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ABERDEEN 

UNIVERSITY 

REVIEW 



VOLUME III 

1915-16 



-y 






Pnnted at \ 

The Aberdeen University Press 

1916 



"ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY REVIEW" 
EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

Convener: The Very Rev. Sir George Adam Smith, Principal of the University. 
Mr. P. J. Anderson. 

Mr. Robert Anderson, Assistant Editor. 
Professor J. B. Baillie. 
Professor A. A. Jack. 
Mr. W. Keith Leask. 

Miss WiLLIAMINA A. RaIT. 

Professor J. Arthur Thomson. 
Mr. W. Stewart Thomson. 






LrX^I^^ 




THE LATE ALEXANDER MACKIE, M.A. 



The 

Aberdeen University Review 

Vol. III. No. 7 November 191 5 

Old Aberdeen, October 19 15. 

Mother of trees and towers and ancient ways 

And homes of studious peace ; to whose grey Crown 
Thy lads come up through these October days, 

Come up again the while thy leaves fall down — * 

Rustling about the young and eager feet, 

As if the spirits of thy crowded past. 
Mustering on high those latest ranks to greet, 

Did down their ghostly salutations cast — 

Ah, this October many come no more. 

Whose trysted faces we had looked to see. 
For on the fields of Flanders or that shore. 

Steep and fire-swept, of grim Gallipoli, 
They fell like leaves, innumerably fell. 

And, though still quick and keen and fain for life, 
With as ripe ease and gentleness of will. 

As the sere leaf from out the tempest's strife — 
Ready for Death and their young sacrifice 

By faith in God, by love of home and land. 
And the proud conscience of the un grudged price 

Their fathers paid at Freedom's high demand. 

Though through thy stripped trees, trailing with the mist 
The mournful music of the pipes comes creeping, 

Mourn thou not those who only failed thy tryst 
Because they kept a holier — and arc keeping. 

I 




5n ^emotiam* 

Alexander Mackie. 

HAVE been asked to provide the Review with an 
appreciation of the late Convener of the Editorial 
Committee, and I do so all the more readily that 
I have known him longer and known him better 
than any other member of the General Council 
has done. 

He was the son of Joseph Mackie, gardener at 
Delgaty Castle, Turriff, and was born there on ii September, 1855 ; 
he was associated with Banff, of which he has always been regarded as 
a native, from his father becoming head-gardener at Duff House to the 
Earl of Fife ; so that the love of flowers and gardening which always 
marked him was in a sense born with him. He was educated at the 
Free Church Institution, Macduff, and entered the Grammar School of 
Aberdeen in 1 870, always remembering that his first sight of the build- 
ing was Mr. Pope, still hale and hearty with us, in his garden in the 
now vanii/hed Skene Street front. He entered the class of the Rev. 
James Wilson Legge, a name regarded by him and by a generation in 
the school with peculiar honour and affection, combining the perfect 
antithesis to all Prussianized Kultur with the visible realization of every 
Beatitude. After forty-five years one of his class writes to say he re- 
members the day like yesterday : " The merits or the demerits of 
fresh arrivals were quickly gauged in those days. He soon became 
beloved by all the boys, and quickly worked his way to the front. 
His perennial good temper and cheery manner always struck me. I 
must have been the very first to accost him." He was sixth bursar in 
the Competition of 1872, and had as class-fellows Sir Edward Troup 
of the Home Office, Sir Robert Bruce, Controller of the General Post 
Office, London, Professor Selbie, Principal Skinner of the Westminster 
College, Cambridge, and Dr. Hastings. 



Alexander Mackie 3 

He spent three years at the Free Church College, and in 1878 
gained the Lumsden Scholarship for an essay on the Augsburg Confes- 
sion and Apology. In the summer of that year he went with his friend 
Selbie to Tubingen, and while at the Hall he became assistant to Pro- 
fessor Bain in English and Logic, acting in that capacity till the doc- 
tor's retiral from the chair in 1880. He remained till the last on 
intimate terms with Bain, and became at his death an executor along 
with Professor W. L. Davidson. In 1881 he joined Miss Warrack in 
the management of the School for Girls in Albyn Place, and six years 
later became head of the institution which he conducted with such 
conspicuous success and influence. On that point tributes in the 
press by former pupils leave no doubt whatever ; the position of the 
school in the days of Local Examinations was unique, and Professor 
Minto said on a public occasion that one pupil in three successive 
years had taken 100 per cent. He was Examiner in English at the 
University, and in 1902 a candidate for the Bell Chair of Education 
at St. Andrews. 

His wide acquaintance with English Literature and Natural Science 
was shown in his writings. These include editions of Macaulay's 
essays on ** Milton" (1884: 7th ed., 1908) and "Warren Hastings" 
(1892), of Scott's " Marmion " and '* Nature in Modern Poets " (1906). 
At the time of his death he was engaged on " Banffshire " for the Cam- 
bridge County Geography Series, having written in 191 1 the corre- 
sponding volume on "Aberdeenshire," a most admirable account in 
every relation, historical, geographical, geological, architectural and 
commercial. The illustrations in this work are numerous, and alto- 
gether it is a triumph of varied knowledge and style. He was an 
ardent and expert angler, and his "Art of Worm Fishing" (191 2) 
may safely be commended to all votaries of the craft. He issued in 
191 3 a volume of "Readings in Modern Scots" as a sort of supple- 
ment to his lecturing activities. In the " Transactions of the Philoso- 
phical Society " will be found his papers on " The Ludicrous in Burns " 
and " The Homeric Simile in Modern Poetry ". He was President of 
that body in 190 1-3, and Secretary from 191 2 to his death. He was 
on the Committee of the Public Library, and acted as J. P. for the 
County. 

He had a happy touch on many kinds of verse, and was particu- 
larly graceful on the Sonnet. His first was on the old Grey friars 
Church in Broad Street, but I believe the readers of the Review will 



A Aberdeen University Review 

prefer to have two specimens of his work on academic subjects. When 
Bain died on i8 September, 1903, he sent the following to the "Free 
Press " of 2 1 September, the day of the funeral : — 

'Twere vain to fret when Autumn flutters down 
Her sere and wrinkled leaves, outworn and gray ; 
'Tis vain to grieve when sages pass away, 
Their duty nobly done, with bright renown 
Circling their mem'ry like a golden crown. 
So thee beneath the reverent sod we lay. 
Keen- eyed Philosopher ! whose name held sway 
Where Learning wears her Academic gown. 
The subtle brain that pierced the mists of thought 
Gives now no quick response ; the kindly heart 
Touch'd to sweet, helpful issues, beats no more : 
A lasting monument thy labour wrought, 
Of honest work, of search for truth, of art 
To cleave each stubborn problem to the core. 

On the opening of the Marischal College Buildings, 27 September, 
1906, he wrote *' The Welcome " : — 

•* Cold is the North and cold the Northern Sea 

With its keen winds, and cold the granite gray." 

Thus have they said ; What say they ? Let them say I 

Warm are the hearts that beat by Silver Dee 

And glowing welcome do they pulse to thee. 

To thee our gracious Sire, this festal day, 

And to thy beauteous Queen ; and humbly pay 

Their meed of grateful homage loyally. 

Nor these alone ; for with us, hand in hand. 

Are gathered now from many a distant land 

The wisest and the best of those who reign 

In Letters, come to bless our ancient fane, 

Our renovated pile, which knows it true 

That frigid hearts in frigid climes are few. 

He also contributed a large amount of angling verse to the " Scot- 
tish Field," and some happy lines on the Silver Dee are reproduced 
thence in " Deeside " : painted by William Smith, jun., described by 
Robert Anderson (A. & C. Black, 191 1), following its course from the 
three springs on the plateau of Braeriach, past Braemar, Ballater, 
Aboyne, till 

At last she tastes, at Allenvale, 

The brackish waters of the tide ; 
Her eyes grow dim, her spirits fail. 

And soon the ocean's breakers hide 
The Silver Dee. 

His position as an educationist and teacher of English was very 

marked. It was long thought out, and was dominated by the central 



Alexander Mackie 5 

idea that, with due restrictions and full recognition of difference in 
original endowments in this field, Bain had been on the right track in 
English, as Melvin, whom Bain had highly rated, had been all along 
in Latin. In his first book, " Macau lay's Essay on Milton, edited to 
illustrate the Laws of Rhetoric and Composition," he made his stand- 
point perfectly clear. Literature is Literature, and Style is Style, and 
it is a fundamental and fatal error to regard the English text as a 
means, as Johnny Gibb would say in that famous opening sentence, 
for taking off " the hin' shelvin' o' the cairt " and disgorging a confused 
mass of irrelevant and ill-digested notes on History, Derivations, Editor's 
Introductions, and Things in General. Whatever that is, it is not Eng- 
lish teaching. " All this proceeds on the supposition that the only 
thing, or at least the chief thing, for which the classic is valuable, is its 
information. The chief value of a classic is one of style." Here we 
get to Bain at once, and since i860 the North has been at sea. 
Bain's Grammar is like Moore's vase : you may curse it, or crush it, 
or do what you will, but the Aberdeen sentiment clings round it still. 
For the teachers in the North, knowing only vague scraps of English 
Literature, have never faced this question, enslaved to the demands of 
inspectors and examiners hunting after the Fact and the Date, knowing 
nothing about and caring less for Literature and Style. Mackie be- 
lieved Melvin and Bain had been absolutely right. To this I turn ; 
it is the key to Aberdeen and the North for the last fifty years. 

** It is long since I vowed," says Professor Masson, "that sometime 
or other I would say something publicly about Melvin. I have known 
no one, and I expect to know no one, so perfect in his type as Melvin." ^ 
So with Bain, and he was all of one piece, constituting the vital problem 
on whom and which much has been written, much unmerited eulogy 
and uncritical depreciation expended, mostly in air by men who never 
knew him or studied him at close quarters. Since Melvin, Bain is 
the most striking figure in Aberdeen, and his influence has been to 
this hour equally powerful. His bent was not to Logic but to Physics, 
and in 1856 he was a candidate with Clerk Maxwell for the Natural 
Philosophy Chair. As the head of a Technical College or Science In- 
stitute he would have been in his element ; in a Philosophy Chair, he 
was, paradoxical as it may seem to many, out of it, while in an 

'^Memories of Two Cities: 1911, p. 251, reprinted from " Macmillan's Magazine," 
1864-5. With Masson's portrait of Knight, Bain's own seven papers on him in " Alma 
Mater," Vol. VI, where he suggested a biography of Knight, should be compared. 



6 Aberdeen University Review 

English department he was handicapped by his natural defects. 
Bain was the result of the old Marischal College curriculum, to which 
he clung tenaciously to the last, and of the one man on that staff on 
whom he modelled himself This was Professor William Knight in 
the Natural Philosophy Chair (1822-44), for he had little to learn from 
George Glennie in Moral Philosophy. Again and again Knight came 
out in his Logic. For the history of Philosophy Bain had no aptitude, 
and he probably, like Napoleon, regarded history as an old almanac, 
in some way superseded or rendered worthless by the advent of Ben- 
tham and Mill. His was not a historical head, and there were no vistas 
in his mind, so that Aberdeen in the competition for the Ferguson 
Scholarship had her guns hopelessly out-classed on being brought face 
to face with the fact that Thales and not Mill was the father of 
Philosophy. During our Tertian year, incredible as the fact may 
seem, he never once mentioned the names of Realism and Nominalism, 
and of whole centuries of life and work we heard nothing. He thought 
simply in terms of physics, and shunned all metaphysical difficulties. 
His psychology was coloured by this, and his exposition of the Laws 
of Association — that delusion which, as Lecky says, has never in- 
fluenced continental thought — seemed like the grasping at a straw to 
explain to himself, in a despairing way, how the trick of memory was 
done. To any one with an original endowment in that field it was 
absolutely futile, and should on his own reasoning have rendered him 
Porsonian instead of leaving him like Montaigne, "a man of some read- 
ing and of no retention ". In this relation it is curious to recall a story 
of his own. He had to review Mill's " Logic " for the Westminster 
Review, and it was long overdue. Mill found Bain had been writing 
abstracts of the chapters as he went along, inserting slips of paper 
through the book, so little gifted was he with Johnson's demonic 
faculty of rapidly bringing the covers together and '* tearing the guts '* 
out of it. In logic he was at his best, and he knew it perfectly, in 
scientific not metaphysical exposition, where he could exemplify his 
easy mastery of natural and mechanical science, avoiding the rock of 
metaphysics as Knight had steered wide of mathematics. He had 
given to Mill for later editions many of his best examples of the four 
Methods of Experimental Inquiry, such as Liebig's theories and 
Brown-S6quard's views on cadaveric rigidity. His psychology was 
materialistic and purely physical ; he discarded all Mill's concessions 
to sentiment and clung to the hardest doctrines of his leaders, Locke, 



Alexander Mackie 7 

Hartley, Bentham, and James Mill. He seized every physical opening 
and pulled himself together for the chance. I could see it coming ; 
for, being short-sighted and sitting literally at the feet of this Gamaliel, 
I have marked his eyes glitter when he would launch out, without a 
scrap of paper, on a long and flowing stream of exposition, all in perfect 
diction, on Joule and the foot-pound, the causes leading to the retarda- 
tion of Encke's Comet, the researches of Herschel on Dew and of Sir 
John Leslie on Heat, raising his voice to a pitch of exultation over 
"that unparalleled fetch of inductive genius, the governor balls of Watt". 
Then he was in his real element. These were his field days, his bursts, 
like those of Christopher North in a totally different vein in his class, 
and at such times for ease and felicity of exposition Bain could have 
been rivalled in no University extant. His saltern accumulem donis. 

In English, in every sense of that hackneyed adage. Style, or the 
want of it, was the Man. It is the scientific exposition of the Laws 
of the Paragraph that abides with every one of his classes as altogether 
characteristic, original and masterly. " Professor Bain," Minto writes,^ 
*' was the first, so far as I am aware, to consider how far rules can be 
laid down for the perspicuous construction of paragraphs. Other 
writers on composition, such as Campbell, Lord Kames, Blair, and 
Whately, stop short with the sentence. De Quincey, a close student 
of the art of composition, felt the importance of looking beyond the ar- 
rangement of the parts of a sentence, and philosophized in a desultory 
way concerning the bearing that one sentence should have upon an- 
other." Bain and Masson had once seen De Quincey in 1846, about 
Lasswade,^ and both always regarded him as a master of prose. All 
old members of Bain's classes will be glad to see the passage in De 
Quincey's "Autobiography " that influenced Bain and English teaching 
in the North : — 

The two capital secrets in the art of prose composition are these : first, 
the philosophy of transition and connexion, or the art by which one step in an 
evolution of thought is made to arise out of another : all fluent and effective 
composition depends on the connexions : secondly, the way in which sentences 
are made to modify each other ; for the most powerful effects in written elo- 
quence arise out of this reverberation, as it were, from each other in a rapid 
succession of sentences : and, because some limitation is necessary to the length 
and complexity of sentences, in order to make this interdependency felt ; hence 
it is that the Germans have no eloquence. The construction of German 

1 ♦• Manual of English Prose Literature," 1872, p. 13. 
' For the scene, see Masson above, pp. 162-3. 



8 Aberdedn University Review 

prose tends to such immoderate length of sentences that no effect of inter- 
modification can ever be apparent. Each sentence, stuffed with innumerable 
clauses of restriction, and other parenthetical circumstances, becomes a separate 
section — an independent whole. 

What to many rendered his English class repellent was his posses- 
sion by one idea. " Grammar," he said to the 1 873 class, on the opening 
day with the door closed, " is a Science or it is Nothing." He directed 
his analysis to the logic of thought ; for felicities of diction, allusions, 
historical setting, the development of the language and of literature, 
he had no eye. His reading in literature and history had been small ; 
he never read " The Vicar of Wakefield," the extracts from " Macbeth " 
were all that he ever cared to know of that play, and he read no 
language but his own. For biography as reflected in literature he 
had no care. I have before me the little book prescribed in the class, 
Gray's " Odes and Elegy " (W. & R. Chambers, 1 870). To Mackie, and 
to most men, stanza 9 would of necessity bring up Wolfe at Quebec 
on the St. Lawrence; 15 would lead to the politics of Gray's century, 
while the Epitaph would show Gray's mind and himself as the artistic 
centre of the whole. But if Potsdam in 191 4 made war without con- 
sidering Grey, Bain pursued his method without alluding to Gray.^ 
To him the " Elegy " was logic and interdependence of thought, sequence 
of circumstances, and development of the idea. His elocution was 
perfect — perhaps a conscious survival of old Gilcomston days and of 
what Masson calls " the beautiful, even consummate, elocution of Dr. 
Kidd " — for he took professional lessons in preparation for the chair 
in London. If beauty of utterance, logical analysis, complete assur- 
ance and perfect discipline could have rendered his exposition final, it 
would have been useless to criticize. But feeble imitators and idolaters 
only caricatured him, while his own poor emotional endowment stunted 
the real merits of his English methods. Poetry? " There was the 
door to which he found no key." Bacon knew the secret, and that to 
pick the lock with Bain's key was foredoomed to failure. He explains 
this in a passage in the ** Advancement of Learning," whose full mean- 
ing would simply revolutionize the North : — 

» The Westminster Election of Mill brought out as mural literature his phrase: "If 
such a being can sentence me to hell, to hell I will go ". Bain (*' J. S. Mill," p. 122) says 
with strange simplicity : " Grote thought the phrase an echo of something occurring in Ben 
Jonson, where a military captain's implicit obedience is crowned by the illustration. I have 
never got any clue to the place." A strange ignorance of Johnson's immortal adaptation 
of Juvenal, in. 78, and of a classic scene in Boswell's biography I 



Alexander Mackie 9 

The use of this feigned history (Poesy, Painting, Music) hath been to give 
some shadow of satisfaction to the mind of man on these points wherein the 
nature of things doth deny it, the world being in proportion inferior to the 
soul ; by reason whereof there is, agreeable to the spirit of man, a more ample 
greatness, a more exact goodness, and a more absolute variety than can be 
found in the nature of things. So it appeareth that Poesy serveth and con- 
ferreth to magnanimity, morahty and to delectation. And therefore it was 
even thought to have some participation of divineness because it doth raise 
and erect the mind, by submitting the shows of things to the desires of the 
mind ; whereas reason (science, philosophy) doth buckle and bow the mind 
to the nature of things.^ 

" I owe Geddes," said the deceased Garden G. Smith ('77-'79) to 
me, ''rather a grudge. For he once made a remark in the class that 
let me see that Poetry was concerned with the Infinite, and it has made 
me profoundly miserable ever since." Novalis with his " Philosophy 
a Heimweh^ a homesickness," and Ecclesiastes (l. i8) could have 
understood all this, but to Bain it was a mystery to be exposed. 
With some few natural tears for humanity Bain may have started early 
life ; but, like Adam on quitting Paradise, he " wiped them soon," and 
resolutely set himself to squeeze every drop of emotion from his cup. 
The flowers and altruistic devices with which his system may disguise 
its more repellent aspects were silently dropped at the close. Victori- 
ous Analysis, the watchword of the school, which Mill himself found 
to be " the worm at the root of all the virtues," had explained or 
exploded Beethoven and the Moonlight Sonata into a duly recorded 
number of sharps and flats, and " there was nothing left remarkable 
beneath the visiting moon" but a coalition of discords. He had suc- 
ceeded in reducing Existence to a mere cinder heap of smiddy-coom 
or dander. Nike has her Nemesis. 

Mackie felt that Bain had been deposed, to be succeeded by an 
evil still worse. After all. Bain did but reflect the mental character- 
istics of a county which, as John Hill Burton said, was a layer of 
peat-moss spread on a bannock of granite. Mackie believed that the 
teaching of English in the North had declined. In the past the educa- 
tional publisher with the over-annotated Chaucer, Shakespeare, or 
Tennyson, was not in the land. The best teachers had thus to make 
their own notes, «and personality told. In the last number of the 
Review Sir W. R. Nicoll has paid a tribute to his own teacher, Dr. 
Wilson, at Auchindoir and Banff". He taught literature " with his 
heart ". To-day he would do so at his peril. Miles Standish turned 

1 Quoted by Dr. John Brown, " Horae Subsecivae," Second Series, p. 328. 



lo Aberdeen University Review 

in the Caesar to where {B. G, II. 25) the thumb-marks on the margin 
proclaimed that the battle was hottest. The teacher knows where the 
scent lies thickest and the notes are longest. With a sigh he resigns 
himself to the methods of inspectors and Departments ; and eyeless, 
like Samson in the mills of Gaza, he " grinds " to satisfy the demands 
of Prussianized and standardized Kultur. 

To the general public in the North Mackie was best known as a 
lecturer and exponent of Dr. William Alexander's great classic, * 'Johnny 
Gibb of Gushetneuk," to the fifteenth edition of which (1908) he con- 
tributed an excellent introduction and appreciation. Every winter 
became more and more a sort of campaign, to which he responded 
perhaps far too generously, giving his time and services to raise local 
funds in the parishes for church or other purposes. Indeed I cannot 
but here trace the beginning of the end, through the throat affection 
which ended fatally. He recreated interest in the admirable work of 
Dr. Alexander, perfect as a mine of philological accuracy, moral in- 
sight and literary skill. Some books are really beyond the reach of 
compliment, and " Johnny Gibb " is one of them. Mackie was able to 
preserve many interesting facts about the history of its composition 
and how Sir George Reid in his illustrations for the edition de luxe 
drew from actual faces, from figures taken in the Green on a Friday 
market morning, with touches from photographs from rural studios. 
All readers of the book and admirers of Mrs. Birse — " and there is a 
Mrs. Birse in every faim'ly," said the doctor significantly — have each 
some favourite chapter, incident, or figure. Mackie loved Molie, the 
gudge ; my own silent homage has long been paid to Archie, the red- 
haired orra man, tempered by what Balkan diplomatists call a d-marche, 
verging on the tendre, to Eliza Birse. 

After long hesitation Mackie resolved to visit Canada as a lecturer 
in the winter of 191 3-14. He sailed from Liverpool on 20 November 
by the White Star " Baltic," and was present at the 157th anniversary 
dinner of the St. Andrew's Society in New York, meeting Mr. Carnegie 
the night before. At the fifty-three tables Turriff, Aberdeen, King 
Edward, Aboyne, Huntly, seemed all represented. He saw Niagara 
and spent Christmas at Winnipeg. "Will you no' come back again?" 
wrote the Commissioner of Immigration to him in a hearty letter after 
he reached home. 

I fear the result was physically a strain from which he never re- 
covered. Early in July, 1914, he went to the Sanatorium at Nordrach- 



Alexander Mackie 1 1 

on-Dee, at Banchory, from which after six months he returned and 
died on 25 June of this year. He had acted as Convener of the 
Editorial Sub-Committee of the REVIEW from its start, and to the end, 
within a few days of his death, he gave to it an endless amount of 
labour, correspondence, revision of proofs, and suggestions. Indeed 
I feel it a very painful memory to remember him, with his larynx 
going or gone, sitting up in bed and struggling with the Proto-Cunei- 
form or Early Aztec script of contributors or others who persist in re- 
garding illegibility of handwriting as the one inherent and incontestable 
proof of original genius. No less than 500 letters were received by 
his family from prominent men in the North, Canada, and England, 
former pupils and class-fellows, within a few days after his death. This 
forms a very remarkable tribute to his character and work. I believe 
that for the last fifty years it is quite unique in Aberdeen. The reason 
may not be far to seek. During all my long and intimate acquaintance 
I never heard him make a censorious or harsh criticism on any one. 
And this in Aberdeen ! Was it original nature or was it reinforced by 
the teaching and tone of Legge in the Grammar School ? Yet both 
Mackie and Legge knew a fool when they saw him. Perhaps nothing 
would have given him greater satisfaction than the wreath, with the 
words from the junior children in the school, placed by themselves on 
the grave in Springbank Cemetery. 
Sir Edward Troup wrote : — 

It has been good to read many admirable appreciations of his high 
qualities and useful work. I grieve most I shall see no more the friend of 
my college days, one who has been my firm and trusted ftriend for forty years 
without a break. Aberdeen is not the same place to me without him. 

Mr. P. J. Anderson said : — 

I know how futile it seems to say anything at such a time ; but it is some- 
thing to look back on his life and see what a full and happy one it was till 
this last year. To his friends Aberdeen will never seem quite the same again 
without his vivid personality and cheery presence. 

Professor W. L. Davidson wrote : — 

He will be greatly missed, not only by his immediate friends but by the 
community in general ; and it will be next to impossible to find a worthy 
successor to him in the splendid educational work which he so successfully 
carried on. His name will continue for many a day in Aberdeen. 

Professor Selbie added : — 

What Mackie was to myself and many other friends, and what he was to 
members of our families who enjoyed the great privilege of his instructions, I 



12 Aberdeen University Review 

should find it hard to describe in words. I cherish the happiest recollections 
of the days when he and I were fellow-students, and rejoice to thinkgthat for 
forty years our friendship was unbroken. 

So after all we may say 

Nothing is here for tears, nothing to wail 

Or knock the breast ; nothing but well and fair, 

And what may quiet us in a death so noble. 

Mrs. McLehose suggested to Burns the idea of expressing the feel- 
ing of separation or loss as presented by the progress or decay of 
Nature through the four Seasons. I feel the idea is at least impossible 
with me, who have never had even a rudimentary instinct for flowers, 
or the ability to distinguish one tree from another. Indeed I once 
had to admit to Mackie that I could follow only with difficulty what 
Hogg meant by 

When the bluart bears a pearl 
And the daisy turns a pea. 

Let me at least be safe, and express myself in a cento of linear 
quotations. 

Farewell and not farewell I For when the larch 

Is early tufted, and in mantle green 
Blithe Nature hears the mounting thrush in March, 

Like an unbodied joy, pour all unseen 
His carol over fell and fountain sheen ; 

Or when the breeze has sunk upon the sea, 
And fades the glimmering landscape on the scene 

To blend, with vespers from the fold and lea. 
The herd-boy's evening pipe and hum of housing bee : 

Or when the sallow Autumn fills with leaves 

Her lap, with hoarser wind and deeper rill, 
And quavering fainter round the hamlet eaves 

The deep-toned cushat and the redbreast shrill 
Mark the last red leaf shiver on the hill. 

As in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn ; 
Then — not in watches of the night, but still 

Waiting to catch the grue upon the burn — 
I shall believe, old friend, your Spirit will return. 

WM. KEITH LEASK. 




Marischal's most Martial Alumnus. 

F war allowed any time for literary preoccupations, 
the thoughts of the University under arms must 
turn occasionally to that doughty warrior of the 
seventeenth century, who, as a boy, moved his 
jaws like a pair of castanets at the Bursar's table 
of a certain College, and who thereafter, equipped 
with a mouthful of Latin and a good sword arm, 

went to the foreign wars, where he stood, as Whittier says of Barclay 

of Ury— 

Ankle-deep in Liitzen's blood, 
With the great Gustavus, 

and, like Barclay also — 

Charged on Tilly's line 
And his Walloon lancers, 

returning home later to take a hand in the wars of the Covenant, and 
to regain possession of his ancestral, if barren, acres of Drumthwacket, 
on which, like Warren Hastings on Daylesford, he had always kept 
a careful and desirous eye. Needless to say, the foregoing reference is 
to a Marischal College man who, although he be but a figment of our 
Great Magician's brain, has nevertheless passed almost into history, 
and receives from all men the homage due to an historical character.^ 
It is probably the last triumph of Walter Scott's genius that we 
never question the reality of Rittmaster Dugald Dalgetty. His name 
occurs in no album of matriculation, but he holds his place in our 
Roll of Honour as securely as if he had been an actual person. 
Those who had the good fortune to be present at the reception of 
delegates from the Universities of the four quarters, during our 

^ The acknowledged original in part, Captain Dalgetty of Prestonpans, need not be 
discussed again. Scott himself and Mr. Crockett (*' The Scott Originals ") have exhausted 
the subject. For the connexion of the name with the north through Hay of Delgaty, see 
Mr. A. Mackie in "The Scottish Field" for August, 1912. 



14 Aberdeen University Review 

Quater-centenary celebration, recall, as the most intense moment of 
that memorable afternoon, the thrill of delighted gratification which 
ran through the audience when Professor Schiick of Upsala linked the 
great traditions of Sweden with those of Aberdeen University, in the 
person of our imaginary alumnus. " In this connexion," he said, " I 
may perhaps be allowed to refer to the name of a Scotsman who has 
no place in real history, but only in a work of fiction — in Sir Walter 
Scott's ' Legend of Montrose '. You will all remember the hero of that 
novel, the valiant Captain Dalgetty, and you will remember he had 
two loves of his life — Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, from 
whom he learnt the art of war ; and Marischal College, where he 
learnt his Latin (laughter and cheers)." ^ Nor is this the only 
testimony to Dalgetty s actuality. Four times in the Index to Mr. 
Anderson's great record of our celebrations does the name of Scott's 
creation occur, and there Dugald Dalgetty receives no equivocal 
honour of inverted commas, but is treated exactly as if he had worn 
flesh and blood. King's College, London, in its Latin address of 
greeting, could not forbear to mention our great man. Mr. Alexander 
Mackie, in his sketch of the ceremony, gave expression to the pleasure 
which all men felt at Professor SchUck's reference ; and in yet another 
commemorative sketch in that volume, Mr. Neil Munro once more 
invests Dalgetty with all the attributes of a real son of Alma Mater. 
Surely never before was fictitious character so amply recognized as a 
living personality. There is simply no doubt about Dalgetty. We 
know him, we have him, and we shall keep him as long as one stone 
of Marischal College remains upon another, and those of us who are 
more intimately attached to King's College than to the newer founda- 
tion take equal pride in the old soldado, who with all his faults and 
failings never missed a chance to uphold the name and fame of his 
Alma Mater, and who was in a double sense written to our soil. We 
ought to have his portrait in the Gallery of Marischal College. The 
thing could easily be done, for Sir Walter has left us abundant 
material in that minute description with which he first introduced the 
hero. 

Our affection for Dugald Dalgetty cannot blind us to the fact that 
his character was not altogether estimable, but his very rascalities and 
insolences only heighten his attraction, and although, like the typical 

^ *♦ Record of the Quater-centenary," p, n6. 



Marischal's most Martial Alumnus 15 

soldier of fortune he was, he held his sword at any master s disposal, 
he had at least the merit of being punctiliously faithful to that master 
for the precise term of his engagement. He was greedy, cunning, and 
bibulous, offensively aggressive at times, and most lamentably boring 
with his perpetual instances of pedantry, but always brave, and when 
all is said and done, we are of Jeffrey's opinion,^ that in himself 
Dugald is "uniformly entertaining". We may agree with Jeffrey 
also, on purely artistic grounds, that the old soldado engrosses too 
great a proportion of the work, but had there been less Dalgetty, 
there would have been no "Legend of Montrose". Whatever story 
Sir Walter may have intended to write was commandeered and hustled 
into the background by the imperious Rittmaster, who stands before 
us, a portrait of Shakespearian roundness and finish. We take him 
for what he is, and we do not even resent those traits which Sir 
Walter must certainly have intended, consciously or unconsciously, as 
the Edinburgh man's sly hits at the proverbial idiosyncrasies of the 
northern character. It is, by the way, rather curious that Sir Walter 
never gave us an Aberdeen advocate, wherein perhaps he resisted 
temptation, for he must have known many of that privileged class ; 
and his Aberdeen student, it must be remembered, was not strictly an 
Aberdonian, but a Kincardineshire man, for the lands of Drumthwacket 
lay just south of the Bridge of Dee. 

Their precise position has indeed been the subject of some learned 
antiquarian inquiry, which seemed likely at one time to lead to con- 
troversy ; but a correct and intelligent reading of Scott's description 
of Dugald's bare acres settled the question, it would seem finally, 
almost as soon as it was raised. ^ The estate of the Dalgetty s was 
identified by the late Dr. Paul of Banchory-Devenick with the lands 
of Drumforskie which lay in his own parish. Sir Walter places Drum- 
thwacket at a distance of five miles south of Aberdeen, and this led 
Mr. Sydney Couper, Craigiebuckler, to ask in " Scottish Notes and 
Queries " whether Dr. Paul could be correct, as he locates Drumforskie 
at two miles and a half from the Bridge of Dee. A later correspon- 
dent reconciled Sir Walter's and Dr. Paul's distances by the very simple 
expedient of showing that each authority was referring to a different 
end of the estate. Sir Walter took his five miles from the southern- 
most extremity of the lands of Drumforskie. Here, I think, we have 

^ " Edinburgh Review," No. 65. 

a ♦♦ Scottish Notes and Queries," 1892, vi. 46, 64. 



1 6 Aberdeen University Review 

a point of considerable interest, which has not hitherto been brought 
out. It must be remembered that Sir Walter Scott never visited 
Aberdeen, although he may have had a glimpse of it from the sea 
during his voyage with the Lighthouse Commissioners — that cruise 
which in so brief a time gave him the material for "The Pirate". 
His nearest approach to the city by land was Dunnottar, to which he 
made an excursion from Meigle, during the autumn of 1793, when as 
a young man of twenty-two he was a member of that merry house- 
party at James Murray's of Simprin.^ It was during that fleeting 
visit to Dunnottar and its churchyard that Sir Walter met Old 
Mortality in the flesh, and received the inspiration for another master- 
piece. The novels were still a long way ahead, but they were certainly 
in the crucible of the author's brain, and if during that visit to Dun- 
nottar young Scott was already founding future work and incubating 
the idea of Dalgetty from " Sir James Turner's Memoirs " and Monro's 
** Expedition," there is a special reason why he should have been inter- 
ested in the barren and forbidding lands lying just to the south of 
Aberdeen. Sir James Turner, one of the acknowledged prototypes of 
Dalgetty, on returning from foreign wars, exactly as Dalgetty did, be- 
cause he had heard that there "was something to be doing in his way 
this summer in 1 his dear native country," met with some reverses of 
wind and weather, and finally put ashore at Cove. Now, Cove 
practically adjoins the southern extremity of the Moor ofDrumforskie, 
and, although proof is impossible, it is not unreasonable to suppose 
that during that evening which Scott spent with the minister of Dun- 
nottar, he may have made some enquiry as to the scene of Turner's 
landing. This the minister of Dunnottar would have been well able 
to supply, and hence we have the accurate picture of Drumforskie or 
Drumthwacket which is put into the mouth of Sibbald, Lord Menteith's 
second attendant *' If his estate of Drumthwacket be, as I conceive, 
the long waste moor so called, that lies five miles south of Aberdeen, 
I can tell him it was lately purchased by Elias Strachan, as rank a 
rebel as ever swore the Covenant." ^ Scott's point of view was plainly 
from the south.^ 

^ Lockhart, chap. vii. 

"For the lightness of the name Strachan see W. Keith Leask in "Musa Latina 
Aberdonensis," iii. 338. The name endured well into the nineteenth century at Charles- 
ton of Nigg, which is Drumforskie. 

' The proprietor of what was formerly Drumforskie, Sir David Stewart of Banchory, 
has recently changed the name of a farm in the district from Banchory-Hillock to Drum- 



Marischal's most Martial Alumnus 17 

There is another reason, however, why Scott's interest might have 
been turned towards this somewhat unlikely spot. Although he never 
set foot in the city of Aberdeen, or approached it nearer than one- 
and-twenty miles or so, he knew a great deal about the town and 
district, and his knowledge had all the intimacies of a legal information, 
for, during the time that he was apprenticed to his father, all the Town 
Council business of Aberdeen that required an Edinburgh agent 
passed through the hands of Walter Scott the elder, and therefore was 
open to the eye of Walter Scott the younger. Were it possible to 
examine Mr. Walter Scott's correspondence with the Council, many 
clues to Scott's marvellous information would doubtless appear.^ The 
character of Dalgetty abounds in touches of this sort. Sir Walter 
Scott knew the original foundation Charter of Marischal College. 
He is correct about the existence of a Bursar's table, whereat poor 
Dugald was forced to eat so hastily lest he should receive nothing of 
the provant and vivers wherein his soul so hugely delighted, and there 
are echoes of the strict discipline of the College, which Scott could only 
have learned from the Earl Marischal's deed.^ Equally interesting is 
the absolute rightness of Dalgetty's position, as a loyal son of Marischal 
College, towards both the old and the reformed religion. Jeffrey 
imagines that he was a divinity student, but this is not so. He was 
an Arts student, pure and simple. We do not hear that he graduated, 
but he knew the Graduation Oath, in the spirit of which he speaks 
when he tells Menteith how, after he had joined the Spanish service, 
he was expected to go to mass with the regiment. **Now, my lord," 
he continues, " as a true Scottish man, and educated at the Mareschal 
College of Aberdeen, I was bound to uphold the mass to be an act of 
blinded papistry and utter idolatry, whilk I was altogether unwilling to 
homologate by my presence." 

thwacket, to preserve the interesting association with Sir Walter Scott. — G. M. Fraser's 
*«The Bridge of Dee" (Abd., 1913). 

1 Mr. J. W. Davidson, Town Clerk Depute, tells me that the correspondence exists, 
and was looked out not long ago, but is at present not easily accessible. The papers proved 
that Sir Walter was instructed for the Town in 1797, when he was of five years' standing 
at the Bar. His father was the Town's agent from 1755 to 1799. 

*0r Mr. James Skene of Rubislaw, Scott's friend, may have supplied particulars. Mr. 
W. Keith Leask (whose name, and not mine, ought to appear at the end of this paper, so many 
and so valuable have been his suggestions) reminds me that it was out of compliment to 
Skene's friendship with Scott that Waverley Place in Aberdeen was so named, being con- 
tiguous to Rubislaw Terrace and Rubislaw Place, named because on the estate of Rubislaw. 
They were laid out by Skene. 

2 



1 8 Abercfeen University Review 

This declaration of Dalgetty's is strikingly illuminated not only by 
the text of the graduation oath itself but by its foreshadowing in the 
Earl Marischal's Charter of Foundation, where the pious founder laid 
down regulations for a periodical visitation to be made at least once 
every year to the College. In the course of this visitation, inquiry was 
to be made concerning the soundness of the faith of officials and 
students alike. The passage in question runs : — 

Imprimis vero de Religione at fidei professione diligenter inquiratur, et 
cum hie sit Satanae astus, omni mode conetur Juventutem ab Evangelii pro- 
fessione denuo ad Papismi tenebras, a quibus per Dei gratiam Regnum hoc 
semel liberatum est, abducere, stricte mandamus ut singuli qui in hanc Acade- 
miam fuerint coaptati (sic), fidei professionem edant, eam nimirum, quae a 
Verbo Dei petita et transcripta in Regni Comitiis edita atque publicata est, 
idque semel et minimum quotannis. Imprimis vero cum admittuntur in 
Academiam singuli ad Gymnasiarcham, dum albo Universitatis inscribuntur 
Rectori, et dum ad gradum aliquem promoveantur Decano Facultatis, fidem 
et Religionem puram palam profiteantur, in eaque professione se mansuros 
sancte poUiceantur. 

But above all things let diligent inquisition be made concerning religion 
and the profession of faith ; and since such is the cunning of Satan that in 
every way he endeavours to lead away youth from the profession of the Gospel 
back to the darkness of Popery, from which by the grace of God this kingdom 
has been once freed, we strictly command that all who shall be elected into 
this Academia shall make a profession of faith, that Confession, namely, which, 
taken and transcribed from the Word of God, has been put forth and published 
in the Parliament of the realm ; and this shall be done once at least every 
year. But especially before the Principal at their admission into the Academia, 
before the Rector at their matriculation in the Album of the " Universitas," and 
before the Dean of Faculty at every step of advancement, each shall make a 
public profession of faith and true religion, and shall promise faithfully to 
abide in that profession.^ 

The oath itself, which was in use until about 1837, follows 
naturally from the prescription of the Charter, but is, if anything, a 
little more vehement and denunciatory in its anti-Popery : — 

Ego tester Deum omnipotentem, me puram religionem Christianam pro- 
fiteri ; Papae Romani tyrannidem abhorrere, omnesque Romanas haereses odio 
habere. Deinde huic Academiae, cui ingenii culturam debeo, benevolentiam, 
quam potero, me relaturum, sancte promitto.^ 

At King's College the reference to the Vera et Orthodoxa Religio 

^ P. J. Anderson, '* Fasti Academiae Mariscallanae," Vol. I. Words almost similar 
occur in the Nova Fundatio of King's College, which reads cooptati for coaptati above ; the 
latter possibly a misprint. 

' Abolished by the Court, on Dr. Bain's motion, 7th October, 1887. 



Marischal's most Martial Alumnus 19 

which occurs in Dunbar's foundation of 1531 was removed in 1641.^ 
In the oldest extant Album of Graduates of King's College, that of 
1600, the anti-Roman test is found in full operation in a Graduation 
Oath therein transcribed, and there the true religion is explicitly de- 
fined as that which has been accepted by the three Kingdoms, and is 
contained not only in the pure Word of God, but in the Shorter and 
the Larger Catechisms. The phrase for the latter volumes (of bitter- 
sweet memory to suffering youth !) is singularly apt : — " Catechismo 
breviori et prolixiori ". 

But to return to Marischal College. It is thus abundantly clear 
on what Dalgetty was founding himself when he declared that, as a 
good Marischal man, he must have no commerce with Rome ; and 
when we say Dalgetty, we mean of course his creator, who seems to 
have touched at all points upon the elements necessary for the right 
construction of the character. I had intended to go rather elaborately 
into the question of the origins of Dalgetty the Soldier, as well as of 
Dalgetty the Pedant, but while this paper was already in progress 
Mr. J. D. Mackie, Lecturer in Modern History at St. Andrews, 
published in the " Scottish Historical Review " a most able study of 
these military points.^ Little remains to be said that would serve 
any useful end about the sources of Dalgetty's soldierly equipment, as 
contained in the two principal works consulted by Sir Walter Scott. 
These were the, memoirs of Sir James Turner, already mentioned, and 
" Monro, His Expedition," whereof the reader must be spared the in- 
terminable title-page. But there are still one or two gleanings to 
be made that have a small interest of their own. 

A novelist, when he is founding himself on an authentic document, 
lays it under contribution in many ways, not always perhaps con- 
sciously. To this subsidiary action of the brain may be due the 
naming of Sibbald, Lord Menteith's second servant in the novel. In 
the second portion of Turner's narrative, he says : — ** I went by land 
to Holland, accompanied with Colonell Sibbald, who carried letters 
from Montrose, both to Scotland and Ireland ".^ Scott, however, 
must have known otherwise of Sibbald, who, with Rollo, is in- 

^ P. J. Anderson, " Officers and Graduates of the University and King's College "• 
Appendix 111., •* Academic Oaths". 

^ '* Scottish Historical Review," April, 1915 : " Dugald Dalgetty and Scottish Soldiers 
of Fortune," by J. D. Mackie. 

' " Sir James Turner'si Memoirs," p. 92,'Bannatyne Society, 1829. 



20 Aberdeen University Review 

separable from any account of the adventures of Montrose. It is 
noteworthy also that Turner landed twice at Aberdeen or its vicinity 
—once, as we have said, in 1640, and again in 165 1. In the first 
instance. Turner had some difficulty in leaving Sweden, when he de- 
sired to return to serve the King against the Covenanters, and it was 
only by hard rowing and a lucky chance that he got out to a ship 
bound for Scotland, and was taken on board. He had been refused 
a passage by a vessel bound for Hull, but he pursued a Dane bound 
for Leith, who had got a great way out from the shore, and was 
staying there to pick up a passenger whom the skipper had promised 
to carry to Edinburgh. 

He was ane old man, who at taking his farewell of his friends the night 
before had drunk so much ithat he had sleepd his time. Immediatlie I 
clapd in fresh men in my boate, the others being overwearied with rowing, and 
so came to the ship ; neither did the skipper make any scruple to ressave me, 
thogh at first he conceaved his old man was in my companie. To the neglect 
of this old man, nixt to all ruleing providence, may I attribute my goeing at that 
time to Scotland. On the sixth day after my embarkeing, we saw ourselvs 
not farre from Aberdeene. I was glad we were so farre north, because I had 
heard the kings ships were in the firth ; hot I was mistaken, for they were 
gone ; and no matter they had been gone sooner, for any good service they 
did the king there. The skipper set me ashore at a place called the Cove, 
from thence I hired horses to Edinburgh.^ 

It may, of course, be objected that Scott might not, during his 
visit to Meigle, have been acquainted with Turner's Memoirs, which 
only came into real notice with the publication of the extracts by the 
Bannatyne Club in 1829, nearly thirty years after Scott was in the 
north ; but we know how voracious he was from earliest childhood of 
every sort of military record.^ And as Mr. Shortreed remarked, *' he 
was makin' himsell' a' the time, but he didna ken maybe what he was 
about till years had passed ". His memory, though not good verbally, 
was very tenacious of incidents and points of locality, and to find him- 
self on the iron coast of Kincardineshire may have meant for him an 
awakening of literary associations and a quickening of interest in the 
locale of Turner's landing. Here, I am inclined to believe, is an ex- 
planation of a thing in itself rather difficult— -Sir Walter's placing of 
the property of his swashbuckler hero in so unlikely a spot as the 
moor of Drumforskie. 

^ Turner, op. cit., p. 15. Note the still surviving local usage, " the Cove ". 
' Lockhart : Scott's " Autobiographical Fragment," chap. i. 



Marischal's most Martial Alumnus 21 

As to th« elements contributory to the actual character of Dugald 
Dalgetty, they are to be found rather in Monro than in Turner. There 
is a richness and pithiness in Monro's observations which we do not 
find in the smoother passages of the other soldier of fortune. To open 
a page of Monro at random is to feel oneself in touch with the Laird 
of Drumthwacket. There is the same sententiousness, the same pro- 
lixity of phrase, an overwhelming copiousness of illustration, the same 
pedantry, amounting in fact to the vice of over-much classical quo- 
tation. Monro and Turner were both University men, and they had 
acquired to the full 'that habit — pleasing to the learned,' but most 
utterly detestable to the unlearned — of dragging in bookish allusions. 
The practice has its uses — it may even, in skilful hands, have its 
graces ; but it is an insidious temptation and one to be guarded 
against in everyday intercourse with the world, more especially in 
these days when a man thinks once before he uses Latin and twice 
before he quotes Greek, for in the latter case verily he is in the way 
to incur not displeasure but downright enmity. I speak as one that 
has been himself a great sinner in these respects in former times, but 
I have learned with sorrow, and late in the day, that illustration from 
the classics is now an utter dead letter to the majority of mankind. 
Only when pedant meets pedant, may he slap his thigh, and roll out 
his apposite quotation as heartily as, Allan Cunningham tells us d 
propos of a famous lyric, ploughman meeting ploughman would slap 
his thigh and exclaim " The verra grey breeks o' Tam Glen ". 

It is to Monro that we owe those choicely characteristic phrases 
which remain long in the memory, and give us such a flavour of the 
campaigns of Gustavus — such phrases as ''the intaking of Spandau 
and Frankfort on the Oder " ; and the wise saws and modern instances 
relative to strategy are to be traced in the " Observations " of Monro. 
Here it is that we get Lumsdell, and Butler with his wild Irish, and 
Monro affords not only the germ of those notes upon the Dutch 
punctiliousness in pay and provant, but also — a point which Dalgetty 
mentions with less enthusiasm — that other side of the stipendiary 
question, the Dutchman's disinclination to fight if his salary were 
behindhand. With such trade strikes worthy Captain Dalgetty had 
no sympathy. He would bargain hardly for his pay, but once he had 
clinched an agreement, he would not let any question of arrears stand 
between him and the tough encounter. He contrasts proudly the 
practice of the Scots. Mercenary though he was, he loved fighting 



2 2 Aberdeen University Review 

for its own sake, and fought with scientific valour. Discipline is in 
fact the ruling passion of his life. He was a seventeenth century walk- 
ing drill-book. Neither sleep nor good liquor could entirely over- 
come that drill-sergeant tongue of his. During the telling of Lord 
Menteith's story of the Children of the Mist, Dugald, half-seas over 
and already half-asleep and in bed, hearing through his drowsiness 
the word "retreated" immediately exclaimed— "To your right hand, 
counter-march, and retreat to your former ground," which in the 
"Infantry Training," 1 91 4, would run — "Platoon will retire — about 
turn ". It is from another work of Monro's, his " Abridgement of 
Exercise for the Young Souldier, his better Instruction," that Sir 
Walter obtained his hint for the half-somnolent command already 
quoted. It is the ordering for 

That evolution called the Slavonian counter- march, where you lose 
ground, the front being changed also ; then you command the first rank to 
turn about to the, right hand, then you say to the rest, Countermarch, and 
through to your former distance after your Leaders. 
Then say, Leaders as you were ; and to the rest 
To the left hand countermarch as you were to your first ground. 

What follows, being most entirely in the Dalgetty manner, tempts 
me, with the reader's indulgence, to continue the quotation for a line 
or two : — 

The third sort of counter-march I esteem most of to be practised, being 
rather a conversion very requisite to be well known to all soldiers in all 
armies, chiefly to be used before an enemy ; for as it is most sudden, so in 
my opinion it breeds least disorder and disturbance, the soldiers once used to 
it of themselves they will willingly do it on any occasion.^ 

These and similar passages will recall Dalgetty's disquisition on 
the Swedish feathers — that is, the usage of the pike; all which 
points Mr. Mackie has referred to their originals. Further references 
to the same theme by one who is no academic hoplites but a mere 
literary skirmisher would be impertinence. 

In one respect Captain Dalgetty differed greatly from Monro, who 
was a man of real but somewhat too ostentatious piety. Dugald, it is 
true, never failed to improve the occasion, but his edification was not 
exactly spiritual ; nay, he was in very truth a materialist, gainful of 
mind, a type actual enough, but perhaps slightly caricatured of set 
purpose by Scott, for southern Scotland is deeply attached to the 

* " Monro, His Expedition, etc.," 1637, p. 189; «• An Abridgement of Exercise ". 



Marischal's most Martial Alumnus 23 

legend of northern " nearness," although, if the truth were told, it is 
a case where Pot need not refer to the precise hue of Neighbour 
Kettle. This is set down without malice. Such things must be. 
There are certain racial differences betwixt the men of Forth and 
those of Don and Dee that will never wholly reconcile them, or bring 
them to complete understanding. It is mentioned here merely as 
giving a clue to the psychological basis of Scott's slight contempt for 
Dalgetty the man, amid all his real admiration of Dalgetty the soldier, 
and it is the admiration for the soldier that carries the character to 
success, and has made it acceptable, even endeared, to those northern 
bodies at whom Scott was enjoying a sly fling. The things of this 
world are ever first and foremost with Dugald Dalgetty, although, on 
retiring to rest and at critical moments, he would, in the Shakes- 
pearian manner, " swear a prayer or two " — that is to say, he 
mumbled, by way of incantation, the opening of the Lutheran Psalm, 
**Alle guten geister loben den Herrn". This is about as far as he 
goes in religious matters ; and that his spiritual armoury was scanty is 
proved by the fact that, on a later occasion of stress, he returns to the 
same verse of the same Psalm. In theological argument, Marischal 
College did not seem to have furnished him forth very amply, for his 
great disputation with Father Fatsides of the Scottish Convent in 
Wurtzburg tended, on Dugald's own confession, only to a moderately 
clear opinion : which is not surprising '* Considering we had drunk six 
flasks of Rhenish, and about two mutchkins of Kirschenwasser ". 
With the Dutch pastor of the Reformed Church, who quoted 
Naaman's entry into the house of Rimmon as a precedent for Dugald's 
attending mass with the Spanish troops, the Rittmaster was readier 
in argument, pointing out that there was " an unco difference between 
an anointed king of Syria and our Spanish Colonel, whom I could 
have blown away like the peeling of an ingan". But Dugald gets 
away from divinity quickly to the reassertion of his martial self, when 
he adds that he objected to the casuistry, chiefly " Because I could 
not find that the thing was required of me by any of the articles of 
war". And the thrifty side of his nature moves him to add hastily 
—"Neither was I offered any consideration either in perquisite or 
pay for the wrong I might thereby do to my conscience ". 

It is a little difficult altogether to understand why Dalgetty remains, 
when all is said and done, so attractive. The secret possibly lies in 
the courage with which the author has refused to idealize what must 



24 Aberdeen University Review 

have been a very usual type of the soldier of fortune of that day — a man 
hardened and coarsened by a life that, for all its technical discipline , 
was really little better than that of the freebooter. Yet Dugald's 
own courage, his readiness and resource in action, have a great deal to 
do with his final attraction for the reader. Of the finer feelings, so- 
called, which later romancers of cape and sword, such as Mr. Stanley 
Weyman, make it a point of honour to attribute to their heroes, Dugald 
is entirely wanting, except perhaps in his tenderness for his horse 
Gustavus, wherein he sets a shining example. But he is less of a 
gentleman, even in the conventional sense, than one might have 
reasonably supposed in a person who had seen some rather exalted 
society, and had been near the person of Gustavus, Whether it was 
drink or sheer crassness we cannot say, but his blundering exposition 
to Lady Campbell on the subject of Jean Drochiels is a glaring 
but perhaps quite characteristic solecism, and it was not Dugald's 
fault that her ladyship did not understand his Latin quotation, which 
Sir Duncan made haste to cover over. " Vengeance of Jenny's case ! 
fie on her ! never name her, child," as Dame Quickly says in " The 
Merry Wives "} Both instances are to be passed over lightly, and 
both Lady Campbell and Mrs. Quickly were of a similar opinion 
touching these delicate matters. Scott conceived his Dalgetty roundly, 
and set him roundly on the page, a type complete of the man he 
sought to draw, and save perhaps in one single particular, now to be 
mentioned, entirely accurate. 

Dalgetty, being drawn from two originals who were both Univer- 
sity men fond of pedantic allusions, and both cadets of good families, 
has given rise to an impression that the majority of Scottish soldiers 
of fortune of that period were men well versed in polite letters, who 
carried with them through the adventures of field and leaguer a curious 
affection for their Alma Mater. I am assured by Mr. J. M. Bulloch, 
who speaks with authority on this point, that the type of the student- 
soldier was not nearly so general as many believe. In his researches 
into the life history of the cadets of the house of Gordon, and inciden- 
tally of many other Scottish families, Mr. Bulloch has found that only 
a very small minority were University men. They seem to have cared 
little for schools or colleges. It is true that Marshal Keith and his 
brother, excellent later examples of the adventurous Scot abroad, 
spent some time at the College founded by their forebear and both were 

1 Act IV. Sc. I. 



Marischal's most Martial Alumnus 25 

at the Grammar School. But their college career was brief; for they 
took the world for their University, and some will say that their 
advantage was the greater. But here we touch delicate ground, and 
run the risk of possible heresies, whereof it is impossible to speak 
more particularly in this place. ^ 

These notes have stretched to an inordinate length, and, I fear, to 
little purpose; but it is pleasant to the writer, at least, to let his 
thoughts play round the various points, good and bad, of Dugald 
Dalgetty, and to try to discover a few of the threads that ran through 
the fantastic loom of Scott's brain when he wove this immortal web 
of fiction. Dalgetty, knighted and come to his own, lived, we under- 
stand, to a ripe age in these northern parts of ours, and Sir Walter 
gives us a last glimpse of him cruising about in that country, " very 
old, very deaf, and very full of interminable stories about the immortal 
Gustavus Adolphus, the Lion of the North, and the bulwark of the 
Protestant Faith " . 

It would seem that he is immortal, in another sense of immortality 
than that conferred by Scott's pen. There is some evidence that 
Sir Dugald yet lives and revisits the glimpses of the moon, hard by his 
beloved Marischal College, now no longer the plain and somewhat 
unsightly structure he knew, but the stateliest and amplest granite 
building in the world. That exquisite perpendicular, so near the 
Northern Sea, may Heaven preserve from the cannon of Germans 
whom Dugald would disown ! Without doubt he still haunts these 
regions. At any rate some twelve years ago, a letter was printed by 
Alma MateVy in the following terms : — 

Unto the Worshipful the Editor of Alma Mater : These : — 

Sir, 

• ^Having been of last week a sojourner in our gude toun of Bon- 
Accord to advertise (quhilk may have been noted of divers learned) that 
truly pleasant and fertile farm of Drumthwackit, my paternal hereditament, 
in the Gallo-Belgicus^ the Fliegenden Mercoeur of Leipsic, and in your local 
diurnals intituled the Free Press diud Journal, I thought that I might again 
view the College wherein I studied the humanities. 

Judge ye of the disgust with which the eyes of an old soldado were 
greeted. Not one could I see wearing the gown, but a wheen land-laufers, 
cuUions, and other petty bisognos, with nothing but a cloth kep (!) allenarly, 

^ The Earl Marischal was a student at Marischal College, 1708-10. Marshal Keith 
was a member of the Marischal College Class of 1711-15, though for how long is not quite 
certain. P. J. Anderson, ** Fasti," Vol. II. Professor Cowan (** Univ. Rev.," Vol. I, p. 227) 
says the Earl graduated at Marischal College in 1712, but this seems doubtful. 



26 Aberdeen University Review 

a kind of headgear mair befitting the ancient Scythians, or the salvage Indians 
in the America that now is, than academic youth. 

I do remember a pretty argument held between the immortal Gustavus, 
the Lion of the North, the Terror of Austria, the Bulwark of the Protestant 
Faith, and Stout Hepburn of the Scots Brigade, at the intaking of Frankfort 
in 163 1, as to whether a tertia of Irishes could be held to quarter for honour- 
able cavaliers. Whereunto when Gustavus repugned, and did esteem them as 
fellows that havena sae mickle as a German whistle or a drum to beat withal 
a march, tattoo, reveille, or other point of war, our lads with an onfall fell 
briskly to work and put them all incontinentlie to the sword. 

I could wish that some Hogan-Mogans in the Senatus that prate pro- 
digiously of Crowns and Towers might be certiorate that there have been — 
not so long ago — in that body men that would never have tolerated the sink- 
ing of ane auld and honourable foundation to the level of a Ragged Schule. 

Hoping that, next time I pass that way, some change shall appear, and 
ihaX peremptorie, as we used to say at the Marischal College, I have the honour 
to remain your worshipful's humble Servant, 

DuGALD Dalgetty [i.e., W. K. L.]. 

Drumthwackit, Banchory Devenick, N.B., 
jfan. 26, 1903.^ 

The occasion was twofold. Not only had Sir Dugald reason to re- 
buke the Epigoni for their desertion of the gown, but his ancestral lands 
were for sale and duly advertised in the local press. It is doubtful, 
however, whether the advertisement published in the later diurnals 
was inserted by the Knight himself, but manifestly he keeps a keen 
eye on what is done in the North generally, and at Marischal in par- 
ticular. He moves, too, with the times, and acquires new phrases, as 
the centuries pass. Minute critics might object that the phrase 
" Hogan-Mogan " would never have been used by the Rittmaster, as it 
is not found earlier than the time of William III. " Ragged Schule" 
is also a later acquisition. But here is only another proof of his 
continued vitality, his continual vigilance and adaptability to every 
emergency. For such stirring shades it were inappropriate to breathe 
a Requiescat. 

J. D. SYMON. 

^ Alma Mater, January 28, 1903. 




The University and Soldiering. 

|0 a large number of thoughtful people in our " corner/' 
as they used to call it, nothing perhaps has brought 
home the poignant immanence of the Great War 
so much as the participation of the University in 
the struggle. You gain that impression by the 
way in which the newspaper chroniclers linger over 
the obituary of every academic victim of battle. A 
boyish Bajan fallen on the field, will get more notice than a blacksmith 
who may have been Volunteering these twenty years ; and a great 
deal more than a Regular Gordon who had gone through Dargai and 
South Africa. 

We have, of course, seen a great deal more fighting than the 
Germans ; but it has not in our time touched academic circles appreci- 
ably; for, although the words *' University " and "War" have a close 
alphabetic proximity, they have represented to the minds of most people 
activities diametrically opposed. The antagonism is one of my 
earliest memories, for I recall that nothing so much shocked my im- 
mediate family circle in the Franco-German war, which broke out 
when I was three, as the decimation of the Universities of the combat- 
ant countries ; the immolation of their hopeful youth seemed the most 
profound tragedy of all ; and I fancy my own circle was not peculiar 
in visualizing the campaign thus. That circle and the generation to 
which it belonged would have been still more shocked to learn that 
these very Universities, at least in Germany, had become the hottest 
hot-beds of militarist propaganda, as if to revenge in kind the decima- 
tion of 1870. 

But, although our own University and Pacifism seemed to be syn- 
onymous, time was when it produced Soldiers, and contributed to the 
art of war. Indeed, there are some peculiarly great names in this 
connection, contributed by both the component parts of what we now 
know as Aberdeen University — Field- Marshal James Keith (1696- 



2 8 Aberdeen University Review 

1758), the inventor of Kriegsschachspiel, which might be described as 
the kindergarten of battle ; the Rev. A. J. Forsyth of Belhelvie (1765- 
1846), whose invention of the percussion lock revolutionized gunnery 
and is the direct parent of our modern methods of ignition ; and Sir 
James McGrigor (1771-1858), who did more than anyone before him 
to conserve the health of the soldier, which has been the outstanding 
feature of the present war. 

But none of these did so much to make the name of the University 
more widely known to the outside world as the romantic figure of 
Dugald Dalgetty. Indeed, the Bobadil of Bon-Accord, if I may so 
call him, represents a distinct type in the first of the two great periods 
into which Scots soldiering divides itself. In the earlier period there 
was only one thing for the Scots professional soldier to do ; he had to 
go abroad. As a Soldier of Fortune, his activities were catholic. 
One day he was fighting the cause of Protestantism, the next he was 
battling for Rome. Now it was for France ; now for the Holy Roman 
Empire; and now for Russia. He battled without bias, a venturer 
so competent that his services were always in request. To this type 
of Soldier the Scots Universities, and the class from which they mainly 
drew their students, were lavish contributors for generations ; and the 
adventures of these Gentlemen-at-Arms were so romantic that many 
books have been written about them. 

The second period, marked roughly by the Union, introduced the 
element of fighting for a national bias. The road was open for service 
in England and her ever-growing dominions beyond the sea, whereas 
it was closing to service on the Continent, first because continental 
peoples were beginning to do things for themselves, and secondly be- 
cause our alliance with England involved our espousing her quarrels 
especially against France, with whom Scotland pure and simple had 
lived on excellent terms for many obvious reasons. In due course the 
Scots Men-at-Arms in France came to an end. The Scots Brigade in 
Holland, a great absorber of our military activity, flickered out : and, 
although Peter of Russia and to a smaller extent Frederick of Prussia 
enlisted the services of some of our countrymen — notably the Gordons, 
the Griegs, and the Keiths — the call for the future lay nearer home. 

If the Union opened the way to England, it also drove into exile 
many instinctive soldiers ; and in any case it involved, as I have said, 
the espousal of causes which were more or less foreign to traditional 
Scots policy. There was a peculiar irony in men who had opposed 



The University and Soldiering 29 

the "wee bit German lairdie" in 171 5 and 1745 crossing the North 
Sea in their exile, as Keith did, to fight for other German lairdies like 
Frederick of Prussia, thus helping them to create the domineering 
Empire we know to our bitter cost to-day. No less ironical was it for 
those of our countrymen who had remained at home to have to enter 
on the long campaign against their old hereditary friend, France, 
with whom they had far more spiritual sympathies than the geo- 
graphical area of England possesses even at this moment — sympa- 
thies that still continue in Scotland. 

If the theoretic possibility of entering the British Army as officers 
was opened up for Scotsmen in 1707, the practical opportunity for 
doing so on a large scale did not present itself till fifty years later, 
when our struggle with France for world power began in real earnest. 
Soldiers were needed immediately and in ever-increasing numbers; 
and it was then that the foundations of Territorial Soldiering were 
laid ; that national defence became a matter of deep local interest ; 
and the country went through a series of experiences almost identical 
with those we have been witnessing during the past fifteen months, 
for in an old-established country like ours and with an independent 
people like ours, national temperament does not change so rapidly as 
with a mushroom, parvenu confederation like the German Empire 
which has few traditions that are not mimetic. 

In the forty-five years which stretched out arms hungry for men 
between 1759, when the Duke of Gordon's first regiment (the 89th) 
was raised, and 1814, when the struggle ended, four different types of 
troops were raised under the auspices of two main authorities. 
Regulars and Fencibles were raised mainly by Highland gentlemen, 
noblemen and landed proprietors, and occasionally by military officers 
with a local landed connection. The Militia and Volunteers were 
organized by the Lords-Lieutenant of the Counties, because purely 
private enterprise gradually exhausted itself. 

The first call for officers was mainly satisfied by lairds, big and little, 
and the more important farmers' son, classes that had numbers of suit- 
able men in their keeping, and who could therefore bring quotas of 
recruits in return for commissions. The University student was only 
a second line to fall back upon, and was requisitioned usually if related 
to the regiment-raiser's family, or if connected with his farmers or his 
landed neighbours. The great point is that the Army under the 
strenuous circumstances of the day became an avenue of activity for 



30 Aberdeen University Review 

capable young men, exactly as it has become again in our time ; and 
the men launched into it at that time bred sons who took to it and who 
have largely helped to breed our military caste — for patriotism almost 
invariably becomes a regular avocation. 

It is not easy to make a complete catalogue of the officers supplied 
by the University, and, even if it were, a tabulated treatment of the 
subject would be out of place in a review like the present. An exam- 
ination of *' Gordons under Arms" supplies a good test so far as this 
one family is concerned ; and I shall be content on this occasion to 
mention a few men belonging to other families. 

Notable among these was William Finlason, son of the Supervisor 
of Excise at Aberdeen, by his wife Anne Gordon of the Aberdour 
family ; that probably being the cause of the lad's being brought to the 
notice of the Duke of Gordon. Young Finlason entered Marischal 
College in 1756, and completed his Semi session. The University saw 
him no more, for in 1759 the 89th Regiment was raised, and William 
got a lieutenancy. From that time to the day of his death in 181 7, 
Finlason spent practically the whole of his life soldiering under many 
auspices. He was one of the right-hand men of the Duke in recruiting 
for the Gordon Highlanders in Aberdeen in 1794, and in 1803 he 
raised on his own behalf the Loyal Aberdeen Volunteers, curiously 
known as " Finlason's Fencibles," the most highly trained body of 
Volunteers that Aberdeen had seen until our own immediate time. 

Campbell's Highlanders, the 88th, who were recruited side by side 
with Keith's, the 87th, attracted another alumnus in the person of 
James Mercer, who had entered Marischal College in 1748 and joined 
Holmes's Regiment before he took post in Campbell's in January, 1 760. 
Although Mercer saw fighting in Germany, and remained more or less 
in the Service for nearly a quarter of a century — he became Major in 
the Duke of Gordon's Northern Fencibles in 1778 — he was throughout 
his life much more the student than the soldier. He served as Dean 
of Faculty at Marischal College ; he was an intimate associate of Reid 
and Beattie and other members of the Wise Club ; and he married a 
sister of the brilliant Lord Glenbervie. Mercer celebrated the year 
1794) when Finlason was sweltering over the raising of the 92nd, by 
publishing a volume of ** Lyric Poems," which, although called for on 
three occasions, including a posthumous and biographical edition in 
1 806, cannot be said to have raised the Major beyond the rank of a 
minor poet. 



The University and Soldiering 31 

These locally raised regiments formed only one outlet for Univer- 
sity men. The Service of the East India Company offered greater op- 
portunities, for the social responsibilities of the officer were smaller and 
the chance of making a livelihood were greater. Besides, the patron- 
age of the great landowners, who were often financially associated with 
India as shareholders in the Company, was easily requisitioned on 
behalf of likely youths. Another outlet was for doctors. If the ordi- 
nary Arts man had no special training as a soldier, the medical 
student started from the University gates fully equipped for his task ; 
and, although his military status was a poor one for many years to 
come, he formed a recurring link between the Services of the Univer- 
sity. Thus, it seems to have been the medical service of Dr. George 
French with the Duke of Gordon's Northern Fencibles in 1778 which 
led to his pupil Sir James McGrigor entering the Army, and that as 
we all know was the foundation on which our present magnificent 
service, the Royal Army Medical Corps, was laid, McGrigor' s design 
being added to and improved by such men as the late Colonel Johnston 
and Colonel Beattie, who has once more returned to active service. 
Indeed, the medical side of the University has ever since been our 
main link with the Services, for our contribution to their combatant 
side has, for reasons which I shall explain, witnessed great fluctuations. 

It must not be forgotten that at this period there was no technical 
instruction for officers apart from the drill ground. It was not until 
1 799 that a beginning was made (at High Wycombe) with what became 
known as the Staff College, opened by M. de Jarry, who had been a 
professor at the Military School at Berlin; while in 1802 the Royal 
Military College was opened in a hired house at Great Marlow. 
Several years before this a proposal had been made for a military 
academy in Aberdeen. It was propounded to the Duke of Gordon in 
1784 by Alexander Dasti, who had started his career in the Military 
Academy of Luneville, and who had been captured at Louisbourg by 
Wolfe in 1758, drifting to Aberdeen via St. Maloes, Holland, Liverpool, 
Manchester, and Glasgow. Nothing seems to have come of Dasti's 
proposal, which would have been a useful subsidiary to the Univer- 
sity. 

But the University itself made a great contribution to the art of war 
in the shape of the percussion lock, invented by the Rev. Alexander 
John Forsyth, who was educated at King's College (1782-86). Like 
all pioneers, Forsyth was very badly treated by his contemporaries, 



32 Aberdeen University Review 

and his biographers have been so inadequate that his grand-nephew, 
the late Major-General Sir Alexander John Forsyth Reid, felt com- 
pelled to tell the true story of this ecclesiastical inventor in a little 
book published in 1909. While the country was buzzing with the 
threats of a French invasion and Aberdeen was agog with soldiers, 
notably the Duke of Gordon's (second) Northern Fencibles, Forsyth 
began experimenting with detonating compounds and proceeded to 
increase the inflammability of the priming in flint locks. In 1805 he 
struck on the idea of the percussion lock, which, after he had been 
most shabbily treated by the Government, he patented in 1807 ; but 
it was not until 1834 that it was tested at Woolwich and not until 1840 
that it was first issued to a regiment, the Black Watch. The Gordons 
got it in 1845 and the ist Sussex in 1848, whereas the whole Austrian 
army was armed with it in 1840. Reid's invention alone, which quite 
revolutionized modern fire-arms, gives the University a memorable 
place in the history of soldiering, of which his grand-nephew and ad- 
mirer was such an inspiring specimen. 

Of the direct influence of the University on the Soldiering of the 
day, there was not a trace, such as we have seen in the creation of 
the University Battery and U Company of the 4th Gordons. The 
nearest approach to it was the formation of a Volunteer Company 
in Old Aberdeen (i 798-1 802), when the Rev. Gilbert Gerard, the Pro- 
fessor of Greek and the grand-uncle of that distinguished soldier. Sir 
Montagu Gerard (i 842-1905), became Major-Commandant, his officers 
including the Rev. William Jack, afterwards Principal, and Robert 
Eden Scott, Professor of Moral Philosophy. The rank and file, 
however, were citizens of the Old Town, and not members of the Uni- 
versity. Though Gerard offered to revive the Company on the recon- 
struction of the Volunteer force in 1803, his proposal was declined by 
the authorities. This refusal seems to have had a chilling effect on the 
University, for neither in the Volunteers of that period nor in our day 
did the Professors of the University take any part until the University 
Battery was established. 

Mr. Fortescue has said that the institution of the Military College 
at Great Marlow in 1 800 *' imperceptibly introduced education as a 
rival to hard cash for the key to entrance and advancement in the 
Army". But so far as our University was concerned there was an 
actual slackening of entrants just at this period, for the simple reason 
that the raising of regiments was passing out of the hands of private 



The University and Soldiering 33 

patriots and becoming a State Affair, controlled by a central military 
bureaucracy, the War Office. At no time could Aberdeen students 
have had a chance with the money system, by which any beardless 
youth who came up to the Army Agent's price could be "danced from 
one newly raised corps to another". Undesirable characters, '*such 
as keepers of gambling houses, contrived," as Mr. Fortescue tells us, 
" to buy for their sons commands of regiments ; and mere children 
were exalted in the course of a few weeks to the dignity of field 
officers ". On the other hand, the disappearance of patronage in favour 
of Staff College tests was a great disadvantage to the north, for the can- 
didates so chosen — mostly farmers' and ministers' sons — were selected 
for their good physique and strong character, and not for their ability 
to pass educational tests. The Duke of Gordon, for example, might 
walk into a field and see the farmer's " hefty" son filling a cart with 
" neeps ". Attracted by the lad's manner, he would get a ** nomina- 
tion " for him, preferably for the Army of the East India Company, 
which was much better financially than the Home Army. The lads 
thus selected invariably became excellent officers, full of fight and 
sound common sense. 

This system of patronage seemed very undemocratic — on the face 
of it : but only on the face, for the modern competitive craze, while 
setting up a theoretical equality for all, has really resolved itself into a 
matter of money and the creation of a permanent military caste, for 
which soldiering has been more or less a subsidised hobby and not a 
means of livelihood. 

This became increasingly the case after the dissolution of our bigger 
army in 1814, when public interest in military affairs waned once more 
almost to the point at which Pitt found them and let them go on from 
1 784 to 1792. Another blow came forty odd years later when the State 
took over the duties of the East India Company, and the new Indian 
Army became more educationally exigent than ever. Gradually the 
number of graduates entering the army became fewer and fewer, though 
those that did enter " made good ". I may note Colonel Francis 
Duncan, R.A. (1836-88), the historian of the Royal Artillery; Sir 
George Strahan, R.A. (1838-87), who became a Colonial Governor; 
Surgeon-Major Peter Shepherd (1841-79), who was killed at Isan- 
dhlwane ; Surgeon-Major Andrew Skeen (i 842-85) ; his brother William 
(one of whose sons, James, was the great inspirer of the University 
Battery in my day, while another, Andrew, has had a distinguished 

3 



34 Aberdeen University Review 

career in the Indian Army) ; and Major-General Sir Alexander Reid 
(1846- 191 3), who on retirement did so much for the Territorial As- 
sociation, and ever held the ideal of soldiering high in our midst. 
For the rest, you could count the combatant officers of both Services 
as far as the younger generation is concerned almost on your fingers. 

To-day, of course, it is quite different, as our splendid Muster Roll 
has shown. We are now raising soldiers of all ranks almost exactly 
as our forefathers did in the eighteenth century. Patronage has been 
(more or less) revived : educational tests have gone by the board as an 
Army Order issued in August forcibly reminds us : — 

During the period of the war, competitive examinations of candidates from 
the Special Reserve of Officers, the Militia, the Territorial Force, and the 
ranks for commissions in the Regular Army will be suspended, and qualifying 
literary examinations for such candidates will not be held. 

Meantime, an "arena of the south," noting the highly technical 
character of modern soldiering, had taken a step which our old 
eulogist of these " arenas " surely never foresaw. Six years ago a 
Chair of Military History was created at Oxford, with Mr. Spencer 
Wilkinson as its first incumbent. His experiences — and no man in 
the country has had the chance of testing such students — are extremely 
interesting ("Westminster Gazette," 12 Aug., 191 5): — 

Since then I have seen something of three classes of young men — those 
who until a year ago were candidates for commissions in the Regular Army, 
those who were reading for honours in history, and those who were elected to 
Fellowships of All Souls College by competitive examination either in law or 
in history. For the character and behaviour of all these young men, speak- 
ing generally, I have nothing but admiration. Their powers corresponded to 
the three classes described. The Army candidates were of merely average 
ability. They were taking an easy route to a degree and a commission. 
They were not in search of knowledge, either of war or of any other subject, 
but were anxious to make their way into a profession for which they had a 
taste. I never came across one who gave evidence of special ability. The 
honours men were on a higher level of intelligence and concentration. Some 
of them showed considerable power. The men who gained Fellowships were 
of exceptional power and formed a class apart. 

Mr. Wilkinson tried to get the War Office to choose men *' above 
rather than below the Oxford average," but he failed, for the red tape 
inherent in that highly conservative bureaucracy was too strong for 
him. 

Then came the war. Immediately the whole of young Oxford joined the 
Army, becoming officers either in the Territorials or in the new "Regular" 



The University and Soldiering 35 

regiments that were being raised. Each term a class of these new candidates 
for war commissions attended my lectures. They worked with a zeal without 
precedent in my experience, and quickly mastered the elements. In these classes, 
again, I noticed the difference of powers. There were among them men whose 
ability stamped itself upon all that they did, men who, after eight weeks, were 
writing orders as well as any general in the Army. These were almost all of 
them graduates who had won distinction in the University. There were also 
younger men of the same type, as well as men of only average powers. All 
alike were interested in their work, diligent and keen, and all learned quickly. 

I have been amazed all these months of war to see that the Army is unable 
to distinguish between these several classes of men. It makes them all into 
second-lieutenants and grades them according to the dates when they joined, 
so that very often the youngest rank above their elders, the pupils above their 
teachers. 

By far the best of my pupils since the war began have been young College 
tutors, the pick of the University graduates. When the Government awakes 
to its responsibilities, means will be found.to discover these men and give them 
opportunities of leading in proportion to their powers. 

These results are extremely interesting, and make one wonder what 
the future will bring forth for our University when the present improvi- 
sations cease to be necessary. Personally, without expressing any 
opinion on highly controversial subjects, I believe that national defence 
will become more and more an integral part of local government ; and 
as the University is at present partly State and partly Municipal as well 
as Academic, it will in all probability be called on to supply a great 
many officers — men with the necessary technical knowledge needed for 
modern soldiering, a knowledge that the sons of the landed interests, 
no matter what their power to lead may be, do not possess as a 
monopoly. 

Of course it would be a tragedy if University teachers were to go 
over, body and soul, to the doctrine of force as the German professors 
have done almost to a man. But our experience of the past does not 
lend much countenance to such a disaster as that would be. 

As it is, the University may well congratulate itself on the men it 
has sent forth to fight — though some of them under our improvised 
system might have been used to more advantage — and on those who 
have urged others to join the Colours in the Great Campaign. 

J. M. BULLOCH. 




" British Diplomacy 1902-1914.'" 

I. 

OME weeks ago I read in one of our weekly jour- 
nals : ^ "It is individualism that is making this war 
so hard to win. It calls itself * criticism,* or fair 
criticism, or criticism instructive, or constructive, 
or salutary, or helpful. But it is just the expression 
of personalities rather loathsome." " Loathsome " 
is hardly le mot juste, Edmund Burke more subtly, 
but with not less sting, castigated the little men whose carpings 
give " splendour to obscurity and distinction to undiscerned merit ". 
Nor is the discipline always deserved. A nation may be embar- 
rassed, but need not be ashamed, if its actions are criticized from 
within itself. For the act not only connotes a system of ordered 
liberty, but implies a gift of humour, without which a nation, like an 
individual, is imperfect. It is, in fact, a British characteristic of 
which we may be proud, a quality peculiar to a community " whose 
heart is set on honourable dealing and not merely on success," as Dr. 
Gilbert Murray has pointed out.^ 

One may admit, too, that the classification of so-called pro-Germans 
haphazardly as philo-Germans is an error of hasty generalization ; 
though it is irksome to grope for the precisely appropriate adjec- 
tive when scholars, as Dr. Conybeare, trumpet urbi et orbi — and 
eventually recant — their anti-British conclusions ; or when politicians, 
as Mr. Ramsay. Macdonald, vilify British diplomacy and represent 
Sir Edward Grey as " the greatest danger for the British Empire ". 
We may value the proud forbearance which permits them the licence 
of utterance. We may appreciate the spirit of irrepressible individ- 
ualism which they represent. But in that they shout their conclusions 

1 A Paper read before the Historical Association of Scotland (North-Eastern Branch), 
22 October, 1915. 

«Ford Madox Hueffer in " The Outlook," 24 July, 1915. 
•"The Foreign Policy of Sir Edward Grey," Oxford, 1915, p. 5. 



' ' British Diplomacy 1902-1914" 37 

from the housetops we may permit ourselves to diagnose their case 
as one of excessive and unbalanced egoism. 

What is the general trend of attack on British diplomacy in the 
past ten years ? Dr. Gilbert Murray conveniently summarizes it in his 
own experience. He was unhappy over our dealings with Persia and 
Morocco. He was profoundly disturbed by our relations with Ger- 
many. The smallest Navy vote took him, but still reluctantly, into 
the " Aye" lobby. He laughed at scares and scaremongers, despised 
Jingoes, especially editorial Jingoes, and longed to relegate the occu- 
pants of certain newspaper offices to the more congruous housing of a 
lunatic asylum. He considered that German hostility was the conse- 
quence of Sir Edward Grey's persistent over-rating of it. On the eve 
of war, in July, 191 4, he signed a declaration advocating Great Britain's 
neutrality, and did so without hesitation. And then came the 
awakening. On Germany's innocence he and his school of politics 
had founded their view of the international situation and Great 
Britain's place in it. But now Germany herself convinced him that 
his conclusions rested on a false basis, that in part Germany was bluff- 
ing, and in part meant murder from the beginning. In the light of 
her actions he saw his error, and confessed it in Lord Melbourne's 
blunt fashion : " All the sensible men were on one side, and all the 

d d fools on the other. And, egad, sir, the d d fools were 

right!" 

To tilt at the school of politics which holds or held these ante- 
bellum views is not the purpose of this paper. It comprehended 
many tones of conviction and prejudice. And since war inevitably is 
one of two things, either the implement of diplomacy, or the accusa- 
tion of its incompetence, diplomacy is peculiarly vulnerable. Mr. H. 
N. Brailsford, for instance, holds it anathema, root and branch, the 
survival of aristocratic privilege, a secret, underhand craft, a trespasser 
upon democracy's sovereignty. To surrender foreign affairs to what 
he calls the "uncontrolled conduct of a small caste" "gives the 
rein to caprices, rivalries, and personal interests," since the fewer 
people engaged in a public transaction the less probability there is, 
he holds, that it will be settled in accordance with public needs.^ 
He instances the Crimean War, and declares Lord Aberdeen to 
have been goaded into an irrelevant struggle by the personal caprice 
of Napoleon III and Lord Stratford de Redcliffe. But that is not true. 

* " The War of Steel and Gold : A Study of the Armed Peace," London, 1914, pp. 47, 5a. 



bfc 



38 Aberdeen University Review 

Lord Aberdeen went to war because public opinion made it impossible 
for him to keep out of it. And as to diplomacy's alleged release from 
democratic control, it is inconceivable that any Foreign Minister, least 
of all in a Constitutional system, should tie his nationals to obligations 
they would be unwilling to fulfil. Indeed, if proof is wanted of diplo- 
macy's bondage to public opinion, we have only to look back upon 
July, 1914. 

Again, Mr. Brailsford derides what he calls the '* group system in 
Europe ".^ Alliances are the fruit of treaties, and like them are mortal, 
frail, and unreliable. They do not free those who make them from the 
need to take the very precautions which would have been imperative 
in their absence. Of what use are they, then? Why not abandon 
" exclusive " ententes ? Why not throw " balance of power " over- 
board, return to the "Concert of Europe" and its specious sugges- 
tion of harmony? The answer is simple: There is no talisman 
in a "Concert," no greater efficacy in it than in a system of 
ententes or " balance of power ". The object of them all is the 
same — to promote equilibrium. Which of them you employ depends 
upon and does not create the international situation of the moment. 
You cannot form a Concert if one of its members, like Prussia under 
Frederick the Great, or Germany under Bismarck and William II, lives 
toujours en vedette among its neighbours. The strength of a chain 
is that of its weakest link, and the amenities and structure of interna- 
tional society conform to the conduct of its least agreeable or most 
restless member. 

Mr. Norman Angell fires a battery from a new quarter. All diplo- 
macy, in his view, rests upon a " cannibalistic political philosophy" ^ 
which teaches a nation to regard its superiors in strength or position 
as its enemies. The very theory of diplomacy, he contends, rests upon 
false conclusions ; that nations really can be rivals ; that they can add 
to their wealth by annexing territory ; that they can impose upon 
other countries economic conditions favourable to themselves ; that 
they can be regarded as " competing business firms " for whom suc- 
cessful war brings dividends. On the contrary, he insists, nations have 
no material inducement whatever to go to war, or to build expen- 
sive engines of offence, or to weave alliances. For under no considera- 
tion whatever can the advantages which they expect to result from 

1^ " War of Steel and Gold," p. 21. 

"••The Foundations of International Polity," London, 1914, p. 36. 



ii 



British Diplomacy 1 902-1914" 39 



war actually follow from it. Some preachers have admonished us 
that war is wrong. Others have warned us that it is dangerous. 
Mr. Angell advises us to put it behind us because there is no money 
in it! 

Of more potent influence upon our diplomacy since 1905 is a school 
of criticism not coverable by one label. It expressed a sort of rebound 
from the Tory policies of 1 895-1905. Anti-Chamberlainism froze it 
to a rather shame-faced Imperialism. In a similar impulse of contradic- 
tion the French entente of 1 904 biased it towards Germany. It raised 
horrified eyeballs against trafficking with once illiberal Russia. It was 
rootedly anti-militarist, partly because it hated war on principle, partly 
because armaments obstructed an expensive programme of social 
amelioration. Any suspicion of diplomatic " alcoholism," any action 
that imperilled our " splendid," but incompetent, isolation, any tendency 
to treat the German menace as a serious factor in the international 
situation, or to permit the assumption to guide our diplomacy, 
roused it stormily. It is an irony of circumstance that Sir Edward 
Grey of all men should have borne the brunt of its assault, but the 
fact is intelligible. 

The explanation is this : between the Treaty of Berlin (1878) and 
the signature of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance in 1902 Great Britain 
stood by herself, isolated, even friendless. New Germany was 
gathering strength for an ultimate challenge. Austria-Hungary and 
Italy were bound to her by treaty and interest. Russia, unrolling her- 
self in Asia, was openly unfriendly, and in 1 898 was within measurable 
distance of war with the masters of India. France, pursuing what 
an English statesman called a " policy of pinpricks," harassed her in 
Egypt and the Sudan, and the Fashoda affair in 1898 almost pre- 
cipitated war. The situation was one of the most critical in the 
history of the British Empire. 

But before the century closed it reshaped itself. Bismarck, 
dying in 1898, lived to see his largest fear realized, Paris allied 
with Petrograd, and the foundation of a European balance against 
Germany. But for the moment the Franco-Russian entente merely 
emphasized Britain's detachment from two systems equally 1 indif- 
ferent or unfriendly to herself She was in a paralysis of party 
strife. Between 1880 and the arrival of Sir Edward Grey at the 
Foreign Office in December, 1905, the Government of the day was 
defeated six times at the polls. The conduct of foreign affairs was 



r 

40 Aberdeen University Review 

correspondingly tentative. But in 1896 there came a bolt from the 
blue— the Kaiser's telegram to President Paul Kriiger, ''a flash of 
lightning revealing the abyss which quietly and without their noticing 
it had opened between the English and the German people ".1 After 
twenty years' silent preparation, the German Empire announced itself 
with a Prussian flourish. Thereafter it advanced apace. In 1898 
the German Navy League was founded. In the same year the first 
German Navy Law was passed. In 1900 another, vastly more ambi- 
tious, took its place, and an ultimate challenge to Great Britain was 
discussed openly. In 1898 Europe was introduced to the "mailed 
fist,'* and in 1899 the Boer War again exhibited Germany's envious 
unfriendliness. Nothing less than this new menace out of Central 
Europe arrested Great Britain's drifting policy. The " splendid isola- 
tion" of her 'seventies and 'eighties went by the board. In 1902 
she joined Japan in a treaty regulating the situation in the Far East. 
In 1904 she removed her obstinate misunderstanding with France. 
Simultaneously the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5 disturbed the 
balance of power to Germany's advantage. But British diplomacy 
was alert, backed France stoutly during the Algeciras crisis in 1905, 
completed the Triple Entente^ and shook hands with Russia in 1907. 
For better or worse Europe once more was a balanced system, and 
Great Britain irrevocably was a unit in it. 

To realize the dismay of our political habitations at these rapid 
commitments and their consequences, we must recall the placid condi- 
tions which they superseded. Only once since Waterloo had Great 
Britain sent armies to Europe — in 1854. Fourteen years before that 
campaign (1840) a brief crisis disturbed her relations with France, and 
twenty years after it (1878) a more perilous situation embroiled her 
with Russia. That crisis also passed, and another twenty years (1898) 
followed it before Britain again came within hailing distance of war. 
But this happy quietude vanished with the old century. The twentieth 
opened upon our difficult war in South Africa. It was hardly 
ended before Russia engaged Japan in the Far East (1904-5). In 
1911-12 Italy flouted her partners and won Tripoli from Turkey. In 
191 2 and again in 191 3 the Balkans blazed into war. Four times, at 
least, also, the larger peace of Europe was in peril. In 1905 and 191 1 
Morocco threatened it. Had Germany forced France into war in either 

^ Sir Edward Goschen, quoted in " The Times " of 27 August, 1915. 



"British Diplomacy 1902-1914" 41 

year, without a doubt we too should have been involved. In 190S 
Deutschtum and Slaventum almost came to blows, after Austria's an- 
nexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and again in 1 91 2, when Russia and 
Austria faced each other angrily across their frontiers. 

The accumulation of crises alarmed and unsettled British opinion. 
The nation took anxious stock of its position, devoted to the Foreign 
Office an interest which had been perfunctory and lethargic in the 
period of lesser tension, and discussed its policy as acrimoniously 
as the parochial subjects which hitherto had fed the appetites of 
belligerent politicians. It was patent to all that in 191 1 we barely 
escaped war with the greatest military Power in Europe and, after 
ourselves, the most efficient Naval Power as well. The nation had 
welcomed the ententes with Japan, France, and Russia with sentimental 
satisfaction. But it now appeared that they involved reciprocal and 
dangerous obligations, and until Germany unmasked herself in August, 
1 91 4, the country was not unanimous upon the policy that had 
created them. 

To unfold the operations of British diplomacy from 1904 to 191 4 
would either detain you till midnight, or more probably would find 
me here alone at that hour. Nor is it necessary. Its relations with 
Germany, its patient efforts in the cause of international peace, are 
familiar. Neither the Congo nor the Putumayo questions stand upon 
the larger international platform. There remain Morocco and Persia 
and the two achievements of British diplomacy which have been most 
angrily criticized — the Anglo-French entente of 1904, for which Sir 
Edward Grey was not responsible, and the Anglo-Russian agreement 
of 1907, for which he was. I propose to consider them. 

The ground of Great Britain's concern in Morocco can be stated 
concisely — to prevent the transference of its littoral under conditions 
threatening the route to India. To avert that danger two alternatives 
presented themselves : either to assure the integrity of Morocco, the 
normal and preferable method ; or, if that course proved impracticable, 
to ward off an unfriendly or powerful European State from the coast 
opposite Gibraltar. From the point of view of British interests the 
settlement of neither France nor Germany there was desirable, and the 
Anglo-French Agreement of 1904 ear-marked the region for Spain. 

In the last quarter of the nineteenth century keen rivalry developed 
among the European States for African trade and territory. Morocco 
experienced it in the Madrid Convention of 3 July, 1880, whose 



r 

42 Aberdeen University Review 

Article XVII accorded to all the countries represented there the 
most-favoured-nation status hitherto enjoyed by France and Great 
Britain alone. For fifty years behind that instrument France had been 
Morocco's neighbour in Algeria, and in 188 1 added Tunis to her 
African interests. Beyond other Powers, therefore, she was con- 
cerned in the political condition of the Shereefian Empire, and in 
the Moroccan Government's increasing impotence. The Sultan was 
a spendthrift, his rule was chaotic, and the tribes were out of 
hand. In 1901 France insisted that their lawlessness could not be 
permitted to continue at her expense. And as promises of reform 
proved unavailing, M. Delcass6 eventually (1903) announced that 
France would take it upon herself to "transform Morocco into a 
modern State". Before the end of 1904 he secured from every 
Power, except Germany and her Austrian ally, licence or encourage- 
ment to undertake the task. 

The most important of these diplomatic agreements was the Anglo- 
French Treaty of 8 April, 1904, which contained nine public and 
five secret Articles. The public clauses pledged France specifically not 
to alter " the political status of Morocco " . Great Britain, however, ad- 
mitted that France's geographical position imposed upon her the ob- 
ligation " to preserve order in that country, and to provide assistance 
for the. purpose of all administrative, economic, financial, and military 
reforms which it may require" (Article II). Both Governments, 
" inspired by their feeling of sincere friendship" for Spain, agreed that 
she derived recognizable interests *'from her geographical position 
and from her territorial possessions on the Moorish coast of the 
Mediterranean". France undertook to make an arrangement with 
her regarding them and to communicate it to Great Britain (Article 
VIII). Its nature was defined by the secret clauses, which provided 
that, in the event of the Sultan's authority lapsing, Spain should 
receive the Tetuan Riff littoral opposite Gibraltar, subject to her holding 
it open to international trade, erecting no fortifications upon it, and 
agreeing not to alienate it. 

Outcry has been raised, particularly by Mr. E. D. Morel,^ over a 
treaty whose terms are candid, consistent, and, in the circumstances, 
proper. It is alleged that the public clauses were a pretence. In 
fact, no subsequent act of either of the signatories justifies the allega- 

^ "Morocco in Diplomacy," London, 1912 ; cheap ed., entitled " Ten Years of Secret 
Diplomacy," London, 1915. 



"British Diplomacy 1902-1914" 43 

tion that their undertaking to respect the integrity of Morocco was 
insincere. But it was impossible to evade the fact that, if the pre- 
vailing anarchy increased, it would be difficult, perhaps impossible, to 
maintain the fiction of the Sultan's authority. Great Britain therefore, 
leaving France a free hand in her contiguous sphere, stipulated for 
Spain's occupation of the Moroccan coast, in which Great Britain was 
particularly concerned. It is objected that this arrangement was 
secret (it was published simultaneously in France and England on 24 
November, 191 1, and by " The Times " on the following day). But its 
secrecy is defensible on the ground that, while the contingency of 
Morocco's collapse had to be faced, the measures which in that event 
were held necessary could hardly be made public without risk of bring- 
ing on prematurely the crisis which it was the object of the agreement 
to avoid. 

Mr. Morel holds the Moroccan treaty a flagrant provocation to 
Germany, aggravated by the French Government's " initial and gratu- 
itous offence " ^ in failing officially to communicate to her either the 
agreement with Great Britain or the subsequent agreement with Spain 
(October, 1904). Undoubtedly, France would have been wiser to 
follow Great Britain's example in bringing the Moroccan arrangement 
officially to the notice of the German Government. But Germany 
wears a mien of injured innocence awkwardly. It took her an ap- 
preciable time to discover that the Anglo-French Agreement constituted 
a grievance at all. For a whole year she took no action upon it. 
Her Ambassador in Paris described it as " natural and perfectly justi- 
fied " . Prince von Bulow, her Chancellor, declared that German 
interests were " in no way imperilled by it ". When, in October, 1904, 
the Franco-Spanish agreement was made public, Germany gave no 
sign that her rights or dignity were touched. In December, 1904, 
France formally urged the Sultan to introduce the imperatively needed 
reforms within Morocco. Still Germany remained inactive, and not until 
31 March, 1905, did the Kaiser suddenly swoop down upon Tangier. 
The German Government very lamely explains its dilatory action 
by alleging that the agreement of 1904 "postulated the status quo 
in Morocco," in which alone it was interested.^ Then why did it act 
in 1905? In- March, 1905 the status quo ^2iS in no greater danger 
than it was twelve months earlier. Beyond the fact that France had 

^ " Morocco in Diplomacy," p. 93. 2 /jj^.^ p, 103. 



44 Aberdeen University Review 

presented a programme of reform, it had not been modified in any 
particular. Mr. Morel suggests that Germany was outraged by the 
discovery of the secret agreement of 1904. There is not a word in 
the Chancellor's explanatory dispatch to the German Embassies abroad 
to support the contention, and if Mr. Morel is right, it is inconceivable 
that Germany should have failed to base her action on the fact. The 
plain truth is that Germany was impelled to sudden action, not by 
nice regard for the instruments of 1880 and 1904, but by Russia's 
entanglement with Japan, the consequent disturbance of the balance of 
power in Europe to the advantage of her own system, and the apparent 
opportunity to secure a footing in the Mediterranean and put a spoke 
in France's colonial wheel. 

The consequent Act of Algeciras, signed on 7 April, 1906, is a docu- 
ment of 123 Articles, whose pertinence to our present inquiry is con- 
fined to its preamble and concluding clause. In the preamble the Powers 
admitted the need for reforms in Morocco, based upon " the threefold 
principle of the sovereignty and independence of His Majesty the 
Sultan, the integrity of his dominions, and economic liberty without 
any inequality ". In Article CXXII I they stipulated : "All existing 
Treaties, Conventions, and Arrangements between the Signatory 
Powers and Morocco remain in force. It is, however, agreed that, in 
case their provisions be found to conflict with those of the present 
General Act, the stipulations of the latter shall prevail." 

Article CXXIII, says Mr. Morel,^ is " the true basis upon which 
the German case reposes". He insists: (i) that Germany was con- 
sistent throughout in basing her action upon it ; and (2) that her 
diplomacy had no ulterior end in view. Whether this judgment is 
correct will become clearer as we proceed. For the moment, observe 
this not irrelevant fact. In 1909 and again in 191 1 Germany 
made treaties with France regarding Morocco. On both occasions 
she had the opportunity to record her concern for the integrity of that 
country. On neither occasion did she do so. By the Franco-German 
Declaration of 8 February, 1909, in return for an undertaking "not 
to obstruct German commercial and industrial interests " in Morocco, 
France obtained an emphatic admission of her " special political in- 
terests " in that country. By the Franco-German Convention of 4 
November, 191 1, France received, so far as Germany could confer it, 

^ P. 38. 



"British Diplomacy 1902-1914" 45 

" full liberty of action ... to strengthen and to extend her control and 
protection" in Morocco, ''subject to the reservation that the com- 
mercial liberty guaranteed by former treaties is respected".^ In both 
agreements Germany addressed herself only to secure her commercial 
and economic interests, and provided they were assured, she was, at 
the moment, prepared to give France a free hand. The two docu- 
ments, in fact, knock the bottom out of Germany's alleged case and 
the ground on which she based her intervention in 191 1. For France 
in that year was acting in strict interpretation of the " special political 
interests" which Germany recognized in 1909 and more amply con- 
firmed subsequently. On neither of these occasions did Germany 
express the slightest concern for the status quo which in 191 1 she pro- 
fessed herself so eager to defend. 

The weakness of the Act of Algeciras, as Dr. Gilbert Murray points 
out, lay in "the unreality of the principle on which it was based ".^ 
The German Chancellor admitted the fact to the Reichstag's Budget 
Committee on 17 November, 1911.^ "The Sultan [after Algeciras] 
had no longer the power to maintain order." To the Reichstag 
itself a few days earlier he said : * ** It was soon evident that one of 
the essential conditions [to order in Morocco] was lacking, namely, a 
Sultan who was actual ruler of the country ". Mulai Hafid proved as 
incompetent as his brother, Abdul- Aziz, and in 1910 France, at the 
Sultan's invitation, occupied Fez, the capital. But the event had 
unforeseen consequences. On i July, 191 1, the German gunboat 
" Panther " anchored off Agadir, on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. For 
what purpose ? If Mr. Morel diagnoses Germany's policy correctly, we 
should expect to find his simple and straightforward explanation ad- 
vanced by Germany herself. In fact, Germany's official apologia 
circulated to the Powers ^ fails to confirm Mr. Morel's brief. It makes no 
reference at all to the Madrid Convention, or to the Algeciras Act, 
or to the status quo. It says plainly that the gunboat was at Agadir to 
protect "some German firms," who had been alarmed by '*a certain 
ferment " among the neighbouring tribes. Even Mr. Morel realizes 
this to be an inadequate entree for the champion of international 
rectitude and deportment, and offers an explanation as tame as his 
protegee's. Germany's objects, in fact, are revealed in the issue. She 
was out, not to buttress Article CXXIII of the Algeciras Convention, 

1 Article I. « P. 63. » Cd. 5592, p. 3. 

* On 9 November. Cd. 5970, p. i. « Morel, p. 133. 



4.6 Aberdeen University Review 

but to tear it up. Her intention was to terrorize France into a deal 
advantageous to herself, whether in Morocco or elsewhere was indiffer- 
ent to her. And she expected, as in 191 4, to tackle France single- 
handed. 

But in 191 1 British diplomacy unmasked itself promptly. On 4 
July, Sir Edward Grey warned the German Ambassador that the 
"Panther's" arrival at Agadir created "a new situation," and Mr. As- 
quith used the same words to the House of Commons on 6 July. The 
reiterated phrase is suggestive. France and Great Britain were parties 
to an agreement regarding Morocco which was still operative in terms 
of the Algeciras Act to which Germany had put her hand. Morocco 
itself was under the collective guarantee of the signatory Powers of 
1906. But Germany was treating both documents as "scraps of 
paper," adopting an attitude which she had challenged in France to- 
wards herself in 1905. Her object was to elbow Europe out of the 
Moroccan situation, and to settle it on her own terms with France. 
So far from demonstrating Germany's fidelity to her signature at 
Algeciras, the "Panther's" dispatch to Agadir was a calculated ad- 
vertisement of her intention to treat that instrument as dead. 

To Sir Edward Grey's warning (4 July) Germany made no reply. 
A week later the British Ambassador at Berlin (12 July) con- 
trived to drop a hint of a rumour that she was negotiating 
with France behind Great Britain's back. He received immediately 
an official statement that the report was untrue. And yet, on 20 
July, "The Times" revealed the fact that Germany already had 
France by the throat, that she was proposing to scrap the Act of 
Algeciras, and demanding, as her share of the loot, the surrender 
of the larger part of the French Congo. The issue is familiar. Great 
Britain took instant action. Mr. Lloyd George gave an unequivocal 
warning to Germany at the Mansion House on 21 July, and a " stiff" 
interview followed between Sir Edward Grey and the German Am- 
bassador. German finance added its voice to convince the Kaiser and 
his fire-eating Junkers that war was not in the interests of the Father- 
land, and Germany postponed military action to another season. 

As to our general diplomacy in Morocco, it has been asked. Why 
involve ourselves in France's concerns? Why not let her make terms 
with her enemy? Why embitter our relations with Germany just 
when the prospect of an understanding was opening? For these 
reasons. We had vital interests, strategic and economic, in Morocco 



^^ British Diplomacy 1902- 19 14" 47 

that forbade us to stand aside, unless, upon some quixotic and 
impractical impulse, we were prepared to surrender them to unfriendly- 
control. Again, it was in our interest neither to see France goaded 
into war, nor to see her despoiled. A firm attitude was the surest 
means to prevent either catastrophe. There is a further consideration. 
Since 1909 Germany had been trying to detach us from France in a 
systematic intrigue which culminated in the proposals of 191 2, which 
Sir Edward Grey has exposed recently.^ It was not improbable 
that she might make a similar experiment with France, some of 
whose people looked suspiciously upon the entente and preferred 
a direct understanding with Berlin. Again, there was the ques- 
tion of prestige^ a consideration to which an Empire like ours 
cannot be indifferent. As Dr. Gilbert Murray puts it : "A Power 
which had small interests in Morocco, but immense military strength, 
suddenly announced that all the treaties which we had signed about 
Morocco were annulled, sent ships of war to a harbour where by treaty 
they were not to go, and proclaimed her intention to bring the affairs 
of Morocco to * a definite solution ' on lines which she entirely refused 
to explain to us ; though our trade interests in Morocco were about 
three times as great as hers and our strategic interests vital ".^ That 
states the position fairly and concisely. 

CHARLES C. SANFORD TERRY. 

1 " The Times," i September, 1915. a P. 74. 

{To be concluded^ 




Sandy Lawrence : A Sketch. 

T is not uncommon to find among the humbler classes 
men who, in their general appearance and demeanour, 
remind us of others occupying an entirely different, indeed 
an exalted, position among their fellow-men, and one is 
inclined to wonder as to whether the outward appear- 
ance, so similar and suggestive, is accompanied by a 
similarity in mental equipment and emotional nature. 
I knew a cabman in Edinburgh who, mounted on his 
dicky, had the military appearance and bearing of a suc- 
cessful officer. In the streets of Stonehaven, there once walked a tall and erect 
figure, with a refined and aristocratic face, who bore himself like a duke or any 
other member of the higher grades of the aristocracy, and yet he was only a son 
of Crispin. The subject of this sketch, who was a jobbing gardener, had a face 
and head which would have been suitable accompanied by the full-bottomed 
wig of a Judge, even of a Lord Chancellor. There was the large cranium, the 
broad, expansive brow, and the clear, penetrating eyes, indicating an active brain 
behind, and often twinkling with latent humour, as he discussed, possibly with 
sarcasm, some homely event in the community, or, it might be, the more serious 
affairs of Church and State. Character was expressive in every feature, and no 
one could pass Sandy in the street, or see him working in a garden, without 
feeling that here was no common man, but one well worthy both of study and 
respect. As I have already remarked, he had a large head, but it was mounted 
on a short, stout body — almost dwarfish. The head betokened such power and 
intelligence that one paid little attention to the barrel-like body. I have met with 
only one famous man who showed this contrast between head and body. 
Naturalists know of curious deep-sea Crustacea that have enormous eyes and 
a very small and slender body for carrying about and nourishing those wonder- 
ful optical arrangements by which the creatures catch and focus the feeble, 
and probably phosphorescent, light glimmering in the depths of the ocean. 
Swinburne, the poet, gave one the impression of a splendid head mounted on 
a delicate-looking frame, but so magnificent was the head that on two occasions 
when I had the honour of spending a few hours alone in his company, I was 
so impressed by the head that I forgot the mechanism that carried it about. 
There was a similar experience with old Sandy. As one knew him better, 
one became more and more impressed by his strength of character, mental en- 
dowments, and sound judgment. He was often pawky, and all he said and did 
was lit up by a quiet and scintillating humour that was irresistible. 

Sandy was a native of Glenbervie, the well-known hamlet in Kincardine- 
shire associated with the ancestry of Robert Burns. For many years he was 
the " minister's man " to the late Rev. Alexander Silver, of the Parish of 



Sandy Lawrence : A Sketch 49 

Dunnottar, and, while with him, he acquired a knowledge of gardening, and 
more especially the taking care of such small but productive gardens as the 
garden of the manse. Mr. Silver was a remarkable man. He was much be- 
loved by his people and he preached the Gospel in the old Kirk of Dunnottar 
and looked after his flock, many of whom were fisher-folk who lived in the old 
town of Stonehaven. He founded and personally conducted a savings bank 
and encouraged habits of thrift and economy. I have heard it said that he 
gave a hearty welcome to a fisherman when he came to deposit money, but he 
was not so agreeable when the depositor came to draw money out of the bank. 
He had then to give the banker-minister a full, true, and particular account 
of how the money was to be spent ! Probably most of us would not relish this 
inquisitorial method in dealing with our banker ! 

As the minister's man, no doubt Sandy had many journeys in the gig in 
the uplands of Dunnottar, and they were in the habit of conversing freely, on 
many subjects, religious and otherwise. Sandy was fond of telling of a con- 
versation which evidently had made an impression on his memory. Sandy and 
the minister met the doctor's gig coming from a farm-house where one of Mr. 
Silver's parishioners lay seriously ill. " How is he ? " asked the minister. 
"Oh," replied the doctor, "he is in articulo mortisP A minute or two after- 
wards, Mr. Silver turned to Sandy and asked : " Dae ye ken fat that means, 
Sandy ? " " No," says Sandy. " Oh," says the minister, " it just means he's 
near deid ! " Sandy liked to repeat the words ^'tn articulo mortis^' in a rich, 
rough, low-pitched voice, as if he relished the sound. They were probably 
the only Latin words he knew, and he evidently thought they had a profound 
meaning. The minister's free translation was short and to the point. 

When he left Mr. Silver's service, Sandy became a jobbing gardener in 
Stonehaven, and he served the community for many years. His views on 
gardening were primitive, but they were founded on a stratum of common 
sense and experience. He was parsimonious as to the feeding of plants and 
he expected a tree to live and thrive if it was simply put into the " grun' ". 
Many a battle royal I had with him on this matter, but Sandy always finished 
the discussion with an air of victory. Nor did he believe in supporting even 
weakly plants with stakes, as he held that "the mair a young tree wis blawn 
about by the win', the mair firmly its ruits grippit the grun' ". A good deal can 
be said for Sandy's contention. At all events it illustrates possible uses of 
the winds of adversity ! 

Sandy was thoroughly honest. He kept his little accounts written carefully 
in a rather crabbit hand, in a penny note-book, and no one could complain of 
his charges. As an illustration of the sterling character of the man, I may 
mention that he laid out and planted my garden at Maxieburn. This he did 
by contract for a sum within limits duly specified. After a good deal of the 
work had been done, I paid him a sum to account, and several weeks there- 
after I asked him to look into his notes and inform me what was the balance 
still owing. A short time thereafter he said to me : " Weel, doctor, I have 
looket into the accounts and I find that the total expense is about eicht 
pounds below the estimate ". He was of course promptly paid, with what is 
nowadays called a small bonus, but I thought how few contractors would 
have been so straightforward. I once told this incident to the late Mr. Nicol- 
son of Glenbervie, and his remark was : " Well, I have known of only one 
public building, the cost of which was within the estimates ; " and he added, 



50 Aberdeen University Review 

** perhaps you will understand when I tell you the building was the church of 
!" This church is perhaps the most striking specimen of poverty 



of design and roughness of execution to be met with in the North-East of Scot- 
land. 

One would expect that a strong character, such as Sandy undoubtedly was, 
would have his own views on many subjects and especially as to matters relat- 
ing to his own craft. This often led him to be very positive, and even 
domineering, and one had occasionally to put up with a good deal from Sandy 
that would not be tolerated from another man. A. Mr. McG., a well-known 
merchant in Stonehaven, had a dispute about some matter of gardening : 
Mr. McG. wished one course to be taken, while Sandy strenuously advocated 
another. At last Mr. McG. could stand the discussion no longer, and, some- 
what angrily, he addressed Sandy thus : "Sandy ! you go on as if the gairden 
were ye're ain ; ye'l dae nathing but tak ye'r ain wye ! " Sandy looked up 
at the worthy merchant more in pity than in anger and, patting Mr. McG. on 
the arm, said : " Dinna be angry, Mr. McG., gae awa' te ye're bit shoppie and 
leave the gairden te me ! " On another occasion, he replied to the expostula- 
tions of a patron (after the patron had exhausted himself by storming at Sandy 
as to the way he worked the garden) by calmly saying : " An' is not the result 
satisfactory, Mr. T. ? " No more could be said ! 

Sandy made no special claim to being a religious man and, like many of 
his class, he was reserved on such matters. One day Mrs. McKendrick, who 
was dangerously ill at the time, asked me to give Sandy a book, a kind of 
"Bogatsky's Golden Treasury," written by a very remarkable man, a Mr. 
Bowen, who for many years was a missionary in Bombay, unattached to any 
Church or religious denomination. For each day of the year there was a text, 
a homily, and a prayer. I gave it to Sandy. The little man was seated on a 
mat by a garden border, weeding. He looked up, thanked me, and then 
added, in all sincerity: ''But I'm nae religeous, ye ken". I found out after- 
wards that Sandy read from this volume day by day to his frail old wife, and 
that it was a great comfort to them both. 

At last Sandy's health began to give way. He was nearly eighty years of 
age and the grasshopper was becoming a burden. By my advice, and as he 
was well off, he "treated himself," as he said, to a Bath chair, and in this 
he was wheeled about. One day he came to Maxieburn and said he would 
like to have a little conversation. I took him to a seat in the garden which 
owed not a little to his taste and foresight. He said, without preface : " I've 
come to see ye, doctor, to hae a talk about immortality. I could never 
tak it in, ye ken. I dinna ken fu' a man can live aifter he's deid. Ye see, 
the ministers they maun say it, but I would like to ken what ye think about 
it ye're sel'.'' 

I was well aware that many in his class think about these solemn matters 
more than we give them credit for, and every one knows how the great mystery, 
in silent moments, comes home to all of us and our spirit may well shrink from 
the contemplation ; but I do not know if the difficulties as to a future state 
were ever more forcibly put than by the old gardener. Knowing that Sandy 
had a great admiration for Mr. Gladstone, whose body was then resting in 
Westminster Abbey, I said to Sandy : " Now, Sandy, do you think that Mr. 
Gladstone, whom you admire so much, who was so learned, so wise, and so 
good in his generation, went out like the snuffing of a candle? " " No," says 



Sandy Lawrence : A Sketch 5 1 

Sandy, "that is a wye of lookin' at it that I haev'ne thocht on." To have 
quoted texts to Sandy would have been of little avail, but the appeal as to 
what he thought of the destiny of his hero helped him. We had a long talk and 
I hope he went home somewhat comforted. 

At last the end came and the old man passed away. He now rests in 
the old kirk-yard of Glenbervie, within, literally, a few feet of the grave of 
the ancestors of Robert Burns. This is a short chapter from the simple annals 
of the poor. With better education, with such training as our venerable Uni- 
versity could have given to such a man as Sandy Lawrence, one can imagine 
to what a range of knowledge and wisdom he might have attained. Such an 
intellect and such a grip of things would have developed another kind of 
Sandy Lawrence. In a sense his powers remained latent. Humble as he was, 
however, he made a lasting impression on those who knew him, and now he 
rests in peace. Vale. 

John G. McKendrick. 



Correspondence. 

ABERDEEN'S FIRST SENIOR WRANGLER. 

Manse of Mouswald, Ruthwell, 
Dumfriesshire, 

ijth September^ 1915. 

Sir, 

The article on the above by Dr. Giles, in the June number of 
The Aberdeen University Review, has been intensely interesting to me, as a 
member of the Class that entered the University and King's College, Aberdeen, 
in 1849. The Class numbered ninety-six; and, so far as known to me, I am 
the sole survivor.^ It makes me feel as if writing from another shore. The 
article is most appreciative, eulogistic and sympathetic, but in no instance 
more so than the subject deserved. Slesser and I entered College in our 
sixteenth year, he being my junior by the interval between 14 January and 
27 April, 1834. We came respectively from the Parish School of Rathen, Aber- 
deenshire, and the Inverness Royal Academy — Slesser after a few months' polish 
from '* Old Grim " (Dr. Melvin), without which it was considered that there was 
little chance of appearing in the Bursary List. As it was, the bursary that 
fell to Slesser was about the last. The " Version," as the article states, was 
the main feature of the competition. The future Wrangler did not affect 
classics, but he held a respectable place in each Class, and in every subject. 

Our Bajan year being completed, Mathematics was taken up in Session 
1850-51 — the last year of Professor Tulloch. The Class-room was in the North- 
East corner of the Quadrangle on the first floor ; the Natural Philosophy Class 
being on the floor above it. In a letter to his brother, dated January, 1851, 
Slesser styles the class " a most splendid class of Mathematics ". This may 
apply to from a dozen to a score of young men, who were our seniors by from 
seven to ten years. But taken as a whole we were most innocent of Mathe- 
matics, and it was stated and believed of George that, at that time, he knew 
little Mathematics beyond the " Pons Asinorum ". We began with Arithmetic 
at notation and went rapidly through the subject, taking some propositions of 
Euclid each day as well. There was then no special distinction marking out 
the student from Buchan from any others answering to their names. He 
was stout, round-shouldered, with ruddy complexion, and slightly reddish 
hair and rolling gait, and his place was at the right-hand corner of the front 
bench, allotted to him in the alphabetical order of his first name. Early in the 
year mentioned in the letter quoted — as I remember as vividly as if it were 
yesterday — there was a problem set by the Professor, duly inscribed by him on 
the Black-Board. Some students were called up to solve it, and one after an- 
other failed. It was then put to the Class, and George Slesser, habited in his 

* [The names of two others appear in the Register of the General Council — Robert 
Gray, M.A. 1853, M.B. 1859, Brigade-Surgeon, I.M.S. (ret.), Aberdeen; and George 
Robert Samuel, M.A. 1853, Wesley College, Sheffield.— Ed.] 



Correspondence 53 



red gown, slowly left his seat and marched to the encounter. There was 
silence for a time. Then the Professor scrutinized ; and the solution was ac- 
complished. Some days after, there was another puzzler placed on the Board, 
and again the same Front Bench carried the day and there were compliments 
from the Professor and a spontaneous "ruff" from the Class. Slesser was 
never called out again, unless to be appealed to as virtually Assistant Professor 
to the Class. This position he held to the last. 

Professor Tulloch was of the old school, but he was a sound Mathematician. 
He had a Wrangler to his credit in the person of Mr. J. F. Maclennan, Inver- 
ness, Simpson Prizeman of 1849, who entered Cambridge on the recommenda- 
tion of Professor Thomson, also a Cambridge Wrangler, and gained, if I mistake 
not, the position of 25 th Wrangler in Trinity College. Tulloch did not approve 
of bringing Englishmen, or men trained in the English Universities, to our 
Scottish Chairs. This he sometimes showed to the students in comments on 
the Natural Philosophy Class with its English-trained Professor. He was an 
inveterate "joker". One day a demonstration at the Black-Board was going 
on in which Yir^ (tt r^) occurred ; and it was so pronounced, when the Professor 
interrupted : " Joannes Mackay ! Stop, Sir. You say ir r^. You will get 
* Pies ' up-stairs ; but you must be content with * Peas ' down here ! " 

My lodgings were in College Bounds, a few doors from those occupied by 
Slesser in the Spital. In those days we all lived in this street, and visited freely 
one another. One evening Slesser came into my room, and found me in despair 
over some problem. He took the pencil and slate from my hand, and with a 
few strokes of the master-hand he made my darkness light. Such was his 
career from the outset. He was a Mathematical genius undoubtedly. But he 
was an ardent and prolonged student. Visiting among one another was not 
always advantageous to study ; and it was my habit with some others to go 
early to bed and to get up about 3 a.m. We took a turn out about 4 a.m. to 
get a breath of the keen, caller air. At that hour Slesser's window was alight. 
He had not yet gone to his rest. 

In Senior Mathematics, our Third Year, we had Professor Fuller. He 
made the same mistake as Professor Thomson, and treated our Class as if he 
was dealing with those he was coaching in Cambridge. We were plunged into 
the deep waters of the Calculus before we had waded any way from land, 
with the result that the majority of the Class failed to follow him and his 
rapid delivery in a purely English accent, and we were obliged to supplement 
our Class work by private study and books. The Senior Wrangler did like- 
wise : but he was full of his subject and needed little help. He was facile 
princeps in the examination for the Simpson Prize. Another Candidate, 
George Daniel, broke down in the middle of the competition. He was seized 
with haemorrhage of the lungs. He came to the graduation, pale, haggard, 
with livid lips and sharp, strained features; received his cap of A.M., and in 
six weeks he was in the grave. He predeceased Slesser — carried off by the 
same deadly malady. This adds corroboration to the remarks on this subject 
by Dr. Giles. 

Excuse the length of these notes from the past. Being now virtually 
blind I write them much by guess for others to read. They cannot be read 
by me. 

My blindness was due to cataract, and befel me suddenly through the 
failure on a Saturday night of a cataract eye that after operation had served 



54 Aberdeen University Review 

me for twenty-one years, till the retina was broken by a sudden cough on 19th 
October, 191 2, and so soon as the necessary procedure was accomplished, I 
retired from the active pastorate of Little Dunkeld last year. I am now in the 
fiftieth year of my ministry of that Parish. Such is the last Survivor, so far 
as known to me, of George Slesser's Class of 1849-53. It should be noted 
that Professors Thomson and Fuller were the inspirers of the First and sub- 
sequent Senior Wranglers from Aberdeen. The latter was most anxious that 
his favourite student should make a name for himself and his University in 
Cambridge. He put Slesser to the test by leaving a most intricate problem 
with the late Mr. Fraser, the then Minister of Footdee, also a Mathematician, 
with the request that he should give it to Slesser. This was done on a casual 
call of the Student upon the Minister, when the Minister said to Slesser he 
was going out to visit and he would leave him to try what he could make of 
the problem submitted to him. On his return the Minister was asked " What 
is your difficulty ? " and at the same time, there was handed to him a success- 
ful ** Q. E. D." Professor Fuller on i xeiving the report said : " I have now 
not the slightest hesitation in sending him to Cambridge ". It is truly sad 
that so promising a life was so early closed. 

I am, etc., 

J. S. MACKENZIE, A.M., 
Senior Minister of Little Dunkeld. 



SIR JAMES DONALDSON AND THE MARQUIS OF BUTE. 

The acting Editor has received communications protesting against the 
paragraphs in Professor Latta's " Reminiscences of Principal Sir James Donald- 
son" (pp. 198, 199 of the last volume of the Review), on the ground "that 
they are most unjust to the late Marquis of Bute, ill-informed and inaccurate " : 
but in response to the request of the acting Editor — because it is undesirable 
in this Review to re-open a controversy concerning another University — the 
writers do not press for the insertion of their letters. 



Reviews. 



Studies in the Odyssey. By J. A. K. Thomson, M.A., Late Scholar of 
Pembroke College, Oxford ; Examiner in Classics to the University of 
Aberdeen. Oxford : At the Clarendon Press. 

Mr. Thomson has written a very interesting book. Even those who find 
themselves unable to accept its conclusions must admit its wonderful ingenuity 
and the many-sided learning on which the author has drawn in support of 
his hypothesis. There is a vast deal of charm too in the literary presentation 
of the case. Unlike the late Mr. Andrew Lang, who frankly abandoned any 
attempt at making literature out of the interminable series of minute details 
connected with the Homeric question, Mr. Thomson is true to the exacting 
artistic conscience of the Grecian, and, though dealing with an immense mass 
of not very tractable material, succeeds in preserving throughout his book 
an unbroken note of style. He has moreover individual passages of great 
beauty — that more particularly in which he exhibits the nobler elements in 
Chthonian worship reaches to our thinking a high level of moving eloquence. 
The opening chapter professes to reveal how much of " latent and unex- 
plored magic and savagery" lurks in the background of Homeric poetry. 
Professor Murray has tried to show that though " Homer " has eliminated a 
great deal of what must have existed in the myths, torture of prisoners taken 
in war, for instance, insults to the dead, sexual impurity, human sacrifice and 
other horrors, yet much has unconsciously been allowed to remain. In the 
same way Mr. Thomson holds that many Homeric similes are not so much 
similes as reminiscences of an old belief that gods and men and beasts and 
birds could all be readily transformed into one another — that in fact many 
formal similes are merely " disguised identifications ". The story of Dolon 
again half hides the device of the primeval man who disguised himself as a 
wolf to trap his enemy ; and the <t>06vo<: riov ^cwv which appears in the 
persecution of Odysseus by Poseidon and also in the sufferings of Achilles, is 
nothing but the jealousy felt by deities of assured and recognized position 
towards merely potential deities who might encroach on their prerogatives. 
This is an interesting line of speculation, but surely Mr. Thomson goes too 
far when he maintains that we cannot fully appreciate the poetical signifi- 
cance of the Odyssey unless we realize that it is ''fashioned out of materials 
of the most different ages, and think ourselves back into a time when the 
Odyssey did not exist at all ". To take the first example that comes to hand, 
it seems in the highest degree probable that the customs described in Burns's 
" Hallow-e'en " are relics of immemorial Magic and Nature worship ; they 
offer alL the materials for a fine anthropological essay ; but to say that we 
cannot fully appreciate the poem till their origin has been investigated would 
be obviously nonsense. We take these things at their face value. Poetry is 
one thing, Anthropology another. 



56 Aberdeen University Review 

The book falls naturally into two parts which however are closely inter- 
related with one another, the Odysseus Myth, and the evolution of the 
Odyssey as we have it. The main contention regarding Odysseus, to which 
the first chapter is preparatory, comes to something like this. Odysseus is 
primarily not a Hero but what Miss Jane Harrison calls an " Eniautos 
Daimon " or Fertility Spirit. He is like Heracles and Theseus and Orpheus 
and Dionysus, a "projection," an embodiment of a something in the mind of 
primitive man, a being whose favour the savage seeks to propitiate that his 
crops and his herds may not fail. He descends to Hades like these others : 
that is the death of Nature, the dead time of the year. He appears again 
and slays the Suitors and is reunited to Penelope : that is the Epiphany of 
Spring. He is so vague a conception that he passes readily into many forms 
or " doubles ". He has features that go to identify him with Helios, for the 
Eniautos is the "Sun Year," and Odysseus' sojourn with Calypso "the 
Concealer " may represent the periodic obscuration of the god, just as Helios 
is not far removed in this aspect from the god Hades. He is a "double" 
of Apollo: both are archers. He is very near to Hermes: indeed his 
maternal grandfather, Autolycus, "Very Wolf," is a "double" of that deity, 
and Odysseus himself is a " double " of Autolycus. His very name makes 
him a " Wolf god," for it is claimed that 'OXvaacvs, the popular and therefore 
the older, as opposed to the literary and later form OSvo-o-cvs, contains the 
stem X.VK — in Xvkos, and so on. 

On this last head we fear that Mr. Thomson will have a bad time with 
the philologers, who we imagine now incline to the view that 'OSvo-o-evs is 
not a Greek name at all, but " Mediterranean " with a Greek suffix. But 
leaving him to do his best with that '■^ irritabile genus ^'^ it occurs to us to 
question whether the mind of even primeval man is quite so involved and 
self-contradictory in its constitution as the identification of Odysseus with 
Helios implies. As Helios, Odysseus (for his followers are "secondary") kills 
the sacred kine of Helios, on account of which Helios incurs the wrath of 
Helios, so that Helios persecutes Helios through an Odyssey of woes ! This 
is a hard saying. And these doubles again are a sore trial to one's credulity. 
As we shall see, Odysseus weds Penelope, who is a Wild Fowl goddess of 
Arcadia and the mother of Pan. But since Odysseus is Helios, Penelope 
must also be the Moon. In this it is held there is no inconsistency, for as a 
Fertility Spirit she is just as capable of becoming the Moon as Artemis is. 
No doubt we shall be pitied for senile stiffness in our mental joints, but we 
do not seem to possess the agility requisite for following these transformations. 
Professor Murray, in his coaxing way, endeavours to make his readers 
perform feats much more remarkable, but for the most part succeeds only 
in arousing one's suspicions that the tortuosities with which he invests the 
mind of primeval man are nothing but a reflex of his own. 

The real kernel of the book is reached when proof is led to show that the 
worship of this Odysseus, no\vfiop<f>o^ now as well as TroXvfirjTK, is originally 
associated with Boeotia. " Arkeisios," his paternal grandfather's name, is very 
like " Arkesilaos," the name of a hero buried at Lebadeia in Boeotia. More- 
over Odysseus had a son named Arkesilaos, who was the ancestor of the 
Battiadae of Cyrene who claimed to be Minyans of Central Greece. There- 
fore Arkeisios was probably Arkesilaos of Lebadeia. Therefore Odysseus 
was probably Boeotian in origin. Then there is the wound Odysseus 



Reviews 57 

received from the boar on Parnassus, the prominence of the Theban Tiresias 
in the Eleventh Odyssey, and also the fact that a good many (not quite, how- 
ever, "all or nearly all") of the famous women in the Nekyia have Minyan- 
Boeotian connexions. The sceptic, however sorely tempted, cannot dismiss 
all this as of a piece with Fluellen's rivers in Monmouth and Macedon, "and 
there is salmons in both ". It seems to us that a fairly strong case has been 
made out for a greater connexion than is usually supposed between Odysseus 
and Boeotia. 

From Boeotia Odysseus' people are supposed to migrate by way of the 
Isthmus of Corinth to Mantineia in Arcadia, where they find that Wild-Duck 
Goddess, Penelope {TrrjviXo\f/), whose marriage with Odysseus, though crossed 
by two other primitive "motifs," "the Victorious Wooer " and "the Returned 
Husband," is held to typify the union of two peoples and of their religions. 
From Arcadia they pass to Triphylia in Elis and thence to Ithaca, whence 
they ultimately make for the coast of Asia Minor at the time of the Migrations 
and help to found Ionia. They carry with them at the same time the legend 
that makes the Odyssey. 

For the Arcadian connexion, at least in this part of the assumed legend, 
the evidence cannot be called strong. The Mantineians, it is said, believed 
that Odysseus first introduced among them the worship of Poseidon, not 
originally, it is held, a sea god, but a horse god, whose worship naturally 
arose among the Minyans of Central Greece. And again on Mantineian 
coins of the fourth century is found a device apparently representing 
Odysseus planting his oar there, in obedience to the oracle which bade him 
"set it up among a people ignorant of the sea and to sacrifice to Poseidon ". 
But Epirus is generally given as the scene of that ceremony, and that tradition 
is not disposed of by the suggestion that people would naturally, in a later 
stage of the myth, select a place nearer Ithaca than distant Mantineia. And 
granting that Odysseus went to Arcadia, what is there to show that he went 
there on his way to Ithaca and not on his way back from it at a subsequent 
time ? Finally, in spite of aW the arguments advanced, we do not feel at all 
certain that the Water Fowl deity of Arne is " certainly " our Penelope. Un- 
less that is more firmly established the whole edifice of proof is in danger of 
collapsing. 

The second part of the book deals with the genesis of the Odyssey, and 
here we are launched on the broad stream of the Homeric controversy. It 
will be gathered that Mr. Thomson is not a believer in a Homer "one and 
indivisible ". He finds in the Odyssey a reflex of the journeys of this Minyan- 
lonian people, whom he traces from Boeotia through the Isthmus of Corinth 
to Mantineia and thence by way of Elis to Ithaca. Each stage in their 
wanderings has left its trace in the story. By aid of the " Argonautica," 
which embodies a Minyan legend of much greater antiquity than the myth 
of Odysseus, he detaches from the Odyssey its purely Boeotian elements. 
They practically coincide with the narrative of Odysseus told in the palace of 
Alcinous — the blinding of Polyphemus (which by the way is regarded as a mere 
fiction to account for the wrath of Poseidon), the Laestrygones, Kirke, the 
visit to the under-world, the Catalogue of Women, the Wandering Rocks, 
Calypso, the wreck of the raft, and the escape to Phseacia. Similarly, with 
the aid of a short abstract of the Telegonia, an Epic poem by Eugammon of 
Cyrene, preserved by Proclus, we get the Arcadian element disengaged for 



58 Aberdeen University Review 

us. The test applied is the same in both cases. Whatever in the " Argonau- 
tica " or the " Telegonia " is inconsistent with our Odyssey must be older 
and must represent the original tradition. Clearly such a /Sdcravos is not in- 
fallible, but space does not admit of its further discussion. It must suffice to 
say that this part of the book displays wonderful cleverness, and that each 
detail falls into its place with a neatness that is just a trifle suspicious. 

On the question why, if the poem was of Minyan- Ionian origin, the 
Achsean people is so prominent, Mr. Thomson has less to say that is new. 
This North- Western stock was the dominant power in Greece at the time 
when the Homeric poems took their present shape, and accordingly the poems 
had to be Achseanized in its honour. But the work of Achaeanization has 
been imperfectly done, and much of the older substratum peers through in 
spite of all. 

Lastly we come to the question, which possesses for most of us the keenest 
interest, Who then was this Homer ? 

At the great quadrennial festival of the lonians in Delos a hymn to 
Apollo was chanted by a Chorus. In such Choruses there was originally an 
i^dpxov or leader both of dance and song. In time this functionary was dif- 
ferentiated into the professional Choregos or leader of the dance only, and 
the Aoidos or leader of the song, i.e.. Poet and Harp-player. Later on a 
further differentiation of the Aoidos took place into the Harp-player and the 
Rhapsode or professional reciter of verses. "O/xripos then corresponds to the 
Aoidos : he is the traditional leader of the Song of the Delian Maiden Chorus. 
The name is not that of an individual : it is the name of a functionary. 
How then did the word become the name of an individual? Quite simply. 
The verb ofxrjptlv can mean only to be 6p.-qpo^ : it is applied to dancers and 
singers like the Delian Kourai including their Exarchon. The opuqpoi " pro- 
ject " an individual "O/xrjpos, just as the Amphiktyones " projected " Am- 
phiktyon, the Bacchoi, Bacchus, the SatSaXAovrcs, Daedalus. There were 
many such xo/ooi in Greece ; the names given to the Muses, Helikoniades, 
Pierides, Olympiades, etc., are evidence thereto, and hence we can understand 
why so many cities claimed to be Homer's birthplace. The name of this 
Aoidos functionary was "O/AT/pos at Smyrna, Chios, Colophon and all the rest. 
Homer then, from being the traditional Aoidos or author of the Delian 
Hymn, came to be counted the author of much other traditional poetry that 
was recited in later days at the Delian Festival. That poetry included the 
Odyssey, which by frequent repetition became an artistic epic poem, and was 
ultimately transferred from the Delian to the Panathenaic Festival at Athens. 

A very pretty theory, but unless we are greatly mistaken there is a screw 
loose in it. If ofx-qpos is a definite functionary, the Aoidos or poet of the 
Chorus, and if ofxrjpeiv means to be op.-qpo'Sj how can the words be applied 
to the Delian Kourai even if we "include their exarchon"? Were they all 
o/x-qpoi, these 6p.r]p€vvT€<; and op.-qpivaai ? This won't do at any price. Again 
Hesiod's c^wvry o/jtrypcvo-ai, it is said, must mean the same as the " Muses " 
d/jt€i)8o/A€vai oTTt KoXrj, i.e., singing amoeboean verses in a contest such as we 
have in Theocritus, " fitting together with the voice," in the sense that one 
Muse takes up the song at the point where another leaves off. Were these 
all ofirjpoL, with one ofirjpos par excellence 1 The point is far from clear. But 
this much is certain, that a great deal depends on it — the whole notion, for 
instance, that the Rhapsodes might be called o/ATypcvvrcs because they could 



Reviews 59 



be said tfxovfj o/xrjpcLv, and might imagine for themselves an ancestor "Ofirfpo^ 
and call themselves Homeridae as the 8ai8aAAovT€s imagined for themselves 
an ancestor Daidalos. Unless this point can be cleared up, the explanation 
of the name " Homer " must go the way of many another. 

Some aid to the theory seems sought from a parallel explanation of 
paipioSo^. It is said to mean "one who stitches lay to lay," from pd-nreLv wSa?, 
as we can say paimiv jSovXds ** to add counsel to counsel ". It seems im- 
plied that pGLTTTeiv can be used only when you have fwo things to be stitched 
together. How then about pd-rrreiv <f>6vov, p.dpov, etc., when there are cer- 
tainly not two (fiovoL? Why cannot pdirreiv ioSijv mean "to sew a lay"? 

The question whether Mr. Thomson is right in contending that Homer 
is no more than a type or representation of all the minstrels who produced 
the poetry passing under his name is too vast to discuss here. His argu- 
ments have not induced us to give up our belief in a Homer any more than 
those of Professor Murray who thinks that the Homeric poems are something 
far more wonderful than the work of an individual, as being the work of a 
whole people. But one contention may be noticed. In answer to the 
argument that the architectonic of the Plot of the Odyssey implies a single 
mind, Mr. Thomson retorts that Plots are frequently produced by col- 
laboration. But we have never heard of the collaboration of more than two 
at a time. Is it credible that the poets and audiences collaborating over 
many years could have produced a poem with the unity of the Odyssey, or 
that improvement in the plot could come from the efforts of the former to 
adapt themselves to the taste of the latter? When some one individual 
writes a satisfactory conclusion to "Edwin Drood " or "St. Ives," or "Weir 
of Hermiston," then we shall begin to think it worth while discussing the 
question whether the multifarious tastes and differences in culture in many 
generations of hearers and the varying talents of many generations of bards 
could possibly combine to produce a literary work of art in any sense of the 
term. It is all very well to say that we should not measure the possibilities of 
ancient by those of modern life with its entirely different conditions, but why 
should conditions of life regarding which we are so much in the dark be 
thought capable of producing results which we do know are impossible in 
modern society? 

One last remark. Mr. Thomson "cannot help thinking that Greek 
scholarship in the immediate future will be largely concerned with the re- 
building of the tradition" latent in the vast popular literature of the myths. 
May all the gods and goddesses avert it ! The prospect is too horrible to 
contemplate — a welter of individual opinion, scholars plunging about in an 
infinite bog of uncertain speculation ! No, this phase, we venture to think, 
will pass like that of the Sun- Myth, and every other line of speculation 
where, in the words of Protagoras, "what seems good to each man is true 
for him," and where the proportion of truth attained is as one grain of com 
to a ton of chaff. Greek literature has not yet yielded up all its secrets. 
We do not often agree with Professor Murray on any subject under the sun, 
but we do agree with him when he says that the most pressing work of pure 
scholarship lies in "catching across the gulf of years the peculiar thrill of 
what was once a winged word passing from soul to soul ". 

John Harrower. 



6o Aberdeen University Review 

The South African Book of English Verse. Edited by John Purves, 
M. A, London : Longmans, Green & Co. 

This is not, as the title carelessly read might suggest, an Anthology of English 
poems by South African poets, but a collection of EngHsh lyrics, from the 
age of Shakespeare to the present day, which the collector believes to be most 
likely to appeal to the young South African at school and college. Mr. 
Purves is an Edinburgh graduate of great distinction and learning, who was 
for a few years Lecturer in English Literature and Language in the University of 
Aberdeen. Since 1906 he has been Professor of the same subjects in Trans- 
vaal University College, first at Johannesburg, now at Pretoria. Few men 
that the present reviewer knows have as wide a knowledge of English poetry 
or so intimate an acquaintance and sympathy with the poets of our own day ; 
certainly no one has anything like Mr. Purves's familiarity with European poetry 
and literature — English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, and 
Dutch. Nor is Mr. Purves's judgment and taste obscured by his learning. 
He is one of the not too many people who know a good poem as soon as 
they see it, whose opinion is no reflection of established or fashionable tastes 
but the index of his own susceptibility. It would be hard to find one better 
fitted to cull an anthology. 

The weakness which besets the anthology gathered for use in school or 
college classes flows from the want of a single guiding principle, the desire to 
do more than one thing. The collector is not contented or allowed to give 
just the poems he likes best, which is probably the only way to draw near to 
that unobtainable ideal success. He must think of his special audience ; and 
he may feel that it is his duty to be representative — representative of authors, 
representative of kinds. All these difficulties have beset Mr. Purves's path, 
leading to inclusions and omissions with which a critic might cavil, and in 
addition he has undertaken two responsibilities proper to his work as a teacher 
and his tastes as a reader. The first of these is to adapt his selection to 
South African taste, and the second is to represent the work of the living poets 
of to-day. 

Quite justly Mr. Purves insists that our enjoyment of poetry depends to 
some degree on our close understanding of the kind of life and experience 
which the poetry reflects, the " admixture of temporal circumstance " which 
€ven lyric poetry admits. We shall never feel Homer and Virgil, nor even 
Sappho and Catullus, quite as their contemporaries and countrymen did. The 
whole aim and end of scholarship is to help us towards such a comprehension. 
And so, Mr. Purves argues, we cannot expect the young South African to feel 
and to enjoy poems which, like Tennyson's English idylls or Gray's Elegy ^ are 
saturated with suggestions of English scenery and English life, its institutions 
and habits. "The scenery and the manners" of England "are mirrored in 
the placid surface of Tennyson's poems as in a silver lake. And over it there 
lies the gracious shadow of the English country-rectory and the soft light of 
English skies." " Only the reader who realizes how Gray's Elegy is drowned 
and saturated in England can be said to get from it all that it has to give." 
All that the South African poet can learn from such poems is " the art which 
can make his own landscape lyrical," and Mr. Purves quotes from a Mr. 
Crosbie Garstin : — 



Reviews 6 1 

The red flame-flowers bloom and die, 

The embers puff a golden spark, 
Now and again a horse's eye 

Shines like a topaz in the dark. 

A distant jackal jars the hush, 

The drowsy oxen chump and sigh, 
The ghost moon peers above the bush, 

And creeps across the starry sky. 

This last statement and illustration certainly give to think, for they suggest 
that the very fact which Mr. Purves adduces as a reason for excluding such 
poems might be used to argue for their retention. There is gain as well as 
loss in want of familiarity with the experience with which a poet deals so it be 
that his record is sincere and imaginative. For it is one of the functions of 
poetry to widen and enrich our experience. What Mr. Purves says suggests 
that to a South African student English poetry may be made to render the 
same service as classical poetry has to an older world, to enrich the mind with 
a revelation of experiences remote from his own yet connected with them by the 
unity of what is universal in the relation of man's mind to the natural environ- 
ment in which it lives and grows. It is just so that literature begets litera- 
ture. What Mr. Purves suggests that the poetry of Milton and Gray have done 
for Mr. Crosbie Garstin, Horace and Virgil did in their time for Milton and 
Gray. Our magnificent rural poetry — as one may call it by way of dis- 
tinction from the conventional pastoralism of Spenser and his followers to 
Pope, — English as it is in all the details of picture and sentiment, is yet of 
classical inspiration. Ben Jonson's attempt to naturalize the " Beatus ille " 
of Horace, Thomson's selection of the " Georgics " as his model in preference 
to the " Eclogues,'' are the fountain-head of all that has followed to the idylls 
of Wordsworth and Tennyson of Crabbe and Mr. Masefield. 

Professor Purves seems to me on stronger ground when he pleads that 
we should allow no barrier " of a literary convention which is both artificial 
and antiquated " to stand between the young colonial and his enjoyment of 
poetry. The ** frustrate mediaevalism " of Tennyson's " Idylls of the King," 
the artificial classicism of Pindaric odes and classical elegy appeal to an 
interest which has been produced by a long educational tradition that the 
colonial has never fully entered into and probably never will now — in any 
large numbers. His education is modern, his life is controlled from the 
outset by a consciousness of the realities of life, meaning thereby the simple, 
obvious realities of money-making and material needs and pleasures. It is 
all the more essential that poetry should be made a vital factor in his 
education to quicken and sustain the ideal and aesthetic impulses which other- 
wise might perish altogether. But poetry that is to do this, to emancipate 
the spirit from the tyranny of material pursuits and coarse, crude pleasures, 
must appeal to him by the sincerity and directness of its emotional appeal. 
There is abundant sincerity in ** Lycidas ''—pace Dr. Johnson whose 
criticism, Mr. Purves says, " would find many echoes in South Africa ". 
"Lycidas" and "Samson Agonistes " are of all Milton's poems — except only 
the personal passages in " Paradise Lost " — the most passionate utterances of 
Milton's self- consciousness at widely separated periods of his life. " Lycidas '' 
is the first passionate poem which Milton wrote and " Samson Agonistes " is, 
as Treitschke said, " a work composed at one gush with a success Milton 
seldom attained : from first word to last a song of lament piercing bone and 



62 Aberdeen University Review 

marrow ". But in both, this passionate sincerity is disguised, especially to 
the young reader, by the elaborate artificiality of form. He looks for pathos 
in "Lycidas" and he feels with Dr. Johnson that "in this poem there is no 
nature, for there is no truth ... he who thus grieves will excite no sym- 
pathy ". But he is wrong. The subject of *' Lycidas " is not the death of 
Mr. King as that concerns King but as it concerns Milton. The poet has 
been brought face to face with the thought '* I too may die before I have done 
anything ". That is the passionate thought from which the poem springs, 
most clearly uttered in the two passages which transcend the pastoral con- 
vention but audible in the cadences throughout, for with all its faults 
** Lycidas " is the most wonderful poem in the language " ringing and echoing 
with music in every line ". 

Accordingly we should miss " Lycidas " in Mr. Purves's anthology were it 
not that it is easily found elsewhere. The safest conclusion which he has 
drawn from his study of the colonial mind, and it follows from the study of 
the youthful mind in all parts of the globe, is that such an anthology should 
contain as many modern poems as possible. The most interesting and novel 
feature of this selection is the large number of poems it includes written since 
the death of Tennyson and Browning — poems not only by Swinburne and 
Morris but by Meredith, Bridges, Stevenson, Francis Thompson, Newbolt, 
Kipling, Yeats, Trench, and Davies. Of more special interest for the colonial 
are the examples of Australian, New Zealand, South African, and Canadian 
verse. Only a small number of these are of enduring value but some 
certainly are ; and of the American poems proper those by Longfellow, Poe, 
and Whitman have long ago established their claim to be classics. It is a 
bold step that Mr. Purves has taken thus to include in an anthology for the 
school and the general reader many poems whose title to immortality has yet 
to be adjudged upon ; but it is a wise step. To have made a wider circle of 
readers familiar with Swinburne's wonderful " A Nympholept " (in stanza 4, 
for " the might of the Moon " read " the might of the noon "), Bridges' " I 
have loved flowers that fade," Thompson's " Hound of Heaven," and Mrs. 
Meynell's " Letter from a girl to her own old age," is a service to the study of 
English literature. Some indeed, as Stevenson's "The Woodman," have 
claimed a space they hardly deserve, but the whole effect is to make the 
anthology unconventional, unhackneyed, a challenge to the reader's own 
judgment. 

And this unconventional challenging character belongs to Mr. Purves's 
whole selection. When we turn from the modern to the more familiar authors 
we find almost in every case alongside poems which every anthology contains 
others that the editor believes have suffered from some degree of undeserved 
neglect. Campion's " Rose-cheekt Laura," Donne's " Since I am coming 
to that Holy room," Milton's **0n Time," and the beautiful Doric lyrics 
from "Comus," the Canadian Boat-Song, Keats's ode "On a lock of 
Milton's hair," are some of the pieces found here and not often in other 
Anthologies. Of course the inclusion of modern, colonial, and less usual 
pieces has led to many omissions. Only one of Keats's best-known odes 
is given. But this has probably been done on purpose. Mr. Purves is quite 
aware that his anthology does not stand alone. He has striven, while adher- 
ing to the main tradition, to enrich that tradition, to wander from the beaten 
track, to challenge the student's own judgment on less familiar poems. 



Reviews 63 



Of individual poets the most flawless group is probably that selected from 
Herrick. " Burns " is nearly perfect, including " O Mary at thy window be," 
*'0 a' the airts," "Go fetch to me a pint of wine," "O my love's like a red, 
red rose," "O open the door some pity to shew," "It was a' for our rightfu' 
king ". But to these gems we should have liked to add " When o'er the 
hills the eastern star " of the same rare quality, and, as only a little less precious, 
" The Country Lass," " Tam Glen," " Duncan Gray," and *' Auld Lang Syne ". 
The wish to be representative has probably led to the inclusion of the de- 
clamatory " Is there for honest poverty," and pastoral " O leeze me on my 
spinning wheel ". The ballads are excellently selected. 

The richness of English poetry is overwhelming. While reading Mr. 
Purves's book we have been dipping into "Die Ernte," a recent Anthology of 
German lyrics. The freshness and beauty of German song is undeniable, but 
how limited the range compared with English. The period up to the 
eighteenth century is represented by 119 pages out of 466. All that is best 
strikes the note of folk-song. One poet after another writes beautiful songs 
in this vein. But the result is a certain lack of individuality. We have not 
many poets who can give to the strains of folk-song the warmth and colour 
of Goethe, the poignant passion and irony of Heine ; but what a succession 
of individual poets our history presents, of poets each of whom is a literature 
in himself — Chaucer, Spenser, Donne, Milton, Herrick, Shelley, Wordsworth, 
their name is legion. After Goethe and Heine who is there of the same 
rich and complex individuality ? 

H. J. C. Grierson. ^ 

Pre- Reformation Scholars in Scotland in the Sixteenth Century : 
THEIR Writings and their Public Services. With a Bibliography 
and a List of Graduates from 1500 to 1560. By W. Forbes 
Leith, S.J. " A list of the Scottish scholars driven from the land at the 
Reformation for their attachment to the Roman Catholic faith would form 
an exceedingly interesting chapter of Scottish literary history'' — Sir William 
Hamilton, " Discussions on Philosophy ". Glasgow : James MacLehose 
& Sons. 1 91 5. 8vo, pp. viii + 156. With 18 illustrations. Price 6s. 

In 1882, Franco- Scottish history was enriched by this local author's sumptuous 
work "The Scots men-at-arms in France," and during the following seven 
years the history of his Church owed to his industry two volumes of " Narratives 
of Scottish Catholics," and also Lives of St. Margaret and of St. Cuthbert. 
Thanks to careful editorship by Mr. P. J. Anderson, to whom we are indebted 
for the satisfactory completion and admirable arrangement of the volume, his 
"Records of the Scots Colleges," New Spalding Club, 1906, is a valuable 
historical book of reference. But the attractive-looking and beautifully-illus- 
trated book before me contains neither original history, useful bibliography, 
nor collections of names to which interest is attached by collateral research, 
while many vital errors of omission and commission render it untrustworthy 
and of little literary value. Its purpose is hard to discover, for contents and 
title are not correlative, and Hamilton's desideratum is unattained. It is 
hardly ascertainable even from the introduction (pp. 1-21) in which historical 
quotations of a great many authors, from T. Bourchier, 1582, to Andrew 
Lang, 191 1, are strung together by a running commentary under several dif- 



64 Aberdeen University Review 

ferent heads striving » to establish that within the ranks of the pre-reformation 
clergy in Scotland there were men more or less learned in the classics, phil- 
osophy, law and architecture, besides educationists, Masters of Arts and phil- 
anthropists, and that not all were ignorant or degenerate. Being unaware 
that the contrary is anywhere seriously alleged, there is here so little room for 
difference or criticism that the only remark necessary seems to be a warning 
to the reader of the book that it is dangerous to accept any of the numerous, 
quotations without examination of their author's context, because unhappily 
this author has already proved himself capable of gross perversion, as the 
following example painfully illustrates. In the " Life of Andrew Melville " 
(ed. of 1824, ii. 278) Dr. Thomas McCrie described how the seventeenth- 
century protestants of France had six universities and fifteen colleges, and 
stated that the number of Scotsmen who taught in them was great : " They 
were to be found in all the universities and colleges ; in several of them they 
held the honorary situation of principal, and in others they amounted to a 
third part of the professors ". In Father Forbes-Leith's ** Narratives of Scottish 
Catholics," 1885, p. 7, the last sentence is quoted as if related by McCrie 
of the pre-reformation clergy of the Roman Catholic Church. It is regrettable 
to add that the late Dr. Rankin and his editor Dr. Story carelessly accepted 
the perversion without examination in " The Church of Scotland Past and 
Present," ii. 410. 

The Bibliography (pp. 23-98) deals incompletely with the literary work of 
about seventy different Scottish Catholic authors from Henry the Minstrel of 
the fourteenth century down to John Barclay (Argenis) of the seventeenth, 
within which range the number might easily have been trebled. Very many 
great names, including those of George Buchanan, John Knox and Sir David 
Lindsay, all of whom were " pre-reformation scholars in Scotland in the six- 
teenth century," are obviously excluded from the list because in different ways 
they supported and influenced the glorious struggle for religious purity whose 
successful issue earned for them the perpetual blessing of their country. But 
it is difficult to comprehend why John Barbour and the Fathers Archangel of 
the families of Forbes and Leslie are unnoticed : why James Gordon (Huntlseus) 
is included and his contemporary James Gordon (Lesmorseus), an eminent 
Biblical expositor, is excluded ; why Alexander Scot, the Grecian, appears, 
while his friend and fellow- student at King's College, William Chisholme, 
Bishop of Vaison, the assailant of the Scots Confession in 1600, is unmentioned. 
The number of such omissions is very large and other features of the section 
are equally defective. The arrangement is irregularly chronological, the treat- 
ment methodless and inconsistent, and not one collation is complete. Of 
many books only a single line description is given, as " Ulric in personas. 
Chepman and Myllar," which in an annexed note is said to repose in the 
" Advocates' Library," although no copy has yet been discovered anywhere. 
It is included under the erroneous heading " Anonymous " as are also a work 
by John de Garlandia, an Englishman, and " The Porteous of Noblenes," 1508, 
a translation from the French into Scots, the author of which, according to its 
colophon, was Mr. Androw Cadiou, who graduated in Paris in 1472, and after- 
wards practised as an advocate and notary public in Aberdeen. The unknown 
authorship of two early examples of the Scottish press, " Compassio Beatae 
Marie," printed by John Story {circ. 1520), and "Strena,"a Latin poem ad- 
dressed to King James V, printed by Thomas Davidson {circ. 1538) is attri- 



Reviews 65 



buted to Adam Prsemonstratensis, assuredly an egregious blunder. Quite half 
the number of authors treated are men of North-east Scotland, and the early 
researches of Aberdeen bibliographers, published in " Scottish Notes and 
Queries " and elsewhere, are freely borrowed ; but Mr. Keith Leask is called 
"W. Keith" on p. 43, and the "Delitiae Poetarum Scotorum,"on p. 92, is said 
to have been published in 1557, many years before its editors and most of its 
contributors were born. Of the great number of mistakes perhaps the most 
stupid and careless are those committed jw<^ William Barclay (pp. 92-94) where 
the lives and works of two Aberdeen authors of the same name have been 
pounded together into a hopeless mess. The most creditable part of the 
section belongs to the late Dr. Thomas Graves Law, librarian of the Signet, 
whose bibliographical notes of the works of John Major, David Cranston, 
Robert Caubraith, George Lokert and William Manderston, with their defects 
and mistakes uncorrected, have been adopted almost verbatim from the 
Scottish History Society's edition of the '* Historia Majoris Britanniae". 

The "List of Masters of Arts, 1500-1560" (pp. 99-145) is stated in the 
introduction to contain 11 00 names, but I count only 1013, of which 123 are 
duplicates, leaving the actual number of individuals at 890. The dates set 
against the names have no reference to graduation, but merely to their oc- 
currence in diocesan or public records, or in such books as Joseph Robert- 
son's "Antiquities of Aberdeen and Banff," or P. J. Anderson's "Aberdeen 
Friars," from which they have been extracted; e.g. " 1513, Laurence Purdy, 
vicar of Durrisdere," who graduated at Paris in 1477. It may therefore be 
justly estimated that about one-half of the men graduated before 1500, so 
that instead of displaying the graduations of less than sixty years the list more 
nearly presents those of a whole century, and thus for lack of better parti- 
culars is of negligible chronological value. The collection of the names, to 
which a great many might have been added by more extended extractions, is 
mere spade work of the most elementary description, but to make the list 
interesting, enlightening, useful, and suitable for separate publication, ex- 
tensive further researches and a most capable and accurate editor are still 
required. Were the names collated with the existing registers of the universities 
of Paris, St. Andrews and Glasgow, many dates of graduation and other im- 
portant information would be recovered, and the men who graduated at 
King's College, Aberdeen, where no register of the sixteenth century has been 
preserved, would to a certain extent become identifiable. In other direc- 
tions research would discover the successive cures held by many of the 
graduates, 95 per cent of whom were celibate priests of the Roman Catholic 
Church, and might have identified many good ministers, of blameless life, who 
transferred their services to the Reformed Church in 1559 and subsequent 
years. Other very interesting researches would discover the professional 
qualities and private personal character of many of the graduates relative to 
the causes which made the reformation of their church an absolute necessity. 
And here I observe that in an innocent-looking footnote Father Forbes-Leith 
informs us that "the present list does not include many names of Masters of 
Arts recorded in the MS. volumes of the Registers of the Privy Seal ". But 
he describes his list as " a remarkable display of the life and vigour which 
had been given to the Church just when she seemed to be beaten out of the 
field by her foes," and why should additional names so readily accessible be 
withheld ? The reason why is easily found, for the Privy Seal Registers dis- 

5 



66 Aberdeen University Review 

close that during the last thirty years of the reign of the Roman Catholic 
hierarchy in Scotland, the dissolute members of the priesthood of every grade 
from cardinal to chaplain and curate were preparing for the inevitable crash 
by securing their ill-gotten possessions, including many which really belonged 
to the Church itself, to their bastard children by having them legitimized to 
prevent the succession of the Crown as ultima hceres. These voluminous 
"Lists of Legitimations," extracted from the registers by Dr. David Hay 
Fleming, with the care and absolute accuracy which distinguishes all his work, 
were published in his "Reformation in Scotland: its causes, characteristics, 
consequences," London, 1910, pp. 546-569. Therein we discover that 
Cardinal David Beaton, Primate of Scotland, 1538- 1546, was the father of 
ten legitimized bastards, and that his successor, " the most reverend father in 
Christ," John Hamilton, Archbishop of St. Andrews, 1546- 15 59, himself a 
bastard, had six natural children legitimized, besides others who were dowered 
without the like formality. This arch-hypocrite was the author of "The 
Catechisme," 1552, and of "Ane Godlie Exhortatioun," 1559, contemptu- 
ously nick-named by the Scottish people "The Twa-penny Faith," praised in 
the bibliography, apparently on the authority of the late Principal Story, for 
" moral tone " and " devotional feeling ". With these dignitaries and many 
similarly tainted bishops, abbots and other highly placed "most reverend 
fathers " for exemplars, it is only natural to find in the lists scores, and some- 
times successive bastard generations of Father Forbes-Leith's Masters of 
Arts. A few selections at random will amply illustrate a too frequent phase 
of the boasted "life and vigour " they gave to the Church, 
(i) 1529, June 2. Mr. Bernard Bailze, son of quondam Mr. Cuthbert 

Bailze, Commendator of Glenluce. Reg. viii. 52. 
1550, May 16. John Baillie, son of quondam Mr. Bernard Baillie, rector 

of Lammyngtoun. xxiii. 88. 

(2) 1539-40, Feb. 18. Robert Nicholsoun, son of Mr. David Nicholsoun, 

vicar of Mareculter. xiii. 74. [In the same year they were appointed 
conjunctly and severally Sheriff Clerks of Aberdeen.] 

(3) 1545-46, Jany. 23. Henry and Nicholas Thorntoun, sons of Mr. John 

Thorntoun, precentor of Moray, xix. 73. 
1550, August I. Gilbert Thorntoun, son of Mr. John Thorntoun, pre- 
centor of Moray, xxiv. II. 

(4) 1546, Oct. 28. Mr. Gilbert Malcolmsoun, rector of Craginche, and 

Dominus John Malcolmsoun, brothers, sons of quondam Dominus 
John Malcolmsoun ; and John Malcolmsoun, son of the said Dominus 
John. XX. 57. [Dominus applies to priests who had not graduated 
M.A.],. 
1546, Oct. 28. John Malcolmsoun, son of Mr. Gilbert Malcolmsoun, 
rector of Craginche. xx. 57. 

(5) 1 5 52* June 14. William and Alexander Meldrum, sons of Mr. William 

Meldrum, vicar of Petircultir. xxv. 18. 

(6) 1559, June 23. Mr. Alexander Dunbar, succentor of the cathedral 

church of Moray, son of quondam Mr. Alexander Dunbar, Dean of 

the same church, xxix. 78. 
This degrading revelation of vigorous decay in the very heart of its 
religious life shows sufficient cause why a self-respecting people should cast 
forth the church which tolerated it. If similar " life and vigour " character- 



Reviews 67 

ized the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland to-day, how long would its 
presence be endured by the community? 

There were good priests even in the most degenerate days of the Church. 
Witness the splendid literary appeal of Father Archibald Hay in the " Panegy- 
ricus," Paris, 1539, addressed to Cardinal David Beaton on his advancement 
to the primacy. The book is excessively rare : the finest and largest of the 
few copies preserved is in Aberdeen University library. It contains the best 
and most truthful description extant of the abominable internal condition of 
the Pre- Reformation Church, and urges the Cardinal with most powerful argu- 
ments to lead in its reform by personal example and other influences well 
within his power, advice which was completely disregarded. An edition 
of this work with a good translation is desiderated, and would go far to silence 
the flimsy apologetics of modern whitewash. 

Ja. F. Kellas Johnstone. 



The Metaphysics of Nietzsche's Immoralism. By Bertram M. Laing. 
[Reprinted from the "Philosophical Review," Vol. XXIV., No. 4, July, 
1915-] 

Notwithstanding all that has been written about Nietzsche, and all that we 
have heard of late about the nature of his philosophy and its malign influence 
on the German people, there is still much misunderstanding of his teaching 
and his real opinions, and much need for enlightenment. Especially is this 
so regarding the metaphysical foundation of Nietzsche's Ethics. This subject, 
indeed, has been almost entirely ignored by British interpreters and critics. 
And yet a true conception of it is indispensable for the proper understanding 
and appreciation of Nietzsche. It is the object of this important article, by 
one of the most distinguished of our younger Honours graduates in philosophy, 
Mr. Bertram M. Laing, to give such a conception. That he has succeeded 
in an eminent degree can hardly be questioned. He writes with full know- 
ledge, with keen insight, and with a thorough command of his material. The 
clearness with which he has brought out the biological foundation of Nietzsche's 
ethical teaching and presented the just interpretation of the "superman," of 
" immoralism," and allied notions, will be acceptable to many who may have 
been puzzled by Nietzsche or even irritated or repelled by him. There are 
also in the article a telling account of the sources of Nietzschean doctrine, and 
a compact presentation of the general characteristics of Nietzsche's philosophy, 
and, not least, a striking comparison of his positions with those of Professor 
Bergson. Further, there is enforced the true bearing of Nietzsche's teaching 
on German State organization — which is specially associated in our minds at 
the moment with "Kultur". Such organization, instead of being a natural 
development of Nietzscheanism, is shown to be directly opposed to it. It is 
opposed to Nietzsche's leading tenets of individualism, anti-intellectualism, 
and the dominance of instinct. " The organization of the German State is 
a purely intellectual structure with, according to Nietzsche's theory, numerous 
consequent defects. It has turned the structure, which ought to be a means, 
into an end and converted it into a mould to which life must conform. With 
its faith in intellect, it has despised the value of instinct and instinctive 
wisdom ; it has set a check upon individuality ; and, as in all cases of the con- 



68 Aberdeen University Review 

version of means into ends, it has \ brought about a ruinous waste of the re- 
sources of life." 

The article is a real and independent contribution to the subject of which 
it treats ; and, as it is the writer's first published essay, I have special pleasure 
in acknowledging its ability, its freshness, and its philosophical value. 

William L. Davidson. 

Rudimentary Reflections on the War. By William Miller, D.D., C.I.E., 
Madras, etc. The Christian Literature Society for India, 191 5. Pp. 29. 
I anna. 

This work by our revered graduate, the Principal of the Madras Christian 
College, consists of a message to his old students at the close of last year. 
They have published an English edition of it, of 10,000 copies, as well as large 
editions in Tamil and Sinhalese, and translations into other Indian languages 
are in course of preparation. The interest of the work is therefore twofold : 
— that of its intrinsic merits as a statement from the British point of view of 
the causes and issues of the present War, and that of its undoubted influence 
upon public opinion in India. 

That it is lucid, candid and sagacious, that its historical perspective is just 
and clear, and that it emphasizes with force and judgment the moral aspects of 
the War — all this goes without saying. 

No European understands the Indian mind — or minds — more clearly than 
Principal Miller's veteran experience of India enables him to do. It is 
interesting to see how he approaches his objective. He deals with his old 
students upon the same levels as those on which he would address his fellow- 
subjects in this kingdom. He not only counts on the interests which they 
share with ourselves in the civilisation threatened by the aggressors in this War 
and on their equal conscience of the moral issues at stake ; but also on their 
knowledge of European history, of the intellectual virtues of the German 
people and of the gradual development among them of the Prussian spirit. I 
notice, by the way, that he does not hesitate to draw an illustration of his 
argument to Hindoos from the history of Scotland. He anticipates and dis- 
arms the suspicions with which history may have taught educated Orientals to 
regard the claims of France and Great Britain to be the defenders of weak 
nations and champions of the sanctity of treaties. The disinterestedness and 
candour of his argument may be seen from the following passages : — 

Would that Britain were half as ready to make unprecedented sacrifices in defence 
of her ideal as Germany in defence of her meaner one I True the German ideal is not lofty, 
but the strength imparted by passionate devotion to an ideal is not to be measured by the 
nobility or absence of nobility in the object at which it aims. There is nothing of nobility 
or even of reason in the passion of a madman, yet we know how superhuman is the strength 
that a maniac can at times assert. Moreover the fact that a cause is righteous does not 
guarantee its immediate success. All history testifies to this. There may be reasons 
inscrutable to us why the final triumph of good causes is for the most part long delayed. 
One reason is extremely obvious. 

It is that those by whom the good cause is championed may themselves by chastening 
and training be made even fitter instruments for perfecting the work entrusted to their care. 
Writing as I do from the district often spoken of as the central battle-ground of Scotland I 
cannot but call to mind that it was through defeat rather than victory that Scotland won 
her standing among the nations. The record of her long fight for freedom is illumined by 
some bright gleams of triumph, but her roll of defeats is far longer than her roll of victories. 
Mainly by her being enabled to bear up against what seemed to be overwhelming disaster 



Reviews 69 



did Scotland become fitted to do her work for the welfare of mankind. It may be — I can- 
not tell — that events will follow a similar course in this fight for the freedom not of one 
nation but of all. But even should the path immediately before us be marked not only by 
delay but by disaster for a time, I am confident that our cause will conquer in the end. I 
trust that it will conquer in our hands, but even if not, yet in worthier hands than ours 
hereafter. 

" The burst of splendid loyalty throughout India " enables Principal Miller 
to assert that " India perceives that her connexion with Britain is about the 
most precious of her possessions and a thing to be defended to the last by 
whatever expenditure of treasure and blood. India has shown how fatal the 
severance of this connexion would be to the hopes and aspirations which she 
cherishes for the days to come." On this see further p. 72. 

George Adam Smith. 

Horace and His Poetry, with Companion and Glossary. By J. B. Chap- 
man, M.A., Classical Master in Airdrie Academy. London : George G. 
Harrap & Co., 1913-15. Pp. 142 + 135. is. 6d. net. 

The first of these two small volumes, bound in one, is a study (in the 
Poetry and Life Series, edited by Mr. W. H. Hudson) of the personality and 
poetry of Horace in connection with the politics, the social circumstances and 
the literature of his time. On this well-laboured field Mr. Chapman has suc- 
ceeded in producing a work, marked by mastery of his materials, an independ- 
ent judgment and a correct and lucid style. He has wisely let the poet be 
largely his own interpreter. The quotations from the poems are numerous and 
happy ; the historical setting which Mr. Chapman gives to them is adequate 
and instructive. The temperament and genius of the poet, his art and his 
philosophy of life are expounded with sympathy and justice. The "Com- 
panion" consists of notes on the selections quoted in the volume and a 
" Select Glossary," with two maps of Rome and its neighbourhood in the time 
of Horace, a " Scheme of Conditions," schemes of metres, and the definition 
of metrical and grammatical terms. Mr. Chapman intends the Notes " for 
students such as those preparing for University Entrance Examinations ". The 
Notes are compact and illuminating. There is nothing superfluous either in 
them or the rest of the work. It forms a very useful introduction to the study 
of Horace, and may be heartily commended to junior students. 

Columbia. By Frederick Paul Keppel, Dean of Columbia College. New 
York : Oxford University Press (American Branch) ; London : Humphrey 
Milford. Pp. xvi + 297. 6s. 6d. net. 

This is a volume of the American College and University Series, dealing with 
Columbia University, New York City, which, if it has neither the antiquity 
nor the prestige of Harvard or Yale, has quite a distinction of its own. It 
has the largest financial resources of any American University, due to a 
valuable grant of land " down town " in New York, and to individual gifts 
and bequests amounting to twenty-six million dollars. It has an immense 
number of students, approaching 10,000 two years ago ; and it is a thoroughly 
" modern " institution as regards teaching, possessing Schools of Mines, En- 
gineering, Political Science, Journalism, Agriculture, and Household and In- 
dustrial Arts, etc. The history of its development, particularly under its 



yo Aberdeen University Review 

latter-day Presidents — Frederick A. P. Barnard, Seth Low, and Dr. Murray 
Butler — is one of great interest, suggesting many comparisons and contrasts 
with the older institutions in this country. There are chapters on Educational 
Organization, Teachers and Executives, Students and Student Life ; and, 
altogether, we have an admirable presentation of " Columbia " and the work 
it is accomplishing. 

The Making of a University : What we have to learn from Educational 
Ideals in America. By W. M. Ramsay, Kt., D.C.L., etc. London : 
Hodder & Stoughton, Pp. 46. is. net. 

In this pamphlet Sir William Ramsay recounts the life-story of Isaac Conrad 
Ketler, who founded a University at Pine Grove, originally a village of 200 
inhabitants in Western Pennsylvania, now grown into Grove City, with a popu- 
lation of 4000. Ketler "made a College out of nothing,'' his ideal being the 
formation, not of savants or great scholars, but of American citizens, " men 
fit for the American world, and likely to leave the American world a little 
better than they found it ". Our Emeritus- Professor is evidently enamoured 
of the democratic University thus set up, with its purpose of producing an 
ordinary useful man in some line of practical life, and he contrasts it with the 
tendency of British Universities to sacrifice the average commonplace school- 
boy and University man to the able few. His brief picture of American edu- 
cational institutions is illuminative in many ways, while the allusions to our 
own system frequently have the savour of pungency. 

The Year Book of the Universities of the Empire, 191 5. Published for 
the Universities Bureau of the British Empire. London : Herbert Jenkins, 
Ltd. Pp. xii -f 717. 7s. 6d. net. 

This useful publication, which by virtue of alphabetic priority opens with 
the University of Aberdeen, now makes its second appearance. It contains 
for each of the seventy-six or so Universities and affiliated Colleges in the British 
Empire, lists of the members of the Governing Bodies, of the Professors and 
Lecturers, with General Information as to the constituent faculties, terms of 
study, degrees, courses and examinations, opportunities for research students, 
libraries and museums, publications, and the statistics of students and degrees 
for 1 91 3- 14. Appendices deal with various Institutes of Accountants, Actuaries, 
Architects, Chemists, Engineers, etc., etc., and with the Royal Colleges of 
Physicians and Surgeons. The work, as we have tested it, proves more ac- 
curate than the German year-book, " Minerva ". It is edited by Dr. Alex Hill, 
the Hon. Secretary of the Universities Bureau. 

An Index of the Adverbs of Terence. By E. A. Junks. London : 
Humphrey Milford. Pp. 31. 2 s. 6d. net. 

This little work, one of the St. Andrews University publications, is the result 
of Mr. Junks's research work as Bruce Scholar at St. Andrews last year, and 
is composed on the same lines as the "Index of the Adverbs of Plautus," 
compiled by Mr. Allardyce and Mr. Junks, published in the St. Andrews 
series of publications two years ago. The work has been carried out with a 



Reviews 7 1 



thoroughness that leaves nothing to be desired. Not only is the list of ad- 
verbs complete, but the reader is enabled to see at a glance the number of 
times each particular word has been used by Terence, as well as its precise 
position in the text. 

Cape AsTROGRAPHic Zones, Vol. II. Cape Meridian Observations, 1905-8. 
Annals of the Cape Observatory, Vol. XII., Part i. 

These several works — received from the Astronomer Royal — were com- 
menced under the direction of the late Sir David Gill, K.C.B., formerly 
H.M. Astronomer at the Cape. The catalogue of rectangular co-ordinates 
and diameters of star-images in the first volume and the results of meridian 
observations of stars in the second were completed under the supervision of 
Sir David's successor, Mr. S. S. Hough. The annals are an account of the 
heliometer observations of Jupiter's satellites made by Sir David Gill in 1891, 
his sudden illness and lamented death preventing him from completing his 
personal share in the work. 

Dr. Mortimer, Turriff: A Memoir. By J. Minto Robertson, M.A. 
Printed by the "Banffshire Journal," Limited. Pp. 22. 

Dr. Mortimer, who died a few months ago, spent over half a century in 
Turriff, and by his devoted medical work and attention to the less fortunate 
section of the community, he earned a reputation which led to his being com- 
pared to " Ian Maclaren's " William Maclure. He was an interesting personal- 
ity, and his prominent characteristics are well brought out in Mr. Robertson's 
pleasing sketch, not the least attractive feature of which is the account of the 
doctor's early days. 

Some Literature on the War. 

"The Scots Fencibles and English Service," an Episode of 1794, by J. M. 
Bulloch ; a most interesting memoir, with extracts from contemporary corre- 
spondence. The lessons and morals for ourselves, in the midst of another great 
War, are instructive. " No characteristic of the troops raised in Scotland to 
fight France in the latter half of the eighteenth century is so remarkable as 
the intense independence of the rank and file — whether Highland or Lowland ; 
whether Regulars, Fencibles, Militia, Volunteers or Local Militia." " Nothing 
brought out the independence of the Scots soldier more fiercely than the Sea." 
Mr. Bulloch has dealt with the subject in his "Territorial Soldiering," but the 
discovery of more documents at the Record Office enables him to enlarge on 
the point as exampled in 1794. Further "the compulsive measures intro- 
duced by panicky Ministers so far from inducing this attitude [of dumb 
obedience] simply antagonised the Scots and defeated its own end, just as it 
tends to do so to-day, as any cool-headed man must see for himself." — "The 
Soldiers' Watchword," a Farewell Sermon to the 157th Brigade R.F.A. (City of 
Aberdeen), by the Rev. James Smith, B.D., Hon. Chaplain to the Brigade 
(Aberdeen, John Avery & Co., 1915); a stirring exhortation on the text 
I Cor. XVI. 13 ; also "The Call to Arms," another recruiting sermon by the 
same author. — " Australia's Battle-Hymn," words by Dr. J. Laurence Rentoul, 



72 Aberdeen University Review 

and music by Rev. John Mcintosh, M.A. (Aberdeen, 1881) ; an inspiring con- 
tribution to the music of the War, dedicated by permission to her Excellency 
Lady Helen Munro-Ferguson. — Some sentences on the War are well worth 
quoting from the "Address" delivered by the Hon. Dr. Devaprasad 
Sarvadhikary, C.I.E., LL.D. (Aberdeen), Vice-Chancellor of the University of 
Calcutta at the Annual Convocation last spring. *' Thanks to the strong arm 
that protects us in our own seats of learning here, we are free to follow con- 
genial pursuits which in similar Western seats are, for a time, suspended." 
" England and India have been long working together in fields of peace. They 
have now been called to fight side by side in the common cause." " It was 
Great Britain's singular triumph to encircle the world with a girdle of steel. 
To-day she has achieved a greater glory and is able to summon and receive 
prompt and willing assistance in defence of the Empire from all parts of 
the globe. It is still more glorious to be able to encircle the world with a 
girdle of united prayer from all races, and creeds, in the cause of Righteous- 
ness." Speaking of the flower of our youth who have given themselves to the 
War, he says : "How they have stemmed the tide of impending disaster in a 
strife in which the proprieties of life and conventions of morality, decorum, and 
religion are mercilessly trampled upon, . . . and how visitations of inexpres- 
sible savagery are being calmly, yea cheerfully, met in all ranks and by all 
nationalities gathered round the flags of the Allies is now common history that 
will be the world's rich heritage for all time to come. With unwavering deter- 
mination the struggle continues, and thinned but unyielding ranks are readily 
filled by the magic cult that demands that every son of England — larger Eng- 
land that now is the entire Empire — shall do his duty. They must do so 
till Right once again proves itself mightier than Might, as of yore from age 
to age.'* 



The following have also been received : — 

"A Friendly Talk with Socialists and Others," by Joseph Bibby (Liver- 
pool : the P. P. Press; price 6d.), consisting of some letters on Socialism, the 
conclusion of which is that "the next step in social advancement will not be 
towards a Democratic Socialism, but in the direction of a more enlightened 
Capitalism " ; a paper on the War, its unseen causes, and some of its lessons ; 
and a paper on the new Socialism. — " The Laymen's Book of the General 
Assembly of 191 5," edited by the Rev. Harry Smith, M.A., Tibbermore 
(Edinburgh : J. Gardner Hitt ; 2s. 6d. net) ; a vivid record of an Assembly 
memorable for the circumstances of War under which it met, and which are 
fully reflected in these pages. — " Aberdeenshire," by Alexander Mackie, M.A. 
(Cambridge University Press ; is. 6d. net) ; a pocket edition of Mr. Mackie's 
contribution to the Cambridge County Geographies series. 




University Topics. 

BEQUEST FOR AN ENGINEERING CHAIR. 

MUCH-DESIDERATED addition to the equipment of 
the University will be provided by a generous bequest 
made by the late Mr. William Jackson, Thorngrove, 
Aberdeen. He left one-half of the residue of his estate 
for the foundation of a Chair of Engineering, which will 
place Aberdeen University on a level, as regards this 
particular subject, with the other three Scottish Uni- 
versities, all of which possess Engineering Chairs. The bequest, however, 
is subject to the life-rent of the testator's widow, and it is also provided 
that any balance of the half- residue remaining after the establishment 
of the Chair is to be divided among Aberdeen charities. Mr. Jackson, 
who died on 15 June, aged sixty-five, was himself an engineer, and was 
long engaged in the tea industry in Assam. He was a man of remarkable 
engineering skill and inventive genius, inventing in particular a tea-leaf roll- 
ing machine which came into extensive and almost universal use. He also 
invented and patented a tea-drying machine, which is in use on most of the 
great tea estates in the East, and he devised many improvements in the 
machinery employed in the manipulation of tea. But for his inventions, it 
has been said, the tea industry could never have reached the gigantic propor- 
tions it has attained to-day. 

FORESTRY INSTRUCTION. 

The University Court, enabled through the generosity of the Chancellor's 
Assessor, Dr. J. E. Crombie, to institute a Lectureship in Forest Botany and 
Forest Entomology, the course in which subjects will qualify for the degree of 
B.Sc. in Forestry, has appointed Mr. Alexander Stuart Watt (B.Sc. Agr., 
19 1 3), Lecturer. Mr. Watt was recently studying at Cambridge, where he 
gained a travelling research scholarship, which was intended for Continental 
work and was arranged for residence in Saxe-Coburg-Gotha ; but he had to 
abandon it owing to the war. 

At a meeting of the Governors of the North of Scotland College of 
Agriculture in July, it was intimated that Mr. John Sutherland, of the 
Forestry Division of the Board of Agriculture for Scotland; Sir John Stirling- 
Maxwell, and Mr. J. M. Henderson, M.P. for West Aberdeenshire, had 
offered a sum of ^$ each for prizes in forestry at the three Scottish colleges. 
The prizes in each case will be for two approved collections and specimens 
illustrative of the damage done to forest trees by {a) fungi, (d) insects, and 



74 Aberdeen University Review 

(r) mammals (rabbits, voles, squirrels) and birds. The competition will be 
open to past and present students of the colleges, and also to foresters within 
the areas of the colleges. 

NEW EXAMINERS. 

The University Court has appointed the following additional Examiners 
for degrees: In Physiology — Emeritus Professor McKendrick, LL.D. ; in 
Anatomy — Mr. F. W. Paterson, M.D., F.R.C.S., Professor of Anatomy in the 
University of Liverpool; Law — Mr. J. R. Wardlaw- Burnet, B.A., LL.B. 
(reappointed) ; Forest Botany and Zoology — Mr. William Dawson, M.A., 
B.Sc. (Agr.), Reader in Forestry, University of Cambridge. 

The Court has also appointed Mr. John Fraser (M.A., 1903), Lecturer 
on Comparative Philology, Examiner in Gaelic for the Arts Bursary Com- 
petition. 

THE ORDINANCE ON THE PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION. 

At a meeting of the Court on 15 June, the Principal (who presided) said 
the proposed new ordinance of the four University Courts on the preliminary 
examination had been considered in Committee, when the following resolu- 
tion had been come to : — 

That, without committing itself to certain details which it feels are in need of amend- 
ment, the Court should resolve to approve generally of the proposed ordinance. 

The Principal thereupon moved that this be the resolution of the Court ; 
and, in the course of an explanatory statement, said that Edinburgh Uni- 
versity Court approved of the ordinance, not because they agreed in every 
detail of it, but as a reasonable settlement of a difficult question. St. 
Andrews University had also given it a general approval, and they had just 
received intimation from Glasgow University Court that it was of opinion 
that the ordinance should not proceed further. The resolution was agreed to. 

On the invitation of Edinburgh, a further conference of representatives of 
the four Courts was held on 30 October, when it was agreed, by 14 votes to 2, 
to proceed with the Ordinance, and, after some verbal adjustments, to submit 
it to the Courts. 

EMERGENCY ORDINANCES. 

The following Act to extend the powers of the Scottish Universities to 
make Ordinances for purposes connected with the war was passed through 
Parliament in July : — 

1.— (i) It shall be lawful for the University Courts of the four Scottish Universities to 
submit to His Majesty in Council a joint representation showing that it is expedient that 
specified provisions of ordinances applicable to one or more of the Universities, or to the 
Joint Board of Examiners, should be modified or suspended in their application to gradu- 
ates, students, or intending students, who are, or have been, engaged in naval, military, 
or other public service connected with the present war. 

(2) It shall be lawful for His Majesty in Council to refer such joint representation to 
the Scottish Universities Committee of the Privy Council, who shall report to His Majesty 
thereon. 

(3) It shall be lawful for His Majesty in Council to approve such joint representation 
or any part thereof; and by Order to confer, under such conditions and for such time as 
may in the said Order be prescribed, upon each University Court, and upon the Joint 
Board of Examiners, the power, after consultation with the Senatus Academicus con- 



University Topics 75 

cerned, to modify or suspend the application to such graduates, students, or intending 
students, of the specified provisions, or any of them. 

2. This Act may be cited as the Scottish Universities (Emergency Powers) Act, 1915. 

On the second reading of the bill in the House of Lords, it was mentioned 
that 853 students were away on war service from the University of Edinburgh 
and 457 were cadets in the Officers' Training Corps, while from Glasgow there 
were 600 students on service and 250 engaged in munition work. From 
Aberdeen 277 students were serving in the Forces and 90 in the Officers' 
Training Corps. From St. Andrews 140 students and 20 members of the 
teaching staff were on service. To these figures might have been added that 
Glasgow has also a large number of cadets in its Officers' Training Corps. 

THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR. 

Since the Provisional Roll of Service was closed on 8 July (Supplement 
to Vol. II of the Review) the total number of graduates, alumni, students 
and members of the Staff who are not graduates, on service or under training, 
has risen from 13 17 to over 1500; the number on active service from 
1205 to 1432. The number of graduates has increased from 806 to 941, of 
alumni from 99 to 119, of students from 256 to over 300 (besides 25 or 26 
who would have matriculated but for their war service). The number of 
students who have received commissions was in July 55 and in November 90, all 
but 4 in the combatant ranks. 5 1 have fallen, 3 1 graduates and alumni and 
20 students ; while 14 have been reported as prisoners of war, 8 are missing, and 
over 100 have been wounded — the total casualties since the beginning of the 
War being now over 170. These figures do not include 22 additions to the 
list of graduates and others employed under the British Red Cross Society, 
nor those entered on the Navy List as Surgeons and Agents at Sick Quarters ; 
nor the increasing number employed in the making of munitions and for other 
War purposes. Of all those we hope to publish a full list later. The 
Principal will be grateful if any graduates, alumni, and students who have not 
yet done so will send him their names and the designation of their units and 
ranks ; or, if still civilians, of their employment for war purposes. 

The Principal has received a large number of letters from the front, but 
the actions to which they refer are too recent to permit of the publication of 
even extracts from them till a later number. At present we can only note 
that the 4th Battalion Gordon Highlanders, in " D " Company of which the 
old University Company is incorporated, greatly distinguished itself in the 
severe action of 25 September, near Hooge by Ypres, and suffered heavily 
as the list of fallen and prisoners shows. Captain Mackinnon, writing on 
6 November, reports that only 25 University men are left in the ranks of that 
Company. Of the devotion to duty, the courage and self-sacrifice of all her 
sons on service — both those who survive and those who have fallen — their 
Alma Mater may well be, as she is, very proud — very proud and very grateful. 

It is particularly gratifying to note that a large number of University men 
who are (or have been) serving in the war have earned special distinction for 
gallant and distinguished conduct in the field. 

The order of C.M.G. has been conferred upon : — 

Lieutenant-Colonel David Sydney Wanliss, Australian Imperial Force 
(alumnus, 1881-83). 

The Military Cross has been awarded to : — 

Captain George Forbes Dawson, R.A.M.C. (M.A., 1903; M.B., 1906). 



76 Aberdeen University Review 

Captain (temporary) James Murray M'Laggan, R.A.M.C., attached 3rd 
Battalion Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment), (M.B., 1913). 

Captain (temporary) William Wilson Ingram, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 191 2). 

Lieutenant William Brooks Keith, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1906; M.D.). 

Captain (temporary) David James Shirres Stephen, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 
1910 ; M.D., 1912). 

The Distinguished Service Order has been conferred upon : — 
Captain (temporary Major) James Dawson, 6th Gordon Highlanders 
(M.A., 1899). 

Lieutenant Edmund Hugh Moore, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1911). 

The following have been mentioned in dispatches : — 

Colonel Henry M. W. Gray, R.A.M.C., Consultant Surgeon, British 
Expeditionary Force, France (M.B., 1895 ; F.R.C.S.). 

Lieutenant-Colonel Charles William Profeit, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1893). 

Captain (temporary Major) James Dawson, 6th Gordon Highlanders. 

Captain Alexander Donald Fraser, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1906). 

Captain Henry Edward Shortt, LM.S., attached to the 62nd Punjabis 
(M.B., 1910). 

Captain George Davidson, R.A.M.C., 89th Field Ambulance (M.A., 
1884; M.B., 1887; M.D., 1894). 

Captain (temporary) W. W. Ingram, R.A.M.C, 7th Div. Brit. Ex. Force. 

Captain (temporary) Rudolph William Galloway, R.A.M.C, ist Cav. 
Div. Fd. Amb. Brit. Exped. Force (M.B., 1914). 

Captain (temporary) James Smith Stewart, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1913). 

Dr. William Innes Gerrard, R.N.V.R. (M.B., 1909), has had conferred 
on him by the Emperor of Russia the decoration of the Order of St. Anne 
(third class) in recognition of war services. Dr. Gerrard is assistant school 
medical officer in Aberdeen. 

Dr. Colin Finlayson Simpson (M.A., 1906; M.B.) is, it is conjectured, 
the only Briton who is an officer in the Russian Army. A member of the 
staff of the Moukden Medical College, Manchuria, China, he was anxious, 
when the war broke out, to serve his native country, but was unable to get 
through Russia and so attached himself toi the Russian Red Cross Society, 
and has since rendered valuable services. At the evacuation of Lodz, his 
superintendence of the safe removal of almost 18,000 wounded soldiers and 
others from there to Warsaw received the highest praises. He was subse- 
quently engaged with the 9th Army in Galicia, daily treating hundreds of 
cases at the first dressing stations behind the fighting line. He has had 
many remarkable experiences, having shared in all the exciting incidents of 
the campaign. His services, indeed, are so much appreciated in Russia that 
the authorities there will not hear of his leaving them. He now holds the 
rank in the Russian Army which corresponds to Lieutenant- Colonel in the 
British R.A.M.C. Dr. Simpson is a native of Fraserburgh. 

The following remarkable record has been furnished us by Mr. James 
Cruickshank (M.A., 1885) : — In 1895, at Lee-on-the Solent, Hants, I opened 
a school preparatory for the army, navy, and public schools. Nearly 600 of 
my old pupils are engaged in the present war as officers in the army or navy. 
Two are V.C.'s, several D.S.O.'s; a few have been awarded the Military 
Cross ; and many have been mentioned in dispatches. Nearly twenty, alas I 
have made the supreme sacrifice. 



University Topics 77 

LECTURE BY SIR FREDERICK BRIDGE. 

Sir Frederick Bridge, C.V.O., M.A., Mus.Doc, organist of West- 
minster Abbey, delivered a lecture on " Milton and Music," with special 
reference to "The Masque of Comus," in the Mitchell Hall, Marischal 
College, on the evening of 20 September. He described how he had "hunted 
down " the original music written by Henry Lawes for the Masque, discover- 
ing it in the possession of Dr. Cooper Smith, a clergyman at Basingstoke. He 
was able to get a correct version, and so to dispense with all the *' miserable 
editions " of the music which had been published. The melodies for the five 
songs, said Sir Frederick, were absolutely as Lawes wrote them, and the 
harmonies — (parts for a string quartette and piano, composed by Sir Frederick 
Bridge) — were in consonance with his figured bass ; and the other inci- 
dental numbers introduced into the musical programme illustrative of the 
lecture might have been played when the Masque was originally produced, 
because they were by composers living at the time, and some of them were 
by a brother of Lawes. Sir Frederick Bridge was assisted by Miss Elizabeth 
Christie (soprano), Mr. Alexander Hastings (baritone), and the members of 
the University Chapel choir. The accompaniments for the string orchestra 
were played by Mrs. Burnett, Miss Grogan, Mr. Townend and Mr. Robb. 

The proceeds of the lecture were devoted to the University War Dress- 
ings Fund — a fund in aid of a movement for the preparation of war dressings 
which has been organized and is being successfully carried on by members of 
the professoriate and teaching staff of the University. The net proceeds 
amounted to the gratifying total of £,(i i 1 8s. 6d. 

ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY EDINBURGH ASSOCIATION. 

An appeal having been made by the Committee of the Aberdeen Uni- 
versity Edinburgh Association to the members, a sum of about ^£^30 was 
raised to be expended for the benefit of graduates and students of the Uni- 
versity serving at the front. It was ascertained that a larger number of them 
were serving in the 4th Battalion of the Gordon Highlanders than in any other 
regiment; and, accordingly, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas W. Ogilvie, C.M.G., 
the commanding officer of the Battalion, was asked to indicate what would 
be most appreciated by his University men as a gift from the Association. 
He replied that the best thing they could get would be one or two tele- 
scopic rifle sights. "The Germans," he wrote, "use them extensively with 
terrible accuracy, and I am quite sure that many crack shots in the University 
Company, which is now D Company, could use them with equal effect." The 
Scottish Command having, in response to an application, supplied the Com- 
mittee gratuitously with three service rifles, these were fitted with telescopic 
sights and dispatched to the 4th Gordons in the firing line. Colonel Ogilvie 
has since expressed the appreciation and thanks of the whole regiment for the 
gifts, and testified to the efficiency of the rifles in the hands of selected crack 
shots. Each telescopic sight costs jQ\o los. so that the sum originally raised 
is exhausted. Two members of the Association have since given donations 
sufficient to provide a fourth and a fifth rifle, one of which has been given 
to Colonel Ogilvie for the 4th Gordons and the other to Major Dawson for 
the 6th Gordons. The Association has increased its fund to ;£ii3. But 
as the military authorities have taken up all the available supply of lenses, so 
that no further telescopic sights can be meantime procured, the Committee 
will apply the balance of the fund to an object equally suitable and useful. 



Personalia. 

The most noteworthy incidents in the personnel of the University since 
our last issue are the transference of two of our Professors to the University 
of Edinburgh, and the appointment of their successors. Professor Herbert 
J. C. Grierson, M.A., LL.D., has been appointed to the Chair of Rhetoric 
and EngUsh Literature vacant by the retirement of Professor George Saints- 
bury ; and Professor William A. Curtis, M.A., D.D., D.Litt., has been ap- 
pointed to the Chair of Biblical Criticism and Biblical Antiquities, from 
which Dr. John Patrick recently retired. These appointments deprive our 
own University of prominent members of the staff, two of its most accom- 
plished teachers. While deploring the loss, we congratulate the two Pro- 
fessors on the added distinction that has been conferred upon them by their 
well- merited promotion. 

In the case of Professor Grierson, the added distinction is conferred on one 
who is also a son of Aberdeen University. Mr. Grierson was a member of 
the 1883-87 Class, graduating in the latter year with first-class honours in 
mental philosophy and carrying off the Bain gold medal for the subject and 
the Seafield gold medal in English. Proceeding to Oxford in 1889, having 
gained an open classical exhibition at Christ Church, he obtained a second 
class in honour moderations two years later, and in 1893 ^ ^^st class in the 
final school of Literae Humaniores and the B.A. degree. In October, 1893, 
following on Professor Minto's death, Mr. Grierson was appointed by the 
University Court interim Lecturer on English Literature; and when the 
Chalmers Chair on that subject was instituted he was selected by the Crown, 
in May, 1894, to be its first occupant. As the teaching of English at the 
University had previously formed part of the duty of the Professor of Logic, 
the responsibility of organizing and developing its study as a separate depart- 
ment of the Faculty of Arts devolved upon Mr. Grierson ; and, in the words 
of the Principal's testimonial, " He achieved this aim in a manner which 
reflected the highest credit both on his ideals for his subject and on his 
powers of organization". An indication of the work he accomplished is 
given in the article on "The Development of English Teaching at Aber- 
deen," which he contributed to the first number of the Review. Of the 
Professor's attainments as a scholar and critic of literature this is not the 
place to speak. It will suffice to mention that he is the author of an edition 
of " The Poems of John Donne," with introductions and commentary, and 
of one of the volumes of Professor Saintsbury's " Periods of European 
Literature Series " — the volume dealing with "The First Half of the Seven- 
teenth Century"; while he collaborated with Professor Macneile Dixon in 
the production of an anthology, "The English Parnassus". He is the 



Personalia 79 

author, besides, of several poems, mostly translations from foreign writers; 
has contributed to the " Cambridge History of English Literature " ; and has 
frequently lectured, inside and outside the University, on a variety of literary 
topics. Keenly interested in the Review, he has been a member of the 
Editorial Sub-Committee from the first, and a frequent contributor to our 
pages. 



Professor Curtis, on the other hand, is a member of Edinburgh Uni- 
versity, where, after carrying off a large number of class prizes, he graduated 
M.A. in 1897, with first-class honours in classical languages and literature. 
He afterwards travelled for a year in Greece and Italy as Heriot Research 
Fellow, becoming a member of the British School of Archaeology at Athens. 
He then entered the Divinity Hall at Edinburgh, after gaining the Webster 
bursary of j^^j a year for three years, and the Barty memorial prize for 
Hebrew and New Testament Greek. Carrying off a number of class and 
other prizes, including the Hepburn prize for an essay on "Miraculous and 
Non-miraculous Christianity," and the Jeffrey scholarships in Biblical Criticism 
and Divinity, Mr. Curtis graduated B.D. in 1901, and was awarded the Pitt 
scholarship of ;£'ioo a year for three years. He studied subsequently at 
Heidelberg, Leipzig, and Oxford. In the summer of 1902 he gained the 
first Gunning prize of ;£"5o in theology and the fourth Gunning prize of ;^2o 
in natural science. He was one of the candidates for the Professorship of 
Systematic Theology at Aberdeen University in 1903, when the Chair be- 
came vacant by Professor W. P. Paterson's appointment to the Divinity Chair 
in Edinburgh ; and his brilliant appearance in all departments of the examination 
which is conducted for • this particular Chair led to his selection, though then 
he was but twenty-seven years of age. Professor Curtis's discharge of his 
duties in the twelve years that have since elapsed has in every way justified 
the expectations formed of him as a scholar and thinker. In 1 9 11 he pub- 
lished " The History of Creeds and Confessions of Faith in Christendom and 
Beyond " — a. learned work which received high commendation. A Doc- 
torate in Letters was awarded him by his Alma Mater^ which last year con- 
ferred upon him the honorary degree of D.D. Professor Curtis, like Professor 
Grierson, has interested himself in the Review, being a member of the 
Editorial Sub-Committee. 



The vacant Chair of English Literature was filled by the appointment of 
Mr. Adolphus Alfred Jack, M.A., LL.M., formerly Fellow of St. Peter's Col- 
lege, Cambridge. The new Professor is a son of Dr. William Jack, Emeritus 
Professor of Mathematics at Glasgow University, and a nephtfw and son-in-law 
of the late Professor Nichol, of the English Literature Chair at Glasgow. 
He is forty- seven years of age, and was educated at Glasgow and Cambridge 
Universities. At Cambridge, where he studied law and literature, his career 
was one of unusual distinction. He took high honours in law and was 
awarded the Chancellor's Medal for English verse. After graduating LL.M., 
he was, in 1895, admitted a barrister from Lincoln's Inn, and in the same 
year he was appointed to the newly-created Lectureship in English Language 
and Literature at Queen Margaret College (Women's Department), Glasgow. 



8o Aberdeen University Review 

He resigned this post in 1902 and went to London, where he lectured for the 
extension systems of London and Cambridge, and also occasionally for Ox- 
ford. He delivered lectures at some fifty London centres. For many years, 
too, he gave to large audiences annual courses of lectures at Edinburgh each 
August for the University vacation courses. In 1 908 he was appointed to 
the Chair of English at Queen's College, London. In 1914 he was invited 
to deliver the annual course of Clark Lectures at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and, to secure the leisure requisite for their preparation, he resigned his pro- 
fessorship at Queen's College ; his lectures dealt with Chaucer and Spenser^ 
and are about to be published. Professor Jack is the author of a number of 
critical essays — "Thackeray," "Shelley," "Essays on the Novel," and (his 
most important work) "Poetry and Prose, Being Essays on Modern English 
Poetry," published in 191 1. He has also produced two plays, "The Prince " 
and " Mathilde," and has contributed to the "Cambridge History of English 
Literature " and the " Essays and Studies " of the English Association. 



The examination of candidates for the Chair of Systematic Theology was 
conducted by delegates appointed by the Senatus, the Synod of Aberdeen, 
and the Presbyteries embraced in the Synod, Rev. Dr. J. Gordon Murray 
being Chairman, and took place from the 19th to the 22nd October. There 
were eleven candidates. The competition resulted in Rev. William Fulton, 
M.A., B.D., B.Sc, collegiate minister, Paisley Abbey, being appointed to the 
Chair. The next in order of merit were — Rev. John Dickie, M.A., Professor 
of Systematic Theology and New Testament Language and Exegesis, Knox 
College, Dunedin, New Zealand; Rev. Andrew C. Baird, M.A., B.D., B.Sc, 
Anderston Parish, Glasgow; and Rev. George S. Marr, M.A., B.D., Dalziel 
Parish, Motherwell. The newly-appointed Professor, Rev. William Fulton, is 
thirty-eight years of age, and was educated at Glasgow High School, of which 
he became dux, and at Glasgow University, where he graduated in Arts, with 
first-class honours in Classics and Science, and with special distinction in 
Mathematics and Astronomy, and also in Divinity. On the result of the 
examinations for the B.D. degree, he was awarded the Black Fellowship as 
the first student in Divinity. On the completion of his college career at 
Glasgow he proceeded to the Universities of Marburg and Berlin, where for a 
year he continued his studies in Systematic Theology and Biblical Criticism. 
He was licensed by the Presbytery of Glasgow in 1903, and became an as- 
sistant minister in St. Cuthbert's, Edinburgh, under the Very Rev. Dr. 
Wallace Williamson. From 1906 to 1909 he was minister of the parish of 
Wigtown. Since the year 1909 he has been collegiate minister at Paisley 
Abbey. He had also in Paisley the appointments of officiating chaplain to 
the Presbyterian troops and chaplain to Dykebar Asylum. He has had con- 
siderable experience of academic teaching at Glasgow University. On his 
return from Germany he assisted the Professor of Biblical Criticism by con- 
ducting a tutorial class in New Testament Greek. He has acted twice as 
Professor of Divinity, once during the last vacancy, and again during the 
recent illness of the present occupant of the chair. He was selected by the 
late Professor Hastie's trustees for the task of editing his Croall Lectures on 
" The Theology of the Reformed Church ". He has contributed expository 



Personalia 8 1 

articles on New Testament subjects to "Life and Work," the Church of Scot- 
land magazine. He has also been a contributor to the Transactions of the 
Glasgow University Oriental Society and the Glasgow University Divinity 
Hall Club. Dr. Hastings entrusted him with articles on the "Lord's Prayer" 
and the " Sadducees " for his " Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels," and 
with an article on "Paganism" for his "Encyclopaedia of Religion and 
Ethics," but owing to other work. Professor Fulton relinquished them. 



Professor Nicol, addressing the divinity students at the opening of the 
session, referred to the contestation for the Chair of Systematic Theology, and 
pointed out, as a remarkable fact, that every one of the professors of divinity 
holding office in the four Scottish Universities, down to the death of Principal 
Stewart in July last, had passed through the ordeal of the contestation into 
the possession of their chairs. Principal Stewart obtained the chair after con- 
testation in 1887. When he left for St. Andrews Professor Paterson obtained 
it in 1894, and when he went to Edinburgh Professor Curtis obtained it in 
1903. It was well known that it was the excellent appearance made by Dr. 
H. M. B. Reid in the contestation on the latter occasion that, along with his 
fine record of scholarship and pastoral efficiency, pointed him out to the Uni- 
versity Court of Glasgow and secured him the appointment to the Chair of 
Divinity there, then vacant by the sudden death of Professor Hastie. Those 
appointments, said Professor Nicol, were surely a remarkable justification of 
the contestation. 

Mr. Robert Morrison Maclver (M.A. Edin., B.A. Oxon., and D.Phil. 
Edin.), Lecturer in Political Science and Sociology at the University, has 
been appointed Professor of Political Science in the University of Toronto. 
He was also awarded the first Carnegie Trust Essay Prize of ;^ioo (instituted 
last year), for a thesis entitled " Community, a Sociological Study, being an 
attempt to set out the nature and fundamental laws of social life ". The prize 
was open for competition to the staffs of the four Scottish Universities. 
There were seven competitors. 

Professor J. Arthur Thomson was appointed Gifford Lecturer at St. 
Andrews University for 1 914-15 and 191 5-16, but last year's lecture was 
postponed, and the Professor has been re-appointed Lecturer for 19 15-16 
and 1 916- 1 7. He began his first course of lectures in October. The general 
subject is " A Study of Animate Nature," and this year's course is entitled 
" The Realm of Organisms as it is," including among other questions those of 
the Criteria of Livingness, The Problem of Body and Mind, Organism and 
Mechanism, and Adaptation and Purposiveness. 

At the meetings of the British Association at Manchester in September 
Professor Hendrick read papers in the Agricultural Section on "The 
Manurial Situation and Its Difficulties " and on " Composition and Use of 
Certain Seaweeds ". 

In the distribution of honours on the King's birthday, Mr. James Murray, 
Glenburnie Park, Aberdeen (alumnus, 1868-72), was knighted, and Mr! 
David Petrie, Superintendent of Police, Punjab (M.A., 1900), was made a 
Companion of the Indian Empire (CLE.). 

6 



82 Aberdeen University Review 

Mr. George Gall Sim, of the Indian Civil Service (M.A., 1898; B.A. 
Oxon., 1 901), has been appointed a member of the Legislative Council of 
the United Provinces. He is meanwhile serving as a trooper in the Cawn- 
pore Squadron of the United Provinces Horse. 



Brigade-Surgeon Lieutenant- Colonel James Forbes Beattie, of the Army 
Medical Staff (retired), (M.A. King's College, i860; M.D., CM., 1863), 
has been appointed President of a travelling Medical Board established in 
connexion with the London Military Command. Major Sir [Robert] John 
Collie, R.A.M.C. (M.B., CM., 1882 ; M.D., 1885), is also a member of the 
Board, the only other member of which is a military representative, Colonel 
Lord William Cecil, CV.O. 



Mr. John Alexander Simpson (M.A., with first-class honours in Classics, 
1 9 13) gained the second place in the recent Indian Civil Service competition. 
He had a remarkably brilliant career at the University (see Vol. I., 91, 195). 
The first place in the competition was taken by Mr. M. F. P. Herchenroder, 
who made 3853 marks out of 6000. Mr. Simpson's total was 3736. He took 
Classics chiefly, and it is noteworthy that he made 640 marks in Sanskrit out 
of a possible total of 800. Eight other candidates — all of them, to judge by 
their names, Indian students — took Sanskrit, but only one of them exceeded 
Mr. Simpson's figures, and he only by 3 marks. To take the second place 
in the Indian Civil Service examination is a very high distinction. It has 
been excelled only twice by Aberdeen men — the late Mr. James Geddes, 
a brother of Principal Sir William Geddes, who was first in i860, and the late 
Sir James Westland, brother of Dr. Albert Westland, first in 1861 ; and equalled 
only once — by Sir John O. Miller, late Commissioner of the Central Pro- 
vinces, a cousin of Emeritus-Professor Sir William M. Ramsay, who took the 
second place in the examination of 1877. Two other Aberdeen students 
entered the examination this year — Mr. W. R. Tennant (M.A., 19 14), who 
gained the thirty- third place with 2303 marks, and Mr. A. R. Murison (M.A., 
1 91 2), who was forty-second, with 2126 marks. As there were only thirteen 
vacancies this year, they were both cut out. Mr. Simpson, as soon as the ex- 
amination was over, enlisted, and is now serving as a private in the London 
Scottish. Mr. Tennant has joined the Edinburgh University O.T.C. (Ar- 
tillery Unit). 

Mr. Allan James Low (M.A., 191 4) has won the Ferguson Mathematical 
Scholarship of ;^8o per annum, tenable for two years. He was first bursar 
in 1 910, and graduated with first class honours in Mathematics and Natural 
Philosophy, carrying off the Simpson Mathematical Prize, the Greig Prize in 
Natural Philosophy, and the Dr. David Rennet Gold Medal in Mathematics. 
He was also awarded the Town Council Gold Medal as the most distinguished 
graduate of his year in the department of Science. 

The FuUerton Scholarship in Classics — ;£ioo per annum, tenable for two 
years — has been awarded to Mr. John Locke Irvine (M.A., 191 5). He won 
the Liddel Prize in March. 



Rev. Dr. John Smith, minister of St. John's Presbyterian Church, Pieter- 
maritzburg, Natal (M.A. Marischal College, 1858 ; D.D., 1907), has attained 



Personalia 8 3 

his jubilee of ministerial service, having landed in Natal on 9 May, 1865, and 
ministered there during the fifty years that have since elapsed. On the for- 
mation of the Presbyterian Church of South Africa, Dr. Smith was chosen as 
its first Moderator, and he again filled the office in 1903. 



Rev. James Donald (M.A., King's College, 1858; D.D., 1904), minister 
of the Parish of Keith -hall, Aberdeenshire, attained his ministerial jubilee on 
1 9 September. Several graduates have recently celebrated their semi- jubilee 
as ministers, among them — Rev. George Birnie, Speymouth, Fochabers 
(M.A., 1882 ; B.D.) ; Rev. William Cowie, Maud, Aberdeenshire (M.A., 
1880) ; Rev. John Kennedy, Birnie. Elgin (M.A., 1884) ; Rev. James 
Lumsden, formerly of Grange, Banffshire, and now of the Tolbooth Church, 
Edinburgh (M.A., 1884) ; and Rev. Alexander Wilson, Ythan Wells, Aber- 
deenshire (M.A., 1882). 

Mr. Archibald Alexander (M.A., 191 2) has been appointed head master of 
Cabrach School, Aberdeenshire. 



Dr. James Cantlie (M.A., 1871 ; M.B., CM., 1873) has been appointed 
Principal of the College of Ambulance recently established in London. 

Rev. James Taylor Cox, Dyce (M.A., 1886 ; B.D., 1889), has been elected 
a member of the governing body of the Dick Bequest by the chairmen of the 
School Boards of West Aberdeenshire, in succession to the late Mr. George 
Smith of Pittodrie. The representative of East Aberdeenshire is Rev. Dr. 
Spence, Udny. 

Dr. William Brown Davidson (M.A., 1890; D.Sc, 1899; Ph.D. [Wiirz- 
burg], 1898), chief chemist to the Gas Department of Birmingham, and 
formerly Lecturer in Physical Chemistry at Aberdeen University, has been 
appointed chemical engineer to British Dyes, Limited, the new company 
formed to re-establish and extend the aniline dye industry in this country. 

The Gladstone Memorial Prize in Political Science has been awarded to 
Mr. David Shepherd Duguid (M.A., 1914), for an essay on "The Conditions 
and Limitations of an Efficient International Court of Arbitration ". 



Rev. William Dey Fyfe (M.A. Edin., B.D. Aberd., 19 10) has been 
elected minister of Rattray Parish Church, Perthshire. He took his B.D. degree 
at Aberdeen with honours in Church History and Theology. He was Synod 
Prizeman in Church History, Prizeman in Biblical Criticism, Theology, and 
Christian Evidences, and gained the King William Scholarship of ;£'2oo, with 
which he pursued a course of special research in Early Church History at 
the University of Oxford. Mr. Fyfe was assistant at St. Cuthbert's, Edinburgh 
(1911-12), and had charge of St. Columba's Church, Newtonmore (1912-15). 



Mr. George Marr Giles (M.A., 1903), who for a number of years past has 
held a post in the London office of the " Pioneer '' of Allahabad, has received 
an appointment in Renter's Agency, to take charge of their Indian news 
service. 



84 Aberdeen University Review 

Rev. Alexander Gray (M.A., 191 1) has been elected minister of the 
United Free Church, Balmaghie, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

Professor Alexander Robertson Home, of the Aberdeen Technical College 
(M.A., 1909; B.Sc, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E.), has been appointed organizing 
engineer for the Aberdeen area under the Munitions Act. 

Mr. James Cooper Johnston (M.A., 191 1) has been appointed head master 
of Crudie Public School, New Byth, Aberdeenshire. 



Rev. John McQueen (B.D., 1915) has been elected minister of the Parish 
of Cruden, Aberdeenshire. He is a brother of Rev. D. J. McQueen (B.D., 
1907), minister of Monquhitter. 



Mr. A. R. Macrae (alumnus, 1905-8), who has been District Police 
Superintendent at Delhi for the past three years, has been appointed Deputy 
Commissioner at Basra, in the Persian Gulf, the new territory taken by the 
British early this year. 



Rev. George Minty (M.A., 1868), minister (probationer) of St. Mary's, 
Fyvie, has retired after thirty-nine years' service. 

Mr. William Mitchell, advocate, Edinburgh (M.A., 1893), who had been 
one of the Advocates Depute since March, 1913, resigned on the reconstruc- 
tion of the Ministry in June last, and was appointed an Extra-Advocate Depute. 

Mr. George Johnston Morrison (M.A., 1906) has been appointed head 
master of Corse Public School, Leochel-Cushnie, Aberdeenshire. 



Mr. Francis Grant Ogilvie, C.B. (M.A., 1879; LL.D. Edin.), Director 
of Science Museums, South Kensington, has been appointed one of the panel 
of honorary scientific experts to assist in the examination of projects for in- 
ventions relating to munitions for war. 



Mr. William Mitchell Ogilvie (M.B., CM., 1898) has been appointed 
medical superintendent of the Ipswich Borough Mental Hospital. 



Sir George Morison Paul (M.A. King's College, 1858; LL.D., 1908), 
Deputy Keeper of the Signet, is a member of the Royal Commission on the 
Civil Service. 



Rev. James Rae (M.A., 1910) has been ordained minister of the United 
Free Church, Morebattle, near Kelso. 



Mr. Alexander W. Reid (M.A., 191 1) has been appointed head master of 
Badenscoth School, Aberdeenshire. 



Dr. Andrew Macgregor Sinclair (M.B., CM., 1890; M.D.) has been 
elected by the Burnley Town Council Mayor of the borough for the 
current municipal year. He went to Burnley in 1890 as resident medical 



Personalia 8 5 

officer at the Victoria Hospital, and is one of the best known medical 
men in the district. He entered the Town Council in 1896, sitting until 
1902. After a break he was elected again in 1908, since when he has sat 
continuously, becoming eventually Chairman of the Health Committee. He 
was placed on the Commission of the Peace in August, 191 3. 

Dr. James Humphry Skeen (M.B., CM., 1890), who has been medical 
superintendent at Kirklands Asylum, Bothwell, Lanarkshire, since 1894, has 
been appointed medical superintendent of the Fife and Kinross Asylum. 

Mr. James Gordon Souter (M.A., 1903), head master of Cultercullen 
School, Foveran, has been appointed head master of Newmachar Public 
School. 



Mr. James Oliver Thomson (M.A., 191 1 ; B.A. Cantab.) obtained a place 
in the first class in the second part of the Classical Tripos at Cambridge in June 
last. His previous successes were mentioned in Vol. H., pp. 76, 272. He 
is now Second Lieutenant 3/5 th King's Own Yorks. Light Infantry. 

Mr. James Strath Whyte (M.A., 1903), formerly English master in Girvan 
High School, has been appointed head master of Spennymoor Higher Ele- 
mentary School and Pupil Teachers' Centre, under the County of Durham 
Education Committee. 



Rev. George Tod Wright (M.A., 1913 ; B.D., 191 5) has been appointed 
assistant minister at St. Michael's, Dumfries. 



Miss Iva Isabella Bisset (M.A., 19 13) has been appointed assistant teacher 
at Macduff Higher Grade School. 

Miss Lucy Cockburn (M.A., 191 2) has been appointed assistant teacher 
in the Westhill School, Skene, Aberdeenshire. 



Dr. Elizabeth Mary Edwards (M.B., CM., 1912; D.P.H., 1913) has re- 
signed her post as assistant medical officer to the Aberdeen School Board, 
having received an appointment in Worksop. 



Dr. Elizabeth Esther Elmslie (M.A., 1910; M.B., Ch.B., 1914) has 
gone as a medical missionary to Rajputana, India. She is a daughter of 
Dr. Walter Angus Elmslie (M.B., 1884), who, with her mother, had a great 
share, along with Dr. Laws, in founding the Livingstonia Mission in Central 
Africa. 

Miss Johanna Forbes (M.A., 1903) has been appointed principal teacher 
of classics in Hutcheson's Grammar School for Girls, Glasgow. Another 
Aberdeen graduate, Miss Esther Legge (M.A., 1908), has been appointed 
head of the English Department in the same school. 



Miss Ethel H. Kemp (M.A., 191 3), classical mistress at Hamilton Academy, 
has been appointed assistant classical teacher at the Girls' High School, 
Aberdeen. 



86 Aberdeen University Review 

Miss Agnes Lobban (M.A., 1914) has been appointed head mistress of 
Garmond PubHc School, Monquhitter, Aberdeenshire. 

Miss Lilias MacGregor MacMillan (M.A., 191 5) has been appointed as- 
sistant in the French and English department in the Inverurie Academy. 

Miss Mary W. U. Robertson (M.A., 191 1), who after two years at Newn- 
ham College, Cambridge, studied at Rome as Gilchrist student, has been 
appointed temporary assistant Lecturer in Classics and Ancient History in 
Birmingham University. 

Miss Alice Shirras (M.A., 191 3) has left for Bombay to undertake mis- 
sionary work, particularly at the Girls' High School. 

Miss Myra Watt (M.A., 1914) has been appointed a teacher in one of the 
schools of the Kintore School Board. 



Among works by graduates recently published are the following : — " The 
Nor' East," by Rev. W. S. Bruce, D.D. ; "Lessons in Geometry "—Part I, by 
Dr. Charles M'Leod; "The Founders of Israel," by Rev. W. M. Grant, 
M.A., Drumoak (" Text Books for Bible Classes Series ") ; " Peter Tamson, 
Elder o' the Kirk and Sportsman," by Captain Dickie, R.A.M.C. — Dr. John 
Low Dickie (M.B., 1895), a son of the late Professor Dickie and at present 
Registrar of the Red Cross Base Hospital, Netley ; " The Great Texts of the 
Bible " — two volumes, Jeremiah to Malachi, and Revelation — edited by Rev. 
Dr. James Hastings, and completing the series of twenty volumes ; a volume 
on Hezekiah to Malachi in the "Greater Men and Women of the Bible," also 
edited by Dr. Hastings ; and the first volume of a new series under the 
same editorship — " The Great Christian Doctrines," this volume dealing with 
Prayer ; " Transactions of the North of Scotland Agricultural College Former 
Students' Association," edited by Messrs. W. J. Profeit, I. G. Innes, and W. M. 
Findlay ; " Practical Prescribing and Treatment in the Diseases of Infants and 
Children," by D. M. Macdonald, M.D., F.R.C.P.E.; and "Selections from 
Malory," an Introductory Reader in Middle English for secondary classes, 
edited with historical and linguistic introduction, notes, and glossary, by 
Agnes M. Mackenzie, M.A. 

Mention may also be made of " Memoir of Rev. James Simpson, Port 
William " (M.A., 1875), by Rev. Alexander Simpson, M.A., B.Sc, Glasgow. 
Volume IV (Zoology) of the " Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of 
the * Scotia,' "issued by the Scottish Oceanographical Laboratory, includes a 
paper on " The Habits and Distribution of the Seals of the Weddell Sea," by 
Dr. R. N. Rudmose Brown, and contributions on Ornithology by the late 
Mr. L. N. G. Ramsay and Dr. Rudmose Brown. 



An interesting account of the striking career of the Hon. and Rev. Dr. 
Robert Laws, the medical missionary of Livingstonia, Central Africa (M.A., 
1872 ; M.B., CM., 1875 ; M.D., 1877 ; D.D., 1891), was published in the 
" Record " of the United Free Church for June, under the title, " Forty Years in 
Livingstonia ". "In forty years," said the article, " the United Free Church 
has sent to Livingstonia 133 missionaries, of whom 28 hare died and 10 have 



Personalia 8 7 



been invalided, but of the original band Dr. Laws alone remains. During all 
that time he has played many parts — minister, doctor, engineer, explorer, 
architect, surveyor, builder, electrician, printer, and farmer. In 1908 he was 
called home and made the first Missionary Moderator of the United Free 
Church, which office, with its manifold duties, he filled to the satisfaction of 
his friends and with honour to himself. On his return to Nyasaland he was 
nominated by the Governor a member of the Legislative Council, an office 
he still holds." 



Through the death of Rev. Alexander Giles (see Obituary), Rev. Professor 
William Robinson Clark, M.A., D.D., D.C.L., LL.D., of Trinity Uni- 
versity, Toronto, now becomes senior graduate of King's College. Pro- 
fessor Clark was born at Inverurie in 1829. He entered King's College in 
1844, and graduated with honours in 1848. He proceeded to Hertford 
College, Oxford, and took the degree of B.A. in 1863 and M.A. in 1866. 
Entering the Church of England he was ordained deacon in 1857 and priest 
in 1858 by the Bishop of Worcester. He served successively as curate of 
Birmington and curate and vicar of Taunton, and was frequently selected to 
preach in St. Paul's Cathedral and Westminster Abbey. On going to Canada, 
in 1882, he was appointed the following year to the Chair of Mental and 
Moral Philosophy in Trinity University, Toronto, which he has filled ever 
since. In 1891 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. 
He has published many works of a literary and theological nature. Apart 
from his professional position, Professor Clark is widely known as a public 
speaker and lecturer. Besides being one of the best known College men in 
the Dominion, he has long been eminent in the councils of the Church of 
England in Canada. 

The oldest graduate of the University, however, is Rev. John Robertson, 
New Brunswick, who entered Marischal College in 1838 and graduated in 
1842 (see Vol. II., 279). He celebrated his ninety-first birthday early this 
year, having been born in 1824, a son of Rev. John Robertson, minister of 
Gartly. Mr. Robertson studied theology under Dr. Chalmers in Edinburgh 
in 1842, joining the Free Church in 1843, and is now one of the very few 
ministers living who studied under Dr. Chalmers. For many years he was 
minister of Black River, Nova Scotia. 



At the summer graduation in July, the degree of M.A. with honours was 
conferred on twenty-five students, and the ordinary degree on seventy-one. 
Two students graduated D.Sc, and three B.Sc. ; two received the diploma in 
Agriculture. There was a solitary graduate in Law (LL.B.). Two doctors 
took the M.D. degree, and the ordinary degree of M.B., Ch.B., was taken by 
thirty-one. The degree of D.Phil, was conferred on the Rev. William Spence 
Urquhart (M.A., 1897), of the Scottish Churches College, Calcutta, for a thesis 
on " Pantheism and the Value of Life, with Special Reference to Indian Philo- 
sophy ". 

As in the previous session, no awards were made of the Caithness prize 
in History and the Archibald Forbes gold medal in History. There were no 
candidates for either the Hutton prize or the Bain gold medal in Mental 
Philosophy. 



88 Aberdeen University Review 

At the Bursary competition this year the first place was gained by Alex- 
ander M. Buchan, last year's dux of the Inverurie Academy. Robert S. 
Walker, a son of the schoolmaster of Glentanar, and a pupil of Robert 
Gordon's College, was second bursar. The College has also the credit of 
training the fourth, fifth, and sixth bursars — respectively William Chrystall, 
Banchory ; George P. Webster, Aberdeen (dux of the classical side and Town 
Council gold medallist) ; and William Forbes, Tarland (dux of the modern side 
and also Town Council gold medallist). The third bursar was Thomas M. 
Taylor, Keith, dux of the Keith Grammar School. In the case of the seventh 
and eighth bursars — Anthony M. Henry, Fraserburgh, and Robert A. Forbes, 
son of the schoolmaster of Rosehearty — the positions they attained at Fraser- 
burgh Academy were reversed, Forbes having been the dux and the winner of 
the Sir George Anderson gold medal, while Henry ran him very closely for the 
honour. The Aberdeen Grammar School had no place in the first twenty, 
its most successful candidate being twenty-fifth ; but it was subsequently 
pointed out that there was a conspicuous absence of Grammar School pupils 
from the competition, a dozen boys who would have been in the highest 
classical class of the school having enlisted in the Territorials. The Aber- 
deen Girls' High School was also behind this year, the first place secured by a 
pupil from the institution being the twenty-sixth. The rural schools were 
well represented. While, of the first sixty places, Gordon's College had eleven, 
the Girls' High School seven, and the Grammar School three, Fraserburgh 
Academy and Fordyce Academy had six each ; Banff Academy, Peterhead 
Academy, and the Mackie Academy, Stonehaven, four each ; the Gordon 
School, Huntly, the Kemnay Higher Grade Public School, and the Strichen 
Higher Grade Public School, three each ; Keith Grammar School, two ; and 
Inverurie Academy, Dingwall Academy, Turriff Higher Grade Public School, 
and Buckie Higher Grade Public School, one each. 



Obituary. 



The Very Rev. Alexander Stewart, D.D., Principal and Primarius 
Professor of Divinity, St. Mary's College, St. Andrews, died at St. Andrews on 
21 July, aged sixty-eight. He was minister of the parish of Mains and 
Strathmartine, near Dundee, from 1873 to 1887, when he was elected (by 
competition) to the Chair of Systematic Theology in Aberdeen University, 
in succession to Professor Samuel Trail; and in 1894 he succeeded Dr. 
Cunningham as Principal of St. Mary's. He was Moderator of the General 
Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 191 1, and delivered the Croall Lecture 
in 1902, giving an account of the genesis and contents of the Creeds. Among 
other degrees he received was that of D.D. from Aberdeen University in 1906. 
Dr. Stewart was the author of a well-known "Handbook of Christian Evi- 
dences " (published in 1892 ; revised and enlarged, 1895) ; a sketch of " The 
Life of Christ" (1906); and "The Religious Use of the Imagination" (his 
Assembly address in 191 1). Along with Professor Menzies, he translated and 
edited part of Pfleiderer's " Philosophy of Religion ". He was also a contri- 
butor to Dr. Hastings' " Dictionary of the Bible ". Principal Stewart took a 
great interest in education, and in 1906 succeeded the late Principal Sir 
James Donaldson as Chairman o fthe St. Andrews Provincial Committee for 
the Training of Teachers. 



Dr. Charles Annandale (M.A., 1867 ; LL.D., 1885) died at his re- 
sidence, 35 Queen Mary Avenue, Crossbill, Glasgow, on 4 September, aged 
seventy-two. He was a native of Fordoun, Kincardineshire. He joined the 
literary staff of Messrs. Blackie & Son, Ltd., publishers, Glasgow, in 1868, and 
was for a long pe iod their editor. He edited a number of dictionaries, in- 
cluding the revised edition of the Imperial Dictionary, the Students' Diction- 
ary, and the Concise Dictionary ; also the Modem Cyclopaedia, and the New 
Popular Encyclopaedia. He edited besides an edition of Burns's Life and 
Works, and wrote the introduction to and the continuation of Thomson's 
" History of Scotland ". 



The Very Rev. John Archibald (M.A., 1869) died at Northfield, 
Birmingham, on 10 September, aged seventy-five. He was incumbent and 
afterwards rector of Holy Trinity Episcopal Church, Keith, Banffshire, for the 
long period of thirty-six years, from 1876 to 1912, being appointed Dean of 
the diocese of Moray, Ross, and Caithness in 1902. He retired from the 
ministry in 191 2, and had since resided at Birmingham. He was the author 
of "History of the Episcopal Church at Keith" (1890), ''The Historic Epis- 
copate in the Columban Church and in the Diocese of Moray " (1893), and 
" A Ten Years' Conflict and Subsequent Persecutions " (1907). 



go Aberdeen University Review 

Mr. Alexander Cowieson (alumnus, King's College, 1856-60), formerly 
teacher in Pirie's School, Banff, died at 41 Castle Street, Banff, on 30 Sep- 
tember, aged eighty-seven. On leaving College, he taught for six years at 
Mindurno School, Oldmachar, and in 1866 was appointed to Pirie's School, 
where he remained until the school was closed in 1889 under the Act of 
Parliament dealing with endowed schools. 

Mr. John Alexander Duguid (M.A., 191 3) died at Bangkok, Siam, on 1 1 
June, aged twenty-three. He was the eldest son of Mr. James Duguid, 
blacksmith, Park Villa, Strathdon. With the intention of taking up teaching 
as a profession, he attended the Aberdeen Provincial Training Centre, but in 
December, 1913, he received an excellent appointment under D. M. Home 
and Co., teak and rice merchants, London and Bangkok, with whom he had 
held since then a position of considerable trust and responsibility at their 
eastern station. 

Rev. Alexander Giles, minister-emeritus of the United Free Church, 
Ashkirk, Selkirkshire, died at his residence, 8 Rochester Terrace, Edinburgh, 
on 31 August, aged ninety-one. He was the senior graduate of King's 
College, which he entered in 1839, graduating in 1845 (see Vol. H., 85, 159). 
He became a minister of the Free Church of Scotland, and was ordained at 
Ashkirk in 1866, retiring in 1897. 

Dr. John Gregory (M.B., CM., 1883) died suddenly at the Aberdeen 
Royal Infirmary, on 8 September, aged sixty-three. He was a native of Dornoch, 
son of Mr. John Gregory, who was the last parochial schoolmaster of Old- 
machar ; and had practised in Old Aberdeen for many years. 

Mr. GusTAV Hein died in Aberdeen on i August, aged sixty-three. A 
native of Magdeburg, Saxony, he came .to Aberdeen about 1878, and began 
teaching German to private pupils and University students, becoming ulti- 
mately senior German master at the Aberdeen Grammar School and then 
German teacher at the Girls' High School. For some time he taught French 
and German at the University, and in 1894 was appointed Examiner in 
Modern Languages for the degree and preliminary examinations — a. post he 
held for four years. He also acted as Lecturer in German Honours at the 
University for several years. 

Mr. William Ironside, solicitor, Oban (M.A., 1882), died on 14 May, 
aged fifty-three. He was a native of Fyvie, Aberdeenshire. After gradu- 
ating, he engaged in teaching in England for a short time, but, adopting law 
as a profession, was apprenticed to Messrs. C. & P. H. Chalmers, advocates, 
Aberdeen. He went to Oban in 1896, and became a member of the Faculty 
of Procurators there. In 1899 he was assumed as a junior partner of the firm 
of Messrs. Hossack & Sutherland, and about three years ago became the sole 
partner. He also became joint agent of the local branch of the Royal Bank, 
and held various public appointments, besides being factor for many estates in 
Lorn and Mull. 



Mrs. Keith (Annie Brown Macdonald), (M.A., 1912) died at Aberdeen 
on 5 August. 



Obituary 9 1 



Dr. James William Norris Mackay(M.A. King's College, 1849; M.D. 
Edin.) died at his residence, Erneville, Elgin, on 26 September, aged eighty- 
three. He was a son of Rev. George Mackay (M.A., King's College, 1809; 
D.D., 1850), who was parish minister at Rafford, Morayshire, but came out 
at the Disruption in 1843. After completing his medical studies at Edin- 
burgh University, he returned to Elgin and acted for a time as resident doctor 
at Gray's Hospital, but soon commenced practice on his own account and in 
the course of a few years built up an extensive practice. He was medical 
officer for the burgh of Elgin for many years, as also for the poorhouse and 
asylum, and held a number of medical appointments in the district. He acted 
as Secretary to the Northern Medical Association for about thirty years, and 
on retiring in 1895 was presented with his portrait in recognition of his ser- 
vices. He was a member of the Elgin School Board and its Chairman for a 
number of years, and was prominently identified with the Free Church (after- 
wards the United Free Church) in Elgin. 



Mr. John C. Philip, who was sacrist at Marischal College for six years, 
1 89 7- 1 903, died at Dundee on 4 March, aged fifty-four. He entered the 
army when a young man, joining the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, and 
attaining the rank of sergeant ; he went through the first Egyptian Campaign, 
being present at the battles of Kassassin and Tel-el-Kebir, for which he had 
the medals. After leaving the army, he entered the Aberdeen police force, 
rose to be a sergeant, and was appointed drill instructor to the force. Then 
he became sacrist at Marischal College, and finally left Aberdeen for Dundee 
to join the staff of the "People's Journal," having displayed considerable 
literary talents, particularly in the direction of writing serial stories. He 
wrote " Reminiscences of Gibraltar, Egypt, and the Egyptian War of 1882,'' 
and " Robert Woodcroft, or the Memoirs of an Aberdeen Detective," both 
published when he was in Aberdeen. 



Dr.» Edward Payne Philpots (M.B., CM., 1868; M.D., 1870) died 
at Raynes Park, London, in September, aged seventy-three. In March, 
1865, while still a student, he sailed from Peterhead in the whaler "Queen,'^ 
which spent upwards of nineteen months in the Arctic regions, chiefly in 
Bethune Bay, in the neighbourhood of Cape Horsburgh. He was assiduous 
in exploring the adjacent shores and in making botanical collections ; and he 
proved that the land, previously believed to be a peninsula, was in reality an 
island, the eastmost point of which is Cape Horsburgh. This land is now 
marked on maps as "Philpots Island ". Dr. Philpots, under the pseudonym 
" Oliver Eaton," wrote several works of fiction : " The Beacon Hydro," ** Re- 
sults of Waiting," etc. He was also the author of the once-popular song 
" Paddle Your Own Canoe ". He contributed a sketch of Professor Alexander 
Harvey to " Aurora Borealis Academica ". Dr. Philpots was a Fellow of the 
Royal Geographical Society, and had residences in London and Bournemouth. 



Dr. James Bernhardt Klingner Robb (M.A., 1877 ; M.B., CM., 
1881 ; M.D^ 1884) died at his residence, 38 Carr Road, Nelson, Lancashire, 
on 16 September, aged fifty-nine. 



92 Aberdeen University Review 

Mr. JoosT Marius Willem van der Poorten -Schwartz, the Dutch 
novelist (better known by his pen-name of " Maarten Maartens "), died at 
Zeist, near Utrecht, on 4 August, aged fifty-seven. He received the honorary 
degree of LL.D. in 1905. 

Rev. John Wilson (M.A., 1862), senior minister of Victoria Park United 
Free Church, Partick, died at his residence, 33 Queen's Crescent, Edinburgh, 
on 13 September, aged seventy-three. After graduating, he acted for some 
time as a teacher in the Gymnasium, Old Aberdeen, among his pupils being 
Emeritus-Profe sor Sir William Ramsay. He then studied Divinity at the 
Theological Hall of the United Presbyterian Church, and was ordained 
minister of the United Presbyterian Church at Stronsay, Orkney, in 1867. He 
was afterwards minister at the Canongate Church, Edinburgh (1871-74) ; Stow 
in Midlothian (1874-81), Whiteinch, Glasgow (1881-88); and in 1888 wasap- 
pointed minister of the Victoria Park United Presbyterian Church (afterwards 
United Free Church), Partick. A colleague and successor to him was ap- 
pointed in April, 1909. 



Up to the date of completing this Obituary list, the following thirty-four 
University men, engaged in the various operations of the war, were either 
killed or fatally wounded (a few of the names appeared in the " In Memoriam," 
in the " Roll of Service," published as a supplement to Volume II.) : — 

Alexander Allardyce (M.A., 1904 ;> B.L.), sergeant in G Company, 
4th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action in Belgium, on 20 
July, aged thirty. He was a son of the late Rev. William Allardyce (M.A., 
1877), minister of Rothiemay, and was a solicitor in Aberdeen with the firm 
of Messrs. Hunter & Gordon, advocates. 



James Anderson (Arts Student), of Portknockie, private, 4th Gordon High- 
landers, who was reported as missing after 25 September, was taken prisoner, 
and is reported as having died of his wounds and been buried at Giessen. 



George Cameron Auchinachie (Medical student, 19 10- 13), sergeant, 
ist Battalion, Gordon Highlanders, was wounded in action on the morning of 
23 August, and died later in the day at the 9th Field-dressing Station. He 
was the youngest son of the late Provost Auchinachie, Aberchirder, Banff- 
shire. He was thrice previously wounded. 

George Macbeth Calder (M.A., 1915), Second Lieutenant, 8th Bat- 
talion, Seaforth Highlanders, was killed in action in the heavy fighting that 
took place in the advance upon Loos, France, on 25-27 September. When 
the war broke out, he was about to enter the third year of his medical course, 
but he volunteered for service. He went to France as a sergeant in the 4th 
Gordon Highlanders in January, and obtained his commission in March. 
He was twenty-four years of age. 



James Cruickshank (Arts student), lance-corporal in the ist Gordon 
Highlanders, died in July from wounds received in action in Flanders. He 
was third bursar in 1 914. 



obituary 93 



Marianus Alexander Gumming (M.A., 191 2), lance-corporal, i/4th 
Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action in Flanders on 13 June. He was 
assistant schoolmaster at Kemnay, and was only twenty-three years of age. 

Alexander David Duncan (M.A., 1914) aged twenty-one, lance-sergeant, 
i/4th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders, died in Hospital at Boulogne of wounds 
received 17 June. 

John Birnie Ewen (M.A., 19 14), private in the 2/4th Gordon High- 
landers, was killed in action in the action near Hooge, on 25 September. He 
took a keen interest in University athletics, and was secretary of the Athletic 
Association. He was successful in open competition in obtaining an appoint- 
ment with the Health Insurance Commissioners in Wales, and intended taking 
it up at the end of the war. He was twenty-two years of age. 

James C. Forbes (Agricultural student), aged twenty, a private in the 4th 
Gordon Highlanders, was killed inaction in Flanders on 16 June. 



John Keith Forbes (M.A., 1905), sergeant in the i /4th Battalion, Gordon 
Highlanders, was killed in action in the action near Hooge, on 25 Septem- 
ber. After graduating, he was for a number of years a teacher in Buckie, 
but in 1 9 1 2 he entered the Aberdeen United Free Church College. He was 
the most brilliant student of his year in any of the United Free Church Col- 
leges, and in both the entrance and the exit examinations he secured the first 
place among all candidates in Scotland. Even in the trenches Sergeant 
Forbes pursued his studies, having sent home for some of his Hebrew class 
books. He was a son of Mr. Alexander Forbes, late headmaster of Ruthrie- 
ston School, Aberdeen, and a nephew on his mother's side of Professor Arthur 
Keith. 

Alexander John Fowlie (M.A. 191 i and student in Agriculture), 
private in the 13th Infantry Battalion Australian Imperial Force, is reported 
as killed at the Dardanelles in August. 

Andrew Thomson Fowlie, aged twenty-six, lance-corporal, i/4th Bat- 
talion, Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action in Flanders on 1 5 June. He 
was county organizer for Orkney under the North of Scotland College of 
Agriculture, where he was trained, obtaining the diploma in Agriculture in 
1909 ; he also held the National Diploma in Agriculture. He was a son of 
Mr. Fowlie, farmer, Auchintumb, Strichen. 



Ian Catto Eraser (Arts student). Second Lieutenant, 2nd Argyll and 
Sutherland Highlanders, was killed in action in the fighting around Loos on 
25 September. He was promoted from corporal in the i/4th Gordon High- 
landers. He was a son of the late Mr. John T. Eraser, schoolmaster, Petty, 
Inverness, and was in his twentieth year. 



Geoffrey Gordon (M.A., 1903), Assistant Commissioner of the Pun- 
jab, who volunteered for service at the outbreak of the war and was granted 
a commission as Lieutenant in the 1 2th Lancers, was killed on 30 April, while on 
service in France. In an official notice published in the " Punjab Gazette," 
the Lieutenant-Governor of the province paid an eloquent tribute to Mr. 



94 Aberdeen University Review 

Gordon's sterling worth, describing him as "a fearless officer and gallant 
gentleman ". Mr. Gordon had often to expose his life to a grave risk in the 
pursuance of his duty in the Punjab, his life being twice attempted, the as- 
sailant in one case being blown to pieces by his own infernal machine. For 
the five years preceding the war he held a commission as Lieutenant and 
Captain in the Punjab Light Horse, Indian Volunteers. 

Robert Patrick Gordon (Arts student), aged nineteen, a private in the 4th 
Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action in Flanders on 1 7 June. 

Herbert Mather Jamieson (M.B., Ch.B., 1904) died on 26 Sep- 
tember while on Admiralty service. He was in practice at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
but shortly after the outbreak of the war he volunteered for medical service in 
the Navy. 

Arthur Kellas (M.B., Ch.B., 1904; D.P.H.), Captain in the ist 
Highland Field Ambulance, R. A.M.C. (attached to the 89th Field Ambulance), 
was killed in action in the Dardanelles on 6 August, aged thirty- one. He 
was senior medical assistant at the Royal Asylum, Aberdeen. He had been 
promoted temporary major some time previously, but the promotion was not 
gazetted till after his death. 

William Robert Kennedy (Medical student), Second Lieutenant, and 
Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, was killed in action in the for- 
ward movement in France, 25-26 September. He joined the Gordon High- 
landers as a private, and displayed such conspicuous bravery in carrying 
dispatches across a shell-swept zone that he was recommended for the Distin- 
guished Conduct Medal and singled out for promotion. He received a 
commission and was attached to the 2nd Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 
He was a son of Dr. Kennedy, Dunbeath, and was only nineteen years of age. 

Harry Lyon (Arts student), aged twenty-two, a private in the machine- 
gun section of the i/4th Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action in France 
on 17 June. 

MuRDO MacIver (Agricultural student), aged twenty, lance-corporal in 
the 4th Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action in Flanders, 16 June. 

Ian Charles M'Pherson (M.A., 1914), Second Lieutenant, 3rd Bat- 
talion, Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action in the advance on Loos, 
on 25 September. At the outbreak of war he was a medical student. He 
enlisted in the 44th Field Ambulance, and was in training at Aldershot 
until January, when he was commissioned. Proceeding to the front, he was 
attached to the 2nd Gordon Highlanders, with whom he fought up to the 
time of his death. *' If ever a soldier deserved the V.C. he did, and had he 
lived he would have gained it. This is the opinion of his men and the officers 
who saw him." He was the elder son of Mr. Charles S. MTherson, rector 
of the Banff Academy, and was only twenty -one years of age. He was a 
young man of exceptional promise. 

John Cook Macpherson (M.A., 1910; LL.B.), Second Lieutenant, ist 
Gordon Highlanders (late private, 9th Royal Scots), died of wounds received 
in action in the fighting, 25-27 September. He was the third son of Rev. 
Robea-t Macpherion, D.D., Elgin. 



Obituary 95 



John Ellison Macqueen (alumnus, 1891-95), Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Officer Commanding the 6th Battalion Gordon Highlanders (T.F.), was 
killed in action in the advance on Loos, on 25 September, aged forty. 
He was the eldest son of the late Mr. John Otto Macqueen, S.S.C., Aberdeen, 
his mother being a sister of Viscount Haldane. He became a member of the 
Society of Advocates in Aberdeen in 1 900, and was for some time in partner- 
ship with his father and latterly with Mr. H. J. Findlater, W.S. In 1896 he 
joined the ist Volunteer Battalion of the Gordon Highlanders (afterwards the 
4th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders, T.F.), retiring as major in 1910. On 
the outbreak of the war he promptly offered his services, and was placed in 
command of the 2/4th Battalion Gordon Highlanders, and in July last was 
appointed to the command of the 6th Battalion. 

John Hampton Strachan Mason (M.A., 19 13), private in D company, 
4th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action in the Loos engage- 
ment, 25 September. While at the University, he was prominently identified 
with the social life of the students, was Vice-President of the Literary Society 
in his last year, and for more than a year edited Alma Mater. When the 
war broke out he was engaged in literary work in London. He was twenty- 
three years of age. 

Frederick William Milne (Medical student), of Fyvie, private in the 
I /4th Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action in France, in October, after 
passing unharmed through the fighting near Hooge. 

Gordon Dean Munro (Medical student), private, 4th Gordon High- 
landers, missing since 25 September, died of his wounds on 2 October in 
an hospital in Belgium. 

Frederick Alexander Rose (M.A., 191 1 ; B.A. Oxon.), Lieutenant in 
the 4th Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action in Flanders on 1 1 August. 
He belonged to Huntly, and had a distinguished career at the University, 
graduating with first-class honours in English, and winning the Seafield Medal 
and the Minto Memorial Prize. He gained a scholarship of jQZo per annum 
at Christ Church, Oxford ; gained the Charles Oldham Shakespeare Scholar- 
ship open to the University ; at graduation was placed in Class I of Final 
Honour, School of English Language and Literature ; and was elected to the 
Dixon Research Scholarship of ;^66 per annum. The last of his many aca- 
demic achievements was to win the Matthew Arnold Memorial Prize at Ox- 
ford for an essay on "The Supernatural Element in Icelandic Literature". 

In a letter in the "Free Press" (17 August) Professor Grierson described 
Mr. Rose's career as one of the greatest promise, and said that, in the pre- 
paration of his edition of Donne's Poems, he had received invaluable assist- 
ance from Mr. Rose, both in the collation of manuscripts and the correction 
in detail of difficult proofs. " Throughout last winter," added Professor 
Grierson, " Mr. Rose was busy preparing to edit himself the difficult poems of 
Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke, the friend of Sir Philip Sidney. He had already 
made most interesting discoveries as to the bibliography of the volume and 
the sources of his work." 



William Leslie Scott (Medical student), aged twenty-two. Lieutenant, 
5th Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action in Flanders on 16 June. 



96 Aberdeen University Review 

George Buchanan Smith (LL.B., 1914; M.A. Glas.), Second Lieu- 
tenant, attached to the 2nd Battalion, Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action 
in Flanders on 25 September. Graduating M.A. in 19 12 at Glasgow — 
where he was Chairman of the Liberal Association during the Rectorial 
Election that resulted in the victory of Mr. Augustine Birrell — he studied law 
in Aberdeen and Edinburgh Universities during 191 2-14, and took the LL.B. 
degree at Aberdeen, intending to proceed to the Scottish bar. In July, 19 14, 
he joined the Special Reserve of Officers, having served as Cadet and Cadet 
Sergeant in the Glasgow University Contingent of the Officers* Training Corps, 
He was gazetted on 5 August, and attached to the ist Battalion, Gordon 
Highlanders. He served at Stoneywood for four months, and on 6 Decem- 
ber, 1 914, crossed to Flanders in command of a large draft of men. On the 
early morning of December 14, while leading his platoon in a charge on the 
German trenches between Kemmel and Wytzaechte, he was severely wounded, 
and after lying out all day under fire brought back the remnant of his platoon 
to the British lines. He was in hospital for more than two months. In May 
he rejoined for duty at the Depot in Aberdeen, where he remained till 8 
August, when he returned to France. There he was attached to the Second 
Battalion and on 23 September, the date of the last letter received from him, 
he was second in command of one of the companies. He fell leading his 
platoon in the first charge of the advance on Loos. He was the eldest son 
of Principal Smith, and was twenty-four years of age. 

Frederick Charles Stephen (M.A., 1909), Second Lieutenant, 6th 
Battalion, Grordon Highlanders, was killed in the fighting around Loos, 25-27 
September. After leaving Aberdeen University, where he had a brilliant 
career in Mathematics, he continued his studies at Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, and gained the Fullerton Scholarship and the Ferguson Scholarship in 
Mathematics. He was a noted athlete, both at Aberdeen and Cambridge, and 
won many trophies. Shortly after the outbreak of the war he enlisted as a 
private in the 4th Gordons, but eventually received a commission in the 6th 
Battalion. 

James Stuart (Arts student), private, i/6th Battalion, Gordon High- 
landers, was killed in the fighting on 25-27 September. 

Bertram Wilkie Tawse (M.A., 1905 ; B.Sc, 1906), sergeant, 4th Bat- 
talion, Cameron Highlanders, was killed in action in the fighting on 26 
September. He carried on a Business College in Inverness, and at the out- 
break of the war enlisted as a private in the Camerons. He more than once 
refused a commission, but eventually accepted the rank of sergeant. An ex- 
cellent linguist, he rendered valuable service in teaching soldiers French. He 
was a son of the late Mr. Peter Tawse, contractor, Aberdeen, and was thirty- 
one years of age. 

John McLean Thomson (M.A., 191 1), sergeant in the 4th Gordon 
Highlanders, was killed in Flanders in July. After graduating, he studied 
divinity at the Aberdeen United Free Church College, and he had been en- 
gaged in missionary work at Tongue, Sutherlandshire, and later in Canada. 

James Whyte (Arts student), aged twenty-one, private in the 4th Gordon 
Highlanders, died of wounds received in action, 1 6 June. 



P The 

Aberdeen University Review 

Vol. III. No. 8 February 1916. 

The Youth who carried a Light. 

By THOMAS HARDY, O.M., 
LL.D., Aberd., 1905. 

I saw him pass as the new day dawned, 

Murmuring some musical phrase, 
Horses were drinking and floundering in the pond, 

And the tired stars thinned their gaze ; 
Yet these were not the spectacles at all that he conned, 

But an inner one, giving out rays. 

Such was the thing in his eye, walking there. 

The real and visible thing, 
A close light, displacing the grey of the morning air, 

And the tokens that the dark was taking wing ; 
And was it not the radiance of a purpose rare 

That might ripe to its accomplishing ? 

What became of that light ? I wonder still its fate ! 

Was it quenched at its very apogee ? 
Did it struggle frail and frailer to a beam emaciate ? 

Did it thrive till matured in verity ? 
Or did it travel on to be a new young dreamer's freight^. 

And thence on infinitely ? 

•^^* Copyright in the United States of America. 

7 



My Last Schoolmaster 




HAVE no will to write about my friend ; for I can- 
not tell myself that he is dead, and the years since 
I first met him, now nearing forty, are so big a part 
of my life that I am unready to believe they are all 
in the past. Joy, pleasure, satisfaction, hope — the 
white sails of youth, set for all the seas, hang in the 
memory now, an accepted illusion ; there are more 
important things in the world than the little rights and prospects of 
our imaginary selves. It takes just a life-time to learn the lesson; 
but it is to William Dey that I owe the initiation. He taught us to 
" carry on " for duty. Whatever deviations we have made in the 
voyage, we hear always the words spoken with such a passion of good- 
ness : ** What a man soweth, that shall he also reap ". " Whatsoever 
thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might." "Non scholae sed 
vitae discimus." Well do I recall his grave words repeated to each 
new class : " When I look at the faces around me, I feel that it is not 
too much to say that the state of this planet a thousand years hence 
will depend very much on how we conduct ourselves in this room ". 
That was the touch of imagination that separated him from every 
schoolmaster I have ever had. He felt the future as a living presence. 
He made us feel it too. Many a time I have been made conscious 
along with all the rest of the responsibility thus cast upon us for the 
days to come. The open and obvious sincerity of his utterances, their 
transparent and loving goodness, their moral energy, did stir in us 
something not otherwise to be evoked. This was no trifling with life. 
This was no individual punishment ; it was not punishment at all ; it 
was the forging of the inner bond that linked him and us in the cru- 
sade of work, the passion of duty, the making of the world by the 
best standards that all our energies could produce. I have had many 
professors and some schoolmasters ; but from none of them, at any 
time in any mood, have I heard the sincere, unworldly ring of the 



n^- 




WILLIAM DEY, LL.D. 



My Last Schoolmaster 99 

voice of Dr. Dey. He lifted us with perfect certainty above the 
thoughts of the moment, and filled us with something of his passion 
for duty. He made us conscious of the total life, richer and greater 
than the passing hour. That is what we owe to him. It is, I now see, 
the only great thing I have ever learned ; and if I still slave for every 
hour that can physically be drawn from the twenty-four, and if I never 
without pain let out of my sight any aspect of the multiple unity we 
call " life," it is because he taught me. He kept us in the atmosphere 
of the great minds, and in the light of them every fragment of the day's 
duty sparkled like diamond dust. 

Two boys had come from the Highlands. They were the two 
newcomers, and formed part of the whole school as it gathered in the 
main room. The master's pulpit stood in one corner : it was the days 
before the reconstruction. He read a text from the Bible, and then 
some sentences from a commentary. This he followed with prayer. 
The voice is still speaking in my ears — intense, reverent, stern, 
gracious: '* The night cometh when no man can work". The first, 
second, and third classes then filed out to their room ; but we two were 
as yet unplaced, and, provisionally, we joined the first. At the end of 
a year one of us went back to the Highlands, and I have never seen 
him since ; the other passed into the fourth class and afterwards into 
the fifth. And these were my three years with My Last Schoolmaster. 

But by the time I had reached the fourth class Dey had dropped 
the Bible commentary and the prayer. Perhaps he felt that he was 
striking a false note, that religion is too great to be expressed through 
a single literature, like the Bible, or through the limited interpretations 
of it embodied in the flowing and evanescent orthodoxies. Whatever 
the reason, he changed the morning ceremony. For an intense five 
minutes or so, he read to us from Carlyle, or Robertson of Brighton, 
and, one year, he read to us the Introduction to Taine's " History of 
English Literature ". It is impossible to convey in words the intel- 
lectual or emotional effect of these readings ; but to-day over the world 
many a life flows with greater sweetness because, in the morning of 
his days, a good man spoke great words with sincerity and passion. 
"The irreparable Past, the available Future, . . . there is a Past 
which is gone for ever. But there is a Future which is still our own." 
Once every quarter he read to us that sermon of Robertson's. Of 
Carlyle he spoke often and admiringly. He made us readers of 



loo Aberdeen University Review 

Carlyle long before we could master his vocabulary. It was in my 
last quarter that he read Taine's Introduction, two pages every 
morning till the whole beautiful sketch was gone through. He read 
always in a voice earnest, controlled, and modulated to the expression 
of every shade of meaning. Thirty years later, the readings from 
Taine and the long studies that followed them led me to the Lake of 
Annecy, by whose blue waters Taine is buried, and I rejoice that my 
country, whose literature he loved, has taken its great part in keeping 
the barbarians out of France. For me, the feeling kindled by Dey's 
beautiful reading can now never die. 

The school day was short. Indeed, the school was conducted so 
differently from any school I have known before or since that some 
fourteen years ago I put a description of its curriculum before the 
Royal Commission on Physical Training (Scotland) . Curiously, since 
the war began, the practice of confining school work to the forenoon 
has, for reasons of doubtful relevancy, spread to many schools ; with 
Dey it was a thought-out principle. I reproduce a few paragraphs 
from the Blue Book, in which I did my best to make one little bit of 
history immortal. 

"As an illustration of a secondary school conducted on lines suit- 
able to continuous and exacting study, I give some facts regarding 
the Grammar School, Old Aberdeen, as it was conducted in the years 
1 876-1 879, under the rectorship of Dr. William Dey. 

" The primary work of the school was the preparation of students 
for an Arts course at Aberdeen University. The school subjects in- 
cluded classics, English, and elementary mathematics. The ages of 
pupils ran from thirteen or fourteen on the first class to any age up to 
twenty or more on the fourth and fifth classes. Roughly, the ages 
were from thirteen to seventeen or eighteen. The pupils were drawn 
from all parts of northern Scotland, and represented practically all 
classes in country and town. At least fifty per cent or more of the 
pupils lived in lodgings in Aberdeen, usually two in a room, or room and 
half. All the pupils, with very rare exceptions, had every motive for 
working. They were in considerable part picked men from rural schools, 
but a fair proportion were drawn from elementary schools in Aberdeen 

"The tension of intellectual work was higher than at any other 
school I have known or heard of. Dr. Dey himself taught the two 
highest classes in all the subjects, and prescribed courses of home read- 



My Last Schoolmaster loi 



ing. His aim was thoroughness of work by concentration of effort — 
the antithesis at once of cram and of dawdling. He made it impossible 
for triflers or idlers to remain at the school. None of the work was done 
in view of examinations ; everything was done for its own sake. The 
results of fifteen years of work at this high pitch are written large in the 
history of Aberdeen University. 

" What of physical training ? 

" In the ordinary sense there was none ; no gymnasium, no swim- 
ming pond, no time specifically allotted to training. But the hours of 
work were so arranged that no pupil could fail to have two or three 
hours in the open air after school-time, and that without neglecting his 
home work. This was secured as follows : — 

" On three days a week, the work on the fifth (or highest) class con- 
tinued from 9 a.m. to 12.20 p.m. ; for two days a week, from 9 a.m to 
about 2 p.m. For the three short days there was no play interval. 
The pupils went home for the day at 12.20. For the long days there 
was an interval of twenty minutes or so, and the second part of the 
day was occupied by a test examination of some sort. On no day 
were the pupils kept longer than to 2 o'clock. Thus the total school 
working hours were about nineteen per week of five days, or an average 
of nearly four hours a day. But on three days the hours never ex- 
ceeded three and a half. No lesson was longer than half an hour at a 
time. The home work to prepare normally should occupy three to five 
hours. This w^s made possible by the freedom of the afternoons. 
The recommendation was to spend some time of every afternoon in the 
open air, and this was done. 

**The exercise indulged in was very little; a sort of cricket or 
football, walking, long walks on Saturdays, occasionally rowing. . . . 
But exercise did not occupy a large part of anyone's time or thought. 
When I say exercise I mean systematic physical training. 

" The lower forms had slightly longer hours. The intention of 
the shorter hours of the higher classes was to encourage individual 
reading. But no class was detained after 2.30 p.m. 

" I cannot recall any nervous breakdown under the strain of work, 
which continued from October to Christmas, with ten days' interval ; 
from January to March, with ten days' interval ; from April to June, 
with six weeks' interval ; and then from August to October, with ten 
days' interval. As a rule no members of the fifth form remained at 
the school more than the year necessary to pass through the form. 



I02 Aberdeen University Review 

" The deductions I make from these facts are : — 

" That experience had shown that concentration, with long rest fol- 
lowing, and much individual freedom, favoured high tension of in- 
tellectual work ; that the absence of systematic exercise was more 
than balanced by the time in the open air and the freedom from 
strain ; that the absence of physical training according to a system 
was never felt ; that the habit of relying on simple walking in the 
open air conferred staying power for future work at college, and that 
the distribution of work through the day, with short breaks for 
exercise, would have tended to lessen the tension and, therefore, the 
quality of work ; that it is sound psychology to rely on the fresh 
hours from 9 to 12 for the organizing and developing of impressions, 
and to let a long rest intervene before preparation is begun." 

It was only a man like Dey that could have taught on this plane. 
He taught all the subjects of the fourth and fifth classes himself. He 
was the only schoolmaster I ever knew that worked harder than his 
pupils. He had many other interests in life, as some details I can 
give will prove ; but he focussed every thought, every feeling, on the 
lesson of the moment. He saved us from the distractions incident to 
change of class-room. He kept us in a state of mental concentration. 
Absence of distraction, intensity of motive — these were his negative 
and positive. More than once he told me that, when pupils travelled 
by train every day, they rarely did well. But only a man of his 
ethical force, of his peculiar richness of emotional endowment, his 
depth and readiness of sympathy, his passion for duty could have 
evoked a response so profound or stood the strain of a ministry so 
intense. 

Education to him was a religion. No other word can indicate 
his feeling about it. To the outside world the Old Grammar School 
was simply a cramming place for the bursary competition. For this 
charge the list of high-placed names from year to year gave, perhaps, 
some superficial justification. But anything less true of Dey's teach- 
ing I can^hardly imagine. Cram, in the ordinary sense, was incom- 
patible with his method. When a certain man, not without some 
local distinction[in his day, gave " evidence " to some Commission or 
another, bearing that the Grammar School of Old Aberdeen was 
merely a crammingjplace, Dey made one of his rare appearances in 
the local press and tore the " evidence " to tatters. It was work at 



My Last Schoolmaster 103 

high tension certainly ; but it was work for the making of minds, not 
for the stuffing of them. And that is a difference. Cram, however, 
has its uses, as we all know. I once took the trouble to write about 
it, and the best definition I found was Dr. Rennet's : ** Cram is the 
work of a successful opponent ". But to William Dey cram in any 
form was hateful. Cram of the memory is the antithesis of intellectual 
mastery and it was mastery he sought to produce. 

I do not say that his methods were faultless ; but the faults be- 
longed less to him than to a vicious tradition of scholarship. Twenty 
years afterwards, I argued with him for many hours on the modern 
methods of teaching languages and the amount we lost because we 
had to fit ourselves to an inelastic University course. He was himself 
a good linguist. He admitted all I said, and he recognized how much 
weary time in later life we might have saved had the rigidity of the 
University curriculum and its stale iniquities been broken up earlier. 
There was no option either in method or in subject. Except in one or 
two departments the University ran on the lines of a Higher Grade 
School, and kept men on the beaten highways long after they had found 
paths for themselves. 

If Dey, in his earlier days at the Grammar School, had to keep 
within the stringent limits essential for useful concentration, it was 
from necessity, not from choice. For in after days he did more than 
any single man in Scotland to reform the training of teachers, tore- 
cast the whole Normal School curriculum, to develop the idea of the 
King's Student, to adjust the curriculum of education to its proper 
climax in a University degree. And for the reform of the University 
curriculum itself he did great service. The excitement of that first 
election of four Assessors is a thing of the far past ; but when Dey 
made known his willingness to stand he found a large body of voters 
ready to support him. When as a member of the Court he attended 
the Curriculum Committee of the Council, he sat silent but sympa- 
thetic. Of that Committee Professor Bain was Chairman. We were 
all agreed on two things — that options were necessary, but that a mini- 
mum for all students was equally necessary. Options came ; the mini- 
mum has been allowed to struggle into existence as it could. " Freedom 
is a noble thing," and the theoretical freedom of options, as Mr. Ander- 
son pointed out so long ago, is limited only by the algebraical rules 
for permutations and combinations. Perhaps we were all too rigid in 
our ideas. Much education is as great a danger as a " little learning". 



I04 Aberdeen University Review 

But let me go back a step. Outside the school curriculum Dr. Dey 
recommended us certain lines of reading. The books were fairly 
" strong " for youths round about sixteen. For instance, many of us, at 
his suggestion, read Spencer's "Education," Spencer's "Study of Soci- 
ology," Carlyle unlimited. Mill's "Liberty," Mill's "Representative 
Government," Bain's "Mind and Body," Huxley's "Lay Sermons" 
were also among our private reading, and when, in 1 879, Spencer's " Data 
of Ethics " appeared, some of us devoured it with the fury of a morbid 
appetite. In the pause between the bursary competition and my en- 
trance to the University, I called one night on Dr. Dey, not because I 
had anything individual to say, but because I felt that here was a great 
parting. He gave me the whole evening. He spoke as a man to a 
man, not as a master to a boy, and indeed one of the secrets of his 
great influence was that, from the beginning, he had treated us as men. 
He had learned in the school of experience the foolishness of assuming 
that there is any fundamental intellectual difference between a boy and 
a man. A difference in degree, of course, there always is : the boy 
mostly knows more, or has the feeling of knowing more; but the 
master knows better. But, in the gracious and smiling atmosphere of 
that little room, one spoke out freely and without afterthought. One 
was taken with perfect seriousness and sympathy. Of course, we 
talked about the " Data of Ethics " and the " Study of Sociology " and 
Carlyle. It was then that he quoted to me Seeley's great remark 
about Carlyle — that he saw with " intense gaze " what others 
reasoned about. Mill had said something of the kind too, and when, 
on that hint, I read the " French Revolution," I understood something 
of the appreciation. Dey saturated us with Carlyle and with the 
gospel of work and, to this hour, like so many others, I am drawn to 
the great man of genius, though now we marvel at some of the petty 
things he admired. But that night Dey assured me that he had read 
all the battle pieces of the ancient classics and studied them with care, 
but he found that, in all the classics, there was nothing greater than 
Carlyle's battle pieces in the " Frederick " . I was impressed and I 
meant to read them ; but, somehow, I left over the reading, led per- 
haps by a developed hatred of all tyrannies. Twenty- five years of 
administrative experience leave my feeling as strong as ever, and I 
shall never read the "Frederick" except as part of the morbid 
psychology of the Hohenzollerns. 

But the kind of books discussed showed » the width of Dey's out- 



My Last Schoolmaster 105 

look and sympathies. To this hour I cannot tell what Day believed 
on any of the great speculative topics, and I never thought of inquir- 
ing of him ; neither did he, of me. But the strength of his feeling for 
the good, for duty, was manifest in every sound of his voice, in every 
expression of his features. Years afterwards we discussed the Spencer- 
Weissman controversy and there is nothing essential in it that he had 
not mastered. It was the same in all the main branches of knowledge 
— comparative philology, psychology, physics, economics, banking, 
currency problems, history, sociology, ethics, criticism. To the end of 
his long life he remained a student with a memory of marvellous 
tenacity, an intellectual interest of unresting potency. He never 
stopped growing. 

That night, among other things, he advised me to read " Ecce 
Homo". "After your session begins, you will have more time; you 
should read that book." And he spoke of it with a reverence that I 
found more than deserved. It was one of the great new books of 
the nineteenth century. To-day it is painful to see how inadequate 
Seeley's critical ideas were ; anybody can counter his historical view of 
the New Testament ; the whole unity of his vision of Christ is now 
impossible, except as ideal construction. But in its day, when the 
fundamentals were still credible to us, and the " Quest of the Histori- 
cal Jesus " had not yet lost itself in the catacombs of the dead re- 
ligions of the first century, " Ecce Homo " produced its full effect on 
every susceptible mind. It changed our whole view of life. It was a 
symptom of the break with the ethical sanctions of the past. I have 
read much ethical literature since then, but I have found most of it 
petty and anaemic compared with Seeley. When, in 1882, the 
"Natural Religion" appeared, the break with the past was more 
manifest. I asked for it at the Library, imagining that a Magistrand 
might properly do so ; but I was informed that, by order of Principal 
Pirie, the book was barred ! That was in 1882. 

Dey remained our mentor right through the Arts course. At 
the end of every session, I went to him to get his advice on the 
next step. He knew the history of every pupil he had ever had. He 
kept a complete account of their work. When they called on him, 
they found him familiar with all their academic and post-academic 
records. When, many years ago, a group of us gathered to give him 
a complimentary dinner, the intimacy of the rapport between our old 



io6 Aberdeen University Review 

Master and his pupils was shown in a hundred tones and looks. It 
was one of the evenings that go and do not come again. He was 
touched through every fibre of his nature. His emotional richness, 
his sympathetic humour, his graciousness to us all — how can we 
characterize the unseizable ? At the opening of his reply, he gave us 
in the old voice : — 

Soothed with the sound the King grew vain, 
Fought all his battles o'er again, 
And thrice he routed all his foes, 
And thrice he slew the slain. 

Then at the end he said : — 

So ere I set Til see you shine ; 

I'll see you triumph ere I fa' ; 
My parting breath shall boast you mine ; 

Good-night 1 and joy be wi' you a' ! 

Out of that meeting rose the proposal for his picture, which was 
presented to the University a year or two later. It hangs in the 
Marischal College Gallery. It is not one of Walton's most im- 
mediately taking pictures, but it is a great picture. When I look on 
the photogravure of it, I see in every touch the realization of the 
dominant moral energy that was the whole man. Walton's method 
is familiar to all lovers of good art. He keeps the picture within the 
frame. He did not aim at a flashy success. He aimed at genuine 
characterization and he has succeeded. Dey told me how the artist 
did at the sittings and he was immensely impressed. Whether he 
was entirely satisfied with the picture, I cannot tell ; but I think he 
was. The picture will grow more and more beautiful under ''the un- 
imaginable touch of time". The gem of the talk at the presentation 
of it to the University was contributed by Dr. Dey's youngest 
brother, who had gone to America as a young man and had come 
across from Syracuse, New York, to attend the meeting. With a 
delicate American accent he said : " Your Carlyle says that if it were 
to be a case of Shakespeare or the Indian Empire, he would prefer 
Shakespeare. I feel like that about my brother. You will say — ' I 
think him perfect'. Well— I do." 

Of his methods of private work when he had become immersed in 
the affairs of the Provincial Committee, the University Court, and the 
Highland Committee, an example is enough. A day or two after the 



My Last Schoolmaster 107 



new regulations for the training of teachers had been issued, I called 
on him at his house. I found him making some special notes and 
criticisms for his Committee. "When," said he, "I received this 
document I set myself to study it for twenty-four consecutive hours. 
It is a masterly document. The number of difficulties it has foreseen 
and solved is enormous." It was a new development after his own 
heart, and he did as much as man could to make the great national 
scheme succeed. I was not slow to communicate his opinion to the 
Maker of the new system, to whom Scotland owes more than this or 
any generation can ever know adequately. It was then that I learned 
for how much Dey s opinion counted on all administrative problems 
of education. If Aberdeen retains its proud superiority as the 
Teachers' University, it is in no small measure due to Dey's pas- 
sionate devotion and encyclopaedic outlook. 

For some ten years I met him, at least once a year, to discuss the 
teaching of hygiene and physical education at the Provincial Training 
Centre. He was as ready to promote the new health movement 
among teachers and pupils as he had been long ago to set our unstable 
feet on the highways of all knowledge. To meet him on the plane of 
affairs was to realize the ideal continuity of his life. What he had 
thought out in the desert, he now taught in the market place. To 
discuss things with Dey was one of the joys of my life. 

I could fill many pages in telling how much he was to me and how 
dark the shadows are, now he is gone. With him vanishes out of my 
life the Aberdeen I came to as a boy. Last autumn I spent a day 
among the mountains where he was born. For him there is the " peace 
that is among the lonely hills " ; for me, the silence of the last parting.. 

For as lone as thou liest in a land that we see not, 
When the world loseth thee, what is left for its losing ? 

W. LESLIE MACKENZIE. 



"Billy" Dey. 




T is five and thirty years since I first set eyes on 
William Dey : but it might very well be but five 
and thirty minutes, so clear is my vision of him. 
That is a wonderful fact, for he had none of the 
idiosyncrasies which silhouette men like " Davie " 
Rennet: there was no picturesqueness of speech 
or point of view : there was an almost total ab- 
sence of everything that we call colour. To be perfectly frank, he 
was a somewhat drab figure on the drab background of dominie-ism : 
-and yet he made a deep and lasting impression on his pupils and on 
all who came into close contact with him, an impression which the 
4apse of time actually accentuates even in the kaleidoscopic trans- 
formations of our busy day, which throw down one perpetual 
challenge of authority. 

What, then, was the secret of his power? I confess that much 
cogitation and an inherent instinct to search for the springs of con- 
duct leave me uncertain of his spell ; and make me doubt my ability 
to convey to those who did not know him the abiding place he erected 
for himself in the memories of his pupils and of his circle generally. 
But I venture to suggest that he succeeded precisely because of his 
drabness ; because he was inspired by extraordinary simplicity and 
dignity and singleness of purpose, and with all those consistencies 
-which are the negation of colour and of surprise. Few men I have 
known have conveyed such an impression of permanence of purpose. 
It exhibited itself in his actual physical appearance, which had under- 
gone very little change during the thirty-five years I knew him : 
indeed, when I met him one bleak rainy day last September in Union 
Street, he did not seem to have aged much, and I would not have 
readily recognized that he had been thoroughly ill had not his doctor, 
^ho had been my fellow-pupil at the **Barn," warned me that the 
thread of his life had become very precarious. 



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"Billy" Dey 



109 



I was just thirteen and a half years old when I (with my brother), 
found my way to the " Barn " after three or four desultory years in 
the Preparatory Department of the new Grammar School ; and but 
for the anxious intervention of the head master, the late Alexander 
Green, who talked my father over — for which I never quite forgave 
him — we would have gone a year earlier. At that period, and for 
several years before, the *' Grammar " had been in a rather bad way. 
It had really lost its bearings, almost as if in the act of " flitting " 
from the Schoolhill to Skene Street. It had struck the transition 
period between the domination of the strong Man (like Melvin) and. 
the advent of the Machine in the shape of State interference, so that 
it was neither one thing nor another. 

The Old Town Grammar School, on the other hand, was still ia 
the sway of the Man : and to it we decided to turn. It was really a 
waste of physical energy to have to do so, for, as it happened, we lived 
within a hundred yards of the new Grammar, whereas its rival in the 
Aulton was two miles away, with no bus or tram to link it with the 
New Town. And what a contrast there was between Matthews's. 
manipulation of castellated architecture in glistening Rubislaw granite 
and the "hummel" harling of the well-named "Barn," which was 
even less imposing than the stuccoed dignity of my first school, Sim's- 
Academy in Union Row. 

The interior spirit was just as different as the external appearance 
of the two institutions. The new Grammar had not merely the 
impersonalness of a machine, but of a machine which (at that time^ 
was working most inadequately. The " Barn," on the other hand, 
was the apotheosis of personality, and that of an earnest type tO' 
which I had been accustomed all my life at home, where the ethic of 
the Psalm of Life — " life-is-real — life-is-eamest " — was inculcated daily,, 
without, however, the hard utilitarianism which made the boyhood of 
John Stuart Mill a paralysing nightmare. The "Barn" was making 
a great name for itself, not merely because it turned out bursars, but 
because William Dey was a personality, a man with moral force. 
This point cannot be too definitely asserted. The " Barn " has oftea 
been regarded as a good cramming place for the Bursary Competition. 
But it was much more than that. First and foremost, it was a school 
of character, where the pupils mastered their lessons because they 
were taught to master themselves. 

Mr. Dey, as he then was known, was making a success of his. 



no Aberdeen University Review 

school because he was approaching the problem of pedagogy from the 
standpoint of a definite theory of conduct. That theory had nothing 
novel about it. You can trace it through the whole history of ethics : 
but it had come to him directly from his cradle country of Kirk- 
michael, where the land had been rescued and conquered after a long 
patient fight, of which the modern farmer, even on the prairie, has 
little idea. It had taken him to a King's College bursary : it had 
accompanied him to ** England," where an eight years' sojourn had 
served only to accentuate it, though the journey had also softened his 
accent. It is not difficult to understand how Mr. Dey had kept his 
flag flying, steadily though never aggressively : how he had gripped 
his Principle among a people for whom Compromise is always much 
more potent than Principle, so that I often say in the moments of my 
own conflict with them that they are never quite sure whether the 
word ends with " le " or " al ". Mr. Dey's tenacious hold of his 
inherited theory of conduct amid the deflective environment of" Eng- 
land " was set forth by him, in his sober and somewhat unimaginative 
way, on the occasion of the presentation of his portrait in January, 
1 901 : — 

As might naturally be expected, I found among my fellow-teachers [in 
England] methods of discipline of which I could not approve either in theory 
or in practice. [Just think of the importance attached to a man getting his 
*'blue," and donning his "sweater"! Mr. Dey understood "sweaters" of a 
very different character.] 

I never could accept, for example, without large reservations the method 
of governing boys that underlies the common remarks "Boys will be boys," 
and "You cannot put old heads on young shoulders". At an early stage of 
my English experience, I came to the conclusion that these venerable and 
pithy sayings, when strictly analysed, are found to contain more of clap-trap 
than of truth. ... I fully satisfied myself that boys are endowed with a very 
considerable amount of self-control. I therefore definitely settled in my own 
mind once for all what I was to do and to be in my dealings with boys ; and 
gave them very clearly to understand that I assumed the existence of this 
power of self-control and meant to hold them responsible for the due exercise 
of it under ordinary circumstances. 

I settled once for all another point of far-reaching importance to every 
teacher : namely, that, if I meant to exact from my boys a fairly reasonable 
measure of thoughtful self-control under the stress and strain of their daily 
work, then I must set them the example. I held then, as I hold now, that 
no man can govern either boys or men unless he has learned to govern 
himself. 

That in a nutshell was the authentic credo of Mr. Dey, learned, as 
I say, in the hard school of his native Kirkmichael where his ancestors 



^^ Billy" Dey in 

had waged such a fight with the climate, nearly as grim as many of 
them had waged in the Peninsula to the call of " Bydand " in a pre- 
vious generation. It is the doctrine of what is called the " sticker," 
and is so typically (though not exclusively) Scots that Kipling has put 
it in the mouth of his immortal engineer, M' Andrew : " Law, Orrder, 
Duty an' Restraint, Obedience, Discipline ! " 

That doctrine, I may note in passing, worked out in the terms of 
M'Andrew's own craft, has brought fortune to one of Dr. Dey's 
brothers, whose mechanical time-keeper, as an insistent sentinel on 
punctuality, is known in every factory throughout the world. 

The ethic, on the broad foundation of which Dr. Dey sought to 
build everything, gave his whole life a sense of dedication, even, I 
fancy, to the point of celibacy, which the Roman Church has adopted 
as an incentive to singleness of purpose and perhaps as conferring an 
immunity from those tell-tale criticisms which the conduct of a man's 
children often creates. If the doctrine was a little drab, and if it roused 
in his young pupils the humorous incredibility attaching to all counsels 
of perfection, it was never priggish and never domineering, for the 
master felt as much under its rule as the boys to whom he preached 
it. It had nothing to do with the discredited Smiles theory of " get- 
ting on " — the world is full of men who " get on " by the very nega- 
tion of conduct. Dr. Dey certainly believed that accomplishment 
would follow self-control : but he first of all taught self-control 
and let the result of "getting on" take care of itself In short, 
nothing more alien to the crammer's creed could be imagined. Had 
he possessed that spirit, he would have remained in "England" 
and made his fortune in pursuit of it ; whereas he chose to return to 
his native country — on the departure of Cosmo Grant — as if to find 
suitable soil for the harvesting of his ideas, among a people largely 
endowed with a spiritual outlook similar to his own. That the winning 
of educational prizes was not the be-all of his existence and the 
missing of them no embittering disappointment comes out in his 
reply to a letter I wrote him in the spring of 190 1, daringly suggest- 
ing that the business of teaching must be " depressing " : — 

Your remark is undoubtedly plausible, and in many cases, I fear, more 
than plausible. This phase of the question certainly did not escape me ; but 
it never became strong enough to depress me. Again and again [how I hear 
his voice and his persuasive dogmatism in these written words] at the end of a 
day's work or a week's work there might be a feeling of disappointment as to 
the visible results produced ; but I had an abiding conviction that the earnest 



112 Aberdeen University Review 

worker need not feel depressed even if he does not see any visible results at 
the end of a week or other definite period of time. 

In spite of his seriousness he was really a Happy Warrior, for he 
lived in a land of promise, symbolized by his daily walk along King 
Street, that long unlovely avenue of promise, which, begun in i8oi^ 
did not really materialize until he had left the school and his house 
in Roslin Terrace altogether. Every morning in the week, except 
Saturday and Sunday, we could descry him from the school dyke 
shortly before nine, just as he passed the derelict mill at the end of 
University Road, a short figure in a shabby frock coat — he rarely 
wore an overcoat — and a tall hat, tramping steadily along, carrying an 
umbrella and a mass of papers, the pupils' exercises corrected over- 
night. The sun might be shining, the rain might be pouring, and the 
wind might be blowing huge waves over the South Breakwater ; but 
there he was to the minute, the strenuous, earnest soul, intent on his 
mission. 

We all assembled in the big central room, and ** Billy," hanging 
up his hat above him — he had no sort of retiring room — mounted a 
queer sort of pulpit in the passage by the door, and began to read — 
mostly, if not exclusively, from Robertson of Brighton's Sermons, with 
the brown cloth back of which I had been familiar all my life. His 
favourite message was from the Galatians text — ''Benot deceived; 
God is not mocked ; for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also 
reap ". St. Paul's Epistle, and particularly this motive in it, summed 
up his whole creed, which was ethical rather than what is called religi- 
ous, and was never goody-goody. We on the scarred benches were 
engaged in sowing ; the man in the box foreshadowed the harvest. 
It is impossible for me to convey a full sense of the immense impres- 
siveness of this little morning dedication to the work of the day, with 
its total absence of perfunctoriness and its dominating note of inspiring 
awe. It was, when you come to think of it, a strange note to strike 
before a lot of raw loons, but it impressed all of us deeply at the time, 
and more deeply in after life, for it was part and parcel of the man's 
whole life, and the most critical of us — for young people see life with 
merciless sincerity — could detect not a moment's deviation between his 
precept and his practice. 

Similarly with his actual teaching, he constantly drew our atten- 
tion to the ethic of the subject. Thus he liked to demonstrate Euclid 



"Billy" Dey 113 



with its intense sense of cause and effect ; but he was still more at 
home in teaching Latin, for its logicalness and its severe thinking ap- 
pealed to him ; Cicero, especially in ** De Officiis," was naturally his 
favourite, and the Ciceronian decorum with all its implications marked 
for him the high-water mark of conduct. So far as we could see, he 
had much less interest in the aesthetic of literature, and in the matter 
of textual criticism his use of men like Madvig was all in the direction 
of demonstrating the "Law and Orrder" of the Romans. 

Do I convey the impression of a mere Machine ? Nothing could 
be farther from the truth. The establishments which gradually sup- 
planted the *'Barn" are the Machines, huge, intricate, and compre- 
hensive, and they go on more or less by their own momentum, 
according to laws imposed on them from without. The '* Barn," on 
the other hand, was essentially the work of the Man : and a Man of 
extraordinary personality to have carried it on upon a high wave of 
success for seventeen years, almost single-handed. Our educational 
system has broadened far too much for one man to do that to-day 
with equal force. And Dr. Dey clearly knew when his particular 
part in the scheme of things was done ; he divined, as Mr. William 
Archer said the other day, that the grammar school in the literal 
sense of the term " must go the way of the dame's school and the 
horn book ". But even when he changed it for the wider arena of 
the University Court and the development of a Faculty of Education, 
the power of the Man was very great and the University as a whole, 
like his own immediate pupils in particular, owed him a deep debt of 
gratitude as a great exemplar of high thinking and plain living. 

By a curious paradox he was absolutely unknown in the flesh to 
the great majority of his fellow-citizens until he had left the scene of 
his teaching triumphs and moved from the cottage in Roslin Terrace 
to the west-end ; though of course his name and fame were known to 
all. During his teaching career he had been so absorbed in his work 
that he had led the life of a recluse. Indeed, he was a sort of myth, 
for none of us knew whether the school was his own property or 
under some sort of management (for we never had visitors) ; and not 
one pupil in a thousand had ever crossed his threshold. When he 
did emerge into public life Dr. Dey was found to be a most human, 
kindly man with a rich store of varied knowledge (he had frequently 
visited America) and a real sense of humour, expressed in an almost 
boyish laugh and in a myriad of laughter- wrinkles at the corners of 

8 



114 Aberdeen University Review 

his grey eyes. Perhaps it was this little occasional escape from his 
serious self that earned him the sobriquet of " Billy ". 

I have said that a school equipped as the " Barn " was, with little 
more than the Studium Generate of the infant University, could not 
compete with the huge educational caravanserais, any more than a 
little grocer can compete with Harrod or Selfridge or Whiteley. But I 
hasten to add that at no time within living memory was the Spirit of 
William Dey more necessary than it is at this moment, and still more 
in the immediate future. His doctrine of Self-Control might well be 
followed by almost the whole of our dominie-ism and Intelligentia^ 
which seem to think it applicable only to the unrestrained ranks of 
weekly wage-earners. His reticence and courage were never in such 
real demand. His industry and complete economy are of greater value 
than ever. His whole creed is so congenial to his cradle country that 
w^e who belong to his " corner " are apt to take it for granted. But 
it is more or less new in the arenas of the south, from which " Billy " 
departed early in his career, as if by a sure instinct for self-preserva- 
tion. Entering his eightieth year, he was far more on the right track 
than many men half his age, and we who were trained directly by 
him find ourselves facing the future with less difficulty than had we 
been reared in a less strenuous school. 

Nor is the actual harled shell of the Barn without its purpose. 
To-day it is housing Soldiers. **Law, Orrder, Duty an' Restraint, 
Obedience, Discipline " continue to inform it as when William Dey 
reigned there supreme. 

J. M. BULLOCH. 



Ultimus Georgicorum. 




iT was with no little pleasure that I made the dis- 
covery of my distinction. There was, no renown, 
no far-flung fame which would make {my name a 
household word or make my pen a rival of CrcEsus, 
but it was something in a common prosaic career 
to be at least a person out of the ordinary, to 
have lived in the psychological moment when such 
changes were made in the University curriculum \ that/ there was no 
possibility of another conventional Aberdeen student casting the 
shadow of his important self on the quadrangle. I was the last. 
If I did not leave the plough stilts to climb the steep Parnassus hills 
of classical learning, at least I had served a full term at the anvil 
and the forge, and during the months between Whitsunday and the 
opening of the session I had earned my bread and a few precious 
pounds at the toil of the farm servant. Were Charles Murray to de- 
signate me in the mither tongue he so well preserves, he i would not 
deny me the title of " The Hin'most o' the Geordies ". 

That was in the year of Jubilee, when the whole world was full of 
rejoicing over the completion of fifty years of the gracious reign of 
Queen Victoria. On the day appointed for the celebration of the 
national festival I laid down the scythe in the hay-field and went to the 
Established Kirk of Inverurie to take my place in the choir, bearing 
the credential of being the leading tenor in the congregation to which 
by birth and training I belonged. It somewhat vexed my loyal soul 
to reflect that one effect of the tribute I paid to the beloved Queen 
was that at the very least one hour was thereby lost from the study of 
Virgil ; but the sombre reflection of the scholar who was puzzling out 
the antics of Juno as they were recorded in the limpid hexameters of 
epic poetry led me to think, before the close of the day, that the balance 
of chances was against seeing another jubilee year in the too solid flesh 
of earthly life. I therefore indulged in a wild dissipation in the evening 



ii6 Aberdeen University Review 

of that day ; I closed my books and tramped with the rest of the 
jubilant throng to the blue heights of Bennachie, from that command- 
ing eminence to see the myriad flaming tokens of the nation's grati- 
tude in a multitude of bonfires all over the country. 

Soon the days sped away, and when the great Artist was painting 
every conceivable colour into the woods of Keith-hall, I wheeled my box 
to the station in a barrow — my whole stock of clothes, books, and a 
supply of meal and butter and eggs ; and away I went, prouder than 
any scion of a ducal or royal house when entering upon his hereditary 
patrimony, to tread the coveted regal highway to a University degree. 
I had a fidus Achates, then rising to the giddy heights of academic 
eminence as a Tertian ; he had told me many things as to how the 
students spent their time which gave me no little conceit of myself. 
I had the serious intention of using every hour for its legitimate pur- 
pose ; there would no Semi lay a frivolous finger upon my body to 
waste a part of an hour in the historic frolics of the contending classes, 
without at least knowing that he had to deal with sinews that had 
grown like steel rods when I had been swinging the sledge hammer. 
He had also given me some charts of this untrodden Canaan by which 
I would know the richest fountains of milk and honey. He was weak 
and rather small, and from his infancy a student ; our ways had been very 
different but he was my good, true friend. How I miss him still, 
although the years mount up since he met his death in the railway 
disaster at Elliot Junction. 

On the first day of the session we walked down together from 
North Broadford, close by Split-the-Win*, and I ventured to indulge 
a little sentiment with him by telling him how I had looked forward 
for years to that day, when I would actually enter King's. I was the 
eldest child of a widowed mother who had been left with a family of 
eight and no means of providing for their support. A young man 
past his twentieth birthday, setting out to get a University education 
on his own charges, has not much sentiment left for anything or 
anybody. 

There were few gowns. I had heard of them but had never seen 
one before. My friend had sartorial antipathies, and as there was no 
compulsion in those days for the under-graduate to adorn himself in 
appropriate costume, he did not possess one. They had been de- 
scribed to me by privileged visitors to the city as " reed clokkies," and 
as one of the vulgar mass I had no respect for such petty marks of 



Ultimus Georgicorum 117 



differentiation from the common people. I was actually a bearded 
Magistrand before I wore the scarlet tunic, and then partly because 
the law had been passed to make it compulsory, but more because the 
professor requested me as a favour to him to make myself like my 
fellows. 

Harrower was the first professor I saw. My spirit contracts yet 
as 1 recall that dark frown. I thought that I had seen men of the 
same type, for whom it was necessary that they should never forget to 
support their own dignity if they were to keep their charges under 
control. He was such a man to me for all the months I occupied a 
place in his room ; but his stern discipline, his relentless perseverance 
with class work, fitted in with my scheme of life, and I respected where 
I did not revere. How surprised I was to learn, when I accidentally 
met him one day in the streets of Glasgow six years ago, that he 
actually remembered me, not because I " had scintillated with corus- 
cating brilliance in the Hellenic heaven," but because he had noted 
that I had entered the Grecian grove without any of the approved 
probation in the porch of Grammar School or Gordon's College. He 
began, after a devotional exercise, by giving us a list of textbooks, 
translations, reference books, all of which he thought necessary for the 
student ; he took away my breath ; if each cost even a modest shilling, 
to say nothing of the half-crown or half-guinea he quoted, my hoarded 
twenty-five pounds would be spent before I got my foot firmly planted 
on the first rung of the ladder. A neighbour commented on his list in 
a language which saved me from despair, " Auch, ye dinna need the 
hauf o' them, an' what ye hae to get ye can get second-han' or wi' 
paper covers ; an ye can get a Kelly's crib for a sixpence ". 

Then to Ramsay — I have several of his books on my shelves to- 
day as my regular working and necessary tools. I wonder if they 
would have been more or less to me if I had never seen him or heard him. 
He is before my eyes again, sitting on one foot, twirling a pencil, the 
background of his desk suggesting ancient Rome, he himself most care- 
fully groomed, just like a leading draper in my native town. There 
were no Huns anywhere in all Europe like those who despised the 
classic cult ; he talked to the class that day on a subject about which 
I knew no more than I did about the prehistoric dodo ; it was a 
chapter in the controversy of wordy warfare which was then disturbing 
the placid life of the Chanonry. But there was no list of books; we 
were to read Horace and Livy and we got no advice as to what or 



1 1 8 Aberdeen University Review 

where to buy anything. Ramsay was the only professor to whom I 
ever spoke, except in class. He invited me to his house. Shades of 
the wooden horse ! My wardrobe boasted of nothing better than the 
clothes I wore at college, a mere convenient change for unforeseen 
drookings. I offered an apology which was made true by the ac- 
ceptance of an engagement which I had myself procured to let me free 
from the fateful terrors of an evening in the high society of the College 
Bounds. 

Minto — will there be an Elysium at all without him ? He was alto- 
gether human, and his subject of English literature was nectar to a soul 
which had tasted a few stray drops from the goblets of the gods and 
thirsted for more as did the hart of the psalmist for the water brooks. 
In my possession now there is a cherished note he wrote to me after 
I had finished my Tertian year advising me to read for honours in Phil- 
osophy. How he could command his class ! We met him three times 
a week, after those who had spare pennies had made the trip up the 
Aulton to regale themselves with the penny roll and jam. Many of 
my fellow-students had alluring engagements in the afternoon, and I at 
least impransus, and therefore as jealous as any of the others about a 
trespass beyond the bounds of the hour ; but never once was a foot 
shuffled when Minto carried us beyond the half-past before he con- 
cluded. We felt somehow all the time that he was only giving us the 
spare fragments of his knowledge, and yet we did not grow in a gaping 
wonder at him or awe of him. It was said that he was infidel in his 
beliefs and dangerous to youths who had a religious vocation in view. 
Without doubt he was an empiricist. Who can forget the impossible 
freaks of the hypothetical tyro ? But never had infidelity so fair speech 
or foe to faith so true and honourable personality. This Aristotle was 
the best introduction to Plato. 

For me this ended the daily benefit of the University. I could not 
bear to go into the library often. On my first visit to it my fingers 
itched to handle the inviting volumes. In my ignorance I expected to 
be permitted to indulge my wish. I did not know that a pontifex 
maximus stood guard over those precincts in the shape of a sterling 
pound. I turned away from those patrician preserves and refreshed 
myself among the rest of the plebeian crowd in the Free Library of 
the city. 

The same impecuniosity kept me from the societies. The only 
extra shilling I spent that session was for a torch when we celebrated 



Ultimus Georgicorum 119 



the election of Mr. Goschen as Lord Rector. Morley was ' my man. 
I knew nothing about many things about which my fellow-students 
knew most of what could be known. Here were politicians, however, 
and I knew about politicians. Had I not discoursed far into the 
night on the road to Bourtie to admiring and hostile groups on the 
urgent need for Home Rule and the transcendent virtues of Mr. 
Gladstone and the high qualities of all his followers ? Morley would 
have been shocked at the vehemence and address of his supporter, but 
I was proud to have the opportunity to vote for him. We were de- 
feated, but I was now a civis universitatis first and a partisan next ; I 
held it right to regret the verdict of the electors and to forget the dis- 
appointment, and I spent a precious shilling and joined the procession, 
turning my overcoat outside in to save its appearance, all in honour of 
my creed of citizenship. 

In the matter of "digs" I shared a room with an embryonic 
dominie ; I had the presumption to help him with his Latin. The 
cost to me was 3s. 6d. for room, 6d. for coal and 6d. for gas ; the 
balance of 9s. per week had to supply food ; if the weekly bill went 
beyond that, the prospect of getting to the end of the session faded 
away. 

Was it hard ? Not to me. It was one unending delight. I had 
the advantage of going into King's with the set purpose of training 
for the ministry. As I believed I could not worthily fill the office 
unless I could secure my degree, the toil and the penury were bliss 
as every day was bringing me nearer to the goal. I could wish that 
I had been given more time for what is called culture, and I can ap- 
preciate the advantages of certain modern methods of academic edu- 
cation. Still for the purpose of fitting a man to do his work in the 
world, without pressing him into an artificial mould, I have seen 
nothing better than the system of those days. I count myself fortun- 
ate at least that I had the privilege to be a Bajan before the old regime 
was disturbed, and notwithstanding all the advantages of options, and 
moderns, and societies, and all the rest to help the student and create 
esprit de corps, no one can love the Alma Mater more than I do, and I 
have even a little ragret that I am the ultimus georgicorum. 

G. WATT SMITH. 




Jeremiah's Poems on War. 

Being Part of the First Murtle Lecture for 191 5-16. 

|Y purpose is to give some account of the Prophet 
Jeremiah, of his work both as a poet and a prophet, 
and of his religious teaching during a period of 
terrible wars. It has often been pointed out that 
in his ministry, more even than in that of any 
other prophet, the determining factor under God 
was the prophet's own personality. Jeremiah 
started more deeply from himself than did anyone else of his order. 
He stood in more lonely opposition to his people. He asserted more 
strenuously than all except Job his conscience and individuality as 
over against God. He assisted in the promulgation of a great system 
of national religion — perhaps the finest the world has ever seen — but 
he lived to prove its insufficiency for the individual and to experience 
the collapse of his people's faith in it on the defeat of Israel at Megiddo. 
He saw his land overrun by a powerful enemy, the strength of his 
nation driven into exile, and the fall of the Jewish state. The 
national altar was shattered, but he gathered the fire into his own 
bosom and carried it not only unquenched but with a purer and more 
brilliant flame to its everlasting future. We may say without exaggera- 
tion that all which henceforth became dominant and creative in Israel's 
religion was, however ancient its sources, recast in the crucible of his 
own soul. 

For our knowledge of this great life — there was none greater under 
the Old Covenant — we are dependent on the Book of Jeremiah. Of it 
we have two editions : the Hebrew text from which our Authorised and 
Revised Versions have been made, and the shorter Greek Version of 
the Septuagint. A comparison proves them to be independent re- 
censions of the same original. The Hebrew is about one-eighth longer 
than the Greek. The Greek has only some hundred words not found 



Jeremiah's Poems on War 121 

in the Hebrew. Between them they exhibit signs of a gradual, but 
limited, growth in the contents of the Book. 

These consist of three classes: (i) a large number of Jeremiah's 
own oracles and discourses, of which he himself began the collection 
by dictating to Baruch the scribe his utterances of the previous twenty 
years ; (2) a number of narratives of his life contemporary or nearly 
contemporary with himself; and (3) later additions partly in the form 
of titles, notes and brief enlargements and partly in the form of 
longer discourses. 

The literary and spiritual qualities of the Book therefore vary. 
The narratives are direct and clear. They produce a consistent and 
convincing picture of the growth of a singularly interesting tempera- 
ment and genius, unfitted by nature for the office to which he was 
called, but rising to all its tasks and sacrifices on the bare conviction of 
a call from God, through many debates and struggles with the Deity, 
and by the gradual discovery from the awful events of his time of the 
Divine Will for himself and his people. 

The character of the discourses and oracles is complex and more 
•difficult. The reader finds his interest fluctuating between periods 
of a loose copious style and passages of exact and trenchant de- 
scription, poignant utterances of feeling and sublime expressions of 
religious truth ; or between arguments about the Law, dating from the 
Deuteronomic controversy, and daring debates with God Himself on 
the ways of His Providence — forlorn hopes of the sufferer's heart and 
conscience against the impenetrable ranks of the Divine judgments. 

Part of this complexity is due to a mingling of poetry and prose. 
Modern scholarship has succeeded in discriminating a number of pieces, 
some fifty in all, which are as metrical in form and lyric in spirit as 
any of the Psalms ; in unrhymed couplets, and sometimes triplets, with 
a regular proportion of stresses or accents and all the other marks of 
the poetic style — an order of words differing from that in prose, the 
omission of particles, other abbreviations, the use of archaic phrases, 
and of unusual but more sonorous terminations to words, and so forth. 

I propose to take these poems as illustrating Jeremiah's power of 
reflecting the life of his times, and especially the wars and invasions 
from which his country suffered — the Scythian raids which swept 
across Palestine to the borders of Egypt in 625 B.C., the Egyptian in- 
vasion in 612 when the King and the flower of the army fell at 
Megiddo, and the treble Babylonian invasion culminating in the 



122 Aberdeen University Review 

siege, overthrow and sack of Jerusalem in 586. I think that we shall 
find his reflections of these events not irrelevant to the circumstances 
of our allies and ourselves in the present war. 

In the earliest of his lyrics, scattered through the second and follow- 
ing chapters, in which Jeremiah pleads with and upbraids his sinful 
people, his dependence on his predecessors and especially on the pro- 
phet Hosea is evident. But he throws this off and develops a poetry 
which in its descriptions of nature and of the heart of man — in its wist- 
fulness and poignancy, its echoes of the tumult of an invaded and the 
weeping of a shattered people, its realism of battle, siege, darkness and 
death, with the occasional splendours that break over all like the sun 
through clouds — is his very own. He is a lyric poet of the highest 
order with the supreme notes of simplicity and inevitableness. And 
this renders the translation of his verses an impossible task. So much 
depends on the forms and sounds of the original words, so much on 
the angle at which they were launched and the notes with which they 
rang through this native air. But at least you can mark how very 
simple all the words are ; and how they march — like the ranks they 
describe — on to their climax. The first appears to be a description of 
the approaching Scythians : — 

Lo, a folk under way from the north, 

A people astir from the ends of the earth. 

Bow and spear they are grasping, 

They are cruel and ruthless ; 

The noise of them booms like the sea, 

As on horses they ride, 

In array as one man to the battle, 

Daughter of Sion — on thee? 

As in his choice of words so in his use of metaphor and parable, 
all is simple : a girl's ornament, a man's waistband, the stork, the crane, 
the startled horse, the lion, the leopard, the black Ethiopian, the potter 
at his wheel — everyday objects of the people's sight, appear without 
elaboration but never bald or uncouth. The following is an answer to 
the complaint of his contemporaries that they do not understand 
God's meaning and are tired of His discipline: — 

O generation, you ...(?) 
See the word of the Lord ! 
Have I been to Israel a desert, 
Or land oi thick darkness ? 

^ VI. 22 t. 



Jeremiah's Poems on War 123 

Why say my folk, We are off, 
We come near Thee no more ! 
Can a maiden forget her adorning, 
Or a bride her apparel ? 
Yet Me have My people forgotten 
Days without number.^ 

Now and then there is irony in the very bareness of his word : — 

Thus saith the Lord, Israel's God, 
Every skin is filled with wine. 

And when the people, irritated, turn upon him saying, " Don't we know 
that every skin is filled with wine ? " he replies : " Thus saith the Lord 

Every dweller of this land shall I fill. 

Every dweller of Jerusalem with drunkenness — * 

— the drunkenness of astonishment and terror. 

Like all the prophets whose moral atmosphere blazed as fiercely 
as their physical, who, living on the border of the great deserts under 
the Eastern sun, drew breath also in the fear of the Lord and beheld 
life in the fire of His righteousness, Jeremiah describes all things with- 
out illusion or mysticism. We see the raw • Judaean landscapes under 
the pitiless light, every ugliness clear on their surface : the dung, the 
carcases, the breached walls, the tumbling houses, the trodden vineyards,, 
and the long chaos of desert hills, as you see them to-day from his 
home in Anathoth, panting under the autumn sun. 

The bare names of drought, famine, pestilence, and war are a 
uttered by the prophet that you feel their awful presences, and, as their 
skirts sweep past, they leave naked the black details : bodies of men 
and children across every lane, with the gathering dogs and the vul- 
tures. 

Sometimes the terror is nameless, but even then the prophet' s^ 
simplicity does not desert him. All one feels is a horrible shadow 
creeping upon the hills — " premature night " as it has been called,, 
night without dew, or coolness, or any shelter. 

To your God give the glory, 
Before He bring darkness, 
Ere your feet begin stumbling 
On the mountains of twilight. 
And ye look for the light 
But He turns it to shadow, 
And makes it thick darkness.* 

^11. 31 f. 2xin. 12, 13. 5ixni. 16 f. 



124 Aberdeen University Review 

Jeremiah has perfected that art of realism which startles us by the 
sudden emergence of concrete forms of danger out of some cloudy 
horror that has been looming in the distance. We find this art in all 
the prophets and indeed in the poetry of vengeance and deliverance 
among all oppressed peoples. The impending judgment is first painted 
in terms of a gathering storm or flood — lurid and vague — and then in a 
moment the far-away clouds and their lightnings break into the features 
and arms of an invader who has arrived and who looks you in the 
eyes. I remember an abrupt instance of this among the negro songs 
of the American Civil War under the refrain '* Babylon (that is slavery) 
has fallen " : — 

Don't you see the lightning flashing in the cane-brakes 

Don't you think we'se gwine to have a storm ? 
No you is mistaken, them's the darkies' bayonets 

And de buttons on de uniform. 

This sudden change in the range of the foe — with which a year of 
war has made us familiar — Jeremiah makes again and again, for in- 
stance : — 

I saw the earth, 'twas shapeless and void, 

The heavens, their light was gone, 
I saw the mountains and lo, they were trembling, 

The hills were all restless together. 



Hark, 'tis the horse and the bowmen, 

The land is in flight I 
They are into the caves, huddled in thickets, 

They are up on the rocks. 
Every town is forsaken of men 

None to inhabit I ^ 

Or again : — 

Lo, the waters are up in the North, 

The torrents are rising. 
They deluge the land and her fulness. 

The city and them that inhabit. 
At the stamp of the hoofs of his stallions, 
At the rush of his cars, 

At the rumbling of his wheels. 
Fathers turn not back for their children 
Palsied their hands.' 

Or take the second of the prophet's inaugural visions : — 
And the Lord said unto me, What seest thou ? And I said I see a 
seething caldron with its face from the North. And the Lord said 

1 IV. 23, 29. " XLVII . 2, 3. 



Jeremiah's Poems on War 125 

to me : From the North evil shall boil up on all the inhabitants of 
the land. For lo, I am calling all the races of the Kingdoms of the 
North, and they shall come and shall set every one his throne at the 
openings of the gates of Jerusalem.^ 

There you have it ; a lowering, boiling cloud in the far northern 
skies, and the next moment the enemy sitting in the gate. 

Few if any of Israel's poets equal the poignancy of Jeremiah's 
elegies ; none breathe so exquisite a wistfulness : — 

From Dan a sound has been heard, 

Hinnying of his horses, 
With the noise of the neigh of his steeds 

The land is aquake. 



For that this gnef hath no comfort 

Sick is my heart, 
Hark to the cry of my people 

Far o'er the land ! 
" Is the Lord no longer in Sion, 

Is there no King ? " 
•• Why have they vexed me with idols, 

Vanities alien ? " 
Harvest is over, summer is ended 

We are not saved. 
For the breach of my people I break, 

Horror hath seized me. 
Is there no balm in Gilead, 

Is there no healer ? 
Why doth the healing not wax 

Of the wounds of my people. 
O that my head were but waters, 

Mine eyes springs of tears. 
Night and day would I weep 

For the slain of my people.^ 
Call the keening women to come, 

Send for the wise ones 
To hasten and sing us a dirge, 
Till with tears our eyes run down. 

Our eyelids with water. 
For death is come up to our windows 

And into our palaces ; 
The children are cut from the streets. 

The youths from the places ; 
And the corpses of men are fallen, 

Like dung on the field, 
Like swaths the reaper has left 

And nobody gathers. ^ 

I. 13 f. aviii. 16 flf. • IX. 16 ff 



126 Aberdeen University Review 

Or these immortal words : — 

A voice is heard in Ramah, lamentation and bitter weeping, Rachel 
weeping for her children ; she refuseth to be comforted for her 
children : because they are not.^ 

And thus it still wonderfully happens that we find in God's word 
a sympathy with our every grief; that none of our sorrows are new or 
at their bitterest unexampled ; that even in these direst ways of war 
others His saints have gone before us, and that God's hand keeps open 
through these inspired verses an entrance for our hearts into the com- 
forting fellowship of their sufferings. 

The last verses which I quoted on the weeping of Rachel, the 
mother of the tribe to which Jeremiah belonged, and her refusal to be 
•comforted for her fallen, are followed by this Divine command: 
Refrain thy voice from weeping and thine eyes from tears, for thy work 
jhallbe rewarded, saith the Lord, and they shall come again from the land 
of the enemy. 

To trace the way in which so fluid and shrinking a temperament 
as Jeremiah's was enabled to fulfil this command, and he was led up to 
the peace and dignity of his old age, with the assured hope which in- 
spires some of his latest oracles in spite of increasing disasters to his 
people — to trace all this is now impossible. 

It is enough to recall the stern word which came to him at the 
start of his career, when he was told that he should have to face not 
only foreign, but the hostility of his own kings, princes, priests, and 
people: Be not dismayed at them lest I make thee dismayed before 
ihem. As we have need of our Heavenly Father's sympathy and 
grace in any warfare for righteousness to which He may call us, so He 
has need of such courage and initiative as, being His children and the 
brethren of Jesus Christ, He trusts us to be able to show. The 
words are a call upon those primitive powers which he planted in us 
when He created us after His image. God needs our native grit and 
pluck, and we must not fail Him. 

Again there is God's later answer to the prophet's complaint of the 
sufferings of himself and other righteous men, and his challenge to 
God's justice in permitting these. The answer was only and barely this : 
If thou hast run with the footmen and they have wearied thee, then how 
canst thou contend with the horsemen ? and if in a land of peace thou 
runnest away, what wilt thou do in the jungles of Jordan ? (XII. 5). 

^xxxi. 15. 



Jeremiah's Poems on War 127 

To the prophet's questions of the meaning of his trials — as of 
many of our own — there is then no answer save that they are the 
athletic against others still to come and still more severe. That is a 
solution we do well to lay to heart. If as a nation we have failed in the 
past it has been because of our blindness to the magnitude of the tasks 
and sacrifices still before us. But we are learning our lesson. There 
is not a reverse which we have suffered but has braced the national 
spirit and increased the number of our voluntary recruits. The long 
<ielays of the war have not wearied the people but rendered them more 
determined to pursue their sacred struggle to the end at whatever in- 
crease of cost and suffering. No pessimism, therefore, and no depres- 
sion ! But however many be the defeats and losses which still await 
us, a constantly rising courage and hope in the name of righteousness 
and humanity ! 

How patiently Jeremiah accepted the dark assurance given him, 
and having through his earlier sufferings realised a better self than he 
was aware of, in the end sacrificed that self with all its natural ambi- 
tions of influence and victory to the Will of God that he should abide 
by his own people and with a worthless remnant of them be hurried 
into exile, and blotted out of sight in a foreign grave — all this is 
clearly set forth in the Book. He never saw the satisfaction of his 
travail for others. But there is little doubt that it was his patience 
and self-sacrifice which inspired the description of the Suffering Servant 
of the Lord in the fifty-third of Isaiah, the clearest prophecy in the 
Old Testament of Jesus Christ Himself. We cannot wonder that 
some of our Lord's contemporaries thought that He was Jeremiah come 
to life again. 

GEORGE ADAM SMITH. 




The West Point Military Academy, U.S.A. 

IFTY miles north of New York City, the Hudsore 
River, at that point really less a river than a fjord, 
passes for fifteen miles or more between the outstand- 
ing clifTs of the New Jersey Highlands. Leaving the 
comparatively flat lands of Newburgh, the river, 
over a mile wide, enters the gorge at Cornwall, to 
emerge and broaden out once more into the opea 
reaches of Ossining, where Peek's Kill stream enters from the east. 

On a bend of the/ gorge and on its western side, five miles or so- 
from its northern end, backed by the commanding bluff known as- 
Mount Independence, and looking over the fjord to the Putnam Heights^ 
lies the township of West Point. The village itself, of some 2000 in-^ 
habitants is of small importance ; interest centres rather in the great 
Military Academy built/ on a plateau about 200 feet above the river- 
bank, a cluster of battlemented buildings where specially selected sons 
of " Uncle Sam " learn the art and science both of peace and war. 

As long ago as 1778 West Point was chosen as the site of one of 
the chain of forts lerectedjfor the defence of the Hudson in the War of 
Independence, 'and high above the Academic buildings Old Fort 
Putnam still keeps watch over long reaches of the river it was built 
to guard. 

Although the subject had been mooted several years before and 
even carried into practice by the establishment of " a military school 
for young gentlemen previously to their being appointed to marching^ 
regiments," it was to her soldier-statesman, Washington, that the 
Unitedi States owed the conception of a great military Academy on the 
heightsTof the Gibraltar of the Hudson, where picked lads from the 
Congressional Districts* might receive a thorough education to fit them 
for the command of the 'Republican Armies in time of war, or for taking 
their places in peace in the equally acute, though perhaps less immedi- 
ately sanguinary, contests of commerce. 



West Point Military Academy, U.S.A. 129 

It was not till 1802, however, that the then President (Jefferson) 
founded the College on the site it now occupies. During the succeeding 
decade the College went through many vicissitudes — for one period, in- 
deed it was without any instructor — but the year 181 2 marked its re- 
organization on the lines, mutatis mutandis, which have since been 
followed with so much success. The secret of that success lies in the 
fundamental principle underlying the whole course of instruction, viz., 
that the training which tends to the evolution of a good soldier tends, 
also to the evolution of a good citizen. 

" West Point," says Henderson in his brilliant study of one of West 
Point's most distinguished graduates, " was much more than a military school. 
It was a University, and a University under the very strictest discipline, where 
the science of the soldier formed only a portion of the course. Subjects which 
are now considered essential to a military education were not taught at all. 
The art of War gave place to ethics and engineering ; and mathematics and 
chemistry were considered of far more importance than topography and forti- 
fication. Yet with French, history, and drawing, it will be admitted that the 
course was sufficiently comprehensive. . . . The fact that a man had passed 
the final examination at West Point was a sufficient certificate that he had re- 
ceived a thorough education, that his mental faculties had been strengthened 
by four years of hard work and that he was well equipped to take his place among 
his fellow-men. And it was more than this. Four years of the strictest dis- 
cipline were sufficient to break in even the most careless and the most slovenly 
to neatness, obedience, and punctuality. Such habits are not easily unlearned, 
and the West Point certificate was thus a guarantee of qualities that are every- 
where useful. It did not necessarily follow that because a cadet won a com- 
mission he remained a soldier. Many went to civil life, and the Academy 
was an excellent school for men who intended to find a career as surveyors or 
engineers. The training and discipline of West Point were not then concen- 
trated in one profession, but were disseminated throughout the States ; and it 
was with this purpose that the institution of the Academy had been approved 
by Congress" ("Stonewall Jackson," Vol, I, pp. 16-17), 

The West Point Military Academy comprises a cluster of buildings 
laid out in an extensive national park and includes the Cadet Barracks, 
Library, Gymnasium, Administrative buildings. Mess Hall, Instruc- 
tional Classrooms and Laboratories, Riding School and Hospital, while 
along the river bank are placed the Artillery batteries for instructional 
purposes. The Library, of over 100,000 volumes, is one of the finest 
military libraries in the world. In the Mess Hall (Commemorative: 
of General Grant) and the Administrative Buildings hang the portraits 
of famous generals, and through the finely wooded grounds and 
along the terraces stand monuments to those of America's soldiers 
whom she delights to honour. A mile north of the College, in the 

9 



130 Aberdeen University Review 

silent acre allotted to those who have died in the service of their 
country, lie the remains of Thayer, one of the first Commandants of 
the Academy ; of Winfield Scott, who directed the Mexican Campaign 
of 1 847-8 ; and of other distinguished officers. Two memorials 
stand out pre-eminently — one, the Battle Monument to the soldiers 
who fell in the Civil War, and one to Kosciusko — to the American, a 
martyr in the cause of Liberty, and to the cadet of West Point, a 
national hero trained in its classrooms. Edgar Allan Poe, it may be 
remembered, was for a time a cadet at West Point. 

The Commandant of West Point has the rank of Colonel in the 
United States Army, and has as second in command a Lieutenant- 
Colonel who is Battalion Commander of the corps of cadets in resid- 
ence. The staff of instructors includes an Engineer and an Ordnance 
officer who act as instructors in Military Engineering and Gunnery, 
while specially selected staff officers, termed professors, have charge of 
the instruction of the cadets in all other subjects. These officers form 
the Academic Board. The number of cadets in residence is about 
500, and since the curriculum extends over four years it may be said 
that about 125 freshmen are added each year. The average annual 
number graduating is about sixty, for only about 50 per cent of those 
who begin the curriculum are — for one reason or another — able to com- 
plete it and even then join the colours. 

Election to vacancies at West Point is partly in the hands of the 
President of the United States, who has a number of nominations at 
his disposal, while the remainder are in the hands of members of the 
Senate and Congress. 

The *'Oath of Office," which every freshman cadet must take, 
requires that he should " serve in the Army of the United States for 
eight years (i.e., four years at West Point and four years subsequently) 
unless sooner discharged by competent authority''. This discharge is 
never refused save when the nation has need of the cadet's services ; 
nor is the proviso unjust, for those who enter West Point are housed, 
fed, and well educated by the State at a cost of about $2000 per 
annum, and it is but natural that the State should have a first claim 
on her pupil for at least a limited period after his term of pupilage has 
closed. The age of entry is between 17 and 22 ; the cadet must be 
unmarried, adjudged physically fit, and pass an entrance examination 
in general knowledge which, though not of a high standard, is search- 
ing, and includes reading, writing and orthography, arithmetic, algebra, 



West Point Military Academy, U.S.A. 131 

geometry, English grammar, composition, geography and history, 
especially of the United States. Every selected cadet must don the 
" cadet grey," which costs him something under ;^20. 

The curriculum, as already stated, extends over four years, and the 
cadet is instructed in United States drill regulations for infantry, 
cavalry, and artillery, in discipline and military police work, in gym- 
nastics, fencing, and the use of the sword and bayonet. He is 
thoroughly trained in mathematics, English, French, Spanish, drawing, 
chemistry, physics, mineralogy and geology, in the theory and prac- 
tice of gunnery, and in civil and military engineering. He is also in- 
structed in national and international and military law, and in the laws 
and customs of nations. Much of this instruction is given practically ; 
for example, all the drill, gymnastics, and gunnery exercises are per- 
formed on the parade ground, in the gymnasium, or at the sea-coast 
experimental batteries or in camp during summer. There are labora- 
tories for chemistry, physics, mineralogy, geology, and practical as- 
tronomy, while civil and military engineering is studied both in the 
classroom and on the field. The cadet must be acquainted with the 
theory of the construction of trestle, single and double-lock bridges, 
with the principles of flag, lamp, and telegraphic signalling, and must 
also build such bridges and transmit and receive messages by flag, 
flash and wire. 

Here is a day's routine of duty : — 

Reveille is sounded at 5*30 a.m. when the roll-call is taken. Twenty 
minutes afterwards rooms are inspected and till 6*15 cadets are expected to 
clean their arms and accoutrements. Breakfast is served at 6*15 and guard 
mounted an hour later. Until 8, when class parades are called, the cadets are 
free. The working day is divided into three periods, viz., 8 to 11 a.m., 11 to 
I p.m., and 2 to 4 p.m. In the first year, the first period is devoted to 
mathematics and the second period to military exercises such as fencing and 
bayonet drill. The afternoon period is given over to English during part of 
the year and during the remainder to French. In the second year, mathe- 
matics again occupies the students' time during the first working period, while 
French and Spanish are studied from 11 a.m. to i p.m. The afternoon hours 
are spent on drawing and riding alternatively. The third year presents a more 
varied course of instruction. The morning hours are devoted to physics, 
chem stry, geology, mineralogy, and hygiene, alternatively during part of the 
year with riding and the study of drill regulations. The afternoon hours are 
spent alternatively on drawing and riding. In the fourth year civil and military 
engineering and the art and science of war occupy the 8 to 11 a.m. period, 
while from 11 a.m. to i p.m. ordnance and gunnery, riding and drill regula- 
tions form the subjects of study. The afternoon is devoted to history, geo- 



132 Aberdeen University Review 

graphy, ethics and law. From 4 to 6 p.m. special sections are trained in 
signalling and telegraphy or in cavalry drill. 

Dinner is served at i, and supper after "retreat parade," at an hour vary- 
ing with the season of the year. The evening is spent in recreation and study 
until " Tattoo " at 9.30. " Lights out " is sounded at 10, and closes a strenuous 
day for all classes. 

A draft scheme of the courses of instruction is prepared by the 
Academic Board and submitted to the Secretary for War. If it re- 
ceives his approval the subdivision of the working hours is made by 
the Commandant so as to conform as closely as possible to the require- 
ments of the scheme. Thereafter each instructor carries out his por- 
tion of the work in the way he thinks best, but he is held responsible 
both for the methods he adopts and the results he obtains. He keeps 
daily records of the progress of his pupils and their relative merits and 
demerits and submits these weekly to the Superintendent, with recom- 
mendations for the transfer of any student from a lower to a higher 
section within his class according to his capacity and application. 

General examinations are held in January and June, the latter 
being the more formal and exhaustive. The cadets of each class are 
then arranged in order of merit, a limited number, not exceeding five 
in each class, being selected for special mention and publication in the 
Army Register. 

The distribution of marks for subjects is of interest as showing the relative 
value attached to them by the Academic Board. Thus in one scheme of 
marks, in the first year mathematics counts 100, English 50, French 75, and 
discipline 100; in the second year, mathematics counts 300, French 150, 
Spanish 85, drawing 75, and discipline 100; in the third year physics counts 
300, chemistry, geology, etc., 225, drawing 50, drill regulations 67, and disci- 
pline 100; in the fourth year, engineering counts 345, physics 300, mathe- 
matics 400, law 150, chemistry and geology 225, ordnance and gunnery 150, 
drill regulations 100, drawing 125, English 50, French 150, Spanish 85, history, 
geography, and ethics 100, and discipline 200. 

Breaches of discipline are of various grades and are valued from one to 
ten points of demerit. If the number of bad marks exceeds a certain total 
(125 from June to December or 90 from January to May) the cadet attaining 
this unenviable distinction is dealt with by the Academic Board. 

The pay of a cadet is about ;^I20 per annum, but none of this 
passes to him in cash. All his expenses are paid by the Treasurer of 
the Academy and any balance standing to his credit when he goes on 
furlough or finally graduates is handed over to him. The Treasurer 
also receives four dollars a month to form an equipment fund for the 
young officer when he leaves the Academy to join his regiment. 



West Point Military Academy, U.S.A. 133 

When the cadet has successfully completed his course and received 
his diploma of proficiency he is recommended for a commission as 
Second Lieutenant ; he bids farewell to " Cadet Grey " and dons the 
"Army Blue," but before actually joining the colours he is allowed 
three months' leave to visit his friends and relations. 

The internal discipline of West Point is exceedingly strict. No 
cadet is allowed to be in possession of any article of dress save the 
prescribed uniform. His hair must be trimmed to a certain length 
and he must be clean shaven. He cannot dispose of any articles be- 
longing to himself save through and with the approval of the Com- 
mandant. He is not permitted either to borrow or to lend ; all arms 
and public equipment in his possession are periodically inspected, and 
he is responsible for their proper maintenance and custody. The cadet 
may not take in a newspaper without permission and he is not allowed 
to possess any cards, chess-men, or game materials of any sort. He 
must clean his own room, and may not leave it without permission 
during " study " hours or when guards are posted. 

The Mess regulations are equally strict. The cadets are marched 
to and from the Mess Hall ; each has a fixed place at table which he 
must not change without permission from the Inspector of the Mess ; 
he must not talk loudly nor waste food at table nor take anything in the 
way of provisions from it ; neither may he rise without permission nor 
remain seated after the command to rise has been given. He must not 
smoke nor drink, nor even have in his possession any intoxicating 
liquor or tobacco ; he must not fight with or even challenge another 
cadet, and he is prohibited from striking or disturbing his fellow-stu- 
dents, and must on no account cause any one of them to " fag " for him ; 
if he even reproaches or upbraids another he is liable to confinement 
and must offer a public apology to the offended party in the presence 
of his CO. ; he may not ask for or receive money or supplies, even 
from his parents, without the Superintendent's permission. 

As to liberty of movement outside the barracks and immediate 
precincts of the College, a map is displayed showing what districts 
are inside and outside bounds and very strict regulations are in force 
in this relation. Permits are granted by the Commandant, but these 
are also limited by certain restrictions. 

For instance if a permit be given to a cadet to visit a relative, say, at the 
local hotel, the name and degree of the relationship of the visitor must be 
given and the exact time of the proposed visit. On arrival at the hotel the 



134 Aberdeen University Review 

cadet must write his name and business in a register kept for the purpose. He 
may not partake of any meal at the hotel or even apply for permission to do so, 
nor may he enter any room save the office and the public rooms of the first 
floor and the dining-room i only when that room is used for dancing ! 

*' While you wrere at the Academy," writes one of its professors in 
his advice to the cadet who has completed his four years' course, "you 
learned to obey and thus became qualified to command." And again, 
"He (the cadet) will learn his first real lesson of life at West Point, 
and it will be a most trying and difficult one. The course of instruc- 
tion is a most thorough one, but it is made easy in consequence of the 
perfect system of teaching." 

No one who has igiven attention to the nature of the curriculum 
and to the disciplinary scheme at West Point can say that these state- 
ments are exaggerated. Still, to quote Henderson once more, " Four 
years of strict routine, of constant drill and implicit subordination at 
the most impressionable period of life, proved (in 1 860 as to this day) 
a far better training to command than the desultory and intermittent 
service of a citizen army ". 

It is claimed, and not without justice, that in this implicit subservi- 
ence of self to law, coupled with a soundly devised curriculum, strenu- 
ously and faithfully followed, lies the value of the West Point training, 
not merely for those who are destined to hold military command, but 
also for those who may come to occupy positions of trust or authority 
in civil life. 

** Nemo autem regere potest, nisi quid et regi." 

R. J. HARVEY-GIBSON. 



The Glen's Muster Roll. 

The Dominie loquitur : 

Hing't up aside the chum ley-cheek, the aul' glen's Muster Roll, 
A' names we ken fae hut an' ha', fae Penang to the Pole, 
An' speir na gin I'm prood o't — Losh ! coont them line by line. 
Near han' a hunner fechtin' men, an they a' were Loons o' Mine. 

A' mine. It's jest like yesterday they sat there raw on raw, 

Some tchyauvin' wi' the " Rule o' Three," some widin' throw " Mensa " : 

The Map o' Asia's shoggly yet faur Dysie's sheemach head 

Gied cleeter-clatter a' the time the carritches was said. 

" A limb," his greetin' granny swore, " the aul' deil's very limb "— 

But Dysie's dead an' drooned lang syne; the Cressy coffined him. 

*' Man guns upon the fore barbette ! " . . What's that to me an' you? 

Here's moss an' burn, the skailin' kirk, aul' Kissach beddin 's soo. 

It's Peace, it's Hame, — but ower the Ben the coastal searchlights 

shine. 
And we ken that Britain's bastions mean — that sailor Loon o' Mine. 

The muirlan's lang, the muirlan's wide, an' fa says " ships" or **sea"? 
But the tang o' saut that's in wir bleed has puzzled mair than me. 
There's Sandy wi' the birstled shins, faur think ye's he the day ? 
Oot where the hawser's tuggin' taut in the surf o' Suvla Bay ; 
An' ower the spurs o' Chanak Bahr gied twa lang, stilpert chiels 
I think o' flappin' butteries yet, or weyvin' powets' creels — 
Exiles on far Australian plains, but the Lord's ain boomerang 
'S the Highland heart that's aye for hame hooever far it gang. 
An' the winds that wail ower Anzac an' requiem Lone Pine 
Are nae jest a' for stranger kin, for some were Loons o' Mine. 

They're comin' hame in twas an' threes : there's Tam fae Singapore — 
Yon's his, the string o' buckie-beads abeen the aumry door — 
An' Dick Macleod, his sanshach sel' (Guid sake, a bombardier 1) 
I see them yet ae summer day come hodgin' but the fleer : 



136 Aberdeen University Review 

** Please, sir" (a habber an' a hoast) — " Please, sir" (a gasp, a gulp, 
Syne wi' a rush) "Please — sir — can — we — win — oot — to — droon — a — 

fulp?" 
, . Hi Rover, here lad ! — ay, that's him, the fulp they didna droort, 
But Tarn — puir Tarn lies cauld an' stiff on some gray Belgian dune ; 
An' the Via Dolorosa's there, faur a wee bit cutty quine 
Stan's lookin' doon a teem hill-road for a sojer Loon o* Mine. 

Fa's neist? The Gaup -a Gordon wi' the "Bydand" on his broo, 

Nae murlacks dreetlin' fae his pooch, or roon the weeks o's mou', 

Nae word o' groff-write trackies on the " Four best ways to fooge " — 

He steed his grun' an' something mair, they tell me, oot at Hooge. 

But ower the dyke I'm hearin yet : " Lads, fa's on for a swap ? 

A lang sook o' a pandrop for the sense o' * verbum sap '. 

Fack's death I tried to min on't — here's my gairten wi' the knot — 

But — bizz ! — a dhObrack loupet as I passed the muckle pot." 

Ay, ye didna ken the classics, never heard o' a co-sine, 

But here's my aul' lum' aff to ye, dear gowket Loon 0' Mine. 

They're handin' oot the halos, an' three's come to the glen — 

There's Jeemack taen his Sam Browne to his mither's but an' ben. 

Ay, they ca' me " Blawin* Beelie," but I never crawed sae crouse 

As the day they ga the V.C. to my filius nullius. 

But he winna sit " Receptions," nor keep on his aureole, 

A' he says is, " Cut the blether, an' rax ower the Bogie Roll ". 

An' the Duke an's dother shook his han' an' speirt aboot his kin, 

"'Old family, yes : here sin' the Flood," I smairtly chippet in, 

(Fiech! Noah's? Na — We'd ane wirsels, ye ken, in '29). 

I'm nae the man to stan' an' hear them lichtlie Loon o' Mine. 

Wir Lairdie. That's his mither in her doo's-neck silk gaun' by, 

The podduck, sae she tells me, 's haudin' up the H.L.I. 

An' he's stan'in' ower his middle in the Flanders clort an' dub — 

Him 'at eese't to scent his hanky an' speak o's mornin' "tub". 

The Manse Loon's dellin' divots on the weary road to Lille, 

An' he canna flype his stockins, 'cause they hinna tae nor heel. 

Sennelager's gotten Davie — a' mou' fae lug to lug — 

An* the Kaiser's kyaak, he's writin', '11 neither ryve nor rug. 

^'But mind ye" (so he post-cairds) " I'm already ower the Rhine." 

Ay, there's nae a wanworth o' them, though they werena Loom o' Mine. 



The Glen's Muster Roll 137 

, . You — Robbie. Memory pictures : Front bench. A curly pow, 

A chappet hannie grippin' ticht a Homer men't wi' tow — 

The lave a' scrammelin' near him, like bummies roon a bike, 

^' Fat's this?" ** Fat's that?" He'd tell them a'— ay, speir they fat 

they like, 
My hill-foot lad ! A' sowl an' brain fae's bonnet to his beets, 
A " Fullarton " in posse — nae the first fun' fowin' peats. 
An' I see a blythe young Bajan gang whistlin' doon the brae, 
An' I hear a wistful Paladin his patriot Credo say. 
An' noo, an' noo I'm waitin' till a puir thing hirples hame — 
Ay 't 's the Valley o' the Shadow, nae the mountain heichti o' 

Fame. 
An* where's the nimble nostrum, the dogma fair and fine, 
To still the ruggin' heart I hae for you, oh Loon o' Mine ? 

My Loons, my Loons ! Yon winnock gets the settin* sun the same, 

Here's sklates an' skailies, ilka dask a' futtled wi' a name. 

An' as I sit a vision comes : Ye' re troopin in aince mair, 

Ye're back fae Aisne an' Marne an' Meuse, Ypres an' Festubert ; 

Ye're back on weary, bleedin' feet — you, you that danced an' ran — 

For every lauchin' loon I kent I see a hell-scarred man. 

Not mine but yours to question now ! You lift unhappy eyes — 

" Ah, Maister, tell's fat a* this means." And I, ye thocht sae wise, 

Maun answer wi* the bairn words ye said to me langsyne : 

" I dinna ken, I dinna ken." Fa does, oh Loons o' Mine? 

MARY SYMON. 



138 



Shakespeare — "Henry V." 

(Act III., Sc. I.) 

K. Hen. Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more ; 
Or close the wall up with our English dead. 
In peace there's nothing so becomes a man 
As modest stillness and humility : 
But when the blast of war blows in our ears, 
Then imitate the action of the tiger ; 
Stiffen the sinews, summon up the blood, 
Disguise fair nature with hard-favour'd rage ; 
Then lend the eye a terrible aspect ; 
Let it pry through the portage of the head 
Like the brass cannon ; let the brow o erwhelm it 
As fearfully as doth a galled rock 
O'erhang and jutty his confounded base, 
Swill'd with the wild and wasteful ocean. 
Now set the teeth and stretch the nostril wide, 
Hold hard the breath and bend up every spirit 
To his full height. On, on, you noblest English, 
Whose blood is fet from fathers of war-proof ! 
Fathers that, like so many Alexanders, 
Have in these parts from morn till even fought 
And sheathed their swords for lack of argument : 
Dishonour not your mothers ; now attest 
That those whom you call'd fathers did beget you. 
Be copy now to men of grosser blood, 
And teach them how to war. And you, good yeo- 
men, 



139 



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Koi cro)(l)p6vo)s y orav jxev elprjvr) ^vwfj • 
€VT av S' oivrr) Sijpios KaTaLyvcrrjy 
a-fxepSvov ^pefiovcra, TiypLoq Xvcrorai/ Slktjv^ 
opOovv re yvla Ka^avat^icr ai xokov, 
opyrj T dfJLOpcfyo) /fctXXo? dWoiovv c^vo'cw?, 
(fiopeiv T€ yopycoTT ofijiar, iK<l>aviv6' ontos 
veo)s KeXaLvrjs eyi^okov ^aX/CT^Xaroi/, 
S^ois <^o^>7/LLa, Tcts r o^pv<; ex^Lv peOov^ 
KaTT]p€(l>eLSt ft»s irirpov os TTpov^oiv I3d0p(p 
iireKpefxda-Orjy ;(ei/x,acrtz/ 7ro\v(l>66pois 
Opava-BivTi, Xd/Bpoi^ t olSfiaaiv KeKXyafiivci)^ 
dXX' eV, dirpl^ expvre^;, w <j>lXol, yvdOovs 
plvas X^^V (^vcrare, /cd/c twp TrXevfiovo)}/ 
TO TTvevfia firj ^^avi€T dXX' iyKXyjcraTef 
OvfJLOP S' diravTes evTovoif; iiraCpeTe, 
(Tovcrd^ CIS TO wpocrOeVf evyevrj fiXacTTyjfiaTCL 
iraripoiv ''ApeoD^ I3a(f)alcnv ev nepLaKeXoiv, 
ot KouOdh^ ai)(jxd(ravT€^y AtavTos SCKrjVf 
TTavTjfxepoL irdXai nor eh reXos crirdvei 
dvTi(TTar(x)v eXrjyov • dXXd p/qTpdcnv 
K7)Xlha firj npoa-dwreT al(r)(vvrj<; triKpdv, 
7raT€p(i)v 8' dKOTjeLV TralBe^ ov \\s€.vh(avvyiOi. 
iKfjLapTvpelT€f Tois dyevvT]TOL^ <^vcrw 
cvt/fV)(ta Set/ci/wTCS ^ iiayr^riov 
Tots dXKifJLOis • vfieis Se, To^oras Xeyco, 



Whose limbs were made in England, show us here 

The mettle of your pasture ; let us swear 

That you are worth your breeding ; which I doubt not ; 

For there is none of you so mean and base, 

That hath not noble lustre in your eyes. 

I see you stand like greyhounds in the slips, 

Straining upon the start. The game's afoot : 

Follow your spirit, and upon this charge 

Cry '* God for Harry, England, and Saint George ! " 



THY VOICE IS HEARD. 

Thy voice is heard thro' rolling drums, 

That beat to battle where he stands : 
Thy face across his fancy comes, 

And gives the battle to his hands ; 
A moment, while the trumpets blow. 

He sees his brood about thy knee 
The next, like fire he meets the foe. 

And strikes him dead for thine and thee. 



TENNYSON. 



i4i; 



vvv SeL^aO' TJfJLLv olop i^ otaq Tpo<jyrj<; 
KeKTrjcrde Ovfiov cjo-nep eK vofiov fiord, 
irlo'Tiv vifMovTes €v /LtctX' €l86(tlv y o/io)? 
iorOXrj^ rpo<^i9S a>9 ov^i rrJcrS* eXXeiTrerc. 
ouSels yap atSe SvcryevT]^ icmv (jyvcreL 
Sicrr ofijjia firj yevvaiov dcrTpdnTeiv crcXa?. 
6p(o fikv v/Lia? oTKvXaKas o)? MoXocr<rtou9 
opycavra^ acrcreLV ttj^ t aypa<; XeXufxiiivovs. 
iovy lov, 7r€(l)r)V€Ps iK r €v/ca/>8tas 
fioaT i<f)opix7}divT€<; i^ ei^o? poOov 
" yevoLjieff rifxels <rvv deols vLKr^(f)6pot..'' 

JOHN L. IRVINE, 
1915. Tertian. 



TIMHEN TE TAP E2TI KAI AFAAON ANAPI MAXES0AI 
THS nEPI KAI HAIAON K0YPIAIH2 T AAOXOY. 

CALLINUS. 

'Ifxeprrf (rddev av8ri iv ovaariv dvSpos ioiKtv 

y}\elvi ov Trarayel TVjJLTrava, crrjfjLa P'd-)(ris, 
a£<^i/iSca)9 T€ (TOP Ofifxay yvvaiy <l>p€(T\v aicrt TrpoaiiTTa^ 

Kol fxdy dhrjpiTov )(€pcrlv ip7JK€ /leVo?. 
tvtOov ecus crdkwLy^ la^ei KXayyrjSop ^Xpifja, 

nal^ovT elSc tckt) yovvaaiv dfx(f)l reols, 
alt/ra S' i(f>opp.aivmv SrjoLS, <jf>Xoyi ct/ceXos dX/o;i/, 

rivapicreVf nepl crov TwvSi t dfivvofxevos* 

J. HARROWER. 



"British Diplomacy 1902- 19 14'*/ 
11. 

The general situation in Persia in 1905 bears a strong resem- 
l)lance to that of Morocco — a decaying civilization in dangerous touch 
with Westernism ; administrative anarchy and corruption ; and the 
rivalry of European interests. By the year 1905, when the story 
opens, the Shah Muzafifer-ed-Din had squandered his father's treasure, 
alienated most of the Imperial and national domain, raised foreign 
loans at ruinous interest (from 12-15 per cent), and mortgaged the 
Customs to foreign control. His government was impotent, the public 
services were paralysed, corruption and peculation were rife, and dis- 
<;ontent was general. In December, 1905, the storm broke. The 
powerful College of Priests challenged the Shah's misrule. Vague 
pledges of reform were given by the Government, and early in 1906 a 
Council was nominated to discuss reform. But nothing came of it, and 
in May, 1906, a stroke of paralysis made the Shah more than ever de- 
pendent upon the reactionaries who surrounded him. Popular agita- 
tion, therefore, was resumed. In July the priests fulminated against 
the Government from their pulpits, and the summary shooting of one 
of their number brought the quarrel to an issue. On 5 August the 
Shah accepted a National Assembly. On 7 October he opened it in 
person, and after some delay signed a definitive Constitution on 30 
December, 1906*. 

Muzaffer-ed-Din briefly survived his surrender. He died on 8 
January, 1907, in an odour of popularity as the "father of Persian 
liberties ".* His successor, Mohammed AH, at first adopted a reserved 
attitude towards the Assembly, which that body's inability to provide 
public funds or to elaborate a constructive policy in some measure 
justified.* By May, 1907, the Court was openly hostile to it and the 

^ A Paper read before the Historical Association of Scotland (North-Eastern Branch), 
-92 October, 1915. 

" Cd. 4581, No. 3. 3 Ibid., No 16. * Ibid., No. 17. 



"British Diplomacy 1902-1914" 143 

financial situation was critical : the police were on strike for their pay ; 
a proposed National Bank was unable to float for lack of subscriptions, 
the rich refusing to associate themselves with a risky venture ; ^ the 
troops, the diplomatic and civil services were unpaid, and even the 
Cossack brigade was two months in arrears.* 

That was the situation in Persia when the Anglo-Russian Agree- 
ment was signed on 31 August, 1907. It was, as Sir Edward Grey 
called it,^ " a comparatively simple instrument," a " self-denying ordi- 
nance," framed, so far as its Persian Articles are concerned, in the 
interests of our Indian Empire. At the bottom of it was our fear lest 
Russia, by lending money, and by building roads, railways, or tele- 
graphs, might obtain political influence in those parts of Persia adjacent 
to our frontier. The danger was increased by the desperate state of 
Persia, and could be met in two ways : either by military precautions, 
a step which would engender suspicion, or by agreement, which would 
remove it. Obviously the latter was preferable, and it was adopted. 

The Persian Articles of the Anglo-Russian Agreement (i) pledged 
the two Governments,* '*to respect the integrity and independence" of 
the kingdom, and (2) recognized that, " for geographical and economic 
reasons," each Power had " a special interest in the maintenance of peace 
and order " on their respective frontiers. Both therefore bound them- 
selves not to seek concessions for banks, railways, telegraphs, and so forth, 
in the other's sphere of interest, Russia's in the north, Great Britain's in 
the east. In general terms they expressed themselves as ** sincerely 
desiring the preservation of order throughout Persia". But Great 
Britain, at any rate, was not prepared to act as the missionary of 
Liberalism in Persia. Over and over again Sir Edward Grey endea- 
voured to make that clear to some of his own party. '* If we give advice 
to Persia," he told the House of Common on 24 March, 1909, " we 
are not going to undertake responsibility for the particular kind of 
government which Persia is to have." Frankly, he held the Shah's 
*'one of the worst governments any country could have". But if 
Persia preferred it, that was Persia's aflair. Provided it was efficient 
and friendly, Persia's neighbours had no right to intervene. 

On 5 October, 1907, the text of the Anglo-Russian Agreement 
was communicated to the Assembly and elicited, apparently, no hostile 

1 Cd. 4581, No. 28. ' Ibid., No. 32. » House of Commons, 24 March, 1909. 

* •♦ Parliamentary Papers," Treaty Series, No. 34, 1907. 



144 Aberdeen University Review 

criticism.^ But the increasing gravity of the internal situation made 
the Anglo-Russian entente particularly opportune. In December, 1907, 
the Shah planned a coup ditat against the Mejliss.^ Two months later 
(8 February, 1908) an attempt was made upon his life.^ On 23 
June, 1 908, he gave orders to arrest the popular leaders. A genera! 
fight followed. Many were killed and the Assembly Hall was closed.* 
Its President and other officials took " bast " in the foreign Lega- 
tions. Tehran was put under the control of Colonel Liakhofif, the 
Russian commander of the Cossacks in Persian service, the other 
towns of the kingdom were placed under martial law,^ and on 26 June, 
1908, the Assembly was dissolved by proclamation. A new one was 
promised in three months' time.^ The Constitution was in ruins. 

The Shah showed no haste to summon a new Assembly, and was 
credited with the intention to suppress the Constitution altogether 
By September, 1908, a critical situation developed at Tabriz, where 
the Nationalist forces already numbered about 10,000 and the lives 
of Christians and foreigners were in danger.^ In these circum- 
stances, ** in the interests of the definite restoration of peace in the 
country," the British and Russian Legations (8 September, 1908), 
urged the Shah " to announce his decision to maintain the Constitu- 
tion and to summon a new Assembly ".^ But the Shah was obdu- 
rate, and refused to summon the Assembly until Tabriz had been 
pacified.^ 

From this point until the Shah's abdication in July, 1909, nearly 
a year later, the White Paper tells a story of growing tumult and 
disorder, which made it difficult for Russia to remain passive. In a 
Memorandum of 16 January, 1909, her Foreign Minister urged that the 
two allied Governments should make a joint representation to the 
Shah regarding his duties as a Constitutional Monarch, and at the same 
time offer a considerable loan "to defray the immediate expenses 
necessitated by the introduction of reforms ".^^ Sir Edward Grey did 
not agree. In his view the best course to adopt was for Great Britain 
and Russia " to stand entirely aloof from the internal affairs of Persia, 
allowing the existing chaos to endure till whatever element in the 
country is strongest gains the day "." That his antipathy to interven- 

1 Cd. 4581, No. 52. 2/Wi., No. 92. ^Ihid., No. 107. 

* Ihid., Nos. 132, 133, 138. *Ibid., No, 211, End. II. ' « Ibid., No. 144. 

' Ibid., No. 230. ^Ibid., Nos. 237, 238^ End. *Ibid., No. 240. 

lo Cd. 4733, No. 63, End. ^^Ibid., 3 February, 1909. No. 70, End. 



^^ British Diplomacy 1902-19 14" 145 

tion was sound is supported by the strong anti-foreign feeling which 
developed during 1909 and 1 9 10, and in the significant warning of the 
Nationalists to the two Powers in May, 1909, after the Russians had 
relieved Tabriz, to " interfere no further in their internal affairs ".^ 

By the end of March, 1909, the Nationalist movement had spread 
to the ports of the Persian Gulf. Bunder Abbas and Bushire threw off 
their allegiance to the Shah and passed under the control of the Nation- 
alist leaders.^ On 8 April, 1909, Russia again suggested a joint repre- 
sentation to the Shah, and a loan to facilitate the institution of reforms.^ 
But Sir Edward Grey still objected. In his opinion a loan would 
strengthen the Shah's reactionary courses rather than aid him to 
reform.* In any case he refused to advance money to other than an 
elected Persian Assembly.* But the situation in Tabriz, besieged by 
the royal forces and in dire straits for food, and the predicament of 
the foreign Consuls and population there, made it impossible for 
diplomacy to remain passive. Therefore, but with misgiving. Sir 
Edward Grey sanctioned Russia's military intervention, but with the 
stipulation that nothing should be done " to favour either one side 
or the other," ^ and that the contemplated expedition should be "of an 
entirely temporary character ".'^ Meanwhile, on 22 April, the two Le- 
gations made an identic communication to the Shah, urged him to fulfil 
his promise to summon a Mejliss, and let him understand that no 
financial assistance would reach him until he had done so. 

On 30 April, 1909,^ Tabriz was relieved by the Russians. But 
the event made the situation gloomier than ever ; for the Nationalists 
announced their intention to march on Tehran.* The mere threat in- 
duced the Shah to accept the advice tendered by the Legations three 
weeks earlier,^^ and a Rescript was published asserting his intention to 
reopen Parliament as soon as an Electoral Law had been prepared.^^ 
On 23 June the Electoral Law received his signature,^^ and on i July 
it was promulgated.^* But Mohammed All's repentance was belated. 
On 13 July the Nationalists took possession of Tehran.^* On the 
1 7th the Shah abdicated, and on 1 8 July his elder son, Ahmed Mirza, 
a boy of thirteen, was proclaimed in his room.^* 

1 Cd. 4733, No. 266. 2 jbij^^ No. 171. » Ibid., No. 177, End. 

* Ibid., No. 95. 5 Ibid., 17 April, No. 193. « Ibid., 20 April, No. ai2. 

' IHd., 23 April, No. 240. » Ibid., No. 263. • Ibid., No. 266. 

i» Ibid., No. 270. " Cd. 5120, No. 40, End. i« Ibid., No. 65. 

" See the text of it in ibid.. No. 198, End. ** Ibid., No. 112. 
^* Ibid., N08. 139, 199. 

10 



146 Aberdeen University Review 

For the next eighteen months, to the close of the year 1 910, and 
the eve of Mr. Morgan Shuster's descent upon Persia, the W^hite Paper 
reveals gathering disappointment at the meagre results of the revolu- 
tion. The second Persian Assembly proved little more competent 
than its predecessor. It was opened by the Shah on 1 5 November, 
1909,^ and on 30 November the reconstructed Ministry announced its 
programme : reform of the army, police, and road-guards ; an immedi- 
ate foreign loan of ;^500,000 and consolidation of the public debt ; 
financial reform under foreign advisers ; and the reorganization of the 
Government departments "on modern lines''.^ The scheme was 
heroic, but remained unfulfilled for lack of money. The Treasury 
was empty, and an application was made forthwith (13 Decem- 
ber) to the Russian and British Legations for a loan.^ After an 
interval of two months the two Powers (16 February, 1 910) agreed 
to advance ^400,000 ; but on stringent conditions. They reserved for 
their approval the objects upon which it was to be expended, ear-marked 
part of it for the engagement of French officials in the Ministry of 
Finance, and part of it for " the organization of a sufficient armed force 
for the security of the commercial means of communication," claim- 
ing a veto upon the choice of its foreign instructors. They de- 
manded for their two Governments priority of option in the case 
of all railway concessions to foreign capitalists. They hypothecated 
the Customs and, if necessary, the Mint revenues, as security for 
the loan.* The terms were not unreasonable, but the National- 
ists were determined not to have dealings with the two Powers.^ 
They therefore opened negotiations with a corporation styled the 
" International Syndicate (Limited)," which undertook to advance 
;^5 00,000, but on more onerous terms than those the two Lega- 
tions had proposed. It demanded as security the Persian Govern- 
ment's petroleum interests, Mint profits, uncharged revenues, and re- 
ceipts from posts and telegraphs. Apart from political considerations, 
these conditions were not tolerable to the two Powers. Persia was 
in heavy arrears to the Imperial Bank, and the pledging of her assets 
to a new creditor was not reasonable. They therefore quashed the 
transaction.* 

So the Treasury remained empty. The general situation in the 

1 Cd. 5656, No. 7. ^Ibid., No. 10, End.; No. 14 End. 

^Ibid., No. 14. *Ibid., No. 45, End. 

»/6trf. No. 53. 6/^,7,.^ No. 67, End. I. 



*^ British Diplomacy 1^^1914" 147 

country showed no improvment. The policing of the roads was as 
inefficient as ever, and life and commerce were insecure. On 28 July, 
1 9 10, Sir Edward Grey drew Russia's attention to the recent robbery 
of a large British-Indian caravan ; the repeated destruction of the 
Indo-European Telegraph Company's wires ; two mail robberies ; an 
assault upon the Telegraph Company's servants within seven miles 
of Tehran itself; outrages on the Tehran-Ispahan road, and outrages 
on the Ispahan-Bushire road, which rendered them scarcely passable.^ 

At length, on 14 October, 1910, the British Minister warned the 
Persian Ministry that unless order was restored within three months,^ 
Great Britain would insist upon the organization of a local military 
force under Anglo-Indian officers to police the Bushire- Ispahan road. 
The existing state of affairs, the Minister declared, was simply " lively 
anarchy".^ Persia replied defiantly (21 October). She denounced 
the British proposal to pay the projected force by an increase of 10 per 
cent on the southern Customs as " contrary to the undoubted inde- 
pendence of the Persian Government," and suggested that the revenue 
from that source should be placed at the disposal of the Persian Govern- 
ment itself to carry out the purposes which the British Govern- 
ment had in view.'* In fact, no steps were taken in either direction, 
and the year 1910 closed upon a dark prospect which the mischief- 
making Press of the Triple Alliance clouded still more by representing 
the Note of 14 October as foreshadowing the partition of Persia between 
the two Entente Powers. 

The Blue Book for 191 1 reveals no improvement in Persia's inter- 
nal state. Reports on the disturbed state of the roads occur on 
almost every page, and in the course of the summer both the ex- 
Shah Mohammed Ali and his brother Prince Salar-ed-Dowleh chal- 
lenged the established regime. Owing to their refusal to finance the 
government except upon their own terms, and their constant protesta- 
tions against the semi-anarchical state of the country, Russia and Great 
Britain were objects of increasing suspicion to the Persian Nationalists, 
and Russia's continued presence at Tabriz made her the particular 
target of their enmity. 

At this critical moment Mr. Morgan Shuster makes his entree. He 
was a young American (his photograph suggests an age of between 

1 Cd. 5656, No. 136. "^Ihid., No. 178. *Ihid,, No. 189. 

^ Ibid., No. 199, End. See also Cd. 6104, No. 19. 



148 Aberdeen University Review 

thirty and forty), who recently had reorganized the Customs service of 
the Philippines, and had acted as Secretary of Public Instruction and a 
member of the Commission of those islands. ^ On the recommendation 
of the American Government, he was appointed on 2 February, 191 1, 
to act as Treasurer-General of the Persian Empire for a period of three 
years,^ and arrived in Tehran on 12 May. ^ Almost exactly eight 
months later (on 11 January, 191 2), what Mr. Shuster himself calls 
" the brief and disappointing chapter of American financial adminis- 
tration " in Persia * came to an inglorious end. 

Mr. Shuster' s account of his mission makes interesting reading. 
But outside the Persian Committee in this country, and its prot^gis 
in Persia, it must be plain to every reader that Mr. Shuster was 
" impossible ". He took with him frank contempt for diplomatic 
convenances, utter disregard of a delicate international situation, and a 
prejudiced interpretation of Persia's domestic problems. He had no 
knowledge of the country before his arrival, outside Professor Browne's 
book on "The Persian Revolution,"* and learned from it that the 
Persian Nationalists had the monopoly of credit, sense, and honesty, 
and that Great Britain and Russia especially were bent upon subordin- 
ating Persia to their own interests.* He refused to call upon their 
Ministers on his arrival, and records with satisfaction the Persians' ap- 
proval of what he calls " this little by-play " . His account of his first 
meeting with the British and Russian Ministers ^ will, for most people, 
I imagine, sufficiently dispose of his fitness for a post of diplomatic 
delicacy. 

It is characteristic of Mr. Shuster's tempestuous diplomacy that, 
arriving at Tehran on 12 May, he obtained on 30 May, a Law which 
gave him complete control of a loan of ;^ 1,2 50,000, contracted with 
the Imperial Bank of Persia (5 April) shortly before his arrival,^ and 
on 13 June received '*the direct and effective control of all financial 
and fiscal operations of the Persian Government " . * Not a penny 
thenceforth could be spent by or allotted to any of the public depart- 
ments without his approval. Mr. Shuster, in fact, so long as he remained 
agreeable to his employer, was Dictator of Persia. He proceeded to 

1 Cd. 6104, No. 36. « /Wd., No. 52, End. • iW<f., No. 128, End. 

* " The Strangling of Persia," London, 1912, p. 208. • Ihid.^ p. 50. 

« See his letter to " The Times," in " The Strangling of Persia," Appendix C. 

' " The Strangling of Persia," pp. 69-70. 

•Cd. 6x04, No. 151. End. •/Wii., No. 153, End. 



^^ British Diplomacy 1902-1914" 149 

exercise his authority. The Minister of War, whose requirements were 
not sympathetically considered by the American Treasurer-General, 
actually jumped into his carriage in a huff and told his coachman to 
" drive to Europe " . ^ A more acute quarrel followed with M. Monard» 
the Belgian Administrator-General of Customs, who resented the com- 
pulsion, under the Law of 13 June, to submit his accounts to the 
Treasurer-General, and endeavoured to evade the necessity. Mr. 
Shuster merely dishonoured M. Monard's cheques at the bank, ^ and 
won an easy victory. 

More serious was a quarrel in which Mr. Shuster involved himself 
with the Russian and British Legations. Shortly before his arrival, 
in order to improve the conditions upon the public roads, the Persian 
Government had resolved (January, 191 1) to appoint Swedish officers 
to organize a police force.' On 1 5 August the Swedes arrived.* Mr, 
Shuster, however, concluded that, unless he had a military force ex- 
clusively at his own disposal, there was little chance of the Treasury 
gathering the taxes due to it. Therefore, but for reasons which he 
does not make convincing,* he rejected the Swedish gendarmerie, and 
constituted a separate force for Treasury business. To organize it he se- 
lected Major Stokes, of the Indian Army, Military Attach^ of the British 
Legation at Tehran, whose duty there was on the point of expiring. 
Sir Edward Grey was applied to for permission and stated the con- 
ditions on which alone Major Stokes's employment could be counten- 
anced. In the first place, he could not become an official of the Persian 
Treasury and retain his commission in the British Army. In the second 
place, if Russia denounced Major Stokes's appointment as a breach 
of the 1 907 Agreement — for the scope of his duty was not to be re- 
stricted to the British sphere — the British Foreign Office declared in 
advance its inability to oppose her.' In characteristically extrava- 
gant language Mr. Shuster calls this "a cold-blooded attempt to 
intimidate the Persian Government in the exercise of its most element- 
ary sovereign rights".^ "Does your Government quite realize the 
position in which it is placing me before the Persian people?" he 
writes to the British Minister at Tehran.® He drew no instruction 
from the fact that, in order to avoid raising an issue between herself 
and Russia and Great Britain, Persia had imported her Treasurer- 

^ Shuster, op. cit., p. gx. * Ibid,, p. 87. »Cd. 6104, No. 11. 

*Ibid., No. 282. » See his op. cit., p. 97. 

• Cd. 6104, No. 249. ' Op. cit., p. 100. ' Ibid,, p. xoi. 



150 Aberdeen University Review 

General from America, her Customs Administrator-General from 
Belgium, and the officers of her gendarmerie from Sweden. The 
Anglo-Russian Agreement itself and the situation that produced it 
should have suggested to him that it was impolitic to violate its 
spirit and intent. Mr. Shuster asserts that no one but Major Stokes 
could do the work required of him. But that is so incredible a state- 
ment that one suspects the invitation to Major Stokes to have been a 
deliberate attempt to make mischief. At the best, it was a tactless 
blunder. 

As Sir Edward Grey had foreseen, Russia objected to the proposal. 
The Russian Press described it as threatening "an undesirable com- 
plication," ^ and the Government held the same view. But to meet 
Mr. Shuster's wishes as far as possible, it was suggested that Major 
Stokes's activities should be restricted to Ispahan, practically outside 
the Russian sphere. Mr. Shuster, however, rejected the compromise 
" emphatically," ^ and eventually (2 December) the British Government 
instructed Major Stokes to withdraw his acceptance of the appoint- 
ment.'' 

In spite of the warning, Mr. Shuster appointed as his agent at 
Tabriz a British subject named Lecoffre, who was known as a strong 
Russophobe.* Here again, the reasons he urges to justify the 
appointment of this particular man read unconvincingly,^ and Sir 
Edward Grey once more supported the objections of the Russian 
Government.^ A final episode terminated Mr. Shuster's Persian career. 
On the instructions of the Persian Government, he attached the 
property of Shoa-es-Sultaneh, the ex-Shah's brother. But on the 
ground, actual or alleged, that the Prince was under financial obliga- 
tions to the Russian Discount Bank,^ his men were resisted by the 
Persian Cossacks, acting under the directions of the Russian Consul- 
General. An acrimonious controversy with Russia followed, em- 
bittered by the fact that, with characteristic indiscretion, Mr. Shuster, 
though an official of the Persian Government, published in **The 
Times " of 10 and 1 1 November, 191 1, a fierce attack upon the Anglo- 
Russian Agreement in general and upon Russian policy in Persia in 
particular, an offence enhanced by the fact that the letter was pub- 
lished broadcast throughout Persia. Russia's patience at length 

1 Cd. 6104, No. 253. 2 Cd. 6105, No. 10. 3 jbid. No. 209. 

* Ibid., No. 77. 5 ii,id,^ No. 89. • Ibid,, No. 95. 

' Ibid., No. loi., End. 



"British Diplomacy 1902- 19 14" 151 

broke down. She refused to tolerate Mr. Shuster any longer, and on 
17 November, Sir Edward Grey intimated that he would not demur 
to a request for Mr. Shuster's dismissal.^ On 29 November, support- 
ing her action by military intervention, Russia took that course, and 
insisted that for the future the Persian Government should not engage 
foreign officials without the sanction of the British and Russian Lega- 
tions.^ On 24 December, the Persian Government yielded,^ and on 
12 January, 191 2, Mr. Shuster left Tehran for Europe, One could 
use other language for his epitaph than the milder statement of Sir 
Edward Grey to the House of Commons (14 December, 191 1): "I 
quite admit Mr. Shuster's ability and his good intentions, but you can- 
not have the spirit or the intention of the Anglo-Russian Agreement 
upset by the action of any individual, however well-intentioned ". 

It is not easy to pierce the Persian labyrinth beyond this point. 
The Blue Books unfold a story that does not differentiate the period 
from that we have traversed, nor indicate any modification of the 
meticulously cautious diplomacy of the British Foreign Office. The 
authority of the Persian Government was at vanishing-point, while the 
Persian provinces conducted their local affairs with contemptuous dis- 
regard of it. The Russian occupation continued, and Russia remained 
the bugbear of Persian Nationalism. Upon a situation so ripe for in- 
trigue the German War burst in the summer of 19 14. By methods of 
intrigue, in which it is unrivalled, Deutschtum^ with its eye upon the 
Persian Gulf, laboured not unsuccessfully to regulate the situation to 
its advantage. Stories of imaginary disasters to the Allies, of an 
armed rising in India, of the concentration of a Geripan army at 
Bagdad, of an impending march of victorious Germany into India, were 
spread broadcast and were greedily swallowed. In proportion as 
Germany seemed to be winning on her eastern front, her agents pro- 
vocateurs in Persia became yet more active. Reuter's Agency reported 
on 2 September, 191 5 * that the neutrality of the Persian Government 
was under grave suspicion ; that German agents were lavishing money 
and arms upon every disaffected region in Western Persia ; that the 
German Legation at Tehran and the German Consulate at Ispahan 
were armed camps menacing the forces at the disposal of the Persian 
Government ; and that a section of the Mejliss, corrupted by German 
gold, was opposing the efforts of the Government to maintain neu- 

1 Cd. 6105, No. 127. '^Ihid,, No. 182, End. 3 /j,-^.^ Nq^ 333^ 

^ '* The Times," 17 September, 1915. 



152 Aberdeen University Review 

trality. It reported the recent murder of the Russian Vice-Consul at 
Ispahan and a more recent attempt upon the life of the British Consul- 
General there. The Bushire district was being raided by unruly tribes 
in German pay, and at Kermansah — the main entrance for German 
agents into Persia — the German Consul was exercising military 
authority over the province. On 1 1 November Sir Edward Grey, 
announcing that the British and Russian Governments were in com- 
plete accord, declared that German intrigue was gravely " risking the 
position of Persia".^ On 15 November the Russian Legation at 
Tehran, appealing to the Persians, declared an intention to put an end 
to Turco-German plottings in the interests of Persia's relations with 
the Entente Powers." Russia promptly fulfilled her undertaking, and 
not a moment too soon. The German, Austrian, and Turkish Ministers 
had completed their arrangements to leave Tehran, accompanied or 
followed by the Shah. But the dispatch of Russian troops from Kazvin 
brought the Shah's advisers to another mind. On 16 November the 
Russian and British Ministers were received in audience by the Shah, 
who assured them of his friendly disposition and of his resolve to re- 
main in Tehran under the protection of the Allied Powers. He ad- 
mitted that the Germans in the past year had made great efforts to 
drag Persia into war with Russia, and confirmed his declaration of 
friendliness by calling strong Russophils to the Cabinet.* Thereupon 
the Turkish and German Ministers left Tehran, openly connived at 
every effective means of disorder, and suborned the Swedish-officered 
gendarmerie to revolt.* Such is the situation to-day. In view of 
Germany's activities, of Russia's sacrifices, and of Great Britain's con- 
quest of the Shatt-el-Arab, Persia cannot possibly revert to her ante- 
bellum conditions. A more rigid dual control is inevitable, and an 
abandonment of British passivity must accompany it. 

There are critics — for instance, Mr. M. P. Price* — who do not 
scruple to accuse British policy in the past of connivance with Russia 
in a deliberate plot to smother the Persian constitutional movement, 
an accusation which is as unfounded as it is malicious. The Foreign 
Office is vulnerable actually on the ground of indecision, of refusing to 
take a firm and decisive line itself, while deprecating activity on the 
part of its ally. But, without the restraints which the Anglo-Russian 

*•' The Times," 12 November, 1915. *Ibid., 16 November, 1915. 

*Ibid., 17 November, 1915. *Ibid., 8 December, 1915. 

* " The Diplomatic History of the War," London, 1914, p. 23. 



"British Diplomacy 1902-1914" 153 

Agreement of 1907 imposed upon its signatories, it is difficult to be- 
lieve that Russia would have remained passive in face of provocative 
propaganda directed against herself. In that event Persia could not 
have failed to become the terrain of an Anglo-Russian conflict, dis- 
astrous to her integrity. 

But to appraise the Anglo-Russian Agreement on its working in 
localities is inadequate and misleading. It had a wider object than 
the removal of particular obstacles between ourselves and Russia in 
Persia, Tibet, and Afghanistan. The international situation and the 
general interests of Russia and Great Britain in 1907 equally required 
it. For sixty years — since Count Muravieff's appointment as Governor- 
General of Eastern Siberia in 1847 — Russia had involved herself in 
Far Eastern adventure which culminated in the disasters of Port Arthur 
and Tsushima in 1905. Sebastopol gained the Russian peasantry 
their emancipation. Tsushima gave them a Constitution. And with 
it Russia turned her face from the East to the West. To recover her 
influence in Europe, to complete her economic development on the 
Black Sea, and to secure the emancipation of the Balkan Slavs from 
Turkish and German control, were the objects of her new outlook. 
To attain them, her recent agreement (1897) with France needed 
another buttress against the Central Powers. Opportunely Great 
Britain presented herself, being as concerned as Russia to prevent 
Deutschtum from trampling on the Balkans and from menacing the 
Near East. As Sir Edward Grey frankly described it, the agreement 
with Russia was a *' self-denying ordinance," in which each party sur- 
rendered something for a common end. And if in Persia our diplomacy 
has been indecisive, halting, and inadventurous, as not unfairly it may 
be said to have been, there are visible assets to balance the account. 
In the future undoubtedly they will be more ponderable. 

The characteristics of Sir Edward Grey's diplomacy during the past 
ten years have been transparent honesty, and a disposition to be con- 
ciliatory which no rebuff* could repress. It was confronted by a wholly 
new international situation, the slow product of Prussia's victory in 
1 87 1. It envisaged a growing menace out of Central Europe to which 
some pointed to flagellate its love of peace, and others derided. It 
refused to be driven into either extreme course. It neither thwarted 
nor opposed Germany's aspirations. It made no surrender to 
what may be called " political Bryanism," which one may define as 
sentimental diplomatics meticulously insulated from contact with facts. 



154 Aberdeen University Review 

It took the German menace seriously, but met it with consideration 
and common sense. It is arguable that it maintained that attitude 
to the very limit of national safety. But if it risked much, it 
gained an incalculable moral asset. " Go back to Darwin and 
Natural Selection," said Mr. Benjamin Kidd in a recent interview.^ 
" It is the nation with the highest principle that is destined to sur- 
vive, and in this case that nation is not Germany." Diplomacy is 
the conversation of nations, and by it their characters are known. If 
we can face that test confidently we owe it in no mean measure to 
Sir Edward Grey. In point of fact, Germany's almost insane hatred 
of him is the confession of her knowledge that he has presented the 
case against her in terms of the principles of civilization itself, for 
which we stand. 

C SANFORD TERRY. 

^ *• Public Opinion," lo September, 1915, p. 251. 



(The sketch-map illustrative of this article has been prepared by Mr. 
T. S. Muir, M.A., F.R.S.G.S.). 



/^f 




IVT N 



Reviews 

Biographical Studies in Scottish Church History : the Hale Lectures^ 
1913-14. By Anthony Mitchell, D.D., Bishop of Aberdeen and 
Orkney. London : A. R. Mowbray & Co. Pp. vi + 302. 

These Lectures are not intended to be an outline of Scottish Church History, 
but are a series of sketches of representative persons in seven successive periods ; 
and they were delivered under the trust-deed of an American bishop in a. 
Chicago Episcopal Church to congregations mainly composed, doubtless, of 
Episcopalians. These specialties account for the selection of some of the 
subjects of biographical study, and for the partly denominational character of 
the work. While the lectures, however, naturally contain some things which 
Presbyterians may not endorse, the volume merits cordial appreciation' 
from members of all communions as a scholarly, fair, and attractive presenta- 
tion of seven very notable portraits in the Scottish ecclesiastical gallery. 

The "noble and commanding figure of Columba " leads the way. We 
have a graphic description of his character — a " strange blend of opposing 
qualities " (p. 20), a " tender heart " united with a proud and passionate spirit 
(p. 13) ; and of his work as miles insulanus^ a devoted missionary and " ruler of 
the Church " while " remaining a presbyter " (pp. 21, 30) ; organizer of mon- 
astic worship, doctrine, and enterprise ; "a friend in need to whom men came 
from all quarters with distress of body and of soul" (p. 21). Particularly in- 
teresting is the author's explanation of many miracles ascribed to Columba 
which even so sober a writer as our late Professor Grub shrank from altogether 
rejecting ; viz., ** medical skill and knowledge remarkable for the time," " tele- 
pathic vision," "cosmical consciousness," and Celtic "second sight" (pp. 
23-8). In describing the occasion of Columba's Caledonian mission the Bishop- 
refers to Adamnan's double and seemingly contradictory representation of the 
saint as a "voluntary" exile for Christ, yet as being "excommunicated by a 
Synod in Ireland ". The apparent discrepancy is reconciled by Adamnan's^ 
further statement that the excommunication was quickly reversed by the 
same Synod after a remarkable testimony by St. Brendan. 

The second study is that of the Saint and Queen Margaret, the Saxon 
wife of Malcolm Canmore, under whom and their three sons Celtic Christian- 
ity, then in a stage of " degeneration " and " decay," yielded gradually to 
Saxon influences which were then at once Roman and in part reforming. 
" Margaret's efforts to reform the customs of the Celtic Church " (p. 54) are 
sympathetically related, including "discontinuance of worldly business on- 
the Lord's Day," cessation of discreditable non- participation in the Eucharist 
by the laity, and abolition of the scandal of letting a " man marry his 
(widowed) stepmother ". In connexion with Margaret and Malcolm, the 
author states that " there is some reason to believe that Malcolm founded the- 
bishopric of Mortlach, the beginning of the See of Aberdeen," adding, however, 
in a note that "the evidence is of doubtful authority". Cosmo Innes, with.- 



156 Aberdeen University Review 

whom Skene, Burton, Bellesheim, Lawrie, etc., concur, is generally held to 
have proved that the documents on which the tradition of a See of Mortlach 
Tested are spurious. The tradition probably arose from Malcolm having given 
to Mortlach properties which were afterwards, along with the monastery of 
Mortlach, attached by David I to the See of Aberdeen. 

The biography of Bishop Elphinstone, the representative of the Mediaeval 
period, is written with the fulness of sympathy natural in one who also bears 
the title. Bishop of Aberdeen, and who is a graduate with Honours in Arts 
and in Divinity, as well as an honorary D.D., of the University which Elphin- 
stone founded. Bishop Mitchell recounts his predecessor's high *• reputation 
as an exponent of ecclesiastical law" (p. 85) ; his valuable service as a tactful 
embassador " in missions to . . . France and England " ; his appointment first 
to the See of Ross and then to that of Aberdeen where *' the clergy needed to 
be reformed," but where " under Elphinstone's firm hand this state of affairs 
was soon remedied " (p. 91) ; his completion of the Cathedral tower which fell 
in 1688 (p. 102) ; finally his greatest life-work, when "amid the clash of old 
and new ideas, the Humanities of the Renaissance and the Scholasticism which 
had reigned for centuries, he founded a university where both might find a 
hearing and a home " (p. 70). Referring to the Founder's tomb in the College 
Chapel, the author states that " the Bishop's effigy and the figures in brass, 
representing the three theological virtues and contemplation, and the four 
■cardinal virtues, were destroyed, after the Refonrxation, as emblems « of idolatry " 
(p. 7 a) Our oldest authority (so far as we know) is Gordon of Rothiemay, 
who in his *' Descriptio" (166 1) declares that "all were robbed and sold long 
ago ". Orem's much later account (in his " Old Aberdeen," 1 724) is " that the 
tomb was stripped of its ornaments for fear of accidents *'. Our Reformers 
and their followers, as in the notable case of St. Andrews Cathedral, have often 
suffered discredit for destruction with which they had nothing to do. Thanks, 
however, mainly, to Professor Harrower, the tomb, as our author indicates, will 
^oon be " restored to something like its original beauty *'. 

The subject of the fourth study, representing the Reformation Period, is 
Erskine of Dun. Bishop Mitchell has done good service in showing that 
Erskine's " importance in the Reformation movement has hardly been ade- 
quately recognized " (p. 119). Of reforming leaders he was " earliest on the 
scene " in the final conflict, having been *' marvellously illuminated" (to use 
Knox's words) by the year 1534. He was the friend of Wishart, helped to 
<3raw up the first Scottish Covenant, and cordially supported Knox at various 
crises. By his early patriotic championship of the French as opposed to the 
English alliance he did much to counteract the anti -reforming influence of 
those who identified Romanism with patriotism ; and as the trusted subject at 
first of Mary of Guise and afterwards of Marj^ Stuart, he served the Protestant 
-cause in a way impracticable for most Reformers. " He represented the 
moderate element in the Scottish Reformation " (p. 121). But "to attempt 
an account of the Scottish Reformation without making John Knox its central 
figure " will appear to most readers not only " bold " (as the author admits) 
but vain. After Wishart's death Knox was recognized at St. Andrews as Re- 
forming leader; and during his subsequent exile he was in touch, through 
published tracts and private letters, with Scottish friends of the cause. On 
his first return to Scotland in 1555 he persuaded Protestants to cease attend- 
ance at Mass, and to celebrate the Lord's Supper with a reformed ritual, 
thus transforming a Protestant movement into a Reformed Church. Through 



} 



Reviews 157 

his preaching tour during this visit, culminating in ten days' ministry at Edin- 
burgh in defiance of the hierarchy, Protestant zeal was aroused. Next year, 
when the Scottish Reformers, after summoning Knox from Geneva to inaugur- 
ate a more active Protestantism, timidly stopped him at Dieppe, letters from 
Knox led to the Covenant which pledged its signators to " defend the Cause- 
with substance and lives". After Knox's final return in 1559, it was his 
famous Perth sermon against the idolatry of the Mass which precipitated the 
final conflict issuing in the Reformation ; and amid subsequent success alter- 
nating with temporary failure, it was what our author signalizes (p. 115) as 
Knox's " extraordinary vigour and intensity, the invincible integrity of his pur- 
pose and purity of his aims as a Reformer " which mainly inspired and sus- 
tained the Reform party and secured their ultimate triumph. 

In selecting Archbishop Leighton as representative of the Covenanting 
period. Bishop Mitchell avoids any very detailed treatment of the conflicts of 
that time; but with commendable candour, he declares (p. 161) that "the 
great strength of Presbyterianism (during the period) was its witness for the 
spiritual independence of the Kirk, just as the great weakness of the Episcopal 
system was the subservience of its bishops to the Crown ". James VI's " Five 
Articles of Perth " (the Bishop further declares), " reasonable in themselves, 
were passed by methods which will not bear inspection " ; " Charles I drove 
the country into exasperation " ; " for the persecution under Charles II no* 
palliation can be offered " ; " one cannot think of it without shame and sorrow '^ 
(p. 203). On the other hand, candid Presbyterians must admit that Coven- 
anters were equally intolerant, although less truculent, towards those who 
like the " Aberdeen Doctors " refused to sign the National Covenant ; and the 
British Solemn League and Covenant was intolerantly framed for the extirpa- 
tion of prelacy in England and Ireland. But in Robert Leighton we have a 
Churchman who rose above the prejudices of his age, and whom members 
of all communions now eulogize and revere. Bishop Mitchell's very in- 
teresting biographical study along with Dr. Dugald Butler's recent "Life and 
Letters " will enhance the reader's admiration for one who, while thoroughly 
human and possessing a "keen sense of humour" (p. 174), "was a man 
apart from his fellows both in holiness and spiritual perception, who strove 
faithfully to do his duty in a difficult world" (p. 212). Most moderate 
Presbyterians and Episcopalians will now probably agree that Leighton 's 
" Accommodation " — Bishops subject to the General Assembly and without a 
veto on the resolutions of a majority of Presbyters — was a fair compromise in 
then existing circumstances ; and it had the royal sanction. But " Leighton 
was the only person among the bishops who declared for these methods "^ 
(p. 206) ; Archbishop Sharp " viewed the proposal as. an undermining of Episco- 
pacy " (p. 208) ; " the inferior clergy hated the whole thing ". On the other 
hand, bitter experience prevented Covenanters from relying either on royal; 
promises or on episcopal acquiescence ; and even moderate Presbyterians 
refrained from committing themselves beforehand to an arrangement which 
Leighton might have been unable eventually to accomplish. 

The penal laws, which the disinterestedly persistent Jacobitism of most 
episcopal clergy caused to be imposed in the time of George I and George 
II, meant for their Church repression and privation ; but, as Bishop Mitchell 
indicates, "the trial was one which purged and purified her" (p. 270) ; and he 
selects as a worthy representative of that period John Skinner of Linshart, whose 
poetry (including the famous " Tullochgorum " and " Ewie ") won for him? 



158 Aberdeen University Review 

the admiration of Robert Burns. The reader's sympathy cannot but be 
awakened by the author's picture of the poet-parson — his early^truggle with 
poverty as a " dominie " ; his settlement as episcopal minister in Buchan ; his 
unmerited ill-treatment there at the time of the '45, although he was "no 
Jacobite " ; his astute evasion and eventual bold defiance of the harsh law 
limiting Scottish Episcopal ministrations to four persons at a time besides the 
inmates of the house ; his six months' imprisonment in Old Aberdeen cheered 
by the visits of " many sympathetic " citizens, and by the companionship of 
his eight years old son, the future bishop ; his " return home in triumph as a 
confessor for Episcopacy " ; his later effective share in rebuilding Zion after 
the accession of George III had led to " alleviation of the lot of the suffering 
Church " ; his " learned labours in the Hebrew Scriptures " which gained the 
praise of Bishop Sherlock of London ; his "Nolo episcopari " in 1782, and 
his " joy and pride " in the appointment of his son, who never concealed that 
" in all his measures for the Church's relief and prosperity he was, under God, 
more indebted to the head, the heart, and the hand of his own father than to 
any other fellow-labourer ". It is interesting for Aberdonians to recall that 
Bishop John Skinner, " relying on the counsel and support of his father " (p. 
249), took the leading part in the consecration (within the " upper-room " in 
Longacre) of Bishop Seabury, the first Bishop of the American Church, when 
the English clergy shrank from being mixed up with a proceeding which had 
not been sanctioned by the British Legislature ; and we readily discern the 
father's inspiration when his son declared that " he ventured to show more 
regard to Acts of Apostles than to Acts of Parliament ". 

As the author's series begins, so it closes with an Irishman, John Dowden, 
theological professor, and from 1886 to 19 10 Bishop of Edinburgh, who re- 
presents the Scottish Episcopal Church amid the prosperity of " Modern 
Times ". At the outset of his episcopate Bishop Dowden aroused keen re- 
sentment both within and beyond Presbyterian circles by preventing Bishop 
Wordsworth of St. Andrews from fulfilling an engagement (made during the 
vacancy in the Edinburgh see) to deliver a lecture on Christian Unity on a 
week-night in St. Cuthbert's Parish Church ; and so far as regards ecclesiastical 
inter-communion it is to be hoped that the Episcopal Church of Scotland is 
more correctly represented by the author of this volume, who has preached in 
our University Chapel, than by the subject of his closing "study". But 
Bishop Dowden, none the less, by his " Celtic Church of Scotland " and 
numerous other works, has laid all students of ecclesiastical history, as well as 
of doctrine and worship, under deep obligation. He bore also, as Bishop 
Mitchell has shown, a very notable " share in the expansion and consolida- 
tion '' of the Church which he loved and served ; and it is fair to add that 
his official narrowness was united with personal courtesy towards clergy of 
other branches of the Scottish Church. 

Henry Cowan. 

Evolution and the War. By P. Chalmers Mitchell, M.A. (Aberdon.), M.A., 
D.Sc. (Oxon.), LL.D. (Aberdon. et West. Univ. Pennsylvania), F.R.S., 
F.L.S., F.Z.S., Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. London : 
John Murray. Pp. xxv + 114. 

In a very interesting personal introduction Dr. Chalmers Mitchell tells us of 
his first impressions of Germany and the Germans and of their subsequent 



Reviews 159 



confirmation or correction. In the spring of 1884, as a new-made graduate 
of the University of Aberdeen, he went for the summer to Germany. " Goethe 
I knew, and a few of the poets in translation ; Schopenhauer had bored me, 
and Kant had beaten me, but the shining fragile net thrown by Hegel over 
the universe had enchanted me, and I was deep-read in Stirling's * Secret of 
Hegel ' and in Wallace's ' Logic ' and ' Prolegomena '. All this to show 
that for me Germany was not a Power among other European Powers. Old 
philosophy and young life were all I cared for." Two things soon gave him 
the shock of feeUng that he was an alien in an alien country. The first was 
the supervisory interest of the police (so unintelligible to our unsuspiciousness), 
whom Mitchell and his fellow-traveller entirely failed to convince of the exact 
truth that they had no business of any kind in Berlin. The second was the over- 
whelming evidence of military activity, for it was new to him to find soldiering 
the urgent business of a State. In the course of the summer he enjoyed in 
Pomerania and West Prussia " the amazing Gastfreundlichkeit of Germany, 
something warmer, more intimate, and adopting than the best of English 
hospitality ". Another impression was hearing Bismarck in the Reichstag 
launch his World-policy. From his note-book of thirty years ago the author 
quotes a conversation with a Berliner which is striking in showing that even 
then, with no clouds in the sky between England and Germany, there was pre- 
paration on a thorough-going scale for a struggle to the death. 

Dr. Chalmers Mitchell goes on to tell of his subsequent acquaintance with 
Germany as a country of great biologists, of his discovery of Russian and 
French literature (to be placed "above all that was ever written in the Ger- 
man language, far above dyes and drugs and all the material progress of Ger- 
many"). He explains also how he came to write in 1896 a now rather 
famous article in "The Saturday Reviewj''. Under the title "A Biological 
View of Our Foreign Policy " he predicted (in terms which he would not now 
altogether homologate) "'the first great racial struggle of the future,'' namely, 
that in the throes of which we now are. " One or the other has to go," he 
wrote ; *' one or the other will go." 

At a later date, after the author became secretary of the Zoological Society 
of London, he had another experience which is diagnostic of the megalo- 
maniacal disease of " Deutschland tiber alles ". It illustrates " the odd way 
in which a German will sometimes confide in you his scheme for your own un- 
doing ". A German zoologist, who had previously accepted some of Mitchell's 
professional suggestions, came to his office in Regent's Park, and unfolded a 
scheme for establishing in London, with German capital, a Hagenbeck Zoo- 
logical Park, which would, he said, wipe out the Zoo in a season. " He was 
uncertain as to the most suitable part of London to select for the enterprise, 
and wished my advice and assistance in choosing and obtaining a site." 
What can be said? 

We have lingered over the introduction, for it is written in a delightfully 
frank manner ; but we must pass to the body of the book. It contains a de- 
structive criticism of the view, familiarized to us by the works of that eminent 
biologist (or necrologist shall we say?) von Bernhardi, that "war is a funda- 
mental law of evolution ". The argument is concrete and convincing, and the 
general thesis seems to us sound sense — and naturally enough, for have we not 
maintained it ourselves ? The first step in the argument is that the struggle 
for existence in nature is very rarely anything like internecine warfare between 
nearly related organisms. Although Darwin headed a paragraph in "The 



i6o Aberdeen University Review 

Origin of Species," "Struggle for Life Most Severe between Individuals and 
Varieties of the Same Species," the evidence he gave in support of this was far 
from convincing, and in other passages he made it clear that his conception 
of the struggle for existence was as wide as it was subtle. The technical 
phrase, which was to be taken in "a large and metaphorical sense," has been 
narrowed down by popular expositors (and by mistaken experts like Huxley), 
so that it suggests to most minds a life and death competition around the 
platter of subsistence, whereas Darwin meant it to include all the varied 
reactions and responses that self-assertive, yet often kin-bound, living creatures 
make against environing limitations and difficulties. The author has done 
good service in carefully considering such well-known Darwinian illustrations 
of sanguinary competition as the contest between brown rat and black rat, 
and showing that they are quite untenable. It is of great value to find a 
naturalist of his distinction pointing out clearly and circumstantially that what 
often happens in face of difficulties and limitations is that groups of individual 
animals seek out some unfilled corner or discover some new way of exploiting 
their environment. "Natural suitability to the organic and inorganic en- 
vironment and capacity to adapt behaviour to circumstances are the domi- 
nant factors in successful struggle, and there is no trace of the remotest 
resemblance with human warfare. This is the struggle for existence as Dar- 
win thought of it." It is perhaps of still greater value to find one who 
describes himself as " a hard-shell Darwinian evolutionist," recognizing that 
the struggle for existence is often very literally an endeavour after well-being, 
and affords no justification for war between nations. He is prepared to "ad- 
duce from the writings of Darwin himself, and from those of later naturalists, 
a thousand instances taken from the animal kingdom in which success has 
come about by means analogous with the cultivation of all the peaceful arts, 
the raising of the intelligence, and the heightening of the emotions of love 
and pity ". 

The second step of the argument is that modem nations are not units of 
the same order as the units of the animal and' vegetable kingdoms. Therefore, 
even if we have got a grip of accurate biological conclusions (not like von 
Bernhardi's "great verity" that "war is a fundamental law of evolution"), we 
must be careful in applying them, without fresh verification, within another 
universe of discourse. The point is that in the realm of non-human organ- 
isms, the units (species or varieties) are composed of individuals united by 
blood-relationship, whereas political communities of men, nationalities rather 
than races, " cohere not because of common descent but because of bonds 
that are peculiar to the human race ". It is characteristic of the author's 
biology that he attaches much more importance to environmental "nurture" 
than to germinal " nature ". The Mendelians and the Eugenists are apt to 
" forget the dominance of what we call mind over what we call matter. It is 
after the Miltonoplasm has grown into a sentient being that the factors most 
potent in shaping the direction, quality, and value of his mental and emotional 
output come into operation." Thus " the environment of the body and the 
environment of the mind determine national differences. These variable fac- 
tors, and notably the environment of the mind, dif!er from the factors that rule 
in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, inasmuch as they involve conscious 
human intelligence and choice, conscious imposition on the part of the rulers, 
and conscious acquiescence on the part of the governed." It is useful to have 
this protest against Mendelian fatalism, but it must not be allowed to obscure 



Reviews i6i 

the fact that environmental nurture and hereditary nature are complementary, 
not antithetic, factors in determining the individual life. 

The third step in the argument is that Man is so profoundly apart from 
the rest of creation that it is fallacious to attempt "to justify human conduct 
by referring it to laws that may be supposed to rule the animal and vegetable 
kingdoms " . The evolution of the definitely human illustrated selective syn- 
thesis and discontinuity ; all the world became new. " It is consciousness 
that transforms all the qualities and faculties acquired by human beings fromi 
the animal world, and that is the foundation of free and intelligent existence.'" 
It matters little what word is used to express the distinctively human (and 
consciousness is not the one we should select) : what is of importance is that 
we should rid ourselves entirely of that depreciatory nightmare view of Man 
which arose as the Nemesis of imperfectly digested Darwinism. Especially at 
a time like this it is of value to be reminded (if we have ever forgotten) that 
the human race at least does not live in the germ-plasm alone, and that the 
probable dysgenic influence of the war is only one aspect of the truth. It is 
useful to find "a lover of the scalpel and microscope, and of patient empirical 
observation, who dislikes all forms of supernaturalism," asserting "as a bio- 
logical fact that the moral law is as real and as external to man as the starry 
vault. It has no secure seat in any single man or in any single nation. It is 
the work of the blood and tears of long generations of men. It is not in man, 
inborn or innate, but is enshrined in his traditions, in his customs, in his liter- 
ature and his religion. Its creation and sustenance are the crowning glory of 
man, and his consciousness of it puts him in a high place above the animal 
world. Men live and die ; nations rise and fall, but the struggle of individual 
lives and of individual nations must be measured not by their immediate needs, 
but as they tend to the debasement or perfection of man's great achievement.*' 
So ends a book well worth reading, every page of which means business. The 
author has got a style of his own — clear-cut and picturesque, — and he has 
earned the gratitude of all who enjoy resolute and sincere thinking. 

J. Arthur Thomson. 

The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the 
New Testament. By Sir W. M. Ramsay. London : Hodder & 
Stoughton. Pp. xiv + 427. 

In many respects this volume is the most interesting of the long and dis- 
tinguished series which have issued from the unresting pen of our Emeritus- 
Professor of Humanity. It abounds in evidence of the same masterly 
command of the distinctive material which the author has patiently amassed for- 
the elucidation and vindication of the Pauline and Lucan writings in the New- 
Testament. It presents the same vivid illuminations of geographical andl 
historical scenes to which he has accustomed us. It does not fail in the 
shrewd and often impressive personal reflections on the larger lessons of his- 
tory, or in the effective illustrations of ancient events and ancient tendencies^ 
from modern parallels, which have been a feature of his earlier writings.. 
There is not lacking the old acerbity of jibe or counter-jibe against the- 
" critics," against " the self-satisfied and pretentious ignorance of the critical! 
theologians." There is the same wealth of valuable and arresting in-- 
formation modestly packed into footnotes which has rewarded the gleaner's* 

II 



1 62 Aberdeen University Review 

scrutiny of his previous writings. But in this work Sir William Ramsay has 
permitted himself to take advantage of his privilege as an emeritus in two ways. 
He indulges in a frequent retrospect over his previous books, bringing their 
principal contentions and conclusions into a closer unity, quoting their words 
and making innumerable references to their contents in detail. And, most 
interesting of all, he takes his readers into his confidence and tells the story of 
his own life as a scholar so far as it bears upon his subject. Whether or not 
one can agree with Sir William's theories or conclusions, one is profoundly 
grateful for a scholarship so laborious and so wide, so full of human and per- 
sonal interest, so far removed from pedantry and routine. There has been 
little work done in the world of New Testament scholarship upon the same 
level, and his Alma Mater, looking back, as this book enables her afresh to 
do, upon the development of his career, may well cherish a renewed pride in 
his life-work. 

The University Review is not the medium for a technical notice of the 
contents of a work like this. It may suffice to state that among the chapters 
which call for special mention and demand special commendation are those 
which discuss the "General Impression of Trustworthiness in the Acts," 
"Trial Scenes in the Acts," "Magic and Magicians, in' the New Testament 
and in New Testament times," "The Magi at the Birth of Jesus," " Salvation 
as a Pagan and a Christian Term," " Luke's Account of the First Census," 
" When Quirinius was governing Syria," and not least those entitled " An- 
alogies and Fulfilment of Prophecy," and " Your Poets have said ". They 
abound in sentences which merit quotation, and they will enrich the next 
generation of commentaries upon the New Testament. They assist in a ser- 
vice of extreme value by setting in a clearer light scenes and sayings which 
will have a priceless sanctity for serious men and women so long as the 
Christian faith endures. 

But I may be allowed to quote some passages which will appeal to the 
readers of this Review because of their academically domestic interest. They 
are taken from the Second Chapter, the Introductory Statement : — 

" In March, 1868, at the end of my second year at the University of Aber- 
deen, I was feeling every day that college work had been an unalloyed happi- 
ness, and every moment spent in class-work or in preparation a delight. Even 
the details of syntax and word-formation had their fascination, and the inflec- 
tion of the Greek verb was interesting. True, we never passed one through- 
out two years of class- work without some student being called on to conjugate 
it, though years before I entered college I could and did often write out the 
parts of every common verb without an error, and the best of my class-fellows 
I do not doubt had done the same. Yet the unexpectedness of the parts made 
this work like voyaging on an unknown sea : in that primitive period no ex- 
planation was given us how those strange vagaries were all obedient to more 
deep-lying laws ; but one was vaguely beginning to feel that some hidden 
principle lay under the apparent caprice. 

" On the final day we of the Second Year gathered in the Latin class- 
room. The feeling was in my mind that morning that something determin- 
ing was going to happen. . . . The Professor of Greek, who knew every 
student by face and position, glanced round the room before beginning to 
read his list, until he saw me ; and as I caught his eye, I knew before he 
spoke that I was the outstanding figure in his mind. The Professor of Latin 
mentioned that I stood apart in the list. In that room my life was determined : 



Reviews 163 



I formed the resolve to be a scholar, and to make everything else subservient 
to that purpose and that career. 

" In the classroom, also, one other matter settled itself. The border- 
land between Greece and the East, the relation of Greek literature to Asia, had 
already a vague fascination for me ; and this was to be the direction of the 
life that I imagined in the future. As it has turned out, that thought of the re- 
lation between Greece and the East was an anticipation of my life ; but the 
form developed in a way that I did not imagine until many years passed. I 
thought of work in a room or a library, but it has lain largely in the open air 
and on the geographical frontier where Greek-speaking people touched the 
East. I thought of Greek literature in its relation to Asia ; but the subject 
widened into the relation between the spirit of Europe and of Asia through 
the centuries. . . . 

" I had found my proper work, the study of Roman institutions in Asiatic 
Greece, and the influence of Asia on the Graeco-Roman administration. If I 
had been appointed to a Professorship of Greek, as I wished, or had remained 
a Professor of Classical Archaeology, none of my proper work could have been 
done rightly. ... In every case the course was marked out by the judgment 
and will of others. In each step I had no thought of the succeeding step 
but drifted without plan as fate chose. In the few cases where I formed a 
plan, and started on my own initiative, I was usually disappointed, and afterwards 
found that the disappointment was a necessary stage in education, and that 
success would have been a calamity. I had gone to Oxford with the aim of 
getting a Fellowship as the way towards a life of Research. If this aim had 
been successful at the time and in the way that at first I anticipated, I should 
have inevitably sacrificed my dream and ambition and drifted into some other 
line. I left a failure ; and was invited to come back successful in my own 
fated line of life. Nature and the world were wise and kind, and always 
guided where I was erring and ignorant ; or dare one venture to use a more 
personal form of the idea and speak of Providence?" 

In these reflections upon life's direction through disappointment Sir 
William Ramsay is not by any means alone. Others have undergone the 
same experiences and learned the same lessons. Some of his readers, I do 
not doubt, will be cheered by his story and encouraged to turn their own re- 
buffs into similar directions to success. 

William A. Curtis. 

Political Thought in England : The Utilitarians from Bentham to 
J. S. Mill. By William L. Davidson, M.A., LL.D. Home University 
Library. London : Williams and Norgate. 

It was a happy insight which led the editors of this series to select Professor 
Davidson to write the history of the Utilitarian movement in England. Only 
a writer who has come under the sway of the movement at some time in his 
life, and has had intimate acquaintance with its leaders or with their disciples, 
can be expected to do justice to its historical influence. Professor Davidson 
fulfils these conditions. The result is this engaging little volume, written with 
sympathy, tact, and judicious, almost detached, appreciation. He is to be con- 
gratulated on accomplishing a difficult task with success. For that strange 
modern personage, the " general reader," — with his immeasurable curiosity and 
dimly-lit intelligence — will certainly be able to say when he closes this book 



164 Aberdeen University Review 

that he does know something definite about the subject discussed. The same 
cannot always be said of the volumes in the attractive series which bears the 
courageous title of a Home University Library. Owing to the immensity of 
the subjects so often dealt with in these tiny books we feel at the end of the 
perusal as if we had been trying to learn the geology of a country from an 
express train, or taking peeps at the fields of omniscience from an aeroplane. 

We cannot but regret that the limitation in the conception of the subject 
given to Professor Davidson should have been so arbitrary. It would have 
been so easy to have completed the survey of English Utilitarianism by a 
statement of the main argument of a treatise which appeared only one year 
after the death of J. S. Mill in 1873. This was Sidgwick's '' Methods of 
Ethics," the first edition of which appeared in 1874. Sidgwick's book is the 
last distinctive step in the development of the utilitarian theory of ethics. 
No one after him added anything of marked significance to this scheme of 
thought : and his special treatment of ethics practically rounded off the move- 
ment initiated by Bentham. It was all the more important that Professor 
Davidson should have been allowed to include Sidgwick within this historical 
survey, when we reflect that his treatise was the most elaborate and careful 
exposition and defence of Utilitarianism to be found in this school of thought. 
And even apart from its connexion with the history of Utilitarianism, the 
" Methods of Ethics " is a book which has few equals and perhaps no superior 
in the history of modern ethics. 

Professor Davidson lays stress on the essentially practical aim of the Utili- 
tarians whom he passes in review. This is generally neglected by critics and 
exponents alike, but no one can doubt the accuracy of this judgment. With- 
out such a key to their domain of thought, even Professor Davidson's uni- 
formly generous handling of their doctrines would have failed him. He is 
quite alive to the defects of their thinking, and only stays his pen because he 
reminds himself that theoretical criticism of a position not intended to be 
wholly or primarily theoretical, is for the most part a waste of energy. 
Utilitarianism deals mainly with ways and means, and only in a popular and 
ofihand manner with the question of the end. The term end in fact is identi- 
fied with consequence or result : Utilitarianism knows nothing of unrealized 
far-away ideals. And it makes no pretence to explain everything in the moral 
life : it is more interested in the quick returns of practical social reform, than 
in the slow returns of an inquiry into the complete truth about morality. Thus 
we find it picking up moral assumptions and moral terms at haphazard, mak- 
ing the best of them, and cutting the knot of a difficulty by bluff humour in 
the case of Bentham or if necessary by an appeal to prejudice in the case of 
J. S. Mill. The latter's method of settling the difficult point as to how we 
can be sure there are differences of quality in pleasures is typical of the speci- 
ous logical slimness often found in the school. " It is better," says Mill, 
'* to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied : better to be Socrates 
dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. And if the fool or the pig is of a different 
opinion, it is because they only know their own side of the question. The 
other party to the comparison knows both sides." But does he ? A Socrates 
can have no experience of the pleasures of being a fool, otherwise he would 
not be Socrates : and a human being can have no experience of the sublime 
satisfaction of a pig, otherwise a human being would not be human. 

Practical in its aim and method, Utilitarianism, as Professor Davidson makes 
abundantly clear, was of the first importance in bringing about practical 



Reviews 165 



changes in social institutions and in political life, as well as in legislation. 
The record of Bentham's influence in his time and for many years afterwards 
is remarkable, and forms one of the most interesting sections in this volume. 
Only second to Bentham's was the influence of J. S. Mill, whose detailed 
application of the empirical method of Utilitarianism to economics and politics 
made a great impression on his contemporaries and is still valuable. 

The connexion between Utilitarianism in ethics and the philosophical theory 
of Associationism is clearly brought out by the author and rightly emphasized. 
The reason for the connexion is that both rest on an appeal for confirmation 
to empirical facts in experience. The application of Associationism to the 
mind in general was furnished by James Mill, and later by Dr. Bain : the 
thoroughgoing application of Associationism to the processes of thought 
in particular was supplied by J. S. Mill's *' Logic ". Both of these develop- 
ments are dealt with suggestively by Professor Davidson, though naturally 
they are of secondary importance to his main subject. 

Utilitarianism may be said to be a peculiarly English type of doctrine, 
even though the two Scotchmen, James Mill and John Stuart Mill, had much 
to do with expounding the doctrine and securing its recognition. It has not 
made any strong appeal beyond these islands, at least amongst minds anxious to 
possess a coherent interpretation of the moral life. One of J. S. Mill's ethical 
booklets — that on Liberty — had indeed an immense influence amongst the 
young Indians and the young Japanese about a quarter of a century ago. 
But careful students of ethical problems have never been satisfied with the 
logical cogency still less the logical completeness of the position of Utilarian- 
ism — a dissatisfaction frankly admitted by the honest mind of Henry 
Sidgwick. In the fullest exposition of the whole Utilitarian movement given 
by a foreigner — the volume on ''La Morale Anglaise," written by the 
wonderful youth Guyau at the age of eighteen — the keen logical insight of the 
Frenchman finds Utilitarianism as a theory faced with intellectual bankruptcy. 
" It is difficult," he concludes, " to base morality in the strict acceptation of 
the term on simple facts with the help of purely scientific inductions and 
without metaphysical hypotheses." 

But while admitting the theoretical defectiveness of Utilitarianism, it is all 
the more important to acknowledge, as Dr. Davidson amply proves in this 
little volume, the stimulating influence and the practical effectiveness of its 
doctrine. After all it is a great matter if a utilitarian theory stands the test of 
its own principle. Tried by this test the theory has certainly shown itself to 
be useful. 

J. B. Baillie. 

• 

Some Results of Research in the History of Education in England 
WITH Suggestions for its Continuance and Extension. By Arthur 
F. Leach. London : Published for the British Academy by Humphrey 
Milford, Oxford University Press. Pp. 48. 

A MELANCHOLY interest attaches to a postumous review. The author died in 
the end of September shortly after the issue of this pamphlet, and anything 
that can now be said must be by way of appreciation of labours already 
finished. Mr. Leach was an indefatigable worker in the field of educational 
history, and had established his title to speak with unquestionable authority 



1 66 Aberdeen University Review 

of portions of that field hitherto very little explored. A brilliant Oxford 
scholar, Fellow of All Souls, he became an assistant Charity Commissioner in 
1884. In that capacity he was called on to make enquiries into the endow- 
ments of ancient educational foundations, his first case being the Prebendal 
School, Chichester. His researches here and elsewhere led to discoveries 
which brought him " first to doubt, then to deny, and finally to disprove the 
authorized version, and to revise, recast, or perhaps rather to create de novo 
the history of English education, through that of the schools in which it was 
given". The accepted account dated middle-class education in England 
from the foundation of St. Paul's School by Colet in 15 12 and the grammar 
schools of Edward VI. Working back from the records of the Chichester 
School, the author was able to furnish clear documentary proof of the 
existence of flourishing schools of this type long anterior to Edward VI, to 
all the Tudors and all the Plantagenets. Of Edward VI as educational 
reformer his opinion may be gathered from the title of the first section of one 
of his longer works, " English schools at the Reformation," where he is 
designated " Edward VI : Spoiler of Schools ". '* The poor, rickety, over- 
educated boy " was, however, in nowise personally responsible ; " Edward VI '* 
stands for the Minister — Somerset, Northumberland, etc. — in power from time 
to time. Following up the clues obtained in further investigation Mr. Leach 
proceeded to establish the existence of schools of secondary character among 
our Saxon ancestors, "decried as they were ... as uncivilized beer- 
drinkers ". So the series is carried back past Alfred the Great and right up 
to the time of Augustine, who first preached Christianity to the English. 

The importance of these results can hardly be over-rated. They restore 
historical continuity in the development of education alongside that of 
civilization in general and of religion in particular. If we endeavour to read 
the story forward, we must start with the establishment of a system of schools 
in the Roman Empire in the time of Quintilian about the year 100 a.d. 
During the following centuries the system had been propagated by the 
preachers of the Gospel, and when toward the end of the sixth century the 
missionaries reached Britain, they came to it as to other countries with the 
Latin service-book in one hand and the Latin grammar in the other. Con- 
verts, not merely priests but laymen, had to be taught the language before 
they could understand the elements of religion. Schools were a necessary 
adjunct to the work of evangelization, the grammar school became the 
"ante-room, the vestibule of the church". It is a large and important 
contribution to educational history to have established an unbroken succes- 
sion of these schools from 63 1 , when Canterbury School was already so fam- 
ous as to be adopted as a model for a new foundation, down through Saxon 
and Norman periods and right up to the late Tudors. Public action and 
private benefaction were constantly making fresh provision of schools, until 
by the time of Edward VI they were to be numbered by the hundred. A 
succession of scholars like Alcuin, Neckam, Wycliffe, Skelton, Wolsey, affords 
concrete proof of the success of their efforts. The complete story is told in 
Mr. Leach's published volumes, especially "Educational Charters" and 
"The Schools of Medieval England," in addition to the one already referred 
to. This booklet sums up and enforces his most important conclusions, his 
" Results ". The "Suggestions " is an appeal to the Academy to undertake 
the compilation of an exhaustive chartulary of all the records. The case for 
further investigation may be considered as proved, but the removal of the 



Reviews 167 



person best qualified to act as editor of the records now forms a serious 
handicap to the success of such an undertaking. 

The author does not bear errors or those who fall into them, at all 
gladly. Many historians of repute, not excepting J. R. Green, come under 
the lash. Dr. John Kerr earns a share of the censure on account of his 
claim, in his "Scottish Education," of antiquity for Ayr Academy. All 
dear friends from Cambridge seem to have a special faculty for exciting the 
author. The weakness may be forgiven. He has deserved well of educa- 
tionists, and his loss leaves a blank that will not easily be filled. 

John Clarke. 

The Book of Revelation. By Rev. J. T. Dean, M.A., Coldingham, Ber- 
wickshire. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. Pp. 191. 

This is not the author's first literary venture. His earlier work — " Visions 
and Revelations: Discourses on the Apocalypse" — has evidently pointed 
him out to the editors of the valued series of " Handbooks for Bible Classes 
and Private Students " (Principal Alexander Whyte, D.D., and Rev. John 
Kelman, D.D.) as the man to write a suitable Handbook on this difficult 
book of New Testament Scripture. He has not disappointed them, and we 
believe he will not disappoint any thoughtful reader who sets himself to study 
it under his guidance. 

Mr. Dean is fortunate in the time of the appearance of his Handbook, 
which comes to us at the psychological moment. A few years ago a student 
in a B.D. examination, answering a question as to the spiritual value of this 
Book of Holy Scripture, gravely declared that it had no spiritual value what- 
ever for our age and time. We doubt if he would make the same assertion 
to-day. To multitudes the Bible has become a new Book. The crisis which 
has overtaken the world in this great and unprecedented War has sent thou- 
sands of intelligent men and women to read the Psalms, and the Prophetic 
Books of the Old Testament in particular, with new zest, and to find in them 
meanings which the gigantic conflict makes plain and striking to the earnest 
student of the ways of God with men. Nor is it otherwise with the great 
Prophetic Book of the New Testament. The times in which we are living 
are themselves apocalyptic, and in their light, as it falls upon passages of St, 
John's Apocalypse that were dark and meaningless before, we see the eternal 
principles of the Divine administration of the affairs of men and nations 
shining forth clear and plain. As we study the Book, we feel that the 
present struggle is in line with the situation in Asia in the Church's first con- 
flicts with Roman power, that it is, as our author says, a recrudescence of the 
powers of evil challenging the right of Christ to reign in the world. " We 
see," says Mr. Dean, "the whole resources of one of the most highly gifted of 
modern nations captured in the interest of a world-ambition and lust for 
power. Science has forced from Nature her deepest secrets only to direct 
them into channels of destruction. The principles of social organization, the 
benefits of education, the toil and travail of many years, are all visibly con- 
centrated, in opposition to the rights and liberties of other nations, in the 
attempt to suppress the life of smaller peoples, to buttress cynical acts of re- 
pudiation of covenants, and to carry out the will of the strong by means that 
shock the enlightened consciences of mankind " (p. 48). Of the permanent 



1 68 Aberdeen University Review 

value of the Book of Revelation, setting forth the struggle between the forces 
of God and the forces of Satan, and the final victory of Christianity over the 
powers of evil and the brutality of men, Mr. Dean's thoughtful and instructive 
commentary furnishes ample proof. 

In the course of his Introduction, which covers some fifty pages, Mr. 
Dean describes in successive chapters the situation of the Church at the time 
when the Apocalypse was written, the primary purpose of the Book, the rela- 
tion of the Book to Jewish Apocalyptic literature, the date, authorship, and 
permanent value. The chapter on the relation of the Revelation to kindred 
Jewish literature shows on the part of our author a complete mastery of this 
new and interesting field which occupies such a large place in modern escha- 
tological study. The difficulties as to the date and authorship of the Apoca- 
lypse are acknowledged and dealt with in an impartial spirit. The question 
of the very existence of John the Presbyter makes his authorship extremely 
improbable. Professor Milligan's learned argument, fifty years ago, against his 
existence has not been met, but rather finds increasing support. Accord- 
ing to the late Dr. Salmon of Dublin, it depends upon "a doubtful inter- 
pretation of an ambiguous word in an isolated extract from a lost book ", 
That the Book was written by the Son of Zebedee, the Apostle of the Lord, 
is the view still favoured by authorities of the greatest weight. 

The Commentary itself is a devout and scholarly piece of work. The 
author's principle of interpretation is the historical, and he applies it with 
soundness of judgment, finding his illustrations all the way down the Chris- 
tian era to the present time. We trust his book may be widely read ; and 
even if it should be found beyond the powers of the ordinary Bible Class, it 
would be of great help to ministers in expounding the Book of Revelation to 
their congregations. 

Thomas Nicol. 

Holidays in Sweden. By J. B. Philip, M.A. London : Skeffington & Son. 
Pp. viii 4-3x6. 

A MODEST and unassuming work this, it is none the less an exceedingly in- 
teresting and delightful one. We have here no commonplace account of the 
stodgy round of regular " sights " made by the ordinary tourist, content to 
follow the beaten track, 

And glance, and nod, and bustle by ; 

no mere assimilation of details derivable from guide-books. Mr. Bentley 
Philip shapes his own course, makes his own observations, forms his own 
opinions. •' Ilandedat Visingso," he tells us, for example, "with a very im- 
perfect notion of what there was to see, and of how best to see it." The spice 
of personal adventure is thus interwoven with the individual investigation of a 
foreign land. Mr. Philip is clearly an intelligent observer, with a true instinct 
for natural beauty, and responding readily to the emotions which natural 
beauty excites. He possesses, besides, a quiet humour, sub-acid at times 
but never splenetic, which adds piquancy to comments characterized by good 
sense and betokening sound judgment. 

The book is evidently the outcome of more than one holiday spent in 
Sweden, for which Mr. Philip has assuredly conceived a great admiration. 
He is loud in his praises of the unspoiled nature of the country and its people, 



Reviews 169 

its magnificent woods and. shining waters, and especially the glamour of the 
northern twilight. 

What is the source of the witchery ? [he asks]. Chiefly it is the clear northern sky, 
often cloudless, and faintly coloured yellow and blue, against which spires and domes stand 
darkly out. It is this wonderful light which, long after the sun has actually set, clothes 
everything with mystery and new charm, covering irrelevant details but bringing into relief 
the poetry of castle, of stream, of tree. You feel surrounded by some ethereal intelligence, 
which fills the spacious vault, and your spirit would fain go out and hold converse with the 
voices of the night, which seem to be whispering everywhere though you cannot hear ex- 
actly what they say. Hark I it is the North a-calling. 

The lakes and forests engage a great deal of his attention, but by no 
means to the exclusion of other features. The attractions of Stockholm, 
Gothenburg, and other places are duly set forth ; there is a charming picture of 
KuUen, with its outlook on the bright waters of the Cattegat ; and> University 
readers at least will be interested in the account of a visit to Upsala, with 
its Cathedral and University and the country house of Linnaeus, now the 
property of the State. A course at Upsala University, we are told, " moves as 
slowly as many other excellent things do in Sweden " — in some cases lasting 
possibly for fifteen years. Mr. Philip is at his best, however, when he leaves 
the towns and penetrates into the country, and describes for us the hill farms, 
the peasantry of Dalecarlia, and the Lapps and their reindeer. Amid much 
that is otherwise interesting — sketches of Swedish history and antiquities, de- 
scriptions of churches and museums, particulars of the native customs, etc., — 
two chapters may be selected for special commendation — those dealing with 
National Characteristics and with Social Distinctions. The Swedes, according 
to our author, are a cultured, polite, and friendly people, with a passion for the 
subdivision and classification of labour, and a disposition to take most things 
easily and enjoy life. 

One thing more must be said — and this about the author rather than about 
the book. Mr. Bentley Philip discloses himself as an ideal traveller. Noth- 
ing apparently worried him in his diverse wanderings through Sweden, except 
** the music of the night " furnished by fellow-travellers or temporary associ- 
ates, which sometimes compelled all-too-early rising. If a train was slow — and 
most Swedish trains seem of that nature — he complacently set himself to benefit 
from the dawdling by contemplating the countryside or studying the passengers. 
If, with the burden of necessary impedimenta (including a camera, which seems 
to have gone everywhere with its owner), a walk proved longer than expected, 
he made the best of it by carefully noting the features of the scenery. If a hotel 
boots disappeared when wanted, he hunted till he got him ; and he accom- 
modated himself to all situations, even to the wholly negative construction to 
be invariably put on the customary Swedish phrase, •' Coming immediately " . 
He once endured an unbroken fast of eleven hours ; several times he had to 
be doing with "the unsatisfying simplicity of the meals in country districts " ; 
on one occasion, while his hostess provided the victuals, he had to cook them. 
A man who could maintain serenity of temper in all these trials could hardly 
fail to make his experiences vastly entertaining. 

Robert Anderson. 



lyo Aberdeen University Review 

The Life of Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal, G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O. 
(1820-1914). By Beckles Willson. Cassell and Company, Limited, 
Pp. xvi. + 63a. 

This is described as *' the official " or authoritative biography of Lord Strath- 
cona, his family having placed private letters and papers at the disposal of 
Mr. Beckles Willson. The abundance of material probably accounts for the 
size of the volume, though this is doubtless due as well to the long and varied 
life of the subject, who lived to be ninety -four and was a prominent figure for 
nearly half a century. We have in one sense an exhaustive treatment of the 
subject, so far as concerns the administrative work and public career of the 
man successively known as Donald Alexander Smith, Sir Donald Smith, and 
Lord Strathcona, and with it are incorporated much of the history of Canada 
and many details regarding the Hudson's Bay Company and the railway enter- 
prises with which Lord Strathcona was prominently identified. A very proper 
estimate of him is also given as " Canada's foremost citizen," to whom, more 
than any other man, " is due Canada's material prosperity and much of her 
political temper ". But rather scant justice is done to his lordship's muni- 
ficent benefactions — the total amount of his donations exceeded a million and 
a half sterling ; and the references to his advocacy and support of educational 
schemes and institutions are brief and rather perfunctory. A similar fault has 
to be found with the passages dealing with Lord Strathcona's Chancellorship 
of M'Gill University and of our own University. " The truly remarkable 
Aberdeen University [quater-] centenary celebrations, in which, as Chancellor, 
Lord Strathcona was the foremost figure," are dismissed in a page ! 

Lessons In Geometry. By Chartes McLeod, M.A., D.Sc. Aberdeen : 
The University Press. Pp. xii. + 507. 

This is an excellent and practical text-book by an experienced and practical 
teacher. It is divided into two parts. The first part comprises the substance 
of Euclid I., II., Ill , the leading propositions of XL, and the properties of 
Similar Figures. It thus covers all the requirements for the Lower Leaving 
Certificate, and part of the Higher. The second part covers all that is re- 
quired of the higher classes of Secondary Schools, including Trigonometry. 
The explanations and illustrations are most lucid and interesting, and show 
at every turn the hand of one who has had ripe experience in the difficulties 
of young students grappling with the wide field of Mathematics, and who 
possesses consummate skill in smoothing these difficulties away. No mathe- 
matical teacher should fail to procure a copy of this admirable volume. If 
we might venture one small criticism, is the "clock face" on page 17 not 
faulty ? It is the recognised practice to use IIII instead of IV. The illustra- 
tions, it may be added, are unusually numerous, and uniformly helpful. 



University Topics. 

BEQUESTS FOR THE LIBRARY BY DR. DEY. 

The following bequests were made to the University by the late Dr. William? 
Dey :— 

1. The sum of ;£^6ooo, of which the free income shall be applied in the pur- 

chase of books for the General University Library. 

2. The sum of ;^iooo, of which the free income shall be applied in the pur- 

chase of books to be added to the Celtic Department of the Library. 

3. The sum of ;£"iooo, of which the free income shall be applied in the pur- 

chase of books to be added to the Department of the General Library 
specially connected with the Lectureship of Education in the University.. 
The residue of the estate, after the fulfilment of various trust purposes, is be- 
queathed to the University Court for the purpose of investment, along 
with the legacy of ;^'6ooo, and the free income to be also applied in the- 
purchase of books for the General University Library. The books belong- 
ing to Dr. Dey are also bequeathed to the University Library. 
At a meeting of the Court held on 14 December, the Principal, who pre- 
sided, referred to the lamented death of Dr. Dey, and alluded to the in- 
valuable services which he had rendered to the cause of education in the 
North of Scotland, and to that University in particular. It was resolved ta- 
send to Dr. Dey's brothers a minute recording the Court's sympathy and ap- 
preciation of Dr. Dey's services. 

LOUVAIN UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 

In our second volume, p. 185, some account was given of old-time links- 
between Louvain and Aberdeen. The Governors of the John Rylands 
Library, Manchester, recently resolved to give a practical expression to their 
deep feelings of sympathy with the authorities of the University of Louvain, 
in the irreparable loss which they have suffered; and decided that this should 
take the form of a gift of books to be selected by the librarian from the stock 
of duplicates in the possession of the Library. The Governors also invited 
other libraries and similar institutions to share in this expression of practical 
sympathy, offering not merely to house meantime such volumes as it may be 
thought proper to accept, but to classify the collection (according to the 
Brussels extension of the Dewey system), and to furnish it with a carefully 
compiled catalogue, recording the names of the donors, " so that when the 
time comes for its transference to its new home, it may be placed upon the: 
shelves prepared for its reception and be ready forthwith for use ". 



172 Aberdeen University Review 

The University Court of the University of Aberdeen, adopting a recom- 
mendation by the Library Committee, authorised the Librarian to prepare a 
•list of such books in the University Library as were available and appropriate 
for the purpose described ; and to submit these for consideration by the 
'Governors of the John Rylands Library. It so happens that our Library — 
formed in i860 by the union of the two old Libraries of King's College and 
Marischal College — contains an unusual number of duplicates of books of 
prior date, especially in the departments of theology, philosophy, history, and 
literature. 

As the outcome of some correspondence with Mr. Guppy, Librarian of 
the John Rylands Library, a first instalment of 250 volumes has been for- 
warded to Manchester, and a condensed list of these has been printed in the 
Aberdeen University Library Bulletin^ No. XIV. 

DIVINITY PRIZE. 

It was intimated at a meeting of the Court on 12 October that the late Mr. 

James Burgess, some time merchant in Aberdeen, had made a bequest to the 

University for the purpose of founding a prize for the best English essay on 

-a subject connected with religion and morality, to be competed for by students 

in divinity at the University. 

LECTURESHIP IN CELTIC. 

This subject was again before the General Council of the University at its 
half-yearly meeting on 16 October. The Business Committee reported that 
a representation in favour of the institution in the University of a Lectureship 
in Celtic (see Vol. II., p. 70) had been made to the Court, but had not been 
acknowledged ; and directed attention to a recent circular issued by the Scotch 
Education Department intimating the intention of the Department to " regard 
a course of study in Gaelic at a University as an essential part of the equip- 
ment of every teacher of the subject ". 

Professor Harrower moved : — 

That the General Council desires once more to urge upon the Court the necessity of 
providing suitable teaching in Celtic at the earliest possible opportunity. 

He thought the Council would agree with the statement in the minute of 
'4he Business Committee that the present time might not be opportune for 
pressing upon the Court the desirability of incurring a new item of expendi- 
ture ; but, all the same, it seemed wise to keep the subject before the mind of 
-the Court, as their experience during the last few years went to prove that the 
subject was not regarded by the Court as of vital and pressing importance. 
The sum of ;^3oo had been assigned to Celtic in the Court's tentative scheme 
^f allocation, but owing to the drop in the University revenues arising from 
the introduction of the inclusive fee, it had been found necessary to cut down 
the scheme by ^300. But why was Celtic made the victim? It had been 
-declared to be a pressing want many years before the other lectureships had 
•even been spoken of. No fewer than three representations on the subject had 
been made by the Council — one in 1896, another in 1909, and a third in 
1914 ; but, notwithstanding, Celtic had been steadily pushed into the back- 
aground by the Court. The Professor went on to comment upon the striking 



University Topics 173: 

fact that Celtic was taught in more than a dozen Universities in the United 
Kingdom — in Oxford, Cambridge, London, Liverpool, and Manchester; but 
not in Aberdeen, which had produced more Celtic scholars of the first rank than. 
any one of them. He also contended that it was essential for Aberdeen Uni- 
versity to provide for the teaching of Celtic if it was to retain its hold on the 
Highlands. Of the four schools in Scotland in which higher work in Celtic 
had been done for years, three, he said, ought to be within their sphere of in- 
fluence — Stornoway, Dingwall, and Kingussie ; but from only one of these had 
they anything like a steady flow of students. 

Mr. Hugh F. Campbell, advocate, Aberdeen, seconded the motion, laying, 
stress upon the seriousness of the problem perplexing all the three Presbyterian 
Churches, of providing Gaelic- speaking ministers for vacant charges in the 
Highlands. 

The Principal stated his belief that a representation from the Council on 
this important subject would receive favourable consideration from the Court,, 
which had included a Lectureship in Celtic in its original scheme for the 
allocation of the Additional Government Grant. In consequence, however, 
of the need of assigning a considerable sum from this Grant as compensation.- 
for the financial loss to the University through the adoption of the Inclusive 
Fee System, the Court, with the approval of the Senatus, temporarily with- 
drew the proposal to institute a Celtic Lectureship out of the Grant. If from, 
other sources funds were forthcoming, the Court, he lelt sure, would be 
willing, with the concurrence of the Senatus, to take the necessary steps for 
the establishment of the Lectureship 

The motion was unanimously adopted. 

In connexion with this subject, the following passage from the minute of 
the Business Committee may be reproduced : — 

It is of some interest to note the incorrectness of the general belief that it was the latr 
Professor Blackie, of Edinburgh, who originated the agitation for the establishment of a 
Celtic Chair in Scotland. So far back as 1835 the subject seems to have been under con- 
sideration by the board of directors of the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge ia 
the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, and advantage was taken of the bringing in by Mr.. 
Bannerman, M.P., on 22 June, 1835, of a bill uniting King's College and Marischal Col- 
lege into one University, to present a petition to the House of Commons " that a per- 
manent provision should now be made for the establishment of a Professor [of Gaelic] in 
the United University of Aberdeen for so useful, so necessary, and so important a branch 
of Scottish education ". The petition was laid on the table of the House on 27 July, but 
Mr. Bannerman withdrew his bill. 

At a meeting of the Court on 1 1 January, it was decided, in conformity 
with a recommendation of the Senatus, to found a Lectureship in Celtic and 
Philology, and to appoint to it Mr. John Fraser (M.A., 1903), the salary to* 
be contributed by the Senatus from the Dr. William Hunter Fund. 

PATHOLOGY LECTURESHIP. 

At the same meeting of the Court, a letter was read from Sir Alexander 
McRobert handing over to the University certain shares, the revenue from 
which is expected to amount to jC745 or ^750 per annum, as an endowment 
for the Georgina McRobert Lectureship in Pathology, with special reference 
to malignant diseases. The lectureship is to be attached to the Department 
of Pathology in the University. 

The Court expressed the gratitude of the University to Sir Alexander for 



174 Aberdeen University Review 

his enlightened generosity and its appreciation of the many opportunties of 
research and teaching which his gift opened up, in one of the most important 
departments of medical science and practice. 

ELECTION OF ASSESSORS. 

It fell to the General Council of the University at its last meeting (in Octo- 
ber), to elect two Assessors on the University Court in place of Dr. Albert West- 
land (elected 191 1) and Colonel Rev. James Smith (elected, April 19 15, for 
the unexpired portion of the term of office of the late Colonel William John- 
ston, who was elected in 191 1). It was resolved, however, that application be 
made to the proper Government department for authority to postpone the 
election in conformity with the recent Act of Parliament. 

The Secretary for Scotland subsequently issued an Order under the 
Elections and Registration Act, 191 5, postponing the election of Assessors 
for a year and authorizing the Court to fill any casual vacancy that might 
occur. The effect of the Order was to extend the term of office of Dr. West- 
land and Colonel Smith to October 191 6, and to make it incumbent on the 
Court to co-opt a successor to the late Dr. William Dey for a term ending 
in October, 191 7. 

As Dr. Dey's successor the Court appointed Mr. George Smith, M.A., 
LL.D., Director of Studies, Aberdeen Training Centre. Subsequently, it 
appointed Lieutenant- Colonel John Scott Riddell, M.V.O., M.A., M.B., 
Assessor in room of the late Dr. Westland. 

UNIFORM PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION. 

A proposal to this effect came before the General Council at its meeting 
in October, Rev. Dr. Gordon Murray moving : — 

That a remit be given to the Business Committee to consider and report on the advis- 
ability of instituting a uniform preliminary examination as opening the door of the Univer- 
sity to any student in any of the faculties, to be followed in the case of Divinity and 
Education by the provision of courses leading to degrees on lines similar to those followed 
at present in Medicine (M.B.), and in Law (B.L.) ; and to retain expert advice in carrying 
out the remit. 

He said that since the change took place in regard to the M.A. degree, it 
•did not connote anything nowadays. One could not tell what course a stu- 
dent had passed through by knowing simply that he was an M.A. of the Uni- 
versity, so much so that in regard to the Church of Scotland the authorities 
had set a preliminary examination before a student, even although an M.A., 
■could enter the Divinity Hall. Nowadays, the scholars leaving the secondary 
schools, were, at anyrate, two years older on entering the University than in 
his time, and something ought to be done to shorten the University career for 
a profession. Mr. W. Stewart Thomson seconded; and the motion was 
agreed to. 

THE CLASS SYSTEM. 

In the ** Introductory Statement " in Sir William M. Ramsay*s recently 
published work on ** The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthi- 
ness of the New Testament *' — quoted from in the review of the book which 
appears in this number of the Review — the following remarks on the class 
system are made by the Emeritus Professor : — 



I 



University Topics. 175 

"At that time in Aberdeen [1868] the prizes and places in each subject 
were not announced until the final day, when they were declared publicly for 
each of the four classes in separate session. The old class- system was still 
in full force, the same system which about 1760 was carried to Philadelphia 
and introduced into the University of Pennsylvania by William Smith of 
Aberdeen, first Provost of the University — • (this interesting fact of University 
history is given on the authority of the present Provost, who told the whole 
story to the present writer in 1913) — and which spread thence over the whole 
of the United States, being accepted by all the older Universities, except the 
University of Virginia, and adopted by almost all the new foundations. 
Every student belonged to the class of his own year, studied the regular 
subjects in a fixed order, and passed through the curriculum among the same 
body of associates. He belonged for life to that " class," and in Aberdeen 
many of these classes kept up the custom of meeting once a year, and oc- 
casionally publishing a record of the fortunes of each individual. The annual 
meeting of the classes is in America associated with a public function of the 
University, and officially used as a powerful engine for preserving its unity and 
its connexion with former graduates. In Aberdeen the meeting remained 
always a private gathering of any class which chose to hold such a re- union, 
and the University took no part in it and no notice of it. Occasionally some 
professor was invited to the meeting, but as a rule it was purely a students' 
gathering of a single class. The class-system at Aberdeen, now much de- 
stroyed by the Royal Commission of 1894, was then a power in University life 
and exercised a strong influence on every student. That was the case with us, 
although our class was one which has never held any re-union or met in any 
general fashion after the fourth year ended ; and this explanation of the system 
is needed to explain why that meeting of the class to hear the declaration of 
the prizes was felt as a momentous occasion for young students." 

Sir William Ramsay adds in a footnote : — 

" Royal Commissions rarely do the good that might be expected ; but that 
of 1890-94 was peculiarly unsuccessful. Hardly any member of it had been 
educated at a Scottish University, or showed any sympathy with the national 
tradition of college life ; and Aberdeen was represented on the board of fifteen 
by a retired professor, eighty years of age, who lived far away in his own 
country, and knew the University only during his very efficient professoriate. 
The students now still struggle to maintain the old custom in spite of adverse 
circumstances.'' 



CLASS REUNION. 

Arts Class, 1888-92. — The eighth triennial dinner of this class was held 
in the Imperial Hotel, Aberdeen, on 27 December. Mr. James Davidson, 
Aberdeen Grammar School, occupied the chair, and Mr. William Garden, ad- 
vocate, Aberdeen, the secretary of the class reunions, was croupier. There 
were also present — Messrs. D. A. Duff", Charles Eraser, A. Meff", Harry M*Cal- 
lum, and G. A. Simpson. Apologies for absence were read from Rev. W. H. 
Adam, Mr. J. H. Barron, Mr. W. S. Barclay, Rev. J. A. Cameron, Rev. W. P. 
Cox, Mr. D. A. Cumming, Mr. William Craib, Rev. A. R. Gordon, Mr. J. G. 
Gray, Rev. A. Gilby, Dr. Gibb, Mr. R. C. Lowes, Dr. W. A. Milligan, Rev. 
J. H. Morrison, Rev. A. Macpherson, Dr. Ross, Rev. A. Ross, Dr. Snowball, 



176 Aberdeen University Review 

Dr. H. E. Smith, Dr. Sivewright, Rev. J. G. D. Scott, Mr. S. Wilson, and Dr. 
J. S. Warrack. 

Mr. Garden explained that the Class Committee and he had carefully 
considered whether the present was a suitable time for having a dinner. 
They had come to the conclusion that, as these reunions were really not 
primarily festive functions, but more properly the milestones in the life-road 
of the class, where they halted to see how it had been faring with their class- 
fellows during the last mile of the journey, it would be a pity to have any 
hiatus in these reunions. He was glad to be able to inform those present that 
they would see, from the letters from absent class-fellows which he was about 
to read to them, that the decision to hold the reunion as usual was heartily 
approved. He regretted having to announce the death since the last occa- 
sion they met of three members of the class — Mr. W. S. Richardson, school- 
master, Lumsden ; Dr. J. S. Milne, Hartlepool ; and Mr. W. W. Kennedy, 
for fourteen years on the sub-editorial staff of the Bradford '' Daily Argus ". 
Mr. Garden then read a number of letters which he had received from all 
parts of the world. 

The proceedings were of a quite informal nature, and there were no toasts 
except those of " The King" and "The Class," proposed by the Chairman 
and Mr. Garden. With a few songs and old memories of college days, a very 
enjoyable evening was spent. 

THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR. 

The number of graduates, alumni, students and members of the Uni- 
versity staff on naval and military service or under training, which in July 
was 13 1 7, and when our last number was published in November (see p. 75) 
was over 1500, is now (15 February) touching 1600. This does not 
include those who have been attested under Lord Derby's scheme and 
grouped. It is not possible as yet to ascertain their full number ; only some 
thirty have been reported. The number of graduates on service has risen 
since the end of November from 941 to 998 and several others have trained 
or are training in the O.T.C. for commissions. The number of alumni on 
service has increased from 99 to 133 ; the number of undergraduate students 
commissioned, from 90 to 108 (of whom four are in the R.A.M.C.) ; ten 
more are Surgeon Probationers in the Royal Navy. Of students who matricu- 
lated for this session, or who won bursaries in the bursary competition of 191 5 
over fifty have enlisted (this number includes five Auxiliary Sick Berth Re- 
serve Attendants in the Navy). Altogether over 315 undergraduate students 
are, or have been, on service, and a considerable number of others are attested. 

The casualties reported up to 15 February are as follows: — 



Killed in action, or died of wounds, 
or sunk with their ships, (includ- 
ing three dead from disease) 



(^ Graduates 36 "j 

Alumni 8 J- 68 

Students 24 J 

Wounded (log less 5 also entered as prisoners or missing) .... 104 

Prisoners of War (besides five civilian prisoners) 9 

Missing. . 5 

Total Casualties 186 

Neuve Chapelle in March, Hooge (Ypres) on the 16-18 June, and Hooge 
and Loos on 25 September are the more fatal dates — the last most fatal of 



University Topics. 177 

all, for then there fell in the battles of Hooge and Loos twenty-one or twenty- 
two, thirty-two were wounded, and that day is responsible for the prisoners 
and missing. Three went down with their ships ; four fell in action on the 
Dardanelles, two in Africa, one at Singapore and ail the others in Flanders. 
We have no satisfactory list as yet of the invalided. 

The lists of our graduates and students engaged under the British Red 
Cross Society, or entered in the Navy List as Surgeons and Agents at Sick 
Quarters, or employed in the making of munitions and upon other War pur- 
poses will be published along with the Supplement to the Provisional Roll of 
Service in the next number of the Review. 

The University authorities have been busily engaged with the manifold 
problems arising out of Lord Derby's Scheme and the Military Service Act. 
In the end of the year, the Principal joined the other Scottish Principals in a 
representation to the Secretary for Scotland on the case of attested and 
grouped students due to sit their Professional and other Degree examinations 
in March. By the kind offices of the Secretary, the calling up of these 
students was postponed till after 31 March. 

Further lists of honours awarded to those who have earned special distinc- 
tion for service in connection with the war, and lists of those mentioned in 
dispatches, include the following University men : — 

The order of K.C.M.G. has been conferred upon — 

Surgeon- General Sir James Porter, R.N., K.C.B. (M.A., 1874; M.B., 
1877 ; M.D.), formerly Director-General of the Medical Depart- 
ment of the Navy, and re-employed for special service during 
the war. 

That of C.B. on- 
Major (temporary Colonel) Henry W. M. Gray, R.A.M.C., Consultant 
Surgeon, British Expeditionary Force, France (M.B., 1895 ; 
F.R.C.S.). 

That of C.M.G. on— 

Colonel Stuart Macdonald, Army Medical Service (M.B., 1884). 

The D.S.O. has been awarded to — 

Major Robert Mitchell, 2nd Highland Field Company, Highland 

Divisional Engineers (M.A., 1894; B.L.). 
Major William Rae, 30th Canadian Infantry Battalion (M.A., 

1903; B.L.). 

The Military Cross to — 

Captain Robert Forgan, R.A.M.C. (M.A., 191 1 ; M.B., 191 5). 

Second Lieutenant (temporary Captain) Hamilton M'Combie, Wor- 
cester Regiment (T.F.) (M.A., 1900; B.Sc. [Lond.]; Ph.D.). 

Second Lieutenant F. W. Bain, 4th Gordon Highlanders (former agri- 
cultural student). 

Recommended for the Victoria Cross — 

Lieutenant William George Rae Smith, 21st Divisional Cyclists 
(former agricultural student). Killed while saving a wounded 
man. 

12 



178 Aberdeen University Review 

The following have been mentioned in dispatches : — 

Lieutenant- Colonel George H. Bower, 7th Gordon Highlanders (M.A., 

1891). 
Lieutenant-Colonel James Dawson, D.S.O., 6th Gordon Highlanders 

(M.A., 1899) — Second mention. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Fraser, R.A.M.C. (M.A., 1894; M.B., 

1898). 
Lieutenant-Colonel John E. Macqueen, 6th Gordon Highlanders 

(alumnus, 1891-95) — Killed in action. 
Major (now Lieutenant-Colonel) Robert Bruce, 7th Gordon High- 
landers (M.A., 1893 ; M.D.). 
Major Alexander Don, Highland Clearing Station, R.A.M.C. (T.F.) 

(M.A., 1884; M.B.). 
Major Frank Fleming, ist Highland Brigade, R.F.A. (alumnus). 
Major Robert Mitchell, D.S.O. 
Captain Robert Forgan, Military Cross. 
Captain George S. Melvin, 2nd Highland Field Ambulance (M.B., 

1909 ; M.D.). 
Captain John P. Mitchell, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1907 ; M.D.). 
Captain James S. Stewart, Scots Guards (M.B., 1913) — Second mention. 
Captain M. J. Williamson, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1908). 
Second Lieutenant F. W. Bain, Military Cross. 
Second Lieutenant James Scott, 6th Gordon Highlanders (M.A., 

1913)- 
Sergeant Alexander Allardyce, 4th Gordon Highlanders (M.A., 1904; 
B.L.) — Killed in action. 

Captain George A. Williamson (M.A., 1889 ; M.D.), R.A.M.C., Lecturer 
in Tropical Diseases in the University and Officer Commanding the Aberdeen 
University Contingent, O.T.C., was appointed last May by the military 
authorities in Egypt to organize and command a Convalescent Camp in the 
Eastern Mediterranean. The Camp opened with 273 cases, and room in- 
creased so that during summer there were always about 500. After a stay 
varying from a fortnight to three months, most of the men treated were able 
to return to duty fit for strenuous work, and there were no deaths. A fresh 
camp had to be organized for winter, in which on December ist there were 
550 cases, while arrangements were being made for the expansion of the camp 
so as to hold from 1500 to 2000. There have been a very large number of 
dysentery cases, both amoebic and bacillary, and cases of malaria. The 
general administration of the Camp, as well as the arrangements for dysentery, 
have received the warm approval of the authorities. 

Miss Lilias J. A. Simpson, daughter of the rector of Fordyce Academy, is 
the first lady student to leave the University for national service. She had 
been attending classes on the making of munitions, and in the end of December 
was called upon to begin work at Messrs. Mackinnon's, Spring Garden. 
Miss Simpson was presented by several fellow-students with an illuminated 
address as a token of admiration of her plucky enterprise. 



Personalia. 

Members of the University everywhere, at home and abroad, will have 
noted with pleasure the announcement, in the distribution of honours at 
the New Year, that the King had been pleased to confer a knighthood upon 
Dr. George Adam Smith, the Principal of the University. Those associated 
with the Principal in the conduct of the Review join heartily in the con- 
gratulations that have been tendered him on the receipt of this mark of His 
Majesty's favour. 

Another distinction will shortly be conferred upon the Principal. He 
has been selected for nomination as Moderator of the General Assembly of 
the United Free Church at its meeting in May. The selection — which is 
made at a meeting of the Standing Committees of the Church — was unan- 
imous, the names of two other clergymen who had been suggested for the 
Moderatorship (Principal Mackichan, Bombay, and Rev. Alexander Lee, 
Edinburgh) having been withdrawn. 



The Principal's "Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land" 
bears the following interesting dedication : — 

To 

The University of Aberdeen 
In Memory of 
These her sons who in the nineteenth century were Eminent in Semitic 
Scholarship and the Exposition of the Literature and History of Israel : — 
Professor John Duncan, M.A., D.D. 
Professor John Forbes, M.A., D.D., LL.D. 
Professor Andrew Bruce Davidson, M.A., D.D., LL.D. 
Professor William Robertson Smith, M.A., D.D., LL.D. 
Professor William Gray Elmslie, M.A., D.D. 

And 
The Reverend Peter Thomson, M.A. 



The Court, at a meeting on 13 December, appointed the following mem- 
bers to be Governors of the North of Scotland College of Agriculture for the 
ensuing three years : Principal George Adam Smith, Dr. Crombie, Sir John 
Fleming, and Mr. Patrick Cooper. Professor Macdonald was appointed the 
representative of the Court on the Trust for Education in the Highlands and 
Islands of Scotland in room of the late Dr. Dey. Professor Jack was ap- 
pointed a representative on the Joint Board of Examiners of the Universities 
of Scotland in room of Professor Grierson. 



i8o Aberdeen University Review 

At the first meeting for the academic year 191 5-16 of the University 
Library Committee, the committee elected as chairman and curator of the 
library, Professor Trail, F.R.S. Dr. Trail now enters on his twenty-fifth year of 
office as curator, having been first elected in 1891, when the appointment 
was in the hands of the Senatus, and Dr. Robert Walker was librarian. 



Professor Macdonald has been reappointed one of the Assessors from the 
Senatus to the University Court, for the usual period of four years. 



Professor J. Arthur Thomson has been appointed a member of the Aber- 
deen Public Library Committee, in place of Professor Grierson. 



Professor Hendrick, addressing the students in Agriculture at the open- 
ing of the winter session, mentioned that he had devised a plan for destroying 
barbed wire by chemical means. He had offered the military authorities, he 
said, to go anywhere and help to put it into actual operation, but they had 
not seen fit to accept the offer. 



The University Court has appointed Mr. J. F. Kellas Johnstone a mem- 
ber of the University Library Committee in place of the late Colonel 
Johnston, C.B., this being the first occasion on which a non-member of the 
General Council has been elected to the Committee. Mr. Johnstone's pre- 
liminary " Concise Bibliography of Aberdeen, Banff and Kincardine " was 
issued as a "University Study" in 191 4, and was reviewed in our pages in 
Vol. IL, p. 166; and his completed work on the same subject is promised by 
the New Spalding Club in two large volumes. He is to lecture to the 
Glasgow Bibliographical Society in March next on " The Academic Theses 
of Scotland ". 



Professor Shennan, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, and Dr. John 
Gordon, President of the Aberdeen branch of the British Medical Associa- 
tion, are members of the Scottish Medical Service Emergency Committee 
which was appointed the tribunal for Scotland to deal with questions affecting 
the liability of medical men to undertake military service. 

The Court, at a meeting in October, appointed the following assistants : — 
Greek (second) — Mr. William George Reid (M.A., 1911); French — Mr. 
David Glass Larg (M.A., 191 5); Moral Philosophy — Mr. Thomas Jack, 
M.A. (with the status of Lecturer in Political Science) ; Psychology — Mrs. 
Charlotte Sturm (M.B., 1906). 

The Fullerton, Moir, and Gray scholarship in Mental Philosophy (j^i 00, 
tenable for two years) has been awarded to Miss Ann W. Hastings (M.A., 
1 91 5), daughter of Rev. Dr. Hastings; and the Robert Fletcher scholarship 
in Mathematics {/^^o, tenable for two years) to Miss Mary F. C. Wattie, 
(M.A., 1 914), daughter of Mr. J. M'Pherson Wattie, 'H.M. Chief Inspector 
of Schools. 



The Town Council's gold medals for the most distinguished graduates in 
Arts last year were awarded to Edward MTntosh (in the department of 
Languages) and Peter Morrison (in the Department of Science). 



Personalia 



i8i 



Sir John Anderson, G. C. M. G. (M.A., 1877; LL.D., 1907), has been 
appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Ceylon. He was Governor 
of the Straits Settlements and High Commissioner of the Federated Malay 
States from 1904 till, 191 1, and since the latter year he has been Permanent 
Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies. 



The Senatus has agreed, on a report from the Committee on Higher 
Degrees in Arts, that the degree of D.Litt. be conferred on Professor William 
Blair Anderson2(M.A.,-^i898), Professor of Imperial Latin, University of 
Manchester. 



Sir William Bisset|Berry (M. A., Marischal College, 1858; M.D., 1861 ; 
LL.D., 191 1) has been re-elected member of the House of Assembly of the 
Parliament of the Union of South Africa for Queenstown, in the province of 
the Cape of Good Hope. He has represented Queenstown — of which he 
was the first Mayor — first in the Cape Parliament and now in the Union 
Parliament, continuously since 1894, and was Speaker of the Cape Assembly 
from 1898 till 1907. He was knighted in 1900. 



Mr. Gordon Hamilton* Calder (M.A., 1902), first assistant in Newbattle 
School, Midlothian, has been appointed headmaster of Coalburn School, 
Lesmahagow. * 

Mr. William Dawson (M.A., 1901 ; B.Sc. Agr.), Reader in Forestry, 
Cambridge University, is one of the members of the committee appointed by 
Lord Selborne to ensure that full use be made of home timber to meet the 
present extraordinary demand. 



Rev. John William Downie (M.A., 191 1 ; B.D.) has been ordained and 
inducted as colleague and successor to Rev. Alexander A. Russell, minister 
of the United Free Church, Burnmouth, Berwickshire. 



Rev. David Silver Johnston (M.A., 191 1; B.D., 1915), assistant, St. 
Machar's Cathedral, Aberdeen, has been elected minister of the parish of 
Bervie, Kincardineshire. 



Rev.^John Keith (M.A., King's College, 1859), senior minister of the 
United Free Church, Carmylie, Forfarshire, who retired after thirty-two years' 
service and is now resident in Aberdeen, celebrated on 21 December the 
jubilee of his ministry and of his ordination at Carmylie. A deputation from 
the congregation presented him with an illuminated address, and he was also 
presented with a congratulatory ^address from the Presbytery of Arbroath and 
Forfar. 



Rev. Robert^Alexander Lendrum (M.A., 1882), minister of St. David's 
United Free Church, Glasgow, has celebrated the semi- jubilee of his ministry, 
having been appointed minister of the Free (afterwards United Free) Church 
at Kirkliston, Midlothian, in, 1890. He is a brother of Rev. John Lendrum 
(M.A., 1888), minister since 1900 of the South United Free Church, Elgin. 



1 82 Aberdeen University Review 

Mr. Donald Macdonald (M.A., 1913) has been selected as science master 
in Old Deer and Maud Public Schools, Aberdeenshire. 



Major Farquhar M'Lellan, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1898) has been appointed 
Deputy Assistant Director-General of the Army Medical Service at the War 
Office. Prior to the outbreak of war, Major M'Lellan was Adjutant of the 
R.A.M.C. Territorial School of Instruction at Aberdeen, and had latterly been 
in command of the R.A.M.C. Training Centre at Limerick. 



Mr. William Meston (M.A., 1910; B.Sc), second master of Craigton 
Higher Grade School, Culter, has resigned, in order to take up a position in 
Nobel's Explosive Works, Ardeer, Ayrshire. 



Professor A. F. Murison (M.A,, 1869; LL.D., 1893), Professor of Roman 
Law and of Jurisprudence in University College, London, has been appointed 
for one year Deputy Professor of Civil Law at Oxford, owing to the illness of 
Professor Goudy. 

Mr. John Watson Murray (M.A., 1900) has been elected by the Aber- 
deen School Board to the headmastership of Commerce Street School ; and 
Mr. Robert Bain (M.A., 1902), to be second master in Walker Road School. 



Rev. Thomas Burnett Peter (M.A., 1888; B.D.), who has been minister 
of Port of Monteith, Perthshire, since 1907, has been elected minister of 
the parish of Callander, Perthshire. 



Mr. Forbes Maitland Moir Robertson (M.A., 1908), English master in 
Robert Gordon's College, Aberdeen, has been appointed principal English 
master in Hutchesons* Grammar School, Glasgow. 



Rev. Donald James Ross (M.A., 1899), Eccles Presbyterian Church, 
Manchester, has accepted the pastorate of the church in connexion with the 
Presbyterian Church of England at Penang, in the Straits Settlements. 



Rev. Harry Smith (M.A., 1887), minister of the parish of Tibbermore, 
Perthshire, has been elected minister of Old Kilpatrick Parish Church, Glas- 
gow, in succession to Rev. Dr. Mair, appointed Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History in St. Andrews. 



A reception was given at the Town Hall, Pietermaritzburg, Natal, on 27 
October, by the congregation of St. John's Presbyterian Church, the Natal 
Presbytery, Ministers' Association, Church Council, Y.M.C.A,, Y.W.C.A., and 
other bodies, to Rev. Dr. John Smith (M.A., Marischal College, 1858; D.D., 
1907), in honour of his jubilee as an ordained minister (see pp. 82-3). The 
" Times of Natal," in its report of the proceedings, describes the event as 
" unique in the history of Maritzburg, and, in fact, unprecedented in South 
Africa ". Dr. Smith's ministerial career has been wholly spent in Pietermaritz- 
burg, and he has been pastor of St. John's Presbyterian Church since the 
formation of the congregation in 1870. The union of the Presbyterian 
Churches in South Africa was to a great extent the result of his efforts, and 



Personalia 183 

this was recognized by his being appointed Moderator of the first General 
Assembly in 1897. He was also Clerk to the Natal Presbytery for nearly 
thirty years. Over forty years ago he was instrumental in establishing the 
Y.M.C.A. in the city, and was its first president, holding the post for about 
fourteen years. Dr. Smith was presented with several congratulatory ad- 
dresses, a silver rose bowl and two silver vases from the congregation of St. 
John's, a silver inkstand and clock from the Presbytery, an easy chair from the 
Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A., and a travelling rug from the Jubilee Institute. 



Mr. Andrew W. Thomson, who is in his fourth year at Aberdeen Uni- 
versity, having entered as second bursar in 191 2, has been elected to the Adam 
de Brome classical scholarship of ;£^8o a year at Oriel College, Oxford. 



Mr. John Alexander Thomson (M.A., 1900), classical master at Fraser- 
burgh Academy, has been appointed headmaster of Rathen public school, 
Aberdeenshire, vacant through Mr. John Jack (M.A., 1871) reaching the age 
limit. Mr. James Hosie (M.A., 1906), principal classical teacher at Buckie 
Higher Grade School, succeeds Mr. Thomson. 



Rev. Dr, Alexander Whyte (M.A., 1862 ; D.D. [Edin.], 1881), has retired 
from active service in the ministry. He has been minister of St George's 
Free (now United Free) Church, Edinburgh, since 1870 — for forty -five years, 
that is. Dr. White, who was Moderator of the Free Church General Assembly 
in 1898, was elected Principal of the New College, Edinburgh, in 1900. He 
has just entered on the eightieth year of his age. 



Mr. Frederick Wishart (M.A., 1909; LL.B., 1912), has just passed the 
final examination of the Council of Legal Education second out of 66 can- 
didates, being one of the only two who were placed in Class I. and who re- 
ceive certificates of honour. Mr. Wishart, who belongs to the Inner Temple, 
was President of the S. R. C. He took the Edmond and Hunter prizes in 
Law. 



The following graduates have been appointed to the teaching staffs of 
various schools: Messrs. Francis Smith (1914), and John Christie Wilkie 
(1914); Misses Helen Isobel Anderson (1914), Agnes Black (1912), Jessie 
Keith Davie (1913), Jane Ewen (1914), Eliza Gifi'ord (191 1), Mary Gordon 
(1914), Elizabeth Philip (1908), Annie Reid (19 r4), and Myra Watt (1914). 



Mrs. Mary Walker Cruickshank (M.B., Ch.B., 1906) has been appointed 
assistant school medical officer to the Aberdeen School Board. 



Among recently published works are the following by Aberdeen University 
men: "Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land," designed and 
edited by the Principal; "The Antiquity of Man," by Professor Arthur 
Keith; *'Sub Corona : Sermons preached in the University Chapel of King's 
College, Aberdeen," edited by Professor Cowan and Dr. James Hastings; 
"Theology in Church and State," by Rev. Principal Forsyth, D.D. ; "Apostles 
of India" (the Baird Lecture), by Rev. J. N. Ogilvie, D.D. ; "For the Great 
Cause " (a volume of Peace and War-time Sermons and Addresses), by Rev. 



184 Aberdeen University Review 

George Walker, B.D. ; " Dictionary of the Apostolic Church," Vol. I., edited 
by Dr. Hastings ; a volume of "The Greater Men and Women of the Bible," 
edited by Dr. Hastings, dealing with New Testament men and women ; "The 
Historical and the Eternal Christ," by W. S. Urquhart, D. Phil. ; " The Greek 
Tradition : Essays in the Reconstruction of Ancient Thought," by J. A. K. 
Thomson; "A Short History of Europe, 1806-1914," by Professor Terry 
(completing his " History of Europe from the Dissolution of the Holy Roman 
Empire to the Outbreak of the German War"); "Bach's Mass in B Minor" 
and " Bach's Chorals," by Professor Terry ; ** A Popular Handbook of the Com- 
mercial Law of Scotland," by W. D. Esslemont (new edition) ; and a number 
of brochures on military and regimental topics by J. M. Bulloch, including : 
"The Gordon Highlanders' Casualties in the Peninsula Campaign," "The 
Contribution of the Town of Aberdeen to Volunteer Defence, 17 94- 1808," 
" The Beginning of the Banffshire Volunteers MDCCXCIV," " Banffshire 
Volunteers as raised in MDCCXCVH," "The Independent Volunteers of 
Banffshire as raised in MDCCXCVHI," and " The Volunteers of Banff from 
1798 to 1808". 



*' An Aberdeen Professor of the Eighteenth Century " was the title of an 
article by Mr. J. G. Burnett of Powis in the October number of the "Scottish 
Historical Review ". The Professor is Mr. John Leslie, who occupied the 
Greek Chair at King's College from 1754 till 1790, and who, according to Mr. 
Burnett, did not aim at personal distinction, and left no writings to perpetuate 
his memory. " He was contented to remain a teacher in the best sense of 
the word — to make it his mission to instil into others his own love and rever- 
ence for learning. His letters show that he numbered among his friends such 
men as Robertson the historian, ' Jupiter ' Carlyle, Colin Maclaurin the mathe- 
matician, and Robert Foulis of the Glasgow University Printing Press." The 
article consists mainly of extracts from letters written to Leslie by these and 
other men which " afford interesting glimpses of social life, not only at King's 
College, Aberdeen, but in the wider circle of friends among whom he moved ". 



Dorothea Gerard, the novelist, who died at Vienna on 29 September last, 
was a great-grand- daughter of the Rev. Alexander Gerard, Professor of Di- 
vinity, first at Marischal College, 1760-71, and then at King's College, 1771- 
95. She married in 1886 Julius Longard de Longgarde, an officer in the 
Austrian army. Her sister, Emily Gerard (Madame de Laszowska), was also 
a novelist, and the two at one time collaborated, but then wrote separately. 



Obituary 



We have to record, with deep regret, the death of two men, distinguished 
in their respective professions, and prominently identified with the adminis- 
trative work of the University — Dr. William Dey and Dr. Albert West- 
land. They were both members of the Court, and took an active part in 
the discharge of its business and in University affairs generally. They were 
also keenly interested in the Review, both of them being members of the 
Committee of Management, Dr. Westland being Vice-Chairman of the Com- 
mittee and having for a time acted as Interim Secretary. 



Dr. William Dey (M.A., 1861 ; LL.D., 1885) died at his residence, 
32 Hamilton Place, Aberdeen, on 15 November, aged seventy-nine. He 
was Rector of the Grammar School, Old Aberdeen (familiarly known as 
"The Barn"), from 1870 till 1887, conducting it with conspicuous success, 
particularly in the preparation of students for the University. From 1871 to 
1884 no fewer than 271 bursars went direct to the University from the 
school, several of them being first bursars ; and in some years the school 
won successes in the bursary competition which have never been equalled. In 
1877, it had the first four places; in 1878, thirteen out of the first sixteen; 
and in 1879, t^" out of the first fourteen. Dr. Dey's educational methods 
and influence are described elsewhere in this number, and it is sufficient here 
to mention that on 4 January, 1901, he was entertained at dinner by a 
number of his former pupils, on which occasion his portrait, painted by Mr. 
E. A. Walton, R.S.A., London, was presented to the University. He fre- 
quently lectured on educational subjects, and so far back as 1899 he read a 
paper to the Aberdeen branch of the Educational Institute on " A Diploma 
in Education," which was subsequently published. He was the author of 
"Glimpses of Education, Recent and Remote," published in 1909, and 
"Some Educational Changes and What They Imply," issued in the same 
year. He was also the author of a pamphlet (published in 1888) reviewing 
Professor W. M. Ramsay's " Latin v. Version ". Dr. Dey was elected by the 
General Council one of the Assessors in the University Court in 1889, as a 
representative of the interests of education, and he had been continuously re- 
elected since, being thus a member of the governing body of the University 
for the long period of twenty-six years. He was elected by the Court a mem- 
ber of the governing body of the Commission for Education in the Highlands 
and Islands — he spoke Gaelic — and became convener of its Education Com- 
mittee. He was also one of the University representatives on the Board of 
Governors of the Agricultural College, and was inspector of schools under the 



1 86 Aberdeen University Review 

Dick Bequest. He was a member of the Aberdeen School Board from 1891 
till 1894, and was a prominent member and for some time Chairman of the 
Provincial Committee for the Training of Teachers. Dr. Dey and the mem- 
bers of his family founded in memory of their father, Mr. James Dey, Aber- 
nethy, Strathspey, a scholarship at the University of the annual value of 
;£"ioo, which is awarded to the graduate who is most distinguished in the 
subject of Education. Since 1900, Dr. Dey had contributed annually ^£40 
to the funds of the University Library : he had been a member of the Library 
Committee since 1895. He left several bequests to the University, which 
are specified in the " University Topics " on another page. Dr. Dey was a 
native of Banffshire, having been born in the parish of Kirkmichael. 



Dr. Albert Westland (M.A., 1872; M.B., CM., 1875; M.D., 1877) 
died at his residence, 22 Albyn Place, Aberdeen, on 31 December, aged 
sixty-two. He was a native of Aberdeen, a son of the late Mr. James West- 
land, manager of the North of Scotland Bank, and a younger brother of the 
late Sir James Westland, K.C.S.L, member of the Indian Council. From 
1875 to 1898 he was engaged in a large and influential general practice as a 
physician in the Hampstead district of London ; and since retiring had re- 
sided in Aberdeen. He took the warmest interest in everything concerning 
his A/ma Mater, and was a member from its foundation of the Aberdeen 
University Club in London, of which he was a vice-president. In 1905 he 
was elected by the General Council one of the Assessors in the University 
Court, virtually as a representative of the medical graduates ; and had been 
continuously re-elected since. He proved an active and serviceable member 
of the Court in many ways, taking a considerable part in particular in the 
organization of the Quater-Centenary celebrations. In 191 2 he edited a 
Record of his Arts Class of 1868-72. Dr. Westland interested himself in 
general public affairs, local and Imperial, and rendered numerous services to 
the community. He was for a short time a member of the Aberdeen City 
Parish Council, and in 1907 was elected an interim member of the Town 
Council, to fill the vacancy caused by the retirement of Mr. G. B. Esslemont, 
M.P. He continued to sit as member for the Rubislaw Ward until 1910, 
but at the municipal election of that year his pronounced views in support of 
the Avon water scheme led to his being defeated. He was an acting member 
of the Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, was Chairman 
of the Discharged Prisoners Committee, and was also Chairman of the White- 
hall Industrial School. He was, besides, a member of the Public Library 
Committee. He succeeded Mr. Esslemont as President of the Aberdeen 
Liberal Association, but severed his connexion with the Association in 191 2, 
resenting the treatment of the medical profession in the Insurance Act. A 
few years ago he was President of the local Medico-Chirurgical Society and 
at his death was Treasurer ; and he was naturally interested in the meeting 
of the British Medical Association in Aberdeen in July, 1914, contributing 
a survey of the proceedings to the Review. 



Rev. George Abel (alumnus, 1873-77) died at Leylodge, Ancrum Road, 
Dundee, the residence of his brother, Rev. A. C. Abel, on 2 January, aged 



Obituary 187 

fifty-nine. After studying at the Aberdeen Free Church College, he was, in 
1 88 1, elected colleague and successor to the late Rev. George Archibald, 
Free (now United Free) Church, Udny — his first and only charge. Mr. Abel 
had latterly come into recognition as a poet of no mean powers, particularly 
in the use of the Aberdeenshire dialect as a medium of expression ; and only 
a week or two before his death he published a selection of his poems under 
the title, " Wylins Fae My Wallet " — a volume which met with a great deal of 
generous appreciation. 



Viscount Alverstone (Sir Richard Everard Webster), who was Lord Chief 
Justice of England from 1900 till 19 13, died on 15 December, aged seventy- 
three. He received the honorary degree of LL.D. at the Quater-centenary 
celebrations in 1906. 



Mr. John Cook (M.A., 1869 ; LL.D., 1914) died in Edinburgh on 3a 
December, aged sixty-seven. He was a native of Strichen, Aberdeenshire. 
He was first bursar in 1865, and graduated with first-class honours in mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy. On leaving the University he was appointed 
mathematical and science master at Morison's Academy, Crieff, but almost 
immediately afterwards returned as assistant to the Professor of Natural Philo- 
sophy (Thomson). He occupied this post for three years, and then joined 
the staff of the "Encyclopaedia Britannica" for scientific work. In 1875 he 
became science master of the higher grade school at Arbroath, and two years 
later he was appointed Principal of the Doveton Protestant College at Madras. 
In 1882 he became Principal of the Government Central College at Banga- 
lore, and he occupied this position with great distinction until April 1908, 
when he retired on a pension from the Mysore Government Educational Ser- 
vice. For the last sixteen years of his principalship he acted as Director of 
Meteorology for the province of Mysore ; and on his retirement the Mysore 
Government passed a special order, recording detailed appreciation of his 
" long and meritorious services to the State ". He was also honoured with 
two entertainments and with silver presentations, one from the staff and stu- 
dents of the college and the other from former students occupying honourable 
positions in the Mysore State and elsewhere in South India, and a life-size 
portrait of him was hung on the walls of the College Hall. Recognition of 
Mr. Cook's eminent scholarship was not confined to India, however. Among 
many positions which brought him into touch with home affairs were his con- 
nexion with the University Boards of Studies in Mathematics and in Physical 
Science, of which he was a member, and his position as University Examiner,, 
which he held for over a quarter of a century. He was elected a Fellow of 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1904. Mr. Cook had written much for 
publication, mostly on scientific lines. Of his works, such as his Algebra for 
middle schools, his Algebra for high schools, and his well-known " Physics,'^ 
many are standard college text- books. As Director of Meteorology in Mysore 
he published fourteen volumes of observations taken at the four observatories 
of Bangalore, Mysore, Hassau, and Chitaldrug, and fourteen volumes of rain- 
fall records, taken at over 200 stations in the Mysore Province, besides other- 
volumes of equal meteorological importance. 



1 88 Aberdeen University Review 

Rev. George Watson Gumming (alumnus, 1865-69), minister emeritus of 
'Charing Cross United Free Church, Grangemouth, died at Torquay, Octo- 
ber. He began life as a gardener at Huntly Castle, and there came under 
the influence of the late Duchess of Gordon and of a revival movement in 
which she was greatly interested. 



Mr. William Dunn of Murtle, Aberdeenshire (alumnus, Marischal Col- 
lege, 1843-45), died at Murtle on 29 June, aged eighty-seven. He became a 
member of the Society of Advocates in Aberdeen in 1856. He was Clerk to 
ithe Commission under the bill for the Union of King's and Marischal Colleges 
promoted in Parliament in 1856, and was specially thanked by the Commis- 
sioners for his services in the furthering of the scheme. 



Rev. William Pierre Ewen (M.A. [St. And.] ; B.D., 1867 ; D.D., 1894), 
'^nister-emeritus of Kinning Park parish, Glasgow, died on 1 2 December, aged 
seventy-five. Licensed by the Presbytery of Aberdeen in 1867, he was suc- 
cessively assistant at Alford, Athelstaneford, and Kelso, and in 1874 received 
a, call to the church at Kinning Park, which, two years later, was raised to the 
status of a parish quoad sacra. He retired from active duty in 1903. 



Mrs. A. C. Grant (Christian Davidson Maitland) (B.Sc, 1908; 
M.B. [Edin.]) lost her life, along with her husband, in the torpedoing by an 
iCnemy submarine of the P & O Steamer '* Persia," off Crete, on 30 December. 
Mrs Grant was a daughter of ex- Lord Provost Adam Maitland, Aberdeen, and 
was married only on 18 November. She graduated in Science in 1908, with 
special distinction in chemistry, and, after taking her medical degree at 
Edinburgh, was for a time on the staff of the Royal Aberdeen Hospital for 
.Sick Children. Towards the end of 1912 she left Aberdeen to enter upon 
medical missionary work at Rajputana, India, going out as a missionary of 
the United Free Church Presbytery of Aberdeen. She rendered splendid 
service, and amply justified the confidence of those who invited her to this 
special work. She was returning to the mission field along with her husband, 
Rev. Alexander Colquhoun Grant, who was also a missionary. 



Dr. John Halley ,(M.B., CM., 1899; D.P.H., 1903), of Ba, Fiji, died 
at the Sanatorium, Wentworth Falls, New South Wales, on 6 November, aged 
forty-two. He was a son of the late Mr. D. R. Halley, Inland Revenue, 
Aberdeen. His life was mainly spent in the Colonial Medical Service. He 
.acted as civil surgeon with troops in West Africa in 1900 and in South 
Africa in 1902, and in 1903 he became Government medical officer in Fiji. 



Rev. Alexander Ironside (M.A., 1867) died at his residence, 8 Ferryhill 
'Place, Aberdeen, on 3 November, aged sixty-nine. He was a native of 
Auchterless, Aberdeenshire. After graduating, he engaged in teaching in 
England and Scotland for several years, but was ordained to the ministry of 
the Church of Scotland in 1882, and was minister of the English Reformed 
Church at Amsterdam from that year till 1894. In 1898 he became officiating 
chaplain (Presbyterian) to the troops at Shorncliffe and Hythe, but was re- 
itired a few years ago. 



Obituary 189 



Rev. Andrew Meldrum (M.A., King's College, i860) died at Pitlochry 
on 14 October, aged seventy-nine. He was a native of Croughly, in the 
parish of Kirkmichael, Banffshire. He was appointed minister of the parish 
of Clyne, Sutherlandshire, in 18 71, and five years later was elected minister 
of the parish of Logierait, Perthshire. Here he laboured for thirty-seven 
years, a colleague and successor being appointed in 1913. He was Chairman 
of the School Board and of the Parish Council for twenty-seven years. Mr. 
Meldrum was a noted Gaelic scholar and antiquarian. 



Mr. Charles Michie (M.A., Marischal College, 1849) ^i^d at his resi- 
dence, 22 St. Swithin Street, Aberdeen, on 7 November, aged eighty-seven. 
After graduating, he secured an appointment as an assistant teacher in the 
West End Academy, Aberdeen, of which he eventually became rector ; and. 
about fifty years ago he opened the North Silver Street Academy, which he 
carried on till 1884, when he retired. He was shortly afterwards appointed 
assistant librarian at Marischal College, and continued to occupy that position 
until about eight years ago. For many years, Mr. Michie acted as secretary 
of the Aberdeen University Local Examinations. Three of his sons are 
graduates of the University — Dr. George Michie, Johannesburg (M.A., 1884 ; 
M.B., 1888); Mr. Francis William Michie, H. M. Inspector of Schools^ 
Dumfries (M.A., 1894) ; and Dr. Arthur Cumming Michie, Newcastle (B.Sc, 
1900; D.Sc, 1906 

Mr. Henry Benjamin Mitchell (M.A., 1878) died at his residence^. 
Dales, Peterhead, on 2 October, aged fifty-nine. He had been in practice as 
a solicitor in Peterhead since 1883, and in 1892 was appointed Procurator- 
Fiscal for the burgh. He was a man of marked literary accomplishments, and 
was the author of "Notable Landmarks in the Region of History" (1899), 
and of several stories contributed to the "Buchan Observer," including 
" Murdoch, a tale of Peterugie" (1902); "Kirk of Aberloan " (1908); and 
" The Redemption of Inchmarno ". He was secretary of the Buchan Field 
Club from its formation in 1887 till 1890, and was elected president in 1902 ; 
and he contributed to its " Transactions " papers on " The Druids," " Coast 
Names Near Peterhead," and "Notes on the Parkhouse Circle". 



Rev. Robert Murray (M.A., 1883; B.D. [St. Andrews], 1895), minister 
of the Cecil Street Presbyterian Church, Williamstown, Victoria, died at the 
Manse there on 9 October, aged fifty-two. He was a younger brother of Rev. 
Dr. Gordon Murray, minister of Grey friars, Aberdeen. Born at Fochabers,, 
he received his early education at Milne's Institution. On leaving Aberdeen 
University he went to Australia, and there, while engaged in teaching and 
tutorial work, he pursued theological studies at Ormonde College, Melbourne, 
of which he was a distinguished student. In 1889, he became minister of 
the Presbyterian Church at Morwell, Victoria, was transferred to the Church 
at Wycliff in 1891, and since 1895 had been minister of the Cecil Street 
Church at Williamstown. He was identified not only with the many activities 
of his own church, but with other movements for the welfare of the community ; 
he held a commission as chaplain in the Royal Australian Naval Reserve ; 
and the Mayor of Williamstown, as the result of a public meeting of the: 
citizens, has taken steps to commemorate his memory in a permanent form. 



I go Aberdeen University Review 

Rev. James Alexander Paterson (M.A., 187 1 ; D.D., 1894) died at his 
residence, 25 Midmar Gardens, Edinburgh, on 21 November, aged sixty-four. 
He graduated at Aberdeen with double honours in classics and philosophy, 
gaining the Fullerton, Moir, and Gray scholarships. He then studied at 
Pembroke College, Oxford, where he was classical scholar, Pusey and Ellerton 
Hebrew scholar, and Syriac prizeman in the University. In 1876, at the early 
age of twenty-five, he was appointed Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament 
Exegesis in the Theological Hall of the United Presbyterian Church. He 
continued in the Chair until the union of the Free and United Presbyterian 
Churches in 1900, when he was appointed colleague and successor to Rev. 
A. B. Davidson, D.D., in the corresponding Chair in the New College of the 
United Church. On the decease of Professor Davidson, Dr. Paterson became 
the sole occupant of the Chair, which he held till 191 3, when he resigned. 
He was recognized as one of the ablest teachers of the Hebrew language, of 
the technique and grammar of which he was an absolute master. Among his 
works were — "The Period of the Judges," the "Book of Leviticus " in the 
Temple Bible, and the " Book of Numbers " in the Polychrome Bible. He 
translated Schultz's " Old Testament Theology," and edited Professor David- 
son's " Old Testament Prophecy " and " Biblical and Literary Essays," and his 
two volumes of sermons — " The Called of God " and " Waiting upon God ". 



Mr. James Riddoch^ (student in Agriculture, 1911-13) died at Tarryblake, 
Rothiemay, Banffshire, on 18 October, aged twenty-two. He was tenant of 
the farm of Mains of Mayen, Rothiemay. 



Sir Henry Enfield Roscoe, F.R.S., the eminent scientist, who was Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry at Owens College, Manchester, from 1857 to 1887, died 
at his residence at West Horsley, Leatherhead, near London, on 1 8 December, 
aged eighty-two. He received the LL.D. degree at the Quater-centenary 
celebrations. 



Rev. George Stuart Smith (M.A., 1878) died at The Manse, Preston- 
pang, on 7 January, aged 63. After graduating and taking licence, he was 
for some time assistant at Penicuick, afterwards going to Prestonpans, East 
Lothian, as assistant to the late Rev. Dr. John Struthers, on whose death he 
was, in 1889, ordained minister of the parish. During his twenty-six years* 
ministry, he did much to improve the church buildings. He was a native of 
Tomintoul, Banffshire, and was twice married, his first wife being a daughter 
of the late Sir James Grant Suttie of Prestongrange. 



Dr. John George Stuart (M.B., CM., 1899), Burnopfield, County 
Durham, died on 12 January, aged 49. He was a native of Tarland, Aber- 
deenshire, and had been in practice at Burnopfield for the past twelve years. 



Dr. Robert Thomson (M.B., CM., 1889), Hawthornlea, Main Street, 
Uddingston, Lanarkshire, died there on 29 November, aged forty- nine. He 
had been in practice at Uddingston since 1893, was one of the medical offi- 
cers for Bothwell parish, and was a past president of the Glasgow and West 
of Scotland Medical Society. 



Obituary 191 



Since our last issue and up to the date of completing this Obituary list, 
ten University men, engaged in the various operations of the war, were re- 
ported to have been killed or to have died of wounds. Their names are the 
first to follow. Additional particulars are given of an eleventh, whose death 
was previously recorded : — 

George Dewar (M.B., CM., 191 5), Lieutenant, R.A.M.C, attached to 
the ist Highland Field Ambulance in France, was killed in action on 3 
February. On the outbreak of the war Mr. Dewar proceeded to Bedford, 
and, after a few months' training, he obtained permission to return home in 
order that he might complete his medical course at the University. He 
passed his final examination with distinction, and then, having obtained a 
commission, he resumed military service, and was almost immediately sent to 
the front. He was the second son of the late Mr. David Dewar, draper, 
Aberdeen, and was twenty-three years of age. 



William Donald, Arts student, private, 4th Battalion, Gordon High- 
landers, was killed south of Hooge, in Flanders, between 35 and 30 Septem- 
ber. He was a son of Mr. Donald, Milltories, Rothiemay, and had been 
previously wounded in June. 



James Reston Gardiner Garbutt (M.B., 191 1), Lieutenant, R.A.M.C, 
attached to the 8th King's Own Scottish Borderers, was killed in action in 
France on i December. After graduating, he proceeded to a hospital in 
Sheffield, where he was specializing in a particular department of the medical 
profession. He joined the Royal Army Medical Corps there, and on going 
to France was engaged at a base hospital. Lately, however, he joined the 
King's Own Scottish Borderers, so that he might get into the fighting line. 
He was twenty-six years of age. 



Hector MacLennan Guthrie (M.A., 191 4), Lieutenant, 3rd Battafion, 
Lancashire Fusiliers, was killed in action at Gallipoli (reported in November). 
He was formerly a sergeant in U Company, 4th Gordon Highlanders. He 
was twenty-three years of age, and had graduated with iirst-class honours in 
English. 



Alexander David Marr (M.A., 19 14), Sergeant in the 7th Battalion, 
Gordon Highlanders, aged 23, was killed in action on 25 September, in 
Flanders. He had already been wounded in action in Flanders in July. At 
the University he was equal with another for the Greig prize in mathematics. 



Roderick Dewar M'Lennan (Arts student), private in the i/4th Battalion, 
Gordon Highlanders, who was reported missing since 25 September, was killed 
it subsequently transpired. 



Douglas Whimster Keiller Moody (M.B., CM., 1900; M.D., 1902) 
lost his life in H.M.S. " Natal '' — on which he was serving as surgeon — which 
was sunk on 30 December while in harbour, as the result of an internal ex- 
plosion. He was formerly house surgeon at Peterborough Infirmary, and 
second house surgeon at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge. He ultimately 



192 Aberdeen University Review 

settled in London, and was for some time a medical officer on P. and O. 
liners. Before joining the Grand Fleet — he was gazetted only in September 
— he was a surgeon at the Haslar Naval Hospital. He was the author of 
several works, notably "A Critical Treatise on Beri-Beri " and " Beri-Beri 
among the Lascar Crews on Board Ship ". He was a native of Montrose. 
He was the son of Mrs. Moody, now of Park Avenue, Hull. His great-grand- 
father, Captain James Whimster, of the 79th Highlanders, fought in the 
Peninsular War at Lisbon and Coruna under Sir John Moore. 



Alexander Silver, private in the 4th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders^ 
died from wounds in a German Hospital (reported in December). Previous 
to enlisting, he was a second -year student in Agriculture. He was a son of 
the late Mr. Alexander Silver, Harvieston, Kinneff, Kincardineshire, and was 
twenty-one years of age. 

Alexander Slorach, lance-corporal in the 4th Battalion, Gordon High- 
landers, was fatally wounded in France on 25 December, by the accidental 
explosion of the detonator of an unexploded shell which an officer was re- 
moving. He was a second-year Arts student, and before entering the Uni- 
versity had a brilliant career at Banff Academy. He was the youngest son 
of Superintendent Slorach, of the Banffshire Constabulary. 



William George Rae Smith (former agricultural student), Lieutenant,. 
2ist Divisional Cyclists, was killed on 24 January while saving a wounded 
man ; his name has been recommended for the Victoria Cross. After attend- 
ing the University, he engaged in farming in New Zealand. He subsequently 
explored the South Sea Islands, Fiji, and New Guinea, and captained a small 
expedition through Patagonia, riding on horseback from Punta Arenas to 
Buenos Ayres. He then settled in Rhodesia. Hastening home on the out- 
break of the war, he enlisted in a New Zealand corps, and afterwards got a 
commission in the loth King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, from which he 
was transferred to the Cyclists. 



Geoffrey Gordon (M.A., 1903), Assistant Commissioner of the Punjab 
— who volunteered for service at the outbreak of the war, and who, as pre- 
viously stated (p. 93), was killed on 30 April, 191 5 — revived a family tradition 
in being educated at Aberdeen. He was the son of Rev. Alexander Gordon 
(born 1 841), the well-known Unitarian scholar; who was the son of Rev. 
John Gordon (1807-80), a voluminous author and one of the founders of the 
Midland Christian Union ; who was the son of Alexander Gordon (died 1833), 
a spirit merchant in Dudley. This Alexander was the son of John Gordon, 
Drumhead, Belhelvie ; who was the son of John, session clerk there till 1786 ; 
who was the son of another John, died 1696, licentiate of the Church and 
schoolmaster. Their ancestor was William Gordon, a shepherd from Brora. 
A short history of the family, by Mr. J. M. Bulloch, giving a bibliography of 
their works, appeared in the Ross-shire Journal of 31 May and 7 June, 1907. 
It is significant (adds the correspondent who sends this information) how the 
Gordon fighting blood has emerged after all this ecclesiasticism. 

As we go to press we hear of the death following dysentery, contracted at 
Suvla Bay, of Lieut. Richard Gavin Brown, R.A.M.C. (M.B. 1903); notice 
reserved. 



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Zorodon.Tubltsh.ed.iy JfacmzUcuv &C.° 



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Aberdeen University Review 



Vol. III. No. 9 



June 1916 



James Clerk Maxwell. 




iT seems fitting in every way that a proposed series 
of sketches of men whom we have known as Aca- 
demic Teachers here in Aberdeen should begin 
with one of James Clerk Maxwell : but I knew 
Maxwell sufficiently well to be able to appreciate 
fully the difficulty of the task of writing such sketch. 
I would fain, however, attempt to discharge a duty 
I owe to the most inspiring of all my teachers out of the depth alike 
of my affection and esteem for the man, and of my unbounded admira- 
tion of his genius. 

I saw him nearly fifty-seven years ago. As one of a class of fifty-four, 
of whom, alas! only ten now survive, I had, in the winter of 1859-60, 
the good fortune to sit under him as Professor of Natural Philosophy 
in what our good friends "over the way" at King's used to speak of 
as **the Broad Street Academy ". It was the third year of our course 
in Arts, and it was Maxwell's last session as a Professor in Marischal 
College. In later life, shortly before I took up, in 1877, a second 
period of service in the University here, I attended for a brief period 
his Lectures as the first Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics 
at Cambridge. About that time also I had the privilege of visiting 
Maxwell occasionally at his charming Scottish home on the Urr in 
Kirkcudbrightshire, seven miles distant from the manse of my brother, 
my quondam class-fellow at Marischal College. 

Yet had these scattered experiences, with all their pleasant memories, 
been multiplied many times, my difficulty would remain. His bio- 
graphy — a work for which every one of Maxwell's friends and admirers 



194 Aberdeen University Review 

must feel deeply grateful and from which I shall quote freely, without 
further acknowledgment, in what follows — was written by Professor 
Lewis Campbell of St. Andrews, his early school-companion and, there- 
after, his close friend and correspondent all through life until its 
lamentably early close. He speaks of Maxwell as — " a man of pro- 
found original genius, who was also one of the best men who have 
lived, and to those who knew him, one of the most delightful and in- 
teresting of human beings ". Yes — "to those who knew him" — and 
therein is the pinch of the matter. For it amounts almost to a paradox 
that one who, from very infancy, set himself to discover "the go" of 
everything he saw or handled, and possessed, through life, a passionate 
longing for the untrammelled, yet reverent, investigation of Nature's 
secrets everywhere, should himself have been, by general admission, 
so much of a mystery to others. It was due, I believe, in some 
measure, to the working of his subtle intellect, whereby he reached, 
almost intuitively, and, in a sort of mirthful playfulness, gave expres- 
sion to, what he discerned to be the pith of the matter in every sub- 
ject of conversation, and, forthwith, proceeded on his way, in Platonic 
fashion, unconcerned whether he carried you along with him or not. 
And yet no one but felt, through it all, that, as his biographer well re- 
marks, "the leading note of Maxwell's character was a grand sim- 
plicity". He was absolutely "aefauld ". He seemed fired, as it were, 
with the spirit of those noble words of Homer's hero through which 
the dear old "Dorian," Maxwell's colleague in the Greek Chair, strove 
to inspire us with something higher than even an appreciation of Greek 
poetry : — 

3j xirtpov fify KtiBj) M <t>pfa'iy, &\\o 5* ttirrj, 

or, in the glowing words of Pope's translation : — 

Who dares think one thing and another tell, 
My heart detests him as the gates of hell. 

Along with a never-failing good humour and an easy courtesy 
of manner, there was yet, as Professor Campbell admits, " a certain 
hesitation ". It may have remained as the baneful residuum of un- 
happy experiences with an unwise private tutor at home that led the 
then widowed father, promptly yet regretfully, to the determination to 
send the boy in his eleventh year to school at the Edinburgh Academy, 
by that time established as the rival of the Royal High School which 



James Clerk Maxwell 195 

Maxwell's father had attended. But I must not further anticipate 
some brief account of Maxwell's parentage and early years. 

To anyone who inclines to a disbelief in heredity I can confidently re- 
commend the study of the ancestry of the subject of these notes. James 
Clerk Maxwell was bom at No. 14 India Street, Edinburgh, on 13 
June, 1 83 1. His parents were John Clerk Maxwell, one of the family 
of Clerk of Penicuick in Midlothian, and Frances, daughter of Mr. R. 
H. Cay, of North Charlton, Northumberland. Maxwell was the only 
child of this marriage — if we except a daughter who died in infancy. 
In the year 1679 a Baronetcy of Nova Scotia had been conferred on 
John Clerk, the inheritor of the lands of Penicuick as well as of an 
ample fortune acquired by his father as a merchant on the Continent. 
The son of this first Baronet became one of the Scottish Barons of 
Exchequer and a Commissioner of the Union. A later generation 
produced John Clerk of Eldin, the author of a work on " Naval 
Tactics," which had the credit of contributing to Admiral Rodney's 
victory off Dominique in 1782, and his son was Lord Eldin, a Lord 
of Session, distinguished for his legal shrewdness and caustic wit. A 
brother of the author of " Naval Tactics " was the great-grandfather ot 
James Clerk Maxwell. On the mother's side also Maxwell came of an 
ancestry distinguished in the Scottish Law Courts — his grandfather, 
Robert Cay, a friend and associate of Sir Walter Scott, having at one 
time held the post of Judge- Admiral and Commissary-General. 
Maxwell's cousin, Charles H. Cay, whom I recollect as a year or two 
my senior in undergraduate days at Cambridge, displayed mathe- 
matical powers of a high order, but died at the early age of twenty- 
eight. Maxwell's father was the younger brother of the Right 
Honourable Sir George Clerk, the sixth Baronet, who, under the condi- 
tions of entail, had to relinquish, in favour of his brother John, the title 
to the estate of Middlebie in Dumfriesshire which had descended to 
them through their grandfather. Mr. John Clerk had also to assume 
the name of Maxwell. Although the property thus inherited had from 
various causes become greatly reduced, Mr. John Clerk Maxwell, after 
his marriage, elected to give up the profession of a Scotch Advocate 
for a country life on these ancestral lands in the Vale of Urr in Gal- 
loway. By purchase and exchange he added to the property, and to 
the whole he gave the name Glenlair, from the name of one of the farms. 
Here were spent, under happiest surroundings, the infant years of his 
gifted son, and thither, as to a quiet retreat, that son ever turned in 



196 Aberdeen University Review 

the vicissitudes of after years. His biographer supplies fascinating 
sketches of the boyish activities of young Maxwell. Ere he was three 
years of age he showed himself bent on discovering '* the go of it," or, 
more determinedly, "the particular go of it," demanding to be shown 
and made familiar with the hidden courses alike of the bell-wires 
indoors and of the streams of water in the rocky channel of the Urr in 
the valley below. Or again, " That [sand] stone is red — this [whin] 
stone is blue — but how d'ye know that it's blue?" — perplexing ques- 
tions for mother or aunt to have to reply to from " a child like that ". 
In after years he delighted to point out the scenes of his boyish frolic, 
quoting, on one occasion, to his biographer the lines of Burns — 

The Muse, nae poet ever fand her, 
Till by himsel' he learn'd to wander, 
Adoon some trottin' burn's meander, 
An' no think lang. 

On the occasion of one of my visits he favoured me with a well- 
remembered illustration of the conditions necessary for a disruptive dis- 
charge of atmospheric electricity by pointing out the contrasted effect 
of a recent thunderstorm on two trees in close proximity to each other. 
Of these, the one, although of great height, was sound and intact, be- 
cause its roots ran into deep, damp soil, while the other, though dwarf, 
had been shattered and destroyed, because its roots rambled bare and 
exposed over a dry rocky knoll. 

Through the pious and devoted care of his mother until her early 
death in his eighth year. Maxwell developed a singularly retentive 
memory and a mind inspired with lofty and ennobling thoughts. It 
is said that at eight years of age he could repeat the whole of the 1 19th 
Psalm, and he knew Milton from his earliest years. In Edinburgh, 
during eight or nine years, first at the Academy and afterwards at the 
University, he resided at No. 31 Heriot Row, with his father's sister 
Isabella, widow of James Wedderburn, at one time Solicitor-General 
for Scotland, who wrote lovingly of her charge, in the maturity of his 
manhood, "James has lived hitherto at the gate of heaven," which we 
might paraphrase in the words of Milton " as ever in the Great Task- 
master's eye " . 

Maxwell entered school at the Edinburgh Academy in the second 
term of the second year of the curriculum. The Rector was the Rev. 
John Williams, a Balliol College man, and a " born educator," though 
for about three years Maxwell attended the junior classes under Mr. 
Gloag for Mathematics, and Mr. A. N. Carmichael for Classics. He 






Tames Clerk Maxwell 197 



had access to an excellent library in his aunt's house and was happy 
also in the companionship of a cousin, Jemima Wedderburn (after- 
wards Mrs. Hugh Blackburn), some eight years older than himself. 
During the father's frequent visits to Edinburgh in winter and early 
spring the two walked much together in holiday hours, the father 
missing no opportunity of imparting to the young inquirer practical 
knowledge of every kind, in connexion with both natural objects and 
processes of art. When, again, his father had, necessarily, to stay at 
Glenlair to look after the estate. Maxwell strove to cheer his father 
with frequent letters written in the most frolicsome manner and full 
of the wild, whimsical absurdities of boyhood. The close, mutual 
attachment between father and son forms a delightful story. 

The school-programme in those days at the Edinburgh Academy 
had scarce a tincture of science-teaching and Maxwell's biographer 
raises the interesting question whether it was wise to retain at a 
classical school, during the full curriculum, a youth who, not yet fifteen, 
and while as yet he " had received no instruction in Mathematics be- 
yond a few books of Euclid and the most elementary Algebra," had 
contributed to the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh a 
paper "On the Description of Oval Curves and Those Having a Plurality 
of Foci " — the very diagrams and figures that accompanied the paper 
being sufficient to terrify any non-mathematical mind. Ought he not 
rather to have been sent off to the classes of Mathematics and Natural 
Philosophy at the University ? His biographer, a ripe classical scholar, 
wisely lets Maxwell answer the question himself, by stating that he 
never heard Maxwell wish that it had been otherwise and that, while 
he never showed any desire to specialize during his school-studies, he 
in after life adhered to the opinion that to make out the meaning of 
an author with no help excepting grammar and dictionary is one of 
the best means of training the human mind. Though about a year 
younger than most of his school-mates, he finished his school-course 
not only first in Mathematics and English but very nearly first also in 
Latin, and this although his attendance at school during his last year 
(1846-7) had been much interrupted by the state of his health. 

Maxwell had thus entered his seventeenth year when he became a 
" private " student at the University, by which is meant that he did not 
take up the normal course for the Degree in Arts. It was rather the 
exception at this time in Edinburgh to graduate in Arts. Maxwell's 
course of study was as follows : — 



198 Aberdeen University Review 

First winter — Professor Kelland for Mathematics, Professor James 
D. Forbes for Natural Philosophy, and Professor Sir William Hamilton 
for Logic. 

Second winter — Second courses under Kelland and Forbes and the 
class of Metaphysics under Sir William Hamilton. 

Third winter — A third course in the Laboratory of Natural Philo- 
sophy, Professor Gregory for Systematic Chemistry and Mr. Kemp 
(Lecturer) for Practical Chemistry, Professor Wilson (" Christopher 
North") for Moral Philosophy. 

These were great teachers, and well did Maxwell profit by their in- 
struction. Professor Campbell, however, inclines to the opinion that 
it would have entered Maxwell " sooner and more fully upon the study 
of mankind, for which he had such large capacity and opportunities 
hitherto so limited," had he proceeded to Cambridge after his second 
winter at the University of Edinburgh. For to Cambridge and not to 
the Scotch Bar, it had now been decided that Maxwell was to go, there 
to study, as he himself put it, " another kind of laws " than those ad- 
ministered from the Parliament House in Edinburgh. 

As illustrative of his wide mental outlook at this critically- formative 
period, one may cite the following programme of private study to which 
he set himself at Glenlair during the summer of 1850, after leaving 
Edinburgh and before proceeding to Cambridge : In addition to the 
study of Mathematics of a very high order, to enable him, as he says, 
"to write Algebra like a book," and a wide range of experimental 
philosophy, including "playing devils" (i.e., practising the game of 
" Devil-on- two-sticks " at which, both as a gymnastic exercise and as 
an exposition of dynamical principles, he became an expert), he pre- 
scribed for himself the study of "Kant's 'Kritik of Pure Reason' in 
German, read with a determination to make it agree with Sir William 
Hamilton," and also " Hobbes' * Leviathan,' with his Moral Philosophy, 
to be read as the only man who has decided opinions and avows them 
in a distinct way," and an " examination of the first part of the seventh 
chapter of Matthew in reference to the moral principles which it sup- 
poses," and Paley's "Evidences," then required for Cambridge. His 
biographer specially remarks on the singular fact that a born mathe- 
matician like Maxwell should have shown himself so deeply influenced 
by " the inexhaustible learning of Sir William Hamilton, the enemy ot 
Mathematics ". It was, surely, because Maxwell's keen, inquiring in- 
tellect refused to be baffled by any problem that excited his interest — 



James Clerk Maxwell 199 



acting in the spirit of the maxim — " Homo sum : humani nihil a me 
alienum puto ". And, after all, why should Mathematics and Meta- 
physics be looked on as antagonistic, still less as irreconcileable ? 
Anyhow, so extensive had been his reading, and so ample was his 
mental equipment, that, as his friend Tait wrote — " Maxwell brought 
to Cambridge in the autumn of 1850 a mass of knowledge really im- 
mense for so young a man," and another, who met Maxwell casually 
at this time, wrote that he showed himself " acquainted with every 
subject on which the conversation turned. I do believe there is not a 
single subject on which he cannot talk, and talk well too, displaying 
always the most curious and out-of-the-way information." One might 
have said of him — "Nihil quod tetigit non ornavit". 

After full inquiry, the choice of a College at Cambridge was decided 
in favour of Peterhouse : but, the experience of one term's residence 
there, and a more reliable estimate of his own powers, coupled with an 
appreciation of " the ampler opportunities for self-improvement which 
the larger College presented," led Maxwell, under the advice of friends, 
to " migrate " to Trinity College. The facility with which he mastered 
the work prescribed either by his private tutor or by the College lecturers 
left him ample leisure time. This he devoted both to wide social in- 
tercourse (in respect of which his wise discernment seems to have led 
to a singularly happy selection of friends and associates) and to such 
odd digressions as the translation of the choral odes of the Ajax into 
rhymed English verse, and a rough caricature of Ajax slaughtering the 
oxen. A certain amount of classical reading was at that time (and 
even ten years later, as I can remember) required of all Freshmen in 
anticipation of the " Little Go" examination. In the autumn of 1851 
he became a pupil of Hopkins, at that time the leading "coach" in 
Mathematics, who is credited with having formed this remarkable esti- 
mate of his powers — " It appears impossible for Maxwell to think in- 
correctly on physical subjects ". 

During his first year as an undergraduate at Trinity College, 
Maxwell lived in " licensed lodgings " at No. 8 King's Parade ; but, 
after the spring of 1852, he got rooms in College (Old Court, Letter 
G). Of the many letters he ^ wrote to friends at this time, those to his 
friend Campbell are specially interesting. He complains in one of 
these that, while " facts are very scarce here . . . there is sound 
intelligence from Newmarket for those that put their trust in horses, 
and Calendristic lore for the votaries of the Senate-house " — the study 



200 Aberdeen University Review 

of the University Calendar (known as the "Freshman's Bible") being 
considered indispensable for the attainment of a knowledge of the 
names and careers of the highest honours men. " But," Maxwell goes 
on to say, " man requires more. He starves, while being crammed. 
He wants man's meat, not college pudding." Assuring his friend, 
however, that he is " not disgusted with Cambridge and meditating a 
retreat," he says he is " persuaded that the study of 4r and y is to men 
an essential preparation for the study of the material universe. ... I 
believe, with the Westminster Divines and their predecessors ad in- 
finitum^ that 'Man's chief end is to glorify God and to enjoy Him for 
ever '." This whole letter is most interesting. How delightful is this ? — 
" Chemistry is a pack of cards which the labour of hundreds is slowly 
arranging : and one or two tricks — faint imitations of Nature — have 
been played ". In another letter to Campbell he writes of a greaitp/an 
formed for himself, the rule of which is " to let nothing be left wilfully 
unexamined. Nothing is to be kofy ground consecrated to Stationary 
Faith, whether positive or negative. All land is to be ploughed 
up, and a regular system of rotation followed. . . . No one but a 
Christian can actually purge his land of these holy spots. ... No one 
can be sure of all being open till all has been examined by competent 
persons, which is the work of eternity. . . . Christianity — that is, the 
religion of the Bible — is the only scheme or form of belief which dis- 
avows any possessions on such a tenure. Here alone all is free." The 
foregoing "plan," formed before he was twenty-one years of age, ex- 
presses his mental outlook through life, on the question of the re- 
lationship of science to religion. More than twenty years later, 
following on his notable pronouncement regarding molecules as 
" manufactured articles," to which reference will be made later on, he 
was very strongly pressed to become a candidate for admission into 
the Victoria Institute, but could not see his way to consent, on these 
grounds : " I think men of science as well as other men need to learn 
from Christ, and I think Christians whose minds are scientific arc 
bound to study science that their view of the glory of God may be as 
extensive as their being is capable of But I think that the results 
which each man arrives at in his attempts to harmonize his science 
with his Christianity ought not to be regarded as having any signi- 
ficance except to the man himself, and to him only for a time, and 
should not receive the stamp of a Society." Some four years after 
this, when on his death-bed, he gave utterance to his final convictions 



Tames Clerk Maxwell 201 

to his cousin and close friend, Mr. Colin Mackenzie, in these notable 
words — " Old chap, I have read up many queer religions : there is 
nothing like the old thing after all. ... I have looked into most phil- 
osophical systems, and I have seen that none will work without a God." 

As the great contest in the Mathematical Tripos of January, 
1854, drew nigh, Maxwell set himself, after his own fashion, to the task 
of "arranging everything — so that examiners may be satisfied now 
and pupils edified hereafter **. This work was hindered considerably 
by a severe illness (a brain fever) in June, 1853. His friend Tait 
admits, however, that even under Hopkins, his methodical private 
tutor, Maxwell "to a great extent took his own way," and that prob- 
ably "no high wrangler of recent years ever entered the Senate-house 
more imperfectly prepared to produce 'paying* work than did 
Maxwell. But by sheer strength of intellect, though with the very 
minimum of knowledge how to use it to advantage under the condi- 
tions of the Examination, he obtained the position of Second Wrangler, 
and was bracketed equal with the Senior Wrangler in the higher 
ordeal of the Smith's Prizes." 

After this brilliant achievement, he resided for over two years at 
Trinity, first as resident scholar and, afterwards, as Fellow. To his 
friend Dean Farrar he, later on, communicated a copy of a set of 
aphorisms for the conduct of life, which he had drawn-up at this time, 
enjoining that — " He that would enjoy life and act with freedom must 
have the work of the day continually before his eyes — not yesterday's 
work, lest he fall into despair, nor to-morrow's, lest he become a vision- 
ary — not that which ends with the day, which is a worldly work, nor 
yet that only which remains to eternity, for by it he cannot shape his 
actions. Happy is the man who can recognize in the work of to-day 
a connected portion of the work of life, and an embodiment of the 
work of Eternity. The foundations of his confidence are unchangeable, 
for he has been made a partaker of Infinity." 

Maxwell had already been appointed a College Lecturer, and was 
taking pupils, when, on February 13, 1856, his close friend and former 
teacher in Edinburgh, Professor James D. Forbes, wrote informing 
Maxwell of the death of Mr. David Gray, Professor of Natural Phil- 
osophy in Marischal College and University. With the hearty ap- 
proval of his father, Maxwell resolved to apply for the post, becausej 
as he wrote, " the sooner I get into regular work the better, and the 
best way of getting into such work is to profess one's readiness by 



202 Aberdeen University Review 

applying. for it". No doubt the prospect of his son being able, as the 
occupant of a Scottish University Chair, to spend the long vacation at 
Glenlair was an agreeable outlook for the father. Nor did Maxwell 
himself ever regret coming to Aberdeen, for he wrote toward the close 
of the second winter session: **This college work is what I and my 
father looked forward to for long and I find we were both quite right 
— that it was the thing for me to do" . Alas ! however, Mr. Maxwell, 
senior, died, quite suddenly, on 3 April, 1856, the son's appointment 
to the Aberdeen Chair not being announced until 30 April. For the 
ensuing four winter sessions of 1 856-60 — all comprised within the 
brief period of three and a half years — this truly great man " lived and 
laboured with a simple, reverent heart " among us here, and one feels 
one may almost continue the words of Longfellow : — 

Fairer seems the ancient city, and the sunshine seems more fair, 
That he once hias trod its pavement, that he once has breathed its air. 

As might have been expected, Maxwell never, even after his 
marriage, took up house in Aberdeen, for his duties did not require his 
residence in Aberdeen during the summer, and he had his home at 
Glenlair in the Stewartry. He lived in rooms at 129 Union Street, 
being on the South side of the street, opposite the Back Wynd, at the 
East corner of the steps leading down to the Green. His class-room 
in College was the comer-room in the upper tier of the original left 
wing as you look towards the tower. It now forms part of the 
Surgery Department. I cannot remember any laboratory, other than 
the lecture-table round which a party of us, after the lecture, used to 
crowd, listening with delight to what often developed into a further 
protracted elucidation of the subject of the lecture. Our class was, 
however, singularly unfortunate in respect that we never reached his 
voluntary senior class of the' second year, owing to Maxwell's departure 
after " the Fusion " . Such subjects as Newton, Physical Astronomy 
and Higher Optics were thus barred, but the instruction in the prin- 
ciples of Mechanics and Dynamics, Hydrostatics, Geometrical Optics, 
and Electricity and Magnetism (though Faraday was then only at the 
beginning of his work) was admirable. He was always most lucid 
when he fell on geometrical methods. He was also very instructive in 
his experiments with a finely-constructed Attwood's Machine, the work 
of Patrick Copland, one of his predecessors in the Chair (177 5- 1823). 
The text-books he used were the series of Manuals by Professors 



James Clerk Maxwell 203 



Galbraith and Haughton of Dublin, which he chose because, as he wrote 
to a friend, they contained " no humbug," but introduced ' practical 
matters instead of mere intricacies " . Whether he can be said to have 
been successful as a teacher is a question not easily answered, owing 
to the difficulty of discovering, and starting-from, some "common 
measure" between the ignorance and incapacity of his pupils and his- 
own vast knowledge and ready acumen. He certainly presumed and 
reckoned on the willing mind; and I am certain that no pupil who 
brought that could fail to profit. Many profited immensely. 

It is pleasant to read that Maxwell, soon after he took up residence 
among us, was writing thus to his friend and biographer — " With 
respect to this 'northern hermitage,' my cell is pretty commodious. 
In quitting the coenobitic cloister of Trinity for the howling wilderness 
of Union Street, I have not been made an anchoret. It is quite con- 
sistent with the eremitic life to modify one's fast in friends' houses four 
days per week or so." In another letter (27 February, 1857) to his 
aunt. Miss Cay, he refers to his ''keeping up friendly relations with the 
King's College men " and that he had " not received any rebukes yet 
from our men for so doing, but I find that the families of some of 
our professors have no dealings, and never had, with those of the 
King's people. Theoretically we profess charity." He adds, " I had 
a glorious solitary walk to-day in Kincardineshire by the coast — black 
cliffs and white breakers. I took my second dip this season " (in the 
last week of February !). " I have found a splendid place, sheltered 
and safe, with gymnastics on a pole afterwards." Needless to re-- 
mark he was an expert and powerful swimmer. 

Maxwell had naturally, as a stranger, received kindness and hos- 
pitality from the Principal of the University, the Very Reverend 
Daniel Dewar, D.D. — "Durdie," as he was called, from the name of 
his estate of Over Durdie in the Carse of Gowrie. To the home of Dr. 
Dewar's elder (married) daughter, Mrs. McCunn, at Ardhallow, near 
Dunoon, Maxwell had paid a visit in the autumn of 1857, and, in the 
following summer, he was married to Katherine Mary, the second 
daughter. The happiness of this union was complete, and became, ia 
after years, as I can bear witness, manifest to all Maxwell's personal 
friends in his self-sacrificing and devoted attention to his wife during 
her many years of delicate health, so long as his own health continued 
vigorous and robust, until the sudden change and ending in the 
autumn of 1 879. 



204 Aberdeen University Review 

Maxwell's estimate of the frivolous inanity of much of the under- 
:graduate-life at Cambridge has been referred to. To his biographer 
we are also indebted for a word-picture by Maxwell himself, satiriz- 
ing an institution that existed at Marischal College in his time. I 
refer to certain verses descriptive of the scenes that occurred at " the 
Murtle Lecture " every Thursday afternoon in the " Public School *' — 
a somewhat low-roofed hall under the larger and loftier hall, now the 
Portrait Gallery. It now forms part of the corridor and rooms of the 
Students' Union. These lectures formed a sort of week-day religious 
service and were under the same Trust as our present Sunday after- 
noon Lectures in the Mitchell Hall. Attendance on the lectures was 
-compulsory, but I fear they were somewhat inadequately appreciated 
by the "ingenuous youths" who formed the auditory. The institu- 
tion of " Regents," in name at least, still survived. They were the 
Professors of Greek, Natural History, Natural Philosophy and Moral 
Philosophy, for the Bajan, Semi, Tertian and Magistrand years, respec- 
tively. Maxwell attended regularly as Regent of the third year. 

Professor Campbell introduces the verses thus — "To those who 
admire the genius of the bard who sang of The Dee, The Don, Bal- 
Ifownie Brig's black wa', the following lines will be welcome from their 
resemblance to the opening of one of his poems : — 

Know ye the Hall where the birch and the myrtle 
Are emblems of things half profane, haHT divine, 

Where the hiss of the serpent, the coo of the turtle, 
Are counted cheap fun at a sixpenny fine ? 

Know ye the Hall of the pulpit and form, 

With its air ever mouldy, its stove never warm ; 

Where the chill blasts of Eurus, oppressed with the stench, 

Wax faint at the window, and strong at the bench ; 

Where Tertian and Semi are hot in dispute, 

And the voice of the Magistrand never is mute ; 

Where the scrape of the foot and the audible sigh 

In nature though varied, in discord may vie, 

Till the accents of Wisdom are stifled and die ; 

Where the Bajans are dense as the cookies they chew, 

And all save the Regents have something to do : — 

'Tis our Hall of Assembly, our high moral School, 

Must its walls never rest from the bray of the fool ? 

Oh vain as the prospect of summer in May 

Are the lessons they teach and the fines that they pay." 

All that I can now recall of these courses of lectures is the deep, 
raucous voice of the Principal, Maxwell's father-in-law, dilating on the 
instability of human greatness as illustrated in the career of Saladin 



James Clerk Maxwell 205 



whom our Richard of the lion-heart overthrew. In tones almost 
sepulchral he reached his peroration — " This is all that remains of 
Saladin" — the reference being to the legend that, when the great 
Sultan lay dying he called to him his standard-bearer and charged him 
to bear before his body, as the banner of his death, a vile rag (his 
shirt, according to some accounts), set on the point of a lance. 

During the later part of Maxwell's stay in Aberdeen our academic 
world was in a turmoil over the question of the modus operandi in re- 
spect of a step which, by Act of Parliament passed in 1858, a Com- 
mission was instructed to carry out, namely, the Union of the two 
Universities — for Aberdeen (like England!) had then two Universi- 
ties. The bone of contention was — " Union," or " Fusion " ? Writing 
to Campbell, Maxwell put it thus — " Know all men I am a Fusionist 
and thereby an enemy of all respectable citizens who are Unionists 
(that is, unite the three learned Faculties, and leave double Chairs in 
Arts) ". In the long run, and wisely it must be admitted, " Fusion '* 
was decreed by the Commission; and, thereafter. Maxwell, not yet 
thirty years of age, was retired on a pension for life — David Thom- 
son, the Professor of Natural Philosophy at King's, being retained 
in office, although thirteen years senior to Maxwell. That Aber- 
deen should thus have seen thrust out of her midst a man of such 
outstanding genius was due, in great part, to academic squabbling- 
and intrigue. While Thomson had the ear of the Commission, he had, 
unfortunately, rendered himself unpopular in Aberdeen, where he was 
known as ** Crafty Thomson ". He was the author of an anonymous 
pamphlet in which he stirred up again a question which the House of 
Lords had settled a century before, namely, the right of Marischal Col- 
lege and University to grant degrees other than in Arts. The two 
men were, in character, wide as the poles asunder. Five minutes* 
conversation with each, coupled with an intimate knowledge of the 
situation, would have shown anybody what was "thegool it," and 
how it was that Aberdeen lost Maxwell. 

There are two letters written to a friend about this time that fur- 
nish insight into Maxwell's views on ecclesiastico-religious questions^ 
His biographer explains that, when a boy in Edinburgh, he had usually 
attended St. Andrew's Parish Church (Mr. Crawford — afterwards the 
distinguished Professor Crawford of Edinburgh University) in the fore- 
noon and St. John's Episcopal Chapel (Dean Ramsay) in the afternoon. 
He thus " became equally acquainted with the catechisms both of the 



2o6 Aberdeen University Review 

Scotch and of the English Church, and with good specimens of the 
Presbyterian and Episcopalian styles of preaching". In after life, in 
the full maturity of his mental powers, when he had not only studied 
deeply the Greek New Testament, but had been brought under the 
direct, personal influence of such profound English Biblical scholars 
as Lightfoot, Hort, Westcott, Farrar and others, he showed in a prac- 
tical manner that " the particular go " of this matter also had been 
fully considered by him. These, it is well to remember, were the days 
of the memorable controversy between Macaulay and the then Bishop 
of Exeter, Dr. Phillpots, regarding the purport of the term " Church 
of Scotland" in the "Bidding Prayer" used before sermon in Cathe- 
drals and Collegiate Churches. Macaulay established as a simple his- 
torical fact the attitude of brotherhood and friendly amity which, at 
the Reformation, in harmony with its own doctrinal standards, the 
Church of England had taken up towards its Presbyterian Sister, the 
Church north of the Tweed. When at home at Glenlair it was MaxwelF s 
stated custom, along with the simple country-folk, his own tenantry 

To walk together to the kirk, 
And all together pray ; 

and when, in the early '60s of last century, the scattered upland district 
of Corsock, within the old civil Parish of Parton, was, mainly through 
Maxwell's untiring effort and munificence, made into a Parish quoad 
sacra with church and manse, he was ordained an Elder of the Church 
of Scotland, the duties of which office he faithfully discharged In 
Cambridge, again, he might be seen on Sundays not only attending 
along with the Heads of Colleges and his brother-professors, the Uni- 
versity Sermon in the restored "Golgotha" of Great St. Mary's 
Church, but at their Parish Church of Little St. Mary's he joined in 
the Communion Service with Stokes, Liveing and others, his co-parish- 
ioners; and from the hands of the Vicar, the Rev. Dr. Guillemard, 
he received Holy Communion a few days before his death. 

One can thus understand how in the summer of 1857, Maxwell in 
writing from Glenlair to an English friend, refers quite charitably but 
far from approvingly to the erection in a small country town within 
seven miles of Glenlair, of a certain Episcopal Chapel, " with great 
magnificence at his own expense," by a gentleman who with a mansion 
of his own twenty miles away, had come to reside in a hired house in 
Maxwell's neighbourhood. Maxwell adds the comment — " This " (i.e. 



James Clerk Maxwell 207 

the country of Galloway) " is perhaps the least Episcopal part of Scot- 
land, by reason of the memory of the dragoons. . . . It is very different 
at Aberdeen, where the Presbyterians persecuted far more than the 
Prelatists ; so there I actually found a true Jacobite." 

In the second letter, written in 1858, to the same English friend, 
Maxwell says — " As to the Roman Catholic question, it is another 
. piece of the doctrine of liberty. People get tired of being able to do 
as they like, and having to choose their own steps, and so they put 
themselves under holy men, who, no doubt, are really wiser than 
themselves. But it is not only wrong, but impossible, to transfer 
either will or responsibility to another ; and after the formulae have 
been gone through, the patient has just as much responsibility as be- 
fore, and feels it too. But it is a sad thing for anyone to lose sight of 
their work, and to have to seek some conventional, arbitrary treadmill- 
occupation prescribed by sanitary jailors." Could the Protestant stand- 
point be stated more concisely, convincingly and, I would add, 
charitably ? — "Not only wrong, but impossible". The argument re- 
minds one of the subtle criticism of the German submarine policy in 
the present war recently uttered by Mr. Balfour, our First Lord of the 
Admiralty — "Deeds that were merely crimes in May, in September 
are seen to be blunders ". Maxwell had, no doubt, in his mind that 
Milton, his early favourite, in the great epic in which he attempted to 

assert eternal Providence, 
And justify the ways of God to men, 

had written those lofty words — 

I made him just and right, 
Sufficient to have stood, though free to fall. 



Freely they stood who stood, and fell who fell. 

Maxwell, it thus appears, was (i) a firm, convinced Protestant, who 
(2) approved of Church Establishment, but (3) was quite opposed to 
exclusive Episcopacy. If these be deemed to be matters unsuited, even 
for reference, in the pages of this Review, I would urge, in reply, that 
it cannot but be helpful to put on record the opinion of a man of such 
master-mind regarding matters which he was so very well fitted to in- 
quire into, and, about which. Christian folk, as it were by universal 
consent, are striving to see eye-to-eye at the present day. My stand- 
point is simply that of his biographer — " Our age has much to learn 
from his example". 



2c8 Aberdeen University Review 

During Maxwell's stay in Aberdeen he found time to carry on one 
of his greatest and most laborious investigations, namely, that into 
the Motions of the Rings of the Planet Saturn, being the subject for 
1857 of the Adams Prize, open to any graduate of the University of 
Cambridge. Maxwell was awarded the Prize — the Astronomer Royal 
speaking of his paper as " one of the most remarkable applications of 
Mathematics to Physics that I have ever seen ". In connexion with 
this inquiry Maxwell refers to " a very neat piece of work by Ramage," 
a skilled artificer in Aberdeen whom I remember. It consisted of a 
model to show the motions of the rings, and it has, it appears, been 
preserved in the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge. Maxwell 
reached the conclusion that the rings consisted of what he termed "a 
flight of brick-bats," the mechanical theory requiring **that the only 
system of rings which can exist is one composed of an infinite number 
of unconnected particles revolving round the planet with different 
velocities, according to their respective distances ". 

Leaving Aberdeen after the winter session of 1859-60 Maxwell 
was, in the summer of 1 860, appointed Professor of Natural Philosophy 
in King's College, London, where he laboured until 1865. In that 
year he retired to his Scotch home at Glenlair, to plan and, in part, 
carry out those great literary works that embody the chief results of his 
mathematico-physical investigations. His Treatise on Heat appeared 
in 1870, but his profound work on Electricity and Magnetism not 
until 1873. In the years 1866, 1867 and, again, in 1869, 1870, he was 
either Moderator or Examiner in the Mathematical Tripos, and his 
work in these exacting posts led, it is not too much to say, to a virtual 
remodelling of the Examination system and indirectly also to the 
creation of the great Cavendish Laboratory (so named after the 
Chancellor, the Duke of Devonshire, who had made the munificent 
offer to build and furnish such an institution) and to the foundation of 
the Chair of Experimental Physics. 

In 1 87 1 Maxwell was appointed to this Chair, as well as to the 
magnum opus of designing and superintending the erection of the 
Physical Laboratory, of which it has been said that " it would be difficult 
to imagine a building better adapted to its purpose, or one in the con- 
struction of which more provision should be made for possible require- 
ments ". 

For the next eight years he continued in the faithful discharge of 
the duties of these offices, residing at No. 1 1 Scroope Terrace when in 



James Clerk Maxwell 209 



Cambridge, and gaining, I will venture to say, from every one who 
had the privilege of his acquaintance a warmth of kindly feeling such 
as amounted to deep personal admiration and esteem. I do not believe 
he ever had, or could have had, a private or personal enemy. No 
honest man with mind and heart directed aright, could have felt 
that he was being wronged by Clerk Maxwell 

Maxwell's heroic courage, coupled with his tender consideration for 
others and his resourcefulness in an emergency, are illustrated by an 
incident thus related by his biographer — " Once at Cambridge, when 
his wife was lying ill in her room, and a terrier, who had already shown 
' a wild trick of his ancestors,' was watching beside the bed. Maxwell 
happened to go in for the purpose of moving her. The dog sprang at 
him and fastened on his nose. In order not to disturb Mrs. Maxwell, 
he went out quietly, holding his arm beneath the creature, which was 
still hanging to his face." I was in Cambridge at the time and well 
remember Maxwell going about for some time with his nose strapped 
up with bandages. Whether or not the poor man had to explain to 
" Coonie " (as the dog was called) " the go of it " before he induced the 
brute to let go, is not known. But it was this same dog that Maxwell 
gravely told a friend he had cured of a trick of howling unmercifully 
when the piano was played — " I took Coonie to the piano and ex- 
plained to him how it went " . Let any doubter keep in mind that 
this story was told by Maxwell, and that the dog was no "cur of 
low degree," but a remarkably intelligent Scotch terrier! Professor 
Campbell admits that many persons, listening to Maxwell's conversa- 
tion, often asked themselves whether he were in earnest or joking — a 
habit which certainly rendered it all the more difficult to feel sure that 
one understood aright so entertaining a conversationalist. I may add 
that, despite the dog's savage outburst above referred to, it was not killed. 

That Maxwell was a man of deep personal piety will be inferred 
from what has been already said. But this further illustration may be 
given. During occasional visits to Cambridge in the discharge of 
onerous duties in connexion with the Mathematical Tripos or other- 
wise, Mrs. Maxwell remaining at Glenlair, he wrote to her almost 
every day, supplying her, out of his minute textual knowledge of the 
original Greek, with hints regarding some passage, say, in one of the 
Epistles of St. Paul which he knew that she would be reading in her 
private devotions. His knowledge of New Testament Greek was sur- 
prising. Thus, on his death-bed, after repeating the words — " Every 
good gift and every perfect gift is from above," he added, "Do you 

14 



2 to Aberdeen University Review 

know that that is a hexameter ? iraaa B6(ri<i dyaOrj Kal ttclv Scofyrj/xa 
reXecov. I wonder who composed it ? " 

The root of Maxwell's fair-mindedness is discernible in what he 
once said to his intimate friend, Professor Hort — " My interest is 
always in things rather than in persons . . . about the immediate 
circumstances that have brought a thing to pass, rather than about 
any will setting them in motion. . . . States of the will only puzzle 
me. I cannot ascribe so much to a depraved will as some people 
do. . . . Much wrong-doing seems to be no more than not doing the 
right thing ; and that finite beings should fail in that does not seem to 
need the supposition of a depraved will." In the same spirit Maxwell, 
with ready wit, once retorted to a friend's outcry against the frightful 
temper of a servant lassie, although "she had been seven years in a 
manse" — "Think what it might have been had she not been there 
for seven years ". 

Though there had been symptoms since the spring of 1877 that his 
health was not satisfactory, he had not considered it necessary to seek 
medical advice until April, 1879. During the next two months, before 
going north to Glenlair in June, he was, more than once, seriously ill. 
Later on, in September, there were more encouraging reports. Alas ! 
however, Dr. Sanders of Edinburgh having been called in, Maxwell 
was informed by him on 2 October, that he had not a month to live. 
He went south to Cambridge, and on the 5th day of the following 
month of November he gently passed away at No. 1 1 Scroope Terrace, 
being in his forty-ninth year. After a preliminary funeral service in 
Trinity College Chapel, the body was taken home to Glenlair and 
buried in the Churchyard of Parton. 

Mrs. Maxwell died about seven years after her husband. They 
had no children. 

Before introducing, from the pen of a scientific friend, what I myself 
am wholly unable to furnish, namely, an appreciation (from the 
results of recent discoveries and inventions) of Maxwell's anticipation 
of the principles involved in certain profound physical and especially 
magneto-electric problems, I shall conclude with (I) an illustration 
of his remarkable power of suggestive and lucid, even if discursive, 
explanation, (II) a brief reference to his view of molecules as " manu- 
factured articles," and (III) a description of his outward appearance. 

(I) His last public lecture was the Rede Lecture, " On the Tele- 
phone," delivered at Cambridge in 1878. He treated his subject "as 
a material symbol of the widely-separated departments of human 
knowledge, the cultivation of which has led, as by many converging 



James Clerk Maxwell 211 



paths, to the invention of this instrument by Professor Graham Bell. 
In a University we are bound to recognize not only the unity of 
Science itself, but the communion of the workers of Science," adding 
that we are not "congregated here merely to be within reach of 
certain appliances of study, such as museums, laboratories," etc., and 
then, after referring to the work of the bees, " We cannot therefore do 
better than improve the shining hour in helping forward the cross- 
fertilization of the Sciences". 

He then proceeds with this beautifully simple but masterly state- 
ment : — 

" One great beauty of Professor Bell's invention is that the instru- 
ments at the two ends of the line are precisely alike. . . . The perfect 
symmetry of the whole apparatus — the wire in the middle, the two 
telephones at the ends of the wire, and the two gossips at the ends of 
the telephones, may be very fascinating to a mere mathematician, but 
it would not satisfy the evolutionist of the Spencerian type, who would 
consider anything with both ends alike, such as the Amphisbaena, or 
Mr. Bright's terrier, or Mr. Bell's telephone, to be an organism of a 
very low. type, which must have its functions differentiated before any 
satisfactory integration can take place. 

" Accordingly many attempts have been made, by differentiating the 
function of the transmitter from that of the receiver, to overcome the 
principal limitation of the power of the telephone. As long as the 
human voice is the sole motive power of the apparatus, it is manifest 
that what is heard at one end must be fainter than what is spoken at 
the other. But if the vibration set up at one end is used no longer as 
the source of energy, but merely as a means of modulating the strength 
of a current supplied by a voltaic battery, then there will be no neces- 
sary limitation of the intensity of the resulting sound, so that what is 
whispered to the transmitter may be proclaimed ore rotundo by the 
receiver." 

(II) Maxwell's well-known pronouncement on molecules as being 
" manufactured articles," was enunciated in his address delivered before 
the British Association at Bradford in September, 1873. After a re- 
ference to the use of the spectroscope in comparing, to within one ten- 
thousandth part, the wave-lengths of different kinds of light, he adds : — 

" In the heavens we discover by their light, and by their light alone, 
stars so distant from each other that no material thing can ever have 
passed from one to another ; and yet this light, which is to us the sole 
evidence of the existence of these distant worlds, tells us also that each 
of them is built up of molecules of the same kinds as those which we 



212 Aberdeen University Review 

find on earth. A molecule of hydrogen, for example, whether in 
Sirius or in Arcturus, executes its vibrations in precisely the same time. 
" Each molecule, therefore, throughout the universe, bears impressed 
on it the stamp of a metric system as distinctly as does the metre of the 
Archives at Paris, or the double royal cubit of the Temple of Karnac. 

" They continue this day as they were created, perfect in number 
and measure and weight ; and from the ineffaceable characters im- 
pressed on them we may learn that those aspirations after accuracy in 
measurement and justice in action, which we reckon among our noblest 
attributes as men, are ours because they are essential constituents of 
the image of Him Who in the beginning created, not only the heaven 
and the earth, but the materials of which heaven and earth consist." 

In a letter written three years afterwards to Dr. Ellicott, Bishop 
of Gloucester and Bristol, Maxwell explained that — "What I thought 
of was not so much that uniformity of result which is due to uniformity 
in the process of formation, as a uniformity intended and accomplished 
by the same wisdom and power of which uniformity, accuracy, sym- 
metry, consistency and continuity of plan are as important attributes 
as the contrivance of the special utility of each individual thing". 
A distinguished teacher of philosophy has recently been urging that 
** the Theistic Argument " must be put in the form — " How is the 
Universe to be interpreted ? " Was Maxwell offering an answer in the 
thought of the Psalmist — **Thy faithfulness reacheth unto the skies"? 

(HI) Maxwell's outward appearance has been thus described. It is 
from the pen of a close friend of later years, but I can vouch for its 
being true to the life as this distinguished man of science might have 
been seen shortly before nine o'clock any winter morning following 
a certain settled track down Union Street, to Marischal College : — 

" A man of middle height, with frame strongly knit, and a certain 
spring and elasticity in his gait ; dressed for comfortable ease rather 
than elegance ; a face expressive at once of sagacity and good humour, 
but overlaid with a deep shade of thoughtfulness ; features boldly but 
pleasingly marked ; eyes dark and glowing ; hair and beard perfectly 
black, and forming a strong contrast to the pallor of his complexion. 
. . He might have been taken by a careless observer for a country 
gentleman, or rather, to be more accurate, for a north-country laird. 
A keener eye would have seen, however, that the man must be a 
student of some sort, and one of more than ordinary intelligence." 



James Clerk Maxwell 213 



To the kindness of a scientific friend, a British mathematician and 
physicist of high distinction, I am indebted for the following compre- 
hensive estimate, formed on a retrospect of almost forty years, of what 
the world owes to the genius of James Clerk Maxwell : — 

" To write an adequate appreciation of Maxwell's contributions to 
science requires a wealth of knowledge I cannot pretend to, but refer- 
ence may be made to Sir William Niven's edition of his collected 
works and to Sir George Stokes's obituary notice in the Proceedings 
of the Royal Society. 

" Probably the part of Maxwell's work which has exerted the 
greatest influence on scientific thought and investigation is that which 
treats of electrical phenomena. It had already been suggested by 
Faraday that there was a close relation between light, electricity and 
magnetism. Maxwell's identification of the velocity of propagation of 
electrical disturbances with the velocity of light placed the theory on a 
firm basis. Further, his representation of the phenomena by means 
of a Lagrangian kinetic scheme simplified and unified their treatment. 
An important result of his treatment was that light was only one of 
the possible kinds of radiation, and the investigation and discussion of 
these other radiations have led to discoveries of the greatest scientific 
and practical value, as, for example, the radiations utilized in wireless 
telegraphy. 

"Of special interest in the present connexion is the fact that it was 
during his tenure of office at Aberdeen University he produced his 
classical work on the ' Stability of the motion of Saturn's rings '.- 
It was also during this period that he wrote two of his important 
papers on Colour, viz. — * The Perception of Colour,' and * The Theory 
of Compound Colours,' and that he produced a great part of his re- 
searches on the * Dynamical Theory of Gases '." 

My friend adds : ** The above is totally inadequate, but it may be 
of service to you and I hope you will treat it in any way you see fit ; 
the choice lay between a statement of the above kind or an exhaustive 
treatment of the whole matter which would entail a very large amount 
of labour and probably be quite out of place in a publication like th6 
University Review." 

ROBERT WALKER. 



[See Note in the ''Personalia'* at p, 271.— EDITOR.] 




Two Years of War : The Record of the 
University. 

HE following article is an expansion of the address 
which, as Vice-Chancellor, I delivered at the 
Graduation on 28 March, 191 6. The records 
which it contains have been brought down to the 
end of June, the close of the Summer Term. I 
have not mentioned in it any names save those 
of the fallen, but the full list is found in the Roll of 
Service published as supplements to the last volume of the Review 
and to this volume. Nor have I repeated the names of those who 
have been decorated ; they have been given in successive numbers of 
the Review. All will be easily ascertained by the future historian of 
the part which our University has taken in the present War. 

With largely diminished numbers and finances, as stated by Pro- 
fessor Hay in his annual financial report to the Court,^ the Uni- 
versity began in October last, another year — the four hundred and 
twenty-first if we reckon from 1495. During the winter the diminution 
steadily continued. But no departments, save those of Tropical Medi- 
cine and Research in Animal Nutrition, were closed ; though the in- 
stitution of certain lectureships, for which we recently received funds, 
is necessarily postponed. The offices rendered vacant by the departure 
of their occupants on military service have been filled by. temporary 
appointments, or the work has been overtaken by colleagues in the 
same departments. The thanks of the University are due to those 
members of her staff who remain, for the readiness with which they 
have added to their labours or otherwise made possible the large 
economies that our present circumstances demand. Though straitened 
both in men and equipment, the work of the University has not suffered 
from lack of zeal or thoroughness. 

^ See p. 264. 



Two Years of War 215 

But our thoughts are less with what has been achieved within our 
walls than with the far wider and more severe services rendered by our 
members to the country, and the sacred cause committed to her in the 
present war. Besides a considerable but uncertain number who are or 
have been employed in making munitions, more than 1 800 of our gradu- 
ates, alumni, students and staff have entered the naval and military 
forces of the King, including our own Officers Training Corps. Before 
I speak, as I intend mainly to do, of the services of those of them who 
have been engaged at the front, I may give some details under the 
figure just mentioned, and speak for a little about the camps and 
garrisons in this country in which our men have been trained since the 
war began. 

I. Numbers on Service. 

Of our administrative, teaching and research staffs, which in normal 
times numbered about 100, at least 64 have been or are working 
directly for the purpose of the war. Of these 21 are in the combatant 
service ; 18 have commissions in the R.A.M.C. (8 beyond and 10 still 
within the University) ; 5 work on munitions, etc. ; 1 3 hold military 
offices of other kinds (7 of these with commissions), 7 are in train- 
ing, one is a prisoner of war, while others have attested. Of our 
graduates, 945 are commissioned (248 in the combatant service, 657 
in the R.A.M.C., and at least 40 as chaplains) and 181 graduates are 
still enlisted, making a total of 1 1 26 graduates on naval and military 
service. But that number does not include our graduates who are in 
charge of Red Cross hospitals, of whom 25 have been reported, nor 
about 30 others entered on the navy list as surgeons and agents at 
sick quarters. Add these and we have over 1 1 80 graduates in all on 
war duties. The exact number of our ungraduated alumni on service 
cannot be ascertained, but 74 have been reported as holding commissions 
and 62 as serving in the ranks — in all 1 36. Of undergraduate students, 
1 20 have been commissioned and 260 have served or are serving in the 
ranks. Altogether I reckon that about 380 students have entered on 
service with the colours since the war began ; of whom over 350 offered 
themselves while the voluntary system of enlistment still prevailed. The 
total of graduates, alumni, students, staff, and servants of the University 
on active service is therefore about 1730 as compared with 1200 a year 
ago. If we add to them the members of our Officers Training Corps 



2i6 Aberdfeen University Review 

and our graduates who are serving as volunteers or under the Red Cross 
Society and at naval sick quarters, we get over 1850 as a grand total 
of those on war service or under training. That number includes 3 1 
reported as intending to matriculate for the first time but for their 
military service. There must, of course, be many more of these. 

II. The Camps in this Country. 

At previous graduations I spoke of some of the camps in this 
country in which the units which held more or fewer of our men were 
trained before being sent to the front, of the conditions of their life, 
and of the debt which all who have at heart the interests of our 
students and graduates owe to their officers, especially to their com- 
manding officers, adjutants and company commanders. During this 
last year I have visited several more of these camps, and have had full 
opportunities of seeing our men and observing the operations of the 
units to which they belong. Naturally there has been improvement 
in their conditions and in their training in all directions. There has 
been no repetition, for instance, of the tragic want of hospital accom- 
modation which led to so many deaths in one of the Territorial High- 
land Brigades billeted in England last year. It is true that in some 
of the camps the percentage of sickness has been above that which is 
noi*mal in garrisons of regular troops during times of peace ; but this 
is not surprising when we consider the unexampled strain to which the 
medical resources of the country have been put and the enormous in- 
flux of raw recruits, so many of whom had been engaged in sedentary 
occupations. Where the material and moral care of hundreds of 
thousands of new soldiers has to be improvised, it is impossible to 
eliminate all defects, or to prevent some suffering. But the cases on 
which public remonstrances have been founded have been few and far 
between ; and it is only right that I should testify that 1 have not re- 
ceived any complaint from our own men as to treatment except in 
two or three cases of alleged neglect of promotion, which have been 
examined and assistance given where necessary. Nor have there 
been complaints as to food or accommodation. In these respects 
there were, and were bound to be, hardships, especially during a 
winter of more than usually vexing weather. But they have been 
borne patiently ; our men have thriven in spite of them ; the food has 
been plentiful and of good quality ; and the discipline, while rightly 



Two Years of War 217 

exacting, has been administered in a kindly temper and with careful 
regard to the men's moral and physical welfare. The visitor to such 
large camps, created in haste and not always upon favourable con- 
ditions, must marvel at the complexities and the success of their or- 
ganization. The winter mud might and could not but prevail on the 
fields on which many of the camps were planted. But good roads and 
paths have been laid down, giving token of very hard work in addition 
to the military exercises of the soldiers and their officers. Within 
and immediately around the tents and huts I saw no slovenliness ; the 
kitchens smelt as sweet as those of private houses ; there was no want 
of provision ; and in face of the charges of waste which we sometimes 
hear it is only just to record that with time and experience economies 
of a very considerable amount have been effected. 

An average winter day may be thus described : — R6veill^ at 6 a.m., 
and after breakfast drill or skirmishing or otl^r manoeuvres till 12.30 
or I p.m. ; again more company or battalion drill, or physical drill 
and musketry exercises, from 2 till 4.30 ; in the evening either freedom 
or a lecture or a night parade with scouting ; and, of course, always for 
some of the unit, guard duty all night, and picket and patrol duty for 
the evening. 

The large number of educated men which our Universities and 
higher schools have poured into the ranks must have had the same 
good influence in the camps at home as Sir John French, in one of his 
dispatches, warmly acknowledges it has had on the Armies in Flanders. 
Perhaps th« most striking difference between the camps of 1 91 4-1 5 
and those of this winter is the greater specialisation in military train- 
ing which the experience of the novel warfare has rendered necessary. 
In the new schools and exercises of machine guns, hand-grenades and 
bomb-throwing, and, of course, in aviation and its necessary conse- 
quence of instruction in meteorology, in signalling, in the chemical 
and other sections of the Royal Engineers, the opportunities of men 
trained at Universities are numerous ; and I am glad to think that, in 
connection with all these, some of our students and graduates have 
received responsible appointments. For instance, at one large camp a 
first year's student in science, returned wounded from the front, has 
charge of the hand-grenade school; while a graduate in science, a 
sergeant of infantry, was transferred to a meteorological station of the 
Royal Army Flying Corps, and commissioned for services in the field ; 
and another, a member of our teaching staff, has received a commission 



21 8 Aberdeen University Review 

in the same branch ; a large group of arts and science students are in 
the chemical section, R.E. ; and three of the staff fill responsible posts 
in the departments of military censorship and interpreting. I would 
mention also the considerable number of our agricultural students and 
graduates who have entered the Army Veterinary Corps. 

I am not now referring to our men only, but to the whole masses 
of soldiers in these camps, when I say that the reports on their 
morality, alike from their officers and from the civil and religious 
authorities of the districts in which they have been placed, are almost 
uniformly favourable. One knows that there are exceptions both 
among officers and men, but one learns also, from the ''Gazette" and 
otherwise, that all excesses are sternly dealt with. A graduate, who 
had bravely enlisted in a battalion recruited from one of our very 
largest cities, wrote me that the evil language he has heard and the 
gambling have been " a revelation " to him ; and the drunkenness of 
some soldiers, belonging chiefly to units in billets and not in camps, 
has been a reproach. Nevertheless, there is much truth in what a 
high authority has said — " Our armies are to-day the most sober part 
of the population ". It was good to hear from an English vicar that 
there had been but three cases of immorality during the autumn and 
winter of 1914-15 in his parish, in which one of our Highland Terri- 
torial Brigades was quartered. In a Territorial unit from this district, 
encamped in a Scottish parish, there had not been for two months, 
I was told, a single case of drunkenness ; and similar testimonies 
have come from elsewhere. On the whole, the nation has reason to 
be proud of the discipline and the morale of her citizen armies. As 
for our own students, I should like to repeat coram Universitate the 
testimony of the Brigade-major, for the Officer Commanding No. i 
Brigade Area, to the conduct of our Officers Training Corps in the 
camp at Rumbling Brig last July — " The conduct of all concerned was 
what was expected of gentlemen training for a noble profession and 
inspired with high ideals. On parade and off duty, the bearing of all 
ranks was smart and soldier-like." 

The spiritual and social interests of the camps have been cared for 
by Chaplains and through the large huts or tents provided by the 
Churches or the Y.M.C.A. The Chaplains have had unique oppor- 
tunities with such large numbers of men in circumstances fitted to 
rouse them to earnest thinking about themselves ; and naturally some 
Chaplains have been more suited than others for the personal influence 
of man upon man, the tact and adaptableness, and the straight strong 



Two Years of War 



219 



speaking required of them in such remarkable positions. In two of 
the camps visited I heard of the preparation of hundreds of men for 
their first communion and their admission to the full membership of 
the Church. The opportunities and influences of the Church and 
Y.M.C.A. huts have been invaluable ; these huts need and are more 
than worthy of all the support the nation can give them. 

III. War Work in the University. 

Before we pass from this country, reference must be made to the 
work done for war purposes by several departments of the University. 
As already noted, ten of the Medical Staff are serving a la suite with 
the Scottish General Hospital ; and one of the clinical staff is Commis- 
sioner of the British Red Cross Society for the North-Eastern district 
of Scotland. The Chemical Department has been engaged since the 
summer of 191 5 in the production of materials ; and the Departments 
of Pathology, Public Health, and Agriculture in medical and economic 
observations and researches connected with the war. 

Early in the war the Senatus instituted a Committee on Employ- 
ment for War Purposes, and this has led to the engagement of a 
number of the staff, graduates, and students in the manufacture of 
munitions. Two of the staff gave the whole of last summer vacation 
to this work ; and at least thirty graduates and students have left for 
employment in war factories. It was not found possible, as had been 
hoped, for the Committee to provide students in any number for 
agricultural employment during last harvest ; but there is no doubt 
that part at least of the reduction in the numbers of both our men 
and women students has been due to their withdrawal to take the 
places in domestic or agricultural service of those who have enlisted. 

One of the most notable results of this Committee of the Senatus 
has been the work done for our fighting armies and their hospitals by 
the Aberdeen University Work Party. The Department of Materia 
Medica has been placed at its disposal. The work has been organized 
by Professor Cash and a committee of ladies, and since the beginning" 
of June last it has been able to dispatch masses of surgical dressings 
and hospital garments and the like to the Red Cross and other 
medical institutions connected with the Army.^ The work is " re- 
cognised " and " approved " by the War Office. Our warm congratu- 

^To 6th June, 1916, the number of articles prepared was: Garments and hospital 
comforts, 6589; war dressings, 93,516. Funds collected about ;^890, expended £670. 



220 Aberdeen University Review 

lations and thanks are due to all — over 200 — engaged in these bene- 
ficent labours. 

IV. On the Eastern Fronts. 

And now to come to our men at the front, or rather at the many 
fronts, on which our armies and those of our allies have been engaged 
during this world-wide war. On every one of these the sons of this 
University have been fighting the enemy or serving the sick and the 
wounded — in Africa, in General Botha's victorious campaign, in which 
several of our graduates served who had already won military dis- 
tinction in the Boer War ; in the slower but at last successful cam- 
paign in the Cameroons and Nigeria, where the first of our men to 
fall was killed in action. Medical Officer Thomas Peppe Fraser, on 
5 September, 1914; now with General Smuts' forces in East Africa, 
and both in the home and the Ceylon and Australasian contingents in 
Egypt, where several of them hold high positions in the Army Medi- 
cal Corps or have charge of Red Cross hospitals. In Asia they are 
found, as volunteers from the I.C.S. and other civilian professions, 
in many of the units garrisoning India and the Malay States, where in 
the Singapore Mutiny, Lieut. Angus Forsyth Legge was killed on 
16 February, 191 5, having volunteered for dangerous medical service 
in place of a married man first appointed to it ; or watching the un- 
settled North-West Frontier ; at Aden, on medical service or in charge 
of machine guns ; and in Mesopotamia on medical service (where two 
have been mentioned in dispatches and one has received the D.S.O.) 
or in Territorial regiments or with the Army Service Corps. The 
casualties reported from Africa and Asia are still few in number, 
but these cannot be all that have happened. In Asiatic Turkey two 
of our graduates — a missionary and a doctor — are prisoners of war. 

On the islands both of the Western and Eastern Mediterranean 
some of our graduates are serving as Chaplains (on Malta there are no 
fewer than five Presbyterian Chaplains, two of them our own, who 
found several of our wounded in their charge), or as Doctors. In the 
Eastern Mediterranean one of our graduates was appointed to create 
and organize last summer a huge " convalescent hospital " (though 
many others than convalescents were sent to it straight from the 
front, some still with bullets in them) at a height of 6000 feet above 
the sea ; and when winter came to remove it to the plains below. The 
first camp was organized in a fortnight. Beginning with 273 patients 



Two Years ot War 221 

he had afterwards always 500 in his charge and had arranged to ex- 
pand the camp, by the middle of January, so as to hold 1 500. 

" The patients got up the hill by motor ambulances in 3} hours, for 34 
miles of road with its 926 turns. . . . The patients did very well indeed, 
especially cases of shrapnel wound which did not readily heal in Egypt. 
Latterly because of the height I refused heart cases. Both officers and men 
improved rapidly, and after a stay varying from a fortnight to three months 
most were able to return to duty, fit for strenuous work. I am glad to say 
there were no deaths. . . . My hospital is nearly always full ; for assistance 
I have a staff of 7 men of the R.A.M.C. with as many more of the R.A.M.C. 
among the convalescents as are well enough for light duty. A medical officer 
is generally available as assistant. In the expanded camp I shall have an ex- 
panded staff, but whether one or two medical officers, I do not know. My 
knowledge of tropical diseases has come in handy with the very large number 
of dysentery cases (both amoebic and bacillary) and malaria." 

Of this hospital the O.M.S. reported that he was very pleased with 
the dysentery arrangements, and that the general administration of the 
camp reflected great credit on our graduate. 

On the narrow fire-swept coast of GallipoH, where, as a friend 
wrote — 

" Never on duty or at rest, in trench or in hospital, do we get away from 
guns that, with German Taubes dropping bombs, all combine to shake and 
wrack the nerves like nothing else I know " ; but where, in spite of that, the 
same reporter continues, " Our Territorial regiments, lads who had never be- 
fore seen a shot fired in anger, and led by their officers, professional and 
business men from civil life, calmly heaved up their packs on their shoulders, 
climbing the parapets of their trenches, and with bayonets fixed made for the 
Turkish lines ; whipped by shrapnel and against a withering rifle and machine 
gun fire at point-blank range, they held on till they captured four lines of 
Turkish trenches," 

— on that Gallipoli, sections of our University men were serving in the 
89th Field Ambulance and in the Ross and Cromarty (Mountain) 
Battery. On a previous occasion I spoke of the praise which the former 
received from the general in command of the expedition. The latter 
— the Mountain Battery — was attached to the Expeditionary Force 
from the beginning, took part both in the unprecedented battle of the 
landing in April, in the equally famous landing at Suvla Bay on 
7 August, and in the subsequent engagements. They doubtless share 
in the general tribute to the Royal Artillery — " For their constant 
vigilance, their quick grasp of the key to every emergency, their 
thundering good shooting and hundreds of deeds of daring, by which 
they have earned the unstinted admiration of all their comrade 
services ". We had others in Gallipoli, in Territorial battalions like 



222 Aberdeen University Review 

the 5th Royal Scottish Fusiliers, which were mentioned in dispatches* 
as having specially distinguished themselves in the severe engagement 
of 13 July, the 4th East Lancashires and Wiltshires, as well as in some 
of the Australasian units, one of which was commanded by a distin- 
guished alumnus of Aberdeen. Several of our medical graduates had 
charge of other field ambulances, and several served in the British ex- 
pedition to Belgrade. We have no complete list of the casualties 
among our men in Gallipoli, but at least five fell there or died of 
disease: Captain Arthur Kellas, R.A.M.C. (M.B. '06), on the 6th, 
and Douglas Jamieson (former Agr. stud.), 8th Australian Light 
Horse, on 7 August; Pte. Alex. John Fowlie, 13th Inf Battn. 
Australian Imperial Force (M.A. '11); Lieut. Hector Maclennan 
Guthrie (M.A. with ist Class Hons., '14), East Lancashire Regt., all 
killed in action, and Lieut. Richard Gavin Brown, R.A.M.C. (M.B. 
'03), who died at Portsmouth after an operation following on dysentery. 
Seven were wounded or invalided. 

V. In the French Army. 

In this record, mention must not be omitted of the services in the 
French army of one of our staff and of one of our old students. The 
latter, a student of philosophy, has so distinguished himself in the 
action in Champagne that he has been granted the Croix de Guerre 
and recommended for a commission. The former — a Reservist on a 
half-penny a day or 14s. 8d. a year : " it must sound ludicrous in Great 
Britain, but it is true " — served from the beginning of the war in the 
arduous fighting in front of Belfort, in the still more severe warfare upon 
the heights of the Vosges, and with the expedition into, and retreat 
from, Serbia. Before Belfort his regiment had eight months in the 
trenches without a rest In the intervals of action in Alsace he writes 
that he and some of his comrades were engaged in teaching the children 
of the villages captured their ancestral French. Again (July, 191 5) : — 

"We have been in the Vosges on outpost duty for a month. We have 
never seen a civilian or entered a house since my arrival. We occupy a ridge 
overlooking the Alsatian plain about 3800 feet high ... on conquered 
ground, with our surroundings full of graves which are often torn open by 
high explosive shells. We are shelled practically every day, and our casualties 
are heavy ; I cannot understand why I am still alive. On the 6th inst. the 
enemy delivered a terrific onslaught, but we did not lose an inch of ground. 
Quite close to us things are much worse, and there is no sign of improving. 
... If the Germans are no more downhearted than we are the war may go 
on for years." 




Two Years of War 223 

Then comes the news that his division is in the south of France pre- 
paring for an overseas expedition — 

" Our enthusiasm is indescribable and the amount of artillery and machine 
guns we are taking is astonishing, considering the effort we are making in 
France against the Germans." Then from Serbia — " a war- wasted country 
with a gallant little people who receive us as brothers. This is not a new 
war but the same old war against the enemies of civilisation. We were lucky 
enough to be encamped for a week close to a British camp. Our joy was 
great to meet the Tommies for the first time and we were allowed to frater- 
nise freely. They were fresh from the trenches a little wild, but such good, 
kind-hearted cheerful fellows ! All looked strong and healthy. They are 
splendidly equipped, have comfortable tents and magnificent horses. My 
first glimpse of the King's army has brought hope and comfort to me in my 
strange surroundings. I hope we shall fight side by side with them." 

In the Russian Army Medical Corps one of our graduates has re- 
ceived the rank of Lieut.- Colonel for his great services rendered on the 
retreat from Poland. 



VI. The F'ront in Flanders. 

We now come to the Western front, upon which the great majority 
of the men of this University, both in the combatant and the medical 
services, have been engaged. Of the former between 60 and 70 
have served, or are serving, as officers or men in battalions of the 
regular army, or for the duration of the war in battalions of the new 
army. One in the ist Gordons was wounded in the retreat from 
Mons ; another of the same battalion when leading his platoon on the 
fatal charge between Kemmel and Wytzaechte on 14 December, 191 4; 
with 14 of them he reached a ditch 1 5 yards from the Germans, and after 
two wounds and lying out all day under fire he led the 14 back to 
our lines after dark. Major Alex. Kirkland Robb (Arts stud. '89), 
2nd Durham Light Infantry, son of Surgeon-General Robb, died of 
wounds received in action on 20 September, 1914 ; 2nd Lieut. Lewis 
N. G. Ramsay (M.A. '11 and B.Sc. with distinction, '12), 2nd Gordons, 
son of Professor Ramsay, was killed at Neuve Chapelle on 21 March, 
191 5 ; Lieut. Geoffrey Gordon (M.A. '03) of the Indian Civil Service, 
who being on furlough had entered the Special Reserve of Officers and 
was attached to the 12th (Pr. of Wales) Royal Lancers was killed in 
action on 20 April; L.-Corpl. James Cruickshank (ist Arts and 
a high bursar) of the ist Gordons, died of wounds received in action 
in July; Sergt. George C. Auchinachie (Med. stud. 'io-'i3), also of 



2 24 Aberdeen University Review 

the 1st Gordons, after being wounded thrice in the war and return- 
ing each time to the front was killed by a shell on 23 August ;^ and 
others of the Regular Forces to be named later fell on the fatal 
25 September. The rest, to the number of several hundreds, are in 
the units of the Territorial Force, nearly all Scottish, and chiefly the 
Gordon, Seaforth, and Cameron Highlanders. As we all know, by 
far the most of them belong to the city of Aberdeen's Territoriat 
battalion, the 4th Gordons ; in which, though some of them were in 
other companies, they formed originally the whole of the U or Uni- 
versity Company. It seems to me that the time has come to give in 
outline at least the history of the service which the 4th Gordons, and 
in particular this company of ours, has rendered on the Flanders front. 
At the outbreak of war there were some 1 5 2 of our graduates and 
students in the battalion, of whom about 115 constituted the Uni- 
versity Company. There were also 15 or 16 others who, but for the 
war, would have matriculated as students in October, 1914. Till 
February, 191 5, the battalion was trained at Bedford. Before it left 
for the front it was reorganized into double companies, and U and G 
formed the new company D which, when it started, contained 3 officers 
and 93 men from the University. In A, B and C double companies 
there were then 8 officers and 27 men from the University — making in 
all 131 of our graduates and students. With the ist Gordons and two 
other regiments, the battalion formed the 8th Brigade of the British 
Expeditionary Force in France and Flanders, an army of almost half 
a million. 

According to letters received from them, they had not by May 
been in any of "the big fighting," but they played their part in the 
trenches, sometimes remaining there for weeks on end ; and it was 
then that they suffered their first casualties. Up to 15 June 10 
were killed and some 20 wounded. Pte. James Orr Cruickshank (ist 
Sci.) was the first of the Company to fall — killed by a rifle bullet on April 
1 5 ; he was well known as a runner and a member of the Harriers 
Club. Sergt. Victor Charles MacRae (M.A. with ist CI. Hons. in 
Classics, ' 14) on 2 1 April " was stooping to lift a wounded comrade when 
he was shot through the heart and died in ten minutes ". The next 
day fell Sergt. Alex. Skinner, a former student and teacher in Dum- 
barton. On 28 April Corpl. Keith Mackay died in a Casualty 

^ His Coy. Officer writes : •* He was a very popular N.C.O. and will be much missed. 
He was my platoon sergeant and I cannot speak too highly of his soldierly qualities." 



Two Years of War 225 

Clearing Hospital of a gunshot wound received on 20 March.^ On 
27 April Pte. Alex. Mitchell (2nd Arts), while engaged digging a 
communication trench, was fatally wounded *' by a stray bullet " and 
died the next day.^ On 5 May Pte. John Forbes Knowles (M.A. 
'12; United Free Church Divinity student), who "had just rejoined 
from hospital the day we entered the trenches, was killed the 
following day (5 May) by two bullets in chest and face while out 
digging a communication trench about 200 yards from the German 
trenches and just behind our own". On the 7th Pte. David Wood 
Crichton (ist Agr.) was hit by a bullet when carrying water to the men 
in the trenches and died as he was borne back to the rear. On 27 
May Sapper James Sanford Murray (2nd Arts), formerly of E Coy. 
4th Gordons, was with the 51st (Highl. Divis.) Signal Coy., 

*'in a village some three miles behind the firing line when the enemy started 
shelling us very heavily. We got orders to leave the chateau and return to a 
farm 500 yards away. About a dozen of us immediately started out, and had 
got about 250 yards when another shell burst right in the middle of us all. 
Two were killed outright. Your boy lived for about four hours. The doctor 
told me he had no pain and that the shock had been too much for him." ^ 

On I June Pte. Robert Hugh Middleton (3rd Arts) was killed in 
action; and on the 14th Pte. Marianus Alex. Cumming (M.A. 'i2; 
teacher at Kemnay). It was during the same time that we lost several 
graduates and students in other units at Neuve Chapelle and else- 
where. I have named some already. Corpl. Edward Watt (B.Sc. Agr. 
'14), 4th Seaforth Highlanders, died on 22 March of wounds received 
in action at Neuve Chapelle on 10 March.* 

The valour of our Territorial regiments and their endurance were 
well tested during those, their first, months of war. As early as 5 
April, Sir John French wrote thus of them : " In former dispatches I 
have been able to comment very favourably upon the conduct and 
bearing of the Territorial Forces. As time goes on, and I see more 
and more of their work, whether in the trenches or engaged in more 
active operations, I am still further impressed with their value." This 

' He had passed all the examinations for the Degree of M.A., which the Senatus 
posthumously conferred in June, 1915. 

2 " A willing and most conscientious soldier, most uncomplaining and cheerful even 
when not feeling in the best of health." 

=*" One of the finest young soldiers I ever met, always ready and willing to do his 
work any time, and when we were very busy quite pleased to work his twelve hours without 
grumbling." 

^ " For nearly a fortnight he lingered on babbling of home, just on the borderland of 
consciousness ; always a child again, they tell me. But his injuries were such that Death 
were better than Life." 

15 



226 Aberdeen University Review 

is a great tribute to the training they received before they left home, 
as well as to their grit and skill. In spite of dangers, and of privations 
more disheartening, the letters of our students, whether from the 
trenches or from their rest billets, were extraordinarily cheerful and 
high-spirited, complaining of nothing but that want of artillery and 
artillery munitions which paralysed our armies at the time and cost 
the lives of so many brave men. One of their officers writes — 

" We have been shelled all day, and have nothing to pay the enemy back 
with properly. We have just lost 4 killed and 8 wounded. It is hard 
to lose these men. I like them all so much — they are so brave and fine. I 
am not cast down — I am only angry with the carelessness and neglect of those 
who are responsible for the shortage of ammunition ; but we have nothing but 
contempt for the Germans and a glorious feeling that one day we will knock 
them into a cocked hat." 

Again from one of themselves — 

"I am sitting in a grassy ditch with the shells going over at the rate of 
eight or ten a minute, and an enemy aeroplane hovering overhead trying to 
spot our position, presently to be cleared from the scene by some of our air- 
craft." 

And they impressed the French people among whom they were 
quartered. A French friend, writing me in May, says of some British 
ambulances with a French force : — 

" They are most popular among us. Their presence will never be forgotten, 
and all the secular prejudice against the British nation is dead and buried for 
ever. We hear also from our fellows who have relatives where the British 
troops are quartered that they behave like gentlemen, and are as open-handed 
as kind-hearted. . . . Part of the strength of the British Army is that it con- 
tains a greater percentage of educated men than ours. At any rate, from our 
generals down to our rank and file we are most satisfied with the efforts of the 
British. We keep talking about Neuve Chapelle as if we had done nothing 
ourselves." 

On 16 June an attack was carried out by the 5th Corps of the 
British Army on the Bellewarde Ridge, east of Ypres, while holding 
attacks were made by the neighbouring 2nd and 6th Corps. The 
advance extended as far as the Bellewarde Lake, but the troops who 
made it were unable to maintain themselves there, and had to retire. 
Still, according, to Sir John French's dispatch, they secured and con- 
solidated ground on a front of a thousand yards. In this severe and 
successful action the 4th Gordons were engaged, and D Company dis- 
tinguished itself by a brave assault on the German lines in a wood 
near Hooge. I am told by eye-witnesses that our men behaved 



Two Years of War 227 



magnificently. They lost eight killed, almost as many as in all their 
previous months of war : L.-Corpl. And. T. Fowlie (Univ. Dipl. Agr. 
'09); L.-Sergt. Alex. David Duncan (M.A. '14); L.-Corpl. Murdo 
Maclver (3rd Agr.); and Privates Harry Lyon (2nd Arts) of the 
Machine Gun section, killed by a shell, James C. Forbes (3rd Agr.), son 
of the Convener of the County of Banff, Robert Patrick Gordon (2nd 
Arts), George McSween (Aberd. Training Centre), and James Whyte 
(2nd Arts). At the same time fell Lieut. Wm. Leslie Scott (3rd Med.) 
of the 5 th Gordons. Other ten of our men were then wounded. 

During the long weeks of waiting that followed — waiting for rein- 
forcements and munitions — the 4th Gordons faithfully took their turns 
in manning the front trenches, and in providing brigade reserves. 
They suffered comparatively few losses. In July, three University 
men fell in Flanders, all sergeants — John McLean Thomson (M.A. 
'II, and student of Divinity), Alex. Allardyce (M.A. '04; B.L.), Ser- 
geant of Bombers, and Alex. David Marr (M.A. '14, and Science stu- 
dent) 7th Gordons, and on 10 August Lieut. Fred. Alex. Rose 
(M.A. with 1st CI. Hons. in English; B.A. Oxon.). Of the last one of 
his fellow-lieutenants in the 4th Gordons wrote me as follows : — 

"At present D Coy. is Brigade Reserve and we are in an old chateau, a 
very pretty place. It is very nice there, even better than back in the rest 
camp where the rest of the battalion is. We had a very bad time of it yester- 
day evening, just before we were relieved. Some high explosive shrapnel 
burst right on the top of our trench killing 3 men and wounding 7. 
Lieut. Fred. Alex. Rose was hit through the head beside the ear. He was 
unconscious, and it was at once seen that there was no hope for him, and he 
died a quarter of an hour later. He was a very decent fellow and only came 
out here a short time ago. Another University man got his arm broken. 
Otherwise the remains of old U Coy. are well and as fit and keen as ever." 

Besides the 3 killed in July and August 6 University men were 
wounded then and in early September. 

VII. 25 September— -Ypres and Loos. 

At last the end and purpose of the waiting came in the actions 
all down our line of 25 September, and the 4th Gordons topped their 
great services by a heroic charge that day on the German positions 
east of Ypres and Hooge. The action in which they were engaged is 
described by Sir John French as a secondary attack for the purpose of 
holding the enemy's troops from the main assaults, which were de- 
livered further south by the British at La Bass6e and Loos, and by the 



w 

228 Aberdeen University Review 

French in Champagne. It was preceded by some hours of terrific 
bombardment, to which the enemy replied with guns as powerful. 
On the ground in front of the 4th Gordons the entanglements ap- 
pear to have been fairly cleared, and at the word the. regiment charged 
through heavy rain and waterpools, and " like veterans " (as one report 
says) carried the first German line. A few moments there and they 
charged for the second and took it ; and at least one company, with 
students among them, reached the third line and drove out the de- 
fenders. A neighbouring battalion, however, had not been so fortunate, 
and our men, unsupported, were obliged to retire. There is not room 
here for all the experiences of that great day. Here are one or two : — 

" It was like hell let loose. We sat in a dug-out half up a communication 
trench waiting orders. The noise was terrible, and to that has to be added 
the flashes from the bursting of shrapnel and shells. We heard a loud report, 
then the ground rocked, and some half a minute later our men poured up the 
communication trench for the charge, ducking the shells and splashing about, 
for the rain simply teemed. Then a minute or two later our sergeant came 
rushing down, one of our teams was knocked out and we had to carry on at 
once. I musrt say I was rather relieved than otherwise and felt no fear in the 
open. 

" I was thrilled as I plodded up the communication trench over the knees 
in mud 'through shot and shell' with a vengeance. Yes, we laughed, 
laughed I It was really glorious ; one was absolutely overcome with the feeling 
of wishing to do anything, anything that would add glory to the already glori- 
ous name of the regiment. But the feeling is absolutely exquisite, because 
our officers are so splendid ; they smiled us a welcome, as though we were off 
for fun, and honestly I think we believed we were off for fun. . . . Anyhow, on 
we went through holes, catching in barbed wire and scrambling on. We had 
just got to the parapet of the German trenches when bang I — shrapnel over- 
head. . . . Ah, here we are, the parapet at last ! Plout in you get. A rest 
just for a moment till we see what we are to do, and to pick up a helmet on the 
way. On we went, using dead bodies sometimes to save us wading through 
mud and water. At last we reached the second line. Here the trench was 
practically levelled. Our company had already advanced to the third line. 
Our sergeant rushed across in bolts to that third line. Arriving there he dis- 
covered they were forcing our boys out. The place was strewn with dead 

Germans. ... The alarm was put out that the Huns were on us. Then 

came forward and ordered every man who could shoulder a rifle to man the 
trenches. The Huns must have changed their mind, for they never came. 
The Huns who had been spotted were some prisoners who came across with 
our boys when they retired, Alsatians, I believe. The Prussian Guard were 
opposing us, too, for I got a helmet." ^ 

A party of ist Gordons and 4th Gordon bombers and riflemen 
were cut off in one of the German redoubts, but jumped the parapet 

' From a letter from a student, published in the "Aberdeen Journal," 9 October. 




Two Years of War 229 

ran across the open towards our trenches. One sound man and 
4 wounded got over. Two others lay in a shell hole between the 
lines from lo a.m. till dusk, expecting death, and then crawled back 
to the British trenches after one of them had stumbled on a party of 
Germans and been fired at point-blank, but without injury. With 
them they brought in a wounded officer of another battalion whom 
they had found on the way. 

These are some of many breathless episodes which happened that 
day. In spite of the retirement. Sir John French says that the attack 
was " most effectively achieved, for not only was the enemy contained 
on that point, but we have reason to believe that reserves were hurried 
to that point of the line, and a number of prisoners were taken ". The 
4th Battalion received the warm congratulations of the corps and 
divisional commanders and of the Commander-in-Chief himself. But 
its casualties had been heavy. Of our University men alone there 
fell or died of their wounds at least the following 12: Lieut John 
Campbell Sangster (M. A. '14) ; Sergeants John Keith Forbes (M.A. '05 ; 
U.F.C. Divinity student),^ and Bertram Wilkie Tawse (M.A. '05 ; 
B.Sc.) ; Corpl. Wm. Stephen Haig (M.A. '14) ; Privates James Anderson 
(3rd Arts),2 William Donald (2nd Arts), John Birnie Ewen (M.A. 
Hons. in Classics, '14), John Hampton Strachan Mason (M.A. '13), 
Roderick Dewar MacLennan^ (ist Arts), Gordon Dean Munro (ist 
Med.), and Alex. Silver.^ At Ypres, too, fell 2nd Lieut. John Cook 
Macpherson of the ist Gordons (M.A. '10; LL.B.). The following 
were posted as missing: Lieut. Alex. Rennie Henderson (M.A. 'ii), 
2nd Lieut. George Low (M.A. '14), and Privates Wm. Duncan Alex- 
ander (2nd Med.), George Kemp Saunders (ist. Med.), and John Wm. 
Shanks (2nd Arts). Taken prisoners were Corpl. Malcolm MacLeod 
(M.A. '00), L.-Corpl. Alex. Findlater (ist Arts), and Privates George 
Murray (M.A. 'i i), William Alex. Troup (2nd Arts), and Robert Wilson 
(4th Arts). Thirty others were wounded. 

In the still greater battles of the same day between La Bass6e and 
Loos the sons of our University were also doing their duty, and many 
of them to the death. In the 6th Gordons, its commander, that very 
gallant and popular officer, Lieut. -Col. John Ellison Macqueen (Law 
student '91-95), fell when leading his men, and with him Lieut. 

1 For an account of his fine character and remarkable services see the •* Record of the 
United Free Church of Scotland" for 1915. 

2 He died of his wounds a prisoner at Giessen. 

3 Privates Munro and Silver both died as prisoners. 



230 Aberdeen University Review 

Frederick Charles Stephen (M.A. with 1st CI. Hons. in Maths. '09; 
Ferguson Scholar '11, and at Cambridge ist CI. Math. Tripos, Part I, 
'10, and Vl^rangler, Part II, '12), and Private Stuart. In the Seaforths 
while leading their men to the assault 2nd Lieuts. George Macbeth 
Calder (M.A. '15, 2nd Med.), and William Robert Kennedy (ist Med.), 
were killed ; in the 2nd Argyll and Sutherlands 2nd Lieut. Ian Catto 
Fraser (ist Arts) ; and 2nd Lieuts. Ian Charles Macpherson (M.A. '14), 
the son of the Rector of Banff Academy, and George Buchanan Smith 
(M.A. Glasg. ; LL.B. Aberd. '14), the son of the Principal, both with 
the 2nd Gordons, on their charge from their trenches before Vermelles 
right up to Hulluch on the third German line from which they returned 
with only 3 officers uninjured out of 22. 2nd Lieut. I. C. Macpherson 
brought his party of bombers as far as Hulluch itself, and fell there in 
the German counter-attack ; they wrote of him : *' If ever a soldier 
deserved the Victoria Cross he did, and had he lived he would have 
gained it, this is the opinion of his men and of the officers who saw 
him ". 2nd Lieut. G. B. Smith had been designated for command of 
his company ; having the night before the battle accompanied his Captain 
to cut the wire entanglements in front of their trench, and having 
remained alone to complete the work under fire for an hour and a 
half, he led his platoon in the charge as morning broke, and was killed 
at the head of them by a shell 100 yards on. On this sector 4 
other University men were wounded. 

Altogether on that single day, 25 September, the men of Aber- 
deen University suffered no less than one-third of the total of their 
casualties during eighteen months of war. 

To return to the University Company of the 4th Gordons — of 
the 120 rank and file who went from Bedford to Flanders in February 
of last year there were in December only 3 left in the ranks. 
Some 24 others still served in machine guns, signalling, or transport 
sections ; 33 had been commissioned, and 19 had fallen. The rest had 
been wounded or invalided. It has seemed to me that after such 
fortunes, distinguished by endurance, valour and self-sacrifice beyond 
all praise, some outline at least of their service was now called for. I 
am aware how tame and drab it must appear in contrast with the 
actual terror and glory of these months of heroic war. But I hope 
that later one of our graduates will be found to tell the story with 
adequate force and detail, and to do justice to all the individual acts 
of bravery which our men have so splendidly multiplied. 



Two Years of War 231 

Since the Battle of Ypres the fortunes of the 4th Gordons have 
been less eventful, but the battalion has kept its place in the British 
line, for some time still at Ypres and recently farther south, 
regularly reinforced from home out of its second and third lines. 
In April the following news came : — 

" The battalion is in a good position and in excellent health and spirits. 
The weather is splendid and the surroundings are quite congenial. In the 
fighting line things are normal and the only event of importance which has 
affected us has been the issue of shrapnel- proof helmets. They resemble the old 
clerical hat, only not so wide and rather higher. On not a few occasions they 
have already staved off what might have been serious or even fatal head 
wounds. In one case the helmet actually deflected a bullet, the wearer suffer- 
ing from nothing but the impact. . . . We never forget our fallen comrades, 
though we say little about it. For myself I think they are not far from us at 
any time, but help us yet." 

Of University men the further losses have been : In October, 191 5, 
Pte. Frederick Wm. Milne (ist Med.), on 25 December L.-Corpl. 
Alex. Slorach (2nd Arts) accidentally by the bursting of a shell. In 
other units there have fallen, in addition to those already mentioned, 
Lieut. Wm. Geo. Rae Smith (former Agr. stud.) of the loth King's 
Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, attached 21st Divisional Cyclists, 
on 25 January, 1 91 6, while saving a wounded comrade; Lieut. Chas. 
Thomas McWilliam (M.A. '13), 5th Gordons, 20th March; Capt. 
George Mitchell Johnston (B.Sc. Agr. 'i i), 2nd Battn. Royal Jersey 
Militia, attached 7th Royal Irish Rifles, 3 April ; and Quartermaster 
Sergt. Charles McGregor (M.A. with 1st CI. Hons. Maths. '96), loth 
Gordons, who did more by his courage and self-denial to inspire our 
students with a sense of duty to their country than any one else 
among us. Though beyond the military age he enlisted early in the 
war, and declining all offers of a commission served in the ranks and 
as a non-commissioned officer with rare patience, ability, and great 
influence on all his comrades. 

VIII. The R.A.M.C. and the Chaplains. 

Along that front of battle from the north of Ypres to Grenay, the 
officers and men of the Army Medical Corps were serving the field 
ambulances and casualty stations, and further behind the lines, the 
base and stationary hospitals' to the coast on the English Channel, in an 
organization the most perfect of its kind in the annals of warfare. That 
in addition to their arduous and ceaseless labours they shared with the 



232 Aberdeen University Review 

fighting ranks the perils of the enemy's fire is proved by the casualties 
they suffered. Of our own medical graduates here and on other fronts 
5 have fallen on the field : Medical Officer T. P. Fraser in Nigeria 
and Captain Arthur Kellas on Gallipoli, and Lieut. A. F. Legge in 
Singapore (all already noted) ; and on the Western front Lieut, James 
Reston Gardener Garbutt (M.B. 'ii), attached to the King's Own 
Scottish Borderers, and Lieut. George Dewar (M.B. '15). Five have 
died of disease: Lieut.-Col. Wm. Henry Gray (M.B. '86), Indian Medical 
Service, Herbert Mather Jamieson (M.B. '04), on medical service 
with the Royal Navy, Lieut. Richard Gavin Brown (already noted), 
Deputy Surgeon General Cyril James Mansfield (M.B. '83 ; M.D. '96) 
and Private David George Melrose Watt (ist Med.). Three have 
sunk with their ships : Surgeon Wm. Mellis Mearns (M.B. '08), on i 
January, 191 5, Tempry. Surgeon Douglas Whimster Keiller Moody 
(M.B. '00; M.D.) on 30 December, 191 5, and it is to be feared 
Tempry. Major (formerly Fleet Surgeon) James Mowat (M.B. '91). 
Fleet Surgeon Wm. Rudolf Center (former Med. Stud., M.B. Edin. 
'93) died from injuries on the sinking of H.M.S. "Russell ". Eleven 
others have been wounded in action. 

The Chaplains too, especially on Gallipoli and the Western front, 
have performed their services with great courage within the firing zone 
— holding their services, tending the wounded, and burying the dead all 
within range of the enemy's guns. One illustration from Gallipoli 
may be given : — 

*' I want to tell you of the last Sunday I spent on the Peninsula. It was 
impossible to hold regular church parades. I used to take a battalion each 
Sunday and go down the trenches and speak to groups of five or a dozen men 
each time and pray with them. It was rather a long business but I think it 
did good. On this particular Sunday evening we had church parade by moon 
and star-light. Each Presbyterian Chaplain took two battalions, one service in 
each. The men gathered in the trenches leaning on the parapets and with 
officers grouped round me. From a central position I conducted public wor- 
ship. I read out the Psalm, the 121st, verse by verse, and so they sang it. 
We took the hymn at the end in precisely the same way, * Abide with me '. 
It was wonderful and most thrilling. As one of the men writing home put it, 
there has been nothing like it since the Covenanters met on the moss-hags 
and worshipped God in the dark because of their enemies. I preached from 
the 23rd Psalm." Again "the tale of casualties would begin, nearly all the 
wounded (that day) were Scots who came down our way, and men from our Bri- 
gade. The most of the men knew me. One dug-out, capable of holding 15 
stretchers, the Major (R.A.M.C.) devoted to abdominal cases. . . . Twice a 
day did I visit these poor fellows. Nothing more could be done for them 
than to moisten their lips and wash out their mouths. They were very patient 



Two Years of War 233 

and good about it. . . . Long waits I had also till graves were dug in the 
hard- baked earth, or until the shell and rifle fire so moderated as to allow 
burial parties^ to venture forth. . . . We laid the poor battered bodies to rest 
3 or 4, 5 or 7 at a time — in their uniforms, the Highlanders in their tartans : 
He that loveth his life shall lose it^ and he that loseth his life for My sake shall 
Jinditr 

For us there remains the duty of recalling our fallen by name in 
homage to their valour and the spirit of their sacrifices for us. Not 
for glory went they out, nor did any go carelessly, nor in ignorance of 
what was before him. But each because the hand of God was upon 
his conscience in the strength of the most sacred cause to which his 
country was ever called, and prepared to give his life for its sake. 
The father of one of them, writing to me from a country manse, says 
truly : — 

" From the brave, bright letters sent home from the front, one fails to learn 
the truth that some of them know in their hearts — that they are treading the 
road to Calvary. As I looked at the last photograph sent home from France 
of our boy, its expression seemed only sad, but I know what it means now. 
* I shall not come back, but I am going forward,' and his is the story of so 
many others." 



The Graduation Address was followed by the reading of the names 
of the 70 members of the University who had fallen ; the Very 
Rev. Professor Nicol led the assembly in prayer. The National 
Anthem was sung, and Professor Fulton pronounced the Benediction. 

GEORGE ADAM SMITH. 



Postscript, 8 July, 1916.— Since the above was in type other 14 deaths 
have been reported, and will be found on pp. 6 and 7 of the Supplement to 
the Provisional Roll of Service, appended to this number of the Review. 




An Anatomist on Our Pedigree.^ 

I HE fascinating problem of the antiquity of man has been 
attacked from various sides. The geological approach 
has its classic expression in Sir Charles Lyell's *' Geolo- 
gical Evidences of the Antiquity of Man " (1863) ; the 
archaeological approach is well represented by Lord 
Avebury's "Prehistoric Times" (1865, 7th ed., 1913) ; 
Dr. Keith's book is a masterly statement of the anatom- 
ical contribution. "The anatomist gives ancient man 
the centre of the stage ; he depends on the geologist and the archaeologist to 
provide him with the scenery and stage accessories." He has to work hand 
in hand with them both, which is not always easy, but his line of investigation 
is quite distinct ; he traces man into the past " by means of fossil skulls, teeth, 
and limb bones — intelligible documents to him, but complex and repulsive 
hieroglyphs in the eyes of most people ". In one respect his reward is likely 
to be greater than that of his fellow-workers, for his researches bear directly 
on the problem of man's pedigree as well as on that of his antiquity. The in- 
quisitive section of the British public, in so far as it has energy to spare from 
such serious tasks as solving the mystery of " Edwin Drood," may well con- 
gratulate itself in having a guide like Dr. Arthur Keith, expert yet luminous, 
scholarly yet enthusiastic, in exploring the problem of how and when mankind 
came into existence. 

A Neolithic Community. — The first picture in the book takes us back 
some 4000 years — a few ticks of the geological clock — to a Neolithic com- 
munity at Coldrum in Kent — a settlement of agricultural pioneers, about two 
inches below our modern British average stature, with rather large heads in 
which the width was about 75 per cent of the length, with better 
teeth and broader palates than we have in these days of soft food, with brains 
up to the present-day size, with beliefs concerning life and death, similar to 
those that swayed their contemporaries in Western and Southern Europe, and 
with great manipulative skill as shown in Megalithic monuments on the one 
hand and daring trepanning operations on the other. Four thousand years 
ago " mankind was already old ; the human web already universal ". 

Tkc Men of the Submerged Forest. — ^The second study concerns the people 
of the forest which used to connect England with France, through which the 
Thames ran swiftly to join the Rhine in a common estuary. Since these days 
great changes have occurred in the appearance of the country, but careful 
study of the human remains (there are no implements or even flint chips) from 
corners of the submerged forest show that man at the beginning of the Neo- 
lithic period was very much as he is to-day. Yet that is eight or ten thousand 
years ago. 

The Cave Men. — The next step into the darkening past takes us to the 

1 The Antiquity of Man. By Arthur Keith, M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.S., F.R.S., Con- 
servator of the Museum and Hunterian Professor, Royal College of Surgeons of England. 
London: Williams & Norgate. Pp. xx + 519. 189 illustrations. 



1> 



GENEALOGICAL TREE. 



Showing the ancestral stems and probable lines of descent of the higher 

Primates. 



.^'"' 0,'$:i^^ ,.-S#S'^ 



RECENT & 

PLEISTOCENE^' 
-f.OOO -P^ 
•400.000 years : 



PLIOCENE 

spooft < 
500,000 years '. 



MIOCENE 

9,000 ft < 
90opoo years • 



OLIGOCENE 
iZfiOO f ^ 

l^oopoo years 



EOCENE 
12.000 f? 
1^00.0 00 years 




MODERN MAN 
EOANTHROPUS 
NEANOERTHAU 

P/THECANTHROPUS 

PALjeOPITMECt/S 

PAIOOPITHE.X 

PLIOPITHECUS 
ORYOPITHECUS 



HUMAN 
STEM 

/ GREAT 
ORTHOGRADE 
•.. PRIMATES 



SMALL 
{ORTHOGRADE 
PRIMATES 



PROPUOPI THECU& 

STEM OF 

OLD WORLD 

MONKEYS 

STEM OF 

fNEW WORLD 

MONKEYS 



/COMMON 
STEM 



An Anatomist on Our Pedigree 235 

caves at Torquay and Sennen, Aurignac, Cromagnon, Mentone and elsewhere, 
"where the earth keeps a more orderly register of events than in the turmoil 
of flooded valleys ". In the floor of these caverns, along with remains of 
cave-bear, cave-lion, cave-hyena, mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, wild pig, Irish 
elk, reindeer, and bison, there are the remains of pre-Neolithic man, often 
with implements and decorations. "When we survey the people and the 
state of Europe in the latter third of the glacial period, we find it was popu- 
lated with tall men, evidently separated into distinct races, having long, 
narrow heads containing large brains — brains which were capable of con- 
ceiving and appreciating high works of art." The story of cave exploration 
is fascinating like the quest itself, and the author lingers over the revelations 
of the later Palaeolithic culture — taking us back 25,000 to 30,000 years. It 
is an extraordinary instance of organic inertia that some of the big-brained 
skulls of this time, with not a single feature that can be called primitive or 
ape-like, should show teeth in size and form exactly the same as those of a 
thousand generations afterwards — and suffering from gumboils too ! 

The Intrusion of Neanderthal Man, — The next great step brings us into 
the Mousterian or middle Palaeolithic period, probably as long in its duration 
as the late Palaeolithic, the Neolithic, and the Metal ages put together — say 
25,000 years. It was during this time, in the middle Pleistocene age, that 
men of the Neanderthal type, quite distinct from those of to-day, were widely 
represented in Europe, along with woolly rhinoceros, mammoth, boar, ibex, 
bison, cave-hyena, and the like. He was a loose-limbed fellow, short in 
stature and of slouching gait, but a skilful artisan, fashioning beautifully- 
worked flints with a characteristic (Mousterian) style. He used fire ; he 
furnished his dead with an outfit for a long journey ; he had a big brain. 
But he had great beetling, ape-like eyebrow ridges and massive jaws, and 
he showed "simian characters swarming in the details of his structure". 
Professor William King, a quiet worker at Queen's College, Galway, protested 
in 1864 against Huxley's conclusion that the Neanderthal man was merely an 
extreme variant of the modern type, and proposed to create a new species. 
Homo neanderthalensis ; and this is the view generally accepted to-day. 
Though the Neanderthal man has his own peculiar adaptations and specializa- 
tions, in most of the points in which he is divergent from modern man he 
approaches the anthropoids. It seems certain, however, that he was not a. 
low type and that he was not ancestral to modern man. Indeed men of 
the modern type seem to have been in existence when Neanderthal man was 
still living. Perhaps the most remarkable thing about him is that he disap- 
peared with apparent suddenness (like aboriginal races to-day) at the end of 
the Mousterian period. 

The Antiquity of the Modem Type. — In the earlier Pleistocene age, during 
the long periods known as Acheulean (from the beautifully-worked flint hand- 
axes of St. Acheul, near Amiens) and Chellean (from Chelles in the valley of 
the Marne), which together probably cover a stretch of 100,000 years or 
more, there is no trace of Neanderthal man or his ancestor. " The deposits 
of the Thames, of the Somme, of the Seine, of the Arno, from one side of 
Europe to the other, have revealed the same story — the existence of a man^ 
a mere variant of modern man, one with a thick skull, a big brain, and a 
long head." Man of the modern type is much older than was supposed ; the 
Neanderthal man was an intruder when he entered Europe at a late stage of 
the mid-Pleistocene period. Long before then, towards the beginning of the 
Pleistocene, there were men of our own type in Europe — back and back to- 



236 Aberdeen University Review 

300,000 years ago. Beyond that in the PHocene, there are the eoliths of the 
stone-beds below the Crags, the '* humanity " of which is widely accepted. 

Heidelberg Man. — Our guide now takes us to the sand-pit at Mauer near 
Heidelberg, which was visited almost daily for twenty years until at last the 
treasure was found — the Heidelberg man. Not much of a man either, only a 
lower jaw, but enough to show that near the beginning of the Pleistocene 
period, along with lions, an extinct form of cat, a dog, two kinds of bear, a 
species of bison, an early type of horse, the Etruscan Rhinoceros, and an 
elephant, there lived a primitive variety of Neanderthal man, probably able to 
speak, but with a lower jaw in several ways distinctly ape-like. The last 
skeletal traces of modern man in Europe are in the Chellean remains from 
Galley Hill in Kent (unless indeed the Castenedolo skeletons be admitted as 
contemporaneous with the Pliocene strata whence they were dug) ; the last of 
the Neanderthal men is in the sand-pit at Mauer. 

Pithecanthropus. — The scene changes to the banks of the Solo or Ben- 
.gawan near Trinil in Central Java, where Dr. Eugene Dubois found the sparse 
remains of Pithecanthropus erectus in fossiliferous beds (probably at the end of 
the Pliocene or the beginning of the Pleistocene) containing remains of 
mammals many of which are now extinct. This discovery, Dr. Keith says, 
•** throws more light on our early, human ancestry than any other yet made ". 
It reveals " a being human in stature, human in gait, human in all its parts, 
save his brain" — probably a collateral survivor of the Miocene ancestral human 
stock. For the author argues cogently that " the common ancestor of modem 
races must have reached a higher stage by the close of the Pliocene period 
than that represented by Pithecanthropus ". 

The Piltdown Skull, — After an interesting American tour, which con- 
■vinces us afresh of the great antiquity of the modern human type, our guide 
brings us back to England, to the Weald of Sussex, and the Piltdown skull 
{Eoanthropus dawsoni). This is one of the big discoveries of the still young 
twentieth century, but had it not been for Mr. Dawson's quick eye and 
scientific mood, " Piltdown man, his flints, and remains of ancient elephants, 
hippopotamus, and beaver would have long ere now been ground to dust 
under the wheels of lumbering farm wagons ". The Piltdown skull represents 
the most ancient human remains yet found in Britain ; it probably dates from an 
early phase of the Pleistocene or from a late phase of the Pliocene epoch, 
perhaps half a million years ago. Its great interest is its remarkable mixture, 
e.g., in teeth and jaws, of simian and human characters. " The anthropoid 
characters of the mouth, teeth, and face, the massive and ill-filled skull, the 
simian characters of the brain and its primitive and pre-human appearance " 
justify Dr. Smith Woodward's conclusion that the skull requires the establish- 
ment of a new genus in the family Hominidse. But the very interesting con- 
clusion at which Dr. Keith has arrived, after painstaking reconstruction of the 
data, is that the Piltdown brain was well within the modern human standard 
of size. And this at the beginning of the Pleistocene period ! " All the es- 
sential features of the brain of modern man are to be seen in the brain cast. 
There are some which must be regarded as primitive. There can be no doubt 
that it is built on exactly the same lines as our modern brains. A few minor 
alterations would make it in all respects a modem brain. " 

" Although our knowledge of the human brain is limited — there are large 
areas to which we can assign no definite function — we may rest assured that 
^ brain which was shaped in a mould so similar to our own was one which 
responded to the outside world as ours does. Piltdown man saw, heard, felt, 



An Anatomist on Our Pedigree 237 

thought, and dreamt much as we do still. If the eoliths found in the same 
bed of gravel were his handiwork, then we can also say he had made a great 
stride towards that state which has culminated in the inventive civilization of 
the modern Western world." And this was perhaps twenty or thirty thousand 
generations ago ! 

Retrospect. — When one takes time to it, allowing the details to compose 
into picturesque scenes, Dr. Keith's narrative is vividly interesting ; and his 
step-by-step argument as to the legitimate inferences to be drawn from 
Pithecanthropus or from the Piltdown skull is a fine lesson in scientific 
method. It will be noted that while the author takes up a firm position of 
his own, he is in no way dogmatic. He withdraws two or three previous con- 
clusions and is willing to withdraw others if contradictory facts emerge. The 
two main sources of fallacy are (i) in the process of reconstructing the whole 
from the parts (an art very fully dealt with in chaps, xxi. and xxii.) ; and (2) 
in fixing the geological age of the beds in which certain remains are found. 
It cannot be said that all the experts agree with Dr. Keith's conclusions 
under these two heads, but the differences of opinion are not such as to af- 
fect the general result that the antiquity of man is prodigiously greater than, 
has been supposed. Once or twice, we may notice, Dr. Keith uses the 
argument that so many hundreds of thousands of years are not more than 
enough for the differentiation to be accounted for. We would, with all re- 
spect, suggest that, in view of our rapidly increasing knowledge of mutations 
or transilient variations, the less this kind of argument is used the better. In 
our preceding sketch we have followed the author from relatively recent 
days backwards ; let us now, to get a coherent view of our pedigree, turn our 
faces the other way and begin at the beginning ! 

Provisional Pedigree. — Once upon a time (is that not the orthodox be- 
ginning of a fairy tale ?) inconceivably long — perhaps 3,000,000 years — ago^ 
when grass was beginning to spread like a garment over the earth, in the 
Early Eocene in short, there emerged an arboreal race (the Primates) — 
differentiated from other Mammals in digits and teeth, skull and brain. 
From this stock there diverged in succession the New World Monkeys, the Old 
World Monkeys, the small Anthropoid Apes (Gibbon and Siamang), and the 
large Anthropoid Apes (Orang, Chimpanzee and Gorilla). This left towards 
the end of the Oligocene (others would say in the Miocene) a generalized 
human stem. According to Professor SoUas's estimates this was some 
2,000,000 years ago. Once we have left Archbishop Usher (like Peace Budgets) 
behind us there is no use haggling over a million less or more. Ages passed at 
all events and from the generalized human stem there diverged in succession 
Pithecanthropus the erect, the slouching man of Neanderthal, and the early 
Briton of the Sussex Weald. Thus was left the stem of modern man which 
has broken up in Pleistocene times into African, Australian, Mongolian and 
European races. If we mean by the antiquity of man the time since he 
reached what may be called the human standard in size of brain. Dr. Keith's 
conclusion is that this was reached by the commencement of the Pliocene 
period, which means over a million years ago. When the evidence of flints 
is considered, which is outside the province of this anatomical study, the 
tendency is to go farther back still, and the author concludes his book — an 
achievement to be proud of — with the sentence, on which future discoveries 
will pronounce judgment : " There is not a single fact known to me which 
makes the existence of a human form in the Miocene period an impossibility ". 
Reflections. — As we lay down the book, which has been as heavy to hold 



238 Aberdeen University Review 

as lightsome to read, three impressions rise to our mind, (i) The first is of 
the grandeur of the theme. Some learned men have been able to write of 
palaeontology as though it were a dull graveyard business, and of evolution 
as though it were the making of a packing-case — every sentence as ac- 
curate as the items in an inventory, and the whole much duller than ditch- 
water. Such is not Dr. Keith's way, for he makes us feel the surge of an 
august progress. We hear the flow of the stream and the tramp of armed 
men, and when this is not to be heard the story of evolution has failed of its pur- 
pose. (2) Dr. Keith speaks in his preface of ** how mankind came into exist- 
ence," but while he has successfully tried to show us the steps in the ascent 
of man, he has left the problem of the factors almost untouched. And per- 
haps he is wise in his restraint, for it may be better science to search for more 
facts before we speculate much as to the factors. We wonder, therefore, if 
our author is not forgetting his habitual restraint when he says of Homo 
neanderthalensis that " a more virile form extinguished him ". But apart from 
the question as to the factors in man's ascent, which still remains at a purely 
speculative level, there is a solemnity in the patience of the age-long adven- 
ture which has crowned the evolutionary process upon the earth. Three 
million of years ago the Primate stem sends out its tentative branches, and we 
have a welter of monkeys ; aeons pass and the main stem still probing its way 
towards the light gives off the Anthropoids which rise to great heights ; there 
is no satisfaction, however, and without hurry other experiments are made the 
ends of which we know at Mauer and Trinil and Piltdown, for none of them 
lasted or was made perfect ; but the main line goes on evolving — and who 
will be bold enough to limit its insurgence ? Is there a race' of super-men im- 
plicit who will, when another half million years have sped, look back on 
us as we on the early Troglodytes? In any case it seems to us, to say 
the least, difficult to look back sanely on the sublime spectacle of long- 
drawn-out patience and endeavour, and on the general progressiveness of the 
issue, without the hypothesis (if it be no more) of an increasing and inherent 
purpose. (3) Dr. Keith's book was written and printed in 191 4 in days when 
we thought of Liege and Namur, which figure often in its pages, as " the sites of 
peaceful antiquarian discovery," not " as the scenes of bloody war ". "We have 
turst suddenly into a critical phase in the evolutionary progress of mankind." 
Is it for this awful reason, then, that a quiet and grateful reception has been 
accorded to a book which not many years ago would have aroused a storm of 
controversy? We know that the explanation is otherwise — that everything 
has become an antiquity in our eyes, and that man's solidarity with the rest 
of creation has been accepted by the great majority of intellectual combatants. 
This was a great truth that we owe to Darwin — the truth of man's affiliation 
with the realm of organisms. But for the realization of a great truth there is 
ever a tax to pay, and we venture to suggest (we trust without a revelation of 
senescence) that the tax was a temporary losing sight of the extraordinary 
apartness of man from the rest of creation, — an apartness which it is satisfac- 
tory to find as firmly verified in the lowest parts of the earth as it is vouched 
for in the highest reaches of our experience. 

J. ARTHUR THOMSON. 

[For the use of the block of the Genealogical Tree accompanying this 
article — the frontispiece to Dr. Keith's book — we are indebted to the 
publishers, Messrs. Williams & Norgate, to whom our thanks are due.] 




The Spirit of Our Northern University. 

JOYAL sons of King's and Marischal, near and far, will 
welcome the news that Mr. W. Keith Leask has at last 
consented to publish in book form a selection of his essays 
and verses which have appeared in ''Alma Mater " and 
elsewhere during the past twenty- five years. The pros- 
pectus which accompanies the present number of the 
Review cannot fail to whet the liveliest expectation, for 
in the summary of contents readers will recognize many 
old friends, whereof the very titles touch chords of happy 
memory. These essays embody the spirit of our Northern University. They 
are of the place itself : they record with deft allusion its manners and customs, 
and portray its famous men of earlier and later years in a vein of rich indi- 
viduality. The papers stand apart among our native documents, for they at- 
tempt no formal chronicle, but are rather the lightly discursive recreations of 
a scholar, who, amid the ripe experience of years, has never forgotten what it 
is to be young. La Jeunesse, exclaimed Henry Murger in a tragic chapter, la 
jeunesse na quun temps ! But the writer of Interamna Borealis has re- 
tained in his undergraduate and schoolboy reminiscences all that light-hearted 
sense of comedy, that interplay of sunshine and shadow, which makes our 
college days a possession for ever. He gives youth a second lease of life. 

The author's touch, to borrow a conversational phrase of his own, ** is 
strong upon the Aberdonian key -board " ; he is alive to every tone of aca- 
demic life, with side strains caught from civic life also, for these papers owe 
much of their charm to a skilful blending of Town and Gown. Mr. Leask 
remembers that students released from their classes are (within the '* twal ' 
mile " limit) wandering scholars, clerici vagabundi. Like Rabelais's Paris 
student from Limoges, they " transfretate the Sequane (for us the Dee and 
Don) at the dilucul and the crepuscul ; they deambulate by the compites and 
quadrives of the urb," catch every passing humour and frequent odd enter- 
tainment-booths of inexpensive admission. Through these essays floats the 
melody of ancient ditties, long since mute ; we hear old songs turn up again ; 
and, as Blackie said to Sir James Barrie, we " read a little in the Greek 
Testament, talk of the paullo-post future in the cool of the evening, and go 
to the pantomime ". That was the Professor's highly original recipe for an 
evening of social intercourse between undergraduate and undergraduate, in 
days when academic sociability was not the highly organized thing it has 
since become. The men of Mr. Leask's day took their pleasures more 
simply, and in something of splendid isolation, but they had at least the in- 
estimable bond of the Class, with its clear divisions, marking the separate 
years. They and their predecessors of the 'fifties were not, however, without 



240 Aberaeen University Review 

affection for the very stones of our " alme, inclyte and celebrated Academy," 
as witness the close of Neil Maclean's " Life at a Northern University ". 

In the later time of Mr. Leask's essays there were even clearer signs of 
an Academic Revival, which forms the subject of an introductory paper, 
hitherto unpublished. The author dates that revival from Professor Masson's 
article in " Macmillan's Magazine" for February, 1864. There Masson 
adumbrated a keener sentiment of devotion to our ancient places and scenes, 
and rhapsodising his student days, he pictured the stars, " seeming to roll, 
soliciting astrological watch," above the roofs of old Marischal College. On 
his last public appearance in Aberdeen in 1892 Masson enlarged that vision, 
and exclaimed with a thrill not yet forgotten by those who heard him, *' Oh ! 
there were never such stars in the world as those I saw from the top of 
Marischal College tower ! " 

Here, then, are " all our boy feelings, all our gentler dreams " : Magistrand 
walks, between Moral Philosophy lectures, to the Brig o' Balgownie, and late 
sentimental journeys to Girdleness or Donmouth by the shore of the loud- 
sounding sea, The Crown, the Saracen minarets of Powis, the unchanging High 
Street, drowsy in the sunshine of summer vacation, the Cathedral, the Her- 
mitage, Seaton, and Tillydrone, the night wind over the Links — none is for- 
gotten. If, amid much sly and piquant humour, and many wise saws and 
modern instances, the melancholy of Eheu, fugaces I must at times inform 
these pages, that only makes them the more attractive to those who find there 
the reflection of what they were in their golden prime. 

The book is uniform with the author's Quatercentenary edition of Neil 
Maclean's famous novel. Every Aberdeen man will desire to have the two 
volumes side by side on his shelves, for in both (to adapt Gargantua once more) 
** we have for our tutor the learned Epistemon, to instruct us by his lively and 
vocal documents ". 

J. D. SYMON. 



1 
I 

i 



Fae France. 

Dear Jock — Like some aul' cairter's mear I'm foonert i' the'feet^ 
An' oxter-staffs are feckless things fan a' the furth's sae weet, 
Sae, till the wee reid-heidit nurse comes roon to sort my bed» 
I'll leave my readin' for a fyle, an' vreet to you instead. 

Ye hard the claik hoo Germany gied France the coordy lick. 

An' Scotlan' preen't her wincey up an' intill't geyan quick — 

But fouk wi' better thooms than me can redd the raivell't snorl. 

An' tell ye fa begood the ploy that sae upset the worl'. 

I ken that I cam' here awa' some aucht days aifter Yeel, 

An' never toon nor fee afore has shootit me sae weel ; 

They gie me maet, an' beets an' claes, wi' fyles an antrin dram — 

Come term-time lat them flit 'at likes, Vm bidin* faur I am. 

Tho' noo an' than, wi' dreepin' sark, we've biggit dykes an' dell't — 

That's orra wark ; oor daily darg is fechtin' fan we're tell't. 

I full my pipe wi' bogie-rowe, an' birze the dottle doon, 

Syne snicher, as I crack the spunk, to think hoo things come, roon ; 

There's me, fan but a bairn in cotts, nae big aneuch to herd, 

Would seener steek my nieves an* fecht, than dook or ca' my gird„ 

An' mony a yark an' ruggit lug I got to gar me gree, 

But here, oonless I'm layin* on, I'm seldom latten be. 

As I grew up an' filled my breeks, fyow market days we saw 
But me an' some stoot halflin chiel would swap a skelp or twa ; 
It's three year by come Can'lemas, as I've gweed cause to min*„ 
That Mains's man an' me fell oot, an' focht about a queyn. 
We left the inn an' cuist oor quytes ahin' the village crafts, 
An' tho' I barely fell't him twice wi' wallops roon the chafts^ 
I had to face the Shirra for't. 'Twas byous hard on me, 
For fat wi' lawyers, drinks, an' fine, it took a sax months' fee. 
I would a had to sell't my verge, or smoke a raith on tick. 
But for the fleein' merchant's cairt, my ferrets an' the bick. 
Ay, sang ! the Shirra had the gift, an* tongued me up an' doon ; 
But he's a dummy till his sin, fan han'lin' oor platoon ; 
Gin's fader saw his birkie noo, an' hard the wye he bans. 
He michtna be sae sair on some that fyles comes throu* his han's. 

i6 



242 Aber(feen University Review 

Ae mochie nicht he creepit ben the trench — it's jist a drain — 
An' kickit me aneth the quyte an' cursed ipe braw an' plain — 
**Ye eesless, idle, poachin' htifi?; ye're lyTn* snorin' there, 
An* Gerrnans pryin' to be killed, but deil a hair ye care. . , . ^ 
Fatever comes ye're for the Jythe, to scrat, an' gant ari' drink^ ' / . 
An* dream aboot the raffy days fan ye was i* the qlinfc : ' ,/. 

Ye're dubbit to the een, ye slype, ye hinna focht the day. 
Come on wi' me an' see for eence gin ye aire worth yer pay/' 
Man, fan bj&,$pak'rsae kindly like, fat was there left for. me jfij brc,.-; ly 
But jist to answer hack ;as frank, as furth-the-gait an' free—; .^ / 
" Lead, onv iny Shirra!s offisher,. gin summons. ye've to seir' , ,7 .; [scy\ : r i 
Upon thae billiesowre-the loan, rU. beet ye V\\ be there !*i?.v {[-:: \\--. 
Syne laden wi: ajbiimoM^onaibs we slippit thrg^u' the dark,] \,:r\> 
An' left upo' the barbitweer gey tafts o'breeH an' sark •-•>-: . rv 5 - 
They -bumitied an'/.droned some unco tiineas we crap up j^it Uftise-m'^ 
Like fae theiJaft I've hard the quire lift up some paraphrase.. ;jj iJinu. 
Ae crei?$hy'gvirk.that .led; the lave was bessin'lood an' Strang, .,,i. ,-r[ i 
Fan something hat hJuB-i' the kytethat.fairly changed his sang; : T 
We benched an' flang, an' killed a rcurn^, an' soosh't them front an' flank^ 
Like: Jpons.lihat's trru^ the squeel t-o stane yQung puddocks i' the 5tank. 

The rippitkf)ryad^ the Bekets f^iSe^/t^a^ time for hiz to skide,^ ^'"^; 
An' tho^ Wg^ joUkit' as 'w4 i^iri; ati^ flappit eisfiice or twiceJ, '■ •''^■^^ blm^ ./ 
Owre aft oor pig gaed tO^tWfe^will, for nob We strack thfe tiayi^^'"^' '• ' 
Oor brow Lieuteh^htbfn>^Wye-^fart k' in lames it lay f^ <-^""'^^ '^"'■■ 

A bullet bored Ijina.thrpu'.tJ^e hpchs, i^took him like a, stane, 
An' heelster-gpwdije^dooA.he cam' .an'. brak his. shackle-bane: ^^ ,^ ,. 
To hyste,hini pg..^n'. og TOy^^aek-.^ott a' py. pith .ayi' .skeel,^.. ,^^^.i, ^,. 
For aye he b^dVn^e.lat^iifnJfe,, an' cursed .'^-t'; :/ -, -? ■ 

" Ging on a^'. ^le^y^ nie herje^ ye gype, sin' qaak' yer fe^t yer freen'.' 
" Na, na," says J ;. V-Ye brocjjt m^ h^re, I'm nae^^aun hame ^y l^en." 
He's little boul^it^ ay ^n' .licht, an^. I'm baith s^too^ f Ti^Sfv ; - ^ V^ -f 
Yet I was.pechiii! sair^^neuqli jifo^^ 'W/ jia kv ! 

They thocht him f^if-ljf throij' 2^t,jii;?t an' threepit he was ^pid,^ ,'^ "^ - 
But it was na^thing.but a .dwaam, brpcht oij by loss o' bleed., -^ 
'Twas months afore he oo^er'd fae. th^t, an' he was misled f Jot^ ^ , 
For fan ye meet a hearty .l^rpet.ye'^e sprry gin he's shot^'^^V^ \^\.'- [ ?- ff 
His mither senta ietter tiir.s,ra gr^^t lang; blqttit s^reed^' '' 'J ^, ". ^ u 
It wasna oasyj makm' t QOt, her yreetifj's .9j90rse to read ; ^ ^ \^ ' \ .^'^ . j^ '^'^, I 
She speir't could she dae ocht for a^e, sae i sent back a line— * I 

*' Jist bid yer man, fanineist I'm up, ca' canny wi' the fine". 



v/:)r/'j/i Fae: Frahcen-^^bi^jdA ^43 

But noo to tell hoo I wan aff fae dreelin', dubs, an' din, 

An' landit here wi' nocht to dae but fite the idle pin. 

Ae foraneen my neiper chap cried — " Loshtie-goshtie guide's ! 

The foumarts maun be caul the day, they've startit burnin' wydes." 

The reek at first was like ye've seen, fan at the fairmer's biddin', 

Some frosty mornin' wi' the graip, the baillie turns the midden. 

But it grew thick, an* doon the win' straucht for oor lines it tore, 

Till shortly we were pyoch'rin.' sair an' flqyed that we would smore; 

An' as ye never ken wi' cyaiirds Taiir ye'll be berried neist, 

We fixed oor baignets, speel't the trench, and chairged them in a breist. 

'Twas than I got the skirp o' shell thiat'nail't me f the qiieets, 

An' here I'm hirplin' robn the ddors, aii-eanha thole my beets. 

•u*-:^ ! "i^iM ri'.-v vIj..// v^>-:^^ ;_)::/'. 
Some nichts fan I've been^leepin'; il^,,^a'.^to^ns.jgyJa^rl doon my taes, 
Aul' times come reamin' thrpu' my heid^ I'm.bgx:k amp' t 
Wi' wirms an' wan' I'm throu' the breem, an'.castin' up the burn, 
Land aye the tither yaljow trb6t,,fae iljca ru^K^n' turn : 
I hash the neeps an' full the skull, ah* hin^tne low 
Lythe in the barn Ikt 66t for r^pes, or traek^la fik'shiotiS cowt ; 
I watch the leevers o' the mull swing roon for 'oors an' 'oors, 
An' see the paps o' Ben]:i^chie ptan' fup^.a,twpen,th^ shooers; 
Lead fae a roup a reistin' stirk, that's/ like to brak the branks. 
Or hearken to the cottar wives lyaugrljj^augin owre their shanks ; 
I join the dancers on the b'uird schpttisciiiri' a,t the gslmes. 
An' scutter in the lang'feeriicHtis wi'^ferttphin,'^^^^ 
Or maybe, cockit Oh the'sh^tt^ iaii dairiirTcoJH'dr liear, 
Cry "Hie" an' " Wb''* krt''^'We64^*''k|aift'ife*pidfe the steppin' mear. 
An' in the daylichftfeei^at'tiriiesj'fan lyih'' here 'sa'e salFt, * 
I've dream't, gin een^is the v/^i \\^2is by,^b**takm^ort'a' craft. 
Fan a'thing's sattled for the nicht in stable an* in byre, 
It's fine to hae yer ain bow cheer drawn up anent the fir^e, 
An' hear a roch reijd-h'eidit bairn, wi'.fei:ny-iickledr\b^e, 
Tired oot an' hungry 'fae tlieclo^si' come V^uJ^^ h^^s brose; 

An' syne a wife— blit, ^NVeeshtY^br^liere^^' A^^^ ted. 

Come cryin' Irhaiin'dicht'my p(^h, an' hirsleB ihy-lSed. 
Gweed nicht !— but 1)idfe,'^6r^^ fot^etfth6r6'^]U^'U'mM thing- 
Man, could yb' sen- me o6t' a iriimp-h Vth^ ^^earibt tet^a spring. 
For, Jock, yeAvinna grudgdthe staibp tbichfeir axiweebJe frien', 
An' dinna back it " Sandy ?'. noo, hut'' SSJergearLt''Al3erdein. 

CHARLES MURRAY. 



244 Aberdeen University Review 



Forsaken. 

waly waly up the bank, 

And waly waly down the brae, 
And waly waly yon burn-side 

Where I and my Love wont to gae ! 

1 leant my back unto an aik, 

I thought it was a trusty tree ; 
But first it bow'd, and syne it brak, 
Sae my true Love did lichtly me. 

O waly waly, but love be bonny 

A little time while it is new ; 
But when 'tis auld, it waxeth cauld 

And fades awa' like morning dew. 
O wherefore should I busk my head ? 

Or wherefore should I kame my hair ? 
For my true Love has me forsook, 

And says he'll never loe me mair. 

Now Arthur-seat sail be my bed ; 

The sheets shall ne'er be prest by^me : 
Saint Anton's well sail be my drink, 

Since my true Love has forsaken me. 
Marti'mas wind, when wilt thou blaw 

And shake the green leaves aff the tree ? 
O gentle Death, when wilt thou come ? 

For of my life I am wearie. 



Forsaken 245 



AlkivoPy alki^pov ctTr', a;/a ya\o(^ov aikivov ^Iniy 
KoX Kara ras ^Sacrcra? alXivos of 1)5 tTa*, 

a T€ TTctXat (^iXeovcra (rvv(t>fxdpT€VP <^i\iovTi 

iToWaKL Trap Trorafiop, vvv 7rpo\eoLTo yoo^, 

m yap avr)p a-anpS ttotI SeVSpet pa)T InepeLcrdel^ 
Tjkwto'e 6aKov e^etz/ arpOTtop arpefxea, 

akXa TOT iKKkwOkp fiia-op ippdyrjy a>s fiOL epacrra? 

TTLCTTOS €fieP SoK€Q)P, 0)^ dTTaTt^CreP ifl€. 

ai^KiPOP eiTre, KaXos yap ^EpcDs peoartyaXos i<TTLP, 

irpcLTOP vwqpaTov top -yapLP cjcnrep e^ft)*', 
dXX' ore yiqpda-KXi^ Kpvepo^ TreXet, al\}ta S' aTrecr^a, 

d)s Spocro^ aoCa TeporeTai deXio), 
cira tC Tap /c€(^aXai/ KoafitjcrofiaL ; elra tl ^aiTap 

^ap6oi(Tip arTecfydpov^ diJi(l)LTL6o) TrXoKdfioL^ 
pvp y\ OTC ft', d\/r€vS'i79 SoK€(OPf iipevcraT ipaa-Tdsi 

pvp 8' o y' epdi' c^dcra? ovk4ti (fyaalp ipap ; 
atal, *TfjL7jTTo^ i^ol crTopea-ei Xex©?, ov)( *T/icVato9 • 

ov pij^fie pvijl(J)ok6ixo<; hi^erat, ets OdXafJLOPj 
ovK€TL Kpapalop Trdcrofiai ydpo^Sy dXX' o-tt' ^IXktctov 

7r[ofL\ lirel i/^eucrras e/c [le XeXoiTrep dpijp. 
alal ifioCf Bopia jxeToiropLPef irapiK' drjcret 

<l>vXXo^6Xci)P Siphpcop KocTfiop d7ro(TK€Zd(raL ; 
Si SdpaT\ a) noT e/xot TpCXXta-TO^ iXeva-eai ; ov yap 

Tap fieXeap fiiOTap TdpSe (l>€p€LP Swaftat. 



H^j^.^ Aberdeen rUniversky Review 

'Tis not the frost, that freezes fell, 
Nor blawing snaw's inclemencie ; 

'Tis not sic cauld that makes me cry, 

But my Love's heart grown cauld to me. 

When we came in by Glasgow town 
We were a comely sight to see ; 

My Love was clad in the black velvet, 

But rxad^J wist, Before T kist^ 
, 1 hat love had been sae ill to win : 
/' * 1 M3 lQ(f^i%y Jie^rV in acase of* gqwd. 
Ajid pinn d it wij:h a smer pin. * ^ 

And, ' GJ t ' if my y6ung tal^e' wefe Ibprh; 

•"^"^^i^ifigl^^^^^ass^fr?^^ 

' .-uoy^ v^i-o'V*-.-) •vU"-i^r.v uvv '•j«.-.Ti5'Mi^r;-'.y ^«'..,ii>v.,t. 
/i01\«>^o/Tr OjV^JtitWj^ii ?«fV>'II)tV3T'\> 'SJt>}oHMj;^-^ 

,v'»Tivx>c^'5 7X>T>^ijK!r5 ,'HoVy\o(j ?^0'j:)dfij .%\ >tr /\c ^rr-J 
; 'un\:> 'iiT)i)i\> iVsv.'jo v.i3'^;-V)«\> 'uv:^-;} V u '^ nu'i 

,MOJiJ^l>Xj>^ ?r:? IXyT^V^O 'fOJ^OMCHbiyf'S ^iJ^ \r-'. 'JO 

iJo^jQviljS M^dC\^t\> yv)"ijc»T MfiTOiBi ^ixyiA-ix>^ ••x»T 



S Kpvepos fi€P 6 Kpvfio^f ifiol S' ov Kpvfxo^ avCa * 
Kel Kpvoeif; Bopeas, ov/c dXcya> Bopeov ' 

OV XpVXO^ TO TOLOVTOV €1x61 TttSc Sct/f/OUa KtVCl, 

ip §€ ^€/3€t KeCvov ^^et/xa 7r/3o8oi'T09 ej(a>. 
COS /caXoi' 171/ TO Oeap^a IBXeneiPj oTe tolv in 'AOdvas^ 

Tap oLTro UeLpaiOJS elpTrofxep dfi(j)6T€poL, 
'^(a) fjL€P i(f)€(rTpi8: ^X^ (jx^uap ^'^yciXX^r', iyo) Se 

X^OLPap XiSovCap x^tpo^ i(l)€a'crafi€Pa, 
at S' OTe TTpar' e<^tXaa-*, ore ir/xarcc awj/jpe^ '^EpctyraW} 

jjSe,^ oTTox; elrj Sva-KaTdirpaKTOS ^E/oa)^, , 
rj K€U €Pi ^pvcrea y\ivx^^ KicTTa fcare/cXafa, 

eV 8' efiixkop Kkddf>6tt apyOpia^^ 
at S' ipuoucwTiKapypjuj&lvaO^ikpjTFp^ hi\f 

TratS* imSoiiAL ^rpQ^pv. yoypfno'iiv f^^/A^wp^/ j .,^ , . { 
a?0€ S' dTToii)(op.4pap avTa^ ,, 

TVfi^op cieoTTuJot ^-^Xvs virepde Troa. 



) .>] — 



-^ 



248 Aberdeen University Review 



Killed in Action. 

{Reprinted by special permission of the Proprietors of *^ Punch** .) 

Thrice bless6d fate ! We linger here and droop 

Beneath the heavy burden of our years, 

And may not, though we envy, give our lives 

For England and for honour and for right ; 

But still must wear our weary hours away. 

While he, that happy fighter, in one leap, 

From imperfection to perfection borne. 

Breaks through the bonds that bound him to the earth. 

Now of his failures is a triumph made ; 

His very faults are into virtues turned ; 

And, reft for ever from the haunts of men. 

He wears immortal honour and is joined 

With those who fought for England and are dead. 

— R. C. L. 



Killed in Action 249 



ArAOni KAKON A*ANI2A2. 

fiaKap (TV fx€v 87) TovSe haCyiOV iK\a\aiv • 
rjlM€L<; 8e TrjSe fjLLfxvofjLev yrjpa ^apel^ 

0*9 OVKET iaTiy Koi TToOovai Koipd* OflCD^y 

al8ovs Slkyj^ t€ TrarptSos 0^ vnepOavelv. 
fiipo^ likv r)fjLiu \vypov iKrpifieiv ^iov, 
(TV S' av, fJLa)(rjTrjs €vtvx7]<;, wqScjv aTraf, 
Kak* i^aKpC^€L<s, TwvS" drraXXa^^el? KaKOiVj 
pyjid^ T€ Secr/Ltou? tovs <r avdijfavTas xdovi. 
vvv h\ €fc cr<^a\eVro9 Ka\\iviKo<; e/LtTrpcTret?, 
&v€p, Ta wplv 8rj fMYf KoKcos elpyacfieva 
i<rd\(ov afieixlfas, axrr d<^ap7racr^els del 
c8ov5 fipoT(ov <T '^/X7rt<rx€9 dfjilBpoTov /cXeo9 
fuv 70^9 apcjyoU 'EXXd8o9 reOvTjKoa-LV. 

—J. D. S. 



(/4>l iinlvj. . lyjlViA 

Correspondence. 

ABERDEEN'S FIRST SENIOR WRANGLER. 
The Editor, "Aberdeen University Review". 

FiNCHCOCKS, GOUDHURST, 

Sir, 

I hopQfthati mayvb© allowed tjsx'^calt atteFLtion^ to ,«^ passage in 
the article above-named, ^t p. ,22 4 of Volume II pf this ^Review. Speaking 
of Slesser, it is said that, apart frbiti the lists* in Mathematics and Physics, he 
appears only as' thie^fo&»^' -t)rizi?f!hiiri' in Moral - Phflosophy; "'biit for some 
reason now unkno%, 4^c4io«4 the gr;^^ "^ ., ^ , ^ -. < . ^ (, ^ '] , , - . 

I believe the reaspn was that at the time there existed a rule to the effect 
that no holder of ttie'l^mp^dh orfiuttbn'^^^^^^ in Moral 

Philosophy ; apf^Jrsay «6 • because th^ fule wast ftppiUed ta mysell . 

The University Librarian has kindly looked in.to the matter and informs 
me that in the prize list'' in ifty year '('1854-55) all the liolders of the Simpson 
and Hutton pfkW (vi«.y John Bkcfcy Duncan Ma^ph^rson, Robert E. Fiddes, 
and myself) are S.tate4 to have deQlin<ed a AJ^ora^l ,, philosophy prize. 

Curiously, the riile did not extend to a prize for Latin in the ifourth year. 

Perhaps the 'TOOst 'roraarkaWe^ /applidat^oij of the ■ rul« occurred in 1848, 
long before my time at King's College. I cap only speak as to it from 
hearsay, but I believe that the fblVbwing stdtemttitii isubstantiaffy' correct. 

In that y^.Mr. .44e5^pd^ Rpbt^ji«as;:?i cjindidate for all. t^e three great 
prizes and was first in the e^taminations for all of them. Professor Tulloch an- 
nounced the result somewhat as follows :^! .-.,..;: • :• 

- ^1 , *' Simpson Mathematical Prize, Alexander Robb. 
Simpson Greek Prize, Alexander Robb. 

Hutton Prize, Alexander Robb. 

He has Robbed you of them all ! " 

Mr. Robb was immediately called upon to elect which of the prizes he 
would accept, and chose the Simpson Greek prize. The result of this was 
that the Simpson Mathematical prize was awarded to the second in the ex- 
amination for that prize — Mr. Robert Bruce, who was, I believe, a relation of 
Mr. Robb. 

So far as I know, this brilliant feat of Mr. Robb is unique. He became 
a missionary of the U.P. Church and head of a theological college in 
Jamaica. Later in life he received the degree of D.D. from the University 
[in 1869]. 

Mr. Bruce became a professor in a theological college at Huddersfield, 
and was also (I believe) the recipient of the same degree from the University 
[in 1880]. 

Yours faithfully, 
James Stirling. 



: /Correspondence > bi'j( ! / 251 

... [The. Hutton prize Of 1843 passed to John Chalmers, afterwards a mis^' 
sipnary in China; LL.D., 187a. Alexander Robb's feat was repeated ia 
1866,. when George Michie Smith, elder brother of William Robertson Smith,' 
won and was allowed to retain- the Hutton and the two Simpson prizes.— Ed. J 

ii..i ' i Uj ^jjg Rfevr^w for November, /i 9151 flietiristplaeeis^ to ai> 

able and interesting article on theMate Ajexander Magkie, \vhom I knew very 
well, and Who, when spending his holidays oh Dpnside, lised to fish in. the 
Manse pool here, one of the best pools for salmon on the uppier reaches of the 
Don. In the article a most unwarranted attack is made on the late Professor 
Baiii. Almost every statement in the article regarding L)r. Bain can bf 
proved to be incorrect. It would occupy too much space in the R,^view tQ 
deal in detail with every statement that can be controverted, but I protest 
very strongly against the utterly misleading views given in the article. Let 
me take a few statements, from which it may be judged whether the allegation^ 
made in the article are trustworthy or not. .,. 

On page 8 we read, ^^ For felicities of dictiohy allusions ^ htsiprical settingyfKe. 
development of the language and of literature^ he (Dr, Bain) had no eye ". I had 
the privilege of studying under Dr. Bain in English, Logic, and Mental Science, 
and carefully rioted hii^ method of teaching, and can say with the utmost con> 
fidence that hone of these points escaped his notice^ and that his elucidation 
of the work in hand was most thorough and complete. In fact from Dr. 
Bain*s teaching and textbooks, which I have found to be of the greatest 
practical use in writing and speaking, I framed a series of practical tests, in 
order to embrace everything necessary to be known about any particular 
book. Ever since I left the University I have applied these tests to any work 
in English prose 6t poetry in my study or teaching of it. I subjoin them ta 
show the thoroughness of Professor Bain's teaching :— 

(i) The life of the author ; (2) The titles and general scope of his prin- 
cipal wofks, with the order that they were written in ; (3) The social, religious, 
and political circumstances of his time, and their influence on his writings ; 
(4) An analysis of the particular work under consideration, or of any given 
part of it ; (5) The original form and date of its publication ; the internal evi- 
dence on these and similar points ; (6) Its influence on the age in which it 
was published : its illustrations of the author's personal experiences and his 
peculiar genius ; (7) The plot, general scope, or outline of the piece, accor4- 
ing as it is a play, a treatise, or a poem ; (8) The, chief personages and events 
referred to in it: showing ^Iso their mutual relation; (9) Brief jquotatipns 
which illustrate its principal features, its main purposes, and its characteristic^ 
of style; (10) The materials from which the author composed his work, qi: 
the pre-existing tireatises, stpries or legends which had a majked influence in 
determinittg the character bf the work ; (it ) Historical, political, aind. my t^^^^ 
logical allusions ; (12) Idioms, irregularities of grammar, antiquated or archaic 
words and phrases, and the meaning and etymology of such words; (13) 
Imitations of classical authors and classical constructions; (14) Passages of 
rare beauty, proverbial sayings, striking or peculiar expressions and their con- 



2^2 Aberdeen University Review 

text; (15) The interpretation of obscure passages and allusions; (16) Peculi- 
arities of verse and metre ; (i 7) Corrupt passages, and those various readings 
that materially affect the meaning; (18) The dramatic unity, literary merits, 
moral purpose, and general influence of the work. 

Again, we read on the same page, '* To Poetry he found no key ". I am firmly 
convinced that Dr. Bain's mind could unlock the secret of poetry as well as 
of science. He could appreciate the beauties of poetry, and I remember well 
some of his favourite appreciations, and his sharp, incisive criticisms that no 
subsequent writer has been able to nullify, and that showed unrivalled insight. 
Surely the writer of the article cannot have read Dr. Bain's " Rhetoric," Part II, 
to which any one may be referred who wishes to know how well Dr. Bain 
■understood what constitutes real poetry. It is quite possible for a man of 
even Dr. Bain's ability to have a poetical as well as a scientific mind. To the 
old Hebrew the clouds were God's chariots and He rode upon the wings of 
the wind ; but that does not interfere in the least with our remembering that 
-clouds are due to certain atmospheric conditions, or that the apparently way- 
ward and irresponsible wind is subject to laws that are traceable by man. Dr. 
Bain could hold both conceptions in his mind, and no doubt felt the richer 
for so doing. 

Again on page 5 we read, '^Hisbent was not to Logic but to Physics ". If this 
was so, how comes it about that in the list of about 130 separate writings and 
publications by Dr. Bain only two are directly concerned with Physics, namely 
" On the Constitution of Matter," and Neil Arnott's ** Elements of Physics " 
^(edited by A. Bain and A. S. Taylor), while at least seven are directly con- 
cerned with Logic ? I should say that Dr. Bain's bent was to Mental Science, 
and that this was the case is abundantly proved by his numerous works relat- 
ing to that subject. Out of his above enumerated writings, no fewer than 
fifty-one are on Mental Science or cognate subjects. No doubt some of his 
illustrations are taken from Physics, but this is not to be accepted as a proof 
of the bent of his mind, as his illustrations were always chosen for their 
effectiveness, and were not confined to one subject. 

Again on page 6 we read, " For the history of Philosophy Bain had no ap- 
titude ". This is a pure assumption. Dr. Bain did not teach in his classes the 
history of Philosophy for the simple reason that he had no time to do so. 
Any one who has read anything of this subject knows that it would require at 
least a complete course of lectures to itself, and to find time for this in the 
curriculum of Dr. Bain's day was an impossibiHty. But let those who doubt 
Dr. Bain's aptitude for the history of Philosophy read his book " Mental 
Science : Psychology and History of Philosophy " and they will soon change 
their opinion. 

I might go on to examine other statements such as, page 6, " His psy- 
chology was materialistic and purely physicaly^ but I have already trespassed 
too much on your space. I can assure your readers that most of the state- 
ments about Dr. Bain in the article are erroneous, and that all of them ought 
to be received with great caution. May I be allowed to say in conclusion 
that on many occasions I have felt the benefit of having sat under Professor 
Bain, that he laid me under a deep debt of gratitude, and that I have found 
his teaching and writings to be of the utmost value in the practical affairs of 
iife? 

I am, etc., 

ALEXR. JACK. 



Correspondence 255 



REV. PROFESSOR W. R. CLARK, TORONTO. 

Trinity Collbob, 
Toronto, 12 March, 1916. 

Dear Sir, 

Through the kindness of my colleague, the Reverend Professor 
William RoUo, M.A. (Aberdeen), I have read, on page 87 of the November 
number of the Aberdeen University Review, a paragraph referring to the 
Reverend Professor William Robinson Clark as the senior graduate of King's 
College. Unhappily I have to notify you of his death, which occurred on 
12th November, 191 2, in his 84th year. 

He resigned his chair in the College in 1909, after occupying it for twenty- 
five years. From that date to the time of his death he held the title of 
Emeritus Professor and as such he sat ex officio on the Council of the College. 

In recognition of his services to the Church and to education he was 
created a Canon of St. Alban's Cathedral by the third Bishop of Toronto, 
the late Dr. Sweatman. Among the former services is to be counted the 
help he rendered in the formation of the General Synod of the Church of 
England in Canada, in 1893. 

He is survived by three sons, two by his first wife and one by his second ; 
by several daughters, among them Lady Petre, the Honourable Mrs. Petre,. 
and Madame de Windt ; and by his widow, his third wife, the only daughter 
of the late Honourable James Patton, Q.C., D.C.L., sometime Vice-Chan- 
cellor of the University of Toronto. 

Professor Clark was the second Aberdonian to whom the College was- 
indebted, the first being our founder, the Right Reverend John Strachan, 
M.A., D.D., LL.D., first Bishop of Toronto, who did a vast deal toward 
saving the country to the British Crown in the war of 1812-1814. He was 
the intimate friend of the great Dr. Chalmers from 1796 or 1797 down to the 
date of the latter's death, and likewise of Professor Duncan of St. Andrews 
and of Professor James Brown of Glasgow. 

Presently I hope to publish a life of Bishop Strachan. In this connexion 
I shall make some use of the facts set out in the article enclosed herewith. If 
you find it interesting, you are at liberty to publish it in the Review.^ 

After so long a time as has elapsed since the Bishop's death (almost fifty 
years) it is hardly to be expected that many Aberdonians can provide me with 
letters and the like. If any of them can do so, I shall be glad to receive 
copies of such documents or of pamphlets, of which he wrote many. 

I retain a very lively recollection of the kindness shown to me in Aber- 
deen in June, 191 2, when I visited the University as a delegate to the Con- 
gress of the Universities of the Empire. Then I was the guest of the 
Secretary of the University, who, I am glad to hear, has taken to himself a. 
wife. 

Yours faithfully, 
A. H. Young. 

^ We hope to publish it in next number of the Review. — Ed. 



:j!>n':)hnoq8'jiioO 



Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land, designed arid 
' edited by George Adam Smith, D.D., LL.D., Litt.D., Principal of the 
University of Aberdeen, and prepared under the direction of J. 6. 
• .^ Bartholomew, LL.D., F.R.S.E., F.R.G.S., Cartographer to the King, at 
':*.v. the Edinburgh Geographical Institute. London : Hodder & Stoughton. 

The first, duty of a reviewer in a magazine representative of fhe 'traditions, 
sympathies, and scholarship xjf the University of Aberdeen is nbt merely to 
offer its congratulations to the Principal of the University on the completion 
of this, invaluable work, that has engaged his hours and thoughts, and perhaps 
haunted his dreams, for so many years, but also to acknowledge his courtesy 
and. loyalty in dedicating it to the University arid linking it with the names of 
some of heir gifted sons and influential teachers who contributed to widen her 
fame and enrich Semitic and theological scholarship in the nineteenth century. 
, , ' This is a great work, and fills a niohe that has been long erhpty in British 
scholarship and cartography, and fills it in such a way^^as will greatly enhance 
the -reputation of editor and cartographer. If we have waited lohg for k 
worthy Bible Atlas, we can; have no doubt as to its' great merits and the in- 
valuable help it will render every Biblical student now that it has been given 
to jjs. The whole plan and execution «f the Atlas suggest prolonged and 
profound thought, wide historical and statesmanlike vision, and deep synipathy 
with every phase of interest centred in or touching the Holy Land ; and every 
pB^ge bears- unmistakable evidence of unwearied investigation, massive learning, 
and sound' judgment, and, moreover, of great accuracy amidst an extra- 
ordinary mass of intricate detail where the least slackness would have tended 
to compromise the value and the' reliability of the Atlas. Students of the 
most diverse sympathies and interests will find much to help and erilijghten 
them here,. No doubt the Biblical student has been mostly in the mind of 
theieditorj but there is such a treasury of matter here, from the very dawn of 
history to the present day, that students of history, politics, trade, comparative 
religion^ and missionary development will find much to assist them, all pre- 
sented in a particularly concrete and illuminating form. Every shade of 
colour and every variety of type have been employed, not merely to aid the 
eye and arrest the^ attention, but also to suggest a real picture of the surface 
of th^^. country and to discriminate at sight between the names of localities 
and places at diff"erent eras in the country's history. 

The aim of a -Bible At^as.is.to put the Bible reader or student into the 
position of appreciating events and incidents with the knowledge of the 
background on which they were enacted ; its purpose is to provide him with 
the geographical details that have been acquired by exact survey, and 
strenuous and exhausting travelling on the part of many pilgrims to the Holy 



7/:>r/o>i / Reviews? rr-JtibifjdA ^55 

Landj 's6* that he can apprehend and control for himself the movements of 
m^ attd nations, and soldiers, prophets, and apostles/ and understand why 
ieertain" localities and peoples acquired and maintained an importance, and 
Interest denied to others. The Bible Atlas is not the fruit of bold adventure 
that Ifed men into farand strange fields, nor the product of pious 'pilgFimafge 
that sought to cultivate religious devotion and to warm piety at the ishrines 
and the scenes of the saints of the ancient Jewish Ghurch, but is -the' neces- 
sary tesult of a changed exegesis or interpretation of the Bible that has sotight 
to recover its meaning and message for Ourselves by realizing first what they 
'werfe and meant for those who worked Out its incidents, suffered its denuncia- 
tibh, or listened to its comfort. The need of a Bible Atlas is ther discovery 
<i( the historical interpretation of the Bible, aMit'is fortunate that -this Atlas 
has been editecT by one who has worked and suffered for this revival, and who 
has also that spirit of venture and tfeat joy of travel that- haVe made him face 
the withering sifoccO; sweat under a sweltering sun; and wince, it maybe, 
under the biting winds and the copious rains of the Lebanonfs, as well as en- 
joy 'the indescribable scenes that gradually at dawn roll out of the darkness 
ffom peaks like NebO, Jebel Osha, Or eVen Olivet, as the long, shafts of sun- 
shine light ' up the ; diark wadies that f ui*6 w Western Palestine, paint in gold 
the villages that sit on the hill- tops or cling to the mountain, sides^*^^lasi! 
sorhetiines as widows, desolate and lonely-^nd dapple the fields -with a gliory 
Xifcdlimr. ':;;''■''■ '^ ' '] -■■■'^■^■'^ ''■ <0''n,;=;.'>i;r:,\ .;:,? it,i!rri:;v/ nii oi^ c;' -i.).-- 
'"And thi^ brittgS us tb the^^iffidtilt ahd =hea^^yta[sk'>of> the ie^toy,> Which he 
appears fe us to have peifornied with combined knowledge and imagination, 
deliciaey and !&ill. He hds to recOvet %r us the geograpl^y^^of Balesti^^^^ 
It' 'T?'^ known to- and • described; by the Wf iters Of ^ the Bible. rThe physical 
features 'of th(6cdun:try have*; bfcotitfeei-reniained- the same,' but k has;>been 
desolated so Often by the m^irch bf destroying armies, and its inha%iitants have 
been SO- often the prey df Ooiiquering hosts- thctt the very napies and sites of 
the tbv^s ind villages wh^re they had their homes and spent their lives have 
^ecOme lost f ■ and eveh where there' has been^ -^ GOn^seious attempt to maintain 
the names of the -past, in the niouths of strange peoples who may have' re- 
stoi^d and ocfcupied the desolate places,- they may have assumed forms ih 
which thife Old sounds; cannot ' be recognized, laftd so sites have become en- 
slit'oiided with uncertainty or lOst altogether*; or it may be that a name some- 
whk sirtiildr in ^ourid to the Biblical name may strH ex^ist, and^ the sitex}tf the 
Biblical trdwn hks beeti 'fixed therej only to lead to ihexplicable difficulty: and 
cOnfusibrt Wheft' we try to fit it iritd the Biblical narrative as a wholes .What 
B tii'e eij^latiatiOn of t^e 'Similarity Of names' is unknown "to iis^-^wheth^i a 
cotffCidence' of sound 6t an actual ttansference Of the old name to a new site, 
^e catinot tell ; in ahy cas^i it is impOssib'le to get a- coherent narrative out of 
f lief "Bible' stoiy;^ It thtis becomes apparent that the real c^ffictilty of the 
e'dfftOr' of a Bible Atlas is the identification or the recovery of old sites, aiid 
j'ti^t'feproportidn to his ^ticcess in this direction wilt his work be- helpful. It 
y ea^y to fill the iiiaps Of Pale^ine with riatnes; but these -are largely modern 
Arabic names, which kre obviously Of hO help to the Biblical studenty while 
tbe old Biblical names 'Will be found 'com^rativ^^ < -^ > ( .u =?=. 

o / £ . rpj^^ ; ^^^^, ]^ro^f essqi' Driver, Oxford, in- hi^ '■ < • Text' of Saitmel, V: ; .191 ^ j ihfe 
"•'^^^^po^tbty Times, '' ^ 

pPe&ed '^I'bfoiind^' dissatisfaction -with inany'Of tlieidenti*fi cations and con* 
jectiires i\M lia^ Sebn adopted by the ' Palestine- Exploration Fund Survey, 



256 Aberdeen University Review 

and submitted some of the Principal's identifications in his "Historical 
Geography " to drastic handling, and claimed that every site in regard to 
which there was any doubt should be marked with one or more interrogatives 
according to the measure of uncertainty that clung to the identification. 
Professor Driver quite pertinently remarked that the qualities of a good sur- 
veyor may not include the linguistic power, the historical knowledge, and the 
archaeological insight that will enable him to see in a desolate heap the site of 
a Bible town or village rich in story and associations, and while no doubt 
w^hatever may rest on the physical representation of the locality in all its de- 
tails, a great deal of uncertainty may remain on any identification that is 
based simply on some agreement of sound, or some local tradition which 
cannot be sifted by a combined knowledge of language and history ; and so, 
in Professor Driver's view, the Palestine Exploration Fund Survey has gone 
beyond its function, or at any rate its power, in identifying Biblical sites for 
which it was quite unfitted, and has exercised an injurious influence on all 
subsequent map-making that was based — ^and based quite fairly, as he ac- 
knowledges — on the survey, inasmuch as the accuracy that can be claimed 
for the physical features cannot be claimed for the identifications that have 
been superimposed upon them. In the main, the Principal has followed the 
Palestine Exploration Fund Survey even to identifications, though in this Atlas 
with more reservation than in his "Historical Geography," and perhaps it is 
open to doubt whether the anticipations of Professor Driver, as expressed in 
the preface to his second edition of the "Text of Samuel" (p. x), have 
been realized to the degree he expected. " But G. A. Smith's * Historical 
Atlas of the Holy Land,' which is likely now (Feb., 191 3) to appear shortly, 
may be confidently expected to satisfy all requirements." If all requirements 
could be satisfied only by adopting Professor Driver's criticism and sugges- 
tions, the ideal — or at least the reliable — Atlas has yet to come. 

The Principal has removed a number of doubtful identifications altogether, 
and invested with uncertainty some that he formerly regarded as certain, and 
a few that appeared to him formerly as uncertain have passed into the realm 
of certainty, but there remains a wide field in which he maintains his ground. 
Which is likely to be the safer guide ? We have to remember that Professor 
Driver himself was no Eastern traveller. So far as we know, he was but a 
few weeks in Palestine, and that late in life, and though he was a most 
laborious as well as an exact scholar, his criticism of the Palestine Exploration 
Fund Survey, as also the Principal's "Historical Geography," was mostly 
based on a close and a comparative study of the accounts published by 
travellers in Palestine, and, naturally, these cannot pretend to the same claim 
on our confidence as an authorized survey where we have exact measure- 
ments and details for which travellers have usually neither the time nor the 
means. Many of them have not even acquired the trained eye for reliable 
observation, or the restrained, sober style that invites trust. Their accounts 
are mostly in general terms as to distance, elevation, time, outline, character, 
and form, and they usually have not enjoyed that prolonged stay in a locality 
to make themselves masters of it and the life and the incidents that cluster 
around it in history so as to fit it into a particular situation in the remote past. 
On the other hand, such identifications as we have here in this Atlas have 
been reached, not merely after full reading of story and travel, study of roads 
and country, but from actual and prolonged examination of the spots them- 
selves and from comparison of alternative localities, all done with a richness 



Reviews 257 



of experience, a maturity of judgment, and an insight into history and Bible 
times and conditions, that inspire us with the greatest confidence. It seems 
to us that we have good reason for trusting the verdict of the Principal when 
he localizes the scenes of Bible life and history ; and when these are invested 
with doubt or inserted with reservation, we may rest assured that he has gone 
as far as the evidence presently at our command will permit. Perhaps years 
hence, when the soil of Palestine has been dug deeper, there may be richer 
material at our disposal to permit us to revise present conclusions with some 
prospect of improvement, if not of finality. 

The whole plan of this Atlas is illuminative. When we open it, instead 
of finding a map of the Holy Land, we find one of the Semitic world, which 
in turn is followed by maps of the world Empires from the fifteenth century 
B.C. to the third century a.d., and this gives us a clue to the editor's mind and 
purpose. He does not look upon the Holy Land as an isolated, closed land, 
an asylum for saints, a nursery of piety, a fountain of religion, a quiet home 
for meditative spirits and a religiously-minded people in a negligible rift in the 
midst of the warring nations, but as a land that formed the bridge between 
different civilizations and races that poured their material gifts and intellectual 
influences into it, and carried away in turn some religious inspiration and 
some spiritual light from it. The ancient roads that carried the merchandise 
and the labour of nations ran through it North and South, East and West 
(p. 9) . We believe we shall miss a great part of the aim of the editor if we 
fail to notice that, in the very structure and arrangement of the Atlas, he is 
trying to give us a glimpse into the vision of Isaiah, who has moulded his 
own thoughts so deeply and his style so richly, when he says : " The labour of 
Egypt, and merchandise of Ethiopia and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall 
come over unto thee and they shall be thine ; . . • and they shall fall down 
unto thee, they shall make supplication unto thee, saying, Surely God is in 
thee ; and there is none else, there is no God " (Isaiah xlv. 14). 

To gaze upon some of these maps, to think of their implications, and to 
respond to their suggestions is often to clarify our ideas of Hebrew history. 
One of the difl&culties of the Book of Judges is to realize how the Hebrews 
on entering Palestine became disintegrated, and how their political organization 
lost coherence and unity, so that they became an easy prey to surrounding 
nations ; but the map illustrating the period of the Judges before 1050 b.c. 
(p. 32) throws a great deal of light on the situation of the Hebrews, and 
shows us how difificult it was for them to combine against a common foe. 
With the Plain of Esdraelon right up to the Jordan in the hands of the Canaan- 
ites, the north was cut off from the centre ; with a great rift in the middle 
right up to Jerusalem also in their hands, the centre was weakened, if not 
isolated ; and with a number of intervening tribes between the centre and 
Simeon, the south was practically crippled, if not altogether lost. It is quite 
easy then to understand how difficult it was for the Hebrews to combine 
their forces into one great organized army under a leader that was known to 
all the Hebrew tribes and that would command their confidence. It is easy 
for us to understand the political problem of Samuel and how gladly he would 
have gazed on Saul as one likely to solve his difficulties and unify the nation. 
Again, another difficulty that often troubled us before we saw the country was 
how the Philistines, occupying possibly a territory about a fifth of the size of 
that in the hands of the Hebrews, could yet exercise such a powerful and pro- 

17 



258 Aberdeen University Review 

longed influence upon their history up to the time of David. Even if their 
prowess was greater and their skill better, we might have expected the 
Hebrews to equaUze or counterbalance these with superior numbers ; but 
when we look at the map illustrating the vegetation of Palestine (p. 14), we 
see that the Philistines had a much richer country and so could maintain a 
relatively much greater population, and thus the armies of the two peoples 
may have been approximately pretty well matched in numbers apart from any 
consideration of equipment which the Bible itself suggests to us was vastly 
better in the case of the Philistines. 

The only defect that we can urge against the Atlas — and that compara- 
tively insignificant, to be sure — is an occasional want of uniformity of view 
and representation, due no doubt to the long time during which the editor 
has been engaged on the work, and possibly also to some changes of view 
that its preparation has gradually, perhaps unconsciously, produced. For 
example, the main road running along the coast is carried round the Bay of 
Acre on page 1 9, and this is in harmony with the maps of Guthe and Fischer, 
Baedeker, and Buhl in his " Geography of Palestine," as well as with our 
own recollection in repeated journeys from Haifa to Acre, but on page 1 1 the 
main road is made to go round by Carmel, Harosheth and Nazareth, and 
there is but a track between Haifa and Acre. On page 35 Jabesh Gilead and 
Mahanaim are provided with doubtful marks ; on the following page the 
marks are absent. On page 43 Dion is without, and on page 44 with a doubtful 
mark, and is besides not in the same position in the two maps. Some names 
appear on the Index maps that are absent from the sectional maps, and also 
from the Index at the end. The insertion of these doubtful marks in so 
many maps must have caused the editor considerable embarrassment so as to 
keep all the maps uniform ; perhaps a solution might have been sought in 
inserting them in one map only and in omitting them elsewhere, or in insert- 
ing them in the sectional maps only. For, after all, these sectional maps, 
produced on a larger scale than the others, are the finest as well as the most 
authoritative within the Atlas, and bear on their face the evidence of extra- 
ordinary care and research as well as skill and delicacy in delineation. They 
are excellent specimens of cartography and present all the needs of an Atlas 
with a clearness of outline, a delicacy and a contrast of colouring and a full- 
ness of material that leave nothing to be desired. We have nothing like 
these elsewhere. Something of the kind we have in the "Encyclopaedia 
Biblica," but even there the maps are much smaller and are lacking in 
-definiteness and clearness, and are so packed with names as to become be- 
wildering. It is in these larger maps that we should have liked to have seen 
the perennial rivers indicated, and not in the smaller maps (pp. 13, 14, 31, 
32 and elsewhere), where it is less easy to follow their courses and realize 
their exact limits, though we readily admit their relevance in the first two 
maps (pp. 13, 14) dealing with the Geology and the Vegetation of Palestine 
respectively. With an atlas of such wealth and novelty, it may savour of the 
incurable discontent of human nature when we suggest that a place might 
have been found for the reproduction in some way of the Raised Map of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund, but the daily use of this map in our classroom 
convinces us there is no clearer way of indicating the real character, possi- 
bilities and influences of a country than in this way, and we are sure that the 
editor, knowing this, must have found diflSculties unknown to us in including 
it in his Atlas. It was a happy idea to give even an inset of Babylonia as 



Reviews 



259 



the home of the exiled Jews, but, small and meagre as it is, there is still room 
for more towns and localities associated with their life and history than appear 
here, and there is actual need of such a map, for most maps of Babylonia 
have only the conditions of the early Babylonian Empire in view. 

The editor has provided an ample literature from which to enrich our 
own knowledge or to test his own identifications, conjectures, and results, and 
there are few besides himself who have a speaking acquaintance with half the 
books to which he refers. In view of what we have stated already regarding 
the criticism and suggestions of Professor Driver, it is unfortunate that the 
Principal refers only to the first edition of " Samuel " by him (1890), for in the 
second (19 13) there is much material worth his consideration, whatever con- 
clusion he might adopt in regard to its value. Head produced his second 
edition of the " Historia Numorum "in 191 1, and since that date G. F. Hill 
has enriched our numismatic material by his "Catalogue of the Coins of 
Palestine," 19 14. The date of Wellhausen's " Composition des Hexateuchs " 
should be 1878 and Vogelstein's " Landwirtschaft in Palastina " 1894. We 
have failed to notice any reference to Neubauer's " Geographic du Talmud," 
which would have proved helpful in constructing a map of the Babylonia of 
the exiles. 

In this Atlas the Principal has put into our hands one of the finest and 
richest aids we can receive for a clear understanding of the background of 
divine revelation, and henceforth it will be our own fault, if we do not see the 
Bible story with clearer eyes and understand it with fuller reality. We an- 
ticipate that many generations of students will speak of his work with grati- 
tude and affection, and it will take its place alongside of Hastings' " Bible 
Dictionary " and the " Encyclopaedia Biblica " as part of the daily working 
tools of the minister and the student. But we hope he will not stop here. 
This Atlas will naturally from its size and cost be inaccessible to many to 
whom it would be of the greatest service, and to-day calls for a human, his- 
torical, intelligent use of the Bible. There is room for a smaller Atlas that 
would contain in particular the sectional maps of Palestine and a selection of 
some of the other maps that would meet a popular need, and we hope the 
Principal will consider how far he can widen the area of the public to whom 
his work would be invaluable, when he can command the needed leisure in 
his busy and many-sided life. 

James Gilroy. 

A Short History of Europe, from the Dissolution of the Holy Roman 
Empire to the Outbreak of the German War, 1806- 191 4. By Charles 
Sanford Terry, Burnett-Fletcher Professor of History in the University 
of Aberdeen. London : George Routledge & Sons, Ltd. ; New York : 
E. P. Sutton & Co. Pp. Ixiii + 602. 

Readers of Professor Terry's two preceding volumes. Mediaeval, 476-1453, 
and Modern, 1453-1806, will not be disappointed in the present volume, 
bringing his history down to the eve of the Great European War ; and the 
interest of the narrative deepens as it progresses, instead of repelling the 
student by the mass of details, as is too often the case with " Modern " 
histories and " continuations ". Not that there is any lack of detail in really 
essential points. Every page bristles with them. But the whole is set forth 
methodically a.nd, in spite of severe compression, in a style at once so succinct 
and lucid as to constitute a wholly admirable narrative. Recognizing his 



26o Aberdeen University Review 

self-imposed limits Professor Terry has wisely eschewed notes, references and 
appendices, which, however useful in themselves and often necessary, are too 
apt to prove a tedious interruption, swamping interest in the progress of the 
text. Occasionally quotations are embodied in the text. In the whole 600 
pages and over we have noted only one direct reference (p. 35). The only 
exceptions to this rigid exclusion which the author permits himself is in the 
seventeen Genealogical Tables, including those of the reigning houses of Italy, 
Turkey, Greece, Denmark, Norway, and the Balkan States, not omitting the re- 
cent *' Mpret," whose reign was as brief as his style and ridiculous title. Be- 
sides these by way of introduction there is an excellent " Outline," pp. i-lxiii, 
which summarizes the succeeding narrative and should prove of great value 
to the student. 

The text itself is divided into nineteen chapters, and these when neces- 
sary into sections according to the events and countries concerned in the 
period. By these means the reader, aided by a useful index, is enabled to 
follow the fortunes of each country, in so far as its history is influenced by 
or bears on the general course of European events. 

We note only one important omission, probably unavoidable in a work of 
this size and cost, the absence of maps to illustrate the growth and decay of 
countries, the many kaleidoscopic changes which have taken place in Europe 
since the Great French Revolution. But as the present war will probably re- 
sult in considerable changes — such at least is our hope — on the basis of 
nationalities, we will merely commend this final complementary volume, of an 
atlas to cover all three volumes, to the author's consideration. 

Professor Terry is a rapid and very productive writer. Yet his work is 
never slipshod, and even in the minutiae of reading for press is singularly free 
from minor errors and misprints. Of such small blemishes, besides a very few 
misprints, such as the reader will readily correct for himself, we have 
noticed only a transposition of " North " and " South " at the foot of p. 112; 
" Romande " for Romance, p. 221, "Minico" for Mincio, p. 355. Here 
and there unfamiliar terms, foreign and technical, crave a word of explanation, 
occasionally elucidated by a later passage, for which the student will do well 
to turn to the index. Such are corvie, robot, aula, Teutsche Hof (p. 295, 
see p. 288). The mysterious ulema, p. 325, is omitted from the index, to which 
also might be added Bundesakte, p. 73 (which is a plural noun), though 
Schlussakte is given. To a reader unfamiliar with German the varying oc- 
currence oi Deutsches and Deutsche Reich, Deutsche and Deutscher Bund^ etc., 
following the laws of the German article, is somewhat bewildering. 

But these are small defects in a work for which every student of history 
must be sincerely grateful to the author. It supplies just that want so often 
experienced, a history up-to-date, full and accurate, but not overburdened by a 
mere dreary succession of " administrations ". Such in these pages shrink 
into their due proportions or disappear altogether in the true perspective of 
events. Whether Professor Terry has been equally successful in gauging and 
summarizing the causes of present events time alone can say. Without un- 
duly obtruding his own views, he states them urgently and with conviction. 
Few at least of his countrymen will differ from him. But the very fact that 
they command our own sympathy, as they involve our own interests and 
prejudices, will dispose the true student patiently to await the verdict of 
history, when finally purged of the dust and clamour inseparable from such 
an upheaval. 

H. F. MoRLAND Simpson. 



Reviews 261 

Sub Corona. Sermons preached in the University Chapel of King's College, 
Aberdeen, by Principals and Professors of Theological Faculties in Scot- 
land. Edited by Professor Henry Cowan, D.D., D.Th., D.C.L., and 
James Hastings, D.D. Edinburgh : T. & T. Clark. Pp. ix + 297. 

Of the many changes in University life of recent years — compared at any 
rate with that of, say, a generation ago — one of the most striking has been 
the improvement in the Sunday services in the University Chapel. They 
have lost their former perfunctory character and have become more decorous 
and dignified : they have benefited greatly by the introduction of an organ 
and a regular choir ; and they attract a larger attendance of undergraduates 
and are more widely appreciated as an adjunct of the University career. The 
quality of the preaching too — be it said with all respect — has improved in a 
remarkable degree, and this essential element in the services is enhanced by 
the frequent occupancy of the pulpit by divinity professors of other Univer- 
sities and Colleges, and by eminent preachers drawn with true catholicity of 
spirit from various denominations. The University Chapel discourses have 
thus acquired a certain brevet of distinction, and it is gratifying to find their 
value recognized by the selection of a number of them to form a volume of 
*' The Scholar as Preacher" series, which is under the editorial supervision of 
Dr. Hastings. The selection has been made by Professor Cowan and Dr. 
Hastings ; and to the volume has been given the appropriate title of " Sub 
Corona," from the University Chapel being, as Professor Cowan puts it, " under 
the shadow of the double Crown which chiefly has won for King's College its 
architectural celebrity ". 

As stated on the title-page the selection has been confined to sermons 
preached by Principals and Theological Professors in Scotland, but we may 
express the hope that the volume will be followed at no distant date by a 
selection from the sermons of the many distinguished English divines who 
have graced the University pulpit. The volume contains twenty sermons, 
the preachers including, in addition to the Principal and four divinity pro- 
fessors of Aberdeen, the late Principal Stewart of St. Andrews and four 
divinity pro'^essors of other Scottish Universities : Principal Iverach, Principal 
Denney, and six divinity professors of United Free Church Colleges ; and 
Bishop Mitchell, of Aberdeen, who was formerly Principal and Pantonian 
Professor of Theology in the Theological College of the Scottish Episcopal 
Church. As the editors say in a brief preface — " Each preacher has spoken 
for himself and is responsible for his own doctrine only ; still, when the 
sermons in this volume are taken together, some trustworthy knowledge will 
be obtained of the teaching which prevails at the present time in the Theo- 
logical Colleges of Scotland ". In this respect, the volume possesses a dis- 
tinctive character, on which, however, it is not necessary to descant here. It 
will suffice to say that all the sermons, despite the variety of their themes, 
form admirable addresses to students about to enter on the battle of life, full 
of inspiration to manliness and honour and devotion to work and duty. At 
the same time, they are much more than students' addresses, dealing as they 
do with many of the larger problems of humanity and religion, and expound- 
ing the fundamental doctrines of the evangelical faith. 

To particularize would be more or less invidious. Mention may be per- 
mitted, however, of our own Principal's sermon at the close of the academic 
session last year, reviewing the year of war and the reincarnation of the 



262 Aberdeen University Review 

Napoleonic spirit in Europe ; Professor Curtis's survey of the history of the 
English Bible on the occasion of the three hundredth anniversary of the Author- 
ized Version ; and Professor Cowan's sermon at the earlier Quatercentenary 
celebrations, in which he eloquently eulogized the " builders " of the Uni- 
versity. These, of course, were special efforts, but the volume contains many 
fine discourses besides, and, taken altogether, it furnishes a worthy presenta- 
tion of the high quality of the preaching in the University Chapel. 

Pro Patria. By Pittendrigh MacGillivray. Edinburgh : Robert Grant & Son. 

Our distinguished sculptor has essayed in verse the expression of his 
" love-militant for Kin-folk and Country — a love which is yet so based in 
heart and kindness that it would gladly overflow in friendship with other 
peoples ". So, in a curiously mixed metaphor, he states the spirit and aim of 
it. Fine swinging verse the most is, as from a man whose whole heart is in 
his themes ; and carrying not a few gallant and memorable phrases. The 
pieces are arranged chronologically. Songs of Britain's might, from the 
'nineties, open the way, and include one on "Dargai Ridge" (1897) : — 

" The Cock o* the North, the Cock o' the North 1 

A bonnie red comb has he ! 
We're proud o' his kind, we'll keep them in mind 

For the look they gave Death in the e'e 
On the rocky ridge o' Dargai, O." 

Then come songs of the Boer War, and others between 1904 and 1912, with 
a call to " London," that for her decadence there is no remedy but the sword, 
to save 

" all the virtues of our State — 
Racial grit, clean hands, blood that can thrill I " 

The rest are of "The War, 1914 " with an epilogue; and the volume closes 
with a prose speech on " Memories of ' the 45,' " "a Souvenir of the Spirit of 
the Gael, Dedicated to the Kilted Regiments ". 

We like the singer best in his songs of home and country, his pictures of 
our landscapes in peace or of ripening harvests under the shadow of war. We 
like him least in his echoes of Kipling (confined to one or two poems on the 
Boer War) or when he " dares much," as in new words (on Scotland) to the air 
of the National Anthem, or in a sonnet on Mr. Chamberlain and Tariff Re- 
form — with only the success that might have been anticipated in the one case 
from such a form, in the other from such a subject, which however respectable 
in itself is hardly one for art. It is significant that the note is not so high or 
fine in the pieces on the Boer War as in those on this War, in the course of 
which he prays — 

*' From blinding hate defend the blows we deal 
And keep our hearts so high we hate them not — " 

and elsewhere says — 

*« A common thing may bear the soul's white seal — 
A little paper scrap be bond of fame ; 

Holding 'twixt day and night and life and death : — 
In keeping still good faith for human weal, 

If Britain now should shrink to her last breath, 
Her going shall be great beyond all blame." 

The speech which closes the volume vividly recalls the principal phases 
of the Forty-Five. 



Reviews 263 

An Index of Symptoms, with Diagnostic Methods. By Ralph Winnington 
Leftwich, M.D. Fifth Edition. London : Smith, Elder and Co. 

Dr. Leftwich is not only a highly experienced and skilful physician, but he is 
also an accomplished author. He keeps up the fine old tradition of the 
doctor who is at the same time a man of wide literary culture. His brochure 
on the Bacon-Shakespeare controversy is pungent and forceful. " I venture," 
he concludes, "to claim that I have undermined all this boasted evidence, 
and not till it is proved that Michael Angelo was the real architect of Henry 
the Seventh's Chapel, Constable the real painter of Turner's pictures, and Tate 
and Brady the authors of Shelley's ' Ode to the Skylark,' will I believe that 
Bacon wrote Shakespeare." Dr. Leftwich also writes "The International 
Alphabet," a courageous attempt, by means of numbered letters, to make it 
possible to produce in all languages the actual sounds of words. 

That his " Index of Symptoms " has quickly passed through four editions 
is sufficient proof of its general acceptabiHty. The present edition has been 
completely revised and considerably amplified. It is a most useful compilation, 
which should prove of the highest value alike to students and practitioners. 
"Diagnosis," as the author pertinently remarks, "is the most difficult part of 
medicine." It calls for the highest endowments, intellectual and physical. 
The present volume, with its admirable and exhaustive summaries of symptoms 
conveniently arranged, should be of inestimable value, especially in discrimin- 
ating between somewhat similar ailments. Dr. Leftwich is to be sincerely 
congratulated on a piece of most valuable practical work. 

University of Aberdeen. Minutes of the General Council. Vol. 
III. Meetings xciii-cix, loth April, i907-i7th April, 1915. Aberdeen: 
The University Press. Pp. 635. 

This volume constitutes an exceedingly useful and interesting conspectus of 
University affairs for the past eight years. In addition to a series of annual 
reports and statistics, it comprises a large number of reports and discussions 
on a variety of important topics, such as the new regulations relating to 'he 
curriculum, the various degrees, and the bursaries, the preliminary examin- 
ations, the extended session, the inclusive fee, the Carnegie Trust regulations, 
etc. For purposes of reference it will be found most valuable. 



Messrs. Gale & Polden (London and Aldershot) have sent us their large 
plate of striking reproductions of the "Crests of our Imperial Forces,'' a se- 
lection from the badges of H.M.'s Regiments in India, Canada, Africa, and 
other Dominions beyond the Seas (price is.). It is a companion sheet to 
their "Crests of the Royal Navy," "Flags of the British Empire and all 
Nations," and " Crests and Badges of the British Army," all at the same price. 



A review of Professor Terry's two works on Bach is held over till next 
number. 




University Topics. 

THE FINANCES OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

PROFESSOR MATTHEW HAY, convener of the Finance 
Committee of the University Court, at a meeting of the 
Court on 13 March, submitted the statement of the 
accounts for the year ending 30 September, 191 5 — a 
period, he said, which covered roughly the first year of 
the war. The revenue showed a decrease of ;^45i9, as 
compared with that of the preceding year, which was 
almost entirely due to the decline in the students' fees 
(;^i3,295, as against ;£i 7,789). The fall would undoubtedly have been 
much greater had it not been for the large proportion of women students in 
recent years, whose number, naturally, had not been greatly affected by the 
war; and for the detention at the University, on the advice of the War 
Office, of medical students in the later years of their curriculum. The ex- 
penditure had also decreased — by ;^i946; and as there was a surplus on 
1 91 3- 14 of ;£i8o6, the actual deficit on 1 914- 15 was only ;£']6j. This is the 
first time for many years that there has been an actual deficit on the general 
fund. The decrease in the expenditure had not been effected at the expense of 
individual salaries. There was a reduction of upwards of ;£'iooo in salaries 
and wages, but this was due to several eligible members of the staff having 
gone to the war. Owing to the diminished number of students and research 
workers, a saving of about p£^6oo had been effected in the grants for class and 
laboratory expenses, without any serious impairment of efficiency; and the 
past year had been more free than the preceding one of certain special items 
of expenditure. On the other hand, upwards of ;£4oo had been expended on 
the insurance of the buildings and their valuable contents against possible 
damage from aircraft or naval bombardment. 

Professor Hay said there was reason to believe that the deficits in many 
of the sister Universities in Scotland and England would be much greater 
than the deficit in Aberdeen University. So serious, indeed, was the antici- 
pated deficit in several of these Universities, that the Treasury was approached 
at the end of 1914 for the purpose of obtaining some financial assistance. 
The eventual outcome was the offer of a special grant of ;;^ 145,000 from the 
Treasury for the purpose of helping to make good the loss from fees in all 
the Universities of the United Kingdom, except the Universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge. The grant is not an annual one, and may not be renewed. 
The Universities have been told that the grant must in any circumstances 
cover the necessities of the past financial year and of the current financial 
year. The share of the grant apportioned to Aberdeen University will, the 
Committee believe, be sufficient not only to pay the whole of the deficit for 
the past year, but also to meet the considerably larger deficit which will have 
to be faced at the close of the current financial year. Should the war con- 
tinue beyond the present year, there is no assurance of any further specific 
help from the Treasury, but, so far as the Scottish Universities are concerned, 



University Topics 265 

it would be possible for the Carnegie Trust, Professor Hay believed, to give, if 
they were so minded, some assistance to the Universities beyond the current 
grants. The Universities' loss in fees has been the Trust's gain. Last year 
nearly ^^15,000 of the Trust's income of ;£'5o,ooo for the payment of class 
fees remained unexpended, and the residue for the current year must be 
considerably greater. 

As regards the investment accounts, Professor Hay added, the University 
holds, exclusive of a small sum of £,^0 in Consols, ;£i4,229 of the 3-^ per 
Cent War Loan, ;£"33,582 of the 4^ per Cent War Loan, and ;^io,ooo in 
Exchequer Bonds — or, in all, ;«^5 7,882. 

The Principal, in seconding Dr. Hay's motion that the statement of 
accounts be adopted, mentioned some figures of interest in illustration of the 
drop in the fees. During the winter 1 914- 15 800 students had matriculated 
in the University — a drop on the previous year, the year before the war — of 
something over 200. Now, this winter, the students have been further 
diminished to 662. The drop in the number of men students was from 472 
to 370 or 102, while the women students had fallen from 328 to 292. 

PROPOSED NEW DEGREE IN DIVINITY. 

Carrying out a remit from the October meeting of the General Council 
of the University, regarding a uniform entrance certificate and professional 
curricula in divinity and education (see p. 174), the Business Committee of 
the, Council, having received a report on the subject from a special sub-com- 
mittee, recommended the Council to ask the University Court to con- 
sider — 

(i) The recognition of an appropriate school certificate as the normal channel of en- 
trance to the University in any faculty — the University to reserve power to demand proof 
of proficiency in any subject before admitting to a class in that subject. 

(2) The institution of a degree in Divinity, which, like M.B. and B.L., should not in- 
volve the possession of an Arts degree, but should be recognized by the Church as quali- 
fying the holder to be taken on trial for licence. 

The report was submitted to the half-yearly meeting of the General 
Council on 15 April, by Rev, Dr. Gordon Murray, on whose motion the re- 
mit had been made and who was convener of the sub-committee. 

Dr. Murray said the remit was to deal with three points — a uniform en- 
trance certificate from the schools, leading from that to a curriculum for 
divinity which would lead to a degree without the necessity of taking the M.A. 
degree ; and also education on the same lines. They had not gone very far, 
however, when they found a great variety of opinion in regard to treating edu- 
cation according to the lines proposed in the remit. Experts and those who 
spoke for education distinctly laid it down that educational bodies were op- 
posed to the suggestion and would prefer a post-graduate degree in education. 
The committee submitted to that contention and had left education out of 
their purview. 

The first recommendation as to the channel of entrance was arrived at 
with practical unanimity. It had been the opinion of the Council for some 
time that what was needed was a general school certificate opening the door 
of the University to any of the faculties. If it was necessary, the University 
could still further test the scholarship of any pupils for any particular classes. 
The recommendation was on all fours with the resolution the Council had 
passed relative to the preliminary examination. 



266 Aberdeen University Review 

With respect to divinity he had pointed out the desirability of the student 
who intended to go in for the ministry being able to obtain a professional de- 
gree, just as the lawyer or doctor could, without being compelled to take the 
degree of M.A., which under the system of options had ceased to have the 
significance it formerly had under the rigid system of the seven subjects. In 
this connexion it had to be kept in view that the student entered the Uni- 
versity to-day at a much more advanced age than was the case before the 
system of options came into vogue — at an age, in fact, when under the old 
system students were well through with the arts curriculum and were making 
up their minds in what direction their future career was to lie. He spoke for 
his own Church — he would notspeak for any other — when he said that anyone 
who had to deal with students who had taken the M.A. degree and then 
taken the ministry found that they had practically, for any useful purpose, 
wasted part of the three years in taking a particular course for the M.A. de- 
gree which was not helpful to them for their future career. 

The curriculum should consist of relevant cultural subjects, to be followed 
by the more specially professional subjects, closing with purely practical in- 
struction, as in the case of law and medicine ; and could be embraced within 
not more than five years, instead of six or seven years as at present, seeing 
that no time would be spent on subjects judged unprofitable in the light of 
professional experience. Anyone who knew divinity and the Divinity Hall 
would realize that a course in arts ending in an M.A. degree which did not 
include in that degree Latin, Greek, moral philosophy, and Hebrew — as he 
had found in examining students entering the Divinity Hall — was not a 
suitable preparation for that particular profession. He had found more than 
one student who had actually to sit the entrance examination in the whole 
four subjects. He moved the adoption of the report. 

Rev. J. T. Cox, Dyce, seconded. 

The first part of the recommendation was agreed to without discussion. 
With regard to the second part, 

Mr. William Rae, advocate, Aberdeen, moved — 

That the General Council do not meantime ask the University Court to consider the 
institution of a degree in Divinity of the nature mentioned in the sub-Committee's report, 
but resolve to wait an expression of the opinion of one or more of the Churches of Scot- 
land on the subject. 

Mr. Rae, referring to the general question whether a degree in divinity 
ought to be instituted, said that from the general standing of ministers there 
was much in support of the view that a high standard of general education 
should be insisted upon. In these days one could not hope that the clergy 
would hold the leading place in the community which they had done in the 
past unless they possessed an excellent general education. Dr. Murray had re- 
ferred to the faculties of medicine and law. Anyone knew that as regards the 
M.B. degree, the course had not become easier but more difficult in recent 
years. It was true that one could obtain the B.L. degree without passing the 
degree of M.A., but the fact remained that very little value was now put on 
the B.L. degree, and very few took it. They took the LL.B., which re- 
quired a previous pass in the M.A. degree. If there was to be a change at 
all in the divinity curriculum, the Churches, and not the University, ought 
to take the lead. If the Churches would give an expression of their views, 
no doubt the University would listen to them sympathetically, and would do 
what it could to give effect to them. Meantime, if the Council passed Dr. 



University Topics 267 

Murray's motion, they were running considerable risk of going counter to the 
opinions of those whose opinions were best worth having in guiding them. 

Professor Gilroy seconded. If they were to take anything off the time of 
study, he said, he would prefer that it should be taken off the professional 
and not the educative part. In the educative part they set the standard of a 
man's life. After all, it was not his technical course which he used in the 
ministry. It was not systematic theology, not Biblical criticism, not Church 
history — there was precious little of any of these sometimes in the pulpit. 
They were on the right lines in obtaining a full arts course whatever else 
they had. Whatever education was the education of the educated man, that 
must be given to the minister so that he could maintain his place in every 
parish and in any society. It would be most invidious to have a degree be- 
low par — an inferior degree to the B.D. 

Mr. Rae's amendment was carried by 7 votes to 4. 

PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS. 

The General Council, at its April meeting, unanimously adopted a 
recommendation of the Business Committee to adhere to the resolution come 
to on October 17, 1914, with reference to the draft ordinance on preliminary 
examinations. On that date the General Council reaffirmed the view that it 
would be more reasonable to discuss with the Scotch Education Department 
the need for a preliminary examination, before setting up the machinery for 
such an examination. The University Court had sent to the Council a third 
draft ordinance on preliminary examinations which seemed to be practically 
identical with that sent in 191 4. The greater portion of the draft of two 
years ago was in the same terms as the draft forwarded in 1913. The second 
had, however, provided that, after the Scottish Universities Entrance Board 
contemplated by the draft had been duly constituted, it should have power "ta 
enter into negotiations with the Scotch Education Department for the purpose 
of framing an agreement for co-operation in respect of the conduct or corre- 
lation of the preliminary and leaving certificate examinations ". 

At a meeting of the Court on 9 May, the draft General Ordinance of the 
four University Courts as to preliminary examinations was under considera- 
tion, together with reports thereon by the Senatus and the General CounciL 
After discussion, it was resolved to confer with the other three University Courts 
in finally approving and making the Ordinance. 

THE CARNEGIE TRUST. 

The annual meeting of the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scot- 
land was held in Edinburgh on 26 January — the Earl of Elgin presiding. 
The report of the Executive Committee for the year 191 4-1 5 was adopted, 
on the motion of the Chairman, seconded by Lord Kinnear. It stated that 
the expenditure of the Trust on assistance in payment of class fees had 
naturally been diminished by the war, which has depleted the Universities of 
Scotland of so many of their students. As compared with a sum of ^£41,^8^^ 
3s. 6d., which was paid onbehalf of 3901 individual beneficiaries for 1913-14, 
the expenditure for 1 914- 15 has been ;£'33,847 5s. on behalf of 3246 in- 
dividual beneficiaries. This total does not include ;£"i6i 6s. which was paid 
to beneficiaries for classes taken outwith the academic year, nor ;^2365, the 
value of fee coupons issued but not yet cashed, which has been carried for- 
ward as a liabiUty against the year now current. During the year a sum of 



268 Aberdeen University Review 

^£"703 i8s. yd. was voluntarily refunded by or on behalf of eighteen beneficiaries 
for whom class fees had been paid by the Trust. 

In the appendices to the report the following account was given, showing 
the capital of the Trust as at September 30, 1915 : — ■ 

$2,800,000 United States Steel Corporation 

50-year 5 per cent Gold Bonds, due 

April I, 1 91 5, Series B, valued at . 
$3,000,000 United States Steel Corporation 



;^56o,ooo o o 



50-year 5 per cent Gold Bonds, due 
April I, 1915, Series D, valued at . 

$3,000,000 United States Steel Corporation 
50-year 5 per cent Gold Bonds, due 
April I, 19 1 5, Series F, valued at . 

;£'4o,ooo 4-j per cent War Loan, 1925-1945. 
Cost 

;£"3 5,000 London and North- Western Railway 
4-I per cent Redeemable Preference stock 
(to be redeemed at par on June 30, 1925) 
Cost 

In bank on deposit, awaiting investment 

In bank on current account awaiting invest 
ment ...... 



600,000 o o 
600,000 o o 

39,798 II o 



33,698 
206,900 



1,300 15 o 



;£^2,04i,698 o o 

In addition there is a Reserve Fund amounting to £,2 14,695, all invested 
in British securities. 

It was stated in the report, however, that the Executive Committee, at a 
meeting held on 4 December, 191 5, agreed to exchange the whole of the U.S. 
Steel Corporation Bonds for British Exchequer Bonds of corresponding 
values, with a currency of five years and bearing interest at 5 per cent. This 
was done, it was explained, in response to the appeal of the British Treasury 
to all holders of American securities to place these securities at the disposal 
•of the Government, so that they might be employed in order to maintain the 
rate of exchange in New York. 

The following table gives the number of students in Aberdeen whose fees 
were paid, the total class fees paid, and the average fees paid per student — 
for the year 1914-15 : — 







No. 


Total. 




Average. 


Arts 




. 362 


^^3225 7 





£^ 18 2 


Science 




• 43 


559 2 





13 


Medicine 




. 119 


1824 8 





15 6 7 


Law 




3 


17 4 





5 14 8 


Divinity 


Totals 


. 33 


211 18 





685 




• 560 


£s^zi 19 





£10 8 6 



THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR. 



Further lists issued of honours awarded to those who have earned special 
distinction for services in connexion with the war, and lists of those men- 
tioned in dispatches, include the following University men : — 



University Topics 269 

The order of C.B. has been conferred on — 

Lieutenant-Colonel Henry M'Kenzie Adamson, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 
1884). 
The order of C.M.G. on— 

Lieutenant- Colonel Arthur Hugh Lister, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1895 ;, 

M.D., 1904). 
Major George Hall, R.A.M.C. (M.A., 1900; M.B., 1905). 
The D.S.O. has been awarded to — 

Major (temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) George Alexander Smith, 8th 
King's Own (Royal Lancaster) Regiment, formerly of the 4th 
Gordon Highlanders (law student, 1887-88). 
Major Robert Mitchell, O.C. 2nd Highland Field Company, High- 
land Divisional Engineers, Royal Engineers (M.A., 1894 ; B.L.). 
The Military Cross to — 

Captain Alexander Donald Eraser, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1906) — pre- 
viously mentioned in dispatches. 
Captain Herbert Stewart Milne, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1909). 
Captain and Adjutant William S. Trail, 57 th (Wilde's) Rifles, Indian 
Frontier Force (alumnus, 1901-03). 
The following have been mentioned in dispatches : — 

Lieutenant-Colonel Henry M'Kenzie Adamson, C.B. 
Captain Richard Edward Flowerdew (M.B., 1908), Indian Medical 
Service (99th Deccan Infantry) — in connexion with the opera- 
tions in Mesopotamia. 
Sergeant Henri Coquerel, of the French Army (former student of Philo- 
sophy), has been awarded the Croix de Guerre and recommended for pro- 
motion to the rank of officier. 

The King of Serbia has conferred the Order of St. Sava (fifth class) upon 
the following : — 

Mr. Francis Frederick Brown, late lieutenant, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 191 3). 

Captain (temporary) William Miller Will, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 191 1), who 

were members of the R.A.M.C. mission to Serbia, March-June, 

1915- 

It is not only the ranks of the regular Army and the Territorial Force 
that have been fighting since the war began. The Indian Police have also been 
engaged: among them, William Duncan Vivian Slesser (M.A., 1908), Super- 
intendent of Police at Bannu, North-West Frontier province, commanding 500 
armed police. 

Major John Low Dickie (M.B., CM., 1895), R.A.M.C, has been ap- 
pointed medical superintendent of the "Star and Garter" Home for Per- 
manently Disabled Sailors and Soldiers, established temporarily in part of the 
famous Star and Garter Hotel on Richmond Hill, near London, the intention 
being to erect an entirely new building. The King and Queen visited the 
Home in March last shortly after it was opened, and Major Dickie was pre- 
sented to their Majesties. He is a son of the late Dr. George Dickie, Pro- 
fessor of Botany. The consulting physician of the Home is Sir David 
Ferrier, M.D., F.R.S. (M.A., 1863; LL.D., 1881). 

Major James William Garden, ist Highland Brigade, 2nd City of Aberdeen 
Battery, Royal Field Artillery (M.A., 1899; B.L.) — Treasurer of the Com- 
mittee of Management of the Review — was slightly wounded at the front in 
April, but recovered from his injuries at a base hospital beyond the firing line. 



270 Aberdeen University Review 

Major Alexander Don, R.A.M.C. (M.A., 1884; M.B., 1894), has con- 
tributed to the "Lancet" a paper based on a series of over 150 cases oper- 
ated on since the war began, most of them in a casualty clearing station. 

Captain John Lewis Menzies, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1909), who is now serving 
in Egypt, lately contributed to the " British Journal of Surgery " some notes on 
a series of 7 5 cases of gunshot wounds of the chest, and these have been re- 
printed in separate form. 

Dr. Duncan Davidson Mackintosh (M.B., 1892), Aboyne, has been ap- 
pointed residential medical officer to the Endsleigh Palace Hospital for 
officers in Endsleigh Gardens, London. 

Rapid promotion in the army has been not unusual by any means in the 
course of the present war, and is well illustrated in the case of Captain John 
William Taylor, nth Battalion, Gordon Highlanders. When war broke out, 
Captain Taylor was a third year's Arts student, and was serving as a private 
in the University Company of the 4th Battalion Gordon Highlanders. He 
went with the battalion first to Bedford, and then in February of last year to 
France. After a short experience in Flanders he was commissioned and at- 
tached to the nth Gordons, then stationed in Aberdeen. It was not long 
till he was promoted First Lieutenant and Adjutant, and in February last he 
was gazetted to a Captaincy. 

Miss Charlotte Robertson, who for the past ten years has acted as one of 
the assistant librarians in the University Library, has received an appoint- 
ment as orderly in the Scottish Women's Hospital at Salonika. Miss Robert- 
son has been granted six months' leave of absence from her University duties. 

President Falconer of the University of Toronto writes : — 

" Aberdeen University has made a great record. In fact, the educational 
institutions have, I think, proved in Britain that they are worthy of the con- 
fidence of the country. In Canada we are doing very well also. Already 
there are 2000 of our graduates and undergraduates from the University of 
Toronto on active service, among these 83 of our staff." 

WAR REGISTER OF WOMEN GRADUATES. 

In March, 191 6, it was decided that Aberdeen should follow the example 
of other Universities and draw up a register containing classified information 
about educated women capable of filling responsible posts in the professional, 
commercial and industrial worlds vacated by men serving with His Majesty's 
Forces. 

A committee was formed, consisting of A. G. Mcintosh, J. Badenoch, 
M. A. Dunn, M. M. Nicol, J. G. Thomson, M. D. Robson, M. A. Ewan, C. 
Milne, and C. Wilson, and forms were printed and sent out to women gradu- 
ates, a grant being given by the University Court towards defraying expenses. 

The list compiled from the large number of replies received, includes 
women of varied qualifications, some with experience, some without — scientific 
graduates and students, motor-drivers, linguists, teachers, organizers, secre- 
taries and clerks, all of whom are prepared to undertake suitable substitution- 
ary work. 

Already some are employed doing war work abroad, in Salonika, Hong- 
kong, India, Alexandria, and at home as munition workers, clerks, cashiers 
and teachers in the place of men on military service. 

The demand so far appears to be mainly for those with qualifications in 
science, languages, and social work. 



Personalia. 

With reference to the article on James Clerk Maxwell by Mr. Robert Walker, 
M.A., LL.D., in this issue, it may be of interest to mention that Maxwell's last 
class in Natural Philosophy at Marischal College (to which allusion is made 
in the article) was one of exceptional distinction, having regard to the subse- 
quent careers of many of the students. The prizemen included Dr. Robert 
Walker (with whom James Westland was bracketed for the first place), George 
Walker, David Gill, Andrew Wilson Baird, Alexander B. M'Hardy, and 
William Mearns Souttar ; while George Croom Robertson and George Reith 
were in the "subsequent order". The prizes for voluntary exercises were 
carried off by Baird, R. Walker, Gill, Westland, and G. Walker ; and the two 
Walkers, Westland, Baird, and Souttar took prizes in Mathematics. Dr. 
Robert Walker, who was a Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, from 1866 
till 1878, and has been Examiner in Mathematics in the Universities of Aber- 
deen and Edinburgh, was Librarian of the University for sixteen years, and 
Secretary of the Court, and Registrar and Clerk of the General Council for 
thirty years. He still holds the post of Registrar, having resigned the others. 
It may be noted that he carried off a number of first prizes while a student 
at Marischal College — Latin in his first year. Mathematics in his second, and 
Natural Philosophy in his third ; and on graduating he got the chief Mathe- 
matical scholarship, the Gray Bursary as it was called, and also the Town 
Council gold medal as first in general scholarship. His brother. Rev. George 
Walker, M.A., B.D., who gained the second (or Boxill) Mathematical scholar- 
ship, was for over forty-two years minister of the parish of Castle Douglas, 
Kirkcudbrightshire, retiring a little over a year ago ; he was also Clerk of the 
Presbytery of Kirkcudbright for forty years — 1875- 19 15. Sir James Westland 
entered the Indian Civil Service and rose to be Finance Minister and a 
member of the Council of India : he died in 1903. Sir David Gill was As- 
tronomer Royal at the Cape from 1879 till 1907 : he died in 19 14 (see Vol. 
I). Colonel A. W. Baird entered the Royal Engineers, was Assistant Field 
Engineer in the Abyssinian Expedition of 1868, became Master of the Mint 
at Calcutta, and was the author of various pamphlets and papers in connexion 
with the tidal section of the Trigonometrical Survey of India, of which section 
he was chief: he died several years ago. Lt.-Col. Sir Alex. B. M'Hardy became 
one of the Prison Commissioners for Scotland in 1886, and was Chairman of the 
Board from 1896 till his retirement in 1909. W. M. Souttar entered the Indian 
Civil Service and rose high therein, being Chairman of the Municipal Board 
of Calcutta at the time of his death — 1881. George Croom Robertson was 
Professor of Mind and Logic in University College, London, from 1866 till 
his death in 1892 ; he was editor of "Mind," the philosophical journal es- 
tablished by Professor Bain. Rev. George Reith, D.D., was minister of the 



2"] 2 Aberdeen University Review 

Free (now United Free) College Church, Glasgow, from 1866 till 1909, and 
was Moderator of the General Assembly of his Church in 1914. Among 
other members of this class was Mr. David Littlejohn, LL.D., the Sheriff 
Clerk of Aberdeenshire, but his bent as a student was towards the Classics 
and he gained prizes or was placed in the order of merit in all the Latin and 
Greek classes. 

Principal Sir George Adam Smith has been elected a member of the 
Athenaeum Club under the rule which empowers the annual election of a 
certain number of persons of distinguished eminence in science, literature, 
and arts, or for public services. 

The Senatus offered the Gifford Lectureship for 191 7-19 to Count 
Goblet d'Alviella, Professor of the Principles of the Evolution of Religions, 
Brussels (LL.D., Aberd., 1906), but the Count was obliged to decline it. In 
his letter of declinature he said — " I would have accepted most willingly if 
the tragic circumstances we are going through did not oblige me to give all 
my time and my mind to the fight for the restoration of my country ". He 
had, he explained, been appointed a member of the Belgian Government, and 
this would give him no leisure so long as the war lasted, and very likely for 
some time after. 

Professor MacWilliam has been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, 
He has contributed to the Proceedings of the Society papers on the physi- 
ology of the heart and arteries, the action of chloroform and ether, proteids, 
muscle-sound, blood-pressure and other subjects. 



Professor J. Arthur Thomson has been reappointed the representative of 
the University on -the Council of the Scottish Marine Biological Associ- 
ation. 

The Senatus appointed Professor Fulton commissioner to the recent 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland on behalf of the University. 

Sir William M. Ramsay's first course of lectures as Gifford Lecturer in 
Edinburgh University was begun on May 24. The subject was " The De- 
velopment of Religious Thought and Rites in the Borderlands between Greece 
and the East". 

Rev. Dr. James Allan (M.A., Marischal College, 1848; D.D., 1902), 
Minister of the Parish of Marnoch, Banffshire, has passed the sixtieth anni- 
versary of his ordination as a minister of the Church of Scotland. He has 
been the " father '' of the Presbytery of Strathbogie for many years. He is 
also the " father " of the Synod of Moray ; and there are only three names 
between him and the position of "father " of the Church of Scotland. 

The Council of the Institution of Civil Engineers has awarded the Telford 
gold medal to Sir John Benton, K.C.I.E., late of the India Public Works De- 
partment, ,and Inspector- General of Irrigation, 1905-12 (alumnus, 1867-69) 
(see p. 279). 

Rev. William Falconer Boyd (M.A., 1900; B.D., Ph.D.), minister of the 
United Free Church, Methlick, Aberdeenshire, has been elected colleague 
and successor to Rev. Hugh Stevenson, minister of the High Cross United 
Free Church, Melrose (who has since died). 



Personalia 273 



Rev. William Brebner (M.A., 1868), who has been minister of Gilcomston 
Parish Church, Aberdeen, since 1876, has resigned his charge on account of 
ill health. He was instrumental in securing the enlargement and improve- 
ment of the church and the erection of a hall, and the introduction of an organ 
and of the electric lighting of the church. Mr. Brebner has also resigned his 
membership of the governing body of the Aberdeen Asylum for the Blind, of 
which for several years he had been Chairman. 

Dr. Alfred Ernest Cameron (M.A., 1909; D.Sc, 1915, M.Sc. [Man- 
Chester]) has been appointed Field Officer in British Columbia under the 
Entomological Branch of the Department of Agriculture of the Canadiart 
Government. Since graduating at Aberdeen in 1909, Dr. Cameron has 
carried out researches and held appointments in the Universities of London^ 
Manchester, and Cardiff. In 19 14 he had charge of the field experimental 
work of the Agricultural Experiment Stations of New Jersey, U.S.A. He has 
also held the Fullerton Scholarship in Science of Aberdeen University, a 
Carnegie Fellowship (resigned), and a Government Research Scholarship. 

Rev. James Haggart Clark (M.A., 1897), minister of the United Free 
Church, Aberlemno, Forfarshire, has been elected colleague and successor to 
Rev. George Anderson, St. Cyrus United Free Church, Kincardineshire. 

Mr. Robert Selby Clark (M.A., 1908 ; B.Sc.) was a member of Sir Ernest 
Shackleton's staff on the s.s. " Endurance," and is one of the party left on 
Elephant Island when Sir Ernest made the dash for South Georgia after the 
** Endurance " was caught in the ice and sank. Mr. Clark, who, after 
graduating, received a biological appointment in the South of England, 
accompanied Sir Ernest Shackleton's expedition as biologist. 

Mr. Peter Diack (M.A., 191 2) has been awarded a Lumsden and Sachs 
Fellowship at the Aberdeen United Free Church College. 

Rev. James Park Duncan (M.A., 1878), who has been minister of the 
Free (now United Free) Church at Letham, in the parish of Dunnichen, 
Forfarshire, since 1885, has applied for the appointment of a colleague and 
successor, on the ground of continued ill health. 

Mr. Charles Ogilvie Farquharson (M.A., 1908; B.Sc), Government 
mycologist, South Nigeria, is referred to in a recent number of " Knowledge '* 
as having made some very interesting observations on large ants. 

Rev. John Fleming (M.A., Marischal College, 1850), senior minister ol 
Craigmillar Park United Free Church, Edinburgh, has celebrated his 
"diamond jubilee " as a minister. He was ordained at Forfar in 1856, and 
nine years later was translated to the Tron (now Craigmillar Park) Church, 
Edinburgh. A colleague and successor was appointed in 1887. 

Mr. Robert Niven Gilchrist (M.A., 1909) has been appointed Principal 
of Krishnagar College, Bengal. Mr. Gilchrist joined the Indian educational 
service in 191 1, and has for five years been Professor of Political Economy 
and Political Philosophy in Presidency College, Calcutta. Krishnagar College 
is a Government University College, affiliated to Calcutta University. 

18 



2 74 Aberdeen University Review 

Rev. James Harvey {M.A., 1879), minister of Lady Glenorchy's United 
Free Church, Edinburgh, has been appointed junior Principal Clerk of the 
United Free Church General Assembly. He was secretary of the Advisory 
Committee, 1905-10, and is convener of the General Interests Committee of 
the Church. 



Dr. John Macleod Hendrie Macleod (M.A. [St. Andrews]; M.B., CM., 
1894; M.D., 1898) has been elected a Fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians. 



Sir James Scorgie Meston, K.C.S.I. (LL.D., 1913), Lieutenant-Governor 
of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, has been appointed a Knight of 
Grace of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. 

Sir James Meston, on 18 March, laid the foundation-stone of the Georgina 
M 'Robert Memorial Hospital, Cawnpore, the gift of Sir Alexander M'Robert, 
of the Cawnpore Woollen Mills Company, Limited, and of Douneside, Tar- 
land. Sir Alexander M 'Robert (LL.D., 191 2) founded in 1907 the Georgina 
M 'Robert Fellowship in the University, for encouraging the investigation of 
the cause, prevention, and treatment of cancer. Sir James Meston afterwards 
opened the King Edward Memorial Hall, Cawnpore, and presided at a meet- 
ing in support of the United Provinces War Fund held in the Hall. In 
addition to Sir Alexander M 'Robert, other five Aberdonians took part in the 
proceedings, these including two graduates — the Hon. George Gall Sim, 
chairman of the Municipal Board, Cawnpore (M.A., 1898); and Mr. Alfred 
Alexander Black, secretary of the Victoria Cotton Mills Company, Limited, 
Cawnpore (M.A., 1895). 



Rev. David Miller (B.D., 1875), minister of the parish of Ardclach, 
Nairnshire, is about to retire. He was ordained in 1874, and so has com- 
pleted forty-two years in active service, thirty-two of which have been spent 
at Ardclach, where he was inducted in 1884. 



Mr. John Miller (B.Sc. Agr., 191 6) has received an appointment on a 
rubber estate in the Malay States. 



Sir William Milligan (M.B., 1886; M.D., 1892), in the course of a letter 
to the "British Medical Journal" (April) denunciatory of the inhuman con- 
duct of the German medical officer in charge of the typhus-infected camp for 
prisoners of war at Wittenberg, suggested that the councils of the various sec- 
tions of the Royal Society of Medicine should delete from their list of 
honorary or corresponding members the name of any German physician, 
surgeon, or specialist. 



The degree of Jtfachelor of Music of Trinity College, University of 
Dublin, has been conferred upon Mr. Alfred Forbes Milne (M.A., 1904), 
A.R.C.M., Master of Music in the High School, Dundee, and organist of St. 
John's United Free Church, Dundee. 



Rev. William Murdoch (M.A., 1911), assistant East Parish Church, 
Aberdeen, has been ordaioed and inducted minister of the parish of CulsaU 
mond, Aberdeenshire. 



Personalia 275 

Mr. James Bennet Peace (M.A., 1884; M.A. [Cantab.], 1891), Fellow 
and Bursar of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, has been appointed manager 
of the printing department of the Cambridge University Press, in succession 
to the late Mr. John Clay. Mr. Peace, who belongs to Marykirk, Kin- 
cardineshire, graduated at Aberdeen with first-class honours in Mathematics, 
winning the Boxill Mathematical Prize and the Neil Arnott Prize. He was 
fifth Wrangler in 1887, when those above him were all bracketed for the 
senior wranglership. He is Lecturer on Electrical Engineering at Cambridge, 
and he has on several occasions been an examiner for the Mechanical 
Sciences Tripos. He was Examiner in Aberdeen University 1895.96. 



Rev. George Murray Reith (M.A., 1884) has been appointed minister of 
the Baird United Free Church, Cumbernauld, Glasgow. Mr. Reith, who is a 
son of the late Dr. Archibald Reith, Aberdeen, was formerly minister of St. 
Cuthbert's United Free Church, Edinburgh, but resigned owing to ill health 
and in order also to allow the congregations of St. Cuthbert's and Dean 
Church to unite. He has been editor of the " Proceedings and Debates " of 
the General Assembly of the United Free Church since 1900. 



Dr. Andrew James Shinnie (M.B., 1908) has been appointed medical 
officer of health for the city of Westminster, London. 



Mr. George Findlay Shirras (M.A., 1907), Director of Statistics, Govern- 
ment of India, has been appointed a Fellow of the University of Calcutta. 



Mr. Robert T. Skinner (M.A., 1888), House Governor of Donaldson's 
Hospital, Edinburgh, has been appointed visitor and examiner for the schools 
of the Dick Bequest Trust in the counties of Aberdeen, Banff, Moray, and 
Inverness, in succession to the late William Dey, LL.D. There are 129 
schools receiving the benefit of the Trust. The appointment, it may be 
mentioned, does not sever Mr. Skinner's connexion with Donaldson's Hos- 
pital. 

Mr. John Cormack Slater (M.A., 191 2; B.Sc, 19 13) has been appointed 
Naval Instructor in Mathematics at the Royal Australian Naval College, New 
South Wales. 



Mr. John Lamb Walker (M.A., 1893) has been appointed as missionary 
teacher at Blantyre, Nyasaland. He has acted as a teacher in Cullen, Dal- 
beattie, and other schools, and has been connected with Sunday school and 
Guild work in the Church of Scotland for many years. 



Miss Louisa Mary Wilson (M.A., 1911) has been appointed a resident 
mistress in the Ministers' Daughters' College, Edinburgh. 



The following graduates have been appointed to the teaching staffs of 
various schools: — Misses Bessie Jane M'Connochie (191 2), Gertrude Meston 
(191 3), and Helen Wright (1905). 



276 Aberdeen University Review 

Among recently published works are the following by Aberdeen University 
men: — "A Pocket Lexicon to the Greek New Testament," by Professor 
Souter; "The Individuality of St. Paul," by Rev. R. H. Strachan ; <*Our 
Heritage," farewell sermon preached at Tibbermore by Rev. Harry Smith ; 
No. II. of "Transactions of the Scottish Dialect Committee," edited by 
William Grant, M.A. ; and Vol. VIII. of the "Encyclopaedia of Religion and 
Ethics," edited by Dr. James Hastings. To the "Book of Homage to 
Shakespeare," edited by Dr. Israel Gollancz, Professor Grierson, Edinburgh, 
contributed a poem on "Shakespeare and Scotland". The "Aberdeen Uni- 
versity Library Bulletin " for April (No. 14) contains a bibliography of recent 
publications relating to "Soldiering and Sailoring in the North-East ot Scot- 
land," compiled by J. M. Bulloch. 

It it worthy of note that Mr. J. Bentley Philip's " Holidays in Sweden " 
(reviewed on p. 168) has been translated into Swedish. 

At the spring graduation on 28 March, no honorary degrees were con- 
ferred ; and none have been conferred since the war began. The degree of 
M.A. was conferred on thirty-three students (on six of these with first-class 
honours, on two with second-class honours, and on one with third-class 
honours) ; B.Sc. on one ; B.Sc. (Agr.) on two ; the diploma in Agriculture on 
two; the B.D. degree on three (on one of these with honours); and M.B., 
Ch.B., on seventeen (on two of these with second-class honours). The degree 
of D.Litt. was conferred on Mr. William Blair Anderson, M.A., Professor of 
Imperial Latin, Manchester University ; and that of M.D. on Mr. Archibald 
Douglas Pringle, M.B., Mental Hospital, Cape Town. 

The Jenkyns Prize in Classical Philology was awarded to William James 
Entwistle, who carried off the Simpson Greek Prize and the Seafield Gold 
Medal in Latin and graduated with distinction in Comparative Philology and 
Greek History ; and the Liddel Prize was awarded to Edmund Blaikie Boyd, 
who also won the Dr. Black Prize in Latin and graduated with distinction in 
Greek History. Mr. Entwistle is now a gunner in the 32nd Battery, R.F.A. 

The first of the "James Campbell, LL.D. " bursaries in Agriculture (see 
Vol. II., 170) has been won by William J. Grant, Mid Port, Grantown-on- 
Spey. The bursary is of the annual value of ;£so, tenable for two years. 



An Aberdeen Professor is understood to be "the Research Scholar" re- 
ferred to in " Paris Reborn " by Herbert Adams Gibbons, formerly Professor 
of History at Robert College, Constantinople, who was for years correspond- 
ent of the " New York Herald " in the Near East. The author says he longed 
in vain for the presence in Paris in August, 19 14, of the Research Scholar who 
had been his usual August companion in walks " ending generally at a certain 
table on the street in front of a restaurant of the Rue de Rivoli ". The per- 
sonality of the Research Scholar is revealed in this passage: "If you have 
ever gone into the Salle des Manuscrits of the Bibliotheque Nationale during 
the past decade in midsummer between the hours of 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., 
you have seen the Research Scholar there, digging out of musty manuscripts 
discoveries in the field of patristic Latin that were some months later to 
electrify the world of scholarship, and to bring further fame to a renowned 
university in which the Research Scholar holds the venerable Chair of 
Humanity, established in the sixteenth century." 



\ 



Personalia 



277 



A movement in favour of a memorial of the late Dr. Christian Davidson 
Maitland (Mrs. A. C. Grant) (B.Sc, 1908; M.B. [Edin.]), who lost her life 
along with her husband in the sinking of the s.s. ''Persia" (see p. 188), re- 
sulted in ;^2i3 6s. 6d. being subscribed within four weeks by friends in 
Aberdeen and the neighbourhood. A total sum of ;^2i8 was raised. The 
memorial has taken the form of endowing a bed in the newly-opened women's 
hospital at Ajmere, Rajputana, India, the scene of the lady's work as a medi- 
cal missionary. The bed has been named the " Dr. Christian Maitland " bed, 
and a tablet has been affixed bearing her name and the record of her service 
in Ajmere. 



The deaths having occurred of Rev. Professor W. R. Clark, Toronto, and 
Rev. Dr. George Johnstone, formerly of Liverpool (see Obituary), the senior 
alumnus and graduate of King's College appears now to be Rev. George 
Compton Smith (M.A., 1849), retired Congregational minister, Rhynie. The 
senior alumnus and graduate of Marischal College — and the oldest graduate 
of the University — is believed to be Rev. John Robertson, New Brunswick, 
who is in his ninety- third year (see p. 87). 



A correspondent writes — Many of your readers who knew that the late 
Mr. Alexander Mackie, as Mr. W. Keith Leask said in his " In Memoriam " 
article, " had a happy touch on many kinds of verse, and was particularly 
graceful on the sonnet," may like to have an example of his sonnets other than 
the two specimens on academic subjects which Mr. Leask quoted. The fol- 
lowing sonnet on Matthew Arnold by our departed friend appeared in the 
"Free Press" of 15 April, 1899 — the precise date, it will be seen, has a 
significance : — 

Matthew Arnold. 
{Died 15 A/>n7, 1888.) 

The sunshine of mid-April comes again 
And crowns with gold sweet Oxford's dreaming towers, 
And clothes in green thy Scholar- Gipsy's bowers — 
Cumner and Bagley Wood and Hinkseys twain. 

This day thy sudden summons came, strong soul, 
To join that stronger soul, thy valiant sire, 
In God's vast labour-house we know not where. 
And bring thy force to its clear purposed goal. 

Self- poised thou wert : a stoic mind austere 
That would have man on his own strength rely 
And look within, nor cureless ills deplore. 

Untutored still, thy voice he will not hear, 

Nor heed thy prayer for peace — that plaintive cry 

Against the restless world's loud brawling roar. 



Obituary. 



It is with the greatest regret and with a deep sense of personal loss that 
we record the death of Mr. Charles MacGregor, the Secretary of the Com- 
mittee of Management of the Review. As is well known, shortly after the 
outbreak of the war, Mr. MacGregor, animated by a strong sense of patriotism 
and of the obligation on all men to rally to the aid of their country, deter- 
mined to enter the army. He was beyond the age limit then in force, but in 
view of the special representations he made and the singular enthusiasm he 
displayed, he was permitted to enlist, and [in November, 1914, he joined the 
loth battalion of the Gordon Highlanders, which was then being formed. 
He designed to serve throughout the war as a private soldier, but his excellent 
conduct and bearing qualified him for speedy promotion in the ranks and he 
gradually attained the position of Quartermaster-Sergeant. While on active 
service in France, however, and when busily occupied getting supplies taken 
forward to the men in the trenches, he was hit in the head by a bullet from 
the gun of an enemy sniper, and he succumbed in a base hospital early on the 
morning of Sunday, 14 May. 

Mr. MacGregor, who was forty-three years of age, graduated in Arts in 
1896, with first-class honours in mathematics, winning also the Boxill prize. 
A year or two after graduating, he became mathematical master and lecturer 
at the Church of Scotland Training College under the late Dr. Joseph Ogilvie ; 
and on the union of the Training Colleges and the formation of the Aberdeen 
Training Centre about ten years ago, he was appointed Master of Method, 
discharging the duties with marked ability and efficiency. He filled a pro- 
minent place in the educational administration of Aberdeen, and no teacher 
could have more enjoyed the confidence and esteem of his colleagues, and 
the enthusiastic appreciation of the many students who, in the course of the 
last seventeen years, have been trained in Aberdeen. 

Mr. MacGregor took an active part in the affairs of the General Council 
of the University and was a member of the Business Committee. He was 
specially interested in the recent movement for a degree in Education. The 
proposal to establish a University Review found in him a most ardent sup- 
porter, and as Secretary of the Committee he did much strenuous work, 
particularly in its initial stages, to secure its success. 

We hope to give an api>reciation of Mr. MacGregor in our next issue. 



Rev. Alexander Adam (M.A., Marischal College, 1842) died at his resid- 
ence, Parkville, Melbourne, on 19 March, aged ninety-two. He was born at 



Obituary 279 



Muirton, Craigievar, Aberdeenshire, in 1824, and was educated at the Aber- 
deen Academy and at Marischal College, where he had a distinguished 
career, graduating with honourable distinction in 1842, when only eighteen 
years of age. For some years he engaged in ministerial duties at Rayne, 
Aberdeenshire ; but when the call for religious workers came from Australia, 
he sailed with his wife from Scotland in 1853, in company with Rev. Adam 
Cairns, Rev. William Henderson, and Rev. Archibald Simpson. Shortly 
after his arrival, he was appointed to the Beaufort charge, where he ministered 
for forty- seven years, ilL health causing his retirement. The " Melbourne 
Argus," in a notice of his death, said he '' was almost the last of the notable 
pioneers of the Presbyterian Church in Australia ". He was a class-fellow of 
Rev. John Robertson (see p. 277), and should have been bracketed with him 
as the oldest graduate of Marischal College, on the death of Rev. John 
Souter, Inverkeithny (Vol. II, p. 279). It is a most remarkable circum- 
stance that, up to 19 March, the two senior graduates of Marischal College 
(and of the University) should have been class-fellows. 



Dr. William Alexander (M.A., 1883 ; M.B., CM., 1887 ; M.D., 1891) 
died suddenly, from angina pectoris, at his residence, Ashwick, Poole Road, 
Bournemouth West, on 26 May, aged fifty-three. He was in practice for 
several years at Tarland, Aberdeenshire, but on account of ill-health went to 
South Africa and practised in Johannesburg. Returning to this country about 
the outbreak of the Boer War, he commenced practice at Bournemouth, 
where he succeeded in establishing a large connexion. He was a son of the 
late Mr. George Alexander, Farmer, Overhall, Fyvie. 



Dr. George Henry Anderson (M.A., 1862 ; M.B., CM., 1865 ; M.D., 
1867) died on 8 April, aged seventy-three. He was a native of Echt. He 
began practice at Loftus-in-Cleveland, Yorkshire, and at the time of his 
death was the oldest medical practitioner in the Cleveland district. 



Mr. William Benton (M.A., 1863) died at El Paso, Texas, on 16 March, 
aged seventy. He was one of four sons of Mr. John Benton, farmer, some 
time in Boharm, Banffshire, and afterwards at Sheriffhaugh, Rothes, Moray- 
shire, who were all educated at the University. His three brothers were — 
Alexander Hay Benton (M.A., King's College, i860), who entered the 
Indian Civil Service, became a judge, and is now retired ; Sir John Benton, 
K.C.I.E. (alumnus, 1867-69) (see p. 272); and James Thompson Benton 
(alumnus, 1868-69), who went out to Texas, and was murdered there in 1875. 
Mr. William Benton also went out to Texas and became a ranch-owner, 
ultimately joining a cousin, Mr. William Smith Benson (alumnus, 1875-77) 
in the ownership of a ranch in the neighbourhood of the Mexican town of 
El Pasa Mr. W. S. Benson was murdered by General Villa, the Mexican 
revolutionary leader, on 17 or 18 February, 1914 (see Vol, I, 299). 



Mr. James Dallas Burns (alumnus) died at the Schoolhouse, Grange, 
Banffshire, on 12 May, aged forty-seven. He was a son of the late Mr. 



2 8o Aberdeen University Review 

Burns, headmaster of Ardmiddle School, Turriff, was educated at the Banff 
Academy, and studied for two years at the University. He then received an 
appointment as teacher under Mr. Renton, Macduff; and for the past 
seventeen years he had been headmaster of Grange School. 



Rev. Professor William Robinson Clark (M.A., King's College, 1848; 
D.D., D.C.L., LL.D.), of Trinity College and University, Toronto (now 
federated with the University of Toronto) — as will be seen from the letter of 
Professor Young, Toronto, elsewhere in this number — died in Toronto on 
12 November, 191 2, in his eighty-fourth year. He was born on 26 March, 
1829, and received his early education in the Grammar School, Old Aber- 
deen, and at King's College, graduating there in 1848, and also, some years 
later, at the University of Oxford. After holding two successive curacies for 
a short period, he was, in 1859, instituted Vicar of the Parish Church of St. 
Mary Magdalene, Taunton — a position which he held for twenty- one years, 
during part of which time he was also Rural Dean of Taunton and Pre- 
bendary of Wells Cathedral. Leaving Taunton in 1880, he spent two years 
in literary work and at Hobart College, Geneva, New York. Proceeding to 
Canada in 1882, he was appointed Special Preacher in St. George's Church, 
Toronto, and a year later Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy in the 
University of Trinity College, Toronto, with which he continued an unbroken 
connexion till the time of his death. When the Chair in English was estab- 
lished, he was appointed the first Professor, holding this Chair concurrently 
with that of Philosophy for several years, till he resigned the latter pursuant 
to the changes brought about by the federation of Trinity College with the 
University of Toronto. To the onerous duties of these two Chairs he added 
extra lectures from time to time in History and in several branches of The- 
ology, a department of study with which he was thoroughly conversant. In 
1907 he retired from active service with the title of Professor Emeritus, re- 
taining his seat on the corporation and continuing to attend its meetings 
regularly as long as his physical strength permitted. In 1907 he was ap- 
pointed Honorary Canon of St. Alban's Cathedral, Toronto. Among honours 
and distinctions which were lavishly and fittingly bestowed upon him by 
Institutions of Learning were the degrees of D.C.L., conferred by Trinity 
College, Toronto ; D.D., conferred by Queen's University, Kingston ; and 
LL.D., conferred by Hobart College, Geneva ; his appointment by the Uni- 
versity of Michigan as Baldwin Lecturer in 1887, and as Slocum Lecturer in 
1889 ; his appointment as Honorary Professor of Hobart College, Geneva, in 
1888 ; and his election to be Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and in 
1900 to be President of the Society. 

The Corporation of Trinity College, at its annual meeting on 21 
November, 191 2, adopted a resolution recording the great debt of gratitude 
it owed to Professor Clark. After detailing the chief features of his career as 
given above, the resolution proceeded to say : — 

"As a Preacher and public Lecturer, Professor Clark was very highly 
esteemed, and his many engagements in these capacities served to make 
Trinity College favourably known far and near. He showed remarkable 
versatility and brilliancy in his work, both in the class room and on the 
public platform, as well as in his literary productions, which embrace 



Obituary 281 

Theology, History, and Literature. Dr. Clark's singular devotion to Trinity 
College and the great ability with which he served it, entitle him to the last- 
irig regard of all its supporters, while his inexhaustible human sympathy and 
kindness of heart ensure for him the grateful and affectionate remembrance 
of a host of friends." 



Mr. John Duguid (M.A., 1870), retired schoolmaster, died at his resi- 
dence, 41 Gladstone Place, Aberdeen, on 9 April, aged seventy-six. After 
graduating, he engaged in tutorial work in England, and then, on returning 
to Scotland, was, in 1872, appointed headmaster of Fetteresso school, Kin- 
cardineshire. Four years later, he secured the headmastership of Lonmay 
public school, Aberdeenshire, which position he held for the long period of 
twenty-six years, retiring in 190 1. He was a son of the late Mr. James 
Duguid, farmer, North Denmore, Oldmachar. 



Sir James Frederic Goodheart, Bart. (M.B., CM., 1871 ; M.D., 1873 ; 
F.R.C.P. Lond., 1880 ; LL.D., 1899), died at his residence, 25 Portland Place, 
London, on 28 May, aged seventy. He earned great distinction as a physician, 
and was consulting physician at Guy's Hospital, and a member of the Con- 
sulting Committee of the King Edward VII. Sanatorium, Midhurst. In 1898 
he was President of the Harveian Society, and he was created a baronet in 
191 1. He published various medical works. 



Rev. Dr. George Johnstone (M.A., Marischal College, 1848; B.D., 
1870; D.D., 1891) died at Bournemouth on 23 March, aged eighty-eight. 
He was a native of the parish of Alvah, Banffshire. He matriculated at King's 
College in 1844, and was the senior alumnus of King's, having been predeceased 
by Rev. Professor W. R. Clark, Toronto (referred to as the senior graduate on 
p. 87). As a tertian, however, he transferred himself to Marischal College, 
and graduated M.A. there in 1848. For eighteen months afterwards he 
taught in Bellevue House Academy, Aberdeen (Dr. George Tulloch's) ; but, 
selecting the ministry as his vocation, he was licensed by the Aberdeen 
Free Church Presbytery. In 1854 he was invited to conduct a movement 
that was then initiated to establish a Presbyterian congregation in the south 
end of Liverpool. After two years' enthusiastic and successful work, in which 
he attracted a large following, including several well-to-do Scottish families, 
sufficient funds were secured for building in Belvidere Road, Prince's Park, a 
commodious edifice, which was named Trinity Church; and in 1857 Dr. 
Johnstone was ordained as its pastor. There he ministered for forty-seven 
years, retiring in 1904, when he was presented by the congregation with a 
testimonial amounting to ;^i8oo, which was invested in the purchase for him 
of an annuity of ;^2oo. He was clerk of the Liverpool Presbytery for thirty- 
three years, resigning in 1894, when he was appointed "clerk honorary and 
advisory" to the Presbytery. In 1892 when the Synod of the Presbyterian 
Church of England met at Birmingham, Dr. Johnstone held the position of 
Moderator. For many years he rendered valuable service on the Board of 
Examiners at the Presbyterian Theological College — first in London, and 



282 Aberdeen University Review 

afterwards at Westminster College, Cambridge ; and latterly was Chairman of 
the Board. Dr. Johnstone had two sons, both of whom entered the Anglican 
Church (to which their mother had belonged), and in recent years he resided 
with one of them, who is vicar of St. Augustine's, Bournemouth. 

On the occasion of his death, the Presbytery adopted a minute as 
follows : — 

"There passed away on Thursday, the 23rd March, 1916, the Rev. Dr. 
George Johnstone, a man very notable for his character, his culture, and his 
long record of service in this Presbytery and community. . . . 

" Dr. Johnstone was eighty-eight years of age when he died. Yet, to the 
very end of his days almost, he retained that alertness of mind and that passion 
for study and knowledge which he carried with him from the parish school in 
Banffshire where he was educated. In 1870 Dr. Johnstone, after he had left 
the University of Aberdeen, went back and offered himself as a candidate for 
the Bachelor's degree in Theology. He did a great and unique thing — he 
took all the departments of that degree in one sitting. In 1891 the University 
of Aberdeen honoured him with the Doctor's degree, and no man who has 
resisted the temptation to write books ever deserved more to have that honour, 
or wore it more becomingly. He was a man who had all the greatness of 
those who recognize the wonder and the value of knowledge, and he had all 
the humility of those who know that with all the constant labour of their 
studies there is so much they cannot know. ..." 



Dr. William Robert Macdonell (M.A., 1872 ; LL.D., 1895) died at his 
residence, Bridgefield, Bridge of Don, Aberdeen, on 15 May, aged sixty-three. 
He was a native of Dufftown, and a cousin of Sir John Macdonell, the well- 
known jurist, and of the late Mr. James Macdonell of the "Times". He 
graduated in 1872 with honours in mathematics, and in the following year 
shared the Fullerton mathematical scholarship with Sir Harvey Adamson. 
For two years he attended the medical classes in the University, after 
which he resumed his mathematical studies and gained an open mathemati- 
cal scholarship at Balliol, Oxford, subsequently taking a first class in Mathe- 
matical Moderations. 

Deciding to pursue a commercial career. Dr. Macdonell, in 1880, pro- 
ceeded to Bombay as a member of the Bombay Company, Ltd., of which firm 
he eventually became a partner. His standing in the business affairs of 
India was shown by the fact that he was three times elected president of the 
Bombay Chamber of Commerce. He was for three years a member of the 
Legislative Council of the Governor of Bombay, a position which carried with 
it the title of Honourable. He was a Fellow of the University of Bombay, 
and for many years acted as an examiner for that University. Dr. Macdonell 
issued a publication dealing with a remarkable Dante manuscript which he 
found in a Bombay library, which attracted considerable attention. Compe- 
tent authorities held his scholarly and full account to be of great value as 
bearing on the received text of Dante. In 1896 he left India and went to 
London, where he continued in business for three years, when he retired and 
took up residence in Aberdeen. 

Dr. Macdonell was one of the leaders in statistical science, and was as- 
sociated with the founders of " Biometrika," the journal devoted to the mathe- 



Obituary 283, 



matical study of biological problems. He was the first Lecturer on Statistics 
and Statistical Methods in the University (1906-10), and was in the unique 
position of being the only lecturer on modern statistical methods, not only in 
the United Kingdom, but also on the Continent. He was a frequent contri- 
butor to biometrical literature, both on the theoretical side and also in many 
practical applications, especially in medicine and anthropometry. His work on 
criminal anthropometry and identification of criminals, and his study of 
English crania of the seventeenth century, are well known. Quite recently 
he published a memoir on the expectation of life in ancient Rome. 

In 1896 Dr. Macdonell intimated to the University Court his desire to 
return to his Alma Mater " the money which she so generously gave " to him 
in his student days — the amount being jQ2 1 o, the equivalent of a Fullerton 
bursary of ^£20 and half of a Fullerton scholarship of ;£65, each for four 
years — to be applied to found a special library for the encouragement of 
higher studies in English, Latin, and Greek. Dr. Macdonell's library has 
proved of great service, and his example might well be followed by others. 

Dr. Macdonell was married to the eldest daughter of the late Mr. John 
Forbes White, LL.D. Their two sons are on military service. 



Miss Bella Jane Skinner M'Intosh (M.A., 1910), a teacher on the 
staff of Skene Square Public School, Aberdeen, died at Aberdeen on 24 
January, after a long illness. 



Mr. Thomas Mackenzie (M.A., Marischal College, 1849), died at his 
residence, Tower Gardens, Tain, on 1 9 May, having just entered on his eighty- 
sixth year. He was a native of Inverness, and was educated there and at the 
Aberdeen Grammar School and Marischal College. He became a member 
of the Society of Advocates in Aberdeen in 1855, being at the time of his 
death the second senior member on the roll. He was appointed Sheriff 
Substitute of Sutherland at Dornoch in 1859, becoming a Sheriff Substitute of 
Ross, Cromarty, and Sutherland on the judicial amalgamation of the counties 
in 1870. He attained his jubilee of official service on 8 October, 1909, and 
in honour of the event he was entertained in Edinburgh by the Sheriffs-Sub- 
stitute of Scotland. He retired in 1912, being then the oldest Sheriff Substi- 
tute. He was a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, and was 
specially interested in Scottish coins, of which he had a fine collection. 



Dr. James Thornton Macpherson (M.B., CM., 1887 ; M.D., 1905),. 
died at his residence, 58 Brunswick Street, Manchester, on 13 May, aged fifty- 
seven. He had been in practice in Manchester for the last twenty-five years. 

Deputy Surgeon-General Cyril James Mansfield, M.V.O. (M.B., 1883 ; 
M.D., 1896), died at the Royal Naval Hospital, Haslar, Gosport, on 7 May,, 
after a month's illness, aged fifty-five. He was a great-grandson of Sir James 
Mansfield, Lord Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas. Entering the 
Royal Navy in 1885 he held various appointments, the most important of 
which were Fleet-Surgeon at the Royal Naval College, Osborne (1905-9)— 



284 Aberdeen University Review 

-when the Prince of Wales was there as a cadet— and Deputy Surgeon-General 
at the Royal Naval Barracks, Chatham (1914-15), and at Haslar (1915-16). 



Rev. John Gordon Smith Napier (M.A., 1876), minister of the parish 
of Kelso, died on 7 April, aged fifty-nine. For a number of years he had 
used the vestry as a study, and he was found there unconscious at a late hour, 
-death supervening before he could be removed to the manse. Mr. Napier 
was a native of Montrose, and, after qualifying for the ministry, acted as as- 
sistant at Newington, Edinburgh, under Dr. Alison, and at Park Church, 
Glasgow, under Rev. Dr. Donald Macleod. He was called to succeed Rev. 
Dr. Hunter at Kelso, and was ordained there in March 1883. 



Dr. Alexander Ross Paterson (M.D., CM., 1861 ; M.R.C.P. [Edin.]) 
•died at Bournemouth, on 24 April, aged eighty-one. He was in practice at 
Biddenden, Kent ; Boston, Lincolnshire ; and Stockton-on-Tees succes- 
sively, and latterly resided at Birkwood, Banchory, Kincardineshire. 



We regret to hear of the death, at the early age of forty-seven, of Rev. 
Thomas Wesley Powell, M.A., D.C.L., President and Vice- Chancellor 
of King's College, Windsor, Nova Scotia, who received the degree of D.D. 
from the University of Aberdeen in June, 191 2, on the occasion of the visit 
of delegates to the first Congress of the Universities of the Empire. He was 
twice Prolocutor of the General Synod of his Church, and while Rector of 
Holy Trinity in Toronto rendered noble service to the interests of the poor. 
He is described as "a capable administrator, able writer and strong preacher, 
but above all a distinguished teacher '*. 



Dr. Theodore Thomson, C.M.G. (M.A., 1877; M.B. [Lond.], 1884; 
M.D. [State Medicine], 1892 ; D.P.H. [Camb.], 1888), died suddenly at Ox- 
ford on 6 March, aged fifty-seven. He was a son of Rev. William Thomson, 
who was minister of Belhelvie, Aberdeenshire, from 1843 to 1887. About the 
year 1886 he was appointed medical officer of health for Aberdeen, and 
eighteen months later accepted a similar post in Sheffield. While in Sheffield 
he was called upon to deal with a serious outbreak of smallpox, and the ex- 
perience he gained in that connexion brought him prominently under the 
notice of the Local Government Board. Dr. Thomson was an inspector of 
the Board from 1891 till 191 1, when he was appointed assistant medical offi- 
cer. He prepared for the Board a number of reports (which are highly 
prized by the profession) dealing with smallpox and other forms of zymotic 
disease, and in this branch of medical investigation he was a recognized 
authority and expert. In 1900 he was a member of the Committee of In- 
quiry into the Public Health of Dublin ; in 1903 British delegate to the Inter- 
national Sanitary Conference of Paris and Plenipotentiary to sign the Inter- 
national Sanitary Convention; and in 1904 delegate to the West Indian 
Intercolonial Sanitary Conference, Barbadoes. He was nominated a C.M.G. 
in 1905 for services in connexion with sanitary matters under the Foreign 
and Colonial Offices. In the following year he visited Rome as a British 



I 



Obituary 285 

delegate to the International Sanitary Conference there, and Plenipotentiary- 
to sign the Convention ; and he was subsequently sent on a special mission* 
of inquiry into the sanitary defence of the Persian Gulf. After going to 
London, Dr. Thomson studied law, and was called to the bar at the Middle 
Temple in 1894. 

Sir William Turner, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Principal and Vice-Chan- 
cellor of the University of Edinburgh, died on 15 February, aged eighty-four. 
He was Professor of Anatomy in the University from 1867 till 1903, when he was. 
appointed Principal. He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Aber- 
deen University at the Quater-centenary celebrations in 1906. On the an- 
nouncement of his death, the following message was forwarded by Principal 
Sir George Adam Smith — "The University of Aberdeen offers its warm and 
respectful sympathy to the members of the University of Edinburgh on the 
death of their distinguished head, Sir William Turner, and the close of his 
long and invaluable services to the cause of University education in Scot- 
land ". 

Rev. Alexander Warrack (M.A. Marischal College, 1855) died at Ox- 
ord on 29 March, aged seventy- eight. After graduating, he studied divinity at 
the Aberdeen Free Church College, and in 1864 was ordained minister of 
the Free (now United Free) Church at Leswalt, Wigtonshire. He retired a 
few years ago to devote himself entirely to literary work. He edited a " Scots 
Dialect Dictionary," published by Messrs. Chambers in 1911 ; and prior to the 
compilation of this work Mr. Warrack had, during the ten years occupied in 
its production, contributed over 200,000 quotations of Scottish dialect words 
with their readings to Professor Wright's " English Dialect Dictionary ". 

Since our last issue and up to the date of completing this Obituary list, 
the following thirteen University men, engaged in the various operations of the 
war, were reported to have been killed or to have died of injuries, in addition 
to Quartermaster-Sergeant Charles MacGregor, mentioned in the ordinary 
Obituary : — 

George Alexander Brown (seventh Arts bursar, 19 14), private, ma- 
chine gun section, 4th Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action in France on 
9 June. He was a son of Mrs. C. Brown, 59 Hardgate, and was nineteen 
years of age. He was Town Council gold medallist at Robert Gordon's 
College. 

Richard Gavin Brown (M.B., 1903), Lieutenant, R.A.M.C, died at 
the 5th Southern General Hospital, Portsmouth, on 14 February. He was 
the only surviving son of Deputy-Inspector-General R. Gavin Brown, M.B., 
Royal Navy, and was thirty-three years of age. He had been in practice in 
Portsmouth for eight years, and had been successful in securing a large 
clientele. On the outbreak of the war he was appointed a civil surgeon at 
the Alexandra Hospital, Cosham. In the following March he obtained a 
commission as temporary Lieutenant in the R.A.M.C. At the beginning of 
July he was sent out to Gallipoli with the 14th Casualty Clearing Station, at- 
tached to the nth Division, which landed at Suvla Bay on 6 August under 
heavy shell fire. In the engagement which followed he attended to the 
wounded for forty-four consecutive hours, exposed to continuous shelling 



2 86 Aberdeen University Review 

from the Turkish batteries. Dr. Brown did excellent work at Suvla for three 
months, when he was invalided home suffering from dysentery. He was re- 
moved to the 5th Southern General Hospital, where he rapidly recovered 
strength, and was sent on sick leave. He was about to return to active 
service, but on Friday evening (11 February) he was seized with an acute ill- 
ness as the result of dysentery, which necessitated an operation on Monday, 
after which he lived only a few hours. The funeral took place at Portsdown 
Cemetery with military honours. 

A correspondent writes : — 

It has been the writer's privilege to know Dr. R. Gavin Brown since his 
boyhood days, and a personal tribute to the life now ended may not be amiss. 

Endowed by nature with many graces, and possessed of attainments of a 
high order, socially and professionally, it was little wonder that his short 
career was so eminently successful. To these qualities were added an un- 
tiring energy and devotion to work, an unflinching straightforwardness, a 
strong sense of honour and duty. In these days of self-aggrandisement no 
mean thought or action ever entered his mind ; as in his student days, his 
whole nature was open-hearted, generous, kind. In many homes in Ports- 
mouth his name will long be remembered. As a member of the hospital 
staff — he was anaesthetist — his time and skill were given freely and ungrudg- 
ingly. Outside his profession the boyish spirit was very evident. Fond of 
all in Nature, his interests were wide, his companionship delightful ; and the 
memory of his hospitable home, to which he was devoted, will ever remain. 
His life, his all, was given for his country ; and to-day his Alma Mater in 
that northern city by the silvery sea will add to her long roll of honour the 
name of Richard Gavin Brown. 

" Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori." 

William Rudolf Center (former medical student; M.B. [Edin.], 
1893), Fleet Surgeon, R.N., died in the Naval Hospital at Malta on 
28 April, as the result of severe burns received on board H.M.S. "Russell," 
the flagship of Rear- Admiral Fremantle, which struck a mine in the Medi- 
terranean and sank. He was among the 700 saved, but his injuries were so 
severe that little hope as to his recovery were entertained. Fleet Surgeon 
Center, who was about forty-five years of age, was an officer of outstanding 
personality, and had close connexions with Aberdeen and Aberdeenshire. 
He was the only son of the late Lieutenant-Colonel William Center, of the 
Indian Medical Service (M.B., 1865), who was a son of the late Rev. William 
Center, for many years the parochial schoolmaster of Longside, Aberdeen- 
shire (alumnus. King's College, 1822-26). He had a distinguished career at 
Aberdeen University, but completed his medical studies at Edinburgh 
University. 

Robert Donald (Arts student, 191 3- 14), Sergeant, Intelligence Section, 
4th Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action in France on 9 June. He was 
twenty-one years of age, and was the youngest son of Mr. William Donald, 
Lochinch Cottage, Nigg, Kincardineshire. 



James Duguid (student of agriculture, 1913-14), Second Lieutenant, 7th 
North Staffordshire Regiment, killed in action in Mesopotamia, 9 April. 



Obituary 287 



George Mitchell Johnston (B.Sc. Agr., 191 1), Captain, 7th Battalion 
Royal Irish Rifles, was killed in action on 3 April. He had a distinguished 
career as an agricultural student, and on leaving the Aberdeen and North of 
Scotland College of Agriculture he was appointed superintendent of the ex- 
perimental farm in Jersey. When the war broke out, he received a commission 
as Second Lieutenant in the 2nd Battalion Royal Militia of the Island of 
Jersey, but subsequently joined the Royal Irish Rifles with the whole of the 
Jersey Company to which he was attached, being promoted to the rank of 
Captain. He was a son of Mr. Alexander Johnston, 71 Fountainhall Road, 
Aberdeen (one of the Harbour Commissioners), and was twenty-six years 
of age. 

Frank Lipp (M.A., 191 1), Lieutenant, Scottish Rifles (Cameronians), 
attached to the Welsh Fusiliers, died at Karachi on 30 May, from wounds re- 
ceived in action in Mesopotamia. After graduating he went out to the East 
Indies as an assistant on a rubber estate, and after two years' service there 
he returned home and entered the North of Scotland College of Agriculture, 
and had completed one session when the war broke out. He enlisted in the 
Seaforth Highlanders and subsequently received a commission in the Scottish 
Rifles. He was the second son of Mr. James Lipp, draper, Fochabers, and 
was twenty-four years of age. 



Charles Thomas M'William (M.A., 191 3), Lieutenant, 5th Battalion 
Gordon Highlanders, was killed in France, on 19 March. He was a law 
student at the University, and at the outbreak of the war was a member of 
U Company of the 4th Battalion Gordon Highlanders. He subsequently 
joined the 51st Divisional Cyclist Company, and on receiving a commission 
was transferred to the 5 th Battalion Gordon Highlanders. He was the 
younger son of Rev. Thomas M'William, minister of Foveran, Aberdeenshire, 
and was twenty-three years of age. 



Charles Neilson (M.A., 1913), Company-Sergeant-Major, Gordon 
Highlanders, was killed in action in France on i June. He was the second 
son of Mr. Neilson, senior postman, Ellon, and was twenty-six years of age ; 
and previous to enlisting was a teacher at Lossiemouth. 



Robert Reid (M.A., 1914), Second Lieutenant, Gordon Highlanders, 
was shot on 2 1 May while commanding his platoon at wire work in front of 
the British lines in France. He was studying at the Aberdeen Training 
Centre preparing for the teaching profession when war broke out. Being a 
Territorial in U Company, 4th Gordons, he was called up at the beginning 
and went to a war station with his battalion. He received his commission in 
November, 1914, in a Kitchener's Army battalion of the Gordons. He had 
been overseas for four months prior to his death. He was a son of Mr. 
Robert Reid, farmer, Bethelnie, Oldmeldrum, Aberdeenshire. 



Norman John Robertson (M.A., 1914), Corporal, Gordon Highlanders, 
died in France on 30 May, of wounds received while on service on the 
previous day. He had been fixing wire entanglements in front of a sap-head 



2 88 Aberdeen University Review 

when a bullet passed through his hand and penetrated his chest. His com- 
manding officer, in conveying the intimation of his death, wrote : " He was 
one of the best N.C.O.'s in the company, and was marked out for speedy pro- 
motion, and his loss is greatly felt by us all. He was popular with officers 
and men, and did his duty on all occasions without regard to his personal 
safety." He was the second son of the late Mr. Thomas Robertson, M.A., 
Schoolmaster, Lower Cabrach, Banffshire, and was twenty-five years of age. 



William John Campbell Sangster (M.A., 19 14), Second Lieutenant, 
4th Battalion Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action (previously reported 
missing) at Hooge, in Flanders, on 25 September, 191 5. He was a student 
of medicine, and when war broke out received a commission in the 2 /4th 
battalion of the Gordons. He was transferred in June last year to the i/4th 
battalion and went to the front immediately after. He was the elder son of 
ex-Baillie Sangster, Aberdeen, and was twenty years of age. 



David George Melrose Watt, medical student, private in K Company, 
R.A.M.C, died at Cambridge Hospital, Aldershot, on 26 April. He was the 
youngest son of Rev. William Watt, minister of the parish of Strathdon, 
Aberdeenshire, and was only nineteen years of age. 



An "In Memoriam" service was held in the University Chapel or> 
Sunday, 18 June. Professor Fulton conducted the initial part of the service, 
and after the reading of the New Testament lesson the list of the brave sons 
of the University who have fallen in the war was read, the congregation 
standing the while. The sermon was preached by the Principal, who took 
as his text Psalm xxxiv. 22, and Revelation xxii. 3. Referring to those 
members of the University who were commemorated that day — who had 
carried their service, their courage, and their faithfulness up to death itself — 
he mentioned that in number they were already eighty- one ; of graduates 
forty-seven, of alumni, who did not graduate, nine, and of students twenty- 
five. All were in the combatant ranks save fifteen, of whom thirteen were 
navy or army doctors, proof that the medical profession had in this war 
taken its full share with other branches of the forces in the dangers of battle 
and disease. Some were very young ; no fewer than twelve of twenty-one 
years, and under that eighteen; nineteen at least between twenty-one and 
twenty-five, and only six or seven above thirty-five — the mid-time of our life. 
At least forty-nine of them joined or rejoined the ranks upon the King's call 
for men. The rest of the list, save one, were already on naval or military 
service, and she, the only woman among them (Mrs. Grant), had given herself 
and her gifts to a service no less honourable in the medical missions of our 
religion. 



Index to Volume III< 



Aberdeen University Edinburgh Associa- 
tion, 77. 

Adam, Rev. Alexander : death of, 278. 

Adamson, Lt.- Col. Henry McK. : C.B., 269 ; 
mentioned in despatches,.269. 

Alexander, Archibald : note on, 83. 

Alexander, William : death of, 279. 

Alexander, Pte. William D. : missing, 229. 

Allan, Rev. Dr. James : note on, 272. 

Allardyce, Sergt. Alexander: death of, 92, 
227 ; mentioned in despatches, 178. 

Alverstone, Viscount : death of, 187. 

Anatomist on our Pedigree, An. By Pro- 
fessor J. A. Thomson, 234. 

Anderson, George Henry : death of, 279. 

Anderson, Helen Isobel : note on, 183. 

Anderson, James : death of, 92, 229. 

Anderson, Sir John : note on, 181. 

Anderson, Robert: Obituary, 89, 185, 278; 
Personalia, 78, 179, 271 ; University 
Topics, 73, 170, 264 ; reviews Philip's 
Holidays in Sweden, 168. 

Anderson, Professor William Blair : D.Litt., 
181, 276. 

Annandale, Charles : death of, 89. 

Archibald, Very Rev. John : death of, 89. 

Arts Class Reunion, 1888-92, 175. 

Arts " Class " System, 174. 

Assessors in University Court appointed, 
174. 

Auchinachie, Sergt. George C. : death of, 
92, 223. 

Baillie, Professor J. B. ; reviews Professor 

Davidson's Utilitarians, 163. 
Bain, Professor Alexander : Rev. A. Jack on 

his teaching, 251. 
Bain, Lieut. F. W. : mentioned in despatches, 

178 ; Military Cross, 177. 
Baird, Rev. Andrew C. : note on, 80. 
Baird, Col. Andrew W. : note on, 271. 
Beattie, Lt.- Col. James Forbes : note on, 

82. 
Benton, Alexander H. : note on, 279. 
Benton, James Thompson : murder of, 279. 
Benton, Sir John : note on, 272, 279. 
Benton, WiUiam : death of, 279. 
Benton, William S. : murder of, 279. 
Berrv, Sir William Bisset : note on, 181. 
" Billy " Dey. By J. M. Bulloch, 108. 
Birnie, Rev. George : note on, 83. 
Bisset, Iva Isabella : note on, 85. 



Black, Agnes : note on, 183. 

Black, Alfred A. : note on, 274. 

Blackie, Professor J. S. : not the first to ad- 
vocate Celtic chair, 173. 

Bower, Lt.-Col. George H. : mentioned in 
despatches, 178. 

Boyd, Edmund Blaikie : note on, 276. 

Boyd, Rev. William F. : note on, 272. 

Brebner, Rev. William : note on, 273. 

Bridge, Sir Frederick : lectures on Milton 
and Music, 77. 

British Diplomacy, 1902-1914. By Professor 
C. Sanford Terry, 36, 142. 

Brown, Lieut. Francis F. : Order of St. 
Sava, 269. 

Brown, Pte. George A. : death of, 285. 

Brown, R. N. Rudmose : note on, 86. 

Brown, Lieut. Richard Gavin : death of, 
192, 222, 232, 285. 

Bruce, Robert : note on, 250. 

Bruce, Lt.-Col. Robert): mentioned in de- 
spatches, 178. 

Bruce, Rev. Dr. W. S. : note on, 86. 

Buchan, Alexander M. : note on, 88. 

Bulloch, J. M. : notes on, 184, 276 ; " Billy " 
Dey, 108 ; The Scots Fencibles, 71 ; 
The University and Soldiering, 27. 

James : founds Divinity prize, 
172. 

Burnet, J. R. Wardlaw: appointed an ex- 
aminer, 74. 

Burnett, J. G.: note on, 184. 

Burns, James Dallas : death of, 279. 

Bute, Marquis of, and Sir James Donaldson, 
54. 

Calder, Lieut. George M. : death of, 92, 

230. 
Calder, Gordon Hamilton : note on, 181. 
Cameron, Alfred Ernest : note on, 273. 
Cantlie, James : note on, 83. 
Carnegie trust, 267. 
Celtic lectureship founded, 172. 
Center, Fleet Surg. Wm. Rudolf: death 

of, 232, 286. 
Chalmers, John : note on, 251. 
Chrystall, William : note on, 88. 
Clark, Rev. James H. : note on, 273. 
Clark, Robert Selby : note on, 273. 
Clark, Rev. Professor William R. : note on 

[not Senior Graduate], 87; death of, 

253, 280. 
209 19 



290 Aberdeen University Review 



Clarke, John, reviews Leach's Some Re- 
sults of Research in the History of Edu- 
cation in England, 165. 

Class Reunion, 1888-92, 175. 

"Class" System: remarks by Sir W. M. 
Ramsay, 174. 

Cockburn, Lucy : note on, 85. 

Collie, Major Sir John : note on, 82. 

Cook, John : death of, 187. 

Coquerel, Sergt. Henri: Croix de Guerre, 
269. 

Correspondence : — 
Aberdeen's First Senior Wrangler. By 

Rev. J. S. Mackenzie, 52. 
Aberdeen's First Senior Wrangler. By 

Sir James Stirling, 250. 
Professor Bain's Teaching. By Rev. 

Alexander Jack, 251. 
Professor W. R. Clark, Toronto. By A. 
H. Young, 253. 

Cowan, Professor Henry: note on, 183; 
reviews Bishop Mitchell's Biographical 
Studies, 155. 

Cowie, Rev. William : note on, 83. 

Cowieson, Alexander : death of, 90. 

Cox, Rev. J. T. : note on, 83. 

Crombie, James Edward : helps to institute 
lectureship in Forest Botany, 73. 

Cruickshank, Lance-Corp. James : death of, 
92, 223. 

Cruickshank, James : record of pupils, 76. 

Cruickshank, Pte. James O. : death of, 224. 

Cruickshank, Mary Walker : note on, 183. 

Cumming, Rev. George Watson ; death of, 
188. 

Cumming, Lance-Corp. Marianus A. : death 
of, 93, 225. 

Curtis, Professor W. A. : appointed to 
Edinburgh Chair, 79; reviews Sir W. 
M. Ramsay's Bearing of Recent Dis- 
covery, 161. 

Davidson, Capt. George : mentioned in des- 
patches, 76. 

Davidson, William Brown : note on, 83. 

Davidson, Professor W. L. : reviews Laing's 
Metaphysics of Nietzsche's Immoralism, 
67 ; his Utilitarians reviewed, 163. 

Davie, Jessie Keith : note on, 183. 

Dalgetty, Dugald, 11. 

Dawson, Capt. George Forbes : Military 
Cross, 75, 

Dawson, Lt.-Col. James: D.S.O., 76; 
mentioned in despatches, 76, 178. 

Dawson, William: appointed an examiner, 
74 ; note on, 181. 

Dewar, Lieut. George : death of, igi, 23«. 

Dey, William : death of, 185 ; bequests for 
the Library, 171 ; ''Billy "Dey, by J. M. 
Bulloch, 108 ; My Last Schoolmaster, by 
J. Leslie MacKenzie, 97. 

Diack, Peter : note on, 273. 

Dickie, Rev. John : note on, 80. 

Dickie, Major Johnson ; notes on, 86, 269. 



Divinity prize, 172. 

Divinity, Proposed new degree in, 265. 

Don, Major Alexander: mentioned in des- 
patches, 178 ; note on, 270. 

Donald, Rev. Dr. James : note on, 83. 

Donald, Sergt. Robert : death of, 286. 

Donald, Private William : death of, 191, 229. 

Donaldson, Sir James, and the Marquis of 
Bute, 54. 

Downie, Rev. John W. : note on, 181. 

Duguid, David S. : note on, 83. 

Duguid, John : death of, 281. 

Duguid, John A. : death of, 90. 

Duguid, Lieut. James : death of, 286. 

Duncan, Sergt. Alexander D. : death of, 93, 
227. 

Duncan, Rev. James Park: note on, 273. 

Dunn, William: death of, 188. 

Edwards, Elizabeth M. : note on, 85. 
Elmslie, Elizabeth E. : note on, 85. 
Engineering, Chair of, founder, 73. 
Entwistle, William James : note on, 276. 
Esslemont, W. D. : note on, 184. 
Ewen, Jane : note on, 183. 
Ewen, Pte. John B. : death of, 93, 229. 
Ewen, Rev. William P. : death of, 188. 
Examiners appointed, 74. 

Fae France. By Charles Murray, 241. 

Falconer, President, on Aberdeen University's 
record, 270. 

Farquharson, Charles Ogilvie : note on, 273. 

Finances of the University, 264. 

Findlater, Lance-Corp. Alex. : taken prisoner, 
229. 

Findlay, W. M. : note on, 86. 

Fleming, Major Frank : mentioned in des- 
patches, 178. 

Fleming, Rev. John: note on, 273. 

Flowerdew, Capt. Richard F. : mentioned 
in despatches, 269. 

Forbes, Pte. James C. : death of, 93, 227. 

Forbes, Johanna : note on, 85. 

Forbes, Sergt. John Keith : death of, 93, 
229. 

Forbes, Robert A. : note on, 88. 

Forbes, William : note on, 88. 

Forestry instruction, 73. 

Forgan, Capt. Robert : mentioned in de- 
spatches, 178 ; Military Cross, 177. 

•' Forsaken " in Greek. By Professor A. W. 
Mair, 245. 

Forsyth, Rev. Principal P. T. : note on, 
183. 

Fowlie, Alexander J. : death of, 93, 222. 

Fowlie, Lance-Corp. Andrew T. : death of, 
93. 227. 

Eraser, Capt. Alexander D, : mentioned in 
despatches, 76 ; Military Cross, 269. 

Eraser, Lieut. Ian Catto : death of, 93, 230. 

Fraser, John : appointed an examiner, 74 ; 
appointed Lecturer on Celtic and Phil- 
ology, 173- 



Index to Volume III 



291 



Fraser, Lt.-Col. Thomas: mentioned in 

despatches, 178. 
Fraser, Dr. Thomas Pepp^ : death of, 220, 

232. 
Fulton, Rev. William : appointed to Chair of 

Systematic Theology, 80 ; note on, 272. 
Fyfe, Rev. William D. : note on, 83. 

Gaelic chair advocated in 1835, 173. 
Galloway, Capt. Rudolph W. : mentioned 

in despatches, 76. 
Garbutt, Lieut. James R. G. : death of, 191, 

232. 
Garden, Major James W. : note on, 269. 
Geddes, James : note on, 82. 
Gerard, Dorothea : death of, 184. 
Gerard, Emily : note on, 184. 
Gerrard, William Innes : Order of St. Anne, 

76. 
Gibson, Professor R. J. Harvey : West Point 

Military Academy, U.S.A., 128. 
Gifford, Eliza : note on, 183. 
Gilchrist, Robert N. : note on, 273. 
Giles, Rev. Alexander, Senior graduate of 

King's : death of, go. 
Giles, George Marr : note on, 83. 
Gill, Sir David : note on, 271. 
Gilroy, Professor James : reviews Sir George 

Adam Smith's Atlas, 254. 
Glen's Muster Roll, The. By Mary 

Symon, 136. 
Goblet d'Alviella, Count: note on, 272. 
Goodheart, Sir James F. : death of, 281. 
Gordon, Lieut. Geoffrey : death of, 93, 223. 
Gordon, George : death of, 93, 192. 
Gordon, John : note on, 180. 
Gordon, Mary : note on, 183. 
Gordon, Robert Patrick : death of, 94, 227. 
Graduation, July, 1915, 87. 
Grant, Mrs. Christian Davidson Maitland : 

death of, 188. 
Grant, William : note on, 276. 
Grant, William J. : note on, 276. 
Grant, Rev. William M. : note on, 86. 
Gray, Rev. Alexander : note on, 84. 
Gray, Col. Henry M. W. : mentioned in des- 
patches, 76 ; C.B., 177. 
Gray, Lt.-Col. Wm. Henry : death of, 232. 
Gregory, John : death of, 90. 
Grierson, Professor H. J. C. : reviews Purves' 

South African Book of English verse, 

60 ; appointed to Edinburgh Chair, 78. 
Guthrie, Lieut. Hector M. : death of, 191, 

222. 

Haig, Corpl. William S. : death of, 229. 

Hall, Major George: C.M.G., 269. 

Halley, John : death of, 188 . 

Hardy, Thomas : The Youth who Carried a 
Light, 97. 

narrower, Professor John : advocates Celtic 
Lectureship, 172; reviews Thomson's 
Studies in the Odyssey, 55 ; Tennyson's 
•♦ Thy Voice is Heard" in Greek, 141. 



Harvey, Rev. James : note on, 274. 
Hastings, Ann W. : note on, 180. 
Hastings, Rev. Dr. James: notes on, 86, 

183, 184, 276. 
Hay, Professor Matthew, on the Finances of 

the University, 264. 
Hein, Gustav : death of, 90. 
Henderson, Lieut. Alex. R. : missing, 229. 
Hendrick, Professor : note on, 81, 180. 
Henry, Anthony M. : note on, 88. 
Home, Alexander R. : note on, 84. 

In Memoriam Alexander Mackie. By W. 
Keith Leask, 2. 

" In Memoriam " Service, 288. 

Ingram, Capt. W. W. : mentioned in des- 
patches, 76 ; Military Cross, 76. 

Innes, I. G. : note on, 86. 

Interatnna Borealis. By W. Keith Leask 
(announced), 239. 

Ironside, Rev. Alexander : death of, 188. 

Ironside, William : death of, 90. 

Irvine, John Locke: note on, 82; Shake- 
speare's •* Once More Unto the Breach,'' 
in Greek, 139. 

Jack, Adolphus Alfred : appointed Professor 
of English, 79 ; note on, 179. 

Jack, Rev. Alexander: Professor Bain's 
Teaching, 251. 

Jack, Thomas: note on, 180. 

Jackson, William : founds Chair of Engine- 
ering, 73. 

James Clerk Maxwell. By Robert Walker, 

193. 

Jameson, Herbert M. : death of, 94. 

Jamieson, Douglas: death of, 222. 

Jamieson, Herbert M. : death of, 232. 

Jeremiah's Poems on War. By Very Rev. 
Principal Sir George Adam Smith, 120. 

Johnston, Rev. David S. : note on, 181. 

Johnston, Capt. George M. : death of, 231, 
287. 

Johnston, James C. : note on, 84. 

Johnstone, Rev. Dr. George, Senior alum- 
nus of King's College : death of, 281, 

Johnstone, J. F. Kellas : note on, 180 ; re- 
views Forbes Leith's Pre- Reformation 
Scholars, 63. 

Keith, Mrs. Annie Brown Macdonald : 

death of, 90. 
Keith, Professor Arthur : note on, 183. 
Keith, Rev. John : note on, 181. 
Keith, Lieut. William B. : Military Cross, 

76. 
Kellas, Capt. Arthur : death of, 94, 222, 232. 
Kemp, Ethel H. : note on, 85. 
Kennedy, Rev. John : note on, 83. 
Kennedy, Lieut. William R. : death of, 94, 

230. 
" Killed in Action " in Greek. By J. D. 

Symon, 249. 
Knowles, Pte. John F. : death of, 225. 



2()2 Aberdeen University Review 



Larg, David G. : note on, i8o. 

Laws, Rev, Dr. Robert : note on, 86. 

Leask, W. Keith: In Memoriam Alexander 
Mackie, 2 ; his Interamna Borealis an- 
nounced, 239. 

Legge, Lieut. Angus F. : death of, 220, 
232. 

Legge, Esther : note on, 85. 

Lendrum, Rev. Alexander : note on, 181. 

Lipp, Lieut. Frank : death of, 287. 

Lister, Lt.-Col. Arthur H. : C.M.G., 269. 

Littlejohn, David : note on, 272. 

Lobban, Agnes : note on, 86. 

Louvain University Library, 171. 

Low, Allan James : note on, 82. 

Low, Lieut. George : missing, 229. 

Lumsden, Rev. James : note on, 83. 

Lyon, Pte. Harry : death of, 94, 227. 

Maartens, Maarten : death of, 92. 
MacCombie, Capt. Hamilton : Military 

Cross, 177. 
MacConnochie, Bessie Jane : note on, 275. 
MacDonald, D. H. : note on, 86. 
MacDonald, Donald ; note on, 182. 
MacDonald, Professor H. M. : note on, 

179, 180; on Professor Clerk Maxwell, 

213. 
MacDonald, Col. Stuart : C.M.G., 177. 
MacDonell, William Robert : death of, 282. 
MacGregor, Quartermaster-Sergt. Charles : 

death of, 231, 278. 
MacHardy, Lt.-Col. Sir Alexander B. : note 

on, 271. 
Macintosh, Bella J. S. : death of, 283. 
Macintosh, Edward : note on, 180. 
Maclver, Lance-Corpl. Murdo : death of, 

94. 227. 
Maclver, Robert M. : appointed to Chair in 

Toronto, 81. 
Mackay, James W. N. : death of, 91. 
Mackay, Corpl. Keith : death of, 224. 
MacKendrick, Professor J. G. : appointed an 

Examiner, 74 ; Sandy Lawrence : a 

sketch, 48. 
Mackenzie, Agnes M. : note on, 86. 
Mackenzie, Rev. J. S. : Aberdeen's First 

Senior Wrangler, 52. 
Mackenzie, Thomas : death of, 283. 
Mackenzie, W. Leslie: My Last School- 
master, 98. 
Mackie, Alexander : In Memoriam, by W. 

Keith Leask, 2 ; his Aberdeenshire, 72 ; 

Matthew Arnold, 277. 
Mackintosh, Duncan D. : note on, 270. 
MacLaggan, Capt. James Murray : Military 

Cross, 76. 
MacLellan, Major Farquhar : note on, 182. 
MacLennan, Pte. Roderick D. : death of, 

191, 229. 
MacLeod, Charles : note on, 86. 
MacLeod, John M. H. : note on, 274. 
MacLeod, Corpl. Malcolm: taken prisoner, 

229. 



MacMillan, Lilias M. : note on, 86. 
MacPherson, Lieut. Ian Charles : death of, 

94, 230. 
MacPherson, James T. : death of, 283. 
MacPherson, Lieut. John Cook : death of, 

94. 
MacQueen, Lt.-Col. John E. : mentioned in 

despatches, 178 ; death of, 95, 229. 
MacQueen, Rev. John : note on, 84. 
MacRae, A. R. : note on, 84. 
MacRae, Sergt. Victor C. : death of, 224. 
MacRobert, Sir Alexander : founds Patho- 
logy Lectureship, 173. 
MacSween, Pte. George : death of, 227. 
MacWilliam, Lieut. Charles Thomas : death 

of, 231, 287. 
MacWilliam, Professor J. A. : F.R.S., 272. 
Mair, Professor A. W. : " Forsaken " in 

Greek, 245. 
Maitland, Christian D. [Mrs. Grant] : note 

on, 277. 
Mansfield, Deputy Surg.-Gen. Cyril James : 

death of, 232, 283. 
MarischaVs Most Martial Alumnus. By J. 

D. Symon, 11. 
Marr, Sergt. Alexander D. : death of, 191, 

227. 
Marr, Rev. George S. : note on, 80. 
Mason, John H. S. : death of, 95, 229. 
Matthew Arnold. By Alexander Mackie, 

277. 
Maxwell, James Clerk. By Robert Walker, 

193. 

Mearns, Surg. Wm. Mellis : death of, 232. 

Meldrum, Rev. Andrew : death of, 189. 

Melvin, Capt. George S. : mentioned in des- 
patches, 178. 

Menzies, Capt. John L. : note on, 270. 

Meston, Gertrude : note on, 275. 

Meston, Sir James S. : note on, 274. 

Meston, William : note on, 182. 

Michie, Charles : death of, 189. 

Middleton, Pte. Robert Hugh : death of, 225. 

Miller, Rev. David : note on, 274. 

Miller, Sir John O. : note on, 82. 

Milligan, Sir William : note on, 274. 

Milne, Alfred Forbes : note on, 274. 

Milne, Pte. Frederick W. : death of, 95, 231. 

Milne, Capt. Herbert S. : Military Cross, 269. 

Minty, Rev. George : note on, 84. 

Mitchell, Pte. Alex. : death of, 225. 

Mitchell, Henry Benjamin : death of, 189. 

Mitchell, Capt. John P. : mentioned in des- 
patches, 178. 

Mitchell, Major Robert: D.S.O., 177, 269; 
mentioned in despatches, 178. 

Mitchell, William : note on, 84. 

Moody, Douglas W. K. : death of, 191, 
232. 

Moore, Lieut. Edmund H. : D.S.O. 76. 

Morrison, George J. : note on, 84. 

Morrison, Peter : note on, 180. 

Mowat, Major James : death of, 232. 

Munro, Pte. Gordon D. : death of, 95, 229. 



Index to Volume III 



293 



Murray, Rev. Gordon J. : note on, 80 ; 
motion anent uniform Preliminary Ex- 
amination and new Degree in Divinity, 
174, 265. 

Murdoch, Rev. William : note on, 274. 

Murison, Professor A. F. : note on, 182. 

Murison, A. R. : note on, 82. 

Murray, Charles : Fae France, 241. 

Murray, Pte. George : taken prisoner, 229. 

Murray, James, Glenburnie Park : knighted, 
81. 

Murray, Sapper James S. : death of, 225. 

Murray, John Watson : note on, 182. 

Murray, Rev. Robert : death of, 189. 

My Last Schoolmaster. By W. Leslie 
Mackenzie, 98. 

Napier, Rev. John G. S. : death of, 284. 

Neilson, Sergt.- Major Charles : death of, 
287. 

Nicol, Very Rev. Professor Thomas : re- 
views Dean's Book of Revelation, 167. 

Ogilvie, Francis Grant : note on, 84. 

Ogilvie, Rev. Dr. J. N. : note on, 183. 

Ogilvie, William M. : note on, 84, 

Old Aberdeen, October, 1915, i. 

•' Once More Unto the Breach " in Greek. By 

J. L. Irvine, 139. 
Ordinance on Preliminary Examination, 74. 
Ordinances, Emergency, 74. 

Paterson, Alex. Ross : death of, 284, 
Paterson, F. W. : appointed an Examiner, 

74- 
Paterson, Professor James Alex. : death of, 

190. 
Pathology Lectureship founded, 173, 
Paul, Sir George M. : note on, 84. 
Peace, James Bennet : note on, 275. 
Pennsylvania, University of, 175. 
Peter, Rev. Thomas Burnett : note on, 182. 
Petrie, David: CLE., 81. 
Philip, Elizabeth : note on, 183. 
Philip, John Bentley : note on, 276. 
Philip, John C, Ex-Sacrist : death of, 91. 
Philpots, Edward Payne : death of, 91. 
Poorten-Schwartz, Joost M. W. van der 

[Maarten Maartens] : death of, 92. 
Porter, Surgeon-General Sir James : 

K.C.M.G., 177. 
Powell, Rev. Thomas W. : death of, 284. 
Preliminary Examinations, 267; motion by 

Rev. Dr. Gordon Murray, 174; ordin- 
ance, 74. 
Pringle, Archibald D. : note on, 276. 
Profeit, Lt.-Col. Charles W. : mentioned in 

despatches, 76. 
Profeit, William J. : note on, 86. 

Rae, Rev. James : note on, 84. 

Rae, William : on proposed new degree in 

Divinity, 265. 
Rae, Major William: D.S.O., 177. 



Ramsay, Lieut. Lewis N. G. : death of, 223 ; 

note on, 86. 
Ramsay, Sir W. M. : note on, 272 ; on the 
'• Class " system, 174 ; his Making of a 
University reviewed, 70. 
Reid, Alexander W. : note on, 84. 
Reid, Annie : note on, 183. 
Reid, Lieut. Robert : death of, 287. 
Reid, William George : note on, 180. 
Reith, Rev. Dr. George: note on, 271. 
Reith, Rev. George M. : note on, 275. 
Reviews : — 
Bulloch, J. M. : The Scots Fencibles and 

English Service, 71. 
Cape Astrographic Zones, 71. 
Chapman, J. B. : Horace and his Poetry, 

69. 
Cowan, Rev. Professor H., and James 

Hastings, D.D. : Sub Corona, 261. 
Davidson, Professor William L. : The 
Utilitarians from Bentham to jf. S. 
Mill, 163. 
Dean, Rev. J. T. : The Book of Revela- 
tion, 167. 
Junks, E. A.: An Index of the Adverbs 

of Terence, 70. 
Keith, Arthur : The Antiquity of Man, 

234- 

Keppel, Frederick P. : Columbia, 69. 

Laing, Bertram M. : Metaphysics of 
Nietzsche^s Immoralism, 67. 

Leach, Arthur F. : Some Results of Re- 
search in the History of Education in 
England, 165. 

Leftwich, Ralph W. : An Index of Symp- 
toms, 263. 

Leith, W. Forbes, S.J. : Pre-Reforma- 
tion Scholars in Scotland, 63. 

MacGillivray, Pittendrigh : Pro patria, 
262. 

Macintosh, Rev. John : Australia's 
Battle Hymn (music), 71. 

Mackie, Alexander: Aberdeenshire, 72. 

MacLeod, Charles : Lessons in Geo- 
metry, 170. 

Miller, Rev. William : Rudimentary Re- 
flections on the War, 68. 

Minutes of General Council, III, 263. 

Mitchell, Bishop Anthony: Biographi- 
cal Studies in Scottish Church His- 
tory, 155. 

Mitchell, P. Chalmers : Evolution and 
the War, 158. 

Philip, J. Bentley : Holidays in Sweden, 
168. 

Purves, John : The South African Book of 
English Verse, 60. 

Ramsay, Sir W. M. : The Bearing of Re- 
cent Discovery on the Trustworthiness 
of the New Testament, 161. 

Ramsay, Sir W. M. : The Making of a 
University, 70. 

Sarvadhikary, Hon. Devaprasad: Ad- 
dress, 72. 



294 Aberdeen University Review 



Reviews — cont. — 
Smith, Sir George Adam : Atlas of the 

Historical Geography of the Holy 

Land, 254. 
Smith, Rev. Harry : Layman's Book of 

the General Assembly, 72. 
Smith, Rev. James, B.D. : Sermons, 71. 
Terry, Professor C. S. : ^ Short History 

of Europe, 1806-1914, 259. 
Thomson, J. A. K. : Studies in the Odyssey, 

55. 
Willson, Beckles: Life of Lord Strath- 

cona, 170. 
Year-book of the Universities of the Em- 
pire, 70. 
Riddell, Lieut.-Col. John Scott; appointed 

Assessor in University Court, 174. 
Riddoch, James : death of, 190. 
Robb, Alexander : note on, 250. 
Robb, Major Alex. Kirkland: death of, 223. 
Robb, James B. K. ; death of, 91. 
Robertson, Charlotte ; note on, 270. 
Robertson, Forbes M. M. : note on, 182. 
Robertson, George Croom: note on, 271. 
Robertson, Rev. John: Senior Graduate of 

Marischal College and of the University, 

87, 277. 
Robertson, John Minto : Dr. Mortimer, 

Turriff — a memoir, 71. 
Robertson, Mary W. U. : note on, 86. 
Robertson, Corpl. Norman John : death of, 

287. 
Roscoe, Sir Henry E. : death of, 190. 
Rose, Lieut. Frederick A. : death of, 95, 227. 
Ross, Donald James : note on, 182. 

Sandy Lawrence : a sketch. By Profes- 
sor J. G. McKendrick, 48. 

Sangster, Lieut. John C. : death of, 229. 

Sangster, Lieut. William J. C. : death of, 
288. 

Saunders, Pte. George K. : missing, 229. 

Scott, Lieut. James: mentioned in de- 
spatches, 178. 

Scott, Lieut. William L. : death of, 95, 
227. 

Secretary for Scotland : issues Order anent 
election of Assessors, 174. 

Senior Alumnus of King's College, Rev. Dr. 
George Johnstone : death of, 281. 

Senior Graduate of King's College, Rev. 
Alexander Giles : death of, 90. 

Senior Graduate of King's College, Rev. 
George Compton Smith, 277. 

Senior Graduate of Marischal College and 
of the University, Rev. John Robertson, 
87, 277. 

Shakespeare's ** Once More Unto the Breach," 
in Greek. By John L. Irvine, 139. 

Shanks, Pte. John W. : missing, 229. 

Shennan, Professor Theodore : note on, 180. 

Shinnie, Andrew James : note on, 275. 

Shirras, Alice : note on, 86. 

Shirras, George Findlay : note on, 275. 



Shortt, Captain Henry E. : mentioned in 
despatches, 76. 

Silver, Alex. : death of, 192, 229. 

Sim, George Gall : note on, 82, 274. 

Simpson, Rev. Alex. : note on, 86. 

Simpson, Colin Finlayson : Lieut.-Col. in 
Russian Army, 76. 

Simpson, H. F. Morland : reviews Prof. 
Terry's Short History, 259. 

Simpson, John Alexander : note on, 82. 

Simpson, Lilias J. A. : note on, 178. 

Sinclair, Andrew M. : note on, 84. 

Skeen, James Humphry : note on, 85. 

Skinner, Sergt. Alex. : death of, 224. 

Skinner, Robert T. : note on, 275. 

Slater, John Cormack: note on, 275. 

Slesser, George : notes on, 52, 250. 

Slesser, William D. V. : note on, 269. 

Slorach, Lance-Corpl. Alexander : death of, 
192. 

Stuart, John George : death of, 190. 

Smith, Francis : note on, 183. 

Smith, George: appointed Assessor in Uni- 
versity Court, 174. 

Smith, Very Rev. Principal Sir George 
Adam : jferemiah''s Poems on War, 120 ; 
Two Years of War: the Record of the 
University, 214 ; reviews Miller's Rudi- 
mentary Reflections on the War, 68; 
Moderator of U.F.C. General Assembly, 
179; Knighted, 179; Atlas of Holy 
Land, 179; reviewed, 254; elected 
member of the Athenaeum Club, 272. 

Smith, Lt.-Col. George Alex. : D.S.O., 269. 

Smith, Lieut. George Buchanan : death of, 
96, 230. 

Smith, Rev. George Compton : Senior 
Graduate of King's College, 277. 

Smith, George Michie : note on, 251. 

Smith, Rev. George Stuart : death of, 190. 

Smith, Rev. George Watt : Ultimus Georgi- 
corum, 115. 

Smith, Rev. Harry : note on, 182, 276. 

Smith, Col. the Rev. James : Sermons, 71 ; 
term of office as Assessor extended, 174. 

Smith, Rev. Dr. John : note on, 82, 182. 

Smith, William : first Provost of University 
of Pennsylvania, 175. 

Smith, Lieut. William G. R. : V.C., 177; 
death of, 192, 231. 

Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge 
petition Parliament for Gaelic Chair 
at Aberdeen, 173. 

Souter, Professor Alex. : note on, 276. 

Souter, James G. : note on, 85. 

Souttar, W. M. : note on, 271. 

Spirit of Our Northern University, The. 
By J. D. Symon, 239. 

Stephen, Capt. David J. S. : Military Cross, 
76. 

Stephen, Lieut. Frederick Charles: death 
of, 96, 230. 

Stewart, Very Rev. Principal Alexander: 
death of, 89. 



Index to Volume III 



295 



Stewart, Capt. James Smith : mentioned in 
despatches, 76, 178, 

Stirling, Sir James: Aberdeen's First Senior 
Wrangler, 250. 

Strachan, Bishop John : note on, 253. 

Strachan, Rev. R. H. : note on, 276. 

Stuart, Pte. James : death of, 96, 230. 

Sturm, Mrs. Charlotte : note on, 180. 

Symon, J. D. : *' Killed in Action " in Greek, 
249 ; MarischaVs Most Martial Alumnus, 
II ; The Spirit of Our Northern Uni- 
versity, 239. 

Symon, Mary: The Glen's Muster Roll, 136. 

Tawse, Sergt. Bertram W. : death of, 96, 
229. 

Taylor, Capt. John W. : note on, 270. 

Taylor, Thomas M. : note on, 88. 

Tennant, W. R. : note on, 82. 

Tennyson's ^^ Thy Voice is Heard" in 
Greek, by Professor Harrower, 141. 

Terry, Professor C. Sanford : British Diplo- 
macy, 1902-1914, 36, 142 ; note on, 184 ; 
his Short History reviewed, 259. 

Thomson, Andrew W. : note on, 183. 

Thomson, James A. K. : note on, 184. 

Thomson, Lieut. James O. : note on, 85. 

Thomson, John Alex. : note on, 183. 

Thomson, Professor John Arthur : An An- 
atomist on Our Pedigree, 234 ; reviews 
Chalmers Mitchell's Evolution and War, 
158; Gifford Lecturer at St. Andrews, 
81 ; notes on, 180, 272. 

Thomson, Sergt. John M. : death of, 96, 
227. 

Thomson, Robert : death of, 190. 

Thomson, Theodore : death of, 284. 

" Thy Voice is Heard " in Greek. By Pro- 
fessor Harrower, 141. 

Trail, Professor J. W. H. : note on, 180. 

Trail, Capt. William S. : MiHtary Cross, 269. 

Troup, Pte. William Alex. : taken prisoner, 
. 228. 

Turner, Principal Sir William: death of, 
285. 

Two Years of War : the Record of the Uni- 
versity. By Principal Sir George Adam 
Smith, 214. 

Ultimus Georgicorum. By Rev. G. Watt 
Smith, 115. 



University, The, and Soldiering, By J. M. 

Bulloch, 27. 
University and the War, 75, 176, 268. 
University topics, 73, 171, 264. 
Urquhart, Rev. William Spence: D.Pbil., 

87 ; note on, 184. 

Walker, Rev. George : note on, 184, 271. 

Walker, John Lamb : note on, 275. 

Walker, Robert; yames Clerk Maxwell^ 
193 ; notes on his Arts Class, 271. 

Walker, Robert S. : note on, 88. 

Wanliss, Lt.-Col. D. S. : C.M.G., 75. 

War, The University and the, 75, 176, 268. 

Warrack, Rev. Alexander ; death of, 285. 

Watt, Alexander Stuart : Lecturer in Forest 
Botany, 73. 

Watt, Pte. David G. M. : death of, 232, 288. 

Watt, Corpl. Edward : death of, 225. 

Watt, Myra : note on, 86, 183. 

Wattie, Mary F. C. : note on, 180. 

Webster, George P. : note on, 88. 

West Point Military Academy, U.S.A. 
By Professor R. J. Harvey- Gibson, 128. 

Westland, Albert : term of office as Asses- 
sor extended, 174 ; death of, 186. 

Westland, Sir James : note on, 82, 271. 

Whyte, Rev. Dr. Alexander : note on, 183. 

Whyte, James : death of, 96, 227. 

Whyte, James Strath ; note on, 85. 

Wilkie, John Christie : note on, 183. 

Will, Captain William M. : Order of St. 
Sava, 269. 

Williamson, Capt. George A. : note on, 
178. 

Williamson, Capt. M. J. : mentioned in de- 
spatches, 178. 

Wilson, Rev. Alexander; note on, 83. 

Wilson, Rev. John : death of, 92. 

Wilson, Louisa Mary: note on, 275. 

Wilson, Pte. Robert : taken prisoner, 229. 

Wishart, Frederick : note on, 183. 

Women Graduates, War Register of, 270. 

Wood, Pte. David: death of, 225. 

Wright, Rev. George T. : note on, 85. 

Wright, Helen ; note on, 275. 

Young, A. H. : Rev. Professor W. R. Clark, 

Toronto, 253. 
Youth who Carried a Light, The. By 

Thomas Hardy, 97. 



IH 



Illustrations. 

The Late Alexander Mackie, M.A. Frontispiece 

The Late William Dey, LL.D To face page ^gg 

Old Aberdeen Grammar School : The Barn „ log 

Sketch Map of the Near East ,, 154 

Professor Clerk Maxwell „ ig3 

Genealogical Tree : The Antiquity of Man ..... „ 235 



UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN 



SUPPLEMENT 



TO 



PROVISIONAL ROLL OF SERVICE 

1915-16 



This Supplement to the Provisional Roll of Service has 
been closed on June 30, 191 6, so as to cover a full year from 
the close of the Provisional Roll issued in July, 191 5, with Vol. 
II. of the Aberdeen University Review. 

The Supplement, which follows the same divisions as the 
Roll, contains not only all new names reported during the year, 
but the names of any transferred from one branch of'H.M.'s 
Forces to another and of all previously reported in the ranks 
who have now been commissioned. A list is also given of 
graduates serving under the British Red Cross Society. This 
is far from complete. 

The list of the fallen, eighty-four, is given from the begin- 
ning. It has not been found possible to give a full list of the 
wounded ; they number over one hundred and thirty. 

The references within brackets are to the pages of the 
Provisional Roll ; those without brackets are to the pages of 
this Supplement. 

An article by the Principal entitled ** Two years of War : 
The Record of the University," appears on pp. 214-33 of the 
number of the Review with which this Supplement is issued ; 
and a summary of the numbers of graduates, alumni, and 
students on service will be found on p. 215. 

Corrections and Additions should be addressed to, 

AND WILL be gratefully RECEIVED BY, 

THE PRINCIPAL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN. 

Marischal College, Aberdeen. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



5n /IDemoriam i 

I. The Staff 8 

II. Graduates lo 

Commissioned . . .10 

Enlisted 21 

Attested . .25 

British Red Cross Society .26 

III. Alumni 27 

Commissioned . 27 

Enlisted 28 

« 

IV. Students . 31 

Commissioned 31 

Enlisted 35 

Officers Training Corps, Aberdeen University ... 40 

Summary of Provisional Roll and this Supplement ... 42 



5n ^emoriam. 



Medical Officer Thomas Peppe Fraser, H.M. Colonial 
Medical Service, West African Medical Stafif, attached 
to troops on reconnaissance on the eastern frontier of 
Nigeria, where he was killed in action, 5 September, 
1914, aged 35 M.B., Ch.B., '01 

Maj. Alexander Kirkland Robb, 2nd Batt. Durham Light 
Infantry, died of wounds received in action, France, 

20 September, 191 4 Matr. Student, '89 
Surgeon William Mellis Mearns, Royal Navy, sank with 

H.M.S. "Formidable," i Jan., 1915, aged 31 M.B., Ch.B., '08 
Lieut. -Col. William Henry Gray, Indian Medical Service, 

died on recall to Service, January, aged 52 M.B., Ch.B., '86 

Lieut. Angus Forsyth Legge, attached Singapore Volun- 
teer Corps, killed in the Singapore Mutiny, 16 
February, aged 25 M.B., Ch.B., '12 

2nd Lieut. Lewis Neil Griffith Ramsay, 3rd, attd. 2nd, 
Batt. Gordon Hrs., killed in action at Neuve Chapelle, 

21 March, aged 25 

M.A., 191 1 ; B.Sc. (with special distinction in Botany), *I2 
Lance-Corpl. Edward Watt, 4th Seaforth Hrs., died 22 
March, of wounds received in action at Neuve 
Chapelle, 10 March, aged 23 B.Sc. (Agr.), '14 

Private James Orr Cruickshank, D (late U) Coy. 4th Batt. 

Gordon Hrs., killed in Flanders, 15 April, aged 19 ist Sci. 

Sergt. Victor Charles MacRae, D (late U) Coy. 4th Batt. 
Gordon Hrs., killed in Flanders when attempting 
to remove a wounded comrade, 21 April, aged 23 

M.A., 1st Class Hons. in Classics, '14 
Sergt. Alexander Skinner, 4th Batt. Gordon Hrs., killed 
in action in Flanders, 22 April, aged 31 

Teacher in Dumbarton; Arts & Sci. Stud., '09-' 11 



2 In Memoriam 

Corpl. Keith Mackay, D (late U) Coy. 4th Batt. Gordon 
Hrs., died 28 April, in a Casualty Clearing Hospital, 
France, of wounds received in action, 20 March, 
aged 20 2nd Arts & ist Med. ; M.A., '15 

Private Alexander Mitchell, D (late U) Coy. 4th Batt. 
Gordon Hrs., died 28 April, in a Field Hosp., 
France, of wounds received 27 April, aged 25 2nd Arts 

Lieut. Geoffrey Gordon (p. 15), Special Reserve, attd. 12th 
(Pr. of Wales Royal) Lancers, killed in action in 
Flanders, 30 April I.C.S. ; M.A., '03 

Private David Wood Crichton, D (late U) Coy. 4th Gordon 

Hrs., killed in action, Flanders, 7 May, aged 18 1st Agr. 

Private John Forbes Knowles, D (late U) Coy. 4th Batt 
Gordon Hrs., killed in action, Flanders, 5 May, aged 
24 United Free Church Div. Student ; M.A.,'l2 

Sapper James Sanford Murray, 51st (Highl. Divisional) 
Signal Coy. (formerly Pte. E Coy., 4th Batt. Gordon 
Hrs.), died in a Field Hospital, France, of wounds 
received the same day, 27 May, aged 20 2nd Arts 

Private Robert Hugh Middleton, 4th Batt. Gordon Hrs., 

killed in action, Flanders, i June, aged 22 3rd Arts 

Private Marianus Alex. Gumming, 4th Gordon Hrs., killed 
in action, Flanders, 14 June, aged 23 

Asst. Teacher, Kemnay ; M. A, ' 1 2 

Private Harry Lyon, 4th Batt. Gordon Hrs., killed in 

action, Flanders, 17 June, aged 22 2nd Arts 

Lieut. Wm. Leslie Scott, 5th Gordon Hrs., killed in action, 

Flanders, 16 June, aged 22 3rd Med. 

L.-Corpl. Andrew Thomson Fowlie, 4th Gordon Hrs., killed 

in action, Flanders, 16 June, aged 26 Un. Dipl. Agr., '09 

Private James Clapperton Forbes, 4th Gordon Hrs., killed 

in action, Flanders, 16 June, aged 20 3rd Agr. 

Private Robert Patrick Gordon, 4th Gordon Hrs., killed in 

action, Flanders, 17 June, aged 19 2nd Arts 

Private James Whyte, 4th Gordon Hrs., died of wounds 

received in action, 16 June, aged 21 2nd Arts 

L.-Sergt. Alex. David Duncan, 4th Gordon Hrs., died of 

wounds received in action, 16 or 17 June, aged 21 M.A., '14 



In Memoriam 3 

L.-Corpl. Murdo Maclver, 4th Gordon Hrs., killed in 

action, Flanders, 19 June, aged 20 3rd Agr. 

Private George McSween, 4th Gordon Hrs., killed in 

action, 16 June, aged 23 Aberdeen Training Centre 

2nd Lieut. Frederick Alexander Rose, 4th Batt. Gordon 
Hrs., killed in action in Flanders, 10 August, aged 25 

M.A., 1st Hons. Eng., *ii ; B.A., Oxon. 

Lance-Corpl. James Cruickshank, 3rd, trsf., 1st Batt. 
Gordon Hrs., died of wounds received in action in 
Flanders, July, 191 5 1st Arts; 3rd Bursar, '14 

Sergt. John McLean Thomson, 4th Batt. Gordon Hrs., 
killed in action in Flanders, July, I9i5,#aged 26 

United Free Church Div. Student ; M.A., 'ii 

Sergt. Alexander Allardyce, 4th Batt. Gordon Hrs., Sergt. 
of Bombers, killed in action in Flanders, 20 July, 
191 5, aged 30 M.A, '04 ; B.L. 

Capt. Arthur Kellas, 89th Field Ambulance, killed in action 

on the Dardanelles, 5 August, 191 5, aged 31 M.B., '06 

? Douglas Jamieson, 8th Australian Light Horse, killed in 

action on the Dardanelles, 7 August Former Agr. Stud. 

Sergt. George Cameron Auchinachie, ist Batt. Gordon 
Hrs., killed in Flanders, 23 August, 191 5, aged 24, by 
bursting of a shell ; previously thrice wounded 

Med. Student, 'io-'l3 

Private Alexander John Fowlie, 13th Infantry Batt, 
Australian Imperial Force, killed in action on the 
Dardanelles, August, 191 5, aged 26 M.A., *u 

Lieut -Col. John Ellison Macqueen, commanding 6th Batt ' 

Gordon Hrs., killed in action about Loos, Flanders, 
25 September, 191 5, aged 40 Law Student, '91 -'9 5 

Lieut Frederick Charles Stephen, 6th Batt Gordon Hrs., 
(pp. 29, 42), killed in action about Loos, Flanders, 
25 September, 191 5, aged 29 M.A., ist Hons. Maths., '09 

2nd Lieut George Macbeth C alder, 8th Batt Gordon Hrs., 
(pp. 61, 67)^ killed in action about Loos, Flanders, 
25 September, 191 5, aged 24 2nd Med., M.A., '15 

2nd Lieut Ian Catto Eraser, 2nd Batt Argyll and Suther- 
land Hrs. (pp. 61, 6^\ killed in action, Flanders, 25 
September, 191 5, aged 20 1st Arts 



4 In Memoriam 

2nd Lieut. William Robert Kennedy, 4th Batt. Seaforth 
Hrs. (pp. 63, 68), killed in action in Flanders, 25 
September, 191 5, aged 19 ist Med., '14- IS 

2nd Lieut. John Cook Macpherson, ist Batt. Gordon Hrs. 
(pp. 17, 46), died of wounds received in action about 
Hooge, Flanders, 25 September, 191 5, aged 29 

M.A., '10 ; LL.B. 

2nd Lieut. Ian Charles McPherson, 3rd, attd. 2nd, Batt. 
Gordon Hrs., killed in action about Loos, Flanders, 
25 September, 191 5, aged 21 M.A., '14 

2nd Lieut. George Buchanan Smith, S.R.O., attd. 2nd Batt. 
Gordon Hrs. (p. 15), killed in action about Loos, 
Flanders, 25 September, aged 24 

M.A., Hons. Hist. (Glas.); LL.B., '14 

2nd Lieut. William John Campbell Sangster, 4th Batt. 
Gordon Hrs. (p. 29), killed in action about Hooge, 
JFlanders, 25 September, 191 5, aged 20 M.A., '14 

Sergt. John Keith Forbes, i/4th Batt. Gordon Hrs. (p. 44), 
killed in action near Hooge, Flanders, 25 Sep- 
tember, 191 5 United Free Church Div. Student ; M.A., '05 

Sergt. Alexander David Marr, 7th Batt. Gordon Hrs. (p. 
46), killed in action in Flanders, 25 September, 1 91 5, 
aged 23 M.A., Hons. Maths., '14 

Sergt. Bertram Wilkie Tawse, 4th Batt. Cameron Hrs. 
(p. 45), killed in action, Flanders, 25 September, 
191 5, aged 31 M.A., Hons. Maths., '05 ; B.Sc. 

Corpl. William Stephen Haig, 4th Batt. Gordon Hrs. (p. 
45), killed in action about Hooge, Flanders, 25 Sep- 
tember, 191 5* aged 22 M.A., '14 

Private James Anderson, .4th Batt. Gordon Hrs. (p. 6y\ 
died a prisoner at Giessen from wounds received in 
action near Hooge, Flanders, 25 September, 191 5, 
aged 23 3rd Arts 

Private William Donald, 4th Batt. Gordon Hrs. (p. 67), 
killed in action about Hooge, Flanders, 25 Septem- 
ber, 191 5, aged 22 2nd Arts 

Private John Bimie Ewen, 2 /4th Batt. Gordon Hrs. (p. 44), 
killed in action near Hooge, Flanders, 25 September, 
1915, aged22 M. A., Hons. Class., '14 



In Memoriam 5 

Private John Hampton Strachan Mason, 4th Batt. Gordon 
Hrs. (p. 46), killed in action near Hooge, 25 Sep- 
tember, 191 5, aged 24 M.A., Hons. Engl, '13 

Private Duncan MacGregor, 4th Gordon Hrs (p. 66), fell 
in action near Hooge, Flanders, 25 September, 191 5 

About to matriculate 

Private Roderick Dewar MacLennan, i/4th Batt. Gordon 
Hrs. (p. 70), killed in action near Hooge, Flanders, 
25 September, 1915, aged 18 1st Arts, 'i4-'i5 

Private Gordon Dean Munro, i/4th Batt. Gordon Hrs. 
(p. 66), died, a prisoner, of wounds received in action 
near Hooge, 25 September, 191 5, aged 20 ist Med. 

Private Alexander Silver, 4th Batt. Gordon Hrs. (p. 69), 
died a prisoner in a German Hospital of wounds re- 
ceived in action near Hooge, Flanders, 25 Sep- 
tember, 191 5, aged 2 1 2nd Arts and Agr. 

Private James Stuart, 6th iBatt. Gordon Hrs., killed in 
action near Loos, Flanders, 25 September, 191 5 

Private Frederick William Milne, 4th Batt. Gordon Hrs. 
(p. 70), killed in action near Hooge, October, 191 5, 
aged 19 1st Med., ' 1 4-' 1 5 

Maj. (Tempy.) James Mowat, R.A.M.C. (p. 32), late Fleet- 
Surg. R.N., sank with transport in Mediterranean, 
1915 M.B.,'91 

Herbert Mather Jamieson, entd. (p. 22) as Temporary 
Lieut. R.A.M.C, volunteered for med. service in R.N., 
died 26 September, 191 5, aged 33 M.B., '04 

Rev. Robert Murray, Chaplain, Royal Australian Naval 
Reserve (p. 42), died 9 October, 191 5, aged 52 

M.A., '83 ; B.D. St. And. 

Lieut. Hector MacLennan Guthrie, 3rd, attd. Batt. 
Lancashire Fusiliers (p. 15), killed in action, Gallipoli, 
191 5, aged 23 M.A., 1st Hons. Eng., '14 

Lieut. James Reston Gardiner Garbutt, R.A.M.C, attd 
King's Own Scottish Borderers, killed in action in 
Flanders, i December, 191 5, aged 26 M.B., 'ii 

L.-Corpl. Alexander Slorach, 4th Batt. Gordon Hrs. 
(P- 69), accidentally killed in the trenches near Hooge, 
Flanders, 25 December, 1915, aged 21 2nd Arts 



6 In Memoriam 

Christian Davidson Maitland or Grant, sank with her hus- 
band on the ** Persia," torpedoed in the Mediter- 
ranean, 30 December, 1915 B.Sc, '08; M.B. (Edin.) 

Surgeon (Tempy.) Douglas Whimster Keiller Moody, R.N. 
(p. 14), sank with H.M.S. " Natal" in harbour, 30 
December, 191 5, aged 42 M.B., '00; M.D. 

Lieut. William George Rae Smith, loth King's Own York- 
shire Light Infantry, attd. 21st Divisional Cyclists 
(p. 55), killed in action while saving a wounded com- 
rade, 24 January, 191 6 Former Agr. Stud. 

Lieut. George Dewar, R.A.M.C. (p. 21), killed in action in 

Flanders, January, 1916, aged 23 M.B., '15 

Lieut. Richard Gavin Brown, R.A.M.C. (p. 20), died in 5th 
Southern General Hospital (after operation following 
on dysentery contracted on service in Gallipoli, 14th 
Casualty Clearing Station, attd. i ith Div. Suvla Bay), 
14 February, 1916, aged 33 M.B., '03 

Lieut. Charles Thomas Mc William, 5th Batt. Gordon Hrs. 
(p. 29), killed in action, 19 March, 1 916, in France, 
aged 26 M.A., '13 

Captain (Tempy.) George Mitchell Johnston, attd. 7th 
Royal Irish Rifles (p. 30), killed in action in France, 
3 April, 1 91 6, aged 26 B.Sc. (Agr.), *m 

Lieut. James Duguid, 7th N. Staffordshire Regt., killed in 

action, Mesopotamia, 9 April, 19 16 Former Agr. Stud. 

Private David George Melrose Watt, R.A.M.C. (p. 72), 
died on service at Aldershot, 26 April, 191 6, aged 19 

1st Med, 'i5-'l6 

Fleet-Surg. William Rudolf Center (p. 53), died from 
burning injuries sustained on the sinking of H.M.S. 
" Russell," 28 April, 1916, aged about 45 Former Med. Stud. 

Deputy-Surg, General Cyril James Mansfield (p. 13), 

died at Gosport, 7 May, 1916, aged 55 M.B., '83 ; M.D., '96 

Qr.M.-Sergt. Charles McGregor, loth Batt. Gordon Hrs. 
(p. 46), died of wounds received in action in France, 
14 May, 1 91 6, aged 43 M.A., ist Hons. Maths., '96 

2nd Lieut. Robert Reid, 9th Gordon Hrs. (pp. 17, 47), 
killed in action in France, 21 May, 191 6, aged 23 

Mi A., Hons. Class., '14 



In Memoriam 7 

Corpl Norman John Robertson, 4th Gordon Hrs. (p. 47), 
died of wounds received in action, 30 May, 19 16, 
aged 26 M.A., '14 

2nd Lieut. Frank Lipp, Scottish Rifles, attd. Welsh 
Fusiliers, died at Karachi, 30 May, 1 91 6, of wounds 
received in action in Mesopotamia, aged 24 M.A., '11 

Coy.-Sergt. Major Charles Neilson, Gordon Hrs. (p. 47), 
killed in action in France, June, 1916, aged 26 

Teacher; M.A., '13 

Private George Alexander Brown, Machine Gun Section, 
4th Batt. Gordon Hrs. (p. 66\ killed in action in 
France, June, 191 6, aged 19 7th Arts Bursar, '14 

Sergt. Robert Donald, Intelligence Section, 4th Gordon 
Hrs. (p. 66), killed in action in France, June, 191 6, 
aged 21 1st Arts 

Lieut. Alfred George Morris, Gordon Hrs., killed in action, 

I June, 1916 Agr. Stud., '11 

2nd Lieut. James Smith Hastings (Sergt. p. 45), 3/4 th 

Gordon Hrs., died at Ripon, June, 191 6 M.A., '12 

Corpl. John Bowie, Special Brigade, R.E., died of gas- 
poisoning in France, June, 191 6, aged 21 ist Arts and Sci. 

Corpl. George Dawson (Pte. Roy. Scots p. 44), Special 
Brigade, R.E., killed in action in France, 28 June, 
1916, aged 33 M.A., ist Hons. Maths., '05 ; B.Sc. (Spec, dist.) 

Lieut. Robert Mackie Riddel, Service Batt. Gordon Hrs. 
(Pte. p. 70), killed in action in France, i July, 191 6, 
aged 24 2nd Arts 

2nd Lieut. William Adrian Davidson, 2nd Gordon Hrs. 
(p. 61), wounded at Loos, 25 September, 191 5, died 
of wounds received in action, 2 July, 191 6, aged 21 ist Med. 

2nd Lieut Frederick Attenborow Conner, 2nd Seaforth 
Hrs. (p. 32), killed in action in France, July, 191 6, 
aged 21 1st Agr. 

2nd Lieut. George McCurrach, 13th Highl. Light Infantry, 
see p. II, killed in action in France, July, 191 6, 
aged 35 Teacher; M. A., '08 



I. THE STAFF. 

MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY COURT. 

Col. Scott Riddell, M.V.O., Member of Council, Scottish Branch Red 
Cross Society and Commissioner for N.E. District of Scotland. 

MEMBERS OF THE TEACHING AND RESEARCH STAFFS. 

Emeritus-Professor David White Finlay, B.A., M.D. (Glas.), LL.D, 

(Yale and Aberd.), Tempy. Lieut. -Col. R.A.M.C., in charge of 

Red Cross Hospital, Bellahouston, Glasgow. 
James Duguid, M.A., Lecturer in Conveyancing, Lieut. -Col. and Hon. 

Col. V.D., National Reserve, Chairman of the Aberdeen Munitions 

Tribunal. 
Francis E. A. Campbell, M.A. (T.C.D.), Ph.D. (Greifswald), Lecturer 

in the English Language, 2nd Lieut. Staff Censorship Dept. 
John Eraser, M.A., Lecturer in Celtic and Comparative Philology, 

University Assistant in Humanity. Post under the War Office. 
Alex. Stuart Watt, B.Sc, Lecturer in Forest Botany and Zoology, 

Chemists' Section, M Company, R.E. 
Thomas Jack, M.A. (Glas.), University Assistant in Moral Philo- 
sophy with status of Lecturer, Sapper 2/3 rd Lowland Field 

Company, R.E. (T.F.). 
Macgregor Skene, B.Sc, D.Sc, University Assistant in Botany with 

status of Lecturer, 2nd Lieut, ist Highl. Brig. R.F.A. (T.F.). 
Edward Wyllie Fenton, M.A., B.Sc, University Assistant in Botany, 

2nd Lieut, ist Highl. Brig. R.F.A. 
Bertram Mitchell Laing, M.A. ('ii), University Assistant in Logic, 

Private, nth Gordon Hrs. 
David Glass Larg, M.A. ('15), University Assistant in French, Private, 

14th London Regiment (London Scottish). 
Ranald Macdonald, Assistant in Zoology, 2nd Lieut. 7th Gordons. 
Robert Pearson Masson, M.A. ('06) ; LL.B., Tutor in Law. 

8 



The StafF 9 

George Newlands, M.A. ('11), B.Sc, University Assistant in Geology, on 

munitions work. 
George Rae, B.Sc. ('06), University Assistant in Mathematics, Gunner 

R.G.A. 
Wm. George Reid, M.A., University Assistant in Greek, 9th (Scot.) 

Cadet Batt. Gailes, with view to a commission. 

*^* Several other members of the Staff were attested under the Group 
System but have been exempted. Others are employed during vaca- 
tion on munitions or for other purposes of the war. 

UNIVERSITY SACRIST AND SERVANTS. 

George S. Robertson, 2nd Lieut, ist Highl. Brigade R.F.A. 

Harry Alex. Wood, formerly Attendant, Chemistry Dept., then 

private Laboratory Assistant, Agricultural Dept., 2nd. Lieut. 

nth Gordon Hrs. 
George Dower, Agriculture, Gunner, 32nd Brig. R.F.A. 

SECRETARY'S OFFICE. 
Norman Allen Troup, Private R.A.M.C. 

THE LIBRARY. 

Charlotte Robertson, Assistant Librarian, Orderly in the Scottish 
Women's Hospital, Salonika. 



II. GRADUATES. 

GRADUATES HOLDING COMMISSIONS. 

Surg. (Tempy.) Alex. Irvine Esslemont M.B., *gg 

Alfred Scott Mackie (fr. R.A.M.C, p. 72) M.B., '15 
f „ ,, Douglas Whimster Keiller Moody, to 

H.M.S. "Viceroy," addl. for Haslar 
Hospital: sank with the "Natal" in 
harbour, 30 Dec, 191 5 M.B., '00; M.D. 

„ „ Roland Sinclair M.B., '10 

„ „ Harry Forest Stephen (Tempy. Examin- 

ing Offr. Tyneside Scottish), H.M.S. 
"Clio". M.B., '15 

„ J, William Taylor M.B^ '10 

SURGEON PROBATIONERS. 

Charles Reid M.A, '14; 3rd Med., 'i5-'i6 

John Skinner M.A., '14; 3rd Med., 'i5-'id 

John Norrie, on War Service at Chatham Docks for instruc- 
tion of Govt, apprentices in engineering. 

Rev. George Richmond Murison, officiating minister to 

Presbyterians in the Navy M.A., 'y$ 

REGULAR ARMY. 

War Office Staff. 

John Eraser, University Lecturer, p. 18 M.A., '03 

Cavalry Special Reserve, 

f Lieut Geoffrey Gordon (late Capt Punjab Light Horse, 
Indian Volunteers), attd. 12th (Pr. of Wales Royal) 
Lancers, killed in action in Flanders, 30 April 

Assist. Commissr. Punjab I.C.S. ; M.A., '03 
10 



Temporary Commissions i r 

Infantry^ Special Reserve of Officers. 

2nd Lieut. David Stewart Dawson, 3rd Batt. Gordon Hrs. 

Div. Stud.; M.A., '10 
„ „ (Rev.) James Davidson Easton, Argyll and 

Sutherland Hrs. M.A., '11 

REGULAR ARMY TEMPORARY COMMISSIONS. 

Royal Artillery. 

2nd Lieut. Alex. Ogilvie, 1 57th (City of Aberd.) Brig. 

R.F.A. W.S. Edin. ; M.A., '02 

Royal Engineers. 

2nd Lieut. Evan MacDonald Burns (p. 44), Signal Service M.A., '14 

Infantry. 

2nd Lieut. John Lyon Booth (p. 44), attd. 2nd Seaforth 

Hrs. M.A., '14 

„ y, Chas. Gordon Elder, nth Gordon Hrs. Teacher; M.A., '10 

„ „ Jas. Fowler Eraser (Sergt. 4th Gordons, p. 44), 

Argyll and Sutherland Hrs. M.A., '14 

„ „ Robt. Andrew Dermond Forrest (Pr. 4th 

Gordons, p. 44), Gordon Hrs. M.A., '14 

„ „ John Garden Lamb (Sergt. 4th Gordons and 
R.F.C. p. 45), commd. for service in the 
field M.A., '13; B.Sc.(Agr.> 

t „ „ George McCurrach (Lance-Corpl. 3rd Gor- 
dons, p. 46), 13th Highl. Light Infantry, 
killed in action, July, 1 916 Teacher; M.A., '08- 

„ „ Hugh Sinclair Robertson, 9th Border Regt. 

Teacher; M.A., '06 

„ „ John S. Urquhart, 14th Argyll and Sutherland 

Hrs. M.A., '06 

R.A.M,C. Retired Officers who are Employed. 

Col. Douglas Wardrop, C.V.O., commdg. King Edward 

VII Convalescent Home for Ofifs., Osborne M.B., '75 

Brig.-Surg. Lt.-Col. James Forbes Beattie, M.A. (K.C.), '60; M.D.. '65 



1 2 Graduates 

R.A.M.C. Retired Officers Temporarily Employed. 
Lieut-Col. Charles William Thiele M.B., '80 

R,A.M.C. Temporary Majors. 

John Harley Brooks, Mile-end War Hospital M.B., '87 

Sir Robert John Collie, Member, Travelling Board, Lon- 
don Command M.B., '82 
William McDougall M.A., '96 ; M.B. (Edin.) 

R.A.M.C. Temporary Captains. 

William Ainslie M.B., '97 ; M.D, '13 ; F.R.C.S. (Edin.) 

Theodore Chalmers (of Rajputana) M.B., '06 

Douglas Gordon Cheyne M.B., '10 ; . M.D. 

Andrew Leslie Edmund Filmer Coleman M.B., '07 ; M.D. 

Alex. Mitchell Cowie M.B., '84 

Naughton Dunn M.A., '06]; M.B. 

George Alex. Finlayson, late Capt. Singapore Volunteer 

Corps M.A., '95 ; M.B. 

Alistair Sim Garden M.B., '06 

Ernest King Gawn M.B., '95 ; M.D. 

Herbert William Greig B.Sc, '10; M.B. 

William Leslie M.A., '10; M.B. 

John Glanville Milne M.B., '94 

Alfred Tennyson Smith M.B., '92 

Charles Mollyson Smith, O.C. 75th Field Amb. and M.O. 

8th Royal Scots, wounded at Festubert, 19 May, 191 5 M.B., '05 
William Samuel Ondeslowe Waring M.B., *95 

Alex. Wilson M.B., '09 

James Leslie Wilson (see p. 37) M.A., '92 ; M.B. (Durham) 

R.A.M.C. Temporary Lieutenants. 

? David Anderson M.A., '04; M.B. 
John Anderson (Pte. p. 71) M.B., '16 
Norman William Anderson M.B., '93 ; M.D. 
James Scott Annandale M.B., '10 
David Main Baillie, R.A.M.C. Training Centre, Long- 
bridge Deverill, Warminster M.B., '09; M.D. 
George Gordon Bruce M.B., '15 
James Ewen Cable (O.T.C., p. 74) M.B., '15 
Alex. Whyte Cassie M. A., '97 ; M.B. 
James Chalmers M.B., '12 



Commissions R.A.M.C. 13 

George Cooper (relinquished commission from ill health) M.B., '06 

Robert Ferguson Copland M.B., '15 

William Francis Cornwall M.B,, '96 

Alex. Henderson Cran M.A., '96; M.B. 

Francis William Davidson M.B., '04 
t George Dewar, killed in action in Flanders, January, 

1916, aged 23 M.B.,'15 

Walter James Billing M.B., '07 

George William Elder M.B., '15 

Francis William Falconer M.B., '05 

Alexander Farquhar, 23rd Div., B.E.F. M.B.,'15 

Simon John Coulter Fraser M.B., '93 ; M.D. 

|ohn Sawers Findlay M.B., '94 

Harold Turner Finlayson (p. 14) M.B., '12 

Alexander Fowlie Fraser M. A, '10 ; M.B. 

David Marmaduke Gill, 9th E. Yorks Regt. M.B., '85 

John Arthur Rinder Glennie (p. 42), relinq. com. M.B., '89 

James Leslie Gordon M.B., '96 ; M.D. 

William Gillespie Bryson Gunn M.B., '04 

William Scott Hall M.B., '97 

Claude Christian Hargreaves M.B., '15 

Arthur Joseph Hawes (Corpl. 4th Gordons, p. 6y) M.B., '16 

Stanley Henry M.B., *i6 

Harold George Rannie Jamieson M. A., '09 ; M.B. 

Edward Johnson M.B., '08 

Donald John Gair Johnston M.B., '02 

? Frederick Leonard Keith M.B., '04 

Forbes Kinnear M.B., '98 

Thomas Scott Law M.B., '16 

William Lumsden, Cromarty Defences, 1 3th Arg. Sthd. Hrs. M.B., '97 

John Alexander MacArthur, Gailes Camp M.B., '10 

Patrick Thomson Tulloch Macdonald M.A., '03 ; M.B. (Edin.) 

William George Macdonald, attd. Warwicks ; wounded M.B., '08 

William Stuart McGowan M.A., '88 ; M.D. 

Thomas MacHardy, Royal W. Surrey Regt. , M.B., '89 

Charles McKerrow M.B., '10 

Roderick Murdoch MacLennan M.B., '86 

John Farquhar McLeod M.B., '08 

Robert William MacPherson M.B., '06 ; M.D. 

Charles Wattie McPherson (O.T.C. p. 75) M.A., '13 ; M.B., '16 



14 Graduates 



Rae McRae M.B., *o8 ; M.D. 

John Gordon Smith Mennie M.B., '15 

Duncan Miller, M.O., nth King's Own Yorks. L. Inf. M.B.,'ii 

James Webster Miller M.B., '03 

Patrick George Milne M.B., '15 

Alex. Mennie Mitchell M.A., '95 ; M.B. 

William John Moir(O.T.C. p. 74) M.B., '16 

Joseph Henry Patterson B.A. (R.U.I.), M.B., '94 

Frank Le Quesne Pelly M.B., '03 

James Pirie, Tidworth Military Hospital M.A., '84 ; M.D. 

Mark Poison M.B., '93 

James Burnett Rae M.B., '02 

Archibald Ramsay , M.A.,'90; M.B. 

Alex. Dawson Reid, invalided from Gallipoli M.B., '10 

Alexander Rennie M.A., '80 ; M.B. 

George William Riddel M. B. , ' 1 4 

Frederick Ritchie M.B., '13 

James Dewar Robertson M.B., '10 

Robert Boyd Robson M.B., '02 

Thomas Ogilvie Robson (O.T.C. p. 73) M.B., '16 

Hermann Rogers-Tillstone, M.O. High Wycombe M.B., '81 ; M.D. 
James Russell M.A., '84 ; M.D. (Edin.) 

Herbert William Black Ruxton, M.O. and Assist. Comm., 

Percy House School Auxiliary Hosp., Isleworth M.B., '04 

Benjamin Theodore Saunders M.B., '13 

Albert Edward Barr Sim (O.T.C. p. 75) M.B., '16 

Alexander Bruce Simpson M.B., '99 

Donald French Skeen M.B., '06 

Richard Arthur Slater M.B., '93 

James Lind Smith M.A., *ii ; M.B., '13 

John Smith M.B., '15 

Alfred John Watson Stephen M.B., '08 

John Edward Thompson, 97th (CP.) Fd. Amb. 30th Div. M.B., '09 
Henry James Thomson M.B., '10 

? Joseph Alexander Thomson B.Sc, '95 ; M.B. 

Arthur George Troup, Mil. Hosp., Magdalen Camp, Win- 
chester, afterwards with Brit. Medit. Force. M.B., '06 ; M.D., '14 
Peter Mortimer Turnbull M.B., '01 

William Turner M.B., '01 



Commissions T.F. 15 

Leslie Valentine, relinq. com. M.B., '93 

Alex. Urquhart Webster, No. 33 Cas. CI. Stat, M.O. Scot. 

Red Cross Hosp. nth Stat. Hosp., Rouen M.A., '06 ; M.B., '10 
James Mitchell Whyte M.B., '14 

William Henry Wishart M.A., '00 ; B.Sc. ; M.B. 

Temporary Honorary Lieutenants. 

William Durward Cruickshank M.B., '15 

Joseph Russell Tibbies M.B., '15 

R.A.M.C, Special Reserve Supplementary Officers. 

Capt. Robert Scott dimming M.B., '15 

Lieut. Alex. Louis Cameron Mackenzie M.B., '15 

,, James Melvin' (p. 64) M.B., '15 

Capt. Thomas Menzies M.B., '15 

Lieut. John Taylor Scrogie M.B., '15 

Royal Army Veterinary Corps. 
2nd Lieut. Donald Gunn Munro M.A., '12 ; B.Sc. (Agr.), '13 

TERRITORIAL FORCE. 

Yeomanry. 

2nd Lieut. John Blackball Anderson (Sq. Sergt.-Maj. p. 43) 

Scottish Horse M.A., '90 

Royal Artillery. 

2nd Lieut. George Cruickshank (Pte. p. 44), 2/4th East 

Lanes. (How.) Brig. R.F.A. M.A., '13 

„ Edw. Wyllie Fenton, ist Highl. Brig., 

R.F.A. M.A., '12; B.Sc. 

„ ,, James Ross (Pte. 4th Gordons, p. 47), 2/4th 

Highl. Mtd. Brig. R.F.A. M.A., '10 

„ „ Macgregor Skene, 1st Highl. Brig. R.F. A. B.Sc.,'09; D.Sc. 
,, „ Harold Thompson (Pte. 4th Gordons, p. 48), ist 

Highl. Brig. R.F.A. M.A., '12 

Royal Engineers. 

Lieut. (Tempy.) James Barclay Rennett (late Lieut. 1st 
Aberd. R.E. Volunteers), Highl. Div. Engineers 

Advocate, C.A. ; M.A, '88 



1 6 Graduates 

Infantry. 

Capt. Alex. John Ramsay Thain (late Capt. and Hon. 

Maj. 1st Vol. Batt. Gordon Hrs.), 3/4th Gordon Hrs. M.A., '84 
„ Alexander William Black, 5th Seaforth Hrs. B.Sc. (Agr.), '09 
Lieut. James Cruickshank Smith (p. 50), 4th Gordon 

Hrs. B.Sc, '91 

2nd Lieut. Wm. Bruce Anderson (Pte. p. 44), 5th Gordon 

Hrs. M.A.,'ii 

„ „ Alex. Fairweather Both well (Corpl. p. 69), 

3/4th Gordon Hrs. M.A., '15 

(Rev.) Douglas W. Bruce, C.S., 3/4th Gordon Hrs. M. A., '07 
Alex. Cheyne (Pte. p. 44), 5th Gordon Hrs. 

U.F.C. Div. Stud.; M.A., '12 
Norman Crichton (Pte. 2/4th Gordons, p. 44), 

3/4th Seaforth Hrs. U.F.C. Div. Stud. ; M.A., '11 

Robert Thomson Donald (Pte. 4th Gordons, 

p. 44), 3/7th Black Watch M.A., '14 

Balfour Downie (Sergt. 3 /6th Gordons, p. 44), 

6th Gordon Hrs. Teacher ; M.A., '09 

Edgar Hunter Ewen (Sergt. 3/6th Gordons, 

p. 44), 5th Roy. Scots Teacher; M.A., '04 

„ „ Charles Farquharson, 3 /9th Argyll and Suth- 
erland Hrs. Teacher; M.A., '05 
„ „ James Fowler Eraser (Sergt. 4th Gordons, p. 44) M.A., '14 
„ „ Charles Strachan Hadden, 3/7th Gordon 

Hrs. M.A., '12; LL.B. 

+„ „ James Smith Hastings (Serg. p. 45), 3/4th 

Gordon Hrs., died June, 1916 Teacher; M.A., '12 

„ „ Edward Hutton Hay, Gordon Hrs. Teacher; M.A., '83 
„ „ Henry Watt Johnston (Pte. p. 45), 3/4th 

Gordon Hrs. Teacher; M.A., '11 

„ ,, John Alexander King, 3/4th Gordons Teacher; M.A., '09 
„ „ James Cruden Knox, 3/4th Gordons Teacher ; M. A., '97 
„ „ Fred. Wm. Law (Pte. p. 45), 3 /4th Gordons 

M.A.,'12; B.Sc. (Agr.) 
„ „ Douglas Meldrum Watson Leith (Pte. p. 45), 

4th Gordon Hrs. M.A., '13 ; B.Sc. (Agr.) 

„ „ James Argentine Littlejohn (Pte. p. 45), 7th 

Gordon Hrs. B.Sc, '08 



Commissions T.F. 17 

2nd Lieut. George Low (Coy. Sergt.-Maj. p. 45), Gordon 

Hrs., missing since 25 Sept., 191 5 Teacher; M.A.,'14 
„ „ Edward Mcintosh (Pte. p. 46), 6th Gordon Hrs. M.A., '15 
,, „ James Mackie, 4th Seaforth Hrs. B.Sc. (Agr.), '10 

„ „ John Macpherson, Sherwood Forresters M.B., '09 

„ „ John McQueen (Sergt. 2/4th Gordon Hrs., 

p. 46), 6th Cameron Hrs. Teacher; M.A,, '14 

„ „ Marshall Merson (Pte. 4th Gordon Hrs. p. 46), 

5th R. Sc. Fusiliers C.S. Prob. ; M.A., '12 

„ „ John Munro (L.-Corpl. 2/4th Seaforths, p. 46), 

Seaforth Hrs. M.A., '14 

„ „ Herbert Murray (Pte. p. 47), 3/4th Gordon 

Hrs. Teacher; M.A., '08 

„ „ Murdo Murray (Pte. p. 47), 3/4th Seaforth 

Hrs. Teacher; M.A., '13 

„ „ James Buchanan Paterson (Sergt. 3/6th 

Gordons, p. 47), 6th Gordon Hrs. Teacher; M.A., '01 
„ ,, James Patterson (Corpl. p. 47), 7th Gordon Hrs., 

wounded, 7 July, 1916 Law Stud. ; M.A., '15 

„ „ William Allan Robertson, 3/4th Batt. Royal 

Scots M.A., '02 ; Ph.D. 

„ „ George Douglas Rose, 3/4th Gordon Hrs. M.A., '15 

„ „ George Shepherd (Sergt. p. 47), 3/7th Gordon 

Hrs. Teacher; M.A., '03 

„ „ Harold Addison Sinclair, 3/4th Gordon Hrs. M.A., '02 

„ „ James George Slessor, 3/4th Gordon Hrs. M.A, '99 

„ ,, Douglas Robert Smith, 8th City of London Regt. M.A. '12 
„ ,, Wm. Tarrel (Corpl. p. 48), 3 /4th Gordon Hrs. 

attd. I /6th Black Watch Teacher; M.A., '13 

,, „ Wm. Taylor (Pte. p. 48), 3/4th Gordon Hrs. 

Div. Stud.; M.A., '13 
„ ,, Harold Thompson (Pte. p. 48) Teacher; M.A., '12 

„ „ James Oliver Thomson (Camb. O.T.C., p. 

48), King's Own Yorks, L.I. M.A., 'i i 

„ „ (Rev.) Michael Cunningham Wilson, H.L.I. 

M.A., '01 ; B.D. 

National Reserve. 
Lieut-Col. & Hon. Col. James Duguid, V.D., see p. 8 M.A., '67 



1 8 Graduates 

R.A,M.C. Territorial Force, 

Maj. Cresswell Fitzherbert White, mentd. in dispatches M.B., '87 

„ (Tempy.) John Hector Stephen, invalided from 

GaUipoH B.Sc, '00 ; M.B. 

„ (Tempy.) Walter Richard Stephen, Fd. Amb., France M.B., '08 
Capt. Alex. Main Baillie (Sergt. p. 72), Highl. Fd. Amb. M.B., '15 
„ Clifford Thiselton Bell, ist Scot. Gen. Hosp. M.B., '96 

„ Ian Gordon Bisset, ist Scot. Gen. Hosp. M.B., '14 

„ Patrick Thomas Catto (p. 74), ist Scot. Gen. Hosp. M.B., '15 
„ (?) James Davidson, Highl. Cas. CI. Stat. M.B., *02 

„ James Don, M.O. Pendawar V.A.D. Hospital, 

Newcastle M.B., '88 ; M.D. 

„ James'Farquhar, attd. 2/ioth Manchester Regt. M.A., '97 ; M.B. 
„ Charles Forbes, Highl. Cas. CI. Stat. M.B., '01 

„ James McLean MacFarlane, Highl. Cas. CI. Stat. 

(fr. p. 22) M.B./oo; M.D. 

,, John Wm. McKeggie, 2/2nd Highl. Fd. Amb. M.B., '15 

„ Joseph Ellis Milne, Highl. Cas. CI. Stat. (fr. p. 

22) M.A., '88; M.D. 

„ Robert Richards, rst Scot. Gen. Hosp. M.B., '07 

,, Wm. Scatterty, 2nd N. Gen. Hosp. in charge of 

Auxiliary Hosp. Keighley, Yorks M.A., '81 ; M.D. 

,, James Alex. Sellar, 2/2nd Highl. Fd. Amb. (see p. 75) M.B., '15 
Lieut. William Alexander, Highl. Cas. CI. Stat. M.A. ; M.B., '16 

„ Walter Bailey-Thomson, 3/ ist Notts, and Derby 

Mtd. Br. Fd. Amb. M.B., '14 

„ Fred. Wm. Campbell Brown, ist Scot. Gen. Hosp. M.B., '15 
„ Bernard Langridge Davis, Highl. Fd. Amb. M.B., '15 

„ Harry Gordon Donald, 2/2nd Highl. Fd. Amb. M.B., '15 

„ Robert Grey, Highl. Fd. Amb. M.B., '14 

„ Alex. Fraser MacBean, Highl. Div. Sanitary 

Section M.A., '01 ; M.B. 

„ Arthur Alexander Mackenzie, Highl. Cas. CI. Stat. M.B., 'j6 
„ James Mitchell Mitchell (O.T.C p. 75), N. Midi. Mtd. 

Brig. Fd Amb. Medit. M.B., '15 

„ Arthur George Reid (O.T.C. p. 74), Highl. Fd. Amb. M.B., '16 
„ Forbes Simmers (O.T.C. p. 74) M.B., '16 

„ Alex. Urquhart, ist London Cas. Cl. Stat. M.A., '94; M.D. 



Chaplains T.F. 19 

Lieut. Wm. Chas. Davidson Wilson (p. 73), 2/2nd Highl. 

Fd. Amb. M.B., '15 

2nd Lieut. George Stewart Davidson (Sergt. O.T.C. p. 73), 
to unattd. List T.F. for service with 
Aberd. Univ. Cont. O.T.C. M.A., '14 

„ Wm. Calthorpe Mackinnon (Sergt. O.T.C. p. 
73), to unattd. List T.F. for service with 
Aberd. Univ. Cont. O.T.C. M.A., '13 

Re-employed. 

Lieut. -Col. Walter Smith Cheyne. Retired T.F., M.O., 

R.F.A., Aberdeen M.B., '76 ; M.D. 

Sanitary Service — Sanitary Companies. 

Lieut. Alex. Middleton Brown, 2nd London Coy. 

M.A., '07; M.B., 'II ; D.P.H., '13 ; M.D. 
„ Douglas Porter, 2nd London Coy. M.B., '08 

Sanitary Officers. 
Capt. Alex. Gregor M.B., '93 ; M.D. 

Territorial Force Reserve R.A.M.C. 
Lieut. -Col. Thomas Churton, 2nd N. Gen. Hosp. M.B., *y6 ; M.D. 

INDIAN SERVICES. 
Wm. Duncan Vivian Slesser, Superintendent of Police in Bannu, 
N.W.F.P., India, commanding 500 armed police. M.A., '08 

Indian Medical Service. 
Lieut. Andrew Hunter Brown M.A., '12 ; B.Sc. ; M.B., '15 

„ William Peat Hogg (fr. p. 21.) M.B., '12 

? „ Eric Newton M.B., '15 



ARMY CHAPLAINS' DEPARTMENT. 

Rev. David Bruce Nicol (C.S.), Tempy., 4th CI. M.A., '05 ; B.D. 

„ Joseph Pickthall, Tempy., 3rd Class M.A., '09; B.D., '12 

„ Ivo Macnaghton Clark (C.S.), 3rd CI. attd. i/sth 
(Angus and Dund.) Batt. The Black Watc^ 
B.E.F., France M.A., '04 



20 Graduates 

Rev. William Walker Cruickshank (CS.), 4th CI. M.A., 'oi ; B.D. 

Adam Fyfe Findlay (U.F.C.), 4th CL, Scottish Horse M.A., '89 

William Wallace Gauld (U.F.C.), 4th CI. M.A., '02 

Alexander McBain, 4th CI. M.A., '08 

Ewen MacLean (U.F.C.), 4th CL M.A., '06 

William Watson (U.F.C.) M.A., '04 

Angus Boyd (CS.) M.A., '07 

Wm. Ogg (U.F.C.) M.A., '82 
Christian Victor Aeneas MacEchern (C.S.), (p. 48) 

is acting Chaplain to Presbyterian troops, Malta M.A., '07 

Indian Army. 
Rev. Peter Milne (C.S.), N. Bengal Mtd. Rifles (Served in 
Kimberley Town Guard S. Afr. War, '00-' 01 with 
medal) M.A., '85 ; B.D. 

Federated Malay States. 
Rev. Ernest Denny Logie Danson, Malay States Rifle 

Volunteers M.A., '02 
East African Force. 
Rev. James Tindall Soutter (C.S.), Tempy., 4th Class, 

mentd. in despatches M.A., '10 

FORCES OF H.M. DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS. 

Canadian Forces. 

Capt. Charles Hunter M.A., '94; M.D. 

West African Medical Service. 

Medical Oflr. William Scott Clark M.B., '98 

„ „ Wm. Edward Glover M.B., *ii 

„ „ Stephen Goodbrand M.;^., '08 

Robert Semple M.B., '10; M.D. 

British East African Field Force, 

Lieut. -Col. Wm. Booth Skinner M.B., 'Zj 

„ „ (Tempy.) Arthur Dawson Milne, mentd. disp. M.B., '92 

Capt. Cormack Grant, Military Medical Staff M.B., '88 

„ (Tempy.) James Hutcheon Thomson M.B., '04 

„ Charles Thistleton Dyer Urquhart M.B., 'Z7 ; M.D. 

Lieut. Charles Cameron Grant, nth Inf. Regt. (also 

S.W. Afr. Campaign, Kimberley Regt.) M.A., '99 

„ Finlay Geo. MacLeod Ross M.B., '09 

,, William MacHardy, unattd., mentd. despatches M.A, '07 



Enlisted 2 1 

Australasian Expeditionary Force, 

Lieut.-Col. Alexander Horn, A.A.M.C., O.C. 4th Austral. 

Light Horse Fd. Amb. then 13th Austral. Fd. Amb. M.B., '07 
Major Charles Evans Maguire, Registrar, N. Zealand Base 

Hosp. Cairo, then O.C. of N.Z. Stationary Hosp., 

Ismailia M.B., '93 ; M.D. 

Capt. Alex. Taylor, N. Zealand Veterinary Corps, Vet. 

Offr. H.M.N.Z. Transport No. 11 to Egypt M.A., '92 

? Lieut. Frank Wesley Noble M.B., '15 

GRADUATES ENLLSTED OR RE-ENLISTED (including those 

Commissioned). 

Artillery. 

Bombardier James Alex. Masson, 35th Res. Batty. R.F.A. M.A., '13 

Gunner James Alex. Bowie, R.G.A. M.A., '14 

„ William James Entwistle, 32nd Batty. R.F.A. M.A.,'i6 

George Rae, R.G.A, p. 8 B.Sc, '06 

Driver John Angus MacKenzie, 4th Highl. (Mtn.) Brig. 

R.G.A. Teacher; M.A., '12 

Royal Engineers. 
Qm.-Sergt. James Henry Hunter (L.-Cpl. Seaforths, p. 45), 

Chem. Section Teacher; M.A., '07 

Corpl. George Ogilvie Clark, M Coy. Chem. Section M.A., '15 

„ Daniel Sutherland Dawson (formerly Pte., R.F.A.) 

Chem. Section B.Sc, '09 

f „ George Dawson (Pte. Royal Scots, p. 44), Chem. 

Section, killed in action, 28 June, 191 6 M.A., '05 ; B.Sc. 
„ Robert Dawson (Pte. 4th Gordons, p. 44), Chem. 

Section M.A., '14 

,, George Knowles Eraser, Chem. Section 

2 Sc. For., 'i5-'i6; M.A., '11 ; B.Sc. 
„ Ernest Victor Laing, Chem. Section 

2 Stud. Agr., 'i5-'i6; M.A., '15 

Sapper Robert Nicol, i/3rd Highl. Fd. Coy. Teacher; M.A., '03 

„ Archibald Dey Wilson M.A., '15 



2 2 Graduates 

Infantry. 
Private Wm. Macmillan Anderson, 3/4th Gordon Hrs. 

Teacher; M.A., '07 
„ William Barrett, 9th Highl. Light Inf. (T.F.) M.A., '09 

„ James Thomson Cameron, 26th Royal Fusiliers 

(see p. 24) M.B., *I3 

„ James Campbell, 3/4th Gordon Hrs. C.S. Div. Stud. ; M. A., *io 
„ David Shepherd Duguid, 3 /4th Gordon Hrs. 

Med. Stud. ; M.A., '14 
L.-Corpl. Alex. George Duncan Esson, 3/4th Gordon Hrs. 

(see p. 71) M.A, '15 

„ Spencer Stephen Fowlie, D Coy., 4th Gordon 

Hrs. Teacher; M.A., '12 

„ Robert Geo. Porter Howie, 4th (Res.) Oxf. and 

Bucks L.I. M.A., '14 

„ Wm. Drummond Hunter, 3 4th Gordons 

U.F.C. Div. Stud.; M.A., '12 
Private Bertram Mitchell Laing, nth Gordon Hrs., p. 8 M.A., '11 
,, David Glass Larg, 14th Lond. Regt. (Lond. Scot.), 

p. 8 M.A.,'15 

„ Frederick Wm. Lovie, 3/4th Gordon Hrs. 

Div. Stud. ; M.A., '12 
„ Alex. Grant McKimmie, B Coy., 15th Argyll and 

Sutherland Hrs. Teacher ; M.A., '13 

„ Wm. Swan-Nicoll Middleton, 3/6th Gordon Hrs. M.A., '15 
„ George Murray, 2/4 th Gordon Hrs., missing and 

prisoner after 25 September Teacher ; M.A., 'll 

f Coy. Sergt.-Major Charles Neilson, Gordon Hrs., killed in 

action in France, June, 1916 Teacher; M.A.,'13 

Private John Alex. Nicol, Scots Guards M.A., *02 ; B.L. 

„ William Reid, 3/4th Gordon Hrs. Teacher; M.A., '12 

Corpl. James Ritchie, 2nd Royal Scots Teacher; M.A., '11 

Sergt. Wm. Lorimer Shiach, 3/6th Gordon Hrs. Teacher; M.A., '11 
Private John Alex. Simpson, 3/ 14th County of London 

Regt. (Lond. Scot.) M.A., '13 

„ William Allan Smith, Civil Service Rifles M.A., '12 

„ Gordon Gray Stewart, 3/4th Gordon Hrs. Teacher; M.A., '08 
„ Herbert Louis Watson, i8th King's (Liverpool) 

Regt. B.Sc, 'II 

„ James Alex. Watson, 14th Argyll and Sutherland 

Hrs. Teacher; M.A., '12 

William Weir, 3/4th Gordon Hrs. M.A., 'il 



Enlisted 2 3 



Officers Training Corps. 

(Rev.) Douglas William Bruce M.A., '07 

„ Richard Mackie Clark (C.S. Dundee) M.A., '04 

Douglas John Cormack, Edin. Univ. O.T.C. M.A., *i6 

Minto Rodger Gillanders, R.H.A., O.T.C. Teacher; M.A., *oo 

John Grant, Artists' Rifles O.T.C. M.A., '15 

Alex. Francis Johnston, Inns of Court O.T.C. Teacher; M.A., '07 

Charles Joiner, Edin. Univ. O.T.C. 2nd Med., 'iS-'i6 ; M.A., '15 

Charles Mann, Inns of Court O.T.C. M.A., 'ir; LL.B. 

(Rev.) George Bennet Thomson Michie (C.S. Min., 

Gourock), Inns of Court O.T.C. M.A., '01 ; B.D. 

Wm. George Reid, 9th (Scot.) Cadet Batt., see p. 8 M.A., 'li 

(The Rev.) Cecil Barclay Simpson (U.F. Min. Elgin), 

Inns of Court O.T.C. M.A., '07 

John Ogilvie Taylor, Inns of Court O.T.C. Teacher ; M.A., '10 

Wm. Robert Tennant, Edin. Univ. O.T.C. M.A., '14 

Army Service Corps. 

Private John Mackinlay Dickie M.A., '15 

William Grant, attd. 1st Field Amb. 154th In- 
fantry Brigade M.A., '15 
„ John MacDonald (Inverness), Motor Transp. Branch M. A., ' 1 5 

R.A.M.C. 

Corpl. James Thomson, 3/2nd Highl. Fd. Amb. Teacher; M.A., '09 
Private (the Rev.) John Henry Jackson Bisset (U.F.C., 

Fyvie) M.A., '96 ; B.D. 

„ (the Rev.) Alex. Godsman Catto (C.S. Inver- 

keithney) M.A., '05 ; B.D. 

„ William Bain, 76th Fd. Amb. M.B., '08 

„ George Ironside Gray, 3/2nd Highl. Fd. Amb. M.A., '12 

„ (the Rev.) George Alex. MacKeggie, 1st Scot. Gen. 

Hosp. M.A., '11 ; B.D. 

„ James Mathewson Milne, 2nd Lowland Fd. Amb. 

Teacher; M.A., '06 

Army Veterinary Corps. 

Private Finlay Maclver B.Sc. (Agr.), '15 

„ John Cooper B.Sc. (Agr.), '15 



24 Graduates 

H.M. FORCES IN INDIA AND OVERSEAS DOMINIONS. 

Staff-Sergt. Wm. Slessor Simpson, Engr. Detachment, 

Union Central Africa Contingent M.A., 'oo ; B.Sc. 

Sergt. Alfred Alex. Black, Cawnpore Squadr., ist United 

Prov. Horse M.A., '95 

„ Harvey Gordon Burr, Nigerian Land Contingent, 

Defence Force B.Sc. (Agr.), '11 

„ Robert Smith Machray, Canadian Fd. Artillery M.A., '93 ; B.L. 
L.-Corpl. Douglas Harper, 138th Batt Canadian Exped. 

Force M.A., '02 ; B.L. 

Trooper Charles Clyne, Northern Bengal Mtd. Rifles M.B., '10 

Private Alex. Farquharson Cum ming, Supply Col. istiCan. 

Cavalry Brigade B.Sc. (Agr.), '06 

„ Alex. Gordon Glennie Ellis, Malay Estates Volun- 
teer Rifles B.Sc. (Agr.), 'il 
t „ Alex. John Fowlie, 13th Inf. Batt. Australian 
Imperial Force, killed in action on the Dar- 
danelles M.A., 'II 
Private George Pittendrigh Hector, E. Bengal Mtd. Rifles M.A., '01 
William Main, on service with S. African Forces Teacher ; M.A., '06 
Private (?) Alex. Ogston, Univ. Coy., Princess Patricia's 

Canad. Lt. Inf. M.A., '12 

„ John Hall Ritchie, Nagpur Mtd. Infantry M.A., '12 

,, David George Ross, Indian Volunteer Maxim Gun 
Coy., Indian Exped. Force, E. Africa 

Headmaster, Scottish Orphanage, Bombay; M.A., '08 
„ Alfred Gall Sim, B. Coy., 194th Batt. Canadian 

Forces Teacher; M.A., '10 

Trooper George Gall Sim, Cawnpore Squadr., ist United 
Prov. Horse 

Memb. Leg. Council, Un. Prov. ; I.C.S. ; M.A., '98 
„ Alex. Allan Simpson, Cawnpore Squadr., ist 

United Prov. Horse M.A., '01 

„ Wm. Robert Watt, Cawnpore Squadr., ist United 

Prov. Horse M.A., '10 ; B.Sc. 

Units Unknown. 
James Brown Teacher; M.A., '09 

David Stuart Davidson Teacher ; M.A., '08 



Enlisted 



25 



Teacher 



Alfred Eddie 

Alex. Glennie 

(Rev.) Don. MacGregor Grant (C.S. Min., Walkerburn) 

Peter Lorimer 

John Robbie McKenzie 

Robert Pearson Masson, see p. 9 

Alfred Melvin 

John Henderson Mennie 

(Rev.) Robert Nicol Paton (C.S.) 

William Poison, an Ambulance Unit 

(Rev.) John Leslie Robertson 

John Scorgie (non-combatant service) 

William Stewart 



M.A.,'13 
M.A., '15 
M.A., '01 
M.A., '16 
Teacher; M.A., '09 



M. A., '06 ; LL.B. 

M.A., '02 ; B.L. 

Teacher ; M.A., '00 

M.A., '07 ; B.D. 

M.A., '11; B.Sc. 

M.A., '07 

Div. Stud. ; M.A., '16 

Teacher; M.A., '08 



West Herts Volunteer Regiment. 

James David Symon, Qm.-Sergt. and Secy. 2nd Coy., 
2nd Batt., Nat. Res. 



M.A., '92 



Y.M.C. A. Service of Troops. 

Sidney Knight Finlayson, Cromarty Div. Stud.; M.A., '13 

Rev. Robert Harvey Strachan, Eng. Presb. Ch., 



Cambridge 



M.A., '93 



GRADUATES ATTESTED UNDER THE GROUP SYSTEM. 



Lawrence Hay Watt Adan 

Alexander Wilson Anderson 

Robert Bain 

John Thomson Baxter 

William Chalmers Bowie 

Alexander Hastings 

William Henry 

Alex. Mackenzie (O.T.C. p. 75) 

William Milne 

John Morrison (O.T.C. p. 25) 

Alex. Keith Reid 

Charles Thomson 



Teacher; M.A., '06; B.Sc. 

Med. Stud.; B.Sc, '13 

Teacher ; M.A., '02 

Teacher; M.A., '98 

Teacher; M.A., '01 

Teacher; M.A., '13 

Teacher; M.A., '00 

3rd Med., '1 5-' 16; M.A., B.Sc. (Agr.) 

Teacher ; M. A., '03 

2nd Med., *i5-'i6; M.A., '15 

Teacher ; M. A., '08 

Teacher; M.A., '03; B.Sc. 



26 Graduates 

British Red Cross Society. 

Col. John Scott Riddell, M.V.O., member of Council of 
Scottish Branch and Commissioner for the N.E. 
District of Scotland M.A., '84 ; M.B. 

Alex. Thomson Arthur, Hopetoun Hosp., West Cults, 15 M.B., '80 

Brodie Cruickshank, Ivybank Hosp., Nairn, 20 M.A., '86; M.D. 

Wm. Rt. Duguid, Portessie Hosp., Buckie, 26 M.A., '88 ; M.D. 

Wm. Manson Fergusson, Vj^^j^^^^ Hosp., Banff, 40/ ^'^- '^^ ' ^•^• 
John Charles Galloway, J ^ ^ I M.A., '96 ; M.D. 

Chas. Cormack Greig, Fyvie, and F. Cottage Hosp., 19 M.B., '73 

Wm. Hector, Tarland Lodge Hosp., Tarland, 20 M.B., '93 

John Elrick Kesson, Earlsmount Hosp., Keith, 25 M.B., '07 

Thomas MacHardy, Hospital, Cullen, 14 M.B., '89 

Eneas K. Mackenzie, Balnagown Castle Hosp., Tain, 30 M.B., '06 
Dun. Davidson Mackintosh, Bona- Vista Hosp., Aboyne, 15 M.B., '62 
George Mitchell, Drumdrossie Hosp., Insch, 30, and Leith 

Hall, Conv. Home, 14 M.B., '07 

Jas. Mitchell Munro, Haddo House Hosp., 7 M.B., '84 

Adam Stephen Niven, The Hall Hosp., Turriff, 20 M.A., '00; M.D. 
Alex. Reid, Hedgefield Hosp., Inverness M.B., '94; M.D. 

Thos. Alex. Sellar, Orphanage Hosp., Aberlour, 20, and 

Fleming Hosp., Aberlour, 10 M.B., '80 

? Stephen, Mountstephen Hospital, Dufftown, 10 
Henry Wm. Martyn Strover, Hosp. Hartlepool, Divisional 

Surg. St. John Amb. Brigade M.B., '00 

Jas. Troup, Stand Hosp., Whitefield, Manchester M.B., '99 

Wm. Alfred Watson, Huntly Cott. Hosp., 15 M.B., '03 

John Osbert Wilson, „ „ ,,15 M.A., '73 ; M.D. 

The nmnerals after the names of Red Cross Hospitals in the above 
refer to the number of beds in the Hospitals. 

Civilian Surgeons. 

James Spence Geddie, Queen Mary Military Hospital, 

Whalley, Lanes., aural and ophthalmic surgeon M.B., '01 

Alex. Graham-Stewart, M.O. Auxiliary Mil. Hosp., Margate M.B., '07 
James Wallace, Auxil. Mil. Hosp., Middlesex, No. 6 M.A., '88 ; M.D. 



III. ALUMNI. 

ALUMNI COMMISSIONED. 

ROYAL NAVY. 

Sub.-Lieut. H. Norman Macbeth Stud., '91-92 

REGULAR ARMY. 

Lieut.-Col. George Milne, C.B., V.D., commanding (with 
rankof Tempy. Lieut.-Col. in Army), 157th 
(City of Aberdeen) Brig. R.F.A. Arts Stud., '8i-'83 
David Rorie, RA.M.C, 2nd Highl. Fd. Amb. 

Med. Stud., '82-'83 ; M.B. (Edin.); D.P.H. (Aberd.) 
Tempy. Maj. (Capt.) James Hector Edmond, O.C. A Batt, 

io8th Brig. R.F.A Stud., '98-'99 

Capt. Henry Brian Brooke (see p. 57), 3rd Gordon Hrs. 

Agr. Stud., 'o6-'o7 
„ Matthew Hay, R.G.A. 
f 2nd Lieut. James Duguid, 7th N. Staffordshire Regt, 
killed in action in Mesopotamia, 9 April, 
191 6. Former Agr. Stud. 

„ „ John Farquhar Gordon (from Sandhurst, p. 

55), Gordon Hrs. Former Agr. Stud. 

„ „ Robert Crawford Buchanan Hay (Singapore 
Volunteers, p. 58) 
f„ „ Alfred George Morris, Gordon Hrs., killed in 

action, June, 1916 Agr. Stud., *ii-'i2 

„ „ Walter A Reid, 15 7th (City of Aberdeen) 

Brig. R.F.A. Former Agr. Stud. 

TERRITORIAL FORCE. 

Capt. R. A. K. T. Catto, 3/4th Gordon Hrs. Stud., '91 -'9^ 

„ John Kellas, 6th Batt. Gordon Hrs., wounded 

Law Stud., '02-'o4 
'^7 



2 8 Alumni 

Lieut. E. S. Sinclair, 3/4th Gordon Hrs. Stud., '91-92 

Tempy. Lieut. Fred. Wm. Bain (Qm.-Sergt. 4th Gordons, 
p. 56), 4th Gordon Hrs., wounded accidentally 25 
Dec, 191 5 ; mentioned in despatches; Military Cross 

Former Agr. Stud. 
2nd Lieut. Joseph R. Fraser (Sergt. p. 57), 7th Gordon 

Hrs. U.F.C. Minister; Former Arts Stud. 

? „ „ T. W. McGillivray (Pte. p. 57) N.D.A. 

„ ,, David Burr Martin, 2/4 th Highl. Fd. Coy. 

R.E. U.D.A., '13 

„ „ Thomas Kennedy Reith (L.-Corpl., A.S.C. 

p. 57) 1st Highl. Brig. R.F.A. Former Agr. Stud. 

„ „ James Robb (Bombr. R.F.A. p. 56), 3/4th 

Gordon Hrs. U.D.A., '12 

„ „ Robert A. Robertson (Pte. 4th Gordon Hrs. 
p. 57), 1st Highl. Div. Signal Coy. R.E. 

Sci. Stud.; B.Sc. Eng. (Glas.), '14 
„ „ James Ross, 2/4th Highl. Mtd. Brig. R.G.A. 

Agr. Stud., 'lo-'ii 
„ „ Alex. Francis Smith (L.-Corpl. A.S.C. 

p. 57), 1st Highl. Brig. R.F.A. Former Agr. Stud. 

„ „ Robert James Smith (Pte. 4th Gordon Hrs. 

p. 57), 6th Seaforth Hrs. N.D.A.; Former Agr. Stud. 

INDIAN ARMY. 
Capt. Robert Scott Troup, United Prov. Horse Former Arts Stud. 

FORCES OF H.M. DOMINIONS OVER THE SEAS. 

Capt. James Bryce Clarke, Egyptian Labour Corps,* 

Medit. Exped. Force (see p. 58) Former Sci. Stud. 

Lieut. Geo. Murray Farquharson Foggo, Brit. E. Afr. Fd. 

Force About 1890 

ALUMNI ENLISTED. 

REGULAR ARMY AND TERRITORIAL FORCE. 

Yeomanry. 

Trooper William Anderson, 2nd Scot. Horse Former Agr. Stud. 

Ellis D. Reid Agr. Stud., 'i2-'i3 

„ Peter S. Syme, ist Scot. Horse Agr. Stud., 'ii-'i2 



Enlisted 29 



Royal Artillery. 

Gunner Reginald Ian Davidson, 33rd Reserve Batt. 

R.F.A. M.A. (St And.); Div. Stud, 'i3-'i6 

Bombardier Edward G. Thomson Teacher; Stud, 'o6-'o9 

Royal Engineers, 

Corpl. Norman Scrimgeour Grieve, Chem. Section, France 

U.D.A, N.D.A, '15 

Infantry. 

Qm.-Sergt. Lewis Wm. Stewart, Transport Section, i/4th 

Gordon Hrs. Agr. Stud, 'i2-'i3 

Private Wm. Keith A. Jopp Chambers-Hunter, 3rd 
Seaforth Hrs. 

Assist. Superint. Rubber Plant., Ceylon; Former Med. Stud. 
„ Robert A. Robertson, 1/4 Gordon Hrs. (p. 66), 

commd. p. 28 Former Sci. Stud.; B.Sc. Eng. (Glas.) 

„ James David Sutherland, A Coy., 14th Argyll 

and Sutherland Hrs. Agr. Stud., 'ii-'i4 

Army Service Corps. 

Corpl. Thomas Leslie Forbes Burnett, Mech. Transport 

Agr. Stud., '04-'05 

Royal Army Medical Corps. 
Private Alex. Wilson Gordon, i/3rd Highl. Fd. Amb. Stud., 'o6-'o8 

Royal Army Veterinary Corps. 

Sergt. John Maclean Kennedy U.D.A. , '11 

,, George Magnus Leslie * U.D.A., '14 

Private Alex. Watt Taylor U.D.A., '13 

„ Alex. John Watt N.D.A. ; U.D.A, '15 

Unit Unknown. 
Private William James Third Agr. Stud. 



30 Alumni 

FORCES OF H.M. DOMINIONS OVER THE SEAS. 

Corpl. James Watt Eraser, 2nd (Canterbury) Inf. Batt. N. 

Zealand Exped. Force U.D.A. & N.D.A., '08 

Trooper David Anderson, 4th Canadian Mtd. Rifles Agr. Stud., ' I l-'i 3 
f ? Douglas Jamieson, 8th Australia Light Horse, killed 

on the Dardanelles, 17 Aug., 191 5 Former Agr. Stud. 

? Frank T. Napier, Canadian Exped. Force, The Ar- 
mories, Windsor, Ontario Agr. Stud., '09-' 12 

OFFICERS TRAINING CORPS. 
Cadet James Waite Mackay, Artists' Rifles O.T.C. Sci. Stud., 'lo-'ii 

FRENCH ARMY. 
Sergt. Charles A. Coquerel, Croix de Guerre Arts Stud., 'lo-'ii ? 



IV. STUDENTS. 

STUDENTS HOLDING COMMISSIONS 

{and Surgeon-Probationers). 

Royal Navy. 

Tempy. Sub.-Lieut. John Fiddes, Royal Naval Reserve 

2nd Med., '14-*! 5 

Surgeon-Probationers for Temporary Service. 

James Duncan Brown 3rd Med., 'i5-'i6 

Alexander Matheson Dugan 3rd Med., 'i5-'i6 

George S. Escofifery 3rd Med., 'i5-'i6 

Alex. Riach Forbes (O.T.C. p. 74) 3rd Sci. Med., 'i5-'i6 

Alex. Coutts Fowler (O.T.C. p. 74) 3rd Med., 'i5-'i6 

Norman B. Gadsby (O.T.C. p. 74) 2nd Med., 'i5-'i6 

Robert Douglas Lockhart (O.T.C. p. 75) 3rd Med., 'i^-\^ 

Donald F. McGregor (OT.C p. 75) 4th Med., 'is-'i6 

Alexander Cowie Paterson (O.T.C. p. 75) 3rd Med., '15-'! 6 

Alex. Ritchie (O.TC. p. 74) 3rd Med., 'i5-'i6 

John Alex. Ross (O.T.C. p. 75) 3rd Med., 'i5-'i6 

Trevor Alex. Howard Smith 3rd Med., '15-' 16 

James Charles Sleigh (O.T.C. p. 74), H.M.S. "Laburnum" 

3rd Med., 'i5-'i6 

Alexander Ledingham Strachan (O.T.C. p. 75) 3rd Med., 'i5-'i6 

Frederick Wilson (O.TC. p. 75) ^ 3rd Med., 'i5-'i6 

REGULAR ARMY—COMMISSIONED. 

Royal Artillery, 

2nd. Lieut. John Mortimer McBain, Special Reserve 2nd Arts, 'i4-'i5 
„ „ George Roderick Morgan, 2/3rd Northumbrian 

Brig., R.F. A. ist Med., 'i 5-'i6 

„ „ Edward Birnie Reid, R.F. A. ist Arts 

31 



3 2 Students 

Infantry. 

f 2nd Lieut. Ian Catto Fraser (Corpl. 4th Gordon Hrs. p. 
t>6, and Cadet School, France), 2nd Argyll and Suther- 
land Hrs., killed in Flanders 25 Sept., 191 5 ist Arts 

Infantry Special Reserve of Officers. 

2nd Lieut. George Andrew Falconer Henderson (Pte. 4th 

Gordons, p. 68), 3rd Gordon Hrs. ist Arts 

INFANTRY TEMPORARY COMMISSIONS. 

Lieut. Donald Macfarlane (Pte. R.A.M.C.), lith Gordon 

Hrs. 1st Med., '14-'! 5 

2nd Lieut. Percy Booth (Sergt. p. 66),attd. ist Gordon Hrs. 3rd Sc. Agr. 
„ „ Fred Attenborow Conner (Pte. 4th Gordon Hrs. 

p. 65), 2nd Seaforth Hrs. ist Sci. Agr. 

,, „ Henry Burness Cook (Pte. 3/4th Gordon Hrs. 

O.T.C. p. 74), nth Gordons 2nd Med., '15-'! 6 

„ „ Ian Gumming (Pte. 4th Gordons, p. 65) nth 

Gordon Hrs. About to matriculate 

,, „ James Findlay (Pte. Royal Fusiliers), 1 5th Batt. 

Northumberland Fusiliers ist Med., 'i5-'i6 

„ „ Murdo Mackenzie (Pte. 4th Gordons, p. 68), 

8th Cameron Hrs. 3rd Arts 

„ Ronald McRobert (O.T.C. p. 75), nth Batt. 

Royal Hrs. (Black Watch) 2nd Med., 'i5.'i6 

„ „ Forbes Robertson Mutch (O.T.C. p. 75), Lanes. 

Fusiliers ist Med., '15-'! 6 

•f,, „ Robert Mackie Riddel (Pte. 6th Gordons, p. 
70), Gordon Hrs., killed in action in France, 
2 July, 1 91 6 2nd Arts and Med. 

„ „ Alfred Ritchie (O.T.C. p. 75 and Pte. 3rd 

Royal Scots), i8th Royal Scots 2nd Med., 'i4-'i5 

TERRITORIAL FORCE. 

Artillery. 

2nd Lieut. James G. Mackenzie Booth, N. Scot. R.G.A. 3rd Arts 

„ „ Alan Alex. Duffus (Lieut. R.A.M.C. p. 62), 

Highl. Brig. R.F.A. 3rd Med., 'i4-'i5 



Commissioned T.F. 33 

Royal Engineers. 

2nd Lieut. John Francis Ledingham, Highl. Div. Signal 

Coy. 1st Med., 'i5-'i6 

„ „ James Frederick Walker (Pte. 4th Gordons, p. 

66)y Highl. Div. Signal Coy. About to matriculate 

Infantry, 

2nd Lieut. John Archibald (Sergt. p. 70), 6th Gordon Hrs. 2nd Arts 
„ „ Arthur Morison Barron (Pte. p. 6y)^ 7th Gordon 

Hrs., wounded 2nd time ist Arts 

„ „ David Inglehart WestwoodBirnie, 3 /5th Black 

Watch 1st Agr., '14-'! 5 

„ „ EdgarGeorge Wm. Bisset(O.T.C. p. 74), 3/5th 

Gordon Hrs. 2nd Med., 'i5-'i6 

„ „ Douglas Duncan Booth (Pte. 4th Gordon Hrs. 

p. 6y), 6th Gordon Hrs., wounded 27 

April and 25 Sept., 191 5 ist Sci. 

„ „ Charles Bertie di Veri (Pte. p. 70), 6th Batt. 

Gordon Hrs. 2nd Arts 

„ „ Charles Donald (Pte. p. 67\ 5th Gordon Hrs. ist Med. 
„ „ J. L. L. Duffus (Pte. p. 65), 7th Gordon Hrs. 

About to matriculate 
„ „ William Duffus (L.-Corpl. 4th Gordons, p. 

66), 2/6th Gordon Hrs. About to matriculate 

„ „ John Findlay Dykes (Pte. Highl. Div. Cycl. 

Batt. p. 65), 5th Scot. Rifles (Cameronians) ist Agr. 
„ „ Herbert William Esson (Pte. 4th Gordon Hrs. 

P- 69) 3/4th Gordon Hrs. ist Arts, 'i4-'i5 

„ „ Albert Edward Gammie (Pte. Scot. Horse 

Fd. Amb. p. 71), 6th Gordon Hrs., wounded ist Med. 
„ „ Donald John Garden (Pte. p. 68), 6th Gordon 

Hrs. 1st Arts 

„ „ John Noble Hendry (Pte. p. 70), 5th Gordon 

Hrs. 1st Sci., 'i4-'iS 

„ „ John M. Hall (Pte. 4th Gordons, p. 66) y 21st 

Northumberland Fusiliers (Tyneside Scot.) 

About to matriculate 



34 

2nd Lieut. 



Students 

Donald Fraser Jenkins (Pte. 4th Gordons, p. 

70), 6th Seaforth Hrs. ist Agr., '14-*! 5 

Edwin Alfred Kennedy (L.-Corpl. 4th 

Gordons, p. 70), 6th Seaforth Hrs. ist Agr., '14-' 15 
William Robert Kennedy (Pte. 4th Gordons, 

p. 68), Seaforth Hrs., killed in Flanders 

25-27 Sept. 1st Med, 'i4-'i5 

Edward Wilson Knox (Pte. p. 68), 4th 

Gordon Hrs. 3rd Arts 

Douglas John Kynoch (Pte. p. 70), 4th 

Gordon Hrs. ist Med., 'i4-'i5 

James Dawson Leslie (Pte. 4th Gordons, p. 

68), 6th Gordon Hrs. 2nd Arts 

Alex. McAulay (Pte. 4th Gordons, p. 68), 

4th Seaforth Hrs. ist Arts 

Ranald Macdonald, 7th Gordon Hrs. 

Asst. in Zool. ; 2nd Agr. 
Isaac Maciver (Pte. 4th Gordons, p. 68), 4th 

Seaforth Hrs. istSci. 

Douglas Gordon MacLean (Pte. 4th Gordons, 

p. 68), 6th Gordon Hrs. 2nd Arts 

Louis Wm. James Middleton (O.T.C. p. 75), 

5th Gordon Hrs. 2nd Med., '15-'! 6 

John Edward Mills (Pte. 4th Gordons, p. 70), 

4th Gordon Hrs. ist Agr. 

Alex. James Bolton Milne (Pte. 4th Gordons, 

p. 70), 4th Gordon Hrs. 4th Div., '14-'! 5 

James Mundie (Pte. p. 70), 4th Gordon Hrs. Law, *i4-'i 5 
Andrew John Murray (Sergt. 4th Gordons, 

p. 66), 4th Gordon Hrs. 1st Med. 

George Wm. Munro (Sergt. 4th Camerons, 

p. 71), Cameron Hrs. 1st Agr. 

Charles Edward Saunders (Pte. 4th Gordons, 

p. 66), 4th Gordon Hrs. About to matriculate 

John Moir Sim (Pte. 4th Gordons, p. 69), 

6th Gordon Hrs., wounded ist Arts 

Arthur Percy Spark (Corpl. 4th Gordons, 

p. 67), 7th Gordon Hrs., relinquished com- 
mission 3rd Med. 



Enlisted 3 5 



2nd Lieut. Donald Stewart, Queen's Own Cameron Hrs. 

2nd Arts, 'i4-'l5 
„ „ James George Thomson (Pte. 4th Gordons, 

p. 69), 6th Gordon Hrs. ist Arts 

„ „ Robert Bayne Topping (Corpl. 4th Gordons, 

p. 69), 4th Gordon Hrs. 3rd Sci. Agr. 

„ „ Rupert Sharpe Walsh (Sergt. 4th Gordons, p. 

66)^ 4th Gordon Hrs. ist Sci, 

„ Hugh Alex. Wark (Pte. 7th Gordons), 7th 

Gordon Hrs. 1st Arts, 'i5-'i6 

STUDENTS ENLISTED. 

Royal Navy. 

Henry Wood, Sailor Govt. Transport ist Arts, 'i4-'i5 

Royal Naval Air Service. 
Private Hugh Eraser Hutchison, Mechanic ist Agr., 'i4-'i5 

Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. 

Robert William Urquhart, accepted for Wireless Service ; 

joins 24 July, 191 6 2nd Arts, 'i5-*l6 

Auxiliary Sick Berth Reserve Attendants. 

Patrick Grant Currid 2nd Arts & Med. ; 'i5-'i6 

Douglas Ross Dugan ist Med., '15 -'16 

John Grant Elmslie (O.T.C.) 3rd Med., 'i5-'i6 

Henry James Home ist Med., 'i5-'i6 

John Ledingham ist Med., 'i5-'i6 

Alfred George Mathieson (O.T.C. p. 75) 3rd Med., 'i5-'i6 

John Irvine Milne (O.T.C. p. 75) 2nd Med., 'i5-'i6 

Frederic Herman Molli^re 2nd Med., 'i5-'i6 

James Denham Pole ist Med., '15-'! 6 

Vincent Murray McAdam Watson 2nd Med., 'i5-'i6 

Robert Alex. Grigor Young i st Med. , ' 1 5 -' 1 6 

Artillery. 

Gunner Alex. Wesley Christie, N.Sc. R.G.A. Torry Batty. 

2nd Arts, 'i4-'i5 



36 Students 

Gunner Anthony Morrice Hendry, R.F.A. ist Arts & Sci., 'i5-'i6 

Bombardier Malcolm Macaulay, Ross & Cmty. (Mtn.) 

Batty. About to matriculate 

? Alex. Luias McLeod, 157th (City of Aberd.) 

Brig. R.F.A About to matriculate 

Sergt. Alex. Mathieson, Ross & Cmty. (Mtn.) Batty. 

About to matriculate 

Royal Engineers. 
Corpl. Ernest Russell Allison, M Coy. Chem. Section 

1st Sci., 'i4-'i5 
f „ John Bowie, Special Brigade, previously R.G.A., 
died from gas poisoning, France, June, 191 6, 
aged 21 1st Arts & Sci. 

„ Fred. Grant Duncan Chalmers 3rd Arts & Sci., 'i4-'i5 

„ Joseph Evans Gordon, Chem. Section 3rd Agr., 'i5-'i6 

„ William Lawie 1st Med., '14-'! 5 

Private Alex. Robertson, 1st Batt. Special Brigade B.E.F. 

2nd Arts & Sci., 'l5-'i6 
„ Carson Abbott Ainscough Ross, io8th Coy. 

Special Coys. B.E.F., France ist Arts, 'i4-'l5 

Pioneer Alex. C. Nicol, wounded, July, 191 6 ist Arts, 'i5-'i6 

Pioneer Alexander Smith 3rd Arts & Sci. 

INFANTRY. 

Scots Guards. 
Private Alasdair Mclntyre Smith (O.T.C. p. 74) 2nd Med., 'i5-'i6 

Royal Scots. 

Private John Gilbert Currid, 3rd Batt. U Coy. 3rd Arts, *i5-'i6 

„ Alex. Adam Flett ist Sci., 'i5-'i6 

„ Alex. Roy ist Arts, 'i5-'i6 
„ Alfred Ritchie (O.T.C. p. 75), 3rd Batt, commd., 

see p. 32 2nd Med., 'l4-'l5 

„ William Sutherland ist Arts, '15-'! 6 

Royal Fusiliers (City-^of London Regt.), 
Private John K. Ferrier, ist Sportsman's Batt. ist Sci., '14-' 1 5 

„ James Findlay, commd., see p. 32 ist Med., 'i5-'i6 

„ William Edward McCulloch, Pub. Schools Batt. 

1st Med., 'is-'i6 



Enlisted 3 7 

ird Batt. Gordon Highlanders. 
Private William W. Murison ist Arts, 'i5-'i6 

4/^ Batt. Gordon Highlanders. 
Corpl. James Taylor Garden, 3 /4th 50th Arts Bursar, '15 

„ John Wm. Grant, 3/4th 2nd Arts, 'i4-'i5 

„ John Ogilvie Watt, 3/4 th ist Arts, 'i4-'i5 

L.-Corpl. Robert John Anderson, 3/4th 5th Agr. 

„ John Annand Fraser, 3/4 th 3rd Arts, '15-'! 6 

,, James Slater, 3 /4th ist Sci., 'i4-'i5 

„ George Morrison Thomson, 3/4th 3rd Arts, 'i5-'i6 

Private Henry Burness Cook, 3/4th, commd., p. 32 2nd Med., 'i5-'i6 

„ Norman Dawson 1st Arts, '14-'! 5 

„ John Russell Grant, 3/4th 2nd Law, 'i4-'i5 

„ . Norman James Macfarlane Hilson 2nd Arts, *I4-' 1 5 ; Matr., '15 

„ Wm. Dufif Kennedy, 2/4th 2nd Arts, 'i4-'i5 

„ Alex. Duncan Den Mackay, 3 /4th 

Rose Bursar ; 2nd Arts, 'i4-'i5 ; Matr., '15 
„ Peter Craik MacQuoid, 3/4th 3rd Arts, *i5-'i6 

„ William Alex. Morrison ist Arts, '14-'! 5 

„ Robert Mackie Simpson ist Arts, '14-'! 5 

„ Robert Alex. Fordyce Smart, 3/4th ist Med., 'i5-'i6 

,, James Harry Stewart About to matriculate 

„ Roy Brown Strathdee ist Arts, 'i4-'i5 

„ Andrew James Baxter Taylor, 3/4th 3rd Arts, 'i5-'i6 

Atholl Thomson, 3/4th (p. 75) 2nd Med., 'i5-'i6 

^th Batt. Gordon Highlanders. 
Private Wilson Hy. Gordon Park, 3/5th ist Arts, 'i4-'i 5 ; Matr., 'i 5 
„ John Dean Riddel, 3/5th (O.T.C. p. 75) 

2nd Arts & Med., 'i5-'i6 

6th Batt. Gordon Highlanders. 
Private James McPetrie 3rd Agr. 

Seaforth Highlanders. 
Private John Mackenzie Macfarquhar, 2/4th I st Arts, ' 1 4-' 1 5 ; Matr., ' 1 5 
„ Malcolm Robert Bain, 3/6th i6th Arts Bursar, '15 

Cameron Highlanders. 
Private Gilbert Alex. Pirie, 3/4th 2nd Med., *i5-'i6 



3 8 Students 

Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 

Private Ian Forbes Clark Badenoch Arts Bursar, '15 

„ Norman McPh. MacLennan (O.T.C. p. 75) ist Med, 'i4-'i5 
,, Peter Alex. Monro Jack ist Arts, 'i5-'i6 

Royal Military College^ Sandhurst. 
William J. Johnstone, candidate 1st Arts, *iS-*i6 

Units Unknown. 

Private Wm. James Adam 2nd Med., 'i5-'i6 

? James Durward 3rd Arts and Sc. 

Private James B. Jessiman 2nd Med., '15-'! 6 

„ John Macdonald 2nd Arts, 'i 5-' 16 

„ William Robertson Milne (? R.A.M.C.) ist Arts, 'i5-'i6 

„ Alex. Reid 64th Bursar, '15 

„ James Robertson 1st Arts, '14-'! 5 

ROYAL ARMY MEDICAL CORPS. 

Private Cuthbert Alistair Allan, Hillsbro Barracks, Shef- 
field 2nd Med., 'i4-'iS 
„ Alex. Guthrie Badenoch, 4/ ist Fd. Amb. 

1st Arts and Sci., *i4-'i5 
Driver Herbert Anderson Eccles, Transp. Sect. 2/ ist Highl. 
Fd. Amb., now B Section, ist. Fd. Amb, 154th 
Inf. Brig. 51st Highl. Division^ ist Arts 

Private William James Findlay, C Section 3rd Sci. (Agr.) 

„ James Durno Murray (fr. 4th Gordons, p. 68), 

4/ 1st Highl. Fd. Amb. ist Arts 

„ Charles Leslie Noble, 2/ ist Highl. Cas. CI. Stat. 

2nd Med., 'i5-'i6 
f ,, David George Melrose Watt, died on service 22 

April, 19161 1st Med., 'i5-'i6 

\st Scottish General Hospital. 

Wm. George Burns, discharged to resume studies in Med. 2nd Med. 
Donald Macfarlane, now commd., p. 61 ist Med., 'i4-'i5 

* Correction of entry on p, 72. 



Enlisted 3^ 

Inns of Court O.T.C. 

Samuel Hoare, aftwds. D. Coy., 9th (Scottish) Cadet 

Batt, Gailes 3rd Arts, 'i5-'i6 

? James Hutcheon 2nd Med., '15-*! 6 

Edinburgh University O.T.C. 

Alexander Eric Bruce ist Arts, 'i5-'i6 

James William Gill 2nd Arts & Med., 'i5-'i6 

George Mackenzie Davidson Lobban ist Med., 'i5-'i6 

Charles Joiner (Aberd. O.T.C. p. 7S) M.A. ; 2nd Med., •i5-'i6 

John Lumsden 3rd Arts, '15-*! 6 

? Ritchie Doughty Lyon 3rd Arts, 'i5-'i6 

John Irvine Milne (Aberd. O.T.C. p. 75) 2nd. Med., 'i5-'i6 

Richard Robertson Trail 4th Arts, 'i5-'i6 

Boy Scouts on War Service. 
Scoutmaster William Douglas Simpson, under Coastguard 
Administrative Section of Aberdeen Boy Scouts 
Assoc. 2nd Arts, 'i4-*i5 

ARMY SERVICE CORPS. 
Private Francis Henry Lakin, invalided from Dardanelles, 
(R.A.M.C., p. 72), Sergt. 3/ist Highl. Div. Train, 
A.S.C. Corps (T) ist Med. 

„ Alexander Smart 4th Arts, '15- 16 

ARMY VETERINARY CORPS. 

Sergt. Wm. James McBain ist Sci. Agr., 'i4-'i5 

„ Bradley Martin Cameron 3rd Sci. Agr., 'i 5-' 16 

„ Ian Munro Gill ist Sci. Agr., '14-'! 5 

„ Duncan MacRae 2nd Sci. Agr., 'i5-'i6 

„ Wm. Andrew Longmore, No. 4 Base Veterinary 

Hospital 2nd Sci. Agr., 'i4-'i5 

„ John Augustus Jackson Imlay ist Sci. Agr., 'i4-'i5 

L.-Corpl. Robert C. M. Maitland 2nd Sci. Agr., '15-'! 6 

„ Charles Milne 3rd Sci. Agr., 'i5-'i6 

? James Fairweather 2nd Sci. Agr., 'i5-'i6 

CHURCH GUILD AND Y.M.C.A. WORK. 
William Morton Grant, on Guild Tent Work in Malta 3rd Arts, 'i4-'i5 



f 



40 Students 



ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY CONTINGENT OFFICERS 
TRAINING CORPS. 

1st SECTION FIELD AMBULANCE, MEDICAL CORPS. 

REJOINED. 

Archibald Clive Irvine MA., 5th Med. 

Gordon J. Key 5th Med. 

Douglas Lyon 5th Med. 

Andrew Henry Mitchell 5th Med. 

ADDITIONS. 

Autumn and Winter Terms. 

John James Hall Anderson ist Med. 

Charles Alastair Aymer 2nd Med. 

Hugh Wolfgang Corner ist Med. 

Robert Henry George Hector Denham ist Med. 

John Mitchell Duthie ist Med. 

William Ferguson ist Med. 

Archibald Newlands Forsyth ist Med. 

Ronald Kirkham Grant i st Med. 

Charles Albert Hay 2nd Med. 

Douglas Alex. Hunter ist Med. 

James Stuart Hutchison ist Med. 

Edward White Irvine 1st Med. 
George Smith Lawrence M.A; 5th Med. 

Douglas Reginald Macdonald 1st Med. 

Alex. Mackay ist Med. 

Roderick MacLeod ist Med. 

Donald Meldrum ist Med. 

Walter James Meldrum ist Med. 

John Milne ist Med. 

Robert Bruce Milne ist Med. 

Alex. Murray ist Med. 

Alex. Edwin Reid 1st Med. 

Edward Norman Duncan Repper ist Med. 

Norman Charles Simpson ist Med. 

Alex. Forbes Stuart ist Med. 



officers Training Corps 41 



Norman Taggart 


1st Med. 


Andrew James Wolhuter 


1st Med. 


Summer Ternty 1916. 




Francis Pirie Wilson Alexander 


1st Med. 


Gerard Burnett 


1st Med. 


James Clark 


1st Med. 


John Craig 


1st Med. 


Arthur Austin Eagger 


1st Med. 


George S. Escoffery 


4th Med. 


Edward James 


1st Med. 


Matthew Hannah Logg 


1st Med. 


Kenneth Norman Macdonald 


1st Med. 


Hugh McLaren 


1st Med. 


David George Ewen Main 


1st Med. 


George Strattam Martin 


5th Med. 


John Innes Moir 


1st Med. 


Lewis Morgan 


1st Med. 


John Bernard Mutch 


5th Med. 


William Wyness Nicol 


5th Med. 


Charles Reid 


M.A., B.Sc, 4th Med. 


George Saint 


1st Med. 


Robert Alexander Fordyce Smart 


1st Med. 


John Callagan Souter 


1st Med. 


Cecil Vivian Spark 


1st Med. 


Robert Thom 


5th Med. 


Alexander Louis George Thomson 


1st Med. 


William Duke Whamond 


5th Med. 


Vincent Thomas Borthwick Yule 


M.A., 5th Med. 



Summary of the Provisional Roll and this 
Supplement. 



A. ON SERVICE. 

I. Members of the Staff not Graduates of this University 
II. Graduates Commissioned — 

Royal Navy — Medical Service (incl. 4 civilians) 

Regular Army, incl. S.R.O. and Tempy. Commissions 

„ R.A.M.C., incl. S.R.O. and Tempy 

Commissions 

Territorial Force 

„ R.A.M.C 

Indian Army, incl. Reserve of Offirs. and Volunteers 

India Medical Service 

Army Chaplains Department .... 
Overseas Forces (incl. 32 Med. Offirs. and i Chapl.) 

Total of Graduates Commissioned 

Graduates Enlisted 

„ Serving with Brit. Red Cross or as Dressers 
„ on Y.M.C.A. Service to Troops 

Total of Graduates on Service 



„ in charge of Red Cross and other Military 

Hospitals 

III. Alumni (non-Graduates) Commd. (incl. 7 Meds., i Chapl.) 
„ „ Enlisted .... 

„ „ Serving with Brit. Red Cross 



Total of Alumni on Service 



41 
62 

348 
166 
194 

lO 

42 
40 

42 

945 

176 

2 

3 



IV. Students Commissioned ..... 

„ Enlisted 

„ Serving as Dressers, etc 

Total of Students on Service 

Total of Members of Univ. and Alumni on Service 
Add those who but for Service would have matriculated . 
„ Sacrist and Univ. Servants on Service 

Total on Service 

B. UNDER TRAINING. 

Students in Aberd. Univ. O.T.C 

Graduates and Members of Staff in Aberd. Milit. Training 
Assocn 

Total under Training 
Total on Service and under Training 



74 
60 



120 

252 

8 



S7 
26 



17 



1126 



25 



136 



380 

1684 

31 
14 

1729 



113 
1842 



LH 
5 

A3 
V.3 



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