the yearly value of 665 and no more, to 
his said mother during her life, subject to certain 
annuities therein mentioned amounting to 120 
yearly, and after the decease of his said mother he 
devised his paternal estate to trustees therein named 
and the heirs, upon trust, in the first place to raise by 
the receipt of the rents and profits thereof the sum 
of 3000, and pay the same to the provost, fellows, 
and scholars of Trinity College, Dublin, to be by 
them employed in erecting and furnishing an observa- 
tory ; and that said trustees and heirs, after raising 
the said sum of 3000, should raise the annual sum 



82 PETITION CONTINUED. 

of 250 for ever, to be applied in paying the salaries 
of a professor of Astronomy, and person skilled in 
taking Astronomical Observations ; and subject to the 
said several charges and annuities, devised all his said 
estate to his said mother and her heirs for ever. That 
the Right Hon. John Hely Hutchinson, the present 
provost of said College, upon the death of the late 
provost, instituted several suits (as provost of the said 
College) at law and in equity for the purpose of evict- 
ing the said leasehold interests, alleging that the 
said leases had not been made according to strict legal 
powers, and after a variety of tedious and most ex- 
pensive proceedings in a suit in the Court of Chancery 
in this kingdom, the provost appealed from the deter- 
mination made against him therein to the Lords of 
England, who were pleased to dismiss the said appeal, 
but he, after being defeated in equity, then proceeded 
at law, and at length obtained the verdict of a jury, 
defeating the title of the petitioners to the leasehold 
interests in the county of Galway, so bequeathed by 
the said provost aforesaid. That the petitioners 
acquiesced under said verdict after having expended 
upwards of 2000 in said suit, and gave up, as well 
the lease of the lands in the county of Meath, as the 
lease of the lands in the county of Galway, without 
further trouble or litigation ; and the present provost 
now holds and enjoys the said leasehold interests so 
devised to the petitioners by the late provost as afore- 
said, and which at present yields a clear yearly profit 
of 800 or thereabouts. ' That it seems apparent 
from the said will that the said testator intended that 
his said mother Elizabeth should have the profits both 
of the said real estate and leasehold interest charged 
as aforesaid during the term of her natural life ; that 
the petitioners Robert and George should have the 
leasehold interests after the decease of the said Eliza- 
beth, subject to the annuities before mentioned ; that 
the petitioner Sarah should have the annuity of 100 
before mentioned, and that the charitable bequests 
were by the said will intended for the respective In- 
firmaries of Galway and Meath, but the said present 



PETITION CONTINUED. 83 

provost by defeating said leases as aforesaid, has, as 
petitioners humbly apprehend, disappointed every 
object of the testator in every item of the particulars 
before mentioned, and therefore the petitioners humbly 
conceive that the bequests and devise made in favour 
of said present provost and fellows, &c., as before 
mentioned, was made to them in error, and upon a 
supposition that they never would have controverted 
the other bequests, or any of them, made by the said 
will, and the petitioners humbly submit whether it 
is just or reasonable that the same person, or body of 
men, should not only control, but defeat the will of 
the testator in every material instance as aforesaid, 
and yet be permitted to establish the same in a par- 
ticular instance, seemingly much less material ; and 
the petitioners humbly submit whether it is just that 
the petitioners, who appear to be the first and great 
objects of the testator's bounty, should be, some of 
them partially, some of them totally, unprovided for ; 
and that charitable donations really material to the 
community should be entirely defeated, at the same 
time that a secondary object, and that perhaps rather 
ornamental than material, should be established. That 
the value of the said leasehold interest of which the 
petitioners were evicted in manner aforesaid, and 
whatever now held and enjoyed by the present provost, 
exceeded considerably the value of the bequests of the 
late provost charged on his paternal estate for the use 
of the College, and by such evictions the testator's in- 
tention is defeated, and the petitioners are totally de- 
prived of the present income intended for them by 
said will out of said leasehold bequests, and the 
mother of the said late provost, by being deprived in 
manner aforesaid of so large a portion of the income 
intended for and devised to her by her son the said 
late provost, was unable to make that provision and 
compensation for the devisees that otherwise she 
might and would have made, and therefore pray- 
ing that leave be given to bring in heads of a bill for 
the relief of petitioners, in conformity only to what 



84 COUNTER PETITION OF PROVOST AND FELLOWS. 

appears evidently to be the intention of said testator, 
and that each party may have the full benefit intended 
by the will of the testator and no more. 

" Ordered that said petition be referred to the con- 
sideration of a committee. 

" And a committee was appointed of Sir F. Flood, 
Mr. Montgomery of Donegal, and others, or any five 
or more of them, and they are to meet to-morrow 
morning at nine of the clock in the speaker's chamber. 

" A petition of the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars of 
the College of &c., &c., near Dublin, under their 
common seal was presented to the House and read, 
setting forth that the petitioners have seen a printed 
paper, importing to be a copy of a petition from the 
executors and devisees of the Right Hon. F. Andrews, 
deceased, praying that heads of a bill may be brought 
in, to deprive the said college of part of its property; 
that the petitioners, alarmed at an attempt of novelty, 
and of such importance to the common right of the 
subject as well as to the particular rights of said 
college, think it their duty to lay before the House the 
circumstances of their case, viz. That the Reverend 
Richard Baldwin, deceased, many years provost of 
said college, died on the 30th day of September in the 
year 17^8, having by his will devised to the petition- 
ers a considerable real and personal estate ; that the 
Right Hon. F. Andrews, deceased, the late provost 
of the said college, who succeeded the late Dr. 
Baldwin, instituted several suits against several 
tenants of the provost's estate, who devised under 
leases made by the said Dr. Baldwin, and evicted or 
otherwise defeated all the leases made by the said Dr. 
Baldwin, as having been made at an under value, got 
into the possession of said lands, and made leases 
thereof in trust as appears by his will for himself; 
that the college, although the said estate was and is 
the separate estate of the provost for the time being, 
was at the expense of said suits so instituted by the 
said Dr. Andrews, and in the costs of the said suits, 
and in defending bills in equity brought by one of the 



COUNTER PETITION CONTINUED. 85 

tenants of the said Dr. Baldwin, advanced consider- 
able sums of money ; that one of the said tenants re- 
covered from the executors of the said Dr. Baldwin 
the sum of 4500, for the damages sustained in evict- 
ing one of the said leases so evicted as aforesaid by 
the said Francis Andrews, and 7^ 15s. 3d. for the 
costs of said suit, which sums were paid in the 
year 1765 by the then Burser, and were so much lost 
to the said college ; that the said college, by the pay- 
ment of the said sums and the costs of the said several 
suits, lost a sum of 5787 and upwards, which said 
sum was part of the personal estate of the said Dr. 
Baldwin as aforesaid, and had been lent out by him 
at interest at the rate of 5 per cent., and having 
been called in by the petitioners for the purpose afore- 
said, the said college has lost by the said several dis- 
bursements for and on account of the said Dr. Andrews, 
a sum which would in the whole at this day amount 
to 9838 ; that on the death of the said Dr. Andrews, 
the petitioner J. H. Hutchiiison, who succeeded to 
the said office of provost, obtained a verdict against a 
lease made by the said Dr. Andrews, of such part of 
the said provost's estate as lay in the county of Gal way, 
being the most valuable part thereof, as having been 
made at a great under value, and on a compromise, re- 
mitted to the executors of the said Dr. Andrews the 
entire surplus rents of all the provost's estate for the 
first three years of his provostship, together with 600 
of the rents acknowledged to be payable to the provost 
under the lease so made by the said Dr. Andrews, 
amounting in the whole to the sum of 3000 or there- 
abouts ; that the petitioner J. H. Hutchinson would 
not have remitted so considerable a part of his 
property, if he had apprehended that any such at- 
tempt as the present would have been made ; that the be- 
quest made to the college by their late provost, of whose 
bounty and beneficent intentions they are fully sensible, 
is for a purpose not merely ornamental, as has been 
represented, but highly useful and necessary, and 
which the petitioners have not sufficient funds to 
establish ; that the legacy left by the will of the said 



86 COUNTER PETITION CONTINUED. 

Dr. Andrews is to the provost, fellows, and scholars 
of said college, but the corporation of the said college 
never instituted any suit against the executors of the 
late provost, and never interfered in the suits carried 
on by the late or present provost for the eviction of 
the said lease, save only by the payment of the said 
costs as aforesaid for the late said provost, at his 
desire, and those petitioners are advised that the 
provost is a sole corporation, separate and distinct 
from the corporation of the college, and neither the 
petitioners, the senior fellows, nor the corporation of 
said college have controverted or defeated the will of 
the said F. Andrews, and the petitioner J. H. Hutch- 
inson did not otherwise controvert or defeat the same, 
save only by evicting the said lease, which by law he 
was warranted to do ; and in carrying on the said suits 
he expended above 1 ,000 of his own money, and that 
he has not applied, nor does not intend to apply to the 
said college to be paid any part of his expenses, the 
said college not having interfered in any respect in his 
said suits, and that his successor will be in all re- 
spects equally benefited with himself by the eviction 
of the said leases, as he has not made, and does not 
intend to make, any lease or leases in trust for him- 
self, though by the money so remitted and expended 
by him, he loses a sum of <4,000 ; and the said peti- 
tioner, in evicting the said leases, did all in his power 
to prevent any person being injured by it, leaving the 
real tenants and occupiers of the said lands, deriving 
under the said Dr. Andrews, the full benefit of their 
several leases ; and the said petitioner J. Hely Hutch- 
inson apprehends that he has not treated the execu- 
tors of his predecessor with any severity, and he in- 
tended to behave to them with kindness and regard 
as the representatives of an amiable friend and a 
respectable predecessor, who had by his will been 
munificent to said college ; that Elizabeth Tomkins 
died before the petition signed by her was presented, 
and the other petitioners are, as these petitioners are 
informed, strangers to the blood and family of the said 
Dr. Andrews ; and the said Elizabeth Tomkins has 



BOTH PETITIONS REFERRED TO COMMITTEE, 87 

made them ample amends for any disappointment they 
might have received in their expectations under the 
will of the said Dr. Andrews, by devising, as peti- 
tioners are informed, her real estate among them, 
which the petitioners have reason to believe the said 
Elizabeth Tomkins intended as a compensation to 
the petitioners for the eviction of the said leases, and 
that she for that purpose altered a will made by her 
before the said eviction ; that the petitioners lately 
remitted to the executors of the said Dr. Andrews, a 
legal demand which the college had against them, 
amounting to the sum of 585, or thereabouts, which 
the petitioners did in consideration of the said be- 
quest, and if it had been mentioned that the same was 
intended to be controverted, they would not have re- 
mitted the said demand ; that the said several sums 
amount to 10,423, which exceeds the value of the 
annuity and the legacy bequeathed by the said Dr. 
Andrews to the college, exclusive of the sum of 
3,000, which the executor of the said Dr. Andrews 
retained out of the provost's estate, and therefore 
praying the protection of the laws of their country, for 
the said college for which they are trustees, and by 
law to represent that if the other petitioners have any 
equity in their case, which these petitioners by no 
means apprehend, they ought to resort to those courts 
in which the intentions of testators in their wills are 
properly determinable. 

" Ordered, that the said petition be referred to the 
last mentioned committee. 

" Ordered, that the several petitioners be heard by 
their council, if they shall think fit, before the said 
committee." 

" MARTIS, 16 DIE MAII, 1780. 

" A copy of the petition presented to the Lords 
Justices by Dr. F. Andrews, in the year 1759, praying 
an augmentation of salary to the Provost of Trinity 
College, Dublin ; the title whereof was read, and the 
said copy ordered to lie on the table for the perusal of 
members." 



88 THE COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 

On the 31st of May, the Right Hon. Sir H. 
Cavendish reported from the committee appointed to 
take into consideration the several petitions of R. and 
W. Gamble, Esqs., and the Provost, Fellows, and 
Scholars of Trinity College, Dublin. 

The Report, at full length, is to be found in the 
Appendix to tenth volume of the Journals, it is a very 
long and very minute report; it contains the will of the 
late Dr. Andrews, several deeds of trust for the pur- 
chase of lands, a letter from Dr. Andrews to Wm. 
Gamble, at the time the Doctor was in the south of 
France, in the year 177 4< (that in which he died); also 
several law papers, and the examinations of witnesses, 
particularly Robert Fitzgerald, Esq., M.P., Dr. Cle- 
ment, M.P. for Dublin, the Right Hon. the Speaker, 
the Rev. Dr. Leland, D.D.; also the leases of the 
Gal way and Meath estates (valued at 1,247) were 
produced, and those of the Antrim estate, producing 
a clear yearly rent of 686; also the following evi- 
dence on the parts of the provost, fellows, and scho- 
lars, viz. 

" An Act of the 10th and llth of Charles I. 

" Chapter 3rd, provides for the preservation of 
the inheritances, right, and profits of lands in the 
church, and persons ecclesiastical. King Charles 
the Second, under the great seal of Ireland, granted 
certain lands lying in the counties of Galway and 
Meath, to the then provost of Trinity College, Dublin, 
to hold to him and his successors, Provosts of said col- 
lege, for ever. 

" That those lands were intended to be a perpetual 
revenue for the office of provostship. 

" 21st chapter of the statutes of the college, by 
which it is directed that a moiety of the yearly value 
should be reserved in all leases made by the college ; 
that the provost of the college has certain property, 
and that the lands in the counties of Galway and Meath 
are the separate estate of the Provost of the College 
of Dublin ; that the Rev. Dr. Baldwin was appointed 
provost in the year 171?> and continued so until he 
died in 1758. 



THE COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 89 

" That by his will, dated the 21st of September, 
1758, he devised the greatest part of his real and per- 
sonal estate to the college, and made them his resi- 
duary legatees ; that the late Dr. Andrews was made 
provost in 1758, and brought ejectments to evict the 
leases made by Dr. Baldwin of the lands, as being 
made at under value ; that the college supported the 
expenses of said suits, upon which they expended the 
sum of 1,214 18s. I^d. 

" Dr. Clement, M.P., in his examination (de bene 
esse) informed the committee that the sum paid by 
the college on account of the suits instituted by Dr. 
Andrews, amounted to the sum of 5,7$7 13s. 4td. 9 
and the interest on said sum for fourteen years is 
4,050 18s. ; they therefore estimated their total loss 
at that time to be 10,423 Us. 4d. 

" JOVIS, 1ST DIE JUNII, 1780. 

" The order of the day being read for the House 
to take into consideration the report from the com- 
mittee appointed to examine the matter of the several 
petitions of Robert Gamble and George Gamble, 
Esqs., and of the Right Hon. the Provost, Fellows, and 
Scholars of the College of the Holy and Undivided 
Trinity of Queen Elizabeth, near Dublin, 

" Ordered, that leave be given to bring in the 
heads of a bill for the relief of Robert Gamble and 
George Gamble, Esqs., and Sarah Norman, devisees 
of the late Right Hon. F. Andrews, &c., &c. 

" MARTIS, 6 DIE JUNII, 1780. 

" Sir F. Flood presented to the House, according 
to order, heads of a bill for granting compensation to 
the legatees of the Right Hon. F. Andrews, late Pro- 
vost of Trinity College, near Dublin, deceased; for 
the injuries they sustained as legatees under the will 
of the said late provost, which were received and 
read. 

" A petition of the Right Hon. Edmund Sexton 
Pery and the Right Hon. Marcus Paterson, was pre- 



90 A BILL TO RELIEVE THE GAMBLES. 

sented to the House, and read ; setting forth that the 
Right Hon. F. Andrews did, by his last will and testa- 
ment, devise the several estates therein mentioned to 
the petitioners upon trust, in the first place, to raise 
the sum of 3000, and pay the same to the provost, 
fellows, and scholars of Trinity College, to be applied 
in building and furnishing an observatory, and for 
raising the annual sum of 250 for ever, for the 
salaries of the professors of astronomy, and persons 
skilful in taking astronomical observations ; that the 
heads of a bill have been brought into this House to 
enable Robert and George Gamble, and the survivors 
of them, and the executors and administrators of such 
survivors, to take and receive the sum of 3000, de- 
vised to the petitioners upon the trust aforesaid, and 
to sell and dispose of the aforesaid annual charge of 
250 so devised to the petitioners, and to apply 
the said 3000, together with the money arising or 
to arise from the sale of the said annual charge, in 
the same manner as the profits of the leasehold inter- 
est in the said will mentioned and directed to be ap- 
plied ; and praying to be heard by their counsel against 
the said heads of a bill. 

" It was resolved that the parties should be heard 
by counsel at the bar, which was done, and the busi- 
ness adjourned for a few days. 

"15 DIE AUGUSTI, 1780. 

" A petition was presented from Robert and George 
Gamble, and Sarah Norman, devisees named in the 
will of the Right Hon. F. Andrews, deceased, in which 
after showing that by the eviction of the lease or other 
circumstances connected with the college, the intention 
of the testator to benefit them was defeated, and pray- 
ing that the House will grant them such relief as shall 
seem meet in case of such singular severity. 

" Ordered, to lie on the table : A motion was made 
and carried, that the House do address the Lord-lieu- 
tenant, praying him to lay the same before his Majesty, 
hoping he will grant such relief as his Majesty shall 
think fit. 



THE LITIGATION TERMINATED. 91 

" The address was ordered to be presented by such 
members as are of the privy council." 

Thus terminates the parliamentary notices of this 
unhappy litigation ; but we can add, that the recom- 
mendation of the Hon. House was met by a liberal 
feeling on the part of the Crown, and the petitioners 
were allowed a sufficient compensation, as prayed for 
in their petition. 

These proceedings, however, retarded the pro- 
gress of the works requisite to complete the observa- 
tory, and the difficulty of obtaining a proper site at 
suitable distance from the University, also caused 
further delay ; and before this latter impediment was 
overcome, Dr. Henry Ussher was appointed professor, 
in 1783. It was not, however, until the year 1788 
that the eligible site on which the observatory stands, 
was obtained, when the building was commenced. 



SECTION VI. 

In February, 1782, the House of Commons re- 
lieved the college from the pavement-tax, according to 
the following extracts : 

" Ordered, that the committee appointed to take 
into consideration heads of the bill for paving streets, 
lanes, and other places in the city and county of the 
city of Dublin, and liberties thereof, and for prevent- 
ing and removing obstructions and annoyances within 
the same, and for other purposes, be empowered to 
receive a clause to repeal so much of an act passed in 
the fifteenth and sixteenth year of his present Majesty 
as enacts that the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars of 
Trinity College, Dublin, shall pay the annual sum of 
70, for the pavement in and about said college. 

In July following, the House ordered, " that Mr. 
Speaker do issue his warrant to the clerk of the crown, 
to make out a new writ for electing a burgess to serve 
in parliament for the Borough of the College of the 
Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth, 
near Dublin, in the room of the Right Hon. Walter 



92 PETITION OF PROVOST AND FELLOWS. 

Burgh, appointed Lord Chief Baron in the Court of 
Exchequer." 

In the year 1785, the lectures in Anatomy, Che- 
mistry, and Botany, were made University Professor- 
ships (Act 25 Geo. III., for establishing a complete 
School of Physic in Ireland). Under this statute the 
School of Physic consists of three King's Professors, 
on the foundation of Sir Patrick Dunn, (viz. Institutes 
of Medicine, Practice of Medicine, with Materia Me- 
dica, and Pharmacy,) and of the three University Pro- 
fessors of Anatomy and Surgery, Chemistry and Botany. 
After fifteen years' experience some alterations were 
found requisite so far as the University Professorships 
were concerned, as we shall presently see. 

Ahout this time the Teller of the Exchequer ab- 
sconded ; amongst those defrauded by this man was 
the college corporation, which lost nearly 1100 of 
the money voted by Parliament. 

" LUNA, 26 DIE MARTII, 1787. 

" A petition of the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars 
of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Eliza- 
beth, near Dublin, under their common seal, was pre- 
sented to the House, and read ; setting forth, that in 
the year 1751, the western square of the said college 
being then mostly ruinous, application was made to 
the House of Commons by petition, for a sum of 
money for rebuilding and adding to the said college; 
that the said petition set forth, that by the statutes of 
said college, no provision was made for any new build- 
ing or for any other than the necessary repairs of the 
buildings provided. 

" That in pursuance of the addresses of the House of 
Commons, founded on a petition containing like alle- 
gations from time to time, his late Majesty was pleased 
to grant several large sums of money, amounting in 
the whole to 45,000, of which the net sum, after 
deducting pells and poundage, &c., received by said 
college, amounted to the sum of 42,518 6s. 6d. 
only, as there remained unpaid of the said sum, occa- 
sioned by the failure of the late Teller of the Ex- 



ALLEGATIONS OF THE PETITION. 93 

chequer, the sum of 1078 19s. 1\d. ; that in conse- 
quence of said grants a square, consisting of cut stone, 
was proceeded upon, and the northern and southern 
sides, according to the plan laid before the House, 
were finished, the extremities of which were ter- 
minated hy ruinous buildings, partly erected in the 
time of Queen Elizabeth and partly in the time of the 
late Archbishop Palliser ; that the said buildings 
were carried on at an expense, and pursuant to a plan 
that the funds of no private society could be sufficient 
to support ; that in the year 1775 the remainder of 
the sum received, pursuant to the said grants for car- 
rying on the said buildings, 5,208 11s. \\\d.> the 
sum of 37,309 14s. "l\d. having been previously 
expended ; that the petitioners, since the year 1775, 
have proceeded to finish the southern line of the said 
square, according to the improvement recommended by 
Sir Wm. Chambers, and have expended in building 
the said square the sum of 53,876 19s. 6d., ex- 
ceeding the sum received in pursuance of the ad- 
dresses by the sum of 11,358 12s. ll^d., towards 
which the petitioners have received a donation of 
2,500, and the sum of 4,277 4s. 4d., by the sale of 
chambers and old materials ; that the said Parliament 
Square, when finished, will be a great ornament to the 
University and to the Metropolis ; but the extremity 
of the northern side of said square is now terminated 
and deformed by a cross line of brick buildings in a 
ruinous state, the removal of which and the enlarge- 
ment of said square will contribute to the health of 
the students ; that the said square, together with the 
necessary undertakings in which the petitioners are 
at present engaged for the benefit of the college, can 
never be completed without the aid of parliament ; 
that it is the intention of the petitioners to cause a 
new chapel to be erected in the northern side of said 
intended square, the present chapel being very an- 
cient, and in a very decayed state, and insufficient to 
contain with convenience the present number of the 
society ; that the present number of the society have 
so greatly increased of late years that the chambers in 



94 THE ALLEGATIONS CONTINUED. 

said college are not nearly sufficient for their accommo- 
dation, and the late act of parliament for establishing 
a complete School of Physic in the kingdom, has in- 
creased the demand for chambers by the necessity 
of providing for the professors proper rooms for 
giving their lectures in ; that the petitioners have, 
since the year 177*5, caused a new square to be begun 
consisting of plain stone buildings, two of which are 
nearly finished and will cost the sum of 4,726, of 
which the petitioners have already paid 3,096, and 
they intended to proceed in completing the said 
square as they shall be enabled to do by the circum- 
stances of the college, and have also, since the above 
period, advanced several large sums of money in erect- 
ing an observatory and purchasing astronomical in- 
struments necessary for carrying on so important an 
institution ; these sums, amounting in the whole to 
the sum of 6,259, and the probable expense of 
further instruments and buildings wanted to complete 
said work will amount to the sum of <2,313, at the 
least, for which the petitioners have received by a 
legacy from their late worthy Provost a sum of 3000, 
and the petitioners, from the opinions of persons of the 
greatest learning and experience in these subjects, 
have reason to flatter themselves that said observatory, 
when finished, will be one of the most complete in 
Europe ; that petitioners have, from the year 1776 to 
the year 1786, both inclusive, disbursed for the pur- 
poses aforesaid, and for their necessary annual ex- 
penses, several sums of money exceeding in the whole 
their annual receipt in the sum of 30,623, and in 
their said exertions for the good of the society intrusted 
to their care have been under the necessity of con- 
tracting a considerable debt, notwithstanding their 
having called in several large sums of money be- 
queathed to the college by the late Dr. Baldwin, to 
whose liberality the society is greatly indebted ; that 
the completion of the said Parliament Square will 
cost the sum of about 20,000 ; and that the peti- 
tioners are ready to engage to finish the same con- 
formably to a plan now laid before the House on re- 



CLOSE OF THE PETITION. 95 

ceiving a sum of 12,000, payable in four years ; that 
the sum necessary for finishing the part of the northern 
square now nearly completed, and of several other 
buildings for the benefit of said college, in which peti- 
tioners are now engaged without any expense to the 
public, together with the debt already incurred by the 
petitioners in the said undertakings, and the sum of 
8,000, proposed to be expended by petitioners an the 
finishing the said Parliament Square, will amount to 
about 17,000, as will appear by an account ready to 
be laid before the House, exclusive of the large sums 
which must be hereafter expended in finishing the 
said northern wing of the square ; that from an at- 
tention to the health and accommodation of the stu- 
dents, petitioners have expended considerable sums of 
money in the purchase of ground for the enlargement 
of their park, the inclosing and finishing of which will 
be attended with considerable expense; that the peti- 
tioners have proceeded as far as the resources of the 
college would permit, and have declined making any 
application to the House till such time as they found 
themselves utterly unable to finish said work, which, 
when completed, will have cost, since the year 1775, 
a sum of about 40,000, at an additional expense to 
the public of 12,000, only. 

" Ordered, that the said petition be referred to the 
consideration of a committee. 

" 27 DIE MARTII. 

" Mr. Arthur Brown reported from the committee 
to whom it was referred to take into consideration 
the petitions of the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars of 
the college of Queen Elizabeth, near Dublin, the re- 
solutions which he read in his place and after de- 
livered in at the table, where the same were read, and 
are as follows : 

" ' Resolved, that it is the opinion of the committee, 
that the petitioners have fully proved the allegation 
of their petition. 

" ' Resolved, that it appears to this committee that the 
petitioners require and deserve the aid of Parliament. 



96 GRANT OF 3000 TO COLLEGE. 

"' Resolved, that the said Report be referred to the 
Committee of the whole House, to whom it was re- 
ferred to take into consideration the supply granted to 
his Majesty, as also his Grace the Lord Lieutenant's 
speech.' 

" 28 DIE MARTII, 1787. 

" Resolved, that it is the opinion of this Committee 
that the sum of 3,000 be granted to the Provost, 
Fellows, and Scholars of the College of the Holy and 
Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth, near Dublin, 
for the purpose of carrying on the square agreeable to 
the terms set forth in the petition presented to the 
House this Session of Parliament." 

These extracts from the Parliamentary Journals, 
are given verbatim, as the best evidence to prove the 
very friendly feeling with which the legislature of 
Ireland regarded the University of that country, in 
which the greater part of them had received their 
education. 

In the year 1791, a contested election occasioned the 
following proceedings before the Honourable House : 

"14 DIE FEBRUARII, 1791. 

" A Petition was presented from Laurence Parsons, 
Esq., also one from Courtney, Kenny, Garnett, and 
Andrew O'Callaghan, Esqs., electors, complaining of 
an undue election and return of the Hon. Francis H. 
Hutchinson for the borough of Trinity College, near 
Dublin. 

" Ordered, that a select committee be appointed to 
take the same into consideration. 

" JOVIS, 24TH DIE MARTII, 1791. 

" Mr. Burton reported to the House, that the select 
committee appointed to try and determine the merits 
of the petition of Laurence Parsons, Esq., and also 
the petition of Courtney, Kenny, Garnett, and An- 
drew O'Callaghan, electors, complaining of an undue 
election and return for the borough of the college, 
&c., &c., near Dublin, had determined, 

" That the Hon. F. H. Hutchinson was duly elected 



RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE OBSERVATORY. 97 

as Burgess to represent the said borough of that Uni- 
versity in this present Parliament, 

" Also, that the Provost, as returning officer, of 
the said University, has acted legally and impartially 
at and before the election for members to represent 
the said University in Parliament." 



CHAPTER III. 

SECTION I. 

IN the year 1791? the Observatory having been 
completed, and furnished with valuable and suitable 
instruments, a licence of mortmain was obtained, and 
at the same time a statute for regulating the duties of 
the Professor was confirmed. It is right to mention 
here, the becoming liberality with which the Provost 
and Fellows acted on this occasion, by expending, 
out of the college funds, above 5,000 more than the 
bequest (3,000) left to the University for that pur- 
pose, by the Provost Andrews. 

By the above mentioned statute it is enacted, 
" that there shall be for ever hereafter a Professor of 
Astronomy, to be called and known by the name of 
The Royal Astronomer of Ireland, on the foundation 
of Dr. Andrews ; and that the said Professorship, and 
the conduct of the Professor therein, be placed under 
the following regulations : 

"1st. That the Professor shall make the Observatory 
his actual place of residence, and shall not absent 
himself from it for more than sixty-two days, either 
together or at intervals in the year, without leave ob- 
tained from the Provost, or in his absence, from the 
Vice-Provost and senior Fellows of the College. 

" 2nd. That no person shall be admitted into the 
chambers where the astronomical or other instruments 
shall be kept, unless introduced or attended by the 
Professor, or his assistant. 

" 3rd. That the Professor and his assistant shall 



98 RULES AND REGULATIONS 

not both be absent from the Observatory at the same 
time, and that the assistant shall be subject to the 
direction of the Professor in his attendance in the Ob- 
servatory, assisting him in making observations or en- 
gaged in making observations himself, making cal- 
culations, writing and transcribing as his secretary, 
moving the instruments, keeping them in good order, 
&c. And to insure the attention and respect of this 
operator, the Professor may recommend him to the 
Provost and Board as a careful and diligent person to 
be appointed his assistant, but he may also be dis- 
missed at the desire of the Professor. 

" 4th. That the Professor and his assistant shall 
make regular observations of the heavenly bodies, and 
record them in the order of time, in books made for 
that purpose. And also, in the event of any future 
discoveries or improvements being made in astrono- 
mical instruments, or the making of observations, the 
Professor for the time being shall conform himself to 
such regulations as shall from time to time be made 
by the Provost or Vice- Provost and Board of Fellows, 
with the consent of the Visitors, touching all new mat- 
ters that may arise in consequence of such discoveries 
or improvements." 

The fifth Rule directs that a fair copy of the 
yearly observations shall be presented to the College 
within six months from the end of each year ; and that 
those observations shall be annually printed at the 
College expense, and under the supervision of the 
Professor. Copies of these reports are directed to be 
presented to the chief observatories, academies, li- 
braries and eminently learned persons, both at home 
and abroad the remainder of the copies are directed 
to be sold, and the profits are to belong to the Pro- 
fessor for his care in revising the press, &c. ; and he 
is to sign his name at the bottom of every page (to 
authenticate the work). The original observations 
and the computations from them must remain in the 
Observatory, (except removed by an express order of 
the Provost and Board,) to be consulted as records of 
Astronomy, by persons authorized by the heads of 



OF THE OBSERVATORY. 99 

college, or by the Professor. Also that correct copies 
of these books, &c., are to be presented by the Pro- 
fessor to the Librarian of the college, who is to de- 
posit them in the manuscript room of the library. 

The Professor is to instruct in practical Astro- 
nomy, and the use of the instruments, such Fellows 
of the College as the Provost and senior Fellows shall 
direct. 

The Provost and senior Fellows are to visit the 
observatory once a year, in the months of June or 
July, to examine the state of the building, and the 
instruments belonging to the observatory. 

On the occurrence of a vacancy in this Professor- 
ship by death, deprivation, or surrender, the Provost 
and senior Fellows are to elect, within six calendar 
months of that event, a competent person to the Pro- 
fessorship ; and in case the Provost and Board should 
not elect a successor to this office within the time men- 
tioned, that the appointment of a Professor shall 
devolve on the Chancellor of the University ; and the 
person thus appointed shall hold and enjoy this office, 
and be considered the Royal Astronomer of Ireland, 
as if elected by the Provost and senior Fellows. 

Thus, after a lapse of seventeen years from the 
date of Dr. Andrews's bequest, was this important 
Professorship permanently established and prepared 
for the practical operations of Astronomy ; these, it is 
true, had been carried on, but in a subordinate way, 
in the college from the year 1783, when Dr. Henry 
Ussher, D.D., was elected to the astronomical chair. 
It was not the good fortune of the talented and esti- 
mable man to carry into effect the great scientific 
purposes to which he had seriously devoted his talents 
and close attention for a series of years ; this gifted 
man was removed from the world at the moment when 
his persevering energies had succeeded in overcoming 
all the difficulties which presented themselves in the 
progress of this undertaking, not only in the planning 
and superintending the erection of a building wholly 
different in the principles of construction from any 
building previously erected in Ireland, but who was 

H 2 



100 BOTANIC GARDEN BILL. 

also active and intelligent in suggesting the construc- 
tion and improvement of the principal instruments to 
be fixed in the observatory. 

The vacancy occasioned by Dr. Ussher's death, 
gave occasion for a strong competition : to occupy the 
vacant chair was an object of high ambition, and con- 
siderable talents and acquirements were displayed by 
the candidates. The examinations also were close and 
severe, in accordance with the importance of the object. 
Finally, a majority of votes at the Board of Exa- 
miners gave the Professorship of Astronomy to the 
Rev. John Brinkley, D.D., of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1792, and the event proved the propriety of 
this decision, for the new Professor proved himself in 
all respects not only competent to the peculiar duties 
of this office, but equal to the most skilful of his con- 
temporaries in Europe, in the theory and practice of 
astronomy. Something more will be said on this sub- 
ject when the detailed account of the Observatory is 
given. 

We have already stated that a Lectureship of 
Botany existed actively in this college from the year 
1711, in which year Dr. Griffith gave the first course 
of Botanical Lectures ; from that time these lectures 
were continued regularly each term until the year 
1785, when this lecture was made a University Profes- 
sorship under the provisions of the Act (25 Geo. III.) 
" for establishing a complete school of physic in Ire- 
land ;" which Act was further confirmed, as we shall 
see hereafter. The want of a sufficient Botanic Garden, 
(for there existed only a small one in the College Park,) 
was felt as a great deficiency, which the state of the 
College funds could not supply ; and it does not ap- 
pear that the Provost and Board of Senior Fellows 
made any application to Parliament on the subject 
until the year 1793, when on a bill having been 
brought into Parliament by the Right Hon. the Secre- 
tary of State " to direct the application of certain sums 
of money heretofore granted towards providing and 
maintaining a Botanic Garden a , and for the appoint- 

a To the Roval Dublin Society. 



PETITION ON THE BOTANIC GARDEN BILL. 101 

ment of Trustees for that purpose," the Provost and 
Board of Fellows, properly conceiving that the Col- 
lege was legitimately entitled to assistance in its Bo- 
tanical department, Drought the question before the 
House of Commons by the following petition : 

" MARTIS, 11 DIE JUNII, 1793. 

" A petition of the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars 
of the College, under their common seal, was pre- 
sented to the House and read, setting forth, that the 
Petitioners and their predecessors have for a long 
series of years used their best endeavours to promote 
the study and improve the faculty of Physic in said 
College, and considerable sums of money have been, 
and are annually and otherwise applied by them for 
that purpose. 

" That an Act having passed in this kingdom for 
the establishment of a complete School of Physic, of 
which the University Professors make a part, namely, 
the Professors of Botany, Chemistry, and Anatomy, 
the petitioners, for the encouragement of science, and 
without obligation from the charter or statutes so to 
do, have continued to make a liberal provision for the 
support of those professorships ; that a Botanic Garden 
is indispensably necessary for the success of that sci- 
ence, but the funds of said college are totally inadequate 
to the establishment or support of such an institution, 
they have exerted their utmost efforts to promote it 
by allocating for that purpose a fund, which in the 
last year amounted to 112, but which will be insuf- 
ficient for the establishment or maintenance of such an 
institution ; that the legislature having been pleased 
to grant several sums of money to the Dublin Society, 
towards providing and maintaining a Botanic Garden, 
that society caused application to be made to the peti- 
tioners for their advice, assistance, and contributions, 
and, as the petitioners are informed, applied to the 
College of Physicians for the like purposes, and the 
members of the college have, as far as in them lay, 
granted the annual sum of 100 for the purpose, out 
of funds vested in them for medical purposes ; the 



102 THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS* PETITION. 

petitioners apprehend that by the application of the 
said several funds, and by the co-operation of a cer- 
tain number of persons out of the said three bodies, 
the success of said scheme will be most effectually 
promoted ; that the copy of a bill for these purposes 
having been laid before the petitioners, they are 
humbly of opinion that the said bill, if passed into a 
law, would tend to promote the success of the said in- 
stitution, which they consider as necessary to a com- 
plete school of physic, and useful to the university, 
and whatever regulations may be made in respect to 
the said establishment, they humbly hope that the 
wisdom of the legislature will provide that medical 
and other students shall have the full benefit of it, 
the petitioners having nothing in view but their ad- 
vantage, the success of said school of physic, and the 
advancement of science. 

" Ordered, that the said petition be referred to the 
committee of the whole House, to whom it was re- 
ferred to take into consideration a Bill for directing the 
application of certain sums of money heretofore granted 
towards providing and maintaining a Botanic Garden, 
and for the appointment of trustees for that purpose. 

" A petition from the President and Fellows of the 
King's and Queen's College of Physicians, in Dublin, 
under the common seal, was presented to the House 
and read, setting forth, that in the year 1758, the 
House was pleased to appoint a committee to inquire 
into the best means for the establishment of a com- 
plete School of Physic in this kingdom, and to refer a 
petition from the petitioners for that purpose to the 
said Committee, before which several of said college 
were examined, who, on such examination, declared 
their opinion that a Botanic Garden was necessary to 
such an institution * j and the said committee was 

In the Botanic Garden Bill, there is a clause whereby persons of 
the Roman Catholic Church are enabled to hold the professorships of 
Anatomy, Chemistry, and Botany, if elected to these offices by the 
College of Physicians ; and the author recollects one instance of this 
privilege being exercised, about the year 1816, when Dr. Tuomy 
was elected, from amongst several competitors. 



GOLD MEDALS INSTITUTED. 103 

pleased to enter into a resolution to that effect ; that 
in the year 1790, the legislature was pleased to grant 
to the Dublin Society, towards providing and main- 
taining a Botanic Garden, and the said society in July 
following," &c., &c. It proceeds in a manner similar 
to the other petition, and praying the House to take 
into consideration a subject so essential to the improve- 
ment of science. 

In November, 1793, the Provost and Board made 
a decree, that a gold medal should be given to every 
student who should have answered every examination, 
from his admission, to the taking of his Bachelor's de- 
gree ; and who, at each examination, had not got judg- 
ments inferior to one Bene, with Valde Benes : and 
that any student of the rank of a Nobilis, to be exa- 
mined for this medal, must have answered eight exa- 
minations on the above conditions but ajilius nobilis, 
or an Eques, must have answered ten. 

The above resolution continued in force for about 
twenty years, but this mode of encouragement was 
then abolished, and another plan adopted, which will 
be noticed in its place. 

On the 20th of June following, (1794-,) the Right 
Honourable the Dublin Society sent into the House 
a petition, praying that they might have the sole 
management of the sums granted by Parliament for a 
Botanic Garden, and that said sums may not be in- 
vested in trustees contrary to the grant already made 
of it, and that no other body may be joined with said 
society in the execution of the trusts reposed in them. 

On this occasion, the influence of the Right Hon. 
the Dublin Society, prevailed over that of the College, 
and that institution, in which were many members of 
parliament, was entrusted with the sole management 
of the large sums voted for the purpose mentioned. 

The Primate's Hebrew Prizes. In 1794, the 
Provost and Senior Fellows, being anxious to en- 
courage the more extensive cultivation of the Hebrew 
language amongst the students, devised the following 
plan, and made a decree of the Board for that purpose 
in February of that year ; by this decree, power was 



104 THE DONNELAN LECTURE. 

given to the Hebrew Professor to recommend to the 
Board, his best and most diligent answerer, " provided 
he has real merit," to whom under certain regulations 
a premium of four pounds shall be given, to be laid 
out in books of Hebrew or Divinity. 

The professor was also authorized to make a return 
to the Board, of such students as his assistants had re- 
commended for their answering, and if more than 
four of them were returned, the professor was to ex- 
amine them himself, when the best answerer was to 
receive a premium of two pounds, to be laid out as 
before mentioned. 

None of the candidates, however, could be entitled 
to the above premium, unless they had attended two 
thirds of the lectures in Hilary, Easter, and Michael- 
mas terms, or certified that he has been prevented by 
illness, and that the number he has actually attended, 
during the year, shall amount to two thirds of the 
whole number of lectures. 

The Hebrew fund having been greatly augmented 
a few years later, by the pious munificence of Primate 
Newcome, which, to their honour, has been continued 
by his successors in the primacy ; this increase of 
means has occasioned very considerable alterations in 
the modes of conferring the premiums, as we shall see 
hereafter. 

The Donnelan Divinity Lecture. This Lecture- 
ship originated in the year 1794, from a bequest pre- 
viously made to the college by Mrs. Anne Donnelan, 
of the parish of St. George, Hanover Square, 
London, " for the encouragement of religion, learn- 
ing, and good manners;" and the manner of applying 
this fund, to promote those important objects, was left 
to " the discretion of the Provost and Board of senior 
Fellows," who, in February of that year, resolved that 
a " Divinity Lecture " should be permanently esta- 
blished, to be called " Donnelan's Lecture," and 
endowed with a salary arising from the interest of the 
1200 so bequeathed; and that the lecturer should 
be at once elected from among the fellows of college, 
annually, on the 20th of November. 



BISHOP LAW'S MATHEMATICAL PRIZES. 105 

The subjects of the lectures are to be determined 
by the Board at the time of the election, and are to 
be treated of in six sermons, which shall be delivered 
in the College Chapel, after morning service, on certain 
Sundays to be appointed on the 20th of November 
next after the election of the lecturer, and within a 
year from said appointment. 

The lecturer is to be paid in two instalments, the 
first so soon as he shall have delivered the six lectures, 
and the second moiety, when he shall have published 
four of these lectures, of which copies are to be 
placed in the College Library, in the Ardmagh 
Library, and in St. Sepulchre's Library ; a copy also 
is to be given to the Chancellor of the University, 
and one to the Provost of the College. A list of the 
Donnelan lectures, and the subjects lectured upon, 
will be given towards the close of the volume. 

In February, 1795, Arthur Brown, LL.D., the 
Regius Professor of Greek, and one of the repre- 
sentatives of the University, having been appointed 
a serjeant at law, vacated his seat in the House of 
Commons, where on a motion it was ordered, " that 
Mr. Speaker do issue his warrant to the clerk of the 
Crown, to make out a new writ for electing a Burgess 
to serve in this present Parliament, for the borough of 
the College of Queen Elizabeth, near Dublin, in the 
room of Arthur Brown, Esq., LL.D., who has ac- 
cepted the office of one of his Majesty's counsel, 
learned in the law." 

In the year 1796, Dr. Law, then Lord Bishop of 
Elphin, presented a sum of 735 to the College, to 
be applied to encourage the study of Mathematics, ac- 
cording to a plan which he suggested, and which was 
adopted with some slight variations ; these regula- 
tions direct that 20 shall be given to the junior 
bachelor who shall pass the best examination in 
algebra, the application of algebra to geometry and 
spherical trigonometry; and 10 to the junior bachelor 
who shall appear to be the second best proficient in 
the same subjects. The examiners for these premiums 



106 DR. DOWNES'S THREE DIVINITY PREMIUMS. 

are the Professors of Mathematics, Natural Phi- 
losophy, and Astronomy. 

The examinations are held on two days in Michael- 
mas term, of which public notice is given on the first 
day of term, and the premiums are announced on the 
last day of that term. 

The closing rule directs that 5 shall be given to 
each of these professors in rotation, in order that he 
may entertain the other examiners at dinner on the 
day that the premiums are adjudged ; the rotation 
begins with the senior officer. 

In three years afterwards, the time of examination 
was changed from Michaelmas term, to the end of 
Trinity term, the period at which it is now held. 

In the year 1797* the endowments allowed for the 
Professorships of Modern Languages, were, by act 
of parliament, placed upon a permanent basis, as may 
be seen on reference to the Journals of the House of 
Commons. 

In the same year, the Divinity premiums of Dr. 
Downes were established out of a fund bequeathed 
by the Bishop of Waterford and Lismore ; these pre- 
miums are open to all Bachelors of Arts who possess 
the qualification required by the regulations of the 
Provost and Board. 

These premiums are divided into three separate 
classes, the first of which in order is "for a written 
composition." The competition for this honourable 
badge of distinction is always entered into by students 
of high reputation in their class, who make their best 
efforts to carry off the prize ; and to obtain it, consider- 
able talent must be displayed; for it is decided in 
presence of the Provost and members of the Board, 
the Lecturer in Divinity, and the Professors of 
Divinity and Oratory, in the hall. It is held on the 
last lecture day of Easter Term, when the Lecturer 
in Divinity proposes a subject either moral or con- 
troversial ; and on the day of the last lecture given by 
the Professor of Divinity in Trinity Term, such 
students as have attended during at least four terms 



DR. DOWNES'S THREE DIVINITY PREMIUMS. 107 

in divinity and oratory, with remarkable diligence, 
and are desirous to compete, are to deliver discourses 
on the subjects so proposed without hesitation, within 
the space of fifteen minutes for each discourse. To 
the best composer, 20 premium, (the maximum,) and 
to the second, 10 premium is adjudged, or a smaller 
sum in each case may be given, as the examiners may 
think proper for the manner of pronouncing these 
discourses is much regarded, as well as the matter and 
style of them. 

The premium for "an extempore discourse," is 
decided on the last lecture day of Trinity Term, 
when the Lecturer in Divinity proposes a subject, 
either moral or controversial, to such candidates as 
have taken the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and at- 
tended him, or one of his assistants, and also the 
Lecturer in Oratory, for four terms with remarkable 
diligence. For the best discourses of those delivered 
extempore, the examiners may bestow a premium of 
12, and for the next in merit 8. The candidates 
for these premiums and the two preceding ones, may 
compete for and carry off the premiums three suc- 
cessive years, but not oftener. 

The third class of these prizes is " for reading the 
Liturgy," and the trial of the candidates is always 
held on the first lecture day of Trinity Term, when 
the Professor of Oratory, and the Divinity Lecturer, 
adjudge the sum of 8 to the best, and 4 to the 
next in merit of the candidates in the class of Bachelors 
of Arts, who shall read in the best manner the parts 
of the Liturgy as now established, which shall be pro- 
posed to them, and who shall have attended with re- 
markable diligence the lectures in Divinity and 
Oratory for at least three terms. Candidates for these 
two premiums cannot receive them more than once ; 
and in the event of meritorious candidates not coming 
forward to compete, the savings of each year shall go 
to the augmentation of the fund, and being laid out 
in government securities, will go to the future increase 
of the premiums. 

On the 18th of March, 1797, the Right Hon. the 



108 NUMBER OF SENIOR AND JUNIOR FELLOWS. 

Chancellor of the Exchequer brought in a bill for 
granting to his Majesty certain duties on various 
manufactures, and for granting certain sums out of the 
surplus consolidated fund for salaries to the professors 
of Italian, French, German, and Spanish languages, 
in the College of Dublin, as follows, viz. To the pro- 
fessor of the French and German languages in said 
college, 100 per annum ; to the professors of the 
Spanish and Italian languages in said college, 100 
per annum : Resolution to this effect passed the 
House unanimously on the 26th of the same month. 

Early in the memorable year 1798, Ireland being 
then in a state of high political ferment, verging to a 
rebellion, the House of Commons, for some unex- 
plained reasons, ordered, on the 26th of February, 
" that the proper officer of the college should lay be- 
fore the House an account of the number of the 
senior and junior fellows, scholars of the house, and 
sizers of the foundation, in Trinity College, Dublin; 
specifying the number of each ; and also an account 
of their yearly salaries as fellows, scholars, or sizers, 
and the sum allowed for the commons of each respec- 
tively, and their accommodation as to lodging in cham- 
bers in the said college, and whether their respective 
chambers, or lodgings, are provided at the expense of 
the college, or at their own respectively ;" of the re- 
turn to which order, we have the following notice on 
the 21st of February : 

" The House being informed that an officer at- 
tended at the door, he was called in, and at the bar, 
presented to the House, pursuant to their order, 

" A return of the number of senior fellows on the 
foundation in Trinity College, near Dublin, their 
salaries, and sum allowed for commons of each ; the 
title whereof was read, and the return ordered to lie 
on the table for the perusal of the members." 

The following is a copy of a return taken from the 
Appendix to the 17th volume of the Commons' Jour- 
nal, page 515. 

" Return of number of senior and junior fellows 
and scholars on the foundation of Trinity College, 



MADDEN'S FELLOWSHIP PRIZES. 109 

near Dublin, their salaries, and the sums allowed for 
the commons of each. 

44 Seven senior fellows, salary . . . 100 each. 
" Fifteen junior fellows, ditto . . 40 
" Thirty native scholars, ditto . . 20 
" Forty scholars, ditto .... 4 
" Thirty sizers, no salary, maintained by the com- 
mons left at the table at which the fellows dine. 

" Fellows allowed for commons, 10s. 6d. per week, for 
one half year, and 9s. lid. for the other; scholars 
allowed for commons, from 65. 8d. to 7$. 7d. per week, 
according to the variation of the price of provision. 

" Fellows allowed for bread and beer 2s. O^d. per 
week. 

" Scholars allowed for ditto ditto Is. %^d. per 
week. The fellows and scholars pay a sum on ob- 
taining a grant of rooms, which is repaid when they 
vacate them ; the prices are various, according to the 
goodness of the accommodations, being from 5 to 
100. 

" Signed by 

" Trinity College, " THOMAS EBRINGTON, 

Feb. 22, 1798." Bursar." 

" FRIDAY, 1ST JUNE, 1798. 

" The proper officer having attended at the door, 
was called in, and presented to the House, according to 
act of parliament, several accounts, among others, one 
from the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, for building a new chapel between the 
13th day of December, 1787, and the 20th day of 
November, 1797." 

SECTION II. 

Madden's Fellowship Prizes. It had long been 
the practice, as already mentioned, for the Provost, 
and Board of senior Fellows, being the examiners at 
Fellowship examinations, to bestow premiums upon 
such candidates, and in such proportions, as in their 
judgment deserved those marks of approbation. But 



110 MADDEN'S BEQUEST. 

it was not until the year 1798 that the premiums 
known as Madden's Prizes were first bestowed accord- 
ing to the terms specified in a codicil annexed to the 
last will of Samuel Molyneux Madden, Esq., which 
he executed in 1782. 

By this document Mr. Madden requested the 
then Lord Chancellor of Ireland, (Lord Lifford,) the 
Primate, (Dr. Robinson,) and Dr. Woodward, Bishop 
of Cloyne, and the Vice- Chancellor of the College to be 
the trustees and governors of the fund for carrying 
into effect the purposes of the testator, which were, as 
he has expressed it, that the property so bequeathed 
" should be employed in promoting learning and virtue 
in Trinity College, in the county of Dublin ; subject 
to such regulations as I shall exposite and declare in 
any codicil to my said will." The testator then goes 
on to say, " My will, intent, and request, therefore is, 
that at every examination for fellowships, in Trinity 
College, the whole produce of the said fund, (all his 
estate situated in the corporation of Belturbet, county 
Cavan,) during the preceding year, be given in one 
undivided sum, into the hand of that disappointed 
candidate for the fellowship, as the majority of his ex- 
aminers shall, by certificate in writing under their 
hands, declare to have best deserved to succeed if an- 
other fellowship had been vacant ; provided always, 
that no premium thus provided shall be given to any 
disappointed candidate in any year wherein there shall 
not be at least two disappointed candidates at the exa- 
mination, and also provided always, that the provost 
and fellows of college do not diminish the premiums 
which, through their zeal to encourage learning, they 
generously bestow upon the disappointed candidates 
for fellowships at each examination. And whereas, 
there are some years wherein there are not any exa- 
minations for fellowships held, no vacancy having hap- 
pened in the college, I do hereby desire that the 
revenue of my estate and fund, in every such year, be 
laid out in government securities by my said trustees, 
and the interest of such government securities to be 
added to the succeeding produce of the united fund 



SAMUEL MADDEN'S CHARACTER. Ill 

aforesaid ; and thus the premium to be increased 
which shall be given to disappointed candidates in 
the succeeding years. And 1 do desire that this pre- 
mium or bounty be continued to one only disap- 
pointed candidate for fellowships, until the annual 
revenue of the said fund shall arise to four hundred 
pounds, after which period, the trustees aforesaid may 
appropriate the further increase of the fund towards 
the constituting a bounty for a second disappointed 
candidate, or rather for a premium for the best ora- 
tion or essay in Latin, on such subject as the college 
shall annually choose, as such encouragement is greatly 
wanted. And further, in aid to the said intended 
fund, as the present revenue in the corporation of Bel- 
turbet is but 86 rent, I do hereby bequeath to the 
three trustees as aforesaid, all my personal estate of 
what nature soever, after the death of my dearly be- 
loved wife, to be by them converted into money, and 
to be laid out in government debentures, and applied 
to the great end of encouraging virtue and learning in 
the college, where the youth of the nation are edu- 
cated, and where most essential service may be ex- 
pected from their care and patronage, and therefore 
I appoint the said trustees my residuary legatees." 

Here we have a very gratifying and remarkable in- 
stance of the high moral influence which a judicious 
system of education exercises over the human mind, 
not only in giving practical effect to the intentions of 
men naturally humane and well disposed, but also of 
repressing the equally natural tendencies of our nature 
to indulge in expensive, and not always the innocent 
gratification of the social state of man. Mr. Madden 
was a gentleman possessed of a moderately independent 
fortune, which at an early period came under his 
control, and gave him the means of indulging himself 
according to his fancy ; he was a fellow commoner in 
this college, and at first did not neglect the gaieties 
so congenial to the spring time of life, and which 
certainly in that day were rather over than under- 
valued in Ireland ; Madden' s natural good sense, 
however, soon led to reflection, and on taking his 



112 IN 1798 THE EXAMINATIONS POSTPONED. 

Bachelor's degree, he left college with the regret of 
his fellow students, the unsullied character of a gentle- 
man, and the reputation of a good classical scholar. 
It is not necessary here to go further into the biography 
of the truly excellent individual. Those facts are 
given merely to shew the sort of person it was who 
valued so highly, and estimated so justly, " the cultiva- 
tion of learning and virtue," as to leave a valuable 
property to be appropriated to their encouragement ; 
and which having been very well managed, has pro- 
duced extensively the good fruits intended by the be- 
nevolent testator. 

The year 1798 was one fearfully fraught with un- 
happy events in Ireland, the memory of which it is 
neither the object nor desire of the author to rescue from 
the oblivion into which it is sinking. At that event- 
ful period, the university maintained, as it had done 
in times far more perilous, its ancient and invariable 
character of loyalty to the British Crown and Con- 
stitution in Church and State, and amongst the various 
proofs of its devotion to the cause, was that of raising 
a corps of volunteers from among the students, of a 
suitable age to carry arms ; this battalion was above 
three hundred strong, equipped as light infantry, and 
officered by the lay fellows of the college, and was re- 
garded as one of the best disciplined and effective of 
the numerous volunteer corps which were embodied 
at that dangerous period. And although the actual 
operations of war did not reach the college, yet the 
state of the whole country was in such disorder, that 
neither the quarterly examination of classes at Trinity 
term, nor the elections to fellowships and scholarships, 
could properly be proceeded with, therefore those 
essential matters were postponed for some time with 
the consent of the visitors ; but to save the charter, the 
Provost and Fellows, on the day when these duties 
should have been performed, proceeded to the hall, 
and called upon those who were candidates to come 
forward, but as the call was not responded to, the 
Provost and Board adjourned to a future day, and in 
the mean time an Act of Parliament was passed, au- 



PARLIAMENTS DEMAND TO SEE THE CHARTER. 113 

thorizing them to hold the elections and examinations 
in the month of October following, by which time the 
rebellion was at an end, and the general business of 
the country had got nearly back into its usual con- 
dition. 

In the year 1799, when the bill for a legislative 
union between Great Britain and Ireland was under 
strong discussion both in and out of parliament, on a 
debate in the committee some serious difference of 
opinion arose as to the precise terms of the college 
charter. When the House of Commons made an order 
(20th March) that the proper officer of the college 
should lay before the House " the original charter " 
of King Charles I. to the corporation of the college, 
or an authentic copy of that document. 

The return to the above order, it appears, was made 
in three days after, at which time the Journals state 
that " the proper officer presented at the bar, accord- 
ing to order, the Charter granted by his Majesty King 
Charles I. to the University of Dublin," the title 
whereof was read, and the charter ordered to lie on 
the table for the perusal of members. 

In the month of April in the same session, the 
House of Commons directed that an estimate should 
be made by the Commissioners for making wide and 
convenient streets in the city of Dublin, of part of 
the college estate lying between the northern wall of 
the college and the river Liffey, which land, and the 
houses thereon, had by some great oversight, been let 
on a long lease to the then Bishop of Raphoe. After 
some delay, the House made a peremptory order, as 
we find by the following extract from the Commons' 
Journal, bearing date 27th of April, 1799, which 
orders that the proper officers do lay before this 
House, an account stating whether any and what 
estimate was made by Mr. Thomas Sherrard, by order 
of the before-named commissioners, of the college estate 
held by the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Raphoe, 
and also to specify the time when such estimate was 
made. 

Three days after this order, that is, on the 30th of 



4 COLLEGE LANDS IN DUBLIN. 

the month, the following account was presented, being 
a statement of the estimate made by Mr. Thomas 
Sherrard, by order of the " Wide Street Commission- 
ers," of the college estate held under a lease of years by 
the Bishop of llaphoe. It further states, that this 
account or report was read at a meeting of the Com- 
missioners of Wide Street, &c., which was held for 
that purpose at the Royal Exchange, on Friday the 
20th of April, 1798 (exactly one year previously). 

When there were present : 

John Swan, Esq., in the Chair, the Right Hon. 
the Speaker of the House of Commons, Jeremiah 
D'Olier, Esq., Right Hon. Robert Ross, Andrew 
Caldwell, Esq., Right Hon. John Beresford, Rich- 
mond Allen, Esq., William Diggs Latouche, Esq., 
Thomas Burgh, Esq., Sir T. Leighton, Bart. 

Mr. Sherrard, pursuant to order, laid before the 
board the following estimate of the college estate 
held by the Bishop of Raphoe. 

feet. s. d. s. d. 

Front of Aston s Quay, including the ) 7g() at j 1Q Q im 

Brewery J 

North side Fleet Street .... 540 129 614 5 

South side ditto 516 129 58G 19 

Fleet Lane, including each side . . 280 10 14-0 

Hawkins Street, west side ... 260 100 260 

Ditto, east side . 260 100 260 

Townsend Street 180 15 135 

Poolbeg Street, each side included . 200 15 150 00 
Present value per annum, if now to 

let . . . 3316 4 



Amount of the fee at 20 years' pur- 
chase . 66324 



Deduct the value of the Bishop's term, being thirty- } 

three years at the same rate, worth sixteen years' ,> 53059 4 
purchase .............. j 

Value of the reversion of the College ..... 13264160 

Add the value of the present Bishop's rent for the said ") 

term of thirty-three years, supposed <400 per annum, > 6400 
at sixteen years' purchase ......... j 

Present value to the College, interest in fee ... 19664 160 

1000 per annum at twenty years' purchase. 



Signed by order, T. SHERRARD, Sec., 30th April, 1797, 



THE LEGISLATIVE UNION. 115 

SECTION III. 

The time, however, now approached rapidly, when 
the friendly acts and attentions of the Irish Parlia- 
ment were, like the existence of that legislative hody, 
to cease and determine. The Irish Parliament and 
University had always a reciprocity of cordial feeling, 
the cause of which was one of the most rational and 
honourable that can be found amongst mankind. The 
University had, for the last two centuries, been con- 
stantly engaged in cultivating the minds of the youth- 
ful nobility, gentry, and higher commercial classes in 
Ireland, and as it was from among these classes that a 
constant succession of members was selected to per- 
form the legislative functions in both branches of the 
legislature, it was quite natural for the members of the 
two houses, who had been well trained for public life 
within the precincts of the college, to feel an habitual 
and well-founded respect for Alma Mater, under whose 
care the powers of their minds had been gradually 
developed and judiciously trained in all the arts and 
sciences at those periods considered indispensable to 
form the character of a gentleman, whether to dis- 
charge great public duties, or in a private capacity to 
fulfil the moral and religious obligations which man 
owes to the social state to promote by his example, 
the love of order, and the practice of all the domestic 
virtues ; to these great objects were the unwearied 
exertions of the Provost and Fellows constantly di- 
rected. And under this general influence the mind 
of Ireland advanced rapidly in the arts of civilization, 
and developed a strength and extent of intellectual 
capacity, which, from its having lain so long dormant 
and oppressed, it was supposed could not be in exist- 
ence ; unhappily, however, some few " tares were 
sown among the wheat," and the storm of political re- 
volution which devastated the continent of Europe, and 
which were provoked by the foul corruption, tyranny, 
and imbecility of the French monarchy, at length 
spread its pestilential influence over Ireland ; where 
the deplorable events to which it gave rise will be 



116 COLLEGE DEPRIVED OF ONE REPRESENTATIVE. 

long remembered. The fierce and sanguinary struggle 
for a separation, which we have already alluded to, 
not having been successful, led to the absorption of the 
Irish Parliament in that of England, and although but 
a very few of those who had been educated in the Uni- 
versity were found to have taken a disloyal part in the 
rebellion of 1798, and whilst on the other hand the 
active and intelligent loyalty of the heads of the col- 
lege and vast majority of the students was most con- 
spicuous, and received the thanks "of the British 
Government ; yet the Act of Union deprived this 
borough of one of its representatives, and caused a 
total disruption of that cordial feeling which had al- 
ways previously existed between the Irish Parliament 
and Ireland's only University. 

From that period the college has maintained itself 
independent of parliamentary aid, although for some 
years after the Act of Union numbers of the Irish 
youth, who would have graduated here, were sent to 
Oxford and Cambridge, through the caprice of an ab- 
surd fashion that then had seized many of the Irish no- 
bility and gentry ; in which they were also actuated 
by the hope of obtaining English patronage through 
their connexion with those Universities. Thus was 
this noble and loyal seat of learning degraded to the 
rank of a borough of the lowest order ; an act that did 
no honour to the head or heart of the statesman* by 
whom it was perpetrated. 

The college revenues were also diminished by the 
sudden migration of numerous titled and wealthy fami- 
lies, who abandoned their native land and the tenantry 
over whom a kind Providence had placed them as the 
natural guardians, to squander their wealth upon the 
luxuries, and too often upon the vices, of the great 
metropolis, under the specious pretext of attending 
their parliamentary duties, but in reality to dance at- 
tendance about a court by which they were looked 
down upon, and amongst a people by whom they were 
not at all respected, as they would have been by the 
same classes in their own country. 

a The late Viscount Castlereagh. 



THE COMPLETE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC. 117 

Notwithstanding these disadvantages, the Alma 
Mater of Ireland continued calmly to follow up that 
extensive and useful system of education which had 
already done such extensive service in educating the 
numerous generations of natives since its foundation, 
and out of whom came forth some of the brightest 
ornaments to British science and literature that grace 
the pages of English history. 

Ever anxious to improve and extend their course 
of education, the Provost and Fellows lost no time in 
applying to the Imperial Parliament, A.D. 1800, for an 
act to confirm and amend the act of the 25 Geo. III. 
" for establishing a complete School of Physic in Ire- 
land ;" and this was granted so far as relates to the 
University Professors. 

By this act it is provided that those University Pro- 
fessors shall have perpetual continuance and succes- 
sion, and shall be elected in the usual manner by the 
provost, or in his absence, the vice-provost and board 
of senior Fellows. The several professorships are to 
be held for seven years, if nothing interrupts them. 
The same professors may be re-elected at the expira- 
tion of that term ; but in case of a new election, three 
months' notice must be given in the Dublin and 
London Gazettes, signed by the college Registrar, and 
the Registrar of the College of Physicians, stating 
what professorship is vacant, or expected to be vacant 
at the appointed time, the emolument and other ad- 
vantages connected with them, together with the time 
and place of election. The candidates are to send in 
to the registrar their name, places of education, gra- 
duation, and of precedency, to afford an opportunity 
of inquiring into the merits of each candidate. The 
professorships are open to the Protestants of all na- 
tions, provided they have received a medical degree, 
or a licence to practise from the College of Physicians. 
The Provost and board of senior Fellows are also au- 
thorized to make rules and orders to regulate the uni- 
versity professors, to be approved by the College of 
Physicians. 

The lectures of each professor, except those on 



118 NEW REGULATIONS OF THE SCHOOL. 

Botany, must begin on the first Monday in November, 
and continue until the end of April, and shall be given 
four days in the week at least. The lectures on 
Botany commence on the second Monday in May, and 
continue until the end of July in each year, four times 
a week. 

All these lectures are to be given in the college, and 
in the English language, unless otherwise specially 
ordered by the provost and board of college. And 
the professors are allowed to charge reasonable fees 
to be paid on admission, by all persons who attend 
their lectures. 

The students in the School of Physic have also the 
privilege granted them of being matriculated in the 
University ; and for the registering of their names 
they shall pay five shillings ; but these students are 
not obliged to have a tutor, or to answer at the exa- 
minations, or attend to any of the usual academical 
duties of the University ; and the lecturers in each 
medical session are to return to the senior lecturer in 
college, the names of those pupils who have dili- 
gently attended during the first half of their respective 
courses. 

The advantages of these enactments, all of which 
were proposed by the heads of the University, and ap- 
proved by the College of Physicians, soon became ap- 
parent ; the improvements which had been introduced 
were very soon recognised by society; and pupils 
crowded into the lectures, not only from all parts of 
Ireland, but also many from England, Scotland, and 
North America. Now, although this is the first of the 
University faculties which came under the notice of the 
Imperial Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland, yet 
the author believes it will be more satisfactory to his 
readers, if he should go on consecutively with the whole 
account of the sections in the college course, the duties 
required, the pecuniary expenses incident to each, and 
the advantages conferred on graduates of this college by 
their diligent perfonnance of the various duties con- 
nected indispensably with their under-graduate course. 
As a proper termination to this section of the work, 



THE DIVINITY LECTURES. 119 

some account of the Divinity system of education at 
present pursued here is subjoined, this faculty being, 
as it ever has been, the great basis upon which the 
university was originally founded. 

SECTION IV. 

Regius Professor of Divinity. Having already 
shewn that a lectureship in this faculty existed in 
this institution from its commencement, and that in 
A.D. 1761, it was made a Regius Professorship, we 
shall now notice the alterations and improvements 
which have been introduced at later periods. 

The next change, of great consequence, which took 
place after that just noticed in the School of Medicine, 
was one introduced into the Divinity classes, by Dr. 
Graves. Previously to that period the professor was 
allowed only one assistant ; and thus it stood until 
A.D. 1813, in which year Dr. Graves was appointed 
to this office. That learned and acute theologian soon 
perceived the vast importance of making this professor- 
ship one of extensive practical utility ; he lost not a 
moment in pointing out his views to persons in higher 
authority, who fortunately saw the merit of Dr. 
Graves's plan, which in fact was well calculated to 
work a thorough reform in the existing system. A 
statute was therefore passed and confirmed in the fol- 
lowing year, authorizing him to make the proposed 
changes, which he speedily accomplished, and soon 
introduced extensive theological knowledge into his 
prelections, and adopted a very strict method in his 
examination of students intended for the church, and 
instead of only one assistant being allowed, there are 
now five assistants, all fellows. This reformed system 
has since been maintained, and further improvements 
added by Dr. Graves's successors in the professor- 
ship, so that in fact it would be difficult to conceive a 
more sound, extensive and orthodox selection of theo- 
logical science, suited to prepare candidates for the 
sacred office of the ministry, in a more effective manner 
than that which is now practised in this University. 



120 THE DIVINITY LECTURES. 

In consequence of the efforts and intelligent sug- 
gestions of Dr. Graves, (then elected Dean of Ar- 
dagh,) a statute was passed in the year stated, by 
which the endowment of the professorships was further 
augmented, and additional regulations added, hy which 
it is laid down, that the professor, in addition to the 
duties already prescribed to him by the college sta- 
tutes, " shall read annually four public prelections in 
Divinity, at such times and places as the Provost and 
Board shall appoint," and of these prelections public 
notice must be given. 

The professor is also to hold an annual examination 
of the students in Divinity for two days in the month 
of November, during four hours each day, in the 
morning of the first day, in the Old Testament, and in 
the afternoon in the New Testament ; in the morning 
of the second day, in ecclesiastical history, and in the 
afternoon in the Articles and Liturgy of the Church 
of England. 

By the former statute, the provost and board were 
limited to elect a Professor of Divinity from among 
the senior fellows ; the new statute takes off that re- 
striction, and they are now at liberty to elect either a 
senior or a junior fellow of the college into this situa- 
tion, provided the party so elected be a Doctor in 
Divinity, and also the best qualified amongst the can- 
didates for the above office ; in equal cases, the senior 
in rank to be preferred to the junior. 

It was also directed, that within three months after 
the professorship becoming vacant by the death, re- 
signation, removal, or promotion of the professor to a 
bishoprick, (on the latter contingency this office is 
immediately declared vacant,) the provost and senior 
fellows are directed to elect a thoroughly qualified 
person into the professorship from among the fellows 
who are Doctors in Divinity. And previous to the elec- 
tion, each elector must solemnly declare, that he will 
vote for that person among the candidates whom in 
his conscience he thinks best qualified to perform the 
duties of that office. This declaration, with names 
of the candidates, and the votes given by the electors, 



DIVINITY LECTURES REGULATIONS, ETC. 121 

must then be entered in the college registry ; and the 
new appointment must be signified under the college 
seal to the chancellor, or in his absence the vice- 
chancellor of the University, praying this dignitary 
that he will admit to the office the person so elected 
after he shall have taken the prescribed oath before 
the chancellor, vice-chancellor, or his deputy. 

And in case that the professor should become inca- 
pacitated through old age, sickness, or other ine- 
vitable necessity from performing the duties of his 
office, then it shall be lawful for the provost and fel- 
lows to appoint a deputy, who must be a Fellow and 
Doctor of Divinity, duly qualified, to whom a reasonable 
remuneration is to be paid out of the stipend of the 
professor. And should the professor be unable for a 
whole year to perform the duties of his office, then the 
provost and board may elect a permanent deputy under 
the same rules as those prescribed in the election of a 
professor, notice being given to all the fellows eligible 
to that office. The deputy is to take the same oath 
(mutatis mutandis} as that taken by the professor ; 
the oath is to be administered by the provost, or vice- 
provost, in the college chapel ; and the deputy is bound 
to the performance of the same duties, and subject to 
the same government and fines, &c., as the professor. 
He may retain his fellowship, but cannot hold any col- 
lege office with his place of deputy. 

The professor is entitled to hold this appointment 
during his natural life, unless removed for neglect of 
duty, &cc., or in case he should be promoted to a 
bishoprick. 

The deputy may, however, unless he chooses to re- 
sign, hold this office during the incapacity of the pro- 
fessor, and until the 20th of November after that in- 
capacity has ceased, of which due notice is to be given ; 
provided said deputy shall continue a fellow, and shall 
perform all the duties to which he is bound by that 
situation. . 

In a very few years the good effects of this system 
began to manifest themselves in the superior qualifi- 



RECENT IMPROVEMENTS. 

cations with which the candidates for deacons' and for 
priests' orders entered upon their sacred functions ; 
further improvements have since been made in this 
system, as time and experience pointed out the pro- 
priety of such alterations ; all these changes will be 
fully noticed when we come to describe the practical 
operations of the whole college course, as in full ac- 
tivity at the present time. 

It must, however, be understood, that it is not 
merely with regard to the original and long established 
course of education, that improvements have been 
made, for the facts, when stated, will prove that the 
improving, but not the revolutionary, spirit of the age 
has been kindly received into this University ; and al- 
though its governors have firmly resisted all attempts 
to introduce bold experiments into the system of edu- 
cation, so long and so advantageously pursued here, 
yet they have gradually and wisely introduced some 
highly useful branches of learning, that formerly were 
not recognised in this college, nor indeed were some 
of them, until within the last twenty or thirty years, 
considered of sufficient practical importance to society 
to be introduced into our University system of edu- 
cation. The progress of events, however, have proved 
their usefulness ; they have been embodied into the 
college course, the basis of which has thus been ex- 
tended and rendered more solid, and at the same time 
more ornamental. These alterations and additions, 
for the above reasons, raise this institution to a higher 
stand in public estimation, because its modes of ex- 
tending knowledge now harmonize better with the 
feelings of society, which in this enlightened nation 
always looks forward to the practical application of 
educational systems to the great business of life ; people 
in general, not feeling any particular interest in merely 
abstract speculations, although they may be very wise 
and learned. 

The first of these additions to the previous course of 
education, that took place during the present century, 
was the establishing a lecture in Natural History, A.D. 



ADDITIONAL PROFESSORSHIPS. 123 

1816. To this lectureship the provost and board 
elected Dr. Whitley Stokes, who was a senior medical 
fellow. 

In 1832, the Professorship of Political Economy 
was founded by Dr. Whately, Archbishop of Dublin, 
under similar conditions (^mutatis mutandis) as the 
Drummond Professorship at Oxford. 

In 1837, the provost and board founded a Pro- 
fessorship of Moral Philosophy, and elected to the 
professorship Wm. Archer Butler, A.M. 

In 1838, the same authorities established a Pro- 
fessorship of Biblical Greek, and elected George 
Sydney Smith, Professor. 

In 1840, the provost and senior fellows very pro- 
perly re-founded the Professorship of the Irish Lan- 
guage, which had been arbitrarily and absurdly sup- 
pressed by Provost Chappie, about A.D. 1639- In 
the same year the college authorities created the office 
of Curator to the Botanical Museum; the latter had 
been forming for some time. To this office Thomas 
Coulter, M.D., was appointed. And likewise that of 
Numismatist; to this office John A. Malet, A.M., was 
elected. 

In 1843, the provost and board resolved, upon ma- 
ture deliberation, to found and endow a school for 
civil engineering ; this has been accomplished, and 
the direction of it has been confided to John M'Neil, 
LL.D. F.R.S., &c., and H. L. Renny, Esq., late of 
the Royal Engineers, R.I. A. 

In addition to these absolute and indispensable 
parts of the college system, there exist two others 
that partake much more of the graces of social life 
than the dryness of academic application. These are 
the Historical Society, and " The University Choral 
Society," the former had been originally established 
in 1770, by the collegians, out of their own funds, and 
arose spontaneously out of the constantly advancing 
state of civilization which found new modes of exer- 
cising the mind, and of making the theoretical lore of 
universities subservient to the practical business of 
life. The college authorities of that period, though 



124 ROYAL VISIT TO THE UNIVERSITY. 

not averse to this well conceived mode of embodying 
abstract learning with the active duties of society, did 
not openly encourage the attempt, and in consequence 
of some serious difference of opinion, a large portion 
of the members seceded, and formed an extern His- 
torical Society, which held its sittings in the exhibition 
rooms in William Street. 

In 1794, a new intern society was formed in Col- 
lege, and both were in activity for twelve years, when 
in 1806, at a meeting held by the society in William 
Street, it was resolved to dissolve the society, and to 
present their library, &c., to the intern Society. The 
latter, however, was itself doomed to a similar fate 
for after having been both useful and ornamental to 
the college for twenty-one years, it was, on account of 
some dispute amongst a few of the members, subjected 
to more stringent regulations than existed before, and 
this curtailment of privileges was so ill received by a 
large portion of the society, that an extra meeting was 
called, and after an animated discussion, it was re- 
solved (50 to 14) that the society should, from that 
moment, be dissolved ; which was done, and their 
library was placed in security by the heads of the col- 
lege. On the subject of this society we shall have 
something further to say when we come to the notice 
of its resuscitation in 1 843, in the provostship of Dr. 
Sadleir ; but at present it is the time to give an ac- 
count of the visit which King George IV. paid to 
the University, when that monarch went on his tour 
to Ireland. 

SECTION V. 
VISIT OF KING GEORGE IV. TO THE UNIVERSITY. 

On the 31st of July, 1821, his Majesty, King 
George the Fourth left Carlton Palace in his travel- 
ling coach and four, accompanied by the Duke of 
Montrose, Marquesses of Londonderry and Winchester, 
Sir B. Bloomfield, and a large suite of attendants, to 
embark in the Royal George yacht for Ireland. 



ROYAL VISIT TO THE UNIVERSITY. 125 

His Majesty arrived at Portsmouth at three o'clock 
in the afternoon, and immediately embarked in the 
state barge, which took him on board the Royal George 
yacht, Sir Edmund Nagle. Soon after his Majesty 
ordered a cold dinner, and in the afternoon, the awn- 
ing being drawn across, the deck was used as a draw- 
ing room, and here the king took coffee and conversed 
with a few of his particular friends ; he retired to rest 
early, having been much fatigued with his journey 
down. At ten o'clock next morning, the tide serving, 
the royal squadron made sail, the men-of-war and forts 
saluted, the troops were drawn out, and the spectators, 
who were very numerous and highly respectable, cheer- 
ing as they passed ; the wind was westerly and a little 
fresh, of course ahead, but his Majesty determined 
to proceed at all hazards, and in the course of that 
day, Sir Edmund Nagle, with great exertions, took 
the Royal George through the Needles passage in 
a most seamanlike manner ; they continued beating 
to windward until late on the evening of the 3rd, 
when they brought up in Weymouth Bay, where they 
were saluted by the Greyhound sloop of war. Here 
boats were sent ashore, and the fresh provisions, live 
stock, fruits and vegetables soon disappeared from 
Weymouth market. The wind having come round to 
the south-eastward, they weighed anchor early on the 
4th, joined by the Greyhound sloop. They now stood 
down channel with a fair wind ; all sail being set, they 
made great way, passing Plymouth Sound at eleven 
at night ; Falmouth, at two in the morning of the 
fifth. At six o'clock they were seen off Penzance, 
and the Lee frigate sent her boat ashore for new 
bread, &c. ; the wind lulled for a time, and then sprung 
up at N.E. At one o'clock in the afternoon the 
squadron was about three leagues north-west of the 
Land's End ; if it had not been Sunday, the town would 
have been emptied of its inhabitants to enjoy a sight 
which has not been witnessed for many generations, 
the royal standard of England floating between the 
Scilly Isles and the main land. 

On Monday, the 6th, the fleet fell in with the 



126 ROYAL VISIT TO THE UNIVERSITY. 

Welsh land, off St. David's Head, standing up chan- 
nel, with the wind variable, but mostly from the 
westward. 

As it was known to be his Majesty's gracious inten- 
tion to visit the Marquess of Anglesea at Plas Newydd, 
the inhabitants of the island kept a good look out, 
having arranged that beacon fires should be lighted 
on different conspicuous points of land as the royal 
squadron came in view. After much anxiety, on 
Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday, at last the signal be- 
gan to blaze late on Tuesday afternoon, the others were 
fired in succession, and at 10 o'clock the Royal George 
came to anchor in Holyhead roads. On Wednesday 
morning the Marquess of Anglesea came on board, and 
was most kindly received by his Majesty ; but the 
wind being then tolerably favourable, he declined, at 
first, going on shore. However, as it was imagined 
that the preparations for his reception in the Irish 
capital might not be complete, his Majesty agreed to 
land, and at two o'clock, a signal being made from the 
Royal George, the king landed on the pier, under a 
general salute from the squadron, and field-pieces in 
the town. After receiving the congratulations and ad- 
dresses of the people in the most condescending man- 
ner, his Majesty entered a coach of Lord Anglesea's, 
and being attended by some others, drove slowly 
through the town, and afterwards went on at a travel- 
ling pace, accompanied by almost all the inhabitants of 
the island ; the column of persons was full a mile 
in length. His Majesty arrived at Plas Newydd, the 
beautiful seat of the Marquess of Anglesea, at six 
o'clock, where he was received with a royal salute from 
guns on the lawn, and the Arrow cutter in the river. 

On Saturday the King re-embarked, and on Sunday 
afternoon, the 12th of August, 1821, his Majesty King 
George the Fourth landed on the western pier of 
Howth harbour, from a steam vessel, called the Royal 
George, commanded by Captain Skinner. 

His Majesty was, of course, received with the warm- 
est and most genuine good feeling, which was the 
more grateful to the monarch, as he saw that it arose 



THE COLLEGE ADDRESS TO THE KING. 127 

spontaneously from the heart. The persons here were 
not prepared for his approach; there was no magis- 
terial stage trick, no arrangement of forms and cere- 
monies ; none of that hollow pageantry which has so 
frequently been played off to deceive monarchs as to 
the true state of public feeling, like charity, to cover a 
multitude of sins. So far from that, there was not even 
one person present belonging to the civil or military 
power, nothing but a few of the nobility, about one 
hundred of the gentry, and four or five hundred of the 
tradespeople, &c. After greeting him most heartily, 
they formed a guard of honour, and escorted the mo- 
narch to the lord-lieutenant's lodge in the park, where, 
on parting, he made them a very handsome speech. 
The king remained private until Friday, the 17th, 
when he made his public entry into the city. This 
grand procession it is not our business to describe. 

When his Majesty arrived at the Castle, the public 
bodies in attendance for the purpose of presenting the 
addresses, which he was to receive on the throne, were 
introduced. His Majesty was seated, surrounded by 
all his great officers of state, and gave the answers in a 
a most graceful and impressive manner. They all 
breathe the purest regard and most anxious solicitude 
for his Irish people. The first address was from the 
archbishops, bishops, and clergy ; this was read by the 
Lord Primate, (Dr. Stewart). The second was from 
the city of Dublin ; it was read by the recorder. The 
next was from the provost, fellows, and scholars of the 
University of Dublin ; this was delivered by the Pro- 
vost, Dr. Kyle, and is here subjoined : 



TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY. 
" MOST GRACIOUS SOVEREIGN, 

" WE, your Majesty's most faithful and devoted 
subjects, the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars of the 
College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen 
Elizabeth, near Dublin, and the Vice- Chancellor and 
University, beg leave to approach your Majesty's sacred 



128 THE COLLEGE ADDRESS TO THE KING. 

person with the deepest sentiments of humility and 
veneration. 

" In common with every rank of your Majesty's Irish 
subjects, we hail with joy and gratitude the arrival in 
this land of a sovereign of that illustrious house, under 
whose wise and benignant government the British 
empire has enjoyed, for more than a century, greater 
felicity than ever yet distinguished a people. 

" In the general exultation which the recent im- 
portant and august solemnities have everywhere ex- 
cited in the breasts of your Majesty's loyal subjects, 
we most fervently unite, and we rejoice in the con- 
viction that this feeling will be lastingly impressed on 
the hearts of Irishmen, by your Majesty's unexampled 
condescension in visiting this part of your dominions, 
and in graciously choosing, for the time, this most 
auspicious juncture. 

" But, Illustrious Sire, permit us, with all humility, 
to add, that on this happy occasion, peculiar motives 
should animate the gratitude and exultation of the 
University established and endowed by your royal 
predecessors, and flourishing under your Majesty's most 
gracious countenance and protection. 

" Yet, earnest as we are to offer to your Majesty, in 
our academic capacity, not less than in that of Irish 
subjects, our most dutiful homage, we are deeply sen- 
sible that our gratitude as well as loyalty will be best 
evinced by using every effort in our several situations 
to insure all the purposes of our favoured institution. 

" We therefore humbly trust that henceforward it 
will, if possible, be more than ever our ambition to 
make our University conducive, not only to the ad- 
vancement of sound learning, but to the promotion of 
all that can render human life valuable and happy ; 
and especially that every member of our body, and 
every pupil within our walls, may both cultivate and 
exemplify piety to his God, and fidelity to his sove- 
reign. 

" May the Supreme Disposer of all events grant that 
your Majesty may long reign over a grateful and loyal 
people, their protector, under Providence, against all 



HIS MAJESTYS ANSWER. 

their enemies, the patron of every useful art and sci- 
ence, and the effectual support of just government and 
pure religion." 

The signatures of the provost and members of the 
University were appended to the address. 

The following is his Majesty's most gracious an- 
swer : 

" IT is with the greatest satisfaction that I receive 
such a testimony of your feelings upon my arrival in 
this country, and of your affectionate and firm at- 
tachment to my person and government. 

" In visiting this part of my kingdom, it is my 
earnest wish to manifest the very high sense which I 
entertain of the value of those excellent institutions 
and establishments with which it abounds. The Uni- 
versity of Dublin holds amongst them a most distin- 
guished place ; experience attests that within your 
walls, that cultivation has been given to genius, that 
useful knowledge acquired, and those principles im- 
planted, from which the public has in numerous in- 
stances derived advantages the most useful and im- 
portant. 

" It will, I am persuaded, be your constant en- 
deavour to maintain and increase the reputation which 
you have so justly obtained, and in the discharge of 
those duties which belong to your several stations, you 
may be assured of my constant favour and protection." 

His Majesty having signified his gracious intention 
of dining at the college, every preparation was made 
that the time would allow to receive the monarch in a 
style becoming the dignity of this learned body. Mon- 
day, the 27th of August, was appointed for this pur- 
pose, on which day the king arrived at Dublin Castle 
at five o'clock, from Slane Castle, on the Boyne, where 
he had been for three days. His Majesty immediately 
dressed for dinner, and proceeded to the college, whMi 
he entered by the great gate at five minutes before 
six o'clock, and passing through the grand, or Parlia- 

K 



130 ROYAL VISIT TO THE LIBRARY. 

ment Square, which is terminated on the north arid 
south sides by the handsome porticos of the chapel and 
theatre or hall of examination, was received by the 
provost, fellows, and scholars at the entrance of an oc- 
tagonal vestibule, surmounted by the royal crown. 
The entire of this vestibule, and of the covered gal- 
leries connected with it, were beautifully arranged; 
one of them, leading to the entrance of the library, was 
used as a reception-room, the other to the dining-room ; 
the vestibule and galleries were temporary, being fitted 
up for this occasion. 

His Majesty, on entering the library, was evidently 
struck with its chaste and simple grandeur, and having 
stopped some moments to enjoy its effects, he was 
addressed by Dr. J. Barret, the Vice-Provost, who 
had been forty-one years a fellow, in an elegant Latin 
speech, to which his Majesty paid very marked at- 
tention, as well as to the venerable scholar who de- 
livered it. The king was very particular in his en- 
quiries as to the extent, number of volumes and MSS., 
and other matters relating to the library. This noble 
room, which is two hundred and ten 'feet in length, 
forty-two in breadth, and forty in height, has long 
been the admiration of every man of taste and know- 
ledge in architecture who has seen it, and its effect 
was considerably improved by the various appropriate 
embellishments bestowed upon it for the reception of 
the sovereign. The white marble busts were newly 
arranged, and with great judgment; the floor was 
covered with crimson carpeting, and the classic con- 
struction of the throne, erected at the end of the 
library, was in perfect union with the other parts, and 
attracted particular admiration. His Majesty entered 
into a gracious and free conversation with the members 
of the University until dinner was announced, when the 
king, with a captivating politeness, bowed to the ladies 
who exclusively occupied the fine gallery of the li- 
brary, no gentlemen being allowed admission there. 
When we add this splendid assembly to what has been 
already described, and fancy the floor of the superb 
hall filled with nobility and gentry, clergy, and military 



THE BANQUET TO IT [8 MAJESTY. 131 

men, in the various costumes of the church, the law, the 
university, and the profession of arms, with the mo- 
narch enthroned in the centre, a more brilliant as- 
semblage or interesting picture can hardly be pre- 
sented to the imagination. From the library his 
Majesty was conducted by the provost along a covered 
gallery, decorated with much elegance, to the theatre. 
The gallery was terminated by an octagon vestibule, 
through which the king entered the dining-room, im- 
mediately close to his throne, in front of which was 
placed the royal table. It is difficult to conceive the 
splendid effect of the theatre on first entering it. This 
noble hall was fitted up with that classical purity of 
taste which presided over all the arrangements and 
decorations belonging to this interesting and magni- 
ficent festival. The throne, of crimson velvet of con- 
siderable richness, was placed in the centre of the 
circular space which terminates the room. A plat- 
form, elevated two feet, filled the semicircle, and the 
royal table was adapted to the curvature of the place. 
In the centre of the room, on one side, was erected 
a splendid Bacchanalian altar of chaste and classic 
design, upon which stood five bronze figures support- 
ing lights ; the summit was crowned with a marble 
vase filled with flowers, and the whole backed by 
a very rich drapery of crimson velvet suspended from 
a wreath of flowers. The room was splendidly lighted, 
and the coup d'ceil, on entering the room, incon- 
ceivably grand. The gallery at the end of the room 
was occupied by ladies of distinction, and its effect 
from the other end, where the throne stood, was pecu- 
liarly beautiful. 

The choir occupied the two first rows of this gal- 
lery, and immediately on the king's entrance an ode, 
composed for the occasion by a student of the univer- 
sity, was performed, accompanied by the ancient organ. 
It was twenty minutes past six when his majesty en- 
tered the hall where dinner was served, and about 
one hundred and seventy persons of rank and fashion 
were assembled. He took his station under the canopy 
at the centre of the royal table. Dr. Lloyd then pro- 

K 2 



o^ GUESTS AT THE ROYAL TABLE. 

nounced the usual college grace, and his Majesty and 
the company took their seats. The royal table was 
semicircular : it stood at the upper end of the hall, di- 
rectly opposite the regular entrance, on a platform 
covered with crimson cloth, elevated three steps above 
the floor. This table was furnished with a magni- 
ficent gold plateau, a fine service of silver plate, and 
beautiful cut glass. The provost helped his Majesty 
to soup, and the King then invited the provost to oc- 
cupy a chair next on the right of the royal seat. The 
persons who had the honour of sitting at his Majesty's 
table were : 



ON THE KING S RIGHT HAND. 

1. The Provost (Dr Kyle). 

2. The Chief Justice (Downes), who is Vice-Chan- 
cellor of the University. 

3. The Lord Primate (Dr. Stewart). 

4. The Marquis of Headfort (Taylor). 

5. The Lord Chancellor (Lord Manners). 

6. Archbishop of Tuam (Dr. French). 

ON THE KING'S LEFT HAND. 

1. The Lord Lieutenant (Earl Talbot). 

2. The Archbishop of Dublin (Dr. Beresford). 

3. The Duke of Montrose. 

4. Viscount Sidmouth (Addington). 

5. The Lord Mayor (Sir A. B. King). 

When dinner was removed, the provost arose and 
announced the health of his Majesty, which was re- 
ceived with long and loud continued cheers and plaudits 
by the noblemen and gentlemen who formed the com- 
pany, and waving of handkerchiefs, &c., by the ladies 
in the gallery. " God save the King" was sung with 
good effect by the choir. 

The Marquis of Headfort then rose and said, " His 
Majesty drinks the health of the Provost, Fellows, and 
^Scholars of Trinity College ;" the Provost and Fel- 



THE TOASTS GIVEN. 133 

lows rose and bowed very low to the King, and then 
to the company, and the choir sang, " Strike the 
Harp." 

The next toasts were 

" The Duke of York and the Army." 

" The Duke of Clarence and the Navy." Song, 
" Rule Britannia: 9 His Majesty paid great attention 
to this song. 

" The Duke of Cumberland, Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of Dublin, and the rest of the royal family." 
Song, " Red Cross Knight." 

The provost then announced the health of the Lord 
Lieutenant, by command of his Majesty. This was 
greatly applauded. Earl Talbot made his acknow- 
ledgements : the choir sung, " Glorious Apollo." 

The next toast was, " Prosperity to Ireland," also 
by command of his Majesty. 

The Duke of Montrose (Master of the Horse) now 
went to order the King's carriage, and in a few mi- 
nutes his Majesty rose to depart ; as he walked down 
the centre of the hall to the great door, he bowed with 
great affability, yet with much dignity of manner, to 
the company at each side of the hall, who had all 
risen : he recognised and saluted particularly several 
persons as he passed along. He ascended his carriage 
just at nine o'clock, and was attended to it by all the 
principal personages who were present. The Lord 
Lieutenant, the Lord Chancellor, Chief Justice, Arch- 
bishop of Dublin, and a few others, departed with his 
Majesty. The provost returned to the upper table, and 
caused the chair his Majesty had occupied to be re- 
moved ; he then placed his own seat a little more in 
front of the canopy, and the lord mayor advanced and 
occupied the seat just left by the lord lieutenant. The 
lord mayor then rose and said, " The Provost allows 
me to give a toast I beg to propose, the Lord Pri- 
mate, and the Church of Ireland," which was drunk 
accordingly. The next toast was, " the 27th of Au- 
gust, the day on which his Majesty was graciously 
pleased to honour the university with his presence." 
This was proposed by the Right Hon. W. Plunket, 



134 DISTINGUISHED GUESTS AT THE BANQUET. 

M.P. for the college ; it was drunk with great ap- 
plause*. The other toasts were, " The Irish Bar" 
" The Trade of Ireland" and, " Prosperity to the 
cAty of Dublin" ; this last was given by the Lord 
Primate, soon after which the company separated, at 
half past ten. 

Perhaps no public dinner ever went off better than 
this did ; the arrangements were so judicious and 
complete, that it appeared to differ from a private 
party only in the quality and number of the guests, 
and the costliness of the entertainment. Every body 
felt quite at ease, and each person was so well attended, 
that there was not the least appearance of bustle. 

There were eight persons of the royal household in 
attendance on his Majesty's table ; they wore very 
rich liveries, of dark blue cloth, and a, profusion of 
gold lace. 

Besides the distinguished persons already men- 
tioned, there were the Bishops of Clogher, Dromore, 
Raphoe, Kilmore, Derry, Killala, and Limerick ; 
Earls of Donoughmore, O'Neil, Carrick ; Viscount 
Frankfort ; Lords Castlecoote, Howden, Brandon, 
Cloncurry, Rossmore, Carbery, Castlemaine, Oriel, C. 
Bentinck, E. Chichester, Graves, Beresford, G. Beres- 
ford, Oxmantown, Burghersh, Aylmer, A. Hill, F. 
Conyngham, Forbes, Norbury ; the Chief Baron ; 
Judges Johnson, Jebb, Fletcher, Daly, Day, Moore, 
Pennefather ; Master of the Rolls ; Attorney, and 
Solicitor-Generals ; the Recorder of Dublin ; Serjeant 
Vandeleur ; Honourables T. H. Hutchinson, Pome- 
roy, Talbot, Legge; Deans of Ardagh, Ossory, Saint 
Patrick, Clogher, Derry, Kilmore, Clonmacnoise, 
Clonfert, Limerick, Connor, Emly, Down, Killala, 
Cork, Killaloe ; Sir S. F. Flood, R. Levinge, T. Ham- 
mond, S. Bruce, C. Vernon, B. Bloomfield, G. Hill, 
H. Burgh, J. Doyle, A. Barnard, S. Hutchinson, R. 
Shaw, J. Rowley, C. Paget, W. Smyth, W. Chatterton, 
M. Seymour, K. Waller, W. P. Carroll, M. Tierney, 

a Mr. Plunket's health was proposed by the provost, and drunk 
with great applause; the toast which concluded the festivities of the 
evening was, " Sir Robert Shaw, and Mr. Ellis," city representatives. 



DISTINGUISHED GUESTS AT THE BANQUET. 135 

G. Wood, W. Brabazon, H. Meredyth, H. Langrishe, 
E. Nagle, R. Brough, R. Bolton, H. Turner, W. Con- 
greve, Barts. ; the Knight of Kerry ; Archdeacon of 
Dublin, Clogher, Armagh ; Generals Taylor, and 
Bayley ; Colonels Thornton, Masters, Hill, Quentin, 
Fowle ; Messrs. J. L. Foster, J. W. Croker, C. Grant, 
T. Ellis, M.R, J. Radcliff, J. Brent, Mark Ramsden 
Beresford, Shaw, Calthorpe, Esqs. ; Dr. Percival ; 
Captain Maynell, A.D.C. to Lord Talbot. 

The great cordiality of feeling which characterized 
the acts and expressions of the monarch towards the 
institution on this memorable occasion were remarked 
by the thousands who witnessed them ; and there is 
no doubt that these sentiments, so well worthy of a 
British sovereign, on such an important subject, were 
excited and called forth by the favourable and correct 
opinion which his Majesty had then an opportunity of 
forming of the course of education carried on in this 
college, and of the means by which this system had been 
made so extensively useful, not only to that portion of 
the United Kingdom, but to the nation generally, in 
producing successive generations of highly educated 
men, to fill with credit stations in the public service, 
or in private life as exemplars, promoting the ad- 
vancement, and pointing out the numerous advantages 
of rational education. The great influence which the 
good opinion of British monarchs expressed towards* 
individuals, or public bodies, is very well known ; and 
on this occasion did not fail to produce their good 
effects. The approval of a monarch so fastidious 
as King George the Fourth, was sufficient evidence 
in the eyes of thousands, who perhaps never con- 
sidered the subject before, that this university must 
unquestionably be an institution of singular merit ; 
and an increase of students is said to have been the 
consequence. 

The heads of the college very wisely determined to 
sustain this increased good opinion of the nation, and 
have not, we believe, neglected any legitimate and 
consistent means of improving their previously admir- 



136 THE GOVERNMENT OF THE COLLEGE. 

able college course, which, in every department, has 
been subjected to the proper changes which time, and 
the advance of civilization, require in matters of such 
importance as university education. 

The extent of these alterations and improvements 
might be made quite evident by placing the former 
and present systems of this place in juxta position, 
but as that mode would occupy a larger portion of the 
volume than can well be spared from more interesting 
matters, we think that every useful purpose will be 
answered by laying before our readers an accurate 
description of the various branches of the course, as 
it is administered at the present time. 

Whether these decisive evidences of a steady desire 
on the part of the college governors to improve gra- 
dually their system of education, will satisfy the ad- 
mirers of sweeping innovations and revolutionary 
movements, we know not ; neither is it of much con- 
sequence. Those governors will best serve the inter- 
ests of the nation, and secure the suffrages of all the 
thinking portion of society to their acts, so long as 
they do not admit or adopt any rapid or ill-considered 
changes, such as might eventually compromise the ex- 
istence of this very noble and useful institution. 

We shall now see in what the government of the 
college consists, and what its system of education. 



CHAPTER IV. 

SECTION I. 
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE COLLEGE. 

THIS important duty is vested, by the statutes, in the 
head of the college, who is styled the " Provost," and 
who with the seven Senior Fellows, constitute a coun- 
cil commonly known as " The Board of Senior Fel- 
lows ;" but the provost and four senior fellows are 
sufficient to constitute a board, and tlicv also have the 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE COLLEGE. 137 

privilege of supplying the place of one absent senior 
fellow, by calling into council the junior fellow who is 
next to them in seniority. 

This board has the sole management of the internal 
and external economy of the institution, such as grant- 
ing and renewing leases, determining all the elections 
of fellows, appointing officers, investigating charges of 
infringement of discipline, punishing offences against 
the college statutes and regulations, and granting 
graces for the university degrees, &c. The grace of 
the house for a degree in any faculty, must be granted 
by this board, before it can be proposed to the caput; 
the candidates who have been admitted to a degree at 
the board, are then presented to the vice-chancellor, 
and the whole university at a public congregation or 
senate, of which all masters of arts and doctors, 
having their names on the college books and resident 
in the university are members, by the regius professor 
of the faculty in which the degree is required, except 
it be a degree in arts, in which case the party is pre- 
sented by one of the proctors ; should no objection be 
made by any member of the caput, the presenting of- 
ficer supplicates, in a prescribed form of words, the 
congregation for their public grace, and having col- 
lected their suffrages, declares the assent or dissent of 
the house as it may result, and should the placets form 
the majority, the oath is administered as directed by 
the statute 34 Geo. III. ; then the candidates, having 
subscribed their names in the register, kneel before 
the vice-chancellor, who confers the degrees, according 
to the fortnula established by the statutes of the col- 
lege. 

From the decisions of the senior board the actual 
members of the corporation (the provost, fellows, and 
scholars of the foundation) may appeal to the visitors, 
at the annual commencements ; but the mere pupils, of 
whatever rank, who do not belong to one of the above 
denominations or classes, have no right of appeal, as 
they are not recognised in the charter, and the su- 
perior courts will not receive the complaints of such 
parties against the decisions of the provost and senior 



138 THE GOVERNMENT OF THE COLLEGE. 

fellows, for, as it has been properly stated, the interests 
of learning require that this board should be endowed 
with the privileges of " a domestic forum," litigation 
is prevented in limine, and which, but for this pre- 
caution, would probably not be uncommon. The 
actual members, however, of the foundation, may apply 
to the King's Bench for relief when they have grounds 
for believing that the board has acted manifestly con- 
trary to the intentions of these statutes. 

Another important board, but of limited jurisdic- 
tion here, is called the CAPUT SENATUS ACADEMICI ; 
it is composed of the vice-chancellor, the provost, or 
in his absence, the vice-provost, and the senior master 
non-regent, resident in college. Every grace must pass 
this council before it can be proposed to the rest of the 
senate, and each member of the caput has a negative 
voice. 

The person next in authority to the provost, is the 
senior fellow of the board, who is styled the " Vice 
Provost." It is the duty of this officer to preside at 
the board in the absence of the provost. 

The other officers, members of the board, are seven 
in number, viz. 

The Senior Lecturer, Senior Dean, Senior Proctor, 
Registrar, Librarian, Senior Bursar, and Auditor ; 
two of these offices being sometimes held by the same 
person. 

The junior officers are generally appointed from 
amongst the junior fellows, in rotation, by the senior 
board, the officers are six, viz. 

The Junior Bursar, Registrar of Chambers, Assist- 
ant Librarian, Junior Proctor, Junior Dean, and 
Censor. 

The office of Junior Bursar was instituted in 1819- 
The first person appointed to it, was James Wilson, 
D.D. The duty of this office, which must always be 
held by the senior of the junior fellows, is to superin- 
tend the accounts of the four classes of students, with 
the college, except the commons and sizings and to re- 
ceive their entrance fees, fines, and expenses of tuition. 
The other officers manage the minor, but still essen- 



PROFESSORS, ETC. 139 

tial parts of the college economy. They have a 
marker to assist them, who must always be a student, 
and whose duty it is to mark in his list the students 
who are ahsent without leave in time of duty, or not 
answering at roll call a ; for his services he is paid at 
the rate of 20 per annum. There is another of 
these officers, " The Provost's Marker," who is ap- 
pointed by the provost : the stipend of the latter is 
about 80 a year. 

The Professorships and Lectureships. The 
number of professors and lecturers, with their assist- 
ants, amount at this time, 1842, to forty-six persons 
besides the censor, according to the following list, the 
latter part of which has been supplied from the Uni- 
versity Calendar of the present year. 

Professor of Civil and Canon Law. This officer 
is moderator in all disputations for degrees in laws, 
and presents the candidates for those degrees, at the 
public commencements of the university. 

The Regius Professorship of Feudal and English 
Law was not founded until the year 176l> when 
George III. granted a statute for that purpose. The 
professor, who must be a barrister of at least two 
years' standing, may be elected, at the option of the 
electors, either for life or for a term of years, unless 
he should be a fellow of this college, in which case he 
must be elected for life, and he then resigns his 
fellowship. His duty is to lecture twice a week during 
term, in the elements of feudal and English law ; to 
examine the students who attend, in the books ap- 
pointed by him for that purpose, under the sanction 
of the provost and board. He is to explain difficul- 
ties, and demonstrate the changes that have taken 
place in the laws, and the admitted reasons for those 
changes. 

Regius Professor of Physic. This professorship 
has been described at p. 117. 

Regius Professor of Greek. Although by the sta- 

a The roll is called at half past eight o'clock, (evening,) in winter, 
and half past nine in summer, but the college clock is always a 
quarter of an hour later than the town clocks. 



140 ERASMUS SMITH'S PROFESSORS, ETC. 

tute of Charles I., there was a Greek lecturer ap- 
pointed to he elected of the senior fellows, on the 20th 
of November, annually, to give a lecture three days each 
week during term, to all bachelors of arts, and pupils 
of the Sophister classes, yet it was not until the sta- 
tute of George III., 1761, that this lectureship was 
constituted " a Regius Professorship." It is under 
the same rule of election as it was previously to the 
statute, but the salary has been augmented, and so 
has the duty in a remarkable degree, for the professor 
has now four assistants, all junior fellows. 

Archbishop King's Lecturer in Divinity. The 
origin and progress of this office is described at pp. 64 
and 6,5. 

Lord Donegal's Lecturer in Mathematics. The 
origin of this lectureship has been already noticed at 
p. 48. It is now held by the senior assistant to 
Erasmus Smith's Professor of Mathematics. 

Erasmus Smith's Professors, Erasmus Smith was 
a wealthy citizen of London, a member of the Mer- 
chant Tailors' Company ; having the command of 
a large capital, he purchased several of the estates 
in Ireland which had been forfeited by rebellion, 
and re-granted under certain conditions by the crown 
to the military officers and other adventurers who 
had assisted to drive King James's forces out of 
Ireland ; after a lapse of several years, however, it was 
discovered that the titles to several of these estates 
were so defective, that the courts of law or equity 
would, in all probability, if appealed to, be obliged to 
dispossess the new proprietors. In consequence of this 
uncertain state of the property, he consulted the crown 
lawyers, and after much negociation, the crown con- 
senj^d to pass patents for all the estates then held in 
Ireland by Mr. Smith ; but on condition that he 
should endow with lands, to be managed by trustees, 
four grammar schools a in that country, to be free to a 
certain class of the natives. The lands thus granted 
for educational and charitable uses, after allowing 
ample means for carrying on those schools, were found 

a At Drogheda, Gal way, Ennis, and Tipperary. 



ASTRONOMER ROYAL. SCHOOL OF MEDICINE. 141 

to be so profitable that the funds accumulated, and a 
spirit of jobbing, it is said to a serious extent, got in 
amongst the trustees, and much of the surplus funds 
were absorbed by those unworthy stewards. 

A reform of these abuses having at length been ef- 
fected, a conscientious board of Trustees to these cha- 
rities was formed, and the interests of learning in the 
Dublin University became with them an object of much 
solicitude. 

In 1724 they consequently obtained an act of par- 
liament, described as " For the further application of 
the Rents and Profits of the Lands and Tenements 
formerly given by Erasmus Smith, Esq., deceased, for 
charitable uses." Under this act the three professor- 
ships of natural philosophy, of oratory and of history 
were founded. 

In 1762 the board of governors of Erasmus Smith's 
schools, founded three new professorships*, as stated at 
page 77* These professorships are always well filled 
up, and we doubt that the duties can be performed in 
a superior manner in any university. The professor 
of oratory has one assistant, of mathematics two as- 
sistants, of modern history one assistant, of Hebrew 
three assistants. 

Astronomer Royal of Ireland, and Andrews' s Pro- 
fessor of Astronomy. This professorship, the origin 
of which is noticed at page 77 > commenced operations 
in 1783. The regulations concerning it will be found 
more at large at page 97 

School of Medicine. We have already noticed this 
important divison of the college course at pages 6l and 
92. These lectureships were continued regularly until 
the year 1785, when, as we have seen, they were raised 
to the rank of university professorships by the a^ of 
25 George III. That acfcwas confirmed, so far as the 
university professors were concerned, by another act 
passed in the year 1800, (40 George III.,) which we 
shall have occasion to mention when describing the 
system of the " School of Medicine." 

a Mathematics, History, and the Oriental Languages. 



ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS. 



SECTION II. 

Examination at Entrance. To be admitted into 
the university, it is required that the candidates shall 
pass an examination, which is held in the theatre of 
the college. On this occasion the senior lecturer is- 
sues certificates of admission, for each candidate whose 
answering he considers sufficient to entitle him to be- 
come a student of this institution ; that document is 
given to the junior bursar, and he gives it to the stu- 
dent, or his tutor, on payment of the admission fees ; 
the paper is then signed by the senior bursar and the 
provost, after which the name of the student is placed 
upon the college books. 

Matriculation. Soon after entrance, but generally 
at the time of the first Hilary examination, the senior 
proctor attends in the hall to matriculate the students 
admitted in the preceding year ; for this purpose 
each student must take his note of admission to the 
senior proctor, who having signed it, directs the stu- 
dent to sign his name to a declaration of his willingness 
to conform to the statutes ; he is then acknowledged to 
be a student of the university. 

The junior fellows examine at entrance, and the 
senior lecturer enters in his book the name, age, and 
religion of each candidate, the name and profession 
or business of his father, the name of the schoolmaster 
from whom he received his education^ the name of 
the junior fellow under whom he wishes to study, and 
the rank in which he proposes to enter ; all which 
particulars are recorded in the books of the college. 
The senior lecturer then proposes a subject as a com- 
mejrcement of the examination ; on this subject* the 
candidates are required tojjprite in Latin, or to turn 
a passage from some English author into Latin ; after 
a proper time has been allowed for this exercise, 
the classical examination commences in Greek and 
Latin. 

Greek. Homer's Iliad, first eight books. New 
Testament, the Gospels, and Acts of the Apostles. 



TERM EXAMINATIONS, EXERCISES, ETC. 1 1 > 

Xenophon's Cyropsedia, first three books. Lucian, 
the Dialogues, selected in Walker's edition. 

Latin. Virgil's Eneid, first six hooks, and Eclogues 
i. iv. ix. Horace. Juvenal's Satires, iv. x. xm. xix. 
Terence, Andria, and Heautontimorumenos. 
Sallust. Livy, first three hooks. 

The principal entrance days are the first Mondays 
in July and November, and certain days specified by 
public advertisement in October and January. Be- 
sides these, entrances are held on the first Mondays 
of the remaining months, except August and Sep- 
tember ; pupils who enter after November, and in- 
tend to go on with the junior freshman class, must 
pay a year in advance instead of half a year, and 
their names must have been entered on the college 
books before the 8th of July. 

To encourage the cultivation of the Hebrew lan- 
guage, an examination is held immediately after that 
of the entrances in July, October, and November, 
when premiums are given to the best answerers in the 
Hebrew grammar and the first eight psalms. 

The days of examination, in every instance, are made 
known by notices fixed to the college gates and the 
door of the examination hall. 

For Sizarships. This examination is held on the 
Tuesday next after Trinity Sunday, and the can- 
didates are required to prepare, together with the 
ordinary entrance course, the classics read during the 
first two terms of the junior freshman year. 

Tutors 9 Lectures. Every student must place him- 
self at entrance under the tuition of one of the junior 
fellows who are tutors. The tutors lecture every day 
(Saturday excepted) on the science, and also on the 
Latin author appointed for the term. 

Term Examinations, Exercises, fyc This very 
important class of college business has within a few 
years undergone some material alterations, and im- 
provements. To understand the nature of these 
changes more clearly, it ought to be stated that, 
from the founding of the college, there were four 
terms kept here, and as these depended on the move- 



144 EXERCISES FOR SEVERAL DEGREES. 

able feasts, they were variable, and of very unequal 
duration. In 1833, however, the provost and senior 
fellows obtained a statute which directs that, from the 
year 1834, they are to consist of three terms only, 
these are fixed by permanent rules a . By these it is 
directed that Michaelmas or October Term shall be- 
gin on the 10th of October, and end on the 20th of 
December ; and 

Hilary, or January Term now commences on the 
10th of January, and terminates on the feast of the An- 
nunciation, (Lady Day,) 25th of March. 

Trinity, or Midsummer Term, begins on the 15th 
of April, ends on the 30th of June ; but if it happen 
that Easter should fall within the limits of Hilary or 
Trinity Terms, then the term within which it falls 
shall, for that year, be increased by an additional 
week. 

The hours of examination are, on the first day of 
the general examination of each class, from half past 
nine to twelve, and from two to four. On the second 
day, on the day of the catechetical examination, and 
on the days of examination for honours, from ten to 
twelve, and from two to four. Students cannot be ad- 
mitted after the doors of the hall have been closed ; 
this is done the moment the appointed hour has 
struck. 

Exercises for the several Degrees. The rule laid 
down in this university for keeping terms during 
the under-graduate course, is by answering at the 
regular examinations held at the beginning of each 
term, with the exception of the Divinity and Me- 
dical Terms, which are kept by attending the lec- 
tures of the professors; the latter, therefore, require 
the students to be resident in College, or in its imme- 
diate vicinity. 

The student who proposes to take the degree of 
Bachelor of' Arts must, if he be a pensioner, keep 
four academic years, that is, he must have passed at 

a The terms, as fixed by the statutes of Charles I., coincided with 
the Oxford Terms, they are now made to agree nearly with those of 
Cambridge. 




FOUNDATION SCHOLAR. BACHELOR OF ARTS. 




DOCTOR OF DIVINITY. FELLOW COMMONER. 




DOCTOR OF LAWS. MASTER OF ARTS. 



FORMS AND EXERCISES, ETC. 145 

least eight term examinations, together with not less 
than four catechetical terms or examinations. 

For the degree of A.B., the scholastic exercises ne- 
cessary pro forma are two declamations, one in Greek, 
and one in Latin, and a thesis, also in Latin, in laudem 
philosophise ; every candidate, whether moderator or 
not, must read these exercises. 

At a proper time previous to the day fixed for per- 
forming the exercises, the junior proctor delivers 
three official papers to the moderator; each of these 
contains four questions in logic, natural philosophy, 
and morality. On the appointed day the moderator, 
having selected a set of three candidate bachelors, 
appoints them each to defend one of these papers of 
questions, and to oppose the other two ; thus each 
disputant in turn is opponent and respondent ; he op- 
poses the papers which the other two disputants have 
respectively undertaken to defend, by bringing an 
argument consisting of three syllogisms against each 
of the eight questions contained in those papers ; he 
defends his own paper by briefly pointing out the 
errors contained in the syllogisms of his opponents, 
and also responds in two brief Latin theses on any 
two questions not consecutive with the paper he has 
undertaken to defend. 

To become a Master of Arts, the candidate must 
be a bachelor of arts of three years' standing. The 
exercises requisite for this purpose are, a declamation 
in Greek, and one in Latin, with one opponency and 
one respondency. 

To obtain the Bachelor's degree in Divinity, the 
applicant must be Master of Arts of seven years' stand- 
ing, and in priest's orders ; previous to obtaining the 
private grace of the house for this degree, it is indis- 
pensable that the candidate shall perform the proper 
exercises before the regius professor of divinity, or 
his deputy. These exercises are, one respondency, 
one opponency, one concio ad clerum in Latin, and 
one sermon in English ad populum. 

The candidate for the degree of Doctor in Divinity 
must be a Bachelor of Divinity of five, or a Master of 

L 



146 JUNIOR FRESHMEN, SENIOR FRESHMEN. 

Arts of twelve, years' standing, of course in priest's 
orders. The exercises he is obliged to perform before 
the Regius Professor of Divinity are, one respond- 
ency, one opponency, a sermon adpopulum in English, 
and a Latin sermon, ad clerum. When the degrees 
of B.D. and D.D. are taken at the same time, the 
exercises for both must be performed. 

A Bachelor of Laws. .To be qualified for this de- 
gree, the candidate must be a Bachelor of Arts of 
three years' standing; to obtain the grace of the house 
he must respond and oppose once before the Regius 
Professor of Laws. 

A Doctor in Laws must be a Bachelor of Laws of five 
years' standing, or four years will be sufficient, should 
he have taken the degree of Master of Arts. The ex- 
ercise consists of two theses on subjects appointed by 
the Professor, and two others selected by himself on 
any subject in Civil and Canon Law. 

Bachelors in Medicine. The times and qualifica- 
tions for commencing B.M. will be found at page 149. 

SECTION III. 

REGULATIONS RESPECTING THE UNDERGRADUATE 
EXAMINATIONS. 

These regulations have, in a great degree, super- 
seded those that had been formerly in operation, and 
certainly must convince all persons who are competent 
to give judgment in matters of high education, that 
very considerable vigilance, assiduity and intelligence 
must have been employed by the provosts and fellows 
of this university, within the last twenty years, to dis- 
cover and introduce into practice so great a variety of 
useful and superior knowledge, which their experience 
taught them to believe would raise the intellectual 
and moral character of their college to its highest 
level, by introducing such additional information, and 
modes of instruction, as are consistent with the wants 
of society, springing as they do out of the constant 
progression of human knowledge. 

In no part of the system of education pursued in 



JUNIOR FRESHMEN. SENIOR FRESHMEN. 147 

this institution, does improvement take a more decided 
character than in the mode adopted within the last 
eight years, hy which the undergraduate examina- 
tions are regulated ; they are as follow : 

1. The science taught in the first, or junior fresh- 
man year, is Mathematics ; in the second, or senior 
freshman year, Logic ; in the third, or junior sophis- 
ter year, Astronomy and Physics ; in the fourth, or 
senior sophister year, Ethics, 

Senior and junior freshmen are examined in the 
science taught in all the preceding terms from the 
beginning of the course ; junior sophisters, in the sci- 
ence taught from the beginning of the second, or 
senior freshman year ; and senior sophisters, in the 
science taught from the beginning of the third, or 
senior sophister year. 

2. Under-graduates are required to appear at all 
the examinations of their class, and are liable to a 
fine for every examination omitted. No student can 
rise from a lower to a higher class if he have omitted, 
or lost by insufficient answering, a greater number of 
examinations than those fixed by the following rules : 

To rise from the class of junior freshman to that 
of senior freshman, one examination at least in the 
junior freshman year is necessary. 

To rise from the class of senior freshman to that of 
junior sophister, four examinations must be kept in 
the freshman years ; one of which must be the Mi- 
chaelmas or October examination of the senior fresh- 
man's year. 

No student can regularly present himself at this 
examination who has not previously kept three exa- 
minations, one of which must be in the senior fresh- 
man class ; but if one of these be omitted, he will be 
allowed to answer in the business of the omitted exa- 
mination at Michaelmas, and afterwards in the busi- 
ness of the Michaelmas examination in the succeeding 
Hilary term. This privilege is allowed only to those 
students whose names shall have remained on the col- 
lege books without having been removed therefrom 
from the time of entrance. 



148 FELLOW COMMONERS. PENSIONERS. 

A student, who has kept three examinations in his 
freshman years, one of them heing in the senior fresh- 
man year, hut who has omitted or lost the Michael- 
mas examination of that year, is not permitted to rise 
into the class of junior sophisters, unless he keep the 
next Hilary examination with the senior freshman 
class, answering, however, in the subjects appointed 
for the omitted Michaelmas examination. 

To rise from the class of junior sophister to that of 
senior sophister, an examination kept as a junior so- 
phister is necessary. 

If the Hilary examination of the junior sophister 
year be kept with the senior freshman class, as a sup- 
plemental examination, in place of the Michaelmas 
examination of the senior freshman year, it does not 
count as a senior sophister examination. 

3. The qualifications necessary for admission to the 
final, or degree examination, and also the period and 
subjects of that examination, are different according 
to the rank of the student. 

Fellow commoners must answer, at the least, two 
examinations as sophister, prior to their degree exa- 
mination, these may be both kept in the junior sophister 
year. 

Fellow commoners, thus qualified, answer for their 
degree regularly at the Trinity examination of the 
senior sophisters. 

A fellow commoner who, at the period of the re- 
gular degree examinations, has credit for but one so- 
phister examination, must answer then, or at some 
subsequent examination, in the subjects of the Hilary 
examination of senior sophisters, after which he may 
answer for his degree in the subjects of the Trinity 
examination at any subsequent examination of senior 
sophisters. 

Pensioners and sizars must answer, at the least, 
three examinations prior to their degree examination, 
one of which must be in the senior sophister year. 

Pensioners and sizars thus qualified, answer for 
their degree regularly at the Michaelmas examination 
of the senior sophister year, but if that be lost or 



FEES FOR EACH DEGREE. 149 



omitted, they may answer for their degree at any sub- 
sequent examination of senior sophisters. 

The fees for attending on the clinical lectures are 
regulated by an act of parliament they amount to 
3 3s. to the professors for each three months' at- 
tendance, and (provided the student be of two years' 
standing in the university) 3 3s. to the treasurer of 
the hospital, for the first year, with a proportionate sum 
for any longer period. The fees for each of the other 
courses are 4 4s. 

The examinations for the degree of Bachelor of Me- 
dicine are conducted by the regius professor of the 
university, the six professors of the school of physic, 
and the Professor of Midwifery to the College of Phy- 
sicians. 

No further examination is requisite for the degree 
of Doctor of Medicine, which may be taken at the ex- 
piration of three years from taking the degree of M.B., 
provided the candidates shall have graduated in arts. 
The fees for the degree of Doctor of Medicine, which 
entitles the professor to the same elective privileges as 
the degree of Master of Arts, are 2 2s. 

A Bachelor of Music must compose and perform a 
service before the university. The standing neces- 
sary is the same as that required for a Bachelor of Laws. 

A Doctor in Music must be a Bachelor of Music of 
five years' standing, and his exercise is the same. 

The total amount of the fees paid for each degree : 

s. d* 

Bachelor of Arts Nobilis . . 33 

Fellow Commoner 17 5 

Pensioner . . 8 17 6 

Master of Arts 9 12 6 

Bachelor of Medicine . . .11150 

Doctor of Medicine . . . . 22 

Bachelor of Laws . . . . 11 15 

Doctor of Laws . . . . 22 

Bachelor of Music . . . . 13 15 

Doctor of Music . . . . 22 

Bachelor of Divinity . . . . 13 15 

Doctor of Divinity . . . . 26 



150 HONOURS AND PRIZES. 

A pensioner or sizar who may have risen to the 
rank of senior sophister, but who, previous to the Mi- 
chaelmas examination of that year, wants either one 
or two of the preliminary sophister examinations, 
may, at Michaelmas, answer in the subject of the ex- 
amination last omitted by him, and at any following 
examination, in the subject of the examinations last 
but one omitted by him. After he has so put in 
such examination, as a supplementalist, he may ap- 
pear as a candidate for the degree of A.B., at any 
succeeding examination, answering in the subjects of 
the Michaelmas examination of senior sophisters. 

4. Honours and Prizes. The examiners of the 
first two days select from their divisions those whom 
they deem qualified to become candidates for honours 
or prizes, whether in science or in classics, and fur- 
nish the senior lecturer with lists of the same. All 
the candidates in the same department from the seve- 
ral divisions of the class, are then, on two additional 
days, examined together by a court of examiners ap- 
pointed for that purpose. 

At the October examination in each of the three 
first years' prizes of 4 and 2 are awarded by the 
Court of Examiners to the best answerers among the 
candidates. 

The limit of the number of first prizes, is the one- 
fortieth of the entire class, or the next integer above 
the quotient, should the number in the class not be 
measured by forty. 

The limit of the number of the second prizes, is 
double the number of the former. 

At the first and second examinations of each of the 
four years' honours without prizes are awarded in like 
manner by the Court of Examiners, of which honours 
there are two ranks, the limit to the number of each 
rank being regulated as before stated. 

At the October examinations of the fourth year, 
the examiners of the first two days recommend to the 
senior lecturer, from among the candidates for degrees, 
those students whom they have considered qualified 
to become candidates for honours in any of the three 
following departments, viz. 1. Physics and mathe- 



THE UNDER-GRADUATE COURSE. 151 

matics. 2. Classics. 3. Ethics and Logics. The 
candidates in the same department are then examined 
together by a court of examiners during two days, 
which are not the same for the candidates in different 
departments. 

Of the successful candidates in each department 
there are two grades, called senior and junior mode- 
rators, the limit to the number of moderators of each 
grade to be determined, as in the case of honours and 
prizes, at the previous examinations. 

Those candidates for degrees who have obtained 
honours in the preceding part of the college course, 
are entitled to offer themselves as candidates for mb- 
deratorships without appearing at the preliminary ex- 
animations. 

Distinctions of the first order, whether by prizes, 
honours, or moderatorships, are confined to those can- 
didates who are prepared in the extended courses as 
set forth in the programme of the under-graduate course. 

Fellow commoners who do not avail themselves of 
their privilege of graduating at the July commence- 
ment of the senior sophister year, may become candi- 
dates for moderatorships in Michaelmas term, in 
which case they are examined in the same course as 
the pensioners. 

At the conclusion of each examination, lists of the 
successful candidates for prizes, honours, or mode- 
ratorships, are made out by the senior lecturer, in- 
serted in his book, and also placed upon the college 
gates, published in the University Calendar, the news- 
papers and other periodicals, in which lists the suc- 
cessful candidates of each rank are arranged accord- 
ing to the order of their standing on the college books, 
except the senior moderators at the degree examina- 
tion, who are placed according to the order of merit. 

THE UNDER-GRADUATE COURSE. 
i 

This course is at each examination divided into 
two parts, the one to be read by such students as aim 
only at respectable judgments, the other to be re- 



JUNIOR FRESHMEN. SENIOR FRESHMEN. 

quired of those who aspire to the higher honours of 
their class. 

The following Tables contain a programme of the 
undergraduate course, as altered and fixed by the re- 
cent regulations : 



JUNIOR FRESHMEN. 

HILARY EXAMINATION. For all Students. Mathe- 
matics : Elrington's Euclid, Books i. ii. Greek : Ho- 
mer, Iliad, ix. x. xi __ Latin : Virgil, ^En. vii. viii. ix. 
- Additional for Honours. Greek : Iliad, xii. xiii. 
xiv Latin : ^En. x. xi. xii. 

TRINITY EXAMINATION. For all Students, Ma- 
thematics : Euclid, Books i. ii. iii. ; Definitions of 
Book v. and Book vi., omitting props. 27, 28, 29. 
Greek : Homer, Iliad, xviii. xxiii. xxiv. Latin : Vir- 

fil, Georgics. Additional for Honours. Greek: 
liad, xix. xx. xxi. xxii a . Latin : Virgil, Eclogues. 

MICHAELMAS EXAMINATION. For all Students. 
Mathematics : Euclid, as before. Compendium of 
Algebra. Simpson's Trigonometry to the end of Plane 
Triangles. Greek : Homer, Odyss. ix. x. xi. xii. 
Latin : Juvenal, Sat. i. iii. iv. vii. viii. x. xiii. xiv. 
Additional for Honours. Mathem. : Analytic Geo- 
metry, first 31 sections. Spherical Trigonometry to 
the end of Neper's Rules. Greek : The Knights of 
Aristophanes. Latin : Persius, except Sat. iv. 

SENIOR FRESHMEN. 

HILARY EXAMINATION. For all Students. Ma- 
thematics : All the Mathematics read in the Junior 
Freshman year. Logic : Murray's Logic with Walk- 
er's Commentary. Greek : Euripides, Hecuba. 
Latin : Terence, Adelphi, and Hecyra. -- Additional 
for Honours. Mathem.: The additional Mathe- 

a It was intended that, in 1843, the Idylls of Theocritus, Bion, 
and Moschus, (Ringwood's selection,) should be substituted for these 
books of Homer; but that change is postponed until the year 1845. 



JUNIOR SOPHISTERS. 153 

matics of the Junior Freshman year. Logic : Whately's 
Logic, (Analytical Outline,) with Book iii. (on Fal- 
lacies) and Book iv. chap. i. of Induction. Greek : 
Medea. Latin : Phormio, Andria, and Heautonti- 
morumenos. 

TRINITY EXAMINATION. For all Students. Ma- 
thematics : as before. Logic : Murray's Logic and 
Walker's Commentary, as before. Locke's Essay, In- 
troduction, with Books ii. and iii. (omitting Book ii. 
chap. i. sections 10-20. chap. xiii. section 10 to the 
end; chap. xv. chap. xxi. sections 1171. chaps, xxx. 
and xxxii. and Book iii. chap, vi.) Greek: Sophocles, 
CEdipus Tyrannus. Latin : Horace, Odes, Books i. 

ii. iii. iv. Additional for Honours. Additional 

Mathematics, as before. Additional Logic, as before. 
Greek : CEdipus Coloneus. Latin : Epodes, and 
Carm. Seculare. 

MICHAELMAS EXAMINATION. For all Students. 
Mathematics, as before. Logic : Logic and Locke, 
as before, with Locke, Book iv. Greek : Euripides, 
Phcenissse. Latin : Horace, Satires and Epistles. 
Additional for Honours. 'Additional Mathematics, 
as before. Additional Logic, as before, with Brown's 
" Sketch of a System of the Philosophy of the Human 
Mind." Greek : yEschylus, Septem contra Thebas. 
Latin : Horace, Art of Poetry. 

JUNIOR SOPHISTERS. 

HILARY EXAMINATION. For all Students. Logic: 
Logic and Locke as read in the Senior Freshman 
year. Physics : Wood's Mechanics, omitting sects, 
vi. and ix. Greek : Demosthenes de Corona. Latin: 

Cicero, Lex Manilia, Archias, Ligarius. Additional 

for Honours. The additional Logic of the Senior 
Freshman year. Physics : Lloyd's Mechanics, (new 
Edit.) Statics, sect. i. sect. ii. sect. vi. to page 95, and 
from page 108 to end ; sect. vii. sect. xii. arts. 1-4. 
Dynamics, sect. i. sect. ii. arts. 1-5, sect. v. sect. vi. 
art. 7 sect. vii. arts. 1-5. Greek : ^Eschines contra 
Ctesiphontem. Latin : Milo and pro Dejotaro. 

TRINITY EXAMINATION. For all Students. Logic : 



SENIOR SOPHISTERS. 

as before Physics : Wood's Mechanics as before, 
with selections from Helsham's Lectures, from page 
67 to end. Stack's Optics, omitting sects, viii. ix. 
Greek : Stock's Demosthenes, vol. i. Latin : Cicero in 

Catilinam, i. ii. iii. iv. Additional for Honours. 

Additional Logic, as before. Physics : Vince's Hy- 
drostatics, Lloyd's Optics, (selected course.) Greek: 
Stock's Demosthenes, vol. ii. Latin : Philippics, i. 
ii. ix. 

MICHAELMAS EXAMINATION. For all Students. 
Logic: as before. Physics, as before. Astronomy: 
Brinkley's Astronomy, chaps, i viii. and xiv. xvi. xviii. 
Greek: Stock's Lucian, (omitting de Historia Con- 

scribenda.) Latin : Cicero de Officiis. Additional 

for Honours. Additional Logic, as before. Addi- 
tional Physics, as before. Astronomy : The remain- 
der of Brinkley's Astronomy, including the Appendix. 
Greek : Lucian de Historia Conscribenda. Latin : 
Cicero de Oratore. 

SENIOR SOPHISTERS. 

HILARY EXAMINATION. For all Students. Phy- 
sics : All the Physics of the Junior Sophister year. 
Astronomy, as before. Ethics : Burlamaqui's Natural 
Law, (omitting Part I. chap. i. ii. iii. iv. Part II. 
chap. viii. ix. x. xi.) Greek: Plato, Apologia Socratis, 

and Crito. Latin: Tacitus, Annals, Books i. ii. 

Additional for Honours. All the additional Physics 
of the Junior Sophister year. Additional Astronomy, 
as before. Ethics : Paley's Moral Philosophy, Books 
i. and ii. Gisborne's Principles of Moral Philosophy, 
chap. ii. Greek: Plato, Phsedo. Latin: Tacitus, 
Annals, Books iii. iv. v. 

TRINITY EXAMINATION. For all Students. Phy- 
sics, as before. Astronomy, as before. Ethics, as be- 
fore, with Butler's Analogy, Introduction, Part I. 
chap. iv. v. vii. and conclusion, Part II. except chap, 
vii. Greek : Herodotus, Book i. Latin : Livy, Books 

xxi. xxii. Additional for Honours. Additional 

Physics, as before. Additional Astronomy, as before* 



MODERATORSIIIPS IN MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 155 

Ethics, as before. The whole of Butler's Analogy, 
and Cicero, Quscst. Tusc. lib. i. Greek : Herodotus, 
Books ii. iii. Latin : Livy, Books xxiii. xxiv. xxv. 

MICHAELMAS DEGREE EXAMINATION For all Stu- 
dents. Physics, as before. Astronomy, as before. 
Ethics, as before, with Paley's Evidences of Revealed 
Religion, Part I. Greek : Thucydides, lib. i. Latin : 
Tacitus de Moribus German., and Agricola. 

WORKS EXAMINED IN FOR MODERATORS IN MATHEMA- 
TICS AND PHYSICS*. 

Mathematics. Hamilton's Conic Sections, Book I. 
Luby's Trigonometry. 
Lloyd's Analytic Geometry. 
Lardner's Algebraic Geometry. 
Leroy, Geometry of three Dimensions. 
Lacroix, Elemens d'Algebre. 
Young, Theory of Algebraic Equations. 
Newton's Prime and Ultimate Ratios. 
Lacroix, Differential and Integral Calculus, to the 

end of Art. 293, omitting Art. 141-164. 
Graves's Translation of Chasles on Cones and 

Spherical Conies, with the Appendix. 
Physics. All the Physics of the Undergraduate 

Course. 

Lloyd's Mechanical Philosophy. 
Poisson, Mecanique, Book I. chap. 6; Book II. 

chap. 3, sect. 2, art. 160; Book III. chaps. 2 and 

4 ; Book IV. chaps. 1, 2, 3, and 9 ; Book V. and 

Additions. 

Lloyd's Optics, Parts 1, 2, and Appendix. 
Lloyd's Lectures on Wave-theory. 
Newton's Principia, lib. i. sects, i. ii. iii. ix. 
Luby's Physical Astronomy.- 
Pouillet, Elemens de Physique, Books 2 and 3, new 

edition. 

a The works to be examined in for classical mocleratorship, are 
subjoined in a columnar table, on account of the changes made in them, 
to 1845 (inclusive). 



156 



EXAMINATION FOR SCHOLARSHIPS. 



CLASSICAL MODERATORSHIPS. 



GBEEK. 

Aristotle, 
jEschylus, 
Aristophanes, 
Pindar, 
Thucydides, 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 


1845. 


Rhetoric and Poetic. 
Prometheus Vinctus. 
Birds. 
Olympic Odes. 
Hist. Lib. ii. 


Same. 
Same. 
Same. 
Same. 
Lib. iii. 


Same. 
Eumenides. 
Acharnians. 
Pythian. 
Same. 


Same. 
Same. 
Same. 
Same. 
Lib. iv. 


LATIN. 










Lucretius, 
Tacitus, 
Horace, 


De Rerum Natura, libb. i-ii. 
Ann. Libb. xi-xvi. 
Epistles, Lib. ii. Ars Poet. 


Same. 
Hist. libb. i-v. 
Same. 


Libb. iii. v. 
Same. 
Same. 


Same. 
Same. 
Same. 



MODERATORSHIPS IN LOGICS AND ETHICS. 

Logics. All the Logics of the second year. 

Brown's Lectures on the Philosophy of the Mind, 
vols. i. and ii. 

Bacon, de Augm. Scientiarum, lib. v. 

The Prefaces to the Instaur. Magna, and 

Novum Organum, together with the Distributio 
Operis. 
Ethics. All the Ethics of the fourth year. 

Butler's Sermons. (Preface and Sermons, i. ii. iii. 
v. vi. viii. ix. xi. xii. xiii. xiv. with the Disser- 
tation on Virtue.) 

Cicero, De Officiis. 

De Nat. Deorum, lib. i. 

Bacon, de Augm. Scientiarum, lib. vii. 

Smith's View of the Ancient Moral Systems. 

Paley's Evidences of Christianity. 

Sir j. Mackintosh's Dissertation on Ethical Philo- 
sophy, with a Preface by Rev. W. Whewell. 



EXAMINATION FOR SCHOLARSHIPS. 

This important examination is held annually 
on the Thursday and Friday before Whitsunday, 
from eight to ten, and from two to four o'clock each 
day, and the successful candidates are declared on 



UNDER-GRADUATE LECTURES. 157 

Trinity Monday following. The examiners are the 
provost and senior fellows, or such junior fellows as 
may be called on for that time, to supply the place 
of absent members of the board. The course ap- 
pointed includes all the classics read for entrance, and 
in the extended course for under-graduates to the end 
of the second examination of the junior sophister year; 
or should the candidate be of higher standing than 
that of junior sophister, (reckoned from the time of his 
entrance,) to the end of the last examination which he 
might have added, had he proceeded regularly with 
his class. Sizars who in their first year descend to 
the new class, are to be considered as having entered 
in that class. 

On or before the day of election, every candidate 
must send to each of the examiners his name, his 
father's name, the name of the county in which he was 
born, and of the schoolmaster by whom he was edu- 
cated. For this proceeding there is a regular form of 
words. 

The Statute directs, cceteris paribus, that a preference 
shall be given to those who have been educated in the 
Dublin schools, or born in those counties where the 
college has property. Thirty of these scholarships 
have the privilege of an exhibition of 20 per annum 
during their four years' scholarship. These are called 
Natives' Places, or Hibernici ; but, in other respects, 
scholarships are conferred upon all British born sub- 
jects without distinction. 

SECTION IV. 
UNDER-GRADUATE LECTURES. 

Students, during the under-graduate course, are re- 
quired to attend the following lectures. 

1st. Morning Lecture. This is held every morning 
during term, at half-past seven by the college clock a . 
Each class is lectured in the sciences appointed for the 

a Three-quarters past seven by the town clocks. See a former 
note as to College time. 



158 UNDER-GRADUATE LECTURES. 

term, except on Saturdays, on which day the students 
compose a theme on a subject previously mentioned by 
the lecturer ; and for merit or proficiency in these 
compositions, premiums are often given by the Board, 
on the recommendation of the lecturer. 

2nd. Greek Lecture. Held on the mornings of every 
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, during Term, at 
nine o'clock. The subject of this lecture is the Greek 
author appointed for the term. 

All the students who reside in the college, or within 
such a distance as renders their attendance practicable, 
are held responsible for morning and Greek lectures. 
To keep the term, one-half, at least, of the whole num- 
ber of lectures must have been attended. 

3rd. Catechetical Lectures. These are held every 
Saturday morning by nine o'clock, for the two fresh- 
man classes only. No student can regularly obtain his 
degree of A.B. until he shall have kept four Cate- 
chetical terms or examinations : two in the junior 
freshman year, and two in the senior freshman year. 

Catechetical examinations are held at the beginning 
of each term, (immediately after the term examina- 
tion,) for the benefit of those who have not been resi- 
dent during the preceding term. The following tables 
will show the subjects of the last named lectures and 
examinations. 



JUNIOR FRESHMEN. 

Michaelmas Term (and Hilary Examination). The 
Gospel according to St. Luke. 

Hilary Term (and Trinity Examination}. The 
Acts of the Apostles. 

Trinity Term (and Michaelmas Examination), 
Archbishop Seeker's Lectures on the Church Cate- 
chism ; (Lectures vi-xvii. incl. on the Creed). 



SENIOR FRESHMEN. 

Micliaelmas Term (and Hilary Examination). 
Genesis, and the first twenty chapters of Exodus. 



DIVINITY LECTURES. 159 

The privilege of keeping supplemental terms or ex- 
aminations, instead of those that may have been omitted 
at their proper time, is granted under the restrictions 
pointed out in the following rule : 

" That in future every student shall be required to 
keep in each of his freshman years, two out of the 
three Catechetical Terms or Examinations belonging 
to such freshman year. For the enforcement of this 
Rule, an increased number will be required from those 
who shall not so have completed their attendance in 
the freshman years. Whenever, in a freshman year 
of a student, there is a deficiency of either one or two 
of the Catechetical Terms or Examinations of that 
year, such student must afterwards, as a supplement- 
alist, complete the number of three, so as to have a 
separate credit for each of the three terms of the year. 

DIVINITY LECTURES. 

Students in Divinity must keep six terms. Formerly 
four were considered sufficient. Three with Arch- 
bishop King's Divinity Lecturer, and three with the 
Regius Professor. 

During their first year, which Divinity students may 
commence in their senior sophister year of the under- 
graduate course, they are to attend the lectures of 
Archbishop King's lecturer in divinity, together with 
the lectures of one of his assistants. It is intended 
that the lecturer shall occupy two terms with the evi- 
dences of Natural and Revealed Religion, and one 
with the Socinian Controversy. 

During the second year, the students are required 
to attend the Regius Professor of Divinity and one of 
his assistants, the Professor's lectures on the Criticism 
and Interpretation of the Bible, the Articles and 
Liturgy of the United Churches of England and Ire- 
land, and the Controversy with the Church of Rome. 

The Regius Professor of Divinity lectures on Tues- 
day and Friday, at eleven o'clock ; and his assistant 
lecturer the same days, at one o'clock. 

Archbishop King's Lecturer in Divinity lectures on 



160 COURSE FOR THE DIVINITY EXAMINATION. 

Mondays and Thursdays, at eleven o'clock. His as- 
sistant lectures, on the same days, at one o'clock. 

During the first year, the assistant to Archbishop 
King's Divinity lecturer, delivers lectures on the fol- 
lowing subjects : 

In Michaelmas Term, St. Luke's Gospel, in Greek, 
as the basis of a harmony. 

In Hilary Term, St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, 
in Greek. 

In Trinity Term, Bishop Pearson on the Creed, the 
first eight Articles. 

The Divinity student cannot attend the lectures of 
the senior year, until his attendance upon the junior 
year is completed ; and to complete that year, it will 
be necessary, in addition to the attendance on the 
lectures of King's Divinity lecturer, to pass an ex- 
amination, which is conducted according to the fol- 
lowing rules of the College : 

The examination shall be held at the end of Trinity 
Term, for all Divinity students, who have attended 
and obtained credit for the three terms of the Divinity 
lectures of the junior year. 

Archbishop King's lecturer is empowered to call on 
his assistants to take a part in conducting the ex- 
amination. 

A similar examination will be held at the end of 
the Michaelmas and Hilary Terms, for supplement- 
alists who shall have completed their attendance in 
these terms respectively. 

In rejecting a candidate, the examiners shall de- 
termine whether he is to present himself again, at any 
of the supplemental examinations, or to be kept back 
until the next annual examination. 



COURSE FOR THE DIVINITY EXAMINATION. 

In Greek, the candidates are examined in the fol- 
lowing works : 

The four Gospels, and St. Paul's Epistle to the 
Romans j Evidences of Christianity j Chalmers on 



COURSE FOR THE DIVINITY EXAMINATION. l6l 

Natural Theology ; Paley's Evidences ; Newton on 
the Prophecies ; Dissertations I. to XIII. incl., XVIII. 
XIX. XX. and XXL 

The Socinian Controversy ; Pearson on the Creed ; 
Magee on the Atonement, vols. 1. and 2, omitting 
Nos. LIII. LIX. and postscript to LXIX. 

An additional examination for prizes is held in 
Michaelmas Term : the regulations follow below, but 
attendance on this examination is not compulsory. 

During the second year, the Assistants to the 
Regius Professor of Divinity lecture on the following 
subjects : 

Michaelmas Term, Whately on the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer. 

Hilary Term, Burnet on the Thirty-nine Articles. 

Trinity Term, on the Thirty-nine Articles. 

It is further necessary, in addition to the attendance 
upon the Regius Professor of Divinity and his as- 
sistants, to pass an examination held at the end of the 
Trinity term, conducted according to the rules of the 
examination held at the end of the junior year, by 
Archbishop King's Divinity Lecturer. 

The following course has been appointed for this 
examination : 

In Greek : The Epistle to the Hebrews. 

Ecclesiastical History : Mosheim's History of the 
Church, (Soames's edition,) first three centuries, and 
sixteenth century. 

Liturgy and Church Government: Whately on 
the Book of Common Prayer ; Potter on Church 
Government (the Rev. J. C. Crossthwaite's edition). 

Articles of Religion : Bishop Burnet's Exposition 
of the Thirty-nine Articles. 

Roman Catholic Controversy : Leslie's Case stated 
between the Church of Rome and the Church of 
England, with his Tract on The true Notion of the 
Catholic Church, in answer to the Bishop of Meaux. 

When attendance upon the whole Divinity course 
has been completed according to the foregoing regu- 
lation, the Divinity Testimonium is given, signed by the 
Regius Professor of Divinity and one of his assistants. 

M 



162 THE LECTURES OF THE CANDIDATE YEAR. 

An annual examination for prizes is held by the 
Professor in Michaelmas Term, which the pupils are 
not obliged to attend. 

Senior sophisters, during their attendance on Di- 
vinity lectures, are permitted to attend Hebrew lec- 
tures along with the class of junior bachelors. 

Students in Divinity are required to receive the 
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, at least three times 
in each year of their attendance on lectures. 

LECTURES FOR BACHELORS OF ARTS. 

When the student has passed his final, or "degree ex- 
amination," he is denominated a "Candidate Bachelor" 
until the next commencement, when he receives his 
degree of A. B. During the remainder of that year, 
which terminates with the anniversary of his Degree 
examination, he is denominated a "Junior Bachelor;" 
the next year he is a " Middle Bachelor ;" and the 
next year a " Senior Bachelor." 

THE LECTURES OF THE "CANDIDATE" AND JUNIOR 
BACHELOR YEAR. 

Exclusive of Divinity lectures are the following : 

1. Hebrew. This class begins to attend one of the 
Assistants to Erasmus Smith's Professor of Hebrew, 
in the Michaelmas Term in which the Degree ex- 
amination of the class was held. The lectures are 
delivered on Tuesdays and Thursdays, at ten o'clock. 

& Greek. After the spring commencement, this 
class begins to attend the lectures of the Regius Pro- 
fessor of Greek on Mondays and Wednesdays. 

3. Oratory. These Lectures are delivered on 
Saturdays, at ten o'clock, by the Assistant to the Pro- 
fessor of Oratory. 

Junior Bachelors are entitled to present themselves 
as candidates for Bishop Law's mathematical prizes. 

Middle Bachelors are required to attend the follow- 
ing, besides the Divinity lectures : 

1. Hebrew Lectures, by the Senior Assistant of the 
Professor of Hebrew, on Tuesdays and Thursdays dur- 
ing term, at ten o'clock. 



PUBLIC LECTURES. 1(33 

2. Greek Lectures, by the Regius Professor of 
Greek, on Mondays and Wednesdays, from the begin- 
ning of Michaelmas Term until Shrove Tuesday ; and 
from Shrovetide to the Vacation, on Fridays only. 

3. Oratory Lectures, by Erasmus Smith's Professor 
of History and Oratory. The duties of this professor- 
ship have recently been limited to the Prelections re- 
quired by Act of Parliament ; all Bachelors are there- 
fore henceforth to attend these Prelections, together 
with the weekly lectures of the Assistant. 



LECTURES OF GRADUATES. 

Senior Bachelors attend Erasmus Smith's Professor 
of Hebrew at one o'clock every Tuesday. The Greek 
and Oratory lectures in this case are the same as the 
preceding. 

Law students in the three classes of Bachelors at- 
tend the Regius Professor of Feudal and English Law, 
in the Law School, on Tuesdays and Thursdays, at 
nine o'clock. 

Students in Law and Medicine are not required to 
keep Terms in Hebrew. 

Candidates for Moderatorships in Mathematics and 
Physics, attend the lectures of the Assistants to Eras- 
mus Smith's Professor of Mathematics. 

Erasmus Smith's Professor of Mathematics delivers 
lectures on three days in the week, Mondays, Wed- 
nesdays, and Fridays, during term, to fellowship can- 
didates, at ten o'clock. 

PUBLIC LECTURES. 

Erasmus Smith's Professor of Natural Philosophy 
delivers the lectures of his course, during term, on 
three days each week in the Philosophy School. 

The Professor of Astronomy delivers his lectures in 
Michaelmas Term, in the Philosophy School. 

The Professor of Political Economy delivers a 
course of at least nine lectures during some one of 
the academical terms of the year, which are free to 

M 2 



164 MODERN LANGUAGES. 

all gownsmen ; and to which he may also, if he 
pleases, admit the public. 

The Professor of Biblical Greek delivers a course 
of lectures during two of the three academical terms 
of the year. 

To encourage the study of Biblical Greek, the 
board has lately determined to give prizes at an ex- 
amination, to be held by the Professors. 

The Professor of Botany delivers a course of lec- 
tures in Trinity Term, to which the public are ad- 
missible. 

The College Herbarium is always open to the pub- 
lic on Wednesdays and Fridays in term, from eleven 
until two o'clock. Any person desirous of verifying 
specimens, may obtain admission on Tuesdays and 
Thursdays, during the same hours, by giving notice 
to the Curator. 

The Professors of Anatomy and Chemistry, at the 
beginning of the sessions, deliver each a course of 
twelve lectures, which are open to the public. 

The Professor of Modern History delivers a Prelec- 
tion once a week during term, to which the public 
are admissible ; his Assistant lectures twice a week. 

The Professor of Irish lectures once a week during 
term. 

Expressly to encourage the study of the Irish lan- 
guage, the provost and board have placed the sum of 
20 per annum at the disposal of the Professor of that 
ancient language, to be given in premiums to such 
students as shall distinguish themselves as proficients 
jn the Irish tongue. 

MODERN LANGUAGES. 

The Professors of the Modern Languages are re- 
quired to lecture a class of those students who may 
voluntarily present themselves for instruction. These 
students are required to pay to the professor the sum 
of one guinea entrance, and one guinea for each term 
of their attendance. 

Examinations are held annually after Michaelmas 



SCHOOL OF MEDICINE. 165 

Term, at which those students present themselves who 
are candidates for medals to be awarded for proficiency 
in the French, German, and Italian languages. The 
merit of the candidates will be decided by their trans- 
lation of English Prose passages into one of these 
languages, and by conversation. A senior or a junior 
freshman may be a candidate for one of these medals, 
provided he shall not have previously received a medal 
in the language in which he now presents himself to 
be examined, 

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE. 

The School of Medicine, or, as it is intituled in 
the statutes, " The Complete School of Physic in Ire- 
land," is composed, as we have already stated, of six 
Professorships ; three of which are on the foundation 
of the College. These are called University Professor- 
ships, and are those of Anatomy and Surgery, of Che- 
mistry, and of Botany. And three are on the founda- 
tion of the late Sir Patrick Dunn, namely, those of the 
Institutes of Medicine, of the Practice of Medicine, 
and of Materia Medica and Pharmacy. 

The Act of 40th George III., after setting forth 
the provisions of the former one, enacts that the said 
Professors shall have perpetual continuance and suc- 
cession ; and that they shall be elected in the usual 
and accustomed manner by the Provost, or Vice- 
Provost, and Board of Senior Fellows of this Col- 
lege. 

And upon every fresh election, three months' notice 
is to be given in the London and Dublin Gazettes of 
the vacancy, the emoluments, and advantages of the 
office, its duties, &c., and inviting all who choose to 
offer themselves as candidates, and requesting them to 
send in their names, places of education, of the univer- 
sities where they have taken their medical degrees, 
&c. &c., that opportunities may be afforded to inquire 
into the merits of the candidates. The Professorships 
to be open to Protestants of all nations, should they 
have taken medical degrees, or have obtained a licence 



166 SCHOOL OF MEDICINE. 

to practise, from the College of Physicians, in virtue 
of a testimonium under the seal of Trinity College, 
Dublin. 

These Professorships to become vacant every seventh 
year ; but the same Professor may be re-elected. The 
Provost and Senior Fellows are empowered to make 
rules and orders to regulate the conduct of these Pro- 
fessors. The lectures, except those on Botany, are to 
commence in November each year, and finish at the 
end of April. The lectures must be given in the 
English language, unless otherwise specially ordered, 
and they must be given in Trinity College, Dublin. 
The Professors are allowed to charge reasonable fees 
for all those who attend their lectures. 

The University Professors deliver annually, a short 
" public course " on their respective subjects. 

We should observe that all students attending the 
professor's lectures in these classes, are required to be 
matriculated by the senior lecturer of Trinity College, 
if their names be not already on the college books as 
students in arts. 

Medical students matriculating as such pay five 
shillings, and are not obliged, unless they think proper, 
to attend to the academical duties of the university. 
A return is made to the senior lecturer by each pro- 
fessor, when he has delivered one half of his course, of 
such pupils as have attended such portion of his lec- 
tures, and at the conclusion of his course the professor 
gives to those pupils who have been diligent and regu- 
lar, certificates of attendance. Lectures on the fol- 
lowing subjects are delivered from the first Monday 
in November, until the end of the succeeding April, 
viz., on Anatomy, Physiology and Surgery, and on 
Chemistry in Trinity College. The lectures on 
Botany commence on the first Monday in May, also 
in college, and terminate at the end of July. The 
fees for each of these courses is four guineas. 

Lectures on Pathology by the Professor of Anatomy 
and Surgery are given during the month of May; fee 
for the course, one guinea. 

Anatomical Demonstrations arc given daily from 



SCHOOL OF MEDICINE. 107 

the beginning of the session, 1st of October, until 
April, by the Demonstrator of Anatomy, in the col- 
lege. The students are superintended in their dis- 
section, and subjects are provided for them. The 
fees are six guineas ; for demonstration alone, four 
guineas ; for demonstration and an assortment, five 
guineas. 

Students are instructed in surgical operations on 
the dead body, and have proper subjects provided for 
them for five guineas. 

Towards the end of the session, a course of lectures 
is given by the Professor of Anatomy and Surgery, 
and another course on diseases of the eye, by the De- 
monstrator of Anatomy; terms for each of these courses, 
one guinea. 

A course of lectures on midwifery and diseases of 
women and children^ is given in spring ; fee, one 
guinea. 

It is intended to add a course on Toxicology, and 
Medical Jurisprudence. 

At the chemical laboratory, pupils are instructed 
in operative chemistry ; fee, six guineas. 

Botanical demonstrations are daily given by the 
professor's assistant, in the garden, during the season. 

Medical officers of the army and navy, and gra- 
duates in the school, are permitted to attend the lec- 
tures on anatomy and surgery, in the college ; but if 
they purpose to obtain certificates, they are required 
to pay the usual fee at the commencement of the 
course. 

The medical library of the late Sir Patrick Dun, is 
open to all the students of the School. 

Students who do not graduate in arts, are admitted, 
at the end of three years from the date of their matri- 
culation, to an examination before the six professors, 
on producing to the Board of Trinity College, cer- 
tificates of attendance on Anatomy, Surgery, Chemis- 
try, Botany, Institutes of Medicine, Practice of Me- 
dicine, Materia Medica and Pharmacy, Clinical lec- 
tures, and the practice of Sir P. Dun's hospital ; to 
write and publish a thesis in Latin, and perform all 



1(J8 BACHELOR AND DOCTOR IN MEDICINE. 

the academical exercises for the degree of Doctor in 
Medicine, and then receive a testimonium under the 
seal of the college, stating their being qualified to 
practise medicine. 

Those students who go through a collegiate course, 
on producing certificates of their attendance on the pro- 
fessors in the school of physic, the clinical lectures and 
the hospitals, are, three years after having graduated 
as Bachelor of Arts, examined before the Regius Pro- 
fessor of Physic, and the professors of Anatomy, and 
Surgery, Chemistry, and Botany, in Trinity College ; 
and on performing the usual academical exercises they 
take the degree of Bachelor of Medicine, upon suf- 
ficient standing, publishing a thesis, passing a second 
examination before the University Professors, and per- 
forming the necessary acts, the full degree of " Doctor 
in Medicine " is confirmed ; these rank with the de- 
grees of Bachelor, and Doctor of Medicine, obtained 
in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. 

Students of the above description, if they intend to 
graduate in the English universities, ought to take 
the degree of A.M. before that of Bachelor of Medi- 
cine in this university. 

As qualification, previous to examination for the 
testimonium, the certificates of the professors in Edin- 
burgh are admitted for any three of the courses re- 
quired, with the exception of the clinical lectures, 
which must have been attended in the School of Physic, 
in Ireland. 

It is indispensable that students presenting them- 
selves for examination, shall have dissected regularly, 
during at least one season, and that they are con- 
versant with morbid anatomy. 

Certificates of attendance on the Professors in the 
School of Physic in Ireland, are received as giving 
standing in other universities, and as qualifications 
for medical officers in the army, navy, and East 
India service ; and certificates of attendance on the 
anatomical and surgical lectures in Trinity College 
are also admitted in the different colleges of surgeons. 

The chemical lecture is chiefly supported by fees 



CHEMICAL AND BOTANICAL LECTURES. 1()9 

from the senior sophister class, and from those who 
attend the course of lectures preparatory to obtaining 
a degree or diploma in medicine. 

By the act of the 40th of Geo. III. the Professor is 
to deliver four lectures in each week, between the first 
Monday in November, and the end of April in each 
year, but a much greater number than this is given. 

The course embraces all the recent discoveries in 
this science, and is copiously illustrated by such ex- 
periments as are calculated to explain the doctrine of 
chemistry, and exemplify to the student the best me- 
thod of research ; the laboratory contains a well se- 
lected range of apparatus, which is kept in excellent 
order, and the zeal and intelligence displayed by 
Dr. Barker, the professor, show how anxious he is 
for the improvement of the pupils, and also the judg- 
ment of the directors in their selection of one so well 
calculated to advance the cause of science in his de- 
partment. 

Dr. Barker gives two courses in each year, the 
first of which is a short and general course, intended 
chiefly for University students. The second is much 
more detailed, and is delivered to all the students of 
the School of Physic. 

The Botanical lectures are ably conducted by Dr. 
Allman, who has lately been made professor* : he is 
assisted by Mr. James Townsend Mackay, A.L.S., 
who is Curator of the College Botanic Garden, near 
Ball's Bridge, and is allowed to be one of the first 
practical botanists in Europe. 

The present learned Professor gives annually in the 
college sixteen public lectures, commencing the last 
week in April, and about fifty lectures in the private 
course, which is annually given immediately after the 
public one. In the practical part of the latter course, 
the professor explains fully the Linnean system ; in the 
public one, he follows more particularly the natural 
method of Jussieu, as improved by Ventenant and 
others. He also describes the medicinal properties 

a In the room of Dr. W. Allman, Avho was elected to it in 1809, 
and who has retired on a pension. 



170 NATURAL HISTORY. 

of such plants as occur in the different natural orders 
as he proceeds. He also takes care to point out the 
class and order in the Linnean system, where they 
are to be found. The number of students that attend 
the private course, as a branch of their medical 
studies, averages at present from forty to sixty. 

A regular attendance at Botanical lectures is in- 
dispensable to obtain a degree in medicine. 

Besides the above lectures, Mr. Mackay, the as- 
sistant botanist, gives demonstrations annually at the 
garden, during the period that the professor delivers 
his lectures in the college, but at a different hour, to 
allow the student the advantage of attending both. 

Excursions are generally made by the Curator with 
the students once a week, during the course, to ex- 
amine the botanical productions in the vicinity of 
Dublin, of which there is a considerable variety, some 
of which are said to be peculiar to that district. 

Natural History. In the year 1816, as already 
noticed, the professorship of Natural History was 
established in the college : this improvement had been 
long in contemplation, but in that year Dr. Stokes, the 
senior lay fellow, wishing to give up his Fellowship 
for the purpose of attending more closely to his me- 
dical pursuits, the board knowing this gentleman to be 
eminently qualified for the situation, requested him to 
undertake the duties at a liberal salary : to this in- 
vitation he consented, and most certainly it would be 
difficult to find a professor more competent to give 
instruction in this useful, elegant, and interesting de- 
partment of scientific knowledge, which indeed, it 
must be admitted, had not previously been sufficiently 
cultivated in Ireland ; and, in the promotion of his 
object, Dr. Stokes has been allowed the command of 
all the specimens in the museum of natural history. 

The following regulations, respecting medical de- 
grees, were made in 1839, and revised in 1840 and 
1841: 

The days of graduation are Shrove Tuesday, and 
the first Tuesday in July ; the medical examinations 
terminate on the Tuesday of the preceding week ; 



EXPENSE OF MEDICAL DEGREES. 

candidates having completed their medical education 
and paid the required fees to the senior Proctor, can 
procure from the Registrar of the Professors of the 
School of Physic, a schedule, testifying to the cor- 
rectness of the details of the attendance on lectures, 
&c., on producing which, with the Proctor's receipt 
to the College Registrar, he will issue a liceat ad ex- 
aminandwn. 

Medical students may obtain the degree of Bachelor 
of Medicine in two modes : 

1st. Candidates who have graduated in Arts may 
obtain the degree of Bachelor in Medicine, at any of 
the ensuing half-yearly periods of graduation, pro- 
vided the regular medical education and examination 
shall have been accomplished. 

The payment at entrance is 15 ; the fees for study 
in arts, during four years, are 7 10s. each half year ; 
and the fees for graduates in arts, 8 17$. Gd. 

2nd. Candidates are admissible to the degree of 
Bachelor of Medicine, without previous graduation in 
Arts, at the end of five years from the July following 
the Hilary examination of the first under-graduate 
year, provided the usual education and examination 
in arts of the first two years of the under-graduate 
course shall have been completed, as also the medical 
education and examination, as in the case of other 
candidates. The fees for two years' study in arts, 
besides the usual entrance payment of 15, are 7 105. 
each half-year. 

The graduation fees for the degree of Bachelor of 
Medicine, are 11 15s. The testimonium of the 
M.B. degree will contain the following certificate : 
" Testamur A.B. sedulam, operam medicinse na- 
vasse et examinationes, coram professoribus feliciter 
sustinuisse." 

The medical education of a Bachelor of Medicine 
comprises attendance on the following courses of lec- 
tures in the School of Physic, established by act of 
Parliament, provided that one, and not more than 
three of the courses, which begin in November, be 
attended during each of four sessions. Three of 



172 DR. DOWNES'S DIVINITY PREMIUMS. 

these lectures, at the discretion of the candidate, may 
be attended at the University of Edinburgh. The 
courses are on Anatomy and Surgery, Chemistry, 
Botany, Materia Medica, and Pharmacy, Institutes of 
Medicine, Practice of Medicine, Midwifery (by the 
Professor of the College of Physicians), Clinical lec- 
tures at Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital, during at least 
one session (six months), as delivered by the professors 
in the School of Physic. All students commencing 
there after 17th July, 1841, are to attend on such 
clinical lectures by the professors, during three addi- 
tional months of a summer session commencing in 
May, which is to be in lieu of attendance on the 
hospital from 1st of May to 1st of November fol- 
lowing. 

SECTION VI. 

PREMIUMS AT THE EXAMINATION FOR FELLOWSHIPS. 

It has long been the practice at every fellowship 
examination for the provost and senior fellows to grant 
premiums to such candidates as in their judgment de- 
serve encouragement for good answering. 

In the year 1793, Madden' s prizes were first granted 
in accordance with the will of Samuel Molyneux Mad- 
den, Esq., as described at page 110. The amount of 
these prizes are sometimes 200 or 300 sterling, 
and some of the most distinguished scholars, who have 
obtained fellowships, or high dignities in the church 
or at the bar, have gained these prizes. 

DR. DOWNES'S DIVINITY PREMIUMS. 

The original regulations, made in 1797? have been 
modified by the board, and settled in April 1834, as 
given at page 106 ; the examinations are held respec- 
tively, on three separate days, in the last week of Tri- 
nity Term ; notice of these days is given generally in 
the University Calendar, and by a bill posted on the 
college gates. 



THE PRIMATE'S HEBREW PRIZES. 173 

The examiners are, the Regius Professor of Di- 
vinity, the Professor of Oratory, and Archbishop 
King's Lecturer in Divinity, with the assistance, in 
case of written compositions, of the Provost, and such 
of the Senior Fellows as may choose to attend. 

The subjects are selected by the three examiners, 
and the subject for written composition is announced 
in the last week of Hilary Term by the Regius Pro- 
fessor of Divinity. Candidates must have attended 
with remarkable diligence as Candidates Bachelors 
or Bachelors of Arts, on Divinity Lectures in two 
terms, which may be any two terms antecedent to that 
in which the examinations are held ; and for extem- 
pore speaking or reading the Liturgy, the further 
qualification of having taken the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts is required. 

The usual mode by which the merit of the candi- 
dates is tested on these occasions, is by a number of 
trials in various parts of the Liturgy ; after each trial 
the number of candidates is diminished. And in order 
that the candidates should have equal chances in the 
extempore speaking, and reading the Liturgy, they 
are only admitted into the room singly, and not 
until the moment when each is to be put on his 
trial ; still further to prevent any improper communi- 
cations with the candidates waiting outside, none of 
the parties in the room are permitted to go out until 
the final decision is made. 

THE PRIMATE'S HEBREW PRIZES* 

These prizes were first instituted by a decree of 
the board in February, 1794, and a fund allocated to 
encourage graduates to study the Hebrew Language. 
In the year 1800, Primate Newcombe added muni- 
ficently to this fund, and his successors in the see of 
Armagh have continued that good feeling ever since. 
Originally, the days of examination were at the Hilary 
and Trinity Terms, and an occasional examination 
was held for the class of Middle Bachelors, when- 
ever candidates appeared at the end of Michaelmas 



174 THE PRIMATE'S HEBREW PREMIUMS. 

Term. The premiums were confined to graduates 
until July, 1830, when further regulations were made 
defining exactly the times and the business for exa- 
mination in each of the Bachelor classes. In October, 
1835, the following additional regulations were made 
by the Board. 

REGULATIONS WITH REGARD TO THE PRIMATE'S 
HEBREW PREMIUMS. 

That the Candidate or Junior Bachelor class be 
examined at the end of Michaelmas Term, in the 
grammar ; at the end of Hilary Term, in the first four 
chapters of Genesis ; and at the end of Trinity Term, 
in the history of Joseph, contained in Genesis, xxxvii. 
xli. xlii. xliii. xliv. xlv. 

The Middle Bachelor class are to be examined at 
the end of Michaelmas and Trinity Terms ; and the 
Senior Bachelor class, at the end of Hilary Term, in 
the Psalms. 

It is also provided that the professor may give a 
certificate, similar to that given for Divinity lectures, 
to any student who shall attend a course of Hebrew 
lectures for two years, or six terms, with remarkable 
diligence, and sufficient answering. That the assist- 
ants shall send to the professor, at the end of every 
term, duplicates of the returns made by them to the 
senior proctor, and the professor shall enter them in a 
book to be kept by him as evidence whereon he may 
sign the certificate. Junior Sophisters may also at- 
tend Hebrew lectures, and be examined for premiums 
with the Junior Bachelor class ; and Junior Bachelors 
who have attended during the Senior Sophister year 
with the Middle Bachelor class, so as to enable them 
to complete their two years of Hebrew, at the same 
time as their divinity terms. 

Middle Bachelors, who have attended for two years, 
can attend a third year with the Senior Bachelor class ; 
and any student who may have attended for three 
years, shall receive a certificate in which the word 
trienniwn shall be substituted for biennium. 



BISHOP BERKELEY'S GOLD MEDALS. 175 

The scholars who have completed the entire course 
of Hebrew at the end of their Middle Bachelor year, 
are excused all attendance at Hebrew lectures during 
the remaining year of their scholarships. 



BISHOP LAW S MATHEMATICAL PRIZES. 

In the year 1796, John Law a , Lord Bishop of El- 
phin, presented a donation of 700 guineas, on the ex- 
press condition that it should be applied to encourage 
the study of mathematics according to a scheme which 
the good bishop drew up himself, and which, with 
some small alteration made in it, during his own time, 
remains in all its original integrity and usefulness. 

BISHOP BERKELEY'S GOLD MEDALS. 

This eminent divine, whose benevolence was only 
circumscribed by his means, presented 120 guineas 
and an engraved medal die to the college, for the pur- 
pose of establishing annual gold medal prizes, to en- 
courage Bachelors of Arts to continue the study of the 
Greek language. And in 17*52, the Provost and 
Senior Fellows agreed to give annually for ever, two 
gold medals, agreeably to the bishop's intention. 

These medals are now given to the Middle Bache- 
lors who have attended the lectures of the Regius 
Professor of Greek with remarkable diligence for two 
academic years, commencing with the term in which 
they have taken their Bachelor's degree. 

GOLD MEDALS AT THE COMMENCEMENTS. 

The origin of the series of medals commenced in 
1793, when the Provost and Senior Fellows resolved 
that a gold medal should be given to such students 
as shall have answered every examination from their 
entrance to the taking of their Bachelor's degree, 

a Brother to the late Lord Chief Justice Ellenborough. 



176 MODERATORS AT DEGREE EXAMINATION. 

provided they shall also have got judgments, at each ex- 
amination, not inferior to one Bene with Valde Benes. 
This mode was altered in 1816, and then the medals 
were given, one to the best answerer in classics, 
and the other to the hest answerer in science, at an 
examination held in distinct courses prescribed for 
that purpose. These regulations have also been laid 
aside, and at present, the gold medals, for classics and 
science, have been superseded by the substitution of 
Moderatorships with gold and silver medals, in Mathe- 
matics and Physics, in Classics, in Logics, and in 
Ethics. 

By the same regulations which substituted the rank 
of Moderator for the gold medals given formerly at the 
commencements, the students that have obtained 
honours in any previous part of the undergraduate 
course, may offer themselves at the more solemn exa- 
minations without appearing at the ordinary examin- 
ation ; but those who have not previously distinguished 
themselves, must answer at the general examination 
of their class, and cannot present themselves as can- 
didates for moderatorships, unless they are specially 
recommended by their examiners for their answering 
at the ordinary examinations. 

Moderatorships are obtainable in Mathematics and 
Physics ; 2d, in classics ; 3d, in Ethics and Logics ; 
this arrangement being the order in rank of each 
department. They are divided into Senior and Junior 
Moderatorships, besides others, who, though judged 
worthy of their degree, have not displayed any supe- 
rior merit. 

All who obtain this rank, are placed at the head of 
their class, and presented to the Vice- Chancellor by 
the Proctor at the commencements, in the order of 
their places, &c., &c. The number of moderatorships 
is about one fortieth of the class of candidate bachelors, 
and the junior moderators double that of the seniors. 

In 1835, the board resolved that a gold medal, si- 
milar to that formerly given, should be presented to 
the first senior moderator in each of the three depart- 



BIBLICAL GREEK PRIZES. 177 

ments, and gold medals, the same as the Berkeley 
medals, to the remaining senior moderators, and 
silver medals to be given to the junior moderators. 

MEDALS FOR MODERN LANGUAGES. 

The board instituted these rewards in 1835, and 
the examination for this purpose takes place in the 
Michaelmas Term. 



PRIZES IN POLITICAL ECONOMY. 

We have seen that this professorship was founded 
by the Reverend Dr. Whately, Archbishop of Dub- 
lin, in the year 1832. And to give a further stimulus 
to its operations, the Provost and Senior Fellows, in 
1837, determined to institute annual examinations in 
this branch of science, and to offer a prize of 10, 
and another of 5 for proficiency therein. 

The examinations, which are conducted either 
verbally or by written questions, are held at the be- 
ginning of Michaelmas Term, on a day of which notice 
is given in the preceding term ; they are conducted 
under the direction of the professor of this science. 
Students in the Bachelor classes, whose names are on 
the books, are the only persons eligible to offer them- 
selves as candidates. Successful competitors cannot 
receive a prize at any subsequent examination. The 
Professor also points out the most proper works to be 
consulted in this department of the course. 

BIBLICAL GREEK (PRIZES). 

The Professor of Biblical Greek holds his exa- 
mination for prizes, in this department, in Hilary 
Term. 



178 EXHIBITIONS. 



CHAPTER V. 

SECTION I. 
EXHIBITIONS. 

Regulations of the Exhibitions on the foundation 
of Erasmus Smith, Esq. This increase of exhibitions 
is a decided improvement in laying out the funds 
in the hands of the Commissioners. They relate to 
the schools which have been already mentioned at 
page 140. The conditions are given at full length 
that the subject may be clearly comprehended. 

The first rule states, that the masters of the various 
classical schools on the foundation of Erasmus Smith, 
shall every year, in the first week of September, make 
a return of the names of such pupils in their respect- 
ive schools, as shall have entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, on or after the first day of May preceding ; 
or who shall be prepared to enter before the first day 
of January following, whom they shall consider quali- 
fied for, and in every respect deserving of the exhibi- 
tions paid by the governors. 

The lists so returned are referred to the Provost, 
with a request that he will direct that the young men, 
so recommended, may be especially examined ; and 
that those qualified may be appointed to the exhibi- 
tions so far as there may be vacancies, and their names 
returned to the governors. 

The young persons educated in the schools on this 
foundation become eligible to receive the exhibitions 
from the moment of their being admitted of the Uni- 
versity, and may continue to hold them so long as they 
shall reside in college, and until they shall be of 
Masters' standing ; provided that no person shall be 
allowed to hold an exhibition from the second year of 
his having been appointed thereto, who has not within 
that period obtained, at least, one classical premium 
at the Term Examinations. Between the first year 
of competition (1834) and the close of 1843, twenty- 



DIVINITY PROFESSOR'S PREMIUM. 179 

three students were elected to these exhibitions, namely, 
from Drogheda, five ; Ennis, nine ; Gal way, seven ; 
and Tipperary, one of the largest, and the most tur- 
bulent counties in Ireland, two only ! 

The Regius Professor of Divinity is bound by sta- 
tute to hold an annual examination in the month of 
November, for two days, (four hours each day,) on 
the morning of the first day, in the Old Testament ; 
in the afternoon, in the New Testament ; on the morn- 
ing of the second day, in Ecclesiastical History ; and 
in the afternoon of that day, in the Creeds, Articles, 
and Liturgy of the united Churches of England and 
Ireland. This examination is open to all Bachelors 
of Arts. 

The present Professor, (Dr. Elrington,) who takes 
a deep interest in this very important branch of edu- 
cation, has published a list of the books which he 
would recommend to the serious attention of the can- 
didates on these occasions. The following extracts 
from that paper will best explain the sentiments of the 
learned Professor on this subject : 

" In reference to the first two parts, the Professor of 
Divinity wishes it to be distinctly understood, that he 
does not so much require a knowledge of the opinions 
of any particular commentator, as a general acquaint- 
ance with the Bible itself. He considers the Com- 
mentary of Patrick, Lowth, and Whitby, taken as a 
whole, to be the best ; but to the young student he 
would particularly recommend Elsley and Slade's An- 
notations on the New Testament. Nor can he (though 
he differs from them on some important subjects) for- 
bear to express his approbation of Doddridge's and 
Scott's Commentaries. More information will be ac- 
quired by consulting separate treatises on different 
parts of the Scriptures, as Dean G raves' s Lectures on 
the last four Books of Moses and Bishop Newton on 
the Prophecies. 

" In recommending the following list of books to the 
candidates for the premium given at his examination, 
the Professor does not wish to limit them to the parti- 
cular works mentioned in it, but these books will 

N 2 



180 ARCHBISHOP KING'S DIVINITY PRIZES. 

point out the extent of the information required, and 
they can all be easily procured. 

Townson on the Gospels, and the Resurrection. 

Davison on Prophecy. 

Paley's Evidences. 

Paley's Horse Paulinas. 

Butler's Analogy. 

Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History. 

Carwithen's History of the Church of England. 

Elrington on Ordination. 

Marsh's Comparative View. 

Jewel's Apology. 

Burnet on the Thirty-nine Articles. 

Pearson on the Creed. 

Waterland on the Athanasian Creed. 

Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity, Books iii. and v. 

Laurence's Bampton Lectures. 

Mant, or Whately, on the Common Prayer." 

From the above list it will be easily seen that stu- 
dents in this paramount Faculty of the Dublin Uni- 
versity, must acquire a very considerable knowledge 
and facility for maintaining " the faith that is in them." 
And this would be much more fully proved by a visit 
to the Hall during these examinations, which are of a 
most stringent character, but not more so than the 
preparation for the sacred office of the ministry re- 
quires. 

ARCHBISHOP KING'S DIVINITY PRIZES. 

These prizes are of very recent origin, being amongst 
the further proofs of the sincere and active desire that 
has existed in this University especially of late years, to 
extend the field of knowledge, and give its full expan- 
sion to the higher power of the human intellect, com- 
bined with man's temporal and eternal welfare. 

The Provost and Board founded these prizes in the 
year 1836; they are called, " Archbishop King's Di- 
vinity Prizes," chiefly, as it would appear, to honour 
the memory of that distinguished divine and scholar, 




THE ROYAL SCHOLARSHIPS OR EXHIBITIONS. 181 

and because they are given at an annual examination 
held by Archbishop King's Divinity Lecturer. 

The examination is held in Michaelmas Term ; it 
is restricted to students, who have been selected by 
the Examiners at the general Divinity examination, 
held at the end of the preceding Trinity Term ; and 
the subjects of the course examined in for the prizes, 
besides those appointed for the general Divinity exa- 
mination, are the following : " Greek, the Acts of 
the Apostles ; Christian Evidences, Butler's Analogy, 
Paley's HoraB Paulinse, Chalmers on the Miraculous 
and Internal Evidences of the Christian Revelation, 
Douglass's Criterion of Miracles, Bishop Sherlock's 
Discourses on Prophecy, and Davison on Prophecy, 
the Socinian Controversy, Magee on the Atonement, 
Vol. III. 

The candidates will also be prepared with a proper 
knowledge of the principal questions discussed in the 
public course of lectures delivered by Archbishop 
King's Lecturer during the year of attendance on his 
lectures, and to have been examined in the writings 
referred to by him. Two prizes are given to the best 
answerers, and certificates to such as answer respect- 
ably. Extra prizes are frequently given by the Board, 
on the recommendation of the examiners. But the 
certificate is never given until the student shall have 
completed his Divinity course, and obtained the Divi- 
nity Testimonium. 

THE ROYAL SCHOLARSHIPS OR EXHIBITIONS. 

The year 1833 will be memorable in this University, 
as being the epoch when these scholarships were found- 
ed and munificently endowed by the Commissioners of 
Education in Ireland, from funds arising out of estates 
of the royal schools in Ardmagh, Dungannon, and 
Enniskillen. For the first named school, five scholar- 
ships of 50 per annum each have been founded; also 
five of 50, and five of 30 per annum, for each of 
the others mentioned ; the funds are supplied from the 
estates of the respective schools ; that is, 250 from 



182 THE ROYAL SCHOLARSHIPS. 

the Ardmagh, and 400 from the school estates of 
Dungannon and Enniskillen, respectively. 

To obtain these exhibitions it is absolutely requi- 
site that the candidate shall have been at least three 
years a pupil in one of these schools, before he can make 
his essay to enter Trinity College. The pupils are 
allowed the right of moving from one of them to an- 
other, but to obtain the scholarships just specified, it 
is indispensable that the students must have entered the 
University from one of those for which the scholar- 
ships have been founded. 

No pensioner can be admitted as a candidate for 
a Queen's scholarship, unless he shall have remained 
at one of these royal schools, until the November en- 
trance examination, neither can a sizar be admitted as 
a candidate, unless he shall have remained at the 
school until the Sizarship examination immediately 
before the examination in which he intends to stand 
for a Queen's Scholarship. 

These scholarships may be held for five years, pro- 
vided that, proceeding regularly with their respect- 
ive classes, they obtain in each year of their under- 
graduate course, one honour of the first, or two of the 
second rank, the election to one of these scholarships 
being reckoned as equivalent to one honour of the 
second rank obtained in the Junior Freshman year. 
A Moderator, as an honour of the first rank in the 
Senior Sophister year ; and an University Scholarship, 
in whatever year obtained, as equivalent to an honour 
of the first rank, at a term examination. 

A scholarship is to be rendered vacant by the scho- 
lar incurring any heavy collegiate censure, such as 
public admonition or rustication ; or whenever all the 
examinations of a year have elapsed without his ob- 
taining in that year an honour of the first rank or two 
of the second rank, or the equivalents to them just 
mentioned. 

The Provost and Board are to appoint annually 
two examiners to examine, on the first convenient day 
after the November entrance, such (candidates) stu- 



THE ROYAL SCHOLARSHIPS. 183 

dents as have entered during the preceding part of the 
year, from the three royal schools. 

The subjects for examination comprise the whole 
entrance course with the addition of two Greek plays, 
which may be learned from time to time, together with 
the following course of History : Keightley's Roman 
Republic, and Roman Empire ; the History of Greece ; 
History of the Old and New Testament. The Out- 
lines of Sacred History, published by the Christian 
Knowledge Society. The proficiency of the candi- 
dates in Greek, Latin, and English composition are 
particularly inquired into, and also their knowledge 
of the rules in Greek and Latin versification, with spe- 
cimens of their skill in making verses in both lan- 
guages, great attention being directed to ancient history 
and geography. 

The candidates from each school are examined to- 
gether, and a return is made to the Commissioners of 
their positive merit ; an arrangement is also made 
with respect to their answering, without distinction 
of schools ; the Commissioners reserve to themselves 
the power of suspending or diminishing one or more 
scholarships, if sufficient merit is not shewn by the 
candidates. 

Fellow commoners cannot be candidates. In casee 
of equal merit, the poverty of a candidate will be taken 
into account. 

No student can be candidate a second time. The 
exhibitions are payable half-yearly, (1st of May, and 
1st of November,) those in May are made to such 
students only as have obtained, in the preceding half 
of that year, at least one honour of the second rank. 
A half-yearly payment held over in May, to be paid 
in November, provided an honour has been obtained 
in the mean time ; and a payment for the year to be 
made in November to such students as shall have ful- 
filled all the requisites in the year between the 1st of 
May and 1st of November. 

In cases where very distinguished merit has been 
shewn during the undergraduate course, by students 
holding 30 scholarships, and when scholarships of 



184 THE ROYAL SCHOLARSHIPS. 

50, for the same school, remain suspended, or have 
been forfeited, the Commissioners will receive at the 
close of each year, memorials from such distinguished 
students for an increase of their stipend, from 30 to 
50 yearly, during the remainder of their scholarship. 
And where such promotion shall have taken place, the 
relinquished scholarship of 30 then becomes vacant. 

No student can be elected " Queen's Scholar" un- 
less he shall have, previously to the examination for 
that scholarship, lodged with the secretary to the 
Board a certificate, signed by the master of the school 
from which he shall have entered this college, in which 
it shall be stated that he has conformed to the regu- 
lations of the Board relative to the election of Queen's 
Scholars. 

Besides these solid inducements to promote the 
cause of learning, the provost and board have, " in 
compliance with the wishes of the Commissioners of 
Education in Ireland," made a rule that these Royal 
Scholarship men may wear "velvet caps,"* and that 
their names be inserted in the College books im- 
mediately after the names of the University scholars, 
but without altering their degrees of seniority among 
their class fellows. 

The above-named board of commissioners have also 
made a rule to grant annually two prizes of 30 and 
20 to such junior freshmen as shall have entered 
this university from Middle ton school (co. Cork) ; 
and who, having been examined along with and in the 
same course as the candidates for Queen's scholarships, 
shall be recommended by the examiners to the Com- 
missioners. 

These are very gratifying proofs of the high estima- 
tion in which this university is held by those public 
boards and societies which have the best means of 
judging correctly as to matters of education generally, 

a Some of our best moralists have expressed to the author douhts 
as to the soundness of this measure, whether it is not more likely to 
engender that deplorable weakness called personal vanity, than to excite 
and sustain a noble emulation to excel by intellectual exertion : time 
alone will tell. 



THE ELRINGTON THEOLOGICAL PRIZE. 185 

with regard to its capabilities for bestowing the great 
advantages of the highest cultivation upon the human 
mind, in whatever direction the natural partialities may 
influence the taste for one or other species of mental 
application ; all which advantages must be still kept 
in a state of progression by that reciprocity of cordial 
feeling, which now happily exists between the truly 
educational institutions in Ireland. 

In four years after the founding of these scholar- 
ships, the friends of the late Dr. Elrington, bishop of 
Leighlin and Ferns, devised a plan for further en- 
couraging the study of Theology, and, at the same 
time, of preserving in grateful remembrance the name 
of the deceased bishop. 



SECTION II. 
THE ELRINGTON THEOLOGICAL PRIZE. 

This additional excitement to honourable distinction 
in Theology arose out of a feeling highly honourable to 
the parties who brought it forward, and whose means 
contributed to its realization. 

The real and avowed object of these gentlemen was 
to place upon permanent record their high feelings of 
respect for the memory of the late Dr. Elrington, 
Bishop of Ferns. 

For this purpose a meeting was convened at Messrs. 
Milliken's, Grafton Street, in March, 1837, to consider 
the best mode of commemorating the virtues and learn- 
ing of the late Right Rev. Thomas Elrington, D.D., 
Lord Bishop of Leighlin and Ferns, and formerly Pro- 
vost of Trinity College, Dublin. 

At that meeting, which was numerously attended by 
college men of all classes, the following resolutions 
were passed unanimously : 

" Resolved That in the opinion of this meeting the 
conduct of the late highly respected Bishop was uni- 
formly distinguished by an earnest desire and endea- 
vour to do substantial good, without needless display 
or ostentation, as well by implanting in and strengthen- 



186 THE ELRINGTON THEOLOGICAL PRIZE. 

ing the minds of all those with whom he was at any 
time connected, whether as future candidates for the 
ministry, actual ministers of the church, or members 
of the church simply; a well founded belief in the truth 
and doctrines of our holy religion, and a steady attach- 
ment to its primitive institutions according to the form 
of Christianity established in the united churches of 
England and Ireland. 

" That such a monument appears to us most appro- 
priate to his character, and calculated to do becoming 
honour to his memory, as shall be formed upon the 
principle of carrying forward those solid religious bene- 
fits which he was indefatigable in promoting during his 
life ; a mode of testifying respect to which this meeting 
is more inclined, by a consideration of the excellent 
personal representation of the late prelate which 
adorns the college library. 

" That, for the foregoing purpose, it is adjudged de- 
sirable to institute an annual prize for one or more of 
the best Theological Essays composed by Bachelors 
of Arts of Trinity College, Dublin, of not more than 
three years' standing. 

11 That the subjects of the essays be such as may 
direct the minds of the competitors to those topics in 
particular which were either discussed in the published 
works of the late bishop, or were prominent objects of 
his solicitude. For example The Evidence of our 
Holy Religion ; the Constitution of the Christian 
Church ; the Scriptural Character of the Doctrines 
and the Apostolical Polity of our own Church ; the 
necessity and validity of her Orders, and the just claims 
and the solemn engagements of her Ministers. 

" That this prize be denominated the ELRINGTON 
THEOLOGICAL PRIZE that the subjects be proposed 
and the prize awarded by the Lord Bishop of Ferns, 
the Provost of Trinity College, and the Regius Pro- 
fessor of Divinity, all for the time being, in such way 
as they shall arrange among themselves. That the 
essay or essays be publicly read in the College Hall, 
at such time as the provost shall appoint ; and that the 
prize consist of a selection of standard Theological 



THE LLOYD EXHIBITIONS. 187 

works, of which the publications of the late bishop, if 
attainable, as, we trust, they will be rendered by the 
filial piety of the present Regius Professor of Divinity, 
shall at all times form a part." This prize cannot be 
obtained more than once by the same candidate. 

THE LLOYD EXHIBITIONS. 

These exhibitions originated out of those spon- 
taneous feelings of respect for departed worth, which 
could only be created by a deep conviction of the 
valuable services which the talents and virtues of this 
lamented Provost had rendered to society, by his 
zealous and intelligent discharge of his duties in the 
offices of a Fellow, and as Provost of this College, 
during forty-two years ; thirty-five of these years Dr. 
Lloyd had been one of the ablest, and most exemplary 
Professors and Lecturers possible, of the numerous 
classes that entered and passed through college during 
that long interval ; and for the last eight years of his 
useful life, Dr. Lloyd enjoyed the responsible and dig- 
nified office of Provost, or head of this University : in 
that situation his conduct and manners were such as 
endeared him to every class in college, from the 
members of the Senior Board down to the Junior 
Freshmen. 

To carry this object into effect, a meeting of the 
subscribers to this fund was held in the University in 
November, 1839, on which occasion the Rev. Dr. 
Singer was chairman, when the following resolutions 
were unanimously adopted : 

"I. That a sum of money having been subscribed 
for the foundation of exhibitions in the University, to 
commemorate the talents and virtues of the late 
Provost Lloyd, in promoting the course of learning 
in that institution, to the interest of which his life 
was devoted, the aforesaid sum shall be lodged in the 
hands of the Provost, the Professor of Natural Philo- 
sophy, and the Professor of Mathematics for the time 
being, in trust for the purpose declared in these reso- 
lutions. 

" II. That the interest of the aforesaid sums as may 



188 THE LLOYD EXHIBITIONS. 

at any time be added to it, shall be applied to the 
founding of two exhibitions, of 20 per annum each, 
to be held for two years only. 

" III. That the appointment to these exhibitions 
shall be made by a public examination, under the 
following regulations : 

" 1. The examinations shall be held in Michaelmas 
term annually, after the Michaelmas term examina- 
tions, and shall be open to such students only as shall 
then be in the rising Senior Sophister class. 

" 2. No student shall be admissible as a candidate 
a second time. 

" 3. The exhibition shall be tenable only so long as 
the scholar shall have his name on the college books. 

" 4. The examiners shall be the Professors of As- 
tronomy, Natural Philosophy, and Mathematics, or 
any three of them, as they shall agree amongst them- 
selves. 

" 5. The subject of examination shall be a course 
of Mathematics and Physics, to be determined by the 
examiners, subject to the approval of the Board. 

" IV. Any exhibition which may fall vacant before 
the natural period of its expiration, shall not be filled 
up, but its amount shall be added to the principal, for 
the augmentation of the fund ; and the same rule shall 
be followed in case it should at any time happen that 
no candidate of sufficient merit shall present himself. 

" V. And if at any time the money in the hands of 
the trustees shall exceed the sum payable to the ex- 
hibitioners, the surplus may be employed, at the dis- 
cretion of the examiners, in giving prizes to such of 
the unsuccessful candidates as may appear to merit 
that encouragement." 

The course of examination then appointed for 
these exhibitions, subject, however, to future altera- 
tions, were : 

In Mathematics Luby's Trigonometry, Lloyd's 
Analytic Geometry, Lacroix' Elemens d'Algebre, and 
Differential Calculus (omitting application to curved 
surfaces). In Physics, all the Physics of the undei*- 
graduate course, and Lloyd's Mechanical Philosophy. 



THE IRISH PROFESSORSHIP. 189 



PROFESSORSHIP OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE. 

It appears somewhat surprising that this should be 
the only college in the world where the language of 
the country in which it is established, should, for a 
very long period, have been totally neglected ; for this 
absurdity we are not to blame the Royal Foundress ; 
the capacious mind of Elizabeth "saw far beyond the 
present hour," and easily perceived the great benefit 
that must result in time to the nation, by thus at- 
taching the natives more closely to the pursuits of 
learning, in a country where there was so little in- 
ducement to follow it from motives of profit ; and one 
of the inducements the Queen held out to them, with 
the approbation of her most learned councilT was to 
establish a professorship of the Irish language in her 
new University, as we have already stated. This 
continued as a regular part of the college course until 
the tyrannical government of Lord Str afford, when 
a pragmatic churchman*, who was much more learned 
and intolerant, but less enlightened and sagacious 
than Queen Elizabeth, contrived to lay it aside, after 
the experience of forty- five years had proved its utility. 
Of the person who suppressed this lecture we have 
already given sufficient account ; but the professorship 
being once laid aside, and the great troubles that 
began in 1641, which followed closely upon it, having 
continued to devastate Ireland by a succession of 
rapine for twenty years, and as this state of anarchy 
had nearly extinguished the college altogether, there 
could not be any attention paid to the revival of an 
individual part of the system, even after the im- 
mediate evils of war had been removed ; and still fur- 
ther, before it could recover the proper tone which 
the study of arts and sciences require, it was once more 
brought to the brink of ruin, by the sanguinary con- 
flicts which took place between the armies of King 
William and King James ; and by the time it had 
emerged from these calamities, many parts of the 
system of education were very much curtailed, others 
* Provost Chappie. 



190 PROFESSORSHIP OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE. 

neglected, and the Irish lecture quite forgotten ; the 
heads of the college exerted themselves to bring the 
institution hack to its proper state, and after much 
perseverance they succeeded admirably, except with 
respect to the Irish professorship ; but as a knowledge 
of that language was not essential to obtain a degree, 
that great stimulus to its revival was wanting, though 
some spirited individuals from time to time exerted 
themselves for its restoration, but in vain. 

The last and greatest effort made for this laudable 
object, was by the celebrated Right Honourable Henry 
Flood, M.P., and Vice-Treasurer of Ireland. This 
gentleman graduated here, and soon perceived an 
evident necessity for establishing a professorship of 
the Irish language; but as the fund originally de- 
signed for this purpose had long merged in the general 
stock, it became necessary to provide new means for 
its support : with this laudable intention Mr. Flood, 
by will, bearing date the 27th May, 1790, bequeathed 
estates in the county and city of Kilkenny for that 
purpose, as the following extracts from his last will 
and testament will shew : "I give and bequeath all 
said lands (the denomination recited), houses, here- 
ditaments, and estates, so settled upon me on my said 
marriage, to the University of Ireland, commonly called 
the Trinity College, Dublin, by whatsoever style, and 
under whatsoever title it is most properly and legally 
characterized and distinguished, to hold in fee and for 
ever, for the purposes hereinafter mentioned ; that is 
to say, I will and direct that on the Provost and Fel- 
lows of said college coming into possession of this my 
bequest, on the death of my said wife, they do in- 
stitute and maintain as a perpetual establishment 
a professorship of and for the native Irish or Erse 
language, and that they do appoint, if he shall be 
then living, Colonel Charles Valiancy to be the first 
professor thereof, with a salary of not less than 
three hundred pounds per annum, seeing that, by his 
eminent and successful labours in the study and re- 
covery of that language, he well deserves to be so first 
appointed. And I will and appoint that they do grant 



PROFESSORSHIP OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE. 191 

one annual and liberal premium for the best, and another 
premium for the next best composition in prose or verse 
in the said native Irish or Erse language, upon some 
point of ancient history, government, religion, literature, 
or situation of Ireland. Also other annual and liberal 
premiums, one for the best and another for the next 
best composition in Greek, or Latin prose or verse, 
on any general subject by them assigned ; and other 
annual and liberal premiums, one for the best, an- 
other for the next best composition in English prose 
or verse, in commemoration of some one of those great 
characters, either of ancient or modern nations, who 
have been eminently serviceable and honourable to 
their country, seeing that nothing stimulates to great 
deeds more strongly than great examples. And I will 
that the rents and profits of my said lands, houses, 
hereditaments, and estates shall be further applied by 
the said University to the purchase of all printed 
books and manuscripts in the said native Irish, or 
Erse language, wheresoever to be obtained ; and next 
to the purchase of all printed books and manuscripts of 
the dialects and languages that are akin to the said 
native Irish or Erse language ; and then to the pur- 
chase of all valuable books and editions of books in 
the learned and in the modern polished languages ; 
and in case of the said University not complying with 
this my will, I in such event declare the said bequest 
to the said University to be null and void ; or if, by 
any other cause, this bequest to the University shall 
not take effect, then it is my express will and desire, 
that after the decease of my said wife all the said 
lands, houses, hereditaments, and estates so settled on 
my marriage as aforesaid, shall go and stand be- 
queathed in manner following," &c. &c. 

From the foregoing it is evident that the testator 
had a most sincere wish to forward the best interests 
of learning ; but at the demise of Lady Flood, which 
took place a few years after that of her husband, the 
University having taken possesion of the estates so 
bequeathed, were obliged to relinquish them after a 



192 REGULATIONS. 

severe litigation; previous to this lawsuit, however, 
a gentleman had been appointed to the professorship, 
according to Mr. Flood's will, and he was allowed to 
hold the office after the legal decision against the 
Fellows had taken away the funds for its support. This 
Professor was succeeded by another gentleman, who was 
allowed 100 per annum, and chambers in college; 
but this person having expressed himself a little too 
freely at a public meeting, on a political question, the 
Provost and Board showed their disapprobation of his 
conduct by dismissing him in 1814. 

From that time there does not appear to have been 
any attempt made to revive the Irish lecture until the 
year 1840, when the Provost and Senior Fellows most 
handsomely restored it to its place in the system as a 
college professorship, and endowed it out of the Uni- 
versity funds ; and to encourage the study of the Irish 
language, the Board have placed the sum of 20 at 
the disposal of the Professor of Irish, to be given in 
premiums to such students as shall distinguish them- 
selves by proficiency in the Irish or Erse language. 

The Professor delivers his lectures on the Irish 
language on Mondays and Thursdays during term. 

In full accordance with the just and enlightened 
views of the Provost and Board of College, and of 
the favourite though defeated object of Mr. Flood's 
noble intentions, the governors of the Irish College 
of St. Colomba have come forward, and with the ap- 
probation of His Grace the Lord Primate, and the 
sanction of the Provost and Senior Fellows of this Uni- 
versity, founded five Irish scholarships in the college; 
these places are only intended for such students as in- 
tend to become candidates for Holy Orders in the 
church in Ireland, consequently they are open to all 
members of the national church. These scholarships 
are to continue for five years each, therefore, one 
scholar will be elected every year after the first five. 

The regulations are as follow : 

1. The value of each Scholarship shall be, the first 
year, 24, increasing year by year up to 48 ; the sti- 



REGULATIONS. 193 

pend to be paid each year in three equal portions, on 
the Spring and Summer Commencement days, and on 
the 20th day of November. 

2. An examination of candidates for these Scholar- 
ships shall be held annually in the month of November, 
on a day to be fixed by the Professor of Irish. 

3. The Scholarships shall be open to students of 
any standing in the University, and shall be tenable 
until their class has answered its final Divinity exa- 
mination. 

4. The Scholars shall be required to reside in the 
College, during the University terms, and to pass every 
term Examination : also to attend the lectures of the 
Professor of Irish, and (when of sufficient standing) 
to keep the Divinity terms, and pass the Divinity exa- 
minations, including the examination for the Divinity 
Professor's premium. 

5. They shall be required to pass an annual exa- 
mination, at the end of Trinity Term, in the Irish 
language ; the subjects of this examination to be fixed 
by the Governors of the College of St. Columba, in 
conjunction with the Professor of Irish. 

6. On each day of payment, the scholars shall pro- 
duce to the Governors, from the proper officers of the 
University, sufficient testimoniums in evidence of their 
having observed the fourth rule ; and on the Summer 
Commencement day, they must bring also, from the 
Professor, a certificate of having passed satisfactorily 
the examination in Irish. 

7- On the failure of any of these testimoniums, the 
payment then due shall be withheld ; and, in addition, 
on the failure of the Scholar to pass the Irish examin- 
ation, no increase of his stipend shall take place in the 
next year, and on a second failure his Scholarship shall 
become void. 

8. In the election to the scholarships, preference 
shall be given cceteris paribus to students who shall 
be educated in the College of St. Columba. 

The subjects of examination agreed upon by the 
Professor of Irish and the Governors of the College of 
St. Columba, are the following : 



REGULATIONS. 



ELECTION EXAMINATION. 

1. Irish Grammar and translation. 

2. The four Gospels in Irish. 

3. The Church Catechism to be repeated by heart 
in Irish. 

4. The place which the candidates may have ob- 
tained at the Entrance examination, and their judg- 
ments at such term examinations as they may have 
previously passed, will be taken into account in the 
election. 

JUNIOR FRESHMEN. 

1. Irish Grammar, Composition, and Translation. 

2. The Pentateuch and Acts of the Apostles in Irish. 

3. The three creeds, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten 
Commandments, to be repeated by heart in Irish. 

SENIOR FRESHMEN. 

1. Irish Grammar, Composition, and Translation, 
as before. 

2. The Historical Books of the Old Testament in 
Irish ; from Joshua to the Chronicles, inclusive. 

3. The first twenty Psalms in Irish, to be repeated 
by heart. 

JUNIOR SOPHISTERS. 

1. Irish Grammar, Composition, and Translation, 
as before. 

2. The Books of Isaiah and Jeremiah : the Epistle 
to the Romans : with the books of Scripture read for 
the two preceding examinations. 

3. The Book of Common Prayer in Irish. 

4. Psalms xxi-1. in Irish, to be repeated by heart. 



SENIOR SOPHISTERS. 



1. Irish Grammar, Composition, and Translation, 
as before. 






SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING. 195 

2. The Old Testament, with the Four Gospels and 
Acts, the Epistles to the Romans, and Corinthians. 

3. The Book of Common Prayer, as before. 

4. Psalms li-lxxx. in Irish, to be repeated by heart. 



JUNIOR BACHELORS. 

1. The Old Testament, Gospels, and Acts, as be- 
fore, with the Epistles of St. Paul. 

2. The Thirty-nine Articles in Irish. 

3. At this examination students will be liable to be 
examined in any of the subjects prescribed at the 
former examinations. 

Candidates will be expected to bring such testimo- 
niums as will satisfy the Governors and the Professor 
of Irish, that they are bond fide members of the United 
Church of England and Ireland. 



ELECTED ON THIS FOUNDATION. 



1842. 



Foley, Daniel. 
Coffey, John Taylor. 



1843. 



Skelton, Thomas Watson. 
Maguire, Edward. 



SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING. 

This is the latest, and one of the most useful of the 
many additions made to the college system within the 
last thirty years. The idea was not hastily taken up ; 
but has been, it appears, the subject of serious discus- 
sion for some years at the board previous to final 
adoption into the course. In fact, it appears to have 
been called for by the growing wants of society, which 
now require a much more extensive and accurate 
knowledge of practical science than was formerly 
thought necessary ; and the heads of the college have 
again in this instance shewn the most commendable 
zeal and intelligence, together with a fidelity to the 
cause of learning, which does them great honour. 

o 2 



196 SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING. 

The first opening of this school was in the year 
1842. It embraces a course of study that will extend 
over three University terms of each year, under cer- 
tain regulations, the chief of which are : That the 
school shall be conducted by five lecturers : one in 
Mathematics, being an assistant to the Mathematical 
Professor ; two in Mechanics, viz., the Professor of 
Natural Philosophy and his assistant ; a Professor of 
Chemistry and Geology applied to the Arts of Con- 
struction ; and a Professor of Practical Engineering. 
Each of the professors is to receive 150 per annum, 
together with the proceeds of the class he may lecture. 

All students in Engineering must have their names 
on the college books. Any student in Arts, who has 
answered two examinations in the Junior Freshman 
year, (of which one must be the Michaelmas examina- 
tion,) or any student in Arts of higher standing, may 
become a student in Engineering, without being re- 
quired to attend the other lectures or examinations of 
the College course in Arts. 

The student in Engineering may, however, continue 
his course in Arts while attending the lectures of the 
school ; or he may resume it at any period during his 
attendance, or after its termination, recommencing 
where that course had been left off. 

The course of instruction in the school shall consist 
of two years' lectures, in addition to the course pre- 
scribed for the Junior Freshman class in Arts. The 
student shall, in the first year, attend the lectures in 
Mathematics, the principles of Mechanics, and Che^ 
mistry and Geology applied to the Arts of Construc- 
tion ; and in the second year, the lectures in the prin- 
ciples of Physics, in practical Mechanics, and in 
Engineering. The student shall also, during the 
second year, study the arts of Mechanical Drawing 
and Surveying. 

Examinations shall be held at the end of each year ; 
and at the termination of the course, the student, if 
recommended by the professors, shall receive a diploma 
from the board. 




SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING. 197 

No student shall rise to the second year, without 
attending not only the lectures, but also the examina- 
tion of the first year. But any student may at pleasure 
attend the lectures of both years at the same time, 
although only one such attendance can be reckoned 
for his diploma. In order to obtain credit for a term, 
the student must attend at least three-fourths of the 
whole number of lectures with each lecturer. 

The student shall pay, in addition to the ordinary 
half-yearly payment for keeping his name on the books, 
the sum of 10 each year, 5 being the Professor's 
fee, and 5 the College fee. 

The student who attends the lectures of both years 
at the same time, shall, for such extra attendance, pay 
the Professor's fee of 5, but not the College fee. The 
student who, from any cause whatever, shall not have 
passed the examination at the end of either year, but 
continues to attend a second time the lectures of that 
year, shall pay the whole expenses of that year as at 
first. 

The Junior Bursar shall receive the payments for 
the School of Engineering, at the half-yearly payments 
commencing in October ; and on the first Saturday 
in December, he shall send to each professor a list 
of those who, having paid, are entitled to attend his 
class. 

The following is the appointed course of study, ex- 
tending over the three university terms of each year : 

FIRST YEAR. 

Mathematics. Rev. Thomas Luby, D.D., Fellow 
of Trinity College, Assistant Professor of Mathematics, 
M.R.I.A. 

Principles of Mechanics. Andrew Searle Hart, 
LL.D., Fellow of Trinity College, Assistant Professor 
of Natural Philosophy, M.R.I.A. 

Chemistry and Geology applied to the Arts of Con- 
struction. James Apjohn, M.D., V.P.R.I.A. 



198 THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



SECOND YEAR. 

Principles of Physics, and the Steam Engine. 

Practical Mechanics. Andrew Searle Hart, LL.D. 

Practical Engineering. John Mac Neill, LL.D., 
Professor of Practical Engineering, F.R.S., M.R.I. A., 
and H. L. Renny, Esq., (late of the Royal Engineers,) 
Assistant Professor of Practical Engineering, M.R.I. A. 

Drawing and Surveying. H. L. Renny, Esq., 
M.R.I.A. 



EXHIBITIONS FOUNDED BY THE ACADEMIC 
ASSOCIATION. 

The Academic Association of Ireland, although not 
many years established, has determined to lend its aid 
to the fine movement now in progess to promote the 
best objects of superior education in Ireland. To this 
end they have, (in 1842,) founded six exhibitions of 
15 each per annum, to continue for two years and a 
half. They are open to all schools to which no other 
exhibitions are attached, on payment by the master of 
10 per annum, and the annual subscription of l 
towards the general purposes of the association. To 
entitle them to become candidates for these exhibitions, 
the pupils must have been educated for at least three 
years immediately before entrance at some school in- 
cluded in this association ; provided also, that they 
shall have obtained at entrance, from first to third 
place inclusive, or shall have been examined for first 
place at either the October or November entrances. 

The course for examination is the same as that for 
the Royal Scholarships. Exhibitioners on this founda- 
tion have been placed, by order of the board, on the 
same footing with those of the royal schools, both as to 
academic rank and costume. 

THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Having briefly mentioned the commencement and the 
vicissitudes of this distinguished association, (p. 



THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 199 

we shall now notice its resuscitation in college after 
an exclusion of twenty-eight years, for it was in No- 
vember, 1815, that a large majority of the members de- 
termined on breaking up the society rather than sub- 
mit to some new regulation of the provost and board, 
such regulations being in their opinion harsh and un- 
called for. The minority, however, amongst whom 
was the late J. Sydney Taylor and other distinguished 
men of the society, thought otherwise, and were willing 
to submit to the additional restrictions ; but they were 
too few to carry on the affairs of the establishment 
with effect, and therefore it was broken up, the books 
and other property of the institution being taken into 
possession and sealed up by the college authorities. 

In November, 1843, Dr. Franc Sadlier being pro- 
vost, and other favourable circumstances concurring, 
it was thought to be an auspicious moment to apply for 
the re-establishment of this society. A meeting suffi- 
ciently numerous and talented for this purpose having 
been assembled, a successful application was made, 
and on Friday the 15th of November, 1843, the re- 
novated Historical Society held its first sitting in their 
former apartments over the dining hall. 

The provost took the chair on this memorable occa- 
sion, and thus conferred upon the society a high moral 
tone combined with academic dignity ; thus openly 
conferring upon the institution a character of college 
legitimacy and recognition, which, being spontaneously 
and gracefully bestowed by the directors of the uni- 
versity, will be the best guarantee for the future good 
government of this very interesting association of 
youthful, talented, and ardent minds who are natur- 
ally anxious to render practical the fine lessons they 
have been taught, and to try their incipient powers 
ere they attempt to enter the great arena of public life. 
This appears to us to be a most rational mode of occu- 
pying those intervals of time which even in this actively 
engaged university are inevitable. 

Yet, in common with, we believe, every other human 
institution, this society's usefulness has been very much 
questioned by some of the fellows and other respect- 



200 THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

able members of college ; some of whom, perhaps, 
were influenced by prejudice against the introduction 
of any new feature in the academic course, whilst 
others had a dread of the new revolutionary mania, 
then rife in Europe, getting in amongst them, and there- 
fore the existence of this society was tolerated merely, 
not encouraged. It did not, however, produce any of 
the unpleasant effects prognosticated by its antagonists; 
it neither interrupted the regular circulation of college 
course, nor indulged political agitations. Some in- 
dividuals, no doubt, were members of it, who after- 
wards were notoriously disaffected persons ; but it 
might as well be said that their being students under 
the college system had made them disloyal ; that, how- 
ever, would be too great an absurdity to utter. In 
fact, these men would have been political agitators 
under any free government the first moment they could 
find, or make an opportunity suited to their purposes. 
The best proof, however, that no impeachment of its 
loyalty as a body was ever thought of is, that its meet- 
ings were never interrupted by the college authorities, 
whose information with regard to the characters of 
the individual members was most accurate, and some 
of whom would have been glad to lay hold of any 
cogent reason for dissolving the society ; not, indeed, 
that they had any dread of its becoming a political 
arena to train up garrulous demagogues, but because 
they themselves worshipped the dry scholastic system, 
by a strict adherence to which they had risen to col- 
lege greatness ; and of course they looked down with 
coldness upon every attempt to introduce any of the 
graces of literature into the system which they con- 
sidered a model of perfection. Yet, able and highly 
intelligent as they must have been, to obtain high 
stations in this University, these distinguished scho- 
lars were much more intimately acquainted with the 
theories of the arts and sciences than with their prac- 
tical application and their real value in the affairs of 
the world : faithful and just in the performance of 
their duties as preceptors of successive generations of 
youth, whom they safely conducted to the boundaries 



THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 201 

of active practical life, and bade them farewell. It 
was not until then that the active duties of their pro- 
fessional career commenced, and it was only then that 
they felt the want of power to address public bodies, 
whether as lecturers, advocates, or preachers ; and it 
is well known that many men endowed with superior 
and cultivated talents, have remained all their lives in 
comparative obscurity, merely through the want of 
being able to express their thoughts, and develope the 
cultivation of their minds, before even a small assembly 
of people ; with the further disadvantage, that when 
they did attempt to oppose or advocate a question, they 
were generally soon silenced by the ready volubility 
of persons quite inferior to themselves in all educa- 
tional concerns, except in being practised debaters. 

To remedy this serious inconvenience, and at the 
same time to remove the stigma which it threw upon 
the College system of education, some of the more 
active minds amongst the students proposed to set up 
a debating club. This was soon accomplished, and 
after some experience, its advantages were modified 
into " The Historical Society," much as we see it at the 
present day. This " interpolation," as it has been 
denominated, was not, therefore, engrafted upon the 
College system rashly or without due consideration, but 
was the object of much thought and reflection amongst 
its originators. Necessity was its parent it was sim- 
ply the effect of an adequate cause, which had long 
been forming, and which had at length reached its 
proper season of development ; and what further 
strengthens this view of the case is, that it was com- 
menced under the Provostship of Dr. Andrews, LL.D., 
and in the twelfth year of his government. Distin- 
guished for his learning and eloquence, both in the 
senate and at the bar, Dr. Andrews had himself, with 
all his talents and acquirements, experienced the dis- 
advantages above alluded to in his incipient profes- 
sional efforts in the courts of law ; no one, therefore, 
could be more competent than Dr. Andrews to judge 
whether such an institution was required or not ; and 
his opinion being decidedly favourable to its forma- 



THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

tion, an application was made to the Board by the 
managers, and permission was obtained for the Society's 
meetings to be held in the chamber over the dining- 
hall vestibule, under certain regulations, which shewed 
that it was only suffered, not encouraged to proceed. 
The usual sagacity of the Board was not conspicuous 
in this transaction, for had they, instead of treating 
it as an alien, and placing it in a state of surveillance, 
taken it under their parental supervision and mild 
form of discipline, they could always so influence its 
movements as to prevent the crude and exuberant 
notions of youthful inexperienced ambition, from se- 
riously disturbing the useful and legitimate course of 
operations which it was originally intended to pro- 
mote. Left, therefore, in a great degree to their own 
guidance, we will not say discretion, at the most cri- 
tical period of man's life, the transition period between 
the state of pupilage and manhood, it cannot be so great 
a matter of surprise that some irregularities should 
have happened amongst them, as that, under such 
circumstances, so much good should have been done 
by this society in unfolding the latent powers of ge- 
nius in so many students of the University, who after- 
wards contributed to the strength and ornament of the 
United Kingdom. 

Having already given a brief outline of the vicissi- 
tudes to which it was subjected, we now come to a 
pleasing part of our duty, in the announcement of its 
restoration to its original site in the University. This 
event is thus announced in the " Dublin Statesman," 
of Nov. 17th, 1843. 

" THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. On Friday night this 
celebrated Society, so conspicuous in the annals of Irish 
eloquence, and which, after having existed nearly half 
a century, had been dissolved in 1815, was revived. 
The Provost was in the chair, and there were also 
present Dr. Mac Donnell (Sen. Fellow), the Rev. 
Dr. Luby, the Rev, W. D. Sadlier, A.M., the Rev. 
Charles Graves, A.M., the Rev. F. M'Neece, A.M., 
J. H. Jellett, A.M., the Venerable Archdeacon Ma- 
gee, &c. Judge Jackson, and the Master of the Rolls, 



THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 203 

who had been distinguished members of the old society, 
intended to have been present, but were detained by 
public business ; the rooms were densely crowded with 
students and strangers, who took a lively interest in 
this act of justice. 

" Mr. Foote, who had been one of the committee of 
seven of the old society, an auditor and trustee of 
the books, also attended. The opening address was 
read by Mr. W. C. Magee, an ex-scholar and grandson 
of the late Archbishop. It was exceedingly eloquent 
and luminous, and we are glad, therefore, to state to 
our readers that it will be printed at the expense of 
the Society. 

" After the address was read, Mr. Foote came for- 
ward to explain some matters relative to the late Society, 
and produced several letters from the then Provost (Dr. 
Elrington, afterwards Bishop of Ferns), to prove that he 
had not, as was stated, been opposed to the existence 
of that Society, but that he had more than once kindly 
remonstrated with them upon the course they were 
pursuing in introducing political subjects of debate. 

" Mr. Foote also read an address, written to them 
by the late well known J. Sydney Taylor, in 1818, 
after the Society had ceased to hold its sittings within 
the walls of the College, and had removed to Radley's 
Rooms. 

" The revival of this Society, at such a crisis, sug- 
gests interesting reflections, had we time to indulge 
them, for this may be said to have been the cradle 
wherein the genius of such men as the Malones, W. 
Hussey, Burgh, Flood, Burke, Grattan, Sheridan, 
Bushe, Curran, Plunket, Croker, J. S.Taylor, Hamilton, 
North, Perrin, Crampton, Doherty, and many other 
eminent men first became manifest, and underwent that 
discipline which raised its possessors to the highest 
pitch of moral and professional reputation." 

Thus it would appear that this society still occupies 
the favourable position in the public mind which it 
held in its former days of prosperity, and there cannot 
be any doubt, that as the delusive mists of revolution- 
ary politics have vanished, with their mock " vision of 



204 THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

glory," this society will not again suffer its existence 
to be jeopardized by political discussions. 

The following list of its officers will afford the best 
evidence of its character, and the estimation in which 
it is held in the University. 

The Provost (Dr. Franc Sadlier) is President ; the 
Vice Presidents are, the Right Hon. the Master of 
the Rolls, the Hon. Justice Jackson, George E. Ha- 
milton, M.P., the Right Hon. Frederic Shaw, M.P. 

The Committee of Management is composed of the 
Junior Dean, William Magee, A.B., (Auditor) ; Henry 
Jellett, A.B., Treasurer ; John C. Mac Donnell, A.B. 
(scholar), Secretary ; J. L. Robinson, scholar ; Wm. 
Battersby, scholar ; Benjamin Dickson, scholar ; 
Charles H. Hemphill, scholar ; Hedges E. Chatter- 
ton, scholar. 

All the Fellows of College are members (ex-officio) ; 
these are twenty-nine in number ; the other members 
of the society are at this time (May, 1844) rather 
more than seventy already, although so recently 
established. 



THE UNIVERSITY CHORAL SOCIETY. 

This institution was founded in Nov. 1837 an d has 
for its object the cultivation of choral music, which 
appears to be quite proper in an University which 
possesses the privilege and exercises the power of con- 
ferring the degrees of Bachelor and Doctor in this 
very interesting branch of the Liberal Arts. 

This Society is regarded with much favour: its 
patron is His Grace the Lord Primate of Ireland 
(Lord John Beresford) ; the President is Dr. Sadlier 
(the Provost) ; the Vice- Presidents are the Right 
Hon. Frederic Shaw, M.P., and the Right Hon. the 
Master of the Rolls. 

The Acting Committee consists of the Junior 
Dean, Henry Jellett, A.B., Treasurer ; John C. Mac 
Donnell, A.B. (scholar), Secretary ; Launcelot Stud- 
dart, A.B., Librarian j Rev. J. H. Todd, D.D., 
F.T.C.D. ; Pelham Mayne, A.B. ; H. E. Chatterton, 



THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 205 

A.B., scholar; George Finlayson, A.B. The Con- 
ductor is Mr. Joseph Robinson. 

According to the rules of this society, it consists of 
performing and non-performing members : the number 
of the latter must not exceed ninety, but they must all 
have entered the University. The mode of admission 
is by ballot. The admission fee is one guinea, the 
performing members pay one guinea per annum ; and 
the non-performing members, one pound ten shil- 
lings per annum. The Society meets every Friday 
evening, except Good Friday, during the season ; this 
commences on the first Friday in November, and 
terminates on the last Friday in June. The hour of 
meeting is eight o'clock, by town time, and the music 
terminates at half-past ten. Strangers can only be 
admitted to the ordinary practice meetings of the 
Society by an order signed by two members of the 
Society ; but on the concert nights, each member may 
introduce a limited number of strangers by tickets, 
which are to be procured at a certain regulated price 
from the Treasurer. 

In these meetings, held in the College Hall, no 
business that can lead to debate is permitted, the 
performance of the music selected being their sole ob- 
ject. Visitors whose names are on the College books 
cannot be admitted, unless they appear in their aca- 
demic habits. 

The Society is pledged to dissolve whenever it 
may be required to do so by the College Board. 

Thus it will be easily perceived, that there is a very 
extensive course of education now in active operation 
in this University one which embraces all the solid, 
useful, and ornamental branches of intellectual instruc- 
tion comprised within the wide circle of the arts and 
sciences, with only one exception, and that branch is 
rightly considered to be amongst the most graceful in 
character, and interesting to mankind, of any in the 
fascinating sisterhood to which it is related, we of 
course mean " the Fine Arts," which under this col- 
lective appellation include painting properly so called, 
sculpture, and architecture. Should these arts, which 
embellish society, be admitted into the course of this 



206 THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

University in a somewhat similar mode to that adopted 
for instruction in modern languages, it would complete 
the circle of knowledge taught here, and bring the 
system as near perfection as perhaps any human system 
of education can be, and would confer upon it a grace 
and finish that would raise the character of this seat 
of learning still higher in public estimation. 

These arts belong properly to times of affluence ; 
they give to riches a wholesome direction, by affording 
encouragement to works of art ; such works render 
the union of the pleasures of the sense and in- 
tellect complete ; they define the sentiments of grace 
and elegance, wherever their influence is known and 
acknowledged ; they divert the mind from sensual 
pursuits by the exquisite powers of persuasion, at a 
time when the austere rebuke of wisdom might only 
hasten to the precipice ; and they lead it by flowery 
paths to innocent instruction and refined recreation. 

Wherever the arts are cultivated with success, 
they almost imperceptibly educate the general taste, 
make politeness of mind keep pace with refinement of 
manners, and extend the sphere of that good taste, 
which is directly opposed to all incorrectness in lan- 
guage or conduct. 

On this interesting subject the author begs leave to 
quote an extract from the writings of one who was 
himself no indifferent example of the effects of high 
and extensive education in the arts and sciences, and 
whose taste and judgment in the fine arts were of no 
ordinary description*. In describing the influence 
of the fine arts on society, he observes, " But in the 
classic ground of taste, how admirably is wealth em- 
ployed for rational improvement. What a new and 
beautiful creation does it raise ! the memory of which 
cannot perish with the vicissitudes of states ; the ruins 
of which cannot be buried in the dust that buries 
power, and wealth, and military glory. Where, now, 
is the gorgeous dominion of Xerxes, glittering with 
the gold and jewels of a hundred tributary nations ? 
Scattered on the plains of Marathon, buried in the 

a The late John Sydney Taylor, A.M., Barrister at Law, who had 
been a distinguished scholar in this University. 



THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 207 

waves of the Hellespont, forgotten and unregretted. 
But where the arts and eloquent fame of Greece? 
Surviving in her statues, exciting admiration even in 
her ruined palaces and temples ; and where the barba- 
rian or time has triumphed, history has saved them 
from oblivion, and consecrated them to an affectionate 
and perpetual remembrance. Thus Persia had luxury 
without the arts, and with her empire perished all her 
greatness. But the arts of Greece made her luxury 
open a new field to genius ; and though her power has 
died, her empire over opinion is immortal." 

What effect opinions so expressed, and coming from 
such a quarter, may have in this college, we cannot 
pretend to say ; we believe it will be a favourable one, 
because these sentiments are concurrent with those of 
the great body of the educated classes in the United 
Kingdom, and we do know that those principles, 
often reiterated by the same competent hand, have 
produced in highly influential quarters the most de- 
sirable results to the fine arts in England ; and it 
does appear to many of the most enlightened per- 
sons in that country, that a Professorship of the 
Fine Arts in the University of Ireland would render 
it complete for all the purposes of superior education, 
whilst it would improve the character of the system by 
adding a certain degree of gracefulness to its sterner 
and more scholastic exercises. The expense of a Pro- 
fessorship of the Fine Arts could hardly be made a valid 
objection, because, although it would require a much 
more extensive range of information than the Profes- 
sorships of Modern Languages, yet the yearly stipend 
need not be much greater, because the classes of stu- 
dents would, it is reasonable to suppose, make the si- 
tuation sufficiently remunerative at a small outlay to 
themselves. 

These observations are submitted with great humi- 
lity to the college authorities, who, it must be al- 
lowed, are the proper parties to judge of the propriety of 
originating an important measure of this kind ; yet it 
also is the duty of persons, theoretically and practi- 



208 THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

cally conversant with certain arts and sciences, to 
offer, respectfully, to the Provost and Board, for their 
investigation, suggestions arising from long and actual 
experience, as to* the propriety of admitting those arts 
or sciences wholly or in part within the circle of col- 
lege education. But then it is not as matters merely 
ornamental, that the cultivation of the fine arts would 
be recommended to the favourable attention of the 
Provost and Board. The rapid expansion of the 
human mind within the last thirty years, has placed 
the arts upon a higher, because a more just elevation, 
in the estimation of the civilized world, especially 
within the British empire, than they had experienced 
since the celebrated cinque cento ; and this renovated 
affection has, in the British isles, at least, arisen from 
the simple fact of those arts having, without any spe- 
cial encouragement from the state, produced works 
which have satisfied the public mind that they were 
the creation of cultivated intellectual power, and can 
only be produced by the soundest condition of the 
mental energies. 

On the general influence of these arts, the author 
begs leave to offer another extract from the writings 
of the author just quoted : 

" Where the arts are well understood, fashion can- 
not be so monstrous or fantastic, as where they exert 
no salutary dominion over the fond love of variety. 
The source of excellence in art, being a judicious ob- 
servation of nature, and a right perception of her 
principles of symmetry and beauty, a closer adherence 
to nature will mark the fashions of society polished 
by their ascendancy, than can distinguish the habits 
of people without the sphere of their influence. Hence 
the barbaric nations, where there is much wealth, 
never expend it in such a way as proves that they 
have any notion of the pleasures of refinement. They 
delight in a hoarding and cumbrous magnificence ; 
they are solicitous to dazzle with profusion rather than 
please by propriety ; they endeavour to attract admir- 
ation through the vulgar passion of astonishment, 



NEW REGULATIONS OF COMMONS. 209 

which is in a moment excited, and as suddenly ex- 
pires, rather than create a rational respect, by con- 
sulting for the praise of enlightened opinion." 



SECTION III. 

NEW REGULATIONS OF COMMONS. 

The old regulations respecting the commons of re- 
sident students not being quite suitable to the recent 
extension of the academic arrangement, it was decreed 
by the Board of College, in October 1886 : 

" 1. That all Fellow Commoners and Pensioners 
under the standing of A.M., and holding chambers in 
the college, be uniformly charged, in addition to the 
chamber-rent now paid to the registrar of chambers, 
a certain specified sum per week for certain portions 
of the year ; and that the sums thus accruing be con- 
sidered as contributions to a commons' fund. 

" 2. That these charges be, for each Fellow- Com- 
moner, seven shillings and sixpence per week, and for 
each pensioner five shillings ; said charges to be levied 
for all the solid weeks intervening between the day of 
confirming the judgments of the examinations and the 
last day in each term ; or for so many of these weeks 
in any term as the student holds chambers without 
actually giving up the keys of the same to the person 
entitled to receive them. 

" 3. That these charges be made by the clerk of the 
buttery books from the quarterly chamber-rent list, 
furnished by the registrar of chambers, against all 
persons liable to the same ; and be introduced in the 
half-yearly accounts payable to the Junior Bursar 
among the incidentals of the past half-year, under the 
name of commons 9 fund. All persons, however, to 
whom chambers may be granted within any of the 
periods above specified, are not to be considered liable 
to these charges until the ensuing term. 

" 4. That the weekly sums thus charged be allowed 
in the regular commons' charge to each student, and 



210 



COLLEGE CHARGES. 



the remainder, or variable part of the commons' 
charge, be payable to the clerk of the buttery books. 

"5. In all cases, and for all times not included 
amongst those above specified, the former commons' 
regulations are to continue in force [viz. that all stu- 
dents holding chambers in the college, and below the 
degree or standing of A.M., shall be subject to a fine 
of five shillings per half week, if their names be not on 
the commons' list]." 



COLLEGE CHARGES. 

The college payments are made half-yearly; the 
Junior Bursar attends in sufficient time to enable all 
students to pay their half-yearly accounts before the 
first Saturday in May, and the first Saturday in No- 
vember, on which days the fines for tardy payment 
commence ; and the names of all persons whose ac- 
counts are not paid before the first Saturday in June, 
and the first Saturday in December respectively, are 
taken off the college books, and not restored until the 
succeeding term examinations have elapsed, and all 
fines and fees have been paid. 

The following is a table of the half-yearly charges, 
including tuition, but exclusive of rooms and commons. 



Nobleman .... 
Fellow Commoner . 
Pensioner .... 
Sizar 


Entrance, 
including the 
first Half-year a . 


Half-year. 


60 
30 
15 
513 


30 
15 
7 10 
000 



a In addition to these charges the recent Stamp Act, 5 & 6 Viet. 
c. 82, imposes a duty of l upon the admission or matriculation of 
any person in the University. The Act continues in force for three 
years. 




UNIVERSITY PATRONAGE. 



UNIVERSITY PATRONAGE. 



The patronage of this corporation is strictly con- 
fined to church livings ; several of which were, by let- 
ters patent, bestowed upon the college by King 
James I., in the year 1610; and the right of pre- 
sentation was vested in the Provost and Senior Fellows. 
To these, (eighteen in number,) three others have 
been added, the advowsons having been purchased by 
the university ; and by the Act of William IV., ten 
additional livings have been granted to the college ; 
these ten have been selected by the Archbishops of 
Ardmagh and Dublin, under the authority of the 
above Act of Parliament. Therefore, the Provost and 
Board have now the patronage of thirty-one livings ; 
the annual income of each ranges from ^00 to 
1600, and they are intended to be bestowed on such of 
the Fellows as wish to retire from the college duties, 
which are very onerous, and require the constant 
exercise of considerable mental and physical energies; 
yet with all their high accomplishments, and great 
assiduity in bringing forward their classes of pupils, 
few we believe ever have realized an income of more 
than 1000 per annum, which, indeed, is a high ave- 
rage of a Junior Fellow's professional income. 

It is therefore a subject of much gratification to all 
who love learning, and esteem its promotion, to find 
that whenever the Junior Fellows of this University 
feel that the toils of a college life have become too 
irksome, or preferring the more tranquil, but most 
important office of a Christian pastor, they can make 
their selection generally within a year or two after 
they have made their minds up on the subject. 

These livings are not always accepted by Junior 
Fellows, as the list will show, those only which are 
marked thus [t] being filled by Fellows ; and those 
marked thus [*] are those selected by the Archbishops, 
as already mentioned. 



UNIVERSITY PATRONAGE. 



BENEFICES. 



Arboe a . 
Ardtrea, 
Clogherney b , 
Clonfeacle c , 
Clonoe, 
Dysertcrete d , 



Aughalurcher e , 

Clenish, 

Derryvullen, 

*Carrickmacross, 

Enniskillen, 



*Ballymacward ) 
and Clonkeen, J 



*Ballymoney, 



Ardstraw, 

Cappagh, 

Drumragh, 



Killileagh , 
*Clonallon, 
*St. John's, Sligo, 



INCUMBENTS. 

Diocese of Ardmagh. 

[Vacant.] 

tJames Kennedy, Bailie, D.D. 

tJames Lowery, 

tHenry Griffin, A.M. 

tJohn Buck, D.D. 

tJohn Buck, D.D. 

Diocese of Clogher. 

tGeorge Sidney Smith, A.M. f 

John Sweeny, A.M. 

tGeorge Miller, D.D. 

t Thomas Romney Robinson, D.D. 

Hon. John Charles Maude, A.M. 



Diocese ofClonfert. 
Joseph John Seymour. 



Diocese of Cork. 
R. Meade. 

Diocese of Derry. 

tRichard Herbert Nash, D.D. 
tHenry H. Harte, A.M. 
[Vacant.] 



Diocese of Down. 
tEdward Hincks, D.D. 



Diocese ofDromore. 
Edward Richards, A.M. 

Diocese ofElphin. 
Charles Hamilton. 



ADMITTED. 



1830. 
1794. 
1831. 
1835 C . 

1787. 



1838. 
1813. 
1804. 
1824. 
1825. 



1834. 



1798. 



1819. 
1831. 



1826. 



1836. 



1820. 



a Alias Ballileagh. b Advowson purchased, 1827. 

c Originally presented 1791 ; right of presentation recovered, 1825. 
d Alias Tullyoge. e Alias Lisnaskea. 

f Professor of Biblical Greek. & Advowson purchased. 



LIST OF DONATIONS. 



213 



BENEFICES. 

*Lea, 
*Skreen,. 
Killesandra a , 
*Klimanagh, 



Clondehorky, 

Clondevaddock, 

Conwall, 

*Drumholm, 

Killmacrenan, 

Rathmochy c , 

Tullyaghnish d , 



*Drumcannon, 



INCUMBENTS. 

Diocese of Kildare. 
J. Powel, A.M. 

Diocese of Killala. 
George Truelock, A.M. 



Diocese of Kilmore. 
tJolm Charles Martin, D.D. 

Diocese of Os&ory. 
Hans Caulfield, A.M. 

Diocese of Raphoe. 

Wm. Archer Butler, A.M. b 
tHenry Maturin, A.M. 
t Henry Kingsmill, D.D. 
Maurice George Fenwick, A.M. 
Anthony Hastings, A.M. 
tJohn Blair Chapman, A.M. 
tWilliam Atkins, A.M. 

Diocese of Waterford. 
J. Cooke, A.M. 



ADMITTED. 



1834. 



1834. 



1829. 



1801, 



1837. 
1797. 
1836. 
1828. 
1812. 
1835. 
1836. 



1798. 



The following list of donations to Trinity College, 
Dublin, is read publicly in the college hall on 
Trinity Monday in each year : 
Archbishop Loftus and Dr. Chaloner having pro- 
cured an ample site of ground from the Corporation 
of Dublin, and the charter of incorporation from 
Queen Elizabeth to found this university, as already 
stated, the same parties set to work actively to raise 
funds for the erection of a suitable edifice for this im- 
portant object. A collection was therefore set on foot 
throughout Ireland, and the sum collected we now find 
amounted to more than two thousand pounds. This 
was subscribed within a short period ; and it should 
be observed that money was then at least eight times 

a Advowson purchased, 1764. b Professor of Moral Philosophy. 
c Alias Rahy or Raigh. d Alias Rothmelton. 



214 LIST OF DONATIONS. 

as valuable as it is now ; consequently that subscription 
may fairly be considered a liberal one, when we take 
into account the depressed state of every thing in that 
country arising out of the wars, and consequent state 
of rapine to which it had for many ages been exposed ; 
and it also proves that the love of learning and respect 
for learned institutions, so remarkable at all times in 
the character of the Irish people, had survived, in de- 
fiance of the havoc that a series of long and desolat- 
ing wars had spread throughout that ill-fated country. 
In consequence of the sums thus gratuitously sup- 
plied, the edifice was commenced in March, 1591, and 
it was got ready for the reception of pupils in less than 
two years, (1593,) and, as it would appear, without 
having received any assistance from the public treasury. 
Shortly afterwards, however, the government began to 
advance the sums necessary to support the new college, 
as our readers have perceived in chap. i. sec. i. But 
the first notice of the crown grants to be found in the 
records is, that, " In the thirty-ninth year of Queen 
Elizabeth, certain lands in the counties of Kerry, Tip- 
perary, and Limerick, together with an annuity of 
388, were granted to the college. To this King 
James I. added other estates in the counties of Ardmagh, 
Fermanagh, and Donegal. King Charles II. granted 
anew to the college the lands in the counties of Kerry, 
Tipperary, Cork, and Limerick, formerly granted by 
Queen Elizabeth, but which had been forfeited by the 
treason of the tenants (to whom they had been let in 
fee farm) at the great rebellion. In 1601 a collection 
was made, amounting to upwards of 700, for the pur- 
pose of purchasing books for the library ; and in 1 637, 
there was another collection made, amounting, together 
with some legacies, to upwards of 1000 ; of this sum 
Lord Wentworth, then Lord-Lieutenant, contributed 
100 for enlarging the college. In 1609, Briggs, the 
Mathematical Professor of Gresham College, gave 
100 to found an exhibition ; and in 1640, a like sum 
for a similar purpose was given by Mr. Yelverton. 
In 1651, Henry Jones, Bishop of Meath, gave 400 
towards fitting up the library. 






LIST OF DONATIONS. 215 

Dr. Fitzgerald, Dean of Cork, and the Rev. Mr. 
Fitzgerald, Archdeacon of Emly, erected a range of 
buildings at their own expense. 

In 1661, by order of the general convocation as- 
sembled in Dublin, the books belonging to Primate 
James Usher, formerly a fellow of this college, were 
given to its library ; and in 1 670, Sir Jerome Alexander 
left 24 per annum, with all his books and MSS., 
together with legacies to the amount of 600, for sun- 
dry college purposes ; by Bishop Worth, 20 per 
annum ; and by Mr. Wm. Crow, 30, both for exhibi- 
tions. In 1668, Dr. Travers bequeathed a consider- 
able estate in the county of Tipperary ; and the Earl 
of Donegal gave 30 per annum to found a Lecture- 
ship in Mathematics. In 1697, Bishop Richardson, 
who had been a fellow of this college, left to it a con- 
siderable estate in the county of Longford. In 1671, 
the Countess of Bath, whose husband had been a fellow 
here, bestowed 200 on the library. There was be- 
stowed by Erasmus Smith, and by the Board of Go- 
vernors of the Charities founded by him, an annual sum 
of 1110 to found three fellowships, and to support 
the professorships of Natural Philosophy, History, 
Oratory, and Hebrew, and their assistants, and for 
exhibitions ; and by the same board, at various times, 
for buildings, 4166, together with the sum of 9000, 
for the purchase of the Fagel library. 

From 1679 to 1768, sundry benefactions, amounting 
to 8900, were given to the college by various public 
spirited individuals, whose names are recorded in the 
college books. In 1691, King William granted for the 
use of the library all books seized from persons who 
had forfeited their goods from treason. By Dr. George 
Brown, 1200 was given to be laid out on buildings. 
Dr. Griffith, formerly a fellow of this college, gave 
105 to found an exhibition. By the Earl of Pem- 
broke 500 was given to buy books for the library ; 
and Mrs. M. Parsons gave 100 to found an exhibi- 
tion. Mr. Hamilton also gave for the same purpose 
200 ; and by Mrs. Echlin the lands of Killany and 
Ross Maghon, in the county of Louth. 



216 LIST OF DONATIONS. 

Archbishop King, formerly a sizar in this college, 
gave 1000 to found a Divinity Lecture. Mr. Span be- 
queathed 12 per annum for exhibitions. Archbishop 
Palliser left 1000 to be laid out in buildings, together 
with all his books of which they had not duplicates ; 
and also 200 to purchase books. For the same pur- 
pose, Bishop Foster left .500, Bishop Pratt, formerly 
provost, 600, and Bishop Stearne, 1200, for the 
same object ; and also the latter to assist in buying 
type for the printing establishment, together with 100 
per annum for exhibitions. Dr. Elwood, sometime 
vice -provost, left 1000 to the college. Dr. Gilbert, 
also a vice-provost, bequeathed all his books, MSS., 
medals, coins, and mathematical instruments to the 
college: the whole was valued at 12,000, together 
with a sum of 2450 to buy books for .the lending 
library. The Rev. John Worral bequeathed 120 a 
year to be given in exhibitions". 

Provost Baldwin devised the whole of his estates, 
valued at 1686 per annum, to the college, together 
with 36,000, being the principal part of his personal 
property. King George III. ordered 200 to be 
granted towards the support of two Professors of Mo- 
dern Languages. 

Primate Robinson bestowed a valuable apparatus 
for making philosophical experiments. By Primate 
Newcomb, during the time he held the See of Ardmagh, 
100 per annum, for premiums to students in Hebrew. 
Primate Stewart also continued this annuity during 
his lifetime. This is still continued by Primate Lord 
John Beresford. By the late Dr. Madden, 2500 was 
bequeathed ; the interest of which is to be given to the 
best answerers among the disappointed candidates for 
fellowship. By the Rev. Dr. Downes, 50 per annum 
to be given to students in Divinity. By Bishop Law 
(of Elphin) 35 per annum, to be given to students 
in Mathematics. 

By the late Mrs. Donnelan 1250 was bequeathed, 
the interest of which has been applied to found a lec- 

a A preference given to the sons of freemen of Dublin. 



LIST OF DONATIONS. 217 

ture in Divinity. By Provost Andrews, to build an 
Observatory, 3500 ; and 250 per annum to endow 
a Professorship of Astronomy. 

By the sanction of their Majesties, King William III., 
Queen Anne, Kings George L, II., and III., various 
sums were voted by parliament for buildings in college ; 
the whole sum amounting to 75,000. And still later, 
a sum of 20,000 was lent (interest free) by govern- 
ment for the same purpose. 

The above is an exact copy of the list annually 
read in the hall on Trinity Sunday. We have also 
added other benefactors' names and gifts, which were 
discovered in various works in the college library. 

A.D. 1 670, Sir Jerome Alexander, second Justice 
of the Common Pleas in Ireland, by will, bestowed 
his library of law books and others on the college, 
with 500 for fitting up a place for this library. Sir 
Jerome also bequeathed 500 to be laid out in addi- 
tional buildings, to be called "Alexander Buildings." 
He also gave 24 per annum, real estate, as follows : 
7 per annum to the library-keeper, l yearly for a 
sermon on Christmas-day, to be preached in the college 
chapel, in memory of God's mercy in the Atonement, 
and the remainder to be disposed of monthly to such 
poor persons as the provost and senior fellows may 
think fit. The residue of his estates Sir Jerome left 
to his daughter, Elizabeth Alexander, on condition that 
she did not marry an Irishman, or any one connected 
with that interest ; but if she did so marry, or died 
without issue, then the whole estate should become 
the property of this college. 

In 1591, John Garvey, Archbishop of Ardmagh, 
gave in concordatum, 75 towards building the col- 
lege. In 1678, James Marge tson, who was appointed 
vice-chancellor on the demise of Bishop Taylor, pre- 
sented 50 to be laid out on building in college. Dr. 
Michael Boyle gave 200 towards building a new gate- 
house to the college ; and also joined with Thomas, 
Bishop of Ossory, and Dr. Jeremy Hall, in a contri- 
bution of 100 for buying books for the library. 

Many other benefactions have since accrued to this 



218 UNIVERSITY OFFICERS AND 

university ; but as they will be found in various parts 
of the work, it would be redundant to notice them 
in this enumeration. 



CHAPTER VI. 

SECTION I. 
UNIVERSITY OFFICERS AND THE RANKS IN COLLEGE, 

THE highest dignity connected with this college is 
that of Chancellor. This dignitary is elected by the 
provost and senior fellows ; the office is tenable for 
life. The officers must be sworn into office in presence 
of two senior fellows (deputed for that purpose) before 
the Lord Chancellor, or Lord- Keeper of the Great 
Seal of England, or before the Lord Chancellor of 
Ireland. 

The first person appointed to this high office was 
Sir William Cecil, Baron Burghleigh, Lord High 
Chancellor of England. This statesman was nomi- 
nated in the original Charter of Queen Elizabeth, 
A.D. 1592. 

The other Chancellors since then were as follow : 

1597* Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex. 

1601. Sir Robert Cecil, Secretary of State, after- 
wards Earl of Salisbury. 

1612. George Abbot, D.D., Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. 

1633. William Laud, D.D., Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. 

1645. James, Earl, Marquis, and finally, Duke of 
Ormond. 

1653. Henry Cromwell, Commander-in-Chief of the 
Parliament Army. 

1660. James, Marquis, afterwards Duke of Ormond 
restored. 

1688. James, Duke of Ormond, grandson to the 
former (outlawed in 1715). 

1715. His Royal Highness George, Prince of Wales, 
afterwards George II. 



VICE-CHANCELLORS. 219 

1728. His Royal Highness Frederick, Prince of 
Wales. 

1751. His Royal Highness William, Duke of Cum- 
berland. 

1765. His Grace John, Duke of Bedford. 

1771. His Royal Highness William Henry, Duke 
of Gloucester. 

1805. His Royal Highness Ernest Augustus, Duke 
of Cumberland, LL.D., and King of Hanover, who 
still holds this Chancellorship. 

VICE-CHANCELLORS. 

The next office in dignity is the Vice-Chancellor, 
who is nominated by the Chancellor : the office is 
tenable for life. The Vice- Chancellor is sworn into 
office, either before the Chancellor of the University, 
or the Lord Chancellor of Ireland. In cases of illness 
or unavoidable absence, this dignitary has the privilege 
of appointing a pro vice-chancellor to act for him. In 
the charter of Elizabeth, the right of electing to this 
office was vested in the Provost and Fellows, but by 
the charter of Charles I., this power was transferred 
to the Chancellor of the University. 

List of Vice-Chancellors since the foundation : 

1609. Henry Alvey, " late provost," is the first 
mentioned. 

1612. Luke Challoner, D.D. 

1614. Charles Dun, or Doyne, LL.D. 

1614. James Usher, D.D., Professor of Divinity, 
afterwards Primate. 

1646. Henry Jones, D.D., Bishop of Clogher, after- 
wards of Meath. 

1660. Jeremy Taylor, D.D., Bishop of Down and 
Connor. 

1667. James Margetson, D.D., Lord Primate of all 
Ireland. 

1 678. Michael Ward, D.D., Bishop of Ossory, after- 
wards of Derry. 

1682. Anthony Dopping, D.D., Bishop of Meath. 



220 BURGESSES RETURNED TO PARLIAMENT. 

1697. Edward Smith, D.D., Dean of St. Patrick's, 
Dublin. 

1698. Richard Tenison, D.D., Bishop of Meath. 
1702. St. George Ashe, D.D., Bishop of Clogher, 

afterwards of Derry. 

1713. John Vesey, Archbishop of Tuam. 

1714. Thomas Smith, D.D., Bishop of Limerick. 
1721. John Stearne, Bishop of Clogher. 

1743. John Hoadley, D.D., Lord Primate of all Ire- 
land. 

1747. Arthur Price, D.D., Archbishop of Cashel. 

1752. George Stone, D.D., Lord Primate of all 
Ireland. 

1765. Richard Robinson, D.D., Lord Primate of all 
Ireland. 

1791. Rt. Hon. John, Lord Fitzgibbon, Lord Chan- 
cellor of Ireland. 

1802. Rt. Hon. Arthur, Viscount Kil warden, Chief 
Justice, King's Bench. 

1804. Rt. Hon. Lord Redesdale, Lord Chancellor 
of Ireland. 

1806. Rt. Hon. Wm.Downes, LL.D., Chief Justice, 
King's Bench. 

1826. Thomas, Lord Manners, Lord Chancellor of 
Ireland. 

1829. Lord John George Beresford, D.D., the 
present Lord Primate of all Ireland. 

BURGESSES RETURNED TO PARLIAMENT. 

A list of the Burgesses returned to serve in Parlia- 
ment for the College, from 1613 (the llth of 
James I.), when the elective franchise was first 
granted to that borough, to the present time : 
1613 "| William Temple, LL.D., Provost, after wards 

to > created a Baronet. 

1615. J Charles Doyne, Donne, or Dunn, LL.D. 
1fi28 fWttlram. Bedell, D.D., Provost, who feeling 
some scruple as to the propriety of his 
~ ' holding both offices, resigned his seat, 
t James Donnelan Esq., Fellow of the College. 



BURGESSES RETURNED TO PARLIAMENT. 221 

( William Gerrald, or Fitzgerald, was elected 
'' \ in place of Bedell. 

f Sir James Ware Knight, andJamesDonnelan, 
1635. < Esq., a Barrister, were both returned on 
[ the recommendation of Lord Strafford. 

1 f 39 \Sir James Ware, Knight, and William 

1641.J Gilbert 

From 1641 to 1646, we have not been able to trace 
any return of burgesses ; the following year, however, 
we find that 

rSir James Ware and Sir Wm. Gilbert were 
1 " J elected, but in the next year the right 
I of electing burgesses was taken from the 
!r I College. 

From the latter date to 1661 there is another hiatus 
in the course of the representation, owing to the revo- 
lutionary Parliament having deprived the College of 
the elective franchise at the same time that they 
suppressed the two Houses of Parliament in Ireland ; 
but in the latter year we find 

1 fifil I ^ ir J ames Ware again returned, with a new 

" ( colleague, Lord Ossory. 

1662 f Lord John Butler was elected, vice the latter, 
to <| who was in August this year called to the 
1666. t House of Lords. 

From this time until 1688 there does not appear 
on record any return of College Burgesses to Par- 
liament. On the 27th of April, 1689, writs were 
issued by order of King James II. to the Sheriffs 
of the various constituencies, to elect burgesses and to 
form a Parliament in Dublin on the 7th of May ; and 
on this occasion the College returned Sir John Meade, 
Bart., and Joseph Coghlan, Esq., a Barrister; the 
latter acted with great firmness and discretion during 
the time that this Parliament continued, and he did 
great services, not only to his constituents, but to all 
the respectable classes of society, as we have already 
shewn. 

In 1692 Sir Cyril Wych and Wm. Molyneux, 
Esq., LL.D., were returned members to the Parlia- 



222 BURGESSES RETURNED TO PARLIAMENT. 

ment assembled in Dublin by order of King Wil- 
liam III. 

In 1695, Richard (or Henry) Aldworth, LL.D., 
Secretary of State*, and William Molyneux, LL.D., 
were elected ; and in 1698, Wm. Crowe was elected 
in the room of Molyneux, deceased, in October the 
same year. 

In August, 1703, the Right Hon. Edward Southwell 
and Sir William Robinson were returned representa- 
tives. 

In 1713, we find that Sir Marmaduke Coghill, 
J.U.D., and John Elwood, J.U.D. and F.S.C., were 
returned. 

In October, 1715, (2nd of George I.,) Sir M. Cog- 
hill was again returned along with Sam. Dopping, 
Esq., LL.D.; and in September, 1721, it appears 
that the Right Hon. Edward Hopkins was elected in 
the room of S. Dopping, deceased. 

In 1727, the Right Hon. Marmaduke Coghill and 
the Right Hon. Samuel Molyneux were returned. 
In 1728, John Elwood, Esq., in the room of Sam. 
Molyneux, deceased. 

In 1793, Alexander Mac Auley, Esq., was elected in 
the room of Coghill, deceased ; but Philip Tisdall, 
Esq., petitioned against the return, and was admitted 
in the room of Mac Auley, who was found " unduly 
elected." 

In 1741, Archbold Atcheson and Philip Tisdall, 
Esq. ; the latter was returned in place of Elwood, 
deceased. 

In 1748, Sir Archbold Atcheson and Philip Tisdall, 
Esq. 

In 1761, Philip Tisdall, Esq., and William Clement, 
M.D. and S.F.T.C. 

In 1763, the Right Hon. Philip Tisdall and Dr. 
Clement. 

a In the College books he is named " Henry Aldworth," but in 
the Journals of the House of Commons, he is styled " Richard Aid- 
worth :" in the same volume, dated October 15, 1695, is the following 
remarkable passage : " Articles of high crimes and misdemeanours 
against Richard Aldworth, Esq., a member of this House." 




BURGESSES RETURNED TO PARLIAMENT. 223 

In 1769, the Right Hon. Philip Tisdall and Sir 
Capel Molyneux, Bart. 

In 1776, the Right Hon. Richard Hely Hutchinson a , 
and the Right Hon. Walter Hussey Burgh. 

In 1778, John Fitzgibbon, Esq., in the room of 
Hutchinson, declared " unduly elected." On the 27th 
of July 1782, Laurence Parsons b was elected in room 
of Burgh, appointed Chief Baron of the Exchequer ; 
and in August, 1783, we find in the Commons' Jour- 
nals that Laurence Parsons and Arthur Browne, 
Esqs., were elected. 

On April 16th, 1790, (30th Geo. III.,) Arthur 
Browne, Esq., LL.D., F.T.C., and the Hon. Francis 
Hely Hutchinson were returned; and in February, 
1795, Arthur Browne, having been appointed King's 
Counsel, vacated his seat, but was re-elected. 

On the 24th of July, 1797, Arthur Browne, Esq., 
LL.D., and the Hon. George Knox, LL.D., were re- 
turned to serve in the last national Parliament as- 
sembled in Ireland, and both these representatives 
of the University surrendered the trust reposed in 
them, and, unmindful of the solemn obligations which 
they had taken to uphold the independence of the 
Parliament of Ireland, thus aided in passing the act 
of political union, and did not even preserve the 
College privilege in this affair, by which it was deprived 
of one of its representatives. 

In 1800, the Hon. George Knox, who had so acted 
towards his constituents, was rewarded by being ap- 
pointed by the Act of Union, as sole representative 
of this College in the Imperial Parliament ; but his con- 
duct had made him so unpopular, that, though a person 
of some rank and fortune, he was looked down upon, 
and scarcely tolerated amongst the respectable classes 
in Ireland. His late colleague, Arthur Browne, LL.D., 
had been very popular in the College ; his manners 
were mild and gentlemanly, and in private life he was 
kind and honourable ; but, in an hour of weakness, 



a Afterwards Earl of Donoughmore. 
b Afterwards Earl of Rosse. 



224 BURGESSES RETURNED TO PARLIAMENT. 

he was prevailed on to sell that, which was strictly the 
property of others, but delegated in confidence to his 
guardianship, and for so voting he was made a Privy 
Counsellor and Attorney- General; but his heart was 
not seared to evil deeds. In the sullen calm that 
succeeded the late political turmoil, Dr. Browne had 
time for reflection. He found himself shunned by 
many, and looked down upon by others with whom he 
had long been in the habits of friendship. This was 
too much for his sensitive mind ; he fell into a lin- 
gering disorder, and died in about three years after 
voting for the union, leaving his widow and children 
in circumstances far from affluent. 

We have seen that the College was both unjustly 
and unwisely deprived of one of its representatives by 
" the Act of Union," and in that state it remained 
until the passing of the Reform Act in 1830, when 
the franchise of the College was enlarged, and much 
improved by the Masters of Arts being allowed the 
privilege of voting for their representatives in Par- 
liament, as at Oxford and Cambridge, and also by 
the restoration of the second Burgess, of which the 
College had been deprived. 

The order of elections and the members returned 
by the College from that time to the present, are as 
follows, viz. : 

In 1800, the Hon. George Knox, appointed sole 
Burgess of the College by the Act of Union. He was 
succeeded in 1807 by John Leslie Foster, LL.D. 

In 1812, the Right Hon. Wm. Conyngham Plun- 
ket was returned, and also in 1818, after a very close 
contest with the Right Hon. John Wilson Croker, 
LL.D. and F.R.S. 

In 1820 and 1826, Mr. Plunket was again re- 
turned, and in 1827, the Right Hon. John Wilson 
Croker was elected ; in 1831, Thomas Lefroy, 
LL.D.; in 1833, Thomas Lefroy, LL.D., and Frederic 
Shaw, A.M. 

The latter gentlemen have also been returned by 
the College at the general elections held in 1837 and 
1841. 



BURGESSES RETURNED TO PARLIAMENT. 225 

In 1813, George Alexander Hamilton was&Lgcted in 
the room of Mr. Lefroy, who had been appointed a 
Baron of the Exchequer. 

The Irish Reform Bill enacts, that in addition to 
the Provost, Fellows and Scholars, who have hitherto 
been the persons qualified to vote at the election of 
burgesses for the University, " every person, being of 
the age of twenty-one years, who has obtained, or shall 
hereafter obtain, the degree of Master of Arts, or any 
higher degree, or a Scholarship or Fellowship in the 
said University, and whose name shall be upon the 
books of the said University, shall be entitled to vote 
at any election of a member or members to serve in any 
future parliament for the said University, so long as the 
name of such person shall be kept, and continue to be 
kept, on the books of the said University as a member 
thereof, subject, however, and according to the rules 
and statutes of the said University ; provided always, 
that no person shall be entitled to vote at any elec- 
tion of a member or members to serve in any future 
parliament for the said University by reason of any 
degree of a purely honorary nature." 

The right of voting at the election of members to 
serve in parliament for the University of Dublin, is 
now regulated by the recent act of 5 & 6 Viet. c. 74, 
which provides, 

" That all persons with whom the college shall have 
compounded for a gross sum of 5 for their respective 
lives, under the provisions of the late act, shall be en- 
titled to have their names continued on the books of 
the University for their respective lives, and to vote at 
any election, without any further payment. 

" Every elector whose name shall at the passing of 
this act (30th July, 1 842) be upon the books of the 
University, and who shall not have compounded, and 
who shall be desirous of the right to vote, shall, on or 
before 1st day of December, 1842, pay to the college 
the sum of 5, together with all arrears due in respect 
of the previous annual payment of l ; or, at his option, 
such sum as together with the sums already paid by 
him in respect of such annual payment shall amount to 

Q 



226 BURGESSES RETURNED TO PARLIAMENT. 

10 in the whole. And in default of such payment, 
and without any demand thereof, the name of such 
person shall be removed from the books of the Uni- 
versity, and shall not be replaced thereon, unless it 
shall first have been replaced upon the college books 
conformably to the rules and statutes of the college : 
provided, that if any person whose name shall have 
been so removed from the books of the University shall 
not have been within the United Kingdom from the 
time of the passing of this act until after the 1st of 
December, 1842, such person shall, upon making the 
above specified payment within six months after his re- 
turn to the United Kingdom, have his name replaced 
upon the books of the University : provided also, that 
no person whose name shall have been removed on ac- 
count of the default of payment, and afterwards re- 
placed, shall be entitled to vote at any election until 
after the lapse of six calendar months from the time 
his name shall have been so replaced. 

" Every person whose name shall be upon the College 
books, and who shall have obtained a Fellowship or 
Scholarship, or the degree of Master of Arts, or any 
higher degree in the University, (i. e. a Doctor in any 
faculty,) and every person who shall hereafter obtain a 
Fellowship or Scholarship, or the degree of Master of 
Arts, or any higher degree in the University, and who 
upon the removal of his name from the college books, 
or after he shall have taken such degree, shall be desir- 
ous of having his name placed or retained on the books 
of the University, for the purpose of voting, shall be- 
fore the 1st day of December next after his name shall 
be so removed from the college books, or after he have 
taken such degree, pay to the college the sum of 5, 
and thereupon his name shall be placed or retained upon 
the books of the University, and he shall be entitled to 
vote for his life without any further payment. 

" Every person having his name on the college books 
shall be considered for all purposes as having his name 
on the books of the University." 



ENUMERATION OF PROVOSTS. 

CHAPTER VII. 

SECTION I. 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE PROVOSTS OF THIS 
UNIVERSITY. 

HAVING completed, so far as we conceive it interest- 
ing or useful, all the circumstances connected with the 
general history of this University since its foundation, 
we shall now proceed, previous to describing its archi- 
tectural arrangements, to give a list of the provosts in 
chronological order, with biographical sketches of 
them, drawn from the best authorities. 

We have already shewn that the provostship was 
conferred originally by the right of election vested in the 
Senior Fellows, but by the subsequent alterations in the 
statutes the appointment was vested in the Sovereign. 

Archbishop Loftus was appointed provost by the 
original charter of Elizabeth, and the six following 
provosts in succession, from 1594 to 1634, were elected 
by the fellows according to that charter. But from 
1637, the date of the new charter, they have been ap- 
pointed by the Crown. 

It should here be stated, that the Provost is a cor- 
poration in himself, for besides his share of the profits 
arising from the general income of the college, and a 
suitable mansion handsomely furnished, he has, by the 
act of settlement, a rent-charge of 300 per annum 
derived from the forfeited lands in the Archbishopric of 
Dublin, an estate in the county Gal way, and another 
in the county Meath, worth together about 4,000 
per annum. Both -these estates were the gift of King 
Charles II., to be as a perpetual revenue to the Pro- 
vostship. 

The office of Provost in this University is one of con- 
siderable dignity, and its emoluments we have seen are 
in a tolerably just proportion to the rank which this 
officer holds in his own society and in public estimation ; 
the Provostship has sometimes been bestowed on per- 

Q 2 



228 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE 

sons not connected personally with this Institution; 
but this practice, however unfair and objectionable it 
might be at the present day, was proper, and in fact 
indispensable, at the founding, and during the early 
years of this seminary of learning ; accordingly, we 
find that the first and four succeeding Provosts had 
been educated at Cambridge University, and the sixth 
Provost was Dr. Robert Ussher, (son of Primate 
Ussher,) who had been educated here, and was a 
Fellow ; but the two next Provosts in succession to 
Dr. Ussher, were Fellows of Cambridge or Oxford, 
but the latter of these officers having fled to England 
at the commencement of the great rebellion in 1641, 
Drs. F. Tate and D. Loftus, both of Dublin, were 
appointed temporarii subrectores (in succession) under 
the authority of the Lords Justices. 

The Provost appointed to succeed these delegates 
(Dr. A. Martin) was from Cambridge, as also was 
his successor, Dr. Samuel Winter. 

The next two Provosts were Fellows of this College, 
but their two immediate successors were of Oxford ; 
the last of these, Dr. R. Huntingdon, fled to Eng- 
land when King James II. landed in Ireland, and in 
his place Dr. M. Moore, a secular priest of the Church 
of Rome, was appointed by Lord Tyrconnell's re- 
commendation to the king. 

This was the last of the Provosts who had not been 
educated in this University ; for Sir George Ashe, D.D., 
who succeeded Dr. Moore, and the thirteen Provosts 
who have enjoyed that office down to the present time, 
were all graduates of this University, and also fellows, 
except Dr. Hutchinson, who, although educated here, 
was not a fellow. 

According to the Charter of Charles I., the Pro- 
vost of this University must be nominated by the 
Sovereign ; and in the 2nd chapter of the statutes, 
it is expressly declared that he must be in holy 
orders, a doctor, or a Bachelor of Divinity, and 
at least thirty years of age ; yet we find that this 
statute has, on two occasions, been disregarded, by 
the dispensing power which resides in the Crown : 



PROVOSTS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

one of these instances was in the appointment of Dr. 
Andrews, a fellow, but a layman, the other that of 
Dr. J. H. Hutchinson, who was also a layman, but 
not a fellow. The last of these acts was considered 
peculiarly ungracious, as the gentleman appointed does 
not appear to have possessed superior qualifications 
that could have entitled him to be placed in this 
responsible situation over the heads of senior Fellows 
whose merit had acquired for them high rank in the 
paths of learning, and who were eminently qualified 
to govern that seminary in which they had, by long 
residence and constant attention to its various offices, 
acquired peculiar fitness for this important and dig- 
nified position in the intellectual world; whereas Dr. 
Hutchinson did possess those talents and acquirements 
in his profession as a Barrister, which would in due 
time have placed him high upon the judicial bench in 
Ireland a . 

The seven succeeding provosts have been fellows of 
this college, and duly qualified according to the sta- 
tutes b . In the hands of this officer and the seven 
senior fellows is placed the government of the Uni- 
versity ; the latter are styled " assessors to the pro- 
vost." With their advice and assistance this dignitary 
is to elect fellows, scholars, and officers, to confer de- 
grees, and in fact to manage all the majoranegotia of 
this University. During any vacancy of the provost- 
ship, all elections are suspended ; neither can leases, 
or any other documents requiring the college seal, be 
signed ; delays arising from this cause are, however, 
of short duration, as the Crown's advisers have always 
a successor ready to fill the vacant office; and this suc- 
cessor is generally introduced to the members of the 
college in a day or two after the funeral obsequies 
of his predecessor have been performed, and is imme- 
diately sworn into office, and generally presides at 
a board immediately afterwards. 

a M.P. for the City of Cork, and Secretary of State to the Irish 
Government. He proved, however, a very good Provost. 
b Statutes, Cap. II., Cap. IV. 



230 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE 

The first person who received the appointment of 
Provost in this University was Adam Loftus, D.D., 
who at that time was Archbishop of Dublin. This 
prelate was the younger son of an ancient and wealthy 
family at Swinshead, in Yorkshire. His friends sent 
him to Cambridge for his education, and it so happened, 
that at one of the public acts young Loftus was parti- 
cularly noticed by Queen Elizabeth, who soon after- 
wards gave him the appointment of chaplain to the Earl 
of Sussex, then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, whither 
his good fortune still accompanied him, and in a few 
years later, (1562,) he was made Archbishop of Ar- 
magh, which is the highest church dignity in the 
Irish branch of the Protestant Church, as it includes 
the " Primacy of all Ireland." Yet in 1567 we find 
that this prelate descended a step in the Church, and, 
as some thought, not out of deep humility, to accept 
the second situation in the Church of Ireland, namely, 
the Archbishoprick of Dublin, whose occupant is 
simply styled " The Primate." Dr. Loftus succeeded 
Dr. Hugh Curwen ; and still further, he was twice made 
Keeper of the Great Seal, and finally Lord Chan- 
cellor of Ireland, which office he held, with his church 
preferment, through life. He was also four times ap- 
pointed one of the Lords Justices of Ireland. In June, 
1594, he resigned the Provostship, after having ob- 
tained a royal licence for that purpose, in which it ap- 
pears that Queen Elizabeth expressed her great sa- 
tisfaction at the manner in which he had administered 
the duties of that office : yet it is certain that, although 
the archbishop resigned his official connexion with 
this institution, he never lost sight of its interests during 
the remainder of his life, which terminated in 1 605. 

Dr. Walter Travers was elected to succeed Arch- 
bishop Loftus in the Provostship by the Board of 
Fellows, as the right was originally vested in that 
body by the charter of Elizabeth ; and he took the 
oath of office in December, 1594. 

Dr. Travers had been educated in Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he was looked upon as a person of very 



PROVOSTS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 231 

great abilities. His first public promotion was that of 
lecturer to the Hon. Society of the Middle Temple; but 
it appears from his biographer, that after some time 
there arose such animosities between him and the Rev. 
Mr. Hooker, then minister of that establishment, that 
it induced the court, and many others, to take different 
sides. The spirit of party it appears ran high ; but Mr. 
Hooker's supporters prevailed, and " Mr. Travers 
was silenced in the Temple for indiscretion." He 
soon afterwards went over to Ireland on this appoint- 
ment, and resided four years in the college ; he retired 
into England, on the breaking out of Tyrone's rebel- 
lion, (1598,) and though he did not return to his duties, 
it does not appear that another Provost was elected 
until the year 1601. In England Dr. Travers, as his 
biographer says, lived in a sort of obscurity for many 
years. He was a great proficient in the oriental lan- 
guages, and at his death, he bequeathed his valuable 
collection of books in those tongues, with fifty pounds' 
worth of plate, to the corporation of Sion C ollege, London . 

The next person elected to this situation of honour, 
but not of profit a , was Mr. Henry Alvey, A.B. of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, who was sworn into the 
Provostship in October, 1601. Of this Provost's life 
there has been very little recorded, although it appears 
that he was a person of very good abilities ; but, like 
his predecessor in this office, he retired into England 
about the beginning of the year 1609, and died at 
Cambridge in January, 1626. 

Mr. Wm. Temple, LL.D., was the next Provost 
elected by the board. This gentleman had been edu- 
cated in King's College, Cambridge, from whence he 
was appointed master of the Free School, Lincoln ; 
which he resigned on being chosen to be his secretary 
by the heroic Sir Philip Sydney, whom he accom- 
panied to the Low Countries, and attended during his 
government there. 'On the death of his illustrious 
patron, Mr. Temple was selected by Robert Earl of 
Essex to be his secretary, on being appointed Viceroy 

a At tins time, and long after, the Provost's income jvas small for 
the situation and even that was very badly paid. 



PROVOSTS TEMPLE AND BEDELL. 

of Ireland. Mr. Temple was also made a master in 
Chancery. After some time he found the various duties 
he engaged in too harassing for him, and he resigned 
part of his employments to be more at leisure for his 
literary pursuits. From this qualified retirement, how- 
ever, it appears he was after some time induced to 
come forth by the earnest solicitation of Dr. James 
Ussher, (the Primate of all Ireland,) a Prelate who 
well knew how to judge the worthiness of others by 
the immensity of his own merit, and he did at last 
prevail on his friend to accept the Provostship in the 
year 1809. Mr. Temple was also elected M.P. for 
the University along with Charles Doyne, Esq. a , when 
the elective franchise was granted to this college. He 
continued to administer the duties of Provost for seven- 
teen years, to the great advantage of the University, 
and in fact terminated his days in that honourable 
situation, at the advanced age of 7^ years. And, as 
his biographer reports, he " lies buried under a faire 
stone in the Colledge Chappie immediately before the 
Provost's seat." b 

The Rev. Wm. Bedell succeeded Sir Wm. Temple 
in this Provostship, on the 29th May, 1627- This 
promotion appears to have arisen chiefly out of a re- 
commendation in writing to King Charles I. from Sir 
Henry Wootton ; in which paper he informed his 
majesty that he himself thought it impossible to find 
a fitter man for that charge in the whole kingdom for 
singular piety and erudition, combined with great zeal 
to advance the cause of religion. 

Bedell was a native of Black Notley in Essex, and 
became a fellow of his college in the year 1693, and 
soon after was selected by Sir Henry Wootton to ac- 
company him as his chaplain, when that able diplo- 
matist was sent by King James I. as ambassador to 
the state of Venice. Bedell held this situation eight 

a A Master in Chancery. 

b The chapel above mentioned was the original building ; it was 
taken down A.D. 1797, on the completion of the new chapel. In the 
latter the vaults are appropriated solely to the interment of the Provosts 
and other persons officially connected with the University. 



PROVOSTS BEDELL AND R. USSHER. 233 

years, during which period he travelled much, and 
took an active part in the controversy between the 
Reformed Church and that of Rome, in which he 
showed himself profoundly versed in the works of the 
fathers and schoolmen. His knowledge of the Greek, 
Latin, and Hebrew languages was also very great, as 
may be seen in his literary correspondence with the 
celebrated "Padre Paulo," whom he greatly esteemed; 
yet with all these requisite accomplishments for public 
life, together with numerous other practical proofs of his 
capacity for business, Dr. Bedell remained several years 
after his return from the Continent without any notice, 
or promotion from the Court; but although rather 
neglected at home, the fame of his character reached 
Ireland, and in 1627 he was by the board of senior 
fellows elected (una voce) to the Provostship of this 
University, although at that time he was not person- 
ally known to the electors. In two years afterwards 
he was appointed by the Crown to the bishopric of 
Kilmore a , where he departed this life, as already noticed 
at page 36. 

Robert Ussher, D.D., was elected Provost on the 
promotion of Dr. Bedell: he was educated here, and 
became a senior fellow sometime previous to his pro- 
motion to this office (Oct. 1629). Dr. Ussher resigned 
the Provostship in August, 1634, having been in- 
ducted into the Deanery of Meath ; and in the month 
of February following, he was consecrated Bishop of 
Kildare. 

In Ware's MSS., he is described as a prelate or- 
thodox, learned, unblamable, of a meek, modest, 
conscientious, and gentle behaviour ; an enemy to all 
theatrical representations, and would not admit them 
into college, according to the usual practice, until 
commanded by the Lords Justices to allow them. He 
was a constant and assiduous preacher, remarkable 
for his abilities in sacred oratory ; a practice which he 
continued even after he fled to England, where he 
died, and was interred in the chancel of Duddeston 

* Bedell might have held both offices, but he conscientiously re- 
signed the Provostship. 



PROVOST CHAPPEL. 

Church, in September, 1642, where some of the virtues 
he possessed are recorded on his monument. 

William Chappel or Capel, D.D., was, at the desire 
of King Charles L, elected Provost (pro tempo-re), 
being at that time Dean of Cashel ; his appointment 
to the temporary Provostship took place ten days 
after Dr. Ussher had resigned it, yet from the am- 
biguous tenure in which he held this office, for he 
was not sworn in, it seems sufficiently clear that the 
great changes which soon were made in the college 
statutes, had been for some time contemplated and 
that Laud a had selected Chappel as a proper agent 
for that purpose. 

Dr. Chappel had been educated in Christ's College, 
Cambridge, of which he became a fellow long before 
his promotion in Ireland, (1607). In June, 1637> 
that is, nearly three years after Chappel' s temporary 
superintendence had commenced, he was fully admitted 
and sworn into the Provostship b , at the same time 
that the statutes of Laud were brought in to super- 
sede those of the original founder. 

These statutes were not considered so favourable to 
the natives as those bestowed by the pious sagacity of 
Queen Elizabeth's advisers, nor so indulgent to the 
fellows, or respectful to the classes out of whom the 
visitors were originally selected. The Provostship 
was endowed with a greater degree of arbitrary power 
than was formerly allowed to that officer, and of this 
privilege, it was generally believed that Dr. Chappel 
sometimes made an improper use. On the other 
hand, it has been asserted, that the exercises of the 
University were never, under any Provost, better at- 
tended, or the proper discipline of the place more 
rigidly enforced, though by some thought too cere- 
monious, than it was during Chappel's government ; 
one instance, however, of a contrary nature must be 
recorded, and it does not confer any honour upon his 
memory ; this was his suppression of the lectures 
originally established for teaching the Irish and the 

a Then Chancellor of this University. 

b During this interval the College registers were greatly neglected. 



PROVOST CHAPPEL. 

Hebrew languages, both of which were very well attend- 
ed to, especially the first, which was constantly frequent- 
ed by a large class of students, who justly conceived 
that by acquiring this branch of knowledge, they might 
become much better prepared for future employment 
in their country, especially as ministers of the Gospel, 
being well aware that the native Irish, on finding men 
of education address them in their own tongue, would 
be the sooner convinced of the great truths which 
they might be authorized to teach them ; and there- 
fore it was a most important object to cultivate, for 
it is quite certain that there does not exist any known 
people, who hold their vernacular language in higher 
respect and esteem than do the native Irish. 

Besides, as it has justly been remarked by an old 
writer, " the dignity of an University is not com- 
promised (licet rumpantur morni) by maintaining 
an useful lecture, as the sole object of the heads of 
colleges should be to cherish every legitimate mode 
of advancing the interests of learning." 

This Provost was, it is said, " a close Ramist, a 
notable disputant, and one who, in his middle age, 
favoured Mr. Perkins and that side." He was one 
day riding to Cork, when he was accidentally joined 
by Sir William St. Leger, then Lord President of 
Munster, who had with him the pseudo Dean of 
Cork. With this Romanist dignitary, the Lord Presi- 
dent wished Dr. Chappel to dispute. To this pro- 
position the latter assented without difficulty, but the 
Dean being very well aware of the Doctor's character, 
respectfully declined the proposal, for the latter was, 
it seems, known as a fierce and subtle arguer, one re- 
markable instance of which we have here selected. 

It appears from the record, that at a Cambridge 
commencement, which was celebrated in presence of 
King James I., Dr. Roberts of Trinity being re- 
spondent in St. Mary's, Dr. Chappel opposed him so 
closely, and with such subtilty, that the Doctor, not 
being able to disentangle the arguments, fell into a 
swoon in the pulpit ! So that the King, wishing to up- 
hold the commencement, undertook to maintain the 



236 PROVOST WASSINGTON. 

thesis himself ; this, Dr. Chappel, by his syllogisms, 
as we are informed, pressed so home, " Ut Rex palam 
gratias ageret Deo quod opponens E.L Juisset sub- 
ditus non alteri alias potuisset in suspicionem adduci 
perindethronosuo, atquecathedro submoveri debuisset." 

About a year before he left Ireland, Dr. Chappel 
resigned his Provostship, which probably was caused 
by the parliamentary proceedings, and shortly after the 
commencement of the rebellion in 1641, he went to 
England, where he lived rather in retirement until 
his decease in 1649. He was interred at Bilthorp, 
in Nottinghamshire, where his family caused an epi- 
taph to be engraven on his tomb, which is very 
laudatory of the bishop's character, and of which a 
copy has been inserted in Borlace's account of " The 
Reduction of Ireland." 

The Rev. Richard Wassington, B.D., who had 
been a Fellow and Vicegerent of University College, 
Oxford, was the second Provost chosen by Royal au- 
thority. He was admitted by the King's letter, 
August 1, 1640, and took the oath of office, but en- 
joyed his promotion only a short time, for at the 
breaking out of the rebellion in October, 1641, he 
fled back into England, and of any further proceed- 
ings of his connected with the College we have not 
been able to obtain any account. 

Immediately on the retirement of the last provost, 
the Lords Justices constituted Dr. F. Tate % and Dr. 
Dudley Loftus, (a Master in Chancery and Judge of the 
Prerogative Court,) temporarii subrectores, until the 
King's pleasure should be known as to the appoint- 
ment of a new Provost, and during this interval, Dr. 
Tate was licensed to reside in the Provost's buildings. 
In this imperfect state, the government of the College 
continued for about four years, when the King at 
length nominated a regular Provost, according to 
his royal prerogative b , in 1644. 

Anthony Martin, D.D., of this University, was the 

a Afterwards Poet Laureate. 

b This was one of the last instances of King Charles exercising 
regal authority. 



PROVOST MARTIN. 237 

person selected to fill this post of danger, in the great 
struggle between despotism and democracy, as these 
principles were then understood in England. 

This exemplary man, and excellent scholar, was a 
native of Galway, a city in the West of Ireland ; and 
after an elementary course he was sent to France for 
the purpose of completing his education ; but this plan 
was abandoned after some progress had been made, 
and the young student was removed to Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge, where he completed his academic 
studies ; and soon after he returned to Ireland, be- 
came a candidate for a junior Fellowship, and was 
successful, (1610.) In a few years afterwards he was 
made Archdeacon of Dublin, then made Dean of 
Waterford, and in 16&5 was created Bishop of Meath, 
in which diocese he was seated when he got the ap- 
pointment of Provost in this Institution, with a com- 
mand to hold both these situations, the united revenues 
of them being then very slender, and indeed scarcely 
sufficient for the decent maintenance of either. The 
Bishop of Meath was always, virtute officii, a Privy 
Counsellor (previous to the act of union) ; yet soon 
after, Dr. Martin having fixed his residence in College 
with his family, he was, by the then Privy Council, 
committed to the custody of the sheriff of Dublin, on 
some unfounded allegation, at the desire of the Par- 
liamentary Commissioners, but after enduring a long 
confinement, he was as capriciously set at liberty, 
without even the form of a trial; yet the severities 
inflicted on him by those despot-hating but ty- 
rannical republicans a , did not, however, bend him in 
the slightest degree from the right line of duty which he 
had long adopted, and which he continued to fulfil to 
the latest hour of his existence, as we have already 
noticed at page 39 b . Thus to the final close of his 

a Those persons were members of " Barebones' Parliament," and with 
regard to them we may adopt a classical sentiment, with a different 
application, " the evil deeds that men do " (these men did) " live after 
them ; the good " (if any) " is often " (and has been in this case) 
" interred with their bones," for the historic muse has not placed one 
good act of theirs on record ! 

b The Provost was interred in the College Chapel. 



238 PROVOST WINTER. 

mortal career, justifying the early opinions of those 
friends who had analyzed and formed an accurate 
estimate of the true constitution of his mind, as de- 
scribed in the letter of Eyre's to Dr. Ussher, (A.D. 
1607, p. ^7>) in which the writer gives a just descrip- 
tion of the talents, attainments, and moral worth of 
this young scholar ; and his words are, " Ut infra 
fines Hibernice generoso Juventis continentur 
neque extra Athenas vestras Romce aut alibi in- 
stituantur, et is est qualis alii plerique videre tantum 
volunt, et in humaniori literatures, et mice integritate 
germanissimus, certe Nathaniel sine fraude" The 
letter referred to was written at the time that Martin 
had obtained his degree of A.M. at Cambridge, and 
had decided upon standing for a Fellowship in the 
University of Dublin, and which he obtained about 
two years afterwards. 

Yet this man of superior learning, of religious and 
moral qualities, unsurpassed in any age or nation, died 
in poverty, and left his family without any inheritance 
but the memory of their father's great talents and 
spotless integrity. 

On the death of Dr. Martin, the current of politics 
still continuing to run adverse to collegiate institutions, 
the Commissioners of the memorable parliament 
already noticed, took the opportunity of recommend- 
ing their own creature and chaplain as fit to fill the 
Provost's chair. 

This person was Mr. Samuel Winter, a native of 
Walsal, in Staffordshire; he was a student of Dr. 
Preston's, in Lionel College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated, and afterwards obtained the degree of 
A.M. ; from College he went to Boston, in Lincoln- 
shire, as an assistant to the Rev. John Cotton. In 
this place he married, and soon after obtained the 
small living of Woodbarrow, near Nottingham ; he gave 
this up soon after for a better situation in York ; here 
he continued until the civil war commenced, when 
he removed with his family to Hull, where his wife 
died, leaving him five children (sons). However, he 
changed his state in about three years, and married a 



PROVOST WINTER. 239 

lady with whom he had a good accession of property, 
as he likewise had by his first wife. Being an Anti- 
Royalist, he was chosen by the memorable Parliament 
just described to be the chaplain to their commissioners, 
and accompanied them to Ireland. 

The appointment of this Provost (in 1651) was, 
however, an arbitrary measure, authorized by a 
spurious act of the same Parliament before named, 
which gave power to the Lord- Lieutenant of Ireland 
to place Governors, Masters, &cc., in the University of 
Dublin at his will and pleasure. But as if this gross 
violation of the statutes was felt to be an unsafe pro- 
ceeding, another act was passed, entitled " An Act 
for the better advancement of the Gospel and Learn- 
ing in Ireland," and under this Act Cromwell con- 
firmed, in June, 1652, the appointment of the provost, 
who had previously obtained a diploma of D.D. from 
Dr. Henry Jones, Bishop of Meath and Vice-Chan- 
cellor of the University. The senior fellows being 
mostly tainted with the same revolutionary principles, 
presented to him an honourable testimonium under 
the college seal for his services to the institution. It 
was signed by Henry Jones, Vice- Chancellor, the 
notorious Miles Symner, Csesar Williamson, Nathaniel 
Hoyle, John Stearne, and Adam Cusacke*. Yet, 
notwithstanding all these precautions and many others, 
taken by himself and his partisans to retain the good 
things which their republicanism found very comfort- 
able, Provost Winter was removed in March, i860, 
(and all the senior fellows except one,) from the 
government of the college, by the authorized Conven- 
tion of Ireland, because he had never taken the Pro- 
vost's oath. He left Ireland soon after, and died in 
England, October, 1666. 

SECTION II. 

Dr. Thomas Seele was appointed Provost on the 
removal of Dr. Winter He was a native of Dublin, 

a This document is literally copied into the life of the Provost, 
London, 1671. He wrote Methodus Concionandi, 1648. And also 
(according to Grainger) " The Whole Duty of Man." Biographical 
History, Vol. II. p. 218. 



PROVOST SEELE. 

and a graduate of the college, and held a high cha- 
racter ; indeed it appears both from traditions and written 
authorities, that a more fit and proper governor could 
hardly be selected to watch over the best interests 
of learning, and to direct, both by precept and ex- 
ample, in the paths of religious truth and moral rec- 
titude, the great community over which he presided. 
Dr. Seele's affection for the advancement of sound and 
liberal education was remarkable, and he possessed 
great literary attainments, His first promotion was 
to the rectorship of Bewley, county of Armagh 
(1635). In 1661 he was raised to the Provostship 
by letters patent of King Charles II., and soon after- 
wards had the chaplaincy of the House of Commons 
conferred on him. In the year 1666, he was elected 
to the deanery of St. Patrick's Cathedral. All these 
offices he held until his decease in February, 1675. 
He was buried in the college chapel. 

Michael Ward, D.D., succeeded Dr. Seele in the 
Provostship, by royal letters dated in February, 1675. 
He entered college at the very early age of thir- 
teen years, and when only nineteen years old, he ob- 
tained a Fellowship ; an occurrence which was 
unprecedented, and is still without a parallel instance 
in this University, so that in fact, he was not only a 
" Boy Bachelor " but a Boy Fellow. Yet young as he 
was, the senior members observed that he took more 
than ordinary pains in the instruction and superin- 
tendence of his pupils, and was very successful in get- 
ting them forward. In November, 1670, being then 
only 27 years old, he was promoted to the deanery of 
Lismore, and soon after to the archdeaconry of Ar- 
magh ; in 1672, he took the degree of D.D., and on 
the death of Dr. Lingard, he was made Reader and 
Professor of Divinity, and in February, 1675, Dr. 
Ward was made Provost of this College, and successor 
to Dr. Seele. In this very onerous office he conducted 
himself with the same intense and indeed habitual 
love for the promotion of learning, and of every good 
and virtuous principle ; and on the death of primate 
Margetson, he was appointed Vice- Chancellor, having 
been created Bishop of Ossory in the same year, 1678, 



PROVOST MARSH. 

from which see he was translated to that of Derry in 
January, 1679. In the latter city he died in 1681, 
being full of honour, though not of days, for he was 
then not quite forty years of age. 

Narcissus Marsh, D.D., a graduate of Oxford, was 
appointed by the crown to the Provostship on the pro- 
motion of Dr. M. Ward to the see of Ossory (1778). 
Dr. Marsh was at that time principal of St. Alban's 
Hall, Oxon. He was born near High worth in Wilt- 
shire, in December, 1638 : and descended by his father's 
side from a Saxon family of his name, which had long 
been settled in Kent, out of which county his great 
grandfather removed to the township just men- 
tioned. Dr. Marsh's mother was one of the Colburne 
family, of Dorsetshire. Young Marsh received the 
elementary principles of learning at his native place, 
and having been well prepared for college, was, in July, 
1654, matriculated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, and in 
June, 1658, he was admitted as a probationer Fel- 
low of Exeter Hall, and at the annual commencement 
in July, 1660, he took his Master of Arts degree. 
Seven years later he commenced Bachelor in Divinity, 
and in June, 1671 5 that of Doctor in Divinity, to 
which degree he was also admitted in Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, in 1678. During these periods he was 
appointed chaplain to the Bishop of Exeter, who was 
afterwards Bishop of Salisbury, and also to Lord 
Chancellor Hyde. 

In May, 1673, he was made principal of St. Alban's 
Hall, Oxford, by appointment of the Duke of Ormond, 
who was at that time Chancellor of the University. 

From his character for superior learning and prudent 
management he was chosen unanimously to preach 
the Anniversary Sermon on the 5th of November, 
1667, and also the "Act Sermon" in 1678, and on 
the visit of King Charles II. to Oxford, (1665,) he 
was chosen to act as one of the additional proctors for 
keeping the University in good order during the 
monarch's aojourn there. Such were the principal 
honours he received previous to his going over to 
Ireland, where he deservedly attained to the highest 

R 



PROVOST MARSH'S LIBRARY. 

dignities of the church. Dr. Marsh's introduction to 
that country arose out of the recommendation of Dr. 
John Fell, and the friendship of the duke of Ormond ; 
in consequence of which the king nominated him 
to succeed Dr. Ward, in the Provostship of the 
Duhlin University, in December, 1678, and in the 
following month he was sworn into office. Whilst he 
held this situation he devoted much time to his studies, 
notwithstanding which, he always performed his pub- 
lic duties a so exactly, that his successors could not 
hope to surpass him in the judicious mode he adopted 
for governing that University; to equal him in this re- 
spect would be quite sufficient for every good purpose. 
He did not continue more than five years in this useful 
and honourable employment, for upon the death of 
Bishop Boyle, Provost Marsh was advanced to the 
vacant bishopric of Leighlin and Ferns, by patent, 
February 26, 1683, and in May following was con- 
secrated* in Christ Church, Dublin. In February, 
1690, Dr. Marsh was translated to the archbishopric 
of Cashel, to that of Dublin in May, 1694, and to 
Ardmagh, with the Primacy of all Ireland, in February, 
1702. Whilst Archbishop of Dublin, Dr. Marsh 
built a noble library, in 1707, close to St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, on some ground attached to the archiepis- 
copal palace of Dublin, which he enlarged after his 
being translated to Ardmagh, and then furnished it 
with a choice collection of books, amongst them was 
the whole of the celebrated Bishop Stillingfleet's b 
library, which the archbishop purchased expressly for 
this purpose. He likewise added his own large and well 
selected library, and as his object was to make this place 
useful to the public, he handsomely endowed a librarian 
and sub-librarian to attend it at certain prescribed hours. 
Besides the endowment, which at that time was worth 
250 per annum, he expended more than 4000 on 
the building and in books, and to make every thing 

* Dr. Marsh published the elementary work much wanted then in 
college, entitled "Institutiones Logicce in usum Juventutis Academicce 
Dublhiiemis" so \vell known as " The Provost's Logic." 

b Bishop of Worcester, then lately deceased. 



PROVOST MARSH'S ALMSHOUSES. 

secure, he obtained an Act Parliament for settling 
it a . This establishment is still a fine and a useful 
public library, into which all persons of honour and 
respectability are admitted for several hours each day, 
Sundays and holidays excepted, which last have in- 
fested this public institution almost as much as it 
formerly did the College library, to the great annoy- 
ance of reading men ; but we understand that the 
benefit of the reformation is to be extended to this 
fine national institution, and that the practice of 
honouring the Saints by the partial suppression of 
literary industry, is to be forthwith given up, as no 
longer tenable. It is much to be regretted that the 
archbishop left only ten pounds per annum, as a fund 
to supply it with new books ; the greater part of this 
sum is expended in keeping the books in order. Of 
course the supply of modern works is very scanty, 
for though we have often heard persons of property 
complain of this circumstance, we have not yet heard 
that any one has nobly come forward to advance the 
sum requisite to supply the deficiency. 

This prelate, likewise, amply endowed an almshouse 
at Drogheda, for the reception of twelve widows of de- 
cayed clergymen, to each of whom he allotted a lodg- 
ing and 20 per annum. He appointed that those who 
would be entitled to such provision should be widows, 
whose husbands had been curates in the diocese of 
Ardmagh ; or, for want of these, then the next in turn 
should be widows of those who had served as curates 
in the diocese of Meath ; any deficiency of claimants 
after, then to be filled up by the widows of curates of the 
province of Ardmagh, without distinction ; if after all 
these there was still some part of the fund unclaimed, 
this surplus was to be applied to put out the children 

a Part of the eulogium inscribed on Dr. Marsh's monument in St. 
Peter's Cathedral, runs thus, 

" Hinc Dubliniensis publicam hanc extruxit Bibliothecam, Arma- 
chianus auxit, instruxitque libris in omni eruditionis genere selectissi- 
mus." The invitation to study which follows is no doubt sufficiently 
general. 

" Qnalis quanta que sit adspice et inspice." 

This library contains about 25,000 volumes, including some valuable 
works in Oriental literature, and very many on Polemic Divinity. 

R 2 



PROVOST HUNTINGDON. 

of clergymen as apprentices, or to be laid out on their 
education. 

He allotted also 40 per annum to the Dean and 
Chapter of Ardmagh, for the support of that church. 
He repaired many churches in his diocese at his own 
expense, and bought in several impropriations, and re- 
stored them to his see. He died in November, 1713, 
aged 76 years, and was interred close to the wall of 
his library, (at Dublin,) where a handsome monu- 
ment of white marble was erected to his memory, by 
Benjamin Huson, A.M.; upon it is a Latin inscrip- 
tion of some length, but not tedious, because it is well 
written and perfectly just a . 

This mausoleum, being too much exposed to the 
weather, was removed within the church, and placed 
in the nave at the south side of the great aisle, in one 
of the large arches, with an inscription in English 
stating the cause of that change. 

Robert Huntingdon, D.D., who succeeded Dr. 
Marsh, was a graduate of Oxford, having been brought 
up at Merton College, of which he was a Fellow, and 
where he enjoyed a high degree of reputation. He 
was prevailed on by Dr. Fell, though rather against 
his inclination, to accept the Provostship, which had 
become vacant by the promotion of Dr. Marsh to a 
bishopric. Dr. Huntingdon arrived in Dublin early 
in the year 1684, the letters patent of his appoint- 
ment to this office having been signed at the close of 
the previous month of September. Immediately on 
his arrival, he applied himself with great diligence to 
the duties of his situation, which it was observed that 
he fulfilled with great assiduity and good sense during 
his sojourn in college. Among other useful acts, this 
estimable Provost suggested the propriety of trans- 
lating the Old Testament into the Irish language, and 
this important work was completed with the concur- 
rence of Dr. Marsh, then Bishop of Ferns, and some 
other bishops ; the New Testament having before 
been published in that language, the whole expense of 

a This inscription has been copied exactly into Whitelaw and 
Walsh's History of Dublin. 



PROVOST MOORE. 

which was defrayed by that truly honourable native of 
Ireland, Robert Boyle. It was published in 1686, 
with a copious preface in English, written by Dr. 
Martin, Bishop of Meath : it contains the canonical 
books only. 

In the year 1688, the college being seized on and 
filled with the soldiers of James II., he retired for 
safety to England, but returned at the settlement, and 
continued in his office about two years, when he ac- 
cepted a benefice in England, whither he went. He 
married also, and then resigned the Provostship. He 
returned into Ireland on being made Bishop of Raphoe, 
but unhappily he did not survive his promotion more 
than twelve days, though he left after him a character 
not inferior in intellectual and moral worth to the best 
of those who had filled this important station a . 

The Reverend Dr. Moore was made Provost of 
Trinity College, Dublin, 1689, from the unanimous re- 
commendation of the Roman Catholic Bishops ; and, as 
we have already shewn, it was a most fortunate acci- 
dent that placed such a governor over the society at 
this juncture. This conscientious man was, however, 
too honest for his party, and on one occasion, when 
preaching before the King, he took for his text the 
14th verse of the 15th chapter of Saint Matthew's 
Gospel b . In this discourse the Provost attributed all 
the miscarriages of the King's affairs to his following 
closely the counsel of the Jesuits, and rather insinuated 
that they would bring on his entire ruin. Petre, the 
Jesuit, who had great influence with that unfortunate 
prince, and who had also it seems a most sinister expres- 
sion of countenance, represented to the King, the evil 
tendency of Dr. Moore's sermon ; and persuaded the 
King that the text was levelled at his Majesty. The 
weak and misguided monarch was strongly excited 
against Moore, and dismissed him unceremoniously 
from the provostship. Dr. Moore went first to Paris, 
where he was greatly caressed for his learning and in- 

8 A life of this prelate, (in Latin,) was written by the Reverend 
Dr. Smith. 

b " Let them alone, they be blind leaders of the blind ; and if the 
blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch." 



246 PROVOST ST. GEORGE ASHE. 

tegrity ; and he told some of his friends that his late 
master, James II., would not long remain hehind him. 
This opinion was soon justified by James's abandon- 
ment of his friends in Ireland, and his flight to the 
French capital. Upon this event taking place, Dr. 
Moore retired to Rome, where he was soon appointed 
to be the censor of books ; after this he was invited 
to Montefiascone, made rector of a seminary there, 
which had recently been founded by Cardinal Barba- 
rigo, and also appointed professor of philosophy and 
the Greek language. 

Pope Innocent XII. was so well satisfied with his 
government of this college, that he annually bestowed 
upon it 2000 crowns ; and Moore was so highly es- 
teemed by Pope Clement XI., that he declared to 
several cardinals, his intention of placing his nephew 
under Dr. Moore's tuition. 

At the death of King James, Dr. Moore was re- 
called to France, and his friend, the Cardinal de 
Noailles, had him appointed Rector of the University 
of Paris, Principal of the College of Navarre, and, by 
the King, Regius Professor of Philosophy, Greek, and 
Hebrew. He joined Dr. John Fealy in the purchase 
of a house contiguous to the Irish College, for the 
gratuitous reception of young men from Ireland, who 
came to study in France. He had collected a fine 
library, which he bequeathed to the above mentioned 
Irish College. His decease took place in France, Au- 
gust, 1726 ; he was then aged 85 years. 

Saint George Ashe, D.D., a native of the county 
of Roscommon, was educated in the College of Dublin, 
where he was elected a Fellow in 1679, and was pro- 
moted to this office the 2nd of September, 1692, when 
only 34 years of age, by letters patent of King Wil- 
liam III. and Queen Mary ; and in some time after, 
he became Vice-Chancellor of the University; but 
long before this period, during the tyrannical govern- 
ment of King James II., he being then a Fellow, was 
obliged to fly from his country. He engaged himself 
in the service of Lord Paget, ambassador for King 
William III. at the court of Vienna; he was secre- 



PROVOSTS GEORGE AND PETER BROWNE. 247 

tary as well as chaplain to this nobleman, and thus 
he continued until the settlement of Ireland gave him 
liberty to return to his native land with a pro- 
spect/ of security. He was made Bishop of Cloyne 
in July, 1695, translated to Clogher in June, 1697, 
and to Deny in February, 1716, where he died in the 
February of the following year. 

George Browne, D.D., who had been educated in 
this university, and had been elected to a fellowship 
in 1673, and co-opted Senior Fellow, (in the room of 
Wallis,) in 1678-9, was appointed to succeed Dr. 
Ashe as Provost in July 1695. Of this provost there 
is not much recorded ; it appears, however, that he 
managed the affairs of the college with prudence and 
economy, and that he was so well satisfied with the 
college system then in operation, that he did not like 
to introduce any new measures, for fear lest the altera- 
tions might become innovations, and for these he had 
no partiality. He died in the College, on the 106th 
anniversary of that Institution, Trinity Sunday, June 
4th, 1699. 

Peter Browne, D.D., educated in Trinity College, 
Dublin, was elected a Fellow in 1692, and on the de- 
cease of Dr. George Browne, he was raised to the Pro- 
vostship in August, 1699. All the church preferment 
he had previously enjoyed was a lectureship in Saint 
Bridget's Parish, Dublin, whilst a Junior Fellow ; 
after that he got the parish rectory of Saint Mary, 
which he surrendered on his promotion, the 9th of 
November, 1699, to the Dean and Chapter of Christ- 
church, to whom the presentation belongs. He was 
an austere, retired, and mortified man, but a divine of 
the first rank for learning among his brethren, and 
was esteemed the best preacher of his time, for the 
gracefulness of his manner, and a fine elocution. He 
studied and was master of the most exact and just 
pronunciation, heightened by the sweetest and most 
solemn tone of voice, further enhanced by a serious 
air and venerable person : the union of these qualities 
commanded an extraordinary degree of attention in 
his hearers of every rank. He was eminent for his 



PROVOST PRATT. 

critical skill in Greek and Hebrew, which enabled 
him to explain the beauty, energy, and sublimity of 
the sacred writings. As he had formed himself upon 
the best models of antiquity, he gradually introduced 
a true style of eloquence into the learned society of 
which he was the governor. He utterly banished the 
false glitter of shining thoughts, and idle affectation 
of points, and turns of phrase, which were common be- 
fore his time in the sermons of the most eminent 
preachers here ; and in place of the rhetorical display 
of words, he substituted one more plain but more cor- 
rect and nervous, which was united with solidity of 
reasoning and dignity of style. He was promoted to 
the see of Cork and Ross, in 1710> an d died at the 
city of Cork, in August, 1735. 

Benjamin Pratt was educated in this college, and 
elected a Fellow in June, 1693. He commenced D,D. 
in 1700. His learning was very considerable, and his 
conduct so correct, that Dr. Browne interested himself 
so much in his favour, that he was made Provost by 
Queen Anne, in 1710, when Dr. Browne resigned that 
office. He was afterwards appointed to the deanery of 
Down, in 1717> when he at once resigned the Pro- 
vostship. 

Richard Baldwin succeeded Dr. Pratt in the go- 
vernment of the college; and what is known of his 
history proves it to be the most extraordinary of 
any provost of this college, whether his predecessors 
or successors, to the present day. During his life- 
time it quite puzzled his contemporaries to discover 
the particulars of his place of nativity, parentage, 
&c., but all their efforts were in vain. He, 
however, left an immense property to this college, 
their right to which has been disputed more than 
once ; the last suit at law by persons claiming it as 
his relatives, was decided in 1820, exactly sixty-two 
years after his demise, in favour of the college, and 
the question to all appearance is finally determined. 
We have been favoured with a loan of the claimant's 
brief prepared on that occasion, from which we have 
taken the following extracts : 



PROVOST BALDWIN. 

After giving at large the Doctor's will, which is 
not material here, the brief goes on to state that " In 
1788, a claim of heirship to Dr. Baldwin was set up 
by a Mrs. Price, of Worcester, who claimed to be de- 
scended from a Thomas Baldwin of said place, and a 
case was laid before the then Attorney and Solicitor- 
general, on her behalf, and their opinion obtained 
thereon ; but although a writ of traverse was obtained 
by her, it does not appear that it was ever proceeded 
on, as it is presumed she was unable to produce any 
sufficient evidence upon the subject not being con- 
nected in any way, save by the similarity in the sur- 
name of one of her ancestors with the late Provost. 

" That at the time of Dr. Baldwin's death his 
family resided at Colne, in Lancashire, and were 
in a very humble situation in life ; and although 
aware of their affinity to the late provost, they were 
unable to assert their rights : that Henry Baldwin, 
who claims to be descended in a direct line from the 
eldest brother of said Provost, and to be his heir at 
law, is at present determined upon prosecuting his 
claim to the lands, &c., left by the late provost 
should counsel so advise." 

The following is the only evidence produced to show 
that the provost was of the same family as the 
claimant, which he has hitherto been able to obtain ; 
it is extracted from Dr. Whitaker's Biographical 
work : 

" Richard Baldwin, son of James Baldwin, of Park- 
hill, near Colne, born in 167^, and educated at the 
grammar school of that town, where he is said to have 
given a mortal blow to one of his schoolfellows, upon 
which he fled into Ireland, and was admitted at 
Trinity College, Dublin, where, in 1717 he became 
Provost, on the removal of Dr. Pratt to the deanery 
of Down ; in this station he lived to extreme old 
age." 

This account is from the Reverend Mr. Adamson, 
of Padisham, who was for twenty years curate of 
Colne, where the provost was born ; Mr. Adamson 
has his information from the common report of the 



250 PROVOST BALDWIN. 

neighbourhood, but more particularly from three old 
men, who had been born in that parish, viz. one of 
the family of the Banisters, of Park Hill, where Richard 
Baldwin was born ; a Mr. Dent, and a Mr. Clough. 
These were contemporary with Nicholas and Henry, 
brothers of the provost, from whom they had their in- 
formation. Mr. Adams is still living ( 1 820) to corrobo- 
rate this, and also adds that it is said, on Richard Bald- 
win's arrival in Dublin, being then of the age of 
twelve years, he was found crying in the streets, when a 
person who kept a coftee-house took pity on him and 
brought him to his home, where he remained for 
some time in the capacity of waiter. In a few months 
after, the provost (Dr. Robert Huntingdon) wanted 
a boy to take care of his horse, when Richard Baldwin 
was recommended to him by his master, and he soon 
shewed such a taste for learning that the provost had 
him instructed and entered at the college." 

Such are the strange accounts recorded of a man 
who during the space of forty-one years filled the of- 
fice of provost in one of the first universities of Eu- 
rope. To us, however, they are not quite satisfactory ; 
there is still a considerable degree of mystery remain- 
ing as to the machinery of his promotion, and being 
preferred to men more highly gifted and of most ex- 
emplary conduct, and placed over them in this high 
and honourable situation. How this happened there is 
little chance now of ascertaining, but from some cir- 
cumstances not generally known, we are strongly of 
opinion that he was promoted by the exertions of some 
persons of great power and influence ; this influence, 
it appears, continued for a long time to serve him, 
but it is evident that its momentum ceased before 1730, 
for at that time he had been provost thirteen years, and 
the primate, (Dr. Boulter,) who had much influence 
with government, strongly recommended him for a 
vacant bishopric, but in vain ; although they were ap- 
pointing junior men constantly to the vacant dioceses. 
It astonished every one that he could not get out of 
the provostship, as much as it did to know how he 
got into it ; but however this may have been, it is evident 



PROVOST ANDREWS. 



that the provostship was very lucrative in his time, 
for he accumulated a property of above 80,000 in 
about forty-six years. It is true he never was married, 
but he, perhaps, dispensed as much of his wealth in 
amusements as would have supported a family in a 
becoming style. To his college, however, he was a 
most grateful and munificent benefactor, for he be- 
queathed to it by far the greater part of his wealth, as 
may be seen in the list of benefactions. In politics 
he was of the Whig party, and a partisan of Lei- 
cester House ; the superb marble monument erected 
to his memory will be fully described when treating 
of the Examination Hall. 

Francis Andrews succeeded Dr. Baldwin, in 1758; 
he was a native of Dublin, educated in its university, 
of which he was elected Fellow in 1741 : a lawyer by 
profession, he displayed uncommon abilities in court, 
as well as in parliament, of which he was a distin- 
guished member for many years ; he was also a privy 
counsellor in Ireland. In the early part of his career 
it seems he was an admirer of Mrs. Woffington a , from 
which it was rather maliciously asserted, that to her 
exertions he owed his advancement; but this is mere 
assertion, and Hardy, in his life of Lord Charlemont, 
treats it as a fable. 

His predecessor, Dr. Baldwin, professed Whig prin- 
ciples : and as Toryism was said to predominate in the 
University at the time of his appointment, the statesmen 
of that day, in order to eradicate Jacobitism, supported 
him in all his academical proceedings, and it is certain 
that he ruled over that respectable seminary with al- 
most unlimited sway. But though an absolute he was 
a decorous governor, and except in some few instances, 
he did not abuse his power. The same may be said 
with equal truth of Dr. Andrews : his cotemporaries 
who best knew him justly say that he governed the 
university for many years with great reputation. 

He represented his native city in parliament, and he 
soon became a leading member of the House of Com- 
mons. He spoke often, and always with unquestioned 
a Vide Harilv's Life of Earl Charlemont. 



PROVOST ANDREWS. 

ability. Few men ever rendered themselves more accept- 
able to the great, not merely to statesmen, or those 
who had it in their power to serve him, but to the 
gay and fashionable part of the higher orders. Such 
was the versatility of his talents, that when in Italy he 
no less charmed than surprised the learned Professors 
of Padua by his classical attainments, and the uncom- 
mon quickness, purity, and ease with which he ad- 
dressed and replied to them in the Latin language. 
He captivated our young men of rank, then resident 
at Rome, by his lively and accommodating wit, his 
agreeable, useful, and various knowledge. 

Yet his manners were not refined ; Sir Robert Wai- 
pole would have relished them more than Lord Ches- 
terfield ; but they were frank and open, accompanied 
with so much good humour, good nature, and real bene- 
volence, that he had few, if any, personal enemies. He 
liked and indulged somewhat in the pleasures of the 
table, but this added to the number of his friends; 
therefore, when the chair of the House of Commons 
became vacant by the resignation of the late Mr. Pon- 
sonby, (in 17?1) he displayed the extent of his influ- 
ence at the election of his particular friend, Mr. 
Pery, to the office of Speaker, who, though eminently 
qualified for such a station, was much indebted to Pro- 
vost Andrews for obtaining that high office. Two 
men of more dissimilar habits perhaps never existed, 
yet the most cordial union always subsisted between 
them. The loss of Dr. Andrews was deeply regretted 
and greatly felt by his numerous friends. 

For some time previous to his decease, he grew 
quite weary of politics. To an intimate friend he ex- 
pressed his concern that he had relinquished his pro- 
fession of the law for the provostship : it is equally 
certain that he considered his academical engagements 
quite incompatible with those of a political nature, and 
seemed to regret the ardour with which he had en- 
gaged in them. He died at Shrewsbury, on his return 
from Italy, June, 1774. 

In the disposal of his property he showed an un- 
common regard to the interest of learning in this 



PROVOST HUTCHINSON. 253 

University, having bequeathed to it, as we have al- 
ready seen, a considerable estate for building an ob- 
servatory and endowing a professorship of Astro- 
nomy. 

The Right Hon. John Hely Hutchinson, whose pa- 
ternal name was Hely, was anative of the county of Cork ; 
he was educated in this University, where he distin- 
guished himself among his contemporaries. After taking 
his degree of A.B., he went to the Temple, in London, 
to qualify himself for the bar, to which he was called 
in Dublin, November, 1748. In 1762 he was appointed 
Prime Serjeant-at-Law, which he resigned in 1774, 
on the death of the Right Hon. F. Andrews, LL.D., 
Provost of the college, whose successor he became. 
In 1777, on the death of the Right Hon. Philip Tin- 
dall, Secretary of State, he was appointed to that office. 

Dr. Hutchinson introduced a more classical idiom 
into the House of Commons : no member was ever 
more extolled or more in fashion than he was on his 
first appearance there. As an orator, his expression 
was easy, fluent, and lively; fertile in wit, in invention 
admirable, from its always being unclogged with any 
thing which could diminish the brilliancy and justness 
of its colouring. He is said to have attended much to 
the stage, and acquired a clearness and propriety of 
intonation which gave great force to whatever he de- 
livered. His acceptance of the Provostship was con- 
sidered an unwise step ; it certainly involved him in 
controversy with the senior members of that learned 
body, who no doubt felt hurt at having a layman placed 
over their heads, as their governor ; besides, the injury 
to his peace was not compensated for by the office, for 
it put a stop to any further advancement in his profes- 
sion, the highest honours of which he would no doubt 
have attained. 

He was, however, a very effective Provost : he re- 
stored discipline among the students, who before his 
time were rather turbulent. He caused the most ob- 
noxious to be expelled, and the good effects of his 
administration are still very apparent. It is to his exer- 
tions that the University owes the improvement of the 



PROVOST HUTCHINSON. 

two professorships of modern languages, although in this 
object he met with very strong opposition. He was a 
man of an enlightened mind and extended views ; 
he clearly perceived what those who are secluded from 
intercourse with the world could not comprehend, 
though great their learning in books. He saw that, un- 
less some innovations were made in their system, to 
bring it more to the real business of life, in a few 
years it would be left far behind, by the natural pro- 
gress of civilization, and would sink down in time to 
a mere monkish retreat, where the inmates might be 
wondered at for their theoretical learning, rather than 
admired for their useful and practical knowledge. 

His example has not been lost upon his successors : 
since his time several changes have been made in its sys- 
tem, that have in no small degree helped to disencum- 
ber it of the heavy gothic character with which it was 
unavoidably invested at its foundation. It is now ad- 
mitted that this Provost's views were consonant to the 
best principles of education. He died in the latter 
end of the year 1794. 

Dr. Richard Murray, a native of Ireland, succeeded 
.Dr. Hutchinson; like the good archbishop King, he 
entered the University a sizar ; like him, Murray 
raised himself, by the exercise of his talents, above 
many who had entered college under happier aus- 
pices. So attentive was he to his college duties, 
and so amenable to the advice of his friends, that 
he obtained the highest honours of his class, and 
was at length chosen a Fellow in 1750 ; he was after- 
wards appointed to the professorship of mathematics, the 
duties of which he discharged with great credit to 
himself and advantage to the establishment. 

On the death of Provost Hutchinson, Dr. Murray 
was looked on, by all his contemporaries, as the most 
proper person to succeed him. Public opinion thus 
running so strongly in his favour, he was offered the 
situation, but he at first declined it, not from an af- 
fectation of humility, but from a real distrust of his 
own capability for managing so extensive an establish- 
ment. His friends, however, urged him so earnestly 



PROVOST MURRAY. 255 

to accept the office, that he at last complied with 
their wishes ; and most certainly the Institution was 
very fortunate in this appointment, for there never 
lived a governor of this college, who knew better how 
to temper authority and discipline with moderation 
and firmness : with an affability of the kindest descrip- 
tion, he would not suffer authority to be weakened 
or encroached on by familiarity. All these quali- 
ties, joined to a character of extensive learning, and 
sound reasoning powers, gave a weight to his opinions 
which not only silenced, but convinced his opponents, 
for antagonists he had none. Under such a man it is 
no wonder that the college system was improved in 
many respects ; he abolished the barbarous custom, 
which had continued down to his day, namely, that of 
compelling the sizar to place the dishes on the fellows' 
table ! This practice, so inharmonious in an era of civil- 
ization, originated in an age when man had not yet 
learned to look upon superior intellectual power, ac- 
companied with great application to prepare it for 
the most important purposes of life, as among the 
highest titles to protection and encouragement. But 
Dr. Murray, acting up to those feelings that do honour 
to human nature, and which in him were tempered by 
experience and reflection, put an end at once to that 
ungracious practice. 

Of the high estimation in which Dr. Murray was 
held by his contemporaries, and those under his govern- 
ment, a correct judgment may be formed on the un- 
biassed evidence of the late Dr. Thomas Elrington, 
D.D., Provost, Bishop of Limerick, and afterwards 
of Loughlin and Ferns. In the treatise on the 
Elements of Euclid by this learned divine, which is 
used in the College course, and has been translated 
from Latin into English, Dr. Elrington, in his intro- 
duction, pays the following tribute to the memory of 
Dr. Richard Murray. 

" I am indebted for assistance on this subject, par- 
ticularly for more elegant demonstrations of the 20th 
and 38th theorems, to the Rev. Richard Murray, 
who was for many years our Professor of Mathematics, 



256 PROVOSTS KEARNEY AND HALL. 

and afterwards raised to the Provostship, with the 
unanimous approbation of all who were attached to 
the interests of learning. While he lived, I was not 
allowed to make a public acknowledgment of my 
obligation to him, such was the great modesty of that 
distinguished character." a 

Having with the most exact attention to its best in- 
terests governed this admirable institution for nearly 
five years, he was attacked by a violent disorder, that 
shewed strong nephritic symptoms, and which, as he 
was much advanced in years, left no chance of his re- 
covery. He bore his painful affliction with great resign- 
ation : his death took place in the latter end of 1799- 

Dr. John Kearney succeeded Dr. Murray as Pro- 
vost: he was a native of Dublin, and graduated in 
its University. This Provost was always remarkable for 
his close attention to whatever might be considered 
likely to forward his improvement ; he therefore ad- 
vanced steadily in his course, and obtained a Fellow- 
ship in 1757. In this situation he shewed a great and 
laudable anxiety for the advancement of his pupils, 
and in his senior Fellowship he was no less assiduous 
in attending to his various duties. He has the credit of 
being the first person of consequence who distinguished 
Mr. T. Moore early in his progress through College, 
and justly admired the talents of that elegant poet, for 
whom his friendship continued through life. 

He was appointed provost in 1799> and continued 
to fill that situation with great satisfaction for about 
seven years, being promoted to the Bishopric of Ossory 
in 1806. 

Dr. George Hall succeeded Dr. Kearney in the 
Provostship : he was a native of Cumberland, from the 
vicinity of Whitehaven : he was partly educated at the 
school of St. Bees, in that county, and was brought 
to Ireland by a countryman of his own, to take upon 
him the office of junior assistant at Dr. W. Darby's 
school at Ballygall. After some time he got himself ad- 
mitted in the College of Dublin, in which he proved 
himself a most exemplary student. His friends finding 

a Vide Elrington's Euclid, early edition. 



PROVOST ELRTNGTON. 57 

he made good progress in his studies, advised him to 
read for Fellowship. He took their advice, and in his 
third or junior sophister year he began seriously the 
Fellowship course, and in 1777 ne was elected, the 
senior of two successful candidates, the other being 
Dr. Arthur Brown, afterwards M.P. for the College, 
and Attorney-General. Dr. Hall, while junior Fellow, 
had a great number of pupils, for whose improvement 
he was most assiduous. He became Professor of Natural 
Philosophy, and on the promotion of Dr. Kearney, he 
was appointed Provost in 1806. He was considered 
a very elegant classical scholar : he encouraged poetry 
and other branches of polite literature, to which he 
was very partial. In person he was tall and erect, with 
a very grave countenance, but great amenity of man- 
ners. He was considered a very good Provost. 

In 1811 he was appointed Bishop of Dromore, and 
consecrated in the College chapel, but having been 
somewhat unwell for a few weeks previously, the exer- 
tion and agitation* consequent upon this very serious 
ceremony, almost exhausted his strength ; he became 
worse on the following day, and his friend Dr. Robert 
Percival was called in, who gave him such advice as, 
had he attended to it, most likely would have saved 
him ; but, like many others, he had too little faith in 
the usefulness of medicine; he neglected the advice, 
though he had the very highest esteem for his adviser. 
His illness increased; the third day an inflammation 
had seized his throat, which, as he was of a constitution 
that would not bend to the remedies administered, de- 
scended gradually into his chest, and terminated 
fatally on the seventh day from his consecration. 

Dr. Thomas Elrington, a native of the county of 
Dublin, succeeded Dr. Hall in the provostship, Fe- 
bruary, 1811. He had been educated in the Uni- 
versity, where he obtained a foundation scholarship in 
1778, and in 1781 was elected a Fellow. He was co- 
opted in 1795, in the room of Dr. Murray, and ac- 
cepted the College rectory of Ardtrea, in December, 

a The author was present on that occasion, and ever}' one observed 
that Dr. Hall was greatly agitated by this very solemn ceremony. 

S 



258 PROVOST ELRINGTON. 

1806: six years afterwards he was appointed Provost. 
In 1820, he was consecrated Bishop of Limerick, 
and in 1822, translated to the see of Leighlin and 
Ferns. He died in the spring of 1837. 

In March following, a public meeting of the clergy 
and laity was held at Messrs. Milliken's, Grafton 
Street, Dublin, to consider the best mode of keep- 
ing in perpetual remembrance, the virtues and learn- 
ing of this distinguished prelate. In this assembly, 
resolutions were passed, which, as they were equally 
honourable to the feelings of gentlemen who com- 
posed that meeting, as to the memory of their late 
Right Reverend and lamented friend, we cannot in 
common historical justice decline laying before our 
readers ; for although in the mass of the general history, 
such details of private character might, to many, 
appear to be misplaced, yet in this portion of the 
work, which is devoted specially to describe the con- 
duct and character of each governor of this college, 
the privilege is claimed to give true copies of the re- 
cords which express, in terms most unequivocal, the 
genuine sentiments of admiration and regret of large 
assemblies of educated men publicly convened to give 
expression to their feelings of esteem and reverence 
for their deceased friend, and of deep regret for his 
loss. On these solemn occasions, sincerity of purpose 
is predominant, and we may, therefore, fairly conclude 
that the representation then adopted is as faithful a 
portrait of the departed friend's character and worth, 
as human means can display. Any further speculations 
upon the subject are no longer required, as the au- 
thor can fortunately place before his readers the fol- 
lowing verbatim copy of the resolutions passed on that 
occasion, viz. 

Resolved, " That in the opinion of this meeting 
the conduct of the late highly respected Bishop of 
Ferns was distinguished by an earnest desire and en- 
deavour to do substantial good, without needless dis- 
play or ostentation, especially by implanting and 
strengthening in the minds of all with whom he was at 
any time connected, whether those of future candidates 



PROVOST ELRINGTON. 259 

for the ministry, or those of actual ministers of the 
church, or those of members of the church in general, a 
well founded belief in the truth and doctrines of our 
holy religion, and a steady attachment to its primitive 
institutions, according to the form of Christianity 
established in the united Churches of England and 
Ireland. 

" That such a monument appears to us most ap- 
propriate to his character, and best calculated to do 
becoming honour to his memory, as shall be formed 
upon the principle of carrying forward those solid 
religious benefits, which he was indefatigable in pro- 
moting during his life ; a mode of testifying respect to 
which this meeting is more inclined, by a consideration 
of the excellent personal representation of the late 
prelate, which already adorns the college library. 

" That for the foregoing purpose it is desirable to in- 
stitute an annual prize for one or more of the best 
Theological Essays, composed by Bachelors of Arts of 
Trinity College, Dublin, of not more than three years' 
standing. 

" That the subjects of the Essays be such as may 
direct the minds of the competitors to those topics in 
particular which were either discussed in the pub- 
lished works of the late Bishop, or were prominent 
objects of his solicitude. For example, the evidences 
of our holy religion. The constitution of the Chris- 
tian Church. The Scriptural character of the doc- 
trines, and the Apostolical polity of our own Church. 
The necessity and the validity of her orders, and the 
just claims and solemn engagements of her ministers. 

" That this prize be denominated * The Elrington 
Theological Prize:' that the subjects be proposed and 
the prizes awarded by the Lord Bishop of Ferns, the 
Provost of Trinity College, and the Regius Professor of 
Divinity, all for the time being, in such way as they shall 
arrange among themselves. That the Essay or Essays 
be read in the College Hall, at such time as the Pro- 
vost shall appoint, and that the prize consist of a se- 
lection of standard theological works, of which the 
publications of the Bishop, if attainable, as we trust 

s 2 



260 PROVOSTS KYLE AND LLOYD. 

they will be rendered by tbe filial piety of the present 
Regius Professor of Divinity, shall at all times form 
a part." This prize cannot be obtained more than 
once by the same candidate a . 

The author cannot let this opportunity pass without 
acknowledging the friendly attention he received from 
Dr. Elrington in the commencement of this work, 
(1817 and 1818,) when he began to collect the 
materials preparatory to commencing the MS. copy, 
and for which kindness he must ever feel a grateful 
recollection. 

Dr. Samuel Kyle, D.D., was appointed to succeed 
Dr. Elrington in the Provostship in 18^0. Dr. Kyle 
was a native of Londonderry, and was educated in 
this University, where he obtained a foundation 
scholarship in 1819, and in seven years after was 
elected to a fellowship. In 1820, he was co-opted with 
the senior fellows, preparatory to his being made 
Provost, and in 1831 he was created, by King William 
IV., Bishop of Cork and Ross. 

Dr. Bartholomew Lloyd was appointed in 1831, by 
King William IV., to succeed Dr. Kyle, on his pro- 
motion the same year to the united Bishopricks of 
Cork and Ross. 

Dr. Lloyd was a native of Dublin, who, during his 
under-graduate course in this University, gained 
and preserved an elevated position; A.D. 1790, he ob- 
tained a foundation scholarship ; and six years after 
he was elected a junior fellow along with Dr. Richard 
H. Nash ; and having served the junior offices, was 
appointed to the Professorships of Mathematics and 
Natural Philosophy, in both of which departments he 
distinguished himself by the skill and assiduity with 
which he communicated to his classes the various and 
and extensive information required for their instruc- 
tion. 

Dr. Lloyd also enriched the field of science by his 
literary labours. His "Analytic Geometry," and 

a The Essays on the subjects proposed (to be sent in with fictitious 
signatures) are to be given to the Provost, or to the .Regius Professor 
of Divinity, on or before the first of October in each year. 






PROVOST LLOYD. 26 1 

" Mechanical Philosophy," are works of sterling 
merit, being the result of long experience and research, 
directed by a mind peculiarly adapted to these high 
branches of human knowledge ; and it is still more 
gratifying to record of this learned Professor, that on 
his rather unexpected decease in 1837, a meeting 
of the fellows and other members of the University 
w;is hold in College, to express their deep regret at 
the great loss that establishment had sustained by the 
premature death of Provost Lloyd ; and it was then 
unanimously resolved by the meeting, that in com- 
memoration of the talents and virtues of their late dis- 
tinguished Provost, Dr. Bartholomew Lloyd, a sum of 
money should be forthwith subscribed, for the found- 
ing of exhibitions in the University, to promote learn- 
ing in that institution to whose interests his life was de- 
voted. And it was then decided, that the interest of 
the sum subscribed, as well as whatever maybe added 
to it, should be applied to the founding of two ex- 
hibitions of 20 per annum each, to be held for two 
years only. The appointment to them to be held 
each year after the Michaelmas Term examination, 
and to be open to such students only as shall then be in 
the rising Junior Sophister class. To this distinguished 
scholar and very efficient public officer, the author was 
also much indebted for many valuable hints in the col- 
lection of his materials for this work ; and indeed on 
any occasion where the advice of so experienced a 
member of the University might be most required. In 
private life, Dr. Lloyd was one of the best of men in all 
the relations of society, and although he would not allow, 
on any occasion, the duties of public, or domestic life, to 
be neglected, yet his manner was so mild that its effect 
was irresistible ; and when this estimable man was 
removed from all earthly promotion, his loss was deeply 
and extensively felt, both in college and throughout 
society, and in his native city, where his memory will 
long be cherished with the highest regard by all those 
who had the pleasure and advantage of witnessing the 
practical lessons for the conduct of life religious and 



262 PROVOST SADLIER. 

moral which were remarked in the daily habits of 
this excellent man. 

Dr. Franc Sadlier, (D.D.,) was appointed by letters 
patent of Queen Victoria, in 1837, to the provostship. 
Dr. Sadlier is a native of Ireland, who graduated here, 
and gained a foundation scholarship in 1794. He took 
priest's orders and got a living, but after some time 
he became a candidate for a fellowship, which he 
obtained in 1805. He was afterwards appointed Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics, and in the year mentioned 
was selected for the office of Provost, which he still 
enjoys, to the comfort and advantage of this great in- 
stitution, to the true interests of which he has proved 
himself a judicious and active friend, by the promo- 
tion or adoption of several important alterations and 
additions which have been made to the college course 
or system of education which was in use previous to 
his being appointed governor to the University. Dr. 
Sadlier's conduct in other respects has not been, we 
believe, surpassed by any of his able and gifted prede- 
cessors, in their endeavours to promote the welfare, 
temporal and eternal, of all those who were at any time 
connected with the institution over which he so worthily 
presides. Feelings of delicacy prevent the Author 
from saying more at present on this agreeable subject. 

VICE-PROVOSTS. 

The Vice- Provostship is an annual office, for which 
an election is held by the Provost and Fellows, every 
year, on the 20th of November ; but as the office is 
next in dignity and authority to that of Provost, it 
has been customary to re-elect the same person, gene- 
rally the senior of the junior fellows, for several years 
successively. The provost has a negative on the elec- 
tion of the vice-provost but in case of the illness or 
absence of the provost, the seven senior fellows may 
appoint a vice-provost, who is to be sworn before the 
senior dean, and he may hold the office until the 
20th of the following November ; as if he had been 
elected with the provost's consent. 






VICE -PROVOSTS, PROCTORS, DEANS. 263 



VICE- PROVOSTS SINCE 1660. 



1660 Nathan Hoyle, D.D. 
1061 Joshua Cowley. 
1662 Richard Lingard, D.D. 
1666 Patrick Sheridan. 
1668 Benjamin Phipps, D.D. 

1670 Joseph Wilkins, D.D. 

1671 Henry Styles, LL.D. 

1673 John Fitzgerald. 

1674 William Palliser. 

1675 Henry Styles, LL.D. 

1686 George Mercer, M.D. 

1687 Richard Acton, D.D. 
1691 George Browne, D.D. 

1695 John Barton, D.D. 

1696 Richard Reader, D.D. 



1697 John Hall, D.D. 
1713 Richard Baldwin, D.D. 
1716 Claude Gilbert, D.D. 
1735 John El wood, LL.D. 
1739 Robert Shawe, D.D. 
1742 Henry Clarke, D.D. 
1745 John Pellesier, D.D. 
1 753 William Clement, M.D. 
1782 Richard Murray, D.D. 
1795 John Kearney, D.D. 
1799 Gerald Fitzgerald, D.D. 
1806 John Barrett, D.D. 
1821 Francis Hodgkinson, LL.D. 
Thomas Prior, D.D. 



THE PROCTORS. 

The college proctors are two officers annually chosen 
from among the senior and junior fellows. The 
senior proctor is moderator in the Philosophy Acts 
for the Masters of Arts, as the junior proctor is for 
Bachelors ; the senior proctor supplicates the grace of 
the senate only for the degree of Master of Arts, the 
junior proctor supplicates the grace for the degree of 
Bachelor. It is the duty of the senior proctor to read 
the writ authorizing the holding an election for bur- 
gesses to serve in Parliament for the University. 

The Proctors are sworn before the Vice-Chancellor 
at commencements. 

THE DEANS. 

These two officers, like the preceding, are annually 
selected, one from the senior, the other from the junior 
fellows, on the 20th November. The deans have the 
general superintendence of the morals of the students, 
and especially to compel proper attendance upon col- 
lege duties. The senior dean superintends the at- 
tendance of the junior fellows and masters, at night 
roll, chapel, commons, &c. The junior dean has 
similar attention to bestow on the undergraduates 



264 OFFICERS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

and Bachelors of Arts, whilst the Provost and 
Vice-Provost exercise a corresponding authority over 
the senior fellows, Doctors and Bachelors in Divinity. 

THE SENIOR LECTURER. 

This officer is chosen on the same day as the dean, 
from the senior fellows. The duty of this officer is to 
superintend the attendance of the students at the 
lectures and examinations, and to keep a faithful re- 
cord of their merits or defects in these matters. It is 
his duty also to solicit videre ut prcelectores, inferiores 
singuli locum tempusque prcelegendi quotidie et dili- 
genter obeatiL 

THE CENSOR. 

The duty of the censor is to impose exercises and 
duties upon such students as have incurred academic 
censures in commutation for pecuniary fines. 

This office was instituted hy the provost and fel- 
lows, in 1723, and they appoint to the office a junior 
fellow. 

REGISTRAR OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

The period when this officer was first regularly ap- 
pointed is not clearly ascertained, as it appears that 
for several years the provost kept a record or minutes 
of the proceedings. The inconvenience of that mode, 
suggested the propriety of electing one of the fellows 
to do that duty. 

REGISTRAR OF THE UNIVERSITY ELECTORS. 

This office dates its origin from a very late period. It 
arose out of the Reform Bill, and was created in 1832, 
for the purpose of having a correct register kept of 
the names and qualifications of those persons who, at 
that period, had obtained the right of voting at the 
elections for college representative to Parliament. The 
registrar also receives the annual payments specified 
in the Irish Reform Bill, that payment being neces- 
sary to preserve the privilege of an elector. 






PERSONAL RANK IN COLLEGE. 



THE ORDERS OF PERSONS, OR PERSONAL RANK IN 
COLLEGE. 

In this University there are eight degrees of rank 
or personal condition: the first of these is " THE PRO- 
VOST," who is the head of the college. This dignitary 
must be in Holy Orders, and a Doctor, or at least a 
Bachelor, in Divinity, not less that thirty years of age. 
Since the passing of the statutes (Charles I.) there have 
been two lay provosts, who held their office by special 
dispensation from the king. 

Fellows. They are all bound to take priests' 
orders within three years after their being admitted to 
the degree of A.M., except three; one of these is 
elected Medicus, by the provost and senior fellows, and 
adopts the profession of physic, the other two are 
elected Jurista Juris Ci mil's and Jurista Juris Anglici; 
these two are devoted to the profession of the bar. 

Noblemen, sons of Noblemen, and Baronets, 
who are matriculated as such, under the titles of 
Nobilis, Filius Nobilis and Eques, are entitled to the 
degree of A. 13. in two years after admission, on keep- 
ing two term examinations in each year. 

Fellow Commoners. Who have the privilege of 
dining at the fellows' table. The number of terms re- 
quired of them for the degree of A.B., is two less 
than those required of pensioners. In this University, 
qualifications of parentage or fortune are not required 
for those who wish to enter into this rank. 

Pensioners and Scholars. The pensioners pay for 
their rooms and commons. The scholars are on the 
foundation, and have their commons free of expense, 
and their rooms for half the charge paid by the other 
pensioners : they pay for tuition, but are exempt from 
college charges of decrements, and receive from the 
college an annual exhibition. They hold their scholar- 
ships until they become, or might have become, 
Masters of Arts. 

Sizars. This rank is composed of young men 



266 PERSONAL RANK IN COLLEGE. 

whose means are generally much more limited than 
their talents ; therefore, intellectually, their rank is a 
high one, as the number of very eminent men who 
have come from this class sufficiently testifies. Indeed, 
most of the University honours and rewards, even 
many fellowships, are obtained by pensioners and 
sizars, but the examinations of the latter are still 
more stringent than those of the pensioners. 

The Sizars have their commons, and often their 
chambers free of expense ; they are likewise exempt 
from all college and tutors' fees. They were formerly 
nominated by the fellows and the provost, so long as 
they did not exceed thirty persons, but for several 
years past they have been elected at the public en- 
trance examinations. The number of sizars was 
thirty, six more have been added by the college. 

Doctors in the three faculties, Bachelors in Di- 
vinity, and Masters of Arts, whose names are on 
the college books, may dine at the fellows' table, and 
hold the same rank as the fellow commoners. 

Bachelors in Civil Law and Physic, and Bachelors 
of Arts, are not obliged to keep their names on 
the college books, if their object be merely to proceed 
to a higher degree, but if they intend by that degree 
the privilege of voting in the election of burgesses for 
the University, they must keep their names on the 
books at the expense of twenty shillings per annum a . 

a By the Stamp Act, 5 & 6 Viet. c. 82, a duty of 3 is im- 
posed upon the admission of any person to the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts, and of 6 upon any person admitted to any other degree. 
But if conferred by special grace, royal mandate, patent of nobility, 
or in any other form out of the ordinary course, and conferring any 
right of election in the University, the duty payable is <lO. This 
Act also imposes a duty of 3 upon the testimonial or certificate 
of admission of any person to the degree of Bachelor of Arts ; and 
a duty of 10 upon the testimonial or certificate of the admission of 
any other person to any other degree. These duties, it should be ob- 
served, are in addition to the charges for each degree already stated. 
This Act, however, will only continue in force for three years ; this 
Bill will consequently cease and determine in 1845, unless re- 
enacted. 



FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 267 

CHAPTER VIII. 

SECTION I. 

THE following list of fellows, from the foundation of 
the college to 1660, was copied from some MSS. which 
were in the handwriting of the late Dr. Barrett, Vice- 
Provost, and Professor of the Oriental languages, &c., 
&c., that very learned and no less singular man, having 
greatly favoured the author in collecting his materials 
for this work, many of which it is possible he might 
not have been able to discover, and others it would 
have cost him great labour to obtain, but for the 
kindness of that reverend gentleman, whose richly 
stored mind seemed to be an inexhaustible fund, from 
whence he could at pleasure draw copious information 
on all literary subjects, and the authors of every age 
and country. Under so experienced a director, the 
author felt the utmost confidence in proceeding ; and 
all the facts connected with this history, of which he 
has since acquired accurate knowledge, constantly cor- 
roborate the truth of Dr. Barrett's information. This 
list was copied verbatim et literatim for the first time by 
the author, under the learned doctor's inspection, who 
expressed himself satisfied with its correctness, con- 
sequently the original style of the writing is retained, 
as it might make the subject more interesting to some 
of our readers. 

In 1591, Queen Elizabeth granted a charter, as al- 
ready stated, founding Trinity College, Dublin ; and 
appointed (nomine pluriutn) three fellows, viz., 1st. 
Henry Ussher, then Archdeacon of Dublin a ; 2nd. 
Luke Challenor, one of the Chapter of St. Patrick, 
being Prebend of Mullahiddert ; 3rd. Lancelot Monie, 
or Moyne, one of the Chapter of Christ Church, be- 
ing the prebendary of St. John's. 

In 1593, the college being opened, and the fellows 

a Archbishop of Ardrnagh in 1595, uncle to James Ussher, and 
father to Robert Ussher, Provost in 1G29. 



268 FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

increased to four, whose names were Luke Challenor, 
Launcelot Monie, James Fullarton 3 and James Hamil- 
ton, Henry Ussher having resigned. At the number 
of four, the fellows continued for a few years, when the 
number began to be increased, the college having received 
an addition of property from the forfeitures in Ulster 
and Munster, and in the space of five or six years was 
raised to sixteen, who were divided into seven seniors, 
and nine juniors. At this number it continued until 
1697-98, when one junior was added. In January, 
172^, three juniors were added by act of parliament, 
and in 1768, two more by statute ; and still later three 
more by a king's letter ; so that the total number is 
seven seniors and eighteen juniors b . 

From the year 1,593 up to 1610, the following ap- 
pear to have been elected to the fellowships which had 
either become vacant, or were added to the original 
number. 

Matthias Holmes and Gulielmus Daniel , appear 
to have been made junior fellows in the places of Luke 
Challenor and Launcelot Monie, whose places had 
become vacant by death or standing, as the fellowships 
were not then tenable for life, but for seven years 
only. 

The others who followed, as it appears in an old 
register, written by Provosts Alvey and Sir W. Temple, 
were Charles Dun, John Brereton, Abell Walshe 
(Dean of Tuam), James Ussher d , George Lee (Dean 
of Cork), James Boyd, John Richardson e , Edwarde 
Kinge, and Matt, or George Lee. 

About September, 1598, the rebellion broke out in 
the south of Ireland, where the property granted by 

a Afterwards knighted. Tutor to Archbishop James Ussher. He 
was afterwards raised to the Irish peerage, by the title of Viscount 
Clan-a-bois. 

b He completed the translation of the New Testament into Irish, 
Dublin, 1602 ; likewise the book of Common Prayer, Dublin, 1608. 

c Vice-Chancellor of the University, 1612. 

d Primate, 1624. See a complete edition of his works, edited by 
C. R. Ellington, D.D., from the University press. 

e A fellowship has been founded from the profits of estates left by 
him when Bishop of Ardmagh. 



FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 269 

Queen Elizabeth lay. Soon after this Holmes died, 
and Fullarton and Hamilton left Ireland. 

In 1601, the first commencement was held in this 
college, on the day previous to that on which the 
Earl of Essex, its Chancellor, the unfortunate favourite 
of Elizabeth, was beheaded. 

We come now to the year 1609, when Joshua Hoyle 
was elected, from which time the names and dates are 
more certain. 

March 7th, 1610. Ambrose Ussher a , Anthony 
Martin b , Edward Hill, John Winche, Henry Bour- 
chier, Isaac Lally, T. Smith, W. Phillips, Mr. Egerton 
(John), Mr. Pillen (Thomas), John Robinson, Josias 
Frythe, Thomas Lydiate , Sir Chappell, Sir Holditch, 
Sir Travers, Sir Cock, and Mr. Bird (William), were 
chosen Fellows. 1611. Robert Ussher and Edward 
Donnellan; the latter resigned and was re-elected IQth 
August, 1612, and on the 26th following. 

1612, August 26th. Mr. Warner (Edward), Mr. 
Piddock, and James Donnellan d were elected. A.D. 
1615, October 21st, Mr. Pikeman chosen Fellow. 

16 15, November 2Sth. Mr. Jones, Mr. Taylor 
(Benjamin), Mr. Wainright, Mr. Ram, Sir Smith, and 
Sir Damat, chosen Fellows. 

1617, October 31st. Mr. Binns, Sir Peyton, Sir 
Paget, Sir Eustace (Maurice) % Sir Hoyle, Sir Jen- 
nings, and Sir Maxwell f , chosen Junior Fellows ; and 
on February 2nd, following, Mr. Goldsmith appears 
to be, with the last Sir of the above, a Junior Fellow. 

1617-18. The Senior Fellows then were Mr. Ussher 
(Robert), Mr. Pikeman, Mr. Jones, Mr. Taylor, Mr. 
Ram, Mr. Wainright, Mr. Binns ; in all seven ; and 
it is further noted that Mr. Martin and Mr. Egerton 
having left their places, there were two vacancies to 

a Brother to the Primate, a celebrated Oriental scholar. Amongst 
his MSS. in the college library, is his English Version of the Bible, 
made before our authorized version ; it is dedicated to King James I. 

b Bishop of Meath, 1625. Provost, 1645. 

c An eminent divine and voluminous writer on Chronology, 
enumerated in Watts's Bibloth. Britan. Part 1. 625. 

A M.P. for the University in 1628. 

e Speaker of the House of Commons afterwards Lord Chan- 
cellor. 

f Bishop of Kilmore, 1643 ; of Ardagh, in 1661. 



270 FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

be filled up at the next election. Those, with the 
above fourteen, make up sixteen, so that we find all 
the fellowships were now sixteen. 

1618, October 24th, Sir Temple a , and Sir Kelly b 
chosen junior Fellows. 26th, Sir Brodley, sen., and Sir 
Brodley, jun., chosen Fellows; and on July 27th, 1619, 
the names of the Fellows stood thus : 

{Mr. Ussher, Mr. Pikeman, Mr. Jones, 
Mr. Wainright, Mr. Paget, and Mr. 
Hoile, or Hoyle. 

{Mr. Jennings, Mr. Goldsmith, Mr, 
Brodley, sen., Mr. Brodley, jun., Sir 
Temple and Sir Kelly. 

1619, October 25th, Mr. Goldsmith chosen; itwould 
seem as if there were two Fellows of 'this name. 

1620, December 6th, Mr. Reese, Charles Johnson, 
John Morton, John Garrold, and Thomas Temple , 
chosen Fellows. 

1622, May 6th, Mr. Wiggets, Mr. Johnson, Mr. 
Lynch, and Sir Mallory, chosen Fellows. 

1 624, November 6th, Mr. Flood or Floyd, Mr. Parry d , 
Mr. Travers 6 , Mr. Jones, Mr. Thomas, and Sir Fitz- 
gerald^ chosen Fellows. 

1626, May 8th, Mr. Ware, Mr. Adams (Ranulph), 
Sir Jordan g , Sir Lysaght, Sir Price (Thomas) h , Sir 
Parry, chosen and admitted Fellows. 

In 1626, therefore the Fellows were (probably) the 
nine juniors, viz., Wm, Travers, David Thomas, Win. 
Gerrald or Fitzgerald, Richard Jordan, Thady Ly- 
saght, John Floyd, John Johnson, Edward Parry, arid 
Nathaniel Lynch. 

In June, 1626, Provost Temple died, and this was 
(in all probability) the list at that time. 

a Master of the Rolls, son of Provost Temple. 

b He translated some Irish MSS. into Latin ; these are in the 
library. 

c Younger son of Provost Temple. 

<* Bishop of Killaloe, 1647. 

Rector of Clonfeacle, 1630, acted as senior Fellow and Vice- 
Provost during the Parliamentary Usurpation. 

f M.P. for the University. 

s Vice-Provost, 1631. 

h Bishop of Kildare, 1660; Archbishop of Cashel, 1667. 



FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 27 1 

In 1626-27, Randall Ince, chosen Fellow, also 
George (Nottingham, and Thomas Vesey, made Fel- 
lows, by mandamus, but this mandamus was probably 
withdrawn. 

1628, November, Richard Brabant, Sir Boswell 
(Dudley), Sir Walker a (Ethiel), and Sir Meade, 
chosen Fellows. 

1629, September llth, Wm. Ince chosen Fellow; 
died, December, 1635. 

1631, May 28th, John Watson, Mr. Kerdiffe, Sir 
Conway, (by mandamus,) Sir Hoile b , Sir Pleasance, 
Pleasant or Pheasant (Thomas), Sir Cullen, and Sir 
Ware d , elected Fellows. 

1632, William Newman 6 , made a Fellow, by man- 
damus. 

1633-34, January 3 1st, Mr. Baker f (George), Mr. 
Davis, Thomas Secle 8 , elected Fellows. 1636, Alex. 
Hatfield elected ; and in June, 1637, the new charter 
and statutes were introduced, which fixes the day of 
election for Fellows, annually, to Trinity Monday, and 
no interruption of that regular mode of proceeding 
has since occurred, except in some few instances dur- 
ing the reign of Charles I. and Charles II. 

For the purpose of carrying the surrender of the 
old or first charter, and the acceptance of the new, 
strong measures appear to have been adopted ; on the 
18th of April, 1637, and on the 19th May, same year, 
Thomas Marshall and John Harding were made 
senior Fellows, by mandamus, having previously been 
Fellows of an English university. Harding was tutor 
to Lord StraiFord's son, and having vacated his senior 

a Vice-Provost, 1634. 

b Or Hoyle, Vice-Provost (reinstated by a king's letter, 1660). 

c Lord Stratford's Letters, Vol. II. 

d Fourth son of Sir James Ware, sen., and brother to Sir J. Ware, 
Jan., who died 1666. 

e Newman (who had been Chaplain to A. Loftus, Lord Chancellor) 
and R. Conway, were intruded into the Fellowship by Provost Chap- 
pel, but were both deprived by the visitors at a visitation held in 
July, 1636. See page 31. 

f Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, 1660. 

s Provost, 1660 ; Dean of St. Patrick's, 1666. 



FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

Fellowship by accepting a living beyond the statutable 
distance mentioned in his Fellow's oath, the king 
by letters dated March the 3rd, 1639, dispensed with 
the statutes, and ordered him to be restored and re- 
admitted a senior Fellow without taking the oath, and 
also dispensed with the 9th and 10th chapters of the 
statute so far as they related to Dr. Marshall. 

1637, on the 5th of June, Cullen and Davis were 
co-opted senior Fellows, and the under-named were 
elected junior Fellows ; Christopher Buckwith, A.M., 
Wm. Clopton, Robert Cocke, Gilbert Pepper, John 
Garthwaite, and James Bishop, A.B. This was the 
first election to Fellowships under the new charter. 

1637-38, 31st January, Thomas Seele a was made 
a senior Fellow, vice Arthur Ware, who had procured 
from the government a living called Wherrie, in the 
diocese of Meath. At this time the senior Fellows 
were as follows : John Harding, Thomas Marshall, 
Robert Conway, Nathaniel Hoyle, Arthur Ware b , 
Charles Cullen, Christopher Davys, and Thomas 
Seele. (N.B. On that day John Kerdiffe resigned 
his senior Fellowship.) And the junior Fellows were 
Alexander Hatfield, Christopher Buckwith, Wm. 
Clopton, Robert Cocke, Gilbert Pepper, John Garth- 
waite, James Bishop, and one must have been vacant. 
To make up the nine places, this vacancy, and that by 
Seele's co-optation, were filled up on the 21st of May, 
1638, by the election of the two junior Fellows, 
Richard Nichols and Thomas G innings. In this same 
year, on the 28th of June, Hatfield was co-opted, as 
also on July the 18th, Buckwith, in the places pro- 
bably of Cullen and Conwayl 

In 1639, May 4th, I find one John Fubbings, a 
junior fellow, as also Christopher Pepper, on the llth 
of May, 1639, but as Trinity Monday fell in that year 
on June 10th, they could not have been elected, but 
must have been made fellows by mandamus. Also 

a He had accepted the Rectory of Beaulieu or Bewley, which act 
vacated his Fellowship, but on his supplication he was restored by 
the visitors. 

b Who resigned the Fellowship at that time. 



FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 273 

Christopher Pepper seems to have been made, by 
another instance of the same nature, a senior fellow. 
Before February 28, 1639-40, two others also appear 
to have been elected fellows, viz., Percivall and Za- 
chariah Taylor; previous to February, 1639-40, 
Clopton was co-opted. These four, viz., Hatfield, 
Buckwith, Pepper, and Clopton, seem co-opted in 
place of Con way, Cullen, Marshall, and Davis, and 
Robert Cocke appears, November 20, 1640, as senior 
fellow, in place of John Harding. 1 640, William Ray- 
mond, A.M., was elected junior fellow, and with the 
consent of the visitors, George Lovelock was chosen 
to succeed to the next vacancy that should occur. 
This probably was done to prevent appointments by 
mandamus ; but Lovelock never became a fellow. 

In 1641, June 9> the House of Commons (see the 
Journals, June 1641, and at p. 34) inhibited the 
provost and fellows from electing to fellowships and 
scholarships " until further directions therein." This 
is said to have been caused by John Harding and 
other members of the college declining to give evi- 
dence or communicate any information relative to the 
alleged malpractices of Provost Chappel and others 
in the college, during Lord Strafford's government; 
their excuse was, that they were prohibited by cap. 
xi. of the statutes. Harding was a creature of the 
Lord Deputy and Chappel. 

In 1642, November 20, Mr. Gilbert Pepper was 
senior fellow; and in 1643, November 20, Thomas 
Locke, a junior fellow. 

In 1644, John Kerdiffe % William Raymond, and 
James Bishop, petitioned the Marquis of Ormond, 
then Chancellor, to be made senior fellows, as there 
was not a sufficient number to co-opt them regularly ; 
this was complied with in respect of Kerdiffe, and 
probably of the other two, as the number might thus 
perhaps be rendered sufficient. 

a He had been chaplain to Dr. A. Martin, Bishop of Meath, and 
vacated his fellowship by accepting the College living of Dysert Crete, 
in the diocese of Ardmagh ; from this place he was (by the rebels) 
forced to fly in 1641, and being in great distress, made the application 
as stated above. 



FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

1646, September 1st, by virtue of a king's letter, 
Dr. Anthony Martin, Bishop of Meath, and Provost, 
elected, as junior fellows, Thomas Vale, Richard 
Coghlan, Roger Boyle a , and Daniel Neilan b . On the 
29th of October, 1646, the Board allowed the excuse 
of Mr. Clopton, Senior Fellow, for absence. 

In June, 1647> Dublin was surrendered to the 
English Parliament, at which time there were as 
seniors, Seele, Kerdiffe, Bishop, Raymond, Locke", 
Clopton, and Cocke ; and as juniors, Fubbings, Per- 
cevall, G innings, (all absent,) Vale, Coghlan, Boyle, 
Neilan, two either vacant places, or the names of the 
occupiers unknown ; and on the 20th of October, 
164*7, Richard Coghlan was expelled by the provost 
and senior fellows. 

In 1648, (August 30,) the Provost vacated Mr. 
Robert Cocke's senior fellowship, for seven years' 
absence, there not being now enough of senior fellows 
to discharge the official duties ; and as on Mr. Ray- 
mond's intended departure from college, there would 
not have remained four senior fellows to concur with 
the Provost, and thus the elective power would have 
been lost. On this occasion, therefore, the three senior 
of the junior fellows, Fubbings, Percevall, and Gin- 
nings, were passed over, being absent, and the fourth, 
Thomas Vale, was co-opted. 

In July, 1650, Provost Martin died of the plague, 
then raging in Dublin ; and in a few months after, 
by an order of Oliver Cromwell, Dr. Samuel Winter 
was made Provost, and several fellows were made by 
order of the Commissioners of Parliament d , viz., 
Corbet, Edmond Ludlow, William Fleetwood, and 
Isaac Jones (Colonel). But all the official acts of this 
Provost and Board, during the usurpation, were re- 

a Dean of Cork, 1662; Bishop of Down and Connor, 1667 ; of 
Clogher, 1672. 

b Dean of St. Cannice, 1667. 

c Chosen civilian at this time. 

d The following are the names of the fellows thus intruded upon 
the University, the dates of their appointments, for we must not call 
them elections, are not considered very accurate. 1652, Joseph 
Travers, Vice Provost ; Nathaniel Hoyle, V. P.; John Stearne (1659), 






FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

scinded as " illegal " soon after the restoration, and 
the Provost retired into private life. 

In 1660, King Charles II., very soon after his re- 
storation appointed, as we have seen, Thomas Seele 
to the provostship, and the following, by mandamus, 
to be senior fellows % John Steam, M.D. b , Joseph 
Cowley , Richard Lingard d , William Vincent, and 
Patrick Sheridan , the other two being probably, 
Nathaniel Hoyle, and Cesar Williamson. The King 
also appointed the following junior fellows by man- 
damus : Dr. Lambert Gougleman, Benjamin Phipps, 
Thomas Graham, Joseph Wilkins, Laurence White, 
Henry Styles, Richard Adderton, and Patrick Grattan. 

In 1662, the elections were holden in the regular 
manner, when the successful candidates were * Charles 
Cormack, Henry Dodwell f , * Anthony Dopping g , 

* Michael Ward h , and * John Jones. 

In 1663, the following were elected fellows, viz., 

* William Smith 1 , * George Walker, * Henry Maxwell 
or Maxfield. 

In 1664, no election held, as the college means 
were insufficient. 

In 1665, Patrick Sheridan having accepted a living 
(Clonfeacle) resigned, and was restored by mandamus. 

1666, election put off again from want of means. 

resigned in November, (restored 1660;) Myles Symner, or Sumner, 
got a scholarship in 1626, a major in the Parliamentary army, after 
the restoration, continued Professor of Mathematics and auditor 
during life, took the degree of D.D. in 1654. 

1654, Cesar Williamson, Adam Cusack, Edward Veele, B.A., of 
Oxford, William Lackey, John Price, Josiah Winter, Joshua Cowley, 
Gamaliel Marsden, Jos. Scott; 1655, Samuel Mather; 1656, 
Francis Saunders ; 1659, Robert Norbury, Goulburne, and Grimes, 
who was Junior Proctor in 1659. 

a The names printed in Italics are those of laymen ; those marked 
thus *, had obtained foundation scholarships. 

b Founder, and first president of the College of Physicians. 

c Vice-Provost. 

d Vice-Provost, Dean of Lismore, 1666. 

e Vice-Provost, Dean of Connor, Bishop of Cloyne, 1679. 

f Camden Professor at Oxford, 1688. 

g Bishop of Meath, 1681 ; Vice Chancellor. 

h Bishop of Derry; Vice Chancellor, 1682. 

1 Bishop of Kilmore, 169(3. 



276 FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

In 1667, the following were appointed fellows by 
mandamus, viz., John Christian, * Francis Ussher, 
John Fitzgerald a , and Francis or Thomas Sheridan. 

In 1668, William Palliser b was elected fellow in the 
regular way. 

In 1669, * Thomas Ward, (brother of Michael 
Ward,) and James Ryan, elected in like manner. 

In 1670, *Theophilus Teate, and John Pooley , 
were regularly elected, and * George Mercer ', Medicus, 
was put in by mandamus ; he became Vice-Provost, 
and was removed from his college by Archbishop 
Marsh, for being married. 

In 1671, Nathaniel Foy d , Patrick Fitzsimon and 
Tobias Pullen 6 , were duly elected, and William Loyd f , 
was appointed by mandamus. 

In 167^, * Patrick Christian, * Richard Acton g , in- 
stead of Bernand Doyle, * Thomas Wallis, * Philip 
Barber, and * Giles Pooley, were duly elected. 

And in 1673, * George Browne h . It appears that 
from 1671, down to 1701, the fellows were allowed to 
proceed in their elections according to the college sta- 
tutes, except in one or two instances, wherein King 
James II. attempted to compel their sanction to the 
admission of persons wholly unfit for the office, either 
in morals or education. Such persons they very pro- 
perly refused to admit, although they well knew that 

a Dean of Cork. 

b Archbishop of Cashel, 1694. 

c Promoted to the Deanery of St. Canice (Kilkenny), 1674; 
Bishop of Cloyne, 1697; of Raphoe in 1702, In 1709, he was sent 
a prisoner to Dublin Castle, by a vote of the House of Lords, because, 
in his place in Parliament, he protested against the House adjourn- 
ing to a holiday ! 

d He was appointed to the rectory of St. Bride's, Dublin, in 1 678, 
which he held with his fellowship, until made Bishop of Waterford, 
in 1691. He preached very much against popery. 

He first resigned his fellowship on a college living, and in 1682 
was appointed to the deanery of Ferns, translated to the bishopric of 
Cloyne, in 1694, to Dromore in the following year. 

f *He resigned on a college living in 1676, was made Dean of 
Achonry in 1683, and Bishop of Killala in 1690. 

g Vice-Provost in 1688 and following year, when the College was 
occupied as a barrack for popish soldiers. 

h Made Provost in 1695, seepage 247. 






FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 277 

their refusal would bring upon them the marked dis- 
pleasure of that royal bigot ; but we have already 
shewn at pages 51, &c., how very well the guardians 
of this sacred trust conducted themselves on these 
occasions, which were so disgraceful to a British 
monarch, and so deeply fraught with real danger, 
not only to themselves personally, but also to the 
noble institution of which happily they had the super- 
intendence. 

In 1675, a lapse of one year having occurred, * John 
Padmore and Dive Downes were elected ; the latter 
was made Archdeacon of Dublin in 1690, and Bishop 
of Cork in 1699. 

In 1676, * Edward Walkin ton elected ; he became 
Archdeacon of Ossory, and Chaplain to the House of 
Commons in 1683, Bishop of Down and Connor in 
1695. 

In 1677, four fellows were elected, viz., * John Grif- 
fith, who some years after was deprived for absence ; 
* John Barton, who was afterwards Vice-Provost, and 
in 1703, Dean of Ardagh ; * Thomas Smith, who was 
created Bishop of Limerick, and Vice- Chancellor in 
1695 ; and Samuel Foley, who was made Bishop of 
Down and Connor in 1694. (Died in 1695.) 

In 1678, Richard Crumpe was elected, he resigned 
upon the college living of Enniskillen, in 1683. 

In 1679, St. George Ashe* elected ; he was made 
Provost in 1692, Bishop of Cloyne in 1695, of Clogher 
in 1697) an d of Derry in 1716. 

The only fellow chosen in 1681 was Sir Richard 
BulkeleyV 

In the following year, * Benedict Scroggs and 
Thomas Patrickson were elected. The next year 
(1683) Richard Reader was the only fellow elected, 
and he afterwards became Vice- Provost. 

* George Thewles was elected in 1684, with Edward 
Smith ; the latter was Chaplain to King William III., 
Dean of St. Patrick's 1695, and Bishop of Down and 
Connor in 1699. 

a See an account of his writings in Ware. 
*> See Ware's Writers, and Calamy by Rutt. 



#78 FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

In 1685, * John Hall was chosen, he was eventually 
Vice- Provost, and had a college living ; at the same 
time Owen Lloyd or Floyd, for it is given in both 
these forms, was elected, and became Professor of Di- 
vinity : he was promoted to the deanery of Down in 
1709. This is the Mr. Owen Lloyd, who, when 
junior dean of the college, it appears, charged Jo- 
nathan Swift (Dean) and some others with insulting 
him, which charge caused Swift and two others to 
be suspended from the degree of A.B., which they 
had taken, and from the capacity of taking any other, 
and likewise to ask pardon, publicly, of the junior 
dean on their knees, they having acted more violently 
than the others of their party. A circumstance 
which gave the character of vindictiveness to this 
sentence is, that the suspension, or rather deprivation 
of the degree, took place on the last day of November, 
Swift's natal day, when he completed his twenty-first 
year. The Board, however, reconsidered the case, 
and in the month of January following, the suspended 
persons were restored. 

These facts afford the true solution of the animosity 
which Swift entertained towards the University of 
Dublin, and account for his determination to take a 
Master's degree at Oxford. At that period it was 
not unusual to take a degree per specialem gratiam. 
This circumstance therefore, could scarcely be the 
cause of his irritation, and the solution now given 
receives confirmation from the fact, that the Junior 
Dean, for insulting whom, Swift and others were 
punished, was the identical Mr. Owen Lloyd whom he, 
twenty years afterwards, treated with so much severity 
in the " Account of the Duke of Wharton." 

In 1686, * Edward Sayers, and the next year Jere- 
miah Allen were elected. 

In 1688, Bernard Doyle* brought a mandamus, 
which was eventually withdrawn, see pp. 52 and 53. 
Arthur Blennerhesset, or Hasset, put in by mandamus. 

At the June election in 1689, Dr. John Griffith, 
who had leave of absence by a king's letter in 1687, 

a A notorious pander of Lord Tyrconnell's. 






FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 279 

not having returned to his duty, King James II. is- 
sued a mandamus in favour of a person named Arthur 
Green, directing that he should be made a senior fel- 
low, in place of Dr. Griffith. Of this Arthur Green, 
there is no certain information relative to his con- 
nexion with the university. A person named Green 
appears to have obtained a scholarship in 1681, but 
his Christian name is not mentioned, at all events no 
person named Green ever held a fellowship in this in- 
stitution. The Vice- Provost*, (Richard Acton, D.D.,) 
however, refused to obey the despot's mandate, alleg- 
ing, as it is supposed, that Dr. Griffith not having 
been deprived, no senior fellowship was vacant. But 
the faithless monarch, inspired no doubt by the 
wretched spirit of bigotry which swayed all his actions, 
and this evil spirit still further exasperated by his 
treacherous minion, the infamous Tyrconnel, violated 
the solemn promise he made to protect the privileges 
and integrity of this university, as we have shewn at 
page 54, &c. Yet, although the king with an armed 
force did seize the college, and commit several of its 
members to prison soon after the above refusal, these 
tyrannical and unjust proceedings did not deter the in- 
trepid Dr. Acton from presenting a strong remon- 
strance to the king against his majesty's own proceed- 
ings, and did actually preside at a board for the elec- 
tion of officers, on the 20th of November, 1689, from 
which it would appear that he had recovered the pos- 
session of his "freehold," as he properly styled the 
college (in his remonstrance), although surrounded 
by king James's army. 

The annual elections of 1691 were not held, the 
college being occupied as a barrack by the troops of 
King James II. From this time until 1692, there is 
no notice of any election of fellows. The civil wars 
between King William and his father-in-law, once 
more made and kept Ireland a prey to all the horrors 

1 The Provost, Dr. Huntingdon, and some of the Fellows, having 
fled to England in the previous year from the rapacity of King 
James's partisans. In July, 1690, the Provost and Fellows returned 
from England. 



280 FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

of military devastation, which did not fail to give many 
of her cities and towns to flames and desolation, he- 
sides drenching her verdant fields with the blood of 
her hravest children (of both parties). To the van- 
quished it availed not that they possessed courage to face 
their foes in the open field ; it availed not to them that 
(however mistaken) they were led hy the best sympa- 
thies of our nature to compassionate a falling mo- 
narch, and that with a high chivalrous spirit they en- 
deavoured to restore his failing fortunes : even their 
strongly inherent feelings of patriotism, exerted in this 
direful struggle, availed them not, and why ? Because 
their chief wanted courage to lead them against the 
enemy. When he should have charged at their head, 
he slunk off to the rear, and instead of bravely fall- 
ing at the head of his companions in arms, he basely 
fled, in July, 1690, to linger out a dependent existence 
in a cloister, leaving his brave but unfortunate de- 
fenders to the mercy of an exasperated and victorious 
army. 

The dislocation of civil society, consequent to these 
distressing scenes, having been at length reduced to 
some degree of order, the interests of peaceful learn- 
ing again resumed a portion of their former influence, 
and we find in 1692, after a lapse of four years, a re- 
gular election taking place in the college, when Peter 
Brown, Robert Mossem, and William Carr, (Medicus,) 
were the successful candidates. 

In 1693, Benjamin Pratt, (Provost, 1710,) Dean of 
Cork, 1717. * Richard Baldwin, (afterwards Provost,) 
and in the same year Claudius Gilbert*, Professor of 
Divinity, Vice-Provost, 1716, were duly elected. 

In 1694, * John Wetherby, Dean of Cashel, 1710, 
and Nicholas Forster b , were successful. 

In 1696, *John Ehuood, (Jurist,) Vice-Provost, and 
M.P. for the University; * William Tisdall ; * Wil- 
liam Mullart, Dean of Cashel, 1706 ; and Thomas 
Coningsby were elected. 

a Rector of Ardstraa, 1735. He was a considerable benefactor 
to the library. 

b Bishop of Killaloe, 1714; ofRaphoe, 1716. 






FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 281 

In 1697, * William Grattan, William Christmas, 
and *John Dennis, (Medicus.) 

1699, * Anthony Raymond, (Medicus); and * Mat- 
thew French. 

In 1701, * Thomas Squires was appointed by man- 
damus, and William Lloyd by due election. 

1703, *Ranulph Walley, *John Walmsley and Ro- 
bert Howard, Bishop of Killala, 1726 ; of Elphin, 
1729. (Ancestor of Lord Wicklow.) 

1704, * Richard Helsham, (Medicus,) afterwards 
Professor of Natural Philosophy. 

1707, *George Berkley 81 , Dean of Derry, 1724; 
Bishop of Cloyne, 1733. 

1708, * Patrick Delaney, Dean of Down b , and 
Thomas Bindon, Dean of Limerick, 1732. 

1710, *Charles Grattan , John Madden, Dean of 
Kilmore ; and Edward Synge, Bishop of Clonfert, 
1730 ; Ferns, 1733 ; and Elphin, 1740. 

1712, *John Kearney. 

1713, * William Thompson and John Hamilton. 
In 1714, Robert Clayton, Bishop of Killala, 1729 ; 

Cork, 1733; and Clogher, 1745. In 1715, the elec- 
tions were adjourned by a king's letter d . 

1716, *John or Jonathan Rogers, * William Rowan, 
and James Stopford, afterwards Bishop of Cloyne, 
were duly elected. A lapse of four years now occurred 
in the elections merely because no vacancies occurred, 
when, in 

1720, * James King, *John Whitcomb, Bishop of 
Clonfert, 1735 ; Down, 1752 ; Archbishop of Cashel, 

a Celebrated for his metaphysical labours and high moral qualities. 
His works have been published by T. Prior, Esq., in 2 vols. 4to, 1784. 
See Watts's Bibloth. Brit. 

b Very eminent both as a preacher and writer. See Watts, as 
before. 

c Removed for not taking Holy Orders, appointed to the Master- 
ship of Enniskillen School. 

d This lapse in the regular proceedings was caused by the Provost 
and Board having " censured and expelled a student for speaking 
favourably of the decapitation of King Charles I. The government, 
then in the hands of Whigs, caught up this Act as a proof that the 
college was strongly tainted with Jacobitism ! and under this exces- 
sive state of delusion, inhibited all elections during that year. 



282 FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 



and Charles Stewart, Vice-Provost, were ap- 
pointed fellows. 

In 1722, * Robert Shaw, Vice- Provost, and 

* Lambert Hughes, (expelled, 1739-) 

In 1724, *Henry Clarke, Caleb Cartwright, Hugh 
Grattan, Robert Berkley, Benjamin Bacon, Richard 
Dobbs, were elected. 

In 1727, *John Pellissier, and in 1728, Christopher 
Donnelan, *John Obins, * Henry Hamilton, * Edward 
Hudson. 

In 1730, Edward Ford, (killed by a shot accidentally 
fired in the college park,) * Ed ward Molloy. 

In 1731, Marturin Allinet. 

1732,* Wood Gibson, Rector of Cappagh, July, 1750. 

1733, * William Clement, (Medicus,) Vice- Provost, 
and M.P. for the University. 

1734, *John Forster, Rector of Tullyaghnish, 1757- 

1735, *John Lawson, Professor of Divinity, 1753, 
and of Oratory. 

1736, Thomas Forster, *Brabazon Disney, *John 
Whittingham, and *Paul Read. 

1737> Thomas M'Donnell, Rector of Derryvollen, 
1744. 

1738, James Knight was nominated by the Provost, 
(Dr. Baldwin,) and * Francis Stoughton Sullivan was 
duly elected a junior fellow. 

1740, * Henry Mercier, Francis Andrews, (Jurist,) 
and Samuel Holt, and in 1744, *Theaker Wilder, 

* Richard Radcliffe and * Joseph Grace. 

1745, John Boswell. 

1746, * John Stokes was nominated by the Provost, 
(Dr. Bald win,) * Thomas Leland, (translator of Demos- 
thenes, who wrote a History of Ireland, &c.,) and 
William Martin were elected. 

1747, William Andrews. 

1748, *John Hastings. 

1750, * Richard Murray, Vice- Provost, 1782; Pro- 
vost, 1795. 

1751, ^Christopher Hudson, and Hugh Hamilton, 
(Professor of Natural Philosophy,) Dean of Ardmagh, 
1790 ; Bishop of Ossory, 1798. 



FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 283 

His Essay on the existence and attributes of God, 
is a work of deservedly high reputation. He also 
wrote many clever essays, which are published in the 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. 
His work on Conic Sections displays great talent, 
combined with practical knowledge of the subject. 
That work has thus been mentioned by Euler, who 
first noticed it on the continent, in his celebrated 
work, The Analysis of Infinites. He says, " There 
are but three perfect mathematical works, these are 
by Archimedes, Newton, and Hamilton." 

1753, * Thomas Wilson and James Stopford. 

1754, * Robert Law, Rector of Lisneskea, 1766, and 
St. Mary's, Dublin. 

1756, *Gabriel Stokes, Rector of Ardtrea, 1760. 
1757) * Michael Kearney, Professor of History, 
Rector of Tullyaghnish. 

1758, Edward Leigh. 

1759, * William Dobbin, resigned on Enniskillen, 
1768 ; and Patrick Palmer, (Jurist,) Professor of 
Law, in 1766. 

1760, * Henry D'Abzac. 

1761, * Patrick Duigenan, (Jurist,) Professor of 
Laws ; and William Clement. 

1762, John Forsayeth, Archdeacon of Cork; 
* John O'Connor, Rector of Arboe ; and James 
Drought, Professor of Divinity, were elected; and in 
1763, * Joseph Gray don, elected upon the new founda- 
tion; and * Joseph Stock, Bishop of Killala, 1798 ; of 
Waterford, 1810. 

1764, * Henry Ussher, Andrews Professor of As- 
tronomy, and John Kearney, Provost, 1799 ; Bishop 
of Ossory, 1806. 

1765, *Thomas Torrens, and *Gerald Fitzgerald, 
Vice- Provost. 

1766, *William Richardson, and *John Ellison, 
Rector of Clonfeacle, 1783; Rector of Conwal, 
1784. 

1768, *John Waller, Rector of Raigh, 1791. 

1769, *William Hales, Rector of Killeshandra, 
1787. 



284 FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

1770, *George Lewis Shewbridge. 

There occurred a lapse of four years without one 
election, from 1770 until 1774, when * William Day, 
(Rector of Drumragh and Killileagh in 1789,) was 
elected, and in 177-5, * Matthew Young, Professor of 
Natural Philosophy ; Bishop of Clonfert, 1799. 

1776, *Digby Marsh. 

1777, *George Hall, Provost, 1806; Bishop of 
Dromore, 1811 ; and * Arthur Brown, (Jurist,) M.P. 
for the University, and Prime Serjeant. 

1778, *John Barret, Vice-Provost, Professor of 
Oriental Languages, Librarian, and Translator of a 
very ancient Greek MS. of St. Matthew's Gospel, 
&c., 1801. 

1779, * Richard Stack, Rector of Cappagh, and 

* William Hamilton, Rector of Clondevadoge. This 
gentleman was murdered by insurgents, in 1797, at 
the house of Mr. Waller at Sharon. 

1781, John Buck, an Englishman, and * Thomas 
Elrington, Provost, 1811 ; Bishop of Limerick, 1820, 
and Leighlin and Ferns, 1822. 

1782, * Francis Hodgkinson, (Jurist,) Vice- Provost, 
&c., 1804, and * Robert Burrows, Dean of Cork, 1818. 

1784, *John Stack, Rector of Derryvollen, 1791. 

1786, * Richard Graves, Professor of Divinity, 
1814, Dean of Ardagh, and Rector of St. Mary's, 
Dublin. 

1787, * Whitley Stokes, (Medicus,) Lecturer in 
Natural History, 1816 ; Professor of Physic, 1830. 

1788, * William Magee, Professor of Mathematics, 
Dean of Cork, 1813; Bishop of Raphoe, 1819; Arch- 
bishop of Dublin, 1822; and author of the celebrated 
work " On the Atonement." 

1789, * George Miller, nominated by the Provost ; 
Master of Ardmagh School, author of " The Phi- 
losophy of History," &c. 

1790, *John Ussher, * Robert Phipps, (Jurist,) 

* Robert Russell, Rector of Aghalurcher ; and * Joseph 
Stopford, Rector of Conwal, 1810. 

1791, * Agmondisham Vesey Ward, and * John 
Walker. 



FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 28J 

1792, * Thomas Prior, Vice-Provost, 1833 ; and 
Henry Maturin, Rector of Clondevadoge, 1797- 

1794, Cornelius Henry Ussher, Rector of Tully- 
aghnish, 1814. 

1795, * William Davenport, Rector of Clonfeacle, 
1823. 

1796, * Richard Herbert Nash, Rector of Ardstraa, 
Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy ; 
and Bartholomew Lloyd, Provost, 1831. 

1798% * Samuel Kyle, Provost, 1820; Bishop of 
Cork, 1831. 

1799, * William Cotter. 

1800, * James Wilson, Rector of Clonfeacle, 1825; 
* Henry Wray, and * Arthur Henry Kenney, Rector 
of Kilmannan, 1810; Dean of Achonry, 1812; Rector 
of St. Olave's, Borough of South wark, London, 1820. 

1801, Daniel Mooney. 

1805, Francis Sadlier, Provost, 1838; Thomas 
Meredith ; and Charles William Wall, D.D., Professor 
of Oriental Languages, Librarian, Senior Dean, &c. 

1807, Stephen Creagh Sandes, Bishop of Killaloe, 
1831, and Philip Crampton, (Jurist,) Professor of 
Oratory, English and Feudal Law, and Chief Justice 
Common Pleas, Ireland. 

1808, Richard M'Donnell, Bursar and Senior Proctor. 

1809, Charles Hare, D.D. 

1810, Charles Richard Elrington, D.D., Regius 
Professor of Divinity ; Joseph Henderson Singer ; 
and Henry Griffen, (Rector of Clonfeacle.) 

1813, Edward Hinks, (Rector of Ardtrea, 1819; of 
Killileagh, 1826) ; Richard Purdon, and Thomas 
Gannon. 

1814, Thomas Romney Robinson, Rector of Ennis- 
killen. 

a This year the rebellion was raging in Ireland, and had not at- 
tained its highest violence at the usual time for holding the Ex- 
aminations. The election was, therefore, with consent of the visitors, 
postponed until the return of peace. An Act of Parliament, however, 
was obtained for putting off the examinations until the October fol- 
lowing, and to save the charter, the Provost and Senior Fellows pro- 
ceeded to the Hall, on the 30th of May, but there not being any candi- 
dates present, both the election and examinations were deferred to the 
time specified. 



286 FELLOWS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

1817, William Phclan, and James Kennedy, Rector 
of Ardtrea, 1830. 

1819, Henry H. Harte, Rector of Cappagh, 1831. 

1 820, James O'Brien, Archbishop King's Lecturer 
(Divinity), 1833; (Bishop of Ferns and Ossory, 1843.) 

1821, John C. Martin, Rector of Killishandra, 
1829 ; and Charles Boy ton, Rector of Conwal, 1833; 
of Tullyaghnish, 1836 (died 1844). 

1822, Joseph Stack, John Blair Chapman, Rector 
of Ramochy, 1835. 

1823, John Darley, Rector of Arboe, 1832. 

1824, Humphrey Lloyd, D.D., Professor of Natural 
Philosophy, Senior Fellow, and Senior Lecturer, 
1843. 

1825, Mountif or d Long field, (Jurist,) Professor of 
Political Economy, 1833. 

1828, Henry Kingsmill, Rector of Conwal, 1836. 

1829, John Lewis Moore, D.D. ; Sam. John M'Clean. 

1831, Thomas Luby,D.D., G. Sydney Smith, Rector 
of Aghalurcher, 1838; James Hen thorn Todd, D.D. 

1832, John Meade, James M'Cullagh, (Jurist.) 

1834, W. D. Sadlier, (A.M.) 

1835, Andrew Searle Hart, (Jurist.) 

1836, John Toleken, (Medicus,) Thos. M'Neece, 
Charles Graves. 

1837, Samuel Butcher, Joseph Carson. 

1838, John Adam Malet, Robert Vickers Dixon. 
Thomas Stack. 

1839, G. M'Dowell, William Lee. 

1840, J. H. Jellet. 

1841, G. Salmon, W. Roberts. 

1842, George Longfield, A.B. 

1843, William Atkins, A.M., Rector of Tullyaghnish, 
1844 ; Michael Roberts, A.B. 

By the above list, we find that the total number of 
fellows elected in this college, from its foundation in 
1591 to the present time, (1843,) a period of 253 years, 
is 387, or a ver y small fraction more than three fellows 
per two years ; a number barely sufficient to fill the se- 
veral college offices, and give instruction to the va- 



JUNIOR FELLOWS' OCCUPATIONS. 287 

rious classes: a circumstance seriously to be regretted; 
for with the great and various knowledge they possess, 
(had they leisure to apply their intellectual endow- 
ments practically,) many of these learned men would 
no doubt contribute largely and usefully to the stock 
of knowledge in the arts, sciences, and literature. 
And we think ourselves fairly borne out in this view 
of the subject, by referring to what has already been 
achieved by many persons educated here ; for it is now 
tolerably well known that some of the first literary cha- 
racters in the present and two preceding centuries re- 
ceived their education within the walls of this Uni- 
versity, of which institution many of them were 
fellows. In corroboration of this assertion, we have 
made out a catalogue of the works they have pro- 
duced, which list, though not quite perfect, will afford 
the best evidence on this point, both as to the high 
attainments of the authors, and their industrious exer- 
tions to make those talents and acquirements practically 
useful. 

The number of junior fellows is, therefore, still in- 
sufficient to admit of their performing effectively the 
numerous and very important duties of this institution, 
and at the same time to allow them sufficient leisure 
for the purpose of deliberately combining and direct- 
ing their original thoughts, and of arranging for pub- 
lication the copious knowledge which they are con- 
stantly obtaining through their practical intimacy with 
the best sources of superior intelligence. Their ener- 
gies, however great, must be too much absorbed by 
their educational occupations, to admit them also to 
become authors of new works, which would require, in 
no ordinary degree, continuous and profound thinking. 
Consequently, to those who are correctly acquainted 
with the facts, it is more a subject of surprise than of 
disappointment, that this learned body should have con- 
tributed so much as we find they have done, to the 
stock of superior literature. And we think this fact 
may be fairly brought forward to prove the existence 
of great talents and mental energies amongst the 
members of this learned society ; which qualifications, 



288 FELLOWSHIP EXAMINATIONS. 

had they not been kept in abeyance by the tutors' con- 
stant occupation, would, as may reasonably be sup- 
posed, have produced numerous and valuable additions 
to the literary and scientific riches of the British em- 
pire. 

In corroboration of those opinions, which, indeed, 
are generally entertained amongst the educated class 
in Ireland, it will be requisite to point out the works 
of merit which have been produced by the Fellows of 
this University ; and also those which are the pro- 
ductions of authors who were their pupils at various 
periods of its existence at least so far as it may be 
possible to obtain correct information upon the subject. 
And from such statistics we hope it will be seen that very 
many of the fellows did not look upon the attainment 
of a fellowship, and its emoluments, as the ultimate ob- 
ject of their exertions and ambition ; rational and just 
in their views and principles, they have afforded noble 
and attractive examples, in guiding successive genera- 
tions along those elevated paths of moral, religious, and 
scientific education, which greatly benefit society, 
and often lead to the highest offices under the crown, 
both in church and state. 

That our readers may be enabled to form a correct 
judgment, and therefore to appreciate the degree of 
talent and application necessary to qualify a student 
to become a candidate for the fellowship, it is indis- 
pensable that we should set before them an accurate 
account of the preparation requisite, and process 
adopted at these elections, all which are matters of 
great interest and importance in college, and 
always excite very considerable attention through- 
out society. It need scarcely be mentioned, that all 
those who enter the hall on the day of examination, 
to contend for this distinguished honour, do not suc- 
ceed in that object; and of late years few gain it in 
their first essay: indeed, generally speaking, so nicely 
balanced are the merits of the contending parties, that 
a small degree of superiority often decides the victory. 
Yet those who are unsuccessful derive a certain de- 
gree of credit, and also pecuniary rewards, according 



FELLOWSHIP EXAMINATIONS. 289 

to their merit in answering*. And so fair and honour- 
able are the principles and practice upon which this 
examination is conducted, that we have never heard, 
in the course of more than forty years' intimate know- 
ledge of this institution, one charge of partiality brought 
against the Board of Examiners. The unsuccessful 
candidates must naturally feel disappointed ; but they 
are too honourable, and have too high a sense of 
propriety, to suffer their feelings to get the better of 
their judgment, or to attribute improper motives to 
any one concerned in the decision. 

The following course of examination will show how 
richly the mind must be prepared for the contest. 

The election of this class of members of the uni- 
versity should be commenced, whenever there is a 
vacancy, (according to the statutes,) on the Wednesday 
immediately preceding Trinity Sunday, and must be 
public on the first, second, and third days ; it is held 
in the great hall of examination, and is always wit- 
nessed by some hundreds of persons, strangers as well 
as inmates of the college, who are greatly interested 
in the proceedings ; the fourth day is private, being 
reserved for Latin composition in prose and verse. 

All the candidates must have taken a Bachelor's de- 
gree in Arts. The subjects of the examination are : 
On the morning of the first day, Logics and Me- 
tapliysics, during which time they are examined in the 
following authors, viz. Bacon's Novum Organum, Ars 
cogitandi, Clericus, Locke, Berkeley, Read, Priestley 
and Harris. 

In the afternoon, all the branches of Mathematics, 
viz. Algebra The whole Theory of Equations 
the text book, viz. Newton's Universal Arithmetic ; 
Hales's Analysis ; Lacroix, Algebre, et complemens 
d' clemens ; Lagrange, sur les resolution des equations 
numeriques. Trigonometry. Woodhouse, Lacroix, 
Hamilton's Conic Sections, Lloyd's Analytic Geo- 
metry. 

Second morning. Natural Philosophy > viz. New- 

a These amount generally to from one to three hundred pounds 
and upward*. See Madden's Prizes, &c. 

U 



290 FELLOWSHIP EXAMINATIONS. 

ton's Principia, (Physical parts,) also his Optics, and 
Lectiones Opticse ; Smith's Optics, and likewise Har- 
ris's ; Robinson's Mechanical Philosophy ; Playfair ; 
Laplace, Systeme du Monde ; Lagrange, Mechanique 
Analytique, Poison Mechanique, and some portion of 
the Mechanique Celeste. 

Second evening. Ethics, viz. Cicero, Crellius, 
Bacon De Augmentis Scieritiarum ; Cumberland De 
Legibus Naturae. Conybeare's Answer to Tyndal ; 
Hutchinson on the Passions, on the Sublime, and on 
Moral Good and Evil ; Bishop King De Origine 
Mali ; Porteus, and Leland ; Butler's Analogy and 
Sermons ; Burlemaqui on Natural Law ; Brown's 
Answer to Shaftesbury ; Warburton on the Divine 
Legation ; Adams's Sermons on the Nature and 
Obligation of Virtue ; Paley on the Nature and Obli- 
gation of an Oath. 

The third morning is occupied with History and 
Chronology. In the first part: Herodotus, Thucydides, 
Livy, Polybius, Plutarch, Montagu on the Causes of 
the Decline of the Roman Republic ; Montesquieu on 
Ancient Republics. In the second part: the chrono- 
logical works of Newton, Beveridge, and Hales. 

The third evening is devoted to the whole series of 
Greek, Latin, and Hebrew literature. 

From the above enumeration it will easily be per- 
ceived that, to succeed in this noble contest, the human 
intellect must be exposed to a very severe trial of its 
power and capacity for comprehending the great prin- 
ciples of human knowledge in their most extensive 
meaning; and of this fact, those persons will be the 
most competent judges, whose minds have undergone 
the highest and most judicious cultivation. 

The unsuccessful parties generally make a second 
effort, and succeed ; others do not try again, but enter 
into one of the learned professions, and here they find 
the great advantage of having answered creditably at 
a fellowship examination. 

The whole of the fellows were originally interdicted 
from matrimonial connexions, under pain of being de- 
prived of their fellowships. 






THE STATUTE OF CELIBACY r . 29 1 

% This portion of the college statutes has been a 
fertile source of controversy and discontent amongst 
the fellows of the University, from the time when the 
original ordinances of Elizabeth were revised and re- 
modelled by Archbishop Laud in 1637, until 1817, 
57 Geo. III., when the Prince Regent, having been 
applied to by some influential parties, took the advice 
of the council of ministers, and caused a statute to be 
framed expressly to put an end to any further doubts 
or misinterpretations as to the privilege of marrying, 
which had been claimed and exercised by many of the 
fellows during the above period ; whilst others of 
them believed that the statutes of this college were 
prohibitory on the subject of matrimony, and similar 
to those of Oxford and Cambridge, in that respect. 
It was high time to establish some certain rule on this 
important business, since we find that a layman, 
George Mercer, M.D., elected 1670, and Vice- Provost, 
was deprived by Archbishop March for being married, 
and Thomas Squire, who had been elected a fellow in 
1701, was deprived of his fellowship for marriage 
some years after, by Provost Peter Browne a , and many 
others were living in a state of clandestine matrimony, 
which necessarily made them subservient to the Pro- 
vosts, who frequently feigned ignorance of these 
connubial acts, until at last they became so frequent, 
that it was no longer considered unstatutable ; and 
Dr. Forsayeth, though an unmarried fellow, had dared 
to question the power of the injunction to celibacy ; 
and he was allowed to be well qualified to judge of 
the meaning of the University statutes. He strenuously 
supported the opinion, that the clause respecting the 
married fellows, only applied to those who were mar- 
ried previous to its enactment. 

Dr. Matthew Young b also held that opinion, and 
confirmed his view of the case by taking a wife ; and 
on being threatened by the Provost with expulsion 
on account of his marriage, he told this superior officer 

a Afterwards Bishop of Cork and Ross. 

b Bishop of Clonfert, 1799. 

L> The Right Hon. John Hely Hutchinson. 

U 2 



THE STATUTE OF CELIBACY. 

that he denied his power in such cases, and defied its 
execution. How the provost got out of the dilemma 
is not recorded, but it is certain that Dr. Young con- 
tinued for several years after this to enjoy his fellow- 
ship, and only resigned it on his being made Bishop 
of Clonfert, by Marquis Cornwallis, in February, 
1799. 

Dr. Franc Sadlier, DJD., the present Provost, 
(1844,) who was elected a fellow in 1805, also main- 
tained the same matrimonial view and interpretation 
of the case as did Dr. Young and others, and this 
Dr. Sadlier did in practice, as well as theoretically. 
The author had the honour, in 1818, of receiving 
from his hands a correct copy of an essay, which he 
wrote at great length, in support of his side of the 
question. It is a very ably drawn up paper, in which 
the reverend doctor fairly shows, that although it may 
be possible that Archbishop Laud may have intended 
to place the fellows of this college under precisely 
similar restrictions, as to marriage, with the fellows of 
Oxford and Cambridge Universities, yet that he has 
not done so in plain intelligible language is evident 
enough on examining the statute of celibacy ; and to 
account for this want of clearness and precise mean- 
ing in the terms used, appears unaccountable, unless 
the primate intended that it should bear a double in- 
terpretation. The statute, however, which superseded 
Laud's, has fixed the subject in a manner so clear 
and precise, as to be quite intelligible to the most 
ordinary capacity. 

The statute of Geo. IV., however, although so de- 
cidedly prohibitory as to its anti -matrimonial object, 
has since had the fate of many other statutes, having 
been consigned to the dust, amongst the abrogated 
parchments of " other days," and has been superseded 
by a statute which was granted to the University by 
Queen Victoria, (shortly after her marriage with Prince 
Albert,) by which the Fellows are allowed the privilege 
of marrying and retaining their Fellowships, and all 
the offices and emoluments connected therewith, in 
the amplest manner that they could desire. 



ARCHITECTURAL DESCRIPTION OF UNIVERSITY. 293 

What the effect of this plenary indulgence in matri- 
monial speculations will be, it seems impossible to 
give a correct opinion : whether it will tend to make 
the University an arena for family compacts, collusion, 
and jobbing, which would render the true interests of 
the University and of superior learning matters of 
secondary consideration, or whether the college duties, 
for that is the only question worthy of attention, will 
be as well and as faithfully performed as they were 
previous to the existence of Queen Victoria's statute, 
time alone can prove. However speculative this matter 
may be, and the author is in possession of weighty ar- 
guments on both sides of the question, yet one thing 
is certain, and acknowledged to be so, which is, the 
honesty of mind and integrity of purpose by which Dr. 
Sadlier and those fellows who supported him in apply- 
ing for that statute were actuated ; and we are quite 
satisfied in believing, that should the disadvantages, 
just hinted at, display themselves unequivocally during 
the government of Dr. Sadlier, this just man and his 
supporters would be among the very first to memorial- 
ize the Crown for the abrogation of this statute. 



CHAPTER IX. 

SECTION I. 
ARCHITECTURAL DESCRIPTION OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

HAVING now given to our readers a concise, though 
we believe a complete and accurate account of the 
various branches of classical and scientific know- 
ledge cultivated in this seat of learning, it is time 
that some account should be given of the archi- 
tectural taste and arrangement of its various build- 
ings, whether constructed for public business or do- 
mestic occupation. 

This noble edifice, which is one of the finest structures 
of its class in Europe, consists at this time of a spacious 
quadrangle upon its original ground plan, with another 



THE PRINCIPAL FRONT. 

added in 1812, and the north and east sides of a new 
quadrangle, composed of handsome buildings, recently 
erected in the College Park, a little to the eastward 
of the great Square and " University Press Office." 

The principal front of the University presents to 
the westward a spacious elevation of the Corinthian 
order, three hundred feet in length and sixty-five feet 
in height ; in fact, it occupies entirely the eastern side 
of College Green. The centre of this facade is 
adorned by four detached columns of the Corinthian 
order, placed on high pedestals ; the capitals of these 
columns are copied from a fine antique type, and 
support a suitable entablature, which is terminated 
by a bold angular pediment. The north and south 
extremities of this front are formed by two pavilions, 
projecting about ten feet from the curtain line ; these 
pavilions are ornamented in the centre by handsome 
Palladian windows, and on the projecting angles by 
coupled pilasters of the order mentioned, supporting 
an attic story surmounted by an elegant balustrade. 
There are some rich wreaths of fruit and flowers 
carved in bold relief above and below the large centre 
window, and the windows in the pavilions. 

Some critics have thought that, in point of architec- 
tural beauty, it would have been better had this struc- 
ture been limited in height to three stories, instead 
of four, which it now has ; others think that the build- 
ing, from its great length, would have appeared mean, 
or of a very commonplace character, as compared to 
what an edifice of this description ought to be, and we 
know that quantity, as opposed to meagerness, is one 
of the essential qualities in architecture, as well as in 
the human figure, and indeed all the fine arts. Be- 
sides this, it would have been absurd to abandon the 
principle of real utility, for one of very questionable 
beauty. Here, however, as it appears to us, the princi- 
ples of beauty and utility have been united with con- 
siderable judgment, and whilst the educated eye looks 
with pleasure upon the elegant and classic character of 
this building, reason is satisfied that a sound discre- 
tion has been exercised on this occasion, in combining 



THE PRINCIPAL FRONT. 295 

solidity with good taste, and propriety with extensive 
usefulness. According to the original plan, the centre 
of this building was to have been crowned by a dome, 
and the absence of so noble a feature in a pile of build- 
ing which reminds us of the classic day of Italian archi- 
tecture, detracts much from the grandeur, and indeed 
fitness of purpose, which characterize this structure. 
Want of sufficient funds was, we believe, the cause of 
that unhappy departure from the original design ; but 
this frustration of a grand design, it is hoped by all who 
take an interest in the prosperity of this seat of learn- 
ing, will not much longer be allowed to remain, for 
critics to hold up as a reproach to the liberality and 
good taste of the governing powers who direct the 
affairs of this University. 

Portland stone is the material of which the columns 
and pilasters which support the entablature of the 
pediment, and of the pavilions, with their enrich- 
ments, is composed, but all the ashlaring of the walls, 
and other parts of the masonry, are of a fine-grained 
granite, neatly wrought, particularly the dressings of 
the windows, arches, &c. This material has been 
quarried in the mountainous district of the county of 
Dublin, where it exists in immense masses of various 
qualities and textures, and can be prepared of any re- 
quired dimensions. 

The centre of this front is perforated by a lofty 
arched entrance, through which you enter the vestibule 
that leads into the grand quadrangle. This vestibule is 
octagonal, about thirty feet in height, where it termi- 
nates in a groined ceilingwhich supports the floor of the 
museum. On the left side, as you enter the vestibule, 
is the porter's lodge, as it is called, and although it is 
but an humble apartment, and its occupants sober and 
discreet men, yet its influence is, by a certain class of 
students, technically known as " Town Haunters," 
considered more depressing and pestiferous than the 
vapours of Trophonius's cave, or those of the celebrated 
Grotto del Can?. When Great Tom has ceased to toll 
the hour of nine, this portal is closed, and then vigil- 
ance puts into activity her sharpest features, that 



96 THE UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. 

none may enter without being " noted down/' Argus 
might be, and it is believed was, deceived by Mer- 
cury's artifices ; but this winged messenger of Olym- 
pus would find it hopeless labour, we opine, to at- 
tempt the spreading of his drowsy influence over the 
dragon-like watchfulness of Argus's Irish descendants 
who guard this classic temple, 

The Museum. On the right side of the vestibule is 
the doorway opening upon the staircase that leads to 
the College Museum of Natural History and Antiqui- 
ties. This is a spacious, well lighted, and finely pro- 
portioned room ; it is sixty feet long, by forty feet wide, 
and thirty feet high, with a deep rich frieze and cor- 
nice. From the latter springs alight and elegant coved 
ceiling, tastefully ornamented with stuccoed pannelling* 

In the museum department, considerable improve- 
ments have taken place within the last thirty years : 
numerous and valuable additions have been made to 
its miscellaneous collection. This museum was com- 
menced shortly after the completion of the grand 
front of the college, and in 1780, William Hamilton, 
A.M., was appointed to its curatorship. The systematic 
arrangement of the cases was originally the work of 
the Rev. Walter Stephens, who made a catalogue of 
the specimens, which was not published until 1807- 
This was corrected, and greatly enlarged in 1818, by 
Dr. Thomas Taylor. From these documents it ap- 
pears that the collection amounted then to 1200 
articles ; to these 200 specimens have been collected 
from Greenland: they were given by the late Sir Charles 
L. Giesecke, Professor of Mineralogy to the Royal 
Dublin Society. 

In 1831 the college purchased Mr. Knox's col- 
lection of minerals : this consists of several series, 
the principal of which is a general collection arranged 
and described by Sir C. L. Giesecke ; the others are 
a collection of rocks, one of Irish a , one of Italian, 
and one of American minerals ; one from the districts 
around Paris, and a diagnostic collection arranged 

a Amongst these are specimens of gold, silver, lead, tin, copper, 
and iron found in Ireland. 



ANCIENT IRISH HARP. 29? 

chromatically ; these amount to about six thousand 
specimens. To these Mr. Graydon's collection of vol- 
canic products has been added, having been pur- 
chased by the college. This portion contains fifteen 
hundred articles ; and the whole collection of minerals 
amounts to more than nine thousand specimens. 

There is also a large collection of the dresses, im- 
plements of war, and others for domestic purposes, 
used by the South Sea Islanders ; the greater part of 
which were collected by Lieutenant Patten, II. N., 
whilst he was circumnavigating with Captain Cooke. 
Dr. Conwell, of the East India Company's service, 
also presented to the museum a collection of East 
India corals, and various other subjects of Natural 
History. A collection of stuffed birds has also been 
accumulating for some time, and at present it amounts 
to more than 250: they are chiefly presents from 
amateur ornithologists. 

The museum also contains several curious coins, 
and many Irish antiquities. These, though not nu- 
merous, are valuable and interesting. Amongst the 
ancient relics of art, are some well deserving atten- 
tion. The chief of these is, certainly, a handsomely 
formed Irish harp of ancient days. It is traditionally 
stated to be the harp of Brien Boroimhe, monarch of 
Ireland, whose army gave a total overthrow to the 
Danish forces, or Ostmen, on Good Friday, in the 
year 1014, at Clontarf, near Dublin; this king 
being slain at the close of the battle. 

Opinions are divided as to the fact of this instru- 
ment being of so early a date, some antiquaries assert- 
ing that the workmanship of the silver ornaments 
upon it afford proof that it is of a later era : the 
question, however, is likely to remain undecided until 
some better evidence shall be brought forward at 
either side a . This harp is 32 inches high at the 

a The following is an account of its pilgrimage, as extracted briefly 
from General Valiancy's " Collectanea." It appears that Donagh, the 
son and successor of Brian Boroimhe, being dethroned by his subjects, 
A.D. 1064, for his crimes, fled to Rome, to obtain expiation of his 



298 CURIOUS RELICS OF ANTIQUITY. 

sounding board, which is of oak, the arms are of red 
sally. There are still a good many silver ornaments 
about it; amongst these is the armorial bearing of "the 
O'Brien " Chief, a this is on the front arm, or staff. 
The instrument has keys and string-holes for twenty- 
eight strings, but the foot-board or pedestal on which 
the sounding board rested has been broken off. 
After almost countless adventures, it was presented to 
this college by the Right Hon. William Conyngham, 
in 1782. 

Other curious relics of antiquity are, the " Charter 
Horn," or drinking cup of the O'Kavanaghs, Princes of 
Leinster, and the silver case in which St. Moling's 
copy of the gospels was kept ; these were presented 
to the college by the late Mr. Kavanagh of Burros in 
Ossory. Here are two handsome brazen vases, one 
found in county Donegal, the other near Gray Abbey, 
county Down ; also an instrument very similar to the 
Etruscan Crotalce. Six of these were found about sixty 
years ago, at Slane, county Meath. A fibula of 
large size and handsome appearance, found near 
Cashel. There are likewise several croziers, spear- 
sins, and carried with him the solid golden crown and the other regalia, 
and this harp, which he laid at the feet of the Pope, Alexander II. 
The wily Italian took them as a demonstration of a full submission of 
the kingdom of Ireland to the see of Rome, and under this very ab- 
surd pretence, Adrian IV., surnamed Brakspeare, an Englishman, 
in his bull for transferring Ireland to Henry II, , alleged this circum- 
stance as one of the principal titles by which he claimed the sove- 
reignty of Ireland. These regalia remained in the Vatican until Cle- 
ment X. sent the Harp, but not the Golden Crown, to Henry VIII. 
with the celebrated cartoons of Raffaelle, and the title of "Defender of 
the Faith." This circumstance of the pope bestowing what he had 
no right to, " the sovereignty of Ireland," upon the king of England, 
who was then one of his vassals, proves any thing but a claim to 
gratitude from the Irish people towards the Roman pontiffs. To be in 
any degree consistent, the " Repealers" should repudiate all subjec- 
tion to the Popes of Rome, as these were the real usurpers who first 
degraded Ireland from its national independence. 

a The Red Hand, palewise, supported by lions. This harp is said 
to be much too small for the class of instruments " that once through 
Tara's Halls the soul of music shed." It is supposed to have been 
one of those which were used by the ecclesiastics at the cathedral 
services, processions, &c. 



NATURAL HISTORY, ETC. 299 

Leads, hatchets, and other weapons, consecrated 
bells, &c., &c. 

Of the fossil remains, the most interesting certainly 
are the skulls, and some other parts of the skeletons, 
and the branching antlers of a species of deer, which 
must at some remote period have been rather numerous 
in Ireland ; but they have become extinct so long 
since, that these remains are all we have to prove 
their former existence. These horns are still occasion- 
ally found in the turf bogs, (peat mosses,) and even 
in meadow land, mostly of the alluvial formation ; 
they generally lie at a depth of from six or seven to 
fifteen feet below the present surface, and are most 
commonly in good preservation. Their length is from 
four to five feet and upwards along their main branch, 
but their extent across is from six to eight or ten 
feet, and we believe there is one at Castle Dillon, the 
seat of the Molyneux family, in the north of Ireland, 
which is twelve feet across from outside to outside of 
the palms at their broadest part, and the weight of 
these last mentioned is above fifty pounds, others 
weigh thirty or forty pounds. 

The present improved state of this interesting re- 
pository is attributed, very justly, to the judicious ap- 
pointment of Dr. Stokes to the office of its curator : 
the choice could scarcely have been better, as the 
event has fully proved. It was also fortunate that Dr. 
Stokes had for a time the assistance of Dr. Thomas 
Taylor, whose intelligence and zeal in geological 
science was allowed to be very extensive. 

The staircase leading up to this apartment is 
spacious, and its walls are adorned with many speci- 
mens of mechanic art and natural history. Amongst 
the latter are the horns of the gigantic Elk or Moose 
Deer, already noticed. A curious specimen of the alli- 
gator tribe. Ancient Irish swords, axes, arrows, and 
other implements of Celtic warfare. The Mohawk war- 
rior. Model of the Giants' Causeway, and some other 
articles have for some time past been placed in the great 
room. The old painting, however, yet remains upon 
the wall. This work of art appears to be nearly coeval 



300 COLLEGE BUILDINGS. 

with the scene it is intended to represent (in 
namely, the fort and harbour of Kinsalc, on the 
south-east coast of Ireland, with the Irish and Spanish 
garrison besieged by the English and Irish army a , 
under the lords Mount] oy and Clanrickard, at the 
moment that the Spanish troops in the field, led by 
Don Alonzo Del Campo, and the Irish forces 
under Tyrone and O'Donnel, made a daring attempt 
to raise the siege, but in which attempt they were de- 
feated with considerable loss ; a circumstance that 
was soon followed by the surrender of Kinsale, and 
eventually by the suppression of Tyrone's rebellion, 
which terminated in a few months after this event. 

The visitor having left the museum, now passes 
through the vestibule, into the great square of the 
college, this fine quadrangle is nearly 600 feet in 
length, from the west entrance to the opposite side 
next the college park, and is about 212 feet in 
breadth : it was formerly divided centrically across 
its length by a range of brick buildings, extending 
from the library towards the refectory or new square. 
Those quadrangles were nearly of equal dimensions, 
the Parliament Square being the larger by about 
twenty yards. The name thus given to this square 
was intended to keep in remembrance the liberal 
grants which the Irish parliament voted toward the 
rebuilding the principal front, and general improve- 
ment of the college buildings. 

The rear of the grand front, above described, forms 
the western boundary of this extensive area, and is 
also built of granite, with a portico, pediment, and 
columns similar to that in front : the north and south 
sides of the original Parliament Square are also con- 
structed with cut granite and equally well wrought 
masonry. These two flanks and the front are divided 
into twelve buildings of four stories each, containing 
nearly 200 apartments, in which several of the fellows 

a It was this portion of the army that so nobly commenced the sub- 
scription mentioned at page 14, which laid the foundation of " that 
superb monument of learning," the Library of the University of 
Dublin. 



THE COLLEGE CHAPEL. 301 

and students arc lodged, and, on the average, each of 
these buildings can accommodate thirty students. There 
are four other buildings, similarly constructed, and 
connected to the east and west sides of the Chapel and 
Examination Hall, which four buildings are ex- 
clusively occupied by senior fellows. Formerly, pre 
vious to the removal of the range of brick buildings 
that separated this from the other quadrangle, called 
the Library Square, the Chapel and Theatre, or Hall, 
which exactly face each other on the north and 
south sides of this quadrangle, were the terminations 
to it. In their external appearance they exactly re- 
semble each other, both being of the Corinthian 
order. Each faade is composed of a portico, of four 
elegantly proportioned columns of the Corinthian 
order, in Portland stone, the capitals of which are 
equally fine with those at the grand entrance ; these 
columns support an angular pediment, formed with 
equally good taste to the other parts, and of similar 
materials. The interior of the Chapel is eighty feet 
in length, exclusive of a semicircular recess, or apsis, 
of thirty-six feet diameter, at the east end: it is 
forty feet broad, and forty-four feet high, having 
an organ loft and gallery over the entrance. In the 
choir are four ranges of seats, rising gradually from 
the aisle to the side walls : the back row, which is the 
highest, is appropriated to the fellows. The walls are 
wainscoted with finely polished oak pannels to the 
height of twelve feet, over which is a broad surbase, 
from which spring the windows ; the piers between 
them are ornamented with coupled pilasters, fluted, 
and of the most enriched Ionic order: these are sur- 
mounted by a very richly ornamented frieze and cor- 
nice. Erom the latter springs the coved and groined 
ceiling, which is tastefully ornamented in stucco, par- 
ticularly the soffits of the elliptic arches, which, alter- 
nating with the groined arches, have a good effect. 
The building was not originally designed to have 
galleries, but the pupils have become so numerous 
that two galleries have been added, running the whole 
length of each side. They are supported by slender 



302 THEATRE OF EXAMINATIONS. 

iron pillars, and have an iron railing in front : their 
appearance is that of a temporary erection, and they do 
not add any thing to the original beauty of the place. 
The organ is a very fine one ; it was put up in 1798. 
The choir was established at the same time. The latter 
is composed chiefly of the same persons who constitute 
the choir of the two cathedrals, and probably is not 
surpassed in science, harmony, or executive power, by 
any similar establishment in the United Kingdom. 
In the ante-chapel is a marble slab with a Latin in- 
scription to the memory of Dr. Newcomb, Primate of 
all Ireland, A.D. 1793. 

The Theatre of Examinations and Lecture Hall, as 
it is called, corresponds in its external appearance ex- 
actly with the chapel, but its interior arrangement is 
very different. In this structure, the pilasters are of 
the composite order : they stand singly on a rustic 
basement, ten feet high. This Hall has not any 
windows in the sides, but receives its light from three 
windows in the circular recess, or apse, at the upper 
end, and from a range of fan-shaped windows placed 
over the cornice, and corresponding with the five 
pannels between the pilasters. On each side, the six 
pilasters that divide the pannels and support the 
frieze and cornice, are handsomely ornamented with 
rich Arabesques without any fluting. From the cornice 
springs the ceiling, very richly ornamented in stucco, 
and coved similarly to the ceiling of the chapel. In 
the five pannels on the east side of the hall are 
placed whole-length portraits in oil : the first is Queen 
Elizabeth, the foundress, in a rich state dress ; the 
others are, Primate Ussher, Archbishop King, Bishop 
Berkley, and Provost Baldwin. In four of the pannels, 
on the opposite side, are, Dean Swift, William Moly- 
neux, Edmund Burke, and Fitzgibbon, Lord Clare. 
In the centre pannel is placed the very fine sculptured 
marble monument of Provost Baldwin. In this work 
the provost is represented in a recumbent position, 
resting on his left elbow, and holding in his hand a 
scroll supposed to represent a will, by which he be- 
queathed his fortune, amounting to near 80,000, to 






PROVOST BALDWIN'S MONUMENT. 303 

this university. His head, which is of a dignified cha- 
racter, is thrown a little backward, and looking up- 
ward with an expression of pious resignation, which is 
admirably represented : the extension of the right 
hand is quite in unison with the turn of the head, and 
leaves nothing wanted to complete the difficult subject. 
A female figure, emblematic of the university, bends 
over him in an attitude and with a countenance ex- 
pressive of the most tender grief; at his feet is an 
angel approaching him, holding in her left hand a 
wreath of palm, and looking on him with a counte- 
nance of ineffable benignity, points up to heaven. 
These figures, with the matress or couch on which they 
are placed, is of fine Carrara marble. Behind the figures 
rises a pyramid of dark-coloured Egyptian porphyry, 
which has a fine effect as a ground to the subject. The 
matress on which the provost reclines is supported by 
a very rich sarcophagus of black and gold marble, sus - 
tained at the lower corner on massive lions' claws ; 
these again, rest on a black marble plinth, which lies 
on a pedestal of the same material : all these are 
highly polished. In contemplating this splendid work 
of art, it is impossible not to be struck with the great 
elegance and propriety of the design : in our judg- 
ment nothing of this kind could be conceived more 
natural, chaste, or unaffected. To the beauty of the 
conception are added correctness in drawing and ele- 
gance of form, the whole conducted with a degree of 
care in the execution suitable to the subject, and which 
throughout displays the hand of the master. In 
sculpture, we have seen very few modern works that 
could rank higher than this, in any of the qualities 
that constitute elevated art. 

This noble work is the production of Mr. Hewet- 
son, a native of Dublin, whose friends sent him to 
Rome, where he executed this monument, the expense 
of which was 2000. We lament to say that this 
artist of genius died in the prime of life, shortly after 
the great powers of his mind had begun to develop 
themselves in his art, which thereby suffered an incal- 
culable loss. 

In the room over the ante-hall, is the old organ, 



304 THE DINING HALL. 

which belonged to the former chapel, and which, tra- 
dition says, was taken in a Spanish ship, and pre- 
sented to the college by the first Duke of Ormond. 
At the opposite side to the theatre, not directly in a line 
with it, but parallel to the chapel, and retired about 
forty feet from the line of its front, stands 

The Refectory, or Dining Hall. This is a de- 
tached building, in the lower part of which are the 
spacious kitchen, cellars, and other offices. It presents 
a handsome front, having an angular pediment, sup- 
ported by six pilasters of the Ionic order. The en- 
trance is approached by a flight of steps, the whole 
length of the front: this has a good effect. In the 
pediment is placed the clock, which strikes the time a 
quarter of an hour later than the town clocks, on purpose 
that the pupils may have an opportunity of getting 
into college in good time to avoid fines, &c. The 
dining room is seventy feet long, thirty-five feet broad, 
and thirty-five feet high ; it is wainscoted with oak 
pannel to the height of twelve feet, finished with a 
scotia moulding. Over this, on the east side, the win- 
dows, four in number, are placed; these are large, 
with semicircular heads, carried quite up to the cor- 
nice. At the north, or upper end, opposite to the en- 
trance, and over the fellows' table, is a Venetian win- 
dow of large dimensions ; these give plenty of light to 
the hall. The west side is without windows, but in- 
stead of them it is ornamented with circular-headed 
flat niches, seven in number. In each of these is 
placed a full-length portrait of some eminent public 
character who has graduated in this college ; they are 
habited in their academical robes, according to the 
degree they may have taken. Most of these post- 
humous paintings were executed during the provost- 
ship of Dr. Elrington, by an artist named Joseph, 
from London, who also painted portraits of Dr. Bar- 
rett and some others of the fellows then living ; for all 
which the artist was much more liberally rewarded 
than the merit of his works could have afforded any 
claim. The niches are finished with broad mouldings 
in stucco, and immediately over them runs a bold den- 
til cornice, of great depth and classic character. 






HISTORICAL SOCIETY'S ROOMS. 305 

From this cornice springs the ceiling, which is coved, 
for about ten feet from the cornice, throughout its 
whole length. The central portion of the ceiling is flat, 
and in it are ornamented apertures, through which are 
suspended large chandeliers. 

The provost, fellows, resident masters, and fel- 
low commoners dine at the tables at the upper (north) 
end of the hall, whilst the scholars and pensioners 
are placed, according to their classes, at the other 
tables ; the sizars a come in and dine at the fellows' 
table, when the latter and the fellow commoners have 
retired from the hall. 

The Historical Society's Rooms. These apartments 
are situated over the vestibule or ante-room of this 
refectory, from which a spacious staircase leads to the 
large room in which the debates are carried on, and 
the other business of the society transacted, for which 
purposes it is sufficiently capacious. Posterior to the 
large room is situated a smaller one, which is used for 
committees, and where refreshments of tea and coffee 
are served to the members. 

Having already given a sketch of this society's his- 
tory, of its rise, progress, fall and resuscitation, we 
have nothing further to add, except a few incidents 
which were overlooked in our notes. 

Several of the junior Fellows, it appears, assisted 
the senior students in drawing up and settling a plan 
for the government of this society, the principal 
features of which are the following : All the Fellows 
were declared to be members ex officio ; all other 
members must be subjected to a ballot. No person 
whose name was not on the college books could be a 
member, nor could any student become a member 
until his junior sophister year. Any member who in- 
curred a college censure, ceased to belong to the 

* Some fastidious persons have objected to this great distinction be- 
tween the sizars and other classes; but it should be known that with- 
out considerable College attainments no one can be a sizar, and as 
their manners and moral conduct generally harmonize with their 
knowledge in arts and sciences, they often attain to great eminence 
in the learned professions. 

X 



306 HISTORICAL SOCIETY'S ROOMS. 

society. Each member, on his admission, paid a very 
moderate subscription. The objects which were es- 
pecially cultivated were History, Poetry and Oratory : 
examinations were held every quarter. On these occa- 
sions, the candidates for historical honours underwent 
a long and strict examination in Ancient and Modern 
History. At this time, also, the compositions in 
poetry were read carefully and compared, and the 
members who had exerted their powers in oratory, on 
the subjects discussed at the weekly meetings, had 
their claims likewise laid before the society; and 
each, in turn, was taken by ballot. Every successful 
candidate was presented by the chairman with a 
silver medal appended to a white ribbon ; on the 
medal was an inscription stating the subject for 
which it was obtained, with the name of the pos- 
sessor. 

At the opening of the society's session in October, 
and on closing it in July, there was always a speech 
delivered from the chair, by one of the most dis- 
tinguished members, who for his exertions received 
the remarkable thanks of the society ; but when this 
speech proved to be very superior in taste and com- 
position, and was delivered in a corresponding style, 
the orator was honoured with a gold medal, and some- 
times they requested him to publish the oration. The 
society had purchased a good collection of books suit- 
able to their purposes : to this stock they continued to 
make additions annually from their surplus fund. 

In 1792, the first of its vicissitudes befel this society. 
In that year, the last but two of Proves! Hutchin- 
son's life, the Board wished to interfere with their 
proceedings on a particular occasion, but that the 
members would not submit to ; the Board then met, and 
by a resolution dissolved the society in college. The 
formation of the once intern society in 1794, and the 
dissolution of the extern society in 1806, have already 
been mentioned ; also the dissolution of the new intern 
society in 1815, and finally its resuscitation in 1844, 
with every appearance of its permanency : for although 
past time cannot be recalled, yet as past errors may 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY'S ROOMS. 307 

by possibility be repeated, the real friends of this very 
interesting and useful society have every hope and 
confidence, that past experience, and consequently 
those just and rational views of the true position 
which it should maintain in the University, will be a 
sufficient guarantee against any recurrence of those 
mistakes by which its utility was checked, and its 
very existence long held in abeyance. We use this 
term advisedly, for it appears that, although twice 
under the ban of college authority, it always preserved 
a real existence, as we find by the speeches delivered 
at the openings and closings of various sessions, 
which have come into our hands occasionally*. (The 
society had chambers out of College.) We very 
much regret not being able to obtain copies of all 
those orations b , but from those which we have seen, 
we are decidedly of opinion, that the true spirit of 
practical improvement in history, poetry, and oratory, 
which characterized the Historical Society in its most 
palmy days , has always, like the "sacred fire," been 

a Only two of those publications are now in the author's hands, 
namely, that of W. Archer Bntler, delivered at the closing of the 
session of 1 834-5 ; and that of William Ribton, on opening the session 
1835-6; both these were justly honoured by the thanks of the 
society. 

b The author had several of these speeches, but having lent the 
greater part of them, has not the advantage of them at present. He 
greatly regrets that one of these publications, a debate on the pro- 
priety of abolishing the punishment of death, has got out of his 
hands ; it was sent to him as "Secretary to the Society for Diffusing In- 
formation on the Criminal Code." The debate was a most interesting 
one, and displayed the true spirit of justice combined with humanity. 

c Well aware of the capabilities and integrity of the judges to 
whose examination their works were to be submitted, the members 
would not venture to deliver a hasty speech, or produce a composi- 
tion not maturely considered. Their close reading and examination of 
all the available authorities, gave them habits of industry; it extended 
their knowledge whilst it concentrated their ideas; it drew them from 
the paths of unmeaning levity and enervating pleasure, to those of 
quiet mental exertion and invigorating knowledge. Within this 
sanctuary were developed and exercised the early efforts of talent 
that in mature years have shone conspicuous in the senate, the pul- 
pit, at the bar, and in the field of military renown, as the names 
of Magee, Moore, Wellington, Spencer, Hutchinson, Plunket, Curran, 
Doyle, Donoghmore, Wellesley, Bushc, and others fully testify. 

x 2 



308 PARLIAMENT SQUARE. 

kept alive nourished, unquestionably, by the remem- 
brance of 

" the mighty dead, 
That rule us from their urns." 

Transferred, therefore, as this noble and ennobling 
spirit will be, into the renovated system of the society, 
we cannot hesitate to believe, that it will prepare and 
send forth into public life numerous men of cultivated 
talents, who will prove themselves to be the legitimate 
and worthy successors of "the great departed," whom 
they so wisely emulate, and whose memories are en- 
rolled amongst the imperishable records of Fame. 

SECTION II. 

When the old Chapel and Hall were taken down 
in 1796, a large space which they occupied was left 
open in the range of brick buildings parallel to the 
front, and which separated the Parliament Square from 
the Library Square. In this space it was intended 
to erect a triumphal arch of the Doric order, with side 
passages. This arch was to have supported a square 
tower with four circular-headed windows, ornamented 
with Corinthian columns and pilasters surmounted by 
colossal urns. In this tower was to have been placed 
the great bell, (which is considered to be the finest in 
Ireland,) and the clock. The whole edifice was to have 
been finished with a lofty obelisk of an octagonal 
form ; but this design is quite given up. 

The old Library Square has merged in the Parlia- 
ment Square ; it was 270 feet long by 220 feet broad, 
bounded on three sides by brick buildings, except the 
opening above mentioned: the south side was formed 
by the north face of the library. The brick build- 
ings in this square were eighteen in number, capable 
of accommodating sixteen pupils each : at No. 32, were 
the rooms which Dodwell and afterwards Oliver Gold- 
smith occupied*. These have recently been pulled 

a A set of chamhers in this huilding was allotted to the late Syd- 
ney Taylor, and George Downes, on their obtaining the foundation 
scholarships ; and in these chamhers were wont to assemble of an 






LIBRARY BUILDINGS. 309 

down and entirely removed ; other buildings, however, 
and in an elegant taste, have been erected in the park 
to accommodate the pupils. 

The Library. This fine edifice was opened in 
1732, having been about twenty years in building ; 
its basement story, except the pavilion at each end, is 
a piazza, or arcade, open to the north and south, but 
divided longitudinally by a wall, which materially 
assists in supporting the immense weight of books in 
the great room. Jn this wall is a door to admit the 
fellows into their garden and promenade, on the 
south side ; the piazza on the north being only for the 
pupils. The walls of this building are of solid brick- 
work, four feet thick, faced originally, except the piers 
of the piazza, with well cut sand-stone, which, though 
perfect in some parts, had suffered so much in general 
from the action of the weather, that the whole of it 
(with the balustrading above the cornice) was re- 
moved and replaced by a new ashlaring of granite, of 
a fine hard texture. The balustrade was renewed with 
a similar kind of stone. The piers and arches of the 
piazza are faced with a black building stone, called 
calpe, found a little to the westward of Dublin. On 
this, though exposed more than 110 years, there is 
not the slightest indication of decay. The plan of 
the building is simple, being merely an extended centre 
terminating at each end in a projecting pavilion, in the 
same taste. The lower part of the eastern pavilion is 
composed of two large apartments, called the Astro- 
mony and Natural Philosophy Schools, being appro- 
priated to the lectures on these two sciences. The 
lower part of the western pavilion is occupied by the 

evening the late Rev. Charles Wolfe, author of the poem on the 
death of Sir John Moore, c., the Rev. Samuel a and the Rev. Mor- 
timer b O'Sullivan, Dr. Dickenson, late Bishop of Meath, A. Russel, 
(Archdeacon of Clogher,) G. A. Grierson, LL.D. and other "premium 
men," to enjoy the feast of reason and the flow of soul, and certainly 
nothing in college life could he more delightful : wit, learning, and 
good humour were the characteristics of those social parties. 

a Author of the work " On Divine Providence." 

b Master of Ardmagh School, and an eminent preacher (now D.D.). 



310 THE GREAT ROOM. 

vestibule and a large room called the Law School, or 
"lending library," in which are deposited the books 
appropriated to that purpose according to the will of 
Dr. Gilbert, for which purpose he bequeathed 2450. 
The collection of books in it now seems to be worth 
more than that sum, which could hardly be expected, 
from the wear and tear of them in the lapse of a cen- 
tury. 

The junior dean has the care of this library: to him 
must those students apply who wish to borrow books, 
and this officer is to receive a deposit to the full value 
of the work, of which he has a priced catalogue : if 
any book lent is spoiled, or not returned within a 
given time, the deposit is forfeited, but if returned ac- 
cording to engagement, there is no expense whatever 
to the borrower. In this room also, the law lectures 
are given, and generally those on divinity ; the examin- 
ations in the latter are also held here. In the vesti- 
bule is the great staircase leading up to the library 
and librarian's room ; this last is outside the great room, 
and exactly over the law school. The staircase is suit- 
able to the magnitude of the building ; it is six feet 
broad, with mahogany balusters, richly carved. At the 
top of this staircase, a pair of large folding doors open 
into the great room. 

The Great Room. On entering this noble apart- 
ment, it is impossible not to be struck with the grandeur 
of the appearance: its length is 210 feet, its breath 
41 feet, height to the ceiling 40 feet : it is divided 
into forty stalls, twenty on each side, with a passage 
in the centre 24 feet wide; the stalls are squares of 
eight feet, each fitted with a window, desks, and seats, 
and two rows of shelves to the height of 26 feet, on 

O 

which the books are deposited. On each side of the 
room are twenty-four pilasters in varnished oak of the 
richest specimen of the Corinthian order, fluted; these 
support the gallery, which is continued all round the 
room. Over the entablature is a handsome range of 
balustrades, divided into equal compartments by con- 
tinuous pedestals rising from each pilaster ; on these 




THE FAGEL LIBRARY, 



THE FAGEL LIBRARY. 311 

pedestals plinths are placed, for the purpose of being 
crowned with white marble busts a of the great literary 
and scientific men, of ancient and modern times. This 
idea, wherever it may have originated, was a good one, 
because it is in harmony with the spirit of the place, 
and in good taste as a matter of architectural and pic- 
torial arrangement, forming a classical and appropriate 
termination to the upper line of this splendid apart- 
ment, which contains above 100,000 printed volumes. 
The line of busts, however, not being complete, se- 
veral of the pedestals remaining still unoccupied, the 
effect we would refer to is of course imperfect, and 
must be so, until a bust shall occupy each pedestal : 
there are at present but few vacancies, and these are 
likely to be occupied at no distant period. At pre- 
sent, there are twenty-five of these stations adorned 
with the busts of Homer, Socrates, Demosthenes, 
Cicero, Aristotle, Plato ; Drs. Baldwin, Clement, 
Gilbert, Lawson and Clayton ; Shakspeare, Milton, 
Francis Bacon, Ussher, Locke, Newton, Swift, Boyle, 
Delany and Parnell. Some of these busts are copies 
from the best antique, and modern sculptures, others 
are originals of late dates, but the greater part are the 
works of Irish sculptors, and do credit to their taste 
and skill as artists. In niches at each side of the 
entrance to this room are white marble busts of the 
Earl of Pembroke and Lord Percy, both of whom 
were students here, and benefactors to the library; 
at the east end, in similar niches, are busts of his Ma- 
jesty King George III., and of the present Duke of 
Cumberland, who is Chancellor of the University. At 
this end, also, are large folding doors to correspond 
with the principal entrance ; these open into the large 
room in the eastern pavilion, in which is arranged 

The Fagel Library. This splendid collection of 
choice literature formerly belonged to the Pensionary 
Fagel, of Holland ; he had been all his life collecting 

a Long since the above MS. was written, this plan has been 
changed, and pedestals have been placed on the floor of the library, 
against the pilasters ; and to these the marble busts have been trans- 
ferred from the gallery above, and some others have been added. 



312 THE MANUSCRIPT ROOM. 

it. When Holland was threatened with a French in- 
vasion, in 1794, he very prudently sent this superb 
selection of books to London, where it was, some years 
afterwards, brought to sale by his heirs. Agents from 
many parts of Europe were authorized to give various 
large sums for it ; even Bonaparte was desirous to add 
this library to the stock of rare literature in France ; 
but this college offered at once 8,000 guineas, British 
currency for it, and they were declared to be the pur- 
chasers*. In the year 1802, the above sum was given 
to the college for this purpose by the trustees of the 
late Erasmus Smith's estates, " bequeathed for chari- 
table uses, and the promotion of learning." 

This apartment is 52 feet long, 24 feet broad, and 
22 feet in height, but without a gallery. The books 
are piled up to the cornice. They number about 
17,600 volumes; many of them are very fine editions, 
and most of them scarce and valuable. This room, 
except in not having a gallery, is fitted up in a manner 
exactly similar to the great room ; the finely wrought 
oak pilasters and ornaments in both are handsomely 
varnished, so as to resemble mahogany. 

The staircases leading up to the gallery of the great 
room are at the west end. The gallery is eight feet 
broad, with a rich cornice supported by twenty- four 
pilasters, to correspond with those below ; the number 
of pedestals is equal to the pilasters ; several of them 
are without busts, and thirty others support white 
marble busts, as stated before. 

At the east end of the gallery, exactly over the Fagel 
Library, is the Manuscript Room. In this apartment 
are preserved more than twelve hundred MSS., mostly 
very rare and valuable, and in various languages ; they 
are contained in fourteen classes, the first seven of 
which, viz. A, B, c, D, E, F, and G, contain MSS. 
collected by Archbishop Ussher, and were presented to 
the college by the Irish House of Commons, though 
they are said erroneously to be a gift from King 
Charles II. Class F. contains the donation given by 

a This transfer was negotiated by Mr. Cadell, of the well known 
house of " Cadell and Davis," in the Strand, London. 



THE MANUSCRIPTS. 313 

Dr. Stearne, Bishop of Clogher. Class G. the gift of 
Sir Jerome Alexander. 

Amongst the five other classes of MSS., there are 
several donations; the remainder were purchased by 
the college at different times. These treasures are 
not permitted to be taken out of this room, nor even 
inspected in it, except in presence of the librarian ; 
neither is this apartment opened for reading, in the 
same manner as the outer library ; it is never permit- 
ted to be opened unless in the presence of the libra- 
rian. These measures are required by the college sta- 
tutes, and are diligently observed, in order to preserve 
the MSS. and render them as authentic documents as 
possible. There is a catalogue of this collection drawn 
up by Dr. Lyon, A.M., about A.D. 1745 ; it is very 
well arranged ; the author had the advantage of the . 
earlier catalogues to assist him. But as several MSS. 
have been presented to the college or purchased by its 
funds since that time, the late librarian, Dr. Barrett, 
D.D., Vice Provost, and his successor, Dr. Wall, have 
taken care to enter them at the end of the catalogue, 
with every particular relative to them, that came to their 
knowledge. It is also to be observed, that though 
these MSS. are in very good condition, generally 
speaking, yet they are extremely difficult, in many in- 
stances, to be read, owing chiefly to the various con- 
tractions of the words used by their different writers ; 
to which cause it is chiefly to be ascribed, that the 
public have not derived so much advantage from con- 
sulting them as they otherwise might have done, for 
the college has, upon every proper occasion, permitted 
the most free and liberal access to all those who wished 
to consult and inspect them. The classification of the 
seven first series of MSS. are thus designated in the 
catalogue, viz. 

A. Complectitur Biblia sacra et partes bibliorum 
cum commentariis et concionatoribus. 

B. Complectitur breviaria, MSS. alia et ecclesia 
Romanse ritualia, Patres sanctos et scriptores orientales. 

c. Complectitur, Patres S. scriptores systematicos 
scholasticos, Polemicos et alios theologos. 



THE MANUSCRIPTS. 

D. Complectitur catalogos philosophos, medicos, mu- 
sicos, historicos, oratores, poetas veteres, et recentiores 
etiamque Usserii scripta partim edita, partim non 
edita. 

E. Complectitur genealogias atque res historicos 
Britannise, et Hibernise, tarn civiles, quam ecclesi- 
asticos. 

F. Complectitur codices ejusdem argumenti et theo- 
logos quondam ex donis Reverendi admodum Johamris 
Episcopi Chlochor. The above valuable donation, 
mostly relating to Ireland, was made by tbe bisbop 
when vice-chancellor of the University, in 1741 ; many 
of them had been collected by John Madden, and they 
are mentioned in the printed work by Tanner, en- 
titled, "CatalogusMSS. Anglise et Hibernia3." Oxon. 

1697- 

G. Complectitur historicos et theologos cum MSS. 
quondam Hieronymi Alexander, Equitis auratis, quse 
tractant precipue de rebus forensibus et juridicalibus a . 

a Among the number of valuable and interesting MSS. in the Irish 
character and language in this collection, is a very beautiful transcript 
of the Gospels; it is designated " The Book of St. Columbkill." On 
the cover is a silver plate, the inscription on which is said to be by 
St. ColumbkhTs own hand. 

Here is also " Plunket's Glossary of the Irish, Latin, and Bis- 
cayan Languages," compiled about 1662; it throws a strong light 
upon the real derivations of words, which so many of our etymo- 
logists have so strangely confounded. 

" The Annals of the Four Masters " are also very valuable Irish 
MSS., for they are generally allowed to be the most accurate, con- 
sistent, and valuable compilations towards a history of Ireland, that 
are at present known in the Irish language. These are called, also, 
" The Annals of Donegal," from their having been transcribed in 
Donegal, by some learned friars, in 1636. 

The author begs leave to mention here, on the authority of Mura- 
tori, the existence of an Irish MS., called " The Bangor Antiphonary," 
written about 1150 years ago; it was, when M. wrote, in the Am- 
brosian Library, at Milan, where it probably remains. In that work, 
St. Patric is distinctly mentioned. This fact, with the other evidence, 
especially that brought forward by Ussher and some others, would go 
far to remove the doubts of that Saint's existence, which a few writers 
have entertained from Bede's silence on this subject. The latter was 
born in 678, but the MS. mentioned appears to have been written an- 
terior to that epoch. In that valuable repository of literary memorials, 
" Bishop Nicholson's Irish Historical Library," a detailed account will 
be found of the chief part of the MS. Psalters, Annals, and Poems of 



DR. BARRETT'S DISCOVERY. 315 

In 1748, Major Clanaghan, of Gibraltar, presented 
to the college a Hebrew MS. of the Pentateuch, and 
another MS. of some of the prophets, both of which 
he received from a Jew, in Africa. 

In 1787, Wm. Dygges Latouche, Esq., presented 
to the college five valuable Persian MSS. 

In 1806, the Right Honourable the India Com- 
pany presented a fine copy of the " Shah Nam ah," 
and a copy of the Koran, both very valuable, particu- 
larly the latter, which the Persian ambassador, Abn 
Hassen, on his visit to this library, in 1720, valued at 
1,000 guineas. Sir John Sebright presented thirty- 
nine MSS., some of them extremely curious and inter- 
esting to Irish historians. 

One of the most curious and interesting MSS. in this 
fine collection is, apparently, nothing more than a 
monkish legend of the 13th century, written on vellum, 
in the common Greek letter of that era. It is rather 
a thick book, small quarto size ; its cover is composed 
of two pieces of red deal, strongly varnished. It lay 
here neglected a very long time, until the late Dr. 
Barrett, Vice- Provost and librarian, looking at it one 
day attentively, thought he saw some letters under the 
modern writing ; this excited his active mind to exa- 
mine it, and the result, after some years of most per- 
severing assiduity, was his clearly discovering a 
considerable part of St. Matthew's Gospel, a portion 

Ireland ; these amount to some hundred pieces. Since the Bishop's day, 
several others have heen discovered, chiefly by the efforts of the Royal 
Irish Academy and the Gaelic Society, by whom many have been 
published, and others are in preparation. Dr. Johnson's views on 
this subject are worthy of being recorded. In a letter to Charles 
O'Connor, he says, " I have long wished that Irish literature was cul- 
tivated in Ireland, and surely it would be acceptable to all those 
who are curious, either in the origin of nations or affinities of lan- 
guages, to be further informed of the revolutions of a people so an- 
cient, and once so illustrious." Edmund Burke, also, in his cor- 
respondence with General Vallancey, constantly recommended that 
the originals of these MSS., with literal translations into English, 
should be published ; for he justly observes, " until something of this 
kind be done, the ancient period of Irish history, which precludes 
official records, cannot be said to stand on any proper authority. A 
work of the kind, carried on by the University and a society of anti- 
quarians, would be an honour to the nation." 



316 CODEX MONFORTIANUS. 

of Isaiah, and some orations of Gregory Nazianzene ; 
all written in the Uncial Greek letter, probably about 
the middle of the second century. This volume has 
been published by authority of the provost and board, 
at a great expense, for they got a copper plate en- 
graved for each page : these give a critical resem- 
blance of the writing of the original (square) Greek, 
for it was not possible to obtain any type of that cha- 
racter without incurring, perhaps, a greater expense 
in getting one cast for this purpose. The work is so 
arranged that you have the original (ancient) text on 
one page, and opposite to it a version in the common 
Greek ; and at the bottom of each page are copious 
notes in Latin, with numerous references. It is a 
work that displays the uncommon erudition, perse- 
verance, and acuteness in research of its learned 
editor, who showed himself well deserving the thanks 
of every lover of classic literature, for rescuing so 
valuable a portion of ancient learning from oblivion. 

Here is also the celebrated Codex Monfortianus, in 
Greek, which gives the contested verse in St. John's 
1st Epistle, 5th chapter, 7th verse, as it is in our 
translation a . 

Likewise a copy of the four Gospels, with a con- 
tinued commentary in Greek, written in the ninth 
century. 

Here is also a very curious MS. map of China, 
near five feet square. It displays no great knowledge 
of the geographic science ; the writing is in the 
Chinese character. 

A copy of an engraved map of Galway, which was 

a " For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, 
the Word, and the Holy Ghost : and these three are one/' 

This book is also known as, " The Codex Britannicus :" it was 
written early in the 15th century. With regard to the verse above 
quoted, it must be observed that Luther never allowed it to be 
printed in his Bible, because he did not think it genuine ; neither 
does it appear that as yet any ancient Greek MS. has been found 
which contains it. Wettstein examined as many as eighty-seven 
without finding this verse. Vide Marsh's Michaelis, Vol. IV. sects. 
1 to 7. Camb. 1801; also Hewlett's Commentaries, Vol. XX. 
chap. v. p. 165. 



MEDALS AND COINS. 317 

made by order of King Charles I., to show the con- 
venience and beauty of that city, to the Prince Palatine 
(of the Rhine), who intended to settle in it. This 
map is six feet square, in piano-perspective. 

The Numarium. This is contained in two large 
iron presses in this room. The collection of coins is 
numerous, but not quite complete. There are gold, 
silver, and brass series, the impressions on some of 
them very fine ; there is also a good variety of medals 
of various nations, some of them are amongst the best 
specimens that are to be had ; in fact, it is a choice 
collection, but having until lately been kept from the 
public inspection, it has consequently been of very 
little use to collectors or writers of this class. The 
judgment displayed in collecting it is highly credit- 
able to the memory of Dr. Claude Gilbert, who be- 
queathed this collection to the college. In this room is 
a large library book-case, called Bibliotheca Quiniana : 
it is full of printed books of the most valuable kinds, 
bequeathed by the late Dr. Quin, M.D., in 1805. 

In the east wall of this room, are inserted two bassi 
relievi of female heads, in white marble, they are pro- 
bably portraits, the ordinary size of nature ; they are 
the gift of Dr. Pococke a , Bishop of Ossory. The fol- 
lowing information relating to them we discovered in 
Gudius's Antique Inscriptions: Art, 13. " Smyrnce 
in domo cujusdam Grceci Zacharice nomine duce mu- 
liebres imagines sculptce adfabre et incorruptce altera 

cum ha>c mscriptione....KA^ ATSlMAXHN . THN 
3>UANAPON O OPERAS HATMITPHS : altera cum 
hcec inscriptione....^} NEAN MTH2IHNIIOAIN... 
TIA2 ATTIKO2." 

Students of the college are not allowed to read in the 
library until they obtain their Bachelor's degree in 
Arts ; at that time, if they choose to take what is 
termed the library oath, they are free of it. Persons, 
not students, are allowed that privilege on the same 
terms, if they can shew that they are engaged in any 
work of arts or sciences that require such aid ; but to 
obtain this privilege, they must get a certificate 

a The Celebrated Oriental Traveller. 



318 "MUNDUS ET INFANS." 

properly drawn up and signed by a senior and a 
junior fellow, in which it must be distinctly stated, 
that they, having personal knowledge of the character of 
the applicant, consider him a proper person to be ad- 
mitted to read in the library. These precautions may 
seem illiberal to strangers, but they do not appear so 
to those who are better acquainted with the nature 
and history of the Institution. To set this matter in a 
clearer light, it may not be improper to state, that a 
person who was employed by the Board to assist in 
making out a new set of catalogues, finding that great 
confidence was placed in him, as must be the case on 
all such occasions, did foolishly and meanly take the 
worst advantage of this favourable feeling, and pur- 
loined several of the choicest work$, and disposed of 
them for much less than their current price. He had 
continued this practice for some time without being 
discovered, but at last he was overtaken. It appears 
he purloined the rarest book in the library, the title of 
which is " Mundus et In fans" It was the first work 
printed in England a , and there are only two copies of 

a By Wynkyn de Werde. Unfortunately this is not the only 
instance in which dishonest men have succeeded in abstracting valu- 
able books or MSS. from this library; another remarkable instance of 
which we mention, to shew how very strict the appointed guardians 
of these treasures should be, with regard to the characters and 
conduct of persons to whom they allow the privilege of examining 
these valuable works. 

The circumstance we allude to, was the complete abstraction of 
the celebrated Irish MS., known as the Leabhar Leacain, or " Book 
of Leacan," so named from a town which was the residence of the 
hereditary antiquarians of Ireland. The book contains a large 
number of Irish treatises, mostly historical. This valuable MS. had 
long been in this library, (and it is considered a high authority, by 
Ussher, O'Flaherty, and other eminent writers,) when suddenly it 
disappeared, but the precise year of this event is uncertain, for 
Llhuid, in his Archeeologia, printed in 1707, notices this manuscript 
particularly, and even enumerated its contents ; and in the preface 
to O'Connor's translation of Keating's History of Ireland, printed at 
Dublin, in 1723, he distinctly states that he obtained the perusal of 
this book for six months, on giving , 1000 security for its safe return : 
this was correctly done. 

The manner in which this book was furtively removed from 
College, is still as great a mystery as ever, although several versions 
of that fact are recorded ; which, as they may be interesting to many 



" MUNDUS ET INFANS." 319 

it extant, the other being in the library of the King of 
France. This volume he sold to a house in Pater- 
noster Row, for 300. The purchasers did not know 
where it came from, or even the person of the vendor, 
as the business was transacted by letter. The pur- 
chasers of course put it in their catalogue of old books. 
A copy of this catalogue being seen by the college 
bookseller, (Mercier,) he mentioned this curious item 
in it to the Vice-Provost, (Dr. Barrett;) they were 
both astonished, and searched the library most care- 
fully ; the book was gone ; but nothing could give a 
clue as to how it went! At last the bookseller wrote to 
the house above mentioned, stating the circumstance, 
and requesting to know how this book got into their 
hands. This request the party complied with at once, 

of our readers we here subjoin. In the first place, it is stated by 
the Abbe M'Geohegan, in his History of Ireland, that James II. 
caused a great manuscript folio volume, called " The Book of Leacan," 
to be taken from Trinity College, Dublin, and deposited in the Irish 
College at Paris, of which a formal notice was then executed before 
public notaries. Yet it appears that this very book was in the library 
of Trinity College, Dublin, thirty-three years after 1690, the year in 
which King James fled to France from Ireland. 

General Vallancey mentions in his " Green Book," that about the 
year 1778, Dr. Raymond lent a manuscript volume out of the library 
of Trinity College, Dublin, to a person of the name of Thady 
Naghten ; this book was stolen from Naghten by a man named Egan ; 
the latter gave it to his master, Judge Marlay, in whose library it was 
at his death, from whence it was by some unknown means conveyed 
to the Lombard College at Paris. 

Dr. Aherne, Professor of Theology in Maynooth College in 1797, 
was, previous to the French Revolution, Professor in the Irish 
College : he became a member of that community in 1 740. He was 
informed by some seniors of that College, that the Book of Leacan 
was originally brought there by an Irish priest; who being a well 
known proficient in the Irish language, prevailed on the librarian of 
Trinity College, Dublin, to lend him the vellum manuscript on the 
deposit of a sum of money, not being able to find other security. 
Implicated in the troubles of the times, soon after, he was obliged to 
decamp suddenly from his country. He carried with him this 
borrowed book, which he deposited in the above Irish College at 
Paris. 

A transcript of it was afterwards promised to the Dublin Society, 
but was never completed. It remained in the Lombard College at 
Paris, until 1788, when it was presented by the Heads of that 
seminary to the Royal Irish Academy, where, after so many ad- 
ventures, it is now safely deposited. 



320 TIME ALLOWED FOR READING. 

by sending him the original letter that accompanied 
the hook. That cleared up the point ; the board 
found this letter to be in the handwriting of the per- 
son they had confided in ! He got a message to attend 
the board, but suspecting the cause, he fled the 
country, and has not been heard of since. Mean time 
the book was sold to a third person, and the college 
demanded their property, which it appears occasioned 
some negociation, which at last, it is said, terminated 
in their agreeing to remunerate the first purchasers 
on their restoring the book. 

TIME ALLOWED FOR READING. 

The library is open every day, Sundays and vaca- 
tion excepted, from 8 o'clock in the morning until 2 
o'clock in the afternoon. There are not now any of 
those idle times called " Saints' days" allowed here; no 
single holidays being kept, but a vacation of six weeks, 
at the end of summer, has been adopted in lieu of them, 
besides the old vacation by statute, which closes the 
library from December 23rd to January 14th, each 
year. This is certainly a very considerable improve- 
ment as compared with the former system : it confers 
advantages upon literary men for which the provost 
and senior fellows deserve their most sincere thanks. 

The library offences punishable are, 1st. For any 
person refusing to give his name, when asked by the 
librarian : this subjects the offender to exclusion from 
the library. 2nd. For writing over or upon a book, 
even though the book should have sustained no injury: 
this makes the offender liable to a fine of five shillings 
for the first offence, ten for the second, but if detected 
a third time, to exclusion; and should the book have 
been injured, the offender is fined double the value of 
the book. 3rd. Those who by carelessness or intention- 
ally displace books, or neglect to restore them to their 
proper shelf, are liable to a fine of three shillings, 
and if the offence be persisted in, the offender is pu- 
nished at the discretion of the Provost and Senior 
Fellows. 



BENEFACTORS TO THE LIBRARY. 

SECTION III. 
BENEFACTORS AND DONATIONS TO THE LIBRARY. 

It is rather a curious circumstance, that the first 
donation of any great value, which was made to this 
library, should be the private collection of Primate 
Ussher himself; and it may fairly be said, that it was 
wonderfully preserved through extraordinary vicissi- 
tudes ere it was finally deposited in the college 
library. And it is also singular that for this munifi- 
cent gift, as well as for the original founding of this 
library, literature is indebted to the officers and sol- 
diers of the army serving in Ireland. To understand 
this matter clearly, it is necessary to go back to the 
time when Archbishop Ussher left Ireland. This was 
about the end of the year, 1640, when he went to 
England upon some matters of public business, and in 
October of the following year, that memorable rebel- 
lion broke out in Ireland, which in its consequences 
were so disastrous to that country. During the early 
part of this turmoil, almost the whole of the Primate's 
property was subjected to the devastations of the insur- 
gents ; his books, however, remained untouched ; he 
had them sent over to Chester, and soon afterwards 
to London. In 1642, Ussher was selected to act as 
one of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, but 
being staunch to his principles, he not only refused to 
attend, but openly preached against their proceedings 
at Oxford. For this exercise of his right of free 
opinion, the large portion of his library which he had 
left behind him at Chelsea was confiscated, by order 
of the House of Commons ; but here his particular 
friend John Selden, through the assistance of Dr. 
Featly, obtained permission to purchase them as if 
for himself*, though really for the purpose of restor- 

a Selden also saved from dispersion the valuable collection of books 
in the library of Lambeth Palace. The same " Commons House " 
had ordered them to be sold, as the private property of the then 
living Archbishop ; but Selden proved to them, that the Lambeth 

Y 



322 BENEFACTORS TO THE LIBRARY. 

ing them to their original owner, in whose possession 
they remained until his decease in 1655, when, al- 
though he had originally destined this then invaluable 
collection for Trinity College, Dublin, the misfortunes 
brought upon him by the times, caused him to bequeath 
them to his only surviving- child, Lady Tyrrell, who 
was in narrow circumstances with a numerous family. 
In a short time afterwards, agents from the King of 
Denmark and the Cardinal Mazarine made this lady 
very handsome offers for the purchase of the library; 
Cromwell, however, issued an order prohibiting the 
late Primate's family from selling it without his con- 
sent, and refused to permit its being sent out of the 
kingdom. In a short time afterwards, the officers 
and soldiers then serving in Ireland, being desirous, 
as it seems, of emulating the conduct of the Irish 
army in the time of Elizabeth, and, as it has been 
stated, assisted secretly by Cromwell's purse, pur- 
chased the whole of the books, rare manuscripts, and 
coins, for 22,000 ; for the purpose of presenting 
them to the University of Dublin. However, by the 
time the collection arrived in that city, Cromwell de- 
clined to allow r the intentions of the donors to be car- 
ried into effect, assigning as a reason for his conduct, 
that he intended to found a new hall or college, in 
which the collection might be more conveniently pre- 
served separate from all other books. Therefore, the 
library was deposited in the castle of Dublin, where 
it was much neglected, and a number of valuable 
books and MSS. were stolen or destroyed. On the 
restoration, however, King Charles II., at the request 
of the Irish Parliament, ordered the remainder of this 
library to be delivered over to the University, in ac- 

collection of books, pictures, and manuscripts was not private but 
public property, and that therefore it could not be confiscated. It is 
still a valuable library, and has been an object of great solicitude to 
the present Archbishop, (Dr. Wm. Howley,) who has expended 
considerable sums of money in renovating the building, which has 
been by these means rendered useful and ornamental. The present 
librarian (1844) is the Rev. Mr. Maitland, A.M., to whom the 
author feels much obliged for his friendly attention, on those occa- 
sions when he had to examine some documents there. 



BENEFACTORS TO THE LIBRARY. 323 

eordance with the generous intentions of the original 
purchasers. 

In 1674, Sir Jerome Alexander, a judge of the 
Common Pleas in Ireland, left his whole collection of 
law and other books to the college, with 100 to fit 
up a proper place for them; also the MSS. in class G. 
as mentioned before. 

Dr. Wm. Palliser, Archbishop of Cashel, who 
had been a Fellow of this college, and had been 
always a liberal benefactor to it, left by will above 
4,000 volumes to this library in 17^6. These are 
placed in the west side of the great room, and are 
styled BibliothecaB Palliserianse. 

Dr. Claudius Gilbert, who had been Vice- Provost 
and Regius Professor of Divinity here, also left, in the 
year 1735, nearly 13,000 volumes, which he had been 
all his life collecting. And this most estimable man, 
also presented to the college fourteen of the marble 
busts in the library. 

Dr. John Stearne, Bishop of Clogher and Vice- 
Chancellor of the University, bequeathed to it the 
valuable MSS. in class p., and all the books in his 
library, of which they had not copies in the college. 

In the year 1774, Thomas Holies, Esq., bequeathed 
to the library 100, to be applied to the purchase of 
books written by English, Irish, or Scotchmen, upon 
Politics, Natural, or Civil History, and Mathe- 
matics. 

In the year 1805, Henry John Quin, Esq., left to 
the college a choice collection of books, amongst 
which were many Editiones Principes of the classics, 
under certain restrictive prudential conditions, stated 
clearly in his will, of which a copy is preserved in the 
college : it is dated September 23, 1794. 

This collection is in the original book-case of the 
donor, in the manuscript room, and is marked Biblio- 
fheca Quimana. 



Y v? 



BENEFACTORS TO THE LIBRARY. 

BENEFACTORS AND DONATIONS TO THE MANUSCRIPT 
LIBRARY. 

This library is also greatly indebted to many liberal 
and generous individuals for valuable gifts, presented 
to it at various periods. The following names have 
been recorded: King Charles II.; Petrus Carew. 

Dr. Robert Huntingdon, Bishop of Raphoe, and 
Provost of this College, many valuable Oriental 
MSS. ; Thomas H alley ; Alexander Johnson ; Dr. 
Miles Sumner, a fellow during the Commonwealth, 
and for many years Donegal lecturer in Mathematics 
in the University ; Sir William Grose ; James Ussher; 
Sir Henry Prescott ; Dr. Henry Jones, Bishop of 
Meath, and Vice-Chancellor of the University ; Dr. 
John Parker, Archbishop of Dublin ; William Barry, 
A.M., T.C.D. ; John Lyon, A.M., T.C.D. (Libra- 
rian) ; Thomas Hay, of Chester, A.D. 1646 ; Gordian 
Showbridge ; Murtogh Dowling, A.D. 1693 ; Charles 
Willoughby, M.D. ; Cornelius Higden ; and Claude 
Worth, M.'D. 

The late Sir John Sebright presented thirty-nine 
MSS., some of them extremely curious, and highly 
interesting to Irish historians a . 

a These valuable remains of Irish literature chiefly relate to the 
Brehon code of laws, by which the Irish were governed, and which 
are said to have been first compiled in A.D. 90, a second time in A.D. 
254. The latter are believed to be still extant ; at all events, this 
collection, so generously given by Sir J. Sebright, is considered the 
most valuable and extensive of any at present known. In this 
transaction, Edmund Burke was the person who persuaded the fortunate 
possessor to bestow this valuable portion of MSS. on the University 
of Dublin ; but it was through a correspondence with Gen. Vallancey, 
that Mr. Burke was informed of their locality. They were accordingly 
sent by Dr. Leland, and deposited where they now are. Dean Swift 
had formerly applied to the Duke of Chandos for some fragments of 
those laws in his possession, but His Grace declined to comply with 
the Dean's request. The Chandos MSS. just now alluded to, are 
part of a collection commenced by Sir James Ware, before the re- 
bellion of 164-1, and continued for some time after that period. 
When Lord Clarendon was Viceroy, temp. Jac. //., he obtained this 
collection from Sir J. Ware's representatives, about the year 1686, 
and brought them to England. After his death, the whole was sold to 
the Duke of Chandos, who had a catalogue of them printed in 1697. 






BENEFACTORS TO THE LIBRARY. 32,5 

There are two copies of the Annals of the four Masters a 
(already mentioned) here. They are beautifully written 
in the Irish character; one of them is in four volumes. 

It should also be mentioned, that the beautiful 
copies, in the Persian language, of the " Sha Namah" 
and the Alcoran were taken by the British army from 
the library of Tippoo Sahib. Dean Swift, Esq. ; 
Captain Williamson ; the very Rev. Dean Blundell ; 
the Right Hon. Phillip Tisdall; the late Duke of 
Marlborough ; Dr. W. Hales ; George Ussher, Esq., 
of Gloucester, 1824 ; the Right Hon. Edmund Burke ; 
Rev. Dr. T. Lyster ; Thomas Bailey, Esq. ; Dr. M. 
Kearney, (brother of the Provost,) were also con- 
tributors. 

Library privileges. This College is one of the 
eleven learned Institutions b which enjoy the privilege 

It was the perusal of this catalogue that caused Dean Swift to make 
the application as stated above. 

There are many other very rare and valuable works in the Irish 
letter and language, several of which are of the early ages of Chris- 
tianity, some even so early as A.D. 9, another A.D. 45, one in A.D. 70, 
and so on in every century of the Christian era, for more than sixteen 
centuries. These written evidences shew that there yet remains in 
Ireland, but more especially in the archives of its University, many 
works in the native Irish tongue, (some of which are beautiful 
specimens of the Irish alphabetical characters,) which display an ex- 
tent of erudition much greater than could have been expected to 
have escaped throughout the nine centuries of rapine to which that 
country was, with a few and short interruptions, subjected by her 
Norwegian, Danish, and Norman-English invaders. 

The subjects treated of in these works are, History, Jurisprudence, 
Botany, Medicine, Geometry, Logic, Ethics, Philology, Poetry, and 
Polite Literature. 

In Bishop Nicholson's " Historical Catalogue," (Dublin, 1723,) 
will be found a detailed account of many of these works, their 
origin, contents, &c., and as since that time a great many others have 
been discovered, we shall endeavour to obtain a complete list for this 
work. 

a There is also a fine copy of these Annals in the Duke of Bucking- 
ham's Library at Stowe, where the Abbe Dr. Charles O'Connor de- 
posited the whole of his grandfather's valuable collection of Irish 
MSS. From these have been published two large volumes of the 
Prolegomena. 

b The others are the British Museum, Sion College, the Bodleian 
at Oxford, Public Library at Cambridge, that of the Advocates, 



326 THE LIBRARY OATH. 

conferred by statute 54 George III., which entitles 
them to receive a copy of every hook published in 
England, and which brings an annual increase of first 
editions to the library. 

Every person admitted to a degree in this Uni- 
versity pays a certain sum to the funds of the library : 
it is included in the fees for his degree. For the 
Bachelor's degree, a Films Nobilis pays 1 IJs. ; a 
Fellow Commoner, 18s. 6d. ; a Pensioner, or Sizar, 
9s. 3d.-, a Master of Arts pays the same sum as a Fellow 
Commoner ; Bachelor of Laws, or of Medicine, 
1 Us. 9d.-, Doctor of Laws, or of Medicine, 
3 3s. 6d.; a Bachelor of Divinity, 2 2s.; a Doctor 
of Divinity, 4 4s. 

All the above classes of graduates are entitled to 
the use of the library, first having taken the library 
oath, to wit : 



THE LIBRARY OATH. 

" I do solemnly promise and swear before 

God, that as often as I shall come into the library of 
this college, I will so use the books and other fur- 
niture as that they may hold as long as possible. I 
swear also that neither will I myself carry away or 
designedly injure, interline, or abuse in any other 
manner, any book, nor suffer the same to be done by 
others as far as in me lies ; but I will report to the 
provost or the librarian the names of those who shall 
in these respects have transgressed the rules, within 
three days after I shall have been acquainted of them : 
all and every of which, and all statutes concerning 
the library, I promise that I will faithfully observe 
as far as in me lies. So HELP ME GOD." 

Strangers, or persons not otherwise qualified to read 
in the library* may be introduced by a Fellow or 

Edinburgh, the King's Inns, Dublin, and the Libraries of the four 
Universities of Scotland. 



THE LENDING LIBRARY. 

Master of Arts, resident in College, provided the 
same Fellow or Master remain with him, or sit by 
while he is reading. Those who transgress this rule 
are excluded from the library, and fined, at the dis- 
cretion of the Provost. 

Any person once excluded from the library, cannot 
be readmitted without a special grace granted by the 
Provost and Fellows. 

SECTION IV. 

THE LENDING LIBRARY. 

This collection consists chiefly of the books be- 
queathed to the University by Sir Jerome Alex- 
ander, Dr. Gilbert, and the late Provost Murray. In 
the year 1800, this library was subjected to its 
present regulations. It is placed under the care of 
a junior fellow; indeed, this librarian has always 
heretofore been the junior dean. This officer is 
annually elected on the 20th of November. His salary 
is 30 per annum ; this being the interest of 500 at 
6 per cent., left by the Rev. Dr. C. Gilbert. 

The librarian, soon after taking the office, is to 
make a report of the state of the library, in writing, 
to the registrar, describing the condition in which he 
finds the library, the number of books lent at the time 
of his appointment, and the sum deposited for each ; 
also, the number of books lost, if any, during the 
preceding year, and the amount of the sums deposited 
for them. 

The librarian's attendance here is from one until 
three o'clock, Tuesdays and Fridays during term, and 
out of term, from one until three on Fridays only. 

These volumes can be lent only to persons whose 
names arc on the college books, and who have taken 
the library oath, with the exception of the Divinity 
and Mathematical books, which may be lent to 
students who attend the lectures on those subjects, on 
the production of a certificate from the Professor or 



328 THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 

Lecturer whom they attend. The names of persons 
who borrow, are entered in a book, and they deposit a 
sum equal to the value of the set. This money is re- 
stored to the person on his delivering up the book in 
good order. 

There are other regulations to the amount of twelve, 
which give clear instructions on the other matters 
connected with this department. 

The University Press. The founder of this very 
useful adjunct to an university was the Rev. John 
Stearne, D.D., Bishop of Clogher, and Vice-Chan- 
cellor of the University. This worthy prelate gave 
1,000 to the college for this purpose, in the year 
1733. Two years after, his lordship added to this 
handsome gift the sum of 250, for the purchase of 
type. This building was erected in 1734 ; upon it is 
the following inscription : 

R,R. JOHANNES STEARNE, S.T.P. 

EPISCOPUS CLOGHERENSIS, 

VICE-CANCELLARIUS HUJUS ACADEMIC 

PRO BENEVOLENTIA QUAM HABUIT 

IN ACADEMIAM ET REM LITERARIUM 

POSUIT 1734. 

By an act passed in 1818, a drawback of the duty 
is allowed for paper used here in printing Bibles, Testa- 
ments, Psalm Books, Church of England and Ireland 
Common Prayer Books, and several other classes of 
works, all of which are enumerated. 

Several excellent editions of the classic authors have 
been brought out here, and also several modern works 
on arts and sciences, all of which, independent of their 
intellectual excellence, are very creditable to the me- 
chanical skill and taste of those who conduct this 
establishment, which, strangely enough, had long been 
looked upon in a very subordinate point of view ; but 
within the last twenty years, a more correct esti- 
mate of its value has been entertained ; and this opi- 
nion has been justified by practical experience, which 



THE ANATOMICAL THEATRE. 329 

annually increases its good reputation, by demon- 
strating its great usefulness, not only as being placed 
so conveniently for members of the college who may 
be unable to attend to the corrections of a work printed 
at a distance from their chambers, but also within 
the immediate reach of younger essayists in author- 
ship, who may, in this case, commence printing their 
productions without loss of time, and at a moderate 
expense ; two objects which are generally not to be 
overlooked or treated with indifference by most juve- 
nile authors. 

SECTION V. 

THE ANATOMICAL THEATRE, ETC. 

About twenty yards from the south-east corner of 
the Library stood the original Anatomical Theatre, 
built in 1704. Of course, after one hundred and thirty 
years' service, it was not in the best condition ; it never 
had been a handsome building, and at the present 
day would have been rather discreditable to the other 
architectural portions of the establishment. The 
Board, therefore, have had it totally removed for some 
time, and have caused a handsome and convenient 
edifice to be erected at the further, or eastern side of the 
park, in which the arrangement, apparatus, and sur- 
gical museum are more convenient and economic than 
those they have displaced. The interior construction 
is so complete as to accommodate it to the various 
sciences connected with this part of the college system. 
The present building is chiefly occupied with a spa- 
cious chemical laboratory and lecture room. The ana- 
tomical lecture room, and museum, and the other parts 
of the building, are stored with subjects for anatomical 
demonstration. In the old building, one of the apart- 
ments was quite filled with glass cases, in which were 
kept representations, in coloured wax, of subjects con- 
nected with midwifery ; they were the work of a 
French surgeon, (Mons. De None,) from whom they 
were purchased at Paris, by Lord Sheilburne. These 



330 ANATOMICAL MUSEUM. 

have been found very incorrect, and were removed at 
the instance of the late Professor of Anatomy and 
Surgery, Dr. Macartney : their place has since been 
supplied by real subjects. This important branch of 
knowledge, therefore, is now studied with considerably 
more advantage to the student, as well as to society. 
Indeed, it would be quite absurd to lecture from incorrect 
wax models in Dublin, where there is a greater choice 
of subjects to be had than, perhaps, in any other city; 
a circumstance that has tended of late years to raise 
considerably the character of the school of anatomy 
and surgery. 

In the anatomical lecture room and museum, are 
arranged glass cases, in which a vast number of pre- 
parations, made by Dr. Macartney, are kept and regu- 
larly classed. The chief part of them he brought with 
him from London, the others he added since, with the 
exception of two upright cases holding the remarkable 
skeletons of Magrath the giant, and Clarke the 
ossified man. The anatomical collections are divid- 
ed into two grand classes. One of these is allotted to 
natural, the other to morbid parts ; the former in- 
cluding preparations of human and comparative ana- 
tomy, arranged systematically. 

The morbid preparations are for the illustration of 
diseases in the human subject, and are placed in the 
divisions of the different organs from whence they 
have been taken. Among the above rare and valuable 
collection, we think an account of the two skeletons 
already mentioned may be useful and entertaining. 
The first of these in elevation, though not in chro- 
nology, is that of Magrath ; this is at present 7 feet 
8 inches in height ; the other of Clarke, only about 
4 feet 10 inches. 

The former lost his parents when very young, and 
as an orphan, came under the care of Dr. Berkeley, 
the celebrated Bishop of Cloyne, in whose diocese 
Magrath's family lived. There is a vulgar report, 
which we have not been able to trace to any authentic 
source, which is, that the bishop tried gastronomic 
experiments on this orphan, to ascertain the possi- 



SKELETON OF THE IRISH GIANT. '3,31 

bility of increasing the human stature by means of 
medicaments. It was said that by such means he in- 
creased the power of digestion so much in the subject, 
as to enable him to take great quantities of food, to 
which cause his great stature was attributed. But, un- 
fortunately for the story, this last circumstance (vora- 
ciousness) is known to produce quite the contrary ef- 
fect. Instead of enlarging, it diminishes the human 
frame; so that we may at once discharge the bishop 
from this tax upon his humanity so gratuitously levied 
by persons evidently ignorant of the first principles of 
animal economy. Besides, such overgrown persons are 
not so very uncommon in Ireland, and it is remark- 
able that the largest of them were born and reared 
among the poorer classes, who, like the poor of other 
countries, rarely possess any redundancy of food. 
Magrath had attained the height of nearly eight feet 
at seventeen years old, and was shown in various cities 
of Europe as the Irish Giant ; he died in his twenty- 
second year, not from mere exhaustion, as has been re- 
ported, but from the effects of a severe injury in the 
chest 3 , which brought on a rapid decline. From an in- 
spection of the bones, it would appear that he was a 
man of great physical power. Of this we have heard 
some instances. His lower jaw is larger in proportion 
than the other parts. The spine appears to be finely 
formed ; no sign of weakness appears in that part, 
though persons ignorant of anatomy believe that the 
beautiful curvature of the vertebral column is a proof 
of general debility. In other respects, also, the skeleton 
shows a sound and perfect state of constitution, though 
more than sixty years in its present condition. 

a This accident was caused by a young college-man, named Hare, 
who with some of his companions went to see Magrath. Hare was 
not above the middle size, but was muscular and athletic. He believed 
himself strong enough to hold Magrath at arm's length, and a trial 
soon took place. Magrath, however, soon lifted his antagonist off the 
ground, by grasping his arms near the elbows : Hare got vexed at 
being thus exhibited, and suddenly struck Magrath a violent blow with 
his head on the chest, which nearly knocked the poor fellow down. 
He did not resent the injury, but he attributed his mortal illness to 
that cause. 



332 SKELETON OF THE OSSIFIED MAN. 

In another glazed alcove is the skeleton of the ossi- 
fied subject ; and the common account of this most 
extraordinary case, shews a still greater power of 
invention than even that of Magrath. The following 
authentic statement is copied from the original papers 
drawn up by the late Dr. Edward Barry, of Dublin, 
who had the subject in his possession, and afterwards 
presented it to the college. 

William Clarke, the subject of this article, was the 
son of John Clarke, a soldier in Sir Richard Aid- 
worth's company. William was born in 1677> and 
very soon shewed symptoms of this most uncommon 
disease : even in his infancy he never could turn his 
head to either side, or even bend his body. As he 
grew up, he could not raise his hands higher than to 
the level of his elbows, nor could he ever put them 
behind his back. His under jaw becoming fixed, he 
could never open his mouth ; but previous to this 
time, his teeth being broken by accident, he sucked 
in soft food. Though often intoxicated with liquor, it 
never made him sick but once, and then he was 
very near being suffocated. When he walked, he 
stepped first with the right foot, which he did with 
much difficulty, he then dragged the left foot to the 
right heel : whenever he tumbled down by accident, 
he never could rise without assistance. There were 
cavities made in his bed, in which he placed his hips, 
knees, and elbows. In his youth, he managed with 
difficulty to creep from Sir Richard's house to the 
village of Newcastle ; but as he advanced in years, he 
grew quite inactive, so that at last he could scarcely 
move the length of his patron's kitchen, where he 
spent most of his time, and where he experienced the 
most benevolent attention. 

He was sometimes placed to look over the work- 
men, but when he was once fixed in his station, there 
he remained. He stood in a kind of sentry-box, with 
a board placed in a groove, as high as his breast, for 
him to lean on. 

He had always a bony excrescence issuing out of his 
left heel, which sometimes grew to the length of two 



SKELETON OF THE OSSIFIED MAN. 333 

inches, and then it shed as a deer does its horns, but 
continued to sprout as before. Towards the latter 
part of his life, several long excrescences were ob- 
served in his thighs and arms, which he had not in 
his youth. He died in the year 1738, in his 62nd 
year. The immediate cause of his death was probably 
an inflammation of his lungs ; for as they adhered to 
the pleura and ribs, they became immovable, as well 
as the diaphragm ; the capacity of the thorax was 
also diminished: all which concurring, caused him to 
have a constant quick respiration, which terminated 
in a fatal oppression ; otherwise he might have lived 
till all the bones had been so much increased as that 
the ribs and whole thorax would have become one 
trunk of bone. He had been dead five days before 
he was opened, so that the muscular parts began to 
dissolve. His viscera had nothing in them remark- 
ably preternatural, except that his lungs adhered 
closely to the pleura. 

The attitude or posture in which he had become 
fixed for some time before his death, is that of bend- 
ing forward a little, the arms inclining inwards, the 
right one lower than the left. His left foot resting 
on the toes, the leg at that side appears shorter than 
the right one. The lower part of the trunk is so much 
bent outward as not to be seen when the subject is 
viewed in front. There is scarcely a bone in the whole 
mass, of its proper form, except the tibia? and fibula?, 
which are not much distorted. He is one entire bone 
from the top of his head to his knees. The sutures 
of his skull are more united than in common skulls. 
The jaw bones are entirely fixed, as before mentioned, 
and the back teeth joined together. A bone grew from 
the back of his head, which shoots down to his back, 
passing by the vertebra? at an inch distance ; this bone 
unites with the vertebrae of the back and the right 
scapula, from which it disengages itself again, and 
continues distinct in two parts near the small of the 
back, and fixes itself into the hip bone behind. The 
vertebra? of the back are one continued bone. There 
are various ramifications from his os-coccygis and thigh 



334 THE PROVOST'S HOUSE. 

bones, not unlike the shoots of coral; infinitely more 
irregular, some in knobs and clusters, others in 
irregular shoots of eight and nine inches long. His 
knees are pretty close together, inclining to the right. 
His left shoulder is higher than his right one. A bone 
of his arm, the ulna, was once broken by a fall, and as 
if to prevent a similar accident, another bone shot 
out from the lower part of the humerus, a little above 
the bend of the elbow; this passed over the joint and 
fracture, and united to the broken bone below the in- 
jured part in such a way as to make it much stronger 
than it was before. All the cartilages of the breast, 
except four, were ossified ; these served to assist in re- 
spiration. On dissecting him, a bone was found in the 
fleshy part of his arm, quite disengaged from any 
other bone : it is three or four inches long, a quarter 
of an inch broad, with ramifications. Another strange 
circumstance is, that while these isolated parts were 
growing, he never complained of any pain in his 
muscles. 

This very extraordinary skeleton is still in a toler- 
able state of preservation, although it shews evident 
symptoms of decay; a circumstance by no means sur- 
prising, when we consider that it has now been exposed 
to the ordinary action of the atmosphere for more 
than 100 years. 

In this place, also, is the skeleton of a Delphine 
Orca : this is 30 feet long. The creature run itself 
on shore at Hythe, about 28 years ago, and was cap- 
tured by the fishermen. 

SECTION VI. 
THE PROVOST'S HOUSE. 

This mansion stands on the east side of Grafton 
Street, about 20 yards from the western flank of the 
Grand or Parliament Square, from which a doorway 
opens to a covered corridor, about 40 feet in length, 
which leads directly to another doorway in the north 
flank of this edifice ; and this is the passage by which 



THE PROVOST'S HOUSE. 335 

the Fellows and other members of college proceed 
to attend the Board, or to transact some other 
business with the Provost, relative to their college 
duties. 

The plan and elevation of this house are copied al- 
most critically from a house designed and built by Ri- 
chard, Earl of Cork and Burlington, a view of which 
will be found in Campbell's Vitruvius Britannicus ; 
the front is composed of granite finely ashlared. 
The ground story is richly embellished with icicled 
and rusticated work, over which the principal story is 
adorned by a range of Doric pilasters, with their 
architrave, frieze, and cornice. In this story are five 
windows, the centre one being in that style called 
" Venetian," the columns and ornaments of which 
are of the Tuscan order : two well proportioned 
windows are placed at each side of this central one, 
and they all have balusters under them. The in- 
terior has been judiciously planned, and decorated with 
good taste. It contains a spacious and handsome 
hall and staircase, leading up to a very fine suite of 
apartments: the chief of these is a large and elegant 
drawing room. On the ground floor, with an entrance 
from the hall, is a commodious ante-room : this leads 
into the large dining room, which is also called "the 
Board room," because this is the place where the 
Provost and Senior Fellows assemble in council to 
deliberate, and decide upon such matters of college 
government as require their attention. In this room 
is a collection of portraits, some of which are curious 
and interesting ; they are representations of all the 
Provosts who have been Governors of this Institution. 
The earlier ones are in the dry German style, in- 
troduced by Holbein; gradually this subsides, and 
some later ones, particularly that of Provost Winter, 
may be considered clever. From that time, the re- 
mainder is commingled of good and indifferent paint- 
ings, arranged chronologically down to the present 
time. In the house is also an exceedingly well 
selected library of ancient and modern works, in every 
class of superior literature. 



336 THE PROVOST'S HOUSE. 

The various offices are judiciously added as wings, 
the height of the ground story, and are very commo- 
diously arranged for domestic purposes. In front of 
the house is a spacious court, inclosed by a curtain 
wall of cut stone, in which is a handsome gateway, 
with side entrance, and granite piers, rusticated. At 
the rear of the house, all the windows look out upon 
a large lawn and shrubbery, and beyond that into the 
fellows' garden, and the park. From the two latter 
it is separated by a sunk fence, so that the whole ap- 
pears as one uninterrupted demesne. 

The spirit of rational improvement which has been 
going on here for some years, the effects of which 
are so evident in the quadrangles of the college, has 
caused the massive curtain walls that swept round its 
long southern and part of its eastern boundaries, to be 
removed, and also some good houses of trade, which 
had long been erected upon the college ground, at the 
north side of Nassau Street, joining Grafton Street. 
These houses, from their situation, must have produced 
a profit rent of several hundred pounds to the college, 
but the truly liberal spirit of its governors, abandoned 
this pecuniary advantage, to permit a greater circula- 
tion of air around their buildings, and to allow the 
public to be gratified with a view into the interior of 
the college, its park and gardens, so far as the indis- 
pensable college character of retirement may sanction. 
To complete these improvements, the high and heavy 
curtain wall which separated the college park from 
Nassau, Leinster, and Park Streets,, throughout their 
whole length, has been entirely removed, and with the 
same spirit of genuine liberality, which, though always 
active here, has been more conspicuous of late years, 
the heads of this great national establishment have 
given for the public advantage a strip or belt of 
ground, from seven to twelve feet broad, which they 
have cut off from the southern boundary of their park 
and gardens, and added to Nassau Street, which is 
thereby rendered much more convenient, and the 
houses (none of which are college property) much 
more valuable ; for besides this increase of the car- 



IMPROVING THE COLLEGE PARK, ETC. 337 

riage and footways of the streets, the new boundary 
wall to the park will be not more than six feet high, 
ashlared with cut granite, with a coping of the same 
materials, upon which a very handsome course of iron 
railing, seven feet high, is placed : this affords to all 
who pass through Nassau Street, or Leinster Place, a 
sufficient, and certainly a very pleasing view of the 
park, and south side of the library, chapel, hall, and 
other college buildings ; whilst at the same time a 
more free circulation of the air is permitted, and this 
portion of the city surprisingly improved. Now the 
actual outlay required to build a very solid ashlared 
wall of granite a quarter of a mile in length and six 
feet high, surmounted by a lofty and handsome 
wrought iron railing, must be very considerable, in- 
dependent of the value of the ground bestowed on the 
public thoroughfare. Now this belt of ground is at 
least 400 yards long by a medium breadth of three 
yards, (independent of the plots of ground on which 
the tenanted houses stood,) consequently, if it were to 
be purchased, it must, in this superior part of Dublin, 
have been valued at a large sum of money. These 
are pleasing facts, that deserve to be recorded with 
sentiments of approbation in the annals of Dublin, 
as well as by the historians of its University ; and still 
more gratifying is this exchange of high and gloomy 
stone walls for light, air, and prospect, as we have good 
reason to believe, that " moral government" is now 
found to be far more general and effective in keeping 
the students in the paths of duty than the physical 
obstructions just abated were wont to be, when the 
dingy stone walls were scaled with impunity, and often 
through mere bravado. Then the secret screw-bar was 
unscrewed, and the " town haunter" after his revels 
frequently managed to get into his own or some 
friend's chambers without being discovered ; and the 
more frequently he thus clandestinely violated the 
college laws, the nearer he was supposed to approach 
the character of a " hero." Unhappily, however, for 
the glory of these pseudo heroes, the term examinations 
generally reduced them below the intellectual level of 



338 IMPROVED STATE OF MORAL DISCIPLINE. 

ordinary men. Occasionally, however, a superior mind 
would show itself amongst these irregulars ; more fre- 
quently a caution for bad answering, or in extreme 
cases where breaches of college dicipline were proved, 
then the tolling of the great bell announced their un- 
honoured departure from the sanctuary of Alma Mater 
for ever. This class of pupils never was very nu- 
merous in proportion to the others, and this proportion 
gradually diminishes, whilst that of the students has 
greatly increased. When the pupils were not more 
than 600, severe punishments for gross breaches of 
discipline were almost annually inflicted ; but now that 
the pupils amount to 1600 and upwards, this disagree- 
able exercise of power has been very seldom required 
during the last forty years, and for several years past 
we have not heard that any student has shown himself 
so dead to the sense of honour and interest as to incur 
this mark of degradation. The progressive elevation 
of morals and manners has therefore encouraged the 
Provost and Board to indulge their taste in carrying 
forward the improvements described, which will be 
followed by others now in contemplation. This 
cordiality of feeling, long known here, this harmony 
of purpose, between the conscript fathers of educa- 
tion and the rising generation of youth whom it is 
their pleasing duty to direct in the intellectual path 
of an honourable ambition, is the harbinger of many 
and great advantages, not only by the promotion of 
the superior system of elegant and useful education 
pursued, hut also by the extensive reaction it will 
produce on society in general. Reciprocrated cordiality 
is not, however, a new circumstance in this University; 
it has existed between the teachers and the students, 
time immemorial. The well-known capabilities of 
the fellows who are the tutors, and the unwearied, in- 
telligent zeal with which they apply themselves to 
promote the improvement of their various classes of 
pupils, may be, and no doubt is, equalled in some 
other universities, but to be surpassed, cannot be ex- 
pected, nor indeed required from human agency ; con- 
sequently, the sincerity of purpose, being carried into 



SUPERIOR MORAL GOVERNMENT. 339 

practice, has the natural effect of creating and main- 
taining a manly and just confidence in the pupils' 
minds towards their preceptors, whose kind offices they 
well know are always at their service upon every 
proper occasion ; and few indeed are the dispositions 
here, who do not perform their duties out of respect 
for their tutors, as well as for their own honour and 
advantage *. Kindness is the fascia by which these 
parties are united in mutual esteem and rational 
obedience. The stilty dignity which is to be found in 
some other places, is scarcely known here, and when- 
ever this grave coxcombry does display itself, the un- 
happy possessor is sure to be the cause of considerable 
amusement to the students, by affording them themes 
for the exercise of their satirical powers. 

Under the influence, therefore, of a system combin- 
ing all that is wise and good in parental authority 
with all the precision and firmness proper to restrain 
the exuberance, whilst it encourages the development 
of the nobler and more useful qualities of the human 
mind, combined with the principles of true religion, 
it cannot be a subject of surprise, still less of wonder, 
that the elegant and extensive course of education al- 
ready described, should be carried on with so much 
success in this University, and with such great ad- 
vantage to the British empire, to which it has supplied 
annually, for many years, a succession of from three 
to four hundred graduates, well qualified to fill with 
credit the offices in the Church, the legal, the medical, 
and surgical professions, and likewise the important 
duties of landed proprietors, as county magistrates, or 
senators in the Houses of Parliament ; and not a few 
of the young men who graduate here, purchase com- 
missions in the army, for which the Irish people in 
general have an evident partiality, and in which, we 
need hardly add, many of them arrive at the most 

a That very despicable species of fraud, called "cramming," that dis- 
honest means by which the dunce and the idler are so often foisted 
upon the public, as graduates of some Universities, is scarcely known 
here ; and when discovered, it is treated with any thing but leniency. 

z 2 



340 IRISH STUDENTS SENT TO ENGLISH COLLEGES. 

honourable distinctions which can be conferred in 
that arduous profession. 

After all the facts we have stated as to the system 
of education pursued here, showing its intellectual 
and comprehensive character, its superiority in moral 
science, religious instruction and good manners to 
most other Universities, will it be credited that 
very few of the Irish nobility send their sons here to 
be educated ? For this unnatural conduct several 
causes are stated, but not one good reason assigned ; 
the practice, indeed, seems to have arisen more out of a 
confusion of ideas, than from any clear or rational views 
upon the subject ; the causes alluded to are, not 
that this University is in any degree inferior to the 
other Universities in the theory and practice requisite 
for bestowing in the highest degree intellectual cultiva- 
tion on man, this pretence would be too absurd for 
credence, and therefore is not advanced ; the causes 
avowed are, that " the English colleges have become 
more fashionable; that they afford opportunities to the 
Hibernici of forming acquaintanceships with Anglici 
of their own rank ; that they increase their oppor- 
tunities of making good or at least rich matrimonial 
alliances ; and that they are nearer to the chances of 
court patronage." These are the cogent causes as- 
signed by those Irish landlords for paying twice as 
much for their sons' University degree, as they could get 
it done for at home. It is therefore, in strict sense 
and parlance, (with the greater number,) " an affair 
of trade," " a matter of mere pecuniary speculation," 
in which the cultivation of the mind is no part of the 
concern. These sordid views, however, are very 
seldom realized, for the scions of English nobility are 
mostly averse to forming intimacies with strangers, 
particularly with that class of them whose pockets are 
evidently and specifically lighter than their own. In 
the matrimonial schemes, it is true, the adventurers 
make occasionally a good stroke (as we say of an expert 
billiard player). These accidents happen when the 
Hon. Jack, Tom or Harry, runs his head into a china or 



THEIR ABSURD SPECULATIONS. 341 

glass shop amongst the ladies, or into a tanner's yard, 
the very smell of which would have knocked down his 
stately grandfather ; or amongst the classical mill-owners 
in the classic districts of Leeds, Manchester, Bolton- 
le-Moors, the Borough (reeking with hops), Hackney, 
the euphonious Mile-end Old Town, Hogs-Norton, or 
Norton Folgate, &c. But not half a tithe of these 
attic aspirations after the wealth of retired tradesmen 
is successful. Then as to the chances of these noble 
cadets, gaining "court patronage" because they may 
have escaped through an English University, among 
the oi polloi at a commencement, what can the world 
say of the verdure of any person's understanding, who 
would build his hopes upon such a sandy flat ? Why, 
that it was "very brilliant" Our royal courts are 
generally crammed with aristocratic mendicants of 
superior pretensions, (foreigners and natives,) conse- 
quently this speculation is rather a hopeless one for our 
adventurers. We have now disposed of the three great 
moving causes alleged by their authors to be the pri- 
mum mobile of this unjust preference ; and even- 
handed justice makes the effects worthy of the causes ; 
for, in at least nineteen cases out of twenty, these ad- 
venturers are served as the fable states a certain 
knowing animal to have been treated, " who went out 
to collect wool, and came back shorn ; " for although 
this section of the Irish students fail so lamentably 
as to their educational and property speculations, yet 
they do acquire a great deal of information practically, 
which they never could hope to obtain in Dublin Col- 
lege. But at Oxford and Cambridge the majority of 
them gain celebrity as scullers, smokers, oarsmen, 
jockeys, gamblers, and in other equally noble and 
fashionable occupations for losing or winning money. 
Not that such scientific pursuits are part of the re- 
gular course, at any University ; but then Newmarket 
and the Cam, Oxford racecourse and the Isis, lie so 
conveniently for practical operations, that the tempta- 
tions, to a dull or an idle man removed from all re- 
straint, are irresistible. And such is the sort of know- 



342 THE GREATER PART NEGLECT THEIR STUDIES. 

ledge this class brings home, " to astonish the natives," 
-which no doubt it does very considerably. 

This is, however, a very painful subject, and one 
which we have taken up "more in sorrow than in 
anger." It is truly lamentable to see a number of fine 
youths, to many of whom a gracious God has given 
fine faculties, and occasionally endowed with superior 
powers of mind, rendered often useless, sometimes 
noxious to society, through the sordid, vain, unjust, 
and often infatuated conceits of parents and guardians. 
Yet, painful as this task is, the duty of an historian de- 
mands to have it performed, for it is high time to re- 
move the mask from these transactions, that the pub- 
lic may judge whether or not great delusions have been 
practised, and to decide whether they ought to continue. 

It must not, however, be inferred, from what we 
have just stated, that all the junior branches of Irish 
nobility and gentry who are entered at Oxford or 
Cambridge Universities become idlers, and sink into 
the low and degrading habits already described. Such 
is far from being the fact. We know many truly noble 
exceptions amongst the Irish students, young men of 
the best talents, and blessed with the highest religious 
and moral principles and feelings ; these fine speci- 
mens of mankind would do honour to any age or 
country under Heaven ; but they are the minority. 
These gentlemen, naturally and on principle, detest 
and repudiate all the mean and base deceptions which 
are inseparable from horse-racing and all other species 
of gambling, but which have of late become so glaring 
a feature in our parliamentary proceedings a and the 
courts of law. Now as to the actors in these nefarious 
and demoralizing turf- transactions, the true Irish 
gentleman sincerely despises them, whether the offender 

a The bill brought into the House of Lords last session, by the 
leader of a band of aristocratic turf gamblers, to screen himself and his 
party from the consequences of some breaches of the laws in their 
horseflesh speculations with inferior blacklegs, will be a disgrace to the 
statute book of the united kingdom whilst it remains there : the Bishop 
of Exeter alone raised his voice against that unworthy measure. 



TWO CLASSES OF IRISH STUDENTS. 343 

be a duke, who has plundered his victims of thousands 
of pounds, or a donkey man, who by a similar process 
contrives to pocket a few shillings ; and he justly 
considers the ducal blackleg, by far the more dingy 
character of the two. 

This class of Irish students, therefore, by their con- 
duct retrieve their country, so far as they are con- 
cerned, from the stigma which the others would throw 
upon their native land ; indeed, it is a very curious 
circumstance in the history of mankind, that the 
natives of Ireland should exhibit the anomaly of hav- 
ing (with few exceptions) in their general appearance 
a sufficiently national similarity, and yet to differ most 
widely "far as the poles asunder" in their moral per- 
ceptions and conduct. This theme is not at all new, and 
has been confirmed by long experience, for it has often 
been said, and written, that a real Irish gentleman 
approaches as near the perfection of that character, 
as it is possible for a native of any nation. Kind, 
humane, obliging, firm, honest, generous and sincere, 
intelligent and unobtrusive, he selects his associates 
with care, and is particularly cautious to avoid the " ir- 
regulars" amongst his own countrymen ; and these cha- 
racteristics, excepting the cultivation of mind, and the 
polish of good society, are found pretty generally in 
every lower grade of persons, including the day labourer, 
excepting the mongrel breed mentioned at page 363 ; 
but, on the other hand, the reckless Irishman, be his 
rank in life what it may, is indeed a reckless being 
in morals and conduct. In these essential points, there- 
fore, these two classes may be considered as antipodes : 
one considers the other too proud ; the latter looks 
upon the former as deficient in the true feelings of in- 
dependence and self respect, without which, he rightly 
conceives that no man can be a safe or a valuable 
companion. The line of demarcation between them, 
in morals and conduct, therefore, cannot be easily 
mistaken ; but the adventurers often pay that involun- 
tary homage to virtue, which is so frequently the mark 
of very inferior minds, " who are wiser in their gene- 
ration than the children of light." These parties hypo- 



344 DUTY OF AN HISTORIAN, 

critically try to imitate the suavity of manner and gentle- 
manly bearing of their superiorly moral countrymen ; 

" For neither man nor angel can discern 
Hypocrisy, the only evil that walks 
Invisible, except to God alone ;" 

and by this trickery they do sometimes contrive 
to ingratiate themselves into the favourable opin- 
ion of very worthy and wealthy persons, upon whose 
richly endowed daughters, or wards, they have deter- 
mined to make a prey. It happens, however, occasion- 
ally, and always luckily for the intended victims, that 
some tavern or street brawl, or insolvent transaction, 
conveys these fortune hunters to figure in a police office 
or a court of law, which in those instances acting like 
the spear of Ithuriel, makes the hero to start 

" Discovered and surprised." 

Thus are the broad lights and shades which con- 
stitute the effect of this moral picture placed fairly be- 
fore the public. The author experiences very poignant 
regret that the shades should be so dark ; he, how- 
ever, cannot help the case. An historian is bound 
to state the facts as he knows them to be, and few in- 
deed are they who have had better or more extensive 
opportunities of witnessing the good and evil he has 
sketched out for general information. Time-serving 
and false delicacy should never sway an historian, for 
such weak or corrupt sentimentalism betrays the cause 
of truth, and acts more as an incentive than an oppo- 
nent of demoralization ; and as to caring for the favour, 
or disfavour of any person, clique or faction, the man 
who does not let such ephemeral vapours pass by him 

" Like the idle wind, which he regards not," 

is totally unfit to undertake the onerous duty of an 
historian. The true recorder of historical events, he 
who feels that he has seriously undertaken the sacred 
trust to instruct society, by laying before them the 
good and evil effects of the virtuous and vicious con- 
duct and actions of other days and other men, should 
not be a mere respecter of persons, any farther than 
persons deserve to be respected for their good qualities. 



TO DEAL WITH FACTS AND PRINCIPLES. 345 

It is with facts and principles that a true historian 
has to deal. Such a man should sincerely be able to 
say, with Alexander Pope, 

" Shall I not strip the visor off a knave ? 
Unplaced, unpension'd, no man's heir or slave." 

Should he come short in the least degree of that 
honest and manly energy, he must not be considered as 
" an historian," but merely as an amusing writer of 
historical romances, or the interested agent of some 
political party. 

With respect, however, to the unavoidable mention 
of the justly celebrated Universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge, in connexion with the Irish students, the 
author cannot imagine that the circumstances which 
the case imperatively called upon him to lay before the 
public, can or could be supposed to convey, in the 
slightest degree, any thing disrespectful to the well- 
earned and long established reputation of those great 
seminaries of superior learning ; certainly not. Those 
who know the profound respect which the author en- 
tertains for all the Universities of Great Britain, 
will at once dismiss any idea of that kind. In fact, 
the evils complained of, arise simply from the false 
views and interested notions of ignorance, carelessness, 
and vanity in those who too often have the early con- 
trol (as parents or guardians) of such youths under 
their hands. With this perversion of the parental du- 
ties, the universities have nothing whatever to do. It 
is not their business to reject pupils sent to them, whose 
presence they never solicited ; and whom they do not 
consider of the least value to their colleges in any 
way whatever. The fault, therefore, rests solely with 
those who are so imprudent as to send mere school- 
boys, far away from all parental control or supervi- 
sion, to mingle with thousands of young men, strangers 
to them, who can feel no interest in their welfare, and 
many of whom are adepts in all the vulgar and im- 
moral practices before described, and who are gene- 
rally anxious to impart their baneful knowledge to the 
freshmen, who are thus seduced from their proper 
avocations, almost solely because they have none of 



34*6 GREAT MISTAKES IN EDUCATION. 

those friends near them whose influence could prevent 
these serious mischiefs. For all practical moralists 
well know that the bad are much more apt to gain an 
ascendancy over the good, than the good are to reform 
the vicious. 

The author hopes that this explanation will be suf- 
ficient to show how distinctly the University systems 
are exonerated from being the causes of those deplor- 
able mistakes in the conduct of the young men al- 
luded to. A formal apology from the author would be 
superfluous, for where it is so clear that no offence 
could have been intended, to apologize must be wholly 
unnecessary ; nor indeed was it intended to have en- 
tered so fully into an exposure of the follies and vices 
engendered and ripened by these unintellectual prac- 
tices, were it not that some member of the govern- 
ment is reported to have expressed himself favourable 
to the practice of sending the scions of the aristocratic 
and wealthy classes of Ireland to English Universities, 
because, as he thought, " they had a tendency to 
unite the people of the two countries." Whoever it 
was who could seriously express himself to that effect, 
could hardly have taken an ample and statesmanlike 
view of the question. We should rather suspect, that 
the speaker had been deceived by parties interested in 
such speculations ; or, perhaps, it may have been a 
courtier-like compliment to the Universities of Eng- 
land at the expense of their younger sister in Ireland ; 
but from whatever cause such expressions may have 
arisen, we regret to say, that we dissent from them 
toto coelo. We are not in that class of religionists 
who hold it right " that evil may be committed, on 
a speculation that good may follow." Such con- 
venient doctrines we leave to those polite statesmen, 
who being enormously paid for serving a Protestant 
State, look with complacency at the march of Roman- 
ism through the land which pays them. The pure doc- 
trine of Christ tells us "not to do evil on any pre- 
tence ;" but here is a speculation commencing in evil, 
and which ends as it began, but far more darkly. 
It is said that about one hundred young Irishmen 



ABSENTEEISM NOT TO BE ENCOURAGED. 347 

are sent annually to the English colleges from Ireland, 
and that the average expense for each person is 500 
per annum. Here, then, you have 50,000 taken 
out of Ireland every year, without the shadow of a 
good reason being assignable for such a gross injustice; 
for as to the vain idea that this band of mostly dissi- 
pated youths, " cement the union of the two countries," 
it is about as absurd a notion as it would be to 
think of keeping two line-of-battle ships tied together 
by apiece of packthread. No, no; something amazingly 
different from these secondary causes, from these ephe- 
meral but unjust practices, must be brought into ope- 
ration to cement the friendship of the two countries *: 
and in the mean time we would take the liberty of 
suggesting that it would, on the part of an English 
statesman, look much more like an honest and sincere 
desire to " cement the union of the two countries," if 
he promoted the interests of superior learning in Ire- 
land, through the instrumentality of the Dublin Uni- 
versity, rather than to encourage one of Ireland's 
greatest evils, that curse called "Absenteeism;" an 
evil which too many of Ireland's landed proprietors are 
always quite ready to inflict upon their unhappy coun- 
try, and then scandalously to turn round, and deride 
that very poverty and ignorance of which they are the 
chief contrivers. 

a A rational mode of doing this great patriotic service would be, 
'not to feed and keep alive the fire of party spirit, a practice which 
has long been carried on by English Ministries. This is not only a 
vulgar, but a brutalizing mode of governing, suitable perhaps to barba- 
rous times, but disgraceful to an age of civilization. The same English 
ministers who urged on in secret the Romanists to prosecute their claims 
to what was called " Emancipation ;" are reported to have given Mr. 
O'Connell a carte blanche to raise all the agitation he might think 
proper to force that object forward ; and at the same time, those same 
Ministers had, by their agents, (several of whose names the author has 
by him,) excited the revival of Orange Lodges to oppose those claims, and 
then, when the plan was ripe, openly denounced and put down those 
same Orange Lodges, and pretended to yield to the clamour which them- 
selves had privately encouraged ; and the same system of policy is said 
to be still actively at work, keeping that unhappy country in a state 
of constant turmoil. The recent scandalous finale enacted about 
the " writ of error," would therefore show that Mr. O'Connell's 
ministerial backers have kept their faith with him, by bearing him 
scatheless at the expense of every principle of British law and justice. 



348 THE OBSERVATORY. 

The author having now performed a part of his 
duty which he could not abandon, although it was un- 
pleasant, now returns to another and an agreeable 
portion of his work, which will include a description of 
the College Observatory, at Dunsinc, and of the 
Botanic Garden at Ball's Bridge ; after which will 
succeed biographical notices of the men of this Uni- 
versity who have distinguished themselves in literature 
and science, with a list of their publications, so far as 
it may be possible to obtain such information. 



SECTION VII. 
THE OBSERVATORY. 

Having already sketched out the history of Dr. 
Andrews's bequest to found an Observatory, and endow 
a Professorship of Astronomy, and of the unhappy 
and expensive litigations which arose out of that 
testament, our object now is one of a more agreeable 
nature, because it will shew the beneficial result of 
the learned testator's good intentions. 

The aforesaid law proceedings not having been got 
completely rid of until the year 1781, just seven years 
after the decease of Dr. Andrews, the Provost and 
Board at last finding the ground safe under their feet 
in that affair, lost not a moment in looking out for an 
able Professor to commence with. To this honour- 
able post Dr. Henry Ussher was the first elected (in 
1783). The difficulty of obtaining a proper site for 
their proposed building now presented itself: this 
occasioned another lapse of five years ere the present 
most eligible situation was found, adopted, and secured 
by purchase, soon after which the proposed building 
was commenced, under the direction of Dr. Ussher, 
the Professor. Having thus at length succeeded with 
regard to the situation of this building, and in obtain- 
ing an able Professor, the next object was to pro- 
cure instruments in all respects suitable for the im- 
portant purpose in view. To ensure this object, the 
Provost and Board commissioned Dr. Ussher to visit 



DR. BRINKLEY ELECTED PROFESSOR. 349 

London, and give instructions to the celebrated 
Ramsden for a transit instrument, six feet in length, 
and other instruments, all without limitations of price. 
Just previous to Dr. Ussher's visit to London, Rams- 
den had completed the astronomical circle of five feet 
in diameter, which is in the Observatory at Palermo. 
Perceiving the great scientific advantages to be gained 
by such an instrument, the Professor suggested to the 
heads of his college, the propriety of possessing such 
a powerful apparatus. The Provost and Board im- 
mediately ordered a circle of ten feet to be made. This 
was begun by Mr. Ramsden, and laid aside after he 
had made some progress in it. He then commenced 
one of nine feet diameter, which he carried on so far 
as to divide and nearly finish it, when he got dis- 
satisfied with it and laid it aside. He then commenced 
one of eight feet, (now in the Observatory;) this he 
carried on to a very advanced state, wjien he died, 
and after some further delay, Mr. Berg, Ramsden's 
partner, finished it, and it was set up in the observa- 
tory A.D. 1808, that is, about 20 years after it had 
been commenced. Thus, between litigations and 
Ramsden's procrastinations, 34 years had passed 
away before even a beginning could be made in the 
practical observations ; for although the transit in- 
strument had been fixed in its place some years ere 
this time, yet it could not be of great use without the 
circle ; and this instrument Dr. Ussher never saw, 
for he died (in 1790) about three years after he had 
given Ramsden the order for its construction. 

On the demise of Dr. Ussher, the Provost and 
Senior Fellows determined to invite (by advertise- 
ment) to a public competition, all the astronomers of 
Europe who might wish to obtain the Professorship. 

In 1792, the competition took place, and was ex- 
tremely well contested by several candidates eminently 
skilled in astronomy. At the close, however, Dr. 
Brinkley, of Trinity College, Cambridge, was found 
to be the best qualified for this office. The governors 
of the University, therefore, committed the super- 
vision of the building, the instruments, and, in 



350 VALUABLE INSTRUMENTS. 

short, every thing belonging to the concern, into the 
hands of their new Professor, and also commissioned 
him to go to London, and order from Mr. Ramsden 
other instruments, without any limitation of price. 
The next object of the Professor, was the arrange- 
ment of the place, the completion of the building, and 
the commodious disposition of the instruments, so as 
to give each a direction suited to the observations to 
be made ; and he devised a plan which was approved 
by the governors of the college, who committed to 
him the management of those parts that required the 
greatest nicety and attention. And having satisfied 
himself that they had secured the three great points 
requisite for the erection of a proper observatory, 
namely, situation, foundation, and soil, the Pro- 
fessor commenced his architectural operations, which 
were completed, and some of the instruments fitted 
in their situations, in 1798. 

To our readers who are not acquainted with the lo- 
calities of the place, it may be useful to mention that the 
Halls, buildings, or Lecture Rooms hitherto described, 
are all within the immediate boundary of the college 
grounds, which, including the park, contain rather 
more than 25 Irish, or 31 English acres. The soil 
is alluvial, the surface flat, and its greatest elevation 
not more than ten feet above the level of the spring 
tides in the river Liffy, which is about 150 yards 
distant from the northern wall of the College Park ; 
consequently, had there been space sufficient whereon 
to have erected an observatory, the locality could not, 
under any circumstances, be made suitable for the 
more important objects of astronomical science ; as 
we shall show in the course of our description of the 
present edifice, the situation of which has certainly 
been selected with great judgment, and the plan of 
the building, mode of construction*, and arrangement 
of the instruments, are equally judicious. 

This observatory stands upon a moderately ele- 

a For these two advantages, the college is indebted to the late Dr. 
Ussher, who was father of the late gallant and distinguished officer, 
Captain Ussher, R.N. Dr. Brinkley arranged the instruments. 



SITUATION OF THE OBSERVATORY. 351 

vated piece of table land, called the Hill of Dunsinc, 
which lies to the north-west of Dublin, (beyond the 
Phoenix Park,) near Castle-noc, and is four miles 
from that city, or five and a half from college a . At 
the observatory, the mercury in the thermometer 
stands at 0.254 lower than it does at the high water- 
mark (spring tides) in the river Liffy ; and when 
the thermometer reaches 52 in Dublin, it marks 59 
at the observatory. 

The foundation of this structure is imbedded in a 
solid and immense rock of limestone, which, it is 
well known, extends for several miles around this 
spot, where it rises to within about twelve inches of 
the surface ; and it is of so hard a substance, that 
when required by the farmers for lime or building, it 
can only be obtained by blasting it with gunpowder ; 
the incumbent and circumjacent soil is composed of 
common loam and a substance called limestone gravel, 
which is extremely absorbent. 

The horizon here is very extensive, its range is, in 
fact, without the slightest obstruction on any side, ex- 
cept that to the southward is situated the long range of 
Wicklow mountains ; some summits of which attain 
an elevation of 2500 feet or more above the marine 
level. These mountains, however, are at a distance 
of from ten to fifteen English miles, a space that 
removes any apprehension with regard to their having 
an attractive effect on the plumb-line. Besides this, 
there is the gradual and equal acclivity of the hill on 
which the building is erected, which seems a sufficient 
security to it against any more proximate and danger- 
ous local effects of that nature. 

Considered also in another point of view, these moun- 
tains afford some striking advantages, which we have 
witnessed, and which the late professor assured the 
author, was often useful to his operations. This is, 
that when the clouds are coming up from the south, 
the observer may see them directed and retained by 
the mountains ; thus leaving the space from thence 

a This is now seven miles, because the English standard of land 
measure has become the standard measure of Ireland. 



352 DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING. 

to the zenith quite serene; whilst to the east and west, 
where no such attractions intervene, the sky has been 
obscured by numerous flying clouds. 

From east to south-east the sea is visible, at a 
distance of from ten to twelve miles, a circumstance 
presenting several advantages, one of which is, the 
opportunity it affords, by means of the lighthouses at 
the end of the mole, called " the south wall," and at 
Kingstown, for making observations on terrestrial re- 
fraction, both by night and day. 

In particular states of the atmosphere, but more 
especially preceding the approach of very severe 
weather, the outline of the mountains in North Wales 
is distinctly observable, including the whole Snow- 
donian range ; but much more plainly is seen that 
ridge of hills known as " the Rivals," which stretches 
away from north-east to south-west beyond the isle of 
Anglesea, and terminates in the promontory called 
Braich-y-pwll, which is the northern boundary of Car- 
digan bay ; these hills are nearly 30 leagues from the 
observatory in a direct line, but the range of " the 
Snowdon Hills " is still further inland. 

The principal front of the observatory looks towards 
the east, and is composed of a projecting centre and 
two wings ; the centre is surmounted by a dome, 
which latter is not only ornamental but useful, as we 
shall see presently. The two principal apartments 
in the building, devoted to astronomical purposes are, 
the "Equatorial" and "Meridian" rooms. The 
first of these contains one of the finest equatorial in- 
struments in Europe. 

This room is elevated above the other parts of the 
building, so far as to command every portion of the 
visible horizon. To effect this essential object, the 
dome has been constructed on the moving principle, and 
in it is an aperture of two feet six inches wide, which 
opens six inches beyond the zenith ; propelled by a 
lever fixed in the wall : this implement is applied to 
cogs projecting from the base of the dome, which can 
be moved round with the greatest ease, and the 
aperture may be directed to any part of the horizon. 



THE MERIDIAN ROOM. 353 

In this room is fixed the equatorial instrument ; it 
is supported by a pillar of the most solid masonry, 16 
feet square at the base, where it projects from the 
rock in which its foundations are imbedded. This 
pillar rises through the floor in the centre of the 
dome : it stands quite insulated, and unconnected with 
the walls or floor. On this pillar the instrument rests, 
and remains perfectly undisturbed by any motion, as 
indeed none can be communicated to it from any part 
of the building. A broad platform surrounds the lower 
part of the dome, and from this place there is a com- 
manding view of extensive and agreeable prospects. 

The Meridian Room. This large apartment stands 
on the west side of the building a ; it is used solely for 
the purpose of taking observations of the heavenly 
bodies when passing the meridian, and also on their 
meridian altitudes ; it therefore required an un- 
interrupted view from north to south, and also an. 
attention to several particular circumstances, all of 
which have been admirably effected. Solidity of 
foundation being one of these objects, the utmost 
precaution that a knowledge of construction could 
devise was resorted to for that purpose. A mass of 
solid masonry in the form of a broad cross was first 
imbedded in the rock, and then carried up a little 
way, no part of it being allowed to come in contact 
with the surrounding walls : on the southern limb of 
this cross, is laid a solid block of Portland stone, nine 
feet two inches in length, three feet in breadth, and 
one foot four inches thick. This block supports the 
pillars of the transit instrument: these are seven feet 
six inches in height, three feet in breadth at the base 
from north to south, and two feet six inches from east 
to west. Each of these blocks is formed of a single 
stone : thus all the effects that might arise from lime, 
mortar, and iron cramps, are avoided. 

The temperature of the pillars at different heights is 
shewn by thermometers, whose bulbs are inserted into 

a This was done in some measure on account of the westerly 
winds which prevail here almost nine months in the year, and the 
fogs and smoke of the city are thereby avoided. 

A A 



354 THE MERIDIAN CIRCLE. 

the stone. Near the western end of the foundation 
cross arise four other pillars, for the purpose of sup- 
porting the frame of the vertical meridian circle. Be- 
neath, from north to south, is laid another massive 
block of Portland stone, so placed as not to touch the 
pillars or floor : this is to support the vertical axis. The 
" clock pillar" is another of these solid supports for 
that requisite instrument : the clock was made by the 
late Mr. Arnold especially for this place. 

The meridian aperture for the transit instrument 
and circle, is five feet wide from the horizon to the 
zenith, and the air is admitted, that the temperature 
within and without may be equalized ; but there is 
also a thin canvass covering to this opening, which is 
drawn over, except a space of two feet in the middle. 
These openings have also shutters, which are only closed 
in very damp or wet weather. 

The south wing is assigned for occasional observa- 
tions, such as eclipses, occultations, &c. ; for comets 
are always most conveniently observed by the equa- 
torial instrument, which, here, has the entire com- 
mand of the horizon. 

The Meridian Circle. This circle, which is sus- 
pended between the solid pillars already described, is 
eight feet in diameter; it possesses immense optical 
power, with wonderful accuracy, both qualities, no 
doubt, arising from the very great precautions taken 
in the construction of the instrument, and of the ma- 
chinery contrived for its suspension. In both of these 
operations the most consummate skill and discern- 
ment have been displayed. 

To our readers who may not have seen this circle, 
or read any description of it, some account of it may 
be interesting. It is entirely metal, and was com- 
menced by Mr. Ramsden, of London. The view we 
give, and the following sketch may be interesting: 

This splendid instrument is by far the largest of its 
class that ever has been completed; it is a broad 
circle, composed solely of brass ; it is supported in a 
frame, which turns on a vertical axis : this axis is a 
double cone, each portion being four feet in length, 



THE MERIDIAN CIRCLE. 

and the pressure of the circle upon it is completely 
relieved by a very ingenious application of a lever as- 
sisted by friction wheels. The circle is divided into 
intervals of five minutes, which are divided by micro- 
metic microscopes into seconds and parts of seconds. 
There are also three microscopes attached to it : one 
of these is opposite to the lower part of the circle, a 
second opposite the right, and a third opposite the 
left extremity of the horizontal diameter. By these 
microscopes the minute subdivisions of the circle, 
which are indistinct to the naked eye, are marked 
with the greatest accuracy. From the vast size of the 
instrument, and the great interval between the upper 
and lower parts, the temperatures must occasionally 
differ ; and from this cause the relative positions of 
the points of suspension of the plumb-line (ten feet 
long) which adjusts the vertical axis and the point be- 
low, over which it passes, would experience some 
change ; but to obviate an accident that must be so 
fatal to the accuracy of the observations, the point of 
suspension and the point below are on similar com- 
pound bars of brass and steel ; and hence the distance 
of the plumb-line from the vertical axis always remains 
the same ; a fact which has been repeatedly and satis- 
factorily proved, and the remarkable ease and steadi- 
ness with which this great circle and its frame turn 
upon their respective axes by the slightest touch of 
the fingers, is not only a great advantage in working 
the instrument, but is also another proof of the beau- 
tiful adjustment and balancing of all its members. 

It is, however, a subject of much regret to all men 
of science, that the uncommon slowness of the opti- 
cians (already noticed) in completing these instru- 
ments should have delayed so long the progress of 
practical astronomy in Ireland. In affairs of this kind, 
when twenty years are lost, they cannot easily be re- 
gained ; however, they now seem to make quick atone- 
ment for their long delay, although that delay alone 
has prevented this observatory from affording the as- 
sistance it might have contributed in bringing to their 
present state, approximating to perfection, the astro. 

A A 2 



356 PARALLAXES OF SOME FIXED STARS. 

nomical tables ; almost all which improvements are the 
results of the observations made during the last eighty 
years at Greenwich. But Dr. Brinkley was professor 
from 1792 until 1808, before he had obtained the 
proper instruments to commence his observations. This 
was entirely owing to the dilatoriness of the optician, 
Mr. Ramsden. So that, in fact, Dr. Brinkley may be 
said to have been curtailed of one half of his profes- 
sional life, as to the higher objects of astronomical 
science; for during nearly the first seventeen years after 
his being elected, he had little to do except in lectur- 
ing and examining the astronomical students in the 
Philosophy school of the University a ; and then at 
the end of the next seventeen years he was installed 
Bishop of Cloyne. However, the moment that Berg, 
who succeeded Ramsden, had placed the circle in a 
true state of adjustment, the astronomer commenced 
his observations, and soon discovered a very important 
circumstance relative to certain of the fixed stars, 
which had been suspected to exist, but had not been 
proved ; this was the annual visible parallaxes of the 
following stars : a Lyra, a Aquila, a Arcturus, and 
a Cygni. The parallax of the first he set down at 
= 1 >7 .0; of the second, 2".7; of the third, 1".10; of 
the fourth, 1".0. Shewing in the first place, that 
Aquila, though less brilliant than Lyra, is by one 
half the distance nearer to us than that star, and that 
Arcturus is only half the distance of the two others. 
These results have been obtained from a mean of seve- 
ral hundred observations made at various times, in 
every season of the year. Should these parallaxes be 
found correct, it will open a vista into space, almost too 
vast for the human mind to contemplate, a distance, 
compared with which, our solar system would be a 
mere point in the universe. The ocean of space now 
open to view being, as Dr. Brinkley assured the 
author, equal to 200 billions of millions of miles. The 
details of these operations are to be found at large in 

a In the year 1799, Dr. Brinkley published a treatise on astronomy, 
for the use of the students. This work experience has proved to be 
well calculated for the instruction of that class of pupils. 



THE BOTANIC GARDEN. 357 

the 12th Volume of Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy. 

On the promotion of Dr. Brinkley to the bishopric 
of Cloyne, (1827,) another severe competition took 
place for the professorship of astronomy, which was 
decided in favour of W. Rowan Hamilton, LL.D., 
the present professor, who thus became " Astronomer 
Royal of Ireland." This gentleman has since received 
the distinction of knighthood ; but his solid distinc- 
tive honour consists in his being ranked amongst the 
first class of European astronomers ; and, therefore, 
the chair which his talented and excellent predecessor 
so ably filled is occupied and honoured as it ever ought 
to be. 

THE BOTANIC GARDEN. 

This interesting section of " The complete School of 
Physic " has been incidentally mentioned in the gene- 
ral history, at pages 165 to 170 inclusive ; a descrip- 
tion of the garden will now be added. 

The ground upon which this garden has been 
formed, was acquired by the college in the year 1807, 
and the first thing done was to inclose it with a wall 
ten feet high. In the following year, the laying out of 
the ground was commenced by Mr. J. T. Mackay, who 
had been appointed to be its curator, on account of 
his superior knowledge as a practical man. The 
ground on which this elegant and very interesting 
garden has been formed, is situated at the lower end 
of Pembroke Road, near Ball's Bridge, about a mile 
and a half from the college. It was originally a small 
field, containing only about three English acres ; in 
1832, two acres were added, on the south-west side, 
having a front of 375 feet in length, facing the high 
road from Dublin to Merrion, &c. This front is se- 
cured by a massive base of cut granite, two feet and a 
half high, upon which is placed a lofty and substantial 
iron railing. 

The original ground is laid out in different com- 
partments for trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants, ar* 



3.58 THE BOTANIC GARDEN. 

ranged according to the Linnean system. The trees 
and shrubs, however, correspond pretty well with the 
natural order. 

There is also a collection of British plants, arranged 
according to the natural method on De Candolle's sys- 
tem, and another compartment for medicinal plants ac- 
cording to Jussieu's method. 

The greenhouses are separated into three divisions, 
and extend 165 feet in length. The hothouses or 
stoves are similarly divided ; these are 1 80 feet long. 
There is also an orchidaceous house, forty feet in 
length. The collections in all these compartments are 
very extensive. 

A considerable portion of the recent addition is oc- 
cupied with a pretty full collection of pines and other 
coniferse, together with many choice trees and shrubs, 
on a very well dressed lawn ; which division of the 
garden, as well as the garden in all its other divisions, 
is greatly and justly admired, not more for the beauty, 
healthful appearance, and variety of its vegetable trea- 
sures, than for the good taste, judgment, and economy 
with which the numerous families composing this highly 
interesting scene have been arranged, either for the 
display of their beauties, or to produce evidence of the 
medicinal, nutritive, and other useful qualities with 
which they are combined. 

In front of the conservatory is an aquarium, in 
which there is a choice collection of the plants which 
belong to the various aquatic species which love that 
element, amongst which the Egyptian lotus and the 
splendid trumpet or St. Helena lily, are conspicuous. 

Supported by the extensive walls, but more espe- 
cially on that which bounds the south-east side of the 
garden, and which is 800 feet in length, are many 
New Holland and other ornamental plants, which 
show by their great luxuriance, how well their culture 
and constitutions are understood. 

The duties of the Professor of Botany in college, 
and who is indispensably an officer of the medical 
school, have already been stated at pages 70 ail d 71 



ANCIENT IRISH AUTHORS. 35Q 

The students attending lectures in college and at the 
garden, have free access to it ; where likewise all 
respectable persons are freely admitted on showing 
an order from the Provost, Fellows, the Professor or 
Curator ; and since the addition was made to the 
garden, the number of visitors has increased con- 
siderably. 

The late Professor, Dr. Wm. Allman, was elected 
to that office in 1 809, and held it, with great credit to 
himself and advantage to the students, during a term 
of thirty-five years a , and it is somewhat curious that his 
successor in the chair of botany, should be of the 
same surname (a very scarce name in Ireland). Yet 
Dr. George Allman, who now fills that office, is not 
a relative of his immediate predecessor. 

Mr. James Townsend Mackay, who was elected to 
the office of curator to this garden at the time it was 
commenced in the year 1808, still vigorously performs 
the duties of his situation, with that superior intelli- 
gence in botany, and that natural suavity of manner, 
which have proved so conducive to the improvement 
of the students, and have justly gained for him the ap- 
probation of his superior officers, and of an extensive 
circle of friends. 



CHAPTER X. 

SECTION I. 
ANCIENT IRISH AUTHORS. 

HAVING at length brought to a close, our account of 
the rise, progress, and present condition of the Uni- 
versity of Dublin, its educational means, the state of 
learning, morals, and manners which characterize its 
systems, the author will now commence the bio- 
graphical sketches of the distinguished men who have 
been educated here, and whose talents and virtues 

a This able botanist retired on a pension in 1844. 



300 ANCIENT STATE OF LEARNING IN IRELAND. 

have contributed to the safety, honour, and prosperity 
of the British empire, under the numerous casualties 
of good fortune or calamity which have befallen the 
British monarchy, since the foundation of this esta- 
blishment ; and the author need not assure those 
readers with whom he has the honour and happiness 
of being acquainted, that this cannot be considered as 
a matter of parade, but one of common justice. It is 
but fair that the people of Great Britain should know 
how far the University of Dublin has been a contri- 
butor to the best interests of learning and the progress 
of civilization ; and perhaps the most intelligible 
mode of doing this will be to give the names of the 
parties, with the titles of their literary works, and 
such other facts as connect them with these great ob- 
jects. This list will be confined to those educated in 
this University, or who have been officially connected 
with its affairs; therefore the period over which 
it will be extended cannot exceed two centuries and a 
half a , no great space of time certainly to restore the 
mind of a nation from a state of barbarism to one of 
useful and superior knowledge in the arts, sciences, 
and literature. 

It cannot be expected, therefore, that in point of 
illustrious names, this University should occupy a posi- 
tion in any respect so elevated as that on which the 
Universities of Oxford and Cambridge are so justly 
placed, and to institute a close comparison between 
them in that respect, would be too great an absurdity 
for any rational person to entertain. 

There is no doubt, however, that in the earlier cen- 
turies of the Christian era, several kinds of literature 
flourished in Ireland, the evidences of which now exist 
in the great libraries, both in the British isles and on 
the Continent, in the form of beautifully written 
manuscripts in the Irish character and language. 
Of these manuscripts many fine specimens are, as 
we have mentioned, still in the University library ; 
they embrace an extensive circle of erudition ; and 

a About one-fourth of the time that the Universities of England 
have been in a state of active existence. 



KING ALFRED AND JOHN ERIGENA. 36 1 

from the many fragments remaining, it is evident 
that literary occupations must have been very numer- 
ous in those early ages when the north-eastern parts of 
Europe were overrun by unlettered barbarians. The 
evidences of these facts are derived from sources above 
suspicion of nationality ; they are the statements of 
foreigners, who mention the literary character of Ire- 
land as a fact well known. 

Without entering here into a long dissertation upon 
this subject, we shall merely state the fact of King 
Alfred having been partly educated in Ireland : this 
is supposed to have taken place at the college of Lis- 
more, and certainly Alfred was considered the most 
learned and polite person then in Europe. On his 
return from Rome, he invited Johannes Erigena a , his 
preceptor, to accompany him to his court, and soon 
afterwards Alfred founded the University of Oxford. 

Morinus, in his life of the founder of the college 
of Lismore, (County Waterford,) has the following 
passage. 

" Certatim hi properant diverse, tramite ad urbem 
Lismoriam, juvenis primes ubi transigit annos." 

Scaliger the younger informs us that " du terns 
de Charlemagne, 200 ans apres, omnes vera docti etoit 
d'Irlande." 

Fergil also (Latinized into Virgilius, and Solivagus) 

a John of Ireland, Latinized as in the text, was the friend and pre- 
ceptor of King Alfred, who may truly be called " the Great." Erigena 
was a very distinguished theologian in the time he lived. He held 
faithfully to the true apostolic doctrine of the Christian Church, at that 
era, arid long afterwards preserved in Ireland. He opposed with great 
acuteness that then new-fangled and very disgusting species of canni- 
balism, " the real presence," which had not long previously been in- 
vented by corrupt theologians, to promote the intended encroach- 
ments of ecclesiastical tyranny and usurpation, Erigena's "excellent 
learning" was acknowledged by that able Pontiff, Nicholas the First, 
surnamed " the Great," but this Pope, in his letter, which is still ex- 
tant, although he charges Erigena with " heterodox opinions," never 
presumes to threaten him with the thunder and lightning of the 
Vatican, as well knowing that his doing so, would expose him to great 
ridicule amongst the Irish people, who, in those ages, habitually 
scorned all foreign domination, whether in religion or politics. 



362 INVASIONS OF NORTHERN BARBARIANS. 

who at length hecame Bishop of Saltzburgh, was a 
man of very surprising knowledge for the age in which 
he lived ; he taught the sphericity of the earth, and, 
as a necessary consequence, explained the doctrine of 
the antipodes. Here then, we have a view of two 
well authenticated personages of Ireland, one of whom 
may be considered as the precursor of the great Re- 
ligious Reformation, and the other of the true prin- 
ciples of astronomy, in Europe. Of these matters, de- 
tailed accounts are to be found in Ussher, Ware, 
Mosheim, Dupin, Spotiswood, &c. The venerable 
Bede, also, is another unequivocal authority in this 
matter, in which he uses the following remarkable 
words. " Quos omnes Scoti libentissime, sus- 
cipientes victum quotidianum sine pretio, libros 
quoque ad legendum et magisterium gratuito prseberi 
curabant." (Lib. iii. cap. xxvii.) William of Malms- 
bury also tells us, that Alfred retired to study in 
Ireland, " In Hibernia," says he, " omni philosophia 
animum composuit," (lib, i.) and in Camden, (see 
Vita Sullugenes,) we find, " Ivit ad Hibernos Sophia 
mirabile claros," &c. These authorities are referred 
to because they are not Irish, or connected with Ire- 
land, and therefore cannot be suspected of partial 
feeling in these matters. So far then as they go, we 
have fair testimony to show that the climate, soil, and 
people of Ireland, were favourable to the cultivation 
of the arts, sciences, and literature, from a time long 
anterior to the preaching of the Gospel in that 
country ; and that its subsequent falling back in 
these matters, arose from the horrid invasions of the 
northern pagan barbarians, from Norway, Denmark, 
and Scandinavia, which began about the beginning of 
the ninth century, and were carried on with almost 
uninterrupted cruelty and devastation until the year 
1014, when these marauders were irretrievably dis- 
abled from a further course of extensive rapine, by 
the memorable defeat which they suffered at the 
battle of Clontarf, on Good Friday in that year : 
but they had done the work of ruin upon the arts 
and civilization of Ireland ; these disastrous effects 



KING HENRY II. VISITS IRELAND. 363 

left the people weak and impoverished, and along 
with their pentarchical form of government, kept them 
from being able to recover, or to unite, concentrate, 
and form a compact political system of government. 
The consequence of these unfortunate circumstances 
was, that these petty sovereigns were always either 
engaged in hostilities against each other, or against 
their common enemy, the piratical Danes and Nor- 
wegians, who almost annually visited the Irish coast 
on plundering expeditions ; and in this distracted 
state it was, when the immorality and baseness of one 
of those petty Irish Kings, invited Robert Fitzstephen, 
Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke, and other adventurers 
to invade that country. Here was a new and abund- 
ant source of anti-civilization, for a more unprincipled 
gang of brigands a never visited with rapine and 
desolation the coasts or territories of any people. 
Dismal and very disgusting are the details still pre- 
served of the mutual hatred, and the cruelties ex- 
ercised upon each other by those adverse barbarians. 
The progress of civilization was not only stayed, but 
it was thrown back completely for two or three 
centuries ; because, although King Henry II. went 
to Ireland and staid in Dublin for about six months b , 
yet the persons he appointed to govern that country, 



a These armed " missionaries of civilization," as they have been 
called, were mostly composed of the dregs of humanity who had 
just escaped the law, at the successive general gaol deliveries in Eng- 
land and Wales ; and it is a very remarkable fact, that the descend- 
ants of these " civilizers," who are quite distinguishable by their names 
and complexion from the native Irish, form the most ferocious and 
ungovernable class of the Irish mobility, and prove their high descent, by 
giving more trouble to the courts of criminal jurisdiction than all the 
other grades of society united. This mongrel breed forms the most 
bigoted adherents to the Church of Rome, and the most noisy and 
rude actors at " Repeal " and other political meetings. 

b In about four years after the King's departure, Cardinal Vivian, 
the Pope's legate, held a synod in Dublin, (1176,) and therein pub- 
lished the King of England's title to hold Ireland, and the Pope's 
(Adrian IV.) ratification of it, denouncing excommunication against 
all that should withdraw their allegiancefrom their sovereign . It should 
be observed, that the Pope, who was guilty of this gross act of political 
swindling, was a Hertfordshire man, and the only native of England 
who is recorded ever to have worn the Romish triple crown. 



364 QUEEN ELIZABETH PROMOTES CIVILIZATION. 

were rapacious and unprincipled ; and, although that 
sagacious monarch introduced the laws and customs 
of England into his newly acquired territory, this wise 
measure was of little avail to stop the tide of rapine 
with which successive generations of these adventurers 
were so vehemently imbued ; and thus this state of 
servile warfare continued, to the neglect of every thing 
that could improve a people, until the reign of Eliza- 
beth, who saw and detested that vile system of political 
intrigue and cruelty which, with few intervals, had 
covered Ireland with ignorance, crimes, and innumer- 
able other misfortunes for nearly four centuries, besides 
rendering that portion of the empire an incumbrance 
instead of a useful auxiliary to the commonwealth ; 
and although that great princess could not in her 
reign, reduce to order that political and social chaos, 
into which the blunders and bad management of her 
predecessors had involved this part of her dominions, 
yet this high minded and enlightened sovereign took 
one of the best measures that human wisdom could 
devise, to restore civilization to this land of ancient 
learning, and also to make the political and moral 
condition of Ireland an honour instead of a disgrace 
to England's government. To demonstrate the effects 
of that wise system will, therefore, form the corollary 
to this volume, as it is only intended to notice those dis- 
tinguished men who have been educated in the Eliza- 
bethan University. And these notices must, from the 
nature of the work, be very brief; and indeed little more, 
in most instances, than merely the names will be given; 
the intention being to restore the disjunctce membrce 
(now fugitive, or claimed by other colleges) to their 
proper locality, and order of time, in a compact form, 
that the confusion, prejudice, and absurdities which 
have so long prevailed on this subject may have an 
end, and the greatest of England's monarchs be 
placed in the true light, and honourable position which 
that Queen ought to hold in the minds of the British 
and Irish people, as one of the noblest civilizers of 
mankind. 



EMINENT LITERARY MEN. 365 

SECTION II. 

A LIST a OF THE EMINENT LITERARY PERSONS WHO HAVE 
BEEN EDUCATED IN THE UNIVERSITY OF DUBLIN, 
WITH THEIR WORKS, ETC. 

JAMES USSHER, one of the first pupils of this col- 
lege, and afterwards Archbishop of Armagh and Pri- 
mate of all Ireland, whose history is so well known, 
wrote the following works in Latin, viz. 

Gravissimae Questionis de Christianarum Ecclesiarum, &c. 
Lond. 1613, 4to. Iterum 1687, 4to. Iterum Hanoviae, 1658. 
Veterum Epistolarum Hibernicarum Sylloge, &c. Dub. 1630- 
1632. Par. 1665, 4to. Britannicarum Ecclesiarum, Antiqui- 
tates, &c. Dub. 1639, 4to. Lond. 1687, fol. Poly car pi et 
Ignatii Epistolae, Gr. et Lat., cum dissertatione, &c. Oxon. 1644, 
4to. A copy of this work is in Trin. Coll. Dub., corrected by the 
bishop's own hand. Appendix Ignatiana in qua continentur Ignatii 
Epistolae genuinae, &c. Lond. 1647, 4to. Diatriba de Romanae 
ecclesiae symbolo, &c. Lond. 1647. Oxon. 1660. De anno So- 
lari Macedonum et Asianorum. Lond. 1648, 8vo. Par. 1673. 
Lugd. 1683. Annales Veteris Testamenti a prima mundi origine 
deducti, &c. Lond. 1650, fol, Epistola ad Lodovicum Capel- 
lum, &c. Lond. 1652, 1655. Annales Novi Testamenti, &c. 
Lond. 1654, fol. De Graeca Septuaginta Interpretum versioue 
Syntagma, &c. Lond. 1655, 4to. Gotteschalci et Predestina- 
tione Controversial Dub. 1631. Hanov. 1662. 

His posthumous works in Latin, are : 

Chronologia sacra. (Dr. T. Barlow), Oxon. 1660, 4to. Par. 
1673. Historia Dogmatica Controversiae, &c. Lond. 1690. 

He published in English : 

A Sermon preached before the House of Commons, 18th Fe- 
bruary, 1620. Lond. 1621, 1631, 4to. A Speech made in the 
Castle of Dublin concerning the Oath of Supremacy. Lond. 1 631 , 
1661. A Sermon preached before the King on the Universality 
of the Church of Christ, &c. Lond. 1631. An Answer to a Je- 
suit's Challenge, in Ireland, &c. Lond. 1625. A Speech at the 
Castle of Dublin, &c. Dub. 1627. A Discourse on the Religion 
anciently professed by the Irish and British. Lond. 1631, 4to; 
1636, 4to. Immanuel ; or, the Mystery of the Incarnation, &c. 
Dub. 1638. Lond. 1649, 1658, 4to. His Petition to the House 
of Lords against John Nicholson. Lond. 1640, 4to. A Geogra- 
phical and Historical Disquisition on Asia properly so called, &c. 

a This list is composed of the names of persons who have gradu- 
ated in this college, whether it be so mentioned or not. Those names 
connected with college, but not graduates, will be so noticed. 



3()6 WORKS OF JAMES USSHER, D.D. JAMES WARE. 

Oxon. 1641, 1643, 4to. The Judgment of Dr. Reynolds, &c. 
Oxon. 1644. A Discourse of the Origin of Bishops and Metropo- 
litans. Oxon. 1641, 4to. The Principles of the Christian Re- 
ligion. Lond. 1654, 12mo. A Body of Divinity, &c. Lond. 1649, 
1658. fol. 

His posthumous English works are : 

The Annals of the Old and New Testament. Lond. 1658, fol. 
The Prince's Power, and the Subject's Obedience, fairly stated. 
Lond. 1661, 4to ; 1683, 8vo, 1691. Sermons preached before the 
King at Oxford, &c. Lond. 1662. Letters to several learned 
Men, &c. Lond. 1686, fol. 

The following were collected and published by Dr. 
Bernard : 

Episcopacy restored to the form received in the Ancient Church. 
Lond. 1656, 4to. The Extent of our Saviour's Suffering and Atone- 
ment upon the Cross, &c. Lond. 1657, 8vo. Of the Sabbath, &c. 
Lond. 1657, 8vo. Of Ordination in the Reformed Churches. 
Lond. 1657, 8vo. His Opinion of the state of the See of Rome. 
Lond. 1659. On Ordination. On the Use of a set Form of 
Prayer. His Commentary on St. John, c. xx. v. 22, 23. Lond. 
1659. 

Besides many works in MS., viz : 

On the Herenachs, Termon, and Corban lands, written in 1609. 
Polemical Lectures, (lost,) 3 vols. 4to. Censurae Patrum et 
Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum. De veterum Paschalibus scriptis. 
De ponderibus et mensuris. De primis haereticis et haeresibus 
Judeorum. Veteris Observationes Coelestes Chaldaicae, Graecae, 
et ^Egyptiacae. De Differentia Circuli et Spherae, &c. Annota- 
tione Rabbinicae, &c. 

AMBROSE USSHER, (brother to James,) was a Fellow 
of this College ; he attained considerable skill in the 
Oriental tongues. He died young. He had only time 
to publish a catechism for the instruction of youth : his 
other works remain in MS. in the library of Trin. 
Coll. Dublin, as may be seen among the list of MSS. 
in the catalogue ; they are thirty-four in number, and 
display considerable erudition. 

JAMES WARE was descended from a noble and an- 
cient family in Yorkshire, the head of which was 
Roger de Ware, Lord of Isefield, and a baron of Par- 
liament in the reign of King Edward I. 

The family is now extinct in that country, and the 
only remains of it in Ireland are the descendants of this 
author. He was the son of Sir James Ware, who came 



SIR JOHN DENHAM. EDWARD WORTH. 367 

to Ireland as secretary to the Lord Deputy, Sir Wil- 
liam Fitzwilliam, in 1588 ; and he was born in the 
city of Dublin, November, 1594. 

James Ware entered this University at sixteen years 
of age, and continued in it six years, under the care 
of Dr. Martin, afterwards Bishop of Meath, and 
Provost, of whom he makes honourable mention. He 
took the degree of M.A. in 16 16. He soon after at- 
tracted the notice of Dr. Ussher, and Daniel Moly- 
neux, the great antiquary, whom Ware mentions in 
one of his works as " Venerandce antiquitatis cul- 
tor" Harris gives Ware's history most exactly in 
his second volume, to which we beg leave to refer. 
His printed works are : 

Archiepiscoporum Cassiliensium et Tuamensium Vitae, &c. 
Dub. 1626. De praesulibus Lageniae, &c. Dub. 1628. Cceno- 
bia Cistertientia, &c. Dub. 1629. De scriptoribus Hiberniae, 
&c. Dub. 1639. De Hiberniaet Antiquitatibus, &c. Lond. 1654, 
8vo. Ditto, enlarged. Lond. 1658, 8vo. Opuscule Sancto Pa- 
tricio. Lond. 1656. Venerabilis Bedae Epistolae duae, &c. Dub. 
1664. Rerum Hibernicarum Annales Regnantibus, &c. Dub. 

1664, fol. De praesulibus Hiberniae commentarius, &c. Dub. 

1665, fol. 

Besides several MSS. of unpublished works in the 
College Library, and a great number of others in the 
Chandos collection. 

SIR JOHN DENHAM was born in Dublin, and had 
the elementary part of his education in this College, 
but being very slow in his improvement, he was sent 
to Oxford, which did not make it better, for he took 
much to gambling. He was afterwards a student of 
Lincoln's Inn, where having incurred his father's dis- 
pleasure for this blackleg propensity, he commenced 
author, and wrote, first, 

An Essay against Gaming. In 1641, he wrote the Sophy, a 
tragedy. Lond. 1642, 1667. Cooper's Hill. Oxon. 1643, 4to. 
Cato Major, &c. Lond. 1648. The Destruction of Troy, &c. 
Lond. 1656. Poems and Translations, with the Sophy. Lond. 
1684 ; and a version of the Psalms of David. Lond. 1714. 

EDWARD WORTH was a native of the county of Cork, 
educated in the University of Dublin, where he took 
his doctor's degree. 



368 JAMES BARRY, FAITHFUL TATE. 

He was advanced to the see of Cork and Ross in 
January, 1660, and was consecrated in St. Patrick's, 
Dublin, the same month. 

He founded the hospital in the south suburbs of 
Cork, which is called St. Stephen's, or the Blue-coat 
Hospital, and endowed it with lands for the support 
and education of boys whose parents have not the 
means of paying for their education. It was placed 
by him under the superintendence of the mayor and 
corporation of the city of Cork, who appear to have 
taken good care of its interests. Out of its endow- 
ment Bishop Worth reserved twenty pounds per 
annum, for the encouragement of four students in 
Trinity College, Dublin, natives of Cork, and educated 
in the schools of that city ; to be presented to them by 
his heirs for ever. 

He died at Hackney, near London, in August, 
1669, and was interred at St. Mildred's Church, (in 
the Poultry,) London. 

He published the following works : viz. 

A remarkably fine Sermon, which he preached at the funeral of 
Robert Boyle, Archbishop of Tuam. Cork, 1644. Scripture 
Evidence for Baptizing the Infants of Covenanters. Cork, 1653. 
Another fine Sermon, preached at the funeral of the Irish Lord 
Chief Justice Pepys. Dub. 1659. 

JAMES BARRY, a native of Dublin, and graduate of 
its University, was bred a lawyer, and became second 
Baron of the Exchequer, during Lord Went worth's 
government ; he afterwards was appointed Lord Chief 
Justice, and created Lord Santry. 

This learned and distinguished lawyer published 
" The Case of Tenure " upon the commission of de- 
fective titles, which was a question of great importance 
to Irish landholders : it was solemnly argued by all 
the judges of Ireland, 1625. It contains their reasons 
and judgments thereon. Dub. 1637- 

FAITHFUL TATE was born in the county of Cavan, 
and was a graduate here for a time, as we have seen, 
and Provost pro tern. He wrote, on the interment of Sir 
Charles Coote, " The Soldier's Commission, Charge, 
and Reward." Lond. 16,58. 



AUDLEY MERVIN. EDWARD AND JOHN PARRY. 369 

Also, A Discourse on the Proverbs. Dub. 1666. The Doctrine 
of the Trinity. Lond. 1G69. Meditations, &c. Dub. 1672. 

AUDLEY MERVIN, of the county Tyrone, was edu- 
cated in this college, and brought up as a lawyer; he 
afterwards became a colonel in the army, and was 
knighted for his services. Colonel or Sir Audley Mer- 
vin published five remarkable speeches upon various 
memorable occasions, betwen A.D. 1641 and 1662, and 
an exact relation of occurrences in the northern 
counties of Ireland, presented to the House of Com- 
mons of England, London, 1642. 

EDWARD PARRY was a native of Newry, in the 
county Down ; he received his education in this Uni- 
versity, where he took the degree of D.D. He first got 
the Prebendary of Stagonyl, then the Deanery of Lis- 
more, and Treasurership of Christ Church. He was 
promoted to the bishopric of Killaloe, in March, 1647. 
In July, same year, he signed the petition of the clergy 
praying to be allowed the use of the Liturgy, then 
abolished by order of the commissioners under Crom- 
well ; this petition and its fate are fully recorded 
by Borlace. (Append. 94.) 

He was father of John and Benjamin Parry, both 
of whom became successively Bishops of Ossory. 

He died of the plague, in Dublin, July, 1650, and 
has left behind him a high character both for superior 
talents and great goodness of disposition. 

JOHN PARRY, son to Edward, Bishop of Killaloe, who 
had been a fellow of this college, was born in Dublin, 
and educated at this University, where he took the 
degree of A.B.; he then removed to Oxford, and was 
elected a fellow of Jesus College, and chaplain to the 
Marquis of Ormond ; after several other promotions, 
he was at length created Bishop of Ossory, in April, 
1672. He was considered a prelate of much learning, 
and certainly was a great benefactor to his see, besides 
being a patron and encourager of his clergy. He 
laid out 400 in repairing the episcopal mansion, and 
it cost him as much more for a ring of six bells, which 

B B 



370 BENJAMIN PARRY. 

weighed three tons and a half; these he placed in the 
steeple. He passed the patent for certain augmenta- 
tion lands granted to his see by the act of settlement ; 
these were valued at the annual amount of 400 ; and 
for securing many impropriations to the use of his 
clergy, which would have gone into other hands but 
for the address he used on that occasion. 

He also obtained a charter of confirmation of the 
privileges belonging to the ancient corporation of 
Irishtown, Kilkenny, of which the Bishops of Ossory 
are prescriptive lords, and claim a right of approba- 
tion of its chief magistrate at elections. Among other 
bequests he left two pounds sterling to each of six 
sizars, such as the Provost for the time being should 
think most worthy. 

He died in Dublin, in December, 1677, and was 
interred there in Saint Audeon's Church. 

His published works are : 

Pious Reflections on our Saviour's Sufferings, &c. Lond. 1666. 
Discourses upon the Festivals, &c. Lond. 1666. A Sermon 
on Nehem. Chap. xiii. v. 14. Oxon. 1670. Meditations and 
Prayers. Lond. 1673. 

BENJAMIN PARRY, second son to Edward, Bishop 
of Killaloe, and brother to the last named Bishop, 
was born in Dublin, and graduated in that University ; 
he afterwards went with his brother to Oxford, be- 
came a fellow of Corpus Christi College, and was ap- 
pointed Greek lecturer. His first promotion was a 
prebendal stall in York Cathedral, which he resigned 
when appointed chaplain to Capel, Earl of. Essex, 
with whom he returned to his own country. His Ex- 
cellency promoted him to the Deanery of Saint Canice, 
in 1678 ; to that of Saint Patrick's, Dublin, in 1674 ; 
and by the Duke of Ormond, who succeeded the Earl 
of Essex, to the see of Ossory, in 1677; but he did 
not survive his brother nine months, for he died in 
October, 1678. 

The only work we have met with which he pub- 
lished, is, 

Chymia Ccelestis. Lond. 1659. 



ROGER BOYLE. ROBERT BOYLE. 3?1 

ROGER BOYLE, (Earl of Orrery,) was born at Lis- 
more, county Waterford, April, 1621, and educated 
in this college, where he had the character of being a 
most attentive student : after graduating he was sent 
to travel for two years. From the time he returned 
home in 1640, to his death in 1679, his life seems to 
have been composed of a series of the most arduous 
occupations and pursuits, whether in the capacity of 
a statesman, scholar or soldier, in each of which cha- 
racters he displayed in turn, courage, prudence, learn- 
ing and wit. 

His presence of mind on difficult emergencies was 
surprising, and his natural generosity and humanity 
were made more conspicuous and useful, by his strong 
sense of religion. 

Yet, notwithstanding the various employments in 
which he was incessantly engaged, he found leisure to 
devote to the pursuits of literature, as the list of his 
works will show, viz. : 

The Iriih Colours displayed. Lond. 1665, 4to. A Letter in 
answer to one of Peter Walsh. Dub. 1662. Lond. 1662. A Poem 
on the Restoration of King Charles II. A Poem on the late Mr. 
Cowley. 1667. Henry the Vth, a Tragedy. Lond. 1668.- 
Mustapha, a Tragedy. 1668. The Black Prince, a Tragedy. 
Lond. 1672. Try phon, a Tragedy. 1672, 1690. Parthenissa, a 
Romance, 3 vols. 1665 and 1667, fol. The Art of War. Lond. 
1677, fol. Mr. Anthony, a Comedy. Lond. 1690. Guzman, a 
Comedy. 1693. Herod, a Tragedy. 1694. Altamira, a Tragedy. 
1702. 

ROBERT BOYLE, the seventh and youngest son of the 
first Earl of Cork, and in point of learning considered 
the first of that gifted family, was born at Lismore 
Castle, his father's residence, in the county Waterford. 
Having received part of his education at Dublin, he 
was sent to the University of Leyden; he then travelled 
through the greater part of Europe, and on his return, 
went to Oxford. At the restoration he settled in 
London, where he erected an extensive chemical la- 
boratory, in which he employed a number of persons, 
and wherein he conducted his experiments for the im- 
provement of that science. These things he did merely 
to gratify his love of knowledge, and without any view 



372 FRANCIS BOYLE. H. JONES. W. DILLON. 

to his personal advantage, for he gave away all the 
produce of this establishment, to those whom he 
thought most deserving of encouragement. He died 
in December, 1691, in the sixty-fifth year of his age. 
His works are : 

New Experiments, Physical, Mechanical, &c. Oxon. 1660, 
1662. A Defence of the Doctrine touching the Spring, and 
Weight of the Air, c. Lond. 1661, 1662. An Examen of 
Hollis's Dialogus Physicus, &c. The Sceptical Chymist, 1661, 
1680. Physiological Essays, &c. 1662, 1669. Experimental 
History of Colours. Lond. 1663, 1664. Discourse on Experi- 
mental Philosophy. 1663, 64, 71. On Natural Philosophy. 1669. 
Oxon. 1671. Experimental History of Cold, &c. 1665, 83. A 
Method of conveying Liquor into the Mass of Blood. Experi- 
ments on the Barometer. 

His entire works, some of which are very elaborate, 
are seventy-two in number ; a catalogue of them is to 
be found in Harris, completed from one published 
by Samuel Smyth, 1690. 

FRANCIS BOYLE, Lord Shannon, wrote and published, 
" Moral Essays and Discourses," and " A Letter to 
an Atheist." 

HENRY JONES, Bishop of Meath, D.D., of Trinity 
College Dublin, wrote 

An Account of the Rebellion in County Cavan, 1641, with the 
Acts of the General Convocation at Kilkenny. Lond. 1642. 
A Remonstrance of divers Remarkable Passages concerning the 
Church and Kingdom of Ireland, &c. Lond. 1642. Description 
of the Origin, &c., of St. Patrick's Purgatory. 1647. Three Ser- 
mons on various particular Occasions. Dub. 1667, 76, 78. A 
Letter to Dr. Borlace. 

WENTWORTH DILLON, Earl of Roscommon, was born 
in Ireland ; he received part of his academical educa- 
tion there, under Dr. Hall. He was sent first to Oxford 
and thence to Caen, in Normandy, where he was 
placed under the learned Bochart. Dryden has 
justly eulogized him, and Pope has an elegant com- 
pliment to him in his Essay on Criticism. His works 
are the following : 

An Essay on Translated Verse. Lond. 1680. This has been re- 
printed several times. A Collection of Poetical Pieces, Transla- 
tions, &c. Lond. 1684. A Translation of Horace's Art of Poetry. 



RT. HON. ARTHUR ANNESLEY, M.P., AND OTHERS. 373 

1680. A Translation of Dr. Sherlock's "Case of Resistance" into 
the French Language. 1680. 

ARTHUR ANNESLEY, Earl of Anglesea, son of Sir 
Francis Annesley, Bart., afterwards Lord Mountnorris, 
and Viscount Valentia, was born in Dublin, July, 
1614. Having received the first part of his academical 
education in this college, he was sent to Oxford at 
sixteen, and entered of Magdalen Hall, after which 
he became a student of Lincoln's Inn ; he then 
made the tour of Europe, and on his return got a seat 
in the Irish Parliament. He accompanied King 
Charles I. to Oxford, but was afterwards reconciled 
to the Parliament, and was sent by them to Ireland, 
as one of their commissioners, in 1645. At Cromwell's 
death, he joined those who were favourable to the 
restoration of King Charles II., for which he was 
soon afterwards made a privy councillor, created Earl 
of Anglesea, and Vice-Treasurer of Ireland. In a few 
years after this promotion he was made Lord Privy 
Seal, which he held nine years. 

He died April, 1686, his works are : 

Animadversions on "The Remonstrance" of the Romish Clergy 
of Ireland, &c. 1666. The Truth Unveiled, &c., (a Political 
Essay). Reflections on a Discourse of Transubstantiation. 1676. 
Letter to the Earl of Castlehaven. 1676. Account of the 
Proceedings between James Duke of Ormond, and Arthur Earl 
of Anglesea. Remarks on Jovian. A Statement of the Privileges 
of Lords and Commons, &c. The King's Right in Spiritual 
Matters, &c. Lond. 1688. Memoirs of the Earl of Anglesea. 

ULICK BOURKE, Marquis of Clanricarde, Lord- 
Deputy of Ireland in 1650, wrote, " Memoirs of His 
own Time," which are very interesting to historians. 
Lond. 



ROGER BOYLE, Bishop of Clogher, wrote 

Inquisitio in Fidem Christianorum, &c. Dub. 1665. Summa 
Theologiae Christiana?. Dub. 1681. 

CHARLES MOLLOY, a native of the King's County, 
educated here, hecame a member of the Middle 
Temple ; he wrote an excellent work, which went 
through several editions, it was entitled, 

De Jure Maritimo, et Navali. Lond. 1681. 



374 ALLEN MULLEN AND OTHERS. 

CHARLES MOLLOY was also educated at Dublin, 
and entered of the Inner Temple ; he wrote three 
comedies, viz. 

The I Perplexed Couple The Coquette -and The Half-Pay 
Officer. 

ALLEN MULLEN, a native of the north of Ireland, 
was educated here, and took the degree of M .D. ; he 
was an eminent physician ; he died in the West Indies, 
whither he went to examine some mines, &c. He 
wrote the following works : 

An Anatomical Account of the Elephant which was accidentally 
burnt to death in Dublin, in June, 1681. This Essay was addressed 
to Sir W. Petty. -And he likewise published some Anatomical 
Observations on the Eyes of Animals ; this he addressed to the 
Hon. Robert Boyle. Lond. 1682. And also Five Essays on 
various subjects connected with his profession ; these are to be 
found in the Philosophical Transactions. 

ANDREW HAMILTON, Prebendary of Clogher, &c., 
wrote 

The Actions of the Enniskillen Men. Lond. 1690. 

THE REV. WILLIAM HAMILTON published 

A Discourse concerning Zeal, Profaneness, and Immorality, &c. 
Dub. 1700. 

WILLIAM HAMILTON, Archdeacon of Ardmagh, 
wrote the Life and Character of Mr. Bonn el, and some 
very excellent Sermons. Dub. 1723. 

SAMUEL FOLEY, Bishop of Downe and Connor, 
published 

A Consecration, and also a Visitation Sermon. Dub. 1683. 
An Accurate Account of the Giant's Causeway, in the North of 
Ireland. An Exhortation to the People of his Diocese, on the 
Religious Education of their Children, &c. Dub. 1695. This is 
an admirable work, quite suitable to the present age. 

DUDLEY LOFTUS, LL.D., son of Sir Adam Loftus, 
and grandson of Dr. Loftus, Archbishop of Ardmagh, 
&c., was born at Rathfarnham Castle, co. Dublin; he 
was educated here, and took the degree of A.B. ; he 
went for a short period to Oxford. On his return, the 
rebellion of 1641 had just broken out, when his 
father, who was Vice-Treasurer of Ireland, prevailed 



DUDLEY LOFTUS. 3J5 

on the government to place a garrison in his castle at 
Rathfarnham, and he got the command of it for his 
son Dudley, who was very active in defending the 
city from the incursions of the Irish mountaineers 
in his district. He was promoted successively to be a 
Master in Chancery, Vicar-General of Ireland, and 
Judge of the Prerogative Court, all which he held 
during life. He was considered the most learned 
man of his country in the civil law ; but his know- 
ledge of the Oriental tongues was most remarkable, 
for, in his twentieth year, he could translate many of 
these languages into English. He died in June, 1 69-5, 
aged 77. 

His published works are as follow, viz. : 

The Ethiopic New Testament, translated into Latin at the re- 
quest of Archbishop Ussher and Mr. Selden. This version is in 
the Polyglott Bible, in the preface to which, Dr. B. Walton says 
of him, " Vir doctissimus tarn generis prosapia quam linguarum 
Orientalium Scientia nobilis." Logica Armenica, in Latinum tra- 
ducta. Dub. 1657. Introductio in totum Aristotelis Philo- 
sophum. Dub. 1657. The Proceedings, &c., observed in the 
Consecration of the Twelve Bishops in St. Patrick's, Dublin, 27 
January, 1660. Lond. 1661. Liber Psalmorum Davidis ex 
Armeniaco, &c. Dub. 1661. A remarkable Speech of James 
Duke of Ormond, in the Irish Parliament, translated into Italian. 
Dub. 1661. Lettera Erostatoeia di mettere Opera, &c. The 
Vindication of a Lady, &c. The Case of Ware and Shirley. 
Speech at a Visitation of Clogher. 1671. zMF'AMIAS AAIKTA. 
Lond. 1677. Air AM IS AAIKI V A. Lond. 1678. Translation of 
Dionysius Syrus's Comments on St. John the Evangelist. 
Dionysius Syrus's Commentary on the Four Evangelists, translated 
out of the Syriac tongue. Commentary by Moses Bar Cepha, on 
St. Paul's Epistles, translated from the Syriac. Translation from 
the Syriac of Dionysius Syrus's Exposition of St. Mark's Gospel. 
Dub. 1676. Translation from the Syriac of Gregory Maphinus's 
History of the Eastern and Western Church. Translation from 
the Syriac of Gregory Maphinus's Commentary on the Epistles 
General, and the Acts of the Apostles. Dub. 1693. Praxis 
Cultus divini, &c., &c., containing the Liturgies of the Twelve 
Apostles, of St. Peter, and St. John the Evangelist, and Dionysius 
the Areopagite, from the Syriac ; with the Liturgies of Bar 
Sherumine, of Eustathius, and the Ethiopian. Dub. 1693. A 
Clear Explication of the History of our Lord, collected by Dio- 
nysius Syrus, from about thirty Greek, Syriac, and other Oriental 
writers, translated into English. The Invention of the Cross, 
from the Armenian. Translation into Latin, of Jacob Bar Isalabi's 
Commentary on St. Luke's Gospel. A translation of Abul 



ANTHONY DOPPING AND OTHERS. 

Faragi's Life, from Arabic into Latin. A Latin Translation of 
Dionysius Syrus's Sermons, from the Syriac. A Latin Translation 
from the Syriac of Bar Abchi. 

GEORGE PHILIPS, a gentleman of good estate in the 
county of Londonderry, wrote a clever work, entitled, 

" The Interest of England lies in the Preservation of the Rights 
of Ireland," which he dedicated to the Parliament of England. 
Lond. 1689. Lex Parliamentaria. Lond. 1680. 

WILLIAM PHILIPS, (son of the preceding George 
Philips,) wrote 

The Revengeful Queen, a Tragedy. Lond. 1698. Also, St. 
Stephen's Green, or the Generous Lovers, a Comedy. Dub. 1700. 
Hibernia freed, a Tragedy. Lond. 1722. Belisarius,a Tragedy. 
Lond. 1724. 

ROBERT WARE, second son of Sir James Ware, was 
a native of Dublin, and a graduate of the University. 
His writings are : 

The Life and Death *>f George Browne, Archbishop of Dublin. 
Dub. 1680. Foxes and Firebrands. Lond. 1705. Besides several 
Political Essays. 

ANTHONY DOPPING, was born in Dublin, March, 
1643 ; his first education was in the school of St. 
Patrick's Cathedral. He entered the University at 
twelve years of age, and in 1662 (his 19th year) was 
elected a Fellow, in which office he gained the esteem 
of all his acquaintance. In 1669, he commenced 
B.D., and was appointed Vicar of St. Andrew's, 
Dublin ; in 1672 he commenced D.D., and became 
chaplain to the Duke of Ormond, who had him pro- 
moted to the bishoprick of Kildare, in 1678 ; he was 
translated to the see of Meath in February, 1681. 
He died in Dublin, April, 1697> much regretted by 
all ranks of people. He lies buried in his family 
vault in St. Andrew's Church. The following is a 
tolerably correct list of his publications : 

A Speech in the Parliament of Ireland. A Form for the Re- 
conciliation of Lapsed Protestants, &c. Dub. 1690. Modus 
tenendi Parliamenta in Hibernia. Dub. 1692. The Funeral 
Sermon of Archbishop F. Marsh. Dub. 1694. The Case of the 
Dissenters of Ireland. De Visitationibus Episcopalibus. Dub. 
1696. 



WILLIAM MOLYNEUX. 377 

WILLIAM MOLYNEUX, 1656, admitted to this Uni- 
versity on the 10th of April, 1671, where he com- 
menced A.B. ; he received from the Senior Board a 
very ample testimony of his talents, probity, and 
learning. In June, "1675, he entered the Middle 
Temple, and applied himself most strenuously to study 
the laws of his country, though he did not adopt the 
law as a profession, having a stronger bias for philo- 
sophical and mathematical learning ; and, even in his 
early days, he shewed a contempt for the scholastic 
learning then taught in the Universities. 

His constitution was delicate, but this did not 
hinder him from distinguishing himself in the literary 
world. 

In 1681, he commenced a correspondence with 
Flamstead, the astronomer, which continued through 
life. In 1683, he assisted in forming a society in 
Dublin, on the plan of the Royal Society of London, 
of which he was a member ; Sir William Petty was 
the first President of this Society, and Mr. Molyneux 
first Secretary ; it only existed five years, being dis- 
persed by the war between King William and King 
James. 

His abilities recommended him to the Duke of 
Ormond, who, in 1684, appointed him, in conjunction 
with Sir William Robinson, Surveyor-General of Works 
and Chief Engineer. In 1685, he was sent abroad 
to visit the most considerable fortresses in Flanders, 
in company with Lord Mountjoy ; he travelled through 
that country, also Holland, part of Germany, and 
France. Soon after his return home he was forced to 
fly into England from the tyranny of Lord Tyrconnel's 
government. 

A Parliament being called in 1692, Mr. Molyneux 
was elected one of the representatives for this Uni- 
versity, which learned corporation, at the close of the 
session, conferred on him the degree of LL.D. The 
Lord-Lieutenant appointed him one of the Com- 
missioners of Forfeitures, to which was annexed a 
salary of 400 per annum, a great stipend in those 
days ; but the employment being an invidious one, he 



378 EZEKIEL BURRIDGE. JOHN STEARNE, M.D. 

did not accept it. He carried on a close and friendly 
correspondence with John Lock for many years, and 
went to England in 1698, on purpose to visit that 
great man ; and in the following year, shortly after 
his return home, was seized with a nephritic com- 
plaint, which soon proved fatal ; he was then in his 
46th year. 

William Molyneux published the following works, 
viz. : 

Six Metaphysical Meditations, proving the Existence of a God, 
and the distinctness of separation between the Mind and Body of 
Man. This was replied to by Hobbes, which brought a rejoinder 
from the author. 1680. A Letter to Wm. Musgrove, H. B., 
Secretary to the Philosophical Society of Oxford ; relative to the 

Eetrifying quality of the water of Lough Neagh. 1684. Another 
jtter on the same subject. A letter from him (when Secretary to 
the Right Hon. the Dublin Society), giving a description of the 
Hygroscope, just invented by him. A Letter on the Circulation of 
the Blood. 1685. An Essay on the Problem, " Why Bodies dis- 
solved in Menstrua specifically lighter than themselves, swim 
therein." 1686. On the Dioptric Problem, " Why four Convex 
Glasses in a Telescope show Objects erect." On the Tides at the 
Port of Dublin. 1686. Eclypsis Lunae Observatae Dublinii. 
Nov. 19, 1686. On "A New Contrivance for adapting a Tele- 
scope to a Horizontal Dial, for Observing the exact moment of 
Time by Day and Night," (with proper Tables). This is useful in 
all astronomical observations, for regulating and adjusting curious 
pendulum watches, and other time-keepers. On the apparent 
Magnitude of the Sun and Moon, or the apparent Distance of two 
Stars when near the Horizon and when ascended higher. 1687. 
A Treatise on Dioptrics, in two parts, explaining the effects 
and appearances of spheric glasses of all forms, single and com- 
bined, &c. 1692. A Letter of John Locke." The case of Ire- 
land's being bound by Acts of Parliament made in England." Dub. 
1697 ; which made a great stir at the time, and is a well argued 
essay. Practical Problems relative to Projectiles, applicable to 
heavy Artillery and Mortars. 

EZEKIEL BURRIDGE, horn in the county of Cork, 
and educated here, published the following works: 

Historia nuperae Rerum mutationis in Anglia, &c. Lond. 1697. 
Jura Populi Anglicani. Lond. 1701. Short View of the pre- 
sent State of Ireland. Also, Locke's Essay on the Understanding; 
which he translated into Latin, under the title of De Intellectua 
Humana. Lond. 1701. 

JOHN STEARNE, M.D., and J.U.D., was born at Ard- 
braccan, in the county of Meath, Ireland ; he was ne- 



JOHN STEARNE. JOHN STEARNE, D.D. 379 

phew to the Primate, Dr. James Ussher. Having gra- 
duated here, he was appointed to a junior fellowship, in 
16.52, during the Cromwellian usurpation, and made 
Hebrew Lecturer in 1659: he resigned his fellowship in 
the same year. In 1660, he was made a Senior Fellow, 
by a king's letter, and became Professor of Laws, with 
a dispensation, he being a married man. Dr. Stearne 
exerted himself strenuously to promote the respecta- 
bility and usefulness of his profession ; he, in fact, for 
these worthy purposes, founded the College of Physi- 
cians, in Ireland, and was the first President of that 
excellent institution. 

Dr. Stearne's works are : 

Aphorismi de Felicitatis. Dub. 1654. 1664, 8vo. 0ANATO- 
AOFIA, sive de Morte Dissertatio. Dub. 1656-59, 8vo. Animi 
Medelaseude Beatitudine et Miseriae. Dub. 1658, 4to. Adrian! 
Heerebordi Disputationem de Concursu examen. Dub. 1660, 
8vo. De Electione et Reprobatione. Dub. 1662; with Manu- 
ductio ad vitam probam. De Obstinationem posthumum. 
Pietatem Christian!, Stoicam, Scholastica, more suadens. This 
was published by Mr. Dodwell (who had been his pupil). He 
preferred it to, Prolegomeno Apologetico de Usu Dogmaticum, 
Philosophorum praecipue Stoicorum in Theologia. Dub. 1672. 

JOHN STEARNE, afterwards D.D., was of the same 
family as Dr. Stearne, M.D. Shortly after he graduat- 
ed; the rectory* of Nicholas parish, Dublin, (within 
the walls,) was conferred on him, and subsequently 
he was selected to be one of his chaplains, by Sir 
Charles Porter, Bart., then Lord Chancellor, and one 
of the Lords Justices of Ireland. He died young, in 
1704. 

He published the following works, viz.: 

King David's Case applied to King James and King William. 
Seasonable Thoughts in Passion Week. Dub. 1691. A Sermon 
"on the Prayer of Moses;" another "on God's Wonderful Mer- 
cies," and a version of Select Psalms. 

JOHN STEARNE (D.D.) was the son of Dr. Stearne, 
M.D., &c., previously noticed ; who took especial 
care to have him educated in the best manner, under 
his own inspection. In a short period after his com- 

a The celebrated " Laurence Stearne," was also a descendant from 
this stock. 



380 GEORGE FARQUHAR. HENRY DODWELL. 

mencing A.B., he was made Vicar of Ferns, then 
Chancellor of that diocese, and at length was elected 
Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral ; subsequently he be- 
came Bishop of Dromore, and finally was translated 
to Clogher, in 171?> and appointed Vice-Chancellor 
of this University in 1721. 

Dr. Stearne was a benefactor to his college, as we 
have already shewn in the list of benefactions ; and 
he also wrote and published several works, the prin- 
cipal of which are as follow : 

Tractatus Visitatione Infirmorum, &c. Dub. 1697. Concio 
habita ad Reverendissimus Archiepiscopos, &c. In Ecclesia Ca- 
thedrali St. Patric. Dub. 1703. 

Sir RICHARD BULKELEY, Bart., a native of Dublin, 
was educated here, and published several essays, to be 
found in the Transactions of the Royal Society, of 
which he was a member ; also Proposals for sending 
back to Ireland its Nobility and Gentry. 

GEORGE FARQUHAR, son of a clergyman, was born 
in Derry, and admitted to the University in 1694. 
He quitted college before he obtained his degree of 
A.B., and took to the stage, but was not successful. 
He then went to London, and began to write Comedies, 
in which he had better success, and procured for him- 
self a lieutenant's commission of infantry. His works 
are the following : 

Love and a Bottle. Lond. 1698. The Constant Couple. Lond. 
1700. Sir Harry Wildair. Lond. 1701. The Inconstant. Lond. 
1703. The Stage Coach. Lond. 1704. -The Twin Rivals. Lond. 
1705. The Recruiting Officer. Lond. 1707. The Beau's Stra- 
tagem. Lond. 1710. 

Of these works many editions have been sold. 
His widow published a poem of his writing, called, 
" Barcelona," which was dedicated to the Earl of 
Peterborough. 

HENRY DODWELL, whose universal learning and pro- 
found judgment in the sciences have justly rendered his 
name so conspicuous among the learned men of Europe, 
and whose piety and soberness of life, had gained him 
the highest respect and veneration from all ranks of 



HENRY DODWELL. 381 

people, was born in Dublin, October, 1641. His 
father, who was an officer in the army, carried him 
into England, in his seventh year: he was sent to 
school at York, where he continued nearly three 
years. In 1654, he returned to Dublin, and went 
under the care of his uncle Dr. H. Dodwell, and in 
1656 he entered this University. He took the degree 
of A.B., and soon after commencing A.M. was elected 
a fellow. This office he afterwards resigned on con- 
scientious principles, as he did not consider himself 
competent to the serious charge incurred by taking 
Holy Orders : he retired to Oxford to have the bene- 
fit of the public library, and the conversation of some 
learned friends. Having attained his object, he re- 
turned home, where he contiuned for several years, 
and published some of his works. In 1675, he went 
to London, where his learning, writings, and ex- 
emplary life, soon introduced him to those who were 
most eminent in learning and virtue ; among others, 
Dr. Lloyd of St. Asaph's, and Dr. Pearson of Chester. 

The University of Oxford, unknown to him, be- 
stowed upon him their Camden Professorship, April, 
1688 ; this office he vacated in 1691, being unwilling 
to take the oaths to King William and Queen Mary: 
he remained a nonjuror during life. 

He went into retirement at Cookham and Shottes- 
brook, between Oxford and London. In this retirement, 
January, 1694, he married a virtuous young woman, 
whom in her early years he had instructed in the prin- 
ciples of religion : they had ten children, of whom 
Henry, and William, and four daughters survived 
them. He had a good estate in Ireland, the profits of 
which he left with a kinsman there until he married. 

The care of his family did not prevent his follow- 
ing up his studies : he continued writing and publish- 
ing to the time of his death, which happened in June, 
1711, in his seventieth year. He was a truly religious 
man, and, as such persons always are, of a cheerful 
conversation. 

Dr. Brokesley has written at large a particular his- 
tory of this great writer, to which we beg leave to refer 



382 NAHUM TEATE. 

our readers who wish for more information. Dod- 
well's published works are : 

Prolegomena Apologetica in JohanneStearnii, M.D., de obstina- 
tione librum postbuminn. Dub. 1672. Two Letters of Advice, 
(Theological). An Introduction to a Devout Life. Dub. 1673. 
Consideration how far the Romanists may be trusted by Princes 
of a different Faith. Separation of Churches from Episcopal 
Government, as practised by non-conformists, proved to be Schism- 
atical. (This was answered by Mr. Baxter). A Reply to Mr. 
Baxter's pretended Confutation of a Book, &c. Concerning the 
Obligations to Marry, &c. An Apology for the Philosophical 
Writings of Cicero. Annales, Thucydidei et Xenophontii, &c. 
Oxon. 1702. A Letter on the Immortality of the Soul. A 
Letter to Dr. Tillotson, about Schism. De Nupero Schismate 
Anglicano Parenaris, &c. Exercitationes Duae ; de aetate Phala- 
ridis, et de aetate Pythagoras. Lond. 1704. Chronologia ad 
Dionisium Halicarnasseum, &c. Oxon. 1704. De Mtate Dion. 
Halicarnassensis. Against occasional Communion. The case of 
the Deprived Bishops considered. A Discourse on the Nature of 
the Soul, &c. Lond. 1706. Defence of the above. On Sacer- 
dotal Absolution. Scripture Account of Eternal Rewards and 
Punishments, &c. Lond. 1708. Dissertatio ad fragmentum 
quoddam T. Livii. Oxon. 1708. On the famous Passage of 
Just. Martyr, with Tryphon. Lond. 1708. In Julii vitalium 
Epitaphium, &c., Hernes Alfred. Oxon. 1712. Dissertatione 
Cyprianicae. Oxon. 1682. Discourse on the one Altar and the one 
Priesthood, &c. Dissertatio de Ripa Striga. Oxon. 1684. De 
Jure Laicorum Sacerdotali Dissertatio, &c. Additiones ad V. 
Cl. Job. Pearsonii, c. Dissertatio singularis de Pontificum 
Romanorum, &c. Dissertationes in Irenaeum, &c. Oxon. 1689. 
Prelectiones Camdenianae, &c. Oxon. 1682. Vindication of 
the Deprived Bishops, &c. Lond. 1692. Annales Velleiani, &c. 
Oxon. 1693. An Invitation to the Study of Ancient History, &c. 
Lond. 1694. Defence of his Vindication of the Deprived Bishops. 
Lond. 1694. Chronologia ad Thucydidis Historiam, &c. Oxon. 
1696. Annales Velleiani, Quinctiliani, Statiani, &c. Oxon. 1698. 
De Tabulis Caelorum Dissertatio, &c. Oxon. 1698. Tabula 
Chronologica, &c. Oxon. 1698. Dissertationes ad primum volu- 
men, &c. Oxon. 1698. Dissertationes ad secundum volumen, 
Geog. Graec. Min. Oxon. 1703. Chronologia Xenophontea. 
Oxon. 1700. De Veteribus Graecorum Romanorum Cyclis, &c. 
Ad Clariss. Goetzium Puteolano, &c., published with the former. 
De .ZEtate et Patria Dionisii Periegete. Oxon. 1712. A Cor- 
respondence of Four Letters between Mr. Dodwell and the Bishop 
of Sarum. De Parma Equestri Woodwardiana dissertatio. Oxon. 
1713. An Inquiry into the Phoenician Dialogue in Sanchoniathon. 

NAHUM TEATE, son of Dr. Teate, already men- 
tioned among the pro-provosts of this college, was 
horn in Dublin, and graduated in its University; soon 



THOMAS SOUTHERN. WILLIAM SHERIDAN. 383 

after which he went to London, and published some 
poetry : he succeeded Mr. Shadwell as Poet Laureat 
in 1692. He possessed considerable learning joined 
to a good share of wit, and very agreeable manners, 
but he was too modest to push himself into those 
situations to which his merit fairly entitled him, and 
which positions are often usurped by inferior persons. 
His poems and dramatic compositions, twenty-two in 
number, are well known, and have gone through 
several editions ; amongst these, his Rise and Progress 
of Priestcraft, and his Characters of Vice and Virtue 
display great knowledge of moral good and evil and 
of human nature. 

THOMAS SOUTHERN was born in Dublin, 1660: he 
entered the University in 1676, and commenced A.B. 
In four years from thence he went to London, and 
entered the Middle Temple, but his natural turn for 
poetry was too strong for him to resist, and he occupied 
his time in writing plays. He went into the army, 
and became a captain in the Duke of Berwick's regi- 
ment : at the Revolution, he left the army and took up 
his pen. He was remarkable for introducing an easy 
and well bred conversation into his dialogue. 

His dramatic works, ten in number, are well known, 
particularly his Oronooko a . 

WILLIAM SHERIDAN was the elder brother of 
Patrick Sheridan, Bishop of Cloyne ; he was educated 
and took all the subordinate degrees up to D.D. in 
Dublin College. He was first made chaplain to Sir 
Maurice Eustace, Lord-Chancellor of Ireland ; and 
then filled the same office to James Duke of Ormond ; 
got the Deanery of Down, and finally, was made 
Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh in 1681. In 1692, 
he was deprived for declining to take the oaths to 
these princes. Upon his deprivation, these sees were 

a It is a singular fact, that " The Spartan Dame," a Tragedy, by 
this author, was not allowed to be acted, nor was it printed until 
thirty years after it was written ; because some persons about the 
Court got it into their sagacious heads, that there was something in 
the character of " Chelonis " that seemed to reflect on Queen Mary. 



384 JOHN VESEY, ROWLAND DAVIS, AND OTHERS. 

offered to Dr. Huntingdon, Provost of Trinity College, 
Dublin, but this divine declined the offer ; yet, Wood 
in his Fasti Oxon. vol. ii. affirms that he did accept 
them. Now the fact is, that Dr. William Smith, 
Bishop of Raphoe, was the person appointed, on 
Dr. Huntingdon's refusal, to succeed Dr. Sheridan, 
by letters patent, dated April, 1693. Dr. Sheridan 
published three volumes of Sermons. Lond. 1703, 
1705, and 1706. 

The Rev. JOHN VESEY, Master of Arts of this 
College, published a volume of excellent Sermons in 
Dublin, A.D. 1683. 

ROWLAND DAVIS, of Gille Abbey, near Cork, 
graduated in this University, where he took the 
degree of Doctor of Laws. He was considered a 
good civilian, eventually was ordained, and became 
Dean of Cork and Vicar-General of that diocese. 
He published several Controversial Essays in favour 
of the Protestant Establishment. Lond. 1694. Dub. 
1716. 

EDWARD SMITH, Bishop of Down and Connor, 
elected a Fellow in 1684, at 19 years old, was born in 
co. Antrim. He was chaplain to King William, and 
in great power with that monarch, who first promoted 
him to the Deanery of St. Patrick's. He published 
several Sermons on great public occasions, in London 
and Dublin, from 1689 to 1703. 

He was a member of the Philosophical Society of 
Dublin, and of the Royal Society of London : in the 
Transactions of these societies, many of his essays may 
be seen. 

CHARLES LESLIE, son of Dr. J. Leslie, Bishop of 
Clogher, had his elementary education at Enniskillen 
school. He graduated in this College, and afterwards 
studied the common law in the Temple, London, for 
some years, but did not go to the Bar. In 1680, he 
received ordination. In 1687, ne was appointed 
Chancellor to the diocese of Connor. He suffered 
greatly for his opposition to King James's govern- 



ROBERT MOLESWORTH. NICHOLAS BRADY. 38,5 

ment ; and when that king ahdicated, Dr. Leslie was 
deprived of his preferment for not taking the oath to 
King William III. ; after which refusal, he was con- 
sidered a principal leader of the nonjuring party. 
He went abroad for many years, and made several 
vain attempts to convert Prince Charles (the Pre- 
tender). In the year 17^1, he returned to Ireland, 
and died at Glasslough, co. Cavan, in March, 1722. 
He wrote a great many theological tracts, and a vast 
number of political papers to serve the cause he had 
embraced ; of the former, 27 have been collected and 
published in two volumes, folio, Lond. 1721 ; of 
the latter, 19 are known to be his; of these Harris 
has given a catalogue. These works display ex- 
tensive learning and firm adherence to his principles, 
directed by sound judgment. 

ROBERT MOLESWORTH, a native of Dublin, and 
graduate of its University, where he had a high cha- 
racter for abilities and learning. King William III. 
appointed him ambassador to the Court of Denmark. 
On his return home, he usually had a seat in the 
House of Commons, in England or Ireland, in which 
he always showed himself a staunch friend to the Pro- 
testant succession, and the liberty of the subject. His 
conduct gained him the good will of the government, 
and on the accession of King George I. he was made 
an Irish Viscount, the first of that rank created by 
his majesty. He died in 172,5. He wrote the fol- 
lowing works, viz. : 

An Account of Denmark, as it was in 1692. Lond. 1692-94. 
Franco Gallise ; a translation from a Latin treatise by the famous 
civilian Hottoman. Lond. 1711. Plans for Promoting Agricul- 
ture, and Employing the Poor. Dub. 1723. 

NICHOLAS BRADY was a son of Major N. Brady, and 
a descendant of the first Protestant Bishop of Meath; 
he was a native of Bandon, co. Cork, where he re- 
ceived his early education, and from thence went to 
Westminster School ; he afterwards graduated in Dub- 
lin, where he commenced M.A. He became an emi- 
nent divine. He settled in London, obtained several 

c c 



386 MICHAEL MOOR, D-D. WILLIAM KING. 

church preferments, and was chaplain to their majes- 
ties King William and Queen Mary, and Queen 
Anne. It was this Dr. Brady that joined Tate in 
publishing a version of the Psalms which superseded 
Hopkins and Sternhold. He also published three 
volumes of sermons, each volume consisting of four- 
teen discourses. Lond. 1704. 1706. 1713. After 
his death, three similar volumes of his writings were 
published by his son. Lond. 1730. Dr. Brady also 
translated the ^Eneid. Lond. 17^6. 

TOBIAS PULLEN, Bishop of Dromore, published 
some theological pieces at Dublin, 1695. 

MICHAEL MOOR, D.D., whom we have already no- 
ticed among the provosts, wrote several very learned 
works in Latin, some of which were published in Italy, 
some at Paris, and some in London, 1687. 

WILLIAM KING was born at Antrim, north of Ire- 
land, 1st of May, 1650 ; was descended from an an- 
cient and honourable family of the house of Burras in 
the north of Scotland, whence his father removed, in 
King Charles the First's reign, to avoid engaging in 
the solemn league and covenant. His first education 
was at the Latin school of Dungannon, in the county 
of Tyrone ; in April, 1667, he was admitted a sizar 
of Trinity College, Dublin ; here his abilities and ap- 
plication were soon noticed, and he gained a scholar- 
ship and native's place. 

In 1670, he commenced A.B., and in three years 
after A.M., and was ordained deacon. On his ad- 
mission into college, Dr. Dodwell honoured him with 
his acquaintance, and instructed him in logic and his- 
tory ; and though he differed with that very learned 
man in many points of divinity, yet they always kept 
up a familiar and close correspondence. 

At the demise of the provost, (Dr. Ward,) he of- 
fered himself a candidate for the vacant fellowship ; 
on which occasion, though he did not gain that 
honour, yet his character was so raised by his answer- 
ing, that Dr. John Parker, Archbishop of Tuam, took 



WILLIAM KING. 387 

him under his protection, ordained him priest, and 
placed him in his family as chaplain, and gave him 
some church preferment. 

Whilst in the Archbishop's family, he closely ap- 
plied himself to all useful learning, and laid the found- 
ation of that knowledge which enabled him after- 
wards to become so eminently useful. His patron 
took great pains in improving and directing his great 
natural abilities to their proper object, and in this he 
was not disappointed ; and when Dr. Parker was pro- 
moted to the see of Dublin, he appointed Mr. King 
to the chancellorship of St. Patrick's in 1679, to which 
the parish of Saint Werburgh's is annexed. In 1688 
he was constituted president of the chapter of St. Pa- 
trick's, Dublin ; and in 1689, for his activity in pro- 
moting the interest of his own party against that of 
King James, he was, with many other clergymen, 
committed prisoner to the Castle of Dublin, and con- 
fined six months by order of Judge Nugent. 

He suffered great hardships during his confine- 
ment, having nothing left him to subsist on except 
the bounty of his friends. In 1690 he was again 
apprehended and confined in the common guard- 
house for some time, without a bed or convenience 
of any kind. He was enlarged on bail by the good 
offices of Herbert, then appointed by King James 
II. Lord Chancellor of England. He returned 
from prison to discharge his duty to his flock, and 
Dr. F. Marsh having fled for safety to England, 
he appointed Dr. King his commissary, to take care 
of his diocese, which he did in conjunction with 
Dr. A. Dopping, Bishop of Meath. His attention 
to his duties brought him often into danger ; he was 
arrested in the street, and at another time had a 
musket levelled at him, but it missed fire. However, 
when affairs were somewhat settled by the flight of 
King James, Dr. King was promoted to the see of 
Derry, in January, 1691; here he found every thing 
in ruins, and was indefatigable in his exertions to re- 
store order, and to repair the ravages of war and 
fanaticism, in which he succeeded admirably, and his 

c c 2 



388 WILLIAM KING. 

successors in that office should be grateful to his 
memory for the state in which he left it for them. 

While he held this see he greatly improved and 
adorned the episcopal palace, and added some ad- 
vowsons to the hishoprick, besides contributing to 
build five new, and to repair all the old churches 
in his diocese, which were burned or dilapidated 
during the war. He built a large house in Derry, 
the upper rooms of which were for a library, and the 
lower for a school and schoolmaster. He bought 
the greater part of Bishop Hopkins' s library, which, 
by will dated May 6, 1726, he devised to Wm. 
Nicholson, then Bishop of Derry, and his successors, 
in trust to remain in the said library, for the use of 
the clergy and gentlemen of the said diocese for ever. 
When Dr. N. Marsh was made primate, in 1702, 
Bishop King was elected by both chapters administra- 
tor of the temporalities of the see of Dublin, during 
the vacancy, and was, on the llth of March following, 
translated to this diocese, which he governed with ad- 
mirable zeal and diligence for twenty-six years; the par- 
ticulars of which are found at large in Harris's life of 
this prelate. Among other things, he purchased from 
Lord Ross a large parcel of impropriated tithes in 
the county of Kildare, at 2800, and placed them in the 
hands of trustees for augmenting small cures in his 
diocese, upon this especial condition, that the incum- 
bent do constantly reside, and that the income of the 
parish does not exceed 100 per annum. About the 
same time he purchased 4<9 per annum, part of the 
estate of Sir John Eccles, at 1050, and settled it for 
the support of a lecturer in St. George's Chapel, 
Dublin. 

He was by King George 1. four times appointed 
one of the Lords Justices. He died at his palace of 
Saint Sepulchre's, on the 8th of May, 17^9, having 
entered his 80th year ; he was buried on the north side 
of the churchyard of Donnybrooke, near Dublin as 
he had directed long before. His private charities 
were very considerable, but so secretly dispensed, that 
we have not a particular account of them j but among 



BENJAMIN HAWKSHAW. W. CONGREVE. 389 

his public ones, he gave 500, long before his demise, 
to this college, towards founding a Divinity lecture, 
for the advantage of those bachelors of said college 
who intended to take holy orders ; and devised 500 
more to his nephew, the Rev. Robert Dougal, in trust to 
purchase a further maintenance and endowment for 
the said lecture, with many other gifts and bequests 
for various useful purposes, of which Harris gives an 
enumeration. 

He appears evidently to have had the advance- 
ment of religion, virtue and learning quite at heart, 
and may be justly enrolled among the greatest, the 
most generally learned and accomplished prelates of 
his own time, or of any other period. 

He wrote a great number of theological and con- 
troversial works, which he published mostly in Dublin; 
among them his great work "De Origine Mali," Dub- 
lin, 1702 ; London, 1702. This work was attacked by 
Bayle and Leibnitz ; it was originally composed in 
Latin, but was translated into English, by Dr. Ed- 
mund Lane, a fellow of Caius College, Cambridge, 
London, 1731-32, two vols. 

The Archbishop also published a great many of the 
sermons he preached on great public occasions, Lon- 
don, Dublin, and Cambridge, from 1685 to 1739, most 
if not all of which have been reprinted in London and 
Dublin. 

BENJAMIN HAWKSHAW, a native of Dublin and 
graduate of its University, was ordained in 1692. 
He wrote, 

On the Reasonableness of Constant Communion in the Church 
of England, &c. Dub. 1709. Sermons. Dub. 1712. Poems. 
Lond. 1693. 

SIR RICHARD STEELE was born in Dublin, and 
had his early education there, but it does not appear 
that he ever belonged to its University. He com- 
menced the Spectator, Guardian, &c., in which he 
was joined by Addison, and other great literary men. 

WILLIAM CONGREVE was born in Ireland, his father 
was steward to the estate of the Earl of Burlington in 



390 SIR THOS. MOLYNEUX. SIR HANS SLOANE. 

Leinster ; he had his early education at the free school 
of Kilkenny, from whence he entered the University 
of Dublin. After graduating here, he entered the 
Middle Temple, but he gave up the study of the law 
to follow his inclination to poetry. His dramatic 
works, which are well known, consist of four comedies, 
a tragedy, an opera, and a masque. He translated 
Homer's Hymn to Venus. His poems, &c., have gone 
through many editions. 

THOMAS MOLYNEUX, younger brother to William 
Molyneux before mentioned, was born in Dublin, and 
after graduating there he went to Ley den and Paris. 
On his return, he became Professor of Physic to this 
University, physician to the state and physician 
general to the army. His reputation and practice 
were very great. He was created a baronet in 1730, 
and died in 1733. He was a fellow of the Royal 
Society of London, and among the Transactions of that 
Society are to be found a great number of his Essays, 
viz., in Nos. 181. 186. 202. 209. 212. 225. 227. 236. 
251. and 282. 

PETER BROWNE, Bishop of Cork, already noticed 
among the Provosts, published several theological 
works, and some excellent sermons ; a list of above 
twenty of his literary works is to be found in Harris's 
" Account of the Writers of Ireland;" and except in the 
style, which is antiquated, are not surpassed by any 
works of a similar kind of the present day. 

EDWARD SYNGE, D.D., of the University of Dublin, 
Bishop of Raphoe, and Archbishop of Tuam, published 
a great number of very elaborate works, theological 
and controversial, which display much talent and 
great learning, combined with pious and humane senti- 
ments. A list of thirty-seven of his works is published 
in Watts's Biographia already quoted. 

SIR HANS SLOANE was born at Killyleagh, in the 
county of Down, he was educated in Ireland, and took 
the degree of M.D. ; he had an early bias for the study of 
plants and natural history in general. Having settled 
in London, he was a few years after chosen by the 



DR. JOHN VESEY, ARCHBISHOP OF TUAM. 891 

Duke of Albemarle, then appointed Governor-Gene- 
ral of Jamaica, to accompany him thither as his phy- 
sician. Here, though his stay was not quite eighteen 
months, he employed himself so indefatigably in his 
favourite studies, that he collected of plants alone 
above eight hundred specimens, which he brought to 
England, besides many other objects of natural his- 
tory. On his return to London, he followed the busi 
ness of his profession with great success. He was 
elected Fellow, and then President of the College of 
Physicians ; Secretary, and afterwards President of the 
Royal Society ; first Physician to King George I. and 
II., the former of whom created him a baronet. 

He was elected member of the Imperial Academy 
of Science at Petersburg ; of the Royal Academies of 
Paris and Madrid ; Fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians of Edinburgh. But what places him higher 
than all these titles, is his strong regard for the true 
interest of society in originating, if not actually found- 
ing, that fine national establishment, the " British 
Museum." 

JOHN VESEY was born atColeraine, in the county of 
Derry, March, \63J. He was first sent to Westminster 
School, from whence he was admitted to this Univer- 
sity, where he took the degree of A.M., and in 1661, 
he was appointed chaplain to the House of Commons; 
in 1672, he commenced D.D. With other preferments 
he held the Archdeaconry of Armagh, in which his 
father succeeded him ! when he was made Dean of 
Cork. He was appointed to this see in January, 1672, 
and translated to the Archbishopric of Tuam, in 
March, 1678. He was forced to fly from Ireland dur- 
ing Tyrconn ell's government. He went to London, 
where he served a lectureship of forty pounds per 
annum. He was afterwards, three different times, ap- 
pointed one of the Lords Justices of Ireland ; the last 
of these appointments being in 1714, conjointly with 
Robert Fitzgerald, Earl of Kildare, and William 
King, Archbishop of Dublin. During this prelate's 
lifetime, his son Sir Thomas Vesev, Bart., was succes- 



JOHN VESEY, A.M. GEORGE BERKLEY. 

sively appointed Bishop'of Killaloe and of Ossory. He 
died in March, 1716, and was interred at Holymount, 
his place of residence. He left a number of legacies for 
most laudably charitable purposes ; and, long before 
his death, he gave twenty pounds to provide a new 
silver mace for this college. 

The Archbishop wrote much, but we have only 
met with the following printed works by him : 

The Life of Primate Bramhall, &c. 1 vol. Dub. 1678. 
A Sermon preached before the King (William III.) at Windsor, 
1691. Another Sermon, of great merit, preached to a large con- 
gregation of exiled Irish Protestants in London, 1690. A Ser- 
mon, equally powerful and appropriate, preached before the Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland, and both Houses of Parliament, in Christ 
Church, Dublin, 1692. 

The Rev. JOHN VESEY, A.M., of this College, pub- 
lished a volume of excellent Sermons in Dublin, 1683. 

GEORGE BERKLEY was born at Kilisin, near 
Thomastown, in the county of Kilkenny, March, 
1684. He was the son of William Berkley, who came 
to Ireland at the restoration : his family having suf- 
fered for their attachment to Charles the First, he 
was appointed collector of Belfast. 

Young Berkley received his preparatory education 
under Dr. Hinton, at Kilkenny School, he afterwards 
became a student of this college, and, in 1707, he had 
the honour of being elected a fellow. In 1713, the 
Earl of Peterborough, Ambassador to the Italian 
States, appointed Mr. Berkley his chaplain and secre- 
tary : he returned with his lordship in 1714. He 
soon after went to travel with the son of Dr. St. 
George Ash, Bishop of Clogher, the bishop most 
anxiously desiring it, behaved to him most liberally. 
He remained four years on the Continent. In 1721, 
the Duke of Grafton took him to Ireland as his 
domestic chaplain. He became senior fellow of his col- 
lege in 1717. 

In May, 1724, he resigned his Fellowship, having 
been appointed by the Duke of Grafton to the Dean- 
ery of Deny, about the time he published his plan 
for founding a college in Bermuda, as the best mode 



GEORGE BERKLEY. 3Q3 

of ultimately converting the native Americans to the 
Gospel. This plan was considered so favourably by 
the government, that a grant was made by Parlia- 
ment for the purpose of founding it. Dr. Berkley 
went to America with his family, but by reason of Sir 
R. Walpole's narrow and crooked policy, the affair 
came to nothing. 

Soon after his return to England, Queen Anne nomi- 
nated him to the Deanery of Down, but the Duke of 
Dorset wishing to get it for a friend, the queen allowed 
it, but said she would make Dr. Berkley a bishop. 
Cloyne next year became vacant, and he was appointed 
to it, March, 1733. 

He resided in the see during all the time he held 
it, except one season when he attended his parliament 
duty in Dublin. He applied himself with a most useful 
vigour to the faithful discharge of all episcopal duties, 
at the same time that he continued his literary exer- 
tions with unabated ardour. His character stood so 
high, that Lord Chesterfield, when Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland, wrote to inform him that the see of Clogher, 
then vacant, the value of which was double that of 
Cloyne, was at his service, but he handsomely declined 
the offer, being quite content with his situation. 

In July, 1 752, he removed, though in bad health, with 
his lady and family, to Oxford, where his second son, 
George, was then recently admitted. Before he left 
Cloyne he made a lease of his demesne, by which 200 
per annum was secured to the indigent housekeepers 
of his diocese during his absence, or until his demise ; 
this happened in January, 1753, when he calmly de- 
parted, full of honour, in his seventieth year. He was 
interred in Christ Church, Oxford, where his lady 
erected a handsome marble monument to his memory, 
with an elegant inscription in Latin, by Dr. Mark- 
ham, afterwards Bishop of Chester ; but the single line 
of his friend Pope surpasses the most elaborate pro- 
duction of this class : he gives 

" To Berkley, every virtue under Heaven." 



391 RICHARD AND ANTHONY MALONE. 

This gifted and very estimable prelate wrote orpub- 
blished the following works, viz. : 

Arithmetica, absque Algebra et Euclide demonstrata. 1707. 
An Essay towards a new Theory of Vision. Dub. 1709. The 
Principles of Human Knowledge. Dub. 1730. A Vindication of 
his Theory of Vision. Dub. 1732. Sermons in favour of Passive 
Obedience, 1712, three editions. Dialogues on the Reality and 
Perfection of Human Knowledge, the incorporeal Nature of the 
Soul, and the immediate Providence of a Deity, in opposition to 
Sceptics and Atheists. Lond. 1713. A Proposal for Converting 
the Savage Tribes of North America to Christianity, by means of a 
College to be erected in the Island of Bermuda, 1725. The 
Analyst, a Discourse addressed to an Infidel Mathematician. 
Lond. 1734. The Querist, a work of much public interest. Lond. 
1735. A Defence of Free Thinking in Mathematics. 1735. 
Alciphron, or the Minute Philosopher. 1732. A Discourse ad- 
dressed to Magistrates, 1736. Siris, a chain of philosophical re- 
flections and enquiries respecting the virtues of " Tar Water " in 
the Plague. Lond. 1744; enlarged, 1747. This occasioned a 
good deal of interesting controversy. An Account of his Life, 
with Notes, &c., 1776. Measure of Submission to Civil Govern- 
ment, 1784. With some accounts of the Petrifactions in Lough 
Neagh, in the north of Ireland, and other papers to be found 
among the Philosophical Transactions. 

RICHARD MALONE, a native of Dublin, and one of 
the ablest lawyers of his time, was descended from an 
Irish family of very high antiquity, (vide 7th vol. 
Archdall's Peerage of Ireland). He was educated in 
this university, from whence he entered the Middle 
Temple. Whilst a student there, he was entrusted with 
a negociation in Holland, and so successfully acquitted 
himself in the affair, that King William III. honoured 
and rewarded him for his services. He was forty- 
four years at the bar, where he was only surpassed in 
professional skill by his son. He died in 1745. 



ANTHONY MALONE, who was born December, 1700, 
the year his father was called to the bar. He had 
his early academical education in this college, from 
whence he removed to Christ College, Oxon. ; after 
two years' stay here, he became a student of the Mid- 
dle Temple. 

In 1726, he was called to the Irish bar, at which he 



ANTHONY MALONE. 3<J3 

continued to practise for fifty years, the brightest 
ornament of his profession. The singular modesty, dis- 
interestedness, and integrity of this accomplished orator 
added such a grace and lustre to his consummate abili- 
ties, that it was impossible not to love and respect, as 
well as admire him. His person was large, and even 
robust. An elegant contemporary writer says of him, 
" to a benign and dignified speech, and an address 
both conciliatory and authoritative, did he join the 
clearest head that ever conceived, and the sweetest 
tongue that ever uttered the suggestions of wisdom." 
He was never perplexed with subtlety himself, and 
always despised perplexing and misleading others. 
This, no doubt, enabled him to keep his faculties un- 
impaired to the last, and avoid the fate of many 
members of his profession, who begin with a certain 
dexterity in confounding others, and end in com- 
pletely confusing themselves. He seemed incapable 
of saying or doing any thing without a certain graceful 
and felicitous expression accompanying his words and 
actions. On no occasion in private life was he ever 
known to be discomposed by slight inconvenience or 
untoward accidents, nor did he in public ever appear 
in the smallest degree ruffled, unless he was provoked 
by obstinate and petulant folly, which sometimes so 
far overcame his composure as to extort from him a 
reprimand, delivered with some warmth, but never 
with any thing like asperity or virulence. 

His style was a perfect model for the eloquence of 
the bar; always adequate and never superior to his 
subject. He seemed studiously to avoid, as hurtful to 
his purpose, all ardentia verba, all ornaments of lan- 
guage, and all flowers of rhetoric ; so that the force of 
his speech resulted rather from the general weight, 
energy, and excellence of the whole, than the splendour 
of particular parts. All was clear, flowing and simple, 
yet most impressive ; and such was the comprehension 
of his mind, and the accuracy of his expression ; so 
perspicuous his arrangement, and so numerous his ar- 
guments ; that when he ceased to speak, the subject 



396 EDMUND MALONE. 

appeared utterly exhausted. There was nothing omit- 
ted, nothing superfluous ; and to add to his speech, or 
to confute it, seemed utterly impossible. 

His memory was so very great, that there was 
hardly a cause in which he had been engaged for fifty 
years of which he could not give a satisfactory ac- 
count whenever a reference was made to it at the bar ; 
though he never took notes of cases, and in his time 
no reports were printed. 

He was successively Prime Sergeant, Chancellor of 
the Exchequer, and a Privy Councillor; in each of 
which stations he acquitted himself with great credit 
to his own character, and gave equal satisfaction to 
those concerned with him. 

He was the faithful representative of his county in 
parliament for forty-two years. He continued his pro- 
fessional pursuits, (which crowded upon him,) until the 
week before he died, which event took place on the 
8th of May, 1776, after an illness of eight days. 

" Such," says his biographer, " was Anthony Ma- 
lone," the perfect delineation of whose great and ad- 
mirable character would require more room than in a 
work of this nature can be allotted to an individual ; 
however, it is hoped that even this sketch may con- 
vey to posterity some notion, however slight, of this 
celebrated orator. To use the words of the learned 
F. Bohours, on another occasion, " He was one of 
those extraordinary men who have been rarely equalled, 
and who, for the benefit of mankind, ought to be im- 
mortal." 

EDMUND MALONE, brother to the above, was born 
at Dublin, in 1704, was educated there, and became 
a student of the Middle Temple, from which he was 
called to the English Bar, in 1730 : there he prac- 
tised with great success until 1740, at which period 
his friends prevailed on him to go to the Irish Bar. 
He was made king's counsel in 1^46, then second 
sergeant, and finally appointed a judge in the Court 
of Common Pleas, in Ireland, which dignity he held 



EDMUND MALONE. 39? 

till his death, in 1774- We shall only say of him, that 
he possessed a large share of the fine disposition and 
splendid talents of his family. 

EDMUND MALONE, son of the judge, was born in 
Dublin, 4th October, 1741. He was educated at the 
school of Dr. Ford, in that city, from whence he en- 
tered the University, where he commenced A.M. 
Here his talents very soon displayed themselves, and 
he signalized himself by a successful competition for 
academical honours with several young men who after- 
wards became the ornaments of the Irish senate, pul- 
pit, and bar. It appeared that at his outset he had 
laid down to himself those rules of study to which he 
ever afterwards steadily adhered. When sitting down 
to the perusal of any work, either ancient or modern, 
his attention was drawn to its chronology, the history 
and character of its author, the feelings and prejudices 
of the times in which he lived, and any other collateral 
information which might tend to illustrate his writings, 
or acquaint us with his probable views and cast of 
thinking. In later years, he was more particularly 
engrossed by the literature of his own country, but 
the knowledge he had acquired in his youth, had been 
too assiduously collected, and too firmly fixed in his 
mind, not to retain possession of his memory, and to 
preserve that purity and elegance of taste, which is 
rarely to be met with, except in those who have de- 
rived it from the models of classic antiquity. 

In 1763, he became a student of the Middle Temple, 
and in 1767, he was called to the Irish bar, where he 
gave great hopes of future eminence ; but an ample 
fortune soon after devolving to him, he retired from 
the bar, and from that time devoted his whole atten- 
tion to literary pursuits, for which purpose he settled 
in London, and resided there almost constantly during 
the remainder of his life. 

His first literary essay appears to have been a pamphlet, in 
which he clearly showed that the ** Poems of Rowley" (the pre- 
tended monk,) by Chatterton, were fabricated by that unfortunate 
young author. In 1780, he published two supplemental vo- 
lumes to Steevens's edition of Shakspeare ; in the year 1790, he 



EDMUND MALONE. SAMUEL MADDEN. 

published his edition of that great poet, of whose works his admi- 
ration amounted to enthusiasm. In collecting materials for this 
great work, he was occupied above thirteen years, but then it 
remains, and will remain, as a testimony of his extensive learning, 
sound taste, and critical accuracy. He went to his friends in Ire- 
land to recruit himself after his fatigues of authorship, and after a 
few months returned to London. In 1795, he again displayed his 
zeal in defence of Shakspeare, against the fabrication with which 
the Irelands endeavoured to delude the public. In 1797, he su- 
perintended the publication of the Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
to which he prefixed a pleasing Biographical account of their Au- 
thor. In 1800, he published a most complete collection of the 
Prose works of Dryden, with a very interesting Biographical Pre- 
face. In 1808, he prepared for the press some productions of his 
friend, the celebrated William Gerard Hamilton, with a brief, but 
elegant Sketch of his Life. 

In 1811, on the death of Mr. Windham, whom he 
much esteemed and admired, he drew up a short me- 
morial of his amiable and illustrious friend. This ap- 
peared first in the Gentleman's Magazine : it was 
afterwards enlarged, corrected and published sepa- 
rately. In 1812, he was on the point of putting to the 
press his new edition of Shakspeare, when he was 
seized with an illness which carried him off, to the 
great regret of all who had the happiness of knowing 
him. He died on the 12th of May, 1812, in his 70th 
year. 

In his person he was about the middle size. The 
urbanity of his temper, and the kindness of his dis- 
position, were depicted in his mild and placid coun- 
tenance. Accustomed from his early years to the 
society of those who were distinguished for their rank 
and talent, he was at all times easy, unembarrassed, 
and unassuming, exhibiting in his most casual in- 
tercourse with mankind, the genuine and unaffected 
politeness of one born and bred a gentleman. His 
conversation was in a high degree entertaining and 
instructive, his knowledge was various and accurate, 
and his mode of displaying it, void of all vanity or 
pretension. His heart was warm, and his benevolence 
active, but judicious and discriminating. 

SAMUEL MADDEN, a name which Dr. Johnson says 
" Ireland ought to honour," was born at Dublin, in 



SAMUEL MADDEN. 399 

1687, where also he received his education. He took 
priest's orders in compliance with the wishes of his 
family, who had the joint presentation to the living 
of Drumilly, worth, at that time, 400 per annum a . 
Previous to this, he published a tragedy, in London, 
called " Themistocles, or the Lover of his Country." 
He had been a colonel of militia ; some years after 
he was appointed to a Deanery. In the year 1731, 
he projected the plan to promote learning in the Uni- 
versity of Dublin, by giving premiums at the quarterly 
examinations ; this plan has been found, after ninety 
years' experience, to be highly beneficial. In 1740, 
we find him in his native country, setting apart 100 
annually, to be distributed by way of premiums, to 
the inhabitants of Ireland only ; namely, 50 to the 
author of the best invention for improving any use- 
ful art or manufacture ; 25 to the person who should 
finish the best statue ; 25 to the person who should 
produce the best piece of painting, either in the 
history or landscape classes of art ; the premiums 
to be decided by the Right Hon. the Dublin Society, 
of which society Dr. Madden was also the original 
instituter. The good effects of these well applied 
benefactions have not only been felt to great ad- 
vantage in the kingdom where they were bestowed, 
but have extended their influence to the sister country, 
where this example gave rise to the Society for the 
Encouragement of the Arts, Manufactures and Com- 
merce, at the Adelphi, London. 

The late Richard Brinsley Sheridan's father, in 
an oration which he delivered in Dublin, says of Dr. 
Madden, when speaking of his premiums, " had he 
never contributed any thing further to the good of his 
country, he would have deserved immortal honour, and 
must have been held in reverence by the latest pos- 
terity." 

But he was not confined in his exertions to these 
public acts for promoting the welfare of mankind, for 
this practically benevolent man continued his dis- 
interested endeavours, during a long life, to promote 

a Equivalent then to ,1200 per annum at the present time. 



400 WILLIAM DANIELL, OR O'DONNELL. 

honest industry in every possible way, and thereby to 
increase the amount of human happiness to the benefit 
of society at large. He died December 30, 1765. 

Dr. Madden published in 1732, "Memoirs of the Twentieth 
Century." (This book is now very scarce.) Lond. Bowyer. In 
1743, a Poem, called "Boulter's Monument," which was cor- 
rected for the press by Dr. Johnson. Also, an epistle of 200 
lines by him, prefixed to his friend Dr. T. Leland's 2nd edition of 
" The Life of Philip of Macedon." There is another very scarce 
work of his, entitled " Reflections and Resolutions proper for the 
Gentlemen of Ireland ; as to their Conduct for the Service of 
their Country." Dub. 1738. This admirable work has not been 
mentioned by any of his early biographers, though it is replete 
with the soundest practical principles of national and political, but 
not revolutionary, economy. This work alone would prove him 
to have been a person of a fine, strong and well cultivated under- 
standing, of a noble and generous disposition, combined with 
the highest moral and religious feeling ; all these fine qualities he 
kept in a state of vigour, by constantly exercising them whenever 
he found a proper occasion. 

The premiums already mentioned, of which he was 
the original proposer, are those so well known as the 
40s. premiums, and are given, at the quarterly ex- 
aminations, to the best answerers in each division. 

WILLIAM DANIELL, or O'DONNELL, was one of the 
first scholars of this University at its foundation. 
He was also the first elected Fellow, and either the 
first or second who took the degree of D.D. at one of 
its earliest commencements. He was made Treasurer 
of St. Patrick's Cathedral in 1609, and Archbishop 
of Tuam in the same year. 

This prelate was born in Kilkenny, and was a man 
of very distinguished learning. He translated the 
book of Common Prayer out of the English, and the 
the New Testament out of the Greek, into the Irish 
language ; the former of these was printed in 1 608 a , 
the latter six years previously ; this was afterwards re- 
printed in 1681, by the Hon. Robert Boyle. Dr. 
O'Donnell was also considered an accomplished He- 
brew scholar and the Irish language he thoroughly 

a This volume was, however, reprinted, and circulated extensively 
throughout Ireland ; it is to be found in all the public, and most of 
the private libraries in Ireland. 



ARCHBISHOP PALLISER. EDMUND BORLACE, M.D. 401 

understood, as it might be considered as his vernacular 
tongue. His object was to give the Irish, religious in- 
struction through the medium of their own language. 
This noble purpose was frustrated by the culpable 
neglect of the successive Lords Deputies of Ireland. 

WILLIAM PALLISER was born at Kirkby Wilk, in 
Yorkshire: he came young into Ireland, was educated 
in an Irish school, and graduated in this College, 
where he was elected a Junior Fellow, in 1668. He be- 
came a Senior Fellow and Doctor of Divinity, was pro- 
moted to the Bishoprick of Cloyne in February, 1692, 
from thence he was translated to the Archbishoprick 
of Cashel, on the removal of Dr. N. Marsh to Dublin, 
in June, 1694. He made a large fortune, which he 
left to an only son. To this University, however, he 
was a considerable benefactor ; when Senior Fellow, he 
gave to it 10 towards additional buildings, and when 
Archbishop, he gave, in two benefactions, 1200 
more for the same purpose : at his death, he be- 
queathed to it " all such books and editions of books 
of which the college library had not copies ;" those 
have been deposited there to the amount of 4000 
volumes. He particularly specifies that the said 
collection shall go by the name, and be always called 
"Biliotheca Palliseriana" and shall be kept and placed 
next to the library devised to the Provost, Fellows, 
and Scholars by Primate Ussher, called Bibliotheca 
Usseriana; and further, that if they should fail to 
designate the books so given by him by the above 
name, or should fail to keep them next to Ussher's 
library, that then the above disposal of the books 
should be void. The Archbishop also bequeathed 
200 to establish a fund, the interest of which was to 
be laid out in books to be added to those already 
mentioned. 

EDMUND BORLACE was son of Sir John Borlace, 
Master of the Ordnance Department, and one of the 
Lords Justices of Ireland. He was born and educated 
in Dublin, where he took the degree of A.B. He went 
from thence to Ley den, where he commenced M.D., 

D D 



402 HENRY BROOKE, A.M. 

in 1650, and was soon after admitted to the same de- 
gree at Oxford. He finally settled at Chester, where 
he practised as a physician with great success : he 
died in 168'2. 

Among his published works are : 

Latham Spaw, in Lancashire, with some Account of the Cures 
effected by it. Lond. 1670. The Reduction of Ireland, &c., 
with the Governors, since Henry II. Account of the Rebellion, 
1041. The Origin of Trinity College, Dublin, and College of 
Physicians. Lond. 1675. Another History of the Irish Rebel- 
lion, 161-1. Lond. 1648, folio. Brief Reflections on the Earl of 
Castlehaven's Memoirs, &c. Lond. 1652. 

HENRY BROOKE, an amiable and able writer, was 
born in the county of Fermanagh, Ireland, in 1700. 
He was at first educated under Dr. Sheridan, from 
whose school he entered this college, took the degree of 
A.B., and was, at seventeen, a student of the Middle 
Temple. About this time he became acquainted 
with Pope and Swift, who both regarded him as a 
young man of very promising talents. He was called 
to the Bar on his return from London, but before he 
could establish himself, he imprudently married ; 
this involved him in family cares rather prematurely. 
He returned to London, where he resumed his ac- 
quaintance with his former literary friends, and in 
a few years went back to Dublin. In 1737, he 
went again to London, when he was introduced to 
Lyttleton, and the other political and literary ad- 
herents of the Prince of Wales. His literary exer- 
tions now proved a source of fame and profit : he took 
a residence near Mr. Pope's villa, at Twickenham, 
and brought his family over, intending to settle there, 
but a violent and obstinate ague compelled him to 
try his native air : he was restored to health, but did 
not return to London, by which means he lost the 
opportunity his talents had gained of realizing a hand- 
some competency for his family. He still kept up a 
literary correspondence with h'is friends, who were 
much surprised at his not returning to them. His 
tenderness of heart, and unsuspecting temper, involved 
him in pecuniary difficulties. He was ever prone to 



DR. RICHARD SHERLOCK. A. M. TOPLADY. 403 

relieve the distressed, though the consequences to 
himself were often unpleasant. In 1773, he lost his 
faithful companion, with whom he had lived happily 
for nearly fifty years. Of his seventeen children, only 
two survived him. 

His literary works are : 

Universal Beauty, a poem. A Translation of the first three 
books of Tasso. Lond. 1738. Gustavus Vasa, a Tragedy. 
Lond. 1739. The Earl of Westmoreland, a Tragedy. " Con- 
stantia, or the Man of Law's Tale," in Ogle's version of Chaucer. 
The Farmer's Letters. To Moore's volume of Fables, Mr. Brooke 
contributed four of great poetical merit, viz. : The Temple of Hy- 
men ; The Sparrow and Dove ; The Female Seducer ; and Love 
and Vanity. The Dramatic Opera of " Little John and the 
Giants." Dub. 1748. The Earl of Essex, a Tragedy. Dub. 
1749. The Trial of the Roman Catholics, a political essay in 
favour of their emancipation. The Fool of Quality, a Novel. 
The "Redemption," a Poem. 1772. Juliet Greville, a Novel. 
There have been several editions of these works. 

RICHARD SHERLOCK was horn in 1613, at Oxton 
in Cheshire. He was at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, a 
short time, when he went to the University of Dublin, 
where he graduated and took holy orders. At the re- 
storation his college granted him the degree of D.D., 
and the Earl of Derby gave him the rich benefice of 
Winwich, which enabled him to practise those benefi- 
cent virtues which were so eminently blended with his 
existence. His principal work is his " Practical 
Christian," which has gone through many editions. 

AUGUSTUS MONTAGUE TOPLADY, a strenuous 
champion for the Calvinism of the Church of England, 
was born at Farnham in Surrey, November, 1740. 
He went to Ireland with his mother, and entered this 
college, where he took the degree of A.B., and took 
orders on Trinity Sunday, 1762. He got the living 
of Broad Hembury in Devonshire, which produced but 
little profit, as he would not resort to the usual mode of 
collecting tithes. His chief objects in writing and 
preaching, .were the defence of Calvinism, and to show 
that proofs of Calvinism are to be found in the articles, 
&c., of the Church of England. He died August, 
1778. His works, sixteen in number, have since been 

D D 2 



404 THOMAS SHERIDAN. EDMUND BURKE. 

collected into a complete edition of six volumes, be- 
sides a volume of posthumous pieces. 

THOMAS SHERIDAN, the intimate friend of Swift, 
was born in 1684, in the county Cavan. Having shown 
strong indication of genius, he was sent to this Univer- 
sity, where he obtained the degree of D.D. : he after- 
wards kept a school of high reputation, and got some 
small preferment in the church. He died in 1738. 
His principal work, besides his Letters to Swift, is a 
prose translation of Persius, with many judicious 
notes of his own. Lond. 1739. 

THOMAS SHERIDAN, jun., son of the preceding, was 
born at Quilca in Ireland, near the seat of Dean Swift, 
in 1721. His father sent him for a short time to West- 
minster School. Soon after his return to Dublin, he 
entered the University, and at the usual time com- 
menced A.M. In 1743, he came out on the Dublin ' 
stage, in the character of Richard the Third, with 
great success : he afterwards had an engagement at 
Covent Garden in 1744, and at Drury Lane, 174,5. 
On his return to Dublin, he became proprietor of the 
Theatre there, which he held for about ten years. He 
afterwards gave lectures on education in Scotland, and 
various parts of England, with great credit. He died 
in 1788. His best works are a Dictionary of the Eng- 
lish Language, and a Life of Dean Swift. 

EDMUND BURKE. This distinguished politician and 
political writer was born near Dublin, 1st of January, 
1730. His father was an attorney of respectability in 
that city, his mother was of the respectable family of the 
Nagles, of county Cork : Edmund was their second son. 
He was at a very early age sent to Ballytore School, in 
the county Kildare, twenty miles south-west of Dub- 
lin. This seminary was kept by Mr. Abraham Shakel- 
ton, as it was afterwards by his son: it produced 
several eminent men. Young Burke soon dis- 
tinguished himself here, by his ardent attachment to 
study. From thence he entered this University, where, 
if we may judge from the specimens we have of his 
first literary essays, he did not lose his time in idle- 



EDMUND BURKE. 405 

ness. For the shortness of our sketch of this illustrious 
man, and some others, we beg leave here to remind 
our readers that our view in giving biographical 
notices of eminent men is chiefly to show how far this 
University has really contributed her share in prepar- 
ing and polishing for public life, those superior minds 
endowed with fine natural qualities, that otherwise 
might never have benefited mankind, or done honour 
to human nature. We shall confine ourselves, there- 
fore, to the mere facts that establish such claims, and 
give a catalogue of their works to show what their 
literary exertions have been. We beg leave, at the 
same time, to refer for more detailed accounts, to the 
Biographias, particularly that of Dr. Chalmers, from 
which we have in many instances derived much cor- 
rect information. 

Mr. Burke having taken his degree of A.B., went 
to London, where he entered as a student of the 
Middle Temple. Here he was remarkable for his dili- 
gence, his habits and conversation, which were equally 
creditable to his morals and his talents. In 1765. he 
was appointed private secretary to the Marquis of 
Rockingham, and then first sat in Parliament for the 
borough of Wendover : he was afterwards elected for 
Bristol, Mai ton, &c. In 1782, he was appointed- 
paymaster of the forces, and again in 1783 : this 
office he resigned in the same year. His impeachment 
of Warren Hastings is well known, as well as his 
conduct on the " Regency," the "French Revolution," 
&c. Having determined to quit the bustle of public 
life so soon as the trial of Warren Hastings should 
be concluded, he vacated his seat when that gentle- 
man was acquitted, and retired to his villa at Beacons- 
field. Here he lost his son, on the 2nd of August, 
1794. Soon after this event, the king (George III.) 
bestowed a pension of 1200 per annum upon him 
for his own life, and that of his wife, out of the civil 
list, and two other pensions of 2500 a year for three 
lives, payable out of the four and a half per cents. 
These gifts were of course represented by party feel- 
ing as a reward for his having changed his principles, 



406 LUCIUS GARY, LORD FALKLAND. 

though at this time he had left Parliament : this 
charge he repelled in a letter, to Earl Fitzwilliam, 
written in terms of eloquent, just, and keen sarcasm. 
He died on the 8th of July, 1797, aged 68. 
Mr. Burke published, 

Some Essays in Answer to Dr. Lucas. Dub. 1749. A Vin- 
dication of Natural Society. Lond. 1756. A Philosophical 
Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beau- 
tiful. The Annual Register, carried on for some years. Observ- 
ations on the Present State of the Nation. 1768. Thoughts on 
the Public Discontents. Lond. 1769. Reflections on the French 
Revolution. Lond. 1790. Thoughts on the Prospect of a Regi- 
cide Peace. 1796. 

Lucius GARY, afterwards the celebrated Viscount 
Falkland, was bora in England, but came to Dublin 
in the year 1622, that in which his father arrived in 
Ireland as Lord Deputy. His son Lucius entered as 
a student of Dublin University when he was twelve 
years of age, where he graduated, and took the de- 
grees of A.B. and A.M. In 1629, he returned to 
England with his father, who was then recalled. He 
afterwards took a Master's degree, at St. John's 
College, Cambridge; and from the beginning of the dis- 
pute between King Charles II. and the British Parlia- 
ment, the admirable lessons of loyalty and love of order 
he imbibed here, never forsook this accomplished and 
estimable young nobleman. He adhered firmly to the 
cause of that ill-fated monarch, to whom he was 
secretary at the commencement of the civil war, and 
held that office until he bravely fell at the battle of 
Newbury, on the 20th of September, 1643: he was 
then in the 34th year of his age. In so very slight 
a sketch as this must be, no one will expect that any 
thing like a just description of the entire merits of 
Lork Falkland can be attempted, or justice done to a 
character so exalted ; fortunately such an effort is not 
required here, for that has been amply performed by 
the elegant pen of Lord Clarendon. 

Lord Falkland's published works : 

A Speech " on Evil Councillors about the King." A Speech 
against the Lord Keeper Finch, and the Judges. A Speech 



DR. ROBERT CLAYTON. 407 

against the Bishops, February 9th, 1640. A Draught of a Speech 
concerning Episcopacy. Oxon. 1644. A Discourse on the In- 
fallibility claimed by the Church of Rome. -A View of some 
Exceptions made against the preceding Discourse. A Letter to 
p. ]VI. A Letter to Dr. Beale, Master of St. John's College, 
Cambridge. It appears also that he assisted iiishop Chillingworth 
in his " Religion of Protestants." His lordship likewise wrote 
some good verses on Ben Jonson. 

ROBERT CLAYTON was born in Dublin, in Itty5. 
His father, the Dean of Kildare, sent him to West- 
minster School, from whence he entered this college, 
and having graduated, was elected a Fellow in 1714, 
being then in his twentieth year ; soon after which, 
he made the tour of France and Italy, and took the 
degree of D.D., 17^9- 

On the decease of his father, in 1728, Mr. Clayton 
got possession of a large fortune ; he then generously 
gave to each of his three sisters double the portion 
left them by their father's will. He married a 
daughter of Chief Baron Donnellan, and bestowed 
her fortune on her sister. Soon after this he went 
to London, where a person in distressed circumstances 
applied to him for assistance, with a recommendation 
from Dr. Samuel Clarke, when, instead of the usual 
donation on such occasions, he gave the man 300, 
which was all he wanted to make him prosperous in 
this world. This unusual incident introduced him 
to Dr. Clarke, by whom he was converted to Arian 
principles. Dr. Clarke having mentioned to Queen 
Caroline the account of Dr. Clayton's beneficence, 
it made a powerful impression on her Majesty's mind 
in his favour ; an immediate recommendation to Lord 
Carteret, then chief governor of Ireland, was the con- 
sequence, and Dr. Clayton was accordingly advanced 
to the see of Killala, in January, 1730 ; translated in 
November, 1735, to Cork, and in 1745 to Clogher. 
He died February, 1758. He published 

Royal Funeral Sermon, on Rev. xix. 13. 1727. Letter to his 
Clergy, caused by a Message from his Grace the Lord Lieutenant 
to the House of Lords. Dub. 1739. An Introduction to the 
History of the Jews. The same in French. Leyd. The Chro- 
nology of the Christian Bible Vindicated: the facts compared with 
other ancient histories, and the difficulties explained, from the 



408 SIR C. AND SIR E. COOTE. 

Flood to the death of Moses ; together with some conjectures in 
relation to Egypt in that period of time. Also two Maps, in 
which are attempted to be settled, the Journeyings of the Children 
of Israel. Lond. 1747. This work excited considerable animad- 
version, and called forth the author's power in several refutations. 
Dissertation on Prophecy, wherein is shewn, that the final end of 
the dispersion of the Jews will be coincident with the downfall of 
Popedom, and take place in about the year 2000 of the Christian 
era. 1749. Impartial Inquiry into the Time of the Coming of the 
Messiah. 1751. An Essay on Spirit, in which the doctrine of 
the Trinity is considered in the light of nature and of reason, as 
well as in the light in which it was held by the ancient Hebrews. 
Lond. 1751. Vindication of the Histories of the Old and New 
Testaments, in Answer to the Objections of the late Lord Boling- 
broke. Dub. 1752. A Journal of a Tour from Grand Cairo to 
Mount Sinai and back ; translated from a MS. written by the 
Prefect of Egypt ; in company with the Missionaries de pro- 
paganda Jide at Cairo. To which are added some Remarks on 
the Origin of Hieroglyphics, and the Mythology of the Ancient 
Heathens. Lond. 1753. Defence of the Essay on Spirit. 1753. 
Thoughts on Self-Love. Lond. 1753. Vindication of the 
Histories of the Old and New Testaments, Part II. 1754. Part 
III. 1757. The Doctrine of the Trinity, as usually explained, 
inconsistent with Scripture and Reason. Lond. 1754. Letters 
between him and W. Penn, on Baptism. Lond. 1755, 1759. 
Speech in the Irish House of Lords, for omitting the Nicene and 
Athanasian Creeds out of the Liturgy. Lond. 1757. Letter on 
the Question whether the Logos supplied the Place of a Human 
Soul in the Person of Jesus Christ. Lond. 1759. An Humble 
Apology for the Christian Orthodoxy. Lond. 1761. 

Sir CHARLES COOTE, a distinguished military officer 
in the 17th century, was educated here. He was 
created Earl of Montrath, hy King Charles II., for 
his activity in assisting to bring ahout the restoration. 

Sir EYRE COOTE, a descendant of the same family 
as the preceding officer, was also educated here. He 
entered the army young, having served during the Re- 
hellion of 1745. 

In 1757> he went with his regiment to India, 
where he distinguished himself, and on the taking of 
Calcutta, was appointed Governor of that place. He 
assisted in the capture of Hooghley and Chander- 
nagore, and distinguished himself at the battle of 
Plassey : he afterwards took the fort of Vandevashe, 
and defeated Count Lally, the Governor of Pondi- 
cherry, which important place he greatly assisted in cap- 



DR. PATRICK DELANY. DR. RICHARD LINGARD. 409 

turing, and in which the captors found great treasures. 
He was appointed Commander in Chief of the India 
Company's forces in 1769. In 17?1 he was made 
Knight of the Bath, and in 1773, appointed Colonel 
of the 37th Regiment of Foot. He was then made 
a member of the Supreme Council at Bengal, and 
commander of the Company's troops in that Presidency. 
In 1783, he with 10,000 men defeated Hyder Ali, 
who had 150,000 men. This accomplished and suc- 
cessful officer died at Madras, in April, 1783. 

PATRICK DELANY, a native of Ireland, was born in 
1688. He entered this college a Sizar ; by his talents 
and application he afterwards became a Junior Fellow, 
then Senior Fellow, and finally, was presented to the 
Deanery of Down. He was for many years the inti- 
mate friend and companion of Dean Swift : he lived 
to the age of 83 years, dying in 1769. He published 
the following works : 

The Tribune ; a periodical paper. Revelation examined with 
Candour, 1732 ; Ditto, 2nd volume, 1734; a third edition in 1735. 
Reflections on Polygamy. An Historical Account of the Life 
and Reign of David King of Israel. A Volume of Sermons upon 
the Social Duties. An Essay to shew the Divine Origin of 
Tythes. An Answer to the Earl of Orrery's Remarks on the 
Life and Writings of Dean Swift. 1754. A Volume of Sermons. 
1754. A periodical paper, called the " Humanist." 1757. An 
humble Apology for Christian Orthodoxy. The third volume of 
his Revelation examined with Candour. 1763. Against Tran- 
substantiation. Eighteen Religious Discourses. 1766. 

Dr. RICHARD LINGARD was appointed (by a king's 
letter) to a Fellowship in 1660, and was made Pro- 
fessor of Divinity about the same time. In two years 
afterwards he became Vice Provost, and in 1666 was 
appointed to the Deanery of Lismore : further promo- 
tion was stopped by his decease in 1670. 

He published an admirable Sermon on 1 Chronicles, ch. xxix. 
verses 24 to 30. Lond. 1668. And also a Letter of Advice to 
a Young Gentleman on leaving the University. This is an excel- 
lent treatise on morals, manners, and conduct. It has been more 
than once reprinted, and certainly should be in the hands of 
every young College man a . 

a It was originally written for young Lord Lanesborough, who had 
been his pupil in College. 



410 OLIVER GOLDSMITH. DR. HUGH HAMILTON. 

ST. GEORGE ASHE we have already noticed in the 
list of Provosts. The works he published are : 

A Sermon preached in London, Oct. 1691, to the Irish Pro- 
testants there Another equally effective Sermon, at St. Mary 
le Beau, (Bow Church,) before the Society for Propagating the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts. A Sermon, preached at Christ Church, 
Dublin, before the Lords Justices A New and easy Way of 
solving some Propositions in Euclid. Observations on a remark- 
able Solar Eclipse at Dublin, July, 1684. With numerous clever 
Essays, published in the Transactions of the Royal Society. 

SECTION III. 

OLIVER GOLDSMITH was born at Pallas, county of 
Longford, in Ireland ; his father was a clergyman. 
He entered the University in his fifteenth year. In 
1749, he took the degree of A.B., soon after which he 
left college. The events of his chequered life are 
well described in the account of him prefixed to his 
works. He published, 

A Life of Voltaire, 1758. The Present State of Polite Litera- 
ture in Europe, 1759. The Vicar of Wakefield. The Art of 
Poetry. A Life of Beau Nash. Le ters on the History of Eng- 
land. The Bee. The Traveller. The Goodnatured Man, 
a Comedy. The Roman History. The History of England. A 
History of the Earth and Animated Nature. A Life of Dr. Par- 
nell. -A Life of Bolingbroke. The Deserted Village, 1769. 
She stoops to Conquer, a Comedy, 1773. The Haunch of Venison. 
Retaliation. Dr. Goldsmith also wrote many Prefaces to works, 
and several Essays in periodical publications, particularly " The 
Citizen of the World." These works have gone through numer- 
ous editions. 

HUGH HAMILTON was a native of Dublin, born in 
March, 1729. He entered this College in 1742, and 
was elected one of its Fellows in 1751, being then in 
his 22d year. He was one of the most eminent mathe- 
maticians that Europe has produced. In 1759, he was 
elected to Erasmus Smith's Professorship of Natural 
Philosophy. 

In 1764, he accepted a college living, (and of course 
resigned his fellowship,) to which was added, in 1767, 
the living of St. Anne's, Dublin, which he resigned in 
1768, on being promoted by Primate Robinson to 
the Deanery of Armagh. In 177 2, h e married an 



C. AND J. HOPKINS. DR. THOMAS LYDIATE. 411 

Irish lady of good family. In 1796, he was conse- 
crated Bishop of Clonfert, and in 1799, he was re- 
moved to the see of Ossory, where he continued till his 
death in December, 1805. He got both the bishoprics 
without solicitation. He was a learned, acute, and 
sound philosopher. In every office which he held, 
whether ecclesiastical or otherwise, he seems to have 
been anxious to perform all the duties of those situa- 
tions with fidelity and care. 

His works have been collected and published by his son 
in 1809, 2 vol. 8vo, viz.:- De Sectionibus Conicis, 1758. An 
Essay on the Existence and Attributes of the Supreme Being. An 
Essay on the Permission of Evil. Three Philosophical Essays on 
the Ascent of Vapour, the Aurora Borealis, and The Princi- 
ples of Mechanics. Remarks and Hints on the Improvement of 
Barometers. On the Power of Fixed Alkaline Salts to preserve 
Flesh from Putrefaction; and Four admirable Introductory Lectures 
on Natural Philosophy. 

CHARLES HOPKINS, son of Dr. Ezekiel Hopkins, 
Bishop of Raphoe, was bora at Exeter, in 1664, but 
graduated at this College : he afterwards took a de- 
gree at Queen's College, Cambridge. He was much 
admired by all the literary men of his day for the 
goodness of his style in writing, and his agreeable 
gentlemanly qualities. 

He wrote " Epistolary Poems and Translations," in Nichols's 
Collection. Pyrrhus, a Tragedy. 1695. The History of 
Love. The Art of Love. Court Prospects Boadicea, a 
Tragedy. 1697. Friendship improved, &c., a Tragedy. 1699. 

JOHN HOPKINS, brother of the above author, was 
born in Dublin, January, 1675, and educated in this 
University. His works are 

The Triumphs of Peace, &c., 1698, a Pindaric Poem. Another 
of the same kind, called " The Fall of Beauty," 1698. Amasia, a 
Collection of Poems, in 3 vols. 1700. And several Sonnets, 
Essays, &c., which display both good taste and learning. 

THOMAS LYDIATE is said to have been born in 
Oxfordshire;. he, however, graduated in the University 
of Dublin, where he obtained a Fellowship in 1609. 
He was a very eminent scholar. 

His published writings are : 



DR. THOMAS WILSON. 

Tractatis variis Annorum formis cum Defensione cum Prae- 
lectione Astronomica de Natura Coeli, et Conditionibus Element- 
Drum) Disquisitio Physiologicae de Origine Fontane. Lond. 1605. 
Defensio de variis Annorum formis, contra Joseph Scaligerum, 
una cum Examine Canonum Chronologiae, Isagogicorum. Lond. 
1607. Emendatio Temporum ab initio Mundi hue usque com- 
pendio facta, contra Scaligerium et alios. Lond. 1609. Ex- 
plicatio, et addita Mentum Argumentorum in Libello Emendationis 
Temporum Compendio facta, de Nativitate Christi, et Ministerii 
in terris. Lond. 1613. Solis et Lunae Periodus seu Annus Mag- 
nus. Lond. 1620. De Anni Solaris Mensura, Epistola Astrono- 
mica. Lond. 1621. Numerus Aureus Melioribus Lapillis In- 
signitus, 1621. Canones Chronologici, necnon Series Summorum 
Magistratuum et Triumphorum Romanorum. Oxon. 1675. 
Annotationes ad Chronicon Marmoreum de Molti Darii Hys- 
taspis. Oxon. Letters to Dr. James Ussher, Primate of all Ire- 
land, (printed in Dr. Parr's Life of the Lord Primate.) Mar- 
moreum Chronicum Arundelianum cum Annotationibus. Oxon. 
Besides several unpublished works of great merit, chiefly on 
his favourite science, Chronology. 

THOMAS WILSON, afterwards the pious and vener- 
able Bishop of Sodor and Man, was born at Burton, 
a village in the hundred of Wirral, in the county 
palatine of Chester, A.D. 1663. He had his ele- 
mentary education in the city of Chester, and when 
qualified, he was entered at this University. Here he 
distinguished himself by his proficiency in academical 
studies, and the regularity of his conduct. He at first 
intended to devote himself to the medical profession, 
but a dignitary of the Church persuaded him to turn 
his thoughts to Divinity. He continued in this college 
until 1686, when he was ordained Deacon, by the 
Bishop of Kildare ; soon after which he left Ireland, 
owing to the confusion that prevailed under the un- 
happy reign of King James II. In 1692, his ex- 
cellent character recommended him to the Earl of 
Derby, who appointed him his domestic chaplain. 
In 1697> ne was made Bishop of Sodor and Man : 
in this station he continued 58 years, declining every 
promotion offered to him, particularly the see of 
Exeter, in 17^3. His life was one uniform system 
of active and judicious benevolence, directed by the 
soundest dictates of religion. He died in March, 
1755. His works, consisting mostly of religious 



SIR THOMAS VESEY, BART., BISHOP OF OSSORY. 413 

tracts, have been repeatedly printed separately, and 
extensively circulated, as well as his sermons : they 
were collected by his son, and published in 2 vols. 
quarto. Lond. 1780. And since, in 2 vols. folio. 

Sir THOMAS VESEY, Bart., was son of Dr. JohnVesey, 
Archbishop of Tuam. He was born at Cork, and 
partly educated in Dublin, from whence, having fled 
from King James's tyranny, he was admitted of Christ 
Church College, Oxford, where his means of support 
being cut off by the malice of the Lord Lieutenant 
Tyrconnell's Government, Dr. Wake, then a canon 
of Christ Church, and who afterwards became Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, took the care and expense of 
completing his education upon himself, until he was 
elected a Fellow of Oriel College. Some time after 
this, he married the daughter of David Muschamp, 
Esq., Muster Master General of Ireland : by this lady 
he inherited a large fortune. 

He was created a baronet in July, 1698 : this was 
before he took orders, although he always intended to 
do so. After ordination he retired to his parish, of 
which he took good care ; from whence the Duke of 
Ormond, on his last mission to Ireland, prevailed on 
him to go with him as his chaplain, and at the same 
time recommended him so strongly to Queen Anne, 
that he was appointed to the see of Killaloe in June, 
1713, and was translated to that of Ossory in April, 
1714. 

He appears to have been quite a model for prelates : 
his diocese he kept in admirable order, and with the 
greatest ease to himself, which shews his superior 
skill in government, and the merits of his clergy; his 
judgment and virtue directing him to appoint the 
the most worthy. Harris says of him, that he was 
never known to be under the necessity of inflicting a 
public censure in his diocese, which Dr. King, in his 
triennial visitations, often took care to mention. His 
estate was large before his promotion, and his heart 
was too large to make any addition to it ; the tithes be- 
longing to his see he would never receive, but gave 



414 JONATHAN SWIFT. 

them entirely to his curate, and the rectorial tithes of 
Abbey leix, part of his private property, being of greater 
value, he settled on the vicar. 

He repaired and improved his palace at Kilkenny, 
and maintained a school for forty children in that city, 
until he found it did not answer his intention. 

He died in Dublin, August, 1730, to the universal 
grief of his clergy, to whom he was a father, brother, 
friend, and companion ; proving himself to be not 
only a good bishop, but a perfect gentleman. 

JONATHAN SWIFT was born in Hoey's Court, Castle 
Street, Dublin. His father was an attorney and 
member of the King's Inn in that city. In 1665, Jo- 
nathan Swift, senior, memorialized the benchers of 
that honourable Society, praying to be appointed to the 
office of steward or under treasurer to them : in this he 
modestly states that he thinks himself qualified for the 
appointment from having been assistant to Mr. Wale, 
who lately filled that situation; he further sets forth that 
" his father and whole family were loyal, and faithfully 
served his late majesty, (Charles II., )by which they were 
great sufferers." Accordingly, he was appointed to the 
office he sought, on the 25th January, 1666 ; but he did 
not enjoy it long, dying on the 25 th April, 1667. It 
was on the 30th of November following that young 
Swift was born, nearly seven months after his father's 
decease. The first week in January, 1668, Mrs. 
Swift memorialized the bench, requesting that " her 
brother-in-law, Mr. Win. Swift, may be allowed to col- 
lect the arrears due to her late husband," and pathe- 
tically showing how much she required them. Young 
Swift was carried to England by his nurse, when he 
was a year old, and remained there three years. At six 
years of age he was sent to Kilkenny School, and at 
fourteen entered Trin. Coll. Dublin, April 24, 1 682. 
He commenced A.B. by special grace llth February, 
1685-6. On the 30th of November, 1688, he was 
suspended from his degree for some irregularity in his 
conduct to the junior dean, who appears to have been 
rather a contemptible sort of man. The day he was 



JONATHAN SWIFT. 415 

suspended was that on which he completed his 
twenty-first year ; he was, however, restored to his de- 
gree on the 6th of January following. Soon after 
this his uncle Godwin Swift dying, he was left 
without the means of following his studies. He left 
the college and went to join his mother at Leicester. 
She advised him to apply to Sir William Temple ; he 
did so, was graciously received, and continued on a 
visit for two years at Sheen. It was at this time 
King William offered to make him a captain of 
horse. He was admitted to his Master's degree, in 
Oxford, ad eundem, in 16 ( J2. In 1694, he took 
orders, and got a small living in the county of Antrim, 
which he resigned at the instance of Sir Wm. Temple, 
who promised to provide for him in England, but did 
nothing for him ; however, he left him a small pecu- 
niary legacy, and his posthumous works. Earl Berk- 
ley brought him to Ireland as his chaplain and pri- 
vate secretary. At length he was made Rector of 
Laracor and Rathbeggan ; here he performed the 
duties of his sacred office with the utmost punctuality 
and devotion. In 17*3, Queen Ann made him Dean 
of St. Patrick's. In 1716, he married Miss Johnson, 
a lady for whom he had an affection for eighteen years ; 
this amiable lady died in 17^7> greatly lamented by 
the Dean. His giddiness and deafness increased 
progressively, and at last terminated in a state of 
mental imbecility, under which he laboured for two 
or three years, when it became fatal in 1745. He 
left 11, 000 to endow an hospital for lunatics and 
idiots in his native city. 

His works, of which the most remarkable are, The Tale of a 
Tub. The Battle of the Books. Gulliver's Travels. On the 
Contests for Power between the Nobles and Commoners of 
Athens and Rome. The public Spirit of the Whigs. The Con- 
duct of the Allies. (Of this tract 11;000 copies were sold in a few 
weeks.) Free Thoughts on the present State of Affairs. Cadenus 
and Vanessa ; a Poem. A Proposal for the Use of Irish Manu- 
facture. The Drapier's Letters. Directions to Servants. With 
many other tracts. They have been often printed in various 
forms, and afford abundant materials to define the literary cha- 
racter of this extraordinary man. The most elegant edition is a 
sort of variorum one in 14volumes; eight volumes of it being pub- 



416 DR. NATHANIEL FOY. SAMUEL MOLYNEUX, A.M. 

lished by Dr. Hawkesworth, three by Dean Swift, Esq., and three 
by Mr. Nichols ; they have been reprinted in 25 vols. 8vo, 27 
vols. small 8vo, and 27 vols. 18mo. In 1784, a new edition was 
printed in 17 vols. by T. Sheridan ; and in 1816, a fine edition of 
19 vols. by the late Sir Walter Scott. 

DEANE SWIFT, Esq., the grandson of Godwin Swift, 
Esq., the Dean's uncle, was educated here, and 
strongly recommended to Alexander Pope, by his 
gifted relation. He died in 1783. 

This gentleman published " An Essay upon the Life, Writings, 
and Character of Dr. Jonathan Swift." Lond. 1755. In 1765, 
he brought out the eight quarto volumes of the Dean's works ; and 
in 1768, two volumes of his Letters, all of which are extremely 
interesting. 

NATHANIEL FOY, son of John Foy, of the city of 
Cork, M.D., was born in that city. He was educated 
in this University, of which he was elected a Fellow 
in 1671? and took the degree of D.D., in 1684. He 
strongly opposed King James's proceedings in Ireland, 
and preached openly against the doctrine delivered 
from the pulpit hy a Doctor of the Sorbonne, for which 
his life was endangered, and he was assaulted and 
threatened to be shot by King James's soldiers, until 
at length he was committed to prison, along with Dr. 
King and others. On that unfortunate monarch's 
flight to France, Dr. Foy was appointed Bishop of 
Waterford and Lismore, in July, 1691. He enjoyed 
this dignity for seventeen years. In his lifetime he 
gave a donation of 10 to this College, towards build- 
ings. He left a fund in the hands of the mayor and 
corporation of Waterford, for the purpose of putting 
out boys and girls as apprentices. He also left an 
estate to endow the free school, in which seventy-five 
children, besides being clothed, are instructed gratis 
in reading, writing, and accounts, &c. 

SAMUEL MOLYNEUX, son of the before mentioned 
William Molyneux, was born in Chester, but edu- 
cated at this University, under the care of his uncle, 
Dr. Thomas Molyneux, an excellent scholar and 
eminent physician. Samuel became also a first rate 
scholar, and a most accomplished gentleman ; he was 



THOMAS PARNELL, A.M. 417 

made secretary to King George II. when Prince of 
Wales. Like his father, Samuel was strongly at- 
tached to the sciences of astronomy and optics, in 
which he seriously engaged himself, particularly in 
the years 1723, 24, and 25, in endeavouring to per- 
fect the modes of making telescopes ; one of which, 
completed by himself, he had presented to John V., 
King of Portugal. Being appointed one of the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty, he was so much 
occupied with public business, that he had not leisure 
to pursue his studies. He gave his papers to Dr. 
Robert Smyth, of Cambridge, and died soon after, in 
the flower of his age. Dr. Smyth, shortly afterwards, 
completed and published his " Complete Treatise on 
Optics," which was very well received and justly esti- 
mated by men of science. 

THOMAS PARNELL was a native of Dublin, where 
he was born in the year 1679. He entered this Uni- 
versity very young, for he took the degree of A.M. 
in the year 1700, being then 21 years of age : in five 
years afterwards, he was appointed Archdeacon of 
Clogher; and on Dean Swift's recommendation, 
Archbishop King gave him a prebend, and in 1716, 
the Vicarage of Finglass. 

Parnell's learning and talents brought him ac- 
quainted with all that great "constellation of wits" 
which made the reign of Queen Anne so illustrious ; 
and he is allowed to have given to English versifica- 
tion its highest polish in which, as Dr. Johnson re- 
marks, " his poetry surpasses that of Pope himself." 
He died at Chester, in 1717> on his way to Ireland, 
aged only 38. 

His works are 

The Life of Homer, prefixed to Pope's translation of the 
Iliad ; he also assisted Pope in that great work. He translated 
beautifully, Homer's Battle of the Frogs and Mice, with the re- 
marks of Zoilus the Cynic ; and the Life of Zoilus, which was 
afterwards prefixed by Pope to his edition of the Odyssey. His 
Poems were published by Pope, in 1721, with an elegant letter to 
Lord Orford ; another volume was published in 1758. He also 
wrote many of the best Essays in the Spectator, Guardian, and 
other popular works. 

E E 



418 PHILIP FRANCIS. SIR PHILIP FRANCIS. 

PHILIP FRANCIS was born in Dublin, about 1705, 
where bis fatber had some good preferment in the 
church, and therefore was not, as Watts has stated, 
" an English clergyman." 

He was educated in this college, taking all the de- 
grees up to D.D. inclusive. His unrivalled translation 
of Horace first !brought him into notice, about 1743. 
Of that work, Dr. Samuel Johnson says, " the lyrical 
part of Horace never can be properly translated, so 
much of the elegance is in the numbers and the ex- 
pressions. Francis has done it the best, Til take his, 
five out of six, against them all." 

The Horace appeared in Ireland, in 1742, and in England the 
following year. This was a poetical translation of the works of 
that great writer, with the original text, and critical Notes collected 
from his best Latin and French Commentators. Of this work seven 
editions were sold in four years, the eighth was published in 1778. 
Lond. 4 vols. 8vo. In 1753, he published a translation of part of 
the Orations of Demosthenes, intending to comprise the whole in 2 
vols. 4to, which he accomplished in 1755. He also brought out 
Eugenia, a Tragedy. Lond. 1752; and Constantia, a Tragedy, 
1753, 8vo, Lond. 

Dr. Francis also wrote a great many papers on 
political subjects, which, as they were not at the same 
side with Churchill's views, drew upon him the serpent 
tooth of that able but malignant writer ; however, he 
signally failed in these attempts to lacerate the character 
or feelings of Francis. He resided at Bath during 
the last seven or eight years of his life, and died there 
in 1773. 

SIR PHILIP FRANCIS, son of the above, was also born 
in Dublin, and took the degree of A.B. in this Uni- 
versity. In a few years after, his father took him to Eng- 
land, from whence he went to India, in the Company's 
service, and so much distinguished himself there 
in the civil service, that he was appointed one of the 
supreme council of Bengal, in 1778. He was amongst 
those who have been charged with writing the " Let- 
ters of Junius." He wrote and published 

Original Minutes on the Settlement and Collection of the Bengal 
Revenues. 1782. Speech in the House of Commons, in 1784, and 



MARMADUKE COGHILL. 419 

two others in the same House on the East India bill. 1784. An- 
other in the House of Commons. 1786. An Answer to the charges 
exhibited against the author, Gen. Clavering, and Col Monson, by 
Sir Elijah Impey, on the defence of the Nundcomar Charge. 1788. 
Remarks of the defence of Mr. Hastings, so far as it concerned 
the Rohilla War. Letter to Lord North, &c. 1793. Heads of 
his Speech in reply to Mr. Dundas in a Committee of the whole 
House, to consider the Government and Trade of India. 1793. 
Resolution and Plan, drawn up in 1793, and laid before the 
Society of Friends of the People. 1794. Proceedings in the 
House of Commons, on the Slave Trade, and state of the Ne- 
groes in the West India Islands, with an Appendix. 1796. Speech 
in reply to Mr. Sylvester Douglass. 1796. On the State of Af- 
fairs in India. 1803. Speeches in the House of Commons on the 
War against the Mahrattas. 1805. Speech against the exemption 
of foreign property in the funds, from the duty on income. 1806. 
Letters to Lord Howick on the State of the East India Company. 
1807. Reflections on the abundance of paper in circulation, and 
scarcity of specie. Lond. 1810. -Letter to Earl Grey. 1814. 

MARMADUKE COGHILL was a native of Dublin, 
born in the year 1673, At fifteen years of age he 
was admitted a student of this University : here he 
graduated, and eventually took his degree of Doctor 
of Civil Law ; soon after which the College elect- 
ed him to the rank of one of its representatives in 
Parliament ; and this very distinguished honour was 
continued to Mr. Coghill at every general election 
whilst he lived. Having filled several important of- 
fices in the state, he was, in the year 17^1, appointed 
Chancellor of the Irish Exchequer. This office he 
held during the remainder of his life, that is, nearly 
seventeen years : he died in 1738. In the perform- 
ance of his public duties, he was a man of unwearied 
diligence and clearness of judgment : he combined the 
very rare qualities of being an honest counsellor of the 
crown, and an independent representative of the peo- 
ple. Amongst the many benefits that this learned 
and excellent man conferred on society, is, that being 
one of the original commissioners of " the board of 
first fruits," he in a great measure organized that 
body, and thus became the great, and indeed prin- 
cipal cause of the numerous benefits which have arisen 
to the established church of Ireland from that circum- 
stance. In private life he was greatly esteemed for 

*E E 2 



CHARLES MACKLIN. 

his benevolence, and all the other social virtues. He 
wrote several able papers on finance, &c., which bave 
been published in the Transactions of the learned 
societies. 

CHARLES MACKLIN, or MACLOGHLIN, is said to 
have been born in Dublin, where, at all events, his 
parents resided during his infancy. His father was a 
gentleman of the co. Down, who commanded a troop 
of horse for King James II., at the battle of the 
Boyne. His mother was daughter of a man of estate 
in co. Westmeath. Young Macklin was born just 
before that almost decisive battle ; and his parents 
being at the wrong side in politics, their estates were 
forfeited to the crown, and the family at once reduced 
from affluence to indigence. In 1704, Macklin's 
father, being thus impoverished, died broken hearted, in 
Dublin. Young Macklin's education, not being com- 
pleted, was insufficient to obtain for him a sizarship 
in college, and thus left wholly destitute in his 15th 
year, some under -graduates, with whom he had pre- 
viouly been acquainted, prevailed on him to accept 
the place of a badgeman in the University. In this 
situation, however, he pursued his studies with suc- 
cess until his 21st year, when something turned his 
attention to the stage, and the slender success he at 
first met with did not discourage him. He went to 
London in 171 6, and commenced strolling player, and 
it was ten years later before he made his appearance 
before a London audience, at the Theatre Royal, 
Lincoln's Inn Fields. Some time after, he was en- 
gaged at Drury Lane, and afterwards had engagements 
at the theatres of the three kingdoms. As an actor, 
in three or four prominent characters, he had no com- 
petitor. He took leave of the stage in 1790, in his 
inimitable character of " Shylock," being then in his 
hundredth year. He died seven years after this, with 
an excellent character, in private life. 

Macklin's dramatic works, which are written with considerable 
judgment, discrimination, and vigour, are : Henry VII., a Tra- 
gedy, 1746. The Married Libertine, a Comedy, 1761. True Born 
Irishman, a Comedy, 1763. Love-a-la-Mode, and Man of the 
World, Comedies, 1770, and 1781. He wrote other pieces that 



DR. CHANDLER. DR. POCOCK. F. 8. SULLIVAN. 

have been acted but not printed, and also adapted to the stage 
some of the older dramas. Macklin's Bible was his last work. 

EDWARD CHANDLER, who became Bishop of Lich- 
field and Coventry, and was afterwards translated to 
Durham, was educated here, and obtained a found- 
ation scholarship in 1683. He was a great preacher, 
and soon obtained clerical promotion in England : he 
died in 1750. His principal publications are 

A Thanksgiving Sermon for the Union of Scotland with England. 
1707. Another from Psalm cvii. 42, 4,3. 1710. Another of St. 
John xviii, 36. 1715. Another Thanksgiving Sermon for the sup- 
pression of the late (Scottish) Rebellion. 1716. A Sermon preached 
before the king. 1718. Another on Judges xvii. 6. Another on 
Matthew xiii. 31, 32. 1719. Another on Genesis iv. 9. 1724. 
Defence of Christianity, from the Prophecies of the Old and New 
Testament. 1725. A Vindication of the above. 1728. A Charge 
delivered to the Grand Jury of the Quarter Sessions at Durham, 
concerning Corn, and the Riots thereby occasioned. 

RICHARD POCOCK. This learned divine was born at 
Southampton, in 1704 ; he graduated here, and took 
the degrees of D.D. and LL.D. After some minor 
promotion, he was made Archdeacon of Dublin, and 
afterwards became Bishop of Ossory, He died in 
1765. He was a great traveller, being in fact one of 
the earliest of our British learned voyagers who visited 
Syria, Egypt, &c., and described them accurately,, 
as they then were. He published 

A description of those countries in several volumes, including 
also Observations on the Holy Land, Mesopotamia, Cyprus, and 
Candia ; on the islands of the Archipelago, Asia Minor, Thrace, 
Greece, and some other parts of Europe. Lond. 1743-5. In- 
scriptionum Antiquarum, Gr. Lat. liber. 1747. fol. Of the Giants' 
Causeway, in Ireland. Phil. Trans. 1748. Another account of that 
scene. 1753. Of a Rock on the West side of Dunbar Harbour, re- 
sembling the basaltic character of the Causeway, Phil. Trans, vol. 
Hi. art. 17. An Account of some Antiquities found in Ireland. 
Archaeologia, ii. p. 32. 1770. 

FRANCIS STOUGHTON SULLIVAN was born in the 
south of Ireland, and graduated at this University, 
where he first obtained a foundation scholarship in 
1734, was elected a lay fellow in 1738, and took the 
degree of LL.D., became jurist, and was appointed 
Professor of Common Law in the College. Dr. Sulli- 
van was a person of considerable talents, as his works 
will prove. His greatest work is 



DR. THOMAS LELAND. REV. MERVIN ARCHDALE. 

An Historical Treatise on the Feudal Law, and on the Constitu- 
tion and Laws of England, with a Commentary on Magna Charta, 
and necessary illustrations of many of the English Statutes. Lond. 
1770. 1772. 1776, 4to, the latter edition being posthumous. A 
new edition of these works with some additions, was published by 
Gilbert Steuart, in 1777, 4to. 

THOMAS LELAND, D.D., was the son of a citizen 
of Dublin, in which city he was born in 1722 ; he 
had his elementary education at Dr. Sheridan's school 
at Quilca. In 1737 he entered this College, of which 
he was elected a Fellow in 1746, and Professor of 
Oratory, 1768. He was also chaplain to Lord Towns- 
hend, and held a prebendal stall in St. Patrick's Ca- 
thedral. 

As a divine he was excellent, and most eloquent as 
a preacher : amongst his contemporaries, who greatly 
esteemed him, were Dr. Johnson and Dr. Parr, by 
both of whom he was eulogized in their writings. He 
published 

A Dissertation on the Helps and Impediments to the Acquisition 
of Knowledge in Religious and Moral Subjects. 1749. In con- 
junction with Dr. John Stokes, at the desire of the University, he 
published an edition of the Orations of Demosthenes, with a Latin 
version and Notes, 2 vols. 1754. Translation of Demosthenes, 1st 
vol. 1756 ; 2nd in 1761 ; 3rd in 1770. -History of the Life and 
Reign of Philip, King of Macedon, 2 vols. 1758. A Dissertation 
on the Principles of Human Eloquence. 1764. A History of Ire- 
land, 1773, with a preliminary discourse, in 3 vols. 

A collection of his sermons was published after his 
decease ; they are in 3 vols. Dr. Warburton attacked 
Leland's Principles of Eloquence, to which attack he 
made an able reply ; and in this dispute, Dr. Leland 
is considered to have gained the superiority, 

MERVIN ARCHDALE was born in Dublin, in 1723, 
and graduated in the University with considerable 
credit. Soon after taking his degree, he displayed a 
taste for antiquarian pursuits in so very decided a 
manner, that he was specially noticed by several 
learned antiquarians, and particularly by Dr. Pocock, 
then Archdeacon of Dublin, who, when he was ap- 
pointed to the Bishopric of Ossory, presented him 
with a good living. In this situation he devoted all 



CHARLES JOHNSON. EDMUND, LORD PERY. 423 

the time he could spare from his clerical duties, to 
collecting materials for his great work, ' The Mo- 
nastieon Hibernicum," in which he employed him- 
self nearly forty years. He intended to have pub- 
lished it in two volumes folio, but want of sufficient 
encouragement compelled him to abridge it into one 
volume quarto. It came out in 1786, and the author 
died in 1791, with a high character, not only for 
learning, but for the finer qualities that adorn human 
nature. 

The enlarged edition of Lodge's Peerage, in seven 
volumes 8vo, was also published, on the author's de- 
mise, by Mr. Archdale. Mr. Lodge, it appears, had 
made additions to this work, but these being written in 
cypher, were to all persons unintelligible, until at length, 
Mrs. Archdale, like the wife of Leonidas, deciphered 
the tablets by discovering the key to them. 

CHARLES JOHNSON was born in the north of Ire- 
land, in 17^8, and educated here ; he afterwards en- 
tered the Temple, and was admitted to the bar in 
England. He went to Bengal in 1782, where he be- 
came rich by his literary talents, and died in 1800. 

He wrote Chrysal; or, Adventures of a Guinea, 1760, 2 vols. ; 
a new edition, 1765, 4 vols. The Reverie ; or, Flight to the Para- 
dise of Fools. 1762. History of Arbaces, Prince of Betli. 1774. 
A Picture of Life. Juniper Jack, 1781. Besides many essays 
of great merit in the periodical publications. 

Mr. EDMUND PERY, afterwards Lord Pery, was 
educated for the bar : he came into Parliament in 
175l. He was not only master of his profession, but 
an admirable member of parliament. He saw further 
into futurity than almost any man of his time. In good 
sense he was equal to the best of his contemporaries ; 
in fortitude superior to most men. He delivered the 
boldest sentiments in the calmest manner, so that for- 
titude was not an effort, but the ordinary temperament 
of his mind. He was one of the best speakers that ever 
filled the chair in the Irish House of Commons. There 
was scarcely any great public measure adopted in Ire- 
land whilst Lord Pery engaged in business, which did 
not originate in his comprehensive mind. 



424 BARRY YELVERTON. - LORD SHANNON. 

BARRY YELVERTON, afterwards Lord Avonmore, 
was bred a lawyer, in which profession he became very 
eminent. He was returned to parliament for the 
borough of Carrickfergus in 1780. He distinguished 
himself greatly by his eloquence on various occasions 
of great national importance. He was first made 
Attorney- General, and afterwards Lord Chief Baron 
of the Common Pleas. 

HENRY BOYLE, afterwards Earl of Shannon, was 
bred to the bar, and came early into parliament. He 
was a person of superior understanding ; and in the 
management of contested elections, his opinion was so 
much relied on, that few indeed would persevere in 
canvassing a county without certainty of his support. 
He was the much respected speaker of the Irish House 
of Commons for some years. 

JOHN GAST was a son of Daniel Gast, a French 
Protestant refugee, who settled in Dublin about the 
year 1684. John Gast was born in that city about 
1715, was educated there, and graduated in the Uni- 
versity. Having taken priest's orders, he was selected 
to perform the duty of Pastor to the French Protestant 
congregation at Portarlington, where his conduct was 
so satisfactory, that on his return to Dublin he was 
honoured with a Doctor's Degree in Divinity by the 
Provost and Fellows of the College, and soon after- 
wards (1761) was presented with the Archdeaconry 
of Glendaloch, and the Rectory of Arklow. Besides 
sermons and other useful writings, Dr. Gast published 
a History of Greece, which is held in high estimation. 
In all his writings he displayed an actively charitable 
mind, which was always engaged in contriving plans 
for the relief of those who were in distress or affliction. 



GABRIEL STOKES was born in Dublin in 
His father was an optician of great ability, who made 
several useful discoveries and improvements in me- 
chanics, and published a treatise on calculation, for 
which he was appointed Deputy Surveyor General of 
Ireland. Gabriel Stokes was educated and graduated 
in the University, under his brother Joseph, then a 



CAHANE O'HARA. c. F. SHERIDAN. 

Senior Fellow. Stokes, junior, obtained a Junior 
Fellowship in his twenty- third year, and soon after 
went out on the College living of Ardtrea, where he 
did the duty for fourteen years. He afterwards pre- 
sided over the corporation grammar school at Water- 
ford, with great reputation. He was, by Bishop New- 
come, presented to the Chancellorship of the Water- 
ford Cathedral. He was next promoted to the living 
of Dysert-martin, in the diocese of Derry, where, up 
to his 74th year, he diligently exercised all his profes- 
sional duties, and his death was caused by over exer- 
tion in assisting to put out a fire. 

Dr. Stokes published an Essay on Primate Newcome's Harmony 
of the Gospels. He also edited Iphigenia in Aulis. A most useful 
work of his was unhappily left unfinished by his death ; it was en- 
titled, The Errors and Dangers of the vulgar Misapprehension of 
several Texts in Scripture, when taken in an insulated Sense ; in 
which he showed their connexion with the contexts, &c. A volume 
of his Sermons was published after his death, Dub. 1812. 

KANE or CAHANE O'HARA was the descendant of an 
ancient and respectable Irish family. He was born 
in Dublin, about the year 173^, and entered of 
Trinity College, where he took the degree of A.B. 
and B.M.; the latter faculty he specially attended to, 
as he has a taste for music that might be called ex- 
quisite, and this endowment enabled him to acquire 
great skill in musical composition. This of course, 
with his own social and cheerful disposition, made him 
a welcome acquaintance to the most eminent literary 
men of his time. His sight quite failed him a few 
years before his death, which happened in 1782. 

To O'Hara's genius, the British public are in- 
debted for that novel species of comic opera, called 
" The English Burletta." The works in this new 
dramatic style which he produced are 

Midas, a Burletta. 1764. The Golden Pippin, a Burletta. 
1773. The Two Misers, a Musical Drama. 1775. April Day, 
a Burletta. 1777.- Tom Thumb, a Burletta. 1780. 

CHARLES FRANCIS SHERIDAN was born in Dublin, 
in July, 1750. He was the second son of Thomas 
Sheridan, A.M., already mentioned, and senior to 
the celebrated Richard Brinsley Sheridan, whom we 



426 ROBERT JEPHSON. JOHN, LORD FITZGIBBON. 

shall presently have occasion to notice. Charles 
Francis received the elements of his classical and 
scientific education along with his gifted younger 
hrother, at the well known seminary of Samuel 
White, in Grafton Street, and completed that educa- 
tion here, under the guidance of his father, to whom he 
acted as an assistant for some years in his public 
courses of lectures. Under such favourable auspices, 
a young man of his talents must become distinguished; 
accordingly, we find that Mr. C. F. Sheridan was very 
soon appointed to the honourable situation of Envoy 
to the Court of Stockholm, and on his return was 
made Under Secretary at War for Ireland. He was 
also elected a member of the Irish Parliament, 
where he was much admired for the wit and elo- 
quence which characterized his speeches. He was 
not, however, fated to arrive at the the full develop- 
ment of his powers, for he died in 1795, being then 
only in his forty-fifth year. 

ROBERT JEPHSON was born in the south of Ireland, 
in 1736. He graduated in the College, and soon after 
this he went into the army. Having seen some years' 
service, he retired on the half-pay of the 73rd regiment, 
1763. He was afterwards appointed Master of the 
Horse, to Lord Townshend, then Lord-Lieutenant of 
Ireland, and to eleven of his successors. He died in 
1803. 

The first of his productions, which at once brought him into 
literary notice, was, The Heroic Epistle to George E. Howard, 
from Alderman G. Faulkner in 1772; it ran through eight editions. 
Braganza, a Tragedy, followed in 1 775 ; acted with distinguished 
applause. The Count of Narbonne. 1781. The Law of Lom- 
bardy, a Tragedy. Julia, a Tragedy. The Conspiracy, a Tragedy. 
The Hotel, a Farce. The Campaign, an Opera. Love and 
War ; and Two Strings to your Bow ; both Farces. A Poem in 
quarto, called Roman Portraits. 1794. A Satire on the French 
Revolution, called The Confessions of John Baptiste Couteau. 
1795. The Tragedies are written in a fine dramatic style, just, 
forcible, and elegant. 

JOHN FITZGIBBON, afterwards Earl of Clare, was a 
son of John Fitzgibbon, an Irish lawyer. He was 
was born at Donny brook, near Dublin, in 1749- He 



F. HUTCHISON, LL.D. F. HUTCHINSON, D.D. 

graduated in this University, and afterwards took a 
degree at Oxford. He applied himself to the pro- 
fession of the bar, to which he was called in 1772, 
and in which he became very eminent. He greatly 
distinguished himself in the Irish Parliament in 

O 

favour of " the Legislative Union." Previous to this, 
he had risen progressively from the rank of Attorney- 
General to that of Lord-Chancellor of Ireland, 1789, 
and Viscount Fitzgibbon ; and in 1795, he was 
created Earl of Clare. The only printed composition 
of his is a speech on the Union. 

FRANCIS HUTCHISON, LL.D. was born near to 
Dublin, in 1694, and graduated in its University : he 
was considered by some persons to be a philosopher of 
the Shaftesbury school. His talents, however, were not 
questionable, which caused him to be elected Professor 
of Moral Philosophy in the University of Glasgow. He 
was a voluminous writer, as the list of his publications 
will show. The first is 

An Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue. 
Lond. 1725. An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Pas- 
sions and Affections, with Illustrations on the Moral Sense. Lond. 
1728. (Many editions). Philosophise Moralis, institutio compen- 
diariae. Glasg. 1742. A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy, 
in three books, containing the Elements of Ethics, and the Law of 
Nature, with the Principles of (Economics and Politics. Glasg. 
1747.54. Metaphysicae Synopsis. 1742, Glasg. Reflections upon 
Laughter, and Remarks upon the Fable of the Bees. Glasg. 1750. 
A System of Moral Philosophy, in three books, to which is pre- 
fixed a life, c., of the Author, by W. Leechman. Glasg. 1755. 
Letters concerning the true foundation of Virtue, or Moral 
Goodness. Glasg. 1772. This was published by his son, Francis 
Hutchison, M.D., from his father's original MS. 

FRANCIS HUTCHINSOX, a native of Ireland, was 
educated in the college of Dublin, and gradually ob- 
tained preferment until he became Bishop of Down 
and Connor. He published as follows : 

A Visitation Sermon in 1692. Comment on Psalms 9 and 10. 
1G98. An Assize Sermon on Judges xviii. 7. 1707. On the 
Union. Lond. 1718. Defence of the Ancient Historians, with a 
particular regard to the History of Ireland, Great Britain and other 
Northern Nations. Dub. 1734. 

WALTER HARRIS, a native of Dublin, was educated 



428 W. HARRIS. REV. WILLIAM HALES, D D. 

in its University. He was nephew to Sir James 
Ware, Bart., aud a voluminous writer. His principal 
works are : 

A History of the Life and Reign of William Henry, Prince of 
Nassau and Orange, Stadtholder, King of England, Scotland, &c. 
Dub. 1749. Faction unmasked ; relative to the Irish Rebellion, 
&c. Dub. 1752. " Hibernicae," ancient pieces relating to Ire- 
land. Dub. 1757. History and Antiquities of Dublin, from the 
earliest accounts ; compiled from authentic Memoirs, Offices of 
Record, Manuscript Collections, and other unexceptionable vouch- 
ers. With an Appendix, containing a History of the Cathedral 
of Christ Church, and St. Patrick's, the University, the Hospitals, 
and other Public Buildings. Also Two Plans of the City as it was 
in 1610, and as it was at the time he published it. Lond. 1766. 

WILLIAM HALES, a native of Ireland, graduated in 
this University, where he obtained a foundation 
scholarship in 1767, and fellowship in 1769, became 
Doctor in Divinity, and accepted the college living of 
Killeshandra, and was made an Archdeacon soon 
after. He published 

Sonorum Doctrina Rationalis et Experimentalis ex Newtoni et 
Optimorum, Physicorum Scriptis, cui premittitur, Disquisitio de 
Ae're et Modificationibus Atmospherae. Lond. 1778. Analysis 
jEquationum. Dub. 1784. De Motibus Planetarum in Orbibus 
Excentricis secundem Theoriam Newtonianum, Dissertatio. Lond. 
1786. Observations upon the political influences of the Pope's 
supremacy. Dub. 1787. Survey of the Modern State of the 
Church of Rome ; with additional observations on the Pope's supre- 
macy. Lond. 1789. Observations on Tithes, showing the incon- 
veniences of all the schemes proposed for altering the ancient 
Manner of providing for the Clergy of Ireland. Lond. 1 794. The 
Inspector, or Select Literary Intelligence for the Vulgar. 1799. 
Analysis Fluxionum. Lond. 1800. Methodism Inspected ; with 
an Appendix on the Evidence of a State of Salvation. 1803-5. 
Prospectus of an Analysis of Ancient Chronology. 1807. Disser- 
tations on the principal Prophecies respecting the Divine and 
Human Character of Our Lord Jesus Christ. 1808. A New 
Analysis of Chronology, in which an attempt is made to explain 
the History and Antiquities of the Nations recorded in Scripture; 
together with the Prophecies relating to them, on principles 
tending to remove the imperfections and discordance of pre- 
ceding Systems of Chronology. Plates. Lond. 1809. Vol. 2. 
1811 ; Vol. 3. 1812 ; Vol. 4. 1814. This is truly considered the 
most elaborate and careful system of Chronology that has yet ap- 
peared in our language ; and to the biblical student, it is of the 
greatest value, as it affords him illustrations of almost every 
difficult text in the sacred writings. Also an edition of Letters on 
the Tenets of the Romish Hierarchy. Dub. 1812. A Second 
edition of this work was called for, and published in 1813. 



J. HELY HUTCHINSON, LL.D. J. STOCK, D.D. 429 

JOHN HELY HUTCHINSON, LL.D., Provost of the 
University, who has been noticed at p. 253, wrote and 
published an admirably written work on the " Com- 
mercial restraints " then long imposed on Ireland by 
the English government. 

RICHARD H. HUTCHINSON, Earl of Donoghmore, 
graduated here ; he was an able parliamentary 
speaker. He published a Speech in the House of 
Lords on the Romish Emancipation question, in 
1810 ; and one on the Romish petition in 17 12. 

J. COOPER WALKER was the son of an opulent 
citizen of Dublin, and was born there in 176 1. He was 
educated in the University in the most liberal manner, 
but his health was too delicate, and his constitution 
not strong enough to endure the climate even of Ire- 
land ; he therefore went to reside in Italy for several 
years: with the language, manners, and literature, he 
became intimately acquainted. He returned to his 
native land not improved in health, and died in 
April, 1810. His works are: 

Memoirs of Alessandro Tassoni. Essays on the Customs and 
Institutions of ancient Ireland. Historical Memoirs of the Irish 
Bar.ds. Dub. 1786. On the Dress, Weapons, and Armour of the 
ancient Irish. Dub. 1790. An Historical Memoir of Italian 
Tragedy. 1799. On the Revival of the Drama in Italy. 1805. 
Brookesianae, 2 vols. 1807. He also contributed many Essays 
to the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy of Literature, of 
which he was a member. 

JOSEPH STOCK was the son of a citizen of Dublin, 
in which city he was born, in 1741. He entered the 
University, where he obtained a foundation scholar- 
ship in 17^9) and a fellowship four years later. He 
resigned on the living of Conwal in 1779, and was 
appointed Bishop of Killala in 1798, from which he 
was translated to Waterford in 1810. He died in 1813. 

When the French troops, under General Humbert, 
landed at Killala in 1798, they took Bishop Stock a 
prisoner in his own palace ; but by his conciliatory 
manners and address, he was successful in preventing 
any great excesses being committed by either the 
French soldiers or the rebels. 



430 HENRY JONES. LORD STRANGFORD, ETC. 

Dr. Stock produced an edition of Demosthenes, which has 
long been read in the University course. He wrote an Account 
of the Landing of the French, at Killala. This is a very interest- 
ing narrative. He also published a Paraphrase on the Book of Job. 

HENRY JONES, the political and dramatic writer, 
was a native of Drogheda, on the Boyne, who gra- 
duated here. His chief works are : 

An Epistle to Lord Orrery, on reading his Lordship's Translation 
of Pliny's Epistles. Lond. 1751. -The Earl of Essex, which 
displays much talent, and is his best performance. His Poems 
are: Merit; The Relief, or Day Thoughts. Lond. 1753. An 
Address to Britain. 1760. Kew Gardens, in 2 Cantos. 1766. 
Vectis, or the Isle of Wight, in 3 Cantos. The Cave of Idra, 
or Heroine of the Cave, a Comedy, in five Acts. 

MATTHEW PILKINGTON, A.M., a native of Ireland, 
was educated in this University. He was made Vicar 
of Donabate and Portrahan, in the county of Dublin, 
and took a Doctor's degree in Divinity. He publish- 
ed that excellent work, " The Gentleman's and Con- 
noiseur's Dictionary of Painters," which was, indeed, 
the first attempt made in England to produce a work 
of this description : it contains a complete collec- 
tion and account of every artist of any fame who 
flourished in the various schools of painting at Flo- 
rence, Rome, Venice, Bologna, Naples, Lucca, and 
the other states and cities of Italy; likewise those of 
Holland, Spain, France, Belgium, England, and Ger- 
many, from the year 1250, about which period the art 
was said to be revived by Cimabue, to the year 1678, 
being a period of more than 500 years, and including 
the names of above 1400 artists. This work, which is 
highly interesting and useful, has gone through several 
editions, and many names added to the original list 
of painters. It was published in London, in 1770. 

LORD STRANGFORD, (Irish Peerage, P. Charles Syd- 
ney Smithe,) published an admirable translation of the 
Poem of Camoens, from the original Portuguese, 
Lond. 1803, with remarks on the life and writings of 
that author, and copious interesting notes. This 
work has passed through several large editions. 

WILLIAM PRESTON was born in Dublin, A.D. 1753. 



WILLIAM PRESTON. RICHARD B. SHERIDAN. 

He lost his father when only two years of age ; but 
his natural energies were great, and he pursued his 
studies so intensely, that in three years from the 
time he began it, he completed the whole college 
course prescribed for entrance. In 1766, he was ad- 
mitted a pensioner. He afterwards was entered of 
the Middle Temple ; and called to the Irish bar in 
1777- He still continued his favourite studies. He 
was a member of the Neosophist Society, in the Uni- 
versity, and assisted them in founding the Royal Irish 
Academy, of which literary society he was elected 
secretary, and so continued through his whole life. 
He contributed his share to the publications of that 
period. In 1793, he made a collection of all his 
pieces, with the exception of " Democratic Rage ;" 
these he published in two volumes, 8vo. He also was 
an active agent in establishing the Dublin Library 
Society. He was made a Commissioner of Appeals. 
His intense application, and neglect of himself, brought 
on a fever, which terminated his life in 1807. He 
was a man of great literary attainments, with a well 
cultivated mind, abundantly stored with classic lite- 
rature, and perhaps, in his day, he was not surpassed 
by any of his contemporaries. As an elegant and ac 
curate scholar, in modern as well as classic literature, 
and in private life, he was a man of most estimable 
character. His contributions to the Transactions of 
the Royal Irish Academy are : 

Thoughts on Lyric Poetry. Essay on Wit and Humour. On 
the Choice of a Subject for Greek Tragedy. On Credulity. On 
the Ancient Amatory Poets, Ovid, Propertius, Tibullus. On the 
German Writers. On the natural Advantages of Ireland. This 
gained the prize of ,50. His dramatic works are: Offa and 
Ethelbert. Messinefred. Romanda. Democratic Rage. This 
was founded on the events of the French Revolution, then raging 
in all its fury. This play was so popular, that three editions of it 
were published and sold in as many weeks; and its success on the 
stage was equally surprising. The next and last work was a trans- 
lation of the Argonautics of Apollonius Rhodius. On Mr. Pres- 
ton's death, the University took the whole of this edition to distri- 
bute in premiums at quarterly examinations. 

RICHARD BRINSLEY SHERIDAN, We come now to 



RICHARD BRINSLEY SHERIDAN. 

notice, but very briefly, the last, and from various 
circumstances the most celebrated, although perhaps 
not the most gifted of this very highly talented family, 
except as to his dramatic works ; and it has justly 
been said that Sheridan inherited the regularity, wit, 
polish and variety of character of his countryman 
Congreve's drama/ with greater purity of style. It does 
now seem almost hopeless to expect any thing approach- 
ing the excellence of " The Way of the World," or 
" The School for Scandal." 

Richard B. Sheridan was the third son of Thomas 
and Frances Sheridan: he was born in Dublin, October, 
1751. He received his elemental education under 
the well known Samuel White a , who was his mother's 
cousin, and who kept a very excellent classical academy 
in Grafton street, a short distance from the College. 
Sheridan did not, however, display any of those supe- 
rior features of that genius which in later life made 
him so distinguished a character ; in fact, his capacity 
appeared rather below than on a level with that of 
ordinary boys. He was entered of the Middle Temple. 
Having married without means to support a family, he 
appears to have become a dramatic writer from neces- 
sity ; but his first work was a translation of the Epistles 
of Aristaneus from the Greek. In this walk, how- 
ever, his powerful mind developed itself at once ; and 
he produced his first Comedy, the Rivals, in 1775, 
being then in his twenty-fifth year. In 1776, he be- 
came joint patentee. His next piece was St. Patrick's 
Day, a Farce. The Duenna, a Comic Opera. The 
Camp, a dramatic entertainment, 1777. The School 
for Scandal, (same year.) The Critic, a dramatic 
satire, 1779. He likewise altered, for the stage, Van- 

a This gentleman was one of the most remarkable, and the most 
fortunate of that very competent class, the schoolmasters of Dublin. 
He kept his large establishment in a flourishing state for more than 
half a century, and his school produced many distinguished men ; 
besides R. B. Sheridan, Thomas Moore, (Anacreon,) J. Sydney 
Taylor, A.M., &c. Mr. S. White assured the author, that Sheridan 
was not a bright boy, but that his sister, (afterwards Mrs. Le Fanu,) 
quite surpassed him at the books. 



MATTHEW YOUNG. 433 

burgh's Trip to Scarborough ; also Pizarro and the 
Stranger, from Kotzebue. He wrote a Monody on 
Garrick, several poems and political pamphlets. 

Of the detailed events of Sheridan's public and 
private life, of his superior eloquence and unrivalled 
wit, of his dramatic and other poetry, a history has 
been produced by Mr. T. Moore (Anacreon). His 
parliamentary speeches have been published in four 
volumes 4to. He died in Saville Row, London, in 
July, 1816. His funeral was attended to Westminster 
Abbey by several persons of the highest distinction. 

MATTHEW YOUNG was born at Castlereagh, in the 
co. Roscommon, Ireland, in 1750. He was educated 
first at Ballitore School, where he was junior to Ed- 
mund Burke a . He entered this University in 1766, 
and was elected a fellow in 177<5. He was an enthu- 
siastic admirer of the Newtonian Philosophy ; and 
even at his examination for fellowship, he displayed an 
uncommon knowledge and comprehension of its prin- 
ciples. In 1786, he was elected to the Professorship 
of Natural Philosophy in his college : in this situation 
he brought his lectures to a degree of perfection un- 
known until then in the University of Dublin, and 
perhaps never exceeded in any other place. 

In 1798, Earl Cornwallis, Lord Lieutenant of Ire- 
land, conferred on him the Bishopric of Clonfert b , in 
a manner equally honourable to himself and Dr. 
Young, who neither solicited nor even thought of ask- 
ing for it, so little interest had he with persons in 
power ; but the fame of his talents had reached Lord 

a Dr. Young's father 'lived on his paternal estate, producing at 
that time more than cl,800 per annum. This gentleman was so 
strongly tinctured with the love of hospitality, then not practised with 
so much judgment as it is in these days, that he encroached too far 
upon the funds requisite to give his sons an education suitable to their 
condition in life. His eldest son, however, graduated at the Uni- 
versity of Dublin, got a curacy in the co. Cavan, and after Matthew 
had been about three years at Ballitore, took him home, and prepared 
him for college. 

b The discovery of a principle in natural philosophy, which he ap- 
plied to gunnery, and which was found very effective^ introduced his 
name to the notice of the Marquess Cornwallis. 

F F 



434 PHILIP TISDALL. HENRY FLOOD. 

Cornwallis from so many quarters, that he decided at 
once in his favour, in preference to applications from 
some persons of much higher rank in society. Dr. 
Young did not, however, enjoy this just promotion 
long ; he died in less than two years after, November, 
1800, to the great regret of his numerous friends, and 
an irreparable loss to the sciences. His works are : 

The Phenomena of Sounds and Musical Strings, 1784. The 
Force of Testimony, &c. The Number of Primitive Colours in 
Solar Light. On the Precession of the Equinoxes. Principles of 
Natural Philosophy, 1800. Analyses of Newton's Principia. A 
Translation of the Psalms from the original Hebrew. The two 
latter are still in MS., in the College Library. 

PHILIP TISDALL, afterwards Attorney-General ; he 
was returned as representative for the college in 
1739, and was reelected often for the same place, until 
his death in 1777- He had a most superior under- 
standing ; he was an excellent politician, and as able a 
speaker as ever entered the Law Courts and the House 
of Commons. He was a profound lawyer; his opinion 
was often resorted to from England. In domestic life, 
he was social and agreeable ; in fact, he was altogether 
one of the most singular, as he undoubtedly was in 
the first class, of all the statesmen who have ever been 
engaged in Ireland. 

The Right Hon. HENRY FLOOD is represented by 
his contemporaries as by far one of the ablest men 
that ever sat in the Irish Parliament ; active, ardent, 
and persevering, his industry was without limits ; in 
advancing a question he was unrivalled, as his dis- 
sertations on Poynings' law sufficiently prove. He was 
in himself an opposition* possessing, as he did, the 
talent of tormenting a minister, and every day adding 
to his disquietude ; but in repelling an attack, or in 
returning to the charge, he was most powerful, and 
in these qualifications he never was surpassed. He 
was made Vice-Treasurer of Ireland in 1775 ; this 
office he held about three years, the last of which he 
was a leader in the opposition, and he persisted in 
holding his situation until the king, from whom he 
had received the appointment, ^ave^him leave to re- 



W. HUSSEY. J. SCOTT. SIR G. BARRY. 435 

sign. His exertions were eminently useful in pro- 
curing the repeal of Poynings' law, as well as in ob- 
taining that right of participating in the commerce of 
the empire, commonly called the free trade, the Bill 
for which purpose received the royal assent in 
1782. 

WALTER HUSSEY, who afterwards took the name of 
Burgh, was a native of the south of Ireland. He 
graduated here, and distinguished himself in his 
collegiate course ; he entered a student of the Temple, 
and was called to the bar ; soon after, he became a 
member of the House of Commons, by the influence 
of the Duke of Leinster. Here he distinguished 
himself by his superior eloquence : it was sustained by 
great ingenuity, considerable rapidity of thought, 
luminous and piercing satire, rich in refinement, with 
great simplicity of arrangement. He was made Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer in Ireland. 

JOHN SCOTT, afterwards Chief Justice of the King's 
Bench, Viscount Earlsfort, and Earl of Clonmel, was 
born in the county of Tipperary, Ireland, and gra- 
duated in the University. He afterwards studied the 
laws, and a few years after he was called to the Irish 
bar : Lord Lifford recommended him to the notice of 
Lord Townshend, when Lord Lieutenant, who pro- 
cured him a seat in Parliament for one of Lord 
Granard's boroughs. Here he proved himself an 
undaunted partisan of Government ; and on the death 
of Philip Tisdall, he was made Attorney-General. 
He had many social virtues, and much unaffected wit 
and pleasantry, with a most cordial civility of manner. 
As he rose in life by his own merit, it is recorded to 
his honour, that he never forgot an obligation : his 
gratitude to persons who had assisted him in the 
mediocrity of his fortune was unquestionable, and 
marked by real generosity. 

Sir GEORGE BARRY, M.D., was educated here, and 
became Medical Professor in the University. He was 
a very eminent practitioner, and wrote a great deal on 

F F 2 



43(i RICHARD BARTON, B.D. JOHN BARRETT, D.D. 

the practical treatment of diseases. He died in 177(i. 
On account of the subjects, we can only notice a few 
of his works : 

A Treatise on Consumption of the Lungs. Dub. 1726; Lond. 
1727. On Three different Digestions, &c. Observations, Histo- 
rical, Medical, and Critical, on the Wines of the Ancients; and 
on the Analogy between them and the Modern Wines ; with Observ- 
ations on the Principles and Qualities of Water, and particularly 
those of Bath. The good effects of opposite Scirrhus of a strong 
Mercurial attractive. Case of Mania, from a callous Pia Mater, &c. 

RICHARD BARTON, B.D., was a native of Ireland, 
arid a graduate of its University. He was a very 
learned man, and turned his attention very much to 
natural philosophy and history. He published 

Divine Analogy in the Material, Sensitive, Moral and Spiritual 
system of Things. Dub. 1737; Lond. 1750. Dialogue concern- 
ing Points of Importance in Ireland ; being part of a design to 
write the Natural History of that country. Dub. 1751. Lecture 
on Natural Philosophy. Designed to be a foundation for reason- 
ing pertinently upon the Petrifactions, Gems, Crystals, and Quartz 
Formations of Lough Neagh, in Ireland. Intended to be an intro- 
duction to the Natural History of the Counties contiguous to that 
Lake, and particularly the County of Ardmagh. Dub. 1751. 
Plates. Remarks towards a Full Description of the Lakes at 
Killarney, co. Kerry, Ireland. Dub. 1751. 

The Rev. JOHN BARRETT a , D.D., Vice Provost of 
the University of Dublin, and Professor of Oriental 
Languages there, was born in the county of Dublin. 
He qualified himself for entrance, and became a sizar 
in Trinity College, where his great diligence and re- 
spectable talents obtained for him a foundation scholar- 
ship in 1773, and a fellowship in 1778. He remained 
all his life in a state of strict celibacy, according to 
the College statutes of that period; his habits were 
formed upon a very strict system of economy as to pe- 
cuniary matters, and his income having for a long 
period been large, he accumulated considerable wealth, 
which, at his demise, in 1821, he left in the hands of 

a The author was greatly indebted to the learned professor for 
much early information relative to the History of this University. He 
was anxious that a proper History of his College should go before 
the world, and he most obligingly contributed to mr^e it authentic. 



REV. H. BOYDE, A.M. H. BOYD. D. BEAUFORT. 437 

the Provost and Board, to be distributed for chari- 
table uses. The works Dr. Barrett published arc : 

An Enquiry into the Origin of the Constellations that compose 
the Zodiac ; and the Uses they were intended to promote. Dub. 
1800. Essay on the earlier Life of Jonathan (Dean) Swift, with 
several original pieces ascribed to him. Dub. 1808. But his most 
erudite work, and that which occupied him several years, was that 
mentioned at p. 315, Evangelium secundum Matthaeum, ex 
Codice Rescripto in Bibliotheca Collegii, SS. Trin. Dub. De- 
scriptum Opera et Studio, Johannes Barrett, S.T.P. Socii Sen. 
Trin. Coll. Dub. Cui adjungitur, Appendix Collationem Codices 
Monfortiani Complectens. Illust. Tab. Aen. LXIV. 4to, bds. 1801. 

Rev. HENRY BOYDE, A.M., a native of the north 
of Ireland, graduated in Dublin University, where he 
obtained a foundation scholarship in 1773. He be- 
came domestic chaplain to Viscount Charleville, and 
had some church preferment. He was an excellent 
classic scholar, and made himself master of the Italian 
language ; his translation of the first class poetry of 
that country, is highly creditable to his talents. 
His works are : 

A Translation of the Inferno of Dante Alighieri into English 
verse, with critical and historical Notes, and the Life of Dante ; 
to which is added a specimen of a new Translation of Orlando 
Furioso, of Ariosto. Lond. 1785. Two Vols. Poems, mostly 
Dramatic and Lyric. 1796. The Divina Commcedia of Dante, 
consisting of the Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso ; translated 
into English verse, with preliminary Essay, Notes, and Illustra- 
tions. Lond. 1802, 3 vols. The Penance of Hugo, a Vision, from 
the Italian of Vincenzio Mante, with two additional Cantos. 1805. 
The Woodman's Tale, after the manner of Spenser : to this are 
added other poems, chiefly narrative and lyric, and the Royal 
Message, a Drama. 1805. The Triumph of Petrarch, translated 
into English verse, with Notes. Lond. 1807. 

HUGH BOYD was born in Ireland, A.D. 1746, and 
died in 1791. He graduated here, and was a man of 
celebrity in public life. He is one of the reputed 
authors of Junius's Letters. He edited " The Indian 
Observer," and several miscellaneous works. He 
wrote in Ireland, a political periodical called " The 
Freeholder." An account of his life and writings has 
been published by L. D. Campbell. Lond. 1798. 

DANIEL BEAUFORT was a native of England, but 



438 ROBERT BLAKE, M.D., AND OTHERS. 

graduated here, and finally took the degree of LL.D. 
He got the rectory of Navan, county Meath, which 
he administered with great benefit to his parish. 
He published 

An Account of the Doctrines and Practices of the Church of 
Rome, divested of all Controversy, and earnestly recommended to 
all good Romanists as well as Protestants. Dub. 1788. Me- 
moir of a Map of Ireland, illustrating the Topography of that 
Kingdom ; and containing a short account of its present state, 
civil and ecclesiastical ; with a complete Index to the map. Dub. 
1792 ; Lond. 1792. 

ROBERT BLAKE, a native of Dublin, graduated here. 
He took the degree of M.D., and adopted dentism as 
his line of the profession, in which he became very 
eminent. He published 

An Essay on the Structure and Formation of the Teeth in Man 
and various other Animals, Plates. Dub. 1801. 

Lieut-General LORD BLAYNEY was a fellow com- 
moner here. This distinguished officer published 

A Narrative of a Journey through Spain, in the years 1810 to 
14-. 2 vols. Lond. Vol. 3, 1816 ; being a sequel to the two 
former, and including Observations on the State of Ireland. 

Sir RICHARD BOLTON graduated here, and arrived 
at great eminence at the bar. He published 

The Statutes of Ireland, from 3rd year of Edward II. to 13th of 
James I. Dub. 1621. A Justice of Peace for Ireland, in two 
books ; reprinted in 1683 and 1750. 

The Rev. GILBERT AUSTIN, D.D. This accomplish- 
ed scholar and estimable man was a native of Dublin, 
who graduated in its University. He afterwards 
established a schpol for the education of a limited 
number of the sons of the higher classes in Ireland, 
in which profession he was eminently successful. His 
high endowments in ancient learning were directed by 
an elegance and purity of taste which could scarcely 
be surpassed, and which was equally conspicuous in the 
classical character of his English productions. In 
morals and manners this gentleman stood equally high in 
the opinions of his friends, and of course his acquaint- 
ance was eagerly sought by the best people in society. 



DR. ALLOT. REV. G. BAKER, A.M. 

With the late Duke of Leinster, he was an especial 
favourite ; his Grace placed his only son, the present 
duke, under the care of Dr. Austin ; and the best 
proof we can give of the esteem the young nohleman 
felt for his learned preceptor was, that soon after he 
had succeeded to the dukedom, he presented him 
to a very valuable living which had then become 
vacant. 

Dr. Austin was also a very much admired preacher. 
The works he published are : 

A Sermon, preached at the Magdalen Asylum, Dublin ; a very 
elegant and powerful composition. 1791. Chironomia; or, a 
Treatise on Rhetorical Delivery, comprehending many precepts 
both ancient and modern, for the proper regulation of the Voice, 
the Countenance, and Gesture, and a new method of the Notation 
thereof, illustrated with figures. Lond. 1806. Description of a 
portable Barometer. Description of an Apparatus for impregnat- 
ing Water and other substances strongly with Carbonic Acid Gas. 
Description of an Apparatus for transferring Water over Gases or 
Mercury. These are in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Aca- 
demy, 4th, 8th and 10th vols. Also on a New Construction of a 
Condenser and Air Pump. Phil. Trans., 1813, p. 138. 

Dr. ALLOT, afterwards Dean of Raphoe, in Ireland, 
was a graduate here. He published several excellent 
Sermons, the best of which is one he preached before 
the House of Commons, on the appointed fast and 
thanksgiving day in 1806. 

The Rev. GEORGE BAKER, A.M., was born in Ire- 
land, and became a graduate here. 

He made an excellent translation of Livy's Roman History, 
from the Latin original, with Notes and Illustrations. Lond. 1797, 
6 vols. 8vo. Several editions of this work have been sold. The 
Unitarian Refuted ; or, the Divinity of Christ and Doctrine of the 
Holy Trinity, plainly proved from various texts of Scripture, with 
Notes collected from the New Family Bible. 



440 EARL OF MORNINGTON'. 

CHAPTER XL 

SECTION I. 

THE EARL OF MORNINGTON (Garrode Wellesley), 
This estimable and talented nobleman, whose sons have 
made their family so illustrious, and have rendered 
such extensive and lasting services to the British em- 
pire, was born at the seat of his father, the Lord Vis- 
count Wellesley, in July, 1735. His Lordship gra- 
duated as a " Filius Nobilis " in the University, in which 
class he distinguished himself as an elegant classical 
scholar. At an early age, he displayed a very de- 
cided turn for musical composition, which he devoted 
much of his time in cultivating, not only in composi- 
tions but practically, for his lordship attained to a con- 
siderable degree of skill on the violin and violoncello. 
In 1758, a musical academy was established in Dublin 
by the influence of this nobleman, who became its 
president and leader. It was exclusively composed of 
amateurs from among the nobility and gentry, ladies be- 
ing included. This did much good in improving the 
taste for musical entertainments in Ireland, and once 
a year they performed in public for the benefit of some 
charitable institution, and a large sum was thus col- 
lected for benevolent purposes. His lordship was also 
Professor of Music in this University, and gave his 
courses of lectures with great success. Lord Morn- 
ington's " Sacred Music " holds a distinguished place 
amongst our cathedral compositions. His lighter 
compositions, catches and glees, display fine taste ; the 
beautiful glee " Lightly tread, 'tis hallowed ground " is 
a sample of his lyrical style. His lordship also built 
a church and established a choir at Mornington, co. 
Meath, and it is said impaired his fortune by his love 
of music. Lord Mornington was also a general of 
volunteers, in the glorious era of 178O and 1782 ; and 
it was then his illustrious son first imbibed a taste for 
that military life, which has shed such lustre upon the 



RT. HON. P. DUIGENAN, ETC. 441 

British arms, and achieved, under Divine permission, 
the security of the British empire. 

The Right Hon. PATRICK DUIGENAN, native of Ire- 
land, entered this University as a sizar, he, however, 
soon obtained a foundation scholarship, in 1756, and 
was elected a Fellow in 1761, and Professor of Laws. 
He was a strenuous supporter of the church and state, 
as by law established at the glorious Revolution, 1688; 
and was elected Member of Parliament for the loyal 
city of Ardmagh, Ireland. Dr. Duigenan's first pub- 
lication was 

Lachrymae Academical, written on occasion of the late Right 
Hon. J. H. Hutchinson being appointed Provost of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin. Address of Theophilus to the Nobility and Gentry 
of Ireland. Lond. 1786. Speech on the Romish Bill, in the Irish 
House of Commons. 1795. Answer to Henry Grattan's Address 
to his Fellow Citizens. Dub. 1797. A fair Representation of 
the Political State of Ireland, in a Course of Strictures ; and two 
pamphlets, one, The Case of Ireland re-considered; and the 
other, Considerations on the State of Public Affairs. 1799. 
Speech in the House of Commons on the proposed Legislative 
Union. Lond. 1800. Speech on the Motion approving his Ma- 
jesty's Conduct in declining to negotiate a Peace with France. 
1800. The Nature and Extent of the Demands made by the Irish 
Romanists fully explained. 

JOHN CONROY published " Custodium Reports" 
(cases relative to outlawries in England and Ireland, 
&c.,) argued in the Exchequer, of England and Ire- 
land. Dub. 1795. 

WILLIAM COOPER, B.D., of this College, wrote 

The Doctrine of Predestination unto Life explained and vin- 
dicated, in Four Sermons. Lond. 1765. The Promised Messiah ; 
a Sermon. 1796. Letters on Religious Subjects. 1806. Exa- 
mination of the Penitent on the Cross. 1812. Inquiry into the 
Antiquity of the Sabbath ; chiefly with Reference to the Opinion 
of Dr. Paley. Lond. 1814. Examination of the Penitent on the 
Cross, and of the Inference from it. 1814. 

THOMAS ADDISS EMMET graduated here. He wrote 
a number of pieces on Irish history. 1807. 

ISAAC WELD, Esq., M.R.I. A., took the degree of 
A.B. here. He published the following works : 

Travels through the States of North America, and the Provinces 



442 WILLIAM NEILSON, D.D., AND OTHERS. 

of Upper and Lower Canada, during the years 1795, 6, and 7, 
with Maps and Plates. Lond. 1799. Illustrations of the Lakes of 
Killarney, and surrounding country, Plates and Maps. Lond. 
1807. 

The Rev. WILLIAM NEILSON, D.D., and member 
of the Royal Irish Academy, graduated here, and ob- 
tained the rectory of Dundalk, county Louth, Ire- 
land. He published 

Greek Idioms exhibited in select passages from the best authors, 
with English Notes, and a Parsing Index; to which are added Ob- 
servations on some Idioms of the Greek Language. 1800 10. 
Greek Exercises in Syntax, &c., with a Key. 1805, 3rd edition, 
1812. 8vo. Introduction to the Irish Language, and Elements of 
English Grammar. 1813. 

RICHARD HELSHAM, M.D., graduated in this col- 
lege, and obtained a Scholarship in 1700, and a Fel- 
lowship in 1704, and was appointed Professor of Phy- 
sic, and of Natural Philosophy, in the University. He 
was a scholar of high reputation in his department. 

He wrote a course of Lectures in Natural Philo- 
sophy, which were edited the year after his death 
(1739), by Bryan Robinson, and which contain much 
excellent information, particularly on the theory of 
vision. 2nd edition, Lond. 1743. 

The Rev. JOHN LAWSON, D.D., was born in 
Ireland, and graduated at this University, where he 
obtained a Scholarship in 17^9, and a Fellowship in 
1735. He was appointed Lecturer in Oratory and 
History on the foundation of Erasmus Smith, in Dub- 
lin University. He published 

A Course of Lectures on Oratory, which display much know- 
ledge of that attractive subject. Also a volume of Sermons. 

Rev. RICHARD MURRAY, D.D., already noticed 
among the Provosts, published a very able work on 
Dr. Halley's series for the calculation of logarithms, 
Trans. R. I. Acad. 1801. 

Sir RICHARD Cox, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, a 
native of the county Cork, graduated here. He pub- 
lished- 

The History of Ireland from the Conquest of it by England, to 



ARCHBISHOP MAGEE. 443 

his own time, with an account of the ancient state of that kingdom. 
Lond. 1689, 2 vols. folio ; Part II, 1690, folio. An Inquiry into 
Religion, and the Use of Reason in reference to it. Lond. 1711. 
Letter showing a sure Method of establishing the Linen Manu- 
facture in Ireland. Dub. 1712. 

ZACHARY CROFTON, D.D., graduated here. He re- 
fused to conform, and went to reside in England, 
where he died in 1672. He published a great many 
very learned works in Theology ; these are in various 
lanfmao-es, and amount to twenty-three in number. 
(See Watts, Vol. I.) 

JOSEPH CLARKE, M.D., a native of Dublin, and 
graduate of this college, published 

Observations on Puerperal Fever, as it appeared then in the 
Lying-in Hospital. Dub. 1790. Account of a Disease which 
lately proved fatal to many Infants in that Hospital, with Observa- 
tions on its Causes and Prevention. On some Causes of the Ex- 
cess of Mortality of Males above that of Females. Observations 
on the Properties commonly attributed by medical writers to 
Human Milk, on the changes it undergoes in digestion, and the 
diseases supposed to originate from this source in infancy. On 
Bilious Cholic and Convulsions in early Infancy. Trans. R. I. 
Acad. 178088, &c. 

ROBERT PERCEVAL, M.D., and M.R.I. A., a native 
of Dublin, graduated here. He was a physician of 
great eminence, and Professor of Chemistry in this 
University. He published several practical works in 
Chemical science, under the title of 

Chemical Communications and Inquiries. Dub. 1790. Account 
of a Chamber Lamp Furnace, 1791. On the Solution of Lead by 
Lime. 1793. Account of some Chalybeate Preparations. Dub. 
1794. 

WILLIAM MAGEE (Archbishop of Dublin). This 
justly celebrated scholar and theologian was born in 
the spring of the year 1766, of a family of ancient 
respectability, which settled in the county Fermanagh 
in 1640, and were staunch loyalists. The grandfather 
of the Archbishop had seven sons, each of whom en- 
joyed an independent property. From John Magee, 
one of these sons, Dr. William Magee was descended, 
and was the only son of four who lived to maturity. 
H is father having embarked a large property in the linen 
trade, was fraudulently tricked by his partner, who 



444 ARCHBISHOP MAGEE. 

absconded, and John Magee's whole property, except 
100 per annum, was given up to the creditors. He 
then settled with his wife (a most respectable lady) 
in Enniskillen, where the subject of this sketch was 
born, in March, 1766 ft . He very soon began to show 
talents of a superior order, and of a noble and amiable 
disposition, which his countenance plainly indicated. 
Young Magee's education was early and carefully at- 
tended to, both at the endowed school of Enniskillen, 
and afterwards under the care of Dr. Viridet, his ma- 
ternal uncle, who generously took the charge of his 
entrance into college and expenses there on himself. 
William Magee entered as a pensioner in June, 1781, 
under the Rev. Dr. Stack, who also showed him the 
kindest and most cordial feeling, qualities that were 
natural to that excellent and kind-hearted man. 
William Magee much distinguished himself in his 
undergraduate cpurse ; he gained a scholarship in 
1784 ; he obtained all the college honours, and 
took his degree of A.B. in October, 1785, and in 
June, 1788, he was elected a junior fellow with great 
credit. He wished to obtain a lay fellowship, for the 
purpose of becoming a barrister, according to the wish 
of his friends ; but providentially this was refused 
him, and thus, as his able biographer justly says, 
"William Magee was under a gracious Providence 
ordained, who lived to be one of the brightest orna- 
ments of the church, and one of the most powerful 
vindicators of the Christian faith." He took holy 
orders in 1790, soon after which he married an ex- 
cellent young lady, named Moulson, of an ancient 
Cheshire family; this happy union produced sixteen 
children, of whom twelve have survived, and are worthy 
of such parents. Dr. Magee was elected a senior fellow 
in the year 1800, and in 1812 went out on a college 
living, and in 1814 was appointed to the Deanery of 

a In the adjoining house, lived the family of W. C. Plunket, and it 
was there that talented man was horn, who was afterwards Attorney- 
General, and eventually made Lord Chancellor of Ireland, and created 
Lord Plunket. The two families were very intimate, and a lasting 
friendship grew up between the youths, which continued through life, 



ARCHBISHOP MAGEE. 445 

Cork; in 1819, made Bishop of Raphoe ; and in 
1821, when King George IV. visited Ireland, that 
monarch appointed him dean of the viceregal 
chapel in Dublin Castle, where he preached before 
the King, who was so highly pleased with the sermon, 
that his majesty directed Earl Talbot, the Lord-Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, to write a letter of thanks to Bishop 
Magce, in his name. In 1722, Dr. Magee was of- 
fered the Archbishopric of Cashel, which he declined ; 
but immediately after this, Ardmagh became vacant, 
Lord John Beresford was appointed to it, and the 
Archbishopric of Dublin, which his lordship had held, 
was conferred on the Bishop of Raphoe. In 182,5, 
Archbishop Magee lost his excellent wife a , and from 
that time his health appears to have rather rapidly 
declined, and he was called from this world in August, 
1831, "full of honour," and with an understand- 
ing as clear and a mind as firm in the doctrines of 
our holy religion, as perhaps any that ever sojourned 
on this earth. To give in a work of this kind any 
thing like a tolerable outline of a character so pre- 
eminently good in morals and religion, and so highly 
gifted with intellectual power and mental cultivation, 
is not to be expected. This has, however, been ably 
performed by the Rev. Dr. Kenny, Rector of St. 
Olave's b , South wark, who had himself obtained a fel- 
lowship in this college in 1800. The splendid ser- 
mons which Dr. Magee preached would fill numerous 
volumes. But the work on which the great profes- 
sional character of Archbishop Magee securely rests, 
is that splendid one " On the Scriptural Doctrines of 
Atonement and Sacrifice," one of the noblest produc- 
tions of the human mind, as connected with the Chris- 
tian religion. 

a Those only who had the happiness of knowing that excellent 
lady can form a just opinion of the severe affliction which her loss 
would occasion to one of so pure and affectionate a mind as Dr. 
Magce possessed. The author having had that honour, can speak 
with certainty of the domestic happiness which ever reigned within 
their dwelling. 

b The Rev. Arthur Henry Kenny, D.D., an ex-fellow of the Dub- 
lin University, and formerly Dean of Achonry. 



446 F. DOBBS, M.P. SIR T. F. BUXTON, M.P. 

FRANCIS DOBBS, Esq., M.P., was of a respectable 
family, but of moderate fortune, in the north of Ire- 
land. He graduated here, and was called to the 
Irish bar, where he became a respectable practitioner. 
He possessed many virtues, and no vices of any ac- 
count. He soon became a member of the Irish House 
of Commons, through the Charlemont interest, and 
was entirely devoted to the cause of Irish independ- 
ence. He published 

A volume of Letters on Irish Independence, which were excel- 
lent in style and argument, and very spirited. Dub. 1782. A 
Universal History. A number of Miscellaneous Tracts on various 
Moral, Religious and Philosophical subjects. 

THEOPHILUS O'FLANAGAN was born in the county 
of Clare, and from John Nunan's classical school he 
entered this University, under the care of Dr. Mat- 
thew Young, then a junior fellow, afterwards Bishop 
of Clonfert. O'Flanagan obtained a foundation 
scholarship in 1787. About that time the Irish lan- 
guage became an object of considerable literary in- 
quiry and much interest, and Dr. Young learned it 
of his pupil, who understood and spoke it well. Mr. 
O'Flanagan was elected the first secretary of the 
Gaelic Society, in 1806. He translated 

The celebrated Ogham inscription on Conawn, an ancient Irish 
Chief. The Romance ofDeirdre. And an Inauguration Poem, by 
M'Broden, (Bard to the Prince of Thomond,) delivered at the coro- 
nation of Donogh Obrien, with several other valuable ancient Irish 
compositions. 

Sir THOMAS FOWELL BUXTON, A.M. and M.P., 
born in England, was educated for college at the Rev. 
John Moore's school, Donnybrook, near Dublin, and 
in 1804 became a fellow commoner of this University, 
where he distinguished himself by his mathematical an- 
swering at the quarterly examination, and obtained pre- 
miums in science. The constant advocacy of that gen- 
tleman, in conjunction with those of other talented men, 
in the cause of negro emancipation, and the reform of 
our then cruel and inoperative criminal code of laws, 
are well known, and their eventual success is a matter 
of congratulation to the friends of justice and humanity. 



R. GRIER, A.M. R. BURROWS, D.D. G. DWYER, A.M. 44? 

Sir F. Buxton has also writen much on these subjects 
in various reviews, and other publications, 
His principal works are : 

An Inquiry whether Crime and Misery are produced or pre- 
vented by our present practice of prison discipline, illustrated by 
descriptions of the various gaols, and the proceedings of the Ladies' 
Committee visiting Newgate. Lond. 1818. New edition, Edinb. 
1818. This work puts the question in a very forcible arid just 
position ; and no doubt it assisted to overthrow the old and vile 
system upon which our gaols were previously constructed and 
governed. 

The Rev. RICHARD GRIER, A.M., master of 
Middleton School, county Cork, obtained a foundation 
scholarship in this University in 1780, and soon after 
commencing Master of Arts, was appointed to the ar- 
duous duties above mentioned. He published several 
sermons and essays ; but his chief production is the 
answer to Ward's Errata of the " Protestant Bible," 
with an Appendix, containing a review of the preface 
to the fourth edition of " the Errata," in which he 
ably exposes " the poisonous venom " of that Jesuit- 
ical publication. Lond. 1812 (Cadell). 

The Rev. ROBERT BURROWS, D.D., graduated 
here, and obtained a foundation scholarship in 1775, 
and fellowship in 1782. He took the living of Cappagh, 
and when the mastership of the endowed school at 
Enniskillen became vacant, the Rev. Mr. Burrows 
was presented to it, and his performance of the duties 
there continued for some years, and were considered 
so effective, that, as a stimulant to others, Dr. Burrows 
was appointed to the deanery of Cork. He published 

Sermons preached before the Society for discountenancing Vice, 
and promoting the Practice of Virtue and Religion. Dub. 1695. 
On the First Lessons of the Sunday Morning Service. And a 
Volume of Sermons upon various subjects. Cadell, Lond. 1818. 

The Rev. GEORGE DWYER, A.M., was born in the 
south of Ireland, and graduated in this college ; he 
afterwards was appointed to the rectory of Ardrahan, 
(diocese of Clonfert,) where he carefully performed 
his pastoral duties for many years. When the subject 



448 MARQUESS WELLESLEY. W. S. TIGHE, M.P. 

of the Irish tithes was taken into consideration by the 
Whig ministry, in 1832, Mr. Dwyer published 

A View of Evidence on the Subject of Tithes in Ireland ; given 
before the Committee of Lords and Commons in that year. In 
this volume he fairly vindicates the Protestant Clergy of that 
country, exposing at the same time the schemes of the agitators, 
and clearly showing the necessity of a firm maintenance of the Pro~ 
testant Church in Ireland, to prevent a dissolution of the Union. 

The Rev. WILLIAM PHELAN, D.D., was born in the 
south of Ireland, and graduated here, in 1808. He ob- 
tained a foundation scholarship, and was elected to a Ju- 
nior Fellowship in IS 17 and Junior Proctor, &c., 
He afterwards accepted the Royal Mastership of 
school of Ardmagh, and of course vacated his fellow- 
ship. When the parliamentary inquiry into " the state 
of Ireland" took place in 1824 and 1825, this gen- 
tleman was brought from Ireland to give evidence on 
that great question ; and afterwards, when that great 
body of information was laid before both Houses of 
Parliament, Mr. Phelan, or his friend, the Rev. M. 
O'Sullivan, published a digest of it, in a compendious 
form, suited for public instruction generally. 

The Right Hon. RICHARD, MARQUESS WELLESLEY, 
K.G.,&c., was born in the castle of Dangan, co. Meath, 
Ireland, in 1760. The great achievements of this 
eminent statesman, in the public service of his coun- 
try, are well known and recorded, especially his re- 
duction of Tippoo Sultaun's power in the Carnatic. 
His published works are 

Speech in the House of Commons, on a Motion for an Address 
to his Majesty, on commencing the Session of Parliament, in 1794, 
relative to the late transactions in the Mahratta Empire, with 
Military Plans. Lond. 1804. History of all the Events and 
Transactions which have taken place in India; containing the Ne- 
gociations of the British Government, relative to the glorious ter- 
mination of the late War. Lond. 1805. Account of the Esta- 
blishment of the College of Fort William, in Bengal. 1805. 
Letter to the Governor of Fort St. George, relative to the new 
form of Government established there. 1812. Letter to the 
Directors of the East India Company, on the Trade of India. 

WILLIAM TIGHE, Esq., M.P., of the co, Kilkenny, 



HENRY MOSSOP. SIR WILLIAM o'DOGHERTY, A B. 449 

was a fellow commoner of this College, and was rather 
a distinguished student in his under-graduate course. 
He was representative for the co. Wicklow, in the Im- 
perial Parliament at the time of his decease, 1815. 

Mr. Tighe edited the charming poetical composition of Psyche, 
which emanated from the elegant mind of Mrs. Henry Tighe, 
his sister-in-law. He also wrote the Statistical History of the 
County Kilkenny ; an excellent work, published by the Royal- 
Dublin Society. 

HENRY MOSSOP, the celebrated tragedian, was born 
in the co. Galway, near Tuam, in 1799, where his 
father, who was a clergyman, held a living. He en- 
tered this College as a pensioner, and took a Bachelor's 
degree in Arts. This young man, who had foi-med a 
long and early attachment to the stage, went to Lon- 
don, and offered himself to Garrick and to Rich, by 
both of whom he was rejected. Sheridan, however, 
soon perceived his latent powers ; and under that 
great master, Mossop made his debut in Zanga, and 
quite astonished the audience by the fervid and natural 
energy of his acting : his celebrity never diminished. 
He died in 1761. 

RICHARD DE COURCY was born in the south of Ire- 
land, and obtained the degrees of A.M. and B.D., in 
this College. He afterwards held the vicarage of St. 
Alkmund's, Shrewsbury. He published several excel- 
lent sermons, preached on great public occasions ; some 
able controversial papers, in reply to the Baptists ; 
and some clever theological works. A volume of his 
sermons, with "An Essay on Pure and Undefiled 
Religion," was also published. Lond. 1810. He died 
in 1803. 

THOMAS DOGHERTY, A.M., of Clifford's Inn, an 
eminent special pleader and law writer, graduated 
here. He published a considerable number of prac- 
tical works on various parts of the usages, offences, 
punishments, and practices in both the common and 
statute laws. Editions from 1739 to 1800. 

Sir WIILLIAM O'DocHERTY, A.B., published an 

G G 



4.50 W. DUNKIN. REV. P. LE FANU. 

Epitome of the History of Europe, from the reign of 
Charlemagne to that of George III. Lond. 1788. 

WILLIAM DUNKIN, D.D. graduated here, was a 
foundation scholar, and took all the degrees up to 
Doctor of Divinity. He was an able writer. His 
principal works are, 

Epistola Bindonem Arm. cui adjiciuntur Quatuor Odae. Dub. 
1741. An Epistle to the Right Hon. the Earl of Chesterfield ; to 
which he added, an Eclogue. 1760. Also an edition of his 
practical works, to which his Epistles are added. This work, in 
two volumes, was dedicated to the Earl of Chesterfield. Dub. 
1774. 

The Rev. PHIILIP LE FANU, A.M., graduated in 
this University. His ancestors were refugee Hugue- 
nots, who fled from France on the revocation of the 
edict of Nantz, hy that treacherous despot, Louis XIV. 

The Rev. Mr. LE FANU, after graduating as B.D., 
obtained a moderately good church living. He pub- 
lished 

An Abridged History of the Council of Constance. Dub. 1787. 
And also a translation of that superior work, Les Lettres de 
certaines Juives a Monsieur Voltaire. Dub. 1790. 

The Rev. PETER LE FANU, A.M., brother of the 
above gentleman, also graduated here. He was made 
a prebendary of St. Patrick's Qathedral, and curate 
of St. Bride's parish, Dublin. This reverend gentle- 
man was long known as one of the most popular 
preachers of the Irish metropolis ; he was a rival, but 
adopted a very different style of preaching from that 
of his gifted contemporary*. Mr. Le Fanu had not 
the energy and fire of that gifted man, but he pos- 
sessed a more easy and fluent mode of addressing 
a congregation, with a peculiar power of persuasion, 
from the colloquial familiarity of his manner ; and 
he adopted the extemporaneous form of addressing his 
auditory. Many of his sermons, which are fine com- 
positions, have been published and republished. 

* The Rev. Mr. (afterwards Dean) Kirwan, one of the most 
powerful and popular preachers of charity sermons that, perhaps, ever 
appealed to the feelings of a Christian audience. 



W. P. LE FANU. REV. JAMES B. GORDON, A.M. 451 

W. P. LE FANU was a nephew of the above clergy- 
man. He was born at Dublin, 1774, and educated 
in this College, from whence, soon after having gra- 
duated, he was called to the Irish bar in 1797, where 
his talents and conduct must have ensured success, 
but he soon gave up these alluring prospects for the 
purpose of promoting various plans of public and pri- 
vate charity. He attended a course of medical lectures 
in Trinity College, that he might be enabled to prac- 
tise among the poor with propriety ; and this he did 
extensively. Endowed with a small patrimony, and 
with moderate desires, his time and half his fortune 
were devoted to found schools, establish dispensaries, 
and in every way to promote the good of his poorer fel- 
low creatures, and to benefit society. 

As a literary man, the character of Mr. Le Fanu 
deservedly stood high ; his great natural talents having 
been developed by a fine system of education. He 
wrote much, yet with sufficient imaginative power to 
amuse, he preferred being instructive. He saw, with 
an almost intuitive glance, the follies and the vices 
of society ; and like Cowper, in private life his cha- 
racter was most amiable ; and similar to that estimable 
man, his talents were always exercised on the side of 
virtue, religion, and humanity. He was called from 
this earth in 1817? aged only 43 years. His published 
works are 

A Letter addressed to Lord Cornwallis, then Lord Lieutenant 
in Ireland. The Farmer's Journal, in 1812 ; a most useful pub- 
lication. The Gallery of Portraits. Intercepted Letters from 
China. The Metropolis. The "Familiar Epistles," were absurdly 
attributed to his pen ; but in no way do they bear the slightest 
resemblance to his style or turn of thinking. He contributed 
largely to Ledbetter's Cottage Dialogues ; and also wrote and 
published numerous tracts and essays, singly and in various pe- 
riodicals, for the purpose of promoting the cause of order, religion, 
and morality to the utmost of his power. 

The Rev. JAMES BENTLEY GORDON, A.M., was a 
son of the Rev. James Gordon, of Neeve Hall, co. 
Derry (and a younger branch of the ducal family of 
Gordon). Gordon, junior, entered this University in 
1769, and commenced A.B. in 1773, and took orders 

G G 2 



45% JOHN P. CURRAN. JOHN BRINKLEY, LL.I>. 

in the church ; was made rector of Cannaway, in the 
co. Cork, and afterwards was bestowed that of Kil- 
legny, co. Wexford, In the latter parish, where Mr, 
Gordon chiefly resided, he spent all the time which 
his clerical duties permitted, in collecting historical 
and geographical information, which he afterwards 
condensed, selected, and constructed anew, with con- 
siderable skill, erudition, and industry. This excel- 
lent scholar, and estimable man, after having by in- 
tense application collected original MSS. for several 
historical and geographical works, and even arranged 
almost every page for publication, was removed from 
this life ere he could commence the publication of 
more than one quarto volume, and this was an His- 
torical and Geographical Memoir of the North Ame- 
rican Continent, its Nations and Tribes. A most 
clever and interesting work. This volume was edited 
by his son-in-law, the late Thomas Jones, Esq., of 
Nutgrove House, Rathfarnham, in the eo. Dublin. 

JOHN PHILPOT CURRAN, a native of Cork county, born 
1748, entered a sizar of this College, where he ob- 
tained a foundation scholarship in 1770. His great 
natural talents were here nurtured and developed for 
public life. He became an eloquent and powerful orator 
at the bar and in the Irish senate ; and during Mr. 
Fox's short administration, he was appointed Master 
of the Rolls, in Ireland. A volume of his speeches 
has been published, which afford much instruction as 
to the strange mode in which Ireland had been, and 
continued to be governed up to his own time. 

WILLIAM HENRY CURRAN, A.B., son of the above. 
He has written a life of his father, which is a very 
interesting historical as well as biographical memoir. 

JOHN BRINKLEY, LL.D., Astronomer Royal in the 
University of Dublin, was elected at a competition of 
many eminent philosophers. This profound scholar, 
and excellent man published 

General Demonstrations of the Theorems for Sines and Co-sines 
of Multiple Circular Arcs ; and also of the Theorems for express- 
ing the Powers of Sines, and Co-sines of, by the Sines and Co-sines 



JOHN JEBB, A.M. MICHAEL KEARNEY, D.D. 4<53 

of Multiple Arcs. To which is added, A Theorem, by help 
whereof the same method may be applied to demonstrate the pro- 
perties of Multiple Hyperbolic Areas. Trans. Irish. Soc. 1800. A 
General Demonstration of the Property of the Circle discovered 
by Mr. Cotes, deduced from the Circle only. R. Irish Acad. 151. 
On the Orbits in which Bodies revolve, being acted upon by a Cen- 
tripetal Force, varying as any function of the distance, where 
these Orbits have two Apsides. Ib. viii. 215. On determining innu- 
merable portions of Sphere; the Solidities and Spherical Superficies 
of which portions are, at the same time, Algebraically assignable. 
Ib. 1513. Examination of various Solutions of Kepler's Problem, 
and a short practical Solution of that Problem pointed out. Ib. ix. 
143. A Theorem for finding the Surface of an Oblique Cylinder, 
with its Geometrical Demonstration. Also an Appendix, contain- 
ing some Observations on the Methods of finding the Circum- 
ference of a very excentric Ellipse, including a Geometrical De- 
monstration of the remarkable property of an Elliptic Arc, 
discovered by Count Fagnani. Ib. 145 An Investigation of the 
General Term of an Important Series in the Inverse Method of 
Finite Differences. Phil. Trans. 114. 1807. Extract of a Letter 
on the Annual Parallax of a Lyra ; and other Letters on the 
Annual Parallaxes of Arcturus, &c. 1810-12-15. 

JOHN JEBB, A.M., of this University, published many 
clever works, viz : 

A Short Account of Theological Lectures now reading at Cam- 
bridge ; to which is added A New Harmony of the Gospels. Lond. 
1770. A Continuation of the Narrative of Academical Proceedings 
relative to the Proposal for establishing Annual Exhibitions in the 
University of Cambridge ; with Observations upon the Conduct of 
the Committee appointed by grace of the Senate, on the 5th of 
July, 1773. Camb. 1773. A Proposal for the Establishment of 
Public Examinations in the University of Cambridge, with Occa- 
sional Remarks. Lond. 1774. A Letter to the Right Rev. 
the Bishop of Norwich. Lond. 1775. Address to the Members 
of the Senate of Cambridge. Lond. 1776. Sermon before the 
Lord-Lieutenant (of Ireland) and the Irish Association for Dis- 
countenancing Vice. 1803. Sermons on Subjects chiefly practi- 
cal ; with Illustrative Notes, and an Appendix relating to the Cha- 
racter of the Church of England, as distinguished from other 
Churches of the Reformation, and from the modern Church of 
Rome. Dub. 1815. 

MICHAEL KEARNEY, D.D., Senior Fellow of this 
University, and Professor of History of the foundation 
of Erasmus Smith, Esq., published 

Lectures on History, given in Trinity College, Dublin, 1775. 
Lond. 1776. Thoughts on the History of Alphabetic Writing. 
R. I. Academy, hi. 1789. The evil Effects of Polytheism; or, 
the Morals of Heathens. 1790. On the Power of Painting to 
express mixed Passions. 



454 HENRY GRATTAN, M.P. 

ALEXANDER KNOX, Esq., A.B., wrote 

Essays on the Political Circumstances of Ireland. Written 
during the Administration of Marquess Camden in that Country. 
With an Appendix, containing Thoughts on the Will of the People ; 
and a Postscript, first published. Lond. 1799, 8vo. 

HENRY GRATTAN, M.P. This distinguished orator 
and illustrious patriot was born in Dublin in 1746, and 
educated in its University, where he graduated as a 
fellow commoner. His father, who was then Recorder 
of Dublin, was desirous that his son should adopt the 
profession of a barrister ; and the son was called to 
the bar, but did not seriously devote himself to its oc- 
cupation, for soon after putting on the advocate's gown, 
he was returned to serve in parliament for the borough 
of Charlemont, and in the next parliament he was elect- 
ed one of the members for the city of Dublin ; after 
which his hitherto latent power came suddenly forth, 
and he became the intrepid and eloquent defender of 
his country's independence. Soon, therefore, those 
transcendant talents, which afterwards distinguished 
this celebrated personage, were perceived rising above 
ordinary capacities, and like a charm, communicating 
to his countrymen that energy, that patriotism, and 
that perseverance for which he himself became so emi- 
nently distinguished. His action, his tone, his elocu- 
tion in public speaking bore no resemblance to that of 
any other person. The flights of genius, the arrange- 
ments of composition, and the solid strength of con- 
nected reasoning, were singularly blended in his fiery, 
but deliberative language. He thought in logic, and he 
spoke in antithesis ; his irony and his satire, rapid 
and epigrammatic, bore down all opposition, and left 
him no rival in the broad field of eloquent invective ; 
and the progress of his brilliant and manly eloquence 
soon absorbed every idea but that of admiration at the 
overpowering extent of his intellectual faculties. All 
the fruits of his patriotism and talent were, however, 
nullified within a few later years. He lived to see 
the noble constitutional fabric demolished, of which 
he was the chief architect, and "as he had watched 
over its infancy, so he followed it to its grave." 



JOHN WILSON CROKER. HUGH KELLY. 4<55 

His Speeches on the Union, &c., have heen collected 
and published in 3 vols. by his son, H. Grattan, Esq. 

The Hon. and Right Rev. WILLIAM KNOX, D.D., 
Bishop of Derry, published 

Sermons preached in Trinity College, Dublin, 1799. A 
Thanksgiving Sermon to Almighty God for the glorious late 
Victory obtained by Lord Nelson over the French Fleet, and for 
other interpositions of his good Providence towards the Effectual 
Deliverance of these Kingdoms from Foreign Invasion and Intes- 
tine Commotion. Lond. 1800. Revelation indispensable to Mo- 
rality. Lond. 1802. Besides many moral and religious Essays 
and Tracts to which he did not put his signature. 

JOHN WILSON CROKER, LL.D., F.R.S., Sec., was 
born in Dublin, became a fellow commoner in this 
University, adopted the profession of the bar, and be- 
came M.P. for Downpatrick in Ireland, and afterwards 
was for many years secretary to the Admiralty. This 
gentleman wrote much, and ably, in the " Quarterly 
Review," and other first rate periodicals. His sepa- 
rate works are : 

Familiar Epistles, in Verse, 1803. Satires on the Management 
and Actors of the Irish Theatre Royal: these were severe, but 
generally just, and tended to make the actors more careful in 
studying their parts, and attending to certain matters of moral 
propriety. A Sketch of an Intercepted Letter from China. 1805. 
The State of Ireland. 1807. The Battle of Talavera, a Poem. 
1809. 

Sir PHILIP CRAMPTON, M.D., Memb. Royal Coll. 
Surgeons, Ireland, a very distinguished member of 
his profession. He published 

Many curious Cases in the Medical Journals, and An Essay on 
the Inversion of the Eyelids. Lond. 1805. Description of an 
Organ by which the Eyes of Birds are accommodated to the dif- 
ferent distances of objects. Phil. Trans. 1813. 

W. COOPER, B.D., published 

Four Sermons upon Predestination unto Life. Lond. 1765. 
The Promised Messiah. Letters on Religious Subjects. En- 
quiry into the Case of the Penitent on the Cross. An Enquiry into 
the Antiquity of the Sabbath ; chiefly with regard to the Opinions 
of Dr. Paley. Lond. 1814. 

HUGH KELLY, born near the lake of Killarney, 
graduated here, and became one of the most dis- 
tinguished of our modern dramatic writers. 

His Thespis is a spirited and clever publication, and his False 



4,56 REV. EDM. LEDWICH. C. AND H. LUCAS. 

Delicacy, a Comedy, established his character as a Dramatic Writer, 
1668. It was translated into the French, Italian, and Spanish Lan- 
guages. A Word to the Wise, a Comedy. 1770. A new edition of 
this play was revised for the benefit of his Wife and Family ; it 
was introduced by an elegant and pathetic Prologue, by Dr. 
Johnson. Clementine, a Tragedy. Lond. 1771. School for 
Wives, a Comedy. Lond. 1774. Romance of an Hour, a Comedy, 
in two acts. The Man of Reason, a Comedy. He also wrote a 
Vindication of Mr. Pitt's Administration. The Babbler, 1767. 
He was also the Editor of the Ladies' Museum, the Court Maga- 
zine, and other periodicals, besides many original Essays and 
pieces of Poetry. He died in his 38th year. 

The Rev.EDMUNDLEDwicH,LL.B.,M.R.I.A.,&c., 
graduated in Dublin. He held the vicarage of Ag- 
hahoe, and was secretary to the Committee of Anti- 
quaries of the Royal Irish Academy. He pub- 
lished 

The Antiquities of Ireland, in 1790 94 and 96. The Statisti- 
cal Account of the Parish of Aghaboe, in Ireland. Lond. 1790 
96. A Dissertation on a Passage in the 6th Book of Homer's 
Iliad. Observations on the Romantic History of Ireland. On 
the Religion of the Druids. Observations on our Ancient 
Churches. 

CHARLES LUCAS, M.D., graduated here. He was 
a distinguished man in his profession, and Fellow of 
the Royal College of Surgeons, London. He pub- 
lished 

An Essay on Waters, viz. : 1st, Simple Waters. 2nd, Cold Me- 
dicated Waters. 3rd, Natural Baths. Lond. 1750. Analysis of 
Rutty's Synopsis of Mineral Waters, 1757. Remarks on the 
Methods of Investigating the Principles and Properties of the Bath 
and Bristol Mineral Waters, in an Effort to revive Ancient Medi- 
cal Doctrines, and to ascertain and extend the Virtues of these 
Waters. The Theory and Uses of Baths. On extracting the Acid 
of Sulphur ; with some other professional Essays. 

HENRY LUCAS, A.M., graduate of Dublin Univer- 
sity, and Student of the Middle Temple, wrote 

The Tears of Alnwick, a Pastoral Elegy on the Death of the 
Duchess of Northumberland. 1777. Visit from the Shades, a 
Poem. Lond. 1778. The Earl of Somerset, a Tragedy, and 
other pieces. 1779. Poems to her Majesty. The Cypress Wreath, 
a Poem to the Memory of Lord Robert Manners. A Pastoral 
Elegy in memory of the Duke of Northumberland, 1786. Ccelina, 
a Masque. 1795. 

Sir Lucius O'BRIEN, Bart., M.P., graduated here. 
He was a true descendant of the ancient monarchs of 



SIR L. O'BRIEN. LORDS O'NEIL AND MOUNTJOY. 457 

Ireland, and a steady and able supporter of the " Free 
Trade " question in 1780, 81 and 82. This gentle- 
man wrote and published some able arguments, and 
very rational views of that question, viz. : 

Letters concerning the Trade and Manufactures of Ireland, 
especially as regards that of Iron, and the Exportation of such 
Wares. Also Resolutions of England and Ireland, relative to a 
Commercial Intercourse between the two Countries. Dub. 1779. 

LORD O'NEIL graduated here when only Mr. O'Neil. 
He was descended from the most celebrated chiefs 
of his country. His talents were excellent, suitable 
for public life ; his personal appearance, noble and 
commanding, combined with great affability and be- 
nevolence of character. He was a distinguished 
member of the Irish House of Commons, (previous to 
his accepting a peerage,) and a colonel of militia. 
In Parliament, this nobleman was always the first to 
bring forward or support any measure tending to re- 
move the political disabilities of the Irish Romanists, 
and participated in every measure that tended to im- 
prove his country, and ameliorate the condition of the 
working classes. But in the rebellion of 1798, this 
estimable nobleman fell in battle waged against the 
crown by that very class of persons whose cause he 
had uniformly espoused. 

LORD MOUNTJOY, a contemporary and intimate 
friend of the above nobleman, graduated here about 
the same time, and was a member likewise of the 
Irish Parliament. It is a remarkable fact, that both 
these estimable and talented noblemen were such 
steady advocates for removing the political disabilities 
of the Romanists, that the one used to move and the 
other to second every resolution to that effect which 
came before Parliament ; and Lord Mountjoy had a 
similar fate to that of his noble friend, in that san- 
guinary struggle. 

Lord O'Neil was killed at the battle of Antrim, and 
Lord Mountjoy at that of New Ross, county Wexfbrd, 
both in June, 1798, the latter at the head of the 
County of Dublin Militia. With his lordship fell Capt. 



4,58 REV. JAMES WHITELAW. 

Dillon, father of the present Earl of Roscommon, and 
many of his men. 

The Rev. JAMES WHITELAW, A.M., was a native 
of the county of Leitrim, Ireland. He entered this 
University in the pensioners' a class, in which he 
distinguished himself by his superior answering at 
the term examinations, and he was sometimes success- 
ful even against Matthew Young, afterwards Bishop 
of Killala: these fellow students were both elected 
to foundation scholarships in the year 1769. On leav- 
ing college, Mr. Whitelaw became tutor to the late 
Earl of Meath, who gratefully conferred on him the 
living of St. James's parish, and afterwards the vi- 
carage of St. Catherine's, both within the liberties of 
Dublin. Mr. Whitelaw's whole life was occupied in 
acts of Christian duty ; his elegant and highly culti- 
vated mind was never idle for a moment either in 
conti'iving modes of relieving the spiritual and physi- 
cal wants of those over whom he was the beloved pastor, 
or in actively carrying those plans into operation. 
But we are consoled for the inadequacy of our biogra- 
phical scale, to describe the virtuous acts of this ex- 
cellent man, (many of which we witnessed,) by the 
memoir of his life so ably and justly drawn up, and 
published by the Rev. Robert Walsh, A.M., M.R.I. A., 
prefixed to that elaborate and clever work, " War- 
burton's, Whitelaw's, and Walsh's History of Dublin." 
This estimable man died of a malignant fever, caught 
in attending a dying patient at a fever hospital, a duty 
from which he never would flinch. 

Besides the History just mentioned, which is comprised in two 
large quarto volumes, with plates, Cadell, Lond. 1718, he pub- 
lished Circular Letters to the Inhabitants of Dublin to raise Funds 
for establishing Evening Schools for the Instruction of Servants 
and Apprentices. These Letters produced a degree of success 

a The college acceptation of this word, as all college men know, 
is widely different from the usual meaning which it stands for in 
common parlance. In colleges, the " pensioners" pay an annual sum, 
quite sufficient to meet the expenses of their tuition, and equally so 
for their commons and chambers, should they live within the college 
precinct. 



KEV. P. BROWNE, D.D. R. CHENEVIX. 459 

greater than he expected ; the schools were established, and pro- 
duced considerable benefit to society. In 1798, he undertook to 
make a census of the city of Dublin, a subject presenting difficul- 
ties of great magnitude, yet his intelligent mind and persevering 
habits achieved the task, and an abstract of the Report was pub- 
lished in 1800, 1 vol. 4to. Parental Solicitude was his next work; 
an affecting and affectionate appeal to every parent, on the subject 
of right education. He also compiled and completed a new and 
rational System of Geography, with accurate Maps, mostly drawn 
by himself. The Maps were engraved, but the writings still, we 
believe, remain in MS., owing to his premature decease. 

The Rev. PETER BROWNE, D.D., born in Ireland, 
was a graduate here, and obtained all the successive 
grades, up to the Provostship, as already noticed. His 
literary productions are : 

An Answer to Toland's book called, " Christianity not Mys- 
terious." Lond. 1697. The Doctrine of Parts and Circumstances 
in Religion laid open. Lond. 1716. Of Drinking in Remem- 
brance of the Dead. Lond. 1715. Discourse of Drinking Healths. 
Lond. 1716. The Progress, Extent, and Limits of Human Un- 
derstanding. Lond. 1728. Things Divine and Supernatural, 
conceived by Analogy with things Natural and Human. Lond. 
1733. Sermons. 1749, 2 vols. These are chiefly directed against 
Socinianism, and are much admired for the easy style and true 
manliness of expression with which they are composed. 

RICHARD CHENEVIX, A.B., of this College, was 
born in Dublin in 1774, and became a fellow of the 
Royal Society. He wrote and published many works 
of great value in chemical science, viz. : 

Remarks upon Chemical Nomenclature, according to the Princi- 
ples of the French Neologists. Dub. 1802. Observations on the 
Mineral Systems, (originally written in French,) with Remarks on 
D'Aubigne's Reply to the Observations. 1811. The Mantuan Rivals, 
a Comedy. Henry Vllth, Historical Tragedy. Lond. 1812. Ob- 
servations and Experiments upon Oxygenized Muriatic Acid, and 
upon some Combinations of the Muriatic Acid, in its three States. 
1 802. Analysis of Corundum, and some of the substances which ac- 
company it. Analyses of the Arseniates of Copper and of Iron, and 
alsoof the Red Octahedral Copper Ore of Cornwall. 1801. Observ- 
ations and Experiments on Dr. James's Powder, with a method of 
preparing in the humid way a similar substance. 1801. Observa- 
tions upon the Chemical Nature of the Humours of the Eye. 1803. 
Enquiries concerning the nature of a Metallic Substance, lately 
sold in London as anew metal, under the title of "Palladium." On 
the Action of Mercury and Platinum on each other. 1805. Ana- 
lysis of a New Variety of Lead Ore. Analysis of Manachoerite 
from Botany Bay. Experiments to ascertain the quantity of Sul- 



460 REV. JOHN CLAYTON, D.D., ETC. 

phur contained in Sulphuric Acid. Observations and Experiments 
upon Oxygenized, and Super-oxygenized Muriatic Acid. 1802. 
Researches on Acetic Acid, and some Acetates. 1810. 

The Rev. JOHN CLAYTON, D.D., graduated here, 
obtained a scholarship, and after other promotions in 
the church, was made Dean of Kildare ; he had an 
inquiring philosophic mind, and investigated much the 
principles of the animal, vegetable, and mineral king- 
doms. He published 

Flora Virginica exhibens plantas, quas Jo. Claytonus in Vir- 

inia crescentes observavit, &c. Leyden, 1762. Account of the 
oil, &c., of Virginia. 1793. Experiments concerning the Spirit 
of Coals; 1739. This appears to have been the earliest notice of 
that powerful illuminating vapour called gas. Of the Nitrous 
Particles of, or in, the Air. Account of the Nations of Virginia. 
(These are all long since extinct.) Experiments on the Elasticity 
of Steam ; 1739. This also appears to have been, if not the first, 
at all events a very early idea of applying that tremendous power 
(which had so long been wasted) to great and useful purposes. 

ARTHUR BROWNE, LL.D. and M.P., graduated 
here, and obtained a scholarship in 1774, was elected 
a Junior Fellow in 1 777, and became Professor of Civil 
Law in this University. His writings are 

A Brief Review of the Question, Whether the Articles of 
Limerick have been violated ? Dub. 1788. A Compendious View 
of the Civil Law, and the Law of the Admiralty ; being the sub- 
stance of a Course of Lectures in the University of Dublin. Dub. 
1797, 1798, 2 vols. Miscellaneous Sketches; or, Hints for Es- 
says. Compendious View of the Ecclesiastical Law of Ireland; 
with a Sketch of the Practice of the Ecclesiastical Courts. Dub. 
1803. 2 vols. 

WILLIAM BURKE, A.B., wrote and published a Greek 
and English Derivative Dictionary ; shewing, in Eng- 
lish characters, the Greek originals in such words as, 
in the English language, are derived from the Greek ; 
and comprising correct explanations from the most 
approved Lexicographers, of the meaning of each 
word. Lond. 1806. 

PRESTON FITZGERALD, Esq., A.B., was a Fellow 
Commoner here, and wrote 

The Spaniard and Siorlamh ; a traditional tale of Ireland ; with 
other Poems. 1810. Spain Delivered, and other Poems. 1813, 8vo. 



BARNARD CONNOR, M.D. M. o'DEDY. 

THOMAS STAFFORD, Esq., A.M., was a native of 
England, educated here, who wrote the work known 
as the 

Paccata Hibernica ; or, a History of the Wars in Ireland, espe- 
cially those in the southern provinces, " Minister," or " Mononia," 
during the government of Sir George Carew. This was published 
with plates in London, 1633, and a new edition of it published at 
Dublin in 1810, 3 vols. 8vo. 

ANDREW CARMICHAEL, A.B., graduated here, and 
published 

An Essay on the Influence of Habit, considered in Conjunction 
with the Love of Novelty. An Essay on the Invention of Alpha- 
betic Writing. Dub. 1811. 

BARNARD CONNOR, M.D., a native of Dublin, 
graduated here ; he afterwards went to travel on the 
continent, and became physician to John Sobieski, 
King of Poland. In a few years he returned to 
London, where he settled as a practitioner and lec- 
turer. He published 

Lettre contenant une Dissertation Physique sur la continuite 
de plusieurs os, a 1'occasion d'un Squelette surprenant. Paris, 
1691. Mirabilis Viventium interitus in Charonea Neapolitana 
Crypta et de novissima Vesuvii Montis incendio. Rom. 1694. 
Dissertationes Medico-Physicae de antrig lithiferis de Montis Ve- 
suvii incendio, de stupendo ossium calitu, de immani Hippogastriis 
Scarcomati. Oxf. 1695. Letter to him concerning the Method he 
used in his Physical and Anatomical Lectures at Oxford. Lond. 1695. 
His Answer concerning the Plan of his Chymical and Anatomical 
Method for understanding the (Economia Animalis. Lond. 1695. 
Letter to James Tyrrell concerning the farther Explanation and 
Vindication of the Plan of an Animal Economy. Lond. 1695. 
The Evangelis Medici S. de Suspensis Naturae Legibus, sive de 
Miraculis reliquisque TOE? |3Ato$ Memoratis quae Medicae inda- 
gini subjici possunt. Lond. 1695. A second edition same year, 
and Amst. 1697-99. Jena, 1724. Letter concerning his Medicina 
Arcana de Mistico Corporis humani statu. Lond. A compendious 
Plan of the Body of Physic. Oxon. 1697. De Secretione Ani- 
mali. Lond. 1697. Dr. O'Connor died in the following year ; as 
we find that his friend, Mr. Savage, published, in 1698, his History 
of Poland, its Ancient and Present State ; in a series of Letters. 
Lond. 1698, 2. vols. In the Phil. Trans., 1694, is an account of a 
human skeleton, wherein all the vertebrae and some other parts 
were ossified into one continuous mass of bone, without joint or 
cartilage. 

M. O'DEDY, A.M., published 

A View of the Laws of Landed Property in Ireland. Lond. 



462 SIR JOHN PARNELL, BART., M.P. 

1812. Letters to Lord Erskine on the Laws of Principal and Ac- 
cessary; with an Examination of the New Rule affecting Principal 
in the second degree, for Arbiters present at Murder, &c., 1811. 

SAMUEL DERRICK, A.B., a native of Ireland, (born 
1724,) graduated here ; some years later he became 
master of the ceremonies at Bath. He wrote much, 
and published the following works: 

Sylla, a dramatic entertainment, translated from the French. 
1753. A Voyage to the Moon; from the French of Bergerac. 
1753. Memoirs of the Count de Beauval ; from the French of 
the Marquis D'Argens. 1754. The Third Satire of Juvenal; 
translated into English Verse. 1755. A View of the Stage (pub- 
lished under the name of Wilks). 1759. Dryden's Poetical 
Works, with a Life and Notes; a beautifully printed work. 1762, 
4 vols. Battle of Lora;'a Poem. 1762. A Collection of 
Voyages. 1763, 2 vols. The Wit's Chronicle. Lond. 1769. 
Letters from Liverpool, Chester, &c. Dub. 1767, 2 vols. 

FRANCIS HARDY, Esq., M.P. and A.B., was edu- 
cated here ; he was an active and intelligent member 
of the Irish House of Commons. He published 

Memoirs of the Political and Private Life of James Caulfield, 
Earl of Charlemont. Lond. 1810 ; 2nd edition, Lond. 1812, 2 vols. 
Thoughts on some particular Passages in the Agamemnon of 
^Eschylus. Trans. Royal Irish Acad. 1788. 

Rev. GEORGE HAMILTON, A.M., soon after taking 
his Master's degree, was promoted to the rectory of 
Killernoc, Ireland. He published 

A General Introduction to the Study of the Hebrew Scriptures; 
with a Critical History of the Greek and Latin Versions of the 
Samaritan Pentateuch, and of all the Chaldee Paraphrases. Lond. 
1813; Dub. 1814, 8vo. 

The Rev. HANS HAMILTON, D.D., published a 
very clever work, entitled "The Necessity of Maintain- 
ing Scripture Doctrine, and endeavouring by every 
means, to promote Union in the Church of Christ." 
In two Act Sermons. Dub. 1818, 8vo. 

Sir JOHN PARNELL, Bart., M.P., son of Sir J. 
Parnell of Rathleague, graduated here. He was edu- 
cated with a view to diplomatic pursuits, and soon 
excited attention in the Irish Parliament, as a person 
of more than ordinary capabilities. He had an 
eminent capacity for public business, a strong mind, 
retentive intellect, and a well cultivated understand- 



REV. J. A. HAMILTON, D.D. REV. W. HAMILTON. 4f)3 

ing. He held the office of Chancellor of the Exchequer 
in Ireland for seventeen years ; yet, such was his dis- 
interestedness, that the name of a relative, or dependent 
of his own, scarcely ever increased the place or pension 
lists of Ireland. Yet this zealous and trustworthy 
officer of the Crown, being called upon by the minister 
of the day (the Right Hon. Wm. Pitt) to sacrifice his 
principles and betray the trust reposed in him, as a re- 
presentative of the people, he at once gave up his office, 
but retained his integrity, and was rewarded by the 
approbation of his conscience and the affection of his 
country. He published some clever papers on Finance, 
&c., and a volume of his speeches in parliament has 
since appeared. 

MATTHEW CONCANEN, A.B., graduated here, and 
soon afterwards went to London, where he became, 
as Dr. Watts truly says, " a miscellaneous writer of 
note." He published 

The History and Antiquities of the Ancient and Venerable 
Church of St. Saviour's, Southwark, plates. Lond. 1795. Letter 
to Wm. Garrow, Esq., regarding his illiberal behaviour to the 
author at the trial of a cause, Ford v. Pedder and others. 1796. 
Plan for effectually distributing Bankrupts' Estates, with Re- 
marks on the conduct of Assignees. 1801. 

The Rev. JAMES ARCHIBALD HAMILTON, DJX, 
&c., of this College, wrote and published the follow- 
ing Essays, viz. : 

Account of an Extraordinary Parhelia seen at Cookstown, 
September 24, 1783. Of anew kind of Portable Barometer for 
measuring Heights. Methods of determining the Longitude by 
Observations of the Meridian Passages of the Moon and a Star, 
at two places. 1794. On Comparative Micrometric Measures. 
1805. On the Present State of Astronomical Certainty. Of the 
Difference of Right Ascension of the Moon's enlightened Limb 
with the Sun's Centre, and with Stars under different Meridians. 
1806. On Comparative Micrometric Measures. 1807. 

Rev. WILLIAM HAMILTON, A.M., Archdeacon of 
Ardmagh, wrote and published 

Two Sermons concerning Zeal, which are justly esteemed for 
their style and logical accuracy of argument. Dub. 1700. The 
Embassy, Life and Character of John Bonnel, Esq. Lond. 1707. 
And several Sermons before the House of Commons. Lond. 

1722-25. 

The Rev. WILLIAM HAMILTON, B.D., was educated 



464 LORD ORIEL. J. L. FOSTER, A.M. 

here, was elected to a Fellowship in 1779, afterwards 
resigned on a College living in Donegal. His works 
prove him to have been an excellent scholar. He 
published 

Letters from the Coast of Antrim, Ireland, with a Natural 
History of its surprising Basaltic Formations, with an account 
of the Antiquities, Manners, and Customs of that Country. Lond. 
1786. Letters on the Principles of the French Democracy, their 
Application and Influence on the Constitution and Happiness of 
Great Britain and Ireland. Dub. 1792. An Account of Ex- 
periments made to determine the Temperature of the Earth's 
Surface in the Kingdom of Ireland, A.D. 1788. Memoir on the 
Climate of Ireland. 1794. Nicholson's Journal. 1798. 

The Right Hon. JOHN FOSTER, M.P., (Lord Oriel,) 
was a distinguished pupil in this University. He was 
elected Speaker of the Irish House of Commons a 
few years previous to " the Legislative Union," to 
which unpopular measure he gave his favourable 
opinion, after having originally opposed its principle. 

He published a very able Speech on the Bill brought forward 
in the Irish Parliament to allow Irish Romanists to vote for 
Members of Parliament, in which he showed that the Bill had a 
direct tendency to subvert the Protestant Establishment, and to 
cause a complete and lasting separation of that Kingdom from 
Great Britain. Dub. 1793. Speech on the Proposed Union of 
Ireland and Great Britain. Dub. 1799, 8vo. 

JOHN LESLIE FOSTER, A.M., after graduating here 
became a student of Lincoln's Inn, but was afterwards 
called to the Irish Bar, and finally was made a judge 
in the Court of Exchequer, Dublin. He published 

An Essay on the Principles of Commercial Exchange, more 
especially as between England and Ireland. Lond. 1804, 8vo. 
A Speech on Mr. Grattan's Motion for removing the remainder of 
the Penal Laws in force against the Romanists of Ireland. Lond. 
1812. 

The Rev. JOHN GARNETT, D.D., after some minor 
promotion in the Church, was made Bishop of Clogher 
in 1770. This Prelate wrote and published many 
able Sermons, amongst which are 

The New Creation a state of Proselytism, Gal. iv. 15. 1740. 

Several Assize Sermons, on Rebellion and Commemoration, 

Rorn. xii. 11. 1745. A Fast Sermon, on Job i. 5. Another on 
Chron. xxix. 20, 21. 1747. A Dissertation on the Book of Job. 
Introductory Discourse on the Book of Job. Lond. 1754. 
On the Irish Protestant Schools. 1756, 4to. 



JOHN GIFFORD. REV. R1CHD. GRAVES, D.D. 465 

JOHN GIFFORD, B.M., did for a time pursue his 
profession with ardour, but eventually became a poli- 
tical writer of great intelligence. He was elected High 
Sheriff of Dublin city, and on vacating that office at 
the usual time, became a Sheriff's Peer, and Member 
of the Common Council of Dublin, for life. He died 
1819. His Works are : 

An Elucidation of the Unity of God, deduced from Scripture 
and Reason, addressed to Christians of all denominations ; with a 
Letter to his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury. This work 
went througli four editions. Lond. 1786. History of France, 
from the earliest times to the death of Louis XVI., condensed from 
the eminent French Historians, critical and explanatory Notes. 
Lond. 1791 4, 5 vols. 4to. A Plain Address to the Common 
Sense of the People of England, with an abstract of T. Paine's 
Life and Writings. 1792. Narrative of Transactions relative to 
Louis XVI. from June, 1791, to January 21, 1793. Reign of 
Louis XVI. and History of the French Revolution, with Notes, 
critical and explanatory. Lond. 1794 96. Letters to the Earl 
of Lauderdale, with Strictures on his Letters to the Peers of Scot- 
land. Lond. 1795 1800. A Residence in France, during the 
years 1792, 3, 4 and 5, being a Series of Letters from an English 
Lady, with Remarks on the French Character and Manners. 
Lond. 1797, 2 vols. 8vo. The Banditti unmasked ; or, Historical 
Memoirs of the Present Times, from the French of Gen. Dani- 
can, with a Preface showing the present state of France. Lond. 
1797. Letter to the Hon. Thomas Erskine, containing Strictures 
on the view of the Causes and Consequences of the present War 
with France. Lond. 1797. A Defence of the French Emigrants, 
from the French of Gerald Trephine Lally Tollendal. Lond. 
1797. A Short Address to the Members of the Loyal Association 
on the Present State of Public Affairs ; containing a brief exposi- 
tion of the designs of the French upon this country, and of their 
proposed division of Great Britain and Ireland into three distinct 
Republics. Lond. 1797. This went through five editions, the last 
in 1798. Lond. Address from CamilleJourdan to his Constituents, 
on the Revolution of the 4th of Sept., 1797; translated, with a 
Preface and Notes added. Lond. 1798. Preface to Cobbett's 
"Bone to Gnaw," for the Democrats. A History of the Political 
Life of the Right Hon. William Pitt, including an Account of a 
part of the time in which he lived, Portraits. Lond. 1809, 3 vols. 
royal 4to. 

The Rev. RICHARD GRAVES, D.D., was a distin- 
guished student here. He obtained a foundation 
scholarship in 1782, and junior fellowship in 1786, was 
made Dean of Ardagh, and became Deputy Lecturer 
on Divinity for Dr. Drought, on whose demise Dr. 

H H 



466 REV. W. HENRY, D.D. G. E. HOWARD. 

Graves was unanimously elected to that important 
office, which he filled for several years with great zeal 
and ability, he introduced great improvements in the 
mode of lecturing, and additional information for the 
students in this department. Dr. Graves's published 
works are : 

A Sermon on the Deliverance of Ireland from the invasion lately 
attempted by the French forces. Lond. 1797. Essay, contain- 
ing several discourses on the character of the Apostles and Evan- 
gelists ; designed to prove that they were not Enthusiasts. Lond. 
1798. A Series of Sermons: on the Clerical Character ; on Su- 
perstition ; on Miracles ; on Submission to the existing Powers ; 
on the Love of Pleasure ; on the Temporal Disadvantages of Vice ; 
on Happiness ; on Evangelical Righteousness, and on Justice. 
Lond. 1799. Sermon at the Consecration of Dr. Warburton, 
Bishop of Limerick, 1806. Lectures on the four last books of the 
Pentateuch, designed to show the Divine Origin of the Jewish Re- 
ligion, &c. Lond. 1807 11, 2 vols A Sermon preached in aid 
of the London Society for Converting the Jews, 1811, with several 
other excellent religious discourses. 

The Rev. WILLIAM HENRY, D.D., Rector of Ur- 
ney, in the diocese of Derry, published 

The Advantages of Peace, and the Means to Perpetuate that 
Blessing; being a Thanksgiving Sermon on Psalm cxlvii. 12. 14. 
1749. Christian Perfection. Sermons on Psalm cxii. 6. On 
Samuel, xxiii. 1. 3. On the Anniversary of St. Patrick, Luke 
xxiv. 5. A Fast Sermon, Deut. xxxiii. 28. 31. Account of an 
extraordinary Stream of Wind which shot through the County of 
Tyrone, Oct. 11, 1752. Phil. Trans. 1752. On the Copper 
Springs in county of Wicklow. Ireland, 1753. Description of a 
Man whose tendons, bones and muscles were gradually becoming 
ossified. 

GEORGE EDMUND HOWARD, A.M., became a mem- 
ber of the Irish Bar. He published the following 
works, viz. : 

Treatise of the Rules and Practices of the Pleas side of Exche- 
quer in Ireland. 1759, 2 vols. Treatise of the Rules and Prac- 
tices of the Equity side of the Exchequer in Ireland. 1760, 2 vols. 
Almeyda, or Rival Kings, a Tragedy. Dub. 1770 ; Lond. second 
and third edition. The Siege of Tadmor, a Tragedy, third edi- 
tion. Lond. 1772. Rules and Practices of the Court of Chancery 
in Ireland, Adjudged Cases, &c., 1772. Special Laws against the 
farther growth of Popery in Ireland, 1775. Abstract and Com- 
mon Pleas of all the British, English and Irish Statutes relative to 
the Revenue of Ireland and the Trade connected therewith, al- 
phabetically ; with special precedents of information, &c., upon 



JOHN O'KEEFE. 467 

these Statutes, and other matters never before published, 1780-1, 2 
vols. Miscellaneous Works in Verse and Prose. Dub. 1782, 3 
vols. 8vo. 

ISAAC MANN, B.D., a zealous clergyman, pub- 
lished, among other valuable Religious Essays 

Short Discourses on the Lord's Prayer, chiefly designed for the 
use of country Villages. Dub. 1814. 

DAVID M'BmDE, M.D., a native of Antrim, Ire- 
land, graduated here. He published 

Experimental Essays on the Fermentation of Alimentary Mix- 
tures; on the Nature and Properties of Fixed Air ; on the respective 
Power and Manner of Acting of the different kinds of Antiseptics; 
on the Scurvy, and a New Method of Curing it at Sea ; also on 
the Dissolvent Power of Quick-Lime. Lond. 1774 76. Historical 
Account of the New Method of treating the Scurvy at Sea ; con- 
taining Ten Cases which show that this disease may be easily and 
effectually cured without the aid of Fresh Vegetable Diet. Lond. 
1768. Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Physic. Lond. 
1772; Dub. 1776, (enlarged and corrected,) 2 vols. To this is 
added a Case of Angina Pectoris. On an Improved Method of 
Tanning Leather. Account of extraordinary Cases after Delivery. 
History of Angina Pectoris successfully treated. 

THEOBALD M*KENNA, A.M., Barrister at Law, 
published 

An elaborate and able Political Essay, relative to the Affairs of 
Ireland, 1791, 2 and 3, with Remarks on the Present State of that 
country. Lond. 1794. Constitutional Objections to the Govern- 
ment of Ireland by a separate Legislature, in a Letter to John 
Hamilton, Esq., occasioned by his Remarks on a Memoir on the 
projected Legislative Union. Dub. 1799. Thoughts 013 the 
Civil Condition and Relations of the Romish Clergy, Religion and 
People in Ireland. Lond. 1805. 

JOHN O'KEEFE, the celebrated dramatic writer, 
was matriculated here, but it does not appear that he 
became a graduate. He went to reside in London 
about 1780. He was one of the most fertile and 
amusing writers for the stage that has appeared in 
modern times. His published works are : 

Tony Lumpkin in Town, a Farce. Dub. 1778. Son-in-Law. 
Dub. 1779. The Prince of Arragon, a Drama, with Songs. 
Dub. 1783. Omai, a Play. 1783. Prisoner at Large, a Comedy. 
Lond. 1788. The Toy, a Comedy. 1789. The Little Hunch- 
back of Bagdad, a Farce. 1790. The World in a Village, a 
Comedy. 1793. Sprigs of Laurel, a Comic Opera. 1798. 

H II 2 



468 JAMES KENNEY. A. KING, LL.D. 

Rambles in Dorsetshire, a Comedy. 1793. The Castle of 
Andalusia, a Comic Opera. 1794. Wild Oats, a Comedy. 
1794. -The Transfer of the Laurel, a Poem. 1795. Life's 
Vagaries, a Comedy. Lond. 1795. Blunders at Brighton, a 
Musical Entertainment. 1795. Dramatic Works. Lond. 1798, 
4 vols. 8vo. Alfred, a Comedy. The Basket-maker, a Musical 
Entertainment. Beggar on Horseback, a Farce. Blacksmith of 
Antwerp, a Farce. The Czar Peter, a Comic Opera. The 
Doldrum, a Farce. The Farmer, a Farce. Fontainbleau, a 
Comic Opera. Le Grenadier, a Pantomime. The Highland Reel, 
a Comic Opera. Love in a Camp, a Farce. Man Milliner, a 
Farce. Modern Antiques, a Farce. Poor Soldier, a Comic 
Opera Positive Man, a Farce. Tantarara, a Farce. Wicklow 
Mountains, an Opera. 

JAMES KENNEY, A.B., a very popular dramatic 
writer, published the following successful pieces : 

Society, a Poem in 2 Parts, with other Poems. Lond. 1804. 
Raising the Wind, a Farce. 1803. Matrimony, a petit Opera. 
Lond. 1804. Too many Cooks, a Musical Farce. 1805. Ella 
Rosenberg, a Melodrama. False Alarms, a Comic Opera. 1807. 
The World, a Comedy. 1808. Turn Out, a Musical Farce. 
1812. Debtor and Creditor. The Family of Anglade, a Drama. 
Lond. 1815. Touchstone, or the World as it goes. 1817. 

ANTHONY KING, Esq., LL.D., an eminent lawyer, 
published several professional treatises. His most 
important work is 

Thoughts on the Expediency of adopting a System of National 
Education more immediately suited to the Policy of this Country; 
with brief remarks on the Diocesan Schools. Dub. 1795. 

SAMUEL LAB AT, M.D., a graduate, published a 
very able and humane address to the medical prac- 
titioners of Ireland, on Vaccination. Dub. 1803. 

The Rev. JAMES LITTLE, B.D., afterwards Rector 
of Lacken, co. Mayo, Ireland, wrote, 

On the Air Pump. Description of a Reflecting Level, or 
Artificial Horizon, for taking Altitudes of the Celestial Bodies, 
c., on Land, by Hadley's Quadrant. Inscription on an Ancient 
Sepulchral Stone at Kilcummin, near Killala, co. Mayo. Observa- 
tions on the Metallic Composition for the Specula of Reflecting 
Telescopes, and the manner of casting them. On the Back 
Horizon Glass of Hadley's Quadrant. These have been pub- 
lished in the Transactions of the Royal Academy, and in Nichol- 
son's Journal, between the years 1796 and 1811. 

GUSTAVUS HUME, Esq., the eminent surgeon, 
graduated here. He wrote many .excellent papers on 



JOHN MACAULAY. C. MAC CORMAC, ETC. 469 

subjects connected with his practice, which are strictly 
professional, others for more general circulation are, . 
Observations on the Treatment of Internal and External Dis- 
eases. On the Management of Children. Dub. 1832. Observa- 
tions on Angina Pectoris, the Gout, and Cow Pock. Dub. 1804. 

Sir JOHN WHITE JEHVIS, Bart., A.B., a fellow com- 
moner here, wrote 

An Essay addressed to the Gentlemen of England and Ireland 
on the Inexpediency of a Federal Union between the two King- 
doms. Lond. 1798. A Refutation of Montgaillard's Display of 
the Situation of Great Britain. A Brief Statement of the Rise, 
Progress, and Decline of the Ancient Christian Church. Dub. 
1813, 8vo. 

JOHN MACAULAY, Esq., A.B., and member of the 
Royal Irish Academy, published 

Unanimity, a Poem. 1780. The Genius of Ireland, a Masque. 
1785. Monody on the Death of Lady Arabella Denny. 1792. 
A Poem on the Death of the unfortunate King Louis XVI. 
1793. The History of the Reformation; from the French of M. 
de Beausobre. 1812. 

CHARLES MAC CORMAC, Esq., LL.B., published 

Memoirs of the Right Hon. Edmund Burke, entitled An Im- 
partial Review of his Private Life, his Public Conduct, his 
Speeches in Parliament, and the various productions of his Pen, 
Political and Literary; interspersed with a variety of curious 
Anecdotes and Extracts from his Secret Correspondence with 
some of the most distinguished characters in Europe. Lond. 
1798. 

The Rev. ARTHUR MACGUIRE, B.D., published, 

A Description of his New Portable Barometer. And also of 
his Self-registering Barometer ; both accounts are in the Transac- 
tions of the Royal Irish Academy, i. 41, 1786, and iv. 1791. 

LEONARD MAC NALLY, Esq., A.B., distinguished 
himself as a Criminal Law Barrister in Ireland. He 
published : 

The Claims of Ireland ! the Resolutions of the Volunteers 
vindicated. 1782. Retaliation, a Farce. Tristam Shandy, a 
Bagatelle Farce. Lond. 1783. Sherwood Forest, a Comic Opera. 
Lond. 1784. Fashionable Levites, a Comedy. 1785. Richard 
Cceur-de-Lion, a Comic Opera. 1786. Abstract of Acts passed 
in Parliament, from June to October 27, 1786. Critic upon 
Critic, a Drama. 1792. Cottage Festival, an Opera. 1796. 
Apotheosis of Punch, a Masque. 1799. The Rules of Evidence 
in Pleas of the Crown, illustrated from printed and MS. tracts and 
cases. Lond. 1802-3, 2 vols. 8vo. The Justice of Peace, of 
Ireland. 1808, 2 vols. 8vo. 



470 ARTHUR MURPHY. 

The Rev. EDWARD MANGIN, A.M., a descendant 
from an ancient and honourable French Hugonot 
family, settled in Ireland, published, 

The Life of C. G. L. Malesherbes (from the French). Lond. 
1805-14. An Essay on Light Reading, as it may be supposed 
to influ