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Full text of "Abbrevations And Other Terms"

A DICTIONARY OF IMPORTANT 



OTHER TE 






000 fi5 




A Dictionary of important 

ABBREVIATIONS & 

@ther Terms 

, By : MV9EGARA KOTESWARARAO, M.A, 




16-00- 




1 

V 



tw 



Edition : 

March, 1995. 



All rights reserved by ; 

Janapriya 
Publications-Tenali. 



Price : 

ES. 16-UQ. 

Cover Design : 

V.S. PRAKASH, 

Vijayawada-3. 



Printed at : 

Pavan Printers 

Tenali-l. 



! Cover Primers : 

Sakthi Process, 

Madras-21. 



For Copies; 

Janapriya Publications, 

* 

Agnikula Kshatriyula vari Street-H, 

. Pet, TE^SfALl-522 201. 



A Dictionary of important 

.ABBREVIATIONS & 

ther Terms 

, By : MVNGARA KOTESWARARAO, M.A, 



, 1995.; 



&*.. 16-00- 



a. 




Edition : 

March, 1995. 



All rights reserved by : 

Janapriya 
Publications-Tenali. 



Price : 

. 16-00. 

Cover Design : 

V.S. PRAKASH, 

Vijayawada-3. 



Printed at : 

Pavan Printers. 

Tenali-l. 



Cover Printers : 

Sakthi Process, 

Madras-21. 



For Copies 

Janapriya Publications, 

y 

Agnikula Kshatriyula vari Street-H, 

P^t, TENALI-522 201, 



Abbreviations 




States of America' ="U,S. A. 1 '). 





RAdio Detecting Arid RaHgiug' =: ''RADAR'* 



- 9^05 









GATT (77-ff), INSAT 
RITES (3_^), SAARO ^5), UNESCO 

AIDS (tSidSS^).... 9C* 

gj 5 ^. eo^cras 1 -- sr^SW 8 ^SB^ ^SSvga Abb- 
reviations^) tjgeoS; Political, Mi^dical, Educational, 
official, Industrial* Scientific aer* S5eo 














Abbreviations 










'UDitcd States of Amerlca'=''U,S.A. f '). 




"RAdio Detecting Aald ftaagiug* =: "RADAR** 



s 









GATT (jr&\ INSAT 
RITES (B^), SAARC '<>5? r ), UNESCO 
AIDS ^cSS^).... QC 

reviations^b "fsSSoQ; Political, Medical, Educational, 
official, Indmtrial, Scientific aer S5eo 









Abbreviations 6 



ASRTU : Association of State Road and Transport Un 
dertakings 








AVARD : Association of Voluntary Agencies for Rural 
Development 



AWIC : Association of Writers and Illustrators for Ch- 





FAO : Food and Agriculture Organisation 



L tJ n & 

FCAT : Film Certification Appellate Tribunal 





FEE : Federation of Engineering Industries of India 





FFI : Film Federation of India 





FFSI : Federation of Film Societies of India 




FICCI : Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce 
and Industry 





FOCUS: Forum for Communal Understanding and Syn- 






FPTA : Federation of Paper Traders Association 




f 



s t 

Abbreviations <-V^ : .x^ ; -7 



FTH : Film and TPisje^ institute of India 





HOGA : Hindustan Oil seeds Growers Association 





HUDCO : Housing and Urban Development Corpora 

tion 
IAAS : Indian Audit and Accounts Service 




IAMR : Institute of Applied Manpower Research 








ICAA : International Civil Airports Association 




ICC : Indian Chamber of Commerce 

(saoSc&S' 3*oa5 ^q? S'&S^) 
ICCR : Indian Council for Cultural Relations 






IFWJ : Indian Federation of Working Journalists 

(gofldSSS" ">tf'SoiS' 5" SSS^o^ astf^&S^) 
nCT : Indian Institute of Chemical Technology 




HFT : Indian Institute of Foreign Trade) 





IIIT : Indian Institute of Information Technology 




EPA : Indian Institute of Public Administration 




Abbreviations 8 



IMPA : Indian Motion Pictures Association 




IMPPA : Indian Motion Picture Producers Association 




INMAS : Institute of Nuclear Medicines and Allied Sc- 



ences 



if 



tU 



INTUC : Indian National Trade Union Council 





ISRO : Indian Space Research Organisation 





ISSP : Indian Scientific Satellite Project 




ITI : Industrial Training Institute 





ETMA : Indian Television Manufacturers Association 






IYR1 : Indian Veterinary Research Institute 





TWAI : Inland Waterways Authority of India 




JCC : Junior Chamber of Commerce 





JRC : Junior Red Cross (ac&5 BfS, Joint 
Rivers Commission (3*000^ 




Abbreviations 9 



MECON : Metallurgical and Engineering Consultants 

Limited 
MIGA : Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency 






MRTPC : Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices 
Commission 





CD 




NAFED : National Agricultural Co-operative Market- 
ing Federation of 






NCCF : National Co-operative Consumers Federation 





NCERT : National Council of Educational Research 
and Training 





NCRB : National Crime Records Bureau 





NDC : National Development Council 





NECC : National Egg Co-ordination Committee 





NFAI : National Film Archives of India 




NFC : Nuclear Fuel Complex 





, 

JL 



Abbreviations 10 



NIC : National Integration Council 






Nffi : National Institute of Education 





NIFT : National Institute of Fashion Technology 




NIPA : National Institute of Performing Arts 







NIRD : National Institute of Rural Development 






NITEE : National Institute for Training in Industrial 
Engineering 





NLM : National Literacy Mission 





NPA : National Ports Authority 





NPC : National Productivity Council 





NVDA : Narmada Valley Development Authority 





NVF ; National Volunteer Force 





PAC : Public Accounts Committee 




Abbreviations 1 1 S>oistf 

PAI : Pesticides Association of India 




PEN : Poets, Editors and Novelists Association 




RRO : Refugee Relief Organisation 




SAIL : Steel Authority of India Limited) 



SAMEER : Society for Applied Microwave Electronics 
Engineering and Research SPIbdS $5 ep' 

Q ~ o< 

3 5 -\) 
SFI : Students Federation of India 






SIMA : South Indian Mill Owners Association 





SPCA : Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 






SPCC : Society for the prevention of Cruelty of Child 

ren &*& $5 a & 




SSC : Staff Selection Commission 





UPSC : Union Public Service Commission 





ZSI : Zoological Survey of India (awg&ff ^5 




Abbreviations 12 



Abbreviations of 
Companies & Industries 

ACC : Associated Cement Companies 





AEI : Associated Electrical Industries 




AIFPI : All India Federation of Plastic Industries 





AIRIA : All India Rubber Industries Association 

S e 
AMUL^: Anand Milk Udyog Limited 





ASP : Alloy Steel Plant (^e7>dS fed" 

N. ro & 

BALCO : Bfaarat Aluminium Company Limited 




BCCX : Bharat Cooking Coal Limited 



BEL : Bharat Electronics Limited 




BHEL : Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited 





BHPV : Bharat Heavy Plates and Vessels 





BPCL : Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited 






8 ] Abbreviations 13 



BRL : Bharat Refineries Limited 





BYNL : Bharat Yantra Nigam Limited 






CCI : Cement/Cotton Corporation of India 




CEL : Central Electronics Limited 






CIFTI : Confederation of Indian Food Trade and Indu 

stry 

GIL : Coal India Limited (*<;" 
CISF : Central Industrial Security Force 











CLB : Company Law Board 

CMA ; Coal Mines Authority 

CMPDI : Central Mine Planning and Design Institute 

("So &" aS" jp&oft woS" a^S" si^^tooQ^) 
COFMOW: Central Organisation For Modernisation Of 
^Workshops liDff ^avS" $5 




CONCOR : CONtainer CORporation of India 

(SoS j& s-5'^aS' 5 goAo^p) 
CRISIL : Credit Rating and Information Services of 

India Limited 





CSIR : Centre of Scientific and Industrial Research 




Abbreviations _ 14 S$oSs*$ 

CUL : Carborundum Universal Limited 






CWC : Central Warehousing Corporation 





DCM : Delhi r Cloth Mills 

fc > co ro 

DEIL : Digital Equipment India Limited 




DFHI : Discount and Finance House of India 





DTC : Delhi Transport Corporation 




oJ 



DVC : Damodar Valley Corporation 





ECIL : Electronics Corporation of India 





EDC : Export Development Corporation 



EDL : Engineers India Limited 





EITMA : Eastern India Textile Mills Association 




FACT : Fertilizers And Chemicals Travancore (Ltd) 

(1)53 &5\ <o ^^g^"\ 

N CDo tw oJ 

FCI : Food Corporation of India 





7 FC : Film Finance Corporation 





Abbreviations 15 



FSI : Food Specialities of India (Ltd,,) 



GAIL : Gas Authority of India Limited 



QIC : General Insurance Corporation 



GM : General Motors 

HCI : Hotel Corporation of India 



cw 



HCL : Hindustan Cables /Copper Limited 





HDFC : Housing Development Finance Corporation 





HEC : Heavy Engineering Corporation 





HEL : Heavy Electricals Lnnited("5r>!> 

HFCL : Hindustan Fertilizer Corporation Limited 




HEL : Hindustan Insecticides Limited 




HLL : HindustanLever 

Hindustan Latex Limited (&po#bp' C7SS\ 

HMT: Hindustan Machine Tools(oPo<^^' 
HMV : His Master's Voice 

Heavy Motor Vehicles 

* 






Abbreviations 16 



HPC : Hindustan Paper Corporation 

13 
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation 




"5 






HPF : Hindustan Photo Films 

HSL : Hindustan Steel Limited (^POtfbopS' |5" 





HHZL : Hndustan Zinc Limittd ( 
IA : Indian Airlines (go&c&S' Si53 
IBM : International Business Machines 






ICC : Indian Cement Corporation 





ICICI Industrial Credit and Investment Company of 
India 






IDC ; Industrial Development Corporation 





IDPL : Indian E>rugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited 






IFC ; Industrial Finance Corporation 






EFFCO : Indian Farmers Fertilizer Corporation 






IISCO : Indian Iron and Steel Company 







Abbreviations 17 



IOC : Indian Oil Corporation 





IOL : Industrial Organics Limited 





IPCL : Indian Petrochemicals Company Limited 



IPICOL : Industrial Promotion and Investment Corpo 
ration 







IRIL : Indian Rayon Industries Limited 






ISCON : Indian Steel CONstruction Company 




ITC : Indian Tobacco Company(go&c& 

ITDC : Indian Tourism Development Corporation 

(aoad^S" to^OssS) 3cSeao<S" 

JCI : Jute Corporation of India 





KGF : Kolar Gold Fields '(*er>5 

KVIC : Khadi and Village Industries Commission 





L & T : Larsen and Toubro Limited 




LIC : Life Insurance Corporation (of India) 




MAMC : Mining and Allied Machinery Corporation 





Abbreviations 18 sSo^&tf S&otoij 

MAPP : Madras Atomic Power Project 




MECL : Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited 




MMTC : Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation 






MNC : Multi National Corporation 

(& SasJff s'Sv^aSf) 

MRF : Modi Rubber Factory 

MUL : Maruti Udyog Limited 

NAAI : National Airport Authority of India 

(^aSd* 5 5*5 ^tp5^ sU soSd&o) ^ 
NACE, : National Agrq Chemicals Industries Limited 








NALCO : National Aluminium Company Limited 






NBC : National Broadcasting Company 




NBCC : National Building Construction Corporation/ 




NDDC : National Dairy Development Corporation 




NELCO : National Electronics Company Limited 




NFCL : Nagarjuna Fertilizers and Chemicals Limit-ed 




Abbreviations 18 



MAPP : Madras Atomic Power Project 




MECL : Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited 




MMTC : Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation 





MNC : Multi National Corporation 





MRF : Modi Rubber Factory 

MUL : Maruti Udyog Limited (Sp&a Afi^gS StoSff) 

NAAI : National Airport Authority of India 








NACE, : National Agrq Chemicals Industries Limited 





NALCO : National Aluminium Company Limited 

oy>toacS)Sb 
NBC : National Broadcasting Company 






NBCC : National Building Construction Corporation 




NDDC : National Dairy Development Corporation 





NELCO : National Electronics Company Limited 




NFCL : Nagarjuna Fertilizers and Chemicals Limited 





f It 

Abbreviations 



M 



PAL : Premier Automobiles Limited 





PFCI : Power Finance Corporation of India 

(55555 2> 

PSE : Public Sector Enterprises (o5sD""&| D 5 
RAPP : Rajastan Atomic Power Plant 




RCF : Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers 





RE, : Reliance Industries Limited 





RSP : Rourkela Steel Plant (dir'S^ep <S" 
RTC : Road Transport Corporation 








SCCL : Singareni Colleries Company Limited 



" 



SCI :Shipping Corporation of India 





SEB : State Electricity Board 




SEBI : Stock Exchange Board of India 




SECL : South-Eastern Coalfields Limited 




(!r><r 

^ I 

SFC : State Financial Corporation 






ij Abbreviations 21 



SIDCO ; State Industrial Development Corporation 



SMPL : Standard Motor Products Limited 




i 

L 

STC : State Trading Corporation 




TAPS : Tarapur Atomic Power Station 



TELCO : Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company 



TFAI : Trade Fair Authority of India 



TISCO : Tata Iron and Steel Company 






TOMCO : Tata Oil Mill Company 



fTCI : Tea Trading Corporation of India 





UTI : Unit Trust of India 

Abbreviations of Health 
& Medic Al sciences 

AHA : Academy of Hospital Administration 





AIIM5 : All India Institute of Medical Sciences 







BO : Body Odour 

CAT& : Centralised Accident and Trauma Services 





Abbreviations 22 

CCU : Critial/Cardiac Care Unit 




"15 

CftD : Certificate of Disability for Discharge 





CDRI : Central Drug Research Institute 




CFSL : Central Forensic Science Laboratory 





CGHS : Central Government Health Scheme 




CMC : Christian Medical College( L |^^ 
CME : Continuing Medical Education 




CNS : Central Nervous System 
ECT : Electro- Conversant Therapy 








ENT : Ear, Nose, Throat (sdfiS, 5*5, 
FMT : Forensic Medicine and Toxicology 






HAI : Health Action International 





. 
HP : High Pressure (TtpjjksS), Horinonic Progression 





ICDS : Integrated Child Development Services 

(goaiSSi" gj" SoS330<" ^6^5) 
ICFS : Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science 







ECMR : Indian Council of Medical Research 





55 




Abbreviations " 23 



ICRI : Indian Cancer Research Institute 







ICU : Intensive Care Unit (aoS^ 
IMA : Indian Medical Association 




IPA : Indian Pharmaceutical Association 




ISIC : Indian Spinal Injuries Centre 





^^ 

IVDU : Intravenous Drug User(sjO|&r3e6S 
MC : Medical Certificate 
MCH : Medical College Hospi 
MCI : Medical Council of India 








MDT : Multi Drug Therapy 

MT : Mentally Retarded 

MTP : Medical Termination of Pregnancy 






NAMS : National Academy of Medical Science 





NCB : Narcotics Control Bureau 





NICD : National Institute of Communicable Disease 






Nil : National Institute of Immunology 





NIMS : Nizam Institute of Medical Sciences 





NIN : National Institute of Nutrition 






Abbreviations 24 

-''- - ' ni i - tn L ' ja * a "^ " ''"-" ' ; ' i fl,^ 

NMEP : National Malaria Eradication Programme 





OPD : Out Patient's Department 




"Sp 



PH : Physicallp Handicapped 
Public Health (SSf "Spd) 
PHC : Primary Health Centre 
PM : Post Mortem (*5 
PNI : Psycho- Neuro Immunology 





PT : Physical Therapy ( 

RAM : Random Access Memory 

RMLH : Ram Manohaf Lohia Hospital 







SIDS : Sndden Infant Death Syndrome 

(ssas" SJ^SPO^T 35" ^s"^^) 

STD : Sexually Transmitted Diseases 



TB : Tubercle Bacillus (Tuberculosis^ 






TLC : Tender Loving care 

TNF : Tumour Necrosis Factor(to^5 

UCMS : University College of Medical Sciences 






VD : Venereal Disease 
VS : Veterinary Surgeon 

Ahbrw iatiitns of Muthv- 







AI : First class ($5 

BIT : Binary Digit byte.= 



Abbreviations 25 








BPD : Barrels Per Day 

BPI : Bits Per Inch 

BPS : Bits Per Second (<\ 1>5 

X (J 

C : Third Class (# 5), Hundred [Roman Numeral] 







CGS : Centimetre Gram 

C P: Cost Price (s*5 I 

CPI : Consumer Price Index 

CPM : Characters Per Minute 

CPS : Characters Per Second 

D : Five hundred (Roman Numeral) 











EDSAC : Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calcu 

lator >3g>3ar & f ^^^s id"&|^6) 

EDVAC:Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic comp 
uter oi3*^ A 






ENIAC : Hectronic Numerical Integrator And Calco 

lato^agafcS^gSieSeS' goS^S oS 
FPS : Foot Pound Second (&<" 
GCF : Greatest Common Factor 
GCM : Greatest Common Measure^SS 
GDP :|Gross Domestic Product 
GNI cjGross Natiooal Income 
GNP :*Gross National Product 
GPD ^Gallons Per Day (rro^j 15 5) 
HCF ; Highest Common Factor 
I : One [Roman Numeral] 
IQ : feetligence Quotient 

IR ; Intelligence Ratios 
^ 











Abbreviations 26 




1ST : Indian Standard Time (sjoAcft^ |po#5 
KMPS : Kilometres Per Second(C*cp<b5^ " 
KPH : Kilometres Per Hour S^arfcS "S:5 







KVA : Kilo -Volt- Ampere 
L : Fifty [Roman Numeral] 

LCM : Lowest Common Multiplexors 
LEN : Length (So^ 

LH : Left Hand (35 
3LMT : Local Mean Time 

LOG : Logarithm 

LPM : Lines Per Minute (3 

\o 

M : Thousand [Roman Numeral] 













MAP : Million Acre-Feet 

MIPS : Million Instructions Per Second 







MKS : l^etre Kilogram 

MT : Metric Tonnes 

N : Number 

NM : Nautical Mile 

Qr : Quarter (s-^ff 

RPM : Revolutions Per 

RPS : Revolutions Per 

TPI : Tracks Per Inch 

V : Five [Roman Numeral] 

WPM : Wotds Per Minute 

WPS : Words Per Second 

X : Ten [Roman Numeral] BJ5" 
First Unii^wE Qtmntity ($5 















Abbreviations 2? 



Y : Yard o&*), Second Unknown Quantity 





Z : Third Unknown Quantity (#5 
ZBB : Zero Based Budgeting (^5* 

ZPG : Zero Population Growth (6* pS^&^ ]ff) 

Abbreviations with 
Voriegn Base 

ABA : American Bankers Association 









ABC : American Broadcasting Company 



ACE : American Council on Education 





ACLU : American Civil Liberties Union 





ACUiAsian Clearing Union (ss&c&S'S 
ADB : Asian Development Bank 




ADF : African Development Fund 





AFC : Asian Foot ball Confedcratiom 





AFP : Asian Free Press 

AFRICA : Action For Resisting Invasion, Colojjalism. 
and Apartheid $5 




AGF : Asian Games Federation^fcc^ 
AHPC : American Home Products Corporation 






Abbreviations 28 



AIM : American Indian Movement 




ANA : American Newspapers Association 





ANC ; African National Congress 





ANN : Asian News Network 

ANSC : American National Standard Code 






ej 3 

ANZUS : Australia, New Zealand, United States of 



America (Pacific Pact Countries) 




APA : Associated Press of America 





APC : Asian Productivity Council 





APEC : Asian Pacific Economic Cooperatiom 





APPEAL : Asian Pacific Programme of Education 

All (&&<&$ 3&5>f i^L"" 5 * ^^ 
APU : Asian Parliamentarians Union 






ARCA : Associate of Royal College of Arts 





ARCM : Associate of Royal College of Music 



^ 
* A 





ARCS : Associate of Royal College of Science 







ARIC : Associate of Royal Institute of Chemistry 





* r 

6] Abbreviations 29 




ASC : American Standard Code (esd&SSS" ro&5 
ASEAN : Association of South East Asian Nations 

Spi" -gsS <s*s>c 

ASP AC : ASia and PAcific Council 







BA : British Academy 

BASIC : British -American Security Information Council 





BBC : British Broadcasting Corporation 




BCWA : British Council of World Affairs 









BENELUX : BElgiumNBtherlands and Luxembourg 
(Customs 





< A 



BIS : British Information Service (i<S5L 

\u 

S%5), Bank of International Settlements 







BO AC : British Overseas Airways Corporation 
^SS^5 ^oa5SS ^af^&S) ; N, B. : 
'British Airways (BA)' n SitfSSa- 

BSS : British Standard Specifications 






CARE : Cs>- operative for American Relief Evarywli^re 







$5 u3D5^ 81) 

CASTAP : Conference om Application 6f Ssicacd and 
T^c;ha^logy in AVu 

a 5*23! sf 



Abbreviations 30 

CBC : Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 






CDC : Commonwealth Development Corporation 





CENTO : CENtral Treaty Organisation 





CGF : Commonwealth Games Federation 






CHOGM : Commonwealth Heads Of Government 
ting (^SSbS'S^ "pf\ i> ^SS^^3DO<S" 

** \ o cJ ot. 

CIA : Central Intelligence Agency [USA], (" 

83^ 32^ [d5. ciffiS. oi]) 
COME5C : COMinonwealth Expedition 





OJ 



COMSAT : COMmunication SATeUite Corporation 

[USA], (^Sxn'gS&'i^ ^SS_^ S 8 5^'3aS' [d8b.<3 
CRY : Child Relief and You"(t3 | &&S" <9o^ cS8) 

ECAFE : Economic Commission for Asia and Far Bas| 






N. 1 : ^ ^ 
EGLk : Economic Commissioner Latin America ; 





ECM : European Co&tEKm Market 





Befeafcfe 






Economic Commnnity 




EFTA : EarcffeaBr Free Tra$e Assodation 

{tiff 








ELDO : European Launcher Development Organisaton 

" 





EMS : European Monetary System 





ENS : Eastern Newspaper Society 




EPRLF : Edam Peoples' Revolutionary Liberation 






Front 
EROS : Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students 







ESA : European Space Agency(c&p5*^c&^ t)^S 
ESRO : European Space Research Organisation 





EST : Eastern Standard Time 

FAMYS : Federation of Assemblies of Muslim Youth 
of Srilanka^tfS&S 1 & ^o& 




FAP : Free Asia Press (j& &<5& jla5) 
FBA : FeUow of British Academy 



FBI : Federal Bureau of Investigation [U. S. 





FCPS : Fellow of College of Physicians and Surgeons 




FRCP : FeUow of Royal College of Physicians 



FRCS : Fellew of Royal College of Surgeons 





FRGS : Fellow of Royal Grograpidcai 




Abbreviations 32 tfola^tJ 

FRPS : Fellow of Royal Photographic Society 



v> 
U 




FRSS : Fellow of Royal Statistical Society 




GB : Great Britain 

GCC : Gulf Ce-opratiom Ceuncil 





GDR : Gtmam Bcmocratic Republic 







GMT : Greenwich Mean Time 

HE : His [Htr] Excellemcy (Spff [SS5] 

HH : His [Her] Hi^kmtss (&f [SS5] ^35), 
Haass ^5p^ 

HL : Hens* 

HM : Her [his] Majesty (3*5 ["!"] 

HMS : His [Her] Majesty's Service 






f" 




IAEA : Intermatismtl Attfiw Eaargy Agency 





IAPB : attrmatlwal A^wcy for Prevemtion of Blind- 
ness 



IATA : International Air Tras^rt Association 




CBRD : Internatiomal Bank for Reconstruction and De- 
velopment [World Bank] t (go&'5^oSic^5" Sjgo" 



ICC : IfiterBatiwsd Crfefcet C^aference 





Abbreviations S3 



ICJ : International Court of Justice 



C3 



ICRC : International Committee of Rei Crss 





ICRISAT : International Crops Research Institute for 

the Semi- Arid Tropics 





IDA : Islaaiic Democratic Alliance 

, International Development Association 






IE A : International Energy Agnc/ 





IFAD : International Fund for Agricultural *v*lp- 






ment 
IFTU : International Federation of Trade Unions 




HO : Intermational Institute for Cottom 






IISS : latormational Institute of Strategic Studies , 




UI r Islami Jamhoori Ittehad 






ILO : Latermational Labour Organisation 




IMF : International Monetary Fund 





IMI : Imtentttional Managtmtmt Institute 





Abbreviations 34 $ot&j$ 

INCB : Internationa! Narcotics Control Board 








INSTRAW : International Research and Training Ins- 
titute for the Advancement of Women 
6"?>5^ &o S^So^ $5 fi> v^S^Sao^ 

INTELEX : INternational TELeprinter Exchange 






INTELSAT: INternational TELecommunication SATte- 





INTERPOL : INTERnational Criminal POLice Organis- 
ation fao&'S^acS^" I^D^^* gJ 6 !)^ 

\ ot. v_ 



IPI : International Press Institute 







IRNA: IRanjan News Agency 

IRRI : International Rice Research Institute 




5 




ISBN : International Standard Book Number 





ea o 

ISD : International Subscriber Dialing 




ISSN : International Standard Serial Number 



JAL : Japan Air Lines 

JEMA : Japan Electrical Manufacturers Association 






JETRO : Japan External TRade Organisation 





JUI : Jamiat TJIomz Islaoi 






Abbreviations 5 j$ois*& 



KADU : Kenya African Democratic Union 








KAL : Korean Air Lines 

KBE : Knight of British Empire 

KGB : Komitet Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti ( 

SACommittee for State Se- 

, D / 






KKK : Kn Klux Klan (& STj ^5)-A white terrorist 

anti-Negro Society in USA. 
KLF : Khalistan Liberation 

KUNA : Kuwaiti News Agency 

LA : Los Angeles (er5 ^oB 

LAFTA : Latin American Free Trade Association 








LBA : Ladakh Buddhist Association 

>5 

LDC ; Least Developed Countries (!>5 
LITE : Liberation Tigers of Taipil Eelam 




MENA : Middle East News Agency 




METO : Middle East Treaty Organisation 








r ^ "* 

MRAS : Member of tie Royal Academy of 

(3>oo5 ^ a CPCSS^" i^ak^ 1> "3^5) 

MRCP ; Member of Royal College of Physicians 

" 




MS^CS : Member of Royal College of Snrgeoss 
" ! ' ' : " 





MZO : Muslim Zehad Organisation 







n 

NAM : Non-Aligned Movement 

NAP : National Award Party (^ 

NATA : National Aeronautics and Space Administration 





pj 



NATO : North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 



NCNA : New China News 

NNPT : Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 







NSA : National Security Agency 








NY : New York 

NYC : New Yort City 
NZ : New Zeland (pg 
OAOEC : Organisation of Arab Oil Exporting Countries 






OA8 : Orjaiusatiom of American States 





OAU : Organisation of African Unity 






OEEC : Oqtnisation fot Euro^an Economic Co-optra- 

tios 
OIC : OrjanisatioH of Mamie Countries 









OFBC : Orgaaisation of Petroleum Exporting Couesntri 






j Abbreviations 



PATA : Pacific Area Travel Associatiom 




PGA : Parliamentarians for Global Action 



CO 




PIA : Pakistan International Airways 




PLO : Palestine Liberation Organisation 














PNP : Pakistan National Party 

PPP : Pakistan People's Party 
QC : Queen's Council 

QUANTAS : Queensland And Northern Territory At- 
rial Service(I<;S' 

\ oi < 

RA : Royal Academy 

RAAF :, Royal Australian Air Force 

(tPt&eJ ^t^dSoS' cicxo5 
RAF : Royal Air Force 
S3?f AC : Roj'al Nepal Airlines Corporation 











SAARC : South Asian Association for Regional Co-op- 
eration 





^ 

SACOLA : South Asian Collation for Legal Actibfc 

(tPff *&& "dSSSi^ $5 ttff^f ^S5) 
S&LT ^ Strategic Arma Umitatioa Treaty 




SAVB ; SAARC Mdio Visual 





SEATO : S*uth-East Asia Treaty Organisation 






i i - * * . 

Abbreviations 8 SoSs*&& 

SHAPE : Supreme Headquarters of Allied Powers ia 






SIA : Singapore International Airlines 




SLFP : Sri I-anka Freedom Party (jlooS 

SPA : Saudi Press Agency 

START : STrategic Arms Reduction Treaty 









SUNFED : Special United Nations Fund for Economic 
Development !bi" oSo^sS' ^Si $o<f $5 




SWAPO : &>uth-West Africa People's Organisation 





SWIFT: Society for Worldwide Interbank FinanciaJ Te- 
lecommunications Sr"^^S $5 





TOUCHzThe Or^wiisation for Universal Communal Ha- 
rmony (df^g^Si^ $5c&jJMStfj<5r 

TULF ; Tamil United Liberation Front 






TWA : Trans World Airlines 






UAE : Unhsd Arab Emirates (o83S^ v$g 

0AR : United Arab Republic 

r 

UK : United Kingdom 
UN : United Nations 

UN ABC : United Nations Atomic Energy Commission 









& 




Abbreviation* 39 sSoi*>s 

UNCTTRAL : UnUed Nationi Conference on Interna- 
tional TRAde Law 






UNCOD : United Nations Conference om Desertifica- 
tion (d&>3 335" 5a\ S"8^B5\ S" 3s05)ia^ 

v a <v cy cJ f$^ ^ / 

UNCTAD : United Nations Confenence on Trade and 
Development 




UNDC : United Nations Disarmament Commission 





UNDP : United Nations Development Programme 





UNDRO : United Nations Disaster Relief Organisation 




ea 




UNEP : United Nations Environment Programme 






UNESCO : United Nations Educational, Scientific 
and Cultural Organisation(d&>38<ST 

" 






UNFAD : United Nations Fund for Agricultural Deve- 






UNICEF : United Nations International 
Emergency 







UNIDO : United Nations Industrial Development Org- 
nkation 





UNO : United Nations Organisation 






40 




USA : limited States of America 

(d&13_S<f J^ f> 93365) 
VSAID : United States Agency for International 

velopfflifit [d&SSS" ) B& $5 





SIS : United States Information Service 







VOA : Vsice of America 
WASM1 : World Assembly of Small and Medium 
prises (oS5^"pl:ol) 
WAY : World Assembly of Youth 






WB :World ank (3<j 53|oi") 
WEC : World Emergency Conference 







WFP : Wrid Fod Programme 

WFTII : World Federation, of Trade Unions 
!lUd '/ccTf^: i>i t ^^j ' "- 




WFUNA : World Federation of Iniicd Rations Associa- 





, *'/i "< * 4 

ockey Association 




Kfcilt& Organisation 




Wl : Wast ladies (35 

V ea 

WIPO : World MeiUctka! Property Organisation 7 
(Sfe ao&^Wcft^ i^SSfe SSSfiSTE 

X tJ L eo n^- / 

WPBSA: World Professioaal Billiards and Snooker Asso- 







41 




WRi : War Resisters International 





WTO : World Tourism Organisation 





WTUC : World Trade Union Congress 





WW :World War (atfj sr5) 

WWF : World WildlifeFund 

ZANA : ZAmabia News Agency 

ZANU * Zimbabwe African National Union 









ZOPFAN : Zone Of Peace, Freedom And Neutrality 




5, 





Bankiny and Ifusiness 
Abbreviatious 

A/C : Account ( 

AB: Andhr 

ABGD : Accelerated^ Business Collection a#d 

(SSxS'Ssff s^sS sses* off ; ass& 

N *" 'A / 

AGM : Assistant General Manager ^ 





AIB : Associate of Institute of Bankers 





AIBEA : All India Bank EM^loye^s t J A^ociation : + 

V 

. , ( ' - 

A!K>A ; AH India 




AIBOC : All India 







AMR : Additions, Modifications and Replacement 








AO : Accounts Officer 

APR; Annul Pfr 

AR ; Accounts Reclevable 

AY : Annual Yalue 

BBIL : Bharath Business International Limited 









PEFI : Bank Employees Federation of India 








BOB : Bank of Baroda 

BOH : Bank of Hyderabad (15*50!" 2 
BOI : Bank of India (Bgo" 

BO? : Balance of Payments 
BSRB : Banking Service Recru 
(ipjoSofi 66^5 8 l &*<s'3x><' 

CA : Cnrrent Account (S'Soir 

S : Chartered and Standard (Bank) 










CAP : Cost And Frieg&t (sS woff 

CB : Canara Bank(lS$u^3o^), Central Bank 





CB0 : Cask Btfcm Delivery 
CBI : Central Bank of 





CD : Certificate of Depo$k 




CDS : Cofflpelsoqr Deport Scheme 





42 





AMR : Additions, Modifications and Replacement 







AO : Accounts Officer 

APR: Annul Fer-ceatatt 
AR ; Accounts Rcclevable 
AY : Annual Value 

BBEL : Bharath Business International Limited 









: Bank Employees Federation of India 











BOB : Bank of Baroda (srgoS" 

BOH : Bank of Hyderabad (B*ol" *5 
BOI : Bank of India (irgof 

BOP : Balance of Payments 
BSRB : Banking Service Rwmitment Board 
(iPgoSofi 66^5 

CA : Current Accorait 

C&S : Oiartered and Standard (Bank) 










CAP : Cost And Friegbt 

CB : Canara Bank^u^sfo^, Central Bank 





CBD : Cask Bfor Delivery 
CBI : Central Bank of 





CD : Certificate of Deposit (S$B$>i 
Carnal 






CDS : Cofl^risoqr Deposit 






1 

44 






GPF : General Provident Fund 

HP : Higher Purchase QSpc&S 

IB : Indian Bank (s?o<Sc&^ sr 

IDBI : Industrial Development Bank of India 



$o<f ^ 








INBEF : Indian National Bank Employees Federation 





INBOC : Indian National Bank Officer's Congress 











IOB : Indian Overseas Bank 

JA : Joint 'Account 

LG : tetter of Credit 

LL: Limited Liability 

LOG : Line of Commuiucation 

LOI : Letter of Indent 

MCA : Monetary Compensatory Account 










MD ; Managing Director 
ML : Maintaittance 
MT : Hail Transfer 

NABARD : National 
Development 










for Agricultural drid ; 

$5 




NBs : Nationalised Baufcs 

NBI : New Bank of 
NC ; 






' -f 





o 





NF : No Funds 





1 

y 



i "" ' ' 

7J Abbreviations 45 




NFE : Net Foreign Exchange 
NIB : National Investment Bank 







NQ : Notes and Queries 

OBC : Oriental Bank of Commerce 

(!6do<be5* 8" go I" J ^^'^) 
OD : On Demand (<B &poi;),Out 

Over Draft (LSSS (js ^), Over Drawn (L&5 
OTC : Over the Counter (iS5 
P&L : Profit and Loss {\Ss*$ 
PAYE : Pay As You Earn (t> 
PBs : Private Banks ( 
PF : Private Fund (^ $ctf ), Provident Fund 










PL : Personal Loan 

PN : Promissory Note 

PNB : Punjab National Bank 

POD : Payment on Delivery 

Ps : Public Sector Banks 

QCSC : Quick Customer Service Counter 









Reserve Bank of India (dssS^ ST|O" 
ROI : Refund on Investment 

i 

RPA : Rupee Payment Areas {J&i* "! 

RRB : Rural Regional Bank (&$& tssSS& 23*30:) 

SBA : Savings Bank Account (IbSo^ srgol" 

SBI : State Bank of India ( 

SSP : State Bank of Patiala 

SXDBI : Small Industries Development Bask of ladia 

i 









I * 

Abbreviations 46 



SLR : Statutory Liquidity Ratio 





SO : Seller's Option(1bo5^ eS&), Sold out 
SRBC : Southern Regional Business Centre 








TB : Trail Balance ( 

TC : Travelling cheque ^j^Z&oK 3f ) 

TDS :Tax Deduction at Source 

TL : Total Loss (&*&& 

TM : Trade Mark (\& 

TT : Telegraphic Transfer (Se)jrr5)i" 

UBI : Union Bank of India 







UCO : United Commercial (Bank) 



_ 
VAT : Value Added Tax spe^ tifr&g 



VB : Vysya Bank (S ^g^gol") , ViJaya Bank 




WB : Wtrld Bank 

WOS : Wholly-Owned Subsidiaries 





WTPI : Wholesale Price Index 
WS V Wifedrawal slip 





Hefemee Abbreviations 





AA : Aati- Aircraft 

AAP : Auxjliart Air Force 

- j ^ 1 

: Astosmtic Back Ught Control 







Missiles 





47 






AC : Ashok Chakra 

ACC : Auxiliary Cadet Corps <$Ao& iS<*" 

ACW : Air Craft Woman 

AF : Air Forct (<ioa>5 

AFB : Air Force Base 

AFMC : Air Force Medical College 










AFTC : Air Force Technical college 

(<^oa5 5*5^ SS^^e? 5*31} 
AHQ : Army Head Quarters (eafe^ "Spff 

Air Head Quarters (<iox>5 
AI : Aimy Instruction (^6j 

\ >2> 

AH. : Aeronautics India Limited 








AJT : Advanced Jet Trainer 
ALH : Advanced light Helicopter 








AMC : Army Medical Corps 
AOC : Army Ordnance Corps 

* * 

Air Officer Commanding (^oaS &&&ET 
APO : Army Post Offidte (% SS*| 
AQMG : Assistant Quarter Master^GeBeral 






s>5 






ARO : Army Recruiting Officer 

*"^ 

ARP : Air Raid Precautions ( 

ARSA : Air Route Surveillance Administration 










ASC : Army Service Corps 

* 

ASDF : Air Se^f-Defence Force 









ASI : Air Speed Indicator 
A&R ^ Air-Sea Rescuer 

; Anti- Submarine Rocket Mis s ile 







ASRL : Anti-submarine Rocket Launchers 





ASW : Anti-Submarine Warfare 




ASWACS : Aerospace Surveillance Warning And Con 
trol 











AVC : Army Veterinary Corps 
AVM : Air Vice Marshal (<iao5 S_S 
AVSM : Athi Visbisht Seva Medal" 

(^ 5)55; tisr Sa^^") 
AWACS : Airborne Warning And Control System 








BSF : Border Security Force 
BW : Biological Warfare 
CAS : Chief of Air Staff (1)5 

CBW : Chemical and Biological 

*^ ^ 








CD : Civil Pefeice 

CJ>S ; Combined Defence Services 

s " r< f ~ i 





CG : Coast Guard (| 
CNS : Chief of Naval Staff (1)5 
CO : Conynanding officer 
OAS : Chief Of Army Staff 
; CeptraJ Ordnance Depot 








49 




: Company Sergeant Major 



gj 

: Chemical Warfare C$Sbg SPol^Y Chemical 





Weapon 

: Deputy Assistant Quartet Master entral 





PBPAS : Defence Institute of Physiology 
Sciences 






: Defence of lidia Rules 





: Dedicated Missile Carrier 






: Director of Military IntelTigen.ee 
(3 BS5 SoSfeS aotofiBS^O 

^*^ *>-... eJ/ 

BFSA : Dtep Penetration Strike Aircraft 3 

^^^tS" Ib^f icxo5i s^S^y 

. o 

: Defence Research and Development O^gfiais- 
tion (4"?>^ &"&5\ *o<?T 

v <j tj 

WC : Defence Security Corps 
Diftiaguished Service Cross 
IgEDC : DefBOB Scientific 










BSM : Distinguished Seivke Mteial 








i>SO : Distinguished Setvfcss Ordfer 










Abbrevtatlojn 50 






FAA ; Fleet Air Arm 

FDTHL : Flight an4 Duty Time Limitations 







Field Marshal (|><f 
FO : Flying Officer 

r < ~ 

66 : General Command (&$& 
OCA ; Ground Controlled Approach 



r* 

* ' < 3' 








GCH : General Court Martial s^Se? *5 
GHQ : General Head Quarters 

GM : Guided MissQe (7^3S 

\t_ 4 _ 

GOC : Gentral' Office Coainiaja^iBf . . - lf i . t 

"' J ' "" 







it' 



GSO : Gewrat Staff Officer (seJSS^" SHE 

tv tV - * **^B 

HAA : B^vy Anti^Airaaft (IrS) 
HAL : Hindustan Aeronautics Limited 





HARM : Highspeed Anti Radiatiop Missite 





.j 



HERO : Hezard of Electromagnetic Radiati6n:f^Byp 





HQ : Head Quarters (~2p<f 

IA : Indian Army 

IAF : Indian Air Fore* 

IAMC : Indian Army Medical Corps 









ICBM : Inter- Continental Ballistic Missilt 

w 






rifttloM 51 

_ 

JDSA : Institute of Defence Serices and Analysis 








IMA : Indian Militaiy Academy 






IN : Indian Navy 

'..Indian National Army (&>&<&$ 
1 Intermediate range Nuclear Force 
fc&^So^ ^off ^i^ce^S ^5^) 
JNS : Indian Navy Ship (go&c 1!> SxS) 
IPKF : Indian Peace Keeping Force 






IRBM : Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile 





ITBF t Jndo-Tibetan Border Police 




JCO : Junior Comiiiiioned 




JOG : Joint Operation Command 








KIA : Killed In Action ( a c&|S) 
JAC : Line of Actual Control 







Landing Craft 

LCA : Lljtt Combat Aircraft (8* 
t : Life Guard (3 n*) 

"^^ "" ^ Q^MV ** 

LMG : LigM Machine Gun (8 
^niiing Zone 
: Military Armistic Commissiom 






I , I*- * I ' . 

At&reriations 52 ^o^s^tf J5 

0^ . .^ ^- ^B 

MAD : Mutual Assured Distruction 







MBFR : Mutual Balance Force Reduction 






MC : Military Cross (o&>6 
MCC : Missile Control Centre 
MCF : Master Control Facility(&*o$& 
MES : Military Engineering Service 








MGO : Master General of Ordnance 






MI : Military Intelligence 
JfflA : Missing In Action 
MIRTV r Multiple Independently Re- ntry Targetable 
Vehicle 






co 




MTTS : Military Intelligence Training Sclu 







: Multi-LattralNuclear) Forct 







HM : Military Med 

MP : Military Police 

___ 

HPS : Missing Persons 












MRBM : Medium Rangje Bsffistic 







WTB : Motor Torpedo Boat 

HTC : MaM Vir Chafaa 

&J&G : Natioiua Air Guard (t&$ 3o$>5 n5) 






8] Abbreviations 53 _& 

NAIC : Naval Armament Inspection Cadre 






NCO : Non-Commissioned Officer 



NDA : National Defence Academy 






NSG : National Security Guards 






OG : Officer Commanding 
OTS : Officer's Training School 






POK : Pakistani Occupied Kashmir 




POW : Prisoner Of War 

PVC : Param Vir Chakra (S3tf& 1)5 

PVSM : Param Vishisht Seva Medal 




QFD ; Quick Function Deployment 




NDF : National Defence Fund (t&$& d"3>S^ $5o<f ) 
NRA : National Reconstruction Army 





QMG : Quarter Master General ("S^tfS 
RADAR : Radio Detecting And Ranging 







RIMC : Rastriya Indian Military College 






: Resident Naval Officer 
ROBERT : Rocket Borne Emergency Radio Transmitter 




Q fj 




Abbreviations 



RTA : Railway Territorial Army 




SAA : Small Arms Ammunition 





SAC : Strategic Air Command 
SAM : Surface -to- Air Missile 
SHO : Station House Officer ( 
SLAR : Side-Looking Airborne Radar 



SLBM : Sea-Launch Ballistic Missile 



a3e)S3i" oto"o)cS"V Submarine Launch Balli 

ea ' 

stic Missile 




_ 

SLCM : Sea Launched Cruise Missile 



SNAR : Sound Navigation And Ranging 






SP : Shore Patrol (S?5 

SRAM : Short Range Attack Missile 
(&5 "Sol" ^iSj^l" o^"S^") 

SSAB : Soldiers, Sailors and Airmen's Board 






SSM : Surface to Surface Missile 

S to 
STF : Special Task Force 

TA : Territorial Army 
TB : Torpedo Boat 

IBD : Torpedo Boat Destroyer 
IBM : Tactical Ballistic Missile 











Abbreviations 55 



TIAM : Tactical Land Attack Missiles (Tomahawks) 





TVM : Track- Via-Missile 

ULMS : Undersea Long-range Missile System 



VA : Vice Admiral (3 5 

WAAC : Women's Army Auxiliary Corps 









WAAF : Women's Auxiliary Air Force 





WIA : Wounded In Action tSoS^ siS" 




WO : Warrant Officer (sptfcug' e|j{S5) t War Office 




ZRO : Zonal Recruiting Office (SfUff 8(&ffloS |)5) 
ZTC : Zonal Training Centre (S^^^ S^Sofi "^0^5) 

Educational 

Abbreviations 

AMIE : Associate Member of the Institute Of Enginee- 
ring 

(e^&c&S;!? SDoaS ssSi 3 t z&%>&x* 

V Q 

AMU : Aligarah Muslim University 



ASCI : Administrative Staff College Of India 






ATC : Authorised Training Centre 





BA : Bachelor Of Arts 

BAg. : Bachelor Of Agriculture 






Abbrviations 56 



BAMS : Bachelor Of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery 



oJ 33 




BASIC : Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction 
Code 

BCL : Bachelor of Civil Law 
B. Com : Bachelor of Commerce 






BDOS : Basic Disk Operating System 



BDS : Bachelor of Dental Surgery 




BE : Bachelor of Engineering 







SEd. : Bachelor of Eduction 

BHMS : Bacbdor of Homoeopathic Medicine and Su 

rgery (3*e>5 5q? ""Sj^cpSXi 
BHU : Banaras Hindu University 






B1M : Bachelor of Indian Medicine 





BIOS : Basic Input-Output System 



BLIS : Bachelor of Library and Information Science 

^SSe:5 elJ 3 [p6 e9O<" s^$c&' ~ 
IMS : Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery 





B Pharm : Bachelor of Pharmacy 
BPT : Bachelor of Phjsio -Therapy 






BSc : Bachelor of Science 




Abbreviations 57 




BSMS : Bachelor of Siddha Medicine and Surgery 

(SP^eS esf? 8x5 aa&g 1 e>o <f 

BTech : Bachelor of Technology 
B Tex. : Bachelor of Textiles 







BUMS : Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery 





CASE : Central Advisory Board for Education 



(3 



CAI : Computer Aided Instruction 





^ - 

CAL : Computer Aided Learning 



CASE : Computer Aided Software Engineering 







CAT : Common Aptitude Test 

CBSE : Central Board of Secondary Education 

("aojtoi 1 8*5 5 "^^0^6 
CBT : Children's Book Trust 

imter Based Training (So^p 
CLASS : Computer Literacy And Studies in Schools 

(go^g^S S&Sfe ^c5 g&S ^^ ^Zr^i) 
COBOL : Common Business Oriented Language 





CSI : Computer Society of India 



DA : Diploma in Anaesthesia {&&?> 
DAy.M : Diploma in Ayurvedic Medicine 




DBMS : Data Base Management System 




Abbreviations 58 



DCE : Diploma in Civil Engineering 






DCl : Diploma in Child Health 




DCPM : Diploma in Clinical Pathology and Microbio 
logy 



DDS : Doctor of Dental Science^ Surgery 





3 

DDV : Diploma in Dermatology and Venereology 



DEE : Diploma in Electrical Engineering 





DFP : Diploma in Family Planning 





DHA : Diploma in Hospital Administration 






DHMS : Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Sur 
gery 







D. Litt : Doctor of Literature 

DMCW : Diploma in Maternity and Child Welfare 



CO 




DME : Diploma in Mechanical Engineering 



DMRT : Diploma in Medical Radiation Therapy 



DOS : Diploma in Orthopaedic Surgery 




DPH ; Diploma in Public Health 




Abbrviations 59 



DPM : Diploma in Psyckiatric Medicine 





DPS: Delhi Public^School 

DPT : Diploma in Printing Technology 





D. Sc : Doctor of Science (s|5 5" 2 

DTCD : Diploma in Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases 




DUM : Doctor of Unani Medicine 




DVM : Doctor of Veterinary Medicine 




EMCET : Engineering, Medicine Common Entrance 

^L ^r |J H 1 *^ ^^ i-AI *W N^ *^ j 1^ pi^j |[Q * 

ESL : English as Second Language 

(go AS. cJ^ ^ "Si&oS' GPofitS) 
GATE : Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering 






GCA : Government College of Architecture 




GHMS : Graduate in Homeopathic Medicine and 
Surgery 




30(5 J5 

HRD : Human Resources and Development 




HS : High School (Ts* 

IAS : Indian Administrative Service 




IEDC : Integrated Education for Disabled Children 





Abbrviatloas 60 



IBS : Indian Engineering/Economic Service 





IPS : Indian Forest - Foreign Service 




IIS : Indian Information Service 



Q, 

IIT : Indian Institute of Technology 



IMS : Indian Medical Service 
IPS : Indian Police Service (so&oft^ *$) 
IRS : Indian Revenue Service (so&o&S" 
JEE : Joint Entrance Examination 




J1PMER : Jawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate Me 
dical Education and Research^ssoSS^S 





22 

,JNTU : Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University 






JNU : Jawaharlal Nehru University 






KG : Kinder Garten 

KNIT : Kamala Nehra Institute of Technology 



KVS : Kendriya Vid^alaya Sanghatan 





LCE : Licentiate in Civil Engineering 




LDS : Licentiate in Dental Surgery 
(3 

>0 




f] Abbreviations 



JJEE : Licentiate in Electrical Engineering 




LLB i Legum Baccalaureous [Bachelor of Laws] 





LLP :. Legum Doctors [Doctor of Laws] 






LLL : Low Level Languages 
LLM : Master of JLaws (&* 
LME : Licentiate In Mecbanic&l Engineering 




It <i> OJCOU* 
% oi 
LMS : Licentiate in MeiJicine aa& Surgery 

rsij; 

r --_. ^ ^ w ^-_- ___ -_-_-_ -1 - _^. 

(^^^ -pjfc 3 

LPH : Licentiate is Public HeaKh 





LPT Licentiate in Priatiag Teeb&ology 





MA : Master of Arts (5Sj*S5 

v ti 

MBA : Master of Easiness Administration 






63 

MBSS i BacBelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery 





E ; Master of Business Economics 



GA : Master of Computer Applications 





: Master of Commerce 
; Dbctor of Medicine 
: Master of Dental Surgery 








of Engiroering ' 





Abbreviations 




M.Ed. : Master of Education (3S3*|55 

MLIS : Master"6f Library and Information Science 





MPA : Master of Public Administration 



ro 




M.Phil : Master of Philosophy 
MS + : Master of Surgery 
M.Sc : Master of Science 
MSW : Master of Social Work 






M.Tech : Master of Technology 
M.Text : Master of Textiles 




NET : National Book Trust (asJeS e 
NEHU : North-Eastera Hill 






NEP : New Eduction Polfoy 

NVS : Navodaja Vidyalaya Samithi 





OED : Oxford EBglisfe EHoioaary 





PCMA ; Physics, Chemistry* Mati|Eiatics 
tude Test) 






PET : Physical Education Teacher 






PG ^ Post Gradaate 
PGT : Post Graduate Teacher (cS*|> 
Ph.D : Doctor of Philosophy (&S5 
PTA : Parent -Teacher Association 




Abbreviations 62 



M.Ed. : Master of Education 

MLIS : Master"of Library and Information Science 




*> 
MPA : Master of Public Administration 






M.Phil : Master of Philosophy 
MS + : Master of Surgery 
M.Sc : Master of Science 
MSW : Master of Social Work 






M.Tech : Master of Technology 
M.Text : Master of Textiles 





NBT : National Book Trust ^ajc^w^ <yj& L^S/ I 
NEBU : North-Eastern Hill University J 






NEP : New Edneftlion PolTcy 
NVS : NaYodaja Vidyalaya 




OED : Oxf orf Emgtisb 

^ 





PCMA ; Physics, Chemistry^ 
tude Test) - \ 

f B%i-*j 

PET : Physical Education Teacher 






PG 4 Post Gradaate 

POT : Post Graduate Teacher (SF5 

\ C3 

Ph.D : Doctor of Philosophy (s|6 
PTA : Parent -Teacher Association 






Abbreviations 

AI : Artificial Intelligence 

Amnesty International .1 

Air India (ckxsS. sj< 
AID : Agency for International Development 

AINEF AH India News Paper Employees Federation 

f -5 v *~ -- ' 

( S^^O&dS 11 oSj^QcG cOoJO a) 

AIR : All ladia Radio (& 

'AM : Ante Meridiem [before noon] 








AP : Andfara Pradesh (Ojtf^SlSf ), Arunachal Pradesl 

, Associated Press 



ARC : Administrative Refortos Commission 

* 







AS! : Archaeological Survey of India 

(^Sx.&PC^sSS^T ^o^ 5 sro&cJ5p') 
AWARE : Action for Welfare and AwakeBiag m 

* * 

Environment 





BC : Before Christ (&$*5f ^1 Backward Class 




, 

BIS : Bureau of Indian Standards 



EOT : Build- Operate-Transfer 
BSf : Botonical Survey of India 



BSS : Bharat Sevak Samaj (^e5^ t)oSS" 
CA < Classified Advertisement 




Abbreviations 65- 



CAD : Computer Aided Design 



CAP : Common Agricultural Policy 





CASE : Commission -on Alternative Sources of Energy 




o 



CAT : Central Administrative Tribunal 





CBDT : Central' Board of Direct Taxes 



O, 063 

CBEC : Central Board of Excise and Customs 




CBFC : Central Board of Film censors 




CBI : Central Bureau, of Investigation 



CCA- : City Compensatory Allowance 

^ 




CCC : Commodity Credit Corporation 




CDP. : Community Development Programme 




CFD : Citizens For Democracy _(feSS^ $5 
CFSI : Childrens Film Society of -India 




CGT: Central Ganga AutKority (lio^3 /ion 8 
CHT : Centre of High Technology 




oi* 



CJLD : Criminal Investigation Department 






Abbrevations " 66 



CIS : Central Information Service 




CNN : Cable New* Network (a? r>g5 
COFEPOSA : Conservation of Foreign . Exchange and 
Prevention of Smuggling Act 




woS" a}3c5 e^ S^ftoS 




CPC : Civil Procednre Code 

CPWD :* Central Public Works Department) 






Cr. PC : Criminal Procedure Code 






CRPF : Central-Reserve Police JForce 





CST : Central Sates fax (!>a{&5* ^ 
*CVC : Central Vigfiaa 






DA : Deafness Allowance &ct&3\5 aeS&Y Daily, 
Allowance (3_t> &j\} - 

; Directorate of Adfw^^g W^^isoaf PahMcity 





Mtogenumt 




Abbreviations 



ECGC : Export Credit -and GuaTMtee Corporation 



o 



EEO : Equal Employment Opportunity 




EOS : Employment Guarantee Sheme 





-EOM : End of Month 

EOU : Export Orienteij Dnit 



CD 




EPZ : Export Processing Zpne 




ESI : Employees Stgte lnsB3rai3!ce 






EW : East West (ffi "S5> 

V . JBD , f.83/ 

FCFS : First ' 

FIR r First 
FPS : Fak ^ 

K 



' * 



B Stepor' 

> i * * - x 

' 




^ * 



t i. 



Vv 



^ 



OFF : Gandhi 




GSI : Geological Survey 



Gf A : Gift Tax Act 

> 

HC : High Covirt 

BRA : House Rent Alloiasafi^ f J 




Abbreviations 



HYV : High Yielding Varieties (j- OSPO^ SB 

^ Q c_ 

I&B : Information and Broad casting 




IANS ; India Abroad News Service 



1C : Jdentity Card 

IDA : Industrial Disputes Actr 




1ENS : Indian and Eastern Newspaper's Society 





_ 

IFFI :- International Film Festival of India 






IGNOU ; Indira Gandhi National Open Unversity 




IITF : Indira International Trade fair 




IMFL : Indian Made Foriegn Liqaor 




: Indir_a Mahila Yojna ( 

V 

INS ; Indian Newspapers Society 





INTACH : Inifea National Tn^t Ibr Art and Cultural 
Heritage 




o 

IPC : Indian Peaal Code 





IPR : InteHectnal Property Rigbts 







18. : Ifitersal Revenue 

: Indian Standards Institution 

t"*lb a^i^gas) : 




10] Abbreviations 



ITD : Income Tax Department 





CO 

JTN : Independent Television News 








J&K : Jammu and Kashmir 

JANAM : JAna NAtya Manch (22^ 

JRY : Jawahar Rozgar Yojana 

KAVAL : Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Agra and Lu 

cknow (^^&p^5, esoS^gyS, 
KVK : Krishi Vignan Kendra 
LTC : Leave Travel Concession 
MC : Municipal Committee 
MICR : Magnetic Ink Character Reader 

(&7\}<B!T aol" s^j-SSS 6^5) 

\ oi & ?3 f 

MISA : Maintenance of iBtersal Secnrity Act 









MODVAT : Modified Yaloe Added Tax 




N : North 

NABP : National Adult Education Programme 








NCC : National Cadet Corps 
NE : North-East (sr 
NFS : Not For Sale 
[NOG : No Objection Certificate (^ 
NP : Notary Public (5*&)& S3^l") 
NPE : National Policy on Education 







NRI : Non-Resident Indian 
NS : North-South 








Abbreviations 70 

NSA : National Security Act 

NSS : National Service Scheme 

NW : North- West (^_-S|) 

OBC : Other Backward Classes (&5 3gF 

OGL : Open General Licence (LlaS" stf e5" 3 

OK : Orl Korrect [All correct, all right] * 













OT : Old Testment (Lj> S|3Do), Operation Theatre 

(OS33&S* 6&&5), Over Time (uS5 S S>) 
PC : Personal Computer (o5tf^ r 
PCR : Police Control Room (gS*l)S 
PDA : Preventive Detention Act 




PDS : Public Distribution System 

(SSSr a&^axpgSiS' SfaSo) 
PG : Paying Guest ("&o^o^R|) 
PIB : Press Information Bureau 





PM : Post Meridiem [after midday] 





PR : Public Relations(3>r 
PS : Post Script (g^H S^ 
PSC : Public Service Commission 
PT : Part Time (r>5 S &) 
PTI : Press Trust of India ( 
PTO : Please Turn Over (jbi" 
PUC : Paper Under Consideration 







PWD : Public Works Department 




Abbreviations 71 





Q : Queue 

QC : Quality Control 

R : Registered 

RAW : Research and Analysis Wing 




RC : Red Cross (c3T 

RCC : Re inforced Cement Concrete 

(8 aS'SFS^yf aSbO^f 3OL<") 

RNI : Registered Newspaper of India 




RSVP : Raspondez Sil Voes Pfek [Flease Reply] 




RSWC : Right Side tip Wit* Care 





S : South 

SAP : Structural Adjustment Facility 





SC : Sheduled Caste (lx&p<5" i|), Supreme Court 



SDR : Special Drawing Rights 

SE : South-East lri"-^s), Stock Exchange 





SEPUR : Self-Employment Programme for the Urban 

Poor (~^5^-opd5)3&og) |JX*|JT'> ^ ^ ^8^SSp 
SGPC : Shiromaui Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee 





SHAR : SHriharikota Range 
SIT : Special Investigation Team 




Abbreviations 72 



SITA : Supression of Immoral Traffic [in Women a 
girls] Act (sJ 





SKP : Sahitya Kala Parishad 

SLP : Special Leave Petition ("^eS" t> 

\ <\> 

SOS : Save Our Souls ("& 

SS : Social Security <&&& 

ST : Sales Tax "fed"- fc Sheduled Tribe 





SW : South- West 
TAD A : Terrorist And Disruptive Activities [Prevei 
tion] Act 



63 




TERLS : Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Statioi 





TN : Tamil Nadu 

TRIP : Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 






TTD : Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam 




UNI : United News of India(d&>p SS" 
UP : Uttar Pradesh 




VSSC : Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre 



"Sr^S 




WB : West Bengal (S5 

WPB : West Paper Basket (35 " 

WVS : Women's Voluntary Service 





YB : Year Book 




Abbreviations 73 



YMCA : Young Men's Christian Association 



YOB : Year of Birth (ad&5 

YWCA : Young Women's Christian Association 






Official Abbreviations 

ACP : Assistant Commissioner of Police 




ADC : Aide-de-Camp 

ADM : Additional District Magistrate 




AFA : Assistant Financial Adviser 



CD 





AG : Accountant General (5oSo^ 
Attorney Geseral (&&*&\ s^tf^") 

\ CH 

AGCR : Accountant General of Central Revenues 




AISL ; All India Service Liability 




OJ 

AMO : Administrative Medical Officer 



ASG : Additional Solicitor General 



ASI : Assistant Sub- Inspector 

ASP : Assistant Superintendent of Police 





EDO : Block Development Officer 

(3*1" SSSoSSDO^ ^^^5) 
\ M / 

BO : Bran-h Office (^sro-S 



Abbreviations 74 




EOF : Biginning of File 

BP : BiUs Payable(adT^ "l>ci&2X><),Blue Print 

CA : Chief Accountant (5 goSod") t Chartered 

Accountant (ST'tfS ^S'oSodT) 
GAG : Comptroller and Auditor General 




CC : Chief Commissioner (&5 ^ 

CC1E : Chief Controller of Imports and Exports 





CDMO : Chief District Medical Officer 




CE : Chief Engineer (1)5 

CEC : Chief Election Commissioner 





CEO : Chief Educational Officer 
oJ5) f Chief Electoral Officer 

COM : Chief General Manager 
CGO : Central Government Office 







DC > Deputy Commissioner 




CJ : Chief Justice (1)5 

CL : Casual Leave 

CM : Chief Minister (5 

CMO : Chief Medical Officer (&5 
CR : Confidential Report 

r 

CTO : Chief Technical Officer (&5 Sjg<" 
Commercial Tax Offficer (gSbScSSt 

CVC : Chief Vigilance Commissioner 




Abbreviations 





DG : Director General 

DGCA : Director General of Civil Aviation 



GO 




DGMS : Director General of Mines Safety 



DGP : Director General of Police 

(3 325 a^tfe? & a^&S) 

\ - _ eo ' 

DIG : Deputy Inspector General 




DJ : District Judge (S|^f asf) 

DM : District Majistrate (*^f S^Jj^). Divisional 

Manager (^^)2^e5" &^as5) 
DMET : Directorate of Marine Engineering Training 

(3 3g"3^ e^ 3^3 S" ao^t>5o^ SSo^) 

Vo D ^ ' 

DPI : Director of Public Instructions 

(3 3|5 o5 SSgi" aS" JSS^) 
DRI : Directorate of Revenue Intelligence 



^ 

DSP : Deputy Superintendent of Police 




EL : Earned Leave 

EO : Executive Officer 

EOF : End of File 

FRRO : Foreigners Regional Registration Officer 




GAO : General Accounting Officer 



GM : General Manager 
GO : Government Order 

HO : Head Office 





Abbreviations 



76 






IG : Inspector General 
ITI : Income Tax Inspector 
ITO : Income Tax Officer 
LDC : Lower Division Clerk 
MC : Municipal Commissioner 
MO : Medical Officer (3*&Z& 
MPP : Mandal Praja Parishad 
MRO : Mandal Revenue Officer 







NGO : Non-Gazetted Officer 
O-in-O : Officer-in-cliarge 
OO : Office Order (&5 

P&A : Pay& Accounts ("t: 

and Administration ( 
PA : Personal Assistant 

Attorney 

PIO : Principal Information Officer 








PM : Prime Minister 

PMO : Principal Medical Officer 





PP : Public Prosecutor 

PRO : Public Relations Officer 

PS : Personal/ Private Secretary 






RD : Regional Director 
Refer to Drawer ($$5 

RDO : Revenue Divisional Officer 











, Personnel 




, Power of 





11] Abbreviations 7? 



RO : Recruiting Officer (Q\$3*&ofi 

RPFC : Regional Provident Fund Commissioner 




RPO : Regional Pasport Officer 



RTO : Regional Transport Officer 




SD : Special Duty 

SDO : Sub-Divisional officer ($-&&$ 

SG : Security Guard (!b&<>5^ n5), Solicitoj General 

" 





SI : Sub-Inspector 

SL : Sick/Special Leave (&f/Tb^&ST I)S) 

SO^: Sect ion/ Special Officer 

SPO : Special Police officer (l^&e" 3|)5 

SRO : Statutory Rules and Orders 









TA : Technical/Traffic Ai^sistant 
^SijDO^"), Travelling Allrwance ( 

TD : Treasury Department 

UDC : Upper Division Ck -k 

VIP : Very Important Pers >n (SS aogpBD<S" 

VVIP : Very Very Important Person 

(36 36 aopBo" SS^S. 

Political Abbreviations 

AAGSP : All Assam Gana Sangram Parishad 






AASU : All Assam Studer ;s Union 




Abbreviations 78 



ABSU : All Bodo Students Union 





ADMK : Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 




AGP: Asom Gana Parishad (SP^&J tfes 

AIADMK : All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazha 




AIGC : All India Congress Committee 




AIMC : All India Mahila Congress 





AISSF : All India Sikh Students Federation 




AITUC : All India Trade Union Congress 





AMFC : Anti-Mandal Commission Forum 

(d^pofi &>oef gaySSiS' ^CSS)) 
APSU : All Party Students Unity 





BAG : Business Advisory Committee 




BJP : Bharatiya Janatha Party 
BKU : Bharatiya Kisan Union 
BMAC : Babri Masjid Action Committee 
(SF|> SSafcfi SiSS S^) 

BMS : Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh 
BSP : Bahujan Samajwadi Party 







CCPA : Cabinet Committee on Political Affairs 




Abbreviations 79 



CDU : Christian Democratic Union 






CITU : Centre of Indian Trade Unions 




CPB : Central Parliamentary Board 








CPI : Communist Party of India 



pg> r s?oc:p 
CPI (M) : Communist Party of India (Marxist) 








CWC : Congress Working Committee 





DCC : District Congress Committee 




DK Dravida Kazhagam 
DMK : Dravida Munnetra 







DYFI : Democratic Youtt Federation of India 




GHC : Gorkha Hill Council (f^u* 

GNLF : Gorkha National Liberation Front 






HMS : Hind Mazdoor Sabha (S^oS &isr*6 
IPF : Indian Peopled Front (goic^^ 
IUML : Indian Union Muslim League 







IYC : Indian Youth Congress 




JAF : Joint Action Front 
JD : Janatha Dal 





Abbreviations 80 



JKLF : Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front 





JKSLF : Jammu&Kashmir Students Liberation Front 





JMM : Jharkhand Mukthi Morcha 



JP : Janatha Party (gcSs^S), Jathiya Party 

^pS), JiyaPrakash Narayan (asdtfi^o 
JPC : Joint Parliamentary Committee 





JVM : Janatha Vidyarthi Morcha (aj^s o)t3g5 
JVP : Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna 







LD : Lok Dal 

LDF; Left Democratic froat (35 

MOP : Maharasthrawadi Gomanthak Party 




MLA : Member of Legislative Assembly 




CO 



MLC : Member of Legislative Council 






MNF : Mizo National Front 

MP : Member of Parliament 

NF : National Front 

NFTU ; National Front of Trade Unions 








NSF : Naga Students Federation 




NSUI : National Students Union of India 





Abbreviations 81 



PCC : Pradesh Congress Committee 




PDF : Progressive Democratic Front 





PSP : Praja Socialist Party 

PUCL : People's Union for Civil Libertes 






PUDR : People's Union for Democratic Rights 





PWG : People's War Group ($(535*5 
RMM : Rashtriya Mukthi Morcha 
(cnlx^dSS S&j S 3prp^ 

> S3 ^ fl . tJ/ 

RSP : Revolutionary Socialist Party 







RSS : Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh 






SP : Socialist Party 

SSP : Samyuktha Socialist Party (SoQd&> J? 
TDP : Telugu Desam Party 
UAD : United Akali Dal ( 

Q_ 

UDF : United Democratic Front 




UU?A : Urited Liberation Front of Assam 







VHP iswa Hinda Parishad 
YC : Youth Congress (c&S 

Postal and Telegraphic 
Abbreviations 

BP ; Book-Post 




Abbreviations 82 



BPM : Branch Post Master (\pcS 

BTEM : Bharathiya Telecom Employess Federation 








CTMX : Computerised Trunk Manual Exchange 





CTO : Central Telegraph Office 



DEL : Direct Exchange Lines (jj 

DLO : Dead Letter Office ( 

DOT : Department of Telecommunications 






FNTO : Federation of National Telecom Organisations 




GPO : General Post Office (stftf SS*S 

IIMC : Indian Institute of Mass Communications 





INPEX : Indian National Philatelic Exihibition 





IPO : Indian Postal Order 

ITI : Indian Telephone Industry 






M.O : Mail Order SJCOD S, Money Order 







MT: Mail Transfer 

MTNL : Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited 




NSC : National Savings Certificate 




OCS : Overseas Communication Service 





Abbreviations 83 



OIGS : On Indian Government Serice 





P&T : Post and Telegraph (S*| e0o< 
PB : Post Box (&* gyS^), Post Bag 
PBX : Private Branch Exchange 






PC: Post Card (%* 

PCO : Public Call Office (SfiC 3eS" 

PIN : Postal Index Number 

PM : Post Master 






3 

PMG : Post Master General (S*S 

PO : Post Office ^ sstS, Postal Order 






POSB : Post Office Savings Bank 




PP : Postal Parcel sPd* ^6, Particular Person 





PPF : Public Provident Fund 

PPP : Pre-Paid Post (^ 

QMS : Quick Mail Service (S^F 



RD : Record Delivery (Qir5 3>^S6) f Recurring Depo 

sit (ssaofi &^^) 

RLO : Returned Letter Office (d&ti 3<b5 
RP : Rtply Paid (5^ 

RPO : Railway Pos 

SA.E : Self Addressed Envelope 

SASE : Self Addressed Stamped Envelope 







SD ; Special Delivery 




Abbreviations 84 







SP : Speed Post (fc^S" 

SS ; Service Stamps ($S& 

STD : Subscriber's Trunk Dialing 

(&S ^t^&S^ L&oi" tfcffifiofi) 
TAX : Trunk Automatic Exchange 



cJ V 

TCIL : Tele communications Consultants India Limited 



TELEX : TELprinter Exchange (&)\&>oto5 
TEMA : Telecom Equipment Manufacturers Associa- 
tion (Se)B*& ^^SSDO(S" 5SrSj 

TMO : Telegraphic Money Order 






UPC : Under Postal Certificate (o5 
VPBP : Value Payable Book-Pest 

axsl" 




VPL : Value Payable Letter 
VPP : Value Payable Post ( 
WT : Wireless Telegraphy (3f 









Abb Deviations 

ACC : Air Conditioned Coach (oiox>5 




AIRF : All India Railwaymen't Federation 




ASM : Assistant StationMaster 

N eo 

BG : Broad Guage ((jrS" 7^1") 

CR : Central Railway (Hjoj&d B 

CRIS : Centre for Railway Inf *rmation Systems 

(1bo<b5 $5 





ER : Eastern Railway (-^s S5^ I 



12] Abbreviations 85 





F : Female 

FC : First Class 

FP : Free Pass (|jb 

G.T. Ex. : Grand Trunk Express.(|jroc? ^ol" 

GTR : Gross Traffic Receipts ( " 

ICF : Integrated Coach Factory 

' So 

IMPRES: IntegratedMulti Passenger Reservation System 






INRWF : Indian National Railway Workers Federation 






IR : Indian Railways 

IRAS : Indian Railway Accounts Service 




IRCON : Indian Railway CONstruction Company 

(godciSo^ B ^ g ^^ ^ Soli?)) 
IRISET : Indian Railwa;/ Institution of Signal Engine- 

ering and Telecommui ications 








IRSS : Indian Railway "Jtore Service 





IRT : Institute of Rail ' "ransport 





IRTS : Indian Railway "raffic Service 





LB : Lower Berth (<5*c 5 
M : Male (Sa*?) 

MB : Middle Berth (&>t g 
MG : Metre Guage (to b5 

NCCRS : National Cooi iidation Committee for Rail- 




Abbreviations , 86 



way men's Struggle 






NER : North Eastern Railway (5 J5 

NFIR : National Federation of Indian Railwaymen 





NFR : North-east Frostier Railway 





_ - 

NG : Narrow Guage (c3" ns 

NPG : Non- Perishable Goods 

NR : Northern (spg^ 

PG : Perishable Goods 

POW : Palace Oa Wheels 

PT ; Platform Ticket 

R&R : Rest and Recreation (35 

RAC : Reservation Against Cancellation 













RC : Reservation Counter 

RCF : Railway Coach Factory 

RITES : Rail India Technical and Economic Services 

(Bd" sjo&o^ SS^g^" 9oS" 

\Q C^ 

RMS : Railway Mail Service 

RP : Railway Police _ 

RPF : Railway Protection Force 

RR : Railway Reciept 

RRB : Railway Recruitment Board 







RRT : Rail-cum-Road Ticket (Bd 
RS : Railway Station 
RT : Return Ticket 

RTA ; Railway Territorial Army (3 

* * \ e 







Abbreviations 






RTO : Railway Transport 
RTT : Railway Time Table 

SC : Second Class (^o<f 

_ 

SCR : South Central Railway (& 1bo>* ]B3j) 
SCRA : Special Class Railway Apprentice 






SCS : Special Checking Squad 
SER : South Eastern Railway 
SM : Station Master : 
SR : Southern Railway 
SST : Self Service Trolley 
TC : Ticket Collector (fflliS" 
TTE : Travelling Ticket Examiner 











UB : Upper Berth (S^5 3:) 
UR : Un- Reserved (&$ 
VT : Victoria Terminus 
WL : Waiting List 
WR : Western Railway (30S" 
WT : Without Ticket (S)^ 9 

Scientific and Techno- 
logical Abbreviations 

AC : Alternating Current 

Air Conditioner 
ACL : Academy of Computer Learning 






ADP : Automatic Data Processing 



At)PRl : Advanced Data Processm| Research Institute 




Abbreviations 88 



AE : Automatic Exposure 

AEC : Atomic Energy Commission 






AF : Audio Frequency 

AIDS : Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 







AIIMS : All India Institute of Medical Sciences 




ALS : Anti Lymphocyte Serum 





AM : Amplitude Module 

AMD : Age-related Macular Degeneration 








AMT : Audio Magnetic Tape 

AMU : Atomic Mass Unit 

APPLE : Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment 





ASLV Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle 




ASR : Airport Surveillance Radar 





ATE : Automatic Test Equipment 





ATS : Anti-Tetanus Serum (d&oa-S&r*cS5 
AVC : Automatic Volume Control 






BARC : Bhabha Atomic Research Centre 



BCG : Bacillus Calmette Guerin 




Abbreviations 89 




BP : Boiling Point (s 

Blood Pressure (<o< "^s S) 
BRM : Biological Response Modifier 






BVO ; Brominated Vegetable Oil 







C : Centigrade ("aoSiS), Carbon 
CBN : Cubic Baran Nitrite (&*^ af e 
CC : Carbon Copy (^tf^S" s&) 
CCTV: Close Circuit Tele-Vision 
CD : Compact Disk (op| 
CFC : Chloro-Fluoro-Caibon 
CG : Centre of Gravity ("&o<bS 

- 

CGA : Colour Graphics Adapter (Se5 
CGD : Chronic Granulomatous Disease 










COM : Computer Output Microfilm 






CP : Candle Power (v>o&5 S3 

GPT : Colour Picture Tube ( 

CRT : Cathode Ray Tube 

CT : Computed Tomography 

CVR : Cockpit Voice Recorder (5"!" 

DAP : Di- Ammonium Pbospate(c 

DASD : Direct Access Storage Device 







_ 

DC": Direct Current (3 B| 

DDT : Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane (3 

Debu 




ggingToo(3 







Abbreviations 90 





DIM : Direct Injection Moulding 
DMA : Direct Memory Access (3_Bf[ 
DMT : Di~ Methyl Terephthalate (3^ 
DNA : Di-Oxyribo Nucleic Acid 





DOS : Disk Operating System 
DSHD : Doable Sided High Density 






DTP : Desk Top Publishing 
EB : Electron Beam (dSs*^ &5b) 
ECG : Electro Cardio Gram 
EDP : Electronic Bata Processing 






EEG : Electro Encephalo Graph 





EHF : Extremely High Frequency 







EHP : Electric Horse Power 
EHV : Extra High Voltage 

EMF : Electro Motive Force (<i*;) 

EWG ; Electro Myo Gram 

EMI : Electro-Magnetic Interface 





DFDR : Digital Flight Data Recorder 











EMU : Electric Multiple Unttf^SS^i" && 

ERTS i Earth Resources Telecommunication Satellite 




Abbreviations 91 

ESCES : Experimental Satellite Communication Earth 
Station 




ESP : Extra Sensory Power 

ESV : Earth Satellite Vehicle (3_5 

ET : Extra Terrestrial (^ 

> W 

EVM : Electronic Voting Machine 

















EVR : Electro Video Recording 
F : Farenheit 
FAX : Facsimile 

FBR : Fast Breeder Reactor (gp 
FCCU : Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit 

(^ottd" iSj>Sffll' 

FDR : Flight Data Recorder 

FM : Frequency Modulation ( 

GMW: Gram Moleculai Wcight(Lr^&3j3Sbje>5 

GSV : Guided Space Vehicle 

H : 

HPPE : High Density ] J olythelene ( 

HF : High Frequency (^ 1&% 

HGH : Human Growth Hormone 










HIV : Human Immunotteficien'cy Virus 






HPT : High Power Transmitter Qi* S 
HSD : High Speed Diesel (Ir* 

HT : High Tendon 
HV : High Voltage 





Abbreviations 92 





I : Iodine 

1C : Integrated Circuit 

INSAT : Indian National SATellite 






ITV : Indepen dent Tele- Vision 
ISC : Indian Science Congress 
IUCD : Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Device 









K : Kalium (Potassium) 

KB : Kilobyte 
KHz : Kilohertz 

KV : Kilo Volt (* 
LAB : Linear Alfcyl Benzene. (e)SoS55 
LASER : Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission 
of Radiation 








LCD : Liquid Crystal Disph y (SS^ff [_ge" 45 
LF ; Low Frequency 

LM : Lunar Module 

MOSFET : Metal Oxide Sili on Field Effect Trans- 

sistor (S^ibeJ ejjfi" ^S5c f 
MOX : Mixed OxTde Fuel (, 

MP : Melting Point (ag ofi 
MS : Multiple Sclerosis (&l 
MSDOS : Micro-Soft Disk ( perating System 









N : Nitrogen 

NDPS : Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 





13] Abbreviations 93 



NMR : Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 






NPB : Nuclear Power Board (&*g c& SoS5 



NPC : Nuclear Power Corporation 




NPCL : Nuclear Power Corporation Limited 










: Oxygen 

P : Phosphorus 

PB : Power Brakes (SSS5 

PBS : Public Broadcasting System 





: Printed Circuit Boards ((S>oSf 
PCP : Penta Chloro Phynol 
PLF : Plant Load Factor 
PLSS : Portable Life Si pport System 










PSLV : Polar Satellite : .aunch Vehicle 






PTA : Purified Terepht ralic Acid 

(52PgQ"^^ B^e)!" cJ 
PVC r^Poly Vin^l Chlo ide 
PVT :' Pressure, Volume, Temperature 







RBC : Red Blood Cells (Bff 

RBE : Relative Biological Effectiveness 




RDF : Radio Direction Finder (S&Sp 2.3SS" 



RF : Radio Frequency \ 
RNA, : Ribo-Nucleic A^id 






Abbreviations 94 







RT : Radio-Telephone (3<S3j- SSSs 6 ^), Room Tem- 

perature 
S : Sulphur 

SCP : Single Cell Protein (fcofleJ *%> 
SDA: Scientific Dynamic Action(1bo<S$)rs c$Sfci"d$r 
SF : Science Fiction 
SG : Specific Gravity 
SLAR : Side-Looking Airborne Radar 





SLV : Satillite Launch Vehicle 
SMD : Senile Macular Degeneration 





SMV : Slow Moving Vehicle 

SNG ; Synthetic Natural Gas 

SP : Self Propelled (1b^ 

SPOT : SateUite Positioning and Tracking 





SROSS : Stretched Rohini Satellite Series 

Q^-S SNIPES ras^^" >&S) 

SSDD : Single Sided Double Dtasity 
(S>oA5" ^M efco^" SS^A) 

STARS : Satellite tra*ktaf And Rtntmg Station 

(7*aS jd35o^ aff ^0583^ J^) 
STEP : Satellitt Telecommunication Experiment Pro 

ject (T^SS <" aes2^a'So5iS' Jir 

STP : Standard Temperature and Pressure 

i, _ 




STQ : Standards, Testing and Quality 

^^ * ** 




Abbreviations 95 



SVP : Saturated Vapour Pressure 




SW : Short Wave (&?5 35) 
TON : Total Digestible Nutrients 





THl : Temperature Humidity Index 




TM : Transcedental Meditation 
TNT : Tri Nitro Toluene (B) ^ 






TRACT : Transportable Remote Area Communications 
Terminal 







TU : Transmission Unit 

T.V : Tele Vision (S*>aasS>), ^Teonhai Velocity 





U : Uranium 

UFO : Unidentified Flying 





UHF : Ultra High Frequency 
UNIVAC ; UNIVersal 






UV : Ultraviolet 

UVEPROM": Ultra Viotet tfgU Bcfst^to Programm 
able Read Only Memoryf @e7*^oSS^3^5" S 

/ ^ \ / tu 

(S^iT^oSaaxi" 65 ife 
VA : Visual Aid 
VCP : Video Cassette Player 
VCR : Video Cassette Recorder (&Sr> "S"&ff 
VD ; Vapour Density 









Abbreviations 96 Sof 







VHP : Very High Frequency (3& "Sr 
VI : Volume Indicator 
VOM : Volt Ohm Meter 

VSF : Viscose Staple Fibre 
VT : Vacum Tube (oP&p^S 
VTR : Video Tape Recorder (t)<5o3j* 3S 

VU : Volume Unit (sro 
W : Wolfram (Tungsten) 

WBC : White Blood Cells (3^ off ^ 
WH : Watt-Hour 
WL : Wave length 

ZETA : Zero Energy Thermonuclear Assembly 











63 



Sports Abbreviations 

AAA : Amateur Athletic Association 





CO 

AAFI : Amateur Athletic Federation of India 




AAI : Archery Association of India 





ABA : Amateur Boxing Association 




AFA : Amateur Football Association 




AFC : Asian Football Confederation 




AIBA : Amateur International Boxing Association 





Abbreviations 97 



AICS : All India Council of. Sports 






ATLTA : All India Lawn Tennis Association 





AIWHA : All India Women Hockey Association 





ATP : Association of Tennis Professionals 




BAI : Badminton Association of India 




BCCI : Board of Control for Cricket in India 





GBPS : Cricketers Benefit Fund Series 




CZ : Central Zone 

DLTA : Delhi Lawn Tennis Association 




EP : Extended Play 

J 

EZ : East Zone 







FA : Foot ball Association 
FiFA : Federation of International Football Associa 
tions 



IAAF : International Amateur Athletic Federation 









IABA : International Amateur Boxing Association 






IFA : Indian Football Association 





Abbreviations 98 Xot&gJS 



IHF : Indian Hockey Federation(aoad&5' JS*| 
IMF : Indian Mountaineering Federation 






IDA : Indian Olympic Association 





IOC: Indian Olympic Committee(sio<Sc&^ 
LTA : Lawn Tennis Association (ej*^ 23S)S 
NBA : National Basketball Association^ &&<5" 

, National Boxing Association 








NIS : National Institute of Sports 






NLTA : National Lawn Tennis Association 





NSCI : National Sports club of India 







NSO : National Sports Organisation 






NZ : North Zone 

SAI : Sports Autliority of Indig 








SNIPES : Society of National Institute for Physical 

Education and Sports 

$5 % ittg^aS woff 
SZ : South Zone (&** 
TT : Table Tennis 
WZ : West Zone (35 







Abbreviations 













ANNEXURE - 1 
ABBREVIATIONS IN SMALL LETTERS 

General Abbreviations 

abbr. : abbreviation 

abdom. : abdomen (^fifo&S), abdominal 

abr. abridged f^ip&S"), abridgement 

abs. : absolute (oe^opj^), abstract 

acfc. : acknowledgement 

actg. : acting 

Ad. : Advertisement 

Add. ; Address 

addn. : addition 

addnl. : additional (&&&) 

adm. : administration 

advt, : advertisement 

aero. : aeronautics 

aff. : affix (*>$> 

afft. * affidavit 

aft. : afternoon 

agr. : agriculture 

agt. : agent 

alt. : altern... x 

anat. : anatomy 

Ans. : Answer ( 

appl. : appibati'oda 

apt. : apartment ^^5S>6^ aptitude 

arith. : arithmetic 

assn. : association 

asst. : assistant 

astron. : astronomy 




















Abbreviations 100 








atm. : atmosphere 

attn. : attention 

aud. ; audit 

Aug. : August 

auto. : automatic 

avg. : average ( 

b&w. : block and white (3*1* &o 3 

\ro a 

baL : balance 

Bib. : Bible (|U>5") 

bldg. : building 

bot. : botanical 

brl. : barrel (233e5") 

bros. : brothers 

c&b, : caught and bowled (Cricket Term) [sd" 











c/o. : care of 
cal* : calender 
calco: calculate 

Q 

caps.^: capitals 

capt. : captain 

cert.' : certificate 

ch, : chapter (^fS), chur ;h 

chem. : chemical (lo^^^) chemistry 

chr. : Character (itfSS) 

cifc. : Cost, insurance, frie| bt- and Commissiom 










elk. : Clerk 

co . : Company 

ool. : colour (e), columr 

conti : continued 






14] Abbreviations 101 













Cpl. : Corporal 

Cum. : Cumulative 

D/o. : Daughter of 

deb. : debenture 

Dec. : December 

def. : definition 

del. : delete (ASdS"), delegate 

demo. : demonstration : 

dep. : departure 

dept. : department 

diet. : dictionary 

dip. : deploma 

dir. : director (a"5|5), directory (3_B|6) 

disc. : discount (S 

disco. : discotheque 

dist. : distance (&"&S\\ district (5S>^"), distbgnished 

> eo *J/ 7 > o/e>/ 










div.: dividend 








dn. : 

do. : ditto 
doc. : document 
dol. : dollar 
doz. : dozen 
Dr. : Doctor 

dup. : duplicate 

edu : education 

eff. : efficiency 

eg, : exempli gratia (for example) [$5 

elem. : elementary 

elev. : elevation 









Abbreviations 



102 






emp. : emperor 
Encl. : Enclosure 
Eng. : English 
eng. : engine 
env. : envelope 
equip : equipment 
esp. ; especially 
Esq. : Esquire : 
estd* : estimated 
etc- : etcetera 
ext. : external 

extention 
fath. : fathom 
flc. : foolscap 
Feb. : February 
fem, : female 
fict. : fiction : 
fig. : figure 
fin- : finance : 
fn. : foot note : 
fr : franc 

freq. : frequency 
fri. : Friday ( 
fwd. : forward. 
gar- : garage 

gaz. : gazette 

gen. : general 
geog. : geography 
gr. : grade 

















established 



exterior 








feminine 













gross 
hab. Carp. : habeas Corpus 



Abbreviations 103 
















h/o. : bouse of 

Hon. : Honorary : 8d, Honorable 

Hr. : Hour 

hrs. : hours 

i/c : incharge 

ibid : ibidem (in the same place), [gD3& (g at>& 

J5)] 

ie. : id est (that is) 
Inc. : Incorporated 
incl. : included 
Int. : Interest 
ital. : italics 
Jan, : January 

git. : just in time (sS sjS" S^ 
Jr, : Junior 
Jiu- : July 
Jun. : June 

ang. : language 
Ibw. : leg before wicket 
Ic. : lower case (<5*c&5 
Idg. : landing (epoSo^) 
leg. : legal (Stfd"), legislative 
lib. : library (S^S, Liberal 
ling. : linguistic 

lith. : lithography 
litt. : literature 
ltd. : limited 
lub. : lubricant 
mag. : magnitude SDft 
mar. ; March 


















Abbreviations 104 





maths. : mathematics 

matric : matriculation 

max. : maximum 

mbd. : million barrels a day 

mech. : mechanical 

med. : medium 











memo. : memorandum 

Met. : Meteorology 

metro. : metropolitan 

mfd. : manufactured 

mgd. : million gallons per day atoScSfiS" n^esST S5 

mgr. : manager 

mgt. : management 

mid. : middle 

min. : minimum 

misc. : miscellaneous 

mktg. : marketing 














mod. : modern Scp^, modification 

Mon. : Monday 

Mr. : Mister 

Mrs. ; (atoi^S /5X>"S)) 

Ms. : Miss (x>5) f Mistress 

mss. : manuscript 

Mt. : Mountain 

naut. : nautical 

ncv. : no commercial value (JS* 

neg. : negative 
no. : number 

nom. : nomination 
Nov. : November 










Abbreviations 105 















obj : object 

Oct. : October 

off. : office 

o/o. : office of 

opp. : opposite 

opt. : optical (&?), option 

orch. : orchestra 

ord. : ordinance 

ordy. : ordinary 

org. : organisation 

pa. : per anum ( 

part. : particular 
path. : pathology 

pc. : percent 

perqs. : perquisites 

pharm.": pharmacy 

photog. : photography 

pkg. : package (pg^ ^ 

pkt. : packet 

pi. : please (J>!"), plural 

pm. : per month 

pmt. : payment 

poly. : polytechnic 

pop. : population 

pos. : positive 

pref. : prefix (ij^^, preferred 

prem. : premium 

prev. : previous 

prim. : primary 



















prin. : principal (iS)S^5j5"), principle 





Abbreviations 106 




pro tern. : pro tempore (for the time being) ($5 










prob. : problem (i^SSa), probationary 

prod : product (L^^|) production 

prof : professor (jSFlpsSS) 

prop. : property (ifpSS), proprietor 

prov. : province (\3s*&S$ 9 provislonol 

psych. : psychology (j&S' 

pt. : pandit (53o4<) point 

pub, : public (Sl"), publication 

pvt. : private (J^^) 

qty. : quality (Dd), quantity 

quar. : quarterly 

quot. : quotation 

qrts. : quarters 

r* : radius 

rad. ; radiator 

rd. : road 

rec. : record (6"5S). receipt ($) recreation 














reed. ; recieved 

rect. : rectified ; (BS"3>ff), rectangle 

ref. ; reference 

refrig, : refrigeration 
regn. : region 
Regd. : Registered 

rgt. : regimtnt 

rep. ; report (5, representative 

req. : requisition (3^Si^) 

res. : reservation GafiS, residence 









Abbreviations 107 So 







retd. : retired (653 5V returned 

\ Q -^ O / \ Q 

Rev. : Reverend (c3c$c3oS) 
rev. : revenue (33p), review 
Rly. : Railway 

rnd. : round 

rt. : right 

rtd. : refer to drawer 

S/o. : Son of 

Sat. : Saturday 

sat. : saturation 

sch. : school 

set. : scout 

Sec. : Secretary (!}[&>&), Section (*&), Second 















Sectt. : Secretariat 
Sept. : September 
sep. : seperate 
seq. : sequence 
sgd. : signed 
sign. : signature 
sin : since 

sing. : singular 

sld. : sealed 

Soc. : Society 

socl. : sociology 

Sol. Gen. : Solicitor General 

sp. : special (^a^)- spelling 









Abbreviations 108 















Sq. : Square 

Sr. : Senior 

St. : Saint 

st. : street 

std. : standard 

sub. : suburb 

subj, : subject 

suff. : suffix 

Sun. : Sunday 

Supdt. : Superintendent 

suppl. : supplementary 

Surg. : Surgery 

sym. : symbol 

syn. : synonym 

syst, : system 

tan. : tangent 

tb. : tablespoon ful (a)c" &> 5 

tech. : technical 

tel. : telegram (SS|n&), telej hone 
temp. : temporary (Sortf&), temparature 
Test. : Testment 
Thuw. : Thursday 

tkt, : ticket 

to. : train ton &> ;own 

tot. : total 

trans. : translation([d3*l^6&) [transaction 
trib. : tributary 
trop. : tropical 

tsp. : tea spoon ful 























15] Abbreviations 




Tue. : Tues day 





ugt. : urgent 
nit. : ultimate 
univy. : university 





vac. : vacum 
val. : value 

veg. : vegetaran 
vel. : velocity 

vert. : vertical 
vill. : village 
videlicet 
vocational 






vz. 
voc. 





[namely - 





vocab. : vocabulary 
vol. tuvolume 
: versus 




volunteer 








vss. : versons 

vv. : vice versa (3_S 3 



w/o. wife of (3 

Wed. : Wednes day 

wef, : with effect from '& 

wf. : wrong font 

wk. : week (&"), work 

wkly. : weekly 

X-mas : Christmas 
X-tain : Christian 

yd. : yard 
yr. : year 












Abbreviations 110 




Dictionary Abbreviations 











a. : adjective 

J 

adv. : adverb 
aff. : affirmative 
art. : article 
aux. : auxiliary 
bet. : between 
c. : common gender 
coll. : colloquial 

comp. : composition (^o3*22^^) ( compound 
compar. : comparative 
conj. : conjunction 
contr. : contraction 

def. : definite 
f. : feminine 
fr. : 

ger. : gerund 
gram. : grammar 
imper. : Imperative 
ihd. : indefinite 
indi. : indicative 
int. : interrogative 

^ 

interj. : iaterjection 
m- : masculine 
n. : noun 
neg. : negative 
obj. : objective 

J 

opp. : opposite 
p. : past 
















Abbreviations 111 $oi&gJS 
















pa. : participial adjective 

per. : person 

poss. : possessve 

pp. : past participle 

prep. : preposition 

prej : present 

pr. p. : present participle (|S52ofi" 

prin. : principal verb 

pron. : pronoun 

psy. : psychology 

pt. : present tense' 

refl. : reflexive 

re. : relative 

superl. : superlative 

t-s. :* transitive 

trL : trigonometry 

vL :av*fb intransitive 

m 

vt. reverb transitive 
wh. : which 
&. : and (<a$ 
Etc. : et cetera 

Abbreviations 

^ 

adm. : admiral 

Brig. : Brigadisr 

C-in-C : Commander in Chief 

capt. : captain 

cdg. : commanding 

col. : colonel 

coy. : company 

















J 



Abbreviations 112 










divn. : division 

Engr. : Engineer 

fob. : free on board (jf> 

foe. : free of charge 

fan : free on rail 

Gen. : General 

Or. : Grade 

H3v. : Havaldar 

Lt : Lieuteuant 

Lt Cdr. : Lieutenant Commander 

Lt. Col. : Lieutenant Colonel 

Lt. Gen. : Lieutenant General 

Lt. Gov. Lieuteuant Governer 

ji^ _^ 

Maj. : Major (S>so) 

Maj. Gen. : Major General 

Sergt./Sgt. : Sergeant 

S. Maj. : Sergeant Major 

SM Sgt. : Senior Master Sergeant 



























Sqn, : Squadron 

Sqn. Ldr. : Squadron Leader 

Scientific Abbreviations 

Ag. : Argentum (Silvsr) = ^B 

Al. : Aluminium 

ale. : alcohol 

alk. : alkaline 

amp. : ampere 

ap. hr. : ampere hour 

Ar. : Arsenic 








Abbreviations 113 
























At. 

Au. : Aurum (Gold) = S'tf & (Fff) 

Ba. s Barium ^ 

Br. : Bromine 

Ca. : Calcium 

C. C. : Cubic Centimetre 

Cent. : Centigrade (1bo<a 

Cf. m. : Cubic feet per minute (SpgBiT fed? 

Cl. : Chlorine (fa5) 

Cm. : Centimetre ("Soffl 

Cu. : Cupuram (Copper) - 

Cub. : Cubic (Sp^} 

Cwt. : hundred weight 

deg. : degree 

dia. : diametre 

dm. : decimetre/decametre 

dpi. : dots per inch 

elec. : electric (oi 

Fe. : Ferrum iron 

fl. oz. : fluid ounce (&><& 

fp. : freezing point 

ft. : feet 

g. : gram 

gal. : galon 

galv. : galvanised (r^oeS I") 

00 v coo ' 

ha. : hectare 

Hb. 

He. : Helium 

Hg. : Hydrargyrum (Mercury) '=^ 

hp. : horse power 










Abbreviations 114 







ht. : height 

in. : inch 

ips. : inches per second (atS "*> 

K, : Kilogram /Karat (S<^r>*>/ir 

Kc/s, : Kilo cycles per second (3S*"SSe5"^ "> 

Kg. : Kilogram (SS\?rJ) 

Kl, : Kilo litre ($>* 

Kw. : Kilo watt (S 

1. : litre (t)&>5) 

Ib. : libra pound (> L EP 

Ld* : Lead 

liq. : liquid 

long. : longitude 

m. : metre 

mag. : magnetsm 

me. : methyl (0*5 (5*) 

Hg. : Megnesium 

mg, : milligram 

mil. ; million 













mL : milli litre (obd>^5) O j j ^ & 

Mn. : Manganese (^ToM^S) 
Modem. : Modulator-demodulator 




w ^^ 

mol, : molecule 

mpg. : miles per gallon 

mph. : miles per hour ( 

mps. : miles per second 

ms. : mUli second (toe> 

mw, : mega watt /medium wave 




Abbreviations 115 










Na. : Natrium (Sodium) = 

Ne. : Neon (SOSES') 

Ni : Nickel (S"35"j 

Np. : Neptunium 

nwt. : net weight 

oz. : ounce (5*5 

pb. : plumbum (Lead) = 

phy. : physics 

pt : platinum 

Pu. : Plutonium 

r. : radius 

Ra, : Radium 

rad. : radio 

rh. : relative humidity 

Sc. : Science ( 

Se. : Selenium 

Si : Silicon 

Sn. :.Stannum (tin) = 

sp. gr. : specific gravity 

Sr. ; Strontium 

Te. : Tellurium 

Th. : Thorium 
Ti. : Titanium 
v. : volt/voltage 
vol. : volcano 
wt. : weight 
Xe. : Xenon 
Zn. : Zinc 
Zr. : Zirconium 

















. 12-00 



12.00 



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