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Full text of "Catena aurea : commentary on the four Gospels, collected out of the works of the fathers"

Catena & u r * a* 



COMMENTARY 



FOUR GOSPELS, 



COLLECTED OUT OF THE 



WORKS OF THE FATHERS 



S. THOMAS AQUINAS. 



VOL. IV. PART II. 
ST. JOHN. 



OXFORD, 

JOHN HENRY PARKER; 

J. G. F. AND J. RIVINGTON, LONDON. 

MDCCCXLV. 



BAXTER, PRINTER, OXFORD. 



Catena &urea. 



COMMENTARY 



FOUR GOSPELS, 



COLLECTED OUT OF THE 



WORKS OF THE FATHERS 



S. THOMAS AQUINAS. 

3 



VOL. IV. 

fh. JOHN. 



OXFORD, 

JOHN HENRY PARKER; 

J. G. F. AND J. RIVINGTON, LONDON. 

MDCCCXLV. 



bAXTEtl, PRINTF.tl, tXKoUD. 



Table of Fathers, Doctors, and Commentators, out of 
whom the Catena Aurea on the Four Gospels is 



Cent. V. 

Asterius of Amasea 
Evagrius Ponticus 
Isidore of Pelusium 
Cyril of Alexandria 
Maximus of Turin 
Cassion 
Chrysologus 
Basil 



gathered. 




Cent. III. 


Theodotus of Ancyra 




Leo the Great 


Origen 


Gennadius 


Cyprian 


Victor of Antioch 




Council of Ephesus 


Cent. IV. 


Antipater of Bostrum 




Nilus 


Eusebius 




Athanasius 




Hilary 


Cent. VI. 


Gregory of Nazianzus 




Gregory of Nyssa 


Dionysius Areopagita 


Ambrose 


Gregory the Great 


J erome 


Isidore 


Nemesius 


Eutychius ( Patriarch of Constan- 


Augustine 


tinople) 


Chrysostom 


Isaac (Bp. of Nineveh) 


Prosper 


Severus (Bp. of Antioch) 


Damasus 


John Climacus 


Apollinaris of Lapdicea 


Fulgentius 


Amphilochius of Iconium 






Cent. VII. 



Maximus ( ? of Constantinople, 
645.) 

Cent. VIII. 

Bede 

John Damascene 

Alcuin 



IV 



TABLE OF FATHERS, &C 



Cent. IX. 

Haymo (of Halberstadt) 
Photius (of Constantinople) 
Rabanus M minis 
Remigius (of Auxerre) 
Paschasius Radbertus 

Cent. XI. 

Theophylact 

Anselra 

Petrus Alpbonsus 

Laufranc 



Of uncertain date. 

Symeon Metaphrastes 
Symeon Abbas 
Theopbanes 
Geometer 

Alexander Monachus 
Glossa Ordinaria 
— — Interlinearis 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

The following Compilation not being admissible into the 
Library of the Fathers from the date of some few of the 
authors introduced into it, the Editors of the latter work 
have been led to publish it in a separate form, being assured 
that those who have subscribed to their Translations of the 
entire Treatises of the ancient Catholic divines, will not feel 
less interest, or find less benefit, in the use of so very 
judicious and beautiful a selection from them. The Editors 
refer to the Preface for some account of the natural and 
characteristic excellences of the work, which will be found 
as useful in the private study of the Gospels, as it is well 
adapted for family reading, and full of thought for those who 
are engaged in religious instruction. 



CHAP. XL 

1. Now a certain man was sick, named Lazarus, of 
Bethany, the town of Mary and her sister Martha. 

2. (It was that Mary which anointed the Lord with 
ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose 
brother Lazarus was sick.) 

3. Therefore his sisters sent unto him, saying, Lord, 
behold, he whom thou lovest is sick. 

4. When Jesus heard that, he said, This sickness is 
not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the Son 
of God might be glorified thereby. 

5. Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and 
Lazarus. 

Bede. After our Lord had departed to the other side of Jordan, non occ. 

it happened that Lazarus fell sick: A certain man was sick, 

named Lazarus, of Bethany. In some copies the copulative ?,» y t Vl . 

conjunction precedes, to mark the connection with the words" "'* 
. ... certain 

preceding. Lazarus signifies helped. Of all the dead which man. 

our Lord raised, he was most helped, for he had lain dead 
four days, when our Lord raised him to life. Aug. The Aug. 
resurrection of Lazarus is more spoken of than any of our } xllx * 
Lord's miracles. But if we bear in mind who He was who 
wiought this miracle, we shall feel not so much of wonder, 
as of delight. He who made the man, raised the man ; and 
it is a greater thing to create a man, than to revive him. 
Lazarus was sick at Bethany, the town of Mary and her 
sister Martha. The place was near Jerusalem. Alcuin. 
And as there were many women of this name, He dis- 
tinguishes her by her well-known act : It was that Mary 
which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped His feel 

2 n 



370 GOSPEL kCCOBblNG TO I WAP. XI. 

Greg, with her hair, whose brother Lazarus //as sick. Ciikys. 

Ixii. i. First we arc to observe that this was not the harlot mentioned 

in Luke, but an honest woman, who treated our Lord with 

Aug. marked reverence. Aug. John here confirms the passage in 

Ev. ii. " Luke, where this is said to have taken place in the house 

lxxix. f olie Simon a Pharisee: Mary had done this act there- 
Luke ... 
7, 38. fore on a former occasion. That she did it again at 

Bethany is not mentioned in the narrative of Luke, but is in 

Al ^- the other three Gospels. Aug. A cruel sickness had seized 

Dom. Lazarus; a wasting fever was eating away the body of the 

s ' "' wretched man day by day: his two sisters sat sorrowful at 

his bedside, grieving for the sick youth continually. They 

sent to Jesus: Therefore his sisters sent unto Him, say in;/, 

Tr.xiix. Lord, behold he whom Thou lorest is sick. Aug They did 

*• not say, Come and heal ; they dared not say, Speak the 

word there, and it shall be done here ; but only, Behold, he 

whom Thou lorest is sick. As if to say, It is enough that 

Thou know it, Thou art not one to love and then to desert 

Chrys. whom Thou lovest. Chrys. They hope to excite Christ's 

Ixii. l. pitv U .V these words, Whom as yet they thought to be a man 

only. Like the centurion and nobleman, they sent, not 

went, to Christ ; partly from their great faith in Him, for 

they knew Him intimately, partly because their sorrow kept 

them at home. Theophyl. And because they were women, 

and it did not become them to leave their home if they could 

help it. Great devotion and faith is expressed in these 

words, Behold, he whom Thou lorest is sick. Such was their 

idea of our Lord's power, that they were surprised, that one, 

Au^. whom He loved, could be seized with sickness. Aug. When 

q/ Jesus heard that, He said, This sickness is not unto deal It. 

For this death itself was not unto death, but to give occasion 

for a miracle ; whereby men might be brought to believe in 

Christ, and so escape real death. It was for the glory of 

(lad, wherein observe that our Lord calls Himself God by 

implication, thus confounding those heretics who say that the 

Son of God is not God. For the glory of what God? Hear 

what follows, lliat the Son if God might be ylorificd there- 

Ch by, i. e. by that sickness. Chrys. That here signifies not 

Horn, the cause, but the event. The sickness sprang from natural 

causes, but He turned it to the glory of God. 



Vlill. t) — 10. ST. JOHN. 371 

Now Jesus loced Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus. 
Aug. He is sick, they sorrowful, all beloved. Wherefore they Aug. 
had hope, for they were beloved by Him Who is the Com-^ * x 
foi-ter of the sorrowful, and the Healer of the sick. Chrys. days. 
Wherein the Evangelist instructs us not to be sad, if sickness^"™* 
ever falls upon good men, and friends of God. nonoec. 

r b v.lxii.3. 

6. When he had heard therefore that he was sick, 
he abode two days still in the same place where he 
was. 

7. Then after that saith he to his disciples, Let us 
go into Judaea again. 

8. His disciples say unto him, Master, the Jews 
of late sought to stone thee; and goest thou thither 
again ? 

9. Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in 
the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth 
not, because he seeth the light of this world. 

10. But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, 
because there is no light in him. 

Alcuin. Our Lord heard of the sickness of Lazarus, but 
suffered four days to pass before He cured it; that the re- 
covery might be a more wonderful one. When He had 
heard therefore that he was sick, He abode two days still in 
the place where He was. Chrys. To give time for his death Chrys. 
and burial, that they might say, he stinketh, and none doubt j ° m j 
that it was death, and not a trance, from which he was 
raised. 

Tlten after that saith He to His disciples, Let us go into 
Jud&a again. Aug. Where He had just escaped being A 
stoned; for this was the cause of His leaving. He JeftTr.xlix. 
indeed as man: He left in weakness, but He returns in 
power. Ckrys. He had not as yet told His disciples where chrys. 
He was going; but now He tells them, in order to prepare Horn, 
them beforehand, for they are in great alarm, when they hear 
of it: His disciples say unto Him, Master, the Jews sought to 
stone Thee, and goest Thou thither again ? They feared both 

2 B 2 



372 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XI. 

for Him, and for themselves; for they were not yet con- 
£ u 8- firmed in faith. Adg. When men presumed to give advice 
8. to God, disciples to their Master, our Lord rebuked them : 

Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day 7 
He shewed Himself to be the day, by appointing twelve 
disciples: i. e. reckoning Matthias in the place of Judas, and 
passing over the latter altogether. The hours are lightened 
by the day; that by the preaching of the hours, the world 
may believe on the day. Follow Me then, saith our Lord, 
if ye wish not to stumble: If any man walk in the day, he 
stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world. But 
if a man icalk in the night he sttimbleth, because there is no 
Chrys. light in him. Chkys. As if to say, The upright need fear no 
Ixii. 1. ev ^ : the wicked only have cause to fear. We have done nothing 
worthy of death, and therefore are in no danger. Or, If any 
one seeth this world's light, he is safe; much more he who is 
with Me. Theophyl. Some understand the day to be the 
time preceding the Passion, the night to be the Passion. 
In this sense, while it is day, would mean, before My Passion ; 
Ye will not stumble before My Passion, because the Jews 
will not persecute you; but when the night, i. e. My Passion, 
cometh, then shall ye be beset with darkness and difficulties. 

11. These things said he: and after that he saith 
unto them, Our friend Lazarus sleepeth; but I go that 
I may awake him out of sleep. 

12. Then said his disciples, Lord, if he sleep, he 
shall do well. 

13. Howbeit Jesus spake of his death: but they 
thought that he had spoken of taking of rest in sleep. 

14. Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is 

dead. 

'15. And I am glad for your sakes I was not there, 
to the intent ye may believe; nevertheless let us go 
unto him. 

16. Then said Thomas, which is called Didymus, 
unto his fellowdisciples, Let us also go, that we may 
die with him. 



VER. 11 16. ST. JOHN. 373 

Chrys. After He has comforted His disciples in one way, Chrys. 
He comforts them in another, by telling them that they were i x n. i. 
not going to Jerusalem, but to Bethany: Tliese things saith 
He: and after that He saith unto them, Our friend Lazarus 
sleepeth ; but I go that I may awake him out of sleep: as if 
to say, I am not going to dispute again with the Jews, but 
to awaken our friend. Our friend, He says, to shew how 
strongly they were bound to go. Aug. It was really true Aug- 
that He was sleeping. To our Lord, he was sleeping; to men c . 9. 
who could not raise him again, he was dead. Our Lord 
awoke him with as much ease from his grave, as thou awakest 
a sleeper from his bed. He calls him then asleep, with 
reference to His own power, as the Apostle saith, But 1 1 Thess. 
would not have you to be ignorant, concerning them which > * 
are asleep. Asleep, He says, because He is speaking of 
their resurrection which was to be. But as it matters to 
those who sleep and wake again daily, what they see in 
their sleep, some having pleasant dreams, others painful ones, 
so it is in death; every one sleeps and rises again with his 
own account*. 

Chrys. The disciples however wished to prevent Him Chrys. 
going to Judaea: Then said His disciples, Lord, if he sleep,\ xiu { 
he shall do well. Sleep is a good sign in sickness. And 
therefore if he sleep, say they, what need to go and awake 
him. Aug. The disciples replied, as they understood Him: Aug. 
Howbeii Jesus spake of his death; but they thought that^*' xh *- 
He had spoken of taking rest in sleep. Chrys. But if anychrys. 
one say, that the disciples could not but have known that H ° m * 
our Lord meant Lazarus's death, when He said, that I may 
awake him; because it would have been absurd to have gone 
such a distance merely to awake Lazarus out of sleep; we 
answer, that our Lord's words were a kind of enigma to the 
disciples, here as elsewhere often. Aug. He then declares Aug. 
His meaning openly: Then said Jesus unto them plainly, n [ 
Lazarus is dead. Chrys. But He does not add here, I go Chrys. 
that I may awake him. He did not wish to anticipate the^ ^ 
miracle by talking of it; a hint to us to shun vain glory, and 
abstain from empty promises. 

Aug. He had been sent for to restore Lazarus from sick- Aug. 

Tr.xlix. 
* cum causa sua dormit, cum causa sua surgit. 1 1. 



374 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XI. 

ness, not from death. But how could the death be hid from 
Him, into whose hands the soul of the dead had flown I 

And I am (//ad for >/oiir sakes that 1 was no< there, that 
ye might belierc; i. e. seeing My marvellous power of knowing 
a thing I have neither seen nor heard. The disciples already 
believed in Him in consequence of His miracles; so that 
their faith had not now to begin, but only to increase. That 
ye might believe, means, believe more deeply, more firmly. 
Thkophyl. Some have understood this place thus. 1 re- 
joice, He says, for your sakes ; for if T had been there, I 
should have only cured a sick man; which is but an inferior 
sign of power. But since in My absence he has died, ye 
will now see that I can raise even the dead putrefying body ; 
Chrys. anc j vour f a it.i, win DC strengthened. Chkys. The disciples 
lxii. 2. all dreaded the Jews; and especially Thomas; Then said 
Thomas, uhich is called Didymus, unto his fellow-disciples, 
Let us also go, that we may die with him. But he who was 
now the most weak and unbelieving of all the disciples, 
afterwards became stronger than any. And he who dared 
not go to Bethany, afterwards went over the whole earth, in 
the midst of those who wished his death, with a spirit 
indomitable. Bede. The disciples, checked by our Lord's 
answer to them, dared no longer oppose; and Thomas, more 
forward than the rest, says, Let us also go that we may die 
with him. What an appearance of firmness ! He speaks as 
if he could really do what he said; unmindful, like Peter, of 
his frailty. 

17. Then when Jesus came, he found that he had 
lain in the grave four days already. 

18. Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about 
fifteen furlongs off: 

19. And many of the Jews came to Martha and Mary, 
to comfort them concerning their brother. 

20. Then Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus 
was coming, went and met him : but Mary sat still in 
the house. 

•21. Then said Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if thou 
hadst been here, my brother had not died. 



VEH. 17 27. ST. JOHN. 375 

22. But I know, that even now, whatsoever thou wilt 
ask of God, God will give it thee. 

23. Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise 
again. 

24. Martha saith unto him, I know that he shall 
rise again in the resurrection at the last day. 

25. Jesus said unto her, T am the resurrection, and 
the life : he that believeth in me, though he were dead, 
yet shall he live: 

26. And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall 
never die. Believest thou this? 

27. She saith unto him, Yea, Lord: I believe that 
thou art the Christ, the Son of God, which should 
come into the world. 

Alcuin. Our Lord delayed His coining for four days, that 
the resurrection of Lazarus might be the more glorious : Then 
when Jesus came, He found that He had lain in the grave 

four days already. Chrys. Our Lord had stayed two days, Chrys. 
and the messenger had come the day before ; the very day i x ;i. 2. 
on which Lazarus died. This brings us to the fourth day. 
Aug. Of the four days many things may be said. They Aug. 
refer to one thing, but one thing viewed in different ways. x u x .i2. 
There is one day of death which the law of our birth brings 
upon us. Men transgress the natural law, and this is another 
day of death. The written law is given to men by the hands 
of Moses, and that is despised — a third day of death. The 
Gospel comes, and men transgress it — a fourth day of 
death. But Christ doth not disdain to awaken even these. 
Alcuin. The first sin was elation of heart, the second assent, 
the third act, the fourth habit. 

Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about fifteen 

furlongs off. Chrys. Two miles. This is mentioned to Chl T s * 
account for so many coming from Jerusalem: And many qf^ 2 . 
the Jews came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them con- 
cerning their brother. But how could the Jews be consoling 
the beloved of Christ, when they had resolved that whoever 
confessed Christ should be put out of the synagogue? 



:*7(i GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XT. 

Perhaps the extreme affliction of the sisters excited their 
sympathy; Of they wished to shew respect for their rank. 
Or perhaps they who came were of the better sort; as we 
find many of them believed. Their presence is mentioned 
to do away with all doubt of the real death of Lazarus. 
Bed::. Our Lord had not yet entered the town, when Martha 
met Him : Then Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus teas 
coming, went and met Him: but 3Iary sat stilt in the house. 
Chrys. Chrys. Martha does not take her sister with her, because 

U 

xii. 2. she wants to speak with Christ alone, and tell Him what has 
happened. When her hopes had been raised by Him, then 
she went her icay, and called Mary. Theophyl. At first 
she does not tell her sister, for fear, if she camej the Jews 
present might accompany her. And she did not wish them 
to know of our Lord's coming'. 

Then saith Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if Thou hadst been 

Chrys. here, my brother had not died. Chrys. She believed in 

IT 

lxii. 3. Christ, but she believed not as she ought. She did not 
speak as if He were God: If Thou hadst been here, my 
brother had not died. Theophyl. She did not know that He 
could have restored her brother as well absent as present. 

chrys. Chrys. Nor did she know that He wrought His miracles by 

brii.8. His own independent power: But I know that even now, 
whatsoever Thou wilt ask of God, God will give it Thee. 

Aug. She only thinks Him some very gifted man. Aug. She 

Tr.xlix. . . 

13.' 'does not say to Him, Bring my brother to life again; for how 
could she know that it would be good for him to come to life 
again; she says, 1 know that Thou canst do so, if Thou wilt; 
but what Thou wilt do is for Thy judgment, not for my 

Ch-y*. presumption to determine. Chrys. But our Lord taught 

lxliTs. ner tne truths which she did not know: Jesus saith unto her, 
Thy brother shall rise again. Observe, lie does not say, 
I will ask God, that he may rise again, nor on the other 
hand does He say, I want no help, I do all things of Myself; 
a declaration which would have been too much for the woman ; 

Aug. out something between the two, He shall rise again. Aug. 

h. Shall rise again, is ambiguous: for He does not say, now. 
And therefore it follows: Martha saith unto Him, I knoir 
that he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day: 
of that resurrection I am certain; of this I am doubtful* 



vkk. -28— 32. st. john. 377 

Chrys. She had often heard Christ speak of the resurrection. Chrys. 
Jesus now declares His power more plainly: Jesus said unto lxji 
her, I am the resurrection and the life. He needed therefore 
none to help Him; for if He did, how could He be the 
resurrection. And if He is the life, He is not confined by 
place, but is every where, and can heal every where. Alcdin. 
1 am the resurrection, because I am the life ; as through Me 
he will rise at the general resurrection, through Me he may 
rise now. Chrys. To Martha's, Whatsoever Thou shall ask, Chrys. 
He replies, He that believeih in Me, though he were dead,^™' 
yet shall he live: shewing her that He is the Giver of all 
good, and that we must ask of Him. Thus He leads her to 
the knowledge of high truths; and whereas she had been 
enquiring only about the resurrection of Lazarus, tells her of 
a resurrection in which both she and all present would share. 
Aug. He that believeth in Me, though he were dead: i. e. Aug. 
though his flesh die, his soul shall live till the flesh risejg ,x ' 
again, never to die more. For faith is the life of the soul. 

And whosoever liveth, in the flesh, and believeih in Me, 
though he die for a time in the flesh, shall not die eternally. 
Alcuin. Because He hath attained to the life of the Spirit, 
and to an immortal resurrection. Our Lord, from Whom 
nothing was hid, knew that she believed, but sought from 
her a confession unto salvation: Believest thou this? She 
saithunto Him, Yea, Lord, I believe that Thou art the Christ 
the Son of God, which should come into the world. Chrys. Chrys. 
She seems not to have understood His words; i. e. she saw lxi ° m g 
that He meant something great, but did not see what that 
was. She is asked one thing, and answers another. Aug. Aug. 
When I believed that Thou wert the Son of God, I believed Jq'* Ux ' 
that Thou wert the resurrection, that Thou wert life b ; and that 
he that believeth in Thee, though he were dead, shall live. 

28. And when she had so said, she went her way, 
and called Mary her sister secretly, saying, The Master 
is come, and calleth for thee. 

29. And as soon as she heard that, she arose quickly, 
and came unto him. 

b Thus this is an answer to Christ's question, Believes/ thou this? i. e. that 
I am the resurrection and the life. 



378 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO OHAP. XI. 

30. Now Jesus was not yet come into the town, but 
was in that place where Martha met him. 

31. The Jews then which were with her in the house, 
and comforted her, when they saw Mary, that she rose 
up hastily and went out, followed her, saying, She 
goeth unto the grave to weep there. 

32. Then when Mary was come where Jesus was, 
and saw him, she fell down at his feet, saying unto 
him, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had 
not died. 

Chrys. Chrys. Christ's words had the effect of stopping Martha's 

lxii. 3. grief. In her devotion to her Master she had no time to 

think of her afflictions: And when she had so said, she went 

Aug. h er way, and called Mary her sister secretly. Aug. Silently l , 

16. i. e. speaking in a low voice. For she did speak, saying, 

a<*^« 2%e Master is come, and callethfor thee. Chrys. She calls 

V. her sister secretly, in order not to let the Jews know that 

Hom! Christ was coming. For had they known, they would have: 

lxii. gone, and not been witnesses of the miracle. Aug. We may 

Aug. observe that the Evangelist has not said, where, or when, or 

Tr. xhx. how, the Lord called Mary, but for brevity's sake has left it 

to be gathered from Martha's words. Throphyl. Perhaps 

she thought the presence of Christ in itself a call, as if it 

were inexcusable, when Christ came, that she should not go 

Chrys. out to meet Him. Chrys. While the rest sat around her in 

bdlL 1. ner sorrow, she did not wait for the Master to come to her, 

but, not letting her grief detain her, rose immediately to meet 

Him; As soon as she heard that, she arose quickly, and came 

Aug. unto Him. Aug. So we see, if she had known of His arrival 

non occ' before, she would not have let Martha go without her. 

Now Jesus was not yet come into the toivn, but was in that 

Chrys. place where Mar/ha met Him. Chrys. He went slowly, 
Horn. , ¥T . , , , . 

lxiii. i. that lie might not seem to catch at an occasion ol working 

a miracle, but to have it forced upon Him by others asking. 

Mary, it is said, arose quickly, and thus anticipated His 

coming. The Jews accompanied her: The Jens that which 

were with her in the house, and comforted her, when they 

saw Mary that she arose up hastily and went out, followed 



VER. 33 — 41. ST. JOHN. 379 

her, saying, She goeth unto the grave to weep there. Aug. Aug. 
The Evangelist mentions this to shew how it was that so j 6 ' 
many were present at Lazarus' resurrection, and witness of 
that great miracle. 

Then when Mary was come where Jesus was, and saw 
Hint, she fell down at His feet. Chuys. She is more fervent Cbrys. 
than her sister. Forgetful of the crowd around her, and ofixin.i. 
the Jews, some of whom were enemies to Christ, she threw 
herself at her Master's feet. In His presence all earthly 
things were nought to her; she thought of nothing but giving 
Him honour. Theophyl. But her faith seems as yet im- 
perfect: Lord, if Thou hadst been here, my brother had not 
died. Alcuin. As if to say, Lord, while Thou wert with us, 
no disease, no sickness dared to shew itself, amongst those 
with whom the Life deigned to take up His abode. Aug. Aug. 
O faithless assembly! Whilst Thou art yet in the world, ^Jm**' 
Lazarus Thy friend dieth! If the friend dies, what will the s. lii. 
enemy suppose? Is it a small thing that they will not serve 
Thee upon earth? lo, hell hath taken Thy beloved. Bede. 
Mary did not say so much as Martha, she could not bring 
out what she wanted for weeping, as is usual with persons 
overwhelmed with sorrow. 

33. When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and 
the Jews also weeping which came with her, he groaned 
in the spirit, and was troubled, 

34. And said, Where have ye laid him? They 
said unto him, Lord, come and see. 

35. Jesus wept. 

36. Then said the Jews, Behold how he loved him ! 

37. And some of them said, Could not this man, 
which opened the eyes of the blind, have caused that 
even this man should not have died ? 

38. Jesus therefore again groaning in himself 
cometh to the grave. It was a cave, and a stone lay 
upon it. 

39. Jesus said, Take ye away the stone. Martha, 
the sister of him that was dead, saith unto him, Lord, 



ggO OOSPBL ACCORDING TO CHAP. \J. 

by this time he stinkcth: for he hatli been dead four 
days. 

40. Jesus saith unto her, Said I not unto thee, that, 
if thou wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the glory 
of God? 

41. Then they took away the stone from the place 
where the dead was laid. 

Chrys. Chrys. Christ did not answer Mary, as He had her 
l H *^r"i sister, on account of the people present. In condescension to 
them He humbled Himself, and let His human nature be 
seen, in order to gain them as witnesses to the miracle : 
When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and the Jews also 
weeping which came with her, He groaned in His spirit, and 
Aug. was troubled. Aug. For who but Himself could trouble 
x " Him ? Christ was troubled, because it pleased Him to be 
troubled; He hungered, because it pleased Him to hunger. 
It was in His own power to be affected in this or that way, 
or not. The Word look up soul and flesh, and whole man, 
and tjtted it to Himself in unity of person. And thus ac- 
cording to the nod and will of that higher nature in Him, in 
which the sovereign power resides, He becomes weak and 
troubled. Theophyl. To prove His human nature He 
sometimes gives it free vent, while at other times He com- 
mands, and restrains it by the power of the Holy Ghost. 
Our Lord allows His nature to be affected in these ways, 
both to prove that He is very Man, not Man in appearance 
only; and also to teach us by His own example the due 
measures of joy and grief. For the absence altogether of 
sympathy and sorrow is brutal, the excess of them is 
womanly. 
Aug. Aug. And said, Where have ye laid him ? He knew where, 

Dom? 1 "" but ^ e as kcd to try the faith of the people. Chrys. He did 
s ; '»'• not wish to thrust the miracle upon them, but to make them 
Hom. ask for it, and thus do away with all suspicions. Aug. The 
lxm. 1. q Ues tion has an allusion too to our hidden calling. That 
lib. 83. predestination by which we are called, is hidden; and the 
aalxv ^S 11 of its being so is our Lord asking the question: He 
being as it were in ignorance, so long as we are ign o r a nt 



VER. 33 41. ST. JOHN. 381 

ourselves. Or because our Lord elsewhere shews that He 
knows not sinners, saying, I know you not, because in keep- | Iatt - "> 
ing His commandments there is no sin. 

They said unto Him, Lord, come and see. Chrvs. He Chrys. 

i • /• j Horn, 

had not yet raised any one from the dead; and seemed as i x iii. l. 

if He came to weep, not to raise to life. Wherefore they 

say to Him, Come and see. Aug. The Lord sees when He Aug. 

pities, as we read, Look upon my adversity and misery, and 2 Q* ,x ' 

forgive me all my sin. Ps. 24, 

Jesus wept. Alcuin. Because He was the fountain of 

pity. He wept in His human nature for him whom He was 

able to raise again by His divine. Aug. Wherefore did Aug. 

Christ weep, but to teach men to weep ? Bede. It is cus- n o n *cc.' 

tomary to mourn over the death of friends ; and thus the 

Jews explained our Lord's weeping : Then said the Jews, 

Behold how He loved him. Aug. Loved him. Our Lord Aug. 

came not to call the righteous but sinners to repentance. 2 [ # ' x 1X ' 

And some of them said, Could not this Man which opened the 

eyes of the blind, have caused that even this man should not 

have died? He was about to do more than this, to raise 

him from death. Chrys. It was His enemies who said Chrys. 

this. The very works, which should have evidenced His] x jij,i # 

power, they turn against Him, as if He had not really done 

them. This is the way that they speak of the miracle of 

opening the eyes of the man that was born blind. They 

even prejudge Christ before He has come to the grave, and 

have not the patience to wait for the issue of the matter. 

Jesus therefore again groaning in Himself, cometh to the 

grave. That He wept, and He groaned, are mentioned to 

shew us the reality of His human nature. John who enters 

into higher statements as to His nature than any of the 

other Evangelists, also descends lower than any in describing 

His bodily affections. Aug. And do thou too groan in thyself, Aug. 

if thou wouldest rise to new life. To every man is this said, rr - xl,x - 

who is weighed down by any vicious habit. // was a cave, 

and a stone lay upon it. The dead under the stone is the 

guilty under the Law. For the Law, which was given to the 

Jews, was graven on stone. And all the guilty are under the 

Law, for the Law was not made for a righteous man. Bede. 



882 GOSPKL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XI. 

A cave is a hollow in a rock. It is called a monument, 

because it reminds us of the dead. 

Chrys. Jesus said, Take ye away the stone. Chrys. But why 

brill? 2. ^ ^ e llot ra ' se min without taking away the stone ? Could 

not He who moved a dead body by His voice, much more 

have moved a stone ? He purposely did not do so, in order 

that the miracle might take place in the sight of all ; to 

give no room for saying, as they had said in the case of the 

blind man, This is not he. Now they might go into the 

Au &\. grave, and feel and see that this was the man. Aug. Take 

c. 22. ye away the stone ; mystically, Take away the burden of the 

Aug. law, proclaim grace. Aug. Perhaps those are signified who 

Quspst. wished to impose the rite of circumcision on the Gentile 

qu. 61. converts; or men in the Church of corrupt life, who offend 

Aug. believers. Aug. Mary and Martha, the sisters of Lazarus, 

Dom. 6r though they had often seen Christ raise the dead, did not 

serm.lii. fully believe that He could raise their brother; Martha, the 

sister of him that was dead, saith unto Him, Lord, by this 

time he stinketh, for he hath been dead four days. The- 

ophyl. Martha said this from weakness of faith, thinking it 

impossible that Christ could raise her brother, so long 

Bede. after death. Bede. Or, these are not words of despair, but 

(Nic.) °f wonder. Chrys. Thus every thing tends to stop the 

Chrys. mouths of the unbelieving. Their hands take away the 

lxiii. 2. stone, their ears hear Christ's voice, their eyes see Lazarus 

come forth, they perceive the smell of the dead body. The- 

ophyl. Christ reminds Martha of what He had told her 

before, which she had forgotten: Jesus saith unto her, Said I 

not. unto thee, that, if thou uouldest believe, thou shouldest 

Chrys. see the glory of God? Chrys. She did not remember what 

l x ijj ' He said above, He that belicrcth in Me, though he were 

dead, yet shall he live. To the disciples He had said, 

That the Son of God might be glorified thereby ; here it is 

the glory of the Father He speaks of. The difference is 

made to suit the different hearers. Our Lord could not 

rebuke her before such a number, but only says, Thou shall 

Aug. see the glory of God. Aug. Herein is the glory of God, 

'that he that stinketh and hath been dead four days, is 

brought to life again. 



VER. 4l — 46. ST. JOHN. 383 

Then they took away the stone. Origen. The delay inorig. 
taking away the stone was caused by the sister of the dead, who j™^ in 
said, By this time he stinkelh,for he hath been dead four win. 
days. If she had not said this, it would not be said, Jesus 
said, Take away the stone. Some delay had arisen ; it is best 
to let nothing come between the commands of Jesus and 
doing them. 

41. And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and said, Father, 
I thank thee that thou hast heard me. 

42. And I knew that thou hearest me always : but 
because of the people which stand by I said it, that 
they may believe that thou hast sent me. 

43. And when he thus had spoken, he cried with a 
loud voice, Lazarus, come forth. 

44. And he that was dead came forth, bound hand 
and foot with graveclothes : and his face was bound 
about with a napkin. Jesus saith unto them, Loose 
him, and let him go. 

45. Then many of the Jews which came to Mary, 
and had seen the things which Jesus did, believed on 
him. 

46. But some of them went their ways to the 
Pharisees, and told them what things Jesus had done. 

Alcuin. Christ, as man, being inferior to the Father, prays 
to Him for Lazarus's resurrection ; and declares that He is 
heard : And Jesus lifted up His eyes, and said, Father, I 
thank Thee that Thou hast heard Me. Origen. He lifted Orig. 
up His eyes; mystically, He lifted up the human mind by^"^ 
prayer to the Father above. We should pray after Christ's 
pattern, Lift up the eyes of our heart, and raise them above 
present things in memory, in thought, in intention. If to 
them who pray worthily after this fashion is given the 
promise in Isaiah, Thou shalt cry, and He shall say, Herei SSi ^ 8 
I ant; what answer, think we, our Lord and Saviour 9 - 
would receive ? He was about to pray for the resurrection of 
Lazarus. He was heard by the Father before He prayed ; 



9&4 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO DHAP. XI. 

His request was granted before mad*. And therefore !!<• 
begins with giving thanks J / tlutnk Thee, Father, that Thou 
Chrys. hast heard Me. Chhys. i. e. There is no difference of will 
Ixiv. 9. between Me and Thee. Thou has/ heard Me, does not shew 
any lack of power in Him, or that He is inferior to the 
Father. It is a phrase that is used between friends and 
equals. That the prayer is not really necessary for Him, 
appears from the words that follow, And I knew that Thou 
heardest Me always: as if He said, I need not prayer to 
persuade Thee ; for Ours is one will. He hides His meaning on 
account of the weak faith of His hearers. For God regards 
not so much His own dignity, sis our salvation ; and therefore 
seldom speaks loftily of Himself, and, even when He does, 
speaks m an obscure way; whereas humble expressions 
Hilar, abound in His discourses. Hilary. He did not therefore 
i Jo ne ed to pray: He prayed for ~bur sakes, that we might 
know Him to be the Son: But because of the people which 
stand by I said it, that they may believe that Thou hast 
sent Me. His prayer did not benefit Himself, but benefited 
our faith. He did not want help, but we want instruction. 
Chrys. Chrys. He did not say, That they may believe that I am 
hdr. S. inferi 01 " to Thee, in that I cannot do this without prayer, but, 
that Thou hast sent Me. He saith not, hast sent Me weak, 
acknowledging subjection, doing nothing of Myself, but 
hast sent Me in such sense, as that man may see that I am 
from God, not contrary to God; and that I do this miracle in 
Aug. accordance with His will. Aug. Christ went to the grave 
Dom 6rb '* n *kich Lazarus slept, as if He were not dead, but alive and 
Serm. able to hear, for He forthwith called him out of his grave: 
And when He had thus spoken, He cried with a low/ voice, 
Lazarus, come forth. He calls him by name, that He may 
Chrys. not bring out all the dead. Chrys. He does not say, Arise, 
lxiv" 1 ;, but, Come forth, speaking to the dead as if he were alive. 
For which reason also He does not say, Come forth in My 
Father's name, or, Father, raise him, but throwing off the 
whole appearance of one praying, proceeds to shew His 
power by acts. This is Mis general way. His words shew 
humility, His acts power. Thkophyl. The voice which 
roused Lazarus, is the symbol of that trumpet which will 
sound at the general resurrection. (He spoke loud, to con- 



VER. 41 — 46. ST. JOHN. 3S5 

tradict the Gentile fable, that the soul remained in the 
tomb. The soul of Lazarus is called to as if it were absent, 
and a loud voice were necessary to summon it.) And as the 
general resurrection is to take place in the twinkling of an 
eye, so did this single one: And he that was dead came 
forth, bound hand and foot with grave clothes, and Ids face 
teas bound about with a napkin. Now is accomplished 
what was said above, The hour is coming, when the deady.%5- 
shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear 
shall live. Origen. His cry and loud voice it was which Orig. 

t.xxviii 

awoke him, as Christ had said, / go to awake him. The 
resurrection of Lazarus is the work of the Father also, in that 
He heard the prayer of the Son. It is the joint work of Father 
and Son, one praying, the other hearing; for as the Father v. 21. 
raiseth up the dead and quickeneth them, even so the Son 
quickeneth whom He will. Chrys. He came forth bound, Chrys. 
that none might suspect that he was a mere phantom. Besides, lx °™" 
that this very fact, viz. of coming forth bound, was itself a 
miracle, as great as the resurrection. Jesus saifh unto litem, 
Loose him, that by going near and touching him they might be 
certain he was the very person. And let him go. His hximi- 
lity is shewn here; He does not take Lazarus about with Him 
for the sake of display. Origen. Our Lord had said above, Orig. 
Because of the people that stand by I said it, that they may •^ XY111 * 
believe that Thou hast sent Me. It would have been ignorance 
of the future, if He had said this, and none believed, after all. 
Therefore it follows : Tlien many of the Jews which came to 
Mary, and had seen the things which Jesus did, believed on 
Him. But some of them went their way to the Pharisees, and 
told them what things Jesus had done. It is doubtful from 
these words, whether those who went to the Pharisees, were of 
those many who believed, and meant to conciliate the oppo- 
nents of Christ ; or whether they were of the unbelieving party, 
and wished to inflame the envy of the Pharisees against Him. 
The latter seems to me the true supposition; especially as the 
Evangelist describes those who believed as the larger party. 
Many believed; whereas it is only a few who go to the Phari- 
sees: Some of them tcent to the Pharisees, and told them 
what things Jesus had done. Aug. Although according toAug.Hb. 
the Gospel history, we hold that Lazarus was really raised toi?**" 1, 

2 c q. 65. 



386 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XI. 

life, yet I doubt not that his resurrection is an allegory as 

well. We do not, because we allegorize; facts, lose our belief 

Aug. j n them as facts. Aug. Every one that sinnetb, dies; but 

J r.super . , . 

Joan. God, of His great mercy, raises the soul to life again, and 

xiix. 3. ( | ocs not suffer it to die eternally. The three miraculous 

resurrections in the Gospels, I understand to testify the resur- 

Greg.iv. rection of the soul. Greg. The maiden is restored to life in 

o. xxix. tne house, the young man outside the gate, Lazarus in his 

grave. She that lies dead in the house, is the sinner lying in 

sin: he that is carried out by the gate is the openly and noto- 

Aug. riously wicked. Aug. Or, it is death within ; when the evil 

3# " x * thought has not come out into action. But if thou actually 

do the evil thing, thou hast as it were carried the dead outside 

G ^g. the gate. Greg. And one there is who lies dead in his grave, 

'with a load of earth upon him; i. e. who is weighed down 

by habits of sin. But the Divine grace has regard even unto 

Aug.iib.such, and enlightens them. Aug. Or we may take Lazarus 

Quwst * n tne grave as the soul laden with earthly sins. Aug. And 

q. lxv. y e t our Lord loved Lazarus. For had He not loved sinners, 

inToan.He would never have come down from heaven to save them. 

Tr.xiix. \y e ]i 1S it said of one of sinful habits, that He stinketh. He 

pessi- 

mam hath a bad report already, as it were the foulest odour. 
^ ma j n , Aug. Well may she say, He hath been dead four days, 
lxxxiii. For the earth is the last of the elements. It signifies the pit 
qTclif' of earthly sins, i. e. carnal lusts. Aug. The Lord groaned, 
Au g- wept, cried with a loud voice. It is hard for Him to arise, 
in Joan, who is bowed down with the weight of evil habits. Christ 
xhx. 19. troubleth Himself, to signify to thee that thou shouldcst be 
troubled, when thou art pressed and weighed down with such 
a mass of sin. Faith groaneth, he that is displeased with 
himself groaneth, and accuseth his own evil deeds; that so 
the habit of sin may yield to the violence of repentance. 
When thou sayest, 1 have done such a thing, and God has 
spared me; I have heard the Gospel, and despised it; what 
shall 1 do? then Christ groaneth, because faith groaneth; 
and in the voice of thy groaning appeareth the hope of thy 
Greg, vising again. Greg. Lazarus is bid to come forth, i. e. to 
Moral, come forth and condemn himself with his own mouth, with- 
out excuse or reservation: that so he that lies buried in a 
guilty conscience, may conic forth out of himself by confession. 



vkk. 47 — 53. st. john. 387 

Aug. That Lazarus came forth from the grave, signifies the Aug.iib. 
soul's deliverance from carnal sins. That he came bound q**^" 
up in grave clothes means, that even we who are delivered q.68. 
from carnal things, and serve with the mind the law of God, 
yet cannot, so long as we are in the body, be free from the 
besetments of the flesh. That his face was bound about 
with a napkin means, that we do not attain to full knowledge 
in this life. And when our Lord says, Loose him, and let 
him go, we learn that in another world all veils will be 
removed, and that we shall see face to face. Aug. Or thus: Aug. 
When thou despisest, thou liest dead; when thou confessest, r,x lx ' 
thou comest forth. For what is to come forth, but to go out, 
as it were, of thy hiding place, and shew thyself? But thou 
canst not make this confession, except God move thee to it, 
by crying with a loud voice, i. e. calling thee with great 
grace. But even after the dead man has come forth, he 
remains bound for some time, i. e. is as yet only a penitent. 
Then our Lord says to His ministers, Loose him, and let him 
go, i. e. remit his sins: Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth Matt. 
shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever ye shall loose on ' ' 
earth shall be loosed in heaven. Alcuin. Christ awakes, 
because His power it is which quickens us inwardly: the 
disciples loose, because by the ministry of the priesthood, 
they who are quickened are absolved. Bede. By those who 
went and told the Pharisees, are meant those who seeing the 
good works of God's servants, hate them on that very account, 
persecute, and calumniate them. 



47. Then gathered the chief priests and the Phari- 
sees a council, and said, What do we? for this man 
doeth many miracles. 

48. If we let him thus alone, all men will believe on 
him: and the Romans shall come and take away both 
our place and nation. 

49. And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the 
high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know 
nothing at all, 

50. Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that 

2 c2 



388 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XI. 

one man should die for the people, and that the whole 
nation perish not. 

51. And this spake he not of himself: but being 
high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should 
die for that nation; 

52. And not for that nation only, but that also he 
should gather together in one the children of God that 
were scattered abroad. 

53. Then from that day forth they took counsel 
together for to put him to death. 

Theophyl. Such a miracle as this should have drawn 

forth wonder and praise. But they make it a reason of 

plotting against His life : Then gathered the chief priests 

Aog. and Pharisees a council, and said, What do we? Aug. 

Tr *g lix But they had no thought of believing. The miserable men 

only consulted how they might hurt and kill Him, not how 

themselves might be saved from death. What do we? for 

Chrys. this Man doeth many miracles. Chrys. Him of whose 

lxiv™ divinity they had received such certain proofs, they call only 

c 3. a man. Origen. This speech is an evidence of their auda- 

t.xf viii. city and blindness : of their audacity, because they testified 

c - 1K that He had done many miracles, and yet thought that they 

could contend successfully against Him, and that He would 

have no power of withstanding their plots; of their blindness, 

because they did not reflect that He who had wrought such 

miracles could easily escape out of their hands; unless 

indeed they denied that these miracles were done by Divine 

power. They resolved then not to let Him go; thinking 

that they should thus place an impediment in the way of 

those who wished to believe in Him, and also prevent the 

Romans from taking away their place and nation. If we let 

Him thus alone, all men will believe on Him, and the 

Romans shall come and take away both our place and 

Chrys. nation. Chrys. They say this to alarm the people; as if 

, H .° m " they were incurring the suspicion of setting up an usurper. 

If, say they, the Romans in crowds follow Him, they will 

suspect us of setting up a tyranny, and will destroy our 

state. But this was wholly a fiction of their own. For what 



ver. 47 — 53. st. John. 3S9 

was the fact ? Did He take armed men about with Him, 
did He go with horsemen in His train ? Did He not rather 
choose desert places to go to ? However, that they might not 
be suspected of consulting only their own interests, they 
declare the whole state is in danger. Aug. Or, they were Au g- 
afraid that, if all believed in Christ, none would remain to 26. 
defend the city of God and the temple against the Romans : 
since they thought that Christ's teaching was directed 
against the temple, and their laws. They were afraid of 
losing temporal things, and thought not of eternal life; and 
thus they lost both. For the Romans, after our Lord had 
suffered and was glorified, did come and take away their 
place and nation, reducing the one by siege, and dispersing 
the other. Origen. Mystically: It was fit that the Gentiles Orig. 
should occupy the place of them of the circumcision ; be- 
cause by their fall salvation came to the Gentiles. The non occ. 
Romans represent the Gentiles, being the rulers of the Gentile 
world. Their nation again was taken away, because they 
who had been the people of God, were made not a people. 
Chrys. When they hesitated, and asked, What do we? one Chrys. 
of them gave most cruel and shameless. advice, viz. Caia-\^' 
phas, who was 1 High Priest that same year. Aug. How is lbein g 
it that he is called the High Priest of that year, when God Tr.xlix. 
appointed one hereditary High Priest ? This was owing to 
the ambition and contention of parties amongst the Jews 
themselves, which had ended in the appointment of several 
High Priests, who took the office in turn, year by year. And 
sometimes even there seems to have been more than one in 
office. Alcuin. Of this Caiaphas Josephus relates, that he 
bought the priesthood for a year, for a certain sum. Ortgen. Orig. 
"The character of Caiaphas is shewn by his being called ihe^ ***' 
High Priest of that same year; the year, viz. in which our 
Saviour suffered. Being the High Priest that same year, he 
said unto them, Ye know nothing at all, nor consider thai 
it is expedient for us that one man should die for the 
people, and that the whole nation perish not. i.e. Ye sitnon occ. 
still, and give no attention. Attend to me. So insignificant 
a thing as the life of one man may surely be made a sacrifice 

a Origen's words are, All the Evan- phas, who was High Priest of the 
gelists describe the wickedness of Caia- year in which our Saviour suffered. 



390 QOBPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XJ. 

for the safety of the state. Theophyl. He said this with a 
bad intention, yet the Holy Spirit used his mouth as the 
vehicle of a prophecy: And this spake he not of himself: 
but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus 
Orig. should die for that nation. Origen. Not every one that 
xxviii. prophesicth is a prophet ; as not every one that does a just 
c. 12. action is just, he, for example, that does one for vainglory. 
Caiaphas prophesied without being a prophet, as did Balaam. 
Perhaps some will deny that Caiaphas prophesied by the 
Holy Spirit, on the ground that evil spirits may bear witness 
Luke 4, t Christ, as the one in Luke, who says, / know Thee who 
Thou art, the Holy One of God; the intention of Caiaphas 
too being not to induce his hearers to believe on Him, but 
c 14. to excite them to kill Him. It is expedient for us. Is 
this part of his prophecy true or false? If it is true, then 
those who contended against Jesus in the council, since 
Jesus died for the people, and they participate in the 
advantage of His death, are saved. This you say is absurd ; 
and thence argue that the prophecy is false, and, if false, not 
dictated by the Holy Spirit, since the Holy Spirit does not lie. 
On the other side it is argued, for the truth of the prophecy, 
Heb. 2, that these words only meant that He by the grace of God 
i Tim should taste death for all men; that He is the Saviour of 
4, io. all men, specially of them that believe. And in the same 
way the former part of the speech, Ye know nothing at all, 
is made out to be an assertion of the truth. They knew 
nothing of Jesus, who did not know that He was truth, 
wisdom, justice, and peace. And again, That one man 
should die for the people. It was as man that He died for 
the people: in so far as He is the image of the invisible God, 
He was incapable of death. And He died for the people, in 
that He took upon Himself, made away with, blotted out the 
c. 15. sins of the whole world. And this spake he not of himself 
1 Iencc we see, what men say sometimes proceeds from them- 
st 'Ives, sometimes from the influence of some power upon 
them. In the latter case though they may not be taken 
(piite out of themselves, and in a certain sense go along with 
their own words, yet they do not go along with the meaning 
of them. Thus Caiaphas says nothing of himself; and there- 
lore docs not interpret Ins own prophecy, because he docs 



VER. 54 — 57. ST. JOHN. 391 

not understand it. Thus Paul too speaks of some teachers l Tim. 
of the law, who understand neither what they say, nor *" 
whereof they affirm. Aug. We learn hence that even bad Aug. 
men may foretell things to come by the spirit of prophecy, 37.' 
which power the Evangelist ascribes to a divine sacrament, 
he being Pontifex, i.e. High Priest. Chrys. See the great Chrys. 
virtue of the Holy Spirit, in drawing forth a prophecy from aj xv [ % 
wicked man. And see too the virtue of the pontifical office, 
which made him, though an unworthy High Priest, uncon- 
sciously prophesy. Divine grace only used his mouth; it 
touched not his corrupt heart. Aug. Caiaphas prophesied of ™ ug * r 
the Jewish nation alone ; in which nation were the sheep, of 27. 
which our Lord says, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep Matt. 
of the house of Israel. But the Evangelist knew that there °' 
were other sheep, not of this fold, which were to be brought 
in, and therefore adds, And not for that nation only, but 
also that He should gather together in one the children of 
God that were scattered abroad ; i. e. those who were pre- 
destined to be so: for as yet there were neither sheep, nor 
children of God. Greg. His persecutors accomplished this Greg.vi. 
wicked purpose, and put Him to death, thinking to ex- 
tinguish the devotion of His followers ; but faith grew from 
the very thing which these cruel and unbelieving men 
thought would destroy it. That which human cruelty had 
executed against Him, He turned to the purposes of His 
mercy. Origen. Inflamed by the speech of Caiaphas, they Orig. 
determined on killing our Lord: Tlien from that day forth^^'in. 
they took counsel together to put Him to death. Was this c - 1 7. 
then the work of the Holy Spirit, as well as the former, or 
was it another spirit which did both first speak by the mouth 
of a wicked man, and then excite others like him to kill 
Christ? Answer: It is not necessary that both should be the 
work of the same spirit. As some turn the Scriptures them- 
selves, which were given for our good, to the support of bad 
doctrines ; so this true prophecy respecting our Saviour was 
understood in a wrong sense, as if it were a call to put Him 
to death. Chrys. They sought before to kill Him; uow Chr >' s - 
their resolution was confirmed. i xv . f. 

54. Jesus therefore walked no more openly among 



392 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XI 

the Jews; but went thence unto a country near to the 
wilderness, into a city called Ephraim, and there con- 
tinued with his disciples. 

55. And the Jews' passover was nigh at hand : and 
many went out of the country up to Jerusalem before 
the passover, to purify themselves. 

5(5. Then sought they for Jesus, and spake among 
themselves, as they stood in the temple, What think 
ye, that he will not come to the feast P 

57. Now both the chief priests and the Pharisees 
had given a commandment, that, if any man knew 
where he were, he should shew it, that they might take 
him. 

Ong. Origin. After this resolution of the Chief Priests and 

j' 8 ' Pharisees, Jesus was more cautious in shewing Himself 
among the Jews, and retired to remote parts, and avoided 
populous places: Jesus therefore walked no more openly 
among the Jews; but went thence into a country near 

Aug. to the wilderness, into a city called Ephraim. Aug. 

28# ' 'Not that His power had failed Him; for, had He pleased, 
He might still have walked openly among the Jews, and they 
done nothing to Him. But He wished to shew the disciples, 
by His own example, that believers did not sin by letiring 
out of the sight of their persecutors, and hiding themselves 
from the fury of the wicked, rather than inflame that fury by 

p n 8\.. their presence. Origen. It is praiseworthy, when struggles 

18. are at hand, not to avoid confession, or refuse to suffer 
death for the truth's sake. And it is no less praiseworthy 
now to avoid giving occasion for such trial. Which we 
should take care to do, not only on account of the uncertainty 
of the event of a trial in our own case, but also not to be the 
occasion of increasing the impiety and guilt of others. For 
he who is the cause of sin in another, shall be punished. If 
we do not avoid our persecutor, when we have the oppor- 
tunity, we make ourselves responsible for his offence. But 
our Lord not only retired Himself, but to remove all occasion 
of offence from His persecutors, took His disciples with 

Hom, Him: And there stayed with His disciples. Chrvs. How 

Ixv. 2. 



veh. 34 — 87. st. john. 393 

must it have troubled the disciples to see Him save Himself 
by merely human means? Whileall were rejoicingand keeping 
the feast, they remained hid, and in danger. Yet they con- 
tinued with Him ; as we read in Luke, Ye are they which have Luke22, 
continued with Me in My temptations. Origen. Mystically, Orig. 
Jesus walked openly among the Jews, when the Word of*'*™ 1 '* 
God used to come to them by the Prophets. But this Word 
ceased, i. e. Jesus went thence. And He went to that town 
near the wilderness, whereof Isaiah says, More are the i s .54, l. 
children of the desolate, than the children of the married 
wife. Ephraim signifies fertility. Ephraim was the younger 
brother of Manasses: Manasses stands for the elder people 
forgotten; the word Manasses meaning forgotten. When the 
elder people were forgotten and passed over, there came an 
abundant harvest from the Gentiles. Our Lord left the 
Jews, and went forth into a country — the whole world — 
near the wilderness, the deserted Church 1 , to Ephraim, the ■ \yyh 
fruitful city; and there continues with His disciples up to r " y,f "' 
this day. Aug. He who came from heaven to suffer, wished «**>■»»• 
to draw near the place of His Passion, His hour being now '&*' 
at hand: And the Jews' passover was nigh at hand. That Tr *l* 2< 
passover they had resolved to celebrate by shedding our 
Lord's blood ; the blood which consecrated the Passover, the 
blood of the Lamb. The Law obliged every one to go up to 
the feast: And many went out of the country up to Jerusalem 
before the passover to purify them. But ours is the true 
Passover; the Jewish one was a shadow. The Jews held 
their passover in the dark, we in the light: their posts were 
stained with the blood of a slain animal, our foreheads are 
signed with the blood of Christ. Theophyl. They went up 
before the passover, to be purified. For whoever had sinned 
willingly or unwillingly could not keep the passover, unless 
they were first purified by washings, fastings, and shaving of 
the head, and also offering certain stated oblations. While 
engaged in these purifications, they were plotting our Lord's 
death : Then sought they for Jesus, and spake among them- 
selves, as they stood in the temple, What think ye, that He 
will not come to the feast? Chkys. They lay in wait for Chrys. 
Him at the passover, and made the feast time the time of* Hom ' 
His death. Origen. Wherefore the Evangelist does not Orig. 

t.xxviii. 



394 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. JOHN. CHAP. XI 

call it the Lord's passover, but the Jews' passover. For then 
it was that they plotted our Lord's death. Alcuin. They 
sought Jesus with bad intent. We seek Him, standing in 
God's temple, mutually encouraging one another, and praying 
Him to come to our feast, and sanctify us by His presence. 
Theophyl. If the common people only had done these things, 
the Passion would have seemed owing to men's ignorance ; 
but the Pharisees it is, who order Him to be taken : Now both 
the chief priests and the Pharisees had given a commandment ', 
that, if any man knew where He were, he should shew it, that 
Orig. they might take Him. Origen. Observe, they did not know 
xxviii. where He was; they knew that He had gone away. Mys- 
tically, they did not know where He was, because, in the 
place of the divine commandments, they taught the doctrines 
Aug. and commandments of men. Aug. Let us at least shew the 
* 4 'Jews where He is; O that they would hear, that they would 
come to the Church, and take hold of Him for themselves ! 



CHAP. XII. 

1. Then Jesus six days before the passover came to 
Bethany, where Lazarus was which had been dead, 
whom he raised from the dead. 

2. There they made him a supper: and Martha 
served : but Lazarus was one of them that sat at the 
table with him. 

3. Then took Mary a pound of ointment of spikenard, 
very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped 
his feet with her hair : and the house was filled with 
the odour of the ointment. 

4. Then saith one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, 
Simon's son, which should betray him, 

5. Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred 
pence, and given to the poor? 

6. This he said, not that he cared for the poor ; but 
because he was a thief, and had the bag, and bare what 
was put therein. 

7. Then said Jesus, Let her alone : against the day 
of my burying hath she kept this. 

8. For the poor always ye have with you ; but me ye 
have not always. 

9. Much people of the Jews therefore knew that he 
was there : and they came not for Jesus' sake only, 
but that they might see Lazarus also, whom he had 
raised from the dead. 

10. But the chief priests consulted that they might 
put Lazarus also to death : 

11. Because that by reason of him many of the 
Jews went away, and believed on Jesus. 



396 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XII. 

Alcuin. As the time approached in which our Lord had 
resolved to suffer, He approached the place which He had 
chosen for the scene of His suffering : Then Jesus six days 
before the passover came to Bethany. First, He went to 
Bethany, then to Jerusalem; to Jerusalem to suffer, to 
Bethany to keep alive the recollection of the recent resurrec- 
tion of Lazarus; Where Lazarus was, which had been dead, 
whom He raised from the dead. Theophyl. On the tenth 
day of the month they took the lamb which was to be 
sacrificed on the passover, and from that time began the 
preparation for the feast. Or rather the ninth day of the 
month, i. e. six days before the passover, was the commence- 
ment of the feast. They feasted abundantly on that day. Thus 
we find Jesus partook of a banquet at Bethany: There they 
made Him a supper, and Martha served. That Martha 
served, shews that the entertainment was in her house. See 
the fidelity of the woman: she does not leave the task of 
serving to the domestics, but takes it upon herself. The 
Evangelist adds, in order, it would seem, to settle Lazarus' 
resurrection beyond dispute, But Lazarus was one of them 

Aug. that sat at the table with Him. Aug. He lived, talked, 
' feasted; the truth was established, the unbelief of the Jews 

Chrys. confounded. Chrys. Mary did not take part in serving the 

Horn. „ , •». i • ? , 

Uv. guests generally, but gave all her attention to our Lord, 

treating Him not as mere man, but as God: Then took Mary 

a pound of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of 

Aug. Jesus, and wiped His feet with her hair. Aug. The word 

pistici seems to be the name of some place, from which this 

precious ointment came. Alcuin. Or pistici means genuine, 

non-adulterated. She is the woman that was a sinner, who 

came to our Lord in Simon's house with the box of ointment. 

Au g- Aug. That she did this on another occasion in Bethany is 

Evang. not mentioned in Luke's Gospel, but is in the other three. 

n.ixxix. Matthew and Mark say that the ointment was poured on the 

head, John says, on the feet. Why not suppose that it was 

c.lxxviii. poured both on the head, and on the feet? Matthew arid 

Mat 26, Mark introduce the supper and the ointment out of place in 

MarkH * nc wfer of time. When they are some way farther on in their 

•'*• narration", they go back to the sixth day before the passover. 

And the lumse was filled with the odour of the ointment 

» within two days of the crucifixion. 



VER. ] — 11. ST. JOHN. 397 

Aug. Remember the Apostle's words: To the one we are Aug. 

Tr 1 

the savour of death unto death; and to the other the savour of 2 c 0T . 
life unto life. Aug. Then saith one of His disciples, Judas u > l(i - 
Iscariot, Simon's son, which should betray Him, Why wasde Con. 
not this ointment sold for three hundred pence, and given to ?^ an ?* 
the poor? In the other Gospels it is the disciples who(i56.) 
murmured at the waste of the ointment. I think myself that 
Judas is put for the whole body of disciples ; the singular for 
the plural. But at any rate we may supply for ourselves, 
that the other disciples said it, or thought it, or were per- 
suaded by this very speech of Judas. The only difference 
is, that Matthew and Mark expressly mention the concurrence 
of the others, whereas John only mentions Judas, whose 
habit of thieving He takes occasion to notice: This he said, 
not that he cared for the poor, but because he was a thief, 
and had the bag, and bare what was put therein. Alcuin. 
He carried it as a servant, he took it out as a thief. 

Aug. Judas did not perish at the time when he received Aug. 
money from the Jews to betray our Lord. He was already r " " ' 
a thief, already lost, and followed our Lord in body, not in 
heart; wherein we are taught the duty of tolerating wicked 
men, lest we divide the body of Christ. He who robs the 
Church of any thing may be compared to the lost Judas. 
Tolerate the wicked, thou that art good, that thou mayest 
receive the reward of the good, and not fall into the punishment 
of the wicked. Follow the example of our Lord's conversation 
upon earth. Wherefore had He bags, to Whom the Angels 
ministered, except because His Church should afterwards 
have bags ? Why did He admit thieves, but to shew that His 
Church should tolerate thieves, while it suffered from them. 
It is not surprising that Judas, who was accustomed to steal 
money from the bags, should betray our Lord for money. 
Chrys. But why was a thief entrusted with the bags of the Chrys. 
poor? Perhaps it was to give him no excuse of wanting lx °™2 
money, for of this he had enough in the bag for all his desires. 
Theophyl. Some suppose that Judas had the keeping of the 
money, as being the lowest kind of service. For that the 
ministry of money matters ranks below the ministry of doctrine, 
we know from what the Apostle says in the Acts, It is not Acts 6, 
reason that we should leave the word of God, and serve 2 ' 



398 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XII. 

Chrys. tables. Chrys. Christ, with groat forbearance, does not 

lxv. 2. rebuke Judas for his thieving, in order to deprive him of all 
excuse for betraying Him. Alcuin. Then said Jesus, Let 
her alone: against the day of My burying hath she kept 
this: meaning that He was about to die, and that this oint- 
ment was suitable for His burial. So to Mary who was not 
able to be present, though much wishiug, at the anointing of 
the dead body, was it given to do Him this office in His 
lifetime. 

Chrys. Chrys. Again, as if to remind His betrayer, He alludes to 

lxv."2. Hi s burial ; For the poor ye have always with you, but Me ye 
have not always: as if He said, I am a burden, a trouble 

Aug. to thee ; but wait a little, and I shall be gone. Aug. He 

13 'was speaking of His bodily presence; for in respect of His 

majesty, providence, ineffable and invisible grace, those 

Mat. 28, words are fulfilled, Lo, I am with you alway, even unto the 

o.\2. en d °f the world. Or thus: In the person of Judas are 
represented the wicked in the Church; for if thou art a good 
man, thou hast Christ now by faith, and the Sacrament, and 
thou shalt have Him always, for when thou hast departed 

Luke23, hence, thou shalt go to Him who said to the thief, To-day 
shalt thou be with Me in paradise. But if thou art wicked, 
thou seemest to have Christ, because thou art baptized with 
the baptism of Christ, because thou approachest to the altar 
of Christ : but by reason of thy wicked life, thou shalt not 
have Him alway. It is not thou hast, but ye have, the 
whole body of wicked men being addressed in Judas. 

c. 14. Much people of the Jews there/ore knew that He teas there, 
and they came not for Jesus' 1 sake only, but that they might 
see Lazarus also, whom He had raised from the dead. 
Curiosity brought them, not love. Theophyl. They wished 
to see with their own eyes him who had been raised from the 
dead, and thought that Lazarus might bring back a report of 
Aug. the regions below. Aug. When the news of this great 

Tr ' 114, miracle had spread every where, and was supported by such 
clear evidence, that they could neither suppress or deny the 
fact, then, The chief priests consulted that they might put 
Lazarus to death. O blind rage! as if the Lord could raise 

_,, the dead, and not raise the slain. Lo, the Lord hath done 

Chrys. » ' 

Hom. both. He raised Lazarus, and He raised Himself. Chrys. 

lxvi. i. 



VER. 1 — H. ST. JOHN. 399 

No other miracle of Christ excited such rage as this. It 
was so public, and so wonderful, to see a man walking and 
talking after he had been dead four days. And the fact was 
so undeniable. In the case of some other miracles they had 
charged Him with breaking the sabbath, and so diverted 
people's minds : but here there was nothing to find fault 
with, and therefore they vent their anger upon Lazarus. 
They would have done the same to the blind man, had they 
not had the charge to make of breaking the sabbath. Then 
again the latter was a poor man, and they cast him out 
of the temple, but Lazarus was a man of rank, as is plain 
from the number who came to comfort his sisters. It vexed 
them to see all leaving the feast, which was now coming on, 
and going to Bethany. Alcuin. Mystically, that He came 
to Bethany six clays before the passover, means, that He who 
made all things in six days, who created man on the sixth, 
in the sixth age of the world, the sixth day, the sixth hour, 
came to redeem mankind. The Lord's Supper is the faith 
of the Church, working by love. Martha serveth, whenever 
a believing soul devotes itself to the worship of the Lord. 
Lazarus is one of them that sit at table, when those who 
have been raised from the death of sin, rejoice together with 
the righteous, who have been ever such, in the presence of 
truth, and are fed with the gifts of heavenly grace. The 
banquet is given in Bethany, which means, house of obedi- 
ence, i. e. in the Church: for the Church is the house of 
obedience. Aug. The ointment with which Mary anointed the Aug. 
feet of Jesus was justice. It was therefore a. pound. It was r * '* ' 
ointment of spikenard (pistici) too,very precious. ILWijis Greek 
for faith. Dost thou seek to do justice ? The just liveth by Heb.io, 
faith. Anoint the feet of Jesus by good living, follow the 38. 
Lord's footsteps : if thou hast a superfluity, give to the poor, 
and thou hast wiped the Lord's feet ; for the hair is a super- 
fluous part of the body. Alcuin. And observe, on the first 
occasion of her anointing, she anointed His feet only, but 
now she anoints both His feet and head. The former denotes 
the beginnings of penitence, the latter the righteousness of 
souls perfected. By the head of our Lord the loftiness of 
His Divine nature, by His feet the lowliness of His incarna- 
tion are signified; or by the head, Christ Himself, by the 



400 cosPEL according to chap, xii, 

Aup. fee t, the poor who are His members. Aug. The house was 
'filled with the odour; the world was fdled with the good 
fame. 

12. On the next day much people that were come 
to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to 
Jerusalem, 

13. Took branches of palm trees, and went forth to 
meet him, and cried, Hosanna : Blessed is the King of 
Israel that cometh in the name of the Lord. 

14. And Jesus, when he had found a young ass, sat 
thereon \ as it is written, 

15. Fear not, daughter of Sion : behold, thy King 
cometh, sitting on an ass's colt. 

16. These things understood not his disciples at 
the first : but when Jesus was glorified, then remem- 
bered they that these things were written of him, and 
that they had done these things unto him. 

17. The people therefore that was with him when 
he called Lazarus out of his grave, and raised him 
from the dead, bare record. 

18. For this cause the people also met him, for 
that they heard that he had done this miracle. 

19. The Pharisees therefore said among themselves, 
Perceive ye how ye prevail nothing? behold, the 
world is gone after him. 

Chrys. Chrys. The Law enjoined, that on the tenth day of the first 

*[°™' month a lamb or a kid should be shut up in the house, and 

be kept to the fourteenth day of the same month, on the 

evening of which day it was sacrificed. In accordance with 

this law, the Elect Lamb, the Lamb without spot, when He 

went up to Jerusalem to be immolated for the sanctification 

of the people, went up five days before, i. e. on the tenth 

Aug. day. Aug. See how great was the fruit of His preaching, 

Ir,,i ' 1- and how large a flock of the lost sheep of the house of Israel 

heard the voice of their Shepherd : On the next day much 

people that were come to thejeatt, when they hand thai 



VEK. 12 — If). ST. JOHN. J01 

Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, took branches of palm trees. 
The branches of palms are songs of praise, for the victory 
which our Lord was about to obtain by His death over death, 
and His triumph over the devil, the prince of death, by the 
trophy of the cross. Chrys. They shewed now at last that Chrys. 
they thought Him greater than a prophet: And went forth fo ]x °j n * K 
meet Him, and cried, Hosanna! Blessed is the King of 
Israel, that comethinthe name of the Lord. Aug. Hosanna Aug. 
is a simple exclamation, rather indicating some excitement 
of the mind, than having any particular meaning; like many 
interjections that we have in Latin. Bkde. It is a com- 
pound of two words ; Hosi is shortened into save ; Anna a 
mere exclamation, complete. Blessed is He that cometh in 
the name of the Lord. The name of the Lord here is the 
name of God the Father ; though we may understand it as 
His own name ; inasmuch as He also is the Lord. But the 
former sense agrees better with the text above, / am come in v. 43 . 
My Father's name. He does not lose His divinity, when He 
teaches us humility. Chrys. This is what more than any Chrys. 
thing made men believe in Christ, viz. the assurance, thatj^j"^ 
He was not opposed to God, that He came from the Father. 
The words shew us the divinity of Christ. Hosanna is, 
Save us; and salvation in Scripture is attributed to God 
alone. And cometh, it is said, not is brought : the former 
befits a lord, the latter a servant. Ln the name of the Lord, 
goes to prove the same thing. He does not come in the 
name of a servant, but in the name of the Lord. Aug. It Aug. 
were a small thing to the King eternal to be made a human r * ' 
king. Christ was not the King of Israel, to exact tribute, 
and command armies, but to direct souls, and bring them to 
the kingdom of heaven. For Christ then to be King of 
Israel, was a condescension, not an elevation, a sign of His pity, 
not an increase of His power. For He who was called on earth 
the King of the Jews, is in heaven the King of Angels. Thk- 
opiiyl. The Jews, when they called Him King of Israel, dreamed 
of an earthly king. They expected a king to arise, of more than 
human greatness, who would deliver them from the govern- 
ment of the Romans. But how did our Lord come? The 
next words tell us; And Jesus nhen He had found a young 

ass, sat thereon. A ug. John relates the matter briefly, the other Aug. 

. 2D Tr.U.5. 



i()"2 GOSPKL ACCORDING To CHAP. Ml. 

Evangelists are move lull. Tin: ass, wo read in them, was 

the foal of an ass on which no man had sat: i. e. the Gentile 

world, who had not received our Lord. The other ass, 

which was brought, (not the foal, for there were two,) is the 

Chrys. believing Jew. Chrys. He did this prophetically, to figure 

lxvi. 1. the unclean Gentiles being brought into subjection to the 

Aug. Gospel; and also as a fulfilment of prophecy. Aug. This 

r * '" act of our Lord's is pointed to in the Prophets, though the 

malignant rulers of the Jews did not see in it any fulfilment 

of prophecy: As it is written, Fear tint, daughter of Sion, 

behold thy King Cometh sitting on an ass's colt. Yea, in that 

nation though reprobate, though blind, there remained still 

the daughter of Sion; even Jerusalem. To her it is said, Fear 

not, acknowledge Him whom thou praisest, and tremble not 

when He suffers. That blood it is which shall wipe away 

Chrys. thy sins, and redeem thy life. Chrys. Or thus: Whereas 

lxvLi. tnev had had wicked kings, who had subjected them to wars, 

He saith to them, Trust Me, I am not such as they, but 

gentle and mild: which He shewed by the manner of His 

entrance. For He did not enter at the head of an army, 

4>i>u- but simply riding on an ass. And observe the philosophy 

*"?'"' f the Evangelist, who is not ashamed of confessing his 

ignorance at the time of what these things meant: These 

things understood not the disciple at the first, hut when 

Aup. Jesus was glorified. Aug. i. e. When He shewed the power 

" of His resurrection, then they remembered that these tilings 

were written of Him, and that they had done these things 

unto Him, i. e. those things that were written of linn. 

Chrys. Chrys. Our Lord had not then revealed these things to 

i vi ™' them. Indeed it would have been a scandal to them had they 

known Him to be King at the time of His sufferings. Nor 

would they have understood the nature of His kingdom, but 

have mistaken it for a temporal one. Theophyl. See then 

nonocc.the consequences of our Lord's passion". It was not to no 

purpose that He had reserved His greatest miracle for the 

last. For the resurrection of Lazarus it was that made the 

crowd believe in H im. The people therefore that wot With Him 

when He called Lazarus out of his grave, and raised him 

from the dead, bare record. For this cause the people also 

■ i. e. in its effect upon the minds of the disciples, enlightening them. 



VER. 20 — 20. ST. JOHN. 403 

met Him, for that t hey heard that He had done this miracle. 
Hence the spite and plotting of the Pharisees: The Pharisees 
therefore said among themselves, Perceive ye how ye prevail 
nothing? behold the world is gone after Him. Aug. The Aug. 
crowd was disturbed by the crowd. But why grudgeth that Turb a'" 
blind crowd, that the world should go after Him, by Wnom [^am* 
the world was made? Chrys. The world means here thechrys. 
crowd. This seems to be the speech of that part who were ^[^ 
sound in their faith, but dared not profess it. They try to 
deter the rest by exposing the insuperable difficulties they 
would have to contend with. Theophyl. As if they said, 
The more you attack Him, the more will His power and re- 
putation increase. What use then of these attempts ? 

20. And there were certain Greeks among them 
that came up to worship at the feast. 

21. The same came therefore to Philip, which was 
of Bethsaida of Galilee, and desired him, saying, Sir, 
we would see Jesus. 

22. Philip cometh and telleth Andrew: and again 
Andrew and Philip tell Jesus. 

23. And Jesus answered them, saying, The hour 
is come, that the Son of man should be glorified. 

24. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of 
wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: 
but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit. 

25. He that loveth his life shall lose it, and he 
that hateth his life in this world shall keep it unto life 
eternal. 

26. If any man serve me, let him follow me; and 
where I am, there shall also my servant be : if any man 
serve me, him will my Father honour. 

Bede. The temple at Jerusalem was so famous, that on 
the feast days, not only the people near, but many Gentiles 
from distant countries came to worship in it; as that eunuch 
of Candace, Queen of the Ethiopians, mentioned in the Acts. 
The Gentiles who were at Jerusalem now, had come up for 

2 d 2 



1,1 4 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XII. 

this purpose: And there were certain Gentilet among them 

Horn!' ' C ' h ° Came t0 worshi P at the feast. Chrys. The time being 

lxvi.*2. now near, when they would be made proselytes. They hear 

Christ talked of, and wish to see Him: The same came 

therefore to Philip, which was of Bethsaida of Galilee, and 

Aug. desired hint, saying, Sir, we would see Jesus. Aug. Lo! the 

' Jews wish to kill Him, the Gentiles to see Him. But they 

also were of the Jews who cried, Blessed is He that cometh in 

the name of the Lord. So behold them of the circumcision, 

and them of the uncircumcision, once so wide apart, coming 

together like two walls, and meeting in one faith of Christ by 

the kiss of peace. 

Chrys. Philip cometh and telleth Andrew. Chrys. As being the 

Horn. uj-'iTTi-ii 

ixvii. 2. elder disciple. He had heard our Saviour say, Go not into 

JJa«- the way of the Gentiles; and therefore he communicates with 
his fellow-disciple, and they refer the matter to their Lord: 
Aug. And again Andrew and Philip tell Jesus. Aug. Listen we 
"to the voice of the corner stone: And Jesus answered them, 
saying, The hour is come, that the Son of man should be 
glorified. Did He think Himself glorified, because the 
Gentiles wished to see? No. But He saw that after His 
passion and resurrection, the Gentiles in all lands would 
believe on Him; and took occasion from this request of 
some Gentiles to see Him, to announce the approaching 
fulness of the Gentiles, for that the hour of His being glori- 
fied was now at hand, and that after He was glorified in the 
heavens, the Gentiles would believe; according to the passage 
Ps. 56, in the Psalm, Set up Thyself, O God, above the heavens, and 
an ' Thy glory above all the earth. But it was necessary that His 
exaltation and glory should be preceded by His humili- 
ation and passion; wherefore He says, Verily, verily, I say 
unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and 
die, it abideth alone: but if it die, it bringeth forth much 
fruit. That corn was He; to be mortified in the unbelief of 
the Jews, to be multiplied in the faith of the Gentiles. 
Bede. He Himself, of the seed of the Patriarchs, was sown 
in the field of this world, that by dying, He might rise 
again with increase. He died alone; He rose again with 
Chrys. many. Chrys. He illustrates His discourse by an example 
Horn. f rom nature. A grain of corn produces fruit, after it has 



VER. 20 — 26. ST. JOHN. 405 

died. How much more then must the Son of God? The 
Gentiles were to be called after the Jews had finally offended; 
i. e. after His crucifixion. Now then that the Gentiles of 
their own accord offered their faith, He saw that His cruci- 
fixion could not be far off. And to console the sorrow of 
His disciples, which He foresaw would arise, He tells them 
that to bear patiently not only His death, but their own too, 
is the only way to good: He that loveth his life shall lose it. 
Aug. This may be understood in two ways: 1. If thou lo vest Aug. 
it, lose it: if thou wouldest preserve thy life in Christ, fear r 
not death for Christ. 2. Do not love thy life here, lest thou 
lose it hereafter. The latter seems to be the more evangelical evan- 
sense; for it follows, And he that hateth his life in this seicu: 
ivorld, shall keep it unto life eternal. Chrys. He loveth Chrys. 
his life in this world, who indulges its inordinate desires; he^^'j 
hateth it, who resists them. It is not, who doth not yield 
to, but, who hateth. For as we cannot bear to hear the 
voice or see the face of them whom we hate; so when the 
soul invites us to things contrary to God, we should turn 
her away from them with all our might. Theophyl. It were 
harsh to say that a man should hate his soul; so He adds, 
in this world: i. e. for a particular time, not for ever. And 
we shall gain in the end by so doing : shall keep it unto life 
eternal. Aug. But think not for an instant, that by hating Aug. 
thy soul, is meant that thou may est kill thyself. For wicked Tr - ll " , °" 
and perverse men have sometimes so mistaken it, and have 
burnt and strangled themselves, thrown themselves from 
precipices, and in other ways put an end to themselves. This 
did not Christ teach ; nay, when the devil tempted Him 
to cast Himself down, He said, Get thee hence, Satan h . 
But when no other choice is given thee; when the persecutor 
threatens death, and thou must either disobey God's law, or 
depart out of this life, then hate thy life in this world, that 
thou mayest keep it unto life eternal. Chrys. This present chrys. 
life is sweet to them who are given up to it. But he who^fj 1 ^ 
looks heavenwards, and sees what good things are there, soon 
despises this life. When the better life appears, the worse 
is despised. This is Christ's meaning, when He says, If 
any man serve Me, let him follow Me, i. e. imitate Me, both 
b This the second temptation in Matthew. Get thee hence, comes after all three. 



406 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XII. 

in My death, and life. For lie who serves, should follow 

Aug. i-ii 

T r . li. linn whom he serves. Aug. But what is it to serve Christ? 

The very words explain. They serve Christ who seek not 

their own things, but the things of Jesus Christ, i. e. who 

follow Him, walk in His, not their own, ways, do all good 

works for Christ's sake, not only works of mercy to men'f 

bodies, but all others, till at length they fulfil that great 

work of love, and lay down their lives for the brethren. But 

what fruit, what reward? you ask. The next words tell 

you: And where I am, there shall also My servant be. 

Love Him for His own sake, and think it a rich reward for 

Chrys. thy service, to be with Him. Chrys. So then death will be 

lxvii. followed by resurrection. Where I am, He says; for Christ 

was in heaven before His resurrection. Thither let us ascend 

in heart and in mind. 

If any man serve Me, him will My Father honour. This 
must be understood as an explanation of the preceding. 
There also shall My servant be. For what greater honour 
can an adopted sou receive than to be where the Only Son 
Hom. S x ^- Chrys. He says, My Father will honour him y not, I 
lxvii. will honour him; because they had not yet proper notions of 
His nature, and thought Him inferior to the Father. 

27. Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? 
Father, save me from this hour: but for this cause 
came I unto this hour. 

28. Father, glorify thy name. Then came there a 
voice from heaven, saying, I have both glorified it, and 
will glorify it again. 

29. The people therefore, that stood by, and heard 
it, said that it thundered : others said, An angel spake 
to him. 

30. Jesus answered and said, This voice came not 
because of me, but for your sakes. 

31. Now is the judgment of this world: now shall 
the prince of this world be cast out. 

32. And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will 
draw all men unto me. 



ver. 27—33. st. john. 407 

33. This he said, signifying what death he should 
die. 

Chrys. To our Lord's exhortation to His disciples to Chrys. 

r tt- Horn. 

endurance, they might have replied that it was easy for Him, i X vi. 
Who was out of the reach of human pain, to talk philoso- 
phically about death, and to recommend others to bear what 
He is in no danger of having to bear Himself. So He lets 
them see that He is Himself in an agony, but that He does not 
intend to decline death, merely for the sake of relieving 
Himself: Now is 3I>j soul troubled. Aug. 1 hear Him say, Au s- 

Tr.lii.2. 

He that hateth his life in this world, shall keep it unto life 
eternal; and I am ravished, I despise the world; the whole 
of this life, however long, is but a vapour in My sight; all 
temporal things are vile, in comparison with eternal. And 
again I hear Him say, Now is My soul troubled. Thou 
biddest my soul follow Thee; but I see Thy soul troubled. 
What foundation shall I seek, if the Rock gives way? Lord, 
I acknowledge Thy mercy. Thou of Thy love wast of 
Thine own will troubled, to console those who are troubled 
through the infirmity of nature; that the members of Thy 
body perish not in despair. The Head took upon Himself 
the affections of His members. He was not troubled by any 
thing, but, as was said above, He troubled Himself. Chrys. c. 11,33. 
As He draws near to the Cross, His human nature appears, Horn! 
a nature that did not wish to die, but cleaved to this present lxvii ' 
life. He shews that He is not quite without human feelings. 
For the desire of this present life is not necessarily wrong, 
any more than hunger. Christ had a body free from sin, but 
not from natural infirmities. But these attach solely to the 
dispensation of His humanity, not to His divinity. Aug. Aug. 
Lastly, let the man who would follow Him, hear at whatjj i# om ' 
hour he should follow. A fearful hour has perhaps come : a 
choice is offered, either to do wrong, or suffer: the weak soul 
is troubled. Hear our Lord. What shall I say? Bede. i.e. 
What but something to confirm My followers? Father, save 
Me from this hour. Aug. He teaches thee Whom thou Aug. 
shouldest call on, whose will prefer to thine own. Let Him^* 1 "' 3 ' 
not seem to fall from His greatness, because He wishes thee 



•M)8 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHA1. XII. 

to rise from thy meanness. He took upon Him man's infirmity, 
that He might teach the afflicted to say, Not what I will, 
but ivhat Thou wilt. Wherefore He adds, But for this 
cause caine I unto this hour. Father, glorify Thy name : 
Chrys i. e. in My passion and resurrection. Chrys. As if He said, 
lxvii. 2. I cannot say why I should ask to be saved from it; For for 
this cause came I unto this hour. However ye may be 
troubled and dejected at the thought of dying, do not run 
away from death. I am troubled, yet I ask not to be spared. 
1 do not say, Save Me from this hour, but the contrary, 
Glorify Thy name. To die for the truth was to glorify God, 
as the event shewed; for after His crucifixion the whole 
world was to be converted to the knowledge and worship 
of God, both the Father and the Son. But this He is silent 
about. 

Then came there a voice from heaven, saying, I have both 

Gre g- glorified it, and will glorify it again. Greg. When God 

xxviii! speaks audibly, as He does here, but no visible appearance 

is seen, He speaks through the medium of a rational 

Au g-. creature: i. e. by the voice of an Angel. Aug. / have 

'glorified it, i. e. before I made the world; and will glorify it 

again, i. e. when Thou shalt rise from the dead. Or, / have 

glorified it, when Thou wast born of a Virgin, didst work 

miracles, wast made manifest by the Holy Ghost descending 

in the shape of a dove; and will glorify it again, when Thou 

shalt rise from the dead, and, as God, be exalted above the 

heavens, and Thy glory above all the earth. 

The people therefore that stood by and heard it, said that 

Chrys. it thundered. Chrys. The voice though loud and distinct, 

lxvii! 2. soon passed off from their gross, carnal, and sluggish minds; 

only the sound remaining. Others perceived an articulate 

voice, but did not catch what it said: Others said, An Angel 

spake to Him. 

Jesus answered and said, This voice came not because of 
Au ?;. Me, but for your sakes. Aug. i. e. Tt did not come to tell 

Tr. hi. 6. 

Him what He knew already, but them what they ought to 

know. And as that voice did not come for His sake, but 

Chrys. wr tne "' s 5 so His soul was not troubled for His sake, but for 

Hom. theirs. Chrys. The voice of the Father proved what they 

lxvii. 2. V J 



ver. 27 — 33. st. john. 409 

were so fond of denying, that He was from God. For He 
must be from God, if He was glorified by God. It was not 
that He needed encouragement of such a voice Himself, but 
He condescended to receive it for the sake of those who were 
by. Now is the Judgment of this world: this fits on to the 
preceding, as shewing the mode of His being glorified. 
Aug. The judgment at the end of the world will be of Aug. 
eternal rewards and punishments. But there is another ' 

judgment, not of condemnation, but of selection, which is 
the one meant here ; the selection of His own redeemed, and 
their deliverance from the power of the devil: Now shall the 
prince of this world be cast out. The devil is not called the 
prince of this world, in the sense of being lord over heaven 
and earth; God forbid. The world here stands for the 
wicked dispersed over all the world. In this sense the devil 
is the prince of the world, i. e. of all the wicked men who live 
in the world. The world also sometimes stands for the good 
dispersed throughout the world: God was in Christ recon-^c'or 
citing the world unto Himself. These are they from whose 5 * 19 - 
hearts the prince of this world shall be cast out. Our Lord 
foresaw that after His passion and glorifying, great nations all 
over the world would be converted, in whom the devil was 
then, but from whose hearts, on their truly renouncing him ', he i ex fide 
would be cast out. But was he not cast out of the hearts of r f nun - 
righteous men of old? Why is it, Now shall be cast out? 
Because that which once took place in a very few persons, 
was now to take place in whole nations. What then, does 
the devil not tempt at all the minds of believers? Yea, he 
never ceases to tempt them. But it is one thing to reign 
within, another to lay siege from without. Chrys. What Chrys. 
kind of judgment it is by which the devil is cast out, I will^°™' 2 
explain by an example. A man demands payment from his 
debtors, beats them, and sends them to prison. He treats 
with the same insolence one who owes him nothing. The 
latter will take vengeance both for himself and the others 
too. This Christ does. He revenges what He has suffered at 
the devil's hands, and with Himself He revenges us too. But 
that none may say, How will he be cast out, if he overcome 
thee ? He adds, And U if I be lifted up from the earthy will 
draw all men unto Me. How can He be overcome, who 



410 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. Ml. 

draws others unto Him? This is more than saying, I shall 

rise again. Had He said this, it would not have proved 

that He would draw all things unto Him; but, / shall draw, 

Au S\. includes the resurrection, and this besides. Aug. What is 

II,' this all that He draweth, but that from which the devil is 

cast out? He does not say, All men, but, All things; for 

all men have not faith. He does not mean then all mankind, 

but the whole of a man, i. e. spirit, soul, and body; by which 

respectively we understand, and live, and are visible. Or, if 

all means all men, it means those who are predestined to 

salvation: or all kinds of men, all varieties of character, 

Chrys. excepting in the article of sin. Chrys. Why then did He 

lxvH.3. sav above, that the Father drew men? Because the Father 

c. 6, 46. draws, by the Son who draws. / shall draw, He says, as if 

men were in the grasp of some tyrant, from which they could 

Aug. not extricate themselves. Aug. If I be lifted up from the 

III ' earth, He says, i. e. when I shall be lifted up. He does not 

doubt that the work will be accomplished which He came to 

do. By His being lifted up, He means His passion on the 

cross, as the Evangelist adds: This He said, signifying by 

what death He should die. 

34. The people answered him, We have heard out 
of the law that Christ abideth for ever : and how sayest 
thou, The Son of man must be lifted up ? who is this 
Son of man ? 

35. Then Jesus said unto them, Yet a little while is 
the light with you. Walk while ye have the light, 
lest darkness come upon you : for he that walketh in 
darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. 

36. While ye have light, believe in the light, that 
ye may be the children of light. These things spake 
Jesus, and departed, and did hide himself from them. 

Aug. Aug. The Jews when they understood that our Lord spoke 

Tr. ill- f His own death, asked how that could be: T/te people 

answered Him, We have heard out of the law that Christ 

abideth for ever: and how sayest Thou, The Son of man must 

be lifted up ? Who is this Son of man ? Though our Lord 



VER. 34 36. ST. JOHN. 411 

did not call Himself the Son of man here, they remembered 
that He often called Himself so; as He had just before: 
The hour is come, that the Son of man should be glorified. 
They remember this, and ask, If Christ abideth for ever, 
how will He be lifted up from the earth ; i. e. how will He 
die upon the cross? Chrys. Hence we see, that they Chrys. 
understood many of the things that He spake in parables. lx °j]j' ,i. 
As He had talked about death a little time before, they saw 
now what was meant by His being lifted up. Aug. Or they Aug. 
interpreted the word by their own intended act. It was ^ 
not wisdom imparted, but conscience disturbed, which dis- 
closed its meaning to them. Chrys. And see how maliciously Chrys. 
they put the question. They do not say, We have heard \^ xl ii j. 
out of the law, that Christ doth not suffer; for in many 
places of Scripture His passion and resurrection are spoken 
of together, but, abideth for ever. And yet His immortality 
was not inconsistent with the fact of His suffering. They 
thought this proved however that He was not Christ. Then 
they ask, Who is this Son of man? another malicious question; 
as if to say, Do not charge us with putting this question out 
of hatred to Thee ; for we simply ask for information. Christ 
shews them in His answer that His passion does not prevent 
Him from abiding for ever : Then Jesus said unto them, Yet 
a little while is the light with you: as if His death were but 
going away for a time, as the sun's light only sets to rise 
again. Aug. Yet a little while is the light with you. Hence Au g;. 
it is that ye understand 1 that Christ abideth for ever. Where- 13'. 
fore walk while ye have the light, approach, understand the x hinc 
whole, that Christ will both die, and live for ever: do thisintelli- 
while ye have the light. Chrys. He does not mean only the ^*' s 
time before His crucifixion, but the whole of their lives. Horn. 
For many believed on Him after His crucifixion. Lest 
darkness come upon you. Aug. i. e. if ye so believe in the Au g-. # 
eternity of Christ, as to deny His humiliation and death. 13 " 

For he that walketh in darkness, knoweth not whither he 
goeth. Chrys. What things do the Jews now, and know Chrys. 
not what they do; thinking, like men in the dark, that they i XT iii*. 1. 
are going the right road, while they are taking directly the 
wrong one. Wherefore He adds, While ye have the light, 
believe in the light. Aug. i. e. While ye have any truth, £ u 8:. 



412 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XII. 

believe in the truth, that ye may be born again of the truth : 

Chrys. That ye may he the children of the light. Chrys. i. e. 

lxviii. My children. In the beginning of the Gospel it is said, 

c. l, 13. Bom of God, i.e. of the Father. But here He Himself is 

the Begetter. The same act is the act both of Father and 

Son. 

These things spake Jesus, and departed, and did hide 

Aug. Himself front them. Aug. Not from those which began to 

believe in and love Him, but from those who saw and envied 

Him. When He hid Himself, He consulted our weakness, 

Chrys. He did not derogate from His own power. Chrys. But 

lxviii l wnv ^^ ^ e n ^ e Himself, when they neither took up stones 

to cast at Him, nor blasphemed ? Because He saw into 

their hearts, and knew the fury they were in; and therefore 

did not wait till they broke out into act, but retired to give 

their envy time to subside. 

37. But though he had done so many miracles 
before them, yet they believed not on him : 

38. That the saying of Esaias the prophet might be 
fulfilled, which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our 
report? and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been 
revealed ? 

39. Therefore they could not believe, because that 
Esaias said again, 

40. He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their 
heart; that they should not see with their eyes, nor 
understand with their heart, and be converted, and I 
should heal them. 

41. These things said Esaias, when he saw his 
glory, and spake of him. 

42. Nevertheless among the chief rulers also many 
believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they 
did not confess him, lest they should be put out of the 
synagogue : 

43. For they loved the praise of men more than the 
praise of God. 



VER. 87 43. ST. JOHN. 413 

Chrys. And thus b the Evangelist tacitly explains it, whenChrys. 
he adds, But though He had done so many miracles before i X viH i 
them, yet they believed not on Him. Theophyl. He means 
the miracles related above. It was no small wickedness to 
disbelieve against such miracles as those. Chrys. But why Chrys. 
then did Christ come? Did He not know that they would i xv iii. 2. 
not believe in Him ? Yes : the Prophets had prohibited this 
very unbelief, and He came that it might be made manifest, 
to their confusion and condemnation ; That the saying of 
Esaias the prophet might be fulfilled, which He spake, 
Lord, who hath believed our report ? and to whom hath the 
arm of the Lord been revealed? Alcuin. Who, i.e. so very 
few believed. Aug. It is evident here that the arm of the Aug. 
Lord is the Son of God Himself. Not that the Father has a J r ' 
human fleshly form ; He is called the arm of the Lord, be- 
cause all things were made by Him. If a man had power 
of such a kind, as that without any motion of his body, what 
he said was forthwith done, the word of that man would 
be his arm. Here is no ground to justify, however, the 
error of those who say that the Godhead is one Person only, 
because the Son is the arm of the Father, and a man and 
his arm are not two persons, but oue. These men do 
not understand, that the commonest things require to be 
explained often by applying language to them taken from 
other things in which there happens to be a likeness, {/and 
that, when we are upon things incomprehensible, and which 
cannot be described as they actually are, this is much more 
necessary. Thus one man calls another man, whom he 
makes great use of, his arm ; and talks of having lost his arm, 
of having his arm taken away from him.] But some mutter, 
and ask, What fault was it of the Jews, if it was necessary 
that the sayings of Esaias should be fulfilled ? We answer, 
that God, foreseeing the future, predicted by the Prophet the 
unbelief of the Jews, but did not cause it. God does not 
compel men to sin, because He knows they will sin. He 
foreknows their sins, not His own. The Jews committed 
the sin, which He who knows all things foretold they would 
commit. Chrys. That the saying of Esaias might be ful- chrys. 
filled: that here is expressive not of the cause, but of the?j^j?.* 2 

b Refers to the last Chrysostom. c Part in brackets not in Aqu. 



/ 



J 14 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. Ml. 

event. They did not disbelieve because Esaias said they 
would; but because they would disbelieve, Esaias said they 
£ U S.\.. would. Aug. But what follows involved a deeper question : 
6. Therefore they could not believe, because that Esaias said 

again, He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their 
hearts, that they should not see with their eyes, nor under- 
stand with their heart, and be converted, and I should heal 
them. That they should not believe; bxit if so, what sin is there 
in a man doing what he cannot help doing ? And what is a 
graver point still, the cause is assigned to God; since He it 
is who blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart. This 
is not said to be the devil's doing, but God's. Yet if 
any ask why they could not believe, I answer, Because 
they would not. For as it is to the praise of the Divine 
will that God cannot deny Himself, so is it the fault of 
Chrys. the human will that they could not believe. Chrvs. This 
lxviii!2. is a common form of speech among ourselves. I cannot 
love such a man, meaning by this necessity only a vehement 
will. The Evangelist says could not, to shew that it was 
impossible that the Prophet should lie, not that it was im- 
Au 8-... possible that they should believe. Aug. But the Prophet, 
5, ' ' you say, mentions another cause, not their will ; viz. that 
God had blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart. But 
I answer, that they well deserved this. For God hardens 
and blinds a man, by forsaking and not supporting him ; 
and this He may by a secret sentence, by an unjust one He 
Chrys. cannot. Chrys. For He does not leave us, except we wish 

Horn 

lxviii. Him, as He saith in Hosea, Seeing thou hast forgotten the 

Hos - 4 > law of thy God, I will also forget thy children. Whereby 
it is plain that we begin to forsake first, and are the cause of 
our own perdition. For as it is not the fault of the sun, 
that it hurts weak eyes, so neither is God to blame for 

Au #:.. punishing those who do not attend to His words. Aug. 

ii] ' And be converted, and I should heal them. Is not to be 
understood here, from the beginning of the sentence — that 
they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with 
their hearts, nor be converted ; conversion being the free gift 
of God ? or d , shall we suppose that a heavenly remedy is 
meant; whereby those who wished to establish their own 

d without putting in the not. 



VER. 44 50. ST. JOHN. 415 

righteousness, were so far deserted and blinded, as to stumble 
on the stumbling stone, till, with confusion of face, they 
humbled themselves, and sought not their own righteousness 
which puffeth up the proud, but God's righteousness, which 
justifieth the ungodly. For many of those who put Christ 
to death, were afterward troubled with a sense of their guilt; 
which led to their believing in Him. These things saidc. 12. 
Esaias, when he saw His glory, and spake of Him. He saw 
Him not really, but figuratively, in prophetic vision. Be not 
deceived by those who say that the Father is invisible, the 
Son visible, making the Son a creature. For in the form of 
God, in which He is equal to the Father, the Son also is 
invisible; though He took upon Him the form of a servant, 
that He might be seen by men. Before His incarnation too, 
He made Himself visible at times to human eyes ; but 
visible through the medium of created matter, not visible as 
He is. Chrys. His glory means the vision of Him sitting Chrys. 
on His lofty throne : / saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, , ??/ „ 
Also I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, Whom shall /Is. 6, l. 
send, and who will go for us? Alcuin. Nevertheless, among 
the chief rulers also many believed on Him; but because of 
the Pharisees they did not confess Him, lest they should be 
put out of the synagogue. For they loved the praise of men 
more than the praise of God. The praise of God is publicly 
to confess Christ: the praise of men is to glory in earthly 
things. Aug. As their faith grew, their love of human praise Aug. 
grew still more, and outstripped it. ^ r * lm ' 

44. Jesus cried and said, He that believeth on me, 
believeth not on me, but on him that sent me. 

45. And he that seeth me seeth him that sent me. 

46. I am come a light into the world, that whoso- 
ever believeth on me should not abide in darkness. 

47. And if any man hear my words, and believe 
not, I judge him not : for I came not to judge the 
world, but to save the world. 

48. He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my 
words, hath one that judge th him : the word that I 
have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day. 



ll<> GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. NIL 

49. For I have not spoken of myself; but the 
Father which sent me, he gave me a commandment, 
what I should say, and what I should speak. 

50. And I know that His commandment is life ever- 
lasting : whatsoever I speak therefore, even as the 
Father said unto me, so I speak. 

Chrys. Chrys. Because the love of human praise prevented the 

lxviii! 1. chief rulers from believing, Jesus cried and said, He that 

believeth on Me, believeth not on 3Ie, but on Him tit a I sen I 

Me: as if to say, Why are ye afraid to believe on Me? 

Aug. Your faith through Me passes to God. Aug. He signifies 

2 r * ' to them that He is more than He appears to be, (for to men 

He appeared but a man ; His Godhead was hid.) Such as 

the Father is, such am I in nature and in dignity ; He that 

believeth on Me, believeth not on Me, i. e. on that which He 

1 not in sees, but on Him that sent Me, i. e. on the Father. [' He that 

believes in the Father must believe in Him as the Father, 

i. e. must believe that He has a Son ; and reversely, he who 

believes in the Son thereby believes in the Father.] And 

again, if any one thinks that God has sons by grace, but not 

a Son equal and coeternal with Himself, neither does he 

a «not believe 2 on the Father, who sent the Son; because what he 

believes on is not the Father who sent Him. And to shew 

c 3. that He is not the Son, in the sense of one out of many, a 

son by grace, but the Only Son equal to the Father, He adds, 

And He that seeth Me, seeth Him that sent Me ; so little 

difference is there between Me and Him that sent Me, that 

He that seeth Me, seeth Him. Our Lord sent His Apostles, 

yet none of them dared to say, He that believeth on Me. We 

believe an Apostle, but we do not believe on an Apostle. 

Whereas the Only Begotten says, He that believeth on Me, 

doth not believe on Me, but on Him that sent Me. When in 

He does not withdraw the believer's faith from Himself, but 

gives him a higher object than the form of a servant, for that 

Chrys. faith. Chrys. He that believeth on Me, believeth not on 

lxix.'i. Me, but on Him that sent Me: as if He said, He that taketh 

water from a stream, taketh the water not of the stream, but 

of the fountain. Then to shew that it is not possible to 



VfcK. 44 50. ST. JOHN. 417 

believe on the Father, if we do not believe on Him, He 
says, He that seeth Me, seeth Him that sent Me. What 
then? Is God a body? By no means; seeing here is the 
mind's vision. What follows still further shews His union 
with the Father. / am come a light into the world. This is 
what the Father is called in many places. He calls Himself 
the light, because he delivers from error, and disperses the 
darkness of the understanding; that whosoever believeth in 
Me should not abide in darkness. Aug. Whereby it is Aug. 
evident, that He found all in darkness. In which darkness 4 ' 
if they wish not to remain, they must believe in the light 
which is come into the world. He says in one place to His 
disciples, Ye are the light of the u or Id ; but He did not 
say to them, Ye are come a light into the world, that who- 
soever believeth on you should not abide in darkness. All 
saints are lights, but they are so by faith, because they 
are enlightened by Him, from Whom to withdraw is darkness. 
Chrys. And to shew that He does not let His despisers gochrys. 
unpunished, from want of power, He adds, And if any 7nan \^\™\ 
hear My words and believe not, I judge him not. Aug i. e. Aug. 
I judge him not now. He does not say, I judge him not at 5 r 6 / v " 
the last day, for that would be contrary to the sentence 
above, The Father hath committed all judgment unto the v. 22. 
Son. And the reason follows, why He does not judge now ; 
For I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. 
Now is the time of mercy, afterward will be the time of judg- 
ment. Chrys. But that this might not serve to encourage chrys. 
sloth, He warns men of a terrible j udgment coming; He that^™' 2 
' rejecteth Me, and hcareth not My words, hath one that 
judgeth him. Aug. Mean time they waited to know who Aug. 
this one was ; so He proceeds : The word that I have spoken, J r ' 
the same shall judge him at the last day. He makes it 
sufficiently clear that lie Himself will judge at the last day. 
For the word that He speaks, is Himself. He speaks Him- 
self, announces Himself. We gather too from these words 
that those who have not heard, will be judged differently 
from those who have heard and despised. Aug. / judge Aug. 
him not; the word that I have spoken shall judge him: for / de ^ rin - 
have not spoken of Myself. The word which the Son speaks (26.) 
judges, because the Son did not speak of Himself: for I 

2e 



418 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XII. 

have not spoken of Myself : i.e. I was not born of Myself. 
Aug. £ I ask then how wo shall understand this, / will not 
judge, but the word ivhivh I hare spoken will judge? Yet 
He Himself is the Word of the Father which speaketh. Is 
it thus ? I will not judge by My human power, as the Son of 
man, but as the word of God, because 1 am the Son of God. 
Chrys. Chrvs. Or, I judge him not, i. e. I am not the cause of his 
ix^-ln. 2. destruction, but he is himself, by despising my words. The 
words that I have just said, shall be his accusers, and deprive 
him of all excuse; the word that I have spoken, the same 
shall judge him. And what word ? This, viz. that f / have 
not spoken of Myself , but the Father which sent Me gave 
Me a commandment what I should say, and what I should 
speak. All these things were said on their account, that they 
Aug. might have no excuse. Aug. When the Father gave the 
y r ' hv " Son a commandment, He did not give Him what He had 
not: for in the Wisdom of the Father, i. e. in the Word, 
are all the commandments of the Father. The command- 
ment is said to be given, because it is not from him 
to whom it is said to be given. But to give the Son 
that which He never was without, is the same as to beget 
the Son who never was not. Theoi*hyl. Since the Son is 
the Word of the Father, and reveals completely what is in 
the mind of the Father, He says He receives a command- 
ment what He should say, and what He should speak: just 
as our word, if we say what we think, brings out what is in 
our minds. 

And 1 know that His commandment is life everlasting. 
A »g-. Aug. If life everlasting is the Son Himself, and the com- 
mandment is life everlasting, what is this but saying, I am 
the commandment of the Father? And in the same way in 
the following; Whatsoever I speak therefore, even as the 
Father said unto Me, so I speak, we must not understand, 
said unto Me, as if words were spoken to the Only Word. 

e Augustine literally : That is, He be true ? In this way. I shall not 

has spoken from His Father. So the judge by virtue of any human praise, 

sentence will run thus. I shall not in that I am the Son of man, but I 

judge, but the Word of the Father shall shall judge by virtue of the power of 

judge. But the Word of the Father is the Word, in that I am the Son of 

the Son of God Himself: so the sen- God. 

tence will run, I shall not judge, but f i. e. My having said so often that I 

I shall judge. How can both of these have not, &c. 



VER. 41—50. ST. JOHN. 419 

The Father spoke to the Son, as He gave life to the Son ; 
not that the Son knew not, or had not, but that He was the 
Son. What is meant by, as He said unto 31e, so I speak, 
but that I am the Word who speaks. The Father is true, the 
Son is truth : the True, begat the Truth. What then could 
He say to the Truth, if the Truth was perfect from the 
beginning, and no new truth could be added to Him ? That 
He spake to the Truth then, means that He begat the Truth. 



2 e 2 



CHAP. XIII. 

1 . Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus 
knew that his hour was come that he should depart 
out of this world unto the Father, having loved his 
own which were in the world, he loved them unto the 
end. 

2. And supper being ended, the devil having now 
put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to 
betray him; 

3. Jesus knowing that the Father had given all 
things into his hands, and that he was come from God, 
and went to God ; 

4. He riseth from supper, and laid aside his gar- 
ments; and took a towel, and girded himself. 

5. After that he poureth water into a bason, and 
began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them 
with the towel wherewith he was girded. 

Theophyl. Our Lord being about to depart out of this 
life, shews His great care for His disciples : Now before the 
feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that His hour was 
come that He should depart out of this world unto the 
Father, having loved His own which were in the world, He 
loved them unto the end. Bede. The Jews had many feasts, 
but the principal one was the passover; and therefore it is 
Aug- particularly said, Before the feast of the passover. Aug. 
Pascha is not a Greek word, as some think, but Hebrew : 
though there is remarkable agreement of the two languages 
in it. The Greek word to suffer being voc<r^fiv, pascha has 
been thought to mean passion, as being derived from the 
above word. But in Hebrew, pascha is a passing over; the 



VER. 1 — 5. GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. JOHN. 421 

feast deriving its name from the passing of the people of 
God over the Red Sea into Egypt. All was now to take 
place in reality, of which that passover was the type. Christ 
was led as a lamb to the slaughter; whose blood sprinkled 
upon our door-posts, i.e. whose sign of the cross marked on 
our foreheads, delivers us from the dominion of this world, 
as from Egyptian bondage. And we perform a most whole- 
some journey or pass-over, when we pass over from the devil 
to Christ, from this unstable world to His sure kingdom. 
In this way the Evangelist seems to interpret the word: 
When Jesus knew that His hour was come when He should 
pass over x out of this world unto the Father. This is the V"«*£»i, 
pascha, this the passing over. Chrys. He did not know v. 
then for the first time : He had known long before. By His Chrys. 
departure He means His death. Being so near leaving Hisixx. 1. 
disciples, He shews the more love for them : Having loved 
His own which were in the world, He loved them unto the 
end; i. e. He left nothing undone which one who greatly 
loved should do. He reserved this for the last, that their 
love might be increased by it, and to prepare them by such 
consolation for the trials that were coming. His own He 
calls them, in the sense of intimacy. The word was used in 
another sense in the beginning of the Gospel: His own c.i,li. 
received Him not. It follows, which were in the world : 
for those were dead who were His own, such as Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob, who were not in the world. These then, 
His own which were in the world, He loved all along, and 
at the last manifested His love in completeness : He loved 
them unto the end. Aug. He loved them unto the end, i. e. Aug. 
that they themselves too might pass out of this world a , by 2 r ' 
love, unto Him their head. For what is unto the end, but 
unto Christ? For Christ is the end of the law for righteous- Rom. 
ness to everyone that believeth. But these words may be ' 4 * 
understood after a human sort, to mean that Christ loved 
His own up to His death. But God forbid that He should 
end His love by death, who is not ended by death : except 
indeed we understand it thus: He loved His own unto death: 
i. e. His love for them led Him to death. And supper having 
been made, i. e. having been got ready, and laid on the table 

a Referring to, that He should depart out of this world unto the Father. 



422 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

before them ; not having been consumed and finished : for 
it was during supper that He rose, and washed His disciples' 
feet; as after this He sat at table again, and gave the sop to 
the traitor. What follows: The devil having noiv put it into 
the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray Him, 
refers to a secret suggestion, not made to the ear, but to the 
mind; the suggestions of the devil being part of our own 
thoughts. Judas then had already conceived, through dia- 
bolical instigation, the intention of betraying his Master. 

Cbrys. Cheys. The Evangelist inserts this as if in astonishment: 

lxx. i. our Lord being about to wash the feet of the very person 
who had resolved to betray Him. It shews the great wicked- 
ness too of the traitor, that even the partaking of the same 
table, which is a check to the worst of men, did not stop 

Aug. him. Aug. The Evangelist being about to relate so great 

r " v ' 'an instance of our Lord's humility, reminds us first of 1 1 is 

lofty nature : knowing that the Father had given all things 

into His hand, not excepting the traitor. Greg. He knew 

that He had even His persecutors in His hand that He 

Orig. might convert them from malice to love of Him. Origen. 

3 * # x v ' Tlie Father hath given all things into His hands; i. e. into 
His power; for His hands hold all things b : or to Him, for 

John 5, His work ; My Father worketh hitherto, and 1 work. 

ChVys. Chrys. Had given all things into His hand. What is given 

Horn. Him is the salvation of the believers. Think not of this 

lxx. 1 • 

giving up in a human way. It signifies His honour for, and 

agreement with, the Father. For as the Father hath given 

up all things to Him, so hath He given up all things to the 

1 Cor. Father. When He shall have delivered up the kingdom to 

Aug 4 &°d, even the Father. Aug. Knowing too, that He was 

Tr. lv.6. come from God, and went to God; not that He left God 

when He came, or will leave us when He returns. Tiie- 

ophyl. The Father having given up all things into His hands, 

i. e. having given up to Him the salvation of the faithful, He 

deemed it right to shew them all things that pertained to 

their salvation ; and gave them a lesson of humility, by 

washing His disciples' feet. Though knowing that He was 

from God, and went to God, He thought it in no way took 

from His glory, to wash His disciples' feel ; thus proving 

b He must reign till He hath put all enemies umki His feit. 1 Cor. Ift, 21. 



VER. 1 — 5. ST. JOHN. 4'23 

that He did not usurp His greatness. For usurpers do not 
condescend, for fear of losing what they have irregularly got. 
Aug. Since the Father had given all things into His hands, Aug. 
He washed not His disciples' hands indeed, but their feet ; v ' * 
and since He knew that He came from God, and went to 
God, He performed the work not of God and Lord, but of a 
man and servant. Chrys. It was a thing worthy of Him, Chrys. 
Who came from God, and went to God, to trample upon all lx ° m j 
pride ; He riseth from supper, and laid aside His garment, 
and took a towel, and girded Himself. After that He 
poureth water into a bason, and began to wash His disciples' 
feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith He was 
girded. See what humility He shews, not only in washing c. 2. 
their feet, but in other things. For it was not before, but 
after they had sat down, that He rose; and He not only 
washed them, but laid aside His garments, and girded Him- 
self with a towel, and filled a bason; He did not order others 
to do all this, but did it Himself, teaching us that we should 
be willing and ready to do such things. O rig en. Mys- Orig. 
tically, dinner is the first meal, taken early in the spiritual^, 
day, and adapted to those who have just entered upon 
this day. Supper is the last meal, and is set before those 
who are farther advanced. According to another sense, 
dinner is the understanding of the Old Testament, the 
supper the understanding the mysteries hid in the New. 
Yet even they who sup with Jesus, who partake of the final 
meal, need a certain washing, not indeed of the top parts of 
their body, i. e. the soul, but its lower parts and extremities, 
which cleave necessarily to earth. It is, Andbegan to wash; c. 4. 
for He did not finish His washing till afterwards. The feet 
of the Apostles were defiled now: All of ye shall be offended Matt. 
because of 3Ie this night. But afterwards He cleansed them, ' 
so that they needed no more cleansing. Aug. He laid Aug. 
aside His garments, when, being in the form of God, He 
emptied Himself; He girded Himself with a towel, took 
upon Him the form of a servant; He poured water into a 
bason, out of which He washed His disciples' feet. He 
shed His blood on the earth, with which He washed 
away the filth of their sins; He wiped them with the towel 
wherewith He was girded; with the flesh wherewith He was 



124 B08PEL ACCORDING TO CHAT. Mil. 

clothed, He established the steps of the Evangelists; He laid 
aside His garments, to gird Himself with the towel; that ll< 
might take upon Him the form of a servant, He emptied 
Himself, not laying aside indeed what He had, but assuming 
what He had not. Before He was crucified, He was stripped 
of His garments, and when dead was wound up in linen" 
clothes: the whole of His passion is our cleansing. 

6. Then cometh he to Simon Peter : and Peter said 
unto him, Lord, dost thou wash my feet? 

7. Jesus answered and said unto him, What I do 
thou knowest not now ; but thou shalt know hereafter. 

8. Peter saith unto him, Thou shalt never wash my 
feet. Jesus answered him, If I wash thee not, thou 
hast no part with me. 

9. Simon Peter saith unto him, Lord, not my feet 
only, but also my hands and my head. 

10. Jesus saith to him, He that is washed needeth 
not save to wash his feet, hut is clean every whit: and 
ye are clean, but not all. 

11. For he knew who should betray him; therefore 
said he, Ye are not all clean. 

Orig. Origen. As a physician, who has many sick under his 

X3m "care, begins with those who want his attention most; so 
Christ, in washing His disciples' feet, begins with the most 
unclean, and so comes at last to Peter, who needed the 
washing less than any: Then cometh He to Simoti Peter. 
Peter resisted being washed, perhaps because his feet were 
nearly clean: And Peter said unto Hi?n, Lord, dost Thou 

Aug. wash my feet? Aug. What is the meaning of Thou and my 
feet? It is better to think than speak of this; lest one 
should fail in explaining adequately what might have been 

Chrys. rightly conceived. Chrvs. Though Peter was the first of 

lxx'. n 2. the Apostles, yet it is possible that the traitor petulantly 
placed himself above him; and that this may be the reason, 
why our Lord first began to wash, and then cometh to Peter. 
* Unltif. Vulgate translates linteii, the same as for towel here. 



VER. 6 II. ST. JOHN. 4)25 

Theophyl. It is plain that our Lord did not wash Peter 
first, but none other of the disciples would have attempted to 
be washed before him. Chrys. Some one will ask why Chrys. 

-..-,. • Horn. 

none of them prevented Him, except Peter, this being a sign i xx 2 . 
not of want of love, but of reverence. The reason seems to 
be, that He washed the traitor first, and came next to Peter, 
and that the other disciples were checked by the reply to 
Peter. Any of the rest would have said what Peter did, had 
his turn come first. Origen. Or thus: All the rest put Orig. 
out their feet, certain that so great a one would not want to 6 * 
wash them without reason : but Peter, looking only to the 
thing itself, and seeing nothing beyond it, refused out of 
reverence to let his feet be washed. He often appears in 
Scripture as hasty in putting forth his own ideas of what is 
right and expedient. Aug. Or thus : We must not suppose 
that Peter was afraid and refused, when the others had 
willingly and gladly submitted to the washing. Our Lord 
did not go through the others first, and to the first of the 
Apostles afterwards; (for who is ignorant that the most 
blessed Peter was the first of all the Apostles?) but began 
with him : and Peter being the first to whom He came, was 
afraid; as indeed any of the others would have been. 

Jesus answered and said unto him, What I do thou 
knowest not now; but thou sJialt know hereafter. Chrys. Chrys. 
i. e. How useful a lesson of humility it teaches thee, and how lx ° m 2 
directly this virtue leads to God. Origen. Or our Lord Orig. 
insinuates that this is a mystery. By washing and wiping, 
He made beautiful the feet of those who were to preach glad I s - 52,7. 
tidings, and to walk on that way of which He tells them, 
I am the way. Jesus laid aside His garments that He might infr. 14, 
make their clean feet still cleaner, or that He might receive 
the un cleanness of their feet unto His own body, by the 
towel with which alone He was girded: for He hath borne 
our griefs. Observe too, He chose for washing His disciples 1 
feet the very time that the devil had put it into the heart of 
Judas to betray Him, and the dispensation for mankind was 
about to take place. Before this the time was not come for 
washing their feet. And who would have washed their feet 
in the interval between this and the Passion ? During the 
Passion, there was no other Jesus to do it. And after it the 



426 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO OH A P. XIII. 

Holy Ghost came upon them, by which time they should 
already have had their feet washed. This mystery, our Lord 
says to Peter, is too great for thee to understand now, but 
thou shalt know it hereafter when thou art enlightened. 
Aug- Aug. He did not refuse, because our Lord's act was above 

Tr.lv i.2. . ' 

his understanding, but he could not bear to see Him bending 

at his feet: Peter saith unto Him, Thou shalt not wash my 

feet for ever; i. e. I will never suffer it: not for ever is the 

Orig. same as never. Origen. This is an instance, that a man 

t. xxxn. ma y ga y a tn j n g w j t | 1 a g 00c i intention, and yet ignorantly 

to His hurt. Peter, ignorant of our Lord's deep meaning, 
at first, as if in doubt, says mildly, Lord, dost Thou trash my 
feet? and then, Thou shalt never wash my feet; which was 
in reality to cut himself off* from having a part with Jesus. 
Whence he not only blames our Lord for washing the 
disciples' feet, but also his fellow-disciples for giving their 
c. c. feet to be washed. As Peter then did not see his own good, 
our Lord did not allow His wish to be fulfilled: Jesus 
answered and said unto him, If I wash thee not, thou 
Aug. hast no part with Me. Aug. If I wash thee not, He says, 
though it was only his feet that He was going to wash, just 
as we say, Thou treadest on me; though it is only our foot 
that is trodden on. Origen. Let those who refuse to 
allegorize these and like passages, say how it is probable 
that he who out of reverence for Jesus said, Thou shalt never 
wash my feet, would have had no part with the Son of 
God ; as if not having his feet washed was a deadly wicked- 
ness. Wherefore it is our feet, i. e. the affections of our 
mind, that are to be given up to Jesus to be washed, that our 
feet may be beautiful; especially if we emulate higher gifts, 
and wish to be numbered with those who preach glad tidings. 
Chrys. c HRY s. He does not say on what account He performs this 
lxx. 2. act of washing, but only threatens him. For Peter was not 
persuaded by the first answer: Thou shalt know hereafter: 
he did not say, Teach me then that I may submit. But when 
he was threatened with separation from Christ, then he sub- 
Oiig. mitted. Origen. This saying we may use against those who 
6. ' make hasty and indiscreet resolutions. By shewing them, that 
if they adhere to these, they will have no part with Jesus, 
we disengage them from such resolves; even though they 



VER. 6 — 11. ST. JOHN. 4'27 

may have bound themselves by oath. Aug. But he, agitated Aug. 
by fear and love, dreaded more the being denied Christ, than 
the seeing Him at His feet: Simon Peter saith unto Him, 
Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head. 
Origen. Jesus was unwilling to wash hands, and despised 
what was said of Him in this respect: Thy disciples washM&tt. 
not their hands when they eat bread. And He did not wish 15 > 2 " 
the head to be submerged, in which was apparent the image 
and glory of the Father; it was enough for Him that the feet 
were given Him to wash : Jesus answered and said, He that 
is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, but is clean 
every whit: and ye are clean, but not all. Aug. Clean all Aug. 

Tr»lvi.4» 

except the feet. The whole of a man is washed in baptism, 
not excepting his feet; but living in the world afterwards, 
we tread upon the earth. Those human affections then, 
without which we cannot live in this world, are, as it were, 
our feet, which connect us with human things, so that if we\ John 
say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves. But if we confess ' 
our sins, He who washed the disciples' feet, forgives us our 
sins even down to our feet, wherewith we hold our converse 
with earth. Origen. It was impossible that the lowest P n S* .. 
parts and extremities of a soul should escape defilement, 
even in one perfect as far as man can be; and man}', even 
after baptism, are covered up to their head with the dust of 
wickedness ; but the real disciples of Christ only need wash- 
ing for their feet. Aug. From what is here said, we under- Aug. 
stand that Peter was already baptized. Indeed that Hej^^Ep, 
baptized by His disciples, shews that His disciples must c « viii - 
have been baptized, either with John's baptism, or, which 
is more probable, Christ's. He baptized by means of baptized 
servants; for He did not refuse the ministry of baptizing, 
Who had the humility to wash feet. Aug. And ye are clean, Al, g- ... 
but not all: what this means the Evangelist immediately i. 
explains: For He knew who should betray Him; therefore 
said He, Ye are not all clean. Origen. Ye are clean, refers ° T1 & .. 

t. xxzii> 

to the eleven; but not all, to Judas. He was unclean, first, 6. 
because he cared not for the poor, but was a thief; secondly, 
because the devil had put it into his heart to betray Christ. 
Christ washes their feet after they arc clean, shewing that 



128 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

Apoc. grace goes beyond necessity, according to the text, He thai 

Aug. *• holy, kt ? l * m oe holy still. Aug. Or, the disciples when 

Tr.hi.4. washed had only to have their feet washed; because while 

man lives in this world, he contracts himself with earth, by 

means of his human affections, which are as it were his feet. 

Chrys. Chrys. Or thus: When He calls them clean, you must 

lxx.8. not suppose that they were delivered from sin before the 

victim was offered. He means cleanness in respect of 

knowledge; for they were now delivered from Jewish error. 

12. So after he had washed their feet, and had taken 
his garments, and was set down again, he said unto 
them, Know ye what I have done to you ? 

13. Ye call me Master and Lord: and ye say well; 
for so I am. 

14. If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed 
your feet; ye also ought to wash one another's feet. 

15. For I have given you an example, that ye 
should do as I have done to you. 

16. Verily, verily, I say unto you, The servant is 
not greater than his lord : neither he that is sent greater 
than he that sent him. 

17. If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do 
them. 

18. I speak not of you all: I know whom I have 
chosen: but that the Scripture may be fulfilled, He 
that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel 
against me. 

19. Now I tell you before it come, that, when it is 
come to pass, ye may believe that I am he. 

20. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that receiveth 
whomsoever I send receiveth me; and he that recemtli 
me receiveth him that sent me. 

Aug. Aug. Our Lord, mindful of His promise to Peter that he 

J r,lvi "' should know the meaning of His act, Thou shall know here- 



VER. 12 — 20. ST. JOHN. 429 

after ; now begins to teach him : So after He had washed 
their feet, and had taken His garments, and was sat down 
again, He said unto them, Know ye what I have done to you? 
Origen. Know ye, is either interrogative, to shew the great- Orig. 
ness of the act, or imperative, to rouse their minds. Alcuin. "j XXX1I# 
Mystically, when at our redemption we were changed by the 
shedding of His blood, He took again His garments, rising 
from the grave the third day, and clothed in the same body 
now immortal, ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right 
hand of the Father, from whence He shall come to judge 
the world. Chrys. He speaks now not to Peter alone, but Chrys. 
to all: Ye call Me Master and Lord. He accepts their ^?\ 
judgment; and to prevent the words being set down merely 
to favour on their parts, adds, And ye say well, for so I am. 
Aug. It is enjoined in the Proverbs, Let another man praise Aug. 
thee, and not thine own mouth. For it is dangerous for one 3 
to praise himself, who has to beware of pride. But He who is Prov. 
above all things, howsoever He praise Himself, extolleth not ' 
Himself too highly. Nor can God be called arrogant: for 
that we should know Him is no gain to Him, but to us. 
Nor can any one know Him, unless He who knows, shews 
Himself. So that if to avoid arrogance He did not praise 
Himself, He would be denying us wisdom. But why should 
the Truth fear arrogance? To His calling Himself Master, 
no one could object, even were He man only, since pro- 
fessors in different arts call themselves so without presump- 
tion. But what free man can bear the title of lord in a 
man ? Yet when God speaks, height cannot exalt itself, truth 
cannot lie; it is for us to submit to that height, to obey 
that truth. Wherefore ye say well in that ye call Me Master 
and Lord, for so I am; but if I were not what ye say, ye 
would say ill. Origen. They do not say well, Lord, to whom Orig. 
it shall be said, Depart from Me, ye that work iniquity. But 7 XXX11, 
the Apostles say well, Master and Lord, for wickedness had Matt. 7, 

23. 

not dominion over them, but the Word of God. 

If then I your Lord and Master have washed your feet, 
ye also ought to wash one anothefsfeet. Chrys. He shews chrys. 
us the greater, that we may do the less. For He was the j x °™j 
Lord, but we, if we do it, do it to our fellow-servants: For J 



130 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

have given you an example, that ye should do as I have 

done to you. Bede. Our Lord first did a thing, then taught 

Actsi, it: as it is said, Jesus began both to do and to teach. Aug. 

Auk. This is, blessed Peter, what thou wast ignorant of; this thou 

Tr.hiii. wert told that thou shouldest know afterwards. Origen. 

Orig. But it is not necessary for one who wishes to do all the 

t. xxxn. commandments of Jesus, literally to perform the act of 

washing feet. This is merely a matter of custom ; and the 

Aug. custom is now generally dropped. Aug. This act is done 

4 r " "literally by many 1 , when they receive one another in hospi- 

1 pleros- tality. For it is unquestionably better that it should be 

done with the hands, and that the Christian disdain not 

to do what Christ did. For when the body is bent at 

the feet of a brother, the feeling of humility is made to 

rise in the heart, or, if it be there already, is confirmed. 

But besides this moral meaning, is not a brother able to 

change a brother from the pollution of sin? Let us confess 

our faults one to another, forgive one another's faults, pray 

for one another's faults. In this way we shall wash one 

Orig. another's feet. Origen. Or thus: This spiritual washing of 

7. ' the feet is done primarily by Jesus Himself, secondarily by 

His disciples, in that He said to them, Ye ought to wash one 

another's feet. Jesus washed the feet of His disciples as 

their Master, of His servants as their Lord. But the object 

of the master is to make His disciples as Himself; and our 

Saviour beyond all other masters and lords, wished His 

disciples to be as their Master and Lord, not having the 

spirit of bondage, but the spirit of adoption, whereby they 

Rom. 8, cry, Abba, Father. So then before they become masters and 

lords, they need the washing of the feet,being as yet insufficient 

disciples, and savouring of the spirit of bondage. But when 

they have attained to the state of master and lord, they then 

are able to imitate their Master, and to wash the disciples' 

Chrys. feet by their doctrine. Chrys. He continues to urge them 

lxxL 2. to was h one another's feet; Verily, verily, I say unto you, 

The servant is not greater than his lord, neither He that is 

sent greater than He that sent Him; as if to say, If 1 do it, 

much more ought you. Theophyl. This was a necessary 

admonition to the Apostles, some of whom were about to rise 



VER. 12 20. ST. JOHN. 431 

higher, others to lower degrees of eminence. That none 
might exult over another, He changes the hearts of all. 
Bede. To know what is good, and not to do it, tendeth not 
to happiness, but to condemnation ; as James saith, To him James 
that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin. ' 
Wherefore He adds, If ye know these things, happy are ye 
if yo do them. Chrys. For all know, but all do not do. Chrys. 
He then rebukes the traitor, not openly, but covertly : I speak ]x °™* 2t 
not of you all. Aug. As if to say, There is one among you Aug. 
who will not be blessed, nor doeth these things. / know Tr - llx - L 
whom I have chosen. Whom, but those who shall be happy 
by doing His commandments? Judas therefore was not 
chosen. But if so, why does He say in another place, Have 
not I chosen you twelve? Because Judas was chosen for 
that for which he was necessary, but not for that happiness 
of which He says, Happy are ye, if ye do them. Origen. Orig. 
Or thus : / speak not of you all, does not refer to, Happy g ,xxxn * 
are ye if ye do them. For of Judas, or any other person, it 
may be said, Happy is he if he do them. The words refer 
to the sentence above, Tlie servant is not greater than his 
lord, neither He that is sent greater than He that sent Him. 
For Judas, being a servant of sin, was not a servant of the 
Divine Word; nor an Apostle, when the devil had entered 
into him. Our Lord knew those who were His, and did not 
know who were not His, and therefore says, not, I know all 
present, but, / know whom 1 have chosen, i. e. I know My 
Elect. Chrys. Then, that He might not sadden them all, He Chrys. 
adds, But that the Scripture must be fulfilled, He that eateth j 50 ™' 
bread with Me, hath lifted up his heel against Me: shewing 
that He knew who the traitor was, an intimation that would 
surely have checked him, if any thing would. He does not 
say, shall betray Me, but, shall lift up his heel against Me, 
alluding to his deceit and secret plotting. Aug. Shall lift Aug. 
up his heel against Me, i. e. shall tread upon Me. The Tr>lix - 1 - 
traitor Judas is meant. Chrys. He that eateth bread with chrys. 
Me; i. e. who was fed by Me, who partook of My table. J 10 ™* 
So that if injured ever by our servants or inferiors, we need 
not be offended. Judas had received infinite benefits, and 
yet thus requited his Benefactor. Aug. They then who » 
were chosen ate the Lord ; he ate the bread of the Lord, to Tr.iix.i. 



432 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAT. XIII. 

i Cor. injure the Lord; they ate life, he damnation; for he that 
' eateth unworthily, eatelh damnation to himself. 

Now I tell you be/ore it come, that when it is come, ye 

may believe that I am He, i. e. of whom that Scripture fore- 

Orig. told. Origen. That ye may believe, is not said, as if the 

9 > . "' Apostles did not believe already, but is equivalent to saying, 

Do as ye believe, and persevere in your belief, seeking for 

no occasion of falling away. For besides the evidences the 

disciples had already seen, they had now that of the fulfil - 

Chrys. ment of prophecy. Chrys. As the disciples were about to 

lxxil! 3. g° f° rtn an d lo suffer many things, He consoles them by 

promising His own assistance and that of others; His own, 

when He says, Happy are ye if ye do them ; that of others, 

in what follows, Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that 

receiveth whomsoever I send, receiveth Me; and he that 

Orig. receiveth Me receiveth Him that sent Me. Origen. For he 

t. xxxn. (_ nat rece iveth him whom Jesus sends, receiveth Jesus who is 

represented by him; and he that receiveth Jesus, receiveth 

the Father. Therefore he that receiveth whom Jesus sends, 

receiveth the Father that sent. The words may have this 

meaning too : He that receiveth whom I send, had attained 

unto receiving Me : he who receiveth Me not by means of 

any Apostle, but by My own entrance into his soul, receiveth 

the Father; so that not only I abide in him, but the Father 

Aug. also. Aug. The Arians, when they hear this passage, 

2 r ' xlx ' appeal immediately to the gradations in their system, that as 

far as the Apostle is from the Lord, so far is the Son from 

the Father. But our Lord hath left us no room for doubt on 

supr.io, this head; for He saith, / and My Father are one. But 

how shall we understand those words of our Lord, He that 

receiveth Me, receiveth Him thai sent Me f If we take 

them to mean that the Father and the Son are of one nature, 

it will seem to follow, when He says, He that receiveth 

whomsoever I send, receiveth Me, that the Son and an 

Apostle are of one nature. May not the meaning be, He 

that receiveth whosoever I send, receiveth Me, i. e. Me as 

man : But He that receiveth Me, i. e. as God, receiveth Him 

that sent Me. But it is not this unity of nature, which is here 

put forth, but the authority of the Sender, as represented by 

Him who is sent. In Peter hear Christ, the Master of the 



VER. 21— 30. ST. JOHN. 433 

disciple, in the Son the Father, the Begotten of the Only 

Begotten. 

21. When Jesus had thus said, he was troubled in 
spirit, and testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say unto 
you, that one of you shall betray me. 

22. Then the disciples looked one on another, 
doubting of whom he spake. 

23. Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom one of 
his disciples, whom Jesus loved. 

24. Simon Peter therefore beckoned to him, that he 
should ask who it should be of whom he spake. 

25. He then lying on Jesus' breast saith unto him, 
Lord, who is it ? 

26. Jesus answered, He it is, to whom I shall give 
a sop, when I have dipped it. And when he had 
dipped the sop, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of 
Simon. 

27. And after the sop Satan entered into him. 
Then said Jesus unto him, That thou doest, do 
quickly. 

28. Now no man at the table knew for what intent 
he spake this unto him. 

29. For some of them thought, because Judas had 
the bag, that Jesus had said unto him, Buy those 
things that we have need of against the feast ; or, that 
he should give something to the poor. 

30. He then having received the sop went immedi- 
ately out : and it was night. 

Chrys. Our Lord after His twofold promise of assistance Chrys. 
to the Apostles in their future labours, remembers that the ( j,° m ,' # 
traitor is cut off from both, and is troubled at the thought : 
When Jesus had thus said, He was troubled in spirit, and 
testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, that one of 
you shall betray Me. Aug. This did not come into His r Au K- 
mind then for the first time; but He was now about to make \J" 

2 F 



184 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

the traitor known, and single him out from the rest, and 
therefore was troubled in spirit. The traitor too was now 
just about to go forth to execute his purpose. He was 
troubled at the thought of His Passion being so near at hand, 
at the dangers to which His faithful followers would be 
brought at the hand of the traitor, which were even now 
impending over Him. Our Lord deigned to be troubled 
also, to shew that false brethren cannot be cut off, even in 
the most urgent necessity, without the troubling of the 

Tr.lxi. Church. He was troubled not in flesh, but in spirit ; for on 
occasion of scandals of this kind, the spirit is troubled, not 
perversely, but in love, lest in separating the tares, some of 

Tr.ix.5.the wheat too be plucked up with them. But whether He 
w r as troubled by pity for perishing Judas, or, by the near 
approach of His own death, He was troubled not through 
weakness of mind, but power : He was not troubled because 
any thing compelled Him, but He troubled Himself, as was 
said above. And in that He was troubled, He consoles the 
weak members of His body, i. e. His Church, that they may 
not think themselves reprobate, should they be troubled at 

° ri g- .. the approach of death. Origen. His being troubled ha 

11. spirit, was the human part, suffering under the 'excess 

1 abex- Q f ^g spiritual. For if every Saint lives, acts, and 

uberan- r . .... 

tiaspi- suffers in the spirit, how much more is this true of Jesus, the 

^g Rewarder of Saints. Aug. Away then with the reasonings of 

Tr.lx.3. the Stoics, who deny that perturbation of mind can come 

upon a wise man ; who, as they take vanity for truth, so 

make their healthy state of mind insensibility. It is good 

that the mind of the Christian may be perturbed, not by 

lxi. 2. misery, but by pity. One of you, He saith, i. e. one in 

1 specie respect of number, not of merit, in appearance 1 not in virtue. 

tu°te Vr Chrys. As He did not mention Him by name, all began to 

Chrys. f ear: Then the disciples looked one on another, doubting of 

\xxii.\. whom He spake; not conscious of any evil in themselves, 

A and yet trusting to Christ's words, more than to their own 

Tr. lxi. thoughts. Aug. They had a devoted love for their Master, 

a a 'i t erum but yet so that human weakness made them doubt of one 

dealtero anot | ier 2 # 
stimu la- 
ret. 0*IGEN. They remembered too, that, as men, before they 

t'xxxii uero matured, their minds were liable to change, so as to 

12. 



VER. 21 30. ST. JOHN. 435 

form wishes the very opposite to what they might have had 
before. Chkys. While all were trembling, and not except- 
ing even Peter, their head, John, as the beloved disciple, 
lay upon Jesus' breast. He then lying on Jesus' breast saith 
unto Him, Lord, who is it? Aug. This is John, whose Aug. 
Gospel this is, as he afterwards declares. It is the custom 4# ' 
of the sacred writers, when they come to any thing relating to 
themselves, to speak of themselves, as if they were speaking 
of another. For if the thing itself is related correctly, what 
does truth lose by the omission of boasting on the writer's 
part? Chrys. If thou want to know the cause of thisChrys. 
familiarity, it is love: Whom Jesus loved. Others were loved, ^riLi. 
but he was loved more than any. Origen. I think this has orig: 
a peculiar meaning, viz. that John was admitted to a know- *• XXX1K 
ledge of the more secret mysteries of the Word. Chrys. chrys. 
Whom Jesus loved. This John says to shew his own inno- , Ho ™- , 

J . lxxn. 1. 

cence, and also why it was that Peter beckoned to him, 
inasmuch as he was not Peter's superior: Simon Peter 
therefore beckoned to him, that he should ask who it should 
be of whom he spake. Peter had been just reproved, and 
therefore, checking the customary vehemence of his love, 
he did not speak himself now, but made John speak for 
him. He always appears in Scripture as zealous, and an 
intimate friend of John's. Aug. Observe too his mode of Aug. 
speaking, which was not by word, but by beckoning ; f^" lx1 ' 
Beckoned and spake, i. e. spake by beckoning. If even 
thoughts speak, as when it is said, They spake among them- 
selves, much more may beckonings, which are a kind of 
outward expression of our thoughts. Origen. Or, at first Orig. 
he beckoned, and then not content with beckoning, spake: isf""" 
Who is it of whom he speaks ? 

He then lying on Jesus' breast, saith unto Him, Lord, Aug. 
who is it? Aug. On Jesus' breast; the same as in Jesus' J*' lx ' 
bosom. Or, he lay first in Jesus' bosom, and then ascended 
higher, and lay upon His breast; as if, had he remained 
lying in His bosom, and not ascended to lie on His breast, 
our Lord would not have told him what Peter wanted to 
know. By his lying at last on Jesus' breast, is expressed 
that greater and more abundant grace, which made him 
Jesus' special disciple. Bede. That he lay in the bosom, 

2 1" 2 



436 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

and upon the breast, was not only an evidence of present 

ncm occ. love, but also a sign of the future, viz. of those new 

and mysterious doctrines which he was afterwards com- 

Aug. missioned to reveal to the world. Aug. For by bosom what 

6 r ' ' else is signified but secret? Here is the hollow of the 

» secre- breast, the secret 1 chamber of wisdom. Chrys. But not 

turn even tncn did our L orc l expose the traitor byname; Jesus 

Hom. answered, He it is, to whom I shall give a sop when I have 

lxX11, l " dipped it. Such a mode of declaring him, should its. 11 

have turned him from his purpose. Even if a partaking 

of the same table did not shame him, a partaking of the 

same bread might have. And when He had dipped the sop, 

Aug. jj e gave it to Judas Iscariot, the so)i of Simon. Aug. Not as 

3. ' some careless readers think, that then Judas received singly 

Christ's body. For our Lord had already distributed the 

sacraments of His body and blood to all of them, while 

Judas was there, as Luke relates; and after this He dipped the 

sop, as John relates, and gave it to the traitor; the dipping 

of the bread perhaps signifying the deep dye of his sin; for 

some dipping cannot be washed out again ; i. e. when things 

are dipped, in order to receive a permanent dye. If however 

this dipping meant any thing good, he was ungrateful for it, 

and deserved the damnation which followed him; And after 

Orig. the sop, Satan entered into him. Origen. Observe, that at 

j' 4 xxxn * first Satan did not enter into Judas, but only put it into his 

heart to betray his Master. But after the bread, he entered 

into him. Wherefore let us beware, that Satan thrust not 

any of his flaming darts into our heart; for if he do, he then 

Chrys. watches till he gets an entrance there himself. Chrys. So 

lxiLi. l° n g ^ ne was one °f ^ ie twe l ye > the devil did not dare to 

force an entrance into him ; but when he was pointed out, and 

Au £- .. expelled, then he easily leaped into him. Aug. Or entered 

Tr« lxii. . 

2. into him, that he might have more full possession of him: 

for he was in him, when he agreed with the Jews to betray 

Luke22,our Lord for a sum of money, according to Luke: Then 

' ' entered Satan into Judas Iscariot, and he went away, 

and communed with the chief priests. In this state 

he came to the supper. But after the sop the devil 

Orig. entered, not to tempt him, as though he were in<l< - 

j' 4 XXXM ' pendent, but to possess him as his own. Origen. It was 



VER. 21 — 80. ST. JOHN. 437 

proper that by the ceremony of the bread, that good should 
be taken from him, which he thought he had: whereof being 
deprived, he was laid open to admit Satan's entrance. Aug. Aug. 
But some will say, was his being given up to the devil the 
effect of his receiving the sop from Christ? To whom we 
answer, that they may learn here the danger of receiving 
amiss what is in itself good. If he is reproved who does not 
discern, i. e. who does not distinguish, the Lord's body from 
other food, how is he condemned who, feigning himself a 
friend, comes an enemy to the Lord's table? 

Then said Jesus unto him, That thou doest, do quickly. 
Origen. This may have been said either to Judas, or to Orig. 
Satan, either to provoke the enemy to the combat, or the* # _ xxxn * 
traitor to do his part in bringing on that dispensation, which 
was to save the world; which He wished not to be delayed 
any longer, but to be as soon as possible matured. Aug. Aug. 
He did not however enjoin the act, but foretold it, not from J r * lxu * 
desire for the destruction of the perfidious, but to hasten on 
the salvation of the faithful. Chrys. That thou doest, dochrys. 
quickly, is not a command, or a recommendation, but a re- ^ii*2 
proof, meant to shew too that He was not going to offer any 
hindrance to His betrayal. Noio no man at the table knew 
for what intent He spake this unto him. Tt is not easy to 
see, when the disciples had asked, Who is he, and He had 
replied, He it is to whom I shall give a sop, how it was that 
they did not understand Him; unless it was that He spoke 
too low to be heard; and that John lay upon His breast, 
when he asked the question, for that very reason, i. e. that 
the traitor might not be made known. For had Christ 
made him known, perhaps Peter would have killed him. So 
it was then, that none at the table knew what our Lord 
meant. But why not John? Because he could not conceive 
how a disciple could fall into such wickedness: he was far 
from such wickedness himself, and therefore did not suspect 
it of others. What they thought He meant we are told in 
what follows: For some of tliem thought, because Judas had 
the bag, that Jesus had said unto him, Buy those things that 
we have need of against the feast, or, that he should give some- 
thing to the poor. Aug. Our Lord then had bags, in which A , u »- 
He kept the oblations of the faithful, to supply the wants of 5/' 



438 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

His own followers, or the poor. Here is the first institution 
of ecclesiastical property. Our Lord shews that His com- 
mandment not to think of the morrow, does not mean that 
the Saints should never save money; but that they should not 
neglect the service of God for it, or let the fear of want 
Chrys. tempt them to injustice. Ciirys. None of the disciples con- 
lxxii. 2. tributed this money, but it is hinted that it was certain 
women, who, it is said, ministered to Him of their means. 
But how was it that He Who forbad scrip, and staff, and 
money, carried bags for the relief of the poor? It was to 
shew thee, that even the very poor, those who are crucified 
to this world, ought to attend to this duty. He did many 

°™g- things in order to instruct us in our duty. Origen. Our 

t. xxxii. 

16. Lord then said to Judas, Tliat thou doest, do quickly, and the 

traitor this once obeyed his Master. For having received 

the sop, he started immediately on his work : He then having 

received the sop, went immediately out. And indeed he did 

go out, not only from the house in which he was, but from 

Jesus altogether. It would seem that Satan, after he had 

entered into Judas, could not bear to be in the same place 

with Jesus: for there is no agreement between Jesus and 

Satan. Nor is it idle enquiring why after he had received 

the sop, it is not added, that he ate it. Why did not Judas 

eat the bread, after he received it? Perhaps because, as 

soon as he had received it, the devil, who had put it into his 

heart to betray Christ, fearful that the bread, if eaten, might 

drive out what he had put in, entered into him, so that he 

went out immediately, before he ate it. And it may be 

serviceable to remark, that as he who eateth our Lord's bread 

and drinketh His cup unworthily, eateth and drinketh to his 

own damnation; so the bread which Jesus gave him was 

eaten by the rest to their salvation, but by Judas to his 

damnation, inasmuch as after it the devil entered into him. 

Chrys. Chrys. It follows: And it teas niyht, to shew the impetuosity 

lxxi? 2. °f Judas, in persisting in spite of the unseasonableness of the 

° ri K- .. hour. Origen. The time of night corresponded with the night 

16. which overspread the soul of Judas. Greg. By tho time of 

iTllo tnc ^ av * s s io m fi ( ' c l tne cnc l °f tne action. Judas went out 

11. in the night to accomplish his perfidy, for which he was never 

to be pardoned. 



VER. 31, 32. ST. JOHN. 439 

31. Therefore, when he was gone out, Jesus said, 
Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified 
in him. 

32. If God be glorified in him, God shall also glorify 
him in himself, and shall straightway glorify him. 

Origen. After the glory of His miracles, and His trans- Orig. 
figuration, the next glorifying of the Son of man began, ^ XX11 " 
when Judas went out with Satan, who had entered into him; 
Therefore when he was gone out, Jesus said, Now is the Son 
of man glorified, and God is glorified in Him. For it is not 
the eternal only -begotten Word, but the glory of the Man 
born of the seed of David, which is here meant. Christ at 
His death, in which He glorified God, having spoiled prin- Coios. 
cipalities and powers, made a shew of them, openly triumph- ' 
ing over them. And again, Made peace by the blood of His Coios. 
cross, to reconcile all things unto Himself, whether they be ' 
things in earth, or things in heaven. Thus the Son of man 
was glorified, and God glorified in Him; for Christ cannot be 
glorified, except the Father be glorified with Him. But 
whoever is glorified, is glorified by some one. By whom 
then is the Son of man glorified? He tells you; If God be 
glorified in Him, God shall also glorify Him in Himself, 
and shall straightway glorify Him. Chrys. i. e. by Him- Chrys. 
self, not by any other. And shall straightway glorify Him, ^°™' 9 
i. e. not at any distant time, but immediately, while He is 
yet on the very cross shall His glory appear. For the sun 
was darkened, rocks were rent, and many bodies of those 
that slept arose. In this way He restores the drooping 
spirits of His disciples, and persuades them, instead of 
sorrowing, to rejoice. Aug. Or thus: The unclean went Aug. 
out : the clean remained with their cleanser. Thus will it 2 . ' ' 
be when the tares are separated from the wheat ; The righ- Matt. 
teous shall shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their 13 ' i3m 
Father. Our Lord, foreseeing this, said, when Judas went 
out, as if the tares were now separated, and He left alone 
with the wheat, the holy Apostles, Now is the Son of man 
glorified; as if to say, Behold what will take place at My 
glorifying, at which none of the wicked shall be present, 



440 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAI\ XIII. 

none of the righteous shall perish. He does not say, Now 

is the glorifying of the Son of man signified; but, Now M the 

Son of man glorijied; as it is not that rock signified Christ, 

l Cor. but, That Rock was Christ. Scripture often speaks of the 

' ' things signifying, as if they were the things signified. 

b. 3. J3 u t the glorifying of the Son of man, is the glorifying of 

God in Him; as He adds, And God is glorified in Him, 
which He proceeds to explain ; If God is ylorijied in Hhn — 
for He came not to do His own will, but the will of Him 
that sent Him — God shall also glorify Him in Himself, so 
that the human nature which was assumed by the eternal 
Word, shall also be endowed with eternity. And shall 
straightway glorify Him. He predicts His own resurrection, 
which was to follow immediately, not at the end of the 
world, like ours. Thus it is ; Now is the Son of man ylori- 
jied; the now referring not to His approaching Passion, but 
the resurrection which was immediately to follow it: as if 
that which was so very soon to be, had already taken place. 
Hilar. Hilary. That God is glorified in Him, refers to the glory of 
Xrin. the body, which glory is the glory of God, in that the body 

c. 42. boiTows its glory from its association with the Divine nature. 

Because God is glorified in Him, therefore He will 
glorify Him in Himself, in that He who reigns in the glory 
arising from the glory of God, He forthwith passes over into 
God's glory", leaving the dispensation of His manhood, 
wholly to abide in God. Nor is He silent as to the time : 
And shall straiyhtway glorify Him. This referring to the 
glory of His resurrection which was immediately to follow 
His passion, which He mentions as present, because Judas 
had now gone out to betray Him; whereas that God would 
glorify Him in Himself, He reserves for the future. The 
glory of God was shewn in Him by the miracle of the resur- 
rection ; but He will abide in the glory of God when He has 
left the dispensation of subjection. The sense of these first 
words, Now is the Son of man glorified, is not doubtful : it 
is the glory of the flesh which is meant, not that of the Word. 
But what means the next, And God is glorified in Him ? 
The Son of man is not another Person from the Son of God, 
John l, f or> ff ie Word was madejlesh. How is God glorified in this 
* Ex ea qua homo eat dispensatione. 



VER. 31, 32. ST. JOHN. 441 

Son of man, who is the Son of God ? The next clause helps 
us ; If God is glorified in Him, God also tcill glorify Him 
in Himself. A man is not glorified in himself, nor, on the 
other hand, does God who is glorified in man, because He 
receives glory, cease to be God. So the words, God is 
glor/fied in Him, either mean that Christ is glorified in the 
flesh, or that God is glorified in Christ. If God means 
Christ, it is Christ who is glorified in the flesh ; if the 
Father, then it is the Sacrament of unity, the Father glorified 
in the Son. Again, God glorifies in Himself God glorified 
in the Son of man. This overthrows the impious doctrine 
that Christ is not very God, in verity of nature. For how 
can that which God glorifies in Himself be out of Himself? 
He whom the Father glorifies must be confessed to be in 
His glory, and He who is glorified in the glory of the 
Father, must be understood to be in the same case with the 
Father. Origen. Or thus : The word glory is here used in Orig. 
a different sense from that which some Pagans attach to it, \f t 
who defined glory to be the collected praises of the many. 
It is evident that glory in such a sense is a different thing 
from that mentioned in Exodus, where it is said, that Me Exod - 

40 34. 

glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle, and that the face of 
Moses was glorified. The glory here mentioned is some- 
thing visible, a certain divine appearance in the temple, 
and on Moses' face; but in a higher and more spiritual 
sense we are glorified, when with the eye of the under- 
standing we penetrate into the things of God. For the 
mind when it ascends above material things, and spiritually 
sees God, is deified: and of this spiritual glory, the 
visible glory on the face of Moses is a figure: for his 
mind it was that was deified by converse with God. But 
there is no comparison between the excellent glory of Christ, 
and the knowledge of Moses, whereby the face of his soul 
was glorified: for the whole of the Father's glory shines upon 
the Son, who is the brightness of His glory, and the express Heb. l, 
image of His Person. Yea, and from the light of this whole c ] ig. 
glory there go forth particular glories, throughout the whole . 
rational creation: though none can take in the whole of the 
divine glory, except the Son. But so far as the Son was 
known to the world, so far only was He glorified. And as 
yet He was not fully known. But afterward the Father spread 



442 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

the knowledge of Him over the whole world, and then was 
the Son of man glorified in those who knew llim. And 
of this glory He hath made all who know Him partakers: 

3 ]8- ' as saith the Apostle; We all, with open face beholding 
as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the 
same image, from glory to glory, i. e. from His glory receive 
glory. When He was approaching then that dispensation, 
by which He was to become known to the world, and to 
be glorified in the glory of those who glorified Him, He says, 

11 27. Now is the Son of man glorified. And because no man 
knoweth the Father but the Son> and he to whomsoever the 

•LT* ® on w ^ revea l Him, and the Son by the dispensation was 

*«f*'"*t about to reveal the Father; for this reason He saith, And 
God is glorified in Him. Or compare this with the text 

c 14, 9. below: He that hath seen Me, hath seen the Father. The 
Father who begat the Word is seen in the Word, who is 
God, and the image of the invisible God. But the words 
may be taken in a larger sense. For as through some the 
name of God was blasphemed among the Gentiles, so 
through the saints whose good deeds are seen and acknow- 
ledged by the world, the name of the Father in heaven is 
magnified. But in whom was He so glorified as in Jesus, 
Who did no sin, neither was guile found in His mouth ? Such 
being the Son, He is glorified, and God is glorified in Him. 
And if God is glorified in Him, the Father returns Him more 
than He gave. For the glory of the Son of man, when the 
Father glorifies Him, far exceeds the Father's glory, when He 
is glorified in the Son: it being fit that the greater should 
return the greater glory. And as this, viz. the glorifying of 
the Son of man, was just about to be accomplished, our 
Lord adds, And will straightway glorify Him. 

33. Little children, yet a little while I am with you. 
Ye shall seek me : and as I said unto the Jews, Whi- 
ther I go, ye cannot come; so now I say to you. 

34. A new commandment I give unto you, That ye 
love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also 
love one another. 

35. By this shall all men know that ye are my dis- 
ciples, if ye have love one to another. 



VER. 33 — 35. st. john. 443 

Aug. After He had said, And shall straightway glorify 
Him, that they might not think that God was going to glorify 
Him in such a way, as that He would no longer have any 
converse with them on earth, He says, Little children, yet 
a little while I am with you: as if He said, I shall indeed 
straightway be glorified by My resurrection, but I shall not 
straightway ascend to heaven. For we read in the Acts of 
the Apostles, that He was with them forty days after His 
resurrection. These forty days are what He means by, A 
little while I am with you. Origen. Little children, He Orig. 
says; for their souls were yet in infancy. But these little *- xxxn - 
children, after His death, were made brethren; as before they 
were little children, they were servants. Aug. It may be Aug. 
understood too thus: I am as yet in this frail flesh, even as 1; ' 
ye are, until I die and rise again. He was with them after 
His resurrection, by bodily presence, not by participation 
of human frailty. These are the words which 1 spake unloLuke 
you, while L was yet with you, He says to His disciples after ' 
His resurrection ; meaning, while I was in mortal flesh, as ye 
are. Pie was in the same flesh then with them, but not sub- 
ject to the same mortality. But there is another Divine Pre- 
sence unknown to mortal senses, of which He saith, Lo, /M at28 > 
am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. This 
is not the presence meant by, A little while I am with 
you; for it is not a little while to the end of the world: or 
even if it is a little while, because that in the eye of God, a 
thousand years are as one day, yet what follows shews that 
it is not what our Lord is here alluding to; for He adds, 
Whither I go ye cannot follow Me now. At the end of the 
world they were to follow Him, whither He went; as He 
saith below; Father, L will that they be with Me, where I e. 17,24. 
am. Origen. But may there not be a deeper meaning in Orig. 
the words, yet a little while 8fc. After a little while He was {9* X1U 
not with them. In what sense not with them ? Not because 
He was not with them according to the flesh, in that He was 
taken from them, was brought before Pilate, was crucified, 
descended into hell : but because they all forsook Him, ful- 
filling His prophecy : All ye shall be offended because of Me 
this night. He was not with them, because He only dwells 
with those who are worthy of Him. But though they thus 



444 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

wandered from Jesus for a little while, it was only for a little 
while; they soon sought Him again. Peter wept bitterly 
after his denial of Jesus, and by his tears sought Him: and 
therefore it follows, Ye shall seek Me, and as I said unto the 
Jews, whither I go, ye cannot follow Me now. To seek Jesus, 
is to seek the Word, wisdom, righteousness, truth, all which 
is Christ. To His disciples therefore who wish to follow Him, 
not in a bodily sense, as the ignorant think, but in the way 
He ordains, Whosoever doth not bear his cross, and come 
after Me, cannot be My disciple. Our Lord saith, Whither I 
go ye cannot follow Me now. For though they wished to 
follow the Word, and to confess Him, they were not yet 
supra strong enough to do so ; The Spirit was not yet given to them, 
c - '• because that Jesus was not yet glorified. Aug. Or He means 
Tr.ixiv.that they were not yet fit to follow Him to death for righte- 
ousness 1 sake. For how could they, when they were not 
ripe for martyrdom? Or how could they follow our Lord to 
immortality, they who were to die, and not to rise again till 
the end of the world? Or how could they follow Him to the 
bosom of the Father, when none could partake of that felicity, 
but they whose love was perfected ? When He told the Jews 
this, He did not add now. But the disciples, though they 
could not follow Him then, would be able to do so afterwards, 
0ri and therefore He adds c , So now I say to you. Origln. As 
t.xxxii. if He said, I say it to you, but with the addition of now. 
The Jews, who He foresaw would die in their sins, would 
never be able to follow Him ; but the disciples were unable 
Chrys. oll ty ^ or a ^ tt; ^ ^ me - Chrys. And therefore He said, Utile 
Horn, children; for He did not mean to speak to them, as He bad 
' to the Jews. Ye cannot follow Me now, He says, in order to 
rouse the love of His disciples. For the departure of loved 
friends kindles all our affection, and especially if they are 
going to a place where we cannot follow them. He pur- 
posely too speaks of His death, as a kind of translation, a 
happy removal to a place, where mortal bodies do not niter. 
Aug> Aug. And now He teaches them how to fit themselves to follow 
Tr. lxv. \\\ m : A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one 
^• ltt another. But does not the old law say, Thou shall love thy 
19, 18. neighbour as thyself? Why then does He call it a new 
r vjiT* xiyw «j t<: Vobis dico modo, V. 



ver. 36 — 88. st. john. 445 

commandment? Is it because it strips us of the old man, and 
puts on us the new ? That it renews the hearer, or rather the 
doer of it? Love does do this; but it is that love which our 
Lord distinguishes from the carnal affection: As I have loved 
you, that ye also love one another. Not the love with which 
men love one another, but that of the children of the Most 
High God, who would be brethren of His only-begotten Son, 
and therefore love one another with that love with which He 
loved them, and would lead them to the fulfilment of their 
desires. Chrys. Or, as I have loved you: for My love hasChrys. 
not been the payment of something owing to you, but hadi xx ji' g, 
its beginning on My side. And ye ought in like manner to 
do one another good, though ye may not owe it. Aug. But Aug. 
do not think that that greater commandment, viz. that we 2. ' 
should love the Lord our God, is passed by. For, if we 
understand the two precepts aright, each is implied in the 
other. He who loves God cannot despise His command- 
ment that he should love his neighbour; and he who loves 
his neighbour in a heavenly spiritual way, in the neighbour 
loves God. That is the love which our Lord distinguishes 
from all human love, when He adds, As I have loved you. 
For what did He, in loving us, love, but God in us; not who 
was in us, but so that He might be? Wherefore let each of us 
so love the other, as that by this working of love, we make 
each other the habitations of God. Chrys. Passing over Chrys. 
the miracles, which they were to perform, He makes love] x °™' 4# 
the distinguishing mark of His followers; By this shall all 
men know that ye are My disciples, if ye have love one to 
another. This it is that evidences the saint or the disciple, 
as He calls him. Aug. As if He said, Other gifts are Aug. 
shared with you by those who are not mine; birth, life, 3.' 
sense, reason, and such good things as belong alike to man 
and brutes; nay, and tongues, sacraments, prophecy, know- 
ledge, faith, bestowing of goods upon the poor, giving the 
body to be burned: but forasmuch as they have not charity, 
they are tinkling cymbals, they are nothing: nothing profits 
them. 

36. Simon Peter said unto him, Lord, whither 
goest thou ? Jesus answered him, Whither I go, thou 



! it) GOSrEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIII. 

canst not follow me now; but thou shalt follow me 
afterwards. 

37. Peter said unto him, Lord, why cannot 1 follow 
thee now ? I will lay down my life for thy sake. 

38. Jesus answered him, Wilt thou lay down thy 
life for my sake? Verily, verily, I say unto thee, 
The cock shall not crow, till thou hast denied me 
thrice. 

Chrys. Chrys. Great is love, and stronger than fire ; nothing can 
lxxHi.3 slo P ^ s course - Peter the most ardent of all, as soon as he 
hears our Lord say, Whither I go ye cannot follow Me now, 
Aug. asks, Lord, tchither goest Thou? Aug. The disciple asks this, 
2 r * Vl 'as if he were ready to follow. But our Lord saw his heart; 
Jesus answered him, Whither I go, thou canst not follow 
Me now; He checks his forwardness, but does not destroy 
his hope; nay, confirms it; But thou shall follow Me after- 
wards. Why hastenest thou, Peter ? The Rock has not yet 
established thee with His spirit. Be not lifted np with 
presumptions, thou canst not now; be not cast down with 
Chrys. despair, thou shalt follow Me afterwards. Chrys. Peter, on 
lxxH. i receiving this answer, does not check his desire, but hastily 
conceives favourable hopes from it, and having got rid of the 
fear of betraying our Lord, feels secure, and becomes himself 
the interrogator, while the rest are silent: Peter said unto Hi)//, 
Lord, why cannot I follow Thee now? I will lay down wy 
life for Thy sake. What sayest thou, Peter? He hath said, 
thou canst not, and thou sayest, thou canst: wherefore thou 
shalt know by experience, that thy love is nothing, unless 
thou art enabled from above: Jesus answered him, Will 
thou lay down thy life for My sake? Bedb. Which sentence 
may be read in two ways: either as affirming, thou shalt lay 
down thy life for My sake, but now through fear of the 
death of the body, thou shalt incur spiritual death.* or as 
Aog. mocking; as if He said, Aug. Wilt thou do that for Me, 
1," "''which I have not done yet for thee? Canst thou go before, 
who canst not come after? Why prcsumest thou so? Hear 
what thou art: Verily, verily, I say unto thee, The cock shall 
not crow, till thou hast denied Me thrice. Thou who 



ver. 3G — 88. st. john. 447 

promisest Mc thy death, shall thrice deny thy life. Peter 
knew his great desire, his strength he knew not: he boasted 
of his will, while he was yet weak ; but the Physician saw c. 2. 
his weakness. Some who perversely favour Peter, excuse 
him, and say that he did not deny Christ, because when 
asked by the servant maid, he said he did not know Him, 
as the other Evangelists witness more expressly. As if to 
deny the man Christ, was not to deny Christ; yea, that in 
Christ, which He was made for our sakes, that that which 
He made us, might not perish. By what is He the Head of 
the Church, but by His humanity? And how then is he in 
the body of Christ, who denies the man Christ? But why do 
I argue so long? Our Lord does not say, The cock shall 
not crow till thou deniest man, or the Son of man, but till 
thou deniest Me. What is Me, but that which He was? So 
then whatever Peter denied, he denied Christ: it is impious 
to doubt it. Christ said so, and Christ said true: beyond 
a doubt, Peter denied Christ. Let us not, to defend Peter, 
accuse Christ. The frailty of Peter himself, acknowledged 
its sin, when he witnessed by his tears the evil he had done 
in denying Christ. Nor do we say this, because we have 
pleasure in blaming the first of the Apostles; but that we 
may take warning from him, not to be confident of our own 
strength. Bede. Nevertheless, should any one fall, let the 
example of Peter save him from despair, and teach him that 
he can without delay obtain pardon from God. Chrys. Itchrys. 
is manifest that our Lord permitted Peter's fall. He might, 110 ™' 
have recalled him. to begin with, but as he persisted in his 
vehemence, though He did not drive him to a denial, He let 
him go without assistance, that He might learn his own 
weakness, and not fall into such sin again, when the super- 
intendence of the world had come to him, but that re- 
membering what had happened to him* 1 , he might know 
himself. Aug. That took place in the soul of Peter, which Aug. 
he offered in the body; though differently from what hej r,lxvi - 
meant. For before the death and resurrection of our Lord, 
he both died by his denial, and lived again by his tears. 
Aug. This speech, The cock shall not crow, occurs in Au S- 
all the Evangelists, but not at the same time in all. Matthew Evang." 

,i " ~ > i v > ' >'v iii.c.U. 

orat rti! oiksv/xhw; t»» oix.ovou.ia* ii\*\rtt,t. (t . •. 



448 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. JOHN. CHAV. XIII. 

and Mark introduce it after they have left the house, in 
which they were eating; Luke and John before. We may 
suppose either that the two former are recurring to what had 
passed, or the two latter anticipating what is coming. Or 
the great difference not only of the words, but of the subjects 
which precede the speech, and which excite Peter to the 
presumption of offering to die, for or with our Lord, may 
lead us to conclude that he made this offer three times, and 
that our Lord three times replied, Before the cock crow, 
thou shalt deny Me thrice. 



CHAP. XIV. 

1. Let not your heart be troubled: ye believe in 
God, believe also in me. 

2. In my Father's house are many mansions: if it 
were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a 
place for you. 

3. And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will 
come again, and receive you unto myself; that where I 
am, there ye may be also. 

4. And whither I go ye know, and the way ye 
know. 



Aug. Our Lord consoles His disciples, who, as men, would Aa S- 

be naturally alarmed and troubled at the idea of His death, i. 

by assuring them of His divinity: Let not your heart be 

troubled: ye believe in God, believe al.so in Me; as if 

they must believe in Him, if they believed in God; which 

would not follow, unless Christ were God. Ye are in fear 

for this form of a servant; let not your heart be troubled ; the 

form of God shall raise it up. Chrys. Faith too in Me, and Chrys. 

in the Father that begat Me, is more powerful than any thingixxiii.l. 

that shall come upon you; and will prevail in spite of all 

difficulties. He shews His divinity at the same time by 

discerning their inward feelings: Let not your heart be 

troullcd. Aug. And as the disciples were afraid for them- Au g- 

Tr.lxvii 
selves, when Peter, the boldest and most zealous of them, 2. 

had been told, The cock shall not crow, till thou hast denied 

Me thrice, He adds, In My Father's house are many 

2 G 



450 Q08PEL ACCOBDING TO (HAP. XIV. 

in (Visions, by way of an assurance to them in their trouble, 
that they might with confidence and certainty look forward, 
after all their trials, to dwelling together with Christ in the 
presence of God. For though one man is bolder, wiser, 
juster, holier than another, yet no one shall be removed from 
that house of God, but each receive a mansion suited to his 
deserts. The penny indeed which the householder paid 
to the labourers who worked in his vineyard, was the same 
to all; for life eternal, which this penny signifies, is of the 
same duration to all. But there may be many mansions, 
many degrees of dignity, in that life, corresponding to 
Greg, people's deserts. Greg. The many mansions agree with 
Ezech * ne one P enn y» because, though one may rejoice more than 
Hom. another, yet all rejoice with one and the same joy, arising 
A Jl from the vision of their Maker. Aug. And thus God will 
Tr.ixvii.jjg q\\ m a ]\ j th a t j S) s i nC e God is love, love will bring it to 
pass, that what each has, will be common to all. That which 
one loves in another is one's own, though one have it not 
one's self. And then there will be no envy at superior grace, 
Greg, for in all hearts will reign the unity of love. Greg. Nor is 
ultTc. there any sense of deficiency in consequence of such 
xxiv. inequality ; for each will feel as much as sufficeth for himself. 
Aug. Aug. But they are rejected by the Christians, who infer from 
J vn " there being many mansions that there is a place outside the 
kingdom of heaven, where innocent souls, that have departed 
this life without baptism, and could not there enter into the 
kingdom of heaven, remain happy. But God forbid, that 
when every house of every heir of the kingdom is in the 
kingdom, there should be a part of the regal house itself not 
in the kingdom. Our Lord does not say, In eternal bliss are 
Cbry*. many mansions, but they are in My Father's house. Ciikvs. 
, Ho ™; , Or thus: Our Lord having said above to Peter, Whither I 
go, thou canst not follow Me non\ hut thou shall Jolt >ic Me 
afteni arris, that they might not think that this promise was 
made to Peter only, lie says, In My Father's house arc many 
mansions; i. e. You shall be admitted into that place, as well 
as Peter, for it contains abundance of mansions, which are 
ever ready to receive you: If it were not so, I won hi have 
told you: I go to prepare a place for you. Auo. He means 
evidently that there are already many mansions, and that 



VER. 1 — 4. ST. JOHN. 451 

there is no need of His preparing one. Chrys. Having said, Chrys. 
Thou canst not follow Me now, that they might not think i X xHi.i. 
that they were cut off for ever, He adds: And if I go and 
prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you 
unto Myself that where I am, there ye may be also: a 
recommendation to them to place the strongest trust in Him. 
Theophyl. And if not, I would have told you: I go to pre- 
pare, $c. As if He said; Either way ye should not be 
troubled, whether places are prepared for you, or not. For, 
if they are not prepared, I will very quickly prepare them. 
Aug. But why does He <>o and prepare a place, if there are Aug. 
many mansions already ? Because these are not as yet so \^1\. 
prepared as they will be. The same mansions that He hath 
prepared by predestination, He prepares by operation. They 
are prepared already in respect of predestination; if they 
were not, He would have said, I will go and prepare, i. e. 
predestinate, a place for you; but inasmuch as they are not 
yet prepared in respect of operation, He says, And if I go 
and prepare a place for you. And now He is preparing 
mansions, by preparing occupants for them. Indeed, when 
He says, la My Father's house are many mansions, what 
think we the house of God to be but the temple of God, of 
which the Apostle saith, The temple of God is holy, whichl Cor. 
temple ye are. This house of God then is now being built, ' 
now being prepared. But why has He gone away to prepare c. 3. 
it, if it is ourselves that He prepares: if He leaves us, how 
can He prepare us? The meaning is, that, in order that 
those mansions may be prepared, the just must live by faith; 
and if thou seest, there is no faith. Let Him go away then, 
that He be not seen ; let Him be hid, that He be be- 
lieved. Then a place is prepared, if thou live by faith : let 
faith desire, that desire may enjoy. If thou rightly under- 
standest Him, He never leaves either the place He came 
from, or that He goes from. He goes, when He withdraws 
from sight, He comes, when He appears. But except He 
remain in power, that we may grow in goodness, no place of 
happiness will be prepared for us. Alcuin. He says then, 
If I go, by the absence of the flesh, / shall come again, 
by the presence of the Godhead; or, I shall come again to 
judge the quick and dead. And as He knew that they 

•2 g 2 



Horn. 

]xxiii.2 



-iov> QOSPEL ACCOBDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

would ask whither He went, or by what way He went, He 

adds, And whither I yo ye know, i. e. to the Father, and 

Chrys. the way ye know, i. e. Myself. Chkys. lie shews them 

xxiii. 2. that He is aware of their curiosity to know His meaning, and 

thus excites them to put questions to Him. 

5. Thomas saith unto him, Lord, we know not 
whither thou goest; and how can we know the way? 

6. Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, 
and the life : no man cometh unto the Father, but by 
me. 

7. If ye had known me, ye should have known My 
Father also ; and from henceforth ye know him, and 
have seen him. 

Chrys. Chrys. If the Jews, who wished to be separated from 

Christ, asked whither He was going, much more would the 

disciples, who wished never to be separated from Him, be 

anxious to know it. So with much love, and, at the same 

time, fear, they proceed to ask: Thomas saith unto Him, 

Lord, we know not whither Thou goesl; and how can we 

Aug. know the way? Aug. Our Lord had said that they knew 

] r " '"'both, Thomas says that they knew neither. Our Lord cannot 

lie ; they knew not that they did know. Our Lord proves 

that they did : Jesus saith unto Him, I am the uay, the 

Aug. truth, and the life. Aug. As if He said, / am the way, 

Domes'" whereby thou wouldest go ; / am the truth, whereto thou 

liv. wouldest go; lam the life, in which thou wouldest abide. 

capit The truth and the life every one understands; but not every 

one hath found the way. Even the philosophers of the 

world have seen that God is the life eternal, the truth which 

is the end of all knowledge. And the Word of God, which 

is truth and life with the Father, by taking upon Him human 

nature, is made the way. Walk by the Man, and thou wilt 

arrive at God. For it is better to limp on the right way, 

Hilar, than to walk ever so stoutly by the wrong. Hilary. For 

X r 'in. e He who is the way doth not lead us into devious courses 

out of the way; nor does He who is the truth deceive us by 

falsehoods ; nor does He who is the life leave us in the dark- 



VSR. 5 — 7. ST. JOHN. 453 

ness of death. Theophyl. When thou art engaged in the 
practical, He is made thy way; when in the contemplative, 
He is made thy truth. And to the active and the contem- 
plative is joined life: for we should both act and contemplate 
with reference to the world to come. Aug. They knew then Aug. 
the way, because they knew He was the way. But what? 1 "' ,X1X# 
need to add, the truth, and the life ? Because they were yet to 
be told whither He went. He went to the truth ; He went 
to the life. He went then to Himself, by Himself. But 
didst Thou leave Thyself, O Lord, to come to us ? I know c - 3 - 
that Thou tookest upon Thee the form of a servant ; by the 
flesh Thou earnest, remaining where Thou wast ; by that Thou 
returnedst, remaining where Thou hadst come to. If by 
this then Thou earnest, and returnedst, by this Thou wast the 
way, not only to us, to come to Thee, but also to Thyself to 
come, and to return again. And when Thou wentest to life, 
which is Thyself, Thou raisedst that same flesh of Thine 
from death to life. Christ therefore went to life, when His 
flesh arose from death to life. And since the Word is life, 
Christ went to Himself; Christ being both, in one person, 
i. e. Word-flesh. Again, by the flesh God came to men, the 
truth to liars ; for God is true, but every man a liar. When 
then He withdrew Himself from men, and lifted up His 
flesh to that place in which no liar is, the same Christ, by 
the way, by which He being the Word became flesh, by 
Himself, i. e. by His flesh, by the same returned to Truth, 
which is Himself, which truth, even amongst the liars He 
maintained unto death. Behold I myself l , if I make you 1 i.e. 
understand what I say, do in a certain sense go to you, tin^ US 
though I do not leave myself. And when I cease speaking, 
I return to myself, but remain with you, if ye remember 
what ye have heard. If the image which God hath made 
can do this, how much more the Image which God hath 
begotten ? Thus He goes by Himself, to Himself and to 
the Father, and we by Him, to Him and to the Father. 
Chkys. For if, lie says, ye have Me for your guide to thcChrys. 
Father, ye shall certainly come to Him. Nor can ye eome"^-'; ' ., 
by any other way. Whereas He had said above, Xo man e. «, 44. 
MM come to Me, except the Father (Iran- him, now He 
says, No man cometh unto the Fa/her hut />;/ Me, thus 



434 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

equalling Himself to the Father. The next words explain, 
Whither [go ye know, and the way ye know. If ye had 
known Me, He says, ye should have known My Father also; 
i. e. If ye had known My substance and dignity, ye would 
have known the Father's. They did know Him, but not as 
they ought to do. Nor was it till afterwards, when the Spirit 
came, that they were fully enlightened. On this account 
He adds, And from henceforth ye know Htm, know Him, 
that is, spiritually. And have seen Him, i. e. by Me; mean- 
ing that he who had seen Him, had seen the Father. They 
saw Him, however, not in His pure substance, but clothed in 
flesh. Bede. How can our Lord say, If ye had known Me, ye 
should have known My Father also; when He has just said, 
Whither I go ye know, and the way ye know ? We must 
suppose that some of them knew, and others not : among the 
Hilar, latter, Thomas. Hilary. Or thus: When it is said that the 
Trin. Son is the way to the Father, is it meant that He is so by 
His teaching, or by His nature ? We shall be able to see 
from what follows : //' ye had known Me, ye should have 
known My Father also. In His incarnation asserting His 
Divinity, He maintained a certain order of sight and know- 
ledge : separating the time of seeing from that of knowing. 
For Him, who He saith must be known, He speaks of as 
already seen : that henceforward they might from this re- 
velation have knowledge of the Divine Nature which they 
had all along seen in Him. 

8. Philip saith unto him, Lord, shew us the Father, 
and it sufficeth us. 

9. Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time 
with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip ? 
he that hath seen me hath seen the Father ; and how 
sayest thou then, Shew us the Father? 

10. Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and 
the Father in me ? the words that I speak unto you I 
speak not of myself: but the Father that dwelleth in 
me, he doeth the works. 

11. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the 



VER. 8 — 11. ST. JOHN. 455 

Father in me : or else believe me for the very works' 
sake. 



Hilary. A declaration so new startled Philip. Our Hilar. 
Lord is seen to be man. He confesses Himself to be theX^^ 6 
Son of God, declares that, if He were known, the Father 
would be known, that, if He is seen, the Father is seen. The 
familiarity of the Apostle therefore breaks forth into ques- 
tioning our Lord, Philip saith unto Him, Lord, shew us the 
Father, and it sufficeth us. He did not deny He could benonvi- 
seen, but wished to be shewn him ; nor did he wish to see gav it. 
with his bodily eyes, but that He whom he had seen might 
be made manifest to his understanding. He had seen the 
Son in the form of man, but how through that form He saw 
the Father, he did not know. This he wants to be shewn 
him, shewn to his understanding, not set before his eyes; 
and then he will be satisfied: And it sufficeth us. Aug. Aug. 
For to that joy of beholding His face, nothing can be added. j^ Ut 
Philip understood this, and said, Lord, shew us the Father,^™, 
and it sufficeth its. But he did not yet understand that he could 
in the same way have said, Lord, shew us Thyself, and it 
sufficeth us. But our Lord's answer enlightens him, Jesus 
saith unto him, Have L been so long with you, and yet hast 
thou not known Me, Philip? Aug. But how is this, when Aug. 
our Lord said that they knew whither He was going, and the j r ' xx ' 
way, because they knew Him? The question is easily 
settled by supposing that some of them knew, and others 
not; among the latter, Philip. Hilary. He reproves the Hilar, 
ignorance of Philip in this respect. For whereas his actions Xrin. 6 
had been strictly divine, such as walking on the water, com- 
manding the winds, remitting sins, raising the dead, He 
complained that in His assumed humanity, the Divine nature 
was not discerned. Accordingly to Philip's request, to be 
shewn the Father, Our Lord answers, He that hath seen 3Le, 
hath seen the Father. Aug. When two persons are very Aug. 
like each, we say, If you have seen the one, you have seen Tr,lxx * 
the other. So here, He that hath seen Me, hath seen the 
Father; not that He is both the Father, and the Son, but 



456 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XH . 

Hilar, that the Son is an absolute likeness of the Father. Hilary. 

Tr i,| e He does not mean the sight of the bodily eye: for His 
fleshly part, born of the Virgin, doth not avail towards con- 
templating the form and image of God in Him; but the Son 
of God being known with the understanding, it follows that 
the Father is known also, forasmuch as He is the image of 

'nondif-Godj no t differing from but expressing His Author 1 . For 

genere. our Lord's expressions do not speak of one person solitary 

and without relationship, but teach us His birth. The 

Father also excludes the supposition of a single solitary 

person, and leaves us no other doctrine but that the Father 

is seen in the Son, by the incommunicable likeness of birth. 

Au g- Aug. But is he to be reproved, who, when he has seen the 

Tr. lxx. . 

3. ' likeness, wishes to see the man of whom he is the likeness ? 

No: our Lord rebuked the question, only with reference to 
the mind of the asker. Philip asked, as if the Father were 
better than the Son; and so shewed that He did not know 
the Son. Which opinion our Lord corrects: Believest thou 
not that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me ? as if He 
said, If it is a great wish with thee to see the Father, at any 
Hilar, rate believe what thou dost not see. Hilary. For what 
Xrin. excuse was there for ignorance of the Father, or what neces- 
sity to shew Him, when the Father was seen in the Son by 
s propri- His essential nature 2 , while by the identity of unity, the 
naturae. Begotten and the Begetter are one: Believest thou not that I 
Aug. am in the Father and the Father in Me? Aug. He wished him 
Trin. to live by faith, before he had sight, and therefore says, Believest 
11. thou not? Spiritual vision is the reward of faith, vouchsafed 
Hilar, to minds purified by faith. Hilary. But the Father is in the 
-': de Son, and the Son in the Father, not by a conjunction of two 
3 genera. harmonizing essences 3 , nor by a nature grafted into a more 
capacious substance as in material bodies, in which it is 
impossible that what is within can be made external to 
that which contains it ; but by the birth of a nature which is 
life from life ; forasmuch as from God nothing but God can be 
Hilar, born. Hilary. The unchangeable God follows, so to speak, 
£ ri n His own nature, by begetting unchangeable God. Nor does 
the perfect birth of unchangeable God from unchangeable 
God forsake His own nature. We understand then here 



VEK. 8 11. ST. JOHN. 457 

the nature of God subsisting in Him, since God is in God, 
nor besides Him who is God, can any other be God. 
Chrys. Or thus: Philip, because [he thought] he had seenchrys. 
the Son with his bodily eye, wished to see the Father in the Honi - 
same way; perhaps too remembering what the Prophet said, 
I saw the Lord, and therefore he says, Shew us the Father. isa.6,i. 
The Jews had asked, who was His Father ; and Peter and 
Thomas, whither He went; and neither were told plainly. 
Philip therefore, that he might not seem burdensome, after 
saying, Shew us the Father, adds, And it sufficeth us : i. e. 
we seek for no more. Our Lord in reply does not say, that 
he asked an impossible thing, but that he had not seen the 
Son to begin with, lor that if he had seen Him, he would 
have seen the Father : Have I been so long lime with you, 
and yet hast thou not known Me? He does not say, not 
seen Me, but, not known Me; not known that the Son, 
being what the Father is, does in Himself fitly shew the 
Father. Then dividing the Persons, He says, He that hath 
seen Me hath seen the Father; that none might maintain 
that He was both the Father and the Son. The words 
shew too that even the Son was not seen in a bodily sense. 
So if any one takes seeing here, for knowing, I will not con- 
tradict him, but will take the sentence as if it was, He that 
hath known Me, hath known the Father. He shews here 
His consubstantiality with the Father: He that hath seen 
My substance, hath seen the Father. Whence it is evident 
He is not a creature: for all know and see the creature, but 
not all God ; Philip, for instance, who wished to see the 
substance of the Father. If Christ then had been of 
another substance from the Father, He would never have 
said, He that hath seen Me, hath seen the Father. A man 
cannot see the substance of gold in silver : one nature can- 
not be made apparent by another. Aug. He then addresses Aug. 
all of them, not Philip only: The word that I speak i*»ft>8.and X " 
you, I speak not of Myself. What is, / speak not of Myself , lxxi - li 
but, I that speak am not of Myself? He attributes what He 
does to Him, from whom He Himself, the doer, is. Hilary. Hilar. 

Wherein He neither desires Himself to be the Son, nor™ 1 *. de 

Inn. 

hides the existence 1 of His Father's power in Him. In that'natu- 
llo speaks, it is Himself that speaks in His own person; in ram 



458 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

that He speaks not of Himself, lie witnesseth His nativity, 

Chrys. that He is God from God. Chrys. Mark the abundant 

lxxiv. 2. proof of the unity of substance. For He continues; But tie 

Father that dwelleth in Me, He doeth the works. As if He 

said, My Father and I act together, not differently from each 

other; agreeing with what He said below: If I do not the 

works of 3Iy Father, believe Me not. But why does He 

pass from words to works ? Why does He not say as we 

might have expected, He speaketh the words? Because He 

means to apply what He says both to His doctrine, and to 

His miracles ; or because His words are themselves works. 

Au g- Aug. For he that edifieth his neighbour by speaking, doth a 

1 2. good work. These two sentences are brought against us by 

different sects of heretics; the Arians saying that the Son is 

unequal to the Father, because He does not speak of Himself; 

the Sabellians, that the same who is the Father is the Son. 

For what is meant, they ask, by, The Father that dwelleth in 

Me, He doeth the works, but, I that dwell in Myself, do these 

Hilar, works. Hilary. That the Father dwells in the Son, shews 

Trin. that He is not single, or solitary; that the Father works by 

the Son, shews that He is not different or alien. As He is 

not solitary who doth not speak from Himself, so neither is 

He alien and separable who speaketh by Him. Having 

shewn then that the Father spoke and worked in Him, He 

formally states this union: Believe Me that I am in the 

Father, and the Father in Me: that they might not think 

that the Father vvorketh and speaketh in the Son as by a 

mere agent or instrument, not by the unity of nature implied 

Aug. j n jjj s Divine birth. Aug. Philip alone was reproved before. 

2. Chrys. But if this does not suffice to shew ray consub- 

Chrys. stantiality, at least leam it from My works: Or else believe 

lxxiv. 2. Me for the very works' sake. Ye have seen My miracles, 

and all the proper signs of My divinity ; works which the 

Father alone worketh, sins remitted, life restored, and the 

Aug. like. Aug. Believe then for My works' sake, that I am in 

J r the Father, and the Father in Me; for, were we separated, 

we could not be working together. 

12. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth 
on me, the works that I do shall lie do also; and 






VER. 12 14. ST. JOHN. 459 

greater works than these shall he do ; because I go 
unto my Father. 

13. And whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that 
will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. 

14. If ye shall ask any thing in my name, I will do 
it. 

Chrys. Having said, Believe for the works' sake, our Lord Chrys. 

goes on to declare that He can do much greater than these, lx ° iv ' 2# 

and what is more wonderful, give others the power of working 

them. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that helieveth on 

Me, the works that I do, shall he do also; and greater works 

than these shall he do. Aug. But what are these greater Aug. 

works ? Is it that the shadow of the Apostles, as they passed 3. ' 

by, healed the sick ? It is indeed a greater thing that a 

shadow should heal, than that the border of a garment 

should. Nevertheless, by works here our Lord refers to His 

words. For when He says, My Father that dwelleth in Me, 

He doeth the works, what are these works but the words 

which He spoke ? And the fruit of those words was their 

faith. But these were but few converts in comparison with 

what those disciples made afterwards by their preaching: 

they converted the Gentiles to the faith. Did not the rich 

man go away sorrowful from His words? And yet that which 

one did not do at His own exhortation, many did afterwards 

when He preached through the disciples. He did greater 

works when preached by the believing, than when speaking 

to men's ears. Still these greater works He did by His c. 2. 

Apostles, whereas He includes others besides them, w r hen He 

says, He that helieveth on Me. Are we not to compute any 

one among the believers in Christ, who does not do greater 

works than Christ? This sounds harsh if not explained. 

The Apostle says, To him that helieveth on Him that justi- Rom. 4, 

Jieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness. 

By this work then we shall do the works of Christ, the very 

believing in Christ being the work of Christ, for He worketh 

this in us, though not without us. Attend then ; He that 

helieveth on Me, the works that I do, shall he do also. 

First I do them, then he will do them : I do them, that he 

may do them. Do what works but this. viz. that a man, 



4C0 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

from being a sinner, become just? which thing Christ work- 

eth in us, thougli not without us. This in truth I call a 

greater work to do, than to create the heaven and the earth ; 

for heaven and earth shall pass away, but the salvation and 

justification of the predestinated shall remain. However, 

c -3. the Angels in heaven are the work of Christ; shall he who 

worketh with Christ for his own justification, do greater 

even than these? Judge any one which be the greater work, 

to create the just, or to justify the ungodly? At least, if both 

be of equal power, the latter hath more of mercy. But it is 

not necessary to understand all the works of Christ, when He 

says, greater works than these shall he do. These perhaps 

refers to the works He had done that hour. He had then been 

' verba instructing them in the faith '. And surely it is a less work 

ciebat* to P re ach righteousness, which He did without us, than to 

justify the ungodly, which He so does in us, as that we do it 

ourselves. Great things truly did our Lord promise His 

people, when He went to His Father: Because I go unto My 

Chrys. Father. Chrys. i. e. I shall not perish, but shall remain 

lxxiv.2. in My proper dignity, in heaven. Or He means: It is your 

Aug. part henceforth to work miracles, since I am going. Aug. 

Ixxiii 3. And that no one might attribute the merit to himself, Ho 

shews, that even those greater works were His own doing: 

And whatsoever ye shall ask in My name, that will I do. 

Before it was, He shall do, now, I will do: as if He said, 

Let not this appear impossible to you. He that believeth 

in Me, will not be greater than I; but I shall do greater 

works then than now; greater by him that believeth on Me, 

than now by Myself; which will not be a failing, but a con- 

Chrys. descension. Chrys. In My name, He says. Thus the 

b^h) 2 Ap° st l es ; In the name of Jesus of Nazareth, arise and ualk. 

Acts 3, AH the miracles that they did, He did: the hand of the Lord 

was with them. Theophyl. This is an explanation of the 

doctrine of miracles. It is by prayer, and invocation of His 

Aug name, that a man is able to work miracles. Aug. What- 

j rra .? t ' soever ye shall ask. Then why do we often see believers 

asking, an'd not receiving? Perhaps it is that they ask 

amiss. When a man would make a bad use of what he 

a^ks for, God in His mercy does not grant him it. Still if 

God even in kindness often refuses the requests of believers. 



VER. 15 — 17. ST. JOHN. 401 

how are we to understand, Whatsoever ye shall ask in My 
name, I will do f Was this said to the Apostles only ? No. 
He says above, He that believeth on Me, the works that I do 
shall he do also. And if we go to the lives of the Apostles 
themselves, we shall find that he who laboured more than 
they all, prayed that the messenger of Satan might depart from 
him, but was not granted his request. But attend: does not 
our Lord lay down a certain condition? In My name, which 
is Christ Jesus. Christ signifies King, Jesus, Saviour. There- 
fore whatever we ask for that would hinder our salvation, we do 
not ask in our Saviour's name: and yet He is our Saviour, not 
only when He does what we ask, but also when He does not. 
When He sees us ask any thing to the disadvantage of our sal- 
vation, He shews Himself our Saviour by not doing it. The 
physician knows whether what the sick man asks for is to the 
advantage or disadvantage of his health ; and does not allow 
what would be to his hurt, though the sick man himself 
desires it; but looks to his final cure. And some things we 
may even ask in His name, and He will not grant them us at 
the time, though He will some time. What we ask for is 
deferred, not denied. He adds, that the Father may be glo- 
rified in the Son. The Son does not do any thing without the 
Father, inasmuch as He does it in order that the Father may 
be glorified in Him. Chrys. For when the great power of Chrys. 
the Son is manifested, He that begat Him is glorified. Hei x °™" 2 . 
introduces this last, to confirm the truth of what He has said. 
Theophyl. Observe the order in which the glorifying of the «*»*■«'- 
Father comes. In the name of Jesus miracles were done, by 
which men were made to believe the Apostles' preaching. 
This brought them to the knowledge of the Father, and thus 
the Father was glorified in the Son. 

15. If ye love me, keep my commandments. 

16. And I will pray the Father, and he shall give 
you another Comforter, that he may abide with you 
for ever; 

17. Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world can- 
not receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth 



462 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and 
shall be in you. 

Chrys. Our Lord having said, Whatsoever ye shall ask in 
My name, that I will do; that they might not think simply 
asking would be enough, He adds, If ye love 3Ie, keep My 
commandments. And then 1 will do what ye ask, seems to 
be His meaning. Or the disciples having heard Him say, / 
go to the Father, and being troubled at the thought of it, He 
says, To love Me, is not to be troubled, but to keep My 
commandments: this is love, to obey and believe in Him 
who is loved. And as they had been expressing a strong 
desire for His bodily presence, He assures them that His 
absence will be supplied to them in another way: And I will 
pray the Father, and He u ill give you another Coniforter. 
£j^ ct Aug. Wherein He shews too that He Himself, is the Com- 
lxxiv.4. forter. Paraclete means advocate, and is applied to Christ: 

1 John We have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the 

2 1 

righteous. Alcuin. Paraclete, i. e. Comforter. They had 
then one Comforter, who comforted and elevated them by 
Didym. the sweetness of His miracles, and His preaching. Didymus. 
ritu Pl " ^ ut tne Holy Ghost was another Comforter: differing not in 
Sancto. nature, but in operation. For whereas our Saviour in His office 
1 legati of Mediator, and of Messenger l , and as High Priest, made 
supplication for our sins; the Holy Ghost is a Comforter in 
another sense, i. e. as consoling our griefs. But do not infer 
from the different operations of the Son and the Spirit, a dif- 
ference of nature. For in other places we find the Holy Spirit 
'legati performing the office of intercessor 2 with the Father, as, The 
Rom. 8, Spirit Himself intercedeth /'or us. And the Saviour, on the 
other hand, pours consolation into those hearts that need it: 
1 Mace, as in Maccabees, He strengthened those of the people that were 
' brought low. Chrys. He says, I will ask the Father, to make 
Hom. them believe Him: which they could not have done, had He 
' 2 ' simply said, I will send. Aug. Yet to shew that His works are 

Aug. *■ * 

contra inseparable from His Father's, He says below, When I shall 
iTrTan 9°* I will send Him unto you. Chrys. But what had lie more 
c xix. than the Apostles, if He could only ask the Father to give 
Horn! others the Spirit? The Apostles did this often even without 
lxxiv. 



VEH. 15 — 17. ST. JOHN. 463 

praying. Alcuin. / will ask — He says, as being the in- 
ferior in respect of His humanity — My Father, with Whom 
I am equal and consubstantial in respect of My Divine 
nature. Chrys. That He may abide with you for ever. Chrys. 
The Spirit does not depart even at death. He intimates tooi xxv# 'i t 
that the Holy Ghost will not suffer death, or go away, as He 
has done. But that the mention of the Comforter might not 
lead them to expect another incarnation, a Comforter to 
be seen with the eye, He adds, Even the Spirit of truth, 
Whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, 
neither knoweth Him. Aug. This is the Holy Ghost in the Aug. 
Trinity, Whom the Catholic faith professes to be consub- \^\y\ m 



stantial and coeternal with the Father and the Son. Chrys. 



Chrys. 



The Spirit of truth He calls Him, because He unfolds the Hom - 

1 r . lxxv. 1. 

figures of the Old Testament. The world are the wicked, 
seeing is certain knowledge; sight being the most certain of 
the senses. Bede. Note too, that when He calls the Holy 
Spirit the Spirit of truth, He shews that the Holy Spirit is 
His Spirit: then when He says He is given by the Father, 
He declares Him to be the Spirit of the Father also. Thus 
the Holy Ghost proceeds both from the Father, and from the 
Son. Greg. The Holy Spirit kindles in every one, in whom Greg. 
He dwells, the desire of things invisible. And since worldly v r ' 
minds love only things visible, this world receiveth Him not, 
because it rises not to the love of things invisible. In pro- 
portion as secular minds enlarge themselves by the spread 
of their desires, in that proportion they narrow themselves, 
with respect to admitting Christ. Aug. Thus the world, i. e. Aug. 
the lovers of the world, cannot, He says, receive the Holy' 1 - 1 ' 3 : 01, 
Spirit: that is to say, unrighteousness cannot be righteous. 
The world, i. e. the lovers of the world, cannot receive Him, 
because it seeth Him not. The love of the world hath 
not invisible eyes wherewith to see that, which can only be 
seen invisibly. It follows: But ye know Him, for He 
dwelleth with you. And that they might not think this manebit 
meant a visible dwelling, in the sense in which we use the 
phrase with respect to a guest, He adds, And shall be in you. 
Chrys. As if He said, He will not dwell with you as I have Chl 7 y - 

7 J Hom. 

done, but will dwell in your souls. Aug. To be in a place lxxv. l. 
is prior to dwelling. Be in you, is the explanation of dwell ^f^t. 

lxxiv. 5. 



-104 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP XIV. 

with you : i. c. shews that the latter means not that He [a 
seen, but that He is known. He must be in us, that the 
knowledge of Him may be in us. We see the Holy Ghost 
Greg, then in us, in our consciences. GREO. Hut if the Holy 
'Spirit abides in the disciples, how is it a special mark of the 
supr. i. Mediator that He abides in Him. We shall better under- 
iJaiTon stand, if we distinguish between the different gifts of tin- 
Spirit. In respect of those gifts without which we cannot 
attain to salvation, the Holy Spirit ever abides in all the 
Elect: but in respect of those which do not relate to our own 
salvation, but to the procuring that of others, He does not 
always abide in them. For He sometimes withdraws His 
miraculous gifts, that His grace may be possessed with 
humility. Christ has Him without measure and always. 
Chrys. Chrys. This speech levels at a stroke, as it were, the 
rxxv l °PP 0S t te heresies. The word another, shews the distinct 
personality of the Spirit: the word Paraclete, His consub- 
Aug. stantiality. Aug. Comforter, the title of the Holy Spirit, the 
Serm third Person in the Trinity, the Apostle applies to God: 
Arrian. God that comforteth those that are cast down, comforted its. 
2 Cor. The Holy Spirit therefore Who comforts those that are cast 
^> 6 - down, is God. Or if they will have this said by the Apostle 
of the Father or the Son, let them not any longer separate 
the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son, in His peculiar 
Aug. office of comforting. Aug. But when the love of God is 
I ract. gfed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given 
c l. unto us, how shall we love and keep the commandments of 

"Rnm ft 

5 a ' ' Christ, so as to receive the Spirit, when we are not able to 
love or to keep them, unless we have received the Spirit? 
Does love in us go first, i. e. do we so love Christ and keep 
His commandments as to deserve to receive the Holy Spirit, 
and to have the love of God the Father shed abroad in our 
hearts? This is a perverse opinion. For he who does not 
love the Father, does not love the Son, however he may 

c. 2. think he does. It remains for us to understand, that he who 
loves has the Holy Spirit, and by having Him, attains to 
having more of Him, and by having more of Him, to loving 
more. The disciples had already the Spirit which our Lord 
promised; but they were to be given more of Him: they 
had Him secretly, they were to receive Ilim openly. The 



VER. 18 — 21. ST. JOHN. 405 

promise is made both to him who has the Spirit, and to him 
who has Him not; to the former, that he shall have Him ; to 
the latter, that He shall have more of Him. Chrys. When Chrys. 
He had cleansed His disciples by the sacrifice of His passion, i xxv /i. 
and their sins were remitted, and they were sent forth to 
dangers and trials, it was necessary that they should receive 
the Holy Spirit abundantly. But they were made to wait 
some time for this gift, in order that they might feel the want 
of it, and so be the more grateful for it when it came. 

18. I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to 
you. 

19. Yet a little while, and the world seeth me no 
more : but ye see me : because I live, ye shall live also. 

20. At that day ye shall know that I am in my 
Father, and ye in me, and I in you. 

21. He that hath my commandments, and keepeth 
them, he it is that loveth me : and he that loveth me 
shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and 
will manifest myself to him. 

Aug. That no one might think, because our Lord was Aug. 
about to give the Holy Spirit, that He would therefore not be j r ' xxv * 
present Himself in Him, He adds, / trill not leave you 
comfortless. The Greek word ogQavo) signifies " wards." 
Although then the Son of God has made us the adopted sons 
of the Father, yet here He Himself shews the affection of a 
Father towards us. Chrys. At the first He said, Whither chrys. 
I go ye shall come; but as this was a long time off, He P ™^ 
promises them the Spirit in the interval. And as they knew 
not what that was, He promises them that they most desired, 
His own presence, / will come to you : but intimates at the 
same time that they are not to look for the same kind of 
presence over again: Yet a little while, and the world seeth 
Me no more: as if He said, I will come to you, but not to 
live with you every day as I did before. And, I will come to 
you alone, He says, thus preventing any inconsistency with 
what He had said to the Jews: Henceforth ye shall not see A, lg . 
Me. Aug. For the world saw Him then with the carnal eve, Tr - lxxv - 

2 H 



466 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. X IV 

manifest in the flesh, though it did not see the Word hidden 
under the flesh. But after the resurrection He was unwilling 
to shew even His flesh, except to His own followers, whom 
He allowed to see and to handle it: Yet a little while, and 
the world seeth Me no more; but ye shall see Me, But, inas- 
much as the world, by which are meant all who are aliens from 
His kingdom, will see Him at the last judgment, it is better 
perhaps to understand Him here as pointing to that time, 
when He will be taken for ever from the eyes of the wicked, 
to be seen thenceforth by those who love Him. A little 
while, He says, for that which seems a long time to men, is 
but a moment in the eyes of God. 

Because J live, ye shall live also. Theophyl. As if He 

said, Though I shall die, I shall rise again. And ye shall 

live also, i. e. when ye see Me risen again, ye will rejoice, 

Chrys. and be as dead men brought to life again. Chrys. To me 

lxxv 1 2 nowever he seems to refer not only to the present life, but 

to the future ; as if He said, The death of the cross shall not 

separate you from Me for ever, but only hide Me from you 

Aug. for a moment. Aug. But why does He speak of life as 

3 r * xxv ' present to Him, future to them ? Because His resurrection 

preceded, theirs was to follow. His resurrection was about 

so soon to take place, that He speaks of it as present; theirs 

being deferred till the end of the world, He does not say 

ye live, but ye shall live. Because He lives, therefore we 

l Cor. shall live: As by man came death, by man came also the 

15,21 ' resurrection of the dead. It follows: In that day (the day 

of which He saith, ye shall live also) ye shall know, i. e. 

whereas now ye believe, then ye shall see, that I am in the 

Father, and ye in Me, and I in you. For when we shall 

have attained to that life in which death is swallowed up, 

then shall be finished that which is now begun by Him, that 

Chrys. He should be in us, and we in Him. Chrys. Or, in that 

Horn, fay^ on w hi c h I shall rise again, ye shall know. For His 

resurrection it was that established their faith. Then the 

powerful teaching of the Holy Spirit began. His saying, 

I am in the Father, expresses His humility; the next, And 

ye in Me, and I in you, His humanity and God's assistance 

to Him. Scripture often uses the same words in different 

senses, as applied to God and to men. 



VER. 18 21. ST. JOHN. 467 

Hilary. Or He means by this, that whereas He was in Hilar. 
the Father by the nature of His divinity, and we in Him by j"j n# e 
means of His birth in the flesh ; He on the other hand should 
be believed to be in us by the mystery of the Sacrament: 
as He Himself testified above: Whoso eateth My flesh, andsupr.6, 
drinketh My blood, dwelleth in Me, and I in Him. Alcuin. 
By love, and the observance of His commandments, that 
will be perfected in us which He has begun, viz. that we 
should be in Him, and He in us. And that this blessedness 
may be understood to be promised to all, not to the Apostles 
only, He adds, He that hath My commandments and keepeth 
them, he it is that loveth Me. Aug. He that hath them in Aug. 
mind, and keepeth them in life ; he that hath them in words, i xxv . 5. 
and keepeth them in works ; he that hath them by hearing, 
and keepeth them by doing ; he that hath them by doing, 
and keepeth them by persevering, he it is that loveth Me. 
Love must be shewn by works, or it is a mere barren name. 
Theophyl. As if He said, Ye think that by sorrowing, as 
ye do, for my death ye prove your affection ; but I esteem 
the keeping of My commandments the evidence of love. 
And then He shews the privileged state of one who loves : 
And he that loveth Me shall be loved of My Father, and I 
will love him. Aug. / will love him, as if now He did not Aug. 
love him. What meaneth this? He explains it in what^™ *^ 
follows : And will manifest Myself unto him, i. e. I love 
him so far as to manifest Myself to him ; so that, as the 
reward of his faith, he will have sight. Now He only loves 
us so that we believe ; then He will love us so that we 
see. And whereas we love now by believing that which 
we shall see, then we shall love by seeing that which we 
have believed. Aug. He promises to shew Himself to them Aug. 
that love Him as God with the Father, not in that body which *j e v * u ' 
He bore upon earth, and which the wicked saw. Theophyl. dendo 
Or, as after the resurrection He was to appear to them in cx h' c . 
a body more assimilated to His divinity, that they might 10 - 
not take Him then for a spirit, or a phantom, He tells them 
now beforehand not to have misgivings upon seeing Him, 
but to remember that He shews Himself to them as a reward 
for their keeping His commandments; and that therefore 

2 H 2 



468 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

they are bound ever to keep them, that they may ever enjoy 
the sight of Him. 

22. Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is 
it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto 
the world? 

23. Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man 
love me, he will keep my words : and my Father will 
love him, and we will come unto him, and make our 
abode with him. 

24. He that loveth me not keepeth not my sayings : 
and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the 
Father's which sent me. 

25. These things have I spoken unto you, being 
yet present with you. 

26. But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, 
whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach 
you all things, and bring all things to your remem- 
brance, whatsoever I have said unto you. 

27. Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto 
you : not as the world giveth, give I unto you. 

Aug. Aug. Our Lord having said, A little while, and the world 

lxxvi.i. see ^' ^ e n0 more: but V e sit all see Me: Judas, not the 

traitor named Scariot, but he whose Epistle is read among 

the Canonical Scriptures, asks His meaning: Judas saith 

unto Him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is it that Thou wilt 

manifest Thyself unto us, and not unto the world f Our 

Lord in reply explains why He manifests Himself to His 

own, and not to aliens, viz. because the one love Him, the 

other do not. Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man 

Greg, love Me, he will keep My words. Gkeg. If thou wouldest 

xx°™ in prove thy love, shew thy works. The love of God is never 

Evang. idle; whenever it is, it doeth great things: if it do not work, 

£ ug * it is not. Aug. Love distinguishes the saints from the 

Tract. D , 

lxxvi.2. world : it maketh men to be of one mind in an house ; in which 
house the Father and the Son take their abode ; who give 
that love to those, to whom in the end they will manifest 



ver . 22 — 27. ST. john. 469 

themselves. For there is a certain inner manifestation of 
God, unknown to the ungodly, to whom there is no mani- 
festation made of the Father and the Holy Spirit, and only 
could be of the Son in the flesh ; which latter manifestation 
is not as the former, being only for a little while, not for 
ever, for judgment, not for joy, for punishment, not for 
reward. And We will come unto him : They come to us, in 
that we go to Them ; They come by succouring, we go by 
obeying; They come by enlightening, we go by contem- 
plating; They come by filling, we go by holding: so Their 
manifestation to us is not external, but inward; Their abode 
in us not transitory, but eternal. It follows, And will make 
Our abode with him. Greg. Into some hearts He cometh,^ re S* 

Horn. 

but not to make His abode with them. For some feel com-xxx. 
punction for a season and turn to God, but in time of tempt- 
ation forget that which gave them compunction, and return 
to their former sins, just as if they had never lamented them. 
But whoso loveth God truly, into his heart the Lord both 
comes, and also makes His abode therein : for the love of the 
Godhead so penetrates him, that no temptation withdraws 
him from it. He truly loves, whose mind no evil pleasure 
overcomes, through his consent thereto. Aug. But while Aug. 
the Father and the Son make Their abode with the loving ixx^. 
soul, is the Holy Spirit excluded? What meaneth that 
which is said of the Holy Spirit above : He dwelleth with 
you, and shall be in you, but that the Spirit makes His 
abode with us ? Unless indeed a man be so absurd as to 
think that when the Father and the Son come, the Holy 
Spirit departs, as if to give place to His superiors. Yet even 
this carnal thought is met by Scripture, in that it says, 
Abide with you for ever. He will therefore be in the same v. 16. 
abode with Them for ever. As He did not come without 
Them, so neither They without Him. As a consequence of 
the Trinity, acts are sometimes attributed to single persons 
in it : but the substance of the same Trinity demands, that 
in such acts the presence of the other Persons also be im- 
plied. Greg. In proportion as a man's love rests upon Greg, 
lower things, in that proportion is he removed from heavenlv Hom " 
love : He that loveth Me not, keepeih not My sayings. To 
the love then of our Maker, let the tongue, mind, life bear 



470 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

Chrys. witness. Ciiitvs. Or thus : Judas thought that he should 

Horn. . . . ° 

lxxv. i, see Him, as we see the dead m sleep : How is it, that limn 
" wilt manifest Thyself u »to us, and not unto the world? 

meaning, Alas, as Thou art to die, Thou wilt appear to us 
but as one dead. To correct this mistake, He says, / and 
My Father will come to him, i. e. I shall manifest Myself, 
even as My Father manifests Himself. And u ill make our 
abode with Him; which is not like a dream. It follows, 
And the word which ye hear is not Mine, but the Father's 
which sent Me; i.e. He that heareth not My words, inas- 
much as he loveth not Me, so loveth he not My Father. This 
He says to shew that He spoke nothing which was not the 
Aug. Father's, nothing beside what seemed good to the Father. Aug. 
lxxvi 5. And perhaps there is a distinction at bottom, since lie speaks 
of His sayings, when they are His own, in the plural number; 
as when He says, He thai loveth Me not, keepelh not My 
sayings: when they are not His own, but the Father's, in the 
singular, i. e. as the Word, which is Himself. For He 
is not His own Word, but the Father's, as He is not 
His own image, but the Father's, or His own Son, but the 
Father's. 
Chrys. Chrys. These things have I spoken unto you, being yet 
lxxv. 3. present with you. Some of these things were obscure, and not 
Aug. understood by the disciples. Aug. The abode He promised 
lxxvfi tnem hereafter is altogether a different one from this present 
1« abode He now speaks of. The one is spiritual and inward, 

the other outward, and perceptible to the bodily sight and 
Chrys. hearing. Chrys. To enable them to sustain His bodily 
lxxv! 3. departure more cheerfully, He promises that that departure 
shall be the source of great benefit; for that while He was 
then in the body, they could never know much, because the 
Spirit would not have come: But the Comforter, which is 
the Holy Ghost, Whom the Father will send in My name, 
He shall teach you all things, and bring all things to 
Greg, your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you. Greg. 
xxx. in Paraclete is Advocate, or Comforter. The Advocate then 
Evang. intercedes with the Father for sinners, when by His inward 
power He moves the sinner to pray for himself. The 
Comforter relieves the sorrow of penitents, and cheers them 

Chrys. 

Hom. with the hope of pardon. Chrys. He often calls Him 

lixv. 3. 



VER. 22 — 27. ST. JOHN. 471 

the Comforter, in allusion to the affliction in which they then 
were. Didymds. The Saviour affirms that the Holy Spirit is Didym. 
sent by the Father, in His, the Saviour's, name; which name g e an c t o' 
is the Son. Here an agreement of nature and propriety 1 , so)-» in ter 
to speak, of persons is shewn. The Son can come in the Hieron. 
Father's name only, consistently with the proper 1 relationship ' P r °" 
of the Son to the Father, and the Father to the Son. No 
one else comes in the name of the Father, but in the name 
of God, of the Lord, of the Almighty, and the like. As 
servants who come in the name of their Lord, do so as 
being the servants of that Lord, so the Son who comes in 
the name of the Father, bears that name as being the acknow- . 
ledged only-begotten Son of the Father. That the Holy 
Spirit then is sent in the Son's name, by the Father, shews 
that He is in unity with the Son: whence He is said too to 
be the Spirit of the Son, and to make those sons by adoption, 
who are willing to receive Him. The Holy Spirit then, Who 
cometh in the name of the Son from the Father, shall teach 
them, who are established in the faith of Christ, all things; 
all things which are spiritual, both the understanding of 
truth, and the sacrament of wisdom. But He will teach not 
like those who have acquired an art or knowledge by study 
and industry, but as being the very art, doctrine, knowledge 
itself. As being this Himself, the Spirit of truth will impart 
the knowledge of divine things to the mind. Greg. Unless Gre s- 
the Spirit be present to the mind of the hearer, the word of X xx. 
the teacher is vain. Let none then attribute to the human 
teacher, the understanding which follows in consequence of 
his teaching: for unless there be a teacher within, the tongue 
of the teacher outside will labour in vain. Nay even the 
Maker Himself does not speak for the instruction of man, 
unless the Spirit by His unction speaks at the same time. 
Aug. So then the Son speaks, the Holy Spirit teaches : Aug. 
when the Son speaks we take in the words, when the Holy i XX vii!2. 
Spirit teaches, we understand those words. The whole 
Trinity indeed both speaks and teaches, but unless each 
person worked separately as well, the whole would be too 
much for human infirmity to take in. Greg. But why is it j^m 
said of the Spirit, He shall suggest' 1 all things to you: to xx *- 
suggest being the office of an inferior? The word is usedgeret 

Vulg. 



472 008PBL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

here, as it is used sometimes, in the sense of supplying secretly. 
The invisible Spirit suggests, not because He takes a lower 

Tract P* acc m teaching, but because He teaches secretly. Aug. 

xxvii.2. Suggest, i. e. bring to your remembrance. Every wholesome 
hint to remember that we receive is of the grace of the 
Spirit. Theophyl. The Holy Spirit then was both to teach 
and to bring to remembrance: to teach what Christ had 
forborne to tell His disciples, because they were not able to 
bear it; to bring to remembrance what Christ had told them, 
but which on account of its difficulty, or their slowness of 

Chrys. understanding, they were unable to remember. Chrys. 

lxxiv! 3. Peace I leave with you, My peace I give unto you: He says 
this to console His disciples, who were now troubled at the 
prospect of the hatred and opposition which awaited them 

Aug. after His departure. Aug. He left no peace in this world; 

]xxvii2. m w hich we conquer the enemy, and have love one to 
another: He will give us peace in the world to come, when 
we shall reign without an enemy, and where we shall be 
"able to avoid disagreement. This peace is Himself, both 
when we believe that He is, and when we shall see Him as 
He is. But why does He say, Peace I leave with you, 
without the My, whereas He puts in My in, My peace J give 
unto you? Are we to understand My in the former; or is 
it not rather left out with a meaning? His peace is such 
peace as He has Himself; the peace which He left us in 
this world is rather our peace than His. He has nothing 
to fight against in Himself, because He has no sin: but ours 

Matt. 6, is a peace in which we still say, Forgive us our debts. And 
in like manner we have peace between ourselves, because 
we mutually trust one another, that we mutually love one 
another. But neither is that a perfect peace; for we do not 
see into each other's minds. I could not deny however that 
these words of our Lord's may be understood as a simple 
repetition. He adds, Not as the uorhl givcth, give I unto 
you: i. e. not as those men, who love the world, give. They 
give themselves peace, i. c. free, uninterrupted enjoyment of 
the world. And even when they allow the righteous peace, 
so far as not to persecute them, yet there cannot be true 

r hrvs P eac e, where there is no true agreement, no union of heart. 

Horn. Chkys. External peace is often even hurtful, rather than 

Ixxv. 3. 



VER. 27 31. ST. JOHN. 473 

profitable to those who enjoy it. Aug. But there is a peace Aug. 
which is serenity of thought, tranquillity of mind, simplicity p om er * 
of heart, the bond of love, the fellowship of charity. None serm. ix. 
will be able to come to the inheritance of the Lord who 
do not observe this testament of peace; none be friends 
with Christ, who are at enmity with the Christians. 

27. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be 
afraid. 

28. Ye have heard how I said unto you, I go away, 
and come again unto you. If ye loved me, ye would 
rejoice, because I said, I go unto the Father : for my 
Father is greater than I. 

29. And now I have told you before it come to 
pass, that, when it is come to pass, ye might believe. 

30. Hereafter I will not talk much with you : for 
the prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing 

in me. 

31. But that the world may know that I love the 
Father: and as the Father gave me commandment, 
even so I do. Arise, let us go hence. 



Chrys. After saying, Peace I leave with you, which was chrys. 

Horn. 
lxxv. 3. 



like taking farewell, He consoles them : Let not your heart H 



be troubled, neither let it be afraid: the two feelings of love 
and fear were now the uppermost in them. Aug. Though Aug. 
He was only going for a time, their hearts would be troubled 1 Trac **. 
and afraid for what might happen before He returned jl. 
lest in the absence of the Shepherd the wolf might attack 
the flock: Ye have heard how I said tin to you, I go away, 
and come again to you. In that He was man, He went: in 
that He was God, He stayed. Why then be troubled and 
afraid, when He left the eye only, not the heart? To make 
them understand that it was as man that He said, I go away, 
and come again to you; He adds, If ye loved Ale ye would 
rejoice, because I said, I go unto My Father; for My 
Father is greater than I. In that the Son then is unequal 



474 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIV. 

with the Father, through that inequality He went to the 
Father, from Him to come again to judge the quick and 
dead: in that He is equal to the Father, He never goes from 
the Father, but is every where altogether with Him in that 
Godhead, which is not confined to place. Nay, the Son 
Himself, because that being equal to the Father in the form 
of God, He emptied Himself, not losing the form of God, but 
taking that of a servant, is greater even than Himself: the 
form of God which is not lost, is greater than the form of a 
servant which was put on. In this form of a servant, the 
Son of God is inferior not to the Father only, but to the Holy 
Ghost; in this the Child Christ was inferior even to His 
parents; to whom we read, He was subject. Let us acknow- 
ledge then the twofold substance of Christ, the divine, which 
is equal to the Father, and the human, which is inferior. 
But Christ is both together, not two, but one Christ: 
else the Godhead is a quaternity, not a Trinity. Wherefore 
He says, If ye loved Me, ye would rejoice, because I said, I 
go to the Father; for human nature should exult at being 
thus taken up by the Only Begotten Word, and made im- 
mortal in heaven ; at earth being raised to heaven, and dust 
sitting incorruptible at the right hand of the Father. Who, 
that loves Christ, will not rejoice at this, seeing, as he 
doth, his own nature immortal in Christ, and hoping that He 
Hilar. Himself will be so by Christ. Hilary. Or thus: If the Father 
is greater by virtue of giving, is the Son less by confessing 
the gift? The giver is the greater, but He to whom unity 
Chrys. with that giver is given, is not the less. Chrys. Or thus: 
Hom. rp^ Ap 0S tles did not yet know what the resurrection was of 
which He spoke when He said, / go, and come again to you ; 
or what they ought to think of it. They only knew the great 
power of the Father. So He tells them : Though ye fear I 
shall not be able to save Myself, and do not trust to My appear- 
ing again after My crucifixion ; yet when ye hear that I go to 
My Father, ye should rejoice, because I go to one greater, one 
able to dissolve and change all things. All this is said in accom- 
modation to their weakness: as we see from the next words; 
And now I have told you before it come to pass; that when it 
Aug. does come to pass, ye may believe. Aug. But is not the time 
^■' a . ct \ for belief before a thing takes place? Is it not the praise of 



de Trin 
ix. 



VER. 27 31. ST. JOHN. 475 

faith, that it believes what it does not see ? according to what 
is said below to Thomas: Because thou hast seen, thou hast 
believed. He saw one thing, believed another: what he saw was 
man, what he believed was God. And if belief can be talked of 
with reference to things seen, as when we say that we believe 
our eyes; yet it is not mature faith, but is merely preparatory 
to our believing what we do not see. Wlien it has come to 
pass; then He says, because after His death they would see 
Him alive again, and ascending to His Father; which sight 
would convince them that He was the Christ, the Son of 
God; able as He was to do so great a thing, and to foretell 
it. Which faith however would not be a new, but only an 
enlarged faith; or a faith which had failed at His death, 
and been renewed by His resurrection. Hilary. He next Hilar, 
alludes to the approach of the time when He would resume jj in ® 
His glory. Hereafter I will not talk much with you. 
Bede. He says this because the time was now approaching 
for His being taken, and given up to death: For the Prince 
of this world cometh. Aug. i. e. the devil; the prince of Aug. 
sinners, not of creatures; as the Apostle saith, Against the\ xxlx '2 M 
rulers of this world. Or, as He immediately adds by way E P h - 6 > 
of explanation, this darkness, meaning, the ungodly. And 
hath nothing in Me. God had no sin as God, nor had His 
flesh contracted it by a sinful birth, being born of the Virgin. 
But how, it might be asked, canst thou die, if thou hast no 
sin: He answers, But that the world may know that I love 
the Father, and as the Father gave Me commandment, even 
so I do. Arise, let us go hence. He had been sitting at 
table with them all this time. Let us go: i. e. to the place, 
where He, Who had done nothing to deserve death, was to 
be delivered to death. But He had a commandment from 
His Father to die. Aug. That the Son is obedient to the Au s« 

contr. 

will and commandment of the Father, no more shews aserm. 

difference in the two, than it would in a human father and Arn . an< 

son. But over and above this comes the consideration that 

Christ is not only God, and as such equal to the Father, 

but also man, and as such inferior to the Father. Chrys. Chrys. 
... Horn. 

Arise, let us go hence, is the beginning of the sentence which Uxvi. i. 

follows. The time and the place (they were in the midst of 

a town, and it was night time) had excited the disciples' 



476 GOSPEL ACCOltDING TO ST. JOHN. CHAP. XIV. 

fears to such a degree, that they could not attend to any 
thing that was said, but rolled their eyes about, expecting 
persons to enter and assault them; especially when they 
heard our Lord say, Yet a little while I am with you; and, 
The prince of this world comet h. To quiet their alarm then, 
He takes them to another place, where they imagine them- 
selves safe, and would be able to attend to the great doctrines 
which He was going to set before them. 



CHAP. XV. 

1. I am the true vine, and my Father is the hus- 
bandman. 

2. Every branch in me that beareth not fruit he 
taketh away : and every branch that beareth fruit, he 
purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit. 

3. Now ye are clean through the word which I 
have spoken unto you. 

Hilaey. He rises in haste to perform the sacrament ofHilar. 
His final passion in the flesh, (such is His desire to fulfil Hisxn'n. 
Father's commandment:) and therefore takes occasion to 
unfold the mystery of His assumption of His flesh, whereby 
He supports us, as the vine doth its branches : I am the true 
vine. Aug. He says this as being the Head of the Church, Aug. 
of which we are the members, the Man Christ Jesus ; for the 2 r ' xxx * 
vine and the branches are of the same nature. When He 
says, / am the true vine, He does not mean really a vine ; 
for He is only called so metaphorically, not literally, even as 
He is called the Lamb, the Sheep, and the like ; but He 
distinguishes Himself from that vine to whom it is said, 
How art thou turned into the degenerate plant of a strange Jer. n, 
vine unto me. For how is that a true vine, which when 
grapes are expected from it, produces only thorns? Hilary. Hilar. 
But He wholly separates this humiliation in the flesh from xri n . 
the form of the Paternal Majesty, by setting forth the Father 
as the diligent Husbandman of this vine : And My Father is 
the Husbandman. Aug. For we cultivate God, and God Aug. 
cultivates us. But our culture of God does not make Him D om ^ r * 
better: our culture is that of adoration, not of ploughing : s . erm - 
His culture of us makes us better. His culture consists in 
extirpating all the seeds of wickedness from our hearts, in 



478 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

opening our heart to the plough, as it were, of His word, in 

sowing in us the seeds of His commandments, in waiting for 

Chrys. the fruits of piety. Chrys. And forasmuch as Christ was 

ixxvi. sufficient for Himself, but His disciples needed the help of 

the Husbandman, of the vine He says nothing, but adds 

concerning the branches, Every branch in Me that beareth 

not fruit, He taketh away. By fruit is meant life, i. e. that 

Hilar, no one can be in Him without good works. Hilary. The 

Tr'in. useless and deceitful branches He cuts down for burning. 

Chrys. Chrys. And inasmuch as even the best of men require the 

lx °™" #] work of the husbandman, He adds, And every branch that 

beareth fruit, He purgeth it, that it may bring forth more 

fruit. He alludes here to the tribulations and trials which 

were coming upon them, the effect of which would be to 

purge, and so to strengthen them. By pruning the branches 

Aua:. we make the tree shoot out the more. Aug. And who is 

Tr.lxxx. t y iere m jjjjg ^yoj-jd so dean, that he cannot be more and 

i.Tohni,more changed? Here, if we say that we have no sin, we 
8# deceive ourselves. He cleanseth then the clean, i. e. the 

fruitful, that the cleaner they be, the more fruitful they 
may be. Christ is the vine, in that He saith, My Father 
is greater than I ; but in that He saith, I and My Father 
are one, He is the husbandman ; not like those who carry on 
an external ministry only ; for He giveth increase within. 
Thus He calls Himself immediately the cleanser of the 
branches : Now ye are clean through the word, which I 
have spoken unto you. He performs the part of the hus- 
bandman then, as well as of the vine. But why does He 
not say, ye are clean by reason of the baptism wherewith ye 
are washed ? Because it is the word in the water which 
cleanseth. Take away the word, and what is the water, but 
water ? Add the word to the element, and you have a sacra- 
ment. Whence hath the water such virtue as that by touch- 
ing the body, it cleanseth the heart, but by the power of the 
word, not spoken only, but believed ? For in the word itself, 
the passing sound is one thing, the abiding virtue another. 
This word of faith is of such avail in the Church of God, 
that by Him who believes, presents, blesses, sprinkles the 
infant, it cleanseth that infant, though itself is unable to 
believe. Chrys. Ye are clean through the word which I 



VER. 4 — 7. ST. JOHN. 479 

have spoken unto you, i. e. ye have been enlightened by My 
doctrine, and been delivered from Jewish error. 

4. Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch can- 
not bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine ; no 
more can ye, except ye abide in me. 

5. I am the vine, ye are the branches : He that 
abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth 
much fruit : for without me ye can do nothing. 

6. If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a 
branch, and is withered ; and men gather them, and 
cast them into the fire, and they are burned. 

7. If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ye 
shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you. 

Chrys. Having said that they were clean through the Chrys. 
word which He had spoken unto them, He now teaches lxxvi ' # 
them that they must do their part. Aug. Abide in Me, and*™ occ - 
I in you: not they in Him, as He in them ; for both are forxrae't. 
the profit not of Him, but them. The branches do not lxxxul - 
confer any advantage upon the vine, but receive their sup- 
port from it : the vine supplies nourishment to the branches, 
takes none from them : so that the abiding in Christ, and the 
having Christ abiding in them, are both for the profit of the 
disciples, not of Christ; according to what follows, As the 
branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the 
vine, no more can ye, except ye abide in Me. Great display 
of grace ! He strengthened the hearts of the humble, stop- 
peth the mouth of the proud. They who hold that God is 
not necessary for the doing of good works, the subverters, 
not the assertors, of free will, contradict this truth. For he 
who thinks that he bears fruit of himself, is not in the vine ; 
he who is not in the vine, is not in Christ ; he who is not in 
Christ, is not a Christian. Alcuin. All the fruit of good 
works proceeds from this root. He who hath delivered 
us by His grace, also carries us onward by his help, 
so that we bring forth more fruit. Wherefore He repeats, 
and explains what He has said: / am the vine, ye are the 
branches. He that abideth in Me, by believing, obeying, 



480 GOSPKL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

persevering, and I in Him, by enlightening, assisting, giving 
perseverance, the same, and none other, bringeth forth much 

Aug. fruit. Aug. But lest any should suppose that a branch could 

]*xx\'.3. bring forth a little fruit of itself, He adds, For without Me 
ye can do nothing. He does not say, ye can do little. 
Unless the branch abides in the vine, and lives from the 
root, it can bear no fruit whatever. Christ, though He would 
not be the vine, except He were man, yet could not give this 

Chrys. grace to the branches, except He were God. Chrys. The 

lxxvi'.i.Son then contributes no less than the Father to the help of 
the disciples. The Father changeth, but the Son keepeth 
them in Him, which is that which makes the branches fruitful. 
And again, the cleansing is attributed to the Son also, and 
the abiding in the root to the Father who begat the root. 

c. 2. It is a great loss to be able to do nothing, but He goes on to 
say more than this: If a man abide not in Me, he is cast 
forth as a branch, i. e. shall not benefit by the care of the 
husbandman, and withereth, i. e. shall lose all that it desires 
from the root, all that supports its life, and shall die. Alcdin. 
And men gather them, i. e. the reapers, the Angels, and 
cast them into the fire, everlasting fire, and they are burned. 

Aug. Aug. For the branches of the vine are as contemptible, if 

] xxx i* 3 .they abide not in the vine, as they are glorious, if they abide. 
One of the two the branch must be in, either the vine, or 

Chrys. the fire: if it is not in the vine, it will be in the fire. Chrys. 

Lxxvi" 2 Then He shews what it is to abide in Him* If ye abide in 
Me, and My words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, 
and it shall be done unto you. It is to be shewn by their 

Aug. works. Aug. For then may His words be said to abide in 

Tract. us w hen we do what He has commanded, and love what He 
lxxxi.4. , 

has promised. But when His words abide in the memory, 

and are not found in the life, the branch is not accounted 
to be in the vine, because it derives no life from its root. 
So far as we abide in the Saviour we cannot will any thing 
that is foreign to our salvation. We have one will, in so far 
as we are in Christ, another, in so far as we are in this world. 
And by reason of our abode in this world, it sometimes hap- 
pens that we ask for that which is not expedient, through 
ignorance. But never, if we abide in Christ, will He grant 
it us, Who does not grant except what is expedient for us. 



VEK. 8 11. ST. JOHN. 481 

And here we are directed to the prayer, Our Father. Let 
us adhere to the words and the meaning of this prayer in 
our petitions, and whatever we ask will be done for us. 

8. Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much 
fruit; so shall ye be my disciples. 

9. As the Father hath loved me, so have I loved 
you: continue ye in my love. 

10. If ye keep my commandments, ye shall abide in 
my love: even as I have kept my Father's command- 
ments, and abide in his love. 

11. These things have I spoken unto you, that my 
joy might remain in you, and that your joy might be 
full. 

Chrys. Our Lord shewed above, that those who plotted Chrys. 
against them should be burned, inasmuch as they abode noti xxv i" >2 . 
in Christ: now He shews that they themselves would be 
invincible, bringing forth much fruit; Herein is My Father 
glorified, that ye bear much fruit : as if He said, If it apper- 
tains to My Father's glory that ye bring forth fruit, He will 
not despise His own glory. And he that bringeth forth 
fruit is Christ's disciple : So shall ye be My disciples. The- 
ophyl. The fruit of the Apostles are the Gentiles, who 
through their teaching were converted to the faith, and 
brought into subjection to the glory of God. Aug. Made Al- 
bright or glorified; the Greek word may be translated in lxxxii'l. 
either way. Ao£a signifies glory; not our own glory, we 
must remember, as if we had it of ourselves: it is of His 
grace that we have it; and therefore it is not our own but 
His glory. For from whom shall we derive our fruitfulness, 
but from His mercy preventing us. Wherefore He adds, 
As M;/ Father hath loved Me, even so love I you. This 
then is the source of our good works. Our good works pro- 
ceed from faith which worketh by love: but we could not 
love unless we were loved first : As My Father hath loved 
Me, even so love I you. This does not prove that our nature 
is equal to His, as His is to the Father's, but the grace, 
whereby He is the Mediator between God and man, the man 

2 i 



482 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

Chrys. Christ Jesus. The Father loves us, but in Him. Chrys. 

lxjvi.2. If tnen I love you, be of good cheer; if it is the Father's 
glory that ye bring forth good fruit, bear no evil. Then to 
rouse them to exertion, He adds, Continue ye in My love; 
and then shews how this is to be done: Jf ye keep My com- 

Aug. mandments, ye shall abide in My love. Aug. Who doubts 

UKfiA*k | rt l° ve precedes the observance of the commandments? 

et seq. For who loves not, has not that whereby to keep the com- 
mandments. These words then do not declare whence love 
arises, but how it is shewn, that no one might deceive himself 
into thinking that he loved our Lord, when he did not keep 
His commandments. Though the words, Continue ye in My 
love, do not of themselves make it evident which love He 
means, ours to Him, or His to us, yet the preceding words 
do: I love you, He says: and then immediately after, Con- 
tinue ye in My love. Continue ye in My love, then, is, con- 
tinue in My grace: and, If ye keep My commandments, ye 
shall abide in My love, is, Your keeping of My command- 
ments, will be evidence to you that ye abide in My love. 
It is not that we keep His commandments first, and that then 
He loves; but that He loves us, and then we keep His com- 
mandments. This is that grace, which is revealed to the 
humble, but hidden from the proud. But what means the 
next words, Even as I have kept My Father's command- 
ments, and abide in His love: i. e. the Father's love, where- 
with He loveth the Son. Must this grace, wherewith the 
Father loves the Son, be understood to be like the grace 
wherewith the Son loveth us? No; for whereas we are sons 
not by nature, but by grace, the Only Begotten is Son not by 
grace, but by nature. We must understand this then to 
refer to the manhood in the Son, even as the words them- 
selves imply : As My Father hath loved Me, even so love I 
you. The grace of a Mediator is expressed here; and Christ 
is Mediator between God and man, not as God, but as man. 
This then we may Bay, that since human nature does not 
pertain to the nature of God, but does by grace pertain to 
the Person of the Son, grace also pertains to that Person; 
such grace as has nothing superior, nothing equal to it. For 
no merits on man's part preceded the assumption of that 
nature. Aiatin. Even as J hare kept My Father's com- 



VER. 12 10. ST. JOHN. 483 

mandments. The Apostle explains what these commandments 
were: Christ became obedient unto death, even the death of Phil. 2, 

g 

the cross. Chrvs. Then because the Passion was now ap- c ' hryg> 
proaching to interrupt their joy, He adds, These things have Hom 
/ spoken unto you, that my joy may remain in you: as if 
He said, And if sorrow fall upon you, I will take it away; 
so that ye shall rejoice in the end. Aug. And what is Aug. 
Christ's joy in us, but that He deigns to rejoice on our,^^*, 
account? And what is our joy, which He says shall be full, 
but to have fellowship with Him? He had perfect joy on 
our account, when He rejoiced in foreknowing, and predes- 
tinating us; but that joy was not in us, because then we did 
not exist: it began to be in us, when He called us And • 
this joy we rightly call our own, this joy wherewith we shall 
be blessed; which is begun in the faith of them who are born 
again, and shall be fulfilled in the reward of them who rise 
again. 

12. This is my commandment, That ye love one 
another, as T have loved you. 

13. Greater love hath no man than this, that a man 
lay down his life for his friends. 

14. Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I com- 
mand you. 

15. Henceforth I call you not servants; for the ser- 
vant knoweth not what his Lord doeth: but I have 
called you friends; for all things that I have heard 
of my Father I have made known unto you. 

16. Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, 
and ordained you, that ye should go and bring forth 
fruit, and that your fruit should remain: that what- 
soever ye shall ask of the Father in my name, he may 
give it you. 

Theophyl. Having said, If ye keep My commandments, 
ye shall abide in My love, He shews what commandments 
they arc to keep : This is My commandment, That ye love one Greg. 
another. Greg. But when all our Lord's sacred discourses Ho1 "' . 

xxvn.in 
2 1 2 Evang. 



484 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

are full of His commandments, why does He give this special 
commandment respecting love, if it is not that every com- 
mandment teaches love, and all precepts are one? Love and 
love only is the fulfilment of every thing that is enjoined. 
As all the boughs of a tree proceed from one root, so all the 
virtues are produced from one love : nor hath the branch, 
i. e the good work, any life, except it abide in the root of 
Aug. love. Aug. Where then love is, what can be wanting ? 
lxxxiii. wberB it is not, what can profit? But this love is distin- 
?■ guished from men's love to each other as men, by adding, 

As I have loved you. To what end did Christ love us, but 
that we should reign with Him ? Let us therefore so love 
* one another, as that our love be different from that of other 
men ; who do not love one another, to the end that God may 
be loved, because they do not really love at all. They who 
love one another for the sake of having God within them, they 
Greg, truly love one another. Greg. The highest, the only proof 
xx "!j"j' of love, is to love our adversary ; as did the Truth Himself, 
who while He suffered on the cross, shewed His love for His 
Luke23. persecutors : Father , forgive them, for they know not what 
they do. Of which love the consummation is given in the 
next words : Greater love hath no man than this, that a man 
lay down his life for his friends. Our Lord came to die for 
His enemies, but He says that He is going to lay down 1 lis 
life for His friends, to shew us that by loving, we are able to 
' lucrum > gain over our enemies, so that they who persecute us are by 
(ie bi. anticipation our friends. Aug. Having said, This is My com- 
micis mandment, that ye love one another, even as I have loved you, 
Tract, it follows, as John saith in his Epistle, that as Christ laid 
lxxxiv. c i own jji s life f or lls> so we should lay down our lives for the 
Uohn3. brethren. This the martyrs have done with ardent love. 
And therefore in commemorating them at Christ's table, we 
do not pray for them, as we do for others, but we rather pray 
that we may follow their steps. For they have shewn the same 
love for their brother, that has been shewn them at the Lord's 
Greg, table. Greg. Hut whoso in time of tranquillity will not give 
XN "'j' Dp his time to God, how in persecution will he give up his soul ? 
Let the virtue of love then, that it may be victorious in tribula- 
Aug. tion, be nourished in tranquillity by deeds of mercy. Aug. 
viii. de p rom one an( j the same love, we love God and our neighbour; 

1 nn. o. 



VER. 12 — 16. ST. JOHN. 485 

but God for His own sake, our neighbour for God's. So that, 
there being two precepts of love, on which hang all the Law 
and the Prophets, to love God, and to love our neighbour, 
Scripture often unites them into one precept. For if a man 
love God, it follows that he does what God commands, and if 
so, that he loves his neighbour, God having commanded this. 
Wherefore He proceeds: Ye are My friends, if ye do what- 
soever I command you. Greg. A friend is as it were a Greg. 
keeper of the soul. He who keeps God's commandments, ^ai. 
is rightly called His friend. Aug. Great condescension ! Aug. 
Though to keep his Lord's commandments, is only what a lx r *° v ' 2# 
good servant is obliged to do, yet, if they do so, He calls 
them His friends. The good servant is both the servant, 
and the friend. But how is this? He tells us: Henceforth 
I call you not servants, for the servant knoweth not what his 
Lord doeth. Shall we therefore cease to be servants, as soon 
as ever we are good servants? And is not a good and tried 
servant sometimes entrusted with his master's secrets, still 
remaining a servant? We must understand then that there c. 3. 
are two kinds of servitude, as there are two kinds of fear. 
There is a fear which perfect love casteth out; which also 
hath in it a servitude, which will be cast out together with the 
fear. And there is another, a pure fear, which remaineth for castus 
ever. It is the former state of servitude, which our Lord 
refers to, when He says, Henceforth I call you not servants, 
for the servant knoweth not what his Lord doeth; not the 
state of that servant to whom it is said, Well done, thou good Mat.25, 
servant, enter thou into the Joy of thy Lord: but of him 21 ' 
of whom it was said below, The servant abideth not in the 
house for ever, but the Son abideth ever. Forasmuch then 
as God hath given us power to become the sons of God, so 
that in a wonderful way, we are servants, and yet not ser- 
vants, we know that it is the Lord who doth this. This that 
servant is ignorant of, who knoweth not what his Lord doeth, 
and when he doeth any good thing, is exalted in his own 
conceit, as if he himself did it, and not his Lord; and boasts 
of himself, not of his Lord. 

But I have called you friends, for all things that L have 
heard of My Father, I have made known unto you. The- 
ophyl. As if He said, The servant knoweth not the counsels 



480 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

of his lord; but since 1 esteem you friends, I have com- 

Aug. municated my secrets to you. Aug. But how did He make 

lxxxvi. known to His disciples all things that He had heard from 

1. the Father, when He forebore saying many things, because 

He knew they as yet could not bear them? He made all 

things known to His disciples, i. e. He knew that He should 

make them known to them in that fulness of which the Apo- 

iCor.13, stle saith, Then we shall know, even as we are known. For 

as we look for the death of the flesh, and the salvation of the 

soul ; so should we look for that knowledge of all things, which 

Greg, the Only-Begotten heard from the Father. Greg. Or all 

xxvii. things which He heard from the Father, which He wished 

to be made known to His servants; the joys of spiritual love, 

the pleasures of our heavenly country, which He impresses 

daily on our minds by the inspiration of His love. For while 

we love the heavenly things we hear, we know them by loving, 

because love is itself knowledge. He had made all things 

known to them then, because being withdrawn from earthly 

Chrya. desires, they burned with the fire of divine love. Chrys. 

lxxvtf.i. -^ things, i. e. all things that they ought to hear. / have 

heard, shews that what He had taught Avas no strange 

Greg, doctrine, but received from the Father. Greg. But let no 

Evang. n one who has attained to this dignity of being called the 

xxvii. friend of God, attribute this superhuman gift 1 to his own 

1 (M];j' 

percipit merits : Ye have not chosen Me, but I have chosen you. 
super ae Aug. Ineffable grace ! For what were we before Christ had 
Iract. chosen us, but wicked, and lost? We did not believe in 
^cxxvi. jjj mj so as i b e chosen by Him: for had He chosen us 
believing, He would have chosen us choosing. This passage 
refutes the vain opinion of those who say that we were chosen 
before the foundation of the world, because God foreknew 
that we should be good, not that He Himself would make us 
good. For had He chosen us, because He foreknew that we 
should be good, He would have foreknown also that wo 
should first choose Him, for without choosing Him we can- 
not be good; unless indeed he can be called good, who hath 
not chosen good. What then hath He chosen in them who 
are not good? Thou canst not say, I am chosen because I 
believed; for hadst thou believed in Him, thou hadst chosen 
Him. Nor canst thou say, Before I believed I did good 



VER. 17 21. ST. JOHN. 4S7 

works, and therefore was chosen. For what good work is 
there before faith ? What is there for us to say then, but that 
we were wicked, and were chosen, that by the grace of the 
chosen we might become good ? Aug. They are chosen then Aug. 
before the foundation of the world, according to that pre- s a nct. 
destination by which God foreknew His future acts. They c - xvii - 
are chosen out of the world by that call whereby God fulfills 
what He has predestined: whom He did predestinate, them B.om. 8, 

SO 

He also called. Aug. Observe, He does not choose the A ' 

good; but those, whom He hath chosen, He makes good: Tract. 

And I have ordained you that ye should go, and bring forth 3. 

fruit. This is the fruit which He meant, when He said, 

Without Me ye can do nothing. He Himself is the way in &**«, 

which He hath set us to go. Greg. / have set you, i. e. have ^" 

planted you by grace, that ye should go by will; to will Hom. 

being to go in mind, and bring forth fruit, by works. What vo ] e nj 

kind of fruit they should bring forth He then shews: And^ tin 

Vulg. 
that your fruit may remain : for worldly labour hardly 

produces fruit to last our life : and if it does, death comes 
at last, and deprives us of it all. But the fruit of our spiri- 
tual labours endures even after death ; and begins to be seen 
at the very time that the results of our carnal labour begin 
to disappear. Let us then produce such fruits as may 
remain, and of which death, which destroys every thing, will 
be the commencement. Aug. Love then is one fruit, now Aug. 
existing in desire only, not yet in fulness. Yet even with j^™ ct : 
this desire whatever we ask in the name of the Only-Begotten 3. 
Son, the Father giveth us: That whatsoever ye shall ask 
the Father in My name, He may give it you. We ask in 
the Saviour's name, whatever we ask, that will be profitable 
to our salvation. 

17. These things I command you, that ye love 
one another. 

18. If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me 
before it hated you. 

19. If ye were of the world, the world would love 
his own : but because ye are not of the world, but I 



488 



GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAT. W. 



have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world 
hateth you. 

20. Rememher the word that I said unto you, The 
servant is not greater than his lord. If they have 
persecuted me, they will also persecute you; if they 
have kept my saying, they will keep yours also. 

21. But all these things will they do unto you for 
my name's sake, because they know not him that sent 
me. 

Aug. Aug. Our Lord had said, / have ordained that ye should 

Tract 

lxxxvii. walk, and bring forth fruit. Love is this fruit. Wherefore 

*« He proceeds : These things I command you, that ye love one 

Gal. 5, another. Hence the Apostle Faith : The fruit of the Spirit 

is love ; and enumerates all other graces as springing from 

this source. Well then doth our Lord commend love, as if 

it were the only thing commanded: seeing that without it 

nothing can profit, with it nothing be wanting, whereby a 

Chrys. mau j s ma de good. Chrys. Or thus : I have said that I lay 

lxxvii. down My life for you, and that 1 first chose you. I have 

said this not by way of reproach, but to induce you to love 

one another. Then as they were about to suffer persecution 

and reproach, He bids them not to grieve, but rejoice on that 

account: If the uorld hate you, ye know that it hated Me 

before it hated you : as if to say, I know it is a hard trial, 

Au g- but ye will endure it for My sake. Aug. For why should 

lxxxvii. the members exalt themselves above the head? Thou re- 

2 * fusest to be in the body, if thou art not willing, with the 

head, to endure the hatred of the world. For love's sake let 

us be patient : the world must hate us, whom it sees hate 

whatever it loves ; If ye were of the world, the world would 

Chrys. [ ove f t { s own. Chrys. As if Christ's suffering were not 

lxxvii. consolation enough, He consoles them still further by telling 

2 ' them, the hatred of the world would be an evidence of their 

goodness ; so that they ought rather to grieve if they were 

Au g- loved by the world : as that would be evidence of their 

lxxxvii. wickedness. Aug. He saith this to the whole Church, 

?•„., which is often called the world; as, God was in Christ, 

2 Cor. ' 

5, 19. 



VER. 17 21. ST. JOHN. 489 

reconciling the world unto Himself. The whole world then 
is the Church, and the whole world hateth the Church. The 
world hateth the world, the world in enmity, the world recon- 
ciled, the denied world, the changed world. Here it may Tract -.. 
be asked, If the wicked can be said to persecute the wicked; 4# 
e. g. if impious kings, and judges, who persecute the righ- 
teous, punish murderers and adulterers also; how are we to 
understand our Lord's words, If ye were of the world, the 
world would love his own f In this way ; The world is in 
them who punish these offences, and the world is in them 
who love them. The world then hates its own so far as it 
punishes the wicked, loves its own so far as it favours them. 
Again, if it be asked how the world loves itself, when it Tract, 
hates the means of its redemption, the answer is, that it loves 4 XXXVU * 
itself with a false, not a true love, loves what hurts it ; hates 
nature, loves vice. Wherefore we are forbidden to love what 
it loves in itself; commanded to love what it hates in itself. 
The vice in it we are forbidden, the nature in it we are 
commanded, to love. And to separate us from this lost 
world, we are chosen out of it, not by merit of our own, for 
we had no merits to begin with, not by nature which was 
radically corrupt, but by grace : But because ye are not of 
the world, but I hate chosen you out of the world, therefore 
the world hateth you. Greg. For the dispraise of the Greg, 
perverse, is our praise. There is nothing wrong in not E °^ in 
pleasing those, who do not please God. For no one can by »*• 
one and the same act please God, and the enemies of God. 
He proves himself no friend to God, who pleases His enemy; 
and he whose soul is in subjection to the Truth, will have to 
contend with the enemies of that Truth. Aug. Our Lord, in Aug. 
exhorting His servants to bear patiently the hatred of thej r ' 



xxxvin. 



world, proposes to them an example than which there can *• 
be no better and higher one, viz. Himself: Remember the 
word that I said unto you, The servant is not greater than 
his lord. If they have persecuted Me, they will also perse- 
cute you: if they have kept My saying, they will keep 
yours also. Gloss. They observed 1 it in order to calumniate 1 kept- 
it, as we read in the Psalms, Hie ungodly seeth 2 the righ- "erant^ 
feous. Theophyl. Or thus: If, He says, they have perse- Vul 8- 
cuted your Lord, much more will they persecute you; ifvabit, 

vuig! 



490 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. W. 

they had persecuted Him, but kept His commandments, 
they would keep yours also. Chrys. As if He said, Ye 
must not be disturbed at having to share My sufferings; for 
Aug. ye are not better than I. Aug. The servant is not greater 
lxxxviii 1 nan ^** Lord. Here the servant is the one who has the 
1. purified fear, which abideth for ever. Chrys. Then follows 

Hom.* another consolation, viz. that the Father is despised and 
Ixxvii. injured with them : But all these things will they do unto 
you for My name's sake, because they know not Him that 
Aug. sent Me. Aug. All these things, viz. what He had mentioned, 
lxxxviii that the world would hate them, persecute them, despise 
2 - their word. For My Name's sake, i. e. in you they will hate 

Me, in you persecute Me, your word they will not keep, 
because it is mine. They who do these things for His name's 
sake are as miserable, as they who suffer them are blessed : 
except when they do them to the wicked as well ; for then 
both they who do, and they who suffer, are miserable. But 
how do they do all these things for His name's sake, when they 
do nothing for Christ's name's sake, i. e. for justice sake ? 
We shall do away with this difficulty, if we take the words 
as applying to the righteous ; as if it were, All these things 
will ye suffer from them, for My name's sake. If, for My 
name's sake, mean this, i. e. My name which they hate in 
you, justice which they hate in you; of the good, when they 
persecute the wicked, it may be said in the same way, that 
they do so both for righteousness' sake, which they love, 
which love is their motive in persecuting, and for unrighte- 
ousness' sake, the unrighteousness of the wicked, which they 
hate. Because they know not Him that sent Me, i. e. know 
Wisd. no * according to that knowledge of which it is said, To know 
is, 3. Thee is perfect righteousness. 

22. If I had not come and spoken unto them, they 
had not had sin: but now they have no cloke for 
their sin. 

23. He that hateth me hateth my Father also. 

24. If I had not done among them the works which 
none other man did, they hfid not had sin : but now 
have they both seen and hated both me and my Father. 



VER. 22—25. ST. JOHN. 491 

25. But this cometh to pass, that the word might 
be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me 
without a cause. 



Chrys. Then by way of another consolation, He declares Chrys. 
the injustice of these persecutions both towards Him andj Ho ™: 
them: If I had not come and spoken unto t/tem, they hadi. 
not had sin. Aug. Christ spoke to the Jews only, not to any Aug. 
other nation. In them then was that world which hated Tract. 

1XXX1X. 

Christ and His disciples; and not only in them, but in usi. 
also. Were the Jews then without sin before Christ came 
in the flesh, because Christ had not spoken to them? By 
sin here He means not every sin, but a certain great sin, 
which includes all, and which alone hinders the remission of 
other sins, viz. unbelief. They did not believe in Christ, 
who came that they might believe on Him. This sin then 
they would not have had, had not Christ come; for Christ's 
advent, as it was the salvation of the believing, so was the 
perdition of the unbelieving. Bat now they have no cloke 
for their sin. If those to whom Christ had not come or 
spoken, had not an excuse for their sin, why is it said here <r f «p<x«», 
that these had no excuse, because Christ had come and ^nem" 
spoken to them ? If the first had excuse, did it do away Vulg. 
with their punishment altogether, or only mitigate it? I x. 
answer, that this excuse covered, not all their sin, but 
only this one, viz. that they did not believe in Christ. But 
they are not of this number to whom Christ came by His 
disciples: they are not to be let off with a lighter punish- 
ment, who altogether refused to receive Christ's love, and, as 
far as concerned them, wished its destruction. This excuse 
they may have who died before they heard of Christ's Gospel ; 
but this will not shield them from damnation. For whoever 
are not saved in the Saviour, who came to seek what was 
lost, shall without doubt go to perdition: though some will 
have lighter, others severer punishments. He perishes to God, 
who is punished with an exclusion from that happiness 
which is given to the saints. But there is as great a diversity 
of punishments, as there is of sins: though how this is 
settled is a matter known to the Divine Wisdom indeed, but 



4fV2 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

too deep for human conjecture to examine or pronounce 

Horn 8 " u P on - Chrys. As the Jews persecuted Him out of professed 

lxxvii.2. regard for the Father, He takes away this excuse: He that 

hateth 3Ie t hateth My Father also. Alcuin. For as he who 

loves the Son, loves the Father also, the love of the Father 

being one with that of the Son, even as their nature is one: 

Aug. so he who hateth the Son, hateth the Father also. Aug. 
Tr.xc.l. 

But He has just said, Because they know not Him that sent 

Me. How could they hate one whom they did not know? 
For if they hated God, believing Him to be something else, 
and not God, this was not hatred of God. In the case of 
men, it often happens that we hate or love persons whom 
we have never seen, simply in consequence of what we have 
heard of them. But if a man's character is known to us, he 
cannot properly be said to be unknown. And a man's 
character is not shewn by his face, but by his habits and 
way of life: else we should not be able to know ourselves, 
for we cannot see our own face. But history and fame 
sometimes lie; and our faith is imposed upon. We cannot 
penetrate into men's hearts; we only know that such things 
are right, and others wrong; and if we escape error here, to 
be mistaken in men is a venial matter. A good man may 
hate a good man ignorantly, or rather love him ignorantly, 
for he loves the good man, though he hates the man whom 
he supposes him to be. A bad man may love a good man, 
supposing him to be a bad man like himself, and therefore 
not, properly speaking, loving him, but the person whom he 
takes him to be. And in the same way with respect to God. 
If the Jews were asked whether they loved God, they would 
reply that they did love Him, not intending to lie, but only 
being mistaken in so saying. For how could they who 
hated the Truth, love the Father of the Truth ? They did 
not wish their actions to be judged, and this the Truth did. 
They hated the Truth then, because they hated the punish- 
ment which He would inflict upon such as they. But at 
the same time they did not know that He was the Truth, 
who came to condemn them. They did not know that the 
Truth was born of God the Father, and therefore they did 
not know God the Father Himself. Thus they both hated, 
Hom!' anf * a ^ so knew not > *• F atner - Chrys. Thus then they have 

lxxvii.2. 



ver. 22 — 25. st. john. 493 

no excuse, He says; I gave them doctrine, I added miracles, 
which, according to Moses' law, should convince all if the 
doctrine itself is good also: //' / had not done among them 
the works that none other man did, they had not had sin. 
Aug. The sin of not believing Him, notwithstanding His Au g- . 
doctrine and His miracles. But why does He add, Which \, 
none other man did? Christ did no work greater than the 
raising of the dead, which we know the ancient Prophets did 
before Him. Is it that He did some things which no one 
else did ? But others also did what neither He nor any one 
else did. True : yet none of the ancient prophets, that we 
read of, healed so many bodily defects, sicknesses, infirmities. 
For to say nothing of single cases, Mark says, that whither- Mark 6, 
soever He entered, into villages, or cities, or country, they 
laid the sick in the streets, and besought Him that they 
might touch if it were but the border of His garment: and 
as many as touched Him were made whole. Such works as 
these no one else had done in them. In them, meaning, 
not amongst them, or before them, but within them. But 
even where particular works, like some of these, had been done 
before, whoever worked such did not really do them; for He did 
them through them ; whereas He performs these miracles by 
His own power. For even if the Father or the Holy Spirit 
did them, yet it was none other than He; for the Three 
Persons are of one substance. For these benefits then they 
ought to have returned Him not hatred, but love. And 
this He reproaches them with; But now they have both seen 
and hated both Me and My Father. Chrys. And that the Chrys. 
disciples may not say, Why then hast Thou brought usi x °™j , 
into such difficulties? Couldest not thou foresee the resist- 
ance and hatred we should meet with, He quotes the prophecy: 
But this cometh to pass, that the word might be fulfilled 
that is written in their law, They hated Me without a cause. 
Aug. Under the name of the Law, the whole of the Old Aug. 
Testament is included: and therefore our Lord says here, Xr' in e c# 
That is written in their law ; the passage being in the xvii - 
Psalms. Aug. Their law, He says, not as made by them, Aug. 
but as given to them. A man hates without a cause, who J r * xcu 
seeks no advantage from his hatred. Thus the ungodly 
hate God; the righteous love Him, i. e. looking for no other 



l!'i GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

Gre &- good but Him: He is their all in all. Greg. It is one thing 
Moral, not to do good, another to hate the teacher of goodness; as 
there is a difference between sudden and deliberate sins. 
Our state generally is that we love what is good, but from 
infirmity cannot perform it. But to sin of set purpose, is 
neither to do nor to love what is good. As then it is some- 
times a heavier offence to love than to do, so is it more 
wicked to hate justice than not to do it. There are some in 
the Church, who not only do not do what is good, but even 
persecute it, and hate in others what they neglect to do 
themselves. The sin of these men is not that of infirmity or 
ignorance, but deliberate wilful sin. 

26. But when the Comforter is come, whom I will 
send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of 
truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall 
testify of me : 

27. And ye also shall bear witness, because ye have 
been with me from the beginning. 

Chrys. Chrys. The disciples might say, If they have heard 

lxxvii. words from Thee, such as none other hath spoken, if they 

2 * have seen works of Him, such as none other hath done, and 

yet have not been convinced, but have hated Thy Father, 

and Thee with Him, why dost Thou send us to preach ? 

How shall we be believed ? Such thoughts as these He 

now answers: But when the Comforter is come, Whom I ivill 

send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of Truth 

which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of Me. 

Aug. Aug. As if He said, Seeing Me, they hated and killed Me: 

2. but the Comforter shall give such testimony concerning Me, 

as shall make them believe, though they see Me not. And 

because He shall testify, ye shall testify also : And ye also 

shall bear witness: He will inspire your hearts, and ye shall 

proclaim with your voices. And ye will preach what ye 

know; Because ye have been with Me from the beginning ; 

which now ye do not do, because ye have not yet the fulness 

of the Spirit. But the love of God shall then be shed 

abroad in your hearts by the Spirit which shall be given you, 



VER. 2G, '27. ST. JOHN. 495 

and shall make you confident witnesses to Me. The Holy 

Spirit by His testimony made others testify; taking away 

fear from the friends of Christ's, and converting the hatred of 

His enemies into love. Didymus. The Holy Spirit HeDidym. 

calls the Comforter, a name taken from His office, which is ga e nc {" r ' 

not only to relieve the sorrows of the faithful, but to fill 

them with unspeakable joy. Everlasting gladness is in 

those hearts, in which the Spirit dwells. The Spirit, the 

Comforter, is sent by the Son, not as Angels, or Prophets, or 

Apostles, are sent, but as the Spirit must be sent which is of 

one nature with the Divine wisdom and power that sends 

Him. The Son when sent by the Father, is not separated 

from Him, but abides in the Father, and the Father in Him. 

Tn the same way the Holy Spirit is not sent by the Son, and 

proceedeth from the Father, in the sense of change of place. 

For as the Father's nature, being incorporeal, is not local, so 

neither hath the Spirit of truth, Who is incorporeal also, and 

superior to all created things, a local nature. Chrys. HeChrys. 

calls Him not the Holy Spirit, but the Spirit of truth, to^°™; 

shew the perfect faith that was due to Him. He knew that 3 - 

He proceedeth from the Father, for He knew all things ; He 

knew where He Himself came from, as He says of Himself 

above, / know whence I came, and vihither I go. Didymus. John 8 

He does not say, from God, or, from the Almightv, but, from l t' 

J 7 o^'J^ut sup. 

tne lather: because though the Father and God Almighty 
are the same, yet the Spirit of truth properly proceeds from 
God, as the Father, the Begetter. The Father and the Son 
together send the Spirit of truth : He comes by the will 
both of the Father and the Son. Theophyl. Elsewhere He 
says that the Father sends the Spirit ; now He says He 
does : Whom I will send unto you; thus declaring the 
equality of the Father and the Son. That He might not be 
thought however to be opposed to the Father, and to be 
another and rival source, as it were, of the Spirit, He adds, 
From the Father ; i. e. the Father agreeing, and taking an 
equal part in sending Him. When it is said that He pro- 
ceedeth, do not understand Mis procession to be an external 
mission, such as is given to ministering spirits, but a certain 
peculiar, and distinct procession, such as is true of the Holy 
Spirit alone. To proceed is not the same as being sent, but 






496 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV. 

is the essential nature of the Holy Ghost, as coming from 

Aug. the Father. Aug. If it be asked here whether the Holy 

6 etsn! Ghost proceeds from the Son also, we may answer thus: 

The Son is the Son of the Father alone, and the Father is 

the Father of the Son only; but the Holy Spirit is not the 

Matt. Spirit of one, but of both; since Christ Himself saith, The 

' ' Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you. And the 

Gal. 4, Apostle says, God hath sent the Spirit of His Son into your 

hearts. This indeed, 1 think, is the reason why He is called 

peculiarly the Spirit. For both of the Father and the Son 

separately we may pronounce, that each is a Spirit. But 

what each is separately in a general sense, He who is not 

either one separately, but the union of both, is spiritually. 

But if the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of the Son, why should 

we not believe that He proceeds from the Son ? Indeed if 

He did not proceed from the Son, Christ would not after the 

John 20, resurrection have breathed on His disciples, and said, Re- 

29 . 

ceive ye the Holy Ghost. This too is what is meant by the 
Luke 6. virtue which went out of Him, and healed all. If the Holy 
Ghost then proceeds both from the Father and the Son, why 
does Christ say, Who proceedeth from the Father? He says 
it in accordance with His general way of referring all that 
He has to Him from whom He is ; as where He says, My 
doctrine is not Mine, but His that sent Me. If the doctrine 
was His, which He says was not His own, but the Father's, 
much more does the Holy Spirit proceed from Him, con- 
sistently with His proceeding from the Father. From whom 
the Son hath His Godhead, from Him He hath it that the 
Holy Ghost proceedeth from Him. And this explains why 
the Holy Ghost is not said to be born, but to proceed. For 
if He were born, He would be the Son of both Father and 
Son, an absurd supposition ; for if two together have a Son, 
those two must be father and mother. But to imagine any 
such relation as this between God the Father, and God the 
Son, is monstrous. Even the human offspring does not 
proceed from father or mother at the same time ; when it pro- 
ceeds from the father, it does not proceed from the mother. 
Whereas the Holy Spirit does not proceed from the Father 
into the Son, and from the Son into the creature to be 
sanctified ; but proceeds from Father and Son at once. And 



ver. 26, 27. ST. john. 497 

if the Father is life, and the Son is life, so the Holy 
Ghost is life also. Just then as the Father when He had life 
in Himself, gave also to the Son to have life in Himself; so 
He gave to the Son also that life should proceed from Him, 
even as it proceeded from Himself. 



2 K 



CHAP. XVI. 

1. These things have I spoken unto you, that ye 
should not he offended. 

2. They shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, 
the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think 
that he doeth God service. 

3. And these things will they do unto you, because 
they have not known the Father, nor me. 

4. But these things have I told you, that when the 
time shall come, ye may remember that I told you of 
them. And these things I said not unto you at the 
beginning, because I was with you. 



Aug. Aug. After the promise of the Holy Spirit, to inspire them 

with strength to give witness; He well adds, Tliese things 

have I spoken unto you, that ye should not be offended. For 

Rom. 5, when the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the 

Holy Spirit which is given to us, then great peace have 

V*. 118. they that love God's law, and they are not offended at it. 

What they were about to suffer follows next: They shall 

Chrys. put you out of the synagogues. Cijrys. For the Jens had 

lxx^ii. already agreed, if any confessed that He was Christ, that lie 

Aug should be put out of the synagogue. Aug. But what evil was 

Tr.xcin.- t tQ t j ie Apostles to be put out of the Jewish synagogues, 

which they would have gone out of, even if none had put 

them out ? Our Lord wished to make known to them, that 

the Jews were about not to receive Him, while they on the 

other hand were not going to desert II im. There was no 

other people of God beside the seed of Abraham: if they 



VER. 1 — 4. ST. JOHN. 49!) 

acknowledged Christ, the Churches of Christ would be none 
other than the synagogues of the Jews. But inasmuch as 
they refused to acknowledge Him, nothing remained but 
that they should put out of the synagogue those who would 
not forsake Christ. He adds: But the time comet h, that 
whoever killeth you, will think that he doelh God service. 
Is this intended for a consolation, as if they would so take to 
heart their expulsion from the synagogues, that death would 
be a positive relief to them after it? God forbid that they 
who sought God's glory, not men's, should be so disturbed. 
The meaning of the words is this: They shall put you out 
of the synagogue, but do not be afraid of being left alone. 
Separated from their assemblies, ye shall assemble so many 
in my name, that they fearing that the temple and rites of the 
old law will be deserted, will kill you, and think to do God 
service thereby, having a zeal for God, but not according to 
knowledge. These who kill, are the same with those who put 
out of the synagogues, viz. the Jews. For Gentiles would not 
have thought that they were doing God service, by killing 
Christ's witnesses, but their own false gods ; whereas every 
one of the Jews, who killed the preacher of Christ, thought 
he was doing God service, believing that whoever were con- 
verted to Christ, deserted the God of Israel. Chrys. Then Chrys. 
He consoles them: And all these things will they do untol^™^ 
you, because they have not known the Father nor Me. As if 
He said, Let this consolation content you. Aug. And He Aug. 
mentions these things beforehand, because trials, however Tr,xcn1, 
soon to pass away, when they come upon men unprepared 
for them, are very overwhelming: But these things have I 
told you, (hat when the hour shall come, ye may remember 
that 1 told you of them: the hour, the hour of darkness, the 
hour of night. But the night of the Jews was not allowed 
to mix with or darken the day of the Christians. Chrys. Chrys. 
And He predicted these trials for another reason, viz. that lx °™j; 
they might not say that He had not foreseen them ; That ye 
may remember that I told you of them, or that He had only 
spoken to please them, and given false hopes. And the rea- 
son is added, why He did not reveal these things sooner: 
And these tilings I said not unto you at the beginning, be- 
cause I was with you; because, that is, ye were in Mv 

2k2 



500 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO I HAP. XVI- 

keeping, and might ask when you pleased, and the whole 
battle rested upon Me. There was no need then to tell you 
£"£• these things at the first, though I myself knew them. Aug. 
1. In the other three Evangelists these predictions occur before 

the supper ; John gives them after. Still if they relate them 
as given very near His Passion, that is enough to explain His 
saying, These things I said not unto you at the beginning. 
Matthew however relates these prophecies as given long 
before His Passion, on the occasion of His choosing the 
twelve. How do we reconcile this with our Lord's words ? 
By supposing them to apply to the promise of the Holy 
Spirit, and the testimony He would give amidst their suffer- 
ing. This was what He had not told them at the beginning, 
and that because He was with them, and His presence was 
a sufficient consolation. But as He was about to depart, it 
was meet that He should tell them of His coming, by whom 
the love of God. would be shed abroad in their hearts, to 
Chrys. preach the word of God with boldness. Chrys. Or, He had 
lxxviii. foretold that they should suffer scourgings, but not that their 
!• death could be thought doing God service ; which was the 

strangest thing of all. Or, He there told them what they 
would suffer from the Gentiles, here what from the Jews. 

5. But now I go my way to him that sent me ; and 
none of you asketh me, Whither goest thou ? 

6. But because I have said these things unto you, 
sorrow hath filled your heart. 

7. Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient 
for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the 
Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I 
will send him unto you. 

8. And when he is come, he will reprove the world 
of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment : 

9. Of sin, because they believe not on me ; 

10. Of righteousness, because I go to my Father, 
and ye see me no more ; 

11. Of judgment, because the prince of this world 
is judged. 



VfcK. 5—11. ST. JOHN. 501 

Chhys. The disciples, not as yet perfected, being over- Chrys. 
come by sorrow, our Lord blames and corrects them, saying, j^™'^ 
But now I go My way to Him that sent Me, and none of\. 
you asketh Me, Whither goest Thou ? They were so struck 
down at hearing that whosoever killed them would think 
that he was doing God service, that they could say nothing. 
Wherefore He adds, But because I have said these things 
unto you, sorrow hath filled your hearts. It was no small 
consolation to them to know, that the Lord knew their 
superabundant sorrow, because of His leaving them, and 
because of the evils which they heard they were to suffer, 
but knew not whether they should suffer manfully. Aug. Aug. 
Or whereas they had asked Him above, whither He was r,xciv - 
going, and He had replied that He was going whither they 
would not come ; now He promises that He will go in such 
a way that no one will ask Him whither He goeth: and none 
of you asketh Me, Whither goest Thou? Going up to 
heaven, they questioned Him not in words, but followed with 
their eyes. But our Lord saw what effect His words would 
produce upon their minds. Not having yet that inward 
consolation which the Holy Ghost was to impart, they were 
afraid to lose the outward presence of Christ, and so, when 
they could no longer doubt from His own words that they 
were going to lose Him, their human affections were saddened, 
for the loss of their visible object. Wherefore it follows ; 
But because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath 
filled your heart. But He knew that it would be for their 
good, forasmuch as that inward sight wherewith the Holy 
Ghost would console them, was the better one : Nevertheless 
I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go away. 
Chrys. As if He said, Though your grief be ever so great, Chrys. 
ye must hear how that it is profitable for you that I go away. P om ... 
What the profit is He then shews : For if I go not away, 
the Comforter will not come unto you. Aug. This He says Aug. 
not on account of any inequality between the Word of GodI^ d . e 
and the Holy Ghost, but because the presence of the Son ofc. 19. 
man amongst them would impede the coming of the latter. 
For the Holy Ghost did not humble Himself as did the Son, 
by taking upon Him the form of a servant. It was necessary 
therefore that the form of the servant should be removed 



502 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVI. 

from their eyes ; for so long as they looked upon that, they 

thought that Christ was no more than what they saw Him to 

be. So it follows: But if I depart, I will send Him unto 

Aug-, you. Aug. But could He not send Him while here, Him, 
Tr.xciv. 

Who, we know, came and abode on Iliin at His baptism, 
yea Him from Whom we know He never could be separated ? 
What meaneth then, If I go not away, the Comforter will 
not come unto you, but, ye cannot receive the Spirit, so long 
as ye know Christ according to the flesh ? Christ departing 
in the body, not the Holy Ghost only, but the Father, and 
Greg, the Son also came spiritually. Greg. As if He said plainly, 
Moral. ^ I withdraw not My body from your eyes, I cannot had 
c. xvii. you to the understanding of the Invisible, through the Com- 
Aug. forting Spirit. Adg. The Holy Ghost the Comforter brought 
Dom. this, that the form of a servant which our Lord had received 
Serm. m (h e W omb of the Virgin, being removed from the fleshly 
eye, He was manifested to the purified mental vision in the 
very form of God in which He remained equal to the Father, 
Chrys. even while He deigned to appear in the flesh. Chrys. 
xxviii. What say they here, who entertain unworthy notions of the 
Spirit? Is it expedient for the master to go away, and a 
servant to come? He then shews the good that the Spirit 
will do : And ivhen He is come, He will reprove the 
Aug. world of sin* of righteousness, and of judgment. Aug. 
Tr. xcv. I3 ut how is it that Christ did not reprove the world? Is 
it because Christ spoke among the Jews only, whereas 
the Holy Spirit, poured into His disciples throughout the 
whole world, reproved not one nation only, but the world ? 
But who would dare to say that the Holy Ghost reproved 
the world by Christ's disciples, and that Christ did not, 
2 Cor. when the Apostle exclaims, Do ye seek a proof of Christ 
VuIk speaking in MeS Those then whom the Holy Ghost 
reproves, Christ reproves also. He shall reprove the wmid, 
means, He shall pour love into your hearts, insomuch, that 
fear being cast out, ye shall be free to reprove. He then 
explains what He has said: Of sin, because they belie red 
not in Me. He mentions this as the sin above all others, 
because while it remains, the others are retained, when it 
Aug. departs, the others are remitted. Aug. But it makes a great 
Dom!?.' difference whether one believes in Christ, or only that He is 
lxi. ' 



VER. 5 11. ST. JOHN. 503 

Christ. For that He was Christ, even the devils believed: 
but lie believes in Christ, who both hopes in Christ and 
loves Christ. Aug. The world is reproved of sin, because Aug. 
it believes not in Christ, and reproved of righteousness, the 2 r ' xcv * 
righteousness of those that believe. The very contrast of 
the believing, is the censure of the unbelieving. Of righte- 
ousness, because I go to the Father: as it is the common 
objection of unbelievers, How can we believe what we do not 
see? so the righteousness of believers lies in this, Because 
J go to the Father, arid ye see Me no more. For blessed are 
they which see not, and believe. The faith even of those 
who saw Christ is praised, not because they believed what 
they saw, i. e. the Son of man, but because they believed 
what they saw not, i. e. the Son of God. And when the 
form of the servant was withdrawn from their sight altogether, 
then only was fulfilled in completeness the text, The just Heb.io, 
liveth by faith. It will be your righteousness then, of which 38 * 
the world will be reproved, that ye shall believe in Me, not 
seeing Me. And when ye shall see Me, ye shall see Me 
as I shall be, not as 1 am now with you, i. e. ye shall not see 
Me mortal, but everlasting. For in saying, Ye see Me jam non 
no more, He means that thev should see Him no more for Vld ^ )1 * ,s 
ever. Aug. Or thus: They believed not, He went to the Aug. 
Father. Theirs therefore was the sin, His the righteousness. ~ Verb " 
But that He came from the Father to us, was mercy; thats. lxi. 
He went to the Father, was righteousness; according to the 
saying of the Apostle, Wherefore God also hath highly Philip. 
exalted Him. But if He went to the Father alone, what ' ' 
profit is it to us ? Is He not alone rather in the sense of being 
one with all His members, as the head is with the body? So 
then the world is reproved of sin, in those who believe not 
in Christ; and of righteousness, in those who rise again in 
the members of Christ. It follows, Of judgment, because the 
prince of this world is judged: i. e. the devil, the prince of 
the wicked, who in heart dwell only in this world which they 
love. He is judged in that he is cast out; and the world iss. lx. 
reproved of this judgment; for it is vain for one who does 
not believe in Christ to complain of the devil, whom judged, 
i. e. cast out, and permitted to attack us from without, only 
for our trial, not men only but women, boys and girls, have 



504 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVI. 

Aug. by martyrdom overcome. Aug. Or, is judged, i. e. is destined 
'irrevocably for the punishment of eternal fire. And of this 
judgment is the world reproved, in that it is judged with its 
prince, the proud and ungodly one whom it imitates. Let 
men therefore believe in Christ, lest they be reproved of the 
sin of unbelief, by which all sins are retained ; pass over to 
the number of the believing, lest they be reproved of the 
righteousness of those whom justified they do not imitate; 
beware of the judgment to come, lest with the prince of this 
Chrys. world whom they imitate, they too be judgefl. Chrys. Or 
lxx^iii. thus: Shall reprove the world of sin, i. e. cut off all excuse, 
and shew that they have sinned unpardonably in not believing 
in Me, when they see the ineffable gift of the Holy Ghost 
Aug. obtained by calling upon Me. Aug. In this way too the 
N.et' Holy Ghost reproved the world of sin, i. e. by the mighty 
V. Test. wor lc S He did in the name of the Saviour, Who was con- 
demned by the world. The Saviour, His righteousness 
retained, feared not to return to Him AVho sent Him, and 
in that He returned, proved that He had come from Him : 
Chrys. Of righteousness, because I go to the Father. Chrys. i. e. My 
Ixxviii. S om S t0 tne Father will be a proof that I have led an 
2 - irreproachable life, so that they will not be able to say, 

c. 9, 24, This man is a sinner; this man is not from God. Again, 
inasmuch as I conquered the devil, (which no one who was 
a sinner could do,) they cannot say that I have a devil, and 
am a deceiver. But as he hath been condemned by Me, 
they shall be assured that they shall trample upon him 
afterwards; and My resurrection will shew that he was not 
Aug. able to detain Me. Aug. The devils seeing souls go from 
Y ^ hell ' to heaven, knew that the prince of this world was judged, 
N.Test. and being brought to trial in the Saviour's cause, had lost 
Mnferi'a all right to what he held. This was seen on our Saviour's 
ascension, but was declared plainly and openly in the descent 
of the Holy Ghost on the disciples. 

12 I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye 
cannot bear them now. 

13. Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, 
he will guide you into all truth : for he shall not speak 



VEK. 12 — 15. ST. JOHN. 505 

of himself: bat whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he 
speak; and he will shew you things to come. 

14. He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of 
mine, and shall shew it unto you. 

15. All things that the Father hath are mine: 
therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall 
shew it unto you. 

Theophyl. Our Lord having said above, It is expedient 
for you that I go away, He enlarges now upon it: / have 
yet many things to say unto you, hut ye cannot hear them 
now. Aug. All heretics, when their fables are rejected for Aug. 
their extravagance by the common sense of mankind, try to xc ^.' 
defend themselves by this text; as if these were the things 
which the disciples could not at this time bear, or as if the 
Holy Spirit could teach things, which even the unclean 
spirit is ashamed openly to teach and preach. But badTr.xcvi. 
doctrines such as even natural shame cannot bear are one ' 
thing, good doctrines such as our poor natural understanding 
cannot bear are another. The one are allied to the shame- 
less body, the other lie far beyond the body. But what areTr.xcvi. 
these things which they could not bear? I cannot mention 1- 
them for this very reason; for who of us dare call himself 
able to receive what they could not? Some one will say 
indeed that many, now that the Holy Ghost has been sent, 
can do what Peter could not then, as earn the crown of 
martyrdom. But do we therefore know what those things 
were, which He was unwilling to communicate? For it 
seems most absurd to suppose that the disciples were not 
able to bear then the great doctiines, that we find in the 
Apostolical Epistles, which were written afterwards, which 
our Lord is not said to have spoken to them. For why 
could they not bear then what every one now reads and 
bears in their writings, even though he may not under- 
stand? Men of perverse sects indeed cannot bear what is 
found in Holy Scripture concerning the Catholic faith, as 
we cannot bear their sacrilegious vanities; for not to bear 
means not to acquiesce in. But what believer or even 
catechumen before he has been baptized and received the 



506 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP XVI. 

Holy Ghost, docs not acquiesce in and listen to, even if he 
does not understand, all that was written after our Lord's 

xcvii. 5. ascension? But some one will say, Do spiritual men never 
hold doctrines which they do not communicate to carnal 

xcviii.3.men, but do to spiritual? There is no necessity why any 
doctrines should be kept secret from the babes, and revealed 
to the grown up believers*. Spiritual men ought not alto- 
gether to withhold spiritual doctrines from the carnal, seeing 
the Catholic faith ought to be preached to all; nor at the 
same time should they lower them in order to accommodate 
them to the understanding of persons who cannot receive 
them, and. so make their own preaching contemptible, rather 

xcvii. l.than the truth intelligible. So then we are not to understand 
these words of our Lord to refer to certain secret doctrines, 
which if the teacher revealed, the disciple would not be 
able to bear, but to those very things in religious doctrine 
which are within the comprehension of all of us. If Christ 
chose to communicate these to us, in the same way in which 
He does to the Angels, what men, yea what spiritual men, 
which the Apostles were not now, could bear them? For 
indeed every thing which can be known of the creature is 

xc\i. 4. inferior to the Creator; and yet who is silent about Sim? 
While in the body we cannot know all the truth, as the Apostle 

l Cor. says, We know in part; but the Holy Spirit sanctifying us, 
fits us for enjoying that fulness of which the same Apostle 
says, Then face to face. Our Lord^ promise, But when He 
the Spirit of truth shall come, He shall teach you all truth, 
or shall lead you into all truth, does not refer to this life 
only, but to the life to come, for which this complete fulness 
is reserved. The Holy Spirit both teaches believers now all 
the spiritual things which they are capable of receiving, and 

Didym. also kindles in their hearts a desire to know more. Didy.mi ft. 

de Sp. Q r jj e means that His hearers had not yet attained to all 

ii. ult . those things which for His name's sake they were able to bear : 

™t er " so revealing lesser things, He puts off the greater for a future 

°P? ra time, such things as they could not understand till the Cross 
itself of their crucified Head had been their instruction. As 
yet they were slaves to the types, and shadows, and images 

* For the same preaching, he argues, their capacity ; so that no difference 
will be received by each according to need be made in the preaching. 



VER. 12 15. ST. JOHN. 507 

of the Law, and could not bear the truth of which the Law 
was the shadow. But when the Holy Ghost came, He would 
lead them by His teaching and discipline hvo all truth, 
transferring them from the dead letter to the quickening 
Spirit, in Whom alone all Scripture truth resides. Chhys. Ckrje. 
Having said then, Ye cannot bear them now, but then ye lx ° vi * ;j- 
shall be able, and, The Holy Spirit shall lead you into all 
truth; lest this should make them suppose that the Holy 
Spirit was the superior, He adds, For He shall not speak of 
Himself but whatsoever He shall hear, that shall He speak. 
Aug. This is like what He said of Himself above, i. e. / can Aug. 
of Mine own Self do nothing; as I hear I judge. But that r ' x lx " 
may be understood of Him as man ; how must we understand 
this of the Holy Ghost, Who never became a creature by 
assuming a creature ? As meaning that He is not from Him- 
self. The Son is born of the Father, and the Holy Ghost 
proceeds from the Father. In what the difference consists 
between proceeding and being born, it would require a long 
time to discuss, and would be rash to define. But to hear is 
with Him to know, to know to be. As then He is not from 
Himself, but from Him from Whom He proceeds, from Whom 
His being is, from the same is His knowledge. From the 
same therefore His hearing. The Holy Ghost then always 
hears, because He always knows; and He hath heard, hears, 
and will hear from Him from Whom He is. Didymus. iifeutsupr. 
shall not speak of Himself i. e. not without Me, and Mine 
and the Father's will: because He is not of Himself, but 
from the Father and Me. That He exists, and that He 
speaks, He hath from the Father and Me. 1 speak the truth; 
i. e. I inspire as well as speak by Him, since He is the Spirit 
of Truth. To say and to speak in the Trinity must not be 
understood according to our usage, but according to the usage 
of incorporeal natures, and especially the Trinity, which 
implants Its will in the heaiHs of believers, and of those who 
are worthy to hear It. For the Father then to speak, and the 
Son to hear, is a mode of expressing the identity of their signifi- 
nature, and their agreement. Again, the Holy Spirit, Who is^ 10 
the Spirit of truth, and the Spirit of wisdom, cannot hear 
from the Son what He does not know, seeing He is the very 
thing which is produced from the Son, i. e. truth proceeding 



508 GOSPEL ACCOttDI MO TO CHAP. XVI. 

from truth, Comforter from Comforter, God from God. Lastly, 

lest any one should separate Him from the will and society of 

the Father and the Son, it is written, Whatsoever He shall 

Aug. hear, that shall He speak. Aug. But it does not follow from 

Trin. hence that the Holy Spirit is inferior: for it is only signified 

c - xiii - that He proceeds from the Father. Aug. Nor let the use of 

Tr. xcix. the future tense perplex you: that hearing is eternal, because 

the knowledge is eternal. To that which is eternal, without 

beginning, and without end, a verb of any tense may be 

applied. For though an unchangeable nature does not admit 

of was, and shall be, but only is, yet it is allowable to say of 

It, was, and is, and shall be; was, because It never began; 

shall be, because It never shall end; is, because It always is. 

ut sup. Didymus. By the Spirit of truth too the knowledge of future 

events hath been granted to holy men. Prophets filled with 

this Spirit foretold and saw things to come, as if they were 

present: And He will shew you things to come. Bede. It 

is certain that many filled with the grace of the Holy Spirit 

have foreknown future events. But as many gifted saints 

have never had this power, the words, He will shew you things 

to come, may be taken to mean, bring back to your minds 

the joys of your heavenly country. He did however inform 

the Apostles of what was to come, viz. of the evils that they 

would have to suffer for Christ's sake, and the good things 

Chrys. they would receive in recompense. Chrys. In this way 

lxxviii. tnen ^ e ra i se( i their spirits; for there is nothing for which 

2 - mankind so long, as the knowledge of the future. He relieves 

them from all anxiety on this account, by shewing that 

dangers would not fall upon them unawares. Then to shew 

that He could have told them all the truth into which the 

Holy Spirit would lead them, He adds, He shall glorify Me. 

Aug. Aug. By pouring love into the hearts of believers, and making 

them spiritual, and so able to see that the Son Whom they 

had known before only according to the flesh, and thought 

a man like themselves, was equal to the Father. Or certainly 

because that love filling them with boldness, and casting out 

Chrvs f ear > tne y proclaimed Christ to men, and so spread His fame 

Hom. throughout the whole world. For what they were going to 

2 " ' do in the power of the Holy Ghost, this the Holy Ghost says 

Mat.23, jj e (fogs Himself. Chrys. And because He had said, Ye have 

8. 



VEK. 12 — 15. ST. JOHN. 509 

one Master ; even Christ, that they might not be prevented by 
this from admitting the Holy Ghost as well, He adds, For He 
shall receive of Mine, and shall shew it unto you. Didymus. Didym. 
To receive must be taken here in a sense agreeable to the ^J"' 
Divine Nature. As the Son in giving is not deprived of what ut SU P- 
He gives, nor imparts to others with any loss of His own, 
so too the Holy Ghost does not receive what before He had 
not; for if He received what before He had not, the gift being 
transferred to another, the giver would be thereby a loser. 
We musi understand then that the Holy Ghost receives 
from the Son that which belonged to His nature, and that 
there are not two substances implied, one giving, and the 
other receiving, but one substance only. In like manner the 
Son too is said to receive from the Father that wherein He 
Himself subsists. For neither is the Son any thing but what 
is given Him by the Father, nor the Holy Ghost any sub- 
stance but that which is given Him by the Son. Aug. But Au S- 

. Tr. c. 

it is not true, as some heretics have thought, that because 

the Son receives from the Father, the Holy Ghost from the 
Son, as if by gradation, that therefore the Holy Ghost is 
inferior to the Son. He Himself solves this difficulty, and 
explains His own words: All things that the Father hath 
are Mine: therefore said I, that He shall take of Mine, 
and shall shew it unto you. Didymus. As if He said, ut8u P- 
Although the Spirit of truth proceeds from the Father, yet all 
things that the Father hath are Mine, and even the Spirit of 
the Father is Mine, and receiveth of Mine. But beware, 
when thou hearest this, that thou think not it is a thing or 
possession which the Father and the Son have. That which 
the Father hath according to His substance, i. e. His eternity, 
immutability, goodness, it is this which the Son hath also. 
Away with the cavils of logicians, who say, therefore the 
Father is the Son. Had He said indeed, All that God hath 
are Mine, impiety might have taken occasion to raise its 
head ; but when He saith, All things that the Father hath 
are Mine, by using the name of the Father, He declareth 
Himself the Son, and being the Son, He usurpeth not the 
Paternity, though by the grace of adoption He is the Father 
of many saints. Hilary. Our Lord therefore hath not left it "ij^'e 
uncertain whether the Paraclete be from the Father, or from Trin - 

ante 
med. 



510 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVI. 

the Son; for He is sent by the Son, and proceedeth from the 
Father, both these He receiveth from the Son. Yon ask 
whether to receive from the Son and to proceed from the 
Father be the same thing. Certainly, to receive from the 
Son must be thought one and the same thing with receiving 
from the Father: for when He says, All things that the 
Father hath are 3Ime, therefore said I, that He shall 
receive of Mine, He sheweth herein that the things are 
received from Him, because all things which the Father hath 
are His, but that they are received from the Father also. 
This unity hath no diversity; nor doth it matter from whom 
the thing is received ; since that which is given by the 
Father, is counted also as given by the Son. 

16. A little while, and ye shall not see me: and 
again, a little while, and ye shall see me, because I go 
to the Father. 

17. Then said some of his disciples among them- 
selves, What is this that he saith unto us, A little 
while, and ye shall not see me : and again, a little 
while, and ye shall see me: and, Because I go to the 
Father ? 

18. They said therefore, What is this that he saith, 
A little while ? we cannot tell what he saith. 

19. Now Jesus knew that they were desirous to ask 
him, and said unto them, Do ye enquire among your- 
selves of that I said, A little while, and ye shall not 
see me : and again, a little while, and ye shall see 
me? 

20. Verily, verily, I say unto you, That ye shall 
weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice: and ye 
shall be . sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned 
into joy. 

21. A woman when she is in travail hath sorrow, 
because her hour is come : but as soon as she is 
delivered of the child, she remembereth no more the 
anguish, for joy that a man is born into the world. 



VKli. 10 — 22. ST. JOHN. 511 

22. And ye now therefore have sorrow : but I will 
see you again, and your heart shall rejoice, and your 
joy no man taketh from you. 

Chrys. Our Lord after having relieved the spirits of the Chrys. 
disciples by the promise of the Holy Spirit, again depresses lxxix '. 
them : A Utile while, and ye shall not see Me. He does this 
to accustom them to the mention of His departure, in order 
that they may bear it well, when it does couie. For nothing 
so quiets the troubled mind, as the continued recurrence to 
the subject of its grief. Bede. He saith, A little while, a?idBede. 
ye shall not see Me, alluding to His going to be taken thatj) om- ' 
night by the Jews, His crucifixion the next morning, and Sec.par. 
burial in the evening, which withdrew Him from all human Pas'ch. 
sight. Chrys. But then, if one examines, these are words Chrys. 
of consolation : Because 1 go to the Father. For they shew^"^' 2 
that His death was only a translation : and more consolation 
follows: And again, a little while, and ye shall see Me : an 
intimation this that He would return, and after a short 
separation, come and live with them for ever. Aug. The Aug. 
meaning of these words however was obscure, before their 
fulfilment ; Then said some of His disciples among them- 
selves, What is this that He saith unto us, A little while, 
and ye shall not see Me : and again, a little while, and ye 
shall see Me: and, Because I go to the Father. Chrys. Chrys. 
Either sorrow had confused their minds, or the obscurity of^^'i. 
the words themselves prevented their understanding them, 
and made them appear contradictory. If we shall see Thee, 
they say, how goest Thou ? If Thou goest, how shall we 
see Thee ? What is this that He saith unto us, A little 
while? We cannot tell what He saith. Aug. For above, Aug. 
because He did not say, A little while, but simply, / go to r,cl * 
the Father, He seemed to speak plainly. But what to them 
was obscure at the time, but by and by manifested, is mani- 
fest to us. For in a little while He suffered, and they did 
not see Him ; and again, in a little while He rose again, and 
they saw Him. He says, And ye shall see Me no more; for 
the mortal Christ they saw no more. Alcuin. Or thus, It 
will be a little time during which ye will not see Me, i. e. 
the three days that He rested in the grave ; and again, it 



512 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVI. 

will be a little time during which ye shall see Me, i. e. the 
forty days of His appearance amongst them, from His Passion 
to His ascension. And ye shall see Me for that little time 
only, Because I go to the Father; for 1 am not going to stay 
always in the body here, but, by that humanity which I 
have assumed to ascend to heaven. It follows ; Now Jesus 
knew that they were desirous to ask Him, and said unto them, 
Do ye enquire among yourselves of that I said, A little 
while, and ye shall not see Me: and again, a little while, 
and ye shall see 3Ie ? Verily, verily, 1 say unto you, That 
ye shall weep and lament. Their merciful Master, under- 
standing their ignorance and doubts, replied so as to explain 
Au g- what He had said. Aug. Which must be understood thus, 

Tr. ci. . 

viz. that the disciples sorrowed at their Lord's death, and 

then immediately rejoiced at His resurrection. The world 

(i. e. the enemies of Christ, who put Him to death) rejoiced 

just when the disciples sorrowed, i. e. at His death: Ye shall 

weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice; and ye shall 

be sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned into joy. 

Alcuin. But this speech of our Lord's is applicable to all 

believers who strive through present tears and afflictions to 

attain to the joys eternal. While the righteous weep, the world 

rejoiceth ; for having no hope of the joys to come, all its 

Chrya. delight is iu the present. Chrys. Then He shews that 

Hom. sorrow brings forth joy, short sorrow infinite joy, by an 

example from nature ; A woman when she is in travail hath 

sorrow, because her hour is come; but as soon as she is 

delivered of the child, she remember eth no more the anguish, 

Aug. for joy that a man is born into the world. Aug. This com- 

Tr ' ci * parison does not seem difficult to understand. It was one 

which lay near at hand, and He Himself immediately shews 

its application. And ye now therefore have sorrow; but I will 

see you again, and your heart shall rejoice. The bringing 

forth is compared to sorrow, the birth to joy, which is 

especially true in the birth of a boy. And your joy no 

man takethfrom you: their joy is Christ. This agrees with 

Rom. 6, what the Apostle saith, Christ being risen from the dead 

9 - dieth no more. Chrys. By this example He also intimates 

Hom. that He loosens the chains of death, and creates men anew. 

He docs not say however that she should not have tribulation, 



VER. "20 — 22. ST. JOHN. 513 

but that she should not remember it; so great is the joy which 
follows. And so is it with the saints. He saith not, that a boy 
is born, but that a man, a tacit allusion to His own resurrec- 
tion. Aug. To this joy it is better to refer what was said above, Aug. 
A little while and ye shall not see 3Ie, and again, a little while r-e1 ' G ' 
and ye shall see Me. For the whole space of time that this 
world continues is but a little while. Because I go to the 
Father, refers to the former clause, a little while and ye shall 
not see Me, not to the latter, a little while and ye shall 
see Me. His going to the Father was the reason why they 
would not see Him. So to them who then saw Him in 
the body He says, A little while and ye shall not see Me ; 
for He was about to go to the Father, and mortals would 
thenceforth never see Him again, as they saw Him now. 
The next words, A little while and ye shall see Me, are a 
promise to the whole Church. For this little while appears 
long to us while it is passing, but when it is finished we shall 
then see how little a time it has been. Alctjin. The woman 
is the holy Church, who is fruitful in good works, and brings 
forth spiritual children unto God. This woman, while she 
brings forth, i. e. while she is making her progress in the 
world, amidst temptations and afflictions, hath sorrow because 
her hour is come; for no one ever hated his own flesh. 
Aug. Nor yet in this bringing forth of joy, are we entirely Aug. 
without joy to lighten our sorrow, but, as the Apostle saith, r,ci * " 
we rejoice in hope: for even the woman, to whom we are Rom. 
compared, rejoiceth more for her future offspring, than she ' ' 
sorrows for her present pain. Alcuin. But as soon as she 
is delivered, i. e. when her laborious struggle is over, and 
she has got the palm, she remembereth no more her former 
a,nguish,for joy at reaping such a reward, for joy that a man 
is bom into the world. For as a woman rejoiceth when 
a man is bora into the world, so the Church is filled with 
exultation when the faithful are born into life eternal. Bede. Bede. 
Nor should it appear strange, if one who departeth from this p ^ 0,n ' 
life is said to be born. For as a man is said to be born Sec.post. 
when he comes out of his mother's womb into the light of p a * ch 
day, so may he be said to be born who from out of the 
prison of the body, is raised to the light eternal. Whence 
the festivals of the saints, which are the days "on which 

2 L 



514 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVI. 

they died, are called their birthdays. Alcuin. / will see 
you again, i. e. I will take you to Myself. Or, / will see 
you again, i. e. I shall appear again and be seen by you; 
Aug. and your heart shall rejoice. Aug. This fruit indeed the 
'Church now yearneth for in travail, but then will enjoy in 
her delivery. And it is a male child, because all active 
duties are for the sake of devotion; for that only is free 
which is desired for its own sake, not for any thing else, and 
action is for this end. This is the end which satisfies and is 
eternal: for nothing can satisfy but what is itself the ultimate 
end. Wherefore of them it is well said, Your joy no man 
takethfrom you. 

23. And in that day ye shall ask me nothing. Verily, 
verily, I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall ask the 
Father in my name, he will give it you. 

24. Hitherto have ye asked nothing in my name: 
ask, and ye shall receive, that your joy may be full. 

25. These things have I spoken unto you in 
proverbs: but the time cometh, when I shall no more 
speak unto you in proverbs, but I shall shew you 
plainly of the Father. 

26. At that day ye shall ask in my name: and 
I say not unto you, that I will pray the Father for you : 

27. For the Father himself loveth you, because 
ye have loved me, and have believed that I came out 
from God. 

28. I came forth from the Father, and am come 
into the world : again, I leave the world, and go to the 
Father. 

Chrys. Chrys. Again our Lord shews that it is expedient that 
bcxi^'. He should go: And in that day shall ye ask Me nothing. 
Au g-. Aug. The word ask here means not only to seek for, but to 
'ask a question: the Greek word from which it is translated 
Chrys. na8 both meanings. Chrys. He says, And in that day, 
lxxix. i. e. when 1 shall have risen again, ye shall ask Me nothing, 
i. e. not say to Me, Shew us the Father, and, Whither 



vkr. 23 — 28. ST. John. 515 

fjoest Thou? since ye will know this by the teaching of 
the Holy Ghost: or, Ye shall ask Me nothing, i. e. not 
want Me for a Mediator to obtain your requests, as My 
name will be enough, if you only call upon that: Verily, 
verily, I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father 
in My Name, He will give it you. Wherein He shews His 
power; that neither seen, or asked, but named only to the 
Father, He will do miracles. Do not think then, He saith, 
that because for the future I shall not be with you, that you 
are therefore forsaken: for My name will be a still greater 
protection to you than My presence: Hitherto have ye asked 
nothing in My Name: ask, and ye shall receive, that your 
joy may be full. Theophyl. For when your prayers shall 
be fully answered, then will your gladness be greatest. 
Chrys. These words being obscure, He adds, These things Chrys. 
have I spoken to you in proverbs, but the time cometh when lx ° ^* 
/ shall no more speak unto you in proverbs: for forty days 
He talked with them as they were assembled, speaking of 
the kingdom of God. And now, He says, ye are in too 
great fear to attend to My words, but then, when you see Me 
risen again, you will be able to proclaim these things openly. 
Theophyl. He still cheers them with the promise that helpadhuc. 
will be given them from above in their temptations: At that 
day ye shall ask in My Name. And ye will be so in favour with 
the Father, that ye will no longer need my intervention: 
And I say not unto you that I will pray the Father for you, 
for the Father Himself loveth you. But that they might 
not start back from our Lord, as though they were no longer 
in need of Him, He adds, Because ye have loved Me: as if 
to say, The Father loves you, because ye have loved Me; 
when therefore ye fall from My love, ye will straightway fall 
from the Father's love. Aug. But does He love us because Aug. 
we love Him ; or rather do not we love Him, because He Tr ' Cli " 
loved us? This is what the Evangelist says, Let us love l John 
God, because God first loved us. The Father then loves us,^ 9 ' 
because we love the Son, it being from the Father and the gamm 
Son, that we receive the love from the Father and the Son. Vulel' 
He loves what He has made; but He would not make in 
us what He loved, except He loved us in the first place. Hilar. 
Hilary. Perfect faith in the Son, which believes and loves THn? 

2 l 2 c. 3l". 



510 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO (HAP. XVI. 

what has come forth from God, and deserveth to be heard 
and loved for its own sake, this faith confessing the Son of 
God, born from Him, and sent by Him, needeth not an 
intercessor with the Father : wherefore it follows, And have 
believed that I came forth from God. His nativity and 
advent are signified by, I came forth from the Father, and 
am come into the world. The one is dispensation, the other 
nature. To have come from the Father, and to have come forth 
from God, have not the same meaning; because it is one 
i in sub- thing to have come forth from God in the relation of Sonship 1 , 
ti'am another thing to have come from the Father into this world 
nathi- to accomplish the mystery 2 of our salvation- Since to come 
2 sacra- forth from God is to subsist as His Son 3 , what else can He be 
menta. Du t God. Chrys. As it was consolatory to them to hear of 
tivitate His resurrection, and how He came from God, and went to 
subsis- God, jj e dwells again and again on these subjects: Again 
Chrys. / leave the world, and go to the Father. The one was 
lxxix. a P ro °f ti jat their faith in Him was not vain: the other that 
Aug. they would still be under His protection. Aug. He came 
'Jr. cu. f or th from the Father, because He is of the Father; He 
came into the world, because He shewed Himself in the 
body to the world. He left the world by His departure in 
the body, and went to the Father by the ascension of His 
humanity, nor yet in respect of the government of His 
presence, left the world; just as when He went forth from 
the Father and came into the world, He did so in such wise 
as not to leave the Father. But our Lord Jesus Christ, we 
read, was asked questions, and petitioned after His resurrec- 
tion: for when about to ascend to Heaven He was asked by 
His disciples when He would restore the kingdom to Israel; 
when in Heaven He was asked by Stephen, to receive his 
spirit. And who would dare to say that as mortal He might 
be asked, as immortal He might not? I think then that when 
He says, In that day ye shall ask Me nothing, He refers not 
to the time of His resurrection, but to that time when we 
shall see Him as He is: which vision is not of this present 
life, but of the life everlasting, when we shall ask for nothing, 
ask no questions, because there will remain nothing to be 
desired, nothing to be learnt. Alcuin. This is His meaning 
then: In the world to come, ye ah all ask Me nothing: but in 



VER. 23—28. ST. JOHN. 517 

the mean time while ye are travelling on this wearisome road, 
ask what ye want of the Father, and He will give it you: 
Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall ask the 
Father in My Name, He will give it you. Aug. The word Aug. 

... Tr. cii. 
whatsoever, must not be understood to mean any thing, but 

something which with reference to obtaining the life of blessed- 
ness is not nothing. That is not sought in the Saviour's name, 
which is sought to the hindering of our salvation; for by, 
in My name, must be understood not the mere sound of the 
letters or syllables, but that which is rightly and truly signified 
by that sound. He who holds any notion concerning Christ, 
which should not be held of the only Son of God, does not 
ask in His name. But he who thinks rightly of Him, asks 
in His name, and receives what he asks, if it be not against 
his eternal salvation: he receives when it is right he should 
receive; for some things are only denied at present in order 
to be granted at a more suitable time. Again, the words, 
He will give it you, only comprehend those benefits which, 
properly appertain to the persons who ask. All saints are 
heard for themselves, but not for all ; for it is not, will give, 
simply, but, will give you; what follows: Hitherto have ye 
asked nothing in My name, may be understood in two ways: 
either that they had not asked in His name, because they had 
not known it as it ought to be known; or, Ye have asked 
nothing, because with reference to obtaining the thing ye 
ought to ask for, what ye have asked for is to be counted 
nothing. That therefore they may ask in His name not for 
what is nothing, but for the fulness of joy, He adds, Ask and 
ye shall receive, that your joy may be full. This full joy is not 
carnal, but spiritual joy ; and it will be full, when it is so great 

that nothing can be added to it. Aug. And this is that full Au g- 
. . . 1. de 

joy, than which nothing can be greater, viz. to enjoy God, the T r in. c 

Trinity, in the image of Whom we are made. Aug. What-* 1 - 

soever then is asked, which appertaineth to the getting this Tr. cii. 

joy, this must be asked in the name of Christ. For His 

saints that persevere in asking for it, He will never in His 

divine mercy disappoint. But whatever is asked beside this 

is nothing, i. e. not absolutely nothing, but nothing in com-compu- 

parison with so great a thing as this. It follows: These tatlone * 

things have I spoken unto you in prov e r bs: but the time 

cometh, when I shall no more speak unto you in proverbs, 



518 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CFIAP. XVI. 

but I shall sheiv you plainly of the Father. The hour of 
which He speaks may be understood of the future life, when 
l Cor. we s hall see Him, as the Apostle saith, face to face, and, 
These things have I spoken to you in proverbs, of that which 
the Apostle saith, Now we see as in a ylass darkly. But I 
will shew you that the Father shall be seen through the Son; 
Mat.i\,For no man knoweth the Father save the Son, and he to 
Greg, whom the Son shall reveal Him. Greg. When He declares 
***• that He will shew them plainly of the Father, He alludes to 
T iii. the manifestation about to take place of His own majesty, 
which would both shew His own equality with the Father, 
Aug- and the procession of the coeternal Spirit from both. Aug. 
c 3. But this sense seems to be interfered with by what follows: 
At that day ye shall ask in My name. What shall we have 
to ask for in a future life, when all our desires shall be satis- 
fied? Asking implies the want of something. It remains 
then that we understand the words of Jesus going to make 
His disciples spiritual, from being carnal and natural beings. 
The natural man so understands whatever he hears of God 
in a bodily sense, as being unable to conceive any other. 
Wherefore whatever Wisdom saith of the incorporeal, immu- 
table substance are proverbs to him, not that he accounts 
them proverbs, but understands them as if they were proverbs. 
But when, become spiritual, he hath begun to discern all 
things, though in this life he see but in a glass and in part, 
ye doth he perceive, not by bodily sense, not by idea of the 
imagination, but by most sure intelligence of the mind, per- 
ceive and hold that God is not body, but spirit: the Son 
sheweth so plainly of the Father, that He who sheweth is 
seen to be of the same nature with Him who is shewn. Then 
they who ask, ask in His name, because by the sound of that 
name they understand nothing but the thing itself which is 
expressed by that name. These are able to think that our 
Lord Jesus Christ, in so far as He is man, intercedes with 
the Father for us, in so far as He is God, hears us together 
with the Father: which I think is His meaning when He 
says, And I say not unto you that I will pray the Father 
for you. To understand this, viz. how that the Son does 
not ask the Father, but Father and Son together hear those 
who ask, is beyond the reach of any but the spiritual 
vision. 



VER. 29 — 33. ST. JOHN. 51» 

29. His disciples said unto him, Lo, now speakest 
thou plainly, and speakest no proverb. 

30. Now are we sure that thou knowest all things, 
and needest not that any man should ask thee: by 
this we believe that thou earnest forth from God. 

31. Jesus answered them, Do ye now believe? 

32. Behold, the hour cometh, yea, is now come, 
that ye shall be scattered, every man to his own, and 
shall leave me alone : and yet I am not alone, because 
the Father is with me. 

33. These things I have spoken unto you, that in 
me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have 
tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have overcome 
the world. 

Chrys. The disciples were so refreshed with the thought Chrys. 
of being in favour with the Father, that they say they are sure lxxix " 
He knows all things: His disciples said unto Him, Now 
speakest Thou plainly, and speakest no proverb. Aug. But Aug. 
why do they say so, when the hour in which He was to cin " 
speak without proverbs was yet future, and only promised? 
Because, our Lord's communications still continuing pro- 
verbs to them, they are so far from understanding them, that 
they do not even understand their not understanding them. 
Chrys. But since His answer metwhat was in their minds, they Chrys. 
add, Now we are sure that Thou knowest all things. See^j^'g 
how imperfect they yet were, after so many and great things 
now at last to say, Now we are sure %-c. saying it too as if they 
were conferring a favour. And needest not that any man 
should ask thee; i. e. Thou knowest what offends us, before 
we tell Thee, and Thou hast relieved us by saying that the 
Father loveth us. Aug. Why this remark? To one Who Aug. 
knew all things, instead of saying, Thou needest not that any ™' 2 ' 
man should ask Thee; it would have been more appropriate 
to have said, Thou needest not to ask any man : yet we know 
that both of these were done, viz. that our Lord both asked 
questions, and was asked. But this is soon explained; for 
both were for the benefit, not of Himself, but of those whom 



520 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVI. 

He asked questions of, or by whom lie was asked, lie 
asked questions of men not in order to learn Himself, but 
to teach them: and in the case of those who asked questions 
of Him, such questions were necessary to them in order to 
gain the knowledge they wanted; but they were not neces- 
sary to Him to tell Him what that was, because He knew 
the wish of the enquirer, before the question was put. Thus 
to know men's thoughts beforehand was no great thing 
for the Lord, but to the minds of babes it was a great 
thing: By this we know that Thou earnest forth from, God. 
Hilar. Hilary. They believe that He came forth from God, be- 
Trin. cause He does the works of God. For whereas our Lord 
c " 34 ' had said both, / came forth from the Father, and, I am 
come into the world from the Father, they testified no 
wonder at the latter words, / am come into the world, 
which they had often heard before. But their reply shews 
a belief in and appreciation of the former, / came forth from 
the Father. And they notice this in their reply: By this we 
believe that Thou earnest forth from God; not adding, and 
art come into ihe world, for they knew already that He 
was sent from God, but had not yet received the doctrine of 
His eternal generation. That unutterable doctrine they now 
began to see for the first time in consequence of these words, 
and therefore reply that He spoke no longer in parables. 
For God is not born from God after the manner of human 
birth: His is a coming forth from, rather than a birth from, 
God. He is one from one; not a portion, not a defection, 
not a diminution, not a derivation, not a pretension, not a pas- 
sion, but the birth of living nature from living nature. He is 
God coming forth from God, not a creature appointed to the 
name of God; He did not begin to be from nothing, but 
manente came forth from an abiding nature. To come forth, hath 
Aug. the signification of birth, not of beginning. Aug. Lastly, He 
Tr. cm. rera j na » s them of their weak tender age in respect of the inner 
man. Jesus ansuered them, Do ye now believe? Bkde. 
Which can be understood in two ways, either as reproaching, 
or affirming. If the former, the meaning is, Ye have awaked 
somewhat late to belief, for behold the hour comet It, yea is 
now come, that ye shall be scattered every man to his home. 
If the latter, it is, That which ye believe is true, but behold 



VER. 29 — 33. ST. JOHN. 521 

the hour cometh, fyc. Aug. For they did not only with their Aug. 
bodies leave His body, when He was taken, but with their r * cm ' 
minds the faith. Chrys. Ye shall be scattered; i. e. when Chrys. 
I am betrayed, fear shall so possess you, that ye will noti x ° lx< 
be able even to take to flight together. But I shall suffer 
no harm in consequence : And yet I am not alone, because 
the Father is with Me. Aug. He wishes to advance them Aug. 
so far as to understand that He had not separated from cm * 
the Father because He had come forth from the Father. 
Chrys. These things have I said unto you, that ye might Chrys. 
have peace: i. e. that ye may not reject Me from your minds. ] xx j x2 . 
For not only when I am taken shall ye suffer tribulation, 
but so long as ye are in the world: In the world ye shall 
have tribulation. Greg. As if He said, Have Me within you Greg. 
to comfort you, because you will have the world withont^^j 
you. Aug. The tribulation of which He speaks was to com- c. xi. 
mence thus, i. e. in every one being scattered to his home, T "^.' t# 
but was not to continue so. For in saying, And leave Me cili - 3# 
alone, He does not mean this to apply to them in their 
sufferings after His ascension. They were not to desert 
Him then, but to abide and have peace in Him. Where- 
fore He adds, Be of good cheer. Chrys. i. e. raise up your Chrys. 
spirits again: when the Master is victorious, the disciples lxxx * 
should not be dejected; I have overcome the world. Aug. 
When the Holy Spirit was given them, they were of good 
cheer, and, in His strength, victorious. For He would not 
have overcome the world, had the world overcome His 
members. When He says, TJiese things have I spoken to 
you, that in Me ye might have peace, He refers not only to 
what He has just said, but to what He had said all along, 
either from the time that He first had disciples, or since the 
supper, when He began this long aud wonderful discourse. 
He declares this to be the object of His whole discourse, 
viz. that in Him they might have peace. And this peace 
shall have no end, but is itself the end of every pious action 
and intention. 



CHAP. XVII. 

1. These words spake Jesus, and lifted up his eyes 
to heaven, and said, Father, the hour is come ; glorify 
thy Son, that thy Son also may glorify thee : 

2. As thou hast given him power over all flesh, that 
he should give eternal life to as many as thou hast 
given him. 

3. And this is life eternal, that they might know 
thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou 
hast sent. 

4. I have glorified thee on the earth: I have 
finished the work which thou gavest me to do. 

5. And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine 
own self with the glory which I had with thee before 
the world was. 

Chrys. Chkys. After having said, In the world ye shall have 

Horn. ■ , ° .. 

lxxx. tribulation, our Lord turns from admonition to prayer ; 
thus teaching us in our tribulations to abandon all other 
things, and flee to God. Bede. These things spake Jesus, 
those things that He had said at the supper, partly sitting 

c 14, 31. as far as the words, Arise, let us go hence; and thence 
standing, up to the end of the hymn which now commences, 
And lifted up His eyes and said, Father, the hour is come ; 

Chrys. glorify Thy Son. Chrys. He lifted up His eyes to heaven to 

lxxx. l. teach us intentness in our prayers : that we should stand 
with uplifted eyes, not of the body only, but of the mind. 

£ a P- Aug. Our Lord, in the form of a servant, could have prayed 

i r. civ. 

in silence had He pleased ; but He remembered that He 
had not only to pray, but to teach. For not only His dis- 



VER. 1 — 5. GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. JOHN. 523 

course, but His prayer also, was for His disciples' edification, 
yea and for ours who read the same. Father, the hour is 
come, shews that all time, and every thing that He did or 
suffered to be done, was at His disposing, Who is not subject 
to time. Not that we must suppose that this hour came by 
any fatal necessity, but rather by God's ordering. Away 
with the notion, that the stars could doom to death the 
Creator of the stars. Hilary. He doth not say that the Hilar, 
day, or the time, but that the hour is come. An hour contains c ' 10 . ' 
a portion of a day. What was this hour ? He was now to 
be spit upon, scourged, crucified. But the Father glorifies 
the Son. The sun failed in his course, and with him all 
the other elements felt that death. The earth trembled 
under the weight of our Lord hanging on the Cross, and 
testified that it had not power to hold within it Him who 
was dying. The Centurion proclaimed, Truly this was the Matt. 
Son of God. The event answered the prediction. Our Lord ' 
had said, Glorify Thy Son, testifying that He was not the 
Son in name only, but properly the Son. Thy Son, He 
saith. Many of us are sons of God; but not such is the Son. 
For He is the proper, true Son by nature, not by adoption, 
in truth, not in name, by birth, not by creation. Therefore 
after His glorifying, to the manifestation of the truth there 
succeeded confession. The Centurion confesses Him to be 
the true Son of God, that so none of His believers might 
doubt what one of His persecutors could not deny. Aug. Aug. 
But if He was glorified by His Passion, how much more by 
His Resurrection ? For His Passion rather shewed His 
humility than His glory. So we must understand, Father, 
the hoar is come, glorify Thy Son, to mean, the hour is 
come for sowing the seed, humility; defer not the fruit, 
glory. Hilary. But perhaps this proves weakness in the Hilar. 
Son; His waiting to be glorified by one superior to Him-Jj, 1 ^ 8 
self. And who does not confess that the Father is superior, 
seeing that He Himself saith, The Father is greater than I? 
But beware lest the honour of the Father impair the glory of 
the Son. It follows : That Thy Son also may glorify Thee. 
So then the Son is not weak, inasmuch as He gives back in 
His turn glory for the glory which He receives. This 
petition for glory to be given and repaid, shews the same 



524 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVII. 

A«g. divinity to be in both. Aug. But it is justly asked, how the 
Son can glorify the Father, when the eternal glory of the 
Father never experienced abasement in the form of man, 
and in respect of its own Divine perfection, does not admit 
of being added to. But among men this glory was less 
when God was only known in Judaea ; and therefore the Son 
glorified the Father, when the Gospel of Christ spread the 
knowledge of the Father among the Gentiles. Glorify Thy 
So?i, that Thy Son also may glorify Thee ; i. e. Raise Me 
from the dead, that by Me Thou mayest be known to the 
whole world. Then He unfolds further the manner in which 
the Son glorifies the Father; As Thou hast given Him 
power over all flesh, that He should give eternal life to as 
many as Thou hast given Him. All Jlesh signifies all man- 
kind, the part being put for the whole. And this power 
which is given to Christ by the Father over all flesh, must 
Hilar. De understood with reference to His human nature. Hilary. 
Triu. For being made flesh Himself, He was about to restore 
Hilar, eternal life to frail, corporeal, and mortal man. Hilary. If 
Trin.3i. Christ be God, not begotten, but unbegotten, then let this 
receiving be thought weakness. But not if His receiving of 
power signifies His begetting, in which He received what He 
is. This gift cannot be counted for weakness. For the 
Father is such in that He gives; the Son remains God in 
that He hath received the power of giving eternal life. 
Chrys. Chrys. He saith, Thou hast given Him power over all flesh, 
ixxx. to shew that His preaching extended not to the Jews only, 
but to the whole world. But what is all flesh ? For all did 
not believe? So far as lay with Him, all did. If they did 
not attend to His words, it was not His fault who spoke, 
Aug. Du t theirs who did not receive. Aug. He saith, As Thou 
2 . ' ' hast given Him power over all fleshy so the Son may glorify 
Thee, i. e. make Thee known to all flesh which Thou hast 
given Him ; for Thou hast so given it to Him, that He 
should give eternal life to as many as Thou hast given Him. 
Hilar. Hilary. And in what eternal life is, He then shews: And 
Tr.cA4.this is life eternal, that they might know Thee, the only true 
God. To know the only true God is life, but this alone 
does not constitute life. What else then is added? And 
iv.'de Jesus Christ whom Thou hast sent. Hilary. The Arians 
Tr. c. 9. 



VER. 1 — 5. ST. JOHN. 525 

hold, that as the Father is the only true, only just, only 
wise God, the Son hath no communion of these attributes ; 
for that which is proper to one, cannot be partaken of by 
another. And as these are as they think in the Father alone, 
and not in the Son, they necessarily consider the Son a false 
and vain God. Hilary. But it must be clear to every one Hilar. 
that the reality of any thing is evidenced by its power. For ^.3 
that is true wheat, which when rising with grain and fenced 
with ears, and shaken out by the winnowing machine, and 
ground into corn, and baked into bread, and taken for food, 
fulfils the nature and function of bread. I ask then wherein 
the truth of Divinity is wanting to the Son, Who hath the 
nature and virtue of Divinity. For He so made use of the 
virtue of His nature, as to cause to be things which were 
not, and to do every thing which seemed good to Him. 
Hilary. Because He says, Thee the only, does He separate Hilar. 
Himself from communion and unity with God? He doth T] ; in 
separate Himself, but that He adds immediately, And Jesus 
Christ Whom Thou hast sent. For the Catholic faith con- 
fesses Christ to be true God, in that it confesses the Father 
to be the only true God ; for natural birth did not introduce 
any change of nature into the Only-Begotten God. Aug. Aug. 
Dismissing then the Arians, let us see if we are forced toir. c.9. 
confess, that by the words, That they may know Thee to be 
the only true God, He means us to understand that the 
Father only is the true God, in such sense as that only the 
Three together, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, are to be 
called God ? Does our Lord's testimony authorize us to say 
that the Father is the only true God, the Son the only true 
God, and the Holy Ghost the only true God, and at the 
same time, that the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost together, 
i.e. the Trinity, are not three Gods, but one" true God? 
Aug. Or is not the order of the words, That they may know Aug. 
Thee and Jesus Christ, Whom Thou hast sent, to be the only r " c ' ' 
true God? the Holy Spirit being necessarily understood, 
because the Spirit is only the love of the Father and the 
Son, consubstantial with both. If then the Son so glorifies 
Thee as Thou hast given Him power over all flesh, and 
Thou hast given Him the power, that He should give eternal 
• One and only are the same word here, unus. 



526 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVII. 

life to as many as Thou hast given Him, and, This is life 

eternal, to know Thee, it follows that He glorifies Thee by 

making Thee known to all whom Thou hast given Him. 

Moreover, if the knowledge of God is life eternal, the more 

advance we make in this knowledge, the more we make in 

life eternal. But in life eternal we shall never die. Where 

then there is no death, there will then be perfeet knowledge 

'clarifi- of God; there will God be most glorified 1 , because His glory 

oa 10 will be greatest. Glory was defined among the ancients to 

be fame accompanied with praise. But if man is praised in 

dependence on what is said of him, how will God be praised 

Pa.83,4.when He shall be seen? as in the Psalm, Blessed are they 

who dwell in Tliy house: they will be alway praising Thee. 

There will be praise of God without end, where will be full 

knowledge of God. There then shall be heard the everlasting 

praise of God, for there will there be full knowledge of God, 

Aug. and therefore full glorifying of Him. Aug. What He said to 

Trin. His servant Moses, / am that I am ; this we shall contem- 

c. viii. pi a te in the life eternal. Aug. For when sight has made 

Aug. our faith truth, then eternity shall take possession of and 

j^. de displace our mortality. Aug. But God is first glorified 

c xviii. here, when He is proclaimed, made known to, and believed 

x" g cv i n > by men: / have glorified Thee on the earth. Hilary. 

Hilar. This new glory with which our Lord had glorified the Father, 

Trin. does not imply any advancement 2 in Godhead, but refers to 

s profec- ^ e honour received from those who are converted from 

turn 

Divini- ignorance to knowledge. Chrys. He says, on the earth; 

tatis. £ or jj e j ia( i Deen glorified in heaven, both in respect of the 
glory of His own nature, and of the adoration of the Angels. 
The glory therefore here spoken of is not that which belong- 
eth to His substance, but that which pertaineth to the wor- 
ship of man: wherefore it follows, I have finished the work 

Aug. which Thou gavest Me to do. Aug. Not Thou commandest 
' Me, but, Thou gavest Me, implying evidently grace. For 
what hath human nature, even in the Only-Begotten, what 
it hath not received ? But how had He finished the work 
which had been given Him to do, when there yet remained 
His passion to undergo ? He says He has finished it, i. e. 

Chrys. He knows for certain that He will. Chrys. Or, / have 

lixx. finished, i. e. He had done all His own part, or had done 



VER. 1 — 5. ST. JOHN. 527 

the chief of it, that standing for the whole; (for the root of 
good was planted:) or He connects Himself with the future, 
as if it were already present. Hilary. After which, that Hilar, 
we may understand the reward of His obedience, and the Trin. 
mystery of the whole dispensation, He adds, And now 
glorify Me with the glory with Thine own Self, with the glory 
which I had with Thee before the world was. Aug. He Aug. 

Xr»cv.5« 

had said above, Father, the hour is come; glorify Thy Son, 
that Thy Son also may glorify Thee: the order of which 
words shews that the Son was first to be glorified by the 
Father, that the Father might be glorified by the Son. 
But now He says, I have glorified Thee; and now glorify 
Me; as if He had first glorified the Father, and then asked 
to be glorified by Him. We must understand that the 
first is the order in which one was to succeed the other, 
but that He afterwards uses a past tense, to express a thing 
future ; the meaning being, I will glorify Thee on the earth, 
by finishing the work Thou hast given Me to do: and 
now, Father, glorify Me, which is quite the same sentence 
with the first one, except that He adds here the mode in 
which He is to be glorified; with the glory which I had 
before the world was, with Thee. The order of the words is, 
The glory which I had with Thee before the world was. This 
has been taken by some to mean, that the human nature 
which was assumed by the Word, would be changed into 
the Word, that man would be changed into God, or, to 
speak more correctly, be lost in God. For no one would 
say that the Word of God would by that change be doubled, 
or even made at all greater. But we avoid this error, if we 
take the glory which He had with the Father before the 
world was, to be the glory which He predestined for Him 
on earth: (for if we believe Him to be the Son of man, we 
need not be afraid to say that He was predestinated.) This 
predestined time of His being glorified, He now saw was 
arrived, that He might now receive what had been aforetime 
predestined, He prayed accordingly : And now, Father, glorify 
Me, 8fc. i. e. that glory which I had with Thee by Thy pre- 
destination, it is now time that I should have at Thy right 
hand. Hilary. Or He prayed that that which was mortal, Hilar, 
might receive the glory immortal, that the corruption of the)|, 1, . de 



•'28 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVII. 

flesh might be transformed and absorbed into the incorruption 
of the Spirit. 

6. I have manifested thy name unto the men which 
thou gavest me out of the world: thine they were, 
and thou gavest them me; and they have kept thy 
word. 

7. Now they have known that all things whatsoever 
thou hast given me are of thee. 

8. For I have given unto them the words which 
thou gavest me: and they have received them, and 
have known surely that I came out from thee, and 
they have believed that thou didst send me. 

Chrys. Chrys. Having said, I have finished My work, He shews 
lxxxi. what kind of work it was, viz. that He should make known 
the name of God: 1 have manifested Thy name unto the 
Aug. men which Thou gavest Me out of the world. Aug. If He 
' speaks of the disciples only with whom He supped, this 
has nothing to do with that glorifying of which He spoke 
above, w T herewith the Son glorified the Father; for what 
glory is it to be known to twelve or eleven men ? But if by 
the men which were given to Him out of the world, He 
means all those who should believe in Him afterwards, this 
is without doubt the glory wherewith the Son glorifies the 
Father; and, / have manifested Thy name, is the same as 
what He said before, I have glorified Thee; the past being 
put for the future both there and here. But what follows 
shews that He is speaking here of those who were already 
His disciples, not of all who should afterwards believe on 
Him. At the beginning of His prayer then our Lord 
is speaking of all believers, all to whom He should make 
known the Father, thereby glorifying Him: for after saying, 
that Thy Son also may glorify Thee, in shewing how that 
was to be done, He says, As Thou hast given Him power 
over all flesh. Now let us hear what He says to the disciples : 
/ have manifested Thy name to the men which Thou gavest 
Me out of the world. Had they not known the name of 
God then, when they were Jews? We read in the Psalms, 



VER. 6 — 8. ST. JOHN- 529 

In Jewry is God known ; His name is great in Israel. I have P8.76,i . 
manifested Thy name, then, must be understood not of the 
name of God, but of the Father's name, which name could 
not be manifested without the manifestation of the Son. For 
God's name, as the God of the whole creation, could not 
have been entirely unknown to any nation. As the Maker 
then of the world, He was known among all nations, even 
before the spread of the Gospel. In Jewry He was known 
as a God, Who was not to be worshipped with the false gods: 
but as the Father of that Christ, by whom He took away the 
sins of the world, His name was unknown; which name 
Christ now manifesteth to those whom the Father had given 
Him out of the world. But how did He manifest it, when 
the hour had not come of which He said above, The hour 
co?neth, when I shall no more speak unto you in proverbs. 
We must understand the past to be put for the future. 
Chrys. That He was the Son of the Father, Christ hadgiryp. 
already manifested to them by words and deeds. Aug. lxxxi. 
Which Thou hast given Me out of the world: i. e. who wer e^ g g Vi 
not of the world. But this they were by regeneration, not 
by nature. What is meant by, Thine they were, and Thou 
gavest them Me? Had ever the Father any thing without 
the Son ? God forbid. But the Son of God had that some- 
times, which He had not as Son of man; for He had the 
universe with His Father, while He was still in His mother's 
womb. Wherefore by saying, They were TJiine, the Son 
of God does not separate Himself from the Father; but only 
attributes all His power to Him, from whom He is, and hath 
the same. And Thou gavest them Me, then, means that He 
had received as man the power to have them; nay, that He 
Himself had given them to Himself, i. e. Christ as God with 
the Father, to Christ as man not with the Father. His 
purpose here is to shew His unanimity with the Father, and 
how that it was the Father's pleasure that they should 
believe in Him. Bede. And they have kept Thy word. 
He calls Himself the Word of the Father, because the Father 
by Him created all things, and because He contains in Himself 
all words : as if to say, They have committed Me to memory 
so well, that they never will forget Me. Or, They have kept 
Thy word, i. e. in that they have believed in Me: as it follows, 

2 M 



580 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVII. 

Now they have known that all things whatsoever Thou hast 
given Me, are of Thee. Some read, Now I have known, &c. 
But this cannot be correct. For how could the Son be 
ignorant of what was the Father's? It is the disciples He is 
speaking of; as if to say, They have learnt that there is 
nothing in Me alien from Thee, and that whatever I teach 

Aug. cometh from Thee. Aug. The Father gave Him all things, 
' ' when having all things He begat Him. Chrys. And whence 

Hom. have they learned ? From My words, wherein I taught them 

xxxu that I came forth from Thee. For this was what He has 

been labouring to shew throughout the whole of the Gospel : 

For I have given unto them the words which Thou gavest 

Aug. Me, and they have received them. Aug. i. e. have under- 

c . 6, ' stood and remembered them. For then is a word received, 
when the mind apprehends it ; as it follows, And have 
known surely that I came out from Thee. And that none 
might imagine that that knowledge was one of sight, not of 
faith, He adds, And they have believed {surely, is understood) 
that Thou didst send Me. What they believed surely, was 
what they knew surely; for, 1 came out from Tliee, is the 
same with, Thou didst send Me. They believed surely, i. e. 

J c. 16. no t as He said above they believed 1 , but surely, i. e. as they 
were about to believe firmly, steadily, unwaveringly : never 
any more to be scattered to their own, and leave Christ. 
The disciples as yet were not such as He describes them 
to be in the past tense, meaning such as they were to be 
when they had received the Holy Ghost. The question 
how the Father gave those words to the Son, is easier to 
solve, if we suppose Him to have received them from the 
Father as Son of man. But if we understand it to be as the 
Begotten of the Father, let there be no time supposed pre- 
vious to His having them, as if He once existed without 
them : for whatever God the Father gave God the Son, He 
gave in begetting. 

9. I pray for them : I pray not for the world, but 
for them which thou hast given me; for they are 
thine. 

10. And all mine are thine, and thine are mine ; 
and I am glorified in them. 



31,32. 



VER. 9 — 13. ST. JOHN. 531 

11. And now I am no more in the world, but these 
are in the world, and I come to thee. Holy Father, 
keep through thine own name those whom thou hast 
given me, that they may be one, as we are. 

12. While I was with them in the world, I kept 
them in thy name : those that thou gavest me I have 
kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdi- 
tion ; that the scripture might be fulfilled. 

13. And now come I to thee; and these things I 
speak in the world, that they might have my joy 
fulfilled in themselves. 

Chrys. As the disciples were still sad in spite of all ourchrys. 
Lord's consolations, henceforth He addresses Himself to, Hom : 

• 1 lxxxi. 

the Father to shew the love which He had for them ; I pray 
for them ; He not only gives them what He has of His own, 
but entreats another for them, as a still further proof of His 
love. Aug. When He adds, / pray not for the world, by Aug. 
the world He means those who live according to the lust f Tr,cvl - 
the world, and have not the lot to be chosen by grace out of 
the world, as those had for whom He prayed : But for them 
which Thou hast given Me. It was because the Father had 
given Him them, that they did not belong to the world. 
Nor yet had the Father, in giving them to the Son, lost what 
He had given : For they are Tliine. Chrys. He often repeats, Chrys. 
Thou hast giren Me, to impress on them that it was all^ ™; 
according to the Father's will, and that He did not come to 
rob another, but to take unto Him His own. Then to shew 
them that this power l had not been lately received from the i i iX \, 
Father, He adds, And all Mine are Thine, and Thine are Mine ■: 
as if to say, Let no one, hearing Me say, Them which Thou 
hast given Me, suppose that they are separated from the 
Father; for Mine are His: nor because I said, They are Thine, 
suppose that they are separate from Me: for whatever is 
His is Mine. Aug. It is sufficiently apparent from hence, Aug. 
that all things which the Father hath, the Only- B ego tten J r - •**• 
Son hath; hath in that He is God, born from the Father, 
and equal with the Father; not in the sense in which the 

2 m 2 



582 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVIT. 

Lukeis, elder son is told, All thai I have is thine. For all there 
means all creatures below the holy rational creature, but 
here it means the very rational creature itself, which is only 
subjected to God. Since this is God the Father's, it could 
not at the same time be God the Son's, unless the Son were 
equal to the Father. For it is impossible that saints, of 
whom this is said, should be the property of any one, except 
Him who created and sanctified them. When He says 
ci6,i5. aDove m S p e aking of the Holy Spirit, All things that the 
Father hath are Mine, He means all things which pertain to 
the divinity of the Father; for He adds, He (the Holy Ghost) 
shall receive of Mine; and the Holy Ghost would not receive 
from a creature which was subject to the Father and the 
Chrjs. g on Chrys. Then He gives proof of this, I am glorified 
lxxxi*. in them. If they glorify Me, believing in Me and Thee, it 
is certain that I have power over them : for no one is glori- 
£"#'... fied by those amongst whom he has no power. Aug. He 
3. speaks of this as already done, meaning that it was predes- 

tined, and sure to be. But is this the glorifying of which 
He speaks above, And now, O Father, glorify Thou Me with 
Thine own Self? If then with Thyself what meaneth here, 
In them? Perhaps that this very thing, i. e. His glory with 
the Father, was made known to them, and through them to 
Chrys. all that believe. Chrys. And now I am no more in the 
lxxxi. world: i. e. though I no longer appear in the flesh, I am 
glorified by those who die for Me, as for the Father, and 
Aug. preach Me as the Father. Aug. At the time at which He 
4. ' "was speaking, both were still in the world. Yet we must not 
understand, / am no more in the world, metaphorically of 
the heart and life; for could there ever have been a time 
when He loved the things of the world ? It remains then that 
He means that He was not in the world, as He had been 
before; i. e. that He was soon going away. Do we not say 
every day, when any one is going to leave us, or going to 
die, such an one is gone? This is shewn to be the sense by 
what follows; for He adds, And now I come to Thee. And 
then He commends to His Father those whom He was about 
to leave: Holy Father, keep through Thine own name those 
whom Thou hast given Me. As man He prays God for His 
disciples, whom He received from God. But mark what 



VfcR. 9 — 18. ST. JOHN. 533 

follows: That they maybe one, as We are: He does not say, 
That they may be one with Us, as We are one; but, that they 
may be one: that they may be one in their nature, as We are 
one in Ours. For, in that He was God and man in one per- 
son, as man He prayed, as God He was one with Him to 
Whom He prayed. Aug. He does not say, That I and they ^ug.^ 
maybe one, though He might have said so in the sense, thatTrin. 
He was the head of the Church, and the Church His body ; c ' 1X * 
not one thing, but one person: the head and the body being 
one Christ. But shewing something else, viz. that His 
divinity is consubstantial with the Father, He prays that His 
people may in like manner be one; but one in Christ, not 
only by the same nature, in which mortal man is made equal to 
the Angels, but also by the same will, agreeing most entirely 
in the same mind, and melted into one Spirit by the fire of 
love. This is the meaning of, That they may be one as We 
are: viz. that as the Father and the Son are one not only by 
equality of substance, but also in will, so they, between whom 
and God the Son is Mediator, may be one not only by the 
union of nature, but by the union of love. Chrys. Again Chrys. 
He speaks as man: While I was with them in the world, I{£^[ 
kept them in Thy name; i. e. by Thy help. He speaks in 
condescension to the minds of His disciples, who thought 
they were more safe in His presence. Aug. The Son as man Aug. 
kept His disciples in the Father's name, being placed among g cv "* 
them in human form: the Father again kept them in the Son's 
name, in that He heard those who asked in the Son's name. 
But we must not take this carnally, as if the Father and Son 
kept us in turns, for the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost guard 
us at the same time : but Scripture does not raise us, except 
it stoop to us. Let us understand then that when our Lord 
says this, He is distinguishing the persons, not dividing the 
nature, so that when the Son was keeping His disciples by 
His bodily presence, the Father was waiting to succeed Him 
on His departure; but both kept them by spiritual power, 
and when the Son withdrew His bodily presence, He still 
held with the Father the spiritual keeping. For when the 
Son as man received them into His keeping, He did not 
take them from the Father's keeping, and when the Father 
gave them into the Son's keeping, it was to the Son as man, 
who at the same time was God. Those that Thou gavest 



534 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVII. 

3Ie I have kept, and none of them is lost but the son of 
perdition: i. e. ihe betrayer of Christ, predestined to per- 
dition ; that the Scripture might be fidjilled, especially the 
Horn 8 " P ro P nec y i n Psalm cviii. Chrys. He was the only one indeed 
lxxxi. who perished then, but there were many after. None of them 
is lost, i. e. as far as I am concerned; as He says above more 
clearly; / will in no wise cast out. But when they cast them- 
selves out, I will not draw them to Myself by dint of compul- 
sion. It follows: And now I come to Thee. But some one 
might ask, Canst Thou not keep them ? I can. Then why say- 
est Thou this? That they may have My joy fulfilled in them, 
i. e. that they may not be alarmed in their as yet imperfect 
Aug. state. Aug. Or thus: That they might have the joy spoken of 
r * CV11 ' above : That they maybe one, as We are one. This His joy, 
i. e. bestowed by Him, He says, is to be fulfilled in them: 
on which account He spoke thus in the world. This joy is 
the peace and happiness of the life to come. He says He 
spoke in the world, though He had just now said, I am no 
more in the world. For, inasmuch as He had not yet de- 
parted, He was still here; and inasmuch as He was going to 
depart, He was in a certain sense not here. 

14. I have given them thy word; and the world 
hath hated them, because they are not of the world, 
even as I am not of the world. 

15. I pray not that thou shouldest take them out of 
the world, but that thou shouldest keep them from the 
evil. 

16. They are not of the world, even as I am not of 
the world. 

17. Sanctify them through thy truth; thy word is 
truth. 

18. As thou hast sent me into the world, even so 
have I also sent them into the world. 

19. And for their sakes I sanctify myself, that they 
also might be sanctified through the truth. 

Chrya. Chrys. Again, our Lord gives a reason why the disciples 

lxxxii are vvort hy of obtaining such favour from the Father: I have 

given them Thy word; and the world hath hated them; i. e. 



VER. 14 — 19. ST. JOHN. 535 

They are had in hatred for Thy sake, and on account of Thy 
word. Aug. They had not yet experienced these sufferings Aug. 
which they afterwards met with; but, after His custom, He 
puts the future into the past tense. Then He gives the 
reason why the world haled them ; viz. Because they are 
not of the world. This was conferred upon them by re- 
generation; for by nature they were of the world. It was 
given to them that they should not be of the world, even as 
He was not of the world ; as it follows ; Even as I am not of 
the world. He never was of the world ; for even His birth 
of the form of a servant He received from the Holy Ghost, 
from Whom they were born again. But though they were 
no longer of the world, it was still necessary that they should 
be in the world : I pray not that Thou shouldest take them 
out of the world. Bede. As if to say, The time is now 
at hand, when I shall be taken out of the world; and there- 
fore it is necessary that they should be still left in the world, 
in order to preach Me and Thee to the world. But that 
Thou shouldest keep them from the evil; every evil, but 
especially the evil of schism. Aug. He repeats the same Aug. 
thing again; They are not of the world, even as I am not of 
the world. Chrys. Above, when He said, Them whom Chrys. 
Tliou yavest Me out of the world, He meant their nature ; lxxxii. 
here He means their actions. They are not of the world; l * 
because they have nothing in common with earth, they are 
made citizens of heaven. Wherein He shews His love for 
them, thus praising them to the Father. The word as when 
used with respect to Him and the Father expresses like- 
ness of nature ; but between us and Christ there is immense 
distance. Keep them from the evil, i. e. not from dangers 
only, but from falling away from the faith. Aug. Sanctify Aug. 
them through Tfiy truth: for thus were they to be kept rcvl11, 
from the evil. But it may be asked, how it was that they 
were not of the world, when they were not yet sanctified in 
the truth ? Because the sanctified have still to grow in 
sanctity, and this by the help of God's grace. The heirs of 
the New Testament are sanctified in that truth, the shadows 
of which were the sanctification of the Old Testament; they 
are sanctified in Christ, Who said above, 1 am the way, the c 14, 6. 
truth, and the life. It follows, Thy discourse is truth. 



536 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVII. 

The Greek is A<fyo$, i.e. word. The Father then sanctified 
them in the truth, i.e. in His Word the Only-Begotten, 
them, i. e. the heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ. 
Chrys. Chrys. Or thus: Sanctify them in Thy truth; i.e. Make 
btxxii. tnem holy, by the gift of the Holy Spirit, and sound 
doctrines : for sound doctrines give knowledge of God, and 
sanctify the soul. And as He is speaking of doctrines, He 
adds, TJiy word is truth, i. e. there is in it no lie, nor any 
thing typical, or bodily. Again, Sanctify them in Thy truth, 
may mean, Separate them for the ministry of the word, and 
preaching. Gloss. As Thou hast sent Me into the world, 
even so have 1 also sent them into the world. For what 
Christ was sent into the world, for the same end were they ; 
2 Cor. as saith Paul, God was in Christ reconciling the world unto 
' ' Himself; and hath given to us the word qf reconciliation. 
As does not express perfect likeness between our Lord and 
His Apostles, but only as much as was possible in men. 
Have sent them, He says, according to His custom of putting 
Aug. the past for the future. Aug. It is manifest by this, that He 
'is still speaking of the Apostles; for the very word Apostle 
means in the Greek, sent. But since they are His members, 
in that He is the Head of the Church, He says, And for 
their sakes I sanctify Myself; i. e. I in Myself sanctify 
them, since they are Myself. And to make it more clear 
that this was His meaning, He adds, That they also might 
be sanctified through the truth, i. e. in Me; inasmuch as the 
Word is truth, in which the Son of man was sanctified from 
the time that the Word was made flesh. For then He 
sanctified Himself in Himself, i. e. Himself as man, in Him- 
self as the Word: the Word and man being one Christ. 
But of His members it is that He saith, And for their sakes 
I sanctify Myself, i. e. them in Me, since in Me both they 
and I are. That they also might he sanctified in truth: 
they also, i.e. even as Myself; and in the truth, i.e. Myself. 
Chrys. Chkys. Or thus : For their sakes I sanctify Myself, i.e. I 
lxxxi'i. offer Myself as a sacrifice to Thee ; for all sacrifices, and 
things that are offered to God, are called holy. And whereas 
this sanctification was of old in figure, (a sheep being the 
sacrifice,) but now in truth, He adds, That they also might be 
sanctified through the truth; i.e. For I make them too an 



ver. 20—23. st. john. 537 

oblation to Thee; either meaning that He who was offered up 
was their head, or that they would be offered up too : as the 
Apostle saith, Present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy. ^ 0E J- 

20. Neither pray I for these alone, but for them 
also which shall believe on me through their word ; 

21. That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art 
in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: 
that the world may believe that thou hast sent me. 

22. And the glory which thou gavest me I have 
given them ; that they may be one, even as we are 
one : 

23. I in them, and thou in me, that they may be 
made perfect in one : and that the world may know 
that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou 
hast loved me. 

Aug. When our Lord had prayed for His disciples, whom Au g- 
He named also Apostles, He added a prayer for all others who 
should believe on Him ; Neither pray I for these alone, but 
for all others who shall believe on Me through their word. 
Chrys. Another ground of consolation to them, that they Chr y 3 « 
were to be the cause of the salvation of others. Aug. All, i X xxii. 
i. e. not only those who were then alive, but those who were ~ ug \ 

Tr. cix. 

to be born ; not those only who heard the Apostles them- 
selves, but us who were born long after their death. We 
have all believed in Christ through their word : for they 
first heard that word from Christ, and then preached it to 
others, and so it has come down, and will go down to all 
posterity. We may see that in this prayer there are some 
disciples whom He does not pray for; for those, i. e. who 
were neither with Him at the time, nor were about to believe 
on Him afterwards through the Apostles' word, but believed 
already. Was Nathanael with Him then, or Joseph of 
Arimathea, and many others, who, John says, believed on 
Him ? I do not mention old Simeon, or Anna the prophetess, 
Zacharias, Elisabeth, or John the Baptist ; for it might be 
answered that it was not necessary to pray for dead[persons, 
such as these who departed with such rich merits. With 



588 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVII. 

respect to the former then we must understand that they did 
not yet believe in Him, as He wished, but that after His 
resurrection, when the Apostles were taught and strengthened 
by the Holy Spirit, they attained to a right faith. The case 

Gal.i,i.of Paul however still remains, An Apostle not of men, or by 
men; and that of the robber, who believed when even the 
teachers themselves of the faith fell away. We must under- 
stand then, their word, to mean the word of faith itself which 
they preached to the world ; it being called their word, 
because it was preached in the first instance and principally 
by them ; for it was being preached by them, when Paul 
received it by revelation from Jesus Christ Himself. And 
in this sense the robber too believed their word. Wherefore 
in this prayer the Redeemer prays for all whom He redeemed, 
both present and to come. And then follows the thing itself 
which He prays for, That they all may be one. He asks 
that for all, which he asked above for the disciples ; that all 

Chrys. \yQ\fo vve anc i they may be one. Chrys. And with this 

Horn. , . . . 

lxxxii. prayer for unanimity, He concludes His prayer; and then 
begins a discourse on the same subject: A new command- 

Hilar, ment I give unto you, that ye love one another. Hilary. 

Tri n . e And this unity is recommended by the great example of 
unity : As Thou, Father, art in Me, and I in Thee, that they 
also may be one in Us, i. e. that as the Father is in the Son, 
and the Son in the Father, so, after the likeness of this 

Chrys. unity, all may be one in the Father and in the Son. Chrys. 

lxxxii. This as again does not express perfect likeness, but only 
likeness as far as it was possible in men ; as when He saith, 

Luke 6, jfe y e me rciful, even as your Father, which is in heaven, is 

Aug. merciful. Aug. We must particularly observe here, that our 

Tr. ex. j^oj-fj did not say, that we may be all one, but that they may 
be all one, as Thou, Father, in Me, and I in Thee, are one, 
understood. For the Father is so in the Son, that They are 
one, because They are of one substance; but we can be one 
in Them, but not with Them ; because we and They are not of 
one substance. They are in us, and we in Them, so as that 
They are one in Their nature, we one in ours. They are in 
us, as God is in the temple; we in Them, as the creature is 
in its Creator. Wherefore He adds, in Us, to shew, that our 
being made one by charity, is to be attributed to the grace 



VER. 20—23. ST. JOHN. 531) 

of God, not to ourselves. Aug. Or that in ourselves we can- Aug. 
not be one, severed from each other by diverse pleasures, ^- m e 
and lusts, and the pollution of sin, from which we must be«-ix. 
cleansed by a Mediator, in order to be one in Him. Hilary. Hilar. 
Heretics endeavouring to get over the words, / and™V a de 
My Father are one, as a proving unity of nature, and to 
reduce them to mean a unity simply of natural love, and 
agreement of will, bring forwards these words of our Lord's 
as an example of this kind of unity : That they may be all 
one, as Thou, Father, art in Me, and I in Thee. But though 
impiety can cheat its own understanding, it cannot alter the 
meaning 1 of the words themselves. For they who are born 1 > nt elli- 

,. , . ,.„ , , gentiam 

again or a nature that gives unity m life eternal, they cease 
to be one in will merely, acquiring the same nature by their 
regeneration : but the Father and Son alone are properly 
one, because God, only-begotten of God, can only exist in 
that nature from which He is derived. Aug. But why does Aug. 
He say, That the world may believe that Thou hast sent Me? r * cx * 
Will the world believe when we shall all be one in the 
Father and the Son ? Is not this unity that peace eternal, 
which is the reward of faith, rather than faith itself? For 
though in this life all of us who hold in the same common 
faith are one, yet even this unity is not a means to belief, 
but the consequence of it. What means then, That all may 
be one, that the world may believe f He prays for the 
world when He says, Neither pray I for these alone, but 
for all those who shall believe on Me through their word. 
Whereby it appears that He does not make this unity the 
cause of the world believing, but prays that the world 
may believe, as He prays that they all may be one. The 
meaning will be clearer if we always put in the word ask; 
I ask that they all may be one ; I ask that they may 
be one in Us ; I ask that the world may believe that Thou 
hast sent Me. Hilary. Or, the world will believe that Hilar, 
the Son is sent from the Father, for that reason, viz. because Triii. * 
all who believe in Him are one in the Father and the Son. 
Chrys. For there is no scandal so great as division, whereas Chrys. 
unity amongst believers is a great argument for believing; asi X xxi'i. 
He said at the beginning of His discourse, By this shall all 
men know that ye are My disciples, if ye have love one to 



540 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVII. 

another. For if they quarrel, they will not be looked on as 
the disciples of a peacemaking Master. And I, He saith, 
not being a peacemaker, they will not acknowledge Me as 
-Aug. sent from God. Aug. Then onr Saviour, Who, by pray- 
ing to the Father, shewed Himself to be man, now shews 
that, being God with the Father, He doth what He prays 
for: And the glory which Thou gavest Me, I have given 
them. What glory, but immortality, which human nature 
was about to receive in Him? For that which was to be by 
unchangeable predestination, though future, He expresses 
by the past tense. That glory of immortality, which He 
says was given Him by the Father, we must understand He 
gave Himself also. For when the Son is silent of His own 
cooperation in the Father's work, He shews His humility: 
when He is silent of the Father's cooperation in His work, 
He shews His equality. In this way here He neither dis- 
connects Himself with the Father's work, when He says, 
The glory which Thou gavest Me, nor the Father with His 
work, when He says, / have given them. But as He was 
pleased by prayer to the Father to obtain that all might be 
one, so now He is pleased to effect the same by His own 
gift; for He continues, That all may be one, even as We are 
Chrys. one. Chrys. By glory, He means miracles, and doctrines, 
lxxxii. an d unity ; which latter is the greater glory. For all who 
2 - believed through the Apostles are one. If any separated, it 

was owing to men's own carelessness ; not but that our Lord 
Hilar, anticipates this happening. Hilary. By this giving and 
Trili. receiving of honour, then, all are one. But I do not yet 
apprehend in what way this makes all one. Our Lord, 
however, explains the gradation and order in the consummating 
of this unity, when He adds, / in them, and Thou in Me; 
so that inasmuch as He was in the Father by His divine 
nature, we in Him by His incarnation, and He again in us by 
the mystery of the sacrament, a perfect union by means of a 
Chrys. Mediator was established. Chrys. Elsewhere 1 He says of 
\xxx\i. Himself and the Father, We will come and make Our abode 
'supr. with Him; by the mention of two persons, stopping the 
mouths of the Sabellians. Here by saying that the Father 
Aug. comes to the disciples through Him, He refutes the notion of 
Tr.xc. t h e Arians. Aug. Nor is this said, however, as if to mean 



VER.T24 — 26. st. john. 541 

that the Father was not in us, or we in the Father. He only 
means to say, that He is Mediator between God and man. 
And what He adds, That they may be made perfect in one, 
shews that the reconciliation made by this Mediator, was 
carried on even to the enjoyment of everlasting blessedness. 
So what follows, That the world may knoio that Thou hast 
sent Me, must not be taken to mean the same as the words 
just above, That the world may believe. For as long as we 
believe what we do not see, we are not yet made perfect, as 
we shall be when we have merited to see what we believe. 
So that when He speaks of their being made perfect, we are 
to understand such a knowledge as shall be by sight, not 
such as is by faith. These that believe are the world, not a 
permanent enemy, but changed from an enemy to a friend; as 
it follows : And hast loved them, as Thou hast loved Me. The 
Father loves us in the Son, because He elected us in Him. 
These words do not prove that we are equal to the Only 
Begotten Son; for this mode of expression, as one thing so 
another, does not always signify equality. It sometimes only 
means, because one thing, therefore another. And this is 
its meaning here: Thou hast loved them, as Thou hast loved 
Me, i. e. Thou hast loved them, because Thou hast loved Me. 
There is no reason for God loving His members, but that He 
loves him. But since He hateth nothing that He hath made, 
who can adequately express how much He loves the 
members of His Only Begotten Son, and still more the Only 
Begotten Himself. 

24. Father, I will that they also, whom thou hast 
given me, be with me where I am; that they may 
behold my glory, which thou hast given me : for thou 
lovedst me before the foundation of the world. 

25. O righteous Father, the world hath not known 
thee: but I have known thee, and these have known 
that thou hast sent me. 

26. And I have declared unto them thy name, and 
will declare it : that the love wherewith thou hast loved 
me may be in them, and I in them. 



542 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVII. 

Chryd. Chrys. After He has said that many should believe on 
lxxxi'i. Him through them, and that they should obtain great glory, 
2 - He then speaks of the crowns in store for them; Father, I 

will that they also whom Thou hast given Me, be with Me 
£ u g- where I am. Aug. These are they whom He has received 

■Ir. cxi. 

l. from the Father, whom He also chose out of the world; as 

He saith at the beginning of this prayer, Thou h/isf given 
Him power over all flesh, i. e. all mankind, That He should 
give eternal life to as many as Thou hast given Him. 
Wherein He shews that He had received power over all men, 
to deliver whom He would, and to condemn whom He 
would. Wherefore it is to all His members that He promises 
this reward, that where He is, they may be also. Nor can 
that but be done, which the Almighty Son saith that He 
wishes to the Almighty Father: for the Father and the Son 
have one "Will, which, if weakness prevent us from compre- 
hending, piety must believe. Where I am: so far as pertains 
to the creature, He was made of the seed of David accord- 
ing to the flesh: He might say, Where 1 am, meaning where 
He was shortly to be, i. e. heaven. In heaven then, He 
promises us, we shall be. For thither was the form of a 
servant raised, which He had taken from the Virgin, and 
Greg, there placed on the right hand of God. Gkeg. What means 
JohiTs then what the Truth saith above, No man hath ascended 
13 - into heaven, but He that came down from heaven, even the 
Son of man which is in heaven. Yet here is no discrepancy, 
for our Lord being the Head of His members, the reprobates 
excluded, He is alone with us. And therefore, we making 
one with Him, whence He came alone in Himself, thither 
Aug- He returns alone in us. Aug. But as respects the form of 
' God, wherein He is equal to the Father, if we understand 
these words, that they may be with Me where I am, with 
reference to that, then away with all bodily ideas, and enquire 
not where the Son, Who is equal to the Father, is: for no 
one hath discovered where He is not. Wherefore it was not 
enough for Him to say, / will that they may be where I am, 
but He adds, with Me. For to be with Him is the great 
good: even the miserable can be where He is, but only the 
happy can be with Him. And as in the case of the visible, 
though very different be whatever example we take, a blind 



ver. 24 — 26. st. john. 543 

man will serve for one, as a blind man though He is where 
the light is, yet is not himself with the light, but is absent 
from it in its presence, so not only the unbelieving, but the 
believing, though they cannot be where Christ is not, yet are 
not themselves with Christ by sight: by faith we cannot 
doubt but that a believer is with Christ. But here He is 
speaking of that sight wherein we shall see Him as He is; 
as He adds, That they may behold My glory, which Thou 
hast given 3fe. That they may behold, He says, not, that 
they may believe. It is the reward of faith which He speaks 
of, not faith itself. Chrvs. He saith not, that they may Chrys. 
partake of My glory, but, that they may behold, intimating i xxx ii. 
that the rest there is to see the Son of God. The Father 
gave Him glory, when He begat Him. Aug. When then we Aug. 
shall have seen the glory which the Father gave the Son, 3 / 
though by this glory we do not understand here, that which 
He gave to the equal Son when He begat Him, but that 
which He gave to the Son of man, after His crucifixion; 
then shall the judgment be, then shall the wicked be taken 
away, that he see not the glory of the Lord: what glory but 
that whereby He is God ? If then we take their words, 
That they may be with Me where I am, to be spoken by 
Him as Son of God, in that case they must have a higher 
meaning, viz. that we shall be in the Father with Christ. 
As He immediately adds, That they may see My glory which 
Thou hast given Me; and then, Which Thou gavest Me 
before the foundation of the world. For in Him He loved 
us before the foundation of the world, and then predestined 
what He should do at the end of the world. Bede. That 
which He calls glory then is the love wherewith He was 
loved with the Father before the foundation of the world. 
And in that glory He loved us too before the foundation of 
the world. Theophyl. After then that He had prayed for 
believers, and promised them so many good things, another *■ 
prayer follows worthy of His mercy and benignity: O 
righteous Father, the world hath not known Thee; as if to 
say, I would wish that all men obtained these good things, 
which I have asked for the believing. But inasmuch as they 
have not known Thee, they shall not obtain the glory and Chrys. 
crown. Chrys. He says this as if He were troubled at the ^ om .". 



known 



Tr. cxi. 



544 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. JOHN. CHAP. XVII. 

thought, that they should be unwilling to know One so just 
and good. And whereas the Jews had said, that they knew 
God, and He knew Him not: He on the contrary says, But 
I have known Thee, and these have known that Thou hast 
sent 3Ie, and I have declared unto them Thy name, and will 
» make declare* it, by giving them perfect knowledge through the 
Holy Ghost. When they have learned what Thou art, they 
will know that I am not separate from Thee, but Thine own 
Son greatly beloved, and joined to Thee. This I have told 
them, that I might receive them, and that they who believe 
this aright, shall preserve their faith and love toward Me 
entire ; and I will abide in them : That the love wherewith 
Aug. Thou hast loved Me may be in them, and I in them. Aug. 
Or thus; What is to know Him, but eternal life, which He 
gave not to a condemued but to a reconciled world? For 
this reason the world hath not known Thee; because Thou 
art just, and hast punished them with this ignorance of Thee, 
in reward for their misdeeds. And for this reason the 
reconciled world knows Thee, because Thou art merciful, 
and hast vouchsafed this knowledge, not in consequence of 
their merits, but of thy grace. It follows: But I have known 
Thee. He is God the fountain of grace by nature, man of 
the Holy Ghost and Virgin by grace ineffable. Then because 
the grace of God is through Jesus Christ, He says, And they 
have known Me, i. e. the reconciled world have known Me, 
by grace, forasmuch as Thou hast sent Me. And I have 
made known Thy name to them by faith, and will make it 
known by sight: that the love wherewith Thou hast loved 
1 Tim. Me may be in them. The Apostle uses a like phrase, I have 
fought a good fight, by a good fight being the more common 
form. The love wherewith the Father loveth the Son in us, 
can only be in us because we are His members, and we are 
loved in Him when He is loved wholly, i. e. both head and 
body. And therefore He adds, And I in them; He is in 
us, as in His temple, we in Him as our Head. 



4,7. 



CHAP. XVIII. 

1. When Jesus had spoken these words, he went 
forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where 
was a garden, into the which he entered, and his dis- 
ciples. 

2. And Judas also, which betrayed him, knew the 
place : for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with his 
disciples. 

Aug. The discourse, which our Lord had with His dis- Au S- .. 

. Tr. cxii. 
ciples after supper, and the prayer which followed, being 

now ended, the Evangelist begins the account of His Passion. 

When Jesus had spoken these words, He came forth with 

His disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, 

into which He entered, and His disciples. But this did not 

take place immediately after the prayer was ended ; there 

was an interval containing some things, which John omits, 

but which are mentioned by the other Evangelists. Aug. A Aug. 

contention took place between them, which of them was the E e v ?"" 

greater, as Luke relates. He also said to Peter, as Luke - 111 - 

adds in the same place, Behold, Satan hath desired to have Luke22, 

31 

you, that he might sift you as wheat, tyc. And according 
to Matthew and Mark, they sang a hymn, and then went to Mat.26, 
Mount Olivet. Matthew lastly brings the two narratives MarkH, 
together: Then went Jesus with His disciples to a place 26 - 
which is called Gethsemane. That is the place which John 
mentions here, Where there was a garden, into the which He 
entered, and His disciples. Aug. When Jesus had spoken Au K- .. 
these tcords, shews that He did not enter before He had 
finished speaking. Chrys. But why does not John say, Chrys. 
When He had prayed, He entered? Because His prayer^™'- 
was a speaking for His disciples' sake. It is now night time; 
He goes and crosses the brook, and hastens to the place 

2n 



54G GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVIII. 

which was known to the traitor; thus giving no trouble to 
those who were lying in wait for Him, and shewing His 
disciples that He went voluntarily to die. Alcuin. Over the 
brook Cedron, i. e. of cedars. It is the genitive in the Greek. 
He goes over the brook, i. e. drinks of the brook of His Pas- 
sion. Where there was a garden, that the sin which was 
committed in a garden, He might blot out in a garden. 
Horn!' P ara dise signifies garden of delights. Chrys. That it 
Ixxxii. might not be thought that He went into a garden to 
hide Himself, it is added, But Judas who betrayed 
Him knew the place : for Jesus often resorted thither with 
m?*ji His disciples. Aug. There the wolf in sheep's clothing, 
permitted by the deep counsel of the Master of the flock to 
go among the sheep, learned in what way to disperse the 
Chrys. flock, and ensnare the Shepherd. Chrys. Jesus had often 
lxxxiii. met and talked alone with His disciples there, on essential 
doctrines, such as it was lawful for others to hear. He does 
this on mountains, and in gardens, to be out of reach of 
noise and tumult. Judas however went there, because 
Christ had often passed the night there in the open air. He 
would have gone to His house, if he had thought he should 
find Him sleeping there. Theophyl. Judas knew that at 
the feast time our Lord was wont to teach His disciples high 
and mysterious doctrines, and that He taught in places like 
this. And as it was then a solemn season, he thought He 
would be found there, teaching His disciples things relating 
to the feast. 

3. Judas then, having received a band of men and 
officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh 
thither witli lanterns and torches and weapons. 

4. Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should 
come upon him, went forth, and said unto them, Whom 
seek ye ? 

5. They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus 
saith unto them, I am he. And Judas also, which 
betrayed him, stood with them. 

6. As soon then as he said unto them, I am he, 
they went backward, and fell to the ground. 



VER. 3 — 9. ST. JOHN. 547 

7. Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? 
And they said, Jesus of Nazareth. 

8. Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he : 
if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way : 

9. That the saying might be fulfilled, which he 
spake, Of them which thou gavest me have I lost 
none. 

Gloss. The Evangelist had shewn how Judas had found Nihil 
out the place where Christ was, now he relates how he went^ ein 
there. Judas then, having received a band of men and 
officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither 
with lanterns and torches and weapons. Aug. It was a Aug. 
band not of Jews, but of soldiers, granted, we must under- cxu * 
stand, by the Governor, with legal authority to take the 
criminal, as He was considered, and crush any opposition 
that might be made. Chrys. But how could they persuade Chrys. 
the band? By hiring them; for being soldiers, they were ]x °™i'j 
ready to do any thing for money. Theophyl. They cany 
torches and lanterns, to guard against Christ escaping in 
the dark. Chrys. They had often sent elsewhere to Chrys. 
take Him, but had not been able. Whence it is evident j!^™^. 
that He gave Himself up voluntarily ; as it follows, Jesus 
therefore, knowing all things that should come upon Him, 
went forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye? Theo- 
phyl. He asks not because He needed to know, for He 
knew all things that should come upon Him ; but because 
He wished to shew, that though present, they could not 
see or distinguish Him : Jesus saith unto them, I am He. 
Chrys. He Himself had blinded their eyes. For that dark- Chrys. 
ness was not the reason is clear, because the Evangelist , Hoin .'.. 
says that they had lanterns. Though they had not lan- 
terns, however, they should at least have recognised Him 
by His voice. And if they did not know Him, yet how 
was it that Judas, who had been with Him constantly also, 
did not know Him? And Judas also uhich betrayed Him 
stood with them. Jesus did all this to shew that they 
could not have taken Him, or even seen Him when He was 
in the midst of them, had He not permitted it. Aug. As Au 8« 

2 n 2 Tr - cxiiK 



548 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVIII. 

soon then as He said unto them, I am He, they went 
backward. Where now is the band of soldiers, where the 
terror and defence of arms ? Without a blow, one word struck, 
drove back, prostrated a crowd fierce with hatred, terrible 
with arras. For God was hid in the flesh, and the eternal day 
was so obscured by His human body, that He was sought 
for with lanterns and torches, to be slain in the darkness. 
What shall He do when He cometh to judge, Who did thus 
when He was going to be judged ? And now even at the 
present time Christ saith by the Gospel, / am He, and an 
Antichrist is expected by the Jews: to the end that they 
may go backward, and fall to the ground; because that 
Greg, forsaking heavenly, they desire earthly things. Greg. Why 
Hom. ix. i s tn ' s > lnat tne Llect fall °n their faces, the reprobate 
backward? Because every one who falls back, sees not 
where he falls, whereas he who falls forward, sees where he 
falls. The wicked when they suffer loss in invisible things, are 
said to fall backward, because they do not see what is behind 
them: but the righteous, who of their own accord cast 
themselves down in temporal things, in order that they may 
rise in spiritual, fall as it were upon their faces, when with 
fear and repentance they humble themselves with their eyes 
r 1 rys. open. Chrys. Lastly, lest any should say that He had 
lxxxii. encouraged the Jews to kill Him, in delivering Himself into 
their hands, He says every thing that is possible to reclaim 
them. But when they persisted in their malice, and shewed 
themselves inexcusable, then He gave Himself up into their 
hands: Then asked He them again, Whom seek ye? And. they 
said, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesns answered, I have told you 
Aug. that I am He. Aug. They had heard at the first, I am He, 
but had not understood it; because He who could do 
whatever He would, willed not that they should. But had 
He never permitted Himself to be taken by them, they 
would not have done indeed what they came to do ; but neither 
would He what He came to do. So now having shewn His 
power to them when they wished to take Him and could 
not, He lets them seize Him, that they might be unconscious 
agent> of His will; If ye seek Me, let these go their way. 
Chrys. Chrys. As if to say, Though ye seek Me, ye have nothing 
ixxTi'v. to do with these: lo, I give Myself up: thus even to the last 



VER. 10, 11. ST. JOHN. 549 

hour does He shew His love for His own. Aug. He com- Aug. 

mands His enemies, and they do what He commands; they 

permit them to go away, whom He would not have perish. 

Chrys. The Evangelist, to shew that it was not their design Chrys. 

to do this, but that His power did it, adds, That the saying^ ^ 

might be fulfilled which He spoke, Of them which Thou hast 

given Me, have I lost none. He had said this with reference 

not to temporal, but to eternal death: the Evangelist 

however understands the word of temporal death also. AuG.f u ?- .. 

Tr. cxii. 
But were the disciples never to die ? Why then would He 4. 

lose them, even if they died then? Because they did not yet 

believe in Him in a saving way. 

10. Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and 
smote the high priest's servant, and cut off his right 
ear. The servant's name was Malchus. 

11. Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword 
into the sheath : the cup which my Father hath given 
me, shall I not drink it? 

Chrys. Peter trusting to these last words of our Lord's, Chrys. 
and to what He had just done, assaults those who came to lx °^jj'; # 
take Him: Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and 
smote the high priest's servant. But how, commanded as 
he had been to have neither scrip, nor two garments, had he 
a sword? Perhaps he had foreseen this occasion, and pro- 
vided one. Theophyl. Or, he had got one for sacrificing 
the lamb, and carried it away with him from the Supper. 
Chrys. But how could he, who had been forbidden ever to Chrys. 
strike on the cheek, be a murderer? Because what he had lxxxiii. 
been forbidden to do was to avenge himself, but here he was 2, 
not avenging himself, but his Master. They were not how- 
ever yet perfect: afterwards ye shall see Peter beaten with 
stripes, and bearing it humbly. And cut off his right ear: 
this seems to shew the impetuosity of the Apostle; that he 
struck at the head itself. Aug. The servant's name was Aug. 
Malchus; John is the only Evangelist who mentions the r,cxn ' 
servant's name; as Luke is the only one who mentions that 
our Lord touched the ear and healed him. Chrys. HeS 11 "? 9 - 

Horn, 
lxxxiii. 



550 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVIII. 

wrought this miracle both to teach us, that we ought to do 
good to those who suffer, and to manifest His power. The 
Evangelist gives the name, that those who then read it might 
have the opportunity of enquiring into the truth of the ac- 
count. And he mentions that he was the servant of the high 
priest, because in addition to the miracle of the cure itself, 
this shews that it was performed upon one of those who came 
to take Him, and who shortly after struck Him on the face. 
Aug. Aug. The name Malchus signifies, about to reign. What then 
5. ' 'does the ear cut off for our Lord, and healed by our Lord, 
denote, but the abolition of the old, and the creating of a new, 
•auditum hearing ' in the newness of the Spirit, and not in the oldness 
of the letter ? To whomsoever this is given, who can doubt that 
he will reign with Christ ? But he was a servant too, hath 
reference to that oldness, which generated to bondage: the 
cure figures liberty. Theophyl. Or, the cutting off of the 
high priest's servant's right ear is a type of the people's deaf- 
ness, of which the chief priests partook most strongly: the 
restoration of the ear, of ultimate reenlightenment of the under- 
Aug. standing of the Jews, at the coming of Elias. Aug. Our 
r-txn 'Lord condemned Peter's act, and forbad him proceeding fur- 
ther: Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the 
sheath. He was to be admonished to have patience: and 
Chrys. this was written for our learning. Chrys. He not only re- 
Hom. strained Him however bv threats, but consoled him also at 
2. the same time: The cup that My Father giveth Me, shall I 

not drink it? Whereby He shews that it was not by their 
power, but by His permission, that this had been done, and 
that He did not oppose God, but was obedient even unto 
death. Theophyl. In that He calls it a cup, He shews how 
pleasing and acceptable death for the salvation of men was 
Aug. t0 Hi m - Aug. The cup being given Him by the Father, is 
Tr.cxii. t h € same with what the Apostle saith, Who spared not His 
32. ' own Son, but delivered Him up for us all. But the Giver of 
this cup and the Drinker of it are the same; as the same 
Eph. 5, Apostle saith, Christ loved us, and gave Himself for us. 



2 



12. Then the band and the captain and officers of 
the Jews took Jesus, and bound him, 

13. And led him away to Annas first; for he was 



VER. 12 — 14. ST. JOHN. 551 

father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest 
that same year. 

14. Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the 
Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die 
for the people. 

Theophyl. Every thing having been done that could be 
to dissuade the Jews, and they refusing to take warning, 
He suffered Himself to be delivered into their hands: Then 
the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus. 
Aug. They took Him Whom they did not draw nigh to; nor Aug. 
understood that which is written in the Psalms, Draw nigh F T s ' c ^ u 
unto Him, and be ye lightened. For had they thus drawn 5 - 
nigh to Him, they would have taken Him, not to kill Him, a d eum, 
but to be in their hearts. But now that they take Him in Vul &- 
the way they do, they go backward. It follows, and bound 
Him, Him by Whom they ought to have wished to be loosed. 
And perhaps there were among them some who, afterwards 
delivered by Him, exclaimed, Thou hast broken My chains?*. 116. 
asunder. But after that they had bound Jesus, it then ap- 
pears most clearly that Judas had betrayed Him not for a 
good, but a most wicked purpose: And led Him away to 
Annas first. Chrys. In exultation, to shew what they had Chrys. 
done, as if they were raising a trophy. Aug. Why they did i X x™iii. 
so, he tells us immediately after: For he was father in law to 2 - 
Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year. Matthew, Tr.cxiii. 
in order to shorten the narrative, says that He was led to 
Caiaphas; because He was led to Annas first, as being the 
father in law of Caiaphas. So that we must understand that 
Annas wished to act Caiaphas's part. Bede. In order that, 
while our Lord was condemned by his colleague, he might 
not be guiltless, though his crime was less. Or perhaps 
his house lay in the way, and they were obliged to pass by 
it. Or it was the design of Providence, that they who were 
allied in blood, should be associated in guilt. That Caiaphas 
however was high priest for that year sounds contrary to the 
law, which ordained that there be only one high priest, and 
made the office hereditary. But the pontificate had now 
been abandoned to ambitious men. Alcuin. Josephus re- 



552 GOSPER ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVIII. 

lates that this Caiaphas bought the high priesthood for this 
year. No wonder then if a wicked high priest judged wick- 
edly. A man who was advanced to the priesthood by avarice, 
Chrys. would keep himself there by injustice. Chrys. That no 
Uxxiii one nowever might be disturbed at the sound of the chains, 
the Evangelist reminds them of the prophecy that His death 
would be the salvation of the world: Now Caiaphas was he 
which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that 
one man should die for the })eople. Such is the overpowering 
force of truth, that even its enemies echo it. 

15. And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did 
another disciple: that disciple was known unto the 
high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of 
the high priest. 

16. But Peter stood at the door without. Then 
went out that other disciple, which was known unto 
the high priest, and spake unto her that kept the 
door, and brought in Peter. 

1 7. Then saith the damsel that kept the door unto 
Peter, Art not thou also one of this man's disciples ? 
He saith, I am not. 

18. And the servants and officers stood there, who 
had made a fire of coals; for it was cold: and they 
warmed themselves: and Peter stood with them, and 
warmed himself. 

Aug. Aug. The temptation of Peter, which took place in the 

Evang. midst of the contumelies offered to our Lord, is not placed 
ii. vi. by . d \\ m t h e same order. Matthew and Mark put the con- 
tumelies first, the temptation of Peter afterwards; Luke the 
temptation first, the contumelies after. John begins with the 
temptation : And Si?no?i Peter followed Jesus, and so did 
another disciple. Alcuin. He followed his Master out of 
Aug. devotion, though afar off, on account of fear. Aug. Who 
'that other disciple was we cannot hastily decide, as his 
name is not told us. John however is wont to signify himself 
by this expression, with the addition of, whom Jesus loved. 



VER. 16 — 18. ST. JOHN. 553 

Perhaps therefore he is the one. Chrys. He omits his 
own name out of humility: though he is relating an act of 
great virtue, how that he followed when the rest fled. He 
puts Peter before himself, and then mentions himself, in order 
to shew that he was inside the hall, and therefore related 
what took place there with more certainty than the other 
Evangelists could. That disciple was known unto the high 
priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high 
priest. This he mentions not as a boast, but in order to dimi- 
nish his own merit, in having been the only one who entered 
with Jesus. It is accounting for the act in another way, than 
merely by greatness of mind. Peter's love took him as far as the 
palace, but his fear prevented him entering in: But Peter 
stood at the door without. Alcuin. He stood without, as 
being about to deny his Lord. He was not in Christ, who 
dared not confess Christ. Chrys. But that Peter would Chrys. 
have entered the palace, if he had been permitted, appears^^j 
by what immediately follows: Then went out that other dis- 
ciple who was known to the high priest, and spake unto her 
who kept the doors, and brought in Peter. He did not bring 
him in himself, because he kept near Christ. It follows: 
Then saith the damsel that kept the door unto Peter, Art 
not thou also one of this Mail's disciples? He saith, I am 
not. What sayest thou, O Peter? Didst thou not say 
before, / will lay down my life for thy sake f What then Mat. 26, 
had happened, that thou givest way even when the damsel 
asks thee ? It was not a soldier who asked thee, but a mean 
porteress. Nor said she, Art thou this Deceiver's disciple, but, 
this Mail's: an expression of pity. Art not thou also, she 
says, because John was inside. Aug. But what wonder, if £ u &\. 
God foretold truly, man presumed falsely. Respecting this 
denial of Peter we should remark, that Christ is not only 
denied by him, who denies that He is Christ, but by him 
also who denies himself to be a Christian. For the Lord 
did not say to Peter, Thou shalt deny that thou art My dis- 
ciple, but, Thou shalt deny Me. He denied Him then, when ^ e23 > 
he denied that he was His disciple. And what was this but 
to deny that he was a Christian? How many afterwards, 
even boys and girls, were able to despise death, confess 
Christ, and enter courageously into the kingdom of heaven ; 



554 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVI 11. 

which he who received the keys of the kingdom, was now 
unable to do ? Wherein we see the reason for His saying 
above, Let these go their way, for of those which Thou hast 
given Me, have I lost none. If Peter had gone out of this 
world immediately after denying Christ, He must have been 
Chrys. lost. Chrys. Therefore did Divine Providence permit Peter 
Petroet first to fall, in order that he might be less severe to sinners 
Elia. from the remembrance of his own fall. Peter, the teacher 
and master of the whole world, sinned, and obtained pardon, 
that judges might thereafter have that rule to go by in dis- 
pensing pardon. For this reason I suppose the priesthood 
was not given to Angels ; because, being without sin them- 
selves, they would punish sinners without pity. Passible 
man is placed over man, in order that remembering his own 
weakness, he may be merciful to others. Theophyl. Some 
however foolishly favour Peter, so far as to say that he 
denied Christ, because he did not wish to be away from 
Christ, and he knew, they say, that if he confessed that he 
was one of Christ's disciples, he would be separated from 
Him, and would no longer have the liberty of following and 
seeing his beloved Lord ; and therefore pretended to be one 
of the servants, that his sad countenance might not be per- 
ceived, and so exclude him : And the servants and officers 
stood there, who had made afire of coals, and warmed them- 
selves ; and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself. 
Aug. Aug. It was not winter, and yet it was cold, as it often is at 
Tr.cxm. tm3 V ernal equinox. Greg. The fire of love was smothered 
ii. Mor. in Peter's breast, and he was warming himself before the 
°* u ' coals of the persecutors, i. e. with the love of this present 
life, whereby his weakness was increased. 



19. The high priest then asked Jesus of his disci- 
ples, and of his doctrine. 

20. Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the 
world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the 
temple, whither the Jews always resort ; and in secret 
have I said nothing. 

21. Why askest thou me? ask them which heard 



VER. 19 — 21. ST. JOHN. 555 

me, what I have said unto them : behold, they know 
what I said. 

Chrys. As they could bring no charge against Christ, Chrys. 
they asked Him of His disciples: The high priest then lxxxiii. 
asked Jesus of His disciples ; perhaps where they were, and 3 * 
on what account He had collected them, he wished to prove 
that he was a seditious and factious person whom no one 
attended to, except His own disciples. Theophyl. He asks 
Him moreover of His doctrine, what it was, whether opposed 
to Moses and the law, that he might take occasion thereby 
to put Him to death as an enemy of God. Alcdin. He 
does not ask in order to know the truth, but to find out 
some charge against Him, on which to deliver Him to the 
Roman Governor to be condemned. But our Lord so tem- 
pers His answer, as neither to conceal the truth, nor yet to 
appear to defend Himself: Jesus answered him, I spake 
openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in 
the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret 
have I said nothing. Aug. There is a difficulty here not to Aug. 
be passed over: if He did not speak openly even to His 
disciples, but only promised that He would do so at some 
time, how was it that He spoke openly to the world ? He 
spoke more openly to His disciples afterwards, when they 
had withdrawn from the crowd ; for He then explained His 
parables, the meaning of which He concealed from the others. 
When He says then, / spake openly to the world, 
He must be understood to mean, within the hearing 
of many. So in one sense He spoke openly, i. e. in that 
many heard Him ; in another sense not openly, i. e. in that 
they did not understand Him. His speaking apart with His 
disciples was not speaking in secret; for how could He speak 
in secret before the multitude, especially when that small 
number of His disciples were to make known what He said 
to a much larger? Theophyl. He refers here to the prophecy 
of Esaias; / have not spoken in secret, in a dark place o/*isa. 45, 
the earth. Chrys. Or, He spoke in secret, but not, as these chVva 
thought, from fear, or to excite sedition ; but only when Hom ;„ 
what He said was above the understanding of the many. To 
establish the matter, however, upon superabundant evidence, 



556 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVIII. 

He adds, Why askest thou Me? ask them which heard Me 
what I said unto them ; behold, they know what I said unto 
them : as if He said, Thou askest Me of My disciples ; ask 
My enemies, who lie in wait for Me. These are the words 
of one who was confident of the truth of what He said : for 
it is incontrovertible evidence, when enemies are called in 
Aug. as witnesses. Aug. For what they had heard and not under- 
jF r,cxm ' stood, was not of such a kind, as that they could justly turn 
it against Him. And as often as they tried by questioning 
to find out some charge against Him, He so replied as to 
blunt all their stratagems, and refute their calumnies. 

22. And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers 
which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, 
saying, Answerest thou the high priest so? 

23. Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, 
bear witness of the evil : but if well, why smitest thou 
me ? 

24. Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas 
the high priest. 

Theophvl. When Jesus had appealed to the testimony 
of the people by, an officer, wishing to clear himself, and shew 
that he was not one of those who admired our Lord, struck 
Him: And when He had thus spoken, one of the officers 
which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, 
Aug. raying, Answerest Thou the high priest so ? Aug. This 
de Con. snews that Annas was the high priest, for this was before He 
Hi. vi. was sent to Caiaphas. And Luke in the beginning of his 
Gospel says, that Annas and Caiaphas were both high 
priests. Alcuin. Here is fulfilled the prophecy, I gate my 
cheek to the smiters. Jesus, though struck unjustly, replied 
gently: Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear 
witness of the evil: but if well, uhy smitest thou Me f 
Theophyl. As if to say, If thou hast any fault to find with 
what I have said, shew it; if thou hast not, why iagest thou? 
Or thus: If I taught any thing unadvisedly, when I taught 
in the synagogues, give proof of it to the high priest; but if 
I taught aright, so that even ye officers admired, why smitest 



ver. -22 — 24. sr. JOHN. 557 

thou Me, Whom before thou admiredst ? Aug. What can be Aug. 
truer, gentler, kinder, than this answer ? He Who received 
the blow on the face neither wished for him who struck it that 
fire from heaven should consume him, or the earth open its 
mouth and swallow him ; or a devil seize him ; or any other yet 
more horrible kind of punishment. Yet had not He, by Whom 
the world was made, power to cause any one of these things to 
take place, but that He preferred teaching us that patience by 
which the world is overcome? Some one will ask here, why 
He did not do what He Himself commanded, i. e. not make 
this answer, but give the other cheek to the smiter? But 
what if He did both, both answered gently, and gave, not 
His check only to the smiter, but His whole body to be 
nailed to the Cross ? And herein He shews, that those pre- 
cepts of patience are to be performed not by posture of the 
body, but by preparation of the heart: for it is possible that 
a man might give his cheek outwardly, and yet be angry at 
the same time. How much better is it to answer truly, yet 
gently, and be ready to bear even harder usage patiently. 
Chkys. What should they do then but either disprove, orchrys. 
admit, what He said? Yet this they do not do: it is not a*^JV.. 
trial they are carrying on, but a faction, a tyranny. Not 
knowing what to do further, they send Him to Caiaphas: 
Now Annas sent Him bound to Caiaphas the high priest. 
Theofhyl. Thinking that as he was more cunning, he might 
find out something against Him worthy of death. Aug. He Aug. 
was the one to whom they were taking Him from the first, as r,cxln 
Matthew says; he being the high priest of this year. We 
must understand that the pontificate was taken between them 
year by year alternately, and that it was by Caiaphas's con- 
sent that they led Him first to Annas ; or that their houses 
were so situated, that they could not but pass straight by that 
of Annas. Bede. Sent Him bound, not that He was bound 
now for the first time, for they bound Him when they took 
Him. They sent Him bound as they had brought Him. 
Or perhaps He may have been loosed from His bonds for 
that hour, in order to be examined, after which He was 
bound again, and sent to Caiaphas. 



558 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVIII. 

25. And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. 
They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one 
of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not. 

26. One of the servants of the high priest, being 
his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not 
I see thee in the garden with him? 

27. Peter then denied again: and immediately the 
cock crew. 

Aug. Aug. After the Evangelist has said that they sent Jesus 

1 'bound from Annas to Caiaphas, he returns to Peter and his 

three denials, which took place in the house of Annas: And 

Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. He repeats what 

Chrys. he had said before. Chrys. Or, He means that the once 

lxxxiii. f ervr id disciple was now too torpid, to move even when our 

Lord was carried away: shewing thereby how weak man's 

nature is, when God forsakes him. Asked again, he again 

denies: They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one 

Aug. of His disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not. Aug. 

Evang. Here we find Peter not at the gate, but at the fire, when he 

iii. 6. denies the second time: so that he must have returned after 

he had gone out of doors, where Matthew says he was. He 

did not go out, and another damsel see him on the outside, 

but another damsel saw him as he was rising to go out, and 

remarked him, and told those who were by, i. e. those who 

were standing with her at the fire inside the hall, This fellow 

Matt, also was with Jesus of Nazareth. He heard this outside, 

72 ' ' and returned, and swore, / do not know the man. Then 

John continues: They said therefore unto him, Art not thou 

also one of His disciples? which words we suppose to have 

been said to him when he had come back, and was standing at 

the fire. And this explanation is confirmed by the fact, that 

besides the other damsel mentioned by Matthew and Mark 

in the second denial, there was another person, mentioned 

by Luke, who also questioned him. So John uses the 

plural: They said therefore unto him. And then follows 

the third denial: One of the servants of the high priest , 

being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not 

I see thee in the garden with Him ? That Matthew and 



ver. 28—32. st. john. 559 

Mark speak of the party who here question Peter in the 
plural number, whereas Luke mentions only one, and John 
also, adding that that one was the kinsman of him whose 
ear Peter cut off, is easily explained by supposing that 
Matthew and Mark used the plural number by a common 
form of speech for the singular; or that one who had observed 
him most strictly put the question first, and others followed 
it up, and pressed Peter with more. Chrys. But neither Chrys. 
did the garden bring back to his memory what he had then [ xxx [ij. 
said, and the great professions of love he had made: Peters- 
then denied again, and immediately the cock crew. Aug. Aug. 
Lo, the prophecy of the Physician is fulfilled, the presumption 
of the sick man demonstrated. That which Peter had said 
he would do, he had not done. / will lay down my life for 
Thy sake; but what our Lord had foretold had come to pass, 
Thou shalt deny Me thrice. Chrys. The Evangelists have Luke22, 
all given the same account of the denials of Peter, not with chrys. 
any intention of throwing blame upon him, but to teach us Hom ;.. 
how hurtful it is to trust in self, and not ascribe all to God. 3. 
Bede. Mystically, by the first denial of Peter are denoted 
those who before our Lord's Passion denied that He was 
God, by the second, those who did so after His resurrection. 
So by the first crowing of the cock His resurrection is signified; 
by the second, the general resurrection at the end of the 
world. By the first damsel, who obliged Peter to deny, is 
denoted lust, by the second, carnal delight: by one or more 
servants, the devils who persuade men to deny Christ. 



28. Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the 
hall of judgment: and it was early; and they them- 
selves went not into the judgment hall, lest they 
should be defiled; but that they might eat the Pass- 
over. 

29. Pilate then went out unto them, and said, What 
accusation bring ye against this man? 

30. They answered and said unto him, If he were 
not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up 
unto thee. 



560 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVIII. 

31. Then said Pilate unto them, Take ye him, and 
judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore 
said unto him, It is not lawful for us to put any man 
to death. 

32. That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, 
which he spake, signifying what death he should die. 

Aug. Aug. The Evangelist returns to the part where he had 

r,c " v 'left off, in order to relate Peter's denial: Then led they Jesus 

a Caia- to Caiaphas unto the hull of judgment: to Caiaphas from 

\v\s. his colleague and father in law Annas, as has been said. But 

if to Caiaphas, how to the preetorium, which was the place 

where the governor Pilate resided ? Bede. The praetorium 

is the place where the praetor sat. Praetors were called 

Aug. prefects and preceptors, because they issue decrees. Aug. 

1V ' Either then for some urgent reason Caiaphas proceeded from 

the house of Annas, where both had been sitting, to the 

praetorium of the governor, and left Jesus to the hearing of 

his father in law: or Pilate had established the praetorium in 

the house of Caiaphas, which was large enough to afford a 

separate lodging to its owner, and the governor at the same 

Aug. time. Aug. According to Matthew, When the morning 

Evanel came, they led Him away, and delivered Him to Pontius 

1. iiu c Pilate. But He was to have been led to Caiaphas at first. 

Mat.27 How is it then that He was brought to him so late ? The 

*• 2 - truth is, now He was going as it were a committed criminal, 

Caiaphas having already determined on His death. And He 

was to be given up to Pilate immediately. 

Chrys. 4*& ** was arly. Chrys. He was led to Caiaphas before 

Horn. t h e C ock crew, but early in the morning to Pilate. Whereby 

" the Evangelist shews, that all that night of examination, ended 

in proving nothing against Him ; and that He was sent to 

Pilate in consequence. But leaving what passed then to 

Aug. the other Evangelists, he goes to what followed. Aug. And 

"• XIV * they themselves entered not into the judgment hall: i. e. into 

that part of the house which Pilate occupied, supposing it to 

be the house of Caiaphas. Why they did not enter is next 

Ch explained: Lest they should he dejiled, but that they might 

Horn, eat the Passover. Chrys. For the Jews were then celebrating 

Ixxxiii. 



VER. 28 — 3-2. ST. JOHN. 661 

the passover; He Himself celebrated it one day before, 
reserving His own death for the sixth day ; on which day 
the old passover was kept. Or, perhaps, the passover means 
the whole season. Aug. The days of unleavened bread Aug. 
were beginning; during which time it was defilement to 
enter the house of a stranger. Alcuin. The passover was 
strictly the fourteenth day of the month, the day on which 
the lamb was killed in the evening: the seven days following 
were called the days of unleavened bread, in which nothing 
leavened ought to be found in their houses. Yet we find 
the day of the passover reckoned among the days of un- 
leavened bread : Now the first day of the feast of unleavened'M-a,t.26, 
bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying unto Him, Where 
wilt Thou that we prepare for Thee to eat the passover? And 
here also in like manner: That they might eat the passover; 
the passover here signifying not the sacrifice of the lamb, 
which took place the fourteenth day at evening, but the great 
festival which was celebrated on the fifteenth day, after the 
sacrifice of the lamb. Our Lord, like the rest of the Jews, 
kept the passover on the fourteenth day: on the fifteenth 
day, when the great festival was held, He was crucified. 
His immolation however began on the fourteenth day, from 
the time that He was taken in the garden. Aug. O impious Aug. 
blindness! They feared to be defiled by the judgment hall Tr - cxiv ' 
of a foreign prefect, to shed the blood of an innocent brother 
they feared not. For that He Whom they killed was the 
Lord and Giver of life, their blindness saved them from know- 
ing. Theopiiyl. Pilate however proceeds in a more gentle 
way: Pilate then went out unto them. Bede. It was the 
custom of the Jews when they condemned any one to death, 
to notify it to the governor, by delivering the man bound- 
Chrys. Pilate however seeing Him bound, and such numbers Chrys. 
conducting Him, supposed that they had not unquestion- JJjJk 
able evidence against Him, so proceeds to ask the question: 4. 
And said, What accusation bring ye against this Man? 
For it was absurd, he said, to take the trial out of his hands, 
and yet give him the punishment. They in reply bring 
forward no positive charge but only their own conjec- 
tures: They answered and said unto him, If He were not a 
male/actor, we would not have delivered Him up unto thee. 

2 o 



."»(>•-> GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVIII. 

Aug. Acg. Ask the freed from unclean spirits, the blind who saw, 

r,cxiv ' the dead who came to life again, and, what is greater than 

all, the fools who were made wise, and let them answer, 

whether Jesus was a malefactor. But they spoke, of whom 

Ps. 39. He had Himself prophesied in the Psalms, They rewarded 

Aug. Me evil for good. Aug. But is not this account contradic- 

Evans:. toiy to Luke's, who mentions certain positive charges: And 

iii. viii. tf ie y began to accuse Him, saying, We found this fellow per- 

2. 'verting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Ccesar, 

saying that He Himself is Christ a King. According to John, 

the Jews seem to have been unwilling to bring actual charges, 

in order that Pilate might condemn Him simply on their 

authority, asking no questions, but taking it for granted 

that if He was delivered up to him, He was certainly guilty. 

Both accounts are however compatible. Each Evangelist 

only inserts what he thinks sufficient. And John's account 

implies that some charges had been made, when it comes 

to Pilate's answer : Then said Pilate unto them, Take ye Him, 

and Judge Him according to your law. Theophyl. As if to 

say, Since you will only have such a trial as will suit you, 

and are proud, as if you never did any thing profane, take 

ye Him, and condemn Him; 1 will not be made a judge for 

such a purpose. Alcuin. Or as if he said, Ye who have 

the law, know what the law judgeth concerning such : do 

what ye know to be just. 

The Jews therefore said unto him, It is not lawful for us 

Aug. to put any man to death, Aug. But did not the law com- 

4 r* c3 iv. man( j not t0 S p are malefactors, especially deceivers such as 

they thought Him ? We must understand them however to 

mean, that the holiness of the day which they were beginning 

to celebrate, made it unlawful to put any man to death. 

Have ye then so lost your understanding by your wickedness, 

that ye think yourselves free from the pollution of innocent 

Chrys. blood, because ye deliver it to be shed by another ? Chrys. 

lxxxiii. Or, they were not allowed by the Roman law to put Him to 

4 - death themselves. Or,Pilate having said, Judge Him according 

to your law, they reply, It is not lawful for us: His sin is 

not a Jewish one, He hath not sinned according to our law: 

His offence is political, He calls Himself a King. Or they 

wished to have Him crucified, to add infamy to death: they 



VEIL 33—38. ST. JOHN. 5C3 

not being allowed to put to death in this way themselves. 
They put to death in another way, as we see in the stoning 
of Stephen: That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, 
which He spake, signifying what death He should die. 
Which was fulfilled in that He was crucified, or in that He 
was put to death by Gentiles as well as Jews. Aug. As we A"*^ 
read in Mark, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and theu^k 
Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief priests, and™ > 3 *- 
unto the scribes; and they shall condemn Him to death, and 
shall deliver Him to the Gentiles. Pilate again was a Roman, 
and was sent to the government of Judaea, from Rome. That 
this saying of Jesus then might be fulfilled, i. e. that He 
might be delivered unto and killed by the Gentiles, they would 
not accept Pilate's offer, but said, It is not lawful for us to 
put any man to death. 

33. Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall 
again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou 
the King of the Jews? 

34. Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of 
thyself, or did others tell it thee of me ? 

35. Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation 
and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me: 
what hast thou done ? 

36. Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world : 
if my kingdom were of this world, then would my ser- 
vants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews : 
but now is my kingdom not from hence. 

37. Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king 
then ? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. 
To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into 
the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. 
Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice. 

38. Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? 

Chhys. Pilate, wishing to rescue Him from the hatred of the Chrys. 
Jews, protracted 1 the trial a long time: Then Pilate entered?™:.. 

9 O 2 i'non al. 



564 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XVIII- 

into the judgment hall, and called Jesus. Theophyl. i. e. 

Apart, because he had a strong suspicion that He was innocent, 

and thought he could examine Him more accurately, away 

from the crowd: and said unto Him, Art Thou the King of 

the Jews? Alcuin. Wherein Pilate shews that the Jews had 

Chrys. charged Him with calling Himself King of the Jews. Chrys. 

lxxxiii. Or Pilate had heard this by report; and as the Jews had no 

4 ' charge to bring forward, began to examine Him himself with 

respect to the things commonly reported of Him. 

Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or 
did others tell it thee of Me? Theophyl. He intimates here 
that Pilate was judging blindly and indiscreetly: If thou 
sayest this thing of thyself, He says, bring forward proofs of 
My rebellion; if thou hast heard it from others, make regular 
Aug. enquiry into it. Aug. Our Lord knew indeed both what He 
v ' Himself asked, and what Pilate would answer; but He wished 
Chrys. jt t b e written down for our sakes. Chrys. He asks not in 
lxxxiii. ignorance, but in order to draw from Pilate himself an accu- 
sation against the Jews : Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine 
own nation and the chief priests have delivered Thee unto 
Aug. me. Aug. He rejects the imputation that He could have 
' said it of Himself; Thine own nation and the chief priests 
have delivered Thee unto me: adding, what hast Thou done? 
Whereby he shews that this charge had been brought against 
Him, for it is as much as to say, If Thou deniest that Thou 
art a King, what hast Thou done to be delivered up to me? 
As if it were no wonder that He should be delivered up, if 
Chrys. He called Himself a King. Chrys. He then tries to bring 
lxxxiii. round the mind of Pilate, not a very bad man, by proving to 
him, that He is not a mere man, but God, and the Son of 
God; and overthrowing all suspicion of His having aimed 
at a tyranny, which Pilate was afraid of, Jesus answered, My 
Aug. kingdom is not of this world. Aug. This is what the good 
Tr - cxv Master wished to teach us. But first it was necessary to 
shew the falsity of the notions of both Jews and Gentiles as 
to His kingdom, which Pilate had heard of; as if it meant 
that He aimed at unlawful power; a crime punishable with 
death, and this kingdom were a subject of jealousy to the 
ruling power, and to be guarded against as likely to be hos- 
tile either to the Romans or Jews. Now if our Lord had 



ver. 33 — 38. st. john. 365 

answered immediately Pilate's question, He would have seemed 
to have been answering not the Jews, but the Gentiles only. 
But after Pilate's answer, what He says is an answer to both 
Gentiles and Jews : as if He said, Men, i. e. Jews and Gentiles, 
I hinder not your dominion in this world. What more would 
ye have? Come by faith to the kingdom which is not of this 
world. For what is His kingdom, but they that believe in 
Him, of whom He saith, Ye are not of the world: although He 
wished that they should be in the world. In the same way, 
here He does not say, My kingdom is not in this world; but, 
is not of this world. Of the world are all men, who created 
by God are born of the corrupt race of Adam. All that are 
born again in Christ, are made a kingdom not of this world. 
Thus hath God taken us out of the power of darkness, and 
translated us to the kingdom of His dear Son. Chrys. Or Chrys. 
He means that He does not derive His kingdom from tlie lxxxiii. 
same source that earthly kings do; but that He hath His 
sovereignty from above; inasmuch as He is not mere man, 
but far greater and more glorious than man: If My kingdom 
were of this world, then would My servants fight, that I 
should not be delivered to the Jews. Here He shews the 
weakness of an earthly kingdom, that it has its strength from its 
servants, whereas that higher kingdom is sufficient to itself, 
and wanting in nothing. And if His kingdom was thus the 
greater of the two, it follows that He was taken of His own 
will, and delivered up Himself. Aug. After shewing that Aug. 
His kingdom was not of this world, He adds, But now 3Iy xx ' 
kingdom is not from hence. He does not say, Not here, for 
His kingdom is here unto the end of the world, having within 
it the tares mixed with the wheat until the harvest. But yet 
it is not from hence, since it is a stranger in the world. The- 
ophyl. Or He says, from hence, not, here ; because He reigns 
in the world, and carries on the government of it, and dis- 
poses all things according to His will ; but His kingdom is not 
from below, but from above, and before all ages. Chrys. Chrys. 
Heretics infer from these words that our Lord is a different ^°™'- 
person from the Creator of the world. But when He says, ixxi- 
My kingdom is not from hence, He does not deprive the world v v n 
of His government and superintendence, but only shews that 
His government is not human and corruptible. Pilate there- 



500* GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XV11I. 

fore said unto Him, Art Thou a King then? Jesus answered, 
A u 8' Thou sayest that I am a King. Aug. He did not fear to 
confess Himself a King, but so replied as neither to deny 
that He was, nor yet to confess Himself a King in such sense 
as that His kingdom should be supposed to be of this world. 
He says, Thou sayest, meaning, Thou being carnal sayest it 
carnally. He continues, To this end was I born, and for this 
cause came I into the world, that 1 should bear witness to the 
truth. The pronoun here, in hoc, must not be dwelt long on, 
inh&creas if it meant, in hdc re, but shortened, as if it stood, ad hoc 
natus sum, as the next words are, ad hoc veni in mundum. 
Wherein it is evident He alludes to His birth in the flesh, 
not to that divine birth which never had beginning. The- 
ophyl. Or, to Pilate's question whether He was a King, 
our Lord answers, To this end was I born, i. e. to be a King. 
That I am born from a King, proves that I am a King. 
Chrys. Chrys. If then He was a King by birth, He hath nothing 
Uxxi'ii. which He hath not received from another. For this I came, 
4 - that I should bear witness to the truth, i. e. that I should 
make all men believe it. We must observe how He shews 
His humility here: when they accused Him as a malefactor, 
He bore it in silence; but when He is asked of His kingdom, 
then He talks with Pilate, instructs him, and raises his mind 
to higher things. That I should bear witness to the truth, 
Aug. shews that He had no crafty purpose in what He did. Aug. 
lrcxv, But when Christ bears witness to the truth, He bears witness 
c. 14, 6. to Himself; as He said above, I am the truth. But inas- 
much as all men have not faith, He adds, Every one that is 
of the truth heareth 3Iy voice: heareth, that is, with the 
inward ear; obeys My voice, believes Me. Every one that is 
of the truth, hath reference to the grace by which He calleth 
according to His purpose. For as regards the nature in which 
we are created, since the truth created all, all are of the truth. 
But it is not all to whom it is given by the truth to obey the 
truth. For had He even said, Every one that heareth My voice 
is of the truth, it still would be thought that such were of the 
truth, because they obeyed the truth. But He does not say 
this, but, Every one that is of the truth heareth My voice, A 
man then is not of the truth, because he hears His voice, but 
hears His voice because he is of the truth. This grace is 



VER. 38—40. ST. JOHN. 567 

conferred upon him by the truth. Chrys. These words Chrys. 
have an effect upon Pilate, persuade him to become a hearer, ] x °™j' i# 
and elicit from him the short enquiry, What is truth ? Pilate 
said unto Him, What is truth? Theophyl. For it had almost 
vanished from the world, and become unknown in conse- 
quence of the general unbelief. 

38. And when he had said this, he went out again 
unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no 
fault at all. 

39. But ye have a custom, that I should release 
unto you one at the passover : will ye therefore that I 
release unto you the King of the Jews ? 

40. Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, 
but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber. 

Aug. After Pilate had asked, What is truth? he remem- Aug. 
bered a custom of the Jews, of releasing one prisoner at the Tr ' cxv ' 
passover, and did not wait for Christ's answer, for fear of 
losing this chance of saving Him, which he much wished to 
do: And when he had said this, he went out again unto the 
Jews. Chrys. He knew that this question required time to Chrys. 
answer, and it was necessary immediately to rescue Him from j^^'j- 
the fury of the Jews. So he went out. Alcuin. Or, he did 
not wait to hear the reply, because he was unworthy to hear 
it. 

And saith unto them, I find no fault in Him. Chrys. Chrys. 
He did not say, He has sinned and is worthy of death ; yetj Hom '-. 
release Him at the feast; but acquitting Him in the first place, 
he does more than he need do, and asks it as a favour, that, 
if they are unwilling to let Him go as innocent, they will at 
any rate allow Him the benefit of the season : But ye have 
a custom, that I should release one unto you at the passover. 
Bede. This custom was not commanded in the law, but 
had been handed down by tradition from the old fathers, viz. 
that in remembrance of their deliverance out of Egypt, they 
should release a prisoner at the passover. Pilate tries to 
persuade them : Will ye therefore that I release unto you 
the King of the Jews. Aug. He could not dismiss the idea Aug. 

Tr. cxv. 



568 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. JOHN. CHAP. XVIII. 

from his mind, that Jesus was King of the Jews; as if the 
Truth itself, whom he had just asked what it was, had in- 
scribed it there as a title. Theophyl. Pilate is judicious in 
replying that Jesus had done nothing wrong, and that there 
was no reason to suspect Him of aiming at a kingdom. For 
they might be sure that if He set Himself up as a King, and 
a rival of the Roman empire, a Roman prefect would not 
release Him. When then He says, Will ye that I release 
unto you the King of the Jews f he clears Jesus of all guilt, 
and mocks the Jews, as if to say, Him whom ye accuse of 
thinking Himself a King, the same I bid you release : He 
Au §- does no such thing. Aug. Upon this they cried out : Then 
cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. 
Now Barabbas was a robber. We blame you not, O Jews, 
for releasing a guilty man at the passover, but for killing an 
innocent one. Yet unless this were done, it were not the 
true passover. Bede. Inasmuch then as they abandoned the 
Saviour, and sought out a robber, to this day the devil 
practises his robberies upon them. Alcuin. The name 
Barabbas signifies, The son of their master, i. e. the devil ; 
his master in his wickedness, the Jews' in their perfidy. 



CHAP. XIX. 

1. Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged 
him. 

2. And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and 
put it on his head, and they put on him a purple 
robe, 

3. And said, Hail, King of the Jews ! and they 
smote him with their hands. 

4. Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto 
them, Behold, T bring him forth to you, that ye may 
know that I find no fault in him. 

5. Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of 
thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate saith unto 
them, Behold the man! 



Aug. When the Jews had cried out that they did not wish Aug. 

Tr.cxvi. 

Jesus to be released on account of the passover, but Barab- 
bas, Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged Him. 
Pilate seems to have done this for no reason but to satisfy 
the malice of the Jews with some punishment short of death. 
On which account he allowed his band to do what follows, 
or perhaps even commanded them. The Evangelist only 
says however that the soldiers did so, not that Pilate com- 
manded them: And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, 
and put it on His head, and they put on Him a purple robe, 
and said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they smote Him with 
their hands. Chrys. Pilate having called Him the King of Chrys. 
the Jews, they put the royal dress upon Him, in mockery. ^°™{ Vl 
Bede. For instead of a diadem, they put upon Him a crown 
of thorns, and a purple robe to represent the purple robe 



570 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIX. 

Mat. 27, which kings wear. Matthew says, a scarlet robe, but scarlet * 

and purple are different names for the same colour. And 

though the soldiers did this in mockery, yet to us their acts 

hare a meaning. For by the crown of thorns is signified the 

taking of our sins upon Him, the thorns which the earth of 

our body brings forth. And the purple robe signifies the 

flesh crucified. For our Lord is robed in purple, wherever 

Chrys. He is glorified by the triumphs of holy martyrs. Chrys. It 

xxxiv. was not a * tne command of the governor that they did this, 

but in order to gratify the Jews. For neither were they 

commanded by him to go to the garden in the night, but the 

Jews gave them money to go. He bore however all these 

insults silently. Yet do thou, when thou hearest of them, 

keep stedfastly in thy mind the King of the whole earth, 

and Lord of Angels bearing all these contumelies in silence, 

Aug. and imitate His example. Aug. Thus were fulfilled what 

Tr.cxvi. Christ had prophesied of Himself; thus were martyrs taught 

to suffer all that the malice of persecutors could inflict; thus 

that kingdom which was not of this world conquered the 

proud world, not by fierce fighting, but by patient suffering. 

Chrys. Chrys. That the Jews might cease from their fury, seeing 

lxxxiv. Him thus insulted, Pilate brought out Jesus before them 

crowned: Pilate therefore went forth again , and saith unto 

them, Behold, I bring Him forth to you, that ye may know 

Aug. that I find no fault in Him. Aug. Hence it is apparent 

that these things were not done without Pilate's knowledge, 

whether he commanded, or only permitted them, for the 

reason we have mentioned, viz. that His enemies seeing the 

insults heaped upon Him, might not thirst any longer for 

His blood : Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of 

thorns, and the purple robe: not the insignia of empire, but 

the marks of ridicule. And Pilate saith unto them, Behold 

the man! as if to say, If ye envy the King, spare the outcast. 

Ignominy overflows, let envy subside. 

6. When the chief priests therefore and officers 
saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify him, crucify 

■ coccinea, from cocci/la, the shell-fish, from the blood of which the dye is 
made. Bede. 



XXXIV. 



\ER. — 8. ST. JOHN. 571 

him. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and 
crucify him: for I find no fault in him. 

7. The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by 
our law he ought to die, because he made himself the 
Son of God. 

8. When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was 
the more afraid. 

Aug. The envy of the Jews does not subside at Christ's Aug. 
disgraces; yea, rather rises: When the chief priests therefore r,cxvl * 
and officers saw Him, they cried out, saying, Crucify Him, 
crucify Him. Chhys. Pilate saw then that it was all in vain : 
Pilate saith unto them, Take ye Him, and crucify Him. This 
is the speech of a man abhorring the deed, and urging others to 2 - 

ex.ipoo~tou • 

do a deed which he abhors himself. They had brought our^,,,^ 
Lord indeed to him that He might be put to death by his 
sentence, but the very contrary was the result; the governor 
acquitted Him: For I find no fault in Him. He clears 
Him immediately from all charges : which shews that he 
had only permitted the former outrages, to humour the 
madness of the Jews. But nothing could shame the Jewish 
hounds: The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our 
law He ought to die, because He made Himself the Son of 
God. Aug. Lo, another greater outbreak of envy. The Aug. 
former was lighter, being only to punish Him for aspiring to "* r ' CXV1 ' 
a usurpation of the royal power. Yet did Jesus make neither 
claim falsely; both were true: He was both the Only-begotten 
Son of God, and the King appointed by God upon the holy hill 
of Sion. And He would have demonstrated His right to 
both now, had He not been as patient as He was powerful. 
Chrys. While they disputed with each other, He was silent, Chry 3 . 
fulfilling the prophecy, He openeth not His mouth; He was^^[ v 
taken from prison and from judgment. Aug. This agrees !»• 63, 
with Luke's account, We found this fellow perverting the Aug. 
nation, only with the addition of, because He made Himself^ Con - 
the Son of God. Chrys. Then Pilate begins to fear thatiii. s. g ' 
what had been said might be true, and that he might appear £ uke23 > 
to be administering j ustice improperly : When Pilate therefore Chrys. 
heard that saying, he was the more afraid. Bede. It wasixxxYv 

2. 



372 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIX. 

not the law that he was afraid of, as he was a stranger : but 
he was more afraid, lest he should slay the Son of God. 
Chrys. They were not afraid to say this, that He made 
Himself the Son qf God: but they kill Him for the very 
reasons for which they ought to have worshipped Him. 

9. And went again into the judgment hall, and 
saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus gave 
him no answer. 

10. Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not 
unto me? knowest thou not that I have power to 
crucify thee, and have power to release thee? 

11. Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power 
at all against me, except it were given thee from above : 
therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the 
greater sin. 

12. And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release 
him. 

Chrys. Chrys. Pilate, agitated with fear, begins again examining 

Ixxxiv. Him: And went again into the judgment hall, and saith 

2 - unto Jesus, Whence art Thou ? He no longer asks, What 

hast Thou done? But Jesus gave him no answer. For he 

who had heard, To this end was I horn, and for this cause 

came I into the world, and, My kingdom is not from hence, 

ought to have resisted, and rescued Him, instead of which he 

had yielded to the fury of the Jews. Wherefore seeing that 

he asked questions without object, He answers him no more. 

Indeed at other times He was unwilling to give reasons, 

and defend Himself by argument, when His works testified 

so strongly for Him ; thus shewing that He came voluntarily 

Aug. to His work. Aug. In comparing the accounts of the 

4# r ' cxv '' different Evangelists together, we find that this silence was 

maintained more than once ; viz. before the High Priest, before 

Isa. 53, Herod, and before Pilate. So that the prophecy of Him, As a 

sheep before her shearers is dumb, so opened He not Hismouth, 

was amply fulfilled. To many indeed of the questions put to 

Him, He did reply, but where He did not reply, this com- 






VER. 9 — 12. ST. JOHN. 573 

parison of the sheep shews us that His was not a silence of 
guilt, but of innocence; not of self-condemnation, but of 
compassion, and willingness to suffer for the sins of others. 
Chrys. He remaining thus silent, Then saith Pilate wwfoChrys. 
Him, Speakest Tliou not unto me? knowest Thou not that lxxxiv. 
/ have power to crucify Thee, and have power to release 2 - 
Thee ? See how he condemns himself. If all depends upon 
thee, why, when thou fmdest no fault of offence, dost thou 
not acquit Him ? 

Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power at all 
against Me, except it were given thee from above; shewing 
that this judgment was accomplished not in the common 
and natural order of events, but mysteriously. But lest we 
should think that Pilate was altogether free from blame, He 
adds, Therefore he that hath delivered Me unto thee hath 
the greater sin. But if it was given, thou wilt say, neither 
he nor they were liable to blame. Thou speakest foolishly. 
Given means permitted ; as if He said, He hath permitted 
this to be done ; but ye are not on that account free from 
guilt. Aug. So He answers. When He was silent, He was Aug. 
silent not as guilty or crafty, but as a sheep : when He 
answered, He taught as a shepherd. Let us hear what He 
saith ; which is that, as He teacheth by His Apostle, There is Rom.13, 
no power but of God; and that he that through envy delivers 
an innocent person to the higher power, who puts to death 
from fear of a greater power, still sins more than that higher 
power itself. God had given such power to Pilate, as that 
he was still under Caesar's power: wherefore our Lord says, 
Thou couldest have no power at all against Me, i. e. no 
power however small, unless it, whatever it was, was given 
thee from above. And as that is not so great as to give thee 
complete liberty of action, therefore he that delivered Me 
unto thee hath the greater sin. He delivered Me into thy 
power from envy, but thou wilt exercise that power from 
fear. And though a man ought not to kill another even 
from fear, especially an innocent man, yet to do so from 
envy is much worse. Wherefore our Lord does not say, 
He that delivered Me unto thee hath the sin, as if the other 
had none, but, hath the greater sin, implying that the other 
also had some. Theophyl. He that delivered Me unto thee, 



574 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIX. 

i. e. Judas, or the multitude. When Jesus had boldly 
replied, that unless He gave Himself up, and the Father con- 
sented, Pilate could have had no power over Him, Pilate 
was the more anxious to release Him ; And from, thenceforth 
Aug. Pilate sought to release Him. Aug. Pilate had sought from 
'the first to release: so we must understand,yVom thence, to 
mean from this cause, i. e. lest he should incur guilt by put- 
ting to death an innocent person. 

12. But the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this 
man go, thou art not Cesar's friend : whosoever maketh 
himself a king speaketh against Caesar. 

13. When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he 
brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment 
seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the 
Hebrew, Gabbatha. 

14. And it was the preparation of the passover, and 
about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, 
Behold your King ! 

15. But they cried out, Away with him, away with 
him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I 
crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We 
have no king but Caesar. 

16. Then delivered he him therefore unto them to 
be crucified. 

. Aug. The Jews thought they could alarm Pilate more by 

Tr.cxvi. the mention of Caesar, than by telling him of their law, as 
they had done above ; We have a law, and by that law He 
ought to die, because He made Himself the Son of God. So 
it follows, But the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this 
Man go, thou art not Ctesar's friend; whosoever maketh 
Chrys. himself a king speaketh against Caesar. Chrys. But how 
Hom. can y e prove this ? By His purple, His diadem, His chariot, 
2. His guards ? Did He not walk about with His twelve dis- 

ciples only, and every thing mean about Him, food, dress, 
Aug. and habitation ? Aug. Pilate was before afraid not of vio- 
Tr.cxvi. l a ting their law by sparing Him, but of killing the Son of 



VER. 12 — 16. ST. JOHN. 575 

God, in killing Him. But he could not treat his master 
Caesar with the same contempt with which he treated the 
law of a foreign nation: When Pilate therefore heard that 
saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judg- 
ment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in 
the Hebrew, Gabbatha. Chrys. He went out to examine Chrys. 
into the matter: his sitting down on the judgment seat] xxx i' v . 
shews this. Gloss. The tribunal is the seat of the judge, 2 - 
as the throne is the seat of the king, and the chair the seat 
of the doctor. Bede. Lithostraton, i. e. laid with stone; the 
word signifies pavement. It was an elevated place. 

And it was the preparation of the Passover. Alcuin. 
Parasceve, i. e. preparation. This was a name for the sixth 
day, the day before the Sabbath, on which they prepared 
what was necessary for the Sabbath; as we read, On MeExod. 
sixth day they gathered twice as much bread. As man was ' 
made on the sixth day, and God rested on the seventh ; so 
Christ suffered on the sixth day, and rested in the grave on 
the seventh. 

And it was about the sixth hour. Aug. Why then doth Aug. 
Mark say, And it was the third hour, and they crucified c ™^' 
Him ? Because on the third hour our Lord was crucified Mark 
by the tongues of the Jews, on the sixth by the handj ' 
of the soldiers. So that we must understand that the 
fifth hour was passed, and the sixth began, when Pilate 
sat down on the judgment seat, (about the sixth hour, 
John says,) and that the crucifixion, and all that took 
place in connexion with it, filled up the rest of the hour, 
from which lime up to the ninth hour there was darkness, 
according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke. But since the Jews 
tried to transfer the guilt of putting Christ to death from 
themselves to the Romans, i. e. to Pilate and his soldiers, 
Mark, omitting to mention the hour at which He was 
crucified by the soldiers, has expressly recorded the third 
hour ; in orfler that it might be evident that not only the 
soldiers who crucified Jesus on the sixth hour, but the Jews 
who cried out for His death at the third, were His crucifiers. 
There is another way of solving this difficulty, viz. that the 
sixth hour here does not mean the sixth hour of the day; as 
John does not say, It was about the sixth hour of the day, 



576 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAT. XIX. 

but, It teas the preparation of the passover, and about the 
sixth hour. Parasceve means in Latin, praeparatio. For 
Christ our passover, as saitli the Apostle, is sacrificed for us. 
The preparation for which passover, counting from the ninth 
hour of the night, which seems to have been the hour at 
which the chief priests pronounced upon our Lord's sacrifice, 
saying, He is guilty of death, between it and the third hour 
of the day, when He was crucified, according to Mark, is an 
interval of six hours, three of the night and three of the day. 
Theophyl. Some suppose it to be a fault of the transcriber, 
Chrys. who for the letter y, three, put s,six. Chrys. Pilate, despairing 
lxxxi'v. of moving them, did not examine Him, as he intended, but 
delivered Him up. And he saith unto the Jews, Behold 
your King! Theophyl. As if to say, See the kind of Man 
whom ye suspect of aspiring to the throne, a humble person, 
Chrys. w ^° cannot have any such design. Chrys. A speech that 
Hom. should have softened their rage; but they were afraid of 
2. ' letting Him go, lest He might draw away the multitude 
again. For the love of rule is a heavy crime, and sufficient 
to condemn a man. They cried out, Away with Him y 
away with Him. And they resolved upon the most dis- 
graceful kind of death, Crucify Him, in order to prevent all 
Aug# memorial of Him afterwards. Aug. Pilate still tries to 
Tr.cxri. overcome their apprehensions on Caesar's account; Pilate 
saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King ? He tries to 
shame them into doing what he had not been able to soften 
them into by putting Christ to shame. 

The chief priests answered, We have no king but C&sar. 

Chrys. Chrys. They voluntarily brought themselves under punish- 

Hom. m ent, and God gave them up to it. With one accord they 

2. denied the kingdom of God, and God suffered them to fall 

into their own condemnation; for they rejected the kingdom 

of Christ, and called down upon their own heads that of 

Aug. Caesar. Aug. But Pilate is at last overcome by fear: Then 

Tr.cxvi. delivered he Him therefore unto them to be crucified. For 

it would be taking part openly against Caesar, if when the 

Jews declared that they had no king but Caesar, he wished 

to put another king over them, as he would appear to do if 

he let go unpunished a Man whom they had delivered to him 

for punishment on this very ground. It is not however, 



VL'R. 16 18. ST. JOHN. 577 

delivered Him unto them to crucify Him, but, to be crucified, 
i. e. by the sentence and authority of the governor. The 
Evangelist says, delivered unto them, to shew that they were 
implicated in the guilt from which they tried to escape. For 
Pilate would not have clone this except to please them. 

16. And they took Jesus, and led him away. 

17. And he bearing his cross went forth into a place 
called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew 
Golgotha: 

18. Where they crucified him, and two other with 
him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst. 

Gloss. By the command of the governor, the soldiers took 
Christ to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led Him 
away. Aug. They, i. e. the soldiers, the guards of the Aug. 
governor, as appears more clearly afterwards; Then the r-CXVK 
soldiers when they had crucified Jesus ; though the Evangelist 
might justly have attributed the whole to the Jews, who 
were really the authors of what they procured to be done. 
Chrys. They compel Jesus to bear the cross, regarding it asChrys. 
unholy, and therefore avoiding the touch of it themselves. ^°^ j 
And He bearing His cross went forth into a place called the 
place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew Golgotha, where 
they crucified Him. The same was done typically by 
Isaac, who carried the wood. But then the matter only 
proceeded as far as his father's good pleasure ordered, but 
now it was fully accomplished, for the reality had appeared. 
Theophvl. But as there Isaac was let go, and a ram offered ; 
so here too the Divine nature remains impassible, but the 
human, of which the ram was the type, the offspring of that 
straying ram, was slain. But why does another Evangelist 
say that they hired Simon to bear the cross? Aug. Both Aug. 
bore it; first Jesus, as John says, then Simon, as the other^ eCon ' 
three Evangelists say. On first going forth, He bore His own iii. x, 
cross. Aug. Great spectacle, to the profane a laughing- Aug. 
stock, to the pious a mystery. Profaueness sees a King 'f ra . ct ' 
bearing a cross instead of a sceptre; piety sees a King 
bearing a cross, thereon to nail Himself, and afterwards to 
nail it on the foreheads of kings. Thai to profane eves was 

•2 p 



578 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIX. 

contemptible, which the hearts of Saints would afterwards 
glory in; Christ displaying His own cross on Mis shoulders, 
and bearing that which was not to be put under a bushel, 
the candlestick of that candle which was now about to burn. 

Chrys. Chrys. He carried the badge of victory on His shoulders, 

lxxxv. as conquerors do. Some say that the place qf Calvary was 
where Adam died and was buried ; so that in the very place 

Hieron. where death reigned, there Jesus erected His trophy. Jerome. 

Matt ^ n a P^ connexlon 5 an( i smooth to the ear, but not true. For 

c. xxvii.the place where they cut off the heads of men condemned to 
death, called in consequence Calvary, was outside the city 
gates, whereas we read in the book of Jesus the son of Nave, 

Chrys. that Adam was buried by Hebron and Arbah. Chrys. 

lxxxv.i.They crucified Him with the thieves: And two others with 
Him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst ; thus ful- 

isa. 53 ; filling the prophecy, And He was numbered with the trans- 
gressors. What they did in wickedness, was a gain to the 
truth. The devil wished to obscure what was done, but 
could not. Though three were nailed on the cross, it was 
evident that Jesus alone did the miracles; and the arts of 
the devil were frustrated. Nay, they even added to His 
glory ; for to convert a thief on the cross, and bring him 
into paradise, was no less a miracle than the rending of the 

Au g- rocks. Aug. Yea, even the cross, if thou consider it, was a 

inks, judgment seat: for the Judge being the middle, one thief, 
who believed, was pardoned, the other, who mocked, was 
damned : a sign of what He would once do to the quick 
and dead, place the one on His right hand, the other on 
His left. 

19. And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. 
And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH, 
THE KING OF THE JEWS. 

20. This title then read many of the Jews : for the 
place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city : 
and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin. 

21. Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, 
Write not, The King of the Jews ; but that lie said, I 
am King of the Jews. 



VER. 19 22. ST. JOHN. 579 

22. Pilate answered, What I have written I have 
written. 

Chrys. As letters are inscribed on a trophy declaring the 
victory, so Pilate wrote a title on Christ's cross. And 
Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross : thus at once 
distinguishing Christ from the thieves with Him, and ex- 
posing the malice or" the Jews in rising up against their King : 
And the writing was, Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the 
Jews. Bede. Wherein was shewn that His kingdom was 
not, as they thought, destroyed, but rather strengthened. 
Aug. But was Christ the King of the Jews only ? or of the Aug. 
Gentiles too ? Of the Gentiles too, as we read in the Psalms, J x r ^£ 
Yet have I set My King upon My holy hill of Sion; after p s . 2, 6. 
which it follows, Demand of Me, and I will give Thee the 
heathen for Thine inheritance. So this title expresses a great 
mystery, viz. that the wild olive-tree was made partaker of the 
fatness of the olive-tree, not the olive-tree made partaker of 
the bitterness of the wild olive-tree. Christ then is King of the 
Jews according to the circumcision not of the flesh, but of 
the heart; not in the letter, but in the spirit. This title then 
read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was 
crucified v;as nigh to the city. Chrys. It is probable that 
many Gentiles as well as Jews had come up to the feast. 
So the title was written in three languages, that all might 
read it : And it was ivritten in Hebrew, and Greek, and 
Latin. Aug. These three were the languages most known Aug. 
there : the Hebrew, on account of being used in the worship cxv jji.' 
of the Jews : the Greek, in consequence of the spread of 
Greek philosophy: the Latin, from the Roman empire 
being established every where. Theophyl. The title 
written in three languages signifies that our Lord was 
King of the whole world; practical, natural, and spiritual 1 . \prac- 
The Latin denotes the practical, because the Roman empire physicte, 
was the most powerful, and best managed one; the Greek ^^ 
the physical, the Greeks being the best physical philoso- 
phers; and, lastly, the Hebrew the theological, because the 
Jews had been made the depositaries of religious knowledge. 
Chrys. But the Jews grudged our Lord this title: Then said 
the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King 

2 p2 



f>80 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIX. 

of the Jews; but that He said, I am King of the Jews. For 
as Pilale wrote it, it was a plain and single declaration that 
He was King, but the addition of, that he said, made it a 
charge against Him of petulance and vain glory. But Pilate 
was firm: Pilate answered, What I have written I have 
written. Aug. O ineffable working of Divine power even in 
the hearts of ignorant men ! Did not some hidden voice sound 
from within, and, if we may say so, with clamorous silence, 
saying to Pilate in the prophetic words of the Psalm, Alter 
not the inscription of the title*? But what say ye, ye mad 
priests: will the title be the less true, because Jesus said, 
/ am the King of the Jens? If that which Pilate wrote can- 
not be altered, can that be altered which the Truth spoke ? 
Pilate wrote what he wrote, because our Lord said what He 
said. 

23. Then the soldiers, when they had crucified 
Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to 
every soldier a part ; and also his coat : now the coat 
was without seam, woven from the top throughout. 

24. They said therefore among themselves, Let us 
not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: 
that the Scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They 
parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture 
they did cast lots. 

On Pilate giving sentence, the soldiers under his command 
crucified Jesus: Then the soldiers, when they had crucified 
Jesus, took His garments. And yet if we look to their inten- 
tions, their clamours, the Jews were rather the people which 
crucified Him. On the parting and casting lots for His gar- 
ment, John gives more circumstances than the other Evan- 
gelists, And made four parts, to every soldier apart: whence 
we see there were four soldiers who executed the governor's 
sentence. And also His coat: took, understood. They took 
His coat too. The sentence is brought in so to shew that this 
was the only garment for which they cast lots, the others 

J In the L.XX, the title of Pa. 56, rr«>.«yf «<p/«i>. Nie. 
57, 88. i«, y-n "bi*t{Ci'tf( t* Aat/)3 tit 



VER. 23, 24. ST. JOHN. 581 

being divided. Now the coat was without seam, woven from 
the top throughout. Chrys. The Evangelist describes the Chrys. 
tunic, to shew that it was of an inferior kind, the tunics ^^ 
commonly worn in Palestine being made of two pieces. 
Theophyl. Others say that they did not weave in Palestine, 
as we do, the shuttle being driven upwards through the 
warp; so that among them the woof was not carried upwards 
but downwards b . Aug. Why they cast lots for it, next ap- Aug. 
pears: They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend c ^? ii ' 
it, but east lots for it whose it should be. It seems then that 
the other garments were made up of equal parts, as it was 
not necessary to rend them; the tunic only having to be rent 
in order to give each an equal share of it; to avoid which 
they preferred casting lots for it, and one having it all. This 
answered to the prophecy: That the Scripture might be ful- 
filled which saith, They parted My raiment among them, and 
for My vesture they did cast lots. Chrys. Behold the sure- Chrys. 
ness of prophecy. The Prophet foretold not only what lxxx ^ 
they would part, but what they would not. They parted the 
raiment, but cast lots for the vesture. Aug. Matthew in Aug. 
saying, They parted His garments, casting lots, means us C xvHi! 
to understand the whole division of the garments, including 3- 
the tunic also for which they cast lots. Luke says the same :3s. ' 
They parted His raiment, and cast lots. In parting His gar- Luke23, 
ments they came to the tunic, for which they cast lots. Mark 
is the only one that raises any question: They parted His Marki5, 
garments, casting upon them what every man should take:'' 
as if they cast lots for all the garments, and not the timic only. 
But it is his brevity that creates the difficulty. Casting lols 
upon them: as if it was, casting lots when they were parting 
the garments. What every man should take: i. e. who 
should take the tunic; as if the whole stood thus: Casting 
lots upon them, who should take the tunic which remained 
over and above the equal shares, into which the rest of the 
garments were divided. The fourfold division of our Lord's 
garment represents His Church, spread over the four quarters 
of the globe, and distributed equally, i. e. in concord, to all. 
The tunic for which they cast lots signifies the unity of all 

b Herodotus (ii. 3. 5.) makes the wove duwnrcanis also, contiarv to the 
*ame remark of the Egyptians, who usual practice. 



689 GOSPKL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIX. 

tlio parts, which is contained in the bond of love. And if 

love is the more excellent way, above knowledge, and above 

9? 1, 3> all other commandments, according to Colossians, Above 

14. 

all things hare charity, the garment by which this is denoted, 

desuper, is well said to be woven from above. Through the whole, is 

* added, because no one is void of it, who belongs to that 

whole, from which the Church Catholic is named. It is 

without seam again, so that it can never come unsown, and 

adunumis in one piece, i. e. brings all together into one. By the lot 

provemt - g signified t ne g race of God: for God elects not with 

respect to person or merits, but according to His own secret 

Chrys. counsel. Chrys. According to some, The tunic without 

lxxxv. sean }i woven from above throughout, is an allegory shewing 

l - that He who was crucified was not simply man, but also 

had Divinity from above. Theophyl. The garment without 

seam denotes the body of Christ, which was woven from 

above; for the Holy Ghost came upon the Virgin, and the 

power of the Highest overshadowed her. This holy body of 

Christ then is indivisible: for though it be distributed for 

every one to partake of, and to sanctify the soul and body of 

each one individually, yet it subsists in all wholly and 

indivisibly. The world consisting of four elements, the 

garments of Christ must be understood to represent the 

visible creation, which the devils divide amongst themselves, 

as often as they deliver to death the word of God which 

dwelleth in us, and by worldly allurements bring us over to 

Aug. their side. Aug. Nor let any one say that these things had 

C3t r ^' no good signification, because they were done by wicked 

men; for if so, what shall we say of the cross itself? For 

that was made by ungodly men, and yet certainly by it were 

Eph. 3, signified, What ?> the length, and depth, and breadth, and 

18 ' height, as the Apostle saith. Its breadth consists of a cross 

beam, on which are stretched the hands of Him who hangs 

upon it. This signifies the breadth of charity, and the good 

works done therein. Its length consists of a cross beam 

going to the ground, and signifies perseverance in length of 

time. The height is the top which rises above the cross 

beam, and signifies the high end to which all things refer. 

The depth is that part which is fixed in the ground; there it 

is hidden, but the whole cross that we see rises from it. 



vuR. 24 — 27. ST. JOHN. 588 

Even so all oar good works proceed from the depth of God's 
incomprehensible grace. But though the cross of Christ 
only signify what the Apostle saith, They that are Christ's Gal. 5, 
hate crucified the flesh, with the affections and lusts, how 
great a good is it? Lastly, what is the sign of Christ, but 
the cross of Christ? Which sign must be applied to the 
foreheads of believers, to the water of regeneration, to the oil 
of chrism, to the sacrifice whereby we are nourished, or 
none of these is profitable for life. 

24. These things therefore the soldiers did. 

25. Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his 
mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of 
Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene. 

26. When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the 
disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his 
mother, Woman, behold thy son ! 

27. Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy 
mother! And from that hour that disciple took her to 
his own home. 

Theophyl. While the soldiers were doing their cruel 
work, He was thinking anxiously of His mother : These things 
therefore the soldiers did. Now there stood by the cross of 
Jesus His mother, and His mother's sister, Mary the wife 
of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene. Ambrose. Mary the 
mother of our Lord stood before the cross of her Son. 
None of the Evangelists hath told me this except John. 
The others have related how that at our Lord's Passion the 
earth quaked, the heaven was overspread with darkness, the 
sun fled, the thief was taken into paradise after confession. 
John hath told us, what the others have not, how that from 
the cross whereon He hung, He called to His mother. 
He thought it a greater thing to shew Him victorious over 
punishment, fulfilling the offices of piety to His mother, 
than giving the kingdom of heaven and eternal life to the 
thief. For if it was religious to give life to the thief, a much 
richer work of piety it is for a son to honour his mother with 
such affection. Behold, He saith, thy son; behold thy 



584 



GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIX. 



mother. Christ made His Testament from the cross, and 
divided the offices of piety between the Mother and the 
disciples. Our Lord made not only a public, but also a 
domestic Testamnet. And this His Testament John sealed, 
a witness worthy of such a Testator. A good testament it 
was, not of money, but of eternal life, which was not written 
with ink, but with the spirit of the living God : My tongue 
Ps.45,1. i s the pen of a ready writer. Mary, as became the mother of 
our Lord, stood before the cross, when the Apostles fled, 
and with pitiful eyes beheld the wounds of her Son. For 
she looked not on the death of the Hostage, but on the salva- 
tion of the world ; and perhaps knowing that her Son's death 
would bring this salvation, she who had been the habitation 
of the King, thought that by her death she might add to that 
universal gift. * 

But Jesus did not need any help for saving the world, as 
Ps. 87. we read in the Psalm, / have been even as a man with no 
help,/ree among the dead. He received indeed the affec- 
tion of a parent, but He did not seek another's help. Imitate 
her, ye holy matrons, who, as towards her only most 
beloved Son, hath set you an example of such virtue : for ye 
have not sweeter sons, nor did the Virgin seek consolation 
in again becoming a mother. Jerome. The Mary which in 
Mark and Matthew is called the mother of James and Joses, 
was the wife of Alpheus, and sister of Mary the mother of 
our Lord: which Mary John here designates ofCleophas, either 
from her father, or family, or for some other reason. She 
need not be thought a different person, because she is called 
in one place Mary the mother of James the less, and here 
Mary of Cleophas, for it is customary in Scripture to give 
Chrys. different names to the same person. Chrys. Observe how 
\x7xv. tne weaker sex is the stronger ; standing by the cross when 
Aug. the disciples fly. Aug. If Matthew and Mark had not 
E v . iij.' mentioned by name Mary Magdalen, we should have thought 
21 • that there were two parties, one of which stood far off", and 
the other near. But how must we account for the same 
Mary Magdalen and the other women standing afar off, as 
Matthew and Mark say, and being near the cross, as John 
says? By supposing that they were within such a distance 
as to be within sight of our Lord, and yet sufficiently far off 



vek. 24—27. st. John. 585 

to be out of the way of the crowd and Centurion, and 
soldiers who were immediately about Him. Or, we may 
suppose that after our Lord had commended His mother to 
the disciple, they retired to be out of the way of the crowd, 
and saw what took place afterwards at a distance: so that 
those Evangelists who do not mention them till after our Mat- 
Lord's death, describe them as standing afar off. That^ k and 
some women are mentioned by all alike, others not, makes 
no matter. Chrys. Though there were other women by, Chrys. 
He makes no mention of any of them, but only of Hisi xxxv '. 2 . 
mother, to shew us that we should specially honour our 
mothers. Our parents indeed, if they actually oppose the 
truth, are not even to be known : but otherwise we should 
pay them all attention, and honour them above all the world 
beside: When Jesus therefore saw His mother* and the dis- 
ciple standing by, whom he loved* He saith unto His mother, 
Woman, behold thy son! Bede. By the disciple whom 
Jesus loved, the Evangelist means himself; not that the 
others were not loved, but he was loved more intimately on 
account of his estate of chastity ; for a Virgin our Lord 
called him, and a Virgin he ever remained. Chrys. Heavens ! Chrys. 
what honour does He pay to the disciple; who however lx °™; 2 
conceals his name from modesty. For had he wished to Papse. 
boast, he would have added the reason why he was loved, 
for there must have been something great and wonderful to 
have caused that love. This is all He says to John; He 
does not console his grief, for this was a time for giving 
consolation. Yet was it no small one to be honoured with 
such a charge, to have the mother of our Lord, in her afflic- 
tion, committed to his care by Himself on His departure: 
Then saith He to the disciple, Behold thy mother! Aug. Aug. 
This truly is that hour of the which Jesus, when about lo ] Lrcxix * 
change the water into wine, said, Mother, what have I to do 
with thee c * Mine hour is not yet come. Then, about to act 
divinely, He repelled the mother of His humanity, of His 
infirmity, as if He knew her not: now, suffering humanlv, 
He commends with human affection her of whom He was 
made man. Here is a moral lesson. The good Teacher 
shews us by His example how that pious sons should take 
care of their parents. The cross of the sufferer, is the chair 



58(5 GOSPEL ACCOKOING TO CHAP. XIX. 

Chrys. of the Master. Chrys. The shameless doctrine of Marcion 
l xxxv '.2.is refuted here. For if our Lord were not born according 
to the flesh, and had not a mother, why did He make such 
provision for her? Observe how imperturbable He is during 
His crucifixion, talking to the disciple of His mother, ful- 
filling propheeies, giving good hope to the thief; whereas 
before His crucifixion, He seemed in fear. The weakness 
of His nature was shewn there, the exceeding greatness of 
His power here. He teaches us too herein, not to turn back, 
because we may feel disturbed at the difficulties before us; 
for when we are once actually under the trial, all will be 
Al, g- . light and easy for us. Aug. He does this to provide as it 
2. were another son for His mother in his place; And from that 

hour thai disciple took her unto his own. Unto his own 
Mat.i9, what ? Was not John one of those who said, Lo, ive hare left 
all, and followed Thee? He took her then to his own, i. e. 
not to his farm, for he had none, but to his care, for of this he 
was master. Bkde. Another reading is, Accepit earn disci - 
pulus in suam, his own mother some understand, but to his 
own care seems better. 

28. After this, Jesus knowing that all things were 
now accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, 
saith, I thirst. 

29. Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and 
they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put it upon hys- 
sop, and put it to his mouth. 

30. When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, 
he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and 
gave up the ghost. 

Aug. Aug. He who appeared man, suffered all these things; He 

r * X1X * who was God, ordered them : After this Jesus knowing Unit 

all things were now accomplished; i. e. knowing the prophecy 

Ps. 68. in the Psalms, And when I was thirst//, the// //are n/e vinegar 

minus to drink, said, / thirst: As if to say, ye have not done all: 

give me yourselves: for the Jews were themselves vinegar, 

having degenerated from the wine of the Patriarchs and the 

Prophets. Xow there /ras a vessel full of vinegar: they had 



ver. 28—30. st. john. 587 

drunk from the wickedness of the world, as from a full vessel, 
and their heart was deceitful, as it were a spunge full of 
caves and crooked hiding places : And they filled a spunge 
with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his 
mouth. Chrys. They were not softened at all by what theychryg. 
saw, but were the more enraged, and gave Him the cup to ]x °™^ 
drink, as they did to criminals, i. e. with a hyssop. Aug. The 
hyssop around which they put the spunge full of vinegar, 
being a mean herb, taken to purge the breast, represents the 
humility of Christ, which they hemmed in and thought they 
had circumvented. For we are made clean by Christ's iW«<r*» 
humility. Nor let it perplex you that they were able to reach JiX, f 
His mouth when He was such a height above the ground: for 
we read in the other Evangelists, what John omits to mention, 
that the spunge was put upon a reed. Theophyl. Some 
say that the hyssop is put here for reed, its leaves being like 
a reed. 

When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, He said, 
It is finished. Aug. viz. what prophecy had foretold so Aug. 
long before. Bede. It may be asked here, why it is said, Tr - cxix « 
When Jesus had received the vinegar, when another Evan- 
gelists says, He would not drink. But this is easily settled. Mat.27, 
He did not receive the vinegar, to drink it, but fulfil the 34 * 
prophecy. Aug. Then as there was nothing left Him to do Aug. 
before He died, it follows, And He bowed His head, and TT ' CX1 *' 
gave up the ghost, only dying when He had nothing more to 
do, like Him who had to lay down His life, and to take it up 
again. Greg. Ghost is put here for soul : for had the Evan- Greg, 
gelist meant any thing else by it, though the ghost departed, *!* Mor " 
the soul might still have remained. Chrys. He did not chrys. 
bow His head because He gave up the ghost, but He gave ^ om * 
up the ghost because at that moment He bowed His head. 
Whereby the Evangelist intimates that He was Lord of all. 
Aug. For who ever had such power to sleep when he wished, Aug. 
as our Lord had to die when He wished? What power Tr>CX1 *- 
must He have, for our good or evil, Who had such power 
dying? Theophyl. Our Lord gave up His ghost to God 
the Father, shewing that the souls of the saints do not remain 
in the tomb, but go into the hand of the Father of all ; while 
sinners are reserved for the place of punishment, i. e. hell. 



588 UOSl'EL ACCORDING TO CHAP. MX. 

31. The Jews therefore, because it was the prepa- 
ration, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross 
on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high 
day,) besought Hlate that their legs might be broken, 
and that they might be taken away. 

32. Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of 
the first, and of the other which was crucified with 
him. 

33. But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he 
was dead already, they brake not his legs: 

34. But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his 
side, and forthwith came there out blood and water. 

35. And he that saw it bare record, and his record 
is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye 
might believe. 

36. For these things were done, that the Scripture 
should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken. 

37. And again another Scripture saith, They shall 
look on him whom they pierced. 



Chrys. Chrys. The Jewsvvho strained at a gnat and swallowed a camel, 
lxxxv. after their audacious wickedness, reason scrupulously about 
the day: The Jews therefore because it was the preparation, 
that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sab- 
bath. Bede. Parasceue, i. e. preparation: the sixth day 
was so called because the children of Israil prepared twice 
the number of loaves on that day. For that sabbath day 
was an high day, i. e. on account of the feast of the passover. 
Aug. Besought Pilate that their legs might be broken. Au«. 

r * cxx 'Not in order to take away the legs, but to cause death, that 
they might be taken down from the cross, and the feast 
day not be defiled by the sight of such horrid torments. The- 
ophyl. For it was commanded in the Law that the sun 
should not set on the punishment of any one; or they were 
unwilling to appear tormentors and homicides on a feast day. 
Chrvs. Chkys. How forcible is truth : their own devices it is that 
i XXX v.3. accomplish the fulfilment of prophecy: Then came the 



VER. 31—37. ST. JOHN. 589 

soldiers and brake the legs of the first, and of the other 
which was crucified with Him. But when they came to 
Jesus, and saw that He teas dead already, they brake not 
His leys: but one of the soldiers with a spear pierced His 
side. Theophyl. To please the Jews, they pierce Christ, 
thus insulting even His lifeless body. But the insult issues 
in a miracle: for a miracle it is that blood should flow 
from a dead body. Aug. The Evangelist has expressed Aug. 
himself cautiously; not struck, or wounded, but opened His itl ^ t xx ' 
side: whereby was opened the gate of life, from whence the a P eruit 
sacraments of the Church flowed, without which we cannot 
enter into that life which is the true life: And forthwith 
came thereout blood and water. That blood was shed for 
the remission of sins, that water tempers the cup of salvation. 
This it was which was prefigured when Noah was commanded 
to make a door in the side of the ark, by which the animals 
that were not to perish by the deluge entered; which animals 
prefigured the Church. To shadow forth this, the woman 
was made out of the side of the sleeping man; for this 
second Adam bowed His head, and slept on the cross, that 
out of that which came therefrom, there might be formed 
a wife for Him. O death, by which the dead are quickened, 
what can be purer than that blood, what more salutary than 
that wound! Chrys. This being the source whence theChrya. 
holy mysteries are derived, when thou approachest the awful i XXX y. 
cup, approach it as if thou wert about to drink out of Christ's 
side. Theophyl. Shame then upon them who mix not 
water with the wine in the holy mysteries: they seem as if 
they believed not that the water flowed from the side. Had 
blood flowed only, a man might have said that there was 
some life left in the body, and that that was why the blood 
flowed. But the water flowing is an irresistible miracle, and 
therefore the Evangelist adds, And he that saw it bare 
record. Chrys. As if to say, I did not hear it from others, Chrys. 
but saw it with mine own eyes. And his record is true, hei XXX v. 
adds, not as if he had mentioned something so wonderful 3 - 
that his account would be suspected, but to stop the mouths 
of heretics, and in contemplation of the deep value of those 
mysteries which he announces. 

And he knmceth that he saith true, that ye might believe. 



51)0 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIX. 

Aug. Aug. He that saw it knoweth; let him that saw not believe 
x, his testimony. He gives testimonies from the Scriptures to 
each of these two things he relates. After, they brake not 
His leys, He adds, For these things aere do)ie, that the 
Scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of Him shall not be 
broken, a commandment which applied to the sacrifice of 
the paschal lamb under the old law, which sacrifice fore- 
shadowed our Lord's. Also after, One of the soldiers with 
a spear opened His side, then follows another Scripture 

Zech. testimony; And again another Scripture saith, They shall 

' * look on Him nhom they pierced, a prophecy which implies 

that Christ will come in the very flesh in which He was 

Hieron. ^ crucified. Jerome. This testimony is taken from Zacharias. 
Pref. ad ' 

Pentet. 

38. And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being 
a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, 
besought Pilate that he might take away the body of 
Jesus : and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, 
and took the body of Jesus. 

39. And there came also Nicodemus, which at the 
first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture 
of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight. 

40. Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound 
it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of 
the Jews is to bury. 

41. Now in the place where he was crucified there 
was a garden, and in the garden a new sepulchre, 
wherein was never man yet laid. 

42. There laid they Jesus therefore because of the 
Jews' preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at 
hand. 



Chrys. Chrys. Joseph thinking that the hatred of the Jews would 
lxxxv. be appeased by His crucifixion, went with confidence to ask 
permission to take charge of His burial: And after this, 
Joseph of Arimathea besought Pilate. Bede. Arimathea is 
the same as Ramatha, the city of Elkanah, and Samuel. 
It was providentially ordered that he should be rich, in 



vi:h. 38 — 42. st john. 591 

order that he might have access to the governor, and just, in 
order that he might merit the charge of our Lord's body: 
That he might lake the body of Jesus, because he was His 
disciple. Chrys. He was not of the twelve, but of theChrys. 
seventy, for none of the twelve came near. Not that their ^°™^ 
fear kept them back, for Joseph was a disciple, secretly for %• 
fear of the Jews. But Joseph was a person of rank, and 
known to Pilate ; so he went to him, and the favour was 
granted, and afterwards believed Him, not as a condemned 
man, but as a great and wonderful Person: He came there- 
fore, and took the body of Jesus. Aug. In performing this Aug. 
last office to our Lord, he shewed a bold indifference to the E e van °"' 
Jews, though he had avoided our Lord's company when'"- x *ii. 
alive, for fear of incurring their hatred. Bede. Their ferocity 
being appeased for the time by their success, he sought the 
body of Christ. He did not come as a disciple, but simply 
to perform a work of mercy, which is due to the evil as well 
as to the good. Nicodemus joined him: And there came 
also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, 
and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred 
pound weight. Aug. We must not read the words, at the Aug. 
first, first bringing a mixture of myrrh, but attach the first Tr,cxx * 
to the former clause. For Nicodemus at the first came to 
Jesus by night, as John relates in the former part of the 
Gospel. From these words then we are to infer that that 
was not the only time that Nicodemus went to our Lord, but 
simply the first time; and that lie came afterwards and heard 
Christ's discourses, and became a disciple. Chrys. They chrys. 
bring the spices most efficacious for preserving the body Hom - 
from corruption, treating Him as a mere man. Yet this 
shews great love. Bede. We must observe however that it 
was simple ointment; for they were not allowed to mix manyExod. 
ingredients together. Then took they the body of Jesus, and 38 ' ' 
wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of 
the Jews is to bury. Aug. Wherein the Evangelist intimates, Aug. 
that in paying the last offices of the dead, the custom of the r * cxx * 
nation is to be followed. It was the custom of the Jewish 
nation to embalm their dead bodies, in order that they might Au S- 
keep the longer. Aug. Nor does John here contradict theEvang. 



5!>2 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XIX. 

other Evangelists, who, though they are silent about Nico- 
denuis, yet do not affirm that our Lord was buried by Joseph 
alone. Nor because they say that our Lord was wrapped in 
a linen cloth by Joseph, do they say that other linen cloths 
may not have been brought by Nicodemus in addition; so 
that John may be right in saying, not, in a single cloth, 
but, in linen cloths. Nay more, the napkin which was 
about His head and the bands which were tied round His 
body being all of linen, though there were but one linen 
cloth, He may yet be said to have been wrapped up in 
linen cloths: linen cloths being taken in a general sense, as 
comprehending all that was made of linen. Bede. Hence 
hath come down the custom of the Church, of consecrating 
the Lord's body not on silk or gold cloth, but to a clean 
Chrys. linen cloth. Chrys. But as they were pressed for time, for 
lxxxv. Christ died at the ninth hour, and after that they had gone 
4 - to Pilate, and taken away the body, so that the evening was 

now near, they lay Him in the nearest tomb : Now in the 
place where He was crucified there was a garden ; and in 
the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man get laid. 
A providential design, to make it certain that it was His 
resurrection, and not any other person's that lay with Him. 
Aug. Aug. As no one before or after Him was conceived in the 
'womb of the Virgin Mary, so in this grave was there none 
buried before or after Him. Theophyl. In that it was a 
new sepulchre, we are given to understand, that we are all 
renewed by Christ's death, and death and corruption de- 
stroyed. Mark too the exceeding poverty that He took up 
for our sakes. He had no house in His lifetime, and now 
He is laid in another's sepulchre at His death, and His 
nakedness covered by Joseph. There laid theg Jesus there- 
fore because of the Jews' preparation dag; for the sepulchre 
Aug. was nigh at hand. Aug. Implying that the burial was 
g ,cxx * hastened, in order to finish it before the evening, when, on 
account of the preparation, which the Jews with us call more 
commonly in the Latin, Caena pura, it was unlawful to do 
Chrys. any such thing. Chrys. The sepulchre was near, that the 
Horn. c ]j sc ip]es might approach it more easily, and be better wit- 
nesses of what took place there, and that even enemies might 



VER. 38 — 42. ST. JOHN. '• 593 

be made the witnesses of the burial, being placed there as 
guards, and the story of His being stolen away shewed to 
be false. Bede. Mystically, the name Joseph means, apt for 
the receiving of a good work ; whereby we are admonished 
that we should make ourselves worthy of our Lord's body, 
before we receive it. Theophyl. Even now in a certain 
sense Christ is put to death by the avaritious, in the person 
of the poor man suffering famine. Be therefore a Joseph, 
and cover Christ's nakedness, and, not once, but continually 
by contemplation, embalm Him in thy spiritual tomb, cover 
Him, and mix myrrh and bitter aloes ; considering that 
bitterest sentence of all, Depart, ye cursed, into everlasting Matt 
Jire. ' 



2q 



CHAP. XX. 

1. The first day of the week cometh Mary Magda- 
lene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, 
and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre. 

2. Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, 
and to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith 
unto them, They have taken away the Lord out of 
the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid 
him. 

3. Peter therefore went forth, and that other dis- 
ciple, and came to the sepulchre. 

4. So they ran both together : and the other dis- 
ciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre. 

5. And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the 
linen clothes lying: yet went he not in. 

6*. Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and 
went into the sepulchre, and seeing the linen clothes 
lie, 

7. And the napkin, that was about his head, not 
lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a 
place by itself. 

8. Then went in also that other disciple, which 
came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed. 

9. For as yet they knew not the Scripture, that he 
must rise again from the dead. 

Chrys. Chrys. The Sabbath being now over, during which it was 
lxxxv. unlawful to be there, Mary Magdalene could rest no longer, 



VER. 1 — 9. GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. JOHN. 595 

but came very early in the morning, to seek consolation at 
the grave : The first day of the week cometh Mary Magda- 
lene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre. Aug. Aug. 
Mary Magdalene, undoubtedly the most fervent in love, of E e van "' 
all the women that ministered to our Lord ; so that John i»- 24. 
deservedly mentions her only, and says nothing of the others 
who were with her, as we know from the other Evangelists. 
Aug. Una sabbati is the day which Christians call the Aug. 
Lord's day, after our Lord's resurrection. Matthew calls it Tr - cxx ' 
prima sabbati. Bede. Una sabbati, i. e. one day after the 
sabbath. Theophyl. Or thus: The Jews called the days 
of the week sabbath, and the first day, one of the sabbaths, . 
which day is a type of the life to come ; for that life will be 
one day not cut short by any night, since God is the sun 
there, a sun which never sets. On this day then our Lord 
rose again, with an incorruptible body, even as we in the life 
to, come shall put on incorruption. Aug. What Mark says, Aug. 
Very early in the morning, at the rising of the sun, does not^^' 
contradict John's words, when it was yet dark. At the iii. 24. 
dawn of day, there are yet remains of darkness, which dis- 16 ] 
appear as the light, breaks in. We must not understand 
Mark's words, Very early in the 'morning, at the rising of h\Uu 
the sun, to mean that the sun was above the horizon, but"^"™' 
rather what we ourselves ordinarily mean by the phrase, 
when we want any thing to be done very early, we say at 
the rising of the sun, i. e. some time before the sun is risen. 
Greg. It is well said, When it was yet dark: Mary was Greg, 
seeking the Creator of all things in the tomb, and because j^e^ 
she found Him not, thought He was stolen. Truly it wasxxii. 
yet dark when she came to the sepulchre. 

And seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre. Aug. Aug. 
Now took place what Matthew only relates, the earthquake, Evang. 
and rolling away of the stone, and fright of the guards. i!i - " 2i - 
Chrys. Our Lord rose while the stone and seal were still Chrys. 
on the sepulchre. But as it was necessary that others should j^°™! 
be certified of this, the sepulchre is opened after the resurrec- 4. 
tion, and so the fact confirmed. This it was which roused 
Mary. For when she saw the stone taken away, she entered 
not nor looked in, but ran to the disciples with all the speed 
of love. But as yet she knew nothing for certain about the 

2 q 2 



596 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XX. 

resurrection, but thought that His body had been carried off'. 

Gloss. And therefore she ran to tell the disciples, that they 

might seek Him with her, or grieve with her: Tlien she 

runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other 

Aug. disciple, whom Jesus loved. Aug. This is the way in which 

' he usually mentions himself. Jesus loved all, but him in 

an especial and familiar way. And saith unto them, They 

have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we 

Greg, know not where tlieii have laid Him. Greg. She puts 
iii. Mor. /., i, 1,1 i i/- 

ix. the part lor the whole; she had come only to seek for 

the body of our Lord, and now she laments that our Lord, 
£ u g« the whole of Him, is taken away. Aug. Some of the 
Greek copies have, taken away my Lord, which is more 
expressive of love, and of the feeling of an handmaiden. 
Chns. But only a few have this reading. Chrys. The Evangelist 
lxxxv. does not deprive the woman of this praise, nor leaves out 
from shame, that they had the news first from her. As soon 
Greg, as they hear it, they hasten to the sepulchre. Greg. But 
Evans. Peter and John before the others, for they loved most; Peter 
therefore went Jorth, and that other disciple, and came to 
the sepulchre. Throphyl. But how came they to the 
sepulchre, while the soldiers were guarding it? an easy 
question to answer. After our Lord's resurrection and the 
earthquake, and the appearance of the angel at the sepulchre, 
the guards withdrew, and told the Pharisees what had 
Aug. happened. Aug. After saying, came to the sepulchre, he 
Tr.cxx. g 0es bjujk and tells us how they came: So they ran both 
together: and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came 
first to the sepidchre; meaning himself, but he always speaks 
Chrys. of himself, as if he were speaking of another person. Chrys. 
b?xxv O n coming he sees the linen clothes set aside: And he stoop- 
ing down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying. But 
he makes no further search: yet went he not in. Peter on 
the other hand, being of a more fervid temper, pursued the 
search, and examined every thing: TJien cometh Simon Peter 
following him, and went into the sepulchre, and seeth the 
linen clothes lie, and the napkin, that was about His head, 
not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a 
place by itself. Which circumstances were proof of His 
resurrection. For had they carried Him away, they would 



VER. 1 — 9. ST. JOHN. 597 

not have stripped Him; nor, if any had stolen Him, would 
they have taken the trouble to wrap up the napkin, and put 
it in a place by itself, apart from the linen clothes; but 
would have taken away the body as it was. John mentioned 
the myrrh first of all, for this reason, i. e. to shew you that 
He could not have been stolen away. For myrrh would 
make the linen adhere to the body, and so caused trouble to 
the thieves, and they would never have been so senseless as 
to have taken this unnecessary pains about the matter. After 
Peter however, John entered: Then went in also that other 
disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and 
believed. Aug. i. e. That Jesus had risen again, some think: Aug. 
but what follows contradicts this notion. He saw the Tra ?. t- 
sepulchre empty, and believed what the woman had said: 
For as yet they knew not the Scripture, that He must rise 
again from the dead. If he did not yet know that He must 
rise again from the dead, he could not believe that He had 
risen. They had heard as much indeed from our Lord, and 
veiy openly, but they were so accustomed to hear parables 
from Him, that they took this for a parable, and thought He 
meant something else. Greg. But this account of the Greg. 
Evangelist 1 must not be thought to be without some mystical x £™ \ n 
meaning. By John, the younger of the two, the synagogue; Evang. 
by Peter, the elder, the Gentile Church is represented: for S ubtilis 
though the synagogue was before the Gentile Church as 
regards the worship of God, as regards time the Gentile 
world was before the synagogue. They ran together, because 
the Gentile world ran side by side with the synagogue from 
first to last, in respect of purity and community of life, though 
a purity and community of understanding 2 they had not. The * pari 
synagogue came first to the sepulchre,but entered not: it knew sensu 
the commandments of the law, and had heard the prophecies 
of our Lord's incarnation and death, but would not believe in 
Him who died. Then cometh Simon Peter, and enteredinto the 
sepulchre: the Gentile Church both knew Jesus Christ as 
dead man, and believed in Him as living God. The napkin 
about our Lord's head is not found with the linen clothes, 
i. e. God, the Head of Christ, and the incomprehensible 
mysteries of the Godhead are removed from our poor know- 
ledge; His power transcends the nature of the creature. ' 



598 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XX. 

And it is found not only apart, but also wrapped together ; 
because of the linen wrapped together, neither beginning 
nor end is seen ; and the height of the Divine nature had 
neither beginning nor end. And it is into one place: for 
where there is division, God is not; and they merit His grace, 
who do not occasion scandal by dividing themselves into sects. 
But as a napkin is what is used in labouring to wipe the sweat 
of the brow, by the napkin here we may understand the labour 
of God : which napkin is found apart, because the suffering 
of our Redeemer is far removed from ours ; inasmuch as He 
suffered innocently, that which we suffer justly ; He sub- 
mitted Himself to death voluntarily, we by necessity. But 
after Peter entered, John entered too ; for at the end of 
the world even Judaea shall be gathered in to the true 
faith. Theophyl. Or thus: Peter is practical and prompt, 
John contemplative and intelligent, and learned in divine 
things. Now the contemplative man is generally beforehand 
in knowledge and intelligence, but the practical by his 
fervour and activity gets the advance of the other's perception, 
and sees first into the divine mystery. 

10. Then the disciples went away again unto their 
own home. 

11. But Mary stood without at the sepulchre weep- 
ing: and as she wept, she stooped down, and looked 
into the sepulchre, 

12. And seeth two angels in white sitting, the one 
at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body 
of Jesus had lain. 

13. And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest 
thou? She saith unto them, Because they have taken 
away my Lord, and I know not where they have laid 
him. 

14. And when she had thus said, she turned her- 
self back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that 
it was Jesus. 

15. Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest 
thou? whom seekest thou? She, supposing him to 



VER. 10 18. ST. JOHN. 599 

be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have 
borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, 
and I will take him away. 

16. Jesus saith unto her, Mary. She turned her- 
self, and saith unto him, Rabboni; which is to say, 
Master. 

1 7. Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not ; for I am 
not yet ascended to my Father : but go to my brethren, 
and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and 
your Father ; and to my God, and your God. 

18. Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples 
that she had seen the Lord, and that he had spoken 
these things unto her. 

Greg. Mary Magdalene, who had been the sinner in the Greg. 
city, and who had washed out the spots of her sins by her tears, ^°™i n 
whose soul burned with love, did not retire from the sepul- Evang. 
chre when the others did : Then the disciples went away again 
unto their own home. Aug. i. e. To the place where they were Aug. 
lodging, and from which they had ran to the sepulchre. J T - CXXU 
But though the men returned, the stronger love of the woman 
fixed her to the spot. But Alary stood without at the sepul- 
chre weeping. Aug. i. e. Outside of the place where the Aug. 
stone sepulchre was, but yet within the garden. Chrys. ^f c °?* 
Be not astonished that Mary wept for love at the sepulchre, xxiv.69. 
and Peter did not; for the female sex is naturally tender, g r ^ 8, 
and inclined to weep. Aug. The eyes then which had lxx *vi. 
sought our Lord, and found Him not, now wept without £ ug ' • 
interruption ; more for grief that our Lord had been removed, I. 
than for His death upon the cross. For now even all 
memorial of Him was taken away. Aug. She then saw, with Aug. 
the other women, the Angel sitting on the right, on the stone l e PS?" 
which had been rolled away from the sepulchre, at whose words xxiv.69. 
it was that she looked into the sepulchre. Chrys. The sight of Mat.28, 
the sepulchre itself was some consolation. Nay, behold her, to Chrys. 
console herself still more, stooping down, to see the very place ^°™;- 
where the body lay : And as she wept, she stooped down, Greg. 
and looked into the sepulchre. Greg. For to have looked xxT'ut 

.«upr. 



600 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XX. 

once is not enough for love. Love makes one desire to look 

Aug. over and over again. Aug. In her too great grief she could 

r,CXX1 ' believe neither her own eyes, nor the disciples'. Or was it 

^ re 8 a divine impulse which caused her to look in ? Greg. She 

Hom. r 

xxv. sought the body, and found it not ; she persevered in seek- 
ing; and so it came to pass that she found. Her longings, 
growing the stronger, the more they were disappointed, at last 
found and laid hold on their object. For holy longings 
ever gain strength by delay ; did they not, they would not 
be longings. Mary so loved, that not content with seeing 
the sepulchre, she stooped down and looked in : let us see 
the fruit which came of this persevering love: And seeth two 
Angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at 
Chrys. the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain. Chrys. As her 
lxxxvi. understanding was not so raised as to be able to gather from 
!• the napkins the fact of the resurrection, she is given the 

sight of Angels in bright apparel, who sooth her sorrow. 
Aug. Aug. But why did one sit at the head, the other at the feet? 
r ' cxxl To signify that the glad tidings of Christ's Gospel was to 
be delivered from the head to the feet, from the beginning 
to the end. The Greek word Angel means one who delivers 
Greg. news. Greg. The Angel sits at the head when the Apostles 
xx™"in P reac h l ^ at ■* Me beginning was the Word: he sits, as it 
Evang. were, at the feet, when it is said, The Word was made flesh. 
c. l, H-gy t h e two Angels too we may understand the two testa- 
ments; both of which proclaim alike the incarnation, 
death, and resurrection of our Lord. The Old seems to sit 
Chrys. at the head, the New at the feet. Chrys. The Angels who 
Hom. appear say nothing about the resurrection; but by degrees 
the subject is entered on. First of all they address her 
compassionately, to prevent her from being overpowered by 
a spectacle of such extraordinary brightness : And they say 
unto her, Woman, why weepest thou f The Angels forbad 
tears, and announced, as it were, the joy that was at hand: 
Greg. Why weepest thou? As if to say, Weep not. Greg. The 
Hom. ver y declarations of Scripture which excite our tears of love, 
wipe away those very tears, by promising us the sight of our 
Aug. Redeemer again. Aug. But she, thinking that they wanted 
Tr.cxxi. to k novv w j,y s h e wept^ tells them the reason: She saith unto 
them, Because they have taken away my Lord, The lifeless 



VEK. 10 18. ST. JOHN. 601 

body of her Lord, she calls her Lord, putting the part for the 
whole; just as we confess that Jesus Christ the Son of God was 
buried, when only His flesh was buried. And I know not where 
they have placed Him : it was a still greater grief, that she 
did not know where to go to console her grief. Chrys. As Chrys. 
yet she knew nothing of the resurrection, but thought the lx °^j 
body had been taken away. Aug. Here the Angels must Aug. 
be understood to rise up, for Luke describes them as seen E^-ane' 
standing. Aug. The hour was now come, which the Angels HLxxtr. 
announced, when sorrow should be succeeded by joy: ^/w^Tr.cxxi. 
when she had thus said, she turned herself back. Chrys. Chrys. 
But why, when she is talking to the Angels, and before she om# 
has heard any thing from them, does she turn back? It seems 
to me that while she was speaking, Christ appeared behind 
her, and that the Angels by their posture, look, and motion, 
shewed that they saw our Lord, and that thus it was that she 
turned back. Greg. We must observe that Mary, who as Greg. 
yet doubted our Lord's resurrection, turned back to see Hom * 

. XXV. 

Jesus. By her doubting she turned her back, as it were, 
upon our Lord. Yet inasmuch as she loved, she saw Him. 
She loved and doubted : she saw, and did not recognise Him : 
And saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus. 
Chrys. To the Angels He appeared as their Lord, but not so to Chrys. 
the woman, for the sight coming upon her all at once, would Hom \ 
have stupified her. She was not to be lifted suddenly, but 
gradually to high things. Greg. Jesus saith unto her, Greg. 
Woman, why weepest thou f He asks the cause of her grief, Hom * 
to set her longing still more. For the mere mentioning His 
name whom she sought would inflame her love for Him. 
Chrys. Because He appeared as a common person, she Chrys. 
thought Him the gardener: She, supposing Him to be the ix ™^ 
gardener, saith unto Him, Sir, if Thou have borne Him hence, *« 
tell me where Thou hast laid Him, and I will take Him 
away. i. e. If thou hast taken Him away from fear of the 
Jews, tell me, and I will take Him again. Theophyl. She 
was afraid that the Jews might vent their rage even on the 
lifeless body, and therefore wished to remove it to some 
secret place. Greg. Perhaps, however, the woman was right Greg, 
in believing Jesus to be the gardener. Was not He the spiri- Hom * 
tual Gardener, who by the power of His love had sown strong 



602 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. \.\. 

seeds of virtue in her breast? But how is it that, as soon as 
she sees the gardener, as she supposes Him to be, she says, 
without having told Him who it was she was seeking, Sir, if 
Thou hast borne Him hence? Tt arises from her love; when 
one loves a person, one never thinks that any one else can be 
ignorant of him. Our Lord, after calling her by the common 
name of her sex, and not being recognised, calls her by her 
own name: Jems saith unto her, Mary; as if to say, Recog- 
nise Him, who recognises thee. Mary, being called by 
name, recognises Him; that it was He whom she sought 
externally, and He who taught her internally to seek: She 
turned herself, and saith unto Him, Rabboni; which is to 
Chrys. say, Master. Chrys. Just as He was sometimes in the 
lxxTvi. midst of the Jews, and they did not know Him till He pleased 
*• to make Himself known. But why does she turn herself, 

when she had turned herself before? It seems to me that 
when she said, Where thou hast laid Him, she turned 
to the Angels, to ask why they were astonished. Then 
Christ, calling her, discovered Himself by His voice, and 
Aug. made her turn to Him again. Aug. Or she first turned her 
Tr,cxxl 'body, but thought Him what He was not; now she was 
turned in heart, and knew who He was. Let no one how- 
ever blame her, because she called the gardener, Lord, and 
Jesus, Master. The one was a title of courtesy to a person 
from whom she was asking a favour; the other of respect to 
a Teacher from whom she was used to learn to distinguish the 
divine from the human. The word Lord is used in different 
senses, when she says, They have taken away my Lord, and 
Greg, when she says, Lord, if Thou have borne Him away. Gbeo. 
Hom. rpj^ Evangelist does not add what she did upon recognising 
Him, but we know from what our Lord said to her: Jesus 
saith unto her, Touch Me not. Mary then had tried to era- 
brace His feet, but was not allowed. Why not? The reason 
Aug. follows: For I am not 'yet ascended to My Father. Aug. But 
3 r ' cxxl 'if standing upon the earth, He is not touched, how shall 
He be touched sitting in heaven? And did He not before 
His ascension offer Himself to the touch of the disciples: 
Luke Handle Me and see, for a spirit hath not Jiesh oik I 
,39 ' bones? Who can be so absurd as to suppose that He 
was willing that disciples should touch Him before ll< 



VER. 10—18. ST. JOHN. 603 

ascended to His Father, and unwilling that women should 
till after? Nay, we read of women after the resurrection, and 
before He ascended to His Father, touching Him, one of 
whom was Mary Magdalene herself, according to Matthew. 
Either then Mary here is a type of the Gentile Church, 
which did not believe in Christ till after His ascension : or 
the meaning is that Jesus is to be believed in, i. e. spiritually 
touched, in no other way, but as being one with the Father. 
He ascends to the Father mystically, as it were, in the mind 
of him who hath so far advanced as to acknowledge that He 
is equal to the Father. But how could Mary believe in 
Him otherwise than carnally, when she wept for Him as a 
man ? Aug. Touch is as it were the end of knowledge 1 ; and Aug. 
He was unwilling that a soul intent upon Him should have xrin. 
its end, in thinking Him only what He seemed to be. ln °tiom's 
Chrys. Mary wished to be as familiar with Christ now, as chrys. 
she was before His Passion ; forgetting, in her joy, that His Hom ». 
body was made much more holy by its resurrection. So, 2. 
Touch Me not, He says, to remind her of this, and make her 
feel awe in talking with Him. For which reason too He no 
longer keeps company with His disciples, viz. that they 
might look upon Him with the greater awe. Again, by 
saying 1 have not jet ascended, He shews that He is hasten- 
ing there. And He who was going to depart and live no 
more with men, ought not to be regarded with the same 
feeling that He was before: But go to My brethren, and 
say unto them, I ascend unto My Father, and your Father; 
and to My God, and your God. Hilary. Heretics, among Hilar, 
their other impieties, misinterpret these words of our Lord's, de Trin * 
and say, that if His Father is their Father, His God their 
God, He cannot be God Himself. But though He re- 
mained in the form of God, He took upon Him the form of 
a servant ; and Christ says this in the form of a servant to 
men. And we cannot doubt that in so far as He is man, 
the Father is His Father in the same sense in which He is 
of other men, and God His God in like manner. Indeed He 
begins with saying, Go to My brethren. But God can only 
have brethren according to the flesh ; the Only-Begotten 
God, being Only-Begotten, is without brethren. Aug. He Aug. 
does not say, Our Father, but, My Father and your Father: Trcxxi - 



604 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAR. XX. 

Mine therefore and yours in a different sense ; Mine by 

nature, yours by graee. Nor does He say, Our God, but, 

My God — under Him I am man — and your God; between you 

Au 8- and Him I am Mediator. Aug. She then went away from 

Evang. the sepulchre, i. e. from that part of the garden before the 

J 'g XXlv, rock which had been hollowed out, and with her the other 

women. But these, according to Mark, were seized with 

trembling and amazement, and said nothing to any man : 

Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had 

seen the Lord, and that He had spoken these things unto 

Greg. her. Greg. So the sin of mankind is buried in the very 

xxv? place whence it came forth. For whereas in Paradise the 

woman gave the man the deadly fruit, a woman from the 

sepulchre announced life to men ; a woman delivers the 

message of Him who raises us from the dead, as a woman 

Au S- had delivered the words of the serpent who slew us. Aug. 

Evang. While she was going with the other women, according to 

m tf ' Matthew, Jesus met them, saying, All hail. So we gather 

28, 9. that there were two visions of Angels; and that our Lord too 

was seen twice, once when Mary took Him for the gardener, 

and again, when He met them by the way, and by this repeating 

His presence confirmed their faith. And so Mary Magdalen 

came and told the disciples, not alone, but with the other 

women whom Luke mentions. Beue. Mystically, Mary, 

which name signifies, mistress, enlightened, enlightener, star 

of the sea, stands for the Church, which is also Magdalen, 

i. e. towered, (Magdalen being Greek for tower,) as we read 

Ps.6i,3.in the Psalms, Thou hast been a strong tower for me. In 

that she announced Christ's resurrection to the disciples, all, 

especially those to whom the office of preaching is committed, 

are admonished to be zealous in setting forth to others 

whatever is revealed from above. 

19. Then the same day at evening, being the first 
day of the week, when the doors were shut where the 
disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came 
Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, 
Peace be unto you. 

20. And when he had so said, he shewed unto 



veil 19 — -25. st. john. 605 

them his hands and his side. Then were the disciples 
glad, when they saw the Lord. 

21. Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto 
you : as my Father hath sent me, even so send I you. 

22. And when he had said this, he breathed on 
them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy 
Ghost : 

23. Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted 
unto them ; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are 
retained. 

24. But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didy- 
mus, was not with them when Jesus came. 

25. The other disciples therefore said unto him, 
We have seen the Lord. But he said unto them, 
Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, 
and put my finger into the print of the nails, and 
thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe. 

Chrys. The disciples, when they heard what Mary toldChrys. 
them, were obliged either to disbelieve, or, if they believed, toixxxvi. 
grieve that He did not count them worthy to have the sight 
of Him. He did not let them however pass a whole day in 
such reflections, but in the midst of their longing trembling 
desires to see Him, presented Himself to them: Then the 
same day at evening, being the first day of the week, ivhen 
the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for 
fear of the Jews. Bede. Wherein is shewn the infirmity of 
the Apostles. They assembled with doors shut, through that 
same fear of the Jews, which had before scattered them : 
Came Jesus, and stood, in the midst. He came in the evening, 
because they would be the most afraid at that time. The- 
ophyl. Or because He waited till all were assembled: and 
with shut doors, that he might shew how that in the very 
same way he had risen again, i. e. with the stone lying on 
the sepulchre. Aug. Some are strongly indisposed to be- Au 8- 
lieve this miracle, and argue thus: If the same body rose C x.etcl. 
again, which hung upon the Cross, how could that body 1 !? 80 !*- 
enter through shut doors ? But if thou comprehendest the simile. 



606 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XX. 

mode, it is no miracle: when reason fails, then is faith 

Tr! g c'x3c edified. Aug. The shut door did not hinder the body, 

wherein Divinity resided. He could enter without open 

doors, who was born without a violation of His mother's 

Chrys. virginity. Chrys. It is wonderful that they did not think 

lxxxvi. him a phantom. But Mary had provided against this, by 

the faith she had wrought in them. And He Himself too 

shewed Himself so openly, and strengthened their wavering 

minds by His voice: And saith unto them, Peace be unto 

you, i. e. Be not disturbed. Wherein too He reminds them 

j 6 14 ^ 7; of what He had said before His crucifixion; My peace I 

Greg, give to you; and again, In Me ye shall have peace. Greg. 

xx°\HL in ^"d because their faith wavered even with the material body 

Evang. before them, He shewed them His hands and side: And 

when He had said this, He shewed them His hands and His 

Aug- . side. Aug. The nails had pierced His hands, the Jance had 

A r.cxxi. 

pierced His side. For the healing of doubting hearts, the 

Chrys. marks of the wounds were still preserved. Chrys. And 

lxxxvi. what He had promised before the crucifixion, / shall see 

you again, and your heart shall rejoice, is now fulfilled: 

Au 8; Then were the disciples glad when they saw the Lord. Aug. 

Dei. The glory, wherewith the righteous shall shine like the sun 

in the kingdom of their Father, i. e. in Christ's body, we 

must believe to have been rather veiled than not to have 

been there at all. He accommodated His presence to man's 

weak sight, and presented Himself in such form, as that His 

Ch^s. disciple could look at and recognise Him. Chrys. All 

lxxxvi. these things brought them to a most confident faith. As 

they were in endless war with the Jews, He says again, 

Then said Jesus unto them again, Peace be unto you. 

Bede. A repetition is a confirmation : whether He repeals 

it because the grace of love is twofold, or because He it is 

Chrys. w jj ma( j e f twain one. Chrys. At the same time He 

Horn. 

lxxxvi. shews the efficacy of the cross, by which He undoes all 
evil things, and gives all good things; which is peace. 
To the women above there was announced joy; for that 
16. * ' sex was in sorrow, and had received the curse, In sorrow 
Kxruf s j ia it i} l0kl bring forth. All hindrances then being removed, 
Greg, and every thing made straight, he adds, As My Father hath 
HO iMn sent Me, even V? send I you. Greg. The Father sent the 

Evang. 



VER. 19 — 25. ST. JOHN. 607 

Son, appointed Him to the work of redemption. He says 
therefore, As My Father hath sent 3fe, even so send I you; 
i. e. I love yon, now that I send you to persecution, with the 
same love wherewith My Father loved Me, when He sent 
Me to My sufferings. Aug. We have learnt that the Son is Aug. 
equal to the Father: here He shews Himself Mediator; He Tr,cxxl " 
Me, and I you. Chrys. Having then given them confidence Chrys. 
by His own miracles, and appealing to Him who sent Him, He ^ om '- 
uses a prayer to the Father, but of His own authority gives 2. 
them power: And when He had said thus, He breathed on 
them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost. 
Aug. That corporeal breath was not the substance of the Aug. 
Holy Ghost, but to shew, by meet symbol, that the Holy^^ 6 
Ghost proceeded not only from the Father, but the Son. c. xx. 
For who would be so mad as to say, that it was one Spirit 
which He gave by breathing, and another which He sent 
after His ascension ? Greg. But why is He first given to Greg. 
the disciples on earth, and afterwards sent from heaven ? HoD l 1 ' 
Because there are two commandments of love, to love God, 
and to love our neighbour. The spirit to love our neighbour is 
given on earth, the spirit to love God is given from heaven. 
As then love is one, and there are two commandments ; so 
the Spirit is one, and there are two gifts of the Spirit. And the 
first is given by our Lord while yet upon earth, the second 
from heaven, because by the love of our neighbour we learn 
how to arrive at the love of God. Chrys. Some say that ChrySj 
by breathing He did not give them the Spirit, but made Hom. 
them meet to receive the Spirit. For if Daniel's senses were 
so overpowered by the sight of the Angel, how would they 
have been overwhelmed in receiving that unutterable gift, if 
He had not first prepared them for it! It would not be 
wrong however to say that they received then the gift of a 
certain spiritual power, not to raise the dead and do miracles, 
but to remit sins : Whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted 
■unto them, and whosesoever sins ye retain, they are retained. 
Aug. The love of the Church, which is shed abroad in our Aug. 
hearts by the Holy Spirit, remits the sins of those who. Trcxxi « 
partake of it; but retains the sins of those who do not. 
Where then He has said, Receive ye the Holy Ghost, He 
instantly makes mention of the remission and retaining of 



608 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHA1». XX. 

Greg. sins. Greg. We must understand that those who first 
xxvi ' received the Holy Ghost, for innocence of life in them- 
selves, and preaching to a few others, received it openly 
after the resurrection, that they might profit not a few only, 
but many. The disciples who were called to such works of 
humility, to what a height of glory are they led! Lo, not 
•sortiun- only have they salvation for themselves, but are admitted l 
to the powers of the supreme Judgment- seat; so that, in 
the place of God, they retain some men's sins, and remit 
others. Their place in the Church, the Bishops now hold; 
who receive the authority to bind, when they are admitted 
to the rank of government. Great the honour, but heavy 
the burden of the place. It is ill if one who knows not 
how to govern his own life, shall be judge of another's. 
Chrys. Chrys. A priest though he may have ordered well his own 
lxxxvi. life' y e *? *f ne h ave not exercised proper vigilance over 
4. others, is sent to hell with the evil doers. Wherefore, 

knowing the greatness of their danger, pay them all respect, 
even though they be not men of notable goodness. For 
they who are in rule, should not be judged by those who 
are under them. And their incorrectness of life will not 
at all invalidate what they do by commission from God. 
For not only cannot a priest, but not even angel or archangel, 
do any thing of themselves; the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost 
do all. The priest only furnishes the tongue, and the hand. 
For it were not just that the salvation of those who come to 
the Sacraments in faith, should be endangered by another's 
Hom. wickedness. At the assembly of the disciples all were 
lxxxvii. present but Thomas, who probably had not returned from 
the dispersion: But Thomas, one of the twelve, called 
Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came. Alcuin. 
Didymus, double or doubtful, because he doubted in be- 
lieving: Thomas, depth, because with most sure faith he 
Gr penetrated into the depth of our Lord's divinity. Greg. It 
Hom. was not an accident that that particular disciple was not 
present. The Divine mercy ordained that a doubting disciple 
should, by feeling in his Master the wounds of the flesh, 
heal in us the wounds of unbelief. The unbelief of Thomas 
is more profitable to our faith, than the belief of the other 
disciples; for, the touch by which he is brought to believe, con- 



VER. 26—31. ST. JOHN. 609 

firming our minds in belief, beyond all question. Bede. 
But why does this Evangelist say that Thomas was absent, 
when Luke writes that two disciples on their return from 
Emmaus found the eleven assembled? We must understand 
that Thomas had gone out, and that in the interval of his 
absence, Jesus came and stood in the midst. Chrys. As Chl 7 3 - 
to believe directly, and any how, is the mark of too easy] XXX vii. 
a mind, so is too much enquiring of a gross one: and this 1 / „ 
is Thomas's fault. For when the Apostle said, We have 
seen the Lord, he did not believe, not because he discredited 
them, but from an idea of the impossibility of the thing 
itself: The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have 
seen the Lord. But he said unto them, Except L shall see 
in His hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into 
the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into His side, 
/ will not believe. Being the grossest of all, he required the 
evidence of the grossest sense, viz. the touch, and would not 
even believe his eyes: for he does not say only, Except 
I shall see, but adds, and put my finger into the print of the 
nails, and thrust my hand into His side, 

26. And after eight days again his disciples were 
within, and Thomas with them : then came Jesus, the 
doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, 
Peace be unto you, 

27. Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy 
finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy 
hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, 
but believing. 

28. And Thomas answered and said unto him, My 
Lord and my God. 

29. Jesus saith unto him, Thomas, because thou 
hast seen me, thou hast believed : blessed are they 
that have not seen, and yet have believed. 

30. And many other signs truly did Jesus in the 
presence of his disciples, which are not written in this 
book : 

31. But these are written, that ye might believe 

2r 



610 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XX 

that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that 
believing ye might have life through his name. 

Chrys. Chrys. Consider the mercy of the Lord, how for the sake 
LxxxriL °f one soul, He exhibits His wounds. And yet the disciples 
deserved credit, and He had Himself foretold the event. 
Notwithstanding, because one person, Thomas, would exa- 
mine Him, Christ allowed him. But He did not appear to 
him immediately, but waited till the eighth day, in order 
that the admonition being given in the presence of the dis- 
ciples, might kindle in him greater desire, and strengthen 
his faith for the future. And after eight days again His 
disciples were within, and Thomas with them: then came 
Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, 
Aug. Peace be unto you. Aug. You ask; If He entered by the 
Tap. ad shut door, where is the nature of His body ? And I reply ; If 
Cat. ii.8. jj e walked on the sea, where is the weight of His body ? The 
modus* Lord did that as the Lord ; and did He, after His resurrec- 
corporis.tion, cease to be the Lord? Chrys. Jesus then comes Him- 

Hom S se ^> ano " °" oes not wa ^ ^ Thomas interrogates Him. But 

ixxxvii. to shew that He heard what Thomas said to the disciples, 

He uses the same words. And first He rebukes him; Then 

saith He to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold 

My hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into My 

side: secondly, He admonishes him; And be not faithless, 

but believing. Note how that before they receive the Holy 

Ghost faith wavers, but afterward is firm. We may wonder 

how an incorruptible body could retain the marks of the 

nails. But it was done in condescension ; in order that 

they might be sure that it was the very person Who was 

Aug. crucified. Aug. He might, had He pleased, have wiped all 

wfcat s P ot - an d trace °f wound from His glorified body ; but lie had 

ii. 8. reasons for retaining them. He shewed them to Thomas, 

who would not believe except he saw and touched; and He 

will shew them to His enemies, not to say, as He did to 

Thomas, Because thou hast seen, thou hast believed, but to 

convict them : Behold the Man whom ye crucified, see the 

wounds which ye inflicted, recognise the side which ye 

pierced, that it was by you, and for you, that it was opened, and 

xx^Civ.yet ye cannot enter there. Aug. We are, as I know not 

Dei,xix. 



VER. 26 — 31. ST. JOHN. 611 

how, afflicted with such love for the blessed martyrs, that 
we would wish in that kingdom to see on their bodies the marks 
of those wounds which they have borne for Christ's sake. 
And perhaps we shall see them ; for they will not have 
deformity, but dignity, and, though on the body, shine 
forth not with bodily, but with spiritual beauty. Nor yet, if virtutis 
any of the limbs of martyrs have been cut off, shall they 
therefore appear without them in the resurrection of the 
dead; for it is said, There shall not an hair of your head 
perish. But if it be fit that in that new world, the traces of 
glorious wounds should still be preserved on the immortal 
flesh, in the places where the limbs were cut off there, though 
those same limbs withal be not lost but restored, shall the 
wounds appear. For though all the blemishes of the 
body shall then be no more, yet the evidences of virtue are 
not to be called blemishes. Greg. Our Lord gave that Greg, 
flesh to be touched which He had introduced through shut xxv j/ 
doors : wherein two wonderful, and, according to human 
reason, contradictory things appear, viz. that after the resur- 
rection He had a body incorruptible, and yet palpable. For 
that which is palpable must be corruptible, and that which is 
incorruptible must be impalpable. But He shewed Himself 
incorruptible and yet palpable, to prove that His body after 
His resurrection was the same in nature as before, but 
different in glory. Greg. Our body also in that resurrec- Greg. 
tion to glory will be subtle by means of the action of the ^j 01 ^ 
Spirit, but palpable by its true nature, not, as Eutychius 
says, impalpable, and subtler than the winds and the air. 
Aug. Thomas saw and touched the man, and confessed the Aug. 
God whom he neither saw nor touched. By means of the r - CXXK 
one he believed the other undoubtingly : Thomas answered 
and said unto Him, My Lord and my God. Theophyl. 
He who had been before unbelieving, after touching the 
body shewed himself the best divine ; for he asserted the 
twofold nature and one Person of Christ ; by saying, My 
Lord, the human nature, by saying, My God, the divine, 
and by joining them both, confessed that one and the same 
Person was Lord and God. 

Jesus saith unto him, Because thou hast seen Me, thou 
hast believed. Aug. He saith not, Hast touched me, but, Aug. 

2 r 2 Trcxxi 



612 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XX. 

hast seen me ; the sight being a kind of general sense, and 
put in the place often of the other four senses ; as when we 
say, Hear, and see how well it sounds ; smell, and see how 
sweet it smells; taste, and see how well it tastes; touch, 
and see how warm it is. Wherefore also our Lord says, 
Reach hither thy finger, and behold My hands. What is 
this but, Touch and see ? And yet he had not eyes in his 
finger. He refers them both to seeing and to touching, 
when He says, Because thou hast seen, thou hast believed. 
Although it might be said, that the disciple did not dare to 
Greg, touch, what was offered to be touched. Greg. But when 
xxvi. the Apostle says, Faith is the substance of things hoped for ; 
Heb.11, the evidence of things not seen, it is plain that things which are 
seen, are objects not of faith, but of knowledge. Why then 
is it said to Thomas who saw and touched, Because thou 
hast seen Me, thou hast believed? Because he saw one 
thing, believed another; saw the man, confessed the God. 
But what follows is very gladdening; Blessed are they that 
have not seen, and yet have believed. In which sentence we 
are specially included, who have not seen Him with the 
eye, but retain Him in the mind, provided we only develope 
our faith in good works. For he only really believes, who 
Aug. practises what he believes. Aug. He uses the past tense, 
r.exxt. t ^ e f u t ure to j|j s knowledge having already taken place by 
Chrys. His own predestination. Chrys. If any one then says, 
lx °™^jj Would that I had lived in those times, and seen Christ doing 
miracles ! let him reflect, Blessed are they that have not seen, 
and yet have believed. Theophyl. Here He means the dis- 
ciples who had believed without seeing the print of the nails, 
Chrys. and His side. Chrys. John having related less than the 
lxxxvii. other Evangelists, adds, And many other signs truly did 
Jesus in the presence of His disciples, which are not written 
in this book. Yet neither did the others relate all, but only 
what was sufficient for the purpose of convincing men. He 
probably here refers to the miracles which our Lord did 
after His resurrection, and therefore says, In the presence of 
His disciples, and they being the only persons with whom 
He conversed after His resurrection. Then to let you 
understand, that the miracles were not done for the sake of the 
disciples only, He adds, But these are written, that ye might 



VER. 26 — 31. ST. JOHN. 613 

believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; addressing 
Himself to mankind generally. And, this belief, he then 
says, profits ourselves, not Him in Whom we believe. And 
that believing ye might have life through His name, i. e. 
through Jesus, which is life. 



CHAP. XXI. 

1. After these things Jesus shewed himself again to 
the disciples at the sea of Tiberias; and on this wise 
shewed he himself. 

2. There were together Simon Peter, and Thomas 
called Didymus, and Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, 
and the sons of Zebedee, and two other of his disciples. 

3. Simon Peter saith unto them, I go a fishing. 
They say unto him, We also go with thee. They went 
forth, and entered into a ship immediately; and that 
night they caught nothing. 

4. But when the morning was now come, Jesus 
stood on the shore : but the disciples knew not that it 
was Jesus. 

5. Then Jesus saith unto them, Children, have ye 
any meat? They answered him, No. 

6. And he said unto them, Cast the net on the right 
side of the ship, and ye shall find. They cast there- 
fore, and now they were not able to draw it for the 
multitude of fishes. 

7. Therefore that disciple whom Jesus loved saith 
unto Peter, It is the Lord. Now when Simon Peter 
heard that it was the Lord, he girt his fisher's coat 
unto him, (for he was naked,) and did cast himself 
into the sea. 

8. And the other disciples came in a little ship; (for 
they were not far from land, but as it were two hundred 
cubits,) dragging the net with fishes. 



VER. 1 — U. GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. JOHN. 615 

9. As soon then as they were come to land, they saw 
a fire of coals there, and fish laid thereon, and bread. 

10. Jesus saith unto them, Bring of the fish which 
ye have now caught. 

1 1 . Simon Peter went up, and drew the net to land 
full of great fishes, an hundred and fifty and three: 
and for all there were so many, yet was not the net 
broken. 

Aug. The preceding words of the Evangelist seem to Aug. 
indicate the end of the book; but He goes on farther to give^y. 
an account of our Lord's appearance by the sea of Tiberias: 
After these things Jesus shewed Himself again to the 
disciples at the sea of Tiberias. Chrys. He says, Afterwards, Chrys. 
because He did not go continually with His disciples as^xxvii 
before; and, manifested Himself, because His body being 
incorruptible, it was a condescension to allow Himself to be 
seen. He mentions the place, to shew that our Lord had 
taken away a good deal of their fear, and that they no longer 
kept within doors, though they had gone to Galilee to avoid 
the persecution of the Jews. Bede. The Evangelist, after 
his wont, first states the thing itself, and then says how it 
took place: And on this wise shewed He Himself. Chrys. Chrys. 
As our Lord was not with them regularly, and the Spirit was lx xxvii. 
not given them, and they had received no commission, and had 
nothing to do, they followed the trade of fishermen: And on 
this wise shewed He Himself. There were together Simon 
Peter, and Tlwmas called Didym us, and Nathanael of Cana 
in Galilee; he who was called by Philip, and the sons of 
Zebedee, i. e. James and John, and two other of His 
disciples. Simon Peter saith unto them, I go a fishing. 
Greg. It may be asked, why Peter, who was a fisherman Greg, 
before his conversion, returned to fishing, when it is said, om " 
No man putting his hand to the plough, and looking back, Luke 9, 
is ft for the kingdom of God. Aug. If the disciples had^* 
done this after the death of Jesus, and before His resurrec- Tract, 
tion, we should have imagined that they did it in despair. 
But now after that He has risen from the grave, after seeing 
the marks of His wounds, after receiving, by means of His 



()1() GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XXI. 

breathing, the Holy Ghost, all at once they become what 
they were before, fishers, not of men, but of fishes. We 
must remember then that they were not forbidden by their 
Apostleship from earning their livelihood by a lawful craft, 
provided they had no other means of living. For if the 
blessed Paul used not that power which he had with the rest 
of the preachers of the Gospel, as they did, but went a war- 
fare upon his own resources, lest the Gentiles, who were 
aliens from the name of Christ, might be offended at a 
doctrine apparently venal; if, educated in another way, he 
learnt a craft he never knew before, that, while the teacher 
worked with his own hands, the hearer might not be burdened; 
much more might Peter, who had been a fisherman, work at 
what he knew, if he had nothing else to live upon at the 
time. But how had he not, some one will ask, when our 
Matt, c, Lord promises, Seek ye first the kingdom of God and His 
33 * righteousness, and all these things shall he added unto you ? 
Our Lord, we answer, fulfilled this promise, by bringing 
them the fishes to catch : for who else brought them ? He did 
not bring upon them that poverty which obliged them to go 
■disposi- fishing, except in order to exhibit a miracle 1 . Greg. The 

turn mi- « » « i • i i c 

racuium craft which was exercised without sm before conversion, was 

^ reg " no sin after it. Wherefore after his conversion Peter returned 
Horn. 

ixxxiv. to fishing; but Matthew sat not down again for the receipt 

nii ne-" °f custom. For there are some businesses which cannot or 

gotium can hardly be carried on without sin ; and these cannot be 

Chrys. returned to after conversion. Chrys. The other disciples 

Hom. followed Peter: They say unto him, We also go with thee ; 

for from this time they were all bound together; and they 

wished too to see the fishing: They went forth and entered 

into a ship immediately. And that night they caught nothing. 

Greg. They fished in the night, from fear. Greg. The fishing was 

ra * made to be very unlucky, in order to raise their astonishment 

at the miiacle after: And that night they caught nothing. 

Chrys. Chrys. In the midst of their labour and distress, Jesus pre- 

lxxxvii. sented Himself to them: But when the morning was now 

come, Jesus stood on the shore: but the disciples knew not 

that it was Jesus. He did not make Himself known to them 

immediately} but entered into conversation; and first He 

speaks after human fashion: Then Jesus saith unto them, 



VEK. 1 — }1. ST. JOHN. 617 

Children, have ye any meat f as if He wished to beg some of 
them. Tliey answered. No. He then gives them a sign to know 
Him by : And He said unto them, Cast the net on the right side 
of the ship, and ye shall find. They cast therefore, and now 
they were not able to draw it for the multitude of fishes. 
The recognition of Him brings out Peter and John in their 
different tempers of mind ; the one fervid, the other sublime ; 
the one ready, the other penetrating. John is the first to recog- 
nise our Lord : Therefore that disciple whom Jesus loved saith 
unto Peter, It is the Lord; Peter is the first to come to Him : 
Now when Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he girt 
his fisher s coat unto Him, for he was naked. Bede. The 
Evangelist alludes to himself here the same way he always 
does. He recognised our Lord either by the miracle, or by 
the sound of His voice, or the association of former occasions 
on which He found them fishing. Peter was naked in com- 
parison with the usual dress he wore, in the sense in which we 
say to a person whom we meet thinly clad, You are quite bare. 
Peter was bare for convenience sake, as fishermen are in fish- 
ing. Theophyl. Peter's girding himself is a sign of modesty. 
He girt himself with a linen coat, such as Thamian and Tyrian 
fishermen throw over them, when they have nothing else on, 
or even over their other clothes. Bede. He went to Jesus 
with the ardour with which he did every thing: And did 
cast himself into the sea. And the other disciples came in a 
little ship. We must not understand here that Peter walked 
on the top of the water, but either swam, or walked through 
the water, being very near the land: For they were not far 
from land, but as it were about two hundred cubits. Gloss. 
A paren thesis ; for it follows, dragging the net with fishes. The 
order is, The other disciples came in a little ship, dragging 
the net with fishes. Chrys. Another miracle follows : As Chrys. 
soon then as they were come to land, they saw afire of coals ^x^i 
there, and fish laid thereon, and bread. He no longer works 
upon already existing materials, but in a still more wonderful 
way; shewing that it was only in condescension 1 that He ■ dispcn- 
wrought His miracles upon existing matter before His cruci- sui0liem 
fixion. Aug. We must not understand that the bread was Aug 
laid on the coals, but read it as if it stood, They saw a fire Thw*. 
of coals there, and fish laid on the coals; and they saw bread. 



618 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XXI. 

Theophyl. To shew that it was no vision, He bade them take 

of the fish they had caught. Jesus saith unto them, Briny of 

the fish which ye have now caught. Another miracle follows; 

viz. that the net was not broken by the number of fish : Sinmn 

Peter went up, and drew the net to land full of great fishes, 

an hundred and fifty and three: and for all there were so 

Aug. many, yet was not the net broken. Aug. Mystically, in the 

cxxiL d rau g nt of fishes He signified the mystery 1 of the Church, 

•sacra- suc h as it will be at the final resurrection of the dead. And 

to make this clearer, it is put near the end of the book. 

The number seven, which is the number of the disciples who 

were fishing, signifies the end of time; for time is counted 

by periods of seven days. Theophyl. In the night time 

before the presence of the sun, Christ, the Prophets took 

nothing; for though they endeavoured to correct the people, 

Greg, yet these often fell into idolatry. Greg. It may be asked, 

Hom. w jj„ a fter His resurrection He stood on the shore to receive 
xxiv. J 

the disciples, whereas before He walked on the sea ? 
The sea signifies the world, which is tossed about with 
various causes of tumults, and the waves of this corruptible 
life; the shore by its solidity figures the rest eternal. The 
disciples then, inasmuch as they were still upon the waves of 
this mortal life, were labouring on the sea; but the Redeemer 
having by His resurrection thrown off the corruption of the 
Aug. flesh, stood upon the shore. Aug. The shore is the end of 
Tract. t] ie sea an( j therefore signifies the end of the world. The 

CXX11* 

Church is here typified as she will be at the end of the world, 

just as other draughts of fishes typified her as she is now. 

Jesus before did not stand on the shore, but went into a 

ship which was Simon's, and asked him to put out a little 

from the land. In a former draught the nets are not thrown 

to the right, or to the left, so that the good or the bad should 

Luke 6, be typified alone, but indifferently: Let down your nets for 

4 * a draught, meaning that the good and bad were mixed 

together. But here it is, Cast the net on the right side of 

the ship; to signify those who should stand on the right 

hand, the good. The one our Lord did at the beginning of 

His ministry, the other after His resurrection, shewing therein 

that the former draught of fishes signified the mixture of 

bad and good, which composes the Church at present; 



VER. 1 — 11. ST. JOHN. 61i> 

the latter the good alone, which it will contain in eternity, 
when the world is ended, and the resurrection of the dead com- 
pleted. But they who belong to the resurrection of life, i. e. to 
the right hand, and are caught within the net of the Christian 
name, shall only appear on the shore, i. e. at the end of the 
world, after the resurrection : wherefore they were not able 
to draw the net into the ship, and unload the fishes, as they 
were before. The Church keeps these of the right hand, 
after death, in the sleep of peace, as it were in the deep, 
till the net come to shore. That the first draught was 
taken in two little ships, the last two hundred cubits from 
land, a hundred and a hundred, typifies, I think, the two 
classes of elect, circumcised and uncircumcised. Bede. By 
the two hundred cubits is signified the twofold grace of love ; 
the love of God and the love of our neighbour; for by them we 
approach to Christ. The fish broiled is Christ Who suffered. 
He deigned to be hid in the waters of human nature, and to be 
taken in the net of our night; and having become a fish by 
the taking of humanity, became bread to refresh us by His 
divinity. Greg. To Peter was the holy Church committed ; 
to him is it specially said, Feed My sheep. That then which 
is afterwards declared by word, is now signified by act. He 
it is who draws the fishes to the firm shore, because he it was 
who pointed out the stability of the eternal country to the 
faithful. This he did by word of mouth, by epistles; this 
he does daily by signs and miracles. After saying that the 
net was full of great fishes, the number follows: Full of great 
fishes, an hundred and fifty and three. Aug. In the draught Aug. 
before, the number of the fishes is not mentioned, as if in cxxii * 
fulfilment of the prophecy in the Psalm, If I should declare FsAi, 7. 
them, and speak of them, they should he more than I am 
able to express; but here there is a certain number men- 
tioned, which we must explain. The number which sig- 
nifies the law is ten, from the ten Commandments. But 
when to the law is joined grace, to the letter spirit, the num- 
ber seven is brought in, that being the number which repre- 
sents the Holy Spirit, to Whom sanctification properly be- 
longs. For sanctification was first heard of in the law, with 
respect to the seventh day; and Isaiah praises the Holy 
Spirit for His sevenfold work and office. The seven of the 



620 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XXI. 

Spirit added to the ten of the law make seventeen ; and the 
numbers from one up to seventeen when added together, 
Greg, make a hundred and fifty-three. Grkg. Seven and ten mul- 
xxiv. tiplied by three make fifty-one. The fiftieth year was a year 
of rest to the whole people from all their work. In unity 
Aug. is true rest; for where division is, true rest cannot be. Aug. 
exxii. It is not then signified that only a hundred and fifty-three 
saints are to rise again to eternal life, but this number repre- 
sents all who partake of the grace of the Holy Spirit: which 
number too contains three fifties, and three over, with reference 
to the mystery of the Trinity. And the number fifty is made 
up of seven sevens, and one in addition, signifying that those 
sevens are one. That they were great fishes too, is not 
without meaning. For when our Lord says, / came not to 
destroy the law, but to fulfil, by giving, that is, the Holy 
Spirit through Whom the law can be fulfilled, He says almost 
immediately after, Whosoever shall do and teach them, the 
same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. In 
the first draught the net was broken, to signify schisms; but 
here to shew that in that perfect peace of the blessed there 
would be no schisms, the Evangelist continues: And for all 
i Tttai- they were so great \ yet was not the net broken ; as if alluding 
tanti to tne case before, * n which it was broken, and making a 
favourable comparison. 

12. Jesus saith unto them, Come and dine. And 
none of the disciples durst ask him, Who art thou? 
knowing that it was the Lord. 

13. Jesus then cometh, and taketh bread, and giveth 
them, and fish likewise. 

14. This is now the third time that Jesus shewed 
himself to his disciples, after that he was risen from 
the dead. 

Tract. Aug. The fishing being over, our Lord invites them to diue : 

exxiii. j estis saith unto I hem, Come and dine. Chrys. John does 

Horn." not say that He ate with them, but Luke does. He ate 

Aug.™ however not to satisfy the wants of nature, but to shew the 

xiii.de realitv of His resurrection. Aim; The bodies of the just, 

Cnr.Dei, 

c. xxii. 



VEK. 12 — 14. ST. JOHN. 621 

when they rise again, shall need neither the word of life that 
they die not of disease, or old age, nor any bodily nourish- 
ment to prevent hunger and thirst. For they shall be en- 
dowed with a sure and inviolable gift of immortality, that 
they shall not eat of necessity, but only be able to eat if they 
will. Not the power, but the need of eating and drinking 
shall be taken away from them; in like manner as our 
Saviour after His resurrection took meat and drink with His 
disciples, with spiritual but still real flesh, not for the sake 
of nourishment, but in exercise of a power. 

And none of His disciples durst ask Him, who art Thou ? 
knowing that it was the Lord. Aug. No one dared to doubt Au &- 

. . Tract 

that it was He, much less deny it; so evident was it. Had cxx jj/ 

any one doubted, he would have asked. Chrys. He means Chrys. 

that they had not confidence to talk to Him, as before, buti XXX yjj # 

sat looking at Him in silence and awe, absorbed in regarding 

His altered and now supernatural form, and unwilling to ask 

any question. Knowing that it was the Lord, they were in 

fear, and only ate what, in exercise of His great power, 

He had created. He again does not look up to heaven, 

or do any thing after a human sort, thus shewing that His 

former acts of that kind were done only in condescension: 

Jesus then cometh, and taketh bread, and giveth them, and 

fish likewise. Aug. Mystically, the fried fish is Christ Who Aug. 

suffered. And He is the bread that came down from heaven. cxx iit2. 

To Him the Church is united to His body for participation 

of eternal bliss. Wherefore He says, Bring of the fishes 

which ye have now caught; to signify that all of us who 

have this hope, and are in that septenary number of disciples, 

which represents the universal Church here, partake of this 

great sacrament, and are admitted to this bliss. Greg. By Greg. 

holding this last feast with seven disciples, he declares that ^j™' 

they only who are full of the sevenfold grace of the Holy 

Spirit, shall be with Him in the eternal feast. Time also is 

reckoned by periods of seven days, and perfection is often 

designated by the number seven. They therefore feast upon 

the presence of the Truth in that last banquet, who now 

strive for perfection. Chrys. Inasmuch, however, as He did Chrys. 

not converse with them regularly, or in the same way as^ x ™vii. 

before, the Evangelist adds, This is now the third time that 



622 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XXI. 

Jesus shewed Himself to His disciples, after that He was 

Aug. risen from the dead. Aug. Which has reference not to 

cxxiii.3. manifestations, but to days; i. e. the first day after He had 

risen, eight days after that, when Thomas saw and believed, 

and this day at the draught of fishes; and thenceforward as 

Au S- often as He saw them, up to the time of His ascension. Aug. 

de Con. . *■ 

Evang. We find in the four Evangelists ten occasions mentioned, 
hi. 26. on wn jch our Lore! was seen after His resurrection : one at 
the sepulchre by the women ; a second by the women 
returning from the sepulchre; a third by Peter; a fourth by 
1 in cas- the two going to 1 Emmaus ; a fifth in Jerusalem, when Thomas 
was not present; a sixth when Thomas saw Him; a seventh 
at the sea of Tiberias ; an eighth by all the eleven on a moun- 
tain of Galilee, mentioned by Matthew; a ninth when for the 
last time He sat at meat with the disciples; a tenth when 
He was seen no longer upon earth, but high up on a cloud. 



15. So when they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon 
Peter, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me more 
than these? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou 
knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed 
my lambs. 

16. He saith to him again the second time, Simon, 
son of Jonas, lovest thou me? He saith unto him, 
Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith 
unto him, Feed my sheep. 

17. He saith unto him the third time, Simon, son 
of Jonas, lovest thou me ? Peter was grieved because 
he said unto him the third time, Lovest thou me? 
And he said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things ; 
thou knowest that I love thee. Jesus saith unto him, 
Feed my sheep. 

Theophyl. The dinner being ended, He commits to 
Peter the superintendence over the sheep of the world, not 
to the others: So when they had dined, Jesus saith to 
Simon Peter, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou Me more 



VER. 15—17. ST. JOHN. 623 

than these? Aug. Our Lord asked this, knowing it: He 

knew that Peter not only loved Him, but loved Him more 

than all the rest. Alcuin. He is called Simon, son of John, 

John being his natural father. But mystically, Simon is 

obedience, John grace, a name well befitting him who was 

so obedient to God's grace, that he loved our Lord more 

ardently than any of the others. Such virtue arising from 

divine gift, not mere human will. Aug. While our Lord 

was being condemned to death, he feared, and denied Him. 

But by His resurrection Christ implanted love in his heart, 

and drove away fear. Peter denied, because he feared to 

die: but when our Lord was risen from the dead, and by 

His death destroyed death, what should he fear ? He saith 

unto Him, Yea, Lord; Thou knowest that I love Thee. 

On this confession of his love, our Lord commends His 

sheep to him: He saith unto him, Feed My lambs: as if 

there were no way of Peter's shewing his love for Him, but 

by being a faithful shepherd, under the chief Shepherd. 

Chrys. That which most of all attracts the Divine love is Chrys. 

cai*e and love for our neighbour. Our Lord passing by the ^xxviii 

rest, addresses this command to Peter: he being the chief l- 

of the Apostles, the mouth of the disciples, and head of the 

college. Our Lord remembers no more his sin in denying 

Him, or brings that as a charge against him, but commits to 

him at once the superintendence over his brethren. If thou 

lovest Me, have rule over thy brethren, shew forth that love 

which thou hast evidenced throughout, and that life which 

thou saidst thou wouldest lay down for Me, lay down for the 

sheep. 

He saith to him again the second time, Simon, son of 
Jonas, lovest thou Me f He saith unto Him, Yea, Lord; Tract. 
Thou knouest that I love Thee. Well doth He say toj"^ 
Peter, Lovest thou Me, and Peter answer, Amo Te, and our diligis 
Lord replies again, Feed My lambs. Whereby, it appears a' m o.' 
that amor and dilectio are the same thing: especially as our 
Lord the third time He speaks does not say, Diligis Me, but 
Amas Me. He saith unto him the third time, Simon, son of 
Jonas, lovest thou Me? A third time our Lord asks Peter 
whether he loves Him. Three confessions are made to 
answer to the three denials ; that the tongue might shew as 



624 GOSPEL ACCORDING To CHAP. XXI. 

much love as it had fear, and life gained draw out the voice 
Chrys. as much as death threatened. Chrys. A third time He asks 

Horn. , , , . 

lxxiviii. t"C same question, and gives the same command; to shew 
of what importance He esteems the superintendence of His 
own sheep, and how He regards it as the greatest proof 
of love to Him. Theophyl. Thence is taken the custom 
Chrys. of threefold confession in baptism. Chrys. The question 
j^^jjj asked for the third time disturbed him: Peter teas grieved 
because He said unto him the third time, Lovest thou Me ? 
He was afraid perhaps of receiving a reproof again for pro- 
fessing to love more than he did. So he appeals to Christ 
Himself: And he said unto Him, Lord, Thou knowest all 
things, i. e. the secrets of the heart, present and to come. 

Aug. Aug. He was grieved because he was asked so often by Him 

deVerb. 

Dom. Who knew what He asked, and gave the answer. He replies 

8erm - 50 « therefore from his inmost heart; Thou knowest that I love 
Aug. Thee. Aug. He says no more, He only replies what he 
exxiv! knew himself; he knew he loved Him ; whether any else 
nonocc. loved Him he could not tell, as he could not see into 
another's heart: Jesus saith unto him, Feed My sheep; as if 
to say, Be it the office of love to feed the Lord's flock, as it 
was the resolution of fear to deny the Shepherd. Theophyl. 
There is a difference perhaps between lambs and sheep. 
The lambs are those just initiated, the sheep are the perfected. 
Alcdin. To feed the sheep is to support the believers in 
Christ from falling from the faith, to provide earthly sus- 
tenance for those under us, to preach and exemplify withal 
our preaching by our lives, to resist adversaries, to correct 
Aug. wanderers. Aug. They who feed Christ's sheep, as if they 
exxiii. uere their own, not Christ's, shew plainly that they love 
themselves, not Christ; that they are moved by lust of glory, 
power, gain, not by the love of obeying, ministering, pleasing 
God. Let us love therefore, not ourselves, but Him, and in 
feeding His sheep, seek not our own, but the things which 
are His. For whoso loveth himself, not God, loveth not 
himself: man that cannot live of himself, must die by loving 
himself; and he cannot love himself, who loves himself to 
his own destruction. Whereas when He by Whom we live 
is loved, we love ourselves the more, because we do not love 
ourselves; because we do not love ourselves in order that 



VER. 18, 19. ST. JOHN. 625 

we may love Him by Whom we live. Aug. But unfaithful Aug. 
servants arose, who divided Christ's flock, and handed down p e ™" 
the division to their successors: and you hear them say, 
Those sheep are mine, what seekest thou with my sheep, 
I will not let thee come to my sheep. If we call our sheep 
ours, as they call them theirs, Christ hath lost His sheep. 



18. Verily, verily, I say unto thee, When thou wast 
young, thou girdedst thyself, and walkedst whither 
thou wouldest : but when thou shalt be old, thou shalt 
stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, 
and carry thee whither thou wouldest not. 

19. This spake he, signifying by what death he 
should glorify God. 

Chrys. Our Lord having made Peter declare his love, Chrys. 
informs him of his future martyrdom ; an intimation to us how i XXX vii. 
we should love : Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Wlien thou 
wast young, thou girdedst thyself, and walkedst whither thou 
wouldest. He reminds him of his former life, because, 
whereas in worldly matters a young man has powers, an old 
man none ; in spiritual things, on the contrary, virtue is 
brighter, manliness stronger, in old age; age is no hindrance 
to grace. Peter had all along desired to share Christ's 
dangers; so Christ tells him, Be of good cheer; I will fulfil 
thy desire in such a way, that what thou hast not suffered 
when young, thou shalt suffer when old : But when thou art 
old. Whence it appears, that he was then neither a young 
nor an old man, but in the prime of life. Origen. It is not°«g- 
easy to find any ready to pass at once from this life ; and so Ma"! 
he says to Peter, When thou art old, thou shalt stretch forth 
thy hand. Aug. That is, shalt be crucified. And to come Aug. 
to this end, Another shall gird thee, and carry thee whither Tra ?.** 

•f (Will. 

thou wouldest not. First He said what would come to pass, 6. 
secondly, how it would come to pass. For it was not when 
crucified, but when about to be crucified, that he was led 
whither he would not. He wished to be released from the 
body, and be with Christ ; but, if it were possible, he wished 
to attain to eternal life without the pains of death ; to 

2s 



026 G0SI1I. ACCORDING TO CHAP. XXI. 

which lie went against his will, but conquered by the force 

of his will, and triumphing over the human feeling, so 

natural a one, that even old age could not deprive Peter of 

it. But whatever be the pain of death, it ought to be 

conquered by the strength of love for Him, Who being our 

life, voluntarily also underwent death for us. For if there is 

no pain in death, or very little, the glory of martyrdom would 

Chrys. not be great. Chrys. He says, Whither thou wouldest not, 

lxxxviii.with reference to the natural reluctance of the soul to be 

separated from the body; an instinct implanted by God to 

prevent men putting an end to themselves. Then raising 

the subject, the Evangelist says, This spake He, signifying 

by what death he should glorify God: not, should die: he 

expresses himself so, to intimate that to suffer for Christ was 

non occ. the glory of the sufferer. But unless the mind is persuaded 

that He is very God, the sight of Him can in no way enable 

us to endure death. Wherefore the death of the saints is 

Aug. certainty of divine glory. Aug. He who denied and loved, 

exxiii. died in perfect love for Him; for Whom he had promised to 

die with wrong haste. It was necessary that Christ should 

first die for Peter's salvation, and then Peter die for Christ's 

Gospel. 



19. And when he had spoken this, he saith unto 
him, Follow me. 

20. Then Peter, turning about, seeth the disciple 
whom Jesus loved following ; which also leaned on his 
breast at supper, and said, Lord, which is he that 
betrayeth thee ? 

21. Peter seeing him saith to Jesus, Lord, and what 
shall this man do ? 

22. Jesus saith unto him, If I will that he tarry till 
I come, what is that to thee? follow thou me. 

23. Then went this saying abroad among the 
brethren, that that disciple should not die : yet Jesus 
said not unto him, He shall not die ; but, If I will that 
he tarry till I come, what is that to thee ? 



VER. 19 — 23. ST. JOHN. 627 

Aug. Our Lord having foretold to Peter by what death he Aug. 
should glorify God, bids him follow Him. And when HeJ™iv. 
had spoken this, He saith unto him, Follow Me. Why does 
He say, Follow Me, to Peter, and not to the others who were 
present, who as disciples were following their Master ? Or if 
we understand it of his martyrdom, was Peter the only one 
who died for the Christian truth ? Was not James put to death 
by Herod ? Some one will say that James was not crucified, 
and that this was fitly addressed to Peter, because he not 
only died, but suffered the death of the cross, as Christ did. 
Theophyl. Peter hearing that he was to suffer death for 
Christ, asks whether John was to die : Then Peter, turning 
about, seeth the disciple whom Jesus loved following; which 
also leaned on His breast at supper, and said, Lord, which 
is he that betrayeth Thee? Peter seeing him saith to Jesus, 
Lord, and what shall this man do? Aug. He calls himself Aug. 
the disciple whom Jesus loved, because Jesus had a greater Tra ? t ' 
and more familiar love for him, than for the rest; so that He 
made him lie on His breast at supper. In this way John 
the more commends the divine excellency of that Gospel 
which he preached. Some think, and they no contempti- 
ble commentators upon Scripture, that the reason why John 
was loved more than the rest, was, because he had lived in 
perfect chastity from his youth up. Then went this saying 
abroad among the brethren, that that disciple should not 
die: yet Jesus said not unto him, He shall not die ; but, Tf 
I will that he tarry till L come, what is that to thee ? The- 
ophyl. i. e. Shall he not die ? Aug. Jesus saith unto him, Aug. 

What is that to thee? and He then repeats, Follow thou Me, Tra ? u 

cxxiv* 

as if John would not follow Him, because he wished to 
remain till He came; Then went this saying abroad among 
the disciples, that that disciple should not die. Was it not 
a natural inference of the disciple's ? But John himself does 
away with such a notion: Yet Jesus said not unto him, He 
shall not die; but, Tf I will that he tarry till I come, what is 
that to thee ? But if any so will, let him contradict, and say 
that what John says is true, viz. that our Lord did not say that 
that disciple should not die, but that nevertheless this was 
signified by using such words as John records. Theophyl. 
Or let him say, Christ did not deny that John was to die, for 



628 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO (ii.vr. \\i 

whatever is born dies; but said, / will that he tarty till 1 
come, i. e. to live to tbe end of the world, and then he shall 
suffer martyrdom for Me. And therefore they confess that 
he still lives, but will be killed by Antichrist, and will preach 
Christ's name with Elias. But if his sepulchre be objected, 
then they say that he entered in alive, and went out of it after- 
Aug. wards. Aug. Or perhaps he will allow that John still lies in 
cxxiv." his sepulchre at Ephesus, but asleep, not dead ; and will 
give us a proof, that the soil over his grave is moist and 
watery, owing to his respiration. But why should our 
Lord grant it as a great privilege to the disciple whom 
He loved, that he should sleep this long time in the body, 
when he released Peter from the burden of the flesh by a 
glorious martyrdom, and gave him what Paul had longed 
for, when he said, / have a desire to depart and be with 
Christ? If there really takes place at John's grave that 
which report says, it is either done to commend his pre- 
cious death, since that had not martyrdom to commend 
it, or for some other cause not known to us. Yet the question 
remains, Why did our Lord say of one who was about to die, 
/ will that he tarry till I come ? It may be asked too why 
our Lord loved John the most, when Peter loved our Lord 
the most? I might easily reply, that the one who loved 
Christ the more, was the better man, and the one whom 
Christ loved the more, the more blessed ; only this would 
not be a defence of our Lord's justice. This important 
question then I will endeavour to answer. The Church 
acknowledges two modes of life, as divinely revealed, that 
by faith, and that by sight. The one is represented by the 
Apostle Peter, in respect of the primacy of his Apostleship ; 
the other by John: wherefore to the one it is said, Follcnu 
Me, i. e. imitate Me in enduring temporal sufferings; of the 
other it is said, / will that he tarry till I come: as if to say, 
Do thou follow Me, by the endurance of temporal sufferings, 
let him remain till I come to give everlasting bliss ; or to 
(men out the meaning more, Let action be perfected by 
following the example of My Passion, but let contemplation 
wait inchoate till at My coming it be completed: wait, not 
simply remain, continue, but wait for its completion a1 
Christ's coming* Now in this life of action it is true, the 



VER. 19—23. ST. JOHN. 629 

more we love Christ, the more we are freed from sin ; but He 
does not love us as we are, He frees us from sin, that we may 
not always remain as we are, but He loves us heretofore 
rather, because hereafter we shall not have that which dis- 
pleases Him, and which He frees us from. So then let Peter 
love Him, that we may be freed from this mortality; let John 
be loved by Him, that we may be preserved in that immortality. 
John loved less than Peter, because, as he represented that 
life in which we are much more loved, our Lord said, / will 
that he remain (i. e. wait) till I come; seeing that that 
greater love we have not yet, but wait till we have it at His 
coming. And this intermediate state is represented by Peter 
who loves, but is loved less, for Christ loves us in our misery 
less than in our blessedness: and we again love the contem- 
plation of truth such as it will be then, less in our present 
state, because as yet we neither know nor have it. But let 
none separate those illustrious Apostles; that which Peter 
represented, and that which John represented, both were 
sometime to be. Gloss. I will that he tarry, i. e. I will not 
that he suffer martyrdom, but wait for the quiet dissolution 
of the flesh, when I shall come and receive him into eternal 
blessedness. Theophyl. When our Lord says to Peter, 
Follow Me, He confers upon him the superintendence over 
all the faithful, and at the same time bids him imitate Him in 
every thing, word and work. He shews too His affection 
for Peter; for those who are most dear to us, we bid follow 
us. Chuys. But if it be asked, How then did James assume chrys 
the see of Jerusalem? I answer, that our Lord enthroned , Hom ' . 

lxxxviii. 

Peter, not as Bishop of this see, but as Doctor of the whole 2. 
world: Then Peter, turning about, seeth the disciple ichom 
Jesus loved following, which also leaned on his breast at 
supper. It is not without meaning that that circumstance 
of leaning on His breast is mentioned, but to shew what con- 
fidence Peter had after his denial. For he who at the supper 
dared not ask himself, but gave his question to John to put, 
has the superintendence over his brethren committed to him, 
and whereas before he gave a question which concerned 
himself to another to put, he now asks questions himself of 
his Master concerning others. Our Lord then having foretold 
such great things of him, and committed the world to him, and 



630 GOSrEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. XXI. 

prophesied his martyrdom, and made known his greater love, 
Peter wishing to have John admitted to a share of this calling, 
says, And what shall this man do ? as if to say, Will he not go 
the same way with us ? For Peter had great love for John, 
as appears from the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, which 
give many proofs of their close friendship. So Peter does 
John the same turn, that John had done him ; thinking that 
he wanted to ask about himself, but was afraid, he puts the 
question for him. However, inasmuch as they were now 
going to have the care of the world committed to them, and 
could not remain together without injury to their charge, 
our Lord says, If I will that he tarry till I come, what it 
that to thee? as if to say, Attend to the work committed to 
thee, and do it : if I will that he abide here, what is that to 
thee ? Theophyl. Some have understood, Till I come, to 
mean, Till I come to punish the Jews who have crucified 
Me, and strike them with the Roman rod. For they say 
that this Apostle lived up to the time of Vespasian, who 
took Jerusalem, and dwelt near w r hen it was taken. Or, 
Till I come, i. e. till I give him the commission to preach, 
for to you I commit now the pontificate of the world: 
and in this follow Me, but let him remain till I come and 
Chrys. ca \\ him, as I do thee now. Chkys. The Evangelist then 
hxxviii. corrects the opinion taken up by the disciples. 

24. This is the disciple which testifieth of these 
things, and wrote these things : and we know that his 
testimony is true. 

25. And there are also many other things which 
Jesus did, the which, if they should be written every 
one, I suppose that even the world itself could not 
contain the books that should be written. Amen. 

Chrys. Chrys. John appeals to his own knowledge of these 
lxxxviii. events, having been witness of them: This is the disciple 
2 - which testifieth of these things. When we assert any un- 

doubted fact in common life, we do not withhold our testi- 
Acts 2, mony: much less would he, who wrote by the inspiration of 
32# the Holy Ghost. And thus the other Apostles, And we 



VRR. 2J, 25. ST. JOHN. G31 

are witnesses of these things, and wrote these things. 
John is only one who appeals to his own testimony ; and he 
does so, because he was the last who wrote. And for this 
reason he often mentions Christ's love for him, i. e. to shew 
the motive which led him to write, and to give weight to his 
history. And we know that his testimony is true. He was 
present at every event, even at the crucifixion, when our 
Lord committed His mother to him; circumstances which 
both shew Christ's love, and his own importance as a witness. 
But if any believe not, let him consider what follows: And 
there are also many other things which Jesus did. If, when 
there were so many things to relate, I have not said so much 
as the other, and have selected often reproaches and con- 
tumelies in preference to other things, it is evident that I 
have not written partially. One who wants to shew another 
off to advantage does the very contrary, omits the disho- 
nourable parts. Aug. The which, if they should be written Aug. 
every one, I suppose that even the world itself could not co»- cxx i v ' 8< 
tain the books that should be written ; meaning not the 
world had not space for them, but that the capacity of readers 
was not large enough to hold them : though sometimes words 
themselves may exceed the truth, and yet the thing they 
express be true ; a mode of speech which is used not 
to explain an obscure and doubtful, but to magnify or 
estimate a plain, thing : nor does it involve any departure 
from the path of truth ; inasmuch as the excess of the word 
over the truth is evidently only a figure of speech, and not a 
deception. This way of speaking the Greeks call hyperbole, 
and it is found in other parts of Scripture. Chrys. This is Chrys. 
said to shew the power of Him Who did the miracles ; i. e. P 01 "';; 
that it was as easy for Him to do them, as it is for us to speak 
of them, seeing He is God over all, blessed for ever. 



THE END. 



BAXTER, PRINTER, OXFORD.