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Aberbrothoch Jllustrateb 

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aSHtti) J^tstorical anti STopograpttcal NoUS 

By GEORGE HAY, F.S.A. Scot. 





y 1886 





Anciently, * Aberbrothock ' was the name of a * shire/ which in- 
cluded the whole of the lands now comprised within the parishes 
of Arbroath and St. Vigeans, together with a part of the parish of 
Carmylie. The name was not restricted to the territory which was 
of new erected by James VI. into the royal burgh of Arbroath in 
1599. In the title-page of this book the word * Aberbrothock * is 
used still more comprehensively than in the ancient sense. It 
comprises all the parishes within the district of the Presbytery of 
Arbroath. Of the nine pre -Reformation parish churches in this 
district seven were of the number of forty -six parish churches 
which belonged to the Abbey of Aberbrothock — the seven being 
Aberbrothock (St. Vigeans), Arbirlot, Inverkeilor, Lunan, and 
Panbride — the property of the Abbey down to the secularisation, 
and Barry and Guthrie, to dates prior to the secularisation. Besides 
the neighbourly and business intercourse of the people of town and 
country, the whole district has thus had a close ecclesiastical con- 
nection with Arbroath from very old times. The idea of this kind 
of special unity in the district has been adopted in the present 
work, as it has been also in the book * Round about the Round 
with its Poets,' the town of Arbroath and the neighbouring parishes 
being treated as a whole. 

The pictures in this volume are from the drawings which "Mtp, 
John Adam, of Edinburgh — a native of Arbroath — prepared for 
* Round about the Round 0.' They are about three-quarters size of 
the originals, as produced in that work ; are faithful reproductions 

vi Preface, 

by the Typographic Etching Company, London; and have been 
printed by Messrs Ballantyne, Hanson, & Co., Edinburgh. 

For the authorities for statements of an historical character in 
the Notes to * Aberbrothock Illustrated,' I refer to my 'History of 
Arbroath' (Arbr. 1876), 'Round about the Round O with its Poets' 
(Arbr. 1883, and popular edition, 1885), and Miller's 'Arbroath and 
its Abbey' (Edinb. 1860). The last -mentioned work was printed, 
and the others printed and published, by Mr. Buncle, the publisher 
of this volume, to whose attachment to the district in which he has 
long been resident their origin is in large measure to be ascribed. 

G. H. 

Abbroath, August 1885. 



Pp. 1-86 




Abbboath Abbey: The Hich Altab, .... 1 

The Westebn Entbance, 


The 'Round 0,' 


Looking West, 


The Abbot's House, 


Fbom the Abbey Gbekn, 


The Gateway, . 


The * To web Nook,' 


Top of High Stbkrt, .... 


The Old Chubch, ... 


High School, 


Hill Trbbace, 


Wesley AN Chapel, .... 


Hays Well, 



Abbboath, fbom Hays Well. 


By Mayfield and Cliffbubn, 


J?HE Bbaeheads, 


At the Codhead Rock, . 


The Habboub, fbom the Old Salt Pan, 


BouT.ziE Hill 


Newgate House, .... 


High Stbeet Fbee Chubch, . 


Foot of High Stbeet, 


The Beach at Seagate, . 


The Mouth of the Bbothock, 


On the Jetty, 


The Habboub, 





Abbboath, from Ladyloan Bopewobk, 

The Shore, 

Tuttib's Nook, 

The Common, 

On the Dundee Road : The Infirmary 


Elliot Bridge, 

To Wormyhills, .... 
The Town House, .... 
Brothock Bridge, .... 
Brothock Bank, .... 
The Mawkin Pool, 
On Stobcross Bridge, 
The Gateway of the Cemetery. . 
The Doorway of the Mortuary Chapel, 
Hill End : The Water Works, . 
From Keptie to Cairniehill, 
Arbroath, from Cairnie, 
Cairnie Farm House, 
The Lovers' Loan : Cairnie to St. Vig 
•St. Vigeans Church, 
To St. Vigeans : The Burnside Path, 
Old Letham House, 

Letham Mill, 

Tarry Mill, 

North Tarry, 

St. ViGFJiNS, FROM Warddykes, 


On the Auchmithie Road : '^Horologe Hill, 

^ .^The Ladle Well, 
^-The Cartwright's, 
The Smithy, 


-Seaton House, 
Seaton Gate, 


Harbour of Auchmithie, 






































(JofUtfUti, ix 




Bedcastle, 65 

LuNAN Bay, 66 

Ethiehavicn, 67 

St. Mubdocu's Chapel, 68 

The Bedhead, 69 

Ethie House, 70 

At Ethie: The Stbickbn Tbre, 71 

The Gaylet Pot, 72 

In Seaton Den 73 

_ Abbkoathwakds, 74 

*The Floobs,' 75 

The Masons' Cave, 76 

•The Deil's Heid,' ok * Pint Stoup,' .... 77 

DiCKMONT Den, 78 

v'Neab *The Mabinebs' Gbave,' 79 

^The Needle Eye, 80 

^■^x-The Mebmaid*s Kibk, 81 

,-'/The Stalactite Cave, . . 82 

^,^ ..^St. Ninian's Well, 83 

^Thb Ness and the Steeple Rock, .... 84 

The Bell Rock Lighthouse, 85 

^DiCKMONT Law, 86 

Mabywell Village, 87 

Tabbybank, 88 

Dbunkendub, 89 

The Site of Quhitfield Chapel, Chapelton, 90 

BoYSACK Mill, 91 

Bbaikie Castle, 92 

The Chubch of Invebkeilob, 93 

Old Chance Inn, 94 

The Chubch of Lunan, 95 

The Site of St. Vigian's Chapel, Gbange of Con an, . 96 

The Bibthplace of Alex. Bbown, LL.D 97 

CoLLisTON Castle, 98 

The Village or Coluston, 99 


X Contents. 



Thb Chukch of Kinnsll, 100 

Leysmill, tbcm the Railway Station, . . . 101 

Fbiockhbim Parish Chuech, 102 

The Chubch of Guthrie, 103 

Guthrie Castle, 104 

Gardyne Castle, 105 

ViNNEY Den, 106 

The Church of Kirkden, 107 

To Arbirlot, 108 

The Church of Arbirlot 109 

Arbirlot Bridge, 110 

Kelly Den, HI 

Kelly Castle 112 

muirdrum, 113 

The Lake at The Guynd, 114 

The Church of Carmylie, 115 

To Carmylie Quarries, 116 

Westhaven, 117 

The Church of Barry, 118 

Carnoustie Parish Church, 119 

The Church of Panbride, 120 

The Old Gate at Panmure 121 

Panmure House 122 

The Panmure Monument, 123 

The Camuston Cross, 124 

Note. — The * end-papers' of this volume, like those of * Round About 
the Round O,' are illustrative of the botany of the district. 
They are a representation of some of the flowers which grow 
on the CliflFs, and are designed and printed by Messrs George 
Waterston & Sons, Edinburgh. 



The Abbey. 

When in the end of August 1773 Dr. Samuel Johnson, 

accompanied by Boswell, visited Ai'broath, there was nothing 

in the town which he condescended to take any notice of 

except the Abbey. About forty years afterwards, one who 

has a greater name in the literature of our country, and 

who had a keen eye for every phase of social life — Sir 

Walter Scott— took note not only of the grandeur of the 

Abbey ruins, described in * The Antiquary ' as * St. Ruth,' 

but also in many of the chapters in the same novel 

gave charmingly realistic pictures of life in *Fairport' 

(Arbroath), at country houses in its neighbourhood, and in 

* Musselcrag ' (Auchmithie), in the first decade or so of 

the present century. But Dr. Johnson, if he ignored the 

little town which he passed through on his journey from 

Dundee to Montrose, while on his way to the Hebrides — 

as he similarly ignored other towns of larger growth — 

was emphatic about its Abbey. * The monastery of 

Aberbrothock,' he wrote in the 'Journey to the Western 

Islands,' * is of great renown in the history of Scotland. . . 

I should scarcely have regretted my journey had it afforded 

nothing more than a sight of Aberbrothock.' And, amidst 

the whir of machinery and all the activities of a busy 

2 Aberbrothock Illustrated : 

manufacturing and commercial town, the Abbey, although 
for centuries a ruin only, is still, in an important sense, 
the dominant interest in Arbroath. These old ruins 
connect themselves with some of the dearest associations 
of the *sons of St. Thomas,' and from generation to genera- 
tion they have been a source of inspiration to innumerable 
local poets. In the most distant parts of the earth 
the Arbroath emigrant fondly recalls to recollection the 
Tower Nook, the Abbey Green, and 'the Round O.' The 
late Thomeis Watson (1807-75), who occupies a foremost 
place among the poets of Arbroath, has expressed, in a 
tine poem on the Abbey, the contemplative mood proper 
to a stroll amidst its ruins : 

Lone lingering in the old churchyard, 

And gazing on these mouldering walls, 
The stately pile of other days 

The re-creative mind recalls. 
Deep musing here, as day declines, 

And silence lulls the dinsome town, 
I needs must dream of ages past, 

Ere creed and Church were overthrown. 

The Abbey of Aberbrothock was founded in 1178, and 
the building of the church was completed in 1233. Its 
founder was King William the Lion, who dedicated it to 
his murdered friend Archbishop Becket — St. Thomas of 
Canterbury. In 1214, on 10th December, the body of 
King William was brought hither from Stirling, where the 
King died, and was buried in front of the High Altar (1), 
in the presence of his son and successor, Alexander II., and 
the nobility of the kingdom. The blue shelly marble block, 
curiously carved, which covered the tomb, is one of the 

The Round Etchings in Miniatva^e, 3 

relics contained in the vestry of the church — a beautiful 
building standing on the south side of the chancel, and 
erected in the fifteenth century by Abbot Walter Paniter. 

The chief entrance to the Abbey, and for long the 
principal entrance also to the Abbey Burying-Ground, is 
the West Door (2), deeply recessed, showing a blending of 
the Norman and Early English styles ; the bold outline 
being of the former style, and the elaborate and delicate 
carving being a characteristic of the latter. Above the 
door is a gallery, which again is surmounted by part of a 
large circular window that had been a prominent feature 
of the western gable. Of the two front towers the more 
entire is that on the north side, generally called the St. 
Thomas Tower. 

The Round O (3), or Catherine-wheel window, in the 
south transept, is a striking feature of the church. In 
this transept there was an altar to St. Catherine, in 
front of which was buried Gilchrist, Mormaer of Angus, a 
contemporary of the founder of the Abbey, and one of its 
most munificent benefactors. The modern and home-like 
associations of Arbroath with the Round O have been 
expressed by a living poet, George W. Donald, the Keeper 
of the Abbey : 

Lang may the sunbeams through thee glint. 
Thou magic ring, sae aft in print ; 
The heart must be as hard as flint, 

An' cauld as snaw, 
For thee that wadna gae ae dint, 

Thou big Round O. 

Looking West (4) from the transepts, a good view of 
the interior of the church is obtained. The view is that 

Jf Aherhrothock Illusi/rcUed : 

of the south aisle and the front portion of the structure : 
of the north aisle nothing is left, and of the north transept 
only the site is shown by modem masonry. About midway 
down the south aisle there is one of several interesting 
memorials in the Abbey Burying-Ground. It is a flat 
stone inscribed in memory of Bishop Edgar, of the family 
of Edgar of Keithock, in Angus, an elder brother of whom 
was the private secretary of the Chevalier de St. George, 
and a friend of his son Prince Charles Edward. 

The dormitory of the Abbey was as usual situated on 
the south side of the church. No part of it now exists, 
and it is on record that in 1580 the Magistrates had a grant 
of the stones of the dormitory from the Duke of Lennox, 
who was at that time Commendator of the Abbey, with 
which to build the church of the burgh — the Old Church. 
But although the dormitory has disappeared these 'three 
centuries, leaving no trace of its existence except where it 
abutted on the wall of the church, the Abbot's House (5), 
commonly called * the Abbey House,' remains. It is the 
property of the Town Council, and is still inhabited. The 
house has gone through many changes. At one time it 
was partly used as a thread factory, and it is understood 
that then much of its ancient carved work, of an ecclesi- 
astical character, disappeared. Only two pieces are left. 
The pillared and groined kitchen and butteries are still an 
interesting portion of the building. The garden of the 
Abbot's House has of late been laid out, in part, as a public 
bowling green ; and much has been done by the Magistrates, 
within the last few years, to open up and improve the 
surroundings of the Abbey on the south side, — the side of 
the Abbey Green, or Convent Churchyard (6), where stands 

The Rotmd Etchings in Miniature, 


a fragment of the chapter-house, and where the foundations 

of other parts of the monastic buildings, possibly the 

infirmary, were discovered a few years ago. The ruins of 

the Abbey Church belong to the Crown, which in 1815, 

after ages of neglect, undertook their care, and had the 

whole area of the church cleared out in 1835. 

The regality buildings of the Abbey are situated to the 

west of the church, which they adjoin. The remains of 

these buildings consist of the Gateway, or Abbey Pend (7), 

and the Tower (8). The former is a picturesque ruin ; 

the latter, which had been both the castle or fort and the 


prison of the monastery, is almost entire, and roofed. It 
is seventy feet high, twenty-four feet square, and its 
walls are four and a half feet thick. There had been a 
spacious apartment over the Gateway, and here, probably, 
in the regality portion of the Abbey buildings, was held 
the memorable Convention Parliament of 1320, under the 
presidency of King Robert the Bruce, which sent to Pope 
John XXII. the letter that extorted Papal recognition of 
the independence of the State and Church of Scotland. 
On two occasions before Bruce was at the Abbey, in 1296 
and again in 1303, Edward I. of England was there, as 
an uninvited guest ; and in after times several of the 
Scottish monarchs made brief sojourns within its walls. 

The gatehouse and the buildings between it and the 
church must have been erected a considerable time after the 
church itself, but the gatehouse at any rate probably dates 
as far back as the time of Bruce. The pend consisted 
of beautifully groined arches. In the walls may be seen 
the groove of the portcullis which defended the entrance 
to the Abbey, near which was begun the battle of Arbroath, 

6 Aherhrothock Illfiatrated : 

fought on 23rd January 1445. The portcullis forms the 
seal of the burgh of Arbroath. The illustration of the 
Tower Nook, like some others in this work, possesses an 
interest in showing things which have changed already 
with the progress of the years. The old tavern, known 
by the name of the * St. Thomas,' has given place to a 
modern erection of the same character, and the drinking- 
fountain has been removed to the open space in front of 
the north-west tower of the Abbey. 

The Abbey to the Old Church. 

The precinct of the Abbey was enclosed by a lofty 
stone wall, some fragments of which still remain. The 
wall began at the Tower, and was continued along the east 
side of the High Street (9), though not quite on the present 
line of the street. Arbroath was in existence in some 
rudimentary state, perhaps as a fishing village, before the 
Abbey was founded. *The village of Aberbrothock ' was 
among the gifts which were granted to the monastery by 
King William, who authorised the monks to erect it into 
a burgh, with market and port, which they did. The High 
Street is the first street in the town of which mention is 
made in the Chartulary of the Abbey — the oldest of the 
local records. It is noticed in the year 1303, by which 
time the burgesses had built houses on the west side. 
* High Street,' however, is a comparatively modern name. 
Until about a hundred and sixty years ago the name of 
the street, from the Abbey Tower to Lordburn, was 
Eleemosynary Street, it being so named from the almonry 

The Rov/nd Etchings in Miniature, 7 

of the Abbey, which stood in that neighbourhood. From 
Lordburn to Kirk Wynd, the street was anciently known 
as Rotten Row — a somewhat rare name ♦ and below Kirk 
Wynd to the sea the name was Copegate, sometimes written 
* Covgate ' or * Cowgate ' — perhaps as indicating the site of 
the market-place of the burgh, which this part of High 
Street still is. It is the upper part of High Street, down 
to near Applegate, which is presented in the picture. 
Lordburn and Applegate, extending westward from High 
Street, are among the oldest streets in the burgh. 

The Parish, or Burgh, Church (10) stands in the south- 
west angle of the precinct of the Abbey, and a small tower 
which had formed part of the precinct wall at this point 
was used as the steeple of the church until 1830, when 
the present spire was built. The church itself was built 
between the years 1580 and 1590. Besides the gift of the 
stones of the dormitory of the Abbey from the Duke of 
Lennox, the Magistrates obtained various donations in money 
from the Convention of Burghs, to assist them in building 
the church. It was enlarged in 1762-63, since which time 
the principal change made upon it, either internally or 
externally, has been the erection of an organ in the year 
1881. The church, since shortly after the erection of the 
Abbey Parish Church in 1797, has generally been called 
*the Old Church.' 

Youthful joys no time destroys, 
Nor waste of distance quells, 
And still the strain I hear again 
That mis the Auld Kirk bells. 

So sings W. C. Sturoc, a native of Arbroath resident for 
the last thirty-nine years in America. 

8 Aherbrothock UlustrcUed : 

Thb High School to Hats Well. 

The Dam Gate, a private entrance to the Monastery, 
stood at the south-east angle of the precinct wall, and a 
little to the south-west of its site are the High School (11) 
and Hill Terrace (12). For upwards of three centuries at 
least the chief scliools of the burgh have been in this 
locality. What was for ages the only school was situated 
in School Wynd — a narrow lane, running between Kirk 
Wynd and High Street, parallel with the latter street. 
It was doubtless in this old school that Master Robert 
Gumming taught — a schoolmaster who in 1562 was deposed 
by the General Assembly for * infecting the youth committed 
to his charge with idolatrie/ that is, with the tenets of the 
old religion. It was in 1769 that the burgh school was 
removed from School Wynd to the neighbouring hill, from 
which it was named the Hill School. The Academy, now 
known as the High School, was erected in 1821 close to 
the site of the Hill School. The High School is a 
building which associates itself with the youthful recol- 
lections of many of the sons and daughters of Arbroath. 
Hill Terrace, with Hill Place opposite, named, as is also 
Hill Street, from Boulzie Hill, is a somewhat modern street. 

Academy Street, at the north end of the High School, 
takes its name from the school. Ponderlaw Street, which 
is a continuation of Academy Street, derives its name from 
a remoter time. It is situated in the field which belonged 
to the *punder' of the Abbey, the officer who had charge 
of its woods and forests. Off this street there is a 
small street called Barber's Croft. Unlike Smithy Croft 

The Round Etchings in Miniature, 9 

(to the north of the Abbey grounds), anciently possessed 
by the master smith or armourer, Barber's Croft does 
not derive its name from any officer of the Abbey, but 
from a family of the name of Barbour who possessed 
the land in the sixteenth century. In Ponderlaw Street is 
the Wesleyan Chapel (13). This chapel, a small octagonal 
building, was opened for public worship by John Wesley 
on 6th May 1772. In 1882 it underwent a renovation 
which included the erection of a high Grothic porch that 
has completely changed its appearance as seen from the 
street. It is the old view that is seen in the picture. The 
house, part of which appears to the left-hand side of the 
drawing, is the manse of the Wesleyan minister. 

Ponderlaw Street and Academy Street are shown in the 
picture of the High School, with the spire of St. Mary's 
(Episcopal) Church closing the vista. Passing the church on 
the right and Abbey Bank (Mr. James Muir) on the left, we 
go along an old road leading into the Montrose Koad at the 
farm of CuUoden — ^this last name being derived from the 
battle which extinguished, the hopes of the Jacobites. 
About midway on this road a short path leads to the 
Hays Well (14) — an old and favourite fount. The present 
well was erected in 1841, by public subscription, and it 
took the place of an older structure. It is named from 
'The Hays,' formerly meadow lands, and so called the 
Hays, situated to the east of the Abbey precinct. The 
Abbey was supplied with water from springs in the Hays. 
The water was conveyed in a two-inch lead pipe from about 
the spot where the Hays Well stands, as was discovered 
by the finding of a piece of the pipe during excavations 
which were made in the neighbourhood of the Abbey 

10 Aberbrothock Ulttstrated : 

Green in March 1879. The water was carried to a handsome 
reservoir, which stood a little to the south of the Abbey 
Church, and which is stated to have been destroyed about 
the beginning of the eighteenth century by the Rev. 
John Ferguson, minister of Arbroath, who constructed a 
tomb for himself with its stones. In the year 1779 the 
tomb was in turn demolished by order of the Magistrates, 
who appropriated its materials for the building of a cell 
as part of a prison which they erected in connection with 
the old Town House, subsequently the Guild Hall. A good 
view of Arbroath is obtained from near Hays Well (15) : 
streets of dwelling-houses erected within the last few years 
have spoiled a fine view of the ruins of the Abbey from 
this spot. 

The Braeheads, Boulzie Hill, Newgate. 

Returning along the Culloden farm road we have a pretty 
rural scene in the immediate neighbourhood of the town 
and the sea, with Cliffburn (Mrs. Ritchie) and Mayfield (16) 
set in the midst of corn-fields. A walk along the Braeheads 
(17) commands a magnificent prospect alike of sea and 
land. In the picture the house seen on the top of the brae 
is Cliff House (Mr. C. Brown), and the cottages on the low 
ground in the distance were in the olden time connected 
with a spinning-mill at West Seaton Den — one of the 
earliest spinning-mills in the district. The chimney, part 
of which appears at the boundary wall of an old footpath 
in the foreground of the picture, is that of an asphalte 
manufactory. Down on the beach from here is the Codhead 

The Rov/nd Etchings in MinicUure, 11 

Kock (18), so called from its general resemblance to the 
head of a iish, and the illustration shows a young fisher 
looking out for the return of the fishing-boats. The Godhead 
Rock is but one feature of the rocky shore eastward 
from Arbroath, of which a view is given in the picture 
introducing the old Salt Pan (19), and showing vessels 
crossing the harbour bar — a nautical scene which has 
inspired the Muse of a local poet, 'Thos. Kydd' : — 

Out to sea, from the old red pier. 

When the morning is breaking fair, 
I gaze, and the lapping of wavelets hear, 

And I revel in ocean air. 
My heart keeps time with the lap and spray 

As, bearing to seaward far. 
The fisherman silently sailing away 

Is crossing the Fairport bar. 

Boulzie Hill, with one of the public schools at its base, 
the modem Hill School (20), overlooks sea and shore 
at this point. The hill is public recreation ground, being 
vested in the Magistrates and Town Council for the 
community on payment of an annual rent. In times 
more primitive in their manners than the present it was 
a custom of the Incorporated Trades of Arbroath, kept 
up till about forty years ago, to assemble on Boulzie 
Hill, immediately after the Michaelmas elections, to throw 
apples over it, scattering them among the children. In 
a dispute with the superior, the Laird of Newgate, the 
practice appears latterly to have served the purpose of 
asserting a public right in the hill. Since the accompanying 
picture was taken the field in which the cattle are seen 
browsing has mostly been covered by a boot and shoe 

12 Aberbrothock Illustrated: 

factory. Newgate House (21), an old mansion, at the base 
of Boulzie Hill, is described by John Ouchterlony, of Guynd, 
drca 1686, as *a very good house and pleasant place.' The 
streets on the estate of Newgate have been nearly all made 
within the present century. In Ouchterlony's time the house 
was surrounded by orchards and corn-fields. At the top of 
Boulzie Hill, on the estate of Springfield, is Springfield 
House (Rev. J. E. MacDougall), where in the end of last 
century Dr. Thomas Chalmers was tutor in the family of 
Dr. Stevenson, a medical practitioner in Arbroath. On 
the Hill itself the attention of the passer-by is arrested by 
a field-piece enclosed within an iron railing. It is one of 
the Russian guns captured during the war in the Crimea. 

Lower Part op High Street — Danger Point. 

Leaving the Hill, and proceeding along Hill Street, we 
have at the end of that street, at the opposite intersection 
of High Street, an old street with a new name. Commerce 
Street. Until 1860 this thoroughfare was called Horner's 
Wynd, and it is supposed to have been so called after 
Nicholas Horner, who was a magistrate of the burgh four 
hundred years ago. Farther down High Street from this 
point, there are on the right hand the Public Hall Build- 
ings, including the Museum. Next to these is an old 
house, with crow-stepped gable, formerly called the Bishop's 
Palace, from its having been the residence of Bishop Edgar. 
It was in this house that Episcopalian worship was held 
during the time of the extreme disabilities imposed upon 
Episcopalians after the battle of CuUoden, when not 

Tlie Eatmd Etchings in Miniature. 13 

more than four persons were permitted to assemble at a 
time for worship conducted by any Episcopalian clergy- 
man, unless the clergyman had qualified by taking the oath 
to the Government. On the opposite side of the street, 
farther down, is old St. Mary's, now High Street Free 
Church (22), erected in 1806, and deserted by the Episco- 
palian congregation when in 1854 they removed to their 
new church in Springfield. An older Episcopal Chapel is 
shown in the picture of the foot of High Street (23). It 
is the second house in the etching, with a broad outside 
stair. About the beginning of the present century this 
building was the chapel and clergyman's house of the 
^ qualified ' or English Episcopalians, previous to their union 
with the Scottish Episcopalian congregation. This part 
of High Street, down to the sea at Danger Point, with other 
streets in the neighbourhood, is now chiefly inhabited by a 
thriving colony of fishers. A strong bulwark at Danger 
Point guards against encroachments of the sea, which within 
the last thirty or forty years had rendered a dwelling- 
house, now taken down, uninhabitable, and had destroyed 
another building called the Fish-House. Close to Danger 
Point, to the east, is the Beeich at Seagate (24), shoi|p in 
the illustration at ebb tide, and where also, as partly appears 
from the tumble-down condition of some of the erections, 
the sea has made encroachments. The headland which 
appears in the distance in this picture is Whiting Ness. 
The view of the mouth of the Brothock (25) shows the 
bulwark at Danger Point. One of the commonest sights 
here is that of fisher wives and girls washing fishy clothes in 
the bum. A short distance seaward from where they are 
seen so engaged is the outlet of the main drain of the town. 

IJ^. Aherhrothock Illustrated : 

The Harbour. 

Walking along the south quay of the Harbour, or the 
Protection Wall, we reach the Jetty (26). Frequently 
there may be seen on a summer evening many more amateur 
fishers at this place than are shown in the drawing. The 
building with the tower is the Bell Rock Signal Tower, 
including the residence of the lightkeepers. The houses 
seen in the distance among the trees are Windmill (Mr. 
W. K. Macdonald) and Greenbank (Mr. James Cumming). 
Down towards the sea, about the end of Ladyloan, and 
near the ropework buildings at the point of land, is 
Ladyloan Public School. 

The first harbour of Arbroath was a wooden pier, 
extending from the foot of High Street and bending west- 
ward, in front of Old Shorehead — a street which takes its 
name from the old harbour. This harbour was formed in 
consequence of a covenant entered into in 1394 by the 
monastery of Arbroath and the burgesses — an interesting 
document which has been preserved in the Registers of the 
Abb^y. The Abbot's Harbour was superseded in the first 
half of the eighteenth century by the older part of the 
present Harbour, the building of which was begun in 1725, 
but owing to a scarcity of funds was not completed for 
many years. Under an Act of Parliament obtained in 
1839 a New or outer Harbour was constructed, and the 
Old Harbour, the one which was begun in 1725, was 
improved. The Old Harbour was recently converted into 
a wet dock, this work being completed in September 1877, 
and the picture * At the Harbour ' (27) shows it in that 

The Round Etchings in Miniature, 15 

condition. On 18th February 1882 the dock entrance 
collapsed, but works with a view to its restoration have 
been going on for some time. 

Included within the area of the dock is the site, near 
the Shore Dues Office, of the Lady Chapel, or St. Mary's, 
which was one of the establishments of the Abbey, and 
previous to the Reformation was the ordinary place of 
worship of the people of Arbroath. The foundations of the 
chapel, and some of its mouldings, were discovered when the 
Old Harbour was being converted into the wet dock. This 
old chapel has given its name to Ladybridge and Ladyloan. 

Another view of the Harbour, and also of the town, is 
that from Ladyloan Rope work (28). The sheet of water 
shown here, and still better shown in No. 26, is a favourite 
resort for swimmers. The Shore (29), another of the 
Harbour pictures, is a scene familiar to many a Baltic and 
other foreign seaman as well as to tlie people of Arbroath. 
The picture shows Ladybridge Street in the distance. The 
harbour and town were bombarded on 23rd and 24th May 
1781 by a French privateer, the Fearnought, under the 
command of Captain Fall, but hardly any damage was done. 
It is a tradition that a half-witted fellow known as *the 
Simple Tailor,' and 'Satan Barclay,' another local 'character,' 
displayed some gallantry by discharging a musket-fire at the 
privateer from behind the Nuckle Rock — an incident which 
John Sim Sands (1794-1865) has introduced into his poem 
on the subject : 

But Arbroath and her * Stitch ' now their musketry pour. 
And pelt on her foemen the pitiless shower : 
From the * Nuckle * destruction flees swift as the light, 
And the cutter's brave crew bid the world good night. 

16 Aherbroihock IllustrtUed : 

On the second day of the bombardment the privateer weighed 
anchor and sailed for Aberdeen. The Nuckle Eock, the 
scene of * the Simple Tailor's ' exploit, has disappeared. 
Part of it was carried away some years ago, a ship having 
run upon it, and the remainder was afterwards blown 
up to improve the entrance to the harbour. 

Tuttie's Nook to Wohmyhills. 

Proceeding along Ladyloan, by a road which for ages 
gave the only access to Arbroath from Dundee and the 
West, we reach Tuttie's Nook (30), so called from being the 
nook, or comer, where in olden times the town's herd was 
in the practice of collecting the cattle of the inhabitants. 
In getting them together, to drive them to the moor, at 
Muirlands, he * touted ' on a horn. Three centuries ago, 
and later, the burgesses of Arbroath were largely an agri- 
cultural community, each man having his own acres, together 
with his right of pasturage in the common moor. Besides 
Tuttie's Nook, the drawing shows the Common — ^not the 
common moor — and another view of it is given in the next 
picture (31). This view includes also Seaforth House 
(Mr. C. W. Corsar), with the sands of Hospitalfield, and the 
distant coast line. The Common has been much cut up by 
roads and the railway, but it is still the chief recreation 
ground of the youth of Arbroath. As such, it mingles with 
some of the kindliest associations of the people. The feeling 
was expressed in some artless verses by Annie Mitchell, of 
Andover, United States, who previous to emigrating had 
worked in a spinning-mill in Arbroath. The short poem. 

The Bound Etchings in Miniature. 17 

of which these are the opening lines, was published in the 
local paper in 1876 : 

sweet Arbroath, home of my birth. 
Spot that has aye been dear to me ; 

1 love thee still, and for thy sake 
I yet will cross the Atlantic Sea. 

IVe wandered long in foreign climes, 

But never yet was seen by me 
A gem sae rare, a flower sae sweet, 

As the gowanies on the Common lea. 

The Arbroath Infirmary, shown on the high ground in the 
drawing * On the Dundee Road ' (32), stands on land that 
once formed part of the Common. The Infirmary was 
opened on 12th January 1845. A little north from the 
Dundee Road, about three-quarters of a mile west from the 
Common, is Hospitalfield (33). The estate of Hospitalfield 
derives its name from the Hospital of the Abbey, which stood 
on the site of the mansion, and part of which, indeed, is 
included in the present house. The house commands a fine 
prospect of the estuary of the Tay. As it stands, it is 
largely the creation of the architectural skill of its owner, 
Mr. Patrick Allan-Fraser, jET.R.S.A., and with its valuable 
artistic, antiquarian, and literary treasures, is one of the 
most interesting houses in Forfarshire. About half a mile 
west from Hospitalfield is the small hamlet of Elliot, with 
the bridge which carries the Dundee Road over the Elliot 
bum (34). This bridge was erected in 1785, shortly after 
the post-rider between Dundee and Arbroath had on a stormy 
night been swept away by the swollen stream, and drowned. 
Elliot is a junction on the Dundee and Arbroath Joint 

18 Aherhruthock Illustrated: 

Railway, the line connecting with it being the one from the 
Carmylie quarries. Kelly Bleachfield, a large work, is a 
little above the point at which Elliot Water enters the sea. 
The pleasant road to the Mineral Well at Wormyhills (35), 
passing Elliot House (Mr. J. P. Dowall), conducts also to 
the bleachwork, which is finely situated near the entrance 
to Kelly Den. 

The Town House and Brothock Bridge. 

At Wormyhills we are fjiUy two miles from the market 
cross of Arbroath, or from the spot on High Street where 
the cross stood, and we shall now retrace our steps thither. 
That may be conveniently done by rail, and five minutes after 
getting into the train at Elliot we are in the Railway Station 
at Keptie Street. That street, which with its continuation. 
West Port, was about twenty years ago composed almost 
entirely of small houses, has within the last ten years 
or so become one of the chief business streets in the town. 
High Street is got at by way of this street and Millgate, 
the latter, an old street, being formerly the gait or road to 
the town's mills. The Town House (36), the seat of the 
local government of Arbroath, is the same that Scott makes 
mention of in *The Antiquary' as the * new Council House.' 
It was erected in 1808. But it has undergone some modi- 
fications since then, the principal of which were the removal, 
in 1844, of an outside stair by which access to it was 
obtained, and the addition of a wing with an arched pend 
l)eneath, connecting it with the Guild Hall, or Guildry 
Buildings. The records of the burgh ; tlie charter of James 

The Hound Etchings in Miniature, 19 

VI., dated 1599, of new erecting Arbroath into a royal 
burgh ; and also the Regality Register of the Abbey, are 
deposited in the Town House. The Guild Hall shown in 
the picture, adjoining the Town House, is the old Guild 
Hall, burned down in October 1880, and since replaced by 
a more ornate structure. The old house was built in 1780 
by the Town Council and the Guildry Incorporation. The 
ground floor was a prison, and in this prison two of the 
* Friends of Liberty,' Robert Sands, Arbroath, and George 
Mealmaker, Dundee, were temporarily detained in 1794 ; the 
lirst floor was the Council Chambers until the Council 
removed to the present Town House ; and the upper floor 
was the Guild Hall. J. Sands, author of *Out of the 
World ; or. Life in St. Kilda/ and other works, a grandson 
of Robert Sands, and son of the late John Sim Sands, pays 
a tribute to the memory of Mealmaker, one of Scotland's 
political martyrs, these being the first lines of his poem : 

Soldier of Freedom, and her martyr too ! 

Who, armed with little but persistent zeal, 
Fought in the van against the despot crew 

That ruled the nation with a rod of steel, 
Fain would the grandson of thy friend proclaim 
Thy noble conduct, and revive thy name. 

Brothock Bridge (37) is one of the most open spaces in 
the town. The large building in the picture is the Old 
Mill of Burnside spinning works ; the small house to the 
right was the residence of the late Thomas Watson ; 
and part of the enclosure of the British Linen Branch 
Bank is also shown in the picture The bank occupies 
the site of Boysack Lodge, which was the town house 

W AherhrotJiock Illustrated: 

of the Carnegies of Boysack. Abbey stones were used 
freely in the construction of houses in Arbroath in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ; and on Boysack 
Lodge being demolished a large number of these, corbels 
and other finely carved stones, were found to have been 
built into the inner walls of the house. There were sevei"al 
cartloads of them, and they are now at Woodville, near 
Arbroath When the British Linen Bank was being built 
many human remains were unearthed, from which it is sup- 
posed that the site was an ancient cemetery, perhaps giving 
its name to Gravesend, an adjoining street. Gravesend is an 
old local name. The granite drinking-fountain in front of the 
bank was gifted to the town by the trustees of the late Mr. 
William Gibson, Maulesbank, in fulfilment of an intention 
of Mr. Gibson, who in his lifetime had done something 
towards improving the water-supply of the town. Market- 
gate — not shown in the drawing — one of two streets 
leading down from Brothock Bridge to the Harbour, was 
a street so long ago as the fourteenth century. Brothock 
Bank (38), on the west side of the bridge, showing, besides 
the house, a bit of Brothock Mill, — the first spinning-mill 
in Arbroath in which steam power was used — has been 
much altered since the drawing was made, the trees having 
been cut down, and a row of shops erected where the blank 
wall and railing are shown. This part of the town has 
been a good deal altered from time to time within the 
last forty years. It is now the chief access to the High 
Street from the west : formerly there was only a narro'w 
road at Brothock Bank, the entrance to which, at Millgate, 
was for long spanned by the jaws of a whale. 

Hie Eatmd Etchmgs in Miniature. 21 

Almerieclose, Stobcross, and The Cemetery. 

Passing along in front of Brothock Mill, and crossing 
the bridge over the Brothock at Park Street, we get into 
the district which formed the estate of Almerieclose. There, 
when the district was rural, there was on the west bank 
of the stream a fai*m called Segton or Sedgeton, so named, 
it is supposed, from the sedges which grew at the water- 
side; and on the east side of the Brothock there was a 
large orchard, the memory of which is preserved in the 
name of a street in the locality. These and similar features 
of the district have disappeared these fifty years, being 
superseded by the flax spinning-mills and factories, some of 
which are shown in the picture of the Mawkin Pool (39). 
The Mawkin Pool is a milldam in the Brothock. It is 
mentioned in the Abbey Registers by this name in 1457. 
The name was a surname in Arbroath at that time, and 
it is probable that as a place-name it is derived from a 
person who formed the dam for the service of the burgh 
mills. The Brothock and its banks have been much 
changed since the poet William Allan (1784-1804) sang, 
in * The Lass wi* the Bonnie Black Hair,* 

Thou soft flow'ry Brothock, by whose verdant side 
My Jenny aft strays the broom bushes amang, 

An' eyes the gay sporters that dart through thy tide, 
To list to the mavis' wild warbUng sang. 

In the view from Stobcross Bridge (40), looking down 
towards Guthrie Port, more spinning-mills and factories 
appear. The district has by its name an older and 

J/i Aberbrothock Illustrated : 

different association, * Stobcross ' being a corruption of * St. 
Abb's Cross.' The name has long been localised, and 
probably it is indicative of the site of an old cross, placed 
within full view of the Abbey, on the old road to Forfar. 
Glossing Stobcross Bridge, and passing through the Cairnie 
district of the town, which has nearly all been built within 
the last twenty years, we go along the old Forfar Road, 
with the houses of Cairniehill (Mr. W. H. Corsar) and The 
Elms (Mr. David Corsar) on the right, and at the point, 
about two miles from the Town House, where the new 
road joins the old, arrive at the Gate of the Cemetery (41). 
The first interment in the Cemetery took place on 31st 
October 1867. The ground, measuring about twenty acres, 
is kept like a beautiful garden. About its centre stands a 
Memorial Mortuary Chapel (42), which has been erected by 
Mr. Patrick Allan-Fras^r of Hospitalfield from his own plans 
and under his immediate superintendence. The Chapel, 
which was begun in 1875, was about ten years in course 
of erection. It is a monument of solid workmanship. 

On Mausoleum, Death's most princely dower, 
The sculptor has exhausted all his art ; 

On grass-green grave lies modest wayside flower, 
Or widow's mite — rich offering of the heart. 

— James Crighton, 

The Mortuary Chapel attracts attention by its uncon- 
ventional and striking architecture as well as by its many 
exquisitely beautiful carvings in stone — birds, ferns, flowers, 
and other natural objects being truthfully copied from 
nature. The rich and varied details of this building are 
worthy of careful study. 

7%« Bound Etchings in Miniature. 2S 

Anciently, the site of the Cemetery formed part of the 
burgh moor, which was of very considerable extent. There 
is but little appearance of moorland in the district now, 
the lands extending all round the Cemetery, and towards 
Colliston, being in a state of high cultivation, and dotted 
over with pleasantly situated houses, among these being 
Woodville (Colonel Dickson), Denfield (Mr. G. W. Laird), 
Rosely (Mr. James Shanks), Woodside (Mr. Colin Grant), 
Woodlands (Mr. James Smith), Ashbrook (Mr. William 
Salmond), Eernlea (Mr. Robert Salmond), and Beechwood 
(Mrs. Garland). 

Keptie and Cairnie. 

Returning towards the town by the new Forfar Road, 
which has been the chief road now for upwards of half a 
century, and passing Denley (Mr. Francis Webster), we 
reach the Nolt Loan Water Works and Hillend (43). 
The character of this locality is being changed considerably, 
through house-building and an important alteration in the 
Water Works. What since 1871 has been the public water- 
supply of Arbroath is pumped up from a well to the tank 
shown in the picture. This water scheme has been extended 
by the sinking of a larger and deeper well at Nolt Loan, 
and an extensive water tower — an imposing castellated 
structure — has been erected on the summit of Keptie Hill, 
just above Hillend. The work is now (June 1885) near 
completion, and when it is completed the tank shown in 
the picture will be taken down and re-erected, alongside 
two others, in the new Water Tower. 

^4 Aberhrothock Illustraied : 

The name of the land to the north of Keptie Hill 
is Lochshade. The name indicates the situation of a loch, 
some remains of which still exist on the property of Loch- 
lands (Mr. Peter Pennycook), and part of the ground 
between the Water Works and the Hill is every winter 
artificially turned into a lake again, to form a skating pond. 
The former presence of a loch there is also indicated 
in the name of a modem house in the locality — Csenlochan 
(Mr. David Chapel). The new Eorfar Road cuts Keptie 
Hill into two parts. The eastern division, on the way to 
Cairnie (44), presents some sylvan beauty, but the district 
is being invaded by streets, and part of the hill itself has 
disappeared, having been appropriated for the sake of the 
sand and gravel of which it is composed. From Cairnie a 
good general view of the town (45) down to the sea is 
obtained. The foreground of the picture is occupied by the 
railway and Dens Iron Works. The large building on the 
hill opposite Cairnie — Guthrie Hill — is the Arbroath and 
St. Vigeans Combination Poorhouse, which was opened in 

The estate of Cairnie, now belonging to Sir John Ogilvy, 
Bart., was for centuries possessed by the family of Aikman, 
designed of Lordburn and Cairnie. The last laird of that 
name was William Aikman, the celebrated portrait painter, 
grandson of the laird who is described as *the Gude Laird 
o' Cairnie.' William Aikman sold Cairnie in 1707. There 
are built into the wall of the steading of Cairnie farm two 
stones bearing the arms of the Aikmans, the date 1688, 
and the initials * J. A,' for John Aikman. No fewer than 
ten of these lairds of Cairnie bore the Christian name 
John, as is recorded, with other interesting particulars 

I%e Round Etchings in Mvaiatwre, 25 

relating to the Aikmans, on a monumental brass which in 
1869 was placed in the vestry of the Church of Arbroath 
Abbey by their descendant the late Captain Robertson 
Aikman of ErOss. 

The picturesque Farm House of Caimie (46) stands at a 
distance of not a great many yards from the ends of three 
modem streets — Howard Street, St. Vigeans Road, and 
Ogilvy Place. Cairnie Hill appears to have been a favourite 
resort of the poet Alexander Balfour (1767-1829), author 
of * Contemplation,' and other works : 

Oft when day's departing beam 
Faintly fell on Brothock's stream. 
Wandering lone, on Caimie Hill, 
For thy sake IVe lingered still, 
Pondering o'er the solemn scene. 
Wrapt in solitude serene. 

G. W. Donald has celebrated the same scene in his song 
*The Bonnie Lass o' Cairnie,* the sentiment animating 
which has doubtless been whispered many a time, and from 
generation to generation, in The Lovers' Loan (47), though 
the poet, in this case, makes it that of the wailing, because 
rejected, lover : 

Ye birds that round St. Vigeans sing 
To welcome in the flowery spring, 
Like you I've garr'd the echoes ring 
Amang the Braes o' Cairnie. 

But now I cower to hide my pain 
Frae ilka nymph an' ilka swain. 
An' sigh an' sing this dowie strain — 
Farewell ! farewell to Caimie ! 

;/6* Aherhrothock Illustrated 

St. Vioeans. 

Since the Den has been cut up by the Caledonian Railway 
and the North British Arbroath and Montrose Railway, 
which pass through it, the road by the Lovers' Loan is now 
the more attractive of the two direct roads from Arbroath to 
St. Vigeans. Proceeding along this road, and passing Elm 
Bank (Mr. Andrew Lowson), we come to the knoll which has 
for many centuries been the burying-place of the parishioners 
of St. Vigeans. The Church stands on its summit (48). 
The approach to the church from the Den, by the side of the 
Brothock, is also very fine (49). St. Vigeans was anciently 
the parish church of Arbroath as well as of St. Vigeans, or 
rather of the whole * shire ' of Aberbrothock. The church 
was dedicated to St. Vigian, identified as St. Fechin, who 
in the seventh century was Abbot of Eohbar, in Westmeath, 
and it is one of the earliest ecclesiastical seats in the district. 
It is a tradition that the original situation of this Christian 
mission to the pagans of Southern Pictland was at Grange 
of Conan, where there are a holy well and the remains of 
a chapel, both bearing the name of St. Vigian, but probably 
this tradition is not well founded. The chapel may have 
V)een a dependency of the church at St. Vigeans, and so 
called St. Vigian's Chapel, just as the qrioad sacra parish 
of Inverbrothock was so called many centuries later. St. 
Vigeans Church has a celebrity for its sculptured monu- 
ments, of the Celtic period, the most remarkable of which 
is the inscribed Drosten Cross. The Cross long stood in 
the churchyard. It is now carefully preserved in the 
church porch, and it has attracted much attention from 

The R(ywnd Etchings in MinicUure. 27 

archaeologists. The church underwent a process of restorar 
tion a few years ago. At that time the south clere-story 
wall and about three feet of the upper part of the north were rebuilt, and it was found, in taking down 
the old work, that many fragments of finely sculptured 
stones had been utilised in its erection. These have been 
preserved, and several of them have been built into the 
inner face of the west wall. There are also some modern 
monuments in the edifice. One of them — only modem 
now in comparison with the Celtic stones — is to the 
memory of Sir Peter Young, who was preceptor and 
master almoner to James VI. He was a native of 
Dundee, acquired the estate of Tame, died in 1628, and 
was buried at St. Vigeans. A recently erected monu- 
ment is in memory of the Rev. John Muir, minister of 
the parish from 1816 to 1865, and who on his death in 
the latter year was succeeded by the present minister, the 
Rev. William Duke, ordained in 1859 as assistant and 
successor to Mr. Muir. St. Vigeans Church, as it now 
stands, consists of a nave terminated by an apse, three 
aisles — two of them on the north — and a tower containing 
the principal entrance. The apse was erected in memory 
of the late Mrs. Rickard of Woodlands, chiefly from the 
proceeds of a legacy bequeathed by her. Its five windows 
are filled with beautiful stained glass, representing re- 
spectively the birth, baptism, crucifixion, resurrection, 
and ascension of our Lord. These windows have been 
erected in memory of, respectively, Alexander Duncan of 
Parkhill ; John Bowman, formerly schoolmaster of the 
parish ; the Rev. John Aitkin, formerly minister of the 
parish ; the wife and children of the late Mr. Robert 

28 Aberbrothock Illustrated: 

Lindsay, North Tarry (an additional brass has been 
placed to the memory of Mr. Robert Lindsay himself) ; 
and Mr. James Lindsay, younger brother of the above, 
who succeeded him at North Tarry. There is another 
stained - glass window in the south aisle, in memory of 
Miss Rolland of Abbethune, a generous benefactor of the 
Industrial School in Arbroath. The church possesses 
valuable communion plate, gifted to it by the late Mr. 
James Lindsay, North Tarry, in memory of his mother, and 
also cups gifted in 1667 and 1791. A curious tradition 
attaches to St. Vigeans Church, as to some other buildings 
in Scotland. It is to. the effect that at the erection of one 
of the early structures a water-kelpie from the Brothock was 
pressed into the service, and he lamented his bondage in this 
couplet : 

Sair back an' sair banes 

Carrying the kirk of St. Vigeans stanes. 

Another tradition connected with the church — significant of 
the superstitions of a bygone age — is that the Sacrament of 
the Supper had not been dispensed in the parish from 1699 
to 1736 — an improbability — and that the parishioners had 
brought themselves to believe that the first time the ordin- 
ance should be dispensed the church would sink and the 
whole people would be carried down and drowned in a lake 
over which it was supposed to have been built. The belief 
of this had taken such hold of the people's minds that on 
the day the sacrament was administered some hundreds of 
the parishioners sat on an eminence — on which the manse 
now stands — about a hundred yards from the church, 
expecting every moment the dreadful catastrophe. The 

Tlie Rov/nd Etchings in Miniature, 29 

tradition is related by the Rev. John Aitkin, minister from 
1754 to 1816, in his article on the parish, given in the Old 
Statistical Account of Scotland. Mr. Aitkin tells a still 
older story, of the superstitious kind, concerning the church 
of St. Yigeans : * Tradition relates that the last monk who 
officiated here was one of the name of TumbuU; and in 
the year 1754 part of the floor of two rooms in the steeple 
said to be possessed by him remained. He is said to have 
been frightened from his chambers by the devil appearing 
to him in the shape of a rat, and no monk after him would 
be persuaded to reside in the steeple.' 

Mr. Aitkin, previous to his ordination to the ministiy 
in the parish of St. Vigeans, was schoolmaster of Arbroath. 
He was not himself in the least prone to superstition, but 
was a shrewd worthy gentleman of the old school. He 
lived to a great age, and for some time prior to his death 
was the oldest minister of the Church of Scotland. Dr. 
Scott, in his ' Fasti Ecclesise Scoticanse,' tells an anecdote 
of him which derives its point from the circumstance of 
his having been a bachelor. When advanced in life, and 
troubled with deafness, he consulted a physician in Edin- 
burgh, celebrated as an aurist, and a humorist as well. 
The minister having tendered a fee it was refused, the 
doctor explaining that it had long been a rule with him to 
take no fee from country clergymen, on the ground that 
they could not afford it. * Oh,' said Mr. Aitkin, * I can ; 
I have no family.' *Why,' said the doctor, *did you not 
tell me that at first? Then you will be a bachelor? 
Destroy the prescription I gave; go home and get married 
as fast as you can, and be assured ere long time elapse 
you shall hear on the deafest side of your head.' 

so Aberhrotliock lllvstrated : 

Not far to the north of St. Vigeans Church is the old 
mansion-house of Letham (50), now a farm-house, situated 
a mile or two down the valley from the large and beautiful 
mansion of Letham Grange (Mr. James Fletcher). Near 
old Letham House, at a point on the road from Beechwood 
to St. Vigeans, the Bell Rock Lighthouse, fourteen miles 
distant, can be seen through the * Round O.* A short 
way from Letham House is Letham Mill (51), where 
the bee -hives of the President of the East of Scotland 
Beekeepers' Society, Mr. John Stewart, are well worthy 
of a visit. Tarry Mill (52), another pleasant spot, and 
the old mansion-house of North Tarry (53), are opposite 
the church, on the other side of the Den. The lands, 
which belong to Mr. Leonard Lyell of Kinnordy and 
Pitmuis, have long been farmed by an old Arbroath family 
— first by Mr. Robert Lindsay of Almerieclose, and subse- 
quently by his descendants. The view of St. Vigeans from 
Warddykes (54) shows the Church, Manse, and the old 
Schoolhouse, with Elm Bank among the trees on the high 
ground. Passing the farm of Warddykes — so named from 
the land having been within the * ward ' of the Abbey — 
we reach the Wardmill Hill and Demondale (55). Of the 
hill, which forty years ago was a favourite recreative resort 
of the people of Arbroath, little remains, the clay of which 
it was composed having been used up in the making of 
bricks. The neighbouring flour-mill, formerly the property 
of the community, and from which the hill has its name, 
has not for a considerable number of years been used as a 
flour-mill. In his poem on * Brothock Water,' David 
Carnegie, one of the living poets of Arbroath, has cele- 
brated these scenes of the vale of the Brothock, close to 

Hie Round Etchings in Miniature, SI 

which he was bom, and where he has spent nearly all his 

Ilk spot I ken weel, frae the mill to the kirk ; 
I hae roamed there in sunshine, at gloamin' an' mirk ; 
In summer I Ve pu'd the wee gowans on thy braes, 
And slid on thy dam i* the cauld wintry days. 

And there was the Hill, whaur we bairns did play, 
But, alas ! like our playmates, its weeded away. 
An' nought noo remains o' the Hill once so green 
But the red s&ndy hillock to mark where 't has been. 

Demondale is the site of a useful institution, the 
Industrial School. The building shown in the picture is 
the manse of the minister of Free Inverbrothock Church. 

Seaton and Auchmithie. 

Having now retraced our steps to the town, we i-each 
the Townhead district, with its *Barngreen,' indicating the 
site of the barns of the monastery, and * Hamilton Green,' 
the name of another street, marking the long connection 
with the Abbey of Aberbrothock of the noble family of 
Hamilton, one of whom, James, the second Marquis, on 
the suppression of the abbacy in 1606 had it erected into 
a temporal lordship in his own favour. Starting on a fresh 
journey from the district of the Braeheads, where in these 
notes we have already been, we strike the Auchmithie Road, 
and, going along it, pass on the left the Horologe Hill (56), 
where some trees mark the site of the old mansion-house 
of South Tarry. The hill derives its name from a sun-dial 

32 Aberbroihoek lUustrmUsd : 

which stood within the garden of the house. The Ladle 
Well (57), situated by the roadside, close to the Horologe 
Hill, is noticed by Thomas Watson, as a trysting- place, in 
his song of Katie Beattie : 

Waitin* by the Ladle WeU, 

Weary waitin' in the gloamiu', 
Ilka minute is an hour 

Till I see my Katie comin* : 
Comin' barefoot frae the toon, 

Liltin' up a lightsome ditty, 
Wi* her lips sae rosy red — 

O ray bonnie Katie Beattie ! 

From the Ladle Well the road ascends to Seaton Gate, 
and some picturesque * bits' are seen by the roadside, as at 
the Cartwright's (58) and the Smithy (59). The view of 
Seaton House (60), the residence of Mr. C. C. Strachan 
Carnegie of Tarrie, is taken from a point behind the Smithy. 
In the view of the Gate of Seaton House (61) the artist 
has introduced some of the ordinary passengers on this road 
— Auchmithie fishers. 

The village of Auchmithie (62) is three miles and a half 
from Arbroath. The pedestrian may do a part of the 
journey through the pleasant Seaton Wood. From its 
association with the genius of Sir Walter Scott, it being 
generally regarded as the * Musselcrag ' of * The Antiquary,' 
as well as from the attractions of the magnificent rock 
scenery of this part of the coast, Auchmithie is much 
visited by strangers from all parts of the world. Scott 
himself spent a day or two there, putting up at the village 
inn, which in honour of his temporary lodging in it was 

The Round Etchings in Miniature, S3 

for long afterwards called the *Waverley Inn.' The inn, 
now known as the * Northesk Arms,' was accidentally 
burned down in 1884, but is being rebuilt by the pro- 
prietor of the village, the Earl of Northesk. Before 
Scott's time Auchmithie had another distinguished visitor 
in Robert Bums, who breakfasted there on 13th September 
1787, when he was on his return journey from his third 
Highland tour. From Auchmithie the poet sailed along the 
coast to Arbroath, examining the rock scenery. The village 
of Auchmithie is very old, and its population is believed 
to be of Scandinavian origin. The fishing community located 
in Arbroath is in the main a colony from Auchmithie. The 
village consists almost entirely of one long street, and it is 
picturesquely situated on the summit of a cliff. A supply 
of water has recently been introduced, and attention given 
to sanitary arrangements. The village has been improved 
in that respect since William Shand Durie (1818-74) thus 
rather uninvitingly began his amusing tale of *The Lost 
Fisherman ' : 

Where sweet Auchmithie rears its lofty head, 
Rich in perfume of filth and mussel midden. 

There is a good school in Auchmithie, and at present 
(1885) there is a process in the Court of Teinds for 
ei:pction of the village, with a neighbouring part of the 
parish of St. Vigeans, in which it is situated, into a 
parish quoad sacra. But Auchmithie cannot be said to be 
making progress otherwise. It is a stand-still place, present- 
ing much the same appearance, probably, that it did when 
Bums visited it nearly a century ago. That is largely in 
consequence of its not having a good harbour. The Harbour 

SJf Aherhroiliock lUustrcUed : 

of Auchniithie (63) is an inlet among the rocks, but with 
no pier, and the boats have to be beached every time they 
return from sea. For several years a steam engine has 
been used to draw up the boats, but other arrangements 
are of the most primitive type. It is still frequently 
the case that the boats are launched by the women, 
who when the boat is afloat take the men on their backs 
and deposit them in it. They perform this service in 
order that the men may not have to sit in wet clothes 
when they are at sea. Now that iishermen elsewhere 
largely employ deep-sea boats, of such size that they can 
be moored only alongside built quays, the want of a pier 
at Auchmithie is being increasingly felt by the fishermen 
there. An anonymous poet, but professing to be one of 
their own number, takes a somewhat despondent view of 
the situation, in some verses recently contributed to the 
' Arbroath Guide ' newspaper : 

While glowering ower the main, 
Dreaming my harbour dream in vain, 
I sigh to think my sons shall a' 
Be forced frae me tae gang awa' ; 
For they'll be starved that dinna gang. 

Although they're hardy, strong, and brave 
As ever sailed on ocean's wave, 
They canna fish in boats sae wee 
Far whaur the fish appear tae flee, 
8in' trawlers passed their beds alang. 

But the general increase in the size of fishing boats, which 
has made matters difficult for the fishermen of the village, 
is not consequent on trawling, or on that only. Nor are 

The Rov/nd Etchings in Miniatv/re. So 

the Auchmithie fishermen altogether without deep-sea boats. 
These, however, they have to harbour at Arbroath. A 
good fishing harbour at Auchmithie is the greatest want 
of this interesting old village. Respecting the picturesque- 
ness of the situation of the place, that is best seen from 
the beach, as shown in the picture of Auchmithie, looking 
seawards (64). 

Auchmithie is not without a competitor for the honour 
of being the home of the * Mucklebackit ' family. A claim 
has been put in on behalf of Ethiehaven, connected with 
which there is a story that points to the origin of the 
name of * Mucklebackit.' Scott had been boating along 
the coast, examining the cliff scenery, and, wishing to land 
at Ethiehaven, the boatman, George Cargill, had to carry 
the great novelist ashore, there being no quay. This 
service Sir Walter acknowledged by clapping Cargill on the 
shoulder, accompanying the action with the remark, *Weel, 
Greordie, you're a fine muckle-backit fellow.' Cargill used 
to tell this story with great glee, and it may be accepted 
as accurate. Mr. Coull, formerly lessee of the Ethie salmon 
fishings, in mentioning to the writer that he had often 
heard it from Cargill, states that a few years ago an incident 
somewhat similar to the rescue in * The Antiquary ' took 
place near Ethiehaven. Some ladies who had been wander- 
ing along the shore were caught in a bay near the Redhead 
by the tide, and were rescued by him with a boat. Ethie- 
haven, in some respects, suits the description of * Musselcrag ' 
better than Auchmithie, particularly in being situated at 
the base of the cliffs ; but of course Scott, as a literary 
artist, idealised his localities, and his persons too ; hence, 
none are exact copies. Ethie House has usually been 

36 Aherbrothook lUuainrated : 

regarded as the residence of *Sir Arthur Wardour.' For 
' Monkbams ' there are several claimants. Hospitalfield, 
where Sir Walter Scott visited, best answers the description, 
and that house is generally associated with the residence 
of * Mr. Jonathan Oldbuck ;' but Newbams, near Ethie, 
which in Scott's time was tenanted by a gentleman of 
antiquarian tastes, has likewise been mentioned in this 
connection, as have also Seaton House and Anniston. In 
the same way, the *Kaim of Kinprunes' may be identified 
with the Law Hill — and it generally is — or it might be 
Keptie Hill. The fact of his having surrounded the Abbey, 
as * St. Ruth,' with the sylvan scenery of Kelly Den or 
Seaton Den is an illustration of how Scott, while in his 
descriptions preserving all the characteristics of the district, 
has in describing particular localities taken about as much 
liberty as he has with their names. 

Redcastlf, the Redhead, and Ethie. 

Lunan Bay, to the north of Auchmithie, is now a 
station on the Arbroath and Montrose section of the North 
British Railway, and thus it is only a few minutes distant 
from Arbroath. This fine bay forms a segment of about 
five miles, three miles of which are a sandy beach. 
Perched on the rocky cliffs to the north, there anciently 
stood a chapel dedicated to St. Skeoch or St. Skea, the 
burying-ground of which is still occasionally used for inter- 
ments. At the head of the bay, standing on a mount at 
the mouth of Lunan Water, are the ruins of Redcastle (65). 

The Roumd Etchings in MinicUttre, 37 

It is uncertain when the castle was built. The lands and 
manor were conferred by William the lion on Walter of 
Berkeley, and there is a tradition that the castle was built 
by the King as a defence of the coast against the Danes. 
The broad sands of Lunan Bay presented a good landing- 
place for the war galleys of the Scandinavians, a trace of 
whose incursions is supposed to survive in the name of 
* Corbie Knowe ' — corbie being Scottish for raven, the ensign 
of the Danes. Other local names indicate the former 
baronial occupation of Redcastle, such as Hawkhill, Court- 
hill, and Cothill; while *Gallowshiir and the *Witchpools' 
are equally significant. 

The Gallowshill, tremendous, awful spot, 

Where hemp, or withie, sealed the wretches* lot ; 

The *Pit,' or * Witch Pool'— female culprits' doom, 

In wrinkled age, or beauty's early bloom. 

These all bespeak thy feudal, sovereign sway 

In Scotia's ruder and her earlier day. 

But oh, how changed ! thy rifted yawning wall 

Now stoops and totters to its headlong fall ; 

Thy cheerful halls, seats of the bold and brave, 

Are lonely now, and silent as the grave. 

— Jamea Thomson. 

Proceeding round Lunan Bay (66), we reach its southern 
boundary at Ethiehaven (67). The view of the bay is 
taken from this hamlet, Ethiehaven, nestling at the base 
of the cliffs, is sometimes called Torrenshaven. It is so 
called from a family of shipmasters of the name of Thorn 
or Tom, who in the eighteenth century long held a leading 
position in the place, and to whom g. monument, with an 
inscription quaintly referring to their seafaring occupation, 

38 Aberhrothock Illustrated: 

is erected in the churchyard of Inverkeilor. Ethie, with 
Ethiehaven, forms part of that parish, but anciently and 
until shortly after the Reformation it was a parish itself, 
with a church dedicated to St. Murdoch. The ruins of 
the church, on a site east from the Redhead, remain, and 
are usually known as St. Murdoch's Chapel (68). The 
churchyard is not now used as a place of interment. In 
his * Forfarshire ' (MS.), Thomson (1798-1864), author of 
the 'History of Dundee,' who was also a poet — the lines 
on Redcastle, just quoted, are from his descriptive poem 
on the Lunan — tells concerning this old burying-place one of 
those ludicrous stories which are not infrequently associated 
with sacred places and things in Scotland : * The last 
interment,' he writes, * took place a short time before the 
year 1770. The individual interred was a cripple, who 
desired to be buried just within the entrance gate, that at 
the general rising he might make his exit quickly, without 
incurring the risk of being trodden down by a crowd of 
abler and stouter risers than himself.' The Redhead (69) 
is the * Rubrum Proraontorium ' of the Romans. It and 
the cliffs onward to Arbroath present an interesting Held 
to the botanist. The Maiden Pink grows plentifully on 
the summit of the Redhead. The late William Gardiner, 
a botanical enthusiast, author of a valuable work, * The 
Flora of Forfarshire,' felt impelled to express himself in 
verse * as a humble tribute to the pretty flower.' His 
verses begin with these lines : 

Upon the Redhead's dizzy brink 
The Maiden Pink doth take her stand, 

Like some fair nymph, whose ardent eye 
Looks forth upon the ocean bland. 

The Round Etchings in Miniature. 39 

The scenery of the Redhead and its neighbourhood was that 
which was selected by John Sim Sands for the marvellous 
exploits of *the Deacon/ as set forth in the humorous poem, 
' Deacon Elshender's Last Visit to the Redhead ' 

On Auld Saint Thomas market day. 

About a mile inland from the Redhead is the old mansion- 
house of Ethie (70), the Forfarshire seat of the Earl of 
Northesk, whose branch of the Carnegie family was first 
ennobled under the title of Baron Lour in 1639. John, Lord 
Lour, was next created Earl of Ethie in 1647 — a title which 
he got changed in 1666 to that of Earl of Northesk. The 
church and lands of Ethie were possessed by the Abbey of 
Arbroath, and Ethie House is said to have been built by 
Cardinal Beaton while he held the abbacy of Arbroath. 
An apartment of the house is called Beaton's Chapel, 
another is a * haunted ' room, and the * ghost' of the house — 
almost every old Scottish mansion has its ghost — is the 
Cardinal ; for, according to one of the stories connected 
with Ethie, his footfall may at a certain hour be heard 
on the stone stair which connects the ground flat with the 
second storey. One of the * sights ' at Ethie is * The 
Stricken Tree' (71). 

That noble oak, alone, stands bare and cold, 
By wintry blast chilled to the inmost core ; 

Of earth its roots will soon renounce their hold, — 
The glamour of its sylvan life is o'er. 

— James Criffhton. 

Jfi Aberbrothock IllustrtUed : 

The Cliffs and Caves. 

Returning to the cliffs, and again passing Auchmithie 
on the way back to Arbroath, we at about half a mile 
from the village come to the Gaylet Pot (72). This 
huge chasm, situated in the midst of an arable field, with 
sea and pebbly shore at the bottom, is one of the most 
curious of the multiform phases of the wearing effects of 
the sea that are to be seen on the east coast of Scotland. 
The Gaylet Pot is a hundred yards from the face of the 
cliff, and through that distance the ocean has tunnelled a 
passage for its waves. The entrance to the tunnel from 
the sea is about 130 feet below the top of the cliff. It is 
about 70 feet high and 40 feet broad, but the passage 
gradually contracts till at the point at which it enters the 
bottom of the Pot it does not exceed ten or twelve feet in 
breadth and height. The roof of the tunnel is composed 
of rock strong enough to bear the superincumbent soil, but 
at the Pot itself the soil had been soft, and was gradually 
eaten away by the waves ; hence the chasm. Hugh Miller, 
who visited the Gaylet Pot in 1841, picked up on its beach 
some seven or eight varieties of jasper, and at least twice as 
many different kinds of porphyry. In his *01d Red Sandstone' 
he notes the unique view along the tunnel, the spectator 
beholding * through the deep gloom of the passage the sunlight 
playing beyond, and now and then a white sail passing the 
opening, as if flitting across the field of a telescope.' 

The walk to or from Auchmithie by the Cliffs is even 
more attractive than that by the inland road, pleasant as 

The Bound Etchings in Miniattire. ^1 

the road is. The Cliffs have always been a favourite resort 
of Arbroath people and visitors to the town. They belong 
to the Upper Old Red Sandstone series, and present some 
of the finest rock scenery on the coast. In some places 
they descend into the sea in sheer precipices nearly 200 
feet high ; in others, they have been broken by the action 
of the waves into gloomy gorges or fantastic fragments, 
while there is many a grassy brae sloping down almost to 
the water's edge, and bespangled in the summer months with 
beautiful wildflowers. The sea has broken up the rocks 
into many caverns, which two centuries ago, and later, were 
a hunting ground . for people in Arbroath. Seals then 
abounded in the caves, and they were hunted for the sake 
of the oil. They are still sometimes seen on the coast, 
and an encounter between * Captain M*Intyre ' and the 
* Phoca ' on this shore forms one of the lighter incidents 
in the novel of * The Antiquary.' Weird traditions are 
connected with some of the caves, while others have an 
association with smuggling exploits. In Carlinheugh Head, 
a bold headland forming the northern boundary of the broad 
bay of Carlinheugh, there are three caverns, the Dark Cave, 
the light Cave, and the Forbidden Cave. The latter is 
the scene of the tradition of *The Piper of Dickmontlaw,' 
which Alexander Balfour has made the subject of one of his 
metrical tales. The legend is of a piper and his wife who 
wandered into the Forbidden Cave, and were for ever lost in 
it. Balfour, in a note to his poem, briefly gives the 
tradition : * Dickmont Law is more than a mile distant 
from the entrance of the cave, where, according to the 
story, the piper and his wife entered, when returning from 
a wedding. Next morning the piper was heard at Dick- 

Ji2 Aberbrothock Illvstrated : 

mont Law sounding his drone ; also, his wife singing the 
following distich in a doleful tone : 

** Lone, lost, and weary, plays Tammy Tyrie, 
Beneath the hams of Dickmont Law." 

The piper continued to play incessantly for some nights 
and days after, but was never more seen on earth. Thus 
runs the current tradition, which at one period was firmly 
believed by many.' Balfour states that he had often heard 
the outline of the tale told by his grandmother, but that he 
had taken the liberty of altering the catastrophe, which, as 
related by her, was truly horrible. As related by the poet, 
the piper and his wife, after seeing sights of fairyland in 
the cave, find their way out of it, led by their dog : 

She took the piper on her arm, 

And bade him briskly play ; 
And through the long Forbidden Cave 

They slowly wend their way. 

The path by the cliffs to Auchmithie crosses Seaton 
Den (73 and 74), a scene of much sylvan beauty, and an 
inspiration to many local poets. 

Sweet spot ! the blast that roars within thy woods 
Flies harmless o'er the verdure of thy plain ; 
The sunbeam loves to rest within thy banks 
Or glitter in thy stream ; and quiet peace 
Dwells lovingly within thy bosom green. 

The lines occur in an anonymous poem entitled * Macbeth,' 
ascribed by James Thomson, the author of the * History 
of Dundee/ to David Carey (1782-1824), but which in ^A 

The Roimd Etchings in Miniature. J^S 

Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous Works ' (Edinb. 
1883) is stated to be by * James Mann, and the notes to it 
by Dr. J. Adam/ Carey wrote many works, in prose-fiction 
and verse, bearing his name. He was the son of a thread 
manufacturer in Arbroath, where he was born. The poem 
of * Macbeth,' which has much local colouring, is a story 
of the Danish invasions. Walking through Seaton Den 
from the seashore, the traveller reaches Seaton Wood and 
the Auchmithie road. From the entrance to the Den 
there is a footpath to the farm-house of East Seaton. 
Built into one of the walls of this house is a triangular 
stone, bearing the date 1583, and the initials, with a heart 
between, of Sir Peter Young and the first of his three wives, 
Elizabeth Gibb. 

On the south side of Carlinheugh Bay is Cove Haven, 
where in the olden time there was a fishing village. Over- 
looking the Haven, on the top of the cliffs, there is an 
artificial mount bearing the name of the Maiden Castle, 
and mentioned by that name in a charter, dated 6th May 
1478, in the Chartulary of the Abbey. It is an old fort, 
probably of the time of the Norse invasions ; on the land 
side traces of the fosse and rampart are still visible. On 
the shore, in front of the Cove Haven, are * The 
Floors' (75), ridges of rock shown at ebb tide. The most 
frequented part of the Cove Haven, aiid from which the 
* haven' gets its name, is the Masons' Cave (76). Within 
easy distance of the town, and readily accessible, this is the 
cavern with which, of the whole series, people in Arbroath 
are most familiar. The Masons' Cave is so called from the 
St. Thomas Lodge of Freemasons having at one time been 
in the habit of walking thither annually, on St. John's 

H Aberbrothock IlltistrcUed : 

Day, and opening their Lodge in the cave — a custom which 
is still occasionally observed. When it was observed 
regularly, upwards of a century ago, the Freemasons built 
a gate to the cave, and part of the stonework still remains. 
About thirty years ago this and other caverns on the coast 
were regularly resorted to for shelter by vagrants and other 
houseless persons. The Masonf^' Cave is 231 feet long and 
from twelve to fourteen feet wide. 

The stack called *The DeiFs Heid,' and sometimes *The 
Pint Stoup' (77), is a prominent feature of the coast. The 
space between the cliffs and the stack is called * Duncan's 
Door.' At a certain point in the ofiing it has the appearance 
of an open door, and is a landmark to fishermen and mariners. 
Dickmont Den (78), a long narrow ravine into which the 
tide flows, and which is shown in the picture at ebb tide, 
is commonly called Dickman's Den. It was at one time a 
resort for smugglers, and there exists a tradition that a 
smuggler of the name of Dickman had his craft wrecked 
there, and that he himself was lost. But * Dickman ' is 
probably a corruption of * Dickmont,' the name being the 
same as that of Dickmont Law. In and close to the Den 
there are a number of caves, and in connection with one 
of them the Devil's name is again introduced. The sea 
enters this cavern, and looking down from the top of the 
cliff, when the sun is shining on the water, there is seen 
an appearance as of two large eyes, caused by the light 
getting in at more than -one fissure, and to this appearance 
the name of *the Devil's Een' is given. The caverns in 
Dickmont Den give back a very distinct echo. 

Still going towards Arbroath, we reach the small bay 
called the Mariners' Grave (79), so called as having been 

The Round Etchings in Miniature, J^S 

the scene of a shipwreck in which a number of the crew 
were lost. The survivors were rescued by means of ropes 
let over the cliff, a gentleman of the name of Butcher— - 
father of Miss Butcher, late of Brothock Bank — being 
lowered in this way to the help of the shipwrecked 
sailors. The incident occurred about the time of Scott's 
visits to the district, and it may have suggested the rescue 
scene in * The Antiquary.' The grooves made by the 
ropes on the edge of the cliff at the Mariners'' Grave, 
when the shipwrecked seamen were drawn up, have been 
re-cut from time to time by the boys of Arbroath. The 
picture is of the rocky shore near the * Grave.' The sea- 
wearing of the rocks here has produced many fantastic 
forms, such as the ravine called the Cruzie, from its 
resemblance in shape to the old Scottish lamp, and the Blow- 
hole, through which, in storms, the waves are thrown up 
to a great height, and with thunderous noise. Another 
of these features is the Needle Eye (80), where there 
is a large perforation of the rock, the upper mass being 
left as a natural bridge. A short way east from it is 
the Mermaid's Kirk, called also the Pebbly Den (81) — 
a recess completely enclosed by rocks, but which the sea 
reaches through a fissure or tunnel in the cliff. The drawing 
of the Stalactite Cave (82) is copied from one made in 
1842 by Mr. Patrick Allan (afterwards Mr. Patrick AUan- 
Fraser), when the cave was discovered. Some quarrymen 
were preparing stones at the Ness quarry, to be used in 
building the New Harbour, when they accidentally opened 
up the entrance to the cavern — a narrow gorge, which had 
been filled with rocks that had fallen from the cliff. The 
cavern consists of two chambers. The larger, into which the 

is Aberbrothock IlltLStrcUed : 

explorer first enters, is about 300 feet in length ; its height 
varies from six to thii'ty feet, and its extreme width is from 
fifteen to sixteen feet. The second chamber is about 100 
feet in length. The picture shows the first exploration of 
the cavern, the party carrying torches, the lights of which 
revealed in all their beauty the stalactites which . then hung 
uninjured from the walls and roof. On entering the first 
chamber, the visitor sees the cavern sombrely lit up from 
a second entrance, which is through a tunnel at the base 
of a perpendicular clifi", near the gully known as the Monk 
and the Maiden's Leap. This second entrance can only be 
approached by boat. 

There are other cavenis near the Stalactite Cave, and 
one of them, close to the Ness, has of late had bestowed 
upon it the name of the Dynamite Cave, from its having 
been used for storing that explosive. At the Ness we are 
at the Arbroath end of the cliffs, and in a field adjoining the 
path leading up to the top of the headland come to St. 
Ninian's Well (83), a spring whose water percolates into 
a rock -basin beside the path. 

The banks are green, the flowers are fair, 
Around Saint Ringan's crystal well. 

— Alex. Balfour. 

St. Ninian's, at Arbroath, is one of the holy wells of 
Scotland. Four centuries ago there stood there, on what 
then must have been a wild and out-of-the-way spot, a 
chapel dedicated to St. Ninian, bishop and confessor, ofteu 
in Scotland known by the corruption of * St. Ringan.' 
Human remains have occasionally been turned up in plough- 

Tlie Round E tellings in Minicttvo'e, J^7 

ing the land, and from that circumstance it has been 
concluded that there was a burying-ground attached to 
the chapel. A tradition of priestly villainy, which Balfour 
the poet has skilfully wrought into his story of * Mary 
Scott of Eden-Knowe/ attaches to the locality of St. 
Ninian's Chapel, and has perhaps also given its name to the 
ravine called the Monk and the Maiden's Leap. The view 
of the Ness and the Steeple Rock lying outside it (84) is 
taken from the old East Links road to the Ness. 

The Bell Rock. 

Before quitting the sea scenes of this work, we visit 
the Bell Rock (85). The lighthouse is erected on the 
Inchcape Rock, generally called the Bell Rock, from the 
Abbot's bell immortalised in Southey's poem. The story 
of Ralph the Rover has also been worked into verse by 
many other poets, of less note, one of them being Alexander 
Balfour : 

'Tis the Bell Rock's beacon light, 
Beaming from its airy height, 
Pointing to the sailor's eyes 
Secret rocks, that near him rise : 
Seas may roll, and winds may blow, 
Still it shines with friendly glow ; 
Mountain billows vainly rave, 
Still its light illumes the wave, — 
Shows that spreading wide beneath 
Lurks perdition, danger, death. 

The Bell Rock Lighthouse is situated twelve miles from 

j^S Aberbrothock Illustrated: 

Arbroath, which is the nearest land. Numerous wrecks 
that had occurred in a great storm on the 2nd, 3rd, and 
4th December 1799 directed public attention to the desira- 
bility of a beacon being erected on the Inchcape Rock. 
The most memorable wreck that ever occurred there was 
that of the York, 74-gun ship, which struck on the reef, 
and was lost with all hands. Previous to 1799 there had 
been sundry schemes for erecting a beacon of some kind. 
One of them wad by a Leith gentleman for the erection 
of four bells, being in substance a revival of the arrange- 
ment made, according to the tradition, by the Abbot of 
Aberbrothock, as expressed in Southey's verse : 

The worthy Abbot of Aberbrothock 
Had placed that bell on the Inchcape Rock ; 
On a buoy in the storm it floated and. swung, 
And o'er the waves its warning rung. 

At the instance of the Commissioners of Northern Lights, 
their engineer, Mr. Robert Stevenson, made a survey of the 
Rock in 1800, and an Act of Parliament authorising the 
erection of a lighthouse having been obtained, operations 
were begun in 1807. All the stones for the lighthouse were 
prepared in a yard in Ladyloan, Arbroath. The foundation 
was laid on Sunday, 10th July 1808. The work was com- 
pleted in the beginning of 1811, and the light was exhibited 
for the first time on the night of 1st February in that year. 
From the foundation to the top of the lantern the tower is 
115 feet high ; it is 42 feet in diameter at the base, and 
15 feet at the top. The light revolves, and is red and white 
alternately. The ancient connection of the Bell Rock with 
bells — a matter of tradition — is continued, for the tower is 

Hie Rownd Etchvnga in Miniature. 4^ 

supplied with two of them, and in foggy weather these are 
constantly tolled, night and day, by the machinery which 
moves the lights. Sir Walter Scott, along with the Com- 
missioners of Northern Lights, visited the Bell Rock in 
1814, and on that occasion he wrote these lines in the 
visitors' book : 

Far in the bosom of the deep, 

O'er these wild shelves my watch I keep — 

A ruddy gem of changeful light 

Bound on the dusky brow of night : 

The seaman bids my lustre hail, 

And scorns to strike lus timorous sail ! 

The Bell Bock Lighthouse has completely fulfilled the 
purpose for which it was built. No vessel has been lost 
on the Inchcape Rock since its erection. The picture shows 
the rock at ebb tide. 

Jervise, in his ' Memorials of Angus and Meams,' has 
a curious note on the building of the Bell Rock Lighthouse. 
* One horse,' he says, * the property ' of James Craw, a 
labourer in Arbroath, is believed to have drawn the entire 
materials required for the building. This animal latterly 
became a pensioner of the Lighthouse Commissioners, and 
was sent by them to graze on the island of Inchkeith, 
where it died of old age in 1813. Dr. John Barclay, the 
celebrated anatomist, had its bones collected and arranged in 
his museum, which he bequeathed at his death to the Royal 
College of Surgeons, and in their museum at Edinburgh the 
skeleton of the Bell Rock horse may yet be seen.' 


50 Aherhrothock Illustrated: 

Ok tub Moktbosr Boad. 

Our next route is a rural one, leading to the district 
of the Lunan, and we shall follow it somewhat discursively. 
Again starting from the Townhead of Arbroath, and passing 
along North Port, where formerly there was a gate or 
port, we reach the point at which the Montrose and 
Brechin roads meet. We select the Montrose road, which, 
as being the great road to the North, was before the time 
of railways more frequented than it is now, although it is 
still a road of importance. Soon after the farm steading of 
CuUoden is passed, we come in sight of Dickmont Law (86), 
which indeed, with its clump of ancient trees, is a prominent 
object all round Arbroath, and is a landmark at sea. We 
had passed on one side of * the Law Hill ' on the road to 
Auchmithie, by Seaton, and now we are on the other side. 

On Dickmont Law the evening sun 

Sheds soft and golden sheen ; 
The birds sing blithe in every bush. 

Sweet smells the meadow green. 

— Alex. Balfour. 

Dickmont Law was a primitive seat of justice. It commands 
a magnificent view of the country all round. At its base, 
on the Montrose Road, is the village of Marywell (87), in 
the parish of St. Vigeans. Prior to the introduction of power- 
looms, there was a weaving shop attached to almost every 
dwelling-house in this village, as indeed was the case in most 
villages in Forfarshire. There is now but little handloom 

I%e Bovmd Etchings in Miniatv/re, 51 

weaving in the district, but Marywell is still a thriving 
little place. A short way beyond it is the house of Tarry- 
bank (88), the residence of Mr. James Crighton, verses 
from some of whose poems are quoted in the course of 
these Notes. Under the signature of * One who has Whistled 
at the Plough,' Mr. Crighton, who has had large experience 
in farming and land management, has contributed to the 
local press ' Rural Notes' racy in style, and the result of the 
shrewd observations of a thoroughly well-informed man. 
Still farther on the road are the mansion-houses of Parkhill 
(Mr. Duncan) and Abbeythune (Miss Macgregor). Turning 
oif the Montrose Road, we get to a hamlet bearing the 
suggestive name of Drunkendub (89) — an old-world sort of 
place, which had formerly a poetical blacksmith, and had 
also a school where for a time Mr. Donald, now Keeper 
of the Abbey, held sway as schoolmaster. 

A hunder ell beyond the school, 

Which modem School Board now ignores, 
The smiddy stood beside the pool 

Where drouthy oxen drank by scores. 
There loud and lang the anvil rang, 

The red-nosed bellows snored and blew, 
And Vulcan welded many a sang 

While fiery sparks around him flew. 

— James Crighton, 

* Drunkendub' is understood to have been derived from the 
drinking of cattle rather than of men, the * dub ' having 
been a pool at which drovers stopped to give the animals 
drink — ^probably also to take a drink themselves, elsewhere. 

52 AberbrotJwek IlltistrcUed : 

On the Lunan. 

At Chapelton of Boysack there stood in the olden time 
one of the district chapels of the Abbey of Arbroath, and 
from which the village of Chapelton is named. It was 
the chapel of Quhittield, or Whitetield, dedicated to the 
Virgin. The small churchyard which was attached to the 
chapel, enclosed, and surrounded by old trees, is the burial- 
place of the Lindsay-Carnegies of Boysack (90). There 
is a school at Chapelton, which has had two teachers, both 
of the name of Thomson, of more than parochial celebrity. 
One of them was James Thomson, author of *The History 
of Dundee,' and the other was Andrew Thomson, who 
wrote a Rhyming Geography of Scotland. Kinblethmont, 
a name introduced in *The Antiquary' as Kinblythemont, 
the residence of Mr. Lindsay-Carnegie, is not far from 
Chapelton. The house contains relics of the last of the 
Stuarts — a tartan coat, and a ring which Prince Charles 
Edward presented to Mr. Carnegie of Boysack, who was 
for a short time his secretary. Down the Lunan from 
Chapelton is Boysack Mill (91), one of a considerable 
number of mills on Lunan Water. It occupies a picturesque 
situation, and is well known to every angler in the district — 
the Lunan being a good trouting stream. Farther down 
the water is Lawton (Mr. Patrick Allan-Fraser). 

Braikie Castle (92), in the parish of Klinnell, has been 
described by James Thomson, in his small book of * Poems ' 
published when he was residing at Chapelton : 

Like some stout veteran from afar, 
Marked with the scars of many a bloody war, 

The Rov/nd Etchings in Miniature, 53 

Lone, ivied Braikie rears its ancient head, 
Majestic o'er the dark embowering shade ; 
Whilst down its pebbly channel, far below, 
With many a curve, does Lunan gently flow. 

Braikie, together with the barony of Kinnell, was granted 
by King Robert the Bruce to one of his companions-in- 
arms, Sir Simon Eraser, for gallant conduct in the field 
of Bannockbum. It afterwards passed into the possession 
of the Ogilvys, and was the property of the father of 
Marion Ogilvy, the morganatic wife of Cardinal Beaton. 

A large majority of the parishes in Scotland, even thinly 
populated rural parishes, have at least two churches, and 
many of them have three or even more. Inverkeilor has 
two, the Parish Church and the Free Church. The Church 
of Inverkeilor (93) was dedicated to St. Macconoc ; the 
parish derives its name from the Keilor bum. The church 
occupies a prominent position overlooking the valley of 
the Lunan. The present church, a plain edifice, was 
erected about a hundred and fifty years ago. Since then 
it has undergone many alterations, the latest of which were 
made in 1880, when the building was considerably improved. 
Three beautiful memorial windows were erected in 1882 by 
Dr. David A. Carnegie, a retired ofiicer of the Indian 
Medical Service, to the memory of his father and mother, 
his uncle Alexander Carnegie, who was thirty years minister 
of Inverkeilor, and his grandfather John Carnegie, fifty years 
minister of Inverkeilor, and a brother of the latter, David 
Carnegie, who was sometime Deputy-Governor of Bombay. 
The church contains an elegant baptismal font, presented 
by Mrs. Lindsay-Carnegie on the occasion of her marriage. 
There is a memorial tablet to the memory of George, sixth 

S4 Aherhrothock UlustrcUed : 

Earl of Northesk, Admiral of the White Squadron, who 
died in 1792. The burial vault of the Northesk family 
adjoins the church. A still older monumental slab in 
Inverkeilor Church, dated * 3 Sept. 1631,' preserves the 
name and arms of the Durie family. It is interesting as 
showing, in its inscription, a good example of the practice 
of alliteration and punning on tombstones of that period : 
* Qvod dvrvm est fractvm nee plvs dvrare videtvr Dvrevs 
at dvrat claraque fama viget' — thus translated : 'That which 
is Durable is broken, nor appears any longer to enDure ; but 
Durie still enDures, and flourishes with bright renown.' The 
monument seems to have been erected to Joshua Durie, 
minister of Inverkeilor in 1613, who was a son of Mr. 
John Durie, minister of Edinburgh. 

Not far from the church and village of Inverkeilor is Old 
Chance Inn (94). This old inn and posting-house stood on 
the Great North Road, and was the half-way house between 
Arbroath and Montrose. On the present road being made, 
the old hostelry, being then off the line of traflic, ceased to 
be an inn, and was converted into a farm-house. It has 
long been disused as a dwelling-house, but it still forms part 
of the steading on Chance Inn farm. On the gable facing 
the road is a stone panel with a sculptured shield showing 
the arms of the family of Northesk, and the motto — a very 
good one for an inn — * Non nobis solum nati sumus.' The 
Old Chance Inn is the scene of Thomas Watson's * The 
Deil in Love,' — a poem remarkable for its blending of 
weird and humorous effects. 

Taking the road to the coast, and passing Anniston 
(Lieut.-Colonel Rait, C.B.), or going by rail from Inverkeilor, 
we again reach Lunan. It is only within the last few 

Ths Round Etchings in Miniatured 55 

years that a railway has been introduced into the district. 
The new line — the North British Arbroath and Montrose 
Eailway — was opened for passenger traffic on 1st May 1883. 
It had been open for the carriage of goods for about two 
years previously. The parish of Lunan slopes gently to 
the sea from the north, where it is 400 feet above the sea 
level. One of its most picturesque features is Buckie Den, 
a deep ravine which is bridged by the railway. Lunan 
Church (95) is finely situated on the left bank of the Lunan, 
close to Lunan House (Lieut. -Colonel Blair-Imrie of Lunan). 
It is the small church of a small parish. The present 
building occupies the site of the pre-Reformation church. 
Walter Myln was priest or minister there, he who in 1558, in 
the eighty-third year of his age, was burned at the stake at 
St. Andrews, and was the last martyr of the Reformation 
period in Scotland. In the church there is a monument 
to the memory of Myln. A later minister, Alexander 
Peddie, who was Episcopalian minister at the Revolution, 
and was allowed to continue in office after the establishment 
of the Presbyterian Church, has been commemorated in the 
same way. A remarkable story, a romance of the peerage, 
is connected with two of the successive beadles of Lunan, 
father and son. The office of beadle in the parish was for 
a long time virtually hereditary in a family of the name 
of Gavin. It was held in 1720 by James Gavin, who 
showed hospitality to the skipper of a Dutch vessel which 
was in that year wrecked in Lunan Bay. The skipper 
married the beadle's daughter, and returned with his wife to 
Holland. Afterwards, the beadle's son Alexander succeeded 
to his father's office, and his son, David Gavin, became 
a partner in a commercial house in Holland, where he 

56 Aberbrothock IlltLStrcUed : 

married his cousin, the skipper's daughter. She died soon 
afterwards, and David Gavin, having amassed a fortune, 
returned to Scotland, where he bought the estate of Langton, 
in Berwickshire, and married in 1770, Lady Betty, daughter 
of the Earl of Lauderdale. By this marriage he had three 
daughters, one of whom became Marchioness of Breadalbane, 
mother of the late Marquis and of the Duchess of Buck- 
ingham. Alexander Gavin, the kirk-beadle of Lunan, was 
thus the father-in-law of an earl's daughter, the grandfather 
of a marchioness, and the great-grandfather of a marchioness 
and a duchess, whose family by her marriage with the Duke 
of Buckingham are the lineal descendants ot a daughter 
of Henry II., and thus remote heirs to the British throne. 
Alexander Gavin and his wife, Elizabeth Jamieson, gifted 
to Lunan Church, in 1733, a brazen support for a baptismal 
font, a sandglass stand, and a bell, all inscribed with their 

On an eminence to the north of Lunan House is an 
obelisk erected by his brother officers in memory of 
Brigadier James Blair, who died in 1847. Brigadier Blair 
was the father of Lieut. -Colonel Blair-Tmrie, who succeeded 
to Lunan on the death of his grand-uncle in 1849, and 
assumed the name and arms of Imrie. The first Imrie of 
Lunan was William Imray, or Imrie, who bought the 
property in 1759. A somewhat romantic story is connected 
with the purchase. Imrie, who was the son of a farmer 
in Aberdeenshire, left home while quite a youth, and walked 
along the coast road until he reached Redcastle. Having 
mounted the hill on which the ruin stands he lay down, 
fell asleep, and dreamt he was laird of Lunan. He went 
to England, sailed several times to India, married a woman 

The Rou/nd Etchings in Miniature. 57 

with money, and biecame the owner of a hotel in the 
Strand, London, which was a favourite resort of the Forfar- 
shire lairds of the time. Having become rich in London, 
William Imrie returned to Scotland, and realised the dream 
of his youth by purchasing Lunan. His children died in 
infancy, and the estate passed to the descendants of his 
sister. The facts of the origin of the connection of the 
Imrie family with Lunan were communicated by Colonel 
Blair-Imrie to the late Mr. Jervise, who has told the story 
in his * Epitaphs and Inscriptions.' 

Grange of Conan. 

Mention has been made (supra, p. 26) of the tradition 
that Grange of Conan was the first locality of the mission 
to which the name of St. Vigian has been attached. The 
site of the Saint's Chapel (96) is there, in the parish of St. 
Vigeans. Nothing of this chapel or cell remains except the 
foundation. The walls were taken down in 1725, and the 
materials were built into the dovecot shown in the picture. 
The house at Grange of Conan appearing in the next picture, 
the birthplace of Dr. Alexander Brown (97), has been 
demolished since the etching was made. Dr. Brown's 
ancestors for four generations had resided there. He was 
born on the 8th of February 1814. Since his youth he has 
been a citizen of Arbroath, to which he has done honour 
and service by his devotion to the sciences of meteorology- 
and astronomy. In 1870 he received the degree of LL.D. 
from the University of St. Andrews, and in 1884 a handsome 
testimonial was presented to him by his fellow-citizens. From 

68 Aherbrothock Illustrated: 

Grange of Conan a fine view is obtained down the valley 
of the Lunan, from Hatton Mill to Redcastle. 


Colliston Castle (98), the seat of Mr. J. H. A. Peebles- 
Chaplin, is an interesting building. Colliston was one of 
the residences of Cardinal Beaton while he held the abbacy 
of Aherbrothock, and the older portion of the house is 
believed to have been built by him. Near the Castle is 
the village of Colliston (99), with a quoad ttacra parish 
church, a Free Church, and a public school. 


The Church of Kinnell (100) is situated in a district 
a large part of which was anciently a royal forest — Mon- 
rommon Moor. The forest extended into the parishes of 
Kinnell, Guthrie, and Farnell. The last royal hunt at 
Monrommon took place when in 1617 James VI. visited 
Angus. The land is now, and has been for long, almost all 
under cultivation, and in private ownership. The present 
church of Kinnell is modern, but it contains an interesting 
relic of antiquity. The battle of Arbroath, begun at the 
gate of Arbroath Abbey on Sunday, 23rd January 1445, 
was, after the Ogilvys had been driven away from the 
Abbey, resumed at the Leys, near the modem village of 
Leysmill, where the Ogilvys were again defeated, and their 
leader, the Laird of Inverquharity, slain. He was buried 

Tlie Rov/nd Etchings in Miniature, 59 

in the old x^hurch of Kinnell, in what was called the 
* Ogilvy Aisle/ on which there was this inscription : 

While girss grows green and water rins clear, 
Let nane but Ogilvys lie here. 

The ground on which the Ogilvy aisle stood was opened 
about twenty years ago, when the remains of a man of 
gigantic size, according with the description given of Inver- 
quharity, were found. Ogilvy's boots and spur long hung 
in the church aisle. The boots, much decayed, are said to 
have been there until about the beginning of the present 
century. The spur has been preserved, and it is fixed in 
the vestibule of the present church. 

A story of a different character is connected with the 
church of Kinnell, and is finely told by the late Miss 
Stirling-Graham of Duntrune, in her book * Mystifications.' 
Mr. George Cruickshank, who had previously been first 
schoolmaster and then minister of Arbroath, became 
minister of Kinnell in 1748, and died there of asthma six 
years afterwards. He left three orphan children — two 
sons and a daughter. The children were taken care of by 
his domestic servant, Margaret Matthew, who, removing 
with them from the pleasant manse of Kinnell to an attic 
in Marketgate of Arbroath, brought them up so well, and 
with such self-denial on her part, that the sons attained 
to honourable positions in the West Indies and Montreal 
respectively, and their sister married Mr. Haldane, a manu- 
facturer in Haddington. 

Her strength was small, her heart was large. 

Flesh weak, but spirit strong ; 
And well she strove her sapling charge 

To guard from want and wrong. 

60 AherhrotJiock Illustrated: 

Thus, in a poem on the theme, does David Young, Smediton, 
allude to the noble work done by * Meg Matthew,' an 
interesting reminiscence of whom is given by Miss Stirling- 
Graham in her charming book. 

Leysmill (101), a station on the Caledonian Railway, 
and shown in the picture from the station, is in the parish 
of Inverkeilor. The pavement quarries here were managed 
at one time by Mr. James Hunter, who died in 1859, and 
who was the inventor of machines for cutting and dressing 
stones which have been of much use in quarries and 
building works. Mr. Hunter's inventive talent was early 
recognised and encouraged by the late Mr. William 
Fullarton Lindsay-Carnegie of Boysack, one of the most 
public-spirited men of his time in this part of the country. 
' At Friockheim ' (102) shows us as the prominent object in 
the picture the Parish Church. It is one of three churches 
in the village, and, as it appears here, is in the poorest style 
of modern ecclesiastical architecture ; but since the drawing 
was made the church has been considerably improved, both 
externally and internally. Friockheim is a quoad sacra 
parish. The village is situated iu the civil parish of 
Kirkden. It is a feu from the estate of Middleton, and 
was founded by Mr. John Andson, Provost of Arbroath in 
1811, and who died in office in 1814. ^Friock' is an 
old local name, and the place was at first called * Friock 
Feus.' It was Mr. Andson's son, Johii Andson, who added 
the German termination of * heim ' to the original name, 
and also gave a great stimulus to feuing in the village. 
The mansion-house of Middleton (Mr. Bruce Gardyne) is 
near Friockheim, 

The Eou/nd JStchifigs in Miniature. 61 

Guthrie and Kirkden. 

The Church of Guthrie (103) is about half a mile to 
the north of Guthrie Junction on the Caledonian Railway. 
The parish is small, and the church is correspondingly 
small, but it was formerly a collegiate church, with a 
Provost and three prebendaries. It was in 1457 that it 
was erected into a collegiate church, by Sir David Guthrie. 
The church lost that rank at the Reformation, but for 
a considerable time afterwards the ministers of Guthrie 
continued to bear the title of * Provost,' which subsequently 
descended to an *arch beadle,' and has been altogether 
extinct for about a century. Guthrie Castle (104), the 
older portion of which is shown in the etching, has for 
centuries been the residence of the family of Guthrie of 
Guthrie, one of the most ancient and honourable in Angus. 
Alexander Herald, who died in Arbroath^ in 1865, was the 
author of * Amusements of Solitude,' a small volume of 
poems, one of which has Guthrie Castle for its theme : 

The Lunan murmurs on its soothing voice. 

The daisied lawn still gUnts to Nature's smile, 
And from the woodland featber'd tribes rejoice, 

When morning dawns and evening quits her toil. 

In the neighbourhood of Guthrie is Pitmuis (Mr. Leonard 
Lyell), where within the grounds surrounding the mansion- 
house there is one of those ancient sculptured stones which 
are of frequent occurrence in Angus. 

Gardyne Castle (105) is the picturesquely situated 
residence of Mr. . Alexander Lyell of Gardyne. The 

62 Aberbrothock Illtutrated: 

castle is on the western bank of the Denton burn, a 
tributary of the Yinney, and it overlooks a beautifully 
wooded *den,' or ravine. Vinney Den (106), as well 
appears from the etching, is another charming bit of wood- 
land scenery. It has been celebrated by poets, one of 
whom, James Smith of Forfar ('Vinney'), sings its praises 
in his song of < Mary High' : 

Sweet Vinney Den, where daisies spring 

Bright as the god of day, 
And lovely roses wanton wave 

In summer's proud array. 

Kirkden (107), the mother church of Friockheim, is finely 
situated amidst trees. The parish was formerly called Idvies ; 
that is still the name of an estate in it belonging to John 
C. Brodie, C.B. In the picture there is seen the village of 
Letham, situated in the parish of Dunnichen. The village 
was founded in 1788 by Mr. George Dempster of Dunnichen, 
who was Member of Parliament for the Forfar and Fife 
district of burghs, and is celebrated by Burns in the line : 

*A title — Dempster merits it.' 

All the valley of the Lunan and its tributaries, from the 
source of the main stream in the Moss of Restennet, near 
Forfar, to the sea, is rich in historical associations as well 
as in natural beauty — a beauty which is enhanced by the 
high cultivation of the lands, and by the numerous com- 
fortable homesteads, from noblemen's seats to the dwellings 
of the peasantry, with which the smiling landscape is 
dotted over. We now leave this eastern part of the 

The Moimd Etchings in Miniatv/re, 63 

country about Arbroath, and return westward to a district 
not less interesting or picturesquely attractive. 

The Elliot. 

We had already gone as far west on the Dundee Road 
as Elliot Bridge and Wormyhills, on the coast. Taking 
the inland road by Viewfield (Dr. John Traill), and the old 
hamlet of Timbergreen, with Bloomfield (Mr. Alexander 
Balfour), in view, we come to Arbirlot (108), situated 
at the head of Kelly Den, about three miles from 
Arbroath. The picture shows the entrance to the village. 
The church the spire of which is seen among the trees 
is the Free Church, of which the Rev. John Kirk, father 
of Sir John Kirk, British Consul at Zanzibar, was the first 
minister. It stands near the Parish Church (109), and both 
are beautifully situated on the left bank of the Elliot. 
The churchyard contains the last resting-place of David 
Carey, the poet and novelist ; his brother, George C Carey, 
who was the author of astronomical and other scientific 
works ; and their parents, with other members of the 
family. In the poem of * Macbeth' there is a description 
of the sweetly rural village of Arbirlot : 

The vale below, 
Through which their steps must pass, with spreading trees 
And fertile pasture smiled ; a purling stream 
Ran deviously along, then disappeared 
Below the blossoms of the yellow broom ; 
And on the summit of a verdant knoll. 
Around whose foot the winding streamlet ran, 

64 Aberbrothock Illttstrated : 

The scattered cots, in rudest order ranged 
Below the umbrageous ash, full sweetly stood : 
The prattling children chased the village dog ; 
And all around gay images were spread 
Of tranquil life, and rural joy, and love. 

The name of the village and parish of Arbirlot is con- 
tracted from ' Aber-ellot.' * Eliot ' is the old form of the 
name of the Elliot. Arbirlot was the site of a Culdee 
abbey. When the old church, the immediate predecessor 
of the present Parish Church, was taken down in 1832, 
there was found beneath it an ancient monument, now 
preserved in the Manse garden. It is described by Dr. 
Stuart (' Sculptured Stones of Scotland ') a& a very early 
example of the sculpture on stone of a book representing 
the Gospels, and from the fact of there being two crosses 
on it the stone may have been a memorial of two ecclesi- 
astics. The church of Arbirlot was dedicated to St. Niniau, 
a missionary to the Southern Picts. Arbirlot was one of 
forty-six parish churches which belonged to the Abbey of 
Aberbrothock, and the church was in its possession when 
the abbacy was secularised. Its second minister, after the 
Reformation, was George Gladstanes, who became Arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews, and. was succeeded by a staunch 
Presbyterian, David Black. Since then, the most eminent 
minister of the parish has been Dr. Thomas Guthrie, who 
was ordained there on 30th May 1830, and was translated 
to Edinburgh in 1837. It was in Dr. Guthrie's time 
that the present church was built, and also the manse. 
Previously the manse had stood in the village. The site 
of the new manse, on the height across the Elliot, was 
selected by Dr. Guthrie as commanding a view of the sea, 

The Bound Etchings in Miniatv/re, 66 

of which — a native of the inland town of Brechin — ^he was 
passionately fond, and which supplied him with many of 
the abundant illustrations which he introduced in his 
eloquent sermons. The trees about the Manse of Arbirlot 
are of Dr. Guthrie's planting. *He planted/ as is stated 
in his * Memoir ' by his sons, * a thousand young trees 
around his new manse, and in after visits to Arbirlot he 
noted their progress with the greatest interest.' 

Kelly Den has received much attention from geologists, 
and, among others, from Hugh Miller, who has given an 
interesting account of it in his ' Old Red Sandstone,' intro- 
ducing a notice of the rock formation at Arbirlot 
Bridge (110): 'The rock appears in the course of the 
Elliot, a few hundred yards above the pastoral village of 
Arbirlot. We find it uptilted on a mass of claystone 
amygdaloid, that has here raised its broad back to the 
surface amid the middle shales and sandstones of the 
system. The stream runs over the intruded mass ; and 
where the latter terminates, and the sandstones lean against 
it, the waters leap from the harder to the softer rock, 
immediately beside the quiet parish burying-ground, in a 
cascade of some eight or ten feet.' The sylvan beauty of 
Kelly Den has inspired the poets, as its rocks have 
attracted the attention of the geologists : 

The rose may flaunt its gaudy held, 

And scent the summer air ; 
Or flowers that vie the rainbow tints 

May deck the garden fair ; 
And broader streams rin swift an* strong 

Ower rock or heath-clad glen ; 
But Nature's seP wi' jewels adorned 

The braes o' Kelly Den. 
E — Andrew B, Taylor, 

66 AberhrotJiock Illustrated: 

The spot at which the view of Kelly Den (111) is 
taken is at the wooden bridge which spans the Elliot at 
Kelly Castle (112). The Castle is situated on a rocky 
eminence on the west bank of the water, about a mile 
below the church and village of Arbirlot. It is a good 
specimen of the old Scottish baronial tower. The date of 
its erection is unknown. The lands of Kelly belonged at 
one time to the family which became royal in Scotland. 
They were possessed by Walter, the Lord High Steward, 
son-in-law of King Robert the Bruce. About the middle 
of the fifteenth century they were acquired by the Ouchter- 
lonys, and for a time they were called by their name. It 
is supposed that while the Ouchterlonys held the barony 
the Castle was built. In 1614 Sir William Ouchterlony 
sold Kelly to Sir William Irvine of Drum, in Aberdeen- 
shire, and in 1679 it was purchased from Alexander Irvine 
of Drum by George, Earl of Panmure, in whose family it 
has since remained. The Earl's brother, Harry Maule, 
had a conveyance of the barony of Kelly to himself, 
including Arbirlot and Cuthlie. It was he, with his son 
James, who planted the woods of Kelly, about the year 
1724. He lived at Kelly, and spent much of the later 
years of his life in efforts to recover the family honours 
and estates, forfeited by the complicity of Earl James in 
the rebellion of 1715. He compiled the records of his 
family, which, edited by the late Dr. John Stuart, were 
privately printed by the late Fox Maule, Baron Panmure 
and Earl of Dalhousie. Kelly Castle, which had long been 
in a partly ruinous state, was in 1864 completely restored, 
and has since then been an inhabited house, the property 
of the Earl of Dalhousie, the representative of the old 

The Bovmd Etchinga in Miniatu/re, 67 

family of the Maules of Fanmure. The Castle, as well as 
the Den, has had its poets, and one of them, Alexander 
M. Soutar, gives scope to his Muse in describing a summer 
walk about Kelly : 

Earth, arrayed in summer verdure. 

Pleasure offers unto all ; 
Let us roam by Kelly Castle, 

While the evening shadows fall. 
Through the foliage of the beeches. 

See yon slanting sunbeam stray — 
Play around the antique structure, 

Lighten up the turrets gray. 

Mr. Soutar, who is a native of Muirdrum, published a 
volume of poems at Dundee in 1880. Muirdrum (113) is a 
hamlet in the parish of Panbride, situated on the Dundee 
road. A picturesque bit of it is presented in the etching. 
The village is smaller than it once was : 

The dear old homes are getting few, 
Time rolling on great changes brings ; 

Yet still, as in the days of yore. 
Around each cot the ivy clings. 

The lines are from one of Mr. Soutar's local poems. 


Above Arbirlot and Kelly Den, the Elliot meanders 
through CuthUe Den, which it reaches from the Den of 
Guynd. Near Guynd is the Black Den, where, as says 
tradition, a Pictish king lost his crown in battle or in 

68 Aberbrothock IlhtstrcUed : 

flight. In the beginning of the eighteenth century, according 
to a statement in the Old Statistical Account of the parish 
of Arbirlot) a labourer found a golden crown in the Black 
Den. The story is circumstantial. The labourer sold part 
of the crown for £20 Scots, and sent the rest of it to 
London to ascertain its value, but without getting any 
value in return. The estate of Guynd was long possessed 
by the family of Ouchterlony, who had previously possessed 
Kelly, and who purchased Guynd from the Strachans of 
Carmylie about the year 1614. It was one of these lairds of 
Guynd, John Ouchterlony, who, about the year 1685, wrote 
the interesting 'Account of the Shire of Forfar.' The last 
laird of the name, and the last male descendant of the 
Ouchterlonys of that Ilk, died unmarried on 29th November 
1843. The grounds of Guynd are well planted. They show 
good taste in landscape gardening, and comprise a pretty arti- 
ficial lake (114), supplied with water from the Milton burn : 

Ye feathered minstrel? of the woods, 

Ye heaven-sent poets of the air, 
Your songs seem sweeter here, methinks ; 

Ye too must love this spot so fair. 

— David Carnegie. 

Within the grounds of The Guynd there is a small structure, 
* The Temple,' of Grecian architecture. It was erected 
in 1853, and it contains some lines by the last of the 
Ouchterlonys of Guynd, which seem to imply that he had 
intended to be buried where the Temple stands : he was, 
however, interred in the old churchyard of Montrose. The 
lines read thus : 

In this lone spot, by mortal seldom trod, 
The dust, is laid, the spirit fled to God, 

The Bound Etchinga in Miniatv/re. 69 

Of him who reared these woods, these caltured plains 
With verdure clothed, or stored with golden grains ; 
0*er these paternal scenes, by time defaced, 
Bade yonder mansion rise in simple taste ; 
And, deeming naught his own which Heaven bestowed, 
Diffused its blessings as a debt he owed. 
empty record ! what avails thee now ? 
Thy anxious days, thy labour- warmed brow ; 
See where man's little works himself survive, — 
How short his life who bade these forests live. 
While they shall rear their ample boughs on high 
Through distant ages, and while o'er them sigh 
Eve's murmuring breezes, to the thoughtful say — 
Like his, so pass thy fleeting span away. 

A few yards from the Temple there is a block of Peterhead 
granite, polished, and thus inscribed ; * James Alexander 
Pierson, the twenty-first Laird of The Guynd, died at The 
Guynd, August 9th, 1873. Son of James Pierson and 
Margaret Ouchterlony. Succeeded his mother in 1849. 
To his most dear memory this stone is placed here, in 
faith and hope, by his wife, Elizabeth Townsend, second 
daughter of James Murray Grant, twelfth Laird of Glen- 
moriston.' Mr. Pierson, who was a nephew of Mr. 
Ouchterlony, was representative of the family of Pierson 
of Balmadies. He was buried at Balmadies. The estate 
of The Guynd is possessed by his widow. 

The wooded and ornamental grounds of The Guynd 
contrast with the generally bare landscapes of Carmylie. 
The parish occupies high ground towards the eastern 
declivity of the Sidlaw Hills, and from its generally 
bleak character it has locally obtained the name of 
^ Cauld Carmylie.' It produces good crops, however, and 
possesses an important source of wealth in its pavement 

70 Aberbrothock Illustrated: 

quarries. Carmylie was not erected into a separate 
parish until the year 1609. About 1510 David Strachan 
of Carmylie built a chapel which he dedicated to the 
Virgin, and, continuing to be a place of worship after the 
Reformation, it became the Parish Church (115). Some 
of the older work of the present structure is supposed to be 
part of the chapel which was erected by David Strachan. 
The best known of the ministers of Carmylie was Dr. 
Patrick Bell, the inventor of the reaping machine, who 
died on 22nd April 1869. Shortly before his death he 
was publicly presented with a testimonial, which included 
the gift of £1000, in recognition of the great value of his 
invention to agriculture. In the churchyard there is a 
monument to David Kydd, farmer, Newton, who died 1782, 
aged 63 years, and his wife, Barbara Morgan, who died 
1804, aged 88 years. The inscription is interesting as 
showing a long possession of land, and also a spirit of 
contentment with one's lot : 

Let marble monuments record 
Their fame who distant lands explore. 
This humble stone points out the place 
Where sleeps a virtuous, ancient race. 
Their sire possess'd ye neighbouring plain 
Before Columbus cross'd the main ; 
And tho' ye world may deem it strange, 
His son, contented, seeks no change, 
Convinc'd, wherever man may roam, 
He travels only to the tomb. 

The lands of Carnegie are situated to the west of the 
parish church. It is from these lands that the Earls of 
Southesk and Northesk, with their kinsmen, near and 

The Bound Etchings in Miniature. 71 

remote, derive their family name. They were acquired 
by John of Balindard, about 1320, from Sir Walter Maule 
of Panmure, in exchange for those of Balindard, in Arbirlot. 
On acquiring the barony of Carnegie, the laird of Balindard 
assumed its name as his surname. The lands of Camesde 
now belong to the Earl of Dalhousie, a descendant of the Sir 
Walter Maule who parted with them to the ancestor of the 
Camegies. As to Balindard — still, in the form of * Bonhard,' 
a local name — the present Earl of Southesk revived the 
connection of his family with it by adopting it as his title 
in the British peerage, on that honour being conferred 
upon him in 1869. 

The pavement quarries of Carmylie (116), one of the chief 
industries of the parish, are the most extensive in Forfarshire. 
The quarries have been worked for centuries, but only since 
about the beginning of the present century on a very large 
scale. Their produce, with that of other quarries in the 
district of Arbroath, is known in commerce as * Arbroath 
pavement.' The formation is fossiliferous, and the Museum 
at Arbroath contains a remarkably fine specimen of the 
Pterygotus from the quarries of Carmylie. 

Two natives of Carmylie may be mentioned here, from 
their connection with scientific investigations. One was the 
Rev. Dr. Small, minister of the parish of Dundee, who 
died in 1808. Dr. Small was the son of the Rev. James 
Small, minister of Carmylie. He published in 1804 an 
Account of the Astronomical Discoveries of Kepler, and 
it is the first succinct statement of the discoveries of the 
great astronomer. The other was James Bowman Lindsay, 
who was bom on 8th September 1799. Mr. Lindsay was 
a most ingenious man. While following the occupation of 

72 Aberbrothock lUustriUed: 

a handloom weaver in early life, he qualified by private 
study for entering the University of St. Andrews. There 
he went through the whole of the curriculum required for 
the ministry of the Church of Scotland ; but shrinking from 
entering the Church he turned his attention to scientific 
and philological research, supporting himself, and obtaining 
means to carry on his scientific studies, off a small salary 
which he received from an appointment which he held as 
teacher in the prison of Dundee. He published in 1858 
a work which he called * The Chrono-astrolabe,' being an 
attempt to determine chronology by the records of eclipses. 
Mr. Lindsay was one of the first to turn attention to the 
electric telegraph and the electric light. He exhibited the 
electric light in the course of a lecture which he delivered 
at Dundee on 15th January 1836 ; and in 1845, while as 
yet the thing was regarded as Utopian, or little more, he 
suggested the possibility of uniting Europe and America 
by means of the electric telegraph. In 1854 he took out 
a patent for an invention which was to establish electrical 
communication without wires, and in the same year he 
carried on at Portsmouth some experiments which were 
intended to demonstrate the practicability of his scheme. 
For many years he gave much time to the preparation 
of a * Pentecontaglossal Dictionary ^- — a dictionary of fifty 
different languages, which was incomplete at the time of 
his death, and has not been published. For the last four 
years of his life Mr. Lindsay had a^j)ension of .£100 a-year, 
granted to him by Her Majesty on the recommendation of 
the late Earl of Derby. He died on 29th June 1862. Mr. 
Lindsay was a man of extremely retiring habits — simple- 
minded as well as erudite, and of unaffected piety. 

The Rownd Etchings in MinicUure, 7S 

Panbbide and Babby. 

We begin this concluding section of these Notes with a 
reference to the etching of one of * the Ha'ens ' — ^Westhaven 
(117). The other is Easthaven. Easthaven, which is chiefly 
a Ashing village, is a very old place. About two centuries 
ago it was sometimes called Maule's Haven, and it is so 
named in Edward's Map of the County of Angus, 1678 ; but 
the old name is Easthaven, and it has prevailed. By a 
charter granted by James VI., dated 7th March 1610, the 
village was erected into a burgh of barony, but, if ever it 
did, it does not now possess any of the characteristics of a 
burgh. Formerly, however, before the decline of the rural 
population, and when, before the time of railways, it was 
a favourite holiday resort of Arbroath people, Easthaven 
was a place of more importance than it is now. It is, 
however, a station on the Dundee and Arbroath Railway. 

Westhaven, a little farther along the coast, is now a part 
— the eastern limit — of the modern village of Carnoustie. 
The western limit is well into the parish of Barry, the most 
westerly, as Inverkeilor is the most easterly parish in the 
district of the Presbytery of Arbroath. In the picture of 
the Parish Church of Barry (118) the building shown with 
a small spire is the old schoolhouse — not now used as a 
school, and the cottage between it and the church was the 
schoolmaster's house. Barry is an ancient seat of population. 
Its church was one of those that were possessed by the Abbey 
of Aberbrothock, but it had ceased to belong to it previous 
to the Reformation. Barry has an older history than that 

7-^ Aherhrothock Illustrated: 

of its connection with the Abbey. Many ancient graves have 
from time to time been discovered in the district of Barry 
and Carnoustie, with some implements of war, and graves 
and weapons have been connected in popular belief 'wdth 
conflicts between the Scots and the Danes, especially the 
great battle which was fought on these links in the reign of 
Malcolm II. The earliest hy^torian of this battle is Hector 
Boece, the first Principal of the University of Aberdeen, 
who is said to have been a native of Panbride, and to have 
inherited its barony from his ancestors ; but the town of 
Dundee also is claimed as his birthplace. The battle of 
Barry was fought in the year 1010. The Scots were under 
the command of their King, and Camus was the General 
of the Danish army. The story of the battle is that the 
Danes, having sailed into the Firth of Forth, and having 
there been prevented by the vigilance of the inhabitants on 
the shores of Fife and the Lothians from effecting a landing, 
sailed down the Firth again, and made for the Redhead, 
landing in Lunan Bay. Crossing the country to Panbride, 
in attempting to reach the centre of Scotland, they burned 
houses and churches on the way and plundered the people. 
At Panbride, where he pitched his tents, the Danish com- 
mander learned that the Scots' King was encamped at Barry, 
two miles distant. Next day the two armies met in battle, 
and fought until the Danes were overthrown. A small 
stream, the Lochty, which drains the battlefield, is said by 
tradition to have run with the blood of the combatants, 
the tradition being preserved in an old local rhyme : 

Lochty, Lochty, is red, red, red, 
For it has run three days wi' bluid. 

The Round JStchinga in Miniature. 76 

The Danes fled towards the neighbouring Downie Hills, with 
the object of getting into the interior of the country, and 
on to Moray, where they had occupied the country ; but they 
were cut off. 

Northward the Danes now flee before 

A force they dare not face ; 
Through Downie Moss, up Downie Brae, 

The sturdy Scots give chase. 

The hill- top gained, the Raven's raised 

Again to face the foe ; 

But feeble all its efforts now 

To ward the final blow. 

— Alex. Jf. SotUar. 

Camus, according to the tradition, was slain on the hills, 
and was buried at Camuston, a local name supposed to have 
been derived from him. The remarkable sculptured stone 
called the Camuston Cross, which stands here, has for 
centuries been supposed to have been erected over his 
grave — a supposition which is at least open to question. 

The name of Oamoustie iias been connected with this 
battle, the name, according to this view, being derived from 
* Cairn o' the host ' — some primitive monument of the Scots' 
victory over the Danes. Carnoustie is the name of an estate. 
It is still better known now as that of a large village, the 
population of which numbered 3,348 at the census of 1881. 
The village was commenced towards the close of last century 
by Thomas Lowson, who feued from the then proprietor of 
the estate of Carnoustie, Major Philips, a piece of land on 
which to erect a dwelling-house for himself. The village, 
which also has linen -works and other industries, partakes 
largely of the character of a watering-place. It is finely 

76 Aberbrothock Illttstrated : 

situated on the links which extend from Arbroath to 
Broughty Castle, and which, although broken in upon by 
cultivation and feuing, still show miles upon miles of flats 
and hillocks of sand bordering the sea and the estuary of 
the Tay, covered with a strong crop of bent, and, at 
Carnoustie, with rich grasses. There is a good bathing- 
beach in front of the village, and the links form an admirable 
golfing course — an old Scottish pastime which is here much 
practised. All the surroundings of this theatre of ancient 
war are pleasant, and the place is much resorted to, 
especially in the summer and autumn months, by the 
people of Dundee, Perth, and other towns. Indeed, many 
persons engaged in business in Dundee make Carnoustie 
their permanent residence. The amenity of the place has 
been much increased of late years by the introduction of a 
system of drainage, and, in 1881, of a water-supply derived 
chiefly from springs at Brax. Pleasant as are the surround- 
ings of Carnoustie, its situation on the coast makes it of 
course not unfamiliar at times with storms. Mr. Thomas 
Gray, formerly schoolmaster at Carnoustie and now head- 
master of one of the public schools of Glasgow, has giveii 
expression to this aspect of the place in a poem entitled 
* The Moaning of the Tay ' : 

A maiden, in the blush of spring. 

Stood weeping by the sea : 
* Away, ye raging waves, and bring 

My lover back to me. 
They tell me he will soon be here. 

And bid my heart be gay ; 
But can they banish from my ear 

The moaning of the Tay?* 

The Rov/nd Etchings in Miniatv/re. 77 

A form came drifting to her feet 

That chilled her to despair, — 
The white foam for his winding-sheet, 

The sea-weed in his hair. 
She fondly clasped him to her breast, 

Then sank beside his clay. 
No more to hear, in love's unrest, 

The moaning of the Tay. 

Such sad scenes have been more rare than they once were, 
since the lighting of the river was improved by the station- 
ing of a lightship at its entrance, a few years ago. 

Thomas Lowson lived to see the village which he had 
founded attain to much of its prosperity. He survived 
until 2nd April 1856, dying in his ninety-second year, and 
he was buried in the churchyard of Barry. There are several 
churches in Carnoustie. The oldest of them is the Parish 
Church (119), the larger part of Carnoustie being a quoad 
sacra parish, situated within the civil parish of Barry. The 
church, which has recently undergone considerable improve- 
ments, was erected about fifty years ago. Dr. Chalmers, 
addressing a public meeting in Arbroath in 1839, mentioned 
that a working weaver had contributed so much as .£100 to 
the building fund of Carnoustie Church — a remarkable 
example of the zeal for church extension in Scotland at 
the time, which that great man had himself done so much 
to promote. Besides the church, the picture shows the 
Manse of the parish minister and the Public School. 

The present Church of Panbride (120) is more modern 
than Carnoustie Parish Church, having been erected in 
1851 by the late William, Lord Panmure, the sole heritor 
of the parish. But Panbride is a very old ecclesiastical seat. 

78 Aberbrothock IlluaPrated : 

The church was dedicated to St. Bridget or St. Bride, and 
the kirk town, or village, was formerly called St. Bride. 
Buchanan, in his * History of Scotland,' gives it the name 
of * Balbridum,' or the town or village of St. Bride, which 
would make * Pan * a corruption of * Bal,' Gaelic for town 
or village. The church of Panbride belonged to the Abbey 
of Aberbrothock, and it was possessed by the Abbey at 
the time of the secularisation of the abbacy. After the 
Reformation, the church was supplied, from 1567 to 1580. 
by a reader of the name of Bobert Mawle, probably of the 
family of Maule of Panmure. Patrick Maule, of the same 
family, was admitted minister in 1680, at which time the 
patronage of the church was in the hands of the Earl of 
Panmure, whose family succeeded to it and to the patronage 
of other churches in the district when they acquired the 
abbacy. Mr. Maule, like the head of his family, was a 
supporter of the Stuarts. After the suppression of the 
rebellion of 1715-16 he deserted his charge, and was ulti- 
mately deposed for praying for the Jacobite Prince as 
King. His successor, in 1717, was Robert Trail, whose 
son Robert and grandson David afterwards successively 
filled the charge, the latter being the immediate predecessor 
of the present minister, the Rev. James Caesar, who was 
inducted in 1851. The churchyard contains a monument 
to the Trail family, one of whom, James, a son of the 
first of the name who was minister of Panbride, was 
Bishop of Down and Connor, in Ireland. An elder brother 
of the late Dr. David Trail, minister of Panbride, was 
Archdeacon of Down. The present church of Panbride is a 
more handsome building than country churches in Scotland 
usually are. Adjoining the church is the burial vault 

TJie Round Etchings in Miniattire. 79 

of the Panmure family. Colonel Lauderdale Maule, of the 
79th Regiment, the second son of Lord Panmure, was 
buried there. He died in the Crimea, where he was 
on service during the war with Kussia. A marble tablet, 
sent from Italy by Prince Demidoff as a tribute of respect 
to his memory, was erected in the church in July 1859. 
Colonel Maulers elder brother. Fox Maule, Earl of Dalhousie, 
who as the second Lord Panmure was Secretary for War 
during the latter half of the Crimean campaign, is the last 
of the family who has been buried at Panbride. The Earl 
of Dalhousie was a man of much force of character. He 
was an interesting public speaker, and he possessed not a 
little administrative ability. For many years he was Lord- 
Lieutenant of Forfarshire and the leading man in the county. 
It is the building at the end of the church, as seen in the 
picture, which is the Panmure burial vault. In the south 
wall, the one seen here, are fastened the jougs — an iron 
collar — suspended by a chain, which haxi occupied a similar 
position on the external wall of the predecessor of the 
present church — a relic of a style of ecclesiastical discipline 
which has long since passed away. The author of the poem 
of * Macbeth ' has described the scenery of Panbride, con- 
trasting it with what may be supposed to have been the 
appearance of the landscape at the time of the incidents 
of the poem : 

Where Danish tents then stood, entrenched around, 

The conic piles of com now raise their heads. 

And quiet cot of cheerful husbandman : 

And now the busy mill, in den below, 

Unlooked for, fills the mind with peaceful thoughts. 

80 Aherhrothoek IllustrcUed : 

The country round 
Smiles *neath the active hand of busy man ; 
Instead of dark brown heath, or marshy pool, 
Or forest shade impervious to the ray 
Of genial sun, the varied verdure now 
Of waving wheat, of rye, and rustling oats. 
Delights the errant eye. 

The lines, as descriptive of a pleascuit-looking landscape, 
are strictly applicable. 

Our next picture is of * The Old Gate of Pamnure' (121), 
one of the accesses to Panmure House. James, the last Earl 
of Panmure, fought for the Stuarts in the battle of Sheriff- 
muir, in 1715, and having been wounded and taken prisoner 
was put into a cottage under a guard of six dragoons. From 
this situation he was gallantly rescued by his brother, Mr. 
Harry Maule, who had been engaged in the same battle; 
and soon afterwards the * Old Pretender,' who had landed 
at Peterhead from France, after the battle, was his guest 
at Brechin Castle. It was only three weeks after that 
when the rebel army at Perth, under the command of the 
Earl of Mar, Lord Panmure's nephew, broke up, the Prince, 
with a portion of his followers, retreating by way of Dundee 
and Arbroath to Montrose. Accompanied by the Earls of 
Panmure and Mar, with others of his principal adherents, 
he on 3rd February 1716 embarked at Montrose for France, 
and a passage or entry which he had to go through before 
reaching the ship still exists. On leaving Panmure for the 
last time, its unfortunate owner, whose devotion to the 
Stuart cause was of the most chivalrous character, is said 
by tradition to have parted from his wife, Margaret, Countess 
of Panmure, on a spot in the neighbourhood which bears the 

The Round Etchings in Miniattire, 81 

name of Margaret's Mount. He passed out from his home 
by the * Old Gate,' and the gate is not -known to have been 
ever opened since then : 

There's an old iron Gate at Panmure, 

And only by age it wears, 
As it hath not turned on its hinges 

For a hundred and fifty years. 

And there by the Gate of Departure, 
Where the grass is soft and green, 

I look on the old beaten roadway 
Through the years that intervene. 

The last of the Earls of Panmure 

Bides forth with a scanty train. 
And the Gate will never be opened 

Till he comes to his own again. 

— Tho8, Watson. 

The Earl never came to his own. He was an exile in 
France for the rest of his life, dying in Paris on 22nd 
April 1723. His wife had a long lease of Panmure House 
from the York Buildings Company, who had bought the 
estates. In 1764 the estates were bought back from the 
Company by the forfeited Earl's nephew, William, surviving 
son of Harry Maule. William Maule had in 1743 received 
an Irish peerage, under the title of Earl Panmure, and 
for some time he represented Forfarshire in Parliament. 
He died unmarried in 1782, and the Panmure estates then 
passed to the DaUiousie family through the marriage of 
his eldest sister, Jean Maule, to George, Lord Ramsay, 
the eldest son of the fifth Earl of DaUiousie, in 1726. On 
the death of th6 eighth Earl of Dalhousie, in 1787, the 


82 Aberbrotliock lUuatrcUed : 

Panmure estates became vested, in terms of deeds of en- 
tail, in his second son, the Hon. William Bamsay, who 
assumed the name and arms of Maule of Panmure, and 
who in 1831 was raised to the British Peerage by the title 
of Baron Panmure of Brechin and Navar. This title 
descended to his son, Fox Maule, Earl of Dalhousie, and 
on his death it became extinct. Earl James, the last of 
the Earls of Panmure, was the theme of a eulogistic poem 
printed in 1723, and entitled *The Illustrious Loyalist: a 
Poem sacred to the memory of that eminent Scottish Patriot, 
the Bight Honourable James, Earl of Panmure, Lord of 
Brechin, &c.' The writer thus concludes his panegyric : 

An ample fortune he disdained to save, 
Pilgrim to turn, and seek a foreign grave. 
Forbid it, Heaven, his ashes lie abroad ! 
They 're hallow'd relics of a demi-god ! 
Let not such dust in foreign soil abide : 
Send them, Royal James, to his Panbride ; 
And when we, weeping, do his ashes view, 
We'll say he's buried, and his country too. 

It was George, second Earl of Panmure, the father of 
the forfeited Earl, who built the House of Panmure (122). 
His epitaph was written, in verse, by Charles, Earl of 
Aboyne, who in it thus summed up the much of good he 
had to say of him : 

His word was sacred as ane oath, 
He loved his friend and country both. 

Panmure House was built near the ancient Castle of Pan- 
mure, then going to ruins, some fragments of which still 

The Round Etchings in Miniatv/re, 8S 

remain. The Castle occupied a strong position overlooking 
the den through which the burn of Panmure flows, and it 
was a scene of conflict during the War of Independence. 
The erection of Panmure House was begun about the year 
1666. Its first builder was a man of note in his craft, 
John Milne, master mason to the king ; and when he died, 
the work was taken up by his successor in that office, 
Alexander Nisbet. Since its completion the building has 
undergone alterations from time to time. The latest of 
these, which included considerable additions, were under- 
taken by Fox Maule, Earl of Dalhousie, soon after his 
succession to the estates and the title of Baron Panmure 
in 1852. The alterations and additions then made were 
from designs by David Bryce, R.S.A. The house as it 
stands is a stately building, its rooms adorned with many 
fine old family portraits, and it is surrounded by noble 
woods and gardens. 

On the highest point of the Downie hills, at Monikie, 
fully a mile from Panmure House, stands the * Panmure 
Testimonial,' sometimes called the * Live -and -let -live Monu- 
ment' (123). It was erected in 1839 in honour of William, 
the first Baron Panmure, by his tenantry, *to perpetuate 
the memory of a nobleman who through a long life has 
made the interests and comfort of his tenantry his sole 
and unwearied object.' Lord Panmure was indeed a good 
landlord. He was a man of much public spirit, and 
during the time of the first Reform Bill agitation he took 
a zealous interest in the success of that measure. Of 
kindly nature, he was a patron of not a few persons, dis- 
tinguished in one way or another, among them being Howe, 
the animal painter, and Neil Gow, the fiddler. Not the 

84 Aherbrothock UluatrcUed: 

least of his claims to more than a local remembrance is his 
having granted a liberal annuity to the widow and family 
of Robert Bums, continuing it for many years — indeed 
until the sons of the poet requested its withdrawal, they 
having grown up, and the circumstances of the family 
having changed for the better. Among other acts of 
munificence of this warm-hearted man was his generous 
recognition of the heroism of Grace Darling, in saving a 
part of the shipwrecked crew of the Forfarshire. It was 
long customary for the tenantry on the estates of Lord 
Panmure to celebrate his birthday by dining together, and 
for one of these occasions, in 1847, when there was an 
assembly of that kind in Brechin, a poem by the late 
Andrew Jervise was publicly recited. Mr. Jervise was a 
distinguished local archaeologist, author of * The Land of 
the Lindsays,' * Memorials of Angus and the Mearns,' and 
* Epitaphs and Inscriptions from Burial-Grounds and Old 
Buildings in the North -East of Scotland.' He died at 
Dundee on 12th April 1878, and was interred in the New 
Cemetery, Brechin. Mr. Jervise was rather a collector of 
poetry than a poet himself, but his * Poetical Eulogium 
on the Right Hon. Lord Panmure,' from which the following 
lines are taken, expresses the feelings of regard with which 
that nobleman inspired many, and of which the monument 
on the Downie hills is also a genuine expression : 

Ah yes ! Panmure, by thee is kept awake 
Full many a hearth, in town and mountain brake, 
Which many a soul, but for thy friendly hand. 

Had left, and died upon some foreign strand, ^ 

Where friends they'd none, where kindred never slept, , 

And o'er whose grave a mourner ne'er had wept. 

The Round Etchings in MiniaMt/re, 86 

The quadrangular structure which forms the lower part 
of the Panmure Monument contains an inscribed marble 
tablet, setting forth the purpose of the erection, with a bust 
of Lord Panmure by Mr. (now Sir) John Steell, of Edinburgh. 
The pillar of the Monument rises to a height of 105 feet 
from the ground, and from the top there is obtained a 
view which includes Dundee in the west, Arbroath in the 
east, and, across the Firth of Tay, St. Andrews. The 
Monikie Water Works, belonging to the town of Dundee, 
are in the immediate neighbourhood of the Panmure 

We conclude these Notes by introducing our last 
picture, that of the Camuston Cross (124) — a monument 
of whose date, designer, and purpose nothing whatever 
is known. This only we know certainly that the monument 
is Christian, alike in form and in its elaborate decoration. 
Mr. Adam, the artist, has by a happy thought introduced 
a couple of ravens into his picture, thereby identifying 
the Cross with the Danish General whose name it bears, 
and in whose memory a constant tradition, extending 
over between two and three centuries at least, asserts it 
to have been erected. The Camuston Cross may confidently 
be regarded as a burial monument. Mr. Commissary Maule, 
who in 1611 wrote Memorials of the Panmure Family, 
mentions that in the year 1598 a grave was opened on 
the spot where the Camuston Cross stands, and that it 
was found to contain the bones of a man of gigantic size. 
Mr. Maule, in reporting this, states that in his time the 
Cross was believed to commemorate a defeat of the Danes. 
But it is of the same type as that of many other sculptured 
monuments of the Celtic period of our history, which are 

86 Aherhroihock Illustrated, 

to be found in Angus and in other parts of the eastern 
district of Scotland north of the Forth. The Camuston 
Cross is about six feet in height from the ground, and 
is sculptured on both sides. On the obverse there is a 
representation of the Crucifixion, and below it the figure 
of a centaur-like creature. The figure of a Christ is 
on the reverse, with an angel on either side ; and below 
this group are figures of the four Evangelists, each 
bearing the book emblematical of his Gospel. Whoever it 
was intended to commemorate, whether warrior or eccle- 
siastic, the monument is an interesting memorial of the 
ancient Christian art of our country. It belongs to a 
primitive period of Christian civilisation in Scotland — 
a period anterior to that in which the genius of architects 
and sculptors, the wealth of kings and nobles, together with 
the piety of devout men and women of the various ranks 
of the people, all contributed to the raising of a house of 
God and centre of Christian civilisation so impressive, even 
in its ruins, as the Abbey of Aberbrothock. 

Erratum. — P. 49 1. 14. It is not known that there has been any 
loss of life on the Bell Rock since the lighthouse was erected, but 
on 28th May 1876 the schooner Ruby, of Dundee, was wrecked on 
the rock — crew saved. On 12th September 1885 (since the foregoing 
sheets were printed) the barque Ferdinand Brunim, of Stettin, timber 
laden, went ashore on the Bell Rock. The crew were rescued. The 
vessel was towed ofif on the 14th, in a damaged condition, and beached 
in West Ferry Bay. 







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