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Full text of "The ABC and XYZ of bee culture; a cyclopedia of everything pertaining to the care of the honey-bee; bees, hives, honey, implements, honey-plants, etc. .."

THE 



ABC and XYZ 



OF 



BEE CULTURE 



A Cyclopedia of Everything Pertaining to 
the Care of the Honey-bee; Bees, Hives, 
Honey, Implements, Honey-plants, 
etc. Facts Gleaned from the 
Experience of Thousands 
of Bee-keepers, and 
Afterward Veri- 
fied in Our 
Apiary. 



By A. I. Root and E. R. Root 

131st Thousand 



MEDINA, OHIO 

THE A. I. ROOT COMPANY 
1910 



Copyrighted 1910. AH rights reserved, 



To the throng of eager questioning 
brothers and sisters in the art of bee 
culture, in our own and other coun- 
tries, this work is especially dedicated 
by The Authors 




1877 Preface 

In preparing this work I have been much in 'ebted to the books of Langstroth, :sioses 
Quinby, Prof. A. J. Cook, King, and some others, as well as to all the bee-joiirnals; but, 
more than to all these, have I been indebted to the thousands of friends scattered far and 
wide who have so kindly furnished the fullest particulars in regard to all the new improve- 
ments as they have come up in our beloved branch of rural industry. Those who ques- 
tioned me so much a few years ago are now repaying by giving me such long kind letters 
in answer to any inquiry I may happen to make that I often feel ashamed to think what 
meager answers I have been obliged to give them under similar circumstances. A great 
part of this ABC book is really the work of the people; and the task that devolves on me 
is to collect, condense, verify, and utilize what has lieen scattered through thousands of 
letters for years past. My own apiary has been grea ly devoted to testing carefully each 
new device, invention, or process as it came up. The task has been a very pleasant one; 
and if the perusal of the following pages affords you as much pleasure I shall feel amply 
repaid. 

November, 1877. A. I. Root. 



Preface to Later Editions 

Many years have passed since the original preface by A. I. Root was written. Since 
tiiat time there have been fourteen distinct editions, of anywhere from 2000 to 15,000 copies, 
making a total of 131,000. While the original wcrk contained only about 200 pages it will 
be seen that this one has over 600. So rapid have been the advances in apiculture that it 
has been necessary to make frequent revisions, and soexttnsive have been the changes 
that some editions seem almost like new works. As these pflges are kept in standing lype 
changes can easily be made. 

After the revision of 18S3, ill health and interest in other matters compelled A. I. Root 
to drop the subject of bee culture to a great extent. Since that time the work of revision 
has devolved almost entirely upon his eldest son, the writer. About the time that we 
took up this work we began to assume editorial charge of Gleanings in Bee C ulture, a semi 
monthly magazine, and since 1887 we have had almost entire charge of both except that we 
have been very ably assisted in the last year or two by a younger brother, H. H. Root. In 
order that we might keep in close touch with the best practices in vogue, we made a num- 
1 er of extended trips, visiting some of the most successful bee-keepers in the country, tak- 
ing along with us camera and note-book. One year we traveled thus equipped over seven 
thousand miles, covering a large portion of the West and at other times the entire eastern 
p.irt of the country. Many of the photographs taken at the time are scattered throughout 
the work. This extended travel among bee-beepers, together with a large acquaintance 
and general correspondence, has enabled us to incorporate, as we believe, new and valua- 
ble matter in these pages; and the work, so far from being an A B C only, is also an X Y Z 
of bee culture. Originally, A. I. Root intended it to be a work purely for beginners; and 
while it still is primarily for that class, yet we have sought in the later editions to incoi- 
porate general matter of interest and of value to the advanced bee-keeper. 

So great have been the general changes in the practices and general systems of man- 
agement that it has been found necessary during the last fifteen or twenty years to re-write 
almost whole articles. So much ol new matter and new subjects has been added that 
practically three -fourths of the present volume is the work of the reviser. In this ( on- 
nection we are desirous of acknowledging our indebtedness to specialists who have written 
certain articles of a technical nature, which articles will be found scattered here and there 
throughout the work. Inasmuch as some of these are the work of two or three people, the 
discriminating reader will notice here and there a change of style. Although this is una- 
voidable we believe that the general teachings harmonize throughout 

We offer no apologies for lack of literary style. Much of the w ork of revision and the 
re-writing of new articles has been done under pressure of other work; but we have 
endeavored to use the simplest and i)l dnest language possible to describe each process, 
device, or method. Eknkst R. Root. 



PREFACE. 

Preface to 1910 Edition 

In the lulO edition a number of what might be called moving pictures are scattered 
throiinhout the work, showing the successive steps of various manipulations described. A 
large amount of new matter has been added, especially to the following subjects: Abscond- 
ing Swarms, Apiary, Bees as a Nuisance, Comb Foundation, Comb Honey, Diseases of 
Bees, Entrances, Extracted Honey, Extractor, Exhibits of Honey, Feeding and Feeders; 
Frames, to Manipulate; Fruit Blossoms, Introducing, Laws Relating to Bees; Pollen, 
Queen-Rearing, Robbing, Swarming, Wax, Wintering. The following subjects have been 
entirely re-written: Bees and Fruit, Glucose, Honey, Honey Adulteration, Sugar, Migra- 
tory Bee-keeping, Nectar, Cane Sugar, Spring Management of Bees. The general subject 
of Bees as Pollenators, under the head Fruit Blossoms and Pollen, has received special 
attention in the present edition. 

As far as possible the reviser has sought to have all technical articles written by spe- 
cialists in their particular lines. For example, everything relating to the chemistry of hon- 
ey has been written by Prof. Hugh Bryan, of the Bureau of Chemistry of the United States 
Department of Agriculture. Dr. E. F. Phillips, of the same Department, has prepared a 
number of articles on technical subjects; and R. E. Snodgrass, who has probably made the 
most extended study of the anatomy of the bee of any scientist in the world, has prepared 
the a I tide in the appendix on The Anatomy of the Bee. 

Particular attention has been paid to the matter of general proof-reading in the 1910 
edition. While W. P. Root, general proof-reader of the publishing house of the A. I. Root 
Company, has done the major part of the work, he has been very ably assisted by F. A. 
Allen, Phillipsburg East, Quebec, Canada, and Miss Wilhelmina C. Duecker, of Medina, 
a former school-teacher. 

The article on The Anatomy of the Bee did not reach the publisher's hands until after 
the regular article in its alphabetical order had been printed. As Snodgrass' work is so 
much in advance over the work of previous scientists, it was decided to place his article at 
the end of this work as an appendix. 

In order that the reader may trace out the authorships of the various articles, a list is 
appended of those originally written by A. I. Root, those by E. R. Root, those jointly by 
A. I. Root and E. R. Root, and those by W. K. Morrison and other writers. 

July 15, 1910. Ernest R. Root. 

ARTICLES BY A. I. BOOX : 

Age of Bees; Catnip; Milkweed; Mustard; Rocky Mountain Bee-plant; Ventilation; Water for Bees; 
Whitewood. 

ARTICLES BY E. R. ROOT: 

Alfalfa; Anatomy of the Bee; Apiary; Artificial Fertilization; Banat Bees; Barrels; Basswood; Bee- 
bre.id; Beginning with Bees; Bee-spaces: Bees and Grapes; Bees as a Nuisance; Bee paralysis; Bees on 
Shares; Bleaching Honey-comb; Box Hives; Buckwheat; Canada Thistle; Candied Honey; Catclaw; 
Comb Foundation; Comb Honey; Contraction; Diseases of Bees; Entrances; Exhibits of Honey; 
Extractor; Feeding and Feeders; Foul Brood, American and European; Frames, Self-spacing; Frames, to 
Manipulate; Fruit-blossoms; Goldenrod; Heartsease, Hives; Hive-making; Hoarliound; Honey-dew; 
Honey-peddling; Huajilla ; Increase; Introducing; Italianizing ; Locality; Marigold; Migratory Bee- 
keeping; Moving Bees ; Nucleus; Orange-blossom Honey; Organization of Bee-keepers: Overstocking; 
I'oisonous Honey; Pollen; Pollination of Plants; Priority Rights; Profits in Bees; Propolis; Queen-rear- 
ing; Rats; Record-keeping ot Hives; Reversing; Skep; Spacing Frames; Spanish Needle; Spreading 
Brood; Spring Management; Veils; Vinegar; Weight of Bees; Willow; Willow-herb. 

ARTICLES JOINTLY BY A. I. AND E. R. ROOT: 

Absconding Swarms; After-swarming; Anger of Bees; Ants; Artificial Pasturage; Asters: Bee-hunt- 
ing; Bee-moth; Bees; Candy for Bees; Clover; Drones; Dysentery; Enemies of Bees; Extracted Honey; 
llorsemint; Hybrids; Italian Bees; Laying Workers; Queens; Raspberry; Robbing; Sage; Stings; 
Swarming; Unitmg Bees. 

ARTICLES BY W. K. MORRISON. 

Ants In South America; Bees, Stingless; Carpet Grass; Catalpa; Century Plant; Cotton; Dandelion: 
Egyptian Bees; Eucalyptus; Gallbeiry; Hives, Evolution of; Honey Adulteraticm; Honey and itsColois; 
Honey-plants: Locust, Honey: Logwood; Mesquite; Nectar; Palmetto; Pepper-tree; Sunflower; Tupeo; 
Dictionary of Bee-keepers' Terms. 

Campaniila.— Leslie Burr. 

Eye, Compound; Parthenogenesis; Scent of Bees.— Dr. E. F. Phillips, Bureau of Ent., Wash., D. C. 

Bee-keeping for VVomen,— >lrs. Anna B. Comstock. 

Honey as a Food.— VV. K. Morrison and Dr. C. C. Miller. 

Honey-comb.— Pi of. Edward F. Blgelow and A. 1. and E. R. Root. 

Oui-apiaries.— Dr. C. C. Miller and E. R. Root. 

Laws Kelatuig to Bees.— W. K. Morrison and Dr. E. F. Phillips. 

Pha( elia.— Dr. C. C. Miller. 

Smoke and .Smokers; Wax; Wintering.— E. R. and H. H. Root. 

Mangrove.— vv . S. Hart. 

Anatomy of the Bee in the appendix.— R. E. fnodgrass. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Glu-ose. Honey, Honey Adulteration, Sugar, Cane sugar.— Prof. A. Hugh Bryan, Bureau of Chem- 
istry, Washington, D. C. 

Picture Gallery Notes.— W. P. Root. 



Introduction to the First Edition 

About the year 1865, during the month of August, a swarm of bees passed overhead 
where we were at work, and my fellow-workman, in answer to some of my inquiries re- 
specting their habits, asked what I would give for them. I, not dreaming he could by any 
means call them down, offered him a dollar, and he started after them. To my astonish- 
ment, he, in a short time, returned with them hived in a rough box he had hastily picked 
up, and, at that moment, I commenced learning my A B C in bee culture. Before night I 
had questioned not only the bees but every one I knew, who could tell me any thing about 
these strange new acquaintances of mine. Our books and papers were overhauled that 
evening; but the little that I found only puzzled me the more, and kindled anew the desire 
to explore and follow out this new hobby of mine; for, dear reader, I have been all my life 
much given to hobbies and new projects. 

Farmers who had kept bees assured me that they once paid, when the country was 
new, but of late years they were of no profit, and everybody was abandoning the business. 
I had some headstrong views in the matter, and in a few days I visited Cleveland, ostensi- 
bly on other business, but I had really little interest in any thing until I could visit the 
bookstores and look over the books on bees. I found but two, and I very quickly chose 
Langstroth. May God reward and for ever bless Mr. Langstroth for the kind and pleasant 
way in which he unfolds to his readers the truths and wonders of creation to be found in- 
side the bee-hive. 

What a gold-mine that book seemed to me as I looked it over on my journey home ! 
Never was romance so enticing— no, not even Robinson Crusoe; and, best of all, right at 
my own home I could live out and verify all the wonderful things told therein. Late as it 
was, I yet made an observatory hive and raised queens from worker eggs before winter, 
and wound up by purchasing a queen of Mr. Langstroth for $20.00. I should, in fact, have 
wound up the whole business, queen and all, most effectually, had it not been for some 
timely advice toward Christmas, from a plain practical farmer near by. With his assist- 
ance, and by the purchase of some more bees, I brought all safely through the winter. 
Through Mr. Langstroth I learned of Mr. Wagner, who, shortly afterward, was induced to 
recommence the publication of the American Bee Journal, and through this I gave accounts 
monthly of my blunders and occasional successes. 

In 1867, news came across the ocean from Germany, of the honey-extractor; and by 
the aid of a simple home-made machine I took 1000 lbs. of honey from 20 stocks, and in- 
creased them to 35. This made quite a sensation, and numbers embarked in the new busi- 
ness; but when I lost all but 11 of the 35 the next winter, many said, " There! I told you 
how it would turn out." 

I said nothing, but went to work quietly and increased the 11 to 48 during the one sea- 
son, not using the extractor at all. The 48 were wintered entirely without loss, and I think 
it was mainly because I took care and pains with each individual colony. From the 48 I 
secured 6162 lbs. of extracted honey, and sold almost the entire crop for 25 cents per lb. 
This capped the climax, and inquiries in regard to the new industry began to come in from 
all sides. Beginners were eager to know what hives to adopt, t nd where to get honey- 
extractors. As the hives in use seemed very poorly adapted to the use of the extractor, 
and as the machines offered for sale were heavy and poorly adapted to the purpose, besides 
being " patented," there really seemed to be no other way before me then to manufacture 
these implements. Unless I did this I should be compelled to undertake a correspondence 
that would occupy a great part of my time without affording any compensation of any ac- 
count. The fullest directions 1 knew how to give for making i)lain simple hives, etc., 
were from time to time pul)lislied in the American Bee Journal; but the demand for further 
particulars was such that a circular was printed, and, shortly after, a second edition; then 
another, and another. These were intended to answer the greater part of the queries; and 
from the cheering words received in regard to them it seemed that the idea was a happy one. 

Until 1873 all these circulars were sent out gratuitously; but at that time it was deemed 
best to issue a quarterly at 25 cents per year, for the purpose of answering these inquiries. 
The very first number was received with such favor that it was immediately changed to a 
monthly at 75 cents. The name given it was Oleanings in Bee Culture, and it was gradual- 



INTRODUCTION. 

ly enlaif^ed until, in 1876, the price was changed to $1.00. During all this time it has 
served the purpose excellently of answering questions as they came up, both old and new; 
and even if some new subscriber should ask in regard to something that had been discussed 
at length but a short time before, it is an easy matter to refer him to it or send him the 
number containing the subject in question. 

When (fUaniugswns about commencing its fifth yeai', inquirers began to dislike being 
referred to something that was published half a dozen years before. Bebides, the decisions 
that were then arrived at perhaps needed to be considerably modified to meet present 
wants. Now you can see whence the necessity for this ABC book, its office, and the place 
we propose to have it till. 

December, 1878. A. I. Root. 



Introduction to the 1908 Edition 



The Development of Bee Culture in the United States. 



Before the reader plunges into the subject-matter of this work he may be interested in 
knowing something of the early beginnings and the phenomenal growth of bee culture to 
its present stage of development. It will not be necessary to trace the early history of 
apiculture in foreign lands any more than to state that it was not until the invention of 
movable combs, handled in a very crude way, that the science of bee culture began to take 
any step forward; and it was not until a little later that the perfected frame of our own 
Father Langstroth was brought out that bee culture may be said to have assumed any 
commercial importance in this country. 

In the early '60's bees were kept only in box hives, and in a very small and primitive 
way. A yield of ten or fifteen pounds of dirty chunk honey per skep was considered a good 
yield; but after the Langstroth invention, by which the brood-nest of the colony could be 
investigated and manipulated, yields of anywhere from thirty-five to seventy-five pounds 
per colony of beautiful honey were common averages, and one hundred or two hundied 
pounds of extracted nothing extraordinary; indeed, a single colony in a good locality has 
been known to furnish anywhere from four hundred to seven hundred pounds. While 
such an output per hive is extraordinary. It goes to show what was made possible through 
the Langstroth invention. So important was it that it may be truthfully said that the art 
of keeping bees was almost entirely revolutionized, not only in this country but in many 
parts of Europe as well. 

In the early '60's the honey-extractor and comb foundation were brought out. Thes^e, 
together with the invention of the movable frame, lifted bee culture up to a plane where 
there was '' money in it." Very soon a large number were keeping anywhere from iilty to 
one hundred colonies. Others began to have a series of out-apiaries running anywhere 
from five hundred to three thousands colonies. In the meantime bee-supply factories 
sprang up all over the United States. Thousands and thousands of queen-bees were reared 
and sent through the mails, to improve stock. Periodicals on bees came into existence; 
the old American Bee Journal, edited by the lamented Samuel Wagner, a contemporary of 
Langstroth, did much to expound the ne?, principles in the early days of modern bee cul- 
ture. Shortly after, Gleanings in Bee Culture, edited by A. I. Root, came into existence. 
A devoted follower of Langstroth, he threw his whole soul into the keeping of bees So 
ardent was his enthusiasm that his little quarterly, and shortly after a monthly, grew 
amazingly; and, even after the editorial management was transferred from father to sons, 
as noted in the preface, it continued to grow until it now has a circulation of over thirty- 
three thousand copies. It has passed from the stage of a small monthly to a dignitied 
illustrated magazine issued twice a month. 

The honey business continued to develop from small beginnings so that there was a 
total aggaegate of from one hundred and fifty to one hundred and seventy-live million 
pounds of honey produced and marketed annually in the United States. These figures can 
scarcely be comprehended; but if this amount were all loaded into freight-cars it would 
make a si.lid traiuload, without a break, something like fifty miles long. Some States, in 
good years, notably California, have been known to produce as much as five and even six 
hundred cars in a season. Other States will produce anywhere from f-ne hundred to two 



INTRODUCTION. 

hundred; but ia most of the Eastern States the amount produced is sold locally, so that it 
does not show up in carloads as it does in some of the Western States, particularly those 
in the alfalfa and mountain-sage districts; and it may be said that the amount of honey 
that is annually produced at the present time in the arid and mountainous districts is very 
small in comparison with what probably will be produced in years to come. The new ir- 
rigation projects, both State and national, will make room for immense acreages of alfalfa, 
and this will doubtless mean in the near future a trebling of the amount of this beautiful 
honey. 

In addition to the large amount of literature on bees that is being distributed, there 
are numerous local and State bee-keepers' societies that hold bee conventions in various 
parts of the country, and some of these are affiliated with the National Bee-keepers' Asso- 
ciation with a membership of nearly twenty-five hundred. 

Besides these different organizations there have been held various field-day exhibitions 
in different parts of the country. At a recent one held in Jenkintown, near Philadelphia, 
at the apiary belonging to the authors of this work, over a thousand people interested in 
bee culture were present to witness the various operations in the handling of bees. 

But this is not all. So great has been the growth of the bee-keeping industry that even 
our national government is giving substantial recognition to the business. The Bureau of 
Entomology of the United States Department of Agriculture sets aside something like 
nine thousand five hundred dollars per annum for the study of apiculture. Some five or 
six trained experts are devoting their whole time to the study of bees, including one bac- 
teriologist, who is giving his entire attention to the investigation of bee diseases. In addi- 
tion to all this, many State agricultural colleges and experiment stations are giving more 
or less attention to the subject— so much so that bee culture has come to be recognized as 
one of the great national industries. 

Honey is now found on the tables of nearly all of our best families. A large percent- 
age of the cakes and cookies now manufactured by some of the extensive baking com- 
panies contain honey, for it has been found that honey is not only a sweetener but a 
preservative as well. As an indication of the large amount of honey used for the purpose, 
it may be interesting to note in this connection that the National Biscuit Company is said 
to have placed an order for one hundred cars of honey. We have also been informed that 
the independent bakers have formed an association to buy honey and other supplies. This 
organization buys for its members anywhere from ten to twenty-five carloads of honey at 
a time. Honey is also used in a large way by the makers of soft drinks. They require a 
sweet that has plenty of flavor, and honey fills the bill. 

Beeswax, of which there are now annually hundreds of tons produced, is now used in 
the arts and sciences as it never was before; and while paraflSne and ceresine have to a 
limited extent taken its place, yet there is a peculiar quality about the product from the 
hives that makes it far superior to these mineral waxes. The very fact that it can com- 
mand two or three times the price of its inferior comi)etitors gives some idea of its value. 

But there is an ethical as well as a commercial side to bee culture that should be men- 
tioned. Thousands of people all over the world have found health and happiness in the 
keeping of bees; for, be it noted, they may be kept in any back yard in any climate, and 
yield not only a large amount of pleasure but profit as well. Many thousands more make 
bee-keeping a side issue in connection with some other business or profession, and who, 
by such work as this, are enabled to increase their already modest income, thus making a 
comfortable living. 

In addition to all this, the study of bees opens up a new world and a new science. The 
professional and business man finds that he can give his fagged brain a rest and a respite 
from the cares of the day. It is no small wonder, then, that the ABC of 1877, of 200 
pages in the early days, should find so extensive a demand for it that it should not only be 
increased in size, but reach the enormous sale of 131,000 copies. 

If there was ever a rural pursuit that made greater progress in half a century in this 
country than bee culture the writer does not know it; and yet many are so optimistic that 
they believe the industry is only in its infancy. 

Jan. 1, 1908. Eknest R. Root. 




A. I. HOOT AT HOME AMONG HIS FLOWEKS. 



A. 



[,Vo/e. — Strangely enough, some of our ABC schol 
ars have attempted to take up each subject iu this 
work in its consecutive order. As this is a cyclopedia 
on bee culture it should no more be read in this man- 
ner than a dictionary or a cyclopedia. As a guide 
to the beginner we would suggest that he take for his 
course of reading the following subjects in the order 
named: Beginning with Bees; Hives; Frames, how 
TO Manipulate ; Anger of Bees ; Stings ; Rob- 
bing ; Apiary ; Transferring; Nucleus ; Feeding; 
Swarming and Absconding of Swarms ; Comb 
Honey ; Extracted Honey ; Queens ; Queen-rear- 
ing ; Uniting ; Wintering. Other subjects may be 
taken up as deemed best, for then the learner will be 
able to read any thing in the book understandingly.] 

ABSCOrTDirra SUTARI^S.— Per- 

liai)s nothing is more aggravating in bee 
culture than to have our bees all on a sud- 
den abscond for parts unknown, without 
so much as stopping to give us a parting 
word of farewell, or a single token of recog- 
nition of the debt they owe us, in the shape 
of gratitude for our past kindnesses in pro- 
viding them with a home, shelter, etc. Per- 
haps no part of animated creation exhibits a 
greater love of home than does the honey- 
l)ee. No matter how humble or uninviting 
the surroundings, bees seem much attached 
to their home; and as they parade in front 
of their doorway after a hard day's M'ork, 
plainly indicate that they have a keen idea 
of the rights of owner.^hip, and exhibit a 
willingness to give their lives freely, if need 
be, in defense of their hard-earned stores. 
It is difficult to understand how they can 
ever be willing to abandon it altogether, 
and with such sudden impulse and common 
consent. Xo matter if they have never seen 
or heard of such a thing as a hollow tree, 
but have for innumerable bee generations 
been domesticated in hives made by human 
hands, none the less have they that instinc- 
tive longing that prompts them to seek the 
forest as soon as they get loose from the 
chains of domestication. It is possible that 
the bees, as they go out foraging, keep an 
eye out for desirable places for starting new 
liomes, and it may be that they have the 
hollow trees picked out some time before 
they decide to leave. Many incidents have 
been reported that pretty clearly show this 
to be the case. We once found our bees 
working strongly on a particular locality 
about a mile and a half from the apiary, 
where the white clover was blooming with 
most unusual luxuriance. Very soon after, 
a colony swarmed, and the bees, after pour- 



ing out of the hive, took a direct line for a 
tree in this clover-field, without so much as 
making any attempt to cluster at all. Did 
they not figure out the advantage of having 
only a few rods instead of over a mile to 
carry their honey, after having patiently 
gathered it from the blossoms, little by 
little? Perhaps it will be well to remark 
here, that it is very unusual for a swarm to 
go to the woods without clustering; the bees 
usually hang from 15 minutes to an hour, 
and many times several hours ; in fact, we 
have known them to hang over night; but 
perhaps it would be well to take care of 
them inside of 15 or 20 minutes if we would 
make sure of them. Long before swarming- 
time, hives should all be in readiness, and 
they should also be located near where the 
new colony is to stand. If one is going to 
have a model apiary, he should not think of 
waiting until the bees swarm before he lays 
it out, but take time by the forelock, and 
with careful deliberation decide where every 
hive shall be before it is peopled with bees, 
if he would keep ahead and prevent his bees 
from taking '' French leave." 

But they sometimes leave, even after they 
have been carefully hived in modern hives 
on frames of foundation. If the swarming 
mania gets well under way in a bee-yard, a 
swarm is more apt to come out the second 
time, even when hived in a new location in 
a different hive, than where there is only a 
very little swarming. It was once thought 
that giving a frame of unsealed brood to 
these second-time absconders would hold 
them. While this, no doubt, acts as a re- 
strainer, yet when a swarm leaves its new 
quarters we would recapture it, hive it back 
into the hive, and thjen carry hive, bees, and 
all down cellar and keep them there several 
days until they get over their mania. They 
may then be set out on their permanent 
summer stands. 

The plan of holding the bees with un- 
sealed brood does very well if one can get 
them into the hive; but it is necessarily 
somewhat like the one of catching birds 
with a handful of salt ; how are we to obvi- 
ate losing the occasional swarm that goes 
off without clustering at allV or the quite 
frequent cases of coming out unobserved, or 



ABSCONDING SWARMS. 



ABSCONDING SWARMS. 



when no one is at home ? We are happy to 
say there is a very certain and safe remedy 
for all cases of first swarming, in having the 
wings of the queen clipped so she can not 
lly; this phtn is m very general use, and 
answers excellently for all hrst swarms; but, 
alas ! the after-swarnis are the very ones 
that are most apt to abscond, and we can 
not clip the wings of their queens, because 
they have not yet taken their wedding-llight. 
What shall we doV In the first place, second 
or after swarms should not be allowed. If 
the parent hive, after it has cast its first 
swarm, is treated as recommended under 
the head of ArrEK Swakms, there will be 
no further swarming from that colony for 
that season. We recommend the Heddon 
method. See page 4. 

Clipping the wings of the queen or putting 
on drone-traps (see Dhones) will prevent 
losing Hrst swarms by absconding, it is true; 
but it does not always prevent losing the 
queen. She goes out with the bees as usual, 
and, after hopping about in front of the hive, 
sometimes gets ready to go back at about 
the sanu' time that the bees do, after having 
discovered she is not in the crowd. Even if 
she gets some little distance from the hive^ 
the loud hum they make as they return will 
guide her home many times ; but unless the 
apiarist is at hand at such times to look 
after affairs, many queens wull be lost, and 
the bees will rear a lot of young queens, and 
go into after-swarming in good earnest, 
making even the first swarm an "after- 
swarm. A German friend, who knows lit- 
tle of bee-culture, once told us owy liees were 
swarming, and if we did not ring the bells 
etc., they would certainly go to the woods. 
As we quietly i»icked up the queen in pass- 
ing the hive, we told him if they started to 
go away, we would call them back. Sure 
enough, they did start for the woods, and 
had gone so far that we really began to be 
frightened ourselves, when, away in the dis- 
tance, we saw them suddenly wheel about, 
and then return to the hive at our very feet. 
While he gave us the credit of having some 
supernatural power over bees, we felt ex- 
tremely glad we had taken precautions to 
clip all our queens' wings but a few days 
before. After this we felt a little ])roud of 
our control over these wayward insects, until 
a fine swarm of Italians started oft' under 
similar circumstances, and, despite our very 
complacent, positive remarks, to the effect 
that they would soon come home, they went 
off and stayed " off." In a humbler, and, we 
dare say, wiser frame of mind, we investi- 



gated, and found they had joined with a very 
small third swarm of black bees, and had 
just come from one of the neighbor's hives. 
We tried to " explain," but it required a 
five-dollar bill to make matters so clear that 
we could carry back our rousing swarm of 
yellow bees, and sort out the black unfertile 
queen, that they might be made to accept 
their own. Thus you see how many a slip 
there is. in bee culture, between cup and lip, 
and how very important it is that you keep 
posted, and also ''post" yourself in some 
conspicuous place near or in the apiary if 
you allow natural swarming, and do not 
want your golden visions— and bees — to take 
to themselves wings and fly away. 

ABSCONDING FOK WANT OF FOOD. 

Perhaps bees of tener desert their hives be- 
cause they are short of stores than from any 
other cause ; and many times, in the spring, 
they seem to desert because they are nearly 
out. They issue from the hive, and alight in 
a tree very much like a normal swarm dur- 
ing the swarming season. The remedy, or, 
rather, preventive, for this state of affairs, is 
so plain we hardly need discuss it. After 
they have swarmed out, and are put back 
into the hive, give a heavy comb of sealed 
stores; if that can not be obtained, feed 
them a little at a time, until they have 
plenty, and be sure that they have brood in 
the combs. If necessary, give them a comb 
of unsealed larvje from some other hive, and 
then feed them luitil they have a great 
abundance of food. One should be ashamed 
of having bees abscond for want of food. 

ABSCONDING IN EARLY SPRING. 

This seems to occur jirst at a time when 
we can ill afford to lose a single bee ; and, 
worse still, only wlien our stocks are, gener- 
ally, rather weak, so that we dislike the idea 
of losing any of them. In this case they do 
not, as a general thing, seem to care partic- 
ularly for going to the woods, but rather 
take a fancy to pushing their way into some 
of the adjoining hives, and, at times, a whole 
apiary will seem so crazy with the idea as to 
become utterly demoralized. 

A neighbor, who made a liobby of small 
hives— less than half the usual size— one fine 
April day had as many as 40 colonies leave 
their hives and cluster together in all sorts 
of promiscuous combinations. To say that 
their owner was perplexed, would be stating 
the matter very mildly. 

Similar cases, though perhaps not as bad, 
have been reported from time to time, ever 
since novices commenced to learn the sci- 
ences of bee culture ; and although cases of 



ABSCONDING SWARMS. 



AFTER-SWARMING. 



swarming out in the spring were known 
once in a great while before the recent im- 
provements, they are nothing like the mania 
that has seemed to possess entire apiaries- 
small ones — since the time of artificial 
swarming, honey- extractors, etc. We would 
by no means discourage these improve- 
ments, but only warn beginners against 
making too much liaste to be rich. We 
would not commence dividing our bees until 
they are abundantly strong. They should 
go into winter quarters with an abundance 
of sealed honey in tough old combs as far as 
maybe; and should have hives with walls 
thick and warm, of some porous material, 
such as chaff or straw, with a good thick- 
ness of the same above, and we shall have 
little cause to fear any trouble from bees 
absconding in the spring. 

ABSCONDING NUCLEUS SWARMS. 

A very small nucleus— if it contains no 
more than a couple of himdred bees — is 
liable t» swarm out. Queen-breeders, in 
attempting to mate queens in baby nuclei 
containing only one or two secticm-boxes, 
had considerable trouble in keeping the bees 
in the hive, especially when the young 
queen went out to mate. Accordingly it 
was found necessary to make the baby hives 
much larger, with frames SfsxS inches, and 
two nuc'ei to a hive. See Queen-reaking. 
With these there is not much trouble from 
swarming out, providing that they are well 
supplied with bees, some brood, and honey. 

ABSCONDING FOR MORE SATISFACTORY 
QUARTERS. 

There is still another kind of absconding 
that seems to be for no other reason than 
that the bees are displeased with their hive, 
or its surroundings, and, at times, it seems 
rather difficult to assign any good reason for 
their having suddenly deserted. We luive 
known a colony to swarm out and desert 
their hive because it was too cold and open, 
and we have known them to desert because 
the combs were soiled and filthy from dys- 
entery in the spring. They very ofini swarm 
out because they are out of stores, and this 
generally happens about the first day in 
spring that is sufficiently warm and sunny. 
We have known them to swarm out because 
their entrance was too large, and, if we are 
not mistaken, because it was too small. 

We have also known them to swarm out 
because they were so '^pestered" with a 
neighboring ant-hill— see Ants— that they 
evidently thought patience ceased to be a 
virtue. 



ABSCONDING IN THE SPRING. 

They often swarm out in s]iring where no 
other cause can be assigned than that they 
are weak and discouraged, and in such cases 
they usually try to make their way into other 
colonies. While it may not always be possi- 
ble to assign a reason for such behavior with 
medium or fair colonies, we may rest as- 
sured that good strong colonies, with ample 
supplies of sealed stores, seldom, if ever, go 
into any such foolishness. 

By way of summing up, it may be well to 
say: If you would not lose your bees by nat- 
ural swarming, clip the wings of all queens 
as soon as they commence laying; then look 
to them often, and know what is going on in 
the apiary every day during the swarming 
season; if you would not have runaway 
swarms in the spring, and while queens are 
being fertilized, confine your experiments to 
pecks of bees instead of pints. 

ADULTERATION OF HONEY. See 

Honey Adulteration. 

AFTER-SlVAR]y[irra.-We might ^ 
define this by saying that all swarms that 
come out, or are led out by a virgin queen, 
are termed after-swarms; and all swarms 
that come out within eight or fifteen days 
after the first swarm are accompanied by 
such queens. There may be from one all 
the way up to a half-dozen or even more, de- 
pending on the yield of honey, amount of 
brood or larvie, and the weather; but what- 
ever the number, they are all led off by 
queens reared from one lot of queen-cells, 
and the number of bees accompanying them 
is, of necessity, less each time. The last 
one frequently contains no more than a pint 
of bees, and, if hived in the old way, would 
be of little use under almost any circum- 
stances; yet when supplied with combs al- 
ready built and filled with honey, such as 
every enlightened apiarist should always 
keep in store, they may be made the very 
best of colonies, for they have young and 
vigorous queens, and often are equal to any 
in the apiary the next season. 

There is one very amusing feature in re- 
gard to these after-swarms. When they 
have decided to send out no more swarms, 
all the young queens in the hive are sent 
out, or, it may be, allowed to go out with the 
last one ; and every few days during the 
swarming season, some "new hand" writes 
us about the wonderful fact of his haviiig 
found three or four, or it may be a half-doz- 
en queens in one swarm. On one occasion, 
a friend, who weighed something over 200, 



AFTER-SWARMING. 

ascended to the top of an apple-tree dnring 
a hot July day to hive a very small third 
swarm. He soon came down, in breathless 
haste, to inform ns that the swarm was all 
queens; and, in i)roof of it, brought two or 
three in his closed-ui) liands. 

Years ago after-swaruiing was considered 
a sort of necessary evil that had to be toler- 
ated because it could not be obviated ; but 
in no well-regulated apiary should it be al- 
lowed. Many consider it good practice to 
permit one swarm— the first one. After that 
all others are restrained. Cutting out all 
tiie queen-cells but one may have the effect 
of I'reventing a second swarm; but the prac- 
tice is objectionable— chiefly because one 
can not be s^ire that he destroys all but one. 
If there are two cells the occupant of one of 
them, when she hatches, is likely to bring 
out an after-swarm; indeed, we may say 
that, as long as there are young queens to 
hatch, there are likely to be after-swarms 
up to the number of three or four. 

But the practical honey-producers of to- 
day consider cell-cutting for the prevention 
of these little swarms as waste of time, al- 
though they may and do cut out cells to pre- 
vent prime or first swarms. There are 
some who deem it advisable to prevent 
swarming altogether. The plan usually 
adopted to prevent second swarms is about 
as follows; 

The wings of all queens in the apiary 
should be clipped, or else there should be 
entrance-guards over the colonies. As soon 
as the first swarm comes forth, and while 
the bees are in the air, the queen, if clipped, 
is found in front of the entrance of the old 
hive. She is caged, and the old hive is lifted 
off the old stand, and an empty one contain- 
ing frames of foundation or empty combs is 
put in its place. A perforated zinc honey- 
board is next put on top, after which, the 
supers, now^ on the old stand. The queen in 
her cage is placed in front of the entrance, 
and the old hive is next carried to an entire- 
ly new location. In the mean time the 
swarm returns to find the queen at the old 
stand; and when the bees are Avell started 
to running into the entrance she is released, 
and allowed to go in with them. Most of 
the old or flying bees that happen to be lelt 
in the old colony, now^ on the new location, 
will go back to the old stand to strengthen 
further the swarm. This will so depopulate 
the parent colony that there will Inrdly be 
bees enougli left to cause any after-swarm- 
ing, and the surplus of young queens will 
liave to fight it out among themse'lvcs— the 



AGE OF BEES. 

''survival of the fittest" being, of course, 
the only one left. She will be mated in the 
regular way, and the few bees with her will 
not, of c(mrse, follow her, as there will not 
be enough of them to make a respectable 
after-swarm. 

heddon's method. 

The first swarm is allowed to come forth; 
and while it is in the air the parent colony 
is removed from its stand and placed a few 
inches to one side, with its entrance point- 
ing at right angles to its former jxisition. 
For instance, if the old hive faced the east, 
it will now look toward the north. Another 
hive is placed on the old stand, filled with 
frames of wired foundation. The swaim is 
put in this hive, and at the end of tw^o days 
the parent hive is turned around so that its 
entrance points in the same direction as the 
hive that now has the swarm. Just as soon 
as young queens of the ])arent colony are 
likely to liatch it is carried to a new location 
during the middle of the day or when the 
bees are flying the thickest. The result is, 
these flying bees will go back to the hive 
having the swarm. This, like the otlier 
method described, so depletes the parent 
hive that any attempt at after- swarming is 
effectually forestalled. 

A variation from this plan makes it easier 
and just as good. Hive the swarm on the 
old stand and set the old hive close beside it, 
botii facing the same w^ay. A week later, 
when most bees are out, remove the old hive 
to a new stand. That leaves the old colony 
just as much depleted as the longer way: 
and the depletion coming more suddenly 
will more thoroughly discourage all thought 
of further swarming. 

ACrZj or BEES.— It may be lather 
difficult to decide how long a worker bee 
would live if kept from wearing itself out 
by the active labors of the field; six montiis 
certainly, and jierhaps a year; but tlie aver- 
age life (luring the summer time is not over 
three months, and perhaps during the height 
of the clover-bloom not over six or eight 
weeks. The matter is easily determined by 
introducing an Italian queen to a hive of 
black bees at different periods of the year. 
If done in May or June, w^e shall have all 
Italians in the fall: and if we note when the 
last black bees hatch out, and the time when 
no black bees are to be found in the colony, 
we shall have a pretty accurate idea of tlie 
age of the b'acks. The Italians will i)erhaps 
liold out under the same circumstances a 
hair longer. If we iiitroducc the Italian 



AGE OF BEES. 



5 



ALFALFA. 



qiuen in September, we shall find black bees 
in the hive until tlie month of May follow- 
ing—they may disapiiear a little earlier, or 
may befouml even later, depending upon the 
time they commence to rear lirood largely 
The bees will live considerably longer if no 
brood is reared, as has lieen several times 
demonstrated in the case of strong queenless 
colonies. It is also pretty well established 
that black bees will live longer in the spring 
tliaii Italians— probably because the latter 




ALFALFA BLOSSOM. 

are more inclined to push out into the fields 
when the weather is too cool for them to do 
so with safety; they seldom do this, how- 
ever, unless a large amount of brood is on 
hand, and they are sufl'ering for pollen or 
water. 

During the summer months, the life of 
tlie worker-bee is probably cut ^ll()rl l)y the 
wearing-out of its wings, and we may, at 
the close of a warm day, lind hundiedsof 



these heavily laden, ragged-winged veteran.; 
making their way into the hives slowly and 
painfully, compared with the nimble and 
perfect- winged young bees. If we examine 
the ground around the ai)iary at nightfall, 
we m;iy see numbers of these hopping about 
on the ground, evidently recognizing their 
own inability to be of any further use to the 
community. We have repeatedly picked 
them up, and placed them in the entrance, 
l)ut tie;, usually seem only bent on crawling 
and hopping off out of the way 
where they can die without hin- 
deiing the teeming rising gen- 
eration. 

AGE OF DRONES. 

It is somewhat difficult to 
decide upon the age of drones, 
because the poor fellows are so 
often hustled out of the way, 
for the simple reason that they 
are no longer wanted; but we 
may be safe in assuming it is 
something less than the age of 
a worker. If kept constantly 
in a queenless hive they might 
live for three or four months. 

AGE OF THE QTJBEN. 

As the queen does little or no 
outdoor work, and is seldom 
killed by violence as are the 
drones, we might expect her to 
live to a good old age, and this 
she does, despite her arduous 
e^g-laying duties. Some queens 
die, seemingly, of old age, the 
second reason, but generally 
they live through the second or 
third, and we have had them 
lay very well even during the 
lourth year. They are seldom 
profitable after tlie third >ear, 
and the Italians will sometimes 
li:ive a young queen •helping 
her mother" in her egg-laying 
duties, befoie she becomes un- 
profitable. 

i^If a very large amount of 
brood is found in a hive, two queens will 
often be found, busily employed, and this 
point should be rememliered while seeking 
to introduce valuable queens. 

:^: ALT ALFA, OR LUCERNE. {Medlcago 
satini). This one of the clovers is very 
closely related to, and indeed greatly resem- 
bles, sweet clover, which latter is de-crihcd 
under the head of Clovku. Allalfa lias. 



ALFALFA. 



ALFALFA. 



now come to be one of the most important 
honey-plants of the j^reat West— especially 
those arid regions that have to be irrigated. 
It is grown most extensively in Colorado, 
Wj'oming, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Kansas, 
Nebraska, New Mexico, Wasliington, Ore- 
gon, Idaho, and is now making rapid strides 
in California, Texas, and other States. 

It has been grown, in an experimental 
way, in many of tlie Eastern States; but 
outside of irrigated regions, and some parts 
of the West not irrigated, it is not known 
to yield honey to any considerable extent. 
While it makes an excellent forage-plant in 
a few localities in the East, permitting from 
two to four cuttings, it is grown as a hay, 
particularly in the Western States mention- 
ed; for there is no other forage-plant that 
will yield the same value per acre of fodder 
or hay in the regions that have to be irrigat- 




METHOD OF STACKING ALFALFA HAY. 



ed. It yields anywhere from 3 to 5 tons per 
acre, and gives from 3 to 5 cuttings to the 
season, and, luider favorable circumstances, 
it is even claimed that 6 and 7 have been 
made. For the best hay it should be cut 
when the blooming commences; but, unfor- 
tunately for tlie bee-keeper, this alsocuts off 
the supply of nectar when it is llowing at its 
very best; for alfalfa, when in liloom in the 
irrigated regions, is perhaps the greatest 



honey-plant in the world. But notwith- 
standing the interests of the bee-keeper, the 
rjinchers cut their alfalfa just as soon as it 
begins to bloom, irrespective of the fact 
that it is ''killing the goose that lays the 
golden egg " for the bee-keeper. After cut- 
ting, it is stacked in the open field* in a 
stack that will run anywhere from 10 to 100 
tons in capacity. 

As one goes through the irrigated regions 
of Arizona, California, Idaho, Utah, and 
Colorado, in a Pullman car going at the rate 
of 50 or 60 miles an hour, he sees hiuidreds 
and hundreds of such stacks; and where one 
stack has been cut into, or opened up, he 
sees not the dull grayish-brown hay of the 
East, but a beautiful grass-green clover hay; 
and it seems to keep green, no matter how 
old it is, provided it is not faded out by the 
intense sunlight that pours down with such 
relentless fury on the Great Amer- 
ican Desert. But it is only the 
top layers that are faded. A few 
inches below, the hay is of the 
beautiful green color. 

The irrigation needed to grow it 
for forage makes the crop almost 
certain; and those bee-keepers lo- 
cated in the vicinity of alfalfa- 
growing can rely almost as certain- 
ly on a crop of honey, the very fin- 
est, richest, thickest in the world. 
Of all the honey we have ever tast- 
ed we know of nothing, not even 
clover (which hns formerly held the 
first rank), that can equal it. It 
runs from 12 to 13 lbs. to the gal- 
lon, while most eastern honeys run 
from 11 to 12 lbs. This heaviness 
of body is due to the dryness of the 
atmosphere in which it grows; for 
where alfalfa nourishes at its best, 
hives made of the best seasoned 
white pine will shiink and twist 
and check in a manner that is 
truly astonishing to a " tender- 
foot." A light dry atmosphere a 
mile above the level of the sea, in 
the regions of Denver, almost en- 
tirely devoid of dews and frosts, a cloudless 
sky, occasional hot winds, a bright sun that 
pours down, unobstructed by cloud or mist, 
causes every thing to dry up, and even honey 
to thicken— so much so that it is difficult to 
throw it out of combs with the best extract- 
ors. Indeed, we found that some bee-keep- 

*In the irrigated regions it scarcely ever rains, and 
tlieref ore great barns for the storage of the hay are 
not necessary. 



ALFALFA. 



ALFALFA. 




THE AVAY ALFALFA HAY IS STACKED ON lUUU AND oUOU ACKE FARMS IN THE WEST. 



ers were obliged to place their extractors in 
warm rooms, and even warm the combs 
sometimes before extracting, so thick is the 
hoiiey. And then to do any thing like a 
good job of extracting one must give the 
extractor-baskets a h gh rotative speed, and 
this necessarily puts a great strain on the 
wire cloth and the bracing of the extractor. 

We have already spoken of the superb 
quality of alfalfa honey. If any one takes a 
liking to it, as we liave done, he will be al- 
most spoiled for eating any other honey. 
Some of it is so thick and tine that it can be 
almost chewed like so much delicious wax 
candy. The flavor is a little like that of 
white clover, with a slight trace of mint 
that is very pleasant. In color it is quite 
equal to it, and in every other way it has no 
superior, althougli in some i^arts of the 
West the color is a light amber. In the vei y 
hot portions of the United States it is dis- 
posed to be darker than in the colder locali- 
ties. The Colorado alfalfa is as a rale tlie 
lightest in color. 

The nectar from alfalfa is secreted so 
abundantly during the time it is in bloom 
that anywhere from 100 to 500 colonies can 
be supported in a given location. In Colo- 
rado, however, it is found more profitable to 
have ajnaries containing no more than from 
100 to 150 colonies, owing to the very great 
overstocking in many of the best localities. 
Bee-keepers have rushed to this land of gold 
and golden honey in such numbers that in 
the great alfalfa-growing regions apiaries 



are stuck in very closely, from half a mile 
to a mile apart, so it is. not now profitable to 
have more than 100 colonies to the yard. In 
other localities not so much overstocked, 
from 200 to 300 colonies can be kept in a 
single apiary. 

For a given acreage there is no plant or 
tree, unless it is basswood, that will support 
as many colonies. In several localities in 
Colorado aud Arizona, within a radius of 
five miles there will be anywhere from two 
to seven thousand colonies, the like of which 
can not be found anywhere else in the world, 
probably. 

In Kansas and Nebraska, in the unirri- 
gated regions, it is being grown more and 
more; where, too, it is so dry, and the soil 
so alkaline, it was supposed nothing would 
grow. It has been found that the roots of 
the alfalfa will pierce the hardpan, reach 
down into the moist subsoil, and leach out 
the alkali. Some of these lands have thus 
been transformed into productive ranches. 
With the onward march of the alfalfa has 
come the busy bee to take its share of the 
wealth. 

There is scarcely a prettier sight than al- 
falfa when in bloom. The beautiful bluish 
or violet tinted flowers present a mass of 
color that is truly striking to one who has 
never seen the like of it before; and the 
fields are measured, not by the acre, but by 
the square mile. Indeed, we rode through 
one ranch in a Pullman car, going probably 
50 miles an hour, that seemed all of -10 min- 



ALFAJ.FxV. 



ALFALFA. 
















the; celebrated ai,fal,fa pi,ant and root. 

The plant represented in this plate grew in a rich, loose soil, with a heavy clay subsoil and an abundant 
supply of water, the water level ranging from 4 to 8 feet from the surface at different seasons of the year. 
The diameter of the top was IS inches, and the number of stems 360. The plate shows how these crowns gather 
soil around them, for the length of the underground stems is seen to be several inches, and this represents the 
accumulation of nearly this much material about it. 

This is one of the largest plants that I have yet found. The specimen, as photographed, was dug April 
30, 1896.— £)>-. Headden, in Bulletin No. J5, '•Alfalfa.'' 



utes in going through it— not acres, but 
miles and miles of it as far as the eye could 
reach on each side of the track; and stacks 
and stacks of it, aggregating 100 tons to the 
pile, more than one could count if he were 



to try. Imagine, if you please, the effect of 
seeing such a field all in bloom, and mowing- 
machines going through it cutting it down. 
Imagine, too, the happy hum of the bees go- 
ing to and from these immense fields. Then , 



ALFALFA, 



ANATOMY OF THE BEE. 



truly, is the harvest of both rancher and 
bee-keeper. 

No time is lost. The rancher is eager to 
sj^et the whole cut as .soon as possible. The 
bee-keeper, on the other liand, hopes that 
his rancher co-laborer may make as slow 
work as possible ; for as the mowing-ma- 
chines go through the ti' id, the bee-keeper 
sees a gradual decrease in the ttowot' nectar. 
At the rate the mowers are progressing he 
can tell to a day when the hay will all be 
cut, and when the honey or the nectar will 
cease to flow. In producing con. b honey he 
supplies his colony with just enough sections 
so the bees may fill every one of them at the 
close of the honey-llow which he knows in 
advance to a day. When the hay is all cut, 
then he awaits the new growth, the new 
bloom, and then, again, there is a scramble 
for honey on the jiart of the bee-keepei- and 
the bees, and another scramble to get the 
hay down before it grows to be too old or 
out of bloom. 

There is a growing tendency of late for 
the ranchman in some localities to cut the 
hay before it comes into l)loom. It is claim- 
ed that the early cutting makes a better 
quality of hay. However that may be, if 
the i)ractice should become universal one of 
the greatest honey-plants of the world will 
be cut off from the bees. In any case, 
fortunate is that bee keeper who is located 
in the vicinity of those alfalfa-fields devoted 
to the growing of alfalfa seed; for all such 
have the benefit of the entire blooming imtil 
the flower fades and the seed-pod takes its 
place. It is in these regions especially that 
a large number of colonies per yard can be 
supported. 

Most of the best alfalfa-fields in the West 
have been taken by bee-keepers; and unless 
one can take a range vacated by another by 
death or otherwise, or get it by purchase, it 
is a matter of common honor that the new 
comer, should keep out; still, theie are some 
who will squeeze in just a few colonies and 
gradually encroach upon the territory until 
there is not much in it for any one. 

APPEARANCE OF THE ALFALFA. 

To one who is unacquainted with the plant, 
alfalfa looks a good deal like sweet clover; 
and when the two plants are young it takes 
even an expert to detect the difference; but 
as they grow older the alfalfa, assumes moie 
of a heavy bushy character; and the other, 
sweet cliiver, takes on more the appearance 
of a treelike weed. 



CULTIVATION OF ALFALFA. 

While it seems to grow best in the raid 
regions watered by irrigation ditches, it also 
grows in localities where there is not too 
much rainfall or tlie soil is not too wet. It 
seems to do best on a light sandy soil with a 
loose or porous subsoil, and the roots run 
for 4 to 12 feet down— on the average per- 
haps 5 or 6 feet. The seed may be sown 
broadcast or in drills about 12 inches apart. 
The amount ]ier acre varies greatly. Some 
think that 10 lbs. is sufficient, while others 
argue in favor of 30 lbs. The average 
amount seems to be from 15 to 20 lbs. If too 
small an amount of seed is sown, the plants 
grow large and coarse; whereas if a larger 
amount is used, a larger number of plants 
result in smaller stems and better hay. 

Alfalfa is what is called a perennial— tliat 
is, it lives on from year to year, and the 
great difficulty of growing it in the East is 
to get it to make a stand. If it can be once 
started it will grow on from year to year 
with very little trouble. 

The average life of the plants under ordi- 
nary conditicais seems to be about twelve 
years, although some claim they will live as 
long as fifty years; but good authorities 
seem to doubt the statement. 

Of late J ears the culture of alfalfa has 
been taken up in the Central, Southern, and 
Eastern States to a considerable extent, and 
with some success. It ought to be under- 
stood, however, it is most useful where 
"soiling" is practiced. European farmers 
who live in a similar climate prefer sainfoin 
to alfalfa, claiming it produces a finer hay, 
and is otherwise more suitable. For South- 
ern Europe soola is prefured. All three 
are similar in habit and culture, but alfalfa 
IS the rankest grower. See Sainfoin. 

For some of the data just given, and for 
the half-tone illustration shown on page 8, 
we are indebted to Bulletin No. 35, entitled 
"Alfalfa," from the State Agricultural Col- 
lege, Fort Collins, Col., by Dr. ^Y. P. Head- 
den, Chemist. 

ANATOMY OF THE BEE. For the 

main* facts of this article we are indebted 
to "The Honey-Bee," a scientific work by 
Thos. Wm. Cowan, editor of the BriUsh Bte 
Journal. Material gathered from other 
sources is duly acknowledged. 

We will first call attention to the alimen- 
tary canal— that is, tlie organs of digestion 
andassimilation. What is digestion? Cow- 
an says, " It is the separation of the nutrient 
part of food from the non-nutrient, and the 



ANATOMY OF THE BEE. 



10 



ANATOMY OF THE BEE. 



conversion of the nutrient into a liquid fit to 
mingle with the blood, and tlius nourish the 
liody of the insect." We all know how the 
bee gathers up its food through its wonder- 
ful and delicate little tongue. It then passes 
into a little tube just below the point a, in 
the engraving, called the " oesophagus," or 



S - 




know what the bees were working on. Sus- 
pecting that they were gathering juices from 
over-ripened raspberries on the vines, we 
grasped a bee by its waist and abdomen, and 
pulled until the parts were separated, when 
there was revealed the little honey-sac, 
which had di?engaged itself from the abdo- 
men. This contained a 
light iiurple or wine-col- 
ored liquid. Thes-izeof 
this honey-sac, as nearly 
as we recollect now% was 
a good big eighth of an 
inch; and we should 
judge that the bee had 
all it could contain in 
its little pocket. Che- 
shire says that, when 
the honey-sac is full, it 
is } of an inch in diam- 
^ eter. This would agree 

with our observations. 



'-~7i 



^ 



r 

/ 



STOMACH-MOU'J II. 



HONEY-BEE DISSECTED: AFTER WITZGALL. 



"gullet." We find a similar organ in our 
own bodies, leading from the mouth and 
communicating directly with the stomach. 
This oesophagus passes through the waist of 
the bee, or thorax, as it is called, and to the 
honey-stomach g in the abdomen. It is in 
this little sac, although it can hold but a tiny 
droi> at a time, that millions and millions of 
l)ounds of nectar are carried annually and 
stored in our combs. This sac (/ is located 
in the fore part of the abdomen. 
Several years ago we had a curiosity to 



The wonderful stom- 
ach-mouth, /i, solves a 
very difficult problem. 
Honey or nectar swal- 
lowed by the bee goes 
directly into the honey- 
sac, wiiere it may re- 
main for days un- 
changed, just as if in a 
ghiss can. When the 
bee desires, it takes hon- 
ey or pollen from the 
honey-sac into the chyle 
stomach, where it is 
changed into chyme. 
This chyme the nuree 
bees feed to the brood, 
as also to the queen and 
the drones. But how 
can chyme be passed 
from the chyle-stomach 
out through the honey- 
sac without having a lot 
of raw nectar mixed with it? The stomach- 
mouth solves the problem by moving up and 
joining itself to the oesophagus, leaving the 
honey-sac shut out entirely. This will be 
better understood by leferring to the draw- 
ings by Dr. Breunnich. 

TRUE STOMACH. 

This corresponds to the stomach in our 
own bodies, and performs the same function 
in the way of digestion in converting the 
nutrient particles of the food into blood. 
The inside walls of the stomach have cer- 



ANATOMY OF THE BEE. 



ANATOMY OFITHE BEE. i 



^^ r/& / LoNilTaDlf/Al- 

S£CT(OW TtifiOUCtH STOrAACH MOUTtt 




ENLARGED DRAWING SHOWING STOMACH-MOUTH, BY DR. BRUENNICH. 



tain cells which perform certain olfices; but 
without more definite engravings it will be 
impossible to describe them in detail. 

The next organ is the small intestine, or, 
as it is sometimes called, the "ileum." In 
the human body the small intestines are 
much more elaborate. It is into this that 
the food, after its digestion, passes, and 
where, by absorption, the nutrient particles 
not already absorbed pass into the blood, and 
so on throughout the system. 

It will be noted, also, at I, some small 
radiating filaments. These are called the 
malpighian tubes. It is not certain what 
their office is, but it is thought that these 
are the urinary organs. 

At the end of the small intestine, k (page 
10), will be seen an enlargement, m. This is 
called the colon. Although the appearance 
of the colon in the bee is different from that 
in the human body, yet its functions are 
very much the same; and if allowed to be- 
come dammed up by excreta (that is, by re- 
tention during winter) it is liable to cause 
disease in the bee, just the same as in the 
human body. See Dysentery. Mr. Cow- 
an, the author of the book mentioned at the 
outset, says: 



F'rom the colon, what remains of the undigested 
food is expelled by the anal opening-. For this pur- 
pose strong- muscles exist, by -which the colon is 
compressed and the excreta ejected. 

The quantity of the excreta voided, usually of a 
dark-brown color, is legulated by the nature of the 
food; bad honey, an improper substitute for honey 
(such as glucose) producing a larger amount, -while 
good honey and good syrup produce less, a larger 
proportion of it being digested and absorbed. It is, 
therefore, important that bees should have good 
food, as, in a healthy condition, workers never void 
their fteces in the hive, but on the wing. In the 
winter it is retained until voided on their first flight. 

So you see, then, that bad food makes 
mischief, just the same as it does in the hu- 
man body, and it is in this colon that the 
overplus of faeces is stored during winter. 

HOW THE BEE "MAKES" HONEY. 

After the nectar is gathered it is then 
transferred from the tongue to the oesoph- 
agus and thence to the honey-stomach, g 
(page 10). It has been shown by experiment 
that there are many more pollen grains in 
the nectar than in honey; hence the little 
stomach-mouth, h, comes into play in sepa- 
rating the grains from the honey. On ar- 
rival at the hive, the bee regurgitates — that 
is, expels the contents of the honey-sac into 



ANATOMY OF THE BEE. 



12 



ANATOMY of; THE BEE. 



the cell; but (luring its stay in the honey-sac 
ttie nectar has undergone a change. 

Ikit the bee may not regurgitate the hon- 
ey, for it may pass directly into the chyle- 
stomach. We see, therefore, that, when a 




FiU. 7. JLUMGITUDINAL SECTION THKOl 611 

THE STOMACH-MOUTH. — Bruennich. 
Tliis.is further explained in Fig. 1—6. 

swarnf'issnes, the bees, after filhng their 
honey-sacs to their full capacity (a very 
snuiU drop), can carry with them a supply of 
food to^last them for several days; and e^ en 
while on the wing, through that little stom- 



/'^" 


^rntf^m.^^ 


mk 




J^^M 






^. 




■^ 



FIG. H.— TRANSVERSE SECTION THKOl OH 

THE STOMACH-MOUTH IN THE MIDST OF 

OF THE LIPS, THE HONEY-SAC 

BEING EMPTY.— iJrwerjwic/i. 

ach-mouth, they may take nourishment. So 
much for the alimentary canal, its office in 
digestion, and the honey-stomach. 

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. 

By referring to the general engraving 
there will be seen parallel and medial lines 
passing almost the entire length of the bee, 
and linally communicating with the brain. 



(I. Along at irregular intervals will be seen 
thickened masses called "ganglia.' These 
are really little brains, and, as in our own 
bodies, preside over the involuntary muscles. 
The largest ganglion is the brain, at « — the 
seat of voluntary action and intelligence. 
One is surprised in reading through chapters 
10 and 1 1 of Mr. Cowan's work how thorough- 
ly scientists have studied the structure of 
the nervous system as found in the bee. 
Even tlie tiny brain has been dissected, and 
its various functions pointed out— that is, 
what parts communicate with the antennte, 
what part with the eyes, etc. It is interest- 
ing to look over the sizes of d iff rent brains 




FIG. y —SAME AS FIG. 8, IJUT THE HONEY- 
SAC NOT QUITE EMPTY.— Bruennich. 

found in different insects. We quote here 
a paragraph found on page 70 of Mr. Cowan's 
book: 

ll is generallj' adniiUed, that the size of the bniiii 
is ill itropuitLon to the developmeut of intellifctiue; 
and Duj irdiu, who made careful measurements, 
gives the following- sizes: In the worker bee tlie 
brain is the jij of the body; in the ant, ^Ju! the ich- 
neumon, 4J0; thB cockchafer, 39'.>o; the dytiscus, oi- 
water-beetlCf jn'oo- 

In man the proportion is 1 to 40, but we nil 
know thai he is of the very highest ordi r of 
intelligence. However, it is not surprisiig 
to learn that the bee has the largest bra.n 
of any of the insects, exceeding by far even 
that of the ant, whose intelligence has been 
admired over and over again. 

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. 

It is also interesting to inquire how the 
bee breathes. By referring to the engrav- 
ing (page 10) we observe a couple of large air- 
sacs, called the " trachea," corresponding 
somewhat to the lungs These are located 
on either side of the abdomen, as at t. They 
are then divided and subdivided into small, 



ANATOMY OF THE BEE. 



13 



ANAT(.i]\iy OF THE I'.EE. 



er tracliea, and tliese in 
turn ramify all through 
the entire liody. Instead 
of fresh air being re- 
ceived in at the mouth, 
as with us,fresh supplies 
are admitted through 
little moutl:s called 14 
''spiracles.'' Ten of 
these are located in the 
abdomen— five on eacli 
side— and are situated 
just about on the mar- 
gin of the scales, be- 
tween the dorsal and 
ventral segments. Four 
others are situated on 
the thorax, or waist, 
two on each side. Yo\i 
may, thereftire, decapi- 
tate a bee and it will 
continue Ireathing as 
before. If you place a 
pencil dipped in ammo- 
nia near its body, the 
headless insect will 
struggle to get away; 
and if the pencil touches 
its feet, the ganglia al- 
ready spoken of com- 
municate the sensation 
to the othergangl a,and 
at once all the feet come 
to the rescue to push off 
tlie offending object, or, 
it may be, to take closer liold so the sting 
may do its work: for, if bees are daubed with 
honey they will die very soon from stiangu- 
hition, because these little mouths or spira- 
cles are closed. A bee may swim around in 
a trough of water, and, though its head be 
entirely out. it will drown just the same, bc- 




THE GENERAL SCHEME OF THE STOMACH-MOUTH OF THE HONEY- 
BEE IN DJFFEKENT SUV ATAONt^.—BruennMi. 

a, a field or swarm bee fasting, 
h. the same eating' honey. 

c, a brood-bee eating' pollen. 

d, a lirood-bie tetdiug' 1he brood. 

e, Valvuhir cIkpc from the chj'le-stomach against tbe honey-sac, -wlien tl e 
fli-st is coniracling' itself foi- removing its contents into the small intestine. 



cause these spiracles or breathing-mouths 
are submerged under water. On a hot day, 
if the entrance of a hive 1 e closed the bees 
will soon begin to sweat: and, thus becom- 
ing daubed, the delicate spiracles are closed, 
causing suffocation aid diath. Such bets 
look ns if they had been boiled. 




l''[0. 1.— Delicate ends of tbe finely divided tracheas nu. ;i.-ijargfr iraru 
carrying air into all parts of bee's body.-- Bn(en?itc/i. which prevent tubes 



FiO. 3.- Larger traclieas showing cliitinous spires 
which prevent tubes from collapsing.— BrMen>iic7i. 



ANATOMY OF THE BEE. 



14 



ANGEK OF BEES. 



ROYAL .JELLY, WHAT IT IS. 

It was formerly supposed lluit royal jelly 
was a secretion from certain glands; but 
that idea has been completely upset by 
Schiemenz, Von Planta, and Sclionfeld who 
have proved that it is chyme from the chyle- 
stomach. 

This chyme is produced in what is called 
the chyle-stomach, shown at i, in the cut on 
page 10; and worker larvae are fed on this 
concentrated food for three days, after 
which they are weaned. " On the fourth 
day this food is changed and the laiva is 
weaned; for the first pap has a large quanti- 
ty of honey added, but no undigested pollen, 
as Prof. Leuckhart liad stated. The dione 
larvae are also weaned, but in a different 
way; for, in addition to honey, a large quan- 
tity otpoUen is added after the fourth day." 
And right here we can not do better than 
quote from Mr. Cowan: 

Microscopic examination sliowed that, in the queen 
and worlier havae, there was no undigested pollen; 
wliereas in the drone larvas, after the fourth day, 
large numhers of pollen grains were found. In one 
milligram, no less than 1.5,000 pollen grains were 
counted, and these were from a number of different 
plants. . . . This work of Dr. Planta's, we think 
conclusively proves that the food is not a secretion' 
and that the nurses have the power of altering its 
constituents as they may require for the different 
bees. . . . Royal jelly is, therefore, chyle food, 
and this is also most likely the food given to the 
queen-bee. Schoenfeld has also recently shown that 
drones are likewise dependent upon this food, given 
to them by workers, and that. If it is withheld, they 
die after three days, in the presence of abundance 
of honey. This, he thinks, accounts for the quiet 
way in which drones perish at the end of the season. 
It will now be easily understood, that if weaning of 
the worker larviB does not take place at the propei 
time, and if the flr.st nourishing food is continued 
too long, it may be the cause of developing the 
ovaries, and so produce fertile workers, just as the 
more nourishing food continued during the whole 
of the larval existence in the case of a queen de- 
velops her ovaries, or even in the absence of a queen 
the feeding of workers on this rich food may tend to 
have the same effect. This, then, is the solution of 
loyal jelly- and brood food. 

For a more exhaustive treatment of the 
whole subject, see Cowan's work, The Hon- 
ey-bee, Cook's Manual of the Apiary, or 
Chesliire's Bees and Bee-keeping, Vol. I. 

AVTGXiB. OF BIjXjS. We confess we 
do not like the term " anger,'' when applied 
to bees, and it almost makes us angry when 
we hear people speak of their being " mad,'" 
as if they were always in a towering rage, 
and delight to inflict severe pain on every- 
thing and everybody coming near them. 
Bees are, on the contrary, the pleasantest, 



most sociable, genial, and good-natured lit- 
tle fellows one meets in all animated crea- 
tion, when one understands them. Why, 
we can tear their beautiful comb all to bits 
right before their very eyes, and without a 
particle of resentment; but with all the 
patience in the world they will at once set 
to work to repair it, and that, too, without a 
word of remonstrance. If you pinch them 
they will sting; and anybody who has ener- 
gy enough to take care of himself would do 
as much had he the weapon. 

We as yet know very little of bees com- 
paratively; and the more we learn, the easier 
we find it to be to get along without any 
clashing in regard to who shall be master. 
In fact, we take all their honey now, almost 
as fast as they gather it: and even if we are 
so thoughtless as to starve them to death, 
no word of complaint is made. 

There are a few circumstances under 
which bees seem " cross;" and although we 
may not be able to account exactly for it, 
we can take precautions to avoid these un- 
pleasant features, by a little care. A few 
years ago a very intelligent friend procured 
some Italians, an extractor, etc., and com- 
menced bee culture. He soon learned to 
handle them, and succeeded finely; when it 
came time to extract, the whole business 
went on so easily that he was surprised at 
what had been said about experienced hands 
being needed to do the work. He had been 
in the habit of doing this work as directed, 
toward the middle of the day, while the 
great mass of the bees were in the fields; 
but in the midst of a heavy yield of clover 
honey, when the hives were full to overflow- 
ing, they were one day stopped by a heavy 
thunder-shower. This, of course, drove the 
bees home, and at the same time washed 
the honey out of the blossoms so completely 
that they had nothing to do but remain in 
the hives until more was secreted. Not so 
with their energetic and enthusiastic owner. 
As soon as the rain had ceased, the hives 
were again opened and an attempt made to 
take out the frames, as but a few hours be- 
fore; but the bees that were all gentleness 
then, seemed now possessed of the very 
spirit of mischief and malice: and when all 
hands had been severely stung, they con- 
cluded that prudence was the better part of 
valor and stoi)ped operations for the day. 
While loads of honey were coming in all the 
while, and every bee rejoicing, none were 
disposed to be cross; but after the shower, 
all hands were standing around idle; and 
when a hive was opened, each was ready to 



AXGER OF BEES. 



15 



AXGER OF BEES. 



take a grab from its neighbor, and the re- 1 
suit was a free fight in a very short time. I 

There is nothing in the world that will i 
induce bees to sting with such wicked reck- ' 
lessness as to have them get to quarreling I 
over combs or honey left exposed when they j 
have nothing to do. From a little careless- i 
ness in this respect, and nothing else, whole 
apiaries have been so demoralized that people 
were stung when passing along the stieet 
several rods distant. During the middle of \ 
the day. when bees were busily engaged on 
the tlowers. during a good yield, we have 
frequently left filled combs standing on the 
top of a hive from noon until supi'er time 
without a bee touching them: but to do this 
after a hard rain, or at a time when little or 
no honey is to be gathered in the fields, 
might result in the ruin of several colonies, 
and you and your bees being voted a nui- 
sance by the whole neighborhood. 

Almost every season we get more or less 
letters complaining that the bees have sud- 
denly become so cross as to be almost un- 
manageable, and these letters come along 
in .July, after the clover and linden have be- 
gun to slack up. The bees are not so very 
unlike mankind after all. and all you have 
to do is to avoid opening the hives for a few 
days, until they get used to the sudden dis- 
appointment f 'f having the avenues through 
which they were getting wealth so rapidly, 
cut oflE. After a week or ten days they will 
be almost as gentle as in the times when 
they gathered half a gallon of honey daily, 
if you are only careful about leaving hives 
open too long, or leaving any bits of honey 
or comb about. 

It is not easy to explain why bees sting so 
remorselessly and vindictively after having 
had a taste of stolen sweets, yet nearly all 
the experience we have had of trouble with 
stinging has been from this very cause. 
Bees from colonies that have a habit of rob- 
bing will buzz about one's ears and eyes 
for hours, seeming to delight in making one 
nervous and fidgety if they succeed in so do- 
ing, and they not only threaten, but often- 
times inflict, the most painful stings, and 
then buzz about in an infuriated way. as if 
frantic because unable to sting one a dozen 
times more after their sting is lost. The 
colonies that furnish this class of bees are 
generally hybiid. or perhaps black bees 
having just a trace of Italian blood. These 
bees seem to have a perfect passion for fol- 
lowing one about, and buzzing before the 
nose from one side to the other until one 
gets cross-eyed in trying t-o foUow their er- 



ratic oscillations), in a way that is most es- 
pecially provoking. One such colony an- 
noyed us so much while extracting that we 
killed the queen, although she was very pro- 
lific, and substituted a fuU-blood Italian. 
Although it is seldom a pure Italian follows 
one about in the manner mentioned, yet an 
occasional colony may contain bees that do 
it; at least we have found such, where the 
workers were all three-landed. Ihat it is 
possible to have an apiary without any such 
disagreeable bees, we have several times 
demonstrated: but oftentimes you will have 
to discard some of your very best honey- 
gatherers, to be entirely rid of them. 

On occasions like this it is advisable to use 
robber-traps. See Robbers. 

With a little practice the apiarist will tell 
as soon as he comes near the apiary whether 
any angry bees are about, by the high key- 
note they utter when on the wing. It is 
well known that with meal feeding we have 
perfect tranquillity although bees from every 
hive in the apiary may be working on a 
square yard of meal. Xow. should we sub- 
stitute honey for the meal, we should have a 
perfect uproar, for a taste of honey found in 
the open air during a dearth of pasturage, 
or at a time when our bees have learned to 
get it by stealing instead of honest industry, 
seems to have the effect of setting every bee 
crazy. In some experiments to determine 
how and why this result came about, we had 
considerable experience with angry bees. 
After they had been robbing, and had be- 
come tranquil, we tried them with dry su- 
gar: the quarrelsome bees fought about it 
for a short time, but soon resumed their reg- 
ular business of hanging about the weU-filled 
hives, trjing to creep into even- crack and 
crevice, and making themselves generally 
disagreeable all arouud. If a hive was to 
be opened, they were into it almost before 
the cover was raised, and then resulted a 
pitched battle between them and the in- 
mates: the operator was sure to be stung by 
one or both parties, and. pretty soon, some 
of the good people indoors would be asking 
what in the world made the bees so awfully 
cross, saying that they even came indoors 
and tried to sting. Xow. why could they 
not work jieaceably on the sugar as they do 
on the meal, or the clover-blossoms in -June? 
"We dampened the sugar with a sprinkler, 
and the bees that were at work on it soon 
started for home with a load: then began 
the high key-note of rolbing. faint at first, 
then louder and louder, until we began to be 
almost frightened at the mischief that might 



ANGEK OF BEES. 



16 



ANTS. 



ensue. Wlien tlie dampness was all licked 
up, they soon subsided into their usual con- 
dition. The effect of feeding honey in the 
open air is very much worse than that of 
feeding any kind of syrup, and syrup from 
white sugar incites robbing in a much great- 
er degree than that from brown sugar; the 
latter is so little relished by them that they 
use it only when little else is to be found. 
It is by the use of damp brown sugar that 
we get rid of the greater part of what are 
usually termed angry bees, or bees that pre- 
fer to prowl around, robbing and stinging, 
rather than gather honey " all the day," as 
the greater part of the population of the 
apiary does. The sugar should be located 
several rods away, and should be well pro- 
tected from the rain, but in such a way as 
to allow the bees to have free access. When 
no llowers are in bloom, they will work on it 
in great numbers; but when honey is to be 
found, you will see none but the prowling 
iolil:ers round it. These, you will very soon 
notice, are mostly common bees and these 
having a very little Italian blood. We have 
seen Italians storing honey in boxes while 
the common bees did nothing but work in 
the sugar-barrels. Where you work without 
a veil, it is very convenient to have these 
annoying bees out of the way, and, even if 
they belong to our neighbors, we prefer to 
furnish them with all the cheap sugar they 
can lick up. 

HOW THE SOURCE FROM WHICH BEES ARE 
GATHERING AFFECTS THEIR TEMPER. 

It has been found that bees are crosser 
when working on some blossoms than on 
others. For example they seem to be more 
inclined to sting when working on buck- 
wheat than on clover. This is probably due 
to the fact that the latter yield nectar all 
(lay while the former will in most localities 
yield an hour or two in the morning and 
again toward night. The stoppage of the 
tlow seems to affect the bees adversely. 

In the same way they are cross when work- 
iug on honey-dew from hickory and oaks. 
This yields heavily in the morning and lets 
up and stops during the middle hours of the 
day. The morning dews soften the saccha- 
rine matter secreted on the leaves of these 
trees, and when it dries up again the nectar 
supply is cut off and the bees are cross. 
During 1909, when there was so much honey- 
dew from oaks and hickories from all over 
the coiuitry, bees that year were reported to 
be exceptionally cross. 

To make bees good-natured, a honey-plant 
must be a continuous yielder all dny. So 



long as it keeps up its supply, there is 
quiet. 

In discussing this general subject we have 
attempted to show some of the causes that 
make bees cross, in order that beginners 
may be forewarned and on their guard. 
Now, it may seem a little strange if, under 
the head of Outdoor Feeding, under the 
head of Feeding and How to Stop Bob- 
bing, under the head of Robbing, we should 
recommend the very thing that we have 
warned the beginner not to do — that is, to 
expose sweets in the open air to which they 
may help themselves. When the reader has 
read over s-ome of the chapters in this woik 
he will be able to stop robbing \)y doing the 
r( ry ihitty tliat starts it in the first place, on 
the princij le that '' like cures like." After 
one has had some experience he can actual- 
ly stop robbing by putting out a counter- 
attraction in the shape of feed outdoors; 
and when the bees are busy with this feed 
one may open u]) the hives and do any thing 
he pleases. The different cases of this kind 
will be discussed under the sub-title of Feed- 
ing Outdoors under the general head of 
Feeding and Feeders; of Extractors, 
and again under the sub-title How to Stop 
Robbing, under the head of Robbing. 

Where one has only a single hive and no 
neighbors who keep bees, the case is some- 
thing like Robinson Crusoe on the island ; 
no chance for stealing, and consequently 
nothing to be cross alxuit. Rees are seldom 
cross, unless through some fault or careless- 
ness of their owners. See Robbing; also 
Stings. 

ANTS. Although we have given the 
matter considerable attention, we can not 
find that ants are guilty of any thing that 
should warrant, here in the North, the api- 
arist in waging any great warfare against 
them. Some years ago a visitor frightened 
us by saying that the ants about our apiary 
would steal every drop of honey as fast as 
the bees could gather it. Accordingly we 
prepared ourselves with a tea-kettle of boil- 
ing water, and not only killed the ants but 
some grapevines growing near. Afterward 
there came a spring when the bees, all but 
about eleven colonies, dwindled away and 
died, and the hives filled with honey, scat- 
tered about the apiary unprotected, seemed 
to be as fair a chance for the ants that had 
not "dwindled" a particle, as they could 
well ask for. We watched to see how fast 
they would carry away the honey, but, to our 
astonishment, they seemed to care more for 



ANTS. 



17 



ANTS. 



the hives that contained bees than for those 
containing only honey. We soon determin- 
ed that it was the warmth from the cluster 
that especially attracted them ; and as the 
hives were directly on the ground, the ants 
soon moved into several that contained only 
a small cluster and for a while both used one 
common entrance. As the bees increased. 
1 hey began to show a decided aversion to 
haviug two families in the same house, al- 
though the ants were evidently inclined to 
be peaceable enough until the bees tried to 
"•push"" matters, when they turned about 
and showed themselves fully able to hold 
possession. The bees seemed to be studying 
over the matter for a while, and finally we 
found them one day taking the ants, one by 
one. and carrying them high up in the air. 
and letting them drop at such a distance 
from their home that they would surely nev- 
er be able to walk back again. The bees, as 
fast as they became strong colonies, drove 
the ants out ; and our experience ever since 
has been, that a good colony of bees is never 
in any danger of being troubled in the least 
by ants. One weak colony, after battling 
awhile with a strong nest of the ants, 
swarmed out: but they might have done 
this any way. so we do not lay much blame 
to the ants. 

But ants do prove to lie very annoying in 
those apiaries where there is any attempt to 
keep the grass dovra with a lawn-mower. 
The little hillocks that they make all over 
the jard disfigure it to some extent, as well 
as forming more or less obstruction to the 
scythe and lawn-mower. While, as we have 
already said, ants do little if any damage to 
hives in the Xorth. yet as it is so easy to 
eradicate them it may be well to consider 
methods for their extermination. 

now TO DESTROY ANTS" XESTS. 

With a crowbar or a sharp stick and a 
mallet mak e a hole an inch or so in diame- 
ter, and about a foot deep, down through 
the center of the nest. Around this hole 
make two or three other similar ones, or 
more if the nest is a large one. Go to the 
drugstore and get about a dime"s worth of 
bisulphide of carbon. Be careful with the 
stuff, for it is very explosive, and the fumes 
of it should not be allowed to collect in the 
room where there is a gasoline flame or any 
stove or lamp burning. Prom this bottle 
pour about a tablespoonful of the liquid in 
each hole ; then immediately stop eaeli uj) 
with a plug of earth, for it is desired to have 
the fumes of the bisulphide penetrate all the 



galleries of the nest, thus destroying ants, 
larvse. and eggs. In a day or so it will be 
found that every thing formerly animate in 
and about that nest is dead— rf?-y dead. 

But if the nests are not very large, one 
can secure almost as good results by using 
coal oil or gasoline in place of the bisul- 
phide. But in using the^e, about twice or 
three times the quantity should be poured 
in each liole. We have tried both gasoline 
and kerosene, and have found each effective 
in destroying the nest. Of the two. the 
kerosene (or coal oil as sorne call it) seems 
to be preferable. In using bisulphide of 

! carbon, gasoline, or kerosene, be careful 

I about spilling or pouring any of it on the 
top of the nest, as that will kill the grslss. 

' leaving a brown spot right where it should 
be green. The bisulphide is more apt to kill 
the grass than the gasoline or coal oil, as it 
is much more powerful. All things consid- 
ered we would recommend the use of kero- 
sene. 

The best time to destroy ants" nests is to 
go early in the spring, before the ants have 
had an opportunity to make much of a hil- 

j lock ; then there will be less liability of kill- 
ing the grass: or, rather, a better opportu- 
nity for the grass to recover from its-' dose "" 

I during the early spring rains. 

AXTS IX THE SOUTH. 

These insects are much more troubles )me 
i:i the Southern States, and all warm cli- 
mates, in fact, than in the North. Some- 
times they are so large and powerful tliat 
they even set about to destroy the colony. 
We would first find the nest, and proceed to 
destroy by the use of kerosene or gasoline. 
If these do not prove to be powerful enough, 
use bisulphide of carbon, making three or 
four holes to the square foot of nest ; but in 
the case of the bisulphide, one must be care- 
ful to have each hole stopped up tight with 
plugs of earth, otherwise the gas will escape, 
and the effect of the liquid will be largely 
lost. 

But there is a species of ants in warm 
climates that have nests in trees that are 
inaccessible. Other ants are so small, and 
come such long distances, that it is almost 
impossiljle to find their nest. In such cases 
it has been recommended to place within 
tiieir reach some syrup or honey niixf^d with 
arsenic, Paris green, London purple, or 
strychnine. It is unnecessary to say that all 
vessels containing such poisonrms mixtures 
should be ])laced in a box covered witli 
screen just fine enougli to keep out bees, and 



ANTS. 



18 



ANTS. 



coarse enough to 
admit the ants. 
They will work 
on these poison- 
ous mixtures, 
and carry them 
home to their 
young, with the 
result that both 
mature insects 
as well as larvse 
will be destroy- 
ed, no matter 
where the nest 
may be. 

E. H. Schfeffle, 
of Murphys, Cal- 
ifornia, who rec- 
ommends this 




THE AUTHORS' APIARY IN CUBA. 



method of feed- ^'""•^ ci^ht or ten years ago we owned and operated an apiary in Cuba, the same 
run for honey as well as Ijees and queens; but tiie poor seasons finally com- 
pelled us to al)aHdon it. . . The hives heie shown are in straight rows and 
close tos'ether. Experience showed that this was a mistake, for there were 
no d'stinji'uishing' ol)jects by which the bees could mark their homes, and as 
a result theie was more or less confusion and robbing-. 



i n g a n ts with 
poisoned sweets, 
says the plan is 
very effective, 
for their visita- 
tions will soon 
cease. But he 
stipulates that 
the box contain- 
ing the poison- 
ous sweet should 
be placed in the 
trail of the ants. 
When it does 
not seem prac- 
ticable to de- 
stroy the pests 
they may be kept 
away from tlu' 
hive temporarilv 
by poiu'ing a lit- 
tle narrow trail 
of kerosene clear 




THE ROOF APlAliY oK C. H. W. WEBER, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



around the hive ^'^ cities bees are often put on the roofs of the building's. In all such eases it 
is advisable to provide shade, for the heal of the summer will he intense 

or hives. The in hot weather. If the roof becomes too hot for comfort it is advised to 
paint it white. 



ants will D come 

up to the oily line, and there stoi). 

Mr. Poppleton, of Florida, has graphically 
described in Glmnimjs the 

CARNIVOROUS .■VNTS. 

Witli one exception these ants are the worst ene- 
mies bees have here in Florida, and only constant 
vig:ilance from September to December inclusive 
will prevent the loss of many colonies every season. 
These ants are usually found in our hummock 
lands, and only occasionally in clean pine woods; 
are red in color; of very larg:e size, frequently mea- 
suring' nearly or quite lialf an inch in length: are 
strictly nocturnal in their liabits, lieing seldom seen 
in daytime except when disturbed or waging battle 
with .a colony of bees; are usually found in decayed 



wood, ihrougli which tliey cut out galleries for use 
as livi; !g-apartnients. A favorite place is in a partly 
decayed saw-palnief to root in the ground. Neai'ly 
every cabbage-jialmetto tree contains a colony of 
them among the boots near Its top, and for this rea- 
son a thick palmetto grove is one of tlie worst places 
an apiary can be located. They are also found in 
piles of old boards, and on the ground under old 
boards or logs. They also like to enter our liou«es 
and locate in trunks, boxes, drawers, and in almost 
any place where they can find a few inches of space 
to occupy. They are freciuently found in the tops 
of our liives if there is suflicient space above tlie 
bees undei' the cover. 

At sundown they start on their nightly quest for 
food; and if near an aniary a few of them will usu- 



ANTS. 



19 



ANTS. 



uUy be seen running on some of tlie hives. As 
long as only two or three can be seen on any one 
hive, no special attention need be given them; but 
if a dozen or more are seen it means that they have 
probably selected that hive for their own use, and it 
needs close watching. They will continue their 
legiilar attentions to that one hive, gradually in- 
creasing in numbers until they decide they are 
str(jng enough, when nearly the entire colony of 
ants will boldly attack the bees by biting off wings 
and legs, and crippling them so they are of no more 
u>e. Bees fight back courageously, the battle con- 
tinuing for hours, and sometimes a day or two, 
according to the relative strength of the two bellig- 
erents. The inside of the hive and the ground near 
by will be strewn with dead ants and dead and crip- 
pled bess; but it always ends with the destruction 
•jf all the bees, and the moving in and occupation of 
the hive by the ant colony. When ants luive once 
clioseu a certain colony of bees to work on, the bee- 
master has (jot to destroy the ants, root and branch, 
or they will in time destroy the bees. If a part only 
of the ants are destroyed they will simply bide their 
time until they have built up strong enough, and 
then do the work. I know of few or no living crea- 
tines more presistent in evil works than are these 
bee killing ants. They also, in certain localities, do 
great damage to queen-rearing nuclei. 

During the fall months I make it a practice almost 
every evening after dark in my home apiary, and as 
often as possible in the out-apiaries, to see by the 
light of a lantern the front of every hive; and any 
one on which I see three or four or more ants run- 
ning over has a marker placed on it. 1 f the number 
of ants on any one of these marked hives increases 
each night I give that hive especial attention until 
the ants get numerous enough to hegin to worry 
the bees. When tliis occurs, bees commence to 
wliiTie, asl call it— that is, utter a fine sharp note 
with their wings. As the ants get bolder the cry of 
the bees becomes louder and more frequent— so 
much so that I have frequently heard it fully fifty 
feet away. The ants usually worry the bees contin- 
ually for several nights, when suddenly the whole 
colony of ants starts in on a battle royal, which con- 
tinues for hours or even a day or two, until eveiy 
bee is disabled or driven out. A great many of ihe 
ants will also be killed; but how the bees do this is a 
mystery to me. 

When the battle has once been joined, the bie- 
keeper has a difficult task to save the bees; but this 
can usually be prevented. When the ants become 
plentiful enough at the hive to begin worrying the 
bees, there is usually a trail of going and returijing 
ants from their nest to the hive, and this can usually 
be located and traced to their nest, which, when 
found, should be left undisturbed until the follow- 
ing day, wlien all the ants will be at ht)me. If the 
nest can in>t be found the first time trying, I search 
again and until it is found. As soon as the nest is 
found, or search for it is given up for that night, I 
sprinkle some insect powder on their trail near the 
hive; also wherever on or around the hive I can do 
so to worry the ants and not injure the bees. This 
will usually keep the ants from doing any more 
harm that night. 

The next day when all the ants are at home, I take 
a kettle of boiling water, tear open the nest, and, if 
possible, kill every ant and egg. If a few of them 
are left they are likely to gather together, increase 
in time to their former strength, and again attack 



that same colony of bees. Whenever the nest is 
found in a box or pit ce of wood that can be easily 
moved with all the ants, the easiest and best plan is 
to carry them into the chicken-yard, break open the 
nest, and the hens will gladly do the rest of the bus- 
iness. They are very fond of both ants aud eggs; 
iiud they not only find them good to eat, but give 
their owner lots of fun watching the old rooster 
especially, kick and scold every time an ant bites 
one of his feet. I have had manj' a hearty laugh 
watching this performance. 

These ants are a great pest here in Florida. They 
destroy in the aggregate a great many colonies 
every fall. I know of one apiary which was entire- 
ly lost, largely, I judge, from what I hear, by these 
ants. At the best they are a great nuisance because 
they compel the bee-keeper to remain at home 
watching them at a season of the year when nothing 
is doing in the apiary, and the apiarist could, but 
for them, be awaj' on a holiday, or have some out- 
side business. O. O. Poppleton. 

Stuart, Fla , Dec. 9, 1905. 

Ants are a serious pest to l)ees in many 
tropical countries, notably in South America, 
w here they are omnipresent and almost om- 
nipotent. A species similar to that described 
by Mr. Poppleton in Florida exists all over 
tropical America, and particularly in the 
southern continent. He has so graphically 
described it, there is no necessity to enlarjie 
on it further. The worst- feature of these 
ants is their readiness to travel, so that, 
when one does destroy their nests, there is 




Morrison's ant-proof bee-hive shed. 

no assurance the apiary is safe from their at- 
tacks. Another bad feature is their habit 
of traveling by night ; in fact, nearly all 
their depredations are made in the dark. 

To circumvent them, it is necessary to de- 
stroy all their nests within a radius of KIO 
yards of the apiary by the application of bi- 
suljihide of carbon to their nests. But this 
precaution alone will not suflice, and it will 
be necessary to adopt further measures. 
Luckily it is not difficult to do this, as tropi- 
cal bee-keepers are obliged to keep their bee- 
hives under a shed, for excellent reasons. 

In erecting a shed, therefore, we can take 
measures to prevent effectually the ants 



ANTS. 



20 



Al'IARY. 



h;iviiig uccess to lh(» hives at Jill. All we 
have to do is to add enps to all llie posts 
used to suppoi't the stnicluie. The illustia- 
tlon preceding, shows very clearly how ihis 
is accomplished with but little expense or 
trouble. The cups are lilled with coal-tar, 
creoi-ote, or crude iietroleum, all of which 
the ants positively dislike for two reasons— 
they stick to their feet and the smell is vile. 
No ant will attempt to cross such a mess as 
this, hence the bees are secure. The warm 
climate keeps the tar, etc., always soft; and 
if some )-ain falls into the cups it does no 
harm, as the water also tastes of the tar. 

In working with the bees care should be 
taken to see nothing is left which will form 
a " bridge " ivhereby the ants will manage 
to reach the bee-hives while the apiarist is 
absent. One of the worst things that can 
happen is to allow the ants to get a taste of 
the bees, for once they do they are sure to 
linger around waiting for an opportunity to 
get into the hive. 

APIARIST. One who keeps bees, or a 
bee-keeper; and the plot of ground, includ- 
ing hives, bees, etc., is called an 

AFIARV. As you can not well aspire 
to be the former until you are possessed of 
the latter, we will proceed to start an apiary. 

LOCATION. 

There is scarcely a spot on the surface of 
the earth where mankind finds sustenance 
that will not, to some extent, support bees, 
although they may do much better in sume 
localities than in others. A few years ago it 
was thought that only localities especially 
favored would give large honey crops; but 
since the introduction of the Italiiins, and 
ttie new methods of management, we are 
each year a-tonished to hear of great yields 
here and there, and from almost eveiy quar- 
ter of the globe . It will certainly pay to try 
a colony or two of bees, no matter where 
you may be located. 

Bees are kept with much profit, even in 
the heart of some of our large cities. In 
this case the apiary is usually located on the 
roof of the building, that the bees may be 
less likely to frighten nervous people and 
those unacquainted with their habits. Such 
an apiary slundd be established like those 
on the ground in all essential points. 

It is not always possible to select just the 
location for an apiary that we might like, 
and we are therefore compelled to take what 
we can get ; but where conditions permit it 
is advisable to select the rear of a village 
lot ; or, if located on a farm, back of the 



house in an orchard. The ground should be 
rolled and smoothed down 8o that a lawn- 
mower can run over every portion of it, as 
the grass should be kept down around the 
hives. And then, a smooth plot of ground 
renders the use of a wheelbarrow or hand- 
cart for handling loads much more pleas- 
ant and convenient. An ideal spot would 
be an orchard of young trees seventy-five 
or a hundred feet from the road or highway. 
Usually the rear end of a village lot just 
back of the house will answer very nicely. 
If the apiary mw.si be located close to the 
highway, then a higli board fence should be 
placed between the bees and the street. A 
hedge of osage orange, or eveigreens ; a 
trellis of some sort of vine ; trees, shrubbery, 
or any thing that will cause the bees to raise 
their flight to a height of ten or twelve feet 
above the traffic of the street may be used. 
In any case, the bees should never be allow- 
ed to go direct from their hives on a line 
that would encounter vehicles orpedesti ians: 
otherwise their owner may have a lawsuit 
on his hands for alleged damages from bee- 
stings. See Bees as a Nuisance. 

TOO MUCH shade DETRIMENTAL. 

If the orchard where the bees are to be 
located is made up of old trees, then tJiere 
can be from four to five hives grouped under 
each tree. If, on the other hand, it consists 
of young ones, then not more than one or 
two hives should be placed at a tree, and in 
that case always on the north side, to be in 
the shade. The hives should be so located 
that they will get the morning sun up to 
eight or nine o'clock, and the afternoon sun 
from three or four o'clock on. Too much 
shade is detrimental, and too much hot sun 
pouring dirtctlv on ihe hives is equally bad. 
Experience has shown conclusively that a 
very dense bhade over bees in ihe morning 
hours is detrimental. Coli nies heated on 
the tc(st side of a building or barn, or under 
densely foliaged trees, so that they do not 
get the morning sun, will not, as a rule, be 
as far along by the time the honey-flow 
comes on as those that have only moderate 
shade. On the other hand, an afkryioon 
shade does not do as much harm as one in 
the forenoon. 

^Vell, suppose one does not have trees of 
any sort in his yard— what shall he do? One 
of four coiu'ses lies open: First, to us-e 
double-walled hives; second, single-walled 
hives with shade-boards; third, single- 
walled hives having on the south side of 
j them some sort of vine that can be reared up 
I within a year or two. A grapevine trellis, 




APIARY OF M. H. MENDLESOX. 

This iii.iary ULCupies ;i \ cry uuique position down in the bottom of the canyon, ^\here it is well 
protected. The ground has been leveled off and terraced, and tlie rows of hives are straight 
and parallel. This is one of the most pifturesque spots for an apiary in tlie world. From it some 
of tlie finest sage honey of California is obtained, and no wonder; for the mountain s^ge is always 
in sight and in reach of the bees. The patches of white, black, and button sage on the moun- 
tain-sides can be plainly seen. 

When the author visited this yard in 1901, he ctnsidei'ed it one of the best-located yards in all California- 
well proiected, and the bee-p;istui-age at close range. But for the fact tliat tliere is only about one 
good yield of sayr honey in five years, this would be a veritable bee-paradise indeed. 




THE AUTHORS' APIARY AT JBNKINTOWN, PA. 

This is an exhibition apiary in tlie subutbs of Philwdelphia, used to demonstrate the various proccsses- 
and metiiods of handling bees. Here are also shown to the visitois the various races, their char 
acteristics and markings. 

This yard is intended to be a model one in every respect, and has been so pronounced. The ground 
is nicely terraced, and here and there are 11 ower- gardens so arranged as to give a pleasing effect. 

In June, 1905, and again in 1906, a general field-day of bee-keepers was held at this apiary. Experts 
were present to describe and illustrate their various methods of handling bees to the crowds that 
assembled from all over the countrj-. At the field meet of 1906 there were something over 1000 
bee-keepers present, making by all odds the largest gathering of bee-keepers that this country 
has ever seen. This affair was a success in every way, and it is possible that other meets will 
be held at this yard in the future. 



ANTS. 



APIARY. 




Al'IARY OF J. WEBSTER JOHNSON. TEMPE, ARIZONA. 

This method of shading an apiary in Arizona, where the temperature during- the hottest weather often 

goes above 100 degrees, is almost universal. The i-oof consists of dried grass or 

leaves laid on top, and secured by wires laid over the whole. 



say 8 feet high and 10 or 12 feet long, run- 
ning from east to west, well covered with a 
vine, can be made to protect anywhere from 
live to ten hi\ es. On this trellis, grapevines 
or any other quick-growing vine may be 
reared to provide sliade during the heat of 
the day. The fourth and last plan is to use 
overhead trellis, making use of straw, dried 
grass, or brush for a covering such as is used 
in Arizona and Cuba. See cuts pages 22 and 
23. These trellises are about 7 feet high, 
and run from east to west,* so that the sun, 
nearly overhead as it is in Arizona, never 
strikes the hives from morning till night. 
These trellised shades, if there are no trees, 
are indispensable in hot localities. They 
thoroughly protect the bees, prevent combs 
melting down, and render the work of the 
apiarist pleasant. 

Ikit some bee-keepers prefer to use shade- 
boards. These consist of large covers cleat- 
ed at the ends, and made of two or three 
boards of the cheapest lumber that can be 
had. They sliould be large enough to pro- 
ject a foot over the front and rear, and an 



*In Cuba or other humid countries the sheds 
should run north and south, for the hives need the 
sun in tlie morning and late afternoon to dry them. 
Protection is requii-ed only during the heat of the 
day when the sun is overhead. 



equal distance on each side. They are then 
held securely in place by a stone weighing 
15 or 20 pounds. 

But whenever one manipulates these hives 
he is required to lift a heavy stone and re- 
move an awkward shade-board before lie 
can do any work with the bees. 

When bee- hives are placed in long rows 
close together, as under a shed or on a roof, 
it is very essential that the hives differ from 
each other in appearance so that the bees 
may distinguish their own hive from all the 
rest. This differentiation may be accom- 
plished in various ways ; first, by painting 
the hives different colors ; second, by using 
a different entrance or alighting-board; 
third, by laying a stone or brick on some 
boards and not on others ; fourth, by plac- 
ing a piece of brush on the front of some 
hives, etc. The idea is to place some dis- 
tinctive mark by which each hive may be 
quickly recognized by its tenants. The 
best place to make such mark is at the en- 
trance so that all the bees can see it, both 
on leaving and returning. 

WINDtiKEAKS. 

The most perfect windbreak is an inclos- 
ure of woods on three sides, with an open- 
ing to the south. This, however, is not 



APIAEY. 



23 



APIARY. 



v^~-\ 




ISIDE AND END VIEW OF THE .SA3IE APIAUY. 
Tlie side-braces shown are necessary to prevent a heavy wind from blowing the structure over. It 
should be noted that these sheds are almost indispensable in hot countries. In dry atmospheres 
they should be arranged east and west; in the humid they should be placed north and south, to 
dry out the hives after a tropical i-aln. 



available to all. An apiary so situated 
that there is a clump of woods on one side 
and buildings on the other two sides, leav- 
ing only a southern aspect, is well sheltered 
from the prevailing winds. But, as already 
stated, if there are woods or buildings 
around the east side of the bee-yard, enough 
so as to shade the hives until about noon, 
the bees will not build up as fast in the 
spring as those that can get the morning sun 
up to ten or eleven o'clock. In the absence 
of any natural or ar-cidental protection what- 
ever, it is quite essential that some sort of 
windbreak be iirovided. If it is desirable to 
put up something iiermanent, and some- 
thing which would not rot out or require re- 
pairs, outskirt the apiary with rows of hardy- 
growing evergreens, such as are seen in our 
own apiary in the following pages. These, 
for the first few years, would atford but a 
scanty protection ; but in 10 years'time they 
answer their purjiose admiral ly. In 1879, 
we enclosed our api try with evergreens. 
They have proved to be very thrifty, and 
now (1910) are quite good-sized trees. 

niVE-STANDS. 

It will be next in order to consider wheth- 
er we shall put tlie hives directly on the 



ground or on some sort of stand. Many 
bee-keepers use four half-bricks, so arrang- 
ing them that they will come directly under 
the four corners of the bottom-board. To 
secure a proper level, it will be necessary to 
use a spade or pickax to cut down the soil 
in spots sutficiently to let one or more bricks 
come down to the grade of the others. It is 
desirable, however, to have tlie forward 
In'icks a little lower than the rear in order 
that the water may run out of the entrances. 
Other bee-keepers use short strips of old 
boards or pieces of scantling, cut off in 
lengths equal to the width of the hive, and 
leveled in the same manner as the bricks. 
But the bricks and old boards allow the 
hives to come too near the ground— enough 
so to cause dampness, and, sometimes, when 
the bricks settle, the rotting of the under 
side of the bottom-board. 

Mr. R. C. Hollins. of Sladenville, Ky., 
drives four notched stakes into the ground, 
made of stuff three inches wide, one inch 
thick, and one or two feet long. The inirt 
driven into the groimd should be dipped in 
creosote, linseed oil, or, better still, car- 
bolineum, a kind of wood preservative used 
by railway'companies to preserve ties. The 




So 



M be Si 

oj a ^ 
"A 'Etc 






APIARY. 



25 



APIARY. 



illustration here given will show the idea. 
The stakes should project up above the 
ground from one to six inches. Four inches 
will ordinarily be high enough. In that 
case the stakes need not be more than 18 
inches long. The length of them, however, 
will depend a good deal on the character of 
the soil and the preference of operator— 
whether the hive shall be high or low. 

The stakes should be driven by line, and 
accurately measured off and afterward level- 
ed with a bottom-board and spirit-level. If 
the stakes stick up six inches above the 



the obvious advantage of a slanting front 
from the ground to the V)Ottom-board. 




ground it will add greater convenience to 
the handling of the bees ; but in cool spring 
weather there should be some sort of board 
reaching from the ground up to the alight- 
ing-board, so that bees coming in somewhat 
chilled may crawl from the groiind up into 
the hive. 

Another arrangement that has been used 
to a considerable extent is what is known 
as the Ileddon hive-stand. It is made of 
four rough boards of cheap lumber from 
four to six inches wide, and one inch thick. 



HEDDUlSr HIVK SJ AND. 

The dimensions should, of course, be of the 
size of the bottom-board. The manner of 
patting together will be plain from the cut. 
This stand is preferred by a large number of 
bee-keepers. 

A modified form, and a much better one, 
is shown at the top of next column. It has 




Another arrangement that is favored by a 
good many is a double hive-stand made as 
shown in the accompanying illustration. 
The legs should not be less than two inch- 
es square, and the ends to come in contact 
with the ground should be dipped in tar, 
or some sort of wood-preservative. The 
side-boards, if the legs are a foot long, may 
be anywhere from three to six inches wide 
—four inches will be a nice compromise. 
The whole should be securely nailed and 
made to conform to a level tloor. When a 
sufficient number have been made they 
can be spaced off and leveled up in the yard 
ready to receive pairs of hives, or even three 
if thought necessary. 





This arrangement has much t^iecommend 
it. It permits keeping the hives in gruui s 
of two or three, so that they may be operat- 
ed at a convenient distance from the ground. 
It also allows carrying out the general plan 
of shaking swarms, as explained further- on 
under the head of Swarming; of formiig 
nuclei, or doubling up in the fall. Say there 
are two hives on the same stand, and both 
of them weak, and neither of them strong 
enough to go through the winter. Place all 
the combs and bees in one hive, and put it 
in the space exactly between where the tsvt) 
stood. Now move the other hive away en- 
tirely. The flying bees of both hives will go 
back to the one now at a point midway be- 
tween where the other two stood. 







02 .a 



o 



%t 



2 ^ 

■n Si 



APIARY. 



27 



APIARY. 



But an important feature of this hive- 
stand is that it pel mils of being moved from 
one out-apiary to another without "pulling 
up stakes;" and a stand that will hold two 
or three hives is cheaper than two or three 
separate stands. 

If the entrances of the hives are less 
than a foot above ground it is desirable to 
have some sort of board leading from the 
ground np to the entrance, unless the alight- 
ing-board itself is of good size, as shown in 
the illustration, in which case tlie incoming 
bees will be able to land without difficultj\ 

AKRANGEMENT OF HIVES. 

Having decided upon the location, kind of 
shade, windbreaks, and hive- stands, how 
shall we arrange the hives in the apiary V 
This question can best be answered by 
studying the plans adopted by some of the 
prominent apiarists. Where there is no 
natural shade the one shown on page 22 is a 
very good one. 

PLANS FOR APIARIES. 



6 feet. 



IC feet. 6 feet. 



□^ 



□* 

Q 



^a 



'□ 
*□ 



D 






'□ 






A PART OF AN APIARY ARRANGED ON THE 
STRAIGHT-ROW PLAN. 

C. A. Hatch, of Ithaca, AVis.. a prominent 
and extensive bee- keeper, arranges liis hives 
on the plan shown above, which, as will be 
seen, will work nicely in connection with the 
double hive-stand shown on page 25. 

The stars in the preceding diagram indi- 
cate the entrances. There are two lanes, or 
alleyways, one six feet wide, for the bees, 
and one ten feet wide, for the apiarist, and 
his horse and wagon, etc. It will be noticed 
tliat the hives are arranged in pairs, in such 
a way that they face each other with en- 
trances six feet apart. In the next alley 
their backs are toward each other. 

S. E. miller's plan OF AN "APIARY. 

This plan is similar to the one used by Mr. 
Hatch, but is arranged with a view of still 
greater economy of space, not losing sight 
of the scheme of a highway for bees, and an 
alley for the apiarist. Instead of being in 
pairs they are arranged in groups of live 
each. Little circles in front of the hives in- 
dicate the entrances. The hives should be 



18 inches apart to give room for a lawn- 
mower. It would hardly do to put them 
closer than 12 inches, for long timothy grass 
will grow up between, and then it is difficult 
to clean it out; and if not cut out it is in 
the way of putting on the supers. The 
groups can be from 10 to 20 feet apart ; but 
if put exactly 16 feet apart, and the hives in 
the group 18 inches apart, an apiary of 80 
colonies can be accommodated on a plot 7.5 
feet square, or in the back yard of an ordi- 



ocj \uo on □« ocj cjo 
DDD DDD DDD 

ooo ooo ooo 

HIGHWAY FOR BEES 

OOO ooo ooo 

DDD DDD ODD 

ALLEY FOB APIARIST 

on cuo on no °cj cj° 
DDD DDD DDD 



ooo 



ooo 

HIGHWAY FOR BEES 



OOO 



nary town lot. One advantage of this 
grouping plan is, that the apiarist can sit on 
one liive while he is working on another; 
and his tools, such as smoker, honey-knives, 
bee brushes, etc., are right at hand for the 
whole five hives. Where there is only one 
hive on a stand, the tools have to be carried 
to each hive. 

The general scheme is as pretty in prac- 
tice as it is in theory ; and it is an actual 
fact that one can crowd more colonies on a 
given ai-ea (and yet leave room to run wag- 
ons or carts among the hives), than with any 
other plan with which we are acquainted. 

The Miller ])lan is specially well adapted 
to a location in a grove ; but as trees often 
vary in size the foliage is sometimes lopsid- 
ed or scant on some of the trees, and hence 
it is not always practicable to put five hives 
at each tree. It is our practice to place in 
front of the smallest trees only one hive ; in 
front of those a trifle larger, two hives ; 
those still larger, three hives, and when 
they are of fair size, five, as in the Miller 
plan. Arranging the hives thus, gives each 
group of one, two, three, or five, as the case 
may be, an individuality of its own, thus 
affording the bees a better chance to distin- 
guish their own group ; but in every case the 
precaution must be observed of placing the 
hives on the north side of the'" tree. Where 



APIATjy. 



29 



APIAEY. 



there are two and three in a gi'oni). one can 
liave the entrances ])ointing towaid tlie 
south; or if there are only two in a firdup lie 
can have one hive with its entrance iioii.tinjr 
toward the west, and tiie otfier hive towaid 
the east. In any case 1 would avoid having 
hives face the north. 

The following dagrani ^hows how the 
hives on the three and two i)lan may be ar- 
ranged, considering, (.f c(.urse, that the tree 
is just south of the hive, and one, two, three, 
or four feet fioni it. 



We have test'c-d the plan for apiaiies ar- 
ranged with one alleyway for bee-flight and 
one for the a])iarist; and so ha\ e a good 
many competent bee-men. The bees seem 
to recognize this narrow alleyway as their 
own allotted highway; and when they are 
woiking heavily, said highways are literally 
full of bees, while the broad ones are more 
free. In some apiaries in California we 
found double rows of hives, with a double 
alleyway between them, instead of being 
parallel, diverge from a common center, like 
the spokes of awheel. Of course, in this 
case the honey-house or work-shop should 
be at the hub, or center of the system. 

KEEI'ING GRASS DOWN AROUND THE HIVES. 

Having decided on the location and plan 
of the ai)iary, the next qnestion that would 
natuialy arise is. Shall the grass be allowed 
to grow and be kept down to an even height 
with a lawn-mower? or shall the scd be cut 
(fl: entiiely, and the hives be placed on a 
smooth ] lot of clay leveled off like a brick- 
yard? In favor of this last arrangement it 
may be t-aid that queens can be easily found, 
and that, when the soil is once removed, all 
that is nec» ssary is to go around the hives 
with a hoe or scraping-knife to shave off the 
weeds as fast as they come. If they are kept 
down thus, and the plot is spiinklcd with a 
thin layer of sawdust raked over evenly, we 
have an almost ideal spot for bees. While 
ground floors of this kind are nice and pretty 
to look at, it means a great deal of labor and 
expense, because there is almost constant 
warfare against weeds. They will crowd 
ttieir heads uj) through the sawdust; and at 
ilie present low prices at which honey sells. 
It may lie doubted whether one is warranted 
in going to such expense and trouble. The 
great majority of bee-keepers, however, 
alter having leveled tlie plot, leaving the 
sod, consider it sufficient to keep the grass 



down with a lawn-mower. If it is mown 
once or twice a week, the yard not only looks 
pretty but practically there is no inconven- 
ience resulting from the short grass. A 
lawn apiaiyismuch ]rettier. and about as 
con\ enient in every way as one with a brick- 
yard bottom. 

KEEPING DOWN THE GRASS AT THE EN- 
TRANCES OF THE HIVES. 

It is not practicable to run a lawn-mower 
any closer than al;out two incl.es to a liive ; 
and it is, therefore, our piactice to sprinkle 
salt in front of the entrances and around the 
liives. This kills all vegetation up to a point 
where the lawn-mower can reach it. 

13ut a good many apiarists do not even 
have the time to use a lawn-mower. As it 
would be a great task to keep the grass down 
in front of the hives where it would obstruct 
bees returning heavily laden from the fit Ids, 
it is a very common practice to use a boaid 
little longer than tie entrance, and a foot or 
18 inches wide. This board should be clealed 
on the back, and attached to the hive so 
that the bees may have an easy runway 
clear up to the entrance. These boards may 
be planed and jiainted ; but ordinarily we 
would recommend rough unplaned stuff — 
the cheaper the better. 1 his gives the bees 
a good foothold, and at the same time saves 
some expense. See En'i ranges. 

SHEEP FOR KEEPING DOWN GRASS IN 'I HE 
APIARY. 

One of our neighViors lets loose a feAv 
sheep in his apiary occasionally. It is well 
known that our woolly friends can gnaw 
the grass closer than any other stock. If a 
few of them be turned into an apiary for a 
day or two they will cut down all the vegeta- 
tion close to the hives, not leaving even a 
sprig of any sort. One would naturally su])- 
l)()se that the bees would sting the animals, 
with the possible result that a hi\eortwo 
would be overturned ; biil in actual practice 
no trouble results. Once in a great wliile a 
sheep is stung; but instead of lunning and 
bellowing like a calf, or kicking and rearing 
like a horse, these animals quietly walk off' 
to a bush and plunge their heads into it. and 
keep them there until all is quiet. A bee 
can not possibly In'rt them exce]:t around 
the eyes and nose. But it is so seldom that 
they are attacked that one can not consider 
it cruelty to animals to use them as lawn- 
mowers. If one does not care to have them 
stung at all lie can turn them into the apiary 
just at night, and before daylight drive them 
out again. But we have been in a yard wliere 
two or three sheep were allowed to graze all 



APIARY. 



30 



APIARY. 



the season through, and in all that lime they 
were not stung more than once or twice, and 
yet the grass was kei)t down automatically 
over every square foot of the apiary. 

One would suppose the droppings might 
be somewhat olTensive; but our neighbor 
assures us that this is not the case, as the 
manure very soon sun-dries, and it is of such 
a nature that it makes no trouble in the first 
place. 



THE IJOUSE-AFIARY. 

This is a term that is used to designate a 
structure enclosing a whole apiary. The 
hives are usually arranged on shelves next 
to the outside walls and having direct com- 
munication with the outside. 

As a general tiling, an outdoor apiary is 
cheaper and more satisfactory than one in a 
building. For the house-apiary, the capital 
to put up the building must be furnished at 
the outset ; and one that will take 50 colonies 
will cost much more than the same number 
of hives intended for outdoor use. But 
there are conditions under which the house- 
apiary may be and is used to advantage — in 
fact, al^'ordsthe only method of keeping bees 
at all. Where land is valuable, such as in or 
near the city, or in localities occasionally 
visited by thieves, where bees, honey, and 
every thing, so far as possible, must be kept 
under lock and key, it is a necessity. A 
small building, also, to accommodate 35 or 
W colonies, even when these conditions do 
not exist, may often be used very advan- 
tageously in Cfmnection with the regular 
apiary outdoors. When robbers are bad, or 
when the day is rainy, the work can continue 
right on, because the apiarist can leave the 
outdoor bees and resume operations inside, 
free from robbers in the one case, or pro- 
tected from inclement weather in the other. 

I'ntil very recently, house-apiaries have 
not been regarded with very much favor 
among practical bee-keepers, principally on 
account of faulty construction, and because 
bee escapes, when house-apiaries began to 
come into use in certain quarters, were not 
known : but since the advent of these labor- 
saving devices, the troubles arising from 
bees leaving the hives, and crawling over 
the floor to die, or to be trampled on if not 
already dead, atthe first visit of the apiarist, 
are done away with. Tiiese and other in- 
conveniences have been almost wholly re- 
moved ; and iierhaps the only reason why 
the house-ai)iary is not more generally used 
is because of the expense, or first cost. 



now TO CONSTRUCT A HOUSE- ArlAKY. 

The building may be oblong, square, oc- 
tagonal, or round. The round or octagonal 
form will, perhaps, save stei)s during the 
operation of extracting ; because, if the 
building is only 12 or 14 feet in diameter, 
the extractor may be put in the center of 
the room, and every hive will be equally 
distant, or practically so, and the combs 
may be transferred from hive to extractor, 
and vice vsrsa, without taking more than 
one step ; whereas, if the building is oblong 
some hives will be further from the seat of 
operations. The house-apiary building we 
are using is (ictagonal ; but we found it a 
very expensive thing to make, and we were 
greatly annoyed by a leaky roof; and the 
only way to make it tight, with its many 
angles, was to cover it with tin. We would, 
therefore, construct a plain square building, 
say 12 feet across. For a roof we would 
adopt the plain gable, covering it with 
shingles. Where the winters are cold the 
building should by all means he doiible-ivalled 
with sawdust, or some sort of packing ma- 
terial shoidd be poured in between the tvs^o 
walls. Unless it is warmly packed there 
will be bad wintering. Our own building is 
lined on the inside with tarred paper, and re- 
covered with manilla paper ; but we are not 
sure that we would recommend it for any 
one else, because holes are constantly being 
punched through it. A better way would 
be to line it with wood— some cheap floor- 
ing would be good enough. If the joints 
are made tight, so that the packing-material 
will not leak, plain No. 2 barn-boards would 
answer. Through the roof, and extending 
through the center of the ceiling, we would 
have a ventilator-shaft, made of wood, 
about a foot square, and so arranged that it 
can be closed at will. During summer 
weather the smoker should be set directly 
beneath the shaft, and the ventilator opened 
for the escape of smoke. It should always 
be closed before leaving the building, be- 
cause it is desirable to have the room per- 
fectly dark, except at the small openings, 
where bee escapes are to be placed, as we 
shall soon explain. 

As to a door and windows there should 
be only one window, and that opposite the 
door, so as to allow a draft to pass directly 
through, because the building at best be- 
comes very sultry in hot summer weather. 
An ordinary tight-fitting door should be 
used, hinged in the usual way. To the out- 
side of the door-frame there should be a 
wire-cloth screen-door. At the toj) of the 



APIARY. 



31 



door the wire cloth should extend up as 
seen in the cut below; that is to say, it should 
be nailed on the outside, and should extend 
four or five inches beyond the bottom in- 
side edge of the frame, leaving a bee-space 
between the frame and cloth. This is to 
allow the bees that collect in the room dur- 
ing the time of working, as for instance 









during extracting, to escape in accordance 
with the natural instinct that prompts them 
to crawl upward. The window should have 
wire cloth nailed on the outside in like man- 
ner, the same extending al)ove the window- 
casing as in the figure. 

A better method is that shown in the larg- 
er cut where the edges of the wire cloth are 
formed into bee-escapes. 

A better arrangement still, and the ex- 
pense is but slight, is ordinary screen win- 
dows. At two of the upper corners attach 
Porter honey-house bee-escapes as shown 
in the engraving in the next column. 
This will be more reliable, as the robbers 
can not by any possibility return through 




the Porter, while they may learn the way 
back through the projecting screen. 

At several points, close on a line with tlie 
floor, should be one-inch holes, on the out- 
side of which should be more Porter honey- 
house bee-escapes. The purpose of the open- 
ing in these escapes is, to let the bees that 
happen to be inside after working crawl out 
toward the light; and, once outside, they 



APIARY. 

will enter their own hives, with the possible 
exception of a few young ones, and they 
will be accepted at any of the entrances. 

A few years ago it was not deemed neces- 
sary to have anything but end-boards to 
hold up the frames. These boards resting 
on the floor or shelf were secured against 
the side of the building. It remained then 
to close ui) the open side with a tight-fitting 
division-board, and the top with a quilt. 
But in practice this was found to be very 





PORTER HOKEY-HOUSE BEE-ESCAPE. 

objectionable ; and those who manage 
house-apiaries now prefer to use ordinary 
outdoor hives instead, primarily because 
the bees can be more easily confined to the 
hives ; and, secondarily, because the indoor 
and outdoor hives are one and the same, 
and interchangeable. 

The entrances of the hives are so arrang- 
ed that they communicate with openings 
through the side of the building ; and then 
ordinary covers should be used to confine 
the bees strictly within the hives. In lieu 
of a cover a thin f board, or something 
of that sort, may answer just as well; but 
so far as possible we would so construct the 
house-apiary so that every thing outdoors 
may be moved inside, and vice versa, when- 
ever requirements make it necessary. The 
dimensions of the house-apiary inside should 
be just large enough to take a row of your 
hives without wasting space. 

For entrances to the hives from the out- 
side there should be a two-inch round hole, 
lined with a tin tube that has first been 
painted, and then dusted on the inside with 



Al'lARY 



32 



APIAKY. 



some line sand wliile the paint is fresh, so 
as to make it rough eiunigli for the bees to 
cling to the inside surface. Tht se tin tubes 
should be inserted at the time of the con- 
struction (if the building, and before the 
packing-material has been poured in, and 
should be high enough for the bottom of the 
tube to come flush with the top of the bottom- 
board. To connect this tin tube to the hive 
entrance is not difficult. 

As the entrance through the house-apiarv 
is 1* inches in diameter, it will be neces?ary 
to have a raised rim about 2 inches deep, the 
same width and length as the regular hive 
you are using. The side of the rim next to 
the building should be cut away for the 2- 
inch entrance, or else the whole side be lelt 
off entirely. This rim siioiild be nailed 
down in position. ! 

This rim will, of course, take the place of 
the regular bottom-board. It is not abso- 
lutely necessary to make it two inches 
deep; it can be only one inch deep if pre- 
ferred. The entrance then, instead of be- ' 
iug at the ends of the frames, will be at the 
sides, or make a side entrance. 

On account of convenience in handling 
frames, it is necessary to have the hive"s 
side against the building. 

To economize still further the space of 
the building, there should be another tier of 
hive.s about lour feet above the tloor: and 
these should be supported by shelving that 
readies clear around the room. The same 
arrangement with regard to entrances may 
be employed as described for the bottom tier. 
Xow let me insist again. Do not delude 
yourself with the idea that you can bmld 
hives cheaper, and have them a part of the 
building. You are making a great mistake 
if you do. The ordinary outdoor hives are 
in every way much more handy. And an- 
other thing, do not be sat.sfied to put just a 
mere quilt on top of the frames. It is abso- 
lutely necessary that the bees be confined 
strictly to their own hives, otherwise they 
will be crawling from one hive to another, 
killing queens occasionally, getting on the 
dour, getting mashed, to say nothing of the 
inconvenience to the apiarist when he de- 
sires to do any work inside. 

PITTING OKOSS COLONIES IN HUL SE-ATIAKY. 

We have always observed that thecrossest 
bees are but little inclined to sling iusidi of 
a building. AVhen they fly from the combs 
that you are handling, liiey lind themselves 
inclosed: and this so disconcerts them that 
they immediately fly to the scieeu windows 
and escape. James Heddon savs. • If vou 



have a cross colony, put it in the house-api- 
ary and see how tame it will become.'" 

lIOUSE-APlAlilKS FOR AVIXTEKING. 

As the building is double-walled, and is 
, (or ought to be) packed, colonies will require 
less protection than outdoors. Indeed, about 
all that is necessary to put them into winter 
quarters will be to put on an extra comb- 
honey super, tuck in a chaff cushion, replace 
the cover, and then the bees are prepared. 
In very severe cold weather, a small fire, or 
heat from a large lamp in the room, may. 
perhaps, be used to advantage; but artificial 
heat in wintering should be used sparingly 
and with care, for oftentimes it does more 
harm than good. 

APIS DORSATA. See6£ES. 

APZARir, OUT. See Out- Apiaries. 

ARTIFICIAL r ERTILIZATION. After 
the reader has read the subjects of Dkoxes. 
Queers, and Ql'eex-kearixg. he will 
fully understand that the mating of the 
drone and queen in a stiite of nature takes 
place on the wing in the air. but it never oc- 
curs inside the hive. [Nature has seemed to 
design, for the ptu-pose of avoiding in-breed- 
ing, that the queen shall find her mate in 
the open air. where, according to the law of 
chance, she will in all probability meet some 
drone not directly related to her. Attempts 
have been made at various times to bring 
about fertilization within the hive or within 
some small tent connected with the hive- 
entrance. But all such attempts have re- 
sulted in failure, because the drones and 
queens, as soon as they find they are confined 
in a small inclosure. will bump agaiust the 
sides of the mosquito-netting or wire c'oth. 
vainly seeking to escape. 

There have been some few reports of 
where success has been accomplished ; but 
they seem to come from obsciue persons 
who were probably not familiar with the 
fact that queens will often take several 
flights in the air before they meet a drone. 
One might therefoie. put a wire-cloth cage 
over a hive, and then remove it ; the queens 
and the th-oues return to the hive; but as 
both again seek the air on some future occa- 
sion, and meet, our friend the experimenter 
concludes that the act of copulation took 
place in his cage, when in fact it did not oc- 
cur until at a subsequent time in the air. 

So f;u- it has not been feasible to control 
more than one parentage in the rearing of 
queens, and that the mother. Xo matter 
how choice the queen may be. nor how ex- 
cellent her stock, vet she mav mate in the 



ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION. 



33 



ARTIFICIAL PASTURAGE. 



open air with a drone from very inferior 
stock. In the breeding of domestic animals it 
is possible to mate together a choice male 
and a choice female. Much could be accom- 
plished in the way of improved stock if we 
could also control the male parentage of 
bees: and we do not know but that in-breed- 
iug, according to modern methods now 
known in stock-raising, might secm-e for us 
a race of bees greatly superior to any thing 
we now know. 

.Just at present it seems very desirable 
that bees with longer tongues be bred, so 
that the nectar in the deep corolla-tubes of 
red clover, in the horsemint of Texas, and 
the mountain sages of California, as well as 
of hundreds of other llowers. could be reach- 
ed. Tons and tons of honey might thus be 
secured that otherwise goes to waste. See 
Tongue of WorkekBee . 

ARTIFICZAIi HBAT. As strong 

colonies early in the season are the ones 
that get the honey and furnish the early 
swarms as well, and are in fact the real 
som-ce of profit to the bee-keeper, it is not 
to be wondered at that much time and mon- 
ey have been spent in demising ways and 
means whereby all might be brought up to 
the desired strength in time for the first 
yield of clover honey. As market-gardeners 
and others hasten early vegetables by arti- 
ficial heat, or by takmg advantage of the 
sun"s rays by means of greenliouses. etc.. it 
would seem that something of the kind 
might be done with bees : in fact, we have, 
by the aid of glass and the heat of a stove, 
succeeded in rearing young bees every 
month in the year, even while the weather 
was at zero, or lower, outside; but so far as 
we can learn, all artificial work of this kind 
has resulted in failure, so far as profit is 
concerned. The bees, it is true, learned to 
fly under the glass and come back to their 
hives ; but for every bee that was raised in 
confinement, two or three were sure to die, 
from one cause or another, and we at length 
decided it was best to wait for summer 
weather, and then take full advantage of it. 
Later, we made experiments with artifi- 
cial heat while the bees were allowed to fly 
out at pleasure : and although it seemed at 
first to have just the desired effect, so far as 
hastening brood-rearing was concerned, the 
result was. in the end. just about as before ; 
more bees were hatched, but the unseason- 
able activity, or something else, killed off 
twice as many as were reared, and the stocks 
that were let alone in the good old way came 
out ahead. Since then we have rather en- 



deavored to check very early brood-rearing, 
and with better results. 

A few experiments with artificial heat 
have apparently succeeded, and it may be 
that it will eventually be made a success ; 
but my impression is, that we had much 
better turn our energies to something else, 
imtil we have warm settled weather. Pack- 
ing the hives with chaff, sawdust, or any 
other warm, dry, porous material, so as to 
economize the natural heat of the cluster, 
seems to answer the purpose much better, 
and such treatment seems to have none of 
the objectionable features of working with 
artificial heat. The chaff needs to be as 
close to the bees as possible : and to this end 
we would have all the combs removed except 
such as are needed to hold their stores. Bees 
thus prepared seem to escape the ill effects 
of frosty nights in the early part of the sea- 
son, and we accomplish for brood-rearing 
exactly what was hoped for by the use of ar- 
tificial heat. 

For the benefit of those Avho may be in- 
clined to experiment, we would state that 
we covered almost our entire apiary with 
maniu'e. on the plan of a hot-bed. one spring, 
and had the mortification of seeing almost 
all die of spring dwindling. Another time we 
kept the house-apiary warmed up to a sum- 
mer temperature with a large oil-lamp, for 
several weeks, just to have them beat those 
out of doors. The investment resvdted in 
losing nearly all in the house-apiary with 
spring dwindling, while those outside stayed 
in their hives as honest bees should, until 
settled warm weather, and then did finely, 
just because we were " too busy to take care 
of them" (?). as we used to exjiress it. Aft- 
er you have had experience enough to coimt 
your profitable colonies by the hundred, and 
your crops of honey by the ton. it will do 
very well to experiment with greenhouses 
and cold-frames ; but beginners had better 
let such appliances alone unless they have 
plentv f f monev to spare for more bees. 

AB.TIFICZAL FASTTTHAGI!. Al 

though there used to be quite a trade in seeds 
and plants to be cultivated for their honey 
alone, we can give little encouragement to 
those who expect to realize money by such 
investments. There is certainly a much 
greater need of taking care of the honey 
that is almost constantly wasting just for 
lack of bees to gather it. A field of buck- 
wlieat will perhaps occasionally yield enough 
honey to pay the expense of sowing, as it 
comes in at a time when the bees in many 
places would get little else : and if it does 



ARTIFICIAL PASTURAGE. 

not pjiy iu honey, it certainly will in grain. 
If one has the money, and can afford to run 
the risk ol' a failure, it is a fine thing to 
make some accurate experiments, and it 
may be that a farm of one or two hundred 
acres, judiciously stocked with honey-bear- 
ing plants, trees, and grains, would be a suc- 
cess linanciiilly. It has been much talked 
about, but none, so far as we know, have 
ever put the idea in i)ractice. To beginners 
we would say : Plant and sow all you can 
that will be sure to pay aside from the hon- 
ey crop, and then, if the latter is a success, 
you will be so much ahead ; but beware of 
investing much in seeds that are for plants 
producing nothing of value except honey. 
Alsike and white Dutch clover, buckwheat, 
rape, alfalfa, and the like, it will do to in- 
vest in ; but catnip, mignonnette, Rocky- 
Mountain bee-plant, etc., etc., we would at 
present handle rather sparingly. 

The question, "How many acres of a 
good honey-bearing plant would be needed 
to keep 100 colonies busy V" has often been 
asked. If ten acres of buckwheat would an- 
swer while in full bloom, we should need 
perhaps ten other similar fields sown with 
rape, mustard, catnip, etc., blossoming at as 
many different periods, to keep them going 
the entire warm season. It would seem 500 
acres should do nicely, even if nothing were 
obtained from other sources, but at present 
we can only conjecture. A colony of bees 
will frequently pay for themselves in ten 
days during a good yield from natural pas- 
turage ; and if we could keep up this state of 
affairs during the whole of the summer 
months, it would be quite an item indeed. 
Alfalfa, sainfoin, sweet clover, buckwheat, 
rape, alsike clover, crimson and red clover, 
cow peas of the South, and some others, are 
the only cultivated plants that have given 
paying crops of honey, without question, so 
far as we have been informed. See Honey- 
plants in Index. 

ARTIFICIAL SVTARJVIING See 

SwAioiiNo, AitTiFiciAL, and Nucleus. 

ASTERS. Under this head we have a 
large class of autumn Uowers, very often 
called daisies in some localities, most of 
whicli are honey-beariug ; they may be dis- 
tinguislied from the helianthus, or artichoke 
and suntlower family, by the color of the ray- 
flowers. The ray-llowers are the outer col- 
ored leaves of the flower, which stand out 
like rays ; in fact, the word aster means star, 
because these ray-flowers stand out like the 
rays of a star. Many of the yellow autumn 



34 ASTERS. 

flowers are called asters, but this is an error; 
for the asters are never yellow, except in 
the center. The outside rays are blue, purple, 
or white. You may frequently find half a 
dozen different varieties growing almost 
side by side. Where there are many acres of 
them, they sometimes yield considerable 




ASTER. 

honey, but other seasons they seem to be un- 
noticed by the bees. Better move your bees 
to where they grow naturally, when you 
have determined by moving a single hive 
first, as a test, whether they are yielding 
honey in paying quantities. 

AVhere asters and goldenrod abound 
largely, it may be best to defer feeding un- 
til these plants have ceased to yield honey, 
say the last of September. 

In some localities, notably along the bot- 
tom lands and during some years, the asters 
may yield considerable honey, on the amber 
order, of good heavy body, but of a flavor 
that would not ordinarily be considered suit- 
able for table use. It must go to the confec- 
tioner or to the baker. Commercially it is 
scarcely known on the market. 

As we stated at the outset, asters are 
very numerous. It has been estimated that 
there are about 120 different species in the 
United States alone, and about 60 in the 
northeastern part of North America. Of 
this entire number all but a dozen are pur- 
ple or blue. So numerous is the family, and 
so slight the variations between the different 
species, that botanists are often puzzled to 
distinguish them. 

A very common variety is the A. patens, 
with bright bluish-purple flowers. These 
are low -growing, with wide - spreading 



ASTERS. 



35 



BARRELS. 



branches, and branchlets terminating in a 
solitary flower-head. They grow along the 
dry riversides in early August. 

The New England aster, Novce Anglice, 
has stout hairy stems some eight feet high, 
with some large violet-jnirple or sometimes 
pinkish flower-heads. These are conspicu- 
ous in late summer. 

Another species is a tall swamp variety 
with long showy pale-lavender ray-flowers. 

One of the most common asters is A. cor- 
difolius. As its name indicates, the leaves 
are heart-shaped ; but it is not the only spe- 



cies of this numerous family with leaves of 
that shape. It has many pale-blue or al- 
most white flowers. 

A beautiful specimen is the " seaside," a 
puiple aster — A. spectabiUs. This is a low- 
growing plant with large bright heads hav- 
ing the usual purple ray-flowers. It grows 
on sandy soil near the coast. 

In general we may say that the aster, like 
the goldeurod, is conspicuous during the 
fall of the year throughout almost all the 
United States ; and, like the goldenrod, it 
might almost be called our national flower. 



B. 



BASTAT BEES. See Bees. 

BARRELS. The regular size used for 
the storage and shipping of honey is any- 
wliere from 31 to 32 gallons. Barrels of -45 
to 50 gallons capacity, however, are a little 
too heavy; being very unwieldy they are 
liable to be broken or jammed by freight- 
handlers in shipping. As to the kind of 
barrel, second-hand alcohol or whisky bar- 
rels that can be obtained at the drugstores 
may be used, providing they are not charred 
on the inside. The ordinary alcohol-barrel 
is gummed or glazed on the inside with a 
preparation of glue that does not dissolve. 
As a general rule, whisky-barrels are char- 
red, and therefore unsuitable. Before taking 
barrels of any kind it is very necessary to 
determine what the character of the lining 
is on the inside. Molasses or syrup barrels 
may be used, if they be thoroughly cleansed : 
but barrels that have a sour or musty smell 
should not be considered for a moment ; 
for, even if cleaned, they might taint and 
ruin the honey. 

After the barrel has been cleaned it should 
be put in a dry place, so that it will dry 
thoroughly, inside and out ; and this re- 
minds me that you should never use barrels, 
the wood of which has become soaked with 
water ; for honey has the quality of absorb- 
ing moisture from the wood ; that is to say, 
a wet barrel filled with honey will actually 
become dry. The staves shrink, and then, 
of course, the honey leaks out. If one does 
a large business in shipping honey in bar- 
rels he should buy new ones. The staves 



should be made of sound kiln-dried stuff; 
and nothing but iron hoops, not wooden 
ones, should be used. The barrels should be 
kept in a dry place, and then, before using, 
they should be well coopered and tested, as 
will be explained. 

KEGS. 

Wooden packages holding from 100 to 1-50 
lbs. are used quite extensively in some parts 
of the East. They are usually made of cy- 
press, and, when well made, make a very 
good package. The general directions that 
apply to barrels will equally apply to kegs. 

BARRELS THE FREQUENT CAIJSE OF COM- 
PLAINT. 

It may be said that no slovenly, careless, 
or slipshod bee-keeper should use barrels. 
He will be too careless to see that they are 
tight. He will put his honey into them, 
ship them, and in all probability the bar- 
rels will begin to leak en route; and he will 
receive a complaint from the consignee 
that "the honey arrived in bad condition," 
"half of it gone." There have been more 
ill feelings and hard words because of inex- 
cusable carelessness or lack of proper knowl- 
edge concerning this matter of shipping 
honey in barrels than, perhaps, any other 
one thing connected with the marketing of 
honey. If the directions we have given are 
carefully followed, and good barrels are se- 
lected, there will be little or no trouble. 

Another frequent source of complaint 
arises from the fact that the barrels are filled 
too full. Honey, during the process of candy- 
ing, will expand. If it is put into the barrel 
long before it is candied, the barrel should 



BARRELS. 



36 



BARRELS. 



not be filled quite full. Just before ship- 
ping put in a little more and then ship. We 
have received several consignments of honey 
that had candied, in barrels. The barrels 
had been filled full, the honey had candied, 
and burst the barrel. 

now TO TEST HAIiUELS FOR LEAKS. 

Jiarrels tliat are intended for the storage 
of honey should not be kept in a cellar but 
in a dry place. Before filling, the hoops 
should be driven down tight all around. To 
test for leakage, Mr. N. E. France, Platte- 
vi]le,Wis., a bee keeper of large experience, 
recommends the following plan : 

Drive one of the bimgs in, and then with 
the mouth placed tightly over the other 
bunghole blow in until there is quite a pres- 
sure in the barrel. To do this, place the 
mouth over the hole, exhaust the lungs, 
draw in a fresh supply through the nose, ex- 
haust the lungs again, and so on until you 
have forced in all the air possible. Place 
the side of the palm next to the mouth, then 
with a quick sliding motion move the mouth 
simultaneously with the palm, and close the 
opening. Now listen for air-leaks. If there 
are any, there will be a hissing in one or 
more places. Dip the free hand into some 
water, and push it along to where the air 
seems to be hissing out. This will prove 
beyond a doubt whether there is a leak at 
that point. If there is one, there will be a 
sputtering or bubbling. Note the place, and 
then hunt for other leaks. But all this time , 
of course, the palm of one hand should be 
held over the bung through which the air 
was forced. Wherever the air is found leak- 
ing through, drive the hoops down still fur- 
ther until the openings are closed. Then, 
again, force air into the barrel and try for 
leaks as before. 

Do not, under any circumstances, test a 
barrel for leakage with water, as it soaks up 
the wood, and the latter would swell up and 
close the leak. After the honey is put into 
the barrel it would absorb the water, and 
the barrel would leak just at the time it 
could be least afforded— when it would be 
half way on its journey. 

THE NEED OF PARAFFINING OR WAXING 
BARRELS. 

We are well aware that some of our best 
honey-producers say it is not necessary to 
wax or paraffine barrels inside ; but our ex- 
perience shows that it is very important, 
not so mucli so for the purpose of closing up 
any possible leaks as to prevent the honey 
from soaking into the wood of the barrel, 



or the wood itself from giving a taint to the 
honey. The average person has little idea 
of the amount of honey that can be soaked 
up inside of an unwaxed barrel, and be 
charged up to the shipper. After having 
tested the barrel for leaks by the air-pres- 
sure plan recommended, and made it tight, 
wax or parafl^ne the inside of the barrel ; 
but don't depend on the waxing to close up 
the leaks— the barrel should be tight before. 

Paraffine, being a good deal cheaper than 
beeswax, and melting at a lower tempera- 
ture, is, therefore, to be recommended. Melt 
up about 10 or 12 lbs.; and when quite hot 
pour it through a large funnel into one 
bunghole of the barrel. (Quickly drive in 
the bimg, roll it around, twirl it on each 
head ; then give it another spin so as to 
cover perfectly all arovmd the chime. This 
operation will warm the air inside to such 
an extent that the liquid will be forced into 
every crevice. As soon as the inside is cov- 
ered, loosen the bung with a hammer; and 
if the work is well done the bung will Ije 
thrown into the air with a loud report. 
Pour out the remaining liquid, warm it up 
again, and treat the other barrels in a like 
manner. 

The operation as a whole takes but very 
little time ; and if one has taken pains to 
make the barrel tight by the air-pressure 
plan, the coating of paraffine on the inside 
will make it doubly secure. Second-hand 
barrels especially should be paraffined; and 
even new barrels should be so treated to 
prevent a great loss of honey that would 
necessarily soak into the wood. Steel bar- 
rels are not recommended. 

BARRELS OR SQUARE CANS. 

In California, Colorado, and other hot dry 
States, barrels and kegs should never be 
used. The ordinary (iO-pound tin cans, de- 
scribed imder Extracted Honey, are the 
only suitable shipping-packages. Indeed, 
they are the only package that nine-tenths 
of the bee-keepers of this land can use safe- 
ly. While they cost considerably more per 
pound, yet the honey is nearly always re- 
ported as going through in good order. 
Even if one has a hole punched in it, only 
60 pounds of honey is lost ; while in the case 
of a leak or break in a barrel, anywhere from 
five to eight times that amount is wasted. 
Through the entire West— and that is where 
the great bulk of the extracted honey in the 
United States is produced — the square tin 
can, two in a case, is used exclusively ; and 
Ave would strongly urge the average bee- 



UARKELS. 



37 



BASS WOOD. 



keeper to use them in preference to barrels. 
While the tin package costs a little more 
per pound, it also brings a little more on the 
market ; for the buyer can take as large or 
small a quantity as he needs. Where the 
purchaser hesitates to buy a whole barrel of 
lioney for his own local trade, he will readily 
take one or more cans of 60 lbs. each. 

REMOVING CANDIED HONEY FROM BARRELS. 

Good thick honey will usually become sol- 
id at the approach of frosty weather, and 
perhaps the readiest means of getting it out 
of the barrel in such cases is to remove one 
of the heads, and take it out with a scoop. 
When it is quite hard, you may at first think 
it difficult to force a scoop down into it ; but 
if you press steadily, and keep moving the 
scoop slightly, you will soon get down its 
whole depth. If the barrel is kept for some 
time near the stove, or in a very warm room, 
the honey will become liquid enough to be 
drawn out through a large-sized honey-gate. 

A more wholesale way of removing can- 
died honey is to set the barrel or keg in a tub 
or wooden tank of water, the latter being 
kept hot by a small steam-pipe. In 24 or 36 
hours the honey in the barrel will be melted, 
and can tlien be drawn out in the usual way. 

BASSVTOOD (or Linden) [Tilia Amer- 
icana, Tilia heterophylla ^ argentea , cind other 
Tilice). Excepting, perhaps, alfalfa, sage, 
and white clover, basswood (often known as 
"linden") furnishes more honey than any 
other one plant or tree known in this 
country. It is true that it does not yield 
honey every season ; but what plant or tree 
does? It occasionally gives us such an im- 
mense flood of honey that we can aft'ord to 
wait a season or two, if need be, rather than 
depend on sources that yield more regularly, 
yet in much smaller amounts. If a bee- 
keeper is content to wait, say ten or fifteen 
years, for the realization of his hopes, or if 
he has an interest in providing for the bee- 
keepers of a future generation, it will pay 
him to plant basswoods. A tree that was 
set out about ten years ago in one of our 
streets now furnishes a profusion of blos- 
soms, almost every year ; and from the way 
the bees work on them we should judge it 
furnishes considerable honey. A hundred 
such trees in the vicinity of an apiary would 
be, without doubt, of great value. See Ar- 
tificial Pasturage. Our 4000 trees were 
planted in the spring of 1872, and in 1877 
many of them were bearing fair loads of 
blossoms. "We made some experiments with 
basswood seeds, but tliey proved mostly fail- 



ures, as have nearly all similar ones we have 
heard from. By far the better and cheaper 
way is to get small trees from the forest. 
They can be bought for about one cent each. 
These can be obtained in almost any quan- 
tity, from any piece of woodland from 
which stock has been excluded. Cattle feed 
upon the young basswoods with great avid- 
ity, and pasturing our woodlands is eventu- 
ally going to cut short the young growth of 
these trees from our forests, as well as of 
many others that are valuable. We planted 
trees all the way from one to ten feet in 
height. The larger ones have, as a general 
rule, done best. 

The cut will enable any one to distinguish 
at once the basswood when seen. Clusters 
of little balls with their peculiar leaf at- 
tached to the " seed stems''. are to be seen 
hanging from the branches the greater part 
of the summer ; and the appearance, both 
before And after blossoming, is pretty much 
the same. The blossoms are small, of a light- 
yellow color, and rather pretty ; the nectar 
is deposited on the inner side of the thick 
fleshy petals. When profuse it will sparkle 
like dewdrops if a cluster of blossoms is held 
up to the sunlight. 

Climatic influences have their effect upon 
basswood. Among the hills of York State 
the leaves assume mammoth proportions. 
We measured one that was 14 inches long. 
While this leaf was among the largest, j'et 
the leaves were, on the average, about twice 
the size of those in our own locality. In 
Illinois we noticed that the basswoods seem- 
ed to be less thrifty than in Ohio. The leaves 
seemed to be smaller, and the bark of the 
trees of a little different appearance. The 
next engraving represents quite accurately 
the typical forms, however. 

The European basswood, or linden (fully 
as good a honey-producer as the American 
species) is famous as an avenue tree, as it 
furnishes a fine shade and is unaffected by 
the grime and dirt of the cities. The famous 
street of Berlin, Unter den-Linden, is shad- 
ed by this species. It is known in England 
as the "lime" tree, and is there a great 
favorite for street planting. The famous 
"lime-tree walk'" of Cambridge University 
is well known. This tree takes precedence 
over all others for street planting in the 
northern United States. It blooms earlier 
than its American sister. 

It is rather to be regretted that basswood 
is not more plentiful, being one of the main 
stays, where it grows, of the honey-producer, 
and one of the most valuable woods in man- 



BASS WOOD. 



38 



13 ASS WOOD. 




AMERICAN liASSWOOD. OK LINDEN. 



Tifacture. It will hardly do for outside ex- 
posure to tlie weather ; but it is admirably 
adapted for packing-boxes, and is used in 
imnunsc (juantities for the manufacture of 
furniture, forming the bottoms and sides of 
drawers, the backs of bureaus, dressing- 
cases, etc., and it is also employed exten- 
sively in the manufacture of paper. 



It has often been charged that we are cut- 
ting off our own noses by using it for one- 
piece sections — that we are 
goose that lays the golden egg 
true that apiarian-supply makers use quite 
a little ; but still, the amount they use is very 
insignificant in comparison with that em- 
ployed by furniture-manufacturers, various 



'killing the 
' Well, it is 



BASSWOOD. 



39 



BEE-HUNTING. 



packing-box concerns, ami wood-pulp and 
paper-makers. 

After all, there is one redeeming feature, 
the bass wood is a very rapid grower. We 
thought at one time that we had used nearly 
all the basswood in this section, to say noth- 
ing of the enormous quantities shipped in 
from Michigan and other States : yet some- 
how the farmers still bring in beautiful nice 
white basswood lumber ; but where they 
get it in our vicinity is a puzzle. At least 
.some of this lumber is from a second growth 
of trees that sprouted from the stumps of 
old trees— said trees having been cut for us 
ten years ago. If basswood will replace it- 
self in ten or even twenty years, so that it 
can be used again for lumber, there is yet 
liope that it will continue to bless the bee- 
keeper. 

Over against this is the stubborn fact that 
our basswoods are disappearing, and rapid- 
ly, too, over all the country. During 1899, 
when there was such a great advance in pine 
lumber, basswood was used very largely for 
house-building, with the consequence that 
millions of feet were used up. 

Basswood. and perhaps most other forest- 
trees, require shade, especially when young. 
Much to our surprise, some that were 
planted directly under large white -oak 
trees have done better than any of the rest. 
Who has not noticed exceedingly thrifty 
basswoods growing in the midst of a clump 
of briers and bushes of all sorts V We would 
plant the trees not more than 12 feet apart. 

The best yield of honey we ever had 
from a single hive, in one day. was from 
basswood bloom, the amount being 43 lbs. in 
three days. The best we ever recorded from 
clover was 10 lbs. in one day. Honey 
from the basswood has a strong aromatic 
or mint flavor, and we can tell when the 
blossoms are out by the perfume about the 
hives. The taste of the honey also indi- 
cates to the apiarist the very day the bees 
commence work on it. The honey, if ex- 
tracted before it is sealed over, when it is 
coming in rapidly, has the distinctive flavor 
so strong as to be very disagreeable to some 
persons. A lady likens it to the smell and 
taste of turpentine or camphor, and very 
much dislikes it when just gathered ; but 
when sealed over and fully ripened in the 
hive, she thinks it delicious, as does almost 
every person. 

BZSZj-BZLXjAD. a term in common use, 
applied to pollen when stored in the combs. 
In olden times, when bees were killed with 



sulphur to get at the honey, more or less 
pollen was usually found mixed with the 
honey ; it has something of a "bready" taste, 
and hence, probably, came its name. Since 
the advent of the extractor and section 
boxes, it is very rare to find pollen in the 
honey designed for table use. See Pollen. 

BEE-DRESS. See Veils. 

BEE-ESCAPES. See Comb Honey, 
also Extracting. 

--J BEE-HtJIfTIZVG-. We have given the 
warning so often, against leaving sweets 
of any kind about the apiary, and about be- 
ing careful not to let the bees get to robbing 
each other, that it may seem a little queer 
to be directed how best to encourage and de- 
velop this very robbing propensity in these 
little friends of ours. 

Tlie only season in which we can trap bees 
is when they will rob briskly at home ; for 
while honey is to be found in the flowers in 
plenty, they will hardly deign to notice our 
j bait of even honey in the comb. Before 
, starting out. it will be policy to inform your- 
, self of all bees kept in the vicinity, for 
; you might otherwise waste much time in 
following lines that lead into the hives of 
' your neighbors. You should be at least a 
mile from any one who has a hive of bees 
I when you commence operations, and it were 
safer to be two miles. We do not mean by 
this to say that there are no bee-trees near 
large apiaries, for a number have been found 
within half a mile of our own. and an expe- 
rienced hand would have but little trouble in 
finding more, in all probability ; but those 
who are just learning would, very likely, be 
much perplexed and bothered by domesti- 
cated bees mixing with the wild ones. 

Perhaps the readiest means of getting a 
line started is to catch bees that will be 
found on the flowers, especially in the early 
part of the day. Get them to take a sip of 
the honey you have brought for the purpose, 
and they will, true to their instinctive love 
of gain, speed homeward with their load, 
soon to return for another. To find the tree, 
you have only to watch and see where they 
go. Very simple, is it not V It certainly is 
on paper, but usually involves much hard 
work when carried out in practice. You 
can get along with very simple implements ; 
but if yonr time is valuable, it may pay to 
go out fully equipped. For instance, a small 
glass tumbler will answer to catch bees 
with ; and after you have caught one, you 
can set the glass over a piece of honey- comb. 
Xow cover it with your handkerchief to 



BEE-IIUNTING. 40 

stop its buzzing against the glass, and it 
will soon discover the honey and load up. 
Keep your eye on it ; and as soon as it is 
really at work on the honey gently raise the 
glass and creep away, where you may get a 
good view of the proceedings. As soon as it 
takes wing it will circle about the honey, as 
a young bee does in front of the liive, that it 
may know wliere to return ; for a whole 
'• chunk" of honey, during the dry autumn 
days, is quite a little gold-nnne in its esti- 
mation. There may be a thousand or more 
hungry mouths to feed, away in the forest 
at its leafy home, for aught we know. 

If j'ou are quick enough to keep track of 
the bee's eccentric circles and oscillations, 
you will see that these circles become larger 
and larger, and that each time the bee comes 
round it sways to one side ; that is, instead 
of making the honey the center of its cir- 
cles, it makes it almost on one edge, so that 
tlie last few times the bee comes round it 
simply comes back after it has started home, 
and throws a loop, as it were, about the 
lioney to make sure of it for the last time. 
JSow you can be pretty sure which way its 
home lies almost the very first circuit it 
makes, for it has its home in mind all the 
time, and bears more and more toward it. 

If you can keep your eye on it until it 
finally takes the ■•' bee-line" for home, you 
do pretty well, for a new hand can seldom do 
this. After the bee is out of sight, you have 
only to wait until it comes back, which it 
surely will do, if honey is scarce. Of course, 
if its home is near by, it will get back soon ; 
and to determine how far it is, by the length 
of time the bee is gone, brings in another 
very important point. The honey that bees 
get from tlowers is very thin ; in fact, it is 
nearer sweetened water than honey, and if 
you wish a bee to load up and fly at about a 
natural " gait," you should give it honey 
diluted with water to about this consistency. 
Unless you do, it will not only take a great 
deal more time in loading up, but the thick 
honey is so much heavier the bee will very 
likely stagger under the load, and make a 
wery crooked bee-line of' its homeward path. 
IJesides, it will take much more time to un- 
load. Sometimes, after circling about quite 
a time, the bee will stop to take breath be- 
fore going home, which is apt to mislead the 
hunter unless he is experienced ; all this is 
avoided by filling your honey-comb with 
honey and water, instead of the honev alone. 

Now, it takes quite a little time to get a 
bee caught and started at work ; and that 
we may get busy, we will have several bees 



BEE-HUNTING. 

started at the same time. To do this expe- 
ditiously, we will use a oee-hunting box 
made as in the following cut. 




BOX FOR BEE-HUNTING. 

This is simply a light liox about 4i inches 
square ; the bottom is left open, and the top 
closed with a sheet of glass that slides easily 
in saw-cuts made near the upper edge. 
About a half-inch below the glass is a small 
feeder quite similar to the one figured in 
Feeding and Eeedeks. 

now TO USE THE HUNTING-BOX. 

Take with your box about a pint of diluted 
honey in a bottle. If you fill the bottle half 
full of thick honey, and then fill it up with 
warm water, you will have it about right. In 
the fall of the year you will be more likely 
to find bees on the flowers in the early part 
of the day. When you get on the ground, 
near some forest, where you suspect the 
presence of wild bees, pour a little of your 
honey into the feeder, and cautiously set the 
box over the first bee you find upon the 
flowers. As soon as the box is well over the 
flower, close the bottom with your hand, 
and the bee will buzz up against the glass. 
Catch as many as you wish, in the same way, 
and they will soon be sipping the honey. 
Before any have filled themselves, ready to 
fly, place your box on some elevated point, 
such as the top of a stump in an open space 
in the field, and draw back the glass side. 
Stoop down now, and be ready to keep your 
eye on one bee whichever w'ay it may turn. 
If you keep your head low, you will be more 
likely to have the sky as a background. 
If you fail in following one, you must try the 
next ; and as soon as you get a sure line on 
a bee as it bears finally for home, be sure 
to mark it by some object that you can 
remember; If you are curious to know how 
long they are gone, you can, with some 



BEE-HUNTING. 



41 



BEE-HUNTING. 



white paint in a little vial, and a pencil- 
brush, mark one of them on tlie back.* This 
is quite a help where you have two or more 
lines working from the same bait. When a 
bee comes back, you will recognize it by the 
peculiar inquiring hum, like robbers in front 
of a hive where they have once had a taste 
of spoils. If the tree is near by, each one 
will bring others along in its wake, and soon 
your box will be humming with a throng, so 
eager that a further filling of the feeder 
from the bottle will be needed. As soon as 
you are pretty well satisfied in which direc- 
tion they are located, you can close the 
glass slide and move along on the line, 
nearer the woods. Open the box, and you 
will soon have them just as busy again ; 
mark the line and move again, and you 
will very soon follow them to their home. 
To aid you in deciding just where they 
are, you can move off to one side and start 
a cross-line. t Of course the tree will be 
found just where these lines meet; when 
you get where you think they should be, 
examine the trees carefully, especially all 
the knot-holes, or any place that might al- 
low bees to enter and find a cavity. If you 
place yourself so that the bees will be be- 
tween you and the sun, you can see them 
plainly, even if they are among the highest 
branches. Eemember you are to make a 
careful and minute examination of every 
tree, little and big, body and limbs, even if 
it does make your neck ache. If you do not 
find them by carefully looking the trees 
over, go back and get your hunting-box, 
bring it up to the spot, and give them feed 
until you get a quart or more at work. You 
can then see pretty clearly where they enter. 
If you do not find them the first day, you 
can readily start them again almost any 



* Since this was written, an A B C scholar says: 
"Bees vary in their flight. But 1 have found tliat 
on an average they will fly a mile in five minutes, 
and spend about two minutes in the hive or tree. 
Of course, they will spend more time in a tree when 
they have to crawl a long distance to get to the 
brood-nest, hence we may deduce the rule : Sub- 
tract two from the number of minutes absent, and 
divide by ten. The quotient is the number of ruiles 
from the stand to the ti-ee. (See GTjEanings, 18bT, 
page 431.) This applies to a partially wooded coun- 
try. Perhaps in a clearing they could make better 
time. On a very windy day it takes them longer to 
make trips." 

+ The same writer says further : " It is a waste of 
time to look for the bee-tree, or to make cross-lines, 
until you get beyond the tree. When the bees fly 
back on tlie line, you may rest assured that you are 
beyond the tree. Move your last two stands closer 
together (lining the bees carefully), so that they are 
only ten or fifteen i ods apart. Now, as yovi have 
bees flying from two directions into the tree you will 
probably discover where they are immediately. But 
if you fail to find them easily, take a stand at one 
side, eight or ten rods, and cross-line. This is the 
only place that I find a cross-line of any advantage. " 
—See Oleanings in Bee Culture, Vul. X V., page 771. 



time, for they are very quick to start, when 
they have once been at work, even though 
it is several days afterward. Bees are some 
times started by burning what is called 
a "smudge." Get some old bits of comb 
containing bee-bread as well as honey, and 
burn them on a small tin plate, by setting 
it over a little fire. The bees will be at- 
tracted by the odor of the burning honey 
and comb, and, if near, will sometimes come 
in great numbers. 

A spy-glass is very convenient in finding 
where the bees go in, especially if the tree is 
very tall ; even the toy spy-glasses sold for 
50 cents or a dollar are sometimes quite a 
help. The most serviceable, however, are 
the achromatic opera-glasses that cost from 
$3.00 to $5.00. With these we can use bolh 
eyes, and the field is so broad that no time 
is lost in getting the glass instantly on the 
spot. We can, hi fact, see bees with them 
in the tops of the tallest trees almost as 
clearly as we can see them going into hives 
placed on the ground. 

After you have found the tree, probably 
you will be in a hurry to get the bees that 
you know are there, and the honey that may 
be there. Do not fix your expectations too 
high, for you may not get a single pound of 
the latter. Of two trees that we took a few 
years ago, one contained ju.st about as much 
honey as we had fed them, and the other 
contained not one visible cell full ! The 
former were fair hybrids, and the latter well- 
marked Italians. If the tree is not a valu- 
able one, and stands where timber is cheap 
and plentiful, perhaps the easiest way is to 
cut it down. This may result in a smashed 
heap of ruins, with combs, honey, and bees 
all mixed up with dirt and rubbish, or it may 
fall so as to strike on the limbs or small 
trees, and thus ease its fall in such a way as 
to do very little injury to the tree or forest. 
The chances are rather in favor of the 
former, and on many accounts it is safer to 
climb the tree and let the bees' part down 
with a rope. If the hollow is in the body of 
the tree, or so situated that it can not be cut 
oif above and below, the combs may be taken 
out ai!d let down in a pail or basket ; for the 
brood-combs, and such as contain but little 
honey, the basket will be rather preferable. 
The first thing, however, will be to climb the 
tree ; and as we should be very sorry to give 
any advice in this book that might in any 
way lead to loss of life, we will, at the out- 
set, ask you not to attempt climbing unless 
you are, or can be, a very careful person. 
An old gentleman who has been out with 



BEE-HUNTING. 



42 



BEE-HUNTING. 



us remarked that he once knew a very ex- 
pert climber who took all the bees out of the 
trees for miles around, but was (inally killed 
instantly by letting his hands slip, as he was 
getting above a large knot in the tree. We 
do not wish to run any risks where hmnan 
life is at stake. 

CLIMBERS FOR BEE-HUNTERS. 

For climbing trees 12 or 18 inches in di- 
ameter, a pair of climbers should be used, 
such as can be obtained at any telej^hone 
office. 

If the tree is large, the climber provides 
himself with a withe or whip, of some 
tough green bongli, and bends this so it will 
go around the trunk, while an end is held in 
eacli liand. As he climbs npward, this is 
hitched up the tree. If he keeps a sure 
and lirm hold on this whip, and strikes his 
feet into the trunk lirmly, he can go up the 
most forbidding trees rapidly and safely. 
Some light cord, a clothes-line for instance, 
should be tied aroinid his waist, so he can 
draw np such tools as he may need. Those 
needed are a sharp ax, hatchet, saw, and 
an auger to bore in to see just how far the 
hollow extends. If the bees are to be saved, 
the limb or tree shoidd be cnt off above the 
hollow, and allowed to fall. A stout rope 
can be then tied about the log hive, passed 
over some limb above, the end brought down 
and wrapped about a tree nntil the hive is 
cut off ready to lower. After it is doM'n, 
let it stand an hour or two, or nntil smidown, 
when all the bees will have found and en- 
tered the hive ; then cover the entrance with 
wire cloth, and take it home. 

There are some trees, indeed, so large that 
it would be impossible to climb them with 
the implements already given. A very in- 
genious plan, however, has been put into 
execution by Mr. Green Derrington, of Pop- 
lar Bluff, Mo. We give his description, to- 
gether with an engraving made from a 
photograph which he sent. 

I scud you a photogrupli of a very large tree, 
wliicli 1 climbed by means of spikes and staples. To 
pieveiit tlio possibility of falling- 1 put a belt under 
my ai-nis. To this I attached two chains. At the 
end of each chain Is a snap. My method of cUmblng 
is as follows: After ascending the ladder as far as I 
can go I drive into the side of the tree a large bridge 
spike, far enough into the wood to hold my weight. 
A little further up I drive another spike. In be- 
tween the spikes I drive the first staple, and to this 
I attach the first chain by means of flie snap, and 
Hscend by the nails as far as thc^ chain will allow me; 
1 then drive another staple, and attach the other 
chain, and next loosen the lower snap. After driv- 
ing in more spikes. I again ascend as higli as tlie 
chain will allow me, and attach the other chain to 




A BEE-TREE, ELEVEN FEET IN DIAMETER, 
CLIMBED BY GREEN DERRINGTON. 



another staple. In this manner I can make my as- 
cent with perfect .security. 

The tree stands close to the Black River, in a 
graveyard, and from It I obtained .50 lbs. of hone.y. 
Regular climbers are excellent for small trees, say 
from two to three feet in diameter ; but the tree 
illustrated has such a rough and uneven bark, and 
is so large that it would be difficult to climb it with- 
out the aid of spikes and the staples I have men- 



BEE-HUNTING. 



43 



BEE-HUNTING. 



tioned. On account of the large knots it would l)e 
impossible to use a rope, or sometiiing similar, to 
hitch up by climbers, as described in tlie ABC 
i)ook. Knots are not in my way wlieu I use spikes 
and staples. Green Derrington. 

Poplar Bluflf, Butler Co., Mo. 

HOW TO GET BKES OUT OF BEE-TREES OR 
FROM BETWEEN THE SIDINGS OF A 
HOUSE WITHOUT MUTILATING EI- 
THER THE TREE OR THE HOUSE. 

It sometimes happens that acolo'ny of bees 
will take their abode in some fine shade tree 
in a park, which the aiithorities will not al- 
low to be cut; or they will domicile in the 
woods of some farmer, who, while he will 
allow the bee-hunter to get the bees, will not 
let him cut the tree ; or, as it often happens, 
a colony will make its home between the 
plaster and the clapboarding of the house. 
How, then, can such bees and their honey 
be secured without doing any damage to the 
tree or the building that gives them a home 
and protection? The matter is made very 
easy by the use of the modern bee-escape. 
Tor particulars regarding this device, see 
Comb Honey and Extracted Honey. 

Having the bees located in the bee-tree 
the hunter prepares a small colony of bees 
or a nucleus, putting it into a light hive or 
box which can be carried to the scene of 
operations. He takes along with him a 
hammer, a saw, some nails, and lumber, 
with which he can make a temporary plat- 
form. On arriving on the spot he lights his 
smoker and then prepares to set up this 
platform directly opposite or in front of the 
flight-hole of the bee-tree, or the knot-hole, 
we will say, of the dwelling. This he con- 
structs out of the lumber which he has 
brought. Before doing so it will be neces- 
sary for him to blow smoke into the flight- 
hole, in order to prevent bees from inter- 
fering with the building of the temporary 
hive- stand. He next puts a Porter bee- 
escape over the flight-hole of the tree, in 
such a way that the bees can come out but 
not go back in. Last of all he places his 
hive with the bees which he has brought, 
with its entrance as near the bee-escape (now 
placed over the old entrance) as he can. 

His work is now complete, and he leaves 
the bees to work out their own salvation. 

The bees from the tree, f.s fast as they 
come out, are, of course, unable to return. 
These, one by one, find their way into the 
hive on the temporary platform. At the end 
of four or Ave weeks the queen in the tree or 
dwelling will have very few bees left, and 
there will also be but very little brood for 
that matter, through lack of bees to take 



care of it, for her subjects are nearly all in 
the hive on the outside. 

At this time Mr. Beehimter appears on 
the scene. He loads his smoker with fuel 
(brimstone), removes the bee-escape and 
brimstones the old colony, or what is left, 
which by this time is probably not more 
than a handful of bees with the queen. 

Again he leaves the scene of operation ; 
but the bee-escape is not replaced. What 
happens now? The bees in the hive, includ- 
ing those that were captured, rob all the 
honey out of the old nest in the tree or house 
in the course of three or four days, carrying 
it into the hive on the extemporized platform. 

The bee- hunter now takes away the hive, 
removes the temporary hive-stand, and 
carries the bees home. If they be taken a 
mile or a mile and a half they will stay where 
placed. 

In the meantime, no damage has been 
done either to tree or building, as the case 
may be. All that will be left in the tree 
will be some old dry combs which, in the 
form of wax, probably would not amount to 
tif ty cents, if the time of rendering be taken 
into account. 

This method of taking bees could not very 
well be practiced where the bees are located 
in inaccessiblepositions,asinhigh trees; but 
it will be found very useful where a colony 
is located in some building or shade-tree in 
a park. 

We are indebted for the general principles 
here set forth to Mr. Ealph Eisher, of Great 
Meadows, N. J., who has practiced this plan 
with gieat success. 

does bee- HUNTING PAY ? 

If you can earn a dollar per day at some 
steady employment, I do not think it would, 
as a rule ; yet there are doubtless localities 
where an expert would make it pay well in 
the fall of the year. With the facilities we 
now have for rearing bees, a bee-keeper 
could stock an apiary much quicker by 
rearing the bees than he would by bringing 
them home from the woods, and transfer- 
ring. In the former case he would have 
nice straight combs, especially if he used 
foundation ; but the combs from the woods 
would require a great deal of fussing, and 
yet would never be nearly as nice as those 
built on foundation, even then. So much 
by way of discouragement. On the other 
hand, a ramble in the woods, such as bee- 
hunting furnishes, is one of the most health- 
ful forms of recreation one can find, becau.se 
it gives one a chance to study, not only the 
habits of the bees, but the flowers as \v'eU ; 




A DISSECTED BEE-TKEE. 



'^^'"aScTmmodaS'eioStoTnftkp'^L'?"^^^ the cavity. Fortunately in this case the swarm was 
n«.L,uumiouatnnr euougu to make the nest close to the ground, where it could be easily captured. 



BE£-HU>'TES'G. 



45 bee-ki:epls'& fob WOMEX. 



for in hraitia? for a bee to start with we find 
many plants that are carious and many that 
we woiCd not otherwise know bees frequent. 

BBK.KKIiPJ-BfG AS A SPECZAIiTT. See 
BZ:£-KXI£FI2<7G FOB. ^770MZIZf. 



_ em eaaomblo- 

ii ii.j 

Two questions invariably " pop-up" at us 
when this matter of feminine bee-keeping is 
discussed; One is. " Why shouldn't a woman 
keep bees ?~ and the other is. " Why should 
a wtxnaii keep beesr" Like most other 
questims tliese may be answered jaKH^e or 
less rationally with prc>per eonsideraticm. 

Taking tlie "why dioaldn't" qoestkra 
first, we are bound tij confess that nowadays 
there is no efEectiTe reason why a woman 
dMuM not do almost any thing that she 
takes into her enterprising little bead to do. 
But quite aside tram the eocsideratioii of 
wcMnan's prowess, there are one or two rea- 
sms that might deta* sonae c^ the faint- 
hearted &ir from undataking bee keeping. 
Thae is no use of trying to gloss over the 
faet that there is a great deal of hard work 
and heavy lifting in the eare of a profitable 
apiary. Tlie hard woik is really no objee- 
tion. as moe^ women <tf whatevo- ^ass are 
at it any way. Bat lifting heavy Lives is 
certainly not partieiilailj good exercise &<r 
ZBj wcunan, allhoi^i I must eoifess tlot I 
have neva- lifted half so stremiOGsIy when 
earing for bees as I used to oa the fsura 
wh^ we moved the eoc^-stove into the 
samma'kitebQi. aeeomplishing this feat by 
oar fiPMrifiinp selves, ratter than toing to the 
sacfaee any d the latmt ^oCanity wMeh 
aeenu to be ei^eiideied in the maseoline 
boann when taking part in this seasonal 



There are at least two ways of obviating 
ttusfraifciriiie disability in bee-keqiii^. One. 
inedeed aaeeestfaHy by several wcaien. is 
ttaroi^^ the use of a Boardman hrve^cast. 
wlnefa almo^ solves the ^oUem if the bees 
are wintoed oat of do«s. and do not have 
to be euried ap and down edSar stairs : the 
otiKT metfaod is to get some man to do the 
fifing and carrying. It may be the hos- 
band. tibe fatfaa-. the iKotfaa-. the son. or the 
hired laan; bat as ttia woik ean be dtme at 
a time wbieb can be fanned for, it is not so 



difficult for the men of the establishment to 
give the help needed. I am sure mv hus- 
band woxild say that I am •. ^ 
tically in favor of the man - ^ 
problem: but his opinio r " -/- .. : : r 
much, because he loves '---: .--- = -i. - -:- 
asticaUy that I have to beg for a ciiance to 
work with them at alL although he virtu- 
ously points out the Mves to people as "Mrs. 
Comstock's bees." 

Another •*d»onldn"t~ reason might be 
that women are afraid of bee-srlngs. This 
falls flat, from the fact tbat TrorneT! are not a 
bit more nervous than :. 

This year when I was - . . _ 
swarm from a most diffieui: 
terested man stood off at a - 
a most pained state of mind. H^ ^t3 a 
courteous gentleman, and he felt ' .jat i: was 
oatrageous tot me to have to do the work 
alcme. but he did not dare to ecane to my aid. 
and I tMnk be eiHisdered mj temerity in 
dealing with the awazm as almost seandal- 
oas. 

Thus having disposed of all tiie reasons I 
can think of why women shouldn't keep 
bees. I turn gladly to the mere intaesting 
reasons why ^b& should look up(m the apisy 
as one of her legitimate fields of labca^. 
There are so many reasons for this that I 
could not enxmaerate them even if a ct<m- 
plete mmiber of a bee journal were given 
me fox the purpose. So I shall speak of juit 
a few of the most eogmt reasons. I should 
put first qS. alL and as embaemg all other 
reasons, that bee-keeping may be made an 
interesting aroeation wMeb can be eaizied 
<n eaineidestally with otber em^oyments ; 
it is an intaesting study in natmal Instary: 
it cultivates calmness of spirit, self-c<mtrol 
and patisiee: it is a "heap" of fan: inci- 
dentally it may supply tbe heme table wtth 
a real loxury ; and it may add a vezy eoo- 
sidexable amount to any wcman's spending- 
money. It can also be carried <m as a regu- 
lar boanesB. to support a family. 

Bat it is as an aToeatioa that I am e^»c- 
cially interested in tlie apiary. Anywcman 
who keeps boose needs an avocation to take 
the mind and attention eoraptetely off ha- 
boasdtoM cares at times. Tbae is anne- 
thing aboot tbe daily roatine <rf hoosekeep- 
ing that wears mind and body fall ol ruts. 
even in the ease cA Hioee wbo lore to do 
hoasewc^k better than any tbii^ ejae. Talk 
about tbe savant qaesbora ! It is not tbe 
servant qoestim. bat tbe booaewock ques- 
tion. If some means eoold be devised by 
whieh boosewoik eoold be pafoimed witb 



BEE-KEEPING FOR WOMEN. 



46 



BEE-KEEPING FOR WOMEN. 



inspiration, zeal, and enthusiasm, the ser- 
vant problem would solve itself; but this 
ideal way of doing housework can be carried 
on only when the spirit is freed from the 
sense of eternal drudgery. I am not a wiz- 
ard to bring about this change ; but I know 
one step toward it, and that is the establish- 
ment of some permanent interest for woman 
that will pull her out of the ruts and give 
her body and mind a complete change and 
rest. Embroidery, lacemaking, weaving, 
painting, and several other like occupations, 
may serve tliis purpose in a measure; and, 
l»erhaps, if carried on in tlie right way, may 
achieve more in this line than they do at 
present. But these are all indoor occupa- 
tions ; and what a woman needs is some- 
thins 10 take her out of doors where she can 
have liec; 1 air. Excess of perspiration In- 
duced by tne cook-stove is weakening; but 
honest sweat called forth in the open air by 
an application of generous sunshine is a 
source of health and strength. 

Bee-keeping is one of the best of these 
life-saving, nerve-healing avocations; it 
takes the mind from household cares as 
completely as would a trip to Europe, for 
one can not work with bees and think of 
any thing else. Some of the attributes 
-,■ ..xC.x make bee-keeping an interesting avo- 
cation I will mention : First of all, bees are 
such wonderful creatures, and so far beyond 
our comi)rehension, that they have for us 
always the fascination of an unsolved prob- 
lem. I never pass our hive without men- 
tally asking, " Well, you dear little rascals, 
what will you do next V" Bees are of par- 
ticular interest to woman for several rea- 
sons : if she likes good housekeeping, then 
the bee is a model : if she likes a woman of 
business, again is the bee a shining light ; if 
she is interested in the care of the young, 
then is the bee-nurse an example of per- 
fection ; if she believes in the political rights 
of woman, she will find the highest feminine 
political wisdom in the constitution of the 
bee commune. In fact, it is only as a wife 
that the bee is a little too casual to pose as 
ideal, although as a widow she is certainly 
remarkable and perhaps even notorious. 

Another phase which makes bee-keeping 
a pleasing avocation for women is that much 
of the work is interesting and attractive. I 
never sit down to the " job" of folding sec- 
tions and putting in starters without expe- 
riencing joy at the prettiness of the work. 
And if there is any higher artistic happiness 
than comes from cleaning up a section hold- 
ing a pound of well-capped amber honey 



' and putting the same in a dainty carton for 
market, then I have never experienced it ; 
and the making of pictures has been one of 
my regular avocations. By the way, woman 
I has never used her artistic talent rightly in 
this matter of cartons. Each woman bee- 
keeper ought to make her own colored de- 
sign for the carton, thus securing something 
so individual and attractive as to catch at 
once the eye of the consumer. 

As a means of cultivating calmness, i)a- 
tience, and self-control the bee is a well-rec- 
ognized factor. Bees can be, and often are, 
profoundly exasperating ; and yet how worse 
than futile it is to evince that exasperation 
by word or movement ! No creature reacts 
more quickly against irritation than the bee. 
She can not be kicked nor spanked ; and if 
we smoke her too much, we ourselves are the 
losers. There is only one way to manage 
exasperation with bees — that is, to control 
it ; and this makes the apiary a means of 
grace. 

The money-making side of bee-keeping is 
a very important phase in arousing and con- 
tinuing the womans interest in her work. I 
think woman is by birth and training a nat- 
ural gambler, and the uncertainties of the 
nectar supply and of the honey market add 
to rather than detract from her interest in 
her apiary. I know of several women who 
have made comfortable incomes and sup- 
ported their families by bee-keeping ; but, 
as yet, I think such instances are few. How- 
ever, I believe there are a large number of 
women who have added a goodly sum yearly 
to their amount of spending money, and 
have found the work a joy instead of drudg- 
ery. Personally, I have had very little ex- 
perience with the commercial side of bee- 
keeping. Once when our maddeningly suc- 
cessful apiary grew to forty hives when we 
did not want more than a dozen at most, and 
the neighborhood was surfeited with our 
bounty, we were "just naturally" obliged to 
sell honey. We enjoyed greatly getting the 
product ready for market, and were some- 
how surprised that so much fun could be 
turned into ready cash. As a matter of fact, 
both my husband and myself have absorb- 
ing vocations and avocations in plenty, so 
that our sole reason for keeping bees is be- 
cause we love the little creatures, and find 
them so interesting that we would not feel 
that home was really home without them ; 
the sight of our busy little co-workers adds 
daily to our psychic income. We are so very 
busy that we have very little time to spend 
with them, and have tinally formulated our 



BEE-KEEPING FOR WOMEN. 



47 



BEE-MOTH. 



ideal for our own bee-keeping, and that is to 
keep bees for honey and for "fun.'' We 
shall have plenty of honey for our o^Yn table, 
and just enough to bestow on the neighbors 
so they will not get tired of it ; and fun 
enough to season life with an out-of-door 
interest and the feeling that no summer day 
is likely to pass without a surprise. 

BEE-KEEFERS' SOCIETIES. See Or- 
ganization OF Bee-keepers. 



BEE LEGISLATION. 

ON Bees. 



See Legislation 



BIiZ!-]V[OTZI. When you hear a person 
complain that tlie wax-worm killed his bees, 
you can set him down at once as knowing 
very little about bees; and if a hive is of- 
fered you that has an attachment or trap to 



square box is, in fact, all we want for a hive; 
but as we must have the combs removable, 
we require frames to hold them ; and if 
these frames are made so that bees can get 
all around and about them, we have done all 
we can to make a moth-proof hive. 

Of course, colonies will at times get weak- 
ened ; and under the best of care, with com- 
mon bees especially, worms will sometimes 
be found in the combs. Now if you have 
the simple hives shown in these pages you 
can very quickly take out the combs, and 
with the point of your knife remove every 
web and worm, scrape ofE the debris, and 
assist the bees very much. Where there is 
an accumulation of filth on the bottom- 
board, lift out all the combs, and brush it 
off, and be sine you crush all the worms 




A sample of how the eggs and cocoons of the bee-moth are deposited on wood. Sometimes the wood 
grooved or eaten out. The illustration fails to convey the real filthiness of the mass. 



catch or kill moths, you may set the vender 
down as a vagabond and swindler. You 
can scarcely plead ignorance for him ; for a 
man who will take upon himself the respon- 
sibility of introducing hives, without know- 
ing something of our modern books and bee- 
journals, should receive treatment sufficient- 
ly rough to send him home, or into some 
business he understands. 

When a colony gets weakened so much 
that it can not cover and protect its combs, 
robbers and wax- worms help themselves as 
a natural consequence ; but neither rarely do 
any harm if there are plenty of bees, and a 
clean tight hive. If a hive is so made that 
crevices will admit a worm, and not allow a 
bee to go after it, it may make some trouble 
in almost any colony; and we can not remem- 
ber that we ever saw a patented moth-proof 
hive that was not much worse in this respect 
than a plain simple box hive. A plain 



therein, for they will crawl right back into 
the hive if carelessly thrown on the ground. 

If you keep only Italians, or even all hy- 
brids, you may go over a hundred colonies 
and not find a single trace of wax-worms. 
At the very low price at which Italian queens 
can now be purchased, it would seem that 
we are very soon to forget that a bee-moth 
ever existed ; and the readiest way we know 
to get combs that are badly infested free 
from worms is to hang them, one at a time, 
in the center of a full hive of Italians. You 
will find all the webs and worms strewn 
arovmd the entrance of the hive in a couple 
of hours, and the comb cleaned up nicer 
than you could do it if you were to sit down 
all day at the task. 

Occasionally you will find that webs and 
cocoons are deposited back of the division- 
board or in some crack or crevice of the 
hive. Sometimes they will be located be- 



BEE-MOTII. 



48 



BEE-MOTH. 



tween the tops of the sections and the super- 
cover. The iUustration on page 47 gives a 
fair sample ot how they may be built up 
against the wood. In such cases you will 
fnul how the moth has burrowed or gnawed 
into the wood. 

now TO KEEP EMPTY COMBS SECURE FROM 
THE WAX-WORMS. 

^^■ith Italians only, you may have no 
trouble at all, without using any precaution; 
but where black bees are around you, kept 
in the old-fashioned way, or in patent hives, 
you will be very apt to have trouble unless 
you are careful. Suppose, for instance, you 
take a comb away from the bees during the 
summer months, and leave it in your honey- 
house several days. If the weather is warm 
you may lind it literally infested with small 
worms, and in a few days more the comb 
will be entirely destroyed. Combs partly 
filled with pollen seem to be the especial 
preference ot these greedy, filthy-looking 
pests, and we have sometimes thought they 
would do but little harm were it not for the 
pollen they find to feed on. A few years ago 
we used to have the same trouljle with comb 
honey when taken from the hive during the 
early part of the season ; but of late we have 
had less and less of it ; and during late yeais 
we have hardly seen a wax-worm in our 
comb honey at all, and we have not once fu- 
migated our honey-house. We ascribe this 
to the increase of Italians in our own apiary, 
and those all about us, for the most of the 
bees in the woods are now partly Italianized. 
These have driven the moth before them to 
such an extent that they bid fair soon to be- 
come extinct. Perhaps much has been also 
done by keeping all bits of comb out of their 
way, no rubbish that would harbor them has 
been allowed to accumulate ; and as soon as 
any has been found containing them, it has 
been promptly burned. Those who take 
comb honey from hives of common bees are 
almost sure to find live worms sooner or 
later. 

IIow do worms get into a box of honey 
that is pasted up tightly, just as soon as the 
bees are driven out? Possibly just as they 
get into a comb taken from the hive during 
warm weather. The moth has doubtless 
been all through the hive, for it can go where 
a bee can, and has laid the eggs in every 
comb, trusting to the young worms to evade 
the bees by some means after they are 
hatched. This exjjlanation, we are well 
aware, seems rather unreasonable, but it is 
the only one we can give. In looking over 
hives of common bees, we have often seen 



moths flit like lightning from crevices, and 
have sometimes seen them dart among the 
bees and out again ; but whether they can 
deposit an egg so quickly as this, we are un- 
able to say. In taking combs from a hive 
containing queen-cells to be used in the lamp 
nursery we have always had more or less 
trouble with these wax-worms. The high 
temperature and absence of bees are very 
favorable to their hatching and giowth, and 
after about three days worms are invariably 
found spinning their webs. If they are 
promptly picked out for aboiit a week no 
more make their appearance, showing clearly 
that the eggs were deposited on the combs 
while in the hive. 

When queen- cells are nearly ready to 
hatch, we often hear the queens gnawing out, 
by holding the comb close to the ear. In the 
same way we hear wax- worms eating their 
galleries along the comb ; and more than 
once we have mistaken them for queens. 
They are voracious eaters, and the " chank- 
ing" they make, when at full work, reminds 
one of a lot of hogs. As they are easily 
frightened you must lift the combs with 
great care either to see or hear them at their 
work. 

Their silken galleries are often constructed 
right through a comb of sealed brood, and 
they then make murderous work upon the 
unhatched bees. Perhaps a single worm will 
mutilate a score of larvae before it is dis- 
lodged. These are generally found at the 
entrance of the hive in the morning; and nu- 
merous letters have been received from be- 
ginners, asking why their bees tear the im- 
hatched brood out of the combs and carry it 
j out of the hives. Possibly the moth is at the 
I bottom of all or nearly all these complaints.* 
If you examine the capped brood carefully 
you will see light streaks across the combs 
where these silken galleries are; and a pin or 
a knife-point will soon pry his wormship out 
of this retreat. As the young worms travel 
very rapidly it is quite likely that the eggs 
may have been deposited on the frame or 
edges of the comb. It is a little more diflS- 
cult to understand how they get into a honey- 
box with only a small opening, but we think 
it is done by the moth while on the hive. 

You may, perhaps, have noticed that the 
moth-webs are usually seen between one 
comb and another, and they seldom do very 
much mischief unless there are two or more 
combs side by side. Well, if in putting away 



* Brood that has been chilled in early spring- or 
overheated from any cause will be carried out in the 
same way. 



sff-Bf^ 




>v 







f!-*«55. 




c:' 







BEJESAVAX-MOTHS. 



BEE-MOTH. 



your surplus combs for winter you place 
them two inches or more apart, you will sel- 
dom have any trouble, even should you leave 
them undisturlied until the next July. There 
is no danger from worms, in any case, in the 
fall, winter, or spring, for the worms can not 
develop unless they have a summer temper- 
ature, although they will live a long time in 
a dormant state if not killed by severe freez- 
iug weather. We have kept combs in our 
barn two years or more ; but they were not 
removed from the hives until fall and were 
kept during the summer months in a close 
box where no moth could possibly get at 
them. We have several times had worms 
get among them when we were so careless as 
to leave them exposed during warm weath- 
er; and one season we found nearly a thou- 
sand combs so badly infested that they would 
have become almost worthless in less than a 
week. The combs were all hung up in the 
honey-house, and about a pound of brimstone 
was thrown on a shovel of coals in an old 
kettle. This was placed in the room, and all 
doors and windows carefully closed. Next 
morning we found most of the w^orms dead ; 
but a few encased in heavy webs still lived. 
After another and more severe fumigation, 
not a live one was to be found, and our 
combs were saved. We have several times 
since fumigated honey in boxes in the same 
way. The following extract from Burt's 
Materia Mrdica contains some hints valuable 
to apiarists as well as to doctors : 

III the form of sulphurous-acid fumes, or gas, sul- 
])hur is the most powerful of all known agents as a 
disinfectant and deodorizer. To disinfect a room and 
clothing from infectious diseases, as smallpox, etc., 
first close up the chimney and paste up all crevices 
of the windows and doors to prevent the escape of 
gas. Now raise all carpets, and hang up the cloths 
BO that the fumes of gas may have complete access 
to them. When this is done, set a tub in the center 
of the room with six inches of water in it. In the 
center of this water place a stone that comes just 
above the water. On this stone set an iron vessel 
with two pounds of sulphur broken up intoquite fine 
pieces or lumps; on this pour a few ounces of alco- 
liol, to make the sulphur burn readily; set the alco- 
hol on Are, and leave the room, closing the door be- 
hind you. It is well to repeat this fumigation three 
or four times. 

After the bees have died in a hive, it 
should never be left exposed to robbers and 
moths, but should be carried indoors at once, 
or carefully closed up. If you have not suf- 
ficient bees either by artificial or natural 
swarming to use the combs before warm 
weather, kee]) careful watch over them, for 
a great amount of mischief may be done in 
a very few days. We once removed some 
combs, heavy with honey, in August, and, 



50 BEE-MOTH. 

thinking no worms would get into them so 
late, we delayed looking at them. A month 
later honey began to run out on the floor ; 
and upon atteicpting to lift out a comb it 
was found impossible to do so. When all 
were lifted up at once, a mass of webs nearly 
as large as one's head was found, in place of 
honey and combs. So much for not keeping 
a careful watch over such property. 

The practice in late years is to use bisul- 
phide of carbon— the same drug that is 
spoken of under the head of Ants. The 
combs to be treated are placed in a tool-box 
or small room. A pint or a quart of the 
liquid, depending on the size of the inclo- 
sure, is then placed in an open vessel above 
the combs. The stuff is very volatile and 
evaporates quite rapidly; and the fumes, be- 
ing heavier than air, settle dow^n, passing 
around and through the combs. 

One should be very careful in handling 
this drug lest he inhale the fumes of it, al- 
though a few breaths would probably cause 
no harm except a little dizziness. Every 
thing being in readiness, pour out the 
liquid in the right place, and shut up the 
inclosure. On account of the fearfully ex- 
plosive nature of bisulphide of carbon, it is 
advisable to use a large box or cupboard 
outdoors. One can, of course, use it in a 
building or room; but first be sure there is 
no lighted fire, a lamp, nor any thing that 
might ignite explosive gas. 

HOW TO KEEP EMPTY COMBS. 

When combs are left in spring, after the 
death of the bees in a hive, there is no safer 
place to put them than in the care of a good 
strong colony. Brush off the dead bees and 
put the combs in a clean hive on the stand 
of a strong colony, and then place the colo- 
ny over this hive of empty combs, so that 
they will be obliged to pass through tlie hive 
of combs to go in or out. In other words, 
give the bees no entrance except that of the 
lower hive, allowing free communication be- 
tween the two. The combs will then be kept 
free from worms and mold, with no care 
whatever on your part, except to keep the 
entrance so small for two or three days at 
first that robbers wull not trouble. 

After the weather has become warm, three 
or four stories of empty combs may be piled 
over a queen-excluder on top of a liive con- 
taining a colony ; then a frame of brood in 
the upper story will make sure that the bees 
traverse all the combs. 

BEE-3IOTII IN HIGH ALTITUDES. 

In Colorado, at least in the region of 
Denver, where the elevation is fully a 



BEE-MOTH. 



51 



BEE-MOTH. 




COMliS INFESTJED BY THE LJESSEK AV AX-MOTH. 

Tliis photograph was sent us by Georg-e W. Tebbs, Hespeler, Ontario, Canada, who wrote that the frame 

was taken from a liive which had originally contained an Italian colony, but 

which had been empty during- the winter. 



mile above the level of the sea, the ordinary 
wax-moths are unknown. The great eleva- 
tion seems to be more than they can stand. 
There is, however, a very small wax-worm, 
but it is not the same that ordinarily trou- 
bles bee-keepers. 

The Government Entomologist for New 
South Wales, Australia, Mr. Sidney Olliff, 
wrote an article on the subject of bee-moths 
for the New South Wales Agricultural Ga- 
zette. There is so much of value in it, espe- 
cially as it describes the same pest we have 
here, that we have decided to reproduce it 
in these columns. The illustration accom- 
panying it is especially accurate. 

The bee-moths, or beeswax-moths, of which theie 
are two distinct kinds commonly found in Australia) 
are so well known, and have been so frequently figured 
and described, that it will not be necessary to give 
very detailed or technical descriptions of them here. 
A considerable number of inquiries have been received 
during the past few years regaiding these destructive 
moths, chiefly from amateur bee-keepers ; and it may, 
therefore, be useful to publish a few notes concerning 
the habits and seasonal appearance of these insects in 
Australia, more especially as I am able to add some 
information regarding remedial and preventive meas- 
ures for the suppression of the pests, which have been 
found satisfactory by experienced bee-keepers. The 
larger of the beeswax-moths — properly known as Ga!- 
leria tnellonella, I<inn., but sometimes called by the 
name Galleria cereana, Fabr. — appears to be by far the 
more destructive of the two insects. It is a very wide 
ly distributed species, being found throughout Europe 
and North America, in India, and even in the cold re- 
gions of Northern Siberia ; indeed, it appears to have a 
range that is co-extensive with that of the hive-bee it- 
self. In warm countries it is much more abundant, 
and therefore destructive, than in temperate or cold 



climates, a fact which is probably accounted for by the 
varying number of broods or generations which occur 
in a season under different climatic conditions. With 
us in New South Wales the first brood of moth appears 
in the early spring from caterpillars which have pass- 
ed the winter in a semi-dormant condition, within the 
walls of their silken coverings, and turn into pupae 
or chrysalids only upon the approach of warm weath- 
er. These winter (or hibernating) caterpillars feed 
very little, and usually confine their wanderings to the 
silken channels which they have made for themselves 
before the cool weather set in. Upon the return of 
desired warmth these caterpillars spin a complete 
cocoon for themselves and then turn into the chrysalis 
stage, whence, from ten days to a fortnight, perfect 
moths appear. These then lay eggs in any con- 
venient spot, such as the sides and bottoms of the 
frames, on the walls of the hive itself, or on the comb. 
In each case I have had an opportunity of observing 
the process, the moth chose the sides of the frames, 
as near to the brood-comb as possible, the young larvfe 
having a very decided preference for this comb. The 
larvae having once made their appearance (usually in 
from eight to ten days after the laying of the larval 
eggf) their growth is exceedingly rapid, the average 
time before they are ready to assume the chrysalis 
stage being only some thirty days. The average dura- 
tion of the chrysalis period is about a fortnight, so it 
can easily be seen with what great capabilities for rap- 
id reproduction we have to deal. As we have said, the 
number of generations, or broods, which develop in a 
season, z. e., between early spring and late autumn, 
varies with locality and climate; but it may be worth 
while to record that, in my opinion, we have suflficient 
evidence to prove the existence of four broods in the 
Sydney district under ordinary circumstances. I have 
myself bred three generations, or broods, from a comb 
received in early spring from the Richmond River; 
and I am convinced that a fourth might have teen 
bred from the same stock but for an unfortunate acci- 
dent to the eggs obtained from my third brood. Upon 
first hatching, the larva is pale yellow in color, with a 
slightly darkened head ; and, when full grown, it is of 



EEE-MOTH. 



a dull grajish flesh color, with a dark reddish-brown 
head. Its average length is about an inch, and, like 
the majority of the caterpillars of moths, it has six- 
teen legs. The chrysalis of the larger beeswax-moth 
is of theordinary type, and is inclosed in a very com. 
pact cocoon of tough white silk, usually .spun up in one 
of the silken channels or galleries made by the larva 
to which we have previously referred. The perfect in- 
sect, or moth, has reddish brown-gray forewings, 
which are distinctly lighter in color toward the outer 
or hinder margins. The sexes can readily be distin- 
guished by the outline of the wings, as will readily be 
seen by a glance at the plate accompanying this article- 

The second species of beeswax-moth is known a 
Achta-a grissella, Fabr., the lesser beeswax-moth, or 
honey-moth, etc. Although not nearly so destructive 
as the larger kind, it does considerable damage in old 
and neglected hives. The moth is much smaller than 
Galleiia mellonella, with which, by the way, I have 
founi it associated in the same hive on more than one 
occasion. It is of a dead gray color, and has a yellow 
head. This species is not nearly so particular in 
choosing its food as the former kind (C. jnelloneUay 
and may frequently be found feeding on the debris 
which commonly collects on the bottom of a neglected 
hive. 

It is a well-known fact, that beeswax-moths do 
not attack the Italian (Ligurian) bee to any serious ex- 
tent, which, indeed, are rarely attacked at all. It is the 
ordinary black or hive bee that suffers so greatly. 

In conclusion I would express my thanks, among 
other kind correspondents, to Dr. Dagnell Clark, the 
Rev. John Ayling, and Messrs. Abram & Riddle, who 
have been kind enough to forward to the Department 
specimens or information. 

So far as I am aware, very few recognizable figures 
of the bee-moths have been published ; hence the 
plate attached, from the pencil of Mr. E. M. Grosse, 
will doubtless prove very acceptable. With the ex- 
ception of an excellent wood-cut in Dr. Taschenberg's 
"Die Insecteu" (Brehm's Thierleben, Vol. IX., page 
432) of the larger species, I have not been able to find 
a figure showing the stages or habits of these moths. 
E-XPI^ANATION OF PIRATE. 
BEESWAX-MOTHS. 

Fig. l.—L,arva or caterpillar of lyarger Beeswax-moth 
(Galleria melloneUa, Ivinn.), side view (much 
enlarged). 

Fig. 2.— The same viewed from above (much enlarg- 
ed). 

Fig. 3 —Cocoon of same, extracted from bee-comb (en- 
larged). 

Kig. 4.— I^arger Beeswax - moth {Galleiia mellonella, 
I<inn.), male (much enlarged). 

Fig. 5. — Forewing of same, female. 

Fig. 6.— Larva or caterpillar of Lesser Beeswax-moth 
{Achrcea grissella, Fabr.), side view (much 
enlarged). 

Fig. 7.— Pupa or Chrysalis of same (much enlarged). 

Fig. 8.— Lesser Beeswax - moth {Achrcea grissella, 
Fabr.), (much enlarged). 
In the background above, a comb from a frame 

hive is represented, showing brood-comb tunneled by 

the larvte of the larger beeswax-moth ( Galleria mel- 

lonella, Linn.). 

V The natural sizes of the insects are indicated by 

hair-line. 

BEE PARALYSIS. See DISEASES OF 
Beks. 

BEE-SF ACSS. This term is applied to 
spaces left by the bees both between combs 



52 BEE-SPACES. 

they build and between the parts of the hive 
and the combs. It varies all the way from 
^5 to f ; but j:\ is considered the correct 
average. But in hive-construction it has 
been found that a space of i inch will be 
more free from the building of bits of comb 
and the depositing of propolis than a little 
wider spacing. Any less space than i\ will 
be plugged up with propolis and wax. 

Father Langstroth, in the great invention 
which he gave to the world— the first prac- 
tical movable frame — made the discovery 
that bees recognize and protect passageways 
which we now call bee-spaces. Taking ad- 
vantage of this fact he made a frame for 
holding comb bee-spaced all around. All 
who preceded him had failed to grasp the 
fact that bees would leave such spaces un- 
filled witli wax or propolis. Before Lang- 
stroth's time it was necessary to pull out 
frames stuck fast to the hives with propolis, 
or tear or cut loose the combs with a thin- 
bladed knife, before they could be removed 
for the purpose of inspection. 

By bringing out his bee-spaced frame the 
"father of modern apiculture" solved, with 
one great master-stroke, a problem that had 
been puzzling the minds of bee-keepers for 
centuries. 

In later years, manufacturers of hives 
have been compelled to recognize this great 
principle, that there are certain parts inside 
hives that must be bee-spaced from every 
other part or else they will be stuck or glued 
together in a way that will make them prac- 
tically inseparable. For example, the bot- 
toms of supers containing the sections must 
be i inch above the tops of the brood-frames 
in the lower part of the hive. The sections 
themselves must be held a bee-space away 
from the separators or fences. It has come 
to be a general practice to put the bee-space 
in the bottom-board, leaving the bottoms of 
the frames in the brood-nest nearly flush 
with the bottom of the hive. This makes it 
necessary to have the sides and ends of the 
hive project above the general level of the 
frames about i inch. In the same way the 
supers have a bee-space on top but not on 
the bottom. If a super be removed, and a 
hive-cover be put in its place, there will 
still be a space between the cover and the 
brood-frames. 

BZiliS. Throughout this work we deal 
particularly with Italians, the common black 
bees of this country, and the crosses between 
the two, because they are used almost exclu- 
sively by bee-keepers. The crosses are often 
incorrectly denominated "hybrids;" but as 



BEES. 



58 



BEES. 



that name has been generally adopted, we 
retain it. For particulars regarding these 
bees the reader is referred to Hybrids, 
which see. The Italians are spoken of 
specifically, also, under the heading of Ital- 
ians, elsewhere in this work. 

BLACK OR GERMAN BEES. 

Black bees are so common in nearly every 
vicinity that very little description is neces- 
sary. As the name indicates, they are black. 
One variety in the South is of a brownish 
black; another distinctly black, and, if any 
thing, a trifle smaller. 

Comparing the Germans with the Italians, 
they are more inclined to rob, are not as 
good workers, but are equal when nectar is 
abundant, or when there is dark honey like 
that from buckwheat to be gathered. They 
are much more nervous ; and when a hive of 
them is opened they run like a flock of sheep 
from one corner of the hive to another, boil- 
ing over in confusion, hanging in clusters 
from one corner of the frame as it is held 
up, and finally falling off in bunches to the 
ground, Avhere they continue a wild scramble 
in every direction, probably crawling up 
one's trousers-leg, if the opportunity offers. 
Their queens are much harder to find, the 
bees are not so gentle, and, worse than all, 
they have a disagreeable fashion of follow- 
ing the apiarist about from hive to hive in a 
most tantalizing way. This habit of poising 
on the wing in a threatening manner before 
one's eyes is extremely annoying, and some 
bees will keep it up for a day at a time un- | 
less killed. We generally make very short 
work by smashing them between the palms 
of C'ur hands, or batting them to death with 
little paddles we keep near. It is useless to 
strike at individual bees while they are in 
the air, for one is much more liable to miss 
than to hit them. Our practice is to take 
two sticks, one in each hand, and work them 
back and forth in front of our face very rap- 
idly, just about as one would operate a fan 
on a hot day. This rapid movement excites 
anger in the bees, with the result that they 
make a dive for the whirling sticks ; and in 
less time than it takes to tell it, one by one 
they get their heads rapped, and go down 
into the grass. 

Comb honey from the blacks is a little 
whiter, if any thing, than that made by pure 
Italians, because the capping is raised up, 
leaving a slight air-gap between it and the 
surface of the honey in the cell. But this 
difference in the whiteness of capping is so 
very sli,ii;ht as compared with that on comb 
honey made by the Italians that it really cuts 



no figure in the market. The blacks are also 
much easier to shake off the combs than 
pure Italians, which can hardly be shaken 
off, that some prefer blacks or hybrids, when 
extracting, for that reason alone. 

CARNIOLANS. 

The Carniolans, evidently a variety of 
black bees, which they very much resemble, 
were introduced into this country in 1884, or 
thereabout. Tht-y are said to be very gentle; 
but the few colonies we have tried are no 
more so than average Italians, and in one 
case they were more vindictive than the Cyp- 
rians. As stated, they resemble blacks, and 
might easily be mistaken for them ; but 
there is a difference. They are larger, and 
their abdomens are of a more bluish cast, 
the fuzzy rings being very distinct. They 
are gentler, as a rule, and do not, like the 
blacks, boil over in confusion when the hive 
is opened, although one of our Carniolan 
colonies did this very thing. They have not 
the fixity of character of the Italians— colo- 
nies of the same race differing quite widely. 
The general verdict is, that they are exces- 
sive svvarmers, and this trait alone makes 
them very undesirable. Their close resem- 
blance to black bees makes it difficult to de- 
tect the crosses of the two races. This fact, 
coupled with their great swarming propen- 
sity, will largely prevent their meeting with 
general favor. 

But Carniolans have one good trait in 
their favor, and that is, they deposit as little 
propolis as any bees ever known. Some 
colonies that we had, actually deposited al- 
most none. In the production of comb honey 
this is quite an important item. 



CAUCASIANS. 

This is a race that looks very much like 
Carniolans and the common black bee of this 
country, but it resembles the latter more 
than the former. So close is the general re- 
semblance that even experts in some cases 
have been unable to distinguish them. But 
there is a vast difference in their general 
habits and temperament. 

The claim has been made that Caucasians 
are the gentlest bees known; and this claim, 
in part at least, has been established, al- 
though they are no more so than some good 
strains of pure Italians. Bee-men are not 
agreed, however, as to their honey-gathering 
qualities. Some consider them very inferior, 
while others believe they are equal to any 
race in this respect. All admit that they 
are bad propolizers, sticking large chunks of 
gum in all parts of the hive— a trait that be 



BEES. 



64 



BEES. 



comes more manifest as cold weatlier comes 
on. In this one respect they differ material- 
ly iiom Carniolans. 

About the most serious objection that can 
be urged against them (and the same may 
be said of Carniolans) is very strong resem- 
blance to the common blacks. It will be 
simply impossible to detect tlieir crosses; 
and unscrupulous dealers might send out 
such crosses, or even black bees, and palm 
them oft' as Caucasians. But the deception 
coulil not continue long, as Carniolans be- 
have very differently on the combs. There 
is also a strain of yellow Caucasians ; but 
t hesejwe have never tested, and therefore are 
unable to give any opinion as to their merits. 

15ANAT BEES. 

The black strain of these bees looks very 
much like tlie black Caucasians ; and their 
general characteristics, so far as we have 



ed Apis fosiata by entomologists; has been 
cultivated for thousands of years by the 
P^gyptians, and was probably the tirst species 
reduced by mankind to domestic purposes. 

In the time of the ancient historian Her- 
odotus, apiaries were transported uj) and 
down the Nile so as to keep pace with the 
seasons in Upper and Lower Egypt. This 
practice is continued at the present day to a 
limited extent. Inscriptions on tombs show 
the practice in use 4000 years ago, at least, 
and the honey-bee highly reverenced by the 
people of that age. 

The Egyptian bee is so much smaller than 
the Italian that the two do not hybridize 
very well ; on the contrary, the queen, if 
compelled to mate with a European drone, 
frequently dies soon after fertilization. It 
is probably, however, the mother-species of 
the Cyprian, Holy-Land, and Grecian bees. 






WORKER. 



QUEEN. 



DRONE. 



been able to observe, are about the same 
also. A yellow variety of the same bees is 
also reported. 

TUNISIANS. 

This black race, natives of North Africa, 
are sometimes called "■ Funics." They have 
been tested to some extent in this country, 
but so far have not been able to establish any 
claim in their favor that would entitle them 
to consideration on the part of American 
bee-keepers. They are cross, and so inclined 
to smear everything with a red bee glue that 
they are entirely unsuited for the produc- 
tion of comlj honey. They are no better 
lioney-gatherers than gentler races; and the 
fact that they do not excel in any way, and 
are so far surpassed by other bees in desira- 
ble qualities, should bar them from intro- 
duction into this country. 

KGYTTIANS. 

The Egyptian bee is reputed the most 
beautiful species of Apis. It has been nam- 



It is a fast, excellent worker, but reputed to 
possess an irritable temper though kept 
domesticated for thousands of years. Possi- 
bly in a climate similar to that of Egypt it 
would exhibit a better temper than in North- 
ern Europe. It could hardly be otherwise. 
In color Egyptians are almost identical w it h 
Italians, but in addition have a coat of white 
hairs, which adds to their appearance. 
There are varieties, or races, of the same 
species in countries next to Lower Egypt. 
One feature of these bees would please 
Americans, namely, their ability to keep 
themselves pure and uncontaminated with 
other races. There is a similar species in 
Senegal known as Apis Adansonii, of which 
w^e know but little. 

ALBINOS. 

Albinos are either " sports " from Ital- 
ians, or, what is more generally the case, a 
cross between Holy-Lands and Italians. 
After testing them in our own apiary we 



BEES. 



.55 



BEES. 



find them little different from common Ital- 
ians. The fringe, or down, that appears on 
the rings of the abdomen of young bees is a 
trifle whiter than usual, yet no one would 
observe it unless attention were called to it. 
The queens are very yellow, while the work- 
ers, as honey-gatherers, are decidedly inferi- 
or, even in the second generation: and when 
we select light-colored bees or queens for 
several successive generations, unless care- 
ful we develop only a worker progeny lack- 
ing ability as honey-gatherers and endur- 
ance. By selection we can get almost any 
thing we want, and that quite speedily with 
bees; for we can produce several genera- 
tions in a single season if need be. 

EASTERN RACES OF BEES. 

Cyprians, Holy-Lands, or Syrians, are 
mentioned later under the head of Ital- 
ians. Of other Eastern races I can do no 
better than to quote what ^Ir. Frank Ben- 
ton, formerly Apicultural Expert of the U. 
S. Department of Agriculture, has said of 
them in a special bulletin issued by the De- 
partment, entitled " Honey-bee," containing 
118 pages. Mr. Benton spent some months 
in the jungles of India, in search of new bees. 
Eor this reason, if for no other, he is able to 
give us authoritative information. From 
the bulletin above mentioned we make the 
following extracts : 

THE COMMON EAST-INDIAN HONEY-BEE. 

{Apis Indica. Fab.) 
The common bee of Southern Asia is kept in very 
limited numbers and with a smaU degree of profit in 
earthen jars and sections of hollow trees in portions 
of the British and Dutch East Indies. Thej- are also 
found wild, and build when in this state in hollow 
trees and in rock-clefts. Their combs are composed 
of hexagonal wax cells, and are arranged parallel to 







FIG. I. — WORKER -CELLS OF COMMON EAST-INDIAN 
HONEY-BEE (APIS INDICA), NATURAL SIZE. 

each other like those of A. nielli/ica, but the worker 
brood-cells are smaller than those of our ordinary 
bees, showing 36 to the square inch of surface instead 
of 29; while the comb where worker-brood is reared, 
instead of having, like that of A. mellifica, a thickness 
of seven-eighths inch, is but five-eighths inch thick. 

(Fig 1) 

The workers. — The bodies of these, three-eighths 
inch long -when empty, measure about one-half inch 
when dilated with honey. The thorax is covered with 
brownish hair, and the shield or crescent between the 
wings is large and j-ellow. The abdomen is yellow 
underneath. Above it presents a ringed appearance 



I the anterior part of each segment being orange yel- 

I low, while the posterior part shows bands of brown of 

greater or less width, and covered with whitish-brown 

hairs; tip black. They are nimble on foot and on the 

I wing, and active gatherers. 

The queens. — The queens are large in proportion to 
their workers, and are quite prolific; color, leather or 
dark copper. The drones. — These are only slightly 
larger than the workers; color, a jet-like blue-black, 
without yellow, their strong wings showing changing 
hues like those of wasps. 

Manipulations with colonies of these bees are easy to 
perform if smoke be used ; and, though they are more 
excitable than our common hive-bees, this peculiaritj' 
does not induce excessive stinging, hut seems rather 
to proceed from fear. The sting is also less severe. 

Under the rude methods thus far emploj-ed in the 
management of this bee no great yields of honej' 
are obtained, some 10 or 12 pounds having been the 
most reported from a single hive. It is quite probable 
these little bees would j'ield more if imported into 
this country, since thej' could no doubt visit many 
small flowers not frequented by the hive-bees we 
now have, and whose nectar is, therefore, wasted; but 
ver>- likely they might not withstand the severe win- 
ters of the North unless furnished with such extra 
protection as would be afforded by quite warm cellars 
or special repositories. 

Here is something exceedingly interesting 
regarding the smallest honey-bees in the 
world. Just take a look at the size of the 
cells as shown in the figure, natural size, 
and then compare them in your mind"s eye 
with comb in your own apiary. Well, here 
is what Mr. Benton has to say : 

THE TINY E.AST-INDIAN HONEY-BEE. 

[Apis florea. Fab.) 
This bee, also a native of East India, is the .smallest 
known species of the genus. It builds in the open air, 
attaching a single comb to a twig of a shrub, or small 
tree. This comb is only about the size of a man's 
hand, and is exceedingly delicate, there being on each 




FIG. 3. COMB OF TINY EAST-INDI.-i.N HONEY-BEE (API 

FLOREA), ONE-THIRD NATURAL SIZE. 



BEES. 



56 



side 100 worker-cells to the square inch of surface 
(Figs. 2 and 3). The workei'^ more slender than 
house-fiies, though longer-bodied, are blue-black in 
color, with the anterior third of the abdomen brip;hi 





♦ J"— -^ 



KIG. 2.— WORKER-CICLLS OF TINY 1-^^ ! ' 1 \N HONEY- 

BEE (apis florea); natural size. 

orange. Colonies of these bees accumulate so little 
surplus honey as to give no hope that their cultivation 
would be profitable. 

GIANT BEES OF INDIA. 
{Apis dorsata, Fab.) 

A few years ago a great deal used to be 
said regarding the East Indian "giant" 
honej'-bees, Ains dorsata, and the possi- 
bilities of liaving them imported and domes- 
ticated in this country. Much truth and 
nonsense have evidently been circulated in 
regard to them. Mr. Benton, having been 
in their native land, gives us something 
here that can be relied on. 

« This large bee, which might not inappropriately be 
styled the Giant East-Indian bee, has its home in the 
far East— both on the continent of Asia and the adja- 
cent islands. There are probably several varieties 
of this species, more or less marked, and very likely 
Apis zona/a, Guer., of the Philippine Islands, reported 
to be even larger than Apis dorsata, will prove on fur- 
ther investigation to be only a variety of the latter. All 
the varieties of these bees build huge combs of very 
pure wax— often 5 to 6 feet in length and 3 to 4 feet in 
width, which they attach to overhanging ledges of 
rocks or to large limbs of lofty trees in the primitive 
forest jungles. When attached to the limbs of trees 
they are built singly, and present much the same 
appearance as those of the tiny East - Indian bee, 
shown in the accompanying figure (Fig. 3). The 
Giant bee, however, quite in contradistinction to the 
other species of apis mentioned here, does not con- 
struct larger cells in which to rear drones, these and 
the workers being produced in cells of the same size. 
Of these bees— long regarded as a myth by bee-keepers 
of America and Europe — strange stories have been 
told. It has been .stated that they build their combs 
horizontally, after the manner of paper-making wasps; 
that they are so given to wandering as to make it im- 
possible to keep them in hives, and that their ferocity 
renders them objects greatlj' to be dreaded. The first 
real information regarding these points was given by 
the author. He visited India in 1880-81 for the purpose 
of obtaining colonies of Apis dorsata. These were 
procured in the jungles by cuttingthe combs from their 
original attachments, and it was thus ascertained (as 
might have been expected in the case of any species 
of apis), that their combs are always built perpendicu- 
larly ; ahso that colonies placed in frame hives and 
permitted to fly freely did not desert these habita- 
tions, and that, far from being ferocious, these colo- 
nies were easily handled by proper precautions, with- 
out even the use of smoke. It was also proved by the 



BEES. 

quat:tily of honey and wax present that they are good 
gatherers. The execution at that time of the plan to 
t'.ing these bees to the United States was prevent- 
ed only by severe illness contracted in India. 

These large bees would doubtless be able to get 
honey from flowers whose nectaries are located out of 
reach of ordinary bees, notably those of the red clo- 
ver, now visited chiefly by bumble-bees, and which it 
is thought the East-Indian bees might pollinate and 
cause to produce seed more abundantly. Even if not 
further utilizable, they might prove an important fac- 
tor in the production, throughout the Southern States, 
of large quantities of excellent beeswax, now such an 
expensive article. 

There are a few in this country who be- 
lieve the introduction of the giant bees here 
would result disastrously to the business; 
that, as the English sparrow has driven out 
some of our American song birds, so Apis 
dorsata might drive out the Italians and 
black bees by taking the nectar that would 
otherwise go to Apis mellifica, and thus in- 
directly rob the bee-keeper. It is also 
stated that Apis dorsata could not be domes- 
ticated, but would run wild allover the coun- 
try; but from all the information we can 
gather we have no fear of any of these 
things. The facts prove that they have 
not run out Apis Indica, Apis florea, and 
other Eastern bees in their own habitats; 
furthermore, it is doubtful whether they 
would be able to stand our changing 
climate, even in the South; for it must be 
understood that India and the Philippines 
have a much warmer climate than our South- 
ern States. 

HOW BEES GROW. 

Having devoted so much space to the 
different races of bees, it is now in order to 
discuss how they grow. 

During warm weather, while bees are 
gathering honey, open your hive about noon, 
and put in the center a frame containing a 
sheet of foundation ; examine it every 
morning, noon, and evening, until you can 
see eggs in the cells. By inserting it 
between two combs already containing 
brood you will very likely find eggs in the 
cells the next day. 

If you have never seen an egg that is to 
produce a bee, you may have to look very 
sharp the first time, for they are white like 
polished ivory, and scarcely larger than one 
of the periods in this print. They will be 
seen in the center of the cells attached to 
the comb by one end. The egg under the 
microscope mucli resembles the cut. It is 
covered, as you notice, with a sort of lace- 
like penciling, or net- work it might proper- 
ly be called. Immediately on discovering 
eggs, mark down the date. If the weather 



BEES. 



67 



BEES. 



is favorable, these eggs will hatch out in 
about three days or a little more, when, in 
place of the egg, you will, if you look sharp 
enough, see a tiny white worm or grub float- 
ing in a minute drop of milky fluid. If you 




A queen's egg uxdek the mickoscope. 

watch you will find bees incessantly poking 
their heads into these cells ; and very 
likely the milky fluid is placed on and about 
the egg a little before the inmate breaks its 
way out of the shell. We infer this, because 
we have never been able to get the eggs to 
hatch when taken away from the bees,* al- 




3 4 .5 6 9 13 1.5 
THE DAILY GROWTH OF LARV^. 

though we have -carefully kept the temper- 
ature at the same point as in the hive. The 
net-work, as shown in tlie cut above, allows 
the milky fluid to penetrate the shell of the 
egg to furnish nourishment for the young 
bee at just the time required. These worms 
are really young bees in their larval state, 
and we shall in future call them larvae. 
They thrive and grow vei y rapidly on their 
bread-and-milk diet, as you can see if you 
look at them very often. They will more 
than double in size in a single half-day, and 
in the short space of 12 days will expand 
from a mere speck (the larva just hatched) 
to the size of a full-grown bee, filling the cell 
completely. This seems almost incredible. 
but there they are, right before your eyes. 
We presume it is owing to the highly con- 
centrated nature of tliis "bread-and-milk" 
food that the workers are so constantly giving 
them that they grow so rapidly. If you take 
the comb away from the bees for a little 
while you will see the larvae opening their 



* Since this was written it has been proven that 
eg'g-s. removed from the hive, when subjected to 
proper temperature will hatch if supplied artiflciallj' 
with the milky food; otherwise, not. 



mouths to be fed, like a nest of young birds, 
for all the w^orld. 

Figures under the cut represent the age in 
days from the laying of an egg. First the 
larva just having broken the egg-shell on 
the third day ; next, a larva on the fourth 
day. During the fifth and sixth days they 
grow very rapidly, but it is difiicult to fix 
any precise mark in regard to size. On the 
ninth day, the larva, having straightened 
itself out, the worker-bees cap it over. We 
have made a pretty accurate experiment on 
this point, and it was just six days and seven 
hours after the first egg hatched, that the 
bees completely capped it over. Just when 
larvae begin to have legs and eyes, we have 
not discovered ; but we found that the wings 
develop toward the last of the growth. 

Regarding this point, Frank Cheshire, in 
his work on " Bees and Bee-keeping,'" says : 

The chorion of the egg- breaks, usually after three 
days (the time varies according to temperature), 
and a footless larva, with thirteen segments, exclu- 
sive of the head, alternately straightens and bends 
its bod J' to free itself of the envelope. It is ex- 
tremely curious that, before hatching, the larva 
presents rudimentary legs, which disappear— a fact 
which some have supposed to indicate "atavism," a 
reference to an ancestral type in which the larva 
bore feet; but this does not seem to be valid, for 
reasons which would encroach too much on our 
space. Toward the end of the larval period, the 
three segments following the head have little scales 
beneath the skin on the ventral side, which are the 
beginnings of the legs, and which can not be seen 
until the creature has been immersed in alcohol: the 
budding wings outside these, on second and third 
segments, are, by the same treatment, brought un- 
der ^-iew, as are also the rudiments of the sting in 
queen or worker larvfe, the male organs appearing 
in that of the drone. After sealing, the fourth seg- 
ment begins to contract, and the fifth becomes 
partly atrophied, so that, soon, the former consti- 
tutes only a partial cover for the base of the devel- 
oping thorax, and the petiole between it and the 
abdomen, while the latter becomes the narrow, first 
abdominal segment. It has been explained that the 
last three segments disappear in forming the sting; 
and now we find the fourth forming the petiole, leav- 
ing nine of the thirteen original segments, of which 
three go to the thorax and six to the abdomen. 

After the larvae are 6 days old, or between 
9 and 10 days from the time the egg was laid, 
you will find the bees sealing up some of the 
largest. This sealing is done with a sort of 
paper-like substance ; and while it shuts the 
young bee uj), it still allows it a chance to 
breathe througli the pores of the capping. 
It is given its last food, and the niu-ses seem 
to say, " There 1 you have been fed enough; 
spin your cocoon, and take care of yourself." 

After this, as a general thing, the young 
bee is left covered up until it gnaws off the 
capping and comes out a perfect bee. This 



BEb:S. 



58 



BEES. 



will be ill about 21 days fiom the time the 
egg was laid, or it may be 20 if the weather 
is very favorable; therefore it is shut up 11 
or 12 days. Now, there is an exception to 
this last statement, and it has caused not a 
little trouble and solicitude to beginners. 
During very warm summer weather, the 
bees, for one reason or another, decide to 
let a part of their children go " bareheaded," 
and therefore we (ind, on opening a hive, 
whole patches of immature bees looking like 
silent corpses with their white heads in tiers 
just about on a level with the surface of the 
comb. At this stage of growth they are 
motionless, of course, and so the young bee- 
keeper sends a postal card, telling us the 
brood in his hives is all dead. Some have 
imagined that the extractor killed them, 
others that it was foul brood ; and we often 
think, when reading these letters, of the 
family which moved from the city into the 
country. When their beans began to come 
up, they thought the poor things had made 
a mistake by coming up wrong end first; so 
they pulled them all up, and replanted them 
with the bean part in the ground, leaving 
the proper roots sprawling up in the air. 
We can rest assured that the bees almost 
always know when it is safe to let the chil- 
dren's heads go uncovered. 

It is very important, many times, to dis- 
cover just when a queen was lost or a colony 
swarmed; hence you should learn these 
data thoroughly : The development of a bee 
occupies 3 days in the egg, 6 in the larvai 
state, and 12 days sealed up. 

The capping of worker-brood is nearly flat; 
that of the drones so much raised or convex- 
ed that we can at a glance tell when drones 
are reared in worker- cells, as is sometimes 
the case. 

The young bee, when it gnaws its way out 
of the cell, commences to rub its own nose, 
straighten out its leathers, and then push 
its way among the busy throng, doubtless 
rejoicing to become one of that vast com. 
mon wealth. Nobody says a word, nor, ap- 
parently, takes any notice of the youngster ; 
but for all that, they, as a whole, we are well 
convinced, feel encouraged, and rejoice in 
their own way at a house full of young folks. 
Keep a colony without young bees for a time 
and you will see a new energy infused into 
all hands just as soon as young bees begin 
to gnaw out. 

If you vary your experiment by putting a 
frame of Italian eggs into a colony of com- 
mon bees, you will be better able to follow 
the newly emeiged young bee as it matures. 



The lirst day it does little but crawl around; 
but about the next day it will be found dip- 
ping greedily into the cells of unsealed 
honey, and so on for a week or more. After 
about the first day it will also begin to look 
after the wants of the unsealed larvae, and 
very soon assists in furnishing the milky 
food for them. While so doing, a large 
amount of pollen is used, and it is supposed 
that this larval food is pollen and honey, 
partially digested by these young nurses. 
Bees of this age, or a little older, supply 
royal jelly for the queen-cells, which is the 
same, probably, as the food given very small 
larvae. Just before they are sealed up, lar- 
vae to produce worker-bees and drones are 
fed on a coarser, less perfectly digested mix- 
ture of honey and pollen. Young bees have 
a white downy look until they are a full 
week old, and continue a peculiar young as- 
pect until they are quite two weeks old. At 
about this latter age they are generally ac- 
tive comb-builders of the hive. When a 
week or ten days old they take their first 
flight out of doors ; we know no prettier 
sight in the apiary than a host of young Ital- 
ians taking a playspell in the open air, in 
front of their hive. Their antics and gam- 
bols remind one of a lot of young lambs at 
play. 

It is also very interesting to see these lit- 
tle chaps bringing their first load of pollen 
from the fields. If there are plenty of other 
bees in the hive of the proper age, they 
will not usually take up this work until 
about two weeks old. The first load of pol- 
len is to a young bee just about what the 
first pair of pants is to a boy-baby. Instead 
of going straight into the hive with its load, 
as the veterans do, a vast amount of circling 
round the entrance miist be done; and even 
after the young bee has once alighted it takes 
wing again before rushing all through the 
hive, to jostle nurses, drones, and perhaps 
the queen too; saying as plainly as could 
words, " Look ! Here am I. I gathered 
this, all myself. Is it not nice V " 

We might imagine some old veteran, wiio 
had brought thousands of such loads, an- 
swering gruffly, "AVell, suppose you did; 
what of it? You had better put it in a 
cell and start off after more, instead of 
making all this row and wasting time, when 
there are so many mouths to feed." We said 
we might imagine this, for we have never 
been able to find any indication of unkind- 
ness inside a bee-hive. No one scolds or 
finds fault, and the children are never forced 
to work, unless they wish. If they are im- 



BEES. 



59 



BEES AND FRUIT. 



provident, and starvation comes, they all 
suffer alike, and, we do believe, without a 
single bit of hard feeling or censure toward 
any one. They all work together, just as 
your right hand assists your left; and if we 
would understand the economy of the bee- 
hive, it were well to bear this point innniid. 

Shortly follow- 
ing the impulse 
for pollen-collect- 
ing, comes that for 
honey - gathering ; 
and the bee is 
probably in its 
prime as a worker 
when a month old. 
At this age it can, 
like a man of 40, 
"turn its hand" 
to almost any do- 
mestic duties; biit 
if the hive is well 
supplied with 
workers of all 
ages, it now prob- 
ably does most ef- 
fective service in 
the fields. See 
Age or Bees. 

When a colony 
is formed of young 
bees entirely ,they 
will sometimes go 
out into the fields 
for pollen when 
but five or six days 
old. Also when a 
colony is formed 
wholly of adult 



he placed sound fruit, consisting of grapes, 
peaches, apricots, and the like, in hives con- 
taining bees that were brought to the verge 
of starvation. This fruit was left in the 
hives day after day, but it was never once 
molested. Then he tried breaking some of 
the fruit, and in every rase all such speci- 




GRAPES FIRST PUNCTURED BY BIRDS AND DESPOILED BTBEES. 



bees they can build comb, feed the larvse, 
construct queen-cells, and perform work 
generally that is usually done by younger 
bees ; yet it is probably better economy to 
have bees of all ages in the hive. 

BliES AIMD FRUIT. Every now 
and then we hear complaints of how bees 
will attack and eat up fruit ; and to a casual 
observer, at least, they apparently do bite 
through the skin, extract the juices, until 
the specimen is shriveled up to a mere 
semblance of its former shape and size. 
Careful investigation has shown repeatedly 
that bees never attack sound fruit no matter 
how soft the skin nor how juicy and pulpy 
the contents within the skin. 

Some years ago. Prof. N. W. McLain. 
then in the employ of the Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C, conducted 
an elaborate series of experiments in which 



mens were attacked by the bees sucking up 
the juices until nothing but a dried skin and 
the stones or seeds were left. 

Years later. Prof. H. A. Surface, economic 
zoologist at Harrisburg. Pa., tried a similar 
experiment, but in no case did the bees at- 
tack the sound fruit, although they partook 
freely of that which he had broken. 

At the Wilmington State Fair, held Sept., 
1908, in Delaware, Mr. Joel Gilfillan, of 
Newark. Del., had on exhibition a three- 
story observation hive containing two combs 
of bees. In the third story was hung a 
peach, a pear, and a bunch of grapes. This 
was kept on exhibition during the entire fair 
where the general public could see it. As is 
shown, this fruit was never once visited by 
the bees. The general verdict of those who 
saw it, fruit-men and farmers alike, was that 
bees would and could not injure sound fruit. 



BEES AND FRUIT. 



60 



BEES AND FRUIT. 



Tlie authors have had, during the past 
thirty years, between three and lour hun- 
dred colonies located in a vineyard at their 
home apiary. Notwithstanding hundreds 
and hundreds of pounds of grapes are raised 
every year, the bunches hanging within { 
three or four feet of the entrance of the | 
iiives, the sound fruit is never attacked ; but i 




ONE OF THE EXIIIISITS OF BEES AT THE GRANGE FAIR IN WIL- 

3IINGTON, DELAWARE, HELD IN SEPTEMBER, 1908. 

A curd in tbe hive read, " Bees do not injure sound fruit." 

diu-ing a dearth of honey, a broken or other- 
wise bruised bunch of grapes will occasion- 
ally be visited by a few bees. 

The writer of this article has attended va- 
rious liorticultural and pomological conven- 
tions, both State and national. Among the 



progressive fruit-growers and horticultu- 
rists tliere is a general acknowledgment that 
bees do not attack sound fruit ; that the 
little damage they do to damaged fruit is 
compensated for a hundred times over by 
the indispensable service they perform in 
pollinating fruit-blossoms early in the season 
when no other insects or means of mingling 
the i)ollen exists. In- 
deed, some of our best 
fruit-growers are now 
keeping a few hives of 
bees in each of their or- 
chards. Often they in- 
vite bee-keepers to lo- 
cate yards of bees either 
in the orchards or as 
near as it is practicable 
to put them. 

But a casual observer 
might easily get the im- 
pression that bees not 
only suck damaged fruit 
dry, but actually punc- 
ture and eat up sound 
fruit. Some years ago a 
neighbor sent word to 
us that he would like to 
have us come up. to his 
vineyard and he would 
give us undisputable 
proof that our bees were 
actually punctiuing his 
grapes and sucking out 
the fruit. We looked 
at the luscious bunches 
as they were hanging 
down , and , sure enough, 
there were small needle 
like holes in almost 
every berry that the 
bees were working on. 
It looked like a clear 
case of " caught in 
the act" evidence 
against them. For the 
time being we were un- 
able to offer a satisfac- 
tory explanation. We 
brought the matter to 
the attention of an old 
farmer who had been a 
bee - keeper for many 
years. Finally one morning he sent word 
to us that he had found the guilty culprit, 
and that if we would come down to his 
place early some morning he would point 
him out. This we did. He showed us a 
little bird, quick of flight, and almost never 



BEES AND FRUIT. 



61 



BEES AND FRUIT. 




APRICOTS DAMAGED 



BY BIRDS ; FRUITS THUS INJURED ARE 
WHICH STORE THE JUICE AS HONEY. 



SUCKED DRY BY BEES, 



to be seen aroimd the vines when any human 
being was present. This bird, about the size 
of a sparrow, striped, and called the Cape 
May warbler (Dendroica tigrina), hus a long 
sharp needlelike beak. It will alight on a 
bunch, and, about as fast as one can count 
the grapes, will puncture berry after berry. 
After his birdship has done his mischief he 
leaves, and then come the innocent bees dur- 
ing the later hours of the day and finish up 
the work of destruction by sucking the 
juices and the pulp of the berry until it be- 
comes a withered skin over a few seeds. 
While the birds during the early hours of 
the day are never seen, the bees, coming on 
later, receive all the credit for the mischief. 

The Cape May warbler is not the only bird 
guilty of puncturing grapes. There are 
many other species of small birds that learn 
this habit, and amo»g them we may name 
the ever present sparrow and the beautiful 
Baltimore oriole, the sweet singer that is 
sometimes called the swinging bird, from its 
habit of building its nest on some overhang- 
ing limb. 

For further information regarding grape- 
puncturing birds, write to Dr. Merriam, of 
the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, "Washington, D. C. 

WHEN BEES MAY DAMAGE FRUIT. 

But there are times when bees do a real 
damage : and it is then that their owner 
should compromise, or, better yet, seek 
means to avoid trouble in the first place. In 
the fruit-drying ranclies of California, apri- 
cots and peaches are cut up into small 
pieces and laid upon trays exposed to the 



sun's says. If there is a dearth of honey at 
this time, and a large number of bees in the 
locality, this fruit is quite liable to be at- 
tacked. The bees may visit it in such large 
numbers that they suck out the juices, leav- 
ing nothing but the shriveled form of the 
fruit. The property is no doubt damaged 
and its sale ruined. Before such a catastro- 
phe can happen, the bee-keeper should move 
his wliole yard to a point three or four miles 
distant from any fruit-drying operations. 
Failing to do so the fruit-grower, if the bees 
caused trouble, might enter suit for dam- 
ages, and possibly recover the value of his 
crop. The bee-keeper, therefore, when the 
drying season is on, should take the precau- 
tion to move his bees away at once or make 
arrangements with his neighbor whereby he 
is to give immediate notice if the bees be- 
gin work on the fruit. 

Years ago we had trouble with a cider- 
maker.- He claimed that our bees would 
lick up the cider from the press as fast as he 
could make it. We easily adjusted this dif- 
ficulty by screening his building with mos- 
quito-netting, t 

In every case of this sort the bee-keeper 
should avoid trouble. If he is a member of 
the National Bee-keepers' Association he 
might put up a stiff defense, it is true ; but 
in the case of the fruit-drying ranches and 
the cider-mills, the bee-keeper had better err 
on the safe side by avoiding suit for dam- 
ages, because no bee-keepers' union or any 
other organization, or lawyers either, for 
that matter, would be able to give much as- 
sistance where it was clearly proven that 
the bees were doing an actual damage. 



BEES AND FRUIT. 62 

BEES EXONERATED BY A JURY. 

In 1900, trouble arose between two broth- 
ers named Utter, at Amity, N. Y. One was 
a bee-keeper and the other a fruit-grower. 
The latter averred that tlie former's bees 
punctured his peaches, and that, in conse- 
quence of their alleged damage, he was un- 
able to raise any fruit. There had not been 
very good feeling between the brothers for 
years. The fruit-grower brought suit against 
the bee-keeper, and the case was tried on 
December 17, 18, and 19, 1899, at Goshen. 
There was no lack of legal talent on either 
side. The case was a very hard fought one 
from beginning to end. Among some thirty 
odd witnesses examined, the Government 
expert, Mr. Frank Benton, of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. C, gave in his testimony to 
the effect that bees never puncture sound 
fruit; that it is practically impossible for 
them to do so, owing to the fact that they 
have no ciitting jaws like those found in the 
wasp and other insects of that character. He 
also showed how wasps and birds will, under 
some conditions, puncture fruit ; that these 
minute holes theymake will, during a dearth 
of honey, be visited by bees. Other expert 
testimony was offered, nearly all of which 
exonerated the bees. After all the evidence 
was in and the pleas were made, the jury re- 
tired, and in a short time returned a verdict 
for the defendant. The fruit-grower had 
failed to make out a case against the bees. 

For further particulars regarding this the 
readei" is referred to the General Manager of 
the National Bee-keepers' Association. 

In case trouble arises, the owner of the 
bees will do well to read the next subject, 
'' Bees as a Nuisance,'' and also the other 
subject found in its alphabetical order, 
" Laws Relating to Bees." 

BEES AS A rrUISArrCE. it would 
seem almost out of place to discuss this 
(juestion in a work intended for perusal and 
study by those who believe (and rightly, too) 
that bees are not a nuisance ; but, as we 
shall show, there are very good reasons why 
we should calmly discuss this question in 
order to avoid trouble that may arise in the 
future. Certain difhculties have arisen be- 
tween the keepers of bees and their neigh- 
bors. Perhai)S the bees, after a long winter 
confinement, have taken a flight and soiled 
tlie washing hung on a line in a neighbor's 
yard. Possibly some of his cliildren have 
been stung, or there have been times when 
he has been annoyed while in the peaceable 



BEES AS A NUISANCE. 

possession of his own property by bees com- 
ing on his premises, and smelling around, as 
they sometimes do during the fruit-canning 
season when tlie aroma of sugar and juicy 
fruits is flowing out through the doors and 
windows of the kitchen. Possibly the of- 
fended neighbor keeps chickens, and mem- 
bers of his feathered tribe have trespassed 
on the grounds of the bee-keeper. The re- 
sult of all this is that bad feelings arise. 
Complaint is made to the village fathers ; an 
ordinance is passed declaring bees within 
the limits of the corporation to be a nui- 
sance, and requiring the keeper to remove 
them at once or suffer the penalty of fine or 
imprisonment, or both. 

In some instances, live stock has been 
stung ; a cow or a calf or a horse may get 
near the entrances of the hives, which, we 
will say, are within a foot of a dividing line 
between the two properties. Perhaps the 
stock is stung nearly to death. Damage is 
claimed and a lawsuit follows, with the re- 
sult that a feeling of resentment is stirred 
up against the bee-keeper. But this is not 
all. Possibly the bee-keeper has an a])iary 
in his front yard, bordering on the general 
highway. A nucleus may be robbed out, 
with the result that the bees go on the war- 
path , and begin to sting passersby . Perhaps 
a span of horses is attacked ; a runaway 
follows ; damages are claimed, and another 
lawsuit is begun. 

In the foregoing we have supposed j5oss/6/e 
instances. It is proper to state that they 
are only types of what has occurred and may 
occur again, so it behooves us to be careful. 

In the case first mentioned (the aggrieved 
neighbor's washing soiled by the stains from 
bees affected with dysentery), it is well for 
the bee-keeper to send over several nice sec- 
tions of honey, or offer to pay for the dam- 
age done to the washing. Nothing makes a 
woman more angry than to have her nice 
clean white linen, after she has scrubbed, 
rinsed, and hung it out to dry, dai;bed with 
nasty, ill-smelling brown stains. But if our 
bee-keeping friend will take pains to offer 
an apology before the woman makes com- 
plaint, and show a disposition to make the 
matter good, trouble may be averted. And 
right here it should be said, if the bees are in 
the cellar do not set them out on a w^ash-day ; 
or if they are outdoors, and the sun comes 
out bright so they begin to fly strongly from 
the hives, send word to your neighbors and 
ask them not to hang out their washing, if 
it is wash-day, for a few hours. Send along 
a few boxes of honey, and keep the folks 



BEES AS A NUISANCE. 



63 



BEES AS A NUISANCE. 



across the way " sweetened up." Ninety- 
uine neighbors out of a hundred will put up 
with a great deal of inconvenience, and say, 
" Oh ! that is all right. It won't take long 
to rinse out the clothes again." 

Take, for example, more serious cases — 
where horses or cattle have been stung. If 
you have been foolish enough to place hives 
near the highway or your neighbor's line 
fence where he has loose stock, you may 
have to pay pretty dearly for it before you 
get through. The remedy is prevention. 
Always pat bees in a back yard, and not too 
close to your neighbor's line fence. Be care- 
ful, also, to prevent robbing. See that there 
are no weak nuclei with entrances too large. 
As soon as the honey-flow stops, contract 



occasions. We supplied our neighbor with 
clover seed for this Held ; and when he came 
to cut the crop the horses woidd occasional- 
ly be stung while drawing the mower. In 
one case there came very near being a sei"i- 
ous mixup, as the team came very near run- 
ning away with the mowing-machine. 

Two years later, corn was planted in this 
same held. When the horses were cultivat- 
ing up and down the rows they were attacked 
again by the bees, for they were going in 
great droves across this field to a patch of 
clover beyond. Notwithstanding we had a 
high board fence to raise the flight of the 
bees above the team when near our yard, 
there was more or less trouble. On one oc- 
casion the driver was stung pretty severely 




SCHEME FOR PROTECTING HORSES WHILE CULTIVATING A FIELD NEXT TO A BEE- YARD 



the entrances of all the w^eaker colonies. If 
extracting is done after the honey flow, great 
caution needs to be exercised. The extract- 
ing-room should be screened off, and bee- 
escapes provided. Wherever possible, take 
off all surplus by the use of bee-escapes rath- 
er than by shaking. See Robbing and Ex- 
tracting. 

what to do when bees attack neigh- 
bors' horses. 

But it sometimes happens that something 
must be done at once to avert an attack up- 
on teams of horses working in fields adjoin- 
ing a bee-yard. We have one outyard locat- 
ed near a field where our neighbor's horses 
have been attacked by the bees on several 



and the animals became unmanageable. 
Fortunately the driver got them under con- 
trol without any serious consequences. 

Now, our neighbor is a kindly man ; and 
when he telephoned what had happened we 
saw that something would have to be done. 
We told him to go to the harness-shop and 
secure some large horse-blankets that would 
cover the necks and backs of the horses, and 
we would pay the bill. We then directed 
him to secure some large squares of mos- 
quito-netting and fold this around the 
horses' heads. In the meantime we supplied 
him with veils for himself and man. 

When the next day came tor cultivating, 
the blankets were put on and we went down 



BEES A.S A NUISANCE. 



64 



BEES ON SHARES. 



to watcli developments. We found thivt the 
lilankets helped very materially, as they pro- 
tected the animals from the onslaught of 
bees around their backs and necks where 
they could not brush or switch them off. 
Our neighbor did not think it was necessary 
to put the mosquito- netting over the heads, 
as he said his horses did not mind bees on 
the face, as they could be brushed off on the 
lore-legs. With these large blankets the 
horses went up and down the rows with 
very little trouble. 

We found upon investigation that the bees 
were not disposed to l)e cross, but in going 
to and from the fields in search of honey 
they were interrupted in their flight. The 
switching of the tails of the horses angered 
them with the result as stated. 

But suppose your neighbor is unreasona- 
ble and ugly, and he brings suit for dam- 
ages ; or suppose that your bees are located 
in a city or village, and that the town coun- 
cil has declared your bees a nuisance. 

Do not move tlie bees if you have used 
reasonable precaution, but write at once to 
the Manager of the National Bee-keepers' 
Association, whose address will be found by 
writing to any bee-journal or the publishers 
of this work. If you are a member of the 
Association you wdll be entitled to protec- 
tion, and possibly all or apart of the court 
expenses will be paid by the organization. 
The Association does not undertake to de- 
fend its members against criminal careless- 
ness of such a kind as we have already de- 
scribed ; but w^hen the bee-keeper has exer- 
cised every precaution, then it endeavors to 
protect his rights. This means that you 
sliould become a member before you get into 
trouble. The annual fee for membership 
and protection is $1.00. 

Well, we will say the attorneys have been 
retained, and the Association is back of 
you. Any number of decisions have been 
handed down to prove that bees are not a 
nuisance per se; that, wlien they are proper- 
ly keiit, and due precautions are used, they 
can not be driven out of the corporation. 
There are several precedents from various 
courts, even from the Supreme Court of Ar- 
kansas, to show^ that bees have the right to 
1)6 kept within a coiporation like any other 
live stock, so that any ordinance not in con- 
formity with these decisions can be declared 
unconstitutional. Several ordinances de- 
claring bees to be a nuisance have been re- 
pealed. See Dkcisioks, under head of Laws 
Relating to Bees, found elsewhere in its 
alphabetical order. 



BEES, CROSS. See Angek of Bees. 
BEES, HANDLING. See Frames, Ma- 
nipulating ; also Exhibits. 

BEES ON SHARES. In some local- 
ities, notably in California, Colorado, and 
the great West, bees are often kept on 
shares. While this method of doing busi- 
ness has usually been conducted quite suc- 
cessfully and satisfactorily to both parties, 
yet nevertheless many disputes and trou- 
bles have arisen, perhaps because there was 
a lack of contract ; or if there was one there 
was nothing in it to cover the point in dis- 
pute. 

The following form of contract was very 
carefully drawn by an attorney, and it is 
hoped will meet every condition. 

articles or agreement. 

This Agreement, made and entered into at , 

this day of , 190—, by and between 

of , party of tlie first part, and liereinaftcr 

called the owner, and , of , party of the 

second part, and liereinafter called the employee. 

Witnessetlt : first, that said owner has agreed, and 
in consideration of the covenants and agreements 
herein contained and to be performed by said 
employee, does hereby agree to provide a good loca- 
tion for keeping bees, at or near , and furnish 

and put thereon, on or before the day of , 

190—, not less than colonies of healthy bees, 

and then and thereafter at such times as needed 
dui-ing the continuance of this contract, to provide 
and furnish at his own cost and expense, all hives, 
tools, implements, machinery, and buildings neces- 
sary to enable said employee to carry on success- 
fully the business of producing and securing honey 
and wax from said bees; and further to pay one-half 
of the cost and expense of all sections, cans, bottles, 
shipping-cases, and packages that may be required 
to put the honey and wax into marketable shape; 
and in case it shall be necessary to feed said bees, to 
provide and furnisli feeders and the sugar for mak- 
ing the syrup; and said owner further agrees to 
give and deliver on the said premises, to said 
employee, as and for his compensation for labor 
done and provided by him in cai-ing for said bees 
and securing lioney and wax. the full one-half of all 
marketable honey and wax produced by and secured 
from said bees. 

Second: In consideration of the above covenants 

and agreements, the said , employee, hereby 

agrees to enter the employ of said owner on said 

day of , 19—, and at once care for said 

bees in a proper manner; do, perfoi-m, and provide 
all labor necessary to carry on successfully the busi- 
ness of producing and securing honey and wax ready 
for market; pay one-half the cost and expense of all 
sections, cans, bottles, shipping-cases, and packages 
tliat may be required to put the honey and wax into 
marketable sliape; feed the bees, wlien necessary 
tliat they shall be fed, and deliver on the premises to 
the said owner the full one-lialf of all the market- 
able honey and wax produced and secured from 
said bees, and to accept the remaining half as and 
for his full compensation for labor done and pro- 
vided by him in the care of said bees and the produc- 
tion and securing of honey and wax. 



BEES ON SHARES. 



65 



BEES, STINGLESS. 



Provided, and it is mutually agreed and under- 
stood by and between the pai ties hereto, tliat said 
employee shall double up all of t^a'd hives at tlie close 
of the season or leave them reasonably strong and 
well sujiplied with stores and prepared for winter; 
and if any of said colonies of bees are lost through 
the carelessness or negligence of said employee, said 
owner may recover from said employee as damages 
an amount not greater than one-half what it would 
cost to replace said bees and queens; all increase 
of swarms (artificial or natural) to belong to said 
owner. It is further mutually agreed and under- 
stood that in case no honey is secured, or the 
amount runs below ten (10) pounds per colony, said 
owner shall pay to said emploj-ce, as and for his com" 
pensation for all labor done and provided by him on 

and about said bees, an amount not exceeding 

cents per hour for eacli and every hour of labor so 
done, and provided by said employee on and about 
said bees, and in such case all honey to belong to 
said owner. 

Signed in duplicate by said parties, the day and 
year first above written. 

Signed in presence of 



The foregoing comprises the essential fea- 
ttire.s of a contract ; but local conditions 
may render it necessary to make some mod- 
ilications. 

The last clause in the above contract is 
inserted as a matter of fairness to the em- 
ployee. If no honey should be secured, the 
employee has performed his part of the 
contract in good faith, and, moreover, has 
improved the apiary— perhaps increased it 
— so that it will be in better condition tlie 
following year for a honey crop. Tor this 
betterment it is no more than right that 
the owner should pay the employee a rea- 
sonable sum, whatever amount may be 
agreed on ; or, if preferred, a certain num- 
ber of colonies. One can readily see that, 
in case the honey season was an absalute 
failure, the employee would suffer a total 
loss except for a provision of this kind, and 
that the owner wovild still have his bees, 
his implements, and every thing necessary 
to carry on the business for another season. 

By the above contract it is to the in- 
terest of both parties to keep down increase. 
The employee must know, if he is a practical 
bee-keeper, that, the greater the increase, 
the less the honey; and he will, therefore, 
bend all liis efforts and skill to keep the 
colonies in the best possible condition to 
obtain a crop of honey. 

Keeping bees on shares is practiced quite 
extensively in Colorado and California. It 
very often happens that a bee-keeper lately 
arrived from the East de-sires to try a local- 
ity to see whether it will be suited to his 
health, and whether or not he can make the 
3 



keeping of bees a success. He accordingly 
finds a bee-keeper whose other business 
leads him to desire some one competent to 
manage them for him. But where one is 
well settled in a locality, and has the means 
whereby he can purchase the bees, he had 
better do so— better even go in debt ; but 
ia this case, to secure the owner I would 
agree that, in case the honey crop is insuffi- 
cient to pay for at least half the bees, he - 
will then agree to content himself with half 
the honey crop on the terms here proposed. 

BEZSS, STIWaLESS. The bees of "^ 
the Western Hemisphere are stingless— at 
least a very large proportion of tliem. Their 
habitat extends from the boundary between 
the United States and Mexico down to 
Buenos Aires, in Argentina, embracing an 
area of 8,000,000 square miles. One compara- 
tively unimportant species inhabits most 
of the West India islands. There are a few 
species in Asia and Africa. 

By entomologists these bees are usually 
classed under two great genera — Mdipona 
and Triiiond; but some naturalists are dispos- 
ed to add another, Tetrasoma. There is an ex- 
traordinary variety of these bees, which is 
supposed to embrace at least 100 species, 
whereas there are not more than 8 species of 
Apis. The variation in size is also great, for 
some are no larger than a mosquito, while 
others are considerably larger than the hive 
bee. A number of naturalists are at work 
studying them with a view to their proper 
classification and arrangement by species. 

There is an equal variation in the number 
of bees per colony, for some consist of only 
a few (100) individuals while others are sup- 
posed to contain not less than 100,000 bees. 

Some build only small nests, not much 
larger than an orange; others, again, con- 
strirct a home as large as an ordinary fiour- 
barrel. Some build in a hole in the ground; 
others in the open air, as wasps and hornets 
do, while quite a number build their nests 
in the hollows of forest-trees. 

An intermediate species occupies the 
position midway between bees and wasps, 
and is generally spoken of as the honey- 
gathering wasp. Wasps are carnivorous, 
hence it is liardly fair to class this one with 
these hawks of the insect tribe. 

Early travelers in South and Central 
America did not fail to notice the stingless 
bees, and they are quite frequently referred 
to by them. Capt. Basil Hall, in the 18th 
century, noticed apiaries of them in Peru; 
and Koster, in his Travels in Brazil, careful- 
ly mentions them. Spanish writers on Cen- 



BEES, STINGLESS. 



66 



BEES, STINGLESS. 



tral America casually noted them in the 
Kith century; but no European seems to 
liave been interested enough in them to make 
a coininchensive study of their life-history 
and liabils. That work was left for the 
twentieth-century naturalists. Geoffrey St. 
Ilillaire, a naturalist-explorer, did some- 
thing to awaken interest by his now classi- 
cal observations on honey-gathering wasps 
of Paraguay, of which lie furnished a com- 



from their chief enemy, the lizard. The 
logs are robbed at statetl intervals, the keep- 
er being well satisfied if he can secure a 
gallon of honey per hive at a robbing, de- 
pending somewhat on the si)ecies used for 
domestication. 

Apparently no effort has ever been made 
to invent a hive suitable to their wants. It 
is noticeable that the natives use only those 
species whose homes are made in hollow 




STINGLESS AVORKER. 



ITALIAN WORKER. 

(Magnifled two times.) 



ITALIAN QUEEN. 



plete account in 1825 (Paris). Azara,a similar 
explorer, also called attention to them in his 
travel through Paxaguay. He describes a 
species twice as large as Apis mellifica. 

Other explorers have mentioned them from 
time to time, but nothing of real value was 
elicited until lately. Tlieir study has now 
been taken up in earnest. White men have 
been inclined to dismiss them as worthless 
for practical purposes; but the natives of 
South America are certainly not of that 
opinion. On the contrary, they regard them 
as superior to the ''stinging fly" of the white 
man. In Southern Mexico, Central Amer- 
ica, and South America, they are quite fre- 
quently kept in a domesticated state by the 
native inhab- 
itants — that 
is to say, they 
have them in 
liollow logs 
which have 
been brought 
from the for- 
ests. Tliese 
"hives" are 
generally 
hung up by 
ropes around 
their dwell- 
ings to pro- 
tect the bees 




ITALIAN QUEEN. (Mag. two times.) STINGLESS^QUEEN. 



trees, no effort being made to utilize the 
many other species whose nests are made in 
holes in the ground or on tree-branches. 

The quality of the honey and wax varies 
very much, some of it being quite good and 
some quite the opposite. The w^ax is apt to 
be mixed with propolis to a great extent; 
but at least one species inhabiting the up- 
per tributaries of the Orinoco, in Columbia, 
furnishes a desirable wax which has been 
frequently sold in this country. 

While the stingless bees cannot sting they 
hite and worry in away to surpass bees pos- 
sessed of a sting. At the Pliiladelphia field- 
day meeting at which a thousand bee-keep- 
ers were present, in June, lijOb, two colonies 

of a large spe- 
cies of sting- 
less bees were 
exhibited. A 
hive of them 
was torn 
apart and 
opened for in- 
spection. Did 
those sting- 
less bees take 
such intru- 
sion without 
making a n y 
objections? 
Not at all. 



BEES, STINGLESS. 



67 



BEGINNING WITH BEES. 




PROF. II. A. SURFACE, ZOOLOGIST, AT HARRISBURG, PENNSYLVANIA, WITH HIS BEGIN- 
NER CLASS IN BEE-KEEPING. 



They attacked their despoilers in a way 
they will not soon forget. They would bite, 
grasp the hair, eye-lashes, twist and pull, 
and even crawl into the ears and nose of 
their tormentors. So vicious was their on- 
slaught that they drove one man, who had a 
hand in breaking up their home, from the 
scene of action. While the pain of their bite 
ia infinitessimal, yet the high-note hissing 
sound, getting into the hair, pulling at the 
eyes and eye-lashes, and, crawling into the 
nostrils and ears, almost makes one crazy. 

It is fair to state that stingless bees do not 
offer such attack unless provoked to fury: 
ordinarily they can be handled without any 
protection whatever. 



BISi: ESCAPES. 

also Extracting. 



See Comb Honey, 



BEaiNBrma YtrZTH BEES. The 

beginner will find he will be able to under- 
stand the articles in this work much more 
readily if he can in some way manage to 
visit a bee-keeper in his vicinity. If he can 
afford it, it would be well for him even to go 
some distance to see some progressive bee- 
keeper, and spend a whole day where he will 
be able to pick up tricks of the trade, and a 
fund of information that might take him 
weeks or months to dig out of text-books. 



I Even if he knows of no one but an old- 
fashioned box-hive bee-keeper, he should 
see him ; but, far better, visit some practical 
man who will be able to point out the queen, 
and illustrate the modus operandi of opening 
a hive and handling the frames— in shorti 
j make a practical demonstration of many of 
j the manipulations here explained. If there 
is no bee-keeper he can visit he should send 
to his nearest dealer and get a one or two 
frame nucleus with a queen. Let him follow 
carefully the directions on the outside of the 
shipping-box ; then, with the bees before 
him, read and study his A B C's. Without 
an actual demonstration of some soit, much 
that is written here will otherwise be like 
pure Greek to the average beginner in bees. 
Having seen the bees, and learned how to 
open a hive, what nextV 

We would strongly urge the importance 
of a small beginning with as little expense 
as possible ; for nothing is more discourag- 
ing after having plunged into the business 
extensively (blindfolded as it were) than to 
lose a large portion of the bees, either 
through bad wintering or from some other 
cause — all for the want of a little practical 
experience, or even a theoretical knowledge. 
Many a person has met with disaster from 
starting out with bees on altogether too 



BEGINNING WITH BEES. 



68 



BEGINNING WITH BEES. 



large a scale. Sometimes one is offered a 
bargain of 2o or 80 colonies including hives, 
bees, implements, smokers, etc., at a ridicu- 
lously low price, and the temptation becomes 
strong to buy. He'd better not, unless having 
read the several articles indicated in the fine 
print on the first page of this work. 

After investing $25.00, put no more into 
the business until the bees bring in some 
returns. In other words, make the bees j)(iy 
their ivay. It is a very easy matter to throw 
away some good money into the venture 
and get no returns ; because bee-keeping as 
a business is something tnat depends more 
upon the w^eather than perhaps any other. 
For this reason we do not advise any one to 
rely on bees as a sole means of livelihood. 
True it is that there are many bee-keeping 
specialists ; but they are men who have 
gradually grown into the business, and as a 
general rule have a specially favorable loca- 
tion, keeping somewhere from 500 to 1000 
colonies. 

The keeping of bees is generally more suc- 
cessfully carried on in connection with some 
other business. Many a professional man 
desires some sort of light recreation, and a 
few bees will afford him just the diversion 
he needs. Farmers, fruit-growers, or horti- 
culturists, may keep from 50 to 100 colonies 
without greatly interfering with any other 
work ; and nearly every one, as explained 
under Apiary, can keep a few colonies in 
his back yard. Ten or twenty colonies will 
yield almost a certain return of a much 
larger revenue, per colony, than ten times 
that number. See Profits in Bees, else- 
where. 

Having considered some of the difficulties 
and uncertainties of bee-keeping, one may 
now inquire whether he desires to go into 
the business at all. With the knowledge 
that from 10 to 20 colonies can nsually be 
handled successfully, and at a good profit, 
the beginner will naturally desire to try his 
hand at it. How shall he make his start? 
Whenever possible, buy bees in your own 
vicinity. Regarding the price, a strong col- 
ony of Italian bees, with tested queen, in a 
new Dovetailed hive, or in any modern hive, 
in fact, might he worth $10.00. This should 
be considered the outside price. Usually 
bees that are hybrids or blacks, in movable- 
frame hives, second hand, sell from $3.00 to 
$5.00 per stock, including hive. If there are 
no modern bee-keepers in the vicinity one 
may have to purchase a box hive or two with 
the combs all built solidly into the hive- 
see Box IIivEs. Tlie price of these, if they 



are blacks or hybrids, is generally from $1.00 
to $3.00 per hive. 

To move colonies in box hives, turn the hive 
upside down, and tie over the end a piece of 
cheese-cloth. The moving should be done 
at night, or at least on a cool day, carrying 
them a distance of at least a mile and a half, 
otherwise many of the bees will return to 
their old location. See Moving Bees. 

In some localities it may not be possible 
to buy bees of any one. In such case send 
to the nearest dealer for a one or two frame 
nucleus. If one doesn't mind expense, let 
him purchase four or five nuclei and then 
proceed to build them up as described under 
Nucleus and Feeding. 

Before purchasing any bees he should get 
of his dealer or manufacturer five or ten 
modern hives in the flat. As there are sev- 
eral such hives on the market, all of them 
fairly good, the beginner may be at a loss to 
know which of them to choose. For comb 
honey we would recommend the Danzen- 




THREE- frame NUCLEUS FOR SIIIFPING. 

baker or Dovetailed hive. For particulars see 
Hives. They are sold by all the dealers ; 
and as these hives are used largely by expert 
bee-keepers who carry on the business quite 
extensively with good results, the novice 
will not go far astray by adopting them. 

As soon as the hives are received in the 
flat, nail them up and paint them. With 
every lot of hives there will be suflicient 
nails of the right kind to put them together. 
If one can not afford to take the time him- 
self, let him employ some carpenter, who, 
with the printed directions, will be able to 
put them together in a workmanlike man- 
ner. (A carpenter is not needed, however.) 



BEGINNING WITH BEES. 



69 



BUCKWHEAT. 



Having the hives all in readiness, five or 
ten, as the case may be, one can, with his 
two or three nuclei, build them up by feed- 
ing, and then divide as recommended under 
Nucleus and Feeding. 

If the beginner is successful thus far, he 
may then, with some assurance, purchase of 
his dealer one or two Italian queens, which 
he can easily introduce to the nuclei. See 
iNTKODUCiNG. In dividing or forming nu- 
clei, one should, of course, give the new 
queen he just purchased to the bees that are 
made queenless. After he has had a little 
more experience in watching and studying 
bees he may then be able to do something at 
queen-rearing. See (Queens and Queen- 
reaking. To avoid trouble with robbers 
he should then read very carefully the sub- 
ject of Stings and Bobbing. Toward the 
close of the season he should next take up 
Wintering, as found in its alphabetical 
order, reading this carefully; for more disas- 
ters in apiculture result from failure to win- 
ter bees properly than from any other cause. 

Nuclei, or, better, pounds of bees, can be 
purchased of some of the dealers. These 
will be placed in light shipping-boxes, and 
usually contain .500 to 1000 bees, one or two 
frames of brood, and a little honey. As the 
express charges on nuclei will be double first- 
class, it is always cheaper and better to buy 
in pound packages, or common bees in one's 
own vicinity where possible, and, after trans- 
ferring, introduce Italian queens. 

BELLriiOWEB.. See Campanilla. 

BLACK BBOOD. See Diseases of Bees. 

BLACK LOCUST. See LocuST. 

BLEACHING COMB HONEY. See COMB 
Honey. 

BOX XZIVZiS. It seems as if any de- 
scription in a work designed to teach modern 
apiculture would be entirely out of place ; 
but since many have never seen any thing 
but a movable- frame Jiive, and the old box 
hive is occasionally referred to in various 
portions of this work, perhaps a brief de- 
scription should be given. 

These hives, as the name indicates, are 
merely boxes containing neither brood- 
frames nor any movable fixtures. They 
usually consist of a rude rough box about a 
foot square, and from IS to 24 inches high. 
Through the center there would be two 
cross-sticks, the purpose of which was to help 
sustain the weight of the combs built in ir- 
regular sheets within the hive. 

At the close of tlie season it was the cus- 
tom for the apiarist to go around and "heff 



his hives. Those that were heavy were 
marked to be brimstoned ; and those that 
were light were left to winter over for next 
season if they could. The bees of the first 
named were destroyed with sulphur fumes, 
and then the bee-bread, honey, and every 
thing were cut out. 

In the more modern box hives there were 
glass boxes that could be drawn out from aji 
upper part, leaving the lower intact. In 
this case the bees were not destroyed. In 
any case there was no opportunity to inspect 
combs, hunt queens, divide, or perform any 
of the hundred and one operations of modern 
apiculture. 

When one compares the crudity of these 
methods vvitii those that are described in 
this book, he sees what wonderful progress 
has been made in apiculture. 

BB,ASSIC A. See Mustard ; also Rape ; 
also Seven-top Turnip. 

BROOD. See Bees; also Diseases of 
Bees. 

b.b.ood, spreading. see spreading 
Brood. 

BOTTLING HONEY. See EXTRACTED 
Honey ; also Peddling Honey and Can- 
died Honey. 

BUCKUTKEAT. (Polyyomon.) This,^ 
in certain sections, is one of the most im- 
portant honey-plants. It is grown princi- 
pally on the hillsides of Eastern New York 
and Pennsjlvania, and in these localities, 
where are thousands of acres within a ra- 
dius of a few miles, immense quantities of 
buckwheat honey are annually produced. 
On one hilltop in Schoharie Co., N. Y., near 
Gallupville,where we stood,we were told that 
within a radius of three miles the bees had 
access to 5000 acres of buckwheat, all of 
which was within the range of our eyes. So 
great is the acreage of it in New York tliat 
anywhere from 2000 to 3000 colonies can be 
kept in some counties ; and this means hun- 
dreds of bee-keepers who are specialist 
honey-growers and farmers, almost all of 
whom keep at least a few colonies. The 
latter class reason this way : That the grow- 
ing of buckwheat as a grain is one of the 
most profitable branches of farming; that 
the nectar in the blossoms properly belongs 
to them, and if they keep a few colonies 
they will virtually get two crops from one 
field — honey and the buckwheat grain. 

We have ridden a bicycle tlnough the 
buckwheat region of New York, traveling 
all day, without k)sing sight of buckwheat- 
fields that seemed to cover every available 



BUCKWHEAT. 



70 



BUCKWHEAT. 



piece of ground on both sides of the road. 
So immense are tlie fields that the atmos- 
phere seems to be he:ivily charged with tiie 
aroma of the bloom, and if one is not a lover 
of bnekwlieat honey the odor is somewhat 
sickening. 

One bee-keeper in the heart of the buck- 
wheat country (W. L. Coggshall, of West 
(Jroton), will) lives near Cayuga Lake, har- 



lina and Texas. But it is in Eastern New 
York, on the hillsides, that it seems to 
thrive best. Stalks of the celebrated Japan- 
ese variety that would measure two feet 
high in Ohio will reach five or six feet in 
length in the more favf>red locations in New 
York. There is something in the climate 
and soil of those great hills that makes the 
growing of this plant much more profitable 




JAPANESE BUCKWHEAT. 



vested one year with his 1000 colonies 78,000 
ll)s. of honey: another year 50,000 lbs. ; and 
for a good many years his crops have ranged 
along into the carloads. While this is not 
all buckwheat honey by considerable, yet a 
good l)ig portion of it is. 

But the growing of buckwheat is by no 
means confined to the East. It is grown in 
small acreages, of, say, one to live acres, in 
most of the North Central States. It also is 
a paying crop foi- seed and honey in the 
South, being grown largely in South Caro- 



in the East than in the West, although it is 
always a paying crop for the grain in nearly 
every locality where ordinary grain crops 
can be grown. 

THE QUALITY OF BUCKWHEAT HONEY. 

Buckwheat honey itself is of a deep dark 
purplish tint, and looks very much like New 
Orleans or sorghum molasses. It is usually 
of lieavy body ; and the flavor, to one who is 
a lover of clover and basswood, and who lias 
never been accustomed to buckwheat honey, 



BUCKWHEAT. 



71 



BUCKWHEAT. 




JAPANESSE BUCKWHEAT THIRTY-FOUR INCHES HIGH IN A LITTLE OVER THREE WEEKS FROM 

THE TIME THE SEED WAS PLANTED. 



is more or less rank ; and j^et those who 
have always been used to buckwheat honey, 
or at least a good many of them, prefer it 
even to clover or bass wood. 

A lady from the East once called at om- 
store and looked over our honey. We 
showed her several samples of choice clover 
and basswood comb honey. 

" I do not like this.'" she said. •• It looks 
like manufactured sugar honey. Haven't 
j-ou any buckwheat V" 

" Yes, but we did not suppose you would 
like that, because such honey rarely sells in 
our locality.'' 

We then placed before her some sections 
of buckwheat honey, and these suited her 
exactly. 

" That is real bee honey," said she, with a 
look of satisfaction, and she carried home 
several sections. 

It seems that her father had been a bee- 
keeper, and about all the honey she ever saw 
was buckwheat: and unless it had the strong 
flavor and dark color of the honey she was 
familiar with in her childhood days it was 
not honey to her, and there are thousands 
and thousands like her in the East. 

Yes. there is a fancy trade that prefers 
buckwheat ; and this trade is so large that 
buckwheat honey in the New York market 
brings almost as high a price as the fancy 
grades of white : but in the Western mar- 
kets, principally in Chicago, "• the stuff " 
goes begging a piu'chaser. and sells as an 
off grade of poor honey. 

Notwithstanding the color of buck- 
wheat honey itself is purplish, the cappings 
of the combs, especially if made by black 
bees, are almost pearly white. Buckwheat 



comb honey— some of it at least— is very 
pretty, and especially when it is put up by 
practical bee-keepers who know how to pro- 
duce a first-class grade of any honey. 

IS BUCKWHEAT A RELIABLE SOrRCE FOR 
• HOXEY, AND WHEX ? 

In York State, buckwheat can be depend- 
ed upon almost every year for a crop of honey 
but in the West it is rather uncertain— some 
years yielding no honey, and others domg 
fairly well. But when it does yield, the bees 
work on it almost entirely in the morning, 
the nectar supply lasting until about ten 
or eleven o'clock. There are, however, ex- 
ceptions. 

In the East, if we are not mistaken, on ac- 
count of the immense acreage, the bees are 
kept busy gathering honey from morning 
till night ; and owing to the fact that it can 
be depended on almost absolutely for a yield 
of honey— when even basswood or clover 
fails, as it does sometimes in any locality 
—the bee-keeper is able to make at least ex- 
penses and something besides. Indeed, some 
years when there is almost a total failure of 
white honey, the York State honey-pro- 
ducers are enabled to make a fair living 
from buckwheat alone. 

DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF BUCKWHEAT. 

The first buckwheats of which very much 
became known were designated as the bhick 
and the gray. Later on, the silverhull came 
into prominence. Both of these varieties 
were finally displaced almost entirely by the 
celebrated Japanese. This variety is not 
only very much more prolific, but the ker- 
nels, or seeds, are very much larger— so much 
larger, indeed, that it necessitates the use of 



BUCKWHEAT. 



72 



BUCKWHEAT. 



larger screens on the part of the millers who 
make a business of grinding it. At the 
present time the Japanese is grown almost 
exclusively. The illustration shown on page 
70 is a very excellent one of the buckwheat 
plant in general ; and while the kernels 
shown are a little larger than the natural 
size (engravings usually exaggerate), yet 
they are much larger than the old varieties 
of silverhull and gray. 

The .Japanese is an enormous yielder, hav- 
ing been known to produce at the rate of 
80 bushels per acre, and the crop has become 
so prolitable in localities favoring its growth 
that it is not an uncommon thing for a 
single farmer to raise anywhere from 500 to 
1000 bushels. 

BUCKWHEAT A PAYING FARM CROP. 

We have set it down as a rule in this work 
that it is not profitable to grow any honey- 
plant unless the seed will pay the expense of 
the crop. In this case buckwheat, as we 
have shown ii, is one of the most profitable 
grains that can be grown, and outside of any 
honey it may yield, there is " good money in 
it.'" In our own locality the yield of nectar 
from buckwheat is so irregular and so scant 
from season to season that we do not get 
very much honey ; and yet when it does 
yield it affords an excellent diversion for the 
bees, keeping them out of mischief when 
there would be an absolute dearth of honey 
from every other source; hence even in Ohio 
it pays to grow it. 

now TO PKEPARE THE SOIL FOR GROWING 
BUCKWHEAT, AND WHEN TO SOW. 

Two crops of buckwheat can be grown in a 
season, but usually they do not pay. In such 
case the first must be sown very early— so 
early that it is liable to be killed by frosts 
after it comes up. Very hot weather coming 
on while it is in bloom proves unfavorable 
to the maturing of the seed. Buckwheat 
ordinarily should be sown after some other 
crop, anywhere from July I to the middle of 
August, depending on the locality. Almost 
any soil can be used for growing it ; but the 
better the soil, the larger the crop, of course. 
Some recommend loose mellow ground, or 
clover sod turned under. Others say plow 
immediately after sowing oats or planting 
corn, as by thus working the soil early it be- 
comes settled and holds the moisture which 
buckwheat demands ; and the result is, the 
seed fills better. After plowing, the ground 
should be thoroughly harrowed, and then 
the seed sown with a drill. If a fertilizer is 
used, it should be put in at the same time 



with the seed and run through the drill. 
One experienced grower says the sowing 
should be done while the ground is dry and 
dusty, and never immediately after a rain. 
After sowing, the surface should be imme- 
diately rolled to compact the soil, as the 
grain sprouts more quickly, sometimes show- 
ing above ground in less than four days. 

Mr. J. H. Kennedy, of (^uenamo, Kan., 
tells us of a crop of 116 bushels of Japanese 
buckwheat that cost him next to nothing. 
After turning under his oat stubble in July, 
as it was too early to put in wheat he sowed 
the ground to buckwheat with a drill. This 
came off so soon that the ground was in 
almost as good condition, apparently, for 
sowing wheat as it was when first prepared, 
lie then put the drill right on to the buck- 
wheat stubble, and next season reported 
that the wheat sown on this stubble looked 
exactly as well as the rest sown on other 
ground. It is probable that a plant so dif- 
ferent in its habits from wheat will take 
little if any of the necessary plant food for 
wheat from the soil ; and it is a commoir re- 
mark that nothing fits the ground so nicely 
for a succeeding crop as buckwheat. 

The amount of seed to the acre varies ac- 
cording to the locality. On good land, two 
pecks per acre is recommended as enough ; 
on thin soil, tliree pecks. One can increase 
the yield on thin soils by the use of 50 lbs. of 
phosphate and 50 lbs. of plaster mixed and 
drilled in, according to W. L. Coggshall, of 
West Groton, N. Y., to whom we have al- 
ready referred. The same authority esti- 
mates that buckwheat is one of the best 
crops to subdue rough land, and that it 
always leaves the ground in good condition 
for potatoes and oats, and almost any crop, 
except corn. 

Buckwheat as a fertilizer of soil is one of 
the best. Sometimes after late sowing, early 
frosts nip the stalks. In such cases we would 
always recommend plowing it under before 
the plants wilt. It will more than pay for 
its cost as a fertilizer, and some buckwheat- 
growers, we understand, enrich their soil 
every so often in this way, even when the 
frost does rrot come in to spoil the crop. In 
this case they wait till after the blooming to 
get the honey and therr plow under. Indeed, 
several prominent men recommeird plowirrg 
iir two or even three crops of buckwheat, 
one after another, if short of manure, when 
it is desired to get the ground into a high 
state of cirltivation. 

The best crop of buckwheat we ever had 
was after plowing under a crop of red clo- 



BUCKWHEAT. 



73 



CAMPANILLA. 



ver. The influence of clover and abundunt 
rains matured the ^rain in just 65 days after 
the sowing ; and as the seed was not sown in 
the first place till after the 15th of August, 
our experiments showed that, under favor- 
able circumstances, buckwheat is a very 
speedy crop. There was no killing frost that 
season until the last of October, but this, 
of course, is unusual. 

SOWING BUCKWHEAT AND CRIMSON CLO- 
VER AT THE SAME TIME. 

During the last two or three years we have 
had excellent success in sowing crimson clo- 
ver with buckwheat, especially where both 
were put in along the last of July or first of 
August. They come up together ; but the 
buckwheat, being stronger, takes the 
ground, and the crimson clover makes but 
little showing until after the buckwheat is 
harvested. Then the crimson clover, dur- 
ing the cool moist fall weather, rapidly cov- 
ers the ground. If frost should kill the 



buckwheat, the crimson clover will rise up 
above it and hide its black unsightliness in 
a very brief period ; and the dead buck- 
wheat seems to be just the sort of midching 
that the clover needs. The finest crop of 
crimson clover we ever grew or saw was sown 
this way, and turned under the following 
J une, for planting potatoes. 

Caution. — It is a fact that buckwheat 
honey occasionally contains 33 per cent of 
water, and is, therefore, too thin, according 
to the formula of the national pure-food 
law passed July 31, 1906, which limits the 
amount of water in honey to 25 per cent. It 
will be necessary, therefore, to evaporate 
thin honey to make it conform to the law. 

This may be done by means of a honey- 
evaporator, or by storing it for a while in a 
hot dry room. Bee-keepers need not hesi- 
tate to go to the extra trouble involved by the 
law, since the honey is really so much im- 
proved, and ought to connnand liigher price. 



C. 



U 



CAGES FOR QUEErrS- 

DUCING. 



See Intro- 



CAlVEFANIIiLA. ,, A plant that stands 
first in importance to the bee-keepers of 
Cuba is the campanilla, or bellflower, a 
species of the morning-glory. There are 
several varieties, but only two of them seem 
to yield honey — the campanilla blanca and 
the campanilla marada. 

Campanilla blanca, or white bellflower, is 
of most importance. It is a perennial, the 
vines sometimes obtaining the size of from 
two to three inches in diameter, and is gen- 
erally found growing among trees and 
shrubs or along fences and stone walks. 
The height of bloom is about Christmas, for 
which reason it is also called the " aguinaldo 
blanca de la pasqne," and at this season of 
the year it is a common sight to see almost 
every tree, shrub, and fence along the road 
one solid mass of white-aguinaldo bloom. 
The odd featiu'e about this plant is its irreg- 
ular blooming. It will l)loom only evcy 
other day, and then, again, several days in 
succession. The days of blooming are al- 
ways iniiversal. One day every vine is in 



full bloom ; the next day not a single vine is 
to be seen in bloom in miles of travel. 

Campanilla marada, or pink bellflower, is 
an annual. It blooms during the months 
of October ai:d November. It is found 
principally in western Cuba, in the region 
known as the " vuelta abajo," the great 
tobacco region ; and it is the growing of 
tobacco that makes possible the great 
amount of this particular variety of the bell- 
flower, for tobacco seed is, as a rule, always 
sown on virgin soil. Laige tracts of land, / 
on both mountain and coast, are cleared ■ 
every year, just to grow one crop of tobacco- • 
plants. "When the plants are big enough to 
Ije transplanted they are pulled and shipped 
by railroad, ox-cart, or mule-train, to where 
the tobacco is to be grown. These tobacco- 
seed beds are, by the next year, and for 
years to come, covered by the vines of the 
campanilla marada, which, in western Cuba, 
springs up wherever the land has been culti- 
vated. 

The honey from the bellflowers, in color 
and flavor, is equal to alfalfa or sage. The 
comb built during the bellflower floAv is 



CAMPANILLA. 



74 



CANDIED HONEY. 



pearly white, and when melted it produces 
wax as white as tallow. 
CAIVXFZSCHE. See LocnvooD. 

CANADA THISTImH (Cardus arven- 
.s/.s). th()ii}j;h condemned by agrictmnrists 
and experiment stations, and outlawed eve- 
rywhere, is a very important honey-plant in 
some parts of Canada. While bee-keepers, 
of course, will do nothing to spread it, and 
should do everything id their power to kill 
it out, yet if it must exist there is no WTong 
in getting a little something out of it, and 
that something is a great deal to the bee- 
keeper. This thistle is much like the com- 
mon thistle of the central-northern States, 
but a little smaller, with a bluish-purple 
head of tlowTrs. 

The honey is of very fine quality, good 
color, and will rank witli the best clover or 



standards for pure honey allow 8 per cent to 
be present. New honey generally contains 
more sucrose than old honey. There aie 
present in honey before heating some 
enzymes (xuiorganized ferments) which have 
the power to invert the sucrose. Hence on 
ageing, if heat has not been applied to kill 
this action the per cent of sucrose decreases. 
Sucrose on hydrolysis or inversion forms 
equal parts of dextrose and levulose, these 
latter being the predominant sugars of 
honey. See Sugar, 

CANDIED HOXrZl'Sr. All liquid hon- 
ey, and some comb honey, is liable to cloud 
and partially solidify at the approach of cold 
weather ; that is, it assumes a granular 
mealy condition, somthing like moist In- 
dian meal, and again like moist fine white 
granulated sugar. The granules of candied 




CAMPANILLA, OR'BELLFLOWER. 



basswood in almost any market. It is a 
commercial asset to the bee-keeper only in 
those localities where it has come to be a 
pest among the farmers, who would exter- 
minate it root and branch if they could. Our 
laws are now^ so rigid that the weed will 
probal)ly never get very far in the States; 
and any farmer who has any regard for his 
own interests will stamp it out on sight. 

CAUXj SUG-AR. This is the common 
name aiii)lie(l to the sugar-sucrose. Sucrose 
is made from the sugar-cane and also from 
the sugar-beet. Wlien derived from the beet 
it should go under the name of beet sugar. 
Sucrose is found in pure honey in amounts 
varying from nothing \\\) to 8 per cent. Only 
in a very few cases has pine honey been 
found which showed the higher figures. |The 



honey are about the size of grains of ordi- 
nary table salt, but may be much finer with 
some grades of honey. Comh honey granu- 
lates to a very limited extent, and only after 
a much longer period, than extracted. 
While cold weather is much more conducive 
to granulation, yet in some localities, and 
with some honeys especially, it takes on the 
semi-solid form even in warm weather. 
Some honeys will candy in a month after be- 
ing taken from the comb, and others will re- 
main liquid for two years. The honey most 
likely to granulate is extracted alfalfa, which 
does so in from three to five months. 
Mountain sage from California remains 
liquid for a year or longer. Ordinary comb 
honey in sections, if Avell ripened in the hives 
before it is taken off, will usually remain 



CANDIED HONEY. 



75 



CANDIED HONEY. 



liquid for a year. After that time, especial- 
ly if it has been subjected to cold during the 
previous winter, there are likely to be a few 
scattering granules in each cell. These 
gradually increase in number until the comb, 
honey, and wax become almost one solid 
mass. In such condition it is fit neither for 
the market, the table, nor for feeding back, 
and should be treated by the plan we will 
describe presently. 

IS GRANULATION A TEST OF PURITY? 

In the eyes of the general public, granu- 
lated honey is not pure, many thinking it 
has been "sugared," either with brown or 
white sugar. But the very fact that it gran- 
ulates solid is one of the best proofs of its 
purity. If honey granulates only partially, 
in streaks, it may be evidence of the fact 
that it has been adulterated with glucose. 
But even pure honey will assume this condi- 
tion, while honey that is nearly two-thirds 
or three-quarters glucose granulates very lit- 
tle. Here, again, it must not be taken as posi- 
tive evidence that, because honey refuses to 
granulate, or does so only slightly, therefore 
it is adulterated. The purity of any honey 
can usually be determined through the taste 
by an expert bee-keeper who has tested vari- 
ous grades of honey, and knows their gener- 
al flavor. But here, <igain, even taste must 
not be considered an infallible test. Doubts 
can be removed only by referring a sample 
or samples to an expert chemist. See Hon- 
ey Adulteration. 

to prevent candying of honey. 

There is no plan that will act as an abso- 
lute preventive ; but by a method which we 
will describe, granulation can be deferred 
for one and possibly two years. Even after 
treatment, if the honey is subjected to a 
freezing and thawing temperature for a 
series of days it will be almost sure to start 
candying again. Continuous cold weather 
with the mercury slightly above zero is 
not as favorable as alternate cold and warm 
weather. 

After the first few days the honey will ap- 
pear slightly cloudy. Ttiis murky appear- 
ance grows more pronounced, and granula- 
tion proceeds more rapidly, until the point 
of solidification is reached. But there is no 
excuse for having honey at any time, either 
comb or extracted, kept in a zero or freezing 
temperature ; for all practical purposes we 
can prevent honey candying for a year on 
the average. 

There are two methods commonly in vogue 
to prevent honey from candying again. One 



is, to put it ill a double boiler or vat, and 
gradually raise the temperature to 150 or 160 
degrees Fahr., holding it at that point till 
all the honey is melted. It should then be 
put into bottles or tin cans, and sealed while 
hot. While this plan is very good, a much 
better one, in cur opinion, is to melt the 
candied honey very slightly and keep it at a 
temperature of 140° Eahr., for three days. 
Do not let it go above 145=^. The process of 
melting will be very slow, and a continuous 
slow heat so acts on. the honey that it will 
remain liquid much longer than when the 
heat is applied more rapidly and raised to a 
higher point. It is then sealed hot, as in the 
other case. 

For full particulars on bottling honey to 
keep it in a liquid condition, see Extract- 
ed Honey. 

To liquefy honey in the candied state, or 
heat it to prevent its getting into that con- 
dition, the honey should be placed in a dou- 
ble boiler — that is to say, a tank with double 
walls, having the space between the walls 
filled with water. This may be placed on 
the stove and filled with honey. The double 
boiler used by the Rauchfuss broihers, of 
Denver, Col., is shown in the engraving on 
page 76, and its manner of construction will 
be apparent. 

Where one doesn't have such a boiler, and 
can not afford one, he could make a very 
good substitute by taking a common wash- 
boiler. Into this put some blocks about an 
inch square. On these blocks place three or 
four tin pails, or as many as will go into the 
boiler. Should he have something larger 
than awash-boiler it would be all the better. 
The honey is then filled into the tin pails. If 
candied solid it may be handled with a 
spade. Water is poured into the wash-boiler 
until it comes within two inches of the top 
of the pails. The whole is then placed on 
the stove, and subjected to a slow heat. 
When the w'ater reaches a temperature of 
160, or nearly that, let the fire be checked ; 
the honey should not become any hotter, be- 
cause it may otherwise injure the flavor as 
well as the color. Honey should never be 
brought to a boiling temperature except to 
kill the germs of foul brood, when all such 
honey should be fed back provided it has 
boiled at least two hours. 

Mr. C.W. Dayton, of Chatsworth, Cal., has 
another and very simple outfit to liquefy 
honey. As it can be made out of materials 
found in any bee-keepers yard, at v-ery small 
cost, many will, perhaps, prefer it to the 
Kauchi'uss double boiler above described. 



CANDIED HONEY. 



76 



CANDIED HONEY. 



As will be seen from the illustration, Mr. 
Dayton makes use of second-hand kerosene- 
cans, which may be purchased for live cents 
apiece. He cuts off the top at a convenient 
height, then washes out the cans thoroughly. 
For the purposes of liquefying he uses eight 
on top of an oi'dinary cook-stove. To keep 
the honey from burning he gets some band 
iron, iXrs, at some hardware store, and 
makes a series of hoops on which the cans 
are to stand while heating. Eight of them 



/ 




•^ { 



DOUULE noiLh-li FOK LIQUEFYING HONEY. 

are placed together as shown; when, to 
conserve the heat further, a tin cover large 
enough to slip down over the whole is pro- 
vided. 

With the help of this outfit Mr. Dayton 
says he can melt up 200 lbs. of honey in a 
very short time. We should like to suggest 
that these cans would be more convenient to 
liandle were he to take heavy wire, make 
some bails and hook them into holes punched 




DAYTON'S OUTFIT FOR LIQUEFYING CAN- 
DIED HONEY. 

on two opposite sides He would then have 
a very serviceable pail at a small cost ; and, 
when the honey was melted, he could lift it 
off the stove and pour it into some other re- 
ceptacle from the corner of the cans. This 



corner makes the finest kind of pitcher 
mouth, avoiding any spilling of the honey. 

MELTING UP HONEY^ IN A CAPPING-MELTER. 

Under the head of " Extractors," pages 
186 and 187, we describe the use of capping- 
melters with a set of illustrations. This 
outfit is also well adapted for melting ui) 
candied honey, especially candied comb hon- 
ey. Ordinary candied extracted will run 
through it very readily without any danger 
at all of impairing the fla- 
vor, and, what is more, it 
will be strained in the pro- 
cess. In the case of can- 
died comb honey, the wax 
and honey will be very 
nicely separated by the de- 
vice shown on page 187 ; in 
fact, when comb honey can- 
dies, we do not know what 
> else to do with it except to 
run it through a capping- 
melter, selling the honey 
for what it will bring as 
extracted and the wax at 
its market price. If the 
capping - machine is prop- 
erly handled the quality of neither the wax 
nor the honey will be in any wise affected, 
and the combined price of the two will prob- 
ably exceed what one could obtain if he 
attempted to sell, if he could at all without 
melting up. 

Under Extracted Honey, sub-head 
Bottling Honey", will be found several 
other devices for melting up honey that 
might likewise be used to advantage. 

CAUSE OF GRANULATION. 

As already stated, the primal cause is al- 
ternating cold and warm weather. At any 
very cold temperature, prolonged for days, 
honey probably would not candy at all, but 
chill into a hard waxy mass, readily soften- 
ing again in a warm atmosphere. As some 
honeys differ chemically, it may be assumed 
that some other cause operates to bring 
about the solid condition than wai;m and 
cold changes. Just what that is, we do not 
know; only we do know that stirring or vio- 
lent agitation hastens granulation ; and we 
also know that, if some granulated honey is 
mixed with ordinary liquid extracted, the 
latter will candy much more rapidly ; for 
when honey once stai-ts to granulate, the pro- 
cess goes on very rapidly, although it may 
take from ten days to six months for the 
honey to pass entirely from the liquid con- 
dition into the solid. 



CANDIED HONEY. 



CANDIKD HONEY 




AIKIN S PAl:*Ji;U-liAG HOXF.Y-PACKAGE FOR CANDIKD liONtY. 



FREAKS OF HONEY-CANDYING. 

This problem of honey-candying is very in- 
teresting. It sometimes happens that of two 
lots taken from the same barrel or can, and 
placed in two self -sealing packages, the 
honey in one will soon candy while in the 
other it will remain liquid, notwitlistanding 
that both packages have been subjected to 
the same temperature and general condi- 
tions. If this happened in the case of sealed 
packages only we might suppose that the 
sealing of one package was less peifect than 
the other; but that the candying does not 
depend on the sealing altogether is sliownby 
the fact that the two lots of honey may not 
]be sealed at all, and yet one of them turns to 



a solid while the other remains liquid. It 
should be stated that these instances are by 
no means frequent ; indeed, they are rare ; 
yet they occur just often enough to excite 
our curiosity. 

Another interesting fact is that, while 
honey may candy solid within six months 
from the time it is taken from the comb, 
when kept in the same cans under the same 
conditions for a period of two or three years 
a gradual change takes place, or at least has 
been known to do so. We have seen alfalfa 
honey after it had been in glass jars seven 
years, and were told that it had candied 
solid within a few months after being taken 
from the extracting-cans. At the time we 



CANDIED HONEY. 



saw it (seven years after), it was going back 
to the liquid condition. Some cans were al- 
most entirely liquid, and others had streaks 
of candied honey reaching out like the 
branches of an evergreen-tree all through the 
package. These same jars are being watch- 
ed with the expectation that the honey will 
ultimately turn back to the liquid state. But 
there is no probability that it will taste the 
same as before it candied. Indeed, there is 
every evidence to show that so far it has un- 
gone a slight chemical change. Whether 
that change is due to the continued effect of 
light upon the granules is not known. 

THE SCIENCE OF GRANULATION. 

While we do not know very much as yet 
about the theory of honey-candying, yet we 
do know that, while the nectar of flowers 
may be, chemically, cane sugar, yet after it 
has been stored in the hive by the bees, and 
partially digested or worked over as ex- 
plained under Honey elsewhere, it is known 
to science as invert sugar. Ordinary honey 
is a combination of dextrose, levulose, 
and water, in approximately equal propor- 
tions. "Honey candies upon standing," 
says Dr. Headden. of the Colorado Experi- 
ment Station at Fort Collins, "because of 
the ability of its dextrose to assume a crys- 
talline form much more readily than the 
levulose." At the Colorado State bee-keep- 
ers" convention, he showed samples of 
free dextrose and levulose. The former 
looked like, very nice light-colored brown 
sugar ; the latter appeared like a cheap 
grade of dark-colored molasses. The doctor 
went on to explain that, if candied honey 
were subjected to a sufficient pressure, the 
greater portion of the levulose could be 
obtained, leaving the solid mass largely 
dextrose. The levulose of honey candies 
slightly, but is very different in appearance 
from its dextrose constituent. 

HOW TO GET CANDIED HONEY OUT OF 

BROOD-COMBS AND YET SAVE BOTH 

THE COMB AND THE HONEY. 

Where honey candies at all in brood- 
combs, it will usually be only partially. After 
uncapping, M. M. Baldridge,of St. Charles, 
111., reconmiends placing all such combs in 
the extractor, and throwing out any portion 
of the lumey remaining liquid. He next 
lays the combs in the bottom of a clean 
wash-boiler, and, from an elevated dipper 
pours water slowly into the cells. He then 
turns the comb over and treats the other 
side the same way. As fast as the combs 
are splashed witli w^ater he ])laces them 



78 CANDIED HONEY. 

in a hive or super. After they have all 
been doused he takes them out and sets 
them over strong colonies. He says the bees, 
by aid of the water liquefy the whole mass, 
clean the combs, and save both the combs 
and honey. 

Candied comb honey in sections can 
scarcely be treated in this way, as it 
would be impracticable to uncap the cells. 
These should be treated in a capping-melter, 
as directed a couple of pages back. 

HOW TO MARKET CANDIED HONEY. 

Some years ago attempts were made to 
put up candied honey in small packages for 
retail purposes; but it was not until the 
year 1901 that any real progress was 
made. At that time R. C. Aikin, of Love- 
land, Colo., began to put up his honey in 
cheap lard-pails. He allowed it to candy, 
and then sold it direct to consumers. The 
packages being cheap he could afford to put 




AIKIN'S PAPER-BAG PACKAGE DISSECTED 
FOR THE TABLE. 

the honey on the market at a price that 
would compete with ordinary sugar. A lit- 
tle later on he conceived the idea of using 
stout paraffine-paper bags instead of pails, 
and has made a complete success of it. 

Alfalfa honey in Colorado is well known 
to granulate very rapidly. As soon as the 
graining begins to show he draws the honey 
off into the bags, and allows them to 
stand in a cool place, when it soon candies. 
Illustrations on the previous page show 
the style of the bag after it has been tilled 
and the top edges folded down. The honey 
readily candies into solid bricks, and will 
stand all kinds of rough treatment. The 



CANDIED HONEY. 



79 



CANDIED HONEY. 



only expense is for bags, wh 
bon^ht of supply-dealers, in 2- 
$7.00 per 1000, and other sizes in 
It was thought for a time that 
clover and basswood 
honeys would not 
candy solid enough 
when put up in this 
shape ; but experi- 
ence shows that they 
can be handled in 
that package as well 
as alfalfa, providing 
they are already 
graining when the 
bags are being fill- 
ed, or if a little old 
candied honey is 
mixed in to expedite 
the process. This is 



ich can be 
lb. size, for 
proportion, 
the Eastern 



CANDIED HONEY IN OYSTER-PAILS. 

Another package, somewhat similar to the 
Aikin bag, is the ordinary oyster-pail. When 
honey begins to granulate it can be drawn 





SQUARE OYSTER-PAILS FOR CANDIED HONEY. 

off into pails of proper sizes, the covers put 
on, and the honey allowed to stand. In the 
course of two or three weeks in cool weath- 
er it should become quite solid ; but it 
should be remembered that at an extremely 
cold temperature honey will not candy ; but 
does so readily during alternately warm and 
cool weather. Oyster-pails have the advan- 
tage that bee-keepers can buy them at any 
grocery, and they are almost as cheap as the 
Aikin paper bags. They have the merit, also, 
that honey can be sold in them in a practic- 
ally liquid condition without fear of leaking. 
They can also be handled quite roughly. If 
the honey should candy, all the better. 

CUTTING CANDIED HONEY INTO BRICKS. 

But honey in 60-lb. square cans that is 
candied solid requires a good deal of treat- 
ment before it can be gotten out, put into 
bags, and candied again. The cans must 
be first immersed in a boiler of water 



ROUND OYSTER - PAILS FILLED 
WITH CANDIED HONEY. 

very important in the case of honey 
intended to candy in bags or pails. 
The smaller illustration in the 
preceeding page shows how the 
paper can be peeled off, leaving 
a nice solid brick of honey. On 
each paper package are printed 
directions for liquefying, reading 
like this : 

The candied condition of this honey is 
proof of its purity. If preferred liquid, 
put it into a pail, and the pail into warm 
water, but not hotter than you can hold 
your hand in. Never let it boil, for 
boiling spoils the honey flavor. To re- 
move the bag, cut from top to bottom, 
then peel it around. 




SLAB OF HONEY NEARLY CUT THROUGH BY WIRE. 



CANDIED HONEY. 



80 



CANDIED HONEY. 



iibout l(i(i°, and kept there for hours at Ji 
time, before it melts enough to be poured out. 
Our honey-man, Mr. Jesse A. Warren, con- 
ceived the plan of stripping the tin away 
from the lioney witliin, leaving it in the form 
of a solid cake. With a pair of snips 
he cuts oft' the top and bottom of the can, 
then slits it down at one corner. He next 
lakes a strand of steel wire, attaching a 




SLAB OF nONEY CUT OFF. 

handle to each end and slips it under 
the cake of honey about two inches. The 
wire is then folded around the cake, the two 
ends crossed, and with a handle in each 
hand the operator draws slowly, 
sinking the wire gradually into 
the cake from all four sides, 
until continuous pulling causes it 
to pass clear through. A thin- 
bladed knife is now inserted in 
the slit where the wire entered, 
and slabs off a chunk like that 
shown in the next plate. Other 
pieces are slabbed off in like 
manner. These are then cut up 
into bricks, using the same gen- 
eral plan — bricks all the way 
from 5 oz. up to 2 lbs. They are 
wrapped in ])arafflne paper, on 
which are general directions ex- 
plaining how to liquefy. 

CUTTING CANDIED HONEY WITH 
A MACHINE. 

Tlie plan just described an- 
swers a very good purpose 
where only a very small quantity 
of candied honey is to be cut up. 
A far better apparatus is the or- 
dinary butter-cutter shown in the 
accompanying illustration, and sold by the 
Cleveland Galvanizing Works, Cleveland. 
The same thing, or something like it, could 
be obtained of any dealer in dairy^supplies. 



This l)utter-cutter, as will be seen by the 
illustration, employs the same principle— a 
wire drawn taut for cutting butter. Since 
butter luis about the same consistency as 
liard-candied honey, the same machine will 
slice up a cake of candied honey in uniform 
bricks, and do it more quickly and neatly 
than can possibly be done with a single 
strand by hand in the manner explained. 

In using the machine, care sliould be 
taken not to crowd the frame holding the 
strands of wire too fast as it is a job, tliat 
can not be rushed without danger of break- 
ing the wires. A gentle continuous pres- 
sure is what is required. 

For the perpendicular cuts a couple of 
heavy weights are applied in such a way 
that, after the cake of honey is put in place, 
the horizontal frame and its wires gradually 
work their way through the mass. When 
the cake is cut the other way on the hori- 
zontal line, the operator takes hold of the 
gate, as it were, pulling gently. 

All that then remains is to take a thin- 
l)laded knife, pick up each brick and lay it 
on a piece of paraffine paper. The brick is 
then neatly wrapped, when it is slipped 
inside of a special carton made just large 
enough to receive it. The carton is then 
covered with another wrapper, neatly let- 




BUTTER-CUTTER FOR CUTTING CANDIED HONEY 
INTO BRICKS. 



tered in gold, and containing directions how 
to liquefy the honey when desired. As a 
rule, the consumer is advised to use the 
honey in the candied form by explaining 



CANDIED HONEY. 



81 



CANDIED HONEY. 



that it can be spread on bread like so much 
butter. 

Our peoi)le have found it advantageous to 
adopt the H-lb. brick or 48 to the 60-lb. cake 
from the square can. It sells in our market 
from 25 to 80 cents retail, thus making a 
good margin on 10-cent honey. 

CAUTION. 

Do not attempt to ciit the tin oft' from the 
can of candied honey unless the honey is 
very solid. If it is slightly mushy there will 




MACHINE FOR CUTTING CANDIED HONEY INTO BRICKS 

be trouble. The mass of candied honey 
will squash out of shape, and run all over 
every thing. There is no use in tiying to 
cut up honey like this into bricks. It 
should either be melted or put into oyster- 
pails, where the process of solidifying can 
be com])leted. It may be questioned 
whether it pays to cut off square cans 
and take the honey in a solid chunk ; but it 
enables one to fill rush orders for candied 
honey on short notice. Second-hand cans 
are worth only a few cents; whereas to melt 
the honey out and re-candy costs fuel and 
time. 



warmed up, put it into the cold room again, 
and so continue with changes of tempera- 
ture. Stir the honey occasionally, and al- 
ways make it a rule to have some candied 
honey mixed with that which you desire to 
bring to a solid condition, which greatly 
hastens the process. 

EDUCATING THE PUBLIC TO CANDIED HONEY. 

The question may arise whether it would 
be everywhere practicable to sell candied 
honey in any one of the forms described. It 
could hardly be deemed advis- 
able to furnish buyers or com- 
mission houses knowing nei- 
ther the shipper nor the real 
character of such honey. The 
packer or producer must first 
introduce it to his o^^^l cus- 
tomers — people who know 
him. The nature of the honey 
must be explained ; how put 
up; that only the purest and 
best can be solidified in this 
manner ; that it can be lique- 
fied by putting the pail in 
water about as hot ns tho 
hand can bear, etc. In F'?ort 
the trade must be educated to 
it. The fact that no unripe cr 
glucosed honey can be put up 
in bags or bricks will be a 
strong "talking-point" on the 
purity of the honey. When 
the facts once become known, old prejudices 
give way. 

We have been putting up honey, both in 
bags and in brick form, sliced by wire, and 
the trade keeps so strong that we are scarce- 
ly able to supply the demand. The grocers 



GENERAL REMARKS ON HOW TO MAKE HON- 
EY CANDY QUICKLY. 

As we have already explained, continuous 
zero weather is not nearly so favorable as 
weather somewhere near the freezing-point, 
now moderating up to the thawing-point, 
then freezing, then thawing, etc. AVhen the 
weather remains continuously cold, set the 
lioney out in pails or bags in a room where 
the temperature goes a little below freezing, 
leaving it for a day or two, then bringing it 
into a warm room. After it is thoroughly 




uaramecil 
Grainilafc 



HONBY 




CANDIED BRICK HONEY, WRAPPED AND 
READY FOR MARKET. 

have actually come after it. One of our 
neighl)ors buys the honey, slices it up with a 
wire, and wraps it in paper. By so doing he 
says he more than double ; his money. His 



CANDIED HONET. 



82 



CANDY FOB BEES. 



customers buy the honey cheaper : he is 
pleased and they are pleased. 

A short time ago we cut ui) some brick 
honey with a wire into packages weighing -5 
ounces. These sold for a nickel. They went 
off so fast we could not supply the demand. 
For the sake of experiment we cut up one 
tiO-lb. can of candied honey into 160 cubes. 
The honey cost 6^ cents per pound. We re- 
tailed these cubes at 5 cents each, or 13i 
cents a pound— doubling on our money. 

After the trade gets educated to buying 
honey in this form no effort at all is neces- 
sary to sell it. The cost of the package is 
practically nothing, and all trouble from the 
honey candjing again is overcome, because 
the trade has been educated to know that 
such honey is the pure article. 

The time may come when candied honey 
will be known on the market as a common 
article of commerce; because when the pub- 
lic gener lly understand? that such honey 
must be of the best quality, and absolutely pure, 
it will sell without any hesitation. 

CANDY POR BEES. There is just one 
kind of candy that is used universally by 
bee-keepers for queen-cages. While excel, 
lent for this purpose it should not be used as 
winter food unless in pans, where, if it be- 
comes soft, it will not run down and kill the 
bees. 

It is none other than what is popularly 
termed the "Good" candy, after I. R. Good, 
of Nappanee, Indiana, who introduced it 
into this country. It was, however, first 
made by a German named Scholz, many 
years before. See "Langstroth on the Honey- 
bee," p. 274, 1875 edition. By Europeans it 
is, therefore, called the Scholz candy. 

HOW TO MAKE IT. 

Make a stiff dough with first quality of 
extracted honey and powdered cane sugar. 
Do not use beet sugar. These were all 
the directions given at first ; but it 
would seem that, from the difference in 
results, more specific instructions are nec- 
essary. Mr. J. D. Fooshe (or, rather, his 
wife, who does it for him) has been very 
successful in making the candy. Their 
method is as follows : Take good thick hon- 
ey and heat (not boil) until it becomes 
very thin ; then stir in pulverized white 
sugar.* After stirring in all the honey will 
absorb, take out the mixture and thoroughly 

* Confectioners' siig-;ir — a jrrade ol' pulverized 
su^ar— will not answer, as it generally contains 
starch. Wliile such sugar is all right for frosting 
for cakes it is death to bees. Be sure the sugar is 
pure cane— not beet. 



knead it with the liands. The kneading 
makes it more pliable and soft, so it will 
absorb, or. rather, take up, more stigar. For 
summer use it should be worked, mixing in 
more sugar until the dough is too stiff to 
work readily, when it should be allowed to 
stand a day or two; if then so soft as to run, 
a little more sugar should be kneaded in. 
Much will depend upon the season of the 
year. More sugar is required in proportion 
to the honey in warm or hot weather than 
for cool or cold weather. It should not be 
too hard in winter, nor so soft in summer 
as to run and daub the bees. For this rea- 
son the honey, before mixing, should be 
heated so as to be reduced to a thin liquid. 
In shipping bees, the main thing to look 
out for is to see that the candy does not run 
nor yet -get hard. It is one of the nice 
points in making this candy to have it just 
right. Don't delude yourself with the idea 
that a second quality of lioney will do. Al- 
ways use the nicest you have. We get the 
best results with first quality of clover ex- 
tracted. Sage honey, for some reason or 
other, has the property of rendering the 
candy in time as hard as a brick, and, there- 
fore, should not be used. 

There is not very much trouble in mailing V^ 
queens to Australia, if the candy can be^;;^^, 
made just right so as not to become too hard t, (J 
nor too soft on the journey. If it retains a 
mealy, moist condition, the bees will be 
pretty sure to go through all right. See 
Benton cage, under Introducikg. 

HARD CANDY FOR WINTER AND SPRING 
FEEDING — HOW^ TO MAKE. 

Into a porcelain, granite, or copper kettle 
(do not use iron) pour a quantity of granu- 
lated sugar; add a very little water, and 
place it on the stove. Stir just enough to 
make a very thick syrup, and keep stirring 
until the sugar is all dissolved; then cease. 
Heat gradually, and keep a good fire until 
it boils. Care will have to be taken that 
the mixture does not overcook. To de- 
termine when it has boiled enough, dip 
the finger into cold water, then into the boil- 
ing syrup, and immediately back into the 
water. When cooked enough, the film of 
syrup will crack on the finger as the joint 
is bent. If one hesitates to thrust his wet 
finger into boiling syrup, let him dip out 
a little with a spoon and drop the contents 
into cold water. If the residue hardens so 
that it is brittle, and breaks between the 
fingers, the kettle should be lifted off; but 
the finger test is the more accurate. This is 
what is called "cooking to a hard crack." 



CAKDY FOR BEES. 



83 



CARPET GRASS 




CARPET GRASS AND BLOSSOMS— LIFE SIZE. 



At this stage, remove the syrup from the 
stove. It cau now be pom-ed into greased 
Shallow tin pans, and when cooled hard it 
will have a crystalline rock-candy appear- 
ance if the work has been done right. 

These cakes may be placed crosswise 
on the brood-frames and covered with old 
carpeting if in cool or cold weather. 

Where a larger quantity of candy is to be 
given at a time, it is advisable to take a com- 
mon brood-frame of the old Langstrothtype, 
without any spacers on it, and lay it on a 
greased sheet of tin which can be obtained 
at any tin-shop. As the hot syrup begins to 
cool pom- it into the frame until level full, 
and allow the candy to set. This may then 
be hung in the brood-nest like a comb of 
sealed stores. For winter feeding, nothing 
is better except sealed stores. 

If preferred, stir the syrup while cooking, 
causing it to grain. When poured into 
pans, as before directed, it will be hard 
and white. Some prefer to have then- candy 
made this way as it is less sticky, and there- 
fore pleasanter to handle. But the one 
objection to the granulated candy is that it 
forms into granules; and as the bees take it 
up, these granules drop down on the hive- 
bottom to a greater or less extent, and are 
carried out and wasted. All things consid- 
ered, we prefer hard crj stalline candy. 

If you don"t care to make the candy your- 
self, place these directions before your 



;^' 



candy-man and instruct him to heat the 
candy to SIO*^ F. by his candy-thermometer, /o'^ 
Cawi/on; — Whoever makes the candy i'^ 
should clearly understand that if the mix- '^<^ • '' 
ture is scorched, even the slightest, it will ;^:^ 
make unfit food for spiing or winter feed-'^ 
ing. When the syrup is cooked nearly - '^^ 
enough, there is great danger of burning, 
and it is then that the greatest care should be 
exercised. 

CANS rOR HONEY. See Extracted 
Honey. 
CARNIOLANS.— See Bees. 
CARFET GRASS. Carpet grass 
[Lippw nodiflora) is one of the best honey- 
1 plants known, but has not come to the front 
I yet, in bee-keeping circles. In Central Cal- 
i ifornia it produces abundantly, and has 
been reported in the Bermudas, where it is 
the leading honey-plant, and also in the 
West Indies and Texas. It is known as 
a "sand -binder," so that, in Florida, it 
would be a boon for this pm-pose alone, but 
it is a splendid yielder of good honey besides. 
Stock will eat it, and it holds up its head 
when every thing else is bm-ned up by sun 
heat. The term carpet grass, or, better, car- 
pet weed, suits it admirably, for it covers the 
ground like a carpet. It grows only a few 
inches high, as might be supposed from its 
creeping habit. It is one of those plants 
which it will pay bee-keepers to study. 



fjATAJ.PA. 



84 



CATCLAW. 



CATALFA (Catalpa speciosa), or liardy 
(•;it;ili);i, is one ol' the lew trees profitable to 
jri-ow lor liinilx'r alone in the central portions 
(.!• ilic I'liiti'd States. It is a bee-keeper"s 
tree, and for tliiit reason is mentioned here. 
While not (piile eqnal to the black locust, 
citlici- tor lioiK'y or Ibr its econoniit- viiliie as 
:i tinil)er tree, it lias the merit of not being 
allacked l)y borers, as the black locust usu- 
iilly is, and it is now being grown to some 
extent as an investment by farniers in the 
Central States. It does not rank very high 
:is a lioney-bearer, but where extensively 
planted we shall doubtless hear of favorable 
reports later on. 

There are other catalpas, but so far as 
known none are valuable for timber-plant- 
ing; and some farmers, neglecting the dif- 
rcrcnce, have lost money by investing m the 
olher species. 

The experts of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture are of opinion after 
examining a number of catalpa plantations 
ill Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri that 
it will yield as large prolit as any ordinary 
farm crop. The net profit is stated to be 
from ipo.dO to $7.00 per year when properly 
eared for. The greatest value of the timber 
is for use as fence-posts, cross-ties, and tele- 
graph-poles, the branches being used as 
lirewood. It is not thought advisable to 
wait till it reaches saw-log dimensions. It 
requires good soil and is best grown from 
seed. Where a bee-keeper wishes to im- 
prove the honey-bearing flora of his locality 
the better course would be to grow the 
young trees for others to plant, selling them 
at a nominal figure when planted within 
reach of the bees in his own apiary. 

Trof . \V. J. Green, of the Ohio Experiment 
Station, who has devoted considerable study 
to the question of commercial culture of the 
liardy catalpa, has this to say: 

Most seedsmen have been cai-eless leg-arding the 
kiud of seed which tliey sold, hence the majority of 
the ticcs wlilch have been gTOwn from these seeiis 
are of tlie wrong kind, because the hardy catalpa 
does not produce as much seed, and is more dltBcuIt 
to i)roeure. It is impossible, when the trees are 
small, to tell what they are. After they have at- 
tained some age it is possible to distinguish the dif- 
ferent kinds. They are easily distinguished by the 
blossoms and seed. The station is now making con- 
siderable elfort to introduce the true hardy catalpa, 
and we have quite a number of trees wliich we ex- 
pect to send out to different parts of the State for 
the sake of experiment. We do not expect to sell 
I he trees nor give them away, but we shall require 
the party to conduct an experiment to pay for the 
trees. 

The catalpa frequently, on good soil, makes an 
increase in diameter of an inch a year. I saw tiees 



in C'reston a few days ago that were planted only 
ten years ago, and one of them was more than a 
foot in diameter. On ordinary soil they would not 
grow as fa.st. There are some near Wooster that are 
abi-ut twenty years old, not very much larger than 
the one mentioned at Creston. We liave some on 
the station ground that are ten to twelve feet high, 
three years from id an ting. I know of a grove where 
the trees are planted eight feet apart each way, and 
at twenty years of age are worth on an average Sl.CO 
per tree for posts and poles. I liope that you will 
plant a grove of this tree, for it is surely very valu- 
able, and I do not know of any species of tree that 
will be likely to yield greater pioQt.— Gleanings in 
Bee Culture, March 1,5, 1904. 

Those who intend to plant catalpa in the 
I^Torth should take pains to get the true seed 
of the hardy catalpa [Catalpa speciosa). The 
Southern catalpa [Catalpa catalpa) will not 
answer, neither will the Japanese [Catalpa 
bignonoides). 

CATCLA\V [Acacia greggii) or mimosa. 
This is (iitite an important honey plant or 
tree, rather, in Texas. It yields immense 
quantities of excellent honey that ranks 
with the best white honey of the North. 
While possibly it would not sell alongside of 
our clovers, yet in localities where it is pro- 
duced it is praised very highly for table use, 
no honey being classed higher except that 
from tie " guajilla," which see. 

The catclaw is a bushy tree with low- 
spreading branches, attaining a height of 
anywhere from 15 to 20 feet. It derives its 
name from the bushy and fuzzy blossoms 
suggestive of the furry coat of a cat, and the 
peculiar kind of claws or hooks, shaped very 
much like the claw of a common house eat. 
If one tries to push tlirough the bushes or 
among the branches he will conclude that, 
unless he "backs up," he may "remain 
hooked." Perhaps he will anyhow. 

The illustration on the following page 
shows a small twig, life size. The leaves 
are small and in clusters while the blossoms 
have a cottony or downy look. One of the 
seed-pods, after the blossoms have been cast 
off, is shown at the upper left-hand corner 
of the plate. 

The tree comes into bloom about the first 
of May, and yields honey for a considerable 
length of time before going out of bloom. 
In July there is a second crop. 

Like the guajilla and mesquite it grows in 
the semi-desert regions of Texas and Ari- 
zona where it would be impossible to carry 
on farming without irrigation. There are 
vast areas in both States mentioned that 
will probably never be used for any thing 
more useful to man than catclaw, guajilla, 
and mesquite ; so that the onward march of 



CATCLAW. 85 

civilization will not displace these honey- 
trees with more profitable farm crops. We 
may reasonably conclude that catclaw wiU 
remain one of the permanent sources of 
honey supply, whatever we think may 1 e the 
possible or probable future of the basswood 
of the Xorthem States. 

I am not sure but it would pay to intro- 
duce these valuable honey-bearing trees in 
other semi-arid regions. It has b€en intr<> 
•luced iijt' • SoutLem Ein-OT:>e. whence large 



CEXTURY -PLANT. 




quantities of its flowei^ are exported to 
Frauce and En^and. It is there known as 
mimosa. 

fiAq'WTT Xepeta Colaria . This is a 
near relative of Gnx-ovEE-XHE-GEOU^rD. 
which see. Qoinby has said that, if he 
were to grow any plant exclusively for the 
honey it prodaees. that plant would be cat- 



nip : and very likely he was not far from 
right. But as we have never yet had any 
definite report from a sufficient field of it to 
test it alone, either as to quality or quantity of 
the honey, we remain almost as much in the 
dark in regard to it as we were at the time 
he made the statement, many years ago. 
Several have cultivated it in small patches, 
and have reported that in a state of cultiva- 
tion it apparently yielded more honey than 
in its wild state, for bees were found on it al- 
most constantly, during several 
months in the year: yet no one. we 
believe, is prepared to say posi- 
tively that it would pay X'' fi'ln- 
vate it for this purpose. 

CAUCASIAJTS. S^- Bek-. 

AniATicona. American aloe, cr 
maguey, is undoubtedly the most 
liberal yielder of nectar among the 
long list of An-erican honey-plants. 
Unluckily for us it is limited in 
this country to the extreme South 
and Southwest, but is very com- 
mon in old Mexico, where it is one 
of the most common and most 
sought-after plants in the country, 
being the source from which Mex- 
icans derive their beer ^pulque], 
and also their brandy mescal). 
The sweet juice is tapped from the 
plant, and this is conveited into 
liquor? of varying degrees of in- 
toxicating power. When in flower 
this juic-e ascends to the immense 
flower i>anicle5. where it exudes 
througii the nectaries, setting the 
bees wild with delight. It exudes 
5C» liberally it may \^ <itAlec\iA 
without the aid of l^ees at all. In 
addition, the agaves are liberal 
yielders of fine fibers, all of the 
sisal of commerce being collected 
from them: but the one here men- 
ticmed is seldom used for this pur- 
pose. The species commonly cul- 
tivated for sisal in Mexico Agace 
ixili dees not produce nectar at alL 
X. -^x.. 24J far as the writer has seen. This 
plant is -^^-^^r ii?ter«t!Dg to a bee-keeper, 
because 'uly plant which 

can be jntry exclusively 

for the honey it wlii yield. It thrives on 
semi-arid land which can be had free, and 
the culture required is merely nominal, hence 
it prfflnises l<etter returns than any plant yet 
tried exclusively for the honey it will produce. 
In spite of its name it blocdns as often as 



CENTURY PLANT. 



86 



CLOVER. 



most oilier cacti, jiiid it does not take long 
to grow. The long (lower-stem seen in the 
illustration shoots up with marvelous rapid- 
ity; and wlien the golden-yellow llowers aj)- 
pear, hundreds of bees cluster on them as 
if they were taking syruj) from a feeder. 
The nectar can be gathered by hand. There 
is a common impression that this plant takes 
something like a centin-y to reach maturity; 
but where the climate is suitable it does not 
exceed ten years in any case; and once the 




CKNTUUY PLANT 



l)lantation begins to flower, it keeps up its 
annual procession of blooms, though not 
from the same plant. 

The most suitable localities for century 
plants in this country are in the vicinity of 
Yuma, Arizona; Needles, California; South- 
western Texas and Sonthern Florida. 

CLIPPING QUEENS. See QUEENS. 

CLOVER. rerha])S no class of honey- ^ 
plants yields more or better honey than the 
clover family. In the northern portions of 
the United States we find white clover 
comaion in our pastures. It is honey 
from this plant which gives the name of 
" clover" to most of the honey bearing that 
name. Closely related to it is the white f 
Dutch, which is often found on law^ns in ' 
cities ; in fact, it is the only w^hite clover 
from which the seed can be gathered and 
used, large quantities being mixed v^ith 
lawn-grass seed. Alsike and red clovers are 
coming to be more and more cultivated as 
fodder. Where the clovers of our pastures 
give way to intensive agriculture, the alsike 
and red clovers, and, in the western country 
especially, alfalfa, are taking their place. 

The failing of white clover from the pas- 
ture lands has been met by rapid counter- 
spreading- of sweet clover along the road- 
sides and railway tracks, and over the coun- 
try generally. A few years ago this plant 
was scarcely known; but now it extends 
over the entire country. 

The alfalfa, referred to under this head- 
ing elsewhere, is being introduced all over 
the western country. Indeed, at the pres- 
ent time it may be said to be the most im- 
portant crop ever raised on irrigated land. 
In quantity and quality of its honey it comes 
near surpassing the white clover, which lias 
for years carried off the honors: for any 
honey said to be equal to white clover re- 
ceives the highest encomium. 

There are other clovers, such as the crim- 
scm, which are being introduced to some ex- 
tent. Sainfoin is largely grown, has some- 
what the characteristics of alfalfa, and is 
now being introduced to some extent in this 
country from Europe, where it is a very 
important fodder-plant. 

Having discussed in a general way the clo- 
vers that have any connection with bee-keep- 
ing, we will now consider the differentfj (' 
Tarietie*. 

WHITE CLOVER [Trifolium repens). 

This at one time was considered the most 
important source of honey in the world; 



U 



«v>iu 



CLOTEB- 



CJJOVZR- 



ver-huller made espe- 




the p^ - 
it to ; 

fenee-coiivcri- 
1t the seed of 



some sections. leaTing 

1 only ia vacant lots. 

ies. Unfortonate" 

can not be saved. 



RED CLOTEB < TrifoUmm praUnse 



and in the central and eastern States it s. — ■, -' 
holds first honors in ^ite of the fact that cm.- 

intensive agtienftrae has crowded it out of p^j^yzy^, (jB MAMMOTH CLOTEB. 
^ This is the largest kind of red clover 

known, as its name indicates: and it does. 
manj seasons, furnish a very large amount 
<rf honey. As a role, however, like the red 
clover mentioDed above, it is seldom visited 
by the aMnmon bees: but nearly every 
season it is Tisited more or less by Italians : 
whidi some seasons (where very large fields 
are nearby) store remaitaWy large amoonts 
of very toe honey from this one source 
alone. In bloom prineipaUy throogboiit the 
months of Augost and September, it is a 
very important hoi»ey-plant. Althon^ the 
hay is hardly equal to that from common 
red clover, it is. perhaps, the best forage - 
plant known to plow tmder. Once well 
started rt will grow on almost any soil : and 
let a good stand be secnred and plowed rai- 
der, the groond gets in condition to fnnri^ 
a fair oop of almost any thing. 
AJ^SIKS CLOTEB. 
This was fonneily 5appc«5ed to be a hy- 
iHid. since in appeazanee it is so nearly 
intermediate between tiie while and red 
clovers: hence its name^ Tixj^MMm kgbiidmm. 
j^rw It is now known to be a distinet 
species. TThile it yields fully as miidi hon^ 
as the red. the petoOs are so short that bees 
findnodifaenltyinieadiing it. If yon im- 
agine a large head d white clover, with ex- 
tremities at the petals tipped a beautiful 
pink— equal in beantv to a dahlia if *^^^ 
were not so ecmimon— you win have a ' rry 
good idea <tf the alake. The leaf is much 
like that <rf oiher doreis- ettept tiiat. in 
»lar. it B a sc*t dean bii^ green, without 
the spots of down that are seal on the white 
and red cioveis. ' 

If alake dover eameintoWooiBatasea- 
»>n when bees could get little else, as boA- 
wheat doe. we w.>uld i^aee it, instead of 
Ime^wheat, first on the Hrt of plants for ar- 
tlfidal pastuz^e.* Where white dorer does 
not grow ^Mmtaneoo^. aMke is tmdoobt- 
edly.ahi»d<tf e^ery tiriig dse now known. 
It not only pioduees honey in large quanti- 
ties, but the quality ^ not excelled by any 
thing known in the wotW. It is true, many 
people vf^^ hasBwood. m o unt a in sage, and 
otfa0- aromaiie fiavoo. at first taste ; tratwe 

•If ^ake is eaLor ere* passared o*. jaa tefore 

wtase etorer is go»e,«a«d grs« « e«J» « ttW^rJ^w^fT 
iB9k wkea -mt maSt meeA fs. One o« tmr M^ttlmt, 




C0a0l03f T. TTf CXOVEB. 

The common red clover yields toney larse- 
'vson»e seasons, but not so generally as d«j^s 
.be white, nor do the bees woik on it for as 
:.?ng a i-eriod- While working on red dover 
be*s bring in small loads of a peecHar dark- 
rr^n I --Den. By observing this we can 
- - :eE when they are galliering red- 
_- 1 ney. Italians cften do finely on 
-_ ^ "^r. while the common black b«s 
=o much as notiee it. The 
- mndi like that of alsike. 
" : the safest way 
-.:«»*e good farm- 
er ^ yji^ beeanse differ- 
pn^ ghtly different treat- 
ment. The same wiii aptiy to saving the 
seed, which can hardly be done profitably 




PEA VINE, OR MAMMOTH RED CLOVER.— LIFE SIZE. 



CLOVER. 



89 



CLOVER. 



believe every one tires of these after a time, 
while clover stands almost alone, as the 
great staple for every-clay use, with our 
" bread and butter." 

CULTIVATION, AND SOWING THE SEED. 

The cultivation is so much like that of red 
clover that what applies to one will do for 
the other. The seed of alsike is much small- 
er and less quantity is required ; the general 
rule being four pounds to the acre. As it 
blossoms only the second year, or very spar- 
ingly the first, with ordinary cultivation it 
can be sown almost any time, and, in fact, 
it is often sown on wheat on the snow in 
March. In this way we can see just how 
evenly we are getting it on the ground. The 
farmers near us who furnish the finest seed 
say they have the best success with that 
sown with oats in the spring. Although al- 
sike will produce some honey with almost 
any cultivation, it is important to have the 
ground nicely prepared, if we wish to get 
large yields of either hay or honey. On 
good mellow ground, finely pulverized, we 
may get a growth of 3 ft. in height, and a 
prolusion of highly colored blossoms that 
will astonish one who has never seen such a 
sight; especially when the field is roaring 
with the hum of busy Italians. Such heavy 
growth being liable to lodge badly during 
wet weather, it may be well to sow a sprink- 
ling of timothy seed with it. When put in 
early, good soil sometimes produces consid- 
erable bloom the first season, but not much 
is to be expected until the second year, when 
it is at its height. It will continue to yield 
years afterward to a greater or less extent, 
for it seems to cling to the soil. It may be 
sowai in the spring on fall wheat; but where 
timothy has been sown with the wheat in 
the fall previous, it is apt, on some soils, to 
choke out the alsike. Apparently, even one 
sowing will go a long way. 

SAVING THE HAY. 

Raised for hay and honey, without any 
reference to saving the seed, it gi\ es at least 
two good crops every season; in this case it 
is cut when in full bloom. In our locality it 
usually blooms the last of June, and some- 
times furnishes considerable honey before 
the w^hite clover is out. The hay is admitted 
by all to be equal to any of the grasses or 
clovers in use, while pasturage, after the 
clover is cut, is most excellent for all kinds 
of stock. 

Its value for milch cows is shown by the 
following, taken from Gleanings in Bee Cul- 
ture, Vol. XIII., page IBl : 



AS A FOHAGE-PLANT 

it has no superior, producing- a large flow of very 
rich milk. June 15th, when I shut the stock out of 
the iilsike, I allowed them to run in a field of red 
clover that was just coming into blossom, and at the 
end of the third day the five cows had shrunk their 
milk to the amount of 9 quarts to the milking. 
Then, in Octobei', to test it further for feed, as there 
was quite a growth of leaves on the ground i again 
allowed the cows in the field. You may imagine my 
surprise when I found, at the end of a week, they 
had made a gain of 10 quarts to the milking. 
Millington, Mich. M. D. York. 

SAVING THE SEED. 

The seed is ahvays saved from the first 
crop of blossoms, and it should be allowed 
to stand about two weeks longer than when 
cut for hay. If you wish to get a good price 
for your seed, it must be very nicely cleaned. 
It is thrashed out with a clover-huller, made 
expressly for clover seed, and then cleaned 
with a fanning -mill with appropriate sieves. 
Timothy seed is very nearly the same 
size, making it difticult to remove it all, 
unless by a fanuing-mill having the proper 
blast arrangement. As the alsike weighs 
60 lbs. to the bushel, and timothy only 45, 
there is no great difficulty in doing it effec- 
tually. 

We need scarcely add, that whoever raises 
seed for sale should exercise the most scru- 
pulous care to avoid sending out foul seeds 
of any kind ; and where Canada thistles or 
weeds of that class prevail, we would, under 
no circumstances, think of raising seed to be 
sent all over the land. If they are in your 
neighborhood, raise hay and honey, and let 
seed be furnished by some one who is differ- 
ently situated. 

PROFIT OF THE CROP. 

The seed has for a number of years sold 
for from $5.50 to $8.00 per bushel, and the 
average yield of seed is about four bushels 
per acre, 60 lbs. being reckoned as a bushel. 
It retails for 15 to 18 cents per pound. See 
Clover. 

The following, taken from Tlie Farmier, 
of St. Paul, Minn., not only shows what 
profit may be realized in raising alsike, but 
is another proof of its value as a hay crop. 
The reader will observe that the writer is in 
no way interested in bees. 

WILL IT PAY FARMERS TO RAISE ALSIKE WITHOUT 
ANY REFERENCE TO BEE-KEEPING AT ALL? 

About 30 years ago I bought my first alsike-clo- 
ver seed, and sowed it alone on the south side of a_^ 
hill. The season was dry, and it grew only about a 
foot high; and as it was said the first crop produced 
the seed, I cut it for seed and felt disappointed at 
getting so little that I was ready to pronounce it a 
humbug-, and plowed it up the same fall. Some 
years afterward I saw a bushel of seed at the Dane 



CLOVER. 



90 



CLOVER. 



County Fair, at Madison. 1 inquired of the owner, 
Mr. Woodward, how he liked it, and if it was a 
profitable crop. He said he got four bushels of 
seed per aere, and sold it at *10 per bushel; that 
the hay, after being hulled, was better than the 
best red-clover hay, and that his cattle ate it in 
preference to any other hay. 1 boujrht two bush" 
els of the seed and sowed about one bushel lo 
twelve acres, mixing one-third timothy, by mea- 
sure, where I wanted it for pasture or hay, and 
about the same quantity of pure alsike where I 
wanted it for seed. It does not raise sped the same 
year it is sown, but, like red clover, the next year. 
I have sown it with wheat, barley, and oats. Tt 
does best with spring wheat or barley. 

I hulled 110 bushels this year from 30 acres. 1 ex- 
pect to get !J7.00 per bushel, and 1 have at least 25 
tons of good hay, after hulling, worth enough to 
pay all expenses of cutting and hulling. Some 
years ago 1 sold my whole crop on the Board of 
Trade in Chicago for $11.00 per bushel. 

Mr. George Harding, of Waukesha, a breeder of 
Cotswold sheep and short-horn cattle, and one of 
Wisconsin's most wide-awake farmers, showed me 
a small field of one of his neighbors that he said 
produced seven bushels of alsike seed per aere, 
and that he sold it in Milwaukee for $13.00 per 
bushel. 1 have 80 acres in alsike; and so long as it 
pays me as well as it has done, I will sow it. 

The first crop the next year after sowing is the 
seed crop. It can be cut for seed for several years. 
It is not a biennial plant like red clover, but a per- 
ennial. It has one tap root with many branches, 
and does not heave up by frost, like red clover, 
which has but one tap root. 

I prefer it to red clover for several reasons. 
When sown with timothy it matures with it. 
(Medium red clover matures before timothy is fit 
to cut.) I cut about the 10th :o l.'jth of July: red 
clover should be cut (here) about the 30th of June, 
Alsike is not easily injured by dew or light rnms 
after being cut. It has none of the " fuzz ' that 
red-clover has, making it so unpleasant to handle 
as hay or seed. The stem is not so coarse nor so 
hollow, and has more branches, leav es, and blos- 
soms. The blossom is of a pink color. Red clover 
must be cut when we are in the busiest time work- 
ing our corn. Alsike is cut after corn work Is 
over. This is of great advantage in a coi-n region. 

Alsike makes a good fall pasture after the seed 
is cut. My stock will eat it in preference to red 
clover, timothy, or blue grass. Blue grass, or, as it 
is often called in this country, June grass, is a 
good early and late grass, but in midsummer it 
dries up; and had it not been for clover we should 
have been badly off for pasture this dry year. 
Dane Co., Wis. (Hon.) Matt. Anderson. 

The next, from Gleanings in Bee Culture, 
Vol. XIV., page 327, is of so much impor- 
tance in regard to raising alsike, or other 
honey-yielding plants, that we give it here 
entire : 

A SUGGESTION TO BEE-KEEPERS IN REGARD TO 

HAVING AI.SIKE RAISED BY THE FARMERS 

OF THEIR OWN NEIGHBORHOOD. 

I have managed to supplement the natural sup- 
plies for my bees during the last five or six years as 
follows: I first tried sweet clover with but poor 
success, so I took up alsike clover, and this is the 
way I work: 



About this time of the year I buy from 200 to 400 
lbs. of best alsike clover seed in Montreal at whole- 
sale price. This j'car I can get it for 12 cts., perhaps 
less. I expect to buy my supply next week. It will 
cost me '/i ct. freight, and I shall probably sell it 
to the farmers who are within two miles of my apia- 
r\i, for 10 cts. per lb. At this price it is readily 
taken up by all who are " seediug down " land suit- 
able for alsike, as the price in the stores here is 
from Mi to 18 cts. Thi'ee pounds mixed with tim- 
othy will seed an acre very well, so you see I get 
pasturage which will last from two to five years, of 
the very best quality of honey, at the small cost of 
$7.50 for one hundred acres. I can not conceive of 
any plan which, with me, would be cheaper, less 
trouble, or that would give as quick and reliable re- 
turns. I could get a good deal of seed used by sell- 
ing it at cost; but I find that taking off two or three 
cents per pound makes a great difference in the 
amount sown. As white and alsike clover are the 
most reliable honey-plants we have here — very 
rarely failing entirely— the results have been very 
marked and satisfactory. 

To those who wish to try this plan I would say, 
Work up the matter personally; canvass every 
farmer within two miles and more in every direc- 
tion from your apiary (those living more than two 
miles should pay cost of seed), showing them a 
sample of your seed, pointing out its advantages, 
etc. Although alsike-clover hay will not weigh so 
heavy as red clover, it is far sweeter and better, and 
all stock much prefer it to eat. One pound of seed, 
also, will go as far as two pounds of red clover, as 
the seeds are so much smaller. 

Canvassing the farmei'S should be done at once, 
as every good farmer plans his work and buys Ids 
seed early. After you have finished canvassing, 
add up your orders, send to a reliable seedsman, dis- 
tribute, and get pay for your seed, and your work 
for the season is done; but it should be repeated 
every season, to enlarge your "base of supply" a-< 
much as possible. Of course, you will have to wail 
one season before the alsike will bloom. 

In localities where different apiaries are near t( - 
gether, if the seed is furnished under cost the par- 
ties should make up the amount of the difference 
pro rata, according to the number of colonies they 
have. 

A WORD OF CAUTION ABOUT SOWING ALSIKE. 

First, get the very best seed you can find. Poor 
seed is an abomination. Don't sow it on dry, sandy 
land, for alsike delights in a moist soil. 

This simple plan of increasing pasturage may not 
be new, but 1 never heard it mentioned, though 
doubtless some have tried it. 

Danville, Quebec, Can. Geo. O. Goodhue. 

We need hardly add, that the above plan 
can be carried out with buckwheat, rape, 
and any other honey-yielding plants that are 
of value to farmers. 

Some bee-keepers are beginning to find 
that it pays to furnish alsike-clover seed free 
of charge to their neighbors within a mile or 
a mile and a half of their bee-yards, be- 
cause, they aver, when the seed is once in 
the soil the plant continues to reseed itself 
so it will spread all through the farming 
country, both to enrich the farmer, giving 



CLOVER. 



91 



CLOVER. 



him a better quality of hay when mixed 
with other clovers and timothy, and at the 
same time increase the annual honey crop of 
the bee-keeper. One or two years after the 
free giving of seed, the farmers will begin 
to find out its value, and will then want it 
and be willing to pay for it. .Some bee- 
keepers then furnish it at half price. 

So excellent is the quality of the hay that 
many fai-mers grow alsike year after year, 
notwithstanding that red clover or peavine 
jdelds a larger tonnage, but not necessarily 
more milk or cheese per acre. It is in such 
localities that an increase of the annual 
honey crops is noted. 

Mr. TTm. McEvoy. one of the most exten- 
sive bee-keepers of Ontario, also foul-brood 
inspector there, finds it profitable to furnish 
seed to his neighbors. He writes in Gho.nings 
in Bee Culture for March Jst. Vol. XXXIV : 

HOW CAX WE SECURE MORE HOXEY OF THE BEST 
QrAEITT? AU5IKE CLOVER VS. ALFALFA. 

Tliis is the all-important queslion, and I am well 
aware that nearly every one. if he answered, would 
say, "By increasing' and moving- the bees to where 
they can gather honey from clover." This can be 
done: but will the increase of bees not lead to en- 
croaching on other bee-keepers' rights? It certainly 
will if the parties moving bees fi-om place to place 
do not provide for their share of the pasture. AV 
most any localitj can be made a good one by seed- 
ing down 20 acres eacli year for three years \vith al- 
sike clover. I am going In for increasing, and start- 
ing out-apiaries in places where no bees are kept, 
and wiU supply enough alsike-clover seed to seed 
down 20 acres each year for three years. It will cost 
me only about the price of -300 lbs. of extracted hon- 
ey each year; and for this little outlay I shall be im- 
mensely paid with a fine ciuality of the best honey. 

Woodbura, Ont., Can., Feb. 12, 1906. 

Following the practice of ;Mr. McEvoy. we 
have for several years been furnishing alsike 
clover seed to farmers at half price provid- 
ing that the fields where it was to be sown 
weie within half a mile of some one of our 
yards. We have also furnished it free to 
those who would sow it in fields within a few 
rods of the yards. 

By continuing this policy we have enor- 
mously increased the alsike-clover acreage 
within half a mile of our yards. Oiu- men 
obser^'ed that the amount of clover honey 
gathered has noticeably increased, and that 
less feeding of sugar syrup in the fall has 
been found necessary. After the alsike is 
once introduced it will keep on self-sowing, 
and, what is more, the farmers will discover 
that it will take root where the ordinary red 
clovers fail to make any satisfacton- show- 
ing. Whenever the ground becomes ••clover- 
sick,"' or whenever there is any ground on 
which the ordinary red clovers do not seem 



to make a satisfactory' growth, the alsike 
will usually do nicely. Farmers all over the 
country are beginning to learn the value of 
this forage-plant, particularly when sown 
with timothy. 

After a few years it will not be necessary 
to furnish seed free and at half price, for the 
farmer will find the crop so valuable that he 
will pay full price for it: but he must be edu- 
cated at first by giving him a bonus. 

WIXTEB-KFLLING A2s^D ITS EFFECT ON THE 
CLOVERS. 

There are two kinds of winter-killing. 
One is known as the " heaving-out-' process, 
by which the alternate freezing and thawing 
of a water-.soaked soil breaks the roots of the 
clovers, dismembering them until there 
seems to be but little of them left. The other 
kind of winter-killing is from what might be 
called the dry process. In this the ground is 
frozen to a great depth, freezing the roots 
and jjlants solid. While it may thaw and 
freeze somewhat, it is claimed "that the se- 
vere cold wind blo\\'ing over the surface 
when the ground is not protected, if it con- 
tinues for any length of time, will kill al- 
most any clover." But on the other hand it 
is claimed that white clover suffers less from 
winter-killing than any of the clovers. Un- 
like the common red. peavine, and alsike. it 
has no great tap-root. It is essentially a 
vine like the strawberry, having shallow 
roots at frequent intervals shooting down 
into the ground for short distances. During 
the heaving process of winter-killing, the 
white clovers are lifted up and down, and 
apparently are but little harmed by the pro- 
cess except in cases where there is very se- 
vere cold without snow that attacks root and 
branch alike. 

THE EFFECT OF DROUTH A2sD WINTER 
SNOWS ON THE CLOVERS. 

One authority says the drier it is in the 
fall, up to a certain limit, and the more pro- 
longed, the more the root system is strength- 
ened and the more it grows. If this drouth 
is followed by winter or spring rains, plants 
wiU grow amazingly. 

Nearly all the writers agree that clover 
has freaks of yielding enormously some 
years and failing almost entirely in others. 
Some of them assert that a drouth in the fall 
is not hurtful, but beneficial, providing o/7i«/- 
conditions that foWnc are favorable. Others 
assert that a severe drouth in the fall is in- 
variably followed by a failure of clover honey 
the following year, and there is considerable 
proof to support the statement. All acknowl- 



CLOVER. 



92 



CLOVER. 



edge that a drouth may be so severe that the 
clover may be killed and is killed. 

Some years ago a prominent writer made 
the positive prediction that we could depend 
on a crop of honey from clover if we only 
liave deep snows in winter. Referring to 
til is, one bee-keeper says, in the winter of 
li)07 tliere was comparatively little snow, and 
yet there was a bumper crop in the summer 
of 1908; and then he adds, " As an actual 
fact, the amount of clover honey is not meas- 
ured by the quantity of bloom; for I have 
seen the fields white with an abundance of 
it, but only a fair crop. I can remember one 
year when we had a great scarcity of bloom, 
and yet we had a good crop of clover honey. 
I have also seen fields white with clover, but 
no honey." He then goes on to say that he 
has seen the clover parched by drouth in 
June— not a blossom in sight, and, at the 
very time of year when there should be 
bloom if ever. Then a series of soaking 
rains came on, and, presto ! bloom and a 
crop of honey. He winds up by saying, " In 
the fall and latter part of the summer of 1897 
or '8 we had a very dry time— not so dry as 
last fall, but dry enough— so dry that it was 
Slacken of as being remarkably so. . . I 
had a bumper crop the following summer." 

Another writer, Mr. John McLauchlan, of 
London, Canada, confirming the quotation 
just made, says : 

'J'he fall of 1899 or 1900, I forg-et. which, was excep- 
tionally dry in this district right through from Au- 
gust 15 uutil winter set in. This was followed by a 
very dry spring with very little grass of any kind 
until the later part of May, when a sei'ies of warm 
raius commenced which continued almost daily un- 
til ahout the 20th of June. The effect was marvelous. 
By the end of June the fields and roadsides were one 
beautiful mass of white clover and alsike, and the 
honey crop was the best my memory can recall. 
John McLauchlan. 

London, Canada, Feb. 33. 

Mr. E. Lament, of New Dover, Ohio, says: 
"Late summer and fall drouths, as a rule, 
harm clovers but little. . . . I doubt if, 
in the long rim, the conditions brought 
about by last year's dry spell are a damage 
to the bee-keepers of the white-clover dis- 
tricts;" and then, implying that a wet fall is 
too much of a good thing, he adds : " I am 
satisfied that a rank growth of clover at any 
time, except white clover, does not yield the 
nectar that it otherwise would. This is 
proven conclusively in the case of red and 
alsike clovers that are cut for seed, as there 
is never so much seed on the low ground, 
where the growth is rankest." And then he 
concludes by saying that he believes it is an 
advantage, in point of nectar secretion, that 



clovers should have an occasional setback 
by drouth. 

SWEET CLOVEB [Melilotus alba and 

officinalis). ^ 

Within the last few years this plant, com- 
moidy denominated a weed by town councils 
and by ignorant farmers, is finding its way 
over the entire United States. We can re- 
member a few years ago when a plant of 
sweet clover was unknown around here. The 
first few plants that we ever saw created 
quite a sensation, both on the part of the bee- 
keeper and of the general public, because, 
during the time they were in bloom, they 
were fairly covered with bees. So far from 
being a noxious weed it is really a valuable 
forage-plant in some localities : and while 
white clover, for some unaccountable reason, 
is not yielding as it did some years ago, sweet 
clover, a wonderful honey-idant, seems de- 
termined to make up for the loss by spread- 
ing itself from one end of the country to the 
other. It takes special delight in growing 
on waste places, even on the hardest and 
roughest clay, along common wagon-roads 
and railroads. It is scattered over the for- 
mer by being carried on the wheels of 
wagons when the roads are muddy, and, 
as a consequence, the plants may be 
found along most of the highways of the 
country. Over the steam roads the rap- 
idly moving trains, by reason of the great 
suction generated, gather up the seeds and 
drop them along their journey, with the re- 
sult that the seed is scattered by the cars 
from one end of the country to the other : 
but it never occupies any good arable fields 
of the farmer, for it is very easily extermi- 
nated. From the very fact tliat it will grow 
in waste places where nothing else could 
eke out a living, we can say that it is really 
adding to the wealth of the country. In 
some localities it aifords the only forage- 
plant that will grow, and as such is very 
valuable. In other localities where it grows 
by the roadsides and along railway tracks, it 
furnishes a little honey to the bees during 
that time of the year when no nectar can be 
obtained from any other source ; and if it 
were growii in great patches instead of in 
streaks a mile or a hundred miles long it 
Avould be much more important as a honey- 
plant ; because bees do not ordinarily fly 
much more than one or two miles, the 
amount of acreage of the plant within range 
of their flight is very limited. 

There are two kinds of sweet clover, the 
white and tlie yellow. The white is almost 



CLOVER. 



93 



CLOVER. 



vuiiversal, while tlie yellow is seen only in 
occasional patches. The former is larger, 
stronger, and more thrifty than tlie yellow. 
The latter seems to be almost exactly the 
same thing, only that it is smaller, and the 
flowers yellow; but it has this distinct ad- 
vantage, that it blooms two or three weeks 
earlier than the white variety. 

QUALITY OF SAV^EET-CLOVER HONEY. 

We have tasted a number of samples that 
came from localities where nothing but 
sweet clover is grown. While the color 
is of a slightly greenish cast, and the body 
good, the flavor is only fair. We should 
hardly consider it equal to ordinary white 
clover or alfalfa, yet a little of it in any 
honey improves the flavor. This flavor is 
due to an attribute known as cumarin, ex- 
tracted from the sweet- clover plant, and used 
as a substitute for vanilla. Hence, when a 
small quantity of pure sweet-clover honey 
is put into other honey it gives a vanilla 
taste so highly prized by many. 

Sweet clover is quite an important honey- 
plant in Utah. One of our subscribers, Mr. 
J. C. Swaner, has had considerable experi- 
ence with this plant. In Gleanings in Bee 
Culture for Jan. 1, Vol. XVII., he writes : 

Sweet clover grows here along- the water-courses, 
moist waste places, the roadsides, and in neglected 
fields. It g-rows from six inches to as many feet in 
height, according to the location, and is covered' with 
an abundance of hloom from top to bottom, yield- 
ing' in most seasons an abimdance of nectar, which, 
after lieing gathered and stored, ])roduces honey of 
the very best quality and color. It does not gener- 
ally bloom the first year; but in the second it com- 
mences about the first of July, and keeps up a con- 
tinual bloom until killed by frost furnishing bees 
with pastui'age, generally from the middle of July 
until the latter pai-t of August. 

Sweet clover is sometimes used for pasturage, and 
also for making hay, if cut when young-, but it is 
a long way behind alfalfa for that purpose. Though 
it is sometimes relished by stock, very few would 
sow it for feeding. When eaten while green it is in a 
measui'e a cause of lioven, or bloat, in cows. If you 
wish good milk or butter you had better not feed it 
to milch cows, as it imparts a very disag-reeable taste. 
Eaten off by stock it soon recovers, producing an 
abundance of bloom for the bees. 

As sweet clover is a biennial it is not a very hard 
weed to ei-adicate, and seldom troubles cultivated 
fields, though it does sometimes seed a field; and 
if such field is planted to grain the following sea- 
son, it will come up, and is cut off only with the 
reaper. Next season, if the same field be neglected, 
it will quite likely be covered with sweet clover, and 
that, too, sometimes as high as your head. But where 
a field is cultivated as it should be for two seasons, 
the clover entirely disappears. Tlie plant requires a 
little moisture in the soil the first year; but after 
that it will grow without. I consider it, for my part, 
a great deal l)etter to see a roadside lined with it 
than with sunflowers, etc. 



Now, to sum up, sweet clover yields our main honey 
crop in this locality. It is our best honey; and I may 
say without boasting, it compares favorably with 
tlie finest grades known. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. J. C. Swaneu. 

SWEET CLOVER IN COLORADO. 

It is remarkable that sweet clover can be 
made to grow where nothing else will take 
root. We have seen it on the alkali lands of 
Colorado and California— lauds where noth- 
ing could exist, except, perhaps, a kind of 
alkali weed that is absolutely useless to 
either man or beast; and yet we hear how 
sweet clover is regarded as a noxious weed 
by State legislatures and township trustees. 
Even in Ohio, mayors are ordered to cut 
down along municipal roadsides all weeds, 
including sweet clover, and yet there is noth- 
ing so good as a soil-binder for loose lands 
as sweet clover. We should not be surprised 
if it were worth millions of dollars to rail- 
road companies to prevent the washing away 
of embankments, for that is where it does 
best, on hard yellow clay or other soil wiiere 
nothing else can grow and take root. 

There are big dtimps near Cleveland where 
refuse, cinders, and slag of every sort aie 
thrown; but we have noticed how sweet 
clover seems to find its way along the edges 
of these dumps, and it seems to be creeping 
all over, making the waste land productive 
of at least some good. 

SWEET CLOVER FOR INOCULATING SOIL. 

It has been clearly demonstrated by exper- 
iments conducted in several States that 
sweet clover is excellent for preparing soil 
which requires inoculating with bacteria 
before it will grow satisfactorily some of 
the well-known clovers, notably alfalfa, 
wiiich frequently refuses to grow unless 
this is done. 

The following letter by a practical farmer 
in the Bural New-Ywl-er explains just how 
this is accomplislied : 

INOCULATION B^OR ALFALFA. 

At present I have about 15 acres of alfalfa, all of 
it seeded the first time, part inoculated when seeded. 
I have used soil from an old alfalfa-field, and that 
where sweet clover grows along the roadside, as it 
does everywhere in this locality when permitted, 
and I have thought I obtained the best results from 
the use of sweet-clover soil. I have seen sweet 
clover five or six feet in height growing along the 
road on the hardest kiiid ot subsoil two or three 
feet below the surface soil. I believe the bacteria 
on such sweet clover to be more vigorous as a 
nitrogen-gatherer than that obtained from alfalfa 
as it is usually grown. The proper time to apply 
the soil to th3 intended alfalfa-field is after the 
gi'ound is plowed and leveled, before the seed is 
sown. I unierstand a bright sunshine will kill the 
bacteria. It should be sown on a cloud.v day, and 



CLOVEE. 



94 



CLOVER. 



immediately eultiviited in Ihe ground. I have 
always sown the soil broadcast by luuid, using a pail 
to carry dirt in. If I liad to purchase tlie soil, 1 
thinli 100 pounds niiKht do. Use more if it can be 
readily obtained. Tf taken from an alfalfa-fleld I 
should want to know tliat the bacteria were well 
develoi;ed. The liactcria will not be present to any 
e.xtent in alfalfa that is manured heavily enoug-h to 
supply the nitrogen requirements of the plant. In 
one field of alfalfa I inoculated a strip about two rods 
wide in the middle to find out the benefits of inocula- 
tion. The narrow strip has been a great contrast to 
the adjoining ground, and 1 am convinced that the 
yield was twice as great, of a better grade of hay 
than that which was not- inoculated. There was a per- 
fect stand on that inoculated. It wasinoculated with 
sweet-clover soil. The field has been sown three 
years, and last year the yield was four tons per 
acre; and I believe that, if it had all been inoculated 
when seeded, it would have been at least six tons. 
There was not quite the diflference this last year 
between that which was inoculated and that which 
was not, which proves it will inoculate itself in 
time. I have a 96 acre farm, 70 acres under plow, 
and sell on an average 1.50 hogs per year, besides 
lots of other stuff. —Fremont, Ind. 

Land which, for some reason not easily 
explained, has become "clover sick," can 
1)6 redeemed by the use of sweet clover by 
the same method. There may be excep- 
tions to this, but, as a general statement, it 
is true, for there have been too many exper- 
iments to admit of doubt. 

IL E. Boardman, in Gleanings, Vol. XXII., 
writes of it as follows: 

AS A FORAGE-PLANT. 

I once supposed, as most people do now, that sweet 
clover was entirely worthless as a forage-plant for 
stock— that nothing would eat it; but I have demon- 
strated to my entire satisfaction that horses, cattle, 
and sheep, wall notonly learn to eat it, but will thrive 
upon it, both in pasture and di-ied as hay, and thac 
hogs are fond of it in the green state. I say, they 
learn to eat it, because most stock have to acquire a 
taste for It, not taking readily to it at first. I gave it 
a fair trial for pasture last summer. My horses and 
family cow fed upon it almost entirely during the dry 
part of the season. They became fat and sleek, with- 
out the help of grain or other feed. The milk and 
butter from the cow showed no objectionable flavor. 
The amount of feed furnished was something sur- 
prising. It has a habit of continually throwing out 
or renewing its foliage and its bloom; also, when cut 
or fed back, it keeps constantlj' fresh. 

Kast Townsend, O. H. R. Boardman. 

It is now well established that cattle do 
sometimes eat sweet clover green, although 
some consider it objectionable as pasturage. 
Prof. Tracy, of tlie Mississippi Agricultu- 
ral College, and Prof. Charles E. Thorne, 
of the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion, Wooster, speak highly of it as a hay 
plant, but say, as do others, that stock 
must learn to eat it. Livingston's catalogue 
calls it " quite valuable for soiling." Its 
general character as a good honey-plant is 



well established, and it may be well worth 
while to give it a thorough test. On some 
alkali lands of tlie West it is the only plant 
that will live and thrive. 

The following, by Alva Agee, editor of 
the National Stockman and Farmer, is strik- 
ing testimony to the value of sweet clover 
as a soil-renovator. No two men are held in 
higlier esteem by scientific farmers in this 
country than Alva Agee and F. E. Dawley, 
both very successful farmers on their own 
account. 

TEST SWEET CLOVER. 

How many of our readers are going to test sweet 
clover as a soil-improver for thin land ? This is a 
legume, making free use of the air's nitrogen and 
growing rank on land that is poor. Its value as a 
soil renovator certainly has not been appreciated. 
We should have more definite data on this subject. 
When the clover is cut early for hay, as is done in 
the case of alfalfa, the hay is nutritious and Hon. F- 
E. Dawley, of the New York institutPS,whoh;is grown 
it for many years as a cover crop in an orchard, says 
that his cattle like the hay after it has been sweated 
in the mow. The ability of sweet clover to furnish 
a big amount of humus-making material to poor 
land is probably its most attractive point. There 
is prejudice against this plant because live stock 
does not graze it, as a rule, and it is a weed where 
not wanted, but I believe it will furnish more nitro- 
gen and good humus to a very poor soil than any 
other plant we have, provided the sweet clover bac- 
teria are present in the ground. In that respect it is 
like alfalfa and all other legumes. 

Earmers' Bulletin No. 18, of the general 
government, in speaking of the value of 
sweet clover on poor soils, says : " As a 
restorative crop for yellow loam and white 
lime lands this plant has no superior, and 
for black prairie soils it has no equal." 

CRIMSON CLOVER. 

(Trifolium incai-natitm). 

This species, if grown largely, would cer- 
tainly have one special advantage over any 
of the other clovers, in that it comes into 
bloom before any other, and very soon after 
apple-blossoms ; in fact, it fills the gap 
between apple-bloom and white clover. 
The color of the bloom is quite distinct 
from that of the common red clover; in fact, 
it looks more like a great long tapering 
strawberry than any thing else. Almost 
every season, while ours is in bloom, people 
stop their teams to look at it and inquire 
about it; and on Decoration day sometimes 
tliey come for miles just to get huge bou- 
quets of these great crimson blossoms that 
almost startle one by their beauty and 
brightness. In visiting other bee-keepers 
where they have succeeded in growing it, 
we found a similar report; and one who 
has never seen an acre of crimson clover 



CLOVER. 



95 



CLOVER. 



in bloom can scarcely comprehend the bean- failure. If, however, the seed is put in 



quite early, and the spring months happen 
to be cool, with plenty of rain clearjnto 



ty, not only of its gorgeous blossoms, but 
by the beautiful clean bright-green foliage 
that distinguishes it, as well as the colors 
of the blossoms, from any other plant. 

While this variety is not exactly new, 
the idea that it can be sown during July 
or August, and yet winter over as far 
north as the State of Ohio, is a compara- 
tively new discovery. In States soiith of 
the Ohio River it may be sown in Septem- 
ber, October, and even November. In our 
locality we obtain excellent results by sow- 
ing it the same time we do buckwheat (for 
particulars see Buckw^h at) ; or it may be 
sown with all sorts of garden crops, espe- 
cially those that are to come off soon, all 
through the months of July and August i 
With very favorable fall 
weather it may succeed, 
or partially succeed, 
through the month of 
September. Some of 
our best crops have 
been secured by broad- 
casting it among early 
corn, just before it is 
cultivated the last time. 
If you want to raise 
some nice turnips, with- 
out any additional 
expense, mix thoroughly 
an ounce of turnip seed 
with -5 pounds of crim- 
son clover before the 
clover is sown. In sow- 
ing it among corn, as 
mentioned above, we 
use a broad-cast seed- 
sower, the operator sit- 
ting on the back of a 
horse so as to get him 
above the tops of the 
corn. 

SOWING CRIMSON CLO- 
VER IN THE SPRING. 

As the clover is a 
hardy cold - weather 
plant, sowing it in the 
spring is not, so far as 
we can learn, a success. 
The trouble is, when 
put in in the spring, 
even if put in quite 
early, the blooming 
time is quite apt to 

come just when the weather is hot and i July and even August, it sometimes makes 
dry ; and a drouth is almost sure to cause an excellent crop. AVhen sown as above, 




CRIMSON CLOVER. 



CLOVER. 



96 



CLOVER. 



it naturally makes a large amount of feed, 
equal to any of the clovers; and some of our 
experiment stations have estimated that a 
good stand plowed under while in blcom is 
equivalent to ten tons per acre of the best 
stable maniire. 

As it comes in bloom a little before any of 
the other clovers (when wintered over), it 
may be plowed under for almost any crop. 
On our grounds we sow regularly four or 
live iicres each year, and have had no fail- 
ure. It is no more than fair to state, how- 
evei-, that in our locality, the northern part 
of Cjhio, there have been many failures. In 
fact, one of our standard writers on agri- 
culture says thousands of dollars have been 
wasted by farmers trying to grow crimson 
clover. The reason of our success is, we 
think, first, our ground is all thoroughly 
uuderdrained ; second, it has had large 
amounts of stable manure, and is compar- 
atively rich. The best stand we ever had, 
we think, was in the spring of 1899. We had 
several acres of wheat last year that lodged 
badly. The consequence was, enough wheat 
rattled out and was left on the ground to 
make pretty thorough seeding. This wheat 
grew up the fall so rank as to fall down be- 
fore winter. Well, the crimson clover was 
sown right on the wheat stubble in August; 
and w^hen the wheat fell over, the clover 
pushed up through and was thus well 
mulched through the winter. The conse- 
quence is, we have at the present writing, 
April 25, a tremendous growth of clover and 
wheat together. This we propose to turn 
under as soon as the clover is in full bloom- 
say the middle or latter part of May. We 
have grown excellent crops of potatoes on 
crimson clover turned under in this way, for 
several years past; and, in fact, we have se- 
cured a splendid stand of crimson clover by 
sowing it after potatoes were dug that were 
planted comparatively early. One year we 
sowed crimson clover as fast as the potatoes 
were got out of the ground; that is, as fast 
as we dug fifteen or twenty rows we worked 
up the ground with a cutaway and Acme 
harrow, and sowed the clover. The first put 
in (in August) wintered splendidly. That 
put in along the lore part of September did 
fairly ; but where we did not get the seed in 
until the hist of September or fore part of 
October, it was mostly a failure. Peihaps 
one other reason why we succeeded is that 
our seed of late years has been of our own 
growing. It is an easy matter to grow seed; 
and where it is worth only $2.60 a bushel, 
the present price, we think the seed can be 



grown profitably in our locality— that is, on 
good ground with the conditions mentioned. 

QUALITY OF CRIMSON-CLOVER HONEY. 

The quality of the honey from crimson 
clover ranks fairly with that of any of the 
clovers. Some have called it superior. There 
has not been enough of it in our locality to 
make a perceptible difference in the honey- 
yield; but when in bloom there are as many 
bees on the same area as we ever saw, even 
in a buckwheat-field. As we plow it under 
while in full bloom, the bees are gradually 
crowded down to the last heads standing; 
and after the last head goes under, for some 
time there will be quite a lot of bees swarm- 
ing over the ground, apparently wondering 
what has become of their abundant pastur- 
age in so short a space of time. We have as 
yet had no reports, to our knowledge, from 
hundreds of acres or more in blossom at the 
same time, as is often the case with alfalfa, 
white clover, and sometimes red clover. A 
fair-sized apiary needs many acres of any 
plant to give a good yield of honey. 

Another great advantage it has over al- 
most every thing else lor poultry is that it is 
green and luxuriant through the winter 
when almost every other plant is killed by 
the frost. If you want to give your poultry 
green feed, with but little trouble, get in 
crimson clover as soon as a crop is harvested. 

SAINFOIN CLOVEB {Onobrychis sativa). 

This excellent farm crop, has been grown 
for ages in Europe, and at the present day 
is raised very extensively, more particularly 
in England, France, and Belgium, where it 
is a standby. The name " sanfoin" literally 
means healthy hay, presumably because it 
does not bloat animals to which it is fed. It 
certainly makes fine hay— possibly the very 
best known. It also produces choice honey 
in liberal quantity— the honey almost identi- 
cal with white-clover honey. Grown and cul- 
tivated very much as alfalfa is with us it has 
this difference — it is not suited to a semi- 
arid country. It has been grown quite suc- 
cessfully at the Ottawa, Ontario, experi- 
ment station, and throughout all Ontario. 
Sainfoin does not yield as much hay as al- 
falfa, being finer in the vine, and not so tall. 
It commences to bloom shortly after fruit- 
blossoms fall, and stays in bloom long 
enough to allow bees ample time to gather a 
crop. The blossoms do not come all together, 
but in succession, hence it is not practical 
to cut it j_ust before blooming time, as is 
now done with alfalfa. It would seem 
to be a grand crop for those who raise^ ^ 

<1 



CLOVER. 



97 



COMB FOUNDATION. 



6l 



fruit-blossoms fall, and stays in bloom long 
enough to allow the bees ample time to gath- 
er a crop. The blossoms do not come all 
together, bat in a succession, hence it would 
not be practical to cut it just before bloom- 
ing, as is now done with alfalfa. It would 
seem to be a grand crop for those who raise 
fine horses and cattle, also ])oultrymen who 
feed cut clover. It is not likely it will ever 
yield so large a crop as alfalfa, but in every 
otiier respect it is proljably superior. 

PIN GLOVER, OR ALFIhlRliA. 

Pin clover, or alfilarila (Erodium cicutari- 
um), is one of the leading honey and pollen 
yielders of California and Arizona. It is re- 
garded as an excellent forage-plant by stock- 
men, quite equal in feeding value to alfalfa, 
and probably more palatable, because much 
less woody in character An analysis by the 
chemist of the Arizona Experiment Station 
shows it is quite equal to any clover for 
feeding purposes. It is being rapidly spread 
by the cattle in the extreme Southwest, for 
it is easily disseminated, and requires no 
particular cultivation. In this respect it 
resembles sweet clover ; but animals do not 
have to be educated to eating it ; on the con- 
trary, they are fond of it from the start. 
As a honey and pollen plant it ranks very 
high, both as regards quantity and quality. 

For the consideration of alfalfa, also a 
clover, see Alfalfa. 



COLOR OF HONEY. 

OK OF. 



See Honey, Col- 



One consists primarily of two fiat plates, or 
dies,* operated by a press. The other is 
made up of a pair of rolls having embossed 



CO]M[B FOUNDATION. This is 
just what the term signifies— a base, midrib, 
or foundation, of the honey-comb. If we 
take a piece of comb and slice it down on 
both sides, nearly to the bottom of the cells, 
we get what is practically comb foundation. 

Tiie article originally consisted of noth- 
ing Init the midrib, without any walls ; but 
very soon after, there were added walls to 
stiffen and strengthen the sheet and to serve 
as tlie beginning of the cells. 

Since the introduction of foundation, 
within the past few years, many difficult 
points have been solved completely ; such as 
how to insure straight combs, how to insure 
all worker-comb or all drone-comb, as the 
case may be, and how to furnish the bees 
with the wax they need without being 
compelled to secrete it by the consumption 
of honey. 

MACHINES FOR MAKING FOUNDATION. 

There are two different and distinct 
classes of machines for doing this work. 
4 




TEN-INCH FOUxN'DATION-:MILL. 

surfaces, and so adjusted, one above the 
other, that the die faces will mesh together. 
Through these the thin sheets of wax are 
run like clothes through a wringer. The 
first foundation-machines put out were 
presses with flat dies ; but it was soon dis- 
covered that, in order to turn out founda- 
tion in a wholesale way, it would have to be 




GIVEN FOUNDATION-PRESS. 

done by means of rolls, for then the wax 
could be rolled out in continuous or long 
sheets, and the cost of production material- 



*There is a machine sold in Germany that uses flat 
dies without a press. The dies are hinged tog-ethoi 
and open like a book. Hot melted wax is poured on 
the lower die, when the other die isbroug-ht down on 
to it like the closing- of a l)ook, lief ore the wax cools. 
The resultant product is very crude compared with 
that made off from rollers or a g-ood press. 



COMB FOUNDATION. 



!)8 



COMB FOUNDATION. 



ly reduced. While it is ])robal)le tliat the 
Hat dies will make a more perfect foiinda- 
tiiin, the cost of making by means of them 
is so enormously increased that nearly all 
the foundation produced in the world is 
made on rolls. The best press that has been 
so fai- made is the Given ; but it is not now 
offered for sale, and rolls are used almost 
exclusively. 

The making of foundation is almost a 
trade by itself. As full directions are pre- 
pared by the makers of foimdation-machines 
1 will not go into details here. 

FOUNDATION AND ITS ECONOMIC USES. 

Condt foundation maybe divided into two 
general classes: That designed for thebrood- 
cliamber and that for the surplus-apartment. 
P^ach of these general classes is subdivided 
still further. For instance, Ave have what 
we call " thin super," running 10 to 11 square 
feet to the pound; "extra thin," 12 to 13; 
'' light brood," used only in the brood-nest. 



HK-VVY AND MKDIUM BROOD 



LIGHT BROOD 




THIN SUPER 



EXTRA THIN SUPER 



running 8 to 9 feet; " medium brood," 7 to 8 
feet. Thin super is generally used for sec- 
tions, and medium brood for the brood- 
Iranies. 

The four illustrations shown above 
represent the different grades. The medi- 
um has what is called the round cell. This 
foundation is generally used for the brood- 
nest, because of its tendency to resist sag 
while the bees are drawing it out into comb; 
stronger, because there is more wax in the 
corners of tlie hexagons. It has been found 
that bees will utilize all this wax in the walls, 
and draw it out into cells. The more wax 
we can give them in the wall, the quirker 
will they draw it out into comb. The light 
brood, running 8 to 9 feet to the pound, has 
what is called the regular hexagonal cell- 
wall. As will be seen by comparison of il- 



lustrations, there is less of wax in the wall, 
and less strength to the sheet. On this ac- 
count it is not recommended that light brood 
foundation be put into brood-frames that 
are not wired. The thin super has lighter 
wall still than the light brood; and the extra- 
thin super lighter walls still. 

The ordinary thin super is generally jire- 
ferred because the bees are less inclined to 
gnaw it down; and when they do begin work 
on it they draw it out more readily. The 
extra-thin is i)ref erred by some because it is 
believed it makes less midrib, or what one 
or. two have termed " gob, " in comb honey. 
When too lieavy a foundation is used in the 
sections, especially when full sheets are 
used, the resulting comb honey, when eaten, 
is quite apt to show a midrib, or thickened 
center, and some go so far as to call it man- 
ufactured comb because they can not believe 
that it is as thin and friable as the comb 
honey they ate "on the old farm at fatlier's." 
There is some truth in this, and for that rea- 
son only thin super or extra-thin should be 
used; and when one desires as little midrib 
as possible, and does not care how readily 
tlie bees may accept and work out the foun- 
dation, tiie extra-thin super is the one he 
should use. 

Because of the tendency of foundation to 
cause midrib in comb honey, some have im- 
agined that using a mere starter would re- 
move the objectionable feature ; because 
they argue that nearly all the comb would 
have to be natural, and it would, therefore, 
be delicate and friable like the old comb 
honey on the farm. But it has been shown 
in the majority of cases that the natural- 
built will be store or drone, tiie cells being 
larger so the bees can build them more read- 
ily. Some recent tests seem to show that 
natural - built drone comb has as much or 
more wax to the cubic inch than worker 
comb built from full sheets of thin worker 
foundation. If the bees, on the other hand, 
would make their natural comb all worker, 
then we should have a comb, the delicacy 
and friableness of which would be all that 
one could desire. 

FLAT-BOTTOM FOUNDATION. 

Flat-l)ottom foundation has been made, 
which some think is the best surplus foun- 
dation. It is nothing but a sheet of wax, 
embossed with hexagonal cells inclosing a 
flat base. While it makes very nice comb 
honey, yet the testimony of many of those 
who have tried it is to the effect that it is 
not readily accepted by the bees, and conse- 
quently valuable time is lost. We do know 



COMB FOUNDATION. 



99 



COMB FOUNDATION. 



this much, that they remodel and rebuild 
the cells before drawing them out. 

FASTENING FOUNDATION IN BROOD- 
FRAMES. 

Some bee-keepers secure the foundation to 
the top-bar without using any stays or wires 
to hold the sheet in place: but the great ma- 
jority seem to prefer to have all their frames 
wired— that is to say, strands of No. 30 wire 
stretched vertically or horizontally across 
the frame; these are then imbedded into a 
sheet of foundation which fills the frame. 
The resulting combs, therefore, are firmly 




METHOD OF DRAWING UP THE WaRE PRE- 
PARATORY TO FASTENING. 

anchored in place to stand the rough usage 
of the extractor, for shipment of colonies on 
them by express or freight, or hauling over 
rough roads to out-yards. 

Most bee-keepers say that the expense of 
the wiring is so very slight in comparison 
with the great benefits secured that they 



FC 



1 



BROOD-FKAME IIOKIZONTALLY WIKED. 

could not think of dispensing with it; and, 
what is of considerable importance, during 
tlie process of drawing out the foundation 
the wires tend to reduce materi illy the 
stretching of the wax; and such stretchings 
unless restrained by stays of some sort, 
results in elongated cells in which the queen 
will lay drone eggs. This one item alone, 
many aver, pays for the expense of wiring. 
The usual method is to pierce the end-bars 
about two inches apart, tiireading the wires 
through these holes back and forth as shown 
in the accompanying illustrations. The 
sheet of wax is then laid on wires, and im- 
bedded with a spur tracing- Avheel as shown 
in the opposite column. 



While this is the usnal method, some pre- 
fer perpendkular wiring, arguing that the 
horizontal strands are liable to sag to some 
extent, allowing a slight stretching of the 
wax. If the top-bars aie thin the wires are 
threaded through the top and bottom bars, 
when the process of fastening the founda- 
tion is tlie same as before illustrated. 

It is true that the vertical waring permits 
of a thinner and therefore a cheaper grade 
of foundation; for when the horizontal 
strands are used, nothing lighter than those 
known as light brood should be used, run- 
ning from 9 to 10 sheets, Langstroth size, to 
the pound. 

But the difficulty in wiring perpendicular- 
ly is the thickness of the top-bars, which, 
according to modern practice, are from 
t to I thick. The only practical way to 
wire such frames is to use staples driven on 
a medial line on the under side of the top- 
bar ; but as these interfere with the double- 
wedge-and-groove plan, to secure the foun- 
dation to the top-bax (described further on), 
the plan lias not come to be very popular. 

IMBEDDINCJ THE WIRE. 

Various methods of imbedding the wire 
have been used; but one of the simplest is 
the tracing- wheel to wiiich allusion lias 
already been made. 




THE EASTERDAY. 

A much better tool, because it has a much 
larger arc of contact, is the Easterday. 

IMBEDDING WITH HOT AVAX. 

Mr. E. F. Atwater, of Meridian, Idaho, al- 
ways waxes over the wire when it is imbed- 
ded with a tracing wheel. Since too much 
wax would be deposited along the wire if he 
used a spoon or regular wax-tube, and since 
a brush will not hold enough w^ax at a time 
to do fast w^ork, he combines a brush and 



COMB FOUNDATION. 



lUU 



COMB FOUNDi^TION. 



liDiiie-macle spoon as shown in tlie i'ollow- 
iii}j: illustration. 

IMBEDDING AVIRK HY ELECTIUCITY. 

The following plan will give altogetlier 
the best results providing one is ingenious 
enough to handle an electric current, either 
from batteries or from electriclijiht wiing. 




1 f a wire is too small to carry a given cur- 
rent of electricity, it will heat; and if the 
current is too great, the wire will melt. Tak- 
ing advantage of this principle we can, with 
a proper amount of current, 
cause the wires to heat to a 
temperature of, say, 130 degrees 
Fahr., at which point tiiey will, 
when i)roperly applied, sink into 
11 le foundation; then when the 
current is cut off, of course the 
wire cools immediately, and lies 
iniliedded in the center of the 
sheet of wax. With the ordi- 
nary batteries it is not practic- 
able to heat all four of the wires 
at a time. Accordingly, the 
average person will have to heat 
one wire at a time, and this is 
done as shown in the accompanying illus- 
tration. Fig. 4 is a wooden handle, at each 
eiul of wliich are mounted two stiff wives. G 



the extreme ends of one strand of wire, while 
the free hand presses the sheet on top of the 
wire initil it melts its way half way through. 
The (current is now broken by lifting up the 
handle II. The other four wires are in turn 
treated in the same way. 

Where one has access to an electric-light 
current, by i>\itting in sufficient resistance he 
can heat all four wires at a time, tlius ac- 
complishing tlie imbedding at one and the 
same operation. 

THE WOODEN-SPLINT PLAN. 

The scheme of a vertical support has been 
l)artially solved by the use of wooden 
splints, or strands of w^ood. Dr. Miller has 
used these very extensively according to the 
following directions which we take from his 
book, " Forty Years Among the Bees ": 

The splints should be about 1-16 iuch square and 
about 1-4, inch shorter than the inside depth of the 
frame. A bunch of them should be tlirown into a 
square shallow tin pan that contains hot beeswax. 
They will froth up because of the moisture frying- 
out of them. When the frothing ceases, and the 
splints are saturated with wax, they are ready for 



■^smemmmmuti 





ELECTRIC IMBEDDEK IN OI'EKATION. 

(i, tlattened at the ends. To each of tiiese is 
ati iched one pole of the V)attery. When the 
current is on, the points G (i are pressed on 



IN S031E CASES WOODEN SPLINTS ARE GNAAVED liY BEES 



use. The frame of foundation is laid on the lioard 
as before. With a pair of pliers a splint is lifted out 
of the wax (kept just hot enough over a g.isoline- 
stove), and placed upon the foundation so that the 
splint shall be perpendicuar when the frame is hung 
in the hive. As fasi as a splint is laid in plate, an 
assistant immediately pies^es it downintotlie foun" 
dation with the wetted edge of a 1 oard. About VA 
inches from each end-bar is placed a si)lint, and be- 
tween these two splints tbree others at equal dis- 
tances. When these are built out they make beau- 
tiful combs, and the splints do not seem to be at all 
in the wny. 

A little experience will enable one to judge, when 
putting in the splints, how hot to keep the wax. If 
too hot there will be too light a coating of wax. 

It must not be understood that the mcie use of 
these splints will under any and all rircuuisianci s 
result in faultless combs built se urely down to the 
bouoin bar. It soeius to I e the natural thing for 
bees to leave a free passage under the comb, no 
matter whether the thing that conies next below the 
combs be the tloor-b:iai'd of the hive or the butlora- 



COMB FOUXDATIOX, 



101 



COMB FOUXDATIOX. 



bar of the frames. So if a frame be given when lit- 
tle storingris going- on, the 'bees will deliberately dig 
away the foundation at the bottom; and even if it 
has been built down, but the cells not very fully 
drawn out, they will do more or less at gnawing a 
l^ass ige. To make a success the frames should be 
given at a time when work goes on uninterrupttdiy, 
until full-depth cells reach the bottom-bar. 

Under some conditions the bees will gnaw 
around the wooden stays, as shown by the 
illustration, p. 100. This occms more partic- 
ularly when bees have not much to do: and 
when they run across any thing which is 
fibrous they will at such times show a dispo- 
sitir.n to remove the object. 

The suggestion has been made that in no 
case should the splints be allowed to project 
beyond the edge of the foundation: or, bet- 
ter still, the sheet should reach clear to the 
bottom-bar. 

Other devices have been used, such as 
paper imbedded in the center of the foun- 
dation: but this is very objectionable be- 
cause the bees soon discover that this is a 
foreign substance, and proceed to tear out 
the paper bit by bit, utterly ruining the 
foundation. They do not altcays do this; 
but sooner or later they will; when they 
have nothing else to do tliey will begin to 
tear out the paper, imagining, peihaps, that 
the fiber is a part of the silken gallery of the 
moth- worm. 

FASTENING FOUNDATION TO THE TOP-BARS 
OF BROOD-FRAMES. 

After the wires have been imbedded in. 
say, 100 frames, the top edge of the foimda- 
tion is fastened to the top-bars, either with 
the Van Deusen wax- tube or double-groove 
wedge plan shown next. This makes use of 
a top-bar with two giooves and a wedge. 



top-bar. In this groove is inserted the sheet 
of foundation, as at D. The wedge-shaped 
strip of wo( :d B is then driven into the other 
groove, crowding the central partition firmly 
against the foundation. The foundation is 
thus held firmly in place without any special 
tools or the fussing with melted wax. 

There are many who prefer the melted- 
wax plan of fastt-ning fouudation. NVTiere 
the under side of the top-bar is plain with 
out grooves or molded edge, this is perhaps 
the best. In the case of sections using full 
sheets, cut to a neat fit. it is the only 
niethod.* The best tool for depositing a hot 
stream of wax along the edge of the founda- 
tion is undoubtedly the VanDeusen wax- 
tube fastener. It is simply a brass tube 
half an inch in diameter, six inches long. 
tJiperirg. and at the apex a small hole. On 
one side is bored another s iiall hole which 




VAX DEUSEX WAX-TUBE FASTEXER. 

may be opened or closed with the thumb. 
When the tube is stood up in a cup of hot 
wax the air will escape from the upper hole, 
and the wax flow in at the other small hole 
at the bottom. The thumb is closed over 
the upper one: the instrument is drawn out 
of the wax. and the point is then slowly 
drawn along the edge of the foundation in 
contact with the top-bar. leaving a fine 
stream of hot wax to cement it. 

Thus far we have described methods and 
devices for fastening sheets of wax in brood- 
frames. What follows relates to the fasten- 
ing of foundation in section honey-boxes. 

PAKKER 3IACHIXE FOR FASTEXIXG START- 
ERS IX SECTIOXS. 




WEDGE TOP-BAR 3IETHOD OF FASTEXIXG 
FOITXDATIOX. 

Most of the supply-factories furnish these 
kinds of top-bars now because bee-keepers 
generally prefer them. There is a double 
groove, one of which is in the center of the 



The idea is. to rub the edge of the wax 
into the wood of the section. The motion of 
the machine spreads the wax down, and 
mashes it into the wood, as it were. It is 
a very simple machine, and is used quite 

*See Comb Hosey. under the discussion relating 
to the use of full sheets of foundation in .sections. 



COMB FOrNDATION. 



102 



COMB HONEY. 



largely ; in fact, many thousands ol' them 
have been sold. It does very nice work '■> 
but where tlioiisands of starters are to be 
put in, it becomes a little tiresome on the 
hands, and besides is not as economical 
of foundation as the Daisy or Koot founda- 
tion-fastener. 

DAISY FOUNDATION-FASTEN EK. 

The priiicii)le of the 
machine is this: A met- 
al plate or tongue is 
kei)t heated by means 
of a lamp beneath. This 
plate, by a slight pres- 
sure of the hands while 
holding the foundation, 
is made to pass directly 
under and come in con- 
tact Avith the bottom 
edge of the starter. 
Instantly the edge of 
the foundation melts, 
the pressure of the 
hands being released 
allows the tongue or 
plate to withdraw, and the starter is allowed 
to drop on to the section, when it instantly 
cools and is held firm. This inethod of 





ROOT FOUNDATION-FASTENER AND 
SECTION-FOLDER. 

fastening foundation is used very largely. 
Another method that seems to meet with 
a great deal of favor is a modification of the 



principles just shown ; but in this case the 
heated plate is mounted on the end of a wire 
handle. The plate is heated over the lamp, 
then applied against the bottom edge of the 
foundation after it is folded and the starter 
is put in place. This makes the work more 
rapid, and, in the hands of the average 
person, it gives better results, for the com- 
plete outfit costs less than the others. 

For a further consideration of this subject 
see Comb Honey, sub-head Foundation 
FOR Sections. 

COH/LB KOXriSV. No other subject 
(unless, i)erhaps, it be that of wintering) has 
been so much discussed and so much im- 
proved upon as the one now before us. Our 
forefathers, with their old straw skeps and 
box hives, thought they had done well when 
they had secured the paltry amount of ten or 
twenty iwunds of box honey. With the mod- 




>:aH !'" S"TV 7 i» r 






^ 






•T" '■• ••-• *T ■ 



^€i^%<»9^::^x%^^ 



~ ^V» V *. 




^^-^^ 




erii appliances it is possible to secure, in a 
fair season, an average of forty or sixty 
pounds of section honey ; and occasional re- 
ports have shown that from 300 to 400 pounds 
have been obtained. 

By the masses, a good article of comb hon- 
ey is more highly prized than an equally good 
article of extracted honey (see Extracted 
Honey). While the latter can be, and in 
the hands of the expert i)ro(lucer is, equal in 
body, color, and flavor to the best comb hon- 
ey ; yet, as extracted ordinarily runs, comb 
honey is a little superior in the qualities we 
liave mentioned. 

Comb honey can not be counterfeited, and, 
consequently, consumers are less suspicious 
of it. For these and other reasons, nature's 
sweet, in its original form, is in greater de- 
mand, and hence commands a higher price. 
To offset this, it also costs more to produce 
it, and requires, likewise, more skill and 
more complicated surplus arrangements to 



COMB HONEY. 



103 



COMB HONEY. 



get a gilt-edged article. Years ago, all comb 
honej' was produced in glass Ijoxes. Tliese 
were about five inches square, fifteen or six- 
teen inches long, glassed on both ends. They 
were not altogether an attractive package, 
and were never put upon the market without 
being more or less soiled with buiT-combs 
and propolis. As they held from ten to fif 
teen pounds of honey each, they contained a 




larger quantity than most families cared to 
purchase at once. To obviate these and 
other difficulties, what is popularly known 
as the "• section honey-box "' was invented. 

It was what was wanted — a small package 
for comb honey. Thus was accomplished, 
not only the introduction of a smaller pack 
age for comb honey, but one attractive and 
readily marketable. The retailer was at onte 
able to supply his customer with a small 
quantity of comb honey without daubing, or 
fussing with plates. The good housewife, in 
turn, had only to lay the package upon a 
plate, pass a common table knife around the 
comlj, to separate the honey from the section 
proper, and the honey was ready for the table, 
without drip. 

WIDE FRAMES AXD HIVE-SUPERS. 

The next thing was something to hold the 
sections while on the hive and being filled. 
There was a score of different sorts of racks, 
frames, trays, boxes, clamps, all of which 
possessed some special featnn-s. It would 




DOUBLE-TIEK AVIDE FRAME. 

be impracticable to show all of these differ- 
ent devices ; but for the sake of illustrating 
some principles it may be well to mention 
some of those that are used most largely. 



What was known as the double-tier AAide 
frame was perhaps the first device for hold- 
ing sections in the hive. This consisted of 
a frame of the same depth and length as the 
ordinary brood-frame, but of the same width 
as the section, as sho'OTi in the illustration 
preceding. This was used very largely at 
one time ; but in the comse of time it was 
discovered that it had several objectionaljle 
features. First, a whole hiveful of them 
gave the bees too much capacity to start 
on ; and, as a consequence, this discouraged 
them from beginning work. Second, they 




DOOLITTLE'S SINGLE-TIEK WIDE FKAJIES. 

did not permit of tiering up to any degree 
of advantage. Third, it was not conven- 
ient to get them out of the hive, and more 
inconvenient still to get the sections out of 
the wide frames. For these reasons wide 
frames, or crates holding only oue tier of sec- 
tions, were adopted. 

The Doolittle surplus arrangement con- 
sists of a series of single-tier wide frames 
having no projections to the top-bars, al- 
though shallow wide frames have lieen made 
with such projections. 

Both the single-tier and double-tier shown 
had tin separators nailed on one side of each 
wide frame ; but in the arrangement shown 
below there is no provision for a separator. 

As the engraving shows, this is simply a 
shallow tray of the same depth as the section, 
plus a bee-si ace. and is divided off by trans- 
verse partiticns — ihese very j artiticns pre- 
venting, of course, the use of separators; but 
those who did use this style of crate, and use 
it still, claim they can get along witl.'out sep- 
arators; that they have no difficulty in crat- 
ing for market all their honey. But the 



COMB HONEY. 



104 



COMB HONEY. 



<?ie:it nmjority of bee-keepers decidedly ob- 
ject to a iHiu-septirator crate, because, while 
one am dispense with the separators, he 
lias to be very careful in handling the honey 
in i)uttinfr it into the crate for market, or 
else there will be bruised and damaged faces 
to the honey. And then it is true that comb 
lioney produced without separators is never 
as eve)i and nice as separator honey. Com- 
mission men, for this reason, do not like 




MOORE (or nJEDDOiS) CKATK. 

it, and on this account the T super aid 
other forms of separator-cases have the de- 
cided preference. If one should use a very 
narrow section, not wader than l|-inch bee- 
way or less, he could dispense with separat- 
ors. But such sections are as yet hardly on 
the market. It might be a little risky to 
produce any considerable crop in them at 
the present, and consumers might not take 
to them. 

T SUPER. 

This, at one time, was one of the most 
popular forms of section-crates that was 
ever devised, and a very large number pre- 
fer it to any thing else. Jt is so named 
for the T tins that support the sections. 
Tlie tins are folded in the form of a letter T 




inverted, such construction making a very 
stiff and rigid support. 

Some pi efor, like Dr. Miller, to have the T 
tins rest loosely on a little jiiece of strap 
iron, both for convenience in filling the su- 
pers, and in enii)tying the same after the 
sections are liikd. I'.ut there are others, like 
tieorge E. Hilton, of Fremont, Mich., who 



object to loose pieces, and prefer the super 
with stationary tins, the tins being nailed to 
the bottom inside edges of the sui)er. 

It will be noticed also that he prefers hav- 
ing compression — a feature which he accom- 
plishes by means of wooden thumliscrews 
and a follower. There is no denying the fact 
that in any form of surplus arrangement the 
sections and separators should be squeezed 
together to reduce propolis accumulations. 
If there are open cracks or spaces between 
the sections the bees are sure to till them 
with bee-glue. 




HILTON T SUPER. 

With either form of T super one can use 
wooden separators, tin separators, or the 
fences described further along. The projec- 
tion of the T is just high enough to support 
the separators at the proper point. 

But the T super, perfect as it is, has its ob- 
jections. If the sections are inclined to be 
a little out of square, or diamond-shaped, 
when folded, they wall not be squared up in 
the T super unless an extra set of T tins or 
strips of wood are used to fill up the gaps be- 
tween the rows on top. And, again, it is not 
practicable to alternate the several rows of 
sections. Sometimes, in a poor honey-flow, 
it is desirable to move the center nnv of sec- 
tions to the outside, and the outside to the 
center. And still again, four-beeway sec- 
tions, or iilain sections, are not as advan- 
tageously used in these supers as in some 
other form which I shall presently describe. 

THE .1. E. HAND FORM OF SUPER 

This is the one preferred by Mr. J. E. 
Hand, of Birmingham, Ohio, who uses jilain 
sections and section-holders. A portion of 
one side of the super is removable. This is 
secured in position by means of the Van 
Deusen hive-clamps, that also bring about 
compression on the sections. 

The oVijection to this form of super is that 
it is somewhat more expensive, is not as 
strong, and therefore not as durable. For 
further particulars concerning the J. E. 



COMB HONEY. 



105 



COMB HONEY. 



Hand system, see Hives and also Swarm- 
ing. 

dov'd super with section-holder. 

This is the form of super that has been, 
perhaps, used more largely than any other. 
It is a sort of compromise between the 



old-style wide frames and the T super. It 
consists of a series of section-holders that 




are open at the top. Each holder is support- 
ed at the end by a strip of tin nailed on the 
inner edge of the ends of the super, as shown 
in the accompanying illustration. 

Four sections in each section-holder are 
held snugly and squarely in position with no 
spaces between the rows of sections as in 
the case of the T super. When beeway sec- 
tions are used the bottom-bars of the sec- 
tions are scored out to correspond with the 
beeways. Between each row of sections is 
dropped a wooden separator, as shown at D. 
After they are all in place, a follower-board, 
F, is shoved up against them, and the tight- 
en ing-strip G, that is thicker one way than 
the other, is slipped in the narrow way be- 
tween the follower and the super side, and 
given a quarter twist. This crowds the fol- 
lower against the sections, causing compres- 
sion. 

This case is very popular with farmers. 
Four of them containing 24 sections with- 
out separators are placed on the hive. 
Wlien they are filled they are taken off with- 
out removing the sections from the case, 
and are put on the market just as they left 
the hive. This is a sort of shiftless way, be- 



cause some sections will not be entirely fill- 
ed ; but it suits the farmer who has no time 
to do the sorting, scraping, and getting ready 
for market ; and in some local markets this 
case does very well. 





THE FENCE AND PLAIN- SECTION 
SYSTEM. 

The sections and section - supers sho-noi 
tieretofore have all been of the beeway type. 
Brood-frames, when in hives, must be placed 




a bee-space apart ; so also must the sections. 
Almost the first honey-boxes that were intro- 
duced had the bee-space cut out of the top 
and bottom of the sections themselves, so 
tliat they could be placed directly in contact 
with eacli other or the separator. This kind 
of section continued almost up to the pres- 
ent, but in 1897 there was introduced a sec- 
tion without beeways, having plain straight 
edges all around. This had been used some 
ten or twelve years previously by various 
bee-keepers who found them to be in every 
way satisfactory. But plain sections (even 
width all aroimd, without beeways) necessi- 
tate some scheme for holding them a bee- 




space apart while on the hive. Accordingly, 
a separator or fence was devised, having 
transverse cleats at regular intervals on 
both sides, binding the series of slats to- 
gether — cleats so spaced as to come opposite 
the uprights in the sections. This will be 
shown more clearly in the annexed figure. It 



COMB HONEY. 



106 



COMB HONEY. 



will be seen at once that the new system 
provides I'or a narrower section, and yet this 
same section holds as mncli honey as one I 
inch wider, because the extra width is taken 
up by the thickness of the cleats on the 
fences, as shown at A A A in previous cut 
or what would be in the old section two bee- 
ways of i^g inch each. In the cuts shown be- 
low there are specimens of beeway sections 
and no-beeway, the last being generally 
termed plain sections. It will be seen that 
they save quite a little wood, and conse- 
quently take somewhat less room in ship- 
ping-cases. In other words, the twelve 
and twenty-four pound shipping-cases can 
be made somewhat smaller, because it is 
not necessary to have each comb bee-spaced 
apart in the marketing - cases, the same 
as while on the hive. Moreover, the plain 
straight edges of the new sections offer 
special advantages in the matter of scra]> 
ing. Tliere are no insets, often r>)uglily cut 
(as in beeway sections), to work into and 
arouiul with a scraping - knife. A single 
sweep of the knife on each of the four edges 
will remove the propolis, or, better still, if 
the bliide of the knife is long enough, one 
can scrape two edges at a time. Weight 
for weight, and of the same filling, a comb 
in a plain section looks prettier than one 
having beeways. The illustration on next 
page shows beeway sections in one ship- 
ping-case, and plain sections in the other. 
Compare also other cuts a few pages further 
on with these. 

But there is one more noiut to be taken in- 
to consideration. The fences are made up 
of a series of slats having a scant bee-space 
between each slat •, and as the cross-cleats. 




ONE-PIECE V-GROOV'E SECTIONS. 

or posts, are i inch shorter than the length 
of the section, the beeway is very much 
wider. Instead of being a narrow opening 
through the top as in the old section, the 
opening is clear across the top, and part way 
down and up each of the sides. This gives 
the bees much freer communication, and, in 
consequence, has a tendency to reduce the 
size of the corner holes in each section. 
Then there is that factor, namely, horizontal 
oi)enings between each of the slats. This 
allows free commmiication from one section 



to another, not only crossivise but lengthwise 
of the sui)er. Both theory and practice show 
that this results, luider normal conditions, 
in a better tilling of the boxes. A good 
many have already testified that they se- 
cure much better and more perfect filling of 
combs in plain sections than in the old style 
with solid separators: that the bees enter 
them sooner, and that in some markets bet- 
ter prices are secured. If the colony is not 
sti'oiig, the old-style super may be the better 
tilled. 



HYDE-SCHOLL SEPARATOR. 

Another style of fence is shown in the ac- 
companying engraving. It was introduced 
by Messrs. Hyde and Scholl, of Texas, some 
years ago. The special feature of it is that 
it provides transverse openings directly o[ - 
posite the upright edges of the sections, thus 
affording communication across the faces of 
the several sections as well as across from 
row to row in the regular fences. It is 
claimed that better and more even filling of 
the sections is secured, because this fence 
makes the conditions more like those of a 
regular brood-comb, where there are no ob- 
structions of any kind. The several slats 
are held together by strips of stamped sheet 
metal, having raised projections or bosses 
above and below the transverse openings to 
keep the sections a bee-space away from the 
slats or fence proper. There are many nice 
features about this fence if the expense of 
making can be overcome. 

Under the same conditions the plain sec- 
tions will be filled no better than the bee- 
way. If there is any difference in the filling 
it is because the one offers special advan- 
tages in the way of freer communication ; 
for in the ordinary old-style, with solid sei)a- 
rators, each section, so to speak, is shut off in 
a little box by itself, and it has been proven 
that bees are disinclined to work in little 
compartments almost completely shut off 
from tlie rest. Open-corner sections, divided 
off by means of slatted separators, witliout 
cleats, ought to be and would be filled just 
as well as plain sections divided off by 
fences ; for the conditions will be precisely 
the same, because the beeways, made part 
and parcel of these sections, exactly corre- 
spond to the beeways (cleats) on the fences. 



COMB HONEY. 

But one would lose many of the advantages 
of plain sections if he were to adopt the 
open-corner boxes. They would not look, 
with even filling, as pretty as plain sections. 

SUPERS FOR PLAIX SECTIONS. 

In the main, these differ very little Ironi 
the section-holder super already shown and 
described for the old-style sections. The 
section - holders themselves are the same 
width as the sections. Between each row of 



107 



COMB HONEY. 



speak, help to conserve the heat so they can 
draw out the comb and complete the sections 
on the outside as well as in the center. Both 
theory and practice sustain the proposition. 
In the modern supers, and especially in 
those designed for plain sections, there are 
used, instead of wedges and thiuubscrews, 
steel springs that bear against the center of 
the fence as well as against the two ends, as 
shown at B in the figure given on next page. 
The wedges, tightening -strips, or thumb- 




SHlJfPlNG-CASES WITH BEEWAY AXD PLAIN SECTIONS. 

sections in a section-holder is placed a fence, ' screws, scmetinies, owing to excessive damp- 



the end-] osts of the fence rtsliug upcn the 
strip of tin nailed on the bottom inside ( dge 
of the end. There is a fence on tlie outside 
of each outsidf row of sections, because il 
was demonstrated by S. T. Pettit that a per- 
forated divider, or what is exactly the same 
thing in principle, the fence, when placed 
between the outside rows and the super sides 
will result in having those outside rows of 
sections filled, in many instances, as well as 



ness, cause trouble by every thing becoming 
swelled fast ;, but the springs at all times 





those in the center. The reason of this is, 
that it places a wall of bees on each side of 
the fence, between the comb honey and the 
super side ; and these walls of bees, so to 



present a yielding pressure ; and, what is of 
considerable importance, they are not affect- 
ed by propolis ; at the same time they effect- 
ually close up all little air-gaps or interstices 
between the sections and fences. 

FOUNDATION FOR SECTIONS; STARTERS V. 
FULL SHEETS. 

In the illustrations on preceding pages, 
showing the supers, only narrow sheets 
of foundation (or starters) are shown in 



COMB HONEY. 



108 



COMB HONEY. 



the sections. The expert comb - honey 
producer will never be content with a 
starter. He will buy his foundation of such 
size that he can cut it to suit his own indi- 
vidual notions. Some of our comb-lioney 
producers cut it in nearly full sheets one- 
fourth of an inch narrower and half an incli 
shorter than the inside of the section. It 
is then fastened to the top as shown under 
the head of Comb Foundation, with any 
one of the several styles of foundation- 
t'lsteners there sliown. Others cut the 
slieets in the shape of a letter V\ still 
others use half a sheet. 

But the great majority of producers pre- 
fer to use two pieces— a large one secured to 
the top and a strip i or f inch wide fastened 
to the bottom. The larger sheet is so cut as 
to reach within i inch of the bottom starter 
when in place to allow for stretching. 

During the subsequent process of draw- 
ing out. the bees will make one complete 
comb, the same being fastened to the top 
and bottom. Where only one large sheet or 
even a starter is put into a section, the fast- 
ening will be at the top and part way down 
on each side, but when the bottom starter 
is used in connection with a large sheet of 
foundation, there surely will be a fastening 
at the bottom as well as at the other edges. 
The result is a comb fastened to all four 
sides, one that is neater in its general fill- 
ing, and, in consequence, will command a 
liigher price; and last, but not least, a sec- 
tion that will stand shipping. A nice super 
of sections with combs not fastened at the 
bottom is liable to arrive at destination in 



wax- tube here shown the sheet is then 
secured to all four sides by the stream of 
liot wax. See Comb Foundation. 




VAN lJi:USEN WAX-TUbh; 

It has been found that very fine comb 
lioney can be secured by this plan, the le- 
sulting sections having but few popholes. 
However, there are two disadvantages. For 




instance, some IJnd it difficult to cut the 
foundation just the right size and still do the 
work rapidly. It can be seen at once that 
there must be but little variation in the size 
of the sheets. The best arrangement for 




THE DIFFEKKNT MErilODS OF CUTTING FOUNDAilON FOK THE SECTION.S 



bad condition— many of the combs broken 
out; and it is, therefore, always advisable to 
use a bottom starter. 

A few bee-keepers advise cutting the 
foundation so it will just neatly fill the sec- 
tion on all four sides. A section is then 
slipped over a block a little less than half 
its thickness so that wlien one of these just 
right-size sheets of foundation is laid on the 
block, the fomidation will be perfectly cen- 
tered in the section. With the VanDeusen 



cutting the foundation that we know of is 
the miter-box shown above. This device 
can be quickly made by almost any one, the 
construction being plain from the illustra- 
tions. The bt)X should be placed on a table 
with the saw-cuts down as in Fig. 1, and 
from five to twenty sheets of foundation laid 
in, care being taken to see that the ends are 
even. Then the cleated board should be i)ut 
on top of the sheets of foundation, and the 
box turned over so that it rests on the cleats. 



COxMlJ IIUNEY. 



109 



COMU HONEY. 



;is sliown in Fig. 12. For cutting, a keen 
butcher knife slmiild be used wliicli need not 
be hot, if l\ei)t well lubricated with soapj^ 
water. The knife should be held at an angle 
as shown, and moved rapidly but slightly 
back and forth, cutting only on the drawing 
stroke. If the saw-cuts are carefully spaced 
and the whole box put together in a square, 
workmanlike manner, the sheets of founda- 
tion can be quickly and accurately cut. 

Another disadvantage to the plan of fast- 
ening full sheets of foundation on all four 
sides is the tendency of such foundation to 
buckle, due to variation in temperatnre,etc. 
Mr. G. J. Yoder, of Meridan, Idaho, over- 
comes this buckling by fastening -the full 
sheet of foundation only at the top and two- 
thirds of the way down each side. This 
plan has been tried quite extensively and 
found very successful. Mr. Yoder describ- 
ed his method fully in the April 1st issue of 
Gleanings in Bee Cnllure for the yeai' 1908, 
and we herewith reproduce his directions as 
well as illustrations, which make it clear. 

Cut alight board about three inches longer than 
the width of four sections, and just the width of the 
inside of the section. Now cut four square blocljs 
of such a size that folded sections can slip over them 
and a fraction Ich^s in thickness than half the width 



of tlie section. Nail the tirst block VA inches from 
the end of tlie board, and place a section over it. Put 
block No. 3 with section over it, next to No. 1, and 
so on till all are naiU d on. Make at ka^t Ave or six 
of thes^e forms with blocks on. Next make a troujah 
the M idtli of the board of the form without the sec- 
tion, and '.' inches deep, so the form will slip in easi- 
ly to the depth of tlie blccks. I next melt some wax 
for fastening- the foundation, using about one-tenth 
part of clean rosin, and have r, ady a wax-tube or 
teaspoon with the end bent in on both sides. 

If possible, get the foundation cut by the manu- 
facturer, so that all sheets will make a given number 
of uniform starters with as little waste as possible. 
The last three seasons I have been unable to buy 
starters cut just right, and so have had a loss of one- 
seventh of the foundation for the crop of 20,000 sec- 
tions. 

Put the sections on a form and spring the section- 
holder over them. This makes them S(iuare anil 
tight. Place tLe foundation in ckar to the topo: 
the section. I prefer a )i space between the lower 
end of the foundation and the bottom of the section, 
as this is just about the amount needed to take up 
any possible sagging, and to preveirt the buck ing 
of the foundation. Now grasp the form in srn h a 
waj'that the t( p pait of the section is lowest, aiid 
iU'Ply the melted wax on the section at th edge of 
the foundation, turning the form so as to run the 
wax all around as far as wanted. If all four sides 
are waxed, the weather warm, and the honey com- 
ing in fast, there may be a bulge at the lowt r pait ( f 
the section; so of late we prefer to cut the starter 
full size, 'a inch short at the bottom, aird to wax the 




TIIK YUUKK PLAN OF FASTENING FULL, SHKETS AT THE TOP AND TWO-'JIIIRDS THE 

WAY D()WN THE SIDES. 



COMB HONEY. 



IIU 



COMB HOXEY. 



top and only two-thirds down (';;c!i tide. L.iy tin-- 
filled form down to cool, and take tlie next, givinfi 
the wax of the first four sections a few niinUes' time 
to harden. Tlien place the form over the troug-h: 
press the tray down out of the sections suid you will 
have the wide frame of set tions, and with the foun- 
dation ready for the super without darjicr of bui k- 
liiig. One of our men filled 3000 sections in a day. 

HOW TO FBODUCE COMB HONEY 
A strong force of bees, of the right working 
age, should be in readiness jn.'^t before the 
exi)ected supply of nectar. It is i)enny wise 
and pound foolish to let the bees run short 
of stores in spring, just at the time of the 
year when brood-rearing should be stimulat- 
ed to its utmost. If necessary, stimulative 
feed'ng should be practiced. If the weather 
is not cool, brood may be spread to advan- 
tage. This is done by inserting an empty 
frame of comb between one or more pairs of 
frames filled.* But this should not be done 
if tiiere is a scant supply of bees, or if the 
weather is cool. If the bees need more room, 
as some of them undoubtedly will, then put 
on another story. If the colony is strong 
enough let them keep it, even after putting 
on a super of sections. If it is not strong 
enough take away the upper story, crowd 
all the frames of brood into the lower brood- 




bUPKU SPRINGS— nOAV TO USK. 

chamber, and then put on the comb-honey 
supers. If we can get a colony . strong 
enough the bees will boil up into the super 
wlieii it is put on. 

Sometimes all the plans are brought to 
naught from inability to control swarming 
just as the bee.sare beginning or have begun 
to work on the sections. This inopportune 
swarming can generally be held in check by 
entrances on all four sides of the hive (see 
Entrances) or by the "shake-out" or 
"brushing" plan spoken of under Swarm- 
ing, to which the reader is referred. He 
should read very carefully the means for 
preventing or controlling swarming before 

* See Spreading Brood. 



he goes any fnrther with this subject, or 
lie may lose a large part of his crop. 

WIIKN TO PUT ON SUPERS. 

If the colony is in one story and the bees 
IjL'gin to come in from the field, and combs 
are whitened near the tops, frames fairly 
well filled with brood and with honey, we 
put on supers. If we have supers contain- 
ing half-depth extracting-combs, we prefer 
to put these on first, even if we desire to pro- 
duce comb honey, for the bees will enter 
them much more readily, and begin storing 
above. Then when they are once loell started 
we raise the extracting super up and place 
under it a comb-honey super containing sec- 
tions filled with full sheets of foundation. 
(See Co:mb Foundation.) 

The usual practice is to put the comb- I 
honey super on at the start; but in our expe- ' 
rience, Italians especially are loath to enter 
the boxes. If they once get into the habit of 
going above, they will keep it up, even if the 
super is changed. The extracting-super can 
remain on top of the same hive on which it 
was put in the first place, but we would put it 
on some other colony to give it the " upstair 
fever," after which it should be replaced by 
a comb -honey super. After a little there 
will be some filled extracting-supers as well 
as those of comb. By proceeding on this 
plan we have found that we can produce just 
about as much comb honey as we should if 
we put the comb-honey supers on in the first 
place, with the additional advantage that 
the extracted honey obtained is just so 
much clear gain. 

Two of our correspondents sent to Glean- 
ings in Bee Culture their method of using 
extracting-combs to bait the bees above. 
One uses a whole super of shallow extract- 
ing-combs, and the other uses both sections 
and extracting-combs in the same super. 
We have thought best to give them both 
here. The first mentioned writes: 

I have been, for several years, very much interested 
in trying and comparing different methods of han- 
dling bees for comb honey. I have been in the busi- 
ness for eight years, and have had fair success. For 
the first five years I tried a different method each 
year. Three years ago I tried an experiment that suc- 
ceeded so well I have followed it up, and have in a 
measure overcome the two greatest difficulties that I 
had to contend with— loafing and swarming. We u.se 
the eight-frame Dovetailed hives with section-holders 
for -l^i X4;<( sections. Our bees would always begin to / 
loaf or hang out on the front of the hives when we put 
on the sections, and most of them would do but little 
in the sections until they had lost several days, and 
then would swarm, thus losing several days of the 
first alfalfa bloom. 

I had sixty colonies of Italians in my out-apiary, and 
in trying my experiment I tried to be fair. I took 30 



COMB HONEY. 



Ill 



COMB HONEY. 



supers of half-depth extracting-frames full of comb 
from the home apiary, and put them on 30 hives iu the 
out-aDiary at the same time that I put sections on the 
other 30 hives. In four or five days the extractiug- 
rombs were full of new honey, and the bees excited 
aud busy at their work, while most of those having 
sections were loafing, and some had swarmed. 

I raised the combs by putting a super of sections 
between them and the brood-nest. At the end of two 
weeks from putting on the combs those sections under 
the combs were better filled than those on the hives 
that had no combs. As soon as the combs were sealed 
I put them away to extract, having that amount of 
honey extra, and the bees started nicely in their work. 
I had only about a third as many swarms from those 
hives as from the ones with sections and no combs 

I liked the plan so well that la.st year I had enovigh 
of those little combs built to furnish a super of them 
to every colony that was to be run for section honey. 

I tried the plan again this year, and from 75 colonies 
at the out-apiary I had 8000 fine white maiketable 
sections, about 500 lbs of unfinished and imperfect 
sections, 1-500 lbs. of extracted honey, and 60 lbs. of 
beeswax, and two barrels of vinegar. We got sh jrt of 
fixtures, and I had to cut out some of my little combs 
aud have the bees build them again to keep them at 
work. I forgot to mention that we sell a lot of those 
combs to families for home use, as we can sell them 
cheaper than sections. When we cut them out we 
do so after extracting, and then the washings make 
good vinegar, and the wax g )es into the .solar extract- 
or, and is of the best quality. We leave half an inch 
of comb at the top of the frame, to save putting in 
foundation. 1 do not believe we shall 
ever be able to overcome swarming 
entirely, but 1 believe my plan stops 
the loafing betier than any thing else I 
know of. We had 57 swarms this year, 
but no loafing in the out-apiary. We 
have lio'ight an extractor for that api- 
ary, and will continue to run on that 
plan to start them to work. After the 
first super of section s is well started 
there is no more trouble about loafing 
My neighbor's bees U afed and swarmed 
through all the best of the season, while 
mine were hard at work. 

Mrs. a. J. Barber. 

Mancos, Col., Nov. 17, 1898. 

Otlier coiiesiKindcnts to Olcaw 
iuys ill Bee Cult lo-i' have reported 
good results from following the 
same methods. It is particularly 
applicable where both comb and 
extracted are called for. 

Mr. E. D. Townsend, Remus, 
Michigan, the other correspond- 
ent, goes one step further than 
the Barber i)lan by producing comb and 
extracted honey in the same super. Instead 
of imtting on a case of extracting-combs, 
and afterward substituting therefor one 
containing sections, he has a special super 
which contains both extracting-combs and 
sections. 

The illustration shows an ordinary comb- 
honey super containing 4x5 sections. This 



is equipped precisely the same as any 
other sup»r for sections except that it hits 
extracting-combs with closed-end frames on 
each outside. Where a super of this kind 
is placed on a hive the bees immediately 
occupy the drawn comb at the sides of the 
super and begin their storing. The comb 
being nlready drawn out, it is a very invit- 
ing place in which tlie bees can begin stor- 
ing. Having made a nice start in the two 
side extracting-combs they work toward the 
center— that is to say, tliey begin to draw 
out the full sheets of foundation in 4x5 sec- 
tions next to the combs, and store in them. 
When work is once in full progress in the 
side sections of the super, the center ones 
will take care of themselves, with the result 
that every section is finished about the same 
time, and of about equal fullness. When 
the super is completed, the two extracting- 
combs will be filled and capped as w^ell as 
the section honey-boxes. The former can 
be extracted and used over again. 

It will be seen that the extracting combs 
serve the inirpose of excellent baits ; and 
Mr. Townsend draws attention to the fact 
that, wlien such baits are idaced at the sidr.s 




E. D. TOWNSEND'S super FOR PRODUCIKG BOTH COM15 

AND EXTRACTED HONEY; ONE EXTRACTING- 

FRAME ON EACH SIDE. 



instead of in the center, they cause an even 
filling of the entire super; whereas by the 
old plan of putting bait combs in the middle 
of the super the storing begins around the 
baits, gradually working from the center to 
the outside. This naturally brings about a 
better filling of the center sections, leaving 
those toward the sides at a much later stage 
of comb-building and filling. The result of 



COMB HONEY. 



112 



COMB HONEY. 




COMB HONEY IN 4i SQUARE PLAIN SECTIONS. 



iiis lionov would srade extra fancy according to the Eastern grading- given further on The combs 
in such cases will not b", capped over next to the wood like this in most cases. 



his is that the center sections will be lilled 
11 advance of tiie outside ones; and by the 
inie these latter are tilled, all the former 
kill be travel-staiueil, and may induce 
warming in the meantime. 

When Mr. Townsend first began this 
cheme of comb and extracted honey pro- 
iuction from the same super he had in mind 
nly baiting the bees up into the sections; 
lut he incidentally discovered that, inas- 
iiuch as the bees would enter such supers 
nthout hesitation, he thereby almost 
ntirely overcame swarming. 

Comb-lioney producers all know that the 
rdinary section-super placed on a hive is 
ery often not entered readily by the bees, 
.'he series of little compartments (the sec- 
ions) cause the bees to sulk, and before 
hey actually enter the super they may 
warm in disgust. 

It is well known also that, after bees are 
uce started going above, there is less incli- 
lation on their part to swarm. Mr. Town- 
end finds that the two side extracting- 
ombs that he puts in every comb-super 
tart the bees into the super about as readily 
s they would if containing extracting- 
(mibs only. The whole effect of this pro- 
edure is such that swarming is reduced to 

minimum— almost brought under control. 

For the local markets, the side extracting- 
ombs can be cut out and sold for chunk 
loney at about the same price as that in the 
ections; so that there need be practically 
10 loss; or when there is a call for liquid 
oney it can be extracted. 

The Danzenbaker super, already describ- 
d. witli its 4x.5 sections, section-holders, 
nd Danzenbaker frames, is the best suited 
o carry out the Townsend plan. 

Even tlie shallower supers using 4ix4i 
ections can be similarly arranged. 



WHAT TO DO WHEN BEES REFUSE TO ENTER 
THE SECTIONS. 

At times bees will show a disposition to 
loaf, and consequently a disinclination to go 
into the sections. They will hang out in 
great bunches around the entrance, while 
the surplus-apartment is left almost entirely 
vacant, to say nothing of foimdation not be- 
ing drawn out. This condition may be whol- 
ly due to the backwardness of the season. 
During those years (wiiich are not frequent) 
when the bees have not yet filled their brood- 
combs after the honey season is nearly over, 
and, as the days progress, make little if a-ny 
increase in the quantity of honey, we can 
not expect the bees to go above until all the 
available cell room below has been filled, as a 
rule. When this is crammed full, and tliere 
is a rush of nectar, they will commence work 
in the sections. We will suppose you have a 
fair average season, and some colonies are 
storing honey in the supers, and others are 
not. In the latter, the trouble is clearly 
with the hive or with the bees. Some bees are 
much slower in going above than others. If 
honey is coming in freely, they can be bait- 
ed, usually, by placing a i)artly filled sec- 
tion or two, of the year previous, in the cen- 
ter of the super. Or, better, give them a 
shallow extracting-super a la Barber; or, 
perhaps better still, give them a super of 
sections and a pair of extracting-combs as 
advised by Townsend. If none of these 
methods work go to a hive where the bees 
are already working in sections, if you can 
have access to such a one, and remove sec- 
tions, bees and all, that are actually at 
work drawing out the comb, and place them 
on the hive that won't go in the supers. 
This will start any hive at work in the sec- 
tions that contain Itees enough to go above. 
The sections should contain full sheets of 



COMB HOXEY. 



113 



COMB HOXEY. 



foundation, because it has been shown, over 
and over again, that bees are much more 
ready to accept full sheets than starters. If 
you have complied with this, perhaps the 
hive is not properly shaded, and. as a conse- 
quence, the surplxis-apartment is overheated 
by the direct rays of the sun. In this event, 
if you can not extemporize some kind of 
shade, use a shade-board, and smoke the bees 
above. (See Apiakt.) 

If the methods given still fail to force your 
'•ees to occupy the sections, and you have 
f oUowed faithfully the instructions, the trou- 
. lie may be because honey is not coming in 
sufficiently rapid, because the brood-nest is 
lot yet filled, or becaiLse the colony is too 
*veak. It requires strong colonies under any 
'X'ndiiions to do much work in the supers. 
The hive should be boiling over with Ijees. 

•rCEBIXG ITP. 

If honey is coming in at a good rate, you 
may expect if the bees have got started 
above; that the super, or case of sections, 
will soon Ije filled about half full of honey — 
with the sections in different stages of com- 
pletion. When the super is about half filled 
with honey, raise it up and place another 
empty super imder it. About the time this 
reaches the condition of about half comple- 
tion, raise both supers and put under anoth- 
er empty one. This process of "tiering up." 
or "storifying." as it is caUed by the Eng- 
lish, may l:>e continued vmtil three orfour high, 
depending upon the length of the honey-flow 
and the amount of nectar coming daily. In 
the mean time the ripening proc-ess of the 
honey in the first super continues. It is not 
. racticable to tier up more than two high. 

CAunox. 
Care must be exercised in tiering up. or a 
lot of unfinished sections will be the result. 
Wlien the honey-flow is drawing to a close, 
and you discover that there is an evident de- 
crease in the amoimt of nectar coming in. 
give no more empty supers. Make the bees 
complete what they have on hand, which 
they will do if you are fortunate enough in 
your calculations as to when the flow of nec- 
tar wiQ end. If unc-ertaia whether another 
super is needed or not toward the close of the 
harvest, it is often advisable to put another 
super on top. The h»ee5 are not likely to com- 
mence on this till they really need it. It is 
impcissible to give general rules on tiering 
up ; but with the assistance of the foregoing 
yon are to exercise your own discretion. 

WHEX AXD HOW TO TAKE OFF SECTIOXS. 

Usually it is not practicable to wait tiU 
every section in a super is complete : that is. 



1 until every cell is capped over. Those sec- 
tions most liable to be unfinished will be in 
the two outside rows, and these the bees will 
be long in completing. If the honey-flow is 
over we would not wait for them to be com- 
pleted, but would take the whole super off at 
once. The longer it remains on the hive, ' 
the more travel-stained the honey will be- 
come, and the more it will be soiled with 
propolis. Bees have a fashion of running } 
through their apartments with muddy feet, 
and in this particular are not so very much 
unlike their owners. However, if you desire 
a really fine, delicious article of comb honey, 
one more pleasing to the tongue than to 
the eye. and are not particular about the 
white marketable appearance of the cap- 
pings, leave the super on the hive for two or 
three months. Most bee-keei>ers ^ree that 
comb honey left on the hive acquires a cer- 
tain richness of flavor not found in honey 
just capped over. Although such honey is 
really better, it is not quite so marketable. 

HOW TO GET BEES OUT OF THE SECTIOSTS 
WITHOUT BEE-E^CAPES. 

There is one danger in leaving honey on 
till after the honey-flow. As soon as you 
open the hive, the bees, especially hybrids, 
are apt to uncap and carry some of the hon- 
ey down. Whether you leave it on the hive 
or whether you remove it as soon as capx)ed. 
the methods of taking off and getting the 
bees out will be much the same. In the lat- 
ter case, some supers may not l>e filled with 
honey, although a glance at the top may 
show nice white capped combs. Satisfy' your- 
self by lifting one up and looking imder. If 
capped below, it may be removed. To take 
off. blow smoke into the top of the super 
for a little while, to drive most of the bees 
down : lift off the super, and set it on end 
near the entrance (not as it sits on the hive, 
or you will kill bees'. If honey is coming in 
freely, robbers will not molest, and in two or 
three hours the bees will have left the sui)er 
and gone into the hive. 

Until you have had some experience. i)er- 
haps your safest plan is. never to set a su- 
per of honey by the hive. .Sometimes it 
may be safe to let it stand there all day 
when the bees have more than they can do 
on the flowers : but. again. aU at once it 
may start the bees to robbing, and demoral- 
ize them generaUy. 

If the honey flow has stoppled or is taper- 
ing off. to avoid the possibility of robbing 
it would. i>erhaps. be better, after smoking 
the bees out as far as possible, to give the 
super a vigorous shaking in front of he 



COMli IIOXEY. 



114 



COMB HONEY. 




liive; then with the bee-bvush clean off the 
bottom and top of the super; this will clean 
out nearly all the bees. The super should 
tlien be placed inside of a building. What 
few remain will desert, fly to the window 
screens, and get out through the bee-escape, 
which should be provided in all well-regu- 
lated honey-houses. But a better plan, per- 
haps, would be to shake out most of the 




MAKTIN S SUrKI: j. l : 1 i;. 



I HE WHITNEY BEE-ESCAPE CASE FOR 

CLEARING THE BEES FROil COjMB- 

HONEY SUPERS. 

bees as before described, then stand the 
supers on end, and set over a case with bee- 
escapes on top, like that shown in the sub- 
joined engraving. This is used by W. M. 
Whitney, of Lake Geneva, Wis. 

martin's super-jotjncer. 

Another very excellent plan for getting 
bees out of supers without a bee-escape is 
ilesciibed by Mr. John H. Martin, under the 
itom deplume of " Rambler," in Gleanings in 
Bre Culture. It is simply a framework of 
suitable size bolted together, having four 
stout legs, braced and cleated in such a way 
as to hold a super of sections right over a 
cloth tray just beneath. Super, framework, 
and all, or " jouncer,'" as Mr. Martin calls it, 
are raised up and set down on the ground 
with a quick sharp jar. 1 his " jouncing'' is 
repeated in rapid succession until all the 
bees are shaken out on the cloth, from 
which they can easily be dumpeil in front of 
the hive. The work can be done more 
quickly than it takes to tell it. 

There are those who are strong enough in 
their arms and back to shake nearly all the 
Ijets out with a tieniuhnis motion witlioiit a 
jouncer; but it is back-aching work for the 
best of them. 



COMB HOXEY. 



115 



COMB HOXEY. 



By far the most satisfactory arrange- 
ment for getting bees out of supers is the 
regular Porter bee-escape. This is mounted 
on a board, cleated at the ends and sides, in 
such a way as to provide a bee-space on one 
side, so that it can be placed between the su- 
pers and the brood-nest beneath. But care 
should be taken that it be placed right side 




up — that is. the side up as shown in the il- 
lustration. If the device be put on toward 
night, or, better, along in the afternoon, by 
the next morning practically aUthe bees will 
be out of the super and in the brood-ne.'t 
below ; or in some cases will have gone frou 
the finished super into one partly finished. 



ing, prevents angering the bees, and saves 
killing them. 

The best time to put on Porter escapes is 
at night. If thirty or forty of them are put 
on, the next morning about nine o'clock 
there will be about thirty or forty supers 
ready to come off, with hardly a bee in 
them. If there are three or fom: bees left, 
or say a dozen, they will usually take wing 
as soon as the super is uncovered. If not, 
one or two whiffs of smoke, and a shaking, 
will di.slodge them. 

SCRAPIXG SECTION'S. 

In order to make sections present a clean 
marketable appearance, all propolis should 
be scraped off. Some prefer, for this pur- 
pose, a case-knife: others, an ordinary sharjj 
jack-knife. But whatever implement you 
use. sci;:!**" the sections nice and clean. Be 
careful not to gash into the honey. Before 
you commence the opf ration you had better 
put on some old chill. »-s. bfcauf-e the parti- 




METHOD OF I5sEKTl>'-r IHi. ESCAPE-BOAKD. 



Our method of putting on one of these es- 
cape-lx)ards is as follows : AVith a screw- 
driver, putty-knife, or pry. locsen the super 
so that propolis connections will be severed 
or broken. Xow with one hand tilt up the 
super at one end enough to make a gap. and 
with the other hand take the smoker and 
blow in two or three whiffs of smoke to 
drive the bees back. 

Xext lift the same end of the super up a 
little further so that it will stand at an 
angle of about 45 degrees. With the free 
hand set down the smoker and pick up the 
escape-board, which should be leaning con- 
veniently against your person. Slide this 
on top of the hive as far as it wiU gc 
bee-space side up. Let the super down 
on the e.scape-board gently, and. last of all. 
biing the escai>e-lKjard and super so they 
will align with the hive. 

You will find this method avoids hard lift- ; 



cles of propolis wiU be almost sure to ruin 
go: id ones. 

BOOMHOAVEII SECTIOX-SCKAPIXG TABLE. 

Mr. Frank Boomhower, of Gallupville. 
X, 1'., has a section- scraping table like the 
one shown herewith. As will be seen. 




SECTI02f-SCBAPrSfG TABLE. 



COMU HONEY. 



116 



COMB llOxVEY. 



two scrapers can work at a time, the sides 
of the box, or tray, being cut away in such a 
way as to allow a knife to scrape down clear 
past the edge of the section. Each section, 
as it is scraped, is put into the shipping- 
case. We have seen this table in operation 
and know that it is just the tiling for lumd 
scraping. 

UNFINISHED SECTIONS. 

The more carefully the apiary is manipu- 
lated in the matter of working lor comb 
honey, the fewer will be the number of 
unfinished sections ; but all such are not 
always the result of improper working of 
the colonies. With the best of care a sud- 
den stoppage of the honey-How will throw 
on the bee-keeper a lot of these sections ; for 
such stoppages of the nectar supply, no one 
can foresee in some localities. In the alfalfa 
regions, and in some other places, it can be 
told within a few days when the honey w'.ll 
stop; it is then possible so to arrange the 
supply of sections on the hives as to leave 
very few of them unfinished when the sea- 
son does finally close. 

now DR. MILLER PREVENTS AN OVERSUP- 
PLY OF UNFINISHED SECTIONS. 

Dr. Miller takes off his supers as soon as 
a majority of the sections in the super are 
finished. These latter are set aside to be 
scraped and cased for market, while those 
unfinished are set back into the supers— the 
supers to go back on the hives immediately, 
consequently before the homy-flow f<tops. By 
proceeding thus he manages to have few un- 
finished sections at the end of the season. 
Those that are returned to the hive he fitting- 
ly styles "• gobacks." These, as fast as they 
accumulate in the honey-room, are put into 
the regular hive-supers. Part of these go- 
back supers may be placed on colonies that 
show a special aptitude* for finishing up 
work already begun in sections, and a part 
may be placed on the regular colonies already 
at work on their own sections. The great 
advantage of this plan is that it allows the 
sections to be taken off before all in the 
super are finished, consequently before any 
of the central ones have lost their virgin 
whiteness. 

Such a plan of procedure is possible only 
in localities where the honey-flow lasts siif- 
ficiently long, not only to fill two-thirds of 
the sections full in the supers, but enough 
longer to finish out supers of gobacks placed 
on hives afterward. 

* Some colonies are better at fltiishing- up work al- 
ready begun than at starting it from tlie raw foun- 
dation. 



In any case, some unfinished sections will 
be on hand at the close of the season ; for if 
tlie surplus be all stored in sections it is not 
possible to give the exact number of sections 
that will be finished. 

FEEDING RACK AFTER THE HONEY -FLOW 
TO COMPLETE UNFINISHED SECTIONS. 

The subject of feeding back is one that in- 
terests a large number of bee-keepers in the 
comb-honey class, the main object, perhaps, 
being to prevent unfinished sections. At 
the same time much can be done toward pie- 
venting swarming as well, if the sec- 
tions are removed from the colonies before 
they are capped and finished up after the 
danger of swarming is over by the feeding- 
back process, for it is well known that a 
great amount of capped honey in the hives 
is very conducive to swarming. 

Many who attempt to feed back, fail on 
account of the many diflftculties encountered. 
Mr. ,J. E. Hand, of Birmingham, Ohio, has 
made a complete study of this subject, and 
he finds that, while the work can belprofitably 
done, much attention must be given to the 
details, since there are many things to take 
into consideration. 

He finds it more practicable to use a feeder 
in which the syrup can be given below the 
brood-chamber instead of on top, as this is 
the more natural way for the bees, and they 
take it more readily. TheQuinby feeder has a 
tin tray, 2 inches deep, enclosed by a wooden 
frame of the same depth, which is the same 
width as the hive, but 2i inches longer. The 
tin tray is exactly the same length as the hive, 
and when in use is pushed to the back end 
of the frame surrounding it, leaving a space 
of 2i inches in front for the bees to pass out 
and in the hive. The other end of the tin 
tniy projects the 2i inches beyond the hive 
at the back to allow space for filling it. A 
framework of slats lengthwise of the feedei 
sits in the tray for the bees to travel ovei 
while working in the feeder so that they 
may not be drowned. The feeder rests square 
on the bottom-board, and the hive covers tl.e 
feeder except the 2^ inches at the back end, 
which space is covered by a little board. The 
bees can not get into the place where the 
feed is poured in, and the honey (about six 
quarts) flows evenly under all parts of the 
hive, where it can be quickly taken up by 
the bees. 

Many fail in their attempt at feeding back 
for the reason that they do not select the 
right time of the year. It is best to begin 
right after the main honey-flow has ce.ised 
before the work in the supers is over. At 



COMB HONEY. 



ir 



COMB 110NEi\ 



this time the bees naturally go right on as 
though the flow had not stopped. It is best 
to give about six quarts of thinned-down 
honey to each colony every other day. The 
interval between the feeding allows the bees 
time to remove the honey, which is first 
placed directly in the brood-cells, to the su- 
pers. No definite rule can be given for thin- 
ning down the honey, since the density va- 
ries so much. For average honey enough 
water must be added so that the sjTiip will 
be 7-5 per cent honey and 25 per cent water. 
Very thick honey needs more water, while 
thin honey needs less. 

It is necessary to have the brood-chamber 
well occupied by brood, for bees never do 
well in supers over brood-chambers contain- 
ing much capped honey. The first requisite, 
then, is a good queen, which will be able to 
hold her own against any amount of feeding. 
The brood-chamber must be contracted, 
furthermore, so that the queen will be able 
to keep every comb filled with brood. In 
this connection, the sectional hive is very 
convenient, for the reason that i ne section 
may be i-emoved.thus contracting the brood 
section and still allowing brood in the shal- 
low frames to be under the entiie super. It 
is quite important, however, to have the 
combs in the brood-chamber as new as pos- 
sible, for the bees are quite apt to carry up 
bits of the comb to be used in capping cells 
in the supers, and old dark comb will dis- 
color the super-cappings to quite an extent. 

The thinned-down honey should be put in- 
to the feeder just before sundown, so that 
there may be no uproar that may be likely to 
cause robbing. It is not desirable to have 
more than two supers of sections on the 
feeding colonies at a time. As soon as the 
sections in the super next the brood-chamber 
are nearly capped, this super should be 
raised up and the upper one placed under it 
next to the brood- chamber. Then as soon 
as the top super is finished and capped solid 
to the wood, it may be removed and an 
empty super placed next the brood-chamber. 
Of course it is not essential that combs be 
built out and capped solid to the wood. The 
coml)S all capped over, except the cells next 
to the wood, would grade No. ] . 

WHAT TO DO WITH UNFINISHED SECTIONS. 

Some prefer to dispose of unfinished sec- 
tions by selling them around home for less 
money, or using them exclusively for home 
consumption. The honey, for eating pur- 
poses, is practically just as good : and it is 
the practice, in many bee-keepers" families, 
to consume all such sections if they can, 



reserving out those that are marketable and 
well finished, to be sold. 

Some bee-keepers consider them very val- 
uable for baits ; that is, they place one of 
these in the center of a super to bait the 
bees above, as has already been explained. 
Others place them in stacked-up supers a few 
rods from the apiary. A very small entrance 
at the bottom of the pile, large enough for one 
or two bees to pass at a time, is provided. 
By this slow method of robbing, the bees 
will empty out the honey and cany it to the 
hives much more cheaply than the bee- 
keeper himself can afford to do it by means 
of the extractor. While this slow robbing 
may cause a little disturbance in the yard 
at the time, it does no particular harm. But 
mark this : Never give the bees a wide en- 
trance at the bottom. It should be only 
wide enough to allow one or two bees to 
pass at a time. This is known as the Miller 
plan, having been, we believe, originated by 
Dr. C. C. Miller. Taking every thing into 
consideration it is the safer one to follow ; 
but where one is an expert bee-keeper, and 
has a large lot of unfinished sections for the 
bees to empty out, a plan originated by the 
late B. Taylor is perhaps better. Dr. Miller, 
who now uses the plan, thus speaks of it : 

For a number of years I have used the Taylor plan 
at the close of every season. All sections that are less 
than half filled are put in supers in the shop cellar, 
and the door kept closed till the whole business is 
over, and a// that are to be emptied are in the cellar. 
The supers stand on end so as to be all open, or piled 
in piles crossing each other. When no more are to be 
taken into the cellar I open the door, and say to the 
bees, "Go in." They go in, I assure you. The air is 
black with bees at the door, and they do more or less 
sailing about in the vicinity. Sometimes they do a lit- 
tle tearing of the sections, but not much. There is too 
large a surface for them to cover. Gradually they give 
up the job as the supply ceases, but the supers are not 
taken away till a week or two after the bees have stop- 
ped working on them. They might as well be put in 
the open air, onlj- they are safe from rain in the cellar. 
Please remember that this is what I do at the end of 
every harvest after the flow has stopped. 

As a matter of fact, I use the Taylor oftener than 
the Miller plan. It depends on the number of sections 
to be emptied in proportion to the number of bees. 
Whether little or much is to be emptied, I am not 
afraid of a rampage. I will set a super of sections on 
top of a hive and let the bees rob it out, and there will 
be no rampage. But I will be exceedingly careful not 
to take away the super until all the honey is cleaned 
out, and uu/il a/ least 24 hours after the bees have stop- 
ped trying to find any more honey there. Take away 
the super while the bees are at work at it, and whole- 
sale destruction would follow. 

HOW TO PILE UP THE SUPERS OF COMB 

HONEY IN THE HONEY-HOUSE .AFTER 

TAKING OFF THE HIVES. 

It is a very good practice, after the supers 
are taken off the hive, to pile them up cross- 



COMB HONEY. 



118 



COMB HONEY. 



wise as shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tion, in a dry room that can be kejU as w-arm 
as possible. If the room is kept tiglit, and 
the sun shines through the window, th'S will 
have a tendency to keep the honey dry, and 
to continue the process of ripening it. If al- 
lowed to stand this way for a month or two 
before shipping, the chances of its safe arriv- 
al at destination will be much improved. 

Comblioncy or honey in extracting-frames 
sliould not be piled up in a honey room from 
wliicli the bees can be excluded, one super 
squarely on top of another. No matter what 
tlie temperature of tlie room, honey shut np 
in this way from the air is in danger of snui'. 
ing. It' it does not do so outright it will 




AlhTHOU OF TILING sUPEK.S. 

have an acid taste— enousrh so that it will 
ruin its chances of bringing a good price. 

We once had an experience of this kind 
with several thousand pounds of honey 
piled up sidid, and a super cover placed on 
top. A good portion of the honey soured, 
and the tlavorof.therest of it was very much 
imi)aired by reason of the acid taste. 

If tlie honey be piled with the supers criss- 
cross, as showwi in the illustration, and the 
temperature of the room be kept as nearly 
as possible to that of the living-room, there 
will be but very little danger of candying or 
souring, and, what is more, tlie quality of 
the honey itself will be richer and riper. 



SHALL WE USE SEPARATORS y 

A few years ago there was considerable 
discussion among prominent bee-keepers as 
to whether separators could or could not be 
dispensed with profitably in the production 
of comb honey. Some stoutly maintained 
that they could, and others just as strenuous- 
ly asserted that they could not. The former 
class urged that they could secure more hon- 
ey without separators, and hence that they 
preferred to put up with the inconvenience 
of some few sections bulged out beyond the 
sides. While the latter class were ready to ad- 
mit that perhaps a little more honey could be 
secured l)y the non-use of separators, they 
asserted that they obtained so much uncrata- 
ble honey, and were put to so much incon- 
venience in trying to arrange the sections so 
as to have them built out evenly, that they 
never wanted to dispense with separators. 
It should be remarked right here, that, with 
the narrow beew^ay sections. If, H, or If, tlie 
separators are not so necessary as with the 
wide ones, such as H or li|. Full sheets of 
foundation in either case greatly lessen the 
need of their use. How to dispense with 
separators entirely will be fully explained a 
little further on. But plain sections should 
(dways be used with fences or separators. 
At the present time, however, by far the 
greater majority of the producers of comb 
honey advocate and use fences, separators, 
or something of that sort ; and as our expe- 
rience in former years was so unsatisfactory 
without separators, we are compelled to agree 
with the majority. 

WOOD OR TIN SEPARATORS. 

Objection has been made to the tin separa- 
tors, because of their metallic coldness. It 
is urged that the smooth sides of the tin are 
not congenial to the bees, and that, further- 
more, the expense of separators made of tin 
is greater than most bee-keepers can alTord, 
in consideration of the low price of their 
product. Partly for these reasons, and part- 
ly for others, wood separators costing an al- 
most insignificant siun have been made. 
They are sometimes cut out on a slicing- 
machine, and are really thin veneer wood, 
cut to the size of the separator. Those cut 
with a saw are much better because the grain 
is not broken in shaving. The thickness 
varies from 28 to the inch up to about lO. 
The preference seems to be in favor of the 
thicker ones. 

WHEN SEPARATORS MAY BE OMITTED. 

It has been shown very conclusively that 
bees dislike a super divided off into a num- 



COMB HONEY. 



119 



COMB HONEY. 



ber of small compartments as is the case in 
the old-style supers with solid separators 
Supers provided with /"ence separators, 
because they allow of a much freer commu- 
nication, are more acceptable to the bees, 
for they dislike being shut off from one 
another by any obstruction, although some 
doubt this. This raises the question, 
"Why not dispense with separators alto- 
gether?" We can. But before we do so we 
must dispense with the present wide section 
altogether, for it has been demonstrated 
over and over again that it is impracticable 
to produce thick comb sections without sep 
arators if we desire to sell the 
honey away from home. 

It may be asked why bee keep- 
ers have not adopted these nar- 
row-width sections. The reasons 
are hard to give; but in a general 
way it is probably due to the 
fashion. 

WHAT SIZE OF SECTION TO USE. 

To answer this question intelli- 
gently for oneself, it will be well 
to consult the honey-market re- 
ports. As a general rule, sections 
holding an even pound of honey 
are preferred by consumers, and, 
of course, they bring a higher 
price . Notwi th stand in g thi s , f e w 
bee-keepers think that more honey can be 
secured in two-pound sections than in the 
smaller sizes. Most producers, however, 
are not so sure that it makes any dif- 
ference to the bees ; and while the fact re- 
mains that, in most markets, they sell for 
from one to two cents less per pound than 
the one-pound, it behooves every bee-keeper 
to think carefully before he decides on adopt- 
ing two-pound sections. The size of sec- 
tion which seems to have the general pref- 
erence is 4i inches square and 1^ inches 
wide for the beeway style, and 4ix4ixli and 
4x5x11 for the plain section 

NARROAVER SECTIONS. 

Some markets demand a smaller package. 
Instead of going to the expense of making 
smaller sections, supply-dealers have been 
in the habit of making the regular 4i sec- 
tions narrower— U, If, 7 to the foot, H, If. 
The seven to the foot hold about three- 
quarters of a pound, while the U and If hold 
about half a pound. 

There is a very great advantage in dimin- 
ishing the thicltmss of a section instead of 
the size, for this reason : They will fit most 
of the surplus arrangements in use, and can 



be shipped readily in ordinary shipping- 
cases, with but little trouble. In Canada 
tlie narrow sections have the preference, and 
tlie tendency in this country is toward a 
narrower section of late. 

FOUR-BEEWAY SECTIONS. 

A few years ago these were talked of con- 
siderably ; and it was stated at the time that 
the bees would enter them more readily ; 
that they would be filled better, and have a 
Ijetter api)earance for market. Very li'tle 
attention was paid to them in this couiiti y. 
although they have been usedcoutiniiously 




COMPARATIVE SIZE OF TALL AND SQUARE SECTIONS 
OF THE SAME W^EIGHT. 



in Great Britain ever since; but since the 
plain sections and the fence have demon- 
strated the value of free communication 
crosswise and lengthwise of the super, the 
open-side sections are being talked of more 
now than they have heretofore ; but, like 



plain sections, they require a special kind 
of separator ; and tlie cases for holding them 
would be just about as expensive. If one 
expects to make a change it would be as 
cheap, and better, for him to adopt the 
plain section. 

TALL vs. SQUARE SECTIONS. 

The standard section for a good many years 
is and has been 4i in. square ; but, notwith- 
standing, during all this time, a good many 
bee-keepers, principally in New York, have 
been using a section taller than broad. Capt. 
J. E. Hetherington, who had the reputation 
of being the most extensive apiarist in the 
world, used a section 3|xo. Other bee-keep- 
ers in New Y''ork use them slightly larger 



COMB HONEY. 



120 



COMB HONEY. 



or slightly smaller, but of the same propor- 
tion. (See Hives.) 

Some of the reasons that have been urged 
in favor of the tall section are as follows : 

1 . Weight for weight, and for the same 
thickness of comb, a tall section presents a 
bigger appearance than the average square 
one. In the 4xr) tall plain section, for ex- 
ample. If, we have about the same actual 
weight as the 4ix4ixli plain : and yet, as 
will bo seen by the engravings the former 




SAME WEIGHT OF HONEY IN SQUARE AND 
TALL SECTIONS. 

looks to be the larger. As a result the tall | 
box brings in some markets anywhere from 
one to two cents more per pound, but in 
other markets it brings no more. If this 
were the only reason why the tall box is 
preferred, we should say nothing about it 
here ; but there are other reasons for this 
preference. 

2. By long association we have come to 
like the proportion of objects all about us 
that are taller than broad. Doors and win- 
dows of their present oblong shape are much 
more pleasing than they would be if they 
were square. Nearly all packages of mer- 
chandise, such as of drugs and groceries, 
are oblong in shape — that is, taller than 
broad. To cater further to this taste, 
brought about by long association with 
the conunon objects round about us, the 
tall section was introduced : and outside of 
its relative appearance of bigness as com- 
pared with the square box, very many con- 
sider the tall one much more pleasing. 

3. Mr. K. C. Aikin, one of the closest ob- 
servers in all beedom, lays it down as a rule 
that " in comb-bidkling the doromoard progress 
exceeds the sidewise in the proportion of about 
three to two. . . If, then, comb con- 
struction goes on in this way, a section as 
wide as deep will be finished down the cen- 
ter before it is at the outer edges." A tall 
section, then, more nearly conforms to the 
natural instincts of the bees. 



4. A greater number of tall sections hold- 
ing approximately a pound can be accom- 
modated on a given hive surface. 

5. A tall section will stand shipping bet- 
ter, because the perpendicular edges of con- 
tact of the comb itself are greater than in a 
square box. 

GLASSED SECTIONS. 

Glassed sections are simply sections of comb 
honey with squares of glass fitted in between 
the projecting sides of the section. The 
glass is held either by glue, tin points, or 
paper pasted over the top and bottom of the 
section, and lai)ping over on to the glass a 
little way. When the section is sold to the 
retailer, the glass is included in the price of 
tlie honey. Of course, the producer can 
afford to sell glass at from 12 to 15 cts. per 
11).; but customers liave sometimes objected, 
and justly, too. In spite of all this, glass 
sections have quite a rage at times in the 
New York and other eastern markets, and 
( )Ccasionally there is some sale for them in 
the West. In England such a section with 
a fancy border is sold quite extensively. 

PASTEBOARD CARTONS FOR ONE - POUND 
SECTIONS OF COMB HONEY. 

Mr. J. E. Crane, of Middlebury, Vt., for- 
merly put nearly all of his honey into car- 
tons. These were put into unglassed ship- 
ping-cases, the latter neatly stenciled with 
an old-fashioned straw hive, and lettered. 

THE DANZENUAKER SECTION-CARTON. 

This is somewhat cheaper than the others, 
and answers the purpose very nicely. They 
are shipped folded, and all one has to do is 
to crowd on two opposite corners, when the 




THE DANZENBAKER CARTON. 

package assumes a rectangular form as 
shown. This carton is specially adapted to 
use with a plain section, as will be seen 
from the illustration. 

A new carton has been recently introduc- 
ed to the trade that has a fancy engraved 
design on the front panel, and the whole is 



COMB HONEY. 



121 



COMB HONEY. 



printed in two colors. The spaces on the 
top and two sides and bottom contain appro 
priate printed matter. On the back there 
is a recital of the contents of tlie package, 
and a denial of the oft-repeated canard that 
comb honey is manufactured. On the two 
sides is an explanation concerning honey and 
its flavors, and honey as a food. On the top 




is a statement showing ti.at the contents are 
pure under the national pure-food and drug 
act of June 30, 1906; and all over the pack- 
age the caution is given not to store the 
honey in a refrigerator or cellar, but to put 
it in the warmest anddryest place available. 




THE FRANKLIN CARTON. 

Mr. Benjamin Franklin, of Franklinton, 
N. Y., uses a two-section carton, for he says 
he can sell two sections as easily as one. 
The illustration here given shows how it is 
put together. 

GRADING COMB HONEY. 
In order to get the largest price possible 
for comb honey, it will be necessary to grade 
it ; and the more thoroughly and honestly it 



I is done, the higher will be the price secured. 

! If one is careless in grading there will be in- 
ferior sections mixed in with sections of a 
higher grade ; and if the commission man or 
buyer discovers this he is likely to " knock 
down the price " of the whole easeful to the 
price of the inferior sections. It is very im- 
portant to have every section in a case of 
the same grade. 

Obviously not much will be accomplished 
if there be a dozen different systems or rules 
of grading. So far they have been reduced 
to two— one set for the Eastern bee-keepers 
and another for the Western. There is no 
reason why we could not have all adopted 
one and the same set of rules. It is unfor- 
tunate that a uniform grading is not univer- 
sal over the country. The Eastern grading 
reads as follows: 

GRADING RULES. 

Fancy.— All sections well filled, combs straight, 
firmly attached to all four sides, the combs unsoiled 
by travel-stain or otherwise; all the cells sealed ex- 
cept an occasional one, the outside surface of the 
wood well scraped of propolis. 

A No. 1.— All sections well filled except the row of 
cells next to the wood; combs straight; one-eighth 
part of comb surface soiled, or the entire surface 
slightly soiled ; the outside surface of the wood well 
scraped of propolis. 

No. 1. — All sections weW. filled except the row of 
cells next to the wood; combs comparatively even ; 
one-eighth part of comb surface soiled, or the entire 
surface slightly soiled. 

No. 2.— Three-fourtlis of the total surface must be 
filled and sealed. 

No. 3.— Must weigh at least half as much as a full- 
weight section. 

In addition to this the lionej' must be classified ac- 
cording to color, using the terms white, amber, and 
dark; that is, there will be "Fancy White," "No. 1 
Dark," etc. 

These are based on a set of rules original- 
ly adopted by the National Bee-keepers' As- 
sociation in convention at Washington, D. 
C, in December, 1892. It will be seen that 
the question of color and source is taken care 
of very nicely in the last paragraph, so that 
we can have a No. 1 or fancy amljer or a fan- 
cy buckwheat, the same as a fancy clover 
stock. 

In the mean time the Colorado Bee-keep- 
ers' Association, the most influential organ- 
ization west of the Mississippi, adopted the 
following set of rules: 

Nu. 1 rF/(i(e.— Sections to be well filled and even'y 
capped except the outside row, next to the wood ; 
honey white or slightlj- amber, comb and capping^ 
white, and not projecting beyond the wood; wood 
to be well cleaned; cases of separatored honey to 
average 31 pounds net per case of ~-t sections, no 
section in this grade to weigh less than 13H ounces. 

Cases of half-separatored honey to average not less 
than 33 pounds net per case of 34 sections. 



rOMP. TIOXEY 



122 



COMB HONEY. 




IIONKY SENT BY THE ONTARIO BEE KEEl'ERS' ASSOCIATION TO KING EDWAIJD. 
[Note. — This would grade as Extra Fancy by the Eastern grading- rules.] 



('asi'S of unsuparatcred houty (o average not Ic s 
ihan 23 pounds net per case of 24 sections. 

No. 1 Light 4m/(e)-.— Sections to be well filled and 
evenly capped, except the outside row, next to the 
wood; honey white or light amber; comb and cap- 
plngs from white to off color, but not dark; comb 
not projecting beyond the wood; wood to be well 
cleaned. 

Cases of separatored honey to average 21 pounds 
net per case of 24 sections; no section in this grade 
to weigh less than 13!4 pounds. 

Cas(>s of half-separatored loney to average not 
less thiiii 22 pounds net per t-ase of 24 sections. 

Cases of unseparatored honey to average not less 
than 23 jiounds net per case of 24 sections. 

iVo. -'.—This includes all white honey, and amber 
honey not injludcd in the above grades; sections to 
be fairly wellfilled and capped, no more than 35 un- 
capped cells, exi-lusive of outside row, permitted in 
this grade; wood to be well cleaned, nu section in 
this grade to weigh less ihan 12 ounces. 

Cases pf sejjaratored honey to average not less 
tlian lit pounds net. 

Cases of half separatored honey to average not less 
than 20 lbs. net per case of 24 sections. 

Cases of unseiiaratored honey to average not less 
tlian 21 lbs. net per case of 24 seel ions. 

Notice that these rules provide for no 
"fancy" nor No. 1 A. Some honey would 
l)ass for one or two grades higher than that 
provided for in the Colorado No. 1. Notice 



also that the rules discriminate against honey 
produced without separators. This is right. 

GRADING BY PICTURES. 

Some effort has been made to grade honey 
by means of pictures ; but nothing delinite 
has been accomplished, as it is diflicult to 
make photos flexible enough to take in the 
various comb surfaces and cappings of honey 
that can be in hub d in one grade. Tt is possi- 
bly true plates may be used i?; connection with 
the rules, to enable one to determine what 
section will grade No. 1, " fancy," or No. 2; 
for it must be understood that different 
persons would have a different idea as to 
whether one section should be graded as 
No. 1 or "fancy," and a set of pictures 
showing the idea of an expert on grading 
might be helpful to a novice. We have giv- 
en here a few plates that may give an idea 
of what is meant. l>ut it should be under- 
stood that in the pictures the unsealed cells 
show black— much more in contrast than in 

j the actual combs themselves ; or, to put it 
another way, any thing liut an extra fancy, 
where no empty cells show, the pictorial 
representations do not show up as well as 

I the real articles. 



COMB HONEY. 



123 



COMB HONEY. 



The lioney shown on previous page would 
be what is called "extra fancy white," accord- 
ing to the Eastern grading, for it is white 
honey put up in plain sections, and, as the 
illustration shows, it is evenly and nicely 




OKADING-KULES ILLUSTRATED. 



filled. When cells next to the wood are all 
sealed, or nearly so, it should be designated 
;is "• extra fancy ;" but as such are the excep- 
tion rather than the rule there will be very 
little "extra fancy'' on the market, although 
such honey is generally shown at exhibi- 
tions when competing for a prize. 

In the half tone engraving above shown 
the honey in the top case, with its sample 
section opposite, would, by the Eastern 
grading rules, grade "Fancy;" that in the 
middle case "No. 1 A" or "No. 1," accord" 
ing to the amount of soiled surface, and tha^ 
in the bottom case w\iuld be about " No. 2.'' 

TRAVEL - STAINED AND OTHER SOILED 
SECTIONS. 

There are really four classes of discolored 
sections, each due to a distinct and separate 
cause. First there is wiiat is called the real 
travel-stained section. As its name indi- 
cates, the cappings are soiled because the 
bees have gone over the suriaces of the 
cnppings with their dirty feet. 

Then there is another lot that are stained 
because the boxes are capi)ed over in the 
vicinity of old comb, dirt, or propolis. If 



the faces of such sections are examined 
caiefully it will be found that the stain or 
discoloration goes clear through. These dis- 
colorations are due to the fact that the bees 
take up pieces of old black wax, propolis, or 
any thing that will 
answer as a substi- 
tute or filler for pure 
wax. We have seen 
the cappings of 
some sections of 
this sort filled with 
bits of old rope, lint 
fro m newspapers, 
small hard chunks 
of propolis, fine sliv- 
ers of wood — any 
thing and every 
thing that is right 
handy. Sections of 
this class often look 
like those of the 
first class, hence the 
frequent confusion. 
In the third class 
are those wdth soil- 
ed cappings, due to 
the pollen dust or 
possibly a thin layer 
of propolis stain. 

The fourth and 
last class takes in 
all those that are 




COMB HONEY IN 4x.") 
SECTIONS. 



COMB HONEY. 



124 



COMB HONEY. 



called "greasy'' or "water-soaked, 'Miaving 
cuppings that lie on the honey. The cover- 
ing to each cell is more or less transparent, or 
water-soaked — the transparent pait being 
half-moon shaped, or in the form of a ring 
encircling a white nucleus center that is not 
greasy or transparent. 

If the reader will look over the unsold 
odds and ends of the grocer's he will be able 
to find samples of all these classes, and the 
fall of the year is a good time to find them, 
as they are tlie last to sell. 

A knowledge of how to make dark or 
soiled sections No. 1 white, thus putting 
them at the top of the market, may be worth 
iuindreds of dollars to some bee-keepers ; 
and wliile it is probably not possible to 
make water -soaked and certain kinds of 
travel - stained sections white, there is a 
probability that a very large class of the 
soiled boxes can be rendered No. 1. 

BLEACHING COMB HONEY. 

Mr. Byron Walker, a honey-merchant of 
Chicago, had quite accidentally placed some 
yellow or pollen-stained sections in his show- 
window, where they were subjected to the 
direct rays of sunlight. A short time after, 
he noticed that the faces of these sections 
that were next to the light were bleached 
white, while those on the reverse side re- 
tained the old color. Instantly grasping at 
tlie suggestion he placed other sections of 
tlie same kind in the same window, and was 
gi-atified to learn that these v/ere likewise 
bleached as were the first; but so far as I 
know, Mr. Walker was successful in bleach- 
ing pollen -stained or yellow -faced combs 
only. The real travel-stained and water- 
soaked ones he considered beyond redemp- 
tion. The time required to bleach the yellow 
sections was anywhere from two to thrte 
days, depending on weather and sunlight. 

Mr. A. E. White, of Pala, California, 
ai)parently goes one step further; for in 
connection with simlight he uses suli)hur, 
which is known to be a powerful bleaching 
agent. His method is described as follows : 

"We first fumigate with sulphur, then 
place the combs where the sun will shine 
on them, and that is the whole process. 

" I build a frame on the south side of my 
lioney-house, and cover the same with cot- 
ton cloth. A door opens from the honey- 
house into this room. I place shelves on the 
side and ends of this room, the bottom shelf 
being a wide board to be used as a table. I 
place the combs on these shelves so that the 
sunlight will strike them. Dark combs will 



require several hours. This plan will whiten 
dark combs here in California. If you fumi- 
gate a few combs, then place them on a win- 
dow-sill where the sun will shine on them, 
you will be convinced. 




white's bleaching - HOUSE FOR SOILED 
COMB HONEY. 

" In placing the sections on shelves in the 
morning, I find the following plan good : 
On the shelves at the east and west end of 
the room I place sections end to end length- 
wise of the shelves, two rows on each shelf, 
one row on the outer and the other on the 
inner edge. The morning sun strikes one 
side, and the afternoon sun the other side. 




WHITE S SULPHUR - BOX FOR BLEACHING. 

On the front shelves I set them crosswise of 
the shelf, far enough apart so as not to shade 
each other. 

" I pack them away every evening; all not 
white I put out again next morning. Some 
of them will bleach quite slowly, but I have 
been able to whiten the worst ones by per- 
severance." 

SHIPPING-CASES FOR COMB HONEY 

Just as soon as the crop of honey has been 
secured and the sections scraped, they should 
be put immediately into shipping-cases, pro- 
vided there is no storage room that is bee- 
proof. The cases should be glassed on one 
side. In order that the fragile condition of 
the contents of the case when filled with 
comb honey may be apparent to freiglit- 
handlers, dealer, and consumer. 



COMB HONEY. 



125 



COMB HONEY. 



It is penny wise and pound foolish to try 
to make one's own cases. They will cost as 
much as or more than the factory-made ar- 
ticles, and will have an awkward and clumsy 
look. One prominent commission-man toLl 
me that these home-made affairs, in his mar- 
ket at least, "knocked the price of the 
honey down a cent or two "' a pound. 




three-row 24-lb. But these are objectionable 
in that they will not tier— that is, not pile 
up on the floor as well as the flatter cases. 
On account of the comb honey being brok- 
en in shipment, it used to be the practice, 
;ind is yet to a great extent, to put a paper 
tray in the bottom of the case, and at regii- 
j lar intervals wo M^en cleats from I to i wide, 
and S thick, as shown in the cut opposite. 



NO-DRlP SUIPPING-CASE. 

The standard size of shipping-case is a 
■J l-lb. single-tier, shown in the middle of the 
(Mit given. Then there is the 48-lb., the 
same thing, only double-tier, having two 
glass with a strip of wood between. The 
IS-lb. cases formerly had one large glass ; 
lint b"STlos tht^ fnct that those were mu"h 




THE THREE STANDARD SIZES OF SHIFl'INQ 

CASKS. 

more expensive, the lioney actually shows 
off b^itter when there is a strip of wood cov- 
ering up the tops and bottoms of the sec- 
tons, leaving only tlie best portion of the 
honey to siiow. Another very popular case 
is the 12-lb. single tier shown on the top of 
the pile. 

Some bee-keepers and some markets pre- 
fer the three-row 12-lb. and the d'»uble-tier 




12 AND 24 POUND CASES. 

The object of this is to keep the sections 
up high and dry, at the same time to leave 
room for the honey to drip, without sticking 
the sections to the paper tray, or, when the 
]>aper tray is not used, the bottom of the 
shipping-case. In that case the honey runs 
through, leaks on to the other shipping- 
cases, and, as a consequence, smears all 
the cases below it. 

In 1908 and '9 the little strips of wood to 
hold the sections out of the honey drip were 
displaced to some extent at least by what is 
known as cellular or cushion paper. This 
is cut into sheets of the right size, and plac- 
ed in the bottom of the paper tray. The 
corrugations of the paper serve a double 
l)uri)ose: First, they cushion the honey 
placed on them; and. second, the honey drip, 
if any, runs down between the grooves. The 
cnshi;ins of the paper,to a great extent, elim- 




in ite much of the breakage that takes 
place When honey is shipped in a solid wood- 
en case on utiyielding supports like wooden 
claats. To provide for ready examination 
the case has a sliding cover— a little improve- 
' ment very mnch appreciated by retiilers 
and connuission m 'U generally. 



COMB HONEY. 



126 



COMB HONEY. 



During 190f) Mr. .1. E. Crane, of Middle- 
Itury, Vt., devised a straw-board cellular 
.shipi)ing-case in which no wood at all is used. 
The corrugations of the material not only 
stiflen the jiackage, l)ut serve as an excellent 
cushion for the tojts, sides, and ends, as well 
as the l)ottoms of the sections. By referring 
to the series of illustrations shown herewith, 
it will be seen that the case is made of sev- 
eral tliicknesses of this cellular strawboard. 

Apparently one would get the impression 
that a shipping-case or container for comb 



condition— that is to say, with less breakage 
and leakage— than takes place with the or- 
dinary wooden cases. The reason of this is 
apparent from the fact that the wooden cases 
are stiff and unyielding, while the cellular 
strawboard containers not only cushion the 
whole case of sections but each individual 
section itself. 

There are different ways in which these 
strawboard cases may be made ui). The 
next set of illustrations shows a slightly dif- 
ferent style. While these cost somewhat 





CllANE S COKKUGATJED -PAPER SHIPPING-CASES. INSIDE ILLUSTRATION OF THE SAIVIP:. 
NO AMOUNT OF POUNDING ON THE FLAT SIDE INJURES THE HONEY. 



honey made out of i)aper could not possibly 
Ije as strong as one made of wood. To a 
certain extent this is true; but in another 
sense the strawboard cases with their cross- 
partitions are much stronger than the wood- 
en ones without the cross-partitions. In 
one of the illustrations Mr. Crane himself is 
seen standing with the ball of his foot in the 
center of the case, his weight being sustain- 
ed by the cross-partitions, which are a trifle 
taller than the sections themselves. From 
some iJi-eliminary tests, made by Mr. Crane 
and others, cftmb honey in these cases goes 
tlirough jto destination in very much better 



more than the Crane models they are rather 
stronger, because of the extra thickness and 
flaps that are used in the construction. 
Then there is the further advantage that 
they can be put up more comitactly in the 
knockdown, and have only one joint. 

Of course, it is perfectly evident that these 
light strawboard cellular cases of either 
pattern can not be secured by nailing. Aft- 
er the sections are put in place the cases 
are closed, and bound securely with strong 
cords; and these cords, by the way, serve as 
an additional cushion to the pile of cases, 
and at the same time they enable one to pick 



COMB HONEY. 



127 



COMB HONEY. 



up two cases, one in each 
hand, by runnino- the fin- 
t^ers under the cord. For 
unloading and shipping 
they will be much hand- 
ier than the wooden con- 
tainers. 

Where wooden cases 
are used we advise using 
carriers. These are no- 
thing more nor less than 
laige crates capable oi 
holiling from ten to a 
dozen cases of honey. 
Before they are put into 
the carrier, five or six 
inches of straw are 
strewn on the bottom of 
the crate, and the cases 



^. 




shipp:xg-case readv to shii'. 

piled on top. Two handles projecting from 
each end enable the freight-handlers to pick 
them up and load them in the car or on 
trucks. The object of the straw in the bot- 
tom of the crate is to cushion the honey 
piled on top of it; and by making this car- 
rier large enough so that it will contain ten 
or twelve cases, it makes it impossible for 
the freight - han- 
dlers to toss or 
throw it. 

When single 
cases of honey are 
sent by express 
they are almost 
sure to be broken 
down, no matter 
whether cellular 
or the old - style 
cases are used. 
We would urge, as 
a matter of necf s- 
sity,the very great 



ANOTHER STYLE OF CORRUGATED-i'APEK SHIPPING-CASE. 



importance of using the cai- 
riers shown, page 129. How- 
ever, when one ships a whole 
carload of comb honey it is not 
necessary to use a carrier, pro- 
vided tire producer does his 
own loading. In that case he 
will strew several inches of 
straw^ or hay on the bottom of 
the car, and then pile up his 
cases in rows. Between some 
of the rows it is advisable to 
jam in straw to afford an addi- 
tional cushion to prevent the 
honey from being broken down 
when the car bumps. 





CORRUGATED SHIPPING-CASE; ROI AND PARTITIONS REMOVED. 



COMB HONEY. 



V2H 



COMB HONEY. 



Ill loading honey, always place the combs 
so that they will be jtarallel with the rail; 
and when on a wagon, parallel with the 
axletree. 

31 ARRETING COMB HONEl. 

There is iKithiiig- that can make a bee-keeper feel 
better than clean cash for his surplus honey at the 
end of the season.— ^(tawi Grimm, page 86, Vol. 1., 

— Gl^EANlNQS IN BKE CO I.TURK. 

Every thing, nowadays, depends on having 
goods neat, clean, and in an attractive 
shape, to have 
them "go olf " 
readily; even 
onr hoes have to 
be gilt-edged, for 
we noticed some 
once at a certain 
hardware store, 
and it seemed 
that those thai 
were gilt, or 
bronzed, per 
haps, were sell- 
ing far in ad- 
vance of the 
plain steel ones. 
We've been told 
of gilt-edged 

butter that sold for fabulous prices, but we 
hardly think it will be advisable to have our 
honey put up in that way, although we do 
wish it to look as well as any of the other 
products of the farm. 

In order to get a fair price for your honey, 
> on should watch the markets. To obtain 
this information, you should take one or 
more bee-journals. Through the medium 
of these you will learn whether the honey 
crop is going to be small or large. This you 
can not tell definitely from your own locali- 
ty. If you have secured a good crop of hon- 
ey, and you learn that the crop throughout 
the country is small, you must not be in 
haste to dispose of yours to the first buyer. 
In any case you must exercise judgment. 





SlliPPIXG-CASn; UiSSJiCTKL) WITH ALL THE PARTS 0PE2SED UP. 



HOW TO MAKE HONEY SELL IN THE LOCAL 
MARKETS. 

Supply your grocer with a lot of your choic- 
est extracted, in tumblers and bottles ; and 
also best comb in shipping-cases. Some of it 
should be set off in paper cartons, and some 
of it should be glassed. When customers 
come in, have in readiness strips of paper 
about li by 2 or 3 inches. Dip one of these 
pieces of paper, curled in the shape of a 
trough, into the extracted. Twirl it around 
till all the drip is off, and pass it quickly to 
your customer, that he may sample. If he 
would like another taste, hand him another 
slip of paper, which he is to fold as nearly as 
possible in the form of a spoon. If the honey 
is ripe— that is, good and thick— your taster 

will want some. 
There is one 
thing that is 
very impor- 
tant. You want 
something to 
draw a crowd. 
Prepare a nu- 
cleus m a glass 
hive, and put 
it up near the 
window where 
the crowd can 




C'OKRUGATED-FAPEK SHIPPING-CASE IN THE FLAT. 



COMB HONEY 



ll29 



COMB HONEY. 



see tlie bees. Sometimes the crowd will be 
so great as to block the street to see the 
queen or ''king beef but you will be the 
gainer, because your honey is inside. 




COMB-HONEY CARRIEH. 

There should be on hand for a day or two 
an expert to explain about the honey, how 
it is produced, how good it is, etc., and to 
show that it is the most wholesome sweet in 
the world for children. He should then rein- 
force his arguments by handing out honey- 
leaflets that contain cooking-recipes, and 
that tell why the doctors recommend honey 
in preference to cane sugars, or why some 
invalids can eat honey when they can not 
eat other forms of sweet. Perhaps you your- 
self will be the best man to do the " talk- 
ing;" and therefore you had better stay 
with your grocer for a day or two, or at 
least be on hand when he is likely to have a 
1-1 in of customers. Charge the grocer no- 
thing for your services, telling him that you 
will take your pay out of the increased sales. 

If you succeed well in one market, and the 
novelty of the thing wears off, try another 
one in a neighboring town, and so on com- 
plete the circuit of the towns roundabout. 
After you have done all this you will not 
need to ship much if any to the city markets, 
save commissions, save freight, and have 
your honey within a few miles of where you 
can look after it, without being at th« mercy 
of a city commission house. See Honey- 
I'EDDLiNG ; also Exhibits of Honey, sub- 
head Selling Honey at County Faiks. 

sending honey to commission houses. 

We believe commission houses through- 
out our cities are great aids to bee-keepers 
in disposing of their honey ; notwithstand- 
ing, we want to enter a word of caution right 
here against being in too great haste to 
lump off your honey to these places. You 
may argue that you have not time to dis- 
pose of your product in small amounts ; but 
many a bee-keeper has found to his sor- 
row the mistake he made in contril)uting to 



the flood of honey at a certain commission 
house. The consequence is, that at that 
place honey is " a glut on the market," and 
must be sold at a very low price. As a gen- 
eral rule, we believe we would sell elsewhere 
before shipping it off to the city. 

But it very often happens that one can get 
a higher price by sending to these commis- 
sion men. The general trade looks to them 
for supply, and they make it their business 
to find a market. 

Never send your honey on commission or 
outright sale to a new firm, no matter what 
it advertises, how big it talks of its financial 
standing, nor what promises it makes. Go 
to the nearest bank and find out regarding 
its responsibility. Then ask the commission 
house to send you the names of bee-keepers 
who have dealt with the firm. We would not 
advise you even then to consider this an evi- 
dence of good faith. We would take time to 
write to the parties and ask if their dealings 
were entirely satisfactory, and whether they 




STURWOLD S SHOW-CASE FOR HONEY. 

would advise shipping to the commission 
house in question. The temptations in the 
commission business are very great ; and if 
your man is not honest to the core he may 
take advantage of you. Commission men 
charge all the way from 5 to 10 per cent 
commission ; and in addition to this the 
shipper is required to pay freight, drayage, 
and to stand all breakages. 

Most commission houses will make ad- 
vances in cash on receiving the honey ; and 
a few of tliem will make payments as fast as 
it is sold ; but a majority make no remit- 
tance until the honey is all sold, and some- 
times not even then until the bee-keeper 
writes comi)laining, and inquiring regarding 
his honey (»r his money. 



(!OMB HONEY 



VAO 



CX)MB HONKV. 



We have saiil that couiuiissioii men sliould 
be strictly lionest; but some of tliem yield 
to the temptation of quoting a higher price 
in the Itee-journals than they are actu- 
ally realizing in every-day sales. The bee- 
keeper complains when he receives his re- 
turns, and he is met with the statement that 
his honey was of poor quality, and had to be 
sold for less money, or that the honey came 
badly broken, and had to be lumped off as 
cliunk honey; or he may be told that the 
■'market suddenly fell'' (which may be true), 
and it was not, therefore, possible for the 
house to realize quotations given in the bee- 
journals. It is a connnon trick on the part 
of dishonest commission men to quote high 
jirices if Ihey can get their names in the bee- 
journals, tlien sell for lower prices in order 
to " move off stock." But we've had reason 
to believe that sometimes, from complaints 
tliat have come in, and from certain evidence 
placed in our hands, honey has actually sold 
at several cents higher per i)Ound than was 
shown by the account of sales rendered to a 
bee-keeper, and on which commission was 
based. In this way commission men prac- 
tically take two connnissions. Say, for in- 
stance, the honey sold for 12 cents. He 
makes retiu-ns to the bee-keeper of 10 cents, 
and then charges 10 per cent commission on 
this 10 cents. He thus makes the 2 cents 
which he actually steals, and then the 10 per 
cent which is rightfully his. 

In the foregoing we've endeavored to set 
forth some of the tricks that are practiced 
by some of the imscrupulous commission 
iiouses. But we are glad to say that all, or 
nearly all, of the men who quote prices in 
the bee-journals are responsible and honest 
men ; for no commission man can hold his 
name in the advertising columns of the av- 
erage bee-journal to-day if there are com- 
idaints entered by bee-keepers against him. 
And right in this connection we wish to say 
that the mere fact that your bank says a 
certain commission house has good tinancial 
rating should not be considered as evidence 
that the house is also honest, we would 
rather trust the man who is honest and not 
responsible than the one who is financially 
good and yet ''up to the tricks of the 
trade." 

At the time you make shipment, send bill 
of lading to tlie commission house, and name 
price helow ivliich the homy must not be sold. 
A commission house has no right to sell at a 
lower figure until you give instructions. Be- 
fore the honey is packed it should be care- 
fully weighed so that you will know exactly 



how much honey you have sent. Do not 
send large shipments at first. If in any 
case you send honey, and the commission 
house fails to make returns, or refuses to do 
so, it is a criminal act. Such house has no 
right to appropriate your money without 
rendering to you some sort of returns ; but 
never take a note in payment from an irre- 
sponsible firm or individual : if you do you 
will be powerless to help yourself ; for legal- 
ly a note is a settlement. 

SELLING FOR CASH. 

If you can sell for casli, and the party is 
responsible, by all means do so, providing 
you can get market prices. Look out for 
firms wanting to buy for cash with no rat- 
ing, in Dun's or Bradstreefs commercial 
agencies. To make yoiu'self secure ship the 
honey to your name at the point of destina- 
tion, and then send bill of lading to some 
bank in the city with instructions to turn 
over bill of lading to purchaser on receipt of 
cash. Banks will charge you a small fee for 
doing the business, but you will be safe. 
The law gives the producer greater protec- 
tion when his honey is sold on commission 
than when sold for cash, providing money 
is not received before honey is turned over. 
We wish to reiterate the point again: Never 
deliver honey to a firm on an outright sale 
or deal till the banks say your man is entire- 
ly responsible ; then if every thing is in writ- 
ing you are able to collect by due process of 
law ; but if he is irresponsible you will be 
throwing aw^ay good money in trying to do 
any thing with him in a legal way. 

KEEPING COMB HONEY. 

It is sometimes desirable to keep comb 
honey for a better market, or that we may 
have a supply the year round, etc. Well, to ' 
keep it with unimpaired flavor it must not 
be subjected to dampness. If water con- 
denses on the surface of the comb it soon / 
dilutes the honey, and then it sours, etc. On|^ 
this account the honey should never be put! 
into a cellar or other damp room. Better) 
put it upstairs; and that there may be a free 
circulation of air, without admitting bees 
or flies, the windows should be covered 
with painted wire cloth. We are accustom- 
ed to keeping comb honey the year round, 
and rarely have it deteriorate in the least. 
The same remarks will, in the main, apply 
to keeping extracted honey. During damp 
and rainy weather, the doors and windows 
to the honey-room or honey-house should be 
closed, and opened again when the air is 
dry. 



COMB HONEY. 



131 



CONTRACTION. 



Comb honey should under no circiunstances 
be stored where it is likely to freeze, as 
freezing contracts the wax so as to break the 
combs and let the honey run. Mouse-traps 
should be kept set to catcli the tirst mouse 
that appears. 

Elsewhere under this heading we have 
drawn attention to the importance of keep- 
ing honey stored in a room kept, as nearly 
as possible, at the same temperature as the 
living-room. It should not go down to the 
freezing-point at any time— nay, rather, it 
should never go below 70 if it is possible 
to arrjid it. A'arying degrees of tempera- 
ture have a strong tendency to make honey 
granulate: and nothing ruins comb honey 
quicker than this. 

We made some experiments to see how 
hot we could keep the room and not have 
the combs melt down. We find the temper- 
ature must not go higher than 103 F. While 
this may seem excessively high, yet if the 
honey begins to candy the only way to aiTest 
the process of granulation is to bring the 
temperature up to 103, and maintain it 
there. Aye, there is the difficulty. We 
accomplished it by putting steam- coils in 
the room with sufficient radiation so that the 
temperature can l)e held between 101 and 
103. If it goes above the high point, an au- 
tomatic regulator, .something on the plan of 
an ineubator-\alve, allows the heat to es- ; 
ca])e. As the temperature drops, this valve 
closes. 

We ke|>t some 2000 lbs. of honey in this 
room for two months. Some of the honey 
had already begun to granulate, and it was 
our hope that we could not only arrest the 
granulation but bring the granulation back 
to a liquid condition. In this last we were 
disappointed, but we succeeded admirably 
in stopping the process that would have soon 
ruined this whole lot of honey. 

We are not sure but a temperature of lOH 
F. might do as well, and possibly such a 
degree would be safer for the average person 
to use. because, if the thermometer shows 
higher than 103, there is great danger that ■ 
the combs will be overheated, sag. and set 
the honey to leaking. I 

Perha])S one in a small way might be able 
to maintain a room hot by the use of a hard- '• 
coal stove, from which a regular heat will 
be given off. In some instances one might 
use furnace heat. This latter would, per- 
haps, be advantageous in that it would pro- 
vide for ventilation and thu.s hasten the 
evaporation of any unripe or thin honey, 
lint certain it is, there must be some .sort of 



automatic regulation of the heat. While 
the heater can be controlled to a certain ex- 
tent, it seems more feasible to let the sur- 
plus heat escape. 

Under Extracted Hoxey will be found 
hints on peddling honey and marketing in 
general. See also Peddling Honey. 

CONTRACTIOlXr. A few years ago 
contraction of the brood-nest seemed to be 
all the rage. It was argued that most colo- 
nies, Italians especially, after they had put 
a little honey in the br.>od-nest, would be dis- 
inclined to go above into the supers ; and to 
force them above, some bee-keepers took 
out three or four of the brood-frames below 
and contracted the brood -nest, and then 
placed supers on top. This was very pretty 
in theory, and in practice it did force things. 
It forced the bees into the supers, but moie 
often forced swarming. 

Another set of contractionists argued in 
favor of hiving swai-vis in a contracted 
brood-chamber. They did not believe in 
contracting the brood-nest in an established 
colony ; and, therefore, when they contract- 
ed at all they did so only during swarming 
time. This form of contraction will certain- 
ly be better than the other ; but as the years 
go by we hear less and less aboiit contraction 
and more and more about expansion — how 
to get stocks strong— big, rousing, power- 
ful colonies. An eight-frame brood-ne.st is 
usually small enough. Indeed, a ten-frame 
may be none too big. See Hives, Size ok, 
elsewhere, for the further consideration of 
this .subject. 

COTTON. The cotton of the Southern 
United States is interesting to bee-keepers 
because of the fact that some years it is 
nectar-producing, the yield of honey being 
considerable at such times. It is of a light 
color, good body. Init indifferent in flavor. 
As a rule it must be used for manufacturing 
purposes. Considerable quantities of it are 
offered in the market some seasons and 
none at others. 

Cotton honey has the peculiarity, when 
confined, of bursting the receptacle in which 
it is held. Whether it ferments or gener- 
ates gas has not yet been definitely deter- 
mined. It can, however, be put into casks, 
providing there is plenty of air-space left to 
allow for expansion. 

CRZnfZSOM' CLOVER. See Clove u. 

CROSS BEES. See ANGER OF Bees. 

CVFRIAVr BEES. See Itali.vn.**. 



D. 



SAIVDEIiION ( Taraxacum, denft leonis) 
is iniili)iil>tp(lly an iinixtrtaiit lioney-plaiit, 
not oil account of the actual amount of the 
honey croj) received from it. but rather from 
its great value to the bees in early spring as 
a stimulator of brood-rearing, and, later on, 
as a sort of tid-bit to keep the colonies from 
being fed when the main flowers have ceased 
to bloom. It flowers most in spring, no mat- 
ter how cool iii;i\- he 1 he \\ cMtlicr: but a small 



succession of bloom is kept up until late fall. 
It yields both honey and pollen, hence i s 
unique value as a bee-keeper's plant. ^Ml 
sorts of stock eat it more or less, but tl.is 
seems to make no difference m the amo; iit 
of bloom it will fuinish. It is supposed to 
be especially good for milch cows, and in 
any case they are very fond of a dandelion 
pasture. In spite of this, many people are 
vigorously opposed to tliis plant, l)ecause it 



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A PART OF A FIELD OF DANDELION IN FULL BLOOAI, AT MEDINA. 

This, and other flolds like it, near Medina, furnish considerable honey and pollen in early spiiiiK- 

just when it can do the most pood. We do not find that the plant hurts tlie 

liay or pastures in tlie least. 



DAXDELIOX. 



133 



DAXDEL102S. 



gets into their lawns, spoiling the green ap- 
pearance so much desired, and crusades have 
been started in all parts of the country with 
a view to its eradication. The bee-keeper 
looks on with equanimity, because the meth . 
ods usually taken only spread it further. 



nishing early •• greens." and for this use it is 
much apjireciated by rrany. 

In Europe the thick fleshy roots of several 
years" growth are ground and used to mix 
with coffee — not to make the latter cheaper, 
for the roots cost more than the coffee— but 




A LAKGE SPECIMEN OF DANDELION BLOSSOM, BUDS. AND LEAVE^ — LIJ-E SIZE. 
The blcis>oin here shown is larger ihin the average. The usual size is about two iiichrs at-ro-s. 



Some farmers like t • see it co:ne. as it usu- 
ally improves a pasture, and does not stay in 
land which is cultivated every year. 

A large variety of the dandelion from 
France is now being cultivated by market- 
gardeners in the Eiusl fur the purpose of fur- 



it is uuderstood that • laraAaciim." tho 
druggists" name for dandelion, is a very su- 
perior remedy for •• liver trouble."' 

Usually the English people mix coffee with 
either chicory or dandelion, whii-h ;ir • luncii 
alike. 



DISEASES OF BEES. 



134 



DISEASES OF BEES. 



To keep it out of a lawn, the lawn-mower 
)iight to be sharp and close-cutting, and, in 
uldition,a heavy roller should be used quite 
frequently. In any case one has to do this 
to get a line lawn, even when dandelions 
ire not present. 

DAISY. See AsTKHS. 

DISEASES OF BEES. A few years 
igo it was considered that bees were freer 
from disease than perhaps any other class of 
uiimated nature, for the reason that indi- 
\adual members of the colonies were so con- 
stantly giving way to the younger ones. 
But this has been shown to be, to a great 
extent, a mistake ; for apparently there are 
iit least three or four distinct diseases with 
rt'iiich the bee-keeper has to contend; and it 
is well for the beginner to have an idea, at 
least, of what they are like ; for the time to 
cure a disease of a contagious character is 
to take it at the start, or, better still, take 
precautionary measures such as will prevent 
its making even a heqimiinq. 

HOW TO AVOID DISEASES. 

Contagious diseases spread very rapidly 
among bees, just as they are inclined to 
make rapid lieadway in crowded centers of 
tlie human family. Unfortunately, bees are 
disposed to rob from each other during a 
dearth of honey ; and if the germs of disease 
or infection reside in the honey they may be 
scattered over the entire apiary in a few 
days. An infected colony is naturally weak- 
ened and discouraged, and as a result the 
bees do not make tlie defense that they 
would under normal conditions. During a 
dearth of honey the healthy bees all over the 
yard are quite disposed to rob the weak or 
sick ones, so that the infection is scattered 
right and left. 

One of the best precautions against dis- 
ease is good food, and keeping all colonies 
strong. A healthy human being is much 
more able to resist the germs of infection 
tlian one who is "all run down.'' A person, 
for instance, is not likely to come down with 
typhoid unless his system is greatly reduced. 
Then it is that the typhoid germs, which 
may lie ever present, take liold and begin 
their insidious work. 

Another wise precaution is to keep all 
tools and clothing, and every thing that has 
been in contact with a diseased colony, away 
from the healthy ones. If one does not know 
wliat the disease is he should be on the safe 
side and proceed as if the sick colony were 
infected with the worst infection known to 
bee culture. 



TWO CLASSES OF DISEASES. 

The diseases with which the bee-keeper 
has to contend may be divided into two 
classes — those that affiect the mature flying 
bees, and those that attack the brood. 

Among the diseases that attack the ma- 
ture bees may be mentioned "spring dwin- 
dling.'' This, perhaps, should hardly be con- 
sidered a disease, but it is a malady with 
which we have to deal. For particulars re- 
garding it, see Wintering. Still another 
trouble is dysentery. This in some cases 
may be a germinal disease ; and in most 
cases assumes the nature of an ordinary 
diarrhea. See Dysentery. The only dis- 
ease of anv account now remaining that 
affects adult bees is— 

BEE-rAliALYSIS. 

This is a disease that is much more prev- 
alent and virulent in warm than in cold cli- 
mates. Almost every apiarist in the North 
has noticed at times perha})S one or two 
colonies in his apiary that would show bees 
affected with it. Yet it seldom spreads or 
makes any great trouble; but, unfortunately, 
this is not true in some parts of the South 
and West. In the South it is known to 
affect whole apiaries, and seems to be infec- 
tious. Unless a cure is effected in some 
way it will do almost as much damage as 
foul brood itself. 

SYMPTOMS. 

In the early stages an occasional bee will 
be found to be running from the entrance, 
with the abdomen greatly swollen, and in 
other respects the bee has a black, greasy 
appearance. While these sick bees may l)e 
scattered through the hive, they will sooner 
or later work their way toward the entrance, 
evidently desiring to rid the colony of their 
miserable presence. The other bees also 
seem to regard them as no longer necessary 
to the future prosperity of the colony. In 
fact, they will tug and pull at them about as 
they would at a dead bee until they succeed 
in getting them out in the grass, where the 
poor bees seem willing to go to die alone. 

Another symptom is, that the bees often 
show a shaking or trembling motion. In 
the earlier stages, this peculiarity does not 
appear; but later on it manifests itself very 
perceptibly. 

treatment and curb. 

In some cases destroying the queen of the 
infected colony, and introducing another 
from a healthy stock, effects a cure. This 
would seem to indicate that paralysis is con- 
stitutional, coming from tlic queen : but in 



DISEASES OF BEES. 



185 



DISEASES OF BEES. 



the South, where tlie disease is much more 
prevalent and destructive, destroying the 
queen seems to have but little effect. 
Spraying the combs with a solution of 
salt and water, or of carbolic acid and 
water, has been recommended; but these 
do little or no good. One writer recom- 
mends removing the diseased stock from its 
stand, and putting in its place a strong 
healthy one. The affected colony is then 
removed to the stand formerly occupied by 
the healthy bees. He reports that he tried 
this in many cases, and found that an abso- 
lute cure followed in every instance. The 
rationale of the treatment seems to be that 
the bees of the ordinary colony having bee- 
paralysis are too much discouraged to re- 
move the sick : as a consequence, the source 
of infection— that is, the swollen shiny bees 
—are allowed to craw^l through the hive at 
will. But when the colonies are transposed, 
the healthy vigorous bees of the sound stock 
carry the diseased bees entirely away from 
the hive. The sick and the dying being re- 
moved, the colony recovers. 

Mr. O. O. Poppleton, of Stuart, Fla., has 
had a large experience. One plan that he 
uses is as follows: 

He sprinkles sulphur over the affected bees 
and combs, but not until all the brood in the 
diseased colony has been removed and put 
into a strong healthy one ; for Mr. Popple- 
ton says the sulphur kills all the unsealed 
brood and eggs ; that no harm results in put- 
ting the brood among healthy bees, as he 
finds the source of the malady is not in the 
brood or combs; for he has put combs from 
paralytic colonies repeatedly into healthy 
ones, and never (but once) did the disease 
develop in any such colony, and that was a 
year afterward. 

At first, says Mr. Poppleton, the disease 
seems to get worse instead of better. The 
colony will dwindle, but in two weeks there 
will be a decided improvement, and finally 
the colony will be cured and will stay cured. 
In many cases, he thinks, it may be necessary 
to repeat the application of the sulphur 
about ten days after the first time. This 
makes sure that every bee has received a 
curative quantity of the sulphur, even if it 
were not in the hive at the first dose.* 

While the foregoing has worked well, yet 
because it is attended with a rapid reduction 
of the strength of the colony so treated, and 
because the disease has a tendency to run in 
certain strains that are very susceptible to 
it, Mr. Poppleton thinks that, in the long 

* Always spray the sulphur on in the evening. 



run, it may be better to use the following 
plan: He forms as many nuclei from strong- 
healthy stocks as there are sick colonies to 
be treated. As soon as the nuclei have 
young laying queens, he gives to each, as fast 
as they can take care of them, one or two 
frames of the oldest capped brood from eacli 
of the paralytic colonies, and thereafter till 
all the brood of such colonies is used up. 
The diseased bees and queen he next de- 
stroys with sulphur fumes, fumigating the 
hives at the same time. 

Repeated tests have shown that paralysis 
is never transmitted by the brood or combs, 
but that it is carried by the dead or sick 
bees. It is, therefore, important that, in 
giving the combs to the nuclei, there be no 
dead bees in the cells. 

If not convenient then to use the nucleus 
plan, replace the old queen and use the 
sulphur. 

FOUL BROOD* — AMEEICAK ANIJ 
EV ROPE AN. 

Probably many a bee-keeper is annoyed 
rather than otherwise that so much room is 
taken up in bee-journals on the subject of 
foul brood, all which matter he faithfully 
skips, feeling that it has no interest for him. 
But a day comes when something awakens 
his suspicion. Then he wants to know the 
symptoms. 

SYMPTOMS OF THE AMERICAN, OR 
PvOPY, FOUL I5ROOD. 

The specimen shown next page is typical 
of an advanced stage of the disease, because 
it shows sunken and perforated capped cells, 
and those uncapped with the dead larvae 
lying on one side. While we usually expect 
the larvae to die in the case of old fashioned 
or American foul brood after sealing, yet 

* In referring- to the pi-incipal forms of brood 
diseases, we have thought best to adopt the names 
used hy the Bui-eau ot Entomology of the United 
States government. Both the diseases, because 
they are much alike in appearance and effects, are 
designated as "foul" brood, and distinguished by 
qualifying adjectives. The foul brood that has 
been so long known in this country, as well as in 
Europe, will be here designated as 'American foul 
brood," although it is not of American origin. The 
newer disease (black brood t, first identified in 
Europe and later found in New York State, will be 
designated as "European foul brood." Tlie old 
name for this disease, ''black brood," is not descrip- 
tive of tlie disease it is supposed to name, for the 
brood affected is not black, although some shriveled 
specimens may take on tliat color. But this is also 
true of foul brood. Whether the selection of these 
qualifying adjectives is wise we will not discuss; 
and we therefore would refer the reader to Tech- 
nical Series No. 14, Bacteria of the Apiary, and to 
Circular No. 79, by Dr. E. F. Phillips, of the Bureau 
of Entomology. Neither do we think it necessary 
in a practical work of this kind to discuss the bac- 
teriology of these diseases, inasmuch as there 
seems to be a difference of opinion among scientific 
men as to the real microbe that is responsible for 
either. 




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DISEASES OF BEES. 



137 



DISEASES OF BEES. 



w lien the disease is very bad in the comb w.e 
find dead larvae in almost all .stages of 
growth, showing all gradations of colors, 
from a bright yellow to a deep dark brown. 
.Jnst about as the larva dies it takes on a 
bright yellow. This turns darker and 
darker, showing next the color of the coffee 
we drink with milk in it. The shade deep- 
ens until it is of the color of strong coffee 
without milk. At this stage the larva loses 
its form, sinking down into a shapeless 
mass ; and if a toothpick be introduced into 
this mass the dead matter will adhere to it, 
roping out some two or three inches like 
spittle. This has given rise to the term ropy 
foul brood, as distinguished from the type 
known as black brood, or. as the Bureau of 
Entomology has it. European foul brood. 

The cappings of the cells of the old-fash- 
ioned foul brood are very apt to be sunken. 
Somewhere over the surface there may be 
a small hole as if it had been pricked with a 
pin. This hole may be very minute: but as 
it enlarges it is apt to be angular, with rag- 
ged edges. It would appear that the bees 
make an opening in the cells, knowing that 
.something is wrong, and the mess within is 
so foul that they give it up in disgust. It 
would appear, also, that some of the bees 
go back, tear away the opening a little more, 
and then quit the job. By examining the 
engraving one may see the various sizes of 
openings in the cappings. Among the 
sunken cells and perforated ones will be 
found others that are perfectly normal. On 
opening up the same we find healthy grubs 
within. 

It is very seldom that we find all the cells 
in a comb affected, even in an advanced 
stage. In the one before us. probably a 
tenth of them were in a healthy condition, 
and from them would emerge in the course 
of time healthy normal bees. Foul brood, 
then, seems to attack a comb in spots. This 
is due possibly to the fact that young larvae 
are fed with tne pap or honey containing 
the disease germs, and others may be acci- 
dentally fed by other bees a food that is in 
no way affected, and consequently they ma- 
ture perfectly normal bees. 

When the combs are badly diseased, like 
the one in the engraving, they will give off a 
strong odor like that of a glue-pot. such as 
one gets while the glue is boiling, except 
that it is worse. The stench is almost iden- 
tical with that which emanates from a lot 
of dead bees piled up in a damp place in hot 
weather. Several times our men have been 
led to suppose there was foul brood in tlie 



yard by the peculiar odor, when examina- 
tion showed that a lot of dead bees that had 
died during the winter were in front of the 
entrance. 

But we have heard bee-keepers say that 
they do not regard the odor from foul brood 
as so foul as the books have stated. This 
all depends on the kind of nose one has. 
Some odors are sickening to one, but endur- 
able to another. This is particularly true 
of the odor that emanates from foul brcod. 

When one finds a comb like the one shown 
in the engraving on the preceding page the 
colony is pretty Inidly diseased; and it is 
also probable that other liives in the imme- 
diate vicinity are likewise affected; because 
when a case is so far advanced as this, the 
probabilities are that several colonies in the 
yard are involved; and it would be well to 
make a general search through the apiary. 
Colonies with entrances pointing in the 
same direction, and near by. will be almost 
sure to show some diseased cells. Possibly 
one will not find more than three or four 
affected cells, and those in only one comb, 
for the disease has only started in that hive. 
Sometimes one will not be able to find a 
single cell containing a dead larva. In one 
case, where we could plainly smell foul 
brood, we could not find any dead specimen 
in any cell until we had looked over tlie 
combs for something like half an hour, 
opening up here and there a cell, until we 
finally located a dead larva whose tissue 
would rope out as we have before explained. 
But as a general thing, before there is any 
pionounced odor a comb will be quite badly 
diseased. In that case one is not likely to 
notice it, even at the entrance. Something 
will depend on the direction of the wind, if 
any, and whether the bees are ventilating 
the hive. 

In the foregoing we have stated that a 
ropy condition of the dead matter was an 
important symptom of foul brood. We may 
say that it is the most important symptom, 
because it is the one test by which we dis- 
tinguish American foul brood from all other 
brood diseases. While the dead matter of 
European (black) brood will rope slightly, 
perhaps i of an inch or so, the dead matter 
of foul brood will stretch out like spittle 
anywhere from half an inch to a couple of 
inches. When it shows up like this, one can 
be very sure that he has before him the real 
foul brood. If he also finds the t>pical 
glue-pot odor is present and the cappings of 
the cells take on an appearance like tho.se 
shown in the engravings, he dofs not need 



DISEASES OF BEES. 



13>* 



DISEASES OF BEES. 




.NOTHEK COAIB BADLY AFFLICTED WITH FOUL BKOOD OF THE KOPY OR AMERICAN TYPE. 



go to the trouble of writing to the Bureau 
if J^ntomology of the United States govern- 
iient to iind out whether he has foul brood, 
)ut had best begin his treatment at once. 

There is a kind of pinhole perforation 
hat is perfectly normal in healthy brood, 
md should not be confounded with the 
)erforations for foul brood. Sometimes in 
lot weather the bees leave their young 
)areheaded, as it were; that is, there will be 
,mall openings in the cappings ; but these 
)penings are circular, and in the center of 
he cell : and if one peeps through he will 
;ee that the grubs are white, and that all is 
veil. But beginners who have discovered 
his peculiar condition have jumped to the 
'onclusion that it was foul brood, without 
lue investigation. The matter is here men- 
ioned so that they may not be confused. 

IREATMENT AND CURE OF AMERICAN 
FOUL BROOD. 

Years ago this disease got quite a start in 
)ur own apiary before we realized what it 
A-as ; and had we at that time an engraving 
ir photo like what we have already shown 
ive should have discovered the disease long 
before we did. As it was we had to treat at 

1 great disadvantage something like eighty 
colonies during that summer. Some of them 
kve burned outright — hives, bees, frames, 
^ornbs, and all. Others we treated with sali- 
cylic acid, carbolic acid, or phenol, but not 
with very satisfactory results. Indeed, If 
we had treated all colonies at the start by 
the McEvoy plan we might have had the 
rlisease under control, and probably would 
not have had to exceed two dozen affected 
:;olonies all told. The method that finally 
?ave us relief was as follows : As soon as a 



colony was discovered having a cell or two 
of the diseased brood it was closed immedi- 
ately, and a brick or stone was laid on the 
cover. Just before dark, and while all the 
bees of the apiary were in the hives, and all 
danger from robbers was past, we removed 
the hive from its stand, and put another one 
just like it in its place. This hive contained 
frames filled with full sheets of foundation. 
The bees were shaken off from the diseased 
combs, either on top of the frames or in 
front of the entrance of the new hive now 
on the old stand. The combs, as soon as free 
of bees, were put back into the old hive, and 
the whole thing was carried to the boiler- 
furnace, where the frames were burned in a 
hot fire. The hives were then disinfected 
by scorching out on the inside in a manner 
to be explained. 

THE M'eVOY treatment; DISINFECTING 
HIVES. 

We said we boiled or burned the hives; 
but Wm. McEvoy, Woodburn, Ont., Can., 
foul-brood inspector for Ontario, and in the 
government employ, reports having treated 
successfully hundreds and perhaps thou- 
sands of colonies by putting the bees back 
into the same hive from which they came. His 
treatment is given thus in his own language: 

In the honey season, when the bees are gathering 
freely, remove the combs in the even inn and shake 
the bees into their own hive ; give them frames with 
comb-foundation starters on and let them build 
comb for four days. The bees will make the start- 
ers into comb during the four days, and store the 
diseased honey in them which they took with 
them from the old comb. Then in the evening of 
the fourth day take out the new combs and give 
them comb foundation to work out, and then the 
cure will be complete. 



DISEASES OF BEES. 



189 



Mr. McEvoy does not recommend treuting 
the hive ; but reports have been received by 
the publishers showing that the disease has 
returned in some instances where the liive 
liad not been disinfected. It is advised, 
therefore, that one and all disinfect the 
hives as well as the combs. While they may 
be immersed in boiling water, yet completely 
disinfecting them would possibly require a 
boiling of two hours, as the spores of these 
brood diseases have been shown to be able 
to resist in some cases atemperatureof 212° 
for two and a half hours, and still survive. 

A far better plan, and one much simpler 
to apply, is to put a handful or two of dry 
straw in the empty hive that contained the 
affected colony, and touch a match to it. 
With a stick poke the straw around, so that 
every portion of the hive will be scorched or 
blackened by the flame. It is not neces- 
sary to char deep; for if the wood be burned 
to a light brown or black, the progress of the 
disease will be arrested. The flame can be 
quenched by throwing in a dipperful of 
water. Such a hive will be completely dis- 
infected, and may be used again with entire 
safety. It should be noted, however, that 
the alighting-board of the hive, as well as 
the entrance itself, should be charred 
slightly. Where straw is not available a 
gill or two of kerosene may be thrown inside 
the hive and ignited. But straw is much 
cheaper, and when the job is df.ne it leaves 
no odor clinging to the hive. 

What shall be done with the frames and 
the combs V If there is only one colony in 
the yard that is affected, it is advised to 
burn them at m^^iJ- combs, frames, brood, 
and all. In order to do this, a small bonfire 
should be made of old brush; then when the 
tire is at its height throw on the combs one 
by one. The ashes should afterward be 
raked up and buried, for sometimes the wax 
will melt and run down among the wood 
ashes, without coming in contact with the 
flame itself. Tlie ashes may be rendered 
safe, however, without burying if they be 
put over live coals and reburned. 

In case the disease gets a start through the 
yard it will be rather wasteful to burn the 
combs, and it is, therefore, advised to melt 
them up at night in a vat of boiling water, 
after extracting any honey they may con- 
tain. In this latter operation be careful not 
to spill any honey on the floor, nor let any 
come in contact with the tools or clothing 
where the bees can get at it the following 
day. Every thing about the room in which 
the wax is melted must be cleaned up, and 



DISEASES OF BEES. 



the old slumgum that may be left sliould be 
buried. Of course the process of rendering 
would ordinarily disinfect it; yet as there 
might be some carelessness in melting tn 
reader is advised to take the safer course 
and bury the refuse. Neither is it advised to 
put any diseased or supposed-to-be diseased 
combs in a sun or solar wax-extractor. Too 
many of these machines are not bee-tight 
\'ery often they leak, allowing either honey 
or wax, or both, to run out on the ground 
It IS doubtful whether the sun heat alone 
would be suflScient to bring about a thorough 
disinfection of the affected honey or wax 
Nothing short of a kettle of boiling water a 
steam or hot-water wax-press, or boiling 
water and an open hand-press should be 
used for handling these old combs The 
handle of the screw, if it be of iron, should 
be exposed to a flame from the stove after 
the work IS done. Any thing else that 
might become contaminated during the pro- 
cess of extracting and melting of combs 
should be likewise disinfected. The ex- 
tractor itself should be thoroughly scalded 
out with boiling water-not once but several 
times; and do not put this off one single day. 

In case that foul brood breaks out in the 
yard, and continues to break out from time 
to time, the only thing that remains then 
will be to treat the whole apiary, whether 
diseased or not. As soon as brood hatches 
out of healthy combs, extract the honey and 
melt them up. The wax thus secured if 
taken out with a modern wax-press will 
pay for the foundation put back into the 
frames. Continue shaking every colony on 
frames of foundation as fast as brood 
hatches out. If in case of healthy colonies 
the disease sliows up in only a mild form one 
set only of frames and foundation need be 
given. In that case, use full sheets always. 
A very good time to recomb the bees will 
be during swarming season. It will then be 
almost or quite time to practice "shook" 
swarming, as advised in the text-books. All 
combs as fast as extracted should be melted 
up and their place taken by frames of foun- 
dation. While the old frames may be used 
over again after boiling or suljjecting them 
to the flame of a bonfire, many advise the 
purchase of new frames that will probably 
be stronger and better than the old things 
that were formerly in the hives. It prob- 
ably would not be necessary to char out or 
burn out the old hives where the whole 
apiary is treated; but if one desires to be on 
the safe side he would do well to treat hives 
as well as combs. 



DISK ASKS OK i'.i:KS. 



140 



DISKASKS OF liKKS. 



A lew may leel that they can not sacrilice 
iii) id brood; for in the diseased combs there 
may be only a few affected cells. Such 
I'lames can be placed in an upper story over 
perforated zinc, while the bees and queens 
in the lower hive can be put on frames of 
loundation. As scon as the brood liatches 
Diit above, treat as before directed. 

In des^-ril)iiis' the next disease we can not 
do better t.han to compare the two together. 

KIIHOKKAX AND AMKRICAN FOUL 
BROOD DIFFKKKNTIATKD. 

iMiropcan foul bidod (black brood) lirst 
manifested it;<elf on this side of the Atlantic 
in New York, although, as already stated, it 
was first discovered by Chesliire and Cheyne 
ill Europe, and hence the name, European 
foul brood. In several of the external symp- 
toms it resemliles foul brood, but lacks two 
oi- three very important characteristics of 
that disease. First, the European disease is 
seldom if ever ropy. The dead matter, does 
not, as in the American variety, become a 
shapeless gluey mass, leaving no semblance 
of the original grub, stretching out like glue 
when a toothpick is inserted in it; but, on 
the contrary, it is of a watery consistency, 
and seems to be confined mostly within the 
shriveled skin of the dead grub, which may 
vary in color all the way from alight yellow^ 
or dark brown, to black. A grub that dies 
with American foul brood seems to melt, as 
it were, into one mass of sticky stuff that 
adlieres to the bottom or side of the cell; 
while a grub that dies from the European 
disease retains its general form, though 
shriveled up, and will remain in the oid of 
the cell. It may, however, fall over on the 
side of the cell; but the shajie of the grub in 
an elongated state will be practically the 
same except that it is shriveled brown or 
black. American foul brood smells like old 
glue. European foul brood, in the earlier 
stages, has a sort of soured or musty smell. 
In the hifd' stages it takes on a foul odor 
something like that of the American disease, 
in which state the sour odor seems to be lost 
or obscured by the more pronounced odor of 
decay. American foiU brood seems to att'ect 
both the sealed and unsealed grub, Itut 
more especially the sealed brood; and when 
' he dead matter is allowed to dry, it adheres 
very tightly to the lower side of the cell wall. 
The European disease, on the other hand, 
seems to affect more particularly the un- 
ssaled brood, although much of the sealed 
brood dies, and has a i)erf orated and sunken 
capping, very much like that of foul Ijiood. 



Hut a dead grub never adheres either to U\^ 
side or the bottom of the cell. The larva- 
of Euiopean foid brood when first affected 
have on the body a yellow spot; and before 
dying they move uneasily in the cell. After 
death they turn yellow, then brown, and 
finally black, ultimately drying down to a 
black scale or what ap])ea.rs to be an empty 
skin of the larva. 

TO CrUE EUROPEAN FOUE RltOOD 
(BLACK BROOD). 
The method of treatment is just the same 
as for foul brood in every particular. But 
Mr. E. W. Alexander, who has something 
like 700 colonies in one locality, reports that 
lie was successful in eradicating this dread- 
ful disease from his apiary by dequeening 
and putting in Italian blood; but before giv- 
ing the new queen he keeps the hive queen- 
less at least three weeks, during which time 
not a particle of brood is allowed to develop. 
The honey in the combs should be exhaust- 
ed as far as possible; and during the three 
weeks the bees will have polished u)) and 
otherwise cleaned the C(nnbs in pi eparation 
for a laying queen, which they expect to get, 
but which is purposely kept from them until 
the alloted t:me has elapsed. A young vig- 
orous Italian queen is then introduced. 
While we have received reports from some 
who have used this tieatment, and have 
been successful, the foul brood inspectois of 
New York, from their experience of the dis- 
ease, do not think that the treatment goes 
far enough. AVe would not advise this 
treatment except in c ises wliere the disease 
seems to get a foothold and defies treat- 
ment — that is, lingers on. Then all colo- 
nies, whether showing the disease or not, 
should be tieated by the dequeening process 
and afterward requeened. 

PICKLED BROOD AND ITS CAUSE. 

The name pickled l)rood has been applied 
to almost any form of dead brood that was 
not black or foul brood. In a general way. 
it seems to cover, then, any form of brood 
that is dead from some natural causes not 
related to disease of any sort. Pickled brood 
looks very much like Evuopean or black 
brood. The lar^'a dies, lying on its side in 
the bottom of the cell, both ends of which 
begin to turn a little yellow, brown, and 
then black. The discoloration seems to 
creep along until the whole body is involved. 
About this time the larva begins to shrivel 
and finally dries up. The real pickled brood 
is probably nothing more nor less than 
starved brood. If there is a lack of stores 



DISEASi:s OF BEKS. 



141 



DISEASES OF IJEKS. 



llie l)ees will neglect llie luootl, when it will 
(lie, as before described, But tliere may be 
a great abundance of honey or syrup in the 
hives, and still the larvae will die. Some 
springs and early summers there is a lack of 
pollen. In order that brood-rearing may be 
carried on in the hive there must be nitro- 
genous food of some sort, either of natural 
pollen or of bean or rye meal which the l)ee- 
keeper may set out. Sometimes malted 
nj ilk powder is strewn over the combs; but 
as this is rather expensive, w'e'would advise 
giving the bees bean or rye meal, or any 
meal that is obtainable from some grain. 
This should be put on boards in a simny 
l)rotected place outdoors. 

During the early spring of 1909 consider- 
able pickled or dead brood was reiiorted 
from various sections of the country. In- 
vestigation revealed the fact that this was 
nothing more nor less than starved brood ; 
starved, not because of a lack of honey or 
syrup, but because of the entire absence of 
pollen in the combs. A good deal of brood- 
rearing had stalled from i)olIeii that was left 
over from the season before; but when this 
was exhausted, the poor bees, not being able 
to get any thing from natural sources, sim- 
ply had to let the brood die. It is impor- 
tant, therefore, to see that all hives during 
the previous fall are supplied with pollen in 
one or two combs, for there can be no brood- 
rearing without it. 

CHILLED, OVERHEATED, OR 
POISONED BROOD. 

If the grubs all seem to have died about 
tlie same date, one may conclude some 
external change, probably a chilling atmos- 
phere, or an exposure of the combs to a sud- 
den change in the weather was the cause— 
l)articularly so if he discovers no odor of 
sourness or foulness. If the brood that 
comes on subsequently seems to be healthy, 
and continues to be so, then he may be sure 
he has no infectious disease. He may then 
conclude that his brood is probably chilled 
and possibly poisoned, as a large amount of 
brood dies every fruit-bloom season, as the 
result of poison sprayed on the trees by the 
orchardist. If he tinds any such dead brood 
in liis hives at that season he may conclude 
it died as the result of poison. 

Overheated brood does not often occur 
except in the hottest weather, when the 
combs have been exposed to a hot sun with- 
out any bees over it, or when the same has 
been confined with a powerful colony with a 
closed entrance. When moving bees, and 



insufficient ventilation is given, many of the 
bees often die of overheating. In all cases 
of this kind much ol' the brood will be found 
dead. One will very often find that some of 
the brood looks suspicious from a shipment 
of bees just received by experts. Occasion- 
ally we have had reports from our customers 
of how they had received foul brood through 
a shipment of bees, not knowing that the 
nucleus or the hive of bees is often exposed 
liy the expressman during shipment, to a hot 
sun or in a room with no air circulating. 

SENDING SUSPECTED SAMPLES OF 

DEAD BROOD TO THE (;0\^ERN- 

MEXT BACTERIOLOGIST. 

We have taken pains to describe the vari- 
ous forms of dead brood, often called 
pickled brood, in order to enable the bee- 
keeper to determine what he has in his yard; 
but if he finds a case of dead brood that 
smells quite strongly acid or sour, he had 
better send a sample, about -ixo inches. 
WTapped in paraffine or oiled paper, the 
whole inclosed in a stout wooden or tin box, 
to Dr. E. F. Phillips, Bureau of Entomol- 
ogy, Washington, D. C. The report from 
the bacteriologists will soon determine what 
the trouble is. If the report comes back, 
"Not black brood nor foul lirood," then the 
sender may rest easy. If the case looks like 
black brood, first smells a little sour and 
then afterward takes on a nasty decayed 
odor, we would advise treating the hive as 
if it w^ere black brood. 

BLACK BEES LESS ABLE TO RESIST FOUL 
AND BLACK BKOOD. 

It may be stated that black bees show less 
disposition to resist European or American 
foul brood than Carniolans or any of the 
new races. It follows, therefore, that all 
European foul brood should be eliminated 
from the apiary as soon as possible, as 
repeated tests have shown that the German 
bees do not resist any disease as w^ell as 
the yellow races. But one must not rely 
entirely on a change of blood, as this of 
itself will not effect a cure in a great major- 
ity of cases. 

A strong honey-flow always has a ten- 
dency to check the spread of both Ameri- 
can and European foul brood. In the same 
way, heavy feeding wnll accomplish much 
the same result. But it often happens 
after a honey- flow, when stores are partly 
consumed, that the diseased matter is un- 
covered, when the dead larvae, showing the 
effect of the microbe poison or disease, will 
begin to appear again. 



DISEASES OF liKKS. 



142 



DRONES. 



I'REVENTION. 

It would be useless to effect ii cure with- 
out extreme care not to luive other colonies 
arfected; and a little carelessness on the 
I)ait of tlie bee-keeper may spread the dis- 
ease throughout the whole apiary. .V comb 
from a diseased colony or a single drop of 
infected lioney is enough to carry the dis- 
ease—hence the instructions to operate in 
Ike evenings, so bees from healthy colonies 
will not steal any of the diseased honey. .V 
single bee from a diseased colony entering 
a healthy one will carry the disease in its 
honey sac. 

( AUTION. 

Do all work after dark, or at least when 
no bees are flying. Take every precaution 
not to start robbing, either of a diseased or 
a healthy colony. If there is any robbing, 
it endangers the whole apiary. If one sus- 
pects foul brood in any part of his apiary, 
he should by no means exchange combs. If 
it is in any colony, it may be in one that 
does not yet show the disease at all, but will 
give it to others. If one has extracted any 
honey he should not feed back without boil- 
ing. After handling a foul-broody colony 
he should not touch a healthy colony till his 
hands are thororrghly washed. Any knives, 
towels, or any thing daubed in the least 
with foul honey, must be religiously got out 
of reach of bees. One should be careful 
from the first. Caution at the start will be 
worth a luuidred times later on. 

FORMALIN, OR FORMALDEHYDE, 
FOR CURING FOUL BROOD. 

In 1903 and '4 discussion arose in Glean- 
ings in Bee Culture as to the possible value 
of formaldehyde (or formalin) for curing 
foul brood. Some of the experimenters who 
had subjected several combs of honey and 
brood from infected colonies to the fumes of 
the gas in a tight box reported it a success. 
( )thers tried the same thing only to find that 
such combs would transmit the disease the 
same as before. Experiments conducted in 
the Bureau of Entomology, Department of 
\griculture, Washington, D. C, showed 
that, when combs were subjected to the 
fumes of the gas for 48 hours in a Novy's 
anaerobic jar, all germs of the disease would 
be destroyed; but as the average bee-keeper 
could not have the requisite facilities, skill, 
and knowledge to carry on such work, he 
had better not take his chances of transmit- 
ting any infectious disease through combs 
fumigated under conditions such as he is 
able to provide. In all probability the work 



would not be complete enough to make dis- 
infection sure. If any infection at all were 
left, the disease would spread again, and so 
the work might just as well have not been 
done— or not attempted ; because melting 
up the combs and boiling, or, better, burn- 
ing up the frames, would remove all jiossible 
traces of disease. 

DIVIDING. This term is usually applied u^ 
to the operation of increasing the number 
of stocks by putting half the bees and coml)s 
into a new hive, just about swarming time : 
it is really one method of artificial swarm- 
ing. If you have an extra laying queen to 
give the queenless portion, it may do very 
well; but otherwise it is a wasteful way of 
making increase, and has been mostly aban- 
noned. See Nucleus and Swarming, un- 
der subhead Artificial Swarming ; also 
Increase. 

DHOriTIiS. These are large noisy bees W^ 
that do a great amount of buzzing, but never 
sting anybody, for the very good reason that 
they have no sting. The bee-keeper who 
has learned to recognize them, both by sight 
and sound, never pays any attention to their 
noise, but visitors are many times sadly 
frightened by their loud buzzing. We will 
commence as we did with the worker-bees, 
at the egg, and see how much we can learn 
of these harmless and inoffensive inmates of 
the bee-hive. 

If our colonies are prosperous, we may 
find eggs in the drone-comb of some of the 
best hives as early as March, but not, as a 
general thing, until April. You can tell 
the drone cells from the worker at a glance 
(even if you have never seen them) by the 
size, as you will see by looking at Honey- 
Comb. Whenever you see eggs in the large 
cells, you may be sure they are drone-eggs. 
I do not mean by this that the eggs that 
produce drones look any different from any 
other eggs that the queen lays, for in looks 
they are precisely the same. They are al- 
most the same in every respect, for the only 
difference is that the eggs that produce the 
worker-bees have been impregnated, while 
the others have not; but more of this, anon. 
The egg, like those producing workers, re- 
mains brooded over by the bees until it is 
about three days old, and then by one of na- 
ture's wonderful transformations is gone, 
and a tiny worm appears, a mere speck in the 
bottom of the cell. This worm is fed as be- 
fore, until it is about a week old, and is then 
sealed over like a worker larvae, except that 
the cap to the cell is raised considerably 



DRONES. 



143 



DRONES. 



more ; in fact, the cappings very much re- 
semble a lot of bullets laid closely together 
on a board. The young drones will begin to 
cut the caps of these cells in about 24 or i5 
days: the cap»s come off in a round piece, 
very much like those from a queen-cell. 

The IXKiy of a drone is hardly as long as 
that of a queen, but he is so much thicker 
through than either queen or worker that 
you will never mistake him for either. He 
has no baskets on his legs in which to carry 
pollen, and his tongue is s<» imsuited to the 
gathering of honey from flowers that he 
would stane to death in the midst of a clo- 
ver-field. 

We presume the young drones are ready to 
leave their hive after they are about tw^. 
weeks old. and ihev do this shortly after 




DKOXE-BEE tXL^IiOr£I> aiiVEX TEMES. 

noon, of a warm pleasant day. They come 
out with the young bees as they play, and 
first try their Tsings : but their motions are 
far from being graceful and easy, and 
they frequently tumble about so awkwardly 
that, as they strike against your face, you 
might almost think them either drunk or 
crazy. We do not know how we can very well 
decide how old a drone must be to fulfill 
the sole purpose of his existence, the fertil- 
ization of the queen, but should guess any- 
where from three weeks to as many months. 
Perhaps they seldom live so long as the last 
period named, but we think they sometimes 
do. Many facts seem to indicate that they. 
as well as the queen, fly long distances from 



the hive — ^perhai>s two nules or more. We 
have now satisfactory evidence that the 
meeting between queens and drones takes 
place not very high up from the ground. 
Several obser%'ers. during the season of 
18b9- reported having seen this meeting 
not very far from the hives, during the 
swarming se.as<3n. The queens and drones 
both sally forth during the middle of the 
day. or afternoon, and in from fifteen min- 
utes to an hour, or possibly a couple of hours, 
the queen returns with a white appendage 
attached to the extremity of her body, that 
microscopic examination shows to be the 
generative organs of the drone. These facts 
have been observed by hundreds of bee- 
keepers, and are well authenticated. In at- 
tempts to have queens fertilized in wire -cloth 
houses, we have, after letting the queens 
out. seen the drones pursue them until both 
parties vanished from sight. Still another 
fact: If you take a drone in your hand 
some warm afternoon just as he has sallied 
from the hive, and press him in a certain 
way. he will burst open something like the 
I>opping of a grain of com. extruding the 
very same organ we find attached to the 
queen, and dying instantly. 

The manner in which the meeting of the 
drone and queen takes place has been wit- 
nessed a great many times. We give here 
the statements of a few observers. 

The Eev. Mr. Millette. of Whitemarsh. 
Pa., appears to have been the first who wit- 
nessed the actual encounter. The following 
communication from his pen. which we 
copy from the Former nnd G^ird^infT for 
November. 1S9^. settles the imjxjrtant fact. 
as it came under his observation in the pre- 
rf-diricr sxmimer: 

HBOyZ AKI» QUKES BEE. 

In liife montb of Jane, an old stock threw oflf a 

mtftitA swarm in which there were fcrar qneeDS. 

During- the proe*s= of hiring, one of the queens wa5 

observed on tbe wine, and in a motnent was seized 

by a dronfc Atver Qyine abcnrt a rod tbey both came 

to the ground in close contact : tbe writer instant]}- 

followed tbem up: and as tbe drone was about df- 

parting fbaving broken loose*, seized both tbe bees, 

the queen in one hand and the drone in tbe other. 

Ibev were taken into tbe house, and left at liberty 

tofly. wb«j tbe queen flew to the closed window: 

but tbe drone, after crawling about on the hand , 

' was laid ui»on tbe window-s.eat. and in a very few 

t minutes expired. Br>th the queen and tbe drone 

had a milky-wbite fltiid upon tbe extremity of the 

, abdomen, ana upon pressing the drone there was no 

' indicati<^»n of bis pf>s?eg=ing the speciahx of his sex. 

To this we api:*end the following extract of 
i a letter written by Mr. S. B. Pareons recent- 
I ly dead), of Flushing. New York, confirm- 



DRONES. 



144 



DRONES. 



atory of the foregoing;. Mr. Paisons was 
well known as a man of probity and honor. 
He was the introducer of the Italian bee 
into this country, 
lie says [American Bee Journal): 

One fact in our last siimmer's expcrieiico will in- 
tiTcstthe readers of the Jounial. Tlie copulation 
(if an Italian rlroti'i and queen, upon the wing-, was 
witnessed in my apiary by Mr. Cary and Mr. Otis. 
They saw the queen issue from the hive, and circle 
round, when tlie drone struck her (both being upon 
the wing). A sharp snap ensued; the drone fell to 
the ground, and was picked up dead. The queen 
fell in the grass, ro.se again, and entered the hive 
Mr. Cary soon .searched for her, found the workers 
(•leaning her off, and the male organs attached to 
hor body. 

Tiater Mr. Cary related his own account 
of the occurrence, which we submit in his 
own words: 

About three o'clock p. m., on the 8th of July, I saw 
a young Italian queen enter her hive without any 
sign of impregnation She came out again in a few 
minutes, and I closed the entrance to the hive. 
During her absence, which lasted thirteen minutes, 
three drones came in front of the hive, and, finding 
1 he entrance closed, kept on the wing most of the 
time. When the returning queen was about three 
feet from the entrance, one of the drones very rap- 
idly flew to her, and, clasping his legs about her, 
caused her to settle a little to come in contact with 
a long spear of grass. At the same time an e.rp!o- 
siori was distinctly heard, and they immediately sep- 
arated—the drone falling to the ground perfectly 
dead, and having his abdomen very much contract- 
ed. The queen, after making a few circles in the 
air, entered the hive with the male organs of the 
drone attached to her. All these facts were wit- 
nessed by myself and Mr. R. C. Otis, of Kenosha, 
Wis , as we were seated on opposite sides of the 
hive, not more than six feet apart, so that there can 
be no possible ground of mistake. 

In later times a correspondent in Olcan- 
ings in Bee Culture thus describes the act: 

M.XTINO OF THE QUEEN AND DRONE ON THE WING, 
AS SEEN BY AN EYE-WITNESS. 

On .June 21, 1888. I saw this mating take place. 
The ((ueen issued from the hive, took two circles 
and came within five feet of my face, and was there 
met by a drone. They seemed to face each other, 
clinging by their fore legs, their bodies being per- 
pendicular, and in this shape tlew from my sight. It 
happened so unexpectedly that I hardly knew what 
was going on before it was too late to follow them. 
I could have easily kept up with them. I have de- 
scribed this because your book says they have not 
been seen, only as they were whirling about each 
other. I saw these fasten; and as they did so they 
turned and came together, square up and down; 
and as they flew away their bodies inclined about 
like this /, and each bee was vising ils wings. 

Myrtle, Pa. E. A. Pratt. 

Shortly after this another correspondent 
reported the one thing yet unobserved; viz., 
the manner of separation of the queen and 
drone. He described it as follows : 



AN EYE-WITNESS TO THE QUEEN'S SEPARATION 
EKOiM THE DRONE AFTER MATING. 

I was going out to my bees one day, when two bees 
came whirling down in front of me and fell on to a 
pumpkin leaf. It proved to be a queen and drone. 
The drone acted as if he had been stung by a work- 
er. He held fa.st to the leaf with his feet, and the 
queen kept whirling over and over, about as a Hy 
would if caught in a spider's web, until she freed 
herself, then .she flew out of sight in an instant, and 
the drone remained where he was on the leaf, but 
showed life for only about three minutes. 

Onawa City, Iowa. S. R. Fletcher. 

The late E. L. Pratt, of Swarthmore, Pa., 
a queen- breeder of note, in Gleanings in Bee 
Culture for 1904 thus wrote: 

I have this day witnessed the act of copulation 
betweenaqueen and adrone About 2 :.30 o'clock on 
the afternoon of Thursday, July 21, I was standing- 
near a fertilizing-box filling a feeder when my atten- 
tion was attracted liy an unusual commotion in the 
way of extra loud buzzing, as of drones on the wing. 
I looked and saw a queen rapidly flying toward the 
fertilizing-box, evidently her home. She was close- 
Ij' followed by two drones, one of which turned and 
flew off, hut the other remained in pursuit. They 
were flying not six inches from the ground, and 
were not over eight feet from the fertilizing-box 
when the act took place. It was done so quickly 
that I marveled at it, and I wish here to record the 
facts as I witnessed them. I could not see that the 
queen -was flying in any but the usual way when re- 
turning to her hive, but the drone was unusually 
swift of wing. They were both flying rapidly; and 
as they flew the drone made two circles about the 
queen as though to head her off; and as these circles 
were made about the queen she rose slightly each 
time. Directly after making the second circle about 
the queen the drone flew at her as a worker flies 
with the intention of stinging in earnest. His abdo- 
men was curved, and his wings rattled in about the 
same manner. Directly tlie drone was in contact 
with the queen there was a sudden lurch sidewise, 
and they went together some distance into the field 
initil I lost sight of them. As they flew together 
they much resembled workers when they attempt 
jointly to bear off their dead. I remained by the fer- 
tilizing-box perhaps three minutes, and saw the 
queen return and enter, bearing the marks of ha\- 
ing met a drone. I still lingered by the box, and 
soon saw a worker bear out the tell-tale white speck. 
I later opened the box, and saw the queen bearing 
the usual thread from male contact. A queen-bee 
is very swift of wing; but I am convinced that a 
drone is ten times swifter; for to be able to encircle 
the queen in the manner this one did, such must be 
the fact. 

In the fall of 1876 we saw a swarm of black 
ants sporting in the sunshine. A close look 
showed them to be both males and females; 
and as pair after pair fell to the ground, we 
had ample opportunity of noting all circum- 
stances. In this case the drones at first 
seemed paralyzed; bttt after the queens flew 
away, they revived and subsequently flew 
away also. One point here particttlarly im- 
pressed me : The ants of both sexes were in 
such countless thousands that they must have 



DRONES. 



145 



DRONES. 



come from all the ant-hiils for, we should say, 
miles around; the result was, as you see, 
that there was hardly a possibility of insects 
from the same family meeting. JSTow, is 
there any other way in which the strain of 
blood could be so effectually crossed with 
that of some distant colony as by this huge 
jubilee of both sexes V 

Queen-ants, like queen - bees, seldom if 
ever come out of their homes at any other 
time, and, as if by some preconcerted ar- 
rangement, they meet and mix up apparent- 
ly for the very pm-pose of effectually pre- 
venting ''in-and-in breeding,'' as it is usual- 
ly termed when applied to stock. Do queens 
and drone-bees meet in the same way, in 
vast numbers V There seems to be no doubt 
about it, as all known facts point that way. 
Drones have been seen in places in larger 
numbers than we would think could possibly 
come from one hive ; and many have heard 
their loud humming who have not seen 
them. The fact that a queen should become 
fertilized in so short a time after leaving the 
hive seems strange, miless it really is a fact 
that she is called to the swarm of drones 
by their loud humming, which she would 
instinctively recognize from a long dis- 
tance. Flying among them she meets the 
drone face to face, falls to the ground, tears 
herself loose from lier dead mate by whirl- 
ing, and then returns to her liive. having 
been absent only a few minutes. 

DOES THE DRONE HAVE ONLY ONE PARENTV 

One of the most wonderful things about 
the drone, or male bee. is that it is hatched 
from an egg that is unimpregnated. So 
wonderful indeed is tliis that the matter 
was for ages disputed, and is even now, 
by many who have not looked into the mat- 
ter and examined the evidence. What we 
mean by imimpregnated is, that queens that 
have never met the male bee at all will lay 
eggs, and these eggs will hatch, but they al- 
ways produce drones, and never workers. 
Those who have had the care of poultry are 
Avell aware that the hens will lay eggs right 
along, if no cock is kept in the yard at all ; 
and. if we are not mistaken, a pullet would 
commence and lay her full quota of eggs, 
if she had never seen a male bird. Nom% 
nearly the same is true with regard to 
the queen-bee. If she fails to meet a 
drone diu'ing the first thirty days of her 
life, she usually begins to lay eggs : but 
she seldom lays as many, or with the same 
regularity, as a fertile queen. The eggs a 
hen lays, if she is allowed to sit, never pro- 
duce any chicks at all. The eggs laid by a 



queen, under the same circumstances, as we 
have said before, always produce drones. 
There is one more fact connected with the 
common fowl : If a male bird is put into 
the yard with the hen for one day only, good 
fertile eggs will be laid for many days, pos- 
sibly a whole laying. If a Black-Spanish 
cock should get among a flock of white hens 
for only a single day, all the eggs laid for 
many days afterward will produce chicks 
with more or less black feathers on them. 
We give these statements from actual facts. 
The point we wish you to observe is, that the 
eggs of even the common fowl are fertil- 
ized as they are laid by the hen, or possi- 
bly a few days before. With the fowls, one 
meeting with the male bird suffices for the 
fertilization of an egg daily, for a week or 
more ; with the queen-bee, for her whole life 
of three or even four years. 

We do not know whether the hen has the 
power of laying fertile or unfertile eggs at 
will or not; probably not; but we do know 
that a queen-bee lays both fertilized and 
unfertilized eggs, alternating from one kind 
to the other in rapid succession. Ski Ifiil 
microscopists have carefully dissected eggs 
from worker - cells, and found the living 
spermatozoa in numbers from one to five. 
These living spermatozoa were precisely 
identical with those found in dissecting a 
mature drone. Again: Every egg a queen 
lays passes a little sac containing a minute 
quantity of some fluid; the microscope 
shows that this fluid contains thousands of 
these spermatozoa. Is it not wonderful that 
these spermatozoa should live four years or 
more in this little sac, awaiting tlieir turu 
to be developed into a higher life whenever 
they should be required to fertilize the egg 
that is to produce a worker- bee ? A'ery well; 
now the egg that is taken from a drone-cell 
contains no trace of spermatozoa. There- 
fore it, like the vmimpregnated egg of the 
common fowl, should never hatch. Strange 
to say, it does hatch, and produce the drone. 
The first glimpse we get of the little l)it of 
animated nature is the tiny speck alive at 
the bottom of tlie cell. Does he grow out of 
nothing, without parentage, at least on the 
paternal side? If his mother was an Italian, 
he is also an Italian ; if a black queen, he is 
also a black. We shall have to conclude, 
perhaps, that he is the son of his mother, and 
nothing more. The egg that has never been 
impregnated in the usiial way. must, after 
all, have some living germ incor])orated in 
its make-up. and this germ must come only 
from the mother. The great skill and pro- 



DRONES. 



146 



DRONES. 



ticiency with the microscope, required to 
make these minute examinations, is such 
that but one or two have ever succeeded in 
exploring as far as we have mentioned, and 
it is somewhat like our investigations in the 
polar regions. Who among us will educate 
liiniself for the work and carry it along? 

Drones are also hatched from eggs laid by 
worker-bees. These drones are usually 
smaller in size than those from a queen be- 
cause they are generally reared in worker- 
cells, and the question as to whether they 
are capable of fertilizing queens, so as to be 
of some value, like other drones, is one that 
we believe has never been decided. Some 
facts have been brought to light that seem 
to be pretty good evidence on both sides 
of the question; but, so far as we know, 
nothing very definite. We confess that we 
sliould not want to make use of them, even 
if they were good, for we want the strong- 
est, healthiest, and largest drones we can 
get. Eor a further account of the mothers of 
these queer drones, see Laying Workers. 

After what we have said, you will perhaps 
see how clear it is that the drones are in 
no way affected by the fertilization of the 
queen; or, in other words, that all daughters 
of a purely fertilized Italian queen produce 
drones absolutely pure whether they have 
been fertilized by a black drone or not. 

Until the invention and general adoption 
of foundation we had no easy way of repress- 
ing the production of drones in far greater 
numbers than could ever be desirable. Since 
the introduction of foundation, however, it 
is found to be quite an easy matter to make 
almost every cell in the hive a worker-cell. 
On the other hand, if we choose we can have 
a hive filled entirely with drone comb, and a 
good queen could, we think, be induced to 
raise nearly, if not quite, a full quart of 
drones at one time. By this means we can 
liave our drones raised from such stock as 
we choose, and we can save the vast amount 
of honey that has so long been wasted by 
rearing and feeding drones that we do not 
need. While extracting, we have found as 
many as several pounds of drone larvse in a 
single hive ; and, to save the honey they 
would consume as soon as hatched, we used 
to shave their heads off with a very sharp 
knife. This is certainly rather expensive 
l)Usiness,for it must take more than a pound 
of honey, to say nothing of the value of the 
pollen, to get up a pound of sealed brood. 
If all this labor and material had been util- 
ized in the production of worker-brood, it 
Avould doubtless have been equivalent to a 



swarm of bees. All-worker comb would 
have insured this without trouble. 

This general subject is covered in a more 
technical article entitled Parthenogene- 
sis elsewhere in this book, and also under 
head of Queens. 

HOW^ TO MAKE BEES BUILD AUL WORKER 

COMB W^HKN ONLY STARTERS 

ARE USED. 

Where one can not afford the expense of 
full sheets of foundation it is well to know 
how to make the bees eliminate all drone 
comb. Mr. E. D. Townsend, of Remus, 
Mich., tells in Gleanings in Bee Culture how 
this may be accomplished. 

Tlie secret seems to be in having just the right 
number of worliers and just tlie right amount of 
honey coming in, so that the bees will draw out the 
combs no faster than the queen can occupy them 
with brood. As long as this condition lasts we 
should expect tlic bees to build worker combs. 
Prom this we see that, in order to get good results 
in comb-building from a natural swarm, this swarm 
should be of just the right size, and there should be 
a honey-flow of, s.ay, three or four pounds a day. 

We will suppose a large swarm is hived during a 
period when honey is coming in freely. At this 
time tliere is too much honey coming in for the best 
results in comb-building in the brood-nest, if the 
whole force of workers is compelled to do all theij- 
work in the brood-nest. The remedy is to put most 
of the workers at work in the supers. Most begin- 
ners fail in doing this; but the principle is to make 
the surplus receptables more inviting to the work- 
ers than the brood- nest, and the bees will immedi- 
ately go up into the supers on being hived. Our 
comb-honey super with extracting-combs at the 
sides make an ideal arrangement forthis very thing. 

It is plain to see that, if most of the honej' being 
carried in is placed in the sections, where it shoiild 
be, the queen will not be hurried to keep pace with 
the workers, consequently nearly all worker comb 
will be built. The brood-nest should be filled with 
comb during the first 23 days after the swarm is 
lii\ed, for the queen must keep up with the work- 
ers and lay in nearly every cell as fast as it is drawn 
out, or the bees will begin to stoie honey in the 
cells. Wlien this condition arrives, the bees, on tlie 
supposition that the queen has reached her limit, 
and that the rest of the combs 'Will be used for stor. 
ing honey, begin to build the storage size or the 
di'one-cells in the broodnest. This is likely to occur 
in about 23 days after the swarm is hived; for by 
this time the brood is beginning to liatch out in that 
part of the hive where the laying began. From this 
time on the queen has nearly all she can do to keep 
the cells filled with eggs where the young bees are 
hatching. This means that the comb-building part 
of the hive is neglected, and that the bees build 
store or drone comb to a great extent until the hive 
is filled. 

There are artificial ways of handling bees so that 
they will build good worker combs. I refer to the 
plan of shaking the bees into an empty hive, in the 
same way that a swarm is hived. Tf a colony is 
divided into nuclei of, say, two or three combs each, 
and each nucleus given a young queen reared the 
same j'ear, such little colonies will build very nice 



DKONEvS. 



147 



DKONE8. 




TINKER ZINC. 

through this, reports, as well as our own ex- 
perience, convinced us that this size was 
too narrow. It not only proved to be a great 
hindrance to the workers when their honey- 
sacs were empty, but, when gorged with 




Full size. 



smaller than the foreign. The reports, as 
well as our own experience in regard to the 
perforated zinc as so made, have led us to 
believe that this size of perforations is about 
right. 

In 1908 there was put on the market a new 
form of queen-excluder consisting of wire 
bars held at tlie required distances apart by 
means of soft-metal cross-ties at every two 
or three inches. These bars consist of No. 



g2= 



S===SS 



worker combs; but the beginner will not be inter- 1 honey, they were scarcely able, if at all, to 
ested in this artificial way of makin- increase, for p^gg through. More recently, perforated 

he should stick to the natural-swarming- plan for . , , ,-., -^ 

his increase until such time as he has had experi- ^"^^ has been made m this country on a 
ence and made a success of getting- a crop of honey, different pattern, but with perforations ex- 

In fact, tiiere are many things to be learned before I actly ,^'',f„ of an inch in width, or a trifle 

a beginner should take up aitiflcial w;iys of making 

increase. 

RESTRAINING UNDESIH.VI'.LE DRONES. 

Drones undesirable for breeding purposes 
may be prevented from going out to meet 
the queens, by keeping them +'roni going out 
of the hive, or by letting them go out into a 
cage through which workers can pass and 
they can not. This is done by taking advan- 
tage of the fact that a worker- bee will pass 
readily through slots in perforated metal 
where a drone can not. In the figure shown 
we give the form of the perforated metal. 

Zinc is the material generally used, be- 
cause it is cheap and will not rust. Some 
attempt was made to perforate tin as above, 
but it proved to be very unsatisfactory. 

THE PROPER SIZE FOR THE PERFORATIONS. 

The oblong holes, as shown below, must 
be of such a size as to permit the easy pass- 
age of workers, but exclude not only drones 
but even queens (see Comb Honey and 
Swarming). It is no great task to make 
the perforations drone - excluding ; but to 
make them queen - excluding at the same 
time, and yet not hinder the easy passage of 
workers, requires a very nice adjustment in 
the width of the perforations. The first 
sheet of perforated zinc was cut in England, 
and imported to this country. This had 
perforations jJffo of an inch in width. While 
this answered a most excellent purpose, a 
few claimed that queens would occasionally 
get through it. To obviate this, zinc was 
made with the perforations a little narrower. 

The width of this was /j or i\% of an 
inch. While no queen succeeded in getting 

WOOD AND WIRE HONEY-BOARD. 

14 hard drawn galvanized wire that has been 
straightened in a wire-straightener so that 
it is true as a die. Contrary to what one 
might expect, the spaces between these 
bars are more exact than the width of the 
various perforations in sheet metal. In the 
process of making, the bars are laid in metal 
forms having grooves that are spaced exact- 
ly right, and then a soft metal in a molten 
state is made to flow in certain cross-grooves 
of the metal form. As the metal cools al- 
most instantly, the wires are held at the ex- 
act right intervals. The smooth, rounding 
edges of the bars afford less obstruction to 
the bees passing and repassing, and it is be- 




DRON KS. 



US 



DKONES. 



lir\ ed tliat this loi'iu ol' I'Xcliult'r is siiptTtir 
i<i tlif old pevt'onited nit'tal. 

Ht'saidiufj tlu' latter, unless the dies are 
very sharp there will he a slif^ht rough bun- 
edge on tlie under side of the sheet. It is 
impossible to remove tiiis edge without re- 
ducing the widtli of the perforation. For 
I his reason the wire excluder will doubtless 
supersede tlie other form of perforated zinc. 

The illustrations herewith shown give one 
an idea of how the new excluder has been 
applied to drone-traps and honej^-boards. 

nitONE-EXCLUDING ENTRANCE-GUARDS. 

If we put a strip of perforated zinc or wire 
excluder over the entrance, the worker-bees 
can go out, but the drones can not ; but as a 
simple exchuler is liable to get clogged if 
if there are many drones in the hive, an 
arrangement shown below is usually used. 




ZiNl- EXTKAXCE-tU Alii). 

Tliis is simply a strip of perforated metal, 
.'^5x14 inches long, folded at right angles, as 
shown. Each end is then closed with a 
block l|xl|xi, fastened in place with a 
couple of double-pointed tacks. To use, 
place tight up against the entrance as rep- 
resented in the cut. 

When it is desirable to get the drones all 
out of a hive without permitting any to get 
back again, we put the guard over the en- 
trance and then shake all the bees in front 
of the hive. The workers will, of course, 
crawl back on the combs ; but the drones 




alley's drone-excluder. 

will have to stay out, and the queen too, 
uidess we watch for her and put her into the 
hive. In the morning, when the drones are 
stiffened with cold, they may be fed to the 
chickens or otherwise destroyed. 

If one objects to this method as being too 
much trouble, he can try another way. On 
a sunny day a very large part of the drones 



will i)e (Hit for a lly about 1 i". m., or a little 
later. He is then to place the drone-guard at 
the entrance ; and when the drones return 
a little later they will be shut out. In the 
evening they may be disposed of as before. 

The drone-excluder just described is not 
automatic. Accordingly, the late Henry 
Alley, of Wenham, Mass., devised the one 
shown at the bottom of the first column. 

It is to be observed that this is similar to 
the one just described, only it has a wire- 
cloth cone in the top. The drones, after 
making a fruitless attempt to pass the met- 
al, will enter tlie wire-cloth cone in the top. 




WIKE ALLEY TKAT'. 

and escape ; but none will have sense enough 
to go back the way they came, but will hud- 
dle together outside and await their fate. 

If it is desirable to get the drones into a 
box, so they may be carried to some other 
apiary, for instance, a cage is made with an 
upper story, and a couple of these wire cones 
conduct the drones " up stairs." If any 
worker-bees should go up too, they can read- 
ily go up through the perforated zinc. This 
latter arrangement is shown in the cut above. 

As to how this trap may be used for catch- 
ing swarms, see Swarming, elsewhere. 

rearing drones out of season. 
This is quite a difficult matter to accom- 
plish, especially in the spring ; and although 
we have many times fed colonies with this 
end in view, we have always found some 
other colony that would have drones flying 
just as soon, without any artificial aid. 
Drones may be kept almost any length of 
time by making the colonies containing 
them queenless, or by putting them into 
queenless colonies. During warm dry weath- 
er in the summer or fall, drones may be pro- 
cured by feeding, but the feeding must be 
regular, and given every day for several 
days or weeks. By feeding one colony a 
barrel of sugar in the fall, we succeeded in 
getting a nice lot of drones in October. Of 
course, their combs were taken away and 
empty ones given them, to give the queen 
room. Before we can raise drones, we must 



I>ROXE.S. 



149 



DYSEXTKKY. 



get w'orker-bnxxl under gfxxl headway, and 
then, if we put a drone-comb right in the 
center of the brood-nest, the queen will, if 
all things are favorable, begin at once to fill 
it with eggs. The feeding mu.st be kept up, 
however, for bees are very easily discour- 
aged: and if a sto^jpage occurs in the daily 
supplies, they will not hesitate to pull the 
young drones out of their cells and sacrifice 
them without mercy. 

A queen w ill seldom produce drones until 
she is nearly or quite a year old. even 
though drone comb may be placed in the 
very center of the brood-chamber. 

VKOSE< ¥H<jyi DKOXE-LAYEKs. 

(^ueeu-breeders find that one or more 
drone-layers of good stock rearing fuUy 
developed drones, if supplied with plenty of 
worker brood, will furnish a fine lot of nice 
drones in and out of season : l.ut drones 
from laying workers, or from queens that 
liave never been fertilized, are to ]je avoided. 
Drones from queens that have once laid 
worker eggs, and then failed, are as good as 
the drones from any queen. 

DESTKUCTIOX OF DROXES IX TIUE FALL. 

This does not necessarily occur in the fall, 
but may take place at any time in the sum- 
mer : and we have several times known the 
drones killed off between apple-bloom and 
white clover, only because supplies ceased, 
c:iusing the bees to become discouraged and 
give up swarming for the time being. We 
know of no way in wiiich one can tell Sj 
well that the yield of honey has ceased, as by 
the behavior of the l^ees toward their drones. 
When, in the midst of the honey sea-son, we 
see a worker buzzing along en the back of a 
drone that seems to h* doing hia best to get 
away from the hive, we may take warning 
that the yield of honey is failing, and that 
we had better stop making artificial swarms, 
^id prepare for feeding, if it is our inten- i 
tion so to do. We do not know that we ever | 
saw bees sting drones, but they Hometimes 
pretend to do =o. It is j»robable that it is only 
a feint to drive them away. The poor drone. 
at such times, after vainly trying to go back , 
into the hive. wUl sijmetimes take wing and 
sojir away off in the air. only to return after 
a time to be repulsed again, until, through 
weakness perhaps, and want of food, he 
flutters hopeles-sly in the dxist. and so sub- 1 
inits to the fate that seems to be a part of • 
the inexorable law of nature and of his being. 

To preserve drones for late queen-rearing, 
we liave been in the habit of carrying all I 
frames containing drone-br.x)d to some I 



queenless hive, knowing they would IjC safe 
there as long as wanted, even if it were all 
winter. We l>elieve drones ha veljeen, under 
such circum.stances. wintered over: but 
whether they are of any value in the spring 
or not. we are unable to say. We should 
fear they would not l>e by the time queens 
could be reared. We usually have drones 
in some of our colonies as soon as April, and 
that is as early as we should care to under- 
take to rear queens, in ordinary seasons. 
We have several seasons reared queens and 
had them successfully fertilized, even after 
all the drones had been gone some time, so 
far as we could discover: and as they proved 
to be purely fertilized, we have Ijeen not a 
little perx>lexed. 

DROXES WITH J:RIGHTLV COLTjRKD HKAI>S 
OF 1»IFFEREXT COLOR>. 

This is a queer feature in natural history. 
Almost every summer s<»me one writes or 
sends us .<pf-cimens of drones with heads of 
different colors. The matter has t^eeu u- 
ported and commented on at different times 
in Ghaniwj*. Xot only do we occasionally 
find drones with white heads, but we find 
them with heads of a cherrj-red color: again, 
of a bright green, and at other times yellow. 
We confess there Is something very wonder- 
ful and my.sterious to us in this matter. 
Why queer old dame nature should decide 
to single out the heads of drones to sj,ort 
with in this way will, it seems to us, Ije a 
pretty difficult matter to explain. Why 
shjuld this ijeculiarity show itself in the 
drones more than in the queens and workersy 
Again, why should h(:od$ be the subject of 
thcse bright rainbow colors? Is there really 
any purpose or design in it? or is it just Ije- 
caiL-;e it happ^: md so? We presume there are 
ver}' few among our readers but will .say 
there is a purpose and a design in it; and the 
next thing is to decide why it should Ije »>. 
Here is a conundrum. 

DTSZdPT'TEB.Y'. When we see our 

bees covering ine «-jiirances to their hives 
with a brownish yellow, disigreeable-smell- 
ing excrement or .stain, we may say they 
have the dysentery, or what is asually known 
as such . If the weather becomes very wurui 
and pleasant, they will usually get over it 
after they have had a full flight. If, on tin- 
contrary, the 5ym;>t^.»ms show themselves 
before warm weather, and no oppo::tunity is 
given them to fly. they may get yj Ijad as to 
cover their combs with this substance, and 
fijoaUy die in a damp filthy-looking ma.ss. 



DVSENTKRY. 



15(1 



DYSENTERY. 



( AISK UK DVSKNTKHV. 

The real cause is long-continued low tem- 
perature, further aggravated by bad food. 
Ill order to keep up sufficient animal heat^ 
the bees liave to overeat, surcharging their 
intestines. The long-retained fecal matter 
results in purging or dysentery. We can 
hardly think that any food alone would pro- 
duce the disease, because we rarely, rf ever, 
tind the bees suffering from any thing they 
will gather, in warm summer weather. Hon- 
ey gathered from rotten fruit, if we may call 
it honey, is very productive of this complaint, 
and cider from cider-mills is almost sure to 
kill bees at the apjiroach of cold weather. 
We knew a lady wlu) boiled up a mash of 
sweet apples and fed to the bees, because 
they were short of stores, and she could not 
afford to buy sugar for them. They all died 
of dysentery, long before spring. Wheie 
dampness accumulates from their breath, 
and settles on the combs, diluting the honey, 
it is very apt to cause these symptoms. Sor- 
ghum syrup has brought on a very aggravat- 
ed form, and burnt candy or sugar is almost 
sure poison to bees during cold weather, al- 
though it may be fed them with impunity in 
the middle of the summer. 

While it is very certain that no such symp- 
toms are found in warm weather, it is also 
certain that a strong colony in a hive with 
soft, warm, dry porous walls, will stand an 
amount of bad food that a weak one, or one 
exposed to drafts of cold air, will not. We 
have known bees having considerable stores 
of cider, to winter very well if the colony 
were strong enough to keep the whole inte- 
rior of the hive dry and warm. A powerful 
colony, if left with their hive uncovered 
during a rain storm, will soon dry them- 
selves; and while they are doing this they 
remind one of a sturdy cart-horse as h? 
shakes the water off his hide and dries h in- 
self by his internal animal heat. While they 
have the health and numbers to repel mois- 
ture in this way, thev are safe against almo t 
any thing. But to help them to keep this 
internal strength, they should have close 
and comfortable quarters, very much such 
as we would need for ourselves to enable us 
to pass a severe winter's night in health and 
comfort. The hives often used are so large 
and barn-like, in respect to the winter's 
brood-nest, that comfort is almost out of the 
question, for it does little if any good to 
pile straw, c( rn-fodder, etc., over the out- 
sides of the hives while the cluster within 
has no sort of protection at all. If they 
were in a hollow tree, the diameter of which 



was sii small that they could till it cumplete- 
ly, they would be in a much better place, es- 
pecially if the sides were lined with soft dry 
rotten wood. We have seen icicles nearly as 
large as the arm, in box liives that were 
tight and large; these had all formed from 
the condensation of the breath of the bees. 
Now, should they melt during a thaw, in 
such a way that this water w^ould run down 
on the bees and their unsealed stores, it 
would be very apt to produce unhealtliiness, 
to say nothing further. 

THE AGENCY OF THE APHIDES IN I'UODUC- 
ING DYSENTERY. 

The very worst winter food is, without 
doubt, the honey gathered from the aphides 
(see Honey- dew); or, at least, most com- 
plaints have been made of this honey. As 
bees seldom touch this, except during 
drouths or unfavorable seasons, it no doubt 
has been the cause of much of the mischief. 
If the early honey is all extracted from the 
brood-combs, and the bees left with nothing 
but this bad honey, gathered late in the fall, 
the matter is much worse; and many cases 
have been rejiorted of colonies dying where 
the extractor had been used, while those un- 
touched had been free from the disease. 
The moral is, refrain from extracting too 
closely from the brood-apartment. We 
would at least let the bees fill their brood- 
chamber with clover or linden honey, just 
before the yield ceases, extracting toward 
the close of the harvest, only from the 
combs in the upper story, imless we choose 
to feed them up for winter on sugar or can- 
dy. We have had one or two favorable re- 
ports of wintering on the aphidian honey, 
from which we may conclude it is not al- 
ways deleterious. 

PREVENTION OF DYSENTERY. 

From what we have said, one will probably 
infer that we would make the colony larger 
or the hive smaller, during the winter sea- 
son. If we say, also, have the walls of the 
hive of some warm porous material that will 
absorb moisture and afterward dry out read- 
ily, we have the idea so far. Perhaps the 
chaff cushions and division-boards are the 
readiest means at our command of acccmi- 
plishing this. A dry cellar is excellent. 

While bees might get along on almost anv 
kind of food when thus i rspared, we would 
by no means fail to give them good whole- 
some stores, as far as possible. Honey 
gathered in the middle of the season is gen- 
erally wholesome; for by the time winter 



DTSEXTUir. ISl IJISEXTEBY. 

drfii^-otf power «« lore ^sofc^oC Honey , 
g aib ac d in tiie falL if sealed up. is genecal- -^ 

1^9wd;lMitsanec€tbejEinio«aspn>dBc _ or it me sDores are <rf poor qmii^. 

a honey tlat se«BS to seiiaaate into a tiLiL - lability of WBie eokmies bang rf- 

stOT liqnid. and a s r a wnl a r sub^anc^ lyKHterr. Iht best lenedrn 

•mesbins like candied boney. We are » ^ .^ e^ar sfaovU be dry, and 

:iiie sore tbis causes dysentery, but it loo^ ^MMdd be as near 45 as pos- 

:isone3eaaoB5veTy»Kiiasifitdoe&. ^ . raobdairJftfiiralon- 

rrap nnde of vbite or snanbted sagar. g_ : tietrc boms. H Ae 




always vbcdesonie. and wben tees are tc !an not be kept np 

-^ort of stares it is probaUy- tfae cbeapesc e : mitf^^ ^rftn a eon- 

i^safiestof anytM^forfeed. •eeedtokerp 

Weoneewintoedae^Oi^OBsagarstore- ^^^^^^ -,-^_.. 

sbat eanK OHt 9o beaitbj in tbe ^ling tb^i 
they did not even spot the wbite atovT^- 
Uy. vben they voided tbor ex umio rt sn ^-^ 
their fiist fi^ft in the spcing. tr 

A good auEny are a^l^ if sone oih» ^_ ^^^ 

form f£ sweet win not give jnst as good ^- 

reanlts for feedfii^ in wTBler. In rE^ly ^^ e^ 1 

^wajs s^ that a cheaper s^ar kB no Bor^ 
aetnal food Talne than gcanlated sn^ir. :: 
asnnach. j^ 

IftheafiBetedeoiOBiesare - ... :- : _.-.- :, - -_ i^ 

ihe ooK real renedy K settled want wea- have abont decided to at 
ibcr. £t^ one good want day win often Bntwhat are w« going : 

sartetoaDeriatetfae u oii t ie-asit^Testhe get the dvnenteryt Sa^- 

bees a chanee to Toidthar excrement o^m aid the cellar one where:: 

Oe op^ air^ away fito^ the bins and the to nse jmifitia l heat, saj 

eoariK. Otherwise tte eontinned csnlne- tibere are days dmiBg acML'-stmez 

■Knt dnrii^ an fTtafdfd edid sfdB^same- bees can ^ and nwst localities 

tiBes eo^eis the bees to retaa their fieees snch weaAer for oae day and poor 

oresczeta9olas^tha£theyarefinaIly£9reed tate the diseased colonies cat c£ 

tPTflidft:arerthe iJO M to andorertheMre&. dayandlet ihenaha«ea£:rlr. t-^: 

In sneh eases, where one has good nice dean pA Oent ba^ in the e&~ac 

ccadisof sealed honey be nay take ont the ^^ win do a wiodd of good. 

eoaslB^idieplnee with the dean ones. At aware that sonK aAhoriaes ^—.-. 

she saaK tKse the brood-nest shonld be eon- ns here: bntonr own espesienee Lr 

SEKted dowm to a 9aee the bees can fin. e a n tJnMti Jy. over and cpver agari 

ThB work shonid never be done on a ccKd doespay. If the bees are snSoi^r '^ 

daf—ot^ wh^ it is waoi and babnj. as owr- u i nmnl itiwi of poeonons f- 

webave npbinFd- Bnt thepmetieal bee- ter. why wiU there net be alsMe 

ke^er of to-dsiydoes nocnukeitanleto tanens reiief as soon as a can b^ 

fnsBwidLeiidaniis aSeetedwifltdysenlJay: fi: stands to reaaon that there ^rrT 

fiorhe kn P njt thai-as aaonaswaonweafter fiood is bad. ^ve Oe bees be— 

Mf an-fte tronMewin tfB^pear of it- rnsiif recwend taknig awaj 

seif^ in aB snch colonies as are not too &x and fiecdtag ss^r ^mp. For tnther rtm- 

jg on e and too weak to r«*'~'^' ^Sdetatian of it?* -- -v^- ^j^ "X-vriaintc. 



£. 



1:^1:1^:11:8 OF BEES. King-birds 
and l)fe-iiiart ins, and a few other insectiv- 
orous birds, prey on bees. We once saw a 
single king-bird cajtlnre six or eight bees in 
as many trips, on the wing. It would alight 
on the peak of the barn near the apiary, and 
then make a dive through the air, grab one 
bee on the wing, return to its perch to dis- 
l)ose of its morsel, and then catch another. 

There have been a number of conflicting 
reports as to whether king-birds do or do 
not swallow their victims. Some have as- 
serted that they do, and afterward expelled 
the ball of bees. At one experiment station 
a numlier of king-birds were shot, and the 
conclusion, after examining their crops, was 
that they did not eat bees ; but from observa- 
tions that have been made since it appears 
that the king-bird does not generally swallow 
worker-bees. It grabs the bee, flies away, 
and. after it alights on some perch with its 
victim in its beak, bites away until it ab- 
sorbs the honey or juices, when it drops the 
car(;a.ss, and flies away for another, whicli it 
treats in the same way. Observers have re- 
ported seeing these carcasses of bees below 
the birds' favorite perches. 

The loss of a few bees which the birds 
might kill would amount to nothing ; but in 
large queen-rearing yards, if the birds are 
allowed to go unmolested there is quite 
likely to be a loss of young queens: for no 
doubt the birds select the largest and slow- 
est-flying l)ees, and these, of course, will be 
querns and drones. If such be the case, the 
<»wner of a queen-rearing yard would do well 
to use his shotgun until every thing in the 
way of bee-killing biids is destroyed. 

MICE. 

Mice do liarm only wlien they get into the 
hives, and this part of the subject will be 
sufficiently noticed under the head of En- 
trances. It may be well to remark, that 
mice sometimes make sad havoc among sur- 
plus combs, when stored away with small 
patches of honey in them. The combs will 
be completely riddled during the winter 
time, if they are left where mice can get at 
them. On this account, the honey-house 
should be mouse-proof ; and for fear that a 
stray one may by accident get in, it is well 



to keep a trap ready, baited w^th toasted 
cheese. If you have not a tight room, make 
a tight box, large enough to hold all the sur- 
plus combs which have honey in them. See 
Entrances. 

parasites. 
The only parasite we have ever seen is the 
Biaula, or Italian bee-louse, and we have 
never seen them except on bees just imi)ort- 
ed from Italy. We feel safe in saying no 
fear need be anticipated from them if the 
bees are kept in strong colonies, and in clean 
tight hives, with no old refuse and rubbish 
accumulating about them. One or two re- 
ports have been received of bee-lice in our 
own country, but they were exceiitions. 

SKUNKS.* 

Skunks have been known to approach the 
hive at night time, and by scratching on or 
near the alighting-board, entice the bees out 
where they could "gobble them up." It 
w^ould seem a little strange that these ani- 
mals have no fear of stings, but they, doul)t- 
less, are guided by a sort of instinct that 
enables them to divine how to get hold ot 
the bee with its sweet morsel of honey in its 
honey-sac, without receiving harm from the 
sting. 

SPIDERS. 

Spiders as well as toads seem to have a 
rare appreciation of a heavily laden bee as it 
returns to the hive ; we should therefore be 
careful that all spider-webs be faithfully 
kept brushed away from the hives, and that 
they have no corners or crevices about them 
to harbor such insects, lie sure there is no 
place which the broom will not clear out at 
one sweep ; for where we have a hundred 
hives we can not well spend a great amount 
of time on each single one. 

We are inclined to think that many ol 
these so-called enemies take up the destruc- 
tion of bees only as a chance habit, and that 
it is not always to be looked for nor ex])ect- 
ed. Common fowls sometimes get a habit 
of eating their own eggs; but it is so unusual 

* A lady correspondent in Oleanings in Ber Cnllurr, 
page 866, Vol. XV., writes tliat she effectually gox 
rid of skunlis by the use of Rough on Hats stirred 
in an egg. This mixture was placed at the entrance 
of hives previously visited by skunks. After the 
doses had been repeated two evenings in succession 
the skunks never again paid their visitations. 



ENTRANCES TO HIVES. 



loa 



ENTRANCES TO HIVES. 



an occuneiice tliat we can liaitlly regard it 
as a matter of any very serious importance. 
It may be well at times to look out for the 
enemies that prey on bees; but, as a general 
thing, we think they are quite capable of 
lightiijg their own battles if we give them 
the jirojier care and i)roper hives. 

It was Mr. L. L. I^angstroth, just before 
he died, who shoAved how sjiiders may baof 
value to the bee-keeper. If, he said, they 
have access freely to the combs stored in 
stacked-np hives in the apiary, there never 
need be any fear that the moth-worm or 
moth-miller will be able to do any damage, 
for the si>iders will very shortly destroy 
tlieni. 

wAsrs. 

Wasps and hornets sometimes capture and 
carry off honey bees; but unless they should 
take part in the work in great numbers, we 
would have no solicitude in regard to them. 

A large fly, called the bee-hawk, or mos- 
quito-hawk, has been mentioned by oiu' 
Southern neighbors, but it is said to be eas- 
ily frightened away by opening a vigorous 
warfare with whips and sticks. 

THIEVES. 

Thieves are sometimes troublesome at out- 
yards, and once in a long while at the home 
yard. The best way to \mt a stop to their 
deiiredations is to jiut up a sign or two offer- 
ing fifty or a hundred dollars reward for the 
arrest and conviction of the guilty parties. 
The thief is immediately Avarned that a 
price is ]>ut ujjon his head, and that he had 
best, if he knows when he is well off, stop 
his stealing. It is seldom that the reward 
money is ever called for. and further annoy- 
ance is stopped. 

ENTRANCE-GUARDS. See DnONES. 

\ ENTRANCES TO HIVES. ^Ve do 

not know that it makes any re* ?/ great differ- 
ence to the bees, or with the amount of hon- 
ey gathered, where the entrance is; whether 
at the very lowest part of the hive, or right 
in the top. We have had them do well with 
their entrance in almost all positions. On 
many accounts, an entrance even with, or a 
little below, the bottom-board of the hive 
would be most desirable. This gives the 
bees every facility for removing dirt or dead 
bees that frequently clog the hive and combs 
in cold weather; also bits of refuse comb, 
cappings from the cells, dust, etc.. for this 
all falls to the bottom of the hive, and is nat- 
urally carried toward the eutranee by the 
passage, out and in, of the inmates. Also, 
if the upper part of the hive is close and 



warm, the waun air geneiated by the clus- 
ter, rising by its lightness, comjiared witli 
the colder air outdoors, has a much less 
chance for escape than if the entrance were 
nearer the top of the hive. If the entrance is 
a little below the bottom-board, cold winds 
and storms are not so readily admitted. 

It has been said that an entrance part way 
ui> is not so liable to become clogged with 
dead bees. This is probably true; but, on 
the other hand, the live ones will not be able 
nearly so ea-ily to remove the dead if they 
have to tug them up the perpendicular sides 
until they reach the opening; neither can 
the apiarist himself assist in the process. 
Where the entrance is on a level with the 
bottom of the hive, he can reach in witli a 
hooked wire and rake out all the dead bees 
that may have accumulated during the win- 
ter. Indeed, he should, if the accumulation 
is enough to clog the entrance, clear it out 
once or twice during the winter, with a wire. 

There is still another objection to a high 
entrance. During cool weather many of the 
flying bees on returning will become chilled 
in their efforts to crawl up the perpendicu- 
lar side, and thus fail to get into the hive ; 
so, all things considered, an entrance that is 
handy for the bees is also best for the bee- 
keeper. 




-~^^»-*'- •'^^ 



On account of the tendency of returniijg \ 
b^es to chill in cool weather, there should be 
a large alighting-board if the hive is raised 
off the ground; or if on the ground, there 
should be a nice easy slanting grade or door- 
step to the entrance. All grass and weeds 
should be kept down within at least a foot 
of the front of the hive; and it would be 
better if there were a good full yard of clear 
space. Bees that come in heavily laden are 
often knocked down by bumping into tall 
weeds or sprigs of grass. AVhile they ulti- 
mately take wing, making another attemi)t. 
finally landing in the hive, such obstruc- 



ENTRANCES TO HIVES. 



154 



ENTRANCES TO HIVES. 



tions, if hindering to the bees, are wasteful 
to the l)ee-keeper. 

It is impossible to estimate just how 
mucli the loss in honey is; but if the actual 
figures could be secured the producer woidd 
be surprised. When it is such an easy mat 
ter to cut away the weeds, or keep them 
Hway from the entrance with a little sprin- 
kling of salt or with a wide board, it is "pen- 
ny wise and pound foolish" to wear out the 
wings of our little servants trying to pass 
this obstruction, at the same time delaying 
them when every moment counts. Farmer 



laid directly on the ground, abutting up close 
to the bottom-board if it rests on or close to 
the ground. No grass or weeds can grow, 
of course, where these boards are laid : and 
general practice shows it is cheaper and bet- 
ter to use such boai^s than to be compelled 
to use salt or cut down the obstructions 
every few weeks in front of the hive. 

The cut in the opposite column contains a 
suggestion which can be very easily applied 
to the cleated boards just described. Bend 
some iron wires, aboiit No. 8, as shown 
with hook at each end. Drive one of the 




bee-keepers especially seem to have the idea 
that bees will work for nothing and board 
themselves, and in three cases out of rive 
one will rind the entrances of their hives, 
what few they may have, all tangled up 
with grass and weeds. On mornings when 
there is a heavy dew such obstruction is 
very considerable. 

Very many use a scythe, lawn-mower, or 
a common sickle, to cut down the grass. 
Others keep it down with a small handful of 
salt scattered around the front of the hive. 




Still others prefer to use a piece of board 
about a foot wide or more, and as long as 
the hive is wide. Rough unplaned lumber 
of the cheapest kind would be better than 
clear planed stuff, as the bees can cling to it 
better. The boards should be cleated, and 



hooks into the board as here illustrated, and 
secure in position by means of a common 
blind staple near the other edge. If the 
wires are cut right, this alighting-board can 
be easily hooked into the entrance and make 
a nice easy grade from the ground up to the 
hive. At any time these alighting-boards 
can be unhooked so that the grass can be 
cut down with a lawn-mower and then 
replaced. 

SIZE OF ENTRANCES. 

This depends on the season of the year, the 
size of the colony, and whether the bees are 
wintered indoors or out. During the height 
of the honey-flow the aperture should be as 
large as the bottom-board or hive will per- 
mit — not less than i inch deey) by the width 
of the hive. Experience has shown that a 
contracted opening does not give the bees 
sufficient ventilation ; and the result is, the 
great mass of bees are forced out of the 
hive, where they will loaf day after day, do- 
ing nothing. When they once get into the 
Soaring habit they will be much inclined to 
swarm, to say nothing about wasting valu- 
able time during that part of the season 
when, if ever, they should bring in money in 
return for all the labor expended on them. 

Where one uses hives of the loose-bottom 
type, he can usually cure this clustering out 



ENTRANCES TO HIVES. 



155 



ENTRANCES TO HIVES. 



and loafing by raising tlie brood-charcber 
off the bottom, placing four blocks I of an 
inch thick on the bottou'-board and setting 
the brood-chamber back again. This will 
provide an opening on all four sides. While 
the bees will use the front or main entrance 
mainly, they will fly out from the others. 
With so much ventilation the ijees, unless 
the cnlon'es nr"^ rx'r 'oidinirily str'^ng, will 




HIVE RAISED ON FOUR BLOCKS TO PROVIDE VENTILA- 
TION AND TO SOME EXTENT KEEP 
DOAVN SAVARMING. 



go back into the hive and go to work. Some 
bee-keepers go so far as to claim that the 
procedure will almost entirely eliminate 
swarming. For further particulars on this 
.subject see ''Prevention of Swarming '' un- 
der head of " Swarming.'" 

Nuclei or weak colonies must have no 
larger entrances than they can easily de- 
fend. They should be as 
small as possible after the 
regular honey - flow, for 
then it is that robbers are 
liable to rush in pellmell 
and overpower the guards 
of the little colony, depriv- 
ing it of the scanty stores 
it may have. See Rob- 
bing. A two-frame nucle- 
us should not have an open- 
ing larger than will admit 
two or three bees at a time 
if it is during the robbing 
season. When the honey- 
flow is on, it may be larger; 
but it should be contracted 
as soon as it eases up. 



size; but expeiience has shown that this is a 
serious mistake. There is no more reason 
why the bees should have their doors wide 
open in mid-winter, letting chilling drafts 
blow in, than that we should leave our doors 
open. But a bee-hive is supposed to be her- 
metically sealed at all points except the en- 
trance, and, unlike the dwellings we live in, 
it slioiild have at least a small opening at the 
entrance, otherwise the bees 
will be sure to die before the 
following spring. An ordina- 
ry eight - frame Langstroth 
hive should have an entrance 
not much larger than 8 inches 
wide by i deep. During very 
severe weather it might be 
still further closed. Some of 
the very strongest colonies 
may have an opening of 8 or 
10 inches; but with this con- 
tracted entrance it may be 
necessary for the apiarist to 
hook the dead bees out with a 
wire once during the winter, 
and possibly once more in the 
spring; for in no case must 
the opening be clogged up. 

It is customary to have some sort of cleat 
to reduce a wide entrance to a .small 
slot on one side i by 5 or 6 inches. This, 
when inserted slot side down, reduces the 
opening to the proper size for outdoor-win- 
tered bees. In. cleaning out the dead bees 
the entrance-stop should be removed entire. 




When cool weather comes 
on, the entrances of all col- 
onies should be contracted, 
both strong and weak, and kept so during 
the entire winter if bees are left outdoors. 
Formerly the practice was to allow the full 



A COLONY WITH AN ENTRANCE TOO SMALL M'HERE THE 
BEES HAVE FOR3IED THE LOAFING HABIT. 



ly, making the entrance itself the full size. 
Any dead ones that may have accumulated 
should be raked out and the stop put back. 



ENTRANCES TO HIVES. 



15G 



ENTRANCES TO HIVES. 



If it is discdvered that the colony is weak, 
the slot should be reduced to one inch in 
width. At the same time, the frames should 
be contracted to the number that tiie bees 



ing to the way they are attached. AVheu the 
cleats are removed entirely the full opening 
of the hive is given. 









can reasonal)]y occu])y or cover. If they are 
compelled to keep a large room warm, mudi 
above their present needs, they may die 
from c Id. 



^'^^^^an^. 



If a cool or cold spell suddenly comes on in 
the spring after a stretch of warm weather, 
during which the bees have a large amount 
of >oung brood s'arted, some of the brood is 
liable to be lost unless the cnlr;'nce is '• u- 





'^y>7a£\ 



The illustrations show veiy simple cleats 
which can be made at any planing-mill, or 
(an be cut at home, using nothing but a 
common hand-saw and a chisel. These 
cleats give various-sized entiauces accord- 



*ALIGHTING-BOAKD G rUOrElM.Y i'l A( KD. 

tracted or closed temporarily. W. L. Cogg- 
shal', of West tiroton,N. Y.,the most ex- 
tensive bee-keeper in the world, owning 
somewhat over 3000 colonies, recommends 
closing the entrances at such times with a 
handful of sawdust. This he carries around 
in a pail; and as he walks up and down the 
row s of hives he throws a handfid here and 
a liandful there in front of each hive. The 
hea[ ed-up sawdust confines the heat of the 
cluster, thus making it possible to save bees 
and brood. When it warms up, the bees 
will push the loose dust away themselves, 
without any time or effort on the part of ihe 
apiarist. Possibly this same method might 

* This entiiini'^'is too liirpe for •*> intrr u.se, but just 
right for summer. 



ENTRANCES TO HIVES. 



157 



ENTRANCES TO HIVES. 



be practiced to advantage in winter during 
a very cold spell. As soon as it has warmed 
np, the bees could push the obstruction 
away. 




KNTKANCES PROPERLY CONTRACTED FOK 
WINTER 

Tlie accompanying illustrations will show 
the modern Dovetailed and Danzenbaker 
alighting-boards having cleats nailed on 




DETACHABLE ALIGHTING-BOAKD AND HOW 

IT MAY BE U^ED TO VARY THE SIZE OP^ 

THE ENTRANCE. 

them permanently. When the board is I 
pulled out entirely it gives an entrance li I 
inches deep by the width of the hive. When i 
the plain side is inserted, the entrance is I 
reduced to 8 by i inch; and this may be fur- 1 
ther reduced, if necessity requires it, by | 
putting in a i-inch strip of wood of sufficient I 
length to bring the entrance down to the ! 
point required. i 

PLURAL ENTRANCES AND SWARM CONTROL. 

While it is true that a plurality of entrances ' 
may be a detriment in a brood-chamber, ' 
it does not necessarily hold good during the ' 
honey season when the hive is tiered up two 
or three stories high. It then becomes '. 
difficult, and wasteful of bee eneigy that 
might be better employed, to ventilate the | 
whole hive from one entrance, however large ' 
it is in the lower story, for the bees have to ' 
maintain a current of cold air rushing in, 
and another going out at the same aperture. 



If queen-excluders are used the case is made 
worse. It almost goes without saying, that, 
during the period in which the honey is 
evaporated while in the combs, there ought 
to be more than one entrance to the hive— 
at least two, and, during very hot weather, 
more, one to each btory, with the cover or 
roof slightly raised at the back to furnish 
additional means for the fetid air to escape 
at the top of the hive. 

It is said by those who have tried th's 
method of air control that it is a great pre- 
ventive of swarming, and this looks reason- 
able; for the brood-chamber is far le.-s 
crowded, since the field workers arrive 
and depart from the upper entrance to a 
great extent, saving overcrowding of the 
brood - chamber, which surely leads Id 
swarming. 

On the other hand, it may be said that 
there is danger of the honey-chambers being 
rendered too cool by so many entrances; but 
against this may be stated that, if this is the 
case, it is also too cool for honey-gathering, 
and the upper stories should be removed. 
If the colony is weak, upi)er entrances are 
unnecessary; and in that case, also, the 
honey-chambers should be removed, as such 
a colony does not gather a surplus of the 
honey In any event. It is too weak. 

Some of our well-known writers on bee 
culture heartily commend upper entrances— 
notably so Dr. C. G. Miller, C. P. Dadant, 
11. r. Iloltermann, W. K. Morrison, and, in 
early times, Adam Grimm, who, with the 
money he made with his bees, establislied a, 
bank. 

Dr. C. C. Miller, writing in Gleanings in 
Bte CvUure for June 1, 1907, writes: " Prof. 
Cook says, p. 312, that bees ventilate so 
effectively at the entrance that it is best to 
have only one opening to the hive, evi- 
dently meaning at all times; and W. K. 
Morrison, page 6Hfi, asks if I subscribe to 
that doctrine. Emphatically, no. If run- 
ning for extracted honey I would generally 
have one more opening than the numlier of 
stories in use— the regular entrance and an 
opening at the top of each story. Each year 
for years I have had one or moie piles thus 
ventilated, and none has ever swarmed. 
Many years ago I learned from Adam 
Grimm to have an opening for ventilati(in 
at the toj) of the brood- chamber at the back 
end when running for comb honey. I gave it 
up because it interfered with the linishing 
of the sections near such openings. Hut I 
have gone back to it again, believing tliat 
such disadvantage is overbalanced by the 



ENTRANCES TO HIVES. 



158 



EXTRACTED HONEY. 



gain in ventilation. You can't make me 
believe that it is not easier for the bees to 
have one hole for the air to go out and 
another for it to come in than to make the 
\ air go both ways in the same hole." The 
practical bee-keeper will soon discover for 
himself when and how to use a plurality 
of entrances, for much depends on the 
climate. Evidently it does not work so 
well with comb-honey production as it does 
extracted; yet even this may be satisfac- 
torily arranged. It looks now as if plural 
entrances were a long step toward swarm 
prevention by causing the field workers to 
leave the brood and confine their energies to 
storing honey in the upper chambers. See 
Savarming. 

entrances for indoor wintering. 

Authorities differ as to the size of entrance 
that should be used for indoor wintering. 
Some argue that, the larger the openings, 



D 



D 

DD 



D 
DD 



D 
DD 



the better. A few go even so far as to urge 
that the bottom-boards be removed entirely, 
one hive piled upon two others, leaving an 
opening between the two lower hives of 
about one-third of the size of the entire bot- 
tom of the hive. Others advise a regular 
bottom-board, but an entrance two inches 
deep by the full width of the hive; while 
others recommend no larger entrance than 
the bees have during the summer. 

The preponderance of evidence seems to 
be in favor of the last-mentioned size. Too 
much ventilation, even in a cellar where the 
temperature is reasonably under control, has 
a tendency to induce too large a consump- 
tion of stores. Over-feeding causes dysen- 
tery; and when that happens in a bee-cellar 
the colony is doomed unless it can be given 
a flight on a warm day, as recommended 
under the head of Wintering in the latter 
part of this work. 

Our practice has been to use the same 
entrance that we have in the summer for 
our indoor-wintered hives; and so long as 
we used that size we had excellent results in 
wintering. But one winter, for the purpose 
of experiment, we raised each individual 
hive off its bottom-board and inserted a rim 
three inches deeyt and of the same outside 
dimensions as the hive. The sides of these 
rims were open, butcovered M'ith wire cloth. 
The result was that we lost over 100 colonies 
out of the 230 odd put into the cellar, and 
the rest came out in a very weakened con- 
dition. 



The bee is essentially a warm-blooded ani- ' 
mal. Experience has shown that a temper- 
ature of 45 degrees Fahrenheit in a cellar 
gives the best results. An ordinary colony 
with ordinary summer entrance in such cel- 
lar temperature will be able to warm the 
interior of its hive without too much expend- 
iture of animal heat. When the bees are 
too cold they will eat largely of their stores, 
and in doing so bring on disease. 

ISUCALITFTITS. There are something '^ 
like two hundread species of eucalypti 
recognized in Australasia by scientific 
botanists. Baron Mueller, who is the chief 
authority on this genus, noted that nearly 
all the eucalypti are honey-yielders, but 
some are much better than others. Redgum 
[E. rostrata) seems to be the leader, though 
others may take the leadership when the 
Australian bush becomes better known. 
The most famous of the gum trees of Aus- 
tralasia is the E. globulus, the blue gum of 
Tasmania, and this also is a liberal producer 
of bee nectar. For its valuable properties 
as a first-class lumber-producer, and as an 
anti-fever plant, it has been introduced into 
many countries— California, Mexico, West 
Indies, South Europe, Egypt, Chili, and 
other countries; and as it is a fair producer 
of honey its further propagation can be en- 
couraged by bee-keepers. Eucalyptus gunnl 
is also a good honey-tree, and excellent 
for lumber. Indeed, the whole eucalypti! - 
family may be regarded as honey-yielders.* 
Any one desirous of gaining more informa- 
tion relative to these extremely useful trees 
may consult with profit Baron Mueller's 
"Select Extra- tropical Plants for Industrial 
Culture." It is a book well worth perusing 
in any event by bee-keepers. Attempts 
have been made to introduce the honey of 
the eucalypti into England, but without 
success. Eucalyptus honey has a peculiar 
flavor which the English people do not like, 
and there the matter ends. 

EXTRACTED KOrTEV. J iquid 
honey, taken from the comb with the honey- 
extractor, has been before the world since 
the year 18*35, and much has been the discus- 
sion, pro and con, in regard to its merits, 
and its desirableness compared with comb 
honey for table use. 

If all the extracted honey put upon th». 
market were as good as some we have raised 
and purchased, there would, we are sure, be 
no trouble at all in deciding that it would 
drive honey in the comb almost out of the 
question. Much has been said about adul- 



EXTRACTED HONEY. 



ir)9 



EXTRACTED HONEY. 



teration, and there has been some ground 
for it. Glucose has been used very largely, 
but it can readily be detected by chemical 
analysis and by the taste. Pure glucose, 
that is, such as is used for adulterating, has 
a strong metallic taste that is almost nau- 
seating. One who has once tasted the 
'•'stuff"' will readily recognize proportions 
exceeding 25 per cent in honey. See Honev 
Adulteration. 

Since the new national pure-food law has 
gone into effect there will be very little 
adulterated honey on the market, especially 
so as over two-thirds of the States have 
pure-food laws also. We may safely con- 
clude, therefore, that all extracted honey 
so labeled will necessarily be pure. 

A really nice article of extracted honey 
will bring 8 or 1(J cts. quicker than a poor 
one will bring 4 or 5; and we have seen 
some, aye, and have offered it for sale too, 
that we do not honestly think was worth over 
2c., if it was worth anything at all, unless to 
feed bees. Is all this difference on account 
of the source from which it was gathered? 
Not at all ; for all the honey we get here, in 
the great majority of seasons, is from clover 
and linden. Then where is the great differ- 
ence ? It is, so far as my experience goes, 
simply because it is taken from the hive 
before it is ripe. We have never seen any 
honey we thought was tit to extract until it 
was all sealed over. Still further, we do not 
believe it is nearly as nice, even when it 
is all sealed over, as it will be if left in the 
hive three or four weeks after it has been 
all sealed. We will tell you some of our 
experience to illustrate the point. 

In 1870 we extracted, from our apiary of 
less than 50 colonies, over 3 tons of honey. 
It was put up in 1-lb. bottles, and more than 
half was sold for 25c per iiound when prices 
were high on extracted honey. During the 
fore part of the season the honey was al- 
lowed to get pretty well capped over ; but 
during basswood bloom, we, bees and all, 
got somewhat crazy, we fear, and they 
brought in what was but little better than 
sweetened water ; we extracted and put it 
into bottles, and hurried it off to fill orders, 
hoping it would all get "■ good" as soon as 
the weather got cool. It candied when the 
weather became cold, for almost all honey 
will candy, or at least one portion will can- 
dy, leaving a thin watery part, which, if it 
does not sour, acquires in time a disagree- 
able brackish flavor, like that acquired by 
liquids standing in an old barrel. At 
about this stage it shows that peculiar qual- 



ity of pushing the bungs out of the barrels, 
and the corks out of the bottles, running 
over on the shelves and tables to the discom- 
fiture and disgust of everybody who likes to 
be cleanly in his habits. When we tasted 
some of the honey in one of these bottles, six 
months afterward, we did not wonder it had 
stopped selling, and we made up our mind 
it should no more be offered for sale. We 
believe it was all poured out of the bottles, 
and sold to a tobacconist. The contents of 
the jars were not all alike, for the thin 
watery honey has quite a tendency to swim 
on top. We, one season, commenced to 
retail from a barrel of what all pronounced 
tine clover honey. One day a ciistomer 
returned some, saying it was not like what 
he bought before. We assured him it was 
drawn from the same ban-el, and went and 
drew some, to convince him. Behold I it 
was sweetened water, compared with the 
first. The thin honey having risen to the 
top, it was the last to be drawn out. 

Again, new honey has, many times, a 
rank, disagreeable odor and taste. AVe have 
been told that in the Eastern States much 
honey is sometimes obtained from the 
fields where onion seeds are raised for the 
market, and that this lioney, when first 
gathered, is so strong of onions that it can 
not be used. In a few weeks, however, this 
rank and disagreeable flavor has all gone, 
and the honey is very fair. Few persons 
can tolerate the strong, aromatic flavor of 
basswood honey when first gathered, and 
some of the jars we have mentioned, when 
opened, gave one the impression that some- 
thing akin to turpentine had been mixed 
with the honey. This was because it had 
been closely corked when first gathered; had 
it been left in the comb until sealed, the un- 
pleasanttaste would have mostly disappeared. 
We say mostly, for even sealing does not 
seem to remove entirely the rank flavor, un- 
til the combs have been some weeks in the 
hive. We remember we once took a beauti- 
ful-looking piece of comb honey out of a jar 
that was found in the market. On opening 
the cells we found the honey had such a rank 
basswood flavor that it was, to us, quite 
disagreeable, and yet we are tond of the bass- 
wood honey. Very white new comb honey 
is seldom of the fine, pure, sweet flavor of 
honey that has been a long time capped 
over, such as is found in the dark-looking 
comb. To which shall we give the prefer- 
ence — looks or taste V We once were so 
busy that we could not attend to extracting, 
and so we raised the filled stories up. and 



EXTRACTED TTOISKY 



ir.o 



EXTRATTET) ITONEY. 



]n\i some iilletl with empty coiiibs just un- 
der them over the brooil. This occupied 
little time, and the bees were not hindered in 
( heir work a single moment. We ha\e never 
seen bees amass stores faster. Some colonies 
(ilied four stories to repletion, and the whole 
was left on the liives until the latter part of 
ihe summer. In fact, we left them on so 
long to be safe from tlie depredations of 
the moth, intending to cut out the lioney 
and sell it in the comb, or to extract it, 
whichever form should prove most market- 
aide. This honey was cut out of the frames 
and sold the following winter; and it was 
the nicest and richest lioney we ever saw or 
lasted. To our astonishment, the liquid 
portions, tliat ran out when the combs w^ere 
cut, would not candy at all, even wlien ex- 
jiosed to zero weather. The lioney was so 
thick that a saucer full could be turned 
over without sitilling 

p]xtracted honey, if taken out wliile 
"■green" (as we liave often termed the nn- 
ripened state), has a greenish tinge, which 
well-ripened honey has not.* .Some speci- 
mens have a turbid or cloudy look, and we 
lielieve such honey is never really fine- 
llavored. We are well aware that we are 
condemning the very honey we once sold, by 
these remarks, but we can not help it. If 
we had now some extracted honey such as 
was taken from those well-ripened combsi 
we would feel that it was preferable, at 12 
cts. , to that which sells at 5 or 6 cts. Prop- 
erly ripened basswood or clover honey has a 
sparkling clearness, of a slightly yellowish 
tint, and the flavor is pure and exquisite. 
We have never seen any iiice-looking comb 
honey equal to it, for the market always de- 
mands comb honey that is white, and lias 
not remained on the hive a long time. We 
do not mean to say that extracted honey 
should be without color, like w^ater, for it 
usually has a transparent pale yellow tint, or 
it may be quite yellow. After it has can- 
died, if it does candy, it should be hard, 
and free from any liquid portion, like that 
in unripened honey. This thin liquid por- 
tion is the part that usually changes and 
gives it the bad taste. In fact, if the liquid 
l)ortion be drained off, the solid portion may 
be melted, and it will be found very nearly 
like that ripened in the hive. 

KIl'ENING HONEY BY ARTIFICIAL MEANS. 

The most that is done in the way of evap- 
< rating honey that is not entirely ripe is to 
put it in large tanks, covering the top with 

* Pure sweet clover and cleome are exceptions. 



a semi-porous cloth tightly tied down over 
the edge of tlie can to prevent robber bees 
from getting in. In California these tanks 
hokl anywhere from 20 to 30 tons. In sinne 
cases the tanks are contracted toward the 
top, leaving an opening of about 18x24 
inches. In other cases the tank has a large 
d.ameter of about eight feet, and only four 
feet high. This presents a large surface of 
honey, and the evaporation, therefore, wou'd 
go on DQore rapidly. These great honey-res- 
ervoirs are usually set down outdoors, and 
covered as before explained. As it seldom 
or never rains in California during the dry 
season the honey will evaporate down to a 
good thick body, even if it was a little green 
when taken out. 

Ml'. E. W. Alexander, of Delanson, N. Y., 
uses oblong tanks in small buildings paint- 
ed a dark color to draw the sun's rays. In 
these he stores his partially ripened buck- 
wheat until it thickens up. 

Whether such evaporated honey is equal 
to that which has been ripened entirely in 
the hives, we have our doubts. We have 
sampled both kinds, not knowing which was 
which, and we believe that in every case we 
have been able to tell the nituial from the 
evaporated article. Corami-sion men and 
producers strongly urge that no honey be 
extracted excei)t that which has been cap- 
ped over; that while a few experts may 
practice artiflcial ripening, the average bee- 
keeper should leave that wholly to the bees. 

HOW TO KEEP EXTRACTED HONEY. 

Unless the crop has been secured early it 
is best to dispose of it at once, when the 
market is at the highest; but it is sometimes 
advisable to hold the honey until the price 
aga'n goes up, which it is likely to do after 
the berry season is over, when every one is 
thinking of the holidays, Christmas and 
New Year's : for it is then that honey comes 
into fresh demand again, and the market 
becomes firmer. 

Extracted, or comb honey either, for that 
matter, should be kept in a room about as 
near summer temperature as possible. The 
mercury ought not to drop below 65, and it 
may go as much higher as ordinary summer 
weather will permit— even 90 or 100 in the 
shade. Extracted, if kept, should be stored 
in b'g tin cans, or, better still, in a large 
tank — one capable of holding eight or ten 
barrels, if the apiarist is so extensively en- 
gaged ill bee-keeping that he is likely to 
have that amount of honey on hand at one 
time. Where the cans hold more than 500 



EXTRACTED ITONEY 



lf)l 



EXTRACTED JIOXEY, 



lbs., it is customary to luive them made of 
(galvanized iron ; and while some objection 
has been made to this metal because of its 
alleged poisonous quality, yet in the large- 
sized cans no injury to the honey has ever 
been noted ; for it is the custom in Califor- 
nia, Arizona, Colorado, and other States of 
tlie West, where great quantities of extract- 
ed honey are produced, to have the honey 
stored in large galvanized storage-tanks, 
some of them practically good-sized cisterns 
above ground. In those hot climates the 



ever it is used it may be liquelied by the di- 
rections that go with the package. 

Ordinarily we would not advise the stor- 
age of honey for any considerable time in 
barrels : but when no other storage room is 
admissible, barrels may be used, but they 
should be watched to see that they do not 
start to leaking in the honey-room ; and oc- 
casionally the hoops should be driven down 
to compensate for tlie slight shrinkage that 
may take place; for it is a fact that the 
staves of barrels, even when Idled with 



8 Ft. 




ONE OF ALEXANDER'S STOKAGE AND EVAPORATING TANKS FOR EXTRACTED noNEV. 



honey will remain liquid for some time, and 
can be kept perfectly clear until cool or cold 
weather comes on. If the honey has a ten- 
dency to granulate very soon after extract- 
ing, it would not be advisable to have it 
stored for any great length of time in these 
large tanks. It should be drawn off into the 
marketing tin pails we have described under 
CANDIED IIONEY, and allowed to candy 
hard. It may be kept in this condition for 
a year or two, without detriment: and when- 



honey, will shrink somewhat in dry hot 
rooms, with the result that there will be a 
leakage, and possibly robbing on the part of 
the bees. If honey be stored in barrels they 
should be waxed on the inside as described 
under Barrels. The bungs should be left 
out, and the barrels be kept in a hot dry 
room. When ready to ship, the bungs 
should be driven in, and hoops driven tight. 
In California, ten to twenty ton galvanized 
tanks, as shown under the head of Extract- 




I 



IPOUND 
PURE 

HONEY 





SKVERAL STYLES OF THE GLASS PACKAGES FOR SELLING AND SHU'PINCt HONEY, 
6 



EXTRACTED HONEY. 



162 



EXTRACTED HONEY. 



OR, are used very extensively. These are 
covered with cheese-cloth to prevent insects 
from getting in. While honey is in storage 
it should always be exposed to the air, pro- 
viding, of course, that the atmosphere is not 
heavily charged with moisture. 

Some bee-keepers in the East use an ob- 
long shallow tank like an ordinary cheese- 
vat, covered with cheese-cloth. The Alex- 
ander tank, shown in the drawing above, is 
a type. Others store their honey in square 
cans with the screw tops left off; then when 
ready to ship, the caps are put on. This 
plan is excellent, because a large surface of 
honey is exposed to the air; then when 
ready for shipment all that is necessary is to 
put on the caps and box the cans. 

VARIOUS PACKAGES FOR SHIPPING AND 
SELLING EXTRACTED HONEY. 

The variety, style, and kind of packages 
that have been used in putting up extracted 
honey for retail purposes are almost unlim- 
ited. It is the usual rule that, for any thing 
less than 3 lbs. capacity, glass should be 




HEKSHISEK JAKS. 

used ; for any thing larger, tin cans or pails. 
Perhaps the most popular glass package is 
the Mason jar, already mentioned. They are 
popular because they can be bought at any 
grocery, and no one objects to buying them 
with the honey, since they are always a 
useful article in domestic economy. 

Packages used largely are the Muth and 
Pouder bottles that are made especially for 



holding honey. Molded right into the glass 
itself is the image of an old straw bee-hive 
and the words "Pure Honey." These bot- 
tles are square in shape, and very nice for 
shipping and for retailing small quantities. 





NO. 25 JAR. 



.TELLY-TUMBLER. 



The smallest size is especially adapted for 
holding a dime's worth of honey, and, all in 
all, it is a very pretty size. 

The Hershiser jar is of the same general 
style, but with an aluminum screw-top. It 
is made of clear heavy glass and is especial- 
ly adapted for shipping and exhib.tion. 

Another package much used is the jelly- 
tumbler, and this, like the M;ison jar, has 
the advantage that it is useful in the house. 

With each one there is usually a little cir- 
cular piece of paraffined paper. After the 
tumbler is filled with honey this paper is 
placed on top, after which the tin cap is 
crowded down over the whole, making an 
almost hermetical sealing. 

Another favorite package, especially for 
display purposes, is what is known as the 




HOW^ THE NO. 25 JAR IS PACKED. 



EXTRACTED HOXEY". 



163 



EXTRACTED HOXEY. 



No. 25 jar. It is self-sealing, somewhat on 
the order of the Mason can. It is handsome 
in appearance and cheap in price. These 
are used very largely. 

Still another style of jar with a quick- 
fastening top is known to the trade as the 
Tiptop, as shown in the accompanying illus- 
tration. In putting up honey in glass it is 
important to have a 
variety of packages, as 
this helps to make a 
display of honey in gro 
eery windows. In all 
ca^es it is desirable to 
use a jar that can be 
used for something else 
when empty. For that 
reason the Mason jars, 
jelly - tumblers, and all 
self - sealing packages, 
have the advantage over 
others using only corks, which may be lost. 





The styles of jars shown above were in- 
troduced in 1908 and 1909. When a combi' 
natii n of these different styles are used on 
shelving, for exhibiting purposes, they help 
to set off the honey in a general display, 
See Exhibits elsewhere. 




"WILLI A3IS' STAND FOR SELLING EXTRACT- 
ED HONEY. 

But one who does a large business in put- 
ting up honey in glass should not confine 



himself strictly to one size or kind of pack- 
age. For purposes of display at groceries 
he should have an assortment of Muth bot- 
tles. Mason jars, jelly-tumblers, and some 
of the No. 25. An assortment of these can 
be very tastily arranged in the grocery 
show-window. Sometimes a little honey- 
stand may be used to advantage. The one 
shown above is the one that was used by 
George F. Williams, of New Philadelphia, 
Ohio. So much for glass packages. See 
IIONEY, Peddling. 

TIN packages for HONEY. 

While cans holding i, i, i. 1, or up to 5 
lbs., have been used for holding honey they 
are not nearly as desirable as glass. Crystal- 
white honey itself is beautiful, and to con- 
ceal it from sight by tin and a fancy label is 
a mistake. The purchaser of a small quan- 
tity requires to see what he is buying ; and 
when the tin package and the glass package 
of equal size are put side by side on the 
counter, it is quite gen- 
erally admitted that tin 
should not be used for 
quantities less than 5 
lbs., to say the least. 
Above this size lard- 
pails and nested pails 
are used. The former 
have sloping sides and 
can be nested together 
in so small a compass 
that 100 7Hb. size can be put in a barrel; 
but such pails are not adapted to shipping 
extracted honey unless it is candied. See 
Candied Honey. They do very well for 
retailing around home and at local groceries. 
The same is true of the nested pails below. 




SLOPING-SIDE 
PAIL. 




A NEST OF FIVE RAISED-COVER PAILS. 

The smallest one holds a pint, and the larg- 
est four quarts. One reason, perhaps, why 
these pails are sold for the purpose in such 
enormous quantities is, that they are of just 
such sizes as to be extremely convenient for 
household purposes. The pails sho^-n above 
are short, so as to be handy for a little girl's 
or boy's diimer-pail, or other like purposes. 
Such a pail does not give the greatest econ- 
omy of tin, however, nor is it suited for a 
graduated measure like those next shown. 

The picture explains the great point in 
their favor ; that is, that they will measure 



K\"l'l{ \<"l"i;i> flON'KV 



1M 



KXTH AT'TFT) TTr)XKY. 






KOKINIS Ob' rAl'Klt .MILK-li(rrTLKS IHAl MKilll I'.K IMPROVED ^O AS TO USE FOK HONEY- 



accurately any liquid, going down to as small 
a quantity as half a pint, and as large a 
(|uantity as a gallon, where one has a com- 
plete nest. Of course, suitable laljels are to 
be used on these pails when they are full of 




GRADUATED TIN PAILS 



honey ; and, furthermore, none of these pails 
can be turned upside down without leakage, 
unless, indeed, the honey is candied so solid 
that it will not run in cold weather, as 
is often the case with a well-ripened article. 
These packages are used principally by re- 
tailers who purchase their honey by the bar- 
rel, and put it into pails about as fast as 
their customers want it. They are to be 
carried about, however, rather than to be 
shipped long distances. 

The packages thus far shown for holding 
or retailing honey are ma le of glass or tin. 
In most cases when the honey is emi)tiedout 
of them they are useful for some other i)ur- 
pose. The Mason jars, or any of the screw 
top cans, can be used for the iireserving of 
fruit, the honey tiunblers for jelly, and the 
tin i)ails for general culinary purposes 
around the home. But sometimes the good 



hou.sewife has too large a supply of these 
very articles already in the house, and does 
not care to buy any more packages which 
she can not use. For this class of trade we 
know of nothing better than the different 
forms of paper milk bottles, which, during 
recent years, have been put on the market? 
They are self-sealing, and if tight enough to 
hold milk, ought to be good enough to hold 
honey. 

They are very cheap, for a box of them 
containing two dozen bottles or i)ackages 
can be purchased for the insignificant price 
of 25 cents. A quart of honey, or a i)int, 
could be sold in such packages very cheai>ly, 
and if the imrchaser objects to the more ex- 
pensive glass and tin containers, furnish 
these. 

For large quantities of from 200 to -500 lbs., 
kegs and barrels may be used. All sucli 
should be perfectly tight and bone dry: aiid 
to prevent the honey from soaking into the 
wood and wasting; or to prevent the taint 
of thewood fromgoing into the honey, the bar- 
rels sliould becoated on the inside with paraf- 
fine or wax, as explained under Bahkei.s. 
But wooden packages can be used only in the 
Eastern or Middle States. In the Western 
States, especially Arizona, Colorado. New 
Mexico, and California, square tin cans hold- 
ing about 60 lbs. of honey are about the only 
shipping-package that can be used ; for the 
dryness of the climate will cause the wooden 
packages to shrink so as to be entirely use- 
less Avith any kind of treatment. 

The square tin cans of the West have 
come to be so popular that they are now, to 
some extent. dis[)lacing l^arrels in the East ; 
for tlie wooden packages have a fashion of 



EXTRACTED HOXEY. 



1% 



EXTRACTED HOXEY. 



leaking, and mimiog oat <m tlie bottom 

of the car. caiising commission men and 
boney-merchants no end of trouble : and 
there is danger that the wood will give the 
boney a taint nnless waxed on the inside. a= 
exi'lained : but the trouble is. many r 




9>LB. HfJSEY-CAJS ASIf H05r£T-<,AT£- 

keepeis won't take tbe trouble to dotlii->. 
and tiie honey tfaeref ore seDs at a 
loirer (nee. If tlie tin i^ickages are tigirt 
in the first plaee. titey will remain tight : 
and no de^«e of dryness wiQ in tbe ieaSL 
afteet thegn; andvldle tbeyare some^Ktiat 
more expensive per pound <rf hfmej. yet tbis 
disadrrantage is oSset by tfae eoovaueiiee 
in retailing ««- nlKdesaJing any amrmnt Iia^s 
Hian iQtf Ite. If a booey-soeniiant bays a 
eazload of extracted honey in square eans 
he ean pare^el it out in <9Hb- «»• 13»-Ib. or 
liiTiOt-Ib. kits, just as he likes, witbont break- 
ing or op^iing a paekage. 

T1«« 15 stin anodierpQint in far<«- of tbe 
square eass: namely, tfaexe is nerer any 
kes c^^lioney by its soakisg into tbe pack- 
age. In the ease of bozreis ffr kegs, 
tbis loss of boner sometimes runs up 
U> two and even fire per eest of tbe 
total j uwwiat of honey, and this is ecMosadcr- 
abie. When it is borne in Boiitd that wooden 
paekages amst be bone-dry. and well eoop- 
a«d.oBe eaa see that a btnge amovnt of 
hooey ni^i soak into the potes of the 
wood. TUs. of eomse. can be orercwBoe by 
par a gaing isRde: bat that inro^res eon- 
adeiaUe lab<.7. 



Of course, the square cans have to 1^ 
boxed — usually two in a box — as shown. 
They are BometLmf« boxed separately, 

A honey -gate is shown in an enlarged 
view at the right, below the large cut. It is 
- of a piece of stout charcoal tin. 2t x 3 
-rs. A bit of heavy leather Ls fastened 
by four rivets Uj this tin. The leather is 
2x3 inches, so that we have t inch of tbe 
tin projecting on two sid€«. Fold this tin 
which projects, in such a way as to take in 
the tin slide, as shown in tbe cut. With a 
tinner's punch, cut a bole throu^ tbe lea- 
ther and tin. In like manner make a hole 
through the screw cap. and solder to the tin. 
as shown in the cut. TIjLs stives us a honey- 
gate that will fit on any of our square honey- 
caijs. 50 the grocer need liave l^ut '••ue hon- 
ey-gate, which he can attach to his .«yfjuare 
can-! a.s fa.st as he retails from them. These 
?ates should not cost over 1-5 ets. eaeb. 



fF^ 



^. 




AHAjeifY !*£:. 






EXTRACTED HONEY. 



166 



EXTRACTED HONEY. 



All ()i(liii;iry 6()-lb. sqnani cnu full is a 
latlicr awkward tiling to liaiidle when it is 
desired to f?et a, siiia-ll (|iiaiitity of lioiK^y out 
of it for a customer wlio comes with a pail 
and wants only " a little." In tipping it 
ov(u- at an angle to let tlie honey run out, it 
is so heavy that it is diflicult to keep it at the 
light hahuice so as not to run out too much, 
or daub (lie can or the pail. Mr. (J. C. Grei- 
iier, of LaSalle, N. Y., sent a sketch of a 
\cry handy device, and so simple; (hataiiy- 
liody can make one out of the material in an 
ordinary drygoods box. Tiie illustration 
will make its method of construction as well 
as its manner of use perfectly plain. When 
a can is pivoted on its centers on each side, 
it can be tipped to the proper angle very 
easily. When tlie package is full, the can 
may be instantly tipped up to a perpendicu- 
lar. When (me can is empty, another one 
can be put in its place, and the ojieration 
reix'uted. The screw top should always be 
oil the upper right-hand corner to let the air 
ill as fast as the lioney (lows out— otherwise 
tiie honey will come out with a gurgling 
sound. A honey-gate can be used or not as 
desired. 

More recently, to meet the wants for a 
smaller package on the same plan, manufac- 
turers have introduced a 1, i, and i gallon 
capacity square can with sizes of 12, G, a)id 
:\ lbs. of honey, shown in the accompanying 
cut. The gallons are put up in boxes of t(ui 
each, and are sold at $1.50 
per box, or $12.00 per hun- 
dred without boxing. In 
many cases it may be de- 
sirable for the dealer to or- 
der a part of his extracted 
honey in the 60-lb. square 
cans and kegs, and a part 
in tlie 12-lb. square cans, 
so that he can distribute to 
ills customers according as 
they want a large or small 
package of liquid honey. 




ONEGaLLOW 1! 
SC^UARE CAN 



HOW TO TEST SCiUARK CANS FOU LEAKS. 

A. J. Hill, of Florida, recommends the 
following plan: Place the mouth over the 
aperture, and suck out the air into the lungs 
and exhale through the nostrils. IJy repeat- 
ed draughts, that necessarily become short- 
er, a partial vacuum is made in the can. 
Stop a minute, and listen for leaks. If there 
are any, a hissing will be heard, and the de- 
creasing air-pressure will allow the sides to 
crack back into place. These cans should 
be discarded, and repaired later. 



SECOND-HAND CANS, AND HOW TO CLEAN. 

Square cans are used exclusively for send- 
ing gasoline and kerosene to the Pacific coast. 
After they are emptied they are sold for 
about half what new ones cost, and in many 
cases bee-kee])ers have used them, almost 
ruining their honey. Some of the more 
car(;fiil ones have washed them out. The 
one who has succeeded the best, and claims 
that second-hand cans are exactly as good 
when so treated, at about half the cost, is 
Mr. S. S. Hutler, of Los Gatos, Cal. Tie 
writes : 

I melt off the four faucets by setting four cans, with 
the corners that have the faucets, together, putting a 
shovel of hot coals on them A good worker can clean 
about 100 in a day by putting in a handful of uuslack- 
ed lime in each, with ;i or 4 quarts of boiling water. 
After it is slack-ed, rinse it well, and afterward rinse 
out twice with cold water, washing them twice with 
lime. In that way it will clean them perfectly. 

During 1909 there was considerable dis- 
cussion in (Jleanings in Bee Culture as to 
whether even the new tin cans are clean 
enough to iiut honey in without washing 
out. Some have claimed that they are more 
or less dusty inside and should be rinsed out 
with hot water. The difficulty comes of 
drying out the cans on the inside, after- 
wards, for if any drops of water are left in 
the can they will make rust spots, resulting 
in leaks or the discoloration of the honey. 
As to whether new^ cans should be washed 
out, or not, will dei)eiid very greatly upon 
the cans themselves. If they appear to be 
bright and clean we should say that one 
would be lunning a risk to attempt to wash 
them out again. 

IIOTTLING HONEY. 

Under Barbels we have given some gen- 
eral directions on how to put up the honey in 
wood so that it may be sent to market. But 
right here we will devote a little space to 
telling how to put it up in glass so it will not 
candy. Under Candied Honey we have 
already given some general hints ; but here 
we wish to give some details which, while 
insignificant of themselves, yet, taken col- 
lectively, are sufliciently important to make 
all the difference between success and fail- 
ure. One who can bottle honey and put it 
up in neat and attractive form so it will not 
candy for at least a year can get good prices 
and do a first-class business. 

Steam from a boiler is by a long w^ay 
the most convenient of any tiling for heating 
that we can employ ; but as the average 
reader of this book i)robably can not get 
it he must iise something else. While 



EXTKACTiiD HOSEY. 



lai 



KXTKACTED HONEV. 



the ordiBary cooking-range or cook-stove, 
osing either ooal or wood, may be used for 
heating honey preparatory to k»ottling. a 
gasoline-stove with three burners is far bet- 
ter — better because the heat ean be pe^rf'-.Ktly 
tymtroUed. A wood or cjal fire is apt to 
bum too strongly at one time or go down at 
another. If the honey be overheated it will 
ruin it —that is. it will have been scorched 
or the flavor so impaired that it will .sell at 
a moderate price : in fact, it will be ateo- 
Intely unfit for bottling, and would- there- 
fore, have to be barreled up and sold at a knr 
price to the large baking concerns wfajcb can 
use an inferior or off grade of honey. Then 
it sbonld be said that, on account of the dan- 
ger from overtieating from a coal or wood 
stove. M»e a gojgoUw-Ji^jK'f: ^jy oU m/^at'f if you 
can not get steam. 

There are two methods in vogue foj ukux- 
ing honey to be put in jdass. One is. Xft 
draw it off from a large can. while eold. into 
eans or tomblers. and beat while in the bot- 
tles. The other is. to beat the bcney in 
bulk, an at onee. in the filling-tank. Ilraw 
it off into tbe bottles wfaHe hot. and seaL 
Whne one does or is expecting to do a good 
basness in bottling, this is the method io 
follow: jeL on the other haid,if he basoolj 
a small tzade.the other f^ai of heathy the 
boner in bottles, the bottles standing np to 
their ne^s in hot water, isthecMieto fcrflow. 
and efaeap^ in the fixst cost, for the entire 
outfit need not eonsist of nMse than a large 
shallow ^n to set on top of the eook-store. 
and to hold the botdes while heating. Bat 
if cne defies to keep the honey Uqaid in ttie 
hands of the retailer for a ecnaderatfekngth 
of time, the heatn^-in-bolk method is the 
better w^, Al»ge qoantity ^ honey in a 
tank ean be kept hot fur fire or »x boars, at 
a tempenitare of 1^ to l^degrecs. Tlds 
lowtempecatore long eontiaaed win ketep 
booeyin a liqaid eoadition longer than a 
IdC^a- temperatnie for a ^bort^ period. 
Bot. en the othar hand, it may be said that 
a long-hot honey win not haVe qaite as fine 
a fiaroKe the qoiek-heated artide: battihds 
diffiereocie wm be noted, not br the ocdinary 
eonsamer.bat by the bottler or boney eon- 
MnaBeoc As the eonsoanng tade is one to 
whiA be K catering the long-hot plan wHL 
perhaps, be pcefecable. beeanse it is better 
to saerifiee siigbtly on the flaror in order to 
meeurt a better appeacaoee: that is. to ke^ 
the honey liqaid nntfl sold and eoasamed. 
fifonej that eandics qniddy or eioads in the 
botdeson the grocer's sfasires b Ufcefyto 
hare a dow sale, and to kin the sale of otter 



«u«q>iciou» of honey 
'ion, classing it 



liffuey. The public h 
that begins to sho 
as " sugared" or a/. 

There are two meiij<j<L> of heating the 
honey in bulk that we will here describe. 
either one of which ha^ its special advan- 
tage: and the reader, after going o^'er tljem 
can determine which is tlie belter one for 
him to adopt. The question of first cost of 
the apparatus wlU have soroe bearing ontije 
proposition. Tbe one used by 3Ir. Fowls is 
cheap er but not quite so elBcient as that of 
Mr. W, !5^ Ponder. 




nix, row L« iijejL;j>o-T-*>'fc*- *ira'>3k- asi* 

€r A.S«0I-»'JK-rTO VJC 

In the aeieompanying eat Hr. Chalon 
Fowls makes use of a gasfcdine-stove already 
refierred to. and puts a eoopAe of large eans 
on eaefa <j€ the tc^ barmas. These are par- 
tially filled with water, then a square ean of 
honey ^ Vet ^jwn in eaeh until it Is eom- 
pk^eiy sabmerged. After the honey is all 
melted, a thexmonuE^er is let down as wiB b»r 
seen: andviien tJ.'- - • - ' • ^Mfot 
l'!JO not higher ths^ rawu 

off bynaeans <* a ¥■;...:. :.-- <. :- :^ tank 
that stands on a lower step of the store. 
This upboa may be ot ^t^m.si£ dkirwn in the 
innstration. or it may be of eouBMin rubber 
tabing. saefa as ean be ol4ained at the &mfgr 
store, Tbe latter b to be preferred \9kiaaa»i 
itismoK exMBTesient to handle. Wldle the 
honey k hot the tobis^ sbMild be let down 
enlireiy into the honey unto it is filled. To 
do thos. attaeh a string at brj^ aade and 
sobmer^c it in the honey. Ihaw oat one 
aad and ran it </rer into the fillii^-tank. 
wfaiefa is lower down. Tbe bot honey wij] 
nowinunediatelyranont: and as the ean i^ 
eaaptaed the water snnonndins the can 
fiioaldbediawnoffordtetheean win float 



EXTRACTED HONEY 



168 



EXTRACTED HONEY 



and tip over. From the lillinf?-taiik the 
honey is drawn off wliile hot, or about as 
near KiO as possible, into lioney-tuniblers, 
Mason jars, Muth jars, or any of the i)a('k- 
a<!;es alr«»ady described. As soon as liiled 
they slionld be sealed while hot; aftei- 
w hicli, as soon as they are sponged oft' in 
warm water, they may be labeled, when they 
are ready for market. 

The ai)paratns shown in the next two 
illustrations can be made at any first-class 
tin-shop, provided a quantity of half-inch 
copper or block tin pipe can be secured. If 
tills is not obtainable locally, the tin-smith 
can send away and get it. 

The pen drawing next page represents 
lirst a small tin boiler standing on a gas or 
gasoline stove; and, second, a melting-tank 
in which the honey is heated and drawn oft' 
into the retail packages. I>oiler E can be 
made from any two or 
three gallon syrup-can 
with a screw top. The 
water-gauge on the side 
to indicate the level of 
the water is not abso- 
lutely essential, and 
may be omitted. If gas 
is not obtainable it is 
better to get a gasoline- 
burner of large dimen- 
sions, for the ordinal y 
single burner would 
hardly generate steam 
fast enough for the pur- 
pose. If the tinsmith 
can not get an oven gas- 
oline burner, he can put 
two conunon gasoline-burners close together. 
The boiler will then have to be constructed 
with a larger bottom, but shallow in depth; 
for too large a quantity of water should not 
be used at a time. The heating-tank should 
be mounted on a level, above the boiler, and 
a connection made with a common hose as 
at G. 

The tank used by Mr. Ponder is 30 inches 
deep, 12 inches in diameter, holding 12 gal- 
lons. While his is made of copper, and is 
nickel-plated, yet one made of tin would be 
just as good if kept clean, and cost a good 
deal less. 

Five or six feet of half-inch copper pipe 
tinned on the outside is coiled and inserted 
inside of the heating-tank, as shown; but 
instead of a portion of it lying in a tlat coil 
at the bottom, the spirals of the pij»e should 
rise one above the other like a bed-spring, 
gradually spreading further apart near the 




POUDER'S HEATING AND KILLING TANK 



top. One end should have an opening at (' 
and the other with G. Steam is generated 
in the boiler E, and finds its exit at the tulie 
C. But when the honey is first poured into 
the tank to be heated, all the steam will be 
condensed and run back into the boiler E. 
After the honey is hot the steam will come 
out at the tube C. 

Contrary to what might be expected, Mr. 
Pouder does not find that hot steam does 
any damage to the flavor of his honey. 
The apparatus is really very simple, and 
occupies but a small amount of room. He 
keeps his outfit right in his retail store on 
the counter where his customers can see it 
and its method of working, and this helps to 
advertise his goods. 

After the honey has been run out, the 
heating-tank should be left just as it is, 
without washing out unless the outfit is to 
stand for some months before being used 



EXTRACTED HONEY. 



169 



EXTRACTED HONEY 



again, for the honey will prevent the rusting 
of the tin. 

The question might arise as to why it is 
necessary to have the height of the tank 
nearly three times its diameter. Mr. Pon- 
der explains this by saying that, in pouring 
honey from one receptacle to another, air- 
bubbles will accumulate. The deeper the 
tank the greater the pressure on the honey 
at the drawing-off point. This pressure will 
force the bubbles to the top. It is very im- 
portant, in bottling honey, that the air- bub- 
bles be all expelled, as they have a ten- 
dency to cause granulation. 

The two outfits already shown for heating 
honey in bulk illustrate principles that may 
be applied to various kinds of tanks. 

HEATING HONEY IN BOTTLES, OR BOTTLING 
FOR A SMALL TRADE. 

There is a class, as already intimated, 
who do not care to go to any great expense 
in a bottling-apparatus, since they have in 
view only a small trade. In brief, all that 
is needed is a shallow pan just deep enough 
so that the deepest bottlescanbe submerged 
in hot water up to their necks and no 
further. 

AVe now need a square or oblong galvaniz- 
ed-iron pan as large as the whole top of the 
stove, with perpendicular sides, and about 
six or seven inches deep. If a gasoline-stove 
is used, tlie pan should be as long and as 
broad as the top : and if the three burners 
are on tlie same level, all tlie better. The 
pan should be just about the depth of an or- 
dinary Mason jar ; or, rather, the depth of 
the deepest package to be used for Ijottling 
purposes. A false bottom of coarse wire 
clotli should be secured about half an 
inch above the bottom proper by means of 
proper stays. This is for the purpose of pro- 
viding a circulation of water under tlie bot- 
toms of the bottles of honey, for otlierwise 
they might break. Eill the pan about half 
full of water, and set it on the stove. When 
the water registers about 180 according to 
the thermometer, set into the tray, on the 
false bottom of wire cloth, the bottles of 
honey that have just been filled from the 
large tilling tank above referred to. When 
the pan is full of bottles placed close togeth- 
er the water should be raised to within 
about an inch of the top of the bottles. Let 
them stand in the hot water until the honey 
in one of the bottles registers about 160. 
They may now be taken out and corked or 
sealed. A fresh supply of filled bottles of 
honey should next be put back to replace the 



first lot, and the operation of heating and 
sealing can be continued indefinitely. 

There are several advantages of this metli- 
od, aside from the one of first cost for 
apparatus, viz.: 

1. One can fill a small order at any time ; 
and it is not necessary to heat a great bulk 
in order to put up a dozen bottles or so (^f 
honey. In heating a large quantity of honey 
one necessarily has to keep it hot a great 
length of time. The longer the lioney is 
kept hot the greater the liability to discolor 
and impair its flavor.* 

2. Bottles that are submerged in hot wa- 
ter can be easily wiped off with a cloth ; and 
as soon as they are corked or sealed they are 
ready for labeling. 

3. Any honey that has been poured into 
the vessels, either cold or hot, will have col- 
lected a large number of air-bubbles ; and it 
is these particles of air that have a tendency 
to hasten granulation. When the honey is 




HEATING-TRAY AS USED AT THE ROOT CO.'S 
FACTORY. 

Instead of using- a g-asoline-stove to licat tho water 
in the tray we use ^s-incli steam-pipes connected as 
in tlie manner shown. The outside pipes are per- 
foiated witli lioles that blow a jet of steam trans- 
versely acrt)ss the bottom of Die pan. Tlie wire 
cloth rests on the pipes. The coil of steam-pipes 
below serves no purpose but to keep the large 1111- 
ing-tank of honey warm 

heated gradually in the bottles after filling, 
the process expels the air-bubbles ; and l)y 
the time the honey is clear it is ready for 
sealing and labeling. 

If any honey should candy one can unseal, 
and set the bottles in the tray of hot water, 
and reheat and seal without emptying. 

COVEYOU'S METHOD OF FILLING BOTTLES. 

Mr. E. E. Coveyou, of Petoskey, Mich., 
one of the most extensive Ijottlers of honey 
in the United States, has a very fully equip- 
ped plant. The accompanying description, 

*The long-er it is kept hot, the longer it will be be- 
fore it catidies again. I advise erring on the side of 
good flavor, even if it does candy more (luicklj-. 
The same honey can be remelted in precisely the 
same way. 



EXTEACTED HONEY. 



170 



EXTRACTED HONEY. 




FIG. 1.— E. B. COVBYOU'S HONEY-BOTTLING ROOM. 

The bottles are filled by means of a short piece of hose connected to the honey-tank, 
working stop at the end controls the flow of honey into the bottles. 



A quick- 



together with the half-tones, will give a very 
fair idea of how he operates. 

Fig. 1 shows at the rig-ht the boiler and pipe lead- 
ing to the different tanks. Next is the filling-tank 
in front of which are the glasses ready to be tilled 
with the hose hanging at the bottom of the tank. 



At the left the glasses are piled up with galvanized 
wire screen between each tier. This makes a very 
good way to d ry. 

Fig. 2 shows our liquefying-tank partly filled with 
60-lb. cans of honey. There is a partition through 
the center, so that 1000 lbs. of honey can be heated 
in each side. A lower tcmnerature can be main- 




FIG. 2.— CO-VEYOU'S LIQUEFYING-TANK. 

This is divided into iwo parts^ each of which will hold a thousand pounds of honey. The temper- 
ature of the water in each part is controlled by a separate steam-pipe. 



EXTRACTED HONEY 

>J MWV 



171 



EXTRACTED HONEY. 




FIG. 3.— FILLING AKD LABELING BOTTLKS. 

Tlie melhod of filling tlie bottles is here shown. The top label in the bunch is pasted, and the botile 
rolled over It. Thus the labels are put on without being hancUed at all. 



tained in one side than the other, should it be 
thought advantageous to heat the honey slowly for 
the first twelve hours. 

The steam-pipe in the middle is divided with valves 
close to the partition, so that the steam can be 
turned on or off to keep the temperature uniform- 
I :im standing with a themometer in my hand, not. 
ing the temperature. This .should be done quite f re, 
quently uatil the right degree of heat is reached 
when the valve practically does the work. 

In Fig. 3 the lady at the r ght is my sister, Mary 
Coveyou, filling glasses wiih what Mr. Townsend has 
named our ''wild goose bill." This is attached to a 
hose, and fills the glasses right in the cases, which 
saves bundling. We find this is one of the very best 
methods we have ever tried. One person cun fill 
4000 half-pound glasses wiih honey in less than a 
d;iy's time, in this waj'. 

The lady in the center is my wife, showing our new 
way of labeling glasses. In ihe first place the labels 
are not gummed. We take one end of the package 
of labels and paste it, which keeps the pile together- 
Then the bunch of labels is also pasted upon ihe 
table, face down, which holds them securely in 
place. The young lady at the left does the pasting. 
As soon as the top label is pasted, the glass is simply 
rolled over it, which picks it up and at the same time 
presses it firmly in place. Thus the work is done 
without any handling of sticky labels. By this 
method we can label with the ungummed papers 
just as fast as we could wiih the gummed. 

Mr. Coveyou's scheme for filling his honey- 
bottles is very unique. It is, in fact, the 
same general scheme that is uses by bottlers 
of pickles and other canned goods in large 



canning-factories. A rubber hose is attach- 
ed to the filling-tank, and on the other end 
is an arrangement something similar to the 
cover on a syrup-pitcher to shut off the 
syrup without drip ; indeed, it opens and 
closes much like a goose-bill. A pressure of 
a little hand-lever opens the beak of the 
bill, as it were, and allows the honey to run 
into a bottle. Just the moment the honey 
reaches the desired level the beak or goose- 
bill is closed, chopping olf the honey with- 
out a particle of drip. 

A quantity of the empty bottles are placed 
up on a table or tray within reach of the 
hose. The operator grasps it, holds the 
beak over one of the bottles, opens it and 
then closes it at just the exact moment when 
the bottle is filled. In like manner all the 
others are filled without touching a single 
bottle until that entire lot are full. The 
whole tray of them is removed, when an- 
other lot is put in place. 

There can be no doubt that this method of 
filling the bottles is much more rapid than 
the old way of placing the bottles one at a 
time under a honey-gate, filling it, removing 
it, and filling another. It can readily be 
seen that the handling of the bottles neces- 
sarily consumes a large amount of time, 
whereas the rubber hose, with its goose-bill 



EXTRACTED HONEY 



172 



KXTH ACTED HONEY 



or beak can be moved to any one of the bot- 
tles where they stand, and lill them oue by 
one in the shortest space of time. 

WASHING AND CLEANING r.OTTI.ES. 

Prepare several tubs of water— one of 
ttiem with strong suds — and then have 
on hand a few ounces of shot — No. (> is 
about right. If particles of glass or dirt 
cling to the inside of the bottles, pour in 
four or live ounces of sliot and give the 
Itoltle a shaking. This will dislodge all 
-l>articles, when tlie shot may be poured into 
another bottle, to be similarly treated. In 
rinsing, use clear soft water. Hard water 
is liable to leave traces of sediment. Any 
glass i)ackage used for honey designed for 
table purposes should be spotlessly clean. 

now TO INSERT CORKS IN BOTTLES. 

Two or three methods are employed. One 
is, to use a rubber mallet, which can be pur- 
el lased at any of tlie rubber-stores. The 
ends of the mallet being soft, a cork that is 
barely entered can be driven into the bottle 
with a blow. 

Another plan is to use a lever, as shown at 
D, in cut. This lever should have a pro- 
jection on the under side so the cork can be 
t\)rce(l down into the bottle about a sixteenth 
of an inch. It is important, after corking, 




to pour a la^er of paialline or wax over the 
top of tlie cork. Some go so far as to dip 
the corks into hot paraffine, then pour a hot 
layer on top after they are inserted in the 
bottles. Nay, some go even further. After 
the corks have been paratlined they put on a 



neat tinJ'oil top. If the honey has been 
heated above 100, and sealed while hot, and 
the cork is made impervious, it will remain 
liquid for months; as we have seen samples 
of honey put up in Muth jars that have 
been k(^pt in a refrigerator six months, and 
yet it would remain perfectly clear all the 
time. But do not advise your grocer cus- 
tomers to put honey in a cold place. The 
bottles should not be handled more than is 
necessary, but be kept in a warm place at ms 
uniform a temperature as possible. 

Assuming that no directions are necessary 
for sealing i)ackages using rubber rings, we 
would only say this : That you must be sure 
you make the sealing as tight as possible. 
In the case of Mason jars, screw the tops 
down with a wrench, and screiv them down 
tight. 

In sealing jelly-tumblers, cut squares of 
paper (preferably paraffined paper) about the 
size of the top of the tumbler. When the 
jar is tilled, put the paper on toj) of the jar, 
and squeeze the top down with the palm of 
the hand, putting a large part of the weight 
of the body on it. If the top goes down too 
easily, use thicker paper or two thicknesses. 

A BLEND OF SEVER \L KINDS OK HONEY FOR 
BOTTLING PURPOSES. 

The seasons for honey production are so 
uncertain at times that one finds himself 
unal)le to supply his trade with the honey he 
produces from his own yard. If, for exam- 
ple, his honey is almost exclusively from 
clover, with little or no basswood or fall flow, 
the trade will Ijecome educated to like that 
particular flavor, and will reject all other 
hone} s of other flavors on the ground that 
they are impure. To provide against a con- 
tingency of this kind it is advisable to use 
from the start for bottling purposes a honey 
that can always be furnished year after year. 
We make a, blend of white clover, basswood, 
and alfalfa. These are flne table honeys; 
and if the trade is supplied with this blend 
from the very start it will become accus- 
tomed to it. Such a blend can be made u\) 
of honeys that one can purchase when local 
honey fails; whereas if one puts up only 
white clover at the beginning, he will find it 
difficult to purchase a strictly pure clover 
except at highest prices. Where one lives 
in a clover locality he will do well to make 
up a blend of ;")() per cent of clover, 25 per 
cent of basswood, and 25 per cent of alfalfa. 
We will assume, for example, that he has a 
season of failure, and yet the bottling trade 
keeps up just the same. He can usually buy 
a mixture of clover and basswood. His 



EXT II ACTOR. 



173 



EXTRACTOR. 



t;isle will become educated so he can deter- 
mine the percentage of the one to the other. 
Then by putting in a small amount of alfal- 
fa, which he can always procure, he will be 
able to supply his trade with the proper 
blend. 

If one lives in a locality where alfalfa is 
produced exclusively, there will be no need 
of having a special blend, because the pure 
alfalfa can usually be obtained in most of 
the irrigated regions. 

UEQL'IKEMENTS OF THE LAW AS TO LABELS. 

It will be well to state that the national 
pure-food law-, and in some cases State laws, 
requires that the label shall indicate the ex- 
act contents of a package; and therefore it 
would not be advisable to call a blend, such 
as we have described, a pwre clover. It will 
l)e perfectly proper to say •' pure extracted 
honey bottled Ijy .John .Jones;'' Ijut .John 
.Jones must not say '' pure extracted honey ; 
from the apiary of .John .Jones"' unless such 
honey actually did come from his ajjiary. 

LABELING BOTTLED HOXEY. 

As a general rule, use small circular la- 
bels. The big ones that cover up the whole 
jar do not usually afford as pretty an effect 
as the small neat tasty labels that give the 
customer a good chance to see the honey. It 
is the honey that sells; and if it is a fine 
quality, get the grocer to display it in such 
a way in his window that the light will spar- 
kle through it, and we will guarantee it will 
sell. 

EZTR ACTOR. Tlie extractor, like the 
movaljle frame, is one of the things that 
have made a revolution in liee-keeping. It 
was invented in the year I860 by Major 
Francesco de Hruschka, of Venice, who 
died at the good old age of 7.5, in the year 
1888. Like a good many other inventions, 
its discovery was made by accident. His 
little boy chanced to put a piece of comb in 
a Ijasket to which was attached a bit of 
rope. With rope in hand, the boy began to 
whirl it. The centrifugal force caused a few 
drops of honey to be thrown out of the bas- 
ket around in the air, and the father, seeing 
it, was keen enough to see that in this 
was a principle, and the nucleus of a big in- 
vention whereby it became unnecessary any 
longer to smash the combs up and strain the 
honey out in tlie old-fashioned way. He 
very soon constructed a rude extractor that 
demonstrated the practical utility of the 
discovery; and, shortly afterward, perfect- 
ed the machine. 



Among the early extractors brought out in 
this country was one made I^y .J.L. Peabody. 
This was so constructed that the whole can 
revolved, and the honey ran out througli a 
hole cut in the center. But this was poorly 
adapted to the wants of the Ijee-keeper. In 
1869 A. I. Root constructed what he called 
the " Novice " honey-extractor. 

This was so great an improvement over 
all those that had preceded, that it found 
a ready sale at once. The inside baskets 
for holding the combs, in order to combine 
lightness with the greatest strength, were 
made of folded-tin bars and tinned wire 
cloth, four meshes to the inch. The crank 
was geared so that one revolution made 
three revolutions of the baskets. 

KEVERSING EXTBACTOUS. 

The basket in the Novice extractor re- 
quires the pulling-out of the combs in order 
to present the unextracted sides next to the 
can. This wastes time, as well as being 
awkward. About the time A. I. Root was 




EXJKACTOK WITH SFACE FOR HOXEV BE- 
LOW REVOLVING FRA3IE. 

experimenting with extractors. Thrjs. Wni. 
Cowan, editor of the British Bee Jounial, 
con.structed what was then known as and is 
still called the Cowan reversible extractor. 
To obviate the necessity of removing the 
combs, the pockets, or wire-cloth cages, were 
hinged, like an ordinary door, to a reel with- 
out a center-shaft. Combs could be put into 
these pockets ; and after one .side was ex- 
tracted the pocket could be swung on its 
hinges the other side to, door fashion, with- 
out even stopping the machine, by meiely 
slowing up so the left hand could catch 
the edge of each pocket, throwing it around. 
The cut next shown, while it does not rep- 
re.seut the original extractor marie by Mi'. 
Co'.van, .shows the Americanized machine. 



EXTRACTOR. 



174 



EXTRACTOR. 



The mechanism has beeu greatly improved 
in workmanship and design. 




TWO-FRAME REVERSIBLE EXTRACTOR. 

Shortly after the two-frame Cowan was 
introduced in this country (1890), there came 
a demand from the bee-keepers of the "West, 
who produce honey by the carload, for ma- 
chines that would do the work in a still 
more wholesale way than even the two- 
frame reversible Cowan. In response to 



INSIDE OF THE FOUR-FRAME COWAN. 

this, four and six frame Cowan machines 
were made. The same principle of the 
swinging pockets was used in a large re- 
volving reel, as in the two-frame machines, 
with this difference, that all the pockets 
were geared together so that when one was 
swung around all would be moved at the 
same time. In late years this has given 
way to the 



ROOT AUTOMATIC REVERSIBLE EXTRACTOR. 

This is an improvement over the old orig- 
inal Cowan because of the fact that it is 




Kuvji o 



^u iX'.>..» no r «jUu - i Ka.ui!. HONEY- 
EXTRACTOR— SIDE VIEW. 




an automatic reversible machine. The re- 
versing mechanism, the invention of Frank 
G. Marbach, is situated on top of the reel, 
and is actuated by a slight pressure on the 
brake-lever. Thisaciionis always positive 
and reliable. Other automatic reversing- 
devices have been put on the market at vari- 




ROOT S AUTOMATIC t UL K -t uAMK lIU.\t,Y- 
EXTRACTOR — TOP VIEW. 

ous times; but they were so complicated in 
their action, and so likely to get out of order, 
that they have never become popular. 



EXTRACTOR. 



175 



EXTRACTOR. 




OXE EXGIKE DKrmfG TWO LABGE FOrB-FBAME EXTBACTOES. 

The adranta^e of this arr«cgemf-DT is that oce extraetor can be evaptjtrd and filled with cotnbe while 
the other is extracting. Id thi= way the work of extracting can proceed witbcmt intermption. 



Moreover, they required a reversal of the 
crank-handle in order to bring al'Oat a 
changre In the position of the combs. Tais 
placed a heavy strain on the gearwork. caus- 
ing breakdowns, and very often stripping 
the cog-wheels of their teeth. This has all 
been overcome in the Marbach device, 
because the strain incident to reversing is 
placed entirely on the brake-lever, relieving 
all stress on the gears. Another feature of 
this machine is that it can be reversed while 
in motion: a pressure on the brake lever 
slows d<jwn the reeL when, presto! the 
combs are flopped the other side to in the 
fraction of a second — so quickly, indeed, 
that it seems like a sleight-of-hand perform- 
ance. 

POWEB-DBrVEK HOITET-EXTBACTOBS. 

In some localities, where a large amount 
of extracting has to be done, the extractors 
are driven by water-motors .gasol ine-engines. 
or any other small power. Little gasoline- 
motors have now arrived at such a state 
of i>erf ection that they are exceedingly reli- 
able and efficient, and in view of the fact 
that a 5team-€ngine is expensive, and that 
a water-motor is out of the question for 
most localities, the internal-combustion 
engine, driven by the force of an explosion, 
is the mc^t available power for this purpose. 
Small air-cooled engines of this type are 
now made in one-hor^e-power sizes that win 
drive a honey-extractor with a consumption 



of gasoline of only one quart for a run of 
ten hours, and the cost of the engine is only 
from S-50.00 to $75.f<j at the factor?-, and 
they are so simple in construct^jn that any 
child capable of reading and understanding 
directions can manage them. 

The method of transmitting the power of 
the engine to the machine is shown in the 
ac-companying illustrations. In view of the 




OSE-HOESX-POWEE AIB-COOLED GASOhJSW.- 

EXGISX COSTTECTEIJ TO EIGHT- 

FEAME EXTBACTOE. 

fact that it is not practicable to stop and 
start a gaadine-engine every time the combs 
are taken out of the extractor, and replaced, 
a loose belt with idler is employed so that 
the extractor can be stopped and started — 
in fact, any speed desired obtained — simply 
by a pressure on the lever that holds the 
idler used to increase the tension on th*- 
belt. This form of tran^nission of power 



EXTRACTOR. 



176 



EXTRACTOR. 



lias been tested tliorouglily, and found to l)e 
a success in every way. 

Where a larji^e amount of extractinff is to 
de done, this gasoline-outfit, togetlier with 
an eight-frame extractor, will almost pay 
for itself in one season. On the other hand, 




DKTAIL OF DRIVING MECHANISM — IDLEH 
RELEASED AND BELT LOOSE. 

ail extractor nni by hand power takes a 
good strong man, whose services can not 
usually be had for less than $2.00 a day. 
Hut experiments have shown that a lioney- 
extractor driven by power will do quicker 
and more thorough wairk. It is impossible 
by hand power to do a cle.m job of extract- 




UETAIL OF DRIVING MECHANISM — IDLER 
IN POSITION AND BELT TIGHT. 

ing; and the result is, the combs go back 
into the hive very wet. While a good por- 
tion of this honey wall be stored back, 
exi)erience shows that a large part of it will 
be consumed by the bees. 

RIGHT AND WKONG PRINCIPLES IN EX- 
TRACTORS. 

Some of tiie earlier machines sold in this 
country, notalily the Teabody, made use of a 



rcA'olving can without gearing. This was a 
mistake. For the last twenty years extract- 
ors liave been built Avith stationary cans, 
inside of which the comb-pockets, revers- 
ible or non-reversible, revolve, motion be- 
ing imparted by gearing so that one turn ( f 
the crank-handle makes two or three turns 
of the baskets. 

MORE EXTRACTED THAN COMB. 

Some of the advantages and disadvan- 
tages of using a honey-extractor in the api- 
ary are considered under the head of Ex- 
tracted Honey. Tliat more honey can be 
obtained by the use of the machine than by 
having it stored in section boxes in the 
shape of comb honey, all are agreed; but all 
are not agreed as to hoiv much more. If it is 
nicely sealed over as it should be before be- 
ing extracted, we do not think more than half 
as mnch more will be obtained, on an avei- 
age, although the amount is placed by many 
at a much higher figure. A beginner will be 
likely to get more extracted than if he relies 
upon having the bees w^ork in sections ; he 
will also be much more apt to take aw\ay too 
much, and to cause his bees to starve. This 
last is a an unfortunate feature attendant 
upon the use of the machine, especially 
where the bee-keeper is prone to carelessness 
and negligence. To secure the best results 
with the extractor, plenty of empty combs 
should be provided, that ample room may be 
given, in case the hives should become full 
before the honey is ripe enough to remove. 
If a second story does not give room sufli- 
cient, add a third for a heavy stock, diuing 
a good yield of honey. 

HOW TO EXTRACT. 

Much will depend on whether one has a 
large amount of honey to be extracted, or 
whether he is only a novice and wishes to 
use the simpler and cheaper methods. If 
he keeps bees in only a small way, and 
probably w ill not extract to exceed a thou- 
sand iiounds in a season, the ordinary Nov- 
ice extractor will answer his purpose: but 
as he seldom foresees that he may go into 
the busine s extensively, it would be better 
to purchase the two-frame reversible ex- 
tractor, as the difference in cost is very 
slight. One of these will save labor, do 
quicker work, and more of it. 

Having selected the machine, it should be 
placed on a box or hive-body about as large 
as the bottom of the can, and about as high 
as an ordinary water-i)ail; that is to say, the 
extract(u- should be elevated liigh enough so 
that the honey-gate may empty into a com- 



EXTRACTOR. 



177 



EXTRACTOR. 



imm pail, something as shown in tlie above 
illustration. Both box and extractor shonld 
be securely anchored down. As fast as the 
honey is extracted it is to be drawn off pail- 
ful after pailful, and then poured into kegs, 
s(juare cans, or any large receiving-vat for 
holding the honey. This filling and empty- 




EXTRACTOR ELEVATED OM A lil \ t-BuD Y. 

ing of the pails may seem to involve quite a 
little labor; but one of the largest honey- 
producers in the world, Mr. W. L. Cogg- 
sliall, uses identically this method. 

Some prefer to have the extractor on a 
higher box so that the honej'-gate can stand 
just over the bunghole of a b-irrel, thus al- 
•lo.\viiig the honey to go directly from the 
comb into the marketing-i^ackage. Hut this 
necessitates raising the extractor to a point 
so high in the air tliat it is inconvenient to 
work, and awkward to i)ut in and remove 
the combs. It is, therefore, desirable that 
the machine should be as close to the floor 
as possible on a low box, low enough so we j 
can run the honey into the pail, or direct ! 
into square cans ; but if the honey is first i 
run into an open tin pail, its quality, and , 
whether or not there are dead bees floating | 
in it, can be seen before it is emptied into I 
the regular marketing-packages. I 

For a strainer a cheese-cloth sack attached 
to the honey-gate will answer very well in 
a small way, although something more elab- i 



orate will have to be used where the ex- 
tractings are conducted on an extensive 
scale. It is then customary to run the 
honey through a strainer having a large 
surface, not less than three or four square 
feet. Or the honey may be conducted into 
large tanks, where all particles of comb can 
rise to the top and be skimmed off. The 
honey is then drawn off from the bottom 
into square cans and barrels. 

Mr. E. W. Alexander takes an ordinary 
ten-quart milk-pail, cuts out the sides and 
bottom of it. leaving a top and bottom rim. 
These are united by upright tin braces as 
shown. The open spaces are next filled in 
with a fine mesh of brass wire cloth, secured 
to place by solder. A good tinner should 
be employed to do the job When finished 
it makes a large pail seive. This he hangs 
over the discharge-pipe of his extractoi-. 
and he finds it ample to take care of the 
output of a four frame machine run to its 
full<^st extent. He advises, however, having 




THE ALEXANDER HONEY-STKAIXEK. 

two pails, so that when one is clogged up 
another one can be put in its place; then, 
after the day's extracting is over, botli can 
be cleaned. 

S. T. Pettit, of Alymer, Ontario. Canada, 
has devised a strainer, which we consider 
superior to any thing else that is here 
shown. The accompanying illustration will 
make its manner of construction clear. It 



EXTRACTOR. 



178 



EXTRACTOR. 



consists of a large tin funnel with perpen- 
dicular sides, having oblong V-shaped pieces 
of tin soldered across the bottom and up 
and down the sides on a perpendicular line 
and at regular intervals, so that when the 
wire-cloth basket is put in'-i<'e 't will be held 




PETTIT HONEY-STKAINEB. 



away from the sides of the funnel by a dis- 
tance equal to the pieces of V-shaped tin. 
Inside the wire-cloth basket is hung a 
square of cheesecloth, that practically does 
all of the straining. This cloth comes in 
contact with the wire-cloth basket, and as 
this has a space of practically half an inch 
between it and the walls of the funnel, the 
honey can run down between through tlie 
two-inch pipe into the barrel. 

The special feature of the Pettit strainer 
is that extra squares of cheesecloth can be 
substituted when the one already in shall be 
clogged with refuse. These can be rinsed 
out later on and be used again. 

One can, if he chooses, modify the shape 
of the funnel, using the ordinary form with 
tapering sides, but it is our judgment that 
the one shown in the illustration is better, 
Viecause of its vertical sides, for most of the 
honey will be strained through the cloth 
that hangs on the perpendicular line rather 
than that laying horizontally on the bottom- 

Mr. .John Baily, of Brrcebridge, Ontario, 
made an Alexander strainer, but he uses 
sloping sides. This can readily be put inside 
of an ordinary large funnel that can be pur- 
chased at almost any large hardware store ; 
but in our judgment the Pettit idea in using 
coarse-mesh wire-cloth and cheesecloth for 
the strainer material would be better than 
using a line milk-strainer gauze only. 



EXTRACTING IN A LARGE WAY. 

Where the production of extracted honey 
goes up into the carload, or the tens of thou- 
sands of pounds, it is advisable to have an 
extracting-building located on a side hill, 
the first floor of which should be on a level 
with the top of the 
hill, and the base- 
ment floor even 
with the base of 
the hill. The 
combs from the 
hives are then to 
be run on a comb- 
cart on a direct 
level with the ex- 
tractor, which in 
this case will 
stand on the floor. 
In the room or 
basement below, 
just beneath the 
extractor, and 
c m m u n i c ating 
directly with it 
through a hole or 
pipe, should be a 
large storage-tank that will hold from 50C0 
to 10,000 lbs. of honey at a time. Into this 
the honey runs direct from the extractor as 
fast as it is taken. From this the honey will 
be drawn off into square cans, the latter to 
be loaded on a wagon at the base of tlie hill. 
The illiistiation next page sliows somewhat 



BOTTOM OF STRAINER TO 
SHOW SUPPORTS FOR 
WIRE BA&Ker. 




ISAILY S IIONEY-STKAINKM, 




ALKXANDEK S EXTKALTING-HOUSE ; I'UTTING THK COMBS IN. 




ALEXANDER'S EXTRACTING-HOUSE ; TAKING THE COMBS OUT. 



K XT R A ('TO 11. 



180 



EXTIl ACTOR. 



how sucli buildings are used in Culifovuia. 
Others use a pipe connecting directly 
with the honey-gate of the extractor, and 
leading directly to a storage-tank that is on 
a lower level, and off at one side. In either 
case the extractor is, of course, secured to 
the floor, and the operator is thus enabled 
to exert his power to the best advantage. 

As to the building itself, some put up a 
cheap structure as shown in the illustra- 
tions; but in every case it should be well 




IIONKY-IANKS OX A LK\ KL LUW'KU '11Ia:N 

EXTRACTING-TANK, NEAR BUK- 

BANK, CALIFORNIA. 

battened, and bee-proof. The doors should 
swing outward, so as to let the bees escape 
that get inside. The windows should be 
provided with wire screens having bee-es- 
capes. 

Mr. E. W. Alexander, of Delanson, N . Y., 
one of the most extensive bee-keepers in 
the world, uses a small extracting-house that 
certainly has some features to recommend 
it. It is just large enough to receive a four- 
frame extractor, a man to operate it, an 
uncapping-box, and space to receive the 
fresh combs as they come in and those that 
go out. The combs are carried in comb- 
carriers, which arenothing more nor less than 
hive-bodies rigged up with a convenient 
iron handle as shown. Mr. Alexander has 
something like 700 colonies, all in one apiary, 
and his crops of honey annually go up into 



the carloads. While the carrying-boxes may 
seem very crude, yet, used in the manner 
in which he uses them, in connection with 
this small building, they give excellent 
results with a minimum of labor. 

Two men take the combs out of the hive, 
and shake or brush off the bees. While one 
is putting in fresh empty combs from which 
the tilled ones have been taken, (dosing up 
the hive, and opening up another one, the 
other carries tlie combs just removed in the 
carrier to the man in the extracting-house. 
The sliding door at the right is lifted, and 
the combs, carrier and all, are pushed inside 
and the door drops, shutting out all possible 
robbers. In the same way the empty combs 
are removed in another carrier from the 
other door at the left, and so on the process 
continues. The quick opening and closing 
of the slide doors prevents robbers from get- 
ting at the Avork inside. The three men thus 
working, changing place every now and then 
to relieve tlie monotony, are able to take out 
several thousand pounds of honey in a day. 
As the ground is very hilly and rough at 
this yard, a wheelbarrow would be out -of 
the question. 

It will be noted that the tin pipe going 
down through the floor, connecting with the 
honey- gate (see cuts page 178) passes down 
through the yard and communicates with a 
large open honey-tank inside of a small 
building not shown. The whole arrange- 
ment, from start to finish, is unique and per- 
fect for the conditions mentioned. 

\\ here the ground is comparatively level, 
and no steep grades, a wheelbarrow or hand- 
cart, preferably with pneumatic tires, as 
described a little further along, would, per- 
haps, be better. Other bee-keepers make a 
very small extracting-house that can be lift- 
ed up on wagon-wheels, and carried from 
one yard to another. It sometimes happens 
that localities change, and then it becomes 
desirable to move the extracting-house. 

E. r. Atwater, of Meridian, Idaho, uses 
a building which he can take down, load on 
a wagon, and set up at any spot desired. 

Still others prefer a genuine portable ex- 
tracting-house — that is, a house permanent- 
ly on wheels; such as the one shown in the 
next illustration, used by W. T>. Jefferson, 
of Safford, Arizona. Low wide-tired iron 
wheels are used, and a platform wide 
enough to extend out over and even with 
the outer edges of the wheels, and 
long enough to give sufficient room for ex- 
tracting purposes, is mounted just high 
enougli to clear the wheels. Beneath the 



KXTIJACrOK 



181 



EX'i'RA(rr()i{. 



liliitforni is :i l(>nj>' sliallow ^■Jilvaiiizcd tank, 
hanging between the fn)iit and rear axle- 
trees, that will hold L'OO gallons. On the 
top of it is bnilt a light skeleton-like struc- 
ture, the upi»er portion ot which is screened 
with wire cloth. This house on wheels is 
equipped with extractor, luicapping-knives, 
uneapping-tank, and all. The extractor is 
l)laced just over the tank; and as fast as the 
honey is thrown out it runs down into it. 




torn has cleats around tlie outer edges, to 
hold the hive bodies or supers that are 
placed thereon from sliding This curt, 
with the supers, is run close to a hive. Over 
tlie whole four, or over each one individ- 




.lEFtEKSONS PORTABLE HOUSE. 

The screen door is made to open outward, 
and the building is provided with Porter 
bee-escapes. The struc- 
ture is large enough to 
take care of an ordinary 
day's extracting; but to 
provide for emergency, 
another wagon has a 
tank holding 200 gallons 
mounted low so that the 
honey can run from the 
tank of the extracting- 
liouse into another tank. 
This extracting - wagon 
is drawn from yard to 
yard; and the honey, as 
fast as taken, is hauled 
home, leaving none at 
the yards where thieves 
can molest. On the 
whole, the Jefferson 
outfit has many features 
to rect)mmend it; and In 
some localities, where 
roads are reasonably 
good, but where light-fingered people exist, 
it is the very best arrangement. 

TAKING THE C03IBS TO THE EXTRACTOR. 

We next come to the matter of getting the 
combs out of the hives, transporting them 
to the extractor, and uncapping them. We 
shall need a wheelbarrow or handcart— pref- 
erably latter, for the wheels are large, and 
the burden is sustained entirely by the cart. 

COGGSHALL'S EXTUACTING-CART. 

This, as will be seen, is nothing but a 
handcart without a box. The tray or bot- 



nally, may Le pl.i, e»l a wcL cloiii or iloj.s, 
the purpose of which is to sliut out robber 
bees that may be hovering around: for bees 
are disinclined to push up under tnet cloth. 

Some prefer a light sprin^ wheelbarrow 
holding one or two empty hive-bodies. Mr. 
William Lossing, of Arizona, makes use of 
a foot-levei- closini'- device over the hive. 




I'NEUMATIC-XIKLD TAUT FITTED \tiiii A iiN-LiNEi) BuX 
CARRYING EXTRACTING-COMBS. 



Mr. L. E. Mercer, of California, uses a sort 
of two-wheel barrow with pneumatic tires, 
and a long box in which to receive the 
combs. The bicycle- tires and wheels make 
the vehicle much better for carrying tlie 
combs over ordinary rough ground. 

GETTING THE BEES OFF THE COMBS. 

We next open the hive, pull out one 
comb and give it a rapid shaking motion 
in front of the entrance. The Coggshall 
or the German bee-brush attached to our 
person l)y means of a string will brush off 
the remaining bees. The frame should be 



EXTRACTOR. 



182 



EXTRACTOR. 



held by one comer and one side iiud then 
the other hi brushed as shown in the 
views below. Or, if preferred, the comb 




Uie luce. Tlie few remaining bees are llieu 
dislodged with the brush, as before explain- 
ed. In this way one or more supers on the 
carrier are filled with combs, and are then 
wheeled to the extracting-house. Arriving 
here they are taken care of by a couple of 
helpers. We then take back with us on the 
cart four other empty supers, which are 
tilled as were the others ; but where one car- 
ries on bee-keeping in a limited way, an 
ordinary wheelbarrow with two supers on 
would answer. In that case one operator 
might take off combs, run them into the 
extracting-house, extract them, bring them 
back, and put them on the hive again. Or 
he might put in the house a dozen or so of 
supers and then extract. The method or 
methods can be varied to suit the individ- 
ual conditions that may exist : but in any 
case the importance of having pants tucked 
in the tops of boots, or, if shoes are worn, 
in the tops of the stockings, is urged : 
for, during the operation of shaking, 
the combs the bees will almost surely try 
to crawl up one's trousers legs. It would 
also be a wise precaution to have long 



HOVTO HOLD THE C.)GGSI1 A I. L i .]■: !:-i; ill' -H 




.MANM:.. .. : .. ',. i.i:ltMAN r.EK-BRUSH. 

may be rested on the hive, and brushed. 
We then place the frame in one of the 
supers on the cart or barrow. The next 
comb is then removed : but instead of being 
shaken in jront of the entrance it is shaken in 




PORTER BEE-ESCAPE. 

sleeves, on the ends of which are sewed 
gloves having the finger-tips all cut off. 
These, when put on over the coat or shirt 
sleeves, will prevent the bees from crawl- 
ing up the sleeves or attacking the wrists. 
But all this annoyance of bees crawling 
up the trousers legs, and shaking and 
brushing off the bees, stings, and robbers, 
may be avoided by the use of the bee- 




escape. If there are a himdred supers to 
extract the next day, a hundred bee-escapes 
can be placed under the supers the night 
before: then during the afternoon of the day 
following one can go to the hives and take 
off super after super, and find scarcely a bee 
on a comb : nor does it in any way anger any 
of the colonies. A little smoke at tlie en- 



EXTRACTOR. 



183 



EXTRACTOR. 



trance will prevent the guards from flying 
out and attacking while the honey is being 
removed. These hundred supers, six or 
eight at a time, can then be taken to the ex- 
tracting-house. on the hand-cart, with never 
a robber in sight, even during the robbing 
season: and if the extracting-house is as 
tight as it surely ought to be. the extracting 
can h^e done at any time with ease and pleas- 
ure. But at out-yards it is sometimes im- 
practicable to use escapes unless two trips 
are made — one to put on them and the other 
to take off the honey. Some apiarists think 
the extra trip more than offsets the incon- ' 
veniences of the brushiug and shakins of i 
the combs. i 

UXCAPFIX€r<;AXS. 

In dry climates the combs may be taken 
out of the hive when they are half capped 
over : but it is a much safer rule to wait till 
the cells are pretty well covered before at- 








DADAJfT S TTSCXSYtHG-CKSi. 

tempting to extraet. The h«j€y wiD be 

thicker and richer, will sell letter, and the 
prc>duct will always \<^ in demand frr-m that 
time on- 

The outfit shown in the next column is 
something like an ordinary extractor-can- 
<mly it is made in two pieces — the 
upper one dipping into the otber. A 
wtre<-loth partition, as ^own in tiie cat, 



catches the caps as they fall, and the honey 
drips down, to be drawn off through the gate. 
The very finest of the honey will come from 
this uncapping-can. as it has all been ripened 
and sealed. A wooden cross-arm extends 
across the top on one side. A 5?raping-stick 
to clean the knife onj extends at right an- 
gles, and is at a convenient height. Cen- 
trally through the intersecting piece at one 
end passes a screw which may be lowered 
or rai-sed and the end of which is sharp- 
ened to a point. On this point the frame to 
be uncaijped is pivoted, .so that one side 
or the other can be turned very readily for 
the knife. The cappings. as they fall, easily 
pass down between the two side arms. drox>- 
ping on to the screen below. The honey- 
knife can be readily 5CTai»ed on the wooden 
scraping-stick in the manner shown in the 
illustration, without dulling the edge. 

M'rSTTYBE'S UXCAFFIXG-BOX. 

The cut afcKjve shows the device used very 
successfully by Mr. J. F. McIntjTe. one of 
those extensive bee-keepers in California 
who produce honey by the carload, and the 
following is his description- taken from 
Gleanings, page 770, VoL XYIIL: 

It i£ 3 feet wide, 3 deep, and <i1od^ outside, made of 

'i .'jtnberr dressed on Txrth side<^ The \jottaca is 2 
:r. .^5 i'jwfiT in the middlfe than at the ades. and is 
.; .-r^ ^tb tin *' v£-^r -. ^rfjxa leaking^. Eleven 
P-v- 'rr of •■rood. '. ^5. are laid acrosrs the 

■."■Tiom aVxmt € — : to support the screia) 

which the ca^finn^ tsm on. This leaves rocon b^ow 
the screen for the honey to run to one end, where it 
pi-ji.^- o^ji -rjT'Uuii a tin pipe. Two pieces, %j&iCR 
::. :.'j'-5- i.:^ .'-i.r.'r'i on tbetopedge,oneon each side, tw 
contract tLe top of the box to the same width that a 
Langsrroth hire is long- inside. 




One piece. ^x3x:^4. y~ ftred acK^fe the top of the 
boi abont Uinehei from one end. with an iron pivot 
stacking up through it. VTi inches high to rest the 
eomhs on. wiien uncapping- you set one end of the 
©omh on this pirot. tmcap one side, whirl rt aroimd. 
and uncap the other side, and set the oymh in tt* 
erid of the box. as ic the diagrani. When we have a 
rUT-pIui of oomt»5 we often hang th^n in tbe other 
eiid 'A lie tox. in the diagram. C is cappings. and 
D the space lor the honey to ran oat. 

The bottom of the box is T inches frossx the flocw. 
wMeii leaves room for the hcaiey to run into the 
strainer arra»igeinent below. This makes the xap 
of the box aJbcmt Si indies from the floor, which is 
about the righr height for me to tmcap easfly. ,A 
^ ^shorter pfTStm might make the box a lixde ebaliow- 



EXTE ACTOR. 



184 



EXTEACTOR. 



vi, or lay a plank on the floor to give tlie right 
lioig-ht, wliieh is the way T do wlien my wife uncaps. 
r know many will think this box unnecessarily 
large. I will tell you why I think it is not. When 
uncapping- over a round can like Dadant's, the cap- 
pings fall on top of tho.se taken off earlier in the 
day; and when the can is half full the honey has to 
pass through such a pile of cappings that it takes a 
long time for all to run out ; and when you put the 
caiipings in the sun extractor they are heavy with 
honey. With this box, when a pile of cappings accu- 
mulates under the knife we take a four-tined fork 
and pitch them over to the other end, where they 
may drain for 4 or 6 days. There is a small stream 
of honey running out of the box all the time, day 
and night, during the extracting time; and when the 
cappings go into the sun extractor they are almost 
dry. I think it pays well for the extra space in the 
box, because all the honey which goes into the sun 
extractor is spoiled for the market. 

J. F. McTntyre. 

THE TOWNSEND UNCAPFING-BOX. 

Mr. E. D. Townsend, of Remus, Mich., 
has made an improvement in the Mclntyre 
uncapping-box, and we hereby submit a cut 
and description of it as 
well as a cut and descrip- 
tion of his honey-strainer 
and weighing-machine: 

Our iNIclntyre uncapping- 
box Is made of galvanized 
steel, and is 4 ft. long, 2 ft. 
high, 2 ft. wide, as shown in 
the engraving. The slatted 
frame work at the bottom is 
made a little smaller than the 
can so that it may be easily 
removed to be washed. As 
there is only a I'j-inch space 
iindei- this frame for honey 
stoi'uge, we leave the gate 
open all the time so that 
nearly all of the room in the 
tank is available for the stor- 
age of cappings, as it should 
be. 

The engraving does not show 
the frame at the top correctly, 
for the long side-pieces should 
he close enough together so 
that the frames can hang be- 
tween them as though they 
were in the hives. After the 
lione.y is extracted, the combs 
may be placed back in this 
rack ; but the principal value 
of the arrangement consists in 
providing a place where the 
uncapped combs may be hung 
to drip before they are extracted, for in tliis way no 
extra apparatus is needed. 

The two short pieces of the framework at the top 
should be nailed on the bottom of the long side- 
pieces about 1>4 inches from either end. It can be 
seen that, when the long side-pieces rest on top of 
the tank, the short cross-pieces fit just inside, keep- 
ing the framework from sliding either way, and yet 
allowing it to be easily remov'cd when the cappings 



are taken out. The metal pieces containing nail- 
points can be tacked on in any position to suit the 
convenience of the operator. 

We have vised many different designs of untap- 
ping-boxes, but none seem to me quite so conven- 
ient as this Mclntyre box. It will hold all of the 
cappings from one extracting in a yard of ordiniiry 
size. We use a six-tined short-handled fork for 
handling the cappings, and each morning the dry 
cappings from the day before are pitched up to- 
ward one end of the tank, and in this way the hotu-y 
from the new cappings does not have to drain 
through the dry ones over and over again as it won Id 
if we were to uncap on top of the cappings left from 
the day before. In one instance we had more cap- 
pings than we could keep in the tank, and a sugar- 
barrel with a perforated bottom was set over a gal- 
vanized steel washtub, and the dry cappings pitched 
into it. In this way the capacity of the tank may be 
siiid to be unlimited. Tbe advantage of the large 
area of the bottom is that the lioney drains out of 
the cappings much better if they are spread out in a 
thin layer than it could in a deep tank where the 
bottom is comparatively small. 

The strainer can is elevated in order to run the 
honey from the gate into a 60-pound can set on the 
scales. The gate is open all the time except when 




THE M'INTYRE uncapping-box as IMPROVED HY 
E. D. TOAVNSEND. 



the cans are changed. An electrical alarm, as first 
described by Mi'. Hutchinson, is used to give us 
warning when the can is full— see Fig. 2. No one 
should hesitate about trying one of these alarms, for 
the.v are very simple. The engraving shows the 
method of connecting the bell to the batteiy. In 
brief, two wires run from the two posts on the bat- 
tery to the two posts on the bell ; but one wire is 
broken, one of the ends being fastened to the scale- 



EXTRACTOR. 



isr, 



EXTRACTOR. 



beam at the pivot, and the other l>e)njr located just 
above the outside end of the l>eam. It f-an be seen 
th it, when the can is full, the scale-beam rises and 
the circuit is completed so that the bell rings. It is 
necessary to have all of tlie connections tig-lit, as the 
Ijell may fail to ring if there are any li)0>e conta'-ts. 
We set the s ales as usual at tlic 62'5-pound mark to 
allow for the 60 ]iounds of liouey and the weight of 
the can, and tlien lay a two-pound weight on top of 
the can and turn on 
the honey and go on 
with our work. It 
oan be seen that 
when the scaleljeam 
>.'oes up and rings the 
leli, there will be •> 
!bs. of honey in the 
i-an. We then remove 
the weight and weigh 
the honey as u^ual. 

W. Z. Hutchin- 
son rises a form of 
uncapping-box (or 
barrel) tliat is 
about as cheap as 
any tiling that has 
yet been devi.sed. 
His description is 
as follows: 

It is possible that 
the California plan cf 




20 GAL 






FIG. -1. — E. \). TOAVXSEXD .^ AKKAVGESIEXT 

OF >TKAIXEa AXD SCALES, ILLUS- 

TKATIXG THE HUTCHIXSOX 

AL'T03IATIC ALAKM. 

melting the cuppings as fast as shaved off may 
prove the most desirable plan ; bnt, so far as my 
experience goes. I have found nothing better than 
letting the c-apping-- drop into a cracker-barrel set 
over a tub. Some grocers give the barrels away. 
if ycu are a customer : some ask five cents apiece 
for tbem, and I never paid over ttn eent.=. "n.e cap- 
pin^s can be allowed to stand and drain for week-s 
and week-s— no hurry about the barrel; simply pay 
ten cents for another one. 

I bore three or four holes in the bott^jin of the bar- 
rel for the honey to run out- This may not ?je ne*,-- 
essary, as such barrels are not water-tight ; but it 
is a wise precaution trj be kutc there is a place for 
the honey to get out. Then I nail a wooden cross- 
piece just inside of the top of the barrel ; but Ixrfore 
nailing the cros.s-piece in place I drive tbrrjugh it a 
ten-penny nail ; and when putting the cross-piece in 
jlact- 1 turn the ix)int of the nail upward. 

In uncapping a comb the end of the frame is rest- 
ed upon this nail-ix)int, which comes as near being 
a universal joint as any thing with which I am ac- 
fjuainted. The frame can be turned "eveo' ''hich 
Way," and it will not slip about. Tlje barrel is sup- 
ported over the tub. or slightly l>elow the top. by 
m--ans of double hooks made of heavy wire. In the 
accompanj ing engraving one of ihes* ho<.>ks is hung 
outside, upon one of the handles, to show its shape 
atd make-up. Four hooks are used, placed equi- 
distant around the edge of the tub, and the barrc 1 
lowered down up<jn them, the books catching just 



EXTRACTOR. 



18G 



KXTK ACTOR. 



inside tlie "chime." Tliore is still another plan of 
snpporting the barrel that has the advantage of 
furiii hing handles with which to lift the barrel, and 
that is to nail two slats of wood to the sides of the 
barrel, abont four inches from the lower end. Tlie 
slats are nailed to opposite sides of tlie barrel, a* 
right angles to the staves, and are long enough so 
that the ends rest upon the upper edge of the tub- 
The only objection to this plan is that the ends pro- 
ject out slightly beyond the edges of the tub, and 
are just a little in the way. 

CAPPING-MELTERS. 

The uncapping arrangements so far de- 
scribed have been merely receptacles for 
holding the cappings and allowing the hon- 
ey to drain oitt, the cappings themselves be- 
ing rendered into wax at some later time. 
During the last year or two in California and 
other parts of the country considerable in- 
terest has been shown in devices that would 
melt the cappings as they dropped from the 
honey-knife and at the same time separate 
the w^ax and honey. 

One of the most practical forms of these 
capping-melters is that shown herewith. As 
will he seen it consist s simply of a can with 
in a can, the space between being filled with 
water kept hot by means of a gasoline or 
blue-flame kerosene-burner underneath. At 
the bottom of the inner can is a tube extend- 
ing out through the water-jacket to a te 
on the outside, and around this exit, on one 
side of the inner can, semicircular screens 
are arranged to prevent the uumelted cap- 
pings from passing out of the gate — a coarse 
one to catch the heavier particles and a fine 
one to stop smaller par- 
ticles not caught by 
the other. There is 
room for one or more 
uncapping-knives to 
hang down into the hot 
water between the two 
cans, as shown, so that 
if one desires to use the 
hot knife he may do so 
with no extra attach- 
ment for heating. 
When in actual use a 
cross-arm with a nail- 
point as shown or a 
large wooden box may 
be set over the top of 
the can with flaring 
bottom through which 
the cappings drop into 
the can beneath. This box provides a some- 
what more convenient place to w^ork and 
gives more room besides, and is to be pre- 
ferred to the cross-arm. 




Manner of Using a Cap- 
pitig melter over a 
Small Gasoline- 
stove. 



PJxperience has shown that the gate at the 
bottom of the melter should be left open all 
the time so that the honey may pass out as 
quickly as possible. In this way the danger 
of overheating it is greatly lessened ; in fact, 
if the work is ])roperly done, there need be 
no overheating of the honey, the tempera- 
ture of the honey ordinarily running from 
the gate being such that the finger is not 
burned if held in the stream for ten or fifteen 
seconds. 

Many have believed that such an apparatus 
in an extracting room w^ould be objection- 
able on account of the heat, but it has been 




CAPPING-MELTKR, A DKVICE FOB SEPARAT- 
ING THE HONEY FUOM THE CAPPINGS 
AS FAST AS THEY DROP FROM 
THE KNIFE. 

shown that the heat is so largely used in 
warming the honey and melting the wax 
that but little radiates out into the room. 

The stream of honey and wax from the 
melter may be run directly into a pail or 
can ; and as soon as this one can is full it 
may be set aside and an empty one put in 
its place. In a few hours' time the layer of 
wax on top of the honey will have hardened 
enough so that it may be lifted off and the 
honey poured through the regular strainer 
together with that from the extractor. Or, 
the receiving can may be provided with a 
gate at the bottom so that the honey may be 
drawn off at intervals as fast as the can be- 
comes full. In this way the layer of wax 
remains permanently in the can until the 
next day, when it is lifted out before begin- 
ning work. 



EXTKACTOE. 



187 



EXTEACTOR. 



The most convenient plan, however, for 
disposing of the hot honey and wax that run 
from the melter is to have the stream pass 
directly into an Aikin honey and wax sepa- 
rator, a diagram of which is sho^vn herewith. 
The wax being lighter than honey floats on 
the top of it and may be drawn off when it 
reaches a certain level, if desired. The hon- 
ey being heavier than the wax settles to the 
bottom and nms down under the division in 
the can and from thence up and out of the 
honey outlet as indicated. 

We have found that this separator works 
well in every way except that the wax has a 
tendency to chill somewhat, and to over- 
come this difficulty we enclose the separator 
ill :i V fK^iVn 1 r-.x I;;;vi- 5r:i 1i lit r^ vrrw^'h a 



I 



1 



A 



WAX 



•SeOIMENT 



Slw^cum 



Honey 



B 1 



funnel through one end to allow the honey 
and wax to run in from the melter. The 
wooden box confines the heat enough so that 
there is no chilling of the wax. and by the 
next morning all the wax may be lifted off 
in one solid cake, which needs only scraping 
on the bottom to make it in good shape for 
market. The qualilv of the wax secured in 
this way is very good, being practically equal 
to that secured from a solar wax-extractor 

The capping-melter shown in the engrav. 
ing is 1-5 inches in diameter and Vs inches 
high, and the water-jacket holds about a pail 
of water. This is about as lar?e a melter as 
can be operated over a single-burner gaso- 
line-stove. If more cap h city is needed it 
would be advisable to use an oval-shapied 
melter. perhaps of the size of a large wash- 
boiler, and a two-burner stove. 

The value of a capping-melter is at once 
apparent, for it is impossible with ordinary 
methods to get all of the honey out of the 
cappings : and besides the honey saved, there 
is a great saving in time and labor, the wax 
beingautomaticaUy rendered in good shape 
for market as fast as the honey is extracted. 
In an apiary of any size this saving of hon- 
ey and labor will soon pay for ah outfit of 
this kind. .Almost any tinsmith can con- 
MTTuct a melter as described, of heavy tin, or 



the machines can be obtained direct from 
dealers. 

Besides melting cappings, these double 
cans are excellent for liquefying candied 
honey on a small scale. On account of the 
water-jacket there is no danger of burning 
the honey, and that which liquefies runs out 
immediately so that it is not subjected to 
the heat longer than is really necessary. 

rXCAPPIXG-KXIVES. 

There are two forms of uncapping-knives 
used. One, the No'S'ice, has a thin flexible 
blade, made of steel. The other, the Bing- 




THE XOVICE HOXET-KSTFE. 

ham, has a thick flat trowel-shaijed un- 
yielding blade having edges beveled on the 
under side. The first mentioned wiU do 
uncapping, and is very handy for scraping 
bottom-boards or removing burr-combs on 
the inside of the hive. Being thin and flex- 
ible it will fit curved surfaces : but for un- 
capping only it is in no sense to be com- 
pared with the Bingham. 

An improved form of the Bingham knife 
is shown in the next illustration. The shank 
connecting the knife and the blade has cir- 
cular projections on each .side forming a 
part of the shank, and folded at right angles 
so as to afford a good solid grip to the thumb 
and fore finger. As the blade is on a differ- 
ent plane from the handle, one can get a 
better grip, and a closer one to the blade, il 




BIXGMAM mPBOVED TTXCAPPIXG-KXIFE. 

he can grasp the shank itself. Experience 
also shows it is an advantage to have the 
handle flattened in such a way as to give a 
good solid hold. 

HOW TO USE rXCAPPIXG-KSnVES. 

The blade should have a keen edge and be 
frequently sharpened to get the best results. 
Grasp the knife as shown in the illustration 



EXTRACTOR. 



188 



EXTRACTOR. 



following. Bring the fingers as close to the 
blade as possible, bnt not far enough to in- 
terfere with the cutting of the cappings. 
The comb should be placed upon some sort 
of a projection, a nail point supported over 
the uncapping-box or can. It then should 
be leaned forward when the knife by a saw- 
ing movement begins cutting at the bottom 
edge. When particles of wax and honey 




cling to the blade so as to interfere with the 
work, it should be scraped on a wooden edge 
of some sort. See illustration on preceeding 
pages, showing Dadant's uncapping- can in 
use. 

Some prefer to work witli hot knives, and 
where the honey is very thick there is no 
question but that they will do faster and 
nicer work with less strain on the wrist. For 
this purjiose it is customary to use two 
knives. A sort of bread-pan is made or pro- 
vided, having a wooden cro'-s-pnrtition as 




sliown in the accompanying sketch. This 
is filled with water and placed on a single- 
wick kerosene-stove. The whole outfit 
should then be placed within easy reach of 
the uncapping-box, so that the operator can 
use one knife and then the other as fast as 
either cools. 

There are some who claim that there is no 
advantage in using hot knives, l)ut onr ex- 
perience leads us to believe that Avhen hon- 
ey is very thick, as it often is in some locali- 



ties, it is economy, both in labor and time, 
to use them. Indeed, if the combs are new 
a hot blade is indispensable. 

In Europe, and to some extent in this coun- 
try, uncapping-knives have been kept con- 
tinuously hot by the use of electricity or 
of steam. As the former will not be avail- 
able to most bee-keepers located on their 
ranches, steam has the preference. A thin 
sheet of copper is soldered on the top side of 
the blade of an ordinary uncapping-knife in 
such a way as to make a chamber over the 
entire top surface of the knife. This cham- 
ber should have a small hole at the end for 
the exit of steam, and a tube at the other to 
which is attached a quarter-inch rubber hose, 
three or four feet in length. This is secured 
to the spout of an ordinary small tin tea-ket- 
tle by winding bicycle-tire tape around the 
tube and the spout until a tight connection 
is made. A common rag, after the kettle is 
filled with water, is placed over the opening 
of the kettle when the cover is crow^ded into 
place. This makes almost a tight steam 
joint, or tight enough for the purpose for 
which we wish to use it. The kettle is next 
placed upon a kerosene or gasoline stove ; 
and when the water boils, the knife is ready 
for use. 

In operation a small jet of steam will be 
forced out from the small orifice at the end 
of the blade. If a good circulation of steam 
is provided the knife can be kejit continu- 
ously hot, and, while hot, it is to a great ex- 
tent self-cleaning, as the honey and the caj)- 
pings will melt off from it about as fast as 
they accumulate. 

Some have tried these steam-heated knives, 
and say that there is no advantage in using 
them, as they would prefer to work with a 
cold keen-edged blade rather than a hot 
knife with all its attendant heat. The al- 
tachmentof the tubing somewhat interferes, 
of course, with the free action of the knife; 
but for all these objections there are others 
who feel that a steam-heated uncapping- 
knife is a long way ahead of the cold one. 

While it is customary with any knife to 
use the upward stroke, there are some few 
who prefer the down stroke. Experience 
will have to determine which is the better 
for the individual user. 

SHALL THE COMHS BE SPACED WIDE Oi: 
CLOSE FOR UNCAPPING V 

The majority of extracted-lioney produc- 
ers space the combs H inches, or 11 inches 
from center to center. Hoffman frames can 
be spaced as wide as this as well as any. The 
thick combs have more honey to the comb. 



EXTEACTOR. 



189 



EXTRACTOR. 



and, consequently, fewer need be liandled. 
If the uncapping-knife cuts deep there will 
be more wax, and wax always has a good 
market. The thick combs should always 1 e 
cut down to normal thickness in uncapping 
before returning them to the bees. 

After one day's uncapping, the cappings 
should drain dry. They should be removed 
before letting a fresh lot of cappings drop on 
to them. To get the cappings perfectly dry, 
some put tliem in a cheese-cloth bag to hang 
behind the stove over a pan for a few days. 
This will do for a small extracting business. 
AVhere the business is carried on more ex- 
tensively, the cappings, after draining for 
one day, shou'd be put in a wax-press and 
squeezed dry while cold ; or, better yet, they 
should be melted up as fast as they accu- 
mulate. See Wax-1'Ress, under Wax. 

Ca»^io«.— After an extracting, do not make 
the mistake of returning the combs to the 
Jiives as fast as extracted les-t you start 
robbing, and make the work of extracting 
very disagreeable. Return the combs the 
last thing, or toward evening, and by morn- 
ing all will be quiet. 

SHALLOW OR rULL-DKPTH EXTRACTING - 
COMBS. 

The question is often asked, whether one 
should use the shallow extracting-frames 
tliat are advertised in most of the dealers' 
catalogs. This depends a good deal on the 
honey-flow and general conditions. If the 
frame is as deep as a Quinby, the shallow 
frame for extracting purposes is almost a 
matter of necessity, as it is very inconven- 
ient to handle these large combs, both in 
micapping and extracting. But shallow 
combs have the special advantage that 
bees will enter a super containing them 
quicker than they will one of full depth. 
There is not so much room in the shalloAv 
supers for them to keep warm at one time ; 
and they will, therefore, fill a set of shallow 
combs when they would hardly deign to 
enter an upper story containing full-dei)th 
ones. It is a common practice with a good 
many practical bee-keepers to have both 
shallow extracting- combs and fuU-dep.th 
combs. After the bees are well started to 
going above, the full-deptli supers may be 
used. They may be also used on all strong 
colonies; but in the case of weaker ones only 
the shallow ones should be given. We can 
thus get extracted honey from weak stocks. 

THE (^)UEEN-EXCLUDER FOR EXTRACTING. 

Asa general rule, in hives run for extract- 
ed honey, the queen will occupy one or more 



supers containing extracting-combs, unless 
she is confined to the brood-ne.st by means of 
a queen-excluding honey-board; seelJRONKs. 
When one is used, the extracting-combs will 




contain nothing but lioney and peihajus a 
little pollen, while the brood will be confined 
where it should be, in the lower story (jr 
brood-nest. 

When running for comb honey it is usually 
not necessary to use the excluders. 

Some objection has been raised by some to 
the effect that zinc boards hinder the pass- 
age of bees loaded with honey, and that, 
therefore, they have a tendency to restrict 
the amount stored in the supers. This is 
denied by the great majority of users. How- 
ever, a few provide an entrance to the up- 
per story or sujiers, placing the same at the 
bottom of the first super and above the ex- 
cluder. This allows the bees in the sujjer to 
escape directly into the air, without passing 
through the honey-board from the brood- 
nest below and out into the regular entrance. 
It is argued that this extra entrance to the 
super saves time and permits incoming bees 
to go directly into the supers and store the 
honey without any waste of time. 

In order to catch the bees that are going 
into the lower entrance, Mr. B. Walker, of 
Clyde, 111., has a long wide board connected 
with the upper entrance and slanting down- 
ward at an angle of 45 degrees in front of 
the lower hive entrance. The incoming 
bees strike this inclined plane, crawl up- 
ward and enter the supers just above the 
zinc, as shown on next page. 

The entrance to these supers may be 
through one or more holes bored near the 
bottom edge of the sujier, or the wooden rail 
at the front end of the honey-board may he 
left out, so that the bees can pass into tlie 
super and above the perforated zinc. 

HOW TO EXTRACT DURING A DEARTH OF 

HONEY WITHOUT THE ANNOYANCE 

OF ROBBERS. 

As explained under Feeding and Feed- 
ers, and under Robuing, it is possible to 



EXTRACTOE. 



190 



EXTRACTOR. 



create a little artificial honey -flow dnrinp: a 
dearth of honey so tliat the bees, instead of 
jxHincingc ni)on the hives and on the conil)S 
that are being extracted, will be otherwise 
enssiped, making extracting easy and pleas- 
ant without a robber in sight. One can put 
the whole apiary in good humor for such 
work byi>;itting out two or three oiitdoor 




WALKERS PLAN OF USING AN rPPER EN- 
TRANCE IN CONNEI^TION WITH AN 
ALIGHTING BOARD. 

feeders a hundred yards from the apiary, 
and suspending them in the air under trees 
as exphdned under Feeding and Feeders. 
These feeders should contain a good grade 
of honey diluted with water to about the 
consistency of raw nectar. When the feed- 
ers are first set out it will take some time 
before the bees will discover them, even 
during the robbing season; but when they 



get to visiting them they begin carrying in 
the feed. If one or two feeders thus set out 
do not restore good humor on the part of 
the bees, it may be necessary to put out 
more until all the would-be robbers are kept 
ousy. 

This outdoor feeding should be practiced 
a couple of days before the time set for the 
regular extracting, and then, of course, the 
feeders on the morning or the afternoon 
when the work is to be done should be well 
filled and kept so during the entire time that 
the hives are opened and combs exposed in 
extracting. 

Once the bees get nicely started on the out- 
door feedei s there will be no trouble from 
robbers, provided that extracting combs 
are not left lying around loose for any length 
of time. The extracting should be done 
inside of a screened building; and when 
such precautions are taken in connection 
with outdoor feeding there will not be a 
robber in sight, no matter if the fields are 
barren of nectar of any kind. 

One may have to feed in outdoor feeders 
anywhere from 25 to 50 pounds of honey a 
day while such extracting is going on; but 
that amount of honey so given goes back 
into the hives; and while some of it may be 
lost, yet a good portion of it is saved to the 
bee-keeper. The saving in labor, annoyance, 
stings, and the general ujiroar in the apiary, 
will pay for the cost of the honey so fed 
many times over. 

In this outdoor feeding to divert the rob- 
bers during extracting we would recommend 
feeding nothing but honey. Sugar syrup 
ought never be given during the extracting 
season, for it would very probably go into 
the combs and then be taken out again and 
mixed with the honey; but when one is 
attempting to do otherwork with bees, such 
as queen-rearing, it is perfectly legitimate 
In use sugar syrup instead. See Feeding 
AND Feeders. 

MANAGING A SERIES OF EXTRACTING-YARD8 
BY MAKING ONLY FOUR Vlt-ITS IN A YEAR. 

The general treatment of this subject of 
extracting would hardly be complete were 
we to omit mention of the remarkable suc- 
cess attained by Mr. E. D. Townsend, of 
Remus, Mich., in handling a series of out- 
yards by making only four trips a year to 
each yard. As he makes no secrets of his 
methods, it may be well to describe them. 

He believes primarily in strong colonies, 
and a brood-nest not smaller than ten Lang- 
stroth frames. In the fall of the year he 
makes one trip to feed up and pack in win- 



EXTRACTOR. 



lyi 



EXHIBITS OF HONEY. 



ter cases. Colonies a little short are given 
enough to furnish them from 2-5 to 30 lbs. of 
stores all told. The bees are then left until 
the hrst of June following. As his fall vis- 
its are made some time in October, there is 
a period of seven months when no one goes 
near them. 

He says he has practiced fussing with bees 
in the spring to equalize stores, and reduced 
the brood-nest to a size that the bees can 
readily occupy: but colonies so treated have 
averaged no better than those that had no 
care whatever. "When he next visits them 
(in June) he gives each of the strong colonies 
two ten-frame supers of empty extracting- 
combs; but instead of putting ten combs in 
a super he puts in eight, spacing them ai^ail; 
equally to fill out the room. The bees are not 
seen again until he makes a third trip (in 
July). This is for the pur[ ose of extracting 
all honey, as he does not wish his ba.>-swood 
mixed with clover. Except for this he would 
let them go entirely until the end uf the ."rea- 
son for the final extracting, managing the 
outyards with only three trips in a year. As 
it is, he separates his clover from his bass- 
wood by making a fourth trip. On his third 
visit the combs are extracted of all clover, 
and put back on the hives again. Last of 
all, he makes one more (a fourthj trij». re- 
moves all the filled combs, and extracts them 
of the basswood. The bees are then left 
until he puts tliem away for winter in the 
fall, which will be the first trip of the next 
year. 

His secret of success lies in the fact that 
he is a skillful bee-keeper and has a large 
number of drawn combs — enough to give 
every .strong colony two extra supers. The 
combs being spaced wide apart, eight frames 
to till the ten-frame capacity, they are drawn 
out thick and capped over. As the bees 
have an abundance of room at all times, 
there is little or no swarming : and such 
swarming as there is does not amount to 
much. In fact, Mr. Townsend argues it 
does not pay to keep a man at the yard to 
look after that, for he can buy more bees, if 
he needs them, at $3.00 a colony, to make up 
for any losses; and this will be far less cost 
to him than to keep a man looking after the 
swarms. 

In uncapping he runs the knife deep, 
planing the combs down to a normal thick- 
ness. This gives him a surplus of wax that 
always finds a good market, and an extra 
amount of honey in the cappings: but as 
this drains off he gets all the honey, and 
finally melts all the cappings up into wax. 



He thinks bees in the height of the honey- 
flow are bound to build comb; and if no 
provision is made they will stick in burr and 
brace combs: when, if the frames are spac- 
ed wide, their natural instincts for comb- 
build ng can be satisfied, and the extra depth 
of comb can be converted into wax. which is 
as good as cash. 

Of cour.-e. when he makes his visits to the 
yards he takes helpers along. Cheap help, 
with a good manager, can do as much or 
more work than expensive men without the 
boss along. 

Another fact worth recording is that Mr. 
Townsend gets two cents above the market 
for his lioney. The fact that it is left on the 
hives till after the season, where it can ripen 
th/jvowjhhj. gives it a richness and quality 
that the consiimeis demand and want more 
of when they have tasted the first lot. 

EZHZEZTS OF HONEY — //w; th^y 
may he used in Hit dtvtl'jjjratnt of the bee and 
honey industry.— Oi late, very much indeed 
has been accomjdished by the exhibits of 
bees, honey, and apiarian implements at 
State and county fairs. Several of the larg- 
er societies have had very pretty buildings 
erected on the fairgrounds for these displays, 
and often the bee-keepers who meet at such 
places have very interesting conventions. 

Such exhibits have a decidedly education- 
al influence on the public. They show hov: 
honey is produced : and not only that, but 
that it can be produced by the ton and car- 
load. On accoimt of newspaper yams, 
there seems to be a general impression 
among people that comb honey is manufac- 
tured, and that the extracted article is adul- 
terated w ith glucose. It is absolutely im- 
possible to manufacture comb, fill it with 
honey, and cap it over with appropriate ma- 
chinery — just as impossible as it is to man- 
ufacture eggs. We have had for several years 
a standing offer of §10^XJ to any one who 
would show where comb honey was manu- 
' factured. or even procure a singU manufac- 
tured sample which could not be told from 
the genuine. Although this offer has be^n 
i published broadcast in the daily jjapers, no 
! one takes it up. We have also had the con- 
1 ditions of this offer printed on a neat little 
card, the same distributed by bee-keepers at 
fairs and other honey-exhibits, so that, if 
! such a thing were possible, there would be a 
bonanza for somebody. As to extracted 
honey, there was a time when it was adul- 
terated somewhat, but owing to the action of 
Stat<; and national laws there is very little 
of it now. See Honey Adulteeatiox. 




A SUGGESTION FOR A BEESWAX EXHIBIT AT STATE FAIRS. 




Tlil:; AFIARIA.N KXHllUT AT THE tOLUMliUS STATE FAIR IN SEPTEMBER, I'J.il. 



EXIIIEITS OF HONEY. 



193 



EXHIBITS OF HONEY 



Bee-keepers, l)esi(les educating tlie gener- 
al public as to the genuineness of their prod- 
uct, can create a larger demand for honey. 
As a usiial thing, exhibitors are allowed to 
sell their honey, distribute circulars, and do 
a great deal of profitable advertising. This 
not only helps the individual, but helps the 
pursuit in general. 

The i)receding engravings will give an 
idea of how a model exhibit should be ar- 
ranged. 

There should be shelving arranged in the 
form of pyramids, octagons, semicircles, etc. 
Tlie honey sliould be put up in tin and 
glass, in large and small packages, and the 
whole should be neatly " set oft; '' with ap- 
propriate labels. As a general thing, glass 
packages should have a very small label, so 
that as nuich of the liquid honey as possible 
will show. Tin receptacles should have 
labels to go clear around the can. Comb 
honey should be put up in cartons and ship- 
ping-cases ; and yellow cakes of wax should 
be shown in a variety of shapes. 

In one of the illustrations will be seen a 
large pyramid of beeswax, supporting on its 
several shelves packages of honey, the whole 
surmounted by the bust of a goddess. Make 
a series of square shallow boxes of such 
varied sizes that,when piled one on top of an- 
other, they form a perfect pyramid. These 
are to be completely covered with sheet wax 
Iiaving the edges that come in contact nicely 
cemented together with a hot iron. The 
next thing to make is the goddess of liberty, 
or the bust of a prominent man. These in 
plaster can usually be purchased at any of 
the stores for a small sum of money, and, 
after being dipped in hot wax, give a very 
line wax figure. 

A correspondent has suggested dipping a 
teddy bear in melted wax. It might muss 
up his fur a little, but he ought to look like 
a bear; and as this animal is known to be a 
connoisseur of good honey, his presence 
surmounting the pyramid would be very ap- 
propriate. 

The bust of a woman on top of the pyra- 
mid, shown in the illustration, was made of 
plaster, and came with a box of soap. It 
struck the exhibitor that this would make a 
tine wax bust; and, as you will note, it 
shows up well. 

Besides the exhibit of honey hi various 
styles of packages, there should be a mod- 
erate collection of bee - supplies, so that, 
when the eager public come along with 
their string of questions, they can be shown 
step by step the process of producing honey, 
7 



and its tinal putting-up for market. A good 
many questions will l)e asked in regard to 
the extractor. It will be called a churn, a 
washing-machine, and every thing else ex- 
cept what it really is. And last, but not 
least imi)ortant, there should be one en- more 
observatory hives to show folks Ik w 1 ees 
behave when at home. A good many will 
want to see the " king-bee.'' Tell them it is 
not a king but the queen that reigns. 

Very much can be done by having a glat s 
hive and live bees, with an entrance com- 
municating outdoors through the sides of 
the building where the exhibit is made. 
What is equally good, or perhaps better, is 
a one-frame nucleus having glass sides, mak- 
ing, as we call it, an observatory hive. This 
should contain one frame of nice healthy 
brood, regular and perfect comb, finely 
marked bees, and a bright-yellow queen. 
Hundreds of people will stop and examine, 
and ask a variety of questions about the 
bees and the queen. By this means one can 
convey to the consumer some knowledge of 
the habits of bees, and how honey is pro- 
duced, thus indirectly creating a demand. 

It should be stated in this connection that 
bees in an observatory hive will stand con- 
finement for two or three days or even a 
week. Ordinarily at fairs and other places, 
where the show lasts only two or three days, 
the confined bees will do very well. But at 




exi)ositi<ais, where they are shown week aft- 
er week, it is absolutely necessary to give 
them a flight every two or three days. Some 
arrangement should lie made with the man- 
agement by which these glass hives may be 
placed next to the wall of the building, the 
entrance communicating with a hole through 
the building. 

The usual plan is to have two or three ob- 
servatory hives, and keep one or two on ex- 
hil)ition all the time while the other is being 




DEMONS TKATION WORK AT'l'IIK OHIO STATIC KAIH, COLUMBUS. 




TllH A. 1. ROOT COMPANY'S DliMONSTliA TINCi CACJE AT TllH MEDINA COUNTY FAIR. 



p:xiinuTs OF honky 



10,5 



EXHIBITS OF HONEY. 




CHARLES MONDENG AND ms SON N()U3I AN DEMON- 
STRATING ADEL BEES AT THE MINNE- 
SOTA STATE FAIR. 
Mr. Mondeng and Ins son were awarded the first prize for I'ce 
demonstration; first prize on golden Italian bees; first 
prize on leather-colored Italinn bees. 

freshened up by a 
tiight outdoors. Af- 
ter these latter have 
liad two or three 
days in which to 
cleanse themselves 
the entrance should 
be closed at night, 
when the hive can 
be put back on its 
stand, and another 
observatory hive 
take its place. So 
in alternation each 
one of the two or 
three lots of bees 
can be freshened 
up. 

It goes without 
saying, that, if 
there is no honey in 
Uie tields, the bees 
should be fed occa- 
sionally. 



LIVE - BEE - DEMONSTRATION WOKK 

TO ADVERTISE HONEY AT 

THE FAIRS. 

In connection with an exhibit 
inside of the building, there should 
be a placard directing the visitor 
to a bee-show outside, as near the 
building as possible. This should 
be a demonstration of the method 
( f handling live bees inside a wire 
cage, the operator taking them up 
by handfuls and forming artificial 
swarms. Where the two exhibits, 
one of honey and bee- supplies, and 
the bee-show itself, can be located 
outdoors, it will be better. The 
former should then be in a tempo- 
rary booth or tent, since it would 
not do to have the exhibits of wax 
and comb honey exposed to the 
direct action of the sun. The 
bee- demonstrating cage should be 
located close by, within ten or 
twenty feet, and, as we have ex- 
plained, it consists of a wire-cloth 
structure large enough to take in 
man, a hive of bees, and leave 
room enough to practice ordinary 
bee - manipulation. This cage 
should be elevated on a stand four 
or five feet above the ground— the 
higher the better, because there 
will be a great jam of people 
ai ound to see the man inside pick 
up live bees by the handful. 




Norman Mondeng is only eleven years old, yet he handles bees without fi 
His entire clothing was a l)atliing suit. 



— EXHIIUTS'OF HONKV. 



I'.Mi 



EXHIBITS OF H()NF>Y. 




THB A. I. KOOT COMPANY'S EXHIBIT AT THE OHIO STATE FAIR. 



Announcement sliould be'made from out- 
side of the cage that, duiiug certain hours, 
an operator, bareheaded and barearmed,will 
perform some wonderful stunts in handling 
bees. "When the performance begins, the 
people will i^urge around tlie stands, and 
that is just what is desired in order to sell 
honey at the other stand a few feet away. 

The operator begins his performance by 
stepping inside the cage of live bees, and 
shutting the door behind him . He then tells 
tie crowd that he is going to handle live 
bees, every one of which is armed with a 
sting ; and if any one doubts it to come for- 
ward and he will furnish the '"proof.'' He 
then proceeds to take off his coat and 
vest and roll up his sleeves, take off his 
collar, and tuck down his shirt-band. It 
will then be necessary for him to put on 
Iticycle pants-guards, or slip his trousers into 
his stockings. The crowd will quickly 
a; pieciate this part of the performance, 
l)t'cause the operator tells them the l)eeswill 
>ting if they get inside of his clothing. 
\\'ith a lightedsmoker he opens uj) tlie hive. 
After i)uning out the frames he shows 
the tjees and queen on the comb; then he 
calls out for everybody to wait and see the 
next stunt, for he is going to make a swarm. 
With a large dislipan, which he has previous- 
ly provided, lie shakes two-thirds of the liees 
(iff the combs into this pan. Then lie 
takes it up and turns to the crowd, saying, 
'• The bees are not real mad yet, so I'll begin 
to sliake them up to make them so."" The 



people wonder what he is going to do, seeing 
him barearmed and bareheaded. He keeps 
on shaking until he has the l)ees all in one 
big ball, and to the uninitiated it lools as if 
they would sting him to death. But, no! 
the continual shaking is the very thing that 
makes them gentle instead of cross. He 
now runs his hand under the ball of bees, 
pushing it under gently, being careful not to 
pinch any. The movement must be very 
deliberate— so slow indeed that the hand 
scarcely seems to move. He piiks up a 
handful and holds them up for the crowd to 
look at. If he has good nerves he can shake 
the handful on top of his head, and in the 
mean time pick up another handful. 

At the next performance there will be 
big crowds around to see the work. While 
the man is doing his stunts with the bees he 
tells what honey is, saying that it is a whole- 
some sweet, and that there is no such thing 
as manufactured comb honey, and that he 
will pay $100 for a single sample of it; then 
he draws attention to the fact that he has 
some good honey at the stand opposite or in 
the building yonder. The crowd will then 
go round to the stand and buy the honey. 

The preceeding illustrations shoAV the 
exliibits of bees and honey, the exhibit of 
the live bee cage, and the crowd that assem- 
bled around it, both at the Ohio State Fair 
held at Columbus, and the Minnesota State 
Fair. 

After the exhibitor gets his questioner in- 
terested, he can hand out one of his adver- 



EYE, COMPOUND. 



197 



EYE, COMPOUND. 



c.c. 



-C.C. 



-o.-p.c. 






-ret. 



-rein. 




Fit; 1. 



)m. 



Fi<i. I. — Ommatldiam of adnlt eye 
of bee: I. lens: c. c. crystalline cone; 
o. p. c. onter pigment-cells : c. p. c, 
••omeal pijjroent-cells. which. In the 
early stages, secrete the len.s: r. h. b.. 
chahdome: ret., retlnnia: ret. n.. nu- 
clei of retlnnia cells; b. m.. basement 
membrane. 

Fig. 2. — Ommatldlnm of pnpa; let- 
tering as In Fig. 1: p. g. m.. pigment 
forming In retlnnia. 
' In Fig. 1 the pigment Is not shown 
In the oater portion of the retlnala 
cells. 



tising cards, and at the same time give him 
a little sample of honey to taste. This can 
be done very readily by handing out some 
strips of strong manila paper, which are to 
be dipped in the honey and then transferred 
to the rnoiitli. 

EVE, COIMFOUND. An examination 
of the large compound eyes of a bee will 
show that the outside is made up of hexag- 
onal areas, thousanfls in number. Each of 
these hexagons is the outside of one of the 
elements of which the compound eye is com- 
posed ; and, since they are all constructed 
alike, a descrijjtion of one will serve for all. 
Each of these elements is called an ornma- 
lidium. If, then, we take a section through 
one of the compound eyes parallel with the 
top of the head of the bee we shall get some 
of them cut lengtfiwise, thereby showing 
best the structure, although it is also neces- 
sary to cut other sections at right angles to 
this plane in order to get the shape of some 
of the parts. The figures which accompany 
this show the ommatidium cut lengthwise. 
Another figure shows an ommatidium from 
the 2>'<pa stage. 

The outside portion, already mentioned, 
is the lens layer Z,and is composed of chitin, 
as is all the rest of the outside covering of 
the bee. The section shows this cut open, so 
that only two sides of the hexagon aie shown. 

The next lower structure is the crystalline 
cone c, c. which is composed of four cells, of 
which only two show in the long section. 
In the pupa stage the boundaries are much 
clearer, and the nuclei larger than they are 
in the adult eve. This cone is clear, and, 
like the lens above it. gathers in the light 
rays so that they can act onthe nerv'es below 
just as the lens in the human eye gathers 
together rays of light so they can affect the 
nerves behind it. 

Directly in line with the cone is a long 
rodlike structure which runs clear to the 
bottom of the ommatidium. called the "rhab- 
dome." rhh. This probably contains the 
end of the nerves, which are sensitive to 
light. 

Around the rhabdome are eight retina 
cells reL which have poured out a secretion 
while in the pupa state to form the rhab- 
j dome. 

Around the cone and retina cells there 
are pigment cells o. p. c. and c. p. c, that 
keep the light from passing from one om- 
matidium to the other, and thus making a 
I confused image, just as the inside of a 
camera is painted black to avoid reflections, 
ilnjthe human eye we also find pigment. 



EYE, COMPOUND. 



19H 



FEEDING AND FEEDERS. 



which is also located just behind the nerve- 
endings, and answers the same piirpose. 
There are two kinds of these pigment-cells. 
The ones at the l)ase of the cone, o. p. c, are 
two in number, and do not extend below the 
base of the cone. The other pigment cells, 
c. p. c, extend from the lens to the base 
of the omniatidium,andare generally twelve 
ill number. The pigment in these cells is 



located principally at the outer portion of 
the eye; and the retina cells also contain 
a pigment, thus making a complete sheath 
of pigment around the nerve and nerve- 
endings in the middle. 

The nerve lines in the eye extend down 
along the eight retinacells, and at the bot- 
tom come together, and the united nerve 
extends toward the brain. 



I 



FEEDING AND FEEDERS. Feeding is 
practiced for one of two purposes— to stimu- 
late brood-rearing at times of the year when 
no honey is coming in from natural sources, 
or to supply with food colonies that are 
short at the approach of winter. Whenever 
possible, feeding should be avoided ; for at 
best it is a messy job, expensive, and, in the 
case of the beginner, liable to cause rob- 
bing. In a good locality it may be possible 
to avoid feeding altogether. Especially 
would this be true in those places where 
there is plenty of buckwheat or fall flowers. 
To buy sugar by the barrel every fall is very 
expensive, and the bee-keeper should lay his 
plans to avoid it as far as possible. In many 
cases fall feeding is made necessary by ex- 
tracting too close, in some cases even from 
the brood-nest. This is bad practice and 
decidedly poor economy. But there are 
times when it is absolutely necessary to give 
the bees food either to keep up and stimulate 
brood-rearing or to prevent actual starva- 
tion. 

When the honey already in the hives at 
autumn is of good quality and nicely sealed, 
it would be penny wise and pound fool- 
ish to extract it, put it on the market, buy 
sugar, make syrup, and feed it to the bees. 
There would be very little gained by it, even 
if the honey sold at a higher price, and 
the sugar syrup were cheaper. Where 
the natural stores are dark, of poor qual- 
ity, or bad honey-dew, it might be advisable 
to extract and put in their place the syrup. 
Yet of late years it has been our practice to 
let the bees have every thing of their own 
gathering, provided it is nicely ripened and 
sealed in the comb, no matter what the 
source ; and it is very seldom we lose bees 
in outdoor wintering by reason of poor food. 



Of course, sugar syrup is better than some 
honey that the bees gather; and, pound for 
pound, it will go further in the hive as 
food. Some experiments were made a few 
years ago which went to show that of those 
colonies fed on honey, the average consump- 
tion in winter was from 14 to 18 lbs., Avhile 
those fed on sugar syrup consumed from 1 
to 7 lbs. The inference drawn was that, 
while the pound of honey had less strength 
than the pound of sugar, it was more stimu- 
lating, causing the bees to consume more of 
it. But in all imjliability this experiment 
showed too great a difference in favor of the 
sugar syrup. Under ordinary conditions, 
when the honey is of first quality, as, for 
instance, clover or basswood, there would 
not be anything like this difference. 

The difference in cost between a first qual- 
ity of extracted honey and sugar syrup when 
sealed in the comb is so little that, if we had 
combs of good natural stores, rather than 
extract them we w^ould set them aside, and 
then in the fall give these combs to such 
colonies as had an insuflicient supply. But 
in any case we would not use all such combs, 
because, during midwinter, it is sometimes 
very handy to have them ready, as they can 
be placed right down in the center of a 
brood-nest of a colony, for the simple reason 
that it is impracticable to give liquid food I 
to bees during midwinter. If combs of [ 
sealed stores are not to be had, we would 
give cakes of candy, as described under 
Candy elsewhere. 

AVHAT TO FEED. 

It is bad policy to feed any form of sweet ^ 

that is cheaper than any of the very best gran- j 

ulated-supar syrups. There are certain grades J 
of molasses and sorgluim that may 1)6 used ; 



FEEDING AND FEEDERS. 



199 



FEEDING AND FEEDERS. 



bill, as cxi;laiiR(l, they have a tendency to 

be unduly stimulative — that is, make the 

bees restless during winter. It seems to be 

generally agreed that, dollar for dollar, 

granulated sugar, when converted into tirst- 

i class syrup, is as cheap a food for the bees 

I as can be had ; and not only cheap, but eom- 

I paratively safe. Unbleached West India 

crystallized cane sugar of a pale straw color 

is said to be excellent — but we do not find 

it as good, nor any cheaper. 

HOW TO 3rAKE THE SYRUP. 

Something will depend on whether the 
bees are to be fed for the purpose of induc- 
ing brood-rearing or to give a supply for 
winter. For stimulating, a syrup made of 
one part of sugar to one of water by bulk is 
about right. If the water is hot the sugar 

Iwill dissolve more readily. For a winter 
food given early in the fall the proportion 
should be about two parts of sugar to one of 
] water. For late feeding, just before cold 
/ weather comes on, the ratio should be about 
I two and a half to one. When made as 
thick as this the syrup is liable to go back 
to sugar to some extent, and sometimes it is 
necessary to put in about a teaspoonfid of 
tartaric acid to every 20 lbs. of sugar. Others 
find it better to use honey. The proportion 
then of honey will be about one-third by 
bulk of the amount of water used. In our 
own practice we have never found it neces- 
sary to use either honey or acid. 

A syrup made by mixing sugar and water 
in equal parts does not necessarily require 
heat. The water may be poured into a re- 
ceptacle cold, and sugar stirred in until the 
volume of the sugar equals that of the water. 
Tlie stirring will have to be continued until 
the sugar is dissolved. If there is any quan- 
tity to be mixed in that way, an ordinary 
honey-extractor serves as a very excellent 
agitator. The machine is filled nearly half 
full of water, when the sugar is stirred in 
little by little while the reel is being turned. 
It will have to be revolved until the sugar is 
all dissolved. After a vigorous turning Of 
the crank, even after the sugar is thorough- 
ly mixed, there will be a number of small 
air-bubbles. These will all disai>pear if the 
syruj) is allowed to stand for a while. When 
the proportion of the sugar is two to one or 
two and a half to one, it is advisable to use 
hut or boiling water. 

Syrup can be mixed in a common wash- 
boiler where heat is employed. In tliat case 
the boiler is put on the stove and filled with 
the requisite quantity of water. After it has 



come to a boil, the sugar is slowly stirred in, 
a little at a time. While on the stove the 
mixture must be kept thoroughly stirred to pre- 
vent the undissolved sugar from settling on 
the bottom and burning. Care should be 
taken about that, because burnt sugar or 
syrup is liable to be fatal to the bees. 

In many cases syrup has to be prepared at 
the outyard. Or perhaps the good wife ob- 
jects to having her stove messed up. While 
an oil or gasoline stove will heat the water, 
either one is very slow. The Hutchinson 
brothers use and recommend a good-sized 
common galvanized wash-tub, such as can 
be obtained at any hardware store at a com- 
paratively low price. This is placed on four 
or five stones of suitable size outdoors when 
the right proportion of water is poured into 
the tub. A fire is then built under, and 
when the water comes to a boil the granu- 
lated sugar is slowly stirred in. After it is 
all dissolved, the fire should be scraped out 
from under the tub to prevent overheating 
or burning. This work should be done on 
a cool or rainy day when the bees are not fly- 
ing; otherwise one would have a mess of rob- 
bing on his hands. 

FEEDING TO STIMULATE nROOD-KEARING. 

During spring or summer we may use a 
cheaper grade of sugar, if we happen to have 
it on hand, or cheap off grades of honey that 
would ordinarily be unsalable. If honey,* 
we w^ould thin it down slightly with warm 
water; but if the sweet has to be purchased, 
then, as w^e have already said, we would 
recommend only granulated sugar, for the 
reason that it is just as cheap as any other 
sw^eet, and the very best. Nuclei, as a rule, 
require stimulative feeding before or after 
the honey-flow, in order to make them do 
their very best, for a queen will seldom lay 
much after the honey season unless the bees 
are fed a certain amount daily. Where col- 
onies 1-ick suflicient strength for the harvest 
it is customary to practice stimulative feed- 
ing. 

FEEDERS. 

There have been hundreds of feeders in- 
vented and put on the market. Some of 
them are very complicated, and the more so 
the less useful. If one desires to keep down 
his investment he may use common tin pans. 
These can be placed in the upper story of 
the hive, and filled witli syrup. On top of 
the syrup should be laid carefully a strip of 
cheese-cloth that has been dampened in 



* If the honey is purchased it sliould be boiled for 
at least 30 minutes, to kill any possible germs of 
disease. 



FEEDING AND FEEDERS. 2(0 

water. The bees will crawl up on I lie cloth, 
and appropriate the syrup, without danger 
of drowning. One objection to pans is 
that it litters them up ; and after the feed is 
all taken, the cloth is likely to be stuck 




SIMPLICITY HKE-FEEDKK. 

down by the dried crystals. Boiling water 
will, however, very soon clean them. 

A feeder that has been used very largely 
is the Simplicity trough feeder. It is an ex- 
cellent feeder, cheap in price, and occupies 
very little room on top of the brood-frames. 

Another feeder that has been used very 
largely consists of a common wooden tray, 
such as one gets at the grocery when he buys 
butter. A hundred of these can be nested 
together so as to take up but very little 
room, and the price is insignificant. It is 
not necessaty to use cheese-cloth with the 
butter-tray. Set them on the top of the 
frames, and fill them with syrup. 

Another feeder is the pei)pf r box. It is a 
can, of pint or quart size, with a perfo^rated 




PEPPER-BOX FEEDEK. 

top. This is filled with syrui), inverted, and 
set right over the brood-frames in the upper 
story. 

Still another feeder is the Boardman. This 
makes use of a Mason jar— something that 
is a common commodity in every household. 
The jars are filled witli syrup ; and with the 




FEEDING AND FEEDERS. 

feed a large number of colonies with a sup- 
ply of these jars at once. 

The cans themselves when inverted are set 
down through a hole in a sort of box. The 
two side pieces of this box are made in such 
a way as to leave projections which extend 
clear into the entrance, thus barring rob- 
bers from dodging into the box. The top of 
the box has a hole just large enough to let 
the Mason jar be supported i inch from 
the inside of the bottom. When one has a 
supply of Mason jars, all he requires from 
his manufacturer will be the box and a 
special cap that permits the bees to get the 
syrup in small quantities at a time. As 
this is an entrance feeder it is always in 
sight, and one can see at a glance whether 
the jars are empty or not. 

A wheelbarrowful of filled cans with the 
special caps may be run through the apiary ; 
and whenever a can is discovered that is 
empty, it is taken c.t of its box and re- 
placed by another jar filled with syrup. The 
special feature of this feeder is that one can 
see by a glance at a row of hives those colo- 
nies that have emptied their cans, and a 
fresh supply given without disturbing the 
bees or opening the hives. But there is one 
objection— it has a tendency to incite rob- 
bing; yet where one is careful, and sees that 
the caps to the cans are properly adjusted, 
there will be little or no trouble. 

ALKXANDER FEEDEK. 

The Alexander is another outdoor feeder 
that is very popular with many bee-keepers. 
It is nothing more nor less than a trough 
feeder on the principle of the Simplicity, 
previously described, secured under the 
back end of the hive when the bottom-board 



THE BOARDMAX EXTRANCE FEEDER. 

special cap that is furnished by the manu- 
facturers of bee-keepers' supplies, one can 




is shoved forward as shown. To feed, it is 
only necessary to lift up the block with one 
hand and pour in the syrup. So convenient 
is it that a hundred colonies can be fed up 
in a few minutes No robbers can molest, 
for the food is clear back away from the 



FEEDING AND EEEDEES. 



201 



FEEDING AND FEEDERS. 



entrance. For stimulative purposes this is 
one of the best feeders sold. The only objec- 
tion is that it is sometimes difficult, owing 
to the unevenness of the ground, to adjust 
the feeder to the back end of the hive in 
such a way that it will fit up tight to the 
hive, shutting out all robbers. 

DOOLITTLE DIVISION-BOAKD FEEDER. 

The illustration given below shows that 
it is nothing more nor less than a large 
brood- frame paneled on each side. Down 
through the center runs a partition reaching 
almost to the bottom. This feeder, from the 
very nature of its construction, can be set 
down in the brood-nest like an ordinary 
division-board, or brood-frame, for that mat- 
ter ; and as it is confined wholly within the 
brood-nest, not even requiring an upper 
story or super, it is the most convenient and 




most satisfactory of any thing we ever used 
— fully as handy as the Boardman. All that 
is necessary is to slide the cover about an 
inch; then with a coffee-pot pour in the feed. 

Close the hive up and treat the next one 
the same way. For stimulating weak colo- 
nies or nuclei for the purpose of queen- 
rearing, our people unhesitatingly pro- 
nounce it by all odds the best feeder in the 
whole list, and if a colony does not require 
more than five or six pounds it is the best 
winter feeder. 

There is still another feeder, and a very 
excellent one, and that is the Miller. We 




THE MILLER FEEDER 

use it almost exclusively for feeding up col- 
onies for winter. This has a large capacity, 
and one can feed from 10 to 25 pounds at 
one time. When for any reason feeding has 



been deferred till late, this feeder is the one 
to use. The small feeders before described 
are adapted to stimulative purposes, and 
will hold only a couple of quarts at most; but 
we use only the Miller feeder wlien we may 
desire to feed a large amount of syrup at 
once. 

The first cut shows the feeder adapted 
to an eight-frame Langstrotluiiive, and its 
capacity is 25 lbs. of syrup. The accompa- 
nying cross-section shows that there are two 
feed-reservoirs. On the principle that liq- 
uids always seek their level, the syrup pass- 
es under the raised partition B; and the 
bees, to get access to the syrup, start from 
the arrow E, and take the feed from the 
inner chambers under tlie cover-board A. 
With most feeders of the kind, bees are 
obliged to pass through the two ends or the 
outside, and sometimes, in cool weather, re- 
fusing to leave the center of the brood-nest, 




they fail to take the syrup. The great fea- 
ture of the Miller feeder is that the passage- 
way to the feed is located directly over the 
center of the brood-nest, and the warmth of 
the cluster rising is confined in the passage- 
ways and chambers under A. This feature, 
coupled with the fact that it is made of 
wood, renders it possible to feed bees during 
quite cold freezing weather. 

FALL FEEDING: FULL DETAILS ON HOW TO 
DO THE WORK RAPIDLY AND EASILY. 

If colonies are to be wintered on sugar 
syrup mainly, the general practice is to feed 
some time in September, and, as a rule, this 
is, perhaps, the best time to feed. Still, in 
many localities in central United States, 
there is warm weather in October sufficient 
to start brood-rearing, and much of the stores 
fed in September may be consumed so that 
what is left is not sufficient to last until the 
new honey-flow. For this reason it is often 
unsafe to feed in September and give no 
further attention to the bees. There are 
other cases when, for one reason or another, 
feeding may be delayed until cold weather 
begins; for instance, if one is running a 
number of outyards it is impossible, without 
hiring a large force of men, to feed all these 
yards at once, and by the time the last yard 
is reached it may be rather late. 

But before we begin the actual work of 
feeding we make a preliminary canvass of 
the whole apiary. This we do by " hefting" 



FEEDING AND FEEDERS 



202 



FEEDING AND FEEDERS. 



each hive; that is, we lift up either the front 
or back of the hive. A little i^ractice will 
enable one to determine approximately the 
amount of stores in each hive, provided 
there is not too large a force of bees. In 
that event, we must allow for a correspond- 
ing increase. As we go over each hive we 
mark on the cover with a piece of chalk the 
number of pounds that will be required. If 
the colony is a strong one we allow for a to- 
tal of 25 lbs. if it is to be wintered out-doors; 
/ for indoors, about two-thirds that. We aim 
to have each colony strong enough so that 
it will require an average of about 20 lbs. for 
each outdoor wintering. After all the hives 
are marked up we i)roceed to the actual work 
of feeding. 

For this late fall feeding we know of no 
better feeder tlian the Miller. This will hold 
at least 25 lbs. of feed at a time, and it can be 
quickly put on and taken off without much 
disturbance to the brood-nest. On the other 
hand, if the colonies are not quite as strong 
as they should 'be, so that some contraction 
is necessary in the winter any way, it is 
probably just as well, and perhaps even bet- 
ter, to use the Doolittle division-board feed- 
er holding about 6 lbs. of thick feed at a 
time. During the season, any combs which 
are found that are too old, or which , for some 
reason or other, are not perfect, whether due 
to drone-cells or irregularities, can be grad- 
ually pushed to the outside of the brood- 
frames; then in the fall, when it is time to 
put in the feeder, provided the division- 
board feeders are used, these defective 
combs can be very easily gotten rid of with 
a very small amount of lal)or, and with no 
loss of brood. Furthermore, if the colonies 
need feeding, these outside combs will not 
contain much honey. On a cool day an out- 
yard can be looked over very quickly, and 
the old combs that are on the outside of the 
brood-nest removed with very little trouble. 
If a follower is used, the removal of one 
comb and the follower makes room for the 
feeder; but if the combs completely fill the 
hives, two combs must be removed. It is 
rather bad practice, if sealed covers are used, 
to break the propolis sealing around the 
covers of tlie hives after cold weather has 
set in; but, as we said before, there are 
many instances where the feeding must be 
done late; and there is this advantage— that, 
in cold weather the feeders may be put in in 
a very short time, and with but little shaking 
of bees from the combs that are removed. 

The best time of day for putting feed into 
the feeder is toward the close of the after- 



noon. It is not advisable to do the work in 
the morning or early in the day, for the rea- 
son that the bees are always excited, and 
robbing might be started, especially if it 
were warm enough for the bees to fly. Right 
here is a point in favor of the chilly-weather 
feeding, for there is no such danger of rob- 
bing, of course, when the bees can not fly on 
account of the cool temperature. With the 
cans of feed distributed at regular intervals 
throughout the yard we have found that 100 
colonies maybe fed in an hour s time pro- 
viding the work is rapidly done. Every 
thing must be right, so that no stops need be 
made for anything. 

We fix the feed at home and carry it to the 
yards in the regular five-gallon honey-eans, 
as these are aboiitthe largest sized cans that 
can be handled conveniently by one person. 
If two were doing the feeding a larger can 
might be used. 

While the syrup is still hot we load it into 
the wagon, six or eight cans at a time, and 
carry it rapidly to the yard. When we reach 
the edge of the apiary, we take the cans, one 
at a time, and locate them through the yard 
where the markings on the hives show that 
we shall need them. If the cans have good 
strong handles we are able to carry two at a 
time, one in each hand; but the difliculty is 
that the handles are liable to tear loose from 
the can at one end and drag through the 
hand, cutting the fingers and allowing the 
heavy can to fall on the feet. For this reason 
we prefer to carry one can at a time in the 
arms. If a small rope sling were used, two 
cans could be carried without danger. 

When we are ready to commence feeding 
we fill a large sprinkling-can, with the rose 
removed, and then proceed at once to pour 
the syrup into the division-board feeders in 
every hive. Each feeder, as mentioned be- 
fore, will hold about six pounds of thick 
syrupy By the time we have emptied one of 
the five-gallon cans we have reached a point 
in the yard where a new full one is waiting 
for us and we can proceed without stopping 
to run for more cans. On the covers of the 
hives are marked the number of pounds of 
syrup which each hive is to receive. It is 
likely that not all of the hives will need feed- 
ing a second time, so the second day the 
work can be done even more quickly than 
the first time. When it is not too cool the 
bees will have taken the syrup in one feeder 
in 24 hours' time; but if the weather is very 
cold they will require 48 hours; but this time 
can be materially reduced if the syrup is 
given hot. We would always give it hot if it 



FEEDING AND FEEDERS. 



20:} 



FEEDING AND FP^:DEKS. 



is cold enough so that the ohister is con- 
tracted. After all the hives have been fed 
up we go over the hives again, this time 
making a careful examination of the brood- 
nest. If more s^rup still is required we 
mark the hive again and later on feed it and 
all others that may be short. 

FKEDING IN FREEZING WEATHER. 

Though colonies have been wintered well 
when fed after cold or freezing weather, we 
think much the safer plan is to have it all 
done during fall not later than October, that 
they may have the syrup ripened and entirely 
sealed. If the weather is not too cold you 
can feed with the Miller feeder as previous- 
ly intimated. If you have been so careless 
as to have bees that are in need of stores, at 
the beginning of winter, we would advise 
frames of sealed honey if you can get them; 
and if you can not, use candy. 

If the candy is covered up with warm chaff 
cushions or something equivalent, it may 
be fed at any time, although it does not 
seem to be as satisfactory under all circum- 
stances as stores sealed up in their combs. 

When feeding in cool or cold weather, you 
are very apt to uncover the cluster, or leave 
openings that will permit the warmth of the 
cluster to pass off. We have several times 
had colonies die in the spring after com- 
mencing feeding, and we imagined it was 
from this cause alone. When they first com- 
mence raising brood in the spring, t|aey need 
to be packed up closely and snugly. Making 
a hole in the quilt or cushions above the clus- 
ter, and placing the feeder over this so as to 
close it completely, does very well, but is not, 
after all, as safe as giving the feed from be- 
low. For feeding in early spring, especially 
where the colony is weak, we would prefer 
candy or well-filled combs of sealed stores. 

FEEDING IN THE SPRING, OR FEEDING 

ENOUGH IN THE FALL TO LAST TILL 

THE NEXT HONEY-FLOW. 

Some years ago it was the general practice 
to feed in the spring to stimulate brood- 
rearing, such feeding taking place as soon as 
settled warm weather came on. The pur- 
pose of this was to get a large force of young 
bees for the harvest when it came; but in 
later years the tendency on the part of our 
best bee-keepers has been toward feeding 
copiously in the fall enough to last not only 
all winter but during the spring and until 
the honey-flow. Experience seems to show 
that spring feeding very often does more 
harm than good by over-stimulation. Brood 
is expanded beyond the capacity of the bees 



to liover and keep warm. Robbing is often in- 
duced. Beginners especially are apt to over- 
do it; and even a veteran will sometimes get 
his colonies so strong before an extra supply 
of nectar comes in, that swarming will be 
brought on prematurely. 

This question of feeding lieavily in the fall 
to last until the next honey-flow the follow- 
ing year, or feeding moderately in the fall 
and stimulating the following spring, 
depends somewhat on the locality, and 
very largely on the man himself. Many 
bee-keepers of experience, especially in 
some localities, can doubtless practice 
spring feeding to advantage; but as a rule 
beginners will do better to give all their colo- 
nies enough in the fall so that they will have 
about 25 lbs. of sealed stores about the time 
cold weather begins to come on. In most 
of the northern States this will be about the 
first or middle of November. In our more 
northern States and in Canada tlie stores 
should be sealed about the first of October. 

SPRING FEEDING A LA BOARDMAN. 

After what we have just said on the ad- 
vantage of fall feeding it may at first seem 
a little contradictory even to suggest spring 
feeding, but Mr. H. R. Boardman, of Collins, 
Ohio, does it for a different purpose. In 
brief his plan is this : He feeds as soon as 
it becomes settled warm weather, whether 
the bees need stores or not. The syrup 
is given them slowly to stimulate brood- 
rearing. This feeding is continued clear on 
to the honey-flow, when, of course, it is dis- 
continued. The result is that the hives are 
overflowing with bees and brood, and all 
available space in the brood-nest is filled 
clear full with sealed sugar stores. Just as 
soon as the honey-flow commences, supers 
are given ; and with a tremendous force of 
bees secured by stimulative feeding, and 
with a brood-nest already filled to its utmost 
capacity with sugar stores, the honey, when 
it does come, is forced right into the supers, 
because there is no place for it in the brood- 
nest. 

Our friend was driven to this mode of 
procedure because of a series of very poor 
honey-flows one year after another. Figur- 
ing that sugar syrup cost only about a fourth 
as much as the first quality of comb honey, 
he reasoned that, if he could make a legiti- 
mate trade with the bees, he could take their 
product in exchange for his sugar, and al- 
most quadruple his money. 

While it costs considerable to feed bees in 
this way, we believe that Mr. Boardman 's 
experience has been such that he feels war- 



FEEDING AND FEEDERS. 



204 



FEEDING AND FEEDERS. 



ranted in continuing it ; and then if the year 
proves to be a good one he will get a tremen- 
dous crop of honey. One year when we visit- 
ed him he had secured a fair-sized yield from 
each colony, and a poor year at that, while 
his neighbors round about him had no sur- 
plus, while all they did get was brood-nest- 
fuls of honey, and notliing more. lie also 
had his brood-chambers full; but instead of 
being honey it was sugar syrup, and the 
honey was in sections worth at least 12 or 15 
cents per pound while we believe the sugar 
syrup cost him in the hive only about 4 
cents. Clearly, he had made a good trade. 

The feeder that is best adapted to this 
kind of feeding is the Boardman, already 
illustrated, because it is assumed that all 
colonies so fed are strong, and can make a 
proper defense at the entrance. 

We would advise one who has not tried the 
plan to do so on a small scale. Feed up, say, 
25 or 30 per cent of the colonies in the yard, 
and let the others go on in their own sweet 
way. Keep a careful account of the net 
proceeds after deducting expenses : and if 
those fed show a larger balance on the right 
side of the ledger than those not fed, then 
next year one would be warranted in feed- 
ing the whole apiary a la Boardman. 

But, of course, it must be understood that 
feeding should not be continued long enough 
to force the sugar syrup into the sections, 
as that would be a fraud on the public. 
Nothing but the nectar of flowers ripened 
by the bees should be sold as honey. 

WHEN ROBBERS ARE BAD, FEEDING AT 
NIGHT. 

During the early fall of 1887 we found our 
apiary almost on the verge of starvation, 
the previous summer having been very 
dry. Robbers were unusually vigilant, and 
it was almost impossible to perform any 
manipulation with the hives without get- 
ting a perfect storm of robbers in the 
brood-nest. Feeding during the day was 
out of the question, and yet the colonies 
must be fed in order to prepare them for 
winter. Accordingly, to circumvent the 
robbers we fed at night by the light of lan- 
terns. Contrary to what we might expect, 
the bees gave us but very little trouble by 
flying against the lanterns. As the bees 
took up all the feed in the feeders during 
the night, and the robbers had had no op- 
portunity to investigate during the feeding, 
every thing was comparatively quiet next 
morning, and during the following day. 
We fed successfully in this way some three 
or four barrels of sugar. Although I have 



recommended feeding toward night, in the 
preceding paragraphs, in the case above 
mentioned we fed from about 7 p.m. in 
some cases until 10 : 30 p.m. Perhaps I 
should also remark, that, if it is inconven- 
ient to work at night, teed on the first rainy 
day. Put on your rubber hat, coat, and 
rubber boots. As long as it rains, bees will 
not bother you. 

For particulars regarding feeding back to 
fill out sections, see Comb Honey. 

OPEN-AIR FEEDING — ITS POSSIBILITIES. 

After what has been said by our best au- 
thorities regarding the danger of exposing 
sweets in the open air during the robbing 
season it may seem foolhardy to recommend 
the very thing that we under some condi- 
tions condemn. But under Anger of Bees, 
under Extractor, we show how one may 
stop or prevent robbing by feeding bees out- 
doors—that is to say, we bring about arti- 
ficially, as nearly as possible, the conditions 
of a natural honey- flow. It is well known 
that, when bees can be kept busy in the field, 
hives can be opened without any trouble. 
Now, then, if we can keep the bees equally 
busy by making them go after food at a dis- 
tance from the yard, we shall accomplish the 
same results. 

This outdoor feeding is attended with 
some risk, and the reader is cautioned to go 
over this matter very carefully. Let him fol- 
low our instructions closely and he will expe- 
rience no difliculty. 

A good deal depends on circumstances 
or what one desires to accomplish by out- 
door feeding. If he wishes to extract, or in 
any case to put bees in such good humor 
they will not rob, he should make a syrup 
or honey thinner than if he intends to feed 
up the entire yard for winter. For checking 
the robbing tendency, a syrup two parts 
water and one of sugar is just sweet enough 
to draw away all would-be robbers, and yet 
not make them crazy for it. Too sweet a 
syrup is apt to make them wild. But weak 
syrnp must not be made up ahead before be- 
ing given to the bees, as it will be likely to 
sour. If there is any likelihood that it will 
not be taken up inside of 48 hours it had 
better not be made weaker than one part of 
sugar to one of water. But for the preven- 
tion of robbing, a weaker syrup serves an 
altogether better purpose, for it is then of 
about the consistence of raw nectar. 

HOW TO MAKE THE OUTDOOR FEEDER. 

About the best thing we have found for 
the purpose is an ordinary 60-lb. square tin 



FEEDING AND FEEDERS. 



205 



FRAMES, SELF-Sl'ACING. 



can. It would be well to prepare three or 
four such, as one might need tliem all at one 
time. Melt off the handle that is on top 
and then solder it to the bottom. The 
leason for this will be apparent later. If 
you have not the proper facilities, take the 
cans to the tinsmith. Now with a wire nail 
punch a lot of holes in the top of the can. 
The smallest holes that you can make are 
better than large ones. These holes should 
be about a quarter of an inch apart, and 
cover the whole surface of the top. Perfo- 
rate the tops of the two other cans, and your 
feeders are ready. Fill each can with a thin 
syrup, clear full, and then screw on the cap. 
Procure some good strong clothesline : 
then put the cans on a wheelbarrow and 
wheel them out to a tree or gro's e about 2(0 
yards away from the apiary. Select some 
limb about 20 feet from the ground, without 
any branches or obstructions beneath. Tie a 
stone to the end of the rope tliat yon broug])t 
along, and throw it over the limb and draw 
the end down. Hitch it to the \\ire handle 
in the Ijottom of one of the feeder cans. 
Now haul the can up in the air, upside 
down, until it is 16 or 18 feet above the 
ground. At first the syrup will leak out a 
little ; but it will soon stop dripping if the 
screw top has been put on tightly. 

This can, elevated in the air, will not be 
discovered by the l)ees, prol)al)ly, for two or 
three hours; but the next day a good many 
will be found working at it. If there, are 
many bees in the apiary, say one or two 
hundred hives, it may be necessary to hang 
up another feeder. When the bees are ea- 
gerly at work on the cans one may see 
strmgs of them going up and down to the 
feeder. Just as soon as a bee gets a good 
sip, one or more bees will grab hold to get at 
the same hole, when the two or three will 
fall together ; but before they strike the 
ground they take wing and fly up again, and 
so on the process continues. Sometimes 
whole bunches of bees will fall at a time, 
only to take wing before they strike the 
ground. Up they go, and at it again. It 
takes a bee almost as long to take a load 
from one of these feeders as it does from a 
field of clover, because it has to spend a 
lot of time up and down, up and down, be- 
fore it can get enough for a load. And 
herein is the secret of its success: If the syr- 
up were fed thick in open cans, thousands 
of bees would be drowned; or if it were put 
into receptables where they could get at it 
rapidly and not drown, they would fill up 
immediately, and in the course of half an 



hour all the syrup would be gone, and then 
robbing would be worse than ever. But a 
feeder put up in the air as explained makes 
it necessary for the bees to spend a lot of 
time in order to get the syrup, and conse- 
quently they are kept busy all day in empty- 
ing the cans. During this time one can ex- 
tract, rear queens, and open up hives gen- 
erally, with scarcely a robber showing up. 

We would not advise this outdoor feeding 
generally for supplying the colonies witli 
winter stores, or for stimulating only, 1 e- 
cause it involves considerable waste of Ijee 
life and energy. 

For feeding up for winter, or for general 
stimulating, it is far better to feed within 
the hive, with any one of the good fee<!« rs 
just described. The long flight to and fr^ m 
outdoor feeders is apt to wear out the 
bees prematurely; and their hard strug.ijies 
against each other to get a sip causes ibe 
fuzz to wear off, making them look like old 
bees very soon. Outdoor feeding is ai'visi d 
only to stop or prevent robbing, whie im- 
portant work like extracting after tie hon- 
ey-flow, or queen-rearing, is going on. If it 
is necessary to feed up the bees, and rolt- 
bers are inclined to be meddlesome, we 
would advise doing so by night or dui>ng 
rainy days, as previously explained. 

FENCE. See Comb Honey. 

FERTILE WORKERS. See Laying 
Workers. 

FERTILIZATION OF FLOWERS BY 
BEES. See Fruit-blossoms, alsj Pollkx. 

FIREWEED. See WlLLOAV-HEKlt. 

FIXED FRAMES. See Frames, Sei f- 

SPACIXG. 

FOUNDATION. See Comb Foundation. 

TTLAHflJlS, SELF-SFACINa. By 

these aie meant frames lield at certain reg- 
ular distances apart by some sort of spac- 
ing-device, forming either a part of the 
frame itself or a part of the hive. Under 
Spacing ok Frames, elsewhere, and un- 
der Extractor, we have discussed the 
distances that frames should be apart. 
Some prefer li inches from center to center; 
but the majority, supported by the best of 
reasons, prefer If inches. Self -spacing 
frames, then, are those that, when put into 
the hive, are spaced automatically, either If 
or H inches from center to center. Loose 
frames differ from them, in that they have 
no spacing-device connected with them, and 
are, therefore, when placed in the hive, 



FRAMES, SELF-Sl'ACING. 



20(j 



FRAMES, SEJ.F-SPACING. 



si)aw(l by eye — or, ;is solium huve termed it, 
•' \.\ guesswork." Such spacing results in 
more or less uneven combs ; and beginners, 
as a rule, make very poor work of it. The ad- 
vocates of self-spacing frames claim that they 
get even perfect combs, no burr-combs, and 
that, without any guesswork, the combs are 
si)aced accurately and equally distant from 
one another. Self-spacing frames are always 
ready for moving the hives, either to an out- 
yard, to and from the cellar, or for ordinary 
carrying around the apiary. Loose frames, 
on the contrary, while they are never spaced 
exactly, often can not be hauled to an out- 
apiary, over rough roads, without having 
sticks between them, or something to hold 
them in place. It is contended by some, 
also, that spaced frames can be handled more 
rapidly. See Frames, Manipulating. On 



Ileddon, the Hoffman, liie thick-top stajyle- 
spaced, metal-spaced ITolfman,and the nail- 
spaced. 

The closed-end Quinby is, as its name 
indicates, one whose end-bars are wide 
their entire length. The top and bottom 
bars are one inch wide. These closed up- 
rights, or ends, when they come in direct 
contact, cause the combs which they con- 
tain to be spaced accurately from center t o 
center. Fig. 1, A, shows one such frame. 
Several of the closed-end frames are made 
to stand, and have very often been called 
" standing frames.'' Mr. Quinby, in order 
to keep such frames from toppling over, in- 
vented the strap-iron hook on one corner, as 
show^n in Fig. 1, re-engraved from Cheshire. 
Ii is the hook that engages the strap iron i}/ 
in the bottom-board ; gr is a groove to admit 




FIG. 1.— HOW THE (^UlNUY FRAME HOOKS ON TO THE HOT'J'OM. —i^/'OHi Cheshire. 



the other hand,- the advocates of the loose 
i'rame urge, as an objection to the self- 
spacers, that they kill bees. 

This depends. The careless operator may 
kill a good many bees. If he u.ses a little 
common sense, a little iiatience, applying a 
whiff or two of smoke between the parts of 
the frames that come in contact, he will not 
kill any bees. All this talk about self- spac- 
ing frames— Hoffman and closed-end type — 
killing bees emanates from a class v\ ho have 
never used them, and aie therefore incom- 
petent to render judgment. The fact that 
some of the most extensive bee-keepers of 
the world are using self-spacing frames, and 
the further fact that the number of self- 
sinicing-frame users are constantly increas- 
ing, shows that this supposed bee-killing is 
more fancied than real. 

There are a good many styles of self- 
spacing frames. We will describe, first, 
those most commonly used in this country 
and then show some of the others that are 
or have been used in Europe. Among the 
first mentioned we might mention the 
closed-end (Juinby, the Danzenbaker, the 



of the hook, and at the same time render 
it possible to catch under the strap iron. 

These hooks are on the outside of the hive 
proper, and hence they do not kill bees, nor 
are they filled with propolis as they would 
be if made on the inside of the hive. A and B 
are respectively the frame and the follower, 
although they are drawn somewhat out of 
proportion. With a panel on each side, a 
cover and a bottom - board, the Quinby- 
Hetheiington hive is complete, the ends of 
the frames forming the ends of the hive ; 
although, for additional protection in the 
spring, Mr. Elwood and Mr. Hetherington 
both use the outside case to set down over 
the whole. This makes a very cheap hive, 
and has many desirable leaturts in it. For 
fuller details in regard to this frame, and its 
manner of construction, the reader is refer- 
red to " Quinbys New 15ee-keei)ing.'' 

DANZENBAKER CLOSED END FRAMES. 

The closed-end frame that iromises to 
displace all others of this kind, and which, 
perhaps, is to-day the most extensively used 
of any of its class in the United States, is the 



FRAMES, SELF-SPACIKG. 



207 



FRAMES, SELF-SPACING. 



Danzenbaker, as described under Hives, 
and shown under Fkames, Manipulating. 
The end-bars are pivoted at the center, the 
pins i-esting on hanger cleats secured to the 
ends of tlie hives. These pins make a very 
small line of contact, whereas the ordinary 




standing closed-end frame resting on tins 
secured to the bottom edge at the ends of the 
hive will crush a good many bees. They 
have the further advantage that, if there is 




any reduction in the depth of the hi^ e due 
to shrinkage, the bee-space above and below 
the frames wDl be affected only half as much 
as if the frame were standing. 

Many bee-keepers prefer what is known as 
the " hanging frame." This has many very 
decided advantages overthe standing frame; 
and there is no doubt that, for this reason, 
the loose frame is used so generally : but 
the hanging frame is also used as a fixed 
frame. 

I3IPROVED HOFFMAN FRAMES. 

It will be observed that this frame can be 
used in an ordinary Langstroth hive (see 
Hive-making): and the end-bars are closed- 
end only a couple of inches from the top. 
The rest of the frame, two-thirds of the way 
down, is naiTowed to H inches. The top- 
bars of the original Hoffman were made 15 
inches wide with the middle scored out so as 
to measure one inch wide. 

After having for a time Hoffman frames 
with t<:tp-liars widened at the end. and no 



ralibets, we began the use of top-bars 
with the ends notched (see cut) and resting 
on the tin rabbets, as shown in IIive-mak- 
iNG. After several seasons" use of the latter 
we much piefer them. The lateral feature 
is more perfect, and there is very much less 
liability of bee-killing. Indeed, with proper 
care there need be practically none. 

Another feature of this fiame is the 
end-spacing staple that abuts against the 
tin rabbet shown at 6, in the cut. The ends 
of the top-bars are cut off so as to leave a 




bee-space around them. With the old-style 
frames the bees can sometimes glue the ends 
of the top-bars to the rabbet. This has all 
been done away with in the style shown. 

When the top-bar is long enough to reach 
and almost come in contact with the ends of 
the rabbets, the bees "nill chink in bee-glue 
between the ends of the top-bars and the 
rabbets. After the ends of all the frames 
have been thus glued, it is somewhat diffi- 
cult to remove any one comb, because the 
fastening of each frame must be loosened 
before the combs sought can be lifted out : 
but when the top-bar is .shortened, as at 6 in 
the illustration, and the staple is used, there 
is none of this kind of gluing, the only fa.s- 
tening being that between the upright edges 
of the end-bars themselves : and this fasten- 
ing, for the majority of localities, so far 
from being a disadvantage, is helpful in 
that it holds the frames together while 
the hives are being moved, and yet does not 
hold them so as to prevent easy handling. 

This is by all odds the most extensively 
used self- spacing frame in the United 
States. In fact, most of the hive-manufac- 
turers supply it as a part of the regular 
equipment of their standard hives. 

For details conceruingits u.se. see Fkames, 
How TO Manipulate. 



FRAMES, SEJ.F-SPACING. 



208 



FRAMES, SELF-SPACING. 



METAL-SPACED HOFFAIAN FRAMES. 

All that has been said in favor of tlie reg- 
ular Hoffman will apply with equal force to 
the metal-spaced frame here shown. In 
some localities wliere propolis is very abun- 
dant, sticky, and hard, the wooden projec- 
tions of the regular Hoffman sometimes 
split off when the frames are pried apart. 




For localities where this condition prevails 
we recommend the metal-spaced, which 
can be used interchangeably with the 
regular Hoffman. The spacers on this new 
frame are stamped out of metal and must 
necessarily be acciirate. The form of its 
construction in the shape of a letter U bend- 
ing over the top-bar projection prevents the 
latter from breaking through careless han- 
dling. 

STAPLE-SPACED FRAMES. 

There are some others who prefer frames 
with staples for side-spacers, as here shown. 
(Jthers use nails in place of staples •, but the 




STAPLE-SPACED FRAMES. 

latter with their rounding edges allow the 
frames to slide past each other worse. 

OTHER SELF-SPACING DEVICES. 

Various spacing-devices have been sug- 
gested at different times. A few of these 
we present here, leaving the reader to judge 
of their relative merits. It will not be neces- 



sary to describe them in detail, as the 
engravings make plain their manner of con- 
struction and use. 

It will be noted that there are two kinds 
of spacing-devices. One is made a part of 
the frame and the other a part of the rabbet. 
It would seem at first glance that the latter 
would be a very happy solution of the prob- 
lem of automatic spacing, as it would leave 
the frames without projections in the way 
of uncapping; but the fact is, rabbet or hive 
spacers have never been very popular, and 




IIIVE-RABHET SPACERS.* 



* These are nailed on the side of or in the wooden 
liive-rabbet— the top-bars or frames resting between 
the notches or bends of the sheet metal or wire. 



FRAMES, SP:LF-SPACING. 



209 FRAMES, SELF-SPACING. 




VARIOUS FORJIS OF FRAME-SPACERS. 



FRAMES, TO MANIPULATE. 210 FRAMES, TO MANIPULATE. 



therefore are very little used. The princi- 
l)al objection to them is tliat one can not 
move the frames en masse or in groups, 
thus saving time in handling the brood- 
nest. The advantage of grouy) handling is 
made more apparent under Frames, Ma- 
nipulating. 

self-spacing frainies— advantages. 

They give straight beautiful and regular 
combs ; are practically free from burr- 
combs ; can be hauled without any special 
preparation over the roughest roads, turned 
upside down, and rolled over without dis- 
turbing the combs. They permit, to a very 
great extent, the handling of hives instead 
of frames. Under Frames, Manipulat- 
ing, is shown how they can be handled in 
])airs and trios— in fact, half a hive at a 
time. They can also be inverted, thus caus- 
ing the combs to be built out solidly to the 
bottom-bar; and, when once completed, they 
can be restored to their normal upright 
condition. They can be handled as rapidly 
as the loose frame. Indeed, the late Mr. 
Julius Hoffman, of Canajoharie,X.Y., when 
owner of some 600 colonies on Hoffman 
frames, said he could work nearly double the 
nmiiber of colonies with his frame that he 
could with any frame not spaced or close-fit- 
ting, and he had used both styles of frames. 
13utnot every one will be able to do this; and 
very likely some people would luindle them 
much more slowly than they could loose 
frames. 

self-spacing frames for small bee- 
keepers. 

Whatever we may say regarding the adapt- 
ability of Hoffman frames for the expert, 
we feel sure that, in almost every instance, 
they are better for the beginner, average 
farmer bee-keeper, or any one who does not 
propose to make a specialty of the bee busi 
ness, but desires to keep only a few colonies 
to supply himself and neighbors with honey. 
Such persons are apt to be a little careless, 
and, with ordinary loose unspaced frames, 
make bad spacing. It is seldom indeed that 
we have looked into the hives of this class of 
bee-keepers and found their loose frames 
l)roperly spaced. In some instances the 
combs are so close together that opposite 
surfaces are gnawed down to give the bees 
sufficient space to pass between ; and in 
others tliey are so far apart that small 
patches of comb are built between; because 
it is an invariable rule laid down in hive 
economy, on the part of the bees, not to 
leave more than proper bee-spaces. Now, 



then, whenever the Hoffman frame, or any 
standard self-spacing kind, is used, we al- 
ways find the comb perfect; indeed, the 
self-spacing feature shows how far apart 
the combs should be placed. 

rOUL BROOD. See Diseases of Bees. 

FOUNDATION. See Comb Foundation. 

FRAMES. See Frames, Self-spacing, 
Reversing;, and Hives. 

FRAMES; TO MANIPULATE. Before ^ 
we proceed to the general subject of han- 
dling frames, we will first consider the ques- 
tion of hive-seats and tools necessary tor the 
work. First and all important is a smoker 
(see Smokers); next is some sort of hive- 
tool, which may be an ordinary screwdriver, 
a putty-knife with a stiff blade, or a special 
tool made for the purpose. The subjoined il- 
lustrations show a form of tool that has given 
general satisfaction among bee-keepers. 

It is something that any blacksmith can 
make out of an old buggy- spring or any 
good piece of sprirg steel. It must not be 
tempered too hard or it will break. Each 
end should be flattened out while hot, and 
brought to an edge. One end is bent to a 




Fig. 1. 



right angle, and the other is left straight. 
The tool is then taken over to an emery 
wheel or grindstone and finished up. Care 
should be taken to have the edges straight 
and square. 

The hooked end is ordinarily used for 
scrajiing propolis or wax off the frames or 
bottom-boards, while, the other end (also 
useful for scraping) is pushed between the 
two parts of the hive; but the drawing shows 
the tool held improperly. The bent or curved 
end should be placed directly against the 



FRAMES, TO MANIPULATE. 211 FRAMES, TO MANIPULATE. 



palm in order that sufficient 
pressiue may be exerted to 
shove the other or straight end 
between the two hive parts. 

Either end of the tool may be 
used for separating Hoffman 
frames, or, in fact, any style of 
frame that one happens to use; 
but our men prefer the hook 
end. This is inserted between 
the frames to be separated,' as 
shown in Fig. 2, when a side 





Fig. 3. — A not lie I- 
method of using 
a hive-tool when 
prying- tlie f i ames 
apart. 

twist of the 
wrist will exert 
considerable 
leverage, forc- 
ing apart the 
frames very 
gently. But 
there are some 
who prefer to 
use the straight 
end of the tool in the manner shown in i ig. 
3; but the method given Fig. 2 exerts more 
of a leverage, and, at the same time, is less 
liable to crush bees. 



FiG. ~.— A side twist ul the tool affords u 

strong leverage hy which the frames are 

separated easily, and without jar. 

Fig. 4 shows how the tool may be used 
for crowding all the frames over to one 
side in one block, as it were; or ore 
can, if he prefers, use the plan shown 
in Fig. 2; but it will generally be found 
that the one shown in Fig. 4 is more 
convenient. In Fig. 5 the curved end 
is used to good advantage in lifting the 
division-board out of the hive. See 
also, iu this connection, Fig. 9. 





Fi(i. 5.— How the liook end is useful in fishing out 
frames and division-boards. 



Fkj. t.— The proper way to piy all I he I'lanus over 
at one operation. 

Some prefer a hive-tool having a narroAved 
end like a screwdriver; but the continuous 
use of a tool like this abrases the edges of 
the hives so that, after a time, it leaves 
bruise marks and cracks, inviting winds and 
storms, and robbers when they are i)rowling 
about. For separating two hives heavy with 
honey there is nothing better than a wide 
thin blade made of good spring steel, tem- 
pered just hard enough to have the resillient 
qiuilities of a buggy-spring. 

HOW TO AVOKK OVER THE HIVES. 

Many yard men prefer to work with a sort 
of stool and hive box combined; others wish 
to have nothing to lug around excej.t the 
bee-smoker and the hive-tool. As most hives 
are placed on or near the groiuid, one must 
either sit down on some object or kneel in 



FRAMES TO MANIPl'LAT 



FRAMES, TO MANIPULATE. 

lives, sitting down on the 
1 live-cover or hive-stool, lie 
linds it convenient to vary oc- 
casionally the position by rest- 
ing on the knees close to the 
hive; and still again he may 
tind it comfortable to vary 
the monotony by standing up- 
right, bending over only wl en 
it is necessary to remove a 
frame. 




b'n;. ii. Making- a ,:;ap linwrrii lli 

I'nimts so tliai vue. van be 

easily removed. 

front of the hive, to bring him- 
self to the proper working dis- 
tance. We usually use a hive- 
cover as shown in Figs, ti, 7, 8, 
!>. It is alw ays handy, and has 
the furtlier advantage of :i 
milk - stool in tliat one can 
shift his body back and fortli 
on the hive-cover in order to 
reach frames toward the near Fm. 7. 
or far side of the liive, as the 
case may be. A seat that 
does not allow one to shift his bo.ly back 
and forth, necessarily requires more stooi - 
iiig or bending of the back. 

Occasionally it will be found desirable to 
turn the cover up lengthwise, and we always 
use it in that manner when we desire to 
place the weight of the body against the 
frame that we are crowding over against its 
fellow's. See Fig. N. In pulling out a di- 
vision-board, one has a little more leverage 
if he sits high rather than low. See Fig. 9. 
Hut if he merely wishes to separate the 
Iranies, then spend several minutes Inniting 
for the (pieen or looking over the brood, as 
shown in Fig. 7, one slioidd sit on the narrow 
side rather than on tlie end. In this the op- ' work, as seen in Fig. 7, always holding the 
crator assumes a very natural, easy, and ; frame in such a way that the sunlight will 
comfortable position. The left arm rests strike it squarely. In looking for eggs this 
upcu the knee, supporting the weight of the is very important, especially if the operator 
frame, while the right aim merely holds it in is getting toward the shady side of life when 
a itositiou for examination. eyesight is not at its best. 

A change of position is often restful. Af- Where one is working over bees day after 
ter one has been working over a number of day, a special hive-seat is a great conven- 



\ comfortable posiiiou lor aUda.N work. Kote thai the left 
urm that supports the woiu:lit of the frames 
rests comfortably 011 the kuee. 



Perba: s it may seem that the operator in 
Fig !) is taking things easy. There are limes 
when oily (lie hand can do good work. If 
one can assume a comfortable attitude, even 
though it be only momentary, he ought to 
do so. 

"We are well aware that some of our ajtia- 
risls will say they have no time to sit down, 
much less ''loaf on the job,'' as might aji- 
pear in Fig. (i. It is our opinitm. howevt r, 
that the more one can save his legs and arms 
the more he can actually accomplish in a 
day. In hunting for a queen we can not af- 
ford to stand up on the job, but should get 
right down where the eyes can do their best 



FRAMES. TO MAXIPULATE. 

ieiice. Thejllustration at the 
bottom of the page shows what 
we have used in our bee-yard 
for Dearly thirty years. It was 
shown in one of the early edi- 
tions of this work, but was 
dropped out because we 
thought it of hardly sufficient 
importance to occupy space. 
During all the years that have 
intervened, our apiarists have 



2V6 FKAME8, TO MANIPULATE. 





Fig. 9.— Pulling out a refractory division-board that resists removal. 



Fig. S. — A higher seat Is better w hen 

one wish3s to place his weight 

against the frame to be 

.shoved over. 

ments on each end usually 
hold the smoker fuel, hive- 
tools, hammer, bee - brush, 
queen-cages, and other arti- 
cles of like nature. The 
smoker has a hook on the bel- 
lows so that it can be carried 
in the manner sho\vii. With 
this whole outfit one has prac- 
tically all the tools he needs. 

seemeii to find it very handy. In fact, they including smoker fuel, for a day's work. 

seem to consider it almost indispensable; The exact dimensions of the seat are not 

so if you come to any one of our yards you important. The one we use is 13 inches 

wiU find the men carrying one around as high by 22 long, outside measurement. 

they go among the 

hives. The top is 

made of t lumber. 

ha^*ing two oblong 

holes in the center 

to provide a handle 

by which to carry 

the b«x. The legs 

are also of t. while 

the sides, ends, and 

bottom are of |. 

The compartment 

in the side, reached 

by the oval hole, is 

very handy for 

holding broken sec- 
tion pieces for rec- 
ord work, and other 

small articles, while 

the two compart- ti. i — a aani;y >e.a nua to^.-LOx :^r D-_e-yard work. 




FRAMES. TO MANiril.ATK. 



114 



FTvAMES. TO MANIPI'LATK. 




"V"'^^Vjw* ' 












-vVv. 






' *• 




"j^ V>i 



-^v ' -S $' 



^■^^'^*' 






Kk;. it.— Method of iiisortiiij;- llio liive-tc ol under the t'ovrr ; blowino: stiii ko in the fiMj) thns miide. 



now TO OPKN A niVK. 

Having considered the ne('es^^al•y tools and 
a|ii»iianci'S for working with hees as well as 
the manner of sitting or standing over the 
hives we will now turn our attention direct- 
ly to the method of handling the frames 
themselves. Approach the hive that is to be 
opened and blow a little smoke into the en- 
trance. This latter procedure is not always 
necessary, but it will be found to be a very 
wise i)recaution on the part of a beginner. 
Alter lie learns the individual temperament 
of his different colonies, and also discovers 
that on certain days and certain times of 
days, the bees can be handled much better 
than others, he will of course use his judg- 
ment in the matter. If hv has reason to be- 
lieve that a colony would be irritable he 
sliould send two or three whiffs of smoke in- 
to the entrance. He will now push the 
screwdriver, or special hive -tool already 
shown, under the cover. He should do this 
very gently, working the thin edge o\' the 
blade between the two hive parts until the 
cover is raised abnit the thickness of the 
blade, but not wide enougli to allow any 
bees to escape. Through the gap tlius made 



lie will blow three or four whiffs of smoke. 
He then shoves the tool a little further, in- 
creasing the gap, following it up with some 
more smoke. He now lifts or lowers the 
hand holding the tool so that the cover is 
raised an inch above the hive. The smoker 
is next set dow n upon the ground, when the 
cover is gently lifted off'. Sometimes much 
more smoke will be required than others. If 
the atmosj here is a little chilly, or if it be 
immediately after a rain during a honey- 
flow, much more s^nioke will be needed than 
on a warm balmy day when bees are at work 
in the fields. If they are at all nervous the 
smoker should be brought into play again ; 
indeed, at such times we would advise put 
ting it between the knees, as shown in the 
illustration at the toji of the next page. 

This nervousness may not immediately be 
recognized by a novice, but for his sj)ecial 
benefit we may say that when bees are sub- 
dued and require no more smoke they will 
be down between the fianus almost out of 
sight; but if tliey are inclined to " resent the 
intrusion,"' dozens and dozens of them will 
have their heads sticking up, and as the api- 
arist proceeds to lift out a frame, he may 



FRAMES, TO MANIL'TILATE. 



21 r^ 



FRAMES, TO MANIPULATE. 



meet with a '" warm reception/" But before 
this takes place, he will usually see on the 
part of the bees a nervous, quick movement, 
their bodies turning either to the right or 




Vw. 10. Holding a smoker between the knees while 
manipulating frames. 

to the left, apparently ready to take wing. 
When they do so, it will be a quick sharj) 
dart, without warning, for any exposed part 
of the bee-keeper's anatomy. But even if 
the bees do make a general onslaught, and 



smoker while the operator proceeds to handle 
the frames. 

HOW TO HANDLE UNSPACED FRAMES. 

To get at the center frame, crowd the 
frames, one at a time, adjacent to it, to- 
ward the sides of the hive. This will give 
room to lift out the desired frame, liegin- 
ners are very apt to pull the frame out ; 
without spacing the frames apart. This j 
rolls the bees over and over, enrages and j 
maims them, besides running a pretty good I 
chance of killing the queen. Lift the frame ! 
out carefully, and be careful not to knock 
the end-bars against the sides of the hive. 
If it is one's first experience he may be 
nervous, and do things a little hurriedly. 
As a reward, the bees will quite likely 
sting him andniake him still more nervous. 
To avoid this, proceed very cautiously and 
make the movements deliberate. Having 
removed the frame, hold it up as shown in 
Fig. 1, which we will call the first position. 

Perhaps the queen is not to be seen on this 
side so it may be necessary to turn it over and 
see the other side. If the comb is not heavy 
with honey, it can be turned right over with 
the bottom-bar resting horizontally. But a 
better way and a good habit to fall into, and 
one that bee-keepers usually adopt, is to 
raise the left hand until the top-bar is per- 
pendicular, as shown in Fig. 2. 

Now revolve the frame like a swinging 
door, or the leaf of a book, so that the oppo- 
site side is exposed to view (see Fig. 2). 




Fi(i. 1. 



Fk; 



Fig. d. 



Fk;. 4. 



grab as if about to strike, the sting may be 
averted if the operator is quick enough to 
brush the bee or bees off. There is an in- 
terval of a fraction of a second, not very 
long it is true, in which, after the bee shoves 
its claws into the fiesh, that it can be brush- 
ed olf , before the sting gets into action, for 
a bee, when it stings, must have a good 
strong bold, and it is while it is taking this 
hold that the apiarist can often save himself 
many a wicked jab. 

If, then, the bees seem inclined to tly up, 
smoke them just enough to keep them down. 
If an attendant is present, let him use the 



Lower the left hand as in Fig. 8 until it 
reaches the position as shown in Fig. 4. To 
examine the other side follow the exact re- 
verse order. 

Having examined this frame, lean it up 
against the side of the hive, and remove an- 
other frame next to the one already taken. 
Examine this in like manner. Lean this 
also against one corner of the hive, or return 
it to its place; lift out another, and so on un- 
til all have been examined. Xow, should 
the queen not yet have been found, look the 
frames all over again, being careful to ex- 
amine the bottom edge of the combs. 



FRAMES, TO MANIPULATE. 216 FRAMES, TO MANIPULATE. 



If a colony is not popnlons it may be ad- 
visable to go over the frames once more : 
liut very often it is better to close the hive 
and wait an hour or two, after which we 
can go back and search the frames as be- 
fore. By this time the colony will have re- 
covered itself, and the queen, in all prob- 
ability, liave shifted her position from the 
bottom or sides of the hive to one of the 
combs. Nine times out of ten she will be 
found at the second going-over of the frames, 
without any trouble. When the queen can 
not be found the first time going over, as a 
rule we would not advise hunting longer, 
because one is liable to waste a good deal of 
valuable time; and it is, therefore, better to 
wait till the queen comes out of her hiding- 
place back to the brood-frames themselves. 

In the case of black colonies, especially 
where very populous, it is sometimes neces- 
sary to lift the hive off the stand and put 
it down at one side. On the old stand place 
an empty hive, affixing an entrance-guard. 
See Drones. Now take the frames one by 
one out of the old hive, and shake them in 
front at the entrance of the empty hive on 
the old stand. Black bees fall off very read- 
ily; and as they crawl toward the hive the 
queen can be very easily seen; but if she 
eludes scrutiny she will be barred by the 
perforated zinc, so she may be very readily 
discovered trying to make her way through. 
After all the frames are shaken, if she 
can not be found, take the old hive, now 
empty, and dump it, causing the bees to be 
thrown before the zinc. She will soon be 
seen trying to pass the guard. 

Wq have told how to find the queen ; but 
do not imagine that it is going to be as 
difficult as this every time. She is usually 
to be found on the center frames ; and es- 
pecially with Italians, she will likely be 
found on the first or second frame handled. 

When we put back loose frames we must 
space them carefully. If in. from center to 
center. We fail to do it exactly, but try it 
the best we can. With loose frames we shall 
be oljliged to space each one in position indi- 
vidually. If we do not space our frames 
carefully we will have some combs bulged, 
and some thinned down; and, again, between 
others bees will be likely to build spurs of 
comb. All this nuisance may be avoided by 
the use of fixed frames or the Hoffman, 
which we now tell how to handle. 

now TO MANIPULATE HOFFMAN FRAMES. 

The manner of opening hives containing 
the Hoffman or any other self-spf^cju^ frffme 



is precisely the same as that for hives of 
loose unspaced frames already described ; 
but the manner of handling the combs is 
somewhat different. 

With the hive-tool we pry apart the first 
pair or trio of frames, if the combs are not 
too heavy, and lean them against one corner 
of the hive as shown below. In so doing 
we pretty nearly handle the brood-nest by 
halves and quarters. 

We shall discover that these frames are 
held together by propolis, and that the bees 




Fig. 5.— Handling Hoffman frames in pairs and trios. 

on the two inside surfaces are hardly dis- 
turbed. Loose frames, on the contrary, 
when out of the hive, must be leaned on 
one or two corners of the hives, against 
each other— in fact, be scattered all around, 
inviting the depredations of robbers. This 
is quite a point in favor of the Hoffman 
frame. If we do not find the queen on one of 
the combs, we next pry off the outside frame 
of the trio leaning against the corner of the 
hive. If she does not appear on that one, 
we pry off the next, and so on. 

Where combs are heavy with honey, we 
may lift out only one frame. Having seen 
the surfaces of two or three combs, the prac- 
ticed eye will get a very fair idea of the con- 
dition of the colony and what the queen is 
doing. When we see eggs and larvae in all 
stages, including sealed brood, we do not 
usually stop to hunt up the queen ; accord- 
ingly we put back the second pair removed, 
and return the trio, as shown. We do not 
generally crowd these frames together at 
once, but blow a little smoke down between 
the end-bars, and then witli a quick shove 
we close them all up again. 

There is no cut-and-try spacing as with 
loo^e f}'i|D3,es— no big and little fingers to get 



FRAMES, TO MANFUL ATE. 217 FRAMES, TO MANlPrLATK. 




ABOUT TO INSERT A DANZENHAKER FRAME INTO THE PLACE FROM AVIIICH IT CAME. 



the distances at wide and narrow spaces. 
There is no need to instruct the beginner 
just how far to space combs, and there is 
no flnding the apiary afterward, with auy 
of the combs spaced so far apart that spurs 
of comb are built wliere they ought not 
to be. With the regular Hoffman frames 
the spaces must necessarily be exact, so the 
combs may have a fixed and uniform thick- 
ness; and we do not liesitate to say that one 
can alternate them just as well as or better 
than he can many of the loose or unspaced 
frames. We will explain. Space the loose 
frames during the honey-harvest, anywhere 
from If to U or even If inches from center 
to center, and then, after the honey-harvest, 
try to alternate them with other frames 
spaced a little closer, and see where you are. 
You may say you can space frames near 
enough right. Although we have visited 
many large apiaries, we seldom see a loose- 
frame apiary spaced correctly. 

To go back, we will replace the follower, 
and crowd the frames tight together. If 
there are any bees on tlie tops of the frames, 
a whiff of smoke will usually drive them 
down and then the cover is replaced with a 
sliding motion, which we have already ex- 
plained. 

Perhaps from the description about ma- 
nipulating the hive with Hoffman frames, it 
may appear like a long operation; it is a very 
short one. Mr. Hoff ma n said he could handle 
nearly double the number of colonies on his 



frame that he coidd on any loose frame; and 
we will add right here that he used loose 
frames for years, until necessity, the mother 
of invention, caused him to bring out this 
style. 

There is another good feature; namely, by 
removing two or three frames in a trio, the 
rest of the combs in the hive need not be 
lifted ont. They can be slipped back and 
forth, and each surface examined ; bnt if 
the tin ral)bet is covered with pieces of pro- 
polis, this lateral sliding is not easily ac- 
complished. 

There are some localities where propolis 
is very much worse than in others. In such 
places the Hoffman frame is not as satisfac- 
torily used as the staple-spaced shown in 
Frames, Self-spacing. With perhaps one 
exception this can be handled like the Hoff- 
man ; and that exception is that it can not 
be handled in pairs or trios. Each comb 
must be manipulated individually. In this 
respect it is quite a little behind the Hoffman . 

HOW TO HANDLE DANZENBAKER 
FRAMES. 

As shown under Hives, the frames are 
pivoted in the center, and rest on hanger- 
cleats in the ends of the hive. When opening 
up for inspection, keep the frames together 
in one solid body, without any spaces be- 
tween them. It is not advisable to loosen 
all the frames with a screwdriver at the 
start. Breivk the propolis connections only 



FIMMKS. TO MANIPULATE. 



21. s 



FRAMKS, TO MAXIl'lLATE. 







SLIDING A DANZENBAKER FRAME DOWN BETWEEN TWO OTHERS. 



on the frame or frames to be handled, leav- 
ing the rest glued together so they can be 
lifted out in blocks of two, three, or four, as 
at top page 219. If it is desired to examine 
the comb surface of one frame, break the 
propolis connections on each side of it, as 
before explained, and pull it out as in cuts 
here shown. Usually the examination of 
the brood in one frame will suffice to give to 
the practiced eye some idea of the laying ca- 



pacity of the queen, of the amount of brood 
in the hive, and the amount of stores. If it 
is necessary to examine another frame, set 
the one first taken out down by the side of 
the hive ; loosen another frame, and remove 
that. In this way all the frames in the hive 
can be examned; but when the frames are 
reinserted, if the end- bars are covered with 
bees they should be slipped back into place 
by sliding the edge of one end-bar against anotir 




METHOD OF CiUAHliiNO DAN/ENI!AKEH FRAME W^HEN REMOVING IT FRO.M THE HIVE, 



FRAMES, TO MANIPULATE Jin FR.\MP:S. TO MAXIPULATE. 




HANDLING CLOSEU-KNIJ KKAMES IN ftl^oUl'S UF JlllIKK Al A IIME. 



pi\ beginning at the top, and working down- 
ward. By so doing the bees are pushed or 
shoved out of the way without crushing or 
pinching. With a little practice and experi- 
ence this can be done without killing a sin- 
gle bee. When all the frames are in place 
except the last one. there will be a space just 
wide enough to admit it. Slide it into posi- 
tion, pushing the bees off tlie end-bars on 
both edges at once. 

Be careful not to get the 
frames loosened up so that 
they will tumble over against 
«^ach other in a bad mix-up. If 
t 'ey are separated about two 
<ir three inches apart they are 
so nearly on a balance they 
will topple one way and the 
other. The bees will naturally 
i-rawl between the upright 
edges of the end-bars; and 
now to crowd the frames all to- 
gether with a slam would smash 
the bees by the scores, and at 
the same time anger them into 
> tinging fury. Bear in mind 
that Danzenbaker frames must be 
kept together in (jroups of ttcos 
and threes. Never let one frame 
hang by itself on the pin suppeMs. 
It is important to remember 
also that when they are all in 
lilace they must be shoved uj) 
together tight without any 
s|)aces Ijetween them. 



For many manipulations like giving brood 
to another hive, or for the purpose of ex- 
tracting, it becomes necessary to dislodge 
the bees from the frames. This can be done 
by brushing them off as shown under Ex- 
tracting, or they can be pounded off with 
a blow of the fist on the back of the hand, 
grasping the end-bar as shown. 

Or one may grasp the end-bars of the 
frame solidly, and with a quick downward 




HOW TO BUMP THE IJEES OFF A COMI!. 




DKTKK.MINING THE FILLING OF THE SUPERS AND AVIIKTIIKU KEADV TO COME Ot 



rUAMES, TO MANIPULATE. 



221 



FRAMES, TO MANIPULATE. 



jerk remove all or nearly all of the bees. 
When more convenient one can swing the 
frame, pendulum fashion, with one arm, 
letting the corner drop violently against the 
ground while the other end is held in the 
hand. See the two illustrations at the top 
of page 220. See Hives. 

now TO ASCERTAIN THE CONDITIOK OF TIIK 
HIVE WITHOUT HANDLING FRAMES. 

A good many, in working for extracted 
honey, operate on the tler-up principle, leav- 
ing the supers all on the hives until the sea 
sin is over. By that time it is important 
that robbers be given no opportunity to help 
themselves to sweets, when the honey is 
taken off; but before doing so the condition 
of the supeis should be determined in ad- 
vance. In order tn keep abend of the bees 
it is necessary to make an examination from 
time to time. Toward the early part of the 
season it is customary to place the empty 
supers under those partly filled. As the sea- 
son began to draw toward its close, the pro- 
cess is reversed— that is to say, the empties 
were put on top of those partly filled. 

In order to determine the amount of honey 
in any super, it is not necessary to take off 
the cover nml ])ull tlie hive ap;irt. If it is 



tiered up four and five stories high, it in- 
volves a large amount of labor and consider- 
able lifting to pull the supers off one by one, 
inviting the attention of robbers in the op- 
eration. If one is supplied with a good strong 
steel hive-tool and a smoker, he can get a 
fair idea of the filling of any super, without 
even removing the cover from the hive. In 
the series of snap-shots shown herewith, the 
reader will be able to gather, almost at a 
glance, the exact method, to be used in de- 
termining what the bees are doing. 

Let us take an example. We will start 
with the hive shown in Fig. 5, opposite page. 
It has three supers. The middle one is the 
one on which the bees began work first, and 
at the time of this examination it should be 
completely filled. The bottom super was 
placed under after the middle one was about 
half filled. The third super was put on top 
because there would probably not be more 
than a week more of honey-flow. 

At this time we desire to know what the 
bees have actually done; so, without remov- 
ing the telescope cover on top nor the super 
cover directly beneath, we extend the thin 
blade of the hive-tool, broad end, between 
tho two lower supers at the hack end of the 




UKAiiNlNG CONDITION OF HlViC WITHOUT REMOVING COVKR OR PULLING TO PIECES. 



F1^\MP]S, TO MANIPri.ATP]. 



FKAME;8, to MANIPrLATF. 




FIG. 14. — SHAKING BEES OUT OF A SUPER. 



hire: for one should always endeavor to keep 
out of the flight of the bees. This is gradu- 
ally shoved in until the blade has been 
pushed in anywhere from i to a full inch. 
A gai) is now formed, of approximately ^g 
inch just wide enough so that a little smoke 
will drive back the bees. A slight pressure 
downward separates the two upper supers 
about an inch at the back end, when more 
smoke is blown in. The tool is pushed down 
a little further, making the gap a little wider. 
See Fig. 6, p. 220. But we are not quite sat- 
isfied as to the condition of the supers, so we 
push the tool and supers upward, as shown 
in Fig. 7, until we have the hive-tool in po- 
sition as shown in Fig. 8. Here it acts as a 
prop, when, with the intelligent use of the 
smoker, we can drive back the bees enough 
so that we can see the condition of the two 
supers, or enough to determine whether the 
bees need more room. 

Hut suppose we are not quite satisfied. 
We turn to the position as shown in Fig. !), 
di.-regard the hive-tool, and lift the two su- 
l)ers higher, the hive-tool falling on the 
ground. When doing this we slide the two 
supers about an incli forward so that the 
back end will fulcrum on a safe bearing. If 



the super is slipped back, as shown in Fig. 
7, it can readily be seen that it can not be 
tilted up very high without sliding off back. 
See Figs. 9, 10, 11. 

Usually an examination of this sort is 
quite sufficient. If the suiters are not filled 
they are quietly let back into place, using 
sufficient smoke to drive the bees away so 
they will not be crushed as the hive parts 
come togetlier again. The operation as shown 
in Figs. 5, H, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, is then repeated 
with other hives, taking from 30 to 60 sec- 
onds per hive. At no time have we lifted 
only a i)art of the dead weight. When the 
supers are held at an angle the load is on the 
fulcrum point of contact, while the hand 
sustains only a snnill part of the weight. 

Fig. 12 shows the method employed when 
supers are apparently well filled and ready 
to come off. The top super is removed and 
leaned up against the leg of the operator. 
The middle super that has been filled can 
now be taken off; but before doing so a 
second examination is made as shown. It 
is set off, when the bottom super nuiy also 
be removed if ready. If not, the top super 
is put l)ack, the idea being to confine the 
bees to as small a super capacity as possible 



FRAMES, TO MAXIPILATE. 



i-2i 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 



as the season draws to a close, in order to 
make the bees finish their work. 

Fig. 13 shows a slightly difl. rent i ose 
from that indicated in Fig. S. While the po- 
sition of the operator is somewhat cramped, 
it is true, yet it is niucli easier than tearing 
down the hive, super by super, and replac- 
ing the same. 

In Fig. 14, page 222, we have a case where 
the season is closing abiuitly. The bees 
have only partially tegun work in the top 
super. To leave it on would mean that all 
the supers would have hont^y in, and none 
of them quite completed. Accordingly we 
shake the bees out of the top super, place a 




.:■.. .o.—:i _.'.'.■ A -:-:•.':. EK AM' a ii: \ k-'i 'j";. 

ONE TO LEAKX THE CONDITION O 
SUPERS AT ONE GLANCE. 

thin super cover on the two lower supers, j 
place the super just shaken on top, and the j 
regular cover on it. The hive is now left 
imtil we can determine a little more about | 
the season. If there should be some good I 
rains and warm weather, the season may < 
take another start. In that case the super ; 
cover that was placed between the top super 
and the two below is removed, when work ; 
wiU be resumed in the third super. If we \ 
were sm-e that the season was drawing to a ' 
close, the top super should be removed in 
the first place. \ 

HOW TO PUT ON ESCAPE-BOARDS 

In going through bee-yards we have noted 
the fact over and over that some bee-keep- 
ers have an awkward way of putting on es- 
capes. They will pull the hive apart, super 



by suiier, place the escape on the brood-nest 
or on a super partly filled, then one by one 
put back the supers. If no honey is coming 
in, this will probably mean that robbers will 
get started. 

There is no need of removing any supei-, 
nor a cover, for that matter. All that is 
necessary is to apply the principles illus- 
trated in Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. See also 
illustration under Co^re Honey on page 115. 

FRUIT-BLOSSOnaS. In the northern 
poitions of the United States, where much 
fruit is grown, especially apples, pears, and 
peaches, there will be an occasional spring 
when quite a little honey 
is gathered from the blos- 
soms. Xearly every sea 
son fruit - trees yield a 
little honey, if not too 
cold, just when it is most 
needed to stimulate 
brood - rearing : and al- 
though the bees may not 
store much, they will 
gather enough to give the 
whole apiary a new im- 
petus, so that, where 
fruit is grown extensive- 
ly Ijee-keepers often re- 
ceive considerable ben- 
efit. 

As to its quality, the 
lioney from fruit - bios - 
soms is among the very 
best. It is light in color, 
of good body, and in fla- 
vor not rmlike the beau- 
tiful aroma one enjoys 
when going through an 
orchard in full bloom. 
Such honey, if it could be gathered in suth- 
cient quantities, would doubtless have an 
extensive demand : but it is very seldom 
that bees are able to get enough to store 
any in the supers or sections. 

SPRAYING DURING BLOOM DESTRUCTIVE TO 
BEES AND BKOOD. 

Now that spraying with various poisonous 
liquids has come to be almost universal 
among fruit-growers, the question arises. 
••Shall such spraying be done during the 
time the trees are in bloom, or before and 
after ? "" If it is administered when the pet- 
als are out. bees are almost sure to be 
poisoned, much brood will be killed, and 
many times valuable queens are lost. About 
the fir t thing one notices during fruit- 
blooming time, if trees are sprayed while in 



\\ ILL iLXABLE 
F THE 



FKriT-HLOSSOMS. 



224 



FliriT-r.LOSSOMS. 




APPLE-BLOSSOMS. 



bloom, is that a good deal of tlie brood dies, 
until the bee-keeper begins to wonder wheth- 
er his bees have foul brood, black brood, or 
pickled brood— unless the truth dawns upon 
him that they have been carrying in poison- 
ous liquids from the trees that have just been 
sprayed. Experiment stations all over the 
United States have shown that it is quite 
useless— indeed, often decidedly hai-mful to 
the young fruit — to spray during the time i 
the trees are in full bloom ; and they have j 
shown over and over again that just as good 
and better results can be secured by spray- 
ing both before and after blooming, when 
there is no danger of bees visiting the trees 
in quest of pollen and nectar. Some experi- 
ments that were conducted at the Cornell 
and Geneva experiment stations, New ^ ork, 
are particularly conclusive in sliowing that 



to spray in full bloom is decidedly injuri- 
ous to the blossoms themselves, to say noth- 
ing about the great damage done to the bee- 
keeper. The i)oison as ordinarily used is 
very harmful to the growth and develop- 
ment of the pollen. Again, the delicate or- 
gans of the flowers (stamens and pistils) are 
either killed or injured. Some of the p jllen 
in the experiments above mentioned was ta- 
ken into the laboratory and mixed with a 
thin syrup of about the consistency of raw 
nectar, and to this was then added a quan- 
tity of the spraying-liquid of the strength 
that is ordinarily used on fruit-trees. In 
every case it was found the pollen failed to 
develop. In short, those in charge of these 
experiments gave any amount of proof to the 
effect that, irrespective of any interests of 
the l)ee-keeper, the fruit-grower himself 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 



coidd not afford to spray during frnit-hlooming 1 
tmw, because spraying-Hquids thai are suffi- 
ciently strong to kill insect pests are decided- 
ly harmful to the delicate reproductive organs 
and to tlie pollen of thefloxoers themselves. 

Some prominent fruit-growers who once 
were of the contrary opinion, and who < 
sprayed during full bloom, have since found 
their mistake to their sorrow. In some in- j 
stances they confessed to losing nearly one 
tliousand dollars. 

Some spraying-fluids are not poisonous. 
Take, for example, the lime-sulphur washes, 
the kerosene, and other emulsions of crude 
oil; but even these should not be sprayed 
when the trees are in bloom. Hellebore, or 
any of the Bordeaux mixtures, especially if 
tliey contain Paris green, or any of the 
aisenites, will be poisonous, of course : such 
fluids are too strong for the delicate pistils 
and stamens of the flower. 

Spraying is practiced to kill the fungi and 
injurious insects. The codling moth that is 
responsible in the ma-n for wormy apples 
lays its egg in the bark df the trees. As 
soon as the larva hatches, it seeks out the 
blossoms about the time the petals fall 
and begins to burrow into them. If they 
liave a coating of poison it dies before it 
can do any mischief. Otherwise it makes 
its temporary home in the maturing fruit. 

THE STATEMEXT OF A HIGH AUTHOPaXY IX 
FRUIT CULTURE. 

'The American Apple- orchard" is the 
title of a book by F. A. Waugh, published 
by the Orange Judd Co., of New Yoik. It 
contains over UOO pages of interesting and 
valuable matter. Price SI. 00. 

Those fruit-growers in the vicinity of our 
bee-keeping friends, who insist on spraying 
at the wrong time in spite of the advice of 
experiment stations all over the United 
States, and up-to-date fruit-growers, should 
Vie shown a copy of this work. If they are 
so behind the times as to spray while the 
trees are in bloom they have a lot to learn, 
and it would be dollars and dollars in their 
pocket to purchase a copy of this work and 
read it carefully. We are not sure but that 
bee-keepers can afford to buy it and loan it 
out to their fruit-growing neighbors. We 
copy a portion of chapter 11, entitled "The 
Insect Campaign."' Under the head of 
■•Codling Moth,"" the worm that so often 
turns one's stomach as he bites into an ap- 
parently sound apple he says : 

This i.s one of the be.st known and most widely di.s- 
tributed enemies of the apple. Newly settled dis- 
tricts have nearly always enjoyed a temporary im- 
8 



munity from this pest, but experience has shown 
that the moth can not long be kept out of any com- 
mercial apijle- erovvlng district. Apparently the 
ravages of the codling moth are more serious in 
central and southern latitudes, where two or three, 
or even as many as four, broods are hatched in a 
year. However, the campaign against this insect 
is an annual one, and has to be fought in ijractical- 
ly all the commercial orchards in the country. 

The principal preventive of damage is the spray- 
pump, using poison spray.s. Paris green is largely 
used at the "present time, but is being generally sui>- 
planted by lead arsenate. Thorough spraying at the 
right time with these insecticides will very greatly 
reduce the percentage of damage. Indeed, in many 
cases the work of the insect is practically eliminat- 
ed. As in dealing with every other insect or fun- 
gous pest, thorough spraying at the proper time is 
highly essential. The proper time in this case is 
within one week to ten days after the falling of the 
blossoms. A longer delay can not be made with 
safety. After about 10 days the calyx, or blossom 
leaves of the young api>le, close and the apple turns 
to a pendant position. Before this time the newly 
set fruit stands erect with the calyx lobes open. A 
poison spray properly distributed falls into this ca- 
lyx cup and the poison lodges there. As many of 
the young larvae enter the apple by eating in at this 
blossom end they secure with their first meal a 
taste of poison which usually prevents any further 
apple-eating on their part. 

Special attentiun should he called to the fact that ap- 
ple-trees .should not tie xprayeil uhile in hlo.ssoiii. 
Sprayinff at this time is not always totally \nthout 
value, Ijut in many instances it is not only unnece.ssury, 
hut even highly dangerous to the crop. Under all cir- 
oumntances it ii very likely to poison the bees working 
on the apple-blossoms. This sort of damage is far- 
reaching in many cases; and as the bee is one of the 
fruit-grower's best friends we can not afford to murder 
whole swarms in this ivay. 

This early spraying, just after the blossoms fall, 
will not usually catch qviite all the codling moth, 
even all the first brood. When the second or third 
brood hatches later in the year a still smaller per- 
centage can be poisoned by the arsenical sprays. 
Nevertheless it pays to give additional .sprayings 
for this purpose in case the second and third broods 
appear to be large. 

Note the special paragraph in italics, 
which are ours. 

The average manufacturer of spraying- 
outfits usually gives directions for making 
the spraying liquids : and so far as we know 
there is only one who advocates spraying 
when the trees are in bloom. We respect- 
fully suggest that our readers investigate 
very carefully, and be sure that they do not 
buy from parties who give such advice. We 
do not usually advocate the boycott, but we 
do think in this case that it is entirely 
proper to — buy of the other man. 

In a number of States, laws have been 
enacted making it a misdemeanor to spray 
during blooming-time : but there are many 
ignorant fruit-growers— stubborn as well— 
who persi-st in administering the poison- 



FJtlUlT-J3L08SOM8. 



226 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 



ous mixtures to the very floweis from which 
bees are gathering pollen and nectar. The 
result is, many bees are killed, also a 
great deal of brood. The only thing that 
can be done when there is no law in force 
is to labor witli neighbors and friends who 
may be ignorant of or indifferent to the 
rights of others. Show them that the use 
of arsenites during the flowering of the 
trees is both a waste of chemicals and 
time, and a very great damage to the bees 
and to the bee-keeper, if not a menace to hu- 
man beings who might eat honey tinctured 
with the poisons tliat bees gather from the 
trees. Much more can be done throutih 
moral suasion than by big talk and bluff, 
threatening suit for damages. 

The first thing for the bee-keepers of any 
State to do, where there is no anti-spraying 
legislation, is to have a law enacted at the 
next session of the legislature. 

AGENCY OF BEES IN FERTILIZ- 
ING FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 

At various times bee-keepers and fruit- 
growers have come into conflict, the latter 
affirming that bees puncture ripe fruit, 
besides interfering more or less during 
its packing; and the consequence is, that 
bee-keepers have in some cases been 
asked to remove their bees, on the plea of 
being a nuisance. But fruit-growers little 
realized that they were trying to drive 
away something necessaiy to the proper 
fertilization of fruit blossoms. We are happy 
to say, however, in later years the two fac- 
tions are beginning to realize that their 
industries are mutually interdependent. If 
any thing, the fru t g ower derives very 
much more benefit from bees than the 
bee-keeper himself; for it is now known, 
as we shall jiresently show, that certain 
kinds of fruit not only depend very largely 
for their proper development upon the 
agency of the bee, but in many instances 
will fail to come to fruitage at all without it. 
Some years ago a bee-keeper in Massachu- 
setts was obliged to remove his bees to 
another locality, on complaint of the fruit- 
growers that they were a nuisance ; but 
after a year or two had passed they were 
very glad to have the bees back again, be- 
cause so little fruit set on the trees in 
proportion to the amount of blossoms ap- 
pearing. The bee-keeper was recalled ; and, 
as was to be expected, not only more fruit but 
more perfect fruit development followed. 

It is also related that red clover, after be- 
ing introduced into New Zealand, failed to 



bear seed. Finally bumble-bees were im- 
ported, and then there was seed. 

j In more recent years, very careful and 
elaborate experiments have been conducted 

I by scientific men, as well as by bee-keepers 
and fruit-growers together; and the com- 
bined testimony shows almost conclusively 
that the two industries depend more or less 
upon each other. 

} Much has been written in the back vol- 
umes of Gleanings in Bee Culture on this 
question ; but in the journals for January 
1.5 and Februaiy 15, 1894, there appeared a 
symposium in which a few of the facts were 
collated. It would be impossible for us 
to give space to the whole ; and we 
will, therefore, refer only to a few para- 
graphs. It may seem almost unnecessary to 
give evidence of that which we already 
knoic to be true ; but many a time ignorant 
prejudice on the part of fruit growers causes 
trouble, because tliey can not, or think they 
caii not, afford to read the papers Let the 
bee keeper present to them a few facts and 
figures MUil they will, if disposed to be fair, 
acknowledge their mistake. 

Well, here are the facts : In Gleanings in 
Bee Culture for Sept. 15, 189], there appeared 
a most valuable article from the pen of 
Prof. A. J. Cook, professor of entomology, 
tlien of the Michigan Agricultural College, 
detailing the experiments that had been 
made at that place on the subject of fruit- 
fertilization. He goes on to say that, while 
there are solitary insects that help to do 
pollen-scattering, the work they perform is 
infinitesimal as compared with that of bees, 
because, unlike the bees that live over win- 
ter, they are not present in early spring, 
wlien the fruit-trees are in bloom. After 
calling attention to the fact that it is im- 
portant, by definite experimentation, that 
we learn just how necessary the bees are in 
the pollenation of plants, he says : 

I tried many experiments last spring. I counted 
tlie blossoms on each of two branches, or plants, of 
apple, clierry, pear, strawberry, raspberry, and cle- 
ver. One of these, in the case of each fruit or each 
experiment, was surrounded bj' cheese-clotli just 
before the blossoms opened, and kept covered till 
the blossoms fell oflf. The apple, pear, and cherry- 
were covered May 4th, and uncovered May 35th and 
May 19th. The number of blossoms considered 
varied from 33, the smallest number, to 300, the 
largest. Tlie trees were examined June ilth, to see 
what number of the fruit had set. The per cent of 
blossoms which developed on the covered trees was 
a little over 2, while almost 20 per cent of the uncov- 
ered blossoms had developed. Of the pears, not one 
of the covered developed, whlie 5 per cent of the un- 
covered developed fruit. Of the cherries, 3 per cent 
only of tlie covered developed, while 40 per cent of 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 



227 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 




APPLE-TREES IN BL003I— A. I. ROOT S ORCHARD. 



tlie uncovered lilossoms set their fruit. TJie straw- 
berries were co%^erecl May 18th, and uncovered June 
16th. The number of blossoms in each experiment 
varied from 60 in the least to 313 in the greatest. In 
these cases, a box covered with cheese-cloth sur- 
rounded the plants. The plants were examined June 
2d. Eleven per cent of the covered blossoms, and 
17 per cent of the uncovered had developed. To show 
the details, in one case 60 blossoms were considered, 
9 of which in the covered lot, and 27 in the uncovered, 
had developed. That is, three times as many flowers 
had set in the uncovered as in the covered. In an- 
other case of 212 blossoms, the fruit numbered 80 
and 104. In a case of 123 blossoms, the number of 
fruit was 20 and 36. * * * * 

Our experiments with clovers were tried on both 

the white and alslke. While the uncovered heads 

• were full of seeds, the covered ones were entirely 

seedless. This fully explains the common experience 

of farmcis with the.se plants. 

In the symposium referred to at the out- 
set, the first article of the series was from 
J. C. Gilliland, who, in the summer of 1893, 
ill a large field of medium red clover that 
came within 30 feet of his door, covered 
some blo.ssoms with netting, and around 
others not covered he tied a small thread. 
During the following August he gathered 
seed from the covered blossom, and also 
some from the plants not covered ; and by 
careful counting he found that the latter 



gave 21 per cent more seed. His experiments 
were repeated again, with like results. As 
bumble-bees visited the field very profusely 
that year, it seems pretty evident that the 
larger amount of seed came as a result of 
cross-fertilization by bees. But this only 
shows what bumble-bees may do. When it 
comes to the ordinary honey-bees, the per 
cent in favor of uncovered blossoms as 
against the covered is very much laiger. 
Witness, for instance, the extract from Prof. 
Cook's article just given. 

Mr. J. F. Mclntyre, a bee-keeper, and a 
delegate at the California State Fruit- 
growers' Association for 1893, reports that : 

A gentleman stated that he had a friend in this 
State who started into fruit-gro'wing several years 
ago, locating 35 miles from any fruit-growing sec- 
tion, or where any bees were located. The first year 
that liis trees blossomed, and in expectancy of at least 
some returns from his orchard, what should be the 
result but complete failure ! He was advised to pro- 
cure some bees to aid in the fertilization of the 
blossoms. He did so, and since then his orchard has 
been productive. 

C. J. Berry, one whose fruit-orchard con- 
tains 440 acres, and who is Horticultural 
Commissioner for Tulare Co., Cal., an inland 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 



228 



FltUIT-BLOSSOJMS. 



county that has made great progress in the 
fruit-industry, gives tliis vahiable testimony: 

Hoos and fruit g-o lojrothor. 1 ran't raise fruii. 
witliout bees. Sdiiie of tlie other cranks say Tm a 
crank; but I notice there is a pretty good following 
after me, hereabouts, and they keep a-eomin.' 

Yes, sir, 'e. I liavc bees all about, my big- orchard. 
Two years in shpc&sxioo I ham put netdun over xome 
lirnl)ii of trcc^; and, while they bloiisomed all riulit, 
nary fntit; while on the same tree, where linihs were 
exposed to the aid of bees, plenty of fruit. 



THE TWO SIDES OF A TREE. 

Our apple-orchard is situated in such a way that 
it is exposed to both the north and south winds 
About four years ago, as the trees on the south 
row (Transcendents, that throws out a heavy 
growth of foliage at the same time it blooms) 
began to open its bloom, a heavy south wind pre- 
vailed for aViout five days. I noticed, during tliis 
period, that tlie bees could not touch the bloom 
on the south side of these trees, but woi-ked mer- 
rily on the more sheltered limbs of the north side. 
Wliat was the result? Those limbs on the nortli 



Some three or four years as^o, in tlie State f*'^'^ ''■'''■^' '^^" '''"<^*^"^^ ^''"'' *'""• '^'"'*' "" ^'"' 

south side there was almost none to be seen. Does 



of Michigan, a convention of fruit-growers 
and bee-men iissembled together for the 
purpose of discussing their connnon inter- 
ests; and tlie fruit-men acknowledged gen- 
erally that the keeping of bees in thevi^nnity 
of their orchards was an iiiijiortant factor in 
the jn-odtictioii of fruit. At the various 
conventions of the Michigan State Bee- 
keepers^- As.sociiition. it has been shown 
tpiite conclu.sively by the bee-keepers who 
were fruit-growers, that not only greater 
quantity but more perfect fruit is secured by 
having the bees in the vicinity of orchards. 

Again, Chas. A. Green writes for the 
Fruit Gnnotr, published at l^ochester, N. Y., 
an article from whicli, for lack of space, we 
shall be able to quote only a couple of para- 
graphs : , ,.^ ^,^,,s.«^.,- ^. 

It has now become demonstrated that many kinds 
of fruits, if not all kinds, aiv greatly benetlted by 
the bees, and that a large portion of our fruit, such 
as the apple, v>ear, and particularly the plum, would 
be ban-en were it not for the helpful work of the 
lioney-boe. This discovery is largely owing to Pi-of . 
Waite, of the Agricultural Department at Washing- 
ton. Prof. Waite covered the blossoms of v^ears 
apples, and plums, with netting, excluding the bees, 
and fi>und that such i>rotccted blossoms of many 
varieties of apple and j>ear \ ieldeii no fruit. In some 



this prove that these trees depend on the aid of in- 
sects to fertilize the bloom? 1 leave it to the 
judgment of the reader. 

Mr. G. M. Doolittle. in winding up his 
article for the symposiiun above referred to, 
says : 

.\gain, 1 wish to note, as a matter of liistory, 
that, during the past season of 1893, very little 
buckwheat honey was secured from the buckwheat 
regions of tlie State of New York— so little that we 
have had, for the first time in my remembrance, 
buckwheat honey selling in our markets for nearly 
if not quite the same price as No. 1 clover honey, 
while it usually sells for about two-thirds the price 
of clover honey. And what has been the result? 
Why, the unheard-of thing of buckwlieat grain 
Vn-inging 7") cts. a bushel, on account of its scarcity, 
while the best of white wheat is selling at only 6~ 
cts.! A« a gtMieral thing, buckwheat brings from 
one-half to two-thirds the price of wheat. That it 
now brings nearly one-fourth more than the best 
of wheat tells very largely, under tlie circum- 
stances, on the side of the bee. 

Mr. II. A. ISIarch. of Tuget Sound. Wash., 
one of the most extensive seed-growers of 
the I^u'itic coast, testifies that he found 
bees very valuable, and that seed was 
very much more abinulant when bees 
were alloweil to work on the flowers ; antl 
he savs that stone fruits seemed almost 



varieties there was no exception Xo the rule, and he • incajiable of self-fertilization, as he had fullv 
was convinced that large orchards of Hartlett pea.-s. .^.^.^^j y,^. ti-yiug tO glOW pcaches under glaSS. 
planted distant from other varieties, would be "^ ,„, \., " ' „ ^ ,^ t, , -.- i- i i 

utterly barren were it not for the work of the bees. ; ^^'^ <?^^'toi- ot the liuval ^CW - 1 OrArr put 
and even then they could not be profitably gixwn iu his paper, unsolicited, this short l)ithy 
unless every third or fourth row in the orchard was I iiaragraph : 



plaiiii-(l to Clapp's Favorite, or some other variety 
that was capable of fertilizing the blossoms of the 
Ilartlett. In other words, he found that the Bartlett 
pear could no more fertilize its own bUis.soms than 
the fivst'ent strawberry. We have already learned 
Ihiit certain kinds of plums will not fertilize their 
own blossoms, such as the Wild Gixise. etc. 

'l"he friiit-giHnvers of the cmintry aiv greatly In- 
deliled to Vit>f. Waite for the discovery he has made. 
The lesson is. that fruit-growei-s mu.st become inteT*- 
ested in l>ees. (i»id 7 (?<) not douttt that within a few 
years it will he a rare thino to find a fniit-ijitarer who 
does not heep honey-hees. \\\<} prime (Object being to 
employ beesin cai-rying pollen fi-tun one blossom to 
anothei- in the fields of small fruits as well as Cor 
1 he larm- fruil>. 



Mr. F. .\. Monilt. of Andrew, 
lies as follows: 



la., testi- 



In those great greenhouses near Boston, where 
early cucumliers are grown, it is always necessary 
to liave one or two hives of bees inside to fertilize 
the fiowers. No bees, no cucumbers, unless men 
gx) around with a brush and dust the pollen from 
one flower to another. 

Mr. J. F. Becker, of Morgansville. N. J., 
has eight greenhouses where he grows en- 
cumbers, and. attached to each one of them, 
with an entrance on the inside as well as 
outside, he has two colonies of bees. He 
found that, without them, he could not suc- 
cessfully fertilize the blossoms of the vines, 
and, consequently, could get no cucumbers. 
With tluMU he is entiiely successful in grow- 
ing the finest of cucumbers for the early 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 



229 



FRUIT-BLOSSOM; 



market, where he gets fancy prices. While 
the l>ees do their part of the work, tuauy of 
them are lost in the attt^mpt to find their 
way back to the hive. They fly against the 
glass, where, of course, they worry them- 
selves to death. This makes it necessary to 
supply fresh cok>nies every now and then : 
but even this expense is made up many 
times over in the crop of cucumbers. 

lu the spring of 1S92 the late Allen Piingle. 
of Selby. Out., one of the leading bee-keep- 
eis of Canada, testified that he was sum- 
moned to appear before a legislative com- 
mittee of the House of Assembly of Ontai-io. 
to give evidence of the agency of bees in 
s. attering pollen. The Minister of Agricul- 
tuiv summoned not onlv the leading bee- 







^Sl 



lXTEr.I'_'R OF CUCUMBZK - GF.EEXH<:'rSE : 
HIVE WITH EXTRAXCE INSIDE. 

men. but those eng-aged in grv»wing friut. to 
present the facts, exj^eriences. and the pros 
and cons on both sides. Xot only this, but 
the scientists were also summoned from 
» Ottawa and Guelph. Mr. Piingle goes on 
10 Siiy. that "the horticulturists, with one 
single exception, admitted the valuable and 
indispensable offices performed by honey- 
l>ees in the fertilization of our fruit-bloom. 
And this was corroborated and confirmed 
by the entomologists. . . . Prof. James 
Fletcher, the Dominion Entomologist, said 
bees did " not ^isit in dull weather, and then 
we have but little fniit in consequence." . . 
As to bees injuring fruit, theiv is no direct 
evidence." Mr. Pringle also'says : 

1 have kept l>eesfor30years^:ind bavegrowu frnii 
and clover alongside for the same period. I have 



also studied and expKjrimenied somewhat in this 
line as well as many others. As to some kinds of 
fruit —notably apples— I have observed that if, 
during the bloom, the weather was such that 
neither winged insects nor the wind iljeing wet 
and cold" could perform their function with the 
flowers, the fruit was lacking. When the weather 
at other times was favorable and the bioom almn- 
dant. I have excluded the liees fi-om certain por- 
tions of the tree, only to find the fruit al-so exclud- 
ed—but only from those reserved portions. . . . 

The fruit-growers agreed that the "bees play a 
very important p;»rt iu cross-fertilization, and, 
therefore, should not l>e destroyed;"' that "we are 
very generally dependent upon insects for the 
fertiliKition of our orchard. To destroy them to 
any extent would be very injurious to fruit- 
growers." 

The consensus of the meeting was, that "bee- 
keel)ers and fruit-growers are of great help to each 
other, and even indisi)ens;ible. if each class is to 
obtain the best results in their work." 

Mr. Frank Benton, lately in the employ of 
rlie Depaitment of Agriculture. Washing- 
:< lU. D. C. in one of the Gk)vernment Bulle- 
tins for 1S94. page 254. commenting on the 
agency of bees in the fertilization of fruit- 
blossoms, says : 

The facts they have brought forward are gradn- 
y becoming more widely known among frait- 
- ; owers and bee-keepers, and additional evidence 
accumulates. A case illustrating very clearly the 
value of bees In an orchard has recently come to 
the notice of the Avriter, and its authenticity is con- 
flrmed by correspondence with the parties named, 
who are gentlemen of long and ex»ensivelexperi- 
euce in fruit-growing, recognized in their locality 
as being authorities, particularly in regard to 
cherry culture. The facts are these: For several 
years the cherry crop of Vaca Valley, in Solano 
Co.. Cal.. has not been good, although it was for- 
merly quite sure. The partial or complete failures 
: ;i ve been attributed to north winds, chilling rains. 
.:.d similar climatic conditions; but in the minds 
L'l Messrs. Bassford. of Cherry Glen, these causes 
did not sufficiently account for all the cases of 
failure. 
I These gentlemen recollected that formerly, when 
the cherry crops were good, wild bees were very 
plentiful in the valley, and hence thought perhaps 
the lack of fruit since most of the bees had disap- 
peared might be due to imperfect distribution of 
the pollen of the blossoms. To test the matter 
they placed, therefore, several hives of bees in 
their orchard in 1890. The result was striking, for 
the Bassford orchard bore a good crop of cherries, 
while other growers in the valley who had no bees 
found their crops entire or partial failures. Tins 
yejir ilS91i Messrs. Bassford had some sixty-five 
hives of bees in their orchard, and Mr. H. A. Bass- 
fortl writes to the Entomologist: "Our crop was 
good this season, and we attribute it to the bees:" 
and he'adds further: "Since we have been keep- 
ing l>ees our cherry crop has been much larger 
than f«»rmerly, while those orchards nearest us, 
Bvi- mik-s from here, where, uo bees are kept, have 
pntduced but light crops." 

Ag;iin, J. E. Cnuie writes iu this same 
s\iuposium an iirticle so full of pith and 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 



230 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 



point that we can not forbear publishing the 
whole of it here in i)ennanent form : 

now BF,OSSOMS AKK KKKTII-IZIOl); WIIV SOMK 

FI.OVVKKS AKK MOKK (JAIIDY THAN OTH- 

KUS; KXPKKliMKNTS OK (MIARLES 

DAHWIN. 

M^iny volumes li;i\i' liccn published in scnci-iI 
diffei-eut iiing'Uiigv.s upon tlie fertiliziitioii of How- 
ers— the first by Cliristi;ui Coiirud Spring-el, in 1793; 
yet tlie suljject iittracted but little uttention until 
tliirty or forty years later, since which time many 
botanists liave given the subject much attention. 
Our most eminent botanists now classify flowering- 
plants in their relation to fertilization into two 
classes : Ajiemopliilous and Bntomop/it7oMs— literally, 
wind-lovers and insect-lovers. The flowers fertil- 



tliftii, Mild thus be cari-ied from llouei- to flower. 
In this class of plants or flowers many ingenious 
arrangements are provided to secure cross-fertil 
ization. One sex is found in one blossom, and the 
other ill auot liei', sometimes on the same jjlant, as 
in the sijuash and melon families. In othei- species 
the sexes are found upon separate plants, as the 
willow-trees. In some plants the pistils appear 
first, and lieconie fertile before the stamens ripen 
their pollen. In others the stamens shed their 
vitalizing dust before the stigma of the pistil is 
ready to receive it. 

The common red raspberry matures its pistils 
first, so that, unless tlie bees or otlier insects carrj* 
the pollen to it from other eai-lier blossoms, the 
fruit is imperfect. 




CUCUMBER-BLOSSOM WITH A BEE ON IT; CAUGHT IN THE ACT. 



ized by the wind are dull in color, and nearly des- 
titute of odor or honey. The sexes are f reciuently 
separated, either on the same or on separate 
plants. They produce a superabundance of pollen, 
liglit and dry, easily transported by air or wind. 

Pines, firs, and other conifera, are familiar ex- 
amples, which somet'mes fill a forest with "show- 
ers of sulphur" when shedding their pollen. Our 
nut-bearing- trees are examples among deciduous 
trees. The grasses and grains are familiar to all. 
A kernel of corn will grow as well alone as with 
other plants; but "the ear will not fill " unless it 
can receive the wind-wafted pollen from neiglil)or- 
ing: stalks. On the other hand, those plants which 
seem to have need of bees or other insects to carry 
their pollen from one flower to another have more 
showy blossoms, with bright colors, or white, 
which are showy at dusk, else tliey give out a strong- 
perfume or nectar, or both. Ttie pollen grains are 
moist, g-lutinous, hairy, oi- otherwise so con- 
structed !is to adhere to the insects that visit 



The partridge-l)erry is very interesting. The 
blossoms upon about half of the plants produce 
their stamens first; tlie other half, the pistil. In a 
week or ten days the order is reversed in the same 
flowers. 

Many flowers that invite insects appear to be 
capable of self-fertilization, and often are; yet the 
pollen from a neighboring- plant of the same species 
seems more potent. Some flowers are constructed 
with stamens so placed that their pollen can not 
fall upon the stigma of tlie same flower, and have 
special adaptation for the transport of pollen by 
insects from one flower to another. One curious 
plant produces small inconspicuous flowers early 
in the season, capable of self-fertilization; later 
in the season it produces more showy flowers 
that can become fertil(> only through the agency of 
insects. 

Many plants remain constantly bai-ren unless 
they receive the visits of insects. Some of your 
readers have doubtless observed how the fu.schia 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 



231 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 



or bt'K<>iii;i lU'Vff ijroduccs sft'd in ;i chiscd room; 
yet, wlieu set out of doors in sumnier, they seed 
abundantly. Still other plants never produce seed 
because the insects that feed upon their blossoms 
have not been imported with the plants. 
• But this is a large subject, and to me one of great 
interest, as I study the many ways the Author of 
nature has provided for the l)est good of all his 
works. A large number of examples have been 
g'iven of bees as agents in the production of fruit 
and seed, and I will give one or two more. 

Mr. H. A. March, of Puget Sound, while here last 
summer, informed me that he produced large 
quantities of cauliflower .seed,"and found bees very 
valuable, as the seed was much moie abundant 
when hees were provided to woik on-tlie flowers. 



the Creator h;is desired ci'oss-fert ilizal ion anions' 
plants, and has wisely provided for it in a multi- 
tude of waj's; and the chances of such fertilization 
appear to be as great among plants as among our 
bees, for which such special arrangement has Ijeeii 
made. We might assume it to be valuable or 
necessary, even if we could see no good reason for 
it. We all know that birds or domestic animals 
will prove fruitful for one or perhaps several gen- 
erations in spite of the intermarriiige of near rela- 
tions; but it is, I believe, the universal experience 
that such unions are most unwise, and, as a rulei 
prove in.iurious. 

Some twenty-flve oi- thirty years ago Charles 
Darwin, in studying this subject, and noting the 
pi'ovisions of nature for tlie cross-fertilization of 




FRUIT-TKEE'^ IX lU.OOM IN THE AUTHORS ORCHARD. 



The stone fruits seem almost incapable of self- 
fertilization, as is often proven by trying to grow 
peaches under glass, success seeming to come only 
when bees are provided while the trees are in bloom. 
A curious problem has jjresented itself to the 
horticulturists of this country for a number of 
yeai's past, in the refusal of some varieties of the 
Chickasaw plum to produce fruit in the Northern 
States unless set near some other variety or species 
of plum, that insects might carry the pollen from 
one to the other. Such a tree I can see from my 
window as I write, that is a bank of bloom every 
spring, but has never, to my knowledge, pi'oduced 
a crop of fruit. 

Now, suppose It were ti-ue that all trees or plants 
that produce fruit or seed of value for the use of 
man would become fertile without the aid of bees 
or other insects, would it prove them of no value ? 
Not at all. Enough has been written toshow that 



flowers, became so much interested in it that lie 
began a large )iumber of experiments to test the 
value of insects in cross-fertilization, and the 
effects of cross and self fertilization upon plants. 
His experiments were conducted with great care, 
and continued through several j'ears; and his book 
on the effects of "Cross and Self Fertilization," 
describing these experiments, containing several 
hundred pages, is very interesting reading to say 
the least. 

Of some 125 plants experimented with, more than 
half were, with insects excluded, either quite 
sterile or produced less than half as much seed as 
when insects were allowed to visit them. Among 
his catalog of these plants I notice the white and red 
clover. His experiments with these are vei'y similar 
to those of Prof. Cook, late of Michigan Agricultural 
College. He says, page 361, of red clover, "One 
hundred flower-heads on a plant protected by a net 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 



232 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 



did IH>I iMddiicc ;i, siiiKif seed, whilr HKI liciids im 
pliiiits ffiowiiif?- outside, whicli were visited l).v l)e(>s, 
yielded tiS grains weigrlit of seeds; :iiid as KG si'i'ds 
weighiHl two g-rains, tin; liuiidred heads must liave 
yielded 3720 seeds." His e.\perieii(;e with wiiile clo- 
ver was nearly the same. 

Another most interesting result of his experiments 
was tiiat plants grown from seed of self-fertilized 
flowers were, as a rule, when grown side by side 
with seed of cross-fertilized flowers, much less vig- 
orous, although in other respects the conditions 
were as nearly alike as it is possible to make them. 
On page 371 he says, "The simple fact of the neces- 
sity in many cases for extraneous aid in the trans- 
port of tlie pollen, and the many contrivances for 
this purpose, render it highly probable that .some 
great benefit is thus gained; and this conclusion 
has now been firmly established by the superior 
growth, vigor, and fertility of plants of crossed 
parentagi^ over t'lose of self-fertilized parentage." 

In Glemnugs in Bee Culture tor June 1, 
1894, Prof. Cook furnishes this additional: 

Prof. Bailey, tlie very able horticulturist of Cor- 
nell University, writes: "Bees are much more 
efficient agents of poUenation than wind, for our 
fruits; a)Hl their absence in always deleterious." 

The Division of Vegetable Pathology, of the De- 
partment of Agriculture, has just issued a most 
valuable bulletin on " PoUenation of Pear-flowers," 
Ijy Norman B. Waite. Mr. Waite-says: "Incidental 
mention has been made of insect -visitors. We 
should not proceed without laying some stress 
upon the importance of these visits. The common 
honey-bee is the most regular, important, and abun- 
dant visitor, and probal)ly does more good than any 
other species." He says, further, that cool or rainy 
weather interferes seriously with insect-visits. Many 
varieties (23 out of 364 of those he experimented 
with), says Mr. Waite, require cross-pollenation; and 
tlie pollen must be from a different variety. Bees 
and other insects are the agents of the transporta- 
tion of pollen. In summing up, Mr. Waite says— 
and this from crucial decisive experiments: "Plant 
mixed orchards, or, at least, avoid planting solid 
blocks of one variety. Be sure that there are suffi- 
cient bees in the neighborhood to visit the blossoms 
properly. When feasible, endeavor to favor insect- 
visits by selecting sheltered situations, or by plant- 
ing windbreaks." 

Again, E. C, Green, of tlie Ohio Experi- 
ment Station, for June 1st writes : 

Quite an interesting fact came under my observa- 
tion this winter in tomato-forcing, along this line. 
We had in one house about 200 Dwarf Champions 
that were planted in August; and by the time win- 
ter set in they were as fine and thrifty plants as one 
could wish to see, and setting their fruit nicely. We 
felt glad to think what a nice crop of tomatoes we 
should have; but when January came, and they be- 
gan to ripen up their fruit, the bulk of it was about 
the size of hickorynuts, and without any seeds. 

The tomato, as you know, is a bisexual flowering 
plant, but in this case it is evident that the pollen 
from the same flower was what is called "self" 
irritant." If bees or some other cause had carried 
the pollen from one flower to another, or one plant 
to the other, there would have been a good crop. I 
have been doing something in cross-fertilizing to- 
matoes tliis winter, and have been surprised at the 



case Willi \vlii<'!i ( hey crossed, having used the Po- 
tato-leaf, Dwarf Champion, Pondei'osa, Peach, and 
several of the common kinds, making in all about 
40 crosses. 1 do not think I shall fail to get seed 
except in a few of them. I expect that from the 
.seed I shall get a lot of " mongrels," as one writer 
in Gleanings calls such crosses; but I prefer to 
call them crossbreeds, as "hybrid " has a different 
meaning. 

Still again, Prof. V. II. Lowe, of the 
Geneva Experiment Station, New York, in 
1899 covered a certain set of small pear- 
trees, as it was not practicable to use large 
ones in a hood of sheeting. This hood was 
large enough to sit down over the whole tree, 
something in the form of a bag, and the 
lower end of it was tied around the trunk of 
the tree. The object of this was to keep out 
insects, ants, bees, and any thing, in fact, 
that might assist in pollenizing the blos- 
soms. On all of these trees so covered, there 
was a large number of buds, and all the 
conditions were favorable for a good crop, 
except that the flight of insects was entirely 
cut off. Now, then, for the results : Out of 
the whole lot of trees covered, there was 
just one fruit. On another set of trees of 
the same sort and size not covered, there 
were 145. In the other case, where it was 
not practicable to envelop the whole tree, 
one large limb, for instance, would be en- 
closed in the bag, the mouth of the bag be- 
ing tied around the trunk of the limb. In 
one such instance there were 2483 buds on 
an apple-tree that were thus covered with 
the sheeting. Out of that number just one 
fruit matured. There was plenty of fruit 
on other portions of the tree where the 
limbs were not covered. In one case, where 
the sheeting broke open so that insects 
could get in, there were 13 perfect fruits 
from 818 buds. It was clearly shown that 
bees or other insects play a most important 
part in the poUenation of average fruit- 
trees. 

Prof. Bailey, the very able horticulturist 
of Cornell University, writes : '•'• Eees are 
much more efficient agents of poUenation 
than wind, in our fruits, and their absence 
is always deleterious." 

The Division of Vegetable Pathology, of 
the Department of Agriculture, Washing- 
ton, D. C, has issued a most interesting bul- 
letin on "PoUenation of Pear-tlowers,'' by 
Norman E. Waite. Mr. Waite says: "In- 
cidental mention has been made of insect- 
visitors. We should not proceed without 
laying some stress upon the importance of 
these visits. The common honey-bee is the 
most regular, ioaportaiit, and abundant visit- 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 



233 



FRUIT-BLOSSOMS. 



or, and probably does more good than any 
other species." 

At a joint meeting of the National Pomo- 
logical Society and the National Bee-keep- 
ers' Association, occuring on Sept. 12,1901, 
at Buffalo, a number of valuable papers were 
read— all of them testifying to the invalu- 
able office of the bee in pollenating fruit- 
blossoms. Space will permit us to give only 
two references. Frof. James Fletcher, of 
the Ottawa Experiment Station, among 
other things said : 

It will be found that not only are flowers abso- 
lutely necessary to bees as the source of their food 
— nectar and pollen — but that bees and other insects 
are no less necessary to most flowers, so that their 
perpetuation may be secured. 

This fact should be recognized by the fruit-grower 
above all others; for were it not for insects, and 
particularly for the honey-bee, his crop of fruits 
would be far less than they are every year, and even 
in some cases he would get no fruit at all. 

Failure in the fruit crop is more often due, I think, 
to dull or damp weather at the time of blossoming, 
which prevents insects from working actively in the 
flowers, than to any other cause. 

At the same joint meeting of bee and fruit 
men, II. W. CoUinwood, already mentioned, 
editor of the Rural New - Yorker^ said : 

We can easily forgive the bee his short working 
days when we consider the good he does. There is 
no question about the debt fruit-growers owe him. 
People talk about the wind and other insects in fer- 
tilizing our flowers; but I am confident that any 
man who will really take the time and pains to 
investigate for himself will see that the bee is 
nearly the whole story. 1 have seen the certain 
results of liis good work in a neighbor's orchard. 
Those bees broke the trees down just as truly as 



though they had climbed on the trees by the million 
and pulled on them. The appearance of those trees 
after a few years of bee-keeping would liave con- 
vinced any fair-minded man that our little buzzing 
friends are true partners of the fruit-grower. 

In addition to all this we may state that 
there has been a demand of late on the part 
of a large number of extensive fruit-growers 
of Wisconsin, Michigan, New York, and 
Pennsylvania, asking bee-keepers to locate a 
few colonies in orchards neaj- which there 
have been no bees. Indeed, the fruit-grow- 
ers have offered to furnish the space and the 
buildings necessary to accommodate the 
bees and appliances, free of charge to the 
bee-keepers. It is needless to say that the 
latter have availed themselves of the oppor- 
tunity, for honey from fruit-blossoms is some 
of the very finest ever produced, and the 
fruit-grower profits immensely in his turn. 

In one of the leading fruit-journals of the 
country. Better Fruit, for July, 1909, appears 
a very strong article from the Oregon College 
Experiment Station, showing the almost in- 
dispensable service performed by bees in 
pollenating fruit-trees. It is shown conclu- 
sively that many varieties are sterile to their 
own pollen; that wind itself is not a very im- 
portant factor in carrying it from one tree to 
another; that the bee is practically the sole 
agent in doing this important work. 

If any one desires to secure more facts 
relative to flower- fertilization, he may con- 
sult "Mueller's Fertilization of Flowers," 
an authority on the subject ; also see Pol- 
len, in this work. See also "Bees and 
Fruit,'' issued by the publishers. 



G. 



GALIiBERRV. {Hex ulnbra). Tliis 
produces quite a quantity of honey in 
the South, of light color and high quality. 
It is a species of holly, which grows to the 
size of a scrubby Inish. It is abundant in 
North Carolina, Georgia, South Carolina, 



to yield a crop, for tlie reason it blooms in 
M;iy, when the weather is settled and fine. 

The quality of the honey is excellent, be- 
ing classed as white. Though a consider- 
able quantity of it is actually produced in 
the South, it is seldom shipped, on account 




GALLIJKIIKY, UK HOLLY. 



and adjacent States, and is growing more 
plentiful, for it springs up wherever the 
forests have been cut off. Mr. J. J. Wilder, 
of Cordele, Ga., states that there are thou- 
sands of gallberry bee-locations wholly un- 
occupied at present, and that it seldom fails 



of an active local demand. Shakespeare 
asks, " What's in a nameV' but in our opin- 
ion " holly " would be a much better name 
than '\gallbeiTy,'' which rather suggests 
bitterness. " Holly honey" would sound ro- 
mantic. 



(;l()Ves. 



2;!.5 



(H.UCOSE. 



GLOVES FOR HANDLING BEES. Al 

tliougli a good many apiarists work with 
l)are hands and bare wrists, there are a few 
who prefer to use gloves with long wiists, 
and quite a large number who use them with 
fingers and thumbs cut oft. If the bees are 
hybrids, and extracting is carried on during 




the robbing season, it is a great convenience 
to use something that pri)tectsthe buck of 
the hands and wrists, leaving the fingers 
bare, so that, for all practical purposes of 
manipulation, one can work as well with 
protectors as without. See Extracting. 

Lady bee-keepers and men who are at all 
timid, and a very small number who seem to 
be seriously affected by even one sting, might 
use gloves to great advantage — especially 
the last-mentioned class, where two or three 
stings might prove to be serious if not fatal. 

As to the kind of gl nes, some use buck- 
skin or dogskin with loose flowing sleeves 
sewed on at the wrists, with a rubber cord 
gathered in the end to tit over the elbow. 
Then there is a kind of glove made of heavy 
drilling soaked in linseed oil or white-lead 
paint, made specially for the purpose, shown 
in the illustration. As sent out by the sup- 
ply-dealers they are not coated, as some pre- 
fer to use them plain; but where the bees are 
especially cro.'^s, the fabric will need to be 
further reinforced with paint or linseed oil. 

For fuither particulars regarding bee- 
dress, see Veils. 

* G-ZiVCOSE. This name is applied to the 
thick viscous liquid obtained by the concen- 
tration of a solution coming from the incom- 
plete hydrolysis of starch. The word is mis- 
applied by a great many, especially in the 
sugar-cane belt, for the reducing sugars pres- 
ent in the cane. From a purely chemical 
side, glucose means the sugar dextrose, so 
with these various applications of the word 
some little confusion exists. In the com- 
mercial world, however, the first is the ac- 
cepted meaning of the Avord. In the United 
States the source of glucose is corn starch, 
with a little made from potato starch, but in 
Germany all is made from potato starch. 



Its manufacture consists in the heating of 
the freed starch with water, and a small per- 
centage of hydrochloric acid under pressuie. 
The process is carefully conducted, a-id 
stopped at tlie proper point of hydrolysis. 
The liquid is neutralized with soda, and con- 
centrated to the desired consistency, which 
is a liquid of aljout 15 to 20 per cent water. 
Formerly sulphuric acid was the acid used 
for conversion; Ijut on account of its carry- 
ing arsenic its use was stopped. The solids 
of commercial glucose consist of about one- 
third dextrose and two-thirds dextrine. The 
dextrins present in commercial glucose are 
of a different character from those present 
in floral honey or honey-dew, and on this 
property its presence in honey can lie easily 
detected. 

By increasing the amount of acid, and also 
lengthening the time of heating, products 
are made which contain more dextrose and 
less dextrin. These are known commer- 
cially as "70, "<Sy;, and "anhydrous "starcli 
sugar." They are, for the most part, solid. 
Their uf-e in honey adulteration is very rare, 
and, if used, their detection is comparative- 
ly easy for a trained chemist. 

Commercial glucose is sometimes known 
as corn syrup. 

The ease with which commercial glucose 
can be detected when mixed with honey has 
led to its disuse except in mixtures so la- 
beled. See Honey, Adulteration of. 

'' G-OIiDISIVROD. This is one of the most 
important sources of honey during the fall 
months in many localities in the United 
States— important, not for any great amount 
of honey, for there is never enough so that 




THREE SPECIES OF GOLDENROD. 



GLUCOSE. 



236 



GOLDENROl). 



it gets into tlie market, but iini>()it;iiit be- 
cause it comes at a time of tbe year when it 
helps to Iveej) the bees busy, and at the same 
time serves to make up for tlie loss in stores 
(luring the late summer. 

There are something like SO distinct spe- 
cies of goldenrod in the United States. Of 
these, some forty odd are found in the north- 
ern part of the country. All of the species 
have yellow flowers, save one, a slender 
wandlike plant {S. bicolor) that has whitish 
or silverlike flower-heads— a departure from 
the general family habit. This species ap- 
pears to be comparatively rare, and even 
when discovered is not readilv recognized as 




GOLDENROD [tioUdago C'inadcnsis. 



belonging to genus iSoiidrf go, or golden-rod. 
The number of species is so very large that 
botanists have made no attempt to classify 
all of them. Indeed, some of the species 
seem to merge so gradually from one into 
the other tliat it is difficult to distinguish 
them readily. Even botanists are confused, 
iiut there are, neverthehss, pronoiniced 
differences in the appearance of some of 
them. There is one species that grows all 
through the central-northern States. Solido- 
gn lanceolatn, that, while having the same 
general leaf- formation, has a different flow- 
er from that shown. They are grouped in 
flat top clusters, unlike other members of 
the family, while other species 
such as SoUdago Canadensis havt^ 
flower-clusters that terminate in 
a point. 
,^^ At one time there was con^id- 

'S**" erable talk about making golden - 

rod the national flower, for the 
reason that the general family is 
more widely scattered over the 
country than almost any other 
flower. 

The honey is usually very 
thick, and of a rich golden color 
much like the blossoms. When 
first gathered, it has, like the 
honey of most other fall flowers, 
a rather rank weedy smell and 
taste; but after it has thoroughly 
ripened, it is rich and pleasant. 
On getting the flrst taste of gold 
enrod honey, one might think he 
would never like any other ; but , 
like many kinds, one soon tires 
of the peculiar aromatic flavor, 
and goes back to clover honey as 
the great universal staple to be 
used with bread and butter. 

GRANULATED HONEY. See 

Candied Honey. 

GUAJILLA. See IIUA.iii.LA. 



H. 



HANDLIPra SUES. See Frames, 
TO Manipulate; Anger of J3ees; also 
Stings, and Hiyes. 

HAULISra BEES. See Moving 
Bees. 

^ HEARTSEASE (Polygonum persica- 
ria). This is one of a large family of honey- 
bearing plants of which the common buck- 
wheat is one. Heartsease, sometimes known 
as knotweed or heartweed, and (periiaps in- 
correctly) smartweed, is scattered over cer- 
tain i)ortions of the West, particularly in 
Illinois, Kansas, and Nebraska. In the 
last named it reaches a height of from three 
to five feet, and grows luxuriantly on all 
waste and stubble lands. The flowers in 
clusters are generally purple, and, in rare 
instances, white. It yields in Nebraska, 



aiul other States in that section of the conil- 
try, immense quantities of honey. One 
bee-keeper, Mr. T. R. Belong, at the North 
American convention held in Lincoln, Neb , 
in October, 1896, reported that two of his 
colonies yielded each 450 lbs. of extracted, 
and that the average for his entire apiary 
was 250 lbs. per colony — all heartsease. 
While perhaps these yields were exception- 
ally large, quite a number of other bee- 
keepers reported at the same convention an 
average of 200 lbs. from the same source. 
When we visited Nebraska last there were 
acres and acres of this honey- plant over the 
plains as far as the eye could reach ; and as 
it yields honey from August till frost, one 
is not surpiised at the enormous yields. 

The extracted honey varies in color from 
a light to a dark amber; and the tlavor, 




V'o, 



-.» . ,, ;V 



%^^:''u/f,m^': 






^ii.f..*" sm^: 



A FINE FIELD OF IIEAKTSEASE. 



HEART&EASE. 



238 



HI7E-MAKING. 



while not quite up to that of white honey, is 
very good. Heartsease comb honey, in point 
of color, is almost as white as the clover. 
Tlie extracted granulates in very fine crys- 
tals, and looks very mucli like the can- 
died product of any white honey. Care 
should be taken in liquefying, as heartsease 
honey is injured more easily, and to a great- 
er extent, by overheating, than any other 
kind. 

BZ VIS - IME AKIira. Unless one is 
so situated that freights are high, and un- 
less, also, he is a mechanic, or a natural 
genius in ''making things,'' he had better 
let hive -making alone. Hives can be 
bought, usually, with freight added, for a 
great deal less than the average bee-keeper 
can make them himself, if we consider 
spoiled lumber, sawed fingers, and the ex- 
pense of buzz-saws ; and, besides, hives made 
in the large factories, where they are turned 
out by the thousands, by special machinery 
run by skilled workmen, are much more ac- 
curately cut, as a general thing. 

The following letter from a practical plan- 
ing-mill man, who ought and does know 
what he is talking about, sets forth the actu- 
al facts as they are: 

ELIAS BAMBERGER 

Manufacturer of 

SASH, DOORS, BLINDS 

Contractors' and Builders' Supplies, 

including all Kinds of Window Glass. 

Cor. Exchange and Adams Sts. 
Estimates Furnished on Application. 

Freeport, 111., June 11, 19J7. 
The A. I. Root Co., Medina, Ohio. 

Oentlemen:—! received five of your AE525-10 hives 
yesterday, and And that I can not make my own 
hives and .'■upplies as cheap as yours and use the 
same quality of lumber. You can see by the head 
of this letter that if any one can make hives cheap- 
er than your prices or any of the so-called "trust 
hive" manufacturers, i ought to be able to do it; 
but, using the same quality of lumber, I can not. 
(Signed) John H. Bambergeh. 

But there is lots of fun in making things, 
even if they are not so well made ; and there 
are some rainy or wintry days in the year, 
when, if one is a farmer, for instance, he can 
as well as not, and at little or no expense 
for time, make a few hives and other " fix- 
in's." Again, if one lives in a foreign coun- 
try he may not be able to get the hives that 
we shall recommend. 

REQUISITES OF A GOOD HIVE. 

While it is very important to have good 
well-made hives for the bees, we would by no 
means encourage the idea that the hive is 
going to insure a crop of honey. As the 
veteran Mr. Gallup used to say, " A good 



swarm of bees would store almost as much 
honey in a half - barrel or nail-keg as in the 
most elaborate and expensive hive made, 
other things being equal." This is sui. los- 
ing we had a good colony in the height ot 
the honey-season. If the colony were small, 
it would do much better if i)ut into a hive so 
small that the bees could nearly or quite fill 
it, thus economizing the animal heat, that 
they might keep up the temperature for 
brood - rearing, and the working of wax. 
Also, should the bees get their nail-keg full 
of honey, unless more room were given 
them at just the right moment a consider- 
able loss of honey would be the result. The 
thin walls of the nail-keg would hardly be 
the best economy for a wintering hive, nor 
for a summer hive either, unless it were well 
shaded from the direct rays of the sun. 

P. H. Elwood, of Starkville, N. Y.,wh(i 
owns over 1300 colonies, said in Gleanivgs 
in Bee Culture., April 15, 1891, "A good hive 
must till two requirements reasonably well 
to be worthy of that name. 1. It must be a 
good home for the bees; 2. It must in ad- 
dition be so constructed as to be convenient 
to perform the various operations required 
by modern bee-keeping. The first of these 
requirements is filled very well by a good 
box or straw^ hive. Bees will store as much 
honey in these hives as in any, and in the 
North they will winter and spring as well in 
a straw hive as in any other. They do not, 
however, fill the second requirement; and 
to meet this, the movable-frame hive was 
invented." 

Under the subject of Hives, a little fur- 
ther on, will be shown styles and the special 
features that belong to each. But there is 
only one hive that is used largely throughout 
the United States, and that is the Lang- 
strotli— that is, it embodies the Langstroth 
dimensions. We start first with the frame, 
171 long by 9i deep. This establishes the 
length and depth of the hive. As to width, 
that depends upon the number of frames 
used. Some bee-keepers prefer eight, per- 
haps the majority of them ; others ten, and 
still others twelve frames. Where one runs 
for extracted honey the ten- frame width 
should have the preference, especially in the 
South. If one produces only comb honey the 
eight-frame-hive width should be the one 
selected, particularly in the North, where 
the honey-fiow is of short duration and is 
principally from clover and basswood. The 
selection of the frame, and the number to 
the hive, then, determines the dimensions of 
the hive itself. 



IIIVE-MAKIX(t. 



239 



HIVES. 



J 



We said the Langstroth is the standard 
tliroiighout the United States ; but of late 
there has been a tendency toward a frame 
of the same length, but two inches deeper. 
There is also a tendency to go to the other 
extreme in adopting a frame of Langstroth 
length, but two or three inches shallower, 
using two stories of such a hive for a single 
brood-nest. 

On account of the diverse notions of bee- 
keepers, and the peculiarities of locality, it 
would hardly be worth while to give general 
directions for the manufacture of any one 
hive ; and, besides, no printed directions will 
give as good an idea of the construction of a 
hive as the very thing itself. For these and 
other reasons it would be far better for the 
one who intends to make hives to send to 
some manufacturer for a sample in the flat, 
all completp. With the several pieces for 
patterns he will then know exactly the shape 
and dimensions, how to make the rabbets, 
and in general how the hive is constructed 
in every detail. If one does not find on the 
market just such a hive as suits his notion, 
of course he sees, or thinks he sees, " in his 
mind's eye " just what he wants to make ; 
but in that case we would advise him to make 
a sample or two before he makes very many 
of them; for nine times out of ten — yes, 
ninety-nine times out of one hundred — he 
will discard the one of his " own get-up," 
and adopt some standard made by manufac- 
turers iienerallv. 



HIVISS based on Langstroth dimen- 
sions are the standard. Some thirty years ago 
there were in use the American, Gallup, 
Langstroth, Adair, and Quinby frames. 
All of these reqiiired, of course, hives of 
different dimensions. Between the Adair, 
the Gallup, and the American there was 
but very little difference, comparatively, as 
they were square, and very nearly of a 
size. The Langstroth was long and shal- 
low—the shallowest frame that had then 
been introduced ; and the Quinby, having 
about the same proportions, was the larg- 
est frame in general use. By consulting the 
diagram containing the different sizes of 
frames it will be seen that there are prac- 
tically two classes— the square and the ob- 
long. As there would be but very little dif- 
ference, theoretically and practically, be- 
tween the results secured with a Gallup, 
American, and Adair, we will consider 
the arguments for the square frame. 

The Jumbo frame will be considered later 
on under the head of Largk Hives. 



SQUARE FRAMES — ARGUMENTS IN THEIR 
FAVOR. 

In nature, bees have a tendency to make a 
brood-nest in the form of a sphere ; patches 
of brood are more inclined to be circular 
than square or oblong. Theoretically, then, 
a circular frame would be the best ; but as 
that would not be practicable, owing to 
the difficulty in the construction of the 
frame and hive, obviously the square frame 
would come the nearest in conforming to 
nature and a perfect cube for the hive. The 
square frame, as a rule, called for a hive in 
the exact shape of a cube. If, for instance, 
the frame was 12 inches square, outside di- 



Gallup. S^ 



18 H 
Quinby. iS; 



Adair. JS; 



17^8 
Langstroth. j^ 



American, fj 



19/8 

Closed-end Quinby. |:^ 



Danzenbaker, 

TA X 17. 




mensions, then the hive, if the combs were 
spaced If inches apart, and 12f inches wide 
inside, should take in just nine American 
frames. Such a hive, it was argued, would 
conserve the heat of the bees to the best 
advantage, would give the greatest cubical 
contents for a given amount of lumber — 
barring, of course, the perfect sphere. As it 
economized heat in winter, it would winter 
bees better than a hive having oblong frames. 
All of this seemed to be very pretty in the- 
ory ; and there are some users of square 
frames who insist that the theory is borne 
out by actual experience. But the great ma- 



HIVES. 



240 



HIVES. 



jority of bee-keepeis, after having tried the 
s(iuare and the oblong frame, finally decided 
ill favor of tlie Langstroth for the following 
reasons : 

THE LANGSTltOTII FKAMB AND IHVE, AND 
WHY THEY nECAME THE STANDARDS. 

1. A shallow frame permits the use of a 
low flat hive that can easily be tiered up one, 
two, three, and four stories high. Tins is a 
great advantage when one is running for ex- 
tracted honey, as all he has to do when the 
bees require more room is to add upper sto- 
ries as fast as the l)ee.s require them, and 
then at the end of the season extract at his 
leisure. Square or deep hives can not be 
tiered up very high without becoming top- 
heavy and out of convenient reach of the 
operator. 2. The long shallow frame is more 
easily uncapped because the blade of the un- 
capping-knife can reach clear across it. 3. 
Tlie shape of the Langstroth frame favors 
an extractor of good proportion. 4. A deep 
frame is not as easily lifted out of a hive ; 
is more liable to kill bees in the process of 
removing and inserting frames. 5. The shal- 
low frame is better adapted for box lioney. 
It is well known that bees, after forming a 
brood-circle, are inclined to put sealed hon- 
ey just over the brood. In a frame as shal- 
low as the Langstroth, there will be less hon- 
ey in the brood-nest and more in the boxes ; 
for bees, in order to complete their brood- 
circle in the Langstroth, will, with a prolific 
queen, push the brood-line almost up to the 
top - bar, and, consequently, when honey 
comes in, will put it into the supers or boxes 
just where it is wanted. B. When bees form 
their winter cluster they are pretty apt to 
place it very near the top of the hive or 
cover. This is on account of the greater 
warmth at that point, for heated air has a 
tendency to rise. It sometimes happens, in 
case of the square frame, that the bees will 
eat all of the honey or stores away from near 
the top of the hive ; and as tlie cold weather 
continues, the bees simply starve, not being 
able to move the cluster down into the colder 
part of the hive where the stores are. In the 
case of the Langstroth, the cluster may be 
either at the front or rear. As the stores 
are consumed it will move toward the stores, 
and still keep within the warmest part of 
the hive. 

But in actual experience bees seem to win- 
ter just as well on one frame as another; 
and as the shallow frame is better adapted 
to box honey, Ijee-keepers naturally turned 
toward the shallower frame, with the i-esult 
that now probably three-fourt lis of all the 



frames in the United States are of Lang- 
stroth dimensions ; and whatever advan- 
tage there may be in favor of the square 
shape, the bee-keeper is able to buy stand- 
ard goods so much cheaper that he adopts 
the standard Langstroth frame. 

FRAMES SHALLOWER AND DEEPER THAN 
THE LANGSTROTH. 

Of late there has been a tendency toward 
a frame still shallower than the Langstroth, 
and Avhat is called the Heddon ; but as 
eight or ten of these frames, or one section, 
make too small a l)rood-nest, two sets of such 
frames are used to accommodate a whole 
colony. Of the Heddon hive we shall have 
more to say later on. 

There is another class of bee-keepers who 
feel that the Langstroth is not quite deep 
enough, and who, therefore, prefer the Quin- 
by. They argue that ten such frames, or 
frames Langstroth length, and two inches 
deeper, are none too large for a prolific 
queen, and that these big colonies swarm 
less, get more honey, and winter better. Of 
these latter, we shall have more to say under 
the subject of "Large vs. Small Hives." 




THE ORIGINAL LANGSTROTH HIVE. 

The old original Langstroth hive tliat 
father Langstroth put out contained ten 
frames 17|x9i. Each hive had a portico, and 
cleats nailed around the top edge to support 
a telescoping cover, under which were placed 
the comb-honey boxes, or big cushions, for 
winter. There was a time when this style of 
hive was the only one used; but owing to the 
fact that it was not simple in construction, 
that the portico was a splendiil harboring- 
place for cobwebs, and gave the bees en- 
couragement for clustering out on hot days 
instead of attending to their knitting in- 



HIVES. 



241 



HIVES. 



side of their hives, a far simpler form of 
hive was devised. The Simplicity, first 
brought out by A. I. Root, having Lang- 
stroth dimensions, was the result. Instead 
of having telescoping covers the contigu- 
ous edges of the hive were beveled so as to 
shed water and give in effect a telescoping 
cover. The cover and bottom of this hive 
were exactly alike, the entrance being form- 
ed by shoving the hive forward on the bot- 
tom, thus making an entrance as wide or 
narrow as seemed most desirable. The 
upper story was exactly the same as the low- 
er one or brood-nest — so, taking it all in all, 
the hive was simplicity itself. But it had 
one serious defect, and that was the beveled 
edge. It was found to be practically impos- 
sible at times, on account of the bee-glue, to 
separate the upper story from the lower one 
without breaking or splitting the bevel. Fi- 
nally there was introduced a hive very much 
the same, having straight square edges, and 
along with it came the feature of dovetailing 
or locking the corners, as shown in the hive 
below. 




This hive was mtroduced m 1889, and 
seemed to meet with the general approba- 
tion of bee-keepers. -It embodied in the 




eight frames. The original Dovetailed hive 
had a flat cover, and a bottom-board made 
the same as the cover, except that there were 
side-cleats to raise the hive off the bottom- 
board. 

Since that time there have been modifica- 
tions of the hive, and it is now made in eight, 
ten, twelve, and sixteen frame sizes. The 
cover is made of six pieces. The body is 
locked at the corners, and the bottom-board 
is made in several styles. See Entrances. 

The Hoffman self-spacing frame, describ- 
ed under Frames, Self - spacing, and 
Frames, Manipulating, is used in the 
Dovetailed hive almost exclusively. The 
usual width of the hive is eight-frame, al- 
though there seems to be a tendency toward 
the ten and twelve frame sizes. The supers 
for this hive are the same as those shown 
under Comb Honey. 

As now constructed tlie liive embodies the 
very latest developments in hives and hive- 
construction. It can l)e handled rapidly, 
and is especially adapted for out-apiary 
work, where frequent moving from one field 
to another is necessary. It is standard, 
being made by all the supply-manufacturing 
concerns, and is for sale everywhere. The 




main the Laugstroth dimensions, but used 
eight instead of ten frames ; for at the time 
it was introduced, nearly every one preferred 



lock corner is especially well adapted for hot 
climates : and for any place it is far superior 
to work depending on Jiails alone. The ordi- 
nary miter or halved joint is inclined to pull 
apart in parts of California, Texas, Florida, 
and other portions of our country subject to 
extremes of heat, or hot dry winds. 

A very important requisite of a good hive 
is a good cover. While the flat cover— one 
making use of one flat board and two cleats 
— was a good one, yet, owing to the width of 
the single board, and increasing scarcity of 
such lumber, something made of two or 
three narrow boards had to be used. Ac- 
cordingly, the Excelsior was devised. It 
consists of boards not exceeding 6 inches in 
width, for narrow boards will not shrink 
and check from the influence of the weather 



HIVES. 



242 



HIVES. 



like the wide ones. The two side boards, Ji, 
15, are beveled or chamfered on one side so 
tiiat-one edge is left only about one-half the 
thickness of the other edge, but the ends are 

FIG.l 

L 




left full thickness of the boards to shed 
water away from the ends and to give more 
nail-grip for the grooved end-cleats, E, 




that slip over and bind tlie whole together. 
The pnrjjose of the chamfering is to shed 
water to the sides of the hive and away 




from the center-piece, AD, which is tongued 
and grooved to fit a corresponding tongue 
and groove edge of the two side-boards that 
were beveled to shed water. The space 



under 1) is tilled with a thin board i inch 
thick, theends of which project into the 
1-inch groove of the end-cleats, E, where it 
is securely held in place. 

In very hot climates a beveled or gabled 
cover is used. The lower part of the cover is 
flat, and the upper part gabled, as shown in 
the accompanying illustration. 

HIVES THAT WE KECOMMEND. 

The hives we have thus far shown are 
those that we use and recommend ourselves, 
because we have tried them on a sufficiently 
large scale so that we know that we are rec- 
ommending no experiment. But there are 
other good hives that are not standard, that 
may be just as good or better ; but as they 
illustrate certain principles of hive-construc- 
tion, and as each one of them has some val- 
uable feature, we will endeavor to explain 
their general construction and points of 
merit, as fairly and carefully as we know 
how, without in any sense giving them an 
indorsement. We will first take up 

HIVES WITH CLOSED END FRAMES. 

Under Frames, Self-spacing, we have 
spoken of theQuinby,as that is the one used 
in Central New York, especially in Herkimer 
and Otsego counties. But in this depart- 
ment we shall have more to do with the sub- 
ject of closed-end frames, certain principles 
of their construction, and their adjustment 
i in several of the best hives. 

Closed-end frames may be divided into two 
classes — the standing and suspended. The 
Quinby, already spoken of under Frames, 
Sp:lf-spacing, the Bingham, and the Hed- 
don, are of the first-mentioned class; the 
Danzenbaker, to w^hich we shall soon refer, 
belongs to the latter class. It is generally 
considered that frames with closed uprights, 
while not as convenient, perluips, for general 
manipulation, are better adapted to winter- 
j ing. Frames partly closed end, like the 
I Hoffman, or open all the way up, like the or- 
dinary loose hanging frame, permit of cm*- 
rents of air around the ends of the frames, 
and, (it is claimed) as a consequence, that bees 
are not so inclined, to bring their brood clear 
out to the end-bars as they do when closed 
ends are used. Experience shows in our 
apiaries that there is something in this. See 
Danzenbaker Hive under this head. 

THE BINGHAM HIVE. 

Mr. Quinby was the first to apply Huber's 
principle of closed-end frames in this coun- 
try (see Hives, Evolution of). This he in- 
troduced shortly after the appearance of the 
Langstroth hive. Almost contemporaneous- 



HIVES. 



243 



HIVES. 



ly Mr. Biiighaai in 18H7 broufflit out his hive 
with closed-end frames with a narrow top-bar. 
and no bottom-bar, but still embodying the 
chiel features of IInber"s hive of 1789. But the 
peculiar feature of this hive was that it made 
use of shallow frames only 5 inches deep, a se- 
ries of them being lashed together by means 
of a wire loop and stretcher sticks, said loop 
drawing on the follower-boards in such a 
way as to bring tight compression on frames 
inclosed in manner shown. Seven of these 
brood frames in the present hive make up a 
brood-nest, and an entire brood-nest may 
consist of one or two sets of frames. The 
top-bar is dropped down from the top of the 
end-bars a bee-space, while the bottom-bars 
are flush with the bottoms of the end-bais. 
With a bottom- board having a | in. stiip on 
each side, the ordinary bee-space is pre- 
served through the several divisions of the 
hive. 




^M^ 



The super is like any ordinary one adapt- 
ed to comb honey, except that it uses coiled 
springs to produce the necessary tension. 

Although Mr. Bingham has used this hive 
for a great many years, and quite success- 
fully too, no one else seems to have done 
much with it; but a modification of the 
hive is shown in the Danzenbaker and the 
Ileddon, both of which, in some sections, 
have come to be favorites. 

THE DANZENBAKER HIVE. 

The Danzenbaker hive, with closed-end 
frames, is one of the very best ; certainly 
it is slowly working its way into the confi- 
dence of bee-keepers. It consists of a brood- 
chamber of the same length and width as the 
10-f rame Langstroth Dovetailed hive, 1 nit only 



deep enougli to take in a (lei)tii of frame of 7i 
in. The rabbet, instead of being near the 
upper edge, is dropped down about midway; 
or, more strictly speaking, there is a cleat or 
board nailed on the inside of the ends of the 
hive, as shown at F F in the accompanying 




diagram of the hive. On this support hang 
the closed-end brood-frames, pivoted at the 
center of the end-bars by means of a rivet 
driven through from the inside, as shown at 
I in the diagram. Ten of these frames till 
the hive ; and when they are crowded to- 
gether with a follower-board on the side, we 




fiave practically a ciouble-walled hive— the 
ends of the frames with closed uprights 
forming one wall, and the ends of the hive 
the second or outer wall ; the follower on 
one side wall, and the side of the hive the 
outside or secondary wall. These frames 
being pivoted in the center, as shown at C, 
can be reversed, and this feature, while it 
costs nothing, is something to be desired, ;is 
it enables us to have all frames tilled solid 
with comb. 

The bottom of these hives is the same as 
that shown for the Dovetailed, already de- 
scribed ; or, to be more exact, the Dovetail- 
ed hive has appropriated the bottom-board 
of the Danzenbaker. The super for comb 
honey takes in the 4x5 plain section, and 
makes use of the fence-separator system. 
The sections are supported in section-hold- 
ers ; indeed, the whole arrangement is the 



HIVES. 



244 



HIVES. 



same as tlie section-lioMer siipi'r already 
(lesciilied ill ('<):\ii5 IIonev. 

This hive is especially adapted to the pro- 
duction of comb honey, and Mr. Uanzenba- 
ker prefers to use only one brood-chamber at 
a time, although in some localities it might 
be better to use two. The ordinary Lang- 
stroth frame is just deep enough to permit 
of the bees building from an inch to an inch 




and a half of honey (ver tlie brood in each 
fiame. Mr. Danzenbaker makes his frame 
just enough shallower so that it will be 
almost solid with brood, and the honey that 
would otherwise be \n\t in the brood-cham- 
ber is forced into the sections just where we 
want it, and where it will bring the higlies' 
market price. 

ITS GOOD WINTERING QUALITIES. 

Under Frames, Manipulating, will be 
found a description of how the frames of 
this particular hive may be handled without 
killing bees — to this the reader is referreil. 

The Danzenbaker hive has recently been 
coming into prominence as one that seems 
to be especially adapted for wintering and 
springing bees. It is, to a great extent, 
double-walled, and the closed-end frames 
make the hive a warm one. 

Hut the claims for good wintering and 
springing of the bees in this hive will apply 
with almost equal force to bees in the next 
hive to he desciibed. 



rilK IIEDDON HIVE. 

This hive was patented and introduced by 
Mr. James Ileddon, of Dowagiac, Mich., in 
1885. Its peculiar and distinguishing feature 
is in the use of one brood-chamber divided 
into halves horizontally, each half contain- 
ing a set of eight closed- end close- Htting 
brood-frames, 5f in. deep by IS^ig. The end- 
bars, as already stated, are close-titting — that 
is, the brood-frame slides into the hive with 
just enough play to allow of its easy removal 
and insertion. On the bottom inside edge of 
the ends of each case are nailed strips of tin 
to support the frames, and the whole set of 
eight are squeezed firmly together by means 
of wooden thumbscrews as shown. Under 
the head of Comb Honey we have already 
spoken of the value of compression for 
squeezing sections or section-holders or wide 
frames. The more tightly the parts are held 
together, the less chance there is for bees to 
chink propolis into the cracks. 

The bottom board of this hive is much 
like that used on the standard hives, in tliat 
it has a raised rim on the two sides and ends, 
to support the brood-chamber a bee-space 
abo\e the bottom-board, and at the same 
time provide for an entrance at the front. 
The cover is the ordinary flat one-board, 
cleated at the ends. 

As already stated, the peculiar feature 
of this hive is the divisible brood- cham- 
ber, not two shallow hives one upon the 
other, but two halves composing one com- 
plete wliole. The purpose of tlie inventor 




in having the hive divided in this way was 
to Jifford more rapid handling, and to ac- 
complish contraction and expansion by sim- 
ply taking from or adding to the brood i)ait 
of the hive one or more sections. This divis- 
ible feature of the hive, according to its ad- 



irivp:s. 



245 



ITIV^ES. 



v<)c;ites,(Mial)les tlieiii to liaiidU' lilv(s inslead 
oi' framrs, U) lun\ Uie queen liy shaking the 
bees out of one or both ot tlie sJiallow sec- 
tions. The horizontal bee-space througli tJie 
center of the brood-nest is considered an ad- 
vantage in wintering, in that the bees can 
move up and down and laterally tliroiigh tlie 
combs. 

HAND DIVISIBLE-BROOD-CHAMBEU HIVE. 

Mr. J. E. Hand, of Birmingham, O., uses 
a hive embodying some of the basic princi- 
ples of the Ileddon, but with some improve- 
ments which, in his ojjinion, render it sim- 
pler, clieaper, and more practicable am 
workable. In the first place, he simplified i 



stand the principle; Init the removable fol- 
lower-board is only tliree-fourths as wide as 
one side of the brood-chamber, the reniain- 





SIDE OF UrPEl! M:(1I().\ DKTArilEJ) ■fo SUOW 
COKSTKLCnoK. 

ing space being taken up by a permanent 
wooden strip which securely holds the two 
ends and the sides in ] osition. The follow- 
er-board, as Will be seen, is cleated on the 
inside; and on the opposite side are two su 
per springs, just opposite the uprights of the 
brood-frames or section holdeis, as the case 
may be. When sections or frames are in 
place, the follow^er-board closes up the open 



.J. K. HAND S SECTIONAL HIVE. 

by making the brood- chamber of the same 
depth and general construction as the super 
for containing sections. In doing this, in- 
stead of making the brood-chamber deeper 
than the super, as did Mr. Heddon, lie 
cheapened the hive by making each division 
or section of it one and the same thing in 
every respect. Instead of using thumb- 
screws, which will very often swell in damp 
weather so as to become immovable, making 
it impossible to remove the frames, he made 
one side of his super or brood-chamber with 
a removable follower-board, the same being 
secured in place wath a pair of ordinary Van 
Deusen hive-clamps. By consulting the en- 
gravings herewith one may readily under- 




LOOKixo iin{(n-Gn a section kkom the bot- 
tom, SHOWING THE VERY NAKKOW BARS. 



HIVE8. 



24tj 



HIVES. 



space, where it is secured in place by 
two Van Deuseii clamps that crowd it up 
against the brood-frames or sections which, 
in turn, bear against the springs. No mat- 
ter wliat tlie weather conditions may be, the 
yielding spring-; will cause a pressure on the 
frames or sections, and yet allow removing 
them with the greatest of ease. The brood- 
frame is 4J inches deep by 17| long. The 
section-holders are the same size, containing 
■ii plain section with fences. 

Mr. Hand tinds it quite important to iiave 
the top and bottom bars of the l)rood-frames 
narrow, so that he may Ifiok through the 
comb surfaces. The ordinary wide thick 
bars would not answer for a hive of this de- 
scription. While it is possible to handle the 
frames, and al)Solutely necessary under some 
conditions, he empha- 
sizes the importance of 
handling hives, or 
brood- sections, rather, 
instead of individual 
frames. He says that 
practically all the neces- 
sary m a n i p u 1 a t i n s , 
even to the finding and 
catching of queens, can 
l)e accomplished with- 
out handling a single 
frame. Mr. F. J. Miller, of London, Ont., 
Canada; L(mis H. Scholl, of New Braun- 
fels, Texas ; J. E. Chambers, Vigo, Texas, 
and quite a number of others who use the 
divisible-brood-chamber hive, have so far 
demonstrated the feasibility of handling 
hives instead of frames that they claim they 
are able to dispense with from one to tw^o 
men, doing all the work alone, because there 
is no handling of the frames, and little or no 
time lost in hunting for and catching the 
queen and clipping lier wings. 

THE DAD.VNT IIIVIC. 

Almost the very opposite of the Heddon in 
princii)le and general construction is the Da- 
danthive. While Mr. Heddon divides up the 
brood-chamber into one, tw^o, or three sepa- 
rate portions, Mr. Dadant would have it all 
in one large complete whole. IHs frames 
are 18ixlU— that is to say, they have the 
Quinby dimensions, and he uses nine or ten 
to the hive. Such a hive has about the 
equivalent capacity of a twelve- frame Lang- 
stroth, regular depth. The Dadants have 
always insisted that their ten-frame Quin- 
l)ys, when compared with the ten - frame 
Langstroths, averaged up year after year, 
would give far better results, liotli in honey 
and in economy of labor. This opinion is 



not based on the exix-rience of two or three 
years, Itut on a jieriod covering a good many 
years. The large hives, they claim, swarm 
less, produce more honey, and winter better. 
If we are correct they do not, at their home ) 
yard at least, have to exceed two per cent of ' 
swarming, and this average Las been main- 
tained year after year. Apparently the col- 
onies in these large hives have very little de- 
sire to swarm ; but when they do swarm the 
swarms are enormous. In regard to this 
point, in an article that was published in 
Gleanings in Bee Culture, Nov. 1, 1898, C. P. 
Dadant says : 

Don't understand me to say that, with large hives, 
you will have no swarms, fortius is incorrect; but 
if you want to prevent swarming, to the greatest 
possible extent, you must, first of all, have large 




A WIDK i'llAiiK run THE SECTIONS .\:>D A KEGULAIl CKOOD-FRAJIE. 

hives. Other things are required, such as the re- 
moval of the excels of drone combs, plentiful venti- 
ation, a siiitply of surplus combs, etc.; but the sine- 
qim mm, in our eyes, is large hires. 

With a little care it is not difficult to keep swarm- 
ing down to such a point that the natural increase 
will barely m;ike up for winter losses. In our case 
we find it insu(!icient, and we resort to artificial 
swarms, oi' dividing, which we find much more sat- 
isfactory, for we can breed fi-om the (lucens that we 
prefer, and, at the same time, keep our l)est colonies 
for producing honey. Every practical bee-man will 
agree that it is the large colonies that give the large 
crops, whatever may be his opinion as to the size of 
hive needed. 

But if we muxl have swarms, with large hives they 
will be large, take my word for it. 

The I)adants have claimed that the ordi- 
nary eiglit and ten frame hives are not large 
enough for good prolific queens ; that a 
•brood-frame of Langstroth depth is too shal- 
low; that we never know what a good queen 
can do till we give her a large hive and a 
large frame. Again, in one of their articles 
for Oct. 1, 1898, in Oleanings in Bee Culture, 
Mr. C. P. Dadant says : 

With the large hives we found queens that had a 
capacity of 4r)00 eggs per day. Exceptions, you will 
say ? Certainly, but it is a very nice thing to give a 
chance for those exceptions. And I hold that you 
can not do this as fullj' with a two-story eight-frame 
hive as with a hive that may be enlarged, one frame 
at a time, till it contains all the room that tlie (pieen 



HIVES 



247 



HIVES. 



may need. Your eight-frame hive gives hei' too 
much I'oom at once when it is doubled in size. If 
the season is a little oool, there is a chance of delay- 
ing the bleeding- by chilling the combs. The bees 
will then concentrate themselves upon the brood 
and Iteep it within narrow limits, for the queen will 
seldom go out of the cluster to laj\ 

As to the matter of wintering, these jum- 
bo hives seem to offer exceptional advan- 
tages. Mr. Dadant, in one of liis articles, 
says : 

The facts upon which I base mj- conclusion are 
those that we have seen under our own eyes, of bet- 
ter success in wintering the large deep hive. . We 
have thus stronger colonies for winter, which is In 



the preference. There can be no sort o^ 
doubt that these large hives, for extracted 
honey, have some advantages over the small- 
er ones; but when it comes to the production 
of comb honey, then there is a question, and 
a big one too — Is such a large hive as good as 
a smaller one V In some localities the bees 
might till only a brood-nest in such a hive; 
whereas if a shallower one were used, like 
the Danzenbaker or Heddon, the available 
comb space below would be tilled with 
brood ; and the honey, when it did come in, 
and what little there was of it, would be 
forced into the supers. In tlie selection of a 




DADANT-QuiNBY HIVE. — Froni '■' Lcingstroth on the Honey-Bee, Revised,^'' by Badant. 



itself a great advantage, as the nurabei' of bees has 
much to do with their ability to keep warm, and their 
ability to retain the heat has also much to do with 
their honey consumption. A weak colony suffei-s 
much from the cold, and is compelled to eat more. • 
But to me the greatest advantage of the deep large 
frame is the greater ease bees have in reaching the 
honey while preserving a more compact cluster. 

LARGE hives; WHERE AND UNDER WHAT 
CIRCUBISTANCES USED. 

The Dadants have a considerable follow- 
ing in their vicinity ; and in France the 
Dadant - Quinby has become almost the 
standard hive. But it should be remember- 
ed that tlie Dadants are extracted - honey 
men ; and in France liquid honey has rather 



large hive, then, a good deal depends on the 
locality, and whether one proposes to run for 
comb or extracted honey. 

THE LARGE HIVES NON-SWARMERS. 

There is one very important feature in \ 
favor of the Dadant hive, and, in fact, any 
large hive ; and that is, the reduction or nl- 
most entire control of swarming. There has 
been no satisfactory method proposed to ac- 
complish this result with the single-story 
eight-frame Langstroth when run for the 
production of comb honey ; and a great 
many give up the prol)lem. stating that it is 
better to let the bees swarm once, and thau 



HIVES. 



24b 



HIVES. 



soineliow afterward control the after - 
swarms, arsuiiif? that more actual comb 
honey will be produced from the parent col- 
ony and its swarm than where other meth- 
ods are employed. But if swarming is to be 
allowed, what is to be done at outyards ? If 
an attendant has to be constantly on liand 
during the swarming part of the day, it 
means a big expense, and this might, in a 
l)oor season, balance the entire proceeds of 
the honey crop. If, on the other hand, 
swarms are allowed to go to the woods, then 
there is a loss. It is true that swarms will 
not escape if the queens' wings are clipped ; 
and to a very great extent clipping does pre- 
vent this waste.* But better— far better- 
is it to take away the desire for swarming 
altogether, if it can be done. In the produc- 
tion of extracted honey, at least, the Da- 
dants have demonstrated that, witli their 
large hives, tliey have practical control of 
swarming, because their hives are so large 
that the bees and the queens rarely feel 
cramped for room. But Mr. Dadant argues 
that he would use large hives, even if he 
were running for comb honey ; for with a 
division - board he can reduce the brood- 
chamber to any size desired. And then when 
he has a prolific queen that can fill a whole 
C^uinby hive he is that much ahead, because 
the colony has more working bees to its size 
than a smaller one ; and there is no use in 
denying the fact that tliese jumbo colonies 
have a certain vim and energy— a day-aftei- 
day " stick-to-it-iveness " — that we do not 
tind in the smaller ones. Personally we be- 
lieve in large colonies; and we are hopeful 
that the time will soon come when we shall 
learn how to make these big colonies produce 
comb honey as well as, at the same time, re- 
maining practically n(m-swarmers. At the 
present time (.January, 1910) shallow hives, 
Langstroth or Danzenbaker, liave the gen- 
eral preference for comb honey throughout 
nearly all the territory in the northern por- 
tion of the country— the territory where the 
main honey supply is almost entirely from 
clover and bass wood. 

LARGE COLONIES IN TWO - STORY EIGHT- 
FRAME LANGSTROTH HIVES. 

We have experimented a little with two 
colonies in eight-frame Langstroth hives 
tiered one above another, raising brood in 
both bodies. When we liave a good queen, 
such colonies in these double cliambers grow 



* See CLiPPiN(i Queens' Wings to Prevent 
SwARMiNQ, under head of Queens; also Swarming. 



to be tremendously strong, and they show less 
inclination to swarm— no sort of doubt about 
tliat ; and, what is more, in a few instances 
we have placed comb-honey supers on top of 
these same colonies, and had them fill two 
and three supers. But in a majority of cases 
the colonies will not be strong enough to till 
two stories and go into the supers besides ; 
so, after getting the colonies up to good 
strength, and just at tlie approach of or dur- 
ing the honey-flow, we take away one story 
and place on one or two comb-lioney supers. 
Such a large force of bees, of course, rush 
right into them ; tlien if there is any honey 
in the fields the supers are filled and com- 
pleted in short order. We have thus far suc- 
ceeded in getting stronger colonies in this 
way than in a single eight-frame brood-nest 
alone. By thus breeding in double stories, 
and having prolific queens, or, perhaps, what 
may be better, working colonies on one 
eight-frame fuU-deptli story, and one eight- 
frame half -depth story, we can get the bees 
into the sections at once. For particulars 
regarding this last, see the Barber plan 
spoken of under CoMi? Honey. 

OBJECTIONS TO LARGE HIVES. 

Their size renders them l)oth heavy and 
unwieldy. They cost more money — about 
twice as much if made as sliown in the en- 
graving of the Dadant hive. It is difflcidt, 
in the first place, to get good clear lumber 
wide enough to make these deep hives ; and 
then when they are made, and are full of 
bees and honey, it is not practical to move 
them about much. The Dadants, for in- 
stance, leave these large hives on their 
stands all summer and winter, both at the 
home and out yards. They find it more 
practical to do so. Even wlien wintered on 
their summer stands in single-walled hives, 
the loss, we understand, just about equals 
the slight increase they have in swarming. 

These large frames are not nearly as easy 
to manipulate as the shallow Langstroth. It 
takes longer to get them out of the hive, and 
during the operation there is more danger 
of killing bees. The Dadants and others 
having the Quinby hive find it necessary to 
use anotlier size that they call their shallow 
or lialf-deptli frame, 5fxl8+, for extracting. 
These are placed on toj) of the brood-nest, 
and are tiered up one, two, three, or four 
high. One is led to wonder why a compro- 
mise between a deep Quinby and these ex- 
tracting- frames would not be better — a 
frame adapted for breeding as well as for 
extracting — as, for instance, one like the 
Langstroth : theji when one wants a large 



HIVES. 



249 



invEs. 



were in later years abandoned, and liaiid- 
holes, made by means of a wahble-saw, were 
used. But these hand-holes, while very 
neat and cheap, did not begin to aftord the 
excellent grip that one secures when getting 
hold of a seven-inch cleat. But a far better 
arrangement than either is a combination ol' 
cleat and hand-hole, as shown in illustration 
of the Dovetailed hive, p. 241, and the cuts 
below. A short strip of 1-inch molding- is 
nailed just above the hand-hole so that the 
fingers get a double grip. In the accompany- 
ing diagrams the reader will see the advan- 
tage of this arrangement. Referring to the 
diagram at D, when one lifts by the hand- 



hive lie can tier up one brood-ciiainber on 
top of the otlier. 

THE TEN - FKAME LANGSTKOTH IIIVK OF 
EXTRA DEPTH. 

It was suggested by A. N. Draper, of Up- 
per Alton, 111., one of Mr. Dadant's follow- 
ers, that, in order to reduce cost, instead of 
making a hive after the Quinby dimensions, 
and on the Dadant pattern— the former be- 
ing odd-sized and the latter expensive to 
construct— a hive be constructed after the 
pattern of the regular ten-frame Dovetailed, 
having Langstroth dimensions save in one 
measurement — that of depth. He would 
add to the hive and frame 2i inches. As 
the Dadants ordinarily use nine 
frames in their Quinby hives, ten 
frames 2i inches deeper, with 
Langstroth top-bar, would give 
the hive equal capacity. Such a 
hive would take regular Lang- 
stroth ten-frame bottom-boards, 
cover, supers, honey-boards, win- 
ter-cases — in fact, every thing 
adapted to the regular ten-frame 
Langstroth Dovetailed hive. As 
the ten-frame hive is one of the 
standards, it seems reasonable to 
suppose that, if the large hive is 
really better, such a hive would 
l)e more simple, and cost less, 
than to adopt regidar Quinby- 
frame dimensions, and make the 
hive as the Dadants show it in 
the cut, p. 247. Indeed, we have 

been told that the Dadants would favor such holes alone he lifts by the tips of the fingers 
a hive rather than the one they have adopt- only; and when the hive is heavy, the strain 
ed, if they were to start anew. Your supply- on the fingers is severe and often painful. 




THE CO.MPAKATIVE DIFFEKEXCE IN SIZE 15ETWEEN 

A REGULAR EIGHT-FRAME HIVE AND 

A TEN-FRAME .JUMBO. 



dealer will make the brood-chamber for about 
25 per cent more than the regular ten-frame 
Langstroth Dovetailed ; the super, covers, 
and bottom-boards would, of course, cost no 
more. Where one by reason of locality or 
preference desires such large hives, the 
Jumbo ten-frame Langstroth of extra depth, 
suitable for taking standard ten-frame fix- 
tures and fittings, is the hive to select. 

CLEATS V. HAND-HOLES. 

By referring to the illustration of the orig- 
inal Langstroth hive on page 240, and also 
to the illustration of the Dadant hive, page 
247, one will see that they have cleats or 
rims running all around the hive near the 
top edge. These serve the double purpose 
of supporting the telescopic cover and 
affording convenient handles by w^hich to 
lift the hives ; but on account of the ex- 
pense, these cleats running around the hive 



But if he can get the greater part of the 
weight on the middle joints of the fingers, 
as shown at A, and on a rounding edge, he 




can lift all his back will stand. Tiie cleat 
alone woidd not give room enough for the 
fingers to permit of the grip on the middle 
joints, as shown at A ; but when the side of 
the hive is recessed by the hand-hole, it al- 
lows of the fingers being shoved to a point 
to get the be.st possible grip. If one expects 
to use heavy hives, then he needs some such 
arrangement as this. The cost is insigniti- 
cant, and the advantage great. 



HIVES. 



i^.5() 



IIIVKS. 



DOUBLE -WALLED OR CHAFF 
HI VES. 

The hives that we have thus far described 
are what may be called sin^lf-walled hi\es; 
that is, the outer shell or case consists of 
a single-board thickness of lumber. Such 
hives, as a rule, unless as large as the Da- 
dant, can not very well be wintered outdoors 
on their summer stands. They either have 
to be carried into the cellar at the approach 
of cold weather, or else have to be put in 
outside packing-cases, as the single walls 
hardly afford sufficient protection to enable 
the average colony to go through the winter 
safely, or without great loss both in bees and 
in stores. The poorer ihe protection, the 
greater tlie consumption of winter food. A 
colony poorly protected outdoors will prob- 
ably consume twice as much as one ade- 
(juately protected. 

In the South, of course it is not necessary 
to carry the single walled hives into the cel- 
lar or winter repository ; but north of lati- 
tude -lU, hives of single - board thickness 
either ouglit to be housed or protected with 
winter - cases. Where one from choice or 
necessity has to winter outdoors, what are 
known as doul)le - walled or chaff hives 
should be used. These have the same inside 
dimensions as the single-walled hive, ana 
are generally made to take the same supers 
and the same inside furniture. The first 
double-walled hives that we used were two- 




HILTON S rWO-STOKY CHAFF HIVK. 

story ; but they were awkward and un- 
wieldy things compared with tlie hives of 
to-day. The one shown in the illustration 
next following represents an eight-frame 
Langsti-oth single story double-walled hive; 
and as it rei)resents the simplest form of 



wintering hive, we will describe this only, 
leaving the reader to adapt it to the dimen- 
sions of whatever frame he is using. 




EIOlIT-FUAMIi DOVlirAILED DOUI5IJC-WALL- 
ED HIVE. 

It can be made large or small ; so also the 
distance between the w;ills may be increased 
or diminished in accordance with the de- 
mands of the locality in which one lives. 
The outer wall consists of a shell of finch 
lum))ei-, locked at the corners. This outer 
shell should be made just large enough to 
give two inches of space between tlie walls 
for packing materiiil. In our locality a pack- 
ing of two inches seems to answer very well. 
The inner wall is simply a hive made of 
f inch lumber, and is let down in the outer 




case, and secured to the same by means of a 
water-table or pictiue-frame, as we may call 
it, to shed water. Between the outer and 
inner walls there is a boxed passageway, as 
shown, for an entrance. 

The raised projection of the \\ater- table is 
made to fit the upper story of an eight frame 
Dovetailed hive, or any of the supers or cov- 
ers of that hive ; and in summer the hive 
may be tiered up as shown in the illustra- 
tion next; and in winter it may be prepared 
as described under Wintering, which see. 

At our own home apiary we prefer this 
double-walled hive to the single because it 



HIVES. 



2.51 



HIVES. 



is nearly as light, and because, in our local- 
ity, we can leave the colonies in these hives 
winter and summer. There is no lugging 
into and out of the cellar ; and alter the col- 
onies are fed up for winter the in-eparations 
for tlieir long winter's sleep and liousing are 




EIGHT - FRAME DOUBLE - WALLED HIVE 
WITH AN EIGHT-FRAME SINGLE- 
WALL UPPER-STORY. 

very short, occupying two or three minutes 
to a hive. Then the double walls also afford 
excellent protection in hot weather, in the 
same way that the two walls and packing 
material between the walls of a refrigerator 
prevent a too rapid melting of the ice within. 

PACKING MATERIAL FOR DOUBLE-WALLED 
HIVES. 

We formerly used wheat or oat chaff ; but 
as we could not secure this readily we grad- 
ually began to use planer-shavings, which 
we can get more easily. These, we find, 
answer every purpose, and we now use them 
exclusi ely. Forest leaves, if good and dry, 
would doubtless do just as well, and they 
have the advaut ige that they make the 
liive, when packed, lighter— that is, easier to 
lift and handle. 

There are a great many who, having in 
US3 a large number of siogle-walled hives, 
prefer to winter on their summer stands, if 
tliat can be done. For such there has been 
devised a winter-case made of f-incli lum- 
ber, and just enough larger tluin the hive to 
be protected to give one or two inches of 
packing-space all around the hive. This is 



l)laced over and around the smaller hive, 
the space at the bottom edges between it 
and the inner hive being closed up with 
finch cleats padded so as to fit the hive 
closely, as shown in the diagram. Packing 
material is thenpouied in and around the 
hive and on top, when the telescope cover is 
placed over the whole. 




OUTSIDE WINTER-CASES. 

Colonies in such packing-cases winter al- 
'nost perfectly, and I have no hesitancy in 
ecommending them. But when it comes to 
unpacking in spring, they are very inconven- 
ient, to say tlie least. The packing material 
has to be scooped out and poured into bas- 
kets, when the cover is removed to see if the 
b es are alive. The loose stuff tumbles 
down between the frames, much to the an- 
noyance of the apiarist and discomfort of 
the bees. For that reason we greatly prefer 



H. 



u 



:a n ' h fi pJ tnii 



idJ 



J 



the regular double- walled hive pure and 
simple. If the locality is cold enough to 
warrant wintering in the cellar, we should, of 
course, use single- walled hives exclusively. 

OBSERVATORY HIVES. 

These are simply hives having glass sides 
and ends. They usually have only one 
comb, so that both sides as well as the ends 
of it can be readily examined. With more 
than one comb the queen can not be rea;lily 
found. At exhibitions for the purpose of 
showing a full sized colony, an eight or ten 
comb glass hive is often shown, as well a 
the one-comb nucleus in glass. The super 
also has glass sides and ends so that the 
work of tlie l)ees on the combs in the sec 



HIVES. 



252 



HIVES, EVOLUTION OP. 



tioiis can lie readily examined witiioiit open- 
ing tlie hive. 

The hive shown in the illustration lias 
a Hoor bjurd and cover of wood. The cor- 
ner-posts are 1i inches in diameter, having 
longitudinal saw-grooves at the proper an- 
gles to receive the glass— at the ends and 
also at the sides. The ends of the posts 
are reduced in diameter, tiius leaving a 




shoulder. These shanks are then set down 
into holes bored in the floor-board at the 
right points. The glass is slipped into the 
grooves in the post, when the frames are 
supported on wire staples driven into the 
iloor-board. It would not be practicable to 
use tin rabbets in a hive with gla>s ends, so 
none are iised. As the frames stand, they 
are secured together at tlie top so as to hold 
their position. Hoffman frames are 
eminently well adapted to this purpose. 
An observatory hive having fresh 
bees put into it every week or two, and 
disi)layed in a window where honey is 
on sale, will do much to stimulate the 
demand for it. When shown at county 
fairs they are the means of eliciting a 
great amount of interest and questions. 
If the exhibitor hangs out his business 
card, giving prices of honey— genuine 
l)ees' honey— it will do much to help 
his trade. See Exhibits. £# 

HIVES, EVOLUTION OF. 

Primitive liives were simply the trunks 
of trees in which bees were lodged, cut 
down, and carried wherever the bee- 
keeper desired. This plan of bee-keep- 
ing is still i)racticed in some parts of 
Europe, and is common enough in Africa. 
The stingless-bee apiaries of Soutli Amer- 
ica are made in this way. 

The next step was to consti'U(;t a cylinder 
resembling the trunk of a tree, either of 
wood or eartlienware. In northern climates 



straw^ came into use, but had to be fashioned 
in tlie shape of a bell to make it easy of con- 
struction. This is tlie kind of hive which 
was so highly iiraised by poets, probably be- 
cause it was the le.ist practical. It has the 
merits of extreme simplicity and cheapness. 
Usually it had cross-sticks addeil inside to 
keep the combs from falling down on critical 
occasions. See Skeps. 

Not all bee-keepers were satisfied with 
these hives; and as early as the 17th century 
some few began to cast about for some- 
thing better. Delia Rocca, who wrote a 
book on bees in the 18th century, mentions 
bar hives as in vogue in the islands of the 
Grecian Archipelago, where he lived for 
many years. Such hives were known even 
to the ancient Greeks. They resembled 
large flower- pots with wooden bars on w^hich 
the bees were to fasten their combs. The 
shape of the hive made it practically im- 
possible to cause a breakdown of the comlts 
except by heat. 

The plan of a movable roof was another 
step in advance, as it gave the bee-keeper an 
opportunity to put on a super to hold the 
surplus honey where it should be, and re- 
move the same at the end of the honey har- 
vest. 

Mewe, in Great Britain, constructed hives 
of wood on somewhat the same plan as early 
as 16-52, and these were gradually improved 
by various inventors. 




1. — ruber's observation hive, showin*; 
how combs could be removed for 
study. — from cheshire. 

Maraldi, about the same era as Mewe, in- 
vented a single-comb observation hive made 
with glass sides, which contained the germ 
of the movable-comb frame. He allowed 
too much space for one comb, and frequent- 
ly the bees built their comb crosswise. Still 
there was in the Maraldi hive the important 



iiiv^p:s, evolution or. 



253 



IITVES, EVOLUTION OF. 



idea of handling one comb at a time, and by 
this means to get a far better coiicei»tion of 
what was going on inside tlie hive, lluber 
extended this idea by his improvement, Fig. 
1, which came very near to the lianging 
movable frame invented Ijy Langstrotii six- 
ty years later. 

To Iluber belongs the credit of inventing 
liives with movaljle frames*, and it was by 



Examining the illustrations of Huber's 
hive makes evident he had a clear idea of 
what was required in a hive for practical 
purposes. Fig. S shows how he increased 
his apiary by artilicial means. In this case 
he divided a strong colony by slipping a 
board between the frames, thereby splitting 
it in two. Ilis plan of providing a part of 
each frame for surphis honey is excellent. 




FIG. 2. — HUBEK's leaf hive, 1789.— from CHEsniKE. 



the use of these that he was able to make 
the discoveries in apiculture which so aston- 
ished and delighted the scientific world. 
Huber invented these hives about 1789, or 
perhaps a little earlier. Fig. 2. It has been 
contended by some writers that Ruber's hive 
was not practical; but some of the most 



It is very evident from this that TTuber in- 
vented some of the principal features of our 
movable -comb hives. The Ileddon and 
Bingham hives are on the Huber plan. 

About 1819 Mr. Robert Kerr, of Stevvait 
Town, Scotland, invented a bar liive of con- 
siderable merit, shown in Fig. 4. This hive 




-UUBEK HIVE, SHOWING HOW HE AKTIFICIALLV IXCKEAiSED THE XUMBEK OF HIS COLONIES. 
E, E, E, ARE ENTRANCE-HOLES. — FROM CHESHIRE. 



practical beekeepers the world has yet pro- 
duced used modified Huber hives, notably 
Quinby and Iletherington, bee-keepers of 
New York State, whose names are revered 
by American bee keepers. 

* This honor is usually ascribed to Langstroth, for, 
indeed, he was the first one to invent an all-round 
practical hive and frame — a frame that providPd a 
bee-space all around it : but. strictly speakintf, he did 
not invent the first movable frame. 



was used very successfully, and is still, 
but with movable frames instead of mere 
bars. It was still further improved by IIo- 
watson, also of Scotland, about 182-5. The 
Stewarton hive looks outside not un- 
like our modern improved dovetailed Lang- 
stroth hives. Here we liave the tiering 
principle clearly coniitrehended ; and had 
this author and inventor grasped the idea 



HIVES, EVOLUTION OF. 



2.54 



HIVES, EVOLUTION OF. 



of movable-comb frames instead of bars 
he would have solved the great problem of 
inventing a practical hive equal to all emer- 
gencies. 

Prokopovitsch, a Ims.sian, about 1835, in- 
vented and made in large numbers a mova- 
ble-comb hive of great merit. Fig. 5. In 
his own apiaries, of which he had many, 
were over 3CO0 of these hives in actual use. 
His pupils (for he established a school of 
hee-keeping) had many more in use. One of 
tlie features of this hive was the bee-space, 
provided by thin bars of wood on the back, 
sides, and ends of the hive-box. 

It may be noted that his surplus frames 
bear considerable resemlilance to our bee 
way sections, and that his hives were dove- 



the liive, all the other combs had first to be 
removed. Evidently his hive was far infe- 
rior to those we have alreadv mentioned. 
When he adopted frames he did not change 
the construction of his hives in the least. 

Next came Langstroth with his epoch- 
making movable-comb hive Mith movable 
roof, wiiich comljined the essential require- 
ments of a hive. All the coml)S in the 
Langstroth liive nre readily removable with- 
out tlie slightest annoyance either to 
the bee-kee[)er or the bees. Langstroth 
did his work so well that he left very little 
for future inventors to do. Many have tried 
to imi)rove his hive, but in most cases the 
so-called improvement has proven to be a 
backward step. The striking feature of the 




KK;. 4. — THE STEWARTON HIVE. 1819; 

SHALI.OW-BAR HIVE WITH GLASS 

STRIPS BETWEEN BARS. — 

FROM CHESHIRE. 




■KSi^r\f'^' 



FIG. 5. — PROKOPOVITSCH's HIVE, 1830. — FROM FRARIERE. 



tailed. Prokopovitsh was certainly a bee- 
keeper of remarkable abilities, and employ- 
ed means and methods far ahead of his 
time. 

It has been claimed by some writers that 
Dzierzon, of Germany, invented movable 
frames in 1845 ; but it is evident he has no 
claim w'hatever to this distinction. As a 
matter of fact, according to his own state- 
ments he used bars until 1855, wlien he was 
persuaded by Baron Berlepsch to use mova- 
i)le frames, which had just been introduced 
from America. Dzierzon's bar combs were 
removed by using a long knife to cut the at- 
tachments from the back of the hive one by 
one: for, to reach the comb at the front of 



Langstroth hive is the provision for a bee- 
space on all sides of the comb. This bee- 
space can not be less than one-sixth of an 
inch nor more than one-third. This alone 
was a great discovery, and placed Lang- 
stroth far above the mere inventor. 

From his writings it is evident that Lang- 
stroth knew nothing about what others had 
done before him in this line; and it is appar- 
ent that his invention was the result of a 
very profound study of the bee and its hab- 
its. To some extent he was misled by oth- 
ers into thinking that the principle of the 
Langstroth liive had been discovered by Dr. 
Dzierzon independently, whereas there is no 
mannei' of doubt that the German bee-keep- 



HIVES, EVOLUTION OF. 



255 



HONEY. 



er had no claim to the invention of the 
hanging movable comb, to say nothing of 
the bee-space and the movable roof, which 
are essential features of the hive. 




debalvoy's hive, 1845 ; invented in fkance 
before i.ancistkoth's hive appeared. 

Langstroth's invention, accompanied by 
an excellent treatise on the art of keeping 
bees, created a revolution in bee-keeping in 
a short time, linking his name with that of 
Huber as the two founders of modern api- 
culture. 

HIVES, MANIPULATING. SeeFKAMES, 
TO Manipulate. 

HIVE -STANDS. See Apiary. 

HOARHOUND ( Marrubium vii Igare ) . 
This is quite an important honey-plant in 
Texas. It begins yielding some time in 
February, and continues to furnish nectar 
until quite late in tlie summer, or until hot 
dry weather sets in. The honey is of a 
golden color, and good body, but not a nice 
table honey. It has been said that it is not 
fit to eat, being very bitter; but Louis H. 
Scholl, of Texas, declares this is hardly the 
case in his locality ; that the honey has a 
very sweet taste, liked by some but nauseat- 
ing to others. It is said to have pronounced 
medicinal qualities, and we believe is de- 
scribed in the pharmacopoeia as a medicine. 

HOLIiT. See Gallberry. 

HOLT-LAND BEES. See ITALIANS. 

"' KOSTEir. Every reader of a work of 
this kind is supposed to know, of course, 
what honey is; and yet there may be a good 
many who have only a superficial idea of it, 
and perhaps a very brief statement should 
be made. 

According to the Century Dictionary, 
" Honey is a sweet viscid fluid collected from 
the nectaries of flowers, and elaborated for 



food by several kinds of insects, esjecially 
by the honey-bee ( Jp^'s mdlijica).'''' An ac- 
cepted German definition is, "Honey is the 
nectar obtained fiom flowers by woiker 
bees, which, after modificatit n in the honey- 
stomach of the latter, is stored in tie ct lis of 
the comb for the nourishment of the young 
brood." In tLis countiy the food standiuds 
consider "honey as tl.e nectar and saccha- 
rine exudations of plants gathered, modified, 
and stored in tlie comb by honey-bees [Apis 
meUifica and Apis dorsata).'''' In the latttr 
detin.tion there is included, besides the nec- 
tar of flowers, also saccharine exudation of 
plants. This comes about in that many 
plants contain sugar in their saps, and, when 
an exudation of sap takes place, and the 
water in the sap is evaporated, a saccharii.e 
residue remains, which is gathered by the 
bees. Also, many trees exude a sweet sai» 
when stung by some insect, and this is also 
gathered by the lees (see Honey-dew). 

Honey in itself is approximately a pure 
saccharine substance, naturally flavored, ai:d 
fontaining aromas imparted to it by the 
flower and the bee. Its chemical composi- 
tion shows it to contain, for the greater part, 
two sugars, dextrose and levulcse, in about 
equal quantities, also generally (but not al- 
ways) sucrose. The other substances, in or- 
der of their quantity, are dextrins, acids, ash, 
and a number of substances whose nature 
and composition have not been thoroughly 
worked out. An average analj sis of Amer- 
ican honey given by Brown in Bulletin 1 Ui. 
Buieau of Chemistry, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, shows — 

Moisture .... 17.70 per cent. 

Levulose .... 40.50 per cent . 

Dextrose .... 34.02 per cent. 

Sucrose 1.90 per ceiit. 

Ash 0.18 per cent. 

Dextrin 1.51 per cent. 

Uneletermined . . 4.19 per cent. 

Total 100.00 per cent. 

Under the national pure-food law, "A 
honey should be Ijevorotatory, and should 
contain not more than twenty-five per cei t 
of water, not more than twenty-five hun- 
dredths per cent of ash, and not more than 
eight per cent of sucrose." All floral honeys 
are laevorotatory— that is, turn the plane of 
polarized light to the left, while honey-dew 
is dextro-rotatory— that is, turns the plane of 
polarized light to the right. In mixtures of 
floral honey and honey-dew, honey which 
bees of ten collect together, the polarization 
is about the only means of deterniining 
whether the product deserves the name of 
pure honey. 



HONEY 



256 



HONEY AND ITS COLOE8. 



For tlie further consideration of tliis sub- 
ject see Candied Honev, Extracted 
Honey, Honey-dew, Honf.y as Food, and 
Nectar. 

HONEY, ADULTERATION OF. Until 
tlie passage of the national pure-food 1»)11 l)y 
Congress, June 30, hOS, liquid or extracted 
lioney was quite often adulterated, it being 
safe to buy only comb honey, but with the 
passage of the bill, and the careful work of 
the Department of Agriculture inspectors, 
besides the work of the individual State food 
commissions, this has been brought to' a 
minimum. The label on the bottle must 
tell the composition of the contents. Honey 
can bear that label only when it is pure; 
but if mixed with other substances these 
must appear on the label in as large type as 
the honey. 

The most common forms of adulteration 
which are practiced at present in the sophis- 
tication of honey are the addition of com- 
mercial glucose, cane sugar, and invert su- 
gar. The adulteration of honey by dilution 
with water is less commonly'practiced; such 
addition is easily recognized by the increased 
fluidity of the honey, and, there is, besides, 
the increased danger that the i)roduct will 
spoil through fermentation. 

Since the food standard requires the prod- 
uct to contain less than 25 per cent water, 
the bee-keeper can determine the water con- 
tent of his product by accurately weighing 
a gallon of his product. The net weight 
should be over IH pounds, or, by means of a 
Beaume hydrometer ranging from to 50 
degrees, which can be obtained from any 
chemical house, and a glass cylinder 12 
inches high and H inches in diameter, he 
can ascertain the weight of his product. By 
filling the cylinder with the honey, allowing 
the air-bubbles to come to the top, and cool- 
ing to 70'^ Fahr., the hydrometer is allowed 
to float in the liquid. It should float at the 
mark of 42° for a product of less than 25 per 
cent water. 

Commercial glucose is not used so much 
now as formerly. Its presence is easily de- 
tected by the chemist. For a description of 
this product see Glucose. 

The addition of cane-sugar syrup is also 
easily detected by the experienced chemist. 
The standards allow 8 per cent sucrose to be 
present, which is far in excess of what is or- 
dinarily found in pure honey; and, while this 
may seem an arbitrary amount, it is certain- 
ly to the honey-producer's advantage to have 
a standard provided. Any excess of 8 per 
cent would surely be called an adulteration. 



The adulteration of honey with invert 
sugar syrup is being practiced to some extent 
in this coimtry, thougli not so widely at 
present as in certain parts of P^urope. This 
syrup has in many respects the same compo- 
sition as pure honey; it is deficient, however, 
in ash, albuminoids, and other constituents 
which occur in honey in small amounts. It 
is recognized by the expert chemist on ac- 
count of some of its ash constituents and 
other chemical constituents, while not with 
the ease that the presence of glucose is told, 
but with sufficient accuracy to determine its 
presence in mixture. 

HONEY AND ITS COLORS. The va- 
rious kinds of honey differ very much in 
color, flavor, and density. One variety may 
be practically colorless, while another pro- 
duced in the same locality, under the same 
conditions, by the same bees, but from dif- 
ferent flowers, may be a dark brown. One 
kind may contain less than one-sixth of 
water, while another may contain a third. 
The proportions of dextrose, levulose, and 
sucrose vary considerably: but as the extent 
of the variation is known to chemists they are 
compelled to take this into account and an- 
alyze it differently from the way tliey would 
other foods. 

Ordinarily honey is judged by its color, 
flavor, and density. There is an almost end- 
less variety of flavors, making it practicable 
to suit the most exacting connoisseur. Col- 
or is a fair guide, but not always so, for the 
famous heather honey of Europe is quite 
dark, and yet no honey stands higher in 
popular esteem on that continent. 

The best honeys of this country are usual- 
ly spoken of as " water-white;" and, though 
this is not quite correct, still it is near 
enough for all practical purposes withoiit 
coining a new word. 

Clover honey may be taken as tlie typical 
white honey by which others may be con- 
veniently judged. For the purpose of com- 
parison some may be a little lighter, and 
others a little darker shade; but these nice 
points of distinction are visible only to an 
expert. 

Taken by this standard, in the North we 
have all the clovers— white, alfalfa, crim- 
son, mammoth, alsike, sweet— and the Euro- 
pean sainfoin, basswood, raspberiy (wild), 
willow-herb (or fireweed), Canada thistle, 
apple, cucumber (pickle), and Rocky Moun- 
tain bee-plant. In the South we have 
white honey from the following: Gallberry 
(holly), sourwood, tupelo, mangrove, cotton, 
palmetto, guajilla, catclaw, huisache, mes- 



HONEY AND ITS COLORS. 



257 



HONEY AS FOOD. 



quite, Califoiuia. sage, and some others of 
less importance. From the American trop- 
ics the chief white honeys are logwood, or 
campeche; campanilla (Cuba), and the man- 
grove (courida), on all tropical seashores. 

Amber-colored honey comes from many 
sources. Among them, only the more fa- 
miliar ones can be noted in a popular book 
of this kind; namely, goldenrod, wild sun- 
flower, heartsease, aster, Spanish needle, 
sumac, milkweed, poplar, gum, magnolia, 
lima bean, marigold, horsemint, horehound, 
carpet-grass, and the hog plum (hobo), rose- 
apple, and royal palm of the West Indies. 

Of dark honeys we take two great exam- 
ples—the buckwheat of the United States 
and Europe, and heather, which is confined 
to Europe alone. The latter, though dark, 
is a I rich, strong-flavored, thick honey, so 
dense that the extractor is not used to take 
it from the combs. That produced in Scot- 
land commands a very high price, while that 
of England is cheaper, being gathered from 
another species of heather. In North Ger- 
many the heath or heather honey commands 
a good figure. It is largely produced by mi- 
gratory bee-keepers, their bees existing on 
white clover during summer, and in the fall 
being moved to the heaths. 

Buckwheat honey is not nearly as good as 
clover, either in flavor, density, or color; 
but it is so liberally produced in buckwheat 
localities that it is a paying crop to the bee- 
keeper. It blooms late, hence the bees can 
be prepared in ample time to profit by its 
bloom. This feature alone makes it very 
valuable to the bee-keeper who is fortunate 
enough to live in a buckwheat- growing sec- 
tion. In those parts of this country where 
buckwheat is grown largely, consumers are 
willing to pay as much, or almost as much, 
as they will for fine white honey. Indeed, 
many prize it more highly. 

In France there is a great demand for buck- 
wheat honey from bakers of a kind of bread 
which has been made for centi;ries. No other 
sort of honey is desired by these bakers, who 
derive nearly all their supply from Brittany, 
where buckwheat is commonly sown. At- 
tempts have been made to get the bakers to 
use other dark honeys, but without success. 

In Europe there are some prominent hon- 
eys which are almost or quite unknown in 
this country. Heather has been mentioned. 
Sainfoin is another which is quite common, 
being almost the same as alfalfa honey with 
us. Narbonne honey belongs to this class. 
In southern Europe romarin (rosemary) is 
very highly spoken of ; and in Greece there 
9 



is the classically famous honey of Mount 
Hymettus, from wild thyme. In Australia 
the honey of eucalyptus is highly appreciat- 
ed, but attempts to sell it in England have 
always ended in failure, although it ought 
to be useful for persons suffering from 
conghs and colds. Instead of the eucalyptus 
flavor proving to be an attraction it proved 
a drawback. In California, eucalyptus honey 
has a limited demand. 

HONEV AS FOOD. The American 
nation consumes an enormous amount of 
sugar, averaging nearly 80 pounds per head 
of population, and the British Isles surpass 
us by 30 pounds or more. The increased 
consumption of sugar during the last few 
years has been phenomenal, and even the 
poorest use a large amount. This, of course, 
is due to the great fall in the price of sugar, 
which now sells within the reach of all. 

Honey has not fallen in like proportion, 
though it sells in some States for very little 
more than good cane sugar. It is very much 
superior to sugar in several respects, having 
more flavor and aroma. For baking'certain 
fancy cakes it has no equal, and for this rea- 
son will always command a higher price 
than sugar. We know fastidious people are 
always willing to pay high prices for foods 
having fine flavors, and all physiologists are 
agreed that flavor lias much to do with the 
dietetic value of a food by inducing a free 
flow of saliva and promoting digestion by 
pleasing the palate. 

Honey is an excellent food in the preven- 
tion of fatigue, owing to the fact that, while 
it builds up the body, or, rather, makes up 
for the loss of tissue, it does not tax the sys- 
tem. The latter is not called upon to throw 
off or get rid of a mass of perfectly useless 
material, for it is undoubtedly true that 
not more than one two-hundredth part of 
honey is actual waste. Practically the hu- 
man system uses up almost every particle of 
honey placed in the stomach. This can be 
said of no other food except sugar, which 
must undergo a process of inversion before 
the system can utilize it. Honey, on the 
other hand, is in a state of partial digestion 
before being eaten; and this, in addition to 
the very free flow of saliva induced by the 
flavor, causes it to be completely used up in 
the digestive system without straining it at 
all— so much so, in fact, that many invahds 
and infants can use honey when sugar 
would be prejudicial. 

Honey, it is believed, after passing through 
the stomach, becomes glycogen by the action 
of the liver, and in this way is converted 



HONEY AS FOOD. 



258 



HONEY AS rOOD. 



into Iieat and work. It differs from sugar 
in two important particulars. First, it does 
not require to be "inverted,'' or converted 
into natural glucose (it is that already), a 
process which frequently leads to diabetes 
(kidney trouble); and,rjgain, it possesses an 
aroma and flavor which granulated sugar 
does not. It is a purely natural production, 
requiring neither cooking nor preparation. 

There is an almost infinite variety of fla- 
vors in honey, so that the peculiar palate of 
every one can be suited. In dealing with 
children and delicate people this is important. 
In countries where the consumption of sugar 
is large, as in the United States, Canada, and 
the British Islands,a kidney disease (diabetes) 
generally spoken of as a "kidney trouble,"' 
is quite common. This is due to the fact 
that the system of those afflicted is so con- 
stituted that they are unable to convert or- 
dinary sugar into glucose. There is always 
a certain number of such people in every 
community. Diabetes, as the doctors term it, 
bears considerable resemblance to Bright's 
disease of the kidneys, which is, however, 
due to excess of albumen— not sugar. 

Children generally crave sometliing sweet, 
a perfectly healthy and natural longing 
which ought to be satisfied in some way. 
Tills is generally done by giving confection- 
ery and sweetmeats, which frequently are 
rather indigestible. Honey can be made to 
take their place witli most children if allow- 
ed in the regular dietary. In this way the 
craving for sweets is effectively met. In 
France and other parts of Europe the doc- 
tors recommend honey and cream, or honey 
and butter, for the treatment of consump- 
tively inclined children. They say this com- 
bination is better than cod-liver-oil emul- 
sion, for the reason it is much more pala- 
table and satisfactory to the patient's stom- 
ach. 

Honey is very effectively used in summer 
drinks, and sliould take precedence of sugar 
in this respect, more particularly where 
workmen are employed in hot fatiguing 
work such as in glass and iron factories. 

Immense quantities of honey are used by 
bakers, both in America and Europe. In 
this country alone the National Biscuit 
Co. uses an amount which seems staggering 
to a man unacquainted with the industry. 
This concern recently purchased in one lot 
70 carloads of good honey, and is always in 
the market for honey in big lots. There are 
no means of knowing just how much honey 
the baking industry uses in this country; 
but it is very large indeed. The best bakers 



have discovered tliat honey is far superior to 
sugar as a sweetening agent. The latter 
causes the cakes and bread made with it to 
dry up and become unpalatable in a few 
days; whereas honey, on the other hand, 
causes them to remain sweet and moist for 
a long period. Cases are reported of honey- 
jumbles remaining moist for twelve years; 
and in France nobody thinks it is any thing 
very wonderful to keep honey-bread a year 
or eighteen months, and yet remain perfect- 
ly good and satisfactory. If hard, it is sim- 
ply put into a damp place for a few days, 
when it returns to its original condition. 

It is perfectly clear that, wliere bread and 
cakes are made in factories, they must have 
some "keeping" qualities; and by experi- 
ence the managers have found honey the 
only acceptable agent for this purpose. At 
Dijon, in France, from time immemorial a 
kind of honey-bread [pain cZ'eptce, or Leb 
Kuclien, as the Germans call it) has been 
made and has a wide fame. It is also made 
in other parts of Europe, but tliat place seems 
to excel in its production. The bakers there 
are fastidious, and can not be induced to use 
any but buckwheat honey. They say they 
can not risk their reputation by using any 
other. The honey is obtained in Brittany; 
and when it is used up the bakers simply 
stop baking rather than use a substitute. 

Honey-bread is now made and sold in New 
York, and what we have used of it here in 
Medina proved to be very fine eating indeed. 
The general opinion of it was, it would be 
very acceptable to dyspeptics or persons of 
impaired digestion, being very open and po- 
rous, and easily masticated. 

Honey-cakes and jumbles have attained a 
very large consumption of late years, show- 
ing that consumers appreciate a really nice 
and satisfactory article, no matter if it seems 
somewhat higher priced than similar foods. 

A considerable amount of honey has 
been used in confectionery, and this demand 
is increasing ; in this connection beeswax 
is also used to some extent. The beeswax 
is used in about the same proportions that 
we find it in a piece of comb honey, and 
some actually buy comb honey for making 
confectionery. Honey-candies coated with 
chocolate are much consumed in Europe. 

Honey is largely used as medicine and as 
a vehicle for carrying nauseous doses. It 
is so soothing in action that it is used ef- 
fectively for many purposes in the sick- 
room. In continental Europe the doctors 
often recommend and use honey. For some 
unexplained reason our medical men are not 



HOKEY AS FOOD. 



259 



HOKEY AS FOOD. 



so favorable to honey as their European con- 
freres, possibly because they are afraid of its 
adulteration. Since the passage of the na- 
tional piu'e-food law tliere need be little fear 
of this, and honey can be freely recom- 
mended. 

Honey has an excellent effect on the skin; 
for this reason much is used in soaps and 
similar preparations by ladies for softening 
the cuticle and improving the complexion. 
Salves are also improved by the use of hon- 
ey and beeswax; in fact, the latter is consid- 
ered the only proper substance for forming 
the base of ordinary salves. 

Very many of the so-called honey cooking- 
recipes are apt to be worse than nothing ; for 
when the ingredients are put together and 
made into a cake, the result is simply vile. 
The recipes given l)elo\v have been tested, 
and every one is guaranteed to be good. The 
honey-jumble recipe, for instance, is espe- 
cially good, as is the honey-cake recipe by 
Maria Eraser. 

HONEY COOKING-RECIPES. 

HONEY-GEMS.— 2 qts. floui", 3 tablespooiifuls molted 
lard, X pint honoy, M pt. molasses, 4 heaping- table- 
spoonfuls brown sugar, 1^ level tablespoonfuls 
soda, 1 level teaspoouful salt, K piut water, 14 tea- 
spoonful extract vanilla. 

HONEY-JiiMBLES.— 2 quarts flour, 3 tablespoonfuls 
melted lard, 1 pt. honey, H pt. molasses, IM level 
tablespoonfuls soda, 1 level teaspoonful salt, H pt. 
water, '/4 teaspoonful vanilla. 

These jumbles and the gems immediately preced 
ing- are from recipes used by bakeries and confec- 
tioneries on a large scale, one firm in Wisconsin 
alone using ten tons of honey annually in tiieir 
manufacture. 

Honey-cake or Cookies without sugar or mo- 
lasses.— 2 cups honey; one cup butter; four eggs 
(mix well) ; one cup buttermilk (mix) ; one good 
quart flour; one level teaspoonful soda or saleratus. 
If it is too thin, stir in a little more flour. If too 
thin it will fall. It does not want to be as thin as 
sugar-cake. I use very thick honey. Be sure to 
use the same cup for measure. Be sure to mix the 
honey, butter, and eggs well together. You can 
make it richer if you wish by using clabbered cream 
instead of buttermilk. Bake in a rather slow oven, 
as it burns very easily. To make the cookies, use 
a little more flour, so that they will roll out well 
without sticking to the board. Any kind of flavor- 
ing will do. I use ground orange-peel mi.xed soft. 
It makes a very nice ginger-bread. Maria Fraser. 

Howell Honey-cake.— (It is a hard cake.) Take 
6 lbs. flour, 3 lbs. honey, 1!4 lbs. sugar, IV2 lbs. but- 
ter, 6 eggs, V2 oz. saleratus ; ginger to your taste. 
Directions for mixing. — Have the flour in a pan 
or tray. Pack a cavity in the center. Beat the 
honey and yolks of eggs together well. Beat the 
butter and sugar to cream, and put into the cavity 
in the flour ; tlien add the honey and yolks of the 
eggs. Mix well with the hand, adding a little at a 
time, during the mixing, the Vt oz. saleratus dis- 



solved in lioiling w.ater until it is all in. Add the 
ginger, and finally add the whites of the 6 eggs, well 
beaten. Mi.x well with the hand to a smooth dough. 
Di\ide the dough into 7 equal parts, and roll out 
like gingerbread. Bake in ordinary square pans 
made for pies, from 10x14 tin. After putting into 
the pans, mark off the top in !,2-inch strips with 
something sharp. Bake an hour in a moderate 
oven. Be careful not to burn, but bake well. Dis- 
solve sugar to glaze over top of cake. To keep the 
cake, stand on end in an oak tub, tin can, or stone 
crock — crock is l)est. Stand the cards up so tlie 
flat sides will not touch eacli other. Cover tight. 
Keep in a cool dry place. Don't use until three 
months t)ld at least. The cake improves with age. 
and will keep good as long as you will let it. I find 
any cake sweetened with honey does not dry out 
like sugar or molasses cake, and age improves or 
develops the honey flavor. E. D. Hou-cll. 

Aikin's Honey-cookies.— 1 teacupful extracted 
honey, 1 pint sour cream, scant teaspoonful soda, 
flavoring if desired, flour to make a soft dougli. 

Soft Honey-cake.— 1 cup butter, 2 cups honey, 2 
eggs, 1 cup sour milk, 2 teaspoonfuls soda, 1 tea- 
spoonful ginger, 1 teaspoonful cinnamon, 4 cups 
flour. Chalon Fowls. 

Ginger Honey-cake.— 1 cup honey, Va cup butter, 
or drippings, 1 tablespoonful boiled cider, in half a 
cup of liot water (or V4 cup sour milk will do in- 
stead). Warm these ingredients together, and then 
add 1 tablespoonful ginger and 1 teaspoonful soda 
sifted in with flour enough to make a soft batter. 
Bake in a flat pan. Clmlon Fowls. 

Fowls' Honey Fruit-cake.— '/i cup butter, '4 
cup honey, H cup ai)plc jelly or boiled cider, 2 eggs 
well beaten, 1 teaspoonful soda, 1 teaspoonful eacli 
of cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg, 1 teacupful each 
of raisins and dried currants. Warm the butter, 
honey, and apple jelly slightly, add the beaten eggs, 
then the soda dissolved in a little warm water ; add 
spices and flour enough to make a stiff batter, then 
stir in the fruit and bake in a slow oven. Keep in 
a covered jar several weeks before using. 

Muth's Honey-cakes. — 1 gallon honey (dark hon- 
ey is best;, 15 eggs, 3 lbs. sugar (a little more honey 
in its place may be better), IH oz. baking-soda, 2 oz. 
ammonia, 2 lbs. almonds chopped up, 2 lbs. citron, 4 
oz. cinnamon, 2 oz. cloves, 2 oz. mace, 18 lbs. flour. 
Let the honey come almost to a boil; then let it cool 
off, and add tlic other ingredients. Cut out and 
bake. The cakes are to be frosted afterward with 
sugar and white of eggs. 

Fowls' Honey Layer-cake.— ?3 cup butter, 1 cup 
honey, 3 eggs beaten, % cup milk. Cream the honey 
and butter together, then add the eggs and milk. 
Then add 2 cups flour containing IV2 teaspoonfuls 
baking-powder previously stirred in. Then stir in 
flour to make a stiff batter. Bake in jelly-tins. 
When the cakes ai-e cold, take finely flavored can- 
died honey, and after creaming it spread between 
layers. 

Fowls' Honey-cookies. — 3 teaspoonfuls soda 
dissolved in 2 cups warm honey, 1 cup shortening 
containing salt, 3 teaspoonfuls ginger, 1 cup hot 
water, flour sufficient to roll. 

Honey Nut-cakes.— s cups sugar, 2 cups honey, 
4 cups milk or water, 1 lb. almonds, 1 lb. English 



HONEY AS FOOD. 



2()0 



HONEY AS FOOD. 



walnuts, 3 cents' worth ouch of cjindied lemon smrt 
oi'ims'O peel, 5 cents' worth citron (tiie last three cut 
tlnei, 2 larK-e tablesitoont'uls soihi, ~ teaspoonluls 
cinnaniou, li teas))0t)nfuls fi'rounil cloves. Put the 
milk, suK:ar, anil honey on the stove, to boil 15 min- 
utes ; skim otf the scum, and take from the stove. 
Put in the nuts, spices, and candied I'ruit. Stir in 
as much tiour as can be done with a spoon. Set 
away to cool, then mix in the soda (don't make the 
dough too stitT). Cover up and let stand over night, 
then work in flour enough to make a stiff dough. 
Bake when you get ready. It is well to let it stand 
a lew days, as it will not stick so badly. Roll out a 
little thicker than a common cooky, cut in any 
shape you like. 

This recipe originated in Germany, is old and 
tried, and the cake will keep a year or more. 

Mrs. E. Smith. 

Honey Drop-cakes.— I cup honey, ^ cup sugar 
'■A cup butter or lard, }4 cup sour milk, 1 egg, H 
tablespoonful soda, 4 cups sifted flour. 

Honey Short-cake.— 3 cups flour, 2 teaspoonfuls 
liaking-powder, 1 teaspoonful salt, M cup shorten- 
ing, IY2 cups sweet milk. Roll quickly, and bake in 
a hot oven. When done, split the cake and spread 
the lower half thinly with butter, and the upper 
half with Yi pound of the best-flavored honey. 
(Candied honey is preferred. If too hard to spread 
well it should be slightly warmed or cresimed with 
a knife.) Let it stand a few minutes, and the honey 
will melt gradually and the flavor will pei'meate all 
through the cake. To be eaten with milk. 

Honey Tea-cake. — 1 cup honey, M cup sour 
cream, 2 eggs, Vz cup butter, 2 cups flour, scant Vz 
teaspoonful soda, 1 tablespoonful cream of tartar. 
Bake thirty minutes in a moderate oven. 

Miss M. Candler. 

Honey Ginger-snaps.—! pint honey, 5^ lb. butter, 
2 teaspoonfuls ginger. Boil together a few min- 
utes, and when nearly cold put in tiour until it is 
stiff. Roll out thin, and bake quickly. 

Honey Fruit-cake.— 1^ cups honey, % cup but- 
tei-, Vi cup sweet milk, 2 eggs well beaten, 3 cups 
flour, 2 teaspoonfuls baking-powder, 2 cups raisins, 
1 teaspoonful each of cloves and cinnamon. 

Honey Popcorn Bai,i,s.— Take 1 pint extracted 
honey; put it into an iron frying-pan, and boil until 
very thick ; then stir in freshly popped corn, and 
when cold, mold into balls. These will specially 
delight the children. 

Honey Caramels.— 1 cup extracted honey of best 
flavor, 1 cup granulated sugar, 3 tablespoonfuls 
sweet cream or milk. Boil to "soft crack," or until 
it hardens when dropped into cold water, but not 
too brittle— just so it will form into a soft ball when 
taken in the fingers. Pour into a greased dish, 
stirring in a teaspoonful extract of vanilla just be- 
fore taking oft'. Let it be Vi or X inch deep in the 
dish; and as it cools cut in squares and wrap each 
square in paraffine paper, such as grocers wrap but- 
ter in. To make chocolate caramels, add to the fore- 
going 1 tablespoonful melted chocolate, just before 
taking otf the stove, stirring it in well. For choco- 
late caramels it is not so important that the honey 
be of best quality. C. C. Miller. 

Honey Apple-butteh.— 1 gallon good cooking- 
apples, 1 quart honey, 1 quart honey vinegar, 1 heap- 



ing teaspoonful ground cinnamon. Cook several 
hours, stirring often to prevent burning. If the 
vinegar is very strong, use part water. 

Mrs. R. C. Aikin. 

Honey and Tar Cough-cure.— Put 1 tablespoon- 
ful liquid tar into a shallow tin dish and place it in 
boiling water until the tar is hot. To this add a pint 
of extracted honey and .stir well for half an hour, 
adding to it a level teaspoonful pulverized borax 
Keep well corked in a bottle. Dose, tea.spoonful 
every one, two, or three hours, according to severi- 
ty of cough. 

Sdmmer Honey-drink. — 1 spoonful fruit juice 
and 1 spoonful honey in 54 glass water : stir in as 
much soda as will lie on a silver dime, and then stir 
in half as much tartaric acid, and drink at once. 

Honey Cereal Coffee.— Fresh wheat bran, 5 lbs.; 
mix with 2 lbs. of rye flour, 2 lbs. of alfalfa honey. 
Mix the honey with 3 pints of boiling water. After the 
honey and water have come to a boil, pour into the 
bran mi.xture. Stir thoroughly, and knead to a very 
stiff dough. Put them through a domestic meat-grind- 
er to separate them. Dry in a warm oven. Brown the 
same as coffee. For a coffee flavor, add 2 lbs. best Mo- 
cha and Java. Have it all ground and put in air-tight 
cans for future use. IV. L. Porter. 

Honey Paste to put Labels on Tin. — Take two 
spoonfuls of wheat flour and one of honey. Mix the 
flour and honey, and add boiling water to make it the 
right thickness. This is fine for labels or wall paper 
where paper will not slick with ordinary paste. 

W. L. Porter. 

FOREIGN HONEY RECIPES. 

Alsatian Gingerbread.— 1 lb. honey, 1 lb. flour, 
ginger to suit, 2^ drams bicarbonate soda. The 
honey is first brought to a boil, preferably in a dou- 
ble boiler. It is then removed from the fire, and 
the flour well stirred into it, and then the soda (or 
baking-powder ; bake. If sweet gingerbread is 
wanted, add the white of an egg, well whipped, and 
more honey. The above will keep well for a year if 
kept in a cellar. 

Swiss Cookies.— Prepare some dough as for the 
gingerbread, and mix with it >3 lb. crushed almonds, 
orange and lemon juice, and cinnamon; and, if de- 
sired, cloves to suit the taste. 

Honey Fruit-cakes.— 4 egg's, 5 teacups flour, 2 
teacups honey, 1 teacup butter, 1 teacup sweet milk, 
3 teaspoonfuls baking-powder, 1 lb. raisins, 1 lb. 
currants, 1 teaspoonful cloves, 1 teaspoonful cinna- 
mon, 1 teaspoonful nutmeg. Then bake in slow 
oven. The above will keep moist for months. 

French Honey-muffins.— 1'/4 pints flour, 1 cup 
honey, i4 teaspoonful salt, two teaspoonfuls bak- 
ing-powder, 2 tablespoonfuls butter, 3 eggs, and a 
little over half a pint milk or thin cream. Sift to- 
gether the flour, salt, and powder; rub in the but- 
ter cold; add beaten eggs, milk, and honey. Mix 
smoothly in batter as for pound cake; about half 
fill sponge-cake tins, cold and fully greased, and 
bake bread in good steady oven for eight minutes. 

Remedy for Constipation.— Dr. Vogel, of the 
University i>f Dorpat, one of the greatest authorities 
on the subject of children's diseases, recommends 
giving the juice of well-stewed prunes, sweetened 
with honey, to very small children, and not give 
castor oil or other i-emedies. This is also a remedy 
which c:in be used by adults with good i-egults. 
Try it. 



HONEY AS FOOD. 



261 



ilONEV AS FOOD. 



HONEV Taffv— Boil honey until it hardens when 
dropped into cold water. Pull until it becomes 
white. Any cjuantity may be used. A pound re- 
quires aj minutes' boiling- and stirring^. Great care 
must be exercised not to bum the honey. It makes 
very fine taffy. 

DysPEPSiA Eemedv.— Dr. McLean, .«an Franciscr., 
Cal., recommends this for the cure of djspepsia 
MLs a drink of honey and water to suit the taste, 
then add a small quantity of myrrh (just a few 
drops/, and drink everj- morning- as you flist get up- 

HoNEi-ijROP.s.— Bleud H cup honey, 1 teaspoonfui 
batter, 1 egg well beaten, % cup flour, slft^^d with 
half a teaspoon of baking-powder, and a pinch of 
salt. Drop by tea'-poonfuLs on a tin. and bake in a 
quick oven. These proportions will make about 20 
cakes. 

Pickled Gbape.s in HoxEy.— T lbs. good grapes 
(wine grapes if possible) on the stalks, carefully 
packed in a jar without bruising any of them. 
Make a syrup of 4 lbs. of honey, a pint of good 
vinegar with cloves, etc., to suit the taste. Then 
boLI the syrup, c-arefuUy skimming it, for 20 min- 
utes. While boiling hot, pour the syrup over the 
grapes and seal up. This will keep jjerfef-tly for 
years, as the huney is a preservative. 

HosEv Cold Cbeak.— l cup of honey: %, of a cup 
of beeswax: 1 cup of cottolene. Melt all, take off 
the fire, and stir till it is co>l: roseor violet perfume 
may be added. It should be weU protected from the 
air. The blending should be well done. This is fine 
for chapped or rough hands, if they are slightly 
wetted before applying. 

Hosey-Cakes (r^in d'epiee or Leij Kuehenh—The 
following recipe will be much appreciated by cake- 
makers. The cakes are excellent, and wUl keep in- 
definitely. If tbeyget dry, simply put them for a 
few days into a bread-tin. Use 3 lbs. of honey. 3 lbs- 
of flour, 1 oz. pfjicdfTfA ammonia, a small teacupfui 
of ground cinnamon, half -teaspoonfui of ground 
cloves, 6 oz. orange peel for citron, cut very fine: 
4 oz. sweet almonds cut very small. (Ttie ammo- 
nia ev<iporaf.ej( in fjoking.' Directions. Pour the 
honey in a graniteware or copper sauce^pan, and 
set on the stove. VThen it boiis, draw it aside and 
remove the scum fas honey bolLs and burns very 
quickly, great care must be used). Then pour the 
honey into the veasel in which the paste is to be 
made; leave it to csool : then add flour and other in- 
gredients, except the ammonia, which latter must 
not be added tUlthe flour and honey have been mixed 
up and the paste has become cold- In preparing for 
use, place the ammonia in a cup; pour en a few 
drops of (5old water, and stir it well, so as to form a 
thick paste, then mix it up with the rest. Then take 
a piece of the paste, roll it out into a cake not over 
a inch thick, and cut up into convenient sizes. 
Put these on a flat tin and bake in a hot oven 12 to 
1-5 minutes. The above is made by the monks of 
Buckfast Abbey, England. 

HosEV VisEGAE.— The best vinegar produced any- 
where is made from honey. Any one who under- 
stands how to make cider vinegar can easily make 
honey vinegar, only substituting water sveetcned 
with honev for the apple joiee. 

Bae-le-Duc Pbesekve-S.— These preserves are be- 
lieved to be the finest of their kind, and Iiave hither- 
to been imported at extravagant prices. Other 



i fruits besides currants may be treated in this way. 

' as honey Is of itself a preservative. Tliese preserves 
do not require to be kept absolutely ait-tight. 

Take selected red or white currants of large size, 
one by one; c-aref ully make an incision in the skin 
H, of an inch deep with tiny embroidery scLssors- 
Through this slit remove the seeds with the aid of a 
sharp needle; remove the seeds separately, preserv- 
ing the shape of the fruit. Take the weight of the 
currants in honey, and when this has been heated 
add the currants. Let it simmer a minute or two, 
and then seal as for jelly. The currants retain their 
shape, are of a beautiful color, and melt in the 
mouth. Care should be exercLsed not to scfjrch the 
honey, then you will have fine preserves. 

HoNEV-PASTE FOR CHAPPED Hahds.— An excel- 
lent paste for chapped hands is made as follows: 
Tlie white of one egg, one teasp^x^n of glycerine, 
one ounce of honey, and sufficient barley flour to 
compose a i>aste. It may not be generally known 
that honey is a prime ingredient of cosmetics; for 
its action on the skin is always agreeable. 

HosEY FOR Cleaxl-itg THE Hakdh.— Houcy IS an 
excellent cleanser of the skin, though few are 
aware of the fact. Try this: Rub a little honey on 
the dry skin; moisten a little, and rub again: use 
more water, and rub. Wash thoroughly, when it 
will be found the hands are as clean as the most 
powerful soap can make them. 

HojfEV TOOTH-PA.STE.— Eight ouuces precipitated 
chalk. 4 oz. powdered castile soap, 4 oz. orris-root 
powder, 40 drops oil of sassafras, 80 drops oil of bay, 
and honey to make a paste. 

This is really a fii-st-class tooth-paste. 

Fbesch HosEy<AKDrE.s.— In an enameled-ware 
sauce-pan melt one part of gelatine in one part 
of water, stirring welL When arrived at the state 
of a soft paste, add 4 parts of honey previously 
warmed, stirring lively. Take from the fire: add 
the desired flavor and color, mixing carefully, and 
pour into a shallow Ijgbtly greased dish Let it dry 
for a few days. 

HOXEY AS A SOFTESEB OF THE HA5DS.— A gOOd 

many ladies are unaware that the verj- best cos- 
metics are made with honey as a prime ingredient. 
Here is one for the hands, which is said to be very 
fine. Kub f^rether 1 lb. of honey and the yolks of 
8 eggs: gradually add 1 lb. oil of sweet almonds, 
during constant stirring: work in ii lb. bitter al- 
monds, and perfume with 2 drams each of attar of 
bergamot and attar of cloves- Of course, the quan- 
tities may be reduced if necessary. 

HosEv Soap.— Cut 2 pounds of yellow soap in thin 
slibes and put into a saucepan with sufficient water 
Uj prevent the soap from being burnt Place on the 
fire, and as soon as all the soap has dissol ved add one 
pound of honey and stir until the whole begins to 
boiL Then remove from the fire, add a few drops of 
rssenee of cinnamon, pour out into a deep dish to 
cool, and tnen cut mto squares. It improves by 
keeping. 

HoxEr FOB Fbec-kle-s.— Half a pound of honey, 
2 oz- glycerin, 2 oz. alcohol, 6 drams citric acid, 15 
drops ambergris. Apply night and morning. 

HosEV Chocolate-— Chocolate sweetened with 
htjuey rather tlian with sugar is excellent. Here is 
how it is made: Melt 1 lb. of gelsuiae in a pint of 
water: add 10 lbs. of honey, thoroughly warming 



HONEY AS FOOD. 



262 



HOKEY-COMB. 



the same, and tlien iidd 4 lbs. of cocoa. Fliivor with 
vanilla when taken off the fire, and then pour into 
greased dishes or molds. 

Honey Bik)WN Bkkad.— One cup corn meal, 1 cup 
rye meal, 1 cup sour milk, i4 cup or less of liouej', a 
teaspoonful of salt and a teaspoouful of soda. 
Steam four hours, and then dry in the oven fifteen 
minutes. It may be added that most of the molas- 
ses now sold is not fit to eat, and in any case honey 
is much better. 



HONEY-BOARDS. 

and IIivKS. 



See Comb Honey, 



HONZiY'-COIMEB. For many years all 
theories as to wax-production were far from 
the truth. Somewhere between 1744 and 
1768 it was discovered that wax is produced 
between the plates on the lower side of the 
worker bee's abdomen. The honor of this 
discovery is usually ascribed to a Lusatian 
l)easant of unknown name. But Thorley, a 
quaint writer of 1744, speaks of " six pieces 
of solid wax, white and transparent like 
gum witliin the plaits."* 

"Wax is produced at the will of the bee, 
and when called for by the necessities of the 
hive. The wax-producing bees obtain a 
somewhat high temperature, usually by 
close clustering, although they sometimes 
hang in slender festoons and chains. 

" Wax is not chemically a fat or glyceride, 
lience those who have called it ' the fat of 
bees ' have grossly erred; yet it is nearly al- 
lied to the fats in atomic constitution, and 
the physiological conditions favoring tlie 
formation of one are curiously similiir to 
those aiding in the production of the other. 
We put our poultry up to fatten in confine- 
ment, with partial light; to secure bodily 
inactivity we keep warm and feed h'ghly. 
Our bees, under Nature's teaching, put them- 
selves up to yield wax under conditions so 
parallel that the suitability of tlie fatting- 
coop is vindicated."— C/if.s/wre. 

On the inner side of the eight plates lining 
the lower side of the abdomen are about 
140,000 glands (Cheshire), from which the 
wax is secreted as a wliite liquid, wliich 
hardens on exposure to the air. When first 
formed it is white and very brittle, and is 
pulled out from between the plates by the 
pincers on the hind legs. The pieces of wax 
are then passed to the front legs, and thence 
to the mouth, where they are made plastic 
by the addition of various materials in the 
saliva and by thorough mastication. 

* It was the celebrated anatomist John Hunter 
who discovered just how the bees secrete wax, and 
thereby settled a vexed question. He communi- 
cated his discovery in a paper read l^efore the Royal 
Society of London, Feb. 23, 1793, and subsequently 
publislied in Philosophical Transactions —W. K. >i. 



From this raw material the sculpture l)ees 
make three kinds of cells. First, at certain 
times of the year, when a new queen is 
needed, they build a few large, almost per- 
pendicular, peanut-shaped cells. Tlie two 
other kinds, drone-cells and worker-cells, 
are practically the same in form, the drone- 
cells differing in being larger. As their 
names imply, they are used for rearing 
drones (male bees' and workers (undevel- 




FIG. 1. — EDGE OP HONEY -COMB BUILT NEXT 
TO GLASS — ENLARGED VIEW. 

Tlie cells are partly filled with honey. This illus- 
tration shows that the cells are not straight and 
horizontal, but curved and slanting upward. 

oped females). Both kinds of cells are 
nearly horizontal, slanting upward slightly 
from the center to the exterior of the comb. 
Both kinds are utilized for the storage of 
honey, and this slight inclination facilitates 
the filling of the cells by preventing the 
honey from running out before the cap is 
added. See Fig. 1. 

All three forms are prirnariltj cylindrical. 
The queen-cells, isolated from the otheis, 
always remain cylindrical. All solitary bees 



HONEY-COMB. 



263 



HONEY -C0M13. 



(not honey-bees) make sncli cells. The hex- 
agonal form is due largely to mutual pres- 
sure, and partly to optical illusion. Cells 
near the edge of the comb, where it is at- 



m 




FIG. _. — CIKCULAR CET,T-S. 

tached to some support, are either circular 
or elongated circular. 8ee Fig. 2. 

Worker-cells seem more closely crowded 
together than drone-cells, and thus have 
their angles, in most cases, more 
sharply defined. In drone comb 
some cells are almost without 
angles, the spaces between the 
tubes being filled in by a thick- 
ening of the cell walls greater 
than is customary. See Figs. 4 
and 5. In such parts a casual 
glance shows them to be almost 
as hexagonal as the usual type. 
But close examination or mag- 
nifying shows many cells that are 
cylindrical tubes. The more one 
studies comb, the more firmly is 
he Impressed with the belief that 
the original "intention" of the 
bee is to produce a hollow cylin- 
der, and that the hexagonal re- 
sult is due solely to a force of 
circumstances, and is entirely 
" unintentional.'' 

Much has been written about 
the mathematically exact angles 
of honey-comb. .Some philoso- 
phers have stoutly maintained 
that the bees have solved difficult 
problems, and that their work is 
an example of the wonderful per- 
fection of nature or natural in- 
stinct. Many of these claims 
make interesting reading. Ab- 



struse theories and complex formulae have 
been contributed to sustain these claims. 
But they lack one essential feature, and in 
this they do not stand alone, even in the 
productions of writers on natu- 
ral history — tliey are not true. 

Actual measurements of the 
angles show that they greatly 
vary. But, notwithstanding the 
fact that the cells vary in size 
and form, comb is none the less 
a wonderful structure, with all 
its parts arranged for the great- 
est strength, the largest storing 
capacity, and most perfect adap- 
tation to circumstances. Wax 
is produced by the bee at a 
great expenditure of labor, 
material, and strength. Well- 
informed investigators say that 
"The costliness of wax to the 
bee, since it can be produced 
only at the expense of many 
times its own weight of honey 
or sugar, has led to great econ- 
omy, one pound of it being molded into 
35,000 worker-cells," while still others have 
observed £0,000 made from that amount. 
To help the bee in this economy, apiarists 




FIG. 4. — A COMDIXATTON OF WORKER AND DRONE CEI.LP. 
None of the angles are sharp, and most of the cells are circular. 



HONEY -COMB. 



201 



IIONEY-COMB. 




FIC4. O. — A STUDY IN CELL-MAKING. 

Note that the cells are made independent of each other, and that it is the refuse wax, like di-op- 
pings of mortar in brick-laying, that seems to tumble into the interstices to fill up. 



have found it advantageous to use machin- 
ery by which the same material can be 
worked over and over. As the combs be- 
come old they are melted, the pure wax tak- 
en out and remodeled into thin comb-build- 
ing foundation. But this is in no sense the 
manufacture of a new product, but an ex- 
tracting, purifying, and remodeling of the 
bees' own choice material. It simply saves 
the bees much arduous labor that machinery 
can do easier and at less expense, when we 
consider the effect on the bee. 

No one is so foolish as to claim that a suit 
of clothes made on a machine is any more 
" artificial " than one sewed by hand. It is 
simply economy of labor. Yet hundreds of 
persons have the incorrect notion that there 
is a lioney-comb made from wood pulp, 
punk, putty, parafflne, or perhaps material 
other than wax. We say " foolish enough " 
advisedly, because a wise man changes his 
mind (when it becomes necessary) ; but a 
fool, never. It would not be surprising in 
these days of sensational journalism and of 
false nature-stories if one should get the 
notion that artificial comb honey really 



exists ; but the foolish part comes in when 
a person, totally inexperienced with bees, 
stoutly and smilingly maintains that there is 
such a thing as manufactured honey in the 
comb. We feel sure that the inimitably 
foolish expression of such a person is the 
origin of the colloquialism, " The smile that 
won't come off." No use. Do not argue. 
It won't come. " Why, I've seen it at the 
stores. Grocer told me all about it— was 
several cents cheaper. I tried it ; we didn't 
like it as well as the genuine.'' And then 
the bee-keeper goes away, not a wiser but a 
madder man, and wonders why tlie fool- 
killer doesn't do his duty, and why every 
one except tlie bee-keeper knows all about 
bees and their products. 

It is, however, true that there are many 
interesting problems about comb-building 
that even the experienced bee-keeper doesn't 
know. To us one of the most interesting of 
these problems has been the fact that bees 
carry along at the same time tlie comb and 
the storage work in the sections in all stages 
of progress. If an empty super were put on 
a colony so strong that the bees "boiled" 



IIONEY-COMB. 



265 



IIONEY-COMB. 



up into all parts of the super until there 
would be no vacant "standing room'' left, 
one would su pilose that the work of comb- 
building would begin in all sections at the 
same time, and progress with almost equal 
rapidity. But it doesn't. A few sections 
in the center will be completed before work 
has been started in some of the outer sec- 
tions, and nearly all gradations may be ob- 
served between the extremes. From two 
supers on a ten-frame hive we selected one- 
half, that is, 32, as shown in Fig. 7, that ex- 
hibited seriatim eveiy part of the 
progress from the first extension 
of the suggestive nest-egg starter 
to the completed fancy comb. 
Another series, almost as well 
graded, could have been made up 
from the other 32 sections. Now, 
why was it that there were not 32 
or more one-eighth filled, then 
one-quarter filled, then one-half 
filled, and so on gradually, all ad- 
vancing "right dress," and about 
equally in a uniform line of prog- 
ress till all had been brought to 
completion? 

Drone-cells and worker-cells 
are made from new wax and are 
at first of pearly whiteness, which 
soon becomes yellowish. Queen- 
cells are made mostly from sur- 
rounding comb, so a queen-cell 
just completed is aged in appear- 
ance if on old comb. Almost any 
material is used, yet not extrava- 
gantly. So economical are the 
bees that they " pit" the cell till 
it has the roughness of a peanut. 
This arrangement of material 
gives greater strength than the 
same amount would give in a 
layer of uniform thickness— on 
the principle that a certain 
amount of material is stronger in 
a large hollow cylinder than in a smaller 
one that is solid. 

Bees change readily from the building of 
worker-cells to drone-cells. They seem to 
have no trouble in making correct adjust- 
ments and angles. It is not at all uncom- 
mon to see a group of drone-cells near ad- 
joining worker-cells on the same comb. One 
wonders why the bees change the size of 
cells. When capped over for honey, both 
are of the same lieight; but when over l)rood, 
drone-cell cappings stand above the sur- 
rounding worker-cells. The cappings of the 
drone-cells are made stronger by six liracing 



ribs or buttresses. Fig. 6. This gives the 
whole capping a most beautiful appearance 
wlien viewed as an opaque object under the 
microscope. The cappings of both cells, 
though extremely thin, are not air-tight. It 
is wonderful to observe how the bees adapt 
the comb to the form of the hive, often curv- 
ing it, and sometimes making it cylindrical. 
In the arrangement of the several combs in 
a hive there is wonderful provision for the 
ventilation of every cell, and forthe conven- 
ience of the workers in the various depart- 



.s^' 



■*^r 










FIG. 6. — DKONE-CEI.LS USED FOR HONEY-STORAGE. 

It will toe seen that tlie lower part of the opening' is capped 
first. This, witli the slant of the cell, keeps the new honey 
from running out. 

ments of labor. What a wonderful coinci- 
dence (or shall we say purpose V) is it that 
honey-bees do not make their cells of paper 
as do wasps, yellow-jackets, bumble-bees, 
and hornets ! If they did so, the luxury of 
comb honey would be unknown. Honey- 
bees place their combs perpendicularly. All 
paper combs with which I am familiar are 
horizontal. 

SIZK OF DRONE AND WORKER COMB. 

We have said bees build two distinct, regu- 
lar sizes— drone and worker. Worker comb 
measures very nearly five cells to the inch, 




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u 


y 






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H 




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fe 



IIONEY-COMB. 267 

on an average. Some specimens are a 
little larger, and some a little smaller; bnt 
when the comb is at all irregnlar, it is qnite 
apt to be a little larger. The best specimens 
of true worker comb generally contain 5 
cells within the space of an incli, and there- 
fore this measure has been adopted for 
comb foundation. If there are live cells to 
the inch, a square inch would give, on an 
average, about 25* cells, and 25 on the oppo- 
site side would make 50 young bees that 
can be hatched from every square inch of 
solid brood. As foundation is so mucli 
more regular than the natural comb, we get 
a great many more bees in a given surface 
of comb, and here, at least, we can fairly 
claim to have improved on nature. 



HOKEY-COMB. 




DRONE COMB. 



AVOKKEIl COMB. 



Drone comb measures just aboiit four 
cells to the inch, but the bees seem less par- 
ticular about the size of it than with the 
worker. They very often seem to make the 
cells of such size as to fill out best a given 
space; and, accordingly, we find them dif- 
fering from worker size all the way up to 
considerably more than i of an inch in 
width. Drones are raised in these extra- 
large cells without trouble, and honey is al- 
so stored in them; but where they are very 
large, the bees are compelled to turn them 
up, or the honey would flow out. Now, us 
honey is kept in place by capillary attrac- 
tion, when cells exceed a certain size the 
adhesion of the liquid to the wax walls is 
insutflcient, of itself, to liold the honey in 
place. Where drones are to be reared in 
these very large cells the bees contract the 
mouth by a thick rim. As an experiment, we 
had some plates made for producing small 
sheets of foundation, liaving only Si cells to 
the inch. The bees worked on a few of 
these, with these same thick rims, but they 
evidently did not like tlie idea very well, for 
they tried to make worker-cells of some of 
it, and it proved so much of a complication 
for their little heads that they finally aban- 
doned the whole piece of comb, apparently 
in disgust. Bees sometimes rear worker 



*The exact matheiiuitiuiil calculation makes these 
numbers 29, 29, and 58, resiieetively, but oi-dinarily 
the numbers we have given in the context are more 
nearly coi-rect. 



brood in drone comb, where compelled to 
from want of room, and they always do it in 
the way we have mentioned, by contracting 
the mouth of the cells and leaving the 
young bee a rather large berth in which to 
grow and develop. Drones are sometimes 
reared in worker-cells also, but they are so 
much cramped in growth that they seldom 
look like fully developed insects. 

Several times it has been suggested that 
we enlarge the race of honey-bees by giving 
them larger cells ; and some circumstances 
seem to indicate that something may be 
done in this direction, although we have little 
hope of any permanent enlargement in size 
unless we combine with it the idea of se- 
lecting the largest bees to propagate from, 
as given a few pages back. By making the 
cells smaller than ordinarily, we get small 
bees with very little trouble; and we 
have seen a whole nucleus of bees so small 
as to be really laughable, just because the 
comb they were hatched from was set at an 
angle so that one side was concave and the 
other convex. The small bees came from 
the concave side. Their light, active move- 
ments, as they sported in front of the hive, 
made them a pretty and amusing sight for 
those fond of curiosities. Worker-bees 
reared in drone-cells, if we are correct, are 
sometimes extra large in size; but as to 
whether we can make them permanently 
larger by such a course, we are inclined to 
doubt. The ditticulty, at present, seems to 
be the tendency to rear a great quantity 
of useless drones. By having a hive fur- 
nished entirely with worker-comb, we can 
so nearly prevent the production of drones 
that it is safe enough to call it a complete 
remedy. 

now BJSES BUILD COMB. 

In this day and age of bees and honey it 
would seem that one should be able to tell 
how our bees build comb, with almost as 
much ease as they would tell how cows and 
horses eat grass ; but for all that, we lack 
records of careful and close experiments, 
such as Darwin made many years ago. In 
our house-apiary there are dozens of hives 
where the bees are building right up close to 
the glass, at this very minute ; ajid all one 
has to do, in order to see how it is done, is 
to take a chair and sit down before them. 
But the little fellows have such a queer 
sleight-of-hand way of doing the work that 
we hardly know how they do accomplish it. 

If we examine our bees closely during the 
season of comb-building and honey-gather- 
ing, we shall find a good many of them with 



HONEY-COMB. 



269 



HONEY-COMB. 




NATL'KAL-COMB UUILDINCt IN A HI\K 3IADE EXTIKELY OF GLASS. 



wax scales protruding between the rings 
that form the body, and these scales are 
either picked from their bodies or from the 
bottom of the hive or honey-boxes in which 
they are building. If a bee is obliged to 
carry one of these wax scales but a short 
distance, it takes it in its mandibles, and 
looks as business-like with it thus as a car- 
penter with a board on his shoulder. If it 
has to carry it from the bottom of the honey- 
box, it takes it in a way that I can not ex- 
plain any better than to say it slips it un- 
der its chin. When thus equipped, you 
Avould never know it was encumbered with 
any thing, unless it chanced to slip out, 
when it will very dextrously tuck it back 
with one of its fore feet. The little plate of 
wax is so warm from being kept under its 
chin as to be quite soft wlien it gets back ; 
and as it takes it out, and gives it a pinch 
against the comb where the building is going 
on, one would think it might stop a while, 
and put it into place ; but. not it; for off it 
scampers and twists around so many differ- 
ent ways, you might think it was not one of 
the working kind at all. Another follows 
after it sooner or later, and gives the wax 
a pinch, or a little scraping and burnishing 
with its polished mandibles, then anotlier, 



and so on; and the sum total of all these ma- 
noeuvres is, that the comb seems almost to 
grow out of nothing; yet no one hebjever 
makes a cell. 

The finished comb is the result of the unit- 
ed efforts of the moving, restless mass; and 
the great mystery is, that any thing so won- 
derful can ever result at all from such a 
mixed-up, skipping-about way of working 
as they seem to have. When the cells are 
built out only part way they are filled with 
honey or eggs, and the length is increased 
when they feel disposed, or "get around 
to it," perhaps. It may be that they find it 
easier working with shallow walls about 
the cells, for they can take care of the brood 
much easier, and put in the honey easier 
too, in all probability; and, as a thick rim is 
left around the upper edge of the cell, they 
have the material at hand to lengthen it at 
any time. This thick rim is also very nec- 
essary to give the bees a secure foothold, for 
the sides of the cells are so thin they would 
be very apt to break down with even the 
light weight of a bee. When honey is com- 
ing in rapidly, and the bees are crowded for 
room to store it, their eagerness is so plainly 
apparent, as they push the work along, that 
tliey fairly seem to quiver with excitement ; 



HONEYCOMB. 



270 



HONEY-COMB. 




BEES LIVING ON COMBS BUILT IN THE OPEN AlK. 



but for ;ill that, they skip about from one 
cell to another in the same way, no one bee 
working in the same spot to exceed a min- 
ute or two, at the very outside. Very fre- 
(luently, after one has bent a piece of wax a 
certain way, the next tii)S it in the opposite 
direction, and so on until completion; but 
after all have given it a twist and a pull, it 
is found in pretty nearly the riglit spot. As 
nearly as we can discover, they moisten the 
thin ribbinis of wax witli some sort of fluid 
or saliva. As the bee always preserves the 
thick rib or rim of the comb it is working, 
the looker-on would suppose it was making 
the walls of considerable thickness; but if 
we drive it away, and break this rim, we 
shall lind that its mandibles liave come so 
nearly together that the wax between them, 
beyond the rim, is almost as thin as tissue 
paper. In building natural comb, of course 
the bottoms of the cells are tliinned in the 
same way, as the work goes along, before 
any side walls are made at all. 

When no foundaticm is furnished, little 
l)atches of comb are started at different points, 
as shown in the engraving, p. 2(58. Then as 
these patches enlarge, their edges are united 
so perfectly that it is sometimes diMicult, 
when the frame is hlled solid, to determine 
wlure the pieces wei'e united, so perfect is 



the work. At other times there is, iierhaps, 
a row of irregular or drt)ne cells along the 
line of the union. 

The midrib of natural comb becomes 
thicker as it approaclies the line of support 
and tapers toward the l)ottom. Why this is 
so is evident. That there sliould be a grad- 
ual gradation in thickness from top to bot- 
tom seems wonderful when we remember 
the hap-hazard, skip-about work on the part 
of so many different bees. 

now TO GET BEES TO BUILD WORKER COMB 
OFF FROM STARTERS OF FOUNDATION. 

While we always recommend l)ee-keepers 
to use full sheets of worker foundation be- 
cause the laising of drone comb and drone 
brood is an unnecessary waste, yet it very 
often happens that a bee-keeper runs short 
of foundation just when it is impossible to 
get another shipment in time, and therefore 
the knowledge of how to get the bees to 
build all worker comb from mere starters is 
important. Mr. E. D. Townsend, of Remus, 
Mich., to whom reference has been made 
elsewhere in this work, in an article for 
(Ucaninqs in Bee Culture for Aug. 1, 1909, 
which we here reproduce, explains the con- 
ditions under which bees will build all- 



HONEY-COMB. 



271 



HONEY -DEW. 



worker comb, and when they will build 
worker and drone comb both. 

It is a fact that bees under certain conditions 
build almost all worlier comb; and it is also true 
that, under other conditions, a great deal of unde- 
sirable drone comb is built. For instance, a new 
medium-sized swarm, placed in a hive of a size that 
maj' be filled with combs and brood in about 23 days 
or less, ought to build worker comb mainly, though 
fome of the last combs built may contain a few 
drone-cells. The secret seems to be in having just 
the rig-ht number of workers and just the right 
amount of honey coming in, so that the bees will 
draw out the combs no faster than the queen can 
occupy them with brood. As long as this condition 
lasts we should expect the bees to build worker 
combs. From this we see that, in order to get good 
results in comb-building from a natural swarm, this 
swarm should be of just the right size, and there 
should be a honey-How of, say, three or four pounds 
a day. 

We will suppose a large swarm is hived during a 
period when honey is coming in freely. At this time 
there is too much honey coming in for the best re- 
sults in comb-building in the brood-nest, if the whole 
force of workers is compelled to do all their work in 
the brood-nest. The remedy is to put most of the 
workers at work in the supers. Most beginners fail 
in doing this; but the principle is to make the sur- 
plus receptacles more inviting to the workers than 
the brood-nest, and the bees will immediately go up 
into the supers on being hived. Our comb-honey 
super with extracting-combs at the sides makes an 
ideal arrangement for this very thing. 

It is plain to see that, if most of the honey being 
carried in is placed in the sections, where it should 
be, the queen will not be hurried to keep pace with 
the workers, consequently all-worker comb will be 
liuilt. The brood-nest sliould be filled with comb 
during the first 33 days after the swarm is hived; for 
the queen must keep up with the workers and lay 
in nearly every cell as fast as it is drawn out, or the 
bees will begin to store honey in the cells. When 
tills condition arrives, the bees, on the supposition 
that the (lueen has reached her li mi t,and that the rest 
of the combs will be used for storing honey, begin to 
ba Id the storage size or the drone-cells in the brood- 
nest. This Is likely to occur in about 23 days afiei' 
the swarm is hived; for by this time the brood is be- 
ginning to hatch out in that part of the hive where 
the laying began. From this time on, the queen has 
nearly all she can do to keep the cells filled with 
eggs where the young bees are hatching. This 
means that the comb-fcuilding part of the hive is 
neglected, and that the bees build store or drone 
comb to a great extent until the hive is filled. 

It sometimes happens that a very late swarm will 
issue; and since the season is nearing its close, it is 
not possible for such a swarm to build more than 
five combs before the honey ceases coming in. Wv 
hive such swarms as usual, and in about two da.\ s 
five of the frames having the least combs built ai'c 
removed and a division-board placed up against the 
remaining five frames, this five having been shoved 
over to one side of the hive. If a super is given such 
a swarm at the time of hiving, it nuist be a nearly 
finished one, as the bees will need most of the r time 
to finish up the five combs in the brood-nest. If one 
has two of such five-comb colonies they can be 
united at the close of the season, so that there will 



be none but full- sized colonies to winter. A better 
plan than this for late swarms, or for any small 
after-swarms that one may have, is to hive them on 
full sets of combs taken, possibly, from hives in 
which colonies died the previous winter. This is a 
very good way to get such combs filled with bees, 
t)ut some swarms hived in this way may need feed- 
ing for winter. 

There are artificial ways of handling bees so that 
tliey will build good worker combs. 1 refer to the 
plan of shaking the liees into an empty hive, in the 
same way that a swarm is hived If a colony is di- 
vided into nuclei of, say, two or three combs each, 
and each nucleus given a young queen reared the 
same year, such little colonies will build very nice 
worker combs; but the beginner will not be inter- 
ested in this artificial way of making increase, for 
he should stick to the natural-swarming plan for his 
increase until such time as he has haa experience 
and made a success of getting a crop of honey. In 
fact, there ai'e many things to be learned before a 
beginner should take up artificial ways of making 
increase. 

SOME CONDITIONS WHEHE BEES BUILD MOSTLY 
DRONE COMB. 

Any colony found rearing drone brood in the 
brood-nest will, if a comb is removed and an empty 
frame put in its place, build drone comb. It can be 
depended upon, moreover, that a colony of bees 
wintered over, containing a queen reared the season 
before, or one older, will build drone comb until the 
time that it swarms. By this it can be seen that it 
is necessary to replace any combs, removed from a 
colony before it swarms in the spring or early sum- 
mer, with an empty comb or with a frame contain- 
ing a full sheet of foundation, or else drone comb 
will be the result. To be sure that a colony will 
build a large per cent of worker comb it is necessary 
to remove all the brood and to cause the bees of that 
colony to begin all over again, as in the case of nat- 
ural swarming: or, as mentioned before, the colony 
can be broken up into nuclei, each nucleus conlaii.- 
ing a young queen. 

For the consideration of the thickness of 
combs and how far to space them apart see 
Frames, Self-spacing ; also Si'Achstg of 
Frames ; also Comb Foundation. 

HOl^riiV-DEW. So named because it 
was formerly supposed to come down from 
the heavens in the form of a saccharine 
spray, settling on the leaves of trees and 
low-growing shrubbery. It is now known 
to be almost, if not entirely, the product of 
aphides, or plant-lice, and coccids, or scale in- 
sects. These are sometimes found on the top- 
most limbs of a tree, and the honey-dew 
which they secrete is thrown out as a spray, 
which falls on the lower limbs and on the 
sidewalk* or grass. Observers, seeing the 
leaves of the lower limbs of trees and the 
grass covered with a sort of saccharine var- 
nish, naturally came to tlie conclusion that 
this substance was a real honey-dew, and 
hence the name. 



* Sometimes the sidewalks in our vicinity, in July 
and August, are spotted all over near the trees. 



HONEY-DEW. 



272 



HONEY-DEW. 



There are certain plants whicb , under cer- 
tain conditions, it is said, exude a sort of sac- 
charine substance from the leaves, but, strict- 
ly speaking, this is not honey-dew. The 
ordinary " stuff " that is gathered by the 
bees, commonly called honey-dew, is nothing 
but a. secretion from plant-lice. There are 
several species of honey-dew lice, among 
whicli may be named Lecanium tilice, that 
attack the basswoods; Lecnnium tulipifera, 
of the tulip-tree, often called " poplar,'' and 
the scale or bark louse that attacks maple- 
trees, Fulvinaria innumerabilis (Rath. ). Prof. 
Cook, formerly ot the Michigan Agricultural 
College, now of Claremont, Cal., professor 
of entomology, and a bee-keeper of long ex- 
perience, thus describes these lice : 

The maple-tree scale or bark louse {Pidvinaria in- 
numerabilis Rath.) consists at this season (1884) of a 
■brown scale about five-eighths of an inch long, which 
is oblong, and slightly notched behind. On the back 
of the scale are transverse depres-sions, marking seg- 
ments. The blunt posterior of the insect is raised by 
a large dense mass of fibrous cotton-like material, in 
which will be found about 800 small white eggs. These 
eggs falling on to a dark surface look to the unaided 
eye like flour; but with a lens they are found to be ob- 




£ LOUSE 



long, and would be pronounced by all as eggs, at once. 
This cotton-like egg-receptacle is often so thick as to 
raise the brown scale nearly a fourth of an inch. 
The scales are found on the under side of the limbs 
of some trees, and are often so thick as to overlap each 
other. Frequently there are hundreds on a single main 
branch of a tree. I find them on basswood, soft and 
hard maple, and grapevines, though very much more 
abundant on the maples. 

Another feature, at this mature stage of the insect, is 
the secretion of a large amount of honey-dew. This falls 
on the leaves below, so as fairly to gum them over, as 
though they were varnished. This honey-dew is much 
prized by the bees, which swarm upon the leaves. If 
such honey-dew is plea.sant to the taste, as some aver, I 
should have no fear of the bees collecting it. 

From the middle to the last of June, the eggs begin 
to hatch, though hatching is not completed for some 
weeks after it begins, .so we may expect young lice to 
hatch out from late in June till August. 



The young lice are yellow, half as broad as long, 
tapering slightly toward the posterior. The seven 
abdominal segments appear very distinctly. The legs 
and antenuje are seen from the other side. As in the 
young of all such bark-lice, the beak, or sucking-tube, 
is long and thread-like, and is bent under the body till 
the young louse is ready to .settle down to earnest 
work as a sapper. Two hair-like appendages, or .setse, 
which soon disappear, terminate the body. 

The same writer, in the American Bee Jour- 
nal for January, 1899, gives his reasons for 
doubting the plant origin of honey-dew. He 

says : 

1. I now have carefully examined this secretion for 
years, whenever seen, and have always found either 
aphides — plant-lice; coccids — scale insects; other 
hemipterous bugs ; or else larvse of in.sects (these are 
reported to me) often working in scores — to be the 
source of this nectar. This gives strong presumption 
that such is always the source of honey-dew. 

2. We have reason to believe, in the economy of 
Nature, that energy is never expended by plant or 
animal that does not in some way benefit by such out- 
go. We are easily able to see how the insects profit 
by the secretion of this nectar. They thus lure bees, 
ants, wasps, etc., to their immediate presence, and 
these in turn repel the birds which else wovild feed on 
and destroy the insects. 

I once noticed an exhibit of this function in Michi- 
igan, so palpably displayed that to doubt it was im- 
possible. The lecanium tilicE — a large bark louse- 
was thick on a linden-tree close beside my study win- 
dow. In early spring the beautiful song sparrow 
commenced to feed on the young scale insects which 
thickly dotted the leaves. Suddenly the bees and 
other sweet-loving in.sects commenced to visit the 
same leaves for the honey-dew which dropped from the 
coccids, and the birds at once cea-sed to come. In a few 
days cold, or, preferably, nectar in other places, kept 
the bees and their companions from the place, and 
the birds again commenced their good work. This 
alternation of bird and bee visits occurred several 
times. Such observations make the value of the ex- 
pensive secretion to the insects clearly evident. 

On the other hand, the honey-dew always becomes 
foul with the black smut or fungus that attacks sweet 
substances on tree or bush. We can hardly doubt 
that it is a serious evil to the plants, and are unable to 
see any good that comes to the plant from it. I fully 
believe it is always harmful to vegetation, and I feel 
certain that plants do not originate it to their own 
hurt. 

I referred above to certain acorn-infesting larvse 
that secrete nectar. I have never seen them, but 
have often heard of such — principally from Missouri — 
so often that I think they may be more than a myth. 
Yet I am free to say that I should feel more certain if 
I actually saw them. I can see how oak-tree plant- 
lice, which are by no means rare, might lead to an 
erroneous conclusion. 

Ergot — a fungus which attacks rye and other plants 
— is also said to secrete honey-dew. If this be true, 
then I feel sure that the sweet in some way benefits 
the fungus. If it does the fungus no good, then I be' 
lieve it, too, has other origin. 

In California, where scale insects and aphids are .so 
common, it is very easy to study the honey-dew, and 
the black repulsive fungus, which our orchardists de- 
nominate " smut." The walnut-tree, this season, has 
been infested generally with an aphid, and honey-dew 
I and smut have always attended it. 



HONEY-DEW. 



273 



HONEY ON COMMISSION. 



It is not to be inferred that this honey-dew is un- 
wholesome. It is a secretion, and not an excretion. 
It has a similar origin to honey, and maybe as deli- 
cious. Much aphid honey-dew is deliciously whole- 
some, and the honey from it is superior. Most if not 
all of the coccid honey-dew, on the other hand, is dark 
and of ill flavor, and its presence in honey, or as hon- 
ey, is greatly injurious, and can never be sold for the 
table. I have sold it by the barrel for manufacturing. 
This was used to make cookies, and was said to be all 
right by the manufacturer. I explained all to him, 
yet he gave the ruling price. 

Often this honey-dew is produced in exceeding 
quantities, and I have known it to crystallize on plants, 
especially on pine and larch trees, so as to encrust 
them with white, and become very conspicuous. 

Another authority, Prof. H. A. Surface, 
President of the Pennsylvania State Bee- 
keepers' Association, and State Zoologist, 
has this to say on the subject of the origin 
of honey-dew: 

Honey dew in tills State is never found excepting 
on plants that are infested with certain scale insects, 
plant lice, or similar insects. It is true that it will be 
seen on the lower leaves of a tree before the insects 
get there; but this is because they of ten leave the 
trees by flying through the air and commence to 
feed on the tender new leaves of the upper part and 
drop their sweet secretions on the leaves below. 
Later they drop to the leaves below or crawl down 
the tree, and may be seen on the lower leaves. This 
does not mean that honey-dew was on the leaves be- 
fore the insects were there. 

Honey-dew attracts ants, wasps, flies, bees, and 
other insects that feed on sweets; but the plant-lice 
do not feed on the honey-dew nor on sweets, as they 
draw all their living from tlie sap of the trees or plants 
that are infested. No one has ever seen plant-lice 
feeding on the sweet liquid called honey-dew; but, 
on the other hand, we have frequently observed this 
liquid coming from the cornicles or honey-tubes of 
plant-lice, as well as from the ventor digestive tract. 
No one can watch plant-lice during the summer 
without seeing the honey-dew appear first in small 
globules, and then increase to larger drops on the 
cornicles or honey-tubes, especially when ants are 
stroking the plant-lice with their antennte. There 
can be no possible doubt about the source of this 
liquid. 

As to whether the honey-dew is a benefit to the 
bee-keeper depends upon how he winters his bees, 
and upon locality. If the bees can be wintered on 
their summer stands, or where thev have flight as 
frequently as they need it, and the locality and sea- 
son are such that they can fly frequently, say once 
every two or three weeks, they will winter all right 
on honey-dew; but if they are to be put into a cellar, 
or otherwise kept from flying for six weeks or two 
months, they will doubtless perish with dysentery. 
Honey-dew makes far more waste material to be 
voided from the system than any other food that the 
bees can take, and it is known that this voiding is 
done only when In flight. This explains why bees 
must be given an opportunity for flight if they are 
forced to feed on honey-dew. If such opportunity 
be not given, it is betterto feed the bees abundantly 
as soon as possible with sugar syrup, after having 
removed the honeydew, and save this for stimula- 
tive feeding next spring. 



THE UNPRECEDENTEDLY HEAVY YIELD OF 

HONEY-DEW DURING THE SUMMER 

OF 1909. 

The year 1909 was remarkable for the im- 
mense quantities of honey-dew fj rod need 
in almost every section of the country out- 
side of the irrigated region where alfalfa 
and sweet clover are grown. In the eastern 
portions of the United States there was al- 
most a failure of cledr white clover or bass- 
wood. What l