(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "عالم المعرفة"


111 




1&J* 



gJ&Jt 



cJuJLj 



f .* 




(jjgXil _ubillg nginllg nhliiillyihgll iml\nl l LfDjiHJ djjgiii diolfli Uif nlmlm 

1990 . 1923 (jiljjuJI i^jL<io ju^I i_alj_uAj 1998 jLaui ^ 3l,,il,,ill Cjjjo-o 






uiuilj 



$Jl*1t 



rt.J 



-tf ^ 




LV^5^ 



Lg^iiLS <j[) j^ j-uu iiUi ii lint I iJL* ^a Sj^AJXI jt^ll 



II 



25 



37 



51 




^UjulJ 



• jIjJI J ,^.Atl 






121 






«_iLjiJI (Jj^ajjJI 
1 4 1 2-lJLLJj <b^jjLuj ~ A ^j ■" " ~<Ll>j£. ljULlc ^jJ CijX\ jia 



(jjalill (Jj-ajUl 




Il^Ij.^ 



(j^a 



217 



jjVii ii (_y3 (—flJJJkl 



«gaoll 
Kgooll 
«guoll 



.^jjjjv l _ ? -L>ol^ ^jLlC ^^ii j^^Li- jLa iUj2>j_d 'iUjislj) 






Cjlj^JvjLl (_gj_jl_Jj njLJ-jJ 4_4_l^5l_C CjJ^^—L-l (_^ 

.oJLLai L&U-j Ojb (jjJ! SLlatVl tjj-stil 2 i^aUJI 
falls ij ivLaJLi La Vj ijj-sJ I L«j 
(»->_p,l C l j j - > JLi 1 ig'i r j-fr L«j 
(j_oVI j-j-c. (jLSLI,l I jut ,_£ Ijl>- ^«jjUII (j-oj 

(j_o Cjj-U '^J'-J (jl (jS^j-l cixx>- iSLpJI ( _ T 3 fl ) ^ flj 
\l ,>-a ''LjJJ ij'V ij-^j' ** ala- (j-o ii— ijj^sj <_iJL»- (_p 
Cjj-U (_yJ! j j i"i J j_<fcLLs^ (j^a ijJLufc «U LLagaeJ L<i£. 

■ La i uJ-4 i a (_^Li!lj CjjJ.1 ^^S^jSLflUJI -» j i *•»_' dJJii (_^>-l 
. LoLxj LcjjjtA 1 1 al-3 alaJI 4jjL-uUI i— Sj^JiJI oJLA 

. ^lJudJU cjI Jl>.2I ojui *lj^>- (j-« <— iLiiSVI j^.LJux-1 









5 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

. «t_t£. I a^JOJl i)\ «L_ul_4^eJ (J_a-*Ji : LaLc_l (j-CjlLljs_a (J-GjL>" i u\ (_£Jl>.I CjJL>o 
«LL-^1^_aj /. luAi CjLLtli pi a*ic"( < nl (_y^. '"' g g '^~ f fLa oHJl (j-a 3^H^ Jm_i-(_ T Ji_cSJj 
: La-^Jjl i(jlj_ai dUj (_yi-c (_,'**»• "< J^J .SjjiLxjtj <__) LlSLJ 1 I jufc (^ J-«-«JI 
(J_«_«J «La_Lj_i) 4-jj-LaJ llj 4_l2j^_l^oVI Cj^toJI (j-a i_£jJ jaitiis JJlC J-Slj3 

(_jJl^>.I 2 2 alj " Jj-caj 1 1 g^JlSj . ((_yJVI im nL>JLi <j^3^a Search r I .^»5~ . ,.l 

' La i "J i(__)I=Lj^_ll 3_ljJl^ _j_<fc (±JLj jj_i (_j-3 i_jLlSLII I jufc 3jL£ Cjj^sol JLSj 
.(jLtaJ (^ I j"" 1 ** (jJ-II 5-SjI i nil i Sgj La 1 1 (j£. <_2^Lii.VI aL«j 2 ii I" -*-a L-Sjjia 
(ji^JLJI 4_lLc 3 ' "-* jD ^- ) 3-^' d>^ tiluJoJI (j_a UJL? "^ * * (j-uLJ-ll fi *° * rt o! 
(- I c jj a I II I i *j i ^ ~ ^ j Vj . 4_> j<s-A^SJLj La (_pj (cjjll gLxxLa^a : /aj^SLII 
La-u^a ^^Jl O-IjLaj . < j i LLd-il (j< i a i a -»" 1 1 (_jJI ol JjLb (Jj (jjjLJI (j-a 3_aL»JI 
^_3 jl^cal sLajLj-a^l ^_j^ « ' (J-J-3 (j-a 3j-a 4j^ie-<-u uLl>-I 4_>jjIiJ I xfljiia. 
LijLcjij mi a ,jx. i±jjJl^JI i_aljJal JjLpJ L£ Lajii^. (Jj-lSjJI ^j~ ,^^.",11 Sjjlj 
(j-a i((j_aLjJI J • s* a II j la 'I) (_yi<i <_jLjj-uI jj'^H IJl^Jj .4jjL>JI 4-lL-^-l!I 

. L^-i <±JJL*J (ji (3^-aj ( _ 7 l!l 3-2j^J2l!I jl (jlSLU jl (jLajJLi (J^JI (2>c ^1 taS 
uLijjil jo^-La (_)S (_JjJ J^><-1 i(j^_bjILa J-^CJ (jlJjJILa ^1 (jjjLiJI I >o 1 n3 La lilj 
OJLlac /c^J jj-a Cj^XI i _ 7 _toiJe_) Jl L ftJ u - i ^ t4_La l_3^>J1j Cj^J.1 ^j_a Jjliilj «UllL?t_a 
4-Jj i"i -rcj (ji (j^Laj 1 mi <•> j /o^jlxjI (j-<kj (j-a ji (j^-bjOil j^- (jLs islitjjilj 
Jaj JaJu i>_L*-j CjJls-ji 11 (_iJJI La jai^u fO-g-i^ ttSjuiuJ 
(_yia-«-l (_JjJ CjjJJ (_yi 4_<ia_aL«JI i_ul^j>JI (_pajtj ijJLLa (jl (_y3 dJLi Vj 
(_JjJj t^(j(j-vljj j-m pt->r I jl 1 1 i^iaLc Ij-al ja^jjj CjjJ.1 Jju /oj (j-aj ijjjjLlII 
(jl l_<o .jt-SjUJ,! j-;^- <— u^JLltj (J^j>J,l (j^ i_3jj>JI (_jJI JljJiJo (J^a (jLtujVI 
4_t£. lIuJlJkjI f^yu * J~* LaJt Q (^j_Liljl ^c3 (j-aj iCjjJ,! (j_a ^iSl! ^>- 1 1 i 1 1 n t-iJLufc 

SLpJI ojui ( _ T 1^. 3^>i lS^' (jLuuVI «Li-3ji (_y4JJ <JlijJi,l (jl j-Aj 'dJi^* - ' lS^ 
jl 1 LgjLi^j L^JIjj (j-a f<si.jJI (_,lr I jj'a «L3l JJt] j^"**-" J*"'* (_,» 1 nil (_y3 LujJI 
LlJjLaj iCjIjLso^u (Jj CjIj'i 1 nlu Jl«j V j-x-«-II (jl lilljiJ (JjJLSjju (j-a (_£_^-J 
/. I c-4 ••■■-'' I -iJ^^tJ (ji (j-Lj-a-ijL^'i/l Jl^-I «Li (JIj-u LaAJi^. Jli^c-JI Jl»-I j£'j3\ 
LajLJ-c : JLla Subjective (Life Expectancy)SLE x_£^lil j-ojiJI-^yjl i ^^L-ui 



jLl>-l 4JI Cji lxxj i nil (Jjljl (_5-3 (JL>J,I I Jui ( _ T 3 J^lj J-&J-« jij^-i » j£i\Jj 
(j_L2Jlj Cjj-U (j-C (JaiaJI I^JLJS JJ3 (j ni-lll »l olr (j! (^ i _u i nil <13jji-a ^^3 
(j-il i ii )VI Jij^v^JI (j-o «L<i^o (_Jjj>.| i_ul^>- j^c j_uSL!l I^JLs (j-^»- (_ji^ i«l-Lo 
;j« ' a ' a "-"' 1 1 (j' ^L*^ ^i>*-" CjUa^.^U.1 (j-oj -(94) ,jjiJj>JIj (jljjjjl JlLa 
Cj Lc^_iiD^_a (j_C v— ^— e — "I (J-* Jv *-^J^>*j1 (j-« (JQJ 3 i 2f JL9 ^j ■■^*tl -qI^, ^j3 
plj-j? (_i_Llie_o dUj-S w .1 ,^"A Vlj s ULJIj «LcI^JIj (_, i ni-»JI jijj Mill ".(JiLo 
3_. ... A ; tl .-.I j|j U ,UVI (J _ c . \l ,^'a t x^Ij>J,|j _>lj_a}U S^Liall rfuljoJI 
UJJ * '..' (0 ^-'"^-i «Glii CjJS^JI (^J i((jLajJI) «Ljii«JI (j^alj-o^lj (i -J I Lajdl) 

. «u (j U" U iSt jll j^c (jjLbj ojJll (j-c ciujoJI l j t A LJLc. 
I o g g iLiu Loj ^IjJljlJIj (j.. i -»JI (jl ^jJI cdJi (^ i . j i ..II ^>-j^ j^j 

jOjLSjl (_ji£. LjLc. UfcjLSI (j uS < M V I±1--^-l1I ji l<±jJJL*U CjLcj-lIo^a I j^,^.j J 

^ n i ->JLi a I ■ ^ " 1 1 cj Lc jjIo jJ, I (ji Lii iSj^Lla I j • ..^ i Vj «Gli «Ljj/IjjJu 
jj^vjJI (_, g i" V jJs L^JLa-L^SIjji (*^-j l(j"f Lfuj (j^ f«^.j-!l ^^l^-oijAji/j 

^-L.t-L-Ja 3 M <i r j-p^La iOjII tj£ JUJI jjfc Li£ sGli Jo. ^ ^LuJVI 

Vj i4_^a q\ i ii t^U aXp. Vj i3JL*-o V t_gj mi j 1 1 ji^>.^JI !_, j '." I j iS! ij iLoLu 
(jl- ( _ 3 _L«_j La (ji-i-^^-LjLj jJa «Qjej (j^ jl iCjjII (2>c i±jjioJI (j^ jjjiill (jl 

.lilli J£Ll tf^jj (j^ JJjJ V (jl m'lVl 

t(j-iajj_<ilI1j t cLiJl : L^J_a tCjji.l «L*_u1j J_J 3 J_jJ^. Cj Lu£i_u£iJtJ j r*3^- C f <a" Al 

i(jjnAlll (oJx. (j-ai-^l (_yi^-J i4-pjl i nllj d_j£.L<ii>-VI AjiaJlj iS^L«JI tLaeJ^aJ Ij 

a j 2 » 1 1 (^ I mi'i Jl2Jj 5 A , ..l^tlj (jjjJI (j£. N '^'a nj^JLillj ipLil».VI m\r j 

^yiv /<si«JI I j_<fc jj IoJJ .Thanatnlnoyjl ,^",^VIj Cjjll SjjiIj^ /oJX. Sj-p.'i/l 
7r y r~> ] j i5^_ul )t_^.1^_a «Li^ Cjj_(IuJ LiS iCjL«_aL>ij1 (_^ Lu_ulj^ Ij^ia 7c_aj-iDi 
CjLcjjiojJ,! (J-lj (j^J '(42 (j-a j la 'I) LJi^e- J I j «LuljjLi! I Jlx>- VL^o CjjJ.1 
' . A2j\ u^s\j^a] LlJIjLo (_ T l!lj iSLa^JI t_!Ljjj/l ti^5e-J (<sl«JI lj-<k (_y3 CjjJtJ (_ylll 
i«lK /sJUJI (^ jl »£ VI CjVjjla SjLjj (j^ («^.jJI (_,lr 1 1 j o A? (j^ (jliaj i ntlj 

5-Lu-qAJI ^I^Vl J>U LoLl 28 S^LpI oJi-b }£* So^II oLVyi ^ 



7 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

1900 d_a-u ( _ T 3 LoLc 47 (j_a j_«j(JI i la ■ "j" a f-ajjl <-^£>- '2^ji.a(l ^ < j i ntlj 

.(81) 1 9753_L^ ^ ULc 75^1 

N '^'a i4-u^JLaj <UJ3}L>.| i—uI^jv £yi 4 Ar ujjl Loj Organ Transplantation 
J_La j_j| (_g JJ! (a^i! (JIJ-uJI I . aj . ■- ^- j CjjJ.1 <_ij^j<jj SjjIiLJk! «CJ3^Lc (j^. 
LaJ—Li. J I S <__>_1_2J1 i_ii>alj La_U£. CjjJ.1 CjJLxj (_L& '*j;'^^\' ■ "< ' "jl SjLa 

^yjJI 2 i jll cj^tJI Jl»-I Brain death> 7cJ.I cjj_o» (j-c j j^miII « jijLsjLk)) 

cLiij^Laj « (_£jj_« » ^£j LiS Of] t (( <lse L*a q J^j?e_a t Jjillj 'J *°j ' "^' Jj i nil 3-A 7cJ,l » 

.(81 :>kJl) gaj.^T-M! V <j-o V) '.^j^l 

7"L>u (_5-<kJ V( 1 LiLuj UaLcJjl f-jjus^X\ I Jl^j <U^o (_£_^>-f 3J|_ulo JajJ^JJ 
i7tJ,l (Jjsju-^^c Lu^s JC ,",1- Ul A'^VI ^3 4_t>-^ljj£il!lj 4-uiaJI (JjL-u^ll (Ji- Jj 

4_Lu-u^JI Ojui A jjsr't 1 n"t La LJLcj itLj^-al jlji£. {jjS (j — SB LuJI (Jlij (<U <j-OJ 

(Jlj^v^l oJUfc (JlLa (_y^J i^LlLo (JjjJI ^L-uji^S 'j^>- (jijjW^' i^^Lje-ial f-« 

(jl JlIJ-1,1 (J-«J txJsljJl cit-L JV (J-* Lli_J_l,Lj d 1 Mil 4_i£jj Ll>- (j^aic '"■!! j-jUju 

Jj_a Jj CjJl^. jJsj . JL»J1 (^ (_>ia-n: 1S1 II SLl^. ,_, j '_' Ji-Jilll I jufc i-aLSjl 
~t>3-CL± (j-o I a.M laJl i^lj^vVI \jjt *\jJxlj^\ Juls 3-ojJjil,l JjjJI ^ ' *j'^ 
(jlj t(_)^>- JdJI \jJt (JlLa lJlSjj (jl (_yi^. JSJj (_ T lllj «3-oI^Sj CjjII)) *. Ltj LuSi 

.Euthanasia (_, . aj La jl a^Ljj ^ Cjjjjj (^ tjl m'lVI <-4>y 

"JJ ' ' ^^^ * *^^ ^axaaJelu dim flu- ( j^jjj3 4_j_tuiU d<im ^jlil Cjji.1 (jjlS 

jjl (jja (O^-j-11 (j^J •(_r- c ' 3 >^ (jnrt ill foi^-J dj laa ."ill (j-oij joi^. ,j^ JS f^ 

^^ILuta ^^[^.-(^jjLalj ^Ur ) ^yjfljj-L^al g'jjifl; Lp-^J j'Cji n L^!btJ 4jI Jj jjLa 

(j ,! j La I JJj -oj-^' lj-* (j-° <j J '- i '- t ^" J^-«-" ^Jutlj V-3jIL«JI oLoUIaVI 

(J-La (_5-Lc ijjj^*- 1 Cjj-x-i (_g I I 'i «i lr ^1 J i*aj joJj . 4_u^c j^lc Cj L»jii^a 
2u>j uaX\ l2i\ju£l>*X\ (_yJ^ i— flJJJ,l Cj^jeJ »l i 1" i 1 nu i«Lu^c CjL*j»i^o ^^ CjjJ.1 



8 



( _ T a cjjJ,I (ji^ tJ& 3jj ' »3 " '^!-2J>^- o | hj 36 ^ lilJja <_jLjSL!I I ju* .j < * '""jj 

. jJsjiU j-«jJ! - 

JlJJlJu i ul^>J1 _}JoLL« p^_Ltf3j_a 4_La JjliLJIj CjjJu 9-^u^^A (jl t_^>-l 1 JoLjfc J 

i_3jjj<j idijLiJ! fjjlsjll I Jl^J SjjjjJLi <Lu>»JI 3-OSUI ^1 jjJo- itaL^I ^ 

^_jSL>J1 Jl^£. j' flaJl Jl^£. j^Io Jjl ^Lj-ajj ^^jJu-id ^Jl J)^ o^ ^S i"i t «L>-^ji (jl 
r-jjv. U, LfcVjJ S^lS .-»lt\^\l ^ 4j|jliIj i_jL£JJ 4jjJiill 43*ljJLl i^^laLLajJI 
j_ulj Lj>^j jlj£ jjj^jJI jtluiVl CjUaa.^1 1 jl£ Li£ .3jjj-aJI oji^j i_jl^SL!l 



** p»a i*^\ ■ 






: L^j i ills 'j L^j-^-> i_u!^>. I j .^» ■ (_^-" SLpJl ( _ 7 b 
.(jjjLJij jLSLalj «USLolj «LLojlj «Luiolj cjLcjj^o^o 

J" uiJj L$jfcj£Ll *LjlCJ-o 7-ljJ i-dLuk (_Jjj>-I «Lx>-U (j-oj 
i»l 2 lLjIj «L<j/LjLL!I i(jl a a»Vlj J lu a II : L$J I i"i ii a 

.j-jiS" dJJi j_lc.j ((^iijJ.lj (J^^JI ij^jtllj 2_>.L>JI 

4jjjU V l4jlJlJJ^O l_ul^J>JI OjL^J-jjJjJLl ;j« ' i a ■*- 1 1 

. 0^£LL! LLlaj^ ja^jjJ CjjJ.1 (j-° 
l_£JJ (jLlljLalLa (ji"n < nL-oi ^jljJLv d mS i aJl q Jjlajl 
(jujLuJj <ll ^uiojju njlSLaj (jLaj l_£ Lr^ ^LcujV I 
(J-L2J Lj J-i-o-Tlj (Jl^>-i ''Hi 'j*> . «GLl»- (_, ii ii •" la « a 
<-<VI . A iVI ( j_ a l*LI j j-j-CJ ijj-LjiaJlj (_pol xa »Vlj 
fi in"" CjVU. ii]l_Ld> jjf L*£ <5 j j I mil 2_jiLujVI 

3_Lui_oJaJ!j JLJI i>-ljj LxbjJIj «jji^Jlj 2 '<K . nib 
(2 ij'v i .I II j (J.L2JI) (j\lIL>JI (j-GL^Jj . sLa-j". nVlj 

(JUIj (JjwiJIj 3jc uaJI : bj-Lo 3 JjJi£.j 4 iil"i-ie-a CjIj-lIo 
iSj_j^_3 (^^l^i- dilj_uJ,l oJl^Jj i^Lbalj J i2~i . ..t lj 



II 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

3JL»- jL>JI ^ *J. .' ^-4*-° <— 3jjJo ( _ t 3-«LlDj-uI Jj-i L$-La j£ (^c /Jlj-cJ jJLs 

r-jj^ij (ji-ljL^v SjjLJ cjVLv [^ VI-«JaalJi,l (j-a (j .ijlj . 2 '<& i u 3JLv jl (Ji^ 
jjl^'i/l (jl J-j t2 i j*C i n II 3JLv I j '"* (<^=-<j (jj-II ^-"Lh-^' 3-ajLU (j^ ((CjjJ,I» 
^ .1 j I a i Jj 1 2 II 3JLv I j j I c i_jjj^<j (_yl!l cjIj_uJ,I 3j^ ^1 ( _ t aj-cj (jl LtJsjj 

4_Lc CjJLxjJI i " i ii a j CjjJ.1 o^i (_yJI _j£. JJ ( _ 7 J-!I t-jLj-ojl pjb] Js>-\ J*Jj 

4_L&l^£Lil Sj-jill cjLcj-i^ojJI! (j-« o^h*^ SJjLHiLi i4jIj^»- (j-a (jjliillj ^Lla <— a^oJ-Jlj 
.. sLu^lj J xSj i "1 1 j Jx-*JLs) (jl?!! 4 j j i n Uj (ufc^j£.j ( _ > lojJ,lj j^jlIIj J .^.^tlO 

v2j>LSLiJ,l a'j-^1 Jo. ^1 Jj-ojUI ^ JjjI 4joJ QaSLj Jl3 (jLuuVI jl '(jJI 
j^Iolj-a ^1 j^Iaj-a cUl i(^-tu 4_LLaS (j im!^ CjjJ.1 Lai t4_i_L*_a 4_dJj-LaJ j] La Laaj 

. I5IU« <U UtuvLj r>Lc: Vj i IojI <t_La tLLi V ^ JJI 
2 I tj j»TlJj t,lj 

J— —I I 31 31 JJ j II I (J— I J * J 

L^-li ■"• j] cjjLs La£ (jLcuj^il Ltjj<" inj jl jS-aj V Luj 3l_oJ 5jL^J cjjJJ 

LlLo-Lij Ij^Lia 4j£ (jLS j-AJlII (j-a <j-u>- (jLcujVI ( _ 7 i^- ly^aji jJLlj . ilxjli La-i 
4-J2jLj;e_a (j-S-lj «(, ' aj 2 (jj^II jJL>JI 4_L>-» jl i«3LpJI jjiiiSI)) al <i rill L*£. 
L*LIi (_,_£ jl (ii Jal J-S-3 (jl J-Lai i7-LjjJI ^IjJl CuJfcJSJ JAjULi CJsLl L*-Laj>- 
. I J J** (j-a_J O^J^' *^"' *— thJ lj' (jr^! «LuL9 jLcujI JS)) JljLaj '(\94ll Lt^J 
(_jJ| 4_JuLlj>JI j-g,l mi U (j-a M-u-u CjjJkL) 4 La ■" » 1 1 (j^jcjlJI I " i J j i Jiil 

(j ih!^ i4_b_^>- LiSj i "j a ) » iSJI (jLs I JLa -j-j^-a (_gj < i"i i_JL9 ( _ T a uj^jlII L^-ijua 

CjLu^iI ^1 j-li-il .(S-iiill (jj^>Jlj i,jj^>JI js-kill I Jui ^1 (_J^£| jji La CjjJ,LS 
(jj| 4j£ ^Jjjj ij jJlj l( j^<iJLi ajlAXI (j^LJI (>seill till J (j- SALiHI 4JL1JI 

: Jji il «Lbl ^^aj^l 

I^J ■>» J ^f Jl S jlj ^— d ui— J I a— S3I S j 

(_£JLJ £ I «_£j_«_£a_j (^Jjl ' a * U J >■ fl 

I 5J__< ajj I jl 2 II A I Jl 

1 -) c w I c i_j^_1 3_II ljI j »■ »j 2 tl j— « 

^j-^i j ; 1^ Ja LUjl LJj II >l a- 

■' 2 - *' 4_La "'jj 1 " >•! ' a j c ■=' I I °i 



12 



6ulo i^JaJIj OgjJI 






J at i w I c I j_jj_3 i_ij_a w 1 c I jl 



_» i 



(jLa i^liijJI ^yS (JjS La j_»_Jol-LuiJcv L^lS^ L^i^ ^y>Jj (_^tl lS>*^' *}L*JI ^1 

(j_aj . 4-J-L3L3 «1_LS (j-o /<s-C.j-ILj ^^ J (_£JJ! •" J la » 1 I T^LULlI dllj J-aLHJ (jl Lit 
CjI Ji_<tJ>JI ( _ > ia_»_> oj_«_«3 LxjO j i a 3 1 (jLcujVI j-*£- (jl ^S jj (jl (Jj-iil! dlsu 
:j^.LiJI Jjjj ^1 jJaJl . «Gli (jl mjVI r-Lu (>c N -^'a ii^jLjLuJIj pLulVlj 

4__i 31 S J a i I 31 aj w 2 i_i Ja >JI 

ijj flj a (jJ>jVI lj >3 Ja iJI i_i 31 £j 

i^ajij JjJ-Ju (jj^e-J ^ijJ-« i<ic.jLj Sj-lq jl * i"ilj 4j-oLc <_jjj<JI (j^lj-ij 
(j_aljS *-d^>OJ * Ifll^JI x_aLtAJ Jl>-L3 t JL»J_*2u ^jLjj /-J t~i CjVI *^*' ' ^ o * -** q 

diLcj-LisjJkl <— _>i IS II Ijll^xj ajjui (_gJJI J * — ■ -^ 1 1 | jjjj ^3 /?-lL»J i_3jjjij 

' " ,'J * ' a " C^J-*-' vi*"l3 * t— s_3-t.1 <— Sliej (jl ( _ T Ji T LiLaJI (j-o (_L& °-(«-$-l1 JljjjJI 

. fj-iiajj,! I jui «L»-lj3 (_jjJI 



I j j » i ii (jj S> j i n «LJI (Jj_2JI LLiSLaj ^Lb ijj-iJI iSj-* '■-^Hi J ' a ." LojU^. 

I I jS i"i LoLS jl i(_ji^. J} Ji^a £)!■"" "^ ' 4j-*- ac J' i-Sr 3 ' ' J^ 1 " 1 Iji-f* - jl ' HJ^L) 
3jlx>-^JI 4JL<JL>JI (jSLIj -j-ji^ L*ilj j-^j • •• Lj-iiaj-o jl L<4jI «Uj jj£. (jjSLj jl 
«iIj_<ji idij_<sj i_2j_<-u-4J i^jLjJI j>jjLja_j a^j (jJj-JljJ^JI i_dJj (jl (_yjk Sjiji al 

. (57-v2j^j£Ll«J!) «cjjII 3^3li j »^*' J£» i_a < JLU a! *j^\ tdJi j ■^af 
«Ljjj/^LoII j-iSLoj (j^ i_LjJ-3 j-^ (_yiL>- cjjJJj SLpJI ^K *u CjIjuSi jJL!j 

cU >SJ3 '"'I \l j~-^.lj tlj^ . ..la s Ijlj d^^^J. jal"j^ <-<\l ^T" .-.j i ,^.a (jj^Siillj 

(j_o j-lTL^-i-SJ i i ii U tiij>J^£.j . (jLcuj^LI (JjjLaJI (_gj SLill I 7tjjLl!l j-i^. (_jj-«i 
iSLpJI jLtu3 cjjJ.1 iSLpJI ^j^^^' cjjJ,I : <LuVI uLiiiill f.^us ^£.-*-uitfA\ 



IS 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

(j info n_ga LtanJI CjIjUJIj (^jVI Jj^^sVI (_y3 llbe-i 2 fl i uiflJI cjl£ (jlj <til 
iL^oLiin} L&^i-I Jj CjuLiJI /- i^ai ( j_ a 3ju>.l^j ^LcalLa Lbt^aCjjJ.1 (j^ 'rO^' 
31_lj>JI oli-tb /_i I J S j J ' (_yjJI OJJ i-aJI (_y3 sGjL^jj Ji^v^J! f.\ flgjl 4JI dlli 

. LujJI SJSIjJI 

(__^3L>- «L»-j_i CjjJJ ^ J i a 3 j alc 'L^-^J CjjJLIj SLpJI A K i"i a Ji i""i joJj 
2_j^_Sj_a el ta 5 I j 4j^_&^>. 3J|_ijia Jlaj L#jl (Jj ii^ii n-a-q (jj^'CnUj d ^ , ,A< ^11 

j_J3 I Jl nLmj LjJL>- CjjJll (Jix-l (<sJj . 4jjl I nil J-±£-j 4jjl I nil CjUUjJI (_y3 

,3 J •> '"II JLgjJI LdJj (jyk 3Ll^»JI jj Jj iJaia S^jJlIII Sj; uaJll i2jL>LjjJI 

(2*) 

OjJ.1 Jju SLpJIj .i^LiJIj i±*ji_JI ufcj^j*-a (jl£ Jljj>J,Ij 

JLj-C JLajvI Jlajb-o j^I^JlJI J^JJ L£-(_^o}L-uVI <jJjJ! (_,a v^J^JLI Lai 

i,jjjjjii!! (^ SjjijJIj OjiJ! i±xjj (_£J-!I J J g^X I lilli (j .nl j j a jjLill 

«(j_aJjljJI (j^c-JJ C+-i-a-lJ ct^ 6 - 1 (j^ 56 -^ Li(j» '. 3j^»VI (_y3 ljJL>- Ij-aX. u^ujlj 
-(jlj-ax. (Jl) «^L>-j^ uLo 4JJI (jiu VI Ooaj (jl (j u-all jjlS Loj». (23-jjjcj>JI) 
jT>2JI rtuJkl IjJ i^^o^Lj/VI (jJjJI JjJ^I (j-a njj^ J^al ji-VI (»^jJIj .(145 

J_<C1Sjj i3jLc.j 3^i£L»- cjj oil (jLa dllji^ i4a£L»- Si jt-II (jj La£j . 4_> jsj^SLII 
ja£Lj| /o^j_LjJ SLpJIj cjjII (Jl*- lS 1 -^' 'lS^ o-" lh o^ r J-*J i-^mi 0J4J 

. (2 - I -LdHI) "JJ^'ll JJ^a" J"*J ^ " r (j I n-»-i 

I mij n> 1— S^c Jl^£ . Lo-aJ^j_JI jl cLp.^ I cLaJc CjjJ.1 4 IS *u i".U i"i Li£ 
CjLfljjju (j-aj .«CjjJkl ajL2j (_ylll (— ajUa^JI <icjjjja-a» L4JL1 SLpJI «Bichat 
JiiLaij'^l q^ju (jja L&^i >i'>^ (jj-^' °JJJ<J'~"^ "Claude Bemardjljjj jjK» 
(_ajLk>^JI f-JJt>- (j! ijj^- 1 o' "Jjl 'JJ I-oLj LJUj j 1 "^_'j .«CjjJ,I ( _ T jk SLpJI» (jl 
Uj-tb SLpJI (jl Ll£ (_rj ,>.«ll Jl^ivVI «LlLulI 4jajjj 0}jl uaJLj (_yji SjjjjsJI 

(^IjJJI (jlj_j^JI l<LI Jlj 2 j j j .Si 3LpJI (jl jl i2l*jjijVI »j-tt u-tt iCjjII 

JjL>- CjJl>-I lI^j ct^J • Lt^' O^l^II (j-">^J ^'J 'JJ^J-^W <-2j!>«J.I 

/j-ljj ^" H ^_4-*-I1 ^_i ta Laj-(_ T c^xlD^_a /■ olr (jjjL_ul (_ t 1£.-*Ll>-2 1 »l olr ^yzjt-i 

(j-il 2 3. cj^Lj <_dl_L<fcj . (jl 1 n t^Ll (^^j " li U j-«-»-I1 l£>*"' JaLilLj jl iSLsjlI 



II 



6ulo i^JaJIj OgjJI 

(jAAseJu La LILtS jjLuaJI .U_,-»« ^J 3j_ 1J1 _iJLi (jjaxll iUj-»« jlj UK -2 

. (4_uj<-a (jlalj-ai) (_Jjj>.| tjja\^£. ^pj3 pJ La aJSjjJj j-«-»JI 

.icX\ lJlSjj jji Jj ' . cXSj I (jji^ial (jj»jJ cjjJ.1 (jj -3 
(j^i^LJI ? VJ_& JjLtj LJl t <dJI jlu jUcVlj lt _jL^ (_U>I JSLls .^ujjJI 

jj-a JJLC *^_L£D ^ i C La ^jl i n t 2 *_J9^j_U j_cjdb- ( _ r J^ (jJjL_ul (_y^-"J J '"'> 

(- <>-s_it (2>sJj oLtjJll /yi p"ii-il"->-V jojJlcIjj ^Jj» '(_yjj J-i^ i-dJi f«l£. (3^Jj 

««L_Lj_i (j^, (_^v (j_o Lpejj ''^-'rh 1 ll^ L ^ J * (j-° ''^3-^ , Vj . A ^ jjlS Ij-al 4i!l 

.(42-^LtiiVI) 

u^La j^c L^Jjr*. Jjl^JI JLL (jjJI 4-La>L>JI 3JSL£Jtl *jjis ^ <>io.L!l 

J_iL*JI (j-^-J 3Js}L»JI 3 K mi a (_,-lfcJ V? ,j j.^^tl 4ieJjLjJ JjJ la 1 1 (j-oijJI plr 

^j" in 1,1 u 1 r-Cij-U (jLa i^j^-l 3_p.Li £yij .Mind-boby Problem p in-*Jtj 
i JjLil! jjj el.il j^c 7c-U <_o3jjj 'JJ* '"'II jl Cr^-3^ fO-51-iJ <»Lj i— a$- ( _ 7 S^l i nil 
4_lL2j<J1 <_ojLLi^Jlj LujJI 4 j i ii -»J I j «Lpj^>JI Cj Lu-ftjtll 4 j i nilu «Jij" i njU,l» ji 

(jjjj! ( _ > ^=UtJo'i/l 5jLa-"n nLi ((_£.jLl»J!) ^^SLljK^I ^j .. a ~ tt ^lr -r< gj L«£ . LlUJI 

jljij»Jlj (jj^>JI (j-° OuLy" i nVI tfjufc CjjLojj JLSj i La-ia-3- jl ^IjLc Ijjiia 

sLJulcjI j_&LliA (2>a I j ia>l uaj Laj CjuLjcILj/VI aJJb 4jjiIjJiJ (cI^J 4JI (J^^J 
djv^j 4-lI^XIj 4 jo i n-»Jlj tLxmAllI 4jc loJI (_,-L L^jL-oISjjI dJJjij i4_pj^vj 
j j ("dtj i 1 J-^N CJ 3jj i nil jji dLLa-li nVI ^_)^j-> uU-i 3 1 J J dili J^ 'j*^ 

S^Lclj '-" j Jlj ^ i_j I f i , 1 1 « " 1 1 !_, \ f jlj-a^l *Vj_a Sj^cLt^a ( _ t s-3_lUjlI I 

SJlJJljsJI i Sjj ka 1 1 (_ajSJlll i _ 7 i^- p J~"J' * i; lillij ij_iajill! jL>- (jj « (O^ij-A L3 » 
l3-J>-L3 (J-C-x_«JIj>J. I p "i (j J (jl 4 _i o ital (j-aj . j-J_)j(JI jl J-jL»J! Jl^S Jljlj 
i(jLaJ^(l jJJ-a ' aJUJj d_cuj^3 I j « 2j V (_yl>- lill jj i<ilill j>JL^J (^yl i ^- 1 a seu 1 1 



15 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

u^Lmlj.Si-.ri u& jZjul*. >\<lji\<~ .iLalicVlj v2jljJii»JUj j_l3L2jl!I ^jle. jLl^VI j I 
jl ""'I JjL^JLl ,- I f dlVLsJI ali-A, JiLa ( _ 3 _3 (^asLje-JuVI .jl_«j£.l j£. 3jJji£. 
S-iLa-" i ill dilij iSjl Jail CjI.}L*JI (j-a Lfcj_ji.j jjjtiJI j\ i(j^i.jG-ll ,_^ Jolj^VI 

. _MJl>.j {jjj>-j * )Lu£1j (jjri-*^ 3 (j-* 4_i^jL*_» U, 

4_JuLl>- jX.LitAj «Lfl-LtiC '"tVI »^'l j (jj^_uS (_£Jl) ' »a .'"j " "-lij-l! A J J '" a (jl 
<_3^>JI jl «CjjJ,! (jiS)) jLajLi o^.JlJ La SJaSLa L*-a «_«jajj ttljjli ii CjL&LsoIj 
(jl (jj.5 (j niiill joJLc (JLjca ( _ t 3 OoJ.1 4j-uIj.} ^i jj (jl jji i imII (j-a (j-"jJj . «LLa 

. 4-JLUI Jj-uoiJI ^ 

:ljj_1I j — j I J jL_Al sol (jia 2l j j -2 

L&Jljlj jl iA j i iiLmlj «Lo^a Lfc^Jj 4jLl>- (^^ CjIjL>-Lj (jLcujj JSj* 

jl «L<-ujjJi,l (j_a r-j^jajJI : dJUj <Jl5-a ,^ .^.^- ,".tl cLJeJjLi (_y3 SjjU CjLa^Lc 

.^i juwtfi ^i 2uu»y( jl jij^vi .(^iii .ljUuVI ^Ijjji J( >*ji .a^aUJi 

-(jl i n'tVI JJ ' ajj JuSj .Cjlji^-VI (Jj9 dili J^C-J • •• 'I aa»j| J^i-La isLuVI Hjlj 
jl ^ S_a 1 * i ii II (j_a Lcj_i L&tljj (jl-L^J 4j Mi_)L«-aj CjIJl>-2| 0Jl$j "jJj-o (JvJ 
«CjjJ,I» (jl (j-a ja£.jj| (_,i^.J .CjI jdl (jj?->o (j-a «L>-j.} jl ijjj^uJI (j-a lj^ 
i(jl i ii tl (_p 3Lj-». (_5-3 4-a-^J.I CjjIj^>JI eJJt (j-a Jl*-Ij ^jJl2j (Jjal iJ7 lc-jJt 
.j mijII 4-lJLc. (_jjJ j^j-uj jl S_al < i ii (j-a L<fc«ljj La o*ljj (j-ujla 

I J U a (J-ujJ iCj^I^>JI-Cj^L>- 4JI i LaLa-l <_ifcje-a £jj (j^ Cj^L>- (jil CjjJ.1 

i_j_ljjJI SLpJI pL2jl j i n'vj ' a-Ui: <±jjL>--Lij_l«J jl LU 2 j i iiitLi-4.il < Llj^u*. 

JlJ^. 3Jl^L»- ' a aj I j I » Je jj i L^jjj^ (_iajj 4JI (Jj iU^a | jjt jjjijJj i ' J." "' 
(JjU>JI jtJj |J».l i4J£. «LLaj| JLlS aJl2jj Vj itfJLtJ liJj^tjj (jl (Jj-»-"i i nj 7^JjLi 

(jLa 2 -i j a cjjI^v (jl i n't^LI LujJI SLpJI !_^s LixJL? liLa « JaLpJI ^ui (_jjs 

dSj-^- oJljlj (j im jj i/<s_iil CjjL>- 4_Lia (JjijJ 1 1 Jjj Laj I j i ^lj Lijj>- 1 CjjJ,I 
ini ujSj (JLiC.1 ojju «L«J (_>ujJ i ^ i a jj c JLal Vj 'Ljj^S CjL»Sjj Vj Zjj la * a 
«^Lii2 VI joiaJI (j-a joiujl Laj» '/yJj -Xlc- 4 nlr L*U!i (_pj .i_A3^3 i_ ijjj Vj 

.(85-^lj^VI) 
(j-g.j" i nj Paradoxical ^^al '."^ oL>oI-aLc ^Ls-^j-cjjII ^tj LLaL>oI jl 



16 



6ulo ^JaJIj OgjJI 

LuSLJj u>j£j-> 2j 4_i fti \ i ii t LLJI cLJafl LlJ it^vj-oj . ojii^. <_o3jjJI (j^-»^JJ oljjjV! 
^>-LL> (j I «Ld3 /o-lq- i ^d jj-* -A3- 1 ^ L>~5 t4jL3^ij t4j 3 -i «j «LA^S_J Lillii *_« 

C-i-1 1 La 1 1 (jJ^Ltoj LujJI SLpJI jojiai- ( _ T 3 LuSLIj i«CLL<Cl5tJ <_2^L*J i4j-i3c-a 
i«U^. «L>-jJl1o 2j 4_Lo jjLo V 4JI i^ju^Jx-a JlSgaj ioL-uLuj jl al mil i_Jl£Ll!lj 

•.(JjjLs j 1 1 1 j I I *-J-«->- (j' lj-° 

Lsj-Ld I iolr 3l_pJ SjL^J cjjJ,!j». (30-j_ajJI) «(j^lL<_o (o-^-ilj <-^"-° i-d-i!» 

. I Jj** ^-<i (JS Lj^2j (J^o (Jj-^-I SLpJ 4jI Jjj 1 L^la 
4_J j 3 j" ^Vlj j»J— . 1 II (5— I C «_J dj 

cjjJ,! (j-° L12ifl i_jLjjj<l (j-o (_>-^*j 3 jjJl«JI dil Jaal ill! oju* ( _ T a (J-*SLj jlsj 

. «U I i" S a j 4_Lo LcS^*- J 
d)j_4-ij /. Laj lJ^j^ ^paj*2l j j IA ,_a£, CjI J>^>-jJ,lj CjLLiISJI *_lajv ^j! 
Jl-ljvjJI (jlj_j^J! j_& jjL^ijVI (jla nilli (j-O r«-i>tl (jr^J .^i^-T jl ^U-Lc: 

dUi J-^-l (j-o .«Voltairej_LlJj^» JLs 1_«^ Oj_«_u-u «Gl LoLaj <-4jJj i_g jJI 



3jLc ^LtujVI (Jj^-ij . (j!^-pJ!j ^LtujVI (_jjJ J^j-jj i-j] 1 11 (JLjuLI i_3^>JI 
t_xj!^v cjjII ^ySj .xJsjlU j^cj ^yiiJIj i_u^JLl!j J^j>JLI ,3-a i_3jj>JI ^1 

i_3j^>JIj iCjjJkl (j- ^O-^-J O^-"- 1 ! <_P *— ^'-' e i i-^LIJ i_^>-' (j-« i4£jj 1 11 a ^hJ-C' 
(_JJLa ( _ T ^ J-^5-* ^ J " (J^l^. ijJLui ^La dJJj (j-° C^J-" Cr^-J .O^SLII jjj^a 
(J_<^a_flJI ( _ T 3 ." j 1 a flj <_jLjjj/2| 0JL4J u^sj * i 1 "J -"iJ Ll&^£j CjjJ,! (j-o Li£^>- 

jjjl jj-a (jl (_yJI aL2J,I I jufc ( _ T a L«jj_<ji j j mi LuSDj .i_iuSL!l I juk (j^ j-ii-al 

aJlX.j i^jLc-iVl 1 ^ * Co-4 l^IJn Li. t -< dj^ t-a (^^-Cj^J,! (j_a (-_3^>Jl IJlA * 1 1 1 1 ul 

.(JjI^ Jjlj (_Jj_uji Lo (jJJ-II J3-°W (0^1 iii'tl (_>^iSL(JJ tSjjiitll 3^ 



17 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

(jl j, I c LJJJLcl l_c_il L^S ijjiajJll ' " ' I j a- 1 i^a a /<uil (j-a (aJ^I (jl£ lilj 
(^-CjJl^ej CjjII (jlj itlijll (jJI-lIiVLsJI (j<-n_) (_y3-|j a flj (_p=j-ll (jl-'h-»-^Li 
L»-a iU j'j'I CjjJkl- ( _>I=_>-ll-(<sJ'2l)) :4jjMi!l (jLa i(_pajj, sLjc-uj-CjVLsJI -i la » a 
O*-. (j-*3 I JJj .i-i^u 2j /tjj^ j-lC.-LlLljJLc. (_JjJ-4J a VI i(j"CLa "-^HLh 1 

J_al^c qJI ^a ,3L,,i jLj>J| Ijufc (jJI Cunt 3Jf 1.1U <j£Jj .OjJ,l i-slitj (jl 
^1 Lb JJ^tJ La-a iCjjJ.1 (jJ^ I J '"* I Mint bj-<-u (J^.Liuj Lta j a I , axi (_ 7 J-"i 
. CjVLsJI •" laj a /yK; 4i^La 4jjiaa (_y*J i«OaJ,l (, '"'^ (j"-" 1 - 1 ! (.P" 0~ Lii^' 
; I jajU'<«ij Jj-il Jlaj-^JLLluJI JjiJ +"' ' ""> (^"j _<: ^Ll" 4_JSLII tLxiaJill (j^Jj 
. «4_b_*_a «L-vjJlJ Cj^JJ /■ i"i*ie-t (jLmjl (_p» 
JuvjJ i Jl3-jj La J£ (jl lilSj i(3-3^UaJI) « IjJlS sj^-i JSLI 4-LII Jjl». Jl3» 
(_j_*£_!I j J ) *"■ II (jl i(_ 7 SL^o2l (j oAllI joJLc «dJbl JlJjjjd (JL9 Lo» .jljJLa-> 
. ^qJLljI 7"Jij ^^Jl !il i/- aojul ^- g ' 1 1 ^j^ il '^>^ ^_AI (j rt 1 &l a lalj 

Lt-La j* . 1 f i n' Lb I t ujJLJLi (j-oJ-I (j-aj ^Ll* (UtAJJI si glr Cj^e_» /".A .".s JuLl 

isl^jJI (jja J£ (_y3 L$3l j S^vjjJI Lt-LAJv LbjJ (j inl'a <A-iji J£ (_y3 (jjjLuuio 
CjJSaJI (^3 ^JsLJJIj iSjla-u-aJlj i5-ujlqjl1Ij i4-j£:L<Co.Vlj ipLflJjVlj 1(3111 1 J 

jj-ia Ijluj (j-Aj Jndividual Differences 3_pjjill 3j>^l ^1 t*ili Laj .431 i 

4-jJL»_i iVIj 4_J_LiL*Jlj 5-LJ.QJe lilljl Cjl I llll (_yl^. l/TKlij (J ILflUJI joi^. (_y3 

(j^J^2_j jj «LaLtJ1 (_£JJ «iiJj"< i iill (j_o^J1 )) 4_jjl > j i"i 1 La ^_A 1 Jufcj . 4_La_tuj>J1j 

.(( Lfruajt -^ i~i 1 im! tiJjLjLcoi » Jj-i^u 
^g^l 1 oil I a-ulajj .43jLaILa CjL>-jJlJ (j^Jj (jil CjjJll /- uiiej Lt-Lg.-^- (jacJ 
4_iia^JE_La AjvjJj i_3^>JI)) (jl (Jjil i(JL>J,l Ijui i_^^ 3-aL»JI A-l^-^Jj'Cj i nil 
«L>-jJlJ CjjJ.1 (j_a i_2j^>JI)) dJLI j-Sj 1 LaLxJ (_g^Lcj (^J-<-u J-al V ((Cjjll (j^ 
«Lj1 M5I t(_^j_u ^J^. ^-*l 4jU2Jj_a «L>-jJlJ «LLa l_3jj>ij1 (jl (j-A->- (jl^- " d *a ' "j" rt 
. JjJlJo /-JLlAjI ' -l I j La 1 a I (_yl^. (JjJ»!iLJo sLuIoj^ S^^Lc 
(_,_a^Ljj/^i I (2>JjJI (_5-3 4 I "1 "1 a) (2>JjJI J-li-i c| -^-J (j-!l J J '"'' D' 0^-*-^i 
a>Lu<VI pjj» : * jjLall Jia£: .H->« jj~< ill Jj\- ,5l! ,„ll fl j ^^a (. >. j T — T1 
(Jj . I 1 J La VjJ 4 mS 1 nil (Jj-l'J ijjjjLlII jjja-a (j-a Cjjll (j^ «LufcjJlj i_2^>JI 
a "j J ' a .' "^ C 1 -^ S J3- L ^3 (j-"l— b!l (_jJI CjjJ,! i_ti>--dl! j (j^ ^lii I-a^Lu/V I (jl 
oljlj Lij^j . I J_;a t_j^c.jj^|j sLl^>J,I 5 \a uaJ I l*1Jj «Ul^. /. a 1 a I 4_cSJ licjjill 



18 



6ulo i^JaJIj OgjJI 

(j_o l_a» : «LljJS /cJj-uj 'LjJ^. ■=*_ 1-1 1 (_ji-i^3 C3-^' (j^ L ^J'- dh 1 (J-"- 1 ' (j-^ LSjLJ'-P' 
VI ^-<i (j-o (_p3j2l (_5-l^. «L! Laj LuJlJI uj]\ f-^-J^ (jl l - r ^=J «1_L>JI (Ji-Jj Jl»-I 

.«4-al^£Lll (j-° i_Oi *■* '"'0 " J '''"' J"^j a LujJI (_3-IJ f-*"jt} o' ct-" 1 -^ ^J<? i"itl 
4_UI (_ji-i^3 (JjjjijJI (Jj-2j .3jjJl>. SjVj-jj-oJJ,! (_yil <u i nilLi-cjjJ,! j-P-«j L«£ 

CjjJ.1 (jli- (^J-ll» •Ly'' J " (Jj^J •" ^J3.'""^ IjjLa I JL9 ,»Lu (JjjLlII)) : (&L-uj <A-lLc 
I jj;'"' SLpJI ct^- tH_jil AjJiS i2)-LdHI) ii^lor (j i n-»-l /oSLj I jo^LuJ SLpJIj 
<_o_p» '.4_«_«_i LLj-Lg (^Laj OJX.J i4_Lflji>JI 3l_pJI ^1 4j (Jj^sjjj 4JI (_yJI 
«{j^ju>-j3 A-jJl ^cj t^S_uj*j jcj if^SJLul jcj ifaSl_L>.Lb u1^_al (t£u£j «uJL» (jj^-aSj 

. (28-Sj_LJI) 

/«_$_> (J-i-aj J^S iSjiJJLji ibj-jjij (JiJjjClU (j-o Ij-JJJ ' JlJ ?° i^llj-! Lo-LjlLsjj 

< J i a * 1 (jl (Jj . I JjI L^-La CjjJ,I (jjjjisej V ( _ 7 jJI 4^vjjJI (_jJI i ajj.^»"tlj JuijJI 

icj_<-u ^Lo I «Ul3jjjj i Ll>-Ij 4-P*£lJ ' ■ ^ J l~" fl ) laj ijj i LSI" nu «LlII J-i^J J^ 

(jj^^^a j^-c ^j i/a-alj^-lj j<uiLuj jj-°l (j-uLilJ («Jij jjs a^LuVI (jl .(J^L>JI 

iJjJS (^yJI-^jLill *-a (jjiLjJiJIj-jJijI .« IjLc. Cjj-a-i lLLiIS iiij^i-2 (_LaX.lj 1 I JjI 
^j" * ' (j__ aj al i •'Jl ' a j ** S " '"■ i S ■•■ 

j»l LU J L*S II j| tf tfj 9. jrt Jl 4 3 

Jj^l Lai .Acute jL>JIj Chronic (j_aji,l CjjJ.1 (jiS cTV jt!^ O' t r^?i3 

(JLiLa itQjjla 5^x3 fjljj i(__>iaJ^J,l (_JjJ 4iSLa Sj^a LlJLlo (_gjJI (_>IojJ,lS ^^2 
.'"j-' <J-°->^' CjjJ.1 (Jls (jl aaa>^Lia I . tiSJI ( _ > l3lj^l (j^ «L»iaj^c cLfljLta dJJj 
(j_a jL>JI CjjJ,I (j_La tl j miJJ . Jj^JI (_JjJ 2 j , , ^. . 1 1 S^vjjj (Lj^jia) LuLjcjI 
3-JjjjJI SJljIjJI ' -il j"tl (^LsJI djLjijLaj (jjLill ^«-a (JjjLl2JIj-(_Jjj>-I 4_l>-LJ 
>XI^J3 (j-aj J^Li. ) J t^~ (_ 7 lllj iS-;^!!,!^ 5 ^_.'«ll ( _ > ^lj^.'^l jj^ 4iaj : jL>JI 
Cjj <iS 4_jjl^IjJI SLpJI CjljjicJ Jajj^j jL>JI CjjJ,l (jis (jl Jaa-^HI (j-aj 

. JlJJljIu (^laj-a ji t (Jj-S 

(j_a I > J c-4 i la I a 4_j_a_Lc d_ulj^ (_gl ^-^j ■■ a I II jo_Lc CjLuIjJ «L^vI^j 



19 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

ji i2_>jje_l!l i—xjj^j ji i4jljj|j (JjjLlIL!! 3j^>-l_i J i <ajj La L4I0 "" .'J* '^^ 
L$J c- j U ", 1 1 I r ry . ,-. j -y 'A\ 4_a£|j_a j| 1(Jj,Ll2JI S^tjv j| (J^ml,! - j la " 
SjjiIjJ (_gl «lj->-l J-t£- I j Li I ■*'" U^-»-y t^jljJJijLa (j-o dil j j_lC.j 1 1 jj'a al J 1 uVlj 

1 0*~ ^ Lad l(^3L> p^J (j-« CjLljl^. i _ 7 _L£3J_l,1 j"^ III /cJlCJ 4_LA-£1^S_cuJ1 Cj^C_» 

j-cLiiu-U (j_o JlJJLcj ijjjjLjILIVIj ( _ > Ioj_«JLI!j aL#j VI (j-o _>^" 4JL>J (JLjco 

2 j i I 1 n II .".VI » -A '.VI ( j_ a dlli JJ^-J ijj-^'j ^jUl .S'.VU 2 ta -"j I 1 2-JoLjj>JI 

(jjl^ p^_Ltf3^_a cf^se-l £j£. f*££j y^.j ^j tLOJj] ^1^. (JL^-a iJ ^ (j-CL>.LJI j^jS-I (jl 
( _ T 3-«U <j-u-lI j-oi _j^J i4 1 JQ (j-° 'Ji) -0 J-.' ' " Lr^ ' < ^Lj-^>- ' a b **• 1 (j^rhLJ tUj-ll 
CjLcj-l^jI,! (j-o Jl>-I_j 4_Lo (Jiillj CjjJ.1 ^1 LyjJ ^IjJLa . <1c.j-uiJ Lo-4JijJL>JI 
aI 0" frVI (jjj (<sJ «U| dlli iA iil"i-ie_a til I LflLLaJeJ (Jj£ jj-o ^LCukVu 3^jJij>JI 

jj mi '< 1, 1 j pj_cbjJ,l I jjt (^ <tc^j (j-o Jj^l j-A (jVI «ujj tlrv (.gjJl t_jLjSLI! 

i(j_u_L>Jl (_p_a CjLc^ i^>j-^j (jO_>-LjJl (j-* JJlC -^"j 1 ^jJl lIa^JI (j^£ \JJt 
Vl i—ija-jj . I &) j c j ..i_alj^e_iVlj i«Li_Jlj njLojVlj 1 1 iujJIj isLxj^>Jlj 
L&LJ^Sii ct-^-" CJj^e-ill (j-o (<s-&i CjjJ,I (Jia Li^5tJ (j^ ?T'"'''"" "^^ (j-'S Pj'- tu -' 

^jj ^j^'i/l 4-LiL.TL-JI CjLc:j_l^jII ^yJI 2_tx^ii!Li aLiI&VLi jJo-Vlj /<ui'^l 

(j^. SjljLa. Vj 2 j it I J aj V CjjJJ (j-^ (j-^ <-'*»■ j tl (jl .-U^'a-Jj^ll ^J 

^_3 ^j -, j -*■ * 1 1 2_j^v jj'i/ dJJi .4-g.j 1 u-l Lo-2iLflj>JI ( _ T 3-«U j-ol CJji.1 (J-^ 



20 



6ulo i^JaJIj OgjJI 

4 1 i i iii (jx. i_xjjaj (jl (_ji£. (_>^>^c^lo (_gi J-^=J La «L<4J (j u-Aa i jj Jjv La (jj-i 

^^ijijI (ji^ fjj] tjlj . jjjllJIj jj i^-ill «Liix^o L$Ji L^-jJs JL2j Lo (J^i ^jLjLilo vijli 

I J^'-^J J Jjje_JI 1 JUt Ljr £> a I J i "*" I 4a£.l_j2s £}£, JliCjtVi 4_JLaL>. 4-JLU 4JL5. 

(_a 1". ol-»- jl jt-"ii nVI (j>£, 3jL>-V! jjlj LgJI cj^ij i3jjtcj_La ^1 <jj3I 3_JLill 

1 _yia-i-2-i J-Aj CjjJ,I dJLLo «(J_i_)!jjx.)) L$j-3 L$J (J-I4-1 i«L^cj-a Lo^L>-l L^-ajJ 

I j~ 1 1 U JlJLJJ .(J-JJlJJLJo (j>*"j5 <— iLuSLl L^JjLl^sl (_£ I 11 I n" LX-fl 1 L^>- _JJ 

tAUC ^>-^ 4_uaiilll1 Cj^je_dl (j^ ll '^^ ^ya i (jL>- £j£. jLseJU I J* fl CjJLsejJlj 

,_j3 jl jt-"ii nVl (jx. (_ifc LgluiLvl Jjlj CxjJSjj jjj L$J 3jL>- ^I-^SLs-Ll^-Cj^j 

! ! ! ^Ul ^uM\ 

4-oJlJ-"i 1 11 1,1 (j im jLflXl JJ-9 «L3jJa3 L»S CjjJ.1 pj-iiaj-a jl <".t\-^.V jjsj 
(jL)l (jjJLjjLjio jjj^jj (J-L9 (_ T -3-(jrt_i^3jj;e-<m ^)^*.' ^gjJ-i 11 1 n~j 4_t£. (jLcuJj 

i (j_ui_a,1 [j-«J * «U_aL>J1 ^L^j-il Jjlj (jrt * djj ti ^)^' lAjI a ^3ji<t jd ^Lxiaj3 t«U_uL>J1 

4jJI *^ ll a t JuJljIu (3*^ (jJ5->Li-3l-(jajULJ ^^-aL^t-tu 2l ^ JiJ_A jjj-a (jl (^pa^ILaj (jl 
CjVLsJI aJJt (JiLa ( _ 7 J5 ^jjjJIj jjiill f-aJ^J JJJj • J^jlj ^pLj Sx.j-i.uj 4jLfljj_o 
.3jjiIjjJI (_J3 uJlj" mi VI (_yJ3 ^ - j se a 1 1 jlj o~ 1 nl f_j\r j3j3 ( _ 7 jJI 3^>-jjJ! (_yJI 

jl j V" uiVI 1", <i I hi 2 ... 1 ; j tl 3jK ^ 3_JLU 3JU. jj.^ill ! juk ^ j^jfj 

Cj|jl_j_b>-VI j j j La3 (_yi^. (jj-4jL2JI aj-2j Lo SjLcj .«QjL>-! Juu L^j (_>^>L>JI 

(_^aj>-LflJI ' _i I La LoJlJ-CJ .3jjijJ,l sUJLLaJI jl jt-"ii nl 3JL>- ( _ J jk ojui CxjLSj 
'"' '^'^J ' U-^ 1 ^' i-ilnr I t^jJ! vIjIjLjlJI (Jjz 4jL>-VI JjiSj (jl L4I0 (i_iJJII) 

! Jjjj>oI JlcI f«JLa iLoLaj ^ aSLj ljuk :j>jLio La SiSLs iSjuij dlli 

CjI 1 nl-v (_j^ (^^Liejial 5-iLa-"i 1 nl (j1_> JuJiJaJI (3jLi!' (j-IJ ij>J'-2-!' J '^|j 
iaLc sL^vjj 4_u-iiitjlJ! Cj^jeJ CjI i nl-v ( _ T 3 /a^jLiLa-"ii nlj iCjjll (jl^ ^ J ^ :::tJ 
(J I i nl S J * ?~(J ^ ' ^*'"'** t l-* L/U 1 O rt "yJ q ' ^*'"'" ^ri^" ' (J- u ri J '-^- a tj' (1)-* C 5 -*"^' Lt-^- 
a '"J I 3 llj 4 iii <*j llj pi J i^aJlj 3j^' "-cP- v 4 — 'J^ 1 ' jj^) 4jjl3j^ JJ-°' (j^- 
dilj-iij^ Jju (_jJ-II <-— it <i 1 nllj u^slj^. 2 I (j-o dJJj J-JX.J 4J03LJI '"«! al ^"^Vlj 
(jjJ-j-Lj ji . a j -» A 1 1 jj| 1 U -^ \l II (jSLIj . L*^jX.j pi ,^.AHj (_jLuSVIj jjiii! 
LJI (jjfl UJ .' ' .' lj^ '^H^^' CJj^e-JI (_y£ <Lxc\jl3 (jx. (ja^jJajJa I aj •".' 



21 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

I^SjjljJ CjIjI jV*u nVl j^c ja^JuLvl «La_uJ (_,i^. Ijlia sej (jl 3j_uS CjVLv ^^3 
(j^aj^jJI (j_a 3JLa_i-CjVL>JI (j^ » .' ^ a-< , I U 1 1 |jui (j^Lojj - <j~ I j ' a -» •"■ 

4_L&i (_j-^J c-j U~ tl ^ I c j^aljjj (jjjLiill (_Jl3^o (_jJI (^^a^tall j LaJcJ 
1 _yia-«-l (JjJS J-»- /j I C -^ 'j ■*- 1 I J fl^-d-ill «L*_LiLaJu LjvL^J (<U i4_Ll*-o CjLtJSjj 

(JjilUa i ( _ > IoL^SjVIj (JJj>J!j^jjjJIj (jjlaJu tLUalLa ^ La u se a /, c I J ' «UjJ^-ujj 
d 1 i^>1^_a ijr J\ C)_3J * a - L ^ a j (3 j J 'Q ' ""*• ^-^- J J .' ^ * lic J t- u l p^x^D^-a ^jiuj 

OJl^J (jj I II -g-J (j_jJLl|-(jU-3^tiil JJX. jlj L«J£j . IjJlCJ L»£ 4_j£ aL^J-U^I 

Cjj^e_i aLoI 4_jJi£. dlli (JfLa-CiuLa-" , nVl ojui (JILo •" J '"* J ' ' -""j ' j-C Liui I 
. (JL>JU I jufc (^ ^^IbtjJI jjU"II 2 j -^ 1 j « !^£ ajlc j^>- • <&99 idij-ll (ji^ 
(j^j-o^tAll (jAju (JjLiJ Jl " _ .'"'" * < J 3_aLj-2JI "^M^ Lajl-S U3^ "^ J- ^ ' (J~J 

c_ iLSj (_5-i^. '"•! ta» ' flj-m 4Jlj «(3>- CjjJ,!)) (jl (jji ' SgitJ (j-«-« (4JJ3 ■" J iS> Ij) 
1 M"i-ie_a ^1 ,_gj U"n (jl <—*^=-J (j 11 n ill rfsl^. (jl L»£ ifO-$-a j_ol «CbtJ (jij oLajlII 
oJlj* (_p_o 4_j_«_lj (JuLLj 4_j| (jLljJI (j-C (_j_lcj . <A_pjl 1 nil 3j-iiLIaJI Cjijiv 

«L<-u!jjJl /j a 3 -(»I-C «L^vj_i CjjJILj ^ 2 I »" a «Lj^.Lxi>-l jl «LujiAj Cj^jej (_gl 

SjLaJI 5) la J (_jlr (j^j^. Jji n jjj^jJI Lilj^>.i (_ylll 3 ojiill S-j^LjivVl 

<_flJJJ,l IJlj* 'l-a-lj i(_yjjJ,l a-ae-jj CjjJ.1 3j_aLli j^c-i Q-* Jj -^11 (ji_i3L2!<Jl 

Lxjk (J\jjLjcj J 1 '•>" Cjujju-3 (_jJI I J 1 1 "" Ji^j 1 L^3li ' " I UJ * ' a II 

.(_ T cLji>.VI duE. J 1 ^*-i 3j t\'.tl -I 

,«L_uljjJl p^_Li3^_a 3^e_l 5j 1 a ' 1 1 -2 
Jij aJlX. (j_o L*L!i (_, Ir Jji Vj i (Jr cLil».VI i±xjejJI Sj^jjla ^J| ryt . ^ ,j -~ A 1 1 

l_«_^aj . 4_^a (jjLjLLlI (jj^i-l (__>iiajj ic^3e-JLi «i ^ I »~ 1 1 oljl o", nVI -^ g . a » j 

pj_Jaj_a (jji (j^_t-i3^e_fli,l 5^_IaJ L_fljji,l 1 JJb ' aJLjLa JLi^ (^Llll i uL>JL) (j^ajiej 



22 



6ulo i^JaJIj OgjJI 

. ^yS \^yi£. 1 J Ju-iD 5j_LiJ - I 
.AjLijJ ZjJ£l> -2 

. ji"'<3"" "I SjJij -3 
.aL^jI Sjiaj -4 
.7-Jua Sjiaj -5 

.(jjL»j SjJij -6 

4j-uljjJI pj-cb^a ^1 (jA-lg^xJA} 3j-La-i (_y3 4 j j 1 1 nil (_*jl^>JI (ji ' La a. ." ij 

.4_uLjcjVI <_jI_jj>JI 3-5^ ((J"*.3"^J tll»XI) 
£y\ < a j se-A-L I (3 .1 '^ (j-* (Jj-^- 1 * 'J' ' "I ^-3 i jS ■ Jt " 1 1 ^yc Ju2 liU]} <J->-l (j-« 

d J I 1 II 3j-u>jl LlJ^ JuLlj . (JjjLulJI 4_toll>. (Jul pJ_L*DjJj IjLA (J-* (^-^J^-^J 

2700 (_,i^. Jj_^j L° (j^- ^-ij-ll (jjls (JLH 3 -* L> u ry'^' d 'V .' (J^* - (j- 0-1 — i-!J-*J-l 

(j-« Ij-J^J (J^ -1 '"'*** 'II P^- 1 ^ 3 ^ Q ^"' p *i ^ *"M 3Jljj>JI 4_ajui!l q\-^s^sc-oa 



25 



^PteaV^^to 4 



5_i_il ... 'iVI .-.VI . a \»\ t j_ a (_2j^>Jlj J 1 5JI 
Cjl^v^J L*jj (jl ta-uj a j! njLsjI^ILa Lo_&j i4_u-uL_u'2l 
lJ^JkjI ^j J d rt j J la jJsj . 4_j_>-j_1^ S j i nil j lalj I 
4_uLjlc.jj jjll 4jLjSL!I /j '■» j j i a » II aJuSI Jiio t-jjI^jj 
jj_a JJLc CjLjL_o CjJj_jI 1_«_? i4_4jJlxLII 4j^_caJi,l) 
JulS '3 f* J ^ rt . U . ,.jt| jj ,^*tl ^js d A , ,.\l All 

Js^_>.^Jl d) VL^. (j_« 4 j . nLmi 4_JLj*. 4_ixo^j (^iiUI 
^^ 4_lJ| ,,i"tV| JLjl^VI 4_jLc: (jl ^Ijj l(Jr Jl_uijV| 

i_3ji4J Liib^L>.ij LiILtai JS" (jlj 1,31^" (j-° mjl?-^-" 

4-lS *u lilt^e-u joial Lai . 4xij^_i-ajj (jlaJI (jj^ilsl (.j^l 
t \\a Lj i . n *. (JILa (J-\jJlJ*JJ 4xu_u^Lxu1 (j_« JJLC (jjllUI 
(jil m .>>■» ijjL^Jbjjij 1 4 mi" j i j '/T 'lj."'J i(JlSL<j/Lij 
. L^JUjij 4jJj^.^JI 4jL-u^L3 (j-o o^iJ (j-oj JjLaSj-p 
ol i ~ . -T4j j i^>^ M^iUll 4 K mi a OJe-LJ /tCLtl -L3 » 
*> a i ■■ LaJlj i(- . ..A'.ll . . JaJlj (jxuiill /«lc : L$-La 3ji£. 

Cjjj-JJ . Ufc^-LCJ (jjjjlj Ijjjillj I A j . ..jl I J it_)J2lj 

/_lc lj taj i " a Lcjjio^a U>^' ' iJu * (_r^ (Jl^I I 4 K mi a 
. >i,^.ja , I g-p-l *" L_kt'LX_a LJ 3 i_uJl>JI (jl ni^ I 3Ll>- 
4JLi (jj^ mhII (jj-il! (((_^oiSj_lJ|)) (_, i Mtj-aJI LjjJ.il 



25 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

tf^j^- I j » ■ iaj (_^!l «LoULtl CLujjLiJ-tuJ ulj^£.» (2>JLLiiijj_u oJiitjl L«£ Kijjjlijjl 
«j_bj|j» Lfc^jJ^a 4_<JLA1 «GjJl>- SJs^a '"■ i fljj i "I dll Jl^JJ ijjiill jjuacv, Lftl 9 1 u 
1 j ' -- c » (j_c «(J-ijl» 3 JLj ' -- fl ia (((j- 1 LL(iu_jj_u )) LiLu_u^_a ^j.* 4_j_Laj1 L^JL^.1 

.(83)«Jl2J 

^^-S i-dj "i mi 1,1 (_£j_Aj-j>J! ( _ > I=j^«JIj i3_J_S_«Jlj 2 j m-aJiJI (__>!= Ij-a'i/ 1 p I r 
jj^s_a (jj-ULll Juuj . ^"1 mi ^JJ '^ w " c^L^' Lt^J cH ' d - ' '"^'" '"" In la lo2\ 
ic^juZi 4jLi3^iki jjjju (Jj 1 d i^aSl i^A. jj. J "■ ■ ■■**■' 1 ^Ij-ta JazU 1 -J I Ltajul 
(j-a mj-ILJU (_j^-!' CjVLsJI (j-a '/40 mj-1J 30 (j-a (JjjSj ( _ T 3 -" J 1 uJ <-ij;L>- Ijl uuJlj 
'"" jIj La ■'--VI (j_a Jj JL«J 3J>_uiJi,l 4 1 nil 4JI Lo 1 Lu^-23 4-ul Ltajdl '"".'^J !—■'-- VI 

(jJJLJI (2>° ui- 1 ™ ^Ll« (j^jjLiJJLa i(«Liii«JI (_palj^V|) jjLfcJdlj <A-pjl i nil 

L_lj_uLj_uI I j g fl g (jjJJOl ^_pju dJjjo -" ^"''' >■ ^a j' La u 1 "V' ^j-* ^ * ^J) rt 
Jj 1 d]| tc_lx-idIj . cLuaiAlll (_^1^_aV1 /cl^-j cLj_c£aie_iIiJ 1 CjUj_Laj *j la * g j^ 1 -■^"■t 
5-jj-la-lJ Ij i^j 1 1 use 1 u-d-lJI) ^^jLajj-ujSLuJI • _i La 1 1 (j-a JS ( _ T 3 SjjIjJI j^>- 
(jj^ljj CjLlLjX. mj-3 (ft^-a Jj"^ fS^i L*^ ( d J ' uAULaJI) 4j^ji jSj 1 nil 4jjijLjJ.Ij 

.^CiSjU «_a ^j . >. « 1 1 ^ISLII 
(jJI (jjliin J^c ja^jujJiajj (JjoAIjI »l olr jJaj Cjl^vj (—ijijtj (jl ( _ T jkJijj 
«_a LS-ji m"i a u^-liu ujjSjj ii—xjSjjJI Jjjui I a j j a a 4JjSL! IjJij ij-±& Jl>- 
J^c «LlIlLII j taJul CjL^>-j jLaju JJju (ji J^SL<Ji,l (j-oj .CjLbjSiJI J^a o^jLC 

tjliJI 
. (5^1 r^Ti T t <-_3jL>JUj <-_3jj>JLj ' la iJj-0 ^iImi Jl_«_iJl - I 
tj-* JtJ~ JJLc (_ r i^. ( J_<M-tu3 (<LuJaj-a t _ < )Ia1j-Ci «Lcj_<jj?E_a) 4_o*_j_LuSl ^U-aj -2 

.^Ij^'VI 

. Jgjj i Mill |^^Lj_a jj-a jjjjL-uI ^_y^- 4 ult'ia «LjJLjLflj1 4-iL>"( ( <i\ -3 
(jl Lo^ i^l^^l ^^JU 2 « fljj 1 1 4jLjj"ii n o'^ idl(j i iM jl «l j'i/l 33-»i j-^^ "4 
. (^j-be-Lt! JaLujVI ( _ > l3_^3j i(jjjj/JjJ-J>£^j Q^jLa) ^Ig i n"t 4Ja - "j"t I 43 Uj" i na 
^^3 2Jbjj>J| Cjjj;tjJ|) 3jq frj 3_j^.|j > J,| Cj| q , nil ji£I (j-a Jl>-Ij jjiaJI -5 



26 



.(^QJ&All 

( _ T l£. djujjj-a «L>-jJ J I i Jjlj ( _ 7 JvjJjJJ_i3 uaLiiJ jl i dJjuZi 4jJj 3JL>- -6 
jl LLIXaj (Jiill (j£, «LJjLjim j kill I Cjl^>-j (j-o LJS^l-kulj Ja-j Zi "tl J . aj a 
5jJi-lL21!I) 3jJlJ^A!I ".^^S A J^' "*"'^ tlia-'iaj (_j-^' 3jJJ-«JI '""Jj tall I (<s-d>l I **-^m 
.«LuLcujV!j 4jJi^».^JIj «Ll>- jjjjj_<jil 1 ClU^-IaJulj pU**ill Cju^iuj (3JjJlj>JIj 

$kai1*idjiu - 1 

(JSL! jjjj^jJl j» J J a U «Cbe-i ^3 tcl^jj (jl tilt>-Li (_p (_jJ^- ('"'^ JJ '1 'Jft _>££■ 
L^-jSLflj IjLlaj (<u-u^J (jl «LjjLaJ jtjj (_g JJ! jjJilu dUij i4-oJlJ-"i i aJ •» I La i a a 
jjSLxjj . (j^ldJl a j ^ a rt (_t"^ Lh-" L ^LJ^ 3 ' '^J * '^-^ C-iJ^tlLj U, Lu_a>]} JJ ' ^"j 
(<s-a> J I JjJl^j jji£c jj< i"ij ijL-u j_lC (Jl «-flJl» 4JLj /yjl LajJI jjlaJI i_2jjj (jl 

l_3j_>.J t ^ I ii llj ^-J^HJu ^yu\ I n-*-j Lfjj jo J_fl>J 'J J ^"' ' 'J *^- > "L) (^^^9 T 1 -^ ^ 

J ,~ , - ■ 1 1 » (_2^>JI I JuijjLijj La LJLc.j .«LjCjjl3jJi,l 4 T L>-LiJI (j^ «U jj-j-o J (<ulj 
t LiILuia* I ) la a» (_t-<-*3 2 ( a£|ai tAj&j-oA 4-)L>"<< nl (jjliLlI ji'^"" L& . (J^j>JUj 

(_5JJI jj-oJ! (j£J i3_oL»J! SLl^JI jLLI <jr: *Jal^!l ^ r>*3 ^ .is ^ylllj 

(_aa!j^ jl i<t^tlo CjIjj^jIo l2jI£ jJ Lii LJLc. L^J < .'Jf "" "J (jliill (j-° (_j->™ 

t^Ldall £l«Jf$(£>Jf jgjrfjf -2 

(jJ-aJ Ij (_gj i ii II ,j I ii 11 (ji_i «Jij (_gi L^-iLi (Jj-a-i 0' D^~-^ 3j*A2(I (j-o 
((, a-j LaaJI) ( _ 7 ^>.^JjjJ_lAJI jjiill "(jjj ' "^'H sLiLs^l 4jo i aJ La jl 'lyjl Lajtll 

(j II I ill SJlX. (_5-i^. (j-LCJ-tll (j^-1 j-J-UtlJl JlXJJIJJ . ((__>I3J-U) (jJV^JjJLill (Jlillj 

: L^la 
■ Jin n"t (_ 7 l!l ' a S 1 j 1 1 3-^^ jl (jlflJI CjI JJl^e^ - I 

.(_p3lj^.2l SjLjfu -2 

.(j^jJl ^Ijilol (_j\r ^>\j^.^\ aJJt aIjJ 3 

li*_LJ*_! Ll-Lj-IJ Lulii J I l_L>-jL>- \-LCjJU3JJS (jjSLj jLi3 (_gjJjJI (J12JI Lol 

5-jLa-"i i nl jjLLcv JlJUJ i(Jula (j-oj cr^ '— i ^ x i '-^ -SiAse-a lJlSj^ ^1 (_£JJ>J 



57 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

(j-*J *j ' 'i i II ft-La-a^a m£JJ 4_IijJL>J1 ^^ (JIajI t « 1 1 nl «Ll*_j_lLd i tLat&J «Ujj_u 

La ji njLaioVI (JjJS (—JLLaJI Oj-lx^ La JfrLSJI <j-a pJ-JI I Jl^J SiiLa^l tcjIsjI 
JjJlJu <_>^3_>J. «Ljl-uj jjla (j-« (*2 1 4_oL*3 La jl i«Qj! (^^j-a (_fjj <— ! 2 1 «b j * i"ij 
i«U mJ^jv 1 (_3-^3 (J-lL>o «L*_lUj «G3j_»-a (_£jJ ^_) — se JJI (jjls jl 1 L&Jlx^j i—iLi^si 
.^-S-L^ijl j] t iJ7 ^.^j^^X\ Of] t^j iull (JjliLlL) ^ i n \ 34^ Li_& (j-*J * tlijii J-i^-3 

J-2I3J *_a iTcuolj 1 .j 1 11I ji 1 4 j < j j U Sj(j LaJ L^-La i_2_ji»JI jj-j3 V (_ialj^ jl 
^il 111 1 Ijjj .^_j_lS Jl^v ^-1] Sj^SlLaj «QjU ^j" mi 4 J A I n~vj 4_u_ lti u ^ol^ci 

Free-Floating Jj^Utl *uLgJI jjlill ^^ jj L«£ i^^-l^jJ,! mj! ( _ 3 ^v^JjjLlII iJl2JL> 
(_£JJ! ,jliL!l l£I Pervasive J-al Mill Jjliitt ^jo uu £jl (c^yjJjji) J'^^jj Anxiety 

(j-« JljJulj 4-J^ mi ^j-* fQ-d^-Ji ^^l^J . .i^-ill 3Ll>. ^j-* 2vj-q t ^'^^ cr^ 6 -*- 1 

sLfljUa (J^>- uLl>-I jS_pj 4JLs t4-£jl 1 nil jjfcLLaJJ (j- Ij-uS jlitjlj lJlsIjJII 

Jj,^.A"tl 1 c-ljiVI j| (_aaljji,l Ojui (J_jLuji_2jj-uJ LJJlj J J** J JJ j i^-H il^vlj^J 

J i^aaJI IjLA (j_a 4jjijLtuJI SjJiiJ I ( _ T 3 
UJJ '.' ( <l 4 J r^ «Gu^Iij tijjajj /nU'ill «LlLjjlj (jjo'^ll ^j - - --» ~ T 1 ^Lal^. Lai 
jj_aJI ^tgj ^jImi jl jjixajl jl iDriv 3_aL>- «ul u \c Ur >\ i^ajJI Jjlill ^1 
L#j| lr Lj£.j-il3^a SjJaJJ I j^c. ' ^aljl I jf 11 ajjtMl £yj j_u^ JJlC uilljjV 
-((^jljla)) jl 4^tla Cjljjij-ii L$JI 4 _^JLc- L^-I i ,'JT - "" mJ (OJ (j-aj iS^Jl^oj 5j ta a. 
/a£jj| uJ^J .jUt-II ^yCj-cbjII /oj*j>JI *_a oJlJuJI ^^3 ^sL^JLo j-lC. (JjlS Jjj 
*lj! J J ■•■_' «LJl_a 5 _. » ,^« II 1 ^aljll ^ pljVl 3>*y (jjl uajJI (Jlrttl (jf (j-a 
(jjjL9 CjLLialaj Jl>-|) Sj?< a CjljLsol ^1 r-Liso V (_ylll ' aSljXI (_y3 Jijjill 

yiiaJl^i^ i^all <UU -3 

^j-a (J-LajI 4_a-j_uj ^j ^ «ULjv ^j-a i]-j A^$-a-a (-_3^1IL>.1 [ j-a /cjl^jl ^_y^. 
x_aj . L«_a g< La • ~j 1 1 4_ul_Ljl jajjiLHI £ys jj|jji«j I -i j »l'a ^ j S La ' 1 1 4 T L>-LiJI 
-(J\H>-LlII ^y^Jt-i ij^S (J^* LajLj>"u nl Jl9 La^Jl Jll Lal_c_l ^ rt J J ^ ' I (j-^Juk ^rj- 4 - 1 
Ja 1 *^ 1 1 j ^Ioj_a_«jl ^j_a j~±& ^l CjJi eLiLjj_Laj-(83) «j^>*j jinn n» m^j-1 L*S 



28 



2_1L»- i_2jj>_i tix_<-»- Ja L>J Ij ( _ > I3jjiJlII I jjb 3-Jljl (_j-tl ujjjj j.}Luj . 1 1 j Lu 
2_ol j j^.Liixj (o-cujj 3jLu jj£. 3-jJLjiAJl 3_iLa-~ ■ ul L4JL1 Anxiety State (JJJLII 
jL^jsJI Jaj uixb 1 a 1 ajj Lo ir'LcjjVlj <Lu i^ajJIj dj lii-jJIj ^jjjJI ^j 1 1 ajj 

La LflJ3j_o ji Lujla ' J ; '" £)1 ^j-^~» uai] lijjjj LoJlJlC. (jlill 2JL>. CjJiJ>oj 
1 aXLseJj j I U -^ V I Aji j La-scj «QisL>-l j| oJjJl^j jl 4jI jjl ^1 (_£.}jj J^9 
' a a ^j I 1 jlj_£LiJ L»_lj (j- ,}-!' J-^ Jt!-*-^ *-*^ ' >-$3J"io L ^ x f > ' (j- JjJJi]! 3JL>- 
3jLSJ_a (jJ-SJI iliVL*. (j? (j_a joj^jJ! (_, If j . .ij-flJ! I J a ^ Lai j,^' 2 .j.^.ll 

Laj_u3 LojLlc jjjill jjL»3 tfjjjaj j^SLjj (j! tjS-o-i L4JL9 LJLc (Jlj_)-" '*-*i> JJ 'J 

<_2j|^_LaJI Cjj «i"i 1 ill La Ij! LtSLUol LLoj tiUji /, 2 ■"' JlSj i«L<iJ^La tli L^J-Lc 

. LjJ 3j_ull 
,_jjJ Ijj 1 n't CjjLj j! jl«jjjj! ^1 j j uu L4JL9 Anxiety Trait ,jl2JI 3 o <n Lai 

dijUllijL)i",„"l ^yti J^S] jJuL) -Si J»"<( II 2 1 1 Juk^_J_4-l jj-* AiljJl (_7~^9 * 4^^' 

LdljjV - j ^ j j " (_^a jIj-^VI (jfj-j S-jjj-a Laj>a tilLi* ^La jlst) 2JL>. ^1 

^J| ja_^_Lj_a (_j-3j 'j La JJIj JjJL^lil \jjuuajz ojLllcLi 4_Ll»-o «LSj^Lij j<sJL«JI 
c-L^-jVI 3j_Jo J«-3j) 'l-J J-j-ljJ! (2>SLaj ( _ > ^>L>- t— ij I i ii Li »l j i"i^U 2_iLa-"u nVI 

.(L&jI^jj 2_JL»-aJVI 

jIj_SLj (j_o Tr't'i'i i ii " jJs (J_> ttLljl i nil (jfl 3j-<iLta (jlaJI A o i H j j Laj 2j 

(^^alitji/al j-uilbj .(j-ojJI ^Ijilo! (_,i^- ^j-aJ! (_jjJ L^jJlJuj (Jlill 3JL>- pLijj! 

l_gj j (jLa I i it (j-aj i2 o i nil i'jJb u& 2 i a a ae I ^ I CjL>.jjJI (_gji jlji'i/l (j-o 
,5 .j.^.ll i ^ a I j 1 1 Ll^jjj jlji'i/l j!£l (<ui (jJLall 2 o i ii ^i 2 . A"j 1 1 v^jLvjjJI 

cj! i fL>-j! (j^j i(jli)l 2JL=tj Sj^sUJI c-U-jV! Ijjjiej jl ^yJI 03^-*^ L«^ 
d ,>.a^. ;1 1 <i».jjJ! (_gji (_jJI 2_jjL2J,Li (jja ^J! j-^ *Jnjua j\j£3^ «l«^j^o Sj^ 

(Jiill 4 o i ii ( _ T 3 



29 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

^yjLiJI jjj^ill jl tn ti l^JJ -r^J-i^- I o $ m; j-j-^j U 1 -^ (_t^- ij^^lp' I "d'l 

«_3jJI (j_o 3_oLc 3JLv Jii-flj (J.L2JI (j\S I jl La jjlj i-aj^^jm ,j-o q .nl «ul 

(jl L&lj>J_o 3Ji.}L»- j_ljLj_i i_2j^>JIj (_3_L2JI (j-u 4^£jJu1\ C^jljj JuSj . I i J Lu 

Angst3_uLWI 3-*KJI SUa-jj^ Ijl taj. ! « Ugj a» ,-.UI~< t JSIjVl (ji^^lil 
(jLa «jjlj» jLJul L«-Sj .i_3j^>JI L^jI (_,!£• Cj-o^j-^P ttxx^ i(3l2-!l Lr-'*-' ct-*-" 

JijjI jJsj •i i '- c - '^Jt 1 3 Hj '— ^J* 1 ^ (j'V (Jj-^' (J4 : ?i O^ 4_cuAj « JlJJj^» 

4JL> (Jiill <_2j_*J Lx-Lu n((L-tl»rdJ *-3l.}» «bl (_jl^. <— S^itil LflJ^JlJ (((jjl" I nil )) 

( _ T 3 (_2^>JI (j£, I fljjiej (J12JI (jl Lt£ ijJaiJI i_dlj.il ( _ T Jj ««L»-j^ J-i^- *J-<J» 

(j^_iJJ .(_jC.jj (_-_j_l->_) illj I I II (_--3 4-flJ^ l,->"n 4-LO JJJtlll (j^LflJ 2 Jj'-f I (jl 

.(I) JjJo- ^ U^lu Jjj-i-l ( 54 ) «<-aJI 

ti^-lj jJLSJl jy SijUJl S«?-jJjSL-Jl jtji'ALl : (1) Jj-Ur 



LJji-l 


jUJl 


SjjUil 4jrJ 


JSjyta 


^Jj^ J>^ 


p J->_jil 


^> 


^Ub 


Jj-L^jl 


_>-bi 


^Ip 


s_J-j ytxJI 


i_jIp 


_.jp,j^ 


t 1 ^ 1 


*u. 


0-*>* 


f ljaJl 



t(___j_Jjj ' ' " i J gL-J » *-(j-« (Jj l-ffJXQJ (_7-^l (j-* (_>--> (^^>-2l j la ' ! I 4_g_vj Lai 

j I uc 1 (jSLaj --j-;-*- 1 1 Jl>-Ij LLui (j^lilaj i— -)^->-!!j jjiill (jl i£j-i L^JLa-dLdj^jl 

<LjjJs j La ' 2 j >.j l-JLLjj . (_-_L*_U yi 4-*-o I J-»_Laj jji-^U _3_>lj_o I -i j ' a (JfT 



SO 



MUy^itil^ $£all -5 

jl . »l ,^. '.Via i 4 Lj^_ui!l ( j_o jL»ILijtA a j j a ^ ■ U » . ^ 1 1 j| Stress<_iL-iuuVI 
J j j in u 1 < a t ^l i n-v^/l ^Ir LL^aJLcb (jjjjLaj S^JS sLjJ-loJI ^^3 .-<! \l j"-^VI 
i>J taj Lo i(_p3j2l /j I c I jl *Ki LjLaal Q^3 (_ 7 ^-!l qj 5e-LaJl daJLi a3 JLi-ll 

jl SjLjjIo (Jj^CIj jlJI aj-23 LaS jl ijtj^uJI (Jj^iaJI (j^g- lO^* - ' ^L^ ^-i^ 

t-il^pj (j! AS. -i * j 3c iaj| (jLtls a (jl S«LLLa2l <>Juk ^-l«-« La (jSJj *LX)" a L ^ 3 ' _1 J 
dll jiS iS^i-j (JJ-iLS !!il ( _ > l3j2l •» La i " l_*j>o ' La j j" (_yi>- jl i(_>^3jJ I (_j^- L&^Ji 
.(jjJll JoLjjJI Jjj-a-ij L-«j <X-i^_>-uJl jJj^iaJI (_,i^. I ij'^^' (jLbjj(JI •" La -- i 
(jl (j£_aj LljLljv /_^ .Ujji .Ml j| i( _gi2J| jj^ !jyji£. (jLa Lgjli «L2j^laJLij 

. LtoJljso jl LulSJiJ «1 I nlr Jaju iaj 
(JJ-SLj (jl (j^_a-i ' La » ' a 1 1 jl i -J I uaj izl (j-o 'j^3-° OJ^ (j-itdjJI joi^. (_y3j 
. i aj£i]| (_,lr oj^bej Lx-« (jl i n'l^U 2_.^'alj"tl .-.lal U1I 1^ 1 t\,*L ^La->- JiilLj 
(Jiillj (jj-JaJlj jsJ^lj SLpJI CjI^jju : (J!Lo i -il '^» 'N ' 4x.jjia jjL-iiAiiJLuij 
(jJLc JLcLull LiljLJI jl 3-u^aie iSJI) « l» .U MI cdglmj plj LaJlj JaLo-Vlj 
A jo i ii-v Ci^l's *u (_yj| ■ _|| '^» 'VI (_£-3JJ (jl (jS-«-iJ . (<_JjLll (_p3lj^Li 3_jLu3 VI 
(jil <iJ3}L*JL9 . (76) (((_, lj i n jJL&» I Jj -i i u-i La£ l fljSoJI (jlalj-ol jl i3_cj_£_a 
i >. alj 1 1 ^ysyxji] (j| i U ^ j t jjjj ,i <l ,^i. iVIj jjlaJI (j^_i <ASjI mmoj 4iLuj 

^_j_tj LuaJl I (j iS la " La 2 a ^_o^JL I (Ul^Jl * • ' ' u3 Jl *-Laj ^ o" i n" (_ 7 ^-Ii ^ UjLajdl 

.(jlj^l (Jj£ j-«J>JI aJi2j jjiLliiAj SLa^Jlj (_p3jJll (j^ (_p CjVjjla 

(j_o SjjJlc t_xjl^v Jiitlj ^rH 5 ^ Pervasive ^LoLi (jlaJI (JjSLj (jf (jSU-i 
(Ji2JLi ^yXJjijj ipjj^>jJ,l jji^tx jj£ Free-Floating LiLlL LuL&j i JjjUI 3l_p- 
jl ij\jla JLtxj Specific I ^ji^tx (JjSLj (jl (jSLxj-^ji. I 3_p-Li (j^-«USLIj . aL»JI 

(j ii i "^iJlj (jUelLoVLS 4-1 1 Lull I (j-o jJ^ CjI j (_ia!j_a ej^J jl i(__>^L>- p-jjiaj^ 
(_ia|jj,l oJui *ljj aLc * iJ-oLc u^zljlcsl (jl (_ T jkJiJj .CjjJ,Ij (jj/LLlI «L^>-Ij^j 
(j ii jjLS-o (J1_J * * JaLaJjVI '*'." "I » i a 1 5^j "i i"i a i_ul^>- (_gl i pjjjtA j_al 
illj "i mi U j<u-uLaJI «LJI (_jJI j j mi" . LJLc «l_L».j-a 4j^jia^v (ji2JI plj-il ' ajlim 
.pljjal ojLjfc (j'-*.' (_jJj L«_l9 /tJm ii iij U-LO--V I J i i aj (_gjJI •" La c *» I 



SI 



ugoJI £JL§ 

£la£ril jjii-i 

(JJl2_i LiLp-i u o i M_i jJaj-Test Anxiety jL^li-VI j I °> j? (jLeioVI (Jla 

.Cjljl_uli.VI 2 j -«- 1 j " Ji£. jcjiuiJI (O-^JIj i_2^J»JLi Ijj < ni Jjjitl [^ • aSljJCI 
(_, «i i n Jj ijl_jJL>-^iJ Jl-ill sl.il (j i n~»- (_y3 ^3J-l3 4jL2Jj-a i1>-jJlJ Jl>-jJ JJSj 
^jJj ^L3 M* - nt"> lj_oi jjIUj 4_lo JJijjlI,! |_gj" i ii 1,1 L«-Lu i J La » II (jlSJLi JiiJLp. 
3Js}L*JI .j i.mU (jlaJb jiip. (_, <i i njij ijLli.VI ^ Jj^l sl.il ^^Lc I>J^ 

>_i_q_-v (_£jJ «_jLJu j-Aj 1(2>j^>-VI (Jl Auvlj (jjjJI^JIj (j-L«JL«Ji,l cjL&LsoV 

SjjJiJI ^j j t-i^t La tl ^jj _il.i_)_j (jLstj_oVI (ji2 (jl j J La jJsj . jt-uJ^LllI 
(Jiill ^ » ^i"j ^ <_j^LLaJI (jl Li£ idjujjjj,! 3jJl2JI i_£ji (_yJI 3JjL2J,Li 4 uaAseJil, I 
(j o-lSj (_ylll CjljLQi- VI ( _ T 3 (jiill (--liaAseJLa i_!^LLaJI l j t A J .>»ai jiukjl^l (JJ^-J 
(_, o i ii _) La j? i^^Jj-ll S^x-iJl^. «-L>L2Ji,l pLvj'u ill «Ll3 Lxj /sj^VI pLa-j" i iiVI 
(^ 3-Jj^ ' ^ LajJ (_ 7 ^II <Jl)ljLji>.VI (^ 7r_L.-ie.i-i3 (j _— — II (jSLlj . S-JV1 3j_^l jJLl 
UoLcJjl _1 ."j. 1 «— > J-l — jljL_>-l CjLvjJj (Jj___c_II (jl j^— i LiS >j__l_I 

. jL_>-VI (Jj_ «_o u^—b^v Lul — i 



l—fljUa^JI (J^ii>-I (JLjla (_y3 IjjIjJLo LiibeJ LoLiJJkl (_ T x^U,l jJL*JI Jl^jIi 
4 j j I i ii II CjLflsLjsoVI ' a i a a I SJljJLc tZil jeJJa-i^a-a CjI iSu L«S . 4_* i ni-»JI 
^ ->■ i U , ^ rt «(j^ i n >&>. t j^HjjjLa)) AjLa-"u ni JLi^ . (j hi "*J1 i>L>o /**> V 1 * A tVlj 
.«(_, in "i ->JI ^IjVLj 2 I i a " 1 1 i_3jL>J.lj 1( _,jlinll 3_ujii»JI /i^lIII 3 i n'l : I tilti 
(3 I °>J i(_, i ii i -^iJI 'lj '^ Jlj t(_, i ii i->JI slj^/l (Ji^ •'"'! sella '^" OJt>* - '' f'^J 
ljjL>-» aJuS l*1IJI^ . 2_i i n i->JI 3_p.LJ| ( j^ c-xjjjlj jj< iSJIj '(_, ' m'(-*JI i—Jc-yTJI 
,«Ll Lul_Lio Lixj^jj Sex Anxiety qu i -»JI (JJLS -«• LLa-iaja (28) «(_gjLj^->.jlj 
(3^-^! c *^*-rH- 1 -^' jLj;E - a _>i^ ct^J^ - < -- j '-"^ ^j3» 4JL> (jjiJL>JI (Jia (jLajjuj 

LujLv l j H a (_$j-i (j^*->J "^J^ * uill L^SjJlJ L»i 4jjLl«JII 4j i n'i->JI CjLjj"ii nU 
£^c i alXseJi cZiljl i^a a. ,, I c j .' " '.' «L2j^IaJI oJl^j ,jjiJL>JI (jia i—oj^jij (jl 
pljjl ^jJI-J^uil (JS uu-^j i"i_i (jl (j^XJ JL>- J^ lt^- < *-'SUj ' Ij-rH^ lJJj 1 1 >i ->- 



32 



^^Jl j j mi j jJa l_«i? i5_jj i nil «o!Lv (_yi (j .li-^JLi 2 1 1 qj 1 I aj i gJlj i_ajL>J,l 

dj i ni-»JI t_jlj|j la ■'--■VI i_j|j_»-l (_^ (ji2JI I . ---j . ^ a.j 4^...*',\\ J.oI^jlJI 4jh itl 

Public-Speaking •.(jjLcJI aLo! i_xjJlj>JI (J.L9 ( _ 3 -cLil».V! (JiULi jll^Sj 
Sqc I i'-^VI i >.aljtl i-d , ,.l -j * ■> , y,j I <-jl^ll -j* c.j'A\ I "i />. J ■^"jj i Amript 
ljj_c (jl ' La a» *" j j .(jjiLiJI (j_o ALC j j J 1^ aLo! l_<JjL>-V| sLilu «LcaL>JI 
/UIajI (j-* ^_uS_) J J j o *" ' I 4_^>-1^_a ^^5 l_*jJoJ1 ^jI ^JJjJ *a ' ' (jjjLUl (j-* Lh-*^ 

c-j^^JI JLxivl ^^a j_jSLiiI I jl i JjiiAll (j^ <_ajJ»J! 2^e_<ij h-l!LjjjVIj 2j mi-^JIj 

4jq i n-v (^jla I j£l Li «LJL*j2jV| j^LJuil ojufc da-i3>jj . l_<jJ^>JI ^LcjI Lo I Lao. ^^3 
.(JjJljJI (_jiL«jjl jl " . lLSJI (jLii>- 3_cjjj,j i(_ij>ojJ,l '"'j i-Q-llj ija-AJI L-SLixi 
(_p3l^j3l L*U jS (2>SL4JJ i«LLuX. «LloJu*3 Sj_l>- LJLc. MjiaJI (j-O pJ-JI I Jut I mi ujj 

CjLtJ^ilj JjliiJl jj-* P9-^' I Jut ^ijijljj .jJ-aLulII Jjl^TI (j^-ij ^-4-1 * o-j-« JoLujI 

(jiiLxj Li£ Systematic Desensitization -i la '■ 1 1 2_ii.il m-»Jl JjliDj »La.j"nnVl 
j_i3G i_fl^jj ^^ukj Beta-blokers Lij_i CjLvj^ i aJ3gj ^^ill j_iJ3L<L»JLi Ajv^Lc 
/t_IL«j L$_iI j_j-2L2-»JI oJ_<fc <-jlj_o (j-°J it_Jjl)l (_ji£- 2j j LujjujJ I ■ _|| Lac VI 

2JL»- cjJljso V cLuiAJ L_iJa^JI (_y3j i(jjjiil 2_. , „^;tl V 2jo . hjJI .~il _.^l .^11 

.(jrt^ujlll (j-o 

pjjjl I jufc JjLuj <_2jj-uj ijji^l f I3JT (j-o f^J Death Anxiety CjjII jjls 
i4j! alxj ^j i«U_uLj3 JJ)^_Ldj ' ^ ti ifl j -^ a <^^>- (j-« 4_jJLdl ^Jj .^.^tl ^3 J^ ■^.^■"■11 ■ 

.■1>-^Lcj 43Liiuj i_jLujjIj 

w^f $£t$ |«UJt yiiaJI -7 

^^lll «LjCjjJI (J^I^jiJI (j-a IjJx. p 1 <aJ aLc (J^Lc 4JLi jjiaJI (JjS-4-i ( 3^-* J 
I Juk ( _ T 3 Lu^aaej Laj^j-joj (j-oj .CjjJi,l (jl^ juCJj pjj ct^ 3 'J.' L*i^ LSi-^ 

:4jjVI 2j^iiJI (_paj|juaJI • <>•< (j| (^£L«j- a Lai I 



55 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

. Cj^XI (jjl^ (j-«UjULqJ Lt>^a-a LLdLujI aL*J1 (JIajI (j_u_uLa_a t la -"j" -I 

lIiLLLljjVI (j_o (^-^-' aL«JI (jlill (j 'HjLa^ (j-Li 3J.jLpJi,l cjLULujVI -2 
.cjjJ,! (3^J (»L*II 1 jlail ^r 1 LSj •■■ a (j^loLc t\j^t~i( »l <j^-a-i "3 

JoLujVI I JLA 3->-j.i (ji^ j»L»^l (jJ-aJLj ^LajVI «lLLiJjI (j-a (O-C-J-II (_j^£. "-lijAI 
(jl ?t uaj| LaS . aLjuI Jjllijl (j_u_uLiLa (j_a fT^H 3 ""' i nil JoLuj^ilS 4jti2j^_a t"< i tnl 
(Jj-a-i S^LLaie-Ltill «L>-j2l 3^JjilI,l « uj i im^d 4-ajLS (j-a 4 Sj •"■ 1 1 (jliiJI ,jj»jjLiLa 
^ utAJ (jjjLuLa 3-^j) «^-1j-qJ» (jjjLjJLa *_a «lx>^4_a «Ljj_Aqj*. flj ij ' a > JoLiJj^l ^Jl 
(J_LHJ» (3-i-i^aJe "■ H 3_j_o-tuJlj «Lu^3jJll Cjl a 1 nil (j-a JjIs j-^c I-3JlC (j u-ub 
L^IsLjjjI < =L»-jJ (jl (_y^ 3jJJ-C Cjjjaj cJj LaS («_iljJI (Jj^iiill jJi-il) . «CjjJ,I 
jim tLflJu «LjJL»j «^ I j a 1 » (jjjLjJLa (j-\_) y-jj>**< inll JoLuj jm (j_a ct~^' ->"^*~* ^ 
^jc 4l2xmXI (Jiill jjjijjLLo lilljS ("iii i"iS JLSj .« uj 1 njiai) 4-ajLiLl cLuLjjiJt 
• a 1 ^ Ul . "jl (j_c J3 1 flJl d a < nj jJl^Jl «UL>- (_ T j-uLjJLa (JILa « u^ i in 'ia» 4-a-iLa 
^j^>-\ 4_*_u1jj '"■ * "£ Lao .(6 ' j la )|J «^JL_a-s» f-^J (J^ CjjJJ (jjls (j-^Lj-^-a 
' .'"j-' •— 'J^' (3-^ o' (*-*J-'- u 'J >jjj JagjJj *_a (j-LLaL»JI (j-° 4jLa (_,i^. CjJ^»-! 
)La^-Lu (_d_p_iia (jjLpJI (j-a '/27 ijJLui jlj iaijlII jjiaJI )«_a djLfljj^ 4^vjJlJ 
(J-La (jjjLj_S_a (j^_l iS^LtJI <-i^=-J 4jjiIjJlJ (107) j>J^Lajj (((J_Lal^3» aL9j 

(J.L2JJ «jj_Llj» (jjjLl^J, (_g^L».2l Jl»jJ! dili aj ,^"^.11 ajj ,^.11 (j^-Jj tiioJLl 

?-j^-"ii ill JuSj . ( _ T laLc (jjjLjii (_,i^- IJlJu (JJj ui£ (j-a lIjjSj (_ylllj 1 •*• jj <^all 
((^J_La-ij JlJ^LjIL^)) «L_u1j^ '"«j d 1 ■■* LaS . (J^j-uLl^J,! (j-u i tjv^_a ^£jjby>- JoLujI 

(jj^LlSJ, 3_jcj^JI (_Lal^j>Jlj 3_jKJI i>-jjJI •.(jj^jjili,! (j\j JoLujI ^^>-j (2>c ( 1 7) 

*_aj ijJJ-all «UL?e_) (jj^-LJtlU,! ^jjJJt JoLtJjl (j-a j^\ t^jOj] d a < "J Cj^J.1 (3^ 
nj-^-j j j I j j i no 4_«_l^j l_a^-3JL>Jlj 4 a i nil •*• 1 la i a a jl jJ-jJ V 4JLa dJJj 
sLjiljjJI ojui (^ SjjLJI jljLUJI (j-aj . aL»JI (_^LiIlj CjjJ.1 (3^il jiaLLa-OJ^Lajj 
(j^_i JaLiJjVI (j_a /— Lol (j_L2JI (JjijjLoaj CjjJ,I (j!^ ^j-u JaLiJjVI (jl I i2aj| 

. M Lt^Vlj JjVl 



SI 



(SJLHJI 6UUulj.i (jjj (Ji^jo 






oLI 


jjTi 


Cj\jvCX\ 


(2)>U!I 


(l)J^UJl 


( 2)>uJi 


(1»U' 


0.198 
0.133- 

0.070 

0.173- 

0.062- 
0.116- 

0.880 
0.747 
0.892 
0.247 


0.554 
0.505 

0.525 

0.725 

0.679 

0.969 

0.007 

0.123- 

0.075 
0.255 


0.299 
0.090 

0.218 

0.151- 

0.124 
0.126 
0.855 
0.826 
0.916 
0.094- 


0.776 
0.629 

0.748 

0.553 

0.798 
0.979 
0.207 

0.056- 
0.125 

0.088- 


O-J) o^ 1 

j \ J2 '■'-*- 1 /_« 1_3 ajM 

O-J) o^ 1 


23.0 


28.5 


24.6 


37.9 


/jjLiJJ 4j iill 5 -,1| 



ij^JU Cj^Ij^v (j_c I lj q •» j ' a <icj_«j«_a (_j-^ 3J a O^J-^ ''L«- L>- "-J^T-la 

5JjLSiLiCjjJi,l (jjaL^_jiJI (^ S^ui 5j^jk^>. 3-iuj (j^. cjjI^>JI («ij^ IjjuiLJo 



55 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

(2) ? 

I jj'a aLJS 2jj "^ " CjLLj^. (_,lr 3jj/IjJ jjU , ,.tl o jut i_<3^ l£>^' "^J 

i ) ~< ' " j ') cj^-li (j-« i—3^j>ji ^j ■■■ j 2 ^j * ' j ^ v ^— i^* 1 ' (3-^ (j-"*-^-* 3~. " * 

(2) 
(J_al_c 4_JL_) (j^ i ni->Jl (_£jJ (Jj^l (J^L«JI j i "*JJ i^JJJaJI Jju (j-la-jji-" i nU 

oJlj* JlS^jj . aL*JI (j-Lill (J^Lc 4JLj ^^-ilJI (J^L«JI j i iuIj L«-ijj iCjjJ.1 (Jla 



$6 



L^\ ^ £$fe^* ' 



-<j1j^£ Ji) «LJjtl itijl i jjjiij (J£» t^yJI-iu 4JQ1 JLs 

W (I85 
(jjjjaj (_yl!l <i2j^LaJI jl (jlSLU jl (jLojJI S^jjla (jjj 

in uSj I jLo(j^flJ mJjJlJ La jl '-(JjLa (j-a j^. JLa . L#J 

• (34-(jLt2J)iiCjj^u i_>^j' lSW (j-"-* 2 - 1 l£j^ L°J ' '"^ 

<_2^J»JI (jLj (Jj-flJ! (jSLoJ.1 (j-oj . (78-»l 1 iiilljllSjj mi a 

dj^JLI (jl di!i .j mijII mjjJ i»Lcj uLi j_ol ijiijji,! (j-o 
i3jju«ILo t_jLijji'iij (_ 7 ^" (Jj-k^ ^"tP"J LijiSal jojeIl2j 

^j^x. Cjjji£4_l>.jL>. ^Lji-tJ-J * )Lu_u 2I QjJb CLu\£] s-\^uj 

jl hjLijijVI 1 . '^'^J (_y3j-<iS iS_lL>-Ij 5-u-iLaJ aI i^iilo 
. lji£L^J . . 4 1 i* Ui-cj LaJ-OL jl i«U^IL*J <_jLloI 

LiJLjiil aLoI (j^LiU-i ^ *LLa (3^b ^>il o^ IjJj 
u^£ joj . LUjti^oj LijLp-j Li^SLa jjc Ij^uS (jL^uu V 

aLc «(j olaaiJal^xA)) ^ d£j c a I i-flj 1 nljiill Jj-Sj dlli 
All that :v2jjII jji oljj La J£ (jl) :a|jj-a a. .Jj 505 
J^ (jl • Jj S II I JlA ^yJU-o ij\j (Jjjj we see is death 

(J5-3 Sj^jUI oljL-tll £gj (jjaj ' Jljj ^yJJ (^ji 



S7 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

jjjj f_^\ 2t\-»ltl jtia j .>■".->'> (jjaj» dying jl Jala-zl <jx. (jJILlII cjIjjJI 

Litjlj o~ i ill £yl /&£.jJI (_,i^. L^Jlj iSj o" i ii a SLpJI jLi dJJi u^SjkJj "i I J j a 
j_oi-2_iL!LiLll 5) a a II (_£ !_g > i < ii 1_o^-CjjJ,I jl .CjjILj Lul^ 2 U jj . a L^JLs 

- <CiVLe-a jl JjlnJ! fljjf Jo. I - I 

j j J i >< 1 1 «L^>-lj^j jLxHoVlj (jjiJLsJIj CjjJJ (Jla ".(JiLa aL*JI JjlSlI i " 1 1 c I La 3 j 

cjjJ,I jl (^ JjjCLj^-Jj'^! j-o (Ji-ljCb ^gJJIj-^yJliJI t_xJL>JI Lai *L&j_lc.j 

i _ T J3 4-i^al V tj t<Gi i i i ii aj aLjljI Jj J s '^* rt (J-* 1jJu-£2_a j^^L) j! <jSLxj 

(J_La pj_^3j_o (_L>-JlJ (_£_^>-l <3-j-»-Li (j-aj .4j-oL>- CjU£ (_?^J 'l-4- ,> - a i— 3_Jjii 

.«jl i>i"-»-V1j cjjJ,I «L-u!j.j /si^.)) (^ vijjJi,! 
w$ll $£t *^i>u - I 

i_2^i. fy]|-(_gi Ljlaj J'v iSu- vj '"ij 2 «LJ2 *l K '"i a CjjJ.1 (jis <_oj^jtJ Jju JJ3 
j£j^> (_g JJIj ijjqllaJI jl rfuLgJt j^lL aL*JI (jiil! (j-o p^J 4_c£Dj . (25) J JL»_a 
LLlSLJj •'Liji J I (_>-a se uJI (_£jJ jl ■ >-"-*.VIj CjjJ,u 4-LualLa CjLcjjioj-a ij-^^*" 
. ojJLi (j-S-«J J-«l JJ-^t-a <_2_jo- ^^Jl j j uU 2 CjjJ.1 (jia jlj Jj-iiJI (jl (Jj-i 
til) j ^& «bl_Ju i ( _ t jl3|j (J-t2j ^i- i '- a «UL<JL>. 4_cSjj i Li>- ^j-x-a a j j a ^ CjjJkLa 
jl ij_«_*JI ( _ T 3 ajjiill jl i3Jl>-^JI (j-o i_3^>JLS 3jijja-a (^ji-l /ajjiLio jLJu 
SjLjeILjiVI (^ ^J-i>3 jj^ '^J^ *-*^ <fll <* Via LLj^^jJj jl (jSlx-i Lxjo Ljjij_LC 

(_3_LSJ ^ i a -~ aJ I CjLaj^juJI ^>^jI (j-o « j I j <i I » «LoJi^ i^jJ! i— flJ^jilII J-»JJ 
/_a >) a II J-oLj L$j i_Lt=-»J 3jLu j_lc. 2_itl»AM 2JLv». -4JLi 4-3jju il nlJji,! 
4jJI «-fl-il SjLtlL",! » 'LJI '• «Ujii (25) «j!jljJb» «L3jju Lo . (62 : jjijl) «jji 4jl3j 
iiJSjj jl (_LaL3 (_yl^. JuiIL«J,l (JU miiVIj jj|j_tJI j»J^. (j-a 4_u I i jX. LitA j i i ajj 
«(j-j|"i i 'i^_0» «L3jju Lx-Lu .«CjjJ,Li ^ La -~ j 1 1 SJljJjJI jjiLLail j a j j la a (_gl 

((4JLJL>JI oji^J ^jl i nll^jj-SlUlj cjjJ.1 4LI> /_a t_gjj< Mill (_LaQll» «uLj (1 6) 



58 



lU lQjB I I iqJL9 fP Q I lflgO 

1". 0" itl jJsj .Cjj-U 3Jl 1 n a ^)— se a (j_o CjjJ,! (j-Ls 4-i.ulj.} jjJl>- )«_j_i3 
4jJS^_a cLjjjjfcl Cj ij II 3 iCjjJll f-jj^sj^ alxIL&I (_gi L<-La_-»- 4jjl 1 nil CjuujJI 
AjiJI aJlJ-"ii 11I JJLlj . * dJL-uLxj-o ( _ r a-uj\£j tSj^ (3 ' ""' cJ^ Lt^J i3JL}.i J^ Ct^ 
<AJi <_,!£. Hypnos j»j-iJI (jLJ^-JI ^LojuS jj'^*' a iCjjjiil ^^julAs *LuJu 4JI <_,!£. 
(<s^ojj (j-o uj _"' ' "..' (°-*J (j\jului1\ Ji^-Jl jl Lii . Thanatos CjjjsJJ a 1^3 »■ I 
till j£ .(31) 3-ulii 3j-o SLpJI ^1 Ajk^Lc:! 4Jf ^Jc <tL!l (jj^£wij r-b-i^aJI ^ 

sLaj Lg^SLlj sLpJl ^^s (jl 1 ii'tMJ c^-lj'^' 3La>II ^JLj aj-JI *u_>£L1I (jljJill jjj^s 

jolbvj^v La («ij>JJ (J-jilLi (OlSjjj (_gJJI J-Aj ...» : ALjual Sjjj-u (_3-^3 i«GJ3J^ 
j_ajj| Sjjj-u (_y3j - (6 . 3-jVI) . «(- 1 11 a (J^- 1 ^^-liaJLJ 4-j3 /aSibijj f«3 jL^ilL 
(_yi Cxx-i (<sJ cr^'j MJ>° Ij^*- ^)"^*'"l (^jjJ <tltl» '.^Ljuj 4-iLa- j 1 11 4JJI (Jj-aJ 

(((_, I IIP (_^>-! (_j-ll ^JS>-1 1 (Jj-U^JJ CjjJ.1 I fl^JC /j '^ a L7-^' i'I I nlj^ I L^oLlO 

.(42^1) 

« ( _ > Ii_i_aLjti>-» 4 htU CxS^C JlSj .jiu-ujl pjjajJ (jl (J-l3 oJLlo^Ijj djLSJu^i 
I jui (JjJS La ^yJI L4L-3I J-a-JJ (jl J-sixJ (_yjJlj •(» -3 3000 aLc (j-U^-oj-cul! 
(- I c j uajj I ^^.3 4-2-j-a-jJI 4_lCjJI jj-o Ji (j£, 4 se 1 1, 1 ojufc j_l*jj .7cjjLlII 
j 2 >i I jl (j^Laj SjJLtl jl ^ L-iJa-dJI jl ^>5UI 9! jje-cuJI jl (»^ dJLSJIj CjjJ,I 

( _ 3 -3 (j-ijjW (j^-^J-^3J-° SLpJI JJJUSOJ J-4-«JI SJUsj (jS3 joJj .<_2Jl$JI IjLjfc 

4_ajjLi!l 2 ji uaJ, I S j I < >» ^- 1 1 jl jILol (_5i^- ' '^j' Jj ii—xjjistS u^^j^JLI i_jL1S» 
jl Alchemy »l j j 1 n II c<-<Cutlj -j^S '^ > ' u^\ < — 'J^' Pj-^J-*^ <"ilri-v. (_,jJI 

i^_4Jul cuLIal *. L^-A (j^_u_uL_ul ^jJj-aLl ^^ U. , ,.jll jj , ^> * 1 1 ^a cUjj> i nil *Lui_jSj1 
CjVJlj>_o SJlJuJ i^J^lj i-Iaj 1 uaJI j .^»«tl ljui (_y3j .i_jjii ^1 ^jIjlII (Jjj^oj 
jjjijJI)) ojLxj (jl (j^ ja£.jJI (_,i^.J .jLi£.j1 CjVjjla Cli-i^aAgeJlj CjLj£jJI 
Jl^ (ji j S j S >JI (^^aLje-ii^l [jl-3 i4_jlj|j '"" M-fl-lo (_,i^. CxjlS «(jO 1S1JS llj.3 
4JI JJ^jJ (^ JJI ^) — "- iSill (_Jjj>-i 3j^ SLpJI «U^3ji c I Lac j «LulSLol |j fl uiSj 1 "I 
1 i nS tj-«J 3 '"'^ ^j-oLjJI ^jj-^JI (_ T 3 /. >l al^JI cLu_uJ1 Jjjj-Ls ^jc LiU!ij iLl*_L« 

.^SLiA cjJsj JlJLo cjjJLIj Ll>.^JjjSjiJI (j^_i <iJ3}L*Jt cjL«iij 

4_jcL»i>- VI JLlILSjJI (jLii>-i (-& LujJ J£ (jjtiill joic (jl (JA jai.jJI (_,icj 



S9 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 



<tjjj cl^\S JljJlj>JI m \ i il jLa i3j_jl_j 3 Km. a cjjII jl^ £o»- 2_uL 



(_, i n i »j-a JLa- i-« j i V a » )«-^3J 1836 aLc (_j-aa dllj *_aj . I j"'~-;^ liL^' < — J ^i>'j' 

^JjQj_u)) ^§j^>- 1 0"*-*" c?~^ i<( 4>L^n )> ^j^- 1910 ^Lc t c&a (j_a-*Jl 1 Jl^j «(j 'i aj~*- 

CjjJll 3_3oie-a jl cjjJ,I i_jLij (2>^- SjS-j-o £ ^-2j>^- o i 'Lulj^ 1915 aLc «(J3-<k 

. Thanatophobia 
Lx-£ ijLaJLJVI (j-C «/o_iSjjJ» <_ iLjS) CjjALi f Lai».VI plr /alAl dllj£a 

<j_ijtjj (jl t ■* LtaJI (j-3-3 i«GI!i p^xi^aAU jLjJLtioJl Lp.^J^jj^pj^ 1 aL<u-Ai «j n o U 

_}1 Jlj>J1 ^j -j 2 lag 3jLL>J1 CjL_ujLal J '^-^ a ^)^ , ~" a cjj-^ J^~"* ' (J*-^**' I J^ 

Jjjj SjjLv ^Ir Jj-aLv 3-<kj (d-aj'C m Miao ajJs 1901 ^Lc (^j . lilii j_lc.j 
. Thanatology jLial».VIj dijll <L-olj.j ,al£.» • •» I U . ^. « S-txtaJI Lj^aJa-Litl ^^a 

«-jj^JLll CjVL>JUj (j nail I jai^. iLu^l ijj (jj-ill 1 J-& (j-a CjI m i na-»Jl (j^J 
<"< i ii i iii 1970 aLc (_5-Sj •'I-;) 4 la ;"j 1 1 CjLcjj^djJJj iCjjJ,L) J una a t JS i"i t 4_La 
Omega: Journal, of Death and Dying «jl .^".^Vlj.-.jl I 3Jj»_a :2_jL3-iJl>>: 3Jj*-a 
ijJLufcj . (SjL^ill t _jl\ Lufc j_ui3j (^ujjJI «Lji^JI <_a jj^v jj>. i ^^jk Lx-Lajfj) 
ijournal of Thanatologeyjl .^"^Vlj cjoJ.1 * \ r 2_L^a : I o i» (jLijjj I Jaj| 
Jj! jjua 1977 aLc ^j .Death Education :<rjjlLi 2 1 1 n~ U <Lu>Ill :413cjjj 

/cJLjlj M^p f lull ^3j_jlj1» : 4_JjJ^ i _ 7 _li_3^ (j-O CjoJJ 4-L>^qJjNj i n J (_£jJL) 7- ma 
3j_ij>- (j-C SjJULLa Cjj^e_i 3j_lj>-2| (j^ ii nil (j^ CjjJLgo LaS . (32)«(_^u-<2_iJI 

61 :cjjII i_2jLika <L_u!j.j /aLij ^ a , aj La jf inear-death iIjjJ,! (j^ i_ilj^V! 

. (Circumthanatologey) 

^^S Cj^J,1 jj-* (— 2^>Ji (j-uLuLa (ijbjj)) *-u3j£ t*-}\jj\ ^J Laa^Jl ^_la_)1) jjjjLl^II 

«qJLcujJ L>-Llj cjjJ,I (Jla (jjiLia «jJLjsj» (*J^j ' 1964 aLc olj^jijiil «qJL_uj 

(j-a J-Aj i 1970 aLc Oj mi'iJ ' I 967 aLc olj^j^jJI ^Ir J J i^ajell L^-aJi^ (_^JI 
(jLi CjI i j" i ii II ' fl-ua-xJLa ^^^ 4_j| ((jJLxj)) ^£jjj . «L>-l11,I (jjijjL2Ji,l J .>»al 
Jl_lC Luaj] (j_S_Jj iALAJl J J tj a ^" ' I MjjJ ' *a ^ a .(j-ojj Lajj^_a Lcj-uD^-a CjjJLI 
Jlia^tJI CJ^Ij f«3 . (94) 3_ujiAi!l 2-> LtaJl S-L^a^^S (jliaLtJlj (j-u^jl i nil tLaiiJI 

^ylc tjj ■» I U t,l I (j iii o l_i Sj_u^ 3-iLjj (ji/^^' d^^^J' ct 3 ojJLI ( jHh ^^a 



10 



lU lQjB I I iqJL9 fP Q I lflgO 

.(^-aL^ ^^ Psychological Reports 3_l^jJ^SLu^J1 jjj^ 2jJI» 3JL?c_a 



7-j_j Loj igLpjl 1 ntlj 4-i^.LiivVI aj1*J! (_i £LcoL>- i(- oUtl QJc-Al Lo_pje-o 
((^jLajLji i mi» jj^>- J-^JJ .«Ljjt_aL>J1 CjIj^JLIJ (^JS 4_i_u1jJJLJ it j j 2 rt Lcj_ij3j_« 
Si j -a- It '■ ' J 1 1 )jjj I 1 11 II 3j-ulj.} J-«j<-a ^JjLaj jl , >."^VIj CjjJ,! rtlr ial'n nl 
•» I taj 4-JI i_Jj-J OjJ,l jj_c LjLji i(jjjj-L>ol (j-uj-t (_5-3 I J 'j j a-iJ IS sUl^Ljcj 

^LiiiS I ju* 18 1) uiijll (2>c (jjjjjj^JI£Litl SJLvj^ uiiljjio Jl»-I (_yi a I JlJ-'i n^Ll 

. (80 , 3 1 ) <rjjil (y:, ,j;>xt 21o£ <_^£ <>c 
j-al «ul I r 4_jJI jJaJJI ^^ CjjJ,I 3_uIjJ ^ SUmlxuVl S^Luil jj 
tjl 1 11 '|V1 (jl 1 L*_o 3_j-C.ljijlj 3-Jj_Laj3 SjJS 4JI 1 ParaHn^ ^ a I '." ^ j| '^j^' 
litj I 1 11 (j_o lj_iilS tjlj-x-i (J.L2JI jl <_2^>JI ljuij i4_Lo (^JLojj CjjJ.1 i—SLJej 
(j_« i_3^>J1 (j I «jjL«)) t_^-» 4_l>-u (j-a-3 . ^_tu L»_a ^j_lC jl ^_tliL»_a (JS, i"i 1 (jLi-uJ VI 
(_p3jj,l) (jukjJI (J-i-ol tilt ji jjfcj i/. 1 aAllI t—iljJaj^VI) ' -J I lqjljI (jjjL-ui dijJil 
Jj-^jJu (jLjijVI pl"o"u nl (jLa (_£_^>-l 4_l>-u (j-oj .«^SLu» i£_>J <-« (/ylajul 
.(80) i2jjII (j-o <t3jj>. ^jJI (_fjj<3 SjujsJI 4JUx.f <j-o j_u£Ll 4cljijl <j£. N <^'a 
^_il_iai_» 2(1 3 (_ t j-uL_u ^l jJU^aJU ^Jt Cj^l.1 x_« p I j L^aJI (jl «(jjt^J» L^?- 1 '-^ 

(j-Lltlj CjjII SjjiIjJlJ » I U ■ >. j ^jj, 3_j£l^j 3-g.j 1 11 a jlsIjjJLs Lufc (j-oj • (60) 

. «LLa 
«(JjM£ ^^j^LlO)) (JILa (\jj ta-ill (j_o JjJlC (_JjJ «LSjLs 4 jo iti CjjJ,! j-^J 

^yj-iislj u^i < i fj&jlln^ '95) ,jJ^ J^ ,jju\-ui] j_& cjjJ.1 (jAa (jl ^^3 ^^itl 

(jij n_3jL>J,l (_p *ljj (j-°t£ CjjJ,I (j-o i— 2^>JI (jl /. i iLd III (Jjljtltl Cju^Iiu 
(JlaJ «pjL>- j g la rt t) 2(1 (_ 7 _A La-« (J^_i5 » ^S JlJ L<^-(_^>.2l ^jl^'l pl^-Ji -n ^ * rt 
(jjjj-jJJ (_j_<jil_ul j J '^ a CjjJ,I (jls (jl«/!LJjJ (Jjl£» mJjJ L*lt ji . (52) CjjJ,I 

'"' ' " Ul'* ' ^"'* * 1-4-4-J « (juoij J(l 3Ll>- (j_a (^LJl ' cu^aJul (_^5 I . ^ j . ^ ^ i )Lx-£UlJI 

(_yltlj i L#£.ljj| i ^1"-^- ^ j dj . ,.^'tl i~il ilj U ,'--.VIj i_ajSIiJI Cj^lS i"io (jl «jSu^ 
i_fl-Li a3 (jl (jSL«j i4j i ni-»JI CjLflljjajVlj i—i I i a » 1 1 j aLloaI Ij t_ilioVI < usil 
£j\ I I -»J, I (j_a J-J-iS l_S>i9 • <-^-> 4-X I (j-° <— 2_5^>J I j-tb J->- 1 J j Lial (^^3 L<-i-o--^- 



11 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

^_3 J Miiil «La-uJ (jj£ij (_,lii<ll (jlajj,! (jl «jjj| .Jjjili» dlljiSj nj^jji^vjjl 

/. i •■ a * II ' . i j ■ La II «(_; i M i j I !->.)) (ji^.1 Jl2Jj -(64) l1ijJ,I (j-a i_a^>JI jjLso 

«L>-^t_uIJl (jufcj p-a ' a > (_^-«J_c£3 (J^LC^_oi jj& CjjJJ (j-« <— SjJkjI (jl (_£^_lL>o 21 
3^lie-a 4-lLc (jib! t-jL&jJI (j-o Lc^j «JjJ* ^yljbj-u)) Jlj^l Li^ .(425 i_yo 81 ) 

(j_o J£ cl^>o CjjII (j^ TJ'^ '(j-*'M (O^Lc- jLUI (jSj Thanatophobia iTjjI! 

m^I tfJI dj&JI yiUat -4 

4_2Ja_Laj Lg-P- Lua <_o3jJ. L*-U Ij-fJ^ La}Li>-l CjjJJ (_j-JI *j La-Li I L-iiaJtJ 
(jjJ_Julj_)l l_<fclj_j I o S Cjj o 1 1 j<s_LjfcLia 4j^t3 «Cjj^-<Ii» ^t!- JJia .4jl3|jJj 

i_ul^>-j i4_LuLA i_al Juki Jjl 2j uil L#j JijjIII JjLaj 4 Ij i nj d a-taaj CjjJ.1 - I 

.jLeliVL jljJl^iJI 3JL». ^ LfT SluJI £yj f-L-.il 

LjJI ^Ir L^jJI j la Li Jl3 (_yjJlj 'l£>*"' *Lp- ^1 VI SlJl 4 rn^^j dijll -2 
.(-_3^>- ji *jJl^j ^j^~»* .".II 1 *vj IX" i t iCbLjlj 3jLpe_a ji «Lt_j_uIj «Lt_ufcj 3Ll>- 

. I J » 3aj ' ^jL^J *l a ' ajj CjjJ.1 -3 

ii_iLo£. 4JI (_yi^. «L<JI jiajj JJ3 CjjJJ (jl «jj^jI£» J ii*i «J Lx-Lu . A^Li-o (_y3 Cj^o 
liillji x_o) J ."ill f-LCL>.l jl i ( _ > l3j2l (_ 7 i^- (jLjijVI ja^a^ej (j-4£.) Jl ir-iiiil jl 
(_^ \-a£) (_j S j^ Jrt^- J- 3 ' 4jI (_,lr «LjJI j La u JlSj i»l 1 nil (^ /<uk (jjj-ll 
«u! (_, Ir CjjJ.1 (_,JI j La ill (jSUj 4j| « JJ^LiKLi)) r>lSjJ (JlataVl jlSLsl 
(_ t j^3jJ,I (_JjJ (jjjJ^Li L^j£ J->->J C7-^' (J^'j-^' Cr^ J 6^1 LaJ-i^- « (_l_ji>Jl I » 
J-j3 1 1 11 i_jLjSL!I I jui £yl j-p-VI (JxaAll (_y3j • (39 Xj LaJl) CjjJ,I (jjilji (_yJ^- 
.CjjJll (jua i_2^>JI i_jLjjjiI 4j>JIjla Jj£. ^Lu^a^j j-a^l I Jufc 

jUa^A^I yii^ w^l $£» -5 

,jJSj DeathojJ.1 j La ij\-i j-j-j-oTJI JLsJ.1 I jla (^ 51 all I ^^« ; JjL>- 

« I j g"i i a ^Ll3» cLoj^s^j Cjjiu J'-^"" (Jia (_jJI (Jj2 1 j j miJ ti^>- dyingjL»iai>-VI 

(_jJI <t^vj_ll (JjLSJI (j_o pj_i (_jJI jl .>»" >.V| (J_La j j i"ij Lx-Lu .4_j£ 'i-^-j V 



17 



■"■ftrt II |X la fDQAAjO 

(j_a 4 * i"i"i i n t Laj Cj^JLI (_^u1^J3 (_y^- i^y^J-^' ^-'- a ct -1 ^^ iS 1 -^' ^^tJ-*"^' C^LH" )} 
(Jla jl (_gi . 4jLU^.j «L»-j_j_a Ljjl «_ajjj,l (jjJJLlI Mjji ^J^*.' JJ ' «ajj 3uL*-aj (*^> ' 
pjLuJ La J tdj^'Ul j^lC 4_lLu(JI)) OJLA (j-a <_2oJtll «L?l-uj CjJlxj jl <>»"-*■ VI 

(JjjLjJI jl IJ-Li-^l ( _ > l3J_l! J-* I Jlj& JJ^-J *' C3-^ J-°' (j-° ^ 3 - a (J^tjjJI 

IjLjfc (_£ J-»J JuSj .7tJ! . . .(^^Jj-a (JSS ("i i inl ijX\ Ojufc (j 2 eLLIJI (j_a daj-uijlj 
Laj t J i ii -»J1 (j_o t-jm^JI t^j-x-1 d I i a " 1 1 4_uJjJI till 'I Sic zl (_>-aaj JjliiJI 

(j£La-> 4_)l jj_a ^c-jCj-JI ^ i C J * «_L&j d ^ ,"■ rtj , J^^J cljv^ mi-*. (j_a 4_a^ u i u 1 

(jCcvLJI •" la * a (j;' a j' '^"•*- *l (J-^J <^»-M (J-^ U^'liL?-*^- 1 o"LuiT (jJft-4S^j]| 

( _ T 3 (<u La I JuiJ . 4lc V . .-> A ', ^ I Jju (jjijjj (Jj^l CjLjjSLa Jl»- I j_l»- 2 I (jj JL«J 

j^Io^jljj t*_jl^_J1 jJ l^aJI j-kajl) CjjJJ (j-a * Aj*rli «^"< i in I- l2a_u^£» (jjjLjJLa 

jl , y.^VI 4_lL WL j tiijusuX I (_j|^j>JI (j a » ■ I ^^Jj La_i3 



j i^i'i'tj.l (_£jJ QoSLj (jl i_£jjM>jia]l (j-a (j-uJ 4Jl (_jJJ (64 . 52) Jli^tJI jj i""t 

jij (jLa aJsl^JI (_y3j .4j^L«JI /a^jLp. J^li- sLjjjj/^I jiic La-« mJjJs? cjj^ (JiJs 

4_)La- "i ( nl ^_A Cj^Ju (_paj_a ^ia_jj_a 4_»L» Liclj 7c_j_uaJ m£JJ1 ^j^"*- mil (JjlS 
CjjJJ (j-^J U'M-' I Ijl <>>"-- 1 ajuJS J^la (j-u 4J3}L*JI .(jiaJI (j-a ^i^I i_jLil^V! 
(jl I j La j j Lb (2_il ar 3_l«^Ij) ^ j^Jj j; a I 3jj/IjJ iJjj^vI '.7jJL«Ji,l i • j _■ La ! I (_£jJ 

(J_l_3 (j n j \Lfl_a Jl^*-I (_ t j3 «L_JLj2J^_a 4^-jJ (_^L£. J >^>->- * ^ jjl ( .j JaJ| ^_uD^_a 

(^ LajJ 14 ,49 (jJI J-i-ilJ Sj-J-S /o-^Jj-a J_t3 u rt mi" i ntl ^ j^JlaJ Ojll 

j| >dU, ,.j" ^ «L>.j^ (_y^- J La> i t-LxLa /a^>JLt_) (jjjJI ^a^_l,1 La-Lu tuaj --j" 1 1 

i98 (a^jj^ (J^l2 /j a uu mXI ( _ T 3 jjIiSLa-i 43l j CjjJ,! (jl^ (jjiLia ^^3 4_<iajiJe_La 
L^aJiS (_yJ-II ."ilj^i . ..^".tl (j^j (j-aj .^IjjJI (_yLc '^ i ujjj I (^3 LaoJ 8 , 45j 9 
CjjJll (j-LS (jj^LjJLa ljr £ 2 . jj j. ^ 2jvj^ ^jlr J '^^ i^JJI ' ■ .jjUtl (j| till jj 
j j i ni-i'ill /Lai ij^Lj_a lI^j (_yi ii mi" i nil ^1 (jj^jiajj>J,l l ^ r usjX\ (Ji-JJ 
d ' a U fl .' '^^ ^"^,M 1 2_J^L}j LSjia ^ JlJ-"i i nj < . .j ilaJI I JJt j? jj'" l*II jj jji.^?t 

(jl dlli iS^ej^I! ^1 t T J>a'^! jji Jj^l jjMiii"ll jl jt^-jj (j^=tJj • (80) Lp. 

jj^Lj jl (_yJI (JjaJ CjjJ,! (ji^ (^ «Uti3j-a «L»-jJ (_yLc (J-i-ajeJ (_g JJ! i ■ i i i \~i 1 1 
ja3 (j-aj '/j i " '" u\ • -ilj t-i>»\l I «_<2jj_a jl.Uli u|) (_,i^.I <Lul i^ac "^j^ "^jJ 



45 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

( _ 3 _Lcj . L*JJi ( _ 3 _3 «_II_iJJ "J-J-C (j-o ^iii j ,>."-- 1 | J L>. Sj^iaiaj (j-useJ «GL3 

SJL^- ( __ r ^ «LJI « (jjjjj-j-bji <±*-u!j_<JI» «Cl>-LJI "-li^yJ 'j' '^»"-*- *1 ,J^.lj^ 

: «Lu ill (J^I^JkU t_y^2e lujI ^-X-l Cj^XI ^la^-a 
.«OjL>- 3 j j La -■- (_>aie iSJI ^S-y <-^p- : ^-l3-*-"j J^-" I " ' 

(jSUj Ja,^ ^1 ^aLbVLi Scul JJLi Ul liU ■...k.^LaJI jl (_^aiil 3JU -2 

ji ,j}L<232l (j-° LcjJ -i j Sj (jl ^)^~* iSJI (JjLaj I J.; a J :3_ajl mil 4-L»-j_o -3 
J J "' ■' SJsLLaJI ' -l j Ja ' j n'( ul I oK 4l>-jJ,l OJLA Cjjirsjj :i_!LuV2l -4 

5_i I j L-lLja Sj_l-l$J 1 Sjl i ii ••'lil-i (j^l i n->-l j . v. -. 1 1 ,_jjj (jjSLj <-^t>- 'o^A' 
(_, (j" mj Jjii'll 4JLvj^ (^Lj (J^-ljJ,! ojui JSLi (j^-it- .".I! j^j (jl Jjljj -5 

iSLpJI (^ (J-o'i/l (_y3 ^y*jjX\ j I) o"r i ill ^Ir Liiaj? SicvLJI o jtjfc Cj_^Sj J^J 

<_3jjlJ V l_LJ(_3 dlljlS .J^JjJ.1 oJ-A J£j >Lt3 j^j J0.I3JI J^iJI (jl l^Al 
5_. ,^ ^- .UK J^JjJ.1 0JI4J jj>M (^ 3-atL>JU J-al^jiJI 4-> aj2j ^JJI jJjJI 
>1 ''^°i 3Ljj>J1 tcjjLjj 'cjTj '^* «L>-jIiJlj ^- ua III ^j" i n aj ^3^_4JJ «LfljLtuJl 

«lLlJIj ir-^L«JI A »Jj^ij i/yJjLaJI (^jlajJ.I sLiLiaS 4jiajJ,! (J^l^jiJI I M~A» ^ ( ^c 

^J| 3_<j,Lo 3j»-L>JIj (32)j ■>■"■ -».t I I jj'a Jl»-jj (_yll! 3 j S^i xaJ I 3_j£.Lii».VI 



SjlCjJI (JL^o ^^3 (j\laL«JI Q~\~(3 ' "~' a ij*^ i"i tj-S JjJlC ^Ll^JcvI Cj^jej i-^-yJ 
(j-J-cb (jl (_>I=j-j-3| J_SJj . *, Q j i ->o (_2.ll (j j l_ i <i _i ra-^-iLa jsj (j-aj i(jJ_sxi£L>J,l 



flfl 



■"■ftrt II |X la fDQAAjO 

CjLjj/IjJJI (_JJl>-I 4J£. <"m-i i"iS La dJJjiJ Ja-i3j-i JLSj . CjjJ,! (j-o 3-oLc cLfl-Laj 

d)j_a (jj-LS <j-« i _ 3 _lLJLJ ^jJl * ' J UaJI i _ T xisj_a ^ji (j-* (^JLlLtoiJl 5) aAJI ^Jajl) 

J-J-2 aLjT 4 i n o -»- OjJ^S i ta i » jp-^j J^ 3 ' ^J p 1 " 1 mm i nil fj^ (jjHSLxJ «-i2Jj-a 

(J) gi »>>"-»■ * IjjIS I ' aji a 21 ^ 1 c l1*_jj_j*-1 m^j-^-i «Lj_u1jJ ^j a j g la LiS 

uiiL»l3j_<jJ,l (_J£.Lfl3 «aj! i"i nl£» iJa3.V jiJsj .cjVL>J| (j-o */86 ^^a (j\loL*JI 

(_, k li 111 J-cLalJt (j-a '/85 (j-a j-5-^l (j' ^^J (j^-* - '(Jh-^J V'U u r J^ijX\ *-a 
jj-S-Jj . p j i ro >a o 1 1 ^_uju jiijlS_jl ji ' £f\ o kj (JS mi <_y^ (<iJ-i tl>^ Cj LxlD^_a_aJj 
0jl£L3l q a j i a se J ^LtS 4" Mi^LLaj (_>iaJj_U *_o (jl£.U2jj (^ (34-"-° /-20 (j-a (Jjsl 

4_«_)LJ3 ^^-S *_ cisj (_£JJI ( _ > iijj_ll ^IJlJJ (J\j-"i i nj (_j^>- M5j-<k^>- (JS miJ (J^isl 
j^juajj,! (_yJ| <LJjL2J,I_i (^-j^-VI u^ijX\) «tl!jJ,l (_yJI (^iiiio)) ( _ > l3j-aj ( _ > l3jj,l 

«LbjJt_a i _ T 3 (^pajJ,! ^2lJ_A i i£-J-> L-a-ij-l tfO-^Jl frlj Jjjj .^"^l, I ^j^jX\ * tJL>o 

(j-CL>- LlJI (j-o JJlC f-i^5J J^J • (O-AjlSLal 4 mi^Llo «Lca_^3 ja^J 7"Lj3 (jlj ijo^Ii!L>- 
dJLi Vj ' . ij-iJajlj ( _ > iaJ^J,l {j\j Q£.\Jul\ (Jj/Ll2J (^jjLj) ^jJl2j (jjjLiio (53) 
j-^-\ ^,'°' J . >>" *^ 1, 1 \ sXjdJt 2i 1 j^Llii_« (j_* I i g ^ g Julj ^j - 1 j a \ I 1 JlA (JILa ^jt ^^^ 
^ aj "■ tl o Jjj ' aj ijS-il-ij «LuLtuj! ^jlca jl mmiI 3-iLjj (2>^- - '^* a iSLpJu oJl^. 

j' i>*"^ V Ij Cjj^Xl «U_uljJ r^-^-J (j-aAill 

M$4t ^c wLi^jm -6 

jl ,y,^yi ( j^ i_2j^>JI -I 



15 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

.cjjJ,I jl»j cjJls-ji ii Lx-« <_a^>JI -2 
.(64) SLpJI lJiSjj qjh i_ajiJI -3 

i^ajUe-aCjlJjSLa-TciIolj JSLiIiJ J « CjjJ, I «L^>-lj^» «ULo ^^ (( jjLsliD^ii Lo 

'•(_ylj La i_2jL>JU ojui ' " i ' i i iaj JlSj iCjjJ.1 u^\ 4 j i ii it u ^ j i a se •"■ II 

■ jl iM-^Vl 4-iW: -I 

^ ,^.^. ,",11 cjjJ,I -2 
.^ji^l SLpJI Sjila -3 

j i iaj >i 1 1 (J^>- 1—3^3^3 (_ 7 jJI d S j La 1 1 jf d ^j-» , ,,ll 4 p , M 'ill -4 

•• ( _ 7 1j Lxjo (jjSJu i_ajUt^ i^y>- 3^A? <^jjJ.I (Jia jji ^ij j2Js «(jj"nijt» Lai 

. ^n^-fl l jlJiaOJl -I 

.lJlSjIJI jl Jj^j-ll -2 
JI.^'.VI -3 

4_«_ijl i_ul^>- (j^j-4-L>-jJj'v j i ii jiij «L^>-j (^^-(48) «j*i i into j^o til! jh 
I Cjj-U •■ ( _ t 1j L«-£ q! j ta 3 I o (j i a JSLI <jJJ-*J (_y3 JlUjj CjjAI (j-o i_2^ieD 
: ( _ T Jj La (_ T 1^. <_jI_jj>JI oJufc J o"i i""i joj (j-oj -OiL^^' / <-— 1 1 Ji-11 ijLUaH>-2l 

.CjI jJI Cj^o (j-o i_2^>JI - I 

.diljjl jl ,y,0 ( j_o i_2^>JI -2 

. ( 2>^ j >->-^>i Cj^_a (j-* *— 2^>Ji "3 
.j^J^i-VI jLciaivl (j-o i— 2^>JI -4 
^Ijlal (jl dlli iSjlc Lj!j-a cljjll jlIl 4Jj£Jll jLtJ^I ^ JJjlIII I JL^Jj 
tf^j^- (j-° ' JjlJI (_g^L>-2l (jjSHI (j-° J ->»al Jju CjjJ.1 (jlil SjJjLLa CjUjSLa 
5i ALlaJj /. i ■■ fl Ij| (JjjLl^JLi ^ 1 ' qj g) 4-j^ILajSj t n L)1^_« (j-* ^J'^ * u^pj La 

3jji!jj (jSLIj • (8 . j 25 •jk'Q 5-£jI i nil cj^jtaJI L$-lLc clJi (d^jtoJI pj-iia^o 
(jjjLjii (_, I r ^jli (_gJJI jjjill! ! J-A j^Jj (oJ ,jjjLl2J,I I Jl^J ^^ioLtJI t_xj^pJI 

(JjJbejJI jyjLlJj idJLLcuJI CjLi-uljjJI (j-o (jjjLu/l (_yi^. -«^pJjji» 7"J^£\ J^J 
(j-4-cis JiJSj .CjjJ.1 (j-o i_2^itil .Juu^l .iJjILa Lo^jLo- Lit I j^v I ( _ T lI! ^^J-oLtJI 
,jl ,^"^VI 2jl r :^jja i_a^>JI :(_yJj L»^ ( _ T jt5 i«Lj<Ljio ^^3 "LuLaill jLu'i/l aJJti 
3Ll>. i _ T b 4_l4_Ai ^^j (j-4-*3 (jJ^>- 2 1 Cjj_« i5j_*IjL»_« Cj^JLl Juu p j la sell 1 1 idx_iX1 



46 



■"■ftrt II |X la fDQAAjO 

.(25) ^Ij^l J-lS CjjJ,I iCjjJ.1 Jjlj Juji^JI 'JJ» '"'II Cj^o i(J^j>J,l i^j^aie-iSJI 

(_j-&J CjjJ.1 (Jla (^ a\»~...n jljul «L*Jji ij-u (II) oj^-^jj «CxJj£» j-J-a LxS 

,^.^- ,",tl ^jji^tjJl iSJl>-^JI i3uL«J,I (J^j>J,l '-(j-a i_2^>JI 

t c_»1^J>J1 ^ySljSlS] (jjjL<_ui ^ 1 C Cj^JJ JjlS (J-* J '-^- a «^>-l-^-4-> » f-^3 JuLiJ 

(^SjJI ii±jIL>JI i«LuL#Jj ^ 3 1 La a cL2jJL>. a rii<i^j OjJ.1 i)l <>•"-*■ VI 4_lLi£. :«LuVI 

L^jajLlJ cjjjLj/I iSjijJl^. «lJloLc 4_lLlL>o cjLjiIjjJ (jjjLlSJ,! I jl& > . -^ ~- » 1 88 ) 

«(_£JlJL|» JlaIc! lill ji£ .(J^l^. 4 I II Q->-j 4jM3 (j-lj 7"^!^ (J-oljJlJI l j t A ^JlC (j£, 

4 <i l"r ~»JL I CjLc.jji^J.1 (j-o JJlC (_yl^. CjJ^-I l( j 1 j 1 1 » (j-u I— i-S-t, sLlLoLc 4jjjIj.3 (_yi^. 
:«LlIl1!I 4juj2| (J^IjjlII pjji'i Lj-Lo ?"' ~" "I J^J 'J i^alidlj (jjiJL>JI (j-o JS ^fl 
.Sjpe-cJI jl^oSL^lJI idUnJL JLLijVI 1(jt jL££VI e-SjiJI n-lj^Jb JliuijVI 
p ^j I c I lIa^-jI^j (j 1 ^-*-^^ 6 -^' (J-* ^ 'Jf- c^-^- < ( ^>-Lj_4-1)) jjjjLjJL* 1^_a_).}» JJ-lIs 

(j-O l_3jJ>JI '•(_ T Jk (J-fll^. 4 I III1V SLJEJLIJ (j-O TJ^Illm\ JuSj . LoLc 9 .J 12 (j^J 

i_jljJi2VI iMjjJo LiJSj 4^ljJ>i<j|j cjjI! *VL JULiJVI ,^,~^.-.M at^Xl 

.ilij-U (j-C 5 La 1 " ^- 1 1 jLSLa^l h^jjILi 2 La jjj 1 1 i_3jL>J.I iv2jjI! (j-o ^l JJI 
4-jJ1j"i 1 iii CjLlj-C (_yi^- iJJ^>i La^J sLjiIj^ fj^ « IjjjjIiJ Oij'j" -AJJ' ""^J 

(sJal ilijJl^JIj j-iSLajJI i(__>^iJL>JI cjjJ,I (jla '•(_ t j*j (J^Ijj<JI oju* jj-o 4j^13 

. (60 -.j-L^I) cjLUaJIj 

/j I c C^j^vl (( j 1 j <i i » (juil J 2 a (_,i^. «L-oIjJlJ oJ^Lojj (ijILujJ)) alJ3 L«£ 
La^Lli-l (jJiJajJI (jjJLA CjLLjC <"iiil"i-*.l JLSj 1 1 JljJ^jI (J I <i i"i j I J-ii (j-o CjLLj^. 
j_L<UJ (_ T lII 4_ujJll '"' ,'lj " u»VI (JjLLa ^jJl^Ju IjiJci j_L4-l i-^f>- (j-« IjJjLji 
4jlaL>JI t—i^Ua (2h° '^72 ^l^v (jl 4jj/ljjJI ojut Cca-iiajij . Ijiil^jl (Jl i~i ujj 
•» LaJI (jia» (_jJ^- idijLA >> 1 ii-v IjJukLij (<sJ (IjiJci L^laj) gLJI Mill LSLjj-aT ( _ T 3 

cjuVI (j-o '/62 iCxjl" 1 n"tj^jJI cjuVI tjjz '/48 IjljJ^jI (Jl i"i t_i^LL> (j\j j! 
jl2 i^LJjjKJI jj^JJI i>o '/89 ..j^jLLuuj^JI jj^jJI ,>« '/55 .liLJjjKJI 

/. I c (JjJq-1 (_gJJI Ja-flJJI j-Aj " ■ c I " 1 1 1» j "■ ■ ■ 1 1 (_p3jjLlJI ^1 IjijLJoi 

Jj-b ^^.3 /S^iJlJ^vj dJJi ^^-ULJJ iIJlJJj-j! Jl Ml (^ 4jjjJ,l i"»l^ljU.UVI 
Ji^ (jli Wi>^ 3' '- l H L "-" v L2jJtJ^3 (jl J! I ■ 1 J '" <— !j-SJu jl AJJJl^JI jl jLjtAjVI 

(j^_i (3j>-^-ll oJl-& (j-o («-C.jJI (_yi^J '" '\'lj ta uazl ojui ^^3 i-jjj^oi jl iJHa 
1 L<_i-a--^- -1 J Lu 4£j" i"i a «L»-ijl (J^l^. Cjj^ii Jiia CjLcjju>J,I aJJt i—Sj^Ia 



fl7 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

^ I i a " t 1 Mojll i(j-o_)JI JJ>XJ (j^>" i^jJljji^JI CjIj-lLUu 4xLaaXI ^j a^JI 

.(60) (jVlj lU^^L. 



jJLjijVI (»JlC <_*jI^>- (j-o IjjJlC (ji ^jJI j j i"i_i il (80) «^lljjli» L*U!i JjJjj 
) la i\) «Lj_^.jJ^_u 4_i£.LiIL>.1 CjLjj" i n a ^ nmv £j-c*3 (jr^ ^JJAi 3-^ * ~J-* 

• (I JS^i 



o_jil jlS 


(_£ bLbvAl 


gtiy 


^ 




SuLUiil 


J>\Jf> - 1 

JjJ.i-3 



O^il ^^-Laj 4_Jr^J^Jl A^Ul^-VI obj7ii.ll :(1) j5Li 

(JjSLj CjjJ,I 3^ oi^ i ( __>i>!j-o'j! !_gj" i n a (_yJ^ 4JI 3^'-"- u ^ iJS i"iil Ttjiojjj 

(jjjs I JlSL&j -ij^^ l5>"' ' k* i ** (j-!S *-— >_9-X 1 3^ p^j' j j ''i'j lA 3 - qI** 'ij^-'- 3 



18 



lU lQjB I I iqJL9 fP Q I lflgO 



jjJaj i L^jI 1 aj ^ j '^ se ifa-II CjVL^v (j-\_i (3i>^V (< i_P^ JlJjxjj» (»La 
cUlj*- (jl (^l (j^ J '" ia ^ (J'- :e - a Ct^ ijfcO"^"*"^ 1 J-fl> tfJ^Lajj {l J--^J J mi'")) 

1 jijjill 3l_p- jLu^^a jjLc ji ' " ■ 5j a ^) u j •" ' •■ " p I La ~ a u^ Anxiety State jjliJI 
(_^ I j j 1 n't 3jjLj (j^LJI <ju J}j>s f_^L£. Jj^ Anxiety Trait (j-Lilll 2 <i m Lai 

1 a alj ill 4-1 La- "11 nVI (_jJ! ■" jlj" (_5-3j i«LLl*-o dJL^Laj /<sJL*JI ijJIjja -" ^j^j" 

i _ 3 JI 4_^.jJlJ1 ^ * aj) a (3-^ ^ q ' " ^^J (J-* (Jri- 4 - 1 ^] 'c^ -3 * )jl < nL) ^ uxtauul 

LaS i^jljJa) sL^tla Cjljj^xis jl S^Jl^o jl 5j La 3. L#j| (_ji^. L$J 2jLa-"n 11VI 
. 4jjJ (jilll 3JL>. f-Ls-jl 3jui ^ »-3j-i L4I UiaLjj 
' tLtiijLQlJI IJl±a «LlLc j j La * J (_L^3 iaL*JI jjiill plj-il (j-o pj-i Cjjl! (jls L)! 

3jj^>o cjj^jvI jJLI : JjJiJ LiJLa Jjl 1 ."ill I jut (j£, 3_iLvMJj S3 . uj 3JL>- ^1 

«L»_»jl L^_i^ ll<-a JlJ>"< ( nl J i4_j_»Jjj?tjjlj 4- g .a- t . t , 1 ^yz>^3e-aj\ (j_« 1 J-JJLC t " i * o claJ 
jl (jA_«J Cjj-ll (J-La 0' L^-*- OtJJJ-uj'-iJJ^*-";!)) tt" i" i njj .r-^L«JI (j-° P'J- 1 ' 
-^a^ILaj (j] ^2>Ss_<aJi,1 (j-aj * (75) k^L^d 3j_fl>LIi 0jLui£.1 (JjLfl-a (_^ «4_a-<-u» JUlj 

3 La jJj 1 1 <Lu-lJI Cj^I^sJIj ' ^ a I j o 1 1 CjjJJ jjiJS 3JL>- 3ji ill i ii-v-dll jj <Ljc_lu 
LjLjJ ^^^l LtjLv Jl I J-*J CjjJ.1 (Ji3 4 Q I ii J-JJ-»3 <j\»" cj-^- • ^ j^^-> J' •— 'J-^W 

.JjojOJIj j^iiU 3_lLiL3 JJaTj 

4 o i uj (Jlill 3JL>- (2h° tPJ < — 'j-^' (jM-* <j- u ii'-'" t^V 3^^L»JI (_a La (jSDj 

jjjiLiio (^^ (^^s^ejUI I g^ig J ' a seJ (_yjJ! d—tiSJI «L>-jjJI (jl j^ib Jiil ^(jlaJI 
3JL;tJ L^iaLjjjl (JA ji&\ (jii" 4 o i Ml iU j* .~ (i j I j «i 1 » djLiiaj (_g jJI CjjJll jjls 
iUSj^ol CjLj^. (_yJLc CjJ^>-I «L-oIjJ til! j JjJJJ i(j^-jji1jj i ii (jjjLjia) (J12JI 
(j-a f«-C.j-II (_,lf J JjLa i "II jbfc i_ijL? L$j aLs . (2)3jj '^ a CjLLj^. (_jlr j ( 1 7) 

d o t uj (ja-AJl «Ui_jv (j_a (J-Sj CjjJ.1 (J-Ls (JjjI_l^« (j^_j t tj*-^_a i_LdLujI ^J^>-J 

dlli idijJ.1 (Jla (_5i^- '_>J^" j .' '.' * «^ o i iilloj «3JL>JI)) a j j a a (jLs i(jlill 

(j_aj i(_^>-i (_2-jl ^ l-^^-l (j_a ' ajgiej (2J&XI (3^ (j-* (j-uSjul ^^l^ - ^ ^ljv (jl 

.(ax.^1 i_JL»JI (_y3 3-AaLflJI lIijJ,! i a a I j a »l i""i < nLi ij^i-I (_yJ| ' a ^j ^ 



J joJ iCjjJkl (j-a (jLtujj (_gl (jl2j I JLlj jCjjJ.1 (Jia i _u i ii J (_g JJI La 



fl9 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

pjj Loj ScjjII Jjjja v2jL2Li1o ^Jt, La :2LJLiJI 3JiuiVl ^ 3-iL.VI ^ 1j^j£ 

Scj^JLI 3*^ (jj£ \4 ' ga ■"> sc ' rt ji) 4jU2J^_a «l^»j.} (_ r l^ (jj ij 1 ' a se * ^j- 1 jJI ^aVzc-uiX 1 

.aLc «l>-3j <Lu.oAl3l 2-> LaJI 3JL>. -I 

. CjjXI pj_L*3j_a_i d I ' a^ U 3Ljj>Jl Cj1^_^>- -2 

{ Lr u±alAsl\ JUJ.I (_ya) (j^jl^ji.ill ^yi^jl! (jla Jj^l jji^txil 3jinitLij 

^^Jl <LJjL2J,1_i CjjJ.1 3-^ (_t-^ ■'•""j a CjL»-j.} (_j-Lc J J uas*j I ^1 (JjLl4-i 

UaLujl «(jjlj_i»r-jjjcjjj/l JuSj . CjjJ.1 3-^ (jj/Ljio *_o LuLxjI Ja-U^j-^Ljj i ubil 
Ijj>Jj£. (jJJJI (_ T iis j >-l! (jl <-^JJ La£ . SLpJl (j-a i_2Jl^JIj CjjJ.1 jjia <j^j miIi 11 

cjjJ,I (j 1 q (j^al '" jJs <_jL1i^^L! SjLcaJLl sjSI SjJIj <_iLu£VI (jialjx.1 (j-o 

^^al ~\\\ LuLajl LULujl (<s-^JjJ CjjJ.1 (j^ (_j-^ O^l '"'^ '^".'"jl ^-HP*-} ' [**&,' '^ 

V-<U_a j-J^^/1 l_ xJL>JI (^-CjjJLI (3^ 0' J 3 k.' 0' j»L«i*3U < " 1 n U 1 (j-°J 
(J j 1 11 i tl j^jlaj-a J '^ a. Jlil2 i^^JlJI (_LaLdll jl djo i n->JI A -* i a 1 1 J Lla_i3>j 
(jl_l 3Js}Lc. J giaj /<sJj . LoLaj 4jJ 1 nil JjJi^Jl (_y^ «_23 CjLvjJ ^Ir (_gj K 1 1 
(Jl < miiVI ^1 ij j mi 1, 1 «LjCjji]! (jjijjLoil /_^ «bvj jJlj Cjjll (3^ 1^4^ t— '1^-J-i 
. (93)ji^:L2lll (Jr ll <>JL>J.I ( _^=Ut J ij'^l ^jJjjjlaJI ((J^ujjSiiJjJj^ii^JlJI)) 
<Lj_9_<-u CjI Lj c (_j-Lc ^ 2 1 » j a «LuljJ ( I 7)« j 1 i <ii 1 JlJ^I j 1 1_Q» (_£_>^>-l JL9J 
oJlj* /tjLxJ JLS3jJ i (j n jjLS-11 (j-a (JjIs j-fC ^JlC 1 feuc 3^ i4j_pnSji nj 

ijS L^J Lulo^c. (_ 7 jJ1j ivIjjJiI 3-1^ ct^ ^lL«LlII cjli djJLvaj)) 2^ loj 3jj/IjjJI 

. Sj^jD 1 a Jufc (Jj I 



50 



4_L>L2J,I L^_«_aI Jjj-* 3 3j^-«-j CJ5-II ij-Ls (jjiLSj 

ijLpi-VI jiul^JSj ,aX*\ ^ , ,.VI jJjJaJlj tcLu^aac-LuJI 
CjIj-jJLjjJIj iit^j-jJI (j-ajj 1 4_L>-^Jjjj_L<it I (JjL-u^JIj 
jii£l Sj-p-^l Jjjj "-^>ljl jVrinVlj i4J3jLall Sj^iill 
«LlIL1!I CjljJLitl [J& u^sjju^ i Lai Jiiejj-ul (jjjJaJI oJui 

m ll^m-l 

jl 2 j '^ » iiJ! 3_l_jl_2_il O-^aJ V " ml 

^1 3_3L^^Li Lajj L&jbvj Lol InterviewjLpjjjVI 

A J Vr 1 11 J JlSJ . Sj-ji-Sl (^C MjJJ jl CjIji it- "11 11VI 

(_gl SiLUol (jSLx-i tixj^e-i SAjULiU L-uL-ul jl 1-V1 1 nVI 

J J 1 ■■ »j tj^^-o^tiiJJ <>L>o1 jLjjL^eHJ Ljjjj-Lis Jmjjjljj-u 
(j^-4-i l_<o (Jl a UVl «_a «Lijj_LaJI ojui aI jJst'k u| 
(Jl fl uVI CjL&LjsoI (j_c CjI_ojJl«_o (_5-Lc (Jj i*aj>J I 

j? ijJj^JI 2ULLSJLI J}U. «cjVmi» 4jL£ SJaLu^j 

(^-JJJ^J ^LILa A g * fl i clLaj (j| (jS_4J '- 1^">- i4_L*_4^>J1 

tj-SL*j cdJj^ iCjjII (3^. /&4JL&M (_yJI j^Lpj Lo (J£ 
jjbj .vIjjII (jx. Drawings ajj-uj *uJl2jj I^jJUqj (jl 
cjjJII j-x-i oL>oVI (jjiLii! (_jjj>-l ^j-^ 3 Ci«iJ V"ml 

(jjijjLLa (JlLo 4-l*-«j>JI jl 4j.3j_flJI SAjLHll (J^L>- (j-o 



51 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

jjia i (j i j i i a 1 1 (JjLso t_)jij-ul aJlJ-"ii ill Lo . jl_ji>- VI /<uljJ3 ^Jjj^Iaj^jjJjjJ! 

idjJJ^-LAJ ^jLaj-U)) 4jl>.Ij-« i^lSjiU ««Lj_Lu» (jjjLuLa i _ T 3 4_t_Lt_a AJlu-u] CjuLvI 
CjjJ,Li 4 La ■ ~j a Cil o Is Ij-3jj<_j (ji ^r 1 ' qj se-d.1, I (j-° "ij-^jU" V"** 8 ^~*-4^ 

.(39:jJ^I) 

L^ojiiejj-ul CjL-u!j J «_ij|-tL-uljiili «Lu3^c (JL»-o (_y3 jjkj-« jJLxj » -5jjl J^J 

I jj'a /OJ CjL-uIj.} » j i ii ^1 dllj^ jLJuij i(jj-o J*C mi ) 3-u.aJe ifUl SijLSlI I jj'a 

LliAjLSr" i nl (_ 7 ^J» 4 w ( n*2 1 JJlC *-L»J *4xLi n*2 1 ^j-* 3jjL?e_a 4x.^_<iJ?e_« a! JLsr" < nl 

(j-^>- (_, I f iCjLjiIjjJ! i_jj^>-I (_y3 VIJjj/ 32 5-t-i^a-je uiJI cj^LiLiU! ojui ^^a 
S-LiAJj-Ja^l ^yki-lj^La (j^io-LJI - ta » " (jla ^^^jIjKVI pLkJVLi LuLu! 

j .U.I ^11 .-.ajll ^a , U^M 1 1 ^ ^j - 1 ,-.l'.L ,lt ^ jljl-^" ^a ,-.ljlj<~H ^1 ,^^l 
Lii iCjjJ.1 (ji^ ^-"^^ Lr^ j»lj-sejjjizl Sj-iLi C4--^-li^3 I *< J i a Se •"■ II 3ijL2Ji,l j! 
( _ T jfc (_Jjj>-I CjVL*-o ( _ y J3 3JjLSJ,I aI Jiitii-ul Jii£. "-lijj-J (_j^-I' -i^J-^J'j M-3;!-*-" O' 
oLsoVI (JjjLjS ^yfl Cu-ajLa-" i nl La Ii! Lijjijj tjS^Q-i (_yjJI L^ili -i^J-^IIj < T 1 _Ji Jl Jl 
Ciljl !■*■" i nVI Lg-»A| (_Jjj>-I (Jj-* 3 J-^lP tj-^- - , '" a i4_La jjlillj CjjII ^=-1 

iihrnrnjil^jJall -2 

^^a 4jjiji2lll Projective Techniques <Lilol axuVI ^.Utl ^^» j c^aaj-'inil 

d ajjjajlj g< ^j .U" p" ^jJlj TAT f-jj^ji! (O^flJ jLjUi-l (JiLaCjjJ.1 (jji^ (jj/LiS 
/_jJI 2 Lta-SJI ^^-S "J J J^ J^^i- (j-o <— )_jJLLi Jl < mi'iVI JJl^eJ i -^tH ;c -J iS^jJlJll 

jjL^tj Li^ tiaLLaj J^ ^ ojll fjjL^ji i_3jJUI jl^SLl!l ^yi^ bUl^lj i3 

(j-CL>-LJI (_vi-tJ Ajiir'ii ill JiJSj <Ltc *" Laj i "I 4jj/IjJ (jjjLjii (_yi^. (Jl* mi)VI I Jui 
-2 i(Jju>JI 4LiSi (jj/LjJLo - 1 :«LuV I 4-uaLSxui(l (Jj-kiJ' £y* ^js>-\ jl sLSj^Ia 
4_LAJ ^^Jl j^Ljjj LiC JLiA 3_iLo jl i4 '^^ (_ijjG l _ys^xJA,\ (j-o L-J laj (j! 
(j-« t gla ) f3 » g^ La i a c ^y^sc-uA 3j^_co aJl^j q\ -3 tCjjJLI i _ T 3 ^S_«aj LaJlJ^. 



52 



^liu ^jLjIu J^Lv cjjII Sj£LoJ ^ g U a .sj-ij 1j-*->.j" i uj £jl 

JjiJS <L_u1j_i ^^3 aJl3-"i i uJ LajJ^. J_<tJ>J1 SJLiSJlI ^j-uljnt, Villa (jV| ^J^JJ 
J_£ J-c-^J £)| tilla fc-Jtliftj |j -5 ,^>£\1 ',tl CjIjLjlII <j-« -}J-C ^h LftJ^J '^J-M 

: 3 JlJ-O.* «u_<jj>» Q^^Lj (jy^*- Ji-LJ 

OjJll -I 

dij^ (jli -2 

jLcal-vVI -3 

Cj^o (j| -4 

<u'V cjjII i_aLM -5 

CjjJ, I Jajjo -6 

jl tajj-" 1 11 U jLulxII (3^-^ <— <u^j j<uJl2j (jj-i 4jSL<-Ll£VI CjLc I jia iVI l _ 7 i*C- 
Cj^ S. i"i a (j_o 3 J Lai S . ..VI jj) La 1 1 ojufc 3uL»-a ^c ^ <^-a i/— «i ^Jjjjj (_gl 
La CjLuj ijJlH^' oJui CjLjj '-(j-o (J-^ u^3\Jlx->\ ( _j-tb Sjijji^ Sj^ILoj'v ji a 

(j-o ja£.jJI (_yl^.J • ( J' Jl - 1 '^' iiil jSj Tc-jjEj-ajJI aLLij CjLuj ;j* **■*»■ caJLI (j^-J 

(jAjlj (jl-3 jj La II oJljs (_i ^Lx-Jal^JI tyzZajl] i_u!^>-j Ci^'v i"itl oJus <_p 

jusj 1 1984 aLc L^jejLu cjj iVi 3jj/!jj ^^a pjjiajJ,! -i j*" jl pj.| ■•»! al Laj qjs 

jl . to-.. Mil <j-o jSL!j . J_5^JI jrt-ii-ulj-^VI jj^JJI £yj I 78 (_ylc CuJ^vl 

.CjIjI jt-"ii 11VI a JLJr" 1 n" (_yjJ! CJ^=e-JlJ 3JjLSJ,LJ I Jl>- (JjIs Cj^JtjJI j>JUk JJlCi 

tiftJJ UiLUftll mIMkII -3 

5_uLiL>JI 4-i La- "u hVLi lIijJ.1 (J^ (_)j.L^ (_y3 (j\l»-LJI (j-° Jjft jjx. *£Ltt\ 
4j>.jj (J^LloJ SljjUtl oj^ *jjr~ 1 ujj .Calvnic Skin Response (GSR) JlLsI! 

3jJtII (j-o 4 ii l~r ^e-a CjLuii jlj-3J ^LjejILi i(—JU^gSj| jLjiLI JlL>JI tc-Lsj-u (_Lu-ojj 
( _ T c I Jj j Lpi- 1 (_^ I aS-4-jJI «-a-il dJLj^a Cjli Cji oK :(JiLo 4_ujla i " 1 1 j _■ * a j jj I lb 
till jiS . <il>-Lio f-Lus^jus jl icLSjLji Sjji- jl «LuiaLo (_J^J J *J"1 jl i-Cil oKIl 



55 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

\j La ' (jVI AjLia-" i n"t Jjlj j<sJ I j IS lj 1 1 j j I a 4-uLij gSUl "LaJu^aJI C^oJlJ-"i a I 
.(J-\_lojVI *_a L^-ol Jca-'u nl jJajso (jj/LLiittj i_jJ^cjJI (j-uljJS j2 
(jjjLJLa) LJaAI 4lc j-^ Lo CjjJ.1 jjla (j£, sLjjiIjJlJ « j \ J <i 1 » aLs JLSj 

(_2^0j^OJ^_JJ3 ^jjjL-uI ^LC. /j J.!*" J ,", t j /jl^ I La£j t\<\jLU3J jj_a <-— I3JL I JjlS 

4Js}L»JI jjJl^o ^yJI SjjjIjjJ! <>j-a> (j-a i_ajukj i(jlstll 3uJLaL>JI 4jL*jjjiVI) 

jJL>J| 4_iLajj-ul (jl ( _ 3 -0>JLij . (j-uoij-ujl (JjJl^j 4_i£. j-;^ La£ CjjJJ (jl^ (j-u 
jjjiLlS L-ia^a ( _ t 3 " *"'"j " alawaSLi 1 uJI » jL^>- (jjj^la (j-C Cj.}JI». Ju3 4_uLflL>JI 
*M ■' ' "^J J '^'jll ^^jLj-caLj 3_uL>j^£ 1 -ll Lajal Jj-cajILi (±^.LJI 4-jJi aLs i(_£.ij^ 
jjLc.1 (jl J_»_i» :4_ljVI Cji j I <" II ^j a j se a I 1 (_j^Lc- (_j-2Jl r«J 'l£_> '"j'l JjJJ 
.((ijLijiJ L^jJI y 0" 1 11" (jl 3^-Ji iCji oKIl (j_a I^JlC * n 1 iU i_2oj-u J.^".' *> : ? j>1 ^' 
(_p (j^_i J '^*a Cj-peJ i4 jjIj loC 4jjj^Iaj 4-olS 30 ^j a j 5e fl 1 1 1 CxaJlS (JjJ-3 JJtJJ 

.4_uu (j-G^ilb (_$jj>-ij 4-ali 
tUt-J-l-La CjIJ LaU SjuLsca Lai » CjjJ,U 4 1 1 V't-a Lai Cji oKIl eJJt C1j-i\£ a 
i(j-3J iCij_a iSjLcv)) ".CxjlSLa CjjJ,u ^ La jjj 1 1 j lJulJI Cji oKIl Lai 4-Jl «-aJI 
j mhII CjLoJSjM CxjLS LiS . «d_L>- 1 Jjii. iSjjJLa 1 jLtaj-i-u ilj^ju i(_Ll^ ijLajjl 
i«LuLLa-> iiiJjjjj ip>J->- '"^Jj i<— jLo iT-Ln^a-a i«L*_l3» : ( _ t 1j Lai Ijj 1 n ) 3juL>J,l 
<Ull <LflJ *l 4Ju-LaJI CjI!j j mhII CjI oKIl (JJjlS(j^>- (_ 7 1^. .««La i^jl i^aa. iJLuo 
• «3jl jiJ3 i(_>^a-o ij-ai- '(JljS iaI ipLuv ijU i(_gjG 1 Jlllj 11. r*v.» '•(_ T Jj Lai 
( _ t jJI «L^>.jjJI (j^j Lta-j^ LlaLjjjl liJLui jl «L<-utjjJ! j>JLfls (j^a j^Li JuSj 
tLuLiLsJI JiLsJI SjLjcjjjiI (j^JJ CjjII (_jis (jjjLiio ( _ T 3 i _ > ^aJt^J,l I fl-tL: J 1 a scJ 
(JjjLlS (_yi Sj—ji-al «L2j^IaJI SsLfli ^1 j j i"i_i LxjU iCjjJ,Li <UjusuX I CjI oKIl 
SJlJJLC CjLjiIjJ (^ 3-lJl fll>JI JiLsJI 5-1 La- "11 nl C^ajij-"ii nlj . CjjJ.1 (jJS 

aLc (((JjLLujJ^Ij (jJaij j^t i 1 uSJI)) (j^ (_p L^J aL9 (_yjJI SjLjIjJI «LuljjJI JlJLo 
^ La j "j 1 1 Cji Is II jl (j 1 n~a Js uU CjLjiIjJJI j>JLfl> C^jaj^oji JlSj . a I 957 
(j_o ^ii^i ^^-ajJaJj^l ^^LJI 0- u^<l l jL^>JI (j^ jjjLj L4I jl^ CjjILi 

jl jLSLxj 3joj>j-aJI (jj» (jSllj .basal 3_jJlc1_3JI jl neutral 3jljL>J,I cjLxJSLJI 

«JsjJI CjI j ( _£_^>-'iil Cji oKllj CjjJ,u <UajjjJll Cji oKIl (j\j 3j-^' 7c-i*3j"i 1 n i 
Jijjj L$JJ t '"' Lt^J d .' ' * 3J ^ (cr^^J^^O (_yjLatJI «Lj_cjJI jl jl /_ll jLflJZI 
J_LC (Jiill (_5i^- Lbu ^LJj oiLjtjl q^jIuij jl (jSLaj V JOJ (j-OJ i<Ua>l L3J V 



51 



^IJlJt" ml 3_jJLjLi (_^fl <jj Mill ^Jl (j-IbJLl (^.SJJ lilljj .JiLiJl <^S pjlr-ltl 

oju* t_t3^ ^jj Li^ . i2jjJ,I (J-L2J LjLlIo jlad! 4-uLiL>J! S-iL^L-uVI 

(j-TiK Mia «L>-ljJ CjjII (jiJS <J""^ Ct^ SjlViniVI aJJt, aIJlJ-'ii nl (ji JJ^> i "^ 

: L.& 
. 4_3-iL-u Jiia^tu c< in L«S LipLu ( _p 3 Loi c jl - 1 
2 a L£ a I J I » 7"_' Lx-« 3-pj-i!l gjjiLuill l-oJsIj^ ^Ir Lg-al JlJ-"u nl j LaJ3 -2 

. Jl^JIj <jjjs^1! 

3-3jj) (jjiLia Semantic Differential Ratings SJsjLi!! Sj^iill cjI^jjJCJI 
Cjj^dJlLO «U^djL«jJ,I '"'I flxaJI Trljijl (j-o ^l i nl i H (j a j -» a 1 1 1 4-j3 aJJL ' » r«J-9j 

A ua ) J ' ^"^ <_y^ ^ uiijl (jl3j_« _3Jl^&j ^jl «LLa t qlaJQ i ( kiula /3^9 .SLl>- / 

,\3 j*" J_' ' Sjj 4JL^laJI eJJb (j-CcvLoJI <_>-ajtj Ajlitij-ul jJsj .-<! A,^.tl (jj»-jij 
a j J fl I sLa-liUI CjI^jJL2jJI (j-u SJs^Lc i_lJLcji ^1 tflj^o aLc (^^I^j^I «_o iCjjJ.1 
ti^L*. <ij~ i in1» dj.ulj.3 dJJ j Cj Jil JuSj iCjjll (j-o <— 2jj>JI (jjijjLLaj CjjJ,I 

4_4-jJLll (jjlJjL2j,l (jl (_yJI *LjLli!l ojui j j l"l1j . I i J Lu 4j^jijJV SJs^Lc (JjUjji 

jj LaJJ (jl (j-S--*- 1 Oj-tl A j J a 1 3-SjLUI Sjjiill CjI^jJullII (j-o tLa-jjr" i nU 
i". in j I 2 <Ljj tall a 04a di!j «_oj . ji . ^. j -> A 1 1 ,jjj Cijll <j-o i_2^i»JI 

.CjjJ.1 (jl^ (JjiLliLI aI JlJt"ii iiVI 4jlj-uIj 

(4h,) tifjLi-rff-5 
.Questionnaires :cj!jI < -V" mVl CjjJJ ,j I ^ q"1 ^ ^ 5jljI iSJI (jjj-laJI ,j-o 

(jla (jjiLiil Ijl jVii nl (jJ^-cu^J A i up-*. (^C (Ji V La ^Vl L4JL0 J^>-JJ C7-^'j 
(j2 (JLj>J,l i> iii~( J Vj .«J^e_l ^LJ>oVlj «Lj (Jl < MltVlj «l_LO l^jJkJI jl .CjjJLI 

J^h jji-VI I j ' a » ' (ji (j\s>- (_,lr 1 1 jj'a 2i> jT« Cj^iSLifui Ij la ' aJlJ-"h nj Jju 
Juu » ' ^* seJ .-<J \-q£ 1 1 g t£ <1_Jli_u^s_£j CjuLu tiljj ^qJj 11 tj^J J ji' JLla j^-iIij ,-<i_s 

(IJ~l I lljlj jJLx-l» (j! (_yJI SjLJuVI jjLJSOJ . «J-ul^JI AljLJejJjVI L*L>J, jl JlS-LLI 

<1>-J2l 3jJl»jJ,I (( Uj 1 ih'hii «L<ul^ (j-o CjjJ,I (j-^ (J^^!^ 3 '***"*' I VjL>- Ji^ 



55 



ugoJI £19 

.(j_u_JjLiil,1 QjJb (j-« 

(Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale(FODS 

(9) 

C ij ' - ^ ' 1jLA*_Li3^J «^**< I inl Jl-Lj2JJ>J tLlx-UjS ^jL>--1j^J)> t j- a (J^ f^LS 

,jl ,^~^VI 3_iLi£. (j-o i_ajiJ!j lIijJ.1 (j-o i_3jj>JI (2^u j_ujiill i-sjl^j i 1969 

.(2>J>^>- ^1 JlJ£. jl ^ j -— --— •"■ T 1 ^jj CjJlj>o LoJiJt£. <_2_jL>JU ojufc (j\j J_ujuJ!j 

: L&JjJJ (j-a r- jLx-l «_a 
CjI jJI Cj^o (j- i— 2^>JI - I 
.j-a^l ujJ-aiZ L*^-a CjjJJ "-^^J -ijl - 

:CjI JJI jl ,^"^1 £jja i_a^>JI -2 

. aLCL&^LI 3j_lLo 3jj^>o CjjJ,I (jjSj JL3 - 

••C^H^^n Cj^_a ^j-* <-^->^>Jl "3 

. iJr LuJu ^jl\ i »J^3 ^j^~»- .". Cj La 1 !il 5^_uS 3j 1 i n-Te-l ji mi Lj_u - 

j '^"^' Lojja-o t JL>ot (jl J L*a£l - 

■ j i>i"i-!ej (j<-iV i"i Sj i'n-*- ^3 l5-^>**J ' Jl ^' l3"*^W J* '"'I (j-1 " 

9 •.'Ltjj'iil sLuij^JI (jjijjLSJ,! -i i aj iSjLi^. 36 (_,i^. (jjiLlSJ.1 Ijla J o" i'mj 
iJj^l*- i«cj^SLlI)) 4JLu-iiJ L«jj jj-lJI £>c i— iLtcjj .^I^IJI (_,i^. I j^j 1 1 j 6j IOj 

L-uLjJLa LajLjr" i u a L^-La (JjJ «Qx*djL*_« J I *l"^a1j ^ fib*.j.} {j£. ^ys^sc-aX\ J-$*-i 

4_l^jL«J,Ij (3 +) Sjl-jj i^i 11 4_2^ljJ,l [j-\_i t-j1jJ13 iJoLa-i i". i ii (j-° L>-jjILo 

. Lull ii :""*" ^_* 'J '^**,'J LuLi?^l 7" "*• ' ^"' JJJJI (_H"j (jl ' ta »• N JJ • (S-SjjJiJuJI 



lj qj-u±± ^Ca ^cJ ^j "'^^ o 11 3^"3^ cirr-^ Lt^ '48) «^> " ' "jl ' j a * i p 3 j ■"■ *j 
( jj,Lj_2_o J^ (_^ (^-aj^ciLo (_gl I g _ilr Jj-ii^EJ (_ 7 ill ^LuL^ill «L»-jjJI (jl ^1 

^ylll oL>.jjJLi L^is^Lc ^^3 LikLijLA (j-<iS-j Jj iLg3l i ^ L4I ^yJJLA V ^y^s 



56 



(_, mi o"iJ (j! tj^-aJ mJ j-li ' Jl rP->!' j*SL»JI tjSJj . (j^^LOaJtaJtl «Ll2j I (jjlr J i^i-v 
/- 1 c J i^a 3» « i» ^j a j se * 1 1 (jLi (J^JLlI ^_A (j^Luilj Ijufc CjL>-jJ *_a l^U * ^ 
(jS-Jj t(j - 1 Ltd o '' j-jjLjla ^bljjj 2j . «* )» j^^-a^tAII (j-* «(JJ9i Ji» (jJ^i *^-*"J-^ 

(jjijjLim oJl^J cjLvjjJI '"«! La i uttHfl dijijjl cjj_iij (_jjJI cjLuljjJI jj^ Ij^iiS 

, «Lc^_u_a CjLLi^. (_£JJ 
id_jilj^J| jjjtjjLill CjLvjJ (j\j UaLujVI Cj^LoLta « j"i i int» -5jjl JJ9j 

(jl-j 5J.il j" U CjLlal j'jVl Q' J 1 *aj iCjLLl«JI (j^ -}JlC I g-ilc J <^»-- cr^I'j 
SjtjLill (_jJI jjhij La-« ij»Lc 'L^oj cLiaAseJLa clulS sbuj^l sLuij^JI u^ijjLill 
(j-u UaLujV! «j"i i into -ijjl Lo i*_ij ^1 i_2jL>J,! eJJt (j^_i j_ujilll (j-° 4_i£-«JJ 

L$_il (j^-jJ jJsj iCjjJ.1 (j-La (j ".;"' mJj^* - ' <j- u ry'-'*- a J '^ il j-^' L> u ry'^'' *J-* 
LjJLaLc ^LlLso dUji (_£>»• I (<u -(»Lc 'L^-^J H^-J- HiJ-^J** '-k'Hpj' .'"j" 
(jjjLijii (_yJ-C C<- < - i J3J J-J3 (j .i_i_iLfl-ll (jl (j_a fO-C.j-11 (_j-^- ^' ^JlS (j^LuLall 
2" Mill Jj-cjJI ij^-! tliUaLujVI 2 a j a i a a «j"injt» Ji>- J^ i m$j &l LaJI L^Ju^s 
i_*jS^l!l (jl L^lo j^ib i _" ale j loC Jl»-I (J-AjeUJI I Jufcjj-or-jjjejj-ulj i(j-G^Ujlj 
iTjLLLujVI (jl (_aJJII IJLjfc^j jJLa dili *-oj iIjl*. Jiita (j^LuLaU ^J-aLtJI 

^ n j tLiLa ^ j o ' a J (jij ' I g * Qj" * (jl i tj*_j i_^aL>J,1 i /»!"-»■ ^ ^j^_j «U^_A^>J1 

. *)\ JlSilj i n a lj-al cjj^- 1 ^"O ^ <^»^i <d 1 ^" , ., <■» 
(jui LxilJU (_ 7 _iUJ_a Jlj>-i ^-Aj-«^"i i im! Jljjij^)) d * i<ij ^>- 1 jjjjl-Lia <ll\jjb^ 
(_^^ • «CjjJ,I tj/js i_2^>JI (jjiLiia)) (jljjju 1967 al C-aJJ uaj (j^e-1 (^JJI 

^1 ^-Lc j>5-«JI (^ «CLjjIjj JAa «iiJVjj^» j^i (j^l j 7i t,l 1 04! SjjjIjj 

( _ 7 i^. (3^*i3 iCjjJ,Li 4JajjjJ,l CjIj_iJuJi,I tj/js JJlC (j^-ij (JjjLlSII I Jui (jlj 2J3^Lc 

<Luu\ 1 n-»- Cjlj-iilLa j^c ja^lbej l^lcaljj (jl <J^Il>-LlII l _ 7 i^ (j^-«^J 4j1 :«Uaij L*U!i 

.o^e-i oLsoVlj CjjJ,I ^=-1 <Lu^ai&AJI pLvjVu '^.'"j" 

(_ 7 J| «^> "' mm I - Cj_lJ^S)) (jjjl_j_fl_a «La^^pj Jiftla i uJl i>jLjfc i ulS al^ Jl^jj 

(<u 1 2j^_lL>oV I j 4_ujjlII (j^jjtill (_y3 ^r* "" '^-»"l I (j^ 2j^Ij 4jl>-Ijj i«Lujj>JI 
d ''J . ~ f 6 -" ^J t(_g^jfcUeJI 4^Ju^3 Jjjjtll (j ..A'.tl »| plr (j^ (j-u3l (_,i^. u^zjc 
«L_uJl1^JI 4_uS » l^LLs (j^ (j^ILLie. (_ T 1^. «^ 1 j a 1 » ^-^J (j-a ^JJ-ll (3-^ (J-^l-^-a ^-a 

.(j^jj/Ll2J1,I (jij JoLujVI cj^LoLto (3) (JjJl>. (JVi3 •2jjJoSL-uVI 4jloL*j 

i>-jjJlj idjLJj'i/l 2_uLjjiII (j iujI Si, I (j^j JaLujVI Cj^LoLto :(3) JjJl>- 



57 



Jj-Ls >!j_L_4-i)> jj-uLjJLaj iCjjJ.1 <j_« *— Sj^-ll :(< ^>- 



Ci9jqJI £ls 



Li*_jJ^S)> qjj \juoX <Ll\sj1 



.«L*_«L>J1 C-J^LLs (j-a CJ^ "' Jj ' """* A C^-*^?- Cr^ ^ "-^ t( — ■ 'J-^' 



3 Jy 



i*£ ^LJL» *^> J^Ljj'yi ( ^ a '-*- a 


JL^. vJ — i " iJ «J . f^Uy 


(44=j> i-ui 


(57-0) j^i 


** 0.386 

* 0.309 

0.159 

0.123 


" 0.542 
"0.554 
"0.518 
"0.560 




** 0.405 


" 0.730 


sJ£3i 5»rjjJl 



0.05 ^ 
0.01 «* 



«• -UP (_£^AjA- 

' -UP <£jby* 






(jl (j^_«-i -iJcx-o j j i iLdJ (-LlLui (jj»jjj , U *a CjLjVI (_£jJ (jjj^i- 2 Ij CjI jiil) 

«L^-J-J JLjQil! tfjLjfc J J Mil lilli *-OJ l(j-U3LjJjVI (jJJLA 4j^-&^>- aJljlI 4-ojJLi 

The Lester Attitude Toward Death Scale 

(JIL^-i 3jl_i£. 2 1 (j-* (joS*ija i 1 974 ^Lc «^j i in* Jljjlj.})) f-^3J (j-« 3-^3 

.(((j-iiljJI CjJSjJI ( _ T 3 «Gli ^i j - — • —— •"■ T t Cjj_a»j_& 3jLl£. (_p (_^ CjjJ,L> 'j i a 2 t 1 (jl 

I Jufc Jj^jj • SjL^- (Jj (_y^- ^"^"lj a i*' JlC - _S' *** *** Lo * d^ J+»J o' '*-'- a S - " -'J 

.Equal-interval Scales 3_jjLuiil,l Ciljlrill Cjli (j^i-oLiU <j-o !jl»-Ij (j^Lill 

•.(jjjLlSJ.1 I juk L4J-0 (jj£Jb (_yll! cjljLmJI (j-a roLx-i ( _ 7 \j Laj^j 



58 



. «Lx-l£JJ 3JiJJl>- 3Ll>- ( _ t 3 7"jt>^ -S^Ljja VI jJb La iCjoJ.1 0a^.jij La (jl - 
JjVI ^jJI ill I nil ^i flit, n (ft^jV lCjjJ.1 (_,lr (jj^eJ VI t T* J ?i " 

. «lX J_a 3Ll>. (j_a (J '^ a ' CjaJ.1 - 

^)J^gl I n" a L * -La JV (jjjLUI jJaj^-J Cj^JJ - 

. fQ-lIaC > i m Cjojl, 1 - 

. 65 LAjJlS iJLi (jlllj 4j-uL_l21 i^jLill Cj^LoU^s ((j'i.hI)) Jjjl JlSj 

3.jL^V , 70 j .j-j-iLo,! JLlu, jl*j jLo^VI SjLcV , 58 j .a-laKlUjji^ll 

-«7-j_ujJaj»-» L$J aLs <L-u!j.J (^ <_dJjj-*_uL-ul 6 -5 £yi J-caLa Jjlj jLiIi-VI 
• "Lr^b^" 3-"- u b- s (jr^ .81 ojJiJS jLoi-VI SjLcl v2jLu J\aL»-aj i49 :jiiJl) 

<_Lll_L<fc (jl «i_ljjljJ,I CjLuljjJI (_>-ajtj <-i^u Lai , 69 ojJ^s J^ ' ""I (J-*L»-*j 

. CjaJ.1 (j-o i—SoiJIj CjjJJ j^c-1 aL«JI oLsoVI ( _ T jj/Ljio (j-u 4j_sj*ojv CjUaLjjjl 
'•tj-a i_LiJ OjJll j -a- t oLjsoVI i_yi\ j a a (j^_j JoLiJjVI Cj^LaL»-a ni ii->- JlSj 
t<l luAi ^uiiu «juaj» (jjjLuLaj Cjai.1 (j_a i—5oj>JI « £ i in] - l1a_jJ^<p» (jjjLjJLa 
j_^c I J i Za » J j (_gj_ifcjj>. CjLLjLjJjVI 1 _yia-«_l (jl Cj^LaL«J,l oJui (j-a •» uaJlj 
a! JLa-"<< n 2i 1 j ALal&VI (j_a (3-" (*-* j"'^'' 1 Juk (jl i '^^^ 1 1 (j-aj . ^£jJt>^>- 
. Cj^Ju (j_a i_3^>JI :<(^"t i imI- CxjJai)) (jjjLjJLa «LjJlJ La 

LJ9IL1 Jl aujj j I j aL a a :L«JLj 
Death Concern Scale 

(jl iio»LI! Ijuk^i JlSj 1 1972 aLc (jjLuUI Ijla *• ' « ( jjI~im'C_o» «-^aj 

(j-u Lai iCjI m~ 1 nil Ala CjoJ.1 4-t>^aJ_)'C j i u-l jxLujiV! (__r2 3.}j_La^ S^uj ijJLufc 
HJ-ULfl3jJ,l (J'J^-^b CjLAIu 1 a 1 oj3 (_yjJI (jjjLl2JI CjIj^I ^fl L^aJL liJLui (jl 
CjLa^l*_a ^jJlSj (JJ.S j'j aj 1 u 21 CjLu r*jj>"< i n ) (j_u_uLaJ,l ^Jlj^ ^j^* > (jl *-^^>- 

1 j_a (_^3 2L>.mi (j" j_'l a II (jl (_j.ll SiL^VLi 1 (_,!>. I jJI 3I ' ""^1 ^Lu ,j£, 

Lifcl^ILje-^ (_ T J3 JLjJljIu _j*-^j c (j_a (^LtJ (_ 7 ^J1 Jj-laJ1 ^j^* ? (j ' galu t uL>Jl 

JLjI ua-3 SsljJs (j.a j-5-Si Jji ".(JiLa CjjjsJJ Ijjit^a LiijLpcl ^Luaj V tixjjaj 
4-aLtHll Cj^jtaJI (jl La£ . ((jj-u_>_ui i(jLaji^ (jjjLiia) iCjjJ,I ^j — '^^ jl CjoJ,I 

i(jja£jlll 3^- t - iD (*J J "^ rt J*-* 3 ' C7^ 3^'^ «L_u1jJlJ p" gj ^CJ Cj^J.1 3"^ (j-a_uLoAJ 

Cj^cj (j-a-iis (Ji-Jj (jl CjjJ,Li (Jli i^itVI ^^S SjJj^JI 3jl>^' (J^^i^ O^ '- i '-^ 
_j ■■ j >l a ) (j_u_uLflJ,l i>jLjfc (JiLa JoLujI cflxj^j (j!il t£)4j ' ga J I (j-a^ «L_Lx-iiitHJl 



59 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

(j! i-uu CjjJ,Li (JLiLSij^u ( _ 7 jvjJj'v j i nil ■" j a 1 1 (jj ttxx^ i«L»-Lil,l ^^'^-» •"• T 1 

j j La '»_' jl ii_xjl_i^5 j_oi CjjJ.1 (Jla (JjijjLHJI «(JjLLcuSLjJ» jJL (jl daa. ^Ljj 
Lj^Jjj Jl*-Ij »l mi nu i 1972 aLc (_yl>- Cjj_iIijj C-<-a-a-i-3 (_^J1 (j-^Lill (_j^ 

2_ojJjJ,l «qJLijij u^s 4j>JLc. (jl jjlj 1970 a Lc« j I j <i" » oj .Vi (_g JJI (jjjLlSJ,! jjfcj 
(__^alj^>- «l! m$j i i ii I i S-^j ul—iJLa j-a>j 1 1967 j»Lc oIjjJLSJlJI ^ I c ^Jj ,^.-»H 

(jjiLuLa ^^1 LS^lIol ^_ioiJ (ftj K^j-ll" ' "^ Q» (Jl-^-« (j^-lj '^^rH*- g Lj j p-^ ^J I " 

31 ^^-3 (OJ JlJS j mi i II «|jjl"i i ii^_Q» JLia J^jJS (jl (j-o f«-C.J-II Lr^- '«J-Lj-4J» 

.i_al£ <^9oj «jAj-4-j» (jjiLiio j_<ij jju (_gl 1972 aLc ^jLjj 

CjjJ,U (JU Mll^U 4-ijj^JU «JJ^3 (_j-^ '"*-* 4-mLuLa "ljj'~ ' "\P " ! u ^°3 "^3 

"d a-LajJI oJl^J i- 1 1 mil ^jjJjUtlj CjjJ,I 4JLlIL»- (»^ MjjJJtjill (J^QJI)) :4JU 

i] o" mi tj . 4jI flldLiI «L»_uj * ij 1^ . >. i ci*_pe_) '"'jM-'JjJ* m-^_^aJc mJI l_£_) «L>-1jj 

4jljjI (j-o Jl>-I^j I J '"* t_)Lxj i3jLa£. (j-U^Lj (_yi^. «Lul-4iII «Gjj-i^a /_fl qm \io\\ 

'.^^ij Lo I J J j i ' a a w h!-*-y <_P'^ 
iULljvI ilj^i^ :Jj!juJ! JLxL L^_Lc t-jUtj (jyJj^l j Mir JLxVl JjJjJI-1 
:3_ljVI (JjI JljJ! (j_o Jl^-Ij jLiIi-Lj I gjc "-jL^J - i >'-^' 2^ .-< -J i Ijul i IjjLj 
Lij^j i3jL<fuJ (^jlajLc. I i La Jl»- (jJI (^jlajLci i La Jl>- ^1 (jj^ljl iSJlJuJ (3^IjI 

■ ^i^VmiI I ^JM ^^^1 - 

. sL^.'i/l ijiij^ /_i ^Lal - 

.Cjjlt (^ ^SLai LciaJ^a (jj£i LaJtJl^. - 
(3^1 Cr' '- ■ '. ' ' "J C^J- J^J 3 - 

.SjjIiL^o (»j-i-II (_5-IJ i_jLfliJJI (J^a cjjJ.1 /yi ^i^i - 

! Jl>.-(jji Liiai! Cj LSjj Laj 'Ltjjl ^^S-^^ii- 1 jj I i 3'- tu J > ^' Cj^LoIjla CjJLIj JiSj 
(_jj| jLili-VI SjLcl Cjljj (J-^-aj '- < >-'i , '0 ' 85 (j_o j-5-^l i"i»lt £*£>■ I * flJ ) a 
aJLJ-*m ill (_ylll '"'I aUalalJI J^ ^^3 LjJ^-2j LJI Jj£.I CjL>-jjJI J-JJ3J (jl^J , 87 
(_p=jJL3l Jl^j .5_iLa-"i i nVI (_,_£ 2 j mi i -v 3jt>^ J 3 ^ " (*4i '(J-"LjjJLI I J j'a 
CjjJILj (Jl < mmVI (JjjLlLo Cjl>-jJ (jl (JjjSjJI j ' '^>l 4IbtJ /_£ (((jjQjjiSj^i) 



60 



Cj^JLLj ^ji i ii i 1,1 ^j^~»- .".tl ^j\ '^\ (^laJI ( j_u_uL^a x_« LuL?e_)l i la -"j" ^ji 
((jjjljjl)) eLo-jLSj i«Lj^_ajj «JJ>*J± llhi n» *-^3J (J-« ^ I iillj 4jL>J1 I ( ^1aH 

^ .^.-^ ,",tl ^ i^K-wlt 

-(jJ-SJl (jjijjLLaj CjjJ,U (Jl < miiVI (jjiLjJLa (j-u (_^vjJLl JaLcJjVI j j i"ijlj 
j_&LliJ,l ^Sl (j-a I Jl>-!j j-jj-«J Ojlu (Jl < miiVI (jl (_j-ll"«ijj'" ' m>_Q» (_£>J L<» 
(j^_bj£j I i ,m1 I ^ ja dlti f-oj i(jiill (_yJI (_^oie lujI (Jj-a JJoo C7-^'j ** J " J < c 
CjjJ,Lj JU mi'iV! (jM"n nlj^ SjtiLi. ^ a-i kljJLI Ij-A 7t"m"m nl JLSj . (j-^-2-i Lh- 
^j-« /qjl^Juj . L$j1^_l*2L« ^^ ' ' JuL*_« jjSLtuJ i la uj ' ^^ Laaie lojI ^^JS juljlaa 
l _^2 4-al JLJr'n nl (jLa CjjJkU (JLJLJujVI (JjjLlSJ, 3Jljj>JI 4j^ILoj'Cj i nil (_^ol^>JI 

. jl mmiVI 4-*j-u!^J! (jjljjL2JiI (_>iuu (_,JI 3JjL2J,u ^Ljls ^IS 4_JLl!l cjjjtaJ! 

lj^II J_o ^S^J^II jUjYI JJjlH.1 (jjLJill :U_sI_j 

(Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale(MFODS 

(jl i_iJJJ,l I Jlj* j-^j J^j • 1979 j»Lc «jJL!j_a» *_ tisj (j_o (jjil j SI I I ju* 
cjjJ.1 jj^ i_ajjti! t_gjj< ."ill ^j^2jJI jjjjLiS ^1 li^jla ct-^' cjLuIj jJI «t"» 

i_3Jufcj Aa^Al I 1 Jufc (JjjLl^J Jm_JI «L».}L>.i (j_u_uLiL« C^ajijr" i nl (4_La ( ^1^J| jl) 
tCj^Jj (j-* *— ^ J ^ I ' ^LjLJ^fl JJl_*_j_« Aj_^_a_a ^-^3J (^J 4Hi_uljJ (j-* « >^j*A» 
Cj^itil Juul <LuLu 4jjiLLLa ( _ T 3 /^J^l J^J . 4xjLLaJ ( _ T loLc (J^LlS " JJJ '•""'.' 
oJlj^j i^^-LoLjiJI (Jjljtlll jyjLlJj «LajLcuJI CjLjiIjjJI (_yl£. ljLia^.1 iCjjJ.1 (j-o 

jl ,^~^VI 2 A ^r- ( j_ a i_a^>JI -I 

. (5^_tuL»_a Cj^J,1 Juu) /c-lLu^IUI (j-* (— 3^>J1 -3 

. jijjjJI 3l_p- (^ ^ o q 1, 1 (jj^i-VI cjj^ (j-o i_a^>JI -4 

. J^^jsJ.! ,3-a <_a^>JI -5 

■ (ij « mi 1 1 jl) (jiljJI Cjj^ (j-o i_2^>JI -6 
.CjjJ.1 Jjlj ^> 1 n->JI ^jlr i_2^i>JI -7 



61 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

.(jljVl Jjja cj^JII (j-a i_a^jJI -8 
<-, s^j i3_2jL-u (j .MjL2-a 3jljjI (_ t J^. Item Pool -ij-i-JI *Lcj JlaocI jJsj 

jLtjI ^Jiju a j J a a "-"ji '- a - x) '3jJL«j (_J_ol^£. I j ^L»- ( __ P loL»JI (JjJj^jJI *Ljl-uj 

cj^LaljLA ■ U , ,,j" ^ jj^jj . (LulsIj LlLac) Lujj_>_laa! I jL_pG cjjJ.1 jj-o i_a^>JI 
^jjlSjJI (ji TciialjJI (j-oj '0 75 , (jJI sLuLiiiJI (jjijjLsJII 0J14J ( _ 7 L>-I jJI JjLujVI 
Ls-« itfjLt.il (j-o j_uSL!l jjjti! ^Lajjj i4JS, *u jjij (jjjLl2J,I I jut jjjJ 1 - 1 -^ 7-^121,1 

«L^c_uj j 1 M q Cj-p. i^JaJu 4_uljjill (JjijjLSJ,! JoLjJj! (jx. <".-»- j i CjL-uljjJI 
(25) . * 

(j-u 7-jl^pj «UiL_>jill ,__hujjLSJII -5j-b JJLc (jl jjU ■ ..II oJLA i_jjlS . U -*. \l jj 

(jl^ (jylllj iS^-jJeljaill v^jLill cj^LoUI 3_uoii!Li J-dJa jjlc jj*j < jjJb 6 j 4 

(jL^ I oK'q . ^ I j La 1 3_J 1 _s Jju (jjjLiio (__;! CjLj (j'i/ I j la j iLtJSjUa l^i^iLajaJl 
(_£j^>-l «Lx>-u (j-oj • (j-aSjj|j LiiiAJcLa «GLjj (jlS I <iK (J^LaJI JljjLo (JjjLl2J,I 

jjl^.j i(3_uLjj) 4_uL_>jill (j .ijjLSII jjl^. (j^_i 3j_uSL!l 4J3jLm (j-o p^J lilLui 
i(j>j-b 6 ^yJJ 4 ,j_o) aj->- (__4^. (^j-S (j^Lia J£ l<jjlr J 0" uii ^ylll ^3-tJI 
J j I 2 " ^^Jl LoV Jj-i-ill jJl^. S-sLjj (_5-!J LoJ 3-<-uLo <i».L>JI q\ i_jjj l_L& <j-oj 

(J-olj < 1 1-4-LJ LLl I 4_Lj_>JI (_>C (.t^Lc i _J t 1-L>i-1 J-^J («J L<lS . A-JiLj^ill (jjlJjLSJll 

(_J_aljj(JI (j-« JJlC (j\j CjUaLujI J^>-J (_p=I^H^Li dlli i Jljj (jl (^jSLxjj i4_uLjiLll 
dJLLso fJiJ^La (__;Jla (jl-^Lc sL>-^j-(JjiJI (3^-*J •i i ^ c - (J- ^- U^'^H^W J' ' y*^ 'I 
(JJ^ (_2j_,j, «LjJj2| ,J_olj_«JI (j_a j_i_cSLll ^JjlII I JLA ^J "-llj-ll (jJ^ j» J J '" " 

LJ^XI (jJLfl jl j^" nil :1 m aL>- 

(Death Anxiety Questionnaire) DAQ 

j LtagJe rt j' Lgeli ml j ^j - I 9^*? aLc ^j ..L^ 1 1 lj_A ^J^Lajj (ilIujS)) j^Id 

j^ Ji^j jl .y.^Vlj CjjJ,I ^e-i oLso^L! 4-<-uLl3 ( _ t 3 (J'J^-^'W j-i-*-^ L*^ 'CjjLi 
(j_o CjLcj_«j^o ?-ij' l -^- ^ ^J^l 4JL»-jJ,l (__r^ i3ji£. (_J^vlj^j (Jj/LlSJ,! *Lb 
S^LbVLi jLtiejjjjVI Ijufc 31<i£ij LaLc: 82 j 30 _>J /<uijU^:l 7-j!>0 -il>2^! 

ojui /?-Jl1J 3 lJl - ca £ , J^ X - LLM \ «Lull1! 4l».jJ,l (_,-3j .i_jLiQ^Ll «(__^LLJuJji CjjjJI)) 



62 



(j■^_<_u LjJLa Jj-LxLaj ^1\ «G3Ll*3 2[Lj t LJLLd (jlinii (j-* 3JljJl>- 4_Li£. (_ r l^. (j-u-uULU 
.CjjJ.Li Jltiii i 2m (jjjLjJLaj tCjjJu JjlS (j-uLjJL« : 1 o ifrj l_4-A^S!i (j w u ^jjj>-\ 

: i _yj m in 1 -ij-ij (j-« T'JI-x-i (_ylj LftJ^j 

SojLso! Jijj (^-<i (_p j^=-£ (j' cr^ <^JXJ J^9 L*Jbl ' dJLl i2aj (_L& - I 

SIJl>- Uj-o (JjSLj -^ jl ,>."^VI ^jf dl3j| Laj Jji -2 

Sjl_iiai>-VI JlJc£. IJlx>-j lj_9^ 0' (Ji-4j3»! tlial2j (Jji -3 

J-jJ3 i<U5<~ ^Ir 5) La-j ■ "II jJLaj (jl JLiI^-l (_y3 jj'Cri"!! til^cyj Jji -4 

S^IjlS Cjj^j (jl (JjJS (j^Jj (ji JLxia-l (j-o <_aUtJ J.& -5 
cIjLu Lai iO , 83 *_L) jl L«_a3j_a (jjLjJLU I JL^J ^^li-l jJI JjLujVI J-*i9 

j\ 2 j i ni-v 3j^ji^v (JjL>^ ''/"jj^" r«-!j '0 . 87 (jl (_L^3j a2^ jLpi-VI 3jLc! 

i LlLoLc (Jj/Ll2J,I -ij-ij (JjJ^tll 4_u-uL-u2l CjUjSm «L2j^1s Cj-aj3r~ i ul JiJSj 

: ( _ T ji CjjJ.1 (3^^ 4l2ILum jLtji «L*-iji r-ljjjelL-ul (jSLalj 

. J^^jJ,! ,jj9 t-S^JI -I 

.3lJL«J,l £yi i_a^>JI -2 

. 3Jl>-^JI (j-o i_2_ji»JI -3 
^ ,^^- iSJI ^^ji^illl £yl i_2^i>JI -4 
IjJiu jujegj n VI I Jl$J Lx-ijJD -Sjj-I (jl <JL>«JU I J-& (_y2 jj 1 njll qjz (J_u-lIj 
V <AJi ' la >. *" J Lo i4_lAJJ^ Cjojej »l uju 11 u 4_l!u Cj^jej ( _ t 3 4-al Jl^-'ii ul SjJlII 
3Jl_ljv Jljij 4_Lc «L».mi 4-J^-ILoj'vj 1 nil CjuLlJI (jSLJj .J Ml ill <J^jJl»- (JI^J 
(_Jjj>.| sLjiIjJ (_jJI t>l$J-} (j-o 4-a-jja-" 1 11 U 4juj2| (_Lal^j>JI r-Lisoj '(»Lc < =l->-3J 
' fl-L!Lse3 {jta-SI '^~- Cjli <J1iLLj£. (_jlr I j -^lj ->"••■ I SjLcl 3JjUe-o (_,JI i_2Jl$j 
^_j^ se 3 (_jJI (JjjLj_SJ,I r-LljeJ \-<S 1(JjiLlSJ,I j^JJ^ L^-aJL^"n ul (_ylll iiJJ3 (j^. 

* ±'^'-~ •"■!! (_y3 (^^i-l CjIj-l4Tl«u 43LLiLjjjt 

(. 1 c (J_j_j_L^jJ| » <_j-ui_Ll] iCj^JLI (Jl^J L-uLl^-a jj la 1 "II £JL& » u\£ T-^ ' $ 

(J_i-£2_flJ1 (j_a d ^ i uLLII 5) ^AJI ij dH 1 "J . I (j * 3 1 J (j_a 1 J 0" i n a <Uj Laa-LI «Lu_JI 

.«LjEjQJ (J'-*^ -il_>^l f-° 'CTtLH 1 -" (JjiLlSJ.1 IjLjfc (j£. I±jJJlJ»JI J^'^"-i"I JtjLtuJI 



65 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 
(Death Anxiety Scale(DAS 

Lj-aJiJ3 (_ T J-II «QJL-uj 7tL\J 3-^J (88) ((jJLyj-l jjujj)) f-^sj (j-a (JjiLlSAI I J-A 
«_»I3^j (j-u I j n II (jjjS-j «jJLxj» Ijj JLSj . 1967 aLc. oljjjSjJI i _ 7 i^ J J ' a **• 1 1 

t (j1^j?c_i d 1 ' ^*" ^ Cj£i_>. ti^*- ' /j S la ' rt jjjjL-u) ^1^. LAjLll>.I /«_) IJlJj (j-uuji 

' j' >'*~-~^ y I 4_u_4^. ^-Aj tcliaJU 3 * ^ ^ *"' ' '-— ^^J"^ 11 ^ (J-* ' * ' "'J l£^* (J uSju 
. (jijJIj k±<5j>JI_j isLuL^Jj ^ S I La a 4JL<JL». 4 iii<i^j CjjJJj 
I JlJj I 5sLiLu_<_u1 «L^_u_ul clulbj i«UuLjILa «Lj_l3 (_L*.1j-4J ^j^LulJ I *-^aj _3-^J 

: (j^ I j n II -Sj-ij (j-o r-JLx-i (_j-L *-«-i3j . «LuL$-iJI «Gjjj^3 ^^3 (Jj/Ll2J,I (_Ll«-! 

.Cj^of (ji (j-o SJlJuJ <_2L>-I -I 
. CjjJJ S^SLs (_yj j La sej La Ij-iL -2 

. Ltj^ u^o Oj-of (ji (_, i"i->-l -3 

.«}Ll3 SLpJI ojui flj j i a a ^^js <£» :^-3l La Ij-jj^ -4 
. Cxj_a J i n-*. j la * rt (_ T Iail^_) -5 

(JLujVI Lol iO , 83 (x^Lul 3ii>lj jju) jLoiVI SjLcI cTjLu J-aL»-a iLj 
(jj/LlHI J o"i i^ijij , 76 ^l Jj^a^a (20 / (JjjjOjLSiIjj jjijS'SJ.jIjlaj) ^I-^IjJI 

4-iL>"k n ill <J L^>-J (j I •»" ' aJI Jl9j 4 ^Li ■*■ ge t **•" «Qj_uj (C-*_b ■*■ ge t aj _}j_b d * i nl ^i^. 

ojui i". i n j q jJsj 1(jjjLl2Ji,I I jus (^ (jjLpJI (j^ ^1 j ft 'j^ '-if. o"in" 3Jl3ljJi,L 

I 5) j ' *~* j ge rt (jjjLJLa ^J Ja£l Jmj ^ jJI «Q^"< i u mS t(_pijj£» (JjjLJL^j d <3 ^ J 
-5^>-j (^' JlC - " J I Ji "> < =l-<-uljJ dc^e-iiajl JuSj i4i3ljJlLi SjLjcILjiVI 4^>-^J (Ij-b 
(jjjLjjm JoLujI (ji 7c_iiaj1 Lib .Cj^JJ (3^ LJ' »^ A O^J j ''.! ! lO^J^" '-"'-•-^1 
«Lj-J jL>JLi ^ ^ I » ~ 1 1 4_iLa-"i i nVI ^ J a»J (jjiLjJLo x—a ^j-tbjj>. j^lC j-ji-^l 

* <( Ojl>^ i^JjLX-^)) jjjjLl^-I jjjjL^J Lib «Ll£.LiIij*. Ji I 

(j_«ja Q- i itaJULaJl) (((JI^jLSLujJI)) (JL>J,I ^^3 ^^jia^o CjLvjJ 3JjL\o -I 
( _ 3 _L^ij_ll (j_a ^ La jl ''— «l_Lj£. CjLvjJj iCjjJ.1 (j-° LJL^ Lois (S^jJj (ji I_JJJ^ 

<_a^itil «jLjj» (jjjLiaj (jjiLlSJ.1 I juk (jij «_ajjJll (_gjjfcjj>JI JaLjjVI -2 



6fl 



4_<ijL3 (j^ /-^l «i"*v^l ^I^LsjVI (JjjLlS^j <_t>-jj,l (_£j-Ajj>JI JaLcJjVI -6 

. « Ljj i n j f a » 



« jl^rf» i^L-ftl tjiftUJt JmUvJI 

(88^ 
(j^_al_«JI (j^_Lal_«JI (jl i£_>-J cix^p- idljj.1 (jliiJ «LujiilL> A-lLolc 4j^LiJ f-i^J 

CjjJ,! pj_L£D^_4-i ^ la Uj 1 1 3Ljj>J1 Cj1^_^>- -2 
(j-U JoLjjVI Cj^LoUJ, ^^iaUJI (JjLajJLj LgJLa J J ft *u-<fc! L<i£ i<tc_jJILa Cjl_Li£. 

,^.^. ,",11 CjjJJ (j-a i_2^>JI - 1 
.Jjjla C^SjJ i2jjAI ^VL JLLiJVI -2 

.V^JjII (j^5 (PlJJI t-jl^^VI -3 

.OjILi SJajjjil i_2jUJ.I -4 



65 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

.v^ji! frc a ui -.^Jii jl£isVl -5 

<_2-i£. ( j-tj 1 j 2 t, 1 J^ulaj ^j-* (J-*'^^ 4j^1j (( I \\jj^m t(jj>j» T^JCJ ( "1 LoS 

.(_yaJL>JI cjjJLI (jia -I 
.cjLjUaJIj^VI -3 

<j_« <J-S L^_l ^La a <>. ^ A" , ,, ^ «L_ulj^ i _ T 3 «^JL_4_l» (jjjLjJLa aJlJ>"< ( nl Jl9j 

2_Sj " mi U Cjl_LjLilJI (j_o J-j>-« ■A5-* - j ij-^ u- " ^ ' a ' ^3 • v-'J' '"'" 
a^LU! JaUiVl <ya ((jLjjIj-aiVI) ~^yl\ oLbLoJI ^ ^ (CiLSIjiiVI) 

CjLcjjua-o ^jJ ^LlcjLLiJI (J^ljj(JI (_>Ajlj Cj^Ii jJsj .(jjia^JI ill ui ax^e-all 
i-j^tia I J * c I a_tfL-S (_j-J-tl aWIj .Uj j CalVi A I i ■->" 1, 1 ^j a^JI L^loj t d rTi j t a 

c^JsLa cjLcjju>J,I J£ (ji_i 2^p_,iJ,| Sjuj^I J^ljjiJI ^La di! i «_oj i(_>iaj^-<il]l 

(jlj ijl Jago-VI (j-a <_2^>JI (j-o jjjSijjj JLyJl fcfljzl ^^SjjlI,! (JULSijVI -I 
jl£L3 2l j\jS3^ iCjjll pj^isj^ (jjiLJI ( _pial_ij Lojii^. Lu-i^ag (j^aacAJI JJljJ 
( _ y a j jS ii" 1 1 sLjejjj (j-aJeuSJI i ■ I) La i aj (jlj ijl£l3 2l oJUfc julj CjjJLu ^ 1 1 aj 1 1 

: Jjij" i nil (^ ji cjjJ,I jjlj SLpJI 
: -5j-<-JI (_jlr J^L*JI I jut J o" iii3 :4j^> i n-»Jl cj!j_l»jJIj 2 1 ■ v. 1 1 ^j o jll -2 

j-jSLcHJl fiOjL^eJ ^ jJl ^3j'^'' * ^ 1 ' ^~< 1 1 _i^_LjJ ! (CiiaJJ '.(j-a^-J' J^^-*- 1 Cr*"-^ "^ 

l1ijJ,I ,j_o i_3j^>JI u \ r Jo" iSijj :aWIj .Uj j JaJlj 2 1 . ^.*. 1 1 ^j i jtl -4 
oLjso (J_«_flJI ^_jj i4_j_c_La 4_j_5_lj SjLgoVIj njLLijjjJLi SjIj^jVIj i2J^J_a sCLlo 

.2i!liJ| 2_J,L«JI t^j^J! £>£; v^jLiisLLo 



66 



(j-ojJI jj>xj (j^-j-II 2jo iti (_yi^. (j-*>P L4JL2 i-dJi (^ ^Ll^lSj i/ojijlSLalj 
j- 1 ^* .'^^ J^LJI (jl AUijjiVLi^jjLsJ! (j-oj . (J-aLSJI cjjJ,! (jli! ^.' ' ■ ■ "r T Lj 

<_*£.jJL> ( _^aL>JI JlJLJI *_o Jl>.Ij (J-olc (_;£-[ 1 i"i~ JlS «Ll>-Ij^v 3-lL»£ slj^-l (j-o 
«_iljj| (J_oL«JI Lol . (^^Ij-o^u 4li J alXI -Sj-i-JI f-o (j-u-Jj i«CL>- SjJjJ (J^aoXI 
<LJ t~ (j-o <_2_jj>JI_j iSn-rll 3jJl^J,I ( _ > I3|j-o , 2ij "Lu^lXI a j 1 J 1 1 : 4j * j i""i jJi3 
(JJlS J_alj-C i". 1 rj" 1 ill JlSj ■ J i!t"i 1 11 1,1 /_i J^'i/Li (j njtj i3J,JJ,l jl uaga-zl 

(jKII (jApJI (j-° '/- 72 . 6 t^i '/- 6 ' - 8 6-° 3-u.ljjJI a Jufc ^ *l»jj^I <-^jil 

LaLflj SJ^jJLo jcj^ (_yJ*J i'/64 DjjJ ila 1 "j~ 1' id LSxuiXI CjLcjju>J,I (_ji-!j 

.}L*jI jjjij j-i i '"-i"l jLLsLi LjJlx-i L*S ijjjjLlSJ,! <=» * p ■ hH> (_g JJI (JL>J,I /, La »~j 

1Jl_A ^j ■■■ J 2 II (jjjL_ul *_U_UJJ (j-UUJ 4_)l (^l (j^_aJJJll ) J MMJ .CJ^JLI (3^ 

cjLcjju>J,I (j-u-c^ju (Js i~i t-j-L^-i (jl (jSLxj (_^JI cjjJ.1 (Jla cjujSLo Jjju u^>- 

j? lOj-LLaiJI 3jL-oVI 3JL=e£) 3_iLiiJI jl S-uSjJI /o^jVU- *jjis ^1^ .slj^Vlj 

ji^vji) cjjJ,I jl j' ■ w.-*-VU -^ j u I jjj I t_j|^i3V Ljijj 

. (3_L»-jLi. (_£jJ3 «U£ «GLp- JJl^j ' a «j ^ (^a o^se iSJI 
((I vja_uja t(jjlj» 7^s-stLj 1 nl i«Lul^jj_ui CjLLi^. (_y^. j"l^il' (jgjlaj (_^J 

ci^»-jjr"i ..I jljLuJI ojui (j£Jj 1 5>j^ J^Liiu^ ^jjj L4JI Ijl2IcI J^l^. Sj^Ij 

(_jJI «L<-uLa sL>-L>Jlj ijji^ej l^jejLIJ JL>-jj (jl "-j-^cJ I JJj iSj_uLca 4_Lj£. (j-o 
?Ijj>-Li (((jjjLo (JjjLojjd al3 JlSj . Uaj. j-j^I CjLLj£. (_ 7 i^. J i"il «L<j<IjJ 

LSLj^_o? j_S oL«_aL>JI i—i^ila (j-a Ljj>S3 '/92 (jl Lg-j-a j-^i 3_2jLJo 3-^ljj 

)«_« (J-a 1 * "l It (j_Ltf3^_*_J_) CjLudj-^JLI (jSJj i 1 Jl_jI l2*_l« 4IL>. Ij)j-i («-I gLul I illl 
(jLa LL& (j-oj . ^Lilaal ^(jj*^ Lxj j ij (j ->J I 4_lSj (j^ ^^"1 (jJ^ 1 iaj ''J, I j (_jJ>U 
(_gjijj (jl (j^-XJ CjLcbj^iil (j-a 4_Lj£. (_ 7 i^- CjjII jjiS (JjjLlSJ, (_ T laL«JI (JjLitlll 
.«Ul^L>- (-j^LLa (_,i^. CjJ^3-I Cj^LlL>o l j H a r-jjtl<j/l LxX. 4 iil"-tt^ (J^l^c ^Jl 
(_j-3 (j 1 1 * J (j-*- 4 'L^3 w >-<J-« 210 (j_o 4_L^C 4_<jiljjJI j>J_<fc cl<_a^> V" 1 nl Ji^j 
i^JjLa)) (jjjLuLaj Cj^XI (JlS (jjjL-L^a (j^U£ (j-ua i 1 J^JiS (_^ «LalJtj1 C^Ui 1 ■ ■" mXI 
LJLaLc CjjJ,I (J-La (j-l j S a J j I J »o JlJ^.j .4_^cl_<tl>.VI 4_ujLaiJ «(jjl^S 

*.(_ T jfc (J_al^C d i n <?-*• lIaj^^jt**!! nl 

.cj^JLI j£ jlS^I -I 
.j»L*JI ojil ^ -2 



67 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

.dijjii! ' ajj»l I itJSjjJI -3 

. 4jjL£ f^ CjjJ,I (j-a i_2^J»JI -5 

jLSLilj <Lj£.L«ivVI 3_uiL>JI j-j-»j-o tj*-> 2jjli » 4j^j*^v 4Js}Lc. ' ~ 'j j la L<4^ 

/. I c J j I -a- "i 1 1 IJlj* «Ljc_lj_i i a I " se " j . (J-al^j<JI *LlSj OJ- 5 oJ-^J OjJU (jJ-2 
CjjJJ (jiJS jLSLil d-aLc itfa i -^tP- (j-° Sjl^LsJI t-i^Ua (_£jJ 4J£. <Jl)LiI=>j-«i,l 

«L*_)JI (^^l^J^l (jjjL_ui (jl^- «LujSj (Q_> «^JL_a_l» (jjjLuLa (jl (j_a f*-^>-J' (J-^-3 

3j1oL«J! cj^LlLxIII (".iiMi^LdJ^ «-aj i jjlJ! ^A^-\ j-f^ (IjlJu j <~n<? S-ula^JI) 

.2 i ii o a.j 3-j}lj ££J <bvjjjtj-cuj,l J^IjjiJI JJlC 7-jl^p JlS^ ij>jL»jI JJjij (jx. 
/_Jj 4-ojLJ3 clJIjLa <t>-L>Jlj . Lg-La 4j^Lj (_,lr j-fj^ Jl>- (_yJI (jjIcvLJI (jjjjlj 

t t_L^_lJl fa ^s e- L J /cj5ej>J1 5j_uS CjLLi£. (jc «LLia_LflIi_tu_a «LjJLaL£. «L*_u1j.} $.\js>-\ 

(_2_Lal_*j1 i t-jl^lll jlj dj . ..I ^J_a ^aJtS dJJ jkb f«-$Ju (j-aj t(J-" Lj^ftJJ ^J-aLjul 

, 1 A I , ,. ^^ \\ ,^^TI 4_nlL?e_a CjLLi£. ^j—iij (j_a ^j3Qj 



4_ljI j i nVlj 4_j_iLiLl!Ij 4_ujj>JI 14-La CjL«J 3ji£. (_jJI (JjjLl2J,I ljui e^>-J^ 
Cj1_Lj£. (_,lr <JJJ^»-i (_ylll CJ43e-JI (j-a j j i*? .JJlC ^^3 ->jLJr"n nl JuSj iSjJii^Jlj 
i4 lih-ie-o CjLsLSj (j-a J 1 LaLc 85 - I 6 (j-a) jLiC jl 43jLiLa CjuVIj j_43 jJI (j-a 
^Jj , ^.Atl ^3 L^jJI j J i"i'(i 11 (_yJ-II ol^jiull (j-a jjjS JJju 4iaLjjjl <-^*-J L"» 
<Jjj^»-I ct-*-" tilftflBjJI (_y3 Ijl m"hI (JjljjLSJ.1 ^ilil (j-a I Jl>.Ij» Jljij I jdj . 4-JLlII 

(J.LHJ J-i-l (jjjl_j_S_a (_gl (j_a J-i-^l 'Li 4-^-Lla 4jjLl«JII CjuLlJI (jl Lai i25) 

3 j cl 1 "■ -«- VI j»j_L«_LJ 3_jjL^>JI <jiiLjj_1j>J,I 3_jjjj <jlujjI j_Sj . <jij_j_J,I 
1 1984 alc j-jLu jj^ (^a 3_iSLu-o>L^ v2j I jL4jili.nl jf <<Ji>LjLii3t»4_i£jl 1J Jlj 

1970 ALC 3j^ (Jj^l-ljj i'iia-4-ml-LLa «U£ (_^3^C (_gJJI «jXLa-l» (JLLa (jLSj 



r> 



Jl .-,1 \l j ,':,", ,„l J_jJj» Ur °* jjj Jl2j . ^^LiJLaVI IJlj* f-j_L^j_a 



JlIb 3x.^jla-a SjLa I 50 ^Ir J-J^J Li-j£ «LlII jj iSil (JL2J.I I JJt q\ «3_j£.LoII».VI 



68 



J^ i^i" > nlj a j mi '< 1 1 ojui (^ 4_<JI jjm'I JLiLa _>^l i_t^ c ^ Jt ^ La-* ' 1970 aLc 

[jla (j-uLiJL] AjJfr'i i n") 3ji£. /a-uLS-a i-ilLijt (jLi illl j (j^- «jJLxj » (jjijiJJ • 4j 

i Lai Jl?t"( n1 (j_u_uLaJJ tfJL&^IiSI 4jlx*3J (_£ j-ll CjaJJ J^L^ (jjjLjJLa Jju (JjJj tCjaJll 

Jjl^ ^-Aajv S^JLl Jj^-Lu ^ tj y^fl (jl Jl^jjlj LaS t «U^ILaaS_j_tuJ 1 4_t*Do^>J 1^_Li}J 

. 4jLaLiIuJ 4_aLc 5^_l>- d "^ ' a J .* ^->3-U 
/^ I \ 
JujLxIu m£JuL) (JLfl_a ^jjS- «c£J2sj^J l_2jjjj>o> jju»_) m£^v1 4_l>.Li (j-aj 

( Jr LaL«j! 4_i_p^j 4_t>-L) (j_a gi iLflJ ' * jl t«^-L_a_l)) (j^/Lili-a a! JLa-"< i ul (j A -A "^ ^ 11 

cjLjiIjjJ! <^j-Lij jJLs t4Jal i ii j j cjjJL! Jjls (j "j^j * i_y I j S 1, 1 I jus (jl)) : MjLs 

L*_j-J (J_a!j-C 4 i n a •*»■ jl 4_*jjl jl <jMj (jt^ J i" '"'J (j^iljnll (jl 4_tlaL*J! 
(J_)Jl_L) (j-\_ ) 7-^I^-Hj Ja_Lul (j_a IjJlC (J_aljJtJI oJJti A ' *^"j CjL_uIjJ Cj^LxJ 

(J-j-aJI jjjj ^j "j Sj jjjj «Gj-uj i»_iljJa iV»\t 1 4 ii i n U cjjJLI jl£Lal (jl ■ hjJSj 

(jl (_Jj^i.| 4_j_LaLc 4_<_u!j.i Cj-Lu Ju3j . 4_l>-!j^>J! Cj LtlajJ I J joJ^L! 4 j initL) 
4 ti mi a (JjjLlSJLI IjlA (j^ (ja-i^sa^e-il,! I Jjl** (JjLaaeJ < _ JT HJ 1 4_J£j| CjLvjJlI! 
Cjj_cj 4_uaL>JI j-g.1 mi 1 1 : (Jr -& " | l^"""" 5j_aL*ILa 4_JLaLc jL*j| 4j^Lb 

<-.! j j ; a It JLta^l jjjjj iCjjJLLi 5 I , ^." t I jl£La^l jlj^jij t «Gl j j-^-» w.tl 

.CjoJtL) ^-£iie_(laj I ^Sju (jy^-Ji 
IJl^J (J_^ajJI (_j_LaL»JI <_jjfi_pJ! (jl (j-a (&£.jJI (_ji£- :«t-LJVjj.3» (_i_uiajj 
Lui (j-aj itc-l^Ij j-al 3l J^l OJl^J ( _ T laL*JI J^t'itl (jLfl h_2j|jjla j^lC (JjjLl2J,I 
Ij^I 4_aljLa-**n ul \\\ n" i ul (Jjl^o (JjjLlSJII Ijuk I J i iiolb (_ylll jLtJ^I JJjj (jLa 
4_jJ£j| 4^vjjJI Lu^Sj 'LSjLjiJI CjLjjIjJJI (_p cli^JiielLul J^j . 4j •» i a L) V 
L_ui_L^a I j^ '^j' l_Aj_u^ii2J (jS_a_i Ji 4jvjjJ1 i>Ju^ (JILa (jLa Lillj ^*-aj (j-u LuLaH 
^1 i^aall I 4_iiaL«JI CjL>-jjJI aIJlJ-"m nU (_jj-ajj (jl (jSLajj .CjoJ.1 (jl^l Ij^SiLi-a 
(j^_aj V jJsj da 2 3 (JjJlJ-J (_,-Lc. (J_alj_«JI (_yJa_«-j (Jl a"n"il (j^ joijJI (_yi^. 
V 4_J2 iCjLjjiIjJlJI (_i_LLJe_a j-i^. 4_l>.^JjSj mil 4_l>.L<JI (j^ /tjQill 4JjLia 
(j-a 4jvjjr" Mill CjLvjJlI! Sjjuui,! 4_jLaL«JI CjuoSUI AAjuusH La JijJl^o (j£-a_J 
CjjJ,I (Jla (_y3 Sjji^t^ l.}L*j| (j ■■_;"' mJjj>-I CjljLpi-L) ( _ t j^3jjj .(JjjLl2J,I 
^j^ 11 .^. ^-tl ^ u » a (j| ( j_a j<s_c.jj| (_j-Lc 4JI j j La loJI aJ*Jb i_*3Li mJj-jj 

4_J (_2_LaL*j1 i t_p^l!1 (jl 2ll 4aLc 4jv^j SJljIJv ((^ I j a 1 )) (JjjLl^J, 4_j^lLa^\j i nil 

(_yJI i— SJL^J el . >.j.Vi , ,. ^ 4jj/Ij^ (^1 4jj,La 4jvL>JIj itcl^Ij JjJi^o (_jJI r-LtseJ 



69 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

.(Jjla Jilo LLu L«£ OjijJi^O 

(32) ? 

(j-o IjijjLji/ IjlJLi «GlJ (jjjLl2J,I (jljuLL^ « I " i "j-Sj ajI il'ii iiiS» Lai 

(J_La (j .I jjLiLa (jl <-^-yJ J^ SjjJlc cjL.uIj.3 (jl OSLH ■*! *l£>*"' J-^- 1 ^-d^J 

(jlj iALJLjl (jjJJLJl dniii (j_u_j_»La_a x_a ' la -"j" (jJL_a_i (j-uLjJLa I J^Q La->) clJa-U 
CjuaLjjjVI (j-° ct^-' 3.iLc Jjj (Jlill 4 o i ii (j^i-oLiLa I kliica (j\j CjLLLiJjVI 
(J_jJj 4_j| /, I c dlli j_<ij JuSj iCjjJ.1 (jJ-Sj (Jiill A o i ii (j-« i_p (J^^y^ (JV 
j la ' 4_£»-j (jLajJL (j-CcvLJI (JJJLA (1>^J •*>i : *"^-' (■£,>.!,! q"'" JjJi^iJI Lt^- 
-(_j-A CiJ-ll (j-Ls (j " j Ji—2_a (jl ( _ 3 _L«J JL3 /j-jLUJt oJUfc (jLj (jVjJLj jl 3-LjJj 

/ylc CjL-uljjJI (_JJl»-I Cjjil JLSj iaL*JI (jiill 4 o i ill «lijjij (j-iL-uLa-a-tUal i n i > 

(39) 
La 4J (j^jJ J-fl-LJI ljuk (jl jj 1 II ojufc (_ul£ (JjJJ . rLulu,^l I jufc 

ijLu j-;^- (_jjli ii (JiJLiijI jl t<ijuua£c luJI /_^ 3-aLc 4 o i ii jjlaJI jl dlli h>jj_jj 

VI dJUi Laj 4 S^Jl^_o jl Sj ta -^ Ljjf Ir 3j.jL»JI i aSljJ,! <-L!Ij->V >i4J jl 

^£_pj Ju3 aL*JI (Jiill I Jui (jl j^jla^lflj (jl (jSLflj 4_ou «Ll>-u (j-oj . aL»JI JjliiJI 

' " 1 1 C I la 3 » jl i«<Llj **< ilia «Lp^L_u ^_Al_LilA» jl t«4_La_)1^La Cj Lc j_L<3^_a )) (J^>- 

jl i(jjiL>JI jl iCjjll °(J^>- Mila ^S_pj (jl (jSLau^ i(«Ll<2jLL (_Lal^.)«3.3Jije-a 

I Jlj* (j_a I a\l U j|j .^cJ| . . . j|_uli.VI i n alj ^ j| ,jj j 1 -s-tl *Lal CjJlxjJI 

CjLLLuj 2m (jl J-Aj LaLaj 4-Cj i n t La «U Luol^p^l ^ysj^LOJ (jl (jS_a-i ^-jS^pJl 

(JJLoJI (j njjLS-a (j^-JJ I J * J J CjLLsLiJjVI £yl (_5-lxl CjjJ,I (Jls (jjyjl-2^ (jlj 

(j .I I ->JI (j-^J jl i j^»al (j-La (j iMjLflJ, a j i nilu ^ i •■■-" j^al 3 ' ""U iaLlII 

. I j£Ljij 

(j_a l_3^>J1 (ju (_^j>-l «Ll>-U (j_a (j^j 1 j S t, 1 <( Qj_u^£j aji i u i ulSt) Jl^_L) L4S 
(j_u_uLaA lLdL»jj1 4JLt^a p i aj. (j-tjLL) jcj (j-aj * LxX.L4lL>-l (J^j^_a^_LC ^>-ai Cj^JLI 
JaLpjVI (jl «jJLiXJ»^£i Ji^j . 4_j£.L<ii>-2l «LujL>JI (j u-ul S a-l CjjU (jla 
/tjQill (j^Jj i(_gj-<k^>- j-±£- 'LuuLxZjz (j^JJ 4_j£.UiIl>- VI 'LuiLsJI (jjijjLiLa (jij 
(_j i I i ii JoLjJjI (jx. CjLuljjJI ^_)^»_' I'.ii i"iS Ji^j i(JL>J,l ljui (_y3 2 ij I , >." n 
4_u!iL>JI ^.jjLLa (j^_j (_ 1 1 1 n JoLujI 4^>-J «(jjjl_a» «L_u1j^ < " >j ^ la I ti^>- * ■ i j '^ 
(_JjJ CjjII (ji^ jLCJl J-aLc JJk 3jjtAi. (_Lal^£. (j^ . t-S'a Jl»-Ijj 3_j£.Li1»-VI 
I jui (jl^jJI ,jx. (_y^.J • (jl'lii'iiiia (jLli-ulj.a dl!ia ^jix J^tj LliL^j-all 

.3 oinL>. 3^uljJ ^1 2Lj>.L3. ^ JaLujVI 



70 



<• jL*d" yuLia* jgtlf* 

CLUjj>-] «L_ulj.i ijA i n fl~*- J 4_Jl_a (j£. (J-^ -1 2f L«i_i3 «^J_lxj» (jjjLjJLa aJiJ>"< ( ul 
4_iSLjj_al CjLLj^. L&^iol (jlSj n_32l 4jixiaj Lj QJ=-a- *-b 4 n I" ^e_a Cjl_Li£. (_ t 1^. 
j_uL«J,l SjjULo tjSLx-i i^^- ^LiS-Jj-a'ii I jJjLt-ll -il^l (j-° ^J 2!J i(_5L>iJI 4 *j;k\' 

tjSLxj (_ 7 jJi CjL>-jjJl (_j-i.il J-^-»J (^ liiio) «L»-j.} (jl <_>"' J^l I iJ-A (_>^=_pJiJ 
.4-^-j.i (. I r I JL*H3 Sj r^if (jjl*>- 'L>-j-i L«l i(_^o^tjiA (_gi I (jjlr J i,Taj (jl 

i_alj^e_Jl «_a 7 j 4 ,5 (j-A-J 7-jIjJLj 5-jj . M 11 vIjLvj j_U ^-Lt-all i_£jJi,l tj^Jj 

S-lSLj^^I j_uL«J,l (_>aJU (4) JjJl>- UViS • Wi>^ ^ "J" 1 ^ lSj^*- 

(j_« Jjjfcl^-aj ^^"'J ^^^cpfcJLa 3600 /. 1 C 4jLj_LLaJ (j_« <* J> -J^'~ ' "Uj ^j -'^^o 11 

La (Jjjijsjl /tjLlJ jjJ j» (j-«J • CP ' "'~>JI (j-° (JSL^ - - i nil ( _ T iisjJklj sUjj-u^I 

••^ 

. «Ljjjj/21 (j-o (j^-l *— '^j- 5 cj-^- oj I ' a *j U'SL^.i'^.i ' "II lt-^j-^' o' " ' 

.jj^jJI CjLvj^ (j-o lr I CjLjVI CjL>.jJ -2 

.cjjJ,I (jJ^j j-«j(JI ij'V ^S^tc V -3 
2500 Lg.«^v 3_Ltc (__-l£. Cjj^>.I SjjjIj^ Sj-p.'i/l i=L_<iill (__-l£. i2jj£1 jtSj 
(jl 4jjIjjJI ojui (j^ j^ii Lxi iLoLc 85 j 19 (j-u /«-&jL<i£.l t-jI^jj ( __ H 2_^ejia 
JlJj (_,-ijU,l) j^i. I (jjjLj_S_o J-j-3 CjjJ,I jji^ (jjjLuLo JjJj Embedding *_ cbj 
4j j3I V oJljj jl i3_i-i^3CL»aJ «L>.j2l Sjjjim uj i nj i a 4->uL3 (j-a ^J^*-** ' 

t4i-u£ jjl-^ ' '■ JlJL« l^J Llx^d^jlj i _ r jJl « (_3j)j J ^_Llx-i » 4j_u1jJ lIUjj Jl^jj 

SjjiIjJ (^ 3ja_uiJI o jui Ji^Gj jsJ (j^-Jj ivlJjJi,l (J^J J-o-^l tlfV "^^^ * «Ij1 
«(j nS t lj-3j i— 3 jij J jXlx-i » Lilj^-I «UjiIjJ (jjjJLb il i84) <ij^Lojj "^j "'^~ ' "" 

. 3j_j-jS jl JlX. I /j 1 c Jul i"i") joJ 4jj/ljjJI ojui (^ j-«-«JI Sj-^jj CjLLl«JI (jl 

29 5 (j_« cLLi^. (_ r l^. Lfcjj^v) (_ t jj1 4_i^L«jj "^j " '"y ' ■■" «L_uljj (j a j j loa 

83 (_,JI 60 (j-o) (j i n II jLj£ (jl ' LoLc 83 j 1 6 (ji_> /g-Aj I o r i 7-jl^pj I Juilj 
^JLco^l (jjjuiljjl (_yJI SjjLiiu u^ji^>. 4-iiajiJe-La Cj I >q ' (_,i^. Itliaa. (LoLc 



71 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 






t 


f 


j 


^LJI 


3.28 


6.35 


134 


(£->0) Jj^ ^^ Cj" V^ 


3.21 


6.16 


124 


(jiu) Jj& **^ y v^ 


3.10 


5.13 


77 


iSjy Sjt^Ur y ^J^Oa 


2.97 


6.78 


32 


^jy^jVzn^A jS- ^j\j JLjw*i gjs j> 


1.96 


11.62 


21 


*ju j* C^y j^i jv-^J-W <j\jyL>*~*i ^p y> 


2.74 


6.77 


21 


Aijy.1 o Al i j}j ^ jj Jp yt]j 4ja)L/> *^s- 


3.12 


6.07 


104 


(jj5"j) ^£ ^Jf i^-Ur .>• v^" 


3.07 


6.66 


109 


(olil) j.fcS' ^jy- 5j^.Ur jy v^k 


2.88 


4.85 


123 


f j o j^ a*^x*« l3 jS ^ 1 uv-N*»> 


3.31 


6.11 


160 


(CjUI) 4~>w i ji-i' jl>w 


3.07 


5.72 


299 


jj%"} djAfi-^y 


3.21 


6.84 


444 


C^lijfcl^ 


3.32 


5.74 


569 


0jp»*IJLt *l/I 


3.22 


6.43 


702 


Uii*tjll CjI^I 


3.55 


6.5 


78 


(j_r ^) iJV" ^ 1 ™ 4 J^ o'iij-'V^-r^ iS^J* 


3.72 


7.15 


59 


(illl) ^jwuljnX* r^P J,tvj JL3w^ is"^_/* 


2.25 


5.08 


13 


Q^i) ^yUSL-Jl JUl ^ <JjU^ j^> 


3.24 


6.33 


112 


(oUl) c^yLCJl JL^I J 4jjU^ ^ 


3.45 


7.13 


49 


jlj-oUt^ r^P J,t1J Jliw iS^_f* 


3.29 


4.15 


46 


J.\A\ J jjTi 


3.43 


4.41 


29 


J>Ull J oUI 


2.72 


6.69 


217 


(j^i) -iLUji; Ajt^Ur .'^ ,_J*>U» 


2.99 


7.84 


167 


(oUI) oLl«^L kwbr .>* i^^Ua 



79 



Ci^joJI 13IS ijuLd 



4-ijjjii olp ^Jp ^jJaii Ojll j-Ls "jii" j*\& hj** _£>)** '■ (5) JjJ^r 



t--^' 


v_)l jLf 




-^j-il Jl iLiv' 


v l_L» 




- 


f 


t 


f 


t 


f 


- 


r 


t - 


f 




3.22 
3.19 
3.20 


6.55 
7.06 
6.89 


2.79 
2.97 
2.95 


4.91 
6.16 

5.74 


2.92 
2.67 
2.77 


6.61 
7.02 
6.85 


3.04 
2.79 
2.85 


6.87 
7.42 
7.25 


3.59 
3.64 
3.61 


7.73 
7.43 
7.50 





(2) 



alS Lt£ i4_ujjl!I (jJ! «jJLxj» (jjjLio 4jijv^Li jjU.,,11 » ia. mK aI"» 

.(jjjLLfljii! 2^ LaXI j_uL«J,l (.pajtJ (6) (JjJl>- o^i3 






i»iUI 


jjfi 




t 


f 


j 


c 


f 


j 














Sjt^W < j*>U? 


2.9 


8.2 


128 


2.7 


6.8 


112 


l^iliT 


2.8 


8.2 


141 


2.9 


7.1 


112 


w 


2.7 


8.2 


132 


3.2 


7.0 


137 


IpIjj 


3.3 


8.7 


120 


2.8 


7.0 


131 


5i~«wUA 


3.1 


7.8 


77 


- 


- 


- 


L*./ 8 


2.6 


9.0 


111 


2.9 


6.7 


121 


^J aJU _Mjl_L« 1 j"^Hj 


2.9 


7.3 


61 


3.1 


6.6 


60 


Sj oJU j* 1 jl J_« a-^J 1 wL» 



7S 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

CjLLjjJI CjI La i ..j"« (^c ^i-iia 2_^ '^1 1 CjI_Ll«JI dil La i "j" a ilolj J^J 



(( 



jL^titu ijlLJw ^Mi 



(j^alj^iJI (j^ajca-j olj^i£j_Ll «GJL-uj ^^-S «(_£.}jj_<i£La aL<Jj» ^LJ3 

SjLcl CjLcj i ( _ T l>-ljJI ( j}'-'- u -^' CjLjj >:j I j <ii » (JjiLlSJ, ^Lo^I Sj^p-ajSj i nil 

4 i ti o -»- (_^a3&aJalS Lo . SjLjeIL-uVI < =L^>-J i(_gjji**ill 3' JlJ ^' '(_j-°j^ill (J^ 1 - 1 -^' 

1 jla ^j-a j g log . «^_L_$_i» jjjjLjJLa ^i «L^Ll£3 2i u Cj^JJ t jl^J ^jj>.\ ( j_u_uL2_« 

S^LiS Lfc^IlSl J_A «^ I t q 1 )> t j^j L-Lfl-a ^ji 4juLtiaJl d"< lull (j_u_uLiL<lJj ^)^~» flJl 

jj-aj 4<(^JL_a_i» jjjjLjJLa ^^JS i cm-uaJl t ^'^^ Q^* ' ^\ J'- J fui «^Jijj_<iS_a)) (3^J 

.« LLuv / t )1^a*d» «Lt_j_u£iJ «^JL_4_i» jjjjLjJLa lLsLujI-^LiIj ^^ i (jl^>J1 aJJb jj~}\ 

4JLj^_Ls L$_L*_o (_L»JLl S-jL^-^/I 4_Lj_g3 ( _ t s ^LjJljij «(_gjjjJiSLo» (_jj->-i JJ3j 

IJ_u ' la ^* * w u ^!i jjjjLjJLa jjjjL-ui ^i^. «u-u_u2l jj^- * )Lse_» cix_L>. t«Cj_^S_u» 

^^iSJI ^JljiJI Ja i ujg^j ( _ > iajjjill u « .} Jlx_o j_lC» t_i <Ut£. t_iL>-i (_£JJI JiiJI (_ji£. 
Cj^ialj .((CjjJkl (jiil i_£Jijj-"»£La /jXlx-1 (Jj/LlLo» j<u-u! 4-ii^. (j-^W Ji^J i L^jli 

(jj/ LjJLsJJ 4 i iu'i ILi Ljlj-a ' ^j'^ 1 ,' tj'^M (jjjLl2J,I ^1 4jj/IjjJI ojui /ulliJ 

(_J^JJ K(CJ^SjJ)) 4_Lu^5 aIJlJ-"i III JiJU ^^ii-l jJI jjLl-ujVI (JJJI^SJ JiiS i ( _ T lcaal 

^_3 4 j i ill i ii ->■ J-J^l JJ»3 Lii iSjiS^o 5j^ILajSLu-u Ljlj-o 3j_ii-2l djLjj-ilil (ji 

Lu/I i n->- (jj/Liii,! Ttjj^si l*U jiS i ^ i a a 5e * 1 1 J «ULfljjJ,l CjLvjjJI (_Jji (j^-i j-i-uiIlJI 

• j'j-sVl (>u i^jlj-ujilll (j-o j-i^l JJlC: jljJ^ 

t ijfl LaJl ^j-* tj-A-H^.^_<iJ?E_a ^^^^aJjjLLl (( ^ ^j^_<iSLa )) al^ Cj1Jl>.1 «L_uIj^ (_^J 

: Ljji «4-ul o m i nil JJt\ mi U » jJji m i nil (j-o (j^JjV CjuVIj jjS jJI 



7fl 



«L?t_u_J1 l1<ji£j . ^Uill 4 \ i n ilu (jjliin *_3^_jjj2l JJjl Ml nil (j\ i J^£>ju£\ Ju9j 



, W ^I 



O" 1 ^ 



j^j_>.L_iJl (3-^ j O' ( a '- £ ' "^-^^ * u-uLull (j_« «L»I LcS .« * Iaj» / » ) 1 j_co »4jlj_co 

.^ljQIJI L_dlL?t_a «UjLfl_a ^J J i ■■" ^_^>- 3Jl>-1j 4jlj_uo a! Jijr"( ( nl ^i^. 



4i$AI $42 tail jLamiI * ill. Sg 4*4 t^UaUi jSI -6 

(ji_j JaLijjl -ij-^-j (_5-II dJJi j j i"m j .0 , 65 ( _ 3 J! 0,41 (j_o JlHaj (_^u_LjLHjiiI 

(j-^-J oJj-^-J (j-o ^^"1 «Gli (_^aie liiil 4 j i nilu jl .>."^VIj iCjjll 3^=-> oLsoVI 

.(60 :>tiJl) Jal 3 h.-!^ SjLjiJa L^J ^1 v^jUUoVI 

(j ii jjLS-11 (ji_i CjUaLjjVI r-ljjjtjjjiu «(_l!Vjj.}» aLS (_Jjj>-i «LjiIj^ (_y3j 

tj~ i njtl I^j-a (JS (j-ujjLfl-aj t uL>- jj-* ij~ i nj'-Cu-^jJ^)) ( j^jMnt gbuj^il «Liil^_iI1 

4jjJt>^>* CjLLdLujI l1aj^j>"k ut a . j->- i * (JL>- ^j-* <( J^3-^ ^OJ'^^ -1 — ^3-L?^-" ^J^J- 1 

(jjijjL2Ji,l ejjt £j\j JaLujVI (jl •»■ Jaj| Lo i0 , 78 j , 3 1 (j^_i c^»-jl^3 «u^-j^ 

(jjijjLSil ojui jl diiJVjjjD^jjj . (_g^ji^>- j_j^. 4_j£.L<ii>-2l «LuiL>JI (jj/Liaj 



cjjJ,! (jx. a^Lc jx.Litoj 



(109) 



j-l^f I -i J 'I (_Jj-J (J1_<jiLlLo (j^J ajs}L*J! ((j^j-jLa ijJjLo)) i_yj^ J^J 



75 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

3- .' ' ' f* 3 t((^"t i in! - l1a_u^S))J <(^JL_$j» L_uLjJL« : 1 o ifrj Lai Jl^"i i J (j-u-uLaJJ 
JaLujVI q\ (jxilalll j glal jJsj ij^iaj^jil!! t-i^Ua (j-o LJLLj 72 ^Ir (J-^-^LlSJ,' 
tj\j-uljuL<i *_«^_jS l ^^j * >"i la Uj * «^JL_3_l» (jjjLjJLa ^jIJ t(J^_A^>- (j^-uj Lull, 1 (j-U 

(jLcujJLl ■ 0^ 't ^y£>jlLOJ (j-ljjjl «^"( I U-AJ - l2a_JJ^£» (JjjLjJlI, «LliL^_lij1 (j-aJjLoJu (j-« 
0,61 : CjLlaLLjjVI) (j-LaJe iSJI *jl La3ja>lj «GjJ, 4 J I nilu ^J^"- iSJI <_2jLje.a 

(( j 1 j <i i » (jjjLjia jjl jJljJ)) :4-!jJLi dJJj (_y^ «_J^jL9 i-i!jLo)) (jJ-«JJ .(0,51 J 

SLb^JJ ^j ■■■ j 2 a Lxia-it ^_a (J_j ^L-c «Lj^^_j cj^JJ (jjJJLJ L-uLjJLa JaJiia (j- 4 ^ 

Jijj jj\-uu\ xSJll (j-u 4j^jkjj>JI CjuaLjjjVI (jl Lii .(_^oL>- <1>-^J «*_; '^^» l»JI 

(_JjJ Cjj-U (j-L-2 0' U^J " » J (j-O-Cj-s^co i rniir-i" ^^3 Lg-La J£ 4J3.J ( _ > ^ijt3 
3-j^LjJI (jjijjLaJil ^1 "iaLUo^Lij ^j a a se I a (_£_^>-2l JlJi£.j «_aj^o LjjiljL»-l 
<_ojL>- ul » '•(_ t Jj L<w Lj-i^a-i 3j>j_ia 3jLi£.-<llal i ni\-*-i\jl\ (JjjLl2J,I ^LS «L2jLcuJI 

ClJ lil ill JlSJ . SJlJJljSJI «Lll3jL«Ji,!j SjjJuSJI 4jJ3ljJ,l (j-U 7-jl^JJ 03 Lflj> I I II (j-O 

-»■ , >>"lj t L a - l q jv (j-ajjLaJLI (j^- 1 <*-*£>• J-G 4jjJt>^>* CjLLdLujI {j£. cL_u1jjJ1 ^-iQJ 

^^^ Ljjl i ii "i aj iS«l_iS jJLSI lj_oi CjjJll (j_o sLS^i- 'L>-jJ jJ^2j (jl-3Jal i ui\ 

.(«_iLtuJI J uaaJl (j-o 4jljj<uJI SjJLaJI jJkjl) jjU . ..II 
L^3jj_ca ^^3 L^JI »i"i"ilj CjjII jjia 1 njlLj ^J-^ 3 ^JJJ (j-o (*^>JI ur^i 
Lg-LtJ CjLLsLujVI (jl S^JJ^ CjLu/IjJ tlj-yJ Ai3 i4 iil"i-ie-a -ij-b ( _ T l^.-«LuL^-L!l 
^jjjLl^* «LcidL>- I J I a * I j«_^jj-« ^^^.aj^ij ^^J 1 - 1-0 Lr^^ U^** '- 4 - ^^L-^^-J-* ^J-^^" 
(j "j ^"j LSj "1 i"i a Ijijvlj I <~ I U a j^jjaj L^JI aLc "l^-^J tiJJii ^^-uuj kijJLxj)) 

jjjus j_a jjJ-SJI ( _ T i 2 j a-SI IaJI J^I^jiJI ,j-o ^LoLc jl 1 1 Jl»-Ij Li^jI 1 11 LuL>- 



76 









(jl tj-£-*j (j-j-II <2jIj_iJl1I,! j^t iCorrelates cL3l S L 



i " i a I" -^ I S^jjiJI ^jjjlb (_^aijj j I Cj^JU Jjls ■ s '-0tJ 

aJ^J sLUsjL«JLIj SjliJJU /JjLUJI (^Jj L*-l3 (_ya^ < i i nj 
(_JjJ CjjJ.1 (3-L-2-3 tiUi Jlju (_P=jji1J /aJ i4J3^L*JI 

Cj^Jtl (j i 9 ^j- 4 •— L ^>-^ a a ^ A a d A < ^.^ i ^_^_-_J| 
xjb^iJll ^-4JU1 SsSLAJ ^po^ *" < i n I^_l>- 1^ i«L) Usajjv^a 



77 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

i j ijtlj.-.jl I Jjla ^ i Liaa^acJLa Lj-u-m liaLiJ jl '"" i ulj JJl ^j^» J '"' v jjl 

^j^j> i nil ^ X3 -1 l^^^-*-*-^ ^— 19"*' (3"^ i-^ -1 U ^ ^ ^ ' rt ' t^-J-a ooLujl j flla La_Lu 

-103) 4_l^L_ajj «^_L_a_l» «L_uljJ ((^jjjLa^-J tj^i^S t^j ■■ LflJj i u» JuLbj . 

■ "'j a i "I La (jjjL-ui ( _ ? i^.-l^a-"rii J JuSj .j_o_»JI 3^j£ CjI_Ll«JJ «Li^lS 1 _i1 Ji^.1 
jj9 Jij-aJl j o c (jl-Cj^JJ Jj-Lsj ^_4JlJ1 (j-o (_j.'l ' " OoLujl (j-a -* j" , ,.1j \ cQ^. 
j-ul_*_a 1^_ajL9 /c3 <j-aj tCj^Ju (313 ^j "*j^* * (j^S «CL>-jJ j^ i ■■■-'" ^^^3 I o ^ g (JJ^- 1 
(JjJl>- jjijl) (jjjLjJI J"-'^l ^^3 LLu (ji t _3 .' ' " L*5 • Q-" LuiX 1 I J^J 4j^-«x. 

cjjJII (j-Ls cTS 1 ' J.'^ 1 " L^ Lpj "' oj ' " >>>• <ji-iL>-» «L-ulj^ i" ~(j"tl jJsj . (o joJSj 

jl .--I .^/~ VI JL&.I IjjJia (j-o (<s-&J i ^JjIla jseju (j-uL-aJ,l (JLxjiJI (_JjJ j-ojlJIj 

jjlSf (J3"^-i (J ° C J-^^'' O' p jl I nil JaLcJjVI I Jui ^^JjLJJ '2jJ '>"'' 4j2ji3J 

5jjL>JI ^1 (j^IbvLJI (_>^utj jSi Ji^j . Ij-*^ jj-j^sau 4JjL2J,L> Cjj^iil ^Ljjj 

jl i/» i n -»JI (j-° sO-*- (_j-!i J la * II (jSLa-i 4J(j iCjjJ.1 3I3 j-jjj I J J J I 1S1 La jl 

Jj-ail (^j^*- Cj^a L$j| (_,!£• gCLaglaj 

iCjjJ.1 (J-Lsj J-*-*-" U"V ^^-c -i>>-J aJl^. j^c Sjijjx. CjL-uIj.} <"<ii i"iS 
(j^ i—j^Iial I oK (_^a3e iSJI (jl i_J^J i^j-ll aL«JI Jt^jjil (—iJLjtA L*U!i (jl jJljjj 
SjjiIjJ Sjjtjiill j>JLA CjJ^I Jl^j . <-<jl I ^ ^ I aj-^ J~'^ 7" .■ '^J 5Ll>JI 3jI j'' 

(J I i"i (j-a i_H C3- 3 *!—«—« L^>«-i I <— i^i-la (j-a f a:: ? J>1 ^' *>^P l ^ J '-4 £ - L7" 1 t — *i>^' 
CjIjJ CjLL^c. j-Jji (_, If "-^^i?-^' 2 .^_.^i" . ..^ 3_,j,|j^ (^j . IjlJ^j Ij-lI^jI 
ij^-i (J^-A t>- Jo LtJj I ^^iaJ /cJ Lx-iD^e_fl^ I 288 L^.^_aj?E_a i_L) «LflJHjt_a j I 1 *~ I 
?r ma ^j-* 7c_ciajl dJJIxS . (j^_jl_aIiJI j^ cr^-*" ^-^-^'J *~ 19^"' c3^^ (J-"'-^-* 

CjIjI jVii iiVu (J-"L2j Lo£ CjjJ,I (Jla «_a JojJ^J V J-a-«-!l (jl CjLjiIj jJI (j-a JJlC 
(JjjkQjl S-lUjlj (j-LojLSJI (j-U-tuAill (jJjLjoji.1 f_j\r CLlJjS>-\ 4jj/IjJ (_y3j • 

Ji^_>.j (^^^-^ T '^" ^JJ '^^ cLijIoj jl p i n^JI ^j-a U^^" 'j^^ (J'- CJt ^ Lj ' ^ ' 

*_jjl < ^ mi^" /<sJj . (jJjLjioj_ll tV|_& ^jJ CjjJ.1 (jJ^J J-a-«JI t>V ^^- c - 

(39) 

j-ojlII ^^3 3jl>^II (j^- l.}l-<w£.! CjjII ( j^ i_3ji>JI ^^3 J}!^ (j^. CjL^IjJ 



78 



fcjjlia.aJlg CKjxLcOpUlg 6-iSljpgxu.^JI OlniaaaJI 

jj-« (j-u_jl9 tZjuuS a[scj>-] CjIj]} ^ flilae rt CjLLi^mj «Lc^_u_a (j_u_uLIL« a! Ji^r"i < ul 
( _ > Io^lflj JlSj ^ .'J ' '""' ^ I /jJLlil! aJJt «ljl .}JL*-o r-tj i mi nU 77J^=-i (jl J J ' "jl! 
i " i ii 1 1, 1 tjSLtj istjloJul i -ijl usa t_j£ i _ij i nil jji 5-oJlJ-"m ii 1,1 ,jj»jjL2Ji,l i a^Lli-l (ji 

j^c tijj iii ul L*Ui f-°j i«G!i (jjiLlSJII Lii^jiitliji! cjLjiIjjJI <_>-ia*j jl j lo-IlJ 

jji /jjQill ojui i -ijl iaj j j i ilZuI tcjvj^I ( _ > l3l^i3 2l (jj^i ^J <Lfljgi&ja /?-JLaJ 
aIJlJi-'miI (jij .<_2^Lli.VI I JJt, f^l ^l] Cj\juJu\\ (j^ .ijx. <j-U }ic L2 <_£j Lufc q\ 
(j-o Jj*-»"tl ^Ir JlC.1 i aJ Ju3 Cjlj-iilll JJjlla jJjLjeii! 3_ajiTit,l f l^j'i/l Jl>-I 
:5j>.j"iiU <L-uljjJI o liJt JlLa (^ 4_uVI Jajj Mill ( _ 7 £.lj3 (jl ^Ir i(_p=ljIi£VI I jui 
. icjJUo jLtclj *>^P < i ' j: ?- > "' ^lljJ CjLLj^. juitj - I 
. 0JLl>. 4j^ILa^Sj i n ^sl^>. CjIj]} (j_u_uLiL« ^ 2j *" -2 
(J_Laj j-«J(JI (j-lJ JaLiJjVI ( _ T 3 Lfcj_oLj (_p=^lflj (_ylll Cjlj-iilU jLLJeJ -3 

. tuijLa 4jLuu cjjJ.1 

3j£-d1 LJLalljjJI-i 

^ C^Jj-J^I (jrltl CjL-uljJilI Ur ma 1967 aLc: (( j " mm I JjijJ» AJL3 

ajj (j-u /<uijLoX.i C^vjl^j ^LiL> 33 ( _ T 1^. CjJ^jvI «L-oIj.J -SjJIJ ipj-i^jJ,! I Jui 
JiJSj . AjJI (_p3lj_ai jl (jUaj i ii II (j_o (j Jj ' ^ "' ~* J lj_iLi iLoLc 13 J JL>-lj 
CjUIj^-VIj ia^I j^c (Jl i^AiVI !(_& JajJLcis 4j^15J JLilaal «Vjjfc ( _ > I3jjlj 
*VJ_& i-Llj I i ii «l t\ •*. \l aj tii^vLjJI aLJ9j .(jJ^vl (JLiilal Cj^oj i«Ll>-Ij^>JI 
ijjiillj i_iliSVI u^s\j^.\ £LcoL>- (t^jk Cjja (_^ill u^\j£.i\ (Jj-»- 1 nlj^Liilaal 
Jl AUVI ( jj^ ^1 , U ^ j 1 jjjj L^j Ij^L^ (j^tl ( i J J - u >"j (j-jaj^aAJl ' " 1 1 a -> 3 Lt£ 
^iiSI (jlS CjIjJjji (jjijt>- (j-o (J^i ^1 Jl>-Ij ajj (j<j /<ukjL<icl d*^-jl^3 (jJJJI 
jl i4-jj mi" II (j_o i_3j^>JI (jlS Lx-Lu i(<i^jL^-ol (2>c -" J" '^"-"V 4 j i iiilu Sj^jfo 
^Ir iaI^c.1 IOj 5 (j-u - ^j I -i c I c^^.jl^3 (jJ, 2 1 1 m'iILi 3^-jj^i^'i/l jji ^p-JI 
(2>c -1 ifcj I i <* I '-^-i'j Jj-J j-II (JLila'iil (_ T 1^. SjijJa^ cUaj^aj (Jiill j laj i ■■ <j^->- 

L>-L>JI ^^i^l cjjJ.1 (j-o i_a^>JI tc-u^sI (JjlLaJI j-*^. ^Ij L^iSLs .cjIjjj^/ j lLc 

. MM o" i "I 9 21 Q o mi Q 



79 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

(j£, <L-ujjJ,l J-jJ9 La 31»-j-o /_^ JLila'^l S^SLSd^ya-lJ LjjLo» <"< i "j-S J^J 
4jjj^laj (jSLlj j » i"i_tj j^j 4JI (ji^. <-^J-ll (_5-!i JJU '.' f^' CjJL>-^3 iCjjJ.1 
(j-u fO-&jL«cI Llt»-jl^3 (jj JJI (JLilaal j£-tiJ ' &JJ i". i nj.3 L«£ . 5Jl;L>- j-;LC. 
aj_<-uj_IIj iliVLaJtl CjuLlJI *-«-»• (_j-3 C^-aJiir" i ulj iCjjJ.1 ^^3 Cilj <i u I j 3 
(_L>-lj_o Cj^Lj (j^j j_u^uJ! <jS-<J-! «LjT 4jjiIjJJI ojui Cjj^lal JuSj .4 lu3LlUj 

jl 3 a-IaJLLa <Lii t~ A iiii->^j CjjJJ (JLila 2 1 ^^-y I 3j a J 5 -3 * 1** (j-« - I 
(J-SL«J CjL>-j^ «LJij i/s-jl.} j-J-C 4-cSLIj (JtP^J J' f\>> <-— >_3-t 1 (jl OjL>i9 '"^L^j 
(_jlc CjjJ,! (_y3 (JLaJa^l j ^ flj (j-o «LL-».jJ,l ojui (_jJI j U'tl (jSLx-JJ . Lij-i-Lfl-i 
(jj^UJ (Jj-fj^SUI ^^3 £jjuu J£U (jL (jjji^Uj il lanimistic Sj^-p. <iLvj_a L4JI 

<4j| ojJ,l ^1 JLaLVl j to h L^-lSj cIjIjjjj, i9 (jj» JJal ui\S (jj» 31>.jJLI -2 

^Lj CjjJ.1 J->-j (jlj iviliJjeJ 2 JJ3j CjJLxj JuS JLila-! CjjJ,! (jlj i(j^iT- i"i 
J I 4c Jii. jl 31-p. 4JI (_yic di!i ^1 JLiLj'^l j la ijj . La Luaae-ij SjJjJLi J-2-uJ 

l1ijJ,I ^^Jl JLLLj^I j la a L^j^j-i L&jjlj-Loj-cjIjjjj) -9 (j_o 3JL->-jJ,l -3 

(j) aj la a L«£ i4jJ i n->JI SLpJ! ?Lt3j (JLxJ i_g' i Lili-I.} Cjjbo 2jl or <til ( _ T ic 
/_i CjjJ,I (jc Jl ■AUVI j ISLs I J-uijj j .[^jjCls- j-oi <til (_,lr (j i nil ojui /_i 4_<JI 

.S-ulsI^JLj 3JL>.jJLI ojuk 
.(JLols^LI 4 j i nilu L^J^pl x cjjjJJ -^ j"lj^. ,.A~j s LiVI (jla (^ j3j>^II (jl J^j 

CjjJkl (j-C (Jl a UVI aj S, A I <b>IauJI aJJb L^JJijjl (_ylll <_^>-'_>l' aJJt q nStlj 
^j, i^'.j jl j ,^.tl JLila^/l jj) «(_».lj)) CjJL>-j J^j .(_LiLaJI /sJLtJ 3^L«JI Ojj LaJl 

3Jl_l>-^j1 CjI^_jJuJ| ^jLi ^jjJLaHjLJ LjS tCjjJ,! t t_u_u La j^^^JLlj ^_4Jul a JLaj (jl 

5J j-dJaJ I ( _ T i 3j^>-Lj_o 4_Lvj_o ( _ t 3 j j I-^jj t 4j J i n-v CjIj_l»j ^Jb CjjJ.1 Jl»j 

j jk' a . Jl ala VI (_JjJ CjjJ,Ij animism Sj^pJI /ajjiLio ajjni n» <j-ujJ J^J 
CjjJ,Ij 3l_ij>JI tlfl-La I j 2 ->■ Lj (jl (_yJI (JLoJaal (_Lj^ (__>^i3L(j j^sjiJI aJl2j I oK 4JI 

.sLuiVL. 



80 



^jjliaallg ^jcIgljjUIj 6^i9ljp9aj^JI ililrilpjnll 

l_Lj_»_a tJ^alauJI jj^-l^-a (j-* ^J^V* (Jj (J^L>. Cj^JJj 3Ljj>ij1 ^_ufcl_i« (j-U J^Jj_J 

eujiJLa « j 1 1 nSj tjjlj mi» ^j-* (Jj l£>-?"' J^oJJ .Cj^ll Ai^Aa L)3^ Ct^ *<^->-i-j)) 
1 4aldjd I a «Lu^iiilI1 ^^pal^-a^LI /^ a ~ u i ■■ rt ^^JS f)l aIa2H (j-* 4£-^A^>*\ ^ ± >^~>- "■ 
gjl aja2M 3^J c^ (*JJfcLAJtl LlulSj jj L^aJI ^j-* Ae.j-sjscaj Ijl it" < ul La JLsr" < ul q 
» jt-~ , ,.j V O-iXI (jl Mjl) (jLajj>JI (j_o Lc^j L&jLp£.Lj CjjII Sj^Ls ^jJt I gale 

g i" mjj .sadistic mJjL-u J-»-3 «ul I r i^jjJJj njjj^-VI jl 4_UI 4jl3jj 
j^li JuSj -(J-"^ 0' (j-° *— ^^i *^J l_H "^>.>U (j-° <— ^^^ * J '" '< O' ijLajJJU 

«l^t_uj ^ -^ '^j' CjjJ,1 t jl-«(_2->.u» 4j_u1jj cLte. pi -^ i ■■* Li, Lb^L>--L<^jj_u1jj ^j-* 

J a la U 4 1 1 nil u /j S-tSo. -5^>-J "=1-! (J-ujJ j-«-»J! aJl2j ji i(_p3j_<jjL! 

(j I «"" (jJjil J a La 1 1 d I*; i ul jjij . Lal_«j ^^jlsIj j>L>ol jJt LxjI CjjJ.1 3^=-) 
CjjJ.1 ^1 .CjjJ,! Jju ("ijolt CjJLaj Loj ijl uaxvVI JjlS joj iCjjJ,! ^^-^ .".tl 1 

-La JL>- ^yJI-UilLuij . ^(jinri't? (jJI ulijll L^J OJ>*^ Ct-^' (Jj-^' Ct^ JLaLj'i/l 

(jij jjj^?-^' O' ?-*3 •(jLalaJll (_ T ie. clu^»-l (_ t jJI CjLjiIjjJI jljLIJ <j^J ' . 'J ' ''"'*' 

(jLa i4_ljJ^v 5j(j 1 a ' CjLuIjJJI (J1_j jjLajVI iji^ j 1 "^~ (jl tj$^i CjLLl«JI 

.<tezjua\^ j-i£- JJ>J ij^-^-LJ' jj^i CjL^>-j i_a^LV>-l jjL-a-a 

t C u. U»J I ljLluIjjJI nJLu-LJ 

1 1 1 5) JLoLj'i/l (_jjJ cjjJ,I 3j_ti- (^^c. ^LoL? LiLj^ ((jjaJjj)) 4i>.LJI ciijj^v 

(j^J .Jt^vjJll Ijuk ^^3 ^J^JJ C7-^' <1 i>»jA~ , „1 I itjQill jl^jV ALflJll i> 1 n"lj Vj 

jJ<^ij Jiijijvi fecujij "j I .' ""j j-^A^ 8 <»^ -1983 aLc ( _ t ^ (_£>*"' S_p.LJ 

, -J \l ^"<- I ^j l^i aSj Jl ■AUVI ,_jjJ iLo^jioj CjjJ,I jjliil 4_j£ Ll^i^c JjLajl 
Sj^txJI (_>-a^l i^aJjLl ^ La j"j 1 Ij 3j£lJll jo^jIj_l>- (j-a L«ij Cjjll q£. (JLoIsal 

JjLjlLI (j^LiLa /<JL«JI I jjt ^ ^ylLaLVI ^jJ-cjjIIj SLpJI ^La i^IUJ 



81 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

Jl ^U\l I 3_j_u 1 _JLl Cjjll (JJ^J JiJSj ..4-1 Jj j" mjj J^a-^l J^=-° 1 frjia.? J^J 
jib (_j-3jl iij\jus js*-\ (jLSLo (^ (j7ij<j Lbli CjIjJj-u 5^1 3 (j-o j<s-&jLici (j-«-« 
t^ i^ rt (^-flL^e-tl/t (j£. * ' t^JX II tiJUIxS CjjjU Qjj>-> O' (Ih*- 4 -^ * d ^ '"' ~» rt l_3jj_Io 

.«Lai 4_x-idL>. (J_oIaj1 (J^ (j_« L?VJ it *1 J I 
«LJI (_j-Lc CjjjU (_j-!l Cj!jJj-u 8 ^1 6 (j_o jo-AjuicI (j-4-« (JLiis'j! j-la-bj 
4 1 1 n'lluj . La I .^.^- ,". d "'JJJ ' -""'J Jl iCjjjU (jj Jucu^cJ (&4^ i«Ll»-jL>- 3l.il jl 3jJ3 
(j a ■ 5. -J jl '^j— se ■"' JU i'l i no 1 (jl (j^-4-1 t— 13-tl (jLa j-«jl!I I JL& (^^ (JLals^L! 
(jl *_lLsILcuJJ i3Jlx>. «Lx-«jv • ( _5-3 Ij-iiLca CLuS I jl tiJLiSjj 1 IJljju j>JL>-Ljj 4_lLc 
JLila'^l lijjjij LoJii£.j . <_ij^3 (jl dJ-cSLo-i 4JLa La CjJSj (_y3 Lul CjjJ,I (_£_p 
(_,_Lc <2>Jj.sL-3 Ijjej-cal r&^J' (_j^Lc 3-o^Lc JJiJ liil i (ji^ 3-2jjiaJI 0JL4J CjjJ.1 
(j 1 n II jUL^s ijS^j .j-«jlII (_y3 4-ojJjj jl i(jl_tujVI j^^j-oj CjjJJ (j-u UajjJI 

iJr 2 (j j 4 J 5JLIU (j_u_jJJ tCjjJJ (j_a * Jj-^l ^^_tS_4-l (j_jjJ1 ^c_A JalliS ^Lse-c^^lj 

'— ''J- 3 ' O' Ur^ -(^4^! SjjjuJL I JL*. Ljljj-<-u (ji^i <-— )_9-t t (j2 ijjlajj,! jl j-«-«JI 

iS' J' *7"j ' "U jl '(.Pj^-jJ' jl ir'LjjJii Ls 3ji£. VK i"il jiitjj (jl (jSL«j cjjJ,I 

LaL«IL<kl Sj^xjuM 31>.jJ,I aJJb ,_£ JLila'i/l lJujjSLjj . 3_uj-o^-i£. (_£_>i-l JK AI 
j J La-i (jl (jSL«j (_yJ-II (JK i"ial • fllgje aJ VI i Mill l*U jij ijj^jJI j"j"^' L>r^ 

. L&lS CjjAI 
(_,!£. CjjJ.1 (_j-JI (jjj la ij r&^jLa L&JjtJ Laj «L«jj<L1!I j-*^. (y^ (JLaJaVI Lol 
(Jl a UVI s Vj-& (jl jJljjj .joJj\oj pjj-a Cj.iL>- 4JI (_5^Lc J I iSLpJI 4-jL^J 4JI 

(jjjufuljjl ^Jij «L^>.j d 1 i ii 1 m^"i i n a (j_a * l^ILflj CjjXI (j£. ^-laJ fiL^jvj (jj_Luj 

.CjjJu Juu J i ttseU CjJl?c_) (jl (jS_o-i Lx-i Lai 0" i^l (jj^Iaj Li*_peJ t«l_t£. 
(«-&jJaj (j-9 (a^jjJ j_iilll ;>L>ol jj 1 njj ij-iijj CjjJ.1 (j^. (JLila^l jLCsl (jl 
(_,JI i3_fl_LxiE_o i_ajj_Ii JJa (_yJ3 (j^i j til (j^ 4iaj\a 3JLv <jj. (_,lr CjjJ,I (_yJI 
JLala^l (j'".'7 r 7" 'JJ .SLpJI (t^-" (— a>jJj-U Cj >La» 4JI (_7^Lc- Cjjil (^1 jsjijJaJ 
«LjJI (jjj_ujjj lixjjej CjjjJJ (_ 7 jvjJj t lJI j j 1 iLfljJI I Jui i_jJj>o yi '_>*^ j-p^l 
jji j^^l I Jui (_y3 f^^ilj •pl^ Ji i_LoLJu jljjj 4JI (_5^Lc Sjjj^o '"'I selta ukj 

LfcL>ol JljvLj cjjJ,I (jx. ja^jj^la (jLa •" &j 1 1 c I (^ Jl aUVI ^jt2j I oK 4JI 

JLaJaal jjiaJLa (jl . jjj-ol IjjI£ Lx-Ll>- 4_i£. /s^jjJ CdK (_yJ-II S^SLiil t^jLi-o 
jl CjI jdl ' ajuua jcLujjz 4jla (Jjjjej ( _ 7 >-jJj t u Cj^L>- 4JI (_y^Lc Cjjjiil JjJljsJI 



82 



fcjjlia.aJlg CKjxLcOpUlg tt-iilj^gjxj^JI OliiiauJI 

'ra^-JI Jjj^aJI (_yl^- dijJ.1 jJl2j 2 ti 'tH*-^ « JLjarl (_yJI (jj i"n»j ^-il d)j^^"*j 
diiljij 4_Laj>J,l J*t-tl 4_i3j_9 JJjJxsej d' d^-*- 1 <— l^Xl (jLa j-aJ>JI aJlSHj (3^-Ij 
Cjj-1,1 (jj-Ls [*" ; ' -"_' SLpJI ^fl jo-AJi^li- S^SLs ■" La -»" LoJlJc£.j < J j sej (jJJJI 

tpJI jLi Jil u£lf $ii :kwf j 

(j a j j 1 1 (j 1 n II jL-j-j (j-o sLcjji^J. 3 ;'^-> •"■ 3__jL2_a slj^vLj «(JjLi3» aLS 
(__-JI Cj^i_iL2J,l 0J-& /jiJLlJ j j iliTa. iCji 1 111 ujJLI (_JJL>-I (Ji-I J (j^ ojiilil jjijJI 
^ 2 ' a j j CjjJLI : 1 frj (J-""! J*-" l^^ OaJJ j^e_) ^j^_u_uL_ui (j-ufcL>ol -Sj^-J 

(s^-Lo (Jjia jJlc jJiu JlSj . JjJ^j- -^j-j ^J'*4 *^' cj-^ <-— >_9-t '_9 '£-"" tP **^^ 

(tt^lo '/.45jLL>-l l^IiSI CjjJ,l ,j-0 I Jj a l—SLJEJ (JjjLlII (jl (JJJl2jJU (_yJ.II (j-"^l 

l_«_Lu ijjuJI (j-o «QJQJI «l2L>JI (0^-Lo '/. l5jLi>-lj iLa>jju Loj (_y* * .' ' "I Cy-" 

tjr\-*X\ oLsoVu jLji>- VI I JLA .'"._,* _' (*JJ • 3-i-maL»JI 4-2L>JI (0^-Lo '/ I 5jLi>-l 

~o±Vc 1I13JI! »L>] jL£JI *V|ji 4JLujlj (_J jJI 
Cjj_j_i (j-« (j^J- 1 (_^ L^ j till (j-« l-Ltaje-u) ^j^j '"'•*- J 4 i h a*»*J «L_uljJ (_t^J 

JaLjjjVI in n->- iLoLc 93 j 69 (j\-i < Aj\ 1 <* 1 c^>-jl^3 jjjjJIj i(j_cuJl jW^ 
3jiaj iLgjI JJ 3^^^.tl a.u^sitAII) jlj^VI sVjji^jJ (_,£,! JjVI j>UoVI (jru 
ojui (j-o j^Ii Ji^J .CjjII ^Je-1 oLsoVIj j-«jlII fjJs Ajiilll 4jLjj(J ^"(j-vlj-a 
«l2j_>J3 C^jI£ L^jI jj ^ 2 a 2c a j 2___,j_j_a Jjji!l 4-j-Ltaie •"■ Cxjl£ I oK 4JI 4jj/ljjJI 
__J_^>-I 4_<jiIjJ <"■ a 1S13 L»i -(J^l CjjjjJJ ojlSJlj J i>ial cL>-^irj i"ill ^"j-^lj a 
jlj (_yaie-iSJI j ax jlj I oK 4JI ^^Jjiaj i(j 1 nil j\-& (__;jJ CjjJ,I (j^ f^j' (l^ 
jLS (_JjJ ^l^_)i CjjJ,! (jl^ (1)1 l5>*-i 4jjiIj^ qm Tciiajl La-Lu .CjjJkU stlLiLiujI 
. (79 ".jJiajl) CjjJ,I oL>o ^ 2 1 "" a j-i£- CjL&LsoI (jj 2 '" «-i (jj jJI (j-"JI 

aI^ i(j-tuJI jLj^ (__;jJ l1ijJ,I (ji^ (j^- 1982 a1^ cjj.^ 3_5jj_a. 3___.|jj ^^j 

Cjj_j_j 4_j^Lj (_-_b (ji aj^ll (j-« I t^aje ■"■ 228 «Lj_u1jJlJ ((^_UjJj ^_Jj_a» *(j-a (JS 
'.(j i nil *^^>- m-4 (2yLtAiOJc rt ^VClii a_4-^_4 -Jl -* ^ 0^ 1 ■■ a * /aJ J_£l * i(v^j>_allij 

. (Jala 3-Lui 74) r-jjAll jLiL^a - 1 



85 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

. (>£La 3Jjj 75) y-jjMitl jl_£ -2 
,3j>3 (jJll* t^Jl£ lil La jjJj^j (jyJI I «i(j"inljj ^ ^li^-LJI i_ajui jlsj 
^^J! Lajufc Lx-£ i(j-0-cjju>JU (j-gLa ij\j (l$jj* Mill) cjjJ.1 3^ ^jlltu^ (j^ 

t4-j Laa^c mil tfLse^al I a t(j_u_L>J1j t^-a-L L ^ r JI ^j" i u oil 4j^j_uJ1 «L<i_jJlJ1 j-iSJ!u 
l_ 7 i^- OjJtl (j-^J i<L«lJ9 VI Sjuo (J^laj i^^cLw^-V! J 1 1 nllj i4_Lfljii^JI SjjJillj 
(jjjLjJLa (jLL^Ldl (j-tla Ju9j . (j^J^-*!-*-! I (j-d^.^_*iJ>J, 1 (j-GL^J L^JJ * '"' ' ' l£j" 'nil 
(J^- i Lg T ul (J-LbeHJl ( d i ■■^J . (j-G£.^u>J, 1 (j-GLfc ^i^. «^lj-$-a» *-^J (j-« dj-ll 3*^ 
jj_AJl3 J_*j (103 = (j) 7-j j i"i II jLJLca 4-Cj_<nJt_o (j-<_> 4_j| j _ijt-»"11 ptjQil 
3-aL92l SjuOjJ^Jaj ijj^.LjivVI Ji i nil ( _ > ^i2jj i4-tajIaaJI SjJLlII tjj-uj ^> i^aJl 
jLjS <icj_<jj>J, 4j i nilu Lai .ja^jjJ *_<2JjJ,l CjjJll 3-^ 'j-"J-° '— >3t^' aJJt ( _ T 3 
*s-£JjJ «JujJ,l tlijll (3^ O' (1>^ (Jjl^ltl lj-fl> < fl uiS jJia (I25=(j) 7-3-uSJI 
t_gj"< i nil pLajjIj {4-j^qIoaJl SjJuLJI ^jj-oJ tAje^aJI jjjfcjG ^j-* ij^ ?*-* ' HJ ? 
^_x-iD^?t3 jj-* <: ^> J ^5^J ^>^^ ^ ! ' " ' l£^ L7^-' Cj^A (3^ J ^Q L-a^ t^-q-L L ^ r JI 

4cjju>J,I jljil (j^ Jaia jLSLII ^r* ■ a j -> a 1 1 1 SJjL2J,L> dJUij <icjjjj>J,l ^jui 

• (69) ^l 

t^j i n 11 Jl— t-J i_£jJ CjjJJ ^ ' '"j * LaLfc l^_jJtILa «£-l^_aj1 Cx9j» jJIju^ 

2 La lLj! (<i^JjJ (j-«-« (j i nil jLi£ (j' 09 "J taJl) CjL-uljjJ! l?"^! l - '-'rh 1 ^^ 

i_2^J»J! (jl ((j^jjI^" "-^JJ .cjjJ,I (j-o La^i- ^>i^l IjjIS (s^clji Ji .".I 4 ula 

«Ll>-jL>ij1 diLal o" »S2t I ^j j ^j-* (J-^l J*-" tlv tl^ lO~*"' <; Li-oljJ <"w A , ,.1 L<i_Lu 

Jla (j^s mj-6^' (jt^! o>^ (^Ul^VI SJaJ^jVL^rjLkJI (jyJi 4*>->ll l5D 

(jLa (_£_^>-l 4_^>-LJ (j-aj iSJlx>- 4j*j^5 ( _^ ra-tb (j^J-II tiiSJjI (J^Ai '-^ <-— i^-tl 

lj_al u-^jJ (^Isl^Il^VI I JlA ^ 3^^-"ll . ALiiJI (^SLIj .fear of aging j^jlII ^^a 



81 



fcjjlia.aJlg CKjxLcOpUlg tt-iilj^gjxj^JI OlniaXoJI 

i_£>i-l 2_p.Li (j-oj • jLtj'^l JJjLLo >ly «j j A 1 1 ^£La i^jvjjJI ojui (jJ! I laj i u-i 
^_4-*Jl (_ T J3 a J 2j ! I i la uj * t(j_cuJl J * ' ^ ' ' " f ''- 1 ^- J ' "J ' ."* * J ^pJ^j-u)) ^SJlJ 
« \jj Alj-^j jj La » ^S j Loj . i_! I JL>- j-±£-j j-ila Jl>- I j Jo Uj_> ja^j jj CjjJ, Ij 
tf^SLJIj jl£LJ2u /n 1 11" j-<-«Jl ( _ T 3 aJulUI J^c-i t-J^LLaJI (j-a j-jio CjL&LsoI (jLa 
3_ojJLo <LJ\ ^ \ r aj 5 ~ 1 1 j-o-*JI ^1 «U£ qjj la ij (_£ j-!l JoJI (_jJI .jj^'tlj 

4_^a j^ ""II ct-^*- ji j-«jlII (_5-3 aJl2hJu (j-ul i n-^^/l (jLa LLa (j-oj idij^ji! 
. (77 :jJa-il) CjjJ,u L-uL-ul da jj yj I Sla j-jjj (jl d^-*- 1 
4_^3 ->■ ) SaJI (j-a i_ajJ>Jlj j-4-*J! crv 4Js^L*JI (jx. (jj^-l <L-u!j.} (_ySj 

i LiSj^al I JlJoIj 1012 4lc <_iL>-l (_gjij^_i jl iVi i ill (Jj^Ia j^c CjuLu Cha.-v 

jJsj . LoLc 16,7 ojJl^s (_gjl_j-«_a <_2lj^tJLi 48 , 2 - &j I a-g. I i la ■ "j" ^ (jl^j 

:4_uVl 4-*jj2l 4 In naLi j-«-»JI aJl2j i—x^Ijjlj (- uaic luJI (Jl < miiVI <j-uj^ 
.j-ojlJI ( _ T 3 AjJDi LaJiJt£. I j j 2 3 (jjiLj-u (_j-i-il ,_, JlSjI iJjj -I 
.^_4-*-11 ^3 aJl2j! LaJLt^. ^j il tt\^zjH l_5^j_u jjjjLuI (j\ jjuluS -2 
.^_4JlI1 ^J aJuJIL) LajJt^. /jlft i^> »j i nl (jl i_3L>.| -3 

. {£yA£L aJl2Hj LaJlJ^. 1Jl_L>-J (jjSLj_u (_2-i-H (_j I U Ml 1 -4 

^1 j la h Lojti^. i«U£ aJJlUI (j-o i_2^>JLi Uojj^j 2 j-<uiJI (j? j^Ji JiJSj 
ojui (—illjejj • < *J^- "-t^Lh^ Ct^' i_^!^j<JLi /— L<aic-ui JLiLiuj! «LJ| (_ji£- j-jii- jI 
L^jL_u L^j 1 i <<tj-c (_ 7 jJi «U^Lajj «^"t i imI» «L_u1j^ 4_t£. Cj ) a i ■■■ I o^ «L?t_u_LJ1 
j_<j_«JI ( _ T 3 aJi2HJI (j-o i_a^>Jl (j-a (JjjLju ljLaX.1 j-iS jl (ju-a^tjll, I (jl (j^ 

(jjjjG (j! (jLSLxj 2 i <i it^/1 (j-«^ I JJj . j^Lj-II Cj*-)3 4-J-±? "^ tCj^X\ (j-uj 

.4 iimj (jl Jj^JI J-^JJJ i^j-ll J-" J -»-lW l - ::j >i' (3^9 4^^Lc 

UilU ^t^t >«Jf^ £i£lt yii :U »U 

j^wiJI dilj Subjective Life Expectancy(SLE) Luli jl£j11,I jjuiJLj Jll^Sj 
4_LjvLJ (j-oj .(^l JJI oj_j^_i3 (jj/L^ui (_yi^. 4 "'jy (j' (_>-ajjtjjJI f-^jjJ i^jJI 
^ J '^ c (j n ( nl ^ 1 c (_ 3 _Lu,l tiJjj ^_A Lulj_LiD^_a jt^^im ^_4-t-I1 (jLb ^jj>-\ 



85 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

LljI j »_J3jJLl,l j-xj>J! 7i-j-i-oI jJitj .(joLtuil 2_aL*JI t~t\ r \ <^~~ VI (j_a 3 J o" i ii a 
JijjUI (_£jJ aL*JI «L»-jltl «U^Li. (j-o •"J*"' ij! ijSU-i iil i2_io it^/l Jjl^p-O I Jju 
(ji L_L& ^j'^j j a \ I (j-aj . i _ 3 _Laj_Il ^_<ul11 (j_a L^J-* ' " a l£' Ct"^ SLiJell d i i n ilu 
Jij-aJ! d j 1 a se liij 4_a-3jJ,l (J^I^jiJLi '^.'"j" Luli «j3jjj,l j-«jl!I ( _ t 3 (j}j|jji!l 

,-ill ,^^VU Ljj| j «JsajJ,l j_«jl!I '"" La 1 ..j"« 3jLc qjL2jj . «Lt>.^ijL!l /j^lj_JI 
:2_u^l 3JiuiVb j-ulUI Ijla u^LSj <jl u^J .(jKinlt 2_aL*JI 

SdJ 1 ni-*J 2 j 1 nil Li aJsjll,! j-«-»JI jJt La -2 
Sjji-VJ (j ni-a-lt 3 j 1 11 it L fcJSjiU j-«-«JI ^Ljij (j3 jjfc La -3 

(jlaj Lul j >l£jjJ,I j-a-»-ll ij^-i 2 j j 1 1 11 2Ja^Lc. 1 ~ 'j j fc. S^SLiA 2j_Jj.j (_yJ3j 
OjXI JjlJs Ja Lul j jjbjlXI j-«j(JI jlj UK 4Jf diti ^^-ijuj) cjLiVI ijjJ ojJtl 

>-*-»-" o' (jr^i ^^ t^>J ^J .jj^S'jlJI ^yk: til! j J 1 U a *J (j^-tj (o- u ^ JL "j 
.(JLvjJIj »l 1 nitl (_£jJ 2jjl 1 n"i a 4_uuil «U (JjijJ (^li (jjjL-oi (ji^. jtJSjjJ,! 
Lul j jtJSajll jjwlIIj CjjII (jloJ (_7i>-*-" (JjjLlSJ.1 (ju JaLujVI 1 _i 1 ii->- JlSj 
(j-a (&£.j-!l (_yi^J . CjuVJj jjijJI «L*-aL>JI t—i^ila (j-a (jGj^a^ (j-CLJLi£. (_JjJ 
' J J ' a '" "' Li j la 'I) L_LjLi^r>-l u^jfcoJ*. (j^u (*J 4JIJ3 Lulm (jl£ JaLujVI (j! 
Juj_a ^1 «LjiLa «L>-L>JI (jl Lulj (_,-3j .(«_lLtuJI (J-i^-dJI (j-a 4jLjjLltl Sj aAJI 

. JL>J,I IJLA j_i Cj^ejJI (j-a 
(jl£Lal (j£, \t .>.a-lj"l'\ »^jiil j-o-«JI ^jJLLa (ji jjU . ..II aJJb i_uLS (_g^JJ 

^_^ SJlC i u1^j>J IJl;L>- 1^_tuJ_a tzJll^j (j! j^^U-i-Cj^J,! (jl^J «LLdLuj1 ^al^lsl 

,JjlA"llj jl uuxmVI ^"1 1 .it sliaLujI (jlal^Il^l j^La-j^ i2_ul 1 n'l^fl 3-LLaie lUI 
LcjjjtA Ij^l a_u-oAlll tLaexaJlj 4jo 1 n-»JI ^ at 1 a 1 1 J 4iaLujt (^jlal^l^l Jl»j La£ 

. LaLaj 



j-aJ(JI (^ (2>4t (>djLH.I jj^jltl CjL>.jJ (j-a (_yl^.i CjLJ^I CjLvj^ (ji j^li 
(^gljlj it La3»] (J[i_Ats»- CjLvjjJI (j-\_i (^-^-11 (jig tCjji.1 3 * J-J* ' L -*rJ :> ' (1)-* 
5 £) ' "* " ^L}_l^: u \c SjUJ^C: iijjtu lilt j i^jji^tj (2^Ju-ait U-Lu (J^ljJ 



86 



^jjliaallg CKjxLcOpUlg tt-iilj^gjxj^JI OlniaXoJI 

Jl o ni (j-a 3_»_aU. t_j>LLJ 3j_uJL> JUJI tii!j£j . I 14 j 107 j47) AjSL^oIj 
US. 1 1 l)U! w ^^^l^a: i Ul,l ( ^l iv! >lUJ! ( > c J Uui i . (59) !jLSj IjiiJjjf 

jo^jc^sJI *_L> 4 L^J, |j j_o_*JI j_i sLilUJt^ CjUj£. f-Jjl (_j^U 4j!!i j-a^l (jola il 

cjjJ.1 (jla ^ ^jji^v ,3>a di! jS r>==^-ulj . 1 03) Ua^^ia 1 288 U ^^KJI 
ULc 87 j 6 ij\j UajIj^I jU^.1 l2^.jI^3 (j-QJLi^. (_y3 (j\ < » L>JI £yu 

«_a CjjJJ (j-Ls (_y^ 4_ujiJL>JI (3j>^' ct^ **-L? ial I Cjj^c-JI /j-JLiJ (3 ' "™J 
«^ I j a 1 » (j^j LjJLaj d J^ '^*t 1 CjL_u1jJJ1 Llu^>-t ^ljj-o .«Lu,ijl11 Cj^e_J1 ^-jQj 
jjU , ,,ll ^ JLA (_jlS «_^3j ( j_a CjjJll (jjliiJ (jJjjlII (jjjUSJkU a I (2 :jJajl» i_!jjlU 

. Qt-iUuJI J i^aAJI (j-o «L*jj/Li!l Oj S-flJI jjiul) 
j-^ibj . /s^JjU-jij (_JjJ 4_La ,JJ3l Jal j iMI (_f jJ CjjII jjiJS (jl tt i>TiI 

/ ^ji-Vl SLpJI ^ jUk:VI (_>uUlo (jja ^yk:! oU.jj tiiU^U (jl liilaS 

.(59 (^)-0 j-liijl) JLJU^I JJjLLa CjjJJ (j_a L_3^itU L-uLjJLa «^**< I ihI» *_X^3JJ 

JL»-^J (J_l .4_aU i"i i ii jt CjaJJ (Jis (_y3 4j i ni-»JI (j}j|^_aj| (jl ^1 jUul JJSJ 
(_3jiJI (_y3 (_ T i^-l CjU-jJ CjLJMJ (jl j gla tixjp- iS-JJi^e-o CjVLx-a (jy 3 . t-5'a 
ijjL?- 2 j j l-^" («J (j-SJj iCjI jJI j I . >» ~ ^ I j (j_j^>.VI Cj^aj CjI jJ! Cj^a (j_a 
i_2^itll <LaU!l AjvjjJI (_y3 (jj^i-VI jUai>-l (j-a i_2^>JI (_y3 3j^_&^>. 4j i ii i-v 
CxJLS Sj-Li-^l 4_uljjJI (^ 3-LjjJI (jl it=.^\l II <j_a (jSJj .47) dJjJ.1 (j-a 
. (jjjiilll j<sJU CjljjJLa Jl>.| ( _ t 3 iUJLisj LJLLj 46 = (j) 3j_l«j-3 
Jj^vj Lt-^- ULjjijji (_ylll diUuljjJ! (j-a JjJlC pU>-j (j-a fO-C.j-11 (_j-^-J 

aJi^. JljjIj U cjUuIj jJI (_jjl>-I cj^Sj jiia cj^J.1 (Jiil 4j i nilu a^ < u i->- 3j>° 

(jLi L&Jl2j (jSUj «L^oIj jJI tf jui (jSDj . CjjJ,I (jiS (_y3 dj i ni-v 3j>^ J34^ 

Cj_ii£ us i3j_uS duis i jj" (j^SjUm ^ i ni->ji jij^i lyu 4j^xj(JI (jji^iii 

3jijjL«JI CjUuljjJI pU>-l 7L-^>-j3 (jja Jij^La Ui (j-aj .3j_l«j-3 CjuVI «l_Lj£. 
j-ISI Jlaj (_yll!j n_JJ^a J-J-ujI jL«x.lj . U^>- j-jSI CjUj£. (_ t 1^- du^>-l j,^! 

.Ih,,s 

jl i t 1 1 ill jsjJlSoj (((jjjJjLjLan aLS 1936 j»U !j-SUa c^j^>-I «Lj<Ijj (_y^j 

jl j Tf ~ i nVI Ijufc 41*11 ni (_>iaJLJ LlulSj iCjjJll (j^a -1 J 2 1 3 (j£, 4jlaUJI i_!^LLaJ 

41*11 ill)) JS>- ^JJl23 Cjli (_JjJ>-i 4 I'll III CdK U-Lu .(( V J! (<S-«-l)) <_! I J '"* i—lUcJ 

(jAJj .4_Jj_Aj_>- )-£•£ 4 j i h ( *kJ| (^jjjiJl (jl (((j^HJ Ji_La» ^>Sj J^J ii d ^ j" -^ a 



87 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

(jl j gla ' <& iCjLjVIj j^JJI (j1_i <JjL>^ tl>^ ' ** "^ 43L)Lj-J (JjjJSjJI (J^JeAJI 

Cj^L&Lj. (j-S-J (jl O ^ ' '" a L ^-I^ iCjjII (j-a La^i. - la c I (j£j <J-^I '^■J'^ 
tyl^Li ■ ■■" Jj^-^j jjijJI (j-o^i&l (jjiVir 1 jJia dl! j f-oj iCjjJ.1 Jjlj SLpJu 
i L#J (jjfcji JLJ Lxj (JLcajVI jl 1O3JJ jLCal (j^_LJtjJ (j£ ^js>-\ «Ll>-L) (j-aj 

Cj_iLS UiS iCjLLlo jj 3 ' "**' (JrP^ Lt^ JiP 1 -"' (j -0 U^' (1h l)'- l ^' (JrhH-" u^^ 
iCjjII (^^c. i asc Liall (J^lSj LjLZLbl Jjsl (j£ dllj^ t2l_ilq CjjAI (j^. (j^^Ls-I 
3_j_j l_2_t Lj 3_jL»-I (jj-i I 3 ' 3j ~ Cjjjsj j I jVn n VI dJ5j-ul (j a » ■ I VLic.1 ji&\j 
(3j^-i!l oW^ c *rt^j3-" SJjLail "^^ij^ 2 •'iJ'-'-'JjJ lSj^?^- 1 " ."•• t ^ , **'"l • jjSjJLj 

£ljJ3l^£. (_jjjjj i_2Jl#j dlljij id!jJ,l i—JsI^jlj i _ysuScJ La-i3 CjLiVIj JJ^jJI (j-U 
*1_l3 j\ J-Lso (j-o (j-fl-se-i CjLjVI (jl <LJjl_2J,l < " «j g-ta I JiJSj , I j" j ^ *.V Ijijj 

(j (j i ii n ti (jj j-ij cjLjV! (jl ^1 L*U!i (jjjy L*jjj i j3^j-II (j- >^' (< ' "~>JI 
lj_«JLal (jjjJ! j^S jJ! (j-o (j n'stll (_yi^. <4 jo ' n~^iil 4_uiL>JI *jjIo cj-^ 3-iL^- 

i_2j^>- jlj l*JJJlS .(_£_^jJI (S_&jjJ «_o j flJLj La J-&J i/a^jjuu 4jLcj_i ^>^l 
(_gj_Jtj i/oJ^LI (j-g-L»JO ,j_a (jn'C < II l _ 7 lz. dlljij ,jl , >."^VI -Jl ^ CjLlVI 
(jl l*L!JlS «(_£jjJ» JL>-J JLSj .SjLjJLc CjLcuIj.} i-^-yJ Lo «_a3j-a 4Ji u^sjIloj 
(pj-LisjJll •" j dJ jLOi-l '"'I SI taoJ L«j3) CjjJII CjLcjjIoj^ IjJLjj-o Jl^ jjS jJI 
. jl J^JIj jLS^VI jl JLiAll ^yk: CjLiVI <^)Sj (jrp. (jk i JaLo-VI j i aJuJL 



CjjJ,I (J-Ls (_y^ ^ I c I CjL^-jJ /j I c CjuVI (Jj Laa» jj i ajj jji La (jSLIj 

'"'L'-' "^"^ "Aj* jl>-|j ii_dJ JJ Sjjjx. CjI>jj iLdj Lita-^Ilal jii! Sjji jdu SJjLHiu 

ja3 (j_oj i(J-^l (jLol— i (jj < i"ij CjuVI (jl i^^p jl «(jjjjij-jjjj£» «CLoJ^ La jjfc 
JaJ& (ji*-y * <-— ! 3-^' (j-° J-*?>ll (j(j?l^ (jl (_jk .(ji^.1 CjjII (j^a (j^iia (jj^i 
»l i M I II i—sLie-j dJJ jii (j j >. Icn I Cjj_aj I Ja-il (j U"j (JJ ' l-LLai&jj (j^oxj 

(jl LaS i(JL>-jJI i—aLitj Lx^ ^h^I cul jlc>-j (ji^pj (jl j-«-«JI (_y3 cjLoJl2jJ,I 

.(79 :jJaJl) JL^-jJI (j-ajji^l SJjjIaJI SULtXIj (jVl (j^seJ Loj^^: »l in'ill 

cjL>-jj p-Lijjl (jl (jLj^_j £j-£j>- j-^>-\ \j j i "■~ i " (((JjjjIjj ?5 lj j^ >) r'j-^l L*llji 
Sex-role (j^JLail Ujj jIj^VI cjL»^jj» ^^Jl j-^-^j Luj cjjII (jJS (^ cjLsVI 



88 



Ck-ijUa^JIj d^icLoLipUlj 6^i9ljp9aj^JI OlaiaXaJI 

IjJ^SLj (jl j^JJI (jjj 3jLc aJs^lLa . LjjL^l»- jJl^cjj ( _ 7 jJIj iexpectations> 

tUjjjj-a CjLvj^ (_ t 1^- (jl '^-^J (jl ^1 (ji-<lJ CjLj^fl (jl (jLfci^l (^ 7r Jajj (jl 
aJlX.j (j-j liaJ I J (J_LaiI (^1 jJI ^j^Jiitl (jjijjlio -■ la » " ^^3 jjS jju 4JjL2J,L> 
(jl (_j-3 (j ,-i se I "i j L*LI!i (j_a LlJ^-S Ijj i nii"t AjJL Ljjjjj (j^e-ij . Jj^l^jjJ! 

'~' * "-^ ^ jJlj t(j 1 all t ^l^^ (j-* * (_jL>J (^ujjujs ijr Jb CjjJu JjlS (j-ujjULa 

CjLvjJ tjz^Z- »l i 'I ill (J a uaa> i^iui (jl « (_jjj IS-o » (_£_>J l£>*"' <: ^ ;v '-^ 0^3 

.i_jL1i£}U j_£VI (jjijljjLl<jl jji cjjII (Jia ^ JU-j-II cjU-jj <j-o ^^l 

i4_La Jj*-»."lt J o i"i| «L-ulj.i (_jJI r-LtseJ-UjJij *L$->-J (j ""J^ ' "^"'^ I J-<k ij^Jj 
(^ V 2jil ,^.tl (_j|^j>J| joiijLA (^ JLvjJI (j_o (_,lr I (Jjjjju tLcuJJI (jl dlti 
(jjijej «LjijI (jl (j-a «^1IjjIi» tf^ii La dlljj JajJij JLSj . oJl>-j i—jLloVI 

.(((j^JJLA)) £^_c<3 (_^ Cj^JJ (jjl ^J'^-j II j l^'t l_4-LU t((/jjl *■*!" )) (jjjL_ul (j-^. Cj^XI 



Jl_L« (j_ljJ1 (ftHifcl Jl9J IJj L^jul JJS (_ r l^. CjjJJ pJ_L*DJ_4J 4-jJ I II ill CaJJ mi 
(J_l3 Cj L^LlLo (j£. (±x^c_JI J^£.J . '_>-i^ LoLxj-&I pJJ^jJJ IJl^J J^-*J J^«l 

Jl_lSQJu (j^SLj (jl (jSlxj (JjjJI (jl J^-> «4j iUj~ «~ (_ylll cjIj_l«IlI,I jl iCjjJkl 
^ijjlj Jl3 Lu>2j SjIUJI cIjLjLjjJI J£ (jl ii^p- ti at n,K~ < n>U Lp-j VL^o 



(_,J,L«JI 7-jJ-ll i^j \-<Sj ■ ^j-s*^] 3I_lj>JIj cjjJ,I (j-c djjjLal! * -il j i uLi 

4_S_uiC 4_iJeJjU jJJL>- Cjli CjjJ,Ij (jJjJI (j^-J 4^^L«JI (JL3 « ( _ t jJJ5J jjjjji)) 

aJl^I (3_LcIj_iLII) f\ aj-2JI (j^j^_i-aJ,l ^jJ 3_ujjJI CjI ju2l«Ji,l j_pjuj 'jj-i-!l 

(j_« (j-aJJJ i L4IA * tliJI X-U2^A Cj^JLl p^_U3^_« (J^>-l Llx_L>- itijjj (jr^- < ^- a ^l 1 

I Ajj j " c I (jr jJlj ((jj^^-SJI jljJLol /j I c js_&j_iL2^ /j 2 jj (jl 3ijtj-ii!l (J^L^a 

««I_LjI^JI ^ /; *sl , .. rt> t ^Jjj jqJ Ls-Ljj t^£jj>-2\ rfs^Ji_L>- (_^ (i«L4_jljJl ^ 'si mjd» 
(_ylllj ,jis*<\ (J £ S^jjsJI ^Ijjkl Laj . LujJI ja^3LL>- (_ T 3 I J jj '< La aj IjjlS (_ylll 
L^LaLajIo i_P-*^ lj^>J ''i'J («J CjIj^2 j_llia VI > 1 1 nil LujJI i-jjLaX. (_JJL>-I Jju 

1 *Ll>-2| (jiLjtA I j""* jjj 



89 



ugoJI £JL9 

(j! oljj_o ^^-i-uLi-ul u^sj-kj (JL>J,I ljui (^ CjL-oljjJI rtiajm CjIJj JiJSj 
(52^ 

(jl-j 3-JS^Lc V 4_JI (_gl !_gi fl La (_p3) a J CjL-uljjJI ojLji (j_o J _i ft Ija (j^>- 

(jJS 4J3^Lc cf^p. (j-o 2 'j I i aj " TtjLlil! (jLa i^i>S *->j ^l^*- J-Lo CjI Ja (_ylll 
3jljjI ^yJI lIiLjIjjJI ojui jljLxJ - i ■■ SJ (jl (^SUjj .Religiosity (JjJlIILj dijll 

.(^jjilllj Ojll (jla <>j ia}Lc. V -I 
. loflin 2LuL*jI 43>Lc. ciJLLA -2 

.3jjl(n I fl^M.t ^3>L»J! -3 

.4_l1jc_lo I i J UJ <iJ3^L»JI -4 



:L>i^JI§tai^l $£»4«^ «iWI AmJ(«J <^$*^ : <S^t 

(j^_i 4Js}J-c 3-<4J (j .nt (jl 1963 aLc «(_>juJlSb L^j aLs S^SLxa <L-ulj.j c^JLu 
dil aSj i39 :jiiJ!) ojJ.! jl*j SLpJI jf i«d!l ^ ^LSl^Vlj ojJt! ^ i2j^>JI 
(jjijjLo^ (j^_i 4Js}l^. 1965 aLc Cjj^jvI «l<j/Ijj ( _ T a «{j\ o i n'jljj <j3jLo» Jl^=j («J 

2u_aUJ| ^j^Ua £yl 231 Lsr Lc 1970 ^Lc cTuj^.1 ,96)«Cjj_U ,jJ-2J 5_ujjJI 
^j-« CjjJLI Jj-Ls jj-uLjJLa (UJ Iaj * «^jj i nljjj ^_Llx-i» <j-« <_p al9 t(j<j&jj^<i2 1 
Sj—Li-al i"i I o ~r < *7 r 1 JlSj ijjJjGJI 4-<ul3j (*-jljJI J LaAII jjajl) «jJLjs-!» *-Laj 

: ^jjj Lii 4 I'll ill 4_uLjj (_,i^. 

1^3^ JoLljjI -.So^Lcl jLl>J.I ^jLjLiiJI i 'I ii i .I u J^jjjj ji^. ^1 ^yJI -2 

i "^* Lta JoLujI ijJjJLjt-a JoLtJjl 
5^_a S(j\Jt_a p^J ^j-* 4j i n'S «Lc^_4^?e_a J I -4 q 1 a * ^ «L«Jl>. J^g i"i" 3^-« fcS -3 
i2 i i nil (^ ^j!j-° SJlC ij^^l ^Ir j(j Mill (^ S^a ij^'i/l ^Ir pj j i n^/ 1 (^ 

. IjLlf jf ilj^LJ 

• Si<l-,tj^U ^ L&ik: oLiJ ^pJI L^jli SjLjjJI ^yJI LJU. in n" S Ja -4 



90 



fcjjlia.aJlg CKjxLcOpUlg 6-iil_^p>^cj^JI OlniaXoJI 

. jiLLo _>^- ' * '(*-*J !CjjJ,I Jjlj SLpJI /^ jl2H»j (Jj* -5 
3l_pJI 4_ol£Lol aJ^Sj 4JI jji 4-ujjfcl (jJJ-1! i_ul^>- j^\ (jl I Sj »" (Jji -6 

. 2 l/OJU ".SCjjJi,! JlJLJ 

. z ij<s-«-i : j Lj£^>- j i "*_« (jl "-j-^cj (Jjj>o j I (jl jlSIUj (Jji -7 
(jj^i-Vl^ i(_£jJ3 :S(jJj_Lij 4JjL23 LaJ^ ^^JjjJI i >\ \\ *"<■■ I 3^3 (JLP ' '*£ "8 

. ( "j^* la i Luj-^j 
. CjjJ.1 (jJ- 2 jj" . ** " (j^-J ^iJ-^3^ ^^^-C «L-uljjJ! j>JL& ?-jJr"i i uJ joJj 
(j_o j-j-5-^ CjLcl_jJa_il «_o cdJi (j i m"_i Vj .(jjjdll «L<ijLJ3 CjIj_uLLo i alia: aj 
(jl (jj-t-^j i3_j_ljjJI CjVLsJJ (_y^ jl • 2 j , ,.A;tl 2^. ,^tl JLjc-o (_y3 <j\laL«JI 
(_j_iL«J,l Cjl.}Ji5e-a /C-&I ij-u (j-o (JjSLj (jl i-cu JjjUI (_JjJ «LuJjJI '"'!■ L21jJ I 

,CjjJ,Lj ^j-ill I J-A I J S i a L (_ylll j-£.l MlUj 
^1 j miLj (j a " 3c * L-^i^ (jjjiLljtJ (j_)jJ1 (^>L?t_tu2l (jl (^oAJlU (j_a jJljjj 

^IjLS^VI 3j^j i jLS^VI ^ 5Lajj>Jlj l( jj^Vl 3l_pJI ^ jLS^VI Jlo 

. OjJll (Jls (j-o Lu^_23 (_gj"i i ill, I (jjtflJ (JjjL*j 4 i im'^II 4 La uiJl (_y3 4£jl mi U J 
1(2>-jJlJI CjIj_l»ILoj CjjJJ (Jla (j-u 3J3}L*JI ' im-ial (jj^-uji^j (jJLui (jl jJljjj 
V loLliieJ « La-Lsejv » ijJLufc (jU <j-ajj V (^ jJI Ji^till (jl (_y3 I i J I _a I (j a Je t"j 
(jla (_gj"i i M a (jLa j<u (j-oj ''l-i^ (J-°'-dL9 ajL ^^i " br"-*- 18 tilli* (jLi tlil jo <j-ajj 

^IjiaVI Ijufc (jSDj -(j-ojll (jjJ Jls-jj i^JJI 4j|j jji «ujJ J^LiJI c^jll 

(jjjjl_4-i «Ll*3jijljJJ (J_al^ju1 (Jjj^J (jl (J-4^>J.i J~±£- (j-« 4_i 2 l^Jij I -^j* Jo ^_jHjlj 
Jl^v^j V i±j-±se-i j^-JJljJI «L«Ji-aJ «LuLi!UI Jj-i-ill (_p (_5-3 Sjill (j hAjj Lj^2j 
(j I c-(jJi 'II (jl j-A VL»H>-I ^ii^l j^ . ...Vitl (JjSj Ji^j .3_jj_<fc^>. Jjj^ 2 I j Lu 
(jl jl iCjjJll (j-LS (_gj "i i ii 1, I i J " I^Jje-O (j .nl-iJliLLijJI - la » 1 2 j i nilLl (J^'i/I 
(_y3 (jjjLlII [ttJajua 3Ll>- (_y3 4jjljJI j^=->- (j^l Si uu V ^ j^ i alaJI -i -j 2 1 1 j (jJjJI 
tiJJj 3>^J . (4JL« 3_LtC (_,!£: 2_ <J ,|jjJ| jjJLA tTuJ^v! i^JJI) u^Ajua^l x_«i>J.I 

(_jjj>- al i_jI^j>JI 1 u\~.^. * l \ r c j , ^. a " jjf ^J| (Jjixj Slj-rll 3jl>.Ij «l^>-Ij L^JLa 
'"•jj - ^^ '"'^ 1 "1j JlI 2 j ■! .~..* -»- < il~'> i-tj -jU 1 ^a i<ll"\ jj ^ -t"j^ cr^J 5 load! 

(Jl mi 3-Aj 5j_j_l1 «Lj_4-A| «Li^ (j_)JJJ Julj x-^ASe^a (j_a 5 J 0" i n a CjLLi^ (_^-^ 



91 



ugoJI £15 



iH*Sll§ tai^ll $£» 4*4 AnriUrit «tt* d«dl <a$M :lmiLi 

(jf 1967 aLc 4j aLs i_£JJ!j i(JL>Jll IJI4J jSLjII <L*-<^ ^ ujl^jjj)) jZ'l 
(_P=jJL3l JJ3j . l1)jJ,L) Jl i 1V1VI (^ aLc. 4jv^j jjJj LgJI JJ-JJ S-uJjJI siljVI 
iCjjILi 2 La jj ii 1 1 <_2jL>JU 2 j -»- 1 j 1 (jJjJ! (_yJI (jjLaJj (j 1 nil jLj£ (jl " J"/ a " 
4 1-1 1" -^J, 1 /a-u^LoU i_^ j-iSLajJI (jj/LJI <j-*-*J (j' (_y^l lS^P '^!-y J -" flj-Laj]| (jlj 

( _ T a jcSLajJI Q^JjLaj (j^Jjjillkl ( _ > ^>Ljtjii'iil (jl (((J^j^» (_p3_^l£l L*lljis .cjjjiil 

ijj i 1 uSJl)) jj-uj^ J^Sj . SjUJL>- SLpaJ jj i"it «Uf (_,i^- OoXI ^' a ^jSLflgJI 1 A^nia 

(_gjL«3 (_jjj>. 2 Ij ijjjjjjM 3 juj_Ju Lxjil jl>-( t_!^LLa]l (j-o (j^llcjji^o (((jjLl<\>-! jI 

j_<jjl1Ij i—j^I jij-o '.sLuVI olj-iiiU ^^3 I a^iS-ll La a lI^ajj , d , >.aj"j ij^J-ll 
CjLvjjj i(__-jj/ljjJI (J-j-L^a3eg]|j Q- 1 -• --> ' 1 1 <_i|j U."--. m I jl Jt"u uz|) eLul Ltajulj 

3Ji>lj (___]! 3_aLbVLi (_yJL.II ^1 jj jLpi-l IjU^I \_£ ^LpJI i_al JlaI 3_<uL9 

t(jJ-AjJ «(J31£» (jjjLjJLaj i«LuuiL>ij1 jJL>J1 <uL>"( ( nl (jjjLjJLa : (_5-Aj (j-ujjULa 
(J' J *~j ft-^Xt ' ~ ' ^j t^aj Ju9j ^j L^aie ■"■ «U_»LiL«j cl^oll (j_« <— ^oJfcU jl t**-"< < u) a 

ciiLiSLI^IjiiII i2jW^c^jI£j iS^Li^S^j^LajoLiKIl ^Ijj jLoi-l ^ 
jx j-j-^I (_LSLiii_i Ct-j ulS Sjjjiil 3_cjjij>J,| (jLa dlli *_oj 2 Sj| U*.« cjjU 

joJ (jSLIj 1 1 feLc CjI oK II (_ T cl J3 jLQi-l (jgj LaJ Jju Oall (j-o •» jj i a 1 1 I J -^ a 
(jLaJJll y"i"n nl JJ3j ^J 1 ^*"- lojI SJbLall Jju (J-ucjji^J,I (j-u 3j>^ <-£-!LL*tjS*J 
jl (_j^CjJI (j_a lj-^>- l— *J_>_3 Oj_a (J-Ls l-^JJ-I (j1-bjLlI,l t_!^LLaJI A^.jjiSt-a (jl 

uj^LLJI (jl I o (j" mljj oj^Jil Li^ iCjjII (JJ^ -5J-ri iji^' (_jSLJ_3 ij^juiJI 

(39V 

«LuLajl «L2j^Lij CjjJ,I (jx. tiuJoJI ( _^ {jj-uuj^£la (J-ujJl11,I 

SLl^JI (__-i jl_Hc:Vlj i2jjJ.I (j-Ls (j^J 3__3}L_JI ^ ^Ijj CJJ_s^l Li^ 

(j^LjJLa Jo j3j| aJ3j i(,_^jJl1II i_xJI^v j^vi jjij) Belief in afterlife ^js>~^\ 
(j_o <_a^>JI (jjjLj_S_4j I_l>.j^ u_sjk_^>- LLsLjjjI ^js>-i\ SLpJI ^^ jLalcVI 

(J^_Aj^>. j-j^. JoLujI (_5^>-l «L_l>-u (j rt -j j la (jSJj tdj" i u-J» d * ifpj (__5*JJ1 Cj^J.1 

(( j I J qj» X—u3^ (j_a clJaJU (JlS (jjjLL^aj iSj--*' *' ^I-jj>J1 (_-_^ si ^"^ VI (j-\_j 

LflLuaAUdu) (j^ jii ii (jl ol i no jjjjfc c?-^- l - :j i>^l <= Lj-"lj-i ^Jj-^-i 1982 aLc (__t3j 

jLju^s 3_Cjju*-a (jlj (__4^.l CjjJ.1 (j^ D' 'j*'" "*• '^"lj i«LujLtuJI SjJLill ^^S 

jJ3j . (^jJJ j ji** i— il i ."ill ja^jJ-I (jjj-ll Sj^jLi-j (LoLc 30 -25) (j . nil 



92 



fcjjlia.aJlg CKjxLcOpUlg & T iSljpgxu.^JI ililrilpjnll 

(j_a LjJLj-j!>"4 LjJ>4j 178 uAc 1984 aLc L$_»_jLi} Cjj_iJ 2LJj.i c^j^s-I 

(S-^Jj-o (_gl i i^t Mitl CjjII £yl /a^ji. (j-u <L3^1jl!I ,^lx^ <-2J^j ijj^JJI 
4_«_ijj_oj «Lt*3L>- 4 j i nLm^e-i Jj^jJI (_£jJ (jjJioJI JaLjjl q£. 4j-uljjJI ojui 

^—jLjJJI ^a— i Lg- t -j j y < imII (j_« (J-^J *cLl>-^J^Sj i nil 4_l>-Lu1 (j_« ^^5^-"' fS-4- 1 ' 
(j£^_jv| Ijjj ^ >j La ' a a (j-* . ^. j "»- ^ ^ ^_i£. CjLLjjlII <>Jlj& (JlLa (j_« ^ o" i u-U 
((j m-flj-ilall JL>J,I ^^a) b^jLSLu-u I '^jj a 276 ,- Ir <L<-ulj.J «i_3aj ijJLloj)) 

ljufc (j_« <: L«-ii^>-Ii 5j flAJl ^liajl) (jjjkjjl (jjjLjJLaj «^J_lxj» f-^z>$ [j-« Cj^Ju (jjlS 
ijjL?- 2 (j-C I d iSia (_gj-l! JLl>-^JI JlJlJI (ji «L-u!jjJ! oJLA (j-o ■»■ . Vtlj , J ,^.AII 
(jjLLU.1 jJLul j_a> (jjJJiJl (jjjLjJLa iJ ^ /c-Aj_lcj ^_xId^_1,1 (j-o LuLi-£i>-l AjjJb^s*- 

Jljlj SLl^JI 3_lJLSLoI ^jJL (^JJI liili jji (jjjll t_JL»- f<ui' ijtj .si ^"rVLi 

• (_j-2 d < lilj-a CjLvj^ (_yi^. lilli (_yi^. Ij-ii^lj (jJJJI Lr-^J-^' J <n->-j . CjjJll 
(JJL3 (j-a OJ- , '- l> -d ij - *-^ (j^JJ-fljJl ( _ 3 jl3jJi,l (jl_> dJJi j j i n n't (jSLxjj CjjJ.1 Jjla 
(j_o f-jLJ ^LilLcl ^^Jl 3-JJ-2 «L>-L>- jo^jjJ (JJ^J O' Cr'l Qjljl j ^-^J- < -^-'J- a 
■ " 1 1 J 2 * » 1 I (jl j J 3 J_oi>JU j^i-VI j_; i ■■ A~ T1 La| iCjjJ.1 Jjlj 3l_p. (^ d)JjJI 

i«1_Ll«JI «Ll>-u (j-« «Lulj jJI ojui JlSj (3^>-«-i "1JI jjU , ,.ll ojui i_jjlS J ii" » jj 
^_j_aS Jl^v (_2-Jl 4_i_Ji_Lj_a '"*' '^J - ^ '"■" Cj\'^ ^"i mi '"<■ djj L<aJ ^1^. C*J o'imiI Ji 
l_yayXaj (jl pj i ii 1,1 j-;LC. (j-o il 1 1 (j mi «ULjl3 (_y^ L£j>3 ( _ > I3^1<1J (jl 4jla (jSLxj 

i fllklJIj l(jr JLkJdl t_jLi£Vlj 1(jt jL^u«JI ^.jli^Vlj tf-LojJI ^ ^jjj^aJI 

iLjj-iI jLjJIj i4-j-LtaJe-iSiJI <_i \j La Ja I J i<_jl!loV! / (jj^JI (jL&ij i/_iSjdl 
CjLIs (_^-Aj ijj^l^lJI .-J ' "j j j a I n .tl |f jLaIcVIj njJ^ljjjVI .slj i nllj 

.cLuljjJI ojui p(j"ilo i"i (jJJJl (__>^>jji,l 



95 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

'3jjJ K i nVI SjlaLv (j-o jj£i 3 ilti ^Ir L^j LLaJS 2jj '^ a 3j-ulj.J <".ii lu^ 

^JijJI j!j L*K 4JI (_gl i^jgJIj cjjJ.1 jjia <j\j (_gjjfc^»- {_, jl< n JoLjjI ^c 

4_«_oLj>JI (j_o CjLjVI «l— Lj-C /j I c (j • La ij (<sJ dJJj tj^>Jj .CjjJ.1 Jjla (jAAse 'I 
( j_ a _uLfl_a d i n <;-*• 4-uJl 1 1 'ilj^-i CjL.L t .4 Jv Cj^Lj p I ' ^"" I (j_« 1 JljLjIj 58 (J^iSI 

JlSj i^yJbjJI oUoVlj 3_ujjJI SfTjLill) ^yJjjJ! t-djlmtlj ojXI jls (j-a JSL! 

JifTjjj . JJs? 3^».jJlJ CjjJ.1 (j-a (j^sUeJ ja^Jl lJjJj jiLCi/l ? I '^*~ VI jjlS 

(j'U^afull (jl L4JL0 -» Jaj| i! 1 L^jlii 4j*_lll!I ojui (_yi^ «(J_J^ 0"° - J" *t-"<ljJ 

.jlj-al J ir-> -»- <jh->- (j-Lc ijJ-LS-il (j-o ^->-j-5 ij^l d>^ IjjLiuS (^joJ! ^ajjui 

sLjjiIj jJI L^LajLa-'n nl ( _ T ill 5Jj j ? 1, 1 j^lC «3_j Jjj^ill » ja-ufcLm ^1 jj i"it (jl 
(j-a j^jul (_^ (j-* a Jl3j 1 1 ^ ul^jliXI (jl «(JQ i u 'm^q» «L_u1j.} O -^ '" <g * tiJLI jo 

(^ >ngif. o>^ u^ 1 SJjLsILj ji£l cjjJ,I (jJ! (jj < I tauj jcjjiljJI (jLxjV! i_gjj 

(j i n 11 Jl— lS t^J-I 1— 3^>J1 (j_a 1 JlJJ_« tfj^_ ajj « jj_*l_l>. )) Jl>-j LaS . (jLaJ J(1 
Ala ." »VI ^^3 J-^l J'v uij (JjSjLiuJ (jj jJI dJLUjI (jl (_Jjl>.| 4jj/IjJ (j^ -» Jaj| 

.(39 :>tiJl) JSl i-a^i. f^JJ-I 2-ojjJ! 

(_gJjJLJo (_JjJ CjjJll (jia (j£, 4jji!jJ « j 1 j <i 1 » (_fj->-l L$J^-' 4_l>-u (j^J 

CjljLaJLcl (S^-JjJ (j_a j<s^_iLi 2j LjlSllI 4_l>-LlII qj> f±$£j^. (jjjJIj ijjjjijjl 
oj) 1"" "U d-iijjJI jjli i^iII (j ai 1 a scj (jjjJIj (jjjJu JjJlJo JoLjjjIj 3jjS '^Hi-^ 

(jl 1. itj (J_lj>oVI (jl (jjj S" < jij iCjjJ,I Jju SLpJI (j^ (jjJi^LLa /a4j| Li^ 
t( jj^i.2rl (j-o i^j^l '-dJ'-J fa^i^j^'' lt^ UtS-* 4 ^^ (<u*J ' L»^>*- J "irti 
5Jl_jjJI i_*Jl_o». Jl»-I jjij) born again^yJLiLlI j^LlII pjjiaj^ t ^ == T 1 ^*^ 

^1 J^I^jlJ! Jo-I -iij-a^j (Jj^uVI (_^ JjJ (^jJI ^j^JI (j^uiILi (3-1 -rji.il, I 
jjj.3 ( j -a (JXS^ 1 La j 1 "J j_jJLLo jji tili^>- (j-°Ji iCjjJ,! (jls (_y3 (JjLjjJI j ntdJ 
^yJ! (j>^y (jjj^" -iMjII (jr^ OJ'J^-*^ 6^'- )l " (jJ J'» - J" i U (jl J-^la JL3J .l^JjII 



9fl 



fcjjlia.aJlg a^xLcapUlg tt-iilj^gjxj^JI OlniaXoJI 

di! j u& (JjJLSIju V <jj JJI (j^-pe-ujiiLi 3JjL2J,Li (Jjsl 4jvj Jj lIijJ,! (j-o (jlaJI 
(_J jj l1ijJ,I (J-L2-1 I i i \ i ii i ta j "j " ^^JjjJI i\ age VI 3jJ3 (jl pe lSjjI L«£ . 
(j-C (_Jj^>-l «L<-ulj.3 Cjj a i ill La-igJ .CjjJ.1 (jilji (_j^- fa-fl>J (jLLij-tJI j^jlo^a 

S-oLJs^l !_^s 4$jLifuilj i ( _ 3 _bjJI \l *-.<■■ Vt j iCjjJ.1 (j^ o-uLu" Ov o.'^ 1 " ^°W-b' 

Ci-lTlj j<sJ (_Jj^>-I CjL.uIj.3 (j^Jj • LjjULT (_y3 (j-tJI jW^ ^^•^.3-'" < — '3r^ (_j-^ 

JaLujI (^^c. 1980 aLc oljjJl^jJJ «Q!L-uj (^ <<i_l!LLlL-u>> <L-uIj.J Cij ni nl 
j^\ju!jjl\ ( _ T 3 (jjfjjLSiJ (jJ JJI ^yz \jx^ui2 I (_JjJ (jjjilllj CjjII (3is (]/U (jjtia 

3JjL2J,u i-dJij i«_ajj-o Cj^o (Jla jjja (jjjL*j (jj JJIj ttUa-i "j" a «L»-j JLi 4_uJjJI 
.(6 "j la Jl) ^j-bjJI J_*jJ! ^j\c Lu-iJ I jlr CjL>.jJ (&4J (jJJ-1! (j-oUe-Ju^Lj 
Q SB 1 £LJ>tJ Jllj Cj^J,! (j_« •— 2^>Ji (j^. «L_ulj^ i>J>Lajj ntSj o < n» i_£^>-l JuiJj 
(j_a I j ; I la jl iCjj-U (_yi-C (j^Sj-iiull ^yiisjj.l (_JjJ ^yjjjjl .si iTirVlj CjjII 
CjjJ.1 ul\j£ f_jic.-ra.tbj- La Lc -9 I j -41 tjr\j jojkjLxX.1 7-jl^pj L»iajj_o (jjj iii£ 
(jj/l_j_S_aj iCjjJ.1 (j_o i— a j V 1 1 (jjijjlia Sj^Lj £j£. S->L»-VI (CjjJ.1 u^sj^a jl) 
dij-U (j_o <_2j^>JI (jl «L<-u!jjJI oJlj* ' " 'j J ta Tj .CjjJkl (_J3 -i a>j la i 4^>-_jJ 
(_£jjj<-uJI '.(jjjjj-uill (jjj J£ ^^3 iJlijII (_,!£. (j^-Sj-uill ^yj^jj,! ,_£jJ (j^-iriT-ia 

(- I C dlj-ll (j-O I— 2_^>JI ( _ T 3 (_p3LflitjLl J-XJtll aJl23 Jajjjl L*Ujli ■(jlj^'llj 

4_L.i_-^-La S^^Lc Cjj^Ii LiS .)t£jim j-«-«JI (j£. N 3j i ■■ a ;_gjj< Mill ^j" i ii U 
(j 1 ■>■*_» 4_j| /j I c CjjJ.1 (^1 j laJu I «L^>-jj CjjJ,I (j-° <— 3^>JI (l^V 4j^-fl>^>- 
(j^_J (j_o JlJIJ V '"'I 'I aj C >l (jl OJ^Lojj (»°"i J «l i ill) pr "l i"li aJj .(_£_^>-i 3l_L>- 

jLJiI*3 (_gJJI Certainity(j-LijJI (j_a ^i^l 5-j-i^aj iCjjII (j^a i_a^>JI CjI^Jl^e^ 

^_S!i « 3 J j 2 * It (j i nt 5^_^ :Cjj_1,I (j_« (—S^JkjIj (j-jJJLlI)) (j I j * c cl^^oj 
(jl "-j^c-j e>JJ-II ^'j-d-*-^- o' 2_»jLSiJI jlSLa^l (j\j (j^ (j! «(_gjjj_<i£-a» 

(jj a JLS-i LuJlJ (_^oLJejIi2| ^>^jI (jl aLCi '^^J jijil l -^^>- iCJaJL! (3^-^ .'"j" 
(_,JI Cj^I 3jUJl£. (5j^i-l CjLjiIjJ (jSL!j . 7 r _L j e. i -a (j aS tllj J^l <Jlij^ (jia (j^. 
.Cjj-U (3 Bj (jJJ-II (j^-J 3 a i n"i a S^^ic I j^'a Ji^Gj /<sJ li^p- 1 3^j I i aj a Jtjijj 



95 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

(j in i» 3jJ9 (_y3 (j-*SLj Lxjj 3 <j I ■ >■" 1 1 jtjLuJI oJl^J 4_iSL«J,! '"'^j j . ..^"Il jl>-Ij 
4-ij^ ^^3 jij^JI f Liisl 3^3 (jl «Jiij'^)) (_p3^l£l jJis i belief system «3j_iJL*JI 

. CjjJ,l (j-a «L3ji»J (&4JI! JJL>J.I ( _ T Ji (jJjILa j^lC (_^>- jl ' LbjUa 
^al Se mi^Ij (j-lJJLJl t^J^-lJ^u ^^-aLje-iHi^l ^JJ (jl (j-\IL>.l_J1 j^»' L§J^L3 
(j■^— > (jj * d ) (J_)JlJ1 ^Lt_u/2u «LijLaJ,L) I ' ^ -^ se ' rt d)j_a (jjlS (j^-i-ijCU,1 ^tc 

4 _^_i^D_^Jk 1 (jl «l_3j)J l^_L_C_l» 4_l_ulj.i ^j q J J Iq Lll ^"^J ^" 1 I (j-G£.^_<U>JJ juU 

CjLjj" i ii <i i CjjJ,I (jjia (j-a (JjjL*j f&^lLiLj.} j-uJijj Ij-oLS (jj JJI (j^j^jn'Cj i nil 
A $" LtAC ct~^ 'J-^- 1 (J -4- " (j-O^JI jSj i nil iJr u^jS\ (j-a ^-A^-lLi 4_)jLiiXL) ^i^.i 

SjijJLtjl J) I 'I t 3^9 (jl_) (JjLilll ^ySJ~Oj\ «Qj_u1jJ i _ T 3 «(_£JlJ^_<lS_a» ^)^>-»-Q Ju9j 

7r i^-Tilj . CjjJJ (j-o 4^ai» (_£jJ («^-a JJi^e-a uJt La (j^-iT- i"i (_£jJ ((jLajVI jl) 
L«jj) •" J i nAJI I j ^ . --»j (jJJ-Jl <3-*-aL>JI i—i^ila ( _ T j£.jjjj*-a (jl ^ .^.-»a 7?-jLiJ ij-° 
(j-C I j ii mi^ jJa (^-jjGJI (^ (jj i >i ii -Te-a jl (jj < ii1j-a rs-^jLi (^1 jJI js^lj^V 

,U , „j"l I |_£jJU (^ l^*Jaj o^jJ' jIj^VI <tcj-«jj=-«-> 3JjL2J,Li Jjsl ciij^ JjlJs 

\-n£ ijjjJilUlj CjjJ,I jjiS (j-u 4-uje_La 4£^Lc ^1 till j£ TtjLlill a JJt j i uH j 
. Cjj-U (j_a i_3j V I I (<s-$_a .JJi^ca ^^-A (jLx-l^l 3^J3 (jl «lijLaJI Oj£Jli I L&jSjj 

t-Lllj.il I j '"•' I mi'm (jLxjVI (j i n i SjJs (jlj iija_ujjl isjufc (i ;_g.3jj-a£La » j i ii a jjsj 

.CjjJLI (j-a (_3^>J1 (j-a (JlflJ Lc_a ^j_ujl (jlSLalj i)t_i2Jj_l,1 /gSL^jJU i la uj rt 



£i*ll ^ ,>u-JI «rf«M U jtf 1$ UUJI ^ UUalt :UU 

(jjLS ijJIJjjJI I JJt (j£. 3_iL>-5lJ SJjLa^ ^^3 ScjjJ.1 (j-o jo^fljjej La juii jj^. 
(<sJi (jlSLa iCjjJ,I /jiJUJ ' aliica (_yl^. iLu^llI i— 3jL>J,l (j\j •((jLjjjjj (_gjjjajj» 
La Juilj idJLJjJoLII (—ijjej La^IiSij iclul'ii nlj^-JI I tU3ej La Jai jl ,>."^VI 

1 1 jujlJo Laji- cjjJ.1 jju SLpJI (j^ dJLJjjlSLJI i_aL>- (j\s>- i J7 i^- ■ j^jJI ■ *.;*»•_' 
i_a^>JI Jlj^j Sj-uj SjJiJ (_gl (jl Li^ ij^l 3^-jJij LgJLa l^ali- Jl^£ 'jjjll Lai 

«(jjil« i,jjij^3» JL>-J dUjS .(jj^i-VI (_yl^. ^)^-» L»JI CjjJ, <Lul »AiVI juVI l j f js 

•" j j ». j" ( _ T 3 LaLioijI^iisi Ij ilS^ ,,^.",11 iiupi n"ij^Jlj jjLaj^JI dJLJjjlSLJI (jl 

p(j(jyjiJ OS^i O' Lr*\ 4-<-" ±& ^\ c^- ^^>ill (_7^Lc (j^jliljll JLa Lc£ iCjjII ^jaj 



96 



fcjjlia.aJlg CKjxLcOpUlg tt-iilj^gjxj^JI OlniaXoJI 

ji&\ !^jl£ di! j£ i Lj^J I jyj~ a -^ a jj^i Lp-jij Orientation I j-^j" ciijll _^*J 

.(39 :jiij|) js^jL^vjj ^ LjsLvujI 

LlijJ il i^jJUl! Ijui ^LlSj^-u^I «L-uIj.} Cjjii JJSJ iCjjJ,I (jls «_a (J_aL*jJI (_ji^. 

( _>^Le-<ijVJ ,_£jj (Jjji.'^l SLpJI ^ .>LZk:VI *-3jj Ojll ^ JljIJJI 1_.23J.JI (jl 

3|_l->JI (_-.-) \l S" r- VI jjjLj.S-a (____ ^l_-o? 3jL2Jj-a 3->-j_> t_-lr I j 1 1 a a. ^jJlJI 
\l ^",t~ VI (j^j (_gj_&j_v JaLujI (j^ lO^' ^-"Ij^ JF^'-'J *— -L> r " "lj • lO^"^' 
La i_dJ_> -"jjj • CjjJkl (j-o 1— 2j-_>-_1 (j . 1 j j L-2-a JL>-ij ^j-j-. 1 -/! SLp-JI ( _ T 3 

^j-a (Jl^-1 ' -a-j ' uj J Jj*~ rt lO~*" ^'ri- > ^' (_y^ n! £"<~ VI ^jl ^j-a <(^U^_-u)> £»^_S_S 

dJLi Vj . ^jLjaill ji Jl^jJI J I (j^ j-rj 1 11 1,1 (j-° CJ^e-JI Ojui (_y3 £jjju3^xJi\\ 
(j_o sGJLjJI 5) 2 all jjijl) CjjJ.1 ( _ t 3 S^Ji^tA 3>k-> (_^a^L<jiVI (jJJtil (jl ^^3 
( _ T l£. ii_ul^>- ( _ T 3 CjuujJI «Ll2j j^c 5j kaJLl' ojui <_ijjjtjj i(«_>Lvu]l J LaAJI 

i_j jJ cjjJ.1 (j-Le ci^e-j ro-^JLI (j-<i3 IjJj .^jji-i (_jl_^>- ^^a Ljjla (3^ uy*- 

3-ijiIjJ VI y 1 LaJI I JL& ^^3 SjjiIjJ I iolr ^1 J uaj /<sJj .(j^ e>\ , nt,l (j^ CjI_Lj£. 
Cj^iuJj t JlJL^JI (_ya <A-La^Lu/VI aj^Ar 4-«-aL>- (j-a « ( _ 3 Jjj i/j_l))(j-o (_p UJJ al£ 
jjt fj^ Ajj\ ' iaj 1 1 TtjLlill (jl I -1 j~< se J S^Jiia ^^3 (jLcvLJI ^jjj . I 982 aLc 

.cjjJ,I ij-^J ilri' J ^" iJ'V ^^-«JI j j . itjjj [jj I »"j Lftj^ i-Llj's ."ill < j 23 «Ll>.lL!I 

sL^-IjJI (j-S-Ij i4Jjl!i Jl>- ^^3 (jjjGJI (_)jijJ» 4JI 4^ji>- ^1 «jjlJ>J» «Uj-1 Jiia 
CjjJ,I (j- «L3j^>- JJl^so (_5-!i (_3-* '^!-'^' JL -" 4j|j-2aj a «_o Jjji!l I j 1 n3ej (_yl!l 
involvement Jl i mi'iVI jjj 1972 aLc «j I j <i"» 7=-^j L<4^ .((055CJ «L&L>olj 
d * ■ J o' "cr^ijj ?W liLhiJ »O^XI (j-o i— 2^>JI (Jjlij ( _ T 3 j^LftjiJI ^^JjjJI 

5_Ljj_a 2 * . ..I'a cLaSLso (_gjjl J I < iVtVl p^j ^Ir Jlajju CjjJ,I (J12J Sj^LiJI 
pjj (_, lr JljjJjj ^IjuI <ll (JjSj Ji^ CjjII ,3!^ oi^ L ^LI^ '-r^'-^ (j-'lj 'Ui- 1 -^ 



97 



ugoJI £JL9 

(j-a (JS jLLsl f_^ pjj^DjJJ ct^t-l (j-o JJ 2 «G| (_j^Lc (ji JiSJjj .^^JjjJI (Jl < lLiZ] 
(jJjJI 2 ii i n l'q (jllbe-U I i J ''!'■» Lui (j-oj i3_LO^LuVI 3JLjjJlj ^jJLi^JI a j I JajJ I 
• (j-^ ol i nli s j lqj\ (_£JJ CjjJu p^xisjxJ ^j aj -*■ > La-i^ 
(«UjL3ijJi «LlLjjlII) «Ll2j^_lj^VI «(_ T ljj w 9 ^-J» 4jj/IjJ *LjLli! 1 _^sjjui i_3jjj<j 

Ma Ia-as-a Lcj_l*dj_« (j^j-1 CjjJ.1 cJ' (< C7~yJJ T!-?** ^'-^ *' ''"'^ '' '"-*-* J^LL^- 1 ?TJ^ 

. a^Ljj/^iI ( _ t -j-1 L^_l (_>aji JL3 (j-U>Jlj (j-U>JI (j-\_l JJ J all SjLjj (jLs /<u (j-aj 
(jLa i(_g 'I . V.aVI ^^cLaij-VI j^jJ.1 ji (j-^-lLcJI ^j" mXI (jx. j la-ill i Si '^;j 
> fl'iSll (_yl^. (j-aJtl!l (JA>- (ji (j j J It" » J-(j-d>- LaJ I jjaj <y&>-j (j-o- Jj-L^Jl (j-> oi i nil 

. u!j3 LxjfcMS Jjj j-^II (*AjJ 

^ I 1 <aj a jLSLsl 3 .' . ^." jj^JI (j^ ol i ill, 1 (_£jJ CjjJ.1 2j£Ls (ji ".(jLajjiajj 
<_i I fl-«J I jl i—iljiJIj i«L«-<juj J-^2^' <— )l JlC : Luia CjjJ,I Jjlj (JuJlxj (jj^oLi 

j_till t_jl Jjj 2liro"U jKa^l (j! .j-jij J£LI Sj-p-^l SjLgJJI (^j iSji-VI ^ 

JljJljIu ^jlu^j j * mi 1 i _ 7 _a*2l jl i^_UAjJl 1 la 1 uagj I (_£jJL$Jl ^1 1 nt, 1 (jLJ3 t«\_L)Lili_« 

I fr) (j\^_Lo LilLufc (ji ' *"'*JJ 'J-^*^ Ct^ (J<l"l'>tXI "J J ' a " (_,-3 j S. aj LaJiJl^. 

(2*) 
cj-^I t — *-i-^' - i '- l> -iJ i3j_«iLiA (j^jJI *L^Lil Jju J-J-2JI o'jjji 0-i~i J^^ 

(j-o : 1 1 jllj . .. ( ^c SjLv^LI (jJL>JI 4jL;LiLij (_^oL>- pjj (j^ 3Lx>- (_3-*j) SLpJ' 

(jXJj . 3Jj-£ja_oj S^JljLLo 4jj^Sj j-iill aV| (jLa sLajisJI (_5-3j ' L ^r'J 

5^S!_a Jljljj .^^vjjJI >_ii <L*JI ( _ T i Ljj^j ' L -' £ - j-^y j-^2JM <_ il Jlc (ji <il i nil 

^ I c L^lj^.! VLol JLSjuj i/a T L>-j i_3jjj <ti!l (ji j < i"i_) da 1 ujll I <il 1 ntt (jJ 

.3_aLjiJi j^jj cLa^S 
aJlSj 1 oKj . Cj j 1 1 l\ J<"n nVI Sj^La 2 a 1 ..iAtl j>JL^J 2 1 jt I (_j|jj>Ji Jl^-Ij 

/C_Ai (jLS LXJJJ ^3 ^ t (J N MM CjJ oil J »"( i n \ (jt 4-LLC t tJ*J rfi\ 1 nt,U ^XJLjl 

3l_Lj>Ji CjLjjJLo j>Lj>o CjljJLil aJlC j>L>oi (Jjj£j .il Jt'n nVl ijufc 1 " 1 i j I taj a 



98 



fcjjlia.aJlg CK-uiLcOpUlg tt-iilj^gjxj^JI OlniaXoJI 

^yZ)JJ>*j\ » ^jjl ^)^~*- .".tl ^J^fcjJ (J I i tj*_) ]}l t« LjjjJI ^1^. ^>-3^>JI» J I LjjjJI 

(j! ^j-oj^l (JjJlJI (J^Ljv /n I i ii 1,1 j^LSJIj i aj . ^." 1 1 Jl2H*jj .«3jj>-VI (_yi^. 
<±x-LJiJ iCjI jiil ( _ 7 ^vj|^J! (jjAseldJ Sjij^-^JI dJjjji^JI jjfc S^i-VI (_ji£- (_>-3^>JI 
jl ^yi^: fL*^-! ''^ 'j' a tdli x-oj <4JJI x_o till jJI jUol ^yJI SjL^xII fjJS tS-Sp 
2_j_ulj.} ^^-S Jjj L^ I LaJ? (_£.jL*JI (J^-jJJ 4_j£ <_!^c.j_a 3jji.VI ■ I** (_^ojj>JI 
j1^_S_jj ' j' d *" i ■■ * la «U^jJ1 : Oj o 1 1 _M JjLL<_u Jil Jj^-k j i ' ^»""j * <( ct-tJJ ^r 1 '* 
i—uI^ej jj< Mill ^^l^^p jJI J <i" LaJj ijoj^SJI jljJill CjuIj i3J^Ij>JI a-lm\ jS j 
(j£, tix^e-JI (Jjjsjj . 4-SlIaJ, I cLILlSjcJJ (pi a-uaJI a CjI jJI) «LLalSj «Laj^_ca 

sjJl^JIj -I a i^aJ la 2 jll .A'.VI 2_cLl2JI j^jj jl (^1 viil JlII ^^vjjJI jjS^-"tl 

.Cjjll (jls (j-° JJ^^'j 4_cjSLcuJIj 
-I i >i ii V i a j»t L*-flJj_a (jl^t « I J-<-u-Cj_jJ, I Jjla (jt (jlit^-LiJI Jl»-J Ju2j 

cjjJ.1 ^j |q (j^-J 3Ja}L*-!| ,__, 2 j " ■ ■■ i±^-ptj <3_ujJl!| 3 jnl-»JI *_a (Ji-lulLa 

^j-C liije_i-ll I Ji_fl> /J_jLj_1 LlJ^_C Lo lil A a ,j J a " ^-J^. ( _ ;r JJjJI «LajJ Vlj 
(jLl>.LJI (_£^JJ -Jr!-^ J-La CiaJiJa (_ 7 ^JI 4-ujjJI ja-utLiiLi J ■ v. 1 1 < _g| j , „t| 
OaJtl sLajivj jl . ^"^-V I cLlL^c l _ r & SJj^ij i_^j|^js:_i . U "i^ j iliaJtl Jjla (j' 

.sLiJal^cj 



: jt-a^ai 

:i_jj|^>JI ^JUkJlLo /) 1 1 iajj jl (jSLa-i jLiiaivVI sLlLoju ^ La jj ) 1 1 jlSLsal jl 
i^vLill CjjJ.1 iCjjjjI! 4-ioIaaJl 3_j| jtJI ijJtiJLI ijjjso Cjjll 'f^JJ-II *LjjI CjjJll 

• A^LjVI SJlJJlJu 3j^>--i 

:^i^ltteut^fi -3 



99 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

Zj-lmi\ j j i a a j i«_LjJIj 3juV I jl (J^>J.I (j-° <— 3a->JL) Jojj^j jLS (_gjjjj- 1 

(j-C I a aj'tlj i4jJl>-j jl JijjLJI 4_ulii *Li£ jl (JLsoj - ^ j - — • --— •"■ ^ t p^Jjju <j-oj 

. LojJI SLpJI aJJb ^ jUoVI 

jLSLal (<s-SL>o (_5-j-II 4_ujjJI ^ a i uliJI *jjIo cr^- <-— >3-t 1 Jjls t*^ o^-*- 1 "^- 1 

(jjl^ jjjjLjJLaj t«Lu_»jJ1 3, LuLul jjjjLjJLa (3-"° 0J^-£> "cr^jj ^H 1 '* *^- J - u 'J-i ct^J 
cL(_L. t J1 t"i I a" mlj i<< '( i nil (Jjfcl <j-« t^J^i-A pi i u a i _ T J_lLa (j_« ** M**- (_2-^ <-— J3-X 1 

. LoLc 60 -40 j 30 -20 • j^'^j i c (j-Cicj-a^c-a ,_a 3J3L-ulj 3-»_aL>. i_j^Ua ^Ir 

(jl^J • (_£j-Aj»- J-^ <-liJ-ll (jJ-3 (_yl^- (jJjilIl j-JJL3 jl (JjLlUI (JjLso j^Ji I JuSj 

^^-Lcl cjjJ.1 (j-L.3 jL£ cf^p- iCjjII ji^s (_j-3 _>3jAI JljP-^JI j^ill.1 ><k j^jjJI 

< J ' a jLi (j-° ^_i^L>.j SjijL-u^lj i_j^iiaJI (j-° (j - ^' J"-^ 3 3^.j-4J*-o (_£jJ 

.(jjjllll JiJJLJii 
(JJLSJ (_yaL>JI (_ T JJ>J.! (jl <U-L^aie-iSJI CjMjL2J,I (j-o -»■ uaj| jJLs dlli f-^J 

»_jJj j_a-»J I (_^& 3^Jl2jJ,Ij *j j » 1 a II (JLL^-al (j-° ij-^-j-u-uJ! (j-^ a I 1 11 U (_£Jl! cjjJ.1 
cj^LiLsI! j> JlA i".ii u£ La£ iljLo^ijjiVI SjIjjJI (_^ Sji^vj^ cjjJ,! ,j£. jLCal (j-o 
.aJoJIj ^js>-^\ SLpJI (_^ t_iLi«JLi «l»^L>-j iCjjJ,Li (j^jjjjiil.1 (JLiufujI (jc 

(j^j 3-J3^L»JI ^1 j j ml /tjLii i_ 7 i^- JiajjlU p-La-Cj 1 (jl (jLL>-LJI (j^alseu 1 uJj 

3-j a >-^ jl dJujua 3JLj^ J^li- (j-a jlj^^l 4_l3 cdpAl (_g JJI ^-ud! jLl£:V! 
(JjJijJIj CjjJ,! (j-LS S^^Lc C^eJ (jJI 3-uLa 3^>-L>Jlj . 3_i^sLi. 4jjl_Lir». 
(jl lr i4_j_o>LjVI SjijJjjdJ 3 ->_.->. ^.tlj a^jliJI Jjj-oVl ^yk: JlaIju i^JJI 
j 1^3 o'T) Jl-L$JI j-j-C. lS>*"' ■ i ^T 1 Ct^ ift alma (_,!£. C^e_JI I JlA J!la (Jlj^cJ 

3)1 L23. (_^ ^>->-l pi ' " a ?«-a^t-« (_yk ^uQlII i>Ju^ t ll^r I n >l (^JL« t^ A3 e- L J (^ili-a 

.«LlILlII ij^Jli I ^^3 tU (^jlajjj La 3-Aj i'Lu^c) ^js>-\ 

Cjj i-i 1 ill ipj-iIsjJkl I jl^J 4-uJlj-o 4-uL^ij aj 4-mlj-Ll jjJaxjJI flJUfc c-iJlS aL9 
£^ £< . ..* i ^a^e_aj,1 La>l^_j LaS) ^jjjjijl 4s*-j^ ^j-u (^j_a>^>. ^^il 1 n lLdLujI ^j^. 
. jjS jJI 4jlaL>JI 4 ilia (_£jJ (^jJjjlII jjjj LlSJ, u (jj/L2j Lai) CjjJ.1 (jkj (** ""^ ' 



100 



fcjjlia.aJlg CKjxLcOpUlg tt-iilj^gjxj^JI ijlnlti'inll 

cjLjJLLj (_5-i^. L$3l i «La_uJJI c_iLa- 1 nil aJjl! LaLxj tcl^Ij j-^ ' ,'j ' nil (3^-!j 

(2yi i ni^Jl CjLvjjJ (_gjLjj(J,l i_2ljje-iVlj da < "j"t I jl d-i^sli-j i 3Jj j • u-i ^ uas. \ 

.(7) (JjjijsJI (j^-jj LiSj-uS Jl>. ^1 3jjL2Ho (jjjilll SjljSj ^^ 



(132=0) oUiJaJij (126=0) a~.Ur\ ut ^ 



■J-i^Jl flJrjJ 



0.83 
LiVI ^aPJJU Jla^ 



4.09 



iU^Url ^Liis 



>i ij ( »jL2jb^t>^ u ' 



iSjl IjUSJ.jjJJlJI lyJLU^ySjOjSjJl^JjSljJJ 



SjJs Cj^lj I n I S » :4_j| I i frj . ..A i iyCujjil\ ( _ 7 i^- lO^' 4-mlj.j <"<ii i"iS :«LuVI 
Ir dJJi <_. -a- in 'tl jJsj .«(jiXt tlj iCjjJ,I (J-ta (jAnaeJl (j-yjJI .>lrt"<* VI 

-^SJ^LOJ £)l (j£L<lJi,1 (J-*J • (f-^'- t - u ^l J '^"i'l ^j_* 4jlj_uuJI SjJLlJI ^Jijl) ^ I n (~»J1 

\l y,<- VI jl SjjStll (jjjjij SjJS (jij JaLcJjVI (jl-i—Jj^al (_p=jl (_t^- i— fl-Hj (J-*JJ 

- fejJLJ . ^Jj-lJLi j-p-VI 4J3^Lc 3>^ 'OjJtl (3^ C^VJ C-iLiVI (_£jJ ^^-bjJI 

«L<-utj.} dJ Jj_A3 (jl ^jJI 4_<jjl_a tL^-Lv ( _ 3 -3 fa-^-ll £j_cbjj,l I j_& (jl m?JJ 

^_l1| ai o j ifrl «1_j_>.^j *_« i^LiIL^-i ^& Ij < Lqjrtjv j-& I CjLLi^. ^i^. '^ '^"' ' " rt 



^^ 



(^1 j j i"i J (jjjilll (jl «j"i i im1» q^jIuuj . ukj_ul3 tfLsot S^jjla jl I J La • i 'a 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

dJJj^JUJI jl£jJ ur^3 <£l>ll (j-° <-3>iJI J^s <LjLj>JI ^1 JijjjJI 3^vLv 
i_3^>- /<^jjj ^ysL>- 4s*-jj (jaJjjCtJL! ^^-aL^t-tii^l (jlS 1]}l La tcaIdI^jI (j_a (J^r^ 
«Ljc_l1j (j >i i-i V '< a ja-^-Sj^i- (jl jl i/a_£JjJIj (_£j-2j (jl (j^-<u ^>J-tl (j-° J-^J-° 
(_p3jjiiil IJl^J <)±x-£li CjjII (ji^J (jJjoJI (j-u 4 ? i n"ia 2a\l r- j gjpj -Jj j<i^jJi_l2jl! 

.(32 :jiaJt) /ojjkLflil ^ 

^ISI jl Jijvlj j^JI X-3^JJ JL9 /JjQill ' ■ 'J I I <3J (jl jjU , ,.tl ojui l_jLS 1^_>JJ 

•.4-02 I t_lLijji2l (j-a 
; L^ojil 3 Jx. 7"lj-i (j-a 5-aJLJr"i nil CjLLulII (j^aSI '^-^ (_i3 Jjjuil! (jjLpJ! - 1 

Sj I i ia >i 1 1 j (_p3_>i,lj 4_L^Ji,lj iji^ill L^J (j-ajj (_yi!l QJLuLdlj (jjiJL>J I j j-«-*J I 
^ <>>'« ijjjjilllj CjjJ.1 jjiS (j-a JSLI 4-ajLJ-"n nil (j^-uLS-U (ju <_2^lii.VI -2 

.(jJjdJI (jjijjLiLa ( _ T 3 4j^3L>- I J '^» J ( _ T 3 4j^lajSLuJI (_pl i"n\\ (j£. 
3_j^_Aj^>J «Cj» jLpi-l '■ 4-a JlJ-"i mil 5-Ul ■ ^-^Vl CjljLpi-VI i_2^Li>-l -3 
(j\-i 3J3^L»JI i _y^xJil UaLujVI (j\aL»-aj iCjLcjju>J,I CjI La i ujjja (J-U (JjijjLJI 
/yi JlijjajJI (j-u jjjlj-i!' lAJSJj 4-u-ul i n-»- ^>i£l j-p-VI (jl (j^jJlJj) (jj^-iilll 

: ( _ 7 1j LL L\jj 4 U-^JI ^y aaJ 
(jjjijjl SjijjLjfo :(j-> o i u£ ^^Jl (jjjCJI «Ll»-u (j^ «L-uljjJI «LLj£. [ft-i i ..*'-! 

.(jjJuJI Sijlaj 
.(J-jlfl ida-i "j" a i Jjjuiu (jJJJ :aLcu3| SjMj ^\ 4cjju>J,I aj i iiSj-i _i 
. L^JS <ic.j_<u>J,l /y3 (JJ^_l*jJ,I £}\J JoLiJjVI ?"ljjr"ii ill-? - 
jl /j (jjjGJI SjjJjiuJI <1cj-oj>J,I /yi (jj^jjuj, I (ju JaLiJjVI r-ljjjtljjil-^ 

.(jjjuJI Sljilll 2LcaA*JU 

I Jl^Jj tSj-OJLja SJs^Lc (jjjGJIj Cjj-U jjiS (j-U <iJ3^L»JI LlxJL? Lufc (j-aj 

CjL_u1jJJ1 (j_a «l£.j_4^E_a ^-JLLj tc-ijv^j^j i ihII (j_a (j-o-UJ tSjaJ^. * )Lu_ui Jjil*"t1 

ja3 (j- ^ '** j 3 Jj-iJ-al «Lj/Ij^ (JjjLj/I (_,i^. LiiiA dllj (jlS I jl VI n£js>-\ (_ 7 i*£- 

5-a j ?" a 3_lLlL>o ^j-^ 3 o^ r J^*i*3 crucial 2 o . nL>- 3jj/Ijj ^1 3jj/La 4jvL>JL9 

(JJJlj-iD ^ o i nl 4_IjL?t_a L_AJ_j_aj La /c_Al Sj^LilLa ^jjjLj^ (JjL-uJJ tS^JjLLaj 

(^j-la-flJJI j>L>oVI (j^_i L$-i3 4^jLfli,l (_L-vJ i(jJjGJI (jjijjLLa 4j-oL>- jjjijjLSJII 

SjJjLLa ,jj»jjlia ( _ 3 J^- ( jj^_iill,l (Jj/LlS ( _ t 3 jLio^. VI (jl L«S . /yliLdJI i-Lljl mJlj 

. JutJI SjjLvl (j^jjLla ^Ir ^LiIl£.VI ijja J <>>'al Jjj ^Ltj'i/I 



102 



fcjjlia.aJlg CKjxLcOpUlg 6-iil_^p>^cj^JI OlniaXoJI 



11-4 

^ytsCiij (jl /_SIaJtX I (j-a (j-ujJl ]4_l$jU i—S^Lli-V L*jj OjJ.1 (jjla i afaacj (_L& 
' fl-LJAJ CjLl^_«J,Ij r I ■ LaVl a CjjJ,1_i da -~j~ 4_L$-o /_ii ij-a-*^ (j -0 o' ^i- 
J-J3J Jjfcj SJL>J,I ! Jl^j J ( ajj 2 4_L^a ^^3 J-a-K-J (j-»C f«-^jJ jjiill ^j" i u a 
(j-uuLsLlI (_JjJ CjjJJ (jJ-3 i_gj"' i n a (_^ La 4_L^a ( _ T 3 ^ * i i jaj 1 1 Sjj tajj I «L»-j.} 
CjI^j <_dLufc ScjjjiljLJLi (jj_^i2j (j-aj (JJjIjjsJI ^Lolalj (JjijJjjJI JLv^p i L#J 
aJJt l j r c 3jL>- VI (JjL*j 3.3Jij<_La (j^-a (_yi^. <JJj^»-i (_yjJ! CjL-uljjJI (j-a ,&ie_il3 
.Cjl^lII \jJt (j-a (_jjL>J (_)Iaj < 1 1 ii «LlIL1II DIj S-d-il (_y3j i L&jjLla-ij djfu-ujl 

u^l\j i4ju^X\ J^jII 3-«jL9 «^jj^" i »» *-^j :4j *igt,1 J^jiljLJjll (JJla (I) 

* i ii " J 2j i(j-4-ll (j-a 4jJjLU ^=-1 Jj-3 J£ J^r!- ^'i^ 1 ^ C&*£ Lgj-uL-ul (jI^. 
(jA_a( tLajLoJI aJJt u^C- IjjLaTiclj . «4-ajLiLll ojufc (jc (JjJiJI Jj.^^'t ^LSJll 
i a i -^j_;' a i A-B Continuum <_i-i J i aj a » ,_i <_i < I J^jJtl /-la^j (j-u j-u^ilJI 
/a-AJ^a-i jl— J -" j J * ijjjjl—LlI ^e-J 4_>-^_a (j^aic ■"■ «ULi ^SjJl i ^j^~*- mJI da«qj 
j J 3 (_£jji jJI (_| da i LI I Lai . jmk^C Lia J (jj^i-Vu (_Li»J Lo i Cj La Ji~»J u 
»1 j mi 2lj (jj_iUL>JL) /cll^_a 4_iLi ^j^~*- .".tl ^ , ,"( > «Llo3 it-ill]} (j_a ^j nS»l1 (_ T 1^ 
3j>j^>JU jLSLa'i/Lj -""'JJJ i l<j»a (_LaLtlII J-iiaijJ ^^vjLiJI /<sJL*JI (^ 4HjL\II 

(ji_j ( _ 3 _iL7cjI JoLijjl (jx. Ojiii iii djjilj^ « j I j a 1 i^pJj-i-u)) (_£>>-i J^J 
4_<-uljjJI (j_a j j La L<tS ii_) da a-Ll Ll ^iaLujI £y> j^\ I da i ulj CjjJ.1 jjls 
«L«-jL3 (j_a 4-Lj-oJaJ I a j I < 1 1 (jj/Liia «_a Ijjli » Ja-U^j CjjJ,I (jl^ (jl L^jI j 
«Ljjlj_lLiJ1 a^LuI jjjjLL^-a iJ j\^- 4 * dJj 1 1 4_^»jjJ1 ( d m£[jfl *tJJJ oil « Q^IL_u^_jj » 

.Sjj/ljjJI (j^a pJ-JI IJlj* ^1 (Jj^ (j£. 
CjLLsLljjI CjI j jJj-j-a-Li « j^*i i iij— lj» 4_a-iL9 ji aLc ^L^-^J p <>>"! ^jSJj 
<l 1 1 n ilu L^jI^ ((^la_a-i i^HJ^j_u)) «L_ulj^ Cj^_flj_ui LaS .CjjJi,l ^3'^* ^ , >. A "»■ ' ^ 
i(j i ii II jLj^ Sj^cLt^a ^1 (JjJIIj CjjJ,I (Ji^ (ju 2j i n'Cr 4^^Lc <j£, JliLJiL! 
(jJ^i-SLJ Jl^:I hi U ciJj 1 i ii Ilj OjJLI (j-L3 (jo i3>L«JI (jl i<lfi< j/jU. jl3j 
I j j (j^ -i SI 2 Jlj 5 Jul I i ii 1,1 p^j ^Ir JuaJuu L^Ji dJJj i3Ja-i i Lt-i 4£^Lc i.'i mjl 

.dlljo SJlC.1 i nU j>JLA jj S UJ (j-a (_ 7 l£-J 



I0J 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

i_£Jl^vI <".ii uiS :4_<_cuIjJLJI Llil ir-> if>^ltl j aaj ■ dJaLxJjIj ljjII JjiS (2) 

Jl ,^~VI LJLc I^Joo tiy^tj iCjjJ,Li 2_<_u jj^JI i—i^Ua aL»1&I 2jS £>c cjL-uIj jJI 

VI i ifu tl ^5^' I^JLSLa (j^jLill j'\ J}_jJL>JI c-J^LU Lai . 4-flJslj^j CjjJ.1 jLCsLj 
■ La 1 "j f-^J-o (_5-3 CjuLiJI (jjj-ujjj i—i^LLs <_Jl2j-o (jl£ (j^->- (_y^- . CjjJJ jISLsLj 
UJ I ' '""V (ji 1 -^' C-JaJI i—i^Lta (jl j^ia LdS . (39 :jJaj|) tjfrlc $A^>\ I (j-uufc (j-lJ 
AjjJt^>- «L»-jJlJ (_ji^.l Ciuj"ii 11 a *±q] '"'I uaxaJeHll (j-o jjj£ (_y^. ^ 1 Luilll i . JaJI 
. (Jj^s-VI '"'I La^La se-jJl ' (j^ o"i ^ I, I <_JaJI ' , 'N LaJ SJjLSlLi CjjJ.1 jjiJS (_y3 

»l j UVI (_j jJ »lj 1 n II aJ^cj jLaJLiVI cjVjLj_a pLijjLj L*Ui t^j"jj ^jj 

.(j"\_UjlAiII 

3j— j_l1 SjJutlLa 4jj_c£1a CjLLi^. (_y^ LALb^>-l (_ 7 ^ll «Lj-oljjJl 3 -^ 1 "" (qJj 
:Cil j IS ( _ 3 _3 (Jjj-ujJu 4 ilt-> (j\j AjjJt^>- (£Jij£ (j^. (jj^i 673 = (j) /<u*j>JI 
CjLjJLL (, Ir I j"l'' 2^je_<_uJI (j j La uj . 2x.ljjJI iSjjiJLl^JI i3_u^lll ii_jI^VI 

(^iaj^iiL! ^yJLtJI j~4*X\ ul\ S^LUsVLi L^ili 2_iiLuJI j-jj^I v2jLJSL!I ^ tj-^jJu 
, -.I , II U tlj i«_&Jl^».j 3_j_LLaJI (j-\_i SJjLHI oju* Cjxj j^j .(cjLjI 770 =(j) 

CjLjSJt 2 j i ii 'i il i(j^ i ii i -»JI (ji_j 2 i \\ LSi, I (2>c j LaJjl i fl> LaJ I JLA .(jjkjL>-j 

(3^-u L<4^ <j^J (j-djL2J,l j^JJI 2 j i n't (j-o 2JjL2ll_i <jdjJ,I (Jla ^^ Lulj lr I 

.(2:jJ^I) LLuo' 
Jj-ali ^ylll (^1,1 (jjJ o-° cv^O-*-^' "^ : U^*i>-*-^' ^ H H i Hjil (J^ (•*) 
5— i-^-a (j_a jAS I-4_l^JI I oJufc (j I *"" <-i^>- jl .><"^VIj CjjIIj (_pajJ,l CjVLsj 
(_JJl»-I LltoL^ (jiaJ^Cill JLa-a^^Sj -OJJ '^i"* > tXlj (j^-^j-il u^J-^^"^'- 5 ' .'k*iN 

•.(j^jJLlII (j^jjIol^a^VI j-^s^j (60 'j LaJl) cjLuljjdl 

.^iaj^iJI 4_l^o («J-»J 3^Lj_^_» jl .>."^VIj CjjII (j-o i_2^>JI (_^i3LuJ-| 
^j^ L^JegJI jl_Lli.l_) Lx>-^_a LLsLujI j' *>*"^ V | a Cj^I.1 ^j-a (-_3^>J1 i La lSj >-< ) 

(^ J-J>J ^ 2-tIaj ooll i {j 1, 1 jl Ji£.VI (jl <L_uljjJ! aJJt (j^ j^Lb Ji^J 
4_La (j_o «LSjLu/ «Ljj/IjJ 4_c£. Cij rn nl La «_o til! j (jjjjjj iCjjJ.1 ^c-i L^-iiLsol 
LaS ' " ' I i a i a ->" 1 1 (jAjl±1 (JIjjijIjJI jl (j\LoL»JI (jlj CjjJ,I (jla (_y3 JjjijjiJI 
5 Jul I i ii a !_^ 3JljI_3 La^iiSl j_a i_^jjJLl!I j»1^£.I (j-o (JjVI aL«JI (jl -» uaj| 
<_3jLie_o (jl j J La Jl^S dJJi x_ oj ijj-^SjLJe-a «_a ,J_aL«JlJI (_y3 Cj Lxiaj^Ji, I 



101 



fcjjlia.aJlg CKjxLcOpUlg tt-iilj^gjxj^JI OlniaXoJI 

CjjJ,I J J_*_o «_o 2_^_a^>. 2Js}Lc (jx. ' a luSj j<sJ La ibioj^jO (_JjJ CjjJ.1 Jjls 
2j'^-» lUI ^^3 3 JjJu*JI Cjlj-iAlU (j-a (_gl *_a ji i L#J 2_LaL*JI 2 j , U 1 1 3 Ju^-^JI ^^3 

^ya ^^\^.~ , .. \ ^j] ^^SL^-ij . ^^La^Jl cj1^_jJl2ILj ji (((jj ' nSL>-)> 4_<j_jLaj jjjjLSj \-c£ 

. ell Liij^di, I (_£jJ CjjILj 2 ii U"i 1, 1 2_3jjiJ,|j CjjJ.1 (jiJS (j-u 2Js^Lc. ( 2^c 

iaLoI -1 'ltd '.(j-O (Jj L$J AU9 I JutJ L^JEJLIJ J Ml ii j<sJ 2_j^_ Ga _a «L-ulj.3 (_5-3j 

(_£JJt <Jl)jJ,l (J-Ls 0' J S k-fa_jjj JS& ' " "-r*rH?° (Jr!- to j'- 'ij-!L>JI Jij£. Jix^»-I 

aLc 'Ls-^j 2jl^L>J| (JuLJLU Vj ij^iaj^iiL! ^LtJI Ji^/til ciiLJLU (_jjJ oj j la J 

(2) " 9 

3j^j_ll 2_jl_L*JI SJl^vj ^^-S (j I o » J ^^J^UI CjLuaj-oJ,! CjLvjJ i La i uaj a (j-u 
^^-S (j_L<j_«J ^^J^UI CjLl^ij^JII 4_lSjji SjJaiJ I CjVLsJI (J o lujj JC (_, o i h"j) 
3xh>JIj ('0 . 50 ^jlx^o Jti^. 2j^ji^v 1 1 , 84 = j) 2_jJaLJI ^Ij-o^l aLuJs! 

. (8) JjJl^ i^LI J ctsy 1 . 68 = o) 






jjil jii 



-°_u£-l a-La 



^1 



jjiil ^-Jl 



2.5 



8.9 



6.1 



5.7 



5.6 



26.1 



26 



OjS'jJj 4jL*Jl dJo-J 



2,1 



7.7 



8. 1 



8.0 



6.7 



27.5 



26 



a_J»LJi 



>2^fl J iJ|.^L a 3 J ?^^J.Lj3 



'1>. 



j2l 1 2 1. IaJ(j» iQ ^j O^l 1 ^i3 <s4>-' 



.121SVI 



^7,111^6^ 



2 8^^. i( ^| i2S.yj a^Ll.Li sL^*^^ 1 ^! 



105 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 



.cLjj/IjjJI ojui /jjLiJ (9) (JjJl>- (j^-riJ ** * " ~* " 



< )l ia ia^c 1 






Ojil jli 


j-jjl 






e. 


f 


t 


f 


j 




3.0 


6.1 


6.3 


34.3 


77 


*U>ty 


.lM<j* 


3 6.2 


- S a 2 ,. 


j^oJajI <_. 


Jl£- JjjL^J 


JjJl^JI (j^^ta LiJjST) 



i4_*_oLj>JI 4-lHj j f I j to at I 1 La i uaj a 5jjl 5 a-IJ . iicjJILo Cjl_Li£. (_£jJ JjjijjiJI 
: i _ T Lj La ' 1 a a> jfl ' t*_)Lcuj1 ^J La.flj| ^_ka_»1) cJ^JJ lajLI (j-* pj*.! o^J 
cLiila , U , ,,j" ^ ( j_ a (Jjsl CjjJll jjla (_^ jjijJI sLilaal CjLvjJ i La i ujj a - I 

(j-o (2>^j!j-LaJ (j-o j_uSj (JJSl CjjJ.1 (jla (_3-^ '" .'^. < — ! '-^J- i ' La i "j" a -2 

.Sji^UJI i^jLJLU 

.cLajLcuJI ^j S-flJI ( _ T 3 L^jJI j I Mill " J flJ a » (^jlaj^ ^LajjJjl ojui (j '^^ Ji^j 
t—i^Llaj s I j t-VI (j^_j i - 1 ) j U ( _ t jJI ,3j>^" j^ i "*" (3^-a-i lS>*-i '^^ > "" (j-°J 



106 



fcjjlia.aJlg CKjxLcOpUlg a-iilj^gjxj^JI OlniaXoJI 

&\ i n i -»J1 jj-* g ' ' Iq 3f I j' o c I ' la i "j "i a t^_4JtJ1 ^-jJLLa ^-cis (_y^ «L*_«L>J1 
(j .1 jjLS-a ■ U , ,,j ", n £j\ 3jl_c i La — -\l jj , iM U tl <s_^_j|j_laj (j_o j_uSLl ^yic I 
CjLujlI! ^1 (jjiLiilLi 4jlaL>JI t—i^ila (_JjJ f-£j^ «LcIjjL> (Jiillj <Lul * — ■ -» T 1 
l^vjjjej (j-oj (J-lLoljlJI ^1 4 i i nitu lilt jSj i(j^-*-° "-^ (j-* 3 ") !>*^ ("S-^la jjS 2 1 
i4jl^_u_aj (jjlilll Cji i 1 1 n a ^^ (j\^.^j>S 1 ^J-\_J Jjju-nJl i _ r jiJtJ 2lJ t4_*_«L>JI (j-« 

■ u\^\ 4-*-oL>JI t_j>LL (jila ^yJLJLij i^^l (^j^-p^l ^ jJ jl^Jjlu/VLa 
CjljjiuJ^pLijjl ^jJI SjjJlc (JjV^ j j n i* • j^j ■■■ alt I s LiaVljLJjll (JJLS (5) 
t_i^Lia (jl N ~* " j j ^** ' 2 a ^r* ^ ' " " ' II sLila'^! i_jjJ (j i "^*tl »|j i nil aJ^. 

Cjijj"( i n a jc$J ■"'■ Laa L^aJeaJI (j-« &J-±£- ct-^ • ' "^*'l i tlaJI ^jj 1 ' aa dJ (j- 1 jJI t tlaJI 

^yt i " j II c-iJaJ I ' , 'N ta j 3_Jjl_HJ,l_j cjjJ,I [j LS ^^s-S-j^-Aj^j. 3-a.jjij-^li- i 

sLilaVl i_fjj jLaljVI CjVjjw f-Lijj! *■ '^"' I \-*£ AS^js^l .-.I La^aielllj 
(j^_J ^J->- ^1 »lj i ii tl (»J^C. CjLo^Lc <__>iaJU -i^>-J (2>^- N , ^' a ' (j1_Ljjuiitl 

(jl_i (JjLitl ^j^sjJil\ (ji <Jl)L-uljjJI i_JJ^>-I (j-o j jtA (^^SLtj . ^LJa'i/l sVjji 

.«Qje_i^3 Ciijj j<sJ cjuj" i nt, I ^^LcLi Cjji,l (Jla (j-o q^jLjij ^r 1 ^ i uAltl sLJaal 

(j-o J£ (j-u CjjJ,I (jiit SJjlJLa <L-ulj.J ^^3 'j a **■** f L*l£J LJjll JjJlii (6) 
' a uiS iCjIjLoJI /j j 3-j "j ijUeliVI »l <i\c j i(j mill I »l olr j (J^jjjiAIII tLiIaal 
(. I C jLjjeJLlVI »l otr J ,^.^j iCjjll (j-^ Cjuj'ii m a (_yi^.l (j-C (jjtflltl »l tj\c 

Luj^j ^ utAj i La i ualu I 

S^laJI ^ L^jJI Ljj.il ^ylll S^uljjJI ^jLsKjJ^Tl f. Lul&j Cjji\ !^X& (7) 

(_, I r i (_, Ir (j gill I »l olr «_o liJI^lJuVLi jUtiVI »l olr J taa. 5-ajl i ntl 

jLaJLiVI *l_«_Lc (jl cLaj^IaJI CjLlajv^m (j-oj .CjjJ.1 (j-o (jl2-!l '"" La i uald 
jj ■ "^~ (2j£L<ijj . uJj^j (<^jJI iJ-^J-^' ji j Vii n^U 5-1 La- "i i ill JJlJ>-o (_3^.i Ij^Aa. 
(jLa jsj (j-aj iCjjJ,lj jLaJLiVI ( _ t I£.-4_l1^J,I «Lp-Ll!l (j-o-^ji^^J fa4JLi tilti 
-1 J 1 1 » J 4-L^aIL3 sLjiIjJ ^^3 (jjuiltu LJejjiIj LaLilifcl ja^jjj 

^^a Cj|jl_L>JI j 3 "^ j " J '^^ :ljIjL1^JI ^y^ (JjJ_«LjlJIj lj^jII (JJLs (8) 
^^Lt^a Jal ^yi^. 5-S-il in tl (_L^a 3j_liJI ^ LjjJI Ljjjil ^yltl 3jjiIjjJI 

j*JL) ^^JL^jJ i La i ■■j**' rt ^jl (^^l «L_uljJ tlUjj \-q£ ,CjjJ,I (3^ (J-* (Ih^ 4 " 4 

(j_oj .aL«JI j j 3 i ai II CjLvjJ i La i "j" a (j^ ' ** ,' "^J SjjjjJI JjJlj»JI ( _ t 3 

cj|jl_L>JI > j j i"i1 (JLjc-o ^^a (j^Lwij (jjjJI ( _>^>Ljtiu'iil (ji (_)1>I^j3I (^SL«Jll 



107 



ugoJI £15 

d ILiiiaeJj ) o" i ■■ 1 1 f\ Q ' «oj au ' «L*_uj x_ajj_« Cj^_a (jjl^ r^- 1 ^ OJ^- 1 O ' c^i OJ '.J* 1 ? 

4_ljvLj (j-°J ' c ^'-'^- i - a Cj-^-u (<sJ (_p3jji!l ljui <j5Ltj .cjjjii! 3J,JJ,lj «Luj/L2J! 

(j-OjI^JJ «L*_uj /a^jjj CjjJ,I (Jla |_gj"i i n a (^^Laie-il ( _ > I=_pjL! (jl (jS-*J l£>*"l 
•. ( _ T SjjLtuJ! /j_IL«J,l 4 j o i Mj U, iL^jLlLA 4_i1a£. «^a- i"i_i (jl (j£L«j i_gjJI (_j-oj-<JI 
oL>o (jAAse La (jia 4jjJ jj-o (jl ( _ > Iol^j£l (jSLx-i L»S ifloodin j-xJJI jl ( _ > iajjijl 
jJljj i«Q]u 4_L»-U (j-OJ • "ii^il °^-& J}"-*-^ * ' Ct^- J' jL ^i lS^' eJ^-J jji CjjJ,! 
SjjJS Sji^till CjLjV^JI (^ Cjljl_L>JI icLu-a (^ Sj^Utl CjIj^JlU (jl La»»c 
(_g^m (J^l <"r i nVu I J i j""j ' J .' 7" '"'"' " 'JJ *"" " 'y ' 'i>» (Jj^>- lS 1 -*-" J^JI (_tJJ 
(JJJJj-J <Jl)ljl_L>JI JLa-J (jl 3_l>.LjJI ojui tll^i JoiS iftt^lJ! (j-a di!i J-^J 
2 a Lai c (j>^J o I f 3_ta| (_d!_ufc (jl CjiLblj ««Lp-}U oljl_L>JI» (jl Luta 
4_jJL>- «LjJLjJL>. «\_Ldj_£_« 4_il_t£.j iCjlji_L>J1 «LcLu-£aj (jj_«jJL» (j_a (_£JJ 4_uj_c 
(( ) 1 J <l t» ^^>-l • M : J^*3 Ljj9j 4'n?-!^ (_^b (j j ' a 2 1 ^ jJl LlxjJLl 3^e_J ( ai£uj| (j-« 
(jj_J_Laj (j_jjJI (JjJljP-jJI (j-> j i g 1, 1 1j i imI Cjljl_L>JI (JL»-j (jl o^i-LOJJ 

(j^-ukju (Jj^_l>- 21 (jl dJj!i i/c_A^j_ul (j_a I Laaie ■"■ 1jjui3 (J-4--0 4 * djj rt 'J-3-H 
(jlj 2 La &I j '"'I a aj -i j a ISLi JL3 (_£JJ1 <_2^b»J,l ^ i u-a-Lll ?tJL»i,! ^1 LjLp-l 
i4it i"i a j-J-C /j ■ ■■ fllll r - ^L«JI S^uii (j^. 4^iSL>J,l CjLj/IjJJI < La » " pTjLlJ 
3_u.aJe-iSJI 4£^L«JI (_jlr LuLjii «CLlLc.Ls JUjjju Lo^ . !Jl>- SjjJLa^ «LjejL1Jj 
(jl :«l!j_2_i *Ij_j^>JI ( _ > ia_«_i I J fl-i a j (j^J' S^^LnJI tiJJj .^^yij^Xlj 5yJL«Ji,l (j\i 
(j-Lg-ll i_*jjJGJI (j^ 4jo its! ^1^1 J-p-«J oLSJj 4£Ju^3j (- i mill I jyJL«Jll -i J flj 
j La ' II '"'I J ».J J^Gjj . I g-ilc J '^^ ct^J' S-jji^LsJI CjLvjjJIj a\ 3Jj (_g jJl 

(jl «US_c_i (^^LjuI ^j^-^ .".tl (jt [ j^. L^j?e_jlLj cjj_oj_uI (_ r J-J1 CjL_u1jjJ1 (j_« i>ju^ 

/t_IL«Jkl «Lj j»3-2-J (_J jJl ^ i " a ' (J JljlULj /j i ilJ-lII r-^L«JI (_a3lj^ ^ i ■■ a Li ^JJ 
J^E_o (_y^ Ji" mi 1,1 jl i<JlilJL>JI (_^L<-u (jL3 ' Va I j 1 1 joiajLA (_y3j .i_a^i>J,l 
(_Jjj (j^ 1 1 ->J,I •" Laj aa LaLxj Ijijjio OJ^i ^ LSjJa^s ji i!jL>- jl ijjjjjjtlll 

.SJajtLJI S^iKiJI 

4 ^ J.* >-J^_L>-l tj^-*^^- 1 *-^-i I j L-^J I (_^-4 JV 3- a o' '^^ri-^jj ((^JUx-i)) L_a_Lxiajj 
(Jj-3jJI ( _ r ^ J-i-2-a-ll (J_aI )«_a (jjjji^tjj (O^jLs i/j i iLalll /tJL«J,l tLijIaj 4_ui3 
lj_ui js^jjj*-L«j f^- 1 ! i-£iIjiS (Jjii>J,l (j-oj i Jjjuio (jj^>- (j-o 'Lj^ (JjjL»j (_£ JJl 
(JLjvjj Cjl_LiD^_4-I,LS 4_Cj_lj_« (j-$-« (j-« LciDL?e_tlj| (jlj -n g^uJI Q *L_3jJI (j_a 



108 



fcjjlia.aJlg CKjxLcOpUlg tt-iilj^gjxj^JI OlniaXoJI 

(j_«-« (JjJljlj (jl ! i n^l -- 1 . U i a (j-\_j_cl_«_ijv2l (^yl * <aj >i 1 1 j (j-U-ujjJ,lj jjJjJI 
<Lcl_Li-3 (_^ (ji_LaL*JI JjlJ V 1 Za 1 o \'°i 2 j i aaj 3-p.^Lc 2 ^kj.' jj * 1 ta i aj 
i U i ii^ILa (ji (^Jl i_djj 7cj>.j_jj . L^jli 4 o {j 1, 1 0Jl£> (jj-ojjjj (j-3-a CjljLLsJI 
4_i_Lc J i a a= J (_gJJI Ljj^JLj ^ m-d-i ■ La i uj " 1 1 j_A CjjJ.1 jjjla ( _ T 3 /s^jLvjJ 

»-<2jji,l <_2^>JI (ji oJ^Lojj «(JjLi3» (^jla^lil tdJojj^JI JLvj^j Ljjll JjJLS (9) 

1 Jl_A /. i c 5) Ea-i luJI (j_« 4-tSlx-i <^-i-$-« jl_lL>.1 ^Ji ^j *-'•'»■ ■"■tl «\_>.jj Cj^JJ (j_a 

43l j (jiiljiaVI (j^iL^LJI <jA*j J^,jj£,\ till j£ . >llo t_JaJI "AI^jS e^^iJI 

CjjJ,l_l I J J a (JLjLfujVI Jl*J (_^IIj i4i3j_caJI (J^J-J «Li$-0 IjljLii-l (jJ, 4 J I 'I itu 

O-laJ <-^j->- ' -iJi^iJI I J-A (_y3 2 'j I i '■-" a /tjLlill (j^Jj • L*Jui Ij-ol jJai»Jlj 
CjLcjjij^oj <lL>j_iiiJI (JL»-j (j^-J CjjJ.1 (Jla (_y3 (j>>^ * *^' ^Ljj/lj>J-tl (_g Jo-I 
^j_a «LIa > i h 11 (jLjvj L_3jLJe_a (ji (_£^>-t «L_uljJ <"«**■ i<*>ji L<i_Lu i 3 La >i da 

<_!^LL>j cj!jlaL>JI (_£Jl».I 3 J3L-ul i_ajLitA (j-o (_jjJ3lj Jl& I ji . v.^Vlj cjjJ.1 
cjLcjji^JU tjv j-«jlI! j-jilo SLiLiia (jl Ji>-^m (j^(j£L!j . JLi^^ I 3jl.il 

3-,-ulj.} (_yJI S^ej^lj i>-L>Jlj . 3_<»£L»-a (j£lj /oJ Sj.p.'i/I <L-uljjJI ^^3 O^IUI 

• j-ajl Ijufc 7T J <<T^J (_£^>-t 

(_^Jl^-I tuLu dij lii ni : l J_ilj_>JI - 1 a toj ^-Lc (j^«JL^llj LJ^XI (JJLa (10) 

jl , ^"^Vlj CjjJ,I (j-o 4-»j2Jj_a i_3jLjt^ ja^jjj ^LilaVI <JL»-j (ji (jx. CjLjiljjJI 
(^IojjiIj La . <it'\ j . ..Aj jJsj , L^J^Uaj S-jjt^Ls. 3_jJ^ f I ,^<- i jtj SJjLSILj 

.4_lLlS 42Jl»js ji^-^i ^ys .-I AUVI JL>.j <iJ 

LLsjLl^ 72 (_ 3 -i^. « ^-L-cj» ^wuLui-a j^ 3 :(j"ij ">TI J&\-uio^ lj^II (JJLs (II) 

tU /a^jLvjijj da I j i 'n 1 1 (j^ ^£ (ji j^Ji Ji^J ./a^jL>.jjj ( _ 7 SL^a2l (_puj>JI (_y3 
JaLuiaJI CjLvjJ iul£j i I j" i alj I ''•""" (_j^-^ CjLcjju>J,I (j-o J^i CjLvjJ 
lLsI jj^aJI Cjl>-jJ (ji •» JaJI Lii i jl taj. Jl 4ljl^ (j^il i—iLaj-ai CjL>-jjJ SjJsLlo 

jtt^jLvjlj LllLvjJ (j-O Jjsi CjjK 

oj^Lojj ((Ji-i - i'^)) ( _ > Ia j ^l :(3 <t\t i)i~.j Aijl ^.tl '(jjjj tLa ■ (j^jLJjll (JJLS (1 2) 
(jl i n tVl Aj-ij JlJLs 4_ljj^- Sj|j Laj ^Jj i«U^il jLi>-l ^Jt^tJ cjjI! (jls (ji 

4_<j<ljjJI oJlj* <"■ '^»-»aj .«L3jLie_a (_yl^. fl) taJ i till 4_cSL«j (_^i>- (j^-*-° tLsLjiij 



109 



ugoJI £15 

5-aJca-"ii ii U d Lajl JaJI 3^j_<jj>J,I £fUJ ■"" 3 '^.' *^JJ-*>** 3jl) a J S (*^J (<UIaJLl) 

(jjjuijj,! (jl j^Ia :££)1jlaJ1 JL»<-« <j£ jrtJL«L*}1 u^inj ljjXI <JJL3 (13) 
JJ<3 q , * C?^ Lt^-IiLLa Cj^XI JJ13 i _ T J3 < la i uaj rt mjJ**' 1 n a /c^J (JjjfcLlJl ^£1^_a ^^JS 
(]^a-l 1 nil tla^J I f_j\c .jtfjU't I ^,f L^ .«Gl j p j-uaj «i 1 1 3 j 1 nilL) (jiS (j-o aL*JI 
3_jLcj 3-cL«-3. ^^3 ^|< cj t^'.l I j ,2 j , ,.^.;tl CjVLsJI 3_i^sL>. ^jl^Ja jjj^jjj) 
^J3 1 U ! ,.j" rt c?Jj" i n a ^^J {y U 1 1 J £1_)2h cLL t -g jv g I '^"~ jj t^jLLs^joJl ^la^-a 
(j-^-j-C !_«-"-»- VI £y S& ua a.al <j^_j CjjII (jiJS (^ J}j-2 J 3 "j (*4i •'"JJ-U (3^ 

(jj_oJlJLj (jjjJI lt^^-°3j lt^^' lt-^J-^ *3\A' 3jLl*JI 3^'j- ct^ (j^-LoL«JI 

jl ,>."^VIj CjjILj 3J_i^£La j^lc. 1 fljalj^a (^ Lgjli 3_aJii»JI 
/tj t^juiUiI,! jj^u ^^ aA ij-aj S-«Lc '4 ■-> 1^1 1 j^-LobtJ I (_£ Jit iljjll i JJl3 ( 1 4) 



4 j 1 n -»J1 4-se-i.aJl 3_!Ljtj miIi " u^_&^>- LLjLujI cjjJ.1 (Jla '^'"jj -I 

.4jo 1 ii-v { J^\jjz\ (j-a Q^jLij (j-o (_£jJ CjjJ.1 Jjls jl-Oj "2 

aI 1 n°>Vl ^Ir 2 » ajj 1 1 CjL>-jjJLj lLjjJjJ CjjIL) Jjlj-ll aLxIaVI {y j jk 
Cornell Medical Index)C.M) ,_,.'ktl ((J^jj^d JjJ j <j_a S^LSLuJI j 3_uji_JI 

lLdLujI j^>£- lO~*"' <j Lj-u1jJ 1". ^ .".s L<£ . (Luouij £y \j la ' ^ 1 1 jj-il jj^jLLfl-a) I 
<l»-j jdl j_uG Lul '^^1 (Jjju La JlC CjjJ,I (j-^J 4_utiai^JI ( _ > l3lj^2l (j\j (_,_]! 1 n 

. (89) ^^J^J! J^j^ JJj ^ 5^3li<n„t1 

l_«-S . aL«JI jj-4-a-jJI (j_° ^LJ-j-v 5JjL2J,Li cjjJ,I (Jls (_y3 ^ .^.a^. ;^ "i^-j-i 

^J-Ls i _^_b 1 Ifl 1 '-j" rt ^^"1 1 n a ^^^ ^Kll jj-uoiju ^jjj^JlJLJ jj^jJI i _ 3 _Lt3jJ,l ( h ' "^ 
(_p=j a (_JjJ I L2a_j| 1 U 1 nj "1 a <Jlij_l,l (J— La (ji L*LJj^ j_^_laj .Cjj_1,I 

.(L-aljJa^lj 4^>.jJI (^ 3 j -a-? mi* oL>->ili.l) Huntington's Chorea^^LajJI 



fcjjlia.aJlg a^xLcapUlg o^ljpgxu^JI OlniaXoJI 

Cj^I'v Mitlj CjjJ,I (jl^ (j-"L}2-« '— ! '-^J- i C^V W^J- '-^'-Aj' '"^Lj" *— 1 '^ >- J Lw 
2 a L^aJI <jjj 3jJL»-a jjj 43>L«JLa .(60 -.jJaJl) iliLojJ,! oIjUxjAI 3-pe-uaJI 



11-6 

(_gjj| (j-SLIj 1L4I0 jJl^cJI (jjJI *jJ,I 3J^L-u ^Li-al Racej_*-a_L»JLi jll^2j 

5Jl 1 11U OJl^Jj 1 Jj-i-ui (JjLLa ( _ > ia T uI (j_a SJ^LtuJI ojufc QoJ jjfc LLii «U fl J 1 a 2 ' 
J j , ,-. A ~ 1 1 j| I j~ ,", a I ', ,1 JLjca jjfc Ijbfc (j_ujjj .SjjtiU CjuVoJI (^^ <Jja fri 

'"'.'J ''"'*' 'J^J .cjoi,l (jla pjjioj^j I jtl .^."1 j_& LLa Ljj-t*j i_£JJI o^J ' 3J a 
1 1 < 3 ' J,' 3jj **j *■ 3jU a J 3 ' ■"" ' \j , ,.llj ^^j ,11 a .^1 -^.11 ,-il ,11 Uj 1 <\l u 

i Lj> I n M jl (j_£La-> ^y3Ji-u\ t^JJ CjaJkl (jjlS CjL-ulj.} (j_a ^ 2j '"■ ', I CjLft- L O J L X Jl 

i( a-jbul (J-jLj-uj (_JJl^-Lj jo-^Ja-a (JLil>-l Sjujj ja^J 4jL3jim jlac 2I j'^» 

tcjv^j (ji <jSLa-i jij-uJI (_jjJ S^iiSLi «LtjLiJI cjLsIjj>JI jl ^j*-*^*^M (j-a l*U JSj 

(J-£j>JIj jlj_u2 u « ( _ T la j-al oL>o 4_caL>- 4-»j2Jj_a cbvjjij -" Jj" jjjlSJI AJ^J 

lj_iil£ ^^jjJLSLj V Jj 1 11 II (jl dJJi 1 J>j 1 11 II (_£JlJ CjjJ.1 (j^ (J-^' (_psLisej| 

.J,?-m.lL 

(j a j j 1 1 i-Llj I 1 11 (jl /- I c (J-i-!^ «ULj lilli «jJLx-i t(_g. bbl j 1 "^JJ .(j^xisjjill 
oJlj* jj-j^dIj j ta-j l_«ja «_£l^JI (^ L3^ii>-I (J^l jjJij (<i^JUiL>olj JjjjJIj 
JjLlS £yl 3jL=ell,l tllLVjJI ^1 lj;<-^- Jl3 JjjJI (jj .4jLl*III v^jL^l^^laVI 
SJl^-j^ jo^jLaLsoIj 'Lj^LSiJI -" j"l ) 21j a (j^-J (&la joj (j-oj i^^flUa «LlSj^sI 

. l jjji.'^l ethnic 3_l£jj>JI oLc.jJiJ>J,l jj^a (jj^vL^II Sjii ^^a JL>JI j-A La^ 

(JlLaail SijLS -" J 1 j 3 j JojjJI CjL&L>oI (Jjl>- J^ 3jL>-^JI j>JLA jJ^ISj j»J^. (jlj 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

0lj>o^LJ Jl>-1j j^t_a ^^5 ^3rr' [)JrJ~* '"' ? ^Q ' "'I Q Q^^ ' cj' Lr^ * ' 1 1 nil jjfc 

T •' ' ""-'J • < — 'J-^' (J-^ Lt^ iji'rP-" (1)-° *>rh^ ^ .' ' " ' M'*/*" "^ H^^ Lh-*-*- '"' ' "^ 

2iL2i]l (Ji-I J jJLcai CjI Jl>-j _o^=-> CjjjII (j-^ ■— '^^ "^J-^ O' O-^l < -r^"'->" L>° 

. ^iiLo 3Jl»-IjJI S^j-u^I »l Jag I (J!Lo 3Jl»-IjJI 4_jiLjjill 

<*L2Xf -7 

(—i-^JL^ 'j a II LgJda 2j (_yl!l 2jjl ijajJI 25j_iJI f jj Lui 2_oL9VLi JLuuj 
^^3 ^^"^^(j-aLi. ,_p3jjL! 2_i^L>- 25_o (^ 2_aL9^l j^^c N . ^-'a « ,^-^11 (JjLiLa 
2_bjJ,l J I ^i>2-!' ct^ 2_oLJaVI O' *>^-° Sjj/IjJ 1 ~.ri mi^ JuSj . 2_jLcjJJ 2 1 11 1 nj-a 
/. ' U I a ^j( clcLo «GjJl>. cLjiIjJ (^A-Ij ' Oj-tl 3^*-i oljsoVI ( _ T 3 ^pj3 2 

aJj . 4_ljjJ,I ( _ 3 _l13L2j 3JjL2J,u 4 _ ? JLc I «L»-jjLi cj^o (Jla (j-° oj- 1 ™ ^i>^' 

(JjjJI jLp (j-° 2x.jj4.5cjj (jylx (39 :jJajl) 4jjiIjJ CjJjjvI (Jjji-I <Ll>-LJ (j-aj 
^^jja (_ALsj .CjLvjj^IuI JJl£- dil al 1 ^j ■ II Cj1_Oj^_lU 4 1 m < njja ^3 IjjuJdj Jj_) ju I 
■ 3 in inj-ll ,^-3 4-aL^iU J^ljOjIj .2 - ,^lt ^1 jJI ^jJlSjII CjljLielxJ S( _La 

.pjjiojil («jjiij jLlo-Ij iJjijsJI 2JUSJJ jLui-l *_a i2jjL>JI 2U,ViVI ^^ 2^jLiIlj 

lL)1_L& Cj_)LS dijv (" 3 "' '"' J * ^ f J k* ' "' iLS-i^Is fjj-S 4_LulII jljJsi 1 flXta.' JuSj 
Cj-jLS 4_ljLjJIj i2_jJi t lL2j AjjSj^a Ami nj^a ^^ (j la Sj Cxjl£ ^jVI : (jLuijjiJL-a 
. LjjjI j 4 1 11 1 11 jl I JJi)-^ <j^ j'j'J * 3 & !j 4 1 i?" r 11 a CjLjLLi (^ j«_2j j^'" ^^ (j'nt" 

-I • uVI L&jJlS Lo d j -» ,^.11 2JL>JI (jjuiJLi jjjGjijj (j-tjx. jji^J, I -s'j-^l 0~9 

J^l lj_)L^ 4 1 ir" 111 a JjJLl (^ IjjJjLc (jJJJI Liilljl jl j^Ja Ju3j -(^J j^JLta 
i4jjl3|j^jS I 4-tse LaJI ^IiIL>J /^3|^jJl2j CxjIS Lai i4j VU mi iIj CjjJ.1 (j-a LSji. 
j_lC j_jJljo_lj 2_jj^j_ll A 1 11 1 11 jj, I (^ £jj ' La flj (jJJJI (J^LtcjjijI aL9 (j^>- (jt^- 
4j-ljjJI (^ j^J ^JJJ L«j» J us^\ Ltse-ua uuisj -» J ... A.V 'jj- 1 ^ ^rP - Cy*^'j 
4_u3 (j"i j «J mJJJI it- . ..jtl 4ja frl MjJua (jx. 4jjiljjJI ^Jl* 1 * .~.K~* .(39 :jJajl) 
j 2 1S1 II (_Li-lj 2_a_)_a_->J I CjLa^L«Jlj 2 j , ^ j , ^ -L 1 1 ( j_ a j-&\ jjja 1 ; ll 'j'a ijj^ill 

2_ujIjj (jiJj • jlj-aVI (j_a j-i^l bjx. J a Mil (^1 2 1 11 1 njILi 2JjL5lLi 2jjSLuJI 



12 



fcjjlia.aJlg a^xLcapUlg 6^i9ljp9aj^JI ililrilpjnll 

(j LJa (^ i a^Llii.1 ^J^c- ij£- < " < <i ^ (60 : j la Jl) 5j_jj»VI o lj i • u 1 1 ^i ojj^.1 

. L#J (j-LCijJU JJ£.J 3 i n I iij.ll fjji (j-LCJjJ.1 (JjjJI jL£ £ru OjJ.1 

^Aribf§ tUril^tlu^t $£» -8 

L^j aLJS 3_<_uIj.} i".i-i uiS Li£ . L^SLia^.1 (_£jJ CjjJ.1 (jiJS (_ T i^- ^LaLJu Ljiu IjjjLj 
(_£jj I A) j I--"- Li *~j ■>■ -4 j uiJ CjLlJI (_JjJ CjjJ.1 (j-° i— 3jj>JI 'L>-j^ (jl «j"i i ih!» 
(jc (_£>>"' SjjjIjJ ^ySj . (J-^jLjT ,_£ jj 1-AjjtVl 4 j mi" V I (j '£. I j i(j4JL^aI 

J aJaJ I jaxI 3JI J 4 ru<-^a-i J fl La 1 1 a t_iVI (j^ JS (_£jJ CjjJ,! (jla cJV 4jUjujI 

9 j I 3 (jij j<s-AjLxx.l 7-jl^pj Lbl 743 (_yl^. OjJll (jjla (jjjLuLo (jjola < 4 < « j,*kj 
cjLvjj (j\a cjLLjLjjVI i~ij i n->-j ./<i^jul (_yi^. d mdj (jj/Ll2J,I (j^J 3 L*^ LoLc I 

UJ 3 .' '"'.' plJJ* I (jl J-^^J '^i?-*^ CjLcj-*5=-o Cj^Lj ^1 A j i iiilu 1 jALaJlj i_i 2! 
(j j_| luj CjLlJI L«-Lu i«LajiljJ,! 4JLvj_o (J^ii- Ijj^LaJ I oK ^iki cLd-iaj /cAsLiI 

Jjsl 3^>.jjli <j^Jll ,jA <_aaJ>JI ^i (jAeLiT 

«L»-jJlJ iU .~ .* (j-uLfcljJJ 4s>.ji (j| (j\jj (_yll! isLjc-ujJI dilj (_,i^- Cjjifj 
(JA /a^jljJaJ *_o I jjj 223 '•(_ T Jj L«J <"< 4 ' "^ LcajJtia I 284 L$£.jjiJ*-o dlLLj^. 

JoLjjjVI cj^LoLto ( 10) Jjjls. tlr^j ""'^ d ^ o-° <j <3 ^"' °J I"'. 1 419 mLVI 



.jjli jli J «-jj'bTj u^'ji 1 obrji uy olfcUj*!)! (10) Jj^r 



oL^Vl 


^i 


2_^3 a>tiil 2-iiSl f- jj 


0.39 


0.51 


s-U.S/1 


0.41 


0.34 


oUl 


0.40 


0.40 


jwJrl jj Oji*ljll 


= j) ,jJjL%B9llU.j 


i (j-u lLsLoJjVI j_A «L: 


■ Ijjr'n nl j<u JaLujI ^yJLc 1 (jllS^I 



flj^fc ^|3j .(j^LJLi (j^L^ljJi (j&^O^^^^Cjj^L^^iP *' 59 



IS 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

*LiVI (j\j UaLujVI j j i "*" ^^3 /n U" 1 1 (J^l^^. 4.L4-&I (_ji^- Lt-L<t--v CjL-uljjJI 

l_x£,j"l I ill /«! U"l 1 1 |^jLiA (_yl^. 3ju4JJ(Ji,l Cj|^.Ll ...V.tl £j| (_lfi Jijj Lii l^LLljIj 

^1 CjL^o^Ij *LVI v2jU-jJ (>u ^j-A^JI JoLujVI j^miJ lillj^ . 3-uljjJI 

dj,^.^. ,",tl cj^LcLajJIj (J^IjjlII 4j-oL>.j sLujlJI (J^l^til (j^l i n-»- cjjl! Jjis <jl 

(j)j mij<J t_!^Ua (_j\r CLajs>-\ ^^lll 3JjL2J,l CjL-uljjJI (ji Li£. jlj^'i/l I j -i . ..I SSlj 
. -a^jjj CjjJ.1 jjiJS lr Ij-j3Lj 3_S_«_j_I 1 CjjI^sJ (jl Cj-Lu (60 

4*cUi»2t SJIaJT -9 

(j-ev j^ll, I j iff ailaXlj <_iljj(JI (Jj-oj (j 1 -^ (j^ '(*^JL*il (_j-3 i-lijl! p J-ciaj-a jjIu 

3_IL>Jlj iTjjJ.! (J-L-3 (jh-J 3-3 >Lc V 4_ll ^LmljJ I 1 CjJL^v? *■ m a ,j_a 
(2yi aJ-2.111 (j-u (JjlJ" 3 O^Lh 3 ' (l^-*- 1 liUj (j-° («-£■.>" (_,lr j . 3_j£.Lii».VI 

. l_)JJ(J!j (j-^J^illj ■ %) * I U t I j (JjoljJfl (j-O j-«-«J I ( _ 7 3 

5j»2 I £g J&fall MM> - I 

(j_a S^j_«j=_a (jju (jj^Vl) Vjt J5J9JLI JiiUtlj JLp-^JI JiiUll £)1 j^Ia 
(j-u jjj jji. l£ IjjJj (jJJJI JLola'^Li 3JjLSJ,Li ^Ir ? Cj^o (jiJS (<^JjJ S^i-'i/l 
(_JjJ jL>oV! ^1 «L«^jjJ,l «L>-L>Jlj 4ja_ujJI oAjk (j-u LtajjJI (3^-4-1 •(*^JJ*-I 

.(60:jJail) JjVl jAkJI 

U jLb* <w jUift ^^aw -I I 

(^yl ' aj se-aJL I 1— 32l (_j-Lc 4 2 j j La " J SJljJlX. CjLuIj^ Cj_oL3 ti»;L>- i«jijjjj» 



11 



Ck-ijUa^JIj d^icLoLipUlj 6^i9ljp9aj^JI ililrilpjnll 

. L&^jJLi jl 4j^_lL>oVLi d-olaLcJI CjL*-<4i>JU ( _ T 3 *Ijj-u CjjJJ (jls (_^ 3JjULo 
ij-Uj i a 1, 1 (j-a (jLj£. (_ T 1^- CjJ^jvI ijliil CjL-uljjJI ojui jntj ^^Jj L«-j3 -ijj-ij 

L^JEjQJ SjjLiLa ^1 Lai C^JJb (_7jJlj l(j-\jJ-iSjlj (j-\jJiil^jVlj (j^-jl^pj-uilj 

® 1 978 j»Lc <(jJLl4J ((tfLuuj <Uuljj-1 
(jui »^t I j_^ jj cjjJ.1 3^=j oL>oVI SJjLiLa ^1 L-uL-ui 4-uj\j jJI ojuk c^ajui 

jl ^1 4_uJjJI (_yl^- 1 ofl'ri iiljJ 3_ajJLa ^-i jLaJJJJ (_>^>jj». JiJSj . (j-uSLj^-a 2 Ij 
jLSLiI ( _ T i ^j^ se LLj-« >S-U)) "JJ ' aj Ldi-j^-iSj^-aal (_£jJ CjjII J-seJ oLsoVI 
Sjij (j»tl (jjjjiLaJl (_JJjLLi /^(j i nni2 7-1 o i nil j»J^.J i^^-iiJLil (j-a (j ' * < J tlijJLI 
(J-j_<lJj . Jl Jlj>JI (j-u-J (j-a (Jh-*-a pj-i «l JlJjU CjjJ.1 qj* fO^J.1 (j£. j^lajijjI (_y3 
4JI (_yi^. CjjJ.1 j^j-^ (_jJJ '-^^ :v Lj^l ''<*> L*-<ii*-a 4 ii*i->^j ( _ 7 £_j^-a2l *_<ijj>JU 

Lolj i 'I ni (J^e-o Lgji Lai J^LiJI ^^3 5-u^aJc-iSJI -1 J~'l >l 2k: I (jl Lo^ ,2 j ,UII 

jljL>Ju 5Jj < mi a L^JLj <b) uai,l 5j LuajJ I < " <ii i a j Jui3 (_£^>-l 4-l>-Li (j-aj 
3j_uoL«J,l Sj I JaaJ I Jju L«_Lu 4JI «(j-d» (^^jj^jjjjjal jhdJj ijjl jJLiJIj 

q-LualXI sLajJiill <bi uall JljJLSjJu I iJa-jl Cj^jLj Jl3 L^jLs i((<Lu>£ )) 1 '^ a ( _ T 3 
(JjjaJI CjL;tjj-3 J.;'^"" 1 "'^.' «(jU» ' ajuaj l*U jij .3_jJjLL>JI ^..j^uIIj CjjJ,u 
(J^L>- L^_i al_j-Sj| ^j Lta-t I «_«-ij>J,t (j-a CjLi^ (J^*j CjJLl^.1 (_yjJI 7-ljiJlj 
3j_ijii jlj_3l (j_a Sj^aLiJI '"'I -^j ua II -1 lac I j JuaJ '-^tH*" ' LaJijljj 3jLij>JI 
Lltje-Li-a I LtAdJI (_,i^. 7-ljJJ 3_i| jj 3|j_al jLa-'i'i ul (jl (j^ joi.jJI (_yl^.j • LtaAll 
^^3 ?-!•£ LlJIjLa L4JL9 (_gj 1 a 1 1 )<_<4JJ>JU -ilj-3l (j-a (jJ^_ui (jij SjS '<" 1 a a S^Lc 
'"'I >l 2jg I «LLa^jJI • aac LaJI tfj i~i'm (_gjJI 1 ^^ 1 nil (_y>-iil (j "*^<Jj ./aJLaal ^j^»' 

I (j L« Ml J (jjJI 3_a.LcuII jl (_yJllII J>la (jjj !(_, IfIT Mill Jl^iiJI fjJS U*-±J '^iU 

l_P-° 0' O^hA? '-*^ '■ * a j"l" 4_j£.L«Il>-VI 4jLiaJ I (j£, i_JL»JI (_y3 j-iajij (_7^-I 
2j 1 nlj 1 nil (jjjLuiJK i^jLaJI ^Lijjil (j^ L^jlii 3_a-jjJ| (JjLifuj lIiLi^Lc^I aJJt 



15 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

\(j iiiitj (_^!l 3l_pJI 2_j£.jjJ LijJoJI «_<»jj>J,I I gjjlaJj (jjJI 2_uui'^l (_5-l^- ^^-J-I-5 
Jj^T' (jJ-i! t-^J-^- lilli OJ^} '*'** (_£>*"' '^^ > ''-^ (j^J • ^J^ 3 tj- J-™ ' Jij-AJ! 
JijJL>JI ( _ T 3 \l 5~<»VU (J-°JJ 2 VCT-y- 5 Jrt^-) lSJtH- 5 f-*-^?- Lr^ •— ■ '^4 J ' """' " 
2^jl JaaJl Jjj^jill LlulS I j! Lu (3^*^ uul.3 jlli (_£J-!t JIJjjJI (jSJj (- mac iSJI 
t_paj j ■** >g . Cj^JJ Jj-Ls jj-C- ^Lljij ' 'i U CjI^_jJuJu j^" ^^^ ' 3 ■ ■■>" ^jt ^^^-c-J 
^j_c 4_4_S_j>J,1 I J i "j 3Ja ) i Laa ti 3 \1 L^ajeS 4_4_sJl9 SjLciaj*. ^ji «^_Llx-s t(_£i_tiuj» 

L^ i((^J_LXJ)> ^J-uLl^A 4_4^^JJ ((^LtluJ JlUlj'V)) QJ^> I CJlAjvLJl Ali JlSJ 



4-illl ^1 5-u-oSLc 4-<j^».^3 4-UjjlJI 3 j j < ^ 1 1 «L<t>.^j CjJl^I (<sj iCjLx^pJ! (j-u 
Ll£ t^La[£ jl jVmiVl - J '■ a Lca^ejLo 49 ^Lc? JuSj i2_oL»JI 2-> uajl JLjc-o 

J^L^JI jl j 2 i n i nj^ (^ 2 ^ I , U 1 1 JLx-o (^ (j^ioUJI jj^JJI (j-o50 lr (J-^ 

. }Lal£ jLiejj-uVI 2j; ir->U 2_Ll«JI (j^s L-a^ti^s 45 jLc:l till j£ . SjjfcLaJLi 
(J_La ( _ 3 -3 CjL^-jjJJ (j a aJe-La < la ■ ujj " (_5i^- 3j^ <^t I d_ujiJ| J j uaae-l (JjLill 

2_JjL2J,u cjjJ.1 (j-° L2la j^\ IjjIS «LuljjJI oju* ( _ T a (j\jjuuzX\ (j^uus^xJiW 
«Gl j j^=j Sji^tiU cjuVjJ! (jJI 2JjL2J,u >-i^a-o Lj-aLi L«Jii^o (jLa ^jJ-iJa-a 

(JSLx^JI 2^^ (J ^S i2_ul i n'tVI SIjtU 3jn<U CjIjjJl^III Julo ' iuJic Jl Jaj (^ 

i". i n *v f jJsj ,-J i j i j-.tl ^ jui Jiu 2 j -^ I j 1 2 j i hLlII 2_p.^JjjSJ<Jlj 2 j ,Ull 

/. I c I j 3 I c LoJlJ^. i_2jL>J,I oJlj* (_p_a ^ j) ' a 1 1 (j^ca^ejUl CjuLa-"n nl 
i_jjl£ \Sji.3 •"'"Jl 2?J *"J ^"J «4Jj| 7t o i ii 2» (J!Lo '^i^ CjL3_lL«ILi jl iiej i uzl 



16 



fcjjlia.aJlg CKjxLcOpUlg tt-iilj^gjxj^JI OlniaXoJI 

(2) 1 985 j»Lc JpL»J1 jllc iUulji-tj 
jj La ■ - tl oJLjt t_^L^ ^La <(j I j <i" nj\ mi »> 3_^ljj lr p>LLVI Jj^ 

al3 l_U-l»- ' J''" 1 ' "" (JSLuiJ L&jLsolj 4-mAj pjjlojj,! Ijus «L-uljjJ JajiaicjJLi 
<J-l9 ^j-* ^Lulj 4_<t>»^lI1 lIi- ^jv jijj 4«Lujjl11 «LilII ^^l «^JL_c_i» (j^jLuLa 4_c^»^jj 
(sJj i3_j^_j_L>oVIj 4_ujj>JI (j-CLiDI (jj ' S3j (3^JJI (j -1 ' a ' a **■"' 1 1 <j-o (j -1 -^' 

(_^ (j-u^a-o t—i^ila jj-a 4_LlC (_ T 1^. L«-o 4jj_iL>o2lj 4_oj_*JI (jUae i nitl I " i 2 j la 
3_i_ijJLllj i_i|jVI "i j K t 4j)ji>>JV' iiUI -i "■ : y SjuIjJIj SillUI (jjpS^All 
UaL-LjjVI (J_oL«_a (Jj^sj JiJSj . L«-o (j-CJiUI QJ ' Sxi <j-«-« 4jjJ 'a, i nVl 4-*-oL*j 
i2jLu uua. i(43 = (j) iliLiVlj i jj^jdJ ajmitLi , 87 L7 1\ gj-Jjijj^aJI yJJ 
«GjLci jLii-VI (j1_i ^^-LojJI Jj-oLill (jL£j i<LujjJI flja i^aU jLii-VI SjLcl 

, 73 j (44 = (j) jj^ JJJ , 70 (_,_!] J_oL«J,l J-loj J-3j i Jl^Ij »j jmf _$_& 
Cj^LoL*_a (j-SLIj d * ^-jj " 3*ji^ cZi^LaLiJtl ojui juuj .(56 = (j) cjLJiU 

d ,>. A-» * rt CxjlS (« t jj1^_j- t jLa^_u_i_u)) 4j_5ijlx-> 7* ^~»" Lalul Juu) ' Zu-l^JlJi CjLu 

o jl»j .(40 = o) oL.^U , 59 3 .(40 = <j) jj^JlU , 68 ^1 cJLoj jl >LJS 

2JI.J CjLill il 1 1 Jl$£ J j La 1 1 j J 1 ^ (j-uLuLo (jjO S-*J3^Lo 5 ,^A^- ;1 1 Cj^LaUJ,! 
673) j^i-T Lca^tio 1443 ^ I r liUi Jlju (JjjLlSII (JJjIs (*S .(Jj/LlSII J[aJaJ 
c-j^Ua (j-o 4_lCj^ <icjjiJ*-a *j lLc Cj^Lj ^1 I jALua L_xjje-i ( ( _ 7 Ibl 770j I^^J 

£y\ ' a j se^ftJJ d 1 1 n'f lu gj J la * jj-* c^^" ' ^^^ (" ^- ^_§Al (3-^ (J-* J '-^- a 3-.^" 

3JL>JI) (j-Lill «l<ijl£j "T'Jv' ""^ (jlSll » ((j^Ijj)) (jjiLiia jj^a (JSj cjjJ.1 (Jla 

.(^i^.) d o i nil «_a JaLuj Jil ^2^-^j) 4_j>Lajj «jj>-j J iljuni) f-^^ (J-* (^ o ' "tlj 
(JjJbejJI j i-ii nlj ^^'^-^ Lull «i_dj^j|» «L<ul3 (j-« 4_uu^ajii! ( _ r CjJi}\ qm \ J S 1, 1 j 

■ jg I ii" i n a 

: 1 986 j»Lc JpLiJI jLlc <Uu1jj-^ 
I 17 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

' (j* jj LaaJL I (_£Jd Cj^J.1 (jjlS p^cio^-4-i <Lal o"< ftll jjl-^ . ..tl Qjjt, ( ,2\£ jJ-x-idIj 

cj^c_J| l y ja 21 1 ..I i nil ojui i_ajijlj i5-SjI i nil Zj 2 a H (^ SjijI^JI 3jj/IjjJI juu 

OJlj* l— Ij < ni (j_o '"'I i-j C (J1J (jjLSj i(J1_uLlAIIj (j-\J.3jt mil (_yi^. CjL-uIjJj 

«_il_cuJI jJjjaAjl (j-o «Uljj/l1!I *j aaJI ( _ T 3 J'^^' i_2jj-uj . 4jMill 4_ujjlII J^LJI 

.'LujjJI CjujLSJ.1 aJJt /tjLlJ 

^JIj^ImLmS :L-iLi 

L<_*_oL»- LJLU 244 (. I c cjjJ^I (j-Ls <j- u '-i-2- a l< v-^J-"' 'OJ'J" l?^ 3 

ij-UjI-J^l^) 3JjL«Ji,l (3^11 ^ (j-LaJiitlcuil (jjj 65 ( _ T I^.j hj-UjiJLsJ! £yl LJIjjj-uI 

(jl "jo 1 n) 4_<iu-3l_La (_i (jjSjLij IjjIs (3^jJI (diljii m"i 1 11 1,1 ( _ T a tyL^j-uA, I j 

HJjlj» *_ <ioj jJsj . L^jlii 4jlaL>JI ^^3 jl , ^"^Vlj CjjJ.1 j^c Jl>-Ij ^jj 3juo 
(j_« Jl_Li ^S ^J-I^s+j f*i <S j se 1 «^JL_$j » jjjj LjJL« (j_« ^j-u^Sjla 3j^_co « I^jjjj 
4_J_iLa <L-uljjJI aJJt '"'j gla? JlSj .«LtuS^ ^1 (jjLlSxJJ 3-lLo^I CjIjLjiJI 
/j_jLLi *_o 4-Jj ULa_lJ 4 j 1 ni-»JI (Jji^flJIj i " 1" mi" 1 1 j 3j^£jJ,I 4cj_JI (jjljjIJLo 
«L#jLSla CjLcjjjj^a ( _ 7 1^. '*'"'^ ( _ 7 jJIj-L^1o cUS^-o^l 4_caL>- ^js>-^\ Cj^stJI 

.cLjj/ljjJI ojui CjLujl! 

(jl L*Ui i«Ll3ljJkU 5-i La- "m nVI 4-4^-j (j-a (^Lu V (jjiLlSJ.1 (jl •» Laj| Lii 

<LiL»-2l (jl (_gl 1 4j^j*^>- j_lC CjjIS «L-u^£L*Ji,lj 4_lL^3 2| (j^'jj uoJI (j-u ,3j>ji!' 
jl (jjLjcjVI oL>oVI (_y3 JIJjjJI (j-ojij 4->-JJ LoJtJl^. ^>3Lj3 V 4 I'll n^l Jl>.| (j£, 
Cjlcjjjj>J,I (jij 1 (Loll (_LsIjla) LlL>-I.3 (j 1 n"i a jj^LlSJII (jl •» 1 iaJI dlljlS .^ jl 1 nil 
Li£ ^Lt3 Jjsl CjLvjJ (_,lr i-.l .^^ L&j_j£. (jx. L^jLvjJ (^laLaJtJl J-^JJ (^-!' 
1 U , ,.j" ^ jj] * /j U Lc_S ^j ■■■ j 2 M (j_J^S_J JJJl-ciD (^l ) j mm Lc_a iJ«-^jILa j_A 
(j^_i JoLjjjVI (jlj ijjSJJI CjL^-jJ 1 La 1 "j " a (j^ (_y^l (jLa CjuVI CjLvjJ 

(jl « l^_l^_ilj i(jjlj» ^" "l '"ll III J^J , M5^_A^>- J-;tC (jlS^-ojulj (JJjLl2JL1 oLvjj 

(_y3 cjjJ,I (Jl2J 3- i '- i ^ :5 w 3 CijLi jjij^ (jj/Ll2Ji,I \jjt (jl (_,i^. JiSJj /yjLli!l ejjt 

.(_ T JI^TL<J/'ill «_<»i>J,l 
l_3jjGjI (j S -t^-i^ tiJj j f-«J i LiLaLc Ll2j (j-u-u «^-Llx-1)> (JjjLl2^ (j I ) gja J^j 

Jli-Jj (jl l-cSJ (j^Jj '(J-"L;l2J,I I Jui (j^ (J^^l (_j-l^ '^^J-^ (J-^^S- 5jM3 (_j-I1 

t(jjlj» (^u>J LiS . 5j j * (<•> 4_Li£. (_ T 1^. LajLCI^ 21 jJl?sj 4_i_u1jjJI i>jLjfc ^-iu-i 



18 



fcjjlia.aJlg a^xLcapUlg tt-iilj^gjxj^JI OlniaXoJI 

: ( _ 7 1j Lo (jjjLiijii! ( _ T loL*JI (JjIjtllLi ^ 1 1 *•»"' 1 1 (JiLful! « l^jj^i 

5 . ^'j * i - 1 1 U I ,"j I (jic "LlLsLijjVI 2 a j a i a 1 1 JLilJol j»J^- -I 

.(J^I^aJI (j^ J^J^- (y^ (jjjLlSJ,! (J I o"i"il -2 

r^j>" lull Loll ( J_aL«_a li Ja> - jJ-alJtjl m£-}L>. 1 ^-^ (J-uLulIJ ^J^S «liijJL>. q] -3 
^yli-l jJ! oLiJLi <U dJsMc: V Ij-Jij^j Mir 3 mki-^JI J>LtiI 3-iKll i>.jjLll (j^i 

4-jJlj-jJI cjjIj^>JLi jJiLlj cjjJ,! (J-Ls 0' 0' l -L :v LjJI o-° - i - l - c - o^^-^' 

IjILu^Jd sXk (jlal^p^VI I jufc ^Ir I jL<Ci£.lj i S^uj^iJ I 3-LLaJe-iSJI i " Al <~ I *" 1 1 j 

(59) 

L«_i3 LoLxj (j^'iih^e-a (j-uLu ^s cjjJ,! (jla SJjLoaj 1980 aLc i>J^Lojj 

: La_4^ 1 1 i J_; a 4-Ju.ulXI I J ' 1 i axi (_yJ.ll jl ^^ Li J} I «jj 
J _i i iii f, 1 » a tj-jj mi II jiaieJJ VlLa I ^jmjj I jjj^jl J I o ni 2 2 la ' a - I 

ir^sj^l SLujlU cjbljUi^Vl tj* Loie^ I7882i_x-u^fj< 1 567 Jla JliXI 

. 1976 j_ujjj 1969 3-J-13J (j^-J La Squill ( _ T a 

(jLSLa L^_ll_l 3-3j^j(Ji,l ilj^ji ( _ t 3 IjJjLlJjl)) (Ojiai t-Jj-C. <— Ij-cv <l2ia_La -2 

, ^ nni oU 1 Jl>- (j-«i 
(j-a 3_»_aL>. <_!^Ua (_j\r 3JjL2Ji,l 4-<-uljjJI aliJt /_i CjLLl*JI i".1o"imi1 JiJSj 

L-uLjJLa Jj .* J * (255 = (j) I JlJiS (j-«j (315 = (j) 1 j_iJj_»t Jlin'i (j-« dr* ' " '~»J> 

£Jl_& '"'J J tal Jlj9j .«jj_Ljj» (J 7*-±J t^aJI J) ^ J «j-L-«J» *-^3J (j-« ^JjJu JjlS 
. CjLiVI (__;jj (_ T l£-l CjjII (jls O^ L*^ 'O^^'j OjXI (jJS t>VJ itlijJ.1 

(J£LJ 3j_j_«J,! 3JI jJI (JjLso /jjllj [jLa jlj ^" . ,.VIj (j^'iil <-i^>. (j-« * ij"*^'^ 1 

i_jI^j>JLi j-&\ (Jit Mill (j^. la fl ■'■■^ (j-uJaSL!l <_j^LLaJI (j! i-^-yJ 3Jl>- (_yi^. J^J 
(lr*->- cA^- •'^»J-ll J^-3Ljj 1 1 JJjaj (jl (j-o /a^^itJ (_gi iCjjJ.1 (j-^ '^J-*-^' 
j , ^ ^ tj i(jUo^_i_tijlj a glbl 1 ■■ «U Llal^j ^_o I Via 111 M 1 J_uj_)i (Jl mi * j^LLd (Jt Mill 



19 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

JL3j . (60: j_li_il) 4_<-ulj jJI oJlj* jt_jL1J j_; i aJu <3 i L$-oJi£. j I j Uaj- V I ijuZi 
5jjaJaJ| jl5^/l *j-i^3 (_5-l^- ("&>- ^ijjj SLpJI j LaS) ^Ij-p-'i/l ^LoJLsJI j i n'q 

jaJJJ,! CjjJ,u dajj^j «LJI i! d_ujiil '"'\'^J " <'--\l I Ij-aj (jUajjjJI j j" < J - I 

<Uj i ii"i|1j 
.Sjjji'ill (j£, (Jl LaAjVlj 

(J^-jJlJJj-j'^I (j-\_i tjLiaj i n ILi 3l_3jJI ."»!-• t .^^1 jl jI_jj£.VI (.^ [Ixjugj lil 
SjLgo^I JjJ-a (j T frflla Jt^S ijj-UJjSLlI (_£jJ I J '■ a ) xiSu j j£| l1xJ^(J^-l!I o Mill 

(jK i nil (j-o i—iJl 4jLo JSL! '/2I , 3 jl jJL«-> Jj_^j Ax^lll ( _ T 3-(j-ujiitjj'^l l5^ 

Sji^tiU /o^^U (^Ij^-j^jjJI (_gj'< i nil i-jLjSJI l(jl-a- 1 u (_yil! 2 j i nil Li 2jjL2J,Lj 
4_j£jj>Ji,l <_j!^>JI (jl alc 'La-^J (^^^pjii (jl (jSLxjj . 1 973/ 1 960 £yi S^pjill ^i 



120 



*\ I ** I 4 «* 41 i *• 4 4 JV 



I ~i i ^ j-£- (Jl J) J I u JlJbj t«U «Ll>- LuajS t <-ll^>- 91 4j 

clil £_] «_j ill ^j '<-> • i_j jj_u_-oL>jl (J_u£a_a_Jl {jjS 

(j La] (_£j^>-l CjL2JLslLo ^j^. J .---All Ij^fc ^3 J^2JI 
( _>iaj_Llj ^ j i*a se ifu-il-J ^ Iq_u \jX I (jj-*J * ' "^_jil 
<J^ * .'J? i4_i— m-A-Jt-ll '"'I Jl) La ■ '-■ Vl^ 1 (JJ _1_2_*J I 

^^.a ,_p3j_5i_j_j i_flj 1 nj .5_l$j I c.i tl cjLalj^e-JVI 

titJjL^eJJ J iiaAll I Jofc ^j-o 4jjLL1Ij (^Jj VI (j-GjJLil I 
juj il— a_a (j ^ • I a tdi^JU J3 ' 9 (1?^— J u^Luj ji t ]^iC 
. L uLj 4-i ii> .."ill CjI r .1 ^j ,0 <-i >«j 1 Vji 4-u^aaa.ifuJI 
LilLui (jj il (jt aS^>o j-al fn j r ■! n" n I jijfc (jl ^jJlJJ 
tillj JL«J JjLjeJ «J . (j-A-«-<-uJLl I (2^u Ij-^fJ !^L>-ljiJ 

cjLaUsoVLS o^Jtl ,3^J l£>*"* cjULLCLo ^j^»-»-a 
Ij—l^-Ij .(jLaJJIj 1 .1 , ^ . llj iLsjJIj >«i_i_lCiJ I j 

CjLj-3 (_£jJ CjjJ.1 (J-Ljb O-^ "^JJ-^=-LJ i_K>J «J i r n 

<j-\_«j_^>J, I J (j-jj t " i II /__ & 4_L_LJl_a 4_i_U=>j_« 

.(j^-J-flJ-Llj (j-UtllLI (jl j 1 .ii-»Jlj 



121 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 
t giniii lliftt - I 

MMPI «U«mm#» 4*JLt-f 



«L<ijLflJI -ij-b (j-u CjUaLcJjVI r-ljjr'n nb till ij i cLu^aic-ifull «L>-j 2 1 S^JjiILo 
-Sj-Li 4 » i ii "t i"iii i"iS JlSj .((jJLxj)) 4-*_u3j (_£Jl!I CjjJ.1 (Jla (jjjLioj Sj-ji-^l 
^jlbe-a j j i"ijij .1—3 1 i'iVi i nVu 3jjJl»- CjUsLjJjI (jx. « Uj i im ia» 4-<ijl3 (j-o it- 5 a 

(_,_& a » i ii'll Jj-tJI (j-o Sj^ij (j! ji jJu ^jJlj>JI (j-oj .(jjiAilu «l2!<JI ^_) — S 'j 

«^ " i n j Ij j«L_4_i» 4j_u1jJ t"«l i"ia Jl9j ■»■ Jj l^jI gjldJl (jjjLuLa i _ T 3 _}^_b Lciajt 

(_Jjj>-I «Ll>-LJ (j-o 4 j 1 ii » 1 1 j 4-j i ..*MI '"'\'lj t- ilazlj i4_l>-u 
(j ii jjLSJllj CjjJ.1 (Jl3 (jj/Ljia (j-\_i JaLjjjVI Cj^LoIjla (II) (JjJl>- (JVi9 

(S ^ ' " ' ^ "^ (J- 1 *-^' (J-* ^ LCj_4J?e_« (j 'i <?"»» t^jJ (( Lj^ i una)) 4_4_lLill 4_iiLj»aj1 
i—i^iia CjLLjjJ A i i ii i ILi Ij_ljS 4_»iiAJc_La I i j Lu CjLLjLujVI ^1 i U-.\Ijj 

ci^ 3 o^ ct^I jr!-"" 3 '"'jjk CT^' 31AS]| 4jjjkjj>JI cIjLULujVI Lai .SjwUJI 

(jlj .^I^LajVlj 4-u-ul i n^lj (ji2JI (j-o (_£jj»-I (Jl'v i~il 4-p- 1 Laj «_ojjJ,I Cjji.1 
(. i ..**tl ' — »j I) La <'— ?" I ''J'r^ 'j-^"J-° •^ JL i O' (l^^ 1 " ' ' a '" "" ' ' I ^"Ol-t5)«l jl>^ 
(SJ -(^^ "^31 LI* ' "J** 1 I 4-*-oL>JI i— i^iia CjLLl«J 4 j i u ilu ^jJi^J.1 ^ I ii * 1 1 j 
( _ 3 -3 I '^"Jj a 32 (_5-Lc « Ljj i ii j i a» «L<ijL£j CjjJ.1 (jla (jjjLjio L*Ui Jl»j (3^^ 
iS-LSl^a'i/l cIjLjV^JI (JJo-I ^ a u ■" ■ - a ^ (^ mAIxtaJI) ^jjLS-uJI JUJ.I 

,47 j /'^L-LuKj.mU 0,49 j .J ua-aJljOjJ.1 Jjfi (J^LlLo ^0,56 

( _ T 3 i_3j^jla jji La «_o CjLLsLjJjVI ojui (j i m"j -(II) (Jj^>- J-^- 1 ') "-jLiS^U 

(j jj j 2 1 1 (j^jjj/Ijjj/^JIj (j-\_La L-iiil! I (j! ^1 j j i"ij (_gjj!j ( _ 7 $-l'c-lI$V I cjl^lll 

jjjjL-L^a (j^_j ^ ^ i .." rtj fiU^j-A^jv CjLLdLujI ^j^. CjL_u1jJJ1 ^j-a d 1 I nl I n i " . A ,".Sj 

i« Lj^ i im ia» cL*i_jLflJ cLulj-iUI (j-ajjLSJLI ^j^* >g 4«j-L_a-i)> «bLxiDj ^JUl Cj^JLI (3J- 3 



122 



(jAjjxIlg 6-uniuuuJU aJijjjxJI OliiaicJI 



<_jL!ljS Vlj Q_i 1 1 ii oLsol (_5-3) Lj^l 3jJ3 jl «<_d» (jjjLjio : (_j-* L> u ry'-^'' OJtjiJ 
«L>-jJ (_j-Lc J ' a **■_' (_£JJ! ^J^"" .".II (j| .^^cLilL^-VI il^LajVlj LxLLllSLj I ntlj 

3_al < i ii lb Jlx»- (j-ul i n-»-l Jlj^qJLj <UjJ oj^i "^ £i»XI ijJ^ lt^ Sjujjj-a 

j L2JI (jji-uULoj CjjJJ (j!^ (2^LJ JaLjjVI (jJI «(JL>- 2 SjJiS ( _ T 3 jj i"i) i_2_jjj/J 



o-Ujj 


^>s- 


a-U. 


>s*y 


^•A 


S A J^ 


i>0* 


J*~* 




«j JL&w^ 


ijw\*r 


L>^ U3UJ 


JSJl 


JS3l 










40- j 


40- o 


101 -o 


32-o 


77- j 




0.02 


0.19 


* 0.22- 


0.27- 


0.05 


J 


„ 043 


0.05 


0.09 


0.41 


0.13 


J> 


* 0.37- 


» o.44- 


** 0.3- 


0.1- 


** 0.43- 


6 


0.27 


0.07 


0.17 


0.17 


0.04 


,W r*J 


** 0.48 


0.21 


0.25 


,, o.47 


0.03 


^\*£"t\ 


0.16 


0.15- 


0.13 


0.34 


0.01- 


U J\Z~*&\ 


0.13 


0.21- 


0.11- 


0.35 


* 0.24- 


jljSC_Jl i_ilj*V! 


0.01- 


0.17 


0.17 


0.31 


0.14- 


JSjJ^I /ijjTJJI 


0.22 


0.05 


** 0.26 


0.39 


0.09- 


LjiljUl 


0.18 


0.09 


0.25 


0.49 


0.04 


L^i,lSL_Jl 


0.11 


0.1- 


0.06 


** 0.56 


0.08- 


»L*ill 


0.14 


0.09 


* 0.19- 


0.16 


0.12 


l^j* i'i-\ ^t ail 


0.35 


0.28 


** 0.26 


0.02 


0.25 


^•Uj^VI eljJaiVI 


0.38 


0.35 




0.44 


0.39 


^iLaU ^Jj jf^*-" 


** 0.45 


0.26 




0.36 


0.18 


J^ "jJj" JJ> 


** 0.54 


0.30 




,, o.48 


0.36 


w^ll Jj-Uul ^W*-* 



0.05 ^g^l^w" -LP- ijjfiysr 
0.01 i£jL~»J> Jji- L ^ J A^- 






1 6PF« Jrftf » jLamiI-w 



25 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 



i—l^LLs ".CjjJL! (jjls (jj/LtiLa ( _ T 3 /«^jL»-jJ i m ii-v CjMj CjLcj^jjco ,^1 !j^_<. 



. Cj Lc j-<u>Jt I (J-lj cdJj Jl*j ,J3j>_>-fl-l! tljllitjj iCjjJL! Jjla (^^ 4_jiajLje_La 4^-jJ 
CjjJLI Jj 1 2 * Cj_La_Ljjl ((jJjLS)) jl i-*-l i hi (j_o (J-^'J^- ^ i u a~*- (jl t la >.j 1 Ju9^ 
-clsjJU Jjls (j-S Ltlc CjLvjJ ja^J ,JJ JJ! (j^litjli'il! (jl j-$ii l -^ T p- ' J-^JJ-1' 
5 Ij j ■ .. Ijj-Lj Lxj (jj a ■ ajj !j->Lvd_L3 4jJajiie_iJ,l CjL>-jJlI! i^jjj 4JjLSJ,Lj 

Jl? !jjl£ U£ -- j.-^'.f ^ j£toJ| 31s >L) ^axIl ■ 3-2i!l 31a ij^LiiLi^jLl!! 

(ji d_i_L*_a Lsjj^ tiJLLfls (jl (j-ijy I JLflsj . l^pJJ ^liSlj A-icLaiv V! SjLgJ.1 (^^ 
JlSj .OjJ,! (JJLa (^^ 3 Ja^je-Ltlj 3 . A~^ 1 1 oLj-jjJ! ^jj (>\-! Sj'-^-^ uJ\ 

(JS ^jjlJ j^vj-a cjjJL! ,j_a i_ajj>J! (jl (jjji.V! (j-G^-LJ! (j-a j-jj£ <j-t-j L«£ 

CjjJLI (j_o (j -^ ">■ ■"■ 'I l_Sj_j>- (jl (_£l 4_JL>Jl ^ *j ■ la * «GjLaj_4 sLvjJu-j^^Lul 

. LjJj-C 2j I jLi !j_al (j-u-J 



EPI.EPQ ". --*" *Li>if g>MiLB«-e 

/ylil ^J 1 ^*"- Lull «Ldj^j|» 4->uL9j Cjjll (jiSJ «L<-uL<JLa (jjjlaaj «jJLix-!» a La 

I Jlj* 7tJ^-J '"'J a i "' JiJSj . (j^ i n i ->JI (j_o CjL*_aL>JI t-i^Ua (j-o LJLU 384 

a.uLa.-Jljj (0,31 =j) cjUVI jLliij (0 , 36 =j) j^aU 3 , , „ ; 1 L. 3-ul ,^t !l 

(_,-3 Lj^_fl>j^>- (j-Sj (<sJ JaLjjVI (j^Jj . (0 , 36= j) (j-C<_t-<d--^_a (j-G^. j o -a- o It 
l1i1_Lj£. (_jlr Sjj/IjJ jj La i •■ II ojui (_jjl^ (_Jjj»-Ij . Jal . u i'tVI (j^Liio 



jl iir~ i ntj Cjjl! (3^ (jjjLiio (jlJ JaLiJjVI ^Jji^J L^!jufci(j^J (j^ (jli Sj^j^ia 
LLsLjjjI r-jjjtjjj/l Ji^j . («L<ijL2JI (j-o CjJl>- 2 1 2 jj LtaJ I J-fl>j) «Lu-iiitjlAI « jj^j I » 
jjS JJI 4jlaL>JI t—i^iia (_JjJ <Lul LajJI (JjjLjJLoj Cjjl! (Jl^ (jjjLiia (j^j Li».j_a 

,Ura,-,l\VI ^jj AjJLfliJJI (J^LlIoj^jj , (0,373 = j) cjLjVIj (0,471 = j) 
jj^JJI ^jJ JaLuaJVI (_>uLjio j-o Ij.ilni lisLpj! r-j-i^-"'! L«^ '(0 , 249 = j) 

Ljjs i(_lj£j| (jjjLiia x_a 4j^fls^>- CjuaLcJjl ?"jjr"i i nl joJ LxJjJ i(0 , 328-= j) 
. 5-1 La- "i i nVI (_5-l^. 5j^fli^>- d-dj^aj ^pjj V «Lj£.Lti>-VI 4_uiiL>JI (jl (_yJI > j i"i_) 

EPPS w — " Jnhn-11 « j* jl§*!» 4*jti- a 



121 



(jiijxJIj <>-uflJ>.M<.IU 6iu3jaJI ulolsjucJI 

i«L«jL2JI Ojui a! Jiir'n 11U «GLj/IjJ (_£Jl»-I (j^ (60 ".jJiajl) (( (Jjjjijjj » aL3 

(j-o JSj cjjJ.1 (jia (jru ^A m JaLjjIj .(_,IL>I j^^^^e-al,! Qi^-i o'j i3jiibL«J,lj 

«L»i « (j^_<_uj^J )) ^£ jj . I^J J ^-o^?e_fli,1 0^3 ^y=>\jJuu-u Z Ij ^jljjuulj ^g^& r JI 
SjjSi^IiSl 4JU CjjJ.1 (jJ-2 (_5-3 3 <>»*A». 'II «L>-jjJI (_g j (_^aic-iSJI >Jo LaJ ( 3^-* J 
^ . A ~j 1 1 cL^vjjJI ji jj^*" '"'^ Lai • ( <: ^w-«-' ^J^Ty ««LuLx^vtj_>»j 3jJLiSjjj 
/tJL«J,l J-Aj '/j mall I /tJm oil «<_!-i» J 1 au a ila-a-l (j-o _j^2 CjjJll jjla ^^3 

jju c^p. iS^jJlJI jI (jjj^JLi ijJIj^V! ui\ «l*jJ,Ij i3jjiJl jl liLiiej^i^'^l 

Lu I i ^ r 3 LuljLd it . J_*_> LaS 1 1 dlol au rt I L^aie ■"■ 



I«U- -2 



Self-esteem ylUI j*i$d- f 

(j^>- Cj! jJI j-j-9^jj Cjj-1,1 j-La tl^V 4-ulm Sj^jio^v <iJa}Lc JJ j'A j^3 
sLajLill ojui (JjSjjj i ( _ T cLii>-VI illjl 1 nit (((JjiLjiSj)) 4-ajLaj 3j_ji-2l <"< 1 ih^ 
. ( 14 ,13) «Cj^SLl!» «L2j^Lsj I j tc <_jLxj I J_b j loC «Qj-u (j-° 



^ ' a j se d a 204 (j_a ^ ' j c L^3Li_uljJ ^Jl^^-1 i _ T J3 «^_jj^_tlj » Ll*_ajL^tj_i_ul 
(jl I J zk J I " ' Ci_-^-iJ3 j I jJsj i(j^ 1 11 I ->JI (j-a ^U , ,.jll el ajiaJI (j-a (j'V^i?- ' 
Cjj^j (J It Mit^iJ A 1 1 11 it u 4j^£j-a 'jJ-°' "-^ <-— >f J-Jt jJLb ^ I 1 aj 1 1 CjLcjjiojJ,! 
j Laa» 3ju_^j dajj^j Cjjll (j-^ pLjjjl o' l£>*"' ^jjiIjJ (j-o J-$ii La£ . dil j-tl 
<Gli CjjII (Jls o^ '^1 Circular <bpl.j 3iajljJI ojui -•■ _■ • aj tiy^tJ ijL^JVI 
^La 3j_uIj.> dltj a^Jjj . oloJI J^aKl> JiLib-^U Lj^sj Ij^iLus Iojj^j 
cjujSLoj cjjJ,I (j-o i_a^>JI (j^_i 4_nl 1 11 4£^ic cjj^li jl «(Jj 1 irtu i^vjLsi) L#j 
, ^ ^- .Si tl cL^-^lJI 3_ajl_Sj Ccm-iS (j^»- Self-actualization 3 j S >] 2 j Ur 

.(POI)I 10 

(Jia (j^_i JaLjjjl ^1 cJj^sjj ^jj^-i Cjo^cj 3j_ji-2l ^LajjjJI ojui Cjjilj 

;■'-«* (^iJI i-ab^JI SJL=c^ S^^umi cijVUJIj cj^il 



125 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

CjjJJ ,j IS i La ■ ~ j j Li£ '2 Ijj i uJ 3jj(j^5 JLxx.1 2_Lj£j ■ I" 4jjJl3j 2 al UtU 
(J^23 SJLv ( _ T jiJ iCjjJ.1 jul (j^. ^^-iisLiuJIj (j mil] Ll (j-al i .Till 2JL»- «_a I j^l . .. 

Self -concept :«SllUl |e£^#-g 

3_o-jII ^LfcUoVI x_o Ujlin ojJJ (jis f^j' '^.'1;.' ^ iSaJliXI ol aJlj 

(3-^ (J-* cJ3 J '-*- J ** ~ '^~»- lojI p j" as 1 ' a a i J7 -^- i^y^J^^' (J-* f-^-O-* i^J-* ' " a cr^ 

■* j"^l As t «_A3j_a j_jJlJLj jo^jjJ «Glj (JjJSjJI (_y3j '3 '^»>'« «L>-jJj CjjJL! 

(60), . M , 

( need to achieve) n-ach) : jUiliSt (jJj 'A IaJ ' J 

«Lt_tai_uu Jlu_Ll>- CjjJ,! 9g^-LaJ jl iCj^JLl ^j-* f-^-L?-* <— 2^>- Lciaji ^-AJlJ^. Q^ S j t u 
SjjiIjj "j"" "J^'uTj^ ''"J t-I -> ",tlj aL-^II ^a ^ jA-^l Kl j'.Mj L JjlS AgJ 

I gjlg U^ljlcjl tjS^Q-i «j'i i into «L-ulj.i (jl !_gj-i jjJq i uJ I ojui i_jjl£ (3^-Ij 
4-^-LxJJ 4_<jjLl3 ( _ t 3 J}.}Lca Jrt^- (jJaLiLml (JjiLlLo (_t^ L&.} <-<Ci£. I <^^>- £y 

La l_i_A 4_lJI i _i i^JlJ La JjJjJ • L^Ju-aj d jUI A , ,.VI Jjj_laJ| ^jLjfc jjia CjLu 
i«jJl!jji)) L$J Cj^LS Lr^'j 1 (60 :j_lajl) Ijji-J^ CjJ^jvI «LuIjJ 4jJ! LlJj^ajj 
. jLso^ll ^1 sL>-L>Jlj CjjJ.1 (Jla (j-u (- jli n JaLujI £jC L^jejLIJ Cjjni ni <-i» T L>- 

Ego-strength :LlaSI i§if-Ji 

LJ2 1 S^j CjjII (j-^ <j^-J (_,.'!' 11 JaLujI -3^>-J (j£. SJjJlC CjLij/!j^ i"iii i"iS 
(_gjJ! Lj'i/I Sj^ ,jjjLj_S_oj CjjJ,! (j-La <ji_j 2 j i 1 1 n 2^^Lc Om ta cixxa- lillj 



126 



(13) 



(JJ)jLj» 4jlxIdj 



Locus of Control : Jftnilll j 



Degree of Consciouness j£A*JI $t «<r*$JI 3*ji- j 

! JJLc (j I (j-a (ft£.jJI (ji^. 4j1 C i i M (_y.ll lil-vj'Cj i nil (j n^t Ulj» J-»-J-!' (j-°3 

. (39) Ldjj ^k aSjj V (^yijSVl) ^UtU! ^jl** 
Purpose in life <>L*JI ^# 4-jIaJU (rf*L»jJI-g 

^fljJLI *_« jJ-^Jtll c-j U"II ^ j , ,,^i 1 1 \ 1j)jLL>.1 ^j- 1 jJI (j^_«JL?tj_(aiXl «Lc^ju?e_« ^JJ 
j-^li JlSj . till ji£ js^J^ijLc. x_a JjuiJIj lIijJ,! (_>^=J-a ^^ rfui (j-aj i QiJ •'s*~'+d,\ 

A U , ,,j"l I 4^».jjJLi i U ."j j SLpJI (j-a SjLiJI (Jj/LlLo ( _ t 3 «L>-jjJI pLflJjl (ji 

4jS_ujK^I 2__»JL»J,| ^ L^Luijil jjLIlJ! a JL4 CjjiG Vj . (60 :jiiJ!) 2_^t-ulll ojufc 

Life Satisfaction SLaJb UljJt-Ji 

/_^ i~il a J SJi a -I i M i (_jjJ dijJll (j-Lsj SLpJI (j£, Lil3jJI 4jjiIj^ Cxx-i 
CjIj_lJLLI 3_I|j I jA,^.j i i(j«jji 30 i 1 _yia-ui 30 = (j iLoLc 65 3j-^) J-*-*^' 



127 



ugoJI £JL§ 

Cj|j_jJLill (Jj^Ja (j£, JJjijil jl JljsjVI (J^ii- (j-a-SLpJI (jx. LiIa_>JLi ^j-uJI 
Q^SLj (ji-(_jj^c. j-ol jjij-til!ji£j iSJljjsJI 2 se i a 1 1 j ^LJSJu^a'^! JJl^. :3_uVI 

Cj|j_jilll Lol . L$j (j7ij<j (_ 7 IlJ! L^3li 4jjjJJ (_y3 ( _ > luju Jjla (J-ijij ^j^~» L»JI (_jjJ 
2 j -> La-ll u^MSLiiil -.CjJlSLa predictors cjLLl-LII j! t^jjll Jjt'V ^jtxD ^,111 

. I j j 1 .it «_ajjJll (_j.a-L.UrJ I |_gj"n nil J 4-1 mm<U t-Sji^jiaJt f_j£ ^jjilllj 

(jlj_jJL«_j cjjJ,! (J-Lsj SLpJLi Lla_>J! (j! «L-u!jjJ! ojut (j-° ?" '" * "I *&j 

<".ii u£ La tillj(__ r Lc- J^j^J • L^J^^J 3j-iiaL>Jlj S-uiaUl SLpJI CjljjiJ 3J|j 

(j 1 n II jLj-^ i_jJ-I SL_u>JI jjx LtisjJI J-j-I-5 (j! (j-o 5-fljl 1 nil cjL-uljjJI 4_Lc 

4jj/ljjJI aJu&Cjj Q( nl til! ji . CjI jJI j^uSjjj (<iji«jJlj(Ji-jJI «_a LuLajl Jajj_>j 
tlajjjl Lo . «L3Ja-a ^1 ^JlCJ SLpJI (j£, LxisjJI (jlj <_t>-j^ JaLcJjl -i^>-J <j-C 

1 1 j . ..a". Sjjjjj ^3 (jjjixtj (jj JJI JLso'i/l jjju Ijjli 11 LLjLjjI sLpJLi LiajJI 
SJsLcl ( _ 3 -3 oj .' .' ' "~ j L*jj (Jbo^l (jW J J ' "**' 1IA-*- 1 'Wi> c - '^^r!-'- 1 cj-^J 
<Lt3e ijOjI Cj^iSLliil (jl til! ji j^laj . 4-Liaie uJI «GLoL«jjkl p Ljji/I (jc ^j^"- uJI 

Cjjll (jla «_a LuLxjI Ja-Lj^j 

Psychological femininity Anft$J$£mJt <iu$mtf !-£ 

.jj^jJLj SJjLslLi ojll (jls f^ (_j\r I cjL>-j^ ^Ir SjLc tijlj^l J i^-." 

Ja -"jj dijll (j-o t_2_jj>JI (jl£ til La JijJl^o (__JI 4jj/1jJJ1 ojui tZ^Jui JJSj 

^IjijelL-ut (ji>^ tl>^ L ^-'- i w 9 . 3jL>. (__rLc (CjuVlj JjS jjt) (j 11 l-v (_)S (__;jJ 4j_mj2u 

tlaLujl 1 flla Ju9j . « u^ i in ia» «L<i_iL9 (_ 3 -^J «lJl>.» *-l*3J (j-« 4jjIl)21 (_ T j_ul_LiL« 
(jl jJljjj .(—ajjuia tlaLujl 4J a f±C-j-} Cjjl! (j-° <— 3^>J!j ijjlb'il! (j-u t_t>.j^ 

-iiljVI t_jjJ Ja^l ^yk: 4jj>3- 3-lLaj jJj-3JIj (jjSL; (jl (j£Uj JaLujVI I jl* 

aL«J1 (Jlillj (jj^-iill! (jjjui (j-u t_ijvjl! JaLuj^L! 

Time Perception ^jJI dlj*f-d 

(JjJ-Sj Cj^II (_ji^ (jl_l 4_l>-j^ 4J3^Lc Jj->-J (jr^- <-^jL"ljJ-!l (j-a JJtC (j-AjJ 
jl •»■ liaj' jJa£ iCjjll (3^1 3 j inilu (j-«j-!l tiJIj^l tljo i^l ___ r JI j J i"i j L«^J ijj^jJI 
i(j_«Jj| Jj_j_^J pa tja g»<j| a i(j_«jjj 4 1 i n i'Lj (_cl^' -(j - * tj^- 1 ' 4J ! *— Jjl' (3^ 
(^ J3SJ (jl ij^-*^ (j- a j-'W (jt^-J^' L)! • tlhl)-" o^N tlryJ-' 4j>-^l!l_j (j-«j-!l tilUjj 



128 



CjljjjtilLi (J I < uiiVI (j! cdJi ^Ir Ji^JjJ .«Gli CjjII jjjlJS CjU^SLa JLa-1 4_2jJL>JI 

«cjj_ujj>- jJjLfuj)) L^j aLs (jj^IIj ' 1983 aLc Cjjjp.1 4-ujIj.j La>jujj 
i_jjJ KI1 ^,31 JJI (j-«jJ-I 3J1.S ojLucl (^SUj cJs^JI jjj-*j jjkUaJI JjjKuilII 

jjijsJLi I j i iKr Jajj^j (jl- JjJ-t£.-<_*J*J i La 3-J-i-aj aj^S j»lj-5 <-^lj-Si O' '-^-ta 

• l>oj-ll liJIjjl (j-a fj-Ll! Ij-fl> ^jic 3_UL3ljJlj 
l^£i 40 (_,i^. 4j-uljjJI ojui ( _ T 3 CjjJ.1 (jl^ (j-u'-J-'" «Cjjjj^>» (jj^ 3 ^J 

IjljJuL) £j] (j'^-^^e-nJu s JiJ_A ^j-a * tils *-^* T ptJ .«L«_aL>J1 * j^LLd (j-* Ct"* -1 ' ^J 

4_jJL>J| A U -» 1 1 1 ^3 Ojjt>° (_r& Lcj-<-u-« 3^-H (j-°->" 0' UJ ' *"'*_' "■'-*• lS' Ct^I 
/c_AjL_4-£.i ' '<u*a-u-a ^^ \^\£ LaJ^Jt^. ^JjlJ-* «Lc^_tuJ «LijLSJ,L) ^ Aj I o c I (j-* 
^Ir J^jJ Lxj j i j i a j se a 1 1 t_iL»- 1 JuSj . L4I0 Jj^l J-Jj-Il (_,-3 liil ji^j i3_JL>JI 
(j_o 4_lJL>JI 4-la-3e-lj I ( _ 3 _3 j-j-SI «Lcj_tuJ j-«-i «UlSj JJ^J (j-°->" OXW C 1 -^' 
Cjla a. j I L»i . I J»_'j jl I J a 1 taj * a ( _ T 3 Ijjli LaJtJl^. «Q^.jjjiJ (jjj^ I Jj (0-AjL4X.I 
I". «ir ^ L*Uj^ .(jjj^5^tjil,l j>L3jI (_gjjl (j-oj-II Jjt>° J^^*- ur^ 3jini->. 3j>^ 

l^ii 45 (j-° c-ula^ iSjLi^. I 7 (_ 7 1^. J 1" i"i_) iCjjJll 3^e-i oL>o^U ijjjiLLio oL>o 



129 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 



o 



.((Jlilu i—Sl^UcVI) ( _ t j-uIjj-uJ (JjLLo ((jiaJI jlSJl) iSjS~" " ^ "^ 
■ L>o 3j^- - -^- T1 sensitivity 2 j ml m gJI jl dx^toJI I jui /jjLlJ iJjjjjI jlsj 
3-o-LiJI (jj» V^ ^fi£l Lgif (^f i3_j^LCo.VI 3_u iUJI 3_o-L> (j_a (jict cijJU 

■ <Lu- i^ll ^tc cLu-ul I n~»JiJ3 



«(JS-ilji» 5^£La *Ljl-lU]I ojui JJpJ • fr-L^cca jj n'Cttlj OjJ.1 _^e-i 4 I j ?"i a j 4_l>-j^ 

.«will to ^jJjJ,! 3-sIj|» u-& j£jJ-> 5_ul mJVI 3-jjlsI jJI _>&>>- o' i£p ct-^' 

j "**■"'_' 2 ioJl»-j *> Ltasej i-ix;^- (_>^aie-iai JSLI 4 1 1 nitu ljJ/3 ( _ T JJ>i,! Ijui JJ>JJ 
(jjj^_i3 (j-C 'LjjJ (_j_L»-U S^IjI * j i"m (jl 4_lSLaj Lai " la a 3 j_& tU^Li- (jjs VI 
tjl i ii 1^1 J uaJej (_5-SL! 4J| «(JSLilji» <_i-uiajj . L&Jl»-j ^ j'^»-» "■!! 4jljL>ol 
i«GuL»J, (_ T JJ>-a J ■ Sjj (jl '-r*^?^ ^^a aLiaell ^^Lus (_j_l*-oj /, *_iS-s. i_2Jufc (_ 7 ^ 
^& *\jb jl] I j }LoLc 3JL<JL>JI (_yi CjjJ.1 ■" j i aj Lui (j-oj . <GjJi, 2_'l j'tl (_y3j 

. L&ljJLoj LkL-U-a 3l_p-JI i I La c I 

iCjljl_L>JI «Lcl_L»^5 j 3e i oljsoVI :4j^ij i_ul^>- (jJI CjIjLajiJI ojui ^^jiIjjj 

Jju 3jLL>JI ^=e-i j>L>oVI (jl sLj/ljjJI ojufc (j^ •» JjlSIj .CjljLsol i3JLl>- 5jJj 

jl ,>."^VI ^ej oLsoVlj CjjJ,I J^c-i oLsojI (j^ (_p (j^. m 2j i " a UjSLo 

Disabled 6 jMll ^l dlMlil§ W^t ^Jrf- J 

t7e^i '^* 3 ' Ct^^W^^J t J~ tiJt ^'_3 O" *',\ Cy° J^ <^j i ' n ill 4_L4_A2 1 t"« i nj.^ 
jLijVI fj^S (j^vjjjtlll (j-a LJlia 22 CjLaLsoLj Jj-uJI (_y3 CjjII (j^ i_2^>JIj 



SO 



(jiijxJIj &-uai>.iu.lU 6iu3jaJI ulolsjucJI 

(JH o ' ^i~ SjJ^ i^aJ «L-ulj jJI tfjufc (_j_i*3jjj . Jtx>-^Jl rQ-^-ll (^-j-lu.1 (jlS OjJ,l (j-o 

(^ dJJij i death education <jl>jJ,1_> 3_Ll-l3jJ,I 3_j_j^_jJ1 (jx. 3-tmlj.a cjIjjJLo 

4 ? U"i 1,1 4j^oL>JI j<i^3jLjtA *_o (J^ljUil J ■ V.ai Sjjj^ij ^1 Jin nVl (_jJLc. (J-UjJijII 

-Laetrile> Jjpjill» (jl SjlxjII oLjV^II ^ f-Li oLLh-lloJI j^-!jI ^ 

i(jLLaj i nit J 1 r '^ o ( t£^_« (_y^ ^jUje-i-^") o i"ill Sl^j (j_« ^ 2j loJLI .il^JJ Jl>.| J-Aj 

JuSj . sGjijLs CjjIu j<sJ £j-£>- lilli Ju*J 4-al JlJ-"ii iiI *_lo jL2£. 4_lo r'jjtjj-ul JLSj 
Lje_<-u!j I 'I 21c I (JjJl2H»j »_iajj_a Cj^o (Jla ja^jjJ <jJJJI -llji^l (jl (__>I3_^1^I 

j? j jk jl i^jjUI I jjt j£l3 jlsj HjLL^uJI r^Lc: ^ JjpjJJI 2jlr La ^ 

'.(j_a (_p x_a Ll>.j^ LLsLcJjI < " . U ."j I jJj^LlLII 3«LaS _J^e-l ^U^-jJJ CjL&LsoVI 

3jil<Ji,! Sj_u£LII 3JjL*JI (_y3 (jliaj i nil (jx. jtjLJ cjj^ 3JL>- 



ttf *I1§ feitfJI* J. niTtl -4 

(jj u q 1 (j^AseoX I ^_u_tHJl ^j j (j-*- 1 ^' J*-" L)' «(jj ' " 'J3-*-"" <J ^J-uljJ C*Je ir->jl 

4 1*1 i iii jj_c 3_iL>- VI (j_o i—ij^jJI (_jJI «_fljjj,l (OjJjijJI (_£j j (tt^Slj-lij (j-a ^^iSI 

Ij^_lc jL^a Ll»_«L>- L ^ oL lS I j 2 u (jjjul (jjjLjil^Jl Lai .cj^JLI pj_uDj_4-i ^ 1 *jj 
.cLjJI (jj » I U"j ji cjjJ,I (j^aliej IjjL? !il Lxj qj i" <jj ^ r'^'-J f<6 <<>** '1 d^ 

<_2j^>JLj ^ISjJI ( _ > I=LiJtjl JoLjJjI (jc sLj^Lojj "jj ^J"^" < =I-<-u!jJ '"'ii 1I1S L<i£ 
V «L<j/ljjJI (J-Ujj< JJlC (jl Lbt^isjl (J-lLlIu (JOjj/IjJ (jSLIj .CjjJ,I (j^ JjljJ! 

i L2jbl^)_4 I 72 1 (j jIq CjjJ.1 (j-« l_Sjj>JI (jc Cj J ULa ^jUre-a «jjj-o» t"(ll^ Jk^J 
Jj'">'ll | ' Ja_LJ_p CjjJ.1 )<-a ,_LaL«iII ^^ ^ Cajl\ 4^-JJ (jl L^LiLso (j^ j j'^ a 

L^J-i. (2, J mil (jrAJjL^VI J_i.^->"tl ^jj (j^sUeJlVI ^jj (jl^ (JjJ^. <(Jr ajjL^VI 



SI 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

"O^J* ^L? ' '' '' ' 1 -* J k (j^- > ^>rh L *-^ ' C"^ ' ^'^' /*- 4 J-*-* J '- l - c ^H i - (J * '"' ' J ' aj rt j (J-«Lio 
Ltajj-a a^Lluqjo (jlijjjjJI liiUjl Lai . 4J£. j_ujtjl! (Jr c.5i-L!l 4jj mi" II a I JlJcjjjiIj 
■»■ liaJI LcS .CjjJ.1 4-lc T l>. Ij 1 ■ 33 £-*£>■ f^JUbL>ol (^^ (J-Lxjjj_<CL«j (j-oLt^e-3 IjjI£j3 
^lol (jS-LjIjjjJI OLLlIL) 4JjLSJ,Li- ( _Laj«JI iliLd-ui Co CjLLJI jjl mJ_^>-I «LuIjJ (jja 
Jjjvj (jl VI iljcv IjjJlxjj dijjiil r- 3^J"-~ (jLS (jSLIj CjjJ.1 (jja La^i-j A-LlLtijI 
iCjjII (j^ (j^Sai- j^^pjj jjl-«Gl j Jl^- (^-(jSLaj A i ii i nj^3 (_p«lj Cjlj'nll >VJji 
.sLuljjJI dJl^I IJlLLo jl ISLlj-o ]>LaLc Jjlj (OJ (j-aj 
Jwill (— LSjJI j-sjuM jlj I <iK 4JI CjL-uljjJI aJJb (j-a (j^alacj i ■• ' (jl LUS-oJ 

.Cjjll (j-o <tflji- Ja 
l_3^>- (j_a ^iSl j' <>>"^ V 1 a V I (j_« /ylo^uajl i " ) I 2 i La ! I lJ^oj*. (jl 3 flla Lio 
Jju 3l_pJI (j^s ^^1 i_aUt3 LujJI aJLJaJI (jlj .4_Lo Lil*Jlj LujJI LliLfljJaJI 
tjLc. cljj^JJ 2-lIU.ViVI jiiVLi LoLxIaI Jsl till jS" 2-2-lLJI ajjt, c^JlSj iCjjil 
Jajlj^JI (jl u^sjIloj jl 4 MiitjJJ S^Lo Sj-ii-V! 4j*-ujJI eJJb Jljuj .(jJ^i-VI 
jJjl>-<Lt! oJ_& J-J-i-J ' ^' a tlLIi *-oj iLujJI '"'I ajiaJJ 2 1 1 nilLi 2 1 j " 4_JjL«JI 

. (390 >kJl) 2WLOJI ,3j>flJI (>a 3 _. ^ ■ U 1 1 

(^^^jLlil «L?t_uJ ^yzSLJuJ Cj^Ju (j-* <— ^oj>J1 (jl (_£jj>.| «L_ulj_5 (j g j g la l£Jj jo 
(_ 7 _aL_u lLdLujI (^l «^jJ^j_uJ >L*cJ)) jLjIuI LaS . ^jJjljJI (j_a (_ T 1^. I CiLjj" i nl 
Jja CjjJ.1 (jla jlj I <ilS tixjjaj iCjl.il Jt'n nVI (jj»jjL2^ < la » "j CjjJ,I (jia (jlj 
Cjljjiilu ' ^-;~ *_' (j a a se ' II CjjII (jls (jl L*lIjlS (jLoIJJ.1 j^^^liajj . j|ju»xi nVt 
(jXJj . 4 j 1 iiJlj>JI CjljjLilLi )«_fljjj,l CjjJ.1 (Jla i la j"j j Lx-ijJ i 4-lLlUcTJ I 

(Jo (jl (_ 3 -II ^> J '"' * &^u3^X\ ]JJb (J^>- CL*jjj>-] (_ 7 ^11 CjL_u1jjJj LuJl>- L^ i 11 a 

cjLs^Lc LixJlS" «IS"jJIj /ajLilIlj cjjII ,jiS cjLvj^ (j^j 2j^jfcjj>JI cjL9^L«JI 

I JaJl 2j^jkjjv j^£- CjLLjLujI jL>JI d »j_'l^-'-'"' 'jji JJ2j 1 ^ auj Ca 

o*L "\; g J* ■•■•■'"« '""r -5 

(_,!£. I Jj*> I^SjjJjI CjjI^j>J IjjIojjij (jJJJI (_>^>LiejJj2l (jl «j 1 n i 1 1 u» (j-u 
CjLvjJ 1 la 1 "j" rt (j£. Cj^JLI (JJ^ ^j "1^^ A fjy-2 /c^JL>-jj 1 la 1 "j" rt ( dXLgeJ 2 Cj^JJ 

Lao" .j_l!SLi (_, I r i (_gjl_Lto i_alj^cJl /a^iLvjjJ (jL? (jSUj , 2U .1 ,MI 2_Ll«JI 

JiJI Cjj^ (jijj CjLvjJ (_,lr I aj '^^ Jl3 2jjUe_JI CjLvljjJI (, 3SI 1 " (jl j gla 



32 



(Jla (j! j-^Ia LxS .CjjJ,! (Jla *_o LuLaj! ■ La jj^j .JjJijsJI «_o ^ ■>■*'■ 1 1 CjJSjJI 
jIj_SLj (j\j lLdLujI j J LaJ joJj . (j <*j LaJJ ^^j^LII oLc^j-sJ,! (_jJI 3JjLSJ,u 



lwbljJa6ai-6 



(--m-j-lJI I -l| j La JaVu j-JJJJJ (J7-^' lIjLcjjJJ>J,l (jl CjL-uljJl!l (J-g^JtJ Cjltpl 

(jLa L*Ui (jx. N'^"j . cjjJJ (JjlSj 'jjLi LaLilliiil i_$J-p (J7 nII Lajl^-j (jr j* aL»JI 
(_jjl! cjjII jjjla ijLj j i ■• aj cjULu uaSJj «-jLiuj aLc cj^II JjlJs jL-i ^_ys\j^3^\ 
cjLcLajJI ojLji iJa 2 ■"" £?y>- (j^£- i 7"'- : *-9 *J-f^3 f-^'jy -L^-u^ 2I (__>^>Lie-<lu2l 

(^ ^j a -» UJ Ijl ialta»|a IjLajl i"ilj j... A'.tl jjil (jS-Ij • lj'"^' o" .'J *» i a II (_£Jl! 

bjl La Co] j-S) ^j "^ «Ul jJljjCjjJII j_ji^ (_y3 4ju2JjJ,I «L>.jjJI I j^^aje iSJI (jl 
(j-a /&£.jJI (_yi^.J • I '^_'l «Uu2Jj-a tLjJl «-fl-ll 4_u-uLcuJtJ dJJji j_uijj (JJ n^ii n-r^ 
,d^ , ,,A'i1l i-<l ilj La ilaVlj CjjJ.1 (jls tjr\J "-LaJ^J (_ 7 ^JIj LjJ^-2j <iiol£L!l 5 \j uai\ 

. t_uL>JI I Jl^j Liiajj^^cjIjJuiiJLiji J|J3 V «uT (jJj j j \t «Lil^^i» (jla 

| j~ a\t r- ^^3 (c-iLioVlj (Jiill) ' -ll loji1\ ' " ' I '"^ 1 1 aj (_pajLjJ ( _ T Jj Laj^ ( _ > i>jjLJj 

.cjjJ,I (jlSj 
(JJL2JI (j^_i «l2_i3jJI SJs^LjlJ! ^lJI j .^Atl SjL^J (_y3 Lbt^iDjI (jl 3." " 

«LjCj^JI '"'I ajjLLisul] (j-9 I Jl>-Ij CjjJ.1 (jla jLu^.1 (jSjJkl (j-oj iCjjJ.1 (3^J aL*J! 



JJ 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

(j! Lo jl .^"^Vlj jJLillj cjjJ,I (J^>- 3^j-^' aL«JI (Jiill £yi pjj cjjJ,I Jjla 

.(_^aL>- "l^JJ CjjJ,I (J^>- jhj^u La I J Lu (j-o SJjJlC CjVLjc-o 4J aL*JI (jlill 
JiLj La I Jutj i Ll>-j^ I i J Lu JaLujVI (JjSLj (jl f-^J^J (jl (JjO JiJ }L3 LL& (j-oj 
. c_)LjSLI1 I jjfc (jji ^yJlil! J.^H <L>UJ (jr^ ^3^L«JI OJ-^I Jj-aiJ! LLuajX. ^ 

jl (J.L2JI cjVLv (_jjJ L«_i3j_o <jjjJ,l (Jia (JjSLj (jl j-Sjj-i (jl (jSLcj dll j£j 
S^oiljj oil ji£j . -^ijui^Vl ajbLJI cjLoIjjJI <Gj£1 La Ijlaj.^jIo]! i_j! ^^ 

La_-a_-v CiJ-Ll 4-i) uaJ eLLlC 5 ) iii£ Cj^Lj (_ T 1^. jjU ' "tl oJLA i_ulS Lfclj^vl 
(j^_i JaLiJjVI i La j i "j -(_5-b LxX. Cjj ii i ul i(j-> i ni-»Jl (j-o (1443= (j) Laie-ila 
7" -L-' ' a ^ t>Lill U'V JoLjJjVI ila-u "j i0 , 286= Cjj-U (Jl^i aL*JI (jliill Jani 

uiLi '/. I (_£?) 0.01 ^jlx^a jux. (jLj^ji^v (j^LoUIIj iO , 254= CjjII (Jlaj 

. (3_Sj Z99 

' HJ j ^J-U (j-« 1—3^>J| (jl d)L_uljjJl (_£J_>-I (J^L>- (j_« I (-*■ I'r^J] (jl J). 1 ' " 

aLc) j^_j_o CjJSj JlJLo (((jjjJjtjLO)) ^£i JLSj .(39 • j la 'I) i—lLioVI jX.LiuXJ 
t-jLu^VI Cjl^p£ SjLc. t_.t3-Li.aJ '^ i "*'' «Gj^j 5 1 . — ,~ 1 1 ^^^- ,~,A\ jl£Lsl (j? ( 1 936 
(j^_j JaLiJjVI JljJljxoJ 4-<-uIj.} «jJLlxj» (_Jjj>.| JijSj . La 3-j.iLv i ^ i ir<" jl 

(j_tajl jLjS (j_a <LJLx^. (^JJ Cj^JLI (3-^J « Ljj i in <a» «L4_lu9 (j_a * )LuS 21 1 (_ T j_uLi2_a 

ij-<jjiJI lLs i ul aT (j-a S^i-OXI <tLvjJll (_y3 Ij-ilS (j-4-a jlj^^l (j^ (_Jjj>-I 4_Lj£.j 
CjjJ.1 (Jla (j-u 4_l»-j^ 4j^j*^>- <iJ3^Lc i— a I uuS\ (<u «LuljjJI eJJt (J^ii- (j-oj 

^jj-cLHil (_, If c^jj^vl SjjJlx. ijji-l cjLjIjj dili (_,!£. cjj^I jlsj 

* jLlHS^iI (jjji_j_S_a (^j-b «Uu2Jj-« cL^-jJ c^^" J (j-* L)' LAl Jl>-I (j_« i ^la 

« j \ia\« (JJt^- LxjU iitJSjjJ,! .U . ..j"l I ( j£, Jj^j CjjJ,I (jls (_y3 (a^jLvjJ Cxjl£ 
ij^jjiJI (_y3 (J^oJl211,I (_£jJ <_)LioVI 4JLoj (j^ *j^>- J-A CjjJ.1 (Jls (jl (_p3^ILaj 
L-u-l >-a a (j 1 n II jL-j-S (_JjJ J«_ii3jji,l CjjJ.1 (J-L3 (J|-3jIJlJI Jtla-jjijj (j^Llj 
Lojiic ^ uaAa. (jSLxj «_ajjJ,l CjjJ,I (jl^ (jLa CjVL>JI ojui (J!Lo (_y2j .<— iiio^L! 
jl 2 .ul 'j frSUI 2 aj LaJLj r-^LtJLS "L^s.Li jjUi t_iLi^VI (jlalj^.l jJIju 



11 



. L&j_lc.j <_jL!l£}L! ZjLjaXI j_.al SjJLj 
Zung 5tjjj» (jail j 2 a J) jt-i lOj^Lojj «jJLxj» L$j aLs (_£jj>-I «Lj<IjJ (_5-3j 
i L$Jj.}L«-a JiJt£.j /- d uu '"II (_yJI (jiaJ^J,! J^io J-t£. i_lL!uOU (-31 JJI ^JjiTill 

(jjjjlj iLoLc.56 j 20 (j\j ■" *-j I 1 c ? 7-jI^jj t_iLi^VLi I '^jj a 21 (_jjJ cdJij 
CjjJLI (j-LSJ r"^Lc (_jl (<s-ij jo-Ij k-jLuOt-) * \l <>»t I j_t3UL*Ju Q^>JL*j \jj\£ 
CjjJ.1 (jla (j- i_P (_3-^ l5j-*>*" u-^Lu /tjj JJ3j . «L2j^ia (_£L>J j-iiLuo t JS luj 
?-ljjj-"ii ill iu dili (^^c. ^ i>i'aj . Covary Lto (jlj_iiii I -i gjf (j-by Lx-a ii_iLi£V!j 
^jjull <jS-lj .cjjII ijlsj i—iLuSV! (j^ j_p /^ (^j^iaLuJI (j-u (_gj_A^>. JoLjjjI 
Jlji^jlj V >LjJj jjlj cjjII Jjjjs ^ 3»iVtjJLl 3^-jaJI <_>uLjjI j^Ac i_jLi£Vu 
cl^-u oia lilJj £-09 . 3-j i.i<<ll 42}L*Ju 4JjL2lu <^ltij i^LAh VI <uk: 
>l j La (jicl jl£ a LJI (jiSJIj v^jjII Jjla ^u JaLujVI jl 3jj>-J^ 2uJj.i 

. <_!LuSVIj ojJll (jla (j\j JoLujVI (j- 

sLcaii-j sLuukjJI CjVLsJI (-& f-"H^ ^>_jil i3^ 0' O^hA} O' (j&^J'I (j-° 
L»Jl>.f (>J C^p- -^J- 5 ^ ^^ IjJjM La iJUfcj iQjjLkjJI) (jii-l jJI i_jLi£VI 

»Ljj i ii^?I_i 3-jj I SJLL-i ^ lr I (j^j^jLSLujJI ^^jlajJ,! (_£jJ cjjII jjiJs 3-»-j-s (jl 
4_JI /. I c (j^_lL2jJI ujjusjXI (_jjJ ^iiSLj cjjJ.1 ■ a i^aj (jl «(_ULi3)) (j^_i L»£ . 

. ( 13 ".jjijl) 4_LuLA «LloJlj,3 4j.iL>. 41oLlu^j CjJlxj 
CjLfcLsoVI (_^ajcj3 i S J-$J 3_u.aic-ui SijLiLa «tjulxxjjs* » (_£jp-l iiltj£ 
(_£j-ii^>- JaLujI (jx. CjuVI (".li i"iS Ji^J ^r*j"l - - — ' ATI l \ fja 4cjju>J, CjjJ.1 ^*-i 
(_3 «_ij Cjj|j^>J CjLjLa-" i nVlj CjjJ,u ^ I ' aj 1 1 Cj I o K II CjuLjcILjiVI (ju 
Lj^_a>j^v (j-S-J («J JaLjjjVI (3^-lj ./yXJ»«J! CjjJLsJIj (jxJaJl .3^L«JI «LjjiJI 

. (39 : jiil) jj£ JJI ,jjlI 

jU^ai -8 

(JjJsLuoj J j i nil /a^oLai CjJljji J_)JJlII (jJ^tiiU q] i _ > ^3_pj2j (jl (j£L<jJ,l (j-o 
Jal l^jl^ <Hj Ij^Jufc jl ijLsejjVI IjJjLa- <jJ JJI (j^lfl>ljJ,l t_J>LUJI (jl 5^£-us 



55 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

j\ ijLaJLiVI ^^Jl JJal (J^lo (<s-^jJl! (jjjJI , >s\ UtU 3JjL2J,Li <jnjJi,l (j-o La^i- 

(J_i 3j_ol_«_o (j-SLj j<sJ r<s-$J 4 t tu 'i \\-i CjjJ.1 (jl I ■'*■_' I Ttjiajl JlSj . ja^jLaju^l 

2Ja}Lc. (2>c i a "'^" rsJ ti^p- i85)l_a>j_»_i Cjj^jvI (_£>i-! 2j-u!j.} 2j3=_ui]l aiut 
t^j-tb^>J\ Jlx>-^JI JoLjJjVI (jlSj . CjjJ.1 (j-a <_2jJ»JIj jLxjjVI 2JjL;e-o (j-u 

JL»n>.lj cjjII jji^ £yu i—x^vjJ,! JoLjjjV! jjfc SjjiIjjJI o^la «U^. <-.ii iSi^ (_g JJI 

jj-SLIj i«La_ualj j-J-C dJJi i— il i i ir T_g . jLxjjVI 2-JjLx-o Jjlj ^j^"- luJI iLiJl 
dulS LajL^ ^_yj^Lli ^cJ jL*IL» jm 4jjL^xj ' *° '"j « I (3^^' L)' ^j*-^j"" Jt * (J I (^p--3-s 
JjVI) jLxjjVI 2JjLx-o jcJSj (j-u JaLujI j J leu (<sJj d * "~J " iLiJ'l 4j^3^3 

. <IjjJ,I (jlsj (uiJJLJ La jl 

C^jljJ ^MJt »Ll^J1 (> 103 (^Li 1982, ^Lc cl^j^.} iuJj.j ^j 
js>~\ L-o^tAA 24 dJJJi^jijLaliVI (jJjLv (j-«-a LoLc 30j 18 (j-u m-Aj L»c I 

t_iL^vI 1_«-S iCjjJ.1 Jj-Ls >J " _ * " ?-i- <s ^? t " ^ 1 c (j _■ la ijLalLiVI I^JjLxj joJ 
Suicidal Intent jLa-lJVI 2_u (j^LJLa <jx. jUeliVI I^JjLv (jjjJI (j-alit-Ju'^l 
CxJL^ jLaJLJVI IjJjLv (j-jjJI CjLvj.} (ji SjjiIjjJI oJla jijIjJ <-^-yJ .Scale 

/<sjC.jJI (_, I cj . jUtojVI I^JjLxj j<J (jJ, 2 j i nilLi lIijII (Ji^ CjLvjjJ 2 (j j i^i a 

ijLaJLJV! 2_lJj cjjJ,I j 1^ (. mLiJLa (j\j 2 ^^, . , •,-. 5-iAm 2^^c ijJLuk (jLa 
^1 j_ufu3 L4JL3 2 A^, ,MI 2jjl 1 ntl 2^^L«JI aJJt 2j^j*^v aJl^. (j-a (<s-c.j-!l l _j\r J 
^Ljejjjj ^j a a ae ' a dij^ (Jla ja^jjJ (jJJJI ( _>^=Lie-<Ii'iil (_JjJ 2jjJ3 2jjLaILil d_u 
j^_S_i ^JljI ^y^jjX\ (jl (jlaCla * (jl (jSLsJu (j-a ^ >m1^ JaLtjj^il ljufc ( ^* ilaj 
^i-ta 4j i^^JJ 2jjLajjl 2JjL^txJ (»J-aJ (jJ (_>^iL>- "^^J CjjI! (j-o i_aLjeJ 4JI 
i_j>LL>) (jiajJll J^c. (jjj 4_lj^. (_,!£. CjJj^>.| (J>i-I 2^jiIjJ ^j . CjjJLI ^yJ! 

lIijJ.1 j^c-J oL>oVI (jrtJ 2^^ic j^tVi j<sJ ((jiiAitl joi^. (jJ! (Ji.jJ.1 j>2^ <_^ 



J6 



(jAjjxIlg 6-uniuuuJLr aJijjjxJI OliiaicJI 

SJs^Lc V «LJf aLc 4->-^j cjL^IjjJI j>jufc (j-o ^_)^l->" i "'■ (ji (jil LuSLxj . (60 

Cli^JLI jLSLsLj Ij_iAS £j\ I < r"i i a l^jlS <*£Jua 4_uLkij (>-aTtJe-o-U SjLiJa^a) 

.(39 -j tajl) 3_uL^£_u^ cijLkL>ol («-£jjJ j^Sj «J <jjjJI 3±IZJL> 3JjL2IL> 

r" fe}^ ( i 3^- :>, -'•' U^^J-^- 1 3' '(J^?"J-^ 4-uUic <lnn nj.a (Jr 3 4jLLiLpjlj eli^Jtl 
i U , tij " ^ <j\j ,3j_3 «(_<-ulj jJI o J_ik jj^ j j LaJ joJj .(101 = (j) (J-* ' " TL-i 
«Lc^a^>J,l ("r <i c a£ «j . i2j_jXI Jjla ^^ *L^ujl <JllL».j.} i La i "j" "j /«^jL»-jJ 
(j^_aj^>JLI 3-j-Sj (j-o lr I 2 1* £ 1 1 (j| j j t\*« i3_«j^>JI pj-^ ^P <-£JLJIs J-*J 
(j-A-aj^a-aJJ sLlCjjIII CjLLulIIj j_uS (_Ji-l jdJI £j\ da3.^U O^J iCj^JII (_^L3 ^^ 

JlSj iS-u^ase iSiAJ "la-j'i/l Sjjjilll « Lij i tuJLa)) 3^ul^ fj& ^-iSLlLlI^VI (j .ij_)LSJ,1j 
*l£jj| A 1 1 ii tj CjjJ,I (Jla (jjjLiio (j^_i /j j 1 1 ii JaLujI r-jjjcjjj/l Lt£ .(j^j^jl j'Cj i a 

j_ui «_o ( _ > l3jL«jj jjuJIj CjjJ,I (ji^ cTV "-^HpJ' JJtj^ o~J • (Aj jj '' / (J^J.'V 



157 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

jUA^ai 10 

(j_o 4_jJbJ,l 4j i n <->Jl ^JS^iiLa <s_& Gays j \j < j 1 -^J 1 Q^JcvLU £)Jij~<ft '"11 
jl CjLjVI (j-o S-JiiAl 2j mi->JI iTjLapJLaj iHomosexuals (j^-Ja^ill jl jj£jJI 
*Vjji <j-o ^jij! 95j l^j ^^^Lc 3^uljj tTjj^vl jjsj .lesbians CjLaUe^JI 
cj1_Lj_«JI ajjt ("il«i" Mil jJsj . LaLc 18 j 1 7 <ji_j -i *>j 1 1 <~ T Li*^.jlj3 i(j^_L»-U! 
.«GI!i /) n'i~»J1 (jj-u fc-Aj L«_a ^j j o j 2 ^ j Q^jvj^lLa -* j ' ^ Couples L>-jj 28 ^1^. 

Jl>-jj /oJj . Heterosexuals Sj^jJLII <LujiJL>JI ^Jji CjLvj^ ,j-a ^i>^ Cjj^ (jls 
(j^_i 3Ja}L»_!l (jl j j Lb l_<t£ ij_«_«JIj cjjJ,I (J-LJs (j^ 1 5^^^-c (ji_ljvU! (_£jJ 
3Js^L*JI 4 j uij ?-ljjl^ L»-a oj mi j <j (jjj-ll (<j^r!^' (j-^j i M t>JI) ^r* * "3 j **• * 1 1 

Ji.o-»- L<4^ .CjjII (ji^ ^ ij^u^uJl «CL»-jjj rj>" U^ <^?>dk ^1 ^j-lm u^i] 
(—itljejj idijJll ( jjl3 ( _ T 3 Lj^2j 43l j lLj i "j"l I (_jk- (Qj^"i(j"i i nil) CjuVIj jjS jJI 
(j_o (_, I r I 3^»-jJ (_,lr •" j '" CjLjVI J '^^- jl i^Ljjj-u^I (_JjJ j gla I t~ dlli 
.j-<jj<JIj CjjJ.1 (Jla CjLvjJ (j-u JaLjjVI Sj^-Aj^. aJl^. i<n*ts -» . V>lj . jjS jJI 

(j ii s » m j«J (j^JcvU,! ijjufu (jLa Ij_l>-Ij .(j^aljILo j-i^- l),^ 31 * j ■ <">_' r^^l (_y3 

(97) 

dWift - 1 1 

l_gj" i ii o J (jj-LaJJJ .(jLcjj Lx-ikjj-ilj i(JK i"il (jLo^^Uj JaLxji (j1_LajLAi! 

j gla jJsj n_ij Mill ,jx. pLjILoVI ^Ir jjjjJl2j V ,j-o - g^ Delta " Lllj» mJjj-i-u-^j 

j_^c (jl-«Qju 4_l>-u (j-° 7" '^"'Ij ■ |_gj" ' 'I a ( _ T i^.Li CjjJ,I (Jla (j^ (JjjL»j f^i\ 
(j\lill (j\j£. jjusJ, I (j\jLi (jlj CjjJll (Jla ( _ T 3 ' La i "j 3^J-° Ct^ (j j » \' (j^-LojJll 

i allied (j^jCjjil (jl^ (_y3 i " i ii m"iS I (_yll! 3j>^' sL-uljjJI j>Jbk tcJljJ ^iPj 



58 



^^.3 laj j mi II ij\^ SJs^Lc CjIjjI (_ylll 5-S-il i nil TtjLlill *_o aLc «l>-3j <Ljl-ujJI 
. j 3-jxaie ■^■'1 ^ i_alj^tiJVI 3-»-jJj t_Jj-<iJI o'- - i i 
^^3 (j1_LajJi.l j_lC. (2^c (jj^biej V Heroin (Jjj^-l^JI ^^-Lajua (ji j^Ii dllj£ 

«Lxiij2j*_La cL^-jJlJ 4_i^I31jljj <j-a-> 4_)jLdJ,L) 3j_i_o cL^-jJlJ 

LI Ijlaj iCjjil (jlsj (j-ii-Jiill (jlj SJs^LjlII (j^aj&aj (j-CcvLxll (_pmJ joIL&l 

(9H 

jJ-J-a-i aL3 JlSj . Jal i ii j tVlj j^La-cuJI (j-L>-j3 p-u <_*jvj_o UaLjjjl (j-o j-^la 

:3_uVI 3^01111 3 ^i ii^/Lj j-SLa- i nil (j\i-j3 j-iiLLa (j-ulJSj i4J3^L*JI ojufc <L-uIjJlJ 

. 2 J joju S^jLajjJI ( _ 3 _L>-JLo (j-o ij VI CjjI Jj* - I 

p-j-JI jJLa^uJI jjlc: *£ («A*J» Jj^l Jlj-uJI <jx. SjLvVI C^JL£ lil) -2 
,j_a c^_£ jl j j i ,i J_& (« V» JjVl Jlj-uJI ,j_c. 3_iL>.yi e^JK lil) -3 

. 21 / (CJLJ S^-jLsr I nil ^jJS>-SA 

• aloaej V jjLxjjJI ^^Ji-J^a (_JjJ CjjJ.1 (Jia CjLvjJ i La i ujj a (ji j^Li JiJSj 
pjj-ll (j-^JLLcJI (ji_L>-Jiil (2>c Vj iSjJ,u (j^_L>-jUI ^lc Cjl>-j^ i La i "j~ a ^c 
Jol_Ljjl-(>_Li.jLll 4-C.j_«_3e_a J ^1 \-i<tl j j a dlli *_aj i<j\i.Jilll {j& l^jtlal 
^_3 ^^ V mi tl I g i a. JlJ (_yl!l jjLa-tuJI JJLcj CjjJ.1 (jiJS (j-u p. 1 1" 1 lS>*J^" 

(a I \ 

. (60:jia:i) 

(j\H^.^<iJ>J, <1 I I nilu <* OJUSS rt ^-JLJJ 77l^J>"( III ^C-J l^>-J-« LlU^>- 1 «L_ulj^ p-^J 

ia^jJI ( _ T 3 jjLxjj/ j uiC Q^ii-Jj IjjIS (S^-La 50 i Jij-l^JI «Ul^L>JI t_i^LL> (JjO 
/c-uAjJIj ^_<j-«-I1 ^^b (j-C^3-4 J >J> 1 ^j-u SufeLuaja l1ujj>- Ij t^j^-cv Jb 2i ^jjj^vj 50 

(ji_o. jj.1 (jl juLj-lII i-^-yjj • i^ >l ' ajja V I ^^cLxivVI Mgj" i ii Uj (_yJjjJI >l SucVlj 

U \ ■vIJlJI i—jI ajJI J-x-i «L^-^lJlj CjjJ,I (J-Ls (j_o 4 » flJj a CjLjj'ii n a js^jjj 
^ljLlJ (ji_i 3jt>^J' tj^ lt^- • (j^-Li-jJ,! j-j-ij SJjLSlLi Intropunitiveness 



J9 



ugoJI £JL9 

(j-a (—i^iia (j I c 2jj La a 4jj/IjJ «La_uj «_il_cuJI (JxaAll <_£ AjJ- 1 <— ^J-"^ 
lOjJtl (j-^J (j^i- JjJ! <j^-J i^j-Ajij- JoLjjjI (2j£, ' a "■'■■''' (<sJ i4jjJ iS, i nVI 4jl^L>- 

. ij\j&. Jit, I !_gjj J-SLa- I nil JJl£.J j-p.'iM (j\J Vj 



40 









sLj^Ij^vjjsjJ (_j-ll Cj l^-iiiU tfjui UALua JuSj iS JjJi^. 
i(,_yu_aL>JI J Lta^JI j la 'I) 2 jj I i ia 3.J «Lj£.Lxi>-!j 
(_p3j_I,!j ^ j i a se •"■ II J sLLajjjJ.1 Cjlj_iii)ll j^c ." '^ a 
*j S-flJ I ^^3 Luioj^. JuSj . ((jjj^LtuJI J i^a^JI jJkjl) 

3jjje_cu^ CjLLj£. (_,ic CjJ^jvI (_j^!I 3JjL2il 2jjl ua^JI 
ij ia a iSjLjaJLlI CjLjVjJI : «1_ljVI CjLj-ojJLII (j_o 
^^j-uL-u^l JajjiuJIj 1 I JuS i IJlJJ^jI (J I «i ni i LJI^pj-ui 
(_g^>o ^1 2jjl uajJI j-j^. Cjj^cjJI ojui (JicJ, ( _ T jijLiIlj 
(j-o CjLLl«JI (jlj SJjLill (3^-<l-i (_t^"»- »43li (j^ljiill-i 

.aiJQiJ.1 ^cjlaLai!! jl cjIjLUi^JI 

3_j_>j_c jl Uai 3_j^Lj (^ CjjJ.1 jjiS ^Ir LfcLb^>.| 
tiJJjj njLLJj i^jjijt i nil 4_ujj>JI «lSLLJi,lj ijj-a^ ujJb 
ciL^_n ut~ llj Jjjj-iJI o^ J-^J *' /— uiLuil i— 3jl^j 

SjjlsI^JI oLIj jJI <j-o 2IiiiIiiiI1 j> J^J a JlSJj . 3j>ii)| 



HI 



ugoJI £JL9 

aj j a *j iCjjJ.1 (Jla (^^ I i j a ^LoLc I j fl-i a j j SiLaiJI '.(j^. 4jJljJ4x-i CjIjJLoj 
.OjJLI (jl2J C7i>*-" (j^n? oil (Zjjuuajs) 4_lL*-o /^.jLL) -il^Lj J uaAll 

u£if $12 pi U&» iUU L&a*^ tttttJI - 1 

iGenerality 3_j_ojju>JIj Universality 3_<JLSLJL> fu-*h i _ 7 j\ m'tl <JioL>. CjjAI 

Lt-jl i n il IJljlj Cjj a 1 I jl .(Jj_2_i dJUj (_L>-I (j-a . *_s!.3 (j_o t|J (j-u-J-! 'f-^'j 
3_ljvI_cJI (j-a-iiJJjJ I J-J-^LjJ • L»_LA--v j mi 1 1 1 /. 1 r j ■ La Li I j ^jj j' a ^"j" 
(ji ' ' ^*" L$Jl J-4^ 5 SjLC Cj^ej (j-o l-#3li *ljlaJl1I '"• ■ -^ I -^~ 1 "I jJl2-«Ll>-^JjSLuji]I 
. 1 _ r Li La I j". Li a la 1 4 .^"i-c-a CjLsLaJ ( _ 7 1^ '.''*' ' " '"j 
.CjjII (jla (JjijjLLoj (jiil! (JjijjLoa (j\j t_£jJb^>J\ JaLcJjVI -I 
.CjjJ,I (jla (jj»jjL2^j 4-ul Ltaidl (JjljjLoa (j-u mj J-&»*«JI JaLujVI -2 
. (^l^l vliLiVI CjU-jj) CjjX\ (jla ^ 2u<jii>JI 3j>^" "^ 

.Sjj-ioJI j-^ cjLcjju>J,I (_£jJ cjjJ,! (3^s M;j" ' " a pLaJj' -4 
.cjjJ,! (Ji^j a ±"*~- uJI cjI 1 11 (_>^i*j (j'V 3^^L«Jl "5 

Uj_lC (_yl^. j J La '"' LkJuiLiuJ (jylll SjjJkJI oJLA ^ j a J 1 C (j-O ja£.jJI (_yl^.J 

1 lo j "j-J CjjJJ (J-La oi-^ ' I ' '" «» *11 (_yi^- 3 Jl - 1 ^ LaIj-i (jj (j-° (3^>-aJ-i (jl (_Ll2 

^a_AI (j^— J (j-*J t<Uj i n i a ^_ujj alj" i n a (JjJutJ (_ T 3 t 1 1 1 ujj t3j_uS Cj 1^_jJtILc_) 

I j a\l -. -^ I ^| J_, lt _(-cu^a 3^LSiII i_2>LlvV L«jj tliaJLl (jia ■ aJliej Vj 
4Jj 1 La a >-Jt3 (jLSLol l*U jj VLlo Jl>- i<ijLi>-LGiiAj 4jI 2l« "j <J"hjjU (j^ (Jj^>J 

1 u -^ \l 1 1 (j-°j • Lii/i^-j S-oLaV Ij j .^.'.llj (JjjJ! (Jio Cjlj_L«ILa (Ji. Sjl L«jj 

• mJj-^-i (_5-IJ 4iL2j (j-o ( <= Ll3 3ji nLm^/l ,_Lal^j(JI) 4-H,L*_aj ajjt^>- J-J-«3 L*Ujl5 

^l^lSj ^1 ^IjLp^XJ (jiaUil *LLl1I jl c-x^jlil t^>Lo.l cdli ^ JJjJIj 

: lj_ui {yajixtsc a ^"^l^it ^j^>. jj_aj ■ ^ -^ t-aaj 1 JaJj-il ^Jl a miJ 1 JoS ^j-a (_p 
(jl (_j_AJiJj i((jj»_oL>JI J La^JI jjijl) (^IjoJI (_,i^. ^ JJ la 1 a a (JjLoa 4jjL& 

(j\jj_lSJ! Jl < mi 'tl (j^. '"«j j 1 ulj i«Gli (_^u I j 2 1, Lj c^jjs>-\ Ss 3jj/!jjJI j>jjfc 



12 



(j^-jJI mi II (j^jJ_J^j2l Jt "11 ill <j^». (_,i^. iCjjJ.1 (J12J <: ^t^> JL ^' "r^l^^V 
(J I * MitVl : ( _ T ji CjjJ.1 jjjia (j-a ^js>-\ i_jjI^v (_yl^. lj3\5J '^3>*il '-r*- 1 '^?^' oJ-tb 
aJ-tb '"'j m 3 jJsj .4JL>- 3-JJj i3Llj>JI » <^a njUajjjJu SjLgo^/I (JL»H>-Lj 
3_lJJ_1,I <■«! jIj La <^VI I j "'.'."" (_^% lS^' ^i>k J^' *>^ (jr^ £J^LJI 

jjjl (_jJI j j i"i t (jl ( _ 3 _A£Ljj n_jj^>-I (_jJI 3_aUL3 (j-« Lajlolj La^Lni-l 1 M~a»" 
' . " ""' „' '^jJSjjSJ! CjLt^u^J.! (_y3 (<UJL3 cr-y-^ *i->ljj Aj^JU ,<!l ^ 1 (ju.jVI 

!_yl\ I il-vVlj ^^iSLtJI llLj/Llill (_£J-0 (JIlO tix^>- 'j""l^ Jill ( _ T 3 L-oL>- ULJUa 

La}ljLi.l ' aj " » " Lfcj-uLj J^IjjJI ojufc J£ i3JjL»JI jlj^l oUo 4-lIjJi.iILi 
1 1 J 5 jj J 31 jj rt i Lul i n >] 1 Juu Cjj oil (jl 7t— 1 p t- i ^a t^>-l ,_J| «_<iIL?t_a (j_« l^-^J 
^J| 3_3ULj ( ^j_o ' tUoJeJ 0*ljl (J-«-iiJI -^JAj tj' J-i^- 'J mi J 11 f-i-4->- (_j^- ij .' " '.' 

. Ucj^Ij La>Lo.l (^3-1 



LajjJljcj ' 'j 1 ZaJ jl 1 4 li ui'K a 4_oLjijI 3_jl i a a. aJlsI 4jj . ^ 1 1 3 j I i a -- 1 1 
oJ_A /T<-jJ juusLxW 'J^j uaX I (jLtujVLa t(j-t ' ' "II (j -0 •— 3*1 4jt-uaj TcJjLill j-^. 
' J ua-l I i i ii Ij . i_j^iS_a (^.jl i nil T^jju (J^lal (J^L>- CjJJLoI ( _ T ill SjLciaj>JI 
(_jl^. jJ^J La J-^- 4j^ "JrH^J iCljll (jlSj sliaLjjjIj iCjjJ,I a j J a a (_p3lj<"ii nl 
iLSJI ^j-x-a ^ I c Ja 2 3 I I "i o fj a j i-~,r\ ■ ,. LuSLlj . Lj^2j 4-Lu< i—^Vl iliwn 
d , ,,j^Uj CjjII CjI^Lc (^ Cj^jI (_,jJI 4jJeJjLlll jjJL>JI (_y*JLi cr^- f J '^*'l 
.^JjJ ulijil (j-^ f-° (J^LflJJ o' c£*i l*- 1 (j-°J 1 £%£J "^[\ J-^- -iljl->Jlj 
tg| lil'-ie-o CjIj_uQJ '"• ijaa. i3jH«ja 3jLxir>. r-LlJ ^jjjl ja-aA (jLjijI (jlS lilj 
l_gj LtaX I /y3 (jJ^-uG /sail (jl (_j_Ll2j (jLa i«Ui^o Cj^LcLajj SJjJlC CjIj^cj 
a^LuVIj (4_j_ijj2.j_flJ I) 3j_&ljJI 4_4Jj_i!l 4j^j-aJ,l Sj I i a -«■ 1 1 Lx-& j_uoL«J,l 

' * ■*~-t| 
«U (^laj < i i n'^ (_yJl5JI Lol i4_JLi!l Sjjjill (_y3 Jj^l J-JjG-H 1?'>J1 i_3jjj/J 

(Jj^aAll I jui (j^ 4jJliJI S) S a 1 1 (^ 



IflJ 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

4*1 *Ut ym cpi U jLaJt uLttlf-i 

j-j-c cjLJLjjJI ojufc ( _ 3 -a (_gj^j_o (jjjLjjiI jj_L>JIj i±*jijJI Lj^SLsj i3-aj-2im 

Cj_jLb /QjJuXjl 'J^j LaaX I SLl>- t ^l^^- r" " * rt (j! (J-3 - ^' (J^-* 4 -^ (J-*J *4jjl I 'Ml 

i_)l i n-vj (^jji-I 3Lp.j J^ii-j <-^*J (j- 4j ila j"jj Loj iOjJU 5^S-2 (J^>- JJJJ 

Sjlc LJj_Laj Laj 1 r ^1 J_i .dJJi J£L! mJjJjlUj mJ-jLU jIjjl1<jVIj h-jLocj 

(j^lx-ij . ukj-LCJ SjLwiJIj dt-Te-'J I j Jajjjtlll ".(_p-a (_jL>JI I Jufc 3-oJL>J CjLJuJ 
La «d mJ j-llj- (jjjj^c J_u-u jjj^jJI y-l" mi nV LiejjLj L-uL-ul dlli Ju*j (ji 

cjjju-3 (j^IIj i(_ T Jtsi-"iJ! aLoVI Tcj^cis ^1 (JjLojjJI JLi-ujI S^jkLlaJ ^^.Lci^-VI 

.(jjjjjl 1 Jut Cll m"m II [J& 

«<tx_i jjill ji/mi 3juj» (jx. 4jLo (^^ «<jL«jl <-ijJjT» 4 _ 3 _>LX"^i 1 7"jj-ll .^^ 
l_gj L<aJU i _n i"ill (jLS (^ji! '•(_ t 1j Lo «3jjLL>J! JjL2jl!I» <_) Q^jjti.1 J i^-flJI ^^3 

(jLs ( _ 7 liJI 3-jLl*JI (^ L*Ui q^j Lx-iLa n_ijn ."ill (j-° *>££■ d>^ i-" 1 lt^ ' ^~ •"-..' 

jlj ?"m ill (j-a CjLJuJ JJ3 3-jLl»JI i>J_ifc OS^ 0' (J > 1 1 1 (j-°) aUj-a ^1 1 J J ».JJ 

V (Jj^cVI ji jj-^jJI jLS j_2.a .(S-LojVl a jja! JLLa Aukj>Li ^ jt^m-iU 

(jj^^ J-J Vj i^UaJLJl j^ij f 1 -*^ OJL>^A} <jJd> J - a il O^ C^ 3 - (jj-^ 'fs-4^ 

ALilILlfcVlj JOJ^J 4j1_L«JI ^^3 Ltxjlj 

lilj" mi"i mJJJI ^yjijjIaJI t_ijjJI j-lC. jjs'i/l 4j1 Jj ^ i-tj-i-u (j-o 4jLl«JI 0J14J 

ijLej i_^>o L*£La .^jill mJjjj Jjfc'i/I t_o- jjtj VI iS^sLc 4jJLuJVI 4_l3 

i_j^vIjJI (j_o (jLs '■" j mAjlj 5jLl«JI uj*j " "..' ^ o^'-^' (JLoL-jalj (j -1 i Mill 

. -* ^ 03^ ^ ojjlII (jrt^Luil i-i^Xl SjLcj liilJfC 

3jl_*_i ^j S, i ii «i"cj l^ili Ji^ Qa jj LaJLI (jLS I j! 4JI i4-mAj (_iJJJi,l i_fljjiajj 
4j_pJ,l 3j^£CUI CjI Jl>-2| (j^ C^J-" Cr^- *>t!-" *— ' LaAjj 4jLuu jsukLj^a (2>3J 

•" j J2? ij-^-lj " . • ■ ■■ -*'* 3-«jJ-iI! j_JL2iJ! (^ Lt»- (^jSLj (<sJ I Jufc (jLa 1/&4JL0V 

Ol\ tint Sj-J^ 2 J it! 0j~-tb (J-3J-II v2jl jLc jjLu/ ^yJI Q^jjjijj diljil l^jL? 

(j^j^L? I fr J-a-j «Lc jJlj (jLij^JI (^SLj (<sJ il icIxjII 



flfl 



(2>c cj Jl^ejj Cjjjj_uk» <_jlS (_yi^. iS3^ Jtx^v l jj^S jJI ( 3t!-'-*-' ct^ -'JJ "-^9 

jjjji^Jl ^ * mi (j a <Llkj Cj^I.1 «LL?t_a p ga3»l 1 " * LlJ^_) 1!il (j-^Jj L^aXt (jl ft j'^ rt 
(j-o •" gj jJ 4J3^L>JI cljl^j 2'"l La-ill (^ -" j" 'jj LlxJl^ (j^ilj^ Jlj 1 2 j -a- 1 1 1 j 
(jj_Li_uj_j_3 i4_Ljjj1 (j£. cjj-^' r ^ a J ' ^ ' tJ^-L)" 56-1 0^-*" (G-Aj i<: ^i>J' Cj^L<iS_a 
(_g^ljJI IjUfc CilS-m (j^9 AgSLala* L-llj liUj U'j^J i(a-fl>L>J (jj^HaJj -" *~JJ* '"' 
I fl j ILJaij 1_AJ_jj^5 (_j-2j jifia JLx-Ju (_y3 l5>2J' J- 4 ' 3jloL>. '^JjJI Lt-^" 
(* <j ' "jjjj (S-*L>J OJ-^HiJ (" fl" 'JJ OJ I " <L' '- M » ' (_)-*' (j-° (J'^P" i^Vi iiiJJI 

dil j ,JjJ3 Cljl£ (jl JlJLJ LojJ (jULJji j \l~ CLu\£ JLSj . ^1 Ji^-JI aLjI (j gj '" (_yl»- 

■ (j^ «J 1 nil J«-Lp3 J^ 2 -* 

lil S-uLjLiLaJI I j" 'jj (j-o -ij^'J 3-iclj^JI 'j'* (^ 3ji 1 a 1 1 <>T>XI C'tl^a 

. «GLsj (j-o alc JJ^-« Jt»J V! <tL-u^3 2j I J 1 ulj j' i"i (jJbdla 1 L^>-j|j CjLo 
,_£ Qj_>JI j ftl la a (j-a Lflxlj La J 3jL«JI dJJj (jl j^V! j^i-T J« j" 1 n't Vj 

. « (J-HJJ J j I » I fl-LmJl ^Ijl^ji aLoJ (_y^ (jj^* 1 ^' J"* ^" liili (_y3 (Jj^32l (jjSLj 

(_Ls diJe-LaJ ijJ-S ji (J-^J sL^jJLlI jj*^y* Lia *l '— s 5±? (j-° '— *r^ (_j-^ CjLo lilj 
(j 1 "l~^jj 'jl^l (J& gCL>J I (jS^Ij f<u i(j-UaJu <: L>-^!I jl (j^ljJl i^^Jl \jJt iLujj 

«Qj>JI (jj 1 -a-j dJJii /. J J I J LajLJ^.j . QJIJ '"'JJ Qj 1 la Li L*Uji (JLvjJIj 

•" La I (jl :4Jj_Sj «CjjJij_Ljfc)) tfj-^J La (j 1 c i^JJ-J Jlx^-I jjIojJI (3^»i3 
(jl^Jau I j » j 1 a jl i(_L^-^JLi i_iLA!!j o^>-^JI ^-jla uj it_i^jj>JI (jjij 1 JjJiiJI 
j-lo-A (_y3j i4_al_c J}j_<iuJI (_y^ 4_LajLJ jl 4ji LSjijj-a JI^J Vj (jlS 4xjLi!l 
LjjJL>-j Lx-iJi^ j'"" (_y3 (jj^>JI jjiLliiAj t—ijjjl JljJLoj (jl jjiLLij i^Lt^Li- 

5L3_jjj«JLI SjJUJI ajj! V| tiJJj ^ ojliij xJLLaJ i^uJlS Jj-oI ^yJI j-^-jj L«Jl 

(j-uji^>JU 3-ojio (_y3 "^j ■■j""-"j" «(j_uj^j|) oLli-l Cxjli - i lj' << c> u iJJl3' >) ->J<3 ilitu 
JlJ^. (_jjj2l ^-JJ-J i(j^-IL>-ljj (j-Gljijaj I 1 Jj^j Qj Jj ■ ^ 1 1 j-aj Jl2^ 1 ^ Cj • a I 
. L&j Ju^s (_t^- L^^ juJaJJ 4_loJl3 JJ£. (_Jjj>-VI »S^jj isUi^. L^JJJ » .><"j "^^-ulj 

(jll>. J^j iCjL*_jl_co Cj x^xa CjLjILi »l i u it! (j_a ( d it aiaj jj-t-is L^J^>- (j-«J 



IflS 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

Ljjt-LtaJI i— fljj (_y3j 3-oLc Lo^Li (_ ijj /_i «I_l>- L^JliLol CjJIjLo jjj-o dJJjj 
(<sJ j •** ^ (JjjLJI (jLa 4_t£. (_t4Jj iiiilj tc-j^S JL3 a}L<-uV! (jL£ lilj i3-caL>. 
(j_« L_L« ^j-ojJ)) : ( J^aj A^LtuJlj ^V i^tl d jlr ^-;»-tii (jl «t_ILjJL>. . dJJ!i (jx. J j"' ' 

t«Lu£. «Uj1 jIj-aIdj i«5j_4^>-)) 4_<iX. .jjj^l Jl>-i Jla^ ■"■ (_ T 1^. «U^j>- JklLtuI LaJLtX. 
'. LlJ)^se_« (JjJL) * q < n t(j^lAl (j_« J ^3 i 'i"< < "i (j-« (j-\S_u j' '^ >2(l »l mJ r < nj 
ulj i«3j-<t>-» (j-^Lu U-LO.-V j I La > »l «Lcuj ?"jjjt3 i««U ( _ 7 £l^j V»3j-<j^M< ( jSJj» 
(JjI j-SJI (jjmjj jl Ltajal Jiix. "iSj^jiJiJ uJI 2jJI (j-o 7=-J-nal J^S di! j (jl » 1 nil 
^q_j « 3^_<i^. >>^£ JlJ (j^jjb fr' ' " ' '' IJ^-lJ l ^*tH*" 'J ' a rt (_?-l| ^— 1>^-La ^_^_Hj 1 4_u^jul 

(j^l&l <j-a "-^j-U *LSLi ^1 di!i <j-o (j ir-il-^j 

CjIjL«JI j-JjI La ".Jj-aJ (jl (_j-ll "J J k ' ("^J "J-* J->- 1 LoJj-o Lc.3 La ljui 
!_yj^^jj\ 7c J La u 3 i4x-iJul!I 2jj LaJU jjJljsJI Cjlii (\JJ-II _>- l ' a - (_y^ ^i)'-'^' 
ju^JlII *-JJj3j 1 j^jilu aLjIaVIj Cj-lU <— 1 Juj 1 Jij JoJI jslaJj i(J^jJLi o^v^Jlj 
CjLsLjJI jojJlJLjj iCjljl_L>JI * n 1V1 J (Jl ■V'i^VIj i^LjjJI J^*-1J ijjLSJll (_y3 

cjtaLc l jK.a.iuiij , >|jl>J| ^>Lc2us^!j ( ^tjJljjui3iUsljiJ : JL^Vlj 

.(CJjuS {£) ' ^ q I (jl La I 

4_^JVI (j-c Cj-jJ,I (_j-i^ *LSLJI 3jLc Lujj J^s I— LJT 4-mAj <_iJJJi,l i ^ i ^jj 

iLli_Li,l ^L_j_aj_a (_ r A^. j^ie-ul (3^-IaLj AJ-^-1 3-^J C^jj CrS J LcJlJLc (( (j-uJ^-ll )) 
»l 1 11 II dJJ '"■-»" ^ " JlJL3 nj-O-i 7"Ljj» u i_jjkil ".^LiLa j->-l 'LilaLJeJ L«_Lu 
(Ji- Jjj iTjJx2 (_ 7 i (_,lrn nil joJL»JI (Jj-k 3 L ^-' '"'**• ' '"-"Ij ij^^j^l til! ' " 1 -»" fljj 
L«_lxj i^Jjjal jLujil (j-o Jljjji (_glS dJbj^JtJ I <" 0" 1 11 jj 1 n"^ i«pj» «UVI )«_o 
••— ijjIjjI (_3-^ (j^?-^"- J-*J Cnt) (_y^. (jjJLbj (j^SLjj i\ 1 nill 
«Lj/JL2J,I «Lji^jJI aj^-uj jl Lax 1 (j^ cLcjJLLtaJ I (JjJLS ilj CjLsLJI duLij 

(_yi (J_lJLS2Ij cjLsLJI ojui (J!Lo Ajca-'n u i j^jj-II (_^>- LLljLoj i^j^iil ajl23 

JJ-LflJI (_5-l^. L^Jt-LtaJJ Cjljl_L>JI 

1 Uj^>- (j^-«-ijl (_yJI 4 mm-v 3>^J «i1j5j «LlLc jii>- jJa «( "1 1 no oL>-l jl Lb^j 
<j2_»_>jt c^jJI dJUj (^ Lk^jLX jL£j i^jljJI /o-lILsI ^ Lifc«>Lil rj^>3 



\4b 



j_l3 4 1 n%. (j-o «j^j- (JSLI Ij^a (j%Jtjji .al a mi" 1 nVlj ^jjsI! L^JI 7z-y*a\ (jl Jjij 

(j%*jjl Sjuo . Uy.-»"tl j_^ «lj^v al ojufc '"'J^.'J i3ajj]l (Jlj-i-I 'LjJJ (JjjLlII /tJtJ 
(j%_*_)jl I g 1 J 2 ■ 1 ifl /o_Au^_« tilult>. ^j j LaJLaej «t_t£. 1^-iU I J (j-u>J1 till]} JtJLaj . Lajj 
^^J! tiUi Jtj-j L^-ij < j mi _i jo-j ij_iaLi«J! plj-il ' kbie qj I j" >i II » a Jlaj Lojj 

J j mi «(j-^Jjjlji» 4_Ji! «Lj 'j 1 a 2 1 1 j ((J^jljj^I (_gjj 1 11) i_2jj(J La tiJLL&j 

JT Sj jS<~ ,^3 3-L>JI ^yJI Mjjjil (jjjiajl >*J l M>»-" (sJLc- J? tUlj-l'i/l Jjif 

(5*) 

(j^l*5ejj 1 I Jj" sLj^-il jiukji jj -ii-^.1 Cjjjiil CxjlS 4x-ijJi]l J-i-^-« (_j-^J 

i t_j_u£ajj i^j^jj-tlujj (j^J^Lda it )1^_iiaJlj a utlaJ I (j'^JI <j-« I^J^ f^-^J^^ Lt^I 

(jl (J)JJl21jijj i(j^vj_*jj U34-y f~> '3j'-^ 3 ip^'j-^'j Alain] I till!} (j-o p(j» a 

. I i^-iji 7-jJ,!j^4i!l (_ySj <_ilj-iiJlj AL«Iail (_y3 js^v I jij Li (jjSjLiij LxJl ^jl! 

Ma> ^fl j<utu^o (jj^i jij (<s-£2 til! j (JILa (j j 1 < flj Lx_il j i<-i ( _ T 3 AJJ-ll (JjjLlIIj 

J£ LggJI (j%ioL>- i/iu-uljllj jLj^.'i/l (^ j j ^ 1 1 SjLj^J q^l^ljj iaUJ! jLj^.1 

(C-J tjJJjLlJjl ^-J->- tiU jj (jj Ml I M /C_Aj (< i\j~LMj AL_«_Ld (j_« UJ*.! ' ' " * *-* 

(jLi (j_a 2(1 /a^la (jj^e-J -3^J V 'J_JJ-"^'J ?1>*'J 34^' (j-° L>J-" UJ «-lIq-i <->j 
aj-j-Ji (jj 1 < flj L»-i3 (jjJ^ 1 ,-% t, I (_g^aj| i^jJJ Loj .^i)^ 'J^V JL^jul iiuJL>- 
(jJ 1 ^1 jL^j.'i/lj «LjVI 4_j£ J^-«J O^ L*i^ (jjJiii'tj J-Aj t (Jr i^>[X\ 3 i mi /jlr 
* ( _ T JuJlj .j>jlSJl (JjL*-> joJj till j LJj-^-I ll> ::;e - , ol ' '"' ^ lj-° Mj - ^ 1 (J^J (j^*^ 

(j%^v (S-^jLiI (j_c Ij-jj^ (j^flJlsej V a^jJI (2?%jJ ■ - — ■ ^ ^ (jl j-A «Lj£ dJLiV (_g jJI 

3jjLL>J! jjULjiuJIj ^j "j 2 La 1 1 jjj j_lci Sjjji^. )t^-lj^ d<.<-n--v I till j (_^>-l (j-a 
I J_A (j 11 j lj iCjjJ.1 (j_o j_»^L«ll (_gj uall (_a3j^ ( _ T 3 'jj-i 4xjJl2JI 2^. ,^.11 

«GjJl^JI J-»-a-0 (_5-3 Cjjll till JLC (j^ '_>^^ LjjLx. (jU l^lj-I! Jj ' 11 J (JJ 1M1 11%-J 

S^»jJl2jI )-ua.a ^'a I j"j olaaJ jl) 1" 1 ul 

itl_oj_2JI (j%j^j-all jtJl^. Cjjll (J12J ^jJl23-(JL>JI d 'j.,'" ^1 * A o^y^-i 
-1 jj 'I 43jjjla-(jVI 'LSjjiJ lS'-*-" o '^^ (_yi*XLj-S_ujiiIII ^ iujI 2J I (j£j jola 



1^17 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

i . 1 1 t-»"j cdJi (jLa i/s^jjJ l1ijJ,I (jiS !_gj^ i n 1, ( _ t jj^23 ^jjl23 ,j-o (^^SL^Li ( _ T l»- w 9 

i(_jjjlaj| L^jejju j-^ SJjIjJ! <laL2!l!l eJJt jjusllxl LL a ij M . ^. ^i ^ I ,^,->a 
c-M U ,'-^\t t (j^LfcJ^ I i i ,1 tj . . . (_£-ij-JI 3'jJli 5j>«jX! CjLv^LII ^Ir j j kaj Li£ 

. a ' LaJI I jjt iJ& SjJl^o oj^ ^ SjjjlJLI cj^LoQII ^j^y o^LJj 2 ^ jt I °'^-& 

.jojjtill j_gj ,^.11 (-la J-ta_j i "~ clulS I j~l 5l» ^j OjJ.1 S^SLa (jl tcl^I^JI (j-a 

- J a I a (jLi-di! ji^ JLsJIj-j^IaljU^VI LuSLxjj .4-1 Ji mi Mj «U Ji'n njij ^ j'« j^ flJ 

i31 j " ■"■ a lI^jLS /q-AJlI^. 3Ljj>ij1 )> ^jl jl . I * dji ^ o^ **-'-* (^4^3-^J ^j-*i ^j-* 

j-±£- '*_}-?" 'J La (ja ^*9 tCij oil LLiLaj 4_la1^S-i i LajLllI «L>-jj ^Jl-ljl q-v Ju9j 

' .'"j- 1 "-^ l£' cr^i • ««G-j-L«J (JjLx^jJIj j3j-^' jjJil (S^JIj^l (j-° j-i-*- 1 ^ 5 
4_Lo i_2jJ»JIj cjjJ.1 (JJ-Sj «LojJL)l (Irui - — ■ ^ ^ mJJl! cjjxII jjJlJuJ! o^SJI ! jjt 
4jvLv /_i (Jlj i nil I jjt ,jx. SjLv^I J Iqj i u 5 (jOji^JLI (j-u^aJJ AJi£. 4jkj£j 

Cj^JU a j gA^d /cj [j-«J t?cJjLiJl ^-^ Cj^i.1 4JLjJL>. ^ I] j la III «L^>-j '"■ alqj^l 

j ualaJI (J I Lia^JI 4JI (_yl^. CjjII ^LojJLlI QJJJ ' ^ tl jj i aj jJia . 4_Lo jjiiJIj 

3Ll>- 3JL>- (jJI 3Ll>- 3JL>- (j-° (JL2jjI 4JIj i«Ll»-jijJI j_i^5Ll*JI jjx. /_ o i n-»JI 

m£ jJ! J i n-»-ll 7"jljJ! i^jLio jji (j4 j -a- j mil £/Uj <^1 1 JlJi^, CjjJ,I Lx-Lu .^js>-\ 

j_Aj i J iii all Ji^till jji jojijii^. /yAtAgJI Jlj-cllj .jljji^l ^ISLo ^1 Lolj 
(jL.L^v'i/l (_)-a-JtJ ^^-3 CjjJ,I (j-C 2_i-a-_i i nil Cjj-x£. shj 17-jjU MsJiJ^I (^j^Lcui! 

L^vj^i-j ufe.il 1 nvj (jjij^ill S^jLia jjfc (j^ ol 1 ntl ijtii LaJLI jj^. Cjjllj 
(j\—lm^ i(Jl-^- c^-^i (J'" 3 " (I) - * J' ^"' H J-*^ '- 4J L5 t^y^s^jO Ajuu (J-ojJ 3-Aj t L^-i-a 
J-lc t-j^^JJ uLILu^oI 4J1_1 CjjJ,I jLlx-i i^^J • LaL*J (*_S-^I (j'- J -" f's-^J^' tU_J-ll 
I jj_3 ,^j „A"t| 4j_o c.t.-vj^. au I qK JljjlII (jl (_gl ii_u^23j (_ij^_iij 3-<kJ i<iill 
4i!l» .^yJUu 4i!l Jj2j . LK L=-J>i- Ci--vjj>- CjLo I jla i4jJI C^Jls-j ilkSAuil 



18 



.(42)^JJI 

.d)jJ,L) fC^-al 0" frl i_£J^a ^-AJlJ^. Cjj oil d , ^> , ^> -»" ^ cL^JI Ji^>-J (j^-aJJ 
3j>j-»-^a U"JJ '^1 1 (j^j-»-j 1 nil JJ£. CjjJ.1 ( _ t 3 jj'v ri'ill S^iS ^1 3^£.jJlj 
(jjjjLilll i_)LjSJI j I a ■ ul ( _ T 3 ojj_coj «LcIjjLj CjjJII ^^i J>^ JJ3j 2 ij I U ^ j 

.3j_o 331 43L>-L*_calj 

(2yi Jj i*aJU JlJ-C I ua-il Sjj^vj-o o^SjiJj CjjJ.1 ^^3 j j*C ii"i 1 1 ^1 3^£.jJlj 

:CjjJ,I ^>^ij .«CjI jilll AjLa^£i (j-o Ij^Iiil)) :oL(jla La j«JLj/j «LlLc *UJl (_j-Li-o 
. 3j_a 165 <*3ulj j<sj^£LII (jljJiJI jj-<-u (_5-3 4jI 23 iSuaj <LIaA] 
i7c_jjLl!! j 1 r SjjXjJJ mJjLcjJI ojui *ljj ^yS^Li.'i/l (_£J-*-ll ,_, asej Vj 

. i_uJLj (jLu^/l i_jJj>oj 

-sGLjjjIj^j d"l U^\l ^j 4jLc I jia 'I *j-i^3 ^^i^-ujij^. Ji-u-u jjlo jJI -ijJJ 

. «Lj^j_A^jj 4-1^ Mi^e-l -n g ' g l^jji ^ji JlJ>o ^cj (j-aj ' -1 CT^J^ 4_aLc jjJ^)-^ L*Jj 
^-&uj_a Q^ i"i -jej 21 {j\ ql i ntilj 4(j^_L5t_uaiX1 jj^J-a-^I-JlUj t^LajJiJI (l^U) '^tl ^^p^J 

. 1-4^3 sLL^al (_pmj ^ i'C 1 11 L^laj i(jj,jjj|j SjjjiII L^jjuj 
t^^XLj 4JLa^£1 ^j^uXI Cj^fUI^^I 

j-j-Lj 5jj 1 a j i(j-\_cujJl2JIj ^LJj^Ij «l«j2I (j-a (^j-l! jJIj^ *Ll>-V i -" j ' a a 

. aL«JI JjjJJ' L^la j-iij LaS i^ oUll jjSri"!! ji tpjl 1 nil ( _ 3 _bjJI ^jSLdjJI L^la 
sl—LJval SjLjj : j_i^3 L«J, I L'L<-aTi.-y-a ( _ T 3 (jjijLaj (_ 7 ^-II JljJL21!Ij CjIjIjlII (j-aj 



Ifl9 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

( _ 7 jv^JI lj7 2]3^ i LxjIoIj LLjLujI aJl«JI <Ss>- ( _ jr 3 (S-Aj 4 _ 7 3^JLl_» ^Lia-al JoLjjjIj 

Ijijjal j»l 'j' laxial (Jj»IL>o V ^J-iLc 'j3-°l CxjlSI «Ijj-u j&^jLp. jj-al (_y3 Ijj-jj 

( _ Jr 3 3Jl i ii 1,1 eJJb n£jjuaX\ ( _ 7 £.Lq1l>-z\ j<sJL*JI i(_^uj^£. Jljjj/ jjjSjJI <-i^tJ 
^_)jJLll JlJL« iCjjJJ «L^>-1j_a Jui^. ^Lstl?s_« jJljj Lij>3»)) '.(JjJLi jl J)^ o c (J_lL>o 
4-j-dL«-i»-l I 1 1\ i Lct-alL^-a fJiji J-aJ .(jVI ( _ T l>-j dlli (J-»jij (Ir^j » ^ 1 1 (jJEJ 
I'liil-v LaJaj ,<i."ilj .^.ll«j 4-lj i^tlj ^ISLJI Jj i ii m I i fc» i i«Luj/LJi,l oJl^J Sjij^S 

JlJ^.j 3jl_L>JI * j j Mil tLui (_y3j SLa^JI jjljj i<_jjLS'^I jjij (-jjLS'i/l SLaj 

. s!j\jlI!j 4jjj(iLI Lqiaj ioJjljj (^SjJI 
2j (JH 1 4 i \ 1 j ijj-LaJLj «LJ! il Cj_iL5 j^i£- -" la * 1 1 oJui -" la » a (jl tt-j pe-i-a 
pjj 4Jlj ijjj jl JJic-jji Lii-ojJL V [ttJaJJjl ojui ■« la * a (jl tc-ijej-oj 'ij'3i 
J3 ' " **~*J LaJI » a- 1 ^ * ' a aJi£.j . I ^ * ' a (j-jjjLiiJI (jr^- * < - :e - 1 ^-aj-a**-a *tj^_j_L3 

tj-a j i ii ill ]JJt ^ * o ' ^" * Laj i^juLUl ^-tlujj CjLijS^jI jl_t>-t ^_tuj i _ 7 _A ^j LaaX I 

oJlj* (J-»J i ) i a a ( _ T 3 j J l taJ 'Lj-ojJ 3jJ^>- L^ia jijeJ V (_ T J-!lj iL*UjJ Sjjli! 

(J-^.1 mi II J < i"i II (_,-* '"" aaAjjaJI oJufc (jl i la a. y J j . IjLA '-'- a Ji L7-* ;v t — 'J-*' 
(O^jjij^v ^^3 '"«! -»A.^.II jj-o Lij_LC (_yl£. (<s-&jJ^ L^Jsl^S 4jjJjIj . (jJ^-uSLL! 

. 3t_UJJ5tU 43j)^JLA 4 4±u2mX I 

( _ 7 Hll iSjjLjiajJI 4jjLL>JI jjL»_iSJI (j a » _■ I Ij^Laj j_uju 3j-&LkiJI ojui (Jj>Jj 

. u^^X LJ J CjjJ.1 3j_&Llij (J^juusIjlW (j\JjuuzX\ ALAJjil mJJlA L&jJJlJ (j^-JJ 

(_gj i ^ 1 I L'L.<_qrL--^-a ( _ T 3 LaJlJ>o ALCokVu S^jJl>- (_£_^>-l 3j_&LLi iJJLlAj 
i^^JijJ,! (J-3JlJ ■" " J " (_7J.II CjLl«ju>JI (j-° J^J 1 ^ AJ^J 3j-Ai-li> (j-*J jJ^LnJtl 
CjLj^vIjJI > IjI jj 1 aJJ I j ft i (j 1 I ^>"j 3jJjLC i ,V\L!oj> tlllj CjLulxj>JI J_X-i» 



50 



.«1_>j_«JI (j-oj (—IjLJS^I (j-o (jJ^il 3^e-> ^jkj-ijj (j' f l*''*«tl »l '^>f 1 l£>J Ct-^' 
. SjJjtlLa CjL^vI^JI ojui JaLx-il (j! 1 La a. N II (j-°J 
i4_bjJll ( _ T 3 «Ll>- 2I (_)Aju (_y3j 1— flJ_>JI /_£ «LcaL>- »l 1 11 ill ji i_jJ^JlII (j-oj 
ji tujjl ^1 pi o"i 11VI J-Lta ^_'j i^lSLJI JLi<a2j Sj^jilII ^1 <_iLijJI (JJljwGj 
(_yaj^>JI jj-caj^ej i^JjjJJ /_3 ( _ T l».j dj-ali- (_ij^JI /_^ (JLvjJI (jlj lOjLiujI 
j Jaa.|» : JLjI 1 ntl JjJiJI lilli J^JJJ . 2_j^_*l!l ^Ir j CjIjLLsJI » ju, u'\ ^Ir 4i£ 

l_ljL3 2l (j-O 2j^jQll (JOJLSoJJ <-^^U (J-*l 0' ' J "*-N'l0 ""jlj"^ J iU^.*! Vj Sjl_L>- 

SjLc V 31aL>J,I tgjbi-ilaj «U ^^c Lxi»- 1 j» I ta '' 3j_)ji1IIj .(j!j_<j>Jlj <_2jL»J,lj 

J J 1 11 j^lSjJI Cjl_i.ulj.3J '"'Ij La ' (jl __ll 0J_J (j! (M n__>l (j-*^ lj_li-ij 

IjJijj . jj-— 'I lj-* (j-o <-— 11 mi 1 1 nllj — 111 m" 1 nil ,»_ <_jjji__> J_5 ^ a^2JI _>_j_ax. 
^_J| «L_u_o £_v_>JL_ 1 L'l*_iCi-~— a J-*£- (j-o 3j-l>- -M 4_>.jJ,l __9 j_<J__1 3j_j__J 

.j___L>JI ___^aJI ,__ cjL-JjjJI ajjt Jila 3_L_.l 

J-_» (gi £i$U talI*U talLd 4** - 8 

«_uJ_>Jlj «Lx-J-— H j'^" ___ «Gl _Lcj CjjU ^_j "j 2 La ' "'^' (jl _>_L<di,l (2h° 
^ 1 ' *~> * 4 j ^ ' — — rt 4 JJutjJlj L*_ u— ill ^j-* ^H^c ^^O-^ _t~^ O "J ^ M-— > —*-* 
(J S, i"i J L$_:LuLi J_lIL2jJI /j 1 a ^"j 1— _c_>lj (JS i"i J 2 aj U" ^j 2_Jj__La , d Sja \j 
SLsjJ! ___*_». (ji 3-<kJ S^i. _M J_-i (_J i>^j L_.L___I (_Uj_> ' ^j-- 3 !? •CrSj- 2- 
J J & ° T* ^ -"j^ ~ I jj a (j^--4-i (jpJ' « LJLh*"' S J^i'vjJIj)) (_1j j I 3JL>J| ^jt SjLoJIj 
J.aa A^JSjLtil 1 11 aj «CjI«Ij^vVI» (_i < j a I j 1 uj (J-\_l2j L*l!jij ijj l^uJI jl 

(JjjIjjj/^J! jj^JJ (_J JJI (j I "*'tl ' ^'Ij t^.UiVI Jc>. «_Lj 4^jJ| ( j^ S^jjj i( ^ijoX| 

StcjjLUI j-^ CjI jL«JI ojui j-J-ij i£J^& J-A L« ij^Jj • iSj C* ' 
\j-i, (j^. 3_jL>.^iJ oljjj^Jii) I gill 1 "j t_gj Si mi »l jlr Sjjj^jJI i". 1 11^ 

JJlj»_o ( _ 3 _Loj (_JJl^ /- I c I j"" "I j ' ' " 'j 1 a a-4 1 j 1 1 2 ^1 ^. ,>.t-l j'Xtj ijljjjjl 
CjjJ,! (jl i_aj^j(Ji,l (jja <til j£j2j . 1967 aLc u ^"i bg ^^aLiil j i^ull (j^s IjLjj 
j<sJ A^LuVI (jlj jj ,^..11 ^J^l Jtla Cj\Jj i-aXI SLl>- j_^ l?J~ SJl^La (Jiaj 
I Jlj* (j^ 2_3j^_«_1,| Cj1_ujL«Ji,I ,j_o j-jj^ ^Ir ^Lal^ r I ■'*■'* r I lialill » taj 1 uj 

. Lj^£ j Mir 4j^ij jtla L^J 4jjjUtA (j-o (0-C.j-II (_,!(* ijl JljJ.1 

151 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

Cj^-^j < <i U » '-(jlj ' f Cj_>ij «(j^-J (*^HJ ■Ajlj^'" "JJ^*" lS^' J J <3 '* 'I f-^J - *' 
-l_<fcj_laj *l£>-j (j-a-t_iLlSLI! Ijufc 4_loI jj-pj . « (<i^J 1 .3 Lcj fp-^JLSi <i ui '.(jjjJij*JU 
jj-« Ui-l £ LaJ La_« t^j^S <j-« ^&l JlJL« 3ji^vj_a CxjlS Cj1_}ijlJ j^pajju «U^S iJ ^ 
4_«_<-2 (J^. j5|3 L»i .4jJL>JI pLx^jalj i_2j|j_LaJI *_o SjOx-a CjUjLLa jji^. 
<4jj <n[\ 0j\ LajJI SjjIjJ JL==-o ^ i_jL£L!I I jui 4-iaa- (_£JJI JiSljJI J-«-*JI 
SjjJL 2 ta xjj 1 1 SjUJ-iiuJ! «GJ3.S «G.}IJ3 JuSj .(j-CL^-LJt j-j-«->- L4J-II jL-Jul (^Ij 
,3 .' "i J (0-1 (j-jJI 3-aL^JI Jjj-oLill! <j-oj ^jii^ <-^lj-i| (jJJ 2t\-^\l II ^^ Sjjlj 
j^c «GjJl^JI CjL-uIjjJI ■" La » a «U Cj^jLj JL3j . I j" la a. N a ( _ T jiv| til*jvLi ^2 
(ji (_j.ll «LflJJJll oJUfc 4_j_lj (jSLlj *J-*"'j' ^ !e - 1 Lt^ ^Jj '■a-tl Sj I 1 ia >i 1 1 T^jju 
11 La 2 3 3j_&LSJI (_^fl LlLlJIj (jJa-uiaJI CjLS-lLJI ^^Lc: VI j ' '^"' V 4j*jIjJ 

iL^jJLJ jjl^.j L^SI^ -./ajLllj 3jl_L>Jlj "j* X'llj J 1 nitl '.jj^ (JSLi 2 S I «" 1, 1 j 

.7tJI . . .jjjjJI SjLjj J I '"'' JtHaJI i4ja-j i"itlj 3jJL«J,lj 3_il JoJI : si i n'tll Sjjjco 
CjI^Lc (^ CjLllII (ji /--Ij-I goJI i "j (^-SJcs-LJI (_^algcJ tj^-l (j intj Ij-p-lj 

joJ L^JI i_£_>3 3 J iCjjl! CjI^lc ( _^ Cjlj-iilll (_v^»J CjjJl>- ^1 j j i" "t dJJ j 

.^jjj^l ^Je-iJ CjjJll SjjfcUa 3^=-i (j^jj_caJll (^_^aL2iiJI SjLaJI Sj-laj ^c 4-U 1'* 
(j-Jj-t-omi cJ^^J L^a-LI ' la J se rt ^^^ Cj^J,1 5j_Al_Li ^e-i 5j LaJul (jl (^jl L^_La ^j^'^ 
^LaJLaJI (]/U^ uall Sj-ia-i (2>c Jj-i^s LflHl I i j'-» - ' (_,-3 VI M^jis ji Ij_uSj_uuj (<sJ 
j_i£. Aia i^^jJi,! ^c-i \) LaJul (ji^. 4jlii (c£L>JI ','*»'' m'ijij . S^jiLLaJI ojui _J^=J 

(jjijjj Cj Luj-lLi jX. I Mill ojui (j^ I JL>^ if IjJ-JI (_5J^- *!-£>*-!' Cjj^j LoJlJc£.j 
Cjljj^sal )«-3jJ '(j^yj> tJ^J d>4^" 'j- 1 * 3 J (j-d^*"'^,? '?l-ia-<-«JI (_)-«^^-tl CjuVI 

j-cLiim j>j_<fc Ojjj-ri 'j- 1 ^ . jjL2JLI (_y3 ij^uJ.lj «LsLJIj i3jLL>JI jjj-u jjc 
i_a^Lli.l (_, I cj i3_^cl_«JL3.VI -" j j ' I S! aj - aj I « c I i_a^iii.l lr 3_<_LiiaJLl 

dlli (j^Ltflj (Jj^j-oLjlU UJ.L-' ** a * I j <i'( ulj 3j 'I .^"aVIj tLj^LSiLlI /a^JUj" i na 



52 



i4_b^>JI 4JL-m»JI j^Lfuil aJJt (ji ■ U^\i \ UJLa dlli *_oj . jjioLsJl LuJSj (^ =v 
(j_o i_2j^>J1j SLljsJI ^ Al flgj JJ + <1i T LS (_Jj^>-i j-cl mi a (j_o L#J J i aljl aj 
«_a ja^JjJ Jljc-1^ iSLpJI (_,lr ^LojJill (jUj loX\ JLj^J *-l«j joJ 1 43 1 jj-u^aJU 

(s-AjLi>-li-ljjlij 1 1 j a & I j "j SLpJLi ■" j 2 1 «" Sjufo (_,i^. (Jj3 (^Lc.! cjLujJ,I 

.* jjJaJlj *Lul11 (j^j^ejj I ^""~ Lu^a (jj ' 53 )a 4_)LcjJl (j^jjtj-jjj^^-i-o L*J, 1 

Cud Li I )l t o"m nl Jj<3 «GjJlj>JI j-»-a-o i«^ CjjJ.1 CjIjLc (jLi (Jjjill ij^-lj 
JS mi t (Jj i (jj I La a JS mi J -i /jAjVl l-lxj i«LxjJlSJ!jj^ia ( _ t 3 CjI^LjlII dJJj «L<l£. 
L^j! i! i Ldij-i^l Ojc-1 ajJjj j o" i n* (ji (jSU-iV cIx-iJJlJI CjLUJ! q^ dil j .(_yjj 
i(jii jJI ^j..j"U ( j_ a 2LLo Jl>- . 4-lo^L<-u21j 4jtj i nl,l (J-Gju jJI (j_aj_<jL~-i LlJ Jju 

1 431 o i m^j (^j".!,! <!>■ j (jSLi (_5-l^- "3 " ' ' ^12 'iJtH'- <4 -^' u^*.' *Ij5*" jT^3>3fl 

(_^a « ' <JJ_ol.i J "' a L*LIj *_oj .(j^Jill Sjt-j miU CjI^IjlII ^S Jljlj j-uL IjbfcJ 
( _ T ^ (jVI ( _ 7 ~jv (j^ <il i nil (_£jJ J-^-^ cr^ «*Lc>Jl» f-^J i_P-° ^-£i>*^ CjIjLlJI 
L«£ -llpl mijIu i"i i im! (jil 3Jl Mill . MJLu^sl 4_ojiL^3 "jLc L^JI ^ "^ Sjj ijo^oja 

. ^-Lo- *r J 1 jlJ^ Jo^jtjj 1 1 <^i9 ' jj '^" * 

4»iij*ftll i£*J il£JI$ £ jail 4*»$1 $£■*-* 

cu-lJ,! <_z^ slSLill (^ i_alj^jiVI (ji t-jjIo^j 'l^'v." ' LiJi (j-° (*Aj-N c?-^ 

J)j ■">" 4_j^jJlJ ^jIJl^-^-j ijl "m^i n i^i D "' Jj tjQ rt (l)'-2-i'-^ 1 o i^ d jlr q^j>J1j 
(- I c sLSLcJI L ijjj Ji^» . LuU y-l'Tii nVI jjLa imJj^>-i i— ij « in (_y3 1 1 g-u^gla i 

i _ 3 _3 jj_a}o_I 3* U3J (J_J iL_3l^_i_ulj jj_j>o «Lj_3 ^>-«i J-^ t ^J—lLi-u 3t_jv^_a 

(j_j£Ll (ji (j-S-qj-flj ii fl i 11 js-lx. j-lij 4-^>-J (j-a-j-a2l jj i unl (j2 . L^jL-aJj_LC 

Cj1Jl>.| (j^ J^>-l CjJl>- (_gl ojJaLbVj i JiJ^S pjj (j^ i a-ilg CjjLv CjjJ.1 
Sua. 1 i r^ 1, 1 ~ull<n'iVl 4JLaJk!l (jk (j>LjII (ji»-) (jLuuVI ^jj SLpJI ^ljJ-5 

:<d 
I ai i2>i ' "-J 11 <t_£l u/ w a I JJ— — >■ ui 

j"M j II 3 ct ui w ~*jlI; ^ 

155 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

'^*- J 1 ^ d^ri^ iSjuSJI ( _ T 3 4jla Lu-uLlLo VI » Ail i Ay,. II CjjL>JI I JJb jjjjj 

'•(_yA 4j^\j i_xJI^v L^J 3-j^j-o 3jJIjl»-j 3JLv JI»a'iVIj . Ijjjuio LjjJa 

^ i "A i J « A ', 1, 1 c\_) ^j.ojtj (-J1J L^J-J * '"' * ^^>- "I 

. JiLAJVIj ij^jjuJI cjI£^>JIS i«GjukLiLA <3^i-«-! (_^>-jL>- i-t^-iL^- -2 

iaJJI JaJu «ai j *"^ p i n~»J1 g I ' a c I cJuLIi^j J i aula ^j^^J^jj-i^ i dL> -3 

.L*l!i j-J^-J (j "AT.tl (JjL»_a Sjujj 
(J-«-3 Jj J-<kJ i J-AI mi U ^^-^ j L>J I <_uL->JI ^1 «L£LJI 3jLje-u-uI ( _ 7 -h_lJ3j 
jii'ull (j-o (j .ijl'^ Ij-lj . SLa^JI 3JL>- (^ Oj-jitj (_£J-1I (jj^til iySI Al" ^^jLjiola 

^j-« oj-^c^ nlS_JL) /Qj (j-«j njj^>JL) Oj oil i m***" i n tV i it mi cdLLA (j^Sij ^jl 

^yjbu ,_£ jJI IS*1I (_>iaJ>J.I 3-1U- ^ VI ^a^ill .Sj^ojOJI 4-JL»-fljVI jjfcLlMI 
3^.1 A I- II SjI^L^/VI c-^-l. ? .~llujV liili '^J^i ^Hr*^ i^LtaJV! aLUI (j^s 
CjjL>J (_>iiJ^Jkl l-i_lj=J} i nj ( _ T l5_«JI u^sjX\ (j-« eO^' "-^^ii- 3 " cr^J . ebtSjlXI 
/. I A » tl ^Aj^U ' d^e '^j a i«L»-a *> A , ,." ^ Vj «U 4fLaL-\-iaj_LC 3_iL*lu-ul CjjJ.1 
.(3jLJI jLii-VI g- 1 pin mJJlI sLSLJI :di!i (j.i'Cr) !jj>c- l — i ^ A i "jWM L?^ 
mJJJ J-a-jJJ ij_uij_LCi CjVLsJI (j-° f'J-'-" liJLA (jl «M5jLiII (<d*J O' < -r* J ?i9 

' la A a iJr u^jS\ ^yzju 

(_>iaju » <-(j 1 '■" * (j' Li-'iSLn-i 3-oL»JI <^-l>-^1j'Cj i nil Sjl&I m.1,1 ( _ 7 i^. IjLci^Ij 

•.(^Vl /a-L<nTjl-CjUI iii i nVI 
Sj mi II ( _ 3 -3- ( j}J-<2-i 1O3JJ CjVL>- ( _ t 3 (IrU^ uaXI mJJlI «LSLJI sbLa-"! ill (jl» 
(jl£Ulj (jLajJI ^ ^jjLSj ^ylll i_jjj(JuJI (j-o /ojkjJii. mJJJ I4JJ j k )-j 1^^-Cll I j 

.«3-oL»J! i_aj^IiJlj tjl 1 mIIIj 

U>n ) *_o 1 l(j n iti Jjj-i 5>J^ J-°l>c. (J^LAj (jx. ^jLj liil j (ji LyjJ mJIjJIj 

: ^^Jj Lii l*"'^' ( _ > I3j( j ^AJIj Cj^LoQII 
^^3 4jjLL>JI ^j..jAUtl ( j^ Lj/LjiI I JljJ (_£ JJIj ij^J-ujiJI ^jJeJjLlII JjlJI - I 
(jL£ 'At i3|_3jj| pjJSj (jx. (j^LcVI 4^j^ia ^1 ^lilo jiajl .S^jJlSJI j .^> 1 

( _ t IIjvj 4_4jJlJL!I j'^" JlJLo SjiSLjJI cl2j^LiJI lJ jt 3JjJjJIj ^-lj ■ -^ tl^ ? [SLJ| 

.4ibJiJ>JI JI ,^"iVI JjLjj pjjj J-^3 M,i ii_u^ ' J<* 
(". I » -v iJl_lj<_> J j c JlJ_o olj i" 1 nVlj Sj^SLllI CjljjjJIj jl m"u hVI -2 

. pjAl, 1 ^$Ju S^cLjii) t j^> miIu «LuJ_a iQ^kju cLujuia ^j oj A ill 



54 



3JlJo-»- jjjLLl 3-j^Lj-II CjLj-iVI aj-i, ^J-LijjL^-jiaJl .(jjjjJIj J^LL^I 

I *i 1 M «l u il >. ■ ' 2 fl w —j >■« w * c a 

I * j j >. 1 j a i * 1 1 J j - ■ jl «j jj— a J_ A 




d_j ai 7-^ v iXgltJ ' 1— 1 -1 j la (j— » J— * 

I j iJ g_> (J >JI L_)ja_J aI a] jj__ 4 J 4. 

(12=0 

^j-« pj-J jji^-x-ujl ^jLj JjlaJj (C^JL>. ^jLtaiJ tjlSj *« ^>^>- < : u-*->-i -1 g i J I P >|i ' J> "^" 
(JjSLj (jl (_paj"riU (jl^^J La£ jl ijl jiacVI j I d '"* J -taSaJI U^-»-y lS^' Uajj I 
I i J 3 jj^ i n llj lLLjc JjJI Lai i3JlX.LSJI (j-tb ojufcj i '-"i> > - LujSLo (jLvujVI 

. c 1 I i"t i ii 2f I 

7cjjLlII j-j^,-4*jj i nil tLu-uIji nllj 3j 'I .^<"aVI i_2jjJiJI (j-a -iJJt! (^^jjiHJ! -5 

4 i'hi a» jjLvujVI (_>iLc (ji-JLiAJ Jl$£. I La- 1 gol-C "-t^P (_y-^ 'j'cJi^i" L$J ' a ^ 
Q_^>JI (_)-«-»■ La-a n-illj-tujLi JJ-«-J 4JLj^_L> Tt-j-i^sLS i(j' "'lb 'LiJ-a « ISLuIo 

. Jjjuijl ja_j^.JijJI ^ all (_gJJ! ( _ T cLai>-VI joJjuJI (j^ 

Jalj^VI (^Jl j t^ill (^SLaj I jjj i(jja^lllj i n_iriT-"itl (j-a pjj-jjj^2j J^l ^^i^-jl 

(jiLj_iajil!l ^j-cjuj Catharsis j_i jU-.tl ^ p^j dj| ^l/~ t KaJI ^ JaljJeJVI ^^a 

(jJ! >Lla jJbJl . 3_1jL^II ajjlmll LgalacA jj>i3j jl^Vl jl i2jVLtijVI 

5 la j ... j-j 1 1 tLSLJLi 3l_3jJI <JiiVL>. (j^ 5 ^j ,^ 1 1 3|j_1I 5-^jl ,~„ a 5 )j ^ , ,. 



55 



. 4_a-iLJ3j A i ii j < " ,_£ju>-lj i<bu^j Sjjt i ii i_jjI^>- (jLcujI (_p 3Ll>- (»^ -7 
(VjLc) LJIjUcl L*JJj3 <icj^a I gj?-/-jl i^aa>j (j^Lu/l ^Ir-Luia^Ii^l La lilj 
(_,_[£. j_o^lI! (jJI (Jj^-i •" J ' ia » J J^>«-> LuLs tj mi j II •" la » a (_£jJ J-J-*J Jl>- ^1 

. 4xj Lil I j 3Jjj>J, I 
x_o ijj^l (_5^- '^rjJ-^J Jt^^' t T*- 1 '^? 1 ^' jl>^! l^\ UJ^J' 1 "j '^* " j' / *" fi ' - *" 

j AllaXI (j-a jji^. ^jlr j_i^ill ^1 (jjjLlII {ye pjjjl ! J-& Jiu ^ jj i_i^Lc. ,J-La 

,-ilj^l taJ| 1 aVT,j< LAJLa((Cjia2 1 u JJaLa 3jjLL->» jl ^Ir ^liLo j-if^pJ l£ iSiLSJI 
3. 3" Mj 2_j_LL2JIj ^1 J <"i 1 nVI (j_o SJUej dil j JajJjJj ! 3J,L-u j j La3 (jjJI 
(_,_!! >LiLo jJaJl .((jliaJll)) I JLA J>L». jJjj 1 fljaljll (j-a 3j_u£ 3^jLL> tiJIj^V 
3JL>. (jJI SjLi^U 4Jjja jir" 1 ujg iqjjjjloXI dJaLuj ^JJI vi>*J' J>»JI 'j-* 

ij_&LlaJI (_yi 4 j I r Jjj (_£ jJI (^J-U (2>c l>JJ^ f-" 1 ^ J^" Ct^ tjj<j"tl (j-a 
Ls '- ".'J" T ^ 3- a f .' '"'jj *j'-t>- v-^' Jlj -" ^1 J<"i "1 'LjjJ lSU J ' "*y ai> -J-^J 
2 j ' ' ^"' a ^ '.(_," 1"' <— )l j 1 11I ( _ 3 JI- ( _ > Ioj_flJ! I J_& J}J_ca o!"?-^"J-i L ^-ta (_p (jl 

. «Lijsjjuj 4_u_uLu_uj 4_j_tuiijj «Li£. LaIL>. 1 j 

A^jill 1 Jut £^ ^^ri-V J^-p ( a -6-''-^ :v l? - ^ I T U ^^?" CJ-^i SjLJl/^Llj iTi-tlalj i _u 1 nLa 
aLl^JIj sU^JI 3j_Ji/ ^1 jojjJjLJu! (j^ «Cjj^ «lj->-i» : ^lila (j^Jjij il 1 JjjJ! (_p 
ajJ_uji Ijufc ^(jj-»- (jl L*U!i (_ T J-»J J^J . 3lj_alji (jl^ ^l^>-j 1 La (jriV i"n 

:<JlijJ,l (_yi>» (^1 1^4! (j-"^- 1 >*■' Lt^I J' '(* J <Jj!> ,L '! Cr^ (J^- 1 LILU j <i " 1 nj j 
I 'I j"' - ^ (J'^^i' oJofc (JiX I 'j j 1 "**' (jLS lilj .(j^j^ej (jjs Cjj^ jl j<uk ja^jj^ 

(jl jsj^SJI ^jLaJI L^jI (_yj>-a i_£_>3 Vl (jSLIj i3- i '- t ^>i £ - j' La.jLi-3 (jjSLj jula 

i_j^v (_jJI SjLii^U 4-ujla ' " ' I S I »~ a (j^ 4J Laj (CjjJ.1) a j j a 1 1 Ijufc aI jj-"n nl 
QflJa * (jl (jS_c_ij S t <^>£- aIJj*" ' "i 3-A 4_i-oL>. «U^La «u_u_uj jl i(j-m_a a utla 

JjiSLiJI cjIjjjlIII ojuijia ^Ijcaio/I Sji^jjjs Liljja^ >Li3 ^l^iaVI |ju* 

j^-jj.1 1 U 1 nj ^^ijS'ill p^c^Ua iT-jui!l i_Aa (^ (jjj>JI (jjjjJb (jl (^ /n (j 1 iij 
i_j_lc.jHJI (_jlr i—ijuk^lll t_xJL>- 1 j j I r (jjj-ll SLcjJI (_>aJU *ljl /aJiL«3 -9 



56 



< SI la <* j jj-Atlj (JjjJu 1 JLj£.jj JjJl^j (j-o 4-Lg-i >»"" Loj iSj^j^all JL>.I mil 
jj&? it_il juJ! (jl_aJfj jULi ait/ViU 4-uTj^JI Cjb^l ^^k: JJfplI £-0 'J>«^l 

.t_ilji!l jjj^oj 4_L>JI Jj-j3 ct^' tiilj (j-o 
(_yi jj^jJI (_, I r ^^ -*■" (_yjJI 3-oTjJLll CjLjVI 3_>j£ ( j-o (a-C.j-11 (_,lt* 1 j-A 

2 uuJI 3JacjJ I j 3^iSL>JLi cdjj (_J j 1 1 11 (jJI *ol» : ( _ 3 JL*3 «daJa 1 3 *"j tS^jJI 
ijjJLIa 4JI Qojlj^ ^1 Lufcih) j . (I25-(J^e_iJ!) (i(j 1 M-*. I fjjt (_ t jJLj /a^JjLvj 
-till ,j^ 3-^>-J l«ij'°l» . (44 , 43 <ils) m^ uOcJ j I _>£JCb 4l*J LlJ Vj^ <d Va23 
. ( I 59 (jlj -1 c Jl) «dl!ajv (j^a I j JaAJz ' . ilSJI ilaalc Ui3 C^Jc^aJj js^J Cxi! 

. « 1j)^ i o*J 

jJlJLJLi 4_L>J1 ^_5 (J-«L) 2 ' ^j ga j 2 ' q j jjj^>. Q " '" ' a fo-ai mm a ^jLtujI ^1 1 nil 

... jLcJI tLajV 4_l3 J-a-*J mJJJI 
«UjfcjJkl «UJ3jj>JI jtt^Jlj-j ■ iLflJJ s I j La *- 1 1 ^Vjjfc LLaLalj till Jj A dll Jj A .j^J 

La-l^v l*J_ij /j I c (jLi L&jijlj VI joSLLo tjjj)) . Lijj-il &j-±& ^yV i3.jji$Jllj 

«Ljc_uj-j<s-AJl>-I (jl Cj^ij (jj ^LSju-a'ill j-uu (jt j5i3| 2j . (7 I -ja-ij-o) " I J i *"■ S a 
3_j_3_i 4-jIjI (j_o j<sjC.jJI (_, Ir i<tcLiJv 3juu>JI 3^L<^3 (^^c. LoLaj «_LLa!-dl! jj 
-«LuJjJI «Ll>-LlII (j-o- Uejjej^s ij-"^ IjL&J . «Uj_LO /_^ ^LujiIjjjiJ S^JlJ i~<IjI.^.II 
1 Jljju Jljcjji^ (^^ 4j>jsJ>iil S^Lca ?l^i ^1 j La 1 '-» I J^>-l J^-^'J .j-aal d 'J,,' 
(JjJl^.jjJ.1 (j\jjijj,l 4jjjLL> C^^o r-j J_b-4jj_Lo ^1 i_u^2JI Jca- mil ' , 'J^"^ d* 

! 

^Jl^ /- 1 C JlxHjU J_ULUl I Jai (Jj-« ^>j3Lj DJlJu (jl ^ySjZju (j I i ililLLlI [j-^J 

in Mill mJJlI SjjLi 4Jl£wO (JjJlLI (jl (jJJ (JjVjJI (j^aj-uS j j mij j .(jjjJLi i'l mki'iII 
(j mi " J jl (^^JljJI (j-4-2 (OJ (j-aj .4JL«jJ (j Mi'v-jLaJ LjS-^^iaj-uSj ' L$J ' a < ' 
(j-a JJ^C 4-ajLij (^JlJIj i(Jl;U2jJIj i_j_i_(SijJLI I S^p-Lj (j^) «U3 J-JLjII r ij-a-lll 
h_jIjjSVIj ftl£LjJlj JljJlAJI (jjj»U 4_iL»jjjiI %j, iSjJiS A^axajj iJiLc^Jlj SLcJlII 
(jja «ULilJj-a 4jvjJ 4^4^- L rA>-y tJ ' L)^-*- 1 L ^J^ ij I (jr^-^J • *^1 ^JLjJ '^l\' l5^3^ L° 
. xJL^JI (j-a Jjj-aj pj^>Jlj 4_uijJI (Jj i4ia i_ajj>Jlj CjjJJ ^jis 



57 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

tgrt-iXt jiiil *$* > **U gtt -3 

1 1 o i^Llijejj J^j^JUj ( _ > iiALiJI (j-o i—SlieJ (jLcujVI (jl /_^ dJLliVj . (JjjLjIlII 

Cj * - .' J " t — 'J-*' (j-° * * ^ a f*^ <j-° "— ^3 : ' e J-! ^t^^- J^lillj itf^-ll J-cis 

j_l>- (_gJJI j-il!l Ij^Jfc (_^>- (_y3 (^Jj'CriUj 4jL-u^LflJI (j-oj_ui J^" - *-! Juilj 

^ i 'I ->-La jj.3 "— J J-*'J 3i-J->JI j-*-' J-^J *' •0'-^- w 3 (j™3 <J-^ (_r-^ 0' i ntVl 
4 o i nLa- ^ j ->-lj a (j_o Jt-i V jLSj i5-jjl o i ii II CjVLj-ujJ! CjJjjj .3Jl i noil 
iSjjI o i n 3JU.3 j_p (_^ 4j^£j_o «U_Lii3 (_,-Aj iCjjJJj SLpJI sLuiiil 4j;ej^_i-3j 
i_3jiJ!j (jjl2JI l j H a \j-±& 'j^ jim-i^Ui 11 1 ujj i^LtujVI Ji^v^JI j-0>^>- <j-oaj 
liLIi iA^Lu^/1 j la ' <l£^jj (^jIsjjlj (jl aLSII I JLd> (-£ I * 1 jjj i(j-uL<JI aJlCJ 

.^jjl 1 nil CjuujJI j^>-\ r^— *-S-j 1 (jJjJI 
j^^jju (_5-J-I! 5Jl 1 11 U (j-° LSj-la ijjLSJIjU^. JL«^vl Ju«je-a jjjijJI ;*JL*J 
2 d 1 •■ I a II iyji (_^ia-LaJcJLa j la ' 2 j-^j (j-o i<L«-l3 2_i olr 3JL-uj ^^3 < l_La> L^J 

.3_jLc.j 4a£L»- cjjoII (jLa dllj^ i<Lt£L». SLpeJJ (jl *£» •• Jj-2j il 3-<-a}L<-uVI 

. 4-jJsLj (Jj^i.? 3L<->- fjjJS 4-jL»-ialj i(jl 1 n'tVl jLli-l ^3 jLLtSLsJI J-"»j£1jj 
SLpJIj CjjJ,I (jl-»- (_gjjl ijjJ^ f ■ *■ J£ ^Ir j-fl>J dJLUI oJljU (_£ JJI liJjLjj)) 
CjjJ.1 a j j a a (jl . (2 , I -LJlH I) «j_jjiiJI ^j^jlII j-Aj ^L<ic (j 1 n->.| (cSjI (oi^i-uJ 
<_3ji>JI (±xjj (^jJI J^j>J.I dili (j^ljJ 4Jl ijJ-T Jju <d ^.a^L-uVI (jJjJI ^yfl 
Ij^x. (jLcujVI (jSluli (jl (^ 41oSL>-j <ti!l r ^ '^* a 4_lSL!j i(jjjjjii!l ( _ T 3 4jjijJlj 
(jjtll ulj» ".(^Ijij 1J3-SJ .3jj>-VI ( _ T 3 ljJL>- Ij^tC (j"n*J (<U iLujJI (_3 Mjlj 
^jiiu Jil Cj^_4-i (jl j"^'' (j\£ Laj)> . (23-^?ej>j1) (^j^jjl^jl (jj*_>j dx_j_4-ij cj" 56-1 

(j\jI_l^>- (jij JLSlil a^LjiVI (_y^ cjjJll .« 145 - (jlj -1 c JT» ^L^.J_a LjLjSLII 
L^a (jjSLj (jJ ^^jJI jlj^JI jl j ( _ T ji 3jj>-VI LfljIjie^LLa^ 4x.iL>- jl SjL^J (jjijJj 

CjjJ^I (j-o dcU--v Jl3 i—^jfcl jdl jl '"" a 1 iAAJI (_>iaJU Cj-il£ I jl 4JI I aj 1 ^>jj 
dijj.1 (j-o J.t.-v JiS-Sj-aLi. a^L<j<VIj-3^Lc. (JJjJI o^ <4jL<»] (Jj^ 41ajcJ I o it 

(j_oj 3Llj>JI Jlj^ ( j_o 4_UI 5-g£L--v i_2j.x. (jl Jljj jl 1 n'lVI 7-lj"n nLa i Lajuk 



58 



aJLc (j-o (jjjLiVj id-La i_2^itl! (jil (_y£.l^ }^9 2 S-^aa. lIijJ.1 (j| tixjp- <CjjJil 

3JL>- (j-a (JjISjJI L^ajufc (j^-lj ' JyJ-^illj i—ijjjtl!! L4I0 (^^jJLlI (j-u-J cjj-«U 

LtLUj i4_Lo 4jL*JIj ^CU-laLj i_2jX. Jl3 4JI LtLU iCjjJ.1 (j-o (_yjl i n'tVI i_3aiJI 

. «GJL<JL>- <-2-Ij.il 4JI 

^J| j'-|U ^-j vl ^ II J-J-C Jlwu Jjjijjl J^Jj Lo-f«ll mil (jLcu-lVI (j! 

4 j 1 ihIu-Cij-U j-jj-»J Lo •'Li Ij-^& 4jIjjSI (»J^- (<u (j-«J 1O3JII Jjlj aj -j * a a 

aLu (jjjLJI)) '.j&L-uj 4-ii^. 4JJI (_,! i^-» (Jjj-ujJ! (Jj-Sj .3jjJl>. S^Vj-jj-ojJl! (_yJ! 
fjs_£L_j t /o-Sj I j-jJ SLpJIj cjjJ,! (Jl>- (_gJJI» '.^Ltj (jjJLj « lj jy*"! IjjLo liLa 
su Jj^sjjj «ui ^1 Lggj '■" 3LpJ! ( _j\c cjjII Ajiia i(2-Ld_UI) «^l t~ (j i n-»-i 

jsJLiSj 4JJL1 UJJ ^^~ ' ^_ " '•4-»*-i I nlr (_j-!L«3 oJi£.j tcLuLiiiaJI SLpJI (_jJI 
(28-3) 2 u\) «(j^jl>-j3 A-ul ^cJ tpSuUiSe-i ^J i^£jLj_4-l fl3 i^JL_L>-Lb Ljlj_al 

Vjtj 2 ! j'C 1 n II Jj-ilj (jjjLlII jjj_i^5 ,j-o 3_uijj|j i_a^>JI A^Lu^fl pjj 

d "jJ ' •", C^ OjJJ-^J (j-uLUI (_jJI CjjJ.1 i_ti»--i_dJ j (j-ojik I-a^LuV I (jl (Jj . L4I0 
ol aj Lij^j . I jj" <_!^c.jJklj 4j^>J,I 5jj ual] dJJj «Lii^ /- a 1 a 1 «USJj licj-ill 

o-° l5j-^ H "^ilj-a j <~" «* J " 2 j a LljjJI (_,JI j-^j-j-j jl (^-i-<HJ J_i(j i"itl VI 

.«3_o|^£LII 
i^^-iLjj-lJI 7-j 1 11 1,1 (_,_£ CjjJ.1 (j-o pj^>JI jj ir^ a (j! (_iJJJ,l I JlA -ijJJJ 

(jSLi j<sJ (jl cjjJ,I jjlj SLpJI 5^£La jl"j^' aj^a\jtX\ * j^ • ..l^tl (_*_&! jj,| ^ ^ « j j 

(j^_LoJ_o jl (_j_alji^ (j^J_>a-iiA-(jLjJ2l t—lLaj-al Sic A LiS mil j-uj$ . L4jl£Lll 
.CjLji,l Jju SLpJLi 4_ji i_jjjV (jLx-il-(j-> ol 1 11 1,1 (j^^VI (_yl^.j 3-jjl 1 11 i-j-ijSLi 
• 4j (jlj^JI /al&l I jl) ij^^Lj/VI (jJjJI Jjj-oI (j-o 1^3^ J-i-^i d'A. J^^' f>f" 

I Jlj* (jLa i(jl 1 11 'tl J^ JlJI^. aL«JI jj< Mill jji ciijil (j-o i_a^>JI (jl^ lilj 

Ljjlj dJLuk (jlj iljLxlj L4JI liJLui (jL (jL^^" jljjl L*K ^^SLuj jjtmtl 
(jLuUil (j-al I jl . ulJLCJ Lijjljj ul 1 j> ijJLui (jlj iCjjJll Jju ^js>-'\ 3Lp-J 
4 LjS 1 11 4_La V Jj (_H>oj iCjjJ.1 (j-o i— 3jj>JLi (j^l i n->-VI ejj^. (_j-<i^ijj L*Ui (JSLi 
(j_a i_3jJ>JI (»JlJ(-1 (jjiUJI 3_aL^ (_,JI S^-vj-a 3^c^ (jLj^'i/l Llul^ I jlj .3-<ulj 



59 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

. (l4 *^l 

Cjj a i hi i _ 7 HJlj td ol i h a 4-Ji La rt CjLLlC ^_ r l^. 4_jjl31j 4_*_u1jJ (j-* JJ ' "M 0-X& 
J '^"^' ■ " Lii ( _ T JbjJI \l ^~<»VI 3^3 (_p3LLJe.1l (_£jJ CjjJll (Jla |_gj"i i n a 3-iuj <_>£. 
^^J! aI_2J,I I Jlj* ( _ r £ SjLJu^l jJLjsoj .(J_»-a_flJI I Jui (j-o cUuj/LLII SjJLaJI ( _ T 3 
CjjJ.1 (j-^ SJs^Lc (2>c (sUSLj^alj 4-Ojjji) «Ljj_L»- "i? I CjLjIjJJI /tjLlJ ' ; IJ I LaJ 



M^l i$£» 0* <Wj*JI QUtfJI £*ri UjLfeJJ (SAAi—il LjuUall -4 

,j 1 °> (j-c 3_lji^Ij 2 j 1 1 c cjLjIjjJ 4jJLiII cj^HII iiil j iLLtl ^^a ,_p3jjLJ 

(j_o CjLLjx. jLlL»-I ' - < 1 1 ii Lai • «Lui_LJj 5jJij» i nj 2_^ La a CjLLlc (_£jJ CjjJ,! 
L&lj^o «Qjcj ^ j i a -» •"■ ' 3jj la ^1 -«L»- Ijj^a->tjv^_j3 iCjI jJu Cj^iiUI JjjJI oJui 
^^jfc ijjj jJ! oAjfc CjLtoL*. (j-« C-!^13 (_^ (_yujj JaJu a La jj La i "II ojui <_ijl£ (_)1 

(_p_o ^^^ 4_j| LaljiJ_o i L#J «UjJjJ! (j-o Jj2 «L<i^a ^JT - J * " <lLajLi liJLL&j 
tdJjj i^jjI J-SJI Sljf Jl^l^j (j-a J_iV SJjLZJtl 2 Jjl LaaJI CjLJjjJ! ojbfc 

Jl3 . Jl^la^! JL==-a ^ >lla j"i o u'ii nll^ i I J ■■■■V' (J^LlIII Sji^-j liiljSj i«Gl j 

^j-« pj-i-l' IjLA t3^_i Q^* ' (jrl L^-LajtJ jjjjLloII CjIJl>-j jJj^o ^j i im'1 ^j-* 
(jj/Lj-SJI ( _ t ^ 3^-J 3 ^' C3-'- c - O^-*-* wH^-'^j'-^'- j' Sj J 1 a 1 1 oJl^j-Jj^cjJI 



/. 1 oaIJI ^jjjLloJI ^_ T b cLLa ^-aLLa 2l ^_ai ^jjl «GI!i ^j ol-LdJ,! a I JlJt" t nl «LuiIL>. 

A JlJ>" i n IJ ipJ_(jLAJ JJ_S_«J i)t_juiuj «(_2_1,LC» *1^>-l 3-Aj iCjLsLSlLtl (j 1 ^- 1 OJ^Xl 

^^gjLa-MlLa-jj 11 b Lii iSjjLSil 2^jl lqjJI cj^jtjJI (j-o olj "i£ ( _ T a ajj j_p 



160 



6^UJC uljljiC y$±J U9&II (§19 

Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology ((QjLSlI ^jl .^-wll ^..A',11 ^|r » 2jjj.j 
cjLJjULII (jjSi (j-! i«Olii (jj/Ll2J,I AjLa-" 1 .it j<sJ Lii . ISLj^-oI ^^a j j ■ aj ( _ 7 jJ1 

2 j I *r-i^l : ^|< j j j iaJ I J-alSi (jl JaJ I j <* I ■* t (j^ jjV 2 2-i5 a 2jolr « JljJL2j» 

ja3 2^t>-^lll jl J ajJI 2_lUx. u^£ j-±& J(j> 3.}L*JI ^^3 J Jljj I jjj . 2_«^pJ, I j 
. I jlj.^iA" JL^a Lufc (J-ujJ CjloJaJ- (j-o till i^-j£.J ... 'LujiSjJI «L<tv^lll 
4_ujj>JI (JjjJI (j-o CjLLj£. (j-u 2jjL2il ^^3 oLLoJiidu-ul (_gjjl (JjjLl2J,I Lol 
QljIjJI J i^aaJI jiaJ!) « j I j <i" » 4jtiisj (_£ JJI (J^LlSII j j'* CjjJ.1 (jiJS (^ Cj^LUI 

^j ■■■ j 2 1,1 1 J_A a! jLja-" t nl iJ7 ^2 *jj la^Jl jj_<iS_«j . LlAjj ^ji jnn LiS SjUJLc 
Q^SLj CjjJJ (J-Ls Ct- 3 'r'-'li-** "-^i - '-^ >j 1 ■'■■" (jl-^JLJLsJI uJS-jJb-<&\jj£L>j 
(«LLo '"" Lj c (_,i^. ^i-i^sl (j^ I j n 1 1 f-<^J lS^O C7^i>°'^' ?- <4 -^ , -''V '^2-LaaLa 
2J 2 J j! .4_aUi 4-jjLuijI <L«_i_ti2 ol jvac 1 jU-*u Lxj 11 La 2 3 4J A uiuiaa. Juljj 
^^"».^^jij [l£1jiJo ^j-tuJ ^ju/Ll2-LI IJLA fjl <L2-la>J| a 4LaLm 4jjLua3. *LoaJ 1 ■■ 
j la >l) «4_«Lc 4-ul i u )j 3^_x>.» (J^-Laj L$j) ^^l l^uS LLLt^JaJ _i^_LaJl q j t '^ a 
djvjj (_yl^. lij^*-' 5Ja^J . («_iljJI J <^i i-rll (^ (Jj/Ll2J,I I Jui J^JLi (j-o roLxJ i_jl\ 

:^jj l_<ib Ljuajj-a Uj_A^>. Lt>-^_a LLdLujI jjU . ..tl ^ju^ 

.(126 =o)cni>^l j_>^^" ,jjJ 0,612= j 
.(132=^) <^li>^>II ,jaJ 0,609 =j 

. JaLjjjVI (J^LtA =j CLus>- 

(JJLSJ j^jjlJI (j^i I j 2 1 1 i_j31SLII a jjr" 1 M j joJ liu, : *(_jjL2JI (Jsl 1 n"j jJsj 

'.(Jjji.'^l 2_ujjlII CjLujiJI ^Ir (3ji 1 a " CjLLjc ^Ir ^Lca? «Uj^3J lS'-*-") <-^->>XI 



161 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

jLfuil /_j^jJI ,jjjLl2J,I q\-4jjl2\jj 2jlor ( _ T jkj-3jLvVlj S3_ul_Lii!lj Sjj^jlxJI 

j u^jjj tfjlj 7Tu Jj (j-Gj-ji-^l (j-GjjjU (_iJJJ,l SjjLLa Jl»j VI «_ii5jj j«J 4_JI 
^^Jl j-CJlJ ji «L«^vj-im (j ii jjLSJil J <^- a ' I—Lil tiJJi (j- .*" 3*.' * I cr^-yj 
x_oj . (^iJLS «L> LL<t3 La J-Aj) 7c_Lo j-ol 4_iLc ,jj»jjLio j^htj^ oi^ ' C A < I ■>■"■"! 

jJLc (j_o (j^L<ilJ (jJ 3_lL>J,I (j .ijjLSJ,! 3JL>- ,_a 4JI ^1 SjLiVI jJ->^ lillj 

j_lc fljj i a as a Lcjj^e-i J Laj 3 i4_o^Cj_i£. CjLa^iix-a «_o 3jjl iga^JI CjUjL2J,I 

CjLLI ^1 4_lL>J,I 1 1 1 njjLiLa <LiiS>-jIa LlaS !il V! . ( _ 3 -ajJiJlj (_yL>J,l |_gj"i i ii U 

(jSLx-xj ' pj La a dlli (jl jJljjj . L$-La 3 J n**i i m Cjl_Li£. (_ji£. j ■ LaJ <-i^>- 'l£ >»-i 

t( JJ9 2ll fji^jjitriTtW i_£jJ,l (_j-Lc tfjLaoljj i njll (j-o (j-uJ-! ij^Ltj l (^i A J 

frm!j*Wj*i±$V $£» -5 

oJlj* <_^3L£ L^j aLs (_5-j-II d_<-uljjJI oJUfc < ta j La as " ^1 UjjIiI (jl 3." " 
L^_il_i «(_JjLaJ! ^Sjjj .(jjt^LiJI J LaAll (j-o 3jji»2l St 2-a-il ^_a jj La i "II 
(^JS «^J_lxj» (jjjLuLa I 3^'*" (3^^ t<: ^J^ f< ^ ' "V' ^mJi (j-« CjLLi£. ( J7 -^- CL*jjj>-\ 
aJJt /tjLlJ (_j-!l SjjI/LiA J 22 1 'j . 1984 aLc i—kj-La (_3 dllij 1 4-L<-a.-v Cil i nl-v 

.7tjLli!l ojui j<uil (12) JjJlj>JI u^-rii i3jj/IjjJI 
( _ T i 5j^jkjj>JI 2 j i ni->Jl jjjij-^' ('2) Jjjl>JI (^ L^x-iklj jtjLiill jjjlj 
«i_Ji,Lc cj^jej «_o dJJi (j ' m"mj . jjS JJI (j-o (_5-Lcl ti iL>-j-i cju^lIs cjjJ.1 Jjla 

.(I I4jl I 1^107^59^47 :jiait) 3j^ 



162 



6^UJC uljljiC y$±S OgjiJI (§19 



y*& (£.) ^J 1 ^' 'J'^'J (f) ^jfk '■ (I 2 ) Jj^ 

fliJlAia ^ij-afi ^\~f *£^ Ojll jii "j-U*" 



JJ^ 



uLJI 



Wjjll 
3.1 7.8 77 ^.^Ji 



•3.9 


2.9 


8.2 


128 


2.7 


6.8 


112 


*3 


2.8 


8.2 


141 


2.9 


7.1 


112 


*3.3 


2.7 


8.2 


132 


3.2 


7.0 


137 


*4.4 


3.3 


8.7 


120 


2.8 


7.0 


131 



•6.3 


2.6 


9 


111 


2.9 


6.7 


121 




1.4 


2.9 


7.3 


61 


3.1 


6.6 


60 


tfjil! 








770 






673 


t^ 1 



. iJl al it aj* - j i_^ 0.01 i 



£Mi*$fcJli£dJ£i$U $ii -6 

/1 985 ^yji-aUJI aUJI ^ 2ljiIjjJI <>jl& -*j-^[.* jjJ — il oJ-& ujl^ ^La 
oj^»-I JlSj .^LjpLi j^juj. liilXI 3jwUtj !jL»-a !iLL-ul 4W J>Li--i -84 
(90 = (j) ■ U Sa jj^JJI Sjj^JJ,! 3-»-aL>JI i_j}LL> <j-o 3_Li^ ^ic Sj^IjjJI ojut 

(«CL»JL>J1 ^ as uanJt) «Lu^ju1 *jj <^>11 t CjjJJ J3'^' «^JL_$_i» (j^jLuLa aJljt" < nlj 
IJlj* jj_a 4 i ii aL>JI 5) 2 a 1 1 jJiul) <bj <^t I CjLLl*JI (_ji£- O-S-Ja (_^<-"j L^'^ 

L? J * tjQ '-i^^- L^-i-* (J^ f*- 1 ^ 3 ^-L ^ -g jv Cji i nl-*. ^^3 ' (' a^-lc (Jj-aJl J^ ' ^ ■**" i_pe_« 
jl i C VI (j-a (J£L! 2j^'l l*33»VI /<sJL«J,l (_>AiU (13) JjJ-3. (j^i3 ' . 'N tail (j-a 

. 4_Ll*JI ojla l?^ ^J-*' (J-^-i 

l_£jJ CjjJ.1 (jia (j-u 3JjL2J,l jJi£. Jii^. TtjLLitl ojui (_ji£. (jjjJjuJu ■ La flj se 'J 

(JxaAJI Ijui (j-o «LLoLl!I *j anil ^^2 (j-\_uLLtlJlj Q^j-^* ' ")J U^JJ ' - — ■ ^ ^ 



163 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

j**!! jt JSCJ (£) l5jIj«1I Jlj^llj (j>) Ja_-jsll : (13) Jj.br 

(90=0) joj_j«_Ji ilUi jj i^t t^AJ Ojil jiij 

I f 

2.2 22.5 ^Ji 

3.1 6.6 ojiljis 

^HU«Ut £ J w^ll &iz -7 

1986 aLc jjL-b (j-fl <Luti o S-ulsI^JI S^uljjJI oJUfc * i_aJJJLI ijj^-f 
jjLaJI J^-J-C 4-Jj_iuj ?-j^>JI SjjjO) 4jjju (jjjIjLo uXLi CjLLl*JI Cjx-i^sj 
•" J*^i~^J v^J-*-" < — 'Jjrh 1 *LtaL>-J 4jjLLlLII 4-»-aL>JI) 4jlal>- t—i^Uaj ((^LJS 

.(jh o l i ni l (j-o L^j^LLs (j-o ^ ot^tll 

,jjjLj_2_o ^^.S JjJ-J! 3_c.Lj_co ^Ir (JjJlaj (_£! JLiol ^1 3^>-L>. Jb>o (<sJj 

.4_lolc i'iI'vIUi/mi i\ JoLoJI (_gl aIJlJ-"ii ill Lu_L><J 
^^ Lu_ulj.} ^ '^°* A ' gaj i4_L«_4->. C)l I til"*. ^^jS 0Jl>.J (jjjLjJilj JfeAxlaj /C_JJ 

(jlSj . «L»-oL>JI i—i^Ua (JL>- (_y3 Sj_l«j^5 CjLcjjiJa-a jl i^jjjQJ! jjjjjI jj.1 (JL>- 
joJ i(jLLj I J J a» I j j (j^II «L>-jj>JI i &jj La 1 1 lj_Lajj . IjLLs-a (j^-ca^e-iHI ijj'-*^ 

(^ Sj-p.'i/l Sj^uiJI (jiij^Si jjsj 1(jjjLl2J,I j uaS jj* LaJLc. L*ili (^ ( i j i nil j 
ijj£jJ! ^Ir cjLj^I oLvjj i La i "j" " pLfljjl (1 5) JjJl>. (^ TtjLlill jj-jIj 



161 



SJLJ oL; ^^Ip "jM" ^W" ^^ obtain* : (14) Jj^r 



c 


■Lsll o">L.U» 








f _j_ji .bu J^^l 5iU-J 




La.a.Jl 


Jij^all 


tyOl 


J i 


* 




J 




- 


0.64 




34 


^y\j A_a*>lj 


- 


0.61 




60 


(_£ ajlj C>IJ— *iJj 


0.778 23 


0.57 




66 


ijutl^r SJJs 


0.882 36 


0.78 




60 


4jt*Ur C^lJUs 



. ji ri — O^ft**" ^Jitiur. ^t-^r-v^jl Jjo 



jUpSI (£_) lSjLxJ.1 Jiyillj (f) Ja-ijsll :(15) JjJjt 
Ojll jjl3 ,/tilj £>jSll SJUJJI OLyJl 





ojli jJii 




j**)! 


J 


3i»ll 


c 


r 


t 


f 




2.74 


5.85 


1.1 


16.7 


164 


<Sy& -V 4 *^ 


3.10 


7.82 


1.0 


16.8 


165 


^ y\j djlA~a_u 


2.55 


5.48 


2.6 


21.4 


170 


4jc»Ur 4_1L> 


3.17 


8.18 


2.2 


20.6 


174 


<jc*U- oLJLb 










673 


£jJi\ 



iXJI 4mi>JI wUaJt w— S^jill -8 



165 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

. 5^-jju-id Cj l£.^_4J?e_« dt-g- i la 4- _Lt4> Cji i nl-». ^^ ^yu 1 j 2 1, 1 Jj^ iJaj -2 

.(j^ljiiU jj.'^"'.' d i "■^' - ' jjU , ,.tl (jjufc i_jjlS ;»Ls -3 

(j_o CjLlj-C (_, 1 r CjL-oljjJt tlj^j-l J-i£. (<u ijil i ajjtMl ^^ Ji_p.jjj| 

cj^Lj (j_o (Jjj «_tu3 cjLvjjJ 4_u-uL-u2l (<sJL»J,l (_>^i*j (16) (Jjjl>. OVi3 

OliP *— J (f ) L5jlj«il kjlj£"i|lj (^) Ja-ijil :(16) JjJur 

(j OLJj <LO a*-Jl ij Jul A^-UIlj t^flJ* ,ya ( Jj /^a ^jL-^Jrl /J 



o>L^Jl 



2.9 


7.0 


j aj j*j2J> AjoLt "kJj2 


3.1 


6.6 


j aJi 4*—" 4jt*Lsr 4_JJfl 


2.6 


5.5 


j wLJ AjCaLiT <JJs 


2.9 


8.3 


C->Ij j^SJ> "kxj>\jfr C^LJUfl 


3.2 


8.2 


oLjLJ 4*^L>r c-jULU 


2.9 


6.7 


j jj -a 1 i_5 y " -*-y^j 


2.7 


5.9 


kj tJU-J (_£ aJU Jl-^^AJ 


2.6 


9.0 


Ou j-A« (_£ aju C-M-X~gJj 


3.1 


7.8 


CjLJLLJ ^ ajLl C-mJ-wgJj 



166 



•.(jJb La .U^M\ ( | 6) JjJl^J jJaJjLij 

:j_a£JJ1 4-s.aUJI 'iu_LL> ^1 2LWJU-1 

. i U , ,.j" ^ (JJ9t iJ7 \^. (j^-ULLdJl J Lfl> - I 

i u , ,,j" rt /yl^l (_^^ uj^j ' ^ J .^.^ -2 
cLmAj lLs i ..j~t I ( _ 7 1^. cjLuLlJJIj ^Lij '--il.l jiiLJLLJI oL^aj. 

:'iljjJLDI (jjyljlll JLt^^J-T- 

.(J^_ui_LlU1 /Q^jl^Jiaj jj-a (j-^' *— ) '- v J-^ ' la ' uQJ rt c^-^ DjJJ ' a ' J <^»^ 

.CjLuLLiJJI (j-*>jL!i>-i (j-« (_j^' < — 'I^J- 5 ' '^ ' "j" " (jJ^- '" '"J '^ I Cu-ua3» - 
CjLc^^j>JJ *_ui^ (j^-i i la i ■■j" rt (_^l^-i ' Jj i^>I,1 CjI Jj <%Vn\ i la i "j" ^ Jju - 

.o>Li!l iujjiJI JjjJI ^ cjj-ujj (jylll j-tulll 

(. Ir ((jj/jljj.1 CjIJLuJjj 3-*-aL>J! CjLJLla) Cj[jj i^aXI CjLjVI cJ '^»-»- - 
.jr^uLltill ^1 4JjL2lL> oLuLLtill ^yk: 431!} j_oVl (jolaJu - 



It9ljftlt-I 

'"'I -tt tail (JjLiLo (j-u^j-aJJ SjlaLsJI 2 ilt-i -I 

.oLJLkll JjLla (j^LLtill Sji^UJI S-tlL -2 

.Cil Jjol'tl (JjLio LT^J i^aXI 3jjjLl!I (jjjjljiil Ji-lo^Lj -3 
.CjI JljUjJIJI JjLla 2l_ij Lt_JJ 1 2-J>ililJI (j^jloil JLlo^j -4 

. aLc «Ljv^_) «Lj_Ltf2»j_l,1 (^al^-C^l L_o_LL?t_aj ^ J >l i^a * Ha (JIajI (j_u_uLiL« iJ ^ 
d-iiLtll Cj^tJI /tjLlJ )«-o lill j (j ' ""'JJ iCjjll (j-l^ ct^- <l2li J- ^ I C-tJe-m i_)j 



167 



ugoJI £JL9 

CLusSs jlj.(\\4, III .107, 1 03. 79. 59. 47. 34, 2 :jJai I) jju^JI Ijuk^ 

.(,jjlaL>JI J La^JI (j-o 4_uLl!I Sj S-flJI j_Laj|) (Jji^aJI oJl^J Sjijji^. '"'Ij j • itjj 

(j-ujl JlJ.1 Jl_i_o^Ljj (JoJLa jj^jJI) 4_<jiLj>JI 4 jlU (j-o (jaJ) * - — ■ ^ ^ J l^j. 
(__rtJL LSJ, I (j^-j-i l_LiiI u 4JjL2J,Li '"«! La i "j" a (_y^i (_j^- £yLuii»JI (j-o 4->jjLjJI 

CjjJJ (jjlS (_?-^ L7-^-' ' ' "S' ^ LT"^ QJ Jj LaJU 4_*_«L>J1 4_lLL3 (J_cajv Ll£ '(«-$-! 

«L*-oL>JI CjLJus tjr\j SJjLHJll (_yl^. L*U!i j • La '_' joJj . (j\j^i i nil ja^jlj-LaJ (j-o 

.cjjJ.1 (Jla ( _ T a (jLl£.jju>J,l cjjLjij il cjLuLlAIIj *"'^ -^t I 

( _ 3 JLc-aLc <L».^j-3jj i^t I CjLLl*JI (Jj-ca^*. dllj-u-oAJ .ijjijj (jl (jSLaJJ (j-oj 

• (_ T -L) LiS L^-La I '^** * aJuLij tdaj "j" rt (_t^.I 
j j , ,-. . 1 1 aJusI JlJLo 2^- tax\ ij\ * ^- ~— T 1 ^^a jju (jlS-o CjjJ.1 pj-LajJ, . Vjl 
tiija_ill -ij^c-o (jjj (J'-^^M ljui (j-o 4_uLul *j 2 fl 1 1 ( _ T 3 I ' 1 1 a a (jl 3." " '-" 
. dJJi C<_lTlj «L«-!JlJL!I j La a (_j-3 CjjJ.1 (j uj SLaj SjjLLsJI jjL*_iiil! *j_>_cuJI 
lj_ui (jl ( _ 3 JLc-UJjjl (jl t _3 J ' " Lo-SJjJlC 4-iJeJjuj 4-LC.Liivl CjL.uIj.3 Jhj3j 
4_l3jj*_j *-pJJ td jlr (jjlAal ->■ t (jj jj ,^.11 (JljLa j~}\ * i iillj ^j -j 5 La 1 1 QjJb (j_« 
Sj^Llj Cj-j-U (_£_>-SJ «LljvI (_£| «(ji_«jj2l» (_j.ll y -i a j La 'I .(JjJjiJ La (jjj 

Lojj (JjjljjI I JLt . J^Ltujj (jl Lilj .«GL9j (_t^- Lojj (j-utjjl jj^j-o Jjlj (jT_>-2JI 
^tj cUl_lLi2jj (< ch^ J j ' '* *jj ' "' ' - ' ^"' rt j- ' '"^" AX9' tl) 3.' ' " lIjijiILj 

tU 42>LcV JljISIII IJLA (jL> I olr ! 1-LllJLlI j i^ia /ajJLal ^Jjj I o i uJ3 t>JJjl 

(2yi o 1 1 n 1,1 (2r4Jj iaJll (jl L*Ui (j.o i—ij^.'i/lj .SJjj^s'i/l 3_lo^L<j/VI jjUjiJLi 

A^Lj/VI (jl (_, nSjj ! (jULJj^l (_g_>^j *^P-1 L7^ (J3^_)"l l"l_t LtJ-*^- (j-l ^ L. -I E-L m . l , I j 

(j!il Jt^CMi,1 (j_a (j-^ ol i nil (j-*Jj LaJLI (_j JJ ^j ..j^Utlj » tl ,Ull ^j-a Li-ajLJj-jJU /cJ 
(j^o ja^i_>_^c (j^. x_i3j_j (jLj i/<uAJl-Lc CjjJII jjla (_gj"i i n a ^^ lilli ^pjj (jl 

.C_iJ» Mill 

» ajj 1 1 .al at". nVlj 2^ Lai I 43L2UI (^ 5J^L? (jj^>JI J^l^. (jl . LuLj 

(jl (j J mi I S aJl^JI JL_La L^XL»_aj L^jLa^2_« Jl>.| Julj (Jj t I-4-l9 (jjjJ^)Jt_« 4J 
CjL-uIj.} 3JlC Jijjj . ( J 1 a a 1 1 I Jui (_ T 3 4_uLLll fl >2Al I (j-o « J» jJiul) I '< 1 1 a 3 

. (89 , 39 , 1 3:ji^l) ^jJLl (Jliij c-jLt^VI _jru ijlj^^l t-^-^Jil iaLujVI _>i 



168 



6^UJC uljljiC y$±J U9&II (§19 

(jjla ^ ^yk: I tliL>.j.i u\c QjJj-uaX\ J-i-aaJ (J 1 £-3><XI _>t^ 6-° O-"^ ("^ 6-"J 

I_£<_ui2(l Jojl^lllj 1 JjJjiuJI (jljLtJI i'\ 1 nLu.il <jl (^jlo^pjij (jl <jS-"S-i '• LJu 
i4_Lo l_3o^>.j Cjj.1,1 (j-° Lais jo-Aj-lC (j-ajiiSI -" J I » 7- J ;j*^; Lai I (_£jJ «_2JjJ,l 

((CjLcLjjsJI ^jjuzj CjI jilll joLa» 4 i-ii^j CjjXI (_yJI jJa-JI 'L^>-J lillja J ' ta -*£g 

. ((J-oLlJI J LaAJI (j-o ^j^l 5) iLaJI j_Laj|) 
J-j|j ( _j-ui 1 n->-l Cj\Jj taX\ (_JjJ *-<2Jj-U ( _ t 1jL«JI i'I 1 nLxUll (jx. I mim : LajIj 
•" g-TL-il •»■"■ 1 "I l _ r 3 i—fl-1^.1 <i(jlt^ Lx_a 1 Lp I 1 -^ r I J£o 3jj-uVI ab>j 4-Jjij luXU 

<ug-2-Laj cjjX! (j-a ja^^i- ^-s^j (<u (j-°j n'l 1 uLuJI Ijtjk ljIs^L (_gJJI cjjjiil 
.sLt «-j 1 ill pLijjl ^^Jl «_jvj_j jJa (j-u.V|< 1 nllj (ji_uLlAJI (tt^jljJij (j£. cjjJ,! 

<La>l t-LaJI (jl .CjjXI (jjXoJ ^ nU"U 5jj-uJI jj£. (_>^Ij^.2u i_al^Hc^U ;j-*jj i-aJ I 
rt j I 1 n "ill 3_<ljLJ3jii£l -1 J I » ao (^-" (j-* ' aSj 1 1 \li-tt Jila ^a ("^jJ SjLjJ Mill 

.J^l r 11 1, 1 OjJb (_p-« ^3^_^ 

:>mi$W $le if* b*§ j&jtfAi 4£M$ftJI -3 

3_ujjlII 4£LLjJ.I (_y3 SjjiljjJI ojufc «lj-»-l (j-« (jSl<wJ (<J LiJLj i^jLill ^£jij 
SJjLHXI jojj (<s3 (j-aj ijji JJI «L»-aL>JI 4 1 1I— > ( _ T ji 3Jl>-Ij 4_LjC (_ji^. VI Sj.ij< 1 nil 
'"«* jjijJI 4-*-oL>JI 4 ilt-> (j_o (J^jjLlAIIj ;j*Jj uaXI (S^SIj-lij tJVJ ■*" J 'j ' 
(j-^^j '^* 1 1 (_ T l>-jj (ju ' *° ' "_2 J J rt lt^^ cJ3 j -^j* ' "'I ^Lt-^L^JI 3 ula (J '^>^ Ji^j 

(<l(jia (j-<-J^ « ■— 1 1. 1 ^yJI tJ^I rfi^JI Jiuv^Lj (jSLIj i(jjVI) (j^jjLLiillj ((_yl^. VI) 
'"'L'- ' '"^"'^ (j-° IjJ^C 'LfljLcuJI 3 ) aaJl /_i3 LLaJi^ jl (jxm Ji^J .(J1_uLlAII (_yJI 
aj ^ ^ tl ^_^ tJ^-J *''<"_$ ■ ' ' "J " A (j-^l c^^" (* ^-*"-5^ 4J-*Jj L^aXI (J J ' ^ ^ ' 

jl LyjJ (^IjJI ij^-Ij ■ U , „j" ^ J^| .If (j-ijjLLiill J j La^J I Sl>j 1 "■- | " 3-jJLl!l 

jJl>-V1 (_ 3 _A (j-^jj L^aXI (j-« (J^l *— jl-^J-^ ' la 1 ujj rt (_7k (j-UJj^ i nil (J a <^*^ cL^j_^>. 

jl il) (j^jjLlAII (j^ (_y^l <=- 'l-^j-i cj-^ .•" 3 *J ' a *■ d ^j '''*•.' SJjLilLi j ta-iJLi 

Jljj-lJ ((j-<-J^ ir^ t,l (_jj| i_ IjJsl CjjJ.1 (jJ-3 (_y^ (j\-j^j < 1 11 II dlLj-j^ 1 U 1 njHa 



169 



ugoJI £19 

:4_JbJI Cjljj.nrt'.tl 

JjL£ .<j_o J£ Lilj^vf ^,111 L^ajir^-^j) 2LJ.UJ! vljL-uljjJI rtnnti : Vjl 

^yicj .(jAistiXI (_g.il ii-i"«>Vl ,_g_f)~ r ii 1 1 ol J JjjJI (^ JjlJiil pLi^jl (!>£■ (cr*Jj 

i-aj^jJa (j_o J .^'at |_gjj < in 11 t_JLLail 3_ol i^'i^Vl (-Sj^jJaJI jl jLull (jx. 

(_yUJJ«i«ill 4jloL>J1 3 ilu ( j_ a 1j_uS (jl ^1 SjLiVI jjijsoj (_g ) i^ll a « _ La i 

/CjfcJLilLaiJj i4_u_uLLa i <-i'j)J (jr^ Q3 " ja3e ^j *4_j-aa£L». jl «LuoL>- VL^^l (j^LsJU 

ja^J ^r Q i ii J j| i4-l-uljjjlj (JjWiJI (j-^-i (jjj^jjJI o-^- «5Jl«j*JLI CjLcLxJI)) Ailaj 

j5_gj|jjaj £ya Laia (Jjsl •" J 1 » Je J LX-XJ ifo^^jls^ i _* i iiLuj ( _ T lll llllj^-Sj,! jui>-Lj 

-* g ' rt (j \! c Ct~^ t —*i>- > '' lO~*"' 4-luI)J x_« «Lx_u_Ll1 aJJb (J) ' tu3a 0"*JJ ' 

(16*) 

nj-> o 1 1 ii o 1 1 2 uijlSJLI (j^Lo'i/l 4j^j» i nil <Lujj<J! 4SLLU.I <_,£ «_23 : Lulii 

ij\jjj« i nil (_l!^L-u ( _ t 3 lj_ui ^jJj dUj (jl ( _ T 3 i-t^Jj Vj • t _ r >-jJI i La • j ^ I J_ a J 

(_^Jj-lJlj ./C_&J_J-C (_^a ( _ T l£.|-ALC SL>-^J-/H (j M Jj «L>-J.} (jl (_p=^lflJ (jl (jS-«JJ 

-,JL>JI ojui ^^-(JlflJ (jl (jSLfljJ iCjjJ.1 (jjls X-a-iiJbl iViaj jJLto (_pLliJ-(_J£. LjjJ 

\l Hc|-S£Lmi ^ La oj^3 4i«j(J 2-^-_""'-jjt II aJJt l-3\£ (_jjJ : L!LJLj 

i4ja- o i nil 4_lo^L<-u2| 4-*jj_iiii]l tJ l\ i_i^J3 l-3_o Lc 3 \j LaJ-(j^J 'j« i "II (jJJJ (jLj 
4-j-L^aie luJI '"'I t\-*.\l 1 1 Jjjjj ■" la ' aj (jjj^-i J^ M\t L^jI Jlj ^ji» Mill pLpI f-o 

:3_o^| 4^j^lll 
.S>< ir^ll CiLJIjI ^ 3-oL»Jt i2j>L>J.I gLj^jv. (jMc.J -I 
. Lj^2j (j-ucLtuj «Uuu>JI S^Li^a (_|i3 «f-i^' OJL5' J 4^ >) iJ - **^ (1>^ <— ^-Sj^ll "2 

. SjJLto ^_-cj 3 k>ji , ,. j cjjJkLj 4 La jj ) I ^ 4 j _n i"i 1 1 oLjijmij cjI^L«JI -3 

i(j ina L^Ajilj i_J>i-l J^Ll (jyJI 3_uuii!Ll) Ij^i^ 21 ;" <>ajJI till jLc -4 

.4Aj_ca2lj 4_LLca2l 'LLa^Lu^/l j^m Mill f-JJJJ 

. L«j>j-u (jLl^jJjj I -i j_'« UJLiA (j ..jl SLa^J! oVLv /_j3 jI joJIj (jj^>JI -5 
tcjI Mill (j^J *-i_P- a a^LuVI (_,iii. "il-ji-jJI pJtJI o^*.' f 1 -^-^ (jSL^lij (<sJ -6 

i— hj i ii U (jj^sJIj ij^LflJI 3juj (j-a jLiSVIj iL^JjUJj «L>-j_il3l (_ T 3 ^LlIj^Ij 
5_«-j^ mi II (^1 "-j-ij-^l (O-^JI (_,lr Jj3 CjLo^L«JIj j a Hall aJUfc (jl cfj^p-j 



70 



jl ^^Jl j j i"i t j . (!<UI (Jj-il La JjJL>- l^«-JJJ (j^ J 1 ^'" (^4^ ''-" i4_La^L-u2l 
(Jjj^sI (j-o i_£3^ ij- 1 * 3 ' O" 3 ^*" "^-5^ CjLa-ll Jjlj SLpJIj jj^-VI ajjJu (jLx-iVI 

IJlj* (j_o «GJlJI 3jJLi!l (_yi Ujjil LaS 4JLcuJ (jjlillj CjjJ.1 (j-° 4jj*jJI pj_i 

jjjijI jj.1 JLlo^jj JjS jJ! «L»-aL>JI 4 1 11— > (j-a (J^jjLLlLII (jl I '.U^V £jl Jj u n 
^^J! 4 1 1 11 ! tl_i (J-J9l CjL»-jJ 1 La 1 "j" a (_yl^. I j I ■ <a a- Jiis (j-> 1 ni-»JI (j-° Sj^jlJI 
1 U , ,,j" ^ (jic Q^jjLLlLJI a-*-aL>JI A 1 11— > J i^aa. l*U jSa '(O-^J (j-U-iLSJ,! (JAJj i^aXI 
CjLilLLs (j-u 4JjL2J.I (_3-l^ (j J La b («J dllis jjSLJj «£yujj)<mll (a^jlj-Laj (j-a (J^l 
^Jt>.j , ^ loAj 1 la 1 "j" 1 I (_ T 1^- j' <^>^ JulS tjLLJj \jL&ji (j_a <_p ^_ T b «L*_aL>J1 
. (jLj-it i— SajJa (j£. SJljj -Sjj-> (jl I nlr (j 1 -*-^ i-^Uis j; 1 "*" LuSLbj 
.sIJljlj £yl Jisl (_gl) Ljj^_2j 2 a 1 11 't (jl-j^La 3j^Lj jLtoJ 3JjJ - 1 aj 



1 < 1 1 '» j a till is f-aj i(a_ujjiJI j-g^ia 2jjjj aJcJ 2jjJ iS, 1 11VI 4_bjua 
jjij '-» IL^all (_i ' . 'J ' ' '""' 'Lj-flSLLaJI (_j-^- S-H>* ^J • W^ L^H-«-a '^-y-i 4jijLLa 

^_a 3 I in I ,„ oIjj 1 860 , 1 840 , 1 820 »lj_^Vl _ a « < IAjJl^ (j^-J j_al 

(jjuj (_£>i9 ^r* "' fl^l La II (_£JL».! .slj-sl (j^_i tcjI jiilj S_LaljJI Csl jIj La Jazl 

*_<_uLjJl (jj_dJI 1 /« , ^> " ' rt ^3 4 A ifr*2 1 * >>^~' (J-a 4_u_u M^J '"'^ (jl (j^*-jj-11 

jojfcjjjt^. Q^jjLlAII j^iiij i4-u-ulji nllj «LuJjJI CjIc Ij t-aaJ I 3.SV9 ^1 '"' si j ■"■■'" 

.a_LL>-ljJI 2j 1 nlj 1 nil /a^jLa^Li. ^>. q^. ^LUI 

Ij-cia^j (jl cLuLj^aJI <_3j^LiJ! (_gis JiioJI I Ajfc jjILjijJ (jai^ > 1I1U J^'i-vl JuSa 
j *jjj"j ' 3J^ «LcujjjJI 4-u-uIj 1 nil ^SIjJ,! j'-""' dJJisj i(_aSI^LaJI tfjut /ajil 
(J^i>- ^1 (Jjj-a^i! SJjL^tA /^ iCjIjLHaVlj cLLalmJI jojjiL2jj i£j\ju> r - L^-La-I 

. L$isLii.!j I jl iSloj (j-uLJI dJLiJI » L^a iCjujIjjj cju-l^Pj ^ La ■ uj 
oJlj* (-. 1 a mij hjLLjJ (_^a 2 .jiaVI ^j^»JI CjjJjjI 1975 Jj^jI 13 ^y^j 

(_Lll_L<fc (jU » U^tl-^j-^I «Ll>-u (j-a-jj null (j-aj .(—ajl^LaJI I hju he a t_!jj>J! 
/c-CJlJ t«L?t_iiDlj c 1 o U ]a ■*■ II L^a rt L^J t^jLLu ^^^ «UtjLLi3 «LfliQj*_a «Lu_L>.i (__^a^ 
/_£ jji jJaiJ I (jjiSLaj oJjiJI jJuLQ-a (jl /j Lj Sj (j^-Jj •l£>*"' _S' sLijLLs L^la (_p 



171 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

(_^fl 4_La ji^f <<Gl j ^yjLlJJI i.r«Mitl jl (-aSI^IaJI (Jlaj ;»Jl£. ^ JjVl aLHI 
JL3.? >l ilAn L^jlj'j 2uUVl v'J^ 11 "t*^ J«*'"l •ct^^ 1 ^H^l "^ 
4_LajJll (Jl^v^l ojufc (Jilo (j£, 3.}Lc (a^*-y La I J '"* L<Si-!J -ljl>i *J LaLc j """ 
I fljudl (JLxX.1 (jl (((Jjijj (JUU^V)) ^Sjjj .Cjujj(j^5J Cj^Ljjj Ci^K *u (j-O 
(j-u (J^LuJ,! ' flJaJJl ".LdJJLl 2ULa -ijJ^J -''-'***" T^' 1 -^ Cj-'I C*J^»«J 4_lo^jJI 
(<s_<j/j_jj ((^yi a j la *- 1 I jIJlX.2 cLa-os-tla CjIj_l*j i_lJLuij) S^jvLlLU <_ijl^LaJI 
j£, i m 1,1 (_Jj_<-ui j^=-J ajjj jS i in a j_p (jl L&.}Lia lilljj ^ flj-J£ *LjjL-uLa Sjjj-o 
Jii-^lj (vol ua-SJIa JjJI (j^a 1« iVi JjVj ! Cjjll (_yi>- Ciljl J i nil ' kia» jl>- 2I 
(_,lr jU , „tlj ( . , g ", 1 1 j (.I, nil ( jx. N Jai I jui . jiiLa pi i^oJI (Jj£ (Jj ijQJLi 
''I J J? jJs «J 3_jL^JiV (_£JJI • tLJuJI I juk (jl :4jjJb dlli (^Ic (jjiaJJ .liJj-LJ! 

.(j-\_uLjjiII 

(_ t LuIjjji > ^I 7-Lll»-VI L^x-ifcl (_£>i-l Cj^Ly 4jla J c I ^"_'J dili (_jJI i a I ' iaj 
. »_jLLa3 (j-a I 1 jj a i_x£ijl Laj ^LuLJuj ej-u*a tcjI juoj i I982^jjoj (_y3 o'-'^ 
jlj o"u nV «Lajjj-4JI (((Jjjj)) <_o-uiajj l^jjxl ^ '^3 oJl$3 <Lg.3e.flX I CjIjij i nil Lai 
Cj1^_coi (j-u^-i-Lt u -ll Cjjij_u eLuJ^a (jlS t n jjjJLa (^^3 Xiidl-I dj^a^Jla (jjjjjl^jjl 

. 3_p.jijL-aJI (JuIjlUI (>uj 5LL2jJI 3jjl3jJ,I 

jjJl^j. (j_o sQjJljsJI 4jI ital t_)jj>JI ojufc (j\i.jjll (j-o JJJ^C- f-f^ Loj 
(jl C a^ - x j (jl (^J^-SLflJ,1 ^yz*-i (Jjl->- 'j '"'^ j«_<-uLiJl (jj_iI1 (^l x_^>3 «LuiDLa 
(_,-3 3_LaL£ JJ-al l(jK i JI.^WI ( - >c . . «j U*.t| juljjulWj ^L>JI rlj-llj ' tLJutll 
<-*ll3 njJJi (_, lr LIjJl^ VLiLa JLi. .4_Li 3_LLjJLaj ^LuUI c-utAll SjLjiola 
(_y3 «LujJ(JI Cjj^j-u CjLS^Is » La aj Cj^l£ (_jJI (jl j iSJI (j^ 4ja-l mJU CjLcjju>J,I 

La 1 1970 j i n~ i , I. (_^a jj^sLlII jl^ JU^>- Slaj o^Lcl Jti^ 0L4U0VI J£ 

.3_LjjJ,l (JjO jslxJi,! pi LaiLlI ^yfl (j o ' "J -llj^>J Li^icl (JjIj^v (j-a L*ili (3^'j 

i^jdl oSjJI fjjz (jLijJ ^ Luis JljLa (jijj-oLiJI ^JaJlII (jl ^JdLi ^jJl>.j 

2^_t-oLLl1 Jl^£. (Jl_a^>- (jiaj_a m L^a g (_^b ^-ilaj «u Jl>-^j ji 
«L»-j_i «L«_aLj>JI t_i^LL-> (_yl^. (jLlJ (_y3 (_ 7: ti>- ^1 Jaj-^Li (jl jj i njll (j-aj 
(j^_»_a Ja^qjb 4_La_ujJLI pi q i nil ^j^* > (j«_aIL>J.1 (_ T 3 d o ^ g «L*J^I/ (Q-Aj) ^Lc 

: ^LLa L^_La J t <* ^ .^.-^- ,".t | ^ja 
.oljJL JuJ Mill ^ljCk:VI - 



72 



3jLl2JIj 3-oLcjJI /_i S^t^l^JI 5_lc.jJI - 

lj case uJI (_JjILijiJiI (_,lr ' a* LaJI 1J3I SJu i_al^ocVI j»J^- - 

i _ 3 _a^_aJI t_gj"< inU (_ T 1^. ' lo a ' 2 1 1 j jjjjLuI - 

L*-o Lx-& »i 4-u-ulj 1 nil jl 4-uJjJl) 4_uijLLi]Li SL&UI - 

Cj^W i"iU (_L>J (_5-!jl ^Iji nj 4 iii<i^j (_i-L*JI (_y3 jjCVTtl - 

Lulj JJ-O^I (^LjI^J-1 (<iji«Jl J(j[^<1l JJ(jtMl - 

.a^b-Vl oLiillj SLaLSilJLj ^LoaVI - 

-, iM U It VI .^-^ 4 ciin^i J j ft ju-o olj^i La (jJI 2"al '"-^j-j taill (j-^-tjjj 
(jl_<fcj_j (_jJI r-LLsoj i3J3j_iXo CjljuiLSta (j-o f-^ iCj^LaLj -3j^*-o 'IJI (_jJ^. 

c^so (_jiLc jl ii_ij^>JI i_aj^Ji jLlc.1 jus ^LlAII (j_9^ D' o-^l cj-*^ 

4_i da-taej La Ji (jl (jx. N , '* a 'ij'3i *J A\jus\^la LoLc j loC Jbvl I j" 1 1\ «i 
»l 1 11I (_jJI ^iiLo vla-ll . jLojJIj CjjJUj <_j^j>JLi ej£j3 Jl^'J '- ^JL>k (J-° 
j~u^j j I it :3_ujJLll Cjj^_u (^ (^IjJI «!j-<jj>JI pjLi (_y3 <LuVJ Cj^L>J,I 
(jl <Lujj<JI Cjj^^-u 3jl^Lv i—i^LL <_>iuu ^i Lt£ .Action (j lu£j Heliocopter 

Mirage t-Ij-lo : -I <i 1 ni (J-4^>«J 4-OjJj>JI d _;^l iJaJlj «UJ3j-<SJI Cjj^_u ( _ t 3 Cj^LitA 
i_jjj>JI ^>- j j a ji^j-c. Vj ,-<lj*U Utl ( j_ a pl^J 1 ^ si 1 ni (_yjij Phantom ajUjLsj 

(Jl Jajllj (JljjJIj ' .'J i^aJlj 
'.(^Vl ( _ > I=^iII » JaJ ijj^jJ.1 j-;LC. <_<j^JL1I _^>JI I J-& (_y3j 

<jSL!j iCjjJ.1 (jl^ p'-^-L)' ' . ' .' ' ""' '-' '7»tl ^i5jj jLojJIj <— jj^>J! 1— aj^-Li (jl» 

«Ljc_lj_i CjJlj>o 5) j 1 a 3 j-J-C S^H-2 ' j" "'_'' * "J i_3j^JiJI j>JLA cr^- ^Lj^-VI 
0j-Cj*-i l_« ^ I "v ^Is^-AjI IJlA Jl^ILjuj((Cj^I,1 JjlS tj-* O ^ ^ """ L^' *^ J ' " r 
(_, in_t (jl^ La jl iFlooding j_o_Lll jl ^^ j a II : ( _ 7 £j I m II ^ . .. A * tt jJUIl 

^llL^II 3-<-ujUILi 
^^lll 4j1«jlII <L-u!jjJ! 3^=jjj (_p=^iJI I jui c^aSa> jLSjNegative practice 
(j-ujl jJ.1 3 j I U) LtjLo^j- jj^jJI (_,lr ^1 ijlll t_jj Mill (j-o CjLLjc ^Ir L&Lb^vl 
u^>j-aJ\ (j 2 se j j joJ (3^-lj iSjjjlJI (jj/jIjlII cjLJLL->j (cjIjlaL>JIj Sj^jlJI 

CjLjlaLsJI CjLJLU (jl (_yJI Sj-ii.'i/l 3ja_ujJI J-^j-jJ J^Sj iCjLjlaL>JI CjLlILU (^Ir 



I7J 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

4_Lvj_o ^ (j-Aj i^yi^ilj ir^T- ."ill (j^ ljii'm ia (ji^. Lala l1)Lcj-«j>J,I ^H^i 
+ 20 , 6 (j-&jLi£. l ■ la i a aj a) ^^Ibal (_jJI 4 1 1 n itu «LSjLs 4-U-ul I ii->- Cjli «U^-<l£. 
VI jaJLtll .i^Li i abac a (_y2 4J j j laj V ( _ T lol jt-cb^J -^J-^-y -*-L> (_j-3 (J '"'*_' 2 , 2 

-CjIjJj-u CjMj j-l£- 4J3j-aj-o (J-«-C S^j£ ^JM ^-<-,U^V (_£jj>.| 4_l>-u (j-oj 
aJ-Aij .4 jlr .jLl^^U Ij laj Jlil^j^VI j»JtC- J-A ' fl-LtaSll (^JLlAII (JjlS Jj jl 

jJl^-OJ (2)1 ^jSL^-l 1 JL& (jJUill _}j (jl (_ T JLLfl_l^ it it Mill 1 JLA (^^ ^ .^ ,^»^ j", I djl 

(j_o sLLj-Ia (j^ i i ii j-j-C i Sai la 1 1 oJlj* (J!La 4j Cjj-o i ii i"i (_gi (j£. «Ol!i jjfc 
■' Jii^Slt ■ tLjJUJI Jj«-a!l -Jj (j-o jJejjiJ ^yjlijltl (jl i-.fc^V L«£ . a_i|it^l l_Jj^»JI 

«(J^1jLcJI » (jjjLpI *(_)-«-> (jj-ojJaJ slj^>JI pjL"< (_y3 (JLoJa^l ^j *"■*_' I 986^jLcj ^3 
5 1. 1-» «j>^"a i3Ljt£ I g-iL: (jj La « i aj joj iSjJLi L^j (j-A una i«I^Ju *Lc.jLill 
j<sJ (_g jJI (_ 3 _j_La-2l 4J j a ajj i'I-jJ^- 0-i>*^J (.j- 1 *-^!' "^ _^St3Lj Jf I *.;'"'' uj-i^a 



CjIjj Ju3 <Lul ijltl S-lLaV! i_!jj>JI (ji (_,JI j j Mil (jl (ji^-4J 3_i o i»^l (j-aj 
oJLji (_yi S-oJiicj-cuil 3-Ll*JI jljil (j-o l^jl j_iol"j 4j^JliJI (jjjjljj,! Jl-lo^Ijj 
i_ij^>JI aJ-tb CjjJJlJI Lo-'l-l-i .j_<ij(JI (j_o sLj-ioLcuJIj «L«ji^L>JI (_y3 4j-uljjJI 

i Ijjjuj I jLlI^.1 dl! i (j^^iisi jjjljJj .3j_<iL*JI (_jJI^>- «L*-oL>JI <_j^ils jLtcij 

ijm" i nil (jjJ^I I Juk(_ T 3-(OjkjLal3l S^jju Jila-SjjjQll 4JLvjJkl i—i^Ua Lu±i Jlia 
. J <" i"i 1, 1 jlj^l I ' ife-j i^ajj I < J_; 1 1 " JLLa-. 4jlaL>JI t—i^iia j-i-oLc (j\s>- uJ^- 



Cj^LoLj Jljij J j 1 3 JlJ_o LauJjjI ( _ 7 jJ! Cj I j_uatal! I Ji (jl tcl^I^JI (j-o 
^ j i^a Je ifuJI 43l JukLioA (_yl^. I jLxH^.1 jjU , ,,ll ajjt (_<3lS (J^l2 (j-o ( _ > l3j|jij 

(j_a 4_Lj_c «Lj_u1jJlJ L_ajJ_lj ^L^ i (_ 3 J->-l ^J J ' ^ ! * )l 1 1 n^l tc-lxId^j (J^j < n (_^J 

(_gji jj''*.' (!>£■ - '^* a ' 15 — (j) (j-> i ni-»JI (j^ 4_ujjlI! Cjj^j-u «Ul^L>- (-J^ila 
..(_gjJU iLL-ul i4jjijjua jiau iSjjjU sLjijJua^Jjua i ( _ t jlaLv JLL-ul ".(JIlo) (^Ij-II 

•.(jjVI JIJjJI /o^jll «L»->a ijJI 
I j " a> j ' (jl (^1 i j I II ( . < mi II (j_o CjLL^c. (_, lr 2_i olr SjjiIjJ i".ii uiST» 



171 



t )Lu_ui i _ 7 _A Ltb t^£js*-\ «LujX. * 1^^ mi ^^jI d 1 1 n flu iCjji.1 (3^ (_^ ^ L^aAaeJLq 

. jLajJIj t_ijj>JLj Uj_<i jj (j^^iiej 2 d_5jj fll'tt /^.oljjj 4-La^.JI SLpJI -I 

• j^u-all Jl^ -2 

.(Jr>JI (j-a (JjLlIIj Sj_lLII jt 1 11 jjjfcjjj 4j^pll 2 j \l ,^"aVI e-Lcbj'^l -3 

.^^jLLlLII (jLjiJ^/l «Luju1j (_ji£- <— !j^>J! (j-a SJjjJ^JI CjIj? 1 nil j_ul3 -4 

lilti Jjuj <-2L»J Jj^' (jr^ ''/.;;ktl< iv^jjllj AjJ! 3jJj ^^ _>j_«l!| -5 

.CjjJ,I t_iLgJ Vl ^»_._.U"a ,1 *.^»*tl t L(ji tjl 1 iijVI liJjjso 7 
(j-oj 'jL°-i Jl «L<2J ju3 •(\JJ-1I (_r J ' _ '-P u , (jS 1 nj Tt-jj^si CjjJ.1 ,jjt>-ufc -8 

oJufcLiijj 4j U^Sjj La jlj^jll I j < j j U Lu-ui CjjII tcjj^I -10 

.« LU <d]| i_^ La VI LLujloj (>!» 4jL (jL^)' - ! ! 

/j j" " (_j^-a oJl>-j 4JJI (oJ-»J (_j^Ilj i4_uLlAII SLuiUI «Lje_uj -12 

.(jLtujI (_p (_ 7 1^. (3*- ^J» lOjJtl Q^SlieJ 2 (jj-LajJll (jjjLlII -13 

. fjbj^. LtiiAj jjjj Lu 1 jjjj^jLj ^^5 ^rhP J ^T' 1 " 1 Cj Jl>- - 1 4 

liU JlS * 1 n_)j iSLala C^i>- (j-a ->jj (JS ^^-il ulll (jialjJll a\j^ U, 'Lx-£li -15 

.4_j£ »^l IkaJlj JLlaJLi 
■ dlrita {^ Cij.ll aUc^I -16 
.4_JL>JI A mijtU (j-a 4-u-u^ll «L>-lj CjjJLI tcjj-oI -17 
(J^Jj^v jjLuljVI *1_LL1 a-jj-sr~i mil (-^JLuVl J^ (j' c^^ 1 <^ " l8 

.CjjJ.1 ^yo (_3^itU jjL^e-a V Lufc iiy°J t«CL>-Li_u ^Lc. Ll<-a Jl^t" ( nlj 
,i_jL> J^3>^ ^J>1L9 i4_ik: t!>C:!j *Lo-l J^Slsl (jLLj ^ Jo-I j J^ -19 

.SJbjJ (^1 ^ Ojll j2jj -20 



175 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

.42lU ^Im-t-Vl 4j|j ej& -21 

. SJjjla ZjIlS jj^iu jj » i"i 1 1 aIjjuI -22 

. < n i"ill (_5-ojJ CjjJS L^JLSj <_ajljJill dt--a_Li J a I -23 

.Liijil 2 j -«- 1 j « (_^ (^JLtaill <tc.Lx.Jo -24 

aLoj " ,'*> '"'II L#J ( <1 - 1 _>y <J-^' - ■ "j 1 1 (J Jt X-S\j\\ CjIjj^sI C-Oe-i-^3 I -25 

.ojJt! t_jL*>! V ^jLlsej l$±c *ital (jjJ! 3_u^2JLi o^V -27 

.^^jjj CjjJ.1 (3-^ L^"' 1 n A ^ysLaseJiX Lal_4-i d 1 a i2 a J d 1 a 2 * a i4J^4lL?t_a <J1)1 l>j 1 ■■■ Jt " 

iSjlx. (J^»-Ij_^j ^j..I j 2 t 1 I Jlj* *_ tisj j_o jJsj .«Lu^c cjLLjc ^ylc-J x2j i "I I 



'-^^ ' ■ 



; LuiLuLo Lxjfc)) «Lujj<JI ^1 L4I0 (J-UjjLjJLo (<s-<kl «L<t>-^Li (»L£j iQijIjJI (Jj^aAll 

'■"j i " a Jl ^r* jj la-ll <—i^ taJI CjLiLa-" i ul ^Ir jLjj£.VI Jjia^'^l (j-o -2 
4-£3>j (j-o CjjJ.1 jj^S i_ul^>- ' ajgje a ^LlS (j hS <"j i4_ulsIj -ij-i-^ll OJ^~* Lt-^*" 
. L^ita (^ (jjJujju lt-^' ^^; ' a U 3iL2iiI Ujj ,. »M Utt ^Vjji jiaJ 

".(jlj LiS 4jjJ iS i nVI «Ul^Ljij i_)I J^l 'LjiSLi (j mil! I joJLc p i ii^ t-J^ila (j- 



76 



.(52 = (j) SoJlill 3-LuJI £yi t-iML -I 

.(46 = o) SiJliJI 3-LcJ! (> t_,>U3 -2 
.(54 = (j) SjuIjJI 3;, nil (jjs t-j^LU -3 

Z 19 *^ = (j) tfljJ^jj-j.W.L« U^Us -4 

. « «Lt_a L>J 1 

aJ^c -" j ' a i_JlL>j jjU , ,.tl ojui i_jjlS I jja -"J i "j Li ^li ( _ 7 jJ1 CjIjj^dL>JU 
2 tj ^i< n c-jU"tl 3j^». ijjjlS Lji i JijJS (_gi (j- till J (O-AjjJtjJ ja^jLxjj/l SjLjS 

Cjli 4 l^i I n^l Cj-3Jl^vJ iLli«>. I J » Jj fl "' j<UJ <_!^LLaJI CjuLvI CcVUV 

.aii.ijGiijSj^su.1 -i 
.3_cujiUlj aj^oULil -2 

a j a 1 1 dm^ -3 

. CjjJ.1 (jlS-i InlalX I j^c -4 

.(_Jjj>.| 3_3LSj ^^3 CP^3 ^JjJ.1 (J-^ Cjlj-tuJ-a 7" 1 ' "•' (j-ijl liilj -5 

t2 j i iiLill ^jjL«J,I (j^ jjJi^. L^iL: (JjIsj iS_Lajjil jiiJI cJjx. dl!i juu 

■,3-uVTiljljt-ntl L^ik: C^jj^vf aj 



177 



ugoJI £JL9 

iS 4-Uj^: 3JLI fjja iJjjlSUL UluiVl icLu-o S.Jl£:I -I 

■j.r*M' cWji ♦)* gaUWJ ^ jJ&Uiil $**ll :L»L* 

.SJl^SU 3jt^^lll 4i:Lu^iJ| ^^ ,-,lk^\t * ^| s |jliI -2 

.Sjjjls. 3il<j| ^1 £-l>SI -3 

^js>-\ CjlOjulo] '-o-'rh 1 '^ ^" "* ' O^*.' Lli3jL>- ^ i jl I SjJaJJ I OJI^J sLjejjjj 

. VIJjj 88 (J^LlSII J^L 7=j-loIj . (JLLlLs LixJL^ 3j_o-Vl ^SLIj) 
ojui c^ajuij nj^j^s^tAll (j^ 3j_l«j-3 4_Llc (_,i^. tllii Jjt-i (j-u I j fi t, I (3^ 3 

• lIJJulS idiLij^l j^" tc-uId^j 3jj^_l^ ^^^ 
'■*■ ^-»- LagJI 7-LLi« : L*_»L_u 
4JljJl «LiL>- 2(1 (J_caj>o tilA_L3e_j ijjjjLL^XI 7t_L3e_caj 7-LLi« t-us^j lJlJJJJ aI^ 

<_,]! 3_lluJJLi lilljj iSj^vlj 3^-jj (_,!£. (V a! /sjlJcjJL^I tljjj) cjjII ^Is ^^ic 

■ (j nii'tll /sJx. ( _ T 3 
: I o ft> ^nlliij^laj CjLlUI t. < i m">- 

■j;;'""' 1 SjLcJ-I 

t )>LLd jj-* 38 jj-* ^^lC 4_^-^ *pj) j ( "I J-t-J 4 ^ lLoj JljLC.1 /cj jjjjLl^I.1 (J-lLq 



78 



: i ^ 1 1 n m T 1 ljLxj-lj 
I^jjl 7c_pt_u£iIlJ 1 Juu CjL»!lj1 (J_aL»_a <J_i-ojj '"cJjLh 1 ~ *^)Ji ' ' ") *U^L*-ftJ 

.(47 = o) V^ 1 (JJJ0,92 
.(50= o)^^ 1 ^ ' 94 

.(126 = o) 0,612= j^jJI,jjl! 
.(I32=,j) 0,609= iliUVI juc 

(jJ! (0,01 !_gj " ma J_t£. 4j^_&^>. (_5-<kj) 3 * ^"j ' I Cj^LoL«J,! OJbfc j j luJJ 

. Cj^JU Jj'^' ij7 JjJU] jjjj LjJLllj X_OJj_« JJJl^S 

(slSjLjJI SjJLill ( _ T a L&JJ .>£<-" I (j-^l 4jjIj jJI (_ T s) (^jjlII (jjiLlHJI! (jjjla-i-j 

: ( _ T L Lo CjjJ,I JjliJ Ct-^- 5 _>^' Jl '" Ct^ ij ""' '"'J '_>*"' - ■ nJ (jjjLl2-o «_o 

.((LJjll ,j-3 Si < (tl ) ^SL>-j» 
'.^^Jj Lx-a i-L!jj < i"i • fl-i^aJ La (jJI j J i"ij i_gj-!l (O^J-!l l!? 3 " SjjI J f- 1 ^ 3 

. 3 Ju!llJ iy&) ula - I 

.^_u£ JL>- ^^l (_pajL*_« -2 

.^3jl_«_a -3 

. (i u , ,.j" rt j ^j^_j ^j^j -4 

.(jj^lj^ -5 

.up Jl>- ^1 (_^Ij-o -6 

.SjLiluJ Jpsl^-a -7 
«_fljj_o J-&J , 818= (Jlj-cuJ! I Jl^J pjj i nl Jjlj (j-uJajJI SjLcl CjLj (J^Ijlaj 

.(aJLUj LJUa 38 = <j) 



179 



ugoJI £JL9 

Ja-j i a-dl (Jlj-cuJ! I Jui (_t^- '^jjJ'j (_ri>-*-" O" ' J ^ ^ LTV JoLjjjVI i -i i n-»-_g 

:«Lo2l JaLujVI Cj^LaL»-a C^vjJtl<-ulj 

.(126= o) JJ^^J , 495 
.(l32=<j)ciiU}U 0,343 

(_j-aj^Lj Jj Ja^a (_jJ! (0,01 !_gj"i i n a JlJlC.) 4j^jfcjj>JI Cj^LaL»J,l £ JL& ) J mi" j 
(_L»-lj_a-> Ojji^-a Jl-»_i i(jj/Lj_2J,l 4-LS-mjf 4_uL$-l1I 5 jj loj I (_jij L«_l3 -ijj-i 



(j j La *j jjlS lil La (j\JJ JIJ-^" (Jj IjJsl t3J-u n ^1 (j-a <icjjjj*-a ( _ T Jj L«_l3 
(_P J) I I il" (_3-^-II « V» 4 Q IS ji «(C_»_I» 4 oK (J^>- 3jjI J f-^3 j«J iV »i lILlLc 

■ J\p-u 
La-^a J 03^ o' (*4*l (J~i '^jkLi" Mjjj>-ij djtjjEj-a CjuL>-I ciJLufc i". i imI 

.lILlLc LaLa-l (j i La ij La _iJ_l^o ^-3 
S I j^ji^ CjjJ, I (^ j £ flJ ,_L* - I V jsju 
5jj>-2 (JjJSj (j-a CjjJ.1 <_jJ3^jj (_L* -2 V (SJt-i 
j_jj_c ^_j^ se ui *_ a J^>.^JI ^1 j U , >." ^jj lj_ui LiLajl uaj ,_L& -3 V (aju 

S(d!jju)jjialjej jjij 

Sj mi j II (<sJLc (^ «3j£JJ,I (^SLSjsJI (a-&i» j-A cjjJJ (jl jl2H»3 (_L* -4 V («jlj 

5<3_<ul m"i a 3j-Li-i SLpJI (_jJI j la " (_L* -5 V (aju 

S (^jlsj-a (_gi dJL-u^aJ LaJ^JcC CjjJ,I (j-a IjJji i—SLstJ (_L& -6 2 /sju 

S(^-il * mi) (JjjjJlLd (j_a CjjJJ (J^>- Jj^- 1 Laj '^LiS ttlCjJ2 (J_A -7 2i rfsju 

Sj^iSJI SjLjj (j-a i—sLitJ (_L* -8 V (<sjlj 

S3_p-lj^>- 3-J i<* cdJ i_$j^>o (jl JLila.1 (j-a i_aUe3 (_L* -9 V (<mJ 

S^lJjj-u (j_uj^_a lLIjjjij JlJLc (JjLxialljj ^jia-Ld '" (J_A - I 2f jqju 

T4_».j_J^a (J^io dJ-LC^j (_L4 - I I V raju 

S(jl i ii'tMJ (j i La » 1 1 J*Cj^ll 4jJj (j-a L-sUtJ J-A - I 2 V jaju 



180 



SSL^S Cij o" i n l*LiLi jj < i"i dLiLuJ (Jj* - I 3 V (SJJ 
dJjLpJ ZUmllLi 1 nlni ^ILljcj iCijj&jui dJQl ^ j-iSLalll Ja -l4V/«jtJ 

Scij o 1 1 LpLflJ J Uaj. V I 2 j >. I j a ^ lLscj Jji - I 5 V jsjlJ 

Slj_u^3LpJ! c^Ja -17 V^ 

?3'>^" cr^ j^j^ cr^' j»^^Vl SjukLio 0^3 Jj* -20 V /sjj 

Sd^^jjLsJIi) (cjjJ,! (2>sIj) 3_jjj (j^ ^»l mi"" (Jjk -21 V («ju 

S(jLtuj5lJ «l»-1j cjjJ.1 (jl Jl2H«3 J.* -22 V (<sjlj 

Scjjjsjj Sjj-C- LiLaJ » V« (jl dj ifu3. pjLiuJI JJ-^ (j-o <— Sliej Jjk -23 V («ju 

4xj^>JI J^*- jjJj ct-^' •— 'y'jL^'J O"^ "~<f<^ 3» lj^ J i ^i n" J-& -24 V joju 

S<Jl!jJ,lj 

SsLlojjJI jj|j^>J| j^s cjLj^^JI tLac-a-i-a SftljJLi lj-jii (£& J-* ^5 * t*-*- 1 

TCj^xj (jl 3j_lS CjlSjI ( _ t 3 ( _ 3 _cjijj (Jj* -26 2 f«ju 

L -*^J L>° 0'- CUJ ! \-H 1 -^-'l- a Sj-^*- 9 " ( _ T 3 (jjj^LsJI (j-o i—SlieJ (Jji -27 V (OJU 

Sv2jjILj 3_p-lj^>JI CjLlUjlII dJLuii (jA Jajjjj J_& -28 V aju 

Si'ljlr 3i>^ l)^*" (Iv 9 *—*_>* I ^^J^r! O' <-d-S.12j (J-<fc -29 V («ju 

S (j-t-UJl J^JiJt-US CjJ_$J (jl * t>»J (J_A -30 21 rfSJU 

S(CjjJ,I) 4-<d£ a! Jiir'u ill (j£, (jjjLJI JJtJ-JJ (jl -5j3 J-* -3 I 2 f«ju 

ITCJ jj (_5-<kj JJ^ ^i5j V^" l£1]S_J3>. J-JJJ (_)-<& "32 V (SJU 

SCjjJ.1 Jjlj 3J^£5c_a Sj-jjS 'jj-°l u iSiscj Jji -33 V /sju 

S43l!i cjjJ,I (j^ (_, i n^l cjjJ,I j 1 1\~ >l (jj j ?"i »" jjjfc -34 V («ju 

SdLjlal jo-l Slsj JlJLc Ijji^ oj^ J-* "36 V /sjj 
Sj>j^£Lo dll j«_2j (jl Lu!j ^j^j J-* "^^ "^ t*-*- 1 

JdjJjVI)) (^jlsj^U S-lL^sVI (j-O SjiJilJ l—SLJEJ (Jji -38 V (<SJLJ 

S/j a uu . ..t U ( _ > iajj_o Sjuj ^1 ' " 'JJ ta-i^3 1 lil 1j-jjj ij^flJ (J-& -39 V («ju 



181 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

Soljlj i nil Cjjl^v 5j^j (j-o i—SlitJ Jji -40 2 (<sjlj 

S(_a U , ..a I 3j Luj, cjjj^s dJL^c^j (Jji -4 1 V f«ju 

St±jIL>J1 Sjjj (j-a Ij-JJJ <— slitj (Jjfc -42 V («ju 
5 » J la a (jr*-" <^>.>U (j' ' Sj *"' J-* "43 V /aju 

Sjjrttl (_l! JlC u ni^j Jjfc -44 V (SJU 

'UM3 lil'll /yi j^^jjtj LoJLi^. tijioJI j_ta_La dJLuL^j Jji -45 V /sju 

ScjjJII (j£, cjjLajj (jl t_^>«-i J-* -46 V («ju 

SSjjLta i aLkala-l Cj.iL>. f^ Cjj^j (jl (_, uiieJ Jji -48 V jaju 

Sl1x_j_« jj^a^ai (jLSL^ (_}-> tiLttij (J_iielij LajJt^. i^-JJJ ?^.yJ2 (J-A -49 V /CJt-l 

SlIxjJ,! ijJ3-i 4_lUx. 4jJ|j (jJI (Jj-$j (_L* -50 V jsju 

Sj_iL2Ji,l (j-u jj i nil ^1 j La i aj (jl Ij-jj^ l£12jI Jaj Jji -5 I V (<s-«j 

S3J3L2JI <ja-li nVl 4jjj Jl^- 1— a_jj>JLi j » luj Jji -52 V j<mj 

ScjjJ,I Jjlj CjJLs-j 1 n La-jij j_i^ ii"ll Ijjii^ I'llinij Jjfc -53 V jsju 

Scjjj»l3 «_fljj-a (jlSLo (j^a pjJ9jJI (_, i"i^e3 (J-& -54 V /<s-«J 

Sdll (_LloJ SLaj Lij (j flij Ijj5£ '^T^j.' Jjfc -55 V jaJU 

ScjjAI Jl»j jLj^iJti! CJJL*J lS JJI JistiJI lj^ dJJJLij Ja -56 V «ju 

Sljjl 1 La ^~ ■ ■■" }L3 aLu (jl ^yAjeJ Jji -57 V ,<sjij 

ll_!j|JJ>Jlj CjVLlLcV! (j£, Ijjjj Lojiji^. Ij-JJJ 5J-CJ-1J (_L* "58 V (SJU 

S(jl_cuj^U I jajLjfo I Slfl ( 1 j 1 n"t 3jjiLk> cjjJ,I (jl Jl2jj>3 (J-& -59 V f«jt-i 

91 g-La cjj^jj ^iiJ LiJ 1 3_J,L«JI i_ijj>JI aj-Sj (jl (_, utjej Jjk -60 V jsju 

ScjjJ,L> /j j" '" (_ 7 ^-!l a^LsjI SjuiLiLA o^Si (Jjt -61 V /sju 

Sl*1o^L>-Ij dJJLol (Jiso (jl (Jj£ Cjjju (jl ''l-^-^jj (Jjfc -62 V (OJU 
(^_Zu (_p ^Ji-gj 4JI (_5^Lc (CjjJ,I) (Jj-2j (j-a JjV 4JI ) Sj »"' Jji -63 V (<sjlj 

7 La ^j^"»- ."■ jl_ciaIL>-u ) ^ i"il LajJ^. JjJlJu l_3^>- L^J u (^a ) (J_A -64 21 /qju 

SSjLuj CjjL>- (_y3 Cjj^j (jl i—SLJej J.* -65 V (SJJ 

1 Jju Laj CjjJ.1 (j£, dij^Loj *_o Ij-JJ^ p K"l (_L* -66 V («ju 



182 



lL*_j_4_<o ^^pa^-i ^)iajj_a «lLajLis_« ^Jl ) la t ^*" ^ji l£12j1 ilaj <J_A -68 21 /qjlj 

S Ju*-o jj£.) 

Sljujui Lais ^ a, =:,-■,„ II J^io ->>=" ^ '■.'."".' J-* -69 V *jiJ 

Siiljj^V 2-j.uiiJLi JjLaia oJl Ja -70 V ,«j 

<Li^j-j£. (J ^s (Ja-j" i n cjjju tjl (JjJ9 tiiii c^Sjx. lil i_aLa3 Jj* -71 V j<s-«j 

SiiLo>U.I ^ (PjII (j-o lj^i£ (j>J Jjfc -72 V ajlJ 

S Vj" ^ ^ Cjj-4-i tjl (JLw^-l ^j-* (_j mgeJ <J-& -73 2i jqju 

ScjjJ,I (j-o a»i ulu (Jji -74 V (sju 

f j_pj| dJ-La ' _i I taj LoJ_t£. CjjAI (j-o ''I i nAll ^Ir (_, uiieJ Jjfc -75V jsju 

<5 f jJL, 
SSjLcv jLjfcLij Liulj lj-ji^ T^-^-j-^ J-* -76 V (<s-«-i 
s j .>."->. * ^j^-^ ■"■ j 1-^ ' ^ ^j-« i—sL?tj <j_a -77 2i rfsju 
SIjljJuS/ LvLcjl cjjJ,I iS^uj/)) l*U < < < r n" (Jj* -78 V pju 

ScjjIIj (_*£.jJI A^J-Sl SjukLifka ij£3 Jji -79 V jsju 
S^jLLD^-taiJl ^ysj^a ^jli^J LajL^ /cJJJLI Cj^Ju ^ i1i*jsj <J_A-80 21 rfSJLJ 

SojII ^ jj£L<£}I t*JLtic j Lu ■ .._■ -83 V (<sju 
SiLuJll 4jjl*JII (j^lj^VLi 4jL^>VI (j-iiej Ja -82 V ^ojtj 

SdJbl j mi ^S Cjj o"i i ii i_dj| 3^£La i Mjlr j La-j ■ ■■" Jji -83 V joju 

S^yJjII ^1 jJa-llI (j-a <_2lieJ Jji -84 V (OJU 

SljLjijvj Cjj_4-i tl)l {j uiJej <J-A -85 2i /QJLJ 

ScjjILj AjJI 4jJj L*ilAJ (^ ' la j~j~ Jji -86 V jsju 

SC^LO (jlfcP* (JT^! jk' 11 ^SUj Jj* "87 V (SJJ 

. Ijbf CjjII LuicJ V (_5 jJI fj-JI (j-a tT^jl Jji -88 V jsju 

: JIJH Ji tfJ* wUUt ubU2 ^^41 — Jl :>rf ^ -»U 

(- I c -ij-i-J 3 ,id«i->. jLlAj ill 7-j~ 7i 1, 1 (j-oj .iM ii ill aJJt (17) (JjJl^*- (J^-jj 
(jlj^j (jls. I^j JiU^VI lipl LuSLIj . 75 , 55 , 39 , 25 , 23 *\JiJ ^j Ja^l 

J l2j i --til i _ T J3 i>*1^>.l ^*-«3- J ' O ' y* ° c^* cJrr-* 



I8J 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 



i_Jli "Y jdStfllj "**)" orJj'UUJ Sjjdl 4—Jl (17) JjJbr 





oUI 




j^Ti 


r*-> 




oUI 




if> 


?*■> 


%v 


%f~ 


%V 


%f~ 


■ JijJ ■ 


%V 


%f~ 


%V 


%r~ 


Jij—Ji 


56 


44 


75 


25 


31 


57 


43 


43 


57 


1 


59 


41 


75 


25 


32 


58 


42 


37 


63 


2 


18 


82 


22 


78 


33 


30 


70 


29 


71 


3 


16 


84 


17 


83 


34 


27 


73 


32 


68 


4 


42 


58 


46 


54 


35 


80 


20 


84 


16 


5 


16 


84 


25 


75 


36 


76 


24 


76 


24 


6 


68 


32 


38 


62 


37 


36 


64 


52 


48 


7 


27 


73 


14 


86 


38 


55 


45 


83 


17 


8 


85 


1 5 


80 


20 


39 


46 


54 


41 


59 


9 


22 


78 


45 


55 


40 


64 


36 


57 


43 


10 


39 


6 1 


48 


52 


41 


I I 


88 


3 1 


69 


1 1 


19 


81 


38 


62 


42 


56 


44 


61 


39 


12 


61 


39 


73 


27 


43 


58 


42 


37 


63 


13 


7 


93 


1 8 


82 


44 


88 


12 


87 


13 


14 



uL-Jl ijAsu\ (Jj 5y~h a-i^ j o-*-A* J&>\ 



1 84 



6^UJC uljljiC y$±S ugfijl (§19 



"V" cs^'^'j "»*" liJj'IAU ijjill '- ill (17) Jj-tr £>tf 





ii.lil 




jjTi 


Jij-Ji 


°M 


Olil 


%V 




t*J 


%V 


%r~ 


%V 


V 


Jij-Il 


41 


59 


69 


31 


45 


68 


32 


60 


40 


15 


72 


28 


47 


53 


46 


75 


25 


67 


33 


1 6 


37 


63 


30 


70 


47 


45 


55 


39 


61 


17 


45 


55 


58 


42 


48 


45 


55 


68 


32 


18 


35 


65 


51 


49 


49 


66 


34 


69 


31 


1 9 


78 


22 


56 


44 


50 


65 


35 


68 


32 


20 


36 


64 


61 


39 


51 


61 


39 


67 


33 


21 


57 


43 


78 


22 


52 


37 


63 


27 


73 


22 


31 


69 


28 


72 


53 


84 


16 


78 


22 


23 


39 


61 


15 


75 


54 


62 


38 


42 


58 


24 


9 


91 


17 


83 


55 


93 


7 


92 


8 


25 


63 


37 


64 


36 


56 


65 


35 


68 


32 


26 


60 


40 


60 


40 


57 


41 


59 


59 


41 


27 


40 


60 


56 


44 


58 


84 


16 


79 


21 


28 


52 


48 


53 


47 


59 


19 


81 


24 


76 


29 


61 


39 


70 


30 


60 


65 


35 


72 


28 


30 


91 


9 


77 


23 


75 


49 


51 


75 


43 


61 


49 


51 


71 


29 


76 


39 


61 


23 


77 


62 



185 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 



"T jJISlallj "»*)" cs^U lijdl v—J' (17) Jj-^r «U 





ii»li] 




jf> 


Ji>Ji 




£M\ 




jf> 


& 


%V 


%^ 


%V 


•v 


%V 


%r~ 


%V 


V s 


Jl>Jl 


34 


66 


58 


42 


77 


20 


80 


12 


88 


63 


67 


33 


77 


23 


78 


22 


78 


48 


52 


64 


59 


41 


76 


24 


79 


33 


67 


38 


62 


65 


27 


73 


32 


68 


80 


75 


25 


70 


30 


66 


71 


29 


64 


36 


81 


28 


72 


15 


85 


67 


32 


68 


23 


77 


82 


38 


62 


32 


68 


68 


56 


44 


56 


44 


83 


75 


25 


78 


22 


69 


25 


75 


57 


43 


84 


39 


61 


37 


63 


70 


29 


71 


45 


55 


85 


60 


40 


57 


43 


71 


82 


18 


70 


30 


86 


82 


18 


79 


21 


72 


46 


54 


30 


70 


87 


43 


57 


45 


55 


73 


79 


21 


66 


34 


88 


66 


34 


71 


29 


74 



:M£ll -&m t^j«ll g-UJAI alt 4-t >*lf j>lUJt ^OM :>rf ^Lrf 

:'it im'itJI Jjjy«aJI-t 
(_, Ir (j-^ 3 La^ i ( jjiljnU 1 Jl^J «Lul Laa>VI /<sJL«J,1 (_>A«j (18) JjJ^j- ilr^ 

CjLJiiJ (jl il i3_^_&5^v 4 j i ii i-»Jl jjjj^.ill (j| (18) JjJl^v (j_o 7" ''""'JJ 



186 



AjwlJrl kJ'iUs jj CS—*- (J* ^jil (3JL5J jJj«3l 

t r a 

12.47 34.59 126 ~ 
11.83 45.67 132 ^ui 



tjjJJLUI-LJ 
'. ( _ T L Lo (jjLjLfla Luli IjLl*-0 (^jjJoJ! 'L^-jJ (J-uLuiJ LoJlJ-"|i III 

I ( _ T L Lx-fl it-* ft Jl>.|j jo^j (J_J3- Sjjl.} f-<^3 

.(jjjjl Juus - I 

. LJS^LLjI (jJjila j-j£. -2 

^ La-j i " ' <1>-jJiJ (jjJILo -3 

. Lo Jl>- ^1 (jJjILa -4 

. 1jl>. ^j-jJlj-* -5 

.Sjjjui 'L^-jJ (jyJJ (^jjCLo -6 

. JufcjJI 3-»-jJ (^JJ (jJ Ola -7 
(jjjilll (JjjLlLoj CjjII (jliLl (_ri>-*-" ^Lull CjLvjJ (jlj JaLjjjVI i _i i n->-j 

:«LuVI Cj^LoL«J,I C^-jjJejj-Jj iljui 
010, (jj)" i ,i a ji£. Lgj^fc^. : ( 1 26=(j) jj£ JJJ , 268 - 
• iXHk^v j^ji: .(132= o) ^toUO. 107 - 

JjJLa ^j^ aie ■! (JjJlIII (jj/LuLo (_yi^. «L»-jjJI I " i » flJ j I I oK 4Ji dlli ( _ 7 1ilj^ 
(jJjVl iauiiJI JjJjj .tiiLjVI ^yk: j j La ij *sJ tiili i^SLlj ijj^jJ! L?^ ^JJ-ll 



187 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

. Jjuilj (j-*^-' J*^ '"'.1 ^li 

(jjL23 LoJlJ^. (3_<_ljjJ! l£JjJLl2.c 3jJ3 i_JJla (_gl) i 't vl 2k: I 3jJ3 ,_& La 

•-^Jj l_4_<3 it"* 3 ^^'j (*^J tjj^** 2^JlJ KJU2 

, ( ^J* '^ _ t 

L«jj (3Jl>- (_yl^. (_p) CjLJLLaJlj <UlIaJ I (j-o (J-Gcj-sjs-o «j i iuuj LL<i3 JuSj 
ja3 . 3-J^LjJI CjLjj"i i ii 1,1 ^^Jl '■" J ...*x\\ LajJJl>. LjS «LuJjJI S Jtj fit T1 SjjjJ 
<>Jl_& ^j-* (J-J (jr-S ct-LH* - ^ O ' - ^ ' ' (j "J^ \-Q^ Cj^Ju Jjl^ ' la i "j" rt ?*^r" ( nl 
.(Jjljtlll Ijui «La_uJ (19) (JjJL>- (JViS CjLjjjjjiXI 

, ( 132=J) oUiUij (126=0) awi 



j^Ti 



iLkp^l S_ji 



e. 


r 


j 


t 


r 


j 




9.2 


53.5 


11 


16.6 


39.0 


15 


^ 


11.8 


45.3 


83 


12.9 


36.6 


77 




12.6 


43.2 


38 


8.2 


29.3 


34 


^ 






188 



3JljJL*JI 4_ujjil ^l-i ^ 1 11 a (jjjjju (jJ! r-LLso V (_ 7 ^I-«L3=_lLUI ojui jj i~i~_g 

: aJSjIU, 1 j-ojlJ 1- J 

.(_,j VI JIJ-cuJLi (jj! j (jjjLjiI (_ t I^. j-3jii.! j-«-«JI (j-u^ 
jSLifuj ^LifujjLjjj/ (_gJJI j-«-«JI (2>c j-^j3 l_Lo JSL! <jSL!j i^JJI jlu jl i<* VI jj5» 

. (LoLc 0000) Si l \j La '' 2 J-^j (j-o xJSjlJi,! 1 £ Ij t~ jj* Li£ 1(_ t jj^2j 
'"'J 1 kj .(jlalj" r Vlj JJlJ>JI (j_a Ij-J-l£ IjJ^S fj-cbjJJ Ij-lfc jLj? JlSj 
ljL>- ^)^ a se La f-^JJ (JSL<I< (_y^- it— i^LLaJ! (j-o JJi^. (_£jJ 4_loJLSjJ CjL&LsoI 

< ibj t~ (jl 'jL^- 5 1< ^-' J - U 23 ^Li_o -1 ibj 1 c o^ i^J iS' t4l«i"'*iXI («-*j i-o-c- * 
:3_uVI ^jloJJI (j£. 3-mljjJ! 0J-& Ci A mi*sj . I jSLaj i3_uj 24 jj* *jbalU 
, 962= (pjj 1 11I juu jjjU'tl 3^Lc!) *JsjILU j-«-«JI jlj ?~i 11I oLu J^Lla - 

. I JL>- »_ajj-a J-*J (^lJIIsj LoJLla 38 = (j) 

= ^ . lull ^Jj *j9jaj| ^_4jlI1 1 la • "j" ^ - 

= kljLxlLLaJI (_£jJ *J3jILU j-«j<JI 1 La 1 "j~ a - 

J-Lc "j j ta ' 3>Ai ^. 1 l?^ f^Jjil j-«jlII ■ La i "j" a (jl (_oj^laJI <j-oj 

j_A-4_<J,L»JI Cj|»l La a.VI x_j_<j^v (_y^-(j uSLitll (jl (j^a fO-C.j-1! (_,lf iCjl ±11 taJI 

/. LtAJI ^gj"t lull (_ T 1^. T^"" LaaJI 
iCjjJ.1 (j-LSJ (_j_ijj(JI (jjjLj_SJ,Ij aJsjJLlI j_4jJI (jlj JoLjjjVI 1 _* 1 n->- ja3 

: 4_lIlLII JaLcJjVI Cj^LoLjla (j£, ^ljLLlII Cjj iii nlj 

.(126= (j) , 039-= jj^oiJ 

.(132= (j) 0, 142-= cjLlMJ 

(j-C (jil 4_<jiIj jJI ' a-iSlSLj /s_La 1 Luu^i>-I 4j^ji^>- j-^ Cj^LoLjla (j5-*J 

.cjjII (Ji^j Luli «JsjlJ,l j-«-«J! <j^j 4^^Lc 

:jr^.jGJI-^ 
(41 = (j) (J1_l>.JlA (_,JI jj^jJI (J-ujl^L>JI . iM Utl ( j_ a 3x.jji^o i".q 1 11^ 
•" J j I c CjjJ^I (jiil cttL?-*-" (_>uLlSJ,I (j;LilaJ JlJLcj . (84 = (j) (j^_L>-Juo J-^C-J 
: ^Jj I 1^ (J-L L^ t T d 1 1 Jufc j a ' •• Lb 1 3 Jl>- (_ 7 ^Lc «Lc^_a^?e-« (JS Cj I U. . ..j" ^ t ", t , ,,■>. 
012, 6-/+35 , 3= (jjJLkjiXI (J jJ OjXI (jiJS 1 La 1 -j" a 

189 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 



, OI3-/+34,8= (>_lvjI! j_lc jlc cjjAI JjlJs ■ La ■ -j" ^ 
n_gjjk^>- ^j£. j-Aj , 050 . -fji\ Jj^s^s (JL>JI ^Aulaj (j^-Li-jJ,! 3x.jji^o ^^a) 



190 



£M\* <JU«&\ I 8 



»j$At it* trf^iJI yLil - I 

cLjv 1 j ^>— <-u j J STa ^j'-^j o c < la c 1 Cj^J, 1 Julj 

CjLu/lj.} C^J^vl L<li l(j ■■ fl * H sl_a_Lcj ^ fl I "." flJI 

:«<bl$fi«#»£ij-i 

(jl». «4-Jj S i n a» ( _ 3 _a^Lj-u2! i aj , ,, I j ^tl >ij 
La i_gjJU V (j-1 ^1 cK'J-'y O""^ ^>ll (j-° <-2>>J1 

j_a (j .I j lj Iji^>-j^ p*\'.i ' " (*jL*JI (jlj ijjjjj f x ' jL ^- 

uxui CxjLSj «LlII Cj^Ij i41oji] Lajj (jpJ' (_psl v«2(l 
ji iCjj-U J-«-i 4_i (_Li>o 3_ijJi£. J ii" «J 4J2J i«Ujl>- 

•'"'■ J i 2 Jlj (JL1I (j-o «LiiJEJ La (_ji^. ' fl-mLi 4J2 jl 
l_L^>- (j-o Lai . LjJ ^ 2-uta. V tdlau (jj-tla Ljli aJJbj 
(jl «U (j^-J-i LJL3 cL2-uL>j| uJ^- J-<k Lo j Jj jaJj dijJLl 



191 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

l_^\ r' ■^"* > »l (_j-&J LgJJ I (J I 1*"li "1 (J llAIJl lLIjJ (j-° Jjil £,, Mil (J-"J-! ilijJtl 

j_Ajjv .j.. iil| jjij i«G2 I (J I m"u ill » il Lai] i-il^JJ Lo i UJiJ L££.j-4J*-a u o i n_i 
. « 'I i uAU 31jLJ3 jj£. L4J Ij 1 LiiajX. ("1 1 ih!j (^jl 1 ii-v 
(jl i _ 7 _ilS_j (jSJj t((4_jjS in a» m£|j (j-C (J^JLJI <J_LA-£ii2J jJL*.* LlA (j_u_jjj 

Cij a ' ■■* La *_« Jj djj L&Jsjjl LcS CjjJJ (j_« i_2^>Jl » )l 1 1 til -n ^ * a (jl '.(JjJL) 

.(j-UjJLlII £j*~j aAJI yi tLlxaAlxji La Ijuij i«LlU-«JI CjLu/ljjJI jnij 4_t£. 

aLJI (J^>«JU J' 'SjLjVI (j-o i_a^>. jji-J^a) i_£_>-j Lo-cjjJ,! £y* i_2jJ»JI 
3jjJ»JI ( _ T a L^J (jjiLjiI V-«(jLajjjiLa» jLiiil Lo-cjjJ,I SJLv (jSJ_j-«LuI j-ll jJi^j 

(_gl JjjJLo (_j-3 (J 11 J lj 1JJ li-l"l 11 J (JLpJl (j-° JL*JI (_5-3 (OJ (j-OJ l4 j: lipVl i*ltl 

ji iaLiI! ^^v^JI j»J-c «ui£. (jj^j o' o^-*f lS^' " ^Lts (Jjitlj (jl jfiVni 

. JlJ^iI (_jJI jj* i"ill aIjjuI CjJl^ej (jl jl ids! jJI J-Aj JiJ^-ill ( _ T C^JI J-SAj jl 

(jLa i«GjJl^v jj^LIj V cjjJ,I (j-o <_a^>JI (jx. ^^a^JI j_ujL<JI (jLa /<u <j-oj 

J 2 a (j_c TtjLiJI 1 _i rj-Il (jl . 4_Lo (_aUeJ (_£JJI La LaLiu <-3j-«J V v j-^-> lUI 

i_aVT ^in ul (jla Sjj-^ (_y3 4-i^. j-jju jl (jSL«j (4ljiE3 (jSLx-i V (_g jJI j) tjiil jJI 

djtjjUtl CjjIjSDIj Cj^IjjsJIj (jlajJlL? CjjJ.1 (_yJI (_£-ij3 (jl (jSLflJ (_,!!! <_2j|_)_li]l 

(52) .^LkJI j^kil VI Ldlj Uj ,U^j 

(j^it- ."ill (jl (jLj_>J ij '^LjJiJ Lilsljj^l «(jLujijj (_5j^aJJ» (j-a J£ aJJS JlIIj 

3 j hi Lib 2 -1 J II < at Jl&VI ^SeJ (_, 111.11 (^ «Gj-3^3 j ij 4JV 1I15JU i_aliej 

(j_o 3j_lj^ «L-Ll«J 7c_ijia 4_lLajlj (jLiIJJi,l (jl Jui j»L9j • L&^jJlSjj 4jlii 0j_i3jjJ 
i-S^i-JI fljj 4iaKJ| l-jIjiiiVI JJjLall SJjL^o^ jLx.'i/l cJltiie^^o -^b-^'i/l 
^^1 CjIjLijiJI J^jv^^j ij\jua^xJiX\ 0j£'l 3^' (_, i^aS? (jl j^Jaj .CjjJJ (j^a 
» j t-" ml (jJ» :JiLo Purposive ^^-LisjJLlI Jal mi 1 1 1 2 j\ j j 4JL CjjII < ^.^" 
.« I go-il J ' (_yJI (^Lcj^i-iioj (JjaJo3» (_p J 1 <3J » j KiCjIjjiJI (_,i^. (Jj '^--11 
Sj^ujiJI CjLcjji^J.1 jlaiol (_,lr jljJaVlj iJliLill (_,JI tcjjiII I jui TtjLjJ (Jj-«jj 

(j^l».LJI (jjJLjfc (jlsl^ll^l (_,lr JiSjj L^JI jJljjj ,LoLc 55 (_,JI 15 (j-o 

<l_j| /. I c Cjj-1,1 (j_o i_3j^>JI (_jJI «j_ijij_ij j^Lu» j la *_' (jl i—aJ^iJI (j-oj 
(_p_a 2_jj_j_)j i_i| j , ul ^J| i_ajj>JI Ijui f->-J^ J^ L<ii .Cjjjj^ Mgj La 3 i_3^>. 



192 



£lUdlg v Lu»All 

(jru'll jl i(JLajJI (JjjJejj i3-4ju^ajlj h_JjJl«JI £yi i—SjiJIj t/_ fllabdl (_Lc.L*2i!lj 

:lpVl cjLu^VI L^jI (80) «J3]>£» jjj? L^ . (39) 

.jLia^-VI Juc aV^Ij 4-uoJI 5 Li LJ.I 5-4 <_3^iJI -I 
. ( _ ;r <tcu ? JI fjSU iaujj jVjVI (j-a e-a^kll -2 

ijjLj-ujVI 4_2JL»- Lxj Lul j SLpJI (jjjL23 jl n_al jutal ^je-i^t i nil i_o£jj -3 

i(j^L>. 4j>._^j 5li*jjI£j(I (_Lc tiili 3 ) '^JJ 1 1 jj« fll '^ (_g JJI j-4-»JLj u-ujJj 

l!al "n ni (jL^ ' 3 '~"S'~ O' lt-" 1 -^ lt-^' SjJLI jijju>o (<ukJL>-i (j-° S-" J LoJiJuls 
•(!>£>*■' U'V'-" '- 'IS! u^>- "-(Jjij (jl 5^-*^ ™- a L^ 

\\ i t-a «L_coL>-j «Ljj-j_uI 5-* ^J^""* loJI ^-^S^"m t n 5-* (_T"^ t — ) 3^' ^hH^ "^ 

.JULVl 

.(yljjjuil (_JjJ Sj^sLkj) (j^JVI (—iLixIl (j-4 i-S^iJI -5 

.aJjl!I 5.4 i_a^>JI -6 

JUrijC uUI ja :w£ll $itf wLaii-g 

5-4 (J-L2JI <_iLjjj<i (_y^Lc <— ajjuil cjLuIjj cj^LiLi jju . ..tl oj^ <_j3ls ^La 

4_<_>j^. .i^Lj *u^Lj 5-° *— QJ*^*I 4jlaL>JI t—i^Lla 5-4 CjLljC Cj^Lj (_£jJ O4AI 
7-jJLflJ.I (Jlj i nil ra^J-ll **->->3 'O'-'^J 4jJ1j< nil) 4_ujjlII ttSLiaXlj ^-La-4 '•(_,-& 

r^LUI 

* )Lu_ul i /»n-». ^-1 y* l^ \ cL^j^j 5-4"c^-^ L4 tCjjJ.1 5-4 (j-uL_u1 5-* J-^-" *— ^l-^- 1 ) 

S (_a^>JI ljufc 

ip-jjiajJkU (_j1«IlI,I j-££-j (__>iiALiJlj Aji iSuXIj j^S-LI (&^3uL>-l 5-4 1— 2 JL>- JuSj 

.J_u£ J_UJU 5j- i L^J^*" (*^"*W . 1 "^V^l ^^^~N 4 «_4 

.cj^LxII cjLjiIjjJI ojla *ljlUj 5^ lt^ Laj^j 

Jj "* " ^J* L?^ HJ^I j-L2 l_»Lii«l : Vjl 

82 = 5) j3^*-*-ll ^Lt^LjKjl * j^LLd 5-4 5^-^-*-^ (3^LtuJl 7-j" n t, I 5 1 J ■ " II ^>-j 

40 (jJlj3- L4I4 J^ <u^s Sjjjlc: cj! imI-v ^ i3jJLLI 12= 5) iliLiVlj (LJLL 



I9X 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

.<_ilJL*Jlj <— il i n-»Jl (j-a <_a^>JI -I 

.SLpJI ijL^J (j-a i_a^>JI -2 

. jVjVI JLc. eis^JJ! -3 

. gL l -LQ jv ^_iL»_« jjjjLuI ^yzJLi Jui£. (J_4J>o 3Ljj>J1 (j2 -7 

. LujJI o! jdo i_dp (j^s i_a^>JI -8 

.(jjji-l SLo- ^yJI JLSIJVI ,3-a <_a^j>JI -10 

. 3jl»-^J! (j-o i_a^>JI -I I 

.S^JL^I JU^Vl 4ia (>« l^^JI -12 

*>j i u-fl ' (_t\al^jLJ (jjjLJI JlJi£. CjjJJ UoLujV - I 3 

.ej^Ju*a (j-u (^ (jl^JS^I ji <_jjLJ3'iM JL»-I tlijJ, - 14 

.CjjII Jju J^jsJ.1 (j-o <_2ji>JI - I 5 

. *L2l!l jIjjl1<j<VI ^J^j cr'^J «uL=£jjj< <dJI 3la>Lo <j-o i_a^>JI -I 

. }H3 Ojll ,j-a i_3jj>JI - I 7 

(Jl ua£ ^ysj^a Juu Cj^l.1 (j-* (— 3^>Ji - I 8 

. JLtu^tdl 7-J>I! 4J3jLio (j-o i_2ji>JI -19 

.4JJI CjLl»-Ijj CjI jLajlII (_£.ijj (j' l_k^ (jl iiitVI Cjj^j (j? (j-o <_2_jj»JI -20 

.«Gli ^) — se uJI j I .>."^-V ( 2jj^i.VI SjukLiiLA (j-o i_a^>JI -21 

. <tx>-Lio 4Jiu>J (_gl (^^ CjjJ,! Cjj^jj (j-o i_2^>JI -22 

. LSj^v cjjJJ i_a^i- -23 

.(jLxj^l 1 kajual CjjII (j-a <_2_jJ»JI -24 

.^J^jv ^j-* ' "±~~ * ^>it>.j cj^ju (jV -26 



191 



£lUdlg v Lu»All 

■j Mitlj j-jitil /4-lLuJI ^jjJCJI aJl^. 3^=-jjJ <-3jiJI -29 
. 4_j£. Lii>- 1 3jLc ojuij oi)^* - fr 1 '-^ c ' ""'-' ^^ ^j-^' <j-° i— 3jj>JI -30 

-tfl ^j L^aJLI «Lj_u1jJlJ1 0Jlj& ^_b ^rCLaJijr" lull (J-u_Ll*J1 («^c->- ^-^J '^^J 

. L&j_lCJ 4ji-h nl^j «LujJj «Lj£. Lil>- 1 J d j "■■"" *-^J>i «LuLjiiio <_ul^>- /. La »"j 

4_ijj ii i ii <LLlc ^jl! lj^XI JjJlii ljLlui) : L_iLj 
Jj < i ii dllil 4jlaL> 2 j Lis (j_o 5_Llc ^Ir <L-uljjJI ojui i—iJJJ,! l£>^' 

c*aa^j . < - 2 * ) 84/ 1 985 (j-taUJt aUJ! ^ 4jj^l^JI 4-ujjlII SSUiLi ^L^ILi 

.4jj-UjJI JU^^I (^Ac t_jL2jJI ,j-a i_2^>JI -I 
.dijll (JjJS JLoVI (jjj-iLso (_^ 3_i£.jJI -2 

. LujJLi liLui^ailj *LLJI t_xjv -4 

. 4_UjjJI (jJvljjJI (^3 JJ Ir^il'ltl -6 

. JljO-^JI JjLjJI jjfcj SjjjiVl jl ijVjVl (^lc i-S^i-J! -7 

. xJxJLLj 4jJ-° C3-* ■>! 'LujJLi>^I *ja1J! ^ 3-lc.jJI -8 
.cjjJ,I '» j j j'^t I 3ij-«-o j»J^- -9 

. 4jI ji£.j j j^tl ^^LLb (j-o <_2^J»J! -10 

.cjLcLu>JI (Jj-^j cjIjlUI A.i\-tt uiijll -I I 
.(jLuiJVI ^jJ 3Jj>c. <_2jj>JI Ijuk -12 



JjJLifu /cJi J i n ~»j1 (j-* r*JL^' 7^-3J J> ~ ' ' '^* ' 



13 
14 

. J$$*Jl1 (j-a <_3^k]| -15 

. i—ij-i jJ I ij!jS - 1 6 



195 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

, <M taJI J-jJS (j-o Cj-ajJs L<t£ Cjj-1,1 ,j IS <— il j i iii pj-c3 aJx. £->-j^ J^J 

iSjjjjlxJI «lJLl«JI joj^t>. jJL»-3 Lg^i'DSij -^t I <_j^LLi]l ^JJ 3JjL2J,Li-(j-ujjjLxJI 

-CjjSvJ JlS i—sLu-u^l jj-a j-jSI 4 j i ii t (ji i U«-^.\l ij , ,U^a jjS'itl ,_lc LjJI o**milj 

sVjjfc aJLS jJia dili *_aj i3_ujjjl i_jLu-uVl J^-'L; i r-i 1, 1 3-Ll«JI i^l Lu/LJ3 

.OjII Jill i£>»»t icj-iio LI j i ill dl!j£ c-j^LLJI 

ijJLLJ 2lLlc ^jJ lj^XI Jila ljLjj/I : LULj 

3-g.J.qjaJ, i4jl!i ^LmJI 7-j"nU (Jlj-mJI 4-t>-jIb J J L I "II 9JLA t_ |3LS aIS 

.(12 = (j) CjLVIj (15 = (j) jjijJI (j-o cLujjiJI Cjj|j_u «L*-aLv c-i^Ua l j H a 

: ( _ t 1j Li£ cjjII (jia i—iLjjil Ij^jjl j^j 
.iLUVl ^ij^\ -I 

.CjjJk! Jjlj CjJlscj La -2 

.<_jLt«Jlj i— 1 1 1 n-»JI -3 

• JJ-2JI i_j| 0£. -4 
.jaJ^L t j^l i n-vVI l j f js i_2^>JI -5 

. 3_aLJLll ajj -6 
.(ft^ill ajlc -7 

.3^1 < i nil jJi3 (j-a i_3jiJI -8 
. L#J j-aj (^11 2 i im<"II <_2j|jJill I ii la ' CjjII ^LLlUI i_aLeJ -9 

•oUj)?I ajfi -io 

.(jLjij^L! 4 1 1 nilL (J^j^a ^-<i cjjJ,I (ja -I I 

2 1 j ^ ajj ,,-. ^iji tcLialaJI ^"^ i oJLS 51 -»a 'i-<jtl d fljyla (j a i 3a->JI -12 

. «L>-1^>. ^_jjQj ji tj<Jui ^ysj^a «L*_uj 

. aLflJI lilfa JjJ^i J^ i-a^jJLjt mm I jj i»LaJL ^L-iuVI i 'I unjj -13 

.(jjjLUI 3_ujiAJ f_j\r Cjj2\ <_jj^>JI q*$ - 14 

.Cjj-a J>j^=-a LjJ2 CjjJ.1 «LaiS (JjjLlJI (_paju /J-CJJ -15 

. S^pj-u (jj"^ dJoXl (j-a i_2jj>JI - I 6 

.(_L-vj jx. (jpLiJL jft^lLua p LL-Sj Ij SLpJL (jjjLlII [jU"! - 1 7 

j j i"i"i 3j.iL ijJLufc i". i njtj CilaJ i " ) uiC «LuLlAII t_ij^>JI jlj o"r i nl -18 



196 



£lUdlg v Lu»All 

. L^jL^IiI i-ijl ^1 
J£ 3l_j^J j q'linU jjj^iIIj (jJLlJJI >.'«mi1I L^Ajju (jill sLuiUl - 1 9 

.tiji>J! 4jJj dlljij Lj-°jj ' gjua£l\ pi 1 11 -20 

SJajJ J< ^a ,-.jll . aj~ -21 
i_jj^>JIj (j"-^ *— ^J>^ j-jjLj-«LSjLjJI <_jLjj-u'2| f.\j TTu ill (j-«-*^L»J 7" ' '""'JJ 
CjIj i 1 11 ) 1I1 c (j_a j-i-^l J-3 tLajl^la I aJlic/3 (j\j LiL>.j jJJJ ^_^jJI 4_lLa 2 I 
: tlljJLi L^j^Lijj t_ij^>JI /. ol 1 11 ^i j^j J-J-Aj j^.LiiiJ! ' fl-iaa Lx-iJuSj 

p " 3ij (Ti "1 «_l £ I a VI 1— 1^ >JI I aj 

p » j * I Ci '■ ' >iJ\ 1 I j '. 1 c j *■ I 4J 

(jAjlj (Jj_oJlJLj 3jLL>JU 4_Lj_«JI jlj_3l itfjLji o'-'^ 1— SjjJo Cil*.-v JiJSj 
'■5-j.ij < 1 11 11 (j-o jl 1 La a (j-a uj^iia L^oJlS (_j^-ll >^JLl3 (j£, 3 a u *- 1 1 i_jLjj-u2! 
.^LljJ i—aj^^Ji (j-^ (— 3^Lxi.VI Jl^- «La£iJe-a i—Sj^Iij (jlj_uu3 ^Lilj.} L«-&J 
i— il 1 1 n^/l <_yiju (j^-uLcjill . iM tall <JliLiLvl q^& <-^->-SjJ ' ^' a tii! ii (j-o («^>!l Lt^-J 
l<1j " miU j<s_<-uLaJ! (_JiLc-i 3j_ji- jI t—iLjji'iil ojl&j :4_ujjJI <_*jI^>JLi ^ 1 1 a!i II 
j"" (j-a J£ (j-o 4-*-oL>JI t-i^ila L^oJLS La£ vIjjJ,! (jiS i_il j 1 ul ^^3 iO-la^ VI 

.(jLtaJj SjJij< 1 nllj 

diLLj^. «lj 2 L«j3 cjjJII (Jla t_il_ujil 'LSjLcuJI cj^ISJI cli\ I) iLlll ^^ Luia^c 
(JS (_i (jjjLl2JI 3l.il cxjI£j . (j-u-iLlAIIj tlftjA9* ""'J ^.L? '^11 <_j^LLaJI (j-o 

j_ui ^JlC f-4->- (j-a /y-^-UI I J-& Li-cSLa JuSj tT-jliiU JIJjjJI ( _ y jfc CjVLsJI aJJb 

.«L_u1jJlU 3Jl;L>- 3^La (Jllx-l (_ 7 ^JI * )1 1 1 n 2l jj-* 

ill I Llc /- I c I j La (JSLI /_j 1 11 ill Oj^'j t<— iLtuiVI oJui jl mi" tl ^ Ji_a «LuljJ 
I ' J a-H-CI (_ T ^JI J^Li^aXI Lol . Ijljii" 1 ul ^^^1 T^LoJ tj la *"' <-^f>- ' La^3> J-J^i 

j_j_l^ (Ji-ljG (-LILl&j i(jKJjaJUjJI diljiSj (j^ ir^U t_j>UaJI CjLiL>.I -I 
i_3jjJi ^jlr /aJkjj^jJ ljJiJ(j^_uLulII 1 -i^ taJI CjLjL>-I LiJu-lL ul J^j . I -1 j uJ 



197 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

. I j» ''-"J.' Lj-<J^ (^J' tllljLiJLlI (_>iutj ' aj^al "2 
sIJljV ?Ij_j^>JI (j-o (JjJ-2 JJlC u^C- 5j(j i^aJI ojufc ( _ T 3 (j-uLuill u^sj^l ja3 

. <ll 2^,^\t U" , ,.VI 3_<-u!jjJ! i_2Jl$j *sj*j>JI Sj_l«j^5 3_Li£. (_,lr Jjjla 
L^io (JS (Jix-l I JiJb (23) ^^Jl S^-ji-^l «Gjjj-3 (»^ UfM \ j 2 U JlJ-b Cji-i^3JJ 

^j-um^U (3^° L^^-li • (20 jJjJl^- ^Jijl) cjjJ.1 <j-* *— s^JkjI » il i < ni ^j-* 1 mn 

125 = <j) 5-jjj ;< uiVI 3j>_oLklj ,j_jj_l2J.I <>u^all t_j>UaJI (j-a 257 ^^-Lc 
.(J^LlSII ! jla v2jLiji«3 ^yJj La^j -(LjLjI I32=(j <ljj^J 

CjIjLulII ^j-* A^.j-sjst.a i _ r Ll Li_i3 JLa-"< i u tCj^Jll (j-* (j-uL-ul (j-a^uS i_2Lje_) 

. 1 Jl>- (^>^3J L*_a - I 
.^3jl_«_a -2 

. (' la i --j" a) <j-o ^j^_j -3 

.,3^l>« -4 

.cLujiLji^I 4JLIjla (j a « J j (j^n?U IjLA Jjjjj (20) JjJijsJI aJuljj 
US' Ojll (jAl jL.^ (g_) tSjUll jlyi^lj (f) iujilt :(20) Jj-lJH 
(132=0) dJU^tj c(125=0) jjS'JUl ijwlJrl o!Ai> Uljj 





oUI 




j/i 


C-> all JjJ-9 oL-^l 


t 


r 


t 


f 




0.7 


4.6 


1.2 


4.2 


.^l ^jUJI 5_^ - 1 


1.1 


3.2 


1.2 


2.9 




1.2 


2.4 


1.3 


2.1 


,0 all AjtJ J— >^-i 



1 98 



£lUdlg v Lu»All 



US' CJjil jlS i_Jl_^ (*) lSjW"!' Jlj^^flj (j>) Ja-ijsll :(20) JjAi-l jiU 
(132=0) OU^j t (125=tJ) jjS'JJt 4«lA-l o">^ tAljd 





ill!) 




jjTi 


O ail .ill C>L«1 


t 


f 


I 


r 




1.1 


2.1 


1.1 


2.0 


.ojll ^jiU - 4 


1.0 


4.0 


1.3 


3.8 


.i j aj jjl o .iS — J 


1.2 


3.0 


1.2 


3.1 


.1L?- jU* l^J aLj-l - 6 


1.2 


3.7 


1.3 


3.3 


.^L^S/lj Jj.S/1 J\ji - 7 


1.3 


2.3 


1.3 


2.4 


UjJi oIJLU iljj - 8 


1.1 


3.6 


1.4 


3.0 


.aJj^i cSj*' 


1.5 


2.8 


1.4 


2.7 


cujj UvUj Jl Sj^^JI -10 


1.2 


2.3 


1.2 


2.0 


. <uiJ j J 41 JJ^ - 1 1 

jbJl ^ ijj^.| -12 


0.8 


4.5 


1.0 


4.3 




1.2 


3.7 


1.3 


3.4 


.Ju-Aoil J- J Jl AijLi-a 4J2J- 


1.3 


3.6 


1.3 


3.8 


jj-al <U9 CJjil — lr> 


1.0 


3.6 


1.3 


3.3 


.5jj^ 0^5" 


1.2 


3.2 


1.3 


3.0 


o^i j sWuli ^^^p -16 


1.4 


3.2 


1.4 


3.4 


.OU.^1 ^j«-> -17 



99 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 



US' Ojll jlj oL-.V (£_) ^jLjJ.1 jly^lj (j>) i=_j=ll :(20) Jjjjfe-l j<U 
(132=0) OU^Ij c(125=0) jjS'Ut i«lJrt v_)">tk \a\jj 





oLI 




jj" 




O Jj { Ui oL_^l 


t 


r 


t 


f 




1.2 


3.1 


1.2 


2.9 




.vW~Vij JjsSji oj*- -18 


0.9 


4.4 


1.1 


4.2 




.jjill ^jl-U -19 


1.2 


3.4 


1.3 


3.1 


. O a-oJJ 


i^Uiii sj^juJi j.^\i -20 










. -^>e_iJl aS'^j U _Lp j^J-l —21 


0.9 


1.5 


0.9 


1.6 




,Sj_jT s_Ljul * JL° /j-° 


1.1 


1.8 


1.0 


1.8 




.a_j!jJ| JJii -22 


1.5 


2.7 


1.4 


2.9 




.•(iljjblj i^ill .kj^J- 



u \c I CjLjVI i^jLvjJ Ja ...j" ^ (jl , U^\tj (20) JjJljsJI ^1 jJaJjLij 
(ji ^1 j j i"ij il iltJSjlLa j-ol I JLfliJ 1 1 JtJLl j loC «Qj-u ( _ T 3 jjijJI ^1 4-u-oJjLl 

cjjJkl (j_o (J_LS_LI LiLujiI I j^'-^j j j ifqg 4" i nil ^j-i-J! oJl^J cjuVI 5-iLa-"i J 

«LfljLoiJl CjL_u1jJj1 *_« 4j^_u_lJ1 aJJt> J) < ujjj . 4jU2J^_a 4_^1j_« ^L^-j^ (2>^ ' ^ ' * 

» &2j " i Sj La-J 3-^.jJj (j-l^-l 2^.1 ,^<- 3-»-J-5 (j^- iilJVI I Jj'« ' a luSIj ( _ 7 jJI 

j 8j 6: L^-aLJSjl) .ijjj 41<jj ^^3 f_J^\ jj^JJI CjLvjJ l1*JL? (_£>*"' ^tP"Li ( j-oj 

Sj-ji-^l 4" i nil Jj-c-JI eJJt (j-o -ij-ij **i)' j j -1 1 a a J ' ^"'JJ • (23 j 21 j 17 a 14 

.3_L_«^v (jIjla L^j^ 3l_pJI -6 
. LujJI v2jI jlo iiJp -8 

.<taljuiij JijjIII Jaiajj Sjl-^j CjjJ,I » uaj -23 



200 



£lUdlg v Lu»All 

J in I Ja j La ac-J llj Sj-i.u'^l 3jLj-3 «U JaLb Lk£ i JjVl a I 5JL I ^^-S 3j_<-u}L! 



3-u^Lj <_^ I ^jj <_,!£: jj£jJI I i j/a J'^^ (jljlll jlji^VI ^Lj-cJI Lol 

: I o (jj'^ CjjII ( j-o 
.^j^^Ij CjI^LuiJI Sj^Ij aJi£. -14 

.(jL^J^ll ' dJLX<3 -17 

' 2^ : j-*j (22 (<s-Sj) Jl^-Ij JlJ_i ^^a cjLjVIj jj^jJI 3-»-jJ cjj! . ."> jJsj 

i,jjiJL>JI t _yl\ <Li i iiitLi Jj-i-JI oJu* (j-a (_p 'LpJ (_jJ| <— Sjjuj (jl 4jo ital (j-oj 

L4I0 Ja'i/La S^vjj (jyi^-Li «JlJI) LJjLi3 Lyjp -^i-^' s-y^LA 1 '-^ Jl ^ '^J 

. (J-lLxIlII IjLjfc «Ljc_uj (21 ) (JjJljsJI (j^-JJJ • L4I0 (_p ' La 1 "j"t L*jj (lji£L<fcj 

j-J-C Lg_jl mi~ aLc «L»-^j ijJLui (jl (21 ) (JjJljsJI (jJ! j La-ill (j-o 7" ' '""'JJ 

' - " ' J i JJ * *— ' '-9 JJ^ 1 -*-" (j- <_P c?^ '-^-'J-L! (Jia i_jLjj-uI i_jjj^j (]/U (JjIs 

^Lujj-uLi t£fl Mii->,il MjjJ4j|JcjJJpil (jlS* Ijl i^yij^! Sjjj^I A>V Cr^ ^J*" 

: I it j (21) JjJijsJI (^ (j-dj'i/l (jjjiiJI *Jslj^ j_J_il_j3 $Jt JaiLa Jl>-Ij 

. 3_oLjJL1I ajjj jLill (j-° 1— 3jj>JI - 
• t^jyi ^jL5j«J1 ajAi. - 

jy~Jrl t^oJ Ojll Jjii o^^ Jj^ S-jJjJ : (21) JjJ^rl 



J 



LJl ^ ..iyU .^l sjliJl . 



»LdJl ^ aj » 



201 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 



I (jji Ojll jli IJL-.V (ljLa i_^tjj :(21) JjjJrl 



lM/yl 


j^TiJl 


jjjii 


.j^a!1 <_jIAp 


.jj-itJl <_jIAp 


3 


,i_j jjjj! sJS 


,i_j jjjj! S^S 


4 


.^L^Vij Jj&Sfl Jly 


.^^yiJlj otaL*Jl 4ji\J f -Ip 


5 


J_lp aJjJ_jJl SJLxJJ 


.DU.V 1 t-**-^ 


6 


,Juw*JU ?"•} Ji 43jLi« 4J2J- 






3L^ Jl JUsiVl 


Jj^- aJjJ-iJl 2JLiJ.l 


7 


•'^J& iSj^ 


.Jl— *sbU ?-JjJ'1 ^jLti-* 4J2J- 




J y»\ »U3 ^ all 


j o-al »U3 O ail 


8 


4J *A£? bjir-^ 


«U 4-4-£? a JSr-^ 




.^jyiJlj obLaJi 4jiU f-tP 


.^l^SHj J»ty Jiji 


9 


.Oj^JJ ^U^il aJuJ_^Jl Sp£\ 


.Oj-JJ <L»-Uall oJuJ-LlI »"^l 


10 


, P LjVl Jlp jlUl 


.2_L^- jU^ Lg_j oL4-l 


11 


■ OUVI <Ji*-> 




12 


.OjJ.1 (j aUt-Liil i-.^-g- 


.O ail (j SL>rLiil ■ fl ■ ^ 


13 


.^L^Sllj>Vl Ojp- 


. 5 bSh JU= jiiil 


14 


.5JL^- l)U^» L^J 3L~U 


4jL& C-> ail ."W2J 


15 


.d*JJ Lg-Jlso .*Jl aJjs- Jl 


.^L^Vlj>Vl Ojp- 


16 


4jl_i C-> ail >waj 


■ C-M 1 g *JV*j ejl 3Jl^-jJI 


17 


.^iljjblj ijiil J2J2J- 







202 



£lUdlg v Lu»All 



t^JJ Ojll jii v_Jl_a>"!l JjLJ VsO 3 : (21) Jj-^ ^ 



oWl 


j^TaJI 


VjJI 


jy*2-l> >a3 Ja^ t*-^ 


.UjJI oIJlL. iJy" 


18 


CJ ail Jbaj aLa*^M 






.LjjJi olJUU i!jj 


CJ ail -Xjaj J_~*^rl 


19 


.aUjujj J—Jrl LLsi 


. CJ ail -u ajab 


20 


. O ail f ^^ 


.<aii»j"j J—Jrl Jisi 


21 


.UlJUl -Hi 


.uiJUl Jii 


22 



L y2J^xJl AiT^j U IP OjJ-l ^ZJ^iJl AS'^ U ip OjJ-l 23 

.4^JT fLJil a <Jl_a -j> . ^LJT pL-il « (JLa -ye 

4 j mi ->■ ^^1 j j mi j L^_j| Mi~a Lj-uJ ■ "' j 1 ' ia a ^Ja-Jt iji^-' O' ' *• - JL3 
/. I r oLlLs (_g jJI «Gli j-aVI Jj ■ La Li (_£_>i-l 3-i-^-LJ <j-oj • 3jji.VI /_i <_iLcu^JI 
i(2n I ajjJI (_JjJ 3_>_p.VI 2" i nil -Sj-LJI (_jlr i JjVI l_a-U^-lll Cjlj SjLJjVI ^i_3_LjJ1 
^^3 it-Mi.itj.ji3 (j-a (0-C-J-I1 uJ^- .CjLJVIj j^JJI (_JjJ Lgjl 1} <_,-& ^a_LjJ1 tfji^a 
ojui «Jslj^ iJ- i '-P 0|-^ ^J-IJ p-"J • AS-^' "J^* aj^*.' f-^lj-° "-^JJljJ il I J;^"j" 
<j1_j J _i ft j^tc. 4jLi3 ^1 j jinn n§ jJI aL*JI r , l"'"ri nVlj Ij^iii? (J^ "^ t T*-L>-" 

. aLc "la-^J JliLJVIj jj^jJI vIjLiLvI 
i U , ,.j" rt /*1^1 (_^^- (I-*-*) ' '^^ (jr^' Crv9 JjxijI (j| ia o ' ^ q j-A La (2A-v9 
/. I r i-. I .^» -. (_yjJ1 (-JjVI Sjajj^l -ij-LJI ^j~~~' a (j-o j J laj 5^ i ni-»Jl (_JjJ 
2 I i LjoJS LSj" i"i a LaLc ^LaLc L&a%ljJ (jl ,(_ aJj (_5^aC I (<U (j-oj , .U , ,,j" ^i ( _ 3 JLc I 

«LLa L_£^aJa\J1j CjjJJ Jjls ' 11 i ( nl (j-* LaV^-a 1 i 1 1 n cLaLciD^J i _ 3 _baJJl ^j j o ' >> 1 1 J-Aj 

j_a jjjijl «_«JLa_a ( _ T 3 (^jju Lojjj VI LaaJI J i ajj pjjiaj^ CjjJ>L9 j^^V 

«L<JlljajJI a»JUfc /- 1 C [j J I <"1l laJLaJJ /- ^"^ 'J . 3j l£La J (j l£La 4^ (jJaJail IJ_1^1X 



90S 



4jjij» i nj 2^j '^ a cjLLj^. (_jjJ cjjJLI (Jla <_iLjjj<i <__rLc ukLb^>- 1 (_yj-II «LjjlsI^JI 

.4_uLUJj 
i3 I <Lj i " "j a\ is*** sLj/IjJlj (J^ju pjjiajJLl Ijufc (ji (__-]! SjLvuVI jJL>oj 

.7tJ! . 2j i ..A'.tl 2 ->. ,^.11 t 2_i o i n->Jl 2^- .^11 i/ojLuJI i2_j__.j___.| 2 'a I SMI 

(_3 aJljJ-" i nj La £L^-^L*J TcL^ajj ijjiill plj-ll (j-a LCjJ CjjAI (jls Jju 
r'^Lc (J^H 3 J— "' J-* (J~i)' '"') 7T^-*jlj . 3.}jL*-a 4_Li3 3>^ (j-° J^LiJI TT^-^ 
tLJj £t-)-3- (j-a I jl ,^'ai dJJj^ _j-<fcj i Ijl uuJlj Lc.jji'ii 2 ii 1" ^»J, I *Lcl^JLj (jiill 
CjJ^jvI JJ3j .2^vbJ,l 2_j_».^L_J| jj Utl JfJ (j^j ( j_ a tLjJoil mui'i ^Ir i j "*»•_' 
outcome TtjLj ^jJI t_2jjdll <-2Jl#J ( __ H aJj-<jlJI (jjjjij Jj t-i^ila (_j\r dihjs*- 2_<j,|jj 
(Jjlia (sLi-^jj-uVI (__rLc i—ujjijjlj ■" La 1 1 I 4_u-uLvu^JI (J-lL2j) ( _ 7 $jl i nil r-^L»JI 

.«JijjJ,I cjjII (jla r^Lc ^^a 2_2j^___, (_gi_i (Ji-aill ^j^. 

(_JjJ r-jJij-U »L>-j" i nVlj -1 La-UI 2_i i ill i h-kJI (JjISj 2_jJLjl3 ■ " Ij J La JuSj 
L<tS . L>-^Lc [j I" («J (j^J' 4-g-^aA,t,Ll 2_jjL2Ji,Li isCLajLir*'ii ill (_jjJI S^jjij^J,! 

7j_aljjJI ji iS-jj^jluiII ^.aljjJI ( j_a 2jlr La ji^l 2__£jl___j| oLuJLlI ajjt LixJL^ 
(jjIbvLJI jLvul J^9j • ^JLiLvuJ! cjLj/IjjJI jiu ( _ T a c^*jjI (__Allj ^jJll Zj -> ■ a a 

(jjji^J (j-a (O-ifcj) 4jJEj-aJI 2jLcj_!I JLjE-a ^^3 (j\laL*J! (_JjJ CjjJ.1 (jls (_Lii23 

Cjl_IJ_»_l^3 (J-IJtJ i_^->- tlLIij l(3l_LJ>JI l—SjI^^Ji (j^- tu:>,J C3-^ .'"3^1'* d V. .' 

(jj^ l^aIL>J I )«_a *"■ I flSj (_LaL\lII 
«Qj*j IJlJ Jl2^ i4 jjli ii 5jjLjJ « I j i in"t (j_J^-» Jjj' l£>*"' '^H :v L (j-°J 

d '" ' a J ■' '- J J-»I (£^2 oW 'LLjLaJI <ij^Lajj v. j \ j a 1 » j-Laj 'L^->-J (j-^- l-iLxjcl 
i algie-aj /J-ILtJ (jl (3$Lx-i 4jl3 liULiJI Cjjl^>JI j_uQJ AjL^jjuaj 2_j^a 3Jl>-j 

(_jjJ cjjJ.1 (jJLa (Jjlflj /yi « I" i im1» «l<j<Ijj ?=^=-ij («Jj . ( _ 7 £jl i nil r"^L«JI 3>^ 

(_gjL?t^jVI r-^Ltll jl i^^yjLx^JI •" ta-HI sLu-uLvujfcJI i_LA2j t3i>^ O^ '*- l ^ = 'J- a - a 48 
3JlJ,I f-^jus (_ T -Lc 2 jj! i nil Sjx.lLlII aJJt « I" i "_;"'» j i "^jj .^^jlajsJI implosive 
«LiLL-u CjI i nl-v ^_y±jis>- dJtL (_ylllj ir"^l-«JI L^ji'ii ill (_yJ.Il SjijJi^J,! 4_LlajJI 



20fl 



£lUdlg v Lu»All 

La (jjjLj/l ( _ t I^. qjUxj (<sJ CjLiaj-ai,! (ji Lo£ i4 ^j** 1 50 L^-La (_p 3Jla jl JlC^I 
I JaJl jjU , ,.ll ojui (_jjlS i_£_>i9 .ditX\ (jJ-2 (_£ *l • 2) a '^J- i (j-° "J^ (j-fl-iiS 

^jLu ^1 (_jjiJj j^s cjjJ.1 (jia r-^Lc (jl ol-jj-o ^Lcbe-a jJ>- 1 Ijj i mi" t-*JLufc (ji 
.^^jl^jsJI (j^s^i^l (^jij^jJI r^L*JI f-LjL Jjiial 

(93) 
( J jL iaAll >laj|) <"«jt I Jjla 'a ,j< l«il «tl 2^. t\'> l<- « j I j a" » JUCt^. 1 JiJS j 

3_U^3JJ3 3JL*J Liljl La-I Ir^O f-^Uj-U V^JjII (jlS (jl£ I Jj "*JI L?'j U^" (<-^LJI 

oJlj* (jLa n_gi gJLlI (jjj!j_<jijJI ji ijJlaJI ' -il '^"~ jl ii_jLuS VLs Vj <i "n j?&\ 
ji lL7 ^j I mil r^LiJL Symptomatic L-iIsj-c. Lv}Lc /*JL*j jl i— c»j SlajJI 
I jl Lai .jyJLUI jLoil (jK La LI Ity *Li2l| ^L^SJI £>Li]t jl j^LWI 

(j_a 3_JL>- (_j-3 ^j- se ui (_JjJ I j j i n t N 32 i " a Lbj^. xjajjj.1 CjjJ.1 (jiJS (jLs 
4_ulj^ j_lC 'Liiu Cjlj_tiJ LvLj MJoi^l "iaLisVL i LoLol 4_uoiAi!l 4.ga LaJI 
4 j i nl i ii ->JI J j I 2 ja (jSjl i nil r-^LiJI ,3j-L>J Sj-tuL-La (jAAacJ (ji "-^cJ 4JLs 
(j_a (_L\J LvLLi jLj(_j- ( _ 3 _<i3jJi,l (<s_ka-«_a JlJ-C-«_iLjjJi, I CjjJ.1 (jj-Ls (jl ■*" lalX I 
oJlj* (_ T -3j iCjjJ,Li 2 I , ^ ". 1 1 3jJlj>J,I v2j|j_iiJlj i;»L*JI ^ i oi ill ' . '^J ta Jazl 
.SjjIiLXI J^£-j Sj-ZuLlI ,J^_Li]I (J^jJSLj (a^JjJ CjjJkl (jl^ 7?-lL»j ji i_^cJ(JL>JI 
U^lj-C.} ?-}L*_i «_ii3j_ll CjjJJ (j-Ls (j a fl a. « (jlji/LJ 4JijLfu «Ljj/IjJ (_yJ3j 
jj-C O-i uiS Jl3 «LajLuJI CjL-uljjJI (ji oj^Lajj « j I j a 1 »j£ Ju« <_) LuS V I 

4_ii (^jlajJLal JLSj .(—iLllSVIj CjjJJ (Jia (j-u i_t>-j^ (_gjjia^v JoLujI Jj»-J 

(J_La ^_)^ a a« (jA_«Jll (j-4-3 it_jLuS^LI L>.L-iiA «^jjJ,I ojll (ji^ (jLs LULL 

/_lc 3_,j,|jjJ| ^JLA clu^vi Ji^J .i_jLu^VI (jlaljX.i 3^>JL^a J^L>- (j^a CjjJ,I 
i Lajj 75j I I (j^_l Cj^vjIjJ) CjIjJLS t^\ * I I ^■^.^■"...11 j IjilSLa LiaJ^a 3 I 

cjLLiiA iCjLji^a :4_uVI oLv^LlII IjJilj ji^j i "-ojj 28 8 , ajSs >U , ,,j" ^ ij 

(S_kaj_a ( _ T jajj j pJlj ^ c I i i a 1 1 j (_, '(jUj ( _ T *-«j>JI r'^LiJI Jo i"i Lo£ .<_iLuSVI 
(Jla (_>iajijtjl il isL^Lajj ((jJLxj)) ( _ > l3l^l£l (_yi^. «Ljc_ujJI Cjjii JlSj .(_yji3jJll 
«La_LUJI ojui (ji (jj!L»-L!l nXjJb (5^JJ .i—iLuSVI (_p3lj^.i r-^Lc Jjlj CjjJ,I 
(_p3lj.X.i (j_a (jis^c. 4Ji (_ 7 i^- J-i3jJ,l CjjJ,I (jiJS (_yJI LLp-l jt^ill x_a (j_cujj 

o * j C j^Sj i«G_iLi Sjl^-j u-"j-1 <-— i_5-X 1 (jl* o' (_2-^ i-dJi J^Jjj .i_jLuiVI 

(j^_i 4_i^L>-j 3Jl>-IjJI Sjjj'ill jlj^i (j-u 4-11 nu\ CjjJ.1 (ji^ (ji iSj^"' •t-flJJ 
«L^-jj ^L^lJI i_3j^IbJL ^pl-JJ CjjJ.1 (Jla (ji dJJj (_j_l*jj iCjLvj^JIj r-ljijal 



205 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

. Jij-ii! «Lul Jbv^Jl 3JL>JL> >jLjj (jl jSLx-i <-— 13JL 1 (Jis |_gj~ 1 n a (jl 
jji. I fjj ,j-a r^^-c (2>c iCjjAI jiS TT^-C- d^ (Jt!^ '- ) -^ a <>LJ>^ L° ' nl'iejj 
r^L»-ll (j-o j-p-VI pj-JI I Jui ^JiS Grief Therapy, oj^' r^-^- t> ^^- 3 * ^-' 

£i£lb ilinTjl <Urf>JI -3 

2 _i » in J-jL-uj <_,!£. Death Education CjjJ,Li 5 1 , ^ ", 1 1 3_j_i >j]I J " m,* 

U^usjW x_o J^ 1 to t~> (_ylt! (2>4ll (—iLx-i^al (_£jJ CjjJ,I (jla (jori-*- ^1 i_2Jl$j 
Death ^ i nVI I j j ' 2_jjj.} <". 'i iSu? JLSj . CjLiia >_«J,I S-caLi-j ^Ji i a " >i 1 1 
:<LuVI i_jI 1 1 ii^U lj t\'i js^II i_xJL>JI I Jl^j aLxH&VI i_£Jla u-uSL»j Education 
. Cj LLfl.LuTLLu.1 1 iJ& ^jjj LalaJ I jIJlC.1 Jj!j3 -I 
^j jj tJag^JU <lal_»_a ^jj-u (j_« SJljJuuI CjL_u1jJJ1 4_t£. '"■ " '"'■**> L« -2 

(JJLs pLjjju dajjjj ^jjj ,>.",-» lt 4JLoL«Ji,l *jj-u (jLi (JjL2JI u^s\ jZ£z\ -3 

' ■ 'J. 1 '-"^ jl 4_u3 >-<Jll (_JjJ CjjJ,I 

2_2_Li_iJI 2_LoL«J,l)) jl ^1 <u_tj (jjJI 5_lJ| m'tVl ^jL^jJI /diUj -4 

>^>-ljl /_3 lilljj 'iy^l JJ (1)1 4- ^J cy-*-" tCaaiia* jj-o IJl>-Ij (Jix-i "J ^susc all 
U^j-C (_5-Lj Ls-j-Sj iCjjJ,Li *< LloIX I «Lu >jJI 5y_ol >_i Cj i^IiS dJJi (_>>•! <j-o 

CjLl£D i-^Ji,! ^j_« 4_Li£. ^JJ CjjJLI 3ii3 ^gj" i n a (jr^- CJjJ,U 4J-L^tXI cLu^pJU ^yz>L>- 
4_uljjJI ojui /_i^ Cjuio >-<di,l '"•» '^-^ JlSJj . (tluusj^A 30 = (j) Ci^La- 1 ntl 
jjn 1 11 \\ (_pl_<-ujJ!j 3 >_l^L>J,Ij 4-JL^Lli,l ^J-^ 3 ^-i^ C^-ajLa-'u ul jt_ou >_J 
Cj1_Lj>_«jj jljj^/l t_<_«Jj (_,_£. 1_<CL>. VI J** I dgJI *U£ a JlJ-"i i ul L<& i3jj ua-JI 
^ > ^"u ul Cji i nl"^ t"i i n ^i^. ^_«u >_aj1 ^J 0" Mil Ju9j . 4-u-ul i n^l «L>-j^ /pa a^J 
(_^ii5L(j CjjJl>- iji^ (j£, «Lj/Ij jJl j>JUfc /?-Jljj Cj >rii nij . 1 a 1 -» ' j 3x.Lji L4I0 (_p 



206 



£lUdlg v Lu»All 

jsJj i*_j_il_<-ul 4_*_iji Jjlj jjAaae 'I 4_cSL!j iJLsJI (_^ CjjJ.1 (jls (_j-3 mJj-&^>- 

C-plj se I I 4-ml i n->- 3JLv (Jj «Qju 3Jl>-j (J-ujJ OjJJ (jls L)' (3-° cK'wH^' "-° 

3-^ljj 1 3 j lj ir.l i^j ^jjJ! ^jLlJ! ^yk: ^ ' l£>=^ 3-uiIj.j cijj^l jJsj 

CjjJ.1 (j^- >-y *j J^(J' " '"' Ct 2 '^H- 'J■ i ** "** 1 ~^ a ^' *— *rP" ' (< l?JJ-° i J i'ii - t^3u)) 
70j -35 (j^_j -" &j I a-c ? lI^-jI^j (j^j" ui a 204 ^ \ r <". I ■Tmil jl <>>"-. Vlj 

93 4_j_lJ^j?e_jJ 1 4_Cj_cj>J,1 0- -1 *3 Ltx_L3e_) (jAH^.^_cj?c_a ^^l la o i n^ Jl9j . L«LC 
(JS 3Jl^ Cj_il£j i)l ■ >■"■ ^Vlj CjjJ,Li tlLuaXa Cil i nl-v <"< i u I jj i a a. i Ij Laac 
' j ^ '" ' ^J Lca^e-iiA I I I ^ U. tl <>»t1 iLc^jj^J, 1 ^j-4-^3 i t2>L^ L<i5 .(JaH£.L_u L^_La 

i(j-Clcjju>J,l LllSLJ (^jjijJIj /ylx^JI (j^LLaJI dJL^la Cu-ajij-" i Jj . cj Lgj-ltj mjI 

, s I , >. <- \l I A j ^ aj 1 1 j 4_u^iitjlJI (_^ajl .^^-tl ( j_o LuLj. 27 ^j^ -* " joj Lii 
Cj|j_uuJi,l (_^ jLili-^lJ «LSjLjJI CjLjj"ii ii U (_yl£. L&^jjLj (_JJ-o JjJu>o i_2Jl$j 
daj LaJ I jjij^a^j SLpJu uiojJIj CjjJ,I (jla '-(_5-3 (_p-<4jj (_yjJlj i4-*jLi!l 
Jju CjjJ.1 (Jla /_i |_£>jfcji». 4_cS\lj ^jJLco (_>^i3Lij (jX- «Cj» jl j"i->-I i a JLS 
( _ 3 -3 j-J-«-J (_gl C-iJiJeJ (<sJ '-"-'i 1 ''^^LH?-^' <1cj-<jj>J.I (j^ «Lu-uljjJI CjL2L>JI 
' La • • a 1 1 jju^a^j SLpJu LxisjJI ( _ T 3 Cjlj_iilll duLi L»i t4lajl LtaJI 4^jju>J,I 
j<u (jJ-II Cjlj_L»jJi,l (j! /jjQill CcrciJa j I dJJji .4j^ji^>- j-;LC. I J iS Ij «L^vj^ 

^yJL^JI ojJ,l (Ji^ ^^j- 5 (jr 2 6iW-^' 6-° '/-36 .47 , 70 c^£.jIjjiI I j .^^-a 

.^IjjJI (_,i^. i-La j LaJI jjuuzjzj SLpJu LcisjJIj 
(jLLij/ljjJI L^jJI ClAjusjJ (j^JI ^<7" '"'U «LuLajV I jtjLuJI (j-a j<ii.jj| (_,i^.J 
^ j i nilu .(ju^i-l (JLLjiIj^ I j '"* Cjji-ii ii i 4 jjli ii /tjllj <_l!LL<& (jLa nJLLfljLxjJI 
(ju /<utjL<jx.i C^vjl^p l^i I oj (^Jl 76 (ji^. LOj^jvi jJaJS (^J^l 3jj<ljjil 
(j-g-llj 3-J-Se LaJI SjLcjJLi 3ia-ala (j^a (_i (jjloju I^JL^ LiS" i LoLc 66j 19 
tA-U-jLja ^— ij-a i t j^j_ujj_a iCjl_xlDj_c_a CjIjL^LolA :Cjl_Laj_c_a : t_p-* ^Ljjiju,! 

.^_al^_J Jj_Jju« 
iA^Jst g< t i nl i " i ' o ' ^*" (j^_ajj 3ju« 4_u_ulj^ 4_il>- ^_y^. /^_«Uj-J1 (J o*i mi I 



207 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 



.Death awareness ^iijILi (y^j^l i_^- , ^ J WiJ J ^ *^>^> t 2 Mi^Lla CjLcL*^. 

«L_u1jjJ1 QjJb «L?t_uJ Cj ) ■** ' '■' JL9J . (clij o 1 1 ^ t^aic mil lujjjj^s /cj-ujI :<J!L«) 

(j^s . 1_<_3L^ ,jXj /<sJ j_oLJj_J! ! jjt jL di! i j i n'q JlSj i«ua (j^jiiJll 

«Ll>-jj ^j^j^-i «Lj_u1jjJ1 i>jLjfc p j o LaJ (jl jj La mil 0JL& t (jlS ^j-i lO~*"' c ^ jv '-^ 

jJLa I ua^asJLa <jlS Cj^Ju Jjls (J-"'-^-* <_^ 4 inll _}1^J3| CjLvj.} < la i --j" a -2 
£puu3^x-al\ jL<i>-l jalj (jl ^_alj_JI aJJb Jla ( _ t 3 ^^JLiJjj . (5 , 64 = j») SjI JlJI 
,_£jj CjLvjJ (^Liie-jl (ji L*L!i iCjjII Jjls (^ SjuJjjJJ CjLvjjJI ,_£jj (j-o 
«L^_Lx^D JijJL>- «u ^jjS j t n ^^j^jjl ^_«Ljj_aJ1 Juu i la i "j" 1 1 jl ^j a ■"> se ' I I t_£^"< i u U 

/ylc 4-iCjj i ni CjI i nl-v ^^.iLxj (J^L>- L«-d>LiK C-cS-ua iCjjJ,u 4 1 1 a3 1 1 4_u^iLI 
jj La II Lol . «Lu^i!l c_i^LL-> (j-o j^J^i-l 51 j i ( _ > iaJ^_<iHJl t—i^lla (j-° LJLLi 43 
QjLa-iaJJ 2 J) i a j 1 1 4 j < o i nil (JjL-u^JIj Cj I j_u3 L>J, I cluLCs 5-aJiJ-"i i nU 
i".o i ii^ j .CjjJ,Li 2 1 1 aj 1 1 j^.l_iiii! i_al mi'v'ii nV jlj.^1 <— *j<J <Luj^cjJI 2 aJslaJI 
(J 2j i " a (_£_jj^j /^_auj_i 3Jl>-Ij (JSII) (jO-uJ^>o (J\j£.jjjj^o ^1 Lulj ui£ «I-ujlII 
^^^j ^_aLJj_cJI (J-j-2 Cj I j l_iIL>- 1 ' " i a-i-ta J^j .4lajLU3 icjjiJ^o (^^ N '^* a 
jisJj .CjjJ.1 (Jj^J iCjjJ.1 (jla iCjjJ,u (J I < miiVI '.(JjijjLLo (_5-*J .oJjuj cLaj^aULa 
(j_a (_gl ( _ T i CjjJll (Jla ( _ T 3 (_£^ji^>- (_^iaL<j (^c sLxjiljjJI 0JL& ??-JLjJ ' a uiSij 

.Cj^iill ell Lc jjusJ, I 
4_ljLjcjI /tjLlJ ^1 CjjLiil Ji^ CjLjiIjJJI (_yz**-> (jl |3.' ' " '-*- a jj^*^~ ' "„' 
j^c (_Jjj>- I CjLuIj J ("iii i"iS (j^->- (_y^ iCjjJ,I (j^. (_^jj^3 j^oujjJ (^jlajjLlJ I Jijlj 
LjJj J^ (_^jj^3 pr_oUj_i /j 2x5 Jl»j CjjJ.1 (jla ( _ > l3LiJtjl (jl U,Lk3j ■ ^ j 1 1 1 n T^yCo 
p^>.jj|j 4jjLtcjVI jljLUJI ^1 (Jj^jJI (j-o (j jl JiJ^La ipjjata (_£j-laj (^Isljll^l «U 
(j i ii -a-" 1 1 ^1 ^Lti Cj^I djtjvLi jj_olj_i I j A,^.j i 1 1 j^a 4-ojLa-"i mil jr_olj_JI ^1 
S^lLJI jjLliJI pL>.jl (jS[ aJ !_gj -^ I 2_;^l '■ j "j (_gj ta tJI ^l^p^VI i^jj^l L«^ 



208 



£lUdlg v Lu»All 

(_^fl 3_3jJI aJLC: ^1 Lalj i<13jJl1<jI (_£jJI (j-ajJI ^^ f ^ (jr'l Wj '^J^ 



Jaj3jJ,l t-d^Luilj iHematology jl .^"^Vlj cjjII 3jjIjj jsJx. (jx. f j ajj 

(_yJI i_2Jl^_j (_g jJI (j-flJIj /o-L»JI (j-o pjj J-Aj 1 1 <n (n-x2 ji£l J-*"' f'J^ ^*^ 
A^LjjJ (_3-3j ** ^ * ^ .' d " U .' '^J-*- 1 o' tj-° j Jv' ' a "' "** » I -ilj-J"l (j^SlxJ 

./oJl (jjj 2 tj j , ,. . cjjJLI j i a " -> -i 1 1 J^~ CjLjjJlj ijJLuij . Orthothanasia 
:/oJi (jj^ Cjj a 1 1 (_, j I i n II (_£.}!jV! (_<jjJGJI d-Sjjia CjLjjJiIII o JJt j^jilj 
: L^jljj^. Sjjgi'ii 4^js>- CjLjjJlI!! aJJt (j n'v «jj . voluntary Passive Euthanasia 
£L2j^IajCjji! CjJlxj (jl oJUfc ^.ilj^l i_jjjilll sLSj^Is tt o i aJJ . «3_a|jSj Oail» 
3L_lj>J1 da * >■ I jl (j_£_a-i ^-j-Ii ^ j LiaJl jJ-jLi-u^Jl <j\S *_L« (jjjjla ^y£. <* 1 J i ■■ 
. j^-j-o CjJSj ( _ t 3 3.}Lc jojj (_g JJI ^ i^aie luJI AjltaJ L*-u j ualae all 
( _ 3 -3 SJljIjJLU d_jj£j_llj «4_oIj_SLj OaJtl» 3_Sj_^. (j-o (_P f-° lilli (j ' '"ijij 

2_j_jL2_tJI (j-o 3-»-J-5 J-^l <_V^i>^' ' ^ ^"*| (_j-3 4-JI o Mill VSLjj-al «_al5ca 
(jl (jS-4-i «CbJij>JI «Ll>-^Jj-cSIl1Ij 4-uiaJ I (JjL-u^JI ( _ t 3 aJJllII jl i_2jjjJ,I (j-oj 
^iaju <_<L3aJ (j-o /ax.j.11 (_ 7 i^. j LajjJll (_fi 3l_pJI j_&LkiA (_pmj ( _ T i^. JisLxj 
j<s-SL»- (_yi «Lj_*-2|j_j I jSLqJLuSl » j '>>"-- 1 I jLp£.lj i(Jjjj(JI (jc 4 o i ii-v 3j\^>-i 
<_2ULjI J_t£. CjVLsJI ojufc (Jilo ( _ T 3 Cjj nn n ) ilajft 1 1 jl JiijJll (j-oj .Cj-JII 

jl .^'^1 3JLv (^ dJJi djjL^tjj .3_LjvjJj_cil!l JjLjijJL ^yiiail Ji-jull 

.JjjJI z\-uijj£ IJl>- 2 -i jt I CjLu^aac-iSJI 
<Llx^2 V -}j-"i!l J-*^ (jl J-4^ 5 <UaL> ' " 1 1 a i a I a a Cjli 3_ij^>o (_y3j 

j i n II jl 4 i^> ^J '^*^ J^j 4«jJL_a-i» (j-uLuLa-i (jjjLSj La^ Cj^J,! (3-^ ^-* ' 4J j 
(j£Lajj .cjjJ,! (j-La (j^l j ?a ^-i ct^' *— '^J- 5 l?-^ ^-i^ 1 ?-^' c?^ (JjS^'miII 

.CjjJ,u 4 La jj) 1 1 j^.1 Mill 4_iit3LLa-i Li-p.j3 jilS I (j-tJI jLiL-o jLi LiJUj j j i •■■-'" 
(_iii nil (_g^ljVI i_jjjjdJI 3^=-i oLsoVlj CjjJll (Jla (j^_ii_t».j^ JaLiJjl j^li Lai 

.(j_cuJI jLo ^jjJ 2ljj i uj cjjJ,! (_ t 1^. 



209 



Vj«t\^\ 



ft" 

i^ljj ^-l^J^Laj «_a-Cl^Lil ^1 CjIj; l^XI CjLJLLiJI ^Jl^J J' ^J^JI CjU^MJU ^j-a (=i=) 

tojLjjLji u-iL'iTi^l 4JLscj Cjj-«_iij-4lj_ l _u^l t j^i L^jjL>.| jju-L^jI cjj^j i L^jIjjn.L) c<_cJa c jjJ.1 Jj-S o-* 1 

t _JL>-a Lcj_j_i_uI 4_3L>Jl 0_L& Cj_alja .<— uajn mJI L$Jj-a Jj-*" ^^*" j'-i 'Lse-C-J-a La^L>-l CixJlv a 

. I ^"i 1 1 o 1-. a cdJj J-*_) jjU , ,.11 /,j_i i uLsJ LyllULiLo 

J^l£ 4_<u>.jj t^j-iJI j^-^11 t _ ;r £ C ijJJ •0_ a JJ J -" ^Ih* «5Ljj>JI BiSLtSua t/c-utlj-il Ljj^J - -3 ij^*'l (I *) 
(jL^a-u / tjjj-il '76 jJljlJI CluaSjl :4^jjJ,I <JVc i^Lal t-LuuI I "- aLa) . _l cLajvlj^a t^yU-aa. ' * "'J.' 

. 1984 

:4_<u>-jj t^j-Uj-sejJI ' Jail =Lj_uIjJ (_yJJ 4_ajJLa : jLJ>J -ijJ^ :<— ilTiSJ 4_uj_*JI 4_<u>-jjJI 4_a_LLa j LaJl (2*) 

. 1944 Sj_4l_dJI iJjV^u 4jj_wVl 5 * , U t, I ,jlUl,„ 4JJI _l<uv ijlj^a ' *'"JJ - J 

t 4_L>-u i_3^T 4_*_ijl tJT 3 L^j tL^Jj Lfcjj-Laj_a, LgjLJiJ :4_<uJlSJI j i^a * 4Jl_o -O^j! ' aJj .S t '1^*1 (3*) 

. 1 952 

. 1986 ijj-L-SL^VI :2u»»UJI isj^il jlj .^M^V' ^SLiJI ^ iji-Vlj .-.< .11 Sjjic (5*) 

4\azl * la 5j| ajT ^jl CjLa I jl» : rfi U nj 4 jlr 4UI (jlt-o <J3j_uj.ll <j_c i_ajj_jiJI iS iJl->JI (jt ^ *L_v (6*) 

■ p L n a al aj ,«-U ^_lj_j tc_ILl_- Jja al i4j j» aj ' ■ <Sz- al i-LjjLs- 4_3_U-^> :uu jj_a 2) 

. 1986 .S-jjJlJSU^VI .-u_l*UJI iajjj.1 jlj .^^L^VI ^jSLill ^ 3ji~Vlj dm ill a uj^ (7*) 
-42 ^^s 1 1972 .SjjkLiJI n-il*<ll S^UJI Sjj.ntl SmjjII .^jjj^UII ij^jj.^1,1 SLi^ ^ j^liJI (8*) 

.45 

j-iSLaTJIj 4jiajaiJI 5«\t Ull^^i^lK , L,„^* t j ,,.^j (jjSLa ^ j ^uSu ^ySI L<a^.| a j j a ^ FactorJ^UJI (*) 

,j_a I Jlj_) ■ 'I La»j u_) aL-ul J-*9 /—LaL«JI jjjijtjjl f^JjJ^ j^C ^j-seTn-uJ J-aLjul a .t-*JJj J-J-C a Jj-?J.l 
' fl ' ■-' j 1 Alii /ft_ufcLflJJ ,j-a jj^l Ju_L>o t _Jl i_3_)L^ja tdiljLtTiJV Jt I {_ya eLca^i_5e_a (j^_) JoLuj 21 d)^LaL*_d 

. Coefficient of correlation 4-miLmVI CjL^j^uiJI t_aL5u£l ^jjj w ^*j' J jj'^ IjJj tSj^>a 3^-*Ua 

( >li>a *l^jJlj Jilll^ jjj^iiLa (j^j 4^>LsJI ^jj^j jjmiJ ^1 -^^j jl pa. I iaLujVI J^U-a (I*) 

. ( u o i <r ) (jJl.-" i* (l^^J-^) 4-^J-^ 1 l£>* j ^) l^>*^' >^ J' piJJ^JI o^ ^-<J (*J) l^J- 4 ^- >*J 
5^>L*JI 76 j uaj Jlj>JI I JLA JlAJ^ tp bVl ^ ■ .i --o-tjrt-a-c (^Jllo J^ C7 I^- c 3iiJI jlj 1 oK 4J| fj\ (2*) 



71 



ugoJI 1 §JL9 

aj-Luxa (^jjj (JS#* (Jj-<i-3e_a *1_)Jl>. dj| /yLC LajJ <G-a^Li_u CjjLLs (jja (-jJ-sl q^< i_p :j-cl_JuJl (Jj-^J (*) 

JUiVl £-JL^_a ^j j^ Jli)-^ 

t t __!j_iJl >SLflj| ^—3 C )j-t' : CLS55-«- u i^JLjj- -3jjLJij-a CjLtjJa dja tJj^L>.2l t jJl^j : 4-ij-i.uS-a :j_kul 

. 1984 ((jl mil) Jj>jI 76 JJljJI -4^j_m aJLi tC^j^SLJI t( jg m% < k+ujJ J-al^ 4^3- jj 

— ojaliSj :j_kul -?"5>Ji T^SJ^ ud ' " ' *-^LJj 0' (*^-'- ,a ljLSILc.1 n uaH>JU f*^ /-j-3 *U.L) tla^Sxul 
4_j_iljL_j_a Cj1_i_uIjJ :,_)j_*JI (jJoaJI t _3 j_sLSjJI jj-cLcTlv z\ j_duJI Te-a^La i j^» I t^j^-Ju »Lu£ — 

?I9793 > 4LUI :<£,! iUU J^JI jb .4jjjtM.fl 4 T u > *JI?4£JuJ.I Jk ^UWI CjU^IsJ.1 ^^ju 4JaL2U 

:,_>1djJLI t Jl^-J (J -iIo>Jt,l *— a J-oLjljJJ 4-i-t.uJj Li 3jj_La (jVI ClSs-u^s\ (j^>\ 4jJ_a^M (JjLjiXI t j-a (3*) 
■ ■ Ca * Lm£ 1JljLi_u (jlS Lx_a (JjjSjiJI /yLC tJjJja t=L>-lj_Lt3 p ^ i h -j a ^axasa '-d ll IlJI Ji_La-/«JbjLii>-! 

JS d .^-.3 t _SL»j (jl ,_^j^e^iil ,j-a t tJ-Laja i *j j i .3 1 1 CjLfll La Jl t j-a JJlC (j-Lc (yulqjJU I_l_4 ^J-cThTuJ (#) 

. (_>^3 JJt^lX I dj ua SB '"■ (*^ (j^ -4-1 ^) J *' "^ 5lj (j^-*- 3 (Jr! - "- 1 O -0 ^ - "' Cr^-? t3jL»- j-k. L^-La 3jJ_U3 

j_& jU4_ufl 5_5JjJI^ Lj ^L.t2J,l ^-jIHJ (_yli£ Oj^P' ^-J- 1 J^ ^L^tcVI ^-La jjt ReliabilityCjLiJI (I #) 

■ 4-^o-lSj 4j| ^j-CJu La (_>°Lj-9 t^ 4Hse_u3j jLJlvVI 4j^^Lt-o ^Jua jjk V-nliHiy^ i ,^.11 (2*) 

jl_£j>JI jl (jii-J (jL^j i^\ m i i o r» ljLJIj ^jl M ii o.nt l :0^->^ ^ t _j'^ t ^ jW^' O-a (*^ t 3 *) 

,(_La_ia ^.jJjs- d I\l ^" , ,,l jjl j_^k> 0^-J_9 'tj^ 1 ^ (JSLjuJ LjJlIl p la I ' ^--ajJ^Jdl ■ llajlII 

fj_Li3j_a al 4_cj_u jjx. s-UiAJ i '■' al 4J Llllu I J-&9 tj-J-iJl ,j-C (JlJ-oJI jji 4jjj_»jI (-3 jLlJeTu-u ji I (4 ; i=) 

t 4jj_uSL._uVI :4_L*-al_>J1 2L3jjl1I jlj t d_A^aie_Jjl CjIj1_l5cjj_uI : c jJLi'J I JljjL Jljij>-I • Jj laajU j IaJl .(j^JW 

. 1 985 

LgjSjJu l_c^ d_j_cl_<i_lj»-VI L^HjjJL>. *j-t^3 (jyic 4j_t^aie_jJI Cjljl_iitjj_ul Jj-LJ 4j1_^Ti_ 1 _ u VI ^^jj, (5 ; i=) 
3j9_tt3 (__£ d ' ■■ a ' UJ aJl^j (jl j—JI (J-J-fl-i ,_>^aJt^iJ,l (jl jjfc LLA j-u/Lui I ,_)l3lj^3 2 1 a . i _^jJt^iXl 
i flt_L^u s-LLJ Ji a t IjlUx-d Ij_jjG a Lti> LcLiajl LLijJ ^j^J (jL) i L^cLaTlvI 5_)1Jl>- a dJj_^Laa dl.^/ij 
jlj t<Lq-L«a-gB Ul II Cjljl_J_5e_Lj_ul t^-JL-^JI i 1 J^r JuCJvl J lojl . 4-^a-LdJll 4-^-^aJI ^ylc ^IjvjJ ^£, vlbjJI 

. 1985 t 4jjjjSL^VI :d^L>JI 2^jjtil 

jmii:l,ilf ^aaII gi^l^A 

Jl>- ^ylb. i_jjvj-a jljJaLi «,_ > ^i» jlj H(j^» j-iJlUI -ilj Lx-i^ 4j| ^yliu Curvilinear^j-LjcUl JoLujVI (*) 

I_L4 ^JlLfl-ia .((,_^d» j_^ ^^ fl ' 1 J * u ' «(vu» SjLij (jl ^1 t4^^L«Jl (j.uSL*j (JlLa 21 Jlj*JI I Ju4 Jjj a t(j^_«_a 

, t_j ali-a U i__3j_»J uLsLjj^iI 

.((CjIjJJI *j L&^j (j-a l_aji^TI)) IaIhiJ 4jLi dJJ| ^^lua _LcJe_a ^yj-tJI ^C dulj dtjjL*. <ya Jj^ (l=i=) 

. d_j ajJlxjjjjI ,j_a AL-iL<a i_p^ J-i 2 (jLfl_)21 J a-ttsl ,j-a jj-ua I I AJt> \2-f) 



212 



ty&lgaJI 

. L$_La >-uSJu 4_LJlci <U-uJI ^j^-Ja t « t _ |T i_i ^i a ;-i_i» i_tjej (_3 lJ_L_b CjJj a (3*) 
-i uaju j_A 5-jJlI^JI 4_JjJJ*I ;»Jut <_3 _lj_a. Laj i-x \\ uaJI J-caJLi I j-lv I j Vjl J I Jl.Ci-.-u VI <J3^ (4*) 

!jiirt)H *Jlc ^?=-^-Ij ^J-c- J-*-*- J :M^ j— — >' c?-^-''' q-"-^I (<--—: 4——" ^1 <— LJj i_^ f^-J-" O^-^ (5*) 

. 1970 t 4_jjj_^uV! :4_^L>J! ( ,,: ( <tl j!j ^L__J! 

: t _ T L Lu JlS_L) 4jI_ 1 1 JJt (((j^J)) *_*.j-a 4_j^jtl t j_a f^J-l' (j" 2, (6*) 
. _>j_ii».VI (j^-LxjjJI (_3 CjjJlJ*. Jl9 LjJjI ,j-a Ju V CjIjjJu —JLuJ^a. t^c— Lt,l <jj— Jl <_,— j-£— > ~ I 

informants (Jj^jJ--J11j (jLCu-uLfl t j-jjL>-a (JS-ji. ^j i a 1, 1 t_.-t.jJl (JjjjJl. aJ j-4>_a. tt j;J_iL»-J! (±_j-.L_ «i_^J» -2 

. Jl_____3 j-j£- 9 1 J__— - ) t4_J ajtca p 1 Laa-I ,j_a 4_i_. J*^ ' 0' (j-^-* 3 - 1 *- a (_?— -*- 1 ^ 9 
,j-a ,_)-ujJl3 aj (j-^9 tii_____- 3j_aL_uI 4_L)_La ,__- LtitJ' a ■ La ■ ■■j'l ^y j fl i La 1 1 ^j_-i «!____. I (((j-u » ^yij _1 -3 

. _bj_i_u L) j__a_a (j-—- **- = — > — J (^-d- 4 -*-^ ' ' J ' ' 

. J—oVl tj;j__a-a 1 4-_u-L>J I c _ r _Lj j >-^iT t ^L__J J.UA.L-V j^__JJ*l (7*) 

i 5_j3_jJ_*oV I 5_i_UI p i ■■ 2 J jl_i__uVI tJlj—3 J_<i_5e-a j^_ijJI (_-J*j (J-icaJI gj— -JiJ i —JJJLI 4->-jlj (8*) 

t 4jjJ_iL l _uVI 4jt-aL>- t ._)1jiVI 4-t— Li i4jjjjJI 4*111 fs_u_J IsLi—uVl t jlj^>JI Jla— (^J-— ■ Jla^I jj2 i jJI^ 



CjLu-u ,j-a lj_Lp-l JJlC-,_)_j_j- 21jj_u -550 (jj-1— jJ-CJ-t—J tjl_t_li 21 /<— -"l_9 d J lajb ml! j-ig.iu l jjjl_|JLa (*) 
(_3 >— iLq-mJI ^Jufc #1_cj-uI <_ 1) j— — il - (4jjj_jI) 4_j_l_jJ,I j-j-C_5 4_j_l_jJU : 4j_L_je_t_JI 

. (4_uL>J Lju) (j^jL-u^Jlj 3jLUI _9^U«J,I^ JjlLlI cjVU- (I*) 
(-3 4_iJj,l^ .5_iLfc.j_._uV I j 4-l-UI (jhj 3Jl__L_JI SuLajJI 3j___JI j__ Reaction Rime j->-jJI _>aj (2*) 
:^j____JI ^>->II o-^j : J-'-= *-' Jlj - c - l< »--I ' J_"-<-*---t- ji—Jl ^-la—ill (_. if __- LjjjJ] jLIII __L_ljjJI 

1981 <^jjL_i__.VI :_3jl__tl jlj 1 4 t uj > ^_ 2l__Ij_ 

ijjjjtjl jj-a <t___tSB-« _1)Lj_<i_) j'j--! 4j_j_j j—iUj^-Jl jLClU JlL>JI -*■ La ' ■■ _Jj_l__jj ^J*-!-! ,j-u-j-3 j— ) (3 : ^) 

. L^Lcj Lt_L5e_L_ (_Uj (J-ujJj tjjl—jlj—^ 1 1 ^ '■ i __ U i Ls <Lai 5-ctlj 3jL__>JI ajJ_u_j (*) 

7c_jj_l_ __J| ^J—LjjjjJI ,JL_uj! 3j_iLk> tj—oL-JLI ijjj— <= -i' ^-cTl>J,i -_a^La ^j.a :,_)_uJ9jc. -Lj—o - _i (2=i=) 

. 1965 t 3j_tL_JI :- tJ j__J! ^Lkg tt ___)LAJI ^LcVl 

4_<i_-.jj t3-li-u _aVT 4ajjI ^j— tgZut^Jj _bjjJ_jj t-gjiAJ :=L<uJ— Jl j-— a-a 4Jl_ij -(j^j! — — J^jl (3*) 
i 1952 try-ila-Jl i iLJl .aI-msia iOjJtiLaj\ t^g>£-j-u jjjI Jlajc-a . J a J-^- 3 J- 1 ' (***ll Jlj-C . . J : 4j*j>-lj-aa 

.232 ^ 

292 ,_,_. .d,,ini j-a.jJ.1 (4*) 



2IJ 



. 1966 t Sj_4l_aJI iaJlaJ! jIj t^jJu 

(3j_*LdJI tj-tTuJjl_g ^ c I j La U ^^j^jlJI <_*jI£j*I j I J iaojJIj (j^i-a^l (j-u 4jj_t-aJJ CjIjLjJI ■jjk', a-Jj (6*) 

. 1967 
iojJbLal\ t M-u-U I a 4_4j>-jjJi a lJljJQJI 4_Lj*J ij a2l «.J_>Jl t (j-u-a-JoJ I i £j-a <— ii : U?.?-^ -J"* 1 *" I ■ - 1 v *) 

. 106 a < 1955 tlLplill a.iUII 
: c_j utSLU <LaL*JI <Ljj_t-aJ,l d_lj_^JI .^jj i ■—» L«JLI Cj^jj uaJ.1 3Ll>. (jt ^ j^1>JI • ^j a ■ j c jj m . j (8*) 

-3jjL*J-a Cjl BBALa '^ I ■■■•" !tJ*.jJ,l (9*) 

^j-jJlAJI oIjjJI t^jiLJj »LtLl tj-ua-a (^ C Iftil CjIjLc ^ j-L*rJI_a CjLuJI : ^j^LJj fLtC-J SjjI&J ( I ) 

. 1972 Bj^tUJI <4xLkl] J_^JI jlj ^jjVl SLpSJLI ^ ^j^-aXI 

.^Li-u xj*-j^a :,_jjjj^c Jl-u-u . j ( 10*) 

. 1967 . .Sj-aLiJI ^jjlJI t-ulSJI jIj (A^JIj^-sVl jjhj 5j;»^H cjIjUJI -j^ pJj (I I*) 

jjl^ «gV ^UJ.1 aUI jJalj^JI ^ i^-uaXI ^UJJ *_Uj-J}^VI c^s^jLc^jJI L3 _ l ^UJI (12*) 

54_<i£w>J.I jLJ9jj «— ufcJuLfl CjLSLJI ,j_a (jlla ■ 
I Lea 'I djuLi Cjjli Cj I j-ll.CJ I a JJt> jjj-a (jl (-J) t oj-uja (Va> Jljjj*- I JLJ-i-o2 I j-Jlj Ju-o t _l^_u ( I 3*) 
4JjJLi_uj t _J| j_ks_)l . p ^ * ■* ^ LtTu_<J I 4_LtsL>. la^LuiVI J_*j 4jjj_*]I 3jj3_>JI 4_ulu » jj-«-iu >**-" (j-^ 
4_t_«U* t t_jbVI 4_J£ ^(^j-aVl j .mil ^i l£j^-*JI Jj-*-" CJ^ 3 wiifl ZjjinTI j-uaLil)) tj j'n^UU 

■ l985. t 4-jjjLJSL^yi 
. Flooding j-cl3l jl ^j^j^h {J±$LuA\ ^-3L*J.I 4-lc-<-uj La *_a La by I Jut t3*",' (14*) 

4-SjjJ.I jlj tCJ -a^L_uVI jiLflJI (^ 3jj>-VI_9 CLt-t-JI SjLlic ijjLSJI JuX. -UJvl jLAJe-a j^XljJI ( I5=i=) 

. l986 t 5_jjj_^uV-^*-«WJI 

t(3^Lj>- (jl_oxj>. jj_LijJi :<Jti& 4-i_ul jjJl aAJb jL^ol cj-J Ufl^ - " 0-"° U^ CW-* 1 -*^ j-SLtTaJlj 4j*^ojI (16*) 
t 4_j_a^L_._uVI I ' a 1 2 1, 1 4_l*_c_*j ^JlCJI aLc j_jJuo tjJ-j£. ^j-i^j j^aj^jJI ,4-uL-LlLH 4_*-aL»JLj jllj-u^l 
SjLXj_oJla t^j-^JI 4_!jju j-)JL-a j-Jaj-i-ujJl 7cJl_Li3 jGj_u jl a tT'j-^JI 4jojIj (jl_<u*-jJ 4JuXj_u 3IlLl_i_u2l a 

.(—jLJs jJLSjI Ju-C 4_jjju 3j_)Jua ,_)l3a£: jj-^-i 

5_SJl«JLI (j^a cjLLul ^jJ Jilll SU.mj ,jlill 5JLv ; Jaa U. iSj^ Jla^Ij jJU-JI j_ui j_<i^f (17*) 

■ (j-tTu-LU aJaqj^ 4_i_uljj) 4j JajU-tJ I 4jjj_«JI 

.(jVI SjTiSLl 4-fl.iTLJe-a J^Ll ^jJ] 4jvjL>- 3j_»jSi ^^ p g-U ljljx.1 (jl Jijv^Lj (18*) 

oj-a\-iX\j < jj-t-se-t-(.(iJ,l u_)j->JI *lj-af I ^jjej-t^a j^>-T ' fla. <Li-m 1 aJVI *— )j^>- . Jjuj jjIjLJjjv (19*) 

^Laujj-a (_)JijJ 4-J1 L_njj_LaJ| ^j_a :=Lk>j^tLa . I 984 d) aj_jj 1 L-lssj jLJuJ 4_<u>-jJ tjjLLJ (_i 4-JluIj-i-u jfl 

-4je_u3la <_)L-i_u21a ( j-nqjl jlj tcJuljiaJl i j^--* I Ju-ts Jju ^JJl ti_)LJSjl IJ-A jjx. 

iJJuuaJI I jut ^ SJ3_ll_uo Ijj^J. 'f«sJ>^ Juue-a t^ji^i JjLc jLujVl ^^^IjJ-uo^ ^JuuJu Jju (20*) 

. L&jlc IjuU^ gjiLJjT 4-C_c3 Cj I JlC L.-U-I3 A-L3J 

1 1985 ,4jjJ-^u)?I (SLuuiUJI 4J3jj.il jlj .SUwaitAJI CjljLitl^l :jJUJI j-x. j_c^l ijJaJl (21*) 
. 1980 toj-iiLSJI .^yjjjJI jiLiJI jlj t^ ulAjJI ( _wj1j_SJI -r>2 cjj^^ 

, 4jjl_tjjjl ^j fljj I j-3 -^J-^r' *J-4 (j j 1 1 aa ^ j_kul (22*) 



211 



ty&lgaJI 



4«UI J^ull^l^A 

i 4jj_uSL^V' i"U. jj i_j>LL c;r Li 1986 /85«tli ^ i^ljjJI oju* <_kJUI ,J_y>-'\ (I*) 
.i^UJI «ju» (jJI IjLto lilij 4W J}L>. cdJjj (2*) 
: L7 jLUJI ajL>- j^LiL^JI j^.LUI J^JLi cdJj iJ^Ju (3*) 

\ LuaJl L^j jjLttsa <- • aj ■ Cjj i"i~». Ijj 

. 1986 jjLy (jis IjjjjJI ^JjLHJ Sjl^UJ IjjIj lili^l <lUh JX-i. liiljj (4*) 

Joyce, C. A time for grieving, Psychology (5*) 

46- 42, (11) 18, 1984, Tady 



215 







jpLiJi 



jjU hi ^ <_aJ|l,1 



ijjiSj 



.^ 943^Lc .4-ujjJI 

. .i_J t . n liiiXlj 

4 j i iiL-u^l Julj^I)) 4jLiIJ^ (j-o - 
t((<Lj-L^aJc mJI CjIjI l3cj i nl {4-LLjaic ■"■'' 



u> 



■ ■■*'* \hxj 34 






jJl_uo tKtfU-L^aie mJl a liJjl i nil 



.SjjJlX^^I 3j<^L>. .cjb^/l 



217