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Full text of "The British magazine and monthly register of religious and ecclesiastical information, parochial history and documents respecting the state of the poor, progress of education, etc"

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THE 



BRITISH MAGAZINE 



MONTHLY REGISTER 

OF 
4 

RELIGIOUS AND. ECCLESIASTICAL 

INFORMATION, 

AND 

DOCUMENTS RESPECTING THE STATE OF THE POOR, 

PROGRESS OF EDUCATION, &c. 



VOL. III. 



LONDON: 



JOHN TURRILL & T. CLERC SMITH, 

260, REGENT STREET. 



MDCCC XXXIII. 

[iNTKRED AT STATIONERs' HALL.] 






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Hu)ctt« at Savill, PriDten, 107. St. Martin's Lane, Charing Cruss. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. III. 



Page 
ORIGINAL PAPERS: — 

The Principles of the EstabUshed 
Church with regard to the exercise 
of free inquiry and the rights of 

private judgment 1 

Italian Psalmody 9 

History of the Scottish Episcopal 

Church 14, 127, 253 

English Architecture, No. II 22 

The Holidays 29 

Thomas a Becket 31, 140, 399,525 

The Church originally Founded and En- 
dowed in England, Protestant and 

not Popish 121 

The Speeches 138 

On the Connexion of the Clergy of the 
Established Church with the Judi- 
cial and Legislative Functions of 

the State 241 

The Sabbath 260 

Pluralities — Residence of Incumbents — 

— and Working Clergy 362 

On the Bill for seizing the Property of 
the Irish Church, and applymg it to 
other than Ecclesiastical Objects ... 389 
Meditations Poetiques par A. de La- 

martine 396, 635, 642 

On the General Sources of Religious 

Opinion 500 

Schelling's Lectures on Christianity 621 

Historical Notices and Descriptions of 

Christian Architecture in England 523 

Reasons for supporting the Church 629 

Old Hetty 638 

Parish Churches: — 

No. X. Bishopsbourne Church (with 

Engraving) 132 

No. XI. Bemerton Church (with 

Engraving) 411 

NOTICES OF THE OLDEN TIME: — 

A "Monstrans" <• 38 

Pews 40 

Selections from Evelyn's Diary ...41, 169, 418 
Extracts from Churchwarden's Ac- 
counts 157, 417, 653 

Balsham Church, Cambridgeshire (with 

Engravings) 269 

Pronunciation and Rhyme 545 



Page 
ANTIQUITIES, &c. :— 

Chartham Church, Kent 647 

Notices of Past Times from Law Books, 650 
Extracts from Churchwarden's Accounts, 658 

SACRED POETRY 43, 161, 273, 420 

542, 656 

CORRESPONDENCE :— 

On Parabolical Scripture 44 

Remarks on the Septuagint 49 

The Prophecy of Jesus 54, 438 

On the Clapton Provident Societies 57 

Temperance Societies 62, 173, 801, 452 

Visitmg Societies 64 

On the Catholic Magazine 65 

Curates 67 

Farthinghoe Clothing Club, &c 69 

The Magi from the Sun-rising 163 

On St. Luke, xxi. 32 170 

Socinian Testimony to the Usefulness of 

an Establishment 172 

" Defensor" and Lord Henley 1 74 

Pluralities and Curates 175 

On Parochial Psalmody... 178, 179, 682, 683 

On Tithes 180 

Collect before Sermon 182 

Index to Theological Literature 182 

Cases of Adultery 183 

Ancient Table, in the Chapter House of 

Salisbury Cathedral 184 

Stoke-upon-Trent, Staffordshire — Dr. 

Woodhouse's Donations 185 

St. Mary's Benefit Club 187 

Reply of an Episcopal Clergyman to the 

Voluntary Church Association 1 88 

Diocese of Durham 189 

The Rainbow a Prophetic Sign 275, 430 

The Name of Cyrus [Further Remarks] 279 

On Romans, xii. 20 280 

Vindication of the Early Parisian Greek 

Press 283, 427, 548, 658 

Prometheus Vinctus 287 

FiatJustitia 289 

On the Puritans 291 

Clerical Subscribers to Charities 294 

Vi^eekly Lectures ... 298, 434, 437, 574, 576 
677, 679, 681 

On Sunday Schools 299, 567 

On Building Churches 305 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
On Building Glebe-houses ou Small 

Livings 306 

Ubour Rares 4*2 ->, 570,- 573, 684 

Testiuionial to a CltTgyman in a Letter 

from Lord Monson 442 

Use of Cathedral Preferments 443 

Diocc-s-m Courts 444 

National Education Society 446 

The Sacrauients 448 

Abolition of Pluralities 449 

Churchini? of Women 451 

The Church in Wales 454 

Parish Clerks 456 

Order, &c., in the Edition of the Bible 

in 1611 457 

On the L^se of the Ember-week Prayers 457 

Letter from Mr. Offor 458 

On the Evils of an Alteration of the 

Liturgy 654 

Enmity to the Church, and Present 

Duty of her Clergy 656 

On Pluralities 561 

On *he Diffiision of Knowledge 562 

On Matthew, xviii. 1, &c 565 

The Cities of the Plain 662 

The Rainbow 667 

On the Right Observance of the Lord's 

Day 669 

Irish Church Bill 674 

Churchwardens 675 

On Endowments 685 

Collect before Sermon 688 

Communion on Good Friday 687 

Notices in Church 687 

Division of the Commandments 688 



NOTICES AND REVIEWS :— 

Greswell's View of the Early Parisian 

Greek Press 75 

Marcus's Village Psalmody 75 

Simeon's Pastoral Admonition to an 

Affectionate Flock 75 

A Word of Testimony, or a Corrected 
Testimony of the Evidence respect- 
ing Mr. Irving 75 

Exton's Discourse at the 16th Anniv. 
of the Framlinghara D. Committee 
of the Society for Promoting Chris- 
tian Knouleoge 75 

Hare's Visitation Sermons 76 

Mrs. Austin's Selections from the Old 

Testament 76 

Home's Manual of Prayers for the Af- 
flicted '. 76 

Select Library, Vol. VI.: Lives of Emi- 
nent Missionaries 76 

Theological Library, Vol. Ill : History 
of the Reformed Religion in France, 
by the Rev. E. Smedley 76 

Mudie's Popular Guide to the Observa- 
tion of Nature 77 

Biblical Cabinet, Vol. II 77 

Memorials of Oxford 77, 464 

PrafisMor Green's Address at the com- 
mencement of the Medical Session 
at King's Collie 77 



Page 
Arrowsmith's Grammar of Modern Geo- 
graphy 78 

A New History, Description, and Survey 
of London and Westminster, by W. 

Smith 78 

Illustrations of Modern Sculpture, No. II. 78 
Pusey's Remarks on the Benefits of 

Cathedral Institutions 192 

Mant's " Happiness of the Blessed Con- 

siderefl'^ 193 

Parry's Practical Exposition of St. 

Paul's Epistle to the Romans 194 

Smith's Seven Letters on National Reli- 
gion 194 

Sinclair's Dissertations, vindicating the 

Church of England 195 

Maternal Advice 196 

Charter House Prize Exercises, from 

1814 to 1832 196 

Walters's Notes, Historical and Legal, 

on the Endowments of the Church 197 

A Collection of Hymns 197 

Taylor's Life of Cowper 197 

Ivimey's Life of Milton 198 

Dublin University Calendar for 1833 ... 200 
The Holy Bible arranged in Historical 
and Chronological Order, by Rev. 

G. Townsend, M.A 200 

The Comparative Coincidence of Reason 

and Scripture 200 

Prideaux's Aavice to Churchwardens, by 

R. P. Tyrwhitt, Esq 201 

Books of Education 201 

Channing's Discourses 308 

The New Testament, with a Commen- 
tary, by Rev. C. Girdlestone ...... 309 

Mimpriss' Harmony of the Gospels in 

the English authorized version 309 

Letters from Sussex Emigrants, &c. S09 

Girdlestone's Seven Sermons preached 

during the Cholera 309 

Letters of the late Rev. Irwine Whitty, 

Rector of Golden 310 

The Church defended, in two discourses, 

by the Rev. John Garbett, M.A. ... 310 
Myers's Young Christian's Guide to Con- 
firmation 310 

Young Christian's Sunday Evenings ... 310 

Whychcott of St. John's 311 

Two Sermons preached before the Uni- 
sity of Oxford, by the Rev. W. S. 

Cole 311 

Rey. A. Campbell's Sermon at the Visi- 
tation of the Bishop of Chester ... 31 1 

Sheppard's Essays 311 

Fulton and Knight's Pronouncing Dic- 
tionary 311 

Scenes in our Parish 460 

Hall's Expository Discourses on the 

pospels 461 

Domestic Portraiture 462 

The Text of the English Bible con- 
sidered; by T. Turton, D.D 462 

Observations on *' Death-bed Scenes and 

Pastoral Conversations," &c 463 

Dove's Biographical History of the Wes- 
ley Family 463 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Archdeacon Thorpe's Charge to the 
Clergy of the Archdeaconry of 

Durham 464 

Lives, Characters, and an Address to 

Posterity 464 

Le Bas' Sermon for the Benefit of the 

Hertford Sunday Schools 464 

Divine Visitations, &c 464 

Memorials of Salisbury 465 

Martin's Illustrations of the Bible 465 

Rev. Dr. Hawkins's Discourses 678 

Titmann's Synonyms of the New Testa- 
ment 580 

Rev. R. Jones's Introductory Lecture on 

Political Economy , 680 

Extracts from the Information received 
by his Majesty's Commissioners as to 
the administration and operation of 

the Poor Laws 681 

Major Palmer's Treatise on the Modern 
System of Governing Gaols, &c. ; 
and Report from the Select Com- 
mittee on Secondary Punishments. . . 684 
The Christian's Manual; or, the Bible 

its own Interpreter 684 

lyiessiah's Kingdom; a Poem, by Agnes 

Bulmer 685 

Anstice's Selections from the Choric 
Poetry of the Greek Dramatic 
Writers, Translated into English 

Verse 686 

The Book of Psalms, in English Blank 

Verse, by Rev. G . Musgrave 586 

Gibbs's IManual Hebrew and English 
Lexicon; and Walker's Practical 

Introduction to Hebrew 686 

Ty tier's Life of Sir Walter Raleigh 686 

Whewell's Astronomy and General Phy- 
sics 686 

Le Bas' Life of Cranmer 689 

Encyclopaedia Ecclesiastica 690 

Conversion, in a series of all the Cases 
recorded in the New Testament, 
&c. &c. By the Rev. J. K. Craig, 689 
Travels of an Irish Gentleman in search 

of a Religion 690 

Hoole's Discourses— Strong's Sermons — 

Girdlestone's Sermons 691 

Bransby Cooper's Translation of Mede's 
Clavis Apocalyptica ; and Commen- 
tary on the Revelation of St. John . 692 
Rev. F. Merewether's Appeal to the 

Nobility, &c 692 

Essays on the Church, &c 693 

Thoughts on the Building and Opening 

of the Church at Summer Town... 694 
Rev. J. Sargent's Life of the Rev. T. T. 

Thomason, M.A 695 

Life and Travels of the Apostle Paul ... 695 
On the Improvement of Society by the 
Diffusion of Knowledge, &c. ; by J. 

Dick, LL.D 695 

Fergus's Testimony of Nature and Reve- 
lation, &c 696 

Stevens's View of the Rise and Fall of the 

Kingdoms of Judah and Israel 696 

Remarks on Works on Church 

Reform 312,466 



Page 
MISCELLANEA :— 

Lord Tenterden and the New Monthly 

Magazine 93 

Political Economists and the Poor 96 

Dissenting Journals 96 

Clergy who have left the Church 202 

Extract from a Letter by air. Jago to the 

Bishop of Bath and Wells 203 

Monument to Dr. Gabell 204 

Benefit Societies 205 

The Factories 818 

Modesty and Charity 322 

The Home Missionary Society 322 

Right of Divorce to be claimed 322 

Errors in the Bible 323 

Number of Dissenters 366 

Appendix : — Mr. Curtis's Misre- 
presentations EXPOSED 329 

Divorce— The Monthly Repository 466 

Grounds for Upholding an EstabUshed 

Church 488 

The Primitive Church 470, 697 

Mr. Crisp's Letter to the Editor of the 

Bristol Journal 474 

Falsehood Contradicted 476 

The Welsh Clergy 690 

The Registration Bill.. 592 

Congregational Magazine 692 

Catholic Magazine 694, 704 

The Monthly Repository 696 

Dissenting Ministers 595 

Things to be lamented 596 

Mr. Curtis 696, 703 

Reply to the Congregational Magazine.. 701 
Some Specimens of Truth and Candour 703 

Modesty —Evangelical Magazine 704 

Extract from the Life of Grotius by 

Burigny 705 

Addresses to Country Parishioners 705 

Hamlet of Bitton 707 

REPORTS, &c. :— 

Societies for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge and for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts— Peter- 
borough Diocesan and District Com- 
mittee 205 

National Society for Promoting the Edu- 
cation of the Poor 205,476 

Church Building Society ...349, 477, 597, 710 
First Report of the Chester District 

Association of the S. P. G. F. P.... 349 
Dover and Sandwich D. Com. of the So- 
ciety for Promoting Chris. Know... 350 
Extract from the Report of the Not- 
tingham D. Com. of the S. P. C. K. 476 

British and Foreign Bible Society 707 

Church Missionary Society 708 

Religious Tract Society 709 

King's College 712 

British and Foreign School Society 713 

TRIALS:— 

Gibbons r. the Bishop of Ely 98 

Sentence in the case of Gretton v. 

Campbell 9^ 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Rev. H. E^-e, Qerk, c. South Ockendon 

Poor Rate 206 

John Clift, Esq., r. the Parish of South 

Ockendon (Poor Rate) 206 

\^Tiiter. Wilcox 206 

Brown r. the Attorney-General 207 

The Attorney- GeneraJ c. the Skinners' 

Company 207 

Gibbons and another v. the Bp. of Ely... 350 

Rex r. the Justices of Somersetshire 351 

Bird r. the Executors of Smith 477 

In the matter of Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge 477 

Lambert r. Fisher and Another 714 

DOCUMENTS: — 

Irish Church 99 

Augmentation 100 

Cathedral Institutions 208 

Unitarianism in England 209 

LabourRate 211 

The Willingham Emigrants 212 

Beer Act 351 

Clerical Subscriptions 352 

Objects of Dissenters 354 

Revenues of the Church of Ireland 354 

Mr. Williams's Letters to the Editor of 

the North Wales Chronicle 365 

Clergy Orphan Incorporated Society ... 478 

Address to the Bishop of Gloucester ... 478 

State of Livings in Bedfordshire 479 

Dissenting M misters who have entered 

the Church 480 

Subscribers and Subscriptions to the So- 
ciety for Propag. Gospel in F. P.... 481 
New Church at Worcester 482 



Page 

Non-residence in the Diocese of Chester, 483 
Extracts from the Bishop of Gloucester's 

Sj)eech at Cheltenham 597 

Societies for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge and for the P. G. F. P 598 

Society for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge, and the Natioual Society for 

the Education of the Poor 600 

Duddo Chapel 602 

Beer Shop 603 

Falsehoods about theClercy 716 

Revenues of the Church of England 717 

Petition from Durham against the Irish 

Church BiU 718 

Non-Residence ( From the " Patriot"). . . 720 

CHURCH REFORM 78, 215, 360, 484 

603,720 



Ecclesiastical Intelligence : — Ordi- 
nations, Clerical Appointments, Pre- 
ferments, Clergy Deceased, &c... 101, 216 
378, 491, 612, 735 

University News 105, 222, 383, 495 

617, 733 
Births akd Marriages... 109, 225, 385, 498 

621, 743 
Events of the Month... 110, 226,386, 498 

621, 744 
New Books 118, 238, 337, 506, 627, 751 

Funds, Markets, &c., 119, 238, 507, 627, 751 

Notices to Correspondents 120, 240 

388, 508, 628, 751 



THE 



BRITISH MAGAZINE, 



JANUARY 1, 1833. 



ORIGINAL PAPERS. 



THE PRINCIPLES OF THE ESTABLISHED CHURCH 

WITH REGARD TO THE EXERCISE OF FREE INQUIRY AND THE RIGHTS OF 
PRIVATE JUDGMENT. 

I PROCEED to use the privilege which I claimed in a former 
number, of not being considered as engaged in a systematic dis- 
sertation on the well-known and oft-debated subjects to which I 
now think it necessary to direct the attention of churchmen. My 
object is, rather to detect fallacies, and to disclose the manoeuvres 
of our opponents, than to give a regular treatise. I wish the 
questions at issue to be put upon their fair merits, and argued 
without any juggle or mystification. And the subjects which I 
have mentioned in the title to this paper are among those on 
which sophistry and manoeuvre have been played off with no 
small success, and which have induced many well-meaning friends 
to take most erroneous views both of the Established Church, and 
of the pretensions of her enemies. 

One prominent charge which I find insinuated by the assail- 
ants of the Church is, that she is hostile to freedom of inquiry 
and the right of private judgment; and that for the enjoyment 
of these privileges this nation is principally, if not entirely, 
indebted to the dissenters. I say that this is insinuated, for 
the charge is frequently not put forth all at once and broadly. 
A publication levelled at the Church commences with a disserta- 
tion upon the use and the rights of free inquiry and of private 
judgment. These rights are very pompously maintained, as 
though there were some powerful and venomous foe always plot- 
ting or struggling against them, and as though it were a matter of 
notoriety that the Church of England denied them, in both theory 
and practice. A great deal of argument is expended in prov- 
ing the natural title of man to these privileges, with occasional 
wise saws and reflections upon the tyranny of refusing men the 
enjoyment of them. The reader is gravely asked, whether " we 

Vol. III.— Jan. 1833. r 



2 THE PRINCIPLES OF THE ESTABLISHED CHURCH 

are to adopt the religion of our counti-y, because it is so " (as though 
there were no other reasons) ; or " whether we are to embrace the 
religion of Jesus Christ in its pure simplicity o{ doctrine and dis- 
ciplwe (who disputes it?) whether it may happen to be the reli- 
gion of our country or not?" — whether we ought to receive our 
religion from our ancestors, or to impose it " upon posterity by 
legal enactments ? " — whether " the Bible is to be our text book ; " 
whether every man has *' the ri^ht by nature of private judg- 
ment;" and whether "religion is a matter of personal, indivi- 
dual, and exclusive concern between him and bis Maker ?" Then 
the use of reason is mentioned — the example of the Bereans duly 
commended as a weighty proof, and the reader is cleverly led 
away from the real point at issue to the desired inferences — to a 
state of prejudice against the Church, and prepossession in favour 
of the Dissenters. He is quite satisfied, after weighing the im- 
portant catechism of truisms which has been brought before 
him, that he really has the right of private judgment, and may 
actually use his senses and his bible in free inquiry. The Dis- 
senters have, by arguments, not certainly very recondite, however 
advantageously displayed, quite convinced him of what he knew 
perfectly well before. He jumps then to the conclusion to which 
he was to be brought, — that the Church, which denies him the 
privileges of free inquiry, and of using his own judgment, is 
oppressive, and not founded on truth ; and that the Dissenters, 
the champions of these privileges, who have taken such pains, 
and have used such cogent arguments, to convince him that he 
is entitled to them, must be every thing that Dissenters wish to 
be thought. 

This is all in the very best style, and according to the most 
approved rules: the sellers do not alarm the customer, and excite 
his suspicions of interested motives, by direct invitation to purchase, 
but allure his attention and engage his favour by the display of a 
marvellous solicitude for his interest and privileges, and at the same 
time indirectly raise the value of their commodity, and intimate that 
no other persons can possess it but themselves by a gmve caution, 
" Beware of counterfeits ! " The good honest man thus eagerly 
and thankfully receives fjom them, under a new name, and per- 
haps mixed up with pernicious ingredients, that which he already 
possessed in a plainer and better form. 

The reader of the above-mentioned dissertations in favour of 
the privilege of private judgment and free inquiry is in like 
manner deluded. While he is so well satisfied that his rig/its dire 
clearly proved, he has overlooked the important fact that the 
Established Church does not attempt to deprive her members j or 
any other persons, of those rights ; and that the Dissenters are 
neither the sole dispensers nor vindicators of them, nor the best 
practical guardians to whose care they may be committed. 



WITH REGARD TO THE EXERCISE OF FREE INQUIRY, ETC. O 

Let the Churchman be carefully reminded to keep his eye 
fixed on these points. I shall now examine them a little, and 
take leave to suggest a few hints upon them. 

The Dissenters, and particularly the Independents, claim to 
be the offspring of the old Puritans, and the often-cited autho- 
rity of Hume is brought forward to establish the title of the 
Puritans to be considered as the founders and assertors of civil 
and religious liberty. 

" Mr. Hume," (observes a writer of a Dissenting Society, com- 
bined for the purpose of depreciating the Established Church in 
the estimation of the country) " whom no one will accuse of par- 
tiality to the sentiments of these reformers, has remarked, that 
' the precious spark of liberty had been kindled and was preserved 
by the Puritans alone ; and it was to this sect that the English 
owe the whole freedom of their constitution.'" 

Now, it is expected that the reader of this passage is to receive 
as indisputable inferences that the principles of the modern Dis- 
senters are congenial with those of the ancient Puritans ; and that, 
as Mr. Hume affirms that the Puritans have been the founders 
and assertors of our religious liberties, therefore the Dissenters 
are the offspring of Puritanism, and are entitled to their propor- 
tion of the honour and gratitude of the nation. I am, however, 
rather a perverse pupil in these matters. I shall take upon my- 
self first to doubt Mr. Hume's authority as to the effect of Puri- 
tanism upon civil and religious freedom ; secondly, to remark, 
that if civil and religious freedom were really a part of their plan, 
they certainly regarded them in a very different point of view from 
that in which the Dissenters represent them now ; and, thirdly, 
to question whether they or the Dissenters, whenever power has 
fallen into their hands, were disposed to form their practice 
according to any such principles. 

That the spirit of free inquiry and of claiming the right of 
judgment originated with the Puritans, is contrary to the known 
facts of history. Luther surely preceded them, and even Luther's 
efforts and success were effects as well as instruments of that power 
which had been set in motion, and urged on by a variety of causes, 
gradually operating before Luther's time. Those causes had im- 
pelled the spirit of inquiry, and the exercise of freedom of judgment, 
with an impetus which was steadily and irresistibly increasing, and 
which, humanly speaking, could never have been arrested, though 
it might have been retarded, had Puritanism never have been heard 
of. Towhat extent the Puritansmay have promoted orhaveimpeded 
the cause of civil or religious liberty, cannot easily be determined. 
We see but one side of the picture : what would have taken 
place if the captious and vexatious squabbles about garments had 
never occurred, or if the atrocities of the successful rebellion had 
never been acted, can be only the subject of conjecture. Whe- 



4 THE PRINCIPLES OF THE ESTABLISHED CHURCH 

ther also, in the events which are now supposed to have had such 
a beneficial influence on the liberties of the nation, the real 
Puritans were any thing more than tools of ambitious partizans, 
artful politicians, or reckless levellers, with widely different 
views, may be also doubted. We know, that amongst them were 
disguised Jesuits — the most reckless panders of slavery and 
tyranny ; and even among some of their own leaders evidences 
of most arbitrary principles, and the blindest fanaticism, may be 
detected. I do not advert to these blots to detract from the 
real sincerity and piety of the Puritans, but simply to place them 
in their proper position, and to shew, that however their schism 
from the Church may be justified, their motives and measures 
were mingled with at least as much alloy of human passions, 
prejudices, and follies, as those of the men who remained attached 
to the Establishment. But however this might be, one thing is 
clear — that at first they had no idea of civil or religious liberty, 
such as the Dissenters now profess to claim. 

The first Puritans — the most learned and pious — would have 
recoiled from the disuniting, unsocial, and levelling principles 
laid down by the modern Dissenters. Far from denying the 
authority of the Established Church, or wishing to have it 
contemned, they would have died to preserve it. Even latterly 
they desired not the abolition of the Established Church, and 
professed both to deplore and deprecate any schism by which its 
unity was disturbed. They required only at first that certain 
amendments should be adopted : they desired to take away some 
things and alter others, so that their consciences might not be 
offended, or find a stumbling-block in joining its communion. 
How far concession in these cases could have been consistently 
made, or how far they would have had the effect of preventing 
more violent demands, (as it is always said that concessions would 
have done when they have not been made, and as they have 
never been found to do when they have been made,) it is foreign 
from my present purpose to consider ; but I contend, that the 
original Puritans had no affinity whatever with the present race 
of Dissenters : their views of church authority and communion 
were altogether different. 

However, from one step of opposition they proceeded to ano- 
ther, and at length came, certainly, in the reign of Charles the 
First, to the assertion of something like those rights of free inquiry 
and private judgment, which are now recommended by a portion of 
the Dissenters, — namely, hostility to the Established Church, and 
a free licence for all the dictates of fanaticism, or any other spring 
of action by which the multitude might be moved to rule the mi- 
nisters of religion, instead of being directed by them. No church 
authority, it was pretended, was to exist, — all were to be indulged 
in what were represented as the unshackled privileges of free 



WITH REGARD TO THE EXERCISE OF FREE INQUIRY, ETC. 5 

inquiry and private judgment. It so happened, however, that 
these supposed discoverers of this El Dorado of hum^n freedom 
and true religious hberty, were presented with an opportunity of 
fully developing in practice the working of their grand principles, 
and this right of private judgment, &c. They were armed with 
full power, and fortunately the results of the experiment are on 
record for our instruction. Weak and infatuated indeed will this 
nation be if it loses the benefit of such an example. 

Walker's '* Sufferings of the Clergy" is a book still in exist- 
ence, — a folio, full of the most tyrannical, inquisitorial, unmerci- 
ful persecution, — full of the most arbitrary and overbearing con- 
tempt and oppression of the rights of private judgment and con- 
science, — full of the wildest freaks of fanaticism, hypocrisy, 
folly, injustice, and robbery, that ever were exhibited in the 
annals of mankind. Hudibras, too, has in his witty pages im- 
mortalized the days — 

'* When zeal, with aged clubs and gleaves. 
Gave chace to rockets and white sleeves. 
And made the church and state and laws 
Submit fold women and the cause." 

These, in truth, were the works of the vindicators of the rights of 
private j udgment and free inquiry. By " their fruits ye shall know 
them." May we know them in time, before we be compelled to 
buy our own experience, when we can profit by that of others ; 
may we never have to pass through such an ordeal of licentious 
misrule, as to be compelled to seek refuge in despotism from the 
capricious and intolerable evils of anarchy. I regret to take this 
line of argument ; and I even now restrict my observations to 
those Dissenters who combine to charge the Church with denying 
the right of free inquiry and private judgment ; and to arrogate 
to themselves the merit of being the special protectors and cham- 
pions of this right. That many Dissenters are too upright and 
liberal to take such a course, I am aware, and am only sorry that 
any members of their body should compel me to take this mode 
of defence, injustice to the Established Church. 

I shall now close this paper with a few remarks upon the 
principles of the Established Church in regard to the right of 
private judgment, and free inquiry. The church does not, 
according to her principles, nor in her recent practice, deny that 
right*. On the contrary, she has from the reformation generally 
inculcated and maintained it. That occasional practices incon- 
sistent with such a principle may have prevailed — that the 



* There is probably no subject on which more has been said, and to less purpose, 
than this rt^r/t^ of private judgment. What is the practical rule which will satisfy a 
man's own conscience, and give him security that he is taking the best road to truth 
and salvation, when he has done disputing and asserting his real or fancied rights? — 
Ed. 



O THE PRINCIPLES OF TUE KSTABLISUED CHURCH 

members of the Established Church, as well as others, were not 
all at once able to emancipate themselves from the thraldom of 
former prejudices, but advanced only gradually with the times, 
will not be disputed. But I do contend, that her praclice has in 
the main corresponded with the principle of lespecling the rights 
of private judgment and free inquiry — the intent of any seeming 
restrictions has been purely defensive (whether they were cal- 
culated to effect the object in view, is another question) — she has 
been revered in foreign churches as a model of religious discipline 
and liberality, and looked up to as the bulwark of religious 
freedom. She has thus maintained her character and integrity 
under the temptation oi power ; while those who reviled her under 
the same trial of their integrity and wisdom, displayed to the world 
a signal failure — one of the most conspicuous exhibitions of in- 
tolerance, and folly, and cruelty, that ever marked the working of 
human depravity and delusion. 

The church does not deny the right of private judgment. She 
claims authority in matters of faith, but not infallibility. And 
with a plainness, which nothing but the most perverse misinter- 
pretation can obscure, she limits her authority to those doctrines, 
and those doctrines only, which may be proved from Scripture. 
This is clearly put by the writer of a tract entitled, " The Church 
of England defended from the Attacks of Modem Dissenters," 
&c.* 

" The authority which we ascribe to the rulers of the church being no more 
than is derived to them from the commission of Christ, must be consistent 
with the liberty which he has left to the rest of his subjects. For in whatever 
instances he has given another power to preside over us, to direct or command 
us, in those, it must be owned, he has not left us free ; and, consequently, 
whatever liberty they take from us, while they act within the limits of their 
commission, can be no part of that liberty which Christ has left us. Now, 
those limits would seem to be — 1st, That no person can lawfully exercise his 
authority in obliging us to believe any doctrine which Christ has not obliged 
us to believe. ' 2dly, That no person can lawfully exercise his authority in 
obliging us to perform any action which Christ has forbidden. 3dly, That no 
person can lawfully exercise his authority in imposing on us any indifFerentf 
action which Christ has not empowered him to impose.' These are the limits 
within which the authority of the Church of England is upheld, and they are 
limits which she imposes upon herself. With regard to the first two : Every 
precaution that is possible, in the laying down of her creeds and articles, has 
been taken to make her in perfect agreement with Scripture, both in the doctrines 



• This little pamphlet, published in 1830,by Seeley,has never attracted the attention 
it deserves. It contains in a small compass a very able vindication of the Church. 
I shall be glad if this notice should introduce it to the friends of the church generally. 
The author is, I have reason to believe, a very talented layman in tlie medical pro- 
fmnon, brought up in connection with dissent, consequently possessing many facilities 
forjudging of its practical tendency and results. 

f As the explanation of this assertion is not given, it is not fair to judge. But it 
surely is not meant that a Church may not require compUanee in indifferent matters. 
—En. 



WITH REGARD TO THE EXERCISE OF FREE INQUIRY, ETC. 7 

she inculcates, and in the heresies she condemns, the very words of Scripture 
being used in every case that was possible. And, for fear that ignorance, or the 
spirit of insubordination, should reject her authority upon the plea, or even the 
suspicion, that she wished to propose anything for belief that was antiscrip- 
tural, one of her articles (the twentieth) states expressly that nothing contrary 
to the Holy Scripture is intended or required. ' It is not lawful for the 
church to ordain anything that is contrary to God's word written ; neither 
may it so expound one place of Scripture that it be repugnant to another (a rule 
we earnestly recommend to our Dissenting brethren, whose whole system is 
built with this error). Wherefore, although the church be a witness and a 
keeper of Holy Writ, yet, as it ought not to decree anything against the same, 
so, besides the same, ought it not to enforce anything to be believed for 
necessity of salvation.' The sixth article is to the same effect : ' Holy Scrip- 
ture containeth all things necessary to salvation ; so that whatsoever is not 
read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man that it 
should be believed as an article of faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to 
salvation/ The sixth article is to the same effect : ' Holy Scripture containeth 
all things necessary to salvation, so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor 
may be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man that it should be be- 
lieved as an article of faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salvation.' 
What possible excuse, then, can be imagined for the part the Dissenters are 
taking .? She intends to enjoin nothing but what Scripture enjoins, and forbid 
nothing but what Scripture forbids ; and if in any instance any one can shew 
that her commands are anti-scriptural, she tells him that in such instance she 
is not to be obeyed. What should we think of any member of the civil 
government, or any child under family law, who should do as our Dissenting 
brethren do to the church under which God has placed them ? Surely her 
authority is entitled to as much consideration as that of the civil or the 
parental. The authority of civil governors and of parents has no higher 
sanction than the word of God, and the word of God also as plainly enjoins 
obedience to the church." 

These remarks appear to me well worthy of the deep con- 
sideration of those Dissenters who have lately displayed such 
inveterate and rancorous hostility against the Established Church, 
or who endeavour to represent her as wishing to curtail the right 
of private judgment, or to repress free inquiry. 

As a visible society, she claims authority to propose the terms 
of communion. It is essential to any society to do so. The 
principle, however modified or applied, is virtually recognized and 
acted upon in every Dissenting Society as well as in the Estab- 
lished Church. It regulates the appointment of a minister in 
Essex Street, not less than the admission of a candidate for orders 
at Lambeth. It is kept in view no less tenaciously at Hio;hbury 
and Homerton, than at Oxford and Cambridge. The authority 
of the church is binding on its members, but no farther than as 
her decisions are consistent with Scripture. She invites men to 
search the Scriptures ; — to assert their supremacy over tradition 
was one grand point on which she separated from the Church of 
Rome. She does not, indeed, tell every man that he is to disre- 
gard altogether the authority of the church — that any man, 
however unsuitable his qualifications, or insufficient his oppor- 
tunities and leisure, is to be sent to his bible, disregarding all 



8 THE PRINCIPLES OF THR ESTABLISHED CHURCH, ETC. 

the decisions and all the teachings of the church ; and that he is 
to form for himself a system of religion. No — she directs him to 
the leading summary of doctrine and discipline, prepared by the 
heads of that church — she directs him for such further aid as he 
may require to the public, or private instruction of an order of 
men, called and set apart according to the apostolic model, and 
the practice of the church in every age. And, finally, she refers 
him to Holy Scripture as the only test of these doctrines, and 
these teachers which are to have authority, onli/ as they agree 
with Holy Writ, Every man is free to make such inquiry, and 
to exercise his judgment. If she does not teach what Scripture 
teaches, she claims no obedience. All the limitation she places 
on this privilege is, that our liberty should not be used as a cloak 
of maliciousness. But the right of private judgment and free 
inquiry is to be exercised, as every other Christian right — at 
the peril of the individual. He is responsible to God and man 
for the abuse of it. It is not to be made a pretext for creating 
divisions in the church in every frivolous difficulty, and still less 
from any unhallowed passion. Such an exercise of the right of 
private judgment is, we contend, schismatic and sinful. This is 
the ground on which I meet the question asked by the Dissenter 
— why is he to be branded with the title of schismatic because 
he chooses to exercise his undoubted right of private judgment, 
and to separate from the Established Church ? To this I answer, 
that whether he is branded as a schismatic, must depend upon 
the ostensible ground on which he separates. The church, as a 
visible society, does no more in laying down the terms of com- 
munion, than she is warranted in by the practice of Dissenters 
themselves. In denominating him who rashly separates and 
divides the church schismatic, the members of the church are 
not destitute of the sanction of primitive and scriptural authorities. 
As far as regards the separatist himself, it is a matter between him 
and his God ; and whether he will hereafter be considered in the 
light of a schismatic, must depend upon a judgment less fallible 
than ours, and which will not, whatever the world may decide, 
award him an unjust portion. But whether he is to be " branded^* 
as a schismatic, or, in other words, whether the church shall 
pronounce him such, and the public confirm her verdict, will 
generally depend, and ought to depend upon the weight of his 
alleged reasons for separation. But it is time I should close 
this paper ; and I shall, in conclusion, again avail myself of the 
admirable little tract which I before quoted — 

*' We know that the principles which the Dissenters are ever advocating, 
(setting the spiritual against the literal, the substance against the form, the 
invisible against the visible) are such that, if fully carried out, no church, as a 
visible subordinated society, could exist. The service of God and all religious 
duty being, from the nature of man (conditioned in a body under the laws of 
sense and of time,) necessarily connected with form and mode, the progress of 
a church's corruption must be always to lose the spirit out of the form (by 



ITALIAN PSALMODY. 9 

which alone, as its proper vehicle, it can be expressed) ; then, the spirit being 
gone, Satan's next temptation is, that it should give up the form, as its 
retention would savour of blasphemy and hypocrisy. Here the principles of 
Dissenters, with regard to this Christian nation, come in to help Satan. They, 
because their baptized countrymen are sinking into formality, or in proportion 
as they do sink, preach to them schism as the corrective, — they induce them 
to look upon all their present church obligations as empty formalities ; to con- 
sider themselves unregenerate ; and then, having put them into the condition 
of heathens again, they, by stimulating what little religious feeling is left in 
them, form them into new churches, upon still less secure and substantial 
principles ; principles which, being for the most part negative and metaphysical, 
will hold them together only so long as they have in an established church 
principles that are positive and embodied to oppose. The principles of Dissent, 
therefore, are principles upon which every social institution may be attacked 
and pulled down, but none built up. As they are inconsistent with any 
authority in the church, so they are detrimental to all order and Christian 
obligation in the State ; for they will as easily break up the relations between 
subject and king, servant and master, child and parent, as between pastor and 
flock, church and state. In fine, they are principles by which the devil has 
succeeded in detaching a great body of God's own people, to work for his 
ends, unknowingly, in the ranks of the Democrat, the Unitarian, and the 
Infidel." ' M. 



ITALIAN PSALMODY. 

SAVERIO MATTEL 

Perhaps one of the most beautiful arrangements introduced 
by the Ferrars into the establishment at Gidding was that of 
Night Watchings, by which an uninterrupted course of Psalmody 
was kept up during the twenty four hours, so that no portion of the 
day or night passed in which some member of the family was 
not employed in what has been so well styled the most pleasant 
part of duty and devotion. The enthusiasm with which the 
Ferrars regarded the Psalms has been felt by the most learned 
and gifted men in all ages. Bishop Home has gracefully ob- 
served that " they are the epitome of the bible adapted to the 
purposes of devotion, and that for this purpose they are adorned 
with figures and set off with the graces of poetry, and poetry 
itself designed yet further to be recommended by the charms of 
music, thus consecrated to the service of God ; that so delight 
may prepare the way for improvement, and pleasure become the 
handmaid of wisdom, while every turbulent passion is charmed 
by sacred melody, and the evil spirit is still dispossessed by 
the harp of the son of Jesse." These were the words of one who 
always uttered the thoughts of a Christian with the lips of 
a poet. In all the changing scenes of our life the gentle spirit of 
the Psalms walks by our side, rejoicing with us in our joy, and 
Vol. III.— /«w. 1833. c 



10 ITALIAN PSALMODY. 

weeping with us in our sorrow. We flee in fear from the terrible 
and denouncing prophets — but we throw ourselves in brotherly 
confidence upon the neck of David. 

Italy is rich in devotional poetry, and I may enter more fully 
into the subject at a future period ; at present I am desirous 
to confine myself to the introduction of a few specimens 
of the Italian Psalms of Saverio Mattei. It will therefore, 
for this purpose, be sufficient to observe that he was one 
of the most distinguished scholars who adorned Italy in the 
eighteenth century, and that he was the chosen friend of 
Cesarotti and Metastasio. In another paper I may give some 
further information respecting him. The works of Mattei were 
published at Naples, in eleven volumes, in 1780; and that portion 
which comprises the dissertations upon Hebrew poetry will well 
repay the trouble of perusal. The Abbate Cesarotti, writing from 
Padua in 1778, says, in allusion to the Treatise upon Sacred 
Poetry, " that he does not remember to have seen so much 
erudition united to such vigour of reasoning, or so much 
originality of thought combined with such accuracy of investi- 
gation. Everything," he continues, " is solid, luminous, and 
delightful." 

"The following Psalm, the 77th," Mattei remarks, "may 
be considered as a brief poem, complete in itself; it contains 
the history of all the most beautiful and wonderful miracles 
wrought by the Deity in favour of the Israelites, from the time 
of their departure from Egypt until the reign of David." I 
ought to observe, before I offer my translation, that Mattei's 
knowledge of Hebrew frequently led him to adopt some new 
interpretation of various passages, and I have preserved some of 
these alterations in the following version. 



When the clouds do gather round me 
And my heart is sick with fear. 

To God I flee — my spirit weepeth ; 
Unto Him my sighs are dear. 

II. 

If in the hushed dark I kneel. 

Am suppliant in the hour of pain, 

With outstretched hands — my lowly prayer 
Never goeth forth in vain ! 

III. 

Alas ! my faint heart heedeth not 

The song of comfort more ; 
My sweetest One I cannot find, 

Th« peaccfulness of yore ! 



ITALIAN PSALMODY. H 



IV, 



Yea, I, have lost my dearest joy. 
My bosom's beauty-spell ; 

Amid such woes I cannot live. 
Apart from Him I cannot dwell] 



Ah, no ! the light hath not departed 
Of those days — my memory liveth ; 

Yea, for those gleeful days, the tear 
Unto mine eyes fond memory giveth. 



With lonely watchings on my bed 

My eyes are tired and weak. 
To me no gentle slumber cometh. 

My thoughts are dark — I dare not speak ! 



And where art thou, my gentle lyre. 
With thy soft and soothing tone ? 

If I had thee in my morning. 
My heart would not be all alone. 

VIII. 

At length the shadows pass away 
From my soul, and on my eyes 

The light of gladness breaks, as thoughts 
Of nobler aim begin to rise ! 



It cannot be that Sion*s Lord 

My prayers, my weepings, hath forgot- 
His first and his most tender love 

The Blessed One remembereth not ! 



Lord ! shall thy mercy-lighted face 
For aye be turned away from me. 

And all my early hopes be vain 

Which I have treasured up in thee ? 

XI. 

No, no, my spirit, kneel and pray. 
And the mighty Hand which shed 

The thunder-storm upon the earth. 
Shall fold in peace upon thy head. 



Lord ! my memory recalleth 
The wonders thou hast done. 

And the glory of thy power. 
And the fights thine arm won. 



ITALIAN PSALMODT. 



XIII. 



I cannot look upon thy face. 

Thy secret thoughts I cannot see — 

But they are true — hath heaven or earth 
Another God like thee ? 



XIV. 



Wonderful and Holy One ! 

The voice of time hath told 
The terrors of thine arm, thy deeds 

Unto the men of old. 



The v^aters saw Thee, and they shook — 
The w^aters saw Thee, and the wave 

Fled before thy breath of wrath — 
Sunk into its ocean cave. 

XVI. 

The veil of clouds is rent asunder. 

The rain descends — ^the hail-storm soundeth. 
And, with the wakening voice of thunder. 

The Heaven reboundeth ! 



The Italian of the 7th stanza is very sweet — 

E tu mia cetera dove pur Sei ? 
T' avessi in questa mia solitudine ! 
Almen quest' anima consolerei. 



This is one of those psalms which may be properly called 
beautiful without, and glorious within, *' like apples of gold in 
pictures, or network in cases of silver." 

My next specimen is from the 143rd psalm — 

Air alma afflitta e timida 
Chi mai dara consiglio ? 
Che '1 cor languente, e dubbio 
Consola in tal periglio ? 

Tu sol che ne' pericoli 
Neir aspre cure, e gravi 
Sai, che a te sol correvaao 
I nostri padri ed avi. 

Stendo le raani, e pregoti 
Signor, le grazie affretta, 
Guardami ! lo sono un arido 
Terren, che piaggia aspetta. 



ITALIAN PSALMODY. 13 

Basta un tuo sguardo placido, 
Basta per mio comforto. 
Ma presto, o Dio, socorrimi, — 
Se tardi, io gia son morto. 

Non son miei prieghi inutili, 
Ne vana e la speranza, — 
Verran, verran tue grazie. 
Prima che il di s* avanza. 



Who will speak comfort to the soul 
Worn out with grief and care ? 
And who will raise the fainting heart. 
And bid it not despair ? 



O Thou alone amid the night 
Of our mourning. Lord, art near. 
As in the ancient days — thine arm 
Awake to save, thine ear to hear ! 

III. 

Father ! I lift my hands, and pray 
That Grace upon my heart my fall, — 
Keep me ! for I am like a thirsty land 
That for thy blessed rain doth call. 



I only ask one look of thine 

My bitter tears to dry. 

But haste, and succour me, O Lord, 

Oh, hasten, or I die ! 



I know my prayers are not in vain. 
Nor vain my hope in thee ; 
Before the morn doth wake again. 
Thy Grace will come to me. 

I have only time to add two or three verses from the 50th 
psalm, which breathes a gentle quietness and grace well expressed 
in the phrase of the Italian writer — tenera vemistd : 

Speak to me. Father, with that voice 
Which oft my sorrow hath beguil'd ; 
Let silver-footed Peace come back 
Unto thy weeping child ! 

But ere my memory doth renew 

The hymns I sang of old. 

Unbind the chain of grief, for on my lips 

The breath of song hath long been cold. 



14 HISTORY OF THE 

And then thy praise in gleeful measure 
Shall wfiJce on every bounding string. 
While round my harp the people gather 
To listen to the lays I sing. 



HISTORY OF THE SCOTTISH EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

No. II. 

Previous to the year 1792, when the penal laws which had so 
severely affected the Scottish Episcopal church were repealed by 
the legislature, there were many Episcopalians in Scotland, who 
were not non-jurors, but who professed to be members of the 
Church of England. Amongst this class may be enumerated 
those English families who resorted to Scotland, and finally fixed 
their residence in some of the great towns ; EngUsh mechanics 
employed in the manufactories, potteries, &c. ; and many of the 
indigenous Scottish Episcopalians of rank, who chose rather to 
resort to the quaiykd chapels, as they were termed, than forfeit 
the political privileges whicn the Act of 1748 denied them, if they 
persisted in tneir adherence to the ancient communion. In the 
cities, and many of the large towns, there were congregations of 
this description, who easily procured clergymen from England, 
or, as it sometimes happened, Scotchmen in English orders ; and 
those clergymen, being thus ordained in England or Ireland, were 
duly qualified according to the Act of 1748, and, ha^-ing taken the 
necessary oaths of allegiance and abjuration, received the sanction 
of government. It was evident that, previous to the year 1788, 
when Prince Charles Edward died, tnese clergymen could not, 
on account of their political situation, submit to the jurisdiction 
of the Scottish bishops, because the former, at their ordination in 
England, had taken those oaths which the Scottish Episcopal 
clergy had refused to take, so long as any member of the exiled 
family was in existence. But, on the other hand, they laboured 
under all the disadvantages resulting from the want of Episcopal 
authority. No English or Irish bishop can have jurisdiction in 
Scotland, and consequently these clergymen were amenable to 
no superior ecclesiastical cognizance, while their chapels were 
unconsec rated, and the young persons of their congregations un- 
confirmed. Although professing to be Episcopalians, they were, 
in reality, Independents, for every one who knows any thing of 
the constitution of the Christian Church, must perceive, at once, 
that to term churches or chapels Episcopal, which are not under 
the jurisdiction of any bishop, is a complete contradiction of 
terms. 



SCOTTISH EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 15 

Many of the English ordained clergy, indeed, who well under- 
stood the constitution of the Church, were aware of their peculiar 
situation, and felt all the inconveniences resulting from it ; but, 
until the penal laws were removed, it appeared to them that they 
could not consistently unite with the Scottish Church. As soon, 
however, as those laws were repealed, the Scottish bishops took 
steps to promote a union of all the clergy of English ordination 
with the indigenous clergy, beginning with those of Edinburgh, 
concluding that an example of sound principles might thus be 
given from the metropolis to the clergy in other towns and vil- 
lages in Scotland. The late Bishop Skinner was at that time the 
head of the Scottish bishops, and it occurred to that prelate, that 
the most likely means to effect a speedy union, would be to invite 
a sound and orthodox clergyman from England into Scotland, to 
be there consecrated a Scottish bishop, with the jurisdiction of the 
diocese of Edinburgh. Dr. Abernethy Drummond was at that 
time bishop of the united diocese of Edinburgh, Fife, and Glas- 
gow ; but that venerable prelate expressed his willingness to dis- 
join Edinburgh from his jurisdiction, in order to promotea measure 
which would not only tend to strengthen the Church in Scotland, 
but also unite her more closely with the Church of England. 

The plan was wise, although in this instance it was not destined 
to be accomplished. The gentleman proposed to be advanced to 
the Scottish Episcopate was the late Rev. Jonathan Boucher, then 
Vicar of Epsom, — a man who had suffered much for his loyalty 
in America, and whose principles and conduct made him respect- 
ed and revered by all who knew him. So highly was he esteemed, 
that he at one time was thought of for the bishopric of Nova 
Scotia, to which Dr. Inglis was appointed ; and the Archbishop 
of Canterbury was even entreated to obtain him for Canada. There 
can be little doubt, that if Mr. Boucher had become a member of 
the Scottish Episcopate, a more humble, though not less aposto- 
lical elevation than that which his friends in England wished 
him to obtain, he would have accomplished that union between 
the English and Scottish clergy which was so ardently desired 
by the bishops. This, at least, was the opinion of Dr. Abernethy 
Drummond, who, in a letter to Bishop Skinner, dated 13th March, 
1793, states, " that he most cheerfully adopted the plan which he 
(Bishop Skinner) and Bishop Watson (of Dunkeld) proposed, 
and would immediately resign in favour of the worthy vicar of 
Epsom, if he should be so good as to accept the see of Edin- 
burgh." 

After some correspondence, Mr. Boucher visited Edinburgh ; 
and his reception, to use his own words, was '* highly flattering 
and favourable." " As for myself," says he to Bishop Skinner, 
" God is my witness, I have much at heart the furtherance of his 



16 HISTORY OF THE 

glory, and the welfare of his church. If these are promoted, it 
IS very immaterial whether it be by me or not. I can have no 
worldly interest in view ; wherefore do I request and charge you 
to suffer no undue partiality for me, however flattering and grate- 
ful that partiahty may in other respects be to me, to influence 
your judgment. The gratifying of such feelings neither is, nor 
ought to be, beneath our notice ; but in the present instance, 
much higher interests demand our attention." Unfortunately, 
however, the purposes of the church were in this instance frus- 
trated. A report was propagated, that " the scheme in agitation 
was to introduce bishops into Scotland, with the sanction of go- 
vernment, and on such a footing as to entitle them to some legal 
jurisdiction." Mr. Boucher at once declined proceeding farther 
in the matter ; but continued, during his useful life, a warm sup- 
porter of that humble church which had thus, by the ignorant and 
fanatical rumour above alluded to, been deprived of his valuable 
services. This excellent man died suddenly, in 1804, regretted by 
all with whom he was connected. 

In the mean time, many of the clergy submitted to the juris- 
diction and authority of the Scottish bishops. Among the first 
of these may be mentioned, the congregation at Banff", of which 
the Rev. Charles Cordiner was minister, — a gentleman who greatly 
distinguished himself by his antiquarian researches. The clergy 
and congregations of Cruden, Peterhead, and Stonehaven (Aber- 
deenshire), Musselburgh and Leith (in Mid-Lothian), and va- 
rious other congregations, all voluntarily united themselves to the 
Scottish Episcopal Church, as did also all the chapels in the 
cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow. So convinced were the clergy 
of their duty in this respect, that, previous to the year 1805, all 
those of English ordination had acknowledged the Scottish Epis- 
copal authority in the united diocese of Edinburgh, with the ex- 
ception of two, viz., those of Kelso and Dumfries ; both of whom, 
however, with their congregations, subsequently adhered. A few 
in the northern dioceses remained, nevertheless, in a state of sepa- 
ration ; but they are now reduced to the number of three, and 
these we shall notice more particularly in the sequel. 

From the year 1793 to the year 1804, no event of particular 
interest occurred in the Scottish Episcopal Church, except the 
consecration of the present venerable Bishop of Moray, Dr. 
Alexander Jolly, as coadjutor to the late Bishop Macfarlane of 
Ross and Argyle. During that interval, we find the bishops and 
clergy occasionally approaching the throne with loyal addresses 
and congratulations, which were on every occasion most graciously 
received. The only circumstance of a local nature was the con- 
stitution of the Scottish Episcopal Friendly Society in 1793-4, 
which will be more particularly noticed afterwai*ds. In 1803, 



SCOTTISH EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 17 

Bishop Skinner, of Aberdeen, published his well-known work, 
entitled '' Primitive Truth and Order vindicated from Modern 
Mis-representation, with a Defence of Episcopacy, particularly 
that of Scotland, against an attack made upon it by the late 
Dr. Campbell, of Aberdeen, in his Lectures on Ecclesiastical 
History, with a Concluding Address to the Episcopalians of 
Scotland." The work to which the Bishop wrote this admirable 
reply, was a posthumous performance of the celebrated Dr. 
George Campbell, Principal of Mareschal College, in the Univer- 
sity of Aberdeen, and contained the substance of his prelections 
to the theological students of that College. The " Lectures on 
Ecclesiastical History" contained a violent tirade against Epis- 
copacy in general, and that of Scotland in particular, asserting 
"that not only the polity of the Church of England seems 
to have been devised (!) for the express purpose of rendering the 
clerical character odious, and the disciphne contemptible, but 
that, as no axiom in philosophy is more indisputable than that 
* qtiod millihi est, non est, the ordination of our present Scottish 
Episcopal Clergy is solely from Presbyters, for it is allowed that 
those men who came under the hands of Bishop Rose, of Edin- 
burgh, had been regularly admitted ministers or presbyters in 
particular congregations before the Revolution ; and to that first 
ordination," adds the Principal, " I maintain that their farcical 
consecration by Dr. Rose and others, when they were solemnly 
made the depositories of no deposits, commanded to be diligent 
in doing no work, vigilant in the oversight of no flock, assiduous 
in teaching and governing no people, and presiding in no church, 
added nothing at all."— (Vol. i. p. 74, 355, 356.) 

The orthodox reader will probably smile at Dr. Campbell's 
opinion of the polity of the Church of England — an opinion so 
strange as to induce us to call in question the reputation of the 
writer. As to his assertions relative to Scottish Episcopacy, it is 
needless to observe, that no Presbyterian can understand the 
nature of the Episcopal succession, for ordination in the Presby- 
terian communion is held to be a mere form, the call of the 
people, being that, according to them, which constitutes a minister. 
No man but an Erastian will maintain that unless a church be 
established by the civil power, it is no church, but a mere 
schismatical association. An Act of Parliament may dissolve the 
church as the legal Establishment ; but it can neither make nor 
unmake it — it can only take away that which it gave, viz. certain 
rights and privileges; but it cannot affect the apostolical suc- 
cession, which it never had in its power at any time to confer. 
The sneer at Dr. Rose's consecrations and ordinations, after he 
was ejected at the Revolution from the See of Edinburgh, is as 
ineffectual as it is ignorant and illiberal. The first Protestant 

FoL. lll.^Jan. 1833. d 



18 HISTORY OP TSfi 

Revolution Bishops in Scotland were the Rev. John Sage, 
formerly one of the ministers of Glasgow, and the Rev. John 
Fullarton, minister of Paisley, both of whom had received Epis- 
copal ordination as presbyters, when Episcopacy was the national 
religion of Scotland. These two Bishops were consecrated, in 
1705, by Dr. John Paterson, the deprived Archbishop of Glasgow, 
Dr. Robert Douglas, the deprived Bishop of Dunblane, and Dr. 
Alexander Rose, the deprived Bishop of Edinburgh. There were 
six consecrations held afterwards, during Bishop Rose's life-time, 
that prelate having survived all the deprived Bishops for a few 
years, at all of which he assisted, along with Bishop Douglas, 
during the life of that prelate. It is by these and the subsequent 
consecrations that the apostolical order has been preserved in 
Scotland to the present time. 

- It is unnecessary, in this historical sketch, to offer any analysis 
of Bishop Skinner's work — a volume which has had a most exten- 
sive circulation, and which ought, especially in these times, to be 
in the hands of every member of the Episcopal Church throughout 
the empire. The worthy prelate received many congratulatory 
letters respecting it from some of the most distinguished clergy- 
men of the Church of England, and so convincing are its 
arguments that it has never received a reply. It is worthy of 
remark, that a presbyterian minister of the present Established 
Church, who held the office of Principal of St. Mary's College, 
and Professor of Divinity in the University of St. Andrew's, 
pronounced " Primitive Truth and Order" to be the best defence 
of Episcopacy in the English language, and more than a sufficient 
refutation of Dr. Campbell. 

While Bishop Skinner thus gained a complete victory over the 
illiberal attacks of his deceased antagonist, the publication of his 
work was attended with the happiest consequences to the church. 
It was so generally read in Scotland by Episcopalians, that it 
tended to revive the desire for union between the remaining 
English clergy and those of Scottish ordination, and that 
measure, which had been frustrated in 1793, was now destined to 
be accomplished. In order to accelerate the measure. Bishop 
Skinner, who was then head of the Episcopal College, summoned 
a general convention of the whole Church at Laurencekirk, in the 
county of Aberdeen, on the 24 th day of October, 1804, the 
purpose of which meeting was, as the Bishop expressed himself 
in his circular to the clergy, " to exhibit, in the most solemn 
manner, a public testimony of our conformity in doctrine and 
discipline with the Church of England, and thereby to remove 
every obstacle to the union of the Episcopalians of Scotland." 

It is to be observed that, previous to this pferiod, one of thte 
great objections to the Scottish Episcopal Church by the English 



SCOTTISH EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 19 

Episcopalians in Scotland was, the want of a confessional, or 
acknowledged Articles of Faith; for, although the Act of 1792, 
which removed the penal laws, had made it imperative that all 
the clergy should sign the Thirty-nine Articles, such a public 
acknowledgment had either been neglected or delayed. Mean- 
while, previous to the meeting of the convocation, a corres- 
pondence commenced between the late Right Rev. Dr. Sandford 
and Bishop Skinner on the subject of union, in which the former 
stated, that however anxiously a union might be desired, sub- 
scription to the Thirty-nine Articles would be indispensable; and 
that, were these Articles made "the permanent confessional of the 
Scottish Episcopal communion, the continuance in separation of 
the English clergy could not be justified on any ground which 
would bear the scrutiny of ecclesiastical principles." ^ 

This excellent prelate, then Dr. Sandford, and formerly 
Student of Christ Church, Oxford, had since the year 1792 
resided in Edinburgh, where he officiated to a most respectable 
and intelligent congregation of Episcopalians, not under the 
jurisdiction of the Scottish bishops. The worth, piety, an4 
learning of Dr. Sandford were universally known, and any repre- 
sentations from him were certain of having qi due influence. 
Accordingly, these communications had the desired effect. The 
convocation assembled at Laurence kirk on the appointed day, 
at which were present four bishops, thirty-eight presbyters, and 
two deacons. After divine service was concluded, the convocation 
was formally constituted by Bishop Skinner, and the thirty-nine 
articles of the church of England, without alteration or addition, 
were adopted and subscribed as the permanent standard of the 
Scottish Episcopal Church, and enjoined to be subscribed in all 
time coming by evevy candidate for holy orders. And as many 
of the indigenous clergy used the eucharistical office as set forth 
in the Scottish service-book of Charles I., it was enjoined that 
the English clergy uniting themselves to the church should be 
at liberty to use the communion office as Lt is contained in the 
Book of Common Prayer. As soon as the convocation was dis- 
solved. Bishop Skinner addressed a letter to each of the Arch- 
bishops and Bishops of the Church of England, including the 
Bishop of Sodor and Man, and to the Archbishop of Armagh, as 
Primate of the Irish church, making known to these prelates the 
result of the convocation. Letters were received in reply, frona 
almost the whole of their Lordships, expressing sentiments of the 
most friendly regard for the Episcopal Church in Scotland, and 
their fervent wishes for her prosperity. 

Dr. Sandford now made no hesitation in uniting himself ancj 

* Reniains of Bishop Sandford, vol. i. p. 46. 



20 HISTORY OF THE 

his congregation to the Scottish Episcopal Church, and accord- 
ingly acknowledged Bishop Skinner, of Aberdeen, as his Dio- 
cesan, the See of Edinburgh being then vacant by the resignation 
of Dr. Abernethy Drummond. On this occasion, he addressed 
his congregation in a most affecting manner, in which he laid 
before them the reasons which had induced him to adopt the 
course he had done, shewing them the benefits of episcopal juris- 
diction, and proving to them that a continuance in a state of 
separation was unnecessary, and consequently schismatic. 

The example of Dr. Sandford was followed by the Rev. Archi- 
bald Alison, LL.B., one of the ministers of the Cowgate chapel, 
Edinburgh ; the Rev. Robert Morehead, M.A., then minister of 
the chapel in Leith, afterwards Mr. Alison's colleague ; and by 
others of the clergy of the city of Edinburgh. Only two 
attempts were made to disturb the now prosperous state and 
the future prospects of the church. A layman in the town of 
Banff, where the two congregations had united, after in vain 
attempting to make an impression on the members by his repre- 
sentations of the doctrines and discipline of the church, raised a 
process before the Supreme Courts of Scotland, with a view to 
dissolve the union of the two chapels. The defendants were 
successful, but obtained their victory at the expence of law 
charges amounting to 270/. This sum, to which the factious 
opposition of one individual subjected them, the united congre- 
gation of Banff would have been unable to pay, had it not been 
for the kindness of Dr. Horsley, the distinguished Bishop of St. 
Asaph, and well known friend of the Scottish Episcopal Church. 
His Lordship instituted a subscription among the English and 
Irish bishops, and procured from these prelates and from private 
individuals and clergymen in England, the sum of 294/. 5s., 
which he remitted to Scotland, and thus relieved the united 
chapels of Banff from their serious embarrassments. Tlie other 
attempt to disturb the peace of the church was made by an 
English divine, residing in Scotland, the Rev. Alexander Grant, 
D.D., " minister of the English Episcopal congregation in 
Dundee," who published what he termed " an apology for con- 
tinuing in the communion of the church of England." A copy 
of this pamphlet was transmitted by Dr. Grant to Bishop 
Horsley, and also to the other prelates of the church of England. 
From the Bishop of St. Asaph, however, he received a reproof, 
which silenced him on the subject; although he continued during 
his life in a state of separation from the other bishops, he did 
not, I believe, receive any reply. " It has long been my opinion," 
says the Bishop of St. Asaph to Dr. Grant, " and very well 
known to be my opinion, that the laity in Scotland of the Epis- 
copal persuasion, if they understand the genuine principles of 



SCOTTISH EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 21 

episcopacy which they profess, ought in the present state of things 
to resort to the ministry of their indigenous pastors ; and the 
clergymen of Enghsh or Irish ordination, without uniting with 
the Scottish bishops, are, in my judgment, doing nothing better 
than keeping aUve a schism. I find nothing in your tract to 
alter my mind on these points." 

In 1805, the only congregation in the Scottish metropolis 
which had been hitherto in a state of separation, St. George's, 
York-place, was united to the church, on the appointment of the 
Rev. Richard Shannon, of Trinity College, Dublin, to be the 
minister. 

The see of Edinburgh v/as at this time vacant by the resigna- 
tion of Dr. Abernethy Drummond, and it was evident that most 
important interests were involved in the appointment of his suc- 
cessor. The Scottish Episcopal Church was in a more prosperous 
situation than she had ever been since the Revolution : — the penal 
laws removed, acknowledged by the state, and in full communion 
with the chuich of England. In this state of things, the former 
plan of electing a clergyman in English orders to the vacant See 
was revived, and it received the hearty concurrence of those of 
Scottish ordination. The choice of the Edinburgh clergy fell on 
Dr. Sandford, as being the person to whom the Episcopalians 
were chiefly indebted for the union they enjoyed, and he was 
accordingly elected and consecrated at Dundee, on the 9th of 
February, 1806, Bishop Skinner of Aberdeen, Bishop Jolly of 
Moray, and Bishop Watson of Dunkeld, being the officiating 
prelates. Dr. Walker, now Bishop Sandford's successor in the 
See of Edinburgh, preached the ordination sermon, which was 
afterwards published, and excited considerable interest at the 
time. The fruits of the election of Bishop Sandford to the epis- 
copate are obvious from the rapid increase of the communion over 
which he presided. During the time he held the episcopate, 
from 1806 to 1830, the number of clergy under his jurisdiction 
increased from seven to twenty-five, of whom, says the author of 
his memoir, " five, formerly independent, submitted themselves to 
his control, and seven officiate in congregations recently formed, 
and sanctioned for the first time by himself." 

In 1807, no event of any consequence occurred in the history of 
Scottish Episcopacy. That year, however, is marked by the death 
of the Rev. John Skinner, of Longside, Aberdeenshire, the 
venerable and truly pious incumbent of that humble and rustic 
district for more than half-a-century. This clergyman was one 
of those who, as observed in my former paper, was persecuted by 
the government for his religion, he having been imprisoned in 
Forfar jail for six months, for no other offence than that of having 
performed divine service to more than Jive persons. He was a 



22 ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 

profound scholar and theologian ; while he was no less dis- 
tinguished as a Scottish poet ; and, as such, he was appreciated by 
some of the most eminent men of his time, who were his friends 
and correspondents. His " Ecclesiastical History of Scotland, 
from the earliest period to the year 1788," although peculiar in 
style, and defective in arrangement, is the only history of value 
which we possess. He died in the arms of his son, the late 
Bishop of Aberdeen, whom he had the happiness to see at the 
head of the Episcopal College. His memory, his genius, and his 
virtues, are still cherished by the Scottish Episcopalians ; and of 
him it may be truly said, in the words of the poet, that 

" A man he was to all the country dear ; 
And passing rich with forty pounds a year."* 

C To be continued. ) 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 

In a preceding number I directed my readers' attention to the 
following facts : — 

1. That in' the Roman buildings the arch was used only for conve- 
nience ; and instead of courting admiration, shrunk from notice. 

2. That the architects of the middle ages did not imitate the 
Romans only because they could not. 

3. That the rib and pointed arch were introduced, 7iot as orna- 
ments, but as necessary deformities, 

4. That it was the unavoidable prominence of these features 
which, by giving taste a compulsory direction, as it were, drove 
men into the peculiarities of the Gothic, or rather Catholic, style. 

This last assertion I illustrated in the history of the rib, which, 
on its first introduction, was ornamented almost at random, as will 
readily be perceived in the following specimens (see Plate) : No. I, 
fig. 1, a rib in Iffley church; fig. 2, a cluster of ribs in St. Peter's 
church, Oxford ; fig. 3, a rib in the north aisle of Romsey Abbey. 
The designers of these ribs seem to have been feeling their way 
in the dark ; yet, if I am right in fancying that these attempts 
succeeded one another chronologically, in the order I have assigned 
to them, even here we may discern a tendency towards the cha- 
racter which ultimately prevailed, the section of fig. 3, if taken 
half-way between the points a, a, being not unlike that which I 
took from the aisles of Christ Church chancel. In the progress 



• It may Imj here observed, that Mr. Skinner's emoluments never exceeded the 
above sum ; and too many of the present clergy are at present in the same situation. 
The district in which he ^pent his long life is a perfect wildeoiess. The tlutdied 
house or dwelling in which lie resided is still pointed out to strangers. 



Fiq. 1. 



Fig. II. 





Fig 



a /3 





Fig. III. 




{See page 22.] 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 



^• 



m 



of the works at Christ Church, the elastic character of which the 
rib was susceptible seems to have occurred distinctly to the architect, 
and was sufficiently brought out by him in the aisles of the nave, 
to approve itself afterwards as a pattern. Fig. B (in my last arti- 
cle) is the section which prevails throughout that most elegant 
structure, the Christ Church chapter-house; and fig. C, which, 
in effect, differs but little from it, is perhaps the most exquisite of 
the forms which has yet been devised for this purpose. 

This I stated more in detail in the concluding part of my last 
article : in the present it will be my object to trace the steps by 
which the idea of what, in my last article, I called elasticity 
found its way into other parts of the system. 

And first, as regards the mouldings of the intercolumnar arches. 

When the Romans substituted the arch for the epistylium, they 
did not attempt to ornament it appropriately, but gave it the 
appearance of a hent architrave. INio. 2, fig. 1, is the com- 
mon Grecian architrave ; fig. 2, the I\omi)n misapplication of 
it. This device is obviously unmeaning ; indeed, its defect is 
acknowledged by the practice of modern architects, who, for the 
sake of relief, frequently have recourse to a second arch, (as in fig. 
3,) parallel to the first, and leceding behind it. A relief of the 
same kind was sought in the middle ages, by modifying the form 
of the Roman architrave. Fig. 2 was turned into Hg. 4 ; the recess 
detached the line a. from 3, and thus gave the effect of a second 
receding arch. 

With a slight modification of the form x, fig. 5 represents a 
horizontal section of two arches, such as fig. 4, resting back to 
back on the same pier, and branching in opposite directions : the 
dotted line represents the pier, or rather column, on which they 
rest. This fig. is taken from the nave of Christ Church ; (s) is the 
section of a perpendicular shaft, which apparently supports the 
vaulting, and which terminates in some fanciful ornament, where 
it comes in contact with (x) (x). I shall not be very wrong in 
ascribing this specimen to the last few years of the reign of 
Henry I. So far, then, I find the treatment of the Gothic intei^ 
columnar arch corresponding closely with the Roman, indeed 
deviating from it only in that respect in which modern imitators 
of Roman architecture have allowed themselves to deviate from it. 
Fig. 6 is a corresponding section taken from the work of Wil- 
liam of Sens, at Canterbury. It is evidently a modification, and 
by no means a violent one, of fig. 5; but the striking thing about it 
is this, — that it differs from fig. 5 and fig. 3 just in those respects 
iri which figs. 5 and 3 differ from fig. 2. The rods (a) (/S) are still 
farther enlarged, and the recess ^ deepened, as if William of Sens 
had recognized in Christ Church, or some similar building, an 
approximation to the form which his eye felt the want of, and 
was encouraged to feel his way a step farther. By these two 



24 ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 

changes he made so great a difference in the ratio of the hne 
N O to O P, that the interval between a, a, became insignifi- 
cant, and the four rods a, a, (3, /3, were thrown into a single 
group. 

And now let us suppose each of these rods to undergo the change 
which metamorphosed fig. A into fig. B in the last article ; and 
we shall have a form not materially differing from fig. 7, which is 
taken from Cologne cathedral. 

Such, then, are the successive changes through which the 
Roman architecture passed into the most approved Gothic mould- 
ing, — and these all proceed ou the same principle. The two 
things aimed at in each change are force and lightness, — the 
first of which was attained by deepening the recesses, so as to 
cast darker shadows, and the other by giving the rods (a) (/3), &c., 
.a more absorbing consequence. These changes, together with 
the transition from the round to the pointed arch, and the paral- 
lel changes which I shall proceed to trace in the column, con- 
tributed jointly to produce that elastic effect which I have before 
noticed, and which seems not so much to have arisen from the 
happy thought of any individual architect, as from the nature of 
the arch itself. It seems that this striking feature refused to blend 
with the previously arranged system, but gradually remodelled the 
whole on a new principle. To use rather a harsh metaphor, it 
acted, as it were, chemically on the other elements of architecture, 
dissolving their old combinations, — taking up some, and deposit- 
ing others, — combining them in new proportions, and crystalliz- 
ing them in a new form. 

I observed, that while the changes above noticed were taking 
place in the intercolumnar arch, the column itself underwent 
parallel changes. These, however, were not quite so regular in 
their progress. It seems for a long time to have been assumed 
by architects that a column must be something round ; and, till 
the latter end of the twelfth century, the utmost latitude they 
allowed themselves in deviating from this form, was now and 
then to substitute an octagon for it. 

On the rebuilding of Canterbury Cathedral, 1174, William of 
Sens ventured on a farther innovation : after he had completed 
some part of his work, and had been able to observe the effect of 
the slight clustered shafts, by which he had given apparent sup- 
port to the vaulting, he conceived the i\ovel idea of clustering the 
column itself. This he did in the manner represented, (fig. 1, 
No. 3,) by attaching the slight marble shafts A, C, C, to the 
sides of an octagonal column. In the summer of the fourth 
year, says Gervase, " A cruce incipiens decern pilarios erexit 
scilicet utrinque quinque, — quorum duos primes marmoreis 
jornatu coiumnts contra alios duos principales fecit ;" and after- 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 25 

wards, contrasting the new cathedral with the old, he says, " Ibi 
columna nulla marmorea, hie innumerse." 

The result, however, was not entirely satisfactory : these shafts 
did not sufficiently correspond in position to the bent rods which 
formed the moulding of the arch, as will be seen on comparing 
the shaded part of fig. 1 (No. 3) with the dotted line which repre- 
sents the section of the arch above the column. A and D are 
the only shafts which refer C, C, C, C, project too far ; and, 
except when seen directly in front, would never look like conti- 
nuations of the rod which seems intended to spring from it. 

Yet one step had certainly been gained by the experiment : it 
suggested to succeeding architects the possibility of deviating 
with advantage from what had hitherto been the received form of 
the column, and set them on devising some remedy for the awk- 
wardness which, in this instance, could not fail to be perceived. 
As long as the cylindrical or even octagonal form was adhered to, 
the eye had not been attracted to any particular defect; the general 
air was indeed flat and unsatisfactory, yet there was no especially 
weak point to arrest attention. On the other hand, the attempt 
of WiUiam of Sens, v/hich evidently tended to improve the gene- 
ral tone of the building, at the same time betrayed its own weak 
point. 

Accordingly we find, that after this time ihe cylinder was dis- 
used, and that another form succeeded it, of which we shall pro- 
ceed to trace the origin. 

The architects of the twelfth century, though they adhered 
pertinaciously to the round column, felt at liberty to devise any 
form they liked for their pilasters; and whenever an arch, instead 
of resting on columns, abutted against the walls, the pilaster which 
would be required on each side, as its apparent support, was 
always so shaped as to correspond to the moulding of the arch 
itself; e. g. under the tower of Christ Church Cathedral, there 
are four arches abutting against the main walls of the transepts, 
chancel, and nave, and apparently supported on ornamented pro- 
jections or pilasters, of which the section was given in fig. 2. 
Here, as before, the shaded part of the figure is the section of the 
pilaster, the dotted line the section of the arch resting on it ; the 
correspondence between the two is obvious, and the good effect 
which such correspondence produces could not fail to strike those 
who had felt its want in the design of William of Sens. We 
may readily suppose, then, that a pilaster, such as that described 
in fig. 2, might suggest the idea of a novel column. Two such 
pilasters placed back to back, would at once answer the purpose, 
and if an additional shaft, the size of A, was applied on each 
side to the flat surfaces, B B, the whole would become symmetri- 
cal : indeed, the resulting section would closely resemble that of 
fig. 3, differing from it in nothing but the angles («, a.) 
Vol. III.— Jan. 1833. e 



26 ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 

But fig. 3 is the column of Cologne Cathedral, the dotted line 
giving, as above, the section of the arch. 

On comparing fig. 3, No. 3, with fig. 7, No. 2, it will be seen 
that the dotted line in the latter corresponds to the shaded part of 
the former, and vice versa, but that the group (s) is the same in 
each ; in fact, the shafts of which this is the section run in an 
unbroken line from the vault to the very base of the cathedral. 
Thus the columns of Cologne exhibit a perfect developement of 
the idea which was first indistinctly apprehended by William of 
Sens ; their shafts may be arranged into three groups, two of 
which (9, 9,) support the inter-columnar arches, and represent 
stems, from which a /3 7, &c. branch off — the third (e) rising far 
above these arches, branches off into three ribs, two diagonal and 
one transverse. 

- Here, then, is a second series of changes, tending towards the 
same end as the former, and terminating in the same building. 

I now come to the feature which, of all others, imparts to the 
architecture of the 13th and 14th centuries its character of elas- 
ticity — window tracery. 

The origin of this remarkable feature is involved in some 
obscurity. If we begin, as we have hitherto done, with the 
Roman forms, and trace them through their successive modifica- 
tions, we arrive at nothing like it. We do indeed trace a series 
of changes in the window, parallel to those which have been 
noticed in the rih, arch, and column, but this presents us with no 
link that looks even like the germ of tracery. It begins with the 
single-lighted round-headed window. We then find this single 
light supported, as it were, by two small blank windows, one on 
each side, as in Christ Church. Afterwards, these also became 
lights. Then all three were pointed. At last they emerge as the 
many lighted lancet window, such as that in the Christ Church 
Chapter-house. And here we come to an abrupt termination, 
which, indeed, we acknowledge as a natural one. The choice 
specimen of architecture to which I have just alluded must 
approve itself to every one as complete (reXetov n) by the evident 
harmony of its parts, the identity of character exhibited in its 
vaulting, its clustered pilasters, and its windows. Here, then, we 
might suppose that taste would have rested satisfied, and that 
none but puerile lovers of novelty would have attempted any 
thing beyond. 

Yet, if we turn to the style which immediately succeeded, we 
find starting at once into sudden existence a form totally new, yet 
unquestionably the right one, — the true note to complete the 
chord. Fig. IV. is a window in Cologne Cathedral, designed about 
1250, one of the earliest, as well as most beautiful, specimens of 
tracery. We shall now attempt to suggest a process, by which it 
may have occurred to its designers. 



ENGLISH AROHITKOTIJRE. 



27 



As far back as the reign of Stephen, when the windows of 
churches were beginning to assume the lancet character in its 
rudest form, we find occasionally in their towers what looks like 
the germ of a different style. A very rude specimen occurs in 
the tower of Christ Church Cathedral : vide fig. I. This is obvi- 
ously a blank window, with three openings cut in the back to 
admit light to the belfry. My second specimen, fig. II., is taken 
from the tower of St Giles's Church, Oxford; its date is not 
historically known, but can scarcely be fixed much later than the 
middle of the 12th century. It looks like an imitation of Christ 
Church, and is clearly an improvement upon it. It will be ob- 
served, that this window, in its present form, is not adapted for 
the reception of glass, which, if introduced in the position D E, 
would destroy the relief of the shafts, by cutting them in two, 
and shewing only half on each side. In order to fit such a win- 
dow for this purpose, without injuring its effect as seen either 
from the inside or the out, it would be necessary to adopt some 
such plan as that represented in the section fig. III., where there is 
a duplicate of section fig. II., inside the casement F G, and the 
same work which connects the counterparts is so arranged as not 
to interfere with the circular appearance of the shafts. 

With the exception, then, of the quatre foil, fig- III. is fig. IL 
just so far altered as to adapt it for the body of the church instead 
of the belfry. An instance does not at this moment occur to us, 
in which the quatre foil is so introduced in a window of this 
character, but the variety would certainly suggest itself to any 
one that had seen Christ Church and St. Giles's. 

Now, fig. III., inelegant as it is, resembles, in many respects, the 
most elegant specimens of early tracery, especially in the following 
three, which are critical, as they distinguish the early tracery from 
that which succeeded it. 

L The mullion in early tracery is made up of two shafts, as 





A 

C 

V 



D D, connected in such a manner as to leave them apparently 
free, and not to interfere with the simplicity of their effect by 
introducing other lines ; in this respect it materially differs from B, 
and still more from C, the forms which afterwards superseded it : 



28 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE 




rv^ 




i. e. when viewed either from within or without, it much niore 
resembles the simple shaft of St. Giles's than they do. 

2. In early tracery, the bending lines at the head of the win- 
dow are not continuations of the straight shaft, but are separated 
from it, as in the window of St. Giles's, by a capital. This was 
afterwards dropped. 

3. In the early windows, the points /)/> are detached from the 

sides of the main arch, and each 
compartment is similar to the whole, 
as in fig. A, Afterwards this lead- 
ing form was superseded by that of 
fig. B. 

These three characteristics of the 
early tracery seem to indicate an 
origin something of the kind which 
we have assigned to it. They are 
all points of resemblance between 
figs. III. and IV., or, indeed, II. and 
IV. Still, however, the chasm which separates these specimens is a 
wide one, and we must be content, for the present, to leave it so; 
In the mean time I would suggest that it is not so wide in reality 
as in appearance. 

If we leave out of considera- 
tion the minor details, propor- 
tion of muUions, &c., and look 
only to the bending lines,* the 
difference between the two forms 
reduces itself to something very 
simple. The step from the first 
to the second of the annexed 
figs, is not a very bold one, and 
if made at all, would be made 
at once. But, whatever may 
have been the process that suggested the first conception of tra- 
cery, there can be no doubt that its introduction added greatly to 
the harmony of Gothic architecture, that its substitution for the 
lancet window was not capricious, but natural, and in an especial 
manner promoted that very effect, towards which all the changes 
which we have noticed had for a long time been tending, — 
elasticity, 

N.B. — It will be observed that the writer of these articles has 
assumed the date of Coutance Cathedral to be unknown ; he 
does not profess to have examined the question with minute at- 
tention, but of this he is certain, that the evidence commonly put 
forward, viz. the record quoted in Mr. Cottman's Normandy, does 
not of itself warrant a conclusion so inconsistent with every well 
established fact in the history of architecture. 





29 



THE HOLIDAYS. 



" O that I were as in months past, as in the days when God preserved me : when 
his candle shined upon my head, and when by his light I walked through dark- 
ness : as I was in the days of my youth, when the secret of God was upon my 
tabernacle : when the Almighty was yet with me." — Job xxix, 2 — 5. 

Notwithstanding the manifest mutability and transient nature 
of the world, we are sometimes witnesses to scenes and situations, 
beauties and enjoyments in it, which declare the elements of a 
more permanent and more elevated condition. The state of con- 
science, which accompanies a pious and innocent life, that peace 
of God that passeth all understanding, possesses us with intima- 
tions and knowledge of a spiritual and unsuffering kingdom. The 
same conscious spirit of delight and liberty seems especially to dwell 
within us in the days of our childhood and early life, and the 
elevation, grandeur, and beauty of all our enjoyments then, seem 
to cast upon the scenery of nature and society a splendour and 
perfection not made to fade and pass away. Indeed the childHke 
simplicity of character and detachment from the world which 
Christianity recommends us to hold through life, would preserve, 
(if we were obedient to it) the conviction strongly and vividly 
in our nature ; and we find it to be the characteristic of genius 
that it is strong enough to effect this triumph over the world, that 
it carries the joys and delight of youth into manhood and old 
age, proving the words of the poet, that 

" To things immortal time can do no wrong. 
And that which never is to die, for ever must be young." 

But the passions and businesses of the world, for the most part, 
soon overwhelm us with the veil of their mortality, obscuring all 
those brilhant intimations and sweet assurances of our original 
nature, — its gay fearlessness of decay, its bright earnests of en- 
joyment. 

In manhood, then, when we look back upon the glorified feel- 
ings which were spread over every object, and our then belief in 
their unalterableness and permanency, we should remember them 
as declarations and acknowledgements by our nature, of its 
estate of immortality and blessedness; we should recall them, as 
the first, and often strongest, evidence to the essential character 
of our nature, to its adaptation and appointment for glory and 
happiness. Nor do these feelings arise, as some would account for 
them, from the then novelty of all external things about us, for 
that novelty would not awaken a pleasure in the same degree pure 
and splendid in an evil and a worldly spirit, 

" Who beholds undelighted all delight." 

It is rather explained by a daily analogy of which all are con- 
scious, the peculiar and happy feeling of the morning, when the 



30 THE HOLIDAYS. 

spirit, refreshened by sleep, comes re-created, as it were, from the 
hand of its Maker, and feels (notwithstanding their familiarity) 
" all things to be good." Like this is youth, our " morning of 
life," when the intentions and workmanship of the Divine Artist 
appear plain and unworn upon us, and his spirit of a blissful 
and eternal nature, envelopes and possesses us, clearly displaying 
our origin and our destination. 

These declarations of our original are gradually obscured by 
the world, whose spirit almost overwhelms us, and that bright 
light which we brought with us, and in which we first " lived and 
moved, and had our being," is with difficulty retained in the strife 
and debasement of earthly intercourse. Yet to preserve it is the 
voice of nature and the direction of Christianity ; and to revert 
to those early scenes when the light of heaven shone happily 
before us and around us, must tend to strengthen our hope and 
conviction, that that which once has been, shall not altogether, 
and for ever, have passed away. I never witness the presence, 
and the gay and innocent delight of boys, in their Christmas and 
Summer holidays, when let loose upon society from their little 
monasteries of concealment, but they seem to me as two gleams 
of splendour appointed to appear twice every year, spreading 
themselves over the world to cheer and irradiate the living land- 
scape of good and evil, and to keep alive the remembrance of 
that unclouded, unanxious, and happy spirit, which is our true 
inheritance. To view it as Gray has done in the latter part of his 
Ode on Eton, is to anticipate and dwell upon a temporary absence 
of it only, and a transient and casual eclipse by the vices and 
evils of the world, which, though falling, in a certain degree, on 
all who pass through it, yet is so far from a genuine consequence, 
and probable termination, a priori, of the character and promises 
of early life, that it stands there as in contradiction, and most 
unnatural dissimilarity to them. Gray has considered vice and 
suffering (for the sake of the pathos and contrast in his poem) as 
if they were the fulfilment of our being, which, in truth, are only 
its accident and its perversion.* 

He who received and knew our nature, has declared that Sin 
and Death are permitted to dwell with us only for a while, and 
that they shall not in the end prevail. If we listen to him in 
obedience, we shall find that these prompt and spontaneous 
notices of our opening life are appointed, all of them, to endure 
and to triumph, and that the bright promises of boyhood are to re- 



♦ " God made not death ; neitlicr hath he pleasure in the destruction of the living. 
For he created all things that they might have their being : and the generations of 
the world were healthful : and there is no jioison of destruction in them ; nor the 
kingdom of death upon the earth. For righteousness is immortal. But ungodly men 
with their works and words called it unto them." — Wiadont of Sohnum, ch. i. v. 13—16. 



THOMAS A BECKET. 31 

ceive their natural growth and fulfilment — " for of such is the 
kingdom of heaven." 

That life of happiness and light of truth, which arose so en- 
chantingly upon us, shall then have an end assimilated in har- 
mony to its early expectations, and the song of the poet, when he 
witnesses or adverts to the scenes of youth and its enjoyments, 
shall not be the anticipation of evil and of sorrow, but the earnests 
and convictions of beauty, immortality, and joy : — 



Pure to the soul and pleasing to the eyes. 
Like angels youthful, and like angels wise/ 



T. 



THOMAS A BECKET. 

Continued from Vol. II. p. 459. 
MEANS USED TO SECURE HIS ELECTION AS ARCHBISHOP. 

We now come to the remaining point which we stated our intention 
to notice — the means used to secure Becket's election to the arch- 
bishopric ; and that we may not be suspected of under-stating the 
arguments for the view which we question, we will give them in the 
words of Lord Lyttleton : — 

" Him, [Becket] therefore, he [the king] resolved to advance to that 
dignity [the archbishopric] at this critical time. Becket himself much 
desired it, if we may believe Gilbert Foliot, Bishop of London, who, 
in a letter which he wrote to him afterwards, and on another occasion, 
affirms ^ that his eyes were watchfully fixed on the archbishopric 
before Theobald died, and that he did all he could to secure it to him- 
self on that event.' As this prelate [Gilbert Foliot] then [when the 
letter was sent] possessed the confidence of the king, he might be 
assured of the fact from the mouth of that prince ; and without such 
information, or other very strong evidence, it is not probable that he would 
have ventured to charge Bevket with it in such positive terms. Some 
friends of the latter, in their accounts of his life, assert indeed that 
when Henry first acquainted him with his intention of making him 
archbishop, he gave that monarch a fair warning * that it would cer- 
tainly produce a quarrel between them, because his conscience would 
not allow him to sufier many things which he knew the king would 
require, and even already presumed to do in ecclesiastical matters.' 
They add, that as he foresaw that by accepting this offer he should 
lose the favour either of God or of the king, he would fain have refused 
it, and was with great difficulty prevailed upon to accept it by the 
pope's legate. 

" But that any part of this apology for him is true, I greatly doubt, 
as it stands contradicted by the affirmation of Gilbert Foliot, which in 
this particular is evidence of far gi^eater credit than the word of 
Becket himself, and as it ill agrees with the methods which were 
undeniably taken to procure his election — methods he must have 



32 THOMAS A BECKET. 

known to be very inconsistent with the canons of the church, and 

what was then called its freedom. 

m * * * * 

" It appears from an epistle sent to Becket afterwards by all the 
bishops and clergy of England, that, as far as they durst, they signi- 
fied at this time their disapprobation of the king's desire to promote 
him to Canterbury ; and that in spite of the popularity which he so 
much affected, the whole nation cried out against it. We are also 
assured by the same evidence, which can hardly be rejected^ that 
Matilda did her utmost to dissuade her son from it. But though 
upon other occasions Henry paid her the greatest respect, he deter- 
mined to act in this matter by his own judgment; and having taken 
his part, as he believed on good reasons, his passions were heated by 
the opposition he met with, and his affection for his favourite con- 
curred with the pride of royal dignity to make him adhere to his 
purpose. 

" Nor was Becket himself less eager than his master in this affair, if 
we may believe the testimony of the Bishop of London, who says in 
the letter I have quoted before, that as soon as the death of arch- 
bishop Theobald was known to that minister, he hastened to Eng- 
land in order to procure the vacant See for himself. Yet he found 
such im willingness in the electors, that notwithstanding all his power, 
and the address which he always shewed in the conduct of business, 
he was not elected till above a twelvemonth after his predecessor's 
decease. 

" Henry at last growing impatient of so long a delay, sent over from 
Normandy his justiciary. Rich, de Luci, to bear his royal mandate to 
all the monks of Canterbury and suffragan bishops, that without fur- 
ther deliberation they should immediately elect his chancellor, Becket, 
to be their archbishop. So great a minister who brought such an 
order from a king, whom no person in his realm had ever disobeyed, — 
except the Lord Mortimer, whose rebellion had ended so disgracefully 
to himself,^-could hardly be resisted by ecclesiastics. Yet the Bishop 
of London had the courage to resist him ; and, if we may believe wliat 
he himself avers in his letter to Becket, did not give way till banishment 
and proscription had been denounced against himself and all his 
relations by the justiciary of the kingdom. The same threats, he 
tells us, were used to the other electors : all were made to understand 
that if they refused to comply, they would be deemed the king's 
enemies, and treated as such with the utmost rigour. ^ The sword 
of the king,' says the above mentioned prelate to Becket, ' was in 
your hands, ready to turn its edge against any on whom you should 
frown ; that sword which you had before plunged into the bowels of 
your holy mother, the church.' He explains these last words to 
mean the wound which had been given to the privileges of the church 
by the imposition which the chancellor had laid on the clergy for the 
war of Toulouse ; and concludes these severe remonstrances on the 
irregularity of his election with the following words : — * That if, as he 
had himself asserted in a letter to which this was an answer, the 
liberty of the church was the life of the church, he then had left her 



THOMAS A BECKEt. 38 

lifeless.' It was, indeed, a more violent and arbitrary proceeding 
than any that had hitherto been known in this reign. For though 
Henry ever since his accession to the crown had maintained the indis- 
putable prerogative of it, not to let any archbishop or bishop be 
chosen without his recommendation, which the chapters and others 
concerned had always obeyed, yet still some appearance of a free 
election was kept ; the electors were influenced rather than com- 
pelled, or at least the compulsion which they were really under was 
decently hidden. But in this instance all the terrors of power were 
employed without disguise, and even beyond the bounds of justice/* 

Such is Lord Lyttleton's account of Becket's election ; which, aS 
will have been observed, is drawn entirely from two sources. 

1. A letter to Becket from the bishops and clergy of the province 
of Canterbury — " evidence which can hardly be rejected." 

And, 2. A letter written shortly after the former, by Gilbert Folidt, 
who *^ might" have derived his information from the king, and who, 
** witliout such information, or other very strong evidence," would never 
^* have ventured to charge Becket in such positive terms." Indeed, 
whose '^ affirmation" is sufficient to set aside the united testimony of 
all Becket's historians, since " m this particular it is an evidence ef far 
greater credit than that of Becket himself" ? 

The first of these letters, the " evidence which can hardly be re- 
jected," is brought forward to prove the unpopularity of Becket's 
election with both clergy and laity, and the opposition of the empress 
Matilda. The first of these charges is so vague, and the second so 
immaterial, that we do not feel much concerned about the " evi- 
dence," whether it can be " rejected" or no. It may, however, be 
just worth while to state the circumstances under which this letter 
was written. 

It is a well known fact, tha;t in the year 1165, all the clergy who 
ventured to take part with Becket were, with their relations, obliged 
to leave the kingdom ; and that those who remained were entirely 
under the control of Henry. For some time things went on very 
smoothly. Becket's own authority, unsupported by the pope, was 
not sufficient to compel the obedience of his suffragans ; and as long 
as the state of Alexander's affairs was such as to render Henry's 
displeasure an object of fear with him, Becket, who, as was said of 
him at the time, " only barked when he was prepared to bite," 
thought it prudent to remain inactive. This state of things continued 
till the spring of 1166, at which time the Pope felt himself in a con- 
dition to authorise effective measures, and gave Becket permission to 
excommunicate all those of the king's officers who had taken a 
decided part against him; to suspend the Bishop of Salisbury, for an 
act of insubordination; and if these measures failed, to come to ex- 
tremities with the king himself. Of this the king's party obtained 
speedy intelligence ; and since, according to the ecclesiastical law of 
the time, an appeal against a sentence of excommunication was only 
valid if made before the sentence was pronounced, the Bishop of 
Lisieux and other messengers of consequence, were immediately dis- 
patched to Pontigni, to give Becket formal notice that they appealed 

Vol. III.— /an. 1833. f 



34 THOMAS A BECKET. 

against him as a suspected judge. They arrived just too late to 
effect their purpose. Becket had that very day left Pontigni with a 
secret and very singular object ; and before they were able to convey 
their message to him, had pronounced the dreaded sentence in the 
church of Vezelay. 

In the mean time orders had been sent to all the ports along the 
coast of England and Normandy to search the person of every one 
who passed from one country to the other ; and to inflict the severest 
punishment on any one on whom letters should be found either from 
the Pope or Becket. But here, too, the vigilance of the king's party 
proved ineffectual ; the sentences were formally delivered to the 
Bishop of London, with orders to fonv^ard them to all the bishops of 
the province of Canterbury: and the result was, that an evasive 
answer was returned to Becket, either really or nominally, from the 
collective body of the clergy. 

This letter is Lord Lyttleton's unquestionable evidence, written, as 
it professes to be, (J) by a body of persons from among whom all 
Becket's friends had been banished — (2) who had no option left 
them of neutrality — (3) who had just been balked in a twofold 
attempt to evade his authority — (4) who could find no apology for 
their own conduct except in disparaging his. 

The other letter, that of Gilbert Foliot, is of much greater import- 
ance, and charges Becket with having been accessory to proceedings 
very inconsistent with his subsequent professions. 

Now we cannot deny that Gilbert Foliot ^^ might" have derived his 
information from the King. But that " without such information or 
other very strong evidence, he would never have ventured to charge 
Becket in such definite terms*' does, we own, seem to us a much more 
questionable proposition. 

This Gilbert Foliot was supposed by Becket to have been the 
real author of the letter above alluded to, which was nominally sent 
fi-om the whole body of the clergy, and he had in consequence 
received a severe reprimand : in answer to it he wrote the letter, or 
rather pamphlet, we now speak of. The reason he assigns for 
writing it may in some measure affect our views of its credibility. 
He says — 

" Cum Ecclesiam Dei subvertere, fas nefasque confundere &c., 
eraissis publice scriptis denotemur, difficile est ut sileanms, et banc 
adversum nos opinionem vel a prcesentihus admiiti, vel indefensam 
futurcB posteritati transmitti, confessionem innuente silentio, permit- 
tamus." 

This letter, then^ was no private affair between Gilbert and Becket, 
which must depend upon its truth for its poignancy. It was a 
published jjamphletf to vindicate his conduct in the eyes of his own 
generation and posterity — an ex- parte statement, addressed to per- 
sons who had no other source of information, and who, if they could 
be deceived without it, could be deceived by it. Moreover, it was an 
ex-parte statement which could hardly be answered ; for the coast was 
at this time so strictly blockaded, that without great danger to the 
Ijearer, no letter from Becket could reach England ; and it was not 



THOMAS A BECKET. 35 

very likely that Becket would risk the safety of his friends to carry 
on a paper war. 

Lastly, it should not be altogether left out of sight who this Gilbert 
Foliot was, to whose testimony under such circumstances so much 
importance is attached. 

He had been originally a monk of Chegni, where he obtained great 
reputation for learning and austerity ; and was in consequence pro- 
moted to the rich Abbey of St. Peter's, Gloucester. In this station he 
corresponded with Pope Eugenius, and all the other most famous 
persons in the church, on a footing of confidence and familiarity 
which betokens a consciousness of the place he occupied in public 
estimation. In the year 1147, he was farther advanced to the 
Bishoprick of Hereford, and his fame for abstinence and voluntary 
poverty advanced likewise. So that, to use the words of his friend, 
the Abbot of Reading, [Cave Manuscript. 1. 285.] "Ecclesiam Dei 
suavissimo replevit odore." His influence was acknowledged, not 
only by churchmen, but by the highest lay nobility. It was appa- 
rently at his suggestion, that the Earl and Countess of Leicester 
devoted themselves to a monastic life. Reginald de St. Waleric had 
been acting oppressively towards the Monks of Osney ; and Gilbert, 
though not oificially concerned, w^as the person to remonstrate with 
him. The light in which he was regarded by Henry is sufficiently 
manifested in the letter which solicits his acceptance of the See of 
London. On receiving the Pope's mandate for his translation, Henry 
wrote to him in the following terms : — 

" Domini Papae mandatum executioni mandare non differatis, mihi 
in hoc plurimum obsecuturus, et eo amplius favorem et amoris argu- 
mentum, si erga vos augeri possit, et omnium Baronum meorum con- 
secuturus. Ibi [in London] quippe quotiescunque in Regno meo de 
magnis aliquid agendum occurrit, concilia celebranda sunt, et consilia 
sumenda. Barones pro negotiis suis consilio fulciendis confluunt. 
Ut igitur latius vestrse bonitatis et virtutis immensee difFundatur et 
pateat magnitudo, non immerito vobis, at Londoniensis Ecclesise soli- 
citudinem et curam pastoralem suscipiatis, Dominus Papa curavit, 
Ecclesise illi, tali indigenti Pastore, satisfaciens ; mihi et hseredibus 
meis et Regno meo non mediocriter providens." 

Such was the language in which Henry solicited Gilbert's accept- 
ance of one of the highest pieces of preferment in the country : and 
Becket, then a Bishop, accompanied the King's letter with one still 
more flattering in his own name. He was consecrated Bishop of 
London, April 28, 1163 ; and just about this time Becket's misunder- 
standings with the King were drawing towards a crisis. 

The next thing we hear of Gilbert is, that at the council of Tours, 
May 21, 1163, he made overtures to the Pope to dispense with his 
professing subjection to the See of Canterbury. The request was 
granted on the ground that he was still bound by the profession he 
had already made on his appointment to the Bishoprick of Hereford. 
[Ep. D. Thomce, I. 25,] But we find from Gilbert's own statement, 
that though he accepted the dispensation, he denied the ground 
on which it was granted. At the council of London, October 1 



W THOMAS A BBCKUT. 

of the same year, it became evident that Becket had altogether 
lost the King's confidence and support ; and fi-om this time Gilbert 
took a decided lead in the government party ; indeed he seems to 
l^ive stept into the situation which Becket had forfeited, and to have 
been invested, as far as the power of the state could invest him, with 
Archiepiscopal authority. 

At the same time, whether from a strong sense of the obligations 
which this fresh elevation imposed on him, or fi'om a consciousness 
tliat his present position was ambiguous, and might require some 
demonstration to set him right in the eyes of the world, he seems 
to have imposed on himself fresh austerities, which were generally 
l^nown and talked of. September 4, 1163, Alexander wrote to 
him — 

"Andimus et veridic4 multonim relatione comperimus, qnod tu 
camem tuam ultra quam deceat et expediat attenuas et affligis. * * * 
Monemus igitur Frateniitatem tuam et exhortamur attentius quatenus 
carni tuee nequaquam hujusmodi austeritatem indicas. * * * Jt^ 
quod corpore iion ultra debilitando quam deceat, servitio conditoris 
valeas robustius inheerere," 

Gilbert however preferred fasting to obedience ; and by degrees his 
reluctance to profess subjection to Becket was accounted for by his 
conduct. He demeaned himself on all occasions as if exempted from 
Archiepiscopal jurisdiction j and at last went so far as formally to 
justify his systematic disobedience on the ground, (1) that the Diocese 
of London had been originally the seat of the Primacy, and (2) that 
since his own translation to that See no profession had been exacted 
from him. (Cave. Manuscript. Letter 1, 176.) 

These facts, admitted on all sides, prepare us to believe another 
on the assertion of Becket' s friends. They assert, and Gilbert when 
charged with it does directly deny, that on the death of Theobald, 
he aspired to the vacant See of Canterbury ; and that whatever 
opposition Becket's election met with, was attributable to this cir- 
cumstance. Neither is there any thing in the assertion either impro- 
bable in itself, or discreditable to Gilbert. A Benedictine Monk, 
highly celebrated for learning and piety, who had been a Bishop for 
14 years, and waa esteemed by the nobility, lay as well as clerical, 
might fairly compete with Becket for the highest station in the church. 
And the reluctance which he afterwards manifested to acknowledge 
Becket's authority, might be the natural and even pardonable conse- 
quence of a failure. 

But however leniently we may be disposed to think of Gilbert's 
conduct, he clearly was not the person to judge impartially of his 
successful rival. Nor is his evidence rendered in any way more 
credible by the peculiar circumstances under which he wrote the 
letter in question. Had this letter been, as Lord Lyttleton supposes, 
addressed privately to Becket, we still should have regarded it with 
something short of confidence. But being, as it is, a published 
pamphlet " vindicating his character to his own and future times," 
we confess we do think it very questionable indeed. 

Such is the evidence of Gilbert Foliot ; but at the same time that 



THOMAS A BECKET. 37 

we venture to question its credibility, we hesitate to claim any great 
reliance for those " some of Becket's friends," whose word Lord 
Lyttleton so miceremoniously sets aside. We had rather seek for 
information from historians wlio may be supposed to have taken a 
less warm interest in the events they relate. 

The lirst we shall quote is Gervase of Canterbury, whose bias, 
like that of all other contemporary historians, was certainly in favour 
of Becket, but who wrote at a time when the state of parties in the 
church was cross- divided, and when other controversies had super- 
seded that in which Becket was concerned. Gervase was admitted 
a Monk of Canterbury the same day that Becket was consecrated, 
[Script. Hist. x\ug. a Twysden, p. 1418.] and therefore, though 
lie could not speak from personal loiowledge to the circumstances of 
the election, still he derived his information as nearly as possible 
from the fountain head. His account is — 

" A.D. 1161. Obiit venerandee memorise Theobaldus Cantuariensis 
Archiepiscopus totius Anglise primas et Apostolicse Sedis Legatus, 
anno Pontiiicatus sui 22. quarto decimo Kal. Mail. Erat auteni 
his diebus Thomas Cantuar. Archidiac. et Regis Cancellarius, in 
Anglia potentissimus, in omnium oculis gloriosus, sapientia prseclarus, 
nobUitate cordis omnibus admirabilis, inimicis et semulis suis terribilis, 
utpote Regis amicus et in Regno secundus, sed et Regis Rector et 
quasi magister. 

" A.D. 1162. Rex Henricus suis transmarinis impeditus negotiis, 
admirabilem ilium Thomam Cancellarium ad expedienda Regni ne- 
gotia transmisit in Angliam : h^ tamen prima et preecipua intentione 
ut in Archiepiscopum Cantuariensis Ecclesiee eligeretur. Post mo- 
dicum, mense videlicit Maio, venerunt Cantuariam nuntii ex parte 
etprsecepto Domini Regis. Episcopus scilicet Cicestrensis, Episcopus 
Exoniensis, Episcopus Roffensis, Abbas de Bello, et frater ejus R. 
de Luci, portantes conventui Domini Regis apices et mandatiun, ut 
Prior cum aliquibus Monachis un^ cum Episcopis et Clero Anglise, 
apud Londoniam convenirent, sibi Archiepiscopum totique Anghse 
Primatem electuri. Hoc igitur audito nuntio, venerandus ille Wiber- 
tus Prior, et qui cum eo erant, invocata spiritus sancti gratia, Thomam 
Regis Cancellarium in nomine S. Trinitatis elegerunt." 

It appears from this account that much the greater part of the 
interval between the death of Theobald and the election of Thomas 
arose from the King's delp-y in fixing on a successor, and that it 
probably arose from the Common cause of such delays, avarice. 
Theobald died April 17, 1161 ; Becket wa-s not sent to England till 
1162 ; the mandate to elect did not arrive till May, and the consecra- 
tion was celebrated June 2. This relation seems to leave little, 
time for strenuous opposition ; and the silence of Gervase confirms 
the presumption that nothing of the sort took place. But the vahdity 
of the inference will be better appreciated, on referring to this same 
Gervase's account of the three following elections — those of Richard, 
Baldwin, and Hubert. 

The other historian to whom we shall refer is Radulphus de Diceto, 
a person who had access to the very best information on the subject. 



38 NOTICES OP THE OLDEN TIME. 

and wlio, belonging as he did to a party to which Gervase was strongly 
opposed, may be regarded as a very good supplementary evidence, 
Radulphiis de Diceto was Archdeacon of London at the time of 
Becket's election, and during part of the subsequent troubles acted as 
secretary to Henry. He tells us in his short but accurate records — 

" Clero totius Provinciee Cantuariorum generaliter Londonise con- 
vocato, preesente Henrico filio Regis, et Regni Justiciariis Thomas 
Cantuariensis Archidiac. et Regis Cancellarius nemine reclamante 
solemniter electus est in Archiepiscopum ; electionem factam sine aliqud 
contradictione recitavit Henricus Wintoniensis Episcopus apud West- 
monster, in refectorio Monachorum quarta feri^ ante Pentecostem." 

This may seem to be sufficient, but we will risk the appearance of 
an anticlimax, to acquaint our readers with the view w^hich John of 
SaUsbury took of Gilbert Foliofs charge against his friend. In the 
Autumn of 1166, Becket sent to him the letter w^hich he had received 
from his suffragans, and which was more than suspected to be Gilbert's 
composition. He returned an answer criticising this letter point by 
point, and noticed the charge of which we now speak as follows : — 

" Nee euro de mendaciis quee super introitu vestro interserere ausus 
est : Prcesens audivi et vidi : solus ille verbum electionis vestree gratum 
non habuit. Qui prcB cceteris omnibus, quod multis claruit et claret 
indiciis, ut in sedem vestram induceretur, aspiravit. Non tamen 
obloqui ausus est, aliis arguentibus ambitionem et impudentiam ejus. 
Etelectioni habitee fere omnibus plus applausit." 

This certainly is the statement of a person anxious to speak and 
think well of Becket, but, if we may judge from what we have already 
seen, not anxious to deceive him. John of Salisbury, as his letters 
shew, was no flatterer, and, except a wish to flatter, no motive can be 
assigned for his disguising a fact with which he must have been 
acquainted, to a friend who was interested in knowing it. 

Here then we shall close our inquiry, the result of which seems to be 
in some degree at variance with commonly received opinions. Upon 
the whole we think that there is little ground for asserting, either that 
Becket while Chancellor was remarkable for his indifference to reH- 
gion, or while Archbishop for his pretensions to it — or that his elec- 
tion, though he was certainly the nominee of the King, was procured 
by means at all more violent than was usual on such occasions. And if 
this is not overstatuig the result of our inquiry, we think it goes far to 
exonerate Becket's character at least from the imputation of insmcerity. 

( Tohe continued.) 



NOTICES OF THE OLDEN TIME. 



A " M0N8TRANS." 

To the Editor of the British Magasine. 

Sm, — In those countries where the Romish religion is professed, 
the festival of " Corpus Christi" is a day of much pomp and pa- 



NOTICES OF THE OLDEN TIME. 39 

geantry. In our own land, when darkened by superstitions, it 
was observed with much solemnity. Processions were made in the 
respective parishes with all the splendour and magnificence that their 
means would allow ; and the pix was carried under a canopy, adorned 
with flowers, and accompanied by a long train of torch-bearers, sing- 
ing priests, and musicians. In my churchwardens' accounts, I find 
numerous entries of expences incurred on that day, some of which I 
will transcribe as introductory to one very remarkable. 

A.D. 1491. " Itm p^ on Corpus xpi day for garlands and flaggs w* 
pakthrede viijd." 

1500. " Itm payd ffor Corpp Cristy Torche More than was 
gatherred emongst the pishe xxd." 

" Itm payd ffor Rose garlonds ffor the presession viijd." 
1506. " Itm paid for Roossis to make garlondds for them that bare 
toorches iijd." 

1509 — 11. "Itm paid for small bells for the sacremet uppon corp 
xpi day xxjd." 

" Itm p'* to a mynstrell for ij corp xpi dayes viijd." 
1514 — 16. "Itm paide to Dennes smythe for the platynge of iiij 
Judas for torchis ayenst corp xpi daye ijs." 

1526. " Payde for the cloth Abowt the sakrament ijd." 
" Payde for the hire of A pst to here y^ sacment & a clerke viijd." 
1537. " Itm payd to Chesse the brovderer for a new clothe to be 
borne on the sacrement w* all the apparell thereto a lynyng & sylk 
ffrenge & all y^ brovderyng & y® brygg sateyn y* shall go ther vnto all 
iijls. vjs. viijd." 

1549. " Py ffor a Cannaby Clothe that was borne owar the 
sacramett [sic] xls." 

1556. " Itm for iiij tornde stawys for y^ Cannabe xviijd." 
The entry to which I have alluded as remarkable is this : — 
A.D. 1506. " Itm paid for the hyre of A Monstrans at corpus xpe 
tyde viijd." 

I was completely puzzled. It struck me that I had read some- 
where (I think in Don Quixote) of the giant Tarasco on Corpus 
Christi day, and I fancied this was a monster of the same family. 
But the following extracts, which I aflerwards met with, prove that it 
was a figure of John Baptist going before the host, and pointing to 
it:-— 

" In hoc vero ab Vrbano Papa instituto festo hodie in Processione 
Sacramentum, seu hostia consecrata circumfertur et ostentatur populo 
in MoNSTRANTiA, quse inde nomen habet, videlicet a monstrando seu 
ostentando panaceo illo Deo, in eam incluso Greece Hierothecam, 
vulgus Sacerdotum Portabilem Sacramenti Soculum vocat, teste 
Bruschio de Monasteriis." (Hospinian. de Orig. Fest. Christian, 
p. 115, edit. 1674.) 

" Then doth ensue the solemn e feast of Corpus Christi day, 

Who then can shewe their wicked use, and fond and foolish play ? 
The hallowed bread, with worship great, in silver pix they beare 
About the church, or in the citie passing here and theare. 
His armes that beares the same two of the welthiest men do holde, 
And over him a canopey of silke and cloth of gold, 



40 NOTICES OF THE OLDEN TIME. 

Foure others use to beare alonge • • • • • 

Saint John before the bread doth go, and poynting towards him, 

Doth shew the same to be the Lambe that takes away our siniie : 

On whome two clad in angels shape do sundrie floures fling, 

A number great of Sacring Kelles with pleasant sound doe ring, 

The common wayes with bowes are strawde, and every streete beside, 

And to the walles and windowes all are boughes and branches tide." 

Barndbe Googe's Translation of Naogeorgi Hegnum Papiaticum. 

I am, Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

Arch.^ophilus. 



PEWS, 

To the Editor of the British Magazine, 

Sir, — Having read the article in your Magazine entitled <'Pews," 
(p. 245) I liave been led to oiFer to your notice the following extract 
from Mr. Staveley's "History of Churches in England;" from which 
it appears that although they undoubtedly existed before the Reforma- 
tion, yet that they were not numerous, and by no means formed the 
same conspicuous portion of the church's furniture as they do at 
present The passage is taken verbatim from the beginning of 
chap. xvi. 

" Now though churches were always furnished with some necessary 
seats for ease and convenience ; yet those of that sort which we now 
have were set up but at, or since the Reformation, for many ceremo- 
nies, and processions, and other services, could not be performed, it 
seats had been posited as now they are. And for regulating the 
ancient seats, such as they were, I find this constitution in a synod 
held at Exeter by Peter Wivil, Bishop of that diocese, in the fifteenth 
year of King Edward III. [Synod Exon. A.D. 1287. cap. 12.] 
< Item au divimus, quod propter sedilia in Ecclesia rixantur multoties 
Parochiani, &c.' i. e. * Whereas we are given to understand, that the 
Parishioners do often quarrel about the seats, to the great scandal of 
the church, and disturbance of Divine Service, frequently tw^o or more 
challenging the same seat ; we do ordain that from henceforth none 
shall claim any property in any seat in the church except noblemen 
and patrons : And if any come into the church to say their prayers, 
let them do it in what place they please.' From this constitution, and 
for other reasons, I apprehend, that before Henry VIII. his time, that 
is, before the Reformation w^as begun, there were not any pews or seats 
to be seen in our churches, except some that were appropriated to 
persons of quality and distinction : and some are apt to think, that 
those which our ancestors then had were moveable, and the property 
of the incumbent ; if so, consequently at his disposal. For before the 
Reformation, it was the use for the people to thrust up together near 
the priest, without respect to the condition and qualities of persons : 
and some would place themselves near to some altar, pillar, or tomb, 
with the convenience of a matt, cushion, or some small stool or form, 
4x) rest upon. But when the service of the mass (performed generally 



NOTICES OF THE OLDEN TIME. 4^1 

at the high altar, the priest turning his back to the people) was laid 
aside, and Divine Service ordered to be read in a desk, then both 
that and the pulpit were placed for the most convenience of the 
people's hearing ; and the whole chui'ch furnished with seats for that 
purpose ; the ordering of the same being in the power of the ordinary, 
who placed the people and their families therein in decent maimer, 
according to their respective ranks and qualities, as we see them con- 
tinued to this day ; and thereupon in time, some seats become appro- 
priated to some certain capital messuages within the parish." 

The instances brought forward by your correspondent seem to 
strengthen Mr. Stavely's account ; as only three memoranda of 
mending and making pews occur during a space of more than forty 
years ; one of which particularly mentions the site being " the Lady 
Chapel," and the locality of the others is not named. As to the refer- 
ence in the note to Shakspeare (Richard III.), for the occurrence of 
the term "pew-fellow," it may be sufficient to remark, that his 
anachronisms are most numerous. Any one feeling disposed to turn 
to Vol II. of " Douce's Illlustrations of Shakspeare," will there find 
a long list of them enumerated.* 

I am. Sir, your faithful servant, 

iMughridge, Nov. 8, 1832. W. S. 



SELECTIONS FROM EVELYN'S DIARY. 

Continued from Vol. II. p. 475. 

1658. 23 May. — There w^as now a collection for persecuted and 
sequestered Ministers of the Church of England, whereof divers are in 
prison. A sad day ! The Church now in dens and caves of the earth. 

1659. 9 Nov. — We observed our solemn Fast for the calamity of 
our Church. 

18 Dec. — Preached that famous divine Dr. Saunderson (since 
Bishop of Lincoln), now 80 Yeares old, on 30 Jer. 13, concerning the 
evil of forsaking God. 

1660. 6 Jan. — Dr. Allestree preached at the Abby, after which 
4 Bishops were consecrated, Hereford, Norwich 

1661. 29 May. — This w^as the first Anniversarie appointed by Act 
of Parliament, to be observed as a day of General Thanksgiving for 
the miraculous Restauration of his Majesty. Our Vicar preaching 
on the 118 Psalm, 24, requiring us to be thankful and rejoice, as, 
indeed, we had cause. 

3 Nov. — One Mr. Breton f preached his probation sermon at our 
Parish Church, and, indeed, made a most excellent discourse on 1 John, 
29, of God's free grace to penitents, so that I could not but recommend 
him to the patron. 



* W. S. mistakes the Editor's meaning in the note referred to. All that was meant 
was, that pew-fellow was a word in familiar use in Shakspeare's time, which would 

hardly have been the case if pews had been unknown till after the Reformation Ed. 

f Hee obtained the living. 
Vol. lU.—Jan. 1833. g 



42 NOTICES OP THE OLDEN TIME. 

10. In the 8dlernoone, preach*d at the Abby, Dr. Basire, that 
greate travailler, or rather French Apostle, who had been planting 
the Church of England in divers parts of the Levant and Asia. He 
shewed that the Church of England was, for purity of doctrine, sub- 
stance, decency, and beauty, the most perfect under Heaven ; that 
England was the very land of Goshen. 

20. — The Bishop of Gloucester* preached at the Abby at the 
funeral of the Bishop of Hereford, brother to the Duke of Albemarle. 
It was a decent solemnity. There was a silver mitre with episcopal 
robes, born by the Herald before the Hearse, which was followed by 
the Duke, his brother, and all the Bishops, with divers Noblemen. 

1662. 15 Jan. — This solemn Fast was held for the House of 
Commons at St. Margaret's. Dr. Reeves, the Dean of Windsor, 
preach'd on 7 Joshua, 12, shewing how the neglect of exacting justice 
on offenders (by which he insinuated such of the old King's mur- 
derers as were yet reprieved and in the Towner) was a maine cause 
of God's pimishing a land. He brought in that of the Gibeonites as 
well as Achan and others, concluding with an eulogie of the Parlia- 
ment for their loyaltie in restoring the Bishops and Cleargie, and vin- 
dicating the Church from sacrilege. 

17 Aug. — Being the Sonday when the Common Prayer Booke 
reformed and ordered to be used for the future, was appointed to be 
read, and the Soleme League and Covenant to be abjured by all the 
Incumbents of England, under penalty of loosing their livings, our 
Vicar read it this morning. 

21 Dec. — One of his Majesty's Chaplains preach'd, after which, 
instead of the antient, grave, and solemn wind musiq accompanying 
the organ, was introduced a concert of 24 violins between every pause, 
after the French fantastical light way, better suiting a tavern or Play- 
house than a Church. This w^as the first time of change, and now we 
DO more heard the cornet which gave life to the organ, that Instru- 
ment quite left off, in which the English were so skillful. I dined at 
Mr. Povey's, where I talked with Cromer, a great Musician. 

1663. 17 April. — I saluted the old Bishop of Durham, Dr. Cosin, 
to whom I had ben kind and assisted in his Exile, but which he Uttle 
remembered in his greatnesse. 

29. Dr. Creighton preach'd his extravagent Sermon at St Mar- 
garet's, before the House of Commons. 

5 Nov. — Dr. South, my Lord Chancellor's Chaplain, preached at 
Westminster Abby, an excellent discourse, concerning obedience to 
Magistrates, against the Pontificians and Sectaries. I afterwards 
dined at Sir Ph. Warwick's, where was much company. 

1665. 24 Feb. — Dr. Fell, Canon of Christ Church, preach'd before 
the King, on 15 Romans, 2, a very formal discourse and in blank 
versef, according to his manner; however, he is a good man. 



• Dr. William Nicholson. 
f Mr. ExtoD, it seems, had a predecessor in his poetic fancies. See Review 
department — Ed. 



^ 



SCARED POETRY. 43 

2 Aug. — A solemn Fast thro' England, to deprecate God's dis- 
pleasure against the land by pestilence and war ; our Dr. preaching 
on 26 Levit. 41, 42, that the meanes to obtaine remission of punish- 
ment was not to repine at it, but humbly submit to it. 



SACRED POETRY. 



FROM THE GREEK. 

Alas ! the mallows, when along the dale 
They fade and perish, — when the parsley pale 
And the bright-leaved anethus droops,- — once more 
These live and bloom in beauty as before. 
But we, the wise, the warUke, and the great. 
Wither beneath the touch of death — and straight 
Sleep, — deaf within the hollow earth, — a sleep 
Eternal, without dreams and deep. 

Thus sung the ancient bard of Sicily, 

The shepherd poet, as he wander'd forth 

And saw the flowers of summer droop and die. 

Under the touch of the malignant north. 

Rare visitant of that unclouded sky. 

And yet he knew each semi-vital flower 

Was watch'd by Nature's God, and clothed in sleep 

By the wise tenderness of Sov'reign Power, 

That it might live. What demon whisperM there. 

What charms and hellish drugs conspired to steep 

The poet's heart in darkness and despair ? 

How dull a thought ! that God, whose love can bless 

The falling rose, and tend the worm with care. 

Made man a living soul for Nothingness I 

F. D., Ch. Ch., B.A. 



SONNET. 

Glory and Excellency of this land ! 

Thee I revisit late, and much admire 

Thy form unalter'd, even as my sire 

And I adorn'd thee with ambitious hand. 

Well nigh forgotten where I held command, 

I come in other guise ; the long desire 

Hath turn'd me grey, and scarce my limbs aspire 

Erect before the face of heaven to stand. 

Seven weary years I dwelt alone and mute. 

Nor hath my once authoritative tongue 

More skill of elocution, than the lute 

Neglected and for many years unstrung. 

Yet thou shalt be demolish'd branch and root. 

And this dishonour'd flesh again be young. 

A. H. 



m 



44 POETRY. 

VERSES 

Found vne Morning pinned to a Lady's* Cabinet Pianoforte, 

If, through music, outward sense 
May be purg'd of its offence. 
And from shame of gross desire 
t^ Heav'n-wise taught, to heav'n aspire ; 

If to stir when fest is sloth, — 
And to still when thought is ruth, — 
If these objects be indeed 
Like heav'n's bounty and our need ; 
Precious boon of man must dwell 
In this curtain'd* citadel. 

If that boon may be betray'd, 
* And a thing of danger made, — 

Glutton, with insatiate pow'rs. 
Of our answerable hours,-— 
Sensual science deified. 
Feeding vanity and pride ; — 
Let us guard the precious prize 
With a Christian's ears and eyes. 
Let the song that lightens care. 
The song that strengthens love, be there ; 
Skill, with numerous motion charming, — 
Passion, with high impulse warming, — 
And the mystery profound 
Lock'd in twin and triple sound; 
Where, though varying notes pursue 
Each its diflFerent channel true. 
But one current seems to roll 
On the undividing soul. 

Touching graces ! joys divine ! 
*■ Love without, and peace within ! 

Charter'd pleasure ! health of art! 
Social sympathies of heart ! 
In these cells your vigils keep. 
On these strings expectant sleep : 
There true concord meet and make. 
And when my sister strikes, awake! 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



The Editor begs to remind his readers that he is not responsible for the opinioos 
of his Correspondents. 



ON PARABOLICAL SCRIPTURE. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Sib, — Of all the modes of construing Holy Writ, there is none so 
dangerous, or which furnishes so convenient a cloak for total irreligion, 
Ba the indefinite, and therefore unlimited right assumed of accepting 

• Tlie author's sister 
f Alluding to the fashion aAcr which this sort of instrument is made. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 45 

its words in an allegorical sense, that is to say, of accepting them as 
words of explicit falsehood, but of an implicit and subjacent truth. If 
the word of Scripture was never so modified, that dangerous vice 
could never have found its way into theology, because it is always 
the foundation of reality which upholds the edifice of fiction ; and 
if such modes of speech were in all cases as inconsistent with pure 
veracity f as, by the very terms of the case, they are with explicit 
truthy none such could be found in inspired writings, or in the writings 
of inspired men. It is undeniable that they are often used. 

The great, and perhaps the only class of such passages, is the pre- 
dictive, or, in the vulgar, false, and limited use of that word, 2)ropheti<;. 
The use of prophecy, as applied to events remotely future, was to furnish 
to anterior generations such an incomplete and general foreknowledge 
of those events which God had in store, as might suffice to keep alive 
among them that hope which is the sister of faith, and those fears 
which are a corrective to our evil desires ; but, to subsequent gene- 
rations, it was so framed as to furnish the means of clear and full 
recognition, such as delights the mind upon attaining to the solution 
of a well-constructed enigma, to evince the divine origin of our 
rehgion, and to shew that the events of the world had all been cal- 
culated and ordained beforehand by Omniscience. But the imparting 
of a previous knowledge of future events, as minute as the recognition 
of the past and fulfilled, would disturb the good order of human 
affairs, and often tend to defeat the very end which Providence had 
determined to accomplish. Predictive declarations are therefore per- 
petually offered to us in language which has only moral and spiritual 
veracity, and not natural truth, and by which, being well aware of its 
nature, we are not deceived ; just, if I may use that example, as we 
receive x for an unknown number, but 4 or 5 for real numbers, by 
which, if they are false ones, we are deceived in our reckoning. 

The only other class of scriptural affirmations that requires to be 
considered, in this point of view, is the parabolic. 

Parables, apologues, or (in the ^sopic sense of the word) fables, 
were early made use of to illustrate moral truths, and impress them on 
the memory by exercising the mind of the hearer, who in such case 
is not a passive recipient, but has to make some efibrt of his own wit. 
A narrative of facts which might have occurred, or of facts which 
might be supposed to have occiured, was delivered, and the inference 
to w^hich that state of facts would lead the hearer's mind is called 
their moral. 

No dispute could arise upon the point of veracity, where the fa<jts 
were of the class secondly above mentioned, which could only exist in 
hypothesis. For that reason the purest parable or fable is that in 
which human affairs are illustrated by the supposed words and actions 
of brute animals or plants ; because that, of which the natural truth 
is an obvious impossibility, cannot be a moral falsehood. The most 
remarkable instance of such a parable in Scripture is that which was 
delivered by Jotham, son of Gideon, " The trees went forth on a time 
to anoint a king over them," &c. — Judges ix. 8. 

But the case of a narrative illustrating human affairs by human 



46 CORRESPONDENCE. 

affairs, and forming a little romance or novel instead of a pm-e 
^sopian fable, is materially different. It may be questioned whether 
such a narrative can be delivered falsely, and yet salvd fide. The 
use and custom of resorting to such illustrations in any given country, 
as in Syria, does not solve that difficulty; because all that such use 
and custom could enable the hearer to conclude would be, that it 
either might be a parable, or might be a real circumstance : — 

" O Laertiade quicquid dico autfuit aut non.** 

The easy, obvious, and proper conduct to pursue in such a case is, 
to declare that the facts are parabolical, and composed for the sake of 
practical illustration, when they are so. Such was the conduct 
of Nathan, when he followed up his romance of the pet lamb and 
cniel landlord with adding, " Thou art the man," and that of the 
Lord, when he said, / will liken him to a w4se man which built his 
hguse, &c., and when he said, " Hear ye the parable of the sower," 
and "the kingdom of heaven is likened to a certain king," and so 
forth. For in all these cases, the very words, or the idiom of them, 
signify the nature of the story. It is right that I should add, that 
whenever the evangelist says " he spake by a parable," his meaning 
is, that Jesus himself, when he spake it, gave it out as and for a para- 
ble, and that we are not to understand that he explains the truth to 71s, 
but that Jesus left his audience in a state of ignorance or deception. 

It is obvious, that divine wisdom and human experience may 
inculcate their precepts effectually, either by stating hypothetical 
cases, or by citing real instances of what has happened. And it is 
no less so, that the latter is by far the stronger, and more cogent 
method of appealing to the minds of men. It is a strong thing to be 
able to say, " beware of evil courses, and remember the fate of 
John Hodges, who was hanged last assizes." But if the same admo- 
nition were offered as a parable, relating to sins and punishment of an 
imaginary character, it would be much enfeebled. The omnipotence 
of the parabolist may have convicted and hanged the hero of the 
parable ; but yet, the hearer may suppose, since the whole is sup- 
position, a very different result, arising from the clemency of judges, 
the defeat of witnesses, and the like. Since, therefore, the real 
instance is superior to the hypothetical, there can be no reason for 
assuming any statement of the Lord or his prophets to be fiction, 
where it is not asserted or insinuated to be such. The only reason 
which might raise up such a probabiUty in other cases, namely, the 
danger and absence of worldly-minded discretion in adverting to 
the faults of real people, fails in this ; for the Lord fears no man, and 
is a respecter of no person. This reasoning would become irresistible, 
if we should think that any declaration of facts untrue, without a 
consistent declaration that they are such, would detract from the 
divine verity. 

If an audience were informed, that the labourers upon a nobleman's 
estate had revolted, and massacred, first the bailiffs, and ultimately 
the son and heir, of their master, no such circumstances having taken 
place, and were left by the speaker in the uncertainty whether it had 



CORRESPONDENCE. 47 

really happened or not, and in the suspicion that it had, they would 
be deceived and led into error by his tongue. It would be a poor 
excuse to say, that in such cases the moral of the tale is useful, and 
its fictitiousness productive of no ill effects, even if it were or could 
be thus inoffensive ; because such a doctrine is at variance with one 
of the fundamental attributes of God. The mercies of God are 
immense, and the love from which they proceed is pure of all self- 
ishness, and they admit of no comparison with those qualities and 
feelings in created beings. But vengeance also belongs to Him alone, 
and the severities of Him who treads the wine-press of wrath exceed 
those of any subordinate power. His mai-vellous works of mercy and 
of justice are measured out according to the Lesbian rule of right, 
which never errs, but bends to the shape of every circumstance. 
What then is the rule, what is — 

The perfect witness of all-judging Jove, 

upon which all other attributes of perfection are in a manner depend- 
ent ? It is that perfect spirit of verity, in which veracity and truth 
(things that are quite distinct in created intelligences) are eternally 
and necessarily united ; inasmuch as fallibility/ is their only point of 
separation. God, therefore, although He be forgiving, is not forgive- 
ness, and although he be severe. He is not vengeance, but God is 
TRUTH. It is, in my opinion, some blasphemy to say that a false 
belief of facts could arise from the plain and direct, but false, affirm- 
ation of those facts by Christ. 

But it is nearly impossible for anecdotes of mankind to be related 
without truth, and erroneously believed as true, without being 
positively mischievous. We know what effect is produced, and inten- 
tionally produced, upon the character and popularity of our clergy, 
by the diligence of their enemies, in dragging forth and exaggerating 
every instance of their real misconduct, and in the frequent invention 
of calumnies against them. Every such scandalous tale that is circu- 
lated has its effect. If it were published in oiu* papers, that a poor 
man was lying cruelly wounded on the highway, and that the bishop 
of the diocese, and the parson of the parish, had passed by him 
without listening to his groans or relieving his affliction, we know well 
the impression it would produce. It seems therefore to me, that 
whoever used this phrase " the parable of the good Samaritan," would 
make the Lord his God a calumniator. If Jesus had made the mul- 
titude believe that labourers had risen up against their master, and 
murdered his upper servants, and his son, with no other consequence, 
than the probability of some future retaliation on his part, I say, if 
such a tale had gone abroad upon his high authority, what must 
people have thought of the police and government of the country ? 
What opinion would the severe Tiberius have conceived of Pilate's 
administration ? He who vainly alleges facts against society in 
general, or any of its order, calumniates both it and them, and can 
hardly fail to serve the interested or malicious designs of some faction 
or other. Jesus therefore could only allege them as avowed para- 
bles or as positive truths, and there remains no middle term. The 



48 CORRESPONDENCE. 

woman of Tekoah may here be cited : it has been said that she 
delivered a parable, but she did no such thing : she told a lie. It 
deceived the king for a little while, but his great sagacity detected it, 
and traced it to its original author. 

The upshot of this is the historical truth of all the Lord's illus- 
trative anecdotes, being possible in themselves, and not presented to 
us as parables. Those anecdotes which I consider myself required 
to believe on the above grounds, are also such a.s possess the most 
striking air of truth and nature. The benevolence of the good Sama- 
ritan, and the misfortunes and penitence of the prodigal son, are 
authentic traits of the age and country in which our Saviour lived ; 
and we may presume, that the tale, which contains those very curious 
words " and the lord commended the unjust steward," derives its 
peculiarities from the character and remarkable behaviour of real 
agents. But the most extraordinary and interesting of these narra- 
tions is that, whereof the scene is laid in the valley of the shadow 
of death, and which has made us in some sort Epopts of those mysteries 
which are between this world and the next, of the abode of saints 
and the abode of sinners, whom novies styx interfusa coercet. 
Besides the general reasons rehed upon, the express mention of the 
proper name Lazarus avouches to us that this relation is historical. 
If there be one thing more than another which distinguishes a para- 
ble from a poem or novel, it is the absence of proper names. Certain 
circumstances strongly lead us to the persuasion that he was the 
brother of Mary and Martha. If one Lazarus was the person in 
whose history the secrets of the prison-house are partly revealed to 
us, and another was the person who actually returned from the man- 
sions of death, to tell those secrets, the coincidence would be 
wonderful. But there is also another. Dives was of the Pharisees, 
by this token, that his brothers had Moses and the Prophets, that is 
to say, believed in them, although they did not profit by their per- 
cepts ; but the Sadducees had only Moses. He prayed Abraham to 
send Lazarus from the elysium of death, to his father's house, 
to admonish his brethren ; and Abraham (whose power to do this 
was probably assumed without reason by the pharisee) replied, " if 
they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded 
though one rose from the dead." Lazarus was sent back from the 
grave, and lived again among his former acquaintance, and the pha- 
risees were not persuaded though one had risen out of the corruption 
of the charnel-house, and they " consulted that they might put 
Lazarus also to death ;" and the words of father Abraham were 
made good. Is it not manifest, that we are reading of one man, and 
one transaction, and that the account given by John explains that 
which is given by Luke ? I think he must be a little credulous, or 
much prejudiced, who will suppose one Lazarus whose unavailing 
resmrection was talked of, and another Lazarus whose resurrection 
actually occurred. The following is the only difficulty 1 have ever 
felt. Lazarus was a beggar (Trrwvoe), and at one time lay at the rich 
man's gate, yet Mary and Martha were in no great poverty, and 
were also fond of their brother. But I do not think it a serious one. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 49 

The sisters were probably of humble eondition, and the brother, being 
by a grievous disease entirely .prevented from maintaining himself^ 
was Q, pauper, which would perhaps be a better word than beggar, and 
was permitted by the usages of his country to seek some assuage- 
ment of his necessities from the wealthy, especially those to whom 
he was known, as the Lazarus of Abraham was to the family of 
Dives, instead of throwing the entire burthen of his maintenance 
upon his poor relations. 

It was taught in the dark ages, that all the penalties for sin com- 
mitted, or compensations for "good things received" and abused in 
selfish sensuality, to which a man was exposed in the interval between 
his death and the last judgment of quick and dead, as this Jew was 
during the life-time of his surviving brethren, were commutable. 
People were made to believe that the prayers of the clergy would 
produce that eifect in proportion to the frequency of their repetition. 
An enormous source of .simoniacal gain was thus opened to the clergy, 
to their own corruption, and that of all classes. The severity 
employed towards Dives, and others in the like case, came to be 
termed purgation, a heterodox phrase, founded upon the pagan views 
of the soul and its immortality, and the juggling operations by 
which men were to be extricated from this real punishment, or 
imaginary refiner's fire, were called Missse, a phrase of disputed 
etymology, but which I believe to derive itself from their supposed 
power to set the soul free, mittere. When the mind of man obtained 
that liberation which his soul had so long bargained for in vain, and 
became violently indisposed to all the favourite arguments of the 
Romish doctors, an anxiety showed itself to get rid of the Scripture 
anecdotes, and make parables of them all, and most especially of that 
one, of which the historical nature is doubly assured. It was ill done. 
It is always ill to sport with divine truth for any motive ; and, above 
all, to break down and blend the laws of distinction between a truth, 
an allegory, and a lie. 

H. 



REMARKS ON THE SEPTUAGINT. 

Sir, — The origin of the Septuagint is enveloped in mystery and loaded 
with fable, but enough is known to give it a particular claim to our 
regard. Amidst the unceasing changes in kingdoms and their dialects, 
the chosen nation, to whom were committed the oracles of God, were 
scattered from their inheritance, and the language of inspiration be- 
came a dead letter. Hence arose the necessity of a translation, 
which was accomplished by diiferent hands, at different periods of the 
third century, B.C., according to the exigencies of the Jewish church in 
Egypt. I shall not here remark on the directing hand of Providence 
that led to the adoption of the Greek, which was soon to become a 
universal language, and afford a ready means of pubhshing the Gospel 
to all the world; it is rather my object to draw attention to the style 
in which was executed this first transfusion of the word of God. As 
Vol. III.— /aw. 1833. .h 



50 CORRESPONDENCE. 

it was the work of the same remarkable people, to whom the divine 
oracles were originally given, it may well command respect at our 
hands; and it is a higher principle than curiosity that would lead us to 
a full consideration of the manner in which they secured to them- 
selves the benefits of their most distinguished privilege : farther, it is 
a question of particular interest at the present time, when men are 
engaged in ti'anslating the Bible into all languages and are calling for 
improvements of it in our own. 

The method, then, on which these first translators decided, was a 
literal and even a servile translation. Now this decision, although at 
first view it may appear like the true growth of superstition, will ra- 
ther be found, on farther consideration, to be the genuine fruit of wis^ 
dom. By it they paid due deference to God in rendering his word 
as simply as the^^ could, and quite free fi'om any colouring which it 13 
in the power of a translator to give to a work according to his own 
Tiews. By it they also gained the applause of men, as this manner 
(for I do not here speak of the degree) has rec*eived the sanction of 
the soundest judgments; thus the unstudied bareness of the Vulgate, 
for fidelity and simplicity, has ever been preferred by learned men 
to the classical periods of Castalio ; and, without conti-oversy, the 
simple dignity of our authorised version retains more of the spirit and 
form of the original than the modernized and polished productions of 
recent translators; in their performances, although particular passages 
may be less obscure, yet if a dozen verses together be read in any 
part, their great inferiority will manifestly appear. The English 
nation is particularly favoured in this respect ; for whilst our idiom 
so far agrees with that of the Hebrew as to allow of a literal transla- 
tion without any violation of its own laws, it so far dififers as to im- 
press on such a work an air of antiquity and simplicity, very far 
removed fi-om the familiarity of modern phi'ase. Unfortunately, in 
this age of change and noveUy, everything simple and venerable has 
sadly fallen into disrepute; however great, therefore, may be the 
openmg for nnprovement, however loud the call for amendment, let not 
the Bible at least be tampered with ; and whenever a revision of it shall 
be taken in hand, great benefit will be found to arise from such obso- 
lete notions as a regard to precedent and a love of antiquity. It was 
by means of literal translation that the art of Hebrew composition 
was first brought to light, and shone forth in all the beauties of its out- 
ward form, in its symmetry of arrangement and correspondence of 
parts ; and 1 have no doubt that the same means will be greatly eflfec- 
tual towards bringing into bold relief the hidden meaning of its in- 
ward power, when the dim shadowings of prophecy shall be embodied 
m realities, and the apparently unconnected parts of Scripture shall 
fall unconstrained into their places, leaving at fault both the simplicity 
of the simple and the cunning of the wise by the goodliness and com- 
pleteness of its whole- Seeing that it was reserved for these* latter 

* The nature of Hebrew poetry and its laws of parallelism were discovered even 
so lately as by Bishop Lowth, 175.'3, and quite recently (1820) were applied, for 
Ibe fiut time, by Bishop Jcbb, to the New 'I'estiuneut. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 51 

times to lift the veil that concealed even the bodily features of the 
Hebrew muse^ we should be careful to transmit them unimpaired, and 
must be content to leave to another age the full comprehension of the 
spirit that stirs within her. 

The critical uses of the Septuagint are twofold ; to emend the text 
of the Old, and to illustrate the style of the New Testament. As it 
is the most ancient version of the Jewish Scriptures, it is very valu- 
able in shewing the state of the Hebrew text in that remote period ; 
and we are greatly indebted to it for extricating us out of many diffi- 
culties by having preserved a different reading. Its application to the 
New Testament is different in kind, but fully equal in value. A 
close comparison of the Greek Testament phrases with similar ones 
in the Septuagint, and a critical translation of both, from the Hebrew, 
will often afford a better sense than a direct translation from the New 
Testament. As the authors of our Christian Scriptures expressed* 
Hebrew phrases and idioms in Greek words, we are certainly more 
likely by this process to arrive at the very mind that was in the 
Apostles, The utility of this method will more evidently appear from 
this additional consideration, that the Septuagint very soon came into 
general repute among the Jews ; even to the Rabbis it was a princi- 
pal source of knowledge, but was the only one open to the gi'eat body 
of the nation. When King James "had once out of deep judgment 
apprehended how convenient it w^as that there should be one more 
exact translation of the holy Scriptures into the English tongue," he 
laid it in charge on our venerable translators to retain the ecclesiasti- 
cal and appropriated words; and it was such a plan as this that the 
writers of the New Testament followed, although they pursued it to 
a much greater extent. The Greek of the Septuagint had long been 
the only language of the synagogue, and it was always employed in 
religious subjects ; they therefore not only retained the appropriated 
words, but confined themselves altogether to that singular style which 
had originated at iVlexandria, in a literal translation from the Hebrew. 
Thus the Septuagint is not only valuable as an ancient version in 
correcting the Jewish Sciiptures, but still more so as a glossary, or 
collection of scholia, to explain the phraseology of our own. 

I shall now give an example of the latter method for the sake of 
illustrating a difficult passage in the New Testament. Matt. xv. — (3) 
" But he answered and said unto them. Why do ye also transgress the 
commandent of God by your tradition t^ (4) For God commanded, 
saying. Honour thy father and mother : and he that curseth father or 
mother, let him die the death. (5) But ye say, whosoever shall say 
to his father or his mother. It is a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest 
be profited by me ; (6) And honour not his father or his mother, he 



* In Matt. vii. 21 — ov ttolq d<r{ktvai.Tai is a Hebraism, and equivalent to Nemo 
prorsus intrahit — Not one of those that say unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the 
the Kingdom of Heaven. The two lines in v. 21 set forth two opposite characters, 
which are more fully described in verses 24 and 26. This connexion would be more 
observable by reducing the whole passajje irito its parallelisms. 



52 CORRESPONDENCE. 

shall be free. Thus have ye made the eommandment of God of none 
effect by your tradition." 

In the first place, let him die tJie death is the Septuagint translation 
of JlQ')'^ niD, he shall surely die — Ex. xxi. 17, Gen. ii. 17. But the 
whole difficulty of the passage lies in the word and in the beginning 
of the sixth verse. Now in conditional sentences where the second 
member depends on the first, the Hebrews said " If so and so and so 
and so" where we should say then or omit the particle altogether, 
thus — " If it be a son and ye shall kill him, but if it he a daughter and 
she shall live." — Ex. i. 16. In this pecuHarity the Hebrew original 
is often literally followed by the Septuagint version, which, in its turn, 
is sometimes imitated in the Greek Testament. — For example, Gen^ 
xxviii. 20- — eai^ y fier tfxov (if God will be with me) koL eorat (then 
[and] shall the Lord be my God ; and 1 Sam, xii. 15 — khv /xri aKovarjre 
(if ye will not obey) Kal eorat (then [and] shall the hand of the Lord 
be against you.) It is the same idiom that obtains in this place of St. 
Matt. — iav eiTTT} (if a man say) Kal ov /z?) rtfiricTri (then [and] he shall 
not honour. Thus, as the* Greek idiom will not allow that Kal 
should here be translated and, so the usage of the Septuagint teaches 
us that its true meaning is then. The arrangement by parallelisms 
confirms this rendering, and indeed throws a clear light upon ther 
whole passage. "And he answered and said unto them: — 

•^ Why do yourselves also break the commandment of God through your 
tradition ? 

For God commanded : 
Saying, Honour thy father and thy mother. 
And he that revileth father or mother shall surely die ; 

AVhereaa ye say : 
If one delare to father or mother. An offering be thy due relief. 
Then he shall not honour his father or his mother ; 

Truly ye have done away the commandment of God through your tradition."t 

By the vile proceeding here exposed, a man did not bind himself 
to make any offering to God ; he was only no longer fi-ee to honour 
by maintenance his needy parents. It was as if he should say, " May 

• If Kai were conjunctive so as to connect the two verbs if a man say and if he 
honour not, the additional negative ov would necessarily be omitted as in Mat. xxi. 
21. — tdv tx*?^* TTtcriv Kal fir) SiaKpiOrjTe. (ift/e have faith and if ye doubt not.} 

t Bishop Jebb, in his Sacred Literature, first applied the principle of parallelisms 
to the explanation of this passage, but he has not produced the happy effect so con- 
spicuous in his other examples. He translates and arranges it in this manner : — 
" And why do ye transgress the commandment of God, by your tradition ? 
For God commanded, saying : 

Honour thy father and tliy mother ; 

And he who revileth father or mother, let him die the death : 

But ye say : 

Whosoever shall say to his father or mother, be that a gift, by which thou 
mightest have been relieved from me ; 
Must also not lionour his father or his mother : 
Thus have ye nullified the commandment of God by your tradition.*' 



CORRESPONDENCB. 53^ 

miecKief befal me, if ever I help you in the least." Although reviling 
of every kind was denounced with certain death in God's law, yet 
this form of it was countenanced by the tradition of the Pharisees, in 
hopes of casual profit to the temple ; for as often as the man should 
afterwards attempt to assist his parents, he incurred the infamy of 
a broken vow, and the whole of such relief was forfeited to the 
treasury. 

Such an exersise, in the Septuagint, as I have exemplified above, 
will amply repay all the time bestowed upon it ; and the inducement 
to engage in it would be greatly increased, if some one of our many able 
men should publish the book of Genesis in Greek, or rather selections 
from it, with notes pointing out the derivation of the Septuagint ex- 
pressions from the Hebrew, and the formation of the Greek Testament 
phraseology from the Septuagint. A moderate attention to such a 
little work would afford a more thorough and rational knowledge of 
the Greek Testament, than could be derived from a most perfect ac- 
quaintance with the classics ; indeed, the accomplished classical scho- 
lar can no more expect than the plain English scholar to know the 
real origin and nature of the Greek Testament language without 
some pains bestowed in the manner here mentioned. It cannot be 
unseasonable to draw attention to this point at a time when our Bishops 
are declaring their intention to raise the standard of qualification for 
orders. In his printed charge, the Bishop of London requires compo- 
sition in Latin from all candidates, and the Bishop of Salisbury some 
acquaintance with the early Christian Fathers, &c. &c. The gene- 
ral advance in knowledge may require, and the number of applicants 
may allow the heads of the church to be more select in the admission 
of its ministers ; but no single requirement would more effectually 
secure in our clergy the literary quahfications suitable to their profes- 
sion than that under consideration. 

Lastly : the Septuagint affords a ready help towards a Hebrew 
translation of the Greek Testament. The comparison of phrases 
before mentioned is admirably adapted for this purpose, and the ex- 
tensive recurrence of parallelisms in the New Testament, as pointed 
out by Bishop Jebb, will necessarily, if judiciously attended to, lead 
future translators into the genuine manner of Hebrew composition. 
These are helps which prudent men will eagerly lay hold of, so ta 
acquit themselves that their work may most effectually gain the re- 
spect of the Jews and command their attention ; and soundness of 
judgment will much more be shewn in an anxious care to provide 
one more exact translation against the appointed time of their national 
restoration, than in a prematm-e zeal for the dubious conversion of a 
handful, by any means whatever, to minister to present religious excite- 
ment. The Christian Scriptures still come before them with suspi- 
cion, and the more complete shall be their Hebrew dress, the more 
true to the original they are likely to prove, and they will certainly 
gain a more ready access to their favour and understanding, when the 
God of their fathers shall again become conspicuously their God and 
they his people. The number of quotations, applications, and allu- 



54 CORRKSPONDENCK. 

sions taken* from the Septuagint in the New Testament will be found 
infinitely to surpass the expectations of those who have not made the 
investigation. Thus the Septuagint, which we have received at 
Jewish hands to our better understanding of the Hebrew Scriptures, 
enables the Christian to hold up the light of the Gospel with greater 
efficacy to the benighted Jew : — 

" It is twice blessed ; 
It blesseth him that gives, and him that takes." 

W. B. W. 

•*— — Vicarage^ Beds, 



THE PROPHECY OF JESUS. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Sir, — A recent authorf observes, "that writers on the millennium strive 
hard to give to yevfa the sense of edyog (^nation), in Luke xxi. 32 — 
' This generation shall not pass away till all be fulfilled ;' and para- 
phrase the verse thus : * In spitej of unparalleled sufferings, the Jews 
shall exist as a nation till Christ's personal return.' " It is difficult to 
imagine why the millennium is here brought in ; because the persistency 
of the Jewish nation, un destroyed, and unblended, is a manifest truth, 
and their long future continuance m that state cannot, from the present 
aspect of affairs, be doubted of There is a sort of incorrectness in 
thus mixing up controverted doctrine with plain fact, where the letter 
only is relevant. 

But the author says, that yevea, in Scriptural Greek, has only these 
two meanings, viz. " an account, tradition, or genealogy, and a gene- 
ration of cotemporary men or the manner of life in that generation." 
If such be the case, the plainest and most satisfactory explanation of 
this prophecy must be abandoned, and it must be replunged into the 
great difficulties that otherwise involve it. But Professor J. F. 
Schleusner declares that -yerea does signify " offspring, posterity, all 
who derive their origin from one common stock, a family, nation, tribe, 
or kin ;" w^hich is the well known Homeric sense of the word, 

TavTT}C TOi ytvtriQ ri Kai aifiaTOQ ivxofuu ilvai. 

And he cites the following satisfactory Hellenistic authorities : Josephus 
A. i. 10. 3. and A. i. 5. Genes, xxxi. 3. Levit. xx. 18. and xxv. 41. 
Jer. viii. 3. together with a few others which are not to the purpose. 
It may be added, that the word sometimes is used for a set, class, or 
denomination of people, without any literal consanguinity or com- 
munity of procreation, in which respect only Psalm Ixxii. (Ixxiii.) 15. 
seems to differ from the above-mentioned passages. 

• Besides the numerous original parallelisms of the New Testament in "Sacred Lite- 
rature," there arc a few examples of — (1) Simple quotations from the Septuagint.— 
(2) Complex quotations, taken from different parts and combined. — (3) Quotations 
mingled with original matter ; in all these, the parallelism is strictly observed. 

f BriU Mag. vol. ii. p. 261. % Why do they mseia these five wordu? 



CORRESPONDENCE. S5 

The prophecy of the Lord is delivered to us by the three first evan- 
geUsts, Matt. xxiv. Mark xiii. Luke xxi. It announces the approach- 
ing judgments of God against Jerusalem, the calamities of the Jewish 
nation, and the persecutions of the faithful. The gospel of St. Matthew 
proceeds in these w^ords, (to us, who live long after the completion of 
those events, most astounding,) " Immediately after the tribulation of 
those days shall the sun be darkened, &c., and then shall the sign of 
the Son of man appear in heaven, and then shall all the tribes of the 
land mouru, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of 
heaven with power and great glory, and he shall send his angels with 
a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect 
from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other, &c. Verily 
I say unto you, this generation shall not pass away till all these things 
be ful tilled." How^ever, some seventeen centuries have passed away 
since the tribulation of those days, and not one syllable of all this has 
come to pass. Neither in the period w^hich followed the siege by Titus, 
nor in that which followed the more extensive desolation by Adrian, 
did any manifestation of God the Son take place, or any great and 
happy reunion of the faithful. Nothing occurred in those periods, or 
down unto this period, to which those words could be even allegorically 
applied. But, at the same time, I must protest, that if such a phrase 
as " seeing the Son of man coming in the clouds with power and 
glory" be capable of allegorization, it is nearly time to shut up the 
volume, the pulpits, and the churches, for anything may signify any- 
thing, and (among others) the words of the Nicene fathers " I believe 
that he shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the 
dead" may mean any thing besides w^hat they say. Saint Mark 
abstained from repeating the word immediately (evdeotg) from St. 
Matthew, and said "m those days, after that tribulation," by which 
process he rather softened down the phraseology by which the reader 
was surprised in his predecessor, than removed the real difficulty. 
The last of the three Gospels in question, which was composed in the 
earnest desire to rectify whatever w^as defective or clear up whatever 
seemed obscure in those which preceded, gives a very different colour 
to our Saviour's prophecy. It describes four successive systems of 
events. 1. Jerusalem besieged, and the Jews led captive into all 
nations. 2. The continuing oppression of Palestine, expressed in 
these words, " And Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the nations, 
until the times of the nations be fulfilled." 3. When those times are 
fulfilled, there shall be gi-eat troubles, signs in the sun and moon, &c., 
and a general anxiety in the minds of men. 4. " And then shall they 
see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory." 
It is added, in him, as in both hm predecessors, " This generation shall 
not pass away till all be fulfilled." We thus learn that it was im- 
properly said in the gospel of Matthew, that the signs in the heavens, 
which are to foreshow the coming of the Lord unto judgment, would be 
immediately a/ter the capture of Jerusalem and dispersion of the Jews; 
and that, on the contrary, the entire times, or series of ages, during 
which the consequences of that catastrophe were to continue, the Jews 
being exiles, and the land of their fathers in the hands of strangers. 



56 CORRESPONDENCE. 

were to intervene between the said catastrophe and the said premo- 
nitory signs in the heavens. Saint Matthew had written down this dis- 
course without duly weighing the force and position of the adverb that 
he made use of, and, by that inadvertency, perhaps the strongest of all 
arguments might have been furnished to those who regard the Lord as 
not the real Messiah, if the later EvangeUst had not given a fuller and 
more intelligible report of what He said. But the very same reasons, 
which constitute the importance of St. Luke's chapter, prove that he 
speaks of old Jacob's yevEtfg re Kai at/zaroc, and not of any " generation of 
contemporary men." The Lord declared to the unbelieving JudaJif 
** Thou shalt tarry until I come," and he is the man who wanders 
upon the face of the earth and must not die. If the Bishop of Armenia 
(who visited England* in 1228, and astonished John Bull with several 
extraordinary narrations) had been duly aware of this, he would not 
have averred his own personal acquaintance with the Wandering Jew. 
- There is another Scripturef often coupled with this one, but 
materially different. ** Verily there be some standing here which 
shall not taste of death, till they see the Son of man coming in his 
kingdom." Had it been said, "which shall not, &c., until, &c., 
Cometh in his kingdom," it would undoubtedly predict either the 
impending and shortly subsequent coming again of Christ in his glory, 
or the indefinite reservation of certain persons then living, like the 
Teservation of Enoch and Elias for God's ulterior uses. The former 
of which would be a false prophecy, and the latter is not recommended 
to us by any circumstances of confirmation. But the words, " until 
they seCf &c.," are of a very difierent import, as applied to those days 
of abundant inspiration. General opinion and tradition has applied the 
words of our Saviour to the right person, even while it was ignorant of 
the justice of that application, and believed in the erroneous opinion 
last above-mentioned. 

Quel tanto al Redentor caro Giovanni, 
Per cui il sermone tra i fratelli uscio 
Che non dovea per morte finir gli anni : 
Si che fu causa che'l Figliuol di Dio 
A Pietro disse ; " perche pur t' aflfanni, 
S* io vo che cosi aspetti il venir mio ?" 
Benche non disse, " egli non de' morire," 
Si vede pur che cosi voile dire. 

Quivi fu assunto, e trovo compagnia : 

Che prima Enoch il patriarca v'era, 

Eravi insieme il gram profeta Elia, 

Che non an visto ancor 1' ultima sera: 

E fuor de V aria pestilente e ria 

Si goderan V eterna primavera. 

Fin che dian segno 1' angeliche tube 

Che torni Cristo in su la bianca uube. — Orl Fur, 34. 58. 

John was not in his state of nature, but " was in the Spirit," when 
God said to him " What thou seest, write in a book," and *' he saw 



• See Matt Paris, p. 297. t Mntt. xvi. 28. Luke ix. 27. 



CORRESPONDENCB. 57 

heaven opened, and behold ! a white horse, and he that sitteth upon 
him was called Faithful and True," &c. &c. Esaias in the last year of 
King Uzziah *' saw the glory of Jesus and spake of him," (John xii. 41); 
and in like manner St. John did not taste of death before he had seen 
the Kingdom of God. 

There was one man who lived till he had beheld the consummation, 
and there is one generation of mankind, who shall neither be exter- 
minated, nor blended down, nor disappear by any other process of 
national extinction, till that consummation is brought to pass. 



ON THE CLAPTON PROA^DENT SOCIETIES. 

To the Editor c'^the British Magazine. 

Sir, — If the following notice of a "Provident Society" at work in 
that part of the parish of Hackney which is under my charge, is not 
too long for you, or can be made not too long, I should be glad to see 
it in your pages. It has worked, under some local hindrances, much 
to our satisfaction ; and might, I think, be beneficially adopted in any 
populous parish, where, as with us, gross improvidence in summer, 
and want of work in winter, leave the poor without the means of 
supporting themselves for a great part of the year. There is another 
Society on similar principles in operation in the other part of the 
parish ; but the account here given is of that with which I am more 
intimately acquainted, although there is little difference between the 
two, except in unimportant particulars. 

The principles upon which the Society was founded were these — 

I. That the state of distress, in which the poor are found in the 
winter, is owing very much to their extreme want of providence 
during the summer. 
II. That indiscriminate charity during the winter, so far from being 
really serviceable to them, is injurious ; as it perpetuates their 
improvident habits by giving them something to look forward to 
for support in the winter, apart from their own earnings. 

And the objects of the Society, in connexion with these principles, 
were these — 

1. To repress, as far as was practicable, all indiscriminate charity 
(which, in almost every case, would be better designated, as 
" encouragement for the poor in improvidence and vice,") while 
we opened a way, at the same time, through which the benevo- 
lence of individuals might reach cases of real distress. 
II. To encourage the poor to lay by in the summer against the winter ; 
and thus to teach them by degrees the possibility of their sup- 
porting themselves by their own earnings, and the comfort of it. 

In pursuance of these objects, we determined upon the following 
plan of operations. The detail of the plan will be explained suffi- 
-ciently for my present purpose in the statement given of " The 

Vol. III.~/an. 1833. i 



^ CORRESPONDENCE. 

Amount {ind Mode of Relief c^eed upon ; ' ' and the " regulations regard- 
ing Deposits}" but it may be as well, first, to state generally, that we 
adopted the plan, with modifications, upon which District Visiting 
Societies act, combining with it the business of a Weekly Deposit 
Society. We divided the neighbourhood into a certain number of 
districts, and appointed visiters for each ; and when every necessary 
arrangement for commencing operations was completed, we called the 
poor together, explained to them the objects of the Society, circulated 
this explanation among them, and then left a similar circular with all 
the householders in the place, containing a list of the different dis- 
tricts into which the neighbourhood was divided, with the names and 
residences of the visitors attached, requesting their cordial co-opera- 
tion v^^th us ; and, in particular, begging them not to relieve the poor 
at their doors, but either to send them at once to their visitor for relief, 
or, at least, not to relieve them, till their visitor had been communi- 
pated with, 

AMOUNT OF RELIEF, ETC. 

(A.) The amount of relief allowed to be given in any one case is not 

more than two shillings a- week. 
(B.) This amount is given, as much as possible, not in money, but in 

work, food, clothing, &c. 
(C.) In summer, no relief is given, except in cases of sickness, or 

where the applicant's parish is quite out of reach. 
(D.) In winter, relief is not given (except in cases of sickness) till the 

applicant has been before the Sub-Committee, [No. 3] and 

his case approved by them. 
(E.) Blankets are lent to the poor during the winter, at the discretion 

of the visitor, to be returned in May. 

DEPOSITS. 

(F.) Deposits are taken weekly ; either for money to commence in 
March, and last 32 weeks ; or for coals to commence in 
May, and last 24 weeks ; or for both. 

(jpr.) N'Ot more than 2s. a-week is received for the money deposit, nor 
more than 1*. for the coal deposit 

(H.) The deposits for money are returned in November, with a 
premium of sixpence upon every four shillings laid by ; the 
deposits for coals in December, January, and February, by a 
sack of coals at a time, at the rate of a bushel for every nine- 
pence laid by. 

(I.) No person is allowed to deposit for coals, whose wages amount 
to more than a guinea a-week ; and none for money, whose 
wa^es amount to more than twenty -five shillings a-week. 

These were our regulations the first year. The benefits offered to 
Depositors were larger than we intended to continue, and tJie class of 
persons admitted to deposit above those whom we were most desirous 
tfn lerve. But we thonght it advisable ratjjer to Qxceed in our offers at 
4vt thw> otherwise; particularly, as every new year. would give us 
^ opportunity of making any alteration m our plan that might 



CORRESPONDENCE. 59 

appear desirable, — accordingly, the second year the following altera- 
tions took place : — 

(K.) The sum allowed to be deposited (G) was reduced one-half; one 
shilling a-week only being now allowed to be deposited for 
money, and sixpence a-week for coals. 

(L.) As we were enabled to purchase coals at a much lower rate the 
second year than we could the first, our coal premium was 
reduced in proportion, although our engagement stands the 
same ; viz., to give a bushel of coals, or its equivalent^ for 
every ninepence. 

(M.) In order to induce money-depositors to take out their money 
hy the week during the winter, instead of receiving it all at 
oncef we ofiered a double premium (H) upon money deposits 
taken out weekly. 

This may seem a large increase, but in fact it amounted to this — 
that, supposing the whole thirty-two shillings (F and K) to have been 
deposited, the depositor would receive four shillings more on the 
whole than before ; two pounds instead of one pound sixteen shillings. 
And the difference in benefit to the depositor, between his receiving 
his money in one sum, at the end of the autumn, to be spent, in all pro- 
bability, before the winter set in ; and his receiving it by small sumsf 
weekly, during the winter, while out of work, was thought sufficient 
reason for the change. Neither did we forget that those persons were 
less likely to apply to us for assistance in the winter, who, during the 
winter, had still money of their own to receive from us. 

Having now put your readers in possession of the main principles 
on which the Society is conducted, I shall proceed to speak of its 
results, as gathered from the experience of the two years in which we 
have been in operation. 

It will be borne in mind then, that the objects immediately before 
us were these — 

I. To repress, as far as was practicable, all indiscriminate charity ; 
but opening, at the same time, a way through which the benevo- 
lence of individuals might reach cases of real distress. 
II. To encourage the poor to lay by in the summer against the winter, 
and thus to teach them, by degrees, the possibiKty of supporting 
themselves by their own earnings, and the comfort of it. 

With regard to the first object, before the Society was established, 
impositions were constantly practised upon the inhabitants by persons 
representing themselves as in the greatest distress, and living in the 
neighbourhood. It was the immediate effect of the establishment of 
the Society to put an end to all abuses of this kind. The parties, 
instead of having money given them at the door as before, were 
referred to the visitor of the district in which they pretended to be 
Uving ; to whom, it is needless to add, they would never go. And as 
regards the begging from door to door by poor really living in the 
place, the practice has been in a \ery great degree diminished, though 



09 CORRESPONDENCS. 

I wish I could say that it had been altogether suppressed. The parties 
are referred to their visitors. If they deserve relief, they have it from 
the visitor ; if not (and in almost every case it is the worthless poor who 
beg in this manner), a shilling at one house, and sixpence at another, 
and half-pence at the rest, are no longer levied to be spent in drink, or 
to be their encouragement again next summer not to lay by for the 
winter. 

And to shew that while we have thus diminished to a great extent 
the evil of indiscriminate charity, we have, at the same time, " opened 
a way through which individual benevolence may reach cases of real 
distress,"' it will only be necessary to observe, that after the establish- 
ment of the Society, no cases of sickness attended with want or of real 
distress could exist without being soon known to the visitor, and there- 
fore within the means of relief; and that charitable contributions, to 
the amount of seventy pounds the first year, and eighty the second (a 
great part of which would in other years have been spent upon the 
idle and vicious poor at the door), have been appropriated by our 
means to genuine cases of sickness and distress. 

With regard to our second object, viz., " to induce the poor to lay 
by in the summer against the winter." In the first year, the deposits 
amounted to 116/. Is. Qd. In the first year, that is, we induced the 
poor to save 116/. out of their summer earnings for their wants in the 
winter. In the second year, the deposits amounted to 180/. 11*. 
In the second year, that is, we induced the poor to save 180/. out of 
their summer earnings against their wants in the winter ; or, more tJian 
lialf as much again as in the first year ; and this, let it be remembered, 
though the amount allowed to be deposited was half that of the 
first year. 

In the first year the number of Depositors was 112 

lu the second year 179 

^ . . p S Old Depositors , 77 

Consisting of J ^^^ Depositors. 102 

Out of the 112 depositors of the first year, and the 102 new depo- 
sitors of the second year, very nearly half were of the class of poor 
who usually come upon the parish for relief — out of work during the 
winter, and when in work, receiving fifteen shillings a-week for wages, 
or under ; of the rest, the great majority were not in the receipt of 
more than eighteen shillings a week when in work, and out of work 
often during the winter. 

In the first year the number of separate deposits was 122 

In the second year 210 

Of these, the larger part were for coals; the number of coal-depo- 
sitors being, within a little, double the second year what they were 
the first. 

It will be observed that 35 of our first year's depositors did not 
contmue the second year. Out of these, 13 had left the place, 3 were 
not allowed to deposit, 3 not being allowed for coals decUned for 
money, 7 said they could not afford it, 9 could not tell why they did 
not. I notice the reasons why these 35 did not continue to deposit 



CORRESPONDENCE. 61 

the second year, because, as it is our object to encourage the liahit of 
laying by in the poor, — to them an inclination to do so, — it is well that 
your readers should know why we did not succeed in this respect 
with these 35. T should add, that out of the 19 last mentioned, 8 
live directly within the operation of a Coal Society, whose practice it 
is to give a bushel of coals for sixpence during the winter, to any who 
apply for it. And as their temptation to the poor not to lay by in the 
summer is threepence a bushel greater than our's "to lay by," it has 
very probably not been without its eifect upon more of our first depo- 
sitors than the eight alluded to. What, however, the general feeling 
among our poor is of the benefit of depositing, is sufiiciently shewn 
by the fact that we had 102 new depositors the second year ; nearly 
as many again as we had the first. 

I had intended to have noticed some of the difficulties we have met 
with in the working of the plan, in order to put your readers into full 
possession of what may fairly be expected from it ; but I am afraid 
1 have already trespassed too much upon your room. I shall, thers'- 
fore, content myself with saying, generally, that it is only after a 
certain point in our progress that our usefulness is aifected by any 
of the obstacles to which we are subject. And the worst therefore 
that can be said against us is no more than this, that we do not as 
much good as we might under more favourable circumstances. But 
these observations apply exclusively to our first object. With regard 
to the deposit part of our operations, I see as little hindrance to its 
useful working as can be well conceived. The only difficulty here is, 
to know where to draw the line between those who may deposit and 
those who may not. For to admit as depositors persons who have 
sufficient means to procure the necessaries of life without assistance, 
is to teach those who are well able to depend upon their own earnings 
for subsistence, not to do so, and therefore to act in direct opposition to 
our main object, which is " to teach all the possibility of depending 
upon their own earnings, and the comfort of it ;" it is, in short, to 
draw an independent class of poor down to the dependent. The rule 
upon which the Society at present acts on this point is stated in [IJ, 
but the limit there assigned is generally considered not to be narrow 
enough, and in all probability will shortly be farther reduced. But it 
is only necessary to exercise a little caution in this particular to ensure 
the success of this part of our operations. The poor are too well 
aware of the great benefits they derive from depositing, not to be 
always ready to do so upon almost any terms that may be proposed 
to them. " I did not like it at first, but how glad I am now that 1 put 
by." "It comes like a gift to us." "It is like coming out of the 
fire to us." Such expressions as these are very common with them 
when spoken to on the subject of depositing. And your readers have 
only to imagine A, who has not deposited, seeing a sack of coals shot 
into B's (his next door neighbour), who has it every fortnight during the 
winter without anything then to pay for it, to understand how easily 
the incKnation to deposit may be created in the poor, and continued 
in them. 

One word I must be allowed to add before I close. Is there not a 



63 CORRESPONDENCE. 

principle called up in the breast of the poor man by the habit of 
depositing, that, under judicious encouragement, might do much to 
deminish the evil effects of the Poor Laws ? What is there in the 
nature of things, apart from legal enactments, to prevent parochial 
relief being so administered as to encourage depositing ? 

I am. Sir, 

Yom-'s faithfully. 
Upper ClaptOHy Nov. 7th. CHARLES J. HeATHCOTE. 

P.S. I have omitted to state, that the result of the alteration (M) 
adopted the second year, in the payment of the money-deposit, was, 
that out of 95/. laid by with us for the money-deposit, 53/. is to be 
drawn out weekly, 5s. at a time. Out of 74 money-depositors, 35 
take it out weekly. 



TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 
To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Mr. Editor, — I think you have occasionally shewn an interest in the 
success of Temperance Societies. It does indeed appear absolutely 
necessary that some decisive measure should be adopted, for the pur- 
pose of abating, if possible, the tremendous evils w^hich intemperance 
is spreading through the land. Ever since the passing of those two 
Acts of Parliament, for licensing the sale of beer and ardent spirits, 
(two of the greatest blots upon our statute book,) the vice of drunken- 
ness, and with that all other vices, have increased even beyond our 
gloomy apprehensions. The societies above-mentioned present the 
only remedy hitherto devised : they have been completely successful, 
as far as they have been properly supported, and would, if taken up 
as they deserve to be, do all that couW be expected or desired. 

I send you an extract from the Bolton Report of this year, in 
order that, if you deem it likely to serve the cause, it may obtain cir- 
culation through your widely-spread pages. 

Your's sincerely, 

J. S. 

*' The very decided and rapid advancement of the cause, in this town and 
neighbourhood, may be greatly attributed to the zeal with which it has been 
taken up by the working classes ; nor must we omit to mention a considerable 
number of Sunday scholars and teachers ; who have been most creditably 
active in publishing the good tidings of this society, and have become, in the 
hands of Providence, very effectual instruments in promoting its success. 

" But it may here probably be asked, by some who have not yet joined 
us. What good has your society done ? How many drunkards has it re- 
claimed? We answer: 1. — That the good is not to be measured, merely 
by the reclaiming of notorious drunkards : every body knows, that, of all 
evil habits, drunkenness is the most difficult to be conquered and cured; 
and the task is commonly given up as helpless ; we have, however, been 
honoured with a few trophies of this kind : a few confirmed drunkards have 
been ' converted from the error oi their way.' 2. — But the success of 
this society, in the work of reform, has been far more extensive. Many per- 
sons, who did not deserve the title of * confirmed drunkards,' but yet lived in 



CORRESPONDENCE. 63 

the frequent habit of excess, have been effectually awakened from their evil 
and miserable practices, and have become decidedly temperate men. The hap- 
piest consequences have thus resulted both to themselves and their families : 
instead of want and nakedness, and dirt and disorder, which once filled their 
dwellings with wretchedness, they are now enjoying, with much thankfulness, 
plenty, and comfort, and peace. And what is still more valuable, several in- 
stances have occurred, of persons so reclaimed being brought to a vital sense 
of religion, to a due observance of the Sabbath, and the worship of their God. 
3. — A considerable impression has been made, through the medium of this 
society, upon the minds and habits of many who are not yet united with it. 
By the circulation of our tracts, and the conversations which have been 
excited, the evils of intemperance have been more strongly felt and acknow- 
ledged, and drinking has diminished by private consent. 4. — The principal 
good, however, which this society has done, relates to the temperate; and such, 
it should be thoroughly understood, is our main object. Hundreds of persons 
are now emboldened and strengthened to persevere in their resolution to lead 
a sober life, who might otherwise, like their thoughtless neighbours, have been 
unguardedly led astray. As the drunkards die oflf, their ranks are continually 
recruited from the temperate ; one temperate person after another is gradually 
corrupted ; not being sufficiently aware of the wily and insensible manner in 
which drunkenness fatally creeps on, nor acquainted with half the ravages 
which it makes upon the peace and happiness of the community, they are the 
more easily prevailed upon. But by reading our tracts, and attending our 
weekly meetings, they have become well informed on this matter : they are 
more alive to the horrors of this pernicious and pestilential vice ; they see the 
danger of this besetting sin ; how slowly and unsuspectedly it steals upon a 
man, like a thief in the night, to rob and to destroy. Thus they have signed 
the pledge ; and their resolution is fixed far more deeply than it probably ever 
would have been, if they had been left to themselves and to ordinary circum- 
stances. 5. — It should also be distinctly noticed, that a great number of 
young people (above the age of fourteen years) have been sincerely interested 
in this cause ; they see the snares which are laid for their feet, and the mise- 
ries brought on by habits of intoxication ; they have taken their stand on the 
side of religion, and wisdom, and virtue ; and not only so ; many of them 
have induced their families and friends to join it, and thus have proved instru- 
ments of blessing to numbers older than themselves. 6. — The very circum- 
stance of several hundred persons assembling together weekly, for a moral 
purpose — to hear instruction upon the excellency of any virtue, and the 
abominations of any vice — is of itself a practice of no small advantage ; a 
spirit of brotherly kindness and good will is thereby produced and cherished; 
the multitudes attending are out of the way of evil, and in the way of good, 
and many * a word in season ' may be dropt, which shall find an entrance, by 
the divine blessing, into a careless unawakened heart, and rendered the means 
of ' saving a soul alive.' 

" For it is an undeniable fact, that Temperance Societies have been signally 
blessed as harbingers of religion, wherever they have been effectually established; 
in America particularly, where they had their origin, and whers the system has 
been most extensively and fully tried, religion has followed in their train. 
Numerous individuals, nay almost whole towns and districts, sunk in profli- 
gacy and sin, have been roused, and enlightened and converted ; deserted 
churches are filled again ; and the gospel is taking deeper root in the land. 
The same good fruit has been borne in our own country, and our own town 
also, in proportion to the time. For though Temperance Societies do not rest 
exclusively on religious ground, yet is it their acknowledged purpose to sub- 
serve the interests of religion : this principle is expressly recognised in our 
own pledge; and on this account we appeal, strongly and urgently, to every 
Christian minister and every Christian individual. It is universally agreei 



W CORRESPONDENCE. 

that drunkenness presents the greatest of all hindrances, the most formidable 
of all barriers, to the reception of spiritual instruction, and the inlet of reli- 
gious knowledge; the removal therefore of this hindrance and this barrier is 
a work not to be despised. The guarding and forefending of our uninfected 
neighbours, and especially our rising generation, from this moral plague, is a 
decided service rendered to the gospel ; it is at least ' preparing the way of 
the Lord, and making straight in the desert a high-way for our God.'" 



VISITING SOCIETIES. 
To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Sir, — Observing in your Journal of this month that a Visiting So- 
ciety is about to be established at Oxford, I feel most anxious, 
through the same medium, to oifer a fev^- hints to those interested in 
the formation of it. Under judicious direction it wdll prove a blessing 
^to the poor, but if entered upon without due consideration as to the 
possible effects, will be only productive of disappointment to the bene- 
volent supporters of it, and very partial benefit to the objects of their 
kind intentions. I am a member of two district Societies, and my 
experience as ^'isitor has led to this conclusion, that the systematic 
extension of relief has in the aggregate a decided tendency to injure 
Jthe morals of the poor, in as much as it encourages idleness and 
profligacy. Unlocked for assistance is seldom otherwise than bene- 
ficial, but the certainty of relief which alleged poverty and distress, 
however produced, meets w-ith, has nearly destroyed every feeling of 
the poor to support their families by labour. I have seen the greatest 
apparent misery decline proffered employment, from the knowledge 
that the hand of charity would be widely extended on relating a tale 
of woe. 

Far be it from me to close the heart which is alive to the sufferings 
of real distress — there are cases, where but for the aid of charitable 
institutions deserving persons must perish. I would urge the most 
liberal subscriptions, but at the «ame time, it is of the utmost conse- 
quence that the money benevolently given should be judiciously 
applied. 

I venture to suggest that two-thirds at least of any fund be expended 
in finding employment ; needle- work should be supplied to the females, 
and on condition only of their earning a certain sum per week, and a 
small portion of that as savings deducted, should entitle them to the 
loan of linen during the period of their lying-in ; peculiar cases of 
inability to fulfil the general regulation might form an exemption. 
A certain weekly allowance of money during that period is injudicious; 
it is then claimed as a right ; but articles of food could be given at the 
discretion of the lady visiter. 

Subscribers might have the privilege of sending linen to the Com- 
mittee to be made by the women whose names were on the books of 
the Society, according to the following scale : — 

The subscriber of J/. 1*. to be entitled to the amount of 15*. in 
needle work, and the privilege of recommending one sempstress. 
Those at 10*. to 7*. 6c/., but no recommendation. At 5s. to 2». 



CORRESPONDENCE. C5 

When work could not be thus obtained, common materials for 
clothing should be bought to be made by the females at a moderate 
price, to be purchased by them at the lowest possible amount, and 
the surplus offered for general sale. Shoemakers could be em- 
ployed on similar principles, and means devised for employment of 
many trades. 

I fear my letter is somewhat longer than can be admitted in your 
columns : should you find it inadmissible, I trust the subject will be 
noticed in a more concise form, and communication, if desired, be held 
by letter to any address given. 

I remain. 

Your constant reader, 

X. Y. Z. 



ON THE CATHOLIC MAGAZINE. 

To the Editor of the Briti$h Magazine. 

Sir, — In your number for December you extract a few specimens of 
the temper of the Catholic Magazine, and wish for information respect- 
ing it; whether its " editors are priests ?" and whether ^'any Romanists 
of family can tolerate such a production ?" In reply to these queries, 
you will be surprised when I tell you, that this scurrilous publication 
is the accredited organ of the Roman priesthood in this island. The 
prospectus announcing its birth appeared in November, 1830 ; and was 
addressed " to the Catholic Clergy and Laity of the United Kingdom." 
It bore the written approvals of two vicars apostolic, Drs. Walsh and 
Baines, with that of thirty-seven (afterwards increased to fifty-eight) 
priests, and these include every name of any note in their body. It was 
** to be conducted on a liberal and enlarged plan ; that the utmost free- 
dom of discussion be admitted, but that all asperity of language be ex- 
cluded ; and that a spirit of moderation, of candour, and forbearance, 
invariably pervade the work." Of their adherence to this, the passages 
adduced in the British Magazine are a beautiful specimen. The 
avowed editors were the following priests, viz. : — " the Rev. J. Kirk, 
Lichfield; Rev. F. Martyn, Walsall; Rev. E. Peach and T. M. 
M'Donnell, Birmingham; and the Rev. T. Gascoyne, St. Mary's 
College, Oscott ; assisted by the clergy who attend the Oscott confer- 
ence," &c. After such a muster of forces, something w^orthy the 
greatness of old Rome was fully expected. A more ridiculous failure 
has seldom occurred, even in the annals of literary periodical parade. 
However, what it wants in talent is abundantly made up by per- 
sonal grossness and misrepresentation ; w^orthy the general character 
of Mr. McDonnell, who is known to be, in fact, its chief editor. 

To your question whether " Romanists of family can tolerate such a 
work ;" I should answer generally in the negative, for the last number 
of the Catholic Magazine complains grievously of " the disgraceful 
apathy of the upper classes of the Catholic body;" and reads them an 
edifying lecture upon the approaching downfal of the aristocracy. It 
is, of course, cordially disapproved by such gentlemen as the Hon. E. 

Vol. III.^ Jan. 1833. k 



06 CORRESPONDESCE. 

Petre, who nobly sustained the obUgation of his oath not to injvire the 
established church, for which he was arraigned by Mr. Shiel within, 
and by the Catholic Magazine without ; for this Christian production 
has been constantly laboiuing (as for instance in the last number) to 
prove that Romanists are virtually absolved from any obligation to 
keep that oath. At the same time, there may be individuals of 
family, though I think not many, who resemble the Earl of Shrews- 
bury ; whose feehngs are evinced, as well by his cordial support of 
the worst productions of his party, as by his vehement attacks on the 
highest ranks of the English church, in the House of Lords, and upon 
its humblest members, in the persecution of a private curate, in his 
own parish. 

I could give some striking details of the progress of this our invete- 
rate enemy in the midland districts, and of its bearing upon public 
meetings ; as, among the rest, the rejection of the church-rate at Bir- 
mingham, which is imputable solely to the machinations of that active 
inover of the political union, Mr. McDonnell, who, in his proceedings, 
was deserted even by some of the most violent radicals. But I 
will only add, that the appearance of the Catholic Magazine led also 
in Birmingham to the publication of a counteracting periodical, the 
Protestant Journal, which, I regret to say, is likely to fall, for want of 
general support. Certainly, I wish the judgment manifested in it did 
as much honour to the zealous editor, as the typography does credit to 
the Birmingham press. However, its defects might have been remedied ; 
but, when extinct, a vehicle will be closed for many valuable commu- 
nications, and for much information respecting the progress of the 
never-slumbering foe of truth and freedom.* 

I am, Sir, respectfully, 

L. V. 



♦ The Editor cannot avoid saying a few words here respecting the Protestant 
Journal. Like L. V., he may not always coincide in opinion or judgment with the 
Editor. But he is bound to offer his tribute of respect and esteem to a man who by 
all accounts goes through labour the most severe, unremitting, and unrewarded, under 
every discouragement, simply and solely from a desire to serve the sacred cause in 
which he is embarked. The Editor has been informed that Mr. AUport is compelled 
frequently to work eighteen and nineteen hours a day with a most scanty and insuf- 
ficient income, and with no payment for his learned and curious labours. It ought 
to be added that this indefatigable man published last year a translation of Davenant 
on the Colossians, with a most interesting and valuable life of Davenant, and many 
notes. Whether persons agree in Davenant's views or not, the value of his work 
is not doubtful ; and it is with sincere regret that the Editor has learnt that Mr. 
AUport has suffered severely by this undertaking. He begs earnestly to reconimend 
the work to those among his brethren who have the means of purchasing it, and 
thus assisting a most deserving and excellent man. 

In conclusion, let the Editor call attention to the statement in this letter, that the 
Catholic Magazine, a work exceeded by none in virulence, coarseness, and vulgarity, 
is edited by priests and approved by their bishops. What a strange church is the 
Roman Catholic church ! It might stand on its dignity, on its age, on the excellence 
and learning of its writers. But if the coarsest language, the most unchristian means, 
and union with all which it most detests and has always denounced, will serve the 
purpose of depressing an enemy, it never hesitates for a moment to adopt these 
dreadful and degrading means of warfare. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 07 

CURATES. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Mr. Editor, — The cause of pluralists has been advocated in your 
Magazine with all the ingenuity that the subject will admit of. Will 
you allow me to enter the lists, and with every feeling of personal 
respect to your correspondent (vol. i. p. 35o.), to speak a word in 
behalf of curates ? Now I wish to appeal to those stubborn things 
called facts, and from the Clerical Guide and Parhamentary Returns, 
as my authorities, beg to produce the following testimonies respecting 
the pluralists and curates in 1827. We there find that 12,200 pieces 
of preferment were possessed by 7659 persons, of whom 3801, or very 
nearly one half, held more than one preferment each. It farther 
appears that 390 of these last, who were also dignitaries of the church, 
held among them 1297 dignities and benefices, i. e. upwards of three 
each. The state of things cannot now be very diiferent from what it 
was five years since, and may be assumed to be sufficiently near the 
truth at the present time. Come we now to the curates, and we learn 
from the parliamentary return in 1827 that there were at that time 
4254. Add these to the number of incumbents, and we shall obtain 
11,913 as a fair estimate of the number of parochial clergy required 
for the ministerial superintendence of the kingdom. This must 
remain nearly the same, whether these clergymen are incumbents 
or curates, and as this number must evidently be kept up, the suc- 
cession, as far as I can see, must remain the same, whether 
pluralities are allowed or abolished. I believe, indeed, that in 
many cases, and particularly in our country parishes, the holder of 
two or more adjoining benefices with a small population might be 
enabled to advance the welfare of his people more than if the same 
preferments were divided among two or more incumbents, but it is in 
such cases alone that I would plead for their continuance. If it be 
asked, by way of defending pluralities, what can a clergyman do upon 
a pittance of 150/. a year? — I would reply, what can a curate do 
upon half that sum ? I am sorry to observe that, notwithstanding, by 
Lord Harro why's act, the minimum salary of curates is fixed at 80/. 
Out of 4254 stipends, of which a return was made to Parliament, 
2375 were returned as below that sum, and only forty-three returned 
as receiving the whole proceeds of the benefice. And yet. Sir, in 
piety, talent, and education, and a faithful discharge of their important 
duties, I do not know that curates are in any way inferior to those 
who employ them. The Christian principle is this, that the labourer 
is worthy of his hire ; and I cannot see how plurahties, to the extent 
that they now exist, can be reconciled upon this principle. At the 
same time. Sir, I would encourage no reckless innovations ; I would 
act with becoming deference to the powers that be, and to whom, as 
ministers, we owe reverential obedience. At the same time, I would 
think it a duty both to them and the church at large to offer, in a 
spirit of Christian meekness, any suggestions which may tend, in my 



68 CORRESPONDENCE. 

opinion, to strengthen our Zion, by taking away from her enemies all 
just grounds of complaint against her. 

I remain, Mr. Editor, 

Your obedient servant, 
December 7, 1833. G. W. R.* 



♦ G. W. R 's letter is calculated to cause great concern. He wishes to say a word 
on behalf of curates. Why is any thing required on fceAaZ/" of curates ? Who wishes 
to ill-use them? W^ill he allow himself to be asked whether he really believes that 
incumbents are enemies to curates ? Doubtless in a very large body there will be 
some ungenerous men ; but does he really believe, if he knows the state of the incum- 
bents, that they are as a body inclined to withhold from their assistants what they 
can afford to give ? Who are the incumbents? Some certainly went into the church 
with a certainty of provision. But how large a class is there who were for a longer 
or shorter season curates themselves, with no prospects before them, and receiving just 
what they now give, without thinking themselves ill used. Does G. W. R. believe 
that these men are enemies to curates, or require any one to speak in behalf of curates 
t» them ? Does he think that if he became a rector to-morrow, he should become 
ungenerous and oppressive to younger and more helpless men ? The Editor must 
say, that having set out in life as a curate without any prospect, he shall always feel 
strong gratitude to the two incumbents under whom he served for their invariable 
kindness to him. And he heard only a few days ago of one of these cruel incumbents 
and pluralists, who by his situation in a cathedral had provided for two of these op- 
pressed curates. These cases are the rule, and ill usage the exception. With respect 
to the facts, G. W. R. might remember that Lord Harrowby's act applies only to 
cases of non-resident rectors, and of those whose incumbency began subsequently to 
his act, while the returns of 1827, doubtless, embrace these two classes. Besides 
this, are curates the only persons to be considered? The Editor's near neighbours at 
one time were two clergymen above seventy years of age, whose infirmities prevented 
them from doing their duty, — one, indeed, was blind. Neither benefice amounted to 
180^. per annum, and yet the population in each was considerable. Does G. W. R. 
think that it would be right that if these two men had gone to live with their friends 
and " die at home at last," nearly their whole income should have been given, in their 
hour of need and infirmity, to young men, perhaps, just ordained, who had never done 
a year's service to the church ? Doubtless, the people as well as the old pastor are to 
be considered, but while frail and infirm men are to be employed in the church, the pro- 
visions of Lord Harrowby's act cannot be enforced strictly without cruelty, from which 
any but paper reformers would shrink. On the non-resident or pluralist, competently 
provided for, every one would wish to see them rigidly enforced. 

With respect to the argument about pluralities alluded to, G. W. R. does not ap- 
pear to understand it, and the Editor has found the same difficulty with many persons 
in conversation. No one denies that if every benefice was served by its incumbent, 
the same number of clergy would be required as now. But what was meant about 
the difficulty of getting a succession in that case was obviously this. Now as a curacy, 
from being temporary in duration as well as limited in amount, is not valuable, there 
is nothing painful or objectionable in any man's asking for one. And besides this, 
there is a constant demand for curates, by the change of circumstances in persons and 
benefices. Many men are ordained upon titles for two or three years, a period for 
which an incumbent happens to want assistance. But supposing such curacies were 
things unknown, would a man who had no friend ready to give him a living even 
when it was vacant, resolve on going into the church ? How should he accomplish 
his object, if he did so resolve ? There would be a few curates employed by resident 
rectors in large places, and the competition for these curacies would be such as to make 
them almost as diflScult to obtain as a small living. Could a young and friendless 
man apply to the patron of even a small living, to whom he was unknown, and ask 
him for the reversion of it ? Would the patron, even if inclined to listen to such 
applications, do right in promising preferment to one who might turn out unworthy 
and had then given no proof of his ministry ? And finally, suppose all these diflRcultics 
over, and a promise even of an old man's living obtained, (old men live much longer 
than is expected,) what is to become of the expectant in the mean while? Ho could 



CORRESPONDENCE. 69 

FARTHINGHOE CLOTHING CLUB, &c. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Sir, — In numbers five and eight of your useful Magazine, the Far- 
thinghoe Clothing Club is mentioned by two correspondents, in 
terms of high commendation. Upon one of the rules, however, they 
have formed, it seems, very opposite opinions, I mean the rule which 
determines the time for depositing. If I may be allowed through the 
medium of your Journal to correct an error into which C. S. has 
fallen, and to give my reasons for framing the regulation as it realli/ 
exists, I may, perhaps, obtain the entire assent to my plan of a 
gentleman who appears anxious, like many others, to discover the 
best method of improving the condition of the poor. I am induced 
to request this permission in your December Magazine, because this 
is the season of the year when the pnblic are naturally better dis- 
posed than at other times to consider and promote the cause of 
charity, and because the beginning of a new year is usually and pro- 
perly the time when clothing societies commence their depositing 
operations. 

C. S. objects to the deposits being paid on Sunday/ at the church, 
and asks, after a flattering encomium upon the state of the parish, 
whether Farthinghoe has not some school-room to which the children 
of the poor might bring the deposits of their parents on a week day, 
if those parents were unable to attend. Now, to the acceptance of 
money from a parent by the hands of the child, I have many strong 
objections, one of which is, that the practice would soon become 
general. In Farthinghoe, not only a parent from every cottage is 
a depositor, but almost every child from every cottage, and in my 
opinion the moral effect of the Society is greatly encreased by the 
numerous attendance which I secure, by insisting that no one person 
shall bring two deposits. If a substitute is accepted, in any case, it is 



not go into the church without a title or employment, and it would certainly be a 
great evil for him not to be professionally employed. Again, take the case of those 
who have livings at command. The patron of a benefice brings up a son or relation 
to the church, knowing that he shall have no diflSculty in obtaining a curacy for him 
till the living is vacant, and that thus he will be settled in his profession and properly 
employed. If he could not have this prospect, what is he to do with his relation till 
the living is vacant ? No one has attempted to answer these questions, but every 
body contents himself with saying that as there will be the same number of vacancies, 
the same number of persons will get into the church every year. The real question 
is this : If a man has no hope of ani/ living at all, or only of the living A, what matter 
is it to him that there is every probability that livings B, C, D, and E, on to the end 
of the alphabet will be vacant, when he has and can have no connexion with them? 

G. W. R. talks of curates being as learned, intelligent, pious, &c. &c., as rectors. 
But clergy bepin their career as curates, and if it may be said without offence to G. 
W. R., a young man ordained yesterday is not so learned, intelligent, or experienced, 
as he will be ten or fifteen years afterwards, and on that account has not the same 
claims in the one case as the other. G. W. R. and others seem to think of incumbents 
as a dreadful race. If G. W. R. after six or eight years' service as a curate should 
obtain a living, does he imagine that he shall find himself a less pious man the next 
morning, or will he think that the young curate to whom he may give a title the next 
week has as strong claims on the church as himself 



70 CORRESPONDENCE. 

a child for a child, an adult for an adult — a regulation by which much 
confusion is avoided, and by which the youngest children are gra- 
dually accustomed to the payment of their little deposits. As to the 
place of payment, the truth is, the deposits are received in the school- 
room, the school-room at Farthinghoe being situate in the church- 
yard, and the words of the rule being that the money is to be paid 
there " immediately after attendance at morning or evening divine 
service." But I apprehend the chief objection entertained by C. S. 
against the rule is, that the deposits are required to be made on a 
Sunday. Now with respect to that, I have only to obser\'^e, that I 
am so far from insisting upon it as applicable to all cases, that in a 
parish in Kent, where I have established a similar society, I have 
consented to a week day for depositing, while at Farthinghoe I have 
chosen Sunday, my mind in each case being directed by a regard to 
local circumstances. Yet I have no hesitation in declaring in favour 
of Sunday, as a day for receiving deposits, and that too immediately 
-after an attendance at divine worship, in all cases where the circum- 
stances of the parish admit of it. My reasons for this will appear 
from the following extract (page 17) of a statement of results respect- 
ing the Farthinghoe Clothing Society, which I pubhshed at Messrs. 
Rivingtons' a year ago, and every copy of which has, I fear, [?] been 
sold : — 

" Rule 7. — ^To prove the value of this rule I refer the reader to the Results 
6, 10, 11, and 14. It may perhaps excite objections with some, but I have 
never heard an objection sufficiently strong to overcome the Results in its 
favour. It requires attendance at divine worship in the church on the part of 
the depositor. In doing so, it requires that which is calculated, it may be be- 
lieved, to bring a blessing upon the society as well as the depositor. The laws 
of God and man demand it, independent of the society, and in all friendly 
clubs a similar rule prevails. The society enjoins it, supplying a motive for 
attendance at divine worship where higher motives might be wanting. Surely 
it cannot be regarded as inconsistent with the designs of God, by whom ' the 
Sabbath was made for man,' thus to require what God himself demands of his 
creatures. They who might not choose to have the payments made on the 
Sunday, could not, I conceive, have any objection to the depositors' presence 
at public worship being required. 

" To those persons that object to the deposit being made on a Sunday, on 
the score of its being a worldly and secular act, there is in my opinion an easy 
reply ; it is this — there is not one operation of the society that is not intended, 
and that is not calculated, to promote the moral and religious improvement of 
the depositors. An ennobling and Christian intercourse between the rich and 
the poor ; the encouragement and practice of charity ; the industry of the 
working classes ; their joining in public prayer ; the opportunity of religious 
instruction ; the endeavour to possess a conscience void of oflFence ; the culti- 
vation of those provident habits upon which morality as well as comfort is 
found to depend, and out of which may arise, by divine assistance, those very 
dispositions which are essential to salvation : — such are the objects of this 
society — the very objects, it may be observed, for which the Sabbath was ap- 
pointed — for which Christians assemble together in the house of God — for 
which they kneel— for which they supplicate. Can any man that seriously 
considers this, be of opinion, that the simple act of depositing 3rf. towards a 
fund connected with such tendencies — promoting such happiness — advancing 
such mighty interestfi — that such an act, I say, can be displeasing to the 



CORRESPONDENCE. 71 

Almighty ? As to its being a secular employment, is it more secular than the 
holding of a parish vestry on that day, an act commanded by law, upon the 
ground, it may be supposed, that the temporal good of the poor cannot be pro- 
moted at a better time ? In Scotland and in Ireland, a kind of voluntary 
poor's rate is regularly raised every Sunday during divine service, by carrying 
a box from pew to pew for gifts. Collections are everywhere made in Eng- 
land after charity sermons ; money is received for the assistance of the poor at 
the Sacrament ; and loaves of bread are in many English parishes given away 
in the church on Sunday. Connect all this with the superior convenience 
with which the labouring poor are enabled to deposit on the Sabbath, over 
the six days of their toil — do this, and then say in what respect is the sacred 
day violated ? Call it a weekly charity sermon, and who can object to it ? In 
framing this rule, I had no intention to exclude dissenters, there not being a 
single dissenter in my parish, and the attendance at church being good and 
regular ; yet, as a clergyman, I cannot consider that this rule is objectionable 
from its operating to the exclusion of dissenters, for, 1. The dissenters, I be- 
lieve, never include any but those of their own body in their own charitable 
societies. — 2. The dissenters are not hereby prevented from establishing similar 
societies among themselves, for the relief of their own members. — 3. It may 
properly operate to keep members of the establishment from quitting the 
household of their faith, as some are apt to do, not from any ground of objec- 
tion to the principles of our establishment, but from worldly and temporal 
reasons. — 4. The society, in encouraging depositors to go to church, encourages 
them to hear those doctrines which every clergyman of the establishment re- 
gards as involving questions not of party triumph, but of eternal happiness. 
— 5. If dissenters are included in such a society, while the members of the 
establishment are excluded from the dissenting societies, a positive pecuniary 
premium will be given to bribe men into places of dissent. — 6. It enables the 
clergyman to know more of the character of the depositor. — Lastly, I again 
refer the reader to the improvement in morals, to which this society appears 
have contributed." 

And now, Sir, that I have thus explained the grounds upon which the 
Sunday rule of my Clothing Club was built, allow 'me to state the 
principle upon which I conceive a clothing society, and almost every 
charitable parochial institution should be conducted for the benefit of 
the poor. The grand object, and therefore the great tendency of 
every plan, whether the aim be avowed or concealed, should be to 
unpauperise the labourer, and that at any present sacrifice of money, 
and at any loss of temporary popularity. I speak here principally 
in reference to the southern and midland counties, and I say that all 
love as well as all labour is worse than misapplied that does not 
endeavour to rescue the poor from the degradation, the profligacies, 
the miseries, the inhumanities of pauperism. I respect the motives 
of those benevolent persons who try to cheer the gloom of the pauper's 
dwelling by gifts of clothing and fuel, and by the produce of cheap land 
allotments. But I cannot conceal from myself the melancholy truth, 
that every expedient to endear pauperism to the labourer, by sur- 
rounding it with comforts, is to perpetuate one of his direst misfor- 
tunes, and to render his worst calamity hereditary to his children. 
The system, but too general, and alas ! too plausible, of remedying to 
the poor man all the evils of his improvidence, is assuredly to generate 
an improvident race, and thus to ruin to a frightful extent not only 
the bodies but the souls of the poor. It is always, therefore, in refer- 



72 CORRESPONDENCE. 

ence to the system, of which clothing societies and land allotments 
form a part, that their real value is to be considered. The charities of 
the wealthy, aye, and of persons possessed of moderate means in Eng- 
land, are truly admirable to contemplate ; but they are not always 
wisely directed, nay, their tendency is not unfrequently to aggravate 
the suffering they are given to relieve, and to increase the amount of 
misery many fold. Instead of, or rather in addition to clothing the 
body and filling the belly to day, with that which may be sold or 
wasted, or may pass away to-morrow, let the system be changed 
that renders the one naked and the other empty. But how, it will 
be said, can this be effected ? I reply by stating, that in nine parishes 
out of ten, with which I have been able to form any intimate 
acquaintance, the greater portion, if not the entirety of the pauperism 
might be got rid of by a judicious use of land allotments and clothing 
societies. That such results have not taken place, where those cha- 
ritable efforts have been made, has been owing to this, that the real 
- evil of pauperism has not been clearly discerned or sufficiently con- 
sidered, and that a special endeavour to eradicate it has formed no 
part in the parochial arrangements. I am told that parishes could not 
be brought to consent to this or that plan, but I do not hear that it has 
been proposed and rejected. Besides, I am told this by persons who, 
upon inquiry, I find have themselves no clear and distinct view of 
the nature and workings oi pauperism ^ and consequently cannot have 
convinced their fellow parishioners of the evil of it. Others, again, 
profess to wait for an entire repeal of the poor laws (dum defluat 
amnisy) and think it useless to employ individual exertion till the 
legislature has rendered it unnecessary. Yet among these different 
classes of men, I find many most benevolent persons studiously em- 
ployed in promoting clothing societies and land allotments, without 
being aware, that by those very means nine tenths of the existing 
pauperism, of which they complain, might be removed. I insist 
upon this w4th confidence, and fi*om my own experience, as the 
following statement will shew. 

In 1826 the parish of Farthinghoe, in Northamptonshire, was as law- 
less, as profligate, as drunken, as poaching, as idle, inasmuch as it was 
as pauperised a parish as any with which I have ever been acquainted. 
It had gradually attained to that state, and seemed to threaten every 
farmer as well as every labourer with ruin. The report of its expendi- 
ture in that year, as made to the House of Commons, will be found, 
I believe, to be 715/.; the population was about 500 ; the acres about 
1400, of which about 1050 are pasture and 350 arable; the soil 
divided among seven landed proprietors in somewhere about the follow- 
ing proportions of acres — 1070, 100, 100, 70, 50, 5, 5 ; in addition to 
these proprietors of land, there were ten owners of houses not pos- 
sessed of land. I mention these statistics in order to make your 
readers acquainted with the extent of difficulty which was to be 
overcome, ere the parish could be unpauperised, and to shew by 
what lias been done, what may he done. In 1826, I convinced myself 
that if something were not shortly done, besides preaching in the 
church and advising and remonstrating out of it, neither counsel in 



CORRESPONDENCE. 73 

the house of God, nor entreaties at the dwellings of the poor, would 
be of much avail. Accordingly, I made up my mind to endure every 
kind of obloquy, and proclaim war upon ahle-hodied pauperwm, in 
every shape, wherever and whenever I could meet with it in the 
parish. In this attempt I knew I should have to sustain the fiercest 
opposition in all quarters, save that of the chief (no/i-resident) landed- 
proprietor of 1070 acres, whose support had been promised me. The 
result has been, that since March, 1829, up to the present day, 
(Nov. 16th, 1832,) not a single able-bodied labourer has received (I may, 
I believe, say, scarcely one has asked either for himself or his family, 
how^ever large) one farthing from the overseer; the farmers have had 
their work all done ; the labourers have been constantly employed 
and hberally paid, and the general state of the parish rendered, as to 
order, morals, cleanliness, comfort and contentment, the reverse in 
every respect of what it was in 1826. The report of the parish ex- 
penditure ending in March, 1832, is 253/., and in March, 1833, will 
probably be below 190/., sums paid for eight apprentices and six 
emigrants forming part of the parochial expences within the last 
four years. 

If am asked, as I have often been asked of late, what my system 
has been, I have only this reply to make — the only system pursued 
has been that of detecting and destroying pauperism under whatever 
guise or disguise it might exist, and that in spite of all discourage- 
ments and dissuasives. How each case was treMed, the select vestry- 
book w^ill shew, since scarcely any thing has been done or said in the 
vestry-room, whether by rate-payer or by pauper, for the last six or 
seven years, that is not most minutely recorded. I have only to add 
that I have endeavoured in every possible manner to elevate the 
labourers and to instil into their minds notions of comfort. A pig, 
a clock, a barrel of beer, has more to do in determining the moral, 
and through that, by degrees, the religious character, than is generally 
supposed. Make a man comfortless, and you make him improvident; 
make him improvident, and he is lost both here and hereafter. The 
want of forethought pervades the whole entire man ; he sinks into 
the condition of an idle, reckless profligate, thus exemplifying the 
melancholy sentiment of the poet — 

" Who falls from all he knows of bliss. 
Cares little into what abyss." 

To raise his mind, I have endeavoured to render comforts not only 
attractive but accessible, connectiag the acquisition of them, however, 
with character, industry, and morality. Instead of indulging him in 
his desire of living in an unrented, or a too low-rented, and therefore, 
squallid, filthy, ruinous, cottage, I have made him pay a rent that, 
though moderate (for it has hardly ever exceeded 21. per annum), has 
covered the roof with a warm thatch, neatly painted the whole of 
the exterior w^alls, given him new lattice windows, built substantial 
brick partitions to his pantry, painted his doors and his window- 
frames and his very mantle-piece and shelves, and lastly, built (at 
least this is now nearly universal) a hovel and a pigstye at a small 
Vol. III.— Jan. 1833. l 



74 CORRESPONDENOB. 

distance from his dwelling. In addition to this every space near the 
labourer's cottage has been enclosed, and a portion of it embellished 
with flow^ers sufficient to give him a pride in its exterior neatness, and 
make him exert himself to preserve it upon an equality with the 
neighbouring gardens. 

And now. Sir, may I not ask, without being snubbed as vain, why 
others should not act upon the principle, which I assure them has 
proved m every respect, not only gratifying in its results, but actually 
economical in the progress of it ? Why should not each person, ac- 
cording to the circumstances of the parish in which he resides, check 
at least, if he cannot eradicate the growth of pauperism ? Why should 
not every active clergyman or layman, with slender means, solicit the 
co-operation of the great landed proprietor, and by that union effect 
what is so essential to the well-being of all? Addressing myself 
through " The British Magazine," to readers conversant with rural 
affairs, I shall be pardoned for submitting to their serious consideration, 
whether the grand parochial curse of England might not be in nume- 
rous instances averted, in all mitigated ; and whether land allotments 
and clothing societies, directed to their full use, may not effect far 
greater good, in their remote and somew^hat indirect consequences, 
than in their more obvious and immediate results. In conclusion of 
this long address I will observe^ that under the head of pauperism, I do 
not include the relief which is given to the aged, the sick, the infirm, and 
the orphan ; to them I would be liberal in assistance, and upon them I 
would wish to affix no stigma ; but I fi-eely confess that I am anxious to 
remove even them from the degrading acceptance of alms from an 
overseer, and at this very time I am forming a plan, by which I hope 
to induce the rate-payers in my parish to undertake to relieve certain 
persons upon our permanent weekly list as objects of private charity, 
at homey instead of paying them through the overseer. That in this, 
and in all such matters, many persons may succeed far better than I 
have djone, I have no doubt, for (the truth is declared as an encourage- 
ment to others) although I am able to act fortiter in re, I have un- 
fortunately for myself a lack of its desirable accompaniment, the 
ability to recommend what I propose by the suaviter in modo. The 
object of this letter must be accepted as an apology for its length, and 
the illness of the writer, now at Cheltenham in search of health, for 
some of its deficiencies. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

F. L. 

(Curate of Farthinghoe. ) 
T.'S. With respect to land allotments, a quarter of an acre has 
seemed to be the maximum within the ability of the honest labourer 
to cultivate. The rent should be fair, and by no means so low as to 
make the land appear to be allotted by way of charity. All rent is 
deemed a grievance in such a case ; my general scale has been half 
a quarter of an acre to each, at the rent of 3/. per acre, free from rates 
and tithe. This, by the bye, is in addition to a garden at home, 
which every labourer rents as part of his cottage occupancy. 



75 
ISrOTICES AND REVIEWS. 



A View of the Early Parisian Greek Press, including the Lives of the Stephani, 
Notices of other Contemporary Greek Printers at Paris, and various particulars 
of the Literary and Ecclesiastical History of their times. By the Rev. W. P. 
Greswell. Oxford. 1833. 

These learned and elaborate volumes are recommended most heartily, not only 
to bibliographers, but also to all critical scholars, to whom it is a great 
object to know accurately the character of the early Greek printers, and the 
history of their works. They contain, besides these particulars, very interesting 
memoirs of Budseus, a defence of Robert Stephens against the charges of 
Porson ; and some valuable remarks on the troublous times during which some 
of the most remarkable works of the Stephens's were produced. 

yillage Psalmody. By the Rev. L. Marcus, M.A. London. Monro and May. 

An excellent collection of about 80 plain tunes ; well fitted for country con- 
gregations. 

A Pastoral Admonition to an Affectionate Flock. By the Rev. C. Simeon. 
London. Holdsworth and Ball. 1832. 

A VERY excellent sermon, on an interesting occasion — the author completing 
the 50th year of his anniversary. The strong protest against Antinomianism, 
and the affectionate exhortation to a constant and indissoluble union between 
faith and practice, deserve especial notice. 

A Word of Testimony, or a Corrected Testimony of the Evidence respecting Mr, 
Irving. London. Douglas. 1832. 

The controversy about Mr. Irving is one into which this Magazine has pur- 
posely declined entering. All that need be said about this book is, that it 
contains an authenticated account of the charges against Mr. Irving, and his 
defence, and is, therefore, that which must be used by his friends and foes. 

A Discourse delivered at the 1 6th Anniversary of the Framlingham D. Committee 
of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. By R. B. Exton, Rector 
of Athelington, &c. Woodbridge. 1832. 

Even in these days there is something new.* For here is actually a ser- 
mon in blank verse, and in blank verse so good, at all events, that it could 
not be mistaken for prose. Mr Exton does not give one single word in 
explanation of his reasons for choosing verse instead of prose for his sermon. 
Nor can it be necessary to say one word against it : when one man de- 
parts from the rule which has been followed by tens of thousands for centuries, 
it is for him to assign his reasons, not for them to defend their own practice. 

Mr. Exton, by the way, is the author of a very useful book for the Parochial 
Minister, which, we are happy to see, has reached a third edition. It is called 
Speculum Gregis, and presents the young Parish Minister with very conve- 
nient tables for registering the religious condition of all the families in hi 
parish. 



* Not quite new, however, if one understands aright what Evelyn says of Fell, 
ee the Extracts from Evelyn in this Number. 



76 NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 

' Offences in the Ministry, a Stumbling Block to Christians ;* and ' Religion the 
Humanizer of Man, and Support of Society :' two Visitation Sermons. By 
Augustus Wm. Hare, Rector of AltoQ Barnes, Wilts. 
Both these sermons must be most warmly and earnestly commended to gene- 
ral attention. The first is not only a most valuable exhortation to the clergy 
to avoid the offences most likely to injure their cause, but is a beautiful speci- 
men of the manner in which a delicate and difficult subject can be handled by 
a Christian gentleman and scholar, not only without giving offence, but so 
as to give high gratification to all who read or hear what he says. The of- 
fences to which Mr. Hare especially and rightly points attention, are unneces- 
sary separations on account of trifling differences and worldly -mindedyiess. One 
can easily imagine how these subjects could be treated so as to oflfend every 
body, and please and profit no one. Mr. Hare's Christian feelings and refined 
taste have enabled him exactly to reverse this opeiation. 

The second Sermon is a very powerful, and, in many respects, original ex- 
posure of the doctrine of Expediency, 

Selections from the Old Testament; or, the Religion, Morality, and Piety of the 
" Hebrew Scripture ; arranged under heads. By Sarah Austin. London : 

Wilson. 1833. 
Mrs. Austin's preface is so pleasing and modest as almost to disarm criticism. 
Nor, in truth, is there any thing to criticise, so to speak, in her work ; for 
what she has undertaken she has done very well. But it is a very doubtful 
point whether the undertaking is itself well judged. The picking out from the 
various and very different books of the Old Testament passages containing the 
same sentiments, and making them up into a continuous series of sentences, so 
as to form chapters and books, is not one which is free from objection. The one 
great excellence of the Bible morality is, in truth, the detached form in which 
it comes, its mixture with events, with reflections, with prophecy, and with 
warnings. And besides, for many purposes, it is very desirable and necessary 
to remember, not only a sentiment, but where it is, what gave rise to it, and 
what it enforces. These benefits are done away with by a selection like this, 
especially as the references are not given. 

Manual of Prayers for the Afflicted. By the Rev. T. H. Home. London : 

Cadell. 1833. 
This is really a very excellent manual of prayers, principally selected from the 
best of our ancient divines, or else couched entirely in the words of scripture ; 
with a practical essay on affliction, abridged from Sir M. Hale. It may be 
fairly recommended to general use. 

Select Library, Vol. VI. Lives of Eminent Missionaries, Vol. I. By J. Came, 
Esq. London : Fisher and Co. 

The lives in this volume are those of Eliot, Ziegenbalg, Schwartz, Hans Egede, 
some of the early Moravian missionaries, — Kiernander, Hocker, and Andes. 
They are full of interest. Of the life of that venerable apostle Schwartz 
nothing need be said ; but there are really some of the others scarcely inferior 
to it in interest, especially that of Eliot, the first preacher to the North Ameri- 
can Indians, which is almost a romance. Mr. Came is a very agreeable 
writer, and we shall be very glad to see the remaining volumes of his work. 

Theological Library. Vol. III. History of the Reformed Religion in 

France. By the Rev. E. Smedley. Rivingtons. 
This volume is one of the most remarkable specimens which the present day 



NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 77 

affords of easy, clear, and pleasant narrative. It is well worthy (and one 
could not say more) of the author of the *' History of Venice" in the Family 
Library, a delightful work indeed. They, too, who look beyond the surface, 
will find that Mr. Smedley is not only a delightful writer, but a great reader. 
His notes give ample proof of his industry, of the extent of his researches, and 
of his wide acquaintance with the best original sources of information. The 
history is carried down to the tragedy of St. Barthelemi. 

A Popular Guide to the Observation of Nature. By R. Mudie. London : 
Whittaker and Treacher. 1833. (Constable's Miscellany, Vol. LXVH.) 

This volume should, as the author observes, be rather called Inducements to 
observe Nature ; and he attempts to give this inducement by well-chosen 
instances of the pleasant instruction which that observation affords. We 
like both the plan, the choice of observations, and the author's style and 
manner. 

Biblical Cabinet, Vol. H. Edinburgh : Clark. 

This volume contains a good essay on the language of Palestine in our Lord's 
time, by Pfannkuche ; another by Planck, on the language of the New Testa- 
ment ; a third by Tholuck, on the interpretation of the Old Testament, in some 
of which one cannot by any means agree ; and a fourth by Beckhaus, on the 
Tropical Language of the New Testament, of which it is no disparagement to 
say, that it is very much like most essays on that subject, viz., that it finally 
leaves all to the reader's good sense and discrimination. It is to be hoped that 
this undertaking will succeed, especially if the editors can, by such essays as 
Planck's, turn attention to the criticism of the New Testament, a subject 
miserably neglected. The Editor would find a good many German essays 
translated in an American work called the " Biblical Repertory." 

Memorials of Oxford. No. II. 

This second number more than keeps the promise of the first, for instead of 
three, it has actually five wood cuts, besides two plates from Le Keux's exqui- 
site drawings. The first of these represents one of the most graceful and 
beautiful buildings of its style — the Chapter House of Christ Church, Oxford* 
The extraordinary cheapness and the excellence of this work were noticed before* 

Address delivered at the commencement of the Medical Session at King's College; 
Oct. 1st, 1832. By Professor Green. 

A Magazine Reviewer occasionally meets with a work of such sterling excel* 
lence, that he bitterly regrets his inability to do it justice for want of room* 
This is especially the case as to Professor Green's lecture. It is a work of ar 
very high order indeed. No doubt, idle people will denounce it as obscure> 
because it wants no small attention to follow the reasonings by which Pro- 
fessor Green shews the unity of all science — defines what science is — shews 
how knowledge by observation dwells by the side of it — how the applied real 
sciences are the offspring of pure science and scientific observation — how the 
application of science to the needs of a social state constitutes a profession—^ 
and how the three great professions are bound by a vital connexion. But 
these reasonings well deserve attention, and too much respect cannot be felt 
or exprest for the lofty tone and high principles of this remarkable lecture — 
for the veneration which it displays for religion — for the beauty and good- 
feeling of the tribute which it pays to the peculiar advantages oftheeldef 
Universities, and the justice and clearness with which it shews what may be 
expected from an institution like King's College. Nothing better can be 



78 NOTICES AND REVIEWST. 

wislied to that Institution, which is prospering exceedingly, than the advantage 
of such Professors as Mr. Green in every department, and nothing would do 
the public mind more good than the patient consideration of essays like his. 

Arrowsmith*s Grammar of Modem Geography (with a Praxis), for the use of 
King's College: 1832. 

The same character may fairly be given of this as of the sister work on 
Ancient Geography, that they do credit to the name of Arrowsmith, from the 
accuracy and quantity of the information given, and the excellence of the 
maps, though necessarily small. 

A New History, Description, and Survey of London and Westminster. By W. 
Smith. London : Wilson. 1832. First Part. 

Tnisvolume contains a great deal of useful and curious antiquarian matter at a 
very low price, with a great deal which is interesting on the foundation of Lon- 
don churches, &c. It wants more care and attention in composition, which is 
-often so incorrect and careless as to have neither grammar nor meaning, — a 
condition in which cheap books must often be. But it is right to say, that 
though coming from the same office as that tissue of falsehood, the Black Book, 
and other abominations of the same kind, it appears to contain nothing objec- 
tionable in any shape or way. 

Illustrations of Modern Sculpture. No. II. (With criticisms on tJie style of 
each subject, and a poetical illustration.) By T. K. Hervey. Relfe and 
Unwin ; Tilt ; and Moon, Boys, and Graves. 

This work has been already noticed, and must be noticed again, as one of the 
most remarkable, at once, for cheapness, splendour, and interest, which has 
appeared even in these days. The subjects of this number are \ery pleasing — 
Chantrey's Resignation, Baily's Maternal Love, and Thorwaldsen's Hebe. 
The character given of Mr. Chantrey as of one who looks to his own times, for 
his subject and his inspiration, is very just. Mr. Chantrey is quite right too. 
A modern sculptor cannot give us an Apollo, because his feelings cannot be 
those of an ancient. The extreme beauty and finish of the engravings, the 
happy choice of the subjects, the justice done to our modern sculptors, and 
the value both of the prose and poetry, give this work every claim to commen- 
dation. 



CHURCH REFORM. No. III. 

(^Continued from No. ix., p. 299.) 

When the poet observed that ^schylus said the same thing twice 
over, he certainly did not intend any compliment by his observation ; 
and yet, without quixotizing in defence of ^schylus on that occasion, 
one may venture to observe, that saying the same thing, not twice, 
but ten times over again, is very often not only very wise, but very 
necessary. More especially in times when men are led by their 
passions, or their fears, to adopt certain conclusions, or certain lines of 
conduct, they are so utterly disinclined to hear what makes against 
those conclusions or conduct, that it can only be by -(Eschylus's plan, 
by saying the same thing over ten times, and vociferating it with all 



CHURCH REFORM. 7^ 

possible clamour consistent with due regard to the lungs and decorum, 
that there is the least chance of being heard. This is all meant for 
our friends, the Church Reformers, who are particularly bad listeners, 
and in w^iose case it may veritably be believed that it is necessary to 
vociferate twenty times as often and as loud what one has to say as 
in any other case whatever, before the least hope of making the due 
impression can be entertained. They have one exceeding bad habit, 
which is, that if any one opposes a particular plan of reform, they say 
that he opposes all improvement ;* and it is therefore necessary, for 

* In order that formal proof may be given of a proposition which, however, few 
would deny, let the reader have the patience to go through the following letter, 
which came forth lately at Cambridge. The political part is preserved only not to 
. destroy the chain of argument. 

" To the Editor of the Cambridge Chronicle. 
"SiR,^ — The ground on which the high Conservatives of Cambridge appear anxious 
to place the issue of the approaching contest for the University, is one which must 
necessarily prove fatal to themselves. If the church (they say) be, upon the whole, 
beneficial, preserve it such as it is ; if otherwise, destroy it instantly and utterly. 
Their dilemma is entirely harmless ; it will not entangle the understanding of a 
single clergyman. The argument is too shallow ; the answer too obtrusively 
obvious. 

" In examining the general question of Church Reform, it is too little to say, that 
the immense majority of the people of England demand it, in most intelligible 
language. The truth is, (and it would be shameful to conceal or disguise it,) that 
there is absolutely no party among the laity which does not admit at least the 
expediency of some reform; while among the clergy themselves there is a very 
numerous body desirous of considerable change. The opposite opinion has scarcely 
any sympathy anywhere beyond these precincts — it is peculiar to some excellent, but 
npt, perhaps, very clear-sighted Ecclesiastics, who compose, as they may presently 
discover, the minority of our constituency. 

" Neither will it at all avail them now to assert that the opinions which were 
expressed eighteen months ago, are still binding on those who then expressed them. 
The opinions may possibly remain the same ; but the questions are wholly different. 
On the last occasion the Members of the Senate were invited to declare their sense on 
a great political question. Now the ecclesiastical interests are more nearly concerned. 
Then it was proposed to make a certain virtual transfer of power from one branch of 
the Legislature to another. Now, the prominent difference amongst us seems to be, 
whether this establishment, of which most of us are ministers, is to be pronounced 
unalterable or not. 

" The political measure, which they generally opposed, was carried in spite of their 
resistance ; and, if there be any such thing as moral concatenation, — or let me more 
plainly say, if any one event ever took place from which it was possible to prognosti- 
cate any other — the Act for a Reform in Parliament must be followed by an Act for 
Church Reform. Be it for evil or for good (for I will not assume that question), 
be it for our humiliation or for our great spiritual advancement and purification, 
some alterations must speedily be made in the externals of the church. The ma- 
jority of the clergy are far too enlightened not to see that necessity. There are many 
who hail it as the means of general improvement and renovation ; and their present 
course is obvious. But to those who tremble at the approaching crisis, while they 
acknowledge its approach, only this alternative remains — either to lend their aid to 
mitigate what they think an evil, but what they know to be inevitable ; or else to 
plunge into a desperate opposition, which will not retard the impending change one 
single hour, but which maT/ exasperate its nature to an extent which no man can 
affect to prescribe. I sincerely trust that there is no clergyman who will not 
examine this subject with calmness adequate to its importance, and then seize 
the coming occasion to record his deliberate opinion by his suffrage. 

" Trin. Coll., nee. 2." "A." 

Now can anything be more unjust, more untrue, more ignorant of the op/nzons 



8P 



CHURCH REFORM 



the twentieth time at least, to say that the persons whom they call 
anti-reformers in the Church oppose no reforms but such as are unjust 
in principle and likely to he mischievous in practice. They certainly 
take the liberty of thinking that some reforms are not practicable, that 
the exaction of tenths is unjust and would be ineifectual, that the 
extinction of pluralities would be mischievous, and that seizing cathedral 
property to augment small livings would be both unjust and mis- 
chievous. One observation, indeed, on the first particular, it is impossible 
not to make, which is, that a large portion of Church Reformers plainly 
shew themselves unacquainted with half the facts of the case and with 
the practical difficulties which embarrass all changes and must pre- 
vent many. They are really children in practice, though giants in 
theory ; very wise and clear on paper, but not altogether so wise and 
so clear when the scene of action is transferred from the clean sheet 
of white paper to the unclean unwashed working-day world. Plura- 
-lities are abominable, says the reformer; therefore they must be 
abolished, says a second, and consequently they can without difficulty, 
cries a third. Let it he done instantly ! is shouted forth by all. How it 
can be done, what evils will arise from the change and the new system, 
and how that new system will effect the many important purposes 
which the old one effected with its partial evils, are matters far below 
their dignity to inquire. The new system looks well on paper. 
There is admirable symmetry in it ; it wears a * kingly crown' upon 
its * baby brow,' and that is enough. Then, of course, the abominable 
Mr. M^Leod, who douhts whether this can be effected, and whether 
it will not do more harm than good if it can, is to be reviled and 
denounced forthwith as a bigot and anti-reformer, instead of the 
shghtest attention being paid to his practical difficulties, or his careful 
siuvey of the case. Really, really, vile monsters as anti-reformers 
. are, this request for an answer to their arguments, and a removal of 
their doubts and difficulties, is not a very unreasonable request on 
their part. And the proper answer to it is, not to give them a bad 
name and call them anti-reformers, but to demolish their arguments, 
and to shew that it is right to tax one living for the sake of another, 
&c. &c. Whether the reformers will listen to this request, on this 
twentieth time of asking, one does not know ; but at all events a time 
will come when others (if not they, in bitter repentance) will see that 
it is only just and reasonable. 



and the acta of the men whom it attacks than this letter ? Is there any one who 
asks that the Church should be preserved as it is, in the sense which this unfair 
writer wishes to be put on the phrase, i. e. without improvement 9 Has he, or has that 
class of Church Reformers for whom he speaks, ever said or done one-twentieth part 
for the Church or its improvement which the bigotted anti-reformers have done, 
till party feelings entered into the question, and set them on a subject wliich claimed a 
very small portion of their regards before? Beyond this one artifice (not argument), 
what does this letter contain but what has been alleged in these papers, viz. a 
statement that the people will have reform, and therefore we are bound to join in 
the cry and the mel6e? In short, if an act will certainly be done, whether just or 
unjust, I am to join in it. This is not logic which one would expect, nor morality 
whidi one would wish, to come from an University* 



CHURCH REFORM 81 

Let the Church Reformers look to a paper called the Idle Churchy 
in this Magazine, which, however imperfect and unworthy of 
the subject, contains an outline of what has been doing in some 
main departments in the Church for the last twenty years, and 
let them ask whose work this is. It is, in good truth, the work 
almost altogether of the ignorant, bigotted, prejudiced, selfish Anti- 
reformers ; and certainly, whether they could have done more or 
not, it will never support the allegations made against them that 
they are inclined to do nothing. They have done this, too, in the 
face of all the difficulties with which the movements of very large 
bodies are always necessarily attended, and the inconvenient (though 
often most useful) trammels which encumber (but steady) the steps of 
an Established Church. The reformers may, therefore, be assured, 
whether they will listen or not, that there is evidence already produced, 
in the face of which it will not do for them to say that there is an 
indisposition in the Anti-reformers to all plans of reform, because there 
is an indisposition to theirs. The Anti-reformers claim to love the 
Church at least as well as they ; to have been, and to be, as devoted 
in heart, thought, and care to its best and dearest interests. Yes, 
there are individuals at least in that calumniated party (but they 
would never forgive the writer who dared to praise them for what 
their noble natures consider as only the dutiful tribute of grateful 
hearts to God for the blessings of such a Church, or to call their names 
forth to public notice on such an occasion) who have for years and 
years, by day and night, in season and out of season, in joy and 
sorrow, given every aid which the devotion of wisdom and thought, 
and experience and munificence, could give, to promote improvements 
in the Church ; and have kindled in feebler minds, and less richly 
endowed natures, some of the same hallowed fire which warms their 
own hearts. Long will the remembrance of their good deeds stamp 
the real character of their party in the minds of all who can really 
judge, and will really inquire, though they may be scouted by some, 
and branded, in common with those who act with them, as bigots and 
Anti-reformers, lagging behind the age, and blind to its requirements. 

But, in good truth, there is much more to be said on this score, 
though it could not be brought into the formal shape of such a paper 
as the " Idle Church." There are many minor matters in the Church 
which may admit of improvement, and on which a stress quite ludi- 
crous is laid by those who have the microscopic eyes of reformers, and 
perpetually turn flies into elephants, when they are abuse-hunting. 
For example, peculiar jurisdictions occasionally admit of disorder. 
Such a peculiar as that of the Dean of Salisbury, comprising 120 
parishes, does not. It is, of course, just as well ordered as any com- 
mon archdeaconry, and it can matter little whether it is placed more 
formally under episcopal jurisdiction. But where a living stands by 
itself out of the jurisdiction which surrounds it, or where a collegCj 
or the crown, has a peculiar jurisdiction over a living in its gift, when 
such hvings fall into bad hands, evils unquestionably arise for want oi" 
a power of control which it would be desirable to remove. When, 
again, the case of clerical delinquency occurs, either the jealousy once 

Vol. ll\.~Jan. 1833. m 



82 CHURCH REFOUM. 

entertained of the liberty of the subject, even when he was a priest, 
or the peculiar desire once felt to surround ecclesiastics with an undue 
protection, has invested the accused party with a power of appeal, 
wiiich, when he is desperate in character, enables him to ward 
off the definitive sentence in a way extremely to be deprecated. 
Rare as the case of crime requiring interference, and rarer still as 
the case of crime rather courting, at all events braving, the pub- 
licity of continued appeals is, no doubt this is an evil, although 
it is not what it is represented to be — is not, as the Radical and 
Dissenting journals represent it, a protection which confers entire 
impunity on scandalous clerks. Has the bigotted anti-reforming party 
shewn no inclination to set these minor matters right, and reform the 
ecclesiastical courts ? Even the mob of the Tower Hamlets division, 
whose delegate Dr. Lushington is to be, heard from his lips, as 
the " Morning Chronicle" tells us, on one of those occasions when he 
:5vent down to court the favour of his future masters, that 360 of the 
vile ecclesiastical courts belonging to the Church, can-ying with them 
patronage to the amount of many thousands of pounds, are to be 
abolished, and the whole system altered. When a person pledges 
himself to be the delegate of the Tower Hamlets, or any other Ham- 
lets, it is a matter of very little consequence what representation he 
makes, how just or how unjust, for he is no longer his own master, and 
it would, therefore, be mere waste of time to inquire what impression 
Dr. Lushington intended to produce by this representation of the abuses 
of the Church, to he corrected in the next Parliament^ trimmed, as was 
observed last month, by a paltry compliment to the Primate for his 
willingness to surrender his rights of patronage. Let it be said, 
clearly and distinctly, that this bill for the correction of the evils al- 
luded to emanates from a commission of bishops and lawyers ap- 
pointed three or four years ago, at the wish of the bishops, and not in 
compliance w4th any clamour for reform ; * that it proposes to remove 
the peculiar jurisdictions, so that no irregularities from that source shall 



• There are most important changes proposed by this commission on other than 
Church matters, viz., the modes of devising real property, and of trying the validity 
of wills. An abstract of it was given in one of the early numbers of the " British 
Magazine." Among other changes it proposes to do away with all country ecclesias- 
tical courts, and bring all wills and administrations into the jurisdiction of one Lon- 
don court. The object proposed is, that all wills may be found in one place. But 
as it is quite clear that, the fees in country and London courts for acts of court as 
to wills being the same, the only effect of this change, besides throwing business 
into the hands of London proctors, and ruining all the country ones, will be to add 
to each executor's bill of costs for probate, the fees of a London agent, instead of the 
lOrf. Qd. or 1«. \d. now paid to a surrogate, (i, e. in cases of property under 100/. 
just to double the expenses of probate at least,) it may be doubted whether, when the 
country tastes the sweets of this reform (with which the churchmen, of course, are not 
concerned), they will particularly bless the lawyers who recommend it. Every pur- 
pose would be answered by compelling the country courts to return a catalogue of 
every will proved in them to one office in London, so that by a single search it might 
be ascertained where probate was granted. At all events it would be enough for the 
country courts to send a copy of each will. But, in truth, tlie catalogue would be 
enough, for where one country will is to be examined by a Londoner, twenty are to 
be examined by country practitioners. 



CHURCH REFORM. 83 

arise in future, and to introduce what (if directed against any class 
of his Majesty's subjects but poor priests) would unquestionably be 
reckoned a most arbitrary method of trying them when accused, and 
subjecting them to every possible loss of fortune and station in civil 
society. When, besides all this, it is remembered that the Anti- 
reforming prelates have carried a bill which enables them to allot some 
of their revenues to augment the poor livings, and that, as a statement 
in the last number goes to shew, they are doing this to a great extent ; 
that they endeavoured to effect a composition for tithes ; that they 
proposed to do away with all pluralities in cathedrals, and so many in 
benefices that it may be doubted whether even their proposal would 
not make the obtaining a due succession of fit clergy very difficult, it 
must be allowed that they who accuse the x\nti-reformers with being 
Anti-reformers, have, to say the least, a very tolerable confidence in 
their own powers of talking louder than other people, and preventing 
the real state of the case fi-om being known. 

The Anti-reformers, it has been said, love the Church with a pure 
and ardent devotion ; and though they will not revile her, to shew 
their love, like the Reformers, will make mountains of mole-hills, and 
dwell upon what is inevitable, they desire, because they love her, to 
see everything connected with her carried to its highest pitch of im- 
provement. iVrdently and anxiously do they desire, for example, to 
see the standard for the qualification of the clergy raised to the very 
highest pitch which shall be deemed feasible, as one of the methods 
most likely to produce increased activity and zeal in her service.* It 
is an idle fear which supposes that the lay patrons in the Church would 
object to this ; the only difference would be, that the most highly 
gifted member of the family would be anxiously selected for the 
family preferment, instead of the matter being left to circumstances, 
as it is now, so that the selection is more or less fortunate, accord- 
ing to circumstances. Most heartily do they rejoice at witnessing 
the energ^^ with which the bishops have for several years been en- 
forcing the law which requires a resident minister to be placed in 
every parish where it is feasible, and at knowing by returns-^ which 
cannot be disputed, how much progress has been made in this good 
work. They may grieve that in many cases the Church is so ill 



* See, for example, the Bishop of Lichfield's Charge, 
f Many plans have been suggested for assisting in this object. One very simple 
one would effect much. If an examination in Divinity were introduced at each 
university at a certain period after the B. A. degree, and instead of the certificate of 
attendance at divinity lectures, a certificate of having passed this examination were 
required, the eflPects would soon be visible. This plan changes nothing, and avoids 
the question of continued residence. A B. A. might reside or not, as he chose. 
Very probably, far greater and more useful improvements might be eflfected. The 
advantage of this is, that it interferes with nothing, and, at all events, curtails no ex- 
pense beyond one journey. It is only fair to say, that nothing has been more mis- 
represented (and for dishonest purposes too) than the expenses of the university. 
Many persons go through Trinity college, Cambridge, as pensioners, not sizars, for 
150Z. a-year, every thing included. Luxurious parents have no right to complain if 
their sons practise at college (as they would elsewhere) the lessons which they have 
taught them. 



84 



CHURCH REFORM. 



endowed as it is, and would gladly see a clergyman with a compe- 
tency in every parish ; but as at present that cannot be, they gladly 
accept the great improvement which has been effected ; they do not 
do either the curates or the ministerial office so much injustice as to 
suppose that, where the income of the curate and rector would differ 
very little, the rector would be of much more service than the curate, 
except where he was more experienced ; and they would not change ar- 
rangements which are beneficial in other respects, in order to send into 
a parish an incumbent of 200/. a-year, with heavy burthens on it, 
instead of a curate with 100/., and no burthens at all. 

Let them be used fairly, too, in another respect. They are the last 
persons who wish to see an over-rich clergy, and the first to grieve at 
the indecent accumulation of preferment in any, most of all, in un- 
worthy hands. 

It is necessary, indeed, to say a word or two on this subject, as so 
much nonsense and so much mischief and so much falsehood is talked 
about it. The dreadful tract which was adverted to last month, 
called "Safe and Easy Steps," may be taken as affording the 
best specimens of all. At one part it talks, in its usual strain of 
revihng, of the Bishops who speak of the sum necessary for a 
gentleman to subsist on ; — at another it states that the primate is 
the recognizer and legalizer of a practice ruinous to the souls of 
thousands, viz., pluralities, and that it could hardly have been ex- 
pected that any peer, however bad, would have defended them as the 
primate did, on the ground that the motive of income was wanted to 
induce men of talent to go into the church, as though men of piety 
could never be men of talent, or the cause of religion ever be bene- 
fited by men who undertook the ministry fi'om views of unprincipled 
self-interest, &c. &c. No answer can or need be given to this mis- 
chievous nonsense, whether it be CdJiXedi fanaticism or deliberate wicked- 
ness. It is mentioned to shew the style of feeUng and assertion used ; 
and then, at the end of this selfsame pamphlet, we find arrangements 
made which are to allow 500/. a year to be given to some clergy ! ! 

Leaving this miserable man, let us look at the case plainly. If it 
is meant that a Christian minister is to be induced to enter the Chris- 
tian ministry without a single thought but that of the love of God, 
let those who say this settle first whether any settled income of any 
kind, voluntarily or compulsorily paid, it is no matter, is com- 
patible with such a demand. That there are cases where such 
should be the sole motive, that it often has been, often will be, 
while the gospel retains its power, is true and certain. This is 
the motive of many such a missionary as those whose case Mr. 
Hunt so affectingly describes as worn down by want and fatigue 
in the American wilderness, and there yielding up in solitude, 
or it may be alone, in the midst of a thankless people, their pure 
and Christian spirits to their Maker. But is this to be the case in a 
settled and civilized country ? The wicked declaimers, who wish to 
prejudice men against the clergy, talk of apostolic poverty and primi- 
tive simplicity, and the weak and foolish repeat this. But when we 
come to talk with those who have any reason or decency, we find 



CHURCH REFORM. 85 

that they admit a settled and certain provision to be very desirable, 
but only demur as to the amount. Now, the instant that people come 
to question between five hundred and three, they have given up all 
topics for declamation, and have admitted the degrading and horrible 
fact that they think a minister of religion ought not to trust to 
to-morrow for to-morrow's supplies, but to know what he is to expect. 
This is an awkward statement for them, but it cannot be got rid of. 
They may be less greedy of gain than others, but he who thinks that 
the love of God alone ought to send people into the ministry, cuts a 
bad figure if he follows up this declaration by a demand for two or 
three hundred a year. He must be a bold man who talks of this in 
the same breath with apostolic practice. He may go to which side 
he pleases ; he may say, " I will give up every thing like a settled pro- 
vision," and then he has chosen one side, and whether, for a civilized 
country, a wise part or not, still an intelligible one ; or he may say, 
" I will have only a moderate competency, for I abhor riches," and 
then he has just as certainly enlisted himself on the side of " unprin- 
cipled self-interest."' He cannot be on both sides, and take at once 
the credit due to a rejection of money and the comfort from accept- 
ance of it. After this, there is no difference of principle between him 
and the persons whom he reviles so outrageously, and the whole is a 
matter of detail, a question how far, in a given state of things, it is ad- 
visable to carry an admitted principle. If, indeed, men like to go 
the whole length, and say, that the present constitution of society is 
radically vicious, that all accumulation of riches should be prevented, 
and the name of a rich man be a sound unknown, they may still 
make out a good case for keeping all the clergy on a bare subsistence. 
Where the community is poor, they certainly ought to be poor too ; 
but, at present, unless some such blessed consummation as Owenism 
or St. Simonianism arrives, it seems likely that rich men will exist in 
the country. In other words, the clergy are to exercise their ministry 
among rich and highly educated people, as well as among poor. 

Now nothing can be more certain than that in any country, if a par- 
ticular class of men have the habits, feelings, and manners of the inferior 
classes, although their moral characters may command respect, they 
never will have any influence with the upper rank of society, and 
never will be admitted into habits of intimacy with them. If this is 
true elsewhere, most especially is it true in England. What may be 
the case in future is another matter, and what may hereafter be the 
distinction between the several classes of society remains to be seen. 
But we cannot legislate for an unknown future, and can only arrange 
things for the best according to that form of society in which we live, 
and very gentle modifications of it. It may be repeated, then, that if 
it is thought a matter of importance that the clergy should have influ- 
ence over the upper classes, and free access to them — that is, to those 
classes on whom the welfare and virtue of the community is very 
much dependent, from the extent of their influence and their example — 
the manners, habits, education, and feeling of the clergy must be such, 
to say the least, as not to unfit them for the society of their superiors 
in station. As to what is said, on the other side, about the respect paid 



8o CHURCH REFOllM. 

to moral character, and the commanding influence of high principle, 
nothing can be more true in one sense, more false in another. I may- 
have the most unfeigned respect for the Christian principles of my 
servant, but it is not the less true that he will have no influence what- 
ever over my views. Men are not habitually influenced by those 
whose habits and manners are of an inferior cast to their own — by 
those, the tone of whose manners is such as to prevent any sympathy 
or pleasurable intercourse between them. Of course there will always 
be brilliant exceptions to this rule ; but we are not looking to excep- 
tions, but to the rule itself Now nothing can be clearer than this — 
that if a profession holds out no prospect of anything beyond a mere 
subsistence (which would be the case on the equalization plan), it will 
not justify an expensive education, and consequently will command 
the services only of men who, whatever the excellence of their conduct 
may be, will not have it in their power to influence the upper classes 
^of society at all. 

It is the inequality of livings which effects this (in the writer's 
judgment) most desirable end. If there are some few stations in the 
church which give rank, and some few which give affluence, these are 
a part of the reward of every man in the profession, although he 
never attains them himself. They raise his profession, and conse- 
quently raise him in the scale of society, and give that profession, 
consequently, a wider range of action, and wider sphere of influence. 
They open the door to free and familiar intercourse with persons of 
high station, cultivated minds, poUshed manners, and wide influence ; 
and they consequently call on all to whom the door is thus opened 
to prepare themselves to enter into it, by the cultivation of their intel- 
lects and manners and by the tone of their education. Let it be re- 
membered, all the while, that the converse of this proposition does not 
hold — that no polish of manners, and no cultivation of the intellect, 
unfit the possessor for holding intercourse with the poorest and hum- 
blest members of society — that the most finished gentleman, if he be 
a Christian, can do quite as much good, to say the least, in the 
cottage or by the dying bed, as one hardly raised above the sufferer's 
own place in society. This, then, is the defence of those stations and 
those arrangements in the church which give to some of its members 
(they are very few in number) rank or emolument, or both. 

It may be advisable now to refer to a few particulars of import- 
ance on which men's minds are busy at the present time, though, from 
the extent of the subject, some portion of these remarks must be de- 
ferred till the next Number. 

That every month brings with it some fresh light as to the state of 
things regarding the church is certain enough. When we observe not 
only what the ministerialist and the radical* candidates say about 



• It may be well to notice here the atrocious falsehoods wittingly put forth by many 
of these persons on the hustings. Every one makes allowance for vehement statements 
and violent language on such occasions, but men of Iionour do not make such state- 
ments on any occasion. One person, by birth and station a gcntteman, by profession a 
barrister, and, by some means or other for our happiness, now au M. P., told his electors 



CHURCH KKFORil. 87 

Tithes, but also that the conservative candidates have one and all profest 
their readiness to give them up, of course as far as the carrying a bill 
for commutation through the Commons, if such a bill is proposed, 
goes, no rational man can doubt about it, because there is not one 
voice to say No to it. Nor can it be expected that the Lords should 
on that point make any stand. All that can be said, then, by those 
who, like the writer, while they are not blind to the partial inconve- 
niences of the Tithe System, still believe that, on the whole,* it has 
less of evil and more of good than any other feasible plan, is their 
honest conviction, that after resolutions against Tithes have been 
moved, and a Committee appointed, it is a very doubtful matter 
whether that Committee will be able to devise the practical means of 
getting a new investment of church property which shall not be 
less secure, shall not secularize the clergy more, and shall not expose 
individuals to greater difficulties and losses. If these desirable objects 
can be effected, no persons will rejoice more to ffnd themselves mis- 
taken. The attempt being made at this stage of our progress, it is 
clear enough that that portion of the landed proprietors which hoped 
to profit by the spoils will be defeated, and the only parties who will 
suffer (if the objects above alluded to can be at all effected) will be 
the farmers. They had the advantage of having two parties to deal 
with, each of whom they could play off" against the other, whether 
fairly or unfairly ; and not being content with this enormous advan- 
tage, they are now about to lose it. Were they in better circum- 
stances, they could claim no compassion. For some years they have 
been profiting (where they did profit) very much at the expense of 
the clergy, and they have requited the obligation by doing all they 
could to destroy their best friends. 

With respect to church property/, there is one eri'or so inveterate 
that one can hardly hope to be able to make any impression on those 

coolly that the Bishop of London had ^100,000 a year, the Bishop of Durham more, 
and that it was high time that they should all be stript of their carriages and servants, 
and, after receiving a maintenance, the rest should be given to the poor. It will 
give great satisfaction to the landed interest to hear that the same honourable gentle- 
man assured the electors that this was very little, that he looked far beyond that, for 
that men like the Dukes of Northumberland, Buccleugh, and Rutland, were pests to 
the country, that no man could spend above a certain sum except on his vices, and 
that a reformed Parliament would soon strip them of their abominable wealth, and 
give it to the industrious and excellent poor. Corporations, too, were all infamous. 
He was himself, said this honourable gentleman, member of one — viz. the Inner 
Temple, which was worth three millions. And what was it used for? Why to sup- 
ply the eating and drinking of a very few wretched creatures. They, too, were to be 
stript at once, and the excellent poor to be enriched by their spoils. And such men 
are to have a voice in settling our destinies ! Will this person be honest enough to 
avow, or honest enough to disavow, the language of the hustings, at St. Stephen's? 
His name is quite ready, if his friends like to ask for it. 

* No one has ever argued against the Tithe System with the real practical know- 
ledge, wisdpm, and ability of "Z. Y." Yet there aresome inconveniences of a change 
which he has overlooked. In a large living, land would, perhaps, not be a dangerous 
investment. Six hundred acres might be divided into three farms, and if one farmer 
failed the rector Avould not be quite ruined. But in no small livings could the glebe 
farm be divided, for obvious reasons; and then in case of a failure of one tenant, what 
becomes of the clergyman who has no private income ? 



88 CHURCH REFORM. 

who entertain it. It is this. Reformers hold, or chuse to hold 
that the church is one great corporation, possessed of property with 
which it w^as endowed as a corporation for definite purposes. Then 
they very sagaciously go on to argue that there must of necessity be 
in every body poUtic some power of compelling corporations to effect 
the purposes for which they were created, and to remedy such evils 
as to the use and distribution of their property as have crept in with 
time. Of course, from these premises, it is very easy to deduce any 
consequences one pleases as to changes of church property. If any 
good can be effected for religion, why not throw it all into one fund,-— 
why not take from the large livings to increase the small, or do any- 
thing else which ingenuity may dictate ? But where is the foundation 
for all this ? What is it which erects the church into such a corpora- 
tion ? This is a pure fancy, invented in ignorance or malice. The 
real history is this, that the rector of every parish is a corporation sole, 
an integral himself, not an atom combining with many other atoms to 
^orm one. The foundations of church property are separate and local 
acts, not one national act. The possessor of a certain estate endowed — 
not the church at large y but — the rector of his parish wdth the tithes of 
that estate to maintain a rector for ever in that parish, in order that 
he might reside there, and benefit that parish temporally and spi- 
ritually. Now this being the real truth, when the parish of A has been 
a rectory perhaps since the Conquest, when tithes are still paid to the 
rector, when the rectory continues in every respect temporal, and 
spiritual, to afford to the parish the benefits contemplated by him who 
erected it, and in every respect to answer the purposes of the founder, 
may the church reformers be asked, by what law, or what imagina- 
tion of law, or right, or equity, they take away any of the tithes of that 
parish, give them to the parish of B merely because it is poor, and 
thereby violate both the letter and spirit of the original benefactor's 
foundation ? If this may be done, what may not be done as to 
property ?* 

But this matter must be pursued somewhat farther still. The 
favourite argument for present changes is the alleged changes which 
took place at the Reformation. If, it is said, the property was trans- 
ferred from the Roman Catholic to the Protestant church, how can 
any one deny the right of Parliament to interfere again ? A little 
knowledge of history would be singularly useful to church reformers. 
Would they be so good as to point out the act or acts of Parliament 
which interfered in the way they imagine ? The real fact is, that 
this argument, like many others, arises from pure ignorance. What 
actually happened was this — not that the property was transferred 
from one church to another, but — that, the constitution and govern- 
ment of the church remaining the same — the greater doctrines 
remaining the same — the purposes remaining the same, the church in 
England assumed to itself that power (which many of the first Roman 



* Dr. Burton, in the second edition of his second pamphlet, in commenting on 
this Magazine, overlooks the fact that the writer attacks his principle, while his reply 
only defends the de^ee in which he would apply it. 



CHURCH REFORM. 89 

Catholic wTiters allow that every national church possesses) of re- 
forming its own system, and accordingly threw off many additions to 
its creed and worship which had been introduced by the superstition 
and error of recent ages — that a large portion of the clergy gladly 
accepted this great benefit, and remained in possession of their bene- 
fices, and in discharge of their parochial duties. What transfer of 
property took place when A.B., being rector of C. before the Reforma- 
tion, continued to be rector of C. after it, using an English liturgy 
instead of a Latin one, and having renounced the recent and corrupt 
doctrines of purgatory, transubstantiation, &c., but still maintaining 
all the doctrines held by the primitive church, still abiding by its 
discipline, and deriving his orders in an unbroken succession from the 
primitive church.* In short, property was not transferred from one 
church to another, but the chm"ch itself underwent certain changes, 
retaining its great features, its great purposes, and the property with 
which it had been endowed in order to effect them. 

Still it will be argued that monasteries were suppressed, and their 
property taken, and that changes took place as to bishoprics, and, 
it being found convenient to argue the question on the ground of 
precedents, this will be supposed to justify any further changes now. 
To this there is, however, an answer, which they who use the argu- 
ment do not, perhaps, exactly foresee. If an actual necessity arises, as 
in the case of resistance to government, so in the case of property, 
though it is impossible to define the limits within which the necessity 
is to be restrained, evils which cannot be endured must be remedied 
by means not justifiable in other cases, by means perfectly abomina- 
ble, if no farther reason for their use can be suggested than mere 
improvement or convenience. If the country is desolated, or if a moral 
pestilence is devastating it, because there are a few livings of 1000/. 
per annum, w^hile there are very many under 100/., no doubt means 
for reducing the inequality may be resorted to, which, under less 
grave circumstances, ought to be denounced as full of danger to all 
property whatever. If it is merely contended that this inequality is 
inconvenient and undesirable in some respects (while it is also advan- 
tageous in some) he must be a bold man who would recommend a 
recourse to means which are not justifiable in ordinary cases for 
remedying the inconvenience. In all cases, he who asserts the 
necessity has to prove it. And, consequently, as to the case of the 
monasteries, the answer is, that if there was a necessity the act was 
justifiable, but does not justify a similar line of action where there is 
no necessity — and that if there was not a necessity, a bad precedent is 
an equally bad argument. How strange, how marvellous a thing is it, 
in such a state of society as ours, in the midst of all the high civili^ 
zation, the luxury and refinement w^hich strike the eye on every 

* It is true enough that all parishes were not created at the same time, but 
many were created before purgatory was received as a doctrine of the church, 
before the celibacy of the clergy was confirmed, &c. &c. So that even if a transfer had 
taken place, from the Roman Catholic to the Protestant church, in very many 
cases it would have been a restitution of property to that church to which it had 
been originally given. 

Vol. III.— /an. 1833. N 



90 CHURCH REFORM, 

side, to find one's self at every moment treating questions which 
belong to the very first steps of society. What must be the condition 
of the lofty and gorgeous superstructiu-e, when we are digging round 
the foundations, and pulling out its corner stones ? 

There is another point or two on which it is desirable to say a few 
words, because so much false argument is perpetually used about 
them. And first of all (the beautiful connexion between the various 
parts of these papers cannot but be admired) as to curates. 

Curates are so dreadfully ill used and so ill paid ! This is 
a subject on which there is as much confusion of ideas and language 
as on any of which Church Reformers treat. Do they mean to say 
that men ought not to go into the Church as young men ? If they do 
say that, how are the future clergy to support themselves at all before 
they enter their profession ? If the Church Reformers do not mean 
this, do they mean, on the other hand, that as soon as a young man 
pleases to signify his will and pleasure, that he will be ordained, the 
"Church is, in extreme gratitude for such a declaration and in testimony 
of his full and entire knowledge of the whole duties of his profession 
and his entire competence to discharge them, to provide him with a 
handsome income, nearly half the livings of the rich incumbents, 
too, being under 150/. a-year ? What other profession is there in 
which the early years devoted to it, and devoted to gaining a 
knowledge of it, produce even a bare subsistence ? Is the Curate 
for his first seven years worse off than the physician and the 
barrister for theirs? The hardship is not in that stage of life. 
The hardship is (if pecuniary motives are to be much looked to in 
such a profession) that when, after some years of exertion, he becomes 
an incumhenty his income, w^hatever be the claims on it, either private 
or public, is limited, and cannot be increased by his exertions or his 
reputation ; while, to the Physician and the Barrister, there are no 
limits, except those which their physical powers impose. There is no 
clamour more idle than that about the hardships imposed on young 
men as curates, and one is quite sure that no reputable man among 
them joins in it. Will any man maintain boldly that any but the 
most evil and mischievous effects w^ould arise in any profession from 
giving a man a competence the instant he entered on it ? This would 
be the right step, if you wish to make men careless and to keep them 
ignorant and inexperienced, in any profession. Suppose such a mea- 
sure to have been effected in the Church, the Church Reformers 
would be the first to cry out (and with great justice) against so unwise 
an arrangement. What, they would say, do you really wish to pre- 
vent men from having the least uncertainty about worldly success in 
entering on such a profession ? Do you wish that no man's love of 
God, and desire to do his w^ork, should be exposed to the trial of even 
an hour's anxiety and doubt as to a future provision ? Do you wish 
to hold out a premium to indolence, and to tell every man who abhors 
exertion, that the Church is his proper sphere, that he will be most 
comfortably provided for as soon as he enters it, and will have pros- 
pects of even a better provision afterwards ? Do you wish to tell him, 
in the plainest language, that you do not care whether he takes any 



CHURCH UEPORM. 9-1 

pains to improve in his profession or not, or to discliarge his duties as 
they ought to be discharged ? 

In answer, it would probably be urged, that by such considerations 
we shew that we do not think of the people, but merely of the Clergy 
and the provision for them, and that it is only due to the people of 
each parish that the Clergyman should be so properly paid that an 
efficient discharge of his duties may be rightly required at his hands. 
The proper reply is, that the Church is to be served by men, and not 
mac/lines; that when a Clergyman quite perfect at once can be invented, 
our arguments fall to the ground, but that, till then, young men must 
go into the Church, that young men will be incompetent and inex- 
perienced, and that giving them a sufficiency at once is the way to keep 
them so. If it is said that some inconveniences arise from all this to 
the people, the assertion must be admitted. It is tantamount to saying 
that the people are served in the church by imperfect beings called 
merij and that some inconvenience of this sort must arise. In some 
parts of the Roman Catholic Church this inconvenience is remedied in 
another way. The Clergy being unmarried do not require so much 
for their own purposes, and consequently the Bishop feels himself at 
liberty to send down to any Incumbent whom he pleases, a Curate to 
live in his house, to assist in the parish, and learn his duty. Supposing 
the Clergy to be unmarried, this, perhaps, is not a bad expedient, 
although serious evils occasionally arise from it. But in this country 
it w^as decided, nearly three centuries ago, that an unmarried Clergy 
was an evil of unspeakable magnitude. The simple truth is, that both 
people and pastors must submit to some inconveniences while both are 
frail and human, and that only paper Reformers think that they can 
devise schemes which will prevent all evils.* But is it meant that 
there are no Curates who suffer hardship, or is it meant to speak lightly 
of what they do suffer ? Unquestionably not. Where a man has for 
a considerable number of years done his duty faithfully as a Parish 
Minister, he has, beyond all question, the strongest claims to a better 
provision, and he suffers great hardship when he does not receive it. 
These cases are, however, very few. And let us look for a moment, 
first at those who profess to pity him, and then at the remedy 
for the evil. His real friends must demand, not that he shall have 
a benefice, but a rich benefice. If he were presented to one of 
the 4360 livings under 150/., or to one of the very many above 
this scale, but under 250/., much of the pity for him would cease, 
and he would become one of the rich and hateful Incumbents. 
Yet would this gentleman, as a Vicar or a Rector, even with 200/. 
a-year, with perhaps an old house to keep in repair, with the land tax 
and other charges on this vast benefice to pay, be much or at all 
better off than he was as a Curate with 100/. a-year and the glebe 
house kept in repair for him ? Let it be remembered that there is 
not at present any reason for believing that each benefice would amount 



* In addition to what is here said, the reader is begged to refer to a note on a letter 
by G. W. R. ill an earlier part of this number. ,., 



92 CHURCH RISFORM. 

to much more than 200/. per annum, at all events, if the whole property 
were thrown into one stock, and the same sum given to each parish. 
So that poor Clergy there must be, till the Nation gives more to the 
Church. If the Church's generous friends, then, would change their 
note, and cry out about the hardships of poor Cleryy, Incumbents as 
well as Curates, their pity would be less suspicious. 

But allowing the hardship to be as great as heart can desire, and 
peculiar to Curates, what is to be done ? Let it be remembered that 
private indiriduals are the patrons of above 7600 livings, and the Crown 
of many more. If Curates, then, are ill requited, it is quite obvious 
that the Laity are in fault far more than the heads of the Church. 
How can Laymen (some of them Church Reformers too) think of 
giving a living, which has been served for many years by an exemplary 
Curate, to a friend?* 

The writer proposes, next month, to consider somewhat more at 
length the case of Cathedrals, and the arguments brought against 
Bishops sitting in Parliament. 

f To be continued. J 



* It may be right to notice a second pamphlet on Church Reform, just published 
by Mr. Girdlestone, principally impugning the arguments used in the former num- 
bers of this Magazine. Controversy, especially with persons whom one respects and 
values, is so odious, that the writer entirely declines it. It is happily unnecessary, 
as Mr. Girdlestone's and his own arguments are before the public. Valeant quantum. 
Mr. Girdlestone, too, thinks that pluralities can and should be got rid of at once; 
and he has so entirely mistaken the writer as to suppose that his reply to the ex- 
aggerated representations of the evils of pluralities is a statement that they are in 
theory a spiritual good, and that hiscomplaint of the falsehoods about the distribution 
of the temporals of the Church, is a proof that he thinks that the temporals of bene- 
fices are the only things to be thought of. So many good words, and so much good 
time, must necessarily be wasted before persons so utterly opposed in opinion as to 
what is practicable would find any common ground ; and there would obviously be 
still so much danger lest everi/ word said should be utterly mistaken, that on these 
accounts also, no controversy shall be entered into with Mr. Girdlestone. At the 
same time, the writer utterly and strongly protests against such entire mistaking of 
his arguments. He will answer for what he does mean, and not for what he does 
not. When false views are taken of present arrangements, he may surely shew that 
those views are false, without saying that nothing better in theory than the present 
arrangements could be devised. And he may surely say, that present arrangements 
answer many good purposes, (as, for example, that the system of pluralities is a con- 
venient mode of ensuring a succession, though not originally intended to do so,) and 
that those who wish to sweep them away are bound to shew how they will provide for 
the same objects, before they require assent to their schemes, without contending that 
* the spending of pounds, shillings, and pence, and not the cure of immortal souls, 
is the object of the minister's appointment to his parish.' Mr. Girdlestone will 
judge, on reflection, whether he has done justly in ascribing low views and lower 
feelings to those who adopt a different line of practical conduct from himself, who 
wish to know exactly what evils are before they endeavour to sweep them away, and 
whether the admitted disadvantages of any (or every human) arrangement are r.ot 
accompanied, and, perhaps, compensated by some great advantages, so that at most 
modification, and not destruction, is advisable. It is only necessary to say, as Mr. 
Girdlestone makes some moving complaints about the word meddlers used by the 
writer, that not only were all ])ersonalities out of the question with respect to any one, 
but that the word could not be intended for him, as the writer, when he used it, was 
not aware that Mr. Girdlestone had written on Church Reform) and has never seen 
his first work yet. 



93 

MISCELLANEA. 

LORD TENTERDEN AND TPIE NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. 

The following article from the New Monthly Magazine deserves especial atten- 
tion. That magazine is avowedly conducted by a gentleman who loses no oppor- 
tunity of reviling the church and the clergy, as miserable teachers of morality, 
and, in his own publications, talks in the highest strain of the improvements 
in morals which are to be effected by the progress of light and knowledge in 
the changes in our political and social condition. It is an object of no little 
interest, consequently, to know by what means persons of his way of thinking 
believe that all this is to be effected ; what feelings of the heart are to be 
cherished by the " new Christianity," and what are to be checked and con- 
trouled. It would never be candid to judge from a single instance ; and if the 
following observations on Lord Tenterden stood alone, atrocious as they are, 
they should not be noticed here. But they merely present a more convenient 
and concentrated specimen of the spirit which interpenetrates (so to speak) 
the whole of this periodical, under the guidance of the New Lights. What is 
the object of this paper, then ? Lord Tenterden, a man of the most unblem- 
ished character, a man who had never offended any party in the state by being 
a politician, but rose to his high condition by his eminence as a lawyer, — a 
man remarked by all for the laborious and faithful discharge of his duties, died 
almost in the discharge of those duties, having never failed in them till the 
last few days of his life. He died in the arms of an affectionate family, and 
the last sad hours of decline were, as the public journals told us, rendered yet 
more painful by the fact that there was an occasional wandering of the mind, 
which was overcome by the infirmity of a body worn out by honourable and 
useful services to his country. Most men would regret that such things 
should be made public ; and all, who had any thing of human feeling and ten- 
derness, would be touched with compassion for the suffering and infirmity of 
an eminent and honourable man. Not so the New Lights. Lord Tenterden, 
it was related, in the wandering of his imagination, fancied himself in court. 
And this is seized on as a matter of reviling, by these amiable persons ! They 
cannot say that he was unjust, or cruel, or oppressive ; they cannot allege 
any thing against him, except that he had filled a most laborious and dif- 
ficult station with unexampled assiduity and advantage to the country. 
But as he imagined, in his wanderings, that he was still discharging 
his public duty, they revile him and his memory, and exult that he is gone 
to where he can be a judge no longer, and where no respect of persons will be 
paid to his rank, but he will be called forth as the vilest criminal ! And for 
what is this exultation ? No name shall be given it. It shall not be called inhu- 
man, brutal, fiend-like. But it is simply asked, what causes the display of 
these dreadful and loathsome feelings ? Why are the readers of this periodical 
who are still endowed with human sympathies to be disgusted by seeing such 
exultations over a powerful mind borne down by the infirmities of our common 
nature, over the remains of an eminent and excellent man ? What had he 
done ? Do the New Lights wish to extinguish all sympathy with the weak- 
ness of our mortal frame, and all reverence for the dead, or to inculcate an uni- 
versal hatred for every man who is called on to condemn vice and punish 
crime ? Are these the wholesome feelings by which our morality is to be 
exalted, and the teaching of the clergy to be replaced ? 

But one act of Lord Tenterden is mentioned, and marked out for peculiar 
reprobation. What is it? He had risen from humble life, and in grateful 
remembrance of the benefits which he had experienced at the school where he 
was educated, he left a prize there, to cheer and stimulate students like him- 
self to a similar career of usefulness and honour. The Old Lights would have 



94 MISCELLANEA. 

felt that such an act reflected honour on him who did it, — that it shewed his 
readiness to acknowledge his origin, and his gratitude for the source from which 
many of his advantages had come. The New Lights teach us, that such refer- 
ence to oui origin, such gratitude for help received, and such a wish to help 
others, are things to be received with ridicule and reviling. We saw before 
what feelings they wished to call forth, and now we see what they wish to 
repress ! 

One may write with bitterness for a moment about such things ; but the 
lasting impression from them is a mixture of grief and dismay. This dread- 
ful and cruel tone is to be found through a large portion of the writings of 
many of the New Lights, who seem to wish to brutalize their readers, and 
prepare them for any thing, however fearful. God help this country, and its 
miserable inhabitants, if it and they are to be delivered up to the dominion of 
men capable of indulging such awful feelings as this outrage on Lord Tenter- 
den's memory experiences. What is there of cruelty and debasement, — of de- 
fiance of every feeling of tenderness, and of humanity, which one may not 
expect at such hands ? 

" The late Chief Justice is said to have retained his faculties to within a few 
moments of his death, when he began to wander; sat upright in his bed, used the 
action of taking snufF, which was habitual to him, and said — ' Gentlemen of the 
jury, consider of your verdict,' and died. Poor mortal ! he was going to trial him- 
self — not to judge, but to be judged ! He was about to appear, wigless and robe- 
less, naked and forlorn, to hear his own sentence ! Where be now his quidlibets and 
quodlibets ? No nice quirk of law will serve his turn ! He cannot, like the attorney 
in Quevedo's ' Vision of Judgment,' demur to his own soul, and swear that, in the 
confusion of the Last Day, he has picked up another man's. The soul of a Tory 
Chief Justice must be well marked : probably it is of scarlet hue, like his robe of 
office, and not to be confounded with others. ' Charles Abbott ! Charles Abbott ! 
Come into court ! come into court ! or you will be non-suited ! ' With what a blast 
must such a summons come upon the complaisant soul of a Chief Justice, with 
whom the habit of judging is so inveterate, that to stand in the dock, even before 
the Court of Light, must appear a case altogether contrary to precedent ! When the 
Judge's trumpet rings in the assize town, it is well known with what a terrible sound 
it enters the dungeons of the wretches who are avaiting the gaol-delivery ; some 
through the medium of death — some of banishment — some to be restored to life and 
light. But all these men are accustomed to obey the voice of authority : they have 
been educated in fear and terror ; they take their trial as an ordinary vicissitude of 
a troubled scene. Great must be the change when the trumpet sounds for the 
ordeal of the Judge himself: fearful is the reverse — dreadful the responsibility! 
* Gentlemen of the jury, consider of your verdict.' Perhaps the poor Judge fancied, 
like the Egyptians of old, he was leaving his character to the discussion of the 
public. He would know that the press he had always persecuted would be retained 
against him, and could hardly expect any mercy. He had long been a famous inter- 
preter of the law, and where he could espy an advantage for the few over the many, 
there he lent his aid : he could not, therefore, ho])e for the verdict of a common 
jury. But why try him ? — the culprit has slipped into another court ; — the pannel 
is empty, save of a huge wig and a wide robe, which are already being donned by 
another. While we are sjieculating on his appearance in another world, he has 
taken his fare in the Black Omnibus, and has ere now been set down at the chapel 
of the Foundling Hospital. In order to perpetuate his memory, and bestow a boon 
on posterity, he Justice defunct has left an annual prize for Latin verse to Canter- 
bury school. Latin verse seemed to be the best substratum of education in the en- 
lightened judgment of the departed lawyer — but let him rest. Ora pro nobis ! " 

Let it not be forgotten that the gentleman by whose permission this article 
appears in the New Monthly Magazine has placed the hero of one of his novels 
in what he obviously considers as a situation of glory, when he represents hira 
as deliberately committing a base and savage murder, in order to get money, 
by which he might prosecute his studies, and advance his" knowledge ! 



MISCELLANEA. 95 

POLITICAL ECONOMISTS AND THE POOR. 

Of all periods in our history, this does not appear to be that when it is most 
advisable (on the mere score of expediency) to increase the separation between 
the rich and the poor ; and yet there are a good many causes tending to 
produce this undesirable effect. Among others, there is a series of works by a 
lady of some talents, and doubtless of very good intentions, which is likely to 
do a great deal of harm in this way, whatever good they may do in any other. 
In England every thing goes by fashion, and a doctrine may have been pro- 
mulgated for half a century, and yet have been heard of by very few. Fine 
ladies and fine gentlemen, learned and liberal as they are, read nothing 
which they cannot read running ; and, as the booksellers know, very often to 
their cost, valuable, sound, and learned books sleep very quietly on their 
shelves. In due time, comes forth some one who has looked into the books, 
and manages to present their doctrines so cleverly that the fine ladies and fine 
gentlemen can just manage to understand it without deranging their indolence 
too much. So it is with Miss Martineau. She has presented Mr. Malthus's 
doctrines, and others of various political economists, in the easy and taking 
form of popular tales. But unfortunately, in some cases, she has far out- 
stept her masters. Every one is aware, for example, of the present helpless 
and dependent condition of the poor ; and is aware, too, that injudicious 
charity will not cure it or relieve them. But Miss Martineau tells us boldly 
that all regular charities for the relief of the poor, such as hospitals, dispen- 
saries, clothing societies, &c. &c. are extremely mischievous ; and that one 
only makes the condition of the poor worse by relieving them in this way. 
Genuine philosophy thus would teach us to see our fellow-creatures suffer and 
die, without relieving them, and genuine philanthropy directs us ourselves 
to enjoy the goods we have, and if the poor will be such bad managers as to 
die of starvation, or pine in unrelieved sickness, just to let them. No inten- 
tion whatever exists of calling Miss M. hard-hearted or cruel. She is very 
likely a very kind-hearted person ; but still these are the regular tendencies of her 
doctrines. Now, be it known to all the world, that there are a great many 
fine ladies and fine gentlemen to whom such doctrines will be extremely 
acceptable, simply because they do not at all like having to give five pounds to 
this charity, or two to that. And Miss Martineau's doctrines, as they will find 
ready advocates in the dispositions and purses of these persons, will requite 
the favour by affording these ladies and gentlemen a good excuse for sending 
away the clergyman, and the other collectors of subscriptions, with empty 
bags. Now, on mere grounds of expediency, is it advisable, at this moment, 
for the rich to shut their hearts and purses against the poor ? No doubt Miss 
M. and her friends will say that they wish to introduce a better system. 
Be it so ; but they will find it very easy to persuade the world not to part 
with their money, very hard to induce them to join in difficult and distant 
schemes of improvement. And even if they did, the poor cannot be expected 
to understand or feel the kindness of distant intention, while they are smart- 
ing under the cruelty of present practice. But, in good truth, are not the steps 
recommended unjust as well as inexpedient ? Let all that can be said as to 
the present state of the poor be allowed fully, and let their own faults, impro- 
vidence, &c., if you will, be allowed, still by other faults than their own, 
by the bad management of their superiors, they have been brought to a state 
where the evils that press upon a large number of them are such as to make 
life intolerable without the kind intervention of their richer friends.* When a 

* It need not even be argued that the bad management of others has taught the 
poor to be improvident. The fact that very many of them are so, and that they 
suffer dreadfully, is enough. The cure for their improvidence, and the relief from 
its present evils, must go hand in hand. It may not be easy to devise such remedies : 
it is very easy to cut the knot, and say, " Do nothing for them." 



96 MISCELLANEA. 

father, mother, and two or three children are to live on an extremely small sura, 
and the father and mother have been brought up in improvident habits, though 
not otherwise vicious, there is a degree of suffering which it is perfectly bar- 
barous and perfectly unjust not to relieve, while you may bitterly deplore it, 
and anxiously seek to teach the sufferers wiser and better habits. 

The question has here been argued, after the base and dangerous fashion of 
these times, on the lowest possible grounds. The writer is, however, of a 
different school of philosophy from Miss Martineau and her friends, and would 
certainly wish to argue it on very diffeient grounds. There is a book which 
says, " the poor ye have with you always," and which speaks of a future scene, 
in which it will be inquired who visited the sick, who assisted the prisoner, who 
clothed the naked, and who did not. They whose reply is to be in the nega- 
tive, will doubtless defend their system by very ingenious reasonings ; but 
humble minds may doubt whether the affirmative will not be the safer and 
more satisfactory answer. 



DISSENTING JOURNALS. 



This subject is again brought before the reader for a few minutes, in order to 
shew what effect the plain statement in the last number has had. The Chris- 
tian AdvocMte affects to be jocular, and states that as the article in question is 
written in a browbeating style, it is better to pass it over in silence. As brow- 
beating, w^here there is neither argument nor foundation in fact, is not very 
hard to answer, and as Dissenting Journals certainly never spare a churchman 
where they can strike, this declaration is tolerably intelligible. The only 
thing which the Christian Advocate does attempt by way of answer, is (as 
might naturally be expected after such a declaration) a perversion of what ia 
said. The only way of appearing to answer what cannot be answered, is to 
distort it. Accordingly, the Christian Advocate represents the British Maga- 
zine as objecting to any inquiry into the conduct of the clergy. No such 
objection was ever made. Certainly the conduct of clergy does not affect the 
questions, whether establishments, creeds, and liturgies are good or evil, but 
still it is a very grave matter. No reasonable churchman ever objected to an 
inquiry into it. What the British Magazine objects to, and what every candid 
man must object to, is (1) reviling in coarse words, and (2) accusations with- 
out name and date, which cannot consequently be refuted, if they are false. 
Very probably the Christian Advocate can see no difference — but Christians, 
nay , candid men of any faith, will say that the mass of the clergy are men of 
irreproachable lives. Churchmen are quite willing to have this put to the proof. 
Journals like the Christian Advocate meet such an offer by defamation of 
parties whom they cannot name. And then when taxed with this, they affect 
to be amused at finding that any one doubts that there are some immoral 
clergy, or that any one thinks that the clergy are to be compared in conduct 
and zeal with Dissenting ministers. No one doubts that there are immoral 
and careless clergymen, and immoral and careless Dissenting ministers too ; 
but notwithstanding the great jocularity of the Christian Advocate, people will 
take the liberty of thinking that the larger and respectable part of the clergy 
are at least equal in zeal and usefulness to the larger and respectable portion 
of the Dissenting ministers. 

The Patriot attempts to deny that it reviles. This is a matter of fact, and 
any half-dozen numbers of the Patriot will settle it, not indeed to the satisfac- 
tion of that journal, which may very probably feel no objection to language 
which most Christians and gentlemen would denounce at once as intolerable. 
It attempts too, to retort the accusation of reviling, by a reference to the 
Quarterly, Blackwood, Fraser, and this Magazine. Now of all journals, 
to reproach the Quarterly with reviling Dissenters is the greatest injustice. 



MISCELLANEA. 97 

For Mr. Southey has on an hundred occasions in that journal borne the most 
honourable testimony to their merits. Surely the Patriot was dreaming of 
another Quarterly Review, viz., the Edinburgh, and its articles on Dr. Styles, 
&c. &c. But if the Quarterly did revile, how is the church to blame? It 
is under the control of an eminent bookseller the proprietor ; and its 
editors, though men of the very highest distinction in literature, have been 
laymen wholly unconnected with Church or State. Blackwood is a Scotch 
journal, high' Tory certainly, but anything but high church, nay, probably, 
often edited by presbyterians. As to Fraser, a periodical of which and of its 
powers the Editor has heard much, but unfortunately seen very little, what- 
ever be its merits or demerits, the church has no more control over it than 
over the Patriot. With respect to this Magazine the Editor very cheerfully 
refers to its pages, and their testimony for the truth or falsehood of this accu- 
sation. It will be remembered that this Magazine began after the violent 
Dissenting Journals and Societies had commenced their new courses, and that 
it has exposed them and turned their weapons on themselves. Farther than 
this into the affairs of the Dissenters it has not gone, and has no interest in 
going, and it has taken especial care to make its language a perfect contrast 
to that which it was exposing. 

The Patriot adds, with great pleasure, (being very jealous of the praises 
bestowed on the Eclectic Review for its decency,) that that journal has now 
commenced an attack on this Magazine in coarse and vulgar language. If, 
in good truth, want of support, of which it complains, and the external pres- 
sure from the more violent of the dissenters force the Eclectic Review to de- 
part from candour and decency, it will be more to be pitied than blamed, and it 
is only to be hoped that the really Christian and candid portion of the dissen- 
ters will take care to have one journal which shall represent their feelings. 

As things are, it appears that the Christian Advocate and Patriot think that 
the proper way of settling the question between the Church and Dissent, is 
by collecting all the stories about disreputable clergy which they can find — by 
retailing these in the coarsest language — and by putting forth a collection of 
anecdotes, to which they cannot, or dare not, give one single circumstance of 
name or place, so that they may be explained or denied. If the Patriot and 
Christian Advocate, and their readers, are satisfied with this course, no remon- 
strance can avail with them, and it may perhaps be better to leave them in 
their obscurity, except when their falsehoods are more than usually virulent. 

In connexion w^ith this subject, it may be well to mention the works of a 
dissenter, who has lately been publishing several pamphlets under the name of 
Fiat Justitia. His notions of justice are not exactly like those of other people. 
He unhesitatingly stated that Socinianism was common among the clergy, 
and when pressed for proof, he tells us, that " the opinion of some of the 
clergy being Socinians is very general," and that a M.P., a thorough Church- 
man, admitted to him lately, in a casual correspondence, that "even he had 
heard of cases of clerical Socinianism ; and farther, that he understood and 
feared that the present ministry had made a Socinian a bishop ; he (the M.P.) 
added, indeed, (which he thinks it proper to mention) that he had not a per- 
sonal knowledge of the truth of these statements." 

Here is a good specimen of the way in which too many dissenters now 
think it fair and candid to treat the Church. This lover of justice urged Mr. 
Noel to quit the Church, as containing Socinians, and when asked for proof, 
does not venture to say that he ever knew a Socinian clergyman, but tells us 
of a nameless M.P. who has heard of such things, but says that he has only 
heard of them, and knows nothing about them ! This is Christian and can- 
did, indeed. Bring the most atrocious accusations against a whole body, nay, 
mark out a particular person, and then confess, when you are dared to the 
proof, that you know nothing of it, and that your informant fairly confessed 
that he knew nothing of it either, except on hearsay ! ^ 

Vol. lll.^ Jan. 1833. o 



98 TRIALS. 

This lover of justice, in a note, attacks the British Magazine for referring to 
the Eclectic Review, and various Dissenting Magazines and books, as to the 
practical evils of dissent, which he calls having " a malignant satisfaction in 
exaggerating the evils of minor communities," and denounces as the worst of all 
vrsLVS of attacking dissenters ; adding, that it can be repaid tenfold by referring to 
the admissions of churchmen against the church. One word on these matters. 
In all human institutions there are certain inconveniences. The dissenters 
have been latterly exaggerating enormously those of an establishment. Surely 
it is open for churchmen to say. Are there no greater evils on your side } And 
where are they to go for information, but to what they understand are the ac- 
credited journals of certain dissenting bodies ? If they are wrong in this, they 
will gladly be put right, and apologize, though apology is hardly needed for an 
innocent error. What has been the course of dissenters ? And what is the course 
"which Justice threatens ? — To pick out the works of a few fanatics who have 
left the church, or a few who ought to leave it, and to quote these as conces- 
sions on the part of the church. What has been the course adopted by this 
Magazine ? The writers in it understood that the Baptist Magazine, the Me- 
thodist and the Congregational Magazines, were the avowed organs of the 
-respective sects whose name they bear, and that the Evangelical" Magazine was 
one the most widely circulated among dissenters, while the Eclectic Review 
was that to which dissenters referred as their most able journal. To these, 
therefore, the writers appealed, and not to persons who had left their respec- 
tive sects, or ought to leave them. If these works do not speak the opinions 
of the dissenters, let them be publicly dimvowed. If they are not, no one can 
doubt that it is both just and right to refer to them. 



TRIALS. 

Court of Common Pleas, Dec. 4. 

GIBBONS V. THE BISHOP OF ELY. 

This was a proceeding removed from the ecclesiastical courts into this coart, 
by prohibition, to try the question whether the defendant, as Rector of the 
Parish of Clare, in Suffolk, or the parishioners were bound to repair the 
chancel of Clare church. The plaintiff contended that the defendant being in 
the receipt of the rectorial tithes was bound to repair the chancel at common 
law. The defendant, however, pleaded that from time immemorial it had been 
the custom for the parishioners to repair the chancel as well as the church ; 
upon which plea issue was joined. 

The affirmative of the issue being alleged by the defendant, his counsel 
commenced, and laid a number of old documents before the Court, and also 
adduced oral testimony to prove the custom that the parishioners had from 
time immemorial repaired the chancel. 

The plaintiff's counsel, on the other hand, adduced a quantity of evidence to 
disprove such custom. The particulars, however, were extremely dry and unin- 
teresting. 

The jury, after an investigation which lasted for the whole of the day until 
a late hour, returned a verdict for the defendant.* 



* The Tim€$ stated that the rerdict was for the Plaintiff/ 



DOCUMENTS. 99 

On Thursday, the 22nd day of November last, sentence was given by the 
Chancellor of the Diocese of Chester, in a cause of office in the Consistory 
Court, there promoted by the Rev. R. H. Gretton, Rector of Nantwich, in the 
county of Chester, against the Rev. J. T. Campbell, Rector of Tilston, in the 
same county, for preaching in a common Methodist meeting-house, in the 
Town of Nantwich, and in other similar places in the Diocese. The defendant 
was suspended from his clerical functions for one year, with a sequestration of 
his benefice for that time; and costs were decreed against him, amounting to 
44/. 4s. lid. 

it is said that Mr. Campbell intends to secede entirely from the established 
church. 



DOCUMENTS. 



IRISHCHURCH. 

{From an excellent Tract, called " Facts and Circumstances, ^c. 8^c." by the Rev. T, S.- 
Toivnsend, Rector of Timogue.) 

Dr. Erck, the secretary of the Ecclesiastical Commission, now sitting in 
Dublin, and the editor of the Ecclesiastical Register, states in his evidence, 
(Commons, page 624, appendix 14) — 

" From the best data I can obtain in Leinster, Munster, and Connaught, the 
tithes, lay and ecclesiastical, average from a sixty-seventh to a sixtieth Tpart of the pro- 
duce ; and in the province of Ulster, they average from a sixty-third to a sixty-ninth 
part of the produce. " 

The report states on the calculation of the same gentleman, (245. vii.) 

" That the amount of tithe composition in the province of Ulster is 11^ per acre, 
and its proportion to the rental from 1-19 to 1-26. 

Munster is Is. 27d. per Irish acre, and its proportion to the rental from 1-15 
to 1-21. 

Leinster is Is. 7M. per Irish acre, and its proportion to the rental from 1-12 
to 1-21." 

To this it adds, 

** Mr. Griffith (the Government engineer) by a totally different process, arrives at 
a conclusion not very dissimilar. He estimates that the total charges for tithe com- 
position over the whole of Ireland would average Is. 3|d. in the pound, or from 
1-15 to 1-16 of the rental, which he adds is calculated upon a rent considerably 
lower than that actually paid." 

The report again states — 

** Mr De la Cour,who without any concert estimated the whole of Ireland at only one 
halfpenny per acre more than Mr. Griffith, gives a list of seven parishes in the county of 
Cork, the rental of which is 68,000, and the composition 4333, or from 1-15 to 1-16 
of the rental. Your Committee have examined no less than eighteen other witnesses 
upon this point locally acquainted with various parts in the counties in the margin 
(Kilkenny, Tipperary, Kildare, Galway, Dublin, Queen's County, King's County 
Cork, Clare, Westmeath, Down,) and the result is a singularly close approximation to 
the same rate." 

It will be remarked that in those calculations the landlord's interest only is 
taken into calculation. The report states — 

" That the gross amount of composition, if it extended over the whole of Ireland, 
would be about 600,000." 

Mr. Griffith states— 

" From the best data I have been able to procure, and from my own knowledge of 



100 DOCUMENTS. 

the value of land in Ireland, I am of opinion that the gross value of land in Ireland^ 
rated at a moderate rent, may be about 12,715,578."* 

This makes the amount of tithe composition, as it is at present, less than the 
21st of the rental of Ireland. 

Mr. Pierce Mahoney states in evidence — 

" Since I have been called upon to attend the Committee as a witness, T have 
inquired into the relative amount of payment for tithe in this country (England) and 
in Ireland, and I am satisfied that we do not pay in Ireland one-fortieth of the gross 

J)roduce, or annual increase of the earth, in corn, cattle, &c., as tithe is frequently 
evied in England ; and my sincere belief is, that even according to the tithe law as it 
stood before 1824, the clergy did not receive in the whole more than from one-third 
to one-fourth of what they were entitled to demand for their tithe ; and I beg leave 
to add, that in forming this opinion I attempt to survey in my own mind the extent 
of the annual productions of Ireland which would be titheable here." — fSvi. 
Com. 5226.) 

Mr. Mahoney here enters into an account of the exports in produce mostly 
titheable which were carried into Liverpool alone, in the year 1831, the gross 
value of which came to 4,497,708 — 7 — 6 ; the tithe upon which would amount 
.^o more than two-thirds of what is paid throughout all Ireland ! 

" I am convinced that the generality of the clergy by no means receive the tithe 
they are entitled to. — By the tithe they are entitled to you mean the full tenth ? 
Yes, they never sought it, nor received it." — ( G. Fitzgerald, Esq., Evi. Com. 175.) 

It will be seen from these statements that the tripartite and quadripartite 
division has already taken place. 

The enormity of the incomes of the Irish clergy is another of those violent 
imputations which have been so constantly and inconsiderately alleged against 
them. Here again the evidence before the Houses of Lords and Commons 
refutes the charge, and brands it with falsehood and injustice. Mr. Griffith 
(Evi. Com. 282, No. 5.) states — 

" That there are 2450 parishes in Ireland, and 1422 beneficed clergymen — 1539 
parishes under the composition act, and 911 which are not. The average amount of 
the composition of tithe (lay and clerical) in those 1539 parishes is 287/. 9s. 6d." 

Rating all the tithes as stated in the Parliamentary report (245. xii.) to be 
600,000/., and deducting 50,000/., as belonging to bishops, cathedrals, collegiate 
churches, &c., there remain 550,000/. for the parochial clergy. This sum 
divided amongst 1422 beneficed clergymen will average to each 386/. 15s. 7d.', to 
this may be added the income of about 90,000 acres of glebe land at 15*. per 
acre, amounting to 67,500/., (as estimated in the Christian Examiner of Novem- 
ber, 1831, page 873), from which deduct the incomes of at least 1000 curates, 
at 75/. each, and the remaining gross income will be 542,500/., which would 
leave each incumbent 38 1 /. 10*. Ic?. yearly income; estimating according to 
report the expenses of collection, losses, &c. &c., at 15 per cent., there would 
remain 324/. 9*. lOrf. as the average income of each incumbent, at present, 
arising out of tithes and lands. 

Augmentation. — We hear that the Lord Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 
Patron of the Vicarage of Pytchley, in the county of Northampton, has, with 
the consent of the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, generously augmented the 
living of Pytchley by the grant of an annuity of 30/., and by annexing the same 
in perpetuity to that Vicarage, under the provisions of an Act passed in the last 
session of Parliament, for the purpose of confirming and perpetuating augmen- 
tations made to small benefices. 

• Mr. Nassau Senior, in his letter to Lord Ilowick, states the rental of Ireland to 
be something under 13 millions, which would give the same conclusion respecting the 
amount of tithe. 



101 



ECCLESIASTICAL INTELLIGENCE. 



ORDINATIONS. 

Bishop of Rochester, Rochester November 4. 

Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry 

Bishop of Bath and Wells, Wells December 9. 

Bishop of Worcester, Worcester Cathedral December 21. 

Bishop of London, St. James's church, Westminster ... December 23. 

Bishop of Gloucester, Gloucester Cathedral December 23. 

Bishop of Lincoln, Buckden, Hunts December 23. 



Name. 

Alder, William b.a. 

Armstrong, E. Pakenham b.a. 

Badger, Albert b.a. 

Baugh, Folliott a.b. 

Bedford, Thomas ., b.a. 

Birkett, Robert m.a. 

Blakesly, J. Williams ... b.a. 
Boyne, John Richard ... b.a. 
Brockhurst, Jos. Summer b.a. 
Bullock, John Frederic... b.a. 

Burnett, James b.a. 

Campbell, R. Robert s.c.l. 

Davis, Benjamin a.b. 

Dry, Thomas m.a. 

Dicken, Edmund Ashton b.a. 

Edwards, W.J. F b.a. 

Ellis, William Webb m.a. 

Fell, Thomas b.a. 

Fysh, Frederick b.a. 

Gamson, Robert b.a. 

Griffith, Thomas Gilbert b.a. 

Hodson, George a.b. 

Hodson, William b.a. 

Hutchinson, Benj. (Lit.) 

Izon, William Ketland ... a.b. 

James, Henry b.a. 

Jenner, Charles Herbert a.b. 
Lock wood, G. Palmer ... b.a. 
Lockwood, Henry John... b.a. 

Marsh, William b.a. 

Neale, Charles b.a. 

Newby, Alfred b.a. 

Nichol, John Richard ... b.a. 
Oldham, John Roberts... a.b. 

Palairet, Richard b.a. 

Penny, Charles b.a. 

Pridden, William b.a. 

Ready, Thomas Martin... b.c.l. 
Roe, Charles a.b. 

Rudd, J. H. Augustus ... b.a. 



Degree. College. University. Ordaining Bishop. 



St. Peter's 
Trinity 
Trinity 
All Souls 

Emanuel 

Emanuel 
Trinity 
Christ's 
St. John's 
Clare Hall 
St. Edm. Hall 
Trinity Hall 
Queen's 
Merton 

Sidney 

Queen's 
Brasennose 
St. Peter's 

Queen's 

Cath. Hall 
Magd. Hall 
Magd. Hall 
Queen's 



Camb. 

Camb. 

Camb. 

Camb. 

Camb. 

Camb. 

Oxford 

Camb. 

Oxford 

Oxford 



Pembroke 

Worcester 

Trinity Hall 

Trinity 

Magdalen 

Pembroke 

Queen's 

St. John's 

Exeter 

Oriel 

Worcester 

Pembroke 

Pembroke 



Oxford 

Camb. 

Camb. 

Camb. 

Camb. 

Oxford 

Camb. 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Catherine Hall Camb. 

Trinity Oxford 

Pembroke Camb. 



Camb. Bishop of London 
Dublin Bishop of Lincoln 
Camb. Bishop of Lincoln 
Oxford Bishop of Worcester 
f Bp. of Lincoln, by 1. d. 
I from Bp. of Ely 
Ditto ditto ditto 
Ditto ditto ditto 
Bp. of Bath and Wells 
Ditto ditto 

Bishop of London 
Bp. of Bath and Wells 
Ditto ditto 

Bishop of Worcester 
Bishop of London 
^ , CBp. of Bath and Wells 
camo. I byl.d.Bp. of Exeter 
Camb. Bp. of Bath and Wells 
Oxford Bishop of Rochester 
Camb. Bishop of Lincoln 
Camb i ^P* "^ Lincoln, by 1. d. 

\ from Arcbp. of York 
Camb. Bishop of Lincoln 
Oxford Bp. of Bath and Wells 
Oxford Bishop of Worcester 
Camb. Bishop of Lincoln 

( Bp. of Lincoln, by 1. d. 
\ from Archbp. of Yk. 
Camb. Bishop of Worcester 
Bishop of London 
Bp. of Worcester 
Bishop of Lincoln 
Ditto ditto 
Bishop of Rochester 
Bishop of Gloucester 
Bishop of Lincoln 
Bishop of London 
Bishop of Worcester 
Bp. of Bath and Wells 
Ditto ditto 

Bishop of London 
Bp. of Bath and Wells 
Bishop of Worcester 
Bp. of Lincoln, by 1. d. 
from Archbp. of Yk. 



i02 



ECCLESIASTICAL INTELLIGENCE. 



Name. Dtgree. College. 

Umpleby, John Crosby... b.a. Queen's 
Wright, Thos. Hawkins. b.a. St. John's 
Gunther, J. (Literate) ~ 
Lechler, J. M. (ditto) 
Miiller, Francis (ditto) 
Woodcock, W. J. (ditto) 
Stiles, H. Tarlton (ditto) 
Barrow, James (ditto) _ 



• For the Colonies 



University. 
Camb. 
Camb. 



Ordaining Bishop, 
Bishop of Lincoln 
Ditto ditto 



Bishop of London 



Aldham, Harcourt a.b. Worcester 

Ashe, Edward m.a. Balliol 

Ashington, Henry m.a. Trinity 

Bayly, C. Henville b.a. New Coll. 

Barry, Henry s.c.l. Trinity Hall 

Bennett, Alex. Morden... b.a. Worcester 

Blakelock, Ralph m.a. Catherine Hall 

Blencowe, Edward m.a. Oriel 

Burford, William James b.a. Trinity 

Cantley, George Spencer b.a. Pembroke 

Carew, Gerald b.a. Downing 

Codrington, R. Chute ... s.c.l. Jesus 

Copeland, W. J m.a. Trinity 

Davey, George a.b. Catherine Hall 

Davis, Thomas a.b. Queen's 

De La Mere, Caius 

Deey, William b.a. Trinity 



Oxford 
Oxford 
Camb. 
Oxford 
Camb. 
Oxford 

Camb 



•I 



Dowell, Henry b.a. St. Peter's 



Dunbar, Sir Wm. Bart... s.c.i.. 
Evered, Charles W. H.... b.a. 

Frere, John b.a. 

Flowers, William Henry b.a. 

Furnivall, Thomas m.a. 

Garrett, Thomas b.a. 

Gaskin, John b.a. 

Guillemard, James b.a. 

Henry, Charles Edward b.a. 

Hotham, Edwin b.a. 

Hughes, Henry b. a. 

Hume, William Edward b.a. 
lUingworth, Ed. Arthur, b.a. 
Isaac, William Lister ... b.a. 
Jacob, George Andrew... m.a. 

Jehy, Harry b.a. 

Liveing, Henry Tho. ... b.a. 
Lloyd, Henry William .. b.a. 
Meller, Thomas William b.a. 
Mitford, John Reveley... b.a. 
Morice, Richard William b.a. 

Morris, Robert b.a. 

Perry, George b.a. 

Poole, Thomas m.a. 

Riddle, Joseph Edmond m.a. 

Smith, Courtney b.a. 

Sturmer, Frederic b.a. 

Tuck, George Robert ... m.a. 

Vessey, George Fred b.a. 

Watkins, Henry George b.A. 



Magdalen Hall 

Corpus Christi 

Trinity 

Jesus 

Queen's 

Queen's 

St.Edm. Hall 

St. John's 

Oriel 

New Coll. 

Trinity 

Christ Church 

Trinity 

Trinity 

Worcester 

St. Alban's 

Pembroke 

Magdalen 

Trinity 

Christ Church 

Trinity 

Christ Church 

Trinity 

St. John's 

St. Edm. Hall 

Trinity 

Queen's 

Emanuel 

Lincoln 
Worcester 



Oxford 

Camb. 

Camb. 

Camb. 

Camb. 

Oxford 

Camb. 

Oxford 

Camb. 

Dublin 

Camb. ) 

Oxford 

Camb. 

Camb. 

Camb. 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Camb. 

Camb. 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Camb. 

Camb. 

Camb. 

Oxford 

Camb. 

Oxford 

Camb. 

Camb. 



■I 



Oxford 
Camb. 
Oxford 

Camb. - 

Oxford 
Oxford 



Bishop of Worcester 
Bishop of Gloucester 
Bishop of London 
Bishop of London 
Bp. of Bath and Wells 
Bishop of Gloucester 
Bp. of Lincoln, by 1. d. 

from Bp. of Ely. 
Bishop of Gloucester 
Bishop of London 
Bishop of Lincoln 
Bp. of Bath and Wells 
Ditto ditto 

Bishop of London 
Bishop of Worcester 
Ditto ditto 

Bp. of Lich. and Cov. 
Bishop of London 
Bp.of Bath and Wells, 

by 1. d. from Bp. of 

Exeter 
Bp. of Bath and Wells 
Bp. of Bath and Wells 
Bishop of London 
Bishop of Lincoln 
Bishop of Lincoln 
Bp. of Bath and Wells 
Bp. of Bath and Wells 
Bishop of London 
Bishop of Gloucester 
Bishop of Rochester 
Bishop of Lincoln 
Bishop of London 
Bishop of London 
Bishop of Worcester 
Bishop of Worcester 
Bp. of Bath and Wells 
Bishop of London 
Bishop of Lincoln 
Bp. of Rochester, by 1. d. 
Bishop of London 
Bishop of London 
Bishop of London 
Bishop of Lincoln 
Bp.of Lincoln by let. dim. 

from Abp. of York 
Bishop of Gloucester 
Bp. of Lichfield & Cov. 
Bishop of London 
Bishop of Lincoln, by let. 

dim. from Bp. of Ely 
Bishop of Worcester 
Bishop of London 



ECCLESIASTICAL INTELLIGENCE. 



103 



Name. Degree 

Warren, Ed. Blackburn b. a. 

"Walsh, George b.a. 

Westmacott, Horatio b.a. 

Whittaker, Thomas b.a. 

Whitford, Robert Wells... m.a. 

Wicken, H. Dawe m.a. 

Williams, Theophilus ... b.a. 
Pettitt, G. (Literate) 
Peet, Joseph (ditto) 



College 
Queen's 
Corpus Christi 
Corpus Christi 
Worcester 
St. Edm. Hall 
Christ's 
Exeter 



For the Colonies 



University. Ordaining Bishop. 

Camb. Bishop of London 

Camb. Bp. of Lichfield & Cov. 

Camb. Bp. of Bath and Wells 

Oxford Bishop of Worcester 

Oxford Bishop of Lincoln 

Camb. Bp. of Bath and Wells 

Oxford Bp. of Bath and Wells 

Bishop of London 



The Lord Bishop of Chester has postponed his intended Ordination, which was to 
have been held on the 15th of December, to Sunday, the 13th of January, in conse- 
quence of the county election taking place on the former date. 

The Bishop of Ely's Ordination will be holden in London, on Sunday, the 3rd of 
February. Candidates for Holy Orders are desired to transmit the requisite papers 
to his Lordship on or before the 26th day of January next, in letters less than one 
ounce in weight. 

The Bishop of Lincoln intends to hold his next Ordination at Buckden, on Sun- 
day, the 3rd of March. Candidates are required to send their papers thither to his 
Lordship before the 20th of January. 



CLERICAL APPOINTMENTS. 

Aldritt, W Head Mastership of the Collegiate Grammar School, Wells. 

Hele, Fitz-Henry... Mastership of the Ashburton Free Grammar School. 

Raymond, W. F. ... Prebendal Stall, Chichester Cathedral. 

Winnington, — ... Prebendal Stall, Worcester Cathedral. 



PREFERMENTS. 



Name. 
Alderson, S. Harry 

Andrewes, Will. 

Ayling, W 

Barnard, H. W.... 
Beed, J. B 

Bennett, E. Leigh 



Preferment. 
Bradfield, V. 
r Lillingstone Dayrell, 



County. 
Suffolk 



Diocese. 
Norwich 



\ R.Tr*VAStowe,v"'}^"^^^ 



Lincoln 



Barlavington, R. 
St. Cuthbert, V. 
Felpham, V. 
Lechdale, V. 



Sussex 

Somerset 

Sussex 



Blennerhaset, W. Iwerne Minster, V. Dorset 



Patron. 

The King 
R. Dayrell, Esq. 
Duke of Bucking- 
ham 
Chichester Earl of Egremont 
Wells D. & Ch. of Wells 

Chichester Rector of Felpham 
Gloucester Gloucester Rev. E. L. Bennett 
r Bp. of Bristol, by 
Bristol < permission of D. 
C & C. of Windsor 

Lich.&Cov. Bp. of Lich. & Cov. 

5 Will. Wilberforce, 
\ Esq. 

Bath & W. Earl Poulett 



Warwick 



Middlesex London 



Lincoln Sir J. D. Broughton 
Chichester W Richardson, Esq 
Norwich G. W. Chad, Esq. 



Breav J G ( Minister of Christ \ 

^' ( Ch., Birmingham S 

Brow„.Joseph...|N;wJhu.ch,^High.| 

Bussell, W. J. ... I ?„i;fgf Sf;tT } ««— ' 

Broughton, T. D. Bletchley, R. Bucks 

Calhoun, T. G. ... Goring, V. Sussex 

Cattley, S. Reed Bagthorpe, R. Norfolk 

Causton, T. H.... V. of St. Botolph, Aldersgate 

Chapman, Charles Under Minister to St. Peter's, Mancroft, Norwich 

f Mayor & Common- 
Courtney, Sept. ... Charles, V. Plymouth Devon 

Currie, Thomas... Malton Parva, V. Norfolk 

Evans, John Hardingham, R. Norfolk 

Fahy, P Spinple and Minnagh, Ireland 

Field, Edward ... Bicknor English, R. Gloucester 

Fry, W Egdeen, R. Sussex 



Exon 

Norwich 
Norwich 



aiity of the Bo- 
ro. of Plymouth 

Emanuel Col. Cam. 

Clare Hall, Camb. 



Gloucester Queen's Coll. Oxf. 
Chichester Earl of Egremont 



104 



ECCLESIASTICAL INTELLIGENCE. 



Name. 
Goodman, John.. 
Guthrie, John 



Hasted, H. Joh 



■) 



Hervey, Rev. Lord \ 
Arthur Charles \ 

Hope, H. Payne... 

King, John Myers \ 

Kingdon, John ... 

Lambert, R. W.... j 

Linton, Thomas... 
Lucas, St. J. Wells 

Manley, Orlando 

Neck, A 

Norgate, T. S. ... 
Pinhorn, George 

PoweU, W. P \ 



Preferment. 

Kemerton, R. 

Helmerton, V. 
Bradfield Combust, 

R. with Little Wel- 

netham, li. 
Ickworth, R. with 

Chedburgh . 

Christon, R. 

Cutcombe, R. with 
Luxborough, C. 
North Petherwin 
Churchill and Puxton > 



County. Diocese. 
Gloucester Glouces. 



Wilts 



Suffolk 



Sarum 



Norwich 



Patron. 
5 Mayor & Burgesses 
I of Gloucester 
The King 

C Rev. H. Hasted 
I Marquis of Bristol 



Suffolk Norwich 



Somerset B. & W. 



y Somerset 
Devon 



Marquis of Bristol 

5 Sir J. Smith, Bt. & 
I Rev. Mr. Gore 

Bath & W. Lord Chancellor 



Exon Duke of Bedford 

C.ofBriJfD-^'Ch.olBris.ol 

Northamp. Peterboro' Miss Mary Belsey 



Somerset 



Cambridge Ely 
Devon 



Trinity Col. Camb. 
f Dean & Canons of 
I Windsor 

Rich. Reeve, Esq. 
Bishop of Hereford 

Worcester Worcester Christ Church, Ox. 



Devon 

Norfolk 

Hereford 



Exon 

Exon 

Norwich 

Hereford 



Quicke, Andrew...-^ 

Scobell, Edward... 
Seagram, John ... 

Sicklemore, — ... < 

Smith, John 

Wales, W 

Wilkins, Edward < 



P. C. 

Fotheringay, V. 
Arrington, V. 

Plymstock, P. C. 

Kingskerswell, P. C 
Brinningham, P. C. 
Brimfield, P. C. 
Great and Little 

Hampton, P. C. 
Biddeston,St. Peter's, 

R. with Biddeston 

St. Nicholas, V. & 

Slaughterford, C. 
Ministry of Oxford Chapel, St. Marylebone 
Aldbourne Wilts Sarum 

St. Alphage, R. with I ^ 

Northgate, V. 5 ^^"^ 

PwUycrochon, P. Pembroke St. David's The King 

All Saints, V.Northam. Northamp. Peterboro' The Corporation 
Hempstead, with J 

Lessingham, R. ) 



: > Wilts 



Sarum Winton College 

Bishop of Sarum 

Canterbury A bp .of Canterbury 

The King 

The Corporation 

King's Coll. Camb. 



CLERGYMEN DECEASED. 



Addison, Joseph... 
Attley, Richard... ] 
Barstow, Francis. . . 

Candler, Philip ... 

Chapman, Leonard 
Darch, William... j 

Drake, W. W. ... 
Fuller, Thomas ... 
Grey, Hugh Wade 

Gipps, Henry 

Haddesley, C. W. 
Hawkins, John ...j 



Rodwell, near Weymouth 

St. John's & St. Cle- ^ j^^^^^^^^ 
ment, R. Stamford S 

Scale Bar Hall, near Otley 

Lamas, R.,t/;/MHaut-^ 
bois Parva, R., an- 
nexed Lethering- > Norfolk 
sett, R., Burnhara | 
Overy, V. J 

WysalJ, V. Notts 

Malpas, 2nd Port, R. Chester 

Chalvington, R. Sussex 

Bushmead Priory Hereford 

St. Peter & Stowen, V. Hereford j 

Holton le Clay Lincoln 

Ratlinghope, near > <j„. „ 
Bishop'a Castle f ^*'*^P 



Lincoln 



Norwich 



York 



C Corpo. of Stamford 
7 for this turn 



(Mr. BurreU 

( Lord Chancellor 



Earl of Gosford 
B. & W J Sir J. Trevelyen, 



w.| 



Bart. 
5 Sir T. T. F. E. 
I Drake, Bart. 
Chichester J. T. Fuller, Esq, 



Chester 



P.of D.of) J. TT r-. 
Hereford C^^^-"-G»PP» 



Lincoln 
Hereford 



Lord Chancellor 
Rev. J. Hawkins 



ECCLESFASTICAL INTELLIGENCE. 



105^ 



C Lydlinch, R., Dorset Bristol John Fane, Esq. 

Hobson, Thomas j with Hermitage, V. > j^^^^^^ j P.of D.of l^ord Chancellor 

(^ & Jrentndge, K. > I barum J 

Howels, William Minister of the Episcopal Church, Long Acre, London 
Morgan, Henry... Pipeton, P. C, Wales 

Panter, Philip ... Nettlecombe Parsonage, Chaplain to the Royal Navy 
Portington, Henry Wappenham, R. Northamp. Peterboro' Bishop of Lincoln 

St.John,F., I.F.S. Prebendary of Worcester Cathedral 
Vesey,Hon.&Rev. A.,Abbeyleix and Ballymakay, Ireland 



ESTABLISHED CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 

PREFERMENTS. 

Name. Parish. Presbyter i/. Patron. 

Gillies, Robert Carlaverock Dumfries. . . Marquis of Queensbury. 

Houston, Robert... Dalmellington Ayr The King. 

Logan, James Swinton Chirnside The King. 

Sym, Robert Sprouston Kelso Duchess Dowager of Roxburgh, Etc. 

Thorburn, David Leith, 2nd Charge Edinbnrgh Kirk Session, &c. 

White, David Airly Meigle Lord Stratlimore's Trustees. 

On Thursday, Nov. 29, the Rev. James Henderson, of Ratho, was instituted to the Parish 
of St. Enoch, Glasgow, on the presentation of the Magistrates and Town Councd. 

On Friday, Dec. 7, the Rev. JNIr. Mather was ordained JMinister of Stanley Chapel, Perth- . 
shire. 

DIED. 

Rev. George Munro, IMinister of South Uist, aged 92. 

Rev. Walter Buchanan, 2nd Minister of Canongate, Edinburgh, aged 77. 

Rev. Malcom IMcLeod, Minister of Snizort, Isle of Skye. 

Rev. John Stark, Edinburgh. 

EPISCOPAL CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 

The Rev. Michael Russell, LL.D., Minister of the Episcopal Chapel, Leith, has been 
appointed, by Bishop Walker, Dean of the United Dioceses of Edinburgh, Fife, and Glasgow, 
in the room of the Rev. Robert JNIorehead, D.D. 

On Wednesday, Dec. 5th, at an Ordination held by the Right Rev. Bishop Torry, in the 
Episcopal Chapel, Peterhead, the Rev. Alexander Cooper, M.A., of Mareschal College, Aber- 
deen, and the Rev. Alexander Lendrum, M.A., of King's College, Aberdeen, were admitted 
into Priests' orders. An appropriate Sermon was preached by the Rev. Mr. Pratt, of Anden. 



UNIVERSITY NEWS. 



OXFORD, 

Saturday, December 1. 

Thursday se'nnight, Mr. J. Walker, B.A., 
and Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
was elected Fellow of Brasennose College, in 
this University. 

On Thursday last, Messrs. J. Wickers and 
H. Holder were elected Scholars, and Messrs. 
E. L. Barnwell, A. O. Fitzgerald, and T. B. 
Morrell, were elected Exhibitioners of Balliol 
College. 

On Thursday last, the following Degrees 
were conferred : — 

Masters of Arts — J. Spink, Wadham, 
grand comp. ; Rev. J. J. Vaughan, Merton ; 
A. Mangles, Merton. 

Bachelors of Arts—C. Boys, Scholar of 
Merton ; W. Harrison, Scholar of Brasennose ; 

Vol. \l\.—Jan. 1833. 



T. W. Allies, Scholar of Wadham; J. P. 
Keigwin, Scholar of Wadham; H. F. Che- 
shire, Wadham ; G. T. Clare, FeUow of St. 
John's ; W. Froude, Oriel. 

Preachers at St. Mari/'s-r-Rev. Mr. New- 
man, Oriel, Sunday mormng ; Rev. Mr. Lan- 
caster, Queen's, afternoon. 

Lecturer at St. Marthts — The Warden of 
Wadham, Sunday morning and afternoon. 

Decernber 8. 

The names of those candidates who, at the 
close of the public examinations in Michaelmas 
Term, were admitted by the Public Examiners 
into the Four Classes of Literm Humaniores, 
according to the alphabetical arrangement in 
each class prescribed by the statute, stand as 
follows : — 

Class I.— T. W. Allies, Scholar of Wad- 



106 



UNIVERSITY NEWS. 



ham; Lord Boscawen, Ch. Ch.; Hon. J. 
Bruce, Student of Ch. Ch. ; S. C. Dennison, 
Balliol ; J. D. Giles, Corpus Christi ; W. H. 
LushinjTton, Oriel; C Marriott, Scholar of 
Balliol ; G. B. Maule, of Ch. Ch. ; N. Ox- 
nam, Exeter ; H. Wall, St. Alban Hall. 

Class H — J. W. M. Berry, Brasennose ; 
G. Cardew, Exeter; W. Laxton, Scholar of 
Trinity ; A. J. P. Lutwyche, Queen's ; R. G. 
Macmullen, Scholar of Corpus ; G. H. Somer- 
set, St. Mar\' Hall; W. Snooner, Oriel; C 
Thornton, Ch. Ch. ; S. H. Walker, Fellow of 
Balliol ; E. Were, Queen's. 

Class HI.— R. Barnes, Student of Ch. Ch.; 
H. F. Cheshire, Wadham; G. T. Clare, Fel- 
low of St. John's; W. E. Elwell, University; 
W. Froude, Oriel; W. Harrison, Scholar of 
Brasennose ; E. R. Larken, Trinity ; J. W. 
Macdonald, Ch. Ch. ; J. B. Monck, Brasen- 
nose; A. B. Orlehar, Lincoln; W. Pearson, 
Scholar of University. 

Class IV A. H. D. Acland, Ch. Ch. ; T. 

r. Barrow, St. Alban Hall; J. Bramall, 
Exeter ; T. Carter, Worcester ; itlarquis of 
Douglas, Ch. Ch. ; E. S. Ensor, Brasennose ; 
G. Garrick, University ; F. Geary, Ch. Ch. ; 
H. Hill, Worcester ; E. Hinxman, Exeter ; G. 
Hodson, Magdalen Hall; W. Hooker, Pem- 
broke; J. R. Hope, Ch. Ch.; W. Hornby, 
Ch. Ch. ; T. Hughan, Balliol ; C. Leslie, Ch. 
Ch.; R. T. P. Pulteney, Trinity; T. F. B. 
Rickards, Balliol ; G. Rushout, Ch. Ch. ; R. 
Sarjeant, Magdalen Hall ; J. L. Spencer, Fel- 
low Commoner of Worcester ; G. S. Stanley, 
Ch. Ch.; R. J. Uniacke, St. Alban Hall; T, 
H. VV^horwood, Demy of Magdalen ; R. Wil- 
liams, Gentleman Commoner of Magdalen. 

Number of Fifth Class, 65. 

Examiners — C. W. Stocker, D. D., Alban 
Hall; T. W. Lancaster, M.A., Queen's; R. 
D. Hampden, M. A., Oriel; and W. Sewell, 
M.A., Exeter. 

• On Thursday last the following Degrees 
were conferred : — 

Masters of Arts — Rev. D. J. Geoi^e, Scho- 
lar of Jesus ; Rev. E. A. Waller, Brasennose ; 
Rev. G. D. Grundy, Brasennose ; Rev. W. 
Drake, Lincoln ; Rev. J. King, Balliol ; Rev. 
A. D. Stacpoole, Fellow of New Coll. 

BcLchelors of Arts — J. R. Harvey, St. 
Alban HalLj G. H. Somerset, St. Mary Hall ; 
J. D. Giles, Exhibitioner of C. C. C. ; R. G. 
Macmullen, Scholar of C. C. C. ; W. Pearson, 
Scholar of University; J. "W. M. Berry, 
Brasennose ; J. W. Macdonald, Ch. Ch. ; A. 
J. P. Lutwyche, Queen's ; E. Wear, Queen's ; 
S. C. Denison, Scholar of Balliol ; W. H. 
Lushington, Oriel; W. Spooner, Oriel. 

Preachers at St. Mary's — Rev. Mr. Ball, 
St. John's, Sunday morning ; Rev. Mr. Buck- 
ley, Merton, afternoon. 

Lecturer at St. Martin's — Rev. Mr. Brown, 
Sunday morning and afternoon. 

December 15. 

Magdalen Hall — Lvxhy Scholarship The 

late Mr. Henry Lusby, of Navestock, Essex, 
having left some estates to the University, in 



trust for the promotion of sound and religious 
learning in Magdalen Hall, in such manner as 
the President of Magdalen College, and the 
Principal of Magdalen Hall, for the time 
being, shall direct, the President and the Prin- 
cipal have determined to found in Magdalen 
Hall, Three Scholarships, open to all Under- 
graduate INIembers of the University of Oxford, 
who are not under four, or above eight Terms 
standing from their matriculation. The elec- 
tion of the firet Scholar will take place next 
Term. 

In a Convocation holden on Wednesday last, 
for the purpose of choosing two Burgesses to 
represent the University m Parliament, Sir 
R. H. Inglis, Bart., D.C.L., of Christ Church, 
and T. G. B. Estcourt, Esq., D.C.L., of 
Corpus Christi College, were unanimously 
elected. The former was nominated by the 
Very Rev. the Dean of Christ Church, and the 
latter by the Rev. the President of Corpus. 

The following is a list of those Candidates 
who have obtained classical distinction in Dis- 
ciplinis Mathematicis et Physicis : — 

Class I.— G. Cardew, Exeter; W. Froude, 
Oriel; T. A. Maberlev, Ch. Ch.; G. B. 
Maule, Ch. Ch. ; A. Orlebar, Lincohi; R. 
F, Rickards, Balliol. 

Class II.— A. H. D. Acland, Ch. Ch. ; T. 
Hughan, Balliol; C. Marriott, Balliol; S. 
Walker, Balliol. 

Class III. — None. 

Class IV.— F. G. W. Martin, Balliol; R. 
Williams, Oriel. 

Examiners — R. Walker, M.A., Wadham; 
W. Falconer, M. A., Exeter; and H. Reynolds, 
M.A., Jesus. 

On Thursday last, the following Degrees 
were conferred : — 

Bachelor in Divinity — Rev. J. S. Richards, 
Fellow of Exeter. 

Masters of Arts — T. Clutton, Fellow of 
New Coll.; Rev. G. Taylor, Exeter. 

On the 4th inst., Mr. B. Williams, of Tri- 
nity College, was elected an Exhibitioner on 
the Fitzgerald Foundation, Queen's College; 
and on the same day, Mr. E. Meyrick was 
elected an Exhibitioner on the Foundation of 
Sir Francis Bridgman. 

On the 7th inst. Mr. G. ^L Giffard was 
admitted Scholar of New College. 

On Monday last, Mr. H. Fawcett, of Uni- 
versity College, was elected to an open Scholar- 
ship in that Society, on the Foundation of Mr. 
Browne ; and Mr. J. Brenchley, to a Scholar- 
ship attached to Maidstone Grammar School, 
on the Foundation of Mr. Gunsley. 

At an election holden at Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, on Wednesday, Dec. 12, the Rev. R. 
Eden, M.A., and the Rev. T. Medland, M.A., 
were elected actual Fellows of that Society. 

On Thursday last, Mr. W. S. Richards, 
B.A., was admitted Scholar of Jesus College. 

Preachers — Rev. Dr. Bull, Sunday morn- 
ing, at Christ Church ; Rev. Mr. Herbert, 
Wiulham, afternoon, at St. Mary's; 11 ev. Mr. 
Corfe, Alagdalen, St. Thomas's Day, at St, 
Mary's. 



UNIVERSITY NEWS. 



107 



Lecturer at St. Martin's— Rev. Mr. Firth, 
Sunday morning and afternoon. 

December 22. 

Mr. B. L. Watson, a scholar of Ciypt Gram- 
mar School, Gloucester, has been elected to the 
Townsend Exhibition at Pembroke College ; 
also, Mr. Arthur Morgan, son of the Rev. M. 
W. Morgan, curate of Iccomb, Worcestershire, 
has been elected an Exhibitioner from Camp- 
den School, to Pembroke College, on the same 
foundation. 

Preachers — Rev. Mr. Hughes, Trinity 
College, Sunday morning, at St. Mary's ; Rev. 
Mr. Pring, New College, afternoon, at ditto ; 
the Very Rev. the Dean, Christmas Day, at 
Christ Church; Rev. Mr. Glanville, Exeter 
College, St. Stephen, at St. Mary's ; Rev. INIr. 
Hughes, Trinity College, St. John, at ditto ; 
Rev. I^Ir. Leslie, Lincoln College, Innocents' 
Day, at ditto. 

Lecturer at St. Martinis — Rev. Mr. Cox, 
Sunday morning and afternoon. 

CAMBRIDGE. 

Friday, November 30, 1832. 

Joseph Walker, Esq., Scholar of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, was on the 22nd instant 
elected Probationary Fellow of Brasennose col- 
lege, Oxford. 

At a congregation on Wednesday last, the 
following Degiees were conferred : — 

Doctor in Physic — J. Johnstone, Trinity. 

Bachelor in Divinity— The Rev. G. Wil- 
kinson, St. John's. 

Honorary Master of Arts— The Hon. W. 
C. Wentworth Fitzwilliam, Trinity. 

Masters of Art — J. W. Lubbock, Trinity, 
(comp.); L. Thompson, Trinity, (corap. ); 
S. Marindin, Trinity; P. W. Ray, Clare hall; 
W. P. Hulton, Downing college. 

Bachelors in Civil Law — W. Lowndes, 
Trinity hall, (comp.); Rev. R. M. Hope, 
Trinity hall ; Rev. H. B. Hall, Trinity hall ; 
T. Wirgman, Trinity. 

Bachelor of Arts — W. J. Havart, St. John's. 

A meeting of the Philosophical Society was 
held on INIonday evening. Professor Cuinming, 
one of the Vice-presidents of the Society, in 
the chair. Among the presents to the society, 
was announced a goat -sucker, presented by the 
Rev. G. A. Browne, and two bottles of water 
from the poisonous fountains of Wirosari, in 
China, presented by the Rev. L. Jenyns ; also 
an account of the effects of this water. A 
memoir was read by the Rev. R. Murphy, 
Fellow of Caius college, on " Elimination be- 
tween an indefinite number of unknown quan- 
tities;" and some memoranda on the architec- 
ture of Normandy, by the Rev. W. Whewell. 
After the meeting, Mr. Brook, of St. John's, 
gave an account of the history of the various 
processes of lithotripsy ; and of the recent im- 
provements introduced by Le Roi, Civiali, and 
Heurteloup and others. This account was 
illustrated by the exhibition of the instruments 



employed for this purpose and by various 
drawings. 

The following is a list of the resident mem- 
bers of Cambridge University belonging to each 
College : — 

In Commons. In Lodgings. 

Trinity 465 241 

St. John's 3:31 107 

Queen's 123 74 

Caius 91 36 

Christ 80 8 

St. Peter's 79 17 

Emmanuel .^ 77 7 

Corpus Christi 69 .... 8 

Jesus 64 4 

Catharine Hall 69 .... 27 

Magdalene 69 .... 3 

Clare Hall 64 .... 2 

Pembroke 43 .... — 

King's 34 — 

Sidney 31 12 

Trinity Hall 24 .... 2 

Downing . . . t • ■ . . • . 14 .... 3 

1697 653 

In College, 1,144. In Lodgings, 663. 
Matriculations (Mich. Term), 383. 

December 1. 
The Vice-Chancellor has received fi'om the 
solicitor of George Buxton Browne, Esq. a 
proposal to appropriate 2,000/., free of legacy 
duty, part of a bequest left to the said George 
Buxton Browne, in trust, by the Rev. John 
Crosse, late of Bradford, in Yorkshire, " for 
promoting the cause of true religion," and to 
transfer the said sum to the University for the 
purpose of founding Three Theological Scholar- 
ships to be under the following regulations: — 

1. That they be called " The Crosse Scholar- 
ships." 

2. That the candidates for the same be 
Bachelors of Arts, in the first year from their 
degree ; and that such scholarships be tenable 
till the scholars attain the standing of the 
Masters of Arts, viz. for three years. 

3. That the first elections be so arranged as 
to make one of them vacant yearly for ever ; 
and for this purpose, that at the first election 
the persons elected be a Junior, a Middle, and 
a Senior Bachelor. 

4. That the annual examination and election 
take place in the Michaelmas term after the 
division of the said term. 

6. That in case of any vacancy of a scholar- 
ship before the person is of IVIaster of Arts 
standing, at the next annual election a Bachelor, 
of Arts of the same year with the scholar so 
vacating be elected into his room. 

6. That the sum of 2,000/. proposed to be 
transferred to the University be vested in go- 
vernment securities, in the name of the Chan- 
cellor, blasters, and Scholars, the annual inte- 
rest arising from the same to be divided equally 
among the three scholars. 

7. That electors to be the Vice-Chancellor, 
the Margaret Professor of Divinity, the Regius 
Pi ofessor of Divinity, the Regius Professor of 
Hebrew, the Regius Professor of Greek, thQ; 



m 



UNIVERSITY NEWS. 



Norrissian Profesor of Divinity, and the Pro- 
fessor of Arabic. 

8. The examination to turn upon a know- 
ledge of the Holy Scriptures in their Original 
tongues, Hebrew and Greek, of Ecclesiastical 
History, of the earlier and later Heresies, and 
such other subjects of useful inquiry as may be 
thought most likely to assist in the formation of 
valuable characters, fitted to sustain and adorn 
'* the cause of true religion." 

At a congregation held on Tuesday last a 
grace passed the Senate, agreeing to accept the 
aforesaid proposal, suljject to the above regu- 
lations. 

December 14. 

On Wednesday last the Right Hon. Henry 
Goulburn and the Right Hon. Charles Manners 
Sutton, of Trinity College, were elected repre- 
sentatives in Parliament for this University. 

The office of Christian Advocate has become 
vacant by the resignation of the Rev. Hugh 
James Rose. The election of a Christian Ad- 
vocate will take place on the first of January, 
1833. Any person who has filled the office of 
Hulsean Lecturer is not eligible to this office. 

A meeting of the Philosophical Society was 
held on Monday evening, the Rev. Professor 
SedgAvick, the president, being in the chair. 
Among the presents announced to the society 
were several pieces of fish collected by Prof. 
Henslow in the neighbourhood of Weymouth. 
Mr Whewell read a continuation of his notes 
on the architecture of Picardy and Normandy. 
After the business of the meeting, INIr. Sims 
gave an account of the method of graduation of 
astronomical instruments, by which he has 
divided the mural circle of eight feet diameter, 
recently placed in the observatory of this Uni- 
versity, and divided in its actual place. This 
account was prefaced by a notice of the methods 
of engine dividing or derivative gradation ; and 
of the modes of original dividing, employed by 
Bird, Graham, and Ramsden, previous to the 
one which has now superseded them, and which 
is the invention of Mr. Troughton. The expla- 
nation was illustrated by the exhibition of 
models, and of some of the apparatus and calcu- 
lations which have been actually employed for 
the observatory circle. 

The circle was brought to the observatory in 
the beginiiing of October, and Mr. Simms has 
since been employed (personally) in cutting the 
gradations after the circle was mounted on 
Its pier, an advantage which, we believe, no 
other instrument has ever possessed. The 
observatory may now be considered as, at 
least, equal in instrumental power to any 
similar establishment in the world. Another 
assistant will be required as soon as the new 
instrument is completely in action. 

December 21. 

The Office of Hulsean Lecturer being vacant, 
the Trustees of Mr. Hulse's Benefaction have 
given notice, that they propose to proceed to 
the Election of a new Lecturer on Tuesday, 
the 1st of January, 1833. 



There will be Congregations on the following 
days of the ensuing Lent Term : — 

Saturday ... Jan. 19, (A.B. Com.) at Ten. 

Wednesday Feb. 6, at Eleven. 

Wednesday... — 20, at Eleven. 

Wednesday... Mar. 6, at Eleven. 

Friday — 22, (A.M.Incep.^atTen. 

Friday — 29, (End of Term )at Ten. 

Prize Subjects. — The Vice-Chancellor 
has issued the following notice in the Univer- 
sity : — 

I. His Royal Highness the Chancellor being 
pleased to give annually a third gold medal for 
the encouragement of English Poetry, to such 
resident Undergraduate as shall compose the 
best Ode, or the best Poem in heroic verse ; 
the Vice-Chancellor gives notice that the subject 
for the present year is — Delphi. 

N.B. — These exercises are to be sent in to 
the Vice-Chancellor on or before March 31, 
1833 ; and are not to exceed 200 lines in length. 

II. The Representatives in Parliament for 
this University being pleased to give annually 

(1) Two Prizes ot Fifteen Guineas each, 
for the encouragement of Latin Prose Compo- 
sition, to be open to all Bachelors of Arts, 
without distinction of years, who are not of 
sufficient standing to take the Degree of Master 
of Arts ; and 

(2) Two other Prizes of Fifteen Guineas 
each, to be open to all Undergraduates, who 
shall have resided not less than seven terms, at 
the time when the exercises are to be sent in ; 

The subjects for the present year are 

(1) For the Bachelors, 
QtuBnamproEcipue sint labentis imperii indicia? 

(2) For the Undergraduates, 
Utrum Servorum manumissio in Insulis 

Indorum Occidentalium confestim facta, plus 
boni aut mali secum afferat ? 

N.B. These exercises are to be sent in on or 
before April 30, 1833. 

III. Sir William Browne having bequeathed 
three gold medals, value five guineas each, to 
such resident Undergraduates as shall com- 
pose — . . 

(1) The best Greek Ode m imitation of 
Sappho; .... - 

(2) The best Latin Ode, in imitation of 
Horace ; 

r The best Greek Epigram after the 
, .) model of the Anthologia, and 
^'^^) The best Latin Epigram after the 

(.model of Martial; 
The subjects for the present year are — 

(1) For the Greek Ode, 
Thermopi/lcE. 

(2) For the Latin Ode, 
Romanorum monumenta in Britannia 

reperta. 

(3) For the Epigrams, 
Prone ad summum prope adexitum. 

N.B. These exercises are to be sent in on or 
before April 30, 1833. The Greek Ode is not 
to exceed friventy-five, and the Latin Ode thirty 
stanzas. . , 

The Greek Ode' may be accompanied by a 
literal Latin Prose Version. 



BIRTHS AND MARRIAGES. 



109 



IV. The Porson Prize is the interest of 400/. 
stock, to be annually employed in the purchase 
of one or more Greek books, to be given to such 
resident Undergraduate as shall make the best 
translation of a proposed passage in Shaks- 
peare, Ben Jonson, Massinger, or Beaumont 
and Fletcher, into Greek Verse. 

The subject for the present year is— 
Shakspeare, King Richard IL, Act III., 
Scene 2, beginning — 

K. Rich ^'■Know'st thou not, 

That u-hen the searching eye of Heaven 
is hid," 
And ending — 

"/-or Heaven still guards the right." 
N.B. The metre to be Tragicum lamhicum 
Trimetrum acatalecticnm. These exercises 



are to be accentuated and accompanied by a 
literal Latin prose version, and are to be sent 
in on or before April 30, 18^3. 

N.B. All the above exercises are to be sent 
In to the Vice Chancellor privately : each is to 
have some motto prefixed, and to be accom- 
panied by a paper sealed up, with the same 
motto on the outside ; which paper is to en- 
close another, folded up, having the candidate's 
name and college written within. The papers 
containing the names of those candidates who 
may not succeed will be destroyed unopened. 
Any candidate is at liberty to send in his exer- 
cise printed or lithographed. No prize will be 
given to any candidate who has not, at the time 
of sending in the exercises, resided one term at 
the least. 



BIRTHS AND MARRIAGES. 



BIRTHS. 

Of So?is— The lady of Rev. C. Ranken, 
Christ Church ; of Rev. J. Bi-owne, Minister 
of Trinity Church, Cheltenham ; of Rev. A. 
Grueber, Colebrooke V., of twins; of Rev. E. 
bewhurst, JNIeldreth V., Royston ; of Rev. 
A. Dashwood, Thornage R. ; of Rev. R. 
Eaton, Elsing P. ; of Rev. A. Herring, 
Horsford P. ; of Rev. F. Thackeray, Cadogan 
Place; of Rev. J. Moverley, Liddington R., 
Rutland ; of late Rev. H. Gipps, Hereford. 

Of Daughters— The lady of Rev. H. 
Withy, Trinity Church, Westfield, near Hud- 
dersfield, Yorkshire; of Rev. J. T. Drake, 
Amersham R. 

MARRIAGES. 

Rev. J. Phillpotts, M. A. , v. of Grimley-cum- 
Hallow, Worcestershire, to Louisa, seventh d. 
of the late J. BuUer, Esq., of Downes; Rev. J. 
Sankey, M.A., c. of Norborough, to A. B. 
Dean, of Hathorn; Rev. H. Bolton, r. 
of Oby and v. of Docking, to Elizabeth M., 
only surviving d. of the late H. Blyth, Esq., 
of Sussex Farm, Burnham, Norfolk ; Rev. 
W. H. Edmeades, eldest s. of W. Edmeades, 
Esq., of Nursted -court, Kent, to Sarah, eldest 
d. of the late M. Isacke, Esq.; Rev. J. H. 
Davies, M.A., to E. Hart, d. of the late Right 
Hon. A. Hart, Lord High Chancellor of 
Ireland; Rev. Dr. Pearson, F.R.S., r. of 
South Kelworth, Leicestershire, to Miss Hun- 
ter, of Wilton-street, Belgrave-square, London ; 
Rev. G. Chesnutt, B.A., of Corpus Christi 
Coll., to Elizabeth, second d. of J. Toussaint, 
Esq., of Manor House, Felthem, Middlesex ; 
Rev. Harvey Bawtree, M.A., to Margaret, 
niece of T. Fiddes, Esq. ; Rev. J. M. Echalaz, 
M.A., r. of Appleby, Leicestershire, to Char- 
lotte, youngest d. of the late R. Lloyd, Esq., of 
AUesley, Warwickshire; Rev. T. B.Edwards, 



only s. of T. Edwards, Esq., of Stoketoti 
House, near Saltash, to Marianne, only d. of 
the Rev. T. Hodges, of Charmouth ; Rev. 
T. F. Woodham, of Week, near Winchester, 
to Martha E., second d. of W. Burnett, Esq., 
of Week ; Rev. R. J. T. Dolling to Catherine 
A., eldest d. of Mr. Symonds, of Spencer 
Place, North Brixton; Rev. W. A. Shute, 
B.A., Emmanuel Coll., Camb., to Margaret, 
eldest d. of W. Redhead, Esq., of Eldon- 
square, Newcastle-on-Tyne ; Rev. R. Bond, 
B.A., of Thvvayte and Briston, in Norfolk, to 
Alice, only child of J. Weeds, Esq. ; Rev. A. 
Farwell, r. of Stoke Fleming, Devon, to Laura 
M., youngest child of the Rev. Nicholas A. 
Bartlett, of Ludbrooke House, in the said 
county; Rev. E. Jenkins, v. of Billinghay, 
Lincoln, to Susan, d. of J. Whitsed, Esq., 
M.D., Southampton-row, Russell-square, Lon- 
don ; Rev. J. Law, M.A., v. of Bradworthy- 
cum-Pancras Wykej'to Miss Beduis, of Com- 
pass Cottage, near Exeter; Rev. H. Street, 
M.A., late of Balliol Coll., and of Clifton, to 
M. L. Hill, second d. of the late T. Hill, Esq., 
of Hambrook ; Rev. J. P. Rhoades, M.A., 
Fellow of Wadham Coll., to Philadelphia, only 
d. of the late E. Tull, Esq., of DonningtoDj 
Berks; Rev. R. Appleton, M.A., of Pem- 
broke Coll., to Mary A. E., eldest d. of the 
late Rev. R. Hoblyn, of All Saints', Colchester, 
and St. Laurence, Newlands; Rev. H. S. 
Lloyd, youngest s. of Francis Lloyd, Esq., and 
of Leaton Knolls, Salop, to Elizabeth, eldest d. 
of P. J. Miles, Esq., ]M.P., of Leigh Court, 
Somerset; Rev. R. D. Cartwright, A.M., 
Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of Quebec, to 
Harriet, second d. of C. E. Dobbs, Esq., 
Summer-hill, Dublin; Rev. R. Elridge, of 
Fairford, Gloucestershire, to Jane, eldest d. of 
the late Mr. F. Pettis, Newport, Isle of Wight. 



iKr 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 



BERKSHIRE. 
On Sunday, the 4th Dec, the Rey. W. 
Powley took leave of his congregation at 
St. Mary's chapel, Speenhatnland, on his 
removal from Speen to the perpetual 
curacy of Starcross, near Dawlish, Devon- 
shire. The chapel, on this occasion, vv-as 
crowded to excess, and the feeling excited 
in both preacher and auditors was recipro- 
cal. As a testimonial of their aflfection, 
the parishioners raised a subscription 
amounting to about 80/., which was pre- 
sented to the Rev. gentleman, accom- 
panied with a suitable address, to which 
all the subscribers' names are appended. 

Grove Church, with Parsonage and Endow- 
ment — The hamlet of Grove, in the parish 
of Wantage, containing a population of 
526, had formerly a small chapel attached 
to the Church of England ; but this chapel 
having been long in a state unfit for divine 
service, Grove remained for many years 
destitute of a place of worship according 
to the Established Church. 

In the summer of last year, a plan was 
entered into for building a new church, 
and supplying a residence and endowment 
for a minister. The church is built, and 
was consecrated on the 14th of August 
last, by the Bishop of Salisbury. The 
Parsonage House is nearly completed, and 
the minister is already resident. The old 
chapel has been put into a state of repair, 
and assigned for the use of a parish school. 
A very promising plan is in progress for 
the endowment of the church. A small 
piece of land has been assigned by the 
parish for the endowment of the Clerk's 
office. A very great portion, therefore, 
of this important work has been, by the 
divine blessing, accomplished, and, with 
the addition of about 2501., it is hoped 
that the full completion of it may be 
effected. 

Subscriptions received at the bank of 
Messrs. Walker and Lock, Oxford ; and 
by Messrs. Stephen, Harris, and Stephens, 
and Messrs. Simonds, Reading. 

The Dean and Chapter of Windsor, the 
patrons of the vicarage of Wantage, have 
granted 20/. per annum in aid of the en- 
dowment. The Vicar of Wantage has 
given 10/. per annum for the same pur- 
pose. And the Rev. G. Lillingston, of 
Worcester College, 50/. per annum for 
three years. 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 
There now are in Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, two very remarkable and ra- 
ther voluminous MSS., which formerly 
constituted portions of the late Dr. Parr's 
amazing library. The first is a MS. of St. 
Chrysostom in four folio volumes. They 
have "never yet been used by any edi- 



tor ;" and in a note of Dr. Parr it is fur- 
ther remarked, " That this noble book 
belonged to the late learned Dr. Adam 
Askew, and was given to Dr. Parr by 
Adam Askew, Esq., the much-esteemed 
pupil of Dr. Parr, and the eldest son of 
Dr. Askew." The other MS. is "Upon 
the Immortality of the Soul."^ It occupies 
two volumes. In a note by the Doctor it 
is stated, " This is the work of the im- 
mortal Sir M. Hale, and was never pub- 
lished. It was given to Dr. Parr by his 
sagacious and most highly-respected 
friend, Francis Hargrave, Esq." Dr. Parr 
directed that these MSS. should be sent to 
Emmanuel College.— Morning- Paper. 
CORNWALL. 

Extract from the Cornwall Gazette : — 
"Manors of Penrose, Helston, Helston 
Tony, Helston in Kinier, Carmimow and 
Winnianton, and the estates of the Rev. 
Canon Rogers, in the parishes of Gwen- 
nap, Ludgvan, and the adjoining parishes. 
Notice is hereby given, — That, in conse- 
quence of the increased habits of drinking 
occasioned by the great increase of beer- 
houses, and the want and misery arising 
therefrom, no renewals, either for lives or 
for years, will be granted to any lease- 
holder or tenant on the said manors and 
estates, who, at the time of making an 
application for such renewal, shall keep 
a beer-house under the provisions of Act 
1st, William IV., chap. 64. 

"James Plomer, Steward. 

" Helston, Oct. 31, 1822." 
DEVONSHIRE. 

The Allotment System.— The benefits of 
the allotment system are not confined to 
the estates of Mr. Throckmorton, in the 
parish of Moland, only ; they prevail also 
in the parish of Martinhoe, in this county, 
and in Sampford Brett, in the county of 
Somersetshire, in each of which parishes 
he is the proprietor of by far the greatest 
part of the lands. In the last-mentioned 
parish, where there is not any common or 
waste, a field of excellent land is allotted 
by him in small parcels, to the agricultu- 
ral labourers and mechanics, at the rate of 
40s. an acre. Travellers along the turn- 
pike-road by the side of it may, almost 
any season of the year, form some estimate 
of the comfort thus afforded, by the luxu- 
riant crops produced. But the admirable 
cultivation of the land, and the punctual- 
ity and gratitude with which the small 
rents are paid, afford the most satisfactory 
conviction of the benefits of the system, 
the desire to further and promote which 
occasions this supplement to the just no- 
tice taken in your last number, of the be- 
nevolence of this excellent landlord. — Ex- 
eter and Plymouth Gazette. 



EVENTS OP THE MONTH. 



Ill 



Plymouth. — The election for the vicar- 
age of Charles, vacant by the death of the 
late Dr. Carne, took place at the Guildhall 
in this borough on the 5th December. The 
Mayor and Commonalty are the patrons, 
and it being understood that the election 
would be an open one, as many as sixteen 
candidates declared themselv^es competi- 
tors for the vacant benefice. More than 
half that number complied with the requi- 
sition of the parishioners in vestry, and 
preached probationary sermons in the 
parish church, but eight only sent in the 
testimonials demanded by the Corpora- 
tion, (the rest having previously retired 
from the contest,) and of these, five pro- 
ceeded to the poll : the Rev. S. Courtney, 
minister of Charles chapel ; the Rev. VV. J . 
Birdwood, of Marylebone, London ; the 
Rev. F. Pym, late curate of St. Just, 
Cornwall ; the Rev. S. Rowe, minister of 
St. Paul's, Stonehouse ; and the Rev. R. 
Luney, late curate of Bickleigh. The first 
of these gentlemen w^as the successful 
candidate, and the Mayor immediately on 
the close of the poll having declared Mr. 
Courtney duly elected as Vicar of Charles, 
affixed the common seal to the deed of 
presentation accordingly. So great was 
the interest manifested, that electors were 
brought down from the metropolis to vote 
on the occasion. The new vicar was for- 
merly curate of the parish during the in- 
cumbency of the Rev. Dr. Hawker. 

Plymouth and Stonehouse Trinitarian 
Bible Association. — This association has 
been dissolved, as a local body, but many 
of its members have transferred their sub- 
scriptions to the parent society. 
DORSETSHIRE. 
The chui-ch at Kingston, in the Isle of 
Purbeck, requiring extensive repairs, has, 
with its tower, been entirely pulled 
down, and is now being rebuilt in a most 
substantial manner, and in a beautiful 
style of Gothic architecture, at the sole 
expense of the Earl of Eldon. 

Thursday, Dec. 6th, was observed in 
all the towns in the county of Dorset, in 
compliance with the wish expressed by 
Dr. England, archdeacon of Dorset, as a 
day of praise and thanksgiving to Almigh- 
ty God, for his merciful bounty in dispens- 
ing an abundant harvest, and in assuaging 
in this part of the kingdom the direful pes- 
tilence which has elsewhere raged. In 
Dorchester and other places, all business 
■was suspended, the churcheswere opened, 
and every thing bore the hallowed appear- 
ance of a peaceful sabbath. The attendance 
on divine worship was unprecedentedly 
numerous, and the excellent and appro- 
priate sermons delivered were attentively 
listened to by devout congregations, ofter- 
ing up to the throne of Eternal Grace the 
heart-felt tribute of praise, that He who 
is over all forgets us not in the hour of 
national or individual calamity — Exeter 
X}a:zelte, 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

Gloucester Auxiliary Temperance Society* 
— The first annual meeting of this Society 
was held on Friday the 7th Dec. The 
Bishop of Gloucester presided, and in 
opening the business of the meeting, his 
Lordship delivered an address, in which 
the moral and physical evils of intempe- 
rance, the aptitude of the Society's prin- 
ciples and practice to prevent a succession 
of those evils, and the duty of Christians 
to co-operate in promoting the interests of 
the Society, were clearly and strikingly ex- 
hibited. His Lordship admired the practice 
of entire abstinence from ardent spirits, ex- 
cept for medicinal purposes; he not only 
thought it salutary, but he was of opinion 
that it presented an easy and efficient means 
of exterminating one of the most fertile 
causes of drunkenness ; and in confirmation 
of this opinion, his Lordship alluded to an 
extract from the writings of a great moralist, 
which may be found in Paley's Moral Phi- 
losophy, viz. : " That the easiest, as well 
as the most excellent way of being virtuous, 
was to be entirely so." At the conclusion 
of the meeting, his Lordship also announced 
that he had become the patron of the So- 
ciety, and that he would cheerfully and 
zealously promote its interest by all the 
means in his power. There was also a 
meeting of the Society in the evening, and 
both were most respectably attended. The 
following medical testimony, which was 
signed by almost all the medical gentlemen 
of the city, was read at both meetings : — 
" We, the undersigned, do hereby declare, 
that in our opinion ardent spirits cannot 
be regarded as a necessary, suitable, or 
nourishing article of diet ; that they have 
not the property of preventing the acces- 
sion of any complaints ; but may be consi- 
dered as the fruitful source of numerous 
and formidable diseases, and the principal 
cause of the poverty, crime, and misery, 
which abound in this country ; and that the 
entire disuse of them, except under medical 
direction, would materially tend to improve 
the health, amend the morals, and augment 
the comfort of the community." 
HAMPSHIRE. 
At St. Paul's vestry room, Southsea, by 
aid of subscription (to-day being the Sa- 
turday before Christmas day), ir30 of the 
poor of the district were supplied with 
clothing, each person paying a small por- 
tion of the value of the article received.— 
Hampshire Telegraph. 

HEREFORDSHIRE. 
London HiberJiian Society. — A meeting 
was held on behalf of this society, on Friday 
the 14th Dec, in the chancel of St. Peter's 
Church, in Hereford. In the absence of the 
Vicar the chair was taken by the Rev. W, 
A. Evanson, Vicar of Blewbury, Berks, 
who, with Captain Banks, R.N., secretary 
of the society, detailed its object and ope- 
ration. Sermons were also preached by 



112 



EV^EXTS OF THE MONTH. 



Mr. Evanson on Sunday, in the morning, 
at Leominster church, and in the evening 
at St. Peter's, Hereford. The collections 
at the several places were as follow, viz. : 
Collected at the meeting, 8/. I'is. IJrf. ; at 
Leominster church, 7Z. 15s. ; and at St. 
Peter's church, 11/. lis. 6d. : total, '^71. 
18s. 7^d. The society had last year 1,569 
schools in various parts of Ireland, con- 
taining 90,058 pupils, of whom a large pro- 
portion are Roman Catholics. Scripture 
reading is the predominent and almost sole 
object of instruction in those schools. 

The ample and annual donations of food 
and clothing, given by John Higford, Esq. 
to the cottagers on his extensive property 
at Abbey Dore, was distributed on the 
24th Dec. to the great comfort of the ob- 
jects of his beneficence. 

The Rev. Benjamin Lawrence, of Glou- 
cester Place, New Road, Marylebone, a 
jiative of the county of Brecon, has pre- 
sented the handsome donation of 50/. to the 
building committee of the infirmary now 
erecting at Brecknock. 

The prisoners in our county gaol return 
their humble and grateful thanks to the Rev. 
Edmund Eckley , of Tillington Court, for his 
kind annual donation of beef for their Christ- 
mas dinner. And also beg to return their 
sincere thanks to the Lord Bishop of Here- 
ford for his Lordship's donation of two 
guineas. — Hereford Journal. 

HERTS. 

St. Alban's Abbey. — Since we formerly 
called attention to the dilapidated state of 
St. Alban's Abbey, some temporary repairs 
have been effected, which remove all im- 
mediate cause of apprehension of the secu- 
rity of that portion of the building which 
had been in the most ruinous condition. 
The portion alluded to formed a part of the 
nave of the church, which fell down in 
February last, and excited fears, which 
have happily turned out to be unfounded, 
for the stability of the whole edifice. Sub- 
sequently to this fall, it was ascertained 
that the roof of the nave, west of the part 
where the accident happened, was in a 
very dangerous state. The repairs of the 
part which had actually fallen were accom- 
plished at an expense under 350/. The 
estimate for the repairs of so mucli of the 
roof of the nave as is in a dangerous state, 
is under 750/. ; and this estimate having 
been approved of at a meeting of the sub- 
scribers, the repairs are now in progress. 

It is gratifying to learn that the restora- 
tion of this ancient and superb temple — 
associated as it is with the earliest and 
most spirit-stirring recollections of our his- 
tory — is not only practicable, but deter- 
mined upon. At the public meeting held 
in London last summer, it was stated that 
such restoration could not be effected at a 
sum less than 15,000/. Since then, a minute 
survey, at the request of the subscribers, 
has been made by Mr. Cottingham, the 



learned and able restorer of Rochester 
cathedral, and St. Magdalen's chapel, Ox- 
ford. He reported, on the 1st of Nov., that 
the foundation walls and main arches of 
the church were in such a substantial state 
as to last for centuries, with a very trifling 
repair ; but that the roofs of the north and 
south transepts, and the east end of the 
nave, were extremely insecure, the ends 
of many of the main timbers being so rotten 
as to lose their geometrical bond and de- 
pendence on the walls ; the great window 
of the south transept, and several of the 
minor windows, were also reported to be 
in a ruinous state. He estimated the ex- 
pense of putting the whole fabric into a 
complete substantial state of repair at 
5,700/., or scarcely more than one-third of 
the sum at which it was previously esti- 
mated. 

About 2,000/. of this sum has been sub- 
scribed, still leaving 3,700/. to be collected. 
A meeting was announced to be held at the 
Thatched House, with the view of giving 
information on the actual state of this inte- 
resting and hallowed edifice, and of soli- 
citing the public support in completing the 
sum necessary for its restoration ; but it 
has been postponed in consequence of the 
dissolution of Parliament and the elections, 
which has occasioned the departure from 
town of many persons of rank and influence 
who take a deep interest in the measures 
in progress for the preservation of this 
august and magnificent pile of our ancient 
sacred architecture. 

It may be stated, as an interesting fact, 
that Mr. Cottingham, in making the re- 
pairs of the nave, opened twenty windows 
in that part of the building, which had 
been rudely closed with common brick- 
work, probably since the days of Crom- 
well. The flood of light thrown into the 
church by this restoration has an eflFect 
indescribably beautiful — Old England. 

KENT. 
Gondhurst Blanket Club. — A very use- 
ful, though unpretending Society exists 
at Goudhurst under this name, which has 
been the means of doing much good. The 
terms of admittance consist in the pay- 
ment of a subscription of Id. per week, 
which entitles any poor person to become a 
member, and also a penny a year towards 
the expense of management. At the end 
of the year the members receive either a 
blanket or some flannel, some calico or 
stockings, according to the amount of the 
subscription, to which as much is added 
from the general stock of the Society as 
the state of the funds will allow. This 
club has been in existence 7 years, during 
the last 4 of which there have been ii30 
subscribers. The whole number of blankets 
distributed is upwards of twelve hundred, 
together with a great quantity of flannel, 
calico, and stockings. The funds of the 
Society are aided by donations, and there 



Events of the month. 



115 



is not a respectable person in the parish 
whose workmen, dependents, or con- 
nexions, have not been materially benefited 
by it. A plan of this description is well 
worthy the attention of those whose means 
of doing good are notequal to their wishes. 

Since 1822 the dean and canons of Can- 
terbury have expended upwards of 29,000Z. 
on the repairs and decorations of the cathe- 
dral. That sum is exclusive of the expense 
of rebuilding the Arundel Tower, which 
has already cost 22,000/. and will cost 
5,0O0Z. more. 

The following reply was lately returned 
by his Grace the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury to an address of the Clergy : — 

•' Mr. Archdeacon and Gentlemen of the 
Clergy 1 have deiived the highest satis- 
faction from receiving your address, to 
which, as speaking the sense of a nume- 
rous and most respectable body of the 
clergy, on matters of vital concern to the 
church, I attach a more than ordinary im- 
portance. 

" Your expressions of respect and kind- 
ness towards me demand my grateful 
acknowledgments ; and I accept, with 
peculiar pleasure, your assurances of con- 
fidence in my judgment, recollecting how 
short a time has elapsed since you heard 
from myself a public declaration of my 
sentiments in regard to the principal ob- 
jects which engage our attention at the 
present crisis. But, far beyond the grati- 
fication of any personal feeling, is the 
satisfaction I derive from your disposition 
to confide in the heads of the church, and 
to co-operate with them in any practicable 
measures of improvement which may be 
suggested by the results of inquiry, and 
which, on due consideration, shall appear 
to be safe and eifectual. 

" That this determination on your part 
will be met by a corresponding disposition 
on ours to consult the wishes of the paro- 
chial clergy, and defer to their practical 
experience, you cannot doubt. To cordial 
union, and concurrent exertion, in humble 
reliance on the divine blessing, we must 
look for the means of averting the evils 
which threaten the church. 

" Distrust, dissensions, and jealousies 
will impair our power of defence, and may 
eventually cause our ruin. It is only by 
divesting our minds of passion and preju- 
dice, and directing all our endeavours, 
without regard to popular clamour on the 
one hand, or private interest%on the other, 
to the common good, that we can hope to 
succeed in repairing the decays, removing 
the blemishes, and increasing the efficiency 
of our venerable establishment, without 
endangering its stability. These objects 
have been constantly in my view since the 
affairs of the church were placed under 
my more immediate charge, by my ad- 
vancement to the metropolitan see. Inex- 
cusable, indeed, should I be, were I now 
to shrink from my duty, more especially 

Vol. III.— /aw. 1833. 



when the course which I have taken is 
sanctioned by your approbation ; when I 
am encouraged to proceed by your expres- 
sions of sympathy, and offers of assistance ; 
and when I am assured of the benefit of 
your prayers." 

LINCOLNSHIRE. 

The Hon. Mrs. O'Brien, of Blather- 
wycke, has adopted a plan with reference 
to the poor of that parivsh, by which each 
person is encouraged to deposit a certain 
sum weekly with her, or her agent, which 
remains so deposited for a given time, — 
say six, nine, or twelve months ; at the 
expiration of which time, the sum accumu- 
lated is made double its amount, by the 
liberality of Mrs. O'Brien. An order is 
then given to each subscriber to repair to a 
suitable shop in the neighbourhood for 
clothing at the exact cost price, the regular 
profits of the articles (in addition to the 
above) being charged to the account of 
Mrs. O'Brien. — Lincoln Mercury. 

Stamford.— We regret to state that that 
beautiful relic of ancient grandeur, St. 
Leonard's Priory, fell down on Wednesday 
the 5th instant. This has long been consi- 
dered as one of the finest specimens extant 
in the kingdom of Saxon architecture. 

One of the most valuable pieces of pre- 
ferment in England, connected with public 
education, js now in the gift of the Mayor 
of Stamford. By the death of the Rev. R. 
Atlay, who had been for more than half-a- 
century the Head-Master of the Grammar- 
School of the town, that important office 
is vacant ; the income of the master (from 
real estates) has for some time exceeded 
600/. a-year, and will be further consider- 
ably increased as leases expire. The 
town, and the whole country, have an 
incalculable interest in the exercise of this 
high patronage ; and it is a matter of great 
gratification to all who know tlie present 
independent and honourable Mayor, that 
the vacancy should have occurred when it 
is in his power to appoint a proper succes- 
sor to the office. The school was founded 
by Alderman Radcliffe, who in 14o0 gave 
lands and tenements in Stamford for its 
perpetual maintenance ; and it is the sub- 
ject of an Act of Parliament, Edward VI. 
(1548). — Stamford Mercury. 

MIDDLESEX. 
Juvenile Crime.— On Thursday the 29th 
Nov., at a meeting of the Magistrates, for 
the county of Middlesex, the Grand Jury 
made their presentment for the present 
session. The following are the topics to 
which they more especially direct the 
attention of the Legislature : — " 1. The 
insignificant character of the crime com- 
mitted. 2. The very juvenile age of the 
culprit. 3. The carelessness with which 
tradesmen expose their goods. 4. The 
recklessness with which indictments are 
preferred and followed up by both rich 
and poor. With reference to the second 

Q 



iH 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 



consideration, which was the most impor- 
tant of all, is the extreme youth of the 
culprits, most of whom are reported to us 
to be about 14 years of age, many as young 
as 12, and some few not more than 10. 
Whatever may be the cause of such youth- 
ful depravity, and whether susceptible of 
remedy or not, of this the Jury feel agreed, 
that the baneful effect of commitment may 
be diminished, whereby the innocent may 
be saved from guilt, and the guilty from 
becoming worse, which is not the case at 
present, seeing that the accused, whether 
innocent or guilty, are immediately so 
placed that they must become bad, whether 
from being made to herd together free 
from restraint, or from the contamination 
resulting from the company of their seniors 
both in age and crime. Nor is this the 
whole evil, for monstrous as it is, both in 
theory and practice, the innocent are, by 
the present system, treated for a time 
precisely as criminals, an outrage wholly 
at variance with the principles of our free 
Constitution, as well as repugnant to the 
spirit of the English law. And the Jury are 
strongly impressed with the belief, nay 
conviction, that for all juvenile delinquen- 
cies, except those of a very atrocious 
character, a common prison and the bar of 
the Old Bailey are the worst possible 
remedies — the former as affording no good 
example whatever, and the latter that 
terrible example only, which kills while it 
professes to cure ; for it is but too well 
known, that he who has once made his 
appearance at that tribunal, be he old or 

{roung, must afterwards be considered as a 
ost man." 

The Agricultural Employment Institution 
is daily receiving renewed support. The 
patronage of the Dukes of Cumberland, 
Sussex, and Gloucester, with the powerful 
assistance of the noble Vice-President, 
leaves no doubt of its entire success. The 
Lords Grosvenor, Dover, Salisbury, and 
other noble and influential persons, have 
recently connected themselves with the 
government of the society. 

Sunday morning, Nov. 25, the Bishop of 
London preached to a numerous and re- 
spectable congregation, at the parish church 
of St. Sepulchre's, Snow-hill, on behalf of 
the Boys' Parochial School, in which 51 
p>oor boys are instructed and clothed. The 
Ri^ht Rev. Prelate took his text from 
Isaiah, chap. liv. v. 13; and enforced, 
with much earnestness, the importance and 
necessity of educating the children of the 
poor in the principles of the Christian 
religion. He said that no less than 900,000 
children were educated in the National 
Schools, at a very small expense, in addi- 
tion to those who received an education 
lind were clothed in the Parochial Schools, 
which he hoped to see incorporated with 
the National Schools. Much, however, 
remained to be done, for there were not 
Um thw> 100,000 children, between the 



ages of six and sixteen years, in that great 
metropolis alone, without the means of 
education. Of these, 2000 were let out to 
beggars, for the purpose of imposing on the 
benevolent. He hoped the time was not 
far distant when there would be a National 
School in every parish, for the education 
of the children of the poor, founded on the 
Gospels. He regretted that many of the 
higher and middle classes did not give 
their sons and daughters a religious educa- 
tion. An education not founded on the 
Holy Scriptures and on the divine truths 
of the Christian religion was of little use. 
He made an earnest appeal on behalf of 
the charity, and trusted the merchants and 
traders of London would zealously co- 
operate in diffusing religious education 
among the lower classes. A liberal collec- 
tion was made after the sermon. 

A meeting of the Association for the 
Relief of the Poor of the City of London 
and parts adjacent, was held on Wednesday 
evening, Dec. 5, at the London Coffee- 
House, Ludgate-Hill. The Rev. Isaac 
Sanders, A.M., the Vice-President, having 
taken the chair, Mr. Phipps read the 
report, which stated, that since the com- 
mencement of the association, the objects 
of its regard, to receive coals and potatoes 
at a reduced price, had progressively in- 
creased, and their applications had been 
more numerous and urgent. From the 12th 
of December last to the end of March 
upwards of 6000 families, consisting of 
between 30,000 and 40,000 individuals, had 
benefited by the association. But for the 
timely assistance which this association 
had afforded to the labouring population 
(the report continued), thousands must 
nave perished who were unable from want 
of employment to provide themselves witji 
fuel and food. 

The first English charity school was 
opened in W^estminster, in 1698, as an 
antidote to the Jesuits' " Charity Grammar 
Schools" in the Savoy. Two other Schools, 
St. Botolph's, Aldgate, and Norton Fal- 
gate, were established at about the same 
time. 

St. PuuVs Schml On Tuesday, Dec. 18, 

the young gentlemen educating at the 
above school gave their winter course of 
public orations in the presence of several 
distinguished members of the church, and 
numerous eminent gentlemen connected 
with the learned institutions of the metro- 
polis. Amongst those present we observed 
the Rev. Mr. Tate, of Richmond ; Rev. 
Mr. Peacock, of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge ; Mr. Mirabone( a Danish gentleman, 
sent by the King of Denmarik, for the 
purpose of enquiring into the nature of the 
scholastic institutions and system of edu- 
cation in this country); Mr. Petti grew ; 
Mr. Ellis, of the Merchant Tailors' School ; 
Mr. Carlisle, of the Antiquarian Society ; 
Mr. Kempe, &c. The visitors were re- 
ceived by the H^ad Master and Junior 



BvB>fTS OP THE MONTH. 



IIJ 



Masters ; and about half-past one o'clock 
the declamations commenced, and were 
delivered in the following order by the 
young gentlemen whose names are pre- 
fixed, viz.: — 

Master Ebsworth fAbdicit se DfctRtum Augusta GsesRr 
} Absit Privatus ut altum. 

Knox ... I Dormiat Augustus Caesar. 

Tatlow .. Olynth il Demosthenes. 

Kempe .. f Mirhael f 

Roberts .. ^Adam C Milton. 

Jowett .. CEve 3 

Brodrick Titus Manlius.... Livy. 

:: Sorth1Ltur!.::::::::}-^-hy^-- 

., Kay Mater Euryals.... Virgil 

Coke .... Prometheus .lEschylus. 

Pollock.. Sat. X Juvenal. 

Eddis .... Attendant Spirit.. Milton'sComuS. 

Hawkins / Menippus \ f „„;„„ 

.. Finch ....{Philonldes ) Lucian. 

Each young gentleman acquitted himself 
in a style of excellence as regarded cor- 
rectness of diction, freeness of delivery, 
and propriety of action, which does great 
credit to their able preceptors, and their 
own industry and talents. It would be 
almost invidious to mention by name those 
whom we considered to be most proficient^ 
where all were so good, but we cannot 
refrain from saying that the declamation 
of Masters Ebsworth, Roberts, and Eddis 
(the latter quite young), met with deserved 
marks of approbation from their friends and 
the numerous visitors. The whole termi- 
nated before three o'clock. — Morning Pa'per. 

The East India Company has given 500/. 
towards the erection of a church at the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

The following is a general bill of the 
Christenings and Burials within the City 
of London and Bills of Mortality, from 
Dec. 11, 1831, to Dec. 11, 1832. 

Christened. Buried. 

In the 97 parishes within 

the walls 926 1,293 

In the 17 parishes without 

the walls 4,492 5,441 

In the 24 out-parishes in 
Middlesex and Surrey, and 
at the additional churches 
belonging to the same ... 17,724 17,310 

In the 10 parishes in the 
eity and liberties of West- 
minster 3,832 4,562 

Of the number buried were — 

Stillborn 912 

Under 2 years 5,443 

2 and under 5 years 2,678 
5 ... 10 ... 1,270 

10 ... 20 ... 1,113 

20 ... 30 ... 2,215 

30 ... 40 ... 2,749 

40 ... 50 ... 3,086 

bO ... 60 ... 3,041 

60 ... 70 ... 2,949 

70 ... 80 ... 2,194 

80 ... 90 ... 848 

90 ... 100 ... 105 

100 1 

103 1 

108 1 

Increase in the burials reported this 
year, 3269. 



NORFOLK. 

Savings Bank.— The annual meeting foi- 
auditing the accounts of the Lynn Savings 
Bank was held on Monday, 3rd Dec. 
From the general statement it appears, 
that the number of accounts is 927 , the sums 
deposited amounting to 26,820/. 3s. lljd. 
Interest added to the several accounts, 
841/. I7s. 7id. ; making a total due to depo- 
sitors on the 20th Nov. last, of 27,662^. 
Is. 7d. Upwards of 500 of these accounts 
are under 20/., and 249 of them under 50/. 
The advantages derived from these esta- 
blishments are evinced by the formation 
and encouragement of habits of sobriety, 
industry, and economy. 

NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. 

On Sunday, Dec. 8th, the sum of 
21. IBs. 6d. was collected in the parish of 
Charlwelton (after a sermon preached in 
pursuance of the King's letter), for the 
benefit of the National School Society. 

On Monday, Dec. 3rd, the Rev. W. 
Wales was elected by a large majority to 
the Vicarage of All Saints, Northampton. 
There were fifteen other candidates. 

OXFORDSHIRE. 

Oxford A Committee has been formed 

in this University for the purpose of co- 
operating with the London IVIeeting, for 
the expression of respect to the memory of 
Sir Walter Scott, and for perpetuating in 
the line of the Baronet's descendants the 
mansion of Abbotsford, its library, and rare 
antiquarian collections. 

SURREY. 

The rector of Sutton last year let to 20 
labourers one quarter of an acre of good 
land, at the rent of lOs., free of all charges, 
requiring exact payment of 2s. 6d. quar- 
terly. The average produce of this first 
year, as returned to him by each occupier, 
is 31. lis. 5d., so that in addition to the 
great comfort of having gardens to go to for 
vegetables for their families, they have no 
inconsiderable profit to enable them to 
obtain other little comforts, with the pros- 
pect of deriving still greater advantage in 
future by the improved cultivation of their 
land. 

SUSSEX. 

It is said that a new church is about to 
be erected without the North-gate, in the 
parish of Subdeanry, Chichester, it being by 
far the largest parish in that city, and at 
present without a church. It is supposed 
that the building will be commenced in 
March next. Subscriptions to a consider- 
able amount have been already collected. 

Agricultural Labourers. — Mr. Baron Gur- 
ney, in charging the grand jury at Lewes, 
On the 24th Dec. , observed that the increase 
of crime was alarming, and bethought it 
was owing to the ignorance of the people 
and want of employment. Youth ought to 
be instructed J but education, and even 



]16 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 



religious instruction, would be found com- 
paratively useless, if they were afterwards 
left in a state of idleness — unless employ- 
ment were found, and a fair remuneration 
for labour given to them. He meant by this 
a sufficient reward to the labourer without 
taking his wages out of the poor rates : not 
by giving large sums to a man because he 
had a large family, whilst small wages were 
given to a single man. The latter ought 
to be fairly remunerated, that he might lay 
something by against the time when he 
should marry, to enable him to furnish his 
cottage comfortably, and to bring up his 
family decently, without becoming a pau- 
per. If the farmers and others did not 
enable him to do this, he became of course 
a pauper. He believed that by the illegal 
custom of paying labourers partly by wages 
and partly by poor rates, the farmer was, 
even in a pecuniary point of view, a loser ; 
but what was much more to be lamented, 
this practice destroyed all sympathy be- 
tween the labourers and their employers. 
He earnestly recommended to the nobility, 
gentry, magistrates, and farmers, to endea- 
vour to arouse in the breasts of the labourers 
a spirit of independence. Let those who 
possess property and influence assist ; let 
the weil-disposed of all classes endeavour 
to support the laws, suppress wickedness 
and crime, find employment for the indus- 
trious, and this country would again be- 
come happy and prosperous. 

[It is much to be lamented that persons 
of nigh station and character should men- 
tion evils without suggesting any practical 
remedy ; and they lead the poor to think 
that the magistrates can do what is far be- 
yond their power.] 

WARWICKSHIRE. 
Educatio7i and Reform of Juvenile Of- 
fenders. — The fourteenth Report of the 
Warwick County Asylum, for the above 
benevolent object, states that 80 youths, 
some stained with crimes of the deepest 
die, and on whom sentence of death had 
been passed at the bar, have, by the 
Divine blessing on this institution, been 
reclaimed from their downhill path of 
guilt, and are now living in confidential 
situations, and discharging important 
duties in society ; and be it recorded to 
their credit, that many of them occasion- 
ally visit the Asylum to express their 
gratitude, in having been rescued from the 
perils of their friendless and exposed con- 
dition, and trained up, not only in habits 
of industry, but to know their God, their 
Saviour, and their duties to man. 

YORKSHIRE. 
At the twenty-ninth half-yearly meeting 
of the Trustees and Directors of the Leeds 
Savings' Bank, held on the 19th Dec, it 
was ascertained by the accounts produced 
by the Secretary, that, since the com- 
mencement of that valuable institution, 
8175 persons have paid into the bank the 
sum of 359,559/. lis. lid., and have, as 



their occasions required, withdrawn the 
sum of 23,238/. lOs. Id. The interest 
money withdrawn bears a very small pro- 
portion to the interest accumulated ; and, 
including such accumulation, there re- 
mains the sum of 145,602/. 12s. lid. at the 
disposal of the present depositors, being 
an increase of 1260/. Os. lid. since May. — 
Leeds Intelligencer. 

The Rev. Matthew Johnson, of "Leeds. — 
A correspondent at Keighley informs us, 
that when this Rev. Divine lately made 
his appearance to preach at that place, his 
congregation nearly deserted him for his 
conduct at the Leeds Workhouse Board, 
on the subject of the Anatomy Bill ; the 
Keighley people thinking his preaching 
and his practice did not harmonize toge- 
ther.— Leeds Patriot. 

General Thanksgiving Day — In compli- 
ance with the recommendation of the Board 
of Health, and the injunction of the Mayor, 
Wednesday, Dec. 5, was observed in Leeds 
as a day of solemn Thanksgiving to Al- 
mighty God for his merciful interposition 
in checking the ravages of the fatal disease 
by which this town has lately been visited. 
Nearly all the shops and mills in the town 
were closed, and divine service was per- 
formed in most of the churches and 
chapels. 

Church of England Missionary Association, 
— An Association has been formed in the 
parish of Rawmarsh, near Rotherham, 
Yorkshire ; called the Rawmarsh Church 
of England Missionary Association, as an 
Auxiliary to the Incorporated Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, and to the Church Missionary So- 
ciety for Africa and the East. Meetings 
for its formation were held in the school- 
room of the parish on Tuesday, 11th Dec, 
when the chair was taken by the rector, 
the Rev. John James. In the morning, 
letters were read informing the meeting, 
that Lord Viscount Milton, Lord Viscount 
Galway, and William Wilberfbrce, Esq., 
had consented to become Patrons of the 
Association. The Rector of the Parish 
was appointed President, and the following 
clergymen and other gentlemen were ap- 
pointed Vice-Presidents: — viz.. Rev. J. 
Lowe, Prebendary of York ; Rev. Dr. 
Milner; R. Hodc;son, Esq. ; H. Walker, 
Esq. ; Rev. J. Blackburn ; Rev. R. Wil- 
berforce ; H. J. Firth, Esq. ; Rev. G. 
Rolleston ; C. D. Faber, Esq. ; Rev. J. 
A. Stephenson ; Rev. E. S. Townsend ; 
W. NewTnan, Esq. ; T. Walker, Esq. 

The Rev. W. Ellis accepted the office of 
Treasurer, and Rev. George Greaves, Cu- 
rate of the parish, that of Secretary. 

The meetings were numerously attended 
by the parishioners, and the collections 
amounted to 11/. 10«. 3d. 

Thursday, Dec. 6, was very generally 
observed at High apd Low Harrogate with 
great solemnity, as a day of Thanksgiving 
to Almighty God for our entire preserva- 
tion from the cholera. — Leedt Intell. 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 



117 



WALES. 

Sunday evening, 2nd inst., Chepstow 
Church was, for the first time, lighted with 
gas. 

Monday, the 26th inst., the foundation 
stone of a new building for a parish school 
at St. David's, Brecon, was laid by Lloyd 
Vaughau Watkins, I^sq., of Pemoyre, who 
delivered an excellent address on the occa- 
sion. A school has been for some time held 
in the church, and many of the respectable 
inhabitants have kindly rendered their as- 
sistance as teachers. 

Dec. 24.— In consequence of the defalca- 
tions of the late clerk to the Carmarthen 
Savings' Bank, Lord Dynevor, with a niu- 
nificence worthy of record, has paid in full 
all deficiencies of those depositors of their 
hard earnings under 10/. 

SCOTLAND. 
Presbytery of Ayr. — It was proposed, 
seconded, and unanimously agreed to by the 
Presbytery of Ayr, that the last Sabbath 
of the year be observed in all the parish 
churches within the bounds of the Presby- 
tery, as a day of thanksgiving to Almighty 
God for his goodness in blessing us with 
an abundant harvest, and in removing from 
this district of the country the pestilence 
with which it has lately been visited ; and 
that intimation of this be given from the 
respective pulpits on the Sabbath imme- 
diately preceding — Scottish Guardian. 

Glasgow Bible .Society — The Anniversary 
Meeting of this Society took place on the 
16th Dec, Mr. Henry Paul was called to 
preside, and the proceedings were opened 
with prayer by the Rev. Dr. Symington, of 
Paisley. After a few words from the chair- 
man, the Rev. Dr. Willis read the report, 
which stated the issue of Bibles at 3,275, 
and of Testaments 2,725, for the past year 
among the poor ; but laments the defici- 
ency in the funds. 

Edinburgh University.— Vie are glad to 
find that this winter the students attending 
the University are likely to be more nu- 
merous than for many years preceding. 
During the few days that the album of the 
College has been open for the insertion of 
names, upwards of 500 students have en- 
tered, and most of the classes seem crowded 
with auditors. We have heard that an 
absurd report has gained ground in the 
South, and been industriously circulated in 
London, that, in consequence of the pre- 
valence of cholera, the Edinburgh Univer- 
sity would not be opened this Session. 
The fact is, that no town or hamlet in 
Great Britain is less to be feared on ac- 
count of this disease than Edinburgh. In 
proportion to its great population, it has 
suffered less than almost any other place ; 
and from the nature of the city, divided so 
completely into an old and new town, the 
different classes of society can be more 
completely kept apart from each other than 
is at all practicable in more mixed cities. 
Happily, too, even solitary cases of cholera 



seem now to be on the rap d decrease. 
Caledonian Mercury. 



IRELAND. 
Libel on the Church.— In the Irish Court 
of King's Bench, on Friday, 7th Dec, 
Messrs. Brown and Sheehan, publishers of 
the Comet newspaper, were found guilty of 
"contriving to bring into public scandal, 
infamy, aud contempt, the ministers in Ire- 
land of the United Church of England and 
Ireland, and to excite in the minds of his 
Majesty's subjects in Ireland feelings of 
hostility towards and against such minis- 
ters, and to expose such ministers to per- 
sonal violence and outrage, and to cause it 
to be believed that such ministers were 
guilty of oppression, cruelty, hypocrisy, and 
extortion, and had instigated and promoted 
the shedding of human blood." The libel 
was published on the 28th of April last. 

Destruction of Loughrea Church by Light- 
ning During the violent thunder storm 

with which the above town was visited on 
Sunday morning, the entire of the new and 
handsome church was completely demo- 
lished, about the hour of ten o'clock, a.m. 
The lightning first struck upon the spire, 
which it instantly destroyed, and in its fall 
upon the roof of the edifice, reduced the 
entire building to the ground. Had this 
awful event occurred a few hours later, 
during the performance of Divine worship, 
we should have a still more melancholy 
duty to discharge — -Galway Paper, 

The census of the members of the Esta- 
blished Church resident in Belfast, is 
nearly complete. The number ascertained 
amounts to nearly 14,(X)0, exclusive of Bal- 
lymacarnett, which is now part of this 
borough . 

Murder of a Protestant Clergyman. — 
The Rev. Charles Ferguson, rector of Ti- 
moleague, was assassinated on the^ road 
between that place and Bandow, on Satur- 
day morning, Dec. 15. He had been driv- 
ing in a gig with Mr. Swete (who escaped 
to tell the melancholy story), when he ob- 
served a crowd of people approaching. 
He fled, and took refuge in a house, where 
the atrocious deed was effected. 

Attack on a Protestant Clergyman. — Sun- 
day evening, as the Rev. Charles Caulfield 
was on his return from Kilcooly Church, 
he was met by five ruffians close to the de- 
mesne of Woodsgift, the seat of his father- 
in-law, Sir R. St. George, Bart., one of 
whom knocked Mr. Caulfield off his horse 
by the blow of a stone, or some other mis- 
sile. While down the rufiians searched 
all his pockets, in the expectation of find- 
ing fire-arms ; but not procuring any they 
went away. Mr. Caulfield is suffering con- 
siderably from the effects of the savage 
treatment which he received. The only 
thing remarkable is, that these monsters 
did not deprive this unoffending gentleman 
of life, as it is now so much the course to 
butcher the Clergy of the Established 
Church. — Kilkenny Moderator, 



118 
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— Monday, December 24. 

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1830. 


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. - in bags - 


0...0 


0...0 


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Inferior Sheep. 
Calves 



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LIVE CATTLE AT MARJKET. 

Beasts, 1,023 1 Sheep, 7,580 | C«ives, g6 1^Pig«v*«>. 



«. d. s. d. 

2 2 a 2 6 

3 a 4 8 
3 4 ad 



120 
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



Exact Copy of a Letter received Dec. &th. 

*' Of course poor Archdeacon Hodson (see page 403) must be disparaged ; reputed to be an 
Evangelical, I wish our Church had many such laborious clergymen. And then in the 
same page we have Hook of Coventry — a dry Vol. with a shew oi learning, the stile most 
laboured, affected, and complex ; but he is not an Evangelical. Can any one doubt which 
Vol. is calculated, under the Divine blessing, to be the most useful? Prejudice is a sad 
thing ! But this sort of thing runs through the British JMagazine." 

The Editor has to apologize to Archdeacon Hodson for the annoyance which he fears will 
be caused to him by such a letter as this, not merely so discreditable to the writer in style, 
but so unlike, in spirit and temper, what Archdeacon H. would approve. But it is mentioned 
because two or three attacks of the same kind have been made on the Editor, with exactly the 
same injustice. Instead of any attempt to disparage Archdeacon H., much, though not too 
much, praise is bestowed on his work. No allusion whatever is made to any doctrine in the 
Sermons; but it is merely observed that in one sermon a particular doctrine is not explained 
-at all, though the sermon is called an explanation of it. In another case, the Editor was 
accused of shameful party feelings simply because it was observed that Mr. Bulteel (a person 
disclaimed, as at least the Editor believes, by every party) was almost forgotten. What can 
possibly be done with persons who indulge such feelings as these ? The Editor stated, with 
'the greatest sincerity, in his opening address, that he earnestly wished to avoid every topic 
which could excite disunion, and he puts it to the candid of all parties to say whether this 

E ledge has not been redeemed. He can most seriously and earnestly repeat it, and say that 
e has nothing more at heai't than, as far as his little powers extend, to promote union 
between those who differ. To the candid of all parties, who may see any use in this 
JMagazine, the Editor makes his appeal again for protection against such a spirit as this. To 
Mr. Hook no apology is necessary. No man can be annoyed, far less injured, by the criticism 
of such a person as the letter- writer. Indeed the Editor rejoices to have tins opportunity 
of expressing his increased value for INIr. Hook's work in proportion as he has become better 
acquainted with its ability, learning, and piety. 

Will "Clericus" ascertain the facts about the tracts mentioned in the Evangelical 
Magazine ? The Editor has had no time. Indeed the great use of this Magazine would be 
that individuals should themselves obtain and communicate information through it. For 
one person cannot, however anxious, attend to all the circumstances of daily interest. 

" C. J." is informed that affixing the prices would make each article liable to stamp duty. 

An " Unbeneficed Clergyman" is requested to examine the Clergy Assurance Society, and 
see whether it would not answer his purpose. If not, his letter shall be printed. 

" Rusticus" is begged to send some papers on Church Rates, which will gladly be inserted. 

The Editor begs to recommend to his readers an article on Church Reform in the new 
Number of the Quarterly. It is a source of sincere pleasure to him to find the same views 
which this Magazine has advocated, advocated with so much power and earnestness in a 
publication of such immense circulation and high character as the Quarterly. 

This month contains an account of a plan for Tithe Commutation in the parish of Stoke- 
upon-Trent. The Editor saw the other day in a new topographical work a statement 
that the late Rector of that parish, the Dean of Lichfield, had given ^3000 to build a church 
there. On inouiry, it appears that this is a very small part or his great munificence to the 
parish. Could any one from Stoke supply the exact particulars ? 

The Editor begs to observe that, as the type is enlarged in the Correspondence, this of 
course cuts short the quantity which can be given, a circumstance which he views with 
regret. All that can be given, shall. He would only request correspondents to be as brief as 
they can, not indeed suppressing either facts or arguments, but just taking the trouble to go 
over their MS. once, and strike out superfluous words and phrases which only repeat what has 
been said before. It may be mentioned here that of course the letters of persons giving their 
names always have precedence o\er others. 

*' A Country Rector" will find that every one of his suggestions have been anticipated by at 

least five or six Church Reformers. "A Middlesex Vicar's" plan of Reform is deferred 

unavoidably till the next number. "A Member of the Church of England's" letter about 

Latin and Greek shall be attended to in future numbers. " Canonicus" is thanked for his 

very sensible letter, and reference to the 72nd canon respecting private appointments of 
faste, &c. " W. D. V's" paper is received. 

The Editor will be very thankful indeed to T. S. of Coventry, for communications like that 
which he has now made. Of course unpublished matter is most desirable. 

The gentleman who sends an article desiring that it may be read and returned if not used, 
in a few days, is informed that this is not just to himself or the Editor. More time must 
really be allowed in such cases. 

Has not the Editor once had the advantage of a letter from " L. M."," without any English 
name or initials at all ? 

"T. U., Jun.," "H.," "A Country Inquirer," and «C. J.," are actually in t\'pe, but 
deferred for want of room. "A Churchman," *' H. X," "A Village Curate,'' in the next. 



THE 



BRITISH MAGAZINE. 



FEBRUARY 1, 1833. 



ORIGINAL PAPERS. 



THE 

CHURCH ORIGINALLY FOUNDED AND ENDOWED IN ENGLAND 
PROTESTANT AND NOT POPISH. 

When it is claimed in behalf of the church, that her property- 
should be respected out of regard to the pious persons from whom 
it came, and that no alteration in the administration of it should 
be made contrary to their wishes and intentions, an attempt is 
usually made to set that claim aside by saying, that, whatever 
weight it might have had before the Reformation, was then done 
away; for that the change which took place then, when the 
Popish Church of England became Protestant, and the ecclesias- 
tical property was transferred from the adherents of the former 
faith to the professors of the latter, was in itself contrary to the 
intentions of the founders of the churches; that, consequently, 
as it is only by violation of these intentions that the present 
occupiers have become possessed of it, a regard to the will of the 
founders would tell against rather than for them ; and that as 
they, by holding the property, admit the right of the state to set 
aside the founders' intentions in one instance, they cannot deny 
the same right in another.* 

The whole weight of the objection depends upon the nature of 
the church originally founded and endowed in this kingdom. If 
the doctrines of that church were less in accordance with those 
of Rome than with those which England now holds, the objec- 
tion, of course, falls to the ground ; and our claim, from regard 
to the wills of the founders, remains unimpaired. If, on the con- 
trary, they savoured more of popery than of protestantism, the force 
of the objection would be established, and whatever claims we 



* It is sometimes more specifically stated, that the property was given or 
bequeathed for the sake of procuring masses for the souls of the donors. This is a 
mistake. The lands left for that purpose were the chantry lands, none of which 
are now in the hands of the church : one of the first Acts of Edward the Sixth's 
reign was to appropriate them all to the crown. 

Vol. lU.^Feh. 1833. r 



122 THE CHURCH ORIGINALLY FOUNDED AND ENDOWED IN ENGLAND 

might put forth upon other grounds,* that on account of the 
intentions of the founders would be almost wholly t removed. 

The parochial churches in England were endowed with tithes, 
and the bishoprics enriched with estates, prior to the year 800. 
The inquiry will be made into the doctrines of the English church 
about, and previous to that time. The writers which best serve to 
illustrate them are Bede and Alcuin, Alcuin's two illustrious 
pupils, Charlemagne and Raban Maurus, Archbishop of Mentz, 
and the famous John Scot, sirnamed Erigena. We know the 
creeds she used, the Scriptures she received, the councils she 
acknowledged.^ 

Of all the points in dispute between the Roman and 
English churches, on which the latter has ventured to censure 
(she has done no more) those who differ from her, there is only 
one which touches the Anglo-Saxons. They prayed in the 
congregation, and administered the sacrament, in a language 
unknown to the people; and, although they took special pains to 
teach them the Lord VPrayer and the Belief in their own tongue, 
yet it is not to be denied, that the services themselves were in 
Latin. Against such a practice, the church of England has 
recorded her sentiments, that it is " plainly repugnant to the 
word of God."§ This is the only point ; for, although some of 
the Anglo-Saxon writers, even of that day, have given some coun- 
tenance to the doctrine of purgatory, which the English church 
condemns nearly in the same language, yet they speak but 
doubtfully of it, — Bede saying, that " perhaps the opinion is true,"|| 
and " not altogether incredible ;" at all events, it was no doctrine 
of the church, contained in no creed, enforced by no authority. 

In one thing, then, and that a point of practice and not of 
faith, the Anglo-Saxon church stands censured by the church of 
England. "The very head and front of Uheir dispute,' hath 
this extent — no more." Of the points on which the Roman 
church has recorded, not her censure, but her anathema against 
all who differ from her, in how many of these does the Anglo- 
Saxon church stand anathematized by the Roman? In all of 
them. For the use of a language not understood by the people 



* The church would still have the same ground to demand the undisturbed pos. 
session of her own, as any layman, whose title deeds arc more recent than the 
Reforniation. And the same justice which would alter the conditions of her tenure, 
would alter that of Blenheim. 

f 1 should have said wholly, but that the Popish prelates who were dispossessed 
by Queen Elizabeth for refusing to take the oath of supremacy, lefi no successors. 
Consequently, the established church is the onh/ representative of the original Anglo- 
Saxon one. 

t Any one acquainted with Mr. Soames' Bampton Lectures, will perceive how 
lai^ly I have made use of them on this occasion. Those who have not yet seen it, 
will do well to study that valuable and interesting volume. 

§ Art. 24. II Bed. Opp. v.28&— 291. 



PROTESTANT AND NOT POPISH. 123 

in the services, is not a matter which the church of Rome has 
enforced by decree or anathema, however pertinaciously she may 
adhere to it ; it being directly opposed to the tenth canon of the 
fourth council of Lateran, which she pretends to venerate as 
general or oecumenical. 

To all the anathemas which she has put forth in her dispute 
with us, the Anglo-Saxons are liable. 

Let us prove this assertion, first in detail, and then collectively. 

1. A belief in Transubstantiation was never deemed necessary 
to salvation, even by the church of Rome, till the year 1215,''^ 
up to which time, as Tonstal, Bishop of Durham,^ acknowledges, 
it was free for a man to believe as he pleased, concerning the 
manner of Christ's presence in the sacrament. The Anglo- 
Saxon church, then, did not conceive a belief in Transubstan- 
tiation necessary to salvation. This were enough to condemn 
her in the judgment of Rome, who holds that no Christian can be 
saved who does not anathematize all who deny this doctrine. J But 
more than this — no writers have furnished stronger testimony 
against this baneful error than those of the Anglo-Saxon church, 
both before and after it had been broached by Paschase Radbert, 
853; as may be seen in the writings of Bede, who styles the 
Sacrament, " the Jigure of our Lord's body and blood."§ And 
the homilies of Elfric, which were in general use throughout 
England, are so full to the purpose, that Mr. Johnson, the learned 
editor of the Anglo-Saxon Canons, does not hesitate to say, " I 
am fully persuaded that the homilies of Elfric are more positive 
against the doctrine of transubstantiation, than the homilies of 
the church of England." It is moreover remarkable, as bearing 
upon the present inquiry, that when Paschase broached his error, 
two of the most strenuous opposers of it were Raban Maurus, 
the renowned Archbishop of Mentz, a pupil of the illustrious 
English Alcuin,|| and the famous John Scot, styled Erigena,^ a 
native of the British Isles. 

2. The half-communion, or denial of the cup to the laity, will not 
cause much inquiry. For not only do the Romish writers admit 
that it was " the ancient custom of the church,"^"^ *' for above a 
thousand years,"'f'f for all men to communicate in the blood as well 
as the body, but even the fearful council of Constance,J{ which 



* Fourth Council of Lateran. f De Eucharistia, i. p. 46. 

^ Creed of Pope Pius, and Cone. Trident, Sep. ]3, c. 1 and 2. 
§ Bed. Comra. Ps. iii. 
II He styles it an unsound novelty, " nuper non rite sentientes." Peenit. Rhab. 
Archiep. Mogunt. 

^ His work against Transubstantiation, which was condemned by the Synod of 
Vercelli, 1050, has not been preserved. 

** Aquinas Comm. in vi. Job. lect. 7. 
tt Cassander, sec. 22. |j Sessio, 13. 



124 THE CHURCH ORIGINALLY FOUNDED AND ENDOWED IN ENGLAND 

pronounced sentence of excommunication against every priest 
who should give the cup to the laity, acknovy^ledged both that 
" Christ had so instituted it," and ** the primitive church so 
practised it." It is in the teeth of this admission, by what the 
Romanists call a general council, that the council of Trent 
decreed anathema against any man who should affirm that, 
according to God's command, all faithful people ought to receive 
both kinds. 

3. All are incapable of salvation, according to the Church of 
Rome,* who do not believe that the saints are to be invoked. But 
of this practice no trace is to be found among the Anglo-Saxons 
of the time under consideration. They made frequent mention 
of the saints in their addresses to the Almighty — they believed 
that they prayed for them, and they besought God to hear their 
prayers ; but of invocations or addresses to the saints themselves, 
no trace is to be found at this date. It was not till about a hun- 
dred-and -fifty years afterwards that the corrupt practice crept in. 
Here then, again, the Anglo-Saxons stand accursed by the church 
of Rome. 

4. No person can be saved, according to the church of Rome, 
who does not constantly hold that there is a purgatoiy.f But it 
is evident that Bede and other writers, who speak of it as " not 
altogether incredible," did themselves hesitate to receive the doc- 
trine. They cannot, therefore, be saved, according to the church 
of Rome. 

5. No person can be saved, according to the church of Rome, 
who does not acknowledge the Roman church to be the mother 
and mistress of all churches.J But the Anglo-Saxons received 
and revered the decrees of the Fathers of the second general 
council at Constantinople ; and the language of those Fathers 
expressly ascribed that title to the church of Jerusalem. § 

6. 7, 8. No person can be saved, according to the church of 
Rome, who does not promise and swear true obedience to the 
Bishop of Rome ; || who does not receive the idolatrous decrees of 
the Deutero-Nicene council respecting image worship,^ in which 
"worship" and "adoration"** were decreed to the images of 
Christ, of the Virgin, and other saints ; or who does not " most 
firmly assert that due honour and veneration is to be paid to 
them.ff Of^ each of these three grounds the Anglo-Saxons are 
excluded from salvation by the modern church of Rome. When 
the second Nicene council,JJ convened under the auspices of the 



* Creed of Pius IV. t Ibid. t Ibid. 

$ " Ecclesiae Hierosolymitanae, qua; est aliarum omnium mater." 

Creed of Pius IV. 1[ Creed of Pope Piu§. Cone Trid. Sessio 25. 

••See the Acts of that Council. 

tt Creed of Pius IV. « A. D. 787. 



PROTESTANT AND NOT POPISH. 125 

wicked Irene, had put forth its idolatrous decrees, and those 
decrees had been ratified by the Bishop of Rome,^ what was 
the conduct of the Anglo-Saxon church ? Did they, like true 
sons of Rome, bow to the authority of the Bishop of Rome, and 
declare black white, because it pleased him to countenance such 
an assertion? — No. The Emperor Charlemagne convened at 
Francfort a council, a.d. 794, of three hundred bishops from 
England, Germany, and France ; and the bishops there assembled 
did unanimously set at nought the authority of the Roman 
Pontiff, by " despising" and " condemning" the decrees in ques- 
tion. The part which the Anglo-Saxons took is remarkable ; 
because, not only were their bishops assembled at that council, 
but it was at the instigation of the English Alcuin that the 
council was assembled ; and its reprobation of image worship 
was echoed by the English writers, who, speaking of that worship, 
say that it was " executed by the whole church."f 

Thus much, perhaps, will suffice for particulars. Let us now 
proceed to generals. The doctrines of a church are to be autho- 
ritatively ascertained by the creeds she uses, the scriptures she 
receives, the councils she acknowledges. In all these points, the 
Anglo-Saxon church is opposed to, and anathematized by, the 
modern Church of Rome. 

First, of the Councils. Up to the time proposed for our inquiry, 
there had been, according to the Romish church, seven general 
councils^: — according to the Anglo-Saxons, six. The decrees of 
these six councils they received, and to those of the four first 
they paid the utmost deference, as the church of England does 
to this day.§ As to the second Nicene council, called the " Se- 
venth General" by the Romanists, the Anglo-Saxons did not 
merely not acknowledge it at the council of Francfort, as we 
have seen, they solemnly condemned it. No branch of the Catholic 
church, but that of Rome, has continued to acknowledge that 
council. It was condemned in the East at Constantinople, 
A.D. 814 ; and in the West, not only at Francfort, but again at 
Paris, A.D. 825. 

Next, of the Canon of Scripture. Respecting the New Testa- 
ment all are agreed, Roman, English, and Anglo-Saxon ; but, 
with regard to the Old, the Romish church is at variance both 
with the English and the Anglo-Saxon. The Canon of the Old 
Testament which the whole Catholic church, not excepting the 
Roman, at that time received, was the same which had been set 
forth by the council of Laodicea,|| tacitly acknowledged by the 

* Pope Adrian. t Simon Dunelm., Roger Hoveden, &c. 

X Nice, Constantinople, Ephesus, Chalcedon, Constanstinople, Ibid, Nice 2nd. 
§ See Act 1 Eliz., in which the decrees of the four first Councils are made the 
rule, together with Scripture, to determine heresies. 

II Canon ix. 



136 THE CHURCH ORIGINALLY POUNDED AND ENDOWED IN ENGLAND 

fourth general council at Chalcedon,* enumerated by St. Jerome,*^ 
" who," as MKr'ic observed, " translated our (the Anglo-Saxon) 
bible."t To this Canon the church of England adheres; but the 
church of Rome, seeking novelties, as in other matters so in this, 
has put forth in the Tridentine council, a new Canon of Scrips 
ture;^ in which, besides the books already received, several others 
are added, which her own popes and writers, as well as the rest 
of Christendom, had heretofore condemned as apocryphal. || 
The church of Rome has confirmed her sectarian decree by her 
usual anathema against all who do not agree to it. Here then, 
again, the Anglo-Saxon church is anathematized by her. 

Lastly, of the Creeds in use. Those which the Anglo-Saxons, 
in common with the church of England, had, were the Apostles*, 
Nicene, and Athanasian ; in which they agreed also with the 
whole Catholic church. For, to adopt the words of the learned 
Hickes,^ " the whole Catholic church professed the same pure 
faith and religion which we now profess, without foreign mixtures 
or additions, to the second council of Nice, 787 ; and the church 
of England professed the same pure and entire to the end of the 
eighth century." But the church of Rome, which must have a 
New Canon of Scripture, must needs have also a new creed to 
match it. She first added to the Catholic faith at the deutero 
Nicene Council, which she only, of all Christian churches, receives; 
and again at the Council of Lateran, when a belief that the 
manner of Christ's presence in the Sacrament was by Transub- 
stantiation was made necessary to salvation ; which her own 
writers acknowledge was before left free to every man's conjecture. 
But her chief additions were in the Creed of Pope Pius IV., 
which followed upon the Tridentine council, and a subscription to 
which is made a sine qua non in admitting converts to reconci- 
liation.** In that creed, there are added to the Nicene or Con- 
stantinopolitan Creed twelve new articles. Twelve, did I say ? 
Indeed, it so appears at first sight ; but, if the matter be inquired 
into, they will seem to be almost innumerable. For one of them 
consists of an unhesitating reception of all the decrees of all the 
councils, which the Romish church styles CEcumenical (amount- 
ing in number to twenty or twenty-one, for the Romanists are not 
themselves agreed upon that point), and an unhesitating anathe- 
matizing of all the things anathematized by all these coun- 
cils. Thus every decree of every general council is made indi- 
rectly an article of positive, and every anathema an article of 
negative faith, — of faith without which no man can be saved. It 

* Canon lix. f In Lib. Reg. Pracfatio. % iElfric in the N. T. 

$ Cone. Trid. Sessio iv. || Jerome, as above ; Gregory, in Job xix. 18. 

H Hickcs's letters to a Popish Priest, p. G4. 
** Soe Forma rccoaciliandi Convcrsuin in the " Ordo odBoinistrandi Sacramcnta," 
p. 64. 



PROTESTANT AND NOT POPISH. 127 

would not be worth the while to ascertain the exact number of 
articles of faith thus imposed upon the poor slaves of Rome, but 
some faint idea of the number may be formed, when it is known 
that the anathemas in the council of Trent alone amount to 
upwards of six-score ! In respect to every one of these, the 
Anglo-Saxons are excluded from salvation by the schismatical 
church of Rome. 

I need say no more. Every impartial person who reads this 
statement, must acknowledge that the Anglo-Saxon church, as 
compared with the church of Rome at the time of the Reforma- 
tion, was, like her representative at the present day, Protestant 
and not Popish ; that the change which took place at the Refor- 
mation was a return to the pure faith and worship of our fore- 
fathers, to whom the titles and estates of the church were 
originally granted ; and that, consequently, our claim to have her 
property respected out of regard to the wills of those from whom 
it came, remains unimpaired. 

A. P. P. 

E. H., Dec. 15th, 1832. 



HISTORY OF THE SCOTTISH EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 
No. III. 

In 1808, the Episcopal College was deprived of one of its 
members. Bishop Watson, of Dunkeld, who died at Laurence- 
kirk that year, in the 47th year of his age. " His classical and 
theological acquirements," says one who is well qualified to 
judge, "did honour to his master, (the Rev. John Skinner, of 
Longside,) and shewed that he himself was a most diligent and 
successful student. Though raised to the episcopate in earlier 
life than usual, this excellent man's deportment was marked by 
something so decorous in society, and by a mien, a voice, and 
manner so attractive in the immediate discharge of his sacred 
office, as to command the respect of all who knew him, or who 
witnessed the performance of his official duties ; and, as he lived 
universally esteemed, he died universally regretted."^ 

Bishop Watson was succeeded in the diocese of Dunkeld by 
the Right Reverend Patrick Torry, D.D., of Peterhead, in the 
county of Aberdeen, the present Bishop ; who was consecrated at 
Aberdeen by Bishops Skinner, of Aberdeen, Macfarlane, of Ross, 
and Jolly, of Moray. During this year also the present distin- 



* The Rev. John Skinner, M.A., of Forfar, in his Annals of Scottish Epis- 
copacy, pp. 468, 469. 



128 HISTORY OF THE 

guislied and venerable Primate of the Scottish Episcopal Church, 
the Most Reverend Dr. George Gleig, was elected to the bishopric 
of Brechin, Bishop Strachan having resigned on account of old 
age and infirmity. Of the talents, learning, and theological 
eminence of Bishop Gleig, it would be unnecessary to speak — 
that prelate being so well known to many members of the Church 
of England.* Bishop Gleig has, since 1808, governed the diocese 
of Brechin with zealous ability, adding dignity to the church, and 
extending her reputation by many works of sound learning and 
research. It may be proper to mention in this sketch, that the 
consecration sermon at Bishop Gleig's elevation was preached by 
the Rev. Heneage Horsley, M.A., Prebendary of St. Asaph, &c., 
and now one of the ministers of St. Paul's Chapel, Dundee, who 
" sought" to use his own words in a letter to the Bishop elect of 
Brechin, " this happy opportunity of delivering the sentiments of 
Bishop Horsley [by the mouth of his son] regarding the nature of 
the Episcopal functions, and of the conduct of those clergy who, 
though Episcopally ordained, choose to officiate in contempt of 
the Episcopal authority." 

In 1809, died Bishop Abernethy Drummond, of Edinburgh, 
and in 1810, Bishop Strachan of Brechin, full of years and 
honours, endeared by their private worth and their public cha- 
racters. As both these prelates had resigned their dioceses, the 
Episcopal College remained the same. Dr. Sand ford being Bishop 
of Edinburgh, and Dr. Gleig, Bishop of Brechin. In the former 
year, we find the Scottish Bishops and clergy approaching the 
throne with a loyal address to his late Majesty George III. on 
occasion of his Majesty having attained the 50th year of his 
reign. 

It was on this occasion that the first orders in council were 
issued, which have ever since been done on pubfic and important 
occasions, and which distinguish the clergy of the Scottish 
Episcopal Church from Dissenters from the Presbyterian Es- 
tablishment. These orders require that every minister and 
preacher, " as well of the Established Church, in that part of 
the United Kingdom called Scotland, as that of the Episcopal 
Communion, protected and allowed by an Act passed in the 10th 
year of her late Majesty Queen Anne, cap. 7, entitled 'An Act to 
prevent the disturbing of those of the Episcopal Communion, 
&c. &c.,' do, at some time during the exercise of divine service in 
such respective church, congregation, or assembly, on the Sunday 
next ensuing, [mention the particular date,] put up their prayers 



• His distinguished abilities are inherited by his son, the Rev. G. R. Gleig, 
M. A., the author of the " Subaltern," and other celebrated works, who, tliough as 
distinguished a clergyman of the Church of England as he is a distinguished orna- 
ment of literature, her humbler sister in Scotland, claims as her own 



SCOTTISH EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 129 

and thanksgivings, &c.," as the occasion or the exigency may- 
require. It is needless to add, that the Episcopal Church in 
Scotland always adopts the forms of prayers drawn up on these 
occasions by the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Situated as the church now was, a happy and prosperous 
union having been formed, with only one or two exceptions, 
between all the clergy of English and Scottish ordination, it 
became necessary that some proceedings should take place 
respecting a review of the canons for enforcing Episcopal order 
and jurisdiction. In the days of their depression, the Scottish 
prelates, as Bishop Skinner observed in a letter on this subject to 
Bishop Sandford, " had enough to do in keeping up a pure 
Episcopal succession, till it should be seen what, in the course of 
Providence, might be farther effected towards the preservation, 
though not of an established, yet of a purely primitive church in 
this part of the United Kingdom.'* It appears that the members 
of the Episcopal College, in 1 743, prepared and sanctioned some 
canons, which then indeed answered the purposes for which they 
were intended, as connected with the peculiar circumstances of the 
church at that period. But now that these circumstances had 
been changed, it was necessary that a more complete code of 
ecclesiastical discipline should be exhibited than that of 1743, 
which was probably merely temporary, and consequently defective. 
The Church of England has a code of canons, but many of them 
are connected with that Church as the Established National 
Church by law, and cannot therefore have any application to a 
communion so situated as is that in Scotland. Of this Bishop 
Skinner was well aware. " The English canons," says the Bishop 
in the letter above quoted, "are in general inapplicable to 
our situation ; and of the whole (141 in number), there are not 
above four or five that could, even with some alterations, be 
adopted and enforced among us." These cogent reasons were 
therefore assigned by the Bishop as arguments that " we should 
turn our attention to the means which Providence has put in our 
power of making the best use of our situation, and rendering it as 
conducive as we possibly can to the great and good design for 
which our Church has been so happily preserved, so signally 
supported — even the glory of its Almighty Protector, and the 
comfort and edification of his faithful people." 

Bishop Skinner having obtained the cordial assent of the 
Episcopal College, he, as Primus, summoned, by a circular 
addressed to the dean of his own diocese, which was also done by 
the other Bishops to the deans of their respective dioceses, a general 
ecclesiastical synod, to be held at Aberdeen on the 19th of June, 
1811. This synod was composed of the College of Bishops, the 
deans of the several dioceses, and a clergyman from each of these 
dioceses, elected by his brethren as their delegate or representative 

Vol. llI.^Feb. 1833. s 



130 HISTORY OP THE 

in the synod. On that day the synod assembled, and was 
regularly constituted by Bishop Skinner as Primus. Its business 
occupied two complete days, and after having framed "the code 
of canons for the Episcopal Church in Scotland," it was 
dissolved. 

It would occupy too much space to give an abstract of these 
canons, which are now binding on all the clergy of the Scottish 
Episcopal Church. They are of course chiefly illustrative of the 
discipline and government of the church, and are framed solely to 
preserve order and regularity in a communion which, though 
once the national establishment, is now merely tolerated by law. 
As a proof of the strict adherence which is maintained towards the 
doctrines and services of the Church of England, it may be 
mentioned, that, by the 16th canon, all alterations and insertions 
in the morning and evening service of the church are prohibited, 
and in no case is a deviation from the ipsissima verba of the 
English Liturgy allowed. The 15th canon, however, which, as 
the Rev. Mr. Skinner observes, was framed by the Rev. Archibald 
Alison, Prebendary of Sarum, who was the delegate for the 
diocese of Edinburgh, and the Rev. Heneage Horsley, Prebendary 
of St. Asaph, the delegate for Brechin, sets forth that, although 
permission is granted " to retain the use of the English Communion 
Office in all congregations where the said office had been pre- 
viously in use, the Scottish office is considered as the authorised 
service of the Episcopal Church in the administration of the 
sacrament of the Lord's Supper," and " to be used in all con- 
secrations of Bishops ;" every Bishop, when consecrated, " giving 
his full assent to it, as being sound in itself, and of primary 
authority in Scotland ; and binding himself " not to permit its 
being laid aside, where now used, but by authority of the College 
of Bishops." It may be necessary to remind the reader that the 
communion office here mentioned is that of the Scottish Liturgy 
of the reign of Charles I., drawn up by the Scottish prelates of that 
period, and revised and approved of by Archbishop Laud, and 
Dr. Wren, Bishop of Norwich, the latter having been selected for 
that purpose by the Archbishop on account of his great learning 
in the ancient liturgies. The other services of the Scottish 
Liturgy are for the most part the same as that of the Church of 
England. What may be the comparative merits of the Scot- 
tish Communion Office and that of England, I shall not at- 
tempt to decide. It has occasioned some little controversy even 
among the Scottish Episcopal clergy, a few of whom retain 
it, especially in some congregations north of the Tay ; but in the 
opinion of one well competent to judge, the late Bishop Horsley, 
it is decidedly superior to the English, and that learned prelate 
declared, that if he had the power to choose, he would certainly 
adopt the Scottish office rather than the English, admirable 



SCOTTISH EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 131 

though the latter confessedly is. Those who wish to ascertain 
all minute particulars in which the Scottish Liturgy differs from 
that of the Church of England, will find them pointed out in 
Hammond L'Estrange's " Alliance of Divine Offices," London, 
folio, 1669 ; as also in the second vol, of the " Life and Times of 
Archbishop Laud," London, 8vo, 1824, 

After the business of the synod had been completed, a circular was 
addressed by Bishop Skinner to all the Archbishops and Bishops 
of the United Church of England and Ireland, inclosing a printed 
copy of the canons. Most of these prelates acknowledged the 
Bishop's circular in the most paternal manner, especially the 
Bishops of Sahsbury, Peterborough, Carlisle, Sod or and Man, Cork 
and Ross, Leighlin and Ferns, and Cloyne. The sentiments of 
the then excellent Bishop of Cloyne (Dr. Bennet) ought not to be 
omitted on this occasion. After thanking Bishop Skinner and 
the Right Reverend Bishops in Scotland for the copy of the 
canons transmitted to him, his Lordship adds, " I have always 
highly esteemed the Christian piety and honourable independence 
of the Episcopal Church in Scotland, and earnestly pray, that, 
under the guidance of her excellent prelates, she may continue 
that purity of doctrine for which she has been so long and 
deservedly celebrated." 

From this period to the year 1816, the year in which the 
Scottish Episcopal Church was deprived, by death, of her active 
and zealous governor and premier. Bishop Skinner, of Aberdeen, 
no event of any consequence occurred in her history. 

But although nothing of public importance occurred in the his- 
tory of the Scottish Episcopal Church from the year of the Synod 
of Aberdeen (1811) to the year 1816, the bishops and clergy were 
not inactive, nor the laity less attached to the principles of 
apostolical truth. On the contrary, the church continued 
extending her borders on every side. Some new congregations 
were formed where previously none had existed, and we may 
particularly mention that of Kirkcaldy, Fifeshire, which was 
formed chiefly by the exertions of the present Bishop of Edin- 
burgh, the Right Reverend Dr. Walker. Many persons, too, 
who had formerly been Presbyterians and Independents, became 
members of the church ; while in some places, new and even 
handsome chapels were erected by the exertions of the laity, 
assisted by subscriptions and donations from many distinguished 
and benevolent friends of the church in England, These new 
chapels formed a striking contrast to the obscure and uncom- 
fortable places in which many of the country congregations had 
assembled since the violence and persecution of 1745, On 
reviewing all these circumstances, we cannot fail to perceive the 
hand of God visibly protecting his own institutions, supporting, 
strengthening, and comforting his servants in the discharge of 



132 BISHOPSBOURNE CHURCH. 

their sacred duties. Laws and enactments may deprive the 
church of many important political privileges ; but these can never 
affect that glorious building, of which its divine Protector and 
Saviour is " the foundation and chief-corner stone.'* 

( To be continued, J 



PARISH CHURCHES.-No. X. 
BISHOPSBOURNE CHURCH. 

[■With an Bnffraving.] 

How like those sudden and incoherent transitions through which 
the agitated and confused dreamer is whirled, are the awful 
'changes of public opinion withia the last two or three years. 
Before that time the church was the theme of admiration at 
home and abroad, — her institutions were revered, — her moder- 
ation extolled, — her blessings acknowledged. 

The fame of Hooker was built upon the services he had per- 
formed in her defence; and even yet, as in the days of Walton, 
" his books, and the innocency and sanctity of his life, were so 
remarkable, that many turned out of the road, and others (scholars 
especially) went purposely to see (the dwelling and the church of) 
the man whose life and learning were so much admired."* But 
now, so strange a revolution of sentiment has taken place, that 
this very ministry and church establishment, of which he so ably 
vindicated the apostolical and sound foundation, as well as its 
practical and rational polity, seems to be considered as one 
universal blot, — as a very pest-house, " full of wounds and 
bruises and putrifying sores." To maintain its excellence is 
peremptorily set down as a mark of ignorance, narrow-minded- 
ness, and bigotry. My very confidence is shaken in the attrac- 
tion which the view of Bishopsbourne Church and Parsonage 
will present to my readers, when I am compelled to state that its 
architecture is not remarkable; and that its principal, if not 
only, claim to interest them is its having been the scene of the 
last ministrations, — of the last moments of the " judicious" 
Hooker. Evil surely are the days in which these remarks are 
extensively applicable among members of the established church. 
May they not be ominous of times and troubles like those 
which followed in a few years after this good man had been taken 
from such calamitous trials, and which, with almost prophetic 
spirit, he seems to have contemplated in his last moments. I 
cannot resist laying before my readers, — and I wish I could ini- 

♦ Walton's Life of Hooker. 



^ 



.c^'.,^" 



^iign 



filSHOPSBOURNE CHURCH. 133 

press upon the hearts of many hasty accusers, and many officious 
remodellers of our church, — that lesson of wisdom, so adapted to 
the present times, which issued from the dying lips of this 
learned, judicious, and pious divine. Doctor Saravia, his inti- 
mate friend, had, as Walton relates, administered to him " the 
blessed Sacrament of the body and blood of our Lord Jesus ; 
which being performed, the Doctor thought he saw a reverend 
gaiety and joy in his face ; but it lasted not long; for his bodily 
infirmities did return suddenly, and became more visible, inso- 
much, that the Doctor apprehended death ready to seize him ; 
yet, after some amendment, left him at night, with a promise to 
return early the day following, which he did, and there found 
him better in appearance, deep in contemplation, and not inclin- 
able to discourse ,* which gave the Doctor occasion to inquire his 
present thoughts. To which he replied, ' That he was meditating 
the number and nature of angels, and their blessed obedience 
and ORDER, without which peace could not be in heaven; and. 
Oh I that it might be so on earth /' " 

May this nation not draw down, by its crimes, or its madness, a 
judicial blindness to these great and important truths; and may 
it never find (as those did for whose safety anxious forebodings 
troubled the dying meditations of the "judicious Hooker") that 
in the pursuit of visionary perfection, they have sacrificed prac- 
tical usefulness, and opened the door to anarchy and confusion ! 

But I have been drawn far from my immediate subject by the 
interesting nature of those circumstances to which my observa- 
tions relate. I must turn to the less animating task of describing 
the church represented in the sketch at the head of this number. 
Though the Parsonage is commodious, it contains nothing worthy 
of description, nor any known memorial of the venerated divine 
whose residence in it constitutes its only claim to |3ublic notice. 
The garden, indeed, is bounded on the south and east sides by a 
remarkably thick and flourishing yew hedge, about nine feet high, 
which may be considered as at least coeval with the time of 
Hooker. But there is no tradition which attributes to it the 
honour of being planted by his hand ; and, in truth, there is no- 
thing either in his habits, or in his character, which can lead us 
even to the fond imagination that he troubled himself about the 
improvements of his habitation, or took any interest in horticul- 
tural or other country pursuits. In fact, the reverse is the case. 
And however happy I should be if I could honestly minister to 
the enthusiasm of any admirer of the excellent and able scholar, 
I must not deviate from historical truth. Instead of having it in 
my power to point to this or that feature of either house or 
garden, and to say, " I conjecture this to have been planned or 
planted by Hooker," I must own that I cannot, even in imagin- 
ation, dissociate him from his studies, his parochial duties, or from 



134 BISHOPSBOURNfi CHURCH. 

his devotions, unless I fancy him absently rocking the cradle, or 
otherwise reluctantly employed by the imperious and violent wife 
to whom his meek and quiet spirit was ill united through his own 
extreme bash fulness and ignorance of the world - 

The parsonage is within a very short distance from the church, 
which is situated in a pleasing valley about four miles to the 
south-east of Canterbury. It is dedicated to the Virgin Mary.* 

There are no brasses or ancient monuments in the church ; but 
this deficiency is amply compensated, at least in my estimation, — 
and I would fain hope (notwithstanding the gloomy aspect of the 
times) in the estimation of many of my readers, — by that which 
has been erected to the memory of Hooker, It is attached to the 
wall on the north side of the chancel, near the pulpit, where, 
whether so intended or not, it stands as a goodly memento for 
those who are engaged in exhorting and instructing the flock of 
Christ there assembled. I do not give my readers a representation 
of it, as it is shewn in a very good engraving in the title-page of 
the folio edition of Hooker's works.f Sir W. Cooper, the person 
at whose charge it was put up, speaks with pious affection of 
Hooker, as " his spiritual father." 

Walton, in the Appendix to his Life of Hooker, takes notice 
of an error in the inscription upon this monument, and also 
another in Camden, relative to the date of Hooker's death : — 
" And for the year of his death, Mr. Camden, who, in his Annals 
of Queen Elizabeth, 1589, mentions him with a high commen- 
dation of his life and learning, declares him to die in the year 
1599 ; and yet in that inscription of his monument set up at the 



* It consists of a body and side aisles, and, according to Hasted, contained three 
chancels. Of these, two are used as the pew for Bourne House, and for the vestry. 
The tower is plain, square, and low, containing four small bells. The chancel is a 
continuation of the nave. The appearance of the interior is light, and has been 
greatly improved by the removal of a wooden screen, by which, through a lofty 
pointed arch, the space of the lower part of the tower has been added to the nave. 
Another well judged improvement, which we recommend to imitation, is the scrap- 
ing off the whitewash, with which churchwardens, with more zeal than taste, are so 
fond of shrouding the architecture of our churches, and the stone work of their 
arches and pillars. 

The large pew on the south side, belonging to Bourne House, contains a neat per- 
pendicular window, filled with stained glass, representing various scripture subjects, 
and several coats of arms. It is of Dutch manufacture, the colours in perfect pre- 
servation, and some of the subjects portrayed with great spirit. Some bear the 
date 1615, others 1550. On the former is the name of the artist " Eaelkins." 

Over the space between the last arch of the south aisle, and that opening to this 
pew, is a small arched opening, in which Hasted says " stood once the image of the 
Virgin Mary, (the patron saint of this church,) to which William Hante, Esq., by 
his will, anno 1462, amongst the rest of his relics, gave a piece of the stone on which 
the archangel Gabriel descended, when he saluted her, for this imago to rest its feet 
upon." (Hasted, vol. iii. p. 747, note, fol. edit.) 

f I observe, however, an error in the inscription, which states the monument to 
have been erected 1535; but 1533 is the date on the monument itself. 



BISHOPS BOURNE CHURCH. 135 

charge of Sir William Cooper, in Bourne church, where Mr. 
Hooker was buried, his death is said to be anno 1603 ; but, 
doubtless, both mistaken." 

Both the mistakes, that of Camden and of Sir William Cooper, 
seem to me unaccountable ; and the trouble which Walton took 
in consulting and bringing forward the testimony of his will, 
appears superfluous, when the point might so easily be settled by 
a reference to the register of Bishopsbourne, which is still in 
existence, and of which I give a copy : — 

" An. Do. 1600. 

" Mr. Richarde Hooker late parson of Bishopsbourne 

buried tbe 4 of Novenlb^" 

This register is also in every page,''^ during Hooker's incum- 
bency, signed by him. I give a fac-simile of his autograph : 

i, e. Richard Hooker, parson. 

John Herring X churchwarden, his marke. 

It is not unworthy of remark, that to this signature the title of 
" pat'son" is uniformly annexed, being in those days considered 
a name of honour — not the taunting epithet employed to gratify 
scoffing malevolence, or to excite the deluded poor against their 
best, I may almost say, their only effective friends. 

In transcribing this, also, I have detected the remarkable 
fact, that the word " parson" is invariably added in a different 
hand-writing, probably by the faithful and attached clerk, of 
whom Walton makes the honourable mention to which I shall 
presently advert. Hooker's well-known excessive modestyf seems 
to have made him affix simply his signature, without his title. 
Possibly his worthy parish clerk might consider this as a dero- 
gation of his master's dignity. It evidently is not written by 
Hooker himself, as the ink is of a different colour, and the hand- 
writing heavier. Neither could the churchwarden have supplied 



• I miist except one, in which some collector of autographs, or admirer of Hooker, 
has cut out the signature. 

f Walton observes, " he was of so mild and humble a nature, that his poor parish 
clerk and he did never talk but with both their hats on, and both off', at the same 
time." 



130 r BISHOPSBOURNE CHURCH. 

the omission, as he regularly proclaims his insufficient progress 
in the " march of intellect," by affixing his mark. 

There is another circumstance connected with this signature, 
with which, at first, I was rather puzzled. The first signature 
of Hooker, as parson, and duly attested by the churchwarden, 
appears at the bottom of the page containing its latest register for 
the year 1566, and on every subsequent page the same signature 
is found. 

But Walton says he was not presented to the living of Bishops- 
bourne till the 7th of July, 1595. However, I soon found the 
clue to this difficulty ; and it is a proof of Hooker's fondness for 
order and regularity, and of his desire to discharge his duty in 
the most minute particulars. I soon observed that the entries 
were all made in one hand, viz. that in which the churchwarden's 
attestation was written, and that it purported to be an entry of all 
the baptisms, &c. from the first year of Elizabeth, of which period 
about six years are mentioned as having no entries. It appears 
that Hooker, on coming to the living, found the registers written 
in various books, or in a decayed book, and therefore caused 
them to be copied on parchment, affixing his own signature and 
that of the churchwarden to every page. This he continued 
during the whole of his incumbency ; but his successor seems to 
have omitted the practice. 

I trust that Walton's account of the death of Hooker's grateful 
parish cleik,and the trait therein given of his attachment to the 
memory of his excellent master, and to the church, will not be 
unacceptable to my readers, especially as my searches in the 
registers have enabled me both to furnish some corroboration of 
this affiscting incident, and also to preserve the name of the 
worthy old man.* 



• " This parish clerk lived till the third or fourth year of the late long Parlia- 
ment, betwixt which time and Mr. Hooker's death there had come many to see the 
place of his burial, and the monument dedicated to his memory by Sir William 
Cooper, (who still lives,) and the poor clerk had many rewards for shewing Mr. 
Hooker's grave place, and his said monument, and did always hear Mr. Hooker 
mentioned with commendations and reverence ; to all which he added his own know- 
ledge and observations of his humility and holiness : in all which discourses the 
poor man was still more confirmed in his opinion of Mr. Hooker's virtues and learn- 
ing ; but it so fell out, that about the said third or fourth year of the long Parlia- 
ment, the present parson of Borne was sequestered, (you may guess why,) and a 
Genevan minister put into his good living. This and other like sequestrations 
made the clerk express himself in a wonder and say, " They had sequestered so many 
good men, that he doubted if his good master, Mr. Hooker, had lived till now, they 
would have sequestered him too. It was not long before this intruding minister 
had made a party in and about the said parish, that were desirous to receive the Sa- 
crament as in Geneva ; to which end, the day was appointed for a select company, 
and forms and stools set about the altar or communion-table for them to sit, and eat 
and drink ; but when they went about this work, there was a want of some joint 
stools, which the minister sent the clerk to fetch, and then to fetch cushions. When 
the clerk saw them begin to sit down, he began to wonder ; but the minister bade 



BISHOPSBOURNE CHURCH. 137 

With the date assigned by Walton to the transaction with 
which his account concludes, and also with the state of the old 
man's feelings as described, the register of his burial exhibits a 
remarkable coincidence. I give a correct copy of the entry. 
It is at once a curious and an interesting document : 

" 1648. 
*' Sampson Horton was buried the Qth of May 1648 who had bin Clarke 
to this Church by his own relation threescore years.*' 

This entiy clearly shews that Sampson Horton had been clerk 
in Hooker's time, and that he died at the time assigned by Wal- 
ton. The manner in which he is mentioned, too, is in full accord- 
ance both with that neglect and contempt with which the Genevan 
minister and his myrmidons may be supposed to have held one 
so attached to their giant opponent Hooker, and also with the 
garrulous and melancholy feelings of pride and sorrow with 
which the poor old man remembered his former master and his 
own respectability ; and contrasted them with his present over- 
bearing and upstart ruler, and his fallen state. " An aged man 
who had bin clarke of this parish hi/ his own relation threescore 
years." This is the doubtful and contemptuous language of 
strangers and enemies. It is not the way in which he would be 
mentioned by friends, or by those who themselves and whose 
fathers had long known and regarded him. And the very terms 
" hy his own relation''' indicate that it had been the subject of 
his last thoughts and conversation, — that he wished it recorded 
that he had long held his situation, and, to the last, cherished 
with pride the memory of his having been Hooker's clerk. Con- 
necting this entry with Walton's account, there is to me some- 
thing of deep interest in it. 

I do not find by the register that the old man had any children : 
his wife, too, with whom he had been united forty-four years, 
had died 163 1. The old man was left alone, and, even in his very 
birth-place — the scene of all his importance and attachments — 
seemed to be left as a stranger and in a strange land. His last 
and only object of attachment was the church and its institutions. 
This was now harshly invaded, and, in his judgment, desecrated 
by an harsh and innovating intruder, one spawned of the monster 
which this afilicted country had embraced under the mask of 
church reform ; one who treated him, and that master whose 
memory Jhe revered, with studied contempt. The poor old man 
could not bear the blow ; yielded up his keys; and went home 

him cease wondering, and lock the church door. To whom he replied, * Pray take 
you the keys, and lock me out. I will never come more into this church ; for all 
men will say my Master Hooker was a good man, and a good scholar, and I am sure 
it was not used to be thus in his days.' And report says, the old man went pre- 
sently home and died; I do not say died immediately, but within a few days after." 
(Walton's Life of Hooker.) 

Vol. \\\.—Feb. 1833. t 



L*38 THE SPEECHES. 

and died. The name of the minister, as appears by a signature 
in the register, was William Francis. He died in 1567. 

But I have, I fear, extended this article to a length which the 
limits of this miscellany will perhaps render hardly allowable, in 
j ustice to more important communications.''^ 



THE SPEECHES. 

As the spirit of man when dwelling in the power of religion and 
morality is in its highest condition, so likewise does the human 
countenance, from such influences, display its most perfect aspects 
of beauty. There is a sharpness, disquietude, and violence 
annexed to vice, destroying all this happy, delicate, and refined 
expression, while the pious and thoughtful tenderness, the 
heavenly tranquillity in Raffaelle's and other pictures of the 
Virgin will ever stand as the perfection of female beauty ; distinct 
indeed from the elevating sacredness of their persons and 
character, they are supported by an appeal to the most pure and 
powerful of natural affections, the deep and quiescent feelings of 
maternal love, — so warm, yet so complacent, manifesting such a 
fulness of happiness in their exercise, that the artist and the 
morahst, who would observe the human countenance under an 
influence the most pure and most profound, will cherish every inci- 
dent in which they are brought to his notice and his admiration. 



* I will, therefore, merely transcribe a few quaint extracts from the Register, which 
appear in the page (and only. in the page) before that in which the clerk's death is 
recorded; these, as being peculiar, both in their style and hand-writing, as evincing 
familiar acquaintance and knowledge of the parties, and also as occurring in those 
troublous times preceding the long parliament, I am somewhat disposed to ascribe 
to the simplicity and fulness of heart of our honest and affectionate friend, Sampson 
liorton, thus recording the burials of his contemporaries, associates, and well~ 
known neighbours : — 

" 1636— Old Father Bovrne buried Ocf 25»»»- 

" 1637— Old John Mums bur. Jany 20. 

" Old Mother Preston buried Aug. 7*- 

" 1738— Good- wife Pierce buried Sep' 11*- 

" Good-man Mihill bur. DeC^ 24." 

These are quaint entries ; but, I think, expressed in terms which indicate the 
writer's general acquaintance with the parish, and familiarity with the parties. They 
are the language of a simple, good-hearted parish-clerk, whose age and long residence 
gave him an interest and acquaintance with all the inhabitants of a small parish. The 
population now amounts to only 358. The present rector is the Bishop of Rochester ; 
the curate is the Rev. C. Oxendon, to whose kindness and assistance in my search, 
I am greatly indebted for the facts which I think will be found most interesting in 
this sketch, and to whom I shall take this opportunity of mentioning, that, not only 
Bishopsbourne is indebted for his useful and benevolent ministrations, but the public 
also, for a vary elaborate and valuable synopsis, exhibiting a comparative statement 
of the management and expenses of all the county hospitals in the kingdom. 



THE SPEECHES. 139 

I was invited to hear the Speeches at St. Paul's School — the 
foundation of Dean Colet, the friend of Erasmus. He was both 
a reviver of elegant learning and a munificent preserver of it. 

The School-room on each side was graced with female beauty. 
In the centre were many clergy of rank and other distinguished men 
who had been invited to attend the school festival. In mixed com- 
pany I trust myself to Lavater for an introduction ; and, having 
glan ced over groupes of every-day faces, my attention was invited 
to a lady on the opposite side of the school-room. She was about 
forty years of age, of a most interesting appearance ; her dress was 
elegant, yet preserving completely a sober matronal costume. Seated 
by her side was a beautiful little girl, about eight years old, who, 
having hold of her arm, was gently pulling it, and looking up to 
her face with anxious inquiry. There was an expression of a rather 
melancholy thought in the lady's countenance and manner 
which replied to the little questionist with kindness, though with 
reserve — a sort of answer that implied " to be patient." While 
my imagination was busy with this interesting mother and her 
child, we were relieved from the monotony of a long Latin 
oration, and called upon to attend to the next speaker. He was 
a lad of about seventeen, of very pleasing appearance, and with a 
countenance and voice harmonizing with every feeling of good- 
nature, gentleness, and diffidence. Struck with his engaging 
manner, that came directly to the heart, I instantly turned to the 
lady, feeling something more than a hope that her sentiments of 
the new candidate would concur with mine. Her pensive coun- 
tenance I now found considerably altered, and a more earnest, 
yet a still and thoughtful animation was visible in every feature. 
As the boy proceeded, he obtained the applause of the visitors. 
The speech was of 

" That great day 



When virtue, long abandoned and forlorn, 
Shall raise her pensive head." 

His cadence was pathetic and holy, and his innocent countenance 
shewed his painful abhorrence of the vices he detailed, while his 
benevolent smile claimed kindred with the virtues. The plaudits 
were unusually long, and the quiet earnestness of the lady more 
visible. A tremulous expression as of sorrow at length spread 
itself over the countenance ; she reclined her head on her lap, and 
burst forth into a flood of tears. It was her son. 

This little anecdote may shew the strength and refinement of 
domestic happiness. Even to those who never felt it, the feelings 
of the parent at this moment were perhaps more elevated and 
pure than any earthly gratification ; and let the sensualist, who 
would affect to deny or undervalue them, be answered in the 
words of Lady Constance, 

" He talks to me who never had a son." 



140 THOMAS A BECKET. 

The youthful heart too must feel from this instance how true 
are the words of Solomon, " that a wise son maketh a glad 
father, and that a foolish one is the heaviness of his mother." 



THOMASABECKET. 

Continued from Vol. II J. p. 38. 
STATE OF PARTIES IN THE TIME OF HENRY II. 

In what precedes, it has been my object to throw a doubt over the 
notions commonly received concerning Becket's character, and to show 
that the charges commonly insisted on to his disadvantage are either 
groundless or, at least, reconcileable with the hypothesis of his sincerity. 

I was prompted to this investigation partly because it seemed in 
itself curious, and partly because the story in which Becket plays so 
conspicuous a part is in itself too fascinating and romantic to let one 
willingly acquiesce in the disgrace of its hero. And if my object has 
been in any degree attained, I hope that some of the details of this 
story may not prove unacceptable to my readers. However, I 
have still some perplexities to disentangle before I can take up the 
thread of my narrative Mritli advantage ; and this I purpose to do, 
though, as I fear in a somewhat rambling manner, in the present article. 

The points to w^hich I shall now direct my attention are the 
following: — (1.) The state of parties in Church and State at the 
opening of the contest between Becket and the King. (2.) The 
kind of w^arfare by w^hich this contest was maintained. (3.) The 
causes which more immediately occasioned its outbreak. And in 
this inquiry I shall not indulge any subtle speculation of my own, 
or attempt, at a distance of seven centuries, generalisations for which 
contemporaries can hardly be trusted. 

I shall take for the basis of my remarks a letter written to 
Becket at the end of 1165, by Arnulph, Bishop of Lisieux. Arnulph 
was one of the most celebrated and accomplished men of his times, 
and, w^hen he wrote the letter in question, had access to the best 
information respecting what passed in England : for though he kept 
up a correspondence with Becket's party, still, this was done with 
such guarded secresy, that it excited no suspicions in the mind of 
the King. He had lately received two of Becket's emissaries, Herbert 
and Nicholas of Rouen, while in retirement at his manor of Nonant, 
and from thence had sent a trusty messenger to England to collect 
information. 

" He Ukewise sends into England," says Nicholas, " R. of Arderva, 
a most intimate friend of his, through whom he will make diligent 
inquiries about whatever is passing at Court, and let you know, 
by letter, all he hears from thence."* 

* '* Item tnittit in Angliam familiarissimum sibi R. de Ardervft, per quein 
omnibus indagatis qua; in Curia deliberantur, quicquid indc cognovcrit, vobis per 
littcras significabit." 



THOMAS A liECKET. l4l 

And shortly after he wrote to Becket as follows. After speaking 
of the King's resentment, and his power to make it felt, he proceeds — 

" Considering they, whose advice and suffrages you ought to have 
been supported by [ your suffragans], which indeed have, in a body, 
seceded from you ******* In these men, therefore, 
I think you can place but a vain confidence ; because they do not 
give a faithful heed to a reconciliation who gave cause for a sepa- 
ration. But all others, who stand in inferior places, embrace your 
person with the arms of sincere charity, imploring, with deep but 
silent sighs, that the spouse of the Church may second your wishes, 
to the glory of His name, with a happy issue. ****** 
Indeed their compassion ought to be most grateful to us — because, 
although the wishes of inferiors do not move the minds of their 
superiors, they gam over the indignation of the Divine Majesty, since 
He becomes the more prone to indulgence the more humble is the 
suppliant ***** Their devotion may therefore avail you with 
God; but with the King, as they have no confidence to obtain, 
so have they not the boldness to entreat. Besides, if you think the 
desires of the noble ought to be inquired into, it is certain that 
they have formed a league, as it were, against the Church, ever 
to impede its advantages, and incessantly oppose its dignities; 
because they think, that whatever they see added to its honour, 
or revenues, is all lost to them. They, therefore, urge the more 
actively because the occasion appears favourable. For the king's 
power supports them, and to his majesty they repeat that they are 
taking the greatest care in these matters to preserve the state of his 
kingdom.* They say, that his (the king's) predecessors had neither 
so great strength, nor such extent of power as he has, and that 
he ought not to reign more unworthily than they — that one ought 
to stand more for dignity than utility * * * * tliey therefore 
attribute to dignity whatever it is evident was formerly taken away 
from power. 

"But he embraces more greedily than is expedient the blandish- 
ing speeches of these flatterers, which he will find, by their latest 
effect, are nothing but a trick of malignity; for, should any one 
of them utter his wishes too loud, he will understand, that for 
themselves they are aiming at his favour, and for him, matter for 
future difficulty and detriment. For this point they pant with full 
desire, and try every art, (so that their own intention does not become 
known,) viz. that his power may one time or other be repressed. 

"If you should think this ought to be shewn, let the writer's name 
be suppressed, for your experience must know of how much 
importance it is to me that it should not come to the King's 
knowledge." t 

* This translation is entirely conjectural, as indeed must frequently be the case 
with such barbarous Latin. Two or three other translations will suggest themselves 
at once. — Ed. 

f " Quod sane contemplati quorum muniri consilio et sufFragio debuistis, (Suffra- 
ganei vestri) a vobis facto agmine decesserunt * * * * * In his igitur 
quantunri mihi videtur non nisi inanem vobis potestis collocare fiduciam ; quia fidelem 
reconciliationi operam non impendent, qui causam dissidio praestiterunt. 



142 THOMAS A BECKET. 

Such was the opinion of Arnulph, who was more frequently a 
deceiver than deceived. He observed that the Government party 
was made up of two elements, — the higher order of the Clergy, who 
joined the King out of cowardice, having more at stake than they 
could make up their minds to lose, and the higher order of the 
Laity, who in this instance sided with the King against the Church, 
that when they had removed this obstacle, they might afterwards 
light him single handed. While, on the other hand, the lower orders 
were all in their hearts attached to the cause of the Church; and 
though they were not strong enough to make head at any 
given point, still, collectively, afforded to it a broad base of passive 
support. 

I'his rough sketch of a contemporary I shall endeavour to fill up 
with such details as have come under my notice : and first, as to the 
support derived by the Church Irom the affection of the lower 
•orders. 

With our notions, it will doubtless be surprising to find the party 
who, in the 12th century, advocated what are now called high 
church principles, maintaining their ground on the affections of the 
common people, against a united aristocracy. The alliance, which has 
happily so long subsisted, between Church and State, is now regarded 
as indispensable, at least to the well being of the former; and the 
political relations which have grown up under this state of things 
are now so intricate, as almost to disable us from even conceiving 
the two societies as independent of one another. A modern high 
churchman has been taught from his youth to identify the Church 
and the Establishment, — to suppose that the respectability of the 
Clergy is the result of their connexion and intercourse with the 



" Reliqui vero omnes inferioribus gradibus constituti Personam vestram sincerae 
caritatis brachiis amplexantur, altis, sed in silentio, suspiriis implorantes ut Sponsus 
Ecclesiae ad gloriam sui nominis felici vota vestra secundet eventu. • * ♦ ♦ * 
Profecto gratissima nobis eorum debet esse compassio— quia licet animos sublimium 
Tota minorum non moveant, indignationem Divinae Majestatis expugnant, ut tanto 
fiat ad indulgentiam pronior quantum ab humiliori fuerit supplicatum. ♦ ♦ * ♦ • 
Eorum igitur apud Deum vobis poterit prodesse devotio ; sed apud Regem sicut 
nuUam impetrandi fiduciam habent, sic nullam audaciam supplicandi. 

" Ad haecsistudia Procerum ducitis inquirenda,certum est eos adversus Ecclesiam 
quasi foedus invicem contraxisse, ut utilitates ejus semper impediant, et dignitatibus 
iiicessanter obsistant. Quia totum sibi reputant deperire, quicquid ejus vel honori 
vel proventibus viderint accessisse. Instant alacrius e6 quod grata de temporis 
opportunitate refulget occasio. Quia vires eis Regije suffragantur, quibus predicant 
se in his ad statum Regni conservandum fidelem diligentiam adhibere. Aiunt 
Praedecessores ejus nee tantas vires nee tantam Potestatis amplitudinem habuisse, 
nee oportere eum indignius regnare, dignitati magis quam utilitatibus nitcndum 
• •«•»• attribuunt ergo dignitati quicquid olim de potentate constat 
esse prajsumptum • ♦ • ♦ 

" Ille vero avidius quam expediret, blandos adulantium sermones amplectitur, 
quos nihil aliud quam dolum malignitatis esse, novissimo deprehendet effectu. Si 
quis enim eorum altius vota discutiat, intelliget quia callide sibi gratiam ejus, et ipsi 
laboris et detrimenti materiam praeparant in futurum. Ad hoc totis anhelant desi- 
deriis, totis artibus claborant, dummodo eorum non innotescat intentio, ut scilicet 
ejus quandoque potentia reprimi possit. • • * • 

" Si haec alicui duxcritis osteiidenda,nomen supprimatur Auctoris: Quia quantum 
meA intersit ha2c ad Regis notitiam non venire, vestra cxperientia non ignorat." 



THOMAS A BECKET. 143 

higher classes, — and that in the event of any change which should 
render the clerical profession distasteful to the wealthy and well 
connected, the Church must necessarily sink into insignificance. 

Such, however, was certainly not the case in the times I speak of. 
The high church party of the 12th century endeavoured as much 
as possible to make common cause with the poor and the defenceless. 
Becket always speaks of the poor as "Pauperes Christi": and the 
condescension which his party practised towards them, both before 
and after his times, appears to us almost incredible. One of Becket's 
practices, which is now most insisted on as a proof of his ostentatious 
sanctity, viz., that he was accustomed daily to wash the feet of 
"thirteen pauperes," seems to have been nothing more than was 
then expected from persons in his station; indeed, so little was it 
noticed among his contemporaries, that it did not exempt him from 
the imputation of over attachment to worldly splendour. The same 
thing may be said of his extensive charities, which attracted so little 
notice at the time, that we might infer, even from this circumstance 
alone, what we have abundant evidence of from other sources, viz., 
the commonness of such munificence among those by whom the claims 
of the Church were most sternly upheld. 

A further instance of the patronage which the Church afforded 
to the common people, is distinctly pointed at in the 16th article 
of the Council of Clarendon: — 

"The sons of peasants ought not to be ordained without the 
consent of the lord of whose land they are acknowledged to be 
born (the serfs)."* 

It is clear from hence that the privileges of the Church, which 
made ordination equivalent to emancipation, were exerted for 
the benefit of the lower orders ; who thus were enabled to emerge 
from hereditary vassalage, and sometimes even to attain an elevation 
equal to that of the highest lay nobility. How extensively this 
system was acted on, and consequently how great the interest which 
the lower orders had in the welfare of the Church, may be inferred 
from a saying of Henry, quoted by Gervase. [Script. Hist. Ang. 
a Twysden, p. 1595.] Henry is there represented as speaking 
with great bitterness of the monastic orders for introducing low 
people into the Church : — 

" These also admit all such as brothers (monks), such as Tanners 
(? — pelliparios) and Shoemakers, of whom not one ought, even on 
a pressing necessity, to be promoted to a Bishoprick, or an Abbacy, 
our conscience saving. "f 

The claim which the Church put forward to exclusive jurisdiction 
in the causes of widows and orphans was part of the same system, 
and a part which was regarded with especial jealousy. That this 



* " Filii Rusticorum non debent Ordinari absque assensu Domini de cujus Terra 
nati esse dignoscuntur." 

t " Hi quoque omnes tales sibi fratres associant, pelliparios scilicit et sutores, quorum 
nee unus deberet instante necessitate in Episcopum vel Abbatem salva nostra consci- 
enti4 promoveri." 



144 THOMAS A BECKET. 

claim was advanced by the Church, and that Henry selected it as one 
of the first points of attack, is evident, from a letter wnitten to 
Becket, by John, Bishop of Poictiers, in the year 1163, (Ep, D. 
Thomee, I. 1.) His letter relates the arrival of John de Luscy, and 
Simon Lord Constable of Touars, with orders from the King respect- 
ing the regulation of church government. 

** They forbade me under a distinct threat from usurping any thing 
pertaining to the dignity of the King ; to which mandate, when I 
repUed that I would willingly obey, they descended to particulars, 
forbidding me from presuming to interfere with the quarrels of widows 
or orphans, or any of the Clergy of my Diocese."* 

The same system which allied the lower ordersf to the Church, 
would tend likewise to alienate the nobility from it. These might 
naturally enough feel indignant at a power which intruded itself 
between themselves and their vassals, and, in an age when hereditary 
'distinction was especially valued, took upon itself to dispense with 
the privileges of birth, often authorising the peasant to exercise spiri- 
tual authority over his lord. 

But, in addition to this, another cause was in operation during a 
great part of the 12th century, which often gave a personal character 
to the animosity with which the high Laity regarded the Chiu*ch. 
The first article of the Council of Clarendon is this: — 

" Concerning the advowson or presentation of churches. If a 
dispute should arise among the Laity, or among the Clergy and 
Laity, or among the Clergy, it should be deferred and settled in 
the Court of our Lord the King. "J 



* " Inhibuerunt mihi sub distincta interminatione ne aliquid ad Dignitatem 
Regis pertinens mihi usurparem : cui Mandate cum me libenter pariturum respon- 
dissem ad specialia tandem descenderunt, prohibentes nc ad querelas Viduarum vel 
Orphanorum vel Clericorum aliquem Parochianorum meorum intrahere praesu- 
merem." 

t The support which Becket derived from the lower orders, has been accounted 
for by a French writer (M. Thierry) on a novel and ingenious manner. He 
asserts that Becket was a Saxon, the first who since the Conquest had attained a high 
station in the Church, and that, for this reason, his cause was naturally taken up by 
the rest of his race, who were still a degraded cast in England. And certainly 
if Becket was a Saxon, this circumstance may have contribtUed to his popularity in 
the way supposed by M. Thierry. 

But has this fact been clearly made out? The following passage in Fitz- Stephen's 
Life of Becket seems to cast a doubt over it :— 

*' Becket, " says Fitz-Stephen, "obtained an early introduction to Theobald 
through his father, who was an old neighbour and even relative of the Arch- 
bishop — * ut ille natu Normannus et circa Tierici villara de equestri ordine natu 
vicinus.' " 

Besides, the name Becket, or, as it is sometimes spelt, Bequet, is, as M. Thierry 
himself observes, a Norman diminutive of a Norman root — Becque; and hence, as a 
term of endearment, Becquet. In Saxon, it would have been Beckie. 

His Mother was certainly a Saracen. At all events, supposing him to have been 
a Saxon, this circumstance could have added but little to the popularity of a cause 
in which, for other reasons, the common people were so much interested. 

J " De Advocatione (the advowson) et Prasentatione Ecclesiarum. Si controversia 
emerserit inter Laicos, vel inter Clericos et Laicos, vel inter Clericos, in Curia 
Domini Regis tractetur et terminetur.'' 



THOMAS A BECKET. 145 

And the history of the hundred years which succeeded the Pontifi- 
cate of Hildebrand is a continued comment upon this article. The 
length and virulence of the struggle in which the Church and State 
contended for the right of investitures is well known, and, a^ far as it 
aifects the higher offices of the Church, need not be dwelt upon here. 
But it may not perhaps be equally understood, in what way this 
controversy affected the presentations to smaller benefices. My 
belief is that the claims of the Church extended in principle to all 
Church preferment whatever, but that in practice these claims were 
never put forward, except where there was a fair chance of car- 
rying them through with success ; — hence fhat the higher patronage, 
bishopricks, rich abbeys, &c., fell from time to time either into 
the hands of the King or the legitimate clerical electors, according 
as the condition of either party w^as flourishing or the reverse ; and 
that other benefices — Parish Churches, for instance — were disposed 
of sometimes by the bishop of the diocese, sometimes by the lord of 
the soil, — more by the rule of might than any acknowledged arrange- 
ment. Thus, that in some places the permanent greatness of the 
resident noble family may have secm^ed a succession of undisputed 
Presentations which at length almost amounted to a prescriptive 
right, w^hile in others the caprice of fortune placed the same benefice 
sometimes at the disposal of the bishop, sometimes of a lay patron, 
and not unfrequently so balanced the power of each party, as to 
excite the hopes of both, thus giving occasion to severe disputes. An 
instance of the last sort is mentioned by Fitz-Stephen at the opening 
of the dispute between Becket and Henry : — 

" In the same manner the Archbishop had given the Church of 
Eynesford to one Lawrent, a clergyman — as it w^as his privilege 
to give the churches that were vacant in ViUs, as well of his 
Barons as of the Monks of Canterbury. Willelmus, the lord of 
the Villf claiming a right to Eynesford, expelled Lawrent's men. 
The Archbishop excommunicated him. The King immediately 
wrote to the Archbishop to absolve him. The Archbishop replied, that 
it did not belong to the King to command any one to be absolved, 
no more than to be excommunicated. The King contended that 
it belonged to his regal dignity, because any one who held of him in 
chief, could not, without his being consulted, be excommunicated. 
At last, to soothe the King, who w^as already growing angry with him, 
and spoke to him only by messengers, the Archbishop absolved 
Willelmus."* 

Here we have a church fallinar vacant within the domains of one of 



♦ " Item Ecclesiain d« Eynesfordia cuidam Clerico Laurentio Archiepiscopus 
donaverat. Ejus siquidem est tam Baronum suorum quam Monachorum Cantuari- 
ensium vacantes in villis donare Ecclesias. Dominus villse Willelmus de Eynesfordia 
reclamans, homines Laurentii expulit ; Archiepiscopus eum excommunicavit. Rex 
statim Archiepiscopus scripsit ut eum absolveret. Respondit Archiepiscopus, non 
esse Regis pra2cipere quemquam absolvi, sicut nee excommunicari. Rex contendit 
de Regali sua esse Dignitate, quod non excommunicatur qui de eo in capite teneat, 
ipso inconsulto. Tandem ad Regem mitigandum, qui jam in eum excaudescebat, 
et non nisi per nuntios ei loquebatur, Archiepiscopus Willelraum absolvit," 

Vol. \\\.—Feb. 1833. u 



146 THOMAS A BECKET. 

the king's tenants in chief; the Archbishop claiming the right of pre- 
sentation hy virtue of his office ; a conflict ensuing between the parties, 
begun with violence on the part of the laymen, and met with spiritual 
censure by the Archbishop : the whole terminated by the interference 
of the king, to the prejudice of the church. And this seems only to be 
a specimen of what was frequently happening. Indeed, so general 
and so irritating were the disputes which arose out of this subject, 
that a party among the higher clergy would gladly have relinquished 
these claims, had not the court of Rome persisted in enforcing them. 
Roger, Archbishop of York, among others, made overtures to this 
effect, about the time of the council of Clarendon, and sent a proposal 
to the Pope, asking permission to compromise the point in question, by 
buying off lay claimants to Church patronage — " quod liceat redimere 
a laicis advocationes ecclesiarum ;" but the request was not granted. 
Becket's correspondent proceeds, " Which he could not yet obtain" — 
J* Quod necdum potuit obtinere." (Ep, D. Thomse, I. 8.) 

That the claims of the church, which gave rise to the above-men- 
tioned disputes, were not confined to particular benefices, but extended 
generally to all, is made clear by a letter of Becket's, written at the 
conclusion of 1J69, to Henry, Bishop of Winchester. At the time 
this letter was written, Becket began to feel his strength, and having 
prevailed on the Pope to lay aside his timid policy, was empowered 
to use his own discretion in bringing his enemies to terms. In conse- 
quence, he wrote to the Bishop of Winchester, who was now begin- 
ning openly to espouse his cause, and after giving him directions how 
to proceed against the king, adds — *' Under the same interdiction 
we order that you may cause it to be pubhcly announced, that 
those are excommunicated who, contrary to the institutions of the 
sacred canons, have received churches, or ecclesiastical offices and 
benefices, from the hands of the laity."* 

This order is not confined to particular benefices or particular offices, 
but extends generally to all such as are received from lay patrons. 
Many other orders might be cited to the same effect, but this is per- 
haps sufficient.f 

* " Sub eadem quoque interminatione praecipimus quatenus eos excommunicatos 
esse publice denunciari facialis qui ecclesias aut ecclesiastica officia et beneficia, contra 
sacrorum canonum institutionem de manu laicorum acceperunt." 

f The state of things which has been here described, seems to suggest an expla- 
nation of the obscurity which lays over the origin of private patronage in this country. 
(1) It prepares us to believe that the origin of such patronage, as it now exists 
among us, is not to be looked for earlier than the thirteenth century, for before that 
time almost every presentation was a subject of contest. (2) That, whatever may 
be the time from which any given benefice resided in lay hands, we are not to look 
for a formal account how it passed into them at first, for this has probably resulted, 
in the first instance, from successful encroachment on the rights of the bishop, who 
claimed to present jwre divirio, and afterwards from a cessation of the claim when it 
could no longer be enforced ; or from an understanding between the bishop and lay 
patron, which time at length ratified. (3) That whatever may have been the manner 
in which the transfer was effected, it is not likely to liave been accompanied with any 
regular grant of titles from the lay patron to the church ; for that, anterior to the 
transfer in question, the church, by claiming the right of presentation, must have 
claimed the titles to wliich it presented ; and could afterwards accept of no grant 
without owning its past exaction to have been unjust. 



THOMAS A BECKET. 147 

Thus the opposition of the church to lay patronage, causing, as it 
did, frequent and irritating struggles between individuals among the 
laity antl clergy, gave a personal character to the animosity with which 
the nobles regarded Becket, and induced them to join a king whom 
they feared and hated, to effect the overthrow of a party which, though 
they feared it less, they hated more. 

Such, then, was the general disposition of the laity at the opening 
of this very singular contest. I shall now say something about the 
clergy. 

Among these, the government party was composed principally either 
of cautious or worldly men, who seem to have anticipated greater evils 
from a collision with Henry and the nobility, than from entire sub- 
mission to their demands. These persons were of opinion that even 
after all controverted points had been conceded, still so much of what 
was valuable would remain, that no wise man w^ould hazard this, on 
the chance of preserving more. They could not, as they said, take 
upon themselves the responsibility of unsettling the whole state of things 
with the hope of carrying a few points, which, after all, were only of 
secondary importance ; and for this reason they took an early oppor- 
tunity of disengaging themselves from the Archbishop, who was sup- 
posed to carry his principles (in themselves good) to extravagant lengths. 
This party consisted principally of the richer clergy, and especially 
those in responsible situations — the abbots and bishops. 

In addition to these, there were others who adopted apparently the 
same line of conduct, but for very different reasons. 

For some time previous to the reign of Henry II., it had been a 
fashion among the nobility to encourage a party in the church that 
affected extraordinary sanctity. The strictest of all the monastic 
orders, the Cistercian, had been introduced into England by Walter 
Espec, in 1132 ; and between that time and the death of Stephen — a 
period by no means remarkable for its munificence — there had been 
founded no less than forty-three Cistercian monasteries, each of which 
are rated in the king's books at a value above 100/. per annum. These 
monasteries were, moreover, regarded by the crown with especial 
favour : no pecuniary exaction was ever levied upon them till Hubert, 
Archbishop Of Canterbury, obliged them to contribute towards the 
ransom of Richard I. Nor were they, on their part, insensible of the 
privileges they enjoyed. In the reign of Richard I., when the contest 
between the monastic and secular parties was at its height, we find all 
the abbots of the Cistercian order siding with the latter party and the 
court, against the former, though supported by the authority of Rome. 
And in the year 1166, the English Cistercian establishments exerted 
themselves to disengage from Becket's cause their brethren on the 
continent. 

Whatever the feeling was which induced the English nobility to 
encourage these ascetic establishments, it affords a probable explanation 
of the good understanding which prevailed between them and Gilbert 
Foliot. Gilbert, as we have already seen, was a person of very austere 
habits ; to such an extent, indeed, that on one occasion the Pope found 
it necessary to remonstrate with him for injuring his health. We have 



148 THOMAS A BECKET. 

also seen that the favour with which he was regarded by the nobility, 
was Henry's reason for translating him from Hereford to London : 
and he too, as well as the Cistercian abbots, repaid this courtesy by 
very active opposition to the Archbishop's party. 

Further light is thrown upon this subject in John of Salisbury's 
curious work, " De Nugis CuriaHum et vestigiis Philosophorum," 
where we find that in his days there certainly existed a low church 
party, professing extraordinary strictness in their own conduct, yet 
allying themselves with men of the world, in opposition to the church 
authorities. — "Thence it is that they exhibit paleness in their 
countenances, that they heave deep sighs from habit, that they are 
suddenly suffused with artful and ready tears ; with their head stiff, 
their eyes half shut, their hair short, their head close shaven, their 
voice low, their lips quick from prayer. * * * TJiese are the men 
who, if any stain have been fixed on the church, whilst they are travelling 
-abroad, discover it to the public eye, that they may themselves appear 
free from all stain. Tliese are the men who persuade those in power that 
on account of the faults of individuals, the church should be deprived of 
her right. They take tithes and first-fruits away from the churches, 
and they receive the churches themselves from the hands of the laity, 
without consulting the bishops. * * * * * They implore the 
assistance of secular powers, and promise them divine favour. * * — 
They amplify the mercy of the Lord, who wishes that none should 
perish, which (mercy) they say, as it is open and extensive to the 
penitent, so it is shut against those only who despair. ***** 
They are, therefore, consenting to wicked morals, and courting popular 
affection ; by their assent they shut up the ears of men, lest they should 
hear the chiding of the prelates."* 

It is probably to this party that Herbert de Boscham alludes, when 
he speaks of the " too just and indiscreetly religious" — nimis justi et 
indiscreti religiosi, — who took offence at what they thought laxity in 
Becket's character. 

Such, then, were the elements of the clerical faction who joined the 
king and nobles in attempting the overthrow of the high church party. 
But Becket and his pauperes Christi were too strong for them. 

It will naturally be inquired how any thing like a contest could be 
maintained between parties so composed; where, according to our 



• " Inde est qxiod facie pallorem ostentant, profunda ab usu trahunt suspiria, arti- 
ficiosis et obsequentibus lacrymis subito inundantur, obstipo capite, luminibus inter- 
clusis, coma brevi, capite fere raso, voce demissa, lal)iis ab oratione mobilibus, 
• • • Hi sunt qui si quid maetdce inhcBsit ecclegiee, dum peregrinantur, puhlicis 
aspectibus detegunt, ut ipsi ab omni macula videantur immunes. Hi sunt qui pote»- 
tatibus persuadent quod propter vitia personarum, jure suo priventur ecclesia:. Deciina- 
tiones et primitias ecclesiis subtrahunt, et ecclesias ipsas accipiunt de manu laicorum, 
episcopis inconsultis. » • • • • Saecularium potestatum implorant 
auxilium, et eis divinam gratiam pollicentur. ♦ » • * Amplificant mise- 
ricordiam Domini qui neminem vult perire; quam, sicut apertam et patentem poeni- 
tentibus, sic solis desperantibus praeclusam esse pronuntiant. • * ♦ Consen- 
tiunt ergo moribus iniquis, et popularem provocantes affeptionem, assentationibus 
obturant aures hominum, ne increpationes audiant preelatorum." (De Nugis Curial. 
L. vij. c. 21.) 



THOMAS A BECKET. 149 

notions, all the power must have been on one side. It is difficult for 
us to conceive any system of warfare which could enable a set of 
defenceless churchmen, baxiked by the good wishes of a half-enslaved 
peasantry, to make head against the chivalry of England, and the 
ablest as well as most powerful of her kings. Nor is it likely that 
any one should divest his mind of this difficulty except by a careful 
examination of the events which seem at first so unintelligible. 

Yet this examination may be, in some degree, facilitated by a few 
introductory remarks, tending, not indeed to remove the difficulty in 
question, but to point out where to look for its solution. 

And, in the first place, I would observe, that in the time of Henry 
II. the catholic church was one compact machine, of which no indi- 
vidual part could move without giving an impulse to the rest. The 
churches of Italy, France, Germany, and England were cemented 
together by closer ties than now unite any two dioceses in this country. 
Men of letters, from all parts of civilized Europe, talked a common 
language ; intermingled with one another in the course of their edu- 
cation ; expended large sums of money in keeping up their corres- 
pondence; frequently met one another at the great centre of ecclesi- 
astical intelligence, the court of Rome ; w^ere, in many instances, pro- 
moted from one country to another ; and now and then were concen- 
trated at once by the calling of a general council. 

A large number of persons, so united, could not fail to act, in some 
degree, as a body ; especially as there was recognized throughout the 
whole mass, a strict system of subordination, which secured a union 
of action even where there did not exist a union of opinion. Inferiors 
were subjected to superiors by well defined laws, through which they 
seldom dared to break, however audacious might be their attempts at 
evasion. In the case of Becket, for instance, his suffi-agans professed, 
in all stages of their disobedience, to be acting in accordance with law ; 
and the necessity which obliged them to this, very materially interfered 
with the efficiency of their opposition. If he gave an order which 
they were determined to resist, their first endeavour was to prevent 
its delivery ; and for this they had recourse to the most violent mea- 
sures: the ports were blockaded along the coasts of England and 
Normandy ; the persons of all who embarked or debarked were care- 
fully searched ; and the most savage penalties were inflicted on any 
who were found with letters either fi-om the Pope or the Archbishop. 
If by any chance the messenger escaped their vigilance, and duly deli- 
vered his orders in the presence of witnesses, an appeal to the court of 
Rome was their next resource ; and that not with any prospect of 
obtaining a favourable sentence, but because, by so appealing, they 
procured (1) a respite from the obligation to immediate obedience, 
for, by the ecclesiastical law, any time short of a year from the deli- 
very of sentence was allowed to the appellant for collecting his evi- 
dence ; and (2) a chance of intercepting the second messenger who, 
after the term of the appeal had elapsed, would have to convey the 
repetition of the order. If both attempts failed, an embassy was sent 
to Rome from Henry ; and this last expedient succeeded on more than 
one occasion. But whatever were the partial successes of Becket's 



l50 THOMAS A BECKET. 

opponents, the complicated process by which they were obtained 
sufficiently attests the difficulty of obtaining them, and the magnitude 
of those impediments which the church system opposed to independent 
action on the part of its inferior officers. 

Again, the machinery of this system was so arranged as to afford 
especial faciUties for what in these days we call "agitation.'' The 
punishments with which the church visited individual offenders in- 
directly affected large masses of people — each sentence caused a 
general commotion. The obedient were made the instruments of 
punishing the disobedient, and thus two purposes were at once 
answered ; the faithful were themselves more closely united by acting 
together against the aliens. 

To go into particulars, — the process of excommunication, or, as it 
was then styled, of drawing the sword of St. Peter, was so contrived, 
as to cause the greatest possible sensation within the circle where the 
•offender was known. The sentence itself was pronounced by torch- 
light; at its conclusion the torches were extinguished, and the bells 
tolled : a messenger was then forwarded to all the clergy within the 
jurisdiction of the dignitary who pronounced it : it was repeated 
within all the churches, and posted on all the church doors. And all 
those to whose knowledge it came were forbidden, on pain of a 
similar punishment, to hold any communion, i. e. friendly inter- 
course, with the excommunicated person. Thus it was at any time 
in Becket's power to create a sensation through the whole province 
of Canterbury, and, if the Pope echoed his sentence, throughout 
civilized Europe. 

But the sentence of excommunication was resorted to very sparingly. 
It was kept in reserve against great occasions, or as a last resource, 
when milder methods had proved ineffectual. If a noble committed 
any offence against the church, his first warning was conveyed in a 
studiously temperate remonstrance : if this failed, it was intimated to 
him in a courteous, but very serious tone, that in case he persisted, it 
would be necessary to proceed farther. The next step was a formal 
notice, that unless he repented before a certain day, his property 
would be put under an interdict — a threat which, according to cir- 
cumstances, might be executed with various shades of severity. 
We have a specimen of one of its stricter forms in the order sent 
by Becket to Henry, Bishop of Winchester, at the end of 11 69 : — 

" Thence it is that, by apostolic authority, and by our own, in 
commanding you, my brother, in virtue of your obedience, under an 
anathema, endangering your dignity and order, we bid you, unless 
our lord the king shall think proper, before the purification of the 
blessed Virgin, to restore to the church of God, and to us, what has 
been taken from us, and, by a due renewal of right, to recall the pro- 
scribed innocent, and (unless he) permits the sacred institutions of the 
church to be in force, and the clergy and people, as is just, to obey the 
holy Roman church, that from that time you prohibit, throughout 
your entire bishoprick, all divine offices from being celebrated in all 
the churches, except the baptism of infants, penance, and extreme 
unction, whicli the presbyters are permitted to perform, for the 



THOMAS A BECKET. 151 

necessity of salvation, uuith closed doors, without the ringing of bells, or 
any soUmnity of ecclesiastical rejoicing*' 

The letter proceeds — 

" And if the before mentioned, our lord the king, shall not thus, in 
the scourge of the people, have corrected, with due satisfaction, the 
aforesaid excesses, you will take notice, and irrefragably declare to 
him, with the authority of the Lord, that we shall no longer spare his 
person, which we unwillingly say, as we have hitherto done to the 
danger of our salvation." * 

The particularity of the orders here given respecting those portions 
of the church service which were to be permitted, is a proof that the 
sentence of interdict did not necessarily imply certain conventional 
restrictions, but admitted of greater or less severity. In some cases 
only, the last part of the order may have been enforced. None of 
the services may have been altogether inhibited, and the interdict may 
have gone merely to the manner of performing them " with closed 
doors, without the ringing of bells, or any solemnity of ecclesiastical 
rejoicing." 

But such a sentence in its mildest form could not fail to create 
a very strong impression. When we recollect the avidity with which 
our common people sometimes clamour for permission to ring the 
church bells, in a season of rejoicing, or the sensation which is often 
caused in a village by what is vulgarly called "a strike" in the 
parish quire, we may form some idea of the commotion that would 
be excited by the simultaneous silence of bells and music through a 
whole diocese, or even archdeaconry. 

And if the sentences of the church were themselves calculated to 
create a sensation, there w^as something still more striking in the 
manner of delivering them to the offender. 

The instructions given by Becket to Idonea, a nun, to whom, 
on a very critical occasion, he entrusted a sentence against the 
Archbishop of York, will speak more vividly than any description 
of ours: — 

" Thomas, by the grace of God, Archbishop of Canterbury, and 
legate of the apostolic see, to his beloved daughter, Idonea, perse- 
vering strength in the virtue of obedience and zeal for righteousness. 



* " Inde est quod Fraternitati vestrae in virtute obedientiae, sub Anathemate in 
periculo Dignitatis et Ordinis, Apostolica auctoritate et nostra prJBcipiendo man- 
damus, quatenus nisi infra Purificationem B. Mariae Dominus Rex Ecclesiae Dei 
et Nobis ablata restituere et proscriptos innocentes debita juris redintegratione 
revocare studuerit et sacras Ecclesia; sanctiones vigere permiserit, et Clerum et 
Populum ut justum est Sanctae Ilomanae Ecclesige obedire; ex tunc per totum Epis- 
eopatum vestrum in omnibus Ecclesiis omnia Divina prohibeatis Officia celebrari, 
excepto Baptismate parvulorum, et Pcenitentia, et Viatico, quod Presbyteri, clausis 
januis sine campanarum pulsatione et omni solemnitate jucunditatis £cclesiasticce, pro 
necessitate salutis conficere permittantur." 

" Et si nee sic, in flagello Populi, prsefatus Dominus noster Rex antedictos 
excessus debita satisfactione correxerit, noveritis, et ei irrefragabiliter denuntiatis, 
quoniam Persona; ejus, quod inviti dicimus, cum periculo salutis nostras ut hactenus 
fecimus, ultcrius Auctore Domino non parcemus." 



15Q THOMAS A BECKET. 

" God chooseth the weak things of the world, that he may throw 
down the strong. * * * * 

" The spirit of charity, which hath driven fear from thy heart, 
shall, through its grace, although those things which the necessity 
of the church has required to be done with constancy and expedition 
may appear difficult, cause them to be, not only possible, but also 
easy to you, having faith. 

" With this hope, therefore, conceived from the fervour which 
you have in the Lord, we order thee ; and for remission of (thy) sins, 
enjoin thee to deliver the letter of our lord the Pope, which we send 
to thee, to our venerable brother Roger, Archbishop of York, in the 
presence (if possible) of our brethren the bishops ; or, if you shall 
not be able to have them present, to do the same in the presence of 
those who shall happen to be there; and lest the original writing 
should, by some tergiversation y be suppressed, to give a transcript of it 
- to the bystanders, and as the messenger shall instruct thee more fully 
in these matters, to unfold the meaning of the letter. A great reward, 
my daughter, is proposed for thy trouble, * * * *. The mistress of 
mercy shall be with thee, to beg her Son, whom she brought forth for 
the salvation of the world, to be the guide, the companion, and the 
patron of thy journey. 

" Farewell, spouse of Christ, and mayst thou ever think Him 
present."* 

Nor was the danger slight which Idonea was thus summoned to 
incur — if, at least, we may judge from what happened on another 
occasion of much less importance. In the summer of 1166, search 
was made in the neighbourhood of Touque, in Normandy, for 
messengers of the Pope and Becket, who had delivered to some of the 
courtiers certain letters, at which the king took offence. 

" There a messenger of our lord the Pope was taken," says one 
of Becket's correspondents, " who is still kept in chains and prison. 
There God snatched from the hands of those who were seeking him 
Heribert, who, doubtless, for so trifling an affair, ought not to have 
undergone so great a danger. For it is foolish to be bold, where the 

* " Thomas, Dei gratia Cantuar. Archiepiscopus, et Sedis Apostolicae Legatus, 
dilects filia; suae Idoneae, perseverantem in virtute obediential et Justiciar zelo 
vigorem. "*" 

*' Infirma mundi elegit Deus ut fortia debellet * *. 

" Spiritus charitatis quia corde tuo timorem expulit per gratiam suam faciet ut tibi, 
licet ardua videantur quae necessitas Ecclesiae fieri constantius et instantius exegit, non 
modo possibilia sed et facilia sint credenti. 

" H4c ergo spe, de fervore quem habes in Domino concept^, tibi mandamus et in 
reraissione peccatorum injungimus, quatenus Litteras Domini Papae quas tibi mitti- 
mus, Venerabili Fratri nostro Rogerio Eboracensi Archiepiscopo tradas, sijieri potest 
prccsentlhus fratrihus Coepiscopis nostris, aut si eos praescntes habere nequiveris, hoc 
ipsum facias in praesentia eorum quos adesse contigerit, et ne originale Scriptum 
possit aliqud tergiversatione supprimi, transcriptum ejus legendum circumstantibus tradas, 
et eis prout plcnius te nuntius instruct, mentem aperias h'tterarum. 

" Labori tua, Filia, praemium grande proponitur * *. Aderit tibi IMagistra 
misericordiaj, Filium quem pro Mundi salute edidit, Deum et Hominem, rogatura ut 
sit dux, comes, et patronus itineris. 

" Val^, Sponsa Christi, et eum cogitcs semper esse praesentcm." 



THOMAS A BECKET. 153 

effect of one's labour is attended with neither the glory of great praise, 
nor the advantage of much emolument."* 

This is explained farther in the next letter written to Becket from 
Nicholas of Rouen : — 

« We suppose you are fully informed, that the servant who de- 
livered a letter to the king was put in confinement, with his fingers 
placed so as to tear out his eyes till the blood jiowed, and hot water poured 
down his throaty until he should confess that he had received a letter 
from Heribert; but he is not yet released from prison, although the 
king has received a mandate from his mother, to permit him to 

depart, "t 

The extent of the machinery here described, and the severity with 
■which those were visited who dared to set it in motion, prepare us to 
believe that its effects could not have been regarded with indifference; 
But w^e shall understand more feelingly the terror which it inspired 
on perusing a letter sent to Henry from Rome, at a time when 
the Pope had threatened to place the kingdom under an interdict. 

Henry's emissaries, who had hoped on this, as on former occasions, 
to satisfy the Court of Rome by the usual expedients, found to their 
dismay, that things now wore a more serious aspect. On their 
arrival at Grotta Ferrata they found one of tlieir company, Richard 
Barre, who liad been in advance of the rest, 

" Sad and troubled because our lord the Pope had not received 
him, and others had not shewn themselves kind and courteous to 
him." "But," they proceed, "our lord the Pope would neither 
see us when we an-ived, nor admit us to a kiss, nor to his foot. 
Scarcely any of the Cardinals deigned to give us a reception even in 
word. Anxiously continuing, therefore, along time, in the bitterness of 
our spirits, we intreated, in every way, those who loved us more 
faithfully, that by their intervention our lord the Pope might indulge 
us any how with an audience. 

" The lord Abbot of Wallatia and R. Archdeacon of Lisieux (?) 
who were considered less suspected, were admitted on our instance ; 
but when they, as most devout sons of the Church of Rome, proposed 
your name in salutation from you, the whole Court exclaimed 
Hold ! Hold! as if your name were abominable to our lord the Pope 
to hear * * * 

" However, the fifth festival before Easter approaching, on which, 
according to the practice of the Church of Rome, our lord the Pope 
is accustomed pubhcly to absolve or excommunicate, as we were 



* " Ibi Nuntius Domini Papae eaptus est, qui adhuc tenetur in vinculis et 
carcere. Ibi M. Heribertum Deus eripuit de manibus quaerentium eum. Qui cert^ 
pro negotio tarn modico, tantum non debuerat subiisse periculum. Stultum est enim 
ibi esse audacem ubi effeetum operis nee magnas gloria laudis nee multi emolumenti 
gratia comitatur.*' [Ep. D. T., I. 44.] 

f " Satis apud vos credimus esse cognituni,Puerum [the servant] qui Regilitteras 
tradidit in arcto fuisse positum, digitis ad oculos eruendas appositis usque ad effusionem 
sanguinis, et aqua calidd per os injectd, donee confiteretur se litteras a M. Heriberto 
accepisse, sed necdum a vinculis absolvitur, cum tamen Rex a Matre mandatum acce- 
perit, ut abire permittatur." 

Vol. III.— i^e^. 1833. x 



154 THOMAS A BECKET. 

sure, that if bent upon this, as they had very long treated about your 
grievance and that of your kingdom, we consulted those whom 
we knew to be more faithful to your Majesty, beseeching them most 
earnestly that they would open to us the Pope's mind, and what he 
proposed to settle about you. But as they brought back word to us 
nothing but what was ill boding and ignominious to your high rank ; 
from their sorrowful speech we foresaw that our lord the Pope 
had immutably fixed on that day to pronounce the sentence of inter- 
dict on you expressly, and on your land both on this side and beyond 
the sea. Reduced, therefore, to the greatest straits, we tried with all 
our energy, by means of the Cardinals, and those of our companions 
who had access to him, and by their friends, that he might desist from 
such a purpose, or, at least, defer it. 

"Which when it could by no means be done, we, as it became us, 
and, as we are your debtors, not being able to bear the disgrace 
to your person, and this grievance to all your land, having called 
together our companions before a few Cardinals, we found a way 
for safety by which we averted fi-om you and your land the danger 
which threatened you, and exposed ourselves to all the danger, 
for, being terrified (to death), by the intercession of these same 
Cardinals, we signified to the Pope, that we had received an order 
from you to swear in his presence that you would abide by his 
mandate, and swear this in propria persona."* 

* " Contristatum et confusum quia nee Dominus Papa eum receperat, nee alii 
benignos et humanos se ill! exhibuerunt." " Nos autem," they proeeed," venientes, 
Dominus Papa nee videre, nee ad osculum nee ad pedem voluit recipere. Vix enim 
plerique Cardinalium dignati sunt nos recipere vel in verbo. Diu ergo in amari- 
tudine spirituum nostrorura anxie continuati, his qui vos fidelius diligebant omni- 
mode supplicavimus ut eorum interventu Dominus Papa nobis quocunque modo 
audientiam indulgeret, 

" Ad instantiam recepti sunt Dominus Abbas de Wallatia et R. Archidiac, L#exo- 
viensis, qui minus habebantur suspecti. Ipsi autem cum nomen vestrum tanqua^i 
devotissimi Filii Romana? Ecclesiae in salutatione ex vestr^ parte proponerent, acela^ 
mavit tota Curia ' sustinete, ' * sustinete, ' tanquam Domino Papae abominabile esset 
audire nomen vestrum ♦ * • 

" Instante vero quinta feri4 ante Pascha, in qui de consuetudine Romanae Ecclesiae 
solet Dominus Papa publice absolvere vel exeommunieare, cum certi essemus quod 
de vestro et Regni vestri gravamine, tanquam ad hoc proni, diutissime tractassent ; 
consuluimus eos quos Majestati vestrae fideliores eognovimus, scilicet Dominum 

Portuensem &c. , cum omni studio et instantiA exorantes ut nobis 

animum Domini Papae, et quod eirci vos statuere proponeret, aperirent. 

** Ipsis vero nihil nisi sinistrum, et vestrae celsitudini ignominiosum reportantibus, 
ex singultuosi eorum relatione praesensimus quod eh die immutabiliter disposuerat 
Dominus Papa in vos nominatim et in totam terram vestram Cismarinara et 
Transmarinam Interdicti ferre sententiam. Positi ergo in arctissimo, omni studio 
attentavimus per Cardinales et per illos de sociis nostris qui ad ilhim habcbant 
accessum, et per familiares suos, ut cessaret ab hoc proposito, vel saltern differret. 

" Quod eum nullomodo fieri posset, nos, sicut decet, et sicut debitores vobis sumus. 
Persona? vestrae dedecus et totius Terrae vestra gravamen sustinere non valentes, 
tandem convocatis sociis nostris coram quibusdam Cardinalibus, viam invenimus 
saluti, pro quk a vobis et a Terrk vestri periculum quod imminebat avertimus, 
et nos ipsos toti periculo exposuimus. Timore namque perterriti eisdem Cardinalibus 
• intercedentibus, significavimus Domino Papae nos accepisse in Mandatis a vobis 
quod juraremus in pra^entii ejus quod vos stabitis in Mandato suo, et hoc jurabitis 
in Person^ propria," 



^ THOMAS A BECKET. 155 

The rest of the letter is in the same strain, and marks evidently 
the terror with which the impending sentence w^as regarded. 

It was to obtain this sentence that Becket had laboured continually 
during the six years of his exile ; but the Pope had never ventured 
to pronounce it. A cautious policy induced him to wait till the 
public mind had been sufficiently excited. For a long time he main- 
tained a neutral position, watching his opportunity ; and it was not 
.till Becket's death had roused all France and England to rally round 
the Church, that he dared to take the course which so effectually 
alarmed Henry's emissaries. 

But all this will appear more fully in the sequel ; what has been 
already mentioned may, perhaps, be sufficient to shew the kind 
of warfare in which an unarmed Church, assisted by the good wishes 
of the peasantry, withstood the united efforts of a powerful King 
-and an mcensed nobility. 

Lastly, there is one point more which it may be worth considering, 
before we enter into the details of this extraordinary contest. 

Since the Reformation a notion has prevailed among protestants 
that the concessions which Henry required from Becket, and which, 
on his endeavoiu-ing to extort them, were the occasion and ostensible 
cause of the whole dispute, ought, on all principles of law and reason, 
to have been granted unhesitatingly. 

1 . It has been generally assumed, that when the Church claimed 
exemption from secular jurisdiction in all cases which concerned 
its own privileges, it was guilty of one of those preposterous usurpa- 
tions which in after times were so frequent in the Church of Rome. 

This point, however, is set at rest by Mr. Turner, who shews that 
the claims of the Church were, in this instance, founded not merely 
in prescriptive usage, but on a formal grant of William the Conqueror. 
[Wilkins Concil. I. 363.] 

• 2. The cases in which Becket insisted on this exemption, and 
which brought the dispute to a crisis, have usually been so stated as 
to create an unfair impression to his disadvantage. 
■ Protestant historians seem to have wTitten under a feeling that 
Becket could have been influenced by no motive but a wish to secure 
impunity to offending Clergymen ; and while they have dw^elt upon the 
crimes which the civil Magistrates was not allowed to punish, 
they seem never to have inquired how the criminals fared in 
the hands of the Church. We have been told over and over 
again of the Clergyman who had seduced a Yeoman's daughter 
and murdered the Father. But it is not so generally understood, that 
*'The Chief Priest (Archiprsesul), however, being consulted, ordered, 
that, being deprived of all ecclesiastical benefice, he should be dis- 
charged, and that he should he perpetually confined in a Monastery to 
perform the perpetual penance of a solitary life."* 

And yet the authority of Herbert de Boscham, who informs us of 
the sentence, is as good as that of Fitz-Stephen, who details the crime ; 

♦ " Archipraesul vero consultus mandavit ut omni privatus Ecclesiastico Beneficio 
exauctoraretur, et in Monasterio ad agendam perpetuam vita districtissima; poenitentiam 
perpetuo rechideretur.'' 



156 THOMAS A BECKET. 

and as neither wTiter interferes with the statement of the other, we 
may believe both conjointly. 

However, it is far from my intention to assert that the church, in 
the reign of Henry II. was free from gross abuses. Nicholas of Rouen 
was conscious of their existence, and regretted that Becket's cause 
was unfairly mixed up with them. In a letter which I have often 
quoted, he wrote to Becket as follows : — 

" Know that the empress is engaged in the defence of her son, 
excusing him as well for his zeal for justice, as for the malice of the 
bishops, and that she is reasonable and discreet in discovering the 
origin of that ecclesiastical disturbance. For she says some things in 
which we admire her sense, and in which we delight. The bishops in- 
discreetly ordain clergy who have no title to orders from nominations 
to any churches ; from whence it happens, that a multitude of those 
who have been ordained, from poverty and idleness fall into disgrace* 
1^1 actions : for he does not fear to destroy the church, who has no 
title from any church. He fears no punishment, because the church 
will defend him. He does not fear the bishop's prison, who would 
rather pass him over unpimished, when turned over to him (?) than 
have the trouble of feeding and keeping him in prison. Concerning 
the ordination of him who has no title to a church, that it is void, 
to the injury of him who ordained him, is proved by the synod of 
Chalcedon, one of the four which Gregory embraced with the like 
devotion as the four books of the Evangelists. 

" In the same manner, four or seven churches or prebends are 
given to one clergyman, although the sacred canons everywhere plainly 
forbid a clergyman from being appointed to two churches. From the 
occasion of this bad custom, again, pay attention to how many con- 
troversies arise about the gift and presentation of churches. The 
empress spoke of this circumstance on the occasion of Richard of 
Ilchester. But the bishops who do this for their relations, and the 
laity who do this for their dependants, should hold their peace. 

" Likewise, that the bishops receive great sums of money for the 
ans of those who excuse themselves to them, does not well agree w4th 
the canon. 

. " Since, therefore, from these and similar circumstances, there arise 
ecclesiastical disturbance, it is to be wondered that the axe of Epis- 
copal judgment is not applied to the tree, but to the little branches. 
Since it is effected by divine dispensation, that from such a root there 
should publicly spring the fruit of bitterness. 

" Wherefore, (if) you love the liberty of the church, for the sake of 
God, shew by your words and actions that the before -mentioned tilings 
displease you ; and, if you should send a letter to the empress, signify 
the same in some part. We tell you, on the word of truth, that for 
the love of rectitude and the safety of our soul, we have written what 
has been just said. If any thing has been said fooUshly, grant us your 
pardon."* 

♦ " Scitote quod Domina Imperatrix in defensione Filii «ui versata est, eum excu- 
sans turn per zuluiu justiciae, turn per malitiam £pisco])orum ; tutn in deprchendend^ 
originc conturbationis ccclcsiasticse rationabilis ct discreta. 



NOTICES OF THE OLDEN TIME. 157 

To these observations of Nicholas I shall add nothing of my own. 
In a future number I shall proceed with the narrative, and leave facts 
to speak for themselves. 



NOTICES OF THE OLDEN TIME. 



To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Sir, — I have prepared for you copious extracts from my early 
** Churchwarden's accounts," a portion of which I have now the 
pleasure of sending, as they are by far too numerous to be obtruded 
on one number of your excellent miscellany, and would occupy space 
that might be devoted to much more valuable matter. 

I think them interesting as throwing light on the manners of our 
ancestors, occasionally on their language, and shewing the compara- 
tive value of money and labour in the " olden time." Should you 
differ from me in any instance, you have my free permission to 
expunge any passage that you may consider irrelevant or devoid of 
interest. I have, here and there, subjoined a word or two in expla- 
nation; and this also I leave to your judgment. 

" In the 7th year of Henry 7th. 

" R** the iij'^ Day of Juyn in money gaded of the Shotyng on all 



" Dicit enim qucedam in quibus ejus sensum et lattdavimus et adjuvimus. Episcopi 
clericos indiscrete ordinant, qui nuUis Ecclesiis Titulantur. Ex quo fit ut ordina- 
torura multitudo paupertate et otio ad turpia facta prolabatur. Non enim timet 
perdere ecclesiam qui nulli Titulatus est. Non timet paenam quia ilium ecclesia 
defensabit. Non timet episcopi carcerem qui mavult impunitum transire conversum, 
quam pascendi vel custodiendi solicitudinem adhibere. De ordinatione illius qui 
ecclesiae non Titulatur quod irrita sit ad injuriam illius qui eam fecit, testatur 
sy nodus Chalcedonensis, una de quatuor quas Gregorius sicut quatuor Evangelii 
Libros tota devotione amplectitur. Hoc et alii plures canones. 

" Item uni clericulo quatuor aut septem ecclesiae tribuuntur, aut praebendae, cum 
sacri canones ubique manifeste prohibeant ne clericus in duobus ecclesiis connume- 
retur. Hujus iterum pravae consuetudinis occasione, quantas de dationibus et prsesen^ 
tationibus ecclesiarum controversias nascuntur, attendite. Super bac re locuta est 
Domina Imperatrix occasione Ricardi de Ivelchester. Verum taceant episcopi qui 
hoc faciunt suis parentibus, laici qui sibi servientibus. 

" Item quod multas pecunias suscipiunt episcopi propter peccata apud eos excnsa^ 
torum, satis canonibus non consentit. 

" Quia i^itur ex his et similibus nascitur ecclesiastica perturbatio, mirandum 
valde est cur securis episcopalis judicii non ad radicem arboris sed ad ramusculos 
adhibetur. Divina siquidem dispensatione actum est ut ex tali radice fructus amari«- 
tudinis publice nasceretur. 

" Quapropter [si] * libertatem ecclesiae propter Deum diligitis, quod praedicta nobis 
displiceant, verbis et factis ostendite. Et si litteras ad Dominam Imperatricem 
miseritis, id ipsum ex aliqua parte significate. In verbo veritatis vobis dicimus quod 
amore rectitudinis et salutis animae nostrae quae praedicta sunt scripsimus : Si qua 
insipienter dicta sunt date veniam." 

* [Si] is au insertion of my own ; something was necessary to complete the sentence ; and I 
have selected [si] as most unfavourable to Becket. Yet the word [si] , if I am right in inserting it, 
cannot be supposed to imply a doubt in the mind of Nicholas, who was one of Becket's most 
devoted friends. 



"158 .NOTICES OP TUE OLDEX TIME. 

charges ij* j**." Fancy Fairs and Ladies Bazaars " as then were not/' 
.Instead of these, a merry meeting, such as a slwoting -match or church- 
all (see a subsequent extract under 1498 and 1503) was no unusual 
metnod of "raising the wind." 

" Itm p*^ for brede at drynkyng whan the wnfs had gadered money 
xij*^." The collection was made on Good Friday ; the drinking took 
place in the Easter holidays. 

" Itm p*^ for flesshe and chese at the same drynkyng ij'." 

" Itm p^ to the harper the same tyme iiij**." 

** Itm p'' for xvib of candills xv*^." These were tallow ; the price of 
wax candles was ** viij'*." 

1498 — 99. " Itm rec*^ at the Buryng of Thoms Mans for brekyng of 
the grounde in the Chyrche a kynderkyn of ale." 

" Itm for a lb of percherse on xpsmnessesday j''." 

" Payd Barth Spotte iFor the Sylv'' pax and the Crosse of Sylv' that 
"he had to plege xxv*." 

" Payd iFor the tredell x'," Query, w^hat was this? 

1503 — 1505. "Itm R*^ for a kyltherkyn of good Ale weche was 
drunkyn in the yrymongars hall all charg* born xij*. ij''." 

1506. " Itm to the Juner [joiner] in Eyrnest to make an Image of 
all hallo wen iiij." 

1507. "Itm Ressd of hokkmonday in gaderyng mony of y* wyffes 
in y* hy strete xxj**." 

"Itm paide for the halyloffe for A man y* wente Awaye iij**." 

1520. " Paid for j pynt of Muskadyll j*^. q. 

1521. " Itm p** for a Image of y^ resurreccion ix*. ij**." 
1523. " Itm p^ for the vyce Made for the Resurreccion xij**.'* 
1525. "Paid to Thomas Crown shomaker for mendyg of owre 

organnes xxvij*. viij"*. 

1535 — 6. "Itm paid vnto thegoodman Chese broyderer for makyng 
of a new mytter for the byshoppe ageynst saint Nycholas night 
ij*. viij*^." i. e. the boy-bishop. See Brand. Pop. Antiq. i. 234, &c. 

" Itm for the hyryng of A payer of wynges A here [wig] and A 
creste for an Angell on paulme sonday viij''. 

1536. " Itm geven vnto the morrowmasse priste j**." Evidently 
**& God's peony," or earnest to engage his services. 
4|; 1540. " Itm R** of Mr. parson toward the byble vij'. iiij^ ." 

" Itm p'^ for A byble xj*. viij**." 
- " Itm for bynddng ther of and a chayne iij". j*^." 

" Itm p'^ for the Dext'' ij". iiij'*." 

" Itm p** for a lok and ij keyse for the avmbre [cupboard] vndar the 
byble and ij hengexvj''." 

This was Archbishop Cranmer's Great Bible, printed in 1539, 
which, as appears from the above extracts, was fastened by a chain 
to a desk, for the convenience of the reader, and then secured in a 
closet below. I can well recollect when a Bible was thus placed on 
the south-east pillar of the aisle of St. Magnus, London Bridge. We 
shall aftenvards see Bishop Jewell's works similarly placed. 

1541. " Itm for mendeng y" Ressurreccyon brest viij**. 

" Itm to the ffoundar for ij grett Candclstykkes wayeng. CCxj"**; att 



NOTICES OF THE OLDEN TIME. 159 

ij*. ob a '*•• xlviij'. xj''. ob Wherof he Rec*^ in owld Candesteks dd 
Cix'''. at j**. ob A pound so rest to y* ifoundar Sm xP. x*^. 

In42. " Itm for the pasckale by ob a man or woman In the p 
safFe prentesys wyth in the parys do pay a ob to the pasckall a yere 
xvj^" 

No other entries of any moment occur till 1548. 



SELECTIONS FROM EVELYN'S DIARY. 
Continued from Vol. III. p. 43. 

1666. 7 March. — Dr. Sandcroft, since Abp. of Canterbury, 
preached before the King about the identity and immutability of God, 
on 102 Psalm, 27. 

10. — Dr. Bathurst preached before the King from " I say unto you 
all, watch," a seasonable and most excellent discourse. 

4 July. — The solemn Fast Day. Dr. Nigot preach'd an excellent 
discourse before the King, on the terrors of God's judgments. 

29. — The pestilence now afresh increasing in our Parish, I forbore 
going to Church. In the afternoone, came tidings of our victorie over 
the Dutch, sinking some, and driving others aground and into their 
ports. 

7 Sep. — Still the plague continuing in our parish ; I could not, 
without danger, adventure to our Church. 

16, — I went to Greenwich Church, where Mr. Plume preached 
very well from this text — " Seeing, therefore, all these things must be 
dissolved," &c., taking occasion from the late unparalleled confla- 
gration to mind us how we ought to walke more holyly in all manner 
of conversation. 

10 Oct. — This day was ordered a generallfast thro' the Nation, to 
humble us on the late dreadfuU conflagration, added to the plague 
and warr, the most dismal judgments that could be inflicted, but 
which, indeede, we highly deserved for our prodigious ingratitude, 
burning lusts, dissolute Court, profane and abominable lives under 
such dispensations of God's continued favour, in restoring Church, 
Prince, and People, from our late intestine calamities, of which we 
were altogether unmindfull, even to astonishment. This made me 
resolve to go to our Parish assembiie, where our Doctor preached on 
the 19 Luke, 41, piously applying it to the occasion; after which was 
a collection for the distressed loosers in the late fire. 

1667. 8 Jan. — I saw deepe and prodigious gaming at the Groome 
Porters, vast heapes of Gold squandered away in a vaine and profuse 
manner. This I looked on as a horrid vice, and unsuitable in a 
Christian Court. 

1668. 31 Dec. — I entertained my kind neighbours according to 
custome, giving Almighty God thanks for his gracious mercys to me 
the past yeare. 

1669. 1 Jan. — Imploring His blessing for the yeare entring, I 
went to Church, where our Doctor preached on 65 Psalm, 12, appo- 
site to the season and beginning a new yeare. 



100 NOTICES OF THE OLDEN TIME. 

18 March. — I went with Lord Howard, of Norfolk, to visit S' W"* 
Ducie, at Charlton, where we dined ; the servants made our Coach- 
men so drunk that they both fell off their boxes on the Heath, where 
we were fain to leave them, and were driven to London by two 
sers^ants of my Lord's. This barbarous custom of making the Masters 
welcome by intoxicating the servants had now the second time hap- 
pen' d to my Coachman. 

14 April. — I din'd with the Abp. of Canterbury, at Lambeth, and 
saw the Library, which was not very considerable. 

11 July. — The Act Sermon (Oxford) was this forenoone preach'd 
by Dr. Hall, in St. Maries, in an honest, practical Sermon, against 
Atheisme. In the aflemoone the Church was so crowded that, not 
coming early, I could not approach to heare. 

26 Sept. — To Church to give God thanks for my recovery. 

3 Oct. — I received the Blessed Eucharist to my unspeakable joy. 

25 Nov. — I heard an excellent discourse by Dr. Patrick on the 
resun-ection, and afterwards visited the Countesse of Kent, my kins- 
woman. 

1670. 20 March. — A Stranger preached at the Savoy French 
Church : the Liturgie of the Ch. of England being now iised alto- 
gether as translated into French by Dr. Durell. 

Windsor, Aug. 28. — One of the Canons preach'd ; then followed 
the offering of the Knights of the Order, according to custom ; first 
the poor Knights in procession, then the Canons in their formahties, 
the Deane and Chancellor, then his Ma*^ (the souveraine), then the 
Duke of York, Prince Rupert ; lastly, the Earle of Oxford, being all 
the Knights that were then at Court. 

1671. Oct. — On Sunday a young Cambridge Divine preached 
an excellent Sermon in the Chapell. The King and Duke of York 
being present, 

1672. Feb. 20. — Dr. Parr, of Camberwell, preached a most 
pathetic funebral discourse and panegyric at the interment of our 
late Pastor, Dr. Breton, (who died on the 18th) — " Happy is that 
servant whom when his Lord cometh," &c. This good man, among 
other expressions, professed that he had never ben so touched and 
concerned at any losse as at this, unless at that of The Charles', our 
Martyr, and Archbishop Usher, whose Chaplaine he had ben. Dr. 
Breton had preached on the 28 & 30 Jan. On the Friday, having 
fasted all day, making his provisionary Sermon for the Sunday fol- 
lowing, he went well to bed, but was taken suddenly ill, & expired 
before help could come to him. 

Never had a parish a greater losse, not only as he was an excellent 
preacher & fitted for our greate & vulgar auditory, but for his excel- 
lent life and charity, — his meeknesse & obliging nature, industrious, 
helpfull, & full of good workes. He left neare 400/. to the poor in 
his Will ; & that what Children of his should die in their minority, 
their portion should be so employed. I lost in particular a special 
friend, and one that had an extraordinary love for me and mine. 

15 Sept. — Dr. Duport, Greek professor of Cambridge, preached 
before the King, on 1 Timothy 6, 6. No greate preacher, but a very 
worthy & learned man. 



161 
SACRED POETRY. 



SOME EXTRACTS FROM THE PAPERS OF A LATE POET. 

TO A YOUNG MOURNER SLEKPING. 

Oh, wake her not ! for she hath wept 

Many a long and weary hour ; 
And sleep at length hath softly crept 

Over the fainting flower. 

Now hush thy footsteps in the room. 
And let thy voice be sweet and low ; 

For o*er her pallid face the bloom 
Of happier days doth glow. 

Perchance her dreaming spirit, led 

By her dear mother's hand, doth roam 

Where no sad tear of grief is shed. 
And every orphan finds a home ! 

Beautiful Mourner ! years should fall 
Like summer flowers upon thy head ; 

Oh, who could bear to hold thy pall ? 
Oh, who could count thee with the dead ? 

Sleep on ! sleep on ! and take thy rest. 
For Hope and Peace are watching by ; 

And who could pain that gentle breast. 
Or bring one tear into that eye? 



TWO INSCRIPTIONS FOR A COUNTRY CHURCH -YARD. 
t)N A POOR ORPHAN. 

O^WEEP not that the broken-hearted 
From her home of tears hath past. 

And never, never to be parted. 

Sleeps in her mother's arms at last ! 

For now her bitter tears are dry'd. 
And the chains of grief are broken ; 

She thinks not that she ever sigh'd. 
Or unkind words were ever spoken. 



ON A CHILD AGED SIX YEARS. 

Thou hast left us all alone 
In the radiant summer-time ; 

We miss thy waking gleesome tone. 
Thy laughter's pleasant chime. 



Vol. lU.^Feb. 1833. 



1C2 SACRED POETRY. 

The fragrant fields, where thou didst play. 
Are all untrodden now, — we look 

For thee by every sylvan way. 
And every leafy brook. 

Thou comest not ! — ^thy Book of Pray'r 
Is lying on the window seat ; 

The flowers that deck'd thy golden hair 
Are still unwithered and sweet. 

Thou sittest by some silver stream 

That wandereth through Elysian bowers ; 

And on thy peaceful face doth gleam 
A fairer light than our's. 



TO A CHILD IN PRAYER. 

Pray on, sweet child, though gladness now 
Doth shine upon thy open brow. 
And in thy heart Hope's gentle voice 
Is bidding thee rejoice, — 
Yet on that brow the clouds may pass. 
Like shadows on the flowery grass. 
And in thy breast some dream of ill 
Hope's quiet melody may kill. 

Thy thoughtless eyes are clear and bright 

In their purple April light ; 

And each gleeful look doth speak 

Of gentle thoughts, and feelings meek ; 

And wanton Joy, that only sees 

The golden blossoms on Life's trees. 

Thinking upon the Dragon never 

Which guard eth those glittering trees for ever. 

Now thy feet are blithe and gay. 
Dancing the sunny hours away. 
Upon the thymy hill, or deep 
In the woody glens, where creep 
The birds the heather bloom among. 
Cheering the silence with their song. 
Alas ! dear child, the music sweet 
That dwelleth round thy feet. 
May all be dead and past away 
Ere dawn another summer-day, 
And on thine eyes the dust may lay ; 

Then watch and pray! 

Thy heart is like a blessed shrine. 
For off^erings and pray'rs divine ; 
While meek-eyed Purity doth wait 
For ever at the gate. 
Watching that no dream of sin 
May creep that sacred place within. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 163 

Alas ! alas ! beloved child. 

The charmer's voice hath oft beguil'd 

A spirit beautiful as thee 

With its enchanted harmony ; 

And the light of April years 

Has faded in a night of tears. 

I would not shade thine eyes v^ith sorrow 

By talking to thee of to-morrow ; 

But since the flower which bloometh sweetest 

Ever does decay the fleetest. 

And the gladdest songs, like roses. 

Have their mournful closes,* 

Oh, therefore, through each summer day. 

Send up to Heaven thy thankful lay ; 

Dear child — ^watch and pray ! 
B. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



The Editor begs to remind his readers that he is not responsible for the opinions 

of his Correspondents. 



THE MAGI FROM THE SUN-RISING. 

Sir, — So many passages of gospel history have come down to us in 
the briefest and most unexplanatory form of narration, that, while 
superstitious communions supply the deficiency wdth old wives' tales 
and legends, the protestant church must come to the modest conclusion 
that historical elucidation formed little or no part of the commission 
given to the disciples and primitive fathers. That remark will apply 
to the extraordinary character, actions, and unfathomed motives of 
the unfaithful apostle Judas. It will apply to the life of the mother 
of the Lord from the hour of his crucifixion to her death, for as the 
Rhemish bible well observes (upon Acts i. 1 4), " it pleased not God 
that there should be any farther note of her life, doings, or death, in 
the Scriptures." But there is none to which it has a more striking 
application than to the history of the Magi. 

No one knows who they were, w^hence they came, why they were 
invited to Bethlehem by a sign in the heavens, or can imagine what 
was the actual or purposed good of this insulated transaction. 
There is something so surprising in the summons given to a group 
of pagan fire-worshippers and worshippers of the sun to attend 
upon the nativity of the Messiah, that it has even deterred our 
translators from the right-forward discharge of their duty, and 
induced them to render Magi, by Wise Men ; although you might 



* A word used by Herbert and some other poets of the seventeenth century. 



164 CORRESPONDENCE. 

exactly as well translate Druid, Dervish, or Mufti, as Magos, by these 
words. It is an improper deviation from the text, because it pre- 
sumes to bestow praise, where the original neither commends nor 
blames. 

Deep as is the silence of Matthew on all these points, the Rhemish 
commentator will find elsewhere some "farther note of their life, 
doings, and death ;" as, indeed, he was likewise so lucky as to meet 
with some account of the resurrection and ascension of Mary, and of 
the fragrant odours which filled her vacant sepulchre. When they 
adored the infant, they " opened their treasures, and presented to him 
gifts, gold, and frankincense, and myrrh," which circumstance the father 
of Irish poets observes, with possibly something more solid than 
mere beauty of imagination, 

** Aurea nascenti fuderant munera regi, 
Thura dedere Deo, myrrham tribuere sepulchre* 

Their oblation was of three things ; therefore the Magi were 
three in number. That conceit in process of time passed for an 
acknowledged fact. An inquiry was likewise instituted into their 
rank and quality. The church would not be contented with anything 
less than a king to minister imto its infant Lord. Accordingly the 
** Magi from the sun-rising," of w^hom St. Matthew spoke, were 
pronounced to be kings, and that doctrine was accepted by TertuUian, 
Cyprian, Basil the Great, Athanasius, Jerome, Augustin, Hilary, 
John Chrysostom, and Leo the Great. The quality, if not the 
number, of the Magi was partly determined in reference to this verse 
of Psalms, " the kings of Tarshisbf and the isles shall bring presents p 
the kings of Sheba and Seba slmll bring gifts ;" than which it is not 
easy to conceive one more manifestly inapplicable in its context. 
Ps. Ixxii. 10. The 72nd Psalm is in honour of the King's son, and, as 
David is the Psalmodical King, that is Solomon. It predicts faithfully 
and with few ambages, the glorious and godly portion of his reign who 
built the temple. 

^ He shall judge thy people with righ- And Judah and Israel dwelt safely, 

teousness, and thy poor with judgment. every man under his vine and under his 

The mountain shall bring peace to the fig-tree, all the days of Solomon. — 

people He shall judge the poor, 1 Kings iv. 

he shall save the children of the needy. 

Yea all kings shall fall down before And Solomon reigned over all king- 

him, all nations shall serve him He doms, from the river unto the land of the 

shall have dominion also from sea to sea, Philistines and the border of Egypt. — Ibid. 
and from the river to the ends of the land. 

The kings of Tarshish and the isles They brought presents and served Solo- 
shall bring presents. mon all the days of his life — Ibid. 

The kings of Tarshish and the isles. Thy name went far into the islands. — 

Eccles. xlvii. J(). 

He shall live, and to him shall be given And she gave the king an hundred and 

of the gold of Sheba. twenty talents of gold.— 2 Chron. ix. 

There is no possibility of a dispute as to the person whose reign is 
foreshadowed in these "j)rayers of David, the son of Jesse.' I know 



Sedulius Dc Mirab. Divin. ii. 95. t See Tert. adv. Marcion. 3. c. 13. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 165 

it may be said that Solomon, as well as David, is sometimes a 
figure or symbol of the Lord. But is it meet that one given book of 
Scripture (e.g. the Psalms) should have both David and Solomon, 
his son, for characteristics of Christ ? David might as well be 
intruded into the Canticles. Suppose, however, that these words 
have a secondary application to Christ, the explanation of it must be 
sought in those prophecies which say, "that the nations shall go up 
from year to year to worship the King, the Lord of Hosts." Critics 
may settle those predictions as they like, with respect to the allegoric 
or the literal ; but in any case, it is to them they must resort. For 
if human language ever made anything plain, this is plain, — that the 
Psalm describes an adult king, doing strict justice, intimidating all his 
foes, and receiving tributary liomage from those who felt his power, and 
some of whom would fain have shaken it off; and not a new-born 
babe, addressed in faith and hope. " His enemies shall lick the dust. 
The Idngs of Tarshish &c., shall bring presents." But I totally 
disbeUeve any secondary and typical meaning, and interpret " and 
men shall be blessed in him," or " through him," of the wisdom and 
piety which were sent by him into Ethiopia, through the medium of 
its sainted queen. But — to make short of the matter — we have been 
wasting all these words upon people who esteem that " the Magi 
from, the rising of the sun " came from Tartessus, north-west, from 
Sheba, south-west, and from Arabia, nearly due south. If with 
certain data of a ship's dimensions, it is possible to discover the 
captain's name, it were indeed hard, if with all our data, scriptural 
and traditional, we could not learn the names of the three kings. 
They were Balthazar,* king of Arabia, Melchior, king of Persia, and 
Gaspar, king of Saba ; but others, being perhaps aware that the sun- 
rising was not in the direction of Arabia or Ethiopia,t said, that 
Balthazar and his two companions were sovereigns in Cathay and 
China. Sir John Mandeville learnt on his travels that they came 
"from a cytee in Inde which men clepen Cassak." But the same 
author perplexes our faith by informing us that the Greek names for 
the three kings were Galgalath, Malgalath, and Salaphil, and their 
Jewish names Appelius, Ammerius, and Damasus. Another alius, or 
two, may be found for these oriental monarchs ; not to mention the 
theory of their being Melchisedech,:}: Enoch, and Elijah. William 
Postel, in his work De Orbis Concordia,§ asserts that " the region 
which was governed by the Magi used to select twelve men of 
superior wisdom, to administer its affairs. They again selected three 
from out of their number each year, to hold the reins of government, 
and to observe the aspect of the heavens, so that if any urgent matter 
was impending, they might immediately provide for it. The three 
who were elected the year in question were consummate philosophers, 
and true kings, most worthy of the title." Of their subsequent lives 



* Fray Luis de Uireta Hist, de la Etiopia, p. 170. p. 638. 

f Gcnebrard. Chronol. fol. 1261. Navarro de Oratione, fol. 335. 

X P. d'Auzolles cit. Inchoffer Mag. Evang. p. 146. 

$ E. 4. p. 348. 



166 CORRESPONDENCE. 

there is little or no legend, except that they were baptized by 
St. Thomas, yet their lives were of a very respectable length, accord- 
ing to the Chronicle which is ascribed to Lucius Flavins Dexter. 
" In the year of Christ 70, in Arabia Felix, at Sessania, the city of 
the Adrumenti, the martyrdom of the Three Saints, the Magi kings, 
Gaspar, Balthazar, and Melchior."* Their bodies were brought to 
Byzantium by the empress Helena, and removed in her life-time to 
Milan, according to that lover of sacred truths Jacobus de Voragine. 
William of Newbridge, a contemporary author, but one of indifferent 
credit, relates that the emperor Frederic Barbarossa, who entirely 
destroyed Milan in 1162, discovered in the ruined suburbs of that 
city tlie bodies of the three kings, excellently preserved, and compact as 
to the bones and nerves, with a dry and unputrefied skin, superinduced, 
as people think, by virtue of balsamum, with which their bodies had 
been imbued after the Gentile fashion. And a golden circle surrounded 
those three bodies, that they might adliere together. Together with 
Iheir bodies, there were found — guess what, pious reader — "there 
were found manifest indications, by which it was shewn that those 
men, having honoured and adored the infant Saviour, had returned 
into their own countiy, and lived till after the triumph of His 
passion, and having received baptism from the preaching apostles, 
departed to him whom they had honoured in the cradle, to be by him 
honoured in their turn as he sits at the right hand of the Father. '* 
Frederic placed the venerable reliques at the disposal of his favourite 
minister, Rainald, bishop of Cologne, who translated them to that 
city, where they have reposed ever since. Thence, their vulgar ap- 
pellation of the Three Kings of Cologne. It is difficult to believe in the 
historical part of this, because it is not likely that any three bodies of 
aged men should have been found at Milan, in such preservation as 
is described, and so totally unknown, as to admit of being converted 
into Royal Magi. On the other hand it is difficult to suppose that 
William could have entirely invented a narrative of public events, 
in his own time, though in a distant country ; and it may be said, 
that Raynald may have played off some trick, by hiding three bodies, 
in order to find, and canonize them. Upon the whole I believe, that 
no transaction of the sort ever occurred. A poem written in praise 
of Milan about the year 930t enumerates the saints who were 
reputed to lie buried there and in the environs, but it says nothing 
of the Magi. Radulphus, who is expressly said to have been auctor 
synchronus, and who wrote an account of the siege and ruin of Milan, 
and Radevic of Frisingen, who was but a little subsequent, and details 
the same transaction in his first book, are entirely silent % upon the 
invention and translation of the Idngs. Burchard, abbot of Ursperg, 
(who died no later than 1225, and wrote this part of the Chronicles 
that usually bears the name of his successor Conrad,) recounts how 
Frederic, accompanied by Daniel, bishop of Prague, and Reynald^ 



* L. Fl. Dexter, p. 13. Saragossa, 1619. 
t Apud Muratori ii. part 2. p. 989. X See them both in Murat. torn. vi. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 167 

bisJwp of Cologne, besieged and demolished Milan. But not a word 
of the Magi, their sepulchre, or their translation. This passage of 
history is neither true, nor simply false, but it is allegorical, according 
to that conventional language of symbols and substituted ideas, of 
which Professor Rosetti has shewn that the Ghibellines made frequent 
if not contmual use, in his work Sul Spirito Antipapale, Sfc, the solid 
and convincing parts of which are imfortunately much weakened in 
their effect by attempting to carry his system into puerile and 
ridiculous minutiae.* The Prophecies de Merlin (a virulent work of 
the same anti-papal and, for the most part, anti-christian faction) 
makes use of the three Magi as a symbol, the precise import of which 
I leave to those who have more accurately studied this malevolent 
gibberish. The three kings of Tarsus, Arabia, and Saba, will go to 
the Dragon of Babylon with gifts, the first with a knife, the second, 
an olive branch, and the third, a box of ashes. The Dragon will 
refuse the olive, as being a sign of peace with the believers in Fitz- 
Mary, which peace he would never make, and the ashes, as being the 
symbol of his own inevitable death, and will only accept the knife, in 
earnest that he would slay all who did not beheve in him. Then he 
will bid the three kings return into their own country, but he will cause 
them to be conducted to the ministers of hell in the desert of Babylon, 
from whence they shall never return ; and ten thousand knights 
who shall undertake the fq^est of the three kings, shall perish in the 
undertaking. The quest of the Magi shall have more adventures than 
even that of the saint Greal. The golden girdle which bound the 
three bodies into one faggot, is an indication of mysticism in the 
narrative made by William of Newbridge. 

So much for the legends with which folly, imposture, and an 
unhallowed cm-iosity have filled the world. But we may, by a Uttle 
reflection and sober reasoning, arrive at a moral certainty concerning 
the Magi. The mission of Christ was not an open and general one. 
It was addressed unto Israel first, that the chosen children of Abraham 
might receive it, and be the vehicle for imparting its blessings to the 
Gentiles, and be to the rest of the world what their own Levi had 
been to them, "a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, 
a peculiar people." For the Gospel, said Paul, was " the power of 
God unto salvation to every one that believeth, to the Jew first,:}: and 
also to the Hellenist " or Pagan ; and "it was necessary that the Word 
of God should first have been spoken to you, § but seeing ye put it from 

you Lo ! we turn to the Gentiles." The necessity lay in the 

covenant with Abraham — " Ye are the children of the prophets and 
of the covenant which God made with our fathers, saying unto 
Abraham, And in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the earth be 



* For instance, when he insists that the word tal (i.e. such) wherever it occurs 
in Dante, or his school of writers, represents the three initials of Teutonico 
Arrigo Lucemburgese ! He might as well, or better, have said Thronus Augusti 
Latinus, but the best of all is to abstain entirely from such frivolities. 

t Prophecies de Merlin, xlii. xliii. 
X Rom. i. 16. § Acts xiii, 46. 



168 CORRESPONDENCE. 

blessed.* Unto ^ou first, God, having raided up (i. e. brought 
into existence) his son Jesus, sent him to bless you, &c." The 
Gospel of Jesus belonged of right to the children of the covenant, and 
it was only upon their waiver and refusal of it that the Gentiles 
became entitled to receive it through a different channel. These are 
known tilings, and vmcontrovertible. But the covenant, and the law 
in furtherance and execution of the covenant, were given to the 
twelve sons of Jacob, and not to any in particular. The disputes 
which arose among their posterity in the reign of Rehoboam did not 
affect the question. Because the subjects of Jeroboam, Uke those of 
the house of David, were doomed only to a corrective punishment, 
and were or are reserved for the redeeming mercies of God, who had 
promised to take the stick of Joseph which is in the hand of Ephraim, 
and the stick of Judah, and make them one stick, and to be " gracious 
to the remnant of Joseph," and that he would teach Ephraim to say, 
" What have I to do any more with idols ? I have heard him, and 
observed him. I am like a green fir tree. From me is thy 
fruit sound." These things, again, are known and uncontrovertible. 
But there can be scarcely any reasonable doubt, that the tribes of the 
kingdom of Samaria were not restored by Zerubbabel under Cyrus. 
The restoration promised to them is as distinctly national, tribule, 
and territorial, as that of the sister commonwealth; and the liberty 
which was then afforded to individuals of going (for returning it was 
not) and crowding into Jerusalem and its district, would not support 
the veracity of the Lord's very explicit promises on that head. I 
have formerly made the important remark, that the contrary was a 
matter of notorietyf among the Jews in Hadrian's time. Seeing, 
therefore, that Israel abode at a distance in the kingdoms of the East, 
and that Israel was as fully entitled to the refusal of Jesus, as the 
men of Judah to whom he was immediately sent, and that, before 
God could " turn to the Gentiles," it was " necessary that He should 
first have spoken to them," we are bound to suppose that He provided 
some adequate means of making to the banished seed of Abraham a 
legal tender of their covenanted rights. But we cannot collect that 
any offer of the Gospel revelation, previous to its publication to the 
Gentiles, was made to any people other than the Jews, except the 
Magi. The IsraeUtes had been removed into "the cities of the 
Medes," and their situation was to the east of Palestine, which 
renders the words " from the sun-rising " as apt to them, as they are 
absurd when applied to Tartessus and Sheba. 

The religion of the Magi, worshippers of Oromazdes, Mithras, and 
Arimanes, prevailed under various slight modifications from Cappa- 
docia and the Mount Taurus, eastward, to Bactriana and the Indus. 
There is every probabihty that the tribes of Samaria, who " feared 
other gods, and walked in the statutes of the heathen," at the time of 
their captivity, and had then been more than seven hundred years in 
exile, had long since been Magians when our Lord was born. Pru- 



• Acts in. ult. t Brit. Mag. vol. ii. p. 150. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 169 

dentius does not hesitate to affirm that so it was in his days, and is 
an author who deserves the credit of not having spoken at random : 

"Who doubts, who knows not, of old Jacob's seed* 
That some are exiles yet, captives decreed 
In Persia's realms and fealty to remain. 
And now no more their country's rites retain. 
But, leaving them, barbarian laws adopt. 
And have their father's garb and language dropp'd. 
Their nurse, sweet Sion, banish from their thought. 
And, of their ancient home remembering nought. 
Its mystic canons break, and take in hand 
The abomination of a foreign land." 

There would be a most revolting incongruity in holding that some 
one nation, out of the herd of gentiles, was invited to a premature 
knowledge of truths, which were to be gradually, by apostolical 
preaching, diffused among the different peoples of the earth. But the 
supposition that men of authority were summoned from the tribes 
of Israel, to see the infant Messiah, and annoimce him to their people 
under the sanction of their miraculous voyage and return, and went 
home to their dwellings crying in the wilderness of the east, " prepare 
ye the way of the Lord,"' is congruous and perfect in itself, while it 
makes perfect the inviolable word of Divine promise. They came 
not in the guise of Persians, Bactrians, or other heathens, asking, 
" Where is he that shall enlighten the nations," or " save the world;" 
but with the purely national interrogation, " where is he that is born 
King of the Jews ?" That attribute of the Messiah was not only the 
least interesting to the nations of all that could be ascribed to him ; it 
even excited their jealousy, and does even to our days, in which all 
who regard it as more than a vague allegory, are looked upon with 
an unfavourable eye. But it was the very question of all others 
which the men of Israel, if invited at the end of the weeks to salute 
Messiah their Prince, would ask. 

I suspect that some inkling of these truths has formerly existed, 
although the vestiges of it are (so far as I know) faint. The Prester 
John of Abyssinia (says Fray Luisf) never marries a wife who is 
not of the lineage of the three Magi Kings, because he esteems them 
alone to be worthy of the line of David. What ? a Jew by descent 
(as he pretends) think a Gentile the only fit ancestor of his wife, and 
a Christian by faith think the same of a Pagan ! No ; this implies 
the reunion of Israelitish and Judaic blood. The following is from 
the Prophecies de Merlin J — " a man of the lineage cf the Jews and 
Samaritans shall be present at the birth of the dragon of Babylon, 
and he shall see an enemy like the form of a dragon, and act the part 
of the star which led three kings to Bethlehem." I am mistaken if 
the Prester John (a being in some respects imaginary, and the anti- 



* Hamartigenia, 452 etc. 
t L. de Urreta, p. 169, 70. \ Fol. b 

Vol. IW.—Feh. 1833. 



170 CORRESPONDENCE. 

Pope of the mystical* anti-Christians) be not here signified, and if 
the daughters of the Magi, mentioned by Fray Luis, be not the Sa- 
maritan part of bis lineage. 

If the Magi were the messengers in the power of Ehas, who were 
to prepare the tribes of Jeroboam for that which John had announced 
to those of Rehoboam, it follows of course that their mission wa^i 
abortive, and bore no good fruit in the days of the preachers ; for 
Israel has never known the Lord. But we have also reason to be 
convinced, that the party who were led to Bethlehem received into 
their hearts the seed of the gospel, and that it vegetated there, and 
afterwards increased unto their salvation. Because, it is an absurd 
and untenable doctrine, that God would ever elect unsuitable ves- 
sels for his own especial purposes, or send an unbeliever to implant 
faith in others. We may therefore be assured that the Fathers were 
rightly informed, or guessed aright, that they were in due season 
baptized by Thomas, or Bartholomew, or some apostle of the East. 
Nor is it improbable that the Romish legendaries also guessed aright, 
that they bore witness in death to the truths which they had an- 
nounced to a hardened generation, upon whom there was blindness 
for a time. 

H. 



ON ST. LUKE, xxi. 32. 
To the Editor of the British Magazine* 

Sir, — A writer in your Magazine (p. 54), concerning the Prophecy of 
Jesus, has made some observations upon a passage in the Remarks on 
Genesis, vol. ii. p. 261 . Although we totally differ on the interpre- 
tation of that prophecy, yet I am willing to derive information from 
any quarter. The question at issue is, whether yeveh, in St. Luke, 
xxi. 32, means, simply, that generation, or the Jewish nation. There 
are numerous and decided instances of its signifying a generation ; are 
there any in which it as decidedly means a nation, — for instance, the 
Jewish nation, as distinguished from the Greek or Roman nation? 
As the Septuagint was translated by different hands, at different times, 
we cannot be surprised at occasionally finding a word used with various 
degrees of latitude, when it occupies only a subordinate place in a 
sentence ; but when the word contains the leading idea, the transla- 
tors were careful to use it with strict attention to its proper meaning. 
Thus, in the examples of yeveh brought from Schleusner, it does not 
mean the Jewish nation, Xaoct as distinguished from other nations, 
'iUvrj. The passages, Gen. xxxi. 3, Lev. xxv. 4], mean no more than 
returning to their friends ; Lev. xx. J 8, cut off from that generation ; 



* That is avowed by one of the most extraordinary of them, Wm. Postel. 
t I committed an error in saying, " that writers on the millennium strive hard to 
give to yivtd,t\\c sense of tOvog, nation ," I ought to have said Xabif people, for iOvos 
is applicable only to the Gentiles. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 171 

and Jer. xviii. 3, refers to the tribe of Judah. There is no expression 
in the Septuagint so common as 6 XaoQ ovrogy this people, the Jewish 
nation : " Then the Egyptians shall hear it, for thou broughtest up 
this people in thy might from among them." (Num. xiv. 13.) "What 
one nation in the earth is like thy people?" (2 Sam. vii. 23.) Where 
does // y£)/£a avrr} occur in this sense ? In the sense of the present 
existing generation, it may be found in Ex. i. 6, " And Joseph died, 
and all that generation ;" in Num. xxxii. 13, and many other passages. 

The writer seems alarmed at the idea of seeing the expression, " the 
Son of man coming in the clouds with power and glory," allegorized 
away, although he reduces it to a vision in Matt. xvi. 28 ; and pro- 
bably he would not hesitate to allow the hard fate of its being allego- 
rized to befal the immediately preceding expression, " the sun shall 
be darkened, and the stars shall fall from heaven." (Matt. xxiv. 29.) 
For my own part, I cannot but feel infinitely more alarm at the idea 
that St. Matthew said any thing " improperly" in his Gospel, or that 
he was liable, like uninspired men, to fall into mistakes from " inad- 
vertency." Neither does it afford me any consolation to be assured 
that St. Mark or St. Luke wrote their Gospels afterwards, " in the 
earnest desire to rectiiy whatever was defective in that which went 
before;" for neither St. Mark nor St. Luke enjoyed the advantage of 
being an eye-witness, as St. Matthew did. Mahomet practised the 
very politic artifice of delivering his Koran piece-meal ; and as his 
scheme gained strength and consistency, he dealt out its successive 
chapters to rectify, even to the plain contradiction of, the former ones. 
But the Author of our faith needed not to wait the gradual establish- 
ment of Christianity to correct and amend his gospel. St. John, in- 
deed, records some discourses not mentioned by the other evangelists, 
but nowhere has he rectified the inadvertencies of his predecessors. 

The waiter says, there is another scripture often coupled with Luke, 
xxi. 32, " Verily there be some standing here which shall not taste of 
death, till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom." A nice 
distinction is then made betw^een " till they see the Son of man 
coming," and " till he cometh." " The w^ords, * until they see, are 
of a very different import (prophetic vision) as applied to those days 
of abundant inspiration. (If it was so abundant, how came St. Matthew 
not to be preserved from inadvertency ?) John was not in his state of 
nature, but * was in the spirit,' when God said to him, ' What thou 
seest, write in a book ;' and * he saw heaven opened, and beheld a 
white horse,' &c. ; in like manner John did not taste of death before 
he had seen the kingdom of God." With this conclusion I agree, 
except its being in like manner. Jesus saith unto Peter, " If I will 
that he tarry until I come, (not till he see me coming,) what is that to 
thee ?" (John xxi. 22.) I cannot suppose that prophetic vision was 
meant here any more than in Matthew xxiv. 30, " All the tribes, of 
the earth shall see the Son of man coming." From the passages here 
quoted, the coming of the Son of man seems to intimate the conclusion 
of the Jewish polity. 

I have always considered it an uncontroverted point in scriptural 
criticism, that when two or more inspired writers omit or vary ex- 



173 CORRESPONDENCE. 

pressions ki the narration of the same event, they do not contradict or 
correct each other. This easy method of cutting the Gordian knot 
would have saved at once the labours of West on the Resurrection, 
and other authors who have endeavoured to reconcile apparent discre- 
pancies ; and I have yet to learn the proof of the charge here brought 
against St. Matthew. The writer must allow that himself " has written 
down his discourse without duly weighing the force and position" of 
the sentence he controverts ; for he makes me say, '* that ygvea, in 
scriptural Greek, has only these two meanings, viz. (1) an account, 
(2) tradition, (3) genealogy, (4) a generation of contemporary men, 
(5) the manner of life in that generation. Of these five meanings, 
yevfct can lay claim only to the last two ; yheaiQ appropriates to itself 
the first and largest share. Now, after this proof of inadvertency in 
himself, he cannot be offended if I should require stronger proof 
than his bare assertion, to credit the charge of inadvertency which 
he has brought against St. Matthew. 

Bishop Newton, supported by some great names, faces the difficulties 
into which the writer fears that the literal translation, " this genera- 
tion," would replunge the question. As Schleusner is the authority 
which he has brought against me, I cannot do better than conclude 
with the serious admonition of Bishop Jebb : " I would earnestly 
exhort those biblical students who may happen to use (as, with proper 
caution, all advanced students will find it their advantage to use) the 
Lexicons of Spohn and Schleusner for the New Testament, and those 
of Schleusner and Bretschneider for the Septuagint, to be particularly 
on their guard against alleged identity of meaning, in words whose 
ordinary acceptation is any thing but synonymous. I had selected 
many examples of erroneous, and, as I think, dangerous interpretation, 
from Schleusner and Bretschneider, &c. There is reason for serious 
apprehension, that, from those philological works which students are 
more and more taught to respect as guides to the critical knowledge 
of scripture, much confusion, much obscm-ity, repeated contradictions, 
and a fatal habit of explaining away the most pregnant truths of 
Christianity, may be superinduced upon, or rather substitu' ed for, our 
manly, sound, and unsophisticated English theology." — Sacr. Lite- 
rature, p. 51. 2nd edit. 

W. B. Winning. 

Keysoe Vicarage, Beds, Jan. 4th, 1833. 



SOCINIAN TESTIMONY TO THE USEFULNESS OF AN 
ESTABLISHMENT. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Sir, — I have much pleasure in extracting the following passage from 
a sermon preached and pubUshed by Mr. Charles Berry, a Socinian, 
or Humanitarian teacher, at Leicester. 

" It is often said, that, as a sect, we are dwindling away from the 
public observation, which is not true. We make progress in our own 
country, thotu/h it is but slow, because we have to contend against a 



CORRESPONDENCE, 173 

host of prejudices, and the enormous influence of a wealthy and corrupt 
establishment. But in the east, the cause is advancing ; and in the 
United States, where there are no obstructions to the progress of know- 
ledge and truth, the spread of hberal doctrines has exceeded our 
most sanguine expectations." — P. 7. 

To the raihng of my author I say nothing; for the illiberal e^iihei 
which he apphes to the church, and his still more illiberal insinuations, 
I forgive him ; for the fact he states, I thank him. The fact is, that, 
on the admission of our adversaries, the great impediment to the 
spread of the Socinian, or Humanitarian heresy, in this country is 
the ESTABLISHMENT. In America, w^here no establishment exists, this 
sect, which denies the Saviour who bought us, is found to flourish, 
though not to the extent our author would imply. If such be the 
case, — and such, I apprehend, it will be found to be, — I conceive that 
no honest Dissenter, who sincerely professes what he believes to be 
evangelical principles, will gainsay the assertion, that an Ecclesiastical 
establishment must be an useful institution, and that the peculiar 
claims of the Church of England to the gratitude of every one who 
bows the knee at the name of Jesus, are such as to merit the support 
of all, except those, who, in seceding from its pale, are actuated by 
motives purely factious. 

I will only add to the statement of the preacher, that the progress 
of Socinianism in England is so very "slow" as to be quite im- 
perceptible. B. 



ON TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Dear Sir, — If any of your readers can, on scriptural grounds, prove 
me to be wrong in the view which I take of the Temperance Societies, 
I shall be much obliged to them ; for, in these times of gloom and 
anxiety, one can ill afford to lose even the slightest glimmerings that 
might serve to encourage us. But if I am right, the consideration of 
it will not be unprofitable, however painful it may be. 

It seems to me, that the Temperance Societies afford a great and 
fearful triumph to the enemy of mankind, assisting him to further that 
species of assault against reUgion, to which, as the most subtle of all, 
he has in these last times betaken himself, namely, that of endeavour- 
ing to persuade men that the world would be as well, or better than 
it is, without any aid from Christianity. In these societies he is able 
to shew, that men, out of a feehng of worldly honour, in adhering to 
their word towards one another, will do that which neither the fear 
of God, nor the hope of salvation, nor the love of Christ, nor a 
regard to the Holy Spirit, nor their solemn religious vows, could lead 
them to do, — will, from earthly feelings and regards, be at pains and 
self-denial in giving up their darhng sins, which no Heaven-derived 
motives or teaching could influence them to. Thus is his purpose 
answered: he is wise in his generation, and will make a show of 
giving up a part, if he may thereby effectually secure the whole, — will 



174 CORRESPONDENCE. 

abandon his conquests by drunkenness, if, by so doing, he may aim 
a more artful stab at religion itself. 

Instead, therefore, of hailing the establishment of these societies 
as a matter of triumph and satisfaction, the feelings with which I 
regard them are those of shame and fear ; — of shame, at the thought 
to how low an ebb Christian faith is brought in a Christian land, 
when human pride can eifect that upon thousands, which faith has 
failed to do with hundreds ; — of fear, for the members of these socie- 
ties, on account of the delusion they are labouring under, when 
they fancy that they are more acceptable to God, and nearer Heaven, 
by forsaking certain vices, which neither the fear nor love of Him 
have led them to forsake. I may add of awe, also, when I think of 
the Saviour's mournftil, and reproachful question, " When the Son of 
man cometh, will he find faith on the earth?" and consider this 
avowed proof of the absence of faith from among the motives to 
good conduct, in the most Christian nation in the world, as an addi- 
tional warning to prepare for the time of His coming. " Would you, 
then," it may be asked, "discourage the formation of these societies?" 
By no means. If Christianity is sunk so low, that those who profess 
it are dead to Christian motives, it is fair to act upon them by others ; 
and, by low andinferiormeans, rather than by none at all, to diminish 
the amount of present human misery. Besides, I deny not, that there 
is hope, that, indirectly^ even Christian good may result from them. 
When the world affixes, from whatever motives, its powerful stigma 
to any vice, the danger arising from it is materially lessened. Thus 
the rising generation, abundantly trained in the knowledge of the 
truth, will find the force of temptation weakened, to suit the weak- 
ened state of Christian faith, and a hope will be thus afforded, that 
more may be enabled to reach the end of their pilgrimage without 
being led aside from the right path. 

I am, dear Sir, 

Very faithfully your's, 
E. H., J9ec.29, 1832. * A. P. P. 



"DEFENSOR" AND LORD HENLEY. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

My Dear Sir, — In your last number, Defensor accuses me of 
unfairness, in applying the term " unqualified" to Lord Henley's 
praise of Mr. Riland's publication, as well as for styling Mr. R. his 
lordship's "guide and coadjutor." 

The best reply that I can make is, to request you to insert Lord 
Henley's own words, that your readers may judge how far Defensor 
is warranted in his accusation. 

" I should not be doing justice to a most ingenious, learned, and pious 
work, if I did not acknowledge the very great obligations I have been 
under, particularly in the letter here prefixed,- to the very valuable 
volume of the Rev. John Riland, A. M., Curate of Yoxall, on Church 



CORRESPONDENCE. 175 

Reform. It is written in a large and Catholic spirit, with great 
fervour, and great spirituality."* — P. 84. 

I certainly have formed an incorrect estimate of the force of the 
EngUsh language, if the "approbation" here expressed be other than 
" unqualified;" and if the passage does not contain a direct acknow- 
ledgment on Lord Henley's part, that he has been guided and assisted 
in the composition of his' own work, by studying that of Mr. Riland. 
I am, my dear Sir, 

Very faithfully your's, 

Arthur Perceval. 

East Horsley, Jan. 3, 1833. 



PLURALITIES AND CURATES. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

My Dear Sir, — Allow me to attempt, in some degree, to remove 
from your mind, and those of your readers, an objection to the aboli- 
tion of pluralities which has been put prominently forward in the 
British Magazine,t and which (p. 69, No. 12) you say no one has 
attempted to answer. I mean that arising from the difficulty in ob- 
taining admission to orders, and "getting a succession," which you 
think there would be, if every benefice were supplied with a resident 
incumbent, the difficulty being caused by the diminution of the num- 
ber of curates which you apprehend would be the result of such an 
arrangement. 

I should be sorry to think that any thing which we all admit to be 
right in principle should by any means be unattainable in practice. 
It would imply that there was some evil in our system of greater im- 
portance, and more deeply seated, than any which the argus eyes of 
our enemies have yet been able to detect. In the present instance, I 
am so far from anticipating the result which you have contemplated, 
that I entertain a confident hope that the abolition of all pluralities 
(if in other respects attainable) would have a directly contrary effect; 
that the number of employed curates would be increased instead of 
diminished, and the access to the ministry be at once as easy and 
perhaps more satisfactory than at present. 

When our blessed Lord sent forth the seventy, he sent them not 

* The Editor may take this opportunity of expressing his surprise how any one 
still calling himself a churchman can entertain or express any hut one feeling at Mr. 
Riland's outrageous abuse of the church, (for milder terms do not describe his 
work,) or refrain from wonder that a person who entertains such opinions as are there 
exprest, should remain even an hour in an institution so injurious to Christianity 
as the church must be if it answered Mr. Riland's description. Surely it could be 
no penalty, nor even a source of regret to any man, to be restrained from officiating 
in a church which is in his judgment so full of abominations. The several clergy 
who have lately left the church have, in almost every instance, spoken of it less acri- 
moniously and more decently than Mr. Riland. 

f Vol. i. p. 856, ii. p. 289. 



176 CORRESPONDENCE. 

singly, but two and two* This order the Apostlee appear in general 
to have observed. f St. Paul was, for the most part, accompanied by- 
Barnabas, or Silas, or Tiraotheus : it was only on pressing emergencies 
that we find him occasionally alone. ij: The forms of the oriental 
liturgies 1| require the presence of more than one officiating minister. 
The subsedilia for the priest, deacon, and subdeacon, to be found in 
the remotest of our parish churches, shew that while we were in com- 
munion with Rome the same plan was pursued among us; while 
the rubrics of the English prayer-book, especially in the communion- 
service,§ shew that our reformers, treading i^ cne ancient footsteps, 
did not intend that the services should be engaged in single-handed. 

That the presence of more than one clergyman would be desirable, 
in a vast number of cases where it is not now to be met with, both for 
the more efficient discharge of the public duties, and still more for 
pastoral purposes, will, I suppose, be admitted by all. Indeed, it may 
be questioned how far any man, let his zeal and activity be never so 
great, can adequately discharge all that belongs to the clerical office, 
where the population exceeds a thousand souls. To speak of minor 
points, all who reside in the country must have experienced the 
extreme inconvenience arising from the paucity of clergymen. If one 
of the number be taken ill, or be called away by some urgent cause 
which will not admit of delay, how difficult, nay sometimes how im- 
possible is it for him to procure assistance. Generally speaking, the 
matter can only be arranged by depriving two congregations of half 
their accustomed service. 

If on all these different grounds the employment of assistant curates 
would be so desirable, why, it will naturally be asked, are they so 
seldom to be met with ? This arises partly from the obstacles which 
some of the bishops unaccountably (if I may use the word without 
disrespect) throw in the way of their appointment, but chiefly from 
the amount of the salary which, I believe, is generally (but I think it 
will appear unreasonable) expected to be nearly equal to that which 
is given to one who has the sole charge of the parish. Remove these 
two causes of difficulty, and can any man doubt but that the number 
of assistant curates would be increased tenfold, and that as ample a 
means of entrance to the ministry as could be desired would be thus 
afforded ? But now, if the other means of entrance were for the most 
part closed, the bishops, instead of discouraging would promote the 
appointment of assistant curates ; and if this employment were looked 
upon, as it should be, in the light of an apprenticeship, (if the word is 
not unseemly,) the difficulty on the score of salary would likewise be 
removed. For as in our public offices the clerks receive no salary for 
the year in which they learn their business, and in all trades the 
friends of a young man are content to give a premium to him who 
receives him as an apprentice, the clerical neophyte could not com- 



• Lukex. 1. t Actsviii. 14, xii. xiii. &c. 

\ Compare 1 Thess. iii. 1, and Acts xvii. 15. 

II See that of Chrysostom in King's Greek Church. 

§ See tliat which directs the deacon to receive the alms of the faithful. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 177 

plain if the salary annexed to his office was not large, when, by means 
of it, he obtained an entrance to his profession, and an opportunity, 
by the aid of another's experience, of fitting himself for the more 
responsible office to which he looked forward ; for I suppose I am 
safe in assuming, that the vast majority of those who take orders have 
a reasonable prospect of some permanent provision. 

Not only would the access to the ministry be as easy as it is now ; 
it would, I conceive, from the reason which follows, be likewise more 
satisfactory, and more according to rule. From " the office for order- 
ing deacons" it is evident, that the fathers of our Church never con- 
templated a deacon having the sole or chief charge of a church ; 
they considered him merely as an assistant to liim who had the chief 
care, taking it for granted that he, whether incumbent or deputy, 
would be a priest. " It appertaineth to the office of a deacon in the 
church, where he shall be appointed to serve, to assist the priest in 
divine service ; in the absence of the priest (occasional absence seems 
all that is contemplated) to baptize infants, to search for the sick, 
poor, and impotent people of the parish, to intimate their names, &c. 
to the curate.'^ 

It is idle to say that the curate of a parish, where the incumbent is 
nonresident, is merely an assistant to the priest, and that therefore a 
deacon may be appointed to such an office consistently with the ordi- 
nation office. A man so situated is the priest's representative and 
locum tenenSf not his assistant ; he is recognized as having the cure, 
and is supposed to have a deacon under him. 

According to the present system, in nine cases out of ten it is im- 
possible that a deacon should employ himself in that manner which 
our church rightly tells us appertaineth to the office of a deacon. 
Let it be considered, that it is by " exercising the office of a deacon 
well," not by prematurely intruding upon that of the priest, that the 
deacons are said to " purchase to themselves a good degree." And 
surely it is most unreasonable that this, the most important of all 
professions, should be the ouly one in which an apprenticeship is not 
only (in point of practice) not required, but in which it is next to im- 
possible to find the opportunity observing one ; and that with very few 
exceptions indeed, if a man would undertake its awful duties at all, 
he must consent to do so without experience, and not without fear 
and doubt, to feel his way at every step. The words of the Italian 
poet 

Vo solcando un mar crudele 
Senza vele, e senza sarte, 
« » * 

Cresce '1 vento, e manca Varte. 

may frequently occur to one so circumstanced. You seem to con- 
sider that all the benefits of experience will be attained by the curate's 
intercourse with his nonresident incumbent. In some favoured cir- 
cumstances doubtless they may, to a certain degree ; but unless the 
parishes are very near, it is manifestly impossible that it should be so 
adequately, for questions will be perpetually occurring to a young 
Vol. III.— iTeJ. 1833. 2 a 



J 78 CORRESPONDENCE. 

man, which will not bear a delay of three or four days for an answer 
per post. 

It is with deference to the opinions of my superiors that I venture 
to suggest, that a remedy for this inconvenience would be found in the 
adoption of two rules: — 1. To consider no title sufficient for priest's 
orders, but the sole or chief charge of a church or chapel. 2. To ad- 
init no one to such a charge who was not in priest's orders. Those 
who are older in the ministry will be better able than I am to pass 
judgment on such a suggestion. But thus much caunot be denied, 
that by such an arrangement the distinction of orders, which has dis- 
appeared to the eyes of the congregation, would be made manifest, 
and the intention of the church, as it is to be gathered from her offi- 
cers, be more strictly adhered to than on this point it is at present.* 
I am, my dear Sir, 

Very feithfiilly yoiu^, 

Arthur Perceval. 
- East Horsley, Jan. 14, 1833. 



ON PAROCHIAL PSALMODY. 
To the JEdUor of the British Magazine. 

Sir, — 1 have read with considerable interest the plan which your 
correspondent T. O. proposes for the adoption of Parochial Psalmody, 
which, in my opinion, is well worthy the serious consideration of those 
individuals to whom his proposals are more particularly addressed ; 
and I hope most sincerely that his plan will meet with that success 
to which its numerous advantages so justly entitle it. If, as T. O. 
affirms, it were not ob\dous to all who consider the subject, that 
parochial psalmody is a ready means of winning back many of the 



♦ Nothing certainly would be more desirable than the * apprenticeship' suggested 
by Mr. Perceval. A large parish, with a resident incumbent, is probably the best 
commencement of a clergyman's life, as he will gain experience without incurring 
painful or dangerous responsibility. But, as things are, there are probably very few 
cases indeed where there ought to be an assistant curate, and where the incumbent 
can afford to have one, and yet where there is not one. The number of such parishes 
would not be increased by doing away all pluralities. It is probable that the plan 
suggested by M. Perceval must be adopted if pluralities were done away ; but then this 
plan would effectually prevent any person from going into the church who could not 
maintain himself comfortably for (probably) many years, and who had not a certainty 
of provision at the end of these years. It appears to the Editor that there is indeed, 
as Mr. Perceval suggests, a very deeply seated evU in our church system, and that is 
the inadequacy of the church revenues to provide properly even for an incumbent in 
every parish, and consequently its greater inadequacy to supply these incumbents with 
the assistants whom they ought to have, and whose appointment would be necessary 
to secure a succession, if pluralities were forbidden. The whole difficulty lies in the 
want of money. Were it not for this, the plans noticed by the Editor — (one, as pre- 
valent in some parts of the Roman Catholic Church, viz. the appointment of curates 
by bishops where they saw a want of them ; the other, the requiring every clergyman 
having a population above a certain number, to employ a curate) — would obviate the 
difficulty. Mr. Perceval's plan would perhaps obviate it in another way; but surely it 
would not be desirable that »<w< but personsof independent (though small) fortunes, 
and certain expectations, should enter the church. 



CORBESPONDfiNCE. 179 

lower class of society, I might add my own experience, which would 
afford ample proof in confirmation thereof. For the parish church to 
which I beloDg has been both much better and more regularly 
attended since the erection of an organ in it, and the introduction of 
that sublime and truly devotional part of our excellent church service, 
chanting.* But yet the combination of these powerful attractions 
would not excite more curiosity, probably, in a small market town than 
the introduction of psalmody would in a countiy village. The example 
of our Saviour, however, at the feast of the Passover will doubtless 
supersede this and all the other advantages which usually accompany 
the introduction of psalmody into churches. That spirit of opposition 
which so fi-equently prevails against clergymen who injudiciously 
exercise their undoubted prerogative of superintending the arrange- 
ments of country- choirs, induces me, in conclusion, to subjoin an 
obsen-ation or two for the consideration of that class of your ingenuous 
readers to which they more particularly apply. About a year and a 
half ago, I undertook the superintendence of a small choir, and it was 
not long, I am sorry to add, before I perceived that the conduct of the 
officiating clergyman had unfortunately occasioned his arrangements 
to be universally disregarded; consequently the intervention of my 
endeavours to effect a reconciliation could be made available in propor- 
tion only as I became popular among the singers ; but, for some time, 
my influence over them was, I can assure you, very limited, which 
circumstance convinced me that harsh and peremptory treatment 
would only widen the breach already made; and therefore, after 
mature consideration, I concluded that every appearance of control 
must be carefully avoided by me, that a compliance with their 
inclinations must not always be refused, as to the occasional introduc- 
tion of a piece of music, (during service,) the performance of which 
requires a httle skill, and, above all, that the ordinary- arrangements 
for singing must virtually depend upon myself The efficacious 
operation of this scheme soon manifested itself in the general demeanour 
of the singers, and in the kindness with which they estimated, and 
still continue to estimate, my arrangements, which I can adjust so as to 
suit my own purpose. 

Your obedient servant, 

A. X. 

ON PAROCHIAL PSALMODY. 
To the Editor of the British Magazine, 

Rev. Sir, — It may be fairly anticipated that a great improvement in 
Church Psalmody would result from the estabhshment in every 
diocese of a society for the encouragement of congregational singing. 



• Although Lord Henley thinks it desirable to reject chanting because it is a 
relic of popery, and although his fears might lead him to exclaim with the hero of 
old, " Quicquid id est, titneo DanaoSy et dona ferentes ;'* yet, on reference to the Bible, 
his Lordship will find that Amos speaks of those who chanted like David himself 
even — See p. 35 of the 7th ed. of Lord Henley's Plan of Church Reform. 



180 CORRESPONDENCE. 

as suggested by your correspondent T, O. A most desirable pre- 
liminary to the establishment of such societies, would be the publica- 
tion of a standard manual of psalms and hymns under the sanction of 
the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. This Society, 
owing to the extensive demand for its publications, might issue such 
a manual at a very trifling cost. It would then be adopted in the 
national schools, and the clergy would distribute it gratuitously among 
their poorer parishioners. 

A cheap edition of approved chm-ch melodies adapted to the 
manual should also be provided. The selection should consist of plain 
congregational tunes suitable for country churches, with a supplement 
containing those melodies which should not be attempted without an 
organ. 

The publication could not, I think, be entrusted to more competent 
persons than "the Committee of General Literature and Education," 
appointed by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge ; nor 
could they apply themselves to any work more generally desired, or 
more serviceable to the clergy in their endeavours to improve their 
choirs and elevate Church Psalmody. 

Allow me further to suggest that an edition of the Society's Psalters, 
with the Canticles, arranged on the plan adopted by the Rev. J. A. 
Latrobe, in his useful little work entitled " the Instructions of Chena- 
niali," would greatly promote congregational chanting. 

T. U. Jun. 

Boss, Bee. 10, J 832. 

ON TITHES. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Mr. Editor, — As you have so repeatedly and earnestly solicited com- 
munications from the clergy residing in every part of this kingdom, 
with the view of collecting a body of evidence on the important sub- 
ject of Tithes, I am desirous of contributing my mite towards the fur- 
therance of so laudable an object, and should do it the more readily, 
if I could think that such communications are likely to come under 
the notice of those who are loudest in their outcries against the system 
altogether. What I propose is, to bring forward a fact which the de- 
fenders of the estabUshment seemed to have lost sight of while con- 
tending with their opponents, and which, if made use of, would have 
silenced at least one of their formidable batteries. You are aware. 
Sir, these virulent assailants have long ago asserted, and still assert, 
that the Church of England is bound, by original charter, (qu. where 
is it to be found?) to expend a third of its income upon the main- 
tenance of the pooTy* and that it is guilty of a breach of contract, inas- 



• I would ask what is intended by this word, supposing sucli a contract to exist ? 
If such only as the act of Elizabeth contemplated, — viz. " the impotent, in the true sense 
of the expression, aged, infrm, unable to loorh, §-c. §-c., — I say, allot them to us in every 
parish in this district, exempt us from your rate-book, and we shall have a good bar- 
gain of it. Wc will readily undertake to maintain them, and liberally too. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 181 

much as no &uch portion of its revenue is so expended. This is a 
bold assertion ; but, unhappily for them who make it, it is utterly 
devoid of truth. For let us see what the real fact is, and " mark how 
plain a tale will put them down." 

The district in which I live is wholly agricultural, (and I wish it to 
be noticed, that to such only my observations throughout this letter 
are intended to apply,) and my preferment is a rectory. The great 
and small tithes are compounded for, and my income is 2201. per 
annum; the tenants paying the poor's rate on the composition, as is 
usual in such cases. The whole disbursement in the year for the re- 
lief of the poor is, in round numbers, 500/., of which, according to a 
late valuation, one-fourth part is assessed to the tithes. Thus, then, 
in reality, the value of the tithe is 35o/., inasmuch as one-fourth of 
the rate, or 125/., is paid for me by my parishioners to the rate, in 
lieu of paying it to me. But beside the assessment on the tithes, I 
pay annually 211. 12s. for the glebe lands which I hold in my own 
occupation, making my whole contribution to the poor rate 146/. 12s. 
The question is, what proportion does this sum bear to the annual 
value of my living. 

£ s. d. 

Tithes by composition 220 

Ditto by payment of tenants 125 

35 acres Glebe (rent to self) 35 

Total value of Rectory 380 

Deduct Poor's Rate on composition 125 

Ditto on Glebe 21 12 

146 12 

The third part of 380/. is 127/. nearly ; my actual payment, 146/. 12*., 
or 19/. 12*. more than the supposed contract binds me to contribute 
to the maintenance of the poor. But I suppose, Sir, the old adage is 
as true as ever — 

" He that's convinced against his will 
Is of the same opinion still." 

Nothing but a total demolition of the fabric will satisfy a liberal 
public ; and I feel assured that Revolution, and not Reform, will be 
the closing act of the play. 

Your's respectfully, 

A Norfolk Rector. 

P. S. — ^Perhaps I ought to apologize for not giving my name, as is 
recommended by one of your late correspondents. I do not know it 
would serve any good purpose, for the facts here stated may be 
verified by the experience of ninety-nine incumbents out of an hun- 
dred, mutatis mutandis ; and I do not hesitate to say, that the enemies 
of the Church have wilfully concealed them, lest the disclosure should 
weaken their cause.* 



* The Editor has been obliged to suppress, for want of room, the objections made 
by * a Norfolk Rector ' to the present mode of paying the clergy. 



182 OORRESPONDEXCE. 

COLLECT BEFORE SERMOW. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Sir, — Allow me through the medium of yoiu* useful pages to suggest 
to my brother clergy an occasional variation of those collects com- 
monly used before the sermon, on the principle, as Bishop Jeremy 
Taylor expresses it, " that the change, consulting with the appetites of 
fancy, may better entertain the spirit." I would have them, however, 
confine themselves to those beautiful and comprehensive collects of our 
church, as nothing can be better, which moreover are so diversified in 
language and sentiment, that one may generally be found pecuharly 
adapted to the discourse about to follow. I have adopted this plan of 
selecting one in accordance with my subject, with pleasure to myself, 
and, I have reason to believe, with its proper eiSect on my hearers ; 
it also gives an opportunity of introducing many of those admirable 
compositions of our Liturgy, which are otherwise read but once a year. 
This hint may appear trivial, but I venture to give it on the authority 
of the Divine before alluded to, who says, " It is not imprudent to 
provide variety of forms of prayer to the same purposes."* 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 
December 10, 1832. H. 



INDEX TO THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE, 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Mr. Editor, — ^To answer the question I am about to propose is, I 
presume, within the scope of your periodical, and I shall not, there- 
fore, trouble you with any apologies for asking it. 

Is there any digested index to our theological literature? I will 
explain my meaning by examples in the departments of medicine and 
law. First, "Medical Literature," by the late lamented Dr. Young. 
In this work every disease, and every known variety of it, is arranged 
in systematic order, and references to all Treatises, Reports, and 
Cases, &c. are given under each head ; chapter and verse, section and 
page. Second, some of the " Digests" of different branches of our 
laws are anal ago usly arranged. In divinity an equal aid for reference 
would be quite as desirable for the student : but after an examination 
of many catalogues, and the most extended enquiries among the book- 
sellers, I cannot learn that any such work exists ; perhaps you can 
inform me. The only work which makes an approach to it, " sed 
longo intervallo," is the " Index to the texts of all the Sermons pub- 
lished after the Restoration," begun by Letsome, and continued by 



• What authority, by the way, is there for using any collect ? It is rather a curious 
matter to consider how many things there are in the church which have only f>rac^/c^ 
as their sanction. On this particular point there may be doubt, but the collect seemt 
to be the substitute for the bidding prayer used when there was no service befort 
sermon. — Ed. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 183 

his successor Clark. Of the many editions of this, I possess the first, 
(1734) pubUshed by Harding, St. Martin's Lane, and containing 
nearly 100 pages for 1*. I have not seen Clark's, but a friend who 
examined for me a copy at a bookseller's, priced 1/. 5s., tells me that 
its plan goes no farther than Letsome's. I have endeavoured to 
make my copy more useful by adding in the margin references to all 
later authors which I may have. There is no doubt much utility in 
these works, but of infinitesimal importance compared with that which 
I seek, or suggest. 

I need not enlarge on the vast advantage to be derived fi-om a w^ork 
w^hich would enable the student, and especially the composer of ser- 
mons, to turn to all the casual discussions (not to be guessed from a 
text,) which occur in the writings and sermons of our best divines, on 
a particular subject and even a ramification of one. I may be told 
that the best modern and some of the old editions are fiu*nished with 
indices, but every one does not possess the editions which have them, 
and the alphabetical ones are of inferior value to what I propose. A 
digest of the best works in divinity, calculated to answer the ends I 
have pointed out, if well done, and sold for a moderate price,* (say 
1 5s.) would be of infinite value to the clergy, and would find a ready 
sale, not only among them, but the more studious part of the reading 
public also. 

The labom- of compiling such a work of course would be consider- 
able, but it has probably been, in great part, already undergone in a 
long course of years, by some studious Divine, who has common- 
placed his reading. No man can, however, dare to say, that such 
drudgery is beneath him, when it has been undertaken and executed 
for medicine by one, who, when the range of his acquirements and the 
light which he has shed upon such diversified subjects of literature 
and science is considered, will be pronounced ^^ facile princepsj" the 
first philosopher of his age. 

Pray answer my question satisfactorily, or set the project a-going. 

Yours, 
Oct. 19, 1832. A Country Inquirer. 



CASES OF ADULTERY. 
To the Editor of the British Magazine. 



My dear Sir, — Seeing your pages open to communications of all 
kinds, particularly from the clergy, I venture to address you on a 
subject, which has probably, more or less, engaged the attention of 
my clerical brethren. I have lately taken the curacy of a small 
parish, and am grieved to find that in it, and in the adjoining parish, 
there exist gross cases of adultery. Of course it is my duty to hinder, 
if possible, the continuance of such vice, but on inquiry I find, that 



Young's Med. Lit. was published at 18s. 



184 CORRESPONDENCE. 

without incurring an enormous expense, nothing can be done, and 
that, even then, nothing would follow but the excommunication of 
the parties concerned — a punishment which, in these days of lax dis- 
cipline, it would be difficult to enforce, and which, if enforced, would 
probably be no annoyance to the parties, (who would immediately 
go to meeting,) and would not prevent their cohabiting ; so that in 
fact there is no punishment at all for it. Now that reform is the 
order of the day, would it not be well if something were done, by 
which such gross violations of both human and divine laws might be 
prevented, and the punishment be rendered more severe ? Could it 
not be made an offence cognizable at common law ? 

I throw out this hint, in the hope that, among your numerous 
readers, some one may be kind enough to correct me, if I am wrong, 
or that, if I am right, it may attract the attention of those who have 
the power of remedying the evil. 
; I am, dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

Ihc 6, 1832. C. J. 



ANCIENT TABLE IN THE CHAPTER-HOUSE OF SALISBURY 
CATHEDRAL. 

To the Editor of the British Jfagazine. 

Sir, — Being somewhat of an antiquary myself, I can readily enter into 
the feelings of those who have been severe on the Chapter to which 
I have the honour of be^ODgiDg, for having permitted such a pro- 
fanation of the ancieiit table in tae Chapter-Hous3, as to supply four 
new legs to it. in the room of those which were decayed and rotten. 

Having read the animadversions, in a journal so respectable as 
the " British Magazine." I thought it my duty, on coming into 
residence, to examine this table, in order to appreciate the justice of 
the public critical remarks ; and I now think it equally my duty to 
inform the Editor of the publication which contained the remarks, 
that, as to the legs of the table, they were found in such a state of 
entire decay, that, to use the words of the clerk of the works, " he 
was absolutely unable, from the old wood, to preserve sufficient to 
make a snuff-box." 

The Dean, therefore, desirous of supporting the ancient frame, left 
orders, on leaving residence, that four new legs should be substi- 
tuted of the exaci pattern of those which it was found necessary to 
remove. 

Unfortunately, the clerk of the works thought he might as well add 
a new top to the table at the same time, the former boards being 
decayed, and therefore took away all the original boards, the greater 
part being decayed and rotten. 

This is the plain history, but on the part of the Chapter, directions 
have been now given by me, in the absence of ihe Dean, that all 
which remained of the old boards, and which could bear a nail, shottld 



CORRESPONDENCE. 185 

be carefully replaced. This is all that could be done ; and having 
thought it my duty, in concurrence with the present residentiary, Arch- 
deacon Macdonald, to give this explanation, — declining, however, all 
controversy, — with best wishes for the success of your publication, 

I am. Sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 

W. L. Bowles. 



STOKE-UPON-TRENT, STAFFORDSHIRE.— DR. WOODHOUSE'S 
DONATIONS. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine, 

Sir, — I respond to your call for the particulars of the Dean of Lich- 
field's munificence to the parish of Stoke-upon-Trent, of which he 
was late rector, with alacrity and heartfelt satisfaction, rejoicing that 
you have thus afforded the opportunity of recording his princely gifts 
in your valuable publication. Being patron of the rectory and a 
resident, I speak to the facts fi-om my own knowledge, in giving you 
the following list of Dr. Woodhouse's donations to that parish within 
the last fifteen years. 

To the National School at Stoke, besides an annual subscription of 
10 guineas, 2551. ; National School at Hanley 90/. ; National School 
at Lane End, 501. ; North Staffordshire Infirmary, besides an annual 
subscription of 5 guineas, 470/. — (the privilege of recommending 
patients, in virtue of 400/. of this donation, is for ever reserved to the 
five incumbents of the churches of Hanley, Shelton, Stoke, Lane 
End, and Longton, from their respective districts ;) — towards erecting 
and completing a new parish church at Stoke, besides presenting a 
beautiful painted window for the chancel, 3300/. ; for the permanent 
endowment of the National Schools in the parish, 3000/. ; towards 
providing parsonage houses for the two new district rectories of Shelton 
and Longton, 2000/. ; towards the enlargement of the church at Lane 
End, 500/. ; towards a new church at Handford, on the borders of 
the parish of Stoke, besides an annual subscription of 5 guineas to the 
Sunday school, 200/. ; for providing an annual dole of bread to the 
poor of Penkhull and Boothen on Christmas day, for ever, 100/. ; 
towards the establishment of a friendly society in the parish, on the 
Beecher or Southwell plan, 400/. ; the organist's salary at Stoke 
church for four years, 80/. Making in the aggregate more than 
TEN THOUSAND POUNDS, exclusivc of Hbcral occasional aids in times 
of local distress, and large donations to other places and objects. 

Let the revilers of the clergy read this statement and blush for 
their slanders. Really, Sir, I cannot but think, in common justice to 
that ill-used body of men, the inquiry by the ecclesiastical commis- 
sioners into the revenues of the church, should have touched upon 
their distribution ; and if a question had been added, as to the amount 
of donations and subscriptions from the respective incumbents to 
'pvblic charitable purposes, I am satisfied that no class of persons, 
with the same means, would stand higher in the lists of public 

Vol. \\\.—Feb. 1833. 2 b 



186 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



benevolence ; whilst the private relief of the poor by the clergy is 
undoubtedly acted upon to a great extent.* 

I beg to subjoin the following inscriptions on a stal;uary marble 
tablet, lately put up in the new parish church at Stoke, as a curious 
and interesting record of the variety of sources from which funds were 
derived for accomplishing that important work in which the late 
rector stands so pre-eminently.f 

I remain, Mr. Editor^ 

Your very obedient servant, 

John TomlinSon. 

Cliff Ville, 10th Jamtary, 1833. 



* The Editor is now endeavouring to collect an account of the contributions of 
the clergy in each county to such charities as print their Reports ; and although this 
will be very inadequate, and will show no parish subscriptions, or private charities, 
it will evidently be very large in amount as appears from those counties whence he has 
obtained returns. But he wants assistance very much. He has some counties com- 
pleted, and expects a few more. Could any person have the kindness to send 
him such returns for Herefordshire, Gloucestershire, Northumberland, Cumberland, 
and Cornwall. The societies and charities in question are county hospitals, asylums, 
dispensaries, &c., district or auxiliary committees of the society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge and that for the Propagation of the Gospel, and National 
Society, Bible Society, Church Missionary Society. 

t A. Table of Donations towards erecting and completing this parish church, and providing 
an Organ, eight new Sells, and a Clock. 



His most gracious Majesty, King 
George the Fourth, from the 
revenues of his Duchy of Lan- 
caster _ - - - - 
John Chappel Woodhouse, D.D., 
rector, besides presenting the 
east window in the chancel 
John Tomlinson, patron, Cliff 
Ville, besides presenting a mar- 
ble font 

Josiah Spode, Mount - - - 
The Devisees of John Turner 

Whieldon, lattle Fenton 
John Smith, Great Fenton - 
William Hammersley, Fradswell 
Hall- --.... 
Thomas Minton, Stoke - 
Hugh Booth, Clayton - 
John Bourne, Great Fenton 
Charles James Mason, Fenton 
Felix Pratt, Fenton - 
Mrs. Chatterley, Shelton Hall - 
Herbert Minton, Longfield Cottage 
Mrs. Bree, London . - - 
Mrs. Birch, Fradswell Hall - 
Thomas Allen, Great Fenton 
John Kirkham, PenkhuU 
John Whalley, Clerk - 
William Moore, Wychdon Lodge 
Joseph Locker, Jun., Hanley 
AVilliam Copeland, London - 
John Wickes Tomlinson, Clerk - 



£ 



250 



3300 



300 
500 

120 
100 

70 
50 
50 
50 
50 
40 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
27 
25 
25 
21 
21 



Thomas Fenton, Stoke Lodge 
John Hales Cobridge - - - 
Josiah and Tim. Dimmock, Stoke 
William & John Hancock, Fenton 
James Greaves, Stoke 
Henry Pratt, Stoke - - - 
Lewis and Samuel Bostock, Stoke 
John Brassington, Stoke 
Richard Cy pies Tomkinson, Stoke 



o£20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
^0 
20 

575 



Donations under 20Z. each - 

Contributions from the working 
classes, in Stoke-proper, above 500 

Grants from the parish, besides 
purchasing the site, and an 
addition to the church-yard - 3400 

Government duties on the mate- 
rials remitted by the Lords of 
the Treasury - - - - 641 

Grant from the Incorporated So- 
ciety for promoting the enlarge- 
ment and building of churches 400 

Tonnage of all materials brought 
along the Trent and Mersey 
canal, given by the company of 
proprietors _ - - - 391 

Team-work done gratuitously by 
various inhabitants, and parish 
labour . _ - - - 500 

Subscriptions for pews and vaults, 
and materials of old church, up- 
wards of 2000 



The foundations were laid in June, 1826, and the church was completed -ami 

consecrated in October, 1830. 

• The total expence exceeded fourteen thousand pounds. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



187 



To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Mr. Editor, — As I consider it the duty of the clergy to make 
known, through the medium of your Magazine, what is passing in 
their respective parishes, I send you the balance sheet of St. Mary's 
Benefit Club* for the past year, and also the leading rules by which 
it is governed. This club was established last year, and has worked 
wonderfully well. The depositors are thankful for the benefits they 
derive fi-om it ; and such numbers are pressing into it, that the only 
limits to it will be the want of honorary donations to make up the sum 
which each depositor is to receive at the end of the year. The prin- 
ciple on which it is conducted is, that any one member of a family 
residing in the parish, being married, or a widow, or a single person 
above fifty years of age, of good character, may deposit twopence 
weekly, for fifty-one weeks. Two-shillings-and-sixpence, fi'om the 
honorary fund, is then added to the sum saved, the whole amounting 
to eleven shilhngs, which is laid out in coals, shoes, or goods. The 
depositors buy their own coal, and the ticket is brought to the trea- 
surer for payment ; or, if choice is made to purchase goods, an order 
is given by a printed ticket of credit^ drawn upon a tradesman in 
Chester. No money is ever repaid to a depositor to be spent as he 
pleases. Every Sunday, after evening service, the members make 
their deposits ; and numbers who never had been known to attend any 
place of divine worship have been drawn to church since they joined 
the club. The rule which compels regular attendance is, " if, at the 
end of three Sundays, the sixpence due is not paid, the depositor 
forfeits sixpence of the half-crown he is to receive at the end of the 
year. 

I am, Mr. Editor, your humble servant, 

William Hutchinson, 

Curate of St. Mary's. 
Stanley Place, Chester, Jan. I3th, 1833. 



Dr. 



* St. Mary's Benefit Club. 



Cr. 



One Hundred and Fifty-two 
Depositors, at 2d. per week, 

Honorary Subscribers 

Interest from the Savings 
Bank ^..., 



£. 


s. 


d. 


64 12 





19 


5 





1 


9 


11 


^85 


6 11 1 



Coals^ 



Calico, Linen Cloth, & Print 

Blankets and Flannel 

Sheets, Counterpanes, Dowlas 
Shoes and Clothes .^^^wv^^w*^ 
Sundries >,w>^,>»vi>s»^>vww>^>,»v>«».>^ 
Balance in Treasurer's hands 1 14 11 



£. s. 


d. 


54 3 


6 


4 6 


4* 


5 3 


9 


4 18 


2 


8 10 


7* 


6 9 


7 



^85 6 11 



William Hutchinsok, Treasurer. 
Charles Gamon, Auditors. 



Edward Ducker, 



188 correspondence:. 

REPLY OF AN EPISCOPAL CLERGYMAN TO THE VOLUNTARY 
CHURCH ASSOCIATION. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine, 

Mr. Editor, — The following correspondence will, I trust, be deemed 
worthy of a place in the pages of the British Magazine. The most 
unwarrantable attempts are making at the present time to undermine 
the Church as established by law in Scotland, by means of Voluntary 
Church Associations. Of these associations, the ministers of the 
Secession are among the most active members, together with a few 
Independents. Every effort has been made to induce the ministers 
of the Scottish Episcopal Communion to join in this unhallowed work 
of devastation ; but hitherto without success. While these ministers 
conscientiously believe that their own form of Church government is 
the purest and best, and consonant with that of the primitive church, 
they cannot be blind to the fact, that the EstabUshed Church of that 
'country has been instrumental in training a religious and moral 
people, and they would be the last to join in the attempt to separate 
it from the state. I am, sir. 

Your humble servant, 
T.T.Z. 

" Leslie, I6th November, 1832. 

" Reverend Sir, — The adjourned meeting of the Friends of Religious Liberty, 
to consider the propriety of forming a Voluntary Church Association for the 
counties of Fife and Kinross, is to be held in Mr. Scott's meeting-house, Leslie, 
on Wednesday, 5th December ensuing, at twelve o'clock noon. You are 
requested to attend said meeting, and to bring along with you one or two 
active members of your congregation, favourable to the object. 
*' I am. Reverend Sir, 

" Your's truly, 

*' John Johnstone. 
*' The Reverend John Marshall, Kirkaldy." 

ANSWER to the FOREGOING. 

*' Kirkaldy, November 20th, 1832. 

" Sir,— I have been favoured with a printed letter, signed with your name, 
requesting my attendance at Leslie, on the 5th December, to consider, ' with 
other friends of religious liberty,' the propriety of forming a Voluntary' Church 
Association for the counties of Fife and Kinross, and urging me to bring along 
with me one or tw^o active members of my congregation, favourable to the 
object. 

" As I am no sophist, I take the plain meaning of your intimation to be, 
that, on the day mentioned, there is to be a meeting of Dissenters at Leslie, 
for the purpose of taking into consideration the best method of subverting the 
Scottish Ecclesiastical Establishment. From that Establishment, Sir, I am a 
dissenter as well as yourself. Nevertheless, as I cannot find myself to be in 
the slightest degree aggrieved by its existence, and as I regard it in the light of 
an effective engine for the inculcation of moral and religious instruction 
throughout the mass of my countrymen, I must decline uniting to those of its 
enemies my efforts for its overthrow. Allow me to add, that it is with pain I 
behold a number of men clothing themselves with the characters of ministers 
of the gospel of peace, and yet associating themselves for the accornplishment 
of an object, which, if attained, must ultimately involve the three kingdoms in 
all the horrors of anarchy and civil war. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 189 

" In thus expressing my sentiments on this subject, you must not. Sir, set 
me down as a party peculiarly interested in upholding the Establishment. 
Indeed, the very circumstance of your addressing your circular to me as a 
dissenter, shews that it is impossible for you to do so. I may, however, go 
farther, and state, that, in a pecuniary point of view, we Scottish Episcopalians 
would be directly benefited by its abolition. You must be aware that about 
two-thirds of the Established Church's revenues are drawn from Episcopal 
landlords, who have at the same time their own clergy to maintain. This is 
a fact, of which, were we inclined to act the part of political demagogues, 
great advantage might be taken. But we can never forget — what is indeed 
notorious to every one at all acquainted with the matter — that every estate in 
the country burdened with teinds, &c. has been bought and sold with that 
burden for centuries, and that consequently the wilful appropriation by a land- 
lord to his own use of but one farthing of his parish minister's stipend is 
neither more nor less than an act of robbery, which will be punished, if not by 
man, at least by God. 

" I presume. Sir, that in the event of your exertions for the overthrow of all 
establishments for religious instruction being crowned with success, your next 
object will be the subversion of every endowed seminary for the common 
purpose of general education. The two systems being based upon the same 
principle, they must stand or fall together. If George Heriot might lawfully 
bequeath his fortune for the rearing of a certain class of children, why may not 
a landed proprietor set apart a portion of his estate for the promulgation of 
the doctrines and duties of Christianity ? 

"As matters stand at present, I perceive the body of my countrymen 
enjoying their moral and religious instruction gratuitously. Under the system 
advocated by the Voluntary Church Associations, they would be subjected to 
grievous burdens, have their own churches to build, and their own ministers 
to pay. " I have the honour to be. Sir, 

" Your most obedient servant, 
"John Marshall, 
> " Presbyter of the Scottish Episcopal Church. 

" P.S. On looking into the Almanack, I find a John Johnstone, minister of 
the United Associate Synod of the Secession Church, at Leslie. I presume 
you are the individual. „ 

" The Rev. John Johnstone, Leslie." 



DIOCESE OF DURHAM. 
To the Editor of the Sritish Magazine. 

Sir, — ^In one of your last numbers, p. 370, you ask, "Why will not 
those who can, supply information ?'■ Your question related to that 
which bishops and deans and chapters had begun to do, in the distri- 
bution of their funds for the augmentation of small livings, and for 
similar purposes, before clamour had reached its present height. 

I will tell you, as far as I am able, what has been doing in the 
diocese of Durham. 

The present Bishop of Durham has followed closely in the steps of 
his munificent predecessor, Shute Barrington ; ever since he came to 
the diocese, churches, schools, and parsonage-houses have risen up 



190 CORRESPONDENCE. 

year after year in consequence of his benefactions. Many of the ill- 
endowed incumbents have had to thank hiin for increased incomes. 
In addition to private assistance, and to liberal donations, which have 
enabled some of them to derive full benefit from Queen Ann's Bounty, 
the bishop has ceded property under the Archbishop's Enabling Act, 
which will add, 



£ 
180 a year 


to St. John's Chapelry, Sunderland 


40 


- Sunderland Rectory 


68 


- Stockton Vicarage 


80 


- Perpetual Curacy of St. Helen's, Auckland 


35 - 


- Perpetual Curacy of Ash 


86 - 


- Perpetual Curacy of Satley 


150 


- Perpetual Curacy of Lanchester 


100 


- Chapelry of Medomsley 


100 


- Rectory of Gateshead Fell. 


^839 per annum. 



. The Bishop has also made arrangements for the further cession of pro- 
perty, which will carry up other augmentations out of his own resources 
to double this amount, and has lately endowed the new church of 
Etherley. 

The Dean and Chapter of Durham, in like manner, have for seve- 
ral years past been proceeding upon a regular system, which has not 
only removed two of the principal complaints made against the chm-ch 
from the sphere of their jurisdiction and patronage, viz., pluralities 
and non-residence, but w^hich also lays a tax to the amount of from 
fifteen to twenty per cent upon their several incomes, in addition to 
statutable and former deductions. In this spirit of spontaneous atten- 
tion to the condition of their brethren, they have doubled the salaries 
of their minor canons and of the masters of their grammar school, or 
nearly so ; and they have not left a single living in their gift with a 
provision under 150^. a year. Moreover, they have put measures in 
a train, which, if not interrupted by events beyond their control, will 
raise all their livings. 

Where the population exceeds 1000 to ^£300 a year 
Where it exceeds - - 500 to 250 

Where it is under - - 500 to 200 

The permanent charge voluntarily imposed upon themselves to 
carry this one improvement into effect will not be less than 3000/. 
a year. 

The amount of property likewise alienated as a free will gift to the 
Durham University is nearly 3000/. a year. In fact, on an average 
of the last twenty-one years, it produced to the Dean and Chapter 
2986/. 18*. a year. I mention tliis exact sum because, when the 
grant was announced in Parliament last May, Ijord Durham greatly 
under-rated its real value. 

Independently of these sacrifices, the Dean and Chapter of Durham, 
like their diocesan, have contributed largely to the occasional wants of 
the church. Parsonage houses have been provided in seven parishes, 
entirely or principally out of their funds. Last year they appropriated 
1250/. to the erection of a new church at Soutli Shields, and 450/. to 
the purchaee of a Chapel at Monk Wearmouth, besides voting 100/. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 191 

a year and a house to the minister of the chapel. But that I may state 
something under this head which was going on long before the pre- 
sent outcry : — Within ten years previously to 1829, seventeen churches 
were enlarged, and eleven newly built, in this diocese, chiefly by 
aid of clerical benefactions. 

That the Durham clergy, throughout the whole diocese, have been 
equally liberal according to their means, appears on the face of a do- 
cument which now Ues before me. Two thirds of the sum total of the 
annual subscriptions paid to nine of the public charities of Durham 
and Northumberland, in which the laity are as much interested as the 
clergy, come out of the pockets of the clergy. This document w^as 
drawTi up four years ago. I select two particulars for yoiu* in- 
formation, in which the proportion is still greater on the side of the 
clergy. 

Total Amount of Subs. Subscribed by Clergy. Subscribed by Laity. 

''7e*Dt'e'?e''ofD.taL''"} - ^ !« '« - ^^^ " « - ^ ^ ^O 

Durham Diocesan Society ") 
forEnlarging & Building V ... 274 11 6 ... 243 10 6 ... 31 1 
churches J 

At the first Establishment of the Durham Diocesan Society for En- £ s. d. 

larging and Building Churches, the amount of donations was ... 2429 8 

Of this the Clergy gave 164S 2 6 

The Laity 781 4 6 

I am. Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

DUNELMENSIS. 

Durham, Jan. 19, 1833. 



To the Editor of the British Magazine. 
Sir, — ^Permit me, through you, to address one word of (I trust) no 
unfriendly remonstrance to the writer who signs himself " H." in 
your January number (p. 44 — 49, 54 — 57.) His criticisms, whether 
correct or no, are too ingenious not to attract notice ; and this renders 
me the more anxious to lose no time in seriously requesting him to 
use his own better judgment on some expressions, fallen from him, 
which give his papers an air of lightness and irreverence (far, I am 
sure, from his meaning), and make it eveu painful to read them. 
Thus, Nathan's reproof to David is called " The Romance of the 
Pet Lamb." Certain words of our Saviour are designated as " Those 
very curious words." " Novies styx &c." is applied to the awful 
scene described in the accoimt of the rich man and Lazarus. Abra- 
ham's bosom is " The Elysium of Death" &c. In a subsequent 
paper " On the Prophecy of Jesus," (is not this title imnecessarily 
irreverent?) not only casual expressions, but material facts of the 
writer's argument, appear to me chargeable with the same error, — 
a kind of flighty conversational carelessness, tending to disparage the 
.Holy Scriptures. Surely it is rather overbold, (especially in one who 
.insists so much on the absolute necessity of literal truth in inspired 
words, except in cases of prophetic allegory or express parable, one of 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

which is here out of the question, and the other he is at pains to 
exclude,) it is, I say, overbold in him to quote the very words 
of our Lord in St. Matthew, and follow them up with this remark, 
*' Some seventeen centuries have passed away since the tribulation 
of those days, and not one syllable of this has come to pass;" it is 
bolder to talk of " shutting up pulpits and churches, (i. e. of renouncing 
Christianity altogether,) sooner than believe that " such a phrase as 
'seeing the Son of man coming in the clouds with power and glory' is 
capable of allegorization;" boldest of all to represent an apostle as 
saying these things " improperly," as " writing down discourses 
without duly weighing the w^ords he made use of," and " by that 
inadvertency furnishing what might have been the strongest of all 
arguments to those who regard the Lord as not the real Messiah, 
** if the evangelist had not given a fuller and more intelligible report 
of what He said." Elsewhere the words are called " astounding." 
" St. Mark," it is said, " abstained from repeating" them exactly, 
'' by which process he rather softened down the phraseology by which 
the reader was surprised in his predecessor, than removed the real 
difficulty." But St. Luke having written " with an earnest desire to 
rectify what was defective" in former Gospels, " gives a very different 
colour"*' to " our Saviour's prophecy." 

Once again I put it to your correspondent (who will, I am sure, 
see my motive, and excuse the liberty which I take) whether this be 
indeed the tone in which it becomes Christian men to speak of their 
Lord's own words, recorded by His inspired evangelists. In the 
hurry of invention, and keenness of debate, w^e are all Uable to err in 
this way : but the worst is, the unthinking admire it ; and what was 
in the writer mere lightness of manner, may encourage in the reader 
habitual disrespect for the Bible. 

I am, &c. 

K, 



NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 



Remarks on the Prospective and Past Benefits of Cathedral Institutions in the 
Promotion of Sound and Religious Knowledge, 8fc. By E. B. Pusey, Regius 
Professor of Hebrew, &c. London : Roake and Varty. 
This pamphlet deserves the best attention of those who have any real regard 
for the Church. It shews most fully and admirably what cathedrals have 
done for learning. It shews what benefits are derived from the present general 
education given at the Universities as a foundation for professional education. 
It shews that learned men, as divines and defenders of Christianity, have been 
connected almost always either with the universities or cathedrals — that the 
parochial clergy have duties which must, generally speaking, preclude them 
from continuing their studies — and that, as the universities must now be 
looked to principally as carrying on the work of general education, the cathe- 
drals are the quarters to which one is to look for the promotion of theological 
learning. It points out very clearly that such was their intention and object, 
and it then proceeds to suggest that in order to secure the benefits of profes- 



XOTICES AND REVIEWS. 193 

sional education to the clergy, each cathedral should be the theological semi- 
nary of the diocese. This is often the case in Roman Catholic countries. The 
suggestion, and the reasons by which Mr. Pusey supports it, deserve the most 
attentive consideration. A friend of the writer's, in talking this same scheme 
over a year or two ago, suggested that perhaps these seminaries would in some 
cases be too small, and that two, one for each province, would answer better ; 
each cathedral contributing its proper officer or officers to these metropolitical 
seminaries, instead of doing the work less efficiently at home.* There are 
some dioceses, as for instance Rochester, Canterbury itself, Peterborough, and 
Bristol, where the number of students would be so small that that feeling 
which is nececsary for the advantage of both teachers and learners could 
hardly be kept up. It is to be observed that Chester, and the poorer parts of 
the northern Dioceses, have already a seminary of this kind, and that there 
is one likewise in Wales. If a scheme like that suggested here were entered 
on really, the better endowment and, if necessary, the removal of St. Bees, 
might provide for the province of York, while there might be four or five in the 
larger province of Canterbury, as, for example, at Lincoln for the midland 
dioceses, at Norwich for that diocese, in some part of the diocese of London 
for that diocese and Winchester, at Canterbury for Canterbury, Rochester, and 
Chichester, and at Exeter, for the western parts. 

At the same time, the scheme itself requires very careful examination. It 
is very attractive on many accounts, but it may still be a question whether the 
work would not be more efficiently done at the universities, by requiring the re- 
sidence of B.A.s for a given time. The clamour about expense at the universi- 
ties is groundless, except for such persons as will be expensive everywhere ; and 
the clamour as to immorality just of the same kind. If men have no religious 
principle, they will be profligate at the university ; and he must have strange 
notions who believes that such persons would not be profligate wherever occa- 
sion offered. Men bring up their children without thought of God, without 
joining with them in prayer, without inculcating on them the study of God's 
word by precept and example. They do not inquire into the religious character 
of their son's instructor, and then they complain when these unhappy children 
destroy body and soul by a course of sin, and accuse every body and every- 
thing but themselves. The writer must not leave this work without saying 
that the church and the country owe no small thanks to Mr. Pusey, for his 
learned, high-principled, and powerful vindication of its cathedral establish- 
ments. 



The Happiness of the Blessed Considered. By the Right Rev. R. Mant, Bishop 
of Down and Connor. London : Rivingtons, 1833. 

The spirit of this book is a spirit of very sincere, earnest, and sober piety. 
Not seeking to be wise above what is written. Bishop Mant has here drawn 
together whatever scripture says, and whatever it suggests as to the, intermediate 
and the final state — our recognition of our friends hereafter — and the difierent 
degrees of happiness promised to believers. Probably no one has before drawn 
together the promises of scripture so fully and connectedly, and no one has 
certainly done it with a fuller union of soberness and serious piety. The 
volume is interspersed with sonnets (the use of which for sacred subjects 



* In some cathedrals lectures are still delivered by one of the canons, whose business 
it is. One of them at Hereford is entitled the Prelector. At Chichester, where there 
is a stall with the same duty attached to it, it was, as the writer knows, the determi- 
nation of the present Bishop of Worcester to have provided for the delivery of a 
course of divinity lectures, by the appointment which he intended to make to the 
proper stall, now held by a person of advanced age and infirm, had it fallen during 
his time. 

Vol. lU.^Feb. 1833. 2 c 



J 94 NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 

required no vindication), and one of these every one will thank the Reviewer 
for transcribing. 

THE REUNION OF FRIENDS IN HEAVEN. 

There is a void in lorn affection's heart, 

Which yearns to be supplied. On God's high will 

Though it repose submissively, yet still 

Of those, who bore in its regards a part, 

The cherished forms it holds, as in a chart 

Depicted, hoping He may yet fulfil 

Their restitution. Pardon it, if ill 

Lurk in that hope, great Father ! True thou art ; 

Thou sayest the just shall bliss in fulness prove. 

And what thou sayest thy bounty will provide. 

And yet meseems the blissful souls above. 

The sense of earth's sweet charities denied, 

Might feel a craving in those realms of love. 

By angel hosts and patriarchs unsupplied. 

The volume concludes with a series of sonnets, called " Musings on the 
Church and her services," of the same order and pleasing feeling with that just 
quoted. 



A Practical Exposition of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, in a Series of 
Ijectures. By the Rev. T. Parry, Archdeacon of Antigua, &c. London : 
Rivingtons. 1832. 

Archdeacon Parry has here executed a most difficult task extremely well ; 
and has presented, in a series of lectures, very clearly and well written, and 
calculated for any tolerably educated audience, a sound and just view of the 
all-important doctrines of the Epistle to the Romans, and their bearing upon the 
life and heart. The writer would be heartily glad to see Archdeacon Parry's 
exposition in very general use. Without binding himself to defend particular 
words, which is out of the question in a long work, he can go along entirely 
with the tenour of Archdeacon Parry's views. Perhaps, in another edition, 
the author might, with advantage to his practical object, dwell a little longer 
on sanctification, as the privilege of the Christian covenant. He has not over- 
looked this momentous difference between trie Mosaic and Christian law as 
some writers have done, but it is most important to impress it very strongly. 
There is one other point on which (if Archdeacon Parry will not think that the 
reviewer takes too great a liberty in offering advice) it would seem to him 
desirable to speak a little more fully, viz. the condemning power of the law. 
It is ably touched, but it is a difficult subject to many men, and a veiy im- 
portant one. On the whole, very warm thanks are due to Archdeacon Parry 
for his valuable and most acceptable work. 

Seven Letters on National Religion, addressed to the Rev. H. Melvill. By 
Charles Smith, B.D. Fellow and Tutor of St. Peter's College, Cambridge. 
London: Rivingtons. 1833. 

Mr. Smith deplores and exposes, and very justly, the entire ignorance of the 
right meaning and real value of the Church, manifested by the Papist, 
the Dissenter, and too often by the Churchman, and points out how en- 
tirely every ancient nation made the public profession of religion the bond 
of civil society — how completely this was the case in our own early his- 
tory — how wickedly the Papacy has done, in endeavouring, for its own 
purposes, to dissolve the union between the church and the state — and how 
false and infidel in tendency are the arguments by which the sectaries at- 
tempt to shew that such an union is injurious to the cause of religion, 
whereas it is the dissolution of that union, which is a renunciation on part 



NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 395 

of tlie state, of all share or interest in God's blessing and all reliance on his 
providence. The reviewer is not prepared to go entirely along with Mr. 
Smith in some of his positions, but he thinks there is a great deal of truth 
in the volume — very right views of the church — of the necessity of living 
in its unity, and maintaining it — of yielding a cordial obedience to the laws 
of the Living Witness of the truth — of depending on that witness wholly and 
entirely, as every one must who has right notions of it, by avoiding every 
thing which is like a setting up an imperium in imperio in the church itself. 
The spirit too in which Mr. Smith combats the liberalism of the day, as to 
religion being a matter between God and a man's soul, as if the outward 
testimony to the truth of religion was not an imperative duty on every 
Christian society, and other errors of the same nature, deserves all praise. 
And the writer cordially recommends the perusal of the last letter, which con- 
tains a sort of practical application of the preceding ones, not only to dissenters, 
but to too large a class of dissenting churchmen. It is to be lamented indeed, 
that Mr. Smith has not made his language a little less vague, and his letters 
a little less discursive, but they who read the last letter will probably be 
tempted to read the foregoing ones. Perhaps, on reflection, Mr. S. may be 
inclined to think that the Cde haut en bos) tone in which he speaks of almost 
all persons, and especially of almost every defender of the church, besides 
himself, is not quite justifiable. There is one school of the present day, 
which, going on the right ground, that mere reading often overlays thought, 
rather advise people to avoid reading, and think out things for themselves. 
The consequence is, that they not only think out (which may be very w^ell 
for themselves), but publish, as their own discoveries, things which have 
been thought and said by sundry plain honest people before them, without 
any apparent consciousness that such proceedings arc rather amusing to the 
rest of the world. Mr. Smith does not belong to this school, but he rather 
shares in their practice; for example, in speaking very contemptuously 
of some defences of the church endowments, he appears not to be aware 
that very many persons before himself have strenuously maintained that 
these endowments were chiefly made, not to the Roman Catholic 
church, not to the Church of England after, but before it had adopted the 
errors of Rome, and that consequently, at the Reformation, there was no 
change, but a mere resumption of property by the right owners. Mr. Cole- 
ridge's admirable work on Church and State, is evidently the book which has 
set Mr. Smith thinking. It is cordially to be wished that its principles were 
more generally spread. 



Dissertations, vindicating the Church of England, with regard to some Essential 
Points of Doctrine and Discipline. By the Rev. J. Sinclair, of Pembroke 
College, Oxford, &c. &c. London t Rivingtons. 1833. 

The first of these Dissertations is on Episcopacy. It is most clearly and delight- 
fully written, and appears to the reviewer to contain the best view to which he 
could refer of all the arguments for Episcopacy, with a very satisfactory reply 
to the objections against it. The testimonies of foreign churches and writers 
of other communions are given at fall length. Mr. Sinclair concludes the 
dissertation with a declaration of the advantages of Episcopacy, but says 
that his arguments are advanced with no design of excluding from the church 
of Christ those Christian societies whose forms of discipline are less agree- 
able to ajjostolic rule than our own. (p. 32.) Agreeing in every other point 
of this essay with Mr. Sinclair, the writer cannot agree with him on this, 
while he is well aware that such a declaration will be regarded with contempt, 
or branded as most bigotted. There is, or there is not, a Living Witness to the 
truth on earth, and a dispenser of the precious gifts promised by God to his 
people, subsisting according to the constitution which it received from the 
apostles of the Lord. How can it be safe for those who wish to enjoy those 



196 



NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 



gifts, and to live in the light of that truth, to depart from this constitution? 
God is not tied to his promises, no doubt ; but that does not alter the case. To 
the argument, that, in some cases. Episcopacy was lost of necessity, of course 
the answer is, that necessity has no law, but that the necessity must be proved. 
In Laud's most remarkable letter to Hall (printed in Collier), that great man 
intimates his opinion, that no such necessity has ever yet been proved, and has 
probably never existed. 

Mr. Sinclair's next dissertation is on Liturgies and their value, and is very 
valuable indeed, very comprehensive, but not tedious. These two essays should 
be printed in a cheaper form. With the essay on Infallibility the reviewer 
was much pleased, as far as the refutation of the errors of the Romanist, 
enthusiast, and latitudinarian go. In the positive part he cannot quite 
agree with Mr. Sinclair. The voice of the church tmiversal (not the Roman 
church) must surely not be disregarded. Many of the promises cited by 
Mr. Sinclair appear to the reviewer rather to refer to that help of the Spirit 
required for avoiding sin and following after holiness, than to any promise 
of knowledge of difficult truths. Doubtless, the true Christian will know 
qf tJie doctrine better than others ; but this will be a knowledge growing 
'only with growth of holiness, and never, perhaps, enabling him outwardly to 
explain or defend the truth, though it enables him to apprehend it for his own 
comfort and guidance. If no other judge of controversies is to be thought 
of than this knowledge, assuredly there is none in the ordinary sense of the 
word, no authority which can be alleged by one man to convince another. Mr. 
Sinclair, it is only just to observe, states that in his view there is no certainty 
of arriving at absolute truth, but that there is certainty of escaping unpardon- 
able heresy. The question of the extent of private judgment is too wide for 
discussion here ; but it must be observed that this view leaves every man at 
liberty to decide whether he is himself a true Christian, and therefore a safe 
interpreter of God's word for himself. Whether this is right, is another ques- 
tion, but that it is so, must not be forgotten ; nor must the defenders of the 
right of private judgment forget the awful responsibility under which it must be 
exercised. Have human passions, infirmities, errors, and circumstances had 
no influence on the will, and, through it, on the mind ? 

The reviewer has left himself no room to speak of Mr. Sinclair's last essay 
on Mediation, in refutation of the opposite doctrines of the Socinians and 
Antinomians, which is both an original and able paper. He will not conclude 
without again expressing his hope of seeing the two first essays (on subjects 
where ignorance is so great and error so prevalent) in a cheap form, adapted 
for general circulation. He could not easily mention any thing at once so full 
and so readable. 

Maternal Advice, chiefly to Daughters leaving Home. London : Groombridge, 

1833. 
This little book contains some good extracts from the works of Mrs. Trimmer 
and other writers, a good many well-known hymns and sacred poems, and 
appears to be almost as well calculated for a paternal, or fraternal, as for a 
maternal present. Dr. Hawksworth's well-known letter to a young lady leaving 
home, and a few pages besides, form the only exceptions. 



Charter House Prize Exercises, from 1814 to 1832. London : Walker, 1833. 
This volume reflects the highest credit on the master under whose directions 
such compositions were written, as well as on the composers themselves. It 
may seem invidious to select, but the reviewer must beg attention to two 
compositions of Mr. Edward Churton's, as full of delicate thought and beauty. 
In one respect, such a volume might be very useful in times like these, if the 



NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 197 

clamour raised against all institutions were not an interested clamour. To an 
honest assailant of public schools, on the grounds of their limiting the acquire- 
ments of their pupils entirely to ancient literature, and not directing their 
thoughts to sacred subjects, one might say, read (" if thou canst read") this 
volume and be ashamed of yourself. See how much general reading and how 
much knowledge of scripture, as well as classical knowledge, these exercises 
shew, and confess that boys capable of displaying all this at so early a period of 
life, are not likely to feel themselves, or give others any reason to feel, discon- 
tented with the 'system pursued in their education, or to think anything left 
undone which careful instruction and encouragement can do to open their 
minds and direct them to the most important subjects. 

Notes, Historical and Legal, on the Endowments of the Church of England. By 
W. C. Walters, Esq., M.A,, Barrister at Law, and Fellow of Jesus College, 
Cambridge. London : Fellowes. 1833. 
This is a very valuable collection of legal observations on our endowments, 
in very much of which the reviewer is quite disposed to acquiesce. One 
thing, however, Mr. Walters aims at, which is to shew that the endowments 
were rarely from private gift, but rather from claims on part of the Church 
acquiesced in on part of the proprietors, from religious motives, for such a 
time as to cause a prescriptive right, which the common law recognizes and 
enforces — and in this point Mr. W. does not fully succeed. Mr. Walters says, 
in arguing this point, that an assertion made in this Magazine, that many 
original grants of tithes can be produced, is not founded in fact. But it is 
Mr. Walters, as the reviewer believes, who errs here. Whether many endow- 
ments of rectories can be produced or not, very, very many gifts of tithes of 
estates by the owners to monasteries can be produced at any time, and the argu- 
ment and fact then remain the same. If gentlemen were in the habit of 
making gifts of the tithes of their estates voluntarily, it makes no diflference 
whether the gift was made to a rector and his successors for ever, or to a re- 
ligious body which was to supply an officiating priest. Surely Mr. Walters does 
not mean to deny the existence of such grants as these by wholesale. His 
replies to Mr. Eagle (especially his bringing Mr. Eagle to answer himself) are 
very able and ingenious. 



A Collection of Hymns for general use, submitted to the consideration of the Mem^ 
bers of the United Church of England and Ireland. London : Hatchards. 
1833. 
The compiler of this collection, which is partly original and partly taken from 
ten or twelve other collections, very truly says that there is no good or satisfac- 
tory collection, and very candidl}'^ requests readers of this, when they find 
any hymn that they like better than those printed here, on the same subject, to 
erase the latter and substitute the former. By the formation and publication of 
many such collections, he thinks we should ultimately get a satisfactory volume. 
He has shewn very good taste in recalling some of the hymns from Hiekes's 
Reformed Devotion, which very often, for simple piety, (though not for high 
poetry) deserve all praise. His own compositions appear to be too full of 
thought and sentiment for congregational worship. An hymn to be used in 
worship, and a Sacred Poem, are tvi-o things essentially distinct; and the first 
requires far more simplicity of thought and unity of purpose than the latter. 



I'he Life of William Coivf.er. By Thomas Taylor. London : Smith and Elder. 
1833. 

This is a very elegant volume in appearance, and really answers its profes- 
sion, viz. that it is^a faithful compilation Irom the must authentic sources. 



198 NOTICES AM) RKVIEWS. 

It avoids the extreme pain inflicted by some disgusting works, published a few 
years ago, in which the fearful deeds of madness were most improperly exhi- 
bited ; but, at the same time, relates faithfully, though in generals, what was 
the cause of the poet's malady. The greater part of the narrative is very 
properly collected from Cowper's own letters — perhaps the most delightful of 
any in existence. 

On the question, canvassed by Mr. Taylor several times, as to the influence 
of religion on the poet's madness, one observation seems called for. It is 
contrary to facts, to say that religion was the cause of Cowper's madness, for 
he was mad before his mind was seriously imprest with religious feelings. 
What influence religion and his peculiar views may have afterwards had in 
exciting or allaying his disease, no man can ever know, for no man can pene- 
trate into the workings of a sound, far less of an unsound mind. But suppose 
it was clear that Cowper's disease had been aggravated, or its particular form 
shaped out, by his attention to religion, what then ? Because a diseased 
stomach is often deranged by all food of whatever kind, are men not to eat ? 
Before they who wish to use such arguments against religion are in a state to 
^argue, they must shew that a healthy mind has been overset by over attention 
to religious studies. The reviewer is no friend to enthusiasm, but it is on 
very difi'erent grounds from any fear of its producing madness. 



John Milton, his Life and Times, 8fc. By Joseph Ivimey, Author of the 
History of English Baptists, &c. London : Effingham Wilson. 1833. 

If a churchman could indulge the malicious wish that he might be able to 
wound the feelings and pride of the Dissenters by exposing the ignorance and 
the folly of one of their members, nothing could be more gratifying than this 
work of Mr. Ivimey. Knowing him only by name as the author of a large 
work on the History of the Baptists widely circulated, the Reviewer took for 
granted that he was a person of decent acquirements and feelings. This work 
eff'ectually dispels the delusion. He tells us in his preface, that his object is 
not to delineate Milton as a poet, so much as a Protestant and non-confonnist. 
The real intention of the book is to gratify his own feelings, and those of per- 
sons like himself, by quoting all the most malignant passages of Milton, against 
episcopacy, the national church, and church establishments of every kind ; 
all which, he says, is likely to be better received since the Reform Bill was 
past. They who find pleasure in seeing that a man of Milton's noble mind 
could degrade himself to entertain and to express feelings unfit for a Christian, 
are quite at liberty to enjoy their lofty gratification — and Mr. Ivimey 's pure 
and exquisite taste has provided for them, unquestionably, a noble entertainment. 
It is, in truth, a pleasing occupation, well fitted for a Christian, and well adapted 
to improve the head and the heart. He has, it may veritably be believed, suc- 
ceeded by the attraction of a natural instinct, in drawing forth everything that 
is coarse and foul in expression, and every thing that is malignant in feel- 
ing, in the writings of the great poet, and has thus done all that in him lay to 
degrade a great and admirable character in the eyes of all but those who 
think that the most glorious sight in the universe, is the spectacle of the 
triumph of sects over a branch of the apostolical church of Christ. Such feelings 
as Mr. Ivimey's, however, are not to be ascribed to any Christian among the 
dissenters. To describe the work is quite unnecessary. Every one who reads 
the Patriot or the works of the Ecclesiastical Society, has his ears already ac- 
customed to the words, sounds and run of sentences which he will find in Mr. 
Ivimey's book, and to the degree of knowledge and the kind of taste there exhi- 
bited. Every thing connected with the church and churchmen is of course cor- 
rupt and abominable — episcopacy merely a means of fattening individuals — a 
national church, an abomination — Laud, a fiend incarnate — Clarendon almost 
US bad, &c. &c. Hie. There is something curious and very satisfactoj y in find- 



NOTICES A\n REVIEWS. ^99 

ing the points which are felt to be weak by persons like Mr. Ivimey, and for 
which they gladly get what aid they can from Milton. It is indeed very natural 
that the voice of primitive antiquity should be despised — that the fathers 
should be scorned — that in our own reformation, the venerable names of 
Latimer, Ridley, and Cranmer should be held up to execration (!) by 
persons who wish to have their deluded followers believe that practices 
directly in the teeth of the practices of apostolic times are quite as good as 
the practices of those times, and that the English nation owes nothing of 
gratitude to the prelates of the English church, for withdrawing it from the 
yoke of Rome. Poor people ! they forget, as Burke said, that though they 
may raise a smouldering smoke which may hide the sun's light for a time, 
they cannot blot the sun himself out of heaven. 

The limits of this Magazine prevent any detailed criticism, but it is curious 
to observe that Mr. Ivimey's hatred of bishops prevents him from knowing the 
least about them, and that thus he quotes the Bishop of Chester twice, as the 
editor of Milton's last prose work — that his knowledge of history is so great, 
that he quotes Mrs. Hutchinson's remarks about James I. as applying to 
Charles I. in 1640. What injuries done to his mother, either by Scotch 
or English, had Charles I. to revenge ? The book itself, as far as it does 
not consist of extracts, is an unacknowledged or acknowledged reprint of 
Toland's Life of Milton, but extracts make up nearly the whole book. 
From page 213 to page 2/6 is a transcript of Milton's public letters, 
from Phillips' Life. Mr. Ivimey very learnedly deplores the small study 
of Milton's prose works, and very probably his friends are not much used to 
study any of the older masters of the language. But he must not think every 
one so ignorant of older and better English, as not to be aware when he tran- 
scribes whole paragraphs from older w^riters, without acknowledgement, or to 
mistake the clear and manly strain of even the beginning of the last century, 
for his coarse and painful style. So entirely indeed is the work published 
for the purpose of stringing together the pearls (as they seem to Mr. Ivimey) 
of Milton's coarse reviling of prelates, episcopacy, antiquity, the fathers, the 
English martyrs, &c. that he has not taken the commonest pains in revising 
his work. Thus, in page 28, he tells us that Milton's next performance, chiefly 
directed against Usher's Origin of Episcopacy, was called " The Reason of 
Church Government," and he gives in pages 33 and 34 (only five pages after- 
wards) another account ofthp same work. The sixty Jacobusses of page 139, 
are called one hundred in pages 141 and 142, without any remark. Sentences 
are left unfinished and nonsensical : see note, page 342. Then we have Bishop 
Bramhill and Dr. Gordon for Gauden. Of all Mr. Ivimey's exhibitions of 
learning, however, his notes on the Eikon Basilike question, and again (page 
352) on the 20th article, are perhaps the most amusing. The naivete with 
which he lets the world see there his deep acquaintance with literary and 
church history, and his extreme unconsciousness again that any one ever 
heard of Milton's Areopagitica (perhaps the most hacknied of all Milton's 
works) before he brought it to light, are very curious. 

But Mr. Ivimey's clerkship in foreign tongues is also exquisite. " Defensio 
pro" he gives as the title of one of Milton's works, (p. 158.) Then we have 
defencio for defensio repeatedly, quesdom for qucedam, Phineus the Salmydissim 
(p. 155), EiconoclastJ6- (p. 280), Qui raal y pence (p. 277), and twenty other 
pieces of learning of the same kind. Cannot these gentlemen, who are so 
anxious to put down the clergy, and talk so loudly of their ignorance, manage 
to find any person, even decently instructed in the common languages, to cor- 
rect their works before they make these grand displays of their own pro- 
ficiency ? 

Mr. Ivimey's opinions on political and religious matters are about as valu- 
able as may be conjectured from these specimens of his abilities. Oliver 
Cromwell he looks on as one who delivered the nation from civil tyranny ! 
and was quite resolved as Protector to establish religious liberty also ! (p. 160 



200 NOTICES AXD REVIEWS. 

and 161.) No one certainly was a greater friend to both than Cromwell as 
his practice shewed ! One thing is quite certain, — he was just as great a 
friend to one kind of liberty as another ! 

They who remember what treatment Hall and other bishops experienced, 
vt'iW be a little amused at finding that Mr. Ivimey, in saying that Hall 
speaks of it as a hard measure, (p. 57,) puts a note of admiration to shew 
the extreme absurdity of Hall's complaint. How many notes of admiration 
would Mr. Ivimey give to the plain narration of one-hundredth part of the 
«ame oppression exercised on himself? But the bishops were (p. 50) mean 
satellites, cringing hypocrites, proud tyrants, and bloody oppressors — of 
course ! *' However hard the measure, no impartial and honest Briton 
but what (!) will say that it was strictly just ; and what English heait nov) 
but will raise a prayer to God, — who hears the prayers of the humble, 
(! the humble ! — Mr. Ivimey, the writers for the Ecclesiastical Knowledge 
Society and Co.), and who is always ready to help the oppressed (!) and con- 
found the oppressor — So let all thine enemies perish, O Lord, &c."! 

Mr. Ivimey speaks plainly (and in a very Christian-like strain) to be sure. 
^One might wish a modern " haughty tyrant" joy if he were to fall into Mr. 
Ivimey's hands. 

Dublin University Calendar for 1833. Dublin : Curry. 1833. 

'This volume deserves notice, not only as the^rs^ of a series of Calendars like 
those of our English Universities, but because it contains a very well-drawn-up 
and interesting history of the early condition of education in Ireland, the 
attempts to establish an University, and the history of the foundation of the 
present admirable institution. It contains also an enumeration of her great 
men, an account of the studies pursued, and specimens of the Examination 
Papers. The volume indeed proves, but too clearly for those who hate every 
old institution, how often and how well the silent sister has spoken, what. a 
long list of worthies her rolls display, and how well calculated her present line 
of study is to fill them with other names of eminence in the present and 
future times. 

The Holy Bible arranged in Historical and Chronological Order, 8fC. 8fc. By the 
Rev. George Townsend, M.A., &c. London : Rivingtons. 1833. 

The character and the uses of Mr. Townsend's work are so well known, that 
nothing need be said about them here. It is only necessary to explain, that 
this is a cheap edition, appearing in numbers, containing indeed fewer notes, 
but preserving to the reader all the advantage of arrangement which the larger 
edition gives, — that it is exceedingly cheap, and very well and clearly printed. 



The Comparative Coincidence of Reason and Scripture. In 3 vols. 8vo. 
London: Hatchard. 1832. 

The writer of these volumes assures us that he has been much in the habit of 
talking and arguing with sceptics ; that his line of arguing has been very 
successful ; but that his line of reading and thought has been so free and 
extensive as would perhaps rather alarm orthodox persons, and that con- 
sequently he hesitated about publishing these volumes which contain his 
views. But, as time was advancing, and he feared that the world might lose his 
labours if he did not publish them himself, he resolved to do so, especially as 
he was convinced that there is no chance of converting sceptics till men 
present to them much larger views of the subject than has been usual. It 
would appear that we have thus got a treasure indeed. It consists of both 
prose and verse, and the reviewer presents a specimen of each as the criticism 
most likely to satisfy both the author and the reader. 



NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 201 

Describing the future abodes of peace, (vol. i. p. 108,) the poet writes several 
stanzas, of which two here follow : 

V. 2. 
A crystal stream this region laves ; 
The tides that swell its silver waves 

Are mercies ever new ; 
Fresh flowing from the throne of God, 
They nurture plants that bloom and pod, 

Fruits of celestial hue^ 



V.5. 

This bright refulgence can eclipse 
The deepest dye of moral slips, 

If penitently moan'd ; 
'Tis wilful sin the sting of death 
Alone does point, and Christian's breath 

llesigns without a groan. 



Again, p. 55, is a poem which is given entire : — 



This first of Beings, wisest, best 
For putting virtue to the test 
In every moral agent, 



Permits excrescences to rise Had quick expell'd the noxious weed. 



Without due care and exercise 
Of sense in each dependent. 



The monster pride at length protub'd 
On angel bands, who, had they prov'd 
Faithful to their Creator, 



And ever cherish'd the good seed 
Imparted in their nature. 



There is doubtless a freedom, both as to words, rhymes, and sense here, 
which might not improbably have staggered the dull old orthodox school. 
They, too, have no minds capable of writing such spirited prose as what 
follows. 

After quoting " It must be so" &c., and observing very justly that 
Christianity reveals a future life to man, the author says, " With what 
delight will the elated, fluttering soul, harassed by its last contest with its 
deadly foes, break from its mortal foil — resign to the kind care of guardian 
angels, kindred spirits, be quickened, conveyed far from the noxious power of 
that malicious prince who infects the air we here inhale with his pestifer- 
ous vapours, — skim free and fresh the serene atmosphere, whose gentle breezes 
waft it swift onward in its aerial flight to that blest resting place where weaned 
souls find rest ; and consummation of the comforting assurance, ' This day shalt 
thou be with me in Paradise,' awaits their joyful entrance," (p. 394.) And 
again, p. 407, " Thy lengthened lays of joy mingle with heavenly harps in 
sweet vibrations through the mellifluous air — thy love ecstatic swells sublimest 
notes of praise. With these enraptured strains angelic voices join ; cherubic 
chants, seraphic anthems rise, and pure devotion quaffs its sweetest incense 
to the highest skies." Surely the author has done injustice to this last 
passage by printing it as prose. 



Prideaux's Advice to Churchwardens. By R. P. Tyrwhitt, Esq. Ninth Edi- 
tion. 1833. Longman. 
Mr. Tyrwhitt has done every thing in his power, in the notes, to bring 
down the legal information required by churchwardens to the latest date ; and 
he has added the last Select Vestry Act with which Parliament favoured the 
country. Probably there is no book at all equal .to this for its peculiar pur- 
pose. 



BOOKS OP EDUCATION. 

Etymological Guide to the English Language ; being a Collection, alphabetically 
arranged, of the principal Roots, Affixes, and Prefixes, 8fc. By the Compiler 
of the Edinburgh Sessional School Books. Edinburgh : Wardlaw. 1833. 

The title explains the plan, which is obviously useful for young and unlearned 
persons of all ages ; and that plan is well executed. 

Initia Laiina ; for the use of Lewisham School. Two Parts. 

The first of these is the ac^waZ beginning, which is short, and sensibly arranged. 
The second contains the syntax, &c. &c. This, too, is useful, but wants revi- 
VoL. III.— -i^e^. 1833. 2 d 



202 NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 

sion. The author has surely not explained himself enough, when. In speakin g 
of substantive verbs, he would have the verbs in perpus illi vocantur nani, si 
stet Marpesia cautes, and many others, translated by are, is, &c. As far as 
government goes, this is all well ; but stet, for example, has a peculiar force 
and meaning which is lost by translating it by is, and the sense of the first 
sentence would be changed. 

De Animi Immortalitate, ^c. 

This is a very pretty and cheap edition of an excellent and well-known Christian 
Latin Poem, for the use of schools. It is edited by Mr. Hall of Salisbury, the 
author ej several very valuable works ; among others of a Memorial of Salis- 
bury, which perhaps gave the hint for the Memorials of Oxford, a third 
number of which has appeared quite equal to its predecessors. 



TTie Scripture Dictionary, 8fc., being Part II. of an Easy Explanation of Word* 
. difficult to Children, found in the Books used in the National Schools. By the 
Rev. R. W. Bamford, B.D. London : Rivingtons. 1832. 

The author of this volume meant it, it is conceived, rather for the use of 
masters than scholars in National Schools, to enable them to explain the words 
they find. In this point of view it will be very useful, and found to contain 
much valuable information beyond mere explanations of words. 



History of the late War for Children. London: Murray. 1832. 

The initials I. G. L. reveal the author of this work, and it is well worthy of 
him, and well calculated to give good old fashioned English feelings to chil- 
dren, and to interest their elders. 



Gospel Stories ; an attempt to render the chief Events of our Saviour's Life intel- 
ligible aiul profitable to Young Children. London: Murray. 1832. 

This book appears to be quite unobjectionable, and for those who like gospel 
stories in any but gospel words, judicious and well adapted to its purpose. 



MISCELLANEA. 



CLERGY WHO HAVE LEFT THE CHURCH. 

SPECIMENS OF THEIR TASTE AND GOOD FEELINGS. 

Two of the Bath Clergy, a Mr. Morshead and Mr. Brenton, have left the 
church, and published the following pamphlets on the occasion. The title of 
Mr. Morshead's work is, " Is the Church of England Apostate ?" Being a 
Christian Minister's Protest on leaving that Establishment. By William 
Morshead, late Assistant Minister at St. Mary's Chapel, Bath. The motto is, 
" And I heard another voice from heaven, saying. Come out of her, my people, 
that ye be not partakers of her plagues." — Rev. xviii. 4. Tlie contents of this 
protest do not disgrace the title. "The Church of England," he tells us in his 
first page, " is not redeemed from the charge of apostacy, if otherwise proved 
against her, by having the seventeenth and other sound articles to appeal to, 
while she makes them of none eflfect by the authorised perversions of Mant 
and Tomline, and while there is not, I believe, a Bishop or Archbishop on the 



MISCELLANEA. 203 

bench who preaches that article in its plain and obvious meaning." This 
conclusion is, "Were every corruption to be swept away, except union with 
the state, were the Prayer Book to be burnt, the Apocrypha torn out of the 
Bible, and the whole paraphernalia of hoods, scarfs, bands, gowns, cassocks, 
surplices, and lawn sleeves, thrown into the fire, that union would of itself be 
a sufficient mark on the forehead of the Church of England to brandy her with 
apostacy from Christ." — (p. 12.) The other pamphlet is entitled "Reasons for 
not ceasing to Teach and to Preach the Lord Jesus Christ." By L. C. L. 
Brenton, formerly a Deacon in the Church Establishment. " We would have 
healed Babylon, but she is not healed : forsake her, and let us go every 
one into his own country : for her judgment reacheth unto heaven, and is 
lifted up even to the skies/'-^— Jer. xi. 9- Where this worthy oflficiated is not 
stated ; but on one of his blank pages is advertised a Sermon on Rev. xiv. 13, 
by the same author, "tending to shew the absurdity and impiety of the pro- 
miscuous use of the Church Burial Service. Preached in the parish church 
of Stadhampton, Oxon ;" and he speaks in his advertisement of oral testi- 
mony in the city of Bath. An extract from him follows : — " Nothing will 
content me, and I pray God nothing ever may, but high church simplicity, 
combined with evangelical orthodoxy ; and these never did, nor ever can meet 
in the person of a minister of the Church of England. For the high churchman 
there is some excuse ; at least, after the mistake he sets out with, he has 
some merit of consistency. He believes the soul of the Bible to have long 
ago transmigrated into the Prayer Book ; and, like the papist, to whom he 
bears a strong affinity, dares not consult the Scriptures for himself. To such, 
I believe, our Lord, if he were on earth, would say, as he said to the 
Sadducees, * Ye do err God.' But to the half-hearted perfidious evange- 
lical, who has so much the less honesty as he has more light, I know not that 
the hard truths directed against the Pharisees would be strong enough. ' But 

now ye say, we see remaineih.' Perhaps there is not a more offensive 

object in the sight of God than a hypocritical evangelical, bloated with 
spiritual pride, puffed up by knowledge, despising his more ignorant neigh- 
bour, endeavouring, for the sake of filthy lucre, worldly respectability, or some 
other bribe of the devil, to bend the Prayer Book into a forced accordance with 
the Bible, and prove, for instance, that the pure doctrines of the gospel are 
contained in the Baptismal Service of the Church of England." — (p. 7.) " To 
pass on to various anti-christian marks of the Church of England. The very 
principle of endowments appears to be unscriptural and absurd. I have no 
right to say that this day one hundred years, there shall be a man professing 
to preach the gospel, whether he knows it or not, in such or such a chapel of 

my building And yet this principle is the very life of the National 

Religion. I do not scruple to avow that there is throughout an atheistical 
combination to do without God, in his providence, by the establishment of 
tithes, — in his Spirit, by the exclusion of all prayers but w^hat is contained in 
the Prayer Book. Thus dream they, and contrive to serve a god. The incum- 
brance of his own concerns," &c. And then follows an advertisement for the 
sale of the next presentation to the Rectory of Shepton Mallet. — (p. 10.) 



FROM A LETTER by MR. JAGO to the BISHOP of BATH & WELLS. 

Essex Standard^ Jan. 5th, 
According to the plan of a corn rent, to which I have called your Lordship's 
attention, the incumbent would, as I have before stated, under every change of 
circumstances, continue to receive his just proportion of corn rent from every 
cultivated spot of land in his parish, however reduced the value of the produce 
might be, his demand as to quantity being invariable, according to the average 
productive powers of the land ; but the value of that quantity depending on 



204 MlSCELLANEii. 

the price of that produce out of which his claim is paid, enables him to rejoici 
with the cultivators of the soil in their prosperity, and to sympathize with 
them in their reverses, and thus enables him to preserve his relative condition 
•with the flock over which he presides, and from whom he draws his subsistence. 
The operation of this corn rent is most simple. Let a valuation be made in a 
parish of all the tithes, of what nature or kind soever, and of all the com- 
positions real, modusses, and proscriptive payments in lieu of tithes, and of all 
dues, oblations, and obventions, such valuation being made on the average 
payment of the last seven years, or carried on during the whole course of that 
routine of crops followed in the parish and the total value of each proprietor's 
tithes thus determined. Supposing the average value of the tithes of any one 
proprietor amounted to one hundred pounds per annum, divide 100/. by the 
average price of a quarter of wheat during the last seven years, which will be 
found to be about 6ls. a quarter, and it will give about 32.8 quarters of wheat 
as a reserved corn rent payable in lieu of tithes j the value of this 32.8 quarters 
of wheat to be payable half-yearly, at Ladyday and Michaelmas, or at such 
other times as may be agreed upon, such value to be determined by the 
-average price of the quarter of wheat as given in the Gazette (and copied into 
all the country Papers) for the last six weeks or three months before the 
quarter day. Therefore, when the number of reserved quarters or decimals 
of a quarter are marked on every inclosure on the plan, and inserted in the 
terrier of each individual's property, the receiver has only to multiply half the 
total of the reserved quantity of wheat of each proprietor's estate by the 
average price per quarter obtained as before mentioned, and the product is the 
amount of the corn rent for the last half year. This is a just and equitabfe 
corn rent, because it depends upon the price of produce out of which the 
payment is to be made. 



MONUMENT TO DR. G A B £ L L. 

M. S. 

Henrici Dison Gabell. S. T. P. 

hujusci CoUegii Informatoris, 

qui 

cum peracre ingenium et doctrinse copiam, 

majoribus studiis parem, 

ad puerorum usus contulisset, 

teneras discentium mentes exercendo 

ita firmavit, 

ita subtili festivoque sermone delinivit, 

ut quicquid in Uteris esset reconditius 

facillime caperent, 

quicquid elegantius ultro amarent. 

Eundem Discipuli 

gravissimum vitse morumque 

ex prsescripto legis Christianae 

Magistrum suspexerunt ; 

in requie atque otio domestic© 

quod reliquum erat vitae 

rect^ ac suaviter agentem, 

coluerunt Amicum ; 

morbo denique repentino sublatum 

ex animo lugentes, 

Viro Optimo, desideratissimo 

hoc marmor dedicavere, pietatis causA. 

Annos natus LXVII 

Obiit die IX"" Aprilis. A. S. MDCCCXXXL 



MISCELLANEA. 205 



BENEFIT SOCIETIES. 



Mr. TiDD Pratt has printed for the use of benefit and friendly societies, to 
enable them to form their contributions and payments upon sound principles, 
a series of "Tables, for providing relief in sickness and old age, for payments 
at death, and endowments for children," which have been computed by 
Mr. Finlaison, Actuary of the National Debt. These tables will afford a very- 
useful guide to these excellent institutions. The author's observations at the 
end are worth alluding to, particularly that which shews that the payment 
of 3d. per month, the usual amount of what is termed spending money, by a 
member aged 38, would secure six pounds to his widow at his death. — Exeter 
Joui-nal. 



REPORTS, ETC. 



SOCIETIES FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE AND FOR 
THE PROPAGATION OF THE GOSPEL IN FOREIGN PARTS. 

PETERBOROUGH DIOCESAN AND DISTRICT COMMITTEE. 

At a Quarterly Meeting holden at the Palace on Tuesday the first of January, 
1833, (the Very Reverend Dr. Turton, Dean of Peterborough, in the Chair,) 
the Treasurer's and Secretary's accounts were laid before the Committee ; from 
which it appeared that the receipts for the year ending with the first of Janu- 
ary, 1833, amounted to 135Z. \7s. 8c?., which, with the balance of 34Z. lis. 9d. 
in the Treasurer's hands on the third of January, 1832, make a sum total of 
170/. 9s. ^d. 

It appeared also from the Treasurer's and Secretary's accounts, that the 
Disbursements for the year ending with the first of January, 1833, amounted 
to 125Z. 15s. 8d, leaving a balance of 44/. 18s. 9d. in the hands of the Treasurer. 

From the Secretary's Report it appeared, that during the same year 217 
Bibles, 232 Testaments, 447 Praj^er-books and Psalters, 403 other bound books, 
and 1,729 unbound books and tracts on the Society's list, were distributed by 
the Committee. 

It further appeared, that the Secretary has still in his possession 65 Bibles, 
4 Testaments, 139 Prayer-books, 281 other bound books, and about 400 moral 
and religious books and tracts. 

Resolved — ^That the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Peterborough, the 
President of this Committee, being prevented by indisposition from attending 
the meeting, the thanks of the Committee be respectfully offered to his Lord- 
ship for his uniform and valuable attention to its interests generally ; also, to 
the Rev. Dr. Strong, Archdeacon of Northampton, the Treasurer, and to the 
Rev. J. James, Prebendary of Peterborough, the Secretary, for their valuable 
assistance in furthering the designs of this Committee ; and to the Very Reverend 
the Dean of Peterborough, the Chairman, for his kind attention to the business 
of this day. 



NATIONAL SOCIETY for PROMOTING the EDUCATION of the POOR. 

THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY IN THE CHAIR. 

Grants voted on the 9th of Januar^^ 1833, in aid of building or enlarging 
School-rooms : — ^To Overhaddon, in the parish of Bakewell, 25/. ; Knipton> 
near Grantham, 20/. ; Doddington, near Northampton, 30/. ; South Hackney, 
100/. 



200 
TRIALS. 

Essex Quarter Sessions. 

REV. H. EVE, CLERK, v. SOUTH OCKENDON POOR RATE. 

Mr. Wingfield, on the part of the respondent, moved to quash the rate ; to 
which Mr. Jessop, on the part of the appellants, consented if costs were 
allowed ; and after considerable discussion, 40*. was awarded. 

JOHN CLIFT, ESQ. V. THE PARISH OF SOUTH OCKENDON (POOR RATE). 

Mr. Jessop, with whom was Mr. Knox, opened the case. The learned 
gentleman said, that the Rev. Mr. Eve was rector of the parish, John Clift, 
Esq., the lessee of the tithes. The complaint of Mr. Clift, the appellant, was, 
^that the parish had rated him in a considerable sum beyond what he was 
"formerly charged on the poor's rate, without rating themselves ; and he 
thought that no circumstances could be produced to shew that the tithes had so 
increased in value as to warrant such an augmentation. For a great number of 
years, the property in question had been rated at 500/., which was admitting 
the land to be valued at 1/. per acre; but it had been raised to 775/. without 
any additional charge having been made on the occupiers of land in the same 
parish. If the original sum was just, he could not conceive upon what ground 
it would be contended that Mr. Clift should now pay 775/. It was an 
important point in this case, that the farmer was not rated in the full value of 
his land, while the rector was rated in the full value of his tithes. 

Mr. Knox, on the same side, called Mr. Charles Matson, a surveyor, who 
said he had lately valued the land in the parish of South Ockendon, occupied 
by the several persons included in the order, and found the aggregate value to 
be 3281/. 4s., and that they were assessed in the sum of I96I/. IO5. He valued 
the land at about 1/. lOs. per acre, by which, taking a proportion of three-fifths, 
the assessment would amount to 507/. lis.; the arable land being 725/. 4s. 8d., 
and the grass land 120/. 13s. 9d. ; the charge per acre on arable land was 
about 9*. Gd. ; on grass, about 3s. 6d. The witness believed that very little 
profit had been obtained on land of late years ; and that for the last five years 
a great deal of land had not yielded a single shilling return. 

Mr. Thesiger, with whom was Mr. Round, for the respondents, elicited, on 
cross-examination of Mr. Matson, that he had ascertained the quantity of land 
in possession of the respondents by a •' field book," kept by a young man in Mr. 
Clift's employ, and not by actual observation. He had never heard that Mr. 
Clift had taken i5s. per acre for potatoes; in two instances, he had com- 
pounded at 2s. per acre for the small tithes, and in all others at Is. Sd. ; the 
small tithes included turnips, grass, and every thing. 

Other witnesses having been examined, Mr. Jessop, Mr. Thesiger, and Mr. 
Round, severally addressed the Bench, the two former learned gentlemen at 
very considerable length ; and the Chairman, after a few minutes' consultation, 
said it was the opinion of the Court that the rate should be amended, altering 
the 775/. to 700/. 

Arches Court. 

WHITE V. WILCOX. 

In this case the Rev. Mr. White, the Perpetual Curate of Harapstead parish, 
promoted the office of the Judge in the Court below against the Rev. Mr. Wil- 
cox, for performing Divine Service in the chapel of St. John, situate on Down- 



TRIALS. 207 

shire-hill, in Hampstead, without licence from the promoter. The Judge of 
the Consistory Court pronounced against the Rev. Mr. Wilcox, and admo- 
nished him from continuing to perform service. From this decision an ap- 
peal was promoted to this Court, and the Learned Judge (Sir John Nicholl) 
affirmed the decision of the Court below, and gave 50L, nomine expensarum, 
against Mr. Wilcox. 

Dr. Addams now applied to the Court for a decree of contempt against the 
Rev. Mr. Wilcox, as that gentleman had, notwithstanding the admonition of 
the Court to restrain him from performing Divine Service in the Chapel al- 
luded to, still continued to act in opposition to the decision of the Court, the 
Rev. Mr. Wilcox having up to, and on Christmas-day, performed Divine Ser- 
vice, and administered the Sacrament in St. John's Chapel. 

Dr. Haggard, on behalf of the Rev. Mr. Wilcox, appeared to oppose the 
motion. The Court was called upon to grant a decree of contempt against a 
Clergyman, and to subject him to ecclesiastical punishment, for having com- 
mitted no moral offence. The defendant was a Clergyman, having a large 
congregation ; and unless the accommodation which the chapel afforded the 
numerous inhabitants of the district were continued, they would be left with- 
out the means of attending religious service. The Court would, he felt as- 
sured, pause before it decreed the party in contempt. The cause was in the 
course of appeal, and a petition to the Lord Chancellor had been forwarded, 
to which no answer had yet been returned. 

Sir John Nicholl said it did not appear on the acts of Court that an appeal 
was in course of being prosecuted. The defendant was committing a direct 
moral offence, and a violation of the law, by continuing to preach in the 
chapel. If the defendant thought proper to take the opinion of a higher Court 
as to the validity of the sentence given in these Courts, he had a full right to 
do so, and the Court could not grant the motion if that appeal was prosecuted. 

On behalf of the Rev. Mr. Wilcox, the appeal was then alleged to be in 
progress. 

Rolls Court. 

BROWN V. THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL. 

The following important decision has been made in the Rolls Court, in the 
case of" Brown v. the Attorney-General." 

This was a petition praying that the report of the Master, setting out a 
scheme for the application of a sum left by will for charitable purposes, might 
be confirmed. The testator, who was a clergyman of the Church of England, 
and whose name was Cross, left the bulk of his property in trust to be applied 
" in furthering and promoting the cause of true religion amongst the inhabi- 
tants of Great Britain and Ireland." A clear sum of 10,000/. was applicable 
to general charitable purposes, and upon a reference to the Master, he recom- 
mended that sum to be divided in various proportions amongst seventeen differ- 
ent charities. The Master had directed a sum of lOOZ. to be given to the 
British Reformation Society; and, as that appeared to be a controversial 
Society, it was thought necessary to call the attention of the Court to the cir- 
cumstance. His Honour said the appropriation objected to was not against 
the furtherance and promotion of " the true religion," and, therefore, he should 
confirm the Master's Report. 

Vice- Chancellor* 8 Court, Jan. 19. 
THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL V. THE SKINNERS' COMPANY. 

Thi8 was an information filed by the Attorney-General at the relation of Dr. 
Knox, the Head master of Tonbridge Grammar-school, against the Corpora- 



208 DOCUMENTS. 

tion of Skinners' Company and the Principal and Fellows of Brasennose Col- 
lege, Oxford, for the purpose of having the opinion of the Court upon the con- 
struction of the deed of gift of Mr. Henry Fisher, under which the Skinners' 
Company had become possessed of valuable lands in that and other parts of 
the country. In the reign of Edward VI,, Sir Andrew Judd, by his will, 
founded a free grammar-school in Tonbridge, with an exhibition for one stu- 
dent in the University of Oxford. The whole property of the school was to 
be under the direction of the Skinners' Company, of which the founder had 
been a member, and for that purpose the Skinners' Company were incorpo- 
rated under the name of the Governors of the possessions and revenues of the 
" Free Grammar-school of Tonbridge." In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, a 
Mr. Henry Fisher, by a deed of gift, made this school a material object of his 
bounty, and it was upon the construction of that deed that the principal ques- 
tion in the information turned. 

The Attorney-General and Mr. Randall, on behalf of the relators, con- 
tended that under the construction of the deed the estates were vested in the 
Skinners' Company only as trustees for the sole use and benefit of Tonbridge 
school. 

On the other hand. Sir E. Sugden, Mr. Lovatt, and Mr. Bethell, sub- 
mitted, that by the deeds the estates were vested absolutely in the Skinners* 
Company, subject only to the payments specified for the school. Mr. Bethell 
having finished his arguments, the further consideration of the case was ad- 
journed. 



DOCUMENTS. 



CATHEDRAL INSTITUTIONS. 

The following observations on the benefit derived to the church, and theology 
in general, from cathedral endowments, are extracted from a pamphlet en- 
titled " Remarks on the Prospective and Past Benefits of Cathedral Institu- 
tions," just published by Mr. Pusey, the Hebrew Professor of the University 
of Oxford : — 

" On opening, then, Willis' History of the Cathedrals, there occurs before 
the year 1728, when the account closes, the names of Hammond, Sanderson, 
Gastrell, South, Smalridge, Samuel and John Fell, Aldrich, Archbishop Wake, 
Archbishop Potter, Allestree, Owen, Pococke, and Hyde ; among the deans 
of Peterborough again, are Jackson (on the Creed), Cosins (Scholastical His- 
tory of the Canon), Simon Patrick, and Kidder ; among the canons. Lively 
(one who was most depended upon in the present translation of the Bible), 
and Thomas Greaves, an eminent Professor of Arabic in this place. In Ely, 
further, we find Bentley among the archdeacons ; among the prebendaries. 
Archbishop Parker, Bishop Pearson, Spencer, Lightfoot, Whitgift. Among 
the Prebendaries of Canterbury, again, we find Ridley, Alexander Nowell, 
Samuel Parker, Archbishop Tenison, Tillotson, Stillingfieet, Castell (Polyglot 
Bible and Lexicon), Beveridge, Mill (Greek Testament, &c.) ; (besides that it 
gave refuge to Isaac Vossius, the Cassaubons, Saravia, Ochinus, and Du 
Moulin, as Windsor did to De Dominis, and the Cathedral of Oxford to a much 
brighter name, Peter Martyr.) Nor have we, as yet, even among names so 
valuable, included many of the most revered of our divines : besides these, 
were members of cathedrals (I mention such names as occur, many I have 
omitted). Bull, Waterland, Cudworth, Archbishop Laud, Bishop Andrews, P. 
Heylin, Dean Barlow, Bishop Bilson, Hales (of Eton), Bishop Gibson, and in 
a corresponding situation in the Irish church. Archbishop Usher, as in later 
times Dean Graves and Archbishop Magee; B. Walton (Polyglot Bible), Fox 



DOCUMENTS, 209 

(Acts and Monuments), A tterbury, AUix, H.Prideaux, Shuckford, Bishop Hall, 
Bishop Conybeare, Bishop Newton, William Lloyd (Bishop of St. Asaph), 
Bishop and Dean Chandler, the Sherlocks, the Lowths, Bishop Hare, Dean 
Comber, Bishop Wilkins, Cave, Outram, Mangey, Jenkin, Derham, Biscoe, 
Chapman (Eusebius), Balguy, Whitby, Bullock, Warburton, Zachary, Pearce, 
Bishops Fleetwood, Horsley, Horbery, Kennicott, Randolph, Holmes (LXX), 
Dean Milner, &c. — so that, with the exception of Bingham, who reckons it 
not the least part of his happiness, that ' Providence having removed me from 
the University, where the best supplies of learning are to be had, placed me in 
such a station as gives me opportunity to make use of so good a library (Win- 
chester), though not so perfect as I should wish; ' — with this, and the excep- 
tion of those who were Heads of Colleges, as Barrow, or constantly resided 
at them, as Mede or Hody, it would be difficult to name many authors of ela- 
borate or learned works, who were not members of chapters. In other cases, 
it ought also to be considered, that the foundation for the great works of former 
days was laid during the long residence at the University. A small country 
cure leaves ample leisure for digesting materials already collected during years, 
although it is unfavourable to the origination of any extensive works. Thus 
Hooker having spent seventeen years at the University, and planned his im- 
mortal work while Master of the Temple, could <;omplete it at a small country 
living ; or Jewell, amid the cares of his bishopric. Beveridge's learned works, 
on the other hand, with one exception, date before he was removed to the cure 
of an important parish. Chillingworth, again, who was afterwards a prebend, 
and^ at a later period, Leslie, had no parochial cures ; and the evil times in 
which he lived, allowed Jeremy Taylor little continuance in such duties. 

'* Those, moreover, whose works have been transmitted to us, and form the 
main part of our present theology, are but a small portion of the eminent men 
who were fostered by our chapters. Any one, who has not examined 
the subject, and shall look over any records of cathedral churches, will be 
much surprised, when, besides the well-known and familiar names which he 
has been accustomed to revere, he observes how many there are, to whom the 
character of great learning, as well as of deep piety, is ascribed. ' All these 
were honoured in their generations, and were the glory of their times,' 
although now ' they have no memorial,' and in man's sight 'perished as though 
they had never been.' In their own age they were burning and shining lights : 
they fulfilled their allotted portion in transmitting to other hands the sacred 
torch of divine knowledge, which shall beam from one end of the Christian 
course to the other ; and though their own lamp be extinguished, still it is in 
part to them that we are indebted for the light with which we are now sur- 
rounded. It may suffice to name the single instance of John Prideaux, Divi- 
nity Professor in this place, who, in his own days, had so great reputation, 
that theological students from foreign Universities flocked to his lectures." 



UNITARIANISM IN ENGLAND. 
(From the Patriot. J 

** Upon a calculation made upon returns printed in the Unitarian Chronicle 
for September, October, and November last, it appears that there are in 
England about 200 congregations (Presbyterian, General Baptists, &c.) of 
Unitarian, alias Socinian principles. Of these, 180 never exceed 250 hearers, 
and the average is below 100; 20 consist of between 250 and 500 hearers ; 
and about four may sometimes approach towards 1000 or 1200 hearers. The 
Unitarian chapel at Birmingham is stated to be attended by about 1100. 
Finsbury Chapel, London, (W. J. Fox,) has about 700. Hackney Chapel, 
Vol. m.^Feh. 1883. 2 e 



210 DOCUMENTS. 

(R. Aspland,) 500. Nottingham, (B. Carpenter,) 500. Bridport, (R. Cree,) 
500. Newcastle, (W. Turner,) 500. Chorobent, Lancashire, (R. Davis,) 500. 
Bolton, (F. Baker,) 400. Leicester, (C. Berry,) 400. Essex-street, London, 
(T. Madge,) 350. With the exception of these and a few others, the congrega- 
tions of this sect present only skeleton regiments. 'To Unitarians,' says a 
writer in the Monthly Repository, 'a Bristol or a Manchester audience is 
magnificent ! But let those half dozen flourishing congregations be deemed 
of as highly as we will, still six prosperous societies, out of some three 
hundred, is a small proportion. Of our own knowledge, we can speak of 
some scores that scarcely shew signs of life. The number of hearers in them 
will not average more than thirty. Few beings are more to be pitied than a 
Unitarian minister placed in one of these societies.' This writer, himself a 
Unitarian, while bearing evidence to the dying state of the greater part of the 
congregations, appears to overrate their total number. From 220 to 230 must 
be, we are persuaded, the utmost number, and the total number of hearers 
cannot exceed 12,000, or at most 15,000. The orthodox dissenting congrega- 
tions of the three denominations exceed 2200 in England alone ; and the 
aggregate of attendants is estimated at nearly a million. The total number of 
dissenting congregations of every Protestant denomination in England and 
Wales is upwards of 7500. Such is the proportion which Unitarianism bears 
to evangelical dissent." 

"Employing the divisor which the Patriot allows for its 2200 orthodox 
dissenting congregations — 455 — as multiplier of the whole number of con- 
gregations in England and Wales, the number would scarcely give three 
millions and a half out of the thirteen millions in the returns of 1831. This 
is the calculation upon which we have proceeded, and it is evidently the 
highest possible ; for unquestionably the congregations of those whom the 
Patriot describes as orthodox dissenters are by far the most numerous. 
Taking the divisor which the Patriot allows for 230 Unitarian congregations, 
52, we should have less than half a million of dissenters through England and 
Wales. This, however, would be too low ; a mean somewhere between a 
million and a half and two millions would probably come nearest to the 
trxiih:'— Standard, Jan. 17. 



{From the " Patriot** of January 23.) 

The Patriot, in endeavouring to overthrow the calculations of P. in the Sup- 
plement to this Magazine, hazards the following assertions : — 

The whole population is 14 millions. The Dissenters (exclusively of Jews 
and Papists) are 3^ millions. (Of this no proof beyond assertion is given.) The 
churchmen, instead of being, as P. said, 12 millions, are not much above one- 
third of that number! Let us draw these calculations of the Pa^no^ together. 
Call the churchmen 5 millions. Then, as 5 and 3§ make 8§, and this taken 
from 14 leaves S^, there are 5§ millions either Jews, Papists, or not even 
calling themselves of any religion at all ! Again, having stated that the 
Dissenting meeting-houses are 7600, and the Episcopal places of worship 
12,000, the Patriot most arithmetically states, that the places of worship pro- 
vided by the Establishment are to those provided by Dissenters as 7^ to 12, or 
not quite 2 to 3 ! Probably this is a mistake. Yes ! a mistake, wittingly 
made, which will be carefully copied into all the Dissenting papers and jour- 
nals, with an assurance that it rests on careful calculations and documents. 

At all events, it is something that the Patriot has been brought to confess 
that the church has a majority, instead of being in a minority of 1 to 10, as 
asserted lately by a correspondent of the Patriot or Christian Advocate. 



DOCUMENTS. 211 

LABOUR RATE. 

The following, with a form of rate, may prove somewhat a guide to parishes 
about adopting a Labour Rate, and having but an imperfect knowledge of the 
way of proceeding in such a case : — 

County of | p^Hsh of 

At a Vestry Meeting, held this day of 1833, according to 

the provisions of an Act in the 2nd and 3rd of William IV. c. 96, it was agreed 
by us, the undersigned, being above three-fourths of the rate-payers of the 
parish of ; the votes having been taken according to the directions 

of the said Act : 

1 . That the labourers in husbandry in and belonging to the said parish be 
divided into the five [or as the case may be] following classes : — 

1st Class at 9*. per Week. 

2nd 8*. 

3rd 7s. 

4th 6s. 

5th, &c. . . 5s. 

2. That the Monday after the following regulations shall have been approved 
of by the magistrates assembled at their Petty Sessions at a labour 
rate of in the pound shall be made, being in amount the sum 
required, or nearly so, for the payment of all the able-bodied labourers for six 
weeks ; which labour-rate shall be levied and enforced in the same manner as 
the present poor-rate is. 

3. That every occupier of land, who is not exempted from the payment of 
the labour-rate by rule 6, shall employ, and pay for weekly, as much labour 
as shall come to for every pound at which he is rated to the poor- 
rate, or shall pay to the overseer such portion of his labour-rate as shall not 
have been expended in labour of men belonging to this parish in the last six 
weeks ; being allowed for each man employed by him, as that man shall stand 
valued on the list affixed to this agreement. 

4. That all the servants belonging to this parish, boarded and lodged in 
farm-houses, be included in these regulations, as they are now classed by 
name. 

5. That every rate-payer who has a son regularly working on his farm, shall 
be allowed to deduct for the labour of his son under class 4, but no more than 
one son shall be deducted for on any occupation. 

6. That all occupiers assessed at less than 5/. in the poor rate shall be 
exempted from the payment of the labour-rate ; but outsetters, whose assess- 
ment to the poor-rate in two or three parishes when added together exceed 
5/., are not to be exempted. 

7. That every occupier shall deliver to the overseer, at the end of every six 
weeks, an account of the labourers employed by him during the previous six 
weeks. 

8. That the above labour- rate shall be collected by the overseers, and the 
account balanced and laid before the vestry meeting every six weeks, when a 
new labour-rate shall be jnade ; and all the sums which shall have been col- 
lected by the labour-rate during the previous six weeks in lieu of labour, shall 
be applied to the poor-rate. 

9. That these regulations shall continue in force for six months from the 
day on which the first labour-rate shall be made. 

[Signatures to follow here.] 

FORM OF LABOUR-RATE. 

County of 1 A Labour Rate for the Parish of in the said County, 

J at in the pound (with deductions for labour employed. 



212 



DOCUMENTS. 



according to a list of labourers affixed to an agreement entered into, and bearing 
date the day of 1833, and conformably to the Act of the 2nd 

and 3rd of his present Majesty, William IV. c. 96), comprising the expenditure 
of the labouring population of the said parish for six weeks, from the 
day of to the day of 1833. 



Names. 


Valuation. 


Rate. 


Deduct 
Labour Employed. 


Sums Due. 


A. B. 
CD. 

E. F. 


100 
50 
30 




1 

i 

! 



Three days' notice must be given of a meeting under this Act ,- that is, if 
notice be given on Sunday, the meeting cannot be held earlier than Thursday. 



THE WILLINGHAM EMIGRANTS.. 

{From, the Cambridge Chronicle, Jan. 4.) 

The following letters have been received from one of the emigrants who left 
Willingham, in this county, in the spring of last year, and from the good 
character he bore while a resident in this country we have every reason to rely 
upon their accuracy. 

" Dear Fathers and Mothers, Brothers and Sisters, and all inquiring Friends, 
who wish to know where we are and how we are situated. — I, John Desbrow, 
set down to give as true an account of the country as I or we know of. We 
are all at Lockport, in the county of Niagara, in the State of New York, except 
Furbank Desbrow ; we left him at Lian, about 500 miles from New York ; 
and w^e are at Lockport. Joseph Holmes and I, John Desbrow, work for Mr. 
George Fields, and live together on the farm, in a log-house, and we have 
bought a cow for 1 9 dollars, and it runs on the farm, and serves both our 
families with milk and butter. A house and fuel are found us, and labour is 
about 6s. a day ; and the price of provision as follows : — flour about 5 dollars a 
barrel, the weight of 200lbs., fresh meat, beef, mutton and veal, about 4 or 5 
cents per lb. 

Our master, George Fields, is a banker, and Rebecca Holmes lives in the 
house; — the two boys, John and Joseph, work on the farm. Corn in America 
is as good as in England, and the price of wheat is from about 7s. to 9s. a 
bushel, and all cattle are as good as in England, as horses, oxen, sheep, and 
hogs. Pork, in the fall of the year, is about 2 or 3 cents a pound ; but chiefly 
our drink is water. Here is beer and liquor, but not so good as in England; 
and we work from sun-rising to sun-set, and live pretty well ; we have a piece 
of beef baked over a pudding whenever we please, and if we think good to 
drink whiskey, we can get as drunk as David's Sow for 2 or 3 cents. Thus I 
have given as good an account about the country as I know at present ; but 
the cow we bought for 19 dollars amounts to about 4/. 10s. English money, 
and such a cow as would cost 12Z. or 14/. in England. 

Now I am about to write to ray brother Moses Desbrow, or any other 
person that thinks of coming, to consider about it. I tell you, as I told you 
before, you must drink water, and work from light to dark, but live well. A 
single man gets from 9 to 12 dollars a month, and is found board, washing, 
and lodging ; but I send for none, but have your own judgment about it ; but 
if any come, you will find us at Lockport, and when we came we had nobody 
to see that we knew, nor yet where to go. We are all well at present, both 
men, women and children, except Joseph Day, of Over, who was taken ill 



nOCUMENTS. 213 

going up the canal, and has not been capable of getting a living, but he has 
been taken to the poorhouse, and is well taken care of. 1 know not what to 
write more ; but we would wish to know of your affairs, both fathers and 
mothers, brothers and sisters, and all inquiring friends, and whether Mr. 
Reynolds is at Willingham still. There are at Lockport Baptist and Methodist 
meetings, but no settled ministers. — James Silk's little girl is very ill ; John 
Few is now with us at Lockport, and is at work. Carpenters and joiners get 
10s. or 12*. a day. Henry Porter, malster, from Haddenham, is with us at 
Lockport, and makes himself comfortable, but left all his mates. Lockport is 
situated upon a canal about 363 miles long, and land about Lockport is about 
5 or 6 dollars per acre. Lockport is a place quite lately occupied — ten years 
ago it was a desolate place. From New York to Albany are 166 miles, and 
from Albany to Lockport 331 miles. If any person thinks of coming, I'd have 
you buy but few biscuits, but buy flour and meat, and apply to Mr. Cole,Pit- 
street. No. 3, Liverpool, to get your shipping ready ; and when you get there 
get all the money you can, and don't change your gold at Liverpool, it will 
make much more at New York. 

We sent a letter when we landed at New York ; send us word whether 
you received it — this was written August 5th, 1832. Rebecca has a very good 
place, and likes it well ; she don't wish to come back to England, but sends her 
love and respects to Elizabeth and Jane Holmes, and wishes to hear of their 
aflFairs. Charlotte Holmes and Sarah Desbrow wish to hear of Sophia Phillips, 
and all brothers, sisters, and acquaintances, and send their love and respects 
to their poor old father and mother. With a house rent free, and fuel, also an 
orchard close to the house, which grows 15 or 16 bushels of apples ; and in 
the woods grows a wonderful quantity of nuts, raspberries, and various other 
kinds of fruit. 

If Moses Desbrow or any other person comes to Lockport, in America, 
please to inquire at Limi for Furbank Desbrow ; if you come up the canal, 
that is about 100 miles before you come to Lockport." 



Lockporty in the County of Niagara, in the State of New York^ 
Nov. 18, 1832. 

Dear Fathers, Mothers, Brothers, and Sisters, 
We send to all, and we wish all well, and think that one letter will suffice 
as well as being at the trouble and expense of three or four. If W — H — , 
M — D — , and I — F — intend coming to America, they will find us, J — H — , 
J_ D— , S~ D— , J— S— , and W— E— , at Lockport. We are all well at 
present, both men, women, and children, and all at Lockport, except F — D — ; 
we left him at Lian, one hundred miles from Lockport. Labour is about 6s. 
a day ; the price of mutton, beef, and pork, 4 or 5 cents a pound. Twelve 
cents is one shilling, and one shilling in England makes two shillings in 
America. 

A STATEMENT OF THE COUNTRY. 

Lockport, the town where we all live, is a market town. Provisions are 
plentiful of all kinds. The inhabitants about 3000 ; and here are three flour- 
mills which go by water, and run eight pair of stones each. From New York 
to Lockport are 500 miles ; from Lockport to the river Ohio are 500 miles ; 
from Lockport to Lake Eric, at the falls of Niagara, the longest falls in America, 
are 18 miles. In the country, when we first came, things all appeared strange ; 
but with all the strange things that ever we met with, we are never without 
plenty of eating and drinking : of beef, mutton, and pork, we have plenty. 
We canie from New York to Albany, up the Hudson's river ; there we saw 
mountains above the clouds, but where we are there are no mountains, and 
misceders are the worst wild beasts we hear of, and they are what you in 
England call gnats. I give you the best statement of the countrv I know of. 



214 DOCUMENTS. 

and we want to know the statement of the old country, and how times go with 
all fathers, and mothers, brothers and sisters, and all inquiring friends, for with 
us times go pretty well ; for we sit smoking our pipes, and drinking of whiskey, 
whilst you poor men are wandering up Drayton hills, or elsewhere. If any 
person intends coming to Ameriea, do not fear the journey, for I would not 
care one cent about coming over the water. If any one intends coming, come 
at Spring instead of Michaelmas ; for if you come at Michaelmas, the canal, I 
imagine, will be frozen up ; then you must come by land, which I suppose will 
cost about 18 or 20 dollars; and if you come at spring, you will take the 
steam-boat at New York, and come up the Hudson's river to Albany, and then 
take the boat and come up the canal. The whole journey from New York to 
Lockport cost us about 6 dollars each, and half price for children. C — H — 
and S — D — would like to see their friends, but not to come from a good 
living at Lockport to Willingham parish, and we would not forget the officers 
of the parish for helping us to a land of plenty, for we have plenty of bread, 
beef, mutton, and pork. J — H — and J — D — live together at present, and 
have got three large hogs in the sty, and not for house rent or shoe bills, but 
A - merely for their own eating. Shoemakers here can clear a dollar a day, when 
board, lodging, and washing are paid, and 1 dollar is Ss. of this money. I 
would not wish to persuade any person to come to America ; but if you would 
like to live well with work, come to America, whether you be labourers or 
tradesmen. I have told you the price of labourers, I will now tell you the 
price of tradesmen : Journeymen carpenters have ten shillings a day, and 
tailors have seven dollars for making one coat. There is a man at Lockport, 
a shoemaker, who came since we came, without money, and left his wife and 
children upon the parish, who now thinks of buying himself a piece of land 
and building himself a house. We will send our respects to the officers of the 
parish for helping us out of the land of bondage, into the land of liberty ; and 
we wish to return you many thanks for what you have done for us, and if any 
think of coming, we hope you will do as much for them. C — H — and 
S — D — send their respects to all their neighbours, and wish to hear of all, and 
send to say that they have 20 shillings now, where they had not 1 cent in 
England : as for feasting, we can feast every day ; but in order to remember 
the feast we kept Over feast, Willingham feast, and Cottenham feast, with 
beef, mutton, plum puddings, and liquors enough and to spare. Clothing is as 
much as in England, except caps and ribands, and they are very dear. We 
would remember our fathers and mothers, sisters and brothers, and neighbours 
all, and would wish to be remembered : so no more from j^^our absent sons and 
daughters, brothers and sisters. When you send again, send a little about 
the state of the country, and direct your letter to J — H — or J — D — . 



The Rev. Mr. Palliser of Crook, near Passage, has returned 250?., which 
he received from Government on account of Tithes not paid, to the Treasury, 
as, being independent in fortune, he did not wish to cause any molestation to 
the parish. He expends all, or nearly all his receipts, in supplying food and 
clothing to his poor parishioners. — Waterford Mail. 

[Yet such a man is robbed without remorse by the followers of Bishop Doyle, 
the Priests, and Mr. O'Connell. — Ed.] 



The Bishop of Winchester, under the late Augmentation Act, has increased 
several livings in his gift out of the revenues of the see, and, among others, 
St. Michael's, St. Lawrence, St. Thomas, and St. John, in and near Win- 
chester. 



215 



CHURCH REFORM. 

Want of space and time have compelled the delay of the remaining 
observations on Church Reform till the next number; and perhaps 
the brighter light which may then be thrown over the subject will 
make it easier of treatment. In the mean time, there are two or 
three observations worth making. Those who have the curiosity to 
look at the organ of the Benthamites, the Westminster Review^, will 
find in the last number two curious statements, — the one, that the 
doctrine so long and loudly preached by the radicals, to inflame the 
minds of the country against the clergy, viz. that tithes are a tax by 
which the price of corn is raised to the community, is perfectly unten- 
able ; or, to use the reviewer's phrase, that it is quite arrieree. In 
another part of the same number, the folly of the landed interest in 
expecting any good from the aboUtion of tithes is as clearly taught. 
This is the course of things. The radical party holds forth doctrines 
which it knows to be false, in order to work the people up to exaspe- 
ration against the clergy, and clamours down, by threats and violence, 
every one w^ho attempts to expose these practices. But, as soon as 
the falsehoods have done their work, and produced the desired exaspe- 
ration, then, to preserve their character as philosophers, this party 
turns entirely round, and disclaims these very doctrines as false, and 
long given up by all clear thinkers !* 

The writer had mentioned his intention of going into the subject of 
cathedrals more at large ; and he had, in that declaration, reference 
to a former article, in which he stated that proof could be given, by 
the citation of names, of the eminence of the men who had adorned 
our cathedrals. But this work has been done most admirably by Mr. 
Pusey, in his work on Cathedrals ; and the reader will find, among 
the Documents (it is a very valuable one) a list of many most illus- 
trious men who have been members of cathedrals. 



♦ There is something more dreadful than can be imagined by any but those who 
read the "Westminster Review, in its tone and temper. One shudders in witnessing 
the horrid displays of cold-blooded and unnatural exultation at what it thinks the 
certain downfall of every thing which now is, every thing with which the happiness 
and existence of thousands and thousands of innocent families are connected. Of a 
truth, the Singe-tigre of England is a more fearful animal than the kindred beast of 
France. When the French variety is full of blood, it actually turns away from 
the horrid spectacle, and forgetting its horrors, indulges, with perfect good humour, 
in the follies of the Boulevards, or the gaieties of the Palais Royal. But the English 
animal never forgets the taste of blood, and never turns away from the sight ; and 
the only indication which it gives of its monkey propensities is when it grins and 
jabbers at the prospect of the feast of horrors and blood by which its tiger-half is to 
be glutted. 



21(5 



ECCLESIASTICAL INTELLIGENCE. 



ORDINATIONS. 

Archbishop of Canterbury, Lambeth December 23, 1832. 

Bishop of Winchester, Chapel of Farnham Castle December 23, 1832. 

Bishop of Rochester (for Bishop of Oxford), Christ Church } j^ i oq lASQ 

Cathedral, Oxon ) ec m er , 

Bishop of Chester, St. Bridget's Church January 13, 1833. 



Name. Degree. College. 

Blackley, F. R St. Bees 

Bocket, B. Bradey Magdalen 

Calvert, Thomas b.a. Queen's 

Clayton, J. H Worcester 

Cornish, Charles Lewis Exeter 

Dalton, J. H Trinity 

Deedes, Charles b.a. Merton 

Dewhurst, J. H Worcester 

Fayrer, R St. Bees 

Fenton, W Queen's 

Fortescue, W. Fraine... b.a. New- 
France, Thomas Trinity 

Gepp, George Edward b.a. Wadham 

Giles, John Allen m.a. Corpus Christi 

Glover, Frederick A.... b.a. St. Peter's 

Goodenough, R. W. ... m.a. Christ Church 

Guille, Edward b.a. St. John's 

Hall, John Robert m.a. Christ Church 

Halton, Thomas Brasennose 

Harvey, W. Maundy... m.a. Wadham 

Harrison, Benjamin ... b.a. Christ Church 

Harrison, W. E Catherine Hall 

Harrison, Thomas W. Christ's 

Ind, James b.a. Queen's 

Jones, Evan St. David's 

Johnson, E. Houghton Magdalen 

Mangles, Albert m.a. Merton 

Manning, H. Edward b.a. Merton 

Maughan, J Trinity 

Mayo, C. E Clare Hall 

Naylor, F. W St. John's 

Nicholson, William ... m.a. Trinity 

Nixon, H Trinity 

Oxendon, Ashton b.a. University 

Parker, Edward m.a. Oriel 

Parkinson, A. D Trinity 

Randolph, Herbert ... b.a. Balliol 

Richards, W. Steward b.a. Jesus 

Richardson, W Wadham 

Spofforth, R Lincoln 

Spencer, Peter b.a. St. Peter's 

Stoddart, W. WcUwood St. John's 

Stubbs, Jonathan Kirk b.a. Worcester 



Oxford 
Oxford 
Oxford 
Oxford 
Dublin 
Oxford 
Oxford 



Oxford 

Camb. 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Camb. 

Oxford 

Camb. 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Oxford 



Camb, 



University. Ordaining Bishop. 
Bishop of Chester 
Bishop of Rochester 
Bishop of Rochester 
Bishop of Chester 
Bishop of Rochester 
Bishop of Chester 
Archbp. of Canterbury 
Bishop of Chester 
Bishop of Chester 
Oxford i ^P- °^ Chester, by 1. d. 
\ from Archbp. of Yk. 
Bishop of Rochester 
Bishop of Chester 
Bishop of Rochester 
Bishop of Rochester 
Bishop of Winchester 
Bishop of Rochester 
Bishop of Winchester 
Bishop of Rochester 
Bishop of Chester 
Archbp. of Canterbury 
Bishop of Rochester 
Bp. of Chester, by 1. d. 
from Archbp. of York 
5 Bp. of Chester, by 1. d. 
\ from Archbp. of York 
Oxford Bishop of Winchester 
LampeterBisliop of Chester 
Camb. Bishop of Chester 
Oxford Bishop of Winchester 
Bishop of Rochester 
Bishop of Chester 
Bishop of Chester 
C Bp. of Chester, by 1. d. 
\ from Archbp. of York 
Oxford Bishop of Rochester 
Bishop of Chester 
Archbp. of Canterbury 
Archbp. of Canterbury 
Bishop of Chester 
Archbp. of Canterbury 
Bishop of Rochester 
n e A S ^P* ^^ Chester, by 1. d. 
Oxtord I ^^^^ Archbp. of York 

5 Bp. of Chester, by 1. d. 

I from Archbp. of York 
Camb. . Archbp. of Canterbury 
Oxford Bishop of Rochester 
Oxford Bishop of Rochester 



■\ 



Camb. 



Oxford 
Dublin 
Camb. 

Camb. 



Dublin 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Camb. 

Oxford 

Oxford 



Oxford 



ECCLESIASTICAL INTELLIGENCE. 



21 



Name. Degree. College. University. Ordaining Bishop. 

Tate, F. B Magdalen Camb. Bishop of Chester 

ThornycroftjJ Brasennose Oxford Bishop of Chester 

Vawdrey, Daniel m.a. Brasennose Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Veres, Thomas m.a. Wadham Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Walker, Richard b.a. New Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Wightwick, Henry ... b.a. Pembroke Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Williams, T. Lewis ... b.a. University Oxford Bishop of Winchester 

Wither, W. H. W. B. s.c.t-. New Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Woodcock, Charles ... b.a. Christ Church Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

PRIESTS. 

Berens, Edward Kion, b.a. St. Mary's Hall Oxford Archbp. of Canterbury 

Boulton, W. H Trinity Oxford Bishop of Chester 

Buckley, Thomas Corpus Christi Camb. Bishop of Chester 

Butler, Weedon m.a. Trinity Camb.' Archbp. of Canterbury 

Bunbury, T. H Trinity Dublin Bishop of Chester 

Carter, John b.a. St. John's Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Coalbank, Robert St. Bees Bishop of Chester 

Cheadle, J Queen's Camb. Bishop of Chester 

Clifford, John Bryant, b.a. Catherine Hall Camb. Bishop of Winchester 

Collins, John St, Bees Bishop of Chester 

Cureton, William b.a. Christ Church Oxon. Bishop of Rochester 

Davies, Stephen b.a. Trinity Camb. Bishop of Winchester 

Denison, Geo. Anthony m.a. Oriel Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Dickson, T. B Emanuel Camb. Bishop of Chester 

Digweed, John James, b.a. Pembroke Oxford Bishop of Winchester 

Dobson, John b.a. Queen's Camb. Bishop of Chester 

Eaton, T Trinity Camb- Bishop of Chester 

Eaton, W. G St. Bees Bishop of Chester 

England, Thomas b.a. Pembroke Camb. Archbp. of Canterbury 

Ethelstone, H Brasennose Oxford Bishop of Chester 

Etty, Simeon James ... New Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Fleming, T Pembroke Camb. Bishop of Chester 

Gaskarth, J St. Bees Bishop of Chester 

Gillraan, James s.c.l. St. John's Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Hadfield, W Caius Camb. Bishop of Chester 

Hawkins, Ernest m.a. Exeter Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Hervey, T. L St. John's Camb. Bishop of Chester 

Hewlett, Alfred Magdalen Oxford Bishop of Chester 

Hodgson, John b.a. Queen's Oxford Bishop of Winchester 

Hornby, R Downing Camb. Bishop of Chester 

Hulton, W. P Trinity Dublin Bishop of Chester 

Jackson, David m.a. Queen's Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Knatch bull, Henry Edw b.a. Wadham Oxford Bishop of Winchester 

Lightfoot, J. Prideaux, m.a. Exeter Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Mahon, George William m.a. Pembroke Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Mangin, Alex. Reuben, St. Alban's Hall Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Michell, Richard m.a. Lincoln Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Morgan, Richard m.a. Jesus Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Mozley, Thomas m.a. Oriel Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

O'Neill, H Trinity Dublin Bishop of Chester 

Robson, T.W University Oxford Bishop of Chester 

Smith, R St. Bees Bishop of Chester 

Swainson, J. H Brasennose Oxford Bishop of Chester 

Townsend, B. V Brasennose Oxford Bishop of Chester 

Williams, Isaac m.a. Trinity Oxford Bishop of Rochester 

Williams, G. G St. B^es Bishop of Chester 

Wright, Joseph Trinity Dublin Bishop of Chester 

Tlie Lord Bishop of Bristol will hold an Ordination in London on the 3rd of 

March next. Papers to be transmitted to Great George Street, Westminster, on or 
before the 1st of February. 

Vol. III.— Fe^. 1833. 2 f 



218 



ECCLESIASTICAL INTELLIGENCE. 



CLERICAL APPOINTMENTS. 

Adlington, J To be Chaplain to the "Worcester County Gaol. 

Anderson, J. S. Murray Chaplain in Ordinary to her Majesty. 

Bennett, W. J. E Chaplain of the Workhouse, St. Marylebone, London. 

Birt J D D 3 V* °^ Faversham, a Surrogate for granting Marriage 

' *' I Licences in the Diocese of Canterbury. 

Frere, Temple Chaplain to the House of Commons. 

Fulford Francis. ... 5 ^- of Trowbridge, Wilts, a Surrogate for Granting 

' ( Marriage Licences in the Diocese of Sarum. 

Gibson, C. Meads Chaplain to the Right Hon. Lord Kinsale. 

Grover, J. S Vice- Provost of Eton College. 

Hobson, W. Topham Head Master of Rochdale Grammar School. 

Ingram, E. W Prebendary of Worcester Cathedral. 

Jeremie, J. A Christian Advocate, Cambridge. 

Jones, John Prebendary of Garthbrengy Collegiate Church of Brecon . 

Rose, Henry John Hulsean Lecturer, Cambridge. 

Tate, James Canon Residentiary of St. Paul's. 

The Very Reverend the Dean of Hereford has been appointed, by the King's 
command, one of the Deputy Clerks of the Closet to his Majesty, in the room of the 
Rev. Dr. Hughes, deceased. 

The Rev. Timothy Fysh Foord- Bowes has been appointed, by the King's com- 
mand. Supernumerary Deputy Clerk of the Closet to his Majesty, in the room 
of the Very Reverend the Dean of Hereford. 



PREFERMENTS. 



Niame. 
Airy, William ... 

Ayling, W 

Batcheler, J. T.... 
Bostock, James ... 



Buckland,- 
Carter, T. 



,D.D. 



Preferment. 
Bradfiled St. Clare, R. 
Barlavington, R. 
Arminghall, P.C. 
Wincle, P.C. 

Peasmarsh, V. 

Burnham, V. 



Clementson, Dacre Chilcombe, R. 



County. 
Suffolk 
Sussex 
Norfolk 
Chester 

Sussex 

Bucks 

Dorset 



Codd, Charles 

Coddington, H. ... 
Cooper, Augustus 
Evans, G. W. D. 



Letheringsett, R. 
Ware cum Thund- 

rich, V. 
Syleham, P.C. 
Reculver, V., with 

Hoath Chapelry 



Norfolk 
Herts 
Suffolk 
Kent 



Diocese. Patron. 

Norwich Rev. R. Danvers 

Chichester Earl of Egremont 

Norwich D. &. C. of Norwich 

Chester Rev. J. R, Brown 

/-^i_- 1- ^ ^ Sidney Sussex Col. 
Chichestr I (.^^^ 

Eton College 
r F. T. Egerton, & 
J R. Strong, Esqrs. 
1 devisers of the 
(^ Rev. Edw. Foyle 

Mrs. Burrell 



Lincoln 



Bristol 



Norwich 
London 
Norwich 
Cant. 



Feild, E., M. A. . . . Bicknor English 

Fenton, John Ousby, R. 

Garratt, Thomas . Audley, V. 

Granger, L Barnetby-le-Wold, V 

Gould, C. Baring Lewtrenchard, R. 

«"<«*' J- { ^XmX""''"^^" } ^"^"-^ 

Grover, M Hetchan, V. Bucks 

Gunning, H Wigan, R. 

Hawker, Jacob ... Stratton, V. 
Hodgson, John ... Bumstead Helion, V. 

Hodgson, C \ Barton-le-Street, R. 

'^ \ near Malton y 

Hopkinson, John . Awalton, R. Hunts. 



Trinity Col, Camb. 

J.L.PressofHoxne 

C Archbp. of Canter- 

\ bury 

C Visitors of the 

-,, ^ „, ^ \ Foundation of John 

Gloucester Gloucest. j ^^.^^^^^^ ^^^ ^f 

t Queen's Col., Oxf. 

Cumberld. Carlisle Bishop of Carlisle 

Stafford L.&Cov. J. White, Esq. 

. Lincoln Lincoln 

Devon Exon 



St David's 

Lincoln 
Lancashire Chester 
Cornwall Exon 
Essex London 

Yorkshire York 



Lincoln 



Bishop of Lincoln 
W. B. Gould, Esq. 

Bp. of St. David's 

J. Dennison, Esq. 
Earl of Bradford 
The Lord Chan. 
Trin. Col., Camb. 

March. of Hertford 

Dean & Chapter of 
Peterborough 



ff^"*^ t;t"»^ 



ECCLESIASTICAL INTELLIGENCE. 



219 



Name. Preferment. County. Diocese. Patron. 

Jackson, T.Norfolk Filey, P. C. E.York York H. Osbaldeston 

Jones, John Abergwilly, V. Carmarthen St. David's Bp. of St. David's 

Jones, D. E St. John's, R.Stamford Lincoln Lincoln Corp. of Stamford 

Knatchbull, H. E. North Elmham, V. Norfolk Norwich Hon. G. J. Mille"^ 

Lutwidge, C. H. . Burton Agnes, V. E. York York R. Raikes, Esq. 

Marsh, W St. Peter's, V. Hereford { ^^l^^l^' } Rev. H. Gipps 

Mozley, Thomas... I ^p^*^" Pinckney, l Northampt.Peterboro Oriel Col., Oxon 
Parker, C. Fred ...\ ^^f^^ Finborough, | ^^^^^^ Norwich King'sCol. , Camb. 

Paroissien, Challis Everton, V. Hunts Lincoln Clare Hall, Camb. 

Perkins, John Lower Swell, V. Gloucester Gloucester Christ Ch.,Oxon. 

Porter, Charles ... J ^**for^Ba"ron V^""" \ ^orthamp. Peterboro Marquis of Exeter 
Pye, Wm., M. A... Sapperton, R. Gloucester. Gloucester Earl Bathurst 

Queekett, William Gosebradon, R. Somerset Bath&W. The King, by lapse 

Rathbone, D Ash worth, C. Lancaster Chester Wilb.Egerton,Esq. 

Ripley, Luke j ^'"ham "v^' ^"^^ ^^"" \ ^o^thumb. Durham Duke of Northumb 

Scott, Thomas ... Wappenham, R. Northamp. Peterboro Bishop of Lincoln 

Shrubb, Henry ... Stratford Toney, R. Sormeset Bath&W. C. C. C, Oxon. 

Smith, Courtenay, Barlow, P. C. Derby ^^^^'^C- { ^al'R^of Stavd' 

Temple, Isaac Plemstall, D. Chester Chester Lord Bradford 

Walker, James ... Radington, R. Somerset Bath&W. W. C.Trevelyan 

Waller, Charles ... Waldringfield, R. Suffolk Norwich Rev. W. Edge 

Wightman, Geo... Clare, V. Suffolk Norwich The King 

Whitter, W. Chas. Little Bittering, R. Norfolk Norwich J. Dover, Esq. 

Williams, David. Cilcwn, P. C. Carmar. St. David's T.H.Gwynne, Esq. 

WiUiams, Dr [ ^"Marlst"on' ^* "'''^ } ^"'^^ ^arum Rev. W.H.Hartley 

Wilson, R. Otway. | ^^p^i"^'^ ^^'^' ^' \ Dorset Pec.Exem. The Trustees 
Wymer, Edward... Ingham, P. C. Norfolk Norwich Bishop of Norwich 



CLERGYMEN DECEASED. 
Alderson, Joseph.. Hevingham, R Norfolk Norwich 

f Barnetby le Wold, V. ^ 
Barnard, C. D. ...-? Risby w. Roxby, V. >■ Lincoln Lincoln 

^ and Bigby, R. 3 



G. Anson, Esq. 
r Bishop of Lincoln 
^ R. C. Elves, Esq. 
t Ditto 



Beckwith, E. J.... 



Berguer, L. T. 



Middlesex London 



D. and C. 

Paul's 



of St. 



Essex 

Hereford 
Cork 



London 

Hereford 
Ireland 



Bishop of Hereford 



Baskett, Kingsman Master of the Charter House, Hull 
' St. Albans, R. Wood- 
street, St. Olave's, 
Silver-street, w. 
Tillingham, V. 
Stoke Newington 

Biggs, T. H Whitborne, R. 

Blackwood, Hon. J. Rathcormack, R. 

Coghlan, Lucius .. Devonshire-street, Portland-place, London 

Davidson, Anthony Chilmark 

Evans, W Towy Castle, Carmarthen 

Fitzherbert, S, ... Buckshaw House, HoUwell, Somerset 

Haddesley, C. W. Holton le Clay, V. Lincolnsh. Lincoln The Ld. Chancellor 

Hickin, William . Audley, V. Staffordsh. Lich.&Cov. C. Toilet, Esq. 

Hawtayne, Archdeacon, Exmouth 

Hughes, Sir R.... Walkhampton Devon Exon Sir M.Lopez, Bart. 

Hughes, Thomas, D.D., Canon Residentiary of St. Paul's Cathedral 

Lingard, — Stockport Cheshire 

Llewelyn, John... Marcross Glamgn. Llandaff 5 ^""i^!^^- /^ ^*'- °^ 

/ Llandan 



320 



ECCLESIASTICAL INTELLIGENCE. 



Mills, T. A Burton Agnes, V. E. York York Rev. T. A. Mills 

^RelrF!^!";..^?.^ I ^"^"^^' ^°"^^' ^^••••y' ^'•^^^"^ 

Pennington, G. ... Bassingbourn, V. Camb. Ely D. & C. of Westm. 

Richards, Charles Prebendary of Winchester Cathedral 

Roberts, William . | ^ y'l'^p.^of Eton 'coh"*^ } ^"^^^^ Winches. Eton College 
Rgers, Alex. ... Rolvendon, V. Kent Canterb. Archdeacon LaW 

Roufford, Francis.. Kinworton, R. Warwick Worcester Bp. of Worcester 

Russell, C /^^ercefk^& Thul'^ Somerset j^^^^^ ,^J°"; ^' 

1 beare, P. C. ) ^ ^^"' J Arbuthnot 
Ryder, William ... Hendon, Middlesex 

c T n \nr S Melbourne, V. and \ Camb. Ely D. & C. of Ely 

!>eymour, l.C.W.| L^ddon /Norfolk Norwich Bishop of Ely 

Southmead, W. ... Gidley, R. Devon Exon H. Rattray, Esq. 

S""-, John { ^SfaTS" v!" \ Kent Canterb. { \^^f- "' ^ 

Stubbs, J. P Market Drayton, V. 

1X71,% 1, rru ^ S Mendham, V. and ) Suffolk Norwich Mrs. Whittaker 

Whitaker, Thomas | Syi^h^^^ p. c. \ Suffolk Norwich Miss I. Barry 

William, Thomas Llangammarch, V. Brecon St. David's Bp. of St. David's 
Williams, J. M... Chaplain to the Hon. E. I. Company, Madras 

r Battlefield & tiffing-) ^ , C Lich. & > t i, r- u * r^ 

Williams, Edward^ ton, P. C. ^ | Salop J ^^^ } John Corbet, Esq. 

(_ Chellesfield, R. Kent Rochest. All Soul's C, Oxon 

Wilson, Isaac Caistor, R Lincoln Lincoln \ ^^^^\ ''^, ^n^T* 

I m JLmcoln Uatn. 

ESTABLISHED CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 

PREFERMENTS. 

Name. Parish, Presbytery. Patron, 

Campbell, — Paisley Gaelic Ch. Paisley Congregation. 

Knox, Francis ... Tarves Ellon Earl of Aberdeen. 

Ramsay, John ... Gladsmuir Haddington.. King & Earl of Hopetown. 

McFarlane, John . CoUessie Cupar Johnston of Lathrisk. 

Turner, Alexander Gartmore Church Dunblane ... Congregation. 

On Friday, Jan. 4, the Rev. Mungo C M'Kenzie was ordained Assistant and 
Successor to the Rev. J. Paton, of Lasswade. The Rev. J. Monteith, of Dalkeith, 
preached and presided. 

On Thursday, Jan. 10, the Rev. David Thorburn was instituted to the Second 
Charge of the parish of South Leith. The Rev. Mr. Hunter, of the Tron Church, 
Edinburgh, preached and presided. 

The new Church of Balbiggie was opened for Divine Service on the 29th of Dec. 



The Rev. Thomas Cannan, Minister of Carsphair. 



University of St. Andrews. — On Friday, Jan. 11, the Rev. David Scott, 
M. D., was inducted to the Professorship of Oriental Languages in St. Mary's college. 

Universitt of Edinburgh. — John Gordon, M.A., has been appointed General 
Secretary. 

The Established Church of Scotland comprises 16 synods, 79 presbyteries, and 
about 1000 parishes. There are 65 Chapels of Ease, the ministers of which are 
elected by their several congregations. Upwards of 40 chapels have been built by 
Parliamentary Grants in the Gaelic districts, the ministers of which are appointed by 
the Crown. Thirty missionaries are employed in the most necessitous districts by 
the Committee of the General Assembly for managing" the Royal Bounty, and 14 
by the Society for propagating Christian Knowledge. There are in communion 
with the Church, five presbyteries in England, besides several congregations not as 



ECCLESIASTICAL INTELLIGENCE. 221 

yet connected with any presbytery, — namely, London, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
Northumberland, North-west of England, and Woollen ; the synod of Canada, 
contaiuing four presbyteriesj and the Dutch Presbyterian Establishments, the minis- 
ters of which are appointed by the King of the Netherlands. 



EPISCOPAL CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 

The Rev. John Sinclair, M. A., of Pembroke College, Oxford, and Junior Minister 
of St. Paul's Chapel, York-place, Edinburgh, has been appointed Senior Minister. 

The Rev. Charles H. Terrott, M. A., of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Minis- 
ter of St. Peter's Chapel, Edinburgh, has been appointed Junior Minister of St. 
Paul's, York-place. 

The Rev. George Rose, B.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Minister of St. 
John's chapel, Greenock, hzis been appointed Minister of St. Peter's Chapel, Edin- 
burgh. 

SUBSCRIPTION FOR THE ERECTION OF A SCHOOL-HOUSE AT CRUDEN. 

The object of this subscription is to collect a sum sufficient to erect a school-house 
in the parish of Cruden, Aberdeenshire, the inhabitants of which belong chiefly to 
the Episcopal Church. At present, the children of this poor but populous district, 
which includes ^ce large fishing villages, almost entirely belonging to the Episcopal 
Church, are deprived of religious and moral instruction ; and the only means of 
enabling their excellent and zealous pastor, the Rev. John Pratt, to secure this bless- 
ing to the poor children of his flock, more especially to the female children, is the 
erection of a school -house. As soon as this is effected, the clergyman will be enabled 
to claim a sum of from 15/. to 30Z. a-year, for the maintenance of a teacher, from 
the trustees of the late Dr. Anderson, who left a fund to be appropriated to the in- 
struction of children in the principles of the Church of England j but before this 
salary can be obtained, a school-house must be provided, as Dr. Anderson's fund can 
only be applied to pay teachers. The straitened circumstances of the inhabitants 
belonging to the Episcopal Church of Cruden, render them quite unequal to effect 
this object, though the whole sum required for building a house, containing separate 
school-rooms for the boys and girls, and apartments for the teachers, is only estimated 
at 200/. It cannot, for a moment, be doubted, that this very moderate sum will soon 
be collected, even by the small contributions contemplated, when it is considered that 
it has for its object the purest and greatest of all benevolent purposes, — that of se- 
curing religious and moral instruction to a large body of poor children, at present 
deprived of that blessing. It is important that the building should be commenced 
early in the ensuing spring. 

Subscriptions for this charitable purpose received by Messrs. Hatchard and Son, 
187, Piccadilly; and Messrs. Smith, Elder, and Co., G5, Cornhill, London. 

[The Editor has the means of knowing that this statement is most correct, and 
deserves attention.] 



IRELAND. 

The Lord Bishop of Kildare has collated the Rev. John Brown, Curate of Nur- 
ney, in his lordship's diocese, to the Treasurership of the Cathedral Church of Kil- 
dare, in the room of the Rev. Henry Bayly, deceased. 

His Lordship has been likewise pleased to collate the Rev. Thomas Torrens, 
Curate of Narraghmore, to the Rectory of Carnalway. 

The Dean and Chapter of Kildare have unanimously elected the Rev. John 
Browne, late Curate of Nurney, to be Residentiary in the town of Kildare, instead 
of the Rev. William Cox, Rector of Nurney, &c., who now takes charge of his own 
three parishes. 

The Rev. C. Fitzgerald, of Ennis, has been presented to the living of Clondegad, 
in the diocese of Killaloe, vacant by the death of the Rev. Mr. Kennedy ; patron, 
the Bishop of Killaloe. 

At an Ordination, held at the Cathedral Church of Ferns, on the 21st of Dec, 
by the Lord Bishop, the following gentlemen were admitted to Holy Orders: 

Priest — The Rev. Samuel H. Mason, A.B. 

Beacons — Richard Hobart, A.M., for the Diocese of Ferns; Thomas Shaw, 
A.M., for the Diocese of Derry. 



222 



UNIVERSITY NEWS. 
WALES. 



St. David's College. — At a recent examination the following were the successful 
candidates: — Best Latin Essay, W. C. Colton; Welsh Essay, G. Howell; English 
Essay, B. Morgan; Hebrew Examination, Rees Williams; Clerical ditto, P. S. 
Desprez ; Mathematical ditto, J. Hughes. 

The following also obtained the honour of First Class Men : — Alban T. Attwood, 
W. Collins Colton, T. H. Davies, P. S. Desprez, T. Hopkins, W. Hughes, Evan 
Jones, J. Jones, H. W. Jones, Benjamin Morgan, and Rees Williams. 



UNIVERSITY NEWS. 



OXFORD. 

Saturday, Janvxiry 5. 
On Monday last, the following gentlemen 
were made Actual Students of Christ Church : 
"—Mr. T. E. Morris, Mr. E. J. Randolph, 
Mr. A. R. Barnes, and Mr. T. W. Weare. 
The following Commoners of Christ Church 
were at the same time elected Students : — Mr. 
J. E. Bright, Mr. E. Thornton, and Mr. G. 
B. Maule, (two first classes, Michaelmas Term, 
1832.) 

Preachers at St. Mary's — Rev. Mr. 
WUHams, Trinity College, Sunday morning; 
Rev. Mr. Corfe, Magdalen College, Sunday 
afternoon; Rev. Mr. Wilson, St John's Coll., 
Latin sermon, 12th inst. 

Lecturer at St. MartirCs — Rev. Mr. Brown, 
Sunday morning and afternoon. 

January 12. 

Congregations will be holden for the purpose 
of granting graces, and conferring degrees, on 
the followmg days in the ensuing Term, viz: — 

Jan. — Monday, 14; Thursday, 24; Thurs- 
day, 31. Feb Thursday, 7; Thursday, 14; 

Thursday, 21 ; Thursday, 28. Mar.— Thurs- 
day, 7; Thursday, 14; Thursday, 21 ; Satur- 
day, 30. 

No person will, on any account, be admitted 
as a candidate for the degree of B.A. or M.A. 
or for that of B.C.L. without proceeding 
through Arts, whose name is not entered in 
the book kept for that purpose, at the Vice- 
Chancellor's house, on or before the day pre- 
ceding the day of congregation. 

On Tuesday, February 19, a congregation 
will be holden, as provided in the disi>ensation 
for intermitting the forms and exercises of 
determination, solely for the purpose of receiv- 
ing from the Deans or other officers of their 
respective Colleges or Halls the names of such 
Bachelors of Arts as have not yet determined ; 
and their names having been so signified to the 
house, and thereupon mserted in the register of 
congregation, they may at any time in the 
same, or in any future, term be admitted to all 
the rights and privileges to which they would 
have been entitled by the intermitted forms and 
exercises. 

And every Bachelor of Arts is desired to take 
notice, that unless he has proceeded to that 
degree on or before Thursday, February 14, his 



name cannot be inserted in the register of con- 
gregation during the present year. 

Preachers at St. Mary's — Rev. Mr. Mozley, 
Queen's College, Sunday morning ; Rev. Mr. 
Lancaster, Queen's Coll., afternoon. 

Lecturer at St. Martin s — Rev. Mr. Firth, 
Sunday morning and afternoon. 

January 19. 

Magdalene Hall — Lushy Scholarship. — 
The late Mr. Henry Lusby, of Navestock, 
Essex, having left some estates to the University 
in trust for the promotion of sound and reli- 
gious learning m Magdalene Hall, in such 
manner as the President of Magdalene College, 
and the Principal of Magdalene Hall, for the 
time being, shall direct, the President and the 
Principal have determined to found in Magda- 
lene Hall, three Scholarships, open to all 
Undergraduate Members of the University of 
Oxford, who are not under four or above eight 
Terras standing from their matriculation. The 
election of the first Scholar will take place 
during the present Tenn, and the time of 
exammation will be named in a future adver- 
tisement. The Scholarship is tenable for three 
years, provided the Scholar resides, and the 
annual payment will be 100/. 

On Monday, being the first day of Lent 
Term, the following Degrees were con- 
ferred : — 

Masters of Arts— 1. J. Ormerod, Fell, of 
Brasennose ; W. H. Vanderstegen, Brascnnose ; 
T. H. Whipham, Trinity ; W. B. Dynham, 
Mi^dalen Hall ; H. S. Hele, Magdalen Hall. 

Bachelors of Arts — J. Walker, Brasennose, 
(incorporated from Trin. Coll., Cambridge); 
J. Carey, Exeter, (incorporated from Trin. 
Coll., Cambridge) ; G. W. Ormerod, Brasen- 
nose ; B. B. Bockett, Magdalen Hall. 

Preachers — The Rev. the Regius Professor 
of Hebrew, Sunday morning, at Ch. Ch. ; 
Rev. Mr. Hussey, Ch. Ch., afternoon, at St. 
Mary's ; Rev. Mr. Meredith, Lincoln College, 
Conversion of St. Paul, at ditto. 

Lecturer at St. Martin's — Rev. Mr. Cox, 
Sunday morning and afternoon. 

January 26. 
Corpus Christi Cullc(/e. — An Election will 
be held in the above College on the 16th of 
February, of a Scholar for the Diocese of Bath 
and Wells. 



UNIVERSITY NEWS. 



223 



Any persons are eligible who are natives of 
the above diocese, and who may not have 
exceeded their 19th year on the day of election. 

All candidates must appear personally before 
the President on the 9th of February pre- 
ceding, and must produce certificates of the 
marriage of their parents and of their own 
baptism; an affidavit of their parents, or some 
other competent person, stating the day and 
place of their birth, and a testimonial of their 
previous good conduct from the tutor of their 
Gjllege, or head master of their School. 

On Wednesday last, a meeting of the Clergy, 
for the Diocese of Oxford, took place in St. 
Mary's Church, when the Rev. James Ingram, 
D.D., Rector of Garsington, and the Rev. 
Philip Wynter, D.D., Rector of Handborough, 
were elected Proctors for the whole Clergy, to 
attend the Convocation at St. Paul's, London, 
during the ensuing Parliament. 

In a Convocation holden on Thursday last, 
the Rev. William Harding, M.A. Fellow of 
Wadham College, was nominated a Master of 
the Schools, in the room of the Rev. Mr. 
Harrington, of Exeter. 

On the same day the following Degrees were 
conferred : — 

Mastersof Arts— J. Walker, Fell, of Bra- 
sennose ; Rev. B. Harrison, Student of Ch. 
Ch. ; G. H. S. Johnson, Taberdar of Queen's ; 
W. Leech, Queen's ; J. Rogers, Balliol ; Rev. 
H. H. Pearson, Lincoln; R. Luney, Mag- 
dalen Hall. 

Bachelors of Arts—F. A. S. Fane, New 
Inn Hall; M. H. Marsh, Student of Ch. Ch.; 
R. Barnes, Student of Ch. Ch. ; S. F. Strang- 
ways, Student of Ch. Ch. ; M. W. Mayow, 
Student of Ch. Ch.; Hon. J. Bruce, Student 
of Ch. Ch. ; G. B. Maule, Ch. Ch. ; J. S. 
Brewer, Queen's ; E. H. Abney, Exeter ; W. 
Laxton, Trinity. 

On Monday last, George William Hunting- 
ford was admitted Scholar of New College. 

Preachers — The Very Rev. the Dean, Sun- 
day morning, at Ch. Ch. ; Rev. Mr. Girdle- 
stone, Balliol, afternoon, at St. Mary's; Rev. 
Dr. Stocker, St. Alban Hall, 30th Januaiy, 
at ditto ; Rev. Mr. Cassan, Magdalen Hall, 
Purification, at ditto. 

Preachers at St. Martinis — Rev. the War- 
den of Wadham, Sunday morning and afternoon. 

Rev. Mr. Perkins, 30th of January. 



CAMBRIDGE. 

"Friday, January 4, 1833. 

On Monday last the Rev. J. A. Jeremie, 
M. A., Fellow of Trinity College, was chosen to 
the office of Christian Advocate, in the room of 
the Rev. Hugh James Rose, resigned. 

On the same day the Rev. Henry John Rose, 
B.D., Fellow of St. John's College, was elected 
Hulsean Lecturer, vacant by the resignation of 
the Rev. J. J. Blunt, B.D. 

Hulsean Prize Subject. — A premium ex- 
ceeding lOO/.^will be given this year for the 



best dissertation on the following subject: 

" What were the opinioiis of the ancient philo- 
sophers of Greece and Rome, respecting the 
nature and attributes of the JDeity ; and how 
far did they differ from the revealed word of 
Godl" -^ 

COMBINATION PAPER, 1833. 
PRIOR COMB. 

Jan. 6. Mr. Gu. Crawley, Mag. 

13. Mr. Clark, Regin. 

20. Mr. Calthrop, Corp. 

27. Mr. Palmer, Jes. 
Feb. 3. Coll. Regal. 

10. Coll. Trin. 

17. Coll. Joh. 

24. Mr. Baines, Chr. 
Mar. 3. Mr. Simons Regin. 

10. Mr. Burton, Clar. 

17. Mr. Crick, Jes. 

24. Coll. Regal. 

31. Coll. Tnn. 
Apr. 7. Fest. Pasch. 

14. Mr. Berry, Pet. 

21. Mr. Chinnery, Reg. 

28. Mr. Dallin, Corp. 
Mai. 5. Mr. Bawtree, Jes. 

12. Coll. Regal. 
19. Coll. Trin. 
26. Fest. Pentec. 
Jun. 2. Mr. Gage, Magd. 
9. Mr. Bagnall, Regin. 
16. Mr. Alpe, Corp. 
23. Mr. Carver, Jes. 

30. COMMEM. BenEFACT. 

Jul. 7. Coll. Regal. 
14. Coll. Trin. 
21. Coll. Joh. 
28. Mr. Crosland, Mag. 

POSTER COMB. 



Jan. 1. 

6. 

13. 

20. 

25. 

27. 

Feb. 2. 

3. 

10. 

12. 

20. 

24. 
Mar. 3. 

10. 

17. 

24. 

25. 

31. 
Apr. 5. 



Fest. Circum. Mr. IlifF, Trin. 
Fest. Epiph. Mr. Howman, Corp. 
Mr. Grey, Joh. 
Mr. Collins, Joh. 

CoNVER. S. Paul. Mr.Bateman, Joh. 
Mr. Blake, Pemb. 
Fist Purif. Mr. Evans, Regal. 
Mr. Waring, Magd. 
]Mr. Jac. Chapman, Regal. 
Mr. Dale, Corp. 

Dies Cinerum. Concio ad Clerdm. 
Fest. S. Matth. Mr. Brett, Corp. 
Mr. Lendon, Trin. 
Mr. Maturin, Regal. 
Mr. Walters, Trin. 
Mr. Hewitt, Trin. 

Fest. Annunc. Mr. Clowes, Regin. 
Mr. Moultrie, Trin. 
Passio Domini. Mr. Barringter, 

Joh. 
Fest, Pasch. Coll. Joh. 
Fer Ima. Mr. Childers, Trin. 
Fer. 2da. Mr. Punnett, Clar. 
Mr. N. Calvert, Joh. 
Mr. Norman, Pet. 

Fest. S. Marc. Mr. Jen. Jones, Joh. 
Mr. S. Paynter, Trin. 



224 



UNIVERSITY NEWS. 



Mai. 1. Fest. SS. Pail, kt Jac. Mr.Sew- 
eU, Sid. 
5. :Mr. Taylor, Cath. 
12. Mr. Whitehurst, Pet. 
16. Fest. ascen. Mr. Monl^omery, Pet. 
19. Mr. Fearon. Enmman. 

26. Fest Pentec. Coll. Joh. 

27. Fer. Ima. Mr. Gul. Crawley, Mig. 

28. Fer. 2da. Mr. Baiaes, Chr. 
Jun. 2. Mr. Berry, Pet. 

9. Rlr. Jeremie, Trin. 
11. Fest. S. Barnab. Mr. Sutton, 

Clar. 
16. Mr. Arlett, Pemb. 

23. Mr. Bowstead, Corp. 

24. Fest. S. Joh. Bap. Mr. Hoole 

Trin. 

29. Fest. S. Pet. Mr. Gul. G. Car- 

righan, Joh. 

30. Commem. Benefact. 
Jul. 7. Mr. Gul. Turner, Pemb. 

14. Mr. Gage, Magd. 
21. Mr. Tennant, Trin. 

25. Fest. S. Jac. Mr. Crosland, Magd. 
28. Mr. Hall, Magd. 

Resp, in. Theolog. Oppon. 

(■Coll. Re^al. 
Mr.G.A.Browne,Trin. 4 ColL Tnn. 

(Coll. Joh. 

(-Mr. Bellass, Chr. 
Mr. Blakeney, Joh. 4 ^^^- Wisher, Cath. 

(Mr. Punnett, Clar. 

rMr. Perry, Jes. 
Mr.Giminingham,Cai. < Coll. Regal. 

tCoU. Trin. 

rColl. Job 
Mr. Day, Cai. ... < Mr. Scott, Pet. 

(.Mr. Nussey, Cath. 

TMr. Backhouse, Clar. 
Mr. Dodd, Magd. ... ^Mr. Studd, Cai. 

(Coll. Regal. 

rCoU. Trin. 



Mr. Malcolm, Trin. 



BIr. Reynolds, Trin. 



Mr. Hudson, Trin ... 

Resp. injur. Civ' 
Mr.Godfrey.Joh.... {JJj; Sk4^:;,^»^. 



-J Coll. Joh. 

(.Mr. Heywood, Chr. 

fMr. Birch, Cath. 
-J Mr. Sewell, Sid. 

(Mr. Clayton, Cai. 

f Coll. Regal. 
-5 Coll. Trin. 

(Coll. Joh. 

Oppon. 



Resp. in Medic. 



Oppon. 
- lias 



Tut, n^^ n^x fMr.Wollaston, Cai. 

Mr. Cory, Cau ... |^^ ^j^^^^^^ ^^^ 

January 19. 

The subject of the Seatonian prize-poem for 
the present year is, " St. Paid at Pnilippi." 

Tne following will be the subjects of Ex- 
amination in the last week of the Lent Term, 
1834:— 

1. The Gospel of St. Matthew. 

2. Paley's Evidences of Christianity. 

3. Plato's Apology of Socrates. 

4. Horatius de Arte Poetica. 

list of honours and degrees. 
Moderators— Henry Philpott, M. A., Catb. ; 
Henry Hymers, M.A., St. John's. 



Examiners — Francis Martin, M.A., Trin. ; 
Robert Murphy, M. A., Caius. 

The following gentlemen obtained honours at 
the examination for B.A., which closed last 
night, and will be admitted to their degrees 
this morning: — 

WRANGLERS. 



1 Ellice, 


Caius 


18 Inman, ") 

19 Quick, i 


Trin. 


2 Bowstead, 


Pem. 


Joh. 


3 Pratt, 


Caius 


20 Bamfield, 


Clare 


4 Kamplay, 


Trin. 


21 Fisher, 


Jesus 


6 Phelps, 


Trin. 


22 Howlett, 


Joh. 


6 Pound, 


Joh. 


23 Feachem,\ 

24 Fawcett, J 


Trin. 


7 Cartwell, 


Em. 


Mag. 


8 Jerard, 


Caius 


25 Wright, 


Trin. 


9 Barber, 


Joh. 


26 Heathcote, 


Joh. 


10 Fowler, 


Joh. 


27 Paley, 


Joh. 


11 Gowring, 


Trin. 


28 Dimraock, 


Joh. 


12 Brown, 


Trin. 


29 Barker, J. H. Joh. 


13 Boteler, 


Trin. 


.SO Caton, 


Trin. 


14 Hankinson, 


Trin. 


31 Howorth, 


Chr. 


15 Nicholson, 


Chr. 


32 Lawrence, 


Trin. 


16 Radchffe, 


Joh. 


33 Manners, 


Corp. 


17 Thompson, 


Joh. 


34 Wilkinson, 


Jesus 


SENIOR OPTIMES. 




1 Chambers, 


Joh. 


25 Kemple, 

26 Speck, 


Clare 


2 Laden, 


Trin. 


Joh. 


3 Gwilt, 


Caius 


27 Langdon, 


Joh. 


4 Stoddart, 


Jesus 


28 Walford, 


Trin. 


5 Wilson, 


Corp. 


29 Huxtable, 


Trin. 


6 Travers, 


Chr. 


30 Hildyard, 


Chr. 


7 Hodges, 


Qu. 


31 Jones, 


Qu. 


8 Begbie, \ 

9 Vawdrey, J 


Pem. 


32 Ward, > 


Corp. 


Qu. 


33 Jacob, 


Em. 


10 Bishop, 


Jesus 


34 IVIarshal, 


Trin. 


1 1 Andras, 


Joh. 


35 Grenvill, 


Corp. 


12 Haywood, 


Trin. 


36 Smith, 


Pet. 


13 Banbury, 


Trin. 


37 Brewitt, \ 

38 Wilson, J 


Pet. 


14 Massey,' 


Joh. 


Joh. 


15 Fellowes, 


Joh. 


39 Brown, 


Em. 


16 Raikes, 


Corp. 


40 Bullen, 


Pet. 


17 Sanders, 


Joh. 


41 Cantrell, 


Em. 


18 Power, 


Cath. 


42 Barnes,") 

43 Myers, j' 


Trin. 


19 Evans, > 

20 Wood, \ 


Qu. 


Clare 


Joh. 


44 Taylor, 


Joh. 


21 Tait, 


Em. 


45 Roots, 


Jesus 


22 Peat, 


Pet. 


46 Weston, 


Jesus 


23 Barker, W.G.Joh. 


47 Bathurst, 


Joh. 


24 Percy, 


Joh. 






JUNIOR 


OPTIMES. 




1 Lydikken, 


Trin. 


13 Nelson, 


Pet. 


2 Rose, 


Clare 


14 Berry, 


Joh. 


3 Marsden, 


Cath. 


15 Couch man, 


Clare 


4 Sharp, 


Mag. 


16 \^Tiittaker, 


Qu. 


6 Sale, 


Joh. 


17 Wingman, 


Pet. 


6 North, 


Trin. 


18 Snow, 


Joh. 


7 Stockdale, 


Trin. 


19 Noble, 


Joh. 


8 Price, 


Qu. 


20 Lowe, 


Tri.H 


9 Dusautoy, 


Joh. 


21 Francis,! 

22 Tuck, / 


Joh. 


10 Williams, 


Mag. 


Corp. 


11 Wicks, 


Pet. 


23 Barton, 


Joh. 


12 Elliott, 


Pem. 


24 Jackson, 


Cath. 


1 BuckniU, 


Trin. 


4 Pine, 


Trin. 


2 Hamerton, 


Trin. 


5 Tuck, 


Jesus 


3 Heathcote, 


Trin. 


6 Wood, 


Trin. 



jEffrotat— Jones, Edward, Cath. 



UNIVERSITY NEWS. 



225 



The following gentlemen passed theirexami- 
nations yesterday ; and such of thepi as have 
kept their regular terms will be admitted to the 
degree of B. A. this morning : — 



1 Laffer, Chr. 

2 Cardew, Joh. 

3 Grylls, \ Trin. 

4 Hopkins, J Mag. 
6 Howard, Joh, 

6 Cailds, Trin. 

7 Campbell, Trin. 

8 Bateman, Chr. 

9 Carter, Joh. 

10 Bowyear, \ Caius 

11 Lockwood j Joh. 



12 Blvth, 

13 Kidd, 

14 Martin, 

15 Leigh ton, 

16 Humble, 

17 Smith, 

18 Irwin, 

19 Hubbard, 

20 Maddock, 

21 Murray, 

22 Calthryp, 

23 Jenkyns, 

24 Forster, 

25 Metcalfe, 

26 Downes, 

27 Staveley 

28 Turner. 

29 Simpson 






Chr. 

Em. 

Sid. 

Joh. 

Em. 

Trin. 

Qu. 

Trin. 

Cath. 

Sid. 

Joh. 

Clare 

Corp. 

Joh. 

Chr. 

Cath. 

Joh. 

Joh. 



SO Lindsay, Ld. Trin. 
81 Carlyon, 
52 Mytton, 

33 Rolfe, 

34 Roberts, 

35 Dravton,") 

36 Stead, / 

37 Cazalet, 

38 Pemberton, 

39 Kimpton, 

40 Cookson, 

41 Tucker, 

42 Poore, 

43 Jones, 

44 Clarke, \ 

45 Philpott,/ Job. 

46 Monteith, Trin. 

47 Sharpe, Joh. 

48 Brookfield, Trin 

49 Bateman, Joh. 
60 Sculthorpe, Joh. 



Clare 

Jesus 

Caius 

Cath 

Trin 

Caius 

Trin. 

Sid. 

Trin. 

Joh. 

Pet. 

Qu. 

Cath. 

Trin. 



51 Garden, 

52 Reeve, 



Pet. 

Trin. 



53 Meadows,") Corp. 

54 Rashdall, J Corp. 

55 Williams, Era. 

56 Ventris, Joh. 

57 Allen, 7 Trin. 

58 Batchellor,5Trin. 

59 Kent, Clare 

60 Price, Qu. 

61 Greenslade, Trin. 



62 Baillie, 

63 Hall, 

64 Hornby, 

65 Booty, 

66 Yorke, 



Trin. 

Joh. 

Joh. 

Trin. 

Qu. 



Jesus 
Trin. 
Trin. 
Chr. 
Trin. 



67 ^^;^-j'""°|Tnn. 

68 Skelton, j Pet. 

69 Casse, i 

70 Knox, j 

71 Tindal, 

72 Corfield, 

73 Lamb, 

74 Nicholson") Em. 

75 Priest, j Corp. 

76 Wimberley, Joh. 

77 Jones, 1 Em. 

78 Malcolm,/ Joh. 

79 Montgomery, Corp. 

80 Durban,") Qu. 

81 Hine, J Corp. 

82 Cartwrightl Qu. 

83 Loxley, VCath 

84 Reynolds, j Qu. 

85 Bateman, 

86 Owen, 

87 Owen, 

88 Braune, 

89 Barlow, 

90 Pearce, 

91 Delap, 

92 Flatten, 

93 Pugh, 

94 Andrews, 



Corp. 

Joh. 

Qu. 

Sidn. 

Jesus 

Qu. 

Trin. 

Caius 

Cath. 

Trin. 



95 Hurt, J Jesus 

96 Beevor,") Pemb 

97 Birch, J Joh. 

98 English, Trin. 

99 Marriott, Sidn. 



119 Sloane 


Trin. 


120 Caley, ) 

121 Lav, S 


Joh. 


Qu. 


122 Onslow, 


Trin. 


123 Jones, FJW. Joh. 


124 Worslev, 


]Mag. 


125 Wright, 


Trin. 


Bennett, 


Corp. 


Bush, 


Pem. 


Gregory, 
Hughes, 


Trin. 


Joh. 


Knipe, 


Qu. 


Mackinnon, 


Joh. 


Mellersh, 


Joh. 


Parker, 


Joh. 


Wood, 


Trin. 



100 Stawell, Pet. 

101 Tomlinson Joh. 

102 Scurfield, Joh. 

103 Heusch, Joh. 

104 Bromhead Trin. 

105 Lee, Trin. 

106 Hamersley, Trin. 

107 Ripley, Joh. 

108 Palmer, C. Joh. 
J 09 Abdy, Joh. 

110 Greaves, Trin. 

111 Alford, Lord, Mag. 

112 Palmer, H., Joh. 

113 Garden, Trin. 

114 Holmes, Mag. 

115 Grigson, Corp. 

116 Macdonald, Trin. 

117 Palin, Trin. 

118 Thomson, Jesus 

^grotat — Keeling, St. John's. 
January 25th. 

The Vice-Chancellor has given notice that 
the Rev. Arthur Judd Carrighan has resigned 
the office of Lady Margaret's Preacher, and 
that an election into the said office will take 
place in the vestry of Great St. Mary's 
Church on the 30th instant. 

The Rev. James Tate, who has been for 
thirty-five years Master of Richmond School, 
has been lately in London sitting to Mr. 
Pickersgill for his portrait, which his pupila 
have requested him to accept from them in 
testimony of their gratitude and respect ; and 
they will have much satisfaction in learning 
that their old Master has just received a still 
more substantial acknowledgment of his pro- 
fessional talents and labours, in his appoint- 
ment as Canon Residentiary of St. Paul's. 

On Saturday last, Henry George Hand, 
Esq., and Robert Gordon Latham, Esq., 
Fellows of King's College, were admitted to 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

DURHAM. 

Durham University will be opened in 
October for Students. The appointments to 
Professorships, Tutorships, and Scholarships, 
are to be announced in July, and the lists are 
ready for the reception of the names of 
Students. Applicants are expected to state to 
the Warden their ages and previous education. 
Letters may be addressed to the Warden, 
College, Durham. 



BIRTHS AND MARRIAGES. 



BIRTHS. 

Of Sons— The lady of Rev. J. D. Hustler, 
Euston R., near Thetford ; of Rev. W. G. 
Cookeslcy, Eton ; of Rev. H. W. G. Arm- 
strong, Tottenham V.; of Rev. J. Hughes, 
Aberystwith; of Rev. E. Cardwell, D.D., 

Vol. III.— i^ei. 1833. 



Oxford ; of Rev. F. Robinson, Begbroke 
House, Oxon ; of Rev. F. Laurent, St. Alban's 
Hall, Oxon ; of Rev. W. O. Bartlett, Great 
Canford V.; of Rev. J. King, West Braden- 
ham V. ; of Rev. J. Dymoke, Roughton R. ; 
of Rev. M. Geneste, Isle of Wight; of Rev. 
A. Hanbury, Burn St. Marv's V., Somerset; 

2 o 



22() 



BIRTHS AND MARRIAGES. 



of Rey. J. B. Smith, D.D., Head Master of 
the Horncastle Grammar School; of Rev. 
H. S. Markham, Clifton R., Notts. 

Of Daughters— The lady of Rev. R. Hill, 
West Alvington V., Devon ; of Rev. T. IVIartin, 
Bromfield V.; of Rev. D. S. Perkins, Trin. 
Coll. ; of Rev. E. H. Gorman, Croxton ; of 
Rev. R. W. Jelf, Canon of Ch. Ch., Oxon ; 
of Rev. G. R. Lawson, Middle Chinnock, 
Somerset; of Rev. H. Speke, Wakefield, near 
Ilminster, Somerset; of Rev. C. Porter, 
South LufFenham R. ; of Rev. R. Hornby, 
Northendon R. 

MARRIAGES. 

Rev. R. Williamson, Head Master of 
Westminster School, to Anne, d. of the Bishop 
of Bristol ; Rev. T. Williams, c. of M'est 
Charlton, Somersetshire, to Elizabeth H., only 
d. of the late H. Husey, Esq. ; Rev.W.Ebditch, 
of Severall's Seat, Somersetshire, to Miss 
•Priest, d. of C. Priest, Esq., of Swillett's 
House, Broadwinsor ; Rev. S. C. E. Neville, 
of Sedgford, Norfolk, to Dorothea, widow of 
the Rev. T. Thomason ; Rev. E. Bowlby, s. 
of the Rev. T. Bowlby, of Durham, to 
Caroline, only child of W. Randell, Esq., of 
Beaconsfield; Rev. C. Le Hardy, B.A., and 
Regent of St. IMannelier's Free Grammar 
School, to Mary A., eldest d. of C. De la 



Garde, Esq.; Rev. J. F. Stansbury, Master 
of Kingston Grammar School, to Sophia E., 
d. of the late Mr. J. Layton, of Lime-street, 
London ; Rev. G. T. Whitfield, of Bockleton, 
Herefordshire, to Fanny, youngest d. of the late 
P. R. Willson, Esq., of Baruet, Herts; Rev. 
E. Palmer, Incumbent of Deritend cum Bor- 
desley, to Mary, only d. of the late W. W. 
Mason, Esq., of Birmingham ; Rev. T. Wal- 
pole, of Stagbury, to Margaret H. I., eldest d. 
of the kte Colonel Mitchell, and of the Right 
Hon. Lady H. Mitchell ; Rev. Stephen Pres- 
ton, B.D., Fellow of Lincoln Coll., to Harriet, 
youngest d. of the late B. T. Dobbs, Esq., of 
Scremby, Lincoln ; R. B. Berens, Esq., M. A. 
of Ch. Ch., and of Lincoln's Inn, to Catherine, 
only d. of J. E. Dowdeswell, Esq., of Pull 
Court, Worcestershire; Rev. J. Cox, D.D., 
of Litton Cheney, Dorset, Vicar of Hoxne 
cum Denham, Suffolk, to Miss Green, of 
Tintinhull, Somersetshire; Rev. R. Elridge, 
]M.A., of Fairford, Gloucestershire, to Jane, 
eldest d. of the late Mr. F. Piitis, of Newport, 
Isle of Wight ; Rev. J. M. Johnson, of Seoul- 
ton, Norfolk, to Anne, d. of the Rev. H. 
Wilson, of Kirby Cane ; Rev. T. N. Blagden, 
Rector of Washmgton, Sussex, to Anne, eldest 
d. of E. B. Arnaud, Esq., of Portsmouth and 
Bedhampton, Hants. 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 



CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 

The anniversary of the Clothing Charity 
at Godmanchester was held on Monday 
the 31st Dec. The sum saved by the poor, 
and put into the Savings Bank, amounted 
to 80/. ; to this sum 25L has been added 
by subscriptions, enabling the poor of the 
parish to spend above a hundred pounds 
in clothing. This is really an admirable 
method of assisting the small means of the 
poor, and is worthy of imitation. 

On Friday, the 21st Dec, the Rev. Dr. 
Smith, rector of Dry Drayton, gave a bul- 
lock to the poor of that parish, and on the 
Monday following charitably distributed 
220 bushels of coals. 

The Rev. Algernon Peyton, rector of 
Doddington, has liberally supplied the 
poor of his rectory with a large quantity of 
rugs, blankets, stockings, and other articles 
of clothing, so desirable at this season of 
the year. 

Savings Bank. — The following is an ex- 
tract from the annual Report of the above 
excellent institution for this county and 
town, from which it appears that the pre- 
sent number of individual depositors is 
1356, exclusive of 46 benefit societies and 



24 charitable institutions, and the respec- 
tive sums invested are as follow : — 

Depositors. 

524 whose respective balances on £. s. d. 
the 20th of Nov. 1832 (includ. 
ing interest), did not exceed 

20/ 4,592 2 

423 exceeding .£20 and under .£50 - 12,907 15 7 

253 - - , 60 ... 100 - 18,019 9 

87 - - - 100 - - - 150 - 10,287 14 2 

49 - - - 150 ... 200 - 8,191 16 9 

15 .. - 200 - - - - - 3,080 7 1 

1356 57.078 16 4 

46 Benefit Societies 6,573 5 5 

24 Charitable Institutions . - - 1,511 18 5 

1426 65,164 2 

The above 1,356 Depositors, arranged 
according to their several descriptions, are 
as follow : — 

je. a. d. 
742 Servants, to whom are due - 32,326 12 8 
283 Mechanics, or small trades . \ ,,.,„, ,„ „ 

people i *'''9* ^2 8 

202 Labourers ....... 7,134 4 4 

112 Journeymen 5,248 6 11 

8 Apprentices 19I 2 

9 Shepherds - 386 17 9 

1356 67,078 16 4 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 



227 



CHESHIRE. 
The Beer Act.— The Chairman of the 
Cheshire Quarterly Sessions, on charging 
the Grand Jury, directed their attention, 
inter alia, to the daily increasing evils of 
the Beer Bill— a hill which had been passed 
with a view to the benefiting of the lower 
orders, but which had been productive of 
much evil among them. In proof of this, 
he instanced as a fact within his own 
knowledge, that many of the farmers' ser- 
vants who had gone into some of these 
houses at this season.with their year's wages 
in their pockets, came away plundered of 
every shilling, which was spent either in 
drinking or gambling. It was natural that 
such persons should resort to the commis- 
sion of crime, to supply the means of in- 
dulging in the dissolute habits to which 
these beer-shops held out so strong a temp- 
tation. Various representations on the 
subject had been made ( by the magistrates, 
as we understood) to his Majesty's Secre- 
tary of State, but still the evil not only re- 
mained unabated, but was absolutely on 
the increase. Now, it was the especial 
province and the duty of grand jurors to 
prevent all nuisances ; and if any of those 
beer-houses in their neighbourhoods were, 
to their own knowledge, nuisances, they 
ought to present them as such to the Court, 
and that presentment would be turned into 
an indictment, on which the parties would 
be convicted and punished. 

DEVONSHIRE. 

The Rev, W. I. Coplestone, Vicar of St. 
Thomas, Exeter, regaled last week up- 
wards of 120 children, belonging to the 
Sunday school of that parish, with most 
substantial fare. What remained after the 
children had been feasted was distributed, 
by the excellent clergyman, among the 
aged poor of the parish. 

The inhabitants of Plymouth presented 
the Rev. John Hatchard, Vicar of St. An- 
drews in that town (and son of Mr. Hatch- 
ard the bookseller in Piccadilly), with an 
elegant silver box, in testimony of their 
esteem for his benevolent and unwearied 
attention to the poor. 

In the parish of MoUand, the property of 
R. G. Throckmorton, Esq. M.P. for Berk- 
shire, who is a large landowner in several 
other parishes in the northern division of 
this county, being the proprietor of above 
12,000 acres, it has been his custom, as 
also that of his predecessor. Sir Charles 
Throckmorton, IJart. , to allow the labourers 
and mechanics of the parish to inclose 
from one to two acres of land from MoUand 
Moore, for which they pay a merely nomi- 
nal rent only, and which, by proper culti- 
vation, produces alternate crops of potatoes ' 
and corn, enabling the respective occu- 
piers to feed one or two, and in many in- 
stances, three pigs ; they are also allowed 
to take heath and turf at th« expense only 



of procuring it. By these advantages to 
the labourers, the poor-rates are extremely 
low, as compared with the other parishes, 
thereby affording great relief to the nu- 
merous tenantry, as well as affording com- 
fort and happiness to the labouring class, 
which are so strongly depicted in the 
cleanly and respectable appearance of 
themselves, their families, and their cot- 
tages. jNIr. Throckmorton has also fitted 
up a large room as a Sunday and weekly 
school ; and, besides being a liberal sub- 
scriber to the former, pays the whole ex- 
pense of the latter. — Exeter Gazette. 
DORSETSHIRE. 

On Thursday, 17th Jan. , the New Church 
of St. Paul, at Poole, Dorset, was conse- 
crated by the Lord Bishop of Bristol. The 
prayers were read by the Rev. J. C. Parr, 
and the communion service by the bishop, 
assisted by the Rev. R. Fayle, rector of 
Wareham, who officiated as chaplain. The 
sermon was preached by the Rev. R. O. 
Wilson, the incumbent, from Isaiah Ixvi. 
1, 2. After the service, his Lordship, 
with about forty gentlemen, partook of an 
elegant collation at the residence of G. W. 
Ledgard, Esq., one of the patrons. This 
church has been built and endowed entirely 
by private subscription, under 1st and 2nd 
William IV. ; it is a remarkably neat 
structure, and will accommodate between 
700 and 800 persons, and is an important 
acquisition to this populous town, in which 
there previously existed only one church. 
DURHAM. 

The Sishop of Durham — It having been 
represented to the Bishop of Durham that 
the land lately appropriated for the use of 
the Vicar of Stockton, ought not to bo 
given him, as probably the value of it might 
be greatly augmented by granting building 
leases, the Bishop replied — " Then, by all 
means, let the Vicar have it." — Newcastle 
Journal. 

The Warden of Durham University has 
received a donation of 1000/. from the Lord 
Bishop of Durham, for the University 
chest, which is placed to the account of 
William Chaytor, Esq. the treasurer. The 
W^arden has also received 200Z. from the 
Rev. W. N. Darnell, rector of Stanhope, 
for the same purpose. 

ESSEX. 

Cliristmas Gifts. — The worthy minister 
and the parishioners of Willingdale Doe, 
Willingale Spain, and ShellowBowells, on 
Christmas-day, distributed 617 lbs. of 
meat to 617 persons in those parishes. 

The Rev. Nathaniel Foster, on Christ- 
mas day, with the most charitable and 
kind regard to the comforts of the humbler 
orders, liberally contributed to their enjoy- 
ment, by distributing, in just proportions, 
a very fine bullock amongst the poor of 
East and W'est Mersea, to which he added 
on« shilling each to many of the neceesi- 



228 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 



t JUS ; and to others be sent useful supplies 
of soap, &c. 

The prisoners of the borough jail beg 
leave to return their grateful thanks to the 
Rev. G. Holmes, of Copford Rectory, for 
plentiful dinner on New-year's day. 
During the last year, the Colchester and 
East Essex Auxiliary Bible Society receiv- 
ed the sum of 1361/. 19s. od. ; the expen- 
diture (including annuities) was 75/. 7s. 
lOd. The sum of V300I. was remitted to 
the parent institution, which is to return 
to the institution Bibles and Testaments 
to the amount of 300/. 

The 16th Report of the Colchester and 
East Essex Association in aid of the Church 
Missionary Society for Africa and the East, 
states that the receipts of the last year 
were 469/. 14a-. Id. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 
.■ In the parish of Berkeley, the system of 
receiving small weekly deposits from the 
poor, aided by voluntary subscriptions 
from ladies and gentlemen who patronise 
the charity, has answered beyond the ex- 
pectations of the charitable individuals 
who first commenced it. 158/. have been 
expended inblankets, flannels, and various 
articles of clothing, this Christmas, and 
375 poor people have been supplied with 
the articles they most needed. The greater 
portion of the money was from the poor 
themselves. 

Amongst the items in the poor's cash- 
book of St. Peter's Hospital at Bristol is a 
sum of 1,300/. paid to the Steam-packet 
Company for transporting Irish vagrants 
during the past year. 

The Noble Lords Fortescue and Har- 
rowbj, and also Sir Thomas Phillips, have 
appropriated many acres from their estates 
in Gloucestershire as garden-ground ; and 
we understand that Lord Harrowby and the 
Rev. William INIould have, in their bene- 
volence, very recently accommodated all 
the labouring poor in the parish of Willer- 
sey, Gloucestershire, with land for the 
same purpose, with the exception of those 
few who are of the parish of Broadway, 
whose wants Sir Thomas Phillips has 
kindly promised to supply. 

The Bristol Clergy Society lately held 
its annual meeting at that city. The 
meeting was well attended. The sermon 
at the cathedral was preached by the Rev. 
Arthur Matthews, B.D. canon residentiary 
of Hereford. It is satisfactory to learn 
that the collections and subscriptions to- 
gether amounted to 427/. 13s. Irf. 

We understand that the Bishop of Nor- 
wich has resigned the living of Sapperton, 
in this diocese, which his Lordship had 
held in commendam with his bi.shopric 28 
years. — Gloucester Paper. 

A subscription Ims commenced in Chel- 
tenham for the relief of the Protestant 
clergy in the south of Ireland. The sub- 
Bcription already amounts to near 200/. 



HAMPSHIRE. 

Lymington Savings Bank. — The annual 
meeting of the trustees and managing 
committee of this institution was held on 
the !^9th of December last. The number 
of the depositors and the amount of prin- 
cipal have increased during the last year, 
and thereby prove the great benefit derived 
from all such institutions. The number of 
depositors is 501, whose deposits araountin 
the total to 19,804/. l"2s. Id., viz., 106 depo- 
sitors not exceeding 20/., 1672/. 4s. 7d. ; 177 
ditto, not exceeding 50/., 5471/. 14s. 6d. ; 
76 not exceeding 100/., 5060/. 15s. 9d. ; 29 
not exceeding 150/. , 3385/. Os. 9d. ; 19 not 
exceeding 200/., 3147/. Is. lid. ; and 4 ex- 
ceeding 200/., 1067/. 14s. 7d. There are 
likewise nine charitable societies, whose 
deposits in the total amount to 815/. 12s. 
lid. ; and 15 friendly societies, 2697/. 14s. 
Id. The total funds is 23,317/. 19s. Id. 
The amount received of depositors, during 
the last year, ending the 20th November, 
was 3254/. 5s. 6d., and the sum withdrawn 
was 3407/. Is. 4d. 

The annual meeting of the trustees 
and managers of the Andover Savings 
Bank was held Dec. 22nd. The committee 
reported with satisfaction that the objects 
of the institution are rightly valued by the 
industrious and provident classesof society. 
The number of depositors were repre- 
sented as increased since the last report, 
being now 393, and the deposits 11,6.37/. 
4s. Id., namely, 194 not exceeding 20/., 
1645/. 9s. ; 123 not exceeding 50/., 3956/. 
13s.; 55 not exceeding 100/., 3761/. 13s.; 
12 not exceeding 150/., 1512/. 10s. 6d. ; 9 
charitable societies, 381/. 10s. Id. ; 5friendly 
societies, 379/. 8s. 6d. ; funds invested in 
government security and in the treasurer's 
hands,ll,73l/.10s.4d. Deposited during the 
last year, 3088/. 10s. ; withdrawn 2576/. 9s. 
The Dean and Chapter of Winchester 
have distributed 1000 bushels of coals to 
the poor. 

HEREFORDSHIRE. 
We understand the intention of taking 
down St. Nicholas Church, in this city, 
and erecting a new edifice in a more con- 
venient situation, is revived, and a com- 
mittee of the parishioners is formed to 
make the necessary preliminary arrange- . 
ments for the purpose, and obtain a site 
for the new building, which probably will 
be erected on a most convenient spot 
without Friars' Gate. As the present 
church requires very extensive repairs, it 
is thought the erection of a new one will 
be the most prudent and economical plan. 
— Hereford Journal. 

At a vestry meeting of the united pa- 
rishes of St. Peter's and St. Owen's, Here- 
ford, resolutions were unanimously agreed 
to, expressive of the deep sorrow felt for 
the loss sustained in the death of the Rev. 
H. Gipps, and that a monument shall be 
erected in St. Peter's to perpetuate the 



EVENTS OF THli MONTH. 



J2J^ 



grateful respect entertained by the pa- 
rishioners and other members of his con- 
gregation for the memory of the lamented 
deceased. 

KENT. 

Anti-tithe Meeting. — On Saturday the 
5th inst. , a meeting of the occupiers and 
owners of land in the parish of Ashurst, 
in this county,took place at the Bald-faced 
Stag, Ashurst, to petition both Houses of 
Parliament on the subject of tithes. At 
twelve o'clock, William Camfield, of 
Burrswood, Esq., having been voted to the 
chair, opened the business of the day in a 
short address, and was followed by W. 
Saxby, Esq. of Ashurst Manor-house, who 
submitted a petition which was adopted, 
having for its object the affording to the 
petitioners such measures of relief with 
regard to the tithe system, as v.-ill place 
the landowners of England upon the same 
footing as those of Ireland. Two or, three 
other individuals next addressed tlie meet- 
ing, which separated after a vote of thanks 
to the chairman. 

From the Frant Clothing Society, during 
the past year, 217 poor persons have re- 
ceived relief. 

Tunbridge Wells. — A very convenient 
spot of ground near to the Parade has been 
hired for a term of years by that spirited 
individual Mr. Maddock, of this place, for 
the purpose of erecting a permanent soup 
kitchen to supply the poor with soup 
during the winter, as last year. Prepara- 
tions are making to complete the building 
as fast as possible. 

The Rev. R. Warde, of Yalding, has 
distributed to the poor of Ditton, of which 
parish he is rector, 40 stone of meat, with 
a proportionate quantity of flour and 
potatoes. 

The annual gift of the Rev. William 
Gamier, of Rookesbury, consisting of six 
sheep and sixty-four half-gallon loaves, 
was last week distributed amongst the 
poor of W^ickham. 

Canterbury. — A meeting of the clergy 
was held on Monday the 21st inst., to ap- 
point Proctors in Convocation, when the 
Rev. Dr. Nares, and the Rev. W. F. 
Bayley, were unanimously chosen. The 
archdeacon having represented to the 
clergy there assembled the destitute con- 
dition of their brethren in Ireland, they 
expressed their deep concern in the cala- 
mities in which that branch of the national 
church has been involved ; and it was una- 
nimously resolved that the archdeacon be 
requested to call a meeting, when the pro- 
ceedings now in progress in London shall 
be matured, and the intentions of govern- 
ment sufficiently known to enable the 
clergy of this diocese to co-operate effec- 
tually in measures of relief. 

Fire at Boughton Church.— On Sunday 
night, the 30th Dec, about ten o'clock, a 
fire broke out in the church of Boughton 
Monchelsea, which nearly destroyed the 



whole of that beautiful edifice. The acci- 
dent originated in the circumstance of one 
of the flues connected v*'ith the stove com- 
municating with some of the timbers on 
the top of the vestry, which, it is supposed, 
retained the fire in its soot from the time 
of Divine Service, and thus ignited the 
wood. The fire raged most furiously, in 
consequence of the scarcity of water, the 
engines never having more than ten mi- 
nutes' supply, the only well in the vicinity 
being soon pumped dry. At about one, 
the roof having fallen in, the fire abated ; 
and by the great exertions of the firemen, 
the chancels and tower, which had ignited, 
were saved. The elegant church of Bough- 
ton Monchelsea, dedicated to St. Peter, is 
described to be of the pointed or Gothic 
architecture, and consists of a nave and 
two side aisles, a low square tower in the 
centre, and two chancels, one of them a 
private chapel belonging to Mr. Rider ; it 
is a very neat structure, and stands conti- 
guous to Boughton-place, the seat of Tho- 
mas Rider, Esq., one of the members for 
West Kent, in a retired cemetery, sur- 
rounded by trees, and commanding an ex- 
tensive and beautiful prospect of the 
W^eald. The tablets and monumental in- 
scriptions belonging to the Alchorn and 
Savage families, and several others in the 
nave, were totally destroyed. It was a 
lucky escape, however, for one Ricardus 
Alchorn (whose quaint epitaph we remem- 
ber to have read on the entablature) 

'• Qui, post varias in multis Europae, AsijB, 
et Africae regionibus peregrinationes, octo 
plusquam per annos longe a patriacarisque 
penatibus, Praga, Bohemiae Metropoliti, 
XVII. die Octobris, anno MDCCVIL, 
Jetatisque triccsimo octavo vita cedens 
sepultus requiescit;" thereby shewing that 
his bones are safer in the plains of Prague 
than in his family vault in Boughton. The 
ancestral monuments of Mr. Rider and his 
family, together with that of the Barnhams, 
Rushtons, Dacres, &c., received but slight 
injury ; and the superb monument of Sir 
Christopher Powell, Bart., and the series 
of that family in the chancel, have been 
wholly preserved. The parish registers, 
which commenced in 1560, have escaped. 
— Maidstone Gazette. 

LANCASHIRE. 

A correspondent at Liverpool informs us 
that upwards of 20,000 emigrants have 
embarked at that port during the year 
1832, of whom 15,754 proceeded direct to 
the United States — Morning Herald. 

Good Effects of New Churches. — The vil- 
lage of Lamberhead Green, near Wigan, 
has long been notorious for fighting, swear- 
ing, gaming, and sabbath-breaking ; and I 
am sorry to say that many of the inhabi- 
tants never were in a place of worship, 
except on the occasion of some wedding. 
Those who were desirous of attending di- 
vine worship were annoyed by groups of 



230 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 



people collected together, making all the 
remarks possible ; but, since the erection 
of the new church, the observance of the 
Lord's day has been very generally at- 
tended to. The minister, the Rev. J. 
Paley, who never ceases labouring to re- 
form them — who travels from door to door 
and house to house, inviting the inhabi- 
tants to attend divine worship, together 
with the exertions of the churchwardens 
and sidesmen, who patrol the streets, 
avenues, and resorting places for gamblers, 
compelling all dirty, filthy, and disorderly 
people to keep within the bounds of their 
own doors, or to go to some place of divine 
worship, has done much good. A Sunday 
school has been established, and several 
hundreds of children are now learning to 
read and know the word of God. 1 am 
sorry to say the present Sunday school 
will not hold more than half the children 
in attendance ; and I do hope the be- 
nevolent public will assist the minister in 
raising a fund for building a school upon 
an enlarged scale. — Correspondent of the 
Manchester Courier. 

Preston Temperance Society. — On Christ- 
mas day the members of this society, to the 
number of about 950, sat down to tea toge- 
ther in the large Cloth Hall, Exchange 
Buildings. The decorations were tasteful, 
the arrangements well conducted, and the 
company appeared to be highly delighted 
with the cups " that cheer but not inebri- 
ate." The admission was by ticket, for 
which sixpence was charged to members, 
and one shilling to the public. The tea- 
things and preserves were furnished by a 
number of ladies, each of whom provided 
a service for ten persons, and served them 
with the tea. After tea three songs were 
sung, two of which, we understand, were 
composed for the occasion. The people 
then removed to the front rooms, the doors 
were thrown open, and a public meeting 
held, at which Mr. Grundy presided. — 
The meeting was addressed by several 
reformed drunkards and others, on the 
evils of intemperance and the blessings of 
sobriety. The greatest harmony prevailed, 
and the whole affair seemed to give univer- 
sal satisfaction — Preston Pilot. 

LEICESTERSHIRE. 

St. George^s Omrch, Leicester. —On Sunday 
30th ult,two sermons were preached in the 
above church, and collections made toward 
defraying the expenses of an organ, lately 
erected. — The Rev. A. Irvine, Vicar of 
St. Margaret, preached in the morning 
from Psalm cxlvii. The members of the 
Leicester Choral Society attended, and 
performed several pieces of sacred music. 
The Rev, T. Bamaby, of Misterton, 
preached in the afternoon, and the collec- 
tions altogether amounted to about 40Z. 

One of the most valuable pieces of pre- 
ferment in England, connected with public 
education, is now in the gift of the Mayor 



of Stamford. By the death of the Rev. 
R. Atlay, who had been for more than 
half a century the Head Master of the 
Grammar School of the town, that impor- 
tant office is vacant ; the income of the 
master (from real estates) has for some 
time exceeded 600/. a year, and will be 
further considerably increased as leases 
expire. 

MIDDLESEX. 

Some new Schools were opened on Tues- 
day, 1st inst., at Kensington Gravel Pits, 
for the children of the poor, who abound 
there, and were very ill provided with the 
means of instruction. The expenses of 
fitting up the school rooms have been and 
will be defrayed by Lady Mary Fox, Lady 
E. Whitbread, Lady Holland, the Hon. 
Miss Fox, Mrs. Calcott (late Maria Gra- 
ham), the Ladies Greville, Warwick, and 
Fitzpatrick, the Duke of Richmond, Lord 
Melbourne, Earl of Essex, Lord Holland, 
Sir Jas. Graham, Col. Fox, Mr. Arch- 
deacon Pott, Mr. Vaughan, Mr. Chantry, 
iand other distinguished persons, who are 
desirous of putting to fair trial a plan for 
schools which may, it is believed, ulti- 
mately support themselves, the education 
designed for the poor children in them 
being one in the way of industry. The 
habits of pauperism contracted by the la- 
bouring classes are so deep rooted, that it 
is doubted if they can be destroyed in any 
other way than by the formation of schools 
of this description, in all the parishes of 
the country ; uniting wealthy, intelligent, 
and benevolent persons in a steady and 
well directed effort to break up those 
habits of dependence which the abuses of 
the poor laws have created. The parents 
of the children brought them to the schools 
in great numbers ; and several of the ladies 
who have assisted in their formation were 
present at the opening, and expressed 
themselves highly delighted with the ap- 
pearance of the children, and the prospect 
of good which the schools afford. His 
Majesty has also been graciously pleased 
to patronize them, as also his Royal 
Highness the Duke of Sussex. The Dukes 
of Bedford and Norfolk, and the Lord 
Chancellor, have also become subscribers. 
The number of children admitted already 
is 195. Theyare to be called, "'J'he Royal 
Schools for the Education of the poor in a 
way of Industry. " 

By a reference to the account of mor- 
tality of the year just ended, we find that 
the burials within the " Bills" exceeded 
those of the former year by 3269, and that 
the deaths from cholera are stated to hava 
been 3200. It tlius appears tliat the an- 
nual mortality has been increased almost in 
the direct ratio of the ravages of that dis- 
ease, a fact which some have altogether 
denied. The total number of burials last 
year is reported to have been 28,606, being 
about 550 per week. — Medical Gatette. 



PA'RNTS OF THE INIOXTH, 



231 



Restoration of the Ladye Chapel. — On 
Friday nth inst., the committee of sub- 
scribers to this interesting object held a 
general meeting by adjournment, to receive 
a report from the sub-committee appointed 
to consider the propriety of having a 
Course of Lectures delivered for the bene- 
fit of the funds for completing, in its origi- 
nal beauty, this early specimen of the 
English ecclesiastical style of architec- 
ture, Mr. W. W. Nash in the chair. 
It was then reported by Mr. Saun- 
ders that J. F. South, Esq. had most 
kindly consented to give a course of six 
lectures on Zoology for the purpose, and 
that the large room in the Girls' National 
School, Union Street, Southwark, had been 
engaged, as being from its size and venti- 
lation eminently fitted for the purpose. 
The committee unanimously agreed to the 
proposition, and ordered notice of the same 
to be advertized. 

Hadley Bazaar. — On Monday 7th, and 
Tuesday 8th inst., a Bazaar for the sale 
of fiincy articles was held at the retired 
village of Hadley, in aid of the funds of 
the Infant Schools, under the distinguished 
patronage of the Marchioness of Salisbury, 
Countesses of Verulam and Cowper, Hon. 
Misses Grimston, Mrs. George Byng, 
Thackeray, Hogegood, Dimsdale, Smith, 
&c. The Bazaar was most fashionably at- 
tended on both days, and the result has 
proved highly satisfactory to the Ladies 
who so kindly undertook the management. 
Several elegant specimens of needlework, 
by sempstresses of noble birth, excited 
much admiration. 

The living of St. Olave Jewry, in the 
city, which has been vacant upwards of 
three months, is still undisposed of by 
the Lord Chancellor. 

On Sunday the 13th inst., the Bishop of 
London preached a seimon at Hounslow 
Church, in aid of the Hounslow Subscrip- 
tion Schools. The church was crowded 
on the occasion ; and after the service a 
handsome collection was made, to which 
his Lordship made a contribution of bl. 
This is supposed to be the first time a 
bishop has preached at Hounslow since 
the Reformation, previous to which there 
was a priory where the church now stands. 
In the bishop's registry, at Winchester, 
are letters (dated 1507 and 1511) to the 
clergy of that diocese, exhorting them to 
make collections for " tl-ie hospital at 
Houndeslowe, of the Order of the Trinity, 
for the redemption of captives." 

Several of the communicants and other 
members of the congregation of Percy 
chapel, Charlotte-street, Rathbone-place, 
have, by a small subscription, provided 
an additional pair of sacramental cups, 
and presented the same to the RevJ 
Francis Ellaby, the minister of the chapel, 
on New Y ear's Uay, as a token of Christian 
regard, on his entering upon the third 
year of his ministry there. 



Royal Humane Society. — At the half- 
yearly general meeting of the governors of 
this institution, Mr. Justice Gaselee in 
the chair, it was reported that since the 
last half-yearly meeting 95 cases had 
occurred, 86 of which had been restored 
to life. Ten of the whole number were 
attempted suicides. The silver medal of 
the society was awarded to nine indivi- 
duals, who had been instrumental in 
saving as many lives, and three guineas to 
another. The society's income for the 
past year amounted to 2,234Z. lis. 6d. ; its 
expenditure to 2,438/. os. 2d. 

Society for the Suppression of Juvenile 
Vagrancy. — A meeting of the members of 
this society was held on Wednesday the 
9th inst., at their apartments in Sackville- 
street, to take into consideration the pro- 
priety of sending out twenty of the boys 
now in the institution at West Ham, to 
the Cape of Good Hope, to be employed 
by the settlers in that colony as agricul- 
tural servants. The chairman (Captain 
Brenton, R.N.) expressed himself warmly 
in favour of the proposed plan, and stated 
that the inhabitants of the Cape seemed 
disposed to aid the society in providing 
for the boys. He (Capt. B. ) had an 
interview with Lord Goderich on Thurs- 
day last at the Colonial Office, at which 
his Lordship approved of the plan of 
sending out th© boys to the Cape. A 
resolution was then put and carried, that 
twenty boys should be elected to embark 
on board the Charles Kerr, and that a 
committee should be appointed to arrange 
with the colonial office for the payment of 
half the passage money. 

King's College — There is a spirit of ju- 
dicious liberality prevalent in the conduct 
of this institution, which promises the 
happiest results. Within the last two 
months, three separate reading rooms, 
each supplied with a well selected library, 
have been opened for the use of the three 
classes of students in the senior depart- 
ment — the Law, the Classical, and the 
Medical. And we now hear that it is in 
contemplation also to form a library for 
the benefit of the junior pupils in the 
school. It is a new feature likewise in 
the conduct of our schools, that parents 
should be enabled to place their sons 
where the subjects of study may be varied 
according to the intended destination in 
life. This improvement in education has, 
we are informed, been adopted with much 
advantage by the head master of the 
school, and bespeaks his eminent qualifica- 
tion for so responsible an office From a 

subscriber who has two sons at the College. — 
Standard. 

The different religious societies have 
been unwearied in their endeavours to 
render the prevalence of the cholera avail- 
able in checking the progress of infidelity, 
and awakening the people to a proper 
sense of the duties of religion. Within 



23J 



EVKVTS OF TUK MONTH. 



the last twelve months the Tract Society 
has put into circulation 11,000,000 of 
tracts. At Bristol alone 25,000 were dis- 
tributed during the prevalence of the 
cholera, and 10,0C0 on the day of the 
execution of the rioters. — Morning Paper. 
A few days since died, at Lambeth 
Palace, William Hamilton Howley, Esq. 
Gentleman-Commoner of New College, 
and son of the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 
My deah Sir, — Will you lend us your 
support by finding room for the following 
among the " Events " in an early number 
of the Magazine. J. L. W. 

Schoolmasters' Society. — The annual 
general meeting of this society (instituted 
for the relief of Distressed Schoolmasters 
and Ushers, and of their Widows and 
and Orphans) was held at the chambers 
of the Literary Fund Society, 4, Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, on Saturday, Dec. 2'ind, at 
two o'clock ; the Rev. C. P. Bumey, D.D. 
of Greenwich, in the chair. The llev. Dr. 
Russell, the treasurer, presented an ac- 
count of the funds of the society. The 
statement of the receipts for the past year 
included three subscriptions of twenty 
guineas each , and a donation of ten guineas 
from the provost of King's College, Cam- 
bridge. With the amount of these sums, 
together with the balance in his hands 
from the preceding year, and a small 
addition to it, the treasurer reported 
that he had increased the stock of 
the society by the purchase of 200/. 
3 per cent. Red. Ann. The statement of 
payments for the past year shewed that 
fifty petitioners had been relieved with 
sums varying from 20/. to 11. The 
amount thus expended was 2731. 

The chairman reported, that upon his 
application, in the name of the society, to 
the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, his 
Grace had, in the kindest manner, ac- 
cepted the office of president of the 
society, vacant by the death of the late 
Bishop of Hereford. The committee for 
the year ensuing was appointed, and the 
members of the society afterwards dined 
together at the Freemasons' Tavern. 

A conviction generally prevailed at the 
meeting, that if the existence ofthissociety, 
and of the great good which, even with 
its limited funds, it is enabled to do, were 
better known by the fortunate members 
of the profession, and by the affluent 
and charitable among the public at large, 
many new subscribers would contribute 
to increase its means. 

The high patronage which this society 
enjoys, (his Most Gracious Majesty being 
an annual subscriber of fifty guineas,) and 
the care observed in the administration of 
its funds, are a sufficient guarantee to all 
who may feel disposed to promote the 
objects which it has in view, that their 
•haritable contributions will be dispensed 



to deserving persons, and with all due 
caution. Any application for information 
respecting the society made to JMr. Snow, 
the secretary. No. 4, Lincoln's-inn-fields, 
will meet with immediate attention. 

[The Editor has given room with great 
pleasure to this statement, and earnestly 
hopes that it may have its due effect. 
The meritorious class of men for whose 
assistance this society has been instituted 
have felt as much as any class the pres- 
sure of the times, and many of them 
whose education and acquirements are of 
a supeiior order have been exposed to 
severe sufferings and privations. All 
who feel a grateful remembrance of the 
benefits which they derived from their 
own instructors — long perhaps gone to 
their rest — will surely feel a pleasure in 
contributing to the relief of the class to 
which those instructors belonged.] 

NORFOLK. 
The systemof receiving weekly deposits 
from poor people, and adding a donation 
at the end of the year as an encouragement, 
the whole of which is afterwards laid out 
under proper superintendence, is extend- 
ing itself considerably. At Norwich 
(where it was first established), 70/. was 
thus distributed on Wednesday and Thurs- 
day last ; and on Friday next about 40/. 
will be similarly distributed at Wiverton, 
Salthouse, and Kelling, which examples 
have been followed this year by Holt and 
Blakeney. The advantage to the deposi- 
tors is about 25 per cent., independent of 
having saved that which would otherwise 
have been uselessly spent. 

NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. 

Clerical Charity. — On Monday last, ac- 
cording to annual custom, the Rev. Curate 
of Stoke Doyle gave away a pound of 
beef, of the best quality, to each of his 
poor parishioners, (whether men, women, 
or children.) and two bushels of coals to 
every family ; thus giving them an op- 
portunity of keeping the following day in 
happiness as well as holiness. This is 
amongst the least of his acts of kindness. 

NOTTINGHAM. 

The Rev. T. Beevor, of Newark, has 
presented the poor of Barnby with his 
annual New Year's Gift of rugs, blankets, 
cloaks, flannel, &c., &c. 

The poor of Newark, Balderton, and 
Barnby, together with those of several 
other parishes near the Rev. Mr. Sikes's 
ancient Manor House, in Derbyshire, have 
been largely indulged by the beneficent 
and seasonable annual bounties of that 
gentleman. 

OXFORDSHIRE. 
St. Leonard's .Church, Oxford, was con- 
secrated last week by the Bishop of the 
diocese. 



EVENTS OP THE MONTH. 



233 



On Tuesday last, the Rev. J. Michel, 
the worthy Vicar of Sturminster Newton, 
dined, on tlie old f:nglish fare of roast 
beef and plum pudding, all the poor in- 
habitants of that parish, of the age of 70 
and upwards ; when more than 80 sat down 
to table, and partook of the feast so liber- 
ally provided for them. 

SOMERSETSHIRE. 
Ihe Rev. J. Hammond, Rector of Pris- 
ton, distributed blankets, with other arti- 
cles of clothing, on Christmas day, to 16 of 
his poor parishioners, out of the fund 
produced by their subcriptions of 'id. pej 
week, and a third part added by himself. 

The Rector and Churchwardens of 
Newton St. Loe caused to be distributed 
among all the poor belonging to that parish 
upwards of 40 score weight of good fat 
beef and mutton, with a proportionate 
quantity of bread, to enable them to enjoy a 
good Christmas dinner. 

The First Anniversary Meeting of the 
Taunton Mendicity Society took place at 
the Assembly Rooms, Taunton, on ]M on- 
day last. The beneficial effects of the 
institution were rendered strikingly ap- 
parent by the report read at the meeting, 
and various resolutions consequent thereon 
moved and adopted. Among these, the 
most important one was earnestly im- 
pressing the necessity of invariably refits- 
iny money to mendicants, and the policy of 
giving in its stead the Society's tickets. 

At a Court Baron for the manor of Frome, 
East Woodlands, appeared a poor man, 
who held, by lease under the Marquis of 
Bath, an estate on lives, of which all had 
died in the space of a few months. The 
poor man, who has a large family, had 
nearly 20/. to pay for the heriot, which 
sum he solicited his Lordship to forgive 
him, as he was not able to pay it. He 
applied to his Lordship's steward at the 
above court for an answer. The steward 
said, as he had been so unfortunate, his 
Lordship would relinquish his claim to 
the heriot, and added, " I have something 
more to communicate to you from his 
Lordship, vvho has directed me to give 
you 30/.," which was immediately done. — 
Devizes Gazette. 

On Sunday, 6th Jan., a powerful and 
melodious organ, from the well-known 
manufactory of Gray, of London, was 
opened in the parish church of West 
Lydford. The instrument was the mu- 
nificent donation of the Rev. W. H. Col- 
ston, D.D., Rector of the parish. An 
appropriate sermon was preached on the 
occasion to an attentive and crowded con- 
gregation, by the Rev. W. T. P. Brymer, 
rector of West Charlton. 

^t. Mark's Church, Lyncomhe.—A stained 
glass window is now being placed in this 
beautiful and commodious church, which, 
for elegance of design and brilliancy of 
colouring, has, perhaps, no parallel in the 

Vol. lU.—Feh. 1833. 



west of England. The centre compart- 
ments of the window present four full- 
length figures of the patron saints to whom 
the three parishes of Bath, and the new 
church itself, are dedicated— viz. St. 
Peter, St. Mark, St. James, and St. 
Michael. They are represented on pedes- 
tals, each with the appropriate emblem by 
which he is usually distinguished. The 
whole is surmounted by the letters LH.S., 
encircled with rays. This beautiful win- 
dow, which will form so finished and 
appropriate an ornament to the church, is 
a present, we understand, from a lady who 
has ever taken the most zealous interest 
in the welfare of the Established Church, 
and more particularly of this sacred edifice, 
to which she has been a most liberal 
benefactress. 

An East Somerset Labourers' Friend 
Society has been established. The meet- 
ing for the purpose tock place at Bath on 
the 17th Jan. At this meeting several 
striking instances of the good effects of 
letting land to the poor were mentioned. 

W^e have learnt, with much satisfaction, 
that, by the aid of the Court of Chancery, 
the endowed Grammar School at Martock, 
founded in 1661, has been re-established ; 
and that the new Trustees of that institu- 
tion, in the exercise of the power vested 
in them by the Lord Chancellor, have 
elected the Rev. Walter Alford as Master, 
— Bath Chronicle. 

STAFFORDSHIRE. 
The inhabitants of Wednesbury have 
presented to their late curate, the Rev. 
William Hunt, of Clifton, near Bilston, a 
piece of plate, raised by small contribu- 
tions, in token of their high regard, and in 
testimony of their approval of his exem- 
plary conduct during his ministry amongst 
them. 

SUSSEX. 
The Queen s charities to the poor people 
at Brighton are most liberal and extensive ; 
but her Majesty is understood to be ex- 
tremely anxious first to ascertain if the 
persons applying for relief be really de- 
serving objects of commiseration. 

Brighton.— The !\Iarquis of Bristol has 
given, in a grant of land and money, 
nearly iOOO/. towards the erection of the 
new Roman Catholic Chapel at present 
building here. JMrs. Fitzherbert has con- 
tributed 200/., and the Duke of Norfolk 20/. 
The Rev. Robert Hardy, of VValberton, 
near Arundel, at his tithe audit, one day 
last week, returned 25/. per cent, to the 
tithe-payers. 

It is with great gratification we learn 
that the Queen has been pleased to 
appoint the Rev. J. S. M. Anderson, of 
St. George's Chapel, her Majesty's chap- 
lain at Brighton. We understand that 
Mr. Anderson will take his turn with the 
other chaplains in doing the duty at the 
palace. — Brighton Gazette. 

2 H 



234 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 



Society for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge — The twentieth anniversary of the 
Chichester Diocesan Committee was held 
in the Library of the Cathedral on Thurs- 
day, Dec. 27th. The very Rev. the Dean 
presided, and was supported by a large 
number of the laity and clergy residing in 
Chichester and its neighbourhood. An 
exceedingly gratifying statement of the 
progress and resources of this truly ex- 
cellent institution was submitted to the 
meeting by the Secretary, from which it 
appeared that there had been a considerable 
accession of subscribing members in the 
course of the last year; that the finances 
of the Committee were in so prosperous a 
condition as to authorize a vote of 
106/. 13s. 7d., making, with previous 
donations, an aggregate sum of 1539/. 18a-. 
in aid of the funds of the Parent Society ; 
and that the principal object which the 
Committee proposes to itself— the dis- 
persion of the Bible and Prayer Book — had 
been more extensively promoted in the 
past than in any preceding year since its 
establishment in 1812 ; the issue of 
Bibles in 1832 exceeding that of 1831 by 
73, and ofPrayer Books by 767. 

A new and commodious church is 
about to be erected at Chichester, for the 
parish of St. Peter the Great, alias 
Subdeanry. The parishioners have, for 
many generations, (indeed ever since the 
destruction of their parish church,) been 
allowed to use the north Transept of the 
Cathedral for the purpose of Divine Wor- 
ship. And while their number was few 
it might answer the purpose very well. 
But they are no longer a " little flock." 
The population already exceeds 500, the 
greater part of whom are poor ; ai:d the 
present church, containing not much more 
than 500 sittings, is very inadequate to 
their accommodation. An eligible piece of 
land without the north gate has been 
recently purchased at a considerable ex- 
pense to the parish for a burial ground, 
and the site of the intended new church, 
by the Dean and Chapter, who have also 
contributed liberally to the building. The 
expenses of inclosing the burial ground, 
and of erecting tbe church have been 
estimated by experienced architects and 
surveyors at 7000/. Towards this sum, 
nearly 3000/. were subscribed almost as 
soon as the object was announced. But a 
considerable addition is still required ; 
for the supply of which, the Committee 
rely with confidence on the liberality and 
good feeling of the public. 

The fifteenth annual Report of the 
Brighthelmston National Schools has just 
been issued to the subscribers ; and it 
appears from this document that the 
number of children now receiving the 
benefit of education in the schools is as 
follows:— Central -boy 8, 340; girls, 224. 
Branch— boys, 126 ; girls, 90. Infant 
Schools— North-lane,108 ; Warwick-street, 



154. Here is an amount of good effected, 
which ought to unite in the encouragement 
and support of these schools the wishes 
and exertions of every true Christian and 
friend of the poor. 

We learn that Mrs. Goring, of Wiston, 
has contributed 100 guineas towards the 
support of the Sussex County Hospital ; 
and that her son, Charles Goring, Esq., 
aged sixteen years, is become an annual 
subscriber of 10 guineas. 

Pauper ism.— The following specimen of 
what is meant by supplementary wages 
will explain the system of pauperism con- 
demned by Baron Garrow, in his recent 
charge to the Grand Jury of Lewes : — 

In Wiltshire, when an agricultural la- 
bourer can only make 8s. per week, if he 
happen to have four children, his wages 
are made up to 20s. in the following 
order: — 

s. d. 

Self 4 

Wife 2 

First Child 1 6 

Second Child 1 6 

Third Child 1 6 

Fourth Child 1 6 

12 

His children are, therefore, just so much 
money to him, and in this light they are 
regarded, and he endeavours of course to 
work as little, and get as much from the 
parish as he can. The following is an 
amusing specimen of the sort of demands 
which the poor of England think they have 
a right to make on their respective 
parishes. It is a letter from a bricklayer 
to the overseer of a parish in Norfolk. 
The man was in the habit, in summer, of 
earning a guinea per week, and was capable 
of work, though he had a large family. 

" Mr. , 

'* I shall be greatly obliged to you for 
two shirts for my boy Robert, and one for 
Matthew, and two for my boy William, 
and one shirt for John, and two shifts for 
the two girls; and, if you please, the two 
girls want two under-petticoats, and the 
three biggest boys want each of them a 
slop, and my little boy a piece for two 
tyes ; and I pray. Sir, will you be so kind 
to let me have two pair of stockings for 
Robert; and I pray. Sir, will you let me 
have one frock for my biggest girl." 
Total, twenty articles ! 

WARWrCKSHIRE. 

We understand that the dissenters of the 
different denominations in this town are 
about to co-operate with the committees in 
London, in conjunction with all the re- 
spectable congregations throughout the 
United Kingdom, to petition the new Par- 
liament and Legislature to procure the 
privilege of having the marriage ceremony 
performed in their own respective places 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 



235 



of worship, and by their own ministers, as 
well as to obtain freedom from their other 
disabilities, and restoration to equal rights, 
laws, and immunities with their fellow 
subjects. Their increasing wealth, num- 
bers, and intelligence will make it impos- 
sible for any government, based on the 
principles of equity and justice, to withold 
these reasonable claims from the dissenter. 
— Birmingham Journal. 

The sixth Report of the Auditors of the 
Birmingham Savings Bank, forming a part 
of the financial statement of the year end- 
ing in November last, it will be observed 
with regret, exhibits a balance of deposits 
less, by between ten and eleven thousand 
pounds, than was the case at the close of 
the preceding year. The diminution was 
occasioned by a most mischievous and suc- 
cessful effort, made in the course of the 
year, to excite distrust among the deposi- 
tors; the result of which has, in many 
ascertained cases, been the loss or squan- 
dering away of hard-earned savings, that 
might otherwise have remained safely, and 
with accumulation, invested for their 
benefit — Birmingham Gazette. 

Subscriptions have been commenced for 
restoring St. Peter's Church, Birmingham, 
which was burnt down some time ago. The 
list is headed by munificent contributions 
of lOOl. each from the Bishop of the diocese, 
the rector of St. Philip's, and James Taylor, 
Esq. — JBristol Journal. 

WILTSHIRE. 

Wilts County Sessions. — On Tuesday, the 
8th inst., the quarter sessions for this 
county commenced in Devizes, before Mr. 
Estcourt (the chairman), and a full bench 
of magistrates. The Rev. Mr. Manning 
was elected chaplain to the Bridewell at 
Marlborough, in the room of the Rev. Dr. 
Tucker. — It was agreed, on the motion of 
Mr. Duke, to appropriate the sum of 80/. 
towards procuring increased church ac- 
commodation for the prisoners in the 
county gaol at Fisherton. Galleries are to 
be erected, and the aiTangement of the 
pews altered — Mr. Estcourt, in his address 
to the grand jury, took occasion to animad- 
vert on the demoralising effects of the beer- 
shops on the lower classes, and urged the 
necessity of keeping a watchful eye upon 
them. 

On Friday, the 11th inst., the children 
educated by the liberality of the Lord 
Bishop of the diocese were plentifully re- 
galed with roast beef and plum-pudding at 
the Palace. 

The Trustees of the Calne Savings Bank 
held their annual meeting on Friday, 
December 28th. By the statement of ac- • 
counts then produced, it appeared that on 
November 20th, the number of depositors 
was 409, whose deposits and interest 
amounted to 14,147/, 2s. Urf., and that the 
surplus fund accrued in the year was 30/. 



5s. 5d. At this meeting the Earl of Kerry 
was elected a Vice-President of the Insti- 
tution. 

WORCESTERSHIRK. 

At the annual meeting of the Nobility, 
Gentry, and Trustees of the Free Gram- 
mar School, Kinver, held at the School 
House on Monday the 7th inst., they ex- 
pressed their satisfaction at the increased 
number of Scholars, and the efficient manner 
in which theij had been taught, and begged 
to ofl'er their thanks to the Head Master, 
the Rev. George Wharton, A.M., for his 
great exertions in promoting the welfare 
of the School. 

We have great pleasure in saying, that 
at a Chamber Meeting of the Mayor and 
Corporation, the sum of 300/. was voted 
towards the erection of a church for the use 
of the persons inhabiting the Extra- 
parochial district in the Blockhouse. If 
this liberal example is properly followed 
up, we may hope at no distant period to 
see accomplished an object truly desirable. 

By the death of the Rev. Digby Smith a 
Minor Canonry has become vacant in our 
Cathedral, as well as the Chaplaincy of St. 
Oswald's Hospital; the latter is in the gift 
of the Master of the Hospital, which ap- 
pointmentac the present timeisalso vacant, 
having been last held by the Rev. J. F. S. 
St. John, recently deceased. By the 
statutes of the Charity the Mastership is 
to be filled by the Dean of the Cathedral; 
and, we believe, in the event of his declin- 
ing it, it devolves to the senior Prebend of 
the Chapter. — Worcester Herald. 

Wo7-cester Mendicity Society. — The 
second Annual General Meeting was held 
in the Guildhall of the City of Worcester, 
on the 11th of January; J. P. Lavender, 
Esq., Mayor, in the chair. The Report 
was presented and read; from which it 
appears that during the last year 3937 
persons have applied to the office of this 
Society for relief, of which number, 
gKQo /were supplied with provisions and 

' '^ I lodging ; 
1067 were supplied with provisions only ; 
101 J^^ceived lodging tickets, and did 

\ not use them ; 
143 were dismissed as undeserving ; 

Q., J detected impostors were committed 
\ to prison for various periods. 

3937 

Of these persons, 823 were liish, 74 
Scotch, 8(5 Foreigners, and only 1133 could 
read. 

As to thefundsof the Institution, we are 
sorry to observe, that the bulance in hand 
is considerably less than that of last year. 

YORKSHIRE. 

Spade Husbandry — The Rev. T. and 
J. Monson, of Bedale, have apportioned 
off a quantity of land, wliich they let 
to the poor of Bedale and Aiskew in por- 



236 



EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 



tions of not less than a quarter, nor more 
than half-an-acre, at the rate of 40s. per 
acre, the rent to be paid yearly. Fifty-two 
families are now enjoying the benefits of 
this arrangement. The land has been very 
productive, having yielded this year be- 
tween 60 and 70 bushels per acre ; and a 
spirit of emulation is judiciously kept up 
among the cultivators, by Messrs. JMonson 
giving an award of seed to those who have 
shewn the most superior management. 
The fields so allotted for the convenience 
of the poor, are the most adjacent to the 
townships. It is only just to observe, in 
addition, that Messrs. Monson lose more 
than three acres of land in laying out every 
man's portion, by making path- ways be- 
tween each division. The tenants neither 
pay tithes nor taxes, and one of them 
gathered as many stones off his allotment 
as would pay the rent for three years. 

Partners' Servants — A very curious affair 
has taken place during the week at the 
village of Lockington, which has disclosed, 
at least to our minds, a most extraordinary 
fact. This fact is, that the Clergyman of 
the village has been in the habit of receiv- 
ing from the servants of the farmers a 
species of tithe on their wages ; from those 
on wages under 51. a-year, dd. ; and from 

those on wages above that sum. Is Hull 

Rockingham.* [Is this true 1 — Ed.] 

Christ Church Sunday School, Bradford. 
— On Christmas day, when the conductors 
of this school met to drink tea together, 
according to their annual custom, they pre- 
sented to their minister a beautiful piece 
of penmanship, mounted in a most elegant 
gilt frame, and containing the following 
expression of their sentiments: — " Fideli- 
tas Vincit — To the Rev. W. Morgan, B.D. , 
Minister of Christ Church, Bradford, York- 
shire, in testimony of his faithfulness and 
zeal, and also for his usefulness generally, 
and especially for his indefatigable exer- 
tions for the Church and Sunday School 
over which he presides, this trifling, though 
earnest tribute of attachment and esteem 
is, with sentiments of sincere respect, pre- 
sented to him by his devoted servants, the 



* From a letter to the Editor of the " Hull 
Rockingham" : — " The custom is not a solitary 
one. There is a parish in Holderness, extending: 
over several townships, where it is regularly 
carried into effect everj- Martinmas, the time 
•when farmer's servants receive their ainiual 
wages ; and the parish from whence I write this 
was inclosed under an Act of Parliament ob- 
tained in 1/66, from which I beg leave to hand 
you the following extract touching the allotment 
of land in lieuof tithes to the rector:— 'Excepting 
and reserving to the said N, N., his successors, 
lessees, and assigns, the usual and accustomed 
Martimas, Easter offerings and surplice fees; and 
the several sums of two shillings for every mill 
and kiln, four-pcnce for every fishing coope, and 
two-pence in the pound out of e^ery servant's 
wngtt in parish aforesaid.' " 



superintendents and teachers of Christ 
Church Sunday School. — December 25th, 
1832." 

On Thursday, the 8th inst,, the anniver- 
sary of the Sheffield Auxiliary Bible Society 
was held in the national school room in 
Carver-street ; James Montgomery, Esq., 
in the chair. The report stated that 2022 
Bibles and Testaments had been distributed 
by the committee, and the receipts this year 
amounted to 669/. i6s. 4d., and the dis- 
bursements to the same. 

Discovei-y of an Ancient Burial Ground. 
— The workmen on the Leeds and Selby 
rail-road, in digging the excavation diverg- 
ing from the London and York turnpike, 
through the tunnel formed by the bridge 
near South Milford, have this week opened 
a burial ground, concerning which there is 
no tradition. In the doomsday survey 
there are four chapelries mentioned, as 
belonging to Sherburn; one of these was 
on the same line of road, at the extremity 
of the township, on the way to Barkston- 
Ash, tlie foundations of which the old in- 
habitants can recollect, but it is not known 
where the other three chapelries were 
situated; this probably was the cemetery 
of one of them. That Sherburn was a place 
of consequence, in the time of the Saxon 
heptarchy, is certain from the fact that it 
gave title to a bishop ; for we read that 
Aldhelm (brother to Ina, King of the West 
Saxons), Abbot of Malmesbury, was made 
Bishop of Sherburn in the year 709 ; his 
palace was near the site of the present 
church, which is one of the finest situations 
in the county, and the ground-works of 
which, together with the moat, the baths, 
stable-yard, &ic., may still be distinctly 
traced — Leeds Mercury. 

Ripon, Masham, and Aldhro The annual 

meeting of the district Committee of the 
Societies for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge and Propagating the Gospel, was 
held at the Chapter House, Ripon Minster, 
on the 15th of January ; the Very Rev. 
the Dean of Ripon in the chair. It ap- 
peared from the Report that the Societies 
are most prosperous. 

John Marshall, Jun., Esq., M.P., has 
presented to the Minister of St. Stephen's 
Church, Kirkstall, through the medium of 
the Churchwarden, the sum of 100/., to be 
applied to the purposes of furnishing the 
outfit. 



WALES. 



At a Capitular Meeting, held in the Cathe- 
dral at Llandaff on the 3rd inst., the Rev. W. 
B. Knight, Chancellor of the church, was 
elected a member of Convocation for the Chap- 
ter of Llandaff. At the same meeting the Rev. 
J. Williams, curate of Landough and St. Mary 
Church, in this county, was presented by the 
Archdeacon and 'Chapter of Llandaff, to the 
vicarage of Eglwysilan, vacant hy the death of 



FOREIGN. 



237 



his father, the Rev. Howel Williams.— TAe 
Ckimhrian. 

On Wednesday the 2nd inst., a Clerical 
Meeting was held at St. Ishmael's Church, 
when the Rev. Mr. Williams, of Kiffig, 
preached in English, and the Rev. Mr. Morris, 
of Llanelly, in Welsh, to a very numerous and 
highly respectable congregation. In the even- 
ing, the Rev. Mr. Clerk, of Llanedy, preached 
to a large congregation at Llansaint. The 
sermons were excellent, and delivered in the 
most impressive manner. It is truly pleasing 
to see the interest which is taken in those meet- 
ings : they are always numerously and respect- 
ably attended. Too much praise cannot be 
given to the Rev. Mr. Gwynne, the Vicar of 
St. Ishmael's, for .his kind and hospitable 
attention on the occasion. — The next Clerical 
Meeting will be held at Llanon on the first 
Wednesday in February. 



Aherystwith Auxiliary Bible Society. — The 
1 9th Annual Meeting of this Society was held 
on the 28th ult., and was fully and most 
respectably attended. 



IRELAND. 

In the Irish Court of King's Bench, on Fri- 
day se'nnight, application was made for a rule 
nisi for a writ of mandamus to the Archbishop 
of Dublin, to admit Mr. J. W. Hackett to an 
examination as a preparatory qualification to 
Ordination to Deacon's Orders. It appeared 
that Mr. Hackett had been regularly nominated 
to a Curacy, and that the Archbishop had 
refused to admit him to holy orders merely 
because there were at the time several un- 
employed clergymen in his diocese. The Court 
ordered the matter to stand over for further 
consideration. 



FOREIGN. 



Russia — During the past year the number 
of seminaries, conducted by the clergy, were 
three hundred and sixty Jive: namely 3 
academies, 41 ecclesiastical seminaries, 143 
district and 178 parochial schools. The num- 
ber of teachers employed in them was 1229 ; 
and the pupils under their charge amounted to 
53,980. 

Baden. — The chapter of Offenburg have 
not only presented a petition to the Arch- 
bishop of Freiburg, earnestly conjuring him to 
effect a reform in the Roman Catholic ritual 
and observances, but they have sent round a 
printed copy of their petition to every other 
chapter in the diocese. The leading points, to 
which they desire that this reform should be 
extended, are, an entire revisal and purification 
of the catechism — the introduction of the na- 
tive language into all public rituals — a repeal 
of the ordinances prescribing fasts — a dinunu- 
tion in the number of holy days — the restora- 
tion of synods — and the abolition of clerical 
celibacy. 

Spain. — I have seen many a child, that 
could scarcely stand upon its legs, clad in 
monk's attire, and with its head shaved. These 
friars in miniature originate out of a vow, made 
by the parent, in case of recovery from dan- 
gerous illness or escape from some other peril, 
that one of her children should be dedicated to 
monastic life. If a person die, his body is 
dressed up in the garments of a monk, and he 



is interred in them, with a cross in his hand. 
This circumstance occasioned a simple fo- 
reigner to write home, that he trusted to have a 
long lease of life in Spain, as he observed that 
none but monks were carried to the grave. 
Children are early expected to attend public 
prayers, mass, and the confessional, and are 
taught their catechism long before they can 
comprehend it. Once a year the priest pays 
an official visit to every family, and registers the 
names of every man, woman, and child com- 
posing it. After Easter he makes them a second 
visit, and requires the inmates to produce the 
tickets given them at communion : but where 
the party is unable to produce one. and cannot 
assign a satisfactory reason for the default, his 
or her name has the words "A Bad Christian" 
written against it in the jjriest's register. There 
is, in fact, no justification for the default, as 
the ticket can be procured for a trifle from old 
women and church-beadles. These traffickers 
obtain a supply by attending the communion 
in several churches, and afterwards turning the 
tickets, which they receive, into money. 1 
have omitted to notice the ribbons, with purses 
or bags pendant to them, which most urchins 
wear round their necks; the bag incloses a 
little book containing the rules of St. Benedict, 

and is worn as a talisman against accidents or 
evil spirits f Original 2\^otes of a Fifteen 

Years' Residence in Madrid.] 



238 
NEW BOOKS. 



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Architect iral Beauties of Continental Europe: 

No. II. 18s. 
Burnett's Lives, Characters, &c. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 
The Life of Dr. Adam Clarke. Qs. 
Ccilvin and the Swiss Reformation. By the Rev. 

Y. Scott. Fcap- 8vo. 6s. 
Annual Biography and Obituary, 1832. 158. 
Rev. T. Sinclair's Dissertation, vindicating the 

Church. 8vo. lOs. 6d. 
Rev. H. Stebbing's Sermons, 12mo. 6s. 6d. 
Slade's Parochial Sermons. 12mo. Vol. 2. 6s. 
The Dublin University Calendar for 1833. 6s. 
The Official Glory of the Son of God. By Jef- 
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Girdlestone's Seven Sermons on the Cholera. 

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Girdlestone's Twenty Parochial Sermons. 1st 

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Cliarter. House Prize Essays, 1814 to 1832, 7s. 6d. 
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ville, LL.D. 

Questions, Critical, Philological, and Exegetical, 
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Edition of the Greek Testament. 

Rudge's Ffist Sermon. Is. 

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Memoirs of the Rev. Rowland Taylor, LL.D. 
By T. Q. Stow. 



PRICES OF THE ENGLISH FUNDS. 
KROM DEC. 25, 1832, TO JAV. 24, 183a 



Highest..... 
Lowest 


3 per ct. Conwli 
with div. 


Red. S per cent. 


Red. 3>^ per cent 


New S)< per cent. 


4 per cent. 1826. 


89 

845 


87| 

84i 


9H 
92i 


Shut. 


103| 

lOlg 


hong Anu. 


IndU Stock. 


Bank Stock. 


Esctaeqner Bills. 


IndU Bond!. 


Highest 

Lowest 


17^ 

169-W 


Shut. 


196 
1891 


50 pm. 
30 pm. 


39 pm. 
22 pm. 



PRICES OF CANAL SHARES, DOCK STOCKS, &c, 
Ai the Office of R. W. Mnore, 5, Bank Chambers, Lothbury. 



Grand Junction Canal 

Bamsley do 

Leeds and Liverpool do 

Kennet and Avon do 

Trent and JNIersey do 

Warwick and Napier do 

Oxford do 

"Worcester & Birmingham do. 

Regent's do 

Liverpool and INIanch. Railway 



Prire. 


D\9. 


227 


12 


250 


14 


455 


20 


27 


1.5 1 


6()0 


37. 10 


220 


12 ! 


565 


32 1 


87 


4 


16.5 


13.6 


182 


9 



Price. 



'London Dock Co 60.10 

St. Catherine Dock do 70 

West Tmlia Dock do 94 

Imperial Fire ' 103 

West INIiddlesex Water Works. 73.10 

East London ditto 117 

Chartered Gas Co : 51 

Imperial ditto 60 

Ratcliffditto \ 41 

King's College, London ' 80 



3 

3 

4 
6.5 

3 

6 

3 
2.10 
2.8 



LONDON MARKETS. 



CORN EXCHANGE 
s. s. 

Inferior red Wheat 43 to 45 

Middling ditto 43 ... 52 

Superior ditto 54 ... 66 

Interior white ditto 45 ... 47 

Middling ditto 51 ...56 

Superior ditto 58 ... 60 

Malting Barley 24 ... 36 

Grinding ditto 20 ... 24 

Brank 28 ... SO 

Rye 30... 34 

Malt 41... 62 

Feed Oats 14 ... 20 

Poland Oats 16 ... 22 



-Monday, January 28. 

s. s. 

Potatoe Oats 20 to 25 

Indian Corn 28 ... 32 

Large Old Beans 28 ... 37 

New ditto 26 ... 33 

Old small ditto 38 ... 44 

New ditto 85 ... 38 

Old Tick ditto 36 ... 42 

New ditto 33 ... 37 

Grey Peas 25 ... 38 

Hog ditto 33 ...35 

Maple ditto 36 ... 33 

White Boiling ditto 39 ... 47 

White non-boiling ditto 34 ... 36 



The following table will shew the fluctuations and variations in the average prices 
of wheat for every month during the year 1832: — 

Highest. 
S. d. 

January 60 

February 59 11 

March 59 9 



April. 
May . 
June . 



61 8 . 


.. 59 


62 1 . 


.. 61 


63 1 . 


.. 61 



Lowest. 

s. d. 
69 1 
58 10 
68 2 
6 
9 
9 



July 63 

August 63 

September 58 

October 54 

November 53 

December 54 



Highest. 

S. d. 

7 

5 

7 
3 
9 



Lowest. 

S. d. 

63 2 

59 7 

66 

50 3 

62 6 

53 2 



Average prices in 1830 and 1831 comparatively with 1832. 

Wheat. Barley. Oats. 

1830 64s. 326-. U. 24s. 3d. 

1831 66s. 38s. Orf. 25s. 3d. 

1832 69s. 33s. 3d. 20s. Od. 



BOROUGH HOP MARKET.— Monday, January 28. 



East Kent 
Ditto - - 
Mid Kent 
Ditto - - 
Sussex 
Ditto - - 
Essex - - 
Ditto - - 
Farnham - 
Ditto - - 





1830. 


1831. 


1832. 


n pockets 
in ba^jfs - 


5/ 6 to 6i 5 


11 7 to 8/ 10 


8/ 8 tolOZlO 


4 10 ...5 6 


5 15. ..6 15 


7 10... 9 


in pockets 
in bags - 


4 15 ...6 


6 6... 7 10 


7 10... 9 


3 15 ...5 


5 5... 6 


6 10... 8 


in pockets 
in bags - 


3 15 ...5 


6 5... 6 10 


6 6... 7 7 


3 10... 4 4 


4 0...6 


6 10... 6 6 


in pockets 


0... 


0...0 


0...0 


in bags - 


0...0 


0...0 


0...0 


in pockets 


0...0 


0...0 


12 0-14 


in bags - 


0...0 


0...0 


10 0-12 



SMITHFIELD.— Jan. 28. 
To sink the offal per stone of 81b. 
s. d. i. d. 



Prime Oxen. , 

Inferior 

Prime Sheep 



3 10 a 4 
2 2 a 2 

4 6 a 6 



Inferior Sheep. 

Calves 

Pigs 



s. d. s. d. 

2 4 a 2 10 

3 6 a 5 10 
3 2 a 4 10 



LIVE CATTLE AT MARKET. 

Beasts, 2,467 | Sheep, 17,880 | Calves, 91 | Pigs, 160. 



240 

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



The Editor trusts that the gentlemen who have so obligingly sent him fresh editions of their 
works, or \\orks published two or three years ago, will not think that those works are under- 
valued because they are not noticed. It is very difficult to keep up with those published 
since the Magazine itself commenced. He particularly regrets not being able to notice, and 
at length, a Charge of Archdeacon Bather. 

A Pamphlet against Oxford, from which the Morning Herald and other papers have been 
giving extracts, has been sent to the Editor. It is ca\\eA Academical Abuses, 8fc. Sfc, and 
proclaims its intent at once. It is .itnphj to collect every low, base falsehood possible, in or- 
der that the daily papers may have something at hand with which to revile the Universities, 
and a very proper pei-son has been selected. His taste is quite of the right standard, as he 
can neither spell nor write English. Among other things which this miserable person says, 
he alleges that the ' Dons' make profits from the furniture of the young men's rooms ! and 
from the dinners and breakfasts ! One great source of complaint is the badness and unwhole- 
someness of the bread, butter, and joints of meat on which the young men are kept ! This is 
the matter thought fit for the pubhc of the enlightened and amiable nineteenth century ! 

H. H's valuab'e letter on Sunday Schools shall be given very shortly. 

Mr. Allport would be exceedingly glad to have communication with the gentleman who 
gave an account of the Catholic 3Iarjuzi;.e in the last No. of the British Magazine, and to 
receive any suggestions from him. It seems quite an imperative duty not to let a work like 
the Protetant Journal, devoted exclusively to the controversy between Catholics and Roman 
Catholics, drop for want of support. 

INIany thanks to Dorcas for a very sensible letter. 

S. S.'s communication on Rom. xii. 20, shall be used as soon as room can be found ; but 
perhaps S. S. will not take offence at being told that a little patience as to insertion of very 
Long letters is necessary, at a period when the press of temporary matter of importance must 
obviously be so great. It was not from neglect or disrespect that this paper was kept back. 

A letter from Oxford (the writer gives his name) mentions that in a Club of 150 Under- 
graduates and B. A.'s, the New Monthly Magazine was expelled, without a dissentient voice, 
as soon as the detestable article on Lord Tenterden had been read. Facts like these (and 
many such have occurred in both Universities within the last two or three years) supply 
proofs of a state of feeling in the young men of the countiy which gives one hope for it, even 
in its present condition. 

A Dissenter's Letter has been received. The peculiarly amiable and Christian tone in 
which it is written, so entirely free from all uncharitable insinuations, gives it claims to in- 
sertion, which are only overcome by its having arrived too late for this month. 

W. M. is quite right in urging that baptisms should take place alter the second lesson, ac- 
cording to the rubric, wherever it is practicable. It is good for all parties. But he is mis- 
taken in thinking that this is never done. The Editor knows many country churches where 
it is the regular practice, and others where it is tlie practice on holidays, the situation of the 
font making it impracticable when the church is full. 

J. S.'s remarks on the Romanist's endeavoui-s to appropriate the name of Catholic areveiy 
just ; but Protestants are tolerably on their guard on this point. 

E. N.'s very sensible letter on Tithes is received, and shall be used as soon as possible. 

Persons who send communications are requested to give a choice of using or destroying. 
The returning is a very troublesome condition. 

If Dr. Rudge will have the kindness to look at the three or four last Numbers of the British 
Magazine, he will find that the subjects he mentions have been fully canvassed, particularly 
in a note on the letter of G. W. R., and in the article on Church Reform in the last Number. 

** Observator" is received. 

R. W. B.'s Letter is most acceptable. The Editor had got through some of the hidtous 
labour, but not so well as R. W. B. 

The Editor deeply regrets still being unable to notice the Factory Bill proceedings, and 
those respecting the Observance of the Sabbath. He owes a heavy debt to humanity and 
religion on these points, and will earnei>tly endeavour to discharge it. 

The Editor hopes that T. D. A. got a letter addressed to him at Mr. Parker's. Will the 
gentleman who wrote about Sir James Mackintosh's remarks ( vol. iii. p. 60) send a short 
paper on them ? 

" A Subscriber" observes that the lenathy writers on Tithes in this INIagazine have not 
suggested that one-fourth or one-fifth of the estimated or actual rent would be a good substi- 
tute for Tithes. 

The Editor would be glad to know where he may direct a private letter to A. 

Mr. Curtis's book on the Typographical Errors in the Bible, is rcttom mended to all who 
can find any interest or amusement in a curious exhibition of retributive justice, in which a 
roan who assails the characters of others, draws, ouite unconsciously, a very faithful picture of 
the selfish and interested motives which actuated his own conduct. Mr. Curtis's faithfulness 
in not leaving out a line of his own picture is unrivalled, and (as will be shewn next month) 
the picture is not an ordinary oue. 



THE 



BRITISH MAGAZINE. 



MARCH 1,1833. 



ORIGINAL PAPERS. 



ON THE CONNEXION OF THE CLERGY OF THE ESTABLISHED 
CHURCH WITH THE JUDICIAL AND LEGISLATIVE FUNCTIONS 
OF THE STATE. 

I NOT only am averse to ascribe hostile dispositions to all those 
who view the questions relative to church reform in a different 
light from that in which they appear to me, but I am fully 
persuaded that q, very large proportion of them are actuated by 
most friendly intentions towards her, and imagine that the 
alterations they propose will avert her destruction, if not fix her 
establishment upon a firmer foundation. Yet I cannot see any 
reason in the circumstances of the case to abandon my own 
conclusions upon the danger of the proposed reforms, especially 
of the ulterior movements to which they are made the stalking 
horse ; and I am still more startled by a comparison of the alleged 
reasons, given by church reformers of all denominations, from 
Lord Henley to Mr. Hume, with those by which one party 
deceived others, and another deceived themselves, at that period 
of our history when the people were betrayed into a calamitous 
delusion, and the Church and State of England were subjected 
to the terrible scourge of democracy and fanaticism. In the 
present day we have the same loud and bitter cry raised against 
the ministers of the church, accompanied by the same pretext of 
concern for its purity, and supported by the same arguments 
against the practices of the clergy, and the institution and 
privileges of the church. 

The notorious object of the violent and movement party in 
its advance to the civil war was to lower the body of the clergy 
in the eyes of the people, and to deprive them of those offices 
connected with the state which gave them power and influence 
to support their church. Yet all this was to be done under plea 
of a tender and reverend regard for its purification. An ostentatious 
display was made of distinguishing between the functionaries of 
the church and the church itself. The desire of the artful and 

Vol. m.—Marnh, 1833. 2 i 



242 ON THE CONNEXION OF THE CLERGY WITH THE 

active party to overthrow the church altogether cannot now be a 
secret. It is evident to demonstration that, though they were 
loudest in putting forward the promised advantages which were 
to accrue to the discipline and stability of the church, they desired 
nothing so eagerly as its downfall. The above argument was 
used by them as an allurement to the well meaning, but en- 
thusiastic or rash friends of the church. It was by their aid and 
junction alone that the design of its bitter enemies could be 
accomplished. Arguments and assertions, however false, were 
adapted to all parties, and if we are astonished at the facility with 
which really good and sensible men were led into the snare, 
that astonishment must be diminished when we see equally good 
and sensible men treading in the very same steps, while the 
example of these persons and the fatal consequences of their 
infatuated credulity and experiments are on record, for the 
instruction of their posterity. If the most outrageous calumnies 
against the loyal part of the clergy were circulated and believed 
then, are there no such efforts, and is there no such credulity 
now ? If they were then slanderously decried as enemies of 
the people, and especially of the poor, are they not, with equal 
falsehood, equal shamelessness, and equal malignity, so repre- 
sented now ? If every act of a clergyman in support of the 
church or state was then denounced as undue or improper 
meddling with politics, and an act of almost hostility against 
the people, while the treasonable harangues of the seditious 
preacher were encouraged in the most bare-faced manner, is it 
very different now ? Who can read some of the daily papers 
without seeing the most reckless misrepresentations and partiality 
— one clergyman abused, and another praised for their interference 
in politics — with no other reason for the distinction than their 
taking different sides on the same question ? Who has not seen 
the cowardly and assassin-like falsehoods which pander to the 
depravity and ignorance of the disaffected, giving neither name, 
nor date, nor place, but in some such forni as this — " The 

Rev. Mr. , not an hundred miles from such a place, asked 

an honest farmer to give his vote to Mr. B , and upon his 

refusal said, ' I am very sorry ; but I find your name in my tithe 
book in arrear : I must have the money immediately or proceed 
against you' " ? What an effect have these shameless and reiter- 
ated fabrications on the poor ; and how is the slanderer to be 
dragged to liglit, and the credulous to be disabused ? 

Who, again, has not observed the complacency with which 
dissenting ministers or papists are mentioned as using the most 
violent and exciting language to an inflamed and ignorant mul- 
titude, while a clergyman may not even argue through the press, 
or use his privilege of a citizen, without being stigmatized as a 
" political parson," or held up to revolutionary fury, as an enemy to 



JUDICIAL AND LEGISLATIVE FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE. 243 

the liberties of the people — or, perhaps made liable to personal 
violence ? Let any man read the history of our country towards the 
commencement of the civil war, and he will find the same practices 
adopted; and, what is more alarming, he will find the same 
gradual changes of opinion in moderate men, yielding one point 
after another, and still hoping to improve instead of destroy the 
church. The cry of the clergy meddling in politics, and uphold- 
ing the king in his obstinacy, was used just as it is now. The same 
concern was expressed lest ministers should degrade the sacred 
functions by contact with secular matters. They w^ere to be 
reformed, to be excluded from the magistracy, and finally from 
the legislature. It would be well if many friends of the church 
would contemplate how far they have already proceeded in this 
march towards revolution. Let them only ask what, three years 
ago, they would have thought of the man who proposed the 
question, which they now gravely entertain, of the removal of 
the Bishops from Parliament. We may ask Lord Henley himself, 
who steps forward as the advocate of a project for that purpose, 
whether he would have expected it from any but a mad disciple 
of Cobbett or Carlile ? But now I am compelled to enter seriously 
into this momentous proposition. 

I shall take a brief survey of the charge of undue interference 
with secular affairs, attributed to the church, in two points of 
view, as it relates 

1st, To the clergy generally. 

2dly, To the lawfulness and expediency of the Bishops holding 
their seats in the House of Lords. 

1st, With respect to the clergy generally, let it be examined 
whether, as a body, they are justly charged with any peculiar 
tendency to meddle with politics ; and whether to any, and to 
what extent, they may lawfully and religiously either use their 
talents or their privileges in the general discussion of political 
questions, in influencing the bent of the legislature, or may act in 
the capacity of civil magistrates. 

It is one of the evils of which we bitterly complain, that our 
very friends hastily admit false premises, and consequently are 
led to erroneous conclusions. The press has only to raise the 
cry of " political parsons " and it is taken for granted that the 
church as now established tends to secularize its clergy. The 
same was asserted and believed in the days of Charles the First. 
The ''malignant clergy" — the " scandalous clergy" — and such like 
epithets were applied to all who wished to uphold the church ; 
and so it is now. But what was, and what is, the real state of the 
case ? Were not the fanatical preachers at that time, not only 
ten thousand times more political, but more violent, more 
seditious, more audacious than any of the church party, and were 
not the former praised and protected, aye, and emploi/ed by those 



244 OK THE COSNEXrON OP THE CLERGY WITH tUti 

very men who had the impudence to be perpetually haranguing 
on the secular pursuits of the clergy, and their interference in 
politics? And who can coolly and impartially read the rebellious 
declamations of popish priests in Ireland, the systematic intrigues 
of dissenters in elections, the speeches at Birmingham and 
elsewhere, and affirm that the clergy as a body are one half such 
meddlers in politics as either the papists or the dissenters I Nay, 
do not even the partial praises bestowed upon those clergy 
who take an active part on the radical side, by the veiy 
journals which pretend to deprecate " political parsons," at 
once prove the iniquity of the clamour? The institutions of 
the church have not, 1 contend, any peculiar tendency to make 
her ministers political : and instead of being actually more, they 
are much less so than any denomination whatever (not excepting 
even the Quakers). That some indiscreet or unworthy clergy- 
men may overstep their bounds, I shall not deny ; but, as a bodi/j 
I affirm, both that they do not improperly interfere, and that 
even in the exercise of their just and reasonable privileges they 
stand distinguished for their moderation, and I may on some 
occasions say, supineness or timidity. 

And what are those privileges? I cannot admit the doc- 
trine that a clergyman is to feel no interest, nor to take any 
part in the political events of his country. I consider it a 
glorious distinction of our church, as contrasted with that of 
Rome, that a man by becoming a clergyman does 7wt cease to 
be a citizen ; — he is not doomed to celibacy ; — he does not cut 
away those links which bind him to social life, and entwine his 
affections and hopes with the welfare of the people at large. As 
public measures may affect ourselves or families, the honour and 
safety of the empire, and even of the church of which we are 
members, we must be interested in them ; and we are not only 
allowed, but it is our duty to use our legal privileges and our 
individual talents in promoting measures which we believe to be 
beneficial, and obstructing those we believe to be injurious to either 
church or state. To this extent I conceive the clergy as a body 
are both justified and bound to use their influence or their votes; 
and beyond this I know that as a body they have not pro- 
ceeded. Nay, I think they have often been too supine — they 
have allowed danger to approach too near before they were 
roused. They have been too much afraid of the cry of " political 
parsons ;" and while the papists and the dissenters have been 
unscrupulously active and persevering in sapping the defences of 
the church and approaching her strong holds, the clergy, averse 
to political meddling, cannot be brought to act with either vigour 
or concert, till some great crisis arrives. And is it to be endured, 
that while every meddling dissenter and every factious popish 
priest is to harangue and delude the multitude — that while the 



JUDICIAL AND LEGISLATIVE FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE. 245 

judgment of every mechanic, and even of the lowest rabble, is to 
be appealed to upon great and intricate questions, deeply 
affecting the nation in general, and the church in par- 
ticular, — that an enlightened, reflecting, and learned body, 
such as the clergy of the church of England, are not to 
hold or to utter an opinion — not to give even their votes — -nay, 
not to use their pens, without being hallooed down as " political 
parsons," and pointed out as ** enemies of the people" ? I do 
urge the people of England to reflect upon the gross injustice 
with which these charges are made. 

Another imitation of the revolutionary movement of Crom- 
well's time is the clamour against clerical magistrates. I am no 
advocate for this oflfice being filled by the clergy when no 
necessity exists for it ; nor do I believe that they are generally 
disposed to take it, unless urgently called upon to do so for the 
good of the country. But I altogether deny that it is unlawful, or 
even in some cases inexpedient, for them to do so ; and I well 
know that, generally speaking, they are most eflective in the 
discharge of the duties, and, from their sacred functions, are 
enabled to become peacemakers, and to confer great benefits on 
society. Frequently the office is imposed upon them because 
there happen to be no men of sufficient influence and education 
residing in the neighbourhood. And, independently of their 
education, the caution induced by their profession, and their 
general discretion, great benefit arises from their being less liable 
to be absent from home when it may be necessary to apply to 
them. In these, and in other respects, I know that they con- 
tribute essentially to the conveniences and welfare of the people. 

Still I do not recommend their taking these offices, unless it 
may be necessary. But where any such necessity exists, I hold 
it to be both lawful and expedient for them to act. This lawful- 
ness I shall further argue, as I come presently to the consi- 
deration of those texts adduced to shew that the secular functions 
of the clergy and bishops are unlawful. 

This I shall have an opportunity of doing, as I now ap- 
proach the question of the bishops having seats in the legisla- 
ture. It is not, however, my present intention to enter into a 
statement of the reasons on which I consider them entitled to 
take their seats, but rather to touch upon the strange, but not 
novel, arguments which are adduced to prove the impropriety 
or even unlawfulness of their being in the House of Lords. In 
looking at these, I find, as before, nothing but a repetition of the 
old revolutionary speeches of the long parliament of 1643. 
When I take up Lord Henley's pamphlet, I am reminded, 
both by the delusive expectation he entertains, and the parties 
he unintentionally strengthens, of those passages in Clarendon 
and Rushworth, which exhibit all parties as professing that their 



246 ON THE CONNEXION OF THE CLERGY WITH THE 

anxiety for the removal of the bishops from the House of Lords 
is founded upon the expectation that no danger can accrue to the 
church or to the throne. 

The Earl of Essex and his party in the Lords conclude their 
reasons by professing their belief that it could do the church " no 
harm, by the bishops having fewer diversions from their spiritual 
charges." In the Commons, it was urged that if the Bill for the 
exclusion of the bishops " were once passed, a greater number in 
both Houses would be so well satisfied that the violent parti/ 
would never be able* to prosecute their designs." " And," says 
Clarendon, '' the reason did prevail over many men of excel- 
lent JUDGMENT AND UNQUESTIONABLE AFFECTIONS, who 

did in truth believe that the passing of this act was the only ex- 
pedient to joreser^je the church." Among these was Lord Falk- 
land, who opposed his friend Hyde, and voted for the Bill, as 
"absolutely necessary, for the benefit of the church." What 
was the result ? — Let us hear it from Lord Falkland's bosom 
friend : — 

"About six months after Lord Falkland changed his opi- 
nion, and gave them all the opposition he could ; nor was he 
reserved in acknowledging that he had been deceived, and by 
whom ; and confessed to his friends, with whom he would deal 
freely, ' that Mr. Hampden had assured him, that if that Bill 
might pass, nothing more would be attempted to the prejudice of 
the church.' " 

But he discovered his error too late ; and yet the self-same 
deception is still successful, though we trace the nation advancing 
step after step regularly in the very course which led to the down- 
fall of both the church and the monarchy, and deluding itself 
with the same plea that it is promoting the stability of both. It 
is to me among one of the most terrible signs of the times, when 
I see such men as Lord Henley deliberately coming forward, 
and, like Falkland, giving encouragement to a repetition of an 
experiment which stands recorded in history as having led 
to the most fatal consequences. 

But Lord Henley has endeavoured to vindicate the attempt 
upon the ground of religious principle. I will look at his texts 
and his expositions of them ; but first let me lay down certain land- 
marks, by which the course I intend to steer may be distinctly 
marked. 



♦ Similar to this was the argument respecting Roman Cathoh'c Emancipation. Hovr 
false and delusive it was, let the prostrate church of Ireland, the impotence of the 
law, and the combination of repealers declare. This argument is fresli in my me- 
mory — these consequences are even now before my eyes. Have we ever read of 
those who have eyes and sec not, — ears, and hear not, and will not understand, that 
tbey may be baved from their own perverseness ? 



JUDICIAL AND LEGISLATIVE FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE. 247 

1. I aai not noio arguing the question, whether on the form- 
ation of a new constitution of Church and State, I should place 
bishops in the legislature, but whether, being there, they should be 
displaced. 

2. I am not even discussing the extent of the benefits accruing 
to the country and to the church, or the just protection and pri- 
vileges secured to the clergy by the presence of the bishops in 
the House of Lords; though on these points I think I could 
add something even to the excellent article in the last Quarterly 
Review. 

3. The experiment proposed by Lord Henley is not a new one. 
It has been tried before. Some of its advocates, men far superior in 
talent (I do not say it offensively) and quite equal in sincerity 
and good intention to his Lordship, deceived themselves with 
precisely the same hopes of its beneficial tendency as those which 
he indulges. And this harrowed kingdom wept in tears of 
blood, suffered through years of civil strife and ecclesiastical de- 
gradation, and recorded for the instruction of posterity, in charac- 
ters of remorse and shame, the fatal effects of this lamentable 
delusion. 

I have, in the very outset of the question, endeavoured to lay 
before Lord Henley practice against theory. We have theory 
predicting what loould be the result, and practice shewing what 
was the result. We have the very actors in the first experiment 
expressing on the one hand their misgiving, and on the other 
their deceitful hopes ; we have the statesman Hyde directly pre- 
dicting the mischiefs — his warm-hearted and sanguine friend, Lord 
Falkland, first ridiculing his fears, and afterwards in sorroio ac- 
knowledging their justice; we have the trimming, but well-mean- 
ing Lord Digby, gently hinting, with guarded phrases, the uncer- 
tainty of the new scheme working better than the old, the danger 
which might follow to the church and monarchy from the attempt. 
We have him answered by the radical Fiennes, and others, more 
or less destructively inclined, treating these dangers as the chi- 
mera of vain fears, and professing that if he saw the remotest 
possibility of such evils he would oppose the measure. Thus I 
might go through the whole of the leading men of that day, the 
deceivers and the deceived ; and for the solution of their expecta- 
tions on the one hand, and their artifices on the other, I point to 
the sacred head of the monarch, rolled at the feet of canting 
traitors, — to streams of blood poured out in civil strife, — to a 
clergy insulted, persecuted, driven out, — and to a church overrun 
with hypocrites and fanatics. 

The state of the question, then, between us and Lord Henley 
is simply this — 

He calls upon us to repeat an experiment, which has been 



248 ON THE CONNEXION OP THE CLERGY WITH THE 

tried by men under precisely the same hopes and under the same 
circumstances as himself — an experiment of which the fatal con- 
sequences were anticipated and predicted by many, but ridiculed 
by others, and of which the result awfully proved that the an- 
ticipations of evil were too well founded. 

May not Lord Henley be mistaken in his hopes or misled by 
other Hampdens as well as Lord Falkland, Deering, and many 
others, " of excellent judgment, and unquestionable affections?" 
Surely he himself will not deny that he may be. 

My question, then, is narrowed to this point: — Are Lord 
Henley's Scriptural or other objections to the Bishops retaining 
their seats, of sufficient weight to demand the repetition of this 
awful experiinent t 

His Lordship sets at nought all legal claims, sweeps off all the 
arguments and examples derivable from the Old Testament, and 
respectfully hints that Hooker and Gibson and Warburton, 
though Christian divines of great eminence and scriptural re- 
search, had not examined the subject on " Christian and evan- 
gelical principles." I do not wish to misrepresent his Lordship's 
meaning — I will give the passage in his own words : — 

"It would seem a great presumption, after the Parliamentary Peerage of the 
prelates has been exercised for so many centuries, and after it has been con- 
sidered or affirmed as lawful by such men as Hooker and Gibson and War- 
burton, to express any doubt as to its legality, under the letter and spirit of 
the Christian dispensation. It may, however, be most respectfully and most 
humbly submitted, by one who brings no other learning to the subject than a 
diligent perusal of the New Testament, whether the illustrious persons who 
have treated upon this subject have examined it so fully upon mere Christian 
and evangelical principles, as the religious feelings of the common run of 
mankind have a right to expect. It has been ably argued on legal and con- 
stitutional grounds. It has been defended or eulogized as matter of ' orna- 
ment' or of 'high antiquity,' or as 'consonant to right reason,' as ' essential to 
an alliance between Church and State/ or ' upon the example of such Jewish 
precedents as Eli andEsdras.*" 

I beg leave to observe, that his Lordship very unceremo- 
niously turns his back upon ground from which arguments may 
be adduced, deserving something more than a mere dictum, or 
polite contempt. They are more easily avoided than refuted ; but 
I am not fastidious — I will accommodate him, and allow him to 
choose his ground. Let him state it himself: — 

"But it would have been more satisfactory if the intention of the Divine 
Founder of the Church had been examined with reference to this specific ques- 
tion ; and particularly as contained in his declarations, that his ' Kingdom 
was not of this world ;' and in his refusal to give sentence in a criminal cause 
of adultery, and in a civil one of dividing an inheritance." 

His Lordship introduces his inferences on these texts, by 
telling us that there is a proneness to put softening comments 
upon certain texts of Scripture. Be it so ; but I must also remind 



JUDICIAL AND LEGISLATIVE FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE. 249 

his Lordship of another common error — a propensity to take texts 
without relation to the context, to give them a meaning quite at 
variance with the reasoning in which they occur, and to apply them 
to subjects to which the speaker did not intend their application. 

Perhaps Lord Henley will be good enough to reconsider the texts 
in which Christ says his '' Kingdom is not of this world," refuses 
to pass sentence on the woman taken in adultery, and disclaims 
having been made a divider of temporal inheritance — I say per- 
haps he will reconsider these texts, having in view the three 
errors against which I have just cautioned interpreters (and espe- 
cially those not by profession interpreters) of Scripture. If he 
will do this, I think he will find that they have just as much 
(and no more) connexion with the bishops sitting in the House 
of Lords, or even with clerical magistrates,* than they have with 
his Lordship's holding a situation under the Court of Equity .-f- 

The simple fact is, and I beg his Lordship's and my 
readers' attention to it, that Christ in all these texts only dis- 
claims any views of usurping the kingly or judicial power : he is 
not laying down rules for his future ministers ; he is making no 
definition of his own sacerdotal functions; he is not condemning 
any man for discharging the duties which the state may put 
upon him. He is merely meeting the prejudices of his followers 
respecting his coming as an earthly King, repelling the charge, 
and guarding against the sna7'e of an accusation of rebellion 
against the state, and of designs against Cccsar. 

If these texts were applicable at all in the light in which Lord 
Henley puts them, they would, according to the context, be appli- 
cable to all Christians, and only a fortiori to bishops. No 
Christian could take these situations. But his lordship has 
totally misrepresented, or rather, I would say, mistaken the 
intent of these texts. If, like the pope, bishops or any other 
followers of Christ should claim, in virtue of their Christian 
profession, dominion over kings, or a right to interfere with laws 
of the land, then Lord Henley's texts would apply. But to 
wrest them as condemning, not usurpers of legal authority, but 
those to whom the state has committed its functions or privileges, 
is a perversion of scripture; which (however kindly I feel 

* I beg to refer his Lordship to the actual direction given by St. Paul (1 Cor.vi.) 
respecting their bringing the decisions of their lawsuits before the " Saints,*^ Perhaps 
he may not also be aware of the interpretation of this which is found in tlie practice of 
the primitive church for about 300 years — that the bishops and ministers were in 
the constant habit of ac^/n^r as judges, or magistrates, in these m'?7cas«s. Neither 
they nor St. Paul seemed to have dreamed that in so doing they were condemned in 
anticipation by our Saviour's defence of himself against the ajccusation of aspiring 
to usurp the jurisdiction of Ca?sar or his officers. 

t Lord Henley was before referred, in tliis Magazine, to a masterly exposure (in 
a review of the ' Letter of an Episcopalian' in the " British Critic") of the absurd 
perversion of the text, " My kingdom is not of this world."— Ed. 

Vol. lll.--March, 1833. • 2 k 



250 ON THE CONNEXION OF THE CLERGY WITH THE 

towards him, or however highly I may appreciate his own light 
and knowledge of the New Testament) does seem to me likely to 
invest him with that appearance of presumption which he fears, 
in his attempt to satisfy the public m his page-and-a-half, that 
" Hooker, and Gibson, and Warburton " had not examined the 
matter on Christian principles. Such a condemnation of such 
men ! and such an exposition of Scripture ! From an unlearned 
man or a fanatic we should not have been surprised at its proceed- 
ing ; but that it should have been seriously, not to say pompously 
put forward by Lord Henley, more than astonishes— it grieves 
and alarms us. 

His lordship brings only two other texts to prove the short- 
sighted views of these great men— and I shall consider ihem, 
as they have some plausibility, though they cannot stand the 
test of close examination. The one is the caution of St. Paul to 
Timothy, that " no man that warreth entangleth^ himself with 
the affairs of this life." The other is his exhortation to the same 
person to " meditate upon these, and give himself wholly-]; to 
them." 

In the former text the apostle cautions Timothy not to 
" ew^awg/e himself with the atfairs," &c. But can Lord Henley 
seriously imagine that St. Paul meant to teach, that because 
Timothy was not to " entangle '' himself, he was therefore 
to take no part in the affairs of the world ? His own example 
would have been opposed to it : he himself laboured, and 
boasted of his labours, to furnish himself with his daily bread. 
Nor have we any ground to presume that Timothy did not 
arbitrate in those civil cases between believers which in 
St. Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians, and in the practice of the 
primitive church, were referred to bishops and pastors. 

In the other text, the word " wholly," I venture to contend, 
must be taken with what his lordship terms " softening comments," 
and I should consider as reasonable allowances^ such as are 
applied to " taking no thought " or other similar expressions. 
For if this were taken in its rigour it would prove too much 
even for his lordship : it would prove that the clergy must 
attend to no social duties, — must neglect their families and 
children ; in short, everything but the immediate functions of 
their office. They must again be doomed to celibacy and to 
monasteries. 

But I advance a step farther. I am at issue with Lord 



• E/47rX£ic«rat — the figure denotes such an entanglement as would follow from a 
soldier allowing his garments or other impediments so to enfold his person as to 
pervent his marcliing or fighting. 

t The italics are Lord Henley's, and the word has been often relied upon in tracts 
and si)eeches, having the same object in view, at the time of the long Parliament. 



JUDICIAL AND LEGISLATIVE FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE. 251 

Henley upon the question, whether the bishops when honestly 
attending their parliamentary duties, are not "wholly" in the 
things of their calling. I maintain that they are. 

It is a common, but a contracted and unsound theory, that the 
whole details of church government are to be found in the gospel. 
It gives nothing more than the principles and outlines. It 
leaves them to be applied and adapted (so that they be not 
contravened) by rational beings to the circumstances of the 
church in the times and places in which they may be used. 
Thus the apostles at first appear to have performed the functions 
of missionaries, on account of the incipient and scattered nature 
of the church, and of those who were to be invited to it ; but 
that cannot be urged as a reason why the rulers of an established 
church should be missionaries also. The principle of adaptation 
was distinctly laid down in the appointment of deacons when the 
circumstances of the church rendered it inconvenient or impos- 
sible for the apostles to attend to that province any longer — and 
also in the gradual development of the primitive church govern- 
ment. Lord Henley, moreover, seems to overlook those offices 
of our church, such as that of archdeacon, which are adapted to 
its situation, and enable the bishops, without prejudice to their 
other duties, to employ part of their time and labour in a station 
in which, I believe, they are highly beneficial to both church 
and state. 

But, says his lordship, even if the parliamentary peerage of 
the prelates be not in terms a violation of the letter of the New Tes- 
tament, it may be submitted that it would have been a " more 
excellent way " to have followed the example of the apostles ; 
who, content with such things as were provided for them, sought 
neither personal aggrandizement nor civil power, but, submitting 
themselves in all things to the supreme magistrate, relied on the 
piety and affection of their followers for worldly support. 

That is, according to my comprehension, in plain English — 
" It would be a ' more excellent way ' for the bishops and clergy 
to lay down their rank and property, and to become beggars, 
or dependents upon the alms of their "congregations." 

Before I can venture to reply to this sweeping proposal, I 
must request his lordship to prove the sincerity of his advice, and 
that he himself is really in earnest, by acting upon his own 
principles, — 2.e.,by vigorously adhering to the text, " they had all 
things common," — giving up his fortune, his place, and his 
title, and joining Mr. Owen's or any body of " co-opera- 
tives " he thinks proper. 

His lordship now leaves what he terms the " high " (I think 
very low) "ground of religious obhgation to consider how far the 
interests of Christianity are in fact promoted by the prelates 
having seats in the House of Peers." 



252 ON THE CONNEXION OF THE CLERGY, ETC. 

Over this field at present I must decline following him. But 
I will take leave of the subject with two or three brief remarks. 

1. Does he mean to assert, as a general proposition, that the 
bishops "become the gladiators in the strife of bitterness and 
personality ?" If he does, I am compelled to deny it. 

2. If he does not, then to argue against the use, from the 
occasional (very rare I should say, if any) abuse, is not only 
false reasoning, but, in the present state of the church and temper 
of the people, extremely mischievous. 

3. If his lordship desires the bishops to be excluded from 
every place or business in which they may see or hear things 
painful to them, or must encounter temptation, or be ex- 
posed to unmerited obloquy, he may as well command them to 
the grave at once, for in no other earthly place will they be secure 
from these.* They may retire to the mute receptacles of 
La Trappe, but they cannot silence the solicitations of Satan. 
They may, like Simeon Stylites, place themselves on a material 
elevation above the world, but its lusts and its taints will arise 
around them and within them. The cave of the anchorite, the 
path of the pilgrim of the desert, the solitude of the afflicted 
monk — all are beset with secret cares and passions. 

" Scandit aeratas vitiosa naves 
Cura : nee turmas equituni relinquit." 

These the Christian cannot avoid ; but whether in the busy 
scene of society, or in the tranquillity of retirement, he is bound, 
as a faithful soldier of Christ, to encounter and to vanquish 
them. 

Let the bishops and the clergy, as well as their fellow Chris- 
tians, take care to use the world so as not to abuse it. Let 
them mingle with its business neither to excess nor without 
necessity, but so as to leaven it with religion — to convey into all 
parts the light of a gospel example, the graces of gospel holiness. 
Let them do their duty fearlessly and honestly, and the people 
will in all probability do them justice. If not, there is One 
who will. In Him is our trust. 

M. 



* The Editor must once more refer to the admirable remarks of Mr. Perceval 
and Mr. Hull on this subject. 



253 



HISTORY OF THE SCOTTISH EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

No. IV. 

In my former sketch, I concluded my narrative with the year 
1816 — the year in which the excellent Primus, Bishop Skinner 
of Aberdeen, was gathered to his fathers. It is imperative to pay 
a tribute to departed worth, and the memory of him who, " though 
dead, yet speaketh," is worthy of a more able eulogium than any 
which can proceed from the present writer. The public life of 
Bishop Skinner is, indeed, incorporated with the history of the 
humble church over which he so long presided, and the helm of 
whose shattered and tempest-tossed vessel he had steered through 
many dangers, until, by the blessing of Providence, he had the 
proud satisfaction of seeing her safely moored, in peaceful repose, 
in the desired haven. The death of this venerable prelate, there- 
fore, forms an era in the humble annals of Scottish Episcopacy, 
which, did my limits permit, would call forth a retrospect as 
important in itself to the lover of apostolical truth, as it would be 
interesting in the inquiry. 

Bishop Skinner presided over the church at a time when both 
the clergy and laity were subject to various severe penalties and 
political disabilities, the nature of which kept aloof many congre- 
gations whose clergy were of English or Irish ordination, and 
who, on that account, could not, consistently with the oaths they 
had previously taken at their ordination, submit to the jurisdiction 
of the Scottish prelates. Two great measures he had the hap- 
piness of not only seeing accomplished, but of having himself 
been, in conjunction with his brethren, the chief means of their 
success, viz. the repeal of the penal laws in 1792, and the sub- 
sequent union of most of the English with the Scottish ordained 
clergy. The great services which he also rendered to the church 
by his zeal and activity in his diocese, his many admirable ad- 
dresses and charges, — above all, by his reply to Principal Camp- 
bell, entitled, " Primitive Truth and Order Vindicated," — must 
endear his memory to every sincere member of the church in 
Scotland. He was, as I have been informed by those who knew 
him well, in every sense of the word, a churchman, — kind, hos- 
pitable, friendly to his clergy, — yet at all times the order to which 
he belonged could never be forgotten by his most intimate friends. 
He was born on the 17th of May, 1744, and was the second son 
of the poet and theologian, the Rev. John Skinner of Longside, 
in the county of Aberdeen, for upwards of sixty-four years pastor 
of that remote and rustic congregation. His mother was a daughter 
of the Rev. Mr. Hunter, episcopal clergyman in the Shetland 
islands, who, it is worthy of remark, was the last episcopal cler- 
gyman in that uncongenial part of the United Kingdom. He was 
educated at the Mareschal college of Aberdeen, and was early 



254 HISTORY OF THE 

admitted into holy orders by Bishop Gerard of that diocese. His 
first appointment was at Ellom, a village and parish in the same 
diocese, which then consisted of two congregations, widely sepa- 
rated, having, during the first years of his incumbency, to officiate 
twice every Sunday, during summer, in both his chapels, which 
were nearly sixteen miles distant from each other. He had the 
satisfaction of seeing them both united in one commodious chapel 
before his death, which he intended to have opened himself on 
St. James's day, 25th July, 1816, but on that day he had finished 
his earthly career of usefulness. The sermon which the Bishop 
intended to have preached on that day was found in his desk, 
ready for delivery, and was preached, with the addition of a few 
reflections suitable to the melancholy occasion, by the present 
incumbent. It may be proper to state, as a proof of the poverty 
of the church at that period, that the emoluments he received from 
his united charge generally varied only from 25/. to 30/. per 
annum. 

For eleven years. Bishop (then Mr.) Skinner discharged the 
duties of this charge, when, in 1775, he was removed to Aberdeen, 
by the unanimous invitation of the Bishop and people, to succeed 
the Rev. William Smith, one of the episcopal clergy of that city. 
" At the period when he entered on his new charge," says his 
son, the Rev. John Skinner of Forfar, " it did not consist of 300 
people, yet such was his zeal in his holy calling, that he had not 
served the cure above twelve months when additional accommo- 
dation was required. But, in 1776, even the idea of erecting an 
ostensible church-like place of worship dared not be cherished by 
Scottish Episcopalians. Hence was Mr. Skinner obliged to look 
out for some retired situation, down a close or little alley ; and 
there, at his own individual expense, to erect a large dwelling- 
house, the two upper floors of which, being fitted up as a chapel, 
were devoted to the accommodation of his daily increasing flock." 
In this place he continued for nineteen years, until, owing to the 
rapid increase of his congregation, after the removal of the penal 
laws, another chapel was erected by subscription in 1795. Here 
the Bishop continued for twenty years, until, finding this chapel 
also too small for his congregation, " the public-spirited members 
of his flock," as we are told by Mr. Skinner, " urged him, not 
many months before his death,, to set about erecting, in the spa- 
cious street which forms the north entry to the city of Aberdeen, 
a truly magnificent (Gothic) structure, capable of containing no 
fewer than 1100 persons, and fitted up in a manner more appro- 
priate and church-like than any edifice of the kind north of the 
Forth." In this truly noble structure there is a full-length statue 
of its founder, executed by Flaxman of London. 

Bishop Skinner's public life, after his elevation to the episco- 
pate, has been already alluded to ; and I have now merely to 



SCOTTISH EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 255 

notice the termination of his long and honourable career by death 
(occasioned by strangulated hernia), which took place on July 
13, 1816, in the 72nd year of his age. He had been seized by 
an alarming illness in 1814, from which, however, he so far 
recovered, as to be able to resume his apostolical labours. '* And 
so short was the period of his confinement at last," says Mr. 
Skinner of Forfar, " that the very forenoon on which he died, he 
was in his dining-room, and on Friday, the day preceding, at 
prayers in the chapel." 

Bishop Skinner was succeeded, in the diocese of Aberdeen, by 
his son, the present Bishop, the Right Reverend William Skinner, 
D.D., Oxon, who was ordained deacon in 1082, and priest on the 
following year, by the celebrated Bishop Horsley, of St. Asaph. 
The election took place on the 11th of September, and the conse- 
cration on the 27th day of October, 1816, — Bishops Gleig of 
Brechin, Torry of Dunkeld, Jolly of Moray, and Sandford of 
Edinburgh, being the officiating prelates. It is needless to 
observe, that the present Bishop of Aberdeen governs his diocese 
with a zeal and activity which have endeared him to the church, 
and especially to that part of it which he so worthily super- 
intends. 

The Right Rev. Dr. George Gleig, Bishop of Brechin, one of 
the most distinguished theologians and metaphysicians which 
Scotland has ever produced, was elected by the episcopal college 
to discharge the office of Primus of the church, in the room of 
the excellent bishop whose death we have just recorded. The 
high reputation of Bishop Gleig, and the lustre he has shed over 
the church by his many and learned performances, is so well 
known in England, as well as in Scotland, as to render a parti- 
cular reference to them unnecessary in this place. 

In 1819, the venerable Bishop Macfarlane of Ross and Argyle 
died at Inverness, after having for a considerable period presided 
over the clergy of that united diocese. From the peculiar nature 
of the districts included within the limits of the diocese, compre- 
hending the very wildest parts of the Western Highlands, it 
became apparent that the bishop to be elected should be a man 
of no common zeal and ardour in the discharge of such an impor- 
tant trust. As, on account of the present circumstances of the 
church, it is not necessary (though desirable) that the bishop 
should have his residence within the diocese, the clergy of Ross 
and Argyle elected the Right Reverend David Low, LL.D., then 
presbyter at Pittenweem, in the county of Fife, who was accord- 
ingly consecrated at Stirling (the residence of the Primus, the 
most Rev. Dr. Gleig), on the 14th of November, 1819, by Bishops 
Gleig, Jolly, and Torry of Dunkeld. The consecration sermon 
was preached by the present bishop of Edinburgh, then the Rev. 
Dr. Walker, from the Well known passage, " My kingdom is not 



26G HISTORY OP THE 

of this world." This discourse, which is truly admirable in its 
arguments, and eloquent in its reasoning, was subsequently pub- 
lisned. Bishop Low entered on the government of his diocese 
with all his characteristic energy, and he continues to superintend 
it with a zeal which amply evinces that the work of the Lord 
prospers in his hands. Since Bishop Low was elevated to the 
episcopate, the number of clergy in his diocese has greatly in- 
creased ; in some instances new chapels have been built ; schools 
have been instituted, and teachers appointed, — all through the 
influence of this active prelate. Bishop Low may also be regarded 
as the founder of the Gaelic Episcopal Society, recently instituted 
in Edinburgh, and of which there is an auxiliary in London. I 
shall describe the nature and objects of this excellent society 
minutely in the sequel. 

The Scottish episcopal church was now enjoying complete 
repose: securely extending her pale; her bishops and clergy 
zealous in the discharge of their high vocation. No event of any 
consequence occurred in her annals, after the consecration of 
Bishop Low, until the year 1822, when his late Majesty George 
IV. visited his ancient kingdom of Scotland. Of the enthusiasm 
which then pervaded all ranks, the splendour of royalty, the 
gorgeous processions, and the temporary brilliancy of a court once 
more in the venerable halls of Holy rood, — of the innumerable 
loyal addresses, too, which poured in from all quarters, — church"" 
and state, universities, counties, cities, towns, corporations, &c. 
— it is unnecessary here to speak : it is to this day talked of in 
Scotland. The Scottish episcopal church was not behind in 
expressing her loyal congratulations to her sovereign. Her 
bishops and clergy assembled in Edinburgh, and an address was 
written for presentation, which was universally admired — save 
in one particular instance — for its eloquence, its moderation, and 
its historical allusions. His Majesty, on that occasion, paid a 
high compliment to the Scottish bishops by receiving them in 
the royal closet, an honour exclusively given to them, as the 
addresses of all the other religious bodies (that of the General 
Assembly of the estabhshed church excepted, which was of course 
received upon the throne) were transmitted to Sir Robert Peel, then 
Secretary of State, who laid them before his Majesty. The depu- 
tation of the Scottish episcopal church consisted of the six bishops, 
and six presbyters, viz. — the Rev. Archibald Alison, LL.B., pre- 
bendary of Sarum ; the Rev. Dr. Morehead, of Baliol College, 
Oxford, and one of the ministers of St. Paul's, Edinburgh ; the 
Rev. Heneage Horsley, M.A., prebendary of St. Asaph ; the Rev. 
Dr. Russell, of St. James's chapel, Leith ; the Rev. Dr. Walker, 
of St. John's College, Cambridge, minister of St. Peter's chapel, 
Edinburgh (now bishop of Edinburgh) ; and the Rev. Alexander 
Cruickshank, of Muthill, Perthshire. The address was read by 



SCOTTISH EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 257 

the Rev. Heneage Horsley, to which his Majesty made a gracious 
reply ; after which, having kissed his Majesty's hand, the deputa- 
tion retired. I never heard that this marked respect to the Scot- 
tish bishops and clergy excited any particular jealousy among the 
other religious communions ; and the particular instance alluded 
to, as respects the address, was the criticism upon it by a 
radical, semi-infidel newspaper, published in Edinburgh, called 
'* The Scotsman," the writers of which chose to call it syco- 
phantical, simply because it contained some allusions to the suf- 
ferings of the Scottish episcopalians for their attachment to the 
House of Stuart in former reigns. This writer also attempted to 
sow the seeds of discord and jealousy amid the general harmony 
which then prevailed, by insinuating that the Scottish bishops 
had some ambitious design of getting their church re-established 
in Scotland (!) — an insinuation, however, so absurd, that the 
veracity or sagacity of the writer acquired no great reputation for 
the assertion. The ministers of the Established church of Scot- 
land know well, as do also the civil government, that the Scottish 
episcopal clergy are loyal and peaceable subjects, devoted to the 
institutions of their country ; who, though differing from the 
Presbyterian church on the most vital points of the Christian 
institution, would rather defend it, as they have often done, than 
see it fall the prey of dissenters and sectarians. In short, the 
Presbyterian church knows that it is from those who have sepa- 
rated from it, and who yet hold, or profess to hold, the same 
doctrine as itself, namely, the Seceders and other Presbyterian 
dissenters, that it has most to fear. They have already given 
sufficient indications of their hostility to their mother Establish- 
ment by having recently formed a powerful combination, in the 
cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, for its overthrow. If, however, 
the radical critic of the " Scotsman" pronounced the address of 
the Scottish bishops and clergy to the King to be sycophantical, 
he went farther with his remarks on the address of the General 
Assembly, which he characterized as not only servile, but even 
blasphemous ! 

In 1825, however, an event occurred in the history of the 
church, of the greatest importance, which occasioned, at the 
time, no little controversy, and even acrimony, especially in Eng- 
land. This was the consecration of the Right Rev. Matthew 
Henry Luscombe, LL.D., Cambridge, as a missionary bishop to 
the continent of Europe. Dr. Luscombe, who was then, and still 
is, chaplain to the British embassy at Paris, having perceived, 
during his residence on the continent, the great laxity existing 
among the members of the church of England, and even among 
some of the clergy, occasioned by the want of episcopal duties 
and authority, came to England to consult with his friends how 
such a state of affairs might be rectified, and the dignity of the 

Vol. llL^March, ][833. 2 h 



258 HISTORY OF THE 

church maintained. By law, the Bishop of London has jurisdic- 
tion over all British chaplains and factories on the continent, and 
to his Lordship the clergy are amenable for their conduct ; but 
this jurisdiction did not in the least correct the deficiencies which 
Dr. Luscombe stated to exist, namely, the total want of episcopal 
duties, and the impossibility that they could be procured. It 
was plain that the Bishop of London could not hold confirm- 
ations in France ; and it was also plain that there were many Eng- 
lish families in that country, not to mention French Protestanfs, 
who either resided for the most part there, or who were domiciled 
there altogether, or whose descendants still adhered to the com- 
munion of the church of England. These things being duly and 
seriously considered, Dr. Luscombe came to Scotland ; and, after 
a full correspondence with the Episcopal college, was consecrated 
at Stirling, on the 22nd of March, 1825, by Bishops Gleig, Sand- 
ford, Skinner, and Low. The Rev. Walter Farquhar Hook, M.A., 
of Christ Church, Oxford, chaplain to his Majesty, and now vicar 
of the Holy Trinity, in the city of Coventry, preached the conse- 
cration sermon, which he afterwards published with an intro- 
duction and notes, and dedicated to the Scottish bishops. This 
event, as we have already observed, excited no little controversy 
in England, for and against the expediency of the measure ; and 
the present Bishop of London commenced a correspondence with 
Bishop Luscombe on the subject. Bishop Luscombe was finally 
constituted by that prelate his commissary on the continent, by 
which appointment the Bishop is invested with a jurisdiction by 
the Bishop of London, to superintend all the clergy, chaplaincies, 
and factories, and report to his Lordship at stated periods. 

In 1828, the primus summoned a synod of the church, which 
was held at Lawrence-kirk, in the county of Kincardine, in the 
summer of that year. The object of this synod was to revise 
and consolidate the canons of the synod of Aberdeen. Bishop 
Gleig, the primus, the Bishops of Edinburgh, Dunkeld, and 
Aberdeen, with the delegates of the clergy chosen from the 
dioceses, attended the synod ; but Bishop Jolly of Moray and 
and Bishop Low of Ross and Argyle, either refused or hesitated 
to concur, on account of some peculiar objections which occurred 
to them on the subject. The synod, nevertheless, assembled, 
and revised the code of canons, which were ordered to be printed, 
and circulated among the clergy of the church, while the primus 
communicated the proceedings to the Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Some things, however, were overlooked in the business of this 
synod, which, added to the objections of Bishops Jolly and Low, 
caused the primus to summon a new synod, which was held in 
the city of Edinburgh in July, 1829, when all the members of 
the Episcopal College and the delegates of the clergy attended, 
and thus finished the revision of the canons, and rectified tlie 
internal government of the church. 



SCOTTISH EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 259 

In the beginning of the year 1830, the Right Rev. Daniel 
Sandford, D.D., Bishop of Edinburgh, died at his house in that 
city, in the 64th year of his age and 24th of his episcopate. 
This excellent and pious prelate, who was the son of the Rev. 
Dr. Sandford, of Sandford Hall, Salop, and who was born at 
Delville, near Dublin, was of Christ Church, Oxon. He was, as 
we have formerly shewn, the great means of uniting the English 
and Scottish ordained clergy, and presided over his important 
diocese with extreme mildness and moderation. The state of his 
health often prevented him from those exertions which are 
required of the head of a great and extensive diocese, but when 
not prevented from this cause, he uniformly discharged his 
episcopal duties with dignity, and with pious and apostolical 
fervour. He died respected and venerated by men of all parties 
and persuasions, who evinced their respect by their voluntary 
attendance at the last solemn offices of religion. 

Bishop Sandford was succeeded in the episcopate by the 
Right Rev. James Walker, D.D., formerly of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, and Professor of Divinity in the Scottish Episcopal 
Church. Bishop Walker had previously held the cure of St. 
Peter's Chapel, in the city of Edinburgh, which, however, he 
resigned in 1829, and his highly respected and learned colleague, 
the Rev. C. H. Terrot, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
became the sole pastor. Never was there an election to the 
episcopate in any age of the church which gave greater satis- 
faction than that of Bishop Walker. There was not a single 
dissentient voice ; no other person was ever thought of by the 
clergy ; their eyes, as well as those of the laity, were simul- 
taneously turned to the bishop elect, and their only fear was 
that the then delicate state of the bishop's health would induce 
him to refuse. Fortunately, however, Bishop Walker yielded to 
the wishes of his clerical brethren, and he was consecrated at 
Stirhng, on Sunday, the 7th day of March, 1830, by Bishop 
Gleig, primus. Bishops Jolly of Moray, Skinner of Aberdeen, 
and Low of Ross and Argyle. The consecration sermon was 
preached by the Rev. Dr. Russell of Leith, who on that occasion 
delivered a most eloquent discourse, which was afterwards pub- 
lished, entitled, " The Historical Evidence for the Apostolical 
Institution of Episcopacy.'' 

Bishop Walker entered upon the duties of the episcopate by 
officially visiting all the congregations within the city of Edin- 
burgh, Leith, Portobello, and the adjacent town of Musselburgh ; 
in which latter place, it may be remarked, there has been an 
Episcopal congregation since the year 1688. The minister of that 
town, or rather of the parish of Invererk, in which the town is 
situated, was, at that period, the Rev. Arthur Millar, who was 
ejected from his benefice, and was afterwards consecrated a 



260 THE SABBATH. 

bishop. Bishop Walker, in the summer of 1 830, visited every con- 
gregation in his diocese, which, besides the county of Midlothian, 
comprehends also the counties of Fife, Haddington, Roxburgh, 
Dumfries, Peebles, Lanark, Renfrew, and Stirling, confirming 
most of the congregations in these counties, and holding a primary 
visitation of the clergy in the different districts. 

Since the consecration of Bishop Walker, no event of any 
importance has occurred in the history of the Scottish Episcopal 
Church, if I except the institution of the Gaelic Episcopal 
Society, which will be subsequently noticed. Here, then, must 
I conclude this sketch, with a simple but fervent aspiration for 
our humble church, — Esto perpetual In my next and conclud- 
ing paper, I shall lay before the reader an account of the dioceses, 
the internal government, and modes of proceeding of the Scottish 
Episcopal clergy, and then describe the various institutions con- 
nected with the church. 



THE SABBATH. 

That business and labour almost unceasing are characteristic 
of every class of society in England, cannot, I believe, be gain- 
feaid. We are all very busy, enterprising, full of engagements 
and occupations ; the spirit of Trade has drawn into its never- 
resting course every temper of mind and every order of the 
people — the over-wrought statesman, lawyer, author, the long 
and severe day of the mechanic, and raged even unto death of 
body and soul among the poor children of the factories. This 
aspect of the nation everywhere intruding its restless energies 
upon our notice, leads the mind to consider and to feel strongly 
the virtue and blessedness of rest, and the wisdom of the 
Jewish polity which so remarkably commanded and enforced it. 
That this precipitancy of life among us is a great cause and 
consequence of unsound knowledge, mediocrity of art and cha- 
racter, and of vulgar and unhappy feeling, I am well persuaded ; 
and could we mitigate this thirst for action, business, and 
legislation, and impress upon some few at least the assurance of 
the poet that 

" God doth not need 

Either man's work, or his own gifts ; who best 

Bear his mild yoke, they serve him best : his state 

Is kingly ; thousands at his bidding speed. 

And post o'er land and ocean without rest ; 

They also serve who only stand and wait" — (Milton,) 

or from the stronger and safer language of a prophet convince 
them that 

" Their strength is to sit still/'— (Isaiah xxx. 7,) 



THE SABBATH. 26]l 

the consequences would be most beneficial and blessed. In the 
Mosaic legislation the very land itself was commanded by God 
to enjoy this refreshment of tranquillity B,nd repose ; and because 
this law was forgotten, we read that the Jews (Judah) were taken 
into captivity " until the land had enjoyed her sabbaths, for as 
long as she lay desolate she kept sabbath to fulfil three score and 
ten years." — 2 Chron. xxxvi. 21. Thus to compensate her, and 
to punish them, was there bestowed a decimal week of sabbatic 
years upon her, the enjoyment of which she had been defrauded 
of by their avarice and disobedience. 

But now " the priesthood being changed, there becomes a 
change also of the law ;" the seventh day is still sanctified, but 
to a purer and a nobler rest : the body is in repose only that the 
soul may live the more in the stillness of meditation and the gentle- 
ness of charity, and, by cherishing an unanxious, unworldly, and 
spiritual life, make every day to become a sabbath. Ere we can 
believe ourselves at all approaching to this Christian condition, 
it would be natural to mark some mitigation taking place of the 
ardent businesses, exhausting both soul and body, to which our 
commercial avidity, our utilitarian faith, and our secular depen- 
dencies at present so inexorably bind us. Ere the blade can 
spring up some decay must take place in the earthly seed, 
something (at least equal we would hope to the " beggarly 
elements " of Judaic forbearance and mercy) to check the toil of 
agriculture and the cupidity of mammon. But Christian 
England seems far from allowing any such Mosaic restraints and 
festivals to break its confidence in the energies of its own self- 
depending and unresting arm of flesh. Could some moral 
atmosphere be spread about her that would uplift and retain the 
holy and refreshing dews of the sabbath-days, so that they might 
fall and shed some little sprinklings of coolness upon the restless- 
ness and fever that absorb so exclusively all the intervening 
ones, how gradually then would there find its way among us, in 
the place of our own multiscience, that simpler and quieter 
wisdom whose nature is " pure and peaceful," and which im- 
poses upon its servants a " light burden " and an " eas}?" yoke." 
Health and joy would be seen in the infant prisons, or rather 
lazar-houses, of our manufactories ; and a more cheerful and 
happy spirit soon enliven the exhausted sensibilities of our 
agricultural poor. The attainment of this blessing among our 
once healthful and warm-hearted peasantry, by raising a little 
the shoulder from the burden, has been but little spoken of, 
though felt to be so desirable by those who are dwelling among 
them. I would gently advocate it by selecting a remote and 
pleasing, rather than a nearer and more painful picture in 
illustration. 

The village churches in which my lot had appointed me to be 



262 THE SABBATH. 

the weekly instructor, were about two miles apart ; and as I 
journeyed on the sabbath from the one to the other, many of my 
flock usually preceded their shepherd to the neighbouring 
edifice of prayer and instruction. It was on a stormy and 
unquiet morning in July that I started from the parsonage to 
perform my first service in the adjoining parish ; and having 
ascended a hill which overlooks the open country directly to the 
village, I was surprised to observe not one rustic pilgrim travel- 
ling the road before me, which the gloomy and untranquil 
character of the day might in part, though hardly without one 
exception, have accounted for. As I arrived at a barn a short 
distance from the church, I beheld on a bed of clean straw, snugly 
sheltered from the wind, two peasant boys of my village, the one 
about 10, the other 14 years of age, who, having waited awhile for 
my arrival, had both fallen away into a most profound and all-ab- 
sorbing sleep. The spirit had been willing and obedient to the duties 
of the day, but the body weak; and as I was gazing on the simple 
and innocent expression written upon their thin, labour-worn 
faces, I bethought me of the many hours of their occupations 
and poor fare, their unafFectionate taskmasters ; how great was 
the stock of piety, patience, contentment, and submission that 
would be needful to recruit them for another six days of servi- 
tude. In the mysterious aspect of sleep it seemed to me as if 
they had been sensible how inadequate in their weakened 
condition the spiritual support must be that any human ministra- 
tion could afford, and had therefore resigned their whole and 
enfeebled being at once and totally into the hands of its great 
Creator, to re-animate it with freshened powers of hope and 
cheerful endurance ; thus receiving from the Almighty appointor 
of sabbatic rest himself, the recovery of their worn and wearied 
nature. They appeared removed from all sympathy with this 
world, its ever-pressing burdens and its unvarying toil, and to 
be taken awhile to abide in tranquillity and ease, as if the soul 
were carried away in order to be baptized, refreshened, and 
strengthened in the first and mysterious fount of life and 
happiness ; and as I gently uttered my blessing over them, I 
could not but feel, they had not neglected the sabbath of the 
Lord their God, but that with Him they had rested and kept 
it holy. T. 



PLURALITIES-RESIDENCE OF INCUMBENTS-AND 
WORKING CLERGY. 

It is sometimes said, that " one fact is worth a dozen argu- 
ments." Perhaps it may be thought by some that the arguments 
on the above subjects are pretty nearly exhausted. If so, 



PLURALITIES — RESIDENCE OF INCUMBENTS, ETC. 263 

independently of their greater intrinsic weight (if there be any 
truth in the saying just quoted), a few plain facts bearing by 
turns on each and all of these questions may have the advantage 
of a little variety in the mode of treating them. 

It is presumed that the following very simple chronicle of an 
individual clergyman's personal experience is of such kind, and 
calculated to throw useful light on each of these three topics, 
now so often and so confidently handled in the free trade of talk 
on the fashionable subject of Reform ; namely, first — whether 
the existence of pluralities be the enormous practical evil 
which is represented ; secondly, whether there be all the force 
that is so readily taken for granted in the notion of superior 
advantages to be derived to a parish from the residence of an 
INCUMBENT, rather than a curate; and thirdly, whether any 
current of speech can be much wider of the mark of justice and 
propriety, than is the phrase of the working clergy, which is 
adopted so continually, for the end of drawing invidious and 
injurious distinctions ; as if (to borrow at once the shortest and 
the most descriptive figure) the curates of the church were all 
bees, and the incumbents all drones. 

The outline intended to be given must of necessity be scant 
and bare, because the influential facts of it alone are of any 
consequence ; and upon several accounts it would be painful, 
and upon some offensive, to advertise too palpably, even to 
private friends, the individual whose experience is about to 
be recorded. But though it will be thus deficient in liveliness 
of detail, its full and unembellished truth may be relied on. 
Nor would the instance be exhibited at all, if it were anything 
extraordinary ; a full belief that ever so many others may be 
found of like general character, and differing only in detail, is 
one great motive for submitting it to observation. The reader, 
therefore, will please to remember that the point on which he will 
be called upon to form his judgment in the end is this — what 
seems to be the accumulated strength of inference, if such a 
case be only one of hundreds. 

Ignotus having indicated an early predilection for the 
church, was educated accordingly, and sent in due course to 
the University. Few young men can have gone thither with less 
of adventitious prospect. He had, however, the good fortune to 
obtain a college fellowship, of no large amount, but a most 
valuable and important nucleus to the stipend of a curacy, and 
adjunct to a slender remnant of private property. 

With these means, their sum total being such as the veriest 
reformer need not have envied, he entered on his first curacy. 
His charge consisted of tw6 country parishes, with a population 
of about six hundred. It is singular enough, and may perhaps 
add a trifle to the perfect consistency of his experience, that in 



264 PLURALITIES — ^RESIDENCE OF INCUMBENTS — 

four successive situations, some of them widely apart, the 
numbers of his people have not varied materially from that 
amount. The incumbent, in this first case, was partially resi- 
dent. The curate's regular Sunday work was two full services, 
one at each church, with the addition of evening prayers at one 
of them during the summer. It is not necessary to give any 
description of the parish, further than that Ignotus found the 
children of it, in particular, remarkably rude and ignorant, and 
without anything at all resembling a tolerable or general school. 
At the end of a few years he was called away by circumstances 
to another station. In saying that he left behind him an exceed- 
ingly good national school, with an average daily attendance of 
not fewer than seventy children, he neither means to " sound a 
trumpet," nor to insinuate that he did not receive most kind 
and liberal support from chief parishioners and other inhabitants. 
Birt he believes that every one of these would grant, if need were, 
that, but for his beginning of the work and personal exertions, 
the school and consequent marked improvement in the children 
of the place, with any other collateral advantages which may be 
believed to arise out of a good national school, would not 
yet have existed on the scale on which the institution still 
flourishes. 

The second curacy of Ignotus was in a village much less 
advantageously circumstanced in some respects, though differing 
favourably (as many will judge) in the possession of some rather 
unusual endowed charities. These same endowments, however, 
had unfortunately found their way into the abyss of Chancery, 
nor was their period of probation yet terminated. Considerable 
reluctance remained, among the trustees, with respect to a final 
adjustment, and a helping hand was necessary to complete a 
settlement involving some of those points of personal touchiness 
in chief parishioners, which render the interposition of a clergy- 
man particularly difficult. His population was almost exactly 
as before ; his work, at the commencement, one full service 
every Sunday, and evening prayers ; which, with consent of the 
incumbent, he increased to two full services, during the term of 
his residence. The incumbent was, in this case, wholly non- 
resident. The church was neat and comfortable, but the chancel 
in a very inadequate condition. There was an ill-conducted 
endowed school, equally incapable, under existing circumstances, 
of being rendered properly beneficial to the parish as it was, and 
of being reformed. The curate remained three years. His 
successor found the chancel handsomely repaired, at a considera- 
ble cost, and made harmonious with the church ; and a very 
efficient Sunday school well appointed, in a convenient room 
fitted up for the purpose, chiefly by voluntary subscriptions from 
friends of Ignotus, which also continues in beneficial operation 



AND WORKING CLERGY. 265 

to this time. By an exercise of some patience and perseverance, 
the charities mentioned had been finally emancipated from the 
gripe of law, and (it is presumed) have met with no check since. 
The subsequent course of events have made it as certain as 
anything of the kind can well be, that, at any rate, not all of 
these things would have been accomplished, up to the present 
hour, by the principals alone. 

For many private reasons, the narrative must pass still more 
rightly over the same curate's third pitching of his tent. Here 
the incumbent was resident ; and again his population was as 
nearly as possible coincident with the two preceding instances. 
His ordinary work now was alternate single duty in the churches 
of two adjacent country parishes. He found a very superior 
school already established here, and his aim was rather to keep 
up to an existing mark, than to introduce fresh plans or im- 
provements. 

From this third station he was transplanted to an incumbency. 
His population is now rather less than before, but not very 
materially. His Sunday work was, on his admission, the same 
as at the beginning of the second curacy ; but he has ever since 
increased it to two full services every Sunday, in the same church. 
That church and the parochial daily school are appointed 
"decently and in order;" and outwardly, perhaps, his present 
field of action may shew the most imposing appearances of the 
four. 

Nevertheless — from whatever cause, or combination of causes, 
it may so have happened — Ignotus cannot help feehng painfully, 
that while (to the best of his own knowledge, and certainly with 
most sincere intention) he has acted on precisely the same views 
and principles as heretofore (among which principles one is, 
always to make observant allowance for the different usages of 
different districts) ; while he has treated his parishioners, in every 
case, exactly in the same spirit, and shewn (or meant to shew) 
the same personal demeanour, and has not only preached con- 
sistent, but (as might be taken for granted) in many instances 
identically the same doctrines — his influence is practically 
weaker, and his success (he thinks of every kind) has been 
less in his present situation, than in any one of the preceding. 
The endeavours of the incumbent, so far as he can pretend to 
judge, have not only not been more profitable to the parishioners 
than those of the curate, but they have been positively less so, 
in all substantial respects. And it is to be mentioned, that the 
income of his living does not arise from tithe, nor from any mode 
of provision open to dispute. But here let the narrative be 
dropped; all having been produced which is of weight towards 
elucidating the three several questions proposed. 

With respect to these, then; — dismissing the last mentioned 
Vol. lll.^March, 1833. 2 m 



2d6 PLURALITIES — RESIDENCE OF INCUMBENTS 

first, as being of least importance, — what can be much more 
absolute than the contradiction here afforded to the injurious 
and treacherous assumption, that curates only constitute the 
body of working clergy ? " One swallow, it is true, does 
not make summer;" but it may be confidently affirmed, that 
there are thousands in the like predicament with Ignotus here ; 
i. e. who do neither more nor less, but the very same amount 
of work now, as incumbents, that they began to do, or did, 
as curates. Indeed, since no reasonable person will dispute 
that the mental labour of performing two duties, on one day 
in the same church, is greater than that of an equal quantity 
performed in two different churches, it is palpable that Ignotus 
the incumbent is so far working more than Ignotus the curate 
did, in two instances out of three. So much for the nonsense 
about " working clergy ;" the importance of which, if it were 
only nonsense, would in truth be very small ; but if the cry be 
the offspring of malignity or of hypocrisy, where can be its con- 
nexion with the wisdom that "descendeth from above," and what 
is its fair claim to be attended to ? 

Next for the sometimes less dishonest, but hardly less absurd 
clamour for residence of incumbents, as contradistinguished from 
curates, and the preposterous assertions made so smoothly, that 
be a curate what he may, and let him do what he will, his 
residence can still be no equivalent for that of his principal. 
Here is the very same individual, who has made proof of resi- 
dence in both capacities. He does not pretend to know un- 
known things, and things which cannot yet be known; but he 
conceives that he has, at the least, as good a right to form a 
judgment from his own personal experience, as others, not even 
being clergymen by profession, have to draw it from theory and 
speculation. And if he may only have his claim allowed so far 
as this, then he expresses, with a confidence not less than his 
regret (even should it be thought to his own shame), his calm 
and fixed belief, that his residences as a curate have been de- 
cidedly the most serviceable to those with whom he has had 
to do. 

Thirdly, with respect to pluralities. Has not enough been 
seen of the futility (and how much worse than futility !) of 
hoping to do good, or even to attain that infinitely lower end 
of giving content to any manner of persons whatsoever, by 
tampering with change for the removal of mere theoretical 
objections, where was, or is, no practical evil? Why, then, 
should the question of pluralities be yielded only to perverse and 
visionary clamour? What is the light thrown upon one natural 
operation of them, by this simple record of the experience of a 
disinterested witness? Had there been no pluralities, and no 
such thing as non-residence of incumbents, it is manifest that 



AND WORKING CLERGY. 267 

he could never have had two, out of his three, curacies — naraely, 
the first and the second. And though, no doubt, another curate 
might have done the same which favourable circumstances 
enabled him, by God's blessing, to do, it is quite certain that the 
incumbents of the respective benefices referred to would never 
have originated those measures, to the extent actually brought 
about, which nevertheless, when earnestly proposed and taken 
in hand by a representative, they were abundantly content to 
sanction and to further, according to their power. 

Nor is it to be said with truth, that any system of providing 
assistant and co-resident curates would answer such desirable 
ends equally well — (supposing that the ends deserve to be so 
designated.) So far from it, the like would rarely be attainable 
at all, under the perpetual and unavoidable constraints of double 
residence. This topic is a delicate one, and not to be opened 
unadvisedly; but there are almost numberless varieties of 
hindrance, or of drawback, supposable under this contingency, of 
which not one exists, to any material extent, in cases where a 
non-resident incumbent delegates the chief direction to a repre- 
sentative, on whom he can repose a broad and generous con- 
fidence, with liberty to act for the best at his own discretion, 
subject only to the conditions of frank communication, and (if 
necessary) final supervision. 

But this is not the present matter of inquiry. With regard to 
that, here are the facts of an individual's positive experience; 
and the reader must deal with them at his pleasure. For him- 
self, the describer of this outline does not scruple to avow a 
conscientious persuasion, that pluralities, left to find their own 
way as they have hitherto done, are far less a practical evil than 
a practical good ; and that, even if they shall be permitted to 
remain without any modification or restraint as to their amount, 
the leaving them untouched would still be infinitely preferable 
to the extinction of them altogether. He goes further, and 
strongly objects to the proposed limitation of them by the late 
Bill ; thinking that to restrict the nominal amount of them to 400/. 
a year is doing great mischief, without any real counterbalancing 
good, inasmuch as the non-resident incumbent being, by the 
hypothesis, himself a needy man, cannot afford to be otherwise 
than scrupulously economical in the temporal charities of each 
benefice ; and thus, all that free and salutary confidence which 
may be exercised by a more wealthy incumbent, in delegating 
his second charge to a well-chosen deputy, which has been 
hinted at already, can find no room for exercise. A large and a 
small living held together, or even two large livings, form com- 
binations far better for the true interests of the people, in practice, 
than can by possibility arise, in general, from the junction of 
two meagre benefices, and such amount as is proposed. 



268 PLURALITIES — RESIDENCE OF INCUMBENTS — 

He has to offer, in conclusion of an article already too long, 
only one thought more. 

While perhaps one of the most pleasing theories of the present 
parochial constitution of the Church of England, and possibly 
{upoji the whole) one of its highest practical advantages, is the 
settlement of incumbents for life in their respective parishes, it 
can hardly be doubted that, occasionally, a freer power of re- 
moving their tabernacle might be a benefit in some instances, as 
well to minister as flock. At any rate, while it is well that 
permanence should be the rule, there should for many reasons 
be some little stream of fluctuation alive also, to counteract or 
to prevent occasional and partial stagnations. Take what 
analogy you will, where is the body that will long continue in 
security or health (according to its nature) without some out- 
lets? Now, perhaps, without having ever been designed for 
such an end, the necessary locomotions of curates may, under 
Providence, supply in the established church very nearly the 
desirable amount of provision for a due stirring and refreshing 
of the waters ? The thought cannot be now pursued, as it opens 
into a wide field ; but it is well entitled to reflection, and the 
writer's deliberate opinion is, that there is much force in it. 

Ignotus can subscribe a personal testimony, in the way of 
illustration, on this point also. There are those who could bear 
him witness, that he had pronounced specifically of a leading 
member of one of his congregations, for whom he had much 
regard, but to whom he had more than once had occasion to 
speak in terms of friendly admonition, that, notwithstanding 
arguments had been to all appearance urged in vain with him 
to a particular effect during his ministry, he felt convinced that 
something had been done towards " breaking up the fallow 
ground," and that his successor, in all probability, would see the 
fruit. And the event very soon confirmed his expectation, 
grounded simply on a steady watch kept over the movements of 
human prejudice and passion. This is, of course, only a single 
instance in a question where perhaps a thousand kindred ones 
might be required to constitute a just induction; but would 
there not be found tens of thousands, if it were possible to bring 
together in one the personal experience of as many clergymen, as 
would combinedly supply the proof? 

But into this, or other arguments, of which the writer can 
affirm that he has felt the force experimentally, of tendency 
to shew the many great advantages possessed by curates, which 
they will never find again when once advanced from that con- 
dition in the church, it is not either necessary or expedient now 
to enter. The present article shall be concluded with avowal of 
an honest opinion, that any measure, of which the practical 
effect shall be to diminish the present number of reasonably free 



r 



4|-1^ 







PW; 




:% 



*?'. 



p-> 




• 



# 



AMD womKf3Kt cunutT. 



and luMumrably indepeadeat earaiesy tneh as bare been in time 
pasty can never be a measate of reform, in an^r ofber cense tban 
tbat of fasbioning anefr, witboni eitber immediate benefit, or 
bope of blessing. 



#». 7, l«99l 



NOnCBS OF THE OLDEM TIME, 



r» the Editor tfOu Briiuk M«gmsh$e. 

SfBy — I send you a drawing of a piece of andent sra^itaie in die 
chim^ of Bdsham, Cambridgealiife, of wbath, pedu^i^ 
yonr correspondenls win be aUe to exf^ma die nte. 




270 NOTICES OF THE OLDEN TIME. 

It appears to be the remains of a pulpit or reading desk, built in the 
window of the chancel, and to have been entered from the outside, 
from a chapel probably, into which the door seen below it led. No 
suchbuilding exists at present, but in attaching a school room some years 
ago to the outer wall of the chancel, old foundations were discovered 
which might have belonged to such a building. But was it not an extra- 
ordinary place for a pulpit — in a corner of the church, and so near the 
altar ? Are there any other instances of pulpits in similar situations ? 
This portion of the northern wall was occupied (when there was any- 
thing more than common) by the sepulchre, or other sculptural cavities, 
used for the popish ceremonies at Easter, and the principal festivals. 
Is it possible this may have been designed for any such purpose ? 
There are traces of steps ascending still higher than the carved 
projection, of which it is difficult to imagine the use, if it was merely 
a pulpit or reading stand. Some more particulars of these ceremonies 
than are now generally known might, perhaps, be recovered from 
ancient records. 

" At the east end of the chancel on the outside are four freestone 
coffin ornaments, very old, and much alike, each having three 
crosses flore on their tops: that most north was opened a.d. 1728, 
and a stone coffin with a skeleton found in it; and in 1744, when the 
gentlemen of the Charterhouse were on their circuit, Dr. Bassit (the 
rector) had that most south opened, which was found filled with 
gravel, being bricked on the sides and bottom, where lay a skeleton 
of a person who had never been in a coffin. I find this was a 
common way of burial for persons of distinction in the time of 
Edwards II. and III., when some chose rather to have their bodies 
committed to the earth without a stone coffin than with it."* — 
Bloomfiel<rs Collectanea Cantab. 

This chancel was built by John Sleford, rector in the reign of 
Edward the Third, who also adorned it with 28 stalls, of good 
workmanship (which are preserved to this day), as appears from a 
grey marble slab with brass plates, on which is the following inscrip- 
tion, curious as a specimen of rhyming verses. 

** Johannes Sleford dictus Rector mundoque rel ictus. 
Bursa non strictus, jacet hie sub marmore pictus. 
Fautor justorum, constans ultor viciorum. 
Quern Rex Edwardus dilexerat ad mala tardus ; 
Gardorobam rexit iliius, dura bene vixit : 
Ecclesiam struxit banc, nunquam postea luxit : 
Haec fecit stalla, larg^ fundensque metalla. 
Canonicus primo Wellys., Rippon fuit imo : 
Edwardi festo, decessit fine modesto. 
Regis et Anglorum qui detulit acta Reorum. 

• From the Jerusalem crosses on the outside of these monuments it would 
appear that they are the tombs of Knights Templars, and from the similarity of 
their sepulture, that they altogether came to some untimely end. Many of this 
order, being tried for heresy and other crimes in England, were condemned to 
perpetual penance in several monasteries, and they had two messuages and 120 acres 
of land, besides other lands and rents, at Wilberham Magna (Cambridgeshire, only 
a few mile* distant), and there fixed a habitation for some of their order." 



NOTICES OP THE OLDEN TIME. 271 

Anno milleno, quadringeno quoque pleno 
Huic addens primum deductum corpus ad Imum. 
O Clemens Christe ! celos precor intret ut ipse. 
Nil habeat triste, quia protulit omnibus is te." 

This monument is engraved in Lysons. 

There is another very large grey marble slab, inlaid with 
brass, in the body of the church, to the memory of John Blodwell, 
LL.D. and D.D., administrator of the temporalities of Ely to Lewis 
de Luxembourg, xArchbishop of Rouen, who held it in commendam. 
When he grew old and blind he resigned this rectory, having a 
pension for life reserved, and convenience for his residence, to which 
one line of along copy of bad and dull Latin verses on his tomb alludes. 
He died, as appears from these lines, April 16, 1462, and was a Welsh- 
man, who had studied law at Bologna, and practised at Rome.* 

There is also an effigy in brass, according to tradition (for the 
inscription is gone), of a brother of Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of Ely, 
and founder of Peterhouse College in Cambridge. ** He began the 
foundation of this house," says Camden, "without Trumpington 
Gate, about the year 1257," in the reign of Henry the Thu-d ; and 
as the tower, which is the oldest part of the church at Balsham, bears 
marks of the architecture of this period, he might also be the founder 
of this handsome edifice in his native place. 

The manor of Belesham, or Balsham, was added to the possessions 
of the monastery of Ely, sometime between a.d. 1023 and 1044, by 
the will of Lesfleda, daughter of Britwoth, Duke of Northumberland, 
and wife of Oswi, afterwards King of Northumberland, in these 
words : — " I give to God, and St. Peter, and the Holy Virgin Ethel- 
dreda, the village of Belesham, with all its appurtenances, after my 
decease, for the soul of my husband, and for my children, whether 
hving or dead." 

In the flourishing state of this abbey in the time of Leoffin, the 
fifth abbot, that the monks might be more regularly and constantly 
supplied with provisions of all kinds, the abbot, with the King's 
consent and favour, let out many of the abbey lands to tenants, 
who were obliged to bring in provisions in their course throughout 
the year, some for three or four days, some for one week, some for 
two, among which last sort was Belesham. f In a.d. 1370, the 
monks had no less than ten different manor-houses, castles, or palaces 
of residence (of which Balsham was one) sufficiently large and 
commodious for the reception of themselves and their household, to 
which they usually resorted by turns, and lived with great hospitality, 



* The figures both on this and on the other monument are habited in pontificals, 
with saints embroidered on their stoles, and have canopies over their heads ; also 
adorned with figures of saints and their emblems. 

t One estate in the Isle of Ely was to furnish twenty or thirty thousand eels ; 
another nearer the sea about the same number of herrings ; another six weighs 
of salt; another four weighs of cheese; another 12 skips of wheat and vasAt ; 
another a certain allowance of wood (at that time the only firing), with eight acres 
of meadow for pasturing the oxen that drew the wood to the abbey. 



272 NOTICES OF THE OLDEN TIME. 

according to the custom of those times, chiefly on the produce of their 
demesnes. In a.d. 1522, this monastery was surrendered to Henry 
the Eighth, and converted into a cathedral church, to be an episcopal 
see, with dean and chapter; and in a.d. 1600, divers ancient manors 
and estates (among them Balsham) were alienated from the said see, 
and by the then bishop (Hetow), with the consent of the dean and 
chapter, conveyed to the Queen, who granted the fee farm of this 
manor, and the advowson of the church at Balsham, by letters patent, 
to Mr. Thomas Sutton, her Master of the Ordnance at Ben\'ick, by 
whom they were afterwards presented to his foundation of the 
Charterhouse in London, and under its patronage they still continue. 
Mr. Sutton was a great benefactor to the village of Balsham. 

Some curious particulars relating to this parish are to be found in 
Strype's Life of Archbishop Parker, book iv. c. 40 — "There grew 
now a great jealousy of a new sect, resembling either the family of 
Love or the Libertins, or some such company, newly sprung up in the 
■parts of Cambridge and Essex, and especially in and about Balsham 
and Strethal, for there was a parcel of people lately discovered that 
had religious assemblies among themselves; but they were found 
to be indeed innocent, w^ell-disposed people that met together on 
holydays, when they were at leisure from their ordinarj^- w^ork, some- 
times after dinner and sometimes after supper, only to read and confer 
the Scriptures, and to inform and coniirm one another in their 
Christian duty, and to edify themselves in the knowledge of God, 
thinking thereby to spend their time better than others, or themselves 
before had done, when it w^as taken up in playing at cards, dice, and 
tables, or sitting in alehouses. Of this company w^as the minister of 
Strethal and several housekeepers in Balsham. But information was 
made of these men and their meetings ; and it was reported of Sharp, 
parson of Strethal, that he married persons in the fields, and after a 
new way of his own, different from that in the Book of Common 
Prayer; and of the rest of them, as if they dishked the Book of 
Common Prayer, and disowned the Queen's supremacy, and owned 
a state of perfection in this life — that they disbelieved the resurrection, 
and that they were for revelations besides the Scriptures ; finally, that 
they held that differences of persons, of meats and apparel, of times 
and days, were not to be made by the magistrates. Whereupon Dr. 
Pern, the incumbent of Balsham, probably commission ated by the 
Ecclesiastical Commission, administered divers interrogatories to them 
concerning these things, requiring their plain answer thereunto. The 
which answers I have here subjoined, as worthy some observation, 
according as they were given in by the said Pern."* 



• This Dr. Pern, who vraa Master of Peterhouse (where he founded two fellow- 
ships) and Dean of Ely, left 23s. and 4rf. in his will " to buy white herrings in the 
time of Lent for the poor of Balsham ; and 10». to a learned man that shall preach 
yearly a sermon at Balsham on Sunday the first week in Lent," whom he desires to 
get part of the white herrings distributed to the poor " which could say the Lord's 
Prayer, Articles of Faith, and Ten Commandments, in the English tongue, in such 
sort as he himself taught them every time he did preach at Balsham." 



NOTICES OF THE OLDEN TIME. 273 

These answers tend to confirm Strype's account of them ; but there 
is little interest in them. It is curious that Sharp, the parson of 
Strethal, makes his mark. 

Near the village terminates one of those extensive dykes which run 
(parallel to one another) across this part of the country. It begins 
*< at the east side of the Cam, and runs in a straight hne by Fenn Ditton, 
(or rather Ditchton, from the fore-mentioned ditch,) between great 
Wilbraham and Fulbourn, as far as Balsham. At present, it is com- 
monly called Seven Mile Dyke, because it is seven miles from 
Newmarket. Formerly it was called Fleam Dyke, that is, flight dyke, 
as it seems from some remarkable flight at this place. And, accord- 
ing to Henry of Huntingdon, the Danes committed all the barbarities 
imaginable at Balsham." — Camden. 

Pieces of ancient armour, coins, &c., have been repeatedly found 
along the line of this ditch ; and there is reason to think that both it and 
the other remains of Roman or Saxon antiquity in the neighbourhood 
would repay a more careful examination than they have yet received. 

T. C. 



SACRED POETRY. 



[" LET us DEPART HENCE." JoSeph. b. Iv. SS."] 

1. 

Is there no sound about our altars heard 
Of gliding forms that long have watch'd in vain 
For slumbering discipline to break her chain. 
And aim the bolt by Theodosius fear*d ? 
" Let us depart : — these English souls are sear'd. 
Who, for one grasp of perishable gold. 
Would brave the curse by holy men of old 
Laid on the robbers of the shrines they rear'd. 
Who shout for joy to see the ruffian band 
Come to reform, where ne'er they came to pray. 
E'en where, unbidden, seraphs never trod. — 
Let us depart, and leave th' apostate land 
To meet the rising whirlwind as she may. 
Without her guardian angels and her God. 

2. [the creed of 5T. athanasius.] 
" Seek we some realm where virgin souls may pray 
In faith untarnish'd by the sophist's scorn. 
And duly raise on each diviner morn 
The psalm that gathers in one glorious lay 
All chants that e'er from heaven to earth found way 
Majestic march ! as meet to guide and time 
Man's wandering path in life's ungenial clime. 
As Aaron's trump for the dread ark's array.— 
Vol. Ul.-^March, 1833. 2 n 



274 SACRED POETRY. 

Creed of the saints, and anthem of the blest. 
And calm-breath'd warning of the kindliest love 
That ever heav'd a wakeful mother's breast, 
(True love is bold, and gravely dares reprove,) 
Who knows but myriads owe their endless rest 
To thy recalling, tempted else to rove ? 

3. [the burial service.] 

" And they who grudge th' Omnipotent his praise. 
What wonder if they grudge the dead his hope ? 
Th' irrev'rent restless eye finds room and scope. 
E'en by the grave, to wrangle, pr}% and gaze. 
Heaven in its mercy hides, but man displays ; 
Heaven throws a gleam, where they would darken all ; 
A shade, where they, forgetting worm and pall. 
Sing triumph — they excite, but Heaven allays. 
Alas, for England's mourners, if denied 
The soothing tones of Hope, though faint and low. 
Or swoln up high, with partial tearless pride ! 
Better in silence hide their dead, and go. 
Than sing a hopeless dirge, or coldly chide 
The faith that owns release from earthly woe. 

4. [length of the prayers.] 

"But Faith is cold, and wilful men are strong. 
And the blithe world, with bells and harness proud. 
Rides tinkling by, so musical and loud. 
It drowns th' eternal word, th' angelic song ; 
And one by one the weary listless throng 
Steals out of church, and leaves the choir unseen 
Of winged guards to weep, where prayer had been. 
That souls immortal find that hour too long. 
Most fatal token of a falling age ! 
Wit ever busy. Learning ever new. 
Unsleeping Fancy, Eloquence untir'd ; — 
Prayer only dull ! The saints and martyrs' page 
A tedious scroll ; the scorn'd and faithful few 
Left to bewail such beauty undesir'd.'* 

5. 

Sons of our mother ! such th' indignant strain 
Might haply strike, this hour, a pastor's ear, 
Purg'd to discern, for once, th' aerial train 
Of heavenly centinels yet lingering here ; 
And what if, blending with the chant austere, 
A soft inviting note attune the close ? 
*' We go ; — but faithful hearts will find us near. 
Who cling beside their mother in her woes. 
Who love the rites that erst their fathers lov'd. 
Nor tire of David's hymn, and Jesus' prayer : — 
Their quiet altars, wheresoe'er removed. 
Shall clear with incense sweet th' unholy air ; 
In persecution safe, in scorn approv'd. 
Angels, and He who rules them, will be there." 

K. 



SACRED POETRY. 275 

SONNET. 

Be mindful, ye, who festive halls adorn. 
And on your quilts indulgently recline. 
And drink beneath the rose the mellow wine, 
A trump may blow, to march before the morn ! 
Is he prepared for the canorous horn 
Who braids his tresses with the flowery twine. 
And, when the sun is past the level line. 
Keeps wassail till another day is born ? 
More limber they, that do their flesh begrudge; 
More willing part, who tarrying less delight, 
Nor of the present good too highly judge. 
But girded are, and shod. The word of might 
Which bad the captive sons of Rachel trudge. 
Fell easiest on the tented Rechabite. 

A.H. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



The Editor begs to remind his readers that he is not responsible for the opinions 
of his Correspondents. 



THE RAINBOW A PROPHETIC SIGN. 

Miracles and prophecy are the usual means by which God has 
condescended to authenticate his communications with man. By 
miracles he afforded an immediate and visible assurance of some 
future event declared by prophecy. Among the chosen people, the 
dealings of Providence were laid more plainly open to observation ; 
and the appointed instruments of the Almighty, for bringing about his 
ordained course of events, had tlieir own faith strengthened, and 
their credit w^ith others established, by some manifest sign from the 
finger of God. This was a wise and merciful adaptation to the feel- 
ings of human nature ; indeed, it is impossible for us to conceive any 
other way that would so effectually obviate distrust on the one hand, 
and incredulity on the other. 

After the four hundred years of affliction, at the time prefixed (Gen. 
XV. 13.), when the children of Israel were to be brought up out 
of Egypt, and that unpromising charge was laid upon Moses, how 
natural was the expression of his feelings ! " But, behold, they will 
not believe me, for they will say, The Lord hath not appeared unto 
thee," (Exod. iv. 1.) Upon which he was immediately furnished 
with the miraculous signs of the serpent-rod and the leprous hand, in 
token to himself and the Israelites of their approaching deliverance. 
Similar feelings and similar condescension were exhibited in the case 
of Gideon when commissioned to save Israel from the hands of the 
Midianites : " Wherewith shall I save Israel ? . . . If now I have 



276 CORRESPONDENCE. 

found grace in thy sight, then shew me a sign that thou talkest with 
me." (Judg. vi. 15.) Then the angel of the Lord put forth his staff 
and touched the flesh, and there rose up fire out of the rock and con- 
sumed it. And when for wise purposes, God determined to raise up 
Hezekiah, and add fifteen years to his life, that king, with incredu- 
lous joy, said unto Isaiah, " What shall be the sign that the Lord will 
heal me?" (2 Kings, xx. 8.) And Isaiah said, " This sign shaltthou 
have of the Lord, that the Lord will do the thing that he hath 
spoken ; and he brought the shadow ten degrees backward by which 
it had gone down on the dial." 

Such instances are numberless in the Bible, and the point to be 
attended to is that the sign was always something new or miraculous. 
This method of giving a present sign, as an authenticating token of a 
futiu-e benefit, was observed by God from the earliest times. It was 
so done in the person of Cain ; the Lord shew^ed a sign unto Cain, in 
token that no man finding him should kill him, (Gen. iv. 15.)* This 
sign was certainly of a miraculous nature, and not an ordinary phe- 
nomenon ; otherwise it would not have afibrded him any more lively 
satisfaction than God's bare promise. If God had said unto him, I 
do set my sun in the heavens, and it shall be for a token that no man 
shall kill thee, what degree of assurance w^ould such a sign have af- 
forded to his desponding mind ? Yet, of the same comfortless nature 
would have been the token of the rainbow to Noah, that the w^aters 
should no more become a flood to destroy all flesh, if that phenome- 
non had been familiar to the antediluvians. If the course of nature 
was violated to assure Hezekiah of the continuance of his life, is it an 
improbable supposition that God should do some new thing to con- 
vince Noah of his safety in a restored world. It is the remoteness of 
the transaction and our shght interest in it that reconciles us to the 
notion that God, at that time, merely appointed the bow as a token 
of his covenant. But God's dealings are constant, and a thousand 
years are only as one day in his sight ; whilst man's judgment is 
powerfully influenced by the recentness of events and their import- 
ance to himself If Christ had appointed the bow as a token of the 
resurrection of the body, and as a sign of the covenant between him- 
self and mankind that he would make their peace with God, could 
we, in this case, bring ourselves to acquiesce in the sufficiency of such 
a pledge ? But Christ knew better what was in man, and what the 
earnest longings of our nature required. When, therefore, he was 
asked — "What sign shewest thou, seeing that thou doest these things? 
Jesus answered. Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it 
up. He spake of the temple of his body," (John, ii. 18, Matt. xii. 39.) 
It is not likely, then, that the awful occasion of the deluge, wherein 
comfort and support were so much needed, should constitute the soli- 



• Gen. iv. 15, should be rendered " And the Lord gave Cain a sign [i. e. worked 
some miracle to convince him] that whosoever found him should not kill him."— 
Parkhuriit in voce riK. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 277 

tary exception* to God's usual dealings. Because rain is common and 
necessary now, we are apt to suppose that it has always been so ; ex- 
cept for this bias, I think that no one could consider the bow 
as a familiar appearance on reading the account of it in Gen. ix. 
12 — Jo: "And God said, This is the authenticating token, which I 
exhibit,t of the covenant between me and you, and every living 
creature that is with you, for perpetual generations ; (13) My bow I 
exhibit in the cloud, and it shall be for the authenticating token of the 
covenant between me and the earth. (14) x\nd it shall come to pass, 
when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in 
the cloud; (15) And I will remember my covenant, which is between 
me and you, and every living creature of all flesh ; and the waters 
shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh." In verse 14, Noah 
is specially advertised when and where he was to expect its appear- 
ance, as concerning some new thing ; which notice that there should 
be rain, but not to the overflowing of a flood, will appear far from 
needless, when we consider the terror that must have seized on this 
remnant of a destroyed world, on a repetition of those wondrous and 
fearful waterdrops, and what unspeakable comfort God's predicted 
sign in the cloud would afford them : " The bow shall be in the cloud, 
and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting cove- 
nant between God and every living creature." 

St. Paul classes Noah among those eminent persons who had exhi- 
bited extraordinary instances of faith : " By faith, Noah being warned 
by God of things not seen as yet, moved with fear, prepared an 
ark to the saving of his house," (Heb. xi. 7.) We know that, at 
present, heavy rains will sometimes produce floods, so as to inundate 
whole districts, and cause great loss of life ; now if rains and floods 
were things not seen as yet, it adds greatly to his faith in building the 
ark, and in bearing the scoffs of that violent generation. Although 
the fountains of the great deep were broken up, yet rain seems to 
have been the principal agent of destruction, as God forewarned 
Noah : " yet seven days and I will cause it to rain upon the earth 
forty days and forty nights,:}: and every living substance that I have 
made will I destroy from off" the face of the earth," (vii. 4.) Now, if 
Noah were commissioned, unless they repented, to threaten that 
wicked race with the unheard of punishment of a flood from heaven, 
he would little disturb their godless revelry which they kept up, " eat- 
ing and drinking, marrying, and giving in marriage, until the day 
that Noah entered into the ark," (Matt. xxiv. 38.) 

Kindred spirits of the present day scoff" at Moses for asserting that 

* The sign of God's covenant with Abraham was circumcision, (Gen. xvii. II,) 
which, although not miraculous, was certainly new. We now know that the rain- 
bow is the effect of natural causes ; yet, were it at that time new, it would have all 
the effect of a miraculous sign to Noah. 

t The usual expression for shewing a sign is here used : /^^ J^ ]J1^» SiSovai arj/iuov. 

\ The Hebrew idiom here would be more properly rendered, " I will cause it to 
rain forty days, that I may destroy, &c. ;" also in ix. 13, " My bow I exhibit in the 
cloud, that it may be for, &c." 



278 CORRESPONDENCE. 

God then set his bow in the cloud. The same causes, say they, must 
ever have produced the same effects ; and the rainbow must often 
have been seen during the sixteen centuries before the flood. Such 
reasoning is correct enough ; but, were the premises to be questioned, 
they would be rather at a loss to prove the existence of rain in those 
times, so little analogous to our own. We should never have believed, 
had it not been revealed to us, that the antediluvians ate no flesh, or 
that they lived so long ; and yet, such a state of the atmosphere, 
as did not admit of the condensation of vapour into drops of rain, is 
not more impossible to conceive than such a constitution of the human 
jframe, as did not require flesh for its support, and could stand the 
wear of a thousand years. If God has asserted that he did, at that 
time, exhibit his bow in ratification of his covenant, can unbelievers 
expect that we should give less heed to his sure word than to their 
unproved assertions ? " Yea, let God be true, and every man a liar ;" 
and as long as the Bible is not inconsistent with itself, the difiiculty of 
Fcconciling it with the objections of its enemies need not cause us any 
great uneasiness. 

The only passage that bears in the least upon the subject is con- 
tained in Gen. ii. 4 — 6 ; but as the present version of it is very ob- 
scure, I shall here offer a new translation and arrangement : — 

" Such is the account of the heavens and the earth at their creation, 
In the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens. 

Now before any shrub of the field was in the earth 
And before any plant of the field sprung up,* 
Although the Lord God rained not on the earth 
And there was not a man to dress the ground, 
There went up a mist from the earth 
And watered the whole face of the ground." 

The first chapter, I conceive, should have been extended beyond 
the six days of creation, so as to contain the sanctifying of the seventh 
day to rest, and perhaps to end with the full close — " Such is the ac- 
count of &c." The second chapter would then return to and amplify 
certain passages worthy of a particular account, but which would 
have interrupted the simple narrative of the creation : such are the 
place of Adam's abode, the naming of the creatures, the different for- 
mation of Eve, &c. The meaning of the six lines "Now before any 



* Two not uncommon idioms are here combined in an unusual manner, and on 
this account seem hitherto to have escaped observation : (1.) D"l^ before, as in Josh. 

ii. 8 — "Now before they had lain down, she went up unto them on the roof." (2.) 7^ 
every, in a negative sentence, means any, as in Exod. xx. 4 — " Thou shalt not make to 
thyself any likeness." Gen. iv. 15 — "That not any finding him should kill him." 
Gen. iii. 1 — "Yea hath God said, Ye shall not eat of any tree of the garden !" And 
Eve's answer suits better hereto. The Hebrew ^^ in this case corresponds exactly 
with the Latin quisquam or ullus which are used only in universal negative proposi- 
tions. Gen. iii. 1—" The serpent was more subtil than any beast," animali astutior 
ullo. The same idiom, ov Tcdg, derived from the Septuagint, obtains also in the 
Greek Testament : " Not any flesh shall be saved," (Mark, xiii.20 ;) "Not any one 
that saith unto me Lord, Lord," (Matt. vii. 21,) Non intrabit quisquam qui diccU ; 
1 Cor.i.29, Hcb. xii. 11, &c. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 279 

shrub &c." appears to be simply this : Previously to the existence of 
any vegetation, although there was neither rain from heaven nor irri- 
gation from man, yet God had provided the necessary supply of 
moisture by means of the atmosphere affording dew. 

W. B. Winning. 

- Keysoe Vicarage^ Beds. 

( To he contimied.J 



THE NAME OF CYRUS. 

[Further Remarks.] 
To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Sir, — In the first volume of the British Magazine, it w^as observed at 
some length, that the miraculous fall of Babylon and rise of Cyrus 
the Great, had been extensively felt and remembered among the 
Gentiles; that the title of Quirinus, first king, and warlike deity 
among the Romans, w^as no other than Cyrus's name, and his legend, 
the fable of Cyrus's birth and nutrition, — and so forth. 

And it was further observed thereupon, that the Greek word Kvpioc, 
and all its cognates and derivatives, were introduced into the language 
subsequently to the wonderful events in question, and can, therefore, 
be referred with probability to no origin other than the proper name 
Kvpoe, Cyrus. Those words were distinguished with some care from 
an earlier w^ord of a similar sound, but not only of a different, but of 
an essentially opposite import. 

The meaning and force of that new Grecian word was, " being 
arbiter of any question," "having jurisdiction over anything," and so 
forth ;* corresponding with the Latin idiom, penes quern aliquod est ; 
from which ampler sense, the common meaning of lord or king was 
deduced. But it is a word essentially kingly, implying the power of 
him who imposes law obligatory upon free citizens, and not the 
right of a master over slaves ; and was considered peculiarly apt to 
express the supremacy of God over all beings. 

Cyrus is known to be a title of the sun, and the sun is known to 
have been worshipped by the Pagans under an infinity of names. 
Some of those names expressed the various attributes which really 
belong to it as the luminary of nature, and others expressed attributes 
belonging to God alone, and imputed to it under the false hypothesis 
of its being a deity of the first order. It followed as a necessary con- 
clusion from the above premises, that the name Cyrus, as bestowed 
upon the deity Sol Mithras, was expressive of those precise rights and 
faculties which the Medo- Grecian words KvpLog, Kvpog, Kvpieveivy &c. 
denote. 

These few words of recapitulation are intended to introduce the 
following remark. Etymologists of the sounder and better class, and, 

» Quern penes arbitrium est et jus et norma loquendi, i. e. tOoQ Kvpiov 6<rt 

TbiV piJffSbtV. 



280 CORRESPONDENCE. 

among others, the famous Sir William Jones, have been strongly per- 
suaded that the Ancient Persic or Zend language was, in all its affi- 
nities, of the same stock or family as the Teutonic. However w^ell 
or ill-founded that opinion may be, this is true, that the word in 
question has the same meaning, even to the utmost nicety of idiom, 
in the early Teutonic, as it had in the Greek of the Post-Cyreian 
authors. Cyre or Kjtc (for both spellings were used) is the Anglo- 
Saxon for arhitrium. "On dees Abbodes kyre," is "within the 
Abhot*s jurisdiction.'' — Lye, in vocabulo. The Saxons and Goths, or 
North-men, w^ere both equally addicted to war and carnage, and they 
neither esteemed honourable, nor ever expected to die any death but 
a violent and bloody one. They believed in certain female deities in 
whose hands it lay — penes quas it was — to determine in each day's 
turmoil w^ho should survive, and who, by a bloody death, should 
inherit the heaven of the Scythians. That Paradise of the first-born 
Cain was ycleped Val-halla, Hall of Slaughter ; and the terrible 
maidens were termed in the Norse dialect, Val-Kyriur, and in the 
Anglo-Saxon, Weel-Cyrian, which are to say, the Arhitresses of 
Slaughter. Not in Homeric Greek, for Homer was anterior to Cyrus, 
and to the words derived from him ; but in Greek we should say of 
them — 



ZiariQ Kai ^avaroio 



ai Kvpiai CKTi 



It appears to my judgment, that the conformity between these 
Greek and Teutonic phrases is much too exact and perfect to admit 
any doubt of their identity. But it is highly improbable that the cruel 
savages of Scandinavia and Jutland should have borrowed any word 
jfrom the language of the Greeks who lived after Cyrus. There is, 
therefore, every reason for concluding that they brought it wath them 
from Asia, and for inferring from thence, as a matter of fact, the same 
opinion as to the meaning of the Mithriac title Cyrus, which I had 
previously arrived at as a matter of argument. 



ON ROMANS, xii. 20. 

To the Editor of the British Magaziiu. 



Sir, — In a former number, a correspondent having commented on 
the Bishop of Chichester's interpretation of Rom. xii. 20, I would soU- 
cit, with all due respect to rank and high attainments, the bishop's 
attention to a mediate point between the most opposed interpretations 
of the text, where the truth appears to me actually to rest; not, in- 
deed, overlooked by commentators, but never, to my observation, 
placed exactly in the view which it shall be my endeavour to prove ad- 
missible, if not the only just one. Allow me, for this purpose, to set in 
juxtaposition the common passage, as it stands in Proverbs, and in 
the Epistle, together with its final clause, as in Proverbs, on the one 



CORRESPONDENCE. 281 

hand, and with St. Paul's introdaction and short conclusion on the 

other. 

Rom. xii. 

19. Dearly beloved, avenge not your- 

Prov. XXV. selves, but rather give place unto wrath : 

21. If thine enemy be hungry, give for it is written, Vengeance is mine ; I 

him bread to eat ; and if he be thirsty, will repay, saith the Lord. 

give him water to drink : 20. Therefore if thine enemy hunger, 

S{2. For thou shalt heap coals of fire on feed him ; if he thirst, give him drink ; 

his head, and the Lord shall reward thee. for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of 

fire on his head. 

21. Be not overcome of evil, but over- 
come evil with good. 

Now, does it not stand in sound reason that, as contained alike in the 
word of truth, the above common text, together with its adjuncts on each 
side, must hold, one with another, a perfect agreement and consistency : 
that is to say, that the act of " heaping coals" must agree with the 
<* overcoming evil with good," and with that, likewise, be one which 
the Lord may approve and reward. For what purpose does the apostle 
employ the quotation but to enforce his dissuasion, equally affectionate 
and solemn, from every deed or thought of vengeance ? Yet this he 
does, according to certain expositions, by instigating an act intention- 
ally malignant, so that under the specious affectation of good, the per- 
son whom we may suppose aggrieved, draws down upon the aggressor 
that vengeance of Heaven, which he is forbidden to encroach upon, 
overcoming evil by accomplishing the destruction of the aggressor, and 
then looking for the promised reward of his unhallowed largess. On this 
view of the subject, and as in the person of those arguers with w^hom 
he was once disposed to agree, nothing can be more candid, in my 
opinion more convincing, than the Bishop's language, or more unde- 
niable than the stated conclusion. 

Let us proceed to examine what there is in the metaphor before us 
so appalling as to seem to militate against * Christian goodness.'* 

With those 'milder interpreters' w4io have recourse to the cru- 
cible, merely as typifying the desired result, I do not agree in merging 
the idea of pain. I would grant that the heaping of coals of fire on 
the head of the adversary denotes pain, but yet no other pain than 
what the true Christian need have no qualm in producing — the 
pain of a relenting heart, the pang of awakened generosity acting 
upon a wounded conscience. Supposing, then, the beneficent 
procedure successful, the text seems to furnish a triumphant argu- 
mentum ad Iwminem f in reply to any disciple of the world's school, 
who might have urged resentful measures of a very different kind. 
* Tell me not of schemes of vengeance : the Christian's retaliation 
probes the deepest, and the victory it seeks to gain is of all the 
most complete.' Nor is it necessary, in the explanation of pro- 
verbial language, to contemplate the occurrence of that impenetra- 
ble hardness of heart against all conciliation or repentance which, 



* The single inverted commas refer to words or expressions which occur in the 
Bishop of Chichester's sermon. 

f For argumentum ad hominem see Index to Hey's (Norrisian) Lectures. 

Vol. lll.-^March, 1833, 2 o 



282 CORRESPONDENCE. 

however frequent, charity would forbid us in any given instance to 
take for granted. Thus whilst man in his responsibility fulfils the 
precept, not from enmity, but from love, (he being, however, an instru- 
ment in the hands of a superior ruler,) I have no objection to admit 
that the heaping coals of fire may * always ' denote * infliction of punish- 
ment from the Almighty.' In the full acknowledgment of God's 
perpetual providence, be it so. But why, therefore, is it of necessity 
judicially destructive ? why not simply corrective, as the furnace, 
Deut. iv. 20, Isa. xlviii. 10, Jer. xi. 4; and fire as that of the refiner, 
Malachi, iii. 10? See also Matt. iii. 11, Mark ix. 49. By whom 
else, in fact, is the pain of remorse and contrition inflicted upon sin- 
ning mortals, whoever may be the ostensible agent, but the invisible 
Disposer who alone ordereth all things, even to the unruly wills and 
affections of sinful men ? But here we are all " of one mind." 

Those who take their exposition from the laboratory might refer, 
^perhaps, with advantage to the verse in Proverbs immediately preced- 
ing, as, fi'om its proximity, seeming to indicate a continuation of 
thought, but surely with still greater advantage to the terrific imagery 
of Ezekiel, xxii. 18, and following verses, which, though in such vivid 
colours picturing the Divine wrath, no one would dare interpret as 
denoting utter extinction (for in the gathering, at Jerusalem, Israel 
evidently comprises Judah) without a remnant left. Had the " melt- 
ing of the heart like wax " occupied the place of coals burning on the 
head, the passage, from the greater triteness of the simile, would 
scarcely have provoked discussion ; yet, reduce both figures to reality, 
and the sufferer would have little to choose between them. But nei- 
ther in the case of nation nor of individual would I lose sight of the 
destructiveness which we naturally attach to the element of fire. Only 
let it have its proper object, not (at least as far as human volition is 
concerned) the person of the offender, but the "dross," the inherent 
evil, the depraved affection. " Infectum exuratur scelus." 

If these remarks are just, their application will be extended to other 
passages, which, though not canonical, are very properly referred to 
as illustrative. But the 17th and ]8th verses of Prov. xxiv., from the 
manner of his Lordship's appeal to them, require a more particular 
examination. " Rejoice not when thy enemy falleth, and let not 
thine heart be glad when he stumbleth, lest the Lord see it and it dis- 
please him, and he turn away his wrath from him." The acknow- 
ledged difficulty of the latter verse seems to hang upon the particle 
lesty arid may, perhaps, be entirely removed by restricting it to one of 
its common senses, as the only one admissible in the place. The use 
of it, as of its representatives in different languages, is surely not at all 
uncommon, when a contingence is denoted of importance to mention, 
but in nowise produced by any beforementioned act, real or supposed. 
To say, then, that it is here introductory to any consequence, as of effect 
from cause, may be found to be a gratuitous assumption. I advise a 
young friend to remain at home on a certain day lest his father be 
jiispleased, and something happen which, though not at all depending 
upon his absence, yet, if then occurring, would cause him mortification 
too obvious to require stating. The following, then, I would venture 



CORRESPONDENCE. 283 

to propose as a paraphrase of the passage — " Rejoice not, &c.," for 
times may alter ; yourself as well as your enemy are in the hands of 
God; his prosperity may be restored; yours, through the justly 
incurred displeasure of the Almighty may be removed, and then what 
will become of your short-lived triumph? with what shame and con- 
fusion of face when you see him shall you then be covered? That this 
would be the thought which would instantly occur to Jewish readers, 
may, I think, be inferred from Micah vii. 10, confirmed by a great 
variety of other texts with more or less of parallelism, which any con- 
cordance may supply, e. g. Job viii. 22; Psalm Ixxxvi. 17, cxii. 10. 

That either King Solomon, or an apostle when he inculcated the 
best course of action, should suggest, amongst others, * motives ' not 
exactly the 'best,' considering the very different modes of instruction 
in which the spirit of truth has condescended to make its appeal to the 
human heart, may readily be allowed ; but that in any instance the 
same spirit should suggest one essentially, however slightly, corrupt, 
would imply a contradiction in terms to suppose. And more particu- 
larly with regard to the personal character of St. Paul ; that under 
any inducement he should be content to compromise for the reserva- 
tion of a single corner of the heart, where an evil affection might yet 
linger, is what I cannot imagine. Would he not think it compro- 
mising that universal law of love, which no writer has ever more ener- 
getically enforced ? Or can we suppose him at variance with James 
ii. 10? Not only when he is directly exhorting or giving precepts, 
but when even yielding to a weaker brother, when waving non-essen- 
tials, when becoming all things to all men, or when speaking after the 
manner of men, is not this principle in his own language, *^the 
fulfilling of the law," virtually always avowed, always inculcated, 
always acted upon ? With a mind thus affected, and so strongly 
evidenced in his writings, I can no more than the self-named 
Amathes conceive * any qualification ' of the Divine precept, which 
forms the very burden of the paragraph he is writing, under any cir- 
cumstances compatible. 

I am. Sir, 

Your grateful reader, 

S. S. 



VINDICATION OF THE EARLY PARISIAN GREEK PRESS. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Sir, — Mr. Greswell's view of the Early Parisian Greek Press, in my 
opinion, makes a most valuable addition to Enghsh literature. The 
press, when it was first applied to Greek and Latin, had an effect, 
naturally to be expected, but very little attended to — the destruction 
of the documents which it followed. 

The multiplication of the printed copies took away the value of those 
written ones ; and when future editions wanted them, they were many of 
them no longer to be found ; they existed only in the printed copies. 



284 CORRESPONDENCE. 

Hence the high value of early editions, and the absolute necessity of 
a full investigation of the character and circumstances of the persons 
who superintended these editions. The learned have not been without 
this aid ; but it has hitherto been confined to them, and has been 
made such a matter of dry detail, that few will make further use of 
such works than mere books of reference. Mr. Greswell, by mingling 
the history of the times, which really belongs to the subject, has the 
high merit of producing a book that will inform and please every 
reader. 

In the " View," however, "of the Greek Parisian Press," there is one 
point which ought most deeply to interest all — viz., its editions of the 
Greek Testament. And this concerns not only those who read the re- 
ceived Greek text, but all who accept the authorized version as theWord 
of God. I was pleased, therefore, at observing so large a portion of Mr. 
Greswell's work employed in the lives of Robert Estienne and his son 
. Henry ; to whom sacred criticism is under such deep obligations ; but 
to whom such a measure of black ingratitude and foul aspersion has 
been repaid. In this work of unceasing defamation, it is with feelings 
of deep shame I say it, England has been pre-eminent. The prince 
of critics, who once dreamt of taking an incomparably higher place in 
sacred criticism than even that which he obtained in classical, could 
say (Phileleutherus Lipsiensis, xxxii) " The present text was first 
settled, almost 200 years ago, out of several MSS., by Robert Ste- 
phens, a printer and bookseller, at Paris," and in his celebrated letter 
to Archbishop Wake, April 1716, " After the Complutenses and 
Erasmus, who had but very ordinary MSS., it has become the pro- 
perty of booksellers. Robert Stephens's edition, set out and regu- 
lated by himself alone, is now become the standard. That text stands 
as if an apostle was his compositor," (p. 232, Burney.) The last 
and still greater Richard, can talk of "the craft of printer and editor," 
Letters to Travis, p. 56 ; and again, p. 58, of editors and printers 
practising, " the tricks of their profession." His Vindicator, Crito Can- 
tabrigiensis, p. 396, speaks of " the old printer." Bishop Marsh, also, 
(Lectures, vi. p. 106) of the editions of Robert Stephens, "a learned 
bookseller and printer at Paris." I have no more wish for " a pro- 
testantpope" in sacred criticism, than any of these great men. I 
have no more desire for "Prescription" than Wetsten had, vol. ii. p. 
8o2, 1st ed. p. 166; but I deprecate the wilful rejection of any one of 
the means of obtaining the true text ; and I feel deep obligations to 
Mr. Greswell for letting the world see " what a printer and editor" 
was in 1546 — 1550 ; by which, perhaps, they may be induced to 
examine on which side the tricks of trade actually he; and when 
I observed Mr. G.'s undertaking, in the contents of his thirteenth 
chapter, I turned to it in high hopes that his commendation of the 
Parisian Greek Press would be no longer confined to classical litera- 
ture, when he so justly says, (Preface, p. v.) " Many of its primary 
productions commend themselves to the learned of om* times, 
as the representatives of MSS. now no longer found." When I was 
told that we should have the " honesty of Robert vindicated from the 
imputations of Mr. Person," I expected to see the fact distinctly 



CORRESPONDENCE. 28$ 

shewn that more than one half of the MSS.out of which " the printer 
and bookseller" " settled the present text, almost ^/^ree hundred years 
ago, have never yet been ascertained." Such I distinctly and fearlessly 
say is the fact ; for the story of Stephanus's editions is simply this : 
Upon his petition to his high-minded patron, Francis I., he was accom- 
modated with the use of fifteen MSS. from the royal library ; out of 
these, and some one private MS., he formed the text of the " O mirifi- 
cam," of 1546. This stock he nearly doubled wiiile he was prepar- 
ing for the glory of his hfe, the folio of 1550; and when the text of 
that splendid edition had been formed from it, he selected seven of 
the fifteen royal MSS. and six of the private, numbered 2 — 14, to 
give opposing readings to his first volume (the Gospels and the Acts) 
which together with those of one of the previous editions. No. 1, are 
given in the inner margin. As a sufficient number of these thirteen 
MSS. contained the epistles of St. Paul, and the remainder of the 
third part of the sacred text (the catholic epistles) there was no altera- 
tion made in the opposing materials for giving various readings thus 
far, in the second volume. But in the Revelations (the 4th part of 
the sacred text) all the thirteen of the first selection failed. A new 
selection then became necessary, and No. 15 was taken out of the 
royal MSS., and No 16 out of the private MSS., with the printed edi- 
tion, to furnish opposing readings to the new text, there. A reading 
or two was given from each of the two last selected MSS., in the pre- 
vious part of the work, probably (as I have imagined) to shew that 
the royal MS., No. 15, contained the whole of this second volume; 
and that the private one, No. 16, contained the whole New Testa- 
ment. The original set of MSS. then amounted to little more than 
half of what were obtained in the whole, for the text of the folio ; and 
exactly half of that set, (viz., eight of the royal MSS.) and about one 
half of those that were obtained afterwards, together with the Com- 
plutensian print, made up the set that was taken first and last to op- 
pose the text of the folio in the marginal readings. Such w^as the 
theory of a pamphlet entitled " Specimen of an intended publication 
&c.," namely, that Stephanus had fifteen MSS. from the royal library, 
but that he had, in all, 16 MSS., " posterioribus diebus," for the first 
edition of 1546 ; that these were increased, as might naturally be 
expected, by his keeping his son so long searching the libraries of Italy, 
to thirty, and more, for the folio ; and that a selection was made out 
of the whole, to furnish opposing readings in the margin. This was 
so natiu-al in itself — it so perfectly accorded with every fact that had 
been obtained from every source — it so perfectly corresponded with 
the internal evidence of the editions themselves, ihat Crito Canta- 
brigiensis and the rest of the families of the Critos, had no means of 
meeting the pamphlet, but by representing its theory to be that Ste- 
phanus had only two sets of documents, and that the documents of the 
one were wholly different from those of the other, one of these sets 
being for the margin of the folio, the other to furnish the varying 
text of all the editions. And it was easy for them to knock down 
this monstrous fiction of their own when they had set it up. 

No critical reader can need to be told that the hypothesis which, 



286 CORRKSPONDENCK. 

by the zeal and ability of Stephanas' s enemies, has passed current 
during the 18th and the 19th century, if not earlier, makes him to 
have had the opposing documents of the margin for the formation of 
all liis editions, and nothing else. I have never been able to discover 
any reason for this hypothesis, but that it serves to convict him of the 
most gross violation of the sacred text. It goes on the assumption 
that he could not select any documents, printed or manuscript, to 
oppose the text of his folio of 1550, but what he had used for forming 
that of the 16mo of 1546. And this involves another assumption, 
viz. — that he could not have added one single copy to his original 
stock during those four years. Moreover it carries falsehood upon 
its face : the very first document of the set selected for the margin was 
the newly-printed Complutensian, whilst that from which the text of the 
" O mirificam" had been compiled, consisted of 16 very old written 
copies. 

Mr. Porson, however, proceeds upon this hypothesis in the heavy 
charge, which Mr. Gresswell records, p. 328 — " Another instance of 
"this management, says our learned professor, may be seen in the 
preface to the first edition of Robert Stephens's Nov. Test. Gr. (anni 
1546, in 18mo), where he says, that he has not suffered a letter to 
be printed, but what the greater part of the better MSS., like so many 
witnesses, unanimously approved. This boast (adds Mr. Porson) 
is indeed utterly false, as all critics agree, who have taken any 
pains in comparing Stephens's editions. They know that Stephens 
has not observed this rule constantly, because lus editions often vary 
fi-om one another, and his third edition often fi-om all his MSS., 
even by his own confession." p. 57. 

"x\s all critics agree," says Mr. Porson. Yes; all our modern 
critics do agree that the solemn profession of Stephanus, of Erasmus, of 
the Complutensians, of all those who published the old critical editions, 
shall be " utterly false." They cannot decide precisely what degree 
of authority is due to each of these editions, in their calculations of 
evidence for their own texts ; so they solve the difficulty by deter- 
mining to give none to any one. All critics agree that the boast of 
all the early editors is " utterly false." I do not hesitate to say that 
the world never saw a more atrocious conspiracy than this; and 
I did hope that the historian of the early Parisian Greek Press would 
have enabled me to add — nor a more infamous one. How does he 
rebut it in the case of Stephanus ? 

" Now an advocate of Robert's may be permitted to ask in reply. 
Can it then be fairly deduced, from the above cited words of that 
preface, that he either boasts, or pledges himself to a resolution never 
to vary at all in any successive edition from the first ? Those words 
cannot siu^ely be so understood." p. 329. 

Can an advocate of Robert content himself with this mere negative? 
When Robert pledges himself to a resolution " not to give a letter 
that is not sanctioned by the greater part of his best MSS., did he not 
pledge himself to vary whensoever the preponderance of his increasing 
evidence varied in favour of a different reading from that which he 
gave at first? Might not the advocate have said, with perfect 



CORRESPONDENCE. 287 

justice, that in any case except that of old critical editions of the 
Greek Testament, the simple circumstance that the editions often 
vary from one another" would have been held to be sufficient proot 
that the materials from whence they were formed had varied ? Yes ; 
the editions themselves say, that the hypothesis of the identity of the 
materials **is utterly false." 

Your's faithfully, 

Francis Huyshe. 

Tahton, near Honiton^ Feb. 1], 1833, 

f To he continued.) 



PROMETHEUS VINCTUS. 
To the Editor of the British Magazine, 

Sir, — An awful responsibility attaches to those who are engaged in 
the tuition of youth. If the pupil be not at an early age duly imbued 
with reverence for the Holy Scriptures, — if he be allowed or encour- 
aged to look upon them only as he would upon any merely human 
production, and not as an inspired work, as the word of God, 
directing him in the way of salvation, and furnishing him with the 
principles of his faith and practice, — the loss of an immortal soul may 
be the result of his preceptor's negligence, and severe will be the 
account demanded at the hands of him who has so unfaithfully dis- 
charged his important trust ! 

I have been led into these reflections by having lately read an 
edition of the Prometheus of ^schylus, forming part of the " School 
Classics." I am well aware that to review editions of classical works 
forms no part of the design of your excellent miscellany ; but I 
conceive the following remarks will not be inconsistent with your 
plan of supporting the principles of Christian faith and Christian 
morality in general, no less than the doctrine and discipline of the 
United Church of England and Ireland in particular. 

That many of the fables of pagan mythology are nothing more than 
perversions of scriptural truth is evident to all who are acquainted with 
the elaborate works of Grotius, Dickinson, Gale, Bryant, and Ireland. 
Perhaps in some of these the inclination to trace the resemblance has 
been occasionally carried too far. These perversions it is advantageous 
to the pupil to be called upon to deduce, or for the master to point out. 
But this should be done with that reverence which is due to the truth, 
and particularly to revealed truth. That this is not the case in the 
"Prometheus, designed for the use of Schools and Colleges," I now 
proceed to shew ; and am sorry that I have to point out a levity and 
flippancy in some of the remarks which render the intentions of the 
writer (to use the mildest term) very equivocal. 

Note on ver. 4 — " While Vulcan was said by some to be the son of 
Juno alone, there were certain affreioi, ol jjirj rijc "Hpac fxav-qq vlov avrov 
troiovvregj aXXct ofiov fxev "llpag koi Atoc, ttXj^v hird K\e\ptya^iag, ore 
ipiXovQ Xrjdovre Toicijag elg evyrjv £<f>oiTit)y : a solution similar to that which 



288 CORRESPONDENCE. 

has been given by some who deny the divinity of Christ." And 
in the Additions, p. 128, "To the instances of Vulcan and Typho, 
both said to be born of Juno alone, may be added the tradition 
respecting Servius Tullius and Ancus Martius, the former of whom, 
says Seneca, had no father, — the latter, no mother. In like manner, 
Melchisedec is said to be cnrarwp, afxr]T(t)p, ayevEaXoyrjTOQ, in Heb. 
vii. 3." 

Ver. 258, " The truth is, we have here a lacuna, arising from an- 
other act of pious fraud on the part of a person anxious to conceal the 
fact, that Prometheus did, before Christ, tell man not to think of his 
death, by teaching him the existence of another and a better world." 

Ver. 295, " And, he might have added, as the gates of heaven 
possessed, when they opened, of their own accord, to let a deity pass 
through, as sung respectively by Homer, I\. E. 749, and David, * Lift 
up your heads, ye everlasting doors, and the King of Glory shall come 
in ;' and as the sea was said to part, of its own accord, when Neptune, 
1\. N. 29, or Moses, wished to pass through it." 

Ver. 367, " Places struck by lightning were considered holy, and 
consecrated by the sacrifice of a young ram. Such probably was the 
spot chosen by Abraham for the sacrifice of Isaac." 

Ver. 608, " At the very first appearance of lo, Prometheus gives a 
proof of his miraculous powers by mentioning, not only the father of 
lo, whose name she had not stated, but also a part of the story 
relating to Juno's hatred, which lo had not even indirectly hinted at. 
In Kke manner Christ gave a proof of his superhuman power, when he 
told the woman, whom he had never seen before, how often she had 
been married." 

Ver. 874, " 'Exa^wv, touching. This was a religious and medical 
act. Hence persons are confirmed by the imposition of the hands of 
a bishop, and people touched by a king as a cure for the evil." 

Ver. 902. « 'EXeXev. This, like the Allelu-jah, is generally the 
shout of joy ; here of pain." 

Ver. 959, " For thus the three rulers of things above, round, and 
under the earth, the Trinity in Unity of the Pagan creed, are 
threatened with destruction at the appearance of a future Redeemer." 

Ver. 1057, " This account of Prometheus going down to hell, and 
rising again, bears a remarkable resemblance of the descent of Christ 
into hell ; an event, which, as it is nowhere mentioned in gospel 
history, is a subject, as Butler observes, of extreme obscurity to 
Christians." 

I make no comment on these extracts. I merely ask, whether the 
book that contains them is fit to be admitted into any seminary of 
sound learning and religious education ? 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

January 21, 1833. T. E. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 289 

FIAT JUSTITIA. 
To the Editor of the JBritish Magazine, 

Sir, — You have often admitted into your Magazine extracts from the 
wT-itings of Dissenters ; it remains to be seen whether you will admit 
a Dissenter's direct communication. 

I request the insertion of this letter as an act of justice. The man- 
ner in which you treat it will shew whether your " notions of justice" 
are " exactly like those of other people." 

In an article on Dissenting Journals, published in your Magazine 
for January, you notice the works of a Dissenter who has, you say, 
lately been publishing several pamphlets, under the name of Fiat 
Justitia ; you accuse him of having " unhesitatingly stated that Soci- 
nianism was common among the clergy f' and you add, that " when 
pressed for proof, he does not venture to say that he ever knew a 
Socinian clergyman, but tells us of a nameless M.P. who has heard of 
such things, but says that he has only heard of them, and knows 
nothing about them!" Well may you add, " this is Christian and 
candid indeed." 

Now, will you allow me to ask, 1. What pamphlets has Fiat Jus- 
titia published ? I have seen two, — the first a letter to Mr, Noel, and 
the second, " Two Letters" in reply to criticisms upon the former 
one ; but as you state there are several, and as I have been unable to 
find any statement, in either of the two I have mentioned, which at all 
amounts to any thing like an unhesitating assertion that Socinianism is 
common among the clergy, I am induced to think that you must have 
attributed to Fiat Justitia some publication of which he is perfectly 
innocent. It would certainly be unchristian and uncandid, without 
further proof, to accuse you either of invention, or of wilful or careless 
misrepresentation . 

2. As the following quotation from Fiat Justitia's letters is so directly 
opposed to your statement, that he makes insinuations only upon hear- 
say evidence, I can only hope that it escaped your notice. It would 
neither be Christian nor candid to suspect that you purposely omit- 
ted it :— 

" This statement seemed to me to be warranted by my knowledge 
of books published by clergymen, in which Socinian and Arian errors 
were insinuated or avowed ; and by my recollection of individuals who 
had been known to hold those errors, one of whom I particularly 
remembered as having been, while he lived, not only a professed So- 
cinian, but an annual subscriber to a Socinian association." 

3. Allow me to remind you, that Fiat Justitia's pamphlets are not 
unprovoked attacks upon the church, but simply appeals to certain 
parties "clamorous about their consciences," founded on facts which 
are notorious enough to all who have even a tolerable acquaintance 
with books and men. 

To aifect ignorance of these things cannot serve the church of Eng- 
land ; to be angry with those who bring them forward, is neither wise 
nor courteous; to attempt evasion or denial, is neither candid nor 

Vol. \\\.—Marchy 1833. 2 p 



290 CORRESPONDENCE. 

Christian. Truth is not the exclusive possession of any sect or party. 
Fiat Justitia has fearlessly and faithfully animadverted on the prac- 
tices of his own party, and in so doing he has acted wisely in his 
generation. The best friends of the church of England are those who 
will go and do likewise. 

I am. Sir, yours, &c. 

A Dissenter.* 



• There can, of course, be no doubt from what quarter this letter comes. The 
kind and charitable tone in which it is written does peculiar honour to the writer. 
With respect to its contents, the Editor would only say, that having read a Letter 
to Mr. Noel, a Reply to a Churchman, and a Reply to a Dissenter, — all by Fiat 
Justitia, — he had forgotten or overlooked the important fact, that the last two were 
published together, and therefore spoke of seweraZ tracts, when, in compliance with 
that strict accuracy required of him, he should have said three, two being published 
together. Next, as to the charge of overstating what Fiat Justitia says about Soci- 
nifinism in the church — F. J. calls on Mr. Noel, if he would act in consistence with 
his determination to leave the Bible Society because there are Socinians in it, to 
leave the church for the same reason. The terms in which Fiat Justitia speaks are 
these, among others (p. 13), " You are a minister of what is usually denominated 
the Church of England" (the phrase is worth notice) ; " by being so, I mean to 
aflfirm that you are associated with Socinians, and acknowledge them as brethren, in 
a way which far more deserves your attention than your union with them in the 
Bible Society." (p. 14) " There are such (Socinians) among its members; and, 
what is worse, among its ministers too. You are associated with these men as func- 
tionaries and fellow workers together in the same body," &c. " So long as you con- 
tinue in the church, you, by that act, sanction their Socinianism ; you do what you 
can to support and substantiate their ministerial pretensions," &c. " Why do you 
not come out of it? Why do you not flee from a confederacy with those that are 
disloyal to your Lord," &c. Unquestionably these expressions (and there are many 
more of exactly the same strength) do not, when an artful disputant turns round on 
those who complain of them, enable the complainant to say that the disputant has 
said that half or one-fourtli of the clergy are Socinians. But no two honest men 
will probably differ as to the effect which such expressions would have, and were 
meant to have. Did they mean to convey only the impression that there may be 
half a dozen covert Socinians among the ten or twelve thousand ministers of the 
church of England ? Afterwards, too, one finds this very scrupulous and exact gen- 
tleman protesting that his conscience would not allow him to go into the church of 
England, as he should be compelled to acknowledge, as ministers of God, " hundreds 
of others who are utterly ignorant of the gospel, or who habitually pervert it, and 
whose influence on the piety of the people is like a blight and a curse." So that 
Fiat Justitia, notwithstanding his extreme mildness, and meekness, and candour, 
can speak in tolerably general language, and in what we " of the usually denomi- 
nated church of England" should call rather strong terms. Altogether, however, let 
it be said that Fiat Justitia writes far more like a gentleman, and with more power 
than any one whose works the Editor has happened to see on that side of the ques- 
tion. But, still, he is to be viewed with extreme suspicion. The pamphlets are worth 
reading, as shewing the feelings of persons extremely dissatisfied with dissent, and 
yet hating the church. He tells the Evangelical clergy that their professions of 
catholic love to the dissenters are viewed with distrust by the dissenters. He wishes 
all the Evangelical clergy to secede in a body ; is very angry that the church is so 
schiimaticaJ as not to admit all ministers to preach in her pulpits ; and hints that, in 
his opinion, a division of church property among all sects would be good. By the 
way, one who is so very desirous of exactness, should not have perverted an oppo- 
nent's words so utterly as to make him say he should not object to a Socinian join»w^ 
in prayer with him, when he really said that he should not object if a Socinian 
would join in his prayer. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 291 

ON THE PURITANS. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Sir, — The general tone adopted by the historians who write in favour 
of the Puritans is evidently assumed with an intention to induce us 
to understand that the breach between them and the church, which 
avowedly commenced on the subject of ecclesiastical habits, might 
have been easily made up in the first instance by a little moderation 
and concession (I speak as a churchman) on one part, and this 
appears to be the view which Lord Henley and his supporters take of 
the subject now, judging from the following paragraph in his letter 
to the King, prefixed to the later editions of his Plan of Church Re- 
form: — " My heart's desire, therefore, and prayer to God for Israel is, 
that those stumbling blocks which now keep so large a body of our coun- 
trymen out of the pale of the church, should be deeply, impartially, 
and patiently considered — considered by the fit and proper tribunal — 
in the spirit of prayer, in the spirit of Christian love, of peace, of 
charity, and of concihation. After such a consideration and revision, 
and without making one unrighteous or unscriptural concession, the 
church will no longer number as opponents, or as strangers, men like 
Howe, Owen, Baxter, Calamy, Doddridge, Watts, Henry, Hall.* 
Such men are the salt of the earth. No system can be entirely safe 
which excludes them from its bosom." Approving, as I do, most 
highly the temper with which this paragraph is written ; believing the 
noble author of the *' Plan of Church Reform" to be influenced by 
truly Christian motives, and deeming it most certainly unwise for the 
Church of England to persevere in keeping out of her fold any who 
might be brought within it if such could be eifected " without making 
one unrighteous or unscriptural concession," I have of late been 
seriously considering what were originally the points of difference 
between ourselves and the puritans. To know what these were \ 
have been readmg their own historian, Neale, who if he be, as has 
been asserted, most prejudiced on the side of the seceders, may be at 
least supposed to speak faithfully their opinions on the subject. I find 
this account given of them in the commencement of the year 1567, 
the first year of their avowed non -conformity, which, with your per- 
mission, I will transcribe for the benefit of such of your readers as 
may not lately have been perusing this portion of our history. 
Having in one chapterf made this avowal, " Had the use of habits 
and a few ceremonies been left discretionary, both ministers and peo- 
ple had been easy, but it was compelling these things by law, as they 
told the archbishop, that made them separate, " (a tolerable candid 
avowal, by the way, of the spirit of insubordination by which they 



• In this list, at first, appeared the names of Lardner and Law ; in later editions 
they have been omitted. Whatever credit we may give to Lord Henley for his good 
intentions, we cannot but deprecate the haste with which Lardner was admitted 
to be an evangelical Christian, and Law a dissenter. 

t Parson's Edition, vol. i. ch. 4. 



2^ CORRESPOXDENCE. 

were actuated when they could not submit to things indifferent 
because they were enforced by law,) in the very next chapter he 
proceeds with a statement somewhat at variance with such an asser- 
tion : — "Though all the puritans of these times would have remained 
within the church might they have been indulged in the habits and a 
few ceremonies, yet they were far from being satisfied with the 
hierarchy. They had other objections besides those to which they 
were deprived, and which they laboured incessantly to remove. 
First, they complained of the bishops affecting to be thought a supe- 
rior order, and claiming the sole right of ordination, and of ecclesias- 
tical discipline. They disUkedthe temporal dignities annexed to their 
office, and their engaging in secular employments, as tending to exalt 
them too much above their brethren, and not so agreeable to their 
characters of ministers of Christ, nor consistent with the due discharge 
of their spiritual function. Secondly, they excepted to the titles and 
offices of archdeacons, deans, chapters, and other officials belonging 
to the cathedrals, as having no foundation in scripture. Thirdly, 
they complained of the exorbitant power and jurisdiction of the 
bishops and their chancellors in their spiritual courts, as derived from 
the canon law of the pope, and not from the word of God, or the sta- 
tute law of the land. They complained of their fining, imprisoning, 
depriving, and putting men to excessive charges for small offences, 
and that the highest censures, such as excommunication and absolu- 
tion, were in the hands of laymen, and not in the spiritual officers of 
the church. Fourthly, they lamented the want of a godly discipline, 
and were uneasy at the promiscuous and general access of all persons 
to the Lord's table. The church being described in her articles as a 
congregation of faithful persons, they thought it necessary that a power 
should be lodged somewhere to inquire into the qualifications of such 
as desired to be of her communion. Fifthly, though they did not dis- 
pute the lawfulness of set forms of prayer, provided a due liberty was 
allowed for prayers of their own, before and afier sermon, yet they 
disliked some things in the public liturgy, — as the frequent repetition 
of the Lord's prayer, the interruption of the prayers by the frequent 
responses of the people, which, in some places, seem little better than 
vain repetitions, and are practised in no other protestant church in the 
world. They excepted to some passages in the offices of marriage and 
burial, &c., which they unwillingly complied with ; as in the office 
of marriage, " with my body I thee worship," and in the office of 
burial, " in sure and certain hope of the resurrection to eternal life," 
to bepronomiced over the worst of men, unless in a very few excepted 
cases. Sixthly, they disliked the reading the apocryphal books in the 
church, and though they did not disapprove the homilies, they thought 
that no man ought to be ordained a minister in the church who was 
incapable of preaching. One of their greatest complaints, therefore, 
throughout the course of this reign, was, that there were so many 
dumb ministers, pluralists, and non-residents, and that the presenta- 
tions to benefices were in the hands of the queen, bishops, or lay 
patrons, when they ought to arise from the election of the people. 
Seventhly, they disapproved of the observation of sundry of the 



CORRESPONDENCE. 203 

church festivals and holidays. * We have no example,' say they, * in 
the Old or New Testament of any days appointed in commemo- 
ration of saints ; and to observe the fast in Lent of Friday and Satur- 
day, &c., is unlawful and superstitious. Eighthly, they disallowed of 
the cathedral mode of worship, of singing their prayers, and chant- 
ing the psalms, which the ecclesiastical commissioners, in Edward 
the Sixth's time, advised the laying aside ; nor did they approve 
of musical instruments, which were not in use in the church for 
above 1200 years aft'er Christ.* 

" Finally, they scrupled conformity to certain rites and ceremonies 
which were enjoined by the rubric, or the Queen's injunctions." 
These he enumerates as — First, the sign of the cross in baptism. 
Secondly, the use of godfathers and godmothers, other than the parents 
of the children, and to their answering in the name of the child, and 
not in their own. Thirdly, to confirming children, and to a part of 
the office. Fourthly, to the kneeling at the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper. Fifthly, to the bowing at the name of Jesus. Sixthly, to the 
ring in marriage ; and Seventhly, to the wearing the surphce. 
" There was no difference," he proceeds to say, " in points of doctrine 
between the puritans and conformists." Thus, then, it appears that 
while the dissenters are endeavouring to throw blame on the church 
for being the cause, by her want of timely concession respecting 
some few things which they themselves admit to have been trifling, 
of their secession from her, there were, after the first demand 
had been conceded to them, no less than eight other questions, sub- 
divided into many parts, to be settled, and when these had been 
yielded there would have been, and still is, another, by the confession 
of their own historian ; and all the while " there was no difference in 
points of doctrine ;" for thus he continues : — "So that if we had [add] 
but one article more, we have the chief heads of the controversy be- 
tween the church of England and the protestant dissenters, at this 
day, and that is, the natural right that every man has to judge for 
himself, and make profession of that religion he apprehends most 
agreeable to the truth, as far as it does not afiect the peace and safety 
of the government he lives under, without being determined by the pre- 
judices of education, the laws of the civil magistrate, or the decrees of 
churches, councils, or synods," or, in other words, the entire abolition 
of a church establishment ; and whatever Lord Henley, and other 
conscientious reformers, may think, with nothing else will the dis- 
senters be satisfied, which they, by their concessions, will only the 
better enable them to effect. For the spirit of alteration is a very pro- 
gressive one, and from the conduct of our state-radicals, who, having 
obtained all they asked for, are still clamouring for more, those who 
are wise may easily perceive what will be the conduct of the church 
radicals. I remain. Sir, 

Your faithful servant, 

Observator. 



* Is this the history of the sixteenth or of the nineteenth century ? 



294 CORRESPONDENCE. 

CLERICAL SUBSCRIBERS TO CHARITIES. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Rev. Sir, — The numbers of lay and clerical subscribers to our various 
religious Societies, connected with the church of England, may 
suggest matter of serious reflection. The subject has been alluded 
to in some previous numbers of your Magazine, and I am anxious 
to contribute a small addition to the facts, which may be made use- 
ful, perhaps by you and others, in subsequent discussions, 

I have looked through the Reports, 1st, of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Know^ledge, 1832; 2ndly, of the Society for Propagating 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1831 ; 3rdly, the tw^entieth of the National 
Society; 4thly, of the Incorporated Clergy Orphan Society, for 1830; 
and 5thly, of the Incorporated Society for Promoting the Enlarge- 
ment, Building, &c., of Churches, for 1830. I have not any later 
Reports of these two last mentioned societies. 

. As 1 have not in every case proved the amounts, there may possibly 
be a chance error ; but there can be none which will be of any 
moment, or can in any w^ay affect the proportion of members. They 
may, however, be quite correct. 

1. The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. The list of 
Subscribers, from p. 1 to 80 inclusive, contains — 

Males. Ladies, Total. 

^ll^i\ZZ\ 48^} ^^2^ + 2726*= 14006 
Majority of Clergy 1580 

It is stated in the Report, that the present number of members is 
about 15,000. The preceding analysis does not include remittances 
from Collections, and Sale of Books, p. 90 ; nor Donations, pp. 92, 93 ; 
nor Parochial Collections, nor Legacies, nor additional Subscribers to 
specific funds. As a matter of curiosity, I send you an alphabetical 
abstract of the Subscribers. 

Total. 
fAtBCDEFGHIJKL") 
Males J ^^ *^^ ^^^ ^^^ 254 395 580 999 61 265 204 512/ jj.^qq 
"{ M N O PQR S TUVWYf 

f 731 184 127 754 5 496 950 471 24 106 981 55} 

Females \ ^ ^77 257 135 59 87 124 227 12 47 58 139 ( ^toq 
**' •< M N O PQR S T " " — " ^ 

/ 188 39 21 174 2 133 260 123 



H I J K L ") 

227 12 47 58 139/ 

T U V W Y f 

123 8 19 233 15) 



14006 



* As' the wives, daughters, and sisters of the clergy, constitute a great part of 
the female subscribers, it might be nearly correct to divide 2726 into two portions 
bearing to each other the same proportion as the lay and clerical numbers. Tims 

Clerical. Lay. Total. 

Males 6430 -f 4850 = 11280 

Females 1527 + 1199 = 2726 



7957 + 6049 = 14006 
6049 

1908 
So that, on the whole, the clerical subscribers to this Society would exceed in number 
thoseofthelaity, by 1908. 

f Including Royal Family, &c. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



295 



2. In the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, I have 
experienced a little more difficulty. I have gone through the District 
and Diocesan Societies, and have reckoned the numbers of separate 
subscriptions- and donations, and not always according to individual 
persons. A subscriber, therefore, to more than one Society or Asso- 
ciation may be reckoned in each ; but this I conceive to be right. 
All who have not a Rev'^. before their names, all "Anonymous," or 
from a " Friend," &c., have been included among the laity. " Dona- 
tions and Collections," as printed under this head (pp. *38 and *39), 
and Collections when noticed among the Subscriptions, have not, 
however, been taken into the account. 



PARENT SOCIETT. 

Clerical. Lay. Female. Total. 

Report, 1831. Incorporated Members 236 + 88 ... = 324 

Contributing and Associated 609 -j- 314 -f- 198 = 1121 

845 + 402 -f 198 = 1445 

Deduct Lay 402 



Majority of Clergy ... 443 



DIOCESES OF 


Cler. Lay. Females. 


Canterbury 


104+ 48+ 


55-- 


York 


..114+ 80+ 


54= 


London.... 


.102+ 213+ 


128: 


Durham . 


.111+ 60+ 


13: 


Winchester 


249+ 243+ 


145= 


Bangor .... 


.. 31+ 6+ 


5= 


Bath&Wellsl26+ 71 + 


88= 


Bristol .... 


.189+ 74+ 


55= 


Chester .... 


..151+ 139+ 


53= 


Chichester. 


..100+ 44+ 


27 = 


Ely 


..144+ 60+ 


18= 


Exeter .... 


..189+ 102+ 


71 = 


Gloucester. 


.. 59+ 16+ 


34= 


Hereford . 


. 42+ 7+ 


11 = 


Lichfield & 
Coventry 


^ 164+ 130+ 


59= 


Lincoln .... 


..229+ 145+ 


62= 


LlandafF.... 


..101+ 67+ 


14= 


Norwich . 


.. 58+ 17+ 


14= 


Oxford .... 


..133+ 62+ 


24= 


Peterboro' . 


..118+ 57+ 


20= 


Rochester . 


.. 69+ 77+ 


29: 


St. Asaph . 


.. 85+ 80+ 


32: 


St. David's. 


.. 86+ 30+ 


6: 


Salisbury . 


..118+ 50+ 


22: 


Worcester . 


.. 58+ 25+ 


14: 


Clergy 2930+1903+1053: 


Lay 


1903 




Maj.ofClergyl027 





Total. 
: 207 
: 248 
: 443 
: 184 
: 637 
: 42 
: 285 
: 318 
: 333 
: 171 
: 222 
: 362 
: 109 
: 60 

: 353 

: 436 
: 182 
: 89 
: 219 
: 195 
: 175 
: 207 
: 122 
: 190 
: 97 



=5886 



DIOCESES OF Cler. Lay. Fem. Total. 

Cashel 25+ 7+ 1= 33 

Limerick 26+ 7+ 3= 36 

Ardfert& Aghadoe 37+ 2+ 3= 42 

88+ 16+ 7=111 
16 

Majority of Clergy 72 

Calcutta & Madras 41 + 199+13=243 
41 

Majority of Laity 158 
Major, of Clergy 443+1027+72=1542 
Deduct Majority of Laity, abroad... 158 

Total Majority of Clergy... 1384 

SHORT ABSTRACT. 

Cler. Lay. Females. Total. 

Parent Soc . 845+ 402+ 198=1445 
25 Diocesans 2930+1903+1053=5886 

Irish 88+ 16+ 7= 111 

Foreign(Cal.) 41+ 199+ 3= 243 

3904+2520+1261 =7685 
Deduct Lay 2520 

Clerical Maj. 1384 

If the proportion of Clerical Females 
were added, this majority would be 
greatly increased. 



296 CORRESPONDENCE. 

3. National Society-. The Subscribers are not so numerous ; and 
this is more especially a lay society, inasmuch as the lay poor almost 
exclusively enjoy the great benefits of its operations. 





Cler. Lay. Females. 


Total. 


Annual Subscriptions, 1831, 
Donations 


346 + 277 + 90 = 
628 4- 1035 -f 218 = 


713 

1881' 



974 + 1312 + 308 = 2594 

"Collections," "Literals," "Anonymous," "Friends," which are 
rather numerous, are reckoned among the laity. The clerg^^ have a 
majority of regular subscribers (69), but the lay donations are much 
more numerous (407). 

4. The Incorporated Clergy Orphan Society-, 1830. The following 
comprehends the general " list of the Governors and Benefactors' ' 
only, from p. 41 to 66 inclusive. The colleges and corporations are 
also excluded. 

Cler. Lay. Females. Total. 

651 -f 478 H- 435 = 1564 

478 

Majority of Clergy ... 173, besides the proportion of females.t 

5. Church Building Society, 1830. In this Society, I have included 
the donations fi*om the colleges^ amongst the clergy; but collections, 
&c., amongst the laity. 

Cler. Lay. Females. TotaL 

Annual Subscribers 114+ 66+ 19= 199 

Donations 1075 + 931 + 284 = 2290 

1189 + 997 + 303 = 2489 

The majority of the clergy is in annual subscriptions, 48 ; and in 
donations, 144; v^^ithout reckoning the females. 

Some District Societies are appended. They seem not ver^^ cor- 
rectly reported, but the following is an Abstract. " Anonymous," 
" a Friend," &c., among the laity. 



• All the Donations from the commencement are, I believe, here included, 
t The Diocesan Society for the Sons of the Clergy in Durham, for the year 1830, 
was as follows : — 

Cler. Lay. Female*. Total. 

Stockton and Darlington 55 + 18 + 3 = 76 

Chester and Easington 75 + 27 + 8 = 110 

Newcastle and Gateshead 15 + 66 -^ ]4 = 95 

Northumberland, South of Coquet... 65 + 64 + 10 = 139 

Ditto North of Coquet... 46 -\- 80 + 23 = 149 

Total 256 + 255 + 58 = 569 

t I regret that I did not, in the beginning, perceive the benefit of going in some 
certain rule with respect to "collections," and the subscriptions and donations from 
corporate bodies, " Anonymous," " Friends," &c. 



CORRESPONDENCE 



297 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIBERS. 



Canterbury 78 -j- 

Exeter 135 + 

Lichfield 42 -f- 

Chester-le- Street* ... 7 -j- 

Oxford 28 H- 

Bristol 26 + 

Liverpool, &c 34 -j- 

Seven Oaks 4 -j- 

«Stow 



Lay. 

108 
41 



Fem. Total S. 



+ 
+ 

20 4- 

3 ... 

10 H- 

16 + 



52 
18 
11 

2 
3 
13 




-h 13 = 



238 
194 
73 
10 
40 
45 
63 
6 



271 4-234 4- 80 =^585=1234 



354 4- 216 4- 99 = 669 
Add Donations... 271 4- 234 + 80 = 585 

625 4- 450 4-179 =1254 
Deduct Lay 450 

Majority of Clergy... 175; viz., 1^ Subscribers, and 37 Donations. 



DONATIONS. 




Tota 


Gen. 


Cler. Lay. Fem. Don. 


Total. 


19 4. 27 4- 11 = 57 


=295 


123 4- 90 4- 25 =238 


=432 


... 


= 73 


... ... ... 


= 10 


49 4- 15 ... = 64 


= 104 


28 4- 56 + 5 = 89 


= 134 


34 + 22 4- 20 = 76 


= 139 


8 4- 24 4- 19 = 51 


= 57 


10 


= 10 



6430 



GENERAL 
Cler. 

i. Society for Promoting Chris- 7 
tian Knowledge 3 

2. Society for Propagating the 7 q. ^ 

Gospel, (Parent) 3 

District & Diocesan, &c.. . . 3059 

3. National Society 974 

Durham Diocesan 61 

4. Clergy Orphan Society (Parent) 651 

Durham Diocesan 256 

5. Church BuUding Soc. (Parent) 1189 

Districts (imperfect) 625 

Ditto Durham (deduct- V ^^ 
ing 7 clergy & 3 laity) 3 



ABSTRACT. 














Lay. 


Females. 




Total. 




+ 


4850 


+ 


2726 


= 


14006 


Subscrip, 


+ 


402 


+ 


198 


i^ 


1445 


Don,& Sub, 


4- 


2118 


4- 


1063 


— 


6240 


Ditto. 


+ 


1312 


+ 


308 


zz 


2594 


Ditto. 


+ 


7 


+ 


3 


= 


71 


Subscrip. 


4- 


478 


4- 


435 


rr 


1564 Sub.& Don 


4- 


255 


4- 


58 


rz 


569 


Ditto. 


4- 


997 


4- 


303 


zz. 


2489 


Ditto. 


+ 


450 


+ 


179 


= 


1254 


Ditto. 


-r 


15 


■f 


2 


= 


79 


Ditto. 



14152 4- 10884 4- 5275 = 30311 
Deduct Laity &c 10884 

Total or Gen. Majority of Clergy 3268, without adding the proportion of females, 
which would make the number as nearly as much more. If the Col- 
lections &c. were added, the majority would be still larger. 

I can scarcely hope that the above abstracts will, at present, be 
very attractive, but as they are strong and stubborn facts, I submit 
them to your consideration, and shall be amply rewarded for my 
trouble, if they shall, in any one instance, remove a single preju- 
dice against the clergy ; who, though generally so poor and so few in 
number, besides incessant labour and collections, personally contri- 
bute to the General and Local Societies for advancing the temporal and 
eternal interests of the people, very nearly a-third more than all the 
laity of the empire. I am. Rev. Sir, 

With great respect, 

Durham, Jan. Q2nd. R. W, B. 

* The account of the Durham Diocesan Society, on the 1st of January, 1830, 

Cler. Lay. Fem. Total. 

69 4- 18 4- 2 = 89 
18 



Majority of Clergy... 51 

Vol. 111.— March, 1833. 



2 Q 



298 CORRESPONDENCE. 

WEEKLY LECTURES. 

To the Editor of the British Magazine. 

Sir, — Will you permit me, through the medium of your publica- 
tion, to ascertain the sentiments of some of my elder and more 
experienced brethren in the ministry, with respect to a service, 
which, although I cannot find it enjoined in either the canons or 
rubrics of our church, has, nevertheless, been adopted by many of 
her clergy — I mean a weekly lecture in a school room or private house. 

The mode I have almost always observed to be adopted on such 
occasions is as follows : — The clergyman gives out an hymn, 
repeating two lines at a time — then prays extemporaneously — then 
gives an exposition of a chapter, or a portion of one, or not unfre- 
quently preaches — the sermon differing in no respect from that 
delivered on the sabbath, either in arrangement or application — 
afterwards, he gives out an hymn as before, and concludes with 
extemporaneous prayer. 

Now, Sir, this is precisely the form of service adopted by the 
dissenters and methodists ; and, consequently, whenever clergymen 
can conform to their mode of w^orship, and become, in fact, dissenters 
themselves^ it is no longer matter of surprise, that such services should 
be generally, if not always, well attended by those who yet are 
never seen within the doors of our churches or chapels, and who 
appear not a little elated at the conversions made to their own 
systems among our clergy, and of course will honour by their 
patronage/ any departure from the forms of our incomparable liturgy. 

There is another evil, in my opinion, attendant upon this mode of 
instruction, and one of a much more serious nature, viz. — that they not 
unfrequently are substituted, in the estimation and the practice of a 
large portion among the poorer classes of our congregations, for 
attendance upon Divine worship on the sabbath day — thus tending to 
create a breach of God's commandment (already, alas! too prevalent), 
as well as to cherish an indolence of disposition so observable among 
that portion of our hearers, and especially when such lectures are 
held in the viciuity of their own dwellings, and at a distance from the 
parish church. That this is the case, I have had frequent oppor- 
tunities of ascertaining in Ireland as well as here, and not a little 
have these evils been increased by the zeal of some of my brethren 
in the ministry asserting that " this school room ! is none other but 
the house of God," or, '•^ this kitchen (!) the gate of Heaven." 

Now, Sir, in zeal to be made the honoured instrument in bringing 
souls to the Redeemer, I shall yield to none ; and I care not how I 
spend or am spent in the service of my blessed Master. That an 
explanation of a portion of God's Holy Word to the adult members of 
our congregations during the week is necessary, I willingly allow — 
nay, I deem it absolutely requisite. But the mode in which such inform- 
ation should be communicated consistently with the discipline and the 
formularies of our church is the point on which I desire to be 
informed ; particularly when the daily occupations of the inhabitants, 
and their distance from the church, render an attendance there at 



CORRESPONDENCE. 299 

a weekly service impossible, and the instruction must necessarily be 
given either in a school room or private dwelling. Brief as has been 
my ministerial career, every succeeding day brings fresh conviction 
to my mind that the formularies of our scriptural church, to v^hich as 
I have most willingly and conscientiously subscribed, and from which 
I shall, with the blessing of God, never depart, are the best appointed 
mode for communicating religious information to our people, as well 
as those which I do believe God will most honour. Still, as I am 
but young in the ministry, I would intreat, in some of the succeeding 
numbers of your Magazine, the matured opinion of some of the 
fathers of our church upon this subject, so important to the welfare 
of souls, as well as to the maintenance of the true religion which has 
been established among us.* 

I remain, Sir, 

Your constant reader, 

W. G. 



ON SUNDAY SCHOOLS. 
To the Editor of the Sritish Magazine. 



Mr. Editor, — Many may be led to exertion, in a way of which they 
have not previously thought, by learning the details of successful 
efforts elsewhere. It is with a belief that somewhat of the kind may 
be the result, that I send you the following statement for insertion in 
your Magazine, if you think fit. 

In the curacy to which I am attached, there are four small hamlets 
lying at distances var^'ing from five to two miles from the church. In 
two of these there were week-day schools previously to the year 1829, 
but in none Sunday-schools. In that year my attention was drawn 
strongly towards them through an approaching confirmation. I be- 
came wishful for the establishment of a Sunday-school in each, but 
scarcely knew in what way the desire could be accomplished, as there 
were no resident Protestant gentry near any, save one. Still I was 
stimulated to make the exertion by an active person in the cause of 
schools ; and he and I went into the different hamlets in succession, 
learnt who were the most likely persons to be interested in such a 
cause, spoke with them, combating all fears of failure, and pressing 
for a trial. They successively fell into our suggestions ; notice was 
given of a public meeting in each, at which the principal inhabitants 
were personally invited to attend. There the advantages and plans of 
gratuitous Sunday-schools were explained, — well-disposed persons 
were solicited to give in their names for teachers, and the inhabitants 
at large to contribute some pecuniary assistance for the purchase of 
requisites. In one place, I remember, when we arrived at the hour 



* The Editor hopes that this subject may be well discussed. But as many will 
probably express their opinions, may he respectfully request them to compress as far 
as they conveniently can ? 



300 CORRESPONDENCE. 

which had been appointed for the pubUc meeting, no one seemed forth- 
coming. We supposed they could not be moved in the matter, as they 
had been generally luke-warm in our previous individual conversa- 
tions with them. Still my friend would not be daunted ; he went suc- 
cessively into the different houses, and soon a full meeting was col- 
lected, and then the matter agreed upon, and a school estabhshed. 
The results of these exertions may be gathered from the following 
reports rendered by the superintendants, and read before our respected 
Diocesan, at his visitation last summer. I should premise that the 
schools have been carried on at a very slight expense — 41. or 51. each 
per annum ; as all the conductors have given their services, and rooms 
for the teaching have always been provided rent free. 

The superintendant of the Stodday school reports, '' that since its 
formation, the teachers, with himself, have afforded Christian instruc- 
tion to 87 scholars, of whom only three have left without their ap- 
proval. They have sold from the schools, 5 Bibles, 11 Testaments, 
38 Prayer books. Fifty-four of the religious tracts on the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge Hst have been given amongst the 
scholars, as prizes. There are at present 38 scholars in regular at- 
tendance, taught by seven gratuitous teachers. The teachers in 
this and the other schools divide themselves into two sets, and so give 
their services alternate Sundays." 

The superintendant of the Scotforth school reports, " there are at pre- 
sent in attendance at that school, 54 scholars, and 6 gratuitous teachers. 
A number of the same religious books have been distributed here, in 
the way of prizes, as in the Stodday school, but he has to lament that 
a great backwardness has existed towards purchasing any Bibles or 
Prayer books/' 

In Quernmoor, eight teachers give their services, and afford instruc- 
tion to 75 regular scholars. The superintendant is able to say, "that 
no scholars had left the school, since its formation, without the sanc- 
tion of the teachers or their parents. Forty scholars have received 
instruction, and left for satisfactory reasons, — such as going to place out 
of the township, and the like. Twelve Bibles, 40 Testaments, 60 
Prayer-books, with several other small religious treatises, have been 
sold from the school. Many books, such as Burkitt's Help and Guide, 
Davy's Village Conversations on the Liturgy and Offices, have been 
distributed among the scholars, as rewards for attention and good 
conduct. The teachers have divided the neighbourhood into districts, 
for the purpose of attaching and keeping to the school the surrounding 
children, and of lending religious books in the several houses." 

In the Glasson school, the superintendant reports, " there were at 
present 60 scholars, who are instructed by himself and three gra- 
tuitous teachers, occasionally assisted by two other well-disposed 
neighbours. Sixty Testaments have been purchased from the school, 
and many small books given among the scholars, as prizes." 

To all these schools, lending libraries have been recently attached. 
These were paid for out of a fund which was raised through a bazaar, 
held about a year back, in behalf of these institutions. By the same 
means, assisted with a grant of 201, from the National Society, a sub- 



CORRESPONDENCE. ;^0 1 

stantial school and school-house have been built in Stodday, where no 
school previously existed. The same are now building in Glasson, the 
expenses of which are to be defrayed from the Bazaar fund, assisted 
by a grant of 35/. from the National Society, and by local subscriptions. 

The Sunday-schools have continued to flourish from their first 
establishment