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THE 

ABERDEEN 
UNIVERSITY 
REVIEW 



VOLUME VII 
1919-20 



y 






Printed at * 

The Aberdeen University Press 



1920 



THE ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY REVIEW." 



COMMITTEE OF MANAGEMENT. 

Convener : *The Very Rev. Principal Sir George Adam Smith 
(Convener of Editorial Suh-Committee). 

Vice-Convener: *Mr. P. J. Anderson. 

Secretary (and Assistant Editor) : *Mr. Robert Anderson. 

Hon. Treasurer: Mr. James W. Garden, D.S.O. 



Mr. Henry Alexander. 
♦Professor J. B. Baillie, O.B.E. 
*Miss Maud Storr Best. 

Mr. Henry J. Butchart. 

Dr. James E. Crombie. 

Professor William L. Davidson. 

Rev. Professor James Gilroy. 
*Mr. William Grant. 

Professor Matthew Hay. 
♦Professor A. A. Jack. 

Mr. J. F. Kellas Johnstone. 
*Mr. W. Keith Leask. 

Professor Ashley W. Mackintosh. 



Mr. David M. M. Milligan. 

Rev. Dr. Gordon J. Murray. 
*Mis8 Williamina A. Rait. 

Professor R. W. Reid. 

Colonel J. Scott Riddell, C.B.E., M.V.O. 

Mr. John Minto Robertson. 

Rev. Professor John A. Selbie. 

Professor C. Sanford Terry. 
♦Professor J. Arthur Thomson. 

Dr. Robert Walker. 

*Mr. Theodore Watt (Convener of Busi- 
ness Sub-Committee). 

The President of the S.R.C. 



'Member of the Editorial Sub-Committee. 



k+t- 

^■1 




The 

Aberdeen University Review 

Vol. VII. No. 19 November, 1919 

Sir William MacGregor. 

|0 write an article upon the late Right Honourable Sir 
William MacGregor, late Governor of Queensland, 
and to give a short summary of the career of one 
of the most distinguished graduates who ever 
passed through the portals of the Aberdeen Uni- 
versity, is a difficult thing to do in an adequate 
manner. Books might be written on it. 
He began life as a doctor of medicine — the most human of all pro- 
fessions, and this fact explains the key-note of his subsequent career. 

He was an Anthropologist in the widest sense of the term, a student 
of man and races, and as a consequence proved a successful adminis- 
trator or governor in whatever part of the world he happened to be 
placed. In the case of the Colonies in which there were coloured 
races, he ruled not by the using of the strong hand but by setting 
himself to acquire a knowledge, from an unprejudiced point of view, 
of the mentality, morality, manners and customs of those whom he 
was set apart to govern, and to shape his administration accordingly. 

There have been few governors or administrators in the history of 
the British Empire who had the gifts and qualifications of Sir William 
MacGregor. He was a man of wide reading and scholarship and a 
lifelong classical student, but most marked of all was his scientific bent 
of mind and unfailing interest in every branch of research, and with 
this was combined indomitable perseverence, great natural shrewdness 
and high administrative capacity. 

Sir William MacGregor was a remarkable, and in some respects an 
unique example of a Scotsman rising by his own exertions from the 
humblest origin to one of the highest and most honourable offices in 
the British Empire. 

I 



2 Aberdeen University Review 

He was descended from the MacGregors of Delavorar, near Tomin- 
toul, Banffshire, a family founded about 1675. He was born in 1846 
at the small cottage called Hillockhead, in the parish of Towie, Aber- 
deenshire, where his father, a farm labourer, resided. It may be men- 
tioned that, like David Copperfield, he had a '* skeeliehoo " (Aberdeen- 
shire) or caul on his head, a fact to which he was frequently in the 
habit of referring as a charm against its owner being drowned and 
marking him as a favourite of fortune. He was the eldest son of a 
family of ten and attended the small "side" school of Tillyduke, 
Strathdon, conducted by Mr. James Kennedy, a very energetic and 
enthusiastic teacher, who soon discovered that he had in William 
MacGregor a pupil of outstanding aptitude and promise and one who 
could learn about as fast as he could instruct him. The late Reverend 
John Watt, minister of Strathdon, who likewise foresaw the possibilities 
of the lad's future, if wisely directed, took a great interest in him, 
helped him in his study in the Manse and gave him financial assist- 
ance. He procured for him, in the absence of Mr. Kennedy, the 
position of teacher in Tillyduke School, where after school hours he 
pored over his books by the aid of a "crusie lamp," preparing himself 
for the Aberdeen University Bursary Competition. He proceeded to 
the Aberdeen Grammar School in 1865, and after spending two sessions 
there gained the Second Bursary at the Competition. 

He attended the Latin, Greek and English classes at King's 
College, Aberdeen University, during the session 1867-68, and like 
Allan Maclean in ''The Wedding at Westfield," a traditional ballad of 
King's College, 

" His aim was the kirk, 
But that would not do, 
And so for a doctor, 
He now must pursue." 

He then began the study of medicine, which he carried on at the 
old Andersbnian College in George Street, Glasgow, and at the Uni- 
versity of that City. The only medical classes which he attended in 
Aberdeen were those of Anatomy and Practical Anatomy in 1871-72, 
thus fulfilling the regulations in force at that time that one at least of 
the four years of medical and surgical study had to be spent in the 
Scottish University to whose degrees he aspired. 

He graduated M.B. and CM. of Aberdeen University in 1872 and 
M.D. in 1874. 







[Photo. F. A. Sicaitii 



THE RT. HON. SIR WILLIAM MACGREGOR, 
P.C., G.C.M.G., C.B., M.D., LL.D., D.Sc. 



■\ 



Sir William MacGregor 



He became a Fellow of the Royal Faculty of Physicians and Sur- 
geons of Glasgow in 1905. 

From the commencement of his school career down to the time of 
his qualification in medicine nothing ever deterred him from prose- 
cuting his studies, and in accordance with the custom of the time he 
herded cattle or was otherwise engaged in farm work during school or 
college vacations and so did something to lessen the burden of those 
who were supporting him. We are credibly informed that while a 
small boy he learned to multiply by studying the table which was 
printed on the cover of the ** Shorter Catechism," which he carried 
with him while "minding his cows". 

He worked much in the late Professor George Buchanan's Anatomy 
Rooms and was a dresser in Buchanan's clinique in the Royal Infirmary 
in Glasgow. He acted as Resident Surgeon and Resident Physician 
in the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, and in 187 1 he held the position of 
Medical Assistant in the Aberdeen Royal Lunatic Asylum, where, ac- 
cording to the report of the late Dr. Jamieson, Physician Superinten- 
dent of that institution, he " showed an unusual amount of scientific 
knowledge and zeal " in the discharge of his duties. He also was 
assistant for a short time to the late Dr. Robb of Towie and latterly 
of Portsoy, who befriended him, both financially and otherwise, when 
studying medicine. 

Dr. MacGregor, after taking his medical qualifications, thought of 
settling as a medical man in Scotland, but as his over work and study 
had developed '' chest weakness," he was advised by his medical friends 
to seek a more equable climate in the Colonies. He followed their 
advice and was successful in obtaining the appointment of Assistant 
Medical Officer, Seychelles, in 1873, where, besides other medical duties, 
he had charge of a station in which he made a special study of leprosy, 
which proved of great use to him in his subsequent work in Fiji and 
British New Guinea. He required, in addition to medical knowledge, 
other qualifications, such as an acquaintance with Botany and a con- 
versational knowledge of French in order to be able to inspect schools 
in which the French language was used. While holding these posi- 
tions he took a direct and practical interest both officially and privately 
in the welfare and material prosperity of liberated African slaves, with 
a view to prevent their being unduly taken advantage of by their em- 
ployers. 

In the following year a vacancy occurred in the adjacent colony of 



4 Aberdeen University Review 

Mauritius and Dr. MacGregor was selected in 1874 for the appoint- 
ments of Resident Surgeon of the Hospital and Superintendent of the 
Lunatic Asylum there. 

During his residence in Mauritius his capacity and efficiency were 
brought to the favourable notice of the then Governor, Sir Arthur 
Gordon, who, after becoming Governor of Fiji, applied for his ser- 
vices and was successful in having him appointed Chief Medical Officer 
of Fiji. 

At that time the more remote highland districts of Viti Levu were 
in a somewhat perturbed state, and in 1877 certain of the wilder tribes 
revolted against the Government and corrimitted outrages necessitating 
the dispatch of a military expedition, and Dr. MacGregor accompanied 
it. Upon one occasion during an attack upon an enemy stronghold 
Dr. MacGregor, who was a capital marksman, shot one of the enemy 
in the thigh at a distance of some 600 yards. Upon the mountaineers 
retreating this native fell into the hands of the Government troops and 
was taken to Dr. MacGregor for medical aid. Dr. MacGregor found 
it was necessary to amputate the thigh. This operation he success- 
fully performed with the help of unskilled native attendants and there- 
by saved the life of the man whom he had intentionally shot a short 
time previously. 

After the cession of the Fiji group to Great Britain, ex-King 
Cakobau, the famous cannibal chief, proceeded to Sydney for the pur- 
pose of paying a visit to the then Governor, Sir Hercules Robinson, 
and upon his return home was unfortunate enough to bring back a case 
of measles with him. This disease, previously unknown to the island, 
decimated the population, and Dr. MacGregor as Chief Medical Officer 
did yeoman service in endeavouring to restrict and confine the epidemic, 
which was of a virulent type, to certain islands. Notwithstanding his 
almost superhuman efforts, which were largely handicapped by lack of 
medical assistance and the ignorance of the natives, the epidemic 
spread to most of the islands of the Fiji archipelago and resulted in a 
mortality of over 50,000, or, approximately, one-third of the population. 
This terrible experience convinced MacGregor that there had to be most 
stringent quarantine against foreign diseases, and when the first coolie 
ship arrived from India with immigrants on board, many of whom 
suffered from smallpox, MacGregor's action prevented this disease 
from getting ashore. 

In the early eighties Sir Arthur Gordon was the Governor of New 



Sir William MacGregor 5 

Zealand and returned to Fiji on a man-of-war, for the purpose of pre- 
siding at the meeting of the Lands' Commission, a subject upon which 
he was deeply interested MacGregor in his capacity of Chief 
Medical Officer went off to give pratique to Her Majesty's ship. Upon 
going alongside he found that the vessel had not a clean bill of health 
from New Zealand, and he informed the Naval Surgeon that the ship 
was in quarantine. The captain, as can be readily understood, having 
come so far with such a distinguished visitor on board, was in no happy 
frame of mind. He then called out from the bridge to the Medical 
Officer, Dr. MacGregor, who was about to leave the ship's side in his 
boat, " Hey, Medical Officer, what are we in quarantine for? Are we in 
quarantine for smallpox or are we in quarantine for scarlet fever?'* 
MacGregor, turning his face up to the bridge, replied '* Both," and turn- 
ing to his boat's crew said in Fijian " Row". 

During Dr. MacGregor's term of office in Fiji, which extended over 
a period of something like thirteen years, he was a " Pooh Bah " — 
holding nearly every important position in the Government, including 
that of Receiver-General, Auditor, Agent-General Of Immigration, 
Commissioner of Lands, Colonial Secretary, and subsequently acting 
as Governor on more than one occasion, being at the same time Acting 
High Commissioner and Consul-General for the Western Pacific. For 
several years he was a Member of the Executive and Legislative 
Councils and was Representative of Fiji at the first session of the 
Federal Council of Australasia, held at Hobart in 1885. This Council 
was the forerunner of those State Meetings which finally resulted in 
the consolidation of the States into the present Commonwealth of 
Australia. 

While Dr. MacGregor was in Fiji the ship " Syria," with coolies 
for Fiji, ran upon the Naselai Reef, about fifteen miles from Suva. 
He at once organised a relief expedition and proceeded to the scene 
of the wreck. He was a man of great physical strength and dauntless 
courage. Upon reaching the doomed vessel, and notwithstanding 
that the surf was breaking heavily over it, he went on board at great 
personal risk, probably not unmindful of his " skeeliehoo," and was 
directly instrumental by using not only his hands but also his teeth in 
saving a large number of lives. In his subsequent report he made 
no mention of himself, but recommended several of those who assisted 
him for the Royal Humane Society's medal. Later, however. Her 
late Majesty had the real facts of the case reported to her and awarded 



6. Aberdeen University Review 

him in 1884 the Albert medal for his bravery, while he was presented 
with the Clarke gold medal of the Royal Humane Society of Austral- 
asia in 1885 for saving life at sea. 

Dr. MacGregor, having shown during the several occasions in 
which he acted as Governor of Fiji, special aptitude for dealing with 
native races, was selected in 1888 as Administrator of British New 
Guinea. The territory which was placed under his administrative 
control was an area of over 90,000 square miles and was inhabited 
by a wild and warlike people, who were naturally opposed to a civil- 
ized form of government and white occupation. During a period of 
eleven years Dr. MacGregor successfully administered this barbarous 
and unsettled country, managed to ingratiate himself into the con- 
fidence of the principal chiefs and did his best to turn them from 
inter-tribal wars to agricultural and industrial pursuits. 

It is the New Guinea pioneer alone who can really grasp the 
magnitude of the work which Dr. MacGregor performed in New Guinea, 
but this perhaps can be better understood if we state that the country 
was inhabited by hundreds of turbulent tribes who for years had been 
practising head-hunting and fighting with one another and many of 
whom talked a dialect which was known only within the limit of each 
individual tribe. As expected, it was necessary from time to time to 
make punitive expeditions to enforce order and respect for Her 
Majesty's Government, and on such occasions Dr. MacGregor made a 
point of capturing the head men and taking them with him to head- 
quarters at Port Moresby, where respect for law and order was in- 
culcated and the benefits of a settled form of government were 
explained, while, at the same time, they were taught many useful 
occupations. Upon the termination of their period of incarceration 
they were returned to their several districts in official capacities as 
policemen, clerks, etc., and thereby influenced the people of their 
districts in supporting and giving effect to the wishes of the Govern- 
ment. 

He did much also to prevent the natives from being unduly ex- 
ploited by curio hunters, and prevented the Tugeri head-hunters of 
Dutch New Guinea from invading British New Guinea and murdering 
the natives for the sake of carrying off their heads for the purpose of 
barter. 

Sir W^illiam MacGregor performed a vast deal of exploration work, 
not only along the seaboard of British New Guinea but likewise 



Sir William MacGregor 



ascended the Fly River for 600 miles, in spite of the opposition ot 
savage tribes, finally reaching the summit of the Mount Owen Stanley 
Range, with an altitude of about 13,121 feet, and named it Mount 
Victoria after Her late Majesty. We are credibly informed that he, 
dressed in a dilapidated, torn, and somewhat dirty duck suit, and two 
natives, were the only members of his party who ultimately reached 
the highest peak, which had not hitherto been scaled, and that the 
sole food at their disposal was the rice which he carried in his pockets. 
From his geographical observations the first survey maps of the in- 
terior of the country were made by the Surveyor-General of Queens- 
land. He was awarded the Founder's medal of the Royal Geographi- 
cal Society, and a mountain in the north-east of New Guinea, bearing 
his name, serves to preserve the memory of his work in New Guinea. 

It is notable in connection with Dr. MacGregor's administration 
in British New Guinea that his policy throughout when fighting with 
wild tribes was one of peaceful penetration, avoiding bloodshed when 
possible, having at all times due regard for the maintenance of those 
native rights which were not repugnant to successful native adminis- 
tration. 

It is not too much to say that with the work previously done by 
missionaries, and by the continuance of such work, Sir William Mac- 
Gregor succeeded marvellously in fulfilling the Royal instructions 
which he carried with him, when, as first Administrator, he made the 
Proclamation at Port Moresby on 4th September, 1888, which finally 
annexed the south-eastern portion of New Guinea and adjacent islands 
to the British Empire. The instructions ran : '' The Administrator 
is to the utmost of his power to promote religion and education among 
the native inhabitants of the Possession : and he is especially to take 
care to protect them in their persons, and in the free enjoyment of 
their land and other possessions, and by all lawful means to prevent 
and restrain all violence and injustice which may in any manner be 
practised or attempted against them : and he is to adopt and support 
such measures as may appear to him conducive to their civilization 
and as tending to the suppression of barbarous customs among the 
natives ". 

He was appointed Lieutenant-Governor in 1895 and retired from 
the Governorship in 1898. 

From 1899 to 1904 Sir William MacGregor was Governor of 
Lagos, where he did excellent work by using his medical knowledge 
as well as his administrative abilities. 



8 Aberdeen University Review 

His term of office there was marked by two outstanding events — 
his campaign against malaria and the opening up of the country by 
the construction of roads and railways. 

He was keenly interested in the work of Sir Ronald Ross, who 
had previously proved, by investigations made in India, that malaria 
was carried by mosquitoes, and he helped him very much in applying 
that information for the prevention of the disease in Lagos. 

Lagos, in 1899, was a fever-ridden place, abounding in swamps 
and pools infested with malarial parasites. Sir William MacGregor 
instituted large drainage works, introduced mosquito wire netting 
and instructed that kerosene was to be applied to suspected places. 
His endeavour to stamp out malaria led to his taking large doses of 
quinine daily. He did this as an example to the native population, to 
convince it of the belief, which was held at that time, that quinine 
was the best preventative of the disease. 

He organised a Ladies Anti-Malaria League, the ladies being of 
the large dark variety found in Lagos, and he might have been seen 
frequently in a tartan kilt with a solar topee on his head visiting the 
native quarter of the town, politely taking off his helmet and con- 
versing with the dames who sold dead rats in the bazaars. He 
employed boys as mosquito catchers and fined them if he found a 
mosquito in Government House. 

Sir William MacGregor fostered every movement in connection 
with the development of the country by building a railway into the 
interior, forming roads and model farms, establishing a botanic garden, 
and instructing young men of the country in various industrial pursuits, 
and he was responsible for its present good health conditions and 
economic prosperity. In recognition of his labours the Society of 
Tropical Medicine awarded him the Mary Kingsley medal in 1910. 

The following anecdote was told us by one who acted as his 
Secretary in Lagos. It is characteristic of the man, and shows how 
Sir William MacGregor brought to bear all his knowledge of past 
history upon even trivial every day work. **The O.C. troops came 
to me one morning asking permission to pay his men extra daily wage 
when employed on road piaking to the rifle butts. As a matter of 
principle was involved, I took him in to the Governor and stated his 
case. * Can you give any precedent for extra pay. Major ? ' * No, 
sir.' • Well, if you turn up *' Caesar's Wars " you will find his soldiers 
received extra pay for making roads in Britain.' Silence on the part 



Sir William MacGregor 9 

of the visitor. Sir William added ' Well, you may go on with your 
roads and follow Caesar's example '." 

In Lagos, as in New Guinea, Sir William ruled in the same manner, 
through the hereditary chiefs, and set up the two semi-independent 
States of Abeokuta and Ibadan with self government on domestic affairs. 

It was through his influence that the Alake of Abeokuta, a rul- 
ing chief, visited this country with the view of introducing British 
methods into his own State, and was granted an interview by the late 
King Edward. Many of the readers of the Aberdeen University 
Review will recall the remarkable visit of the dusky potentate and 
the rather rough but good-natured handling which he received at the 
hands of the students at Marischal College. 

He raised the prestige and power of the British Government to its 
zenith, and peace reigned in the land for the whole term of his govern- 
ment. 

His work in Lagos did much to bring about, in 1906, the amal- 
gamation of the Colony of Southern Nigeria with the Colony of Lagos 
and its Protectorate under one administration, with the style of the 
Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria, with headquarters at 
Lagos. 

He represented the West African Colonies and Protectorates at the 
Coronation of King Edward VII. in 1902. 

Sir William MacGregor's health having suffered much during his 
term of office in Lagos, he was transferred in 1904 to the colder 
climate of Newfoundland as its Governor. 

Soon after his appointment to Newfoundland Sir William Mac- 
Gregor visited Balmoral and was asked by the late King Edward VII. 
personally to do his best to bring about a friendly settlement with 
regard to the long-drawn-out French Shore question — a question 
arising from the French claiming since 1620 to have the exclusive 
right to fish round the east, north and west coasts of the island. This 
dispute was happily settled just before Sir William's appointment, but 
soon after his administration commenced fresh trouble arose through 
the Newfoundland fishermen resenting the presence of Americans 
prosecuting the herring fishing during the winter months on the west 
coast of the Colony, and attempts were made to close Newfoundland 
home waters to all foreign fishing vessels. In dealing with this 
matter it was imperative for Sir William MacGregor to steer a fine 
course, but by his strong religious bent and upright character, he soon 



lo Aberdeen University Review 

had the trust of the people, especially the fishermen, who constituted 
about one-half of the population, and the three " jarring sects " to 
which the Newfoundlanders belonged. 

It is not too much to say that by his splendid diplomacy the dis- 
pute was brought before the Hague International Tribunal and settled 
in an amicable manner with results greatly beneficial to the material 
prosperity of the Colony. 

Here again as in Lagos his medical knowledge stood him in good 
stead, for it enabled him to begin a vigorous campaign against tuber- 
culosis, which was then rampant in Newfoundland. He spared no 
pains in going about the country lecturing and instructing the people 
upon methods for the prevention and treatment of the disease, and his 
labours in this direction were most valuable. 

Wherever situated, Sir William MacGregor had a great respect 
for missionaries of all denominations, and took a keen interest in their 
work, co-operating with and helping them in any way he could. The 
Moravian Mission in Newfoundland elicited his sympathetic support, 
and he was always ready to help Dr. Grenfell in his work for deep-sea 
fishermen. 

Probably the most remarkable event of his term of ofiice in New- 
foundland was the scientific expedition which he organised and person- 
ally conducted for the purpose of surveying and obtaining a correct 
idea of the natural resources of the Labrador Coast. The results were 
of the highest scientific importance from geographical, astronomical 
and other points of view. 

The only native races under his control were the Esquimaux and 
the few Indians in Labrador. In those he took the deepest interest, 
keeping in touch with their lonely lives and work, by visits to them 
every summer. On two occasions he went as far as Ungava Bay. 
The people in larger communities such as inhabited St. John's and 
other towns were more difficult of approach but Sir William triumphed 
over their defences and by his sincerity and trust they reposed the 
fullest confidence in the justice of the Governor. 

He was a born ethnologist -and made large collections of objects 
illustrating the manners, customs and religions of the various native 
races under his rule. The Anthropological Museum at Marischal 
College owes its magnificent collection of specimens from Fiji, New 
Guinea, Lagos and Newfoundland, to his generosity to his '*Alma 
Mater". He frequently used to say, that he allowed his collections 



Sir William MacGregor 1 1 

to be exhibited at Marischal College in order that the students of 
Aberdeen University might be impressed with the fact that the uni- 
verse is not limited to Aberdeen and its " twelve miles radius " by 
seeing objects illustrative of native life in other countries, and in addi- 
tion that he might help in providing a means by which a subsequent 
Reader or Lecturer in Anthropology in the University might be able 
to illustrate his subject — a subject which he considered to be of vital 
importance to all engaged in medical, educational, scientific, com- 
mercial or administrative work in the British Possessions beyond the 
seas. 

While Administrator in New Guinea, Sir William MacGregor had 
many times expressed the desire to some day become Governor of the 
neighbouring colony of Queensland. This desire was ultimately 
fulfilled by his being appointed Governor of that part of Australia in 
1909. 

For many years previous to his arrival, the idea of founding a 
separate University for Queensland had been in the air, but under his 
Governorship it rapidly materialized notwithstanding many difficulties. 
It was entirely owing to his exertions that Government House was 
converted into a University Building, and before his term of office 
came to an end in 191 4, work in the University was in full operation. 
It was the pride of his life that he had accomplished the founding of 
the University and that he was chosen its first Chancellor. 

As in other parts of the Empire under his guidance his great 
concern was in the educational development of the country. He 
laid himself out to inspect schools and took keen enjoyment in 
doing so. He was specially interested in all medical work in the 
Colony and was constantly visiting hospitals and did much to establish 
the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Queensland. 

Agricultural development, also, he encouraged in every way and 
made a point of attending and opening as many agricultural shows as 
he possibly could. 

He was one of the most popular Governors Queensland ever had, 
and was beloved and respected by all classes. It was characteristic 
of the man to be able to amicably settle differences by his own 
personal tact and ability, as the following incident shows. In con- 
nection with the inauguration of the Queensland University a diffi- 
culty arose as to the priority between the Roman Catholic and 
Anglican Archbishop, in the matter of offering the prayer of dedication. 



12 Aberdeen University Review 

Sir William MacGregor settled the matter by composing a Latin 
prayer, submitting it to each individual Archbishop and thereafter 
offering it himself. 

He was offered a second term of office as Governor, but feeling 
that his health was not such as to allow of his being able to perform 
its duties to his satisfaction, he retired in 1914 to his beautiful estate 
of Chapel-on-Leader, in Berwickshire, in which he took a great pride, 
doing much to improve its amenities. 

Sir William MacGregor was an accomplished linguist as shown by 
the fact that he wrote his private diary in French, German, and Italian. 
He delighted also in the study of the classics, particularly in the 
language of ancient Greece. He frequently communicated with his 
friend the late Principal Sir William Geddes on matters concerning 
Greek literature and while Governor of Queensland he corresponded 
with Sir George Adam Smith, the present Principal of his Alma Mater, 
regarding certain questions arising from the Septuagint text of the 
Old Testament, and his letters revealed how carefully he had studied 
this Greek version. 

The war pressed heavily upon a man who had lived to the ** allotted 
span " a life of ceaseless activity, devoted to every good cause, and 
who, from a through and through knowledge of Germans could not 
but, as he wrote, " resent their arrogance, their abuse of hospitality, 
their unscrupulous espionage, their intrigues in creating strife and ill- 
feeling and their strange vein of brutality ". 

Immediately after the commencement of the war, he offered him- 
self as a medical man to the Australian High Commissioner and Home 
Government, telling them at the same time, that he would be willing, 
and was ready to undertake any position, however subordinate it 
might be, to help his country in its need Unfortunately his age 
precluded the possibility of his services being utilised in this way. 
He then patriotically volunteered to the Colonial Office to replace 
any man of military age in its service, who might be able to go to the 
front to fight. 

He was asked by the Colonial Office to become Chairman of the 
Executive Committee of the " Queen Alexandra Field Force Fund " — 
a fund whose object was to provide comforts for the troops at the 
front. After reorganizing and putting it in thorough working order 
— which took many months to do — much to the regret of the Com- 
mittee he handed over the chairmanship to his friend, Mr. Henry 
Reeve, C.M.G. 



Sir William MacGregor 13 

He then devoted himself to lecturing on the Pacific in connection 
with the rule and interference of the Germans in matters in the South 
Pacific. He endeavoured to show how important it was that they / 

should not be allowed to return to their former Colonies there, and his 
great knowledge of the German in the Pacific was largely made use of 
in giving valuable advice to the Secretary of State for the Colonies. 

He sustained great personal bereavement by the death on active 
service of his son-in-law, Admiral Sir Alfred Paget, and three months 
later his daughter, Lady Paget, died, after unceasing war work in 
hospitals in France. 

About a year ago his health began to break down, and on 
3rd July, 1 91 9, he died in a Nursing Home in Aberdeen, at the age of 
seventy-two, with a record of over forty years' service in the Colonies. I 

As for his own subordinates and friends in the Colonial Service, 
they all loved and trusted him. Many of them became Governors in 
due course, owing to his kindly tuition and by imitation of his pure 
conceptions of the duty of officials towards those whom they governed 
He was regarded by many in the Service who succeeded him, or who 
served with him, as the most perfect Governor in maintaining the 
ideals of the British, face, in his capacity as representative of the 
Crown throughout the Colonies of the Empire. 

Ever mindful of the good of humanity and with an affectionate 
recollection of his early days he had instructed that his body was to 
be cremated and buried beside those of his parents in the churchyard 
of Towie, Aberdeenshire. His desires were fulfilled. On a beautiful 
July afternoon, in presence of his widow, his daughter, other relations, 
a representative of the Queensland Government, and a few intimate 
friends^ the last simple and solemn funeral rites of the Church of 
Scotland were performed by his old college class-fellow, the Reverend 
Alexander Jack, minister of Towie, and by the Reverend William 
Watt, minister of Strathdon, nephew of and successor to the late 
Reverend John Watt, who had encouraged and befriended him in 
his early days. 

The ashes of this distinguished Pro-consul of the British Empire 
now lie at rest in his native glen under the shadow of the rugged 
ruins of the old highland castle standing close by. 

Sir William MacGregor was created C.B. in 1897, G.C.M.G. in 
1907 ; and was made a Privy Councillor in 1 914. He was an LL.D. 
of Aberdeen, Edinburgh, and Queensland Universities, and a D.Sc. of 



14 Aberdeen University Review 

Cambridge. He was also a Fellow of the Royal Geographical 
Societies of England, Scotland, and Germany, and of the Royal An- 
thropological Society of Italy, and a Knight of Grace of St. John of 
Jerusalem. 

In conclusion, we know of no better appreciation of the man than 
that of the following words written by an eminent surgeon who knew 
him well from his student days and onwards : " He was a great block 
of rough, unhewn granite, but recognized to be of sterling character and 
possessed of excellent, indeed unusual, ability, although I am sure 
no one could have predicted then that he would rise to the great 
position he ultimately occupied in the service of his country. As iron 
sharpeneth iron, so his intercourse with all sorts of men in so many 
parts of the Empire, hewed and polished his roughness of manner, 
until he became the polite and courteous man of later life. But even 
that did not remove all his angles. He maintained to the last an 
independent reticence and a stubborn opinionativeness, which were 
the result no doubt of a life which had fought its own way through a 
hard fight to a position of great eminence. I am sure, that if there 
had been a Carnegie Trust in his day, and all his fees had been paid 
for him, he would never have been the Governor of Newfoundland 
and Queensland. To bear loneliness and poverty in youth and to 
despise them and struggle on in spite of them, is to get an original 
impetus, which no obstacles in after years can wholly withstand. To 
the man who has conquered such initial difficulties, anything seems to 
be possible." 

R. W. REID. 




A Poet of the Apennines. 

F the three great poets of modern Italy, Carducci, 
D'Annunzio, and Pascoli, the last seems scarcely- 
known at all in this country. His death, it is 
true, was reported in the newspapers, but, as 
far as I have been able to discover, no account 
of his poetry has yet appeared in English, al- 
though a considerable critical literature has 
grown up about him in Italy. And yet there are reasons why Pascoli's 
poetry might be expected to have a wider appeal than, for instance, 
the poetry of Carducci, who is very largely a definitely national poet, 
the poet of the Italian Risorgimento of the nineteenth century. 
Pascoli, though, like all poets who are true lovers of the country, he 
is an intensely local poet, is also a universal one ; he speaks to the 
general heart of man. And even the local colouring of his poetry 
might be expected to attract the many modern lovers of country life, 
especially the many modern English lovers of Italian country life. 
It is true that he is a difficult poet even to his own countrymen. It 
is not merely that his language is difficult, or that he uses a great 
many dialect words, so that some oC his poems have to be provided 
with a glossary for the use of Italian readers themselves. His mean- 
ing is not always easy to come at ; it is often subtle and elusive and 
veiled in symbols. And he is perhaps one of the most untranslatable 
of all poets. Nevertheless it seems worth while to attempt to convey 
something of his charm and atmosphere even through the pale medium 
of translation. 

Giovanni Pascoli was born in 1855 ^^ San Mauro in Romagna, 
where his father was the factor of a large property. He was the 
fourth of ten children, two of whom died in infancy, and his early 
childhood, as a member of a large and merry family, leading a free 
life in the open air, was happy and gay. But in his twelfth year the 
sunshine of childhood was suddenly and for ever darkened. His 



1 6 Aberdeen University Review 

father, who had ridden over to a neighbouring market on business, 
was murdered one August day by some unknown enemy who was 
never discovered. Nor was this the only blow of fate. The mu 
took place in 1867. In November of the following year the boys 
eldest sister died, and a month later came the death of his mother, 
worn out with sorrow and anxiety. Two other brothers died in 
youth, so that there remained at length of all the large and deeply 
attached family, but four — two girls and two boys. 

The orphans were poor, and Pascoli's youth and early manhood 
were full of struggle. He knew hunger and cold. He gained a 
bursary at .the University of Bologna, and graduated from there in 
1882. His academic career was interrupted and prolonged by political 
activities. He was a socialist at a time when socialism, just begin- 
ning in Italy, was severely put down by the authorities. He took 
part in revolutionary propaganda, and on one occasion came into con- 
flict with the police, and was convicted, which gave him, as he put it, 
" an opportunity for profound meditation on justice during two and a 
half months of a very cold winter ". In later life, it may be said here, 
he withdrew altogether from militant politics, preaching in isolation 
his gospel of pity, renunciation, and love. With the completion of his 
University course his life ran in smoother waters. He became a 
teacher of Greek and Latin in secondary schools,, and in 1895 was 
appointed professor of Greek and Latin at the University of Bologna. 
Successively he held chairs of Latin Literature at Messina, of Greek 
and Latin at Pisa, and lastly, in succession to Carducci his old master, 
at Bologna. He died in 1 91 2. He was never married, but he made 
himself a home at Barga, a little hill-town among the chestnut woods, 
where the Apennines slope to the sea above Lucca. There with his 
unmarried sister Maria, the " dolce sorella " who appears so often in 
his poems, he led, in his free time, a simple, homely existence, gather- 
ing and storing up the impressions of country and peasant life out of 
which his poetry is woven. His first volume, " Myricae," was pub- 
lished when he was about thirty-seven. His complete works include 
five other volumes of collected lyrics, " Primi Poemetti," " Nuovi 
Poemetti," " Canti di Castelvecchio," ^'Odi e Inni," and '^Poemi Con- 
viviali," as well as other writings, among which are three volumes of 
a prose commentary on Dante. 

The tragedy which ruined his childhood was the dominating event 
in Pascoli's life, and out of it grew his philosophy and his art. For 



A Poet of the Apennines 17 

long years, all through youth and early manhood, he brooded over 
^ sorrow, a sorrow caused by wrong done by man to man. Only 
^ry gradually did he gain serenity, and find relief in poetry. And 
since death, and the problem of death and of human evil, was thus 
forced upon him at the beginning of his life, it was on the fact of 
death that he based his philosophy. This philosophy he has explained 
in prose, in a volume of discourses ^ which are very valuable as a guide 
to his poetry. What the modern world has to learn, says Pascoli 
there, is to accept death as final, to recognize that it cannot be evaded 
by dreams of an after-life in which the injustices of this world will be 
smoothed away, and the crimes of this world expiated. Only when 
we are penetrated through and through with the realisation of death, 
and of its absolute and inevitable finality, only then will mankind 
grow better. The moral hope of the future, therefore, lies in driving 
home to the heart of man this consciousness of death. And when the 
fact of the finality of death has taken hold of mankind, and has been 
faced firmly and bravely, then human hatred and anger will die 
away, as trivial things under the awful eyes of the common fate, and 
human love will blossom upon earth, as the scented broom blossoms 
upon the arid slopes of the volcano. 

Death, in Pascoli's poetry, appears under many images, but always 
as the intruder. Sometimes it is a deep funereal note that sounds as 
an undertone in the midst of the bells ringing for a festival. Some- 
times it is a distant gallop heard far away across an infinite plain, 
drawing steadily nearer, from whence one knows not. Sometimes its 
passage, like that of an ill-omened bird of the night, wakes us in the 
darkness, and leaves us trembling and apprehensive. But under 
whatever form it appears, its shadow makes men cling to one another, 
and learn thus the sweetness of human companionship. In one 
famous poem ^ he compares mankind to two children who are sent to 
bed for being naughty and quarrelling with one another. Upstairs in 
their room the common fear of the dark reconciles them, so that the 
mother, coming later to look after them, finds them sleeping in each 
other's arms. And the poet calls upon mankind to think upon the 
shadow of the unknown destiny which surrounds them, upon the deep 
silences which reign beyond the brief sound of human motion, and the 
crash of human war, "the buzzing of a bee in an empty hive". In 

1" Pensieri e Discorsi " (Bologna, Zanichelli). 
2 " I due fanciulli " (" Primi Poemetti "). 



s 



1 8 Aberdeen University Review 

another poem^ mankind is described under a parable of people 
wandering at night, through a great waste of snow, they know not 
whence or whither, and none knows that the darkness around him is 
full of other wandering forms. But in a flash of lightning an empty 
hut is seen in the miplst of the waste, and to this the wanderers turn 
their steps. And though the hearth is cold, for the fire of faith has 
burnt out, there are still some who find there an illusion of warmth, 
and each is warmed by the presence of the others, so that they cease 
to weep, and the burden of the common destiny is lightened by being 
shared. 

It is the loss of human companionship, the going out alone into a 
great darkness, which makes so much of the pain of death to Pascoli. 
The dead in his poetry He apart, shut out from light and warmth, 
their graves swept by the storm, and beaten by the rain. They 
hover, poor desolate ghosts, about the homes that once knew them, 
seeking entrance in vain. One of his poems ^ tells of a superstition 
of his native Romagna, of the id^a that the cloth must never be left 
on the table from evening till morning for fear the dead come in. 
" They enter, panting, silent, each one so tired ! And they sit there 
all night around the white cloth, with bowed heads, under the burnt- 
out lamp, and nobody hears them." But the poet cries : " Oh, in the 
black, black night of wind and rain and snow, let them come in, of 
an evening, breathing so lightly. Let them rest there ardund the 
table until daybreak ; seeking far-off things, with bowed heads." 

Nor is it only the individual deaths of individual men that haunt 
Pascoli. He is beset also by visions of the death of the universe, of 
"the eternal silence of infinite spaces". His imagination, kindled by 
science, sees the earth fluttering in space with other worlds, like moths, 
or a dust of gnats, about the lantern of the sun. *' I felt the Earth in 
the Universe," he cries in one poem,^ " I felt, trembling, that she too 
was of the sky. And I saw myself down here, little and lost, wander- 
ing among the stars, in a star." And he sees too that up there, 
" where the worlds seem to move with quiet steps, like an immense 
flock feeding on aether in an eternal serenity, there too are ruins 
and fallen stars which crash into one another, as if Titans of the air, 
at the corners of the Cosmos, were hurling great plucked-up planets at 



1 " II. Focolare " (" Primi Poemetti"). 

' *• La Tovaglia " («« Canti di Castelvecchio "). 

* ♦' La Pecorella smarrita " (" Nuovi Poemetti "). 



A Poet of the Apennines ig 

each other, across space ". And a time may come " when the earth, 
struck by a wandering meteor, will flame up, and burn, and disappear, 
like a written page with its words ". What if silence falls then, in 
the end, upon the universe ? What if the snow of eternity puts out 
the suns, and there remains but ** a crypt of dead stars, of a thousand 
fossil worlds, where not even a drop of dew breaks the stillness, and 
not one breath rises from so many million of beings ; not one motion 
remains of the infinite constellations? This is death." ^ 

But Pascoli is not only the poet of death. He says himself that 
his poetry is woven of bird songs, and the singing of bells, and his 
birds do not always sing in a grave-yard, nor his bells keep watch 
over man's mortality alone. He is above all the poet of the country, 
and of country life, and it is in his magical power of rendering country 
sounds, and sights and scents, that his charm, as a poet, largely con- 
sists. It is impossible to convey by translation the dewy freshness 
of Pascoli's poetry of country things. In his pages one lives through 
the peasant's year. He describes every detail of the life of the 
Tuscan hill-country where he made his home, a country of chestnut 
woods and singing waters, of bare rocky peaks above the pines that 
come above the chestnuts, of little old towns on jutting spurs of hill, 
and of white villages whose bells ting the changes of the day. One 
follows all the country processes of ploughing, and sowing, and harvest- 
ing, of the gathering of olives, and vines, and chestnuts. In the small 
sloping fields, on the steep hill-sides, agriculture is still carried on by 
methods as old and primitive as in Virgil's days or beyond, methods 
that seem to have become part of the patient processes of nature her- 
self, transmuted by time into poetry. Reading Pascoli, we smell the 
fragrance of the upturned earth, on a misty spring morning, when the 
white oxen steam at the plough ; with the cuckoo's first cry comes 
the balmy odour of the poplar buds, clinging to the fingers of him 
who prunes his vines ; later the air is scented with sweet mountain 
hay, which the reapers, hidden under their load, " like to a moving 
vintage," bear down upon their backs, by the winding hill-paths. 
Wild flowers, too, and birds are everywhere in Pascoli's pages. Swallows 
dart in and out of the eaves ; the sparrow and the redbreast follow the 
plough, and the lark soars high above it ; and all the spring time the 
cuckoo is a wandering voice. 

All these pictures are often rather suggested than described. 

1 •' II Ciocco" (" Canti di Castelvecchio"). 



20 Aberdeen University Review 

Pascoli is at his best in a short lyric, in which he seizes the atmo- 
sphere and the spirit of a scene, or a season, or a moment, and puts it 
into words. But always there is something which suggests more than 
the actual scene, something which links it to the universe. The 
materials with which he deals are very simple. He gets all the charm 
of a summer evening into a little poem ^ about the return of the cattle 
at the close of the day. The beasts linger by bush and thicket on the 
steep upward path, and the herd-boy threatens them with his sickle, 
and calls them, '' Colomba ! Turella ! Bianchina ! " for already the blue 
smoke is rising above the village roofs. " Above the hill-top, in the 
serene sky, a sickle-moon shines through the air, which is fragrant 
with a warm scent of hay. Up there, where she wanders, * with a 
star or two beside,' there is silence ; only the shrill voice of the boy 
rises from the earth, ' Bianchina ! Colomba ! Turella ! ' " Or, again, 
he describes^ the kitchen of a mountain-farm in the late afternoon. 
Only the rough little maid is in the house. She sits and watches the 
pot bubbling on the fire, and nothing stirs except now and then a fly 
buzzing on the pane, or a rat, who pokes out his sharp nose, and dis- 
appears, and comes again. Far away is a sound of bells ; it is a mule 
climbing up the hill-path, a little black speck, now visible, now hidden 
among the beeches. "There is still maybe an hour of daylight. In 
the air is a flake of a moon. How sweet is the return in the gloam- 
ing, on one of these evenings, all scented with summer." 

Or it may be an autumn scene ^ — the red berries laughing in 
bunches in the hedgerow, the oxen turning slowly homewards from 
the fields. A poor man comes along the road, dragging his slow step 
among the rustling leaves. Somewhere a girl sings to the wind, 
" Flower of the Thorn ! " 

Or it is winter : — * 

The air so bright, the sun so clear, 

You'd think the flowering peach to find, 
The blackthorn's bitter perfume comes 

Unbidden to the mind. 

But dry the thorn ; the withered stems 

Make webs of black against the blue, 
Empty the sky, beneath the foot. 

The earth sounds empty too. 

1 " II r;torno delle bestie " («• Canti di Castelvecchio "). 

2 " La sei^etta di monte " (Ibid.). 

3 " Sera d'ottobre " ('♦ Myricae "). ■» «♦ Novembre " (Ibid.). 



A Poet of the Apennines 2i 

And all is silent. On the air 
Is borne from distant garden-stead 
The falling faint of leaves — it is 
The chilly summer of the dead. 

In another mood is an impression^ that he gives of an inn at noon, 
full of noise and bustle and fat odours, with a beggar muttering at the 
door, and midday ringing from the village tower, while from more 
distant villages the bells fill the air with a wave of laughter. One 
characteristic poem (for Pascoli never lost his affection for the church 
of his childhood), describes the village priest as he walks abroad.^ 
" It is evening ; quietly the good priest passes by, saluting what he 
sees and hears. All and everything he blesses — even the weed among 
the grain, even the snake among the flowers ; every bough, and every 
little bird — bird of the thicket or of the roof tree — he blesses as he 
passes by, the falcon, and the hawk, black in the midst of the blue 
sky, and the crow — and the sexton toO) poor fellow, who, up there in 
the graveyard, coughs and coughs the whole long day." 

The peasants in Pascoli's poems are simple, elemental figures, like 
the peasants in Millet's pictures. His treatment of them is neither 
idealized, nor grossly realistic, just as his landscape is not in Arcadia. 
Trains rumble through his pages, and the wind sings there among the 
telegraph wires. He never makes the mistake of reading his own 
opinions into the mind of the peasant, or of'endowing him with his 
own feelings. The peasant in Pascoli is wise indeed, but it is with 
the simple wisdom, born of age-long tradition, and knowledge of 
mother earth. His thoughts are with his fields, and the singing lark 
in spring only sets him thinking of the harvest, and the cuckoo of the 
pruning of his vines. At the end of a long poem,^ in which a group 
of peasants, sitting round the fire, watch some ants burning in the 
wood, from which Pascoli draws a minute analogy between the ants' 
lives and activities and man's, the poet and an old peasant come out 
into the silent, snowy night. The sight of the stars sets the poet 
dreaming of cosmic things, of the giddy flight of the world in space, 
and of the death of the universe, but his companion sees in their 
shining only a promise of rain. St. Martin had held back the rain 
until the autumn sowing was over, that the seed might not be washed 
away; but now St. Martin's summer had lasted long enough, and 

1 " Mezzogiorno " (" Myricas "). ^ «. Benedizione " (IbUi,). 

3" II ciocco " (** Canti di Castelvecchio "). 



22 Aberdeen University Review 

rain would do good. And so he goes home contented, thinking of 
his furrows. 

Pascoli's women are mothers first and chiefly, or little wise elder- 
sisters, who do the work of mothers, and we see them at all their 
homely tasks — baking and washing and sewing and cleaning and mak- 
ing ready for d^festa. Often they are weeping mothers, for Pascoli has 
written many poems of the deaths of little children. He is one of the 
few poets who can treat of childhood without sentimentality or 
simplesse. No doubt the Italian language, with its caressing diminu- 
tives, helps him here, but the simple goodness of his nature, and the 
pity which sorrow had taught him, enabled him to speak of childish 
things with a childlike simplicity. His children, it is true, are not all 
sad. There is Valentino,^ for instance, in the new clothes that his 
mother had made him. Only, the savings in the money-box did not 
go as far as shoes and stockings, and so he is left with feathers indeed, 
but with little bare feet like a bird — " like the bird who has come up 
from the sea, and hops in the cherry tree, and does not know that 
there is any other happiness beyond pecking, and singing and loving ". 
But it is the sad child-poems which are perhaps most characteristic. 
One^ of these tells of a boy dying, abandoned, in a garret. The 
ghostly company of Heaven gathers round to console and strengthen 
him, but he sighs only for simple human things, his mother and bread 
and a blanket 

Naked he lies, and dying, and alone ; 

The rain-drops, through the roof, fall one by one. 

The saint says, " Yet a little while — be strong ". 
He murmurs, " Bread — for I have waited long". 

The Angel says, " I hear the Saviour's tread". 
He sighs, " A covering, for my chilly bed ". 

The Virgin says, •' Thy sorrow is at rest ". 
'♦ Oh Mother dear to sleep upon thy breast ! " 

The Saint sits waiting ; driven by the gale 
Into the garret tear-like drops the rain. 

The Angel watches, still and waxen-pale ; 
The Virgin Mary weeps, and smiles again. 

The child is silent, waiting for the night. 
Watching the doorway with wide-open eyes. 

The shadows blacken with the waning light. 
And he goes lonely into Paradise. 

J *« Valentino " {" Canti di Castelvecchio "). "- " Abbandonato " (•' Myricae "). 



A Poet of the Apennines 23 

Pascoli's poetry, it will be seen, is the poetry of little things. In 
other words it is the poetry of convalescence, the poetry of a man 
whose youth has been filled with sorrow, and a burning sense of 
wrong, and who only in later life has learned resignation and peace 
and pity. Like the " wretch " in Gray's poem, who — 

long has tost 
On the thorny bed of pain, 



The meanest flowret of the vale, 
The simplest note that swells the gale. 
The common sun, the air, the skies. 
To him are opening paradise. 



He says himself, in the preface to one of his volumes,^ that the little joy 
that man can have is in little things. And something of this joy he 
has regained, the delight at least of living in a clean house, of having 
a table-cloth, of growing flowers, of hearing birds sing. This might 
seem, indeed, like the poetry also of middle-age, but Pascoli was never 
middle-aged. For middle-age tends to rest content in the white table- 
-cloth, and the flowers, and to forget that there is anything above and 
beyond them ; whereas Pascoli looks always on the world with the 
eyes of the child, " who sees everything with wonder, as if for the first 
time ".^ One or two of his poems describe his own idea of his poetry, 
and of what poetry should be. In one ^ he compares his life to a day 
of lightning and storm ; but in the evening the quiet stars come out, 
and of all the dark tumult and beating winds of the day there remain 
but the sob of the stream, and the light trembling of the aspen leaves ; 
the heavy thunder clouds have turned into flakes of purple and gold. 
In another, " La Poesia,* he compares poetry to a lamp hanging from 
the smoky beam in a poor cottage, lighting up an old woman spinning, 
or shining on the white cloth of a supper-table like the moOn on a 
snowy meadow, or smiling on a merry gathering. It is the lamp 
which swings before a humble shrine, fed with the oil of the poor, or 
whose rays illumine a cradle, or which burns before the deep and silent 
tomb. And the light of the lamp of poetry shines afar, so that the 
wanderer treading by night, with tears in his heart, the dim road of 
life, sees its rays, and goes on his obscure journey singing. 

^" Poemi Conviviali." 

2 See " II Fanciullino " (in " Pensieri e Discorsi "), in which Pascoli discusses his idea 
of the poet as the eternal child in the heart of man. 
'''' " La mia sera " (" Canti di Castelvecchio "). 
^ " La Poesia " {Ibid.}. 



24 Aberdeen University Review 

A Christian Virgil, a Pagan St. Francis — thus has Pascoli been 
described. One might add an Italian Wordsworth. There are many , 
and obvious qualities common to Wordsworth and Pascoli, and indeed 
the younger poet seems to have known and studied the elder. For 
both the material of poetry was largely the " familiar matter of to-day," 
the "natural sorrow, loss, and pain" of mankind. Both loved and in- 
terpreted nature in a definite 'local aspect, and these aspects are per- 
haps not so far removed from one another as the distance between 
Westmorland and Tuscany might imply. For Pascoli's country, if 
richer and more gracious than Wordsworth's, has yet a touch of the 
austerity of hill country all the world over. Xhe winter calls for 
patience and endurance, and men must work to reap. Both Words- 
worth and Pascoli too are often the poets of the little things of the 
country, of a humble flower or an unnoticed weed, and each of them 
has drawn quaint morals from some unassuming commonplace of 
nature. 

Occasionally one is almost inclined to find a direct inspiration from 
Wordsworth in Pascoli, as, for instance, in the opening verses of the 
poem to the cuckoo which he calls, " An April Song " : — ^ 

A phantom in your coming, 
A mystery when you go, 
Had you far to come to greet us ? 
— For the pear is long a-blow 
And the quince-tree is a-flowering, 
down below. 

With song of tit and chaffinch. 
The hill-sides overflow ; 
Do you hide among the thicket 
Or where the ashes grow ? 
Are you spirit, dream or shadow, 
Do you know ? 

P'or both Wordsworth and Pascoli again, there is a comfort in the 
strength of love — for Pascoli indeed, it is the supreme comfort — and this 
love they find most of all " in huts where poor men lie ". Neither of 
them — in this so exceptional among lyric poets — treats of passionate 
love, of love between man and woman, Pascoli even less than Words- 
worth. In all his volumes there are at most, says an Italian biographer, 
some three personal allusions to love, and they are of the vaguest. 

1 " Canzone d'Aprile" (" Myricae "). 



A Poet of the Apennines 25 

But there is a fundamental difference between the two poets. 
Pascoli did not find, as Wordsworth did, a spiritual core to the universe, 
" a central peace, subsisting at the heart of endless agitation ". He 
is a modern poet, and the scientific and the poetical interpretations of 
nature are not fully reconciled in hinx Compared with Wordsworth's 
serene strength his utterance is feverish, and sometimes incoherent. 
For Wordsworth the discords of the world were resolved into a still 
sad music. For Pascoli the questionings of humanity remain the voice 
of 

An infant crying in the night : 
An infant crying for the light : 
And with no language but a cry. ^ 

One is thus conscious at times of a weakness in Pascoli. His over- 
whelming pity sometimes blurs too much the edges of things, as when 
the world is seen through a mist of tears. His thought is occasionally 
confused and inconsistent. But that he may affect us as a poet, it is 
not necessary to claim him as a philosopher. His praise is the praise 
which Arnold gave to Wordsworth. He speaks — and our hearts are 
loosed in tears. He leads us back again to the flowery lap of earth. 

MAUDE G. MAY. 



Tho' I be Aur. 

Ye needna think tho' I be aul', ' 

An* a' my bonnet haps is grey, 
My heart is gizzen, crined or caul' 

An' never kens a dirl the day. 

A bonny lass can stir me still 

As deep's her mither did when young, 

An' aul' Scots sang my saul can fill 
As fu's when first I heard it sung. 

Gin throu' the muir ahin' the dogs 

I dinna lift my feet sae clean 
As swacker lads that loup the bogs, 

I'll wear them doon afore we're deen. 

I ken some differ wi' the dram, 

Ae mutchkin starts me singin' noo. 
But winds are tempered to the lamb. 

An' I get a' the cheaper fu'. 

An open lug, a gangin' fit, 

Altho' they've never filled my kist, 
Hae brocht me wisdom whiles an' wit 

Worth mair than a' the siller miss't. 

An', faith, the ferlies I hae seen. 

The ploys I've shared an' daurna tell 
Cheer mony a lanely winter's e'en, 
Just kecklin' ower them to mysel'. 

There's some hae looks, there's mair hae claes, 

That's but the brods, the beuk's the thing, • 

The heart that keeps for dreary days 

Some weel-remembered merry spring. 

Then ca' me fey or ca' me feel. 

Clean daft or doitit, deil may care. 
Aye whaur there's fun, at Pase or Yeel, 

Gin I be livin' I'll be there. 

CHARLES MURRAY 



4 




THE SOURCE OF THE COVER-DESIGN OF "ALMA MATER". 

The actual cast of Dalou's statue, "The First Cradle," from which Mr, Cadenhead 

made his drawing. 



f 




The Cover-Design of "Alma Mater". 

N the studio of the late Mr. Samuel Reid. R.S.W., 
stood a cast of the French sculptor Dalou's 
statuette, ''The First Cradle," at which any 
graduate or alumnus of Aberdeen, entering the 
artist's workshop, would look twice. For that 
figure of Mother Eve, with the infants, Cain and 
Abel, in her lap, would inevitably recall the design 
which has been familiar for so many years on the cover of " Alma 
Mater ". When I spoke of this to Mr. Reid, his reply further whetted 
an interest already keen. ''Yes," he said, "that is the actual cast 
from which Cadenhead got his idea for the cover." He added 
that Mr. Cadenhead, seeing the cast, exclaimed, " That is the very 
• thing I want for 'Alma Mater,'" and thereupon he made some 
sketches from it. 

Here, then, was a remarkable link with the early history of the 
University Magazine. 

After Mr. Reid's death, when some of his effects were sold, I was 
fortunate enough to come by the statuette, a charming thing about 
1 8 inches high. On the pedestal is a "remarque" in low relief, 
showing the tragedy of Cain and Abel, a grim contrast to the idyll of 
the main subject. But this touch of realism is visible only to the 
minute observer ; it in no way destroys the harmony of the composi- 
tion, which, set over against my writing-table, keeps me cheerful 
company, together with Dr. Watson Geddie's etching of King's 
College Crown. 

With this Note in view, I wrote to Mr. James Cadenhead, A.R.S.A., 
asking for his recollections of the incident. He sent me the following 
very kind reply : — 

Argyleshire, 30 May, igig. 
Dear Sir, 

Your letter interested me very much, and I am glad to have it and to come into 
touch again with memories of Sam Reid and Adam Mackay. It is a pleasure to know that 
the cast of '* The First Cradle" remains in such appreciative hands. 



zS Aberdeen University Review 

Sam was correct in saying that I made sketches of it, but my memory does not supply 
me with anything precise as to the actual drawing from which I made the first cover design 
for '• Alma Mater ". 

The idea of using Dalou's design occurred to me after I had undertaken, at Adam 
Mackay's request, to make something suitable for the magazine, and had concluded on 
reflection that nothing I could invent could be so a propos as an adaptation of " The First 
Cradle". 

I do remember that thereupon I made some efforts to get a cast of it to draw from ; 
but I am vague now as to whether or not I succeeded in that, and I may very well have 
gone to West Grange eventually and made the drawing there. Anyhow, it is accurate to 
say that Sam Reid's cast of" The First Cradle" gave me the notion for the cover design. 
... I am sorry my recollections do not seem to add anything to what you know already. 

Believe me, 

Yours sincerely, 

James Cadenhead. 

From Mr. W. Keith Leask I have the following note : — 

I remember Adam telling me he intended to get Cadenhead to draw something. I 
remember, when it appeared, saying that, as Pheidias was charged with working in his 
own face on the Parthenon frieze, he (Adam Mackay) had got in as one of the twins in the 
design ! 

This nice point of art criticism (W. K. L.'s sole recorded incursion 
into that province, which, he holds, no true Aberdonian may enter 
and live) I submitted to Mr. Cadenhead, whose comment is as 
follows : — 

Leask's discovery does credit to his imagination, and I should like to claim some of 
it. I used to wonder which of the babes was Cain, and which was Abel, but I never tried 
to work in Adam. 

Posterity must regret the omission, but will acknowledge grate- 
fully that the artist was most happily inspired in his choice of a model. 
The design has stood the test of time. The rise of the Mitchell Tower, 
it is true, threw the picture of Simpson's tower out of date, and the 
original version of the drawing was revised in the architectural detail. 
Certain minor ornament was also altered, but the main theme holds 
good, as from the beginning, to symbolize *' Alma Mater," in saecula 
saeculorum. Perhaps it is better to forget that Dalou intended the 
nurselings to represent Cain and Abel. Happier is it, for our purpose, 
to regard the design simply as a universal type of fostering mother- 
hood. Such was Mr. Cadenhead's intention, when at the bidding of 
Adam Mackay, Editor and Autocrat, he sought and found an essential 
symbol at once of the University Magazine and of the University. 

J. D. SYMON. 



^ 




PROFESSOR JAMES W. H. TRAIL. 




In Memoriam : 

PROFESSOR J. VV. H. TRAIL, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

[AMES William Helenus Trail was bom at Birsay 
in Orkney on 4 March, 185 1. His father was the 
Very Rev. Samuel Trail, D.D., LL.D., minister of 
the parish of Birsay and Harray since 1843, ^^om 
1867 Professor of Systematic Theology in the Uni- 
versity of Aberdeen, in 1874 Moderator of the 
Church of Scotland. His mother was Helen, 
daughter of Dr. Hercules Scott, Professor of Moral Philosophy, King's 
College, frojrn 1821 to i860. 

Trail received his preliminary education at home and in due course 
was sent to the Grammar School, Old Aberdeen. From school he 
passed, in 1 866, to the Arts Faculty of the University, obtaining the 
degree of M.A., with honours in Natural Science, in 1870. Entering 
the Faculty of Medicine Trail attended its classes until 1873, when 
he became naturalist of an exploring expedition in northern Brazil. 
On his return in 1875 Trail resumed his medical studies and graduated 
as M.B. and CM., with highest academical honours, in 1876. Shortly 
after his return from Brazil Trail was elected a fellow of the Linnean 
Society of London. Early in 1877 he was appointed by the Crown, 
at the age of twenty-six, to the Chair of Botany in the University. 
In 1879 he received the degree of M.D. In 1893 he was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Society. Having fulfilled the duties of his chair 
with singular efficiency during forty-three sessions, Trail died, after a 
short illness necessitating surgical intervention, in his sixty-ninth year, 
on 18 September, 191 9. 

Such a resume of the salient happenings in the career of the master 
we have lost satisfies the requirements of the moment. Tradition, 
whose care it is to preserve the atmosphere of a period, will in this 
case surely hand on to future generations of undergraduates a know- 
ledge of the esteem and affectionate regard which Trail inspired, the 



30 Aberdeen University Review 

influence and authority which he exercised. But some of those who 
come after us may care to inquire what relationship his character may 
have borne to his life, for what reasons his memory is cherished, in what 
fashion he accomplished the work his hand found to do, what manner 

of man he was. 

A distinguished Bachelor of Divinity has told us that he is able to 
look back without enthusiasm upon the prelections of Trail's dis- 
tinguished father, but that the ability with which this teacher adjudged 
the work and assessed the intelligence of his students never was in 
question. When the future Professor of Theology imparted the rudi- 
ments of knowledge to his youngest son in Birsay manse, the estimate 
he formed of Trail's capabilities was such as to engender the hope that 
the boy might eventually follow his own example and become an 
eminent churchman. The minister of Birsay perhaps overlooked the 
existence in his son of an instinctive love of nature that, if it ever ex- 
isted, had become atrophied in himself. 

The Grammar School of Old Aberdeen, to which Trail was sent, 
had not yet attained the reputation it was to acquire a decade later, 
though it was already favourably known for its sound classical train- 
ing. Here Trail, though apt and diligent, failed to fulfil the expecta- 
tions of his father ; rumour has it that his teachers reached the 
conclusion that his talents were indifferent. They top appear to have 
been unaware of the lad's addiction to natural history pursuits, though 
this predilection was so marked as to earn for him a kindly descriptive 
sobriquet which was still in use after Trail's matriculation. His 
hobby occupied the spare time which his class-mates devoted to the 
sports in which they sparingly indulged and possibly encroached upon 
that required for the preparation of tasks. Trail's school companions, 
however, as sometimes happens, were more alive than his masters to 
his real powers. That these masters had done their work well, all 
who had the privilege of Trail's acquaintance were able to recognize. 
They had imparted to him much solid instruction while he was being 
educated on the Aulton Links and Scotston Moor. 

The session of 1866-67 at the University was but a continuation 
of Trail's career at school. There was no neglect of duty or slacken- 
ing of work. But prolonged classical drill had deadened enthusiasm 
for the " humanities ". The blank was filled by natural history study 
more intense and methodical than before. This state of affairs was 
not to persist. In 1867 came the vacancy in the Faculty of Divinity 



In Memoriam : Professor Trail 3 1 

which was to bring father and son once more into personal contact. 
It was manifest to both that Trail was not to become a distinguished 
exponent of the humane letters. But the father still had a hope that 
his son might do himself justice ; the new session, at any rate, 
provided a fresh opportunity. That opportunity was not taken. 
Mastery of the essentials of the new study hardly cost Trail an effort, 
but there was no development of the interest required to make 
him a distinguished mathematician. The result was renewed paternal 
disappointment and enhanced paternal impatience. During the 
tertian year which followed, affairs were as unsatisfactory. Trail was 
destined to show in later life how fully he had imbibed the truths and 
mastered the methods of philosophy. But, for the moment, his regard 
for natural facts and phenomena so outweighed his interest in intel- 
lectual processes and noumena as to inhibit the achievement of academic 
distinction. 

The sympathies of those who realise the facts extend to both 
parties. Trail's father had all the interests and instincts of the 
scholar. The charm and value of the study of nature were matters 
outside his personal experience. He appreciated, as none of Trail's 
later teachers had been able to do, what his son's capabilities really 
were. Tested by the then accepted touchstone of competitive ex- 
amination. Trail had failed to do himself justice whether in Classics, 
in Mathematics, or in Philosophy. It was not unnatural on the part 
of his father to attribute this failure to the " deplorable " waste of 
time which his son's " misplaced " devotion to scientific pursuits had 
involved. Fortunately for thp University to which both men were 
devoted the inclinations of the son could not be bent to the wishes 
of his father. We cannot but admire the strength of will which 
enabled Trail, in the face of ever-present discouragement, to maintain 
his ardour for' his favourite studies. The opposition he had to endure 
was the harder to combat from the fact that no one knew so well as 
Trail did that its existence was due to affectionate paternal solicitude 
for his welfare. We find direct evidence of the permanent effect on 
his sensitive nature of the ordeal of these unhappy years in the 
thoughtfully-devised terms of a fund eventually established by himself 
in order that its income may be applied for the benefit of students 
in any faculty of the University who shall display proved ability in 
Natural History studies. With filial piety Trail dedicated this wise 
endowment to the memory of his mother. 



32 Aberdeen University Review 

The drama had a happy ending. The constancy Trail had shown 
was rewarded. As a magistrand he was at last able to attend the 
University classes devoted to Natural Science. His appearance there 
was such as to apprize the professors whose classes Trail had attended 
at King's College of the circumstance, already fully appreciated by 
his fellow-students in the old town, that he was one of the ablest men 
of his year. This success afforded Trail's father such satisfaction as 
to extract from that eminent theologian a somewhat grudging but 
none the less spontaneous admission that there might, perhaps, after 
all be something to be said for Natural Study. The pleasing realiza- 
tion of the churchman's early estimate of his son's powers was to be 
tempered by the regret that a promising recruit was lost to the 
ministry, for in 1870, when Trail graduated with honours in 
Natural Science, it was the Faculty of Medicine, not that of Divinity, 
which he resolved to enter. This decision met with no paternal 
opposition. The struggle of will between the two men was over. 
It had not impaired their mutual affection. The only change was that 
the father now entertained for his son a respect comparable with 
that felt by the son for his father. The depth of their affection was 
shown by the fact that when, in 1877, Trail became his father's 
colleague in the senate, the two professors "kept house" conjointly. 

Trail's resolution to study medicine was not due to any desire to 
seek renown as a surgeon or a physician. His only object was to 
profit by such opportunities as this faculty offered of adding to his 
store of scientific knowledge and of prolonging his education in 
Natural History. He mastered the various medical subjects with ease 
and distinction, but the extent to which he regarded them as means 
to an end and not as an end in themselves he showed by acting 
during his first three years of medical study as assistant to the 
Professors of Botany and of Chemistry, and to the curator of the 
natural history museum. The same period was marked by the 
publication of his earliest original papers, and the importance of his 
non-medical studies may be realized from the fact that these included 
his first contributions to the study of galls, a recondite subject in 
connection with which he was to acquire a European reputation. He 
defined his attitude and position with still greater precision in 1873 
when, rather than miss an opportunity that had offered itself of 
becoming acquainted at first hand with a tropical fauna and flora, he 
threw up his medical studies in order to join, as its naturalist, an 



In Memoriam : Professor Trail 3 3 

exploring expedition to the Amazon region. He was to afford, when 
he returned two years later, a further manifestation of his mental 
gifts in the ease with which he resumed, and the distinction with 
which he completed, his medical studies. 

The excellence of Trail's work as an explorer and the thorough- 
ness with which, in the midst of renewed medical preoccupations, he 
took in hand the elaboration of his material, attracted the attention 
of those competent to judge. As a consequence he was chosen, 
shortly after his graduation as M.B., with highest honours, in 1876, 
to fill the post of botanist to the Government of British Guiana. 
This engagement he was not destined to fulfil. Before the date for 
his departure arrived, the distinguished algologist who occupied the 
Chair of Botany in the University was compelled, owing to failing 
health, to resign his charge. Trail was appointed to the vacant Chair 
and took up his duties in May, 1877. 

This is the day of the young, and the appointment to such a post 
of a youth of twenty-six might now cause no surprise. Matters were 
different in 1877 when opportunities of "coming to the front" were 
at times denied to " rising young men " of fifty. In the University, 
where critics thought in terms of education. Trail's youth was not the 
only point objected to. His published papers had so far dealt mainly 
with zoological matters. The advantages of specialization had begun 
to receive recognition ; its shortcomings were still unsuspected. A 
year later the senate itself answered this objection to Trail's appoint- 
ment by asking him to conduct, during 1878-9, the class of Zoology in 
addition to his own. We realize now that one of the characteristics 
which made Trail a tower of strength to the University he served was 
his wide and exact knowledge of most branches of Natural History. 

Outside critics thought largely in terms of political allegiance. Trail 
was not only a graduate of Aberdeen but was the son of a Professor 
there who had also been Moderator of the Established Church. The 
suggestion was that local intrigue and political wire-pulling had been 
used to perpetrate an instance of nepotism. Within the next eighteen 
months the advisers of the Crown took pains to demonstrate on two 
occasions that this suggestion was unfounded. The Chair of Physi- 
ology became vacant in 1877, that of Zoology in 1878. In both 
instances the candidates appointed were not graduates of Aberdeen, 
and were not related to any Aberdeen Professor. But both shared 
with Trail two important characteristics ; like him. both were bom in 

' 3 



34 Aberdeen University Review 

185 1 ; like him, they chanced to be the youngest of the competitors for 
their respective Chairs. To this latter accident all three men owed 
their selection. The adviser of the Crown, in his anxiety to avoid 
misjudgment of the rival claims of more experienced men, devised a 
simple policy the application of which ruled out all save the youngest 
candidate. 

The two Professors mentioned, unfettered by early ties to 
our University, used their Chairs as the resting places of birds of 
passage. But the University came near to losing Trail's services also, 
at least for a time. Six years after his appointment it was decided 
to organize an official exploring expedition to Africa and he was 
invited to undertake the responsibility of leading it. Trail accepted 
this invitation subject to the stipulation that he be excused the duty 
of nominating his locum tenens. He asked, in fact, that he be accorded 
the consideration shown to the new Professor of Zoology during the 
session 1878-9. That the condition imposed by Trail was a wise 
one, the criticism to which his own appointment had been subjected 
seems to show. The authorities concerned were unable to grant 
Trail's request and the expedition had to leave under another leader. 

The students who attended Trail's class in 1877 took little account 
of the criticism of their seniors. They were, however, keenly inter- 
ested in, and at first rather critical with regard to an innovation then 
introduced. The former Professor met his class at nine in the morning. 
Members of the new Professor's class were bidden to attend at eight. 
This order disturbed the domestic arrangements of those who lived at 
home and upset the equanimity of the landladies of those who lived in 
rooms. Students new to the University, reflecting the feelings the 
order had engendered in their elders, were disposed to be troublesome. 
But the old hands, who had been at arts before beginning medicine, 
could oppose college gossip to town talk and explain, rightly or 
wrongly, that the change of hour was due to the capture of the old 
hour by a masterful colleague of the new Professor during the interval 
in which the Chair was vacant. What at first threatened to induce 
hostility ended by creating a feeling of sympathy. There was really 
no room or need for either, because, as the class quickly discovered, the 
the new hour, irritated parents or guardians and recalcitrant land- 
ladies notwithstanding, was a great improvement on nine o'clock. 
Among its other advantages it enabled various old alumni, in business 
in the city, to attend the class as private students. 



In .Memoriam : Professor Trail 3 5 

Those who were privileged to be members of that class remember 
the impression produced on them by the tall and solidly-built teacher 
whose somewhat rugged features and grave demeanour were more 
suggestive of forty than of six-and-twenty. The keen but kindly eye 
that scanned the benches reflected that inward courage which enables 
the diffident to deal effectively with a critical emergency. Though 
his style was plain almost to severity and his discourse deliberate almost 
to hesitation he arrested and retained the attention of his class by the 
extent of his knowledge, the wealth of his ideas and the lucidity of 
his statements. What at first seemed a want of fluency was soon seen 
to be the result of anxiety to make his meaning clear and to leave no 
room for misconception. 

When Trail took up his duties in 1877 the equipment of his de- 
partment was far from satisfactory. With great courage and energy 
he set to work to remedy its defects. The success which attended 
his efforts is recorded in the chronicles of our Alma Mater and the 
results are familiar to the students of to-day. Those of an earlier 
time, who had personal experience of the drawbacks Trail managed to 
remove, are perhaps better able to appreciate the thought and anxiety 
his task involved. But, owing to one of its indirect consequences, the 
pleasure which Trail's success in this struggle gave to his botanical 
friends was not unmixed. 

The aptitude for affairs which enabled Trail to bring his depart- 
ment to the high level of efficiency at which he left it could not escape 
the notice of his colleagues. By the time that he had been Professor 
for a decade the senate had come to appreciate and value his qualities 
as highly as his students had learned to do from the commence- 
ment of his teaching career. As a result Trail was invited to take 
an ever-increasing share in academic business outside his own depart- 
ment. His work on behalf of the library from 1891 onwards and 
his care of the faculty of science after 1 892 arc matters of University 
history. But his generous expenditure of means and time in the pro- 
motion of the interests of University education was not the only call 
on his resources. His business capacity was as fully recognized outside 
and led to appeals for his assistance and advice in other quarters. To 
these appeals he felt it his duty to respond and the annals of the educa- 
tion authorities of the city, of the governors of Gordon's College, of the 
trustees of the Dick Bequest and other similar organizations chronicle 
the services he rendered to the cause of education and especially of 
scientific education in the north-east of Scotland generally. 



36 Aberdeen University Review 

Nothing Trail did in this way, whether in or outside the Uni- 
versity, was permitted to interfere with the duties of his Chair or to im- 
pede the work of investigation and observation to which he was 
devoted. These extraneous labours, therefore, involved an equivalent 
curtailment of hours that might otherwise have been employed in pre- 
paring for publication the results of his studies as a natural historian. 
Much as Trail was able to publish, his recorded contributions to 
natural knowledge represent but a small proportion of the scientific 
information, peculiar to himself, which he had succeeded in acquiring. 
Thtit information, as striking for its precision as it was remarkable in 
its range, was always freely at the disposal of those who might con- 
sult him. The quality of the papers he found leisure to write only 
increases our regret that so much of what was worthy of permanent 
preservation is no longer at our service. We cannot lament that 
Trail's loyalty to our Alma Mater was so intense and that his sense 
of duty to the state was so high. But we may be permitted to regret 
the serious loss to Natural History which his manifestation of these 
civic virtues has involved. 

Trail as a teacher occupied a position that was in many ways 
unique. His power and his influence depended largely, as a gifted 
and sympathetic colleague of his own has remarked, on his ability 
" to pass without knowing it from flower to bee and from tree to bird ". 
It was to this outstanding quality that he owed, at least in part, the 
philosophy of education which, even if he never expressly enunciated 
it, he displayed to the world in the students who have benefited by 
his teaching. Of these students the outstanding exemplar was him- 
self, for from his school days onwards he had taught himself practi- 
cally all that he knew of Natural History, and to the close of his 
strenuous life he remained as ardent a student of nature as he had 
been when a boy. This it was that helped to save him throughout 
his career from any conscious attempt to make botanists or zoologists 
of others, and from any deliberate effort to establish a specialized 
school of Natural History. The subject he had been appointed to 
teach was in his hands first and foremost a means of instruction and 
education, not an end in itself. No one was ever readier or more 
helpful in aiding those who desired to devote themselves to botanical 
work to attain their object, and his lectures contained sufficient solid 
instruction to enable them to begin their special studies well equipped. 
But his lectures were not exclusively intended for such as these. 



In Memoriam: Professor Trail 37 

They were equally useful for those whose purpose was limited to the 
acquisition of some conception of the relationship which subsists 
between a knowledge of nature and the business of life, and this with- 
out regard to the circumstance whether those he taught were to play 
an active or a passive part in the application of botanical knowledge 
to human affairs. Even for those whose aim was no higher than to 
gain a sufficient knowledge of botany to enable them to pass a " pro- 
fessional " examination, Trail's lectures as a means of instruction were 
as valuable and stimulating as any series of reasoned discourses regard- 
ing the "humanities" could possibly be. 

But the student of this latter type probably benefited even more 
by Trail's practical class, which, whether instinctively or deliberately, 
was conducted on another principle. The end attained, whatever 
the end aimed at may have been, was education as contrasted with 
instruction. The '* demonstration " so marked in what are termed 
practical classes when these came first into vogue, and so essential 
in technical subjects that must be mastered by the medical man, was 
conspicuous by its absence. On the contrary, the student was carefully 
trained to habits of independent personal observation and was en- 
couraged to exercise his own inductive capacity. Help, when any 
difficulty connected with the technique of the task arose, was freely 
and effectively rendered. But with consummate skill the student was 
always left to face for himself the central scientific problem embodied 
in his task. 

As a leader of a field-excursion Trail has never been surpassed. 

Here he combined the principles which underlay his lectures and his 

laboratory teaching. Their application was so happily effected that 

while the student might realize that his powers of observation were 

being developed he attributed this to his own efforts, and remained 

a* 
unconscious of the fact that he was being both instructed and educated 

in the most intensive manner. 

The natural gifts that made Trail a valuable teacher were in part 

the basis of his influence in scientific circles. His knowledge and 

his sympathy led to his advice being often sought. That advice was 

prized because the consultant was always frankly told when a matter 

referred to him lay outside Trail's cognisance, and because, when a 

matter did come within Trail's experience, his judgment was reached 

after careful consideration of all its relationships. The sense of 

relativity was in him so marked as to induce the deference paid 



38 Aberdeen University Review 

him by both parties to the needless controversy as to the rival 
merits of literary and scientific instruction. The same cause lent him 
weight in scientific circles with the parties to two antagonisms equally 
needless, both of which he lived long enough to see subside. The 
conflict between those whose attention is concentrated on scientific 
discovery and those whose interest is confined to the practical 
application of natural knowledge, and the strife between those attracted 
to the study of the attributes and relationships of living organisms 
and those devoted to the investigation of the structure and working 
of living mechanisms, were to Trail purposeless instances of wasted 
energy, against which his own career was a protest. How free from 
partisanship in the latter quarrel Trail was we best appreciate from 
one of his acts of generosity. Though his tastes and activities were 
primarily those of the natural historian he endowed a fund, to be 
administered by the Linnean Society, which has as its object the 
advancement of our knowledge of the substance that the physiologist 
still finds it, with certain limitations and qualifications, a tolerable 
working hypothesis to regard as " the physical basis of life ". 

Trail's influence as a naturalist was not confined to academic 
circles. His early proclivities had attracted the notice of the boys 
from various elementary schools whose Saturdays, like his, were 
spent in the open and devoted to the investigation of hedge and 
ditch. Their sympathy with his pursuits, which seemed to them so 
like their own, was such that they, like the lads of the "Barn," knew 
him by the agnomen of his school-days ; it is, indeed, not impossible 
that it was their invention rather than that of his school-fellows. As 
free from the influence of the market-place as he was from that of 
the grove. Trail in later life fully repaid that sympathy by the part he 
took in encouraging the foundation and furthering the welfare of a 
working men's natural history society whose discussions he often 
guided and whose excursions he sometimes led. 

Trail never formulated his conception of affairs and duties. This 
was unnecessary ; his life was an adequate presentation of his outlook. 
As a professor his first duty was to teach and as a teacher in a 
Scottish University the subject entrusted to him was utilised as a 
means of educating his students. That he imparted to them at the 
same time much solid instruction was an incidental result ; his primary 
object was to develop their minds and enable them to follow his 
example and acquire knowledge for themselves. Towards that in- 



In Memoriam : Professor Trail 3 g 

formation with regard to things natural which was one of his marked 
characteristics his attitude was dynamic ; it was not the possession 
and the record but the acquisition of knowledge that chiefly engaged 
his attention. Even in his efforts to advance the sum of natural 
knowledge the thought of self which was unavoidable was limited to 
a hope that haply he might thereby be better able to fulfil his duties 
to his class. Much as we may wish that he had left us a fuller record 
of what he had accomplished as an observer we realize that, since his 
devotion to the University and his ideal of duty to the community 
at large rendered some sacrifice inevitable, it was in this particular 
field that such sacrifice was most appropriate. 

If it be difficult to speak in fitting terms of the revered teacher 
the loyal colleague, the esteemed citizen we have lost, it is harder 
still to express our sorrow for the loss of the tried and steadfast 
friend. For our example and encouragement he has left us the 
remembrance of his unselfish devotion to duty, his directness of 
purpose and singleness of mind, his wise advice and charity of 
judgment, his width of interest and thoughtful kindness. We must 
take such melancholy comfort as we may in the privilege it is to have 
known him, and in the unfading memory of his personal charm, of 
the warmth of his affection, and of the human sympathy that shone 
in his kindly eyes. 

DAVID PRAIN. 




The Curator of the Library, 1891-1919. 

IT is not easy to compute the loss sustained by the 
University Library in the death of Professor Trail, 
or to estimate fully the debt it owes to him. He 
was so much bound up in the history of its develop- 
ment, that it is difficult to think of it apart from 
him, or to realize how far behind it might have 
lagged had there not been a strong hand ready at 
the first opportunity to push it forward. That first opportunity came 
in 1 89 1 in response to a demand by the University Commissioners for 
a Report on the Library by the Library Committee. Professor Trail, 
up to this year, had been an ordinary member of the Committee, 
having served as such since his appointment to the Chair of Botany in 
1877; but at this critical time he was elected Curator and at once 
showed how eminently fitted he was for the position. 

His Report, in seventeen folio printed pages, was the opening of 
battle against the old conservative idea of the quasi-sanctity of all 
University books (implying the drastic restriction of their use), and an 
assertion that a new era in Library activity must be inaugurated. 
He was so obviously the proper leader in the battle, that when he came 
to the end of the usual two-year term of office, he was unanimously 
re-elected ; and as his interest in the cause never diminished, growing 
even keener with each victory, this re-election was repeated annually 
for the long period of twenty-eight years. During that time, the 
whole scope of the Library work was widely extended, and many 
successful innovations were either suggested or sanctioned by him. 
They are too many to be described in detail here, but any reader who 
was accustomed to use the Library in 1891, could point out at once 
many obvious reforms. The meagre time the library was open — two 
or three hours daily ; the restricted staff, which made it necessary for 
a reader to depend mostly on his own exertions ; the general air of 
ground forbidden to the ordinary student : all these drawbacks have 



Curator of the Library, 1891-1919 41 

been swept away owing to his initiative. The introduction of 
women as assistants was the Curator's own idea, and from the first 
he had no doubt as to their suitabihty for the work. This was a big 
innovation, but he foresaw that with women students coming forward 
in increasing numbers every year, the novelty of women-librarians 
would soon wear off ; and in the event he was justified, for while the 
constant change of male student assistants had been quite unsatisfac- 
tory, the women assistants settled down quietly to years of work. 
He was deeply interested in the scheme for subject-arrangement of 
the books, and had made himself familiar with the Dewey system, 
which was finding its way into this country from America. His 
appreciation of the enormous advantage of subject classification, and 
his knowledge of the difficulties involved, led him to realize the great 
need of library extension, and he was foremost in urging on the build- 
ing scheme which, alas, the economic disturbances due to the War 
have brought to a stand-still. The whole story of his influence on 
the Library during those twenty-eight years as Curator cannot be 
told here ; but his hearty support of all effort towards improved 
organization and his friendly sympathy in times of difficulty, had the 
greatest effect in the upbuilding of Library efficiency. 

No one could come much into contact with Professor Trail without 
realizing that to him the great outstanding fact of life was the para- 
mountcy and loveliness of Duty. 

Nor know we anything so fair, 
As is the smile upon thy face. 

Early in life he had caught that smile and years of allegiance to 
his ideal had kept bright within him the optimistic spirit that believes 
with no shadow of doubt that Good is stronger than Evil, and Truth 
than Falsehood. To him ''It is right " simply settled a question at 
once ; " It is inexpedient, unwise, likely to make you unpopular," when 
put into the opposite scale, had no weight with him at all. And there 
is no doubt that this single-mindedness gave him a strength, on which 
one could rely with restful certainty. 

In early life he had been destined for the pulpit ; and though it is 
not to be believed that he ever regretted his rejection of that calling 
in favour of a scientific career, yet it may be that he sometimes 
wished he could have combined the two. For he was none of your hard 
and dried pedants whose interest in humanity is swamped in the flood 



42 Aberdeen University Review 

of scientific thought. He had all the makings in him of a prophet of 
the old times, and a very clear perception that the righteousness of a 
nation is its first necessity. If he had let himself go, he could have 
denounced the follies of the age with all the energy and vigour of an 
Ezekiel or a John Knox. But his patient study of nature had taught 
him wiser and gentler methods, and he was content to let each man 
learn through his own experience ; though at times it was pain and 
grief to him. 

Only a week before his last illness, having come into Aberdeen 
from Ballater for the day, Professor Trail turned into the Library 
"simply," as he remarked to the Sub-Librarian, "to see if, in Mr. 
Anderson's absence, I can be of any use " ; and his last words were, 
'* Don't hesitate to let me know if I can help in any way — that is my 
business as Curator ". The remarks were entirely characteristic of the 
man. From others they would have meant but little, and would have 
needed to be largely discounted, but from Professor Trail they meant 
just exactly what they said, and he would quite simply have devoted an 
hour or more, if necessary, to discussing any difficulty or considering 
any problem, even should it mean missing his first train or going 
without his luncheon. 

The University Library is perceptibly the poorer for his loss. 
Future Curators may be interested in the Library work, sympathetic 
with the Library officials, and good fighters for the Library cause — but 
none will be more interested, more sympathetic, more determined than 
he was, and to none will the Library's debt of gratitude be deeper or 
more gladly acknowledged. 

P. J. ANDERSON. 




The Professor ultra Cathedram. 

•HE former independence of Scottish academic life may 
have had historical reason and democratic excuse, but 
it was, nevertheless, open to many of the objections that 
licence is heir to. Our friend, Oxonian, has often used 
good round terms on the point. He affirmed that it 
quite suited the dourness of the Scot to have his pro- 
fessor lecture him from the desk as the minister scolded 
and bullied him from the pulpit, so long as he was 
allowed to return to the dim fortress of his " digs " to 
continue his boorish life, and grub in his stodgy texts and note-books. He 
scoffed at the purely mercenary value which we in Scotland place upon edu- 
cation, our want of imagination, and our aloofness alike from professor and 
fellow-student. He repeated old Dr. Samuel's gibes about the shallowness 
of our learning, and averred that the Scottish undergraduate never more than 
peeps out of his shell of self-esteem and is ever bristling like his national 
emblem and pointing to its motto — " Touch me if ye daur ! " We have no 
filial regard for Alma Mater, no interest in her developments, never continue 
to read from her libraries after graduation, nor attend Council meetings 
except when some exigent business comes up ; and so on and so on. 

If there is truth in some of these structures, the faults are not peculiarly 
ours. They may be found across the Border and over the seas. Such as 
they are, they are unlikely to remain. Signs on every hand foretell the 
coming of a serener day. We have now a motion before the University 
Council to erect hostels for students ; the Union is an established fact ; the 
recent growth of societies and academical magazines, the advent of the lady 
student, the thorough organization of recreations, and the whole forward 
movement of learning and culture must be evident to the least observant. 

In most, if not in all, of these advances Professor Trail took an honour- 
able place. 

His opinions on education and his practical methods in the conduct of 
it were long ago ahead of orthodox ideals and usage. A man who openly 
declared that it was not always or often the student who crammed up lectures 
for the pass-list, but the man who kept up his studies in after-life that 
mattered, might miss the immediate jewel of University worship, but he 
gained the prize of world-progress. A first place is all very well, but the 
love and advancement of a subject is infinitely better. Of the older methods 
of teaching he early held opinions that are now widely accepted, and his 
methods of examining students, with their fine impartiality, present a model 
for imitation. It was diverting to hear him describe his experiences in the 
rudiments of Latin and how he had been two years on "^w/, quae^ quod''' 



44 Aberdeen University Review 

before he grasped the notion that he was on the way to master a tongue. 
This single illustration of the professor's standpoint towards the unsympathetic 
and driven conception of education indicates his whole attitude of mind, and 
explains his insistence on seeing the thing itself at every stage. " Let the 
livmg plant teach you, not the lecturer or the text-book," he seemed to say 
every time; and so his lectures never caught the student away from the 
objects under study. 

It is as an inspiring and helpful teacher, as a genial and untiring' assister 
to every plodding student of Nature, that the professor's departure leaves a 
scar on many a heart the world over. We can still see those dark luminous 
eyes lighting up with appreciation and interest when he noted, say, at his 
first Spring excursion, a follower who had learned something of botany before 
he came up to classes, especially when that something had been self-won. 
The smile in his eyes gave a sweet encouragement to the learner. Even 
towards the forward type of youth it kept its place; only there was then 
added a gleam of amused forbearance, more vivid, we can imagine, to 
hundreds of science and medical men than any other trait. 

Some teachers have a personality which commands respect and carries 
discipline along with it. Such men do not scold. They cut the feet from 
' insubordination without effort. Of these Dr. Trail was a splendid example. 
His genial and friendly association with his men required no checks to keep 
up the proprieties. On a sunny wild sea-bank he might lie at lunch-time and 
discuss many themes of past and present life ; and, though far from being a 
self-centred man, when opportunity presented he would tell of his experiences 
in his early travels in South America or in his innumerable wanderings in 
the home counties. He might discuss small-pox as it affected the savages of 
Brazil, or unrecorded features of our Scottish Alps. His knowledge of 
Entomology was extensive and accurate, and his familiarity with local History, 
Topography, Antiquities, and even Genealogy, may be put alongside that of 
specialists. Like all genial men, he enjoyed a good story, especially when 
humoursome, and his excellent memory kept his store replete. 

Of the amount of gratuitous work that Professor Trail accomplished few 
can make adequate computation. His name is standing on Boards and Com- 
mittees, library, scholastic and financial, and in his own and cognate studies 
the meanest worker, provided he had the thing at heart, found help and un- 
failing encouragement. With consummate skill, he would put half-baked 
theories and superficial observations in the light of fact in such a way as never 
to offend the impulsive youth or drive him from the fold. Many an obscure 
worker in the Natural Sciences has had his hobby sustained, heightened, and 
made still more a joy to him, by the very help which books cannot give. 
Alas, that such knowledge, skill, and kindness should cease ! 

For forty years we have listened at intervals to the opinions of the suc- 
cession of under-graduates about Professor Trail. Often they missed the 
strong points in his lecturing, and complained of his want of fluency and 
poetry in description ; but here all their criticisms ended. To many of them 
during all these sessions he was a heroic figure. They had great and Homeric 
tales of his deeds from the day when a pair of worn-out shoes sent him a- 
wandering on the Amazons, and insured his admission to the professoriate. 
They enlarged upon his knowledge of the Romance Languages, and delighted 
in the story of his supplanting an inefficient interpreter during the Brazilian 



The Professor ultra Cathedram 45 

explorations. They were eloquent about his devotion from an early age to 
the study and collecting of insects, about his feats of walking and endurance, 
of his examinerships and his systematic work on the Kew Collections. But 
as it happened, somewhat prophetically, we overheard his highest veneration 
this summer, when a youth from the West Indies, son of another pupil, 
dilated at length to two fellow-freshmen on the capacities and virtues of our 
scientific Crichton. He dwelt on the professor's knowledge of modern 
languages, his skill in every branch of Natural Science, his editing of scientific 
magazines and papers, his influence at Kew and in the world of science, the 
long list of investigators who had caught his enthusiasm, and the degrees that 
he held. It was an inspiring testimonial. No wonder that such things work 
on the aspirations of youth and keep them at their tasks. Then the lad added 
— " And just think of it ; oh, it's the limit ! After all this learning and outside 
recognition, his Alma Mater has not made him an LL.D. ! " Of course, that 
was youthful ignorance ; but it showed a fine spirit and a fine sense of desert, 
with which thousands more will heartily sympathize. 

A. MACDONALD. 




James IV. and the Scottish Navy. 

jIRTH, Ereth, Herth, or Hereth, is a village and parish, 
the latter of considerable beauty with its deep meadows, 
grand timber, and fine environment. To the north of it 
lies the Firth of Forth, beyond which rises the fine barrier 
brow of the Ochils. The combination of rich plain, 
water, and mountain forms a landscape of much attrac- 
tiveness. 

The village is a quaint, old-world place, many of its 
houses bearing dates of the earlier part of the eighteenth 
century. Since that time little or nothing has been needed in Airth, which 
then began to decay. It was then a busy little seaport, but in 1 745 the Navy 
set fire to the shipping to prevent it falling into the hand of the rebels, while 
later in the century, on the construction of the Forth and Clyde Canal, its 
trade passed to Grangemouth, which sprang up at the terminus and took 
Airth's place as the east coast port of Glasgow. The harbour gradually was 
disused, and within a century the population has shrunk to a half. 

Airth lays claim to a high antiquity. The upper town, which ceased to 
exist 100 years ago, and of which the only remaining vestige is a rude 
stone pillar, probably the old Market Cross, is mentioned in a charter of 1409, 
and the old Kirk stands near it. The lower town was a seaport as early as 
1357, for in that year we find in Bain's Calendar an English ship putting in 
there was stripped and plundered by the natives, the owners on their return 
petitioning the English King for redress. Indeed Airth seems to have been 
in existence as early as 1130, for then David I. granted to Holyrood Abbey 
the Kirk of Hereth with pertinents and two bovates of land, with liberty to 
erect a mill ; and in addition to what he bad already given to Abbot Alwin 
a saltpan along with twenty-seven acres of land there. The saltpan, near the 
old harbour, is now garden ground. Of David's Kirk nothing remains except 
some traces of the foundations. 

The Elphinstone connection with Airth dates from the time of King 
Robert Bruce. John de Elphinstone married Marjorie de Airth, who brought 
to the Elphinstones the lands of Airthbeg in the parish. In 1435, when the 
founder of King's College was a child of four, his uncle Sir Alexander 
Elphinstone, of Elphinstone Tower in Midlothian, fell at Piperdean, leaving 
an only daughter. A disputed succession ensued, which lasted thirty-five 
years, and was finally settled by arbitration, the Midlothian lands going to the 
daughter, those of Stirlingshire to her uncle. In the early days of Our 
Founder the Elphinstones did not occupy a very prominent position, and 
this litigation impoverished them. A turn of the wheel righted them, and 
the bishop lived to see his young kinsman made a lord, with very considerable 
grants from the King in Aberdeenshire and elsewhere. He had married 



James IV. and the Scottish Navy 47 

Elizabeth Barlow or Barley, one of Queen Margaret's English ladies-in-waiting, 
and stood high in the royal favour. About 1504 he built in Airth the tower 
which for 250 years remained the chief seat of the family. The first lord 
fell, with his master, at Flodden, the second at Pinkie. His successors con- 
tinued to inhabit the tower, where they raised families that must have been 
the envy of the neighbourhood. The fourth lord had fourteen sons and five 
daughters, and it did not need a prophet to tell there would not lack a male 
child to rule in the Tower of Elphinstone. The size of their families accounts 
for the ability of the family to trace their descent by heirs male for twenty- 
five generations. Of the last brood in the old tower two rose to eminence, 
Admiral Viscount Keith of Stonehaven, and the Hon. W. F. Elphinstone of 
Carrington, President of the East India Company. The Elphinstone aisle 
in the old Kirk was erected by the fourth lord, and contains the family 
tombstones. The Bruce aisle belonged to the Bruces of Airth, the most 
prominent of that family being Robert Bruce, the celebrated minister in the 
time of James VI. Close by the old Kirk stands Airth Castle, the home of 
these Bruces. 

The chief, perhaps the only evidence for an earlier building on this 
site is the account by Harry the Minstrel of the capture of Airth-hall by 
Wallace. The local colour satisfies me that Harry either knew the district 
well, or drew his information from a reliable source. He brings Wallace over 
the Ochils from St. Johnstown to the neighbourhood of Airth Ferry. Here 
one of his men seized a fisherman fishing on the north side for the English 
garrison at Airth. They passed the moss to the Torwood, and only local 
knowledge could tell that. All the details agree with the present site of Airth 
Castle, with the ditch and cave. There is still a small bridge, now falling to 
pieces, which may be the very one over which Wallace and Jiis men stepped 
to scale the height and seize the hold. 

By way of compensation, I venture to draw attention to another point. 
At the beginning of the sixteenth century James IV. began to display a great 
interest in the Scottish Navy. In 1504 Newiiaven is first heard of in this 
connection, and in 1507 the King was at Airth and visited the Margaret. We 
may conclude that the first dock at Airth was made some time before 1507. 
From the accounts of the Lord High Treasurer, vol. iv, 1507-13, edited by 
Sir James B. Paul, we gather that Robert Calendar of Manor, Constable of 
Stirling Castle, is paid ;^6o, in complete payment of ;£"24o for the " Rastein 
of 3 dokkis," and other disbursements are made, as for the mariners and work- 
men at the Margaret. We hear of the up-putting of " a mast in the bark called 
XkiQ Jaines'\ Are not these significant names preserved by the heraldic coats 
on the west front of the Chapel of King's College ? The rex invictissimus 
before Flodden was busy on the Navy. In view of these and similar details 
in the Royal Accounts, Sir James Balfour Paul, then editing vol. iv. of the 
Exchequer Rolls, visited Airth in hopes of finding in 1902 some traces of the 
dockyard. The time att his disposal prevented him from making a systematic 
examination of the ground, and he concluded that much was altered by the 
reclamation of the foreshore of the Firth by embankment a century ago, and 
that probably all trace of the dockyard had been obliterated. Some time 
ago, when searching for material for the early history of the parish, I noted 
several things in grants by James in 1 5 1 3 to Robert Calendar. My attention 
was directed to early charter references speaking of the Head Cruik or Dokkis. 



48 Aberdeen University Review 

I believe I have discovered the Missing Dockyard of James IV. It was a 
time when docks were in their infancy, and little or no masonry was employed 
in their construction. 

It seems not much to look at, merely an irregular trench partly filled with 
water, which anyone at Newmills would at once associate with the mills and 
ask no more, seeing only a mill-dam. But a well-designed system of docks 
is seen. The elevation was well selected. There would be no flooding and 
no unnecessary excavation. The deep channel of the Pow showed there was 
no rock in the vicinity. The ground selected covered 8 acres, exactly the area 
covered by the docks of Henry VIII. at Portsmouth. The position was well 
chosen. It lies between the deep tidal stream called the Pow and the Firth 
of Forth. Admittance for large ships could b£ got by cutting the embank- 
ment between the docks and the Forth. The details are intricate but every- 
thing is found to fit into its exact place. The description of the lands in the 
charters of 1580 and 1680 suggested the neighbourhood in which it may be 
found. The position, the elevation, the suitability for purposes of access, no 
less than the peculiar shape and dimensions, the method of excavating the 
channels, all indicate with great clearness the nature of the place. The site 
was already royal property. At Deptford Henry had to bargain for his site. 
The land leased to the dock-superintendent, Robert Calendar, by the King 
in 15 13, was the farm immediately up-stream from the docks. Along the 
outer edge of the embankment dividing the docks from the Forth there is 
about 300 yards' length of a sea wall, with an opening in it at a point opposite 
the docks sufficiently wide to admit of ships. This wall is continued for some 
distance along the edge of the little harbour lying to the east of the dock 
circuit and opening direct to the Forth. It is probable that this sea-wall, the 
outer harbour, and the docks were all part of James' 1 5 1 1 dockyard. 

The interest of James in his Navy was not directed against England. 
The New World and the great trade routes were only recently discovered, and 
enterprising monarchs like James IV. and his brother-in-law of England, were 
quick to perceive how largely their future and the place of Scotland in the 
sun lay upon the Water. Airth can thus show a 1 5 1 1 dockyard in its primi- 
tive unaltered shape. Columbus' first voyage coincided in point of time with 
the foundation of King's College. Pope Alexander had made enormous 
grants to Spain and Portugal. What we were to do at Darien we might have 
done under James IV. It is among the great might-have-beens of history, 
by which all the national destiny would have been changed. And we lost it 
all at Flodden. Was Elphinstone behind all this ? 

FREDERIC HENDRY. 




^^On Supply" in London. 

But the flower I hold most sweet — 

Is the blossom that I meet 

Down Vauxhall way upon a summer morning. 

|HUS the newly-appointed teacher " on supply," grimly and 
sotto voce, as she plodded heavily through the November 
slush, beaten to the consistency and appearance of 
potato soup by the turmoil of traffic — trams, brewers' 
drays, motor-buses, taxis, vans — all making heavy weather 
of it in the drenching thaw. "You are requested 
to report on Monday morning at St. Paul's School, 
Thames Street, Vauxhall," so ran the letter in my hand. 
This was Vauxhall of a surety ; there — first on the left 
under the railway arch — Thames Street ; but where, in the name of its 
patronymic saint, was the apostolic edifice alluded to in the official instruc- 
tion? Half a dozen dismal tenements and one small shop with a dingy 
window displaying a few boxes of repulsive- looking sweets — ihese made up 
the sum total of the contents of the street, save for one hideous building 
standing back from the roadway, in appearance something like a church that 
had fallen on evi) days and become a factory or brewery. This, I decided 
after an incredulous survey, must be the goal of my journey, and towards it I 
accordingly bent my steps with a sinking heart. Through a gate in the high 
stone wall I went, and across a stone-paved yard, pushed open a heavy door 
in front of me, and was instantly swallowed up in a babel of infant voices, 
clamouring, wailing, laughing, while high above the din in tones of expostula- 
tion or entreaty, rose shrill, maternal Cockney accents. 

The Kindergarten department was evidently assembling in full force. I 
stumbled across the dingy hall, which reeked with the aroma of wet garments 
and unwashed infants, and at the opposite door met a wooden-legged janitor, 
who directed me upstairs to the Boys' Department, adding cheerily, by way 
of greeting, " 'Tain't stoppin' to rai7i, Miss. It's jus' comin' down all any'ow." 
I climbed up a dreary stone stair with whitewashed walls and wire-guarded 
gas-jets, and at last by dint of much questioning of stray juveniles, found 
myself in the teachers' sitting-room and in the presence of the head master, a 
brisk-looking Yorkshireman who stowed a pipe away and rose to greet me. 

" I'm afraid I've got a tough job for you," he remarked, and my spirits 
sank several degrees lower. However, I set my teeth, and followed him into 
an incredibly long, bare classroom, with a broken ceiling and several cracked 
window-panes, but swept and garnished and made cheerful by means of a big, 
open fire. The boys were pouring in to the sound of a cracked bell outside, 
fifty-odd youngsters, ragged, some almost shoeless in the bitter cold, but for 

4 



50 Aberdeen University Review 

the most part shining as to face, carefully combed, alert, and taking in every 
detail of the new teacher. The class settled down under the active ministra- 
tion of several energetic prefects, who employed gentle persuasions such as 
*' Shut up torkin', Ted Jones, else I won't 'arf give yer a fick ear ! " I 
promptly decided that the preliminary morning disciplining of the flock could 
safely be left to these zealous sheep-dogs, who could make themselves under- 
stood more significantly than I, and whose hands were doubtless much 
more expert than mine in the gentle art of administering " fick ears ". 
"Not a bad set of rascals," said the head master, with a touch of the grim 
affection of the lion-tamer for his charges, " <^«/," he added significantly, 
"you've got to keep a tight hand on them. Once let things slacken by a 
hair's breadth and awful things may happen." 

In truth, I found them " not a bad set " — cheery, plucky, friendly little 
souls, responsive, keen to question, eager to please, albeit of fickle and 
wandering attention. After a week, during which friendly relations were 
more and more firmly established, 1 grew almost to discredit the Head's 
warning of dread possibilities latent, until one day there was restored to the 
flock one Thomas Cobb, returned to the fold after a protracted absence due 
to " 'opping " — a form of exercise which, considering the season of the year, I 
may be pardoned for not immediately connecting with the Kentish hopfields. 
With the advent of Thomas, the entire fabric of my class-discipline gave 
serious signs of crumbling. However, after a week's assiduous hopping of 
another description, induced by persevering application of the cane, the 
truant member caved in and fell into line, and peace reigned once more. 
This same urchin it was whom I encountered one afternoon some weeks later, 
after school had been dismissed, crouched under a gas-jet on the dismal stair, 
reading, of all things on earth, "A Midsummer-Night's Dream! "■ He had 
"swopped" a pocket knife for the book, it appeared, and to my query, "Do 
you like it, Cobb?" he replied with such a hearty "Not 'arf," as did my heart 
good to hear in these days of Bacon-Shakespeare controversy and higher 
criticism. 

As the days went on, I began to find that my lines had fallen in a sur- 
prisingly pleasant place. "Down Vauxhall Way," which would persist in 
singing itself to the throb of the London and South-Western electric train 
that daily bore me up to town, gradually lost its cynical note and became the 
cheerful expression of a mind at ease and pleasantly conscious of work done 
and to do. Every hour of the day held interest, from the time when the 
Reverend Father, garbed in cassock and biretta, arrived from the neighbour- 
ing vicarage to conduct prayers, to the moment when the entire staff breath- 
lessly boarded the 4.35. The curriculum proved to be the familiar one of the 
elementary school, save that unexpected prominence was given to the' fine 
arts. For an hour twice weekly would I retire to the dmgy but warm sitting- 
room, while my tribe, under the direction of the head master, made melodious 
enquiry into the identity of one Sylvia, the adored of all the swains, or joyfully 
announced themselves as so many wandering minstrels. (Only too truly could 
they pronounce themselves "things of shreds and patches," poor little 
minstrels ! The backs of even one or two of the prefects were but scantily 
covered, while a pair of Father's cast-off puttees, displayed with pride before 
Teacher's eye, merely set Teacher speculating, I fear, as to the possible 
absence of stockings beneath.) Each afternoon wound up with forty minutes' 



^^On Supply" in London 51 

reading — a joy to all. How many other Dickens lovers have been privileged 
to hear the " Artful Dodger " rendered by boys any one of whom might have sat 
for the portrait of that immortal youth ? 

The favourite lesson of all was the painting lesson. Silent, absorbed, the 
fiock would lovingly copy a little group of everyday objects, spending nearly a 
whole afternoon on the task, while I walked round, utilising this rare op- 
portunity to try to learn something of the personality of each of the fifty-odd 
souls I was shepherding. The class neld one or two quite promising artists, 
whose productions I soon learnt to recognize at sight — Sam Thwaites, who 
had a fancy for outlining in black ; Newman, with his own particular method 
of treating shadows ; several others. Question — Was the soul of Sam 
Thwaites being developed by these lessons, his ideals heightened, his imagina- 
tion trained to clearer and lovelier vision ? Or was I, aided and abetted by 
the London County Council as accessory before and after the fact, merely 
putting Sam in the way of an easy and comparatively remunerative means of 
earning a livelihood in the form of pavement artistry ? The rising generation 
*' down Vauxhall way " is to-day being taught to use printed characters instead 
of script, I understand. The same query applies here. Personally, I incline 
to the opinion that to instruct the youthful Londoner in the art of printing 
serves no better end than to impart to him a quite superfluous facility in the 
addition of the microscopic and treacherous word " half," tucked unobtru- 
sively in the middle of the flamboyant announcement, "Only is. 6d. per 
(half) pound," which adorns the coster's fruit barrow. 

This, indeed, is the whole problem of education in a nutshell, which I 
frankly own myself unable to crack. I am no educational expert, but only 
an ex-teacher on supply, who entered the environs of Vauxhall with the air of 
one who says " Odi profanum vulgus et arceo " and who left them a humbler 
and a wiser woman, having learnt in the interim that the ties of brotherhood 
and friendship are forged not only in the fair surroundings of Brixton and 
Park Lane, but that adverse circumstance, sordidness, and poverty can form 
bonds between teachers and pupils and among teachers themselves of peculiar 
strength and quality. To the London teacher I take this opportunity of 
making my best bow. I quite endorse the generally held opinion as to the 
relative merits of Scottish and English systems of elementary education. At 
the same time I respect the London teachers, and admire their work all the 
more because of the fact that their labours are rendered more difficult by an 
obsolete and hampering machinery. " If we weren't happy among ourselves," 
said the Head of St. Paul's, Vauxhall, one day, "and didn't make it our chief 
aim in life to give the youngsters a good time, life here wouldn't be worth 
living" — even in spite, I suppose, of the munificent ;£"io additional per 
annum allowed to each teacher in the school on account of its "special 
difficulty ". 

Of the band of workers in that school I could write at length, but have 
space to mention only one or two. A strangely assorted, but entirely har- 
monious company were they. There was the daughter of an ex-officer of the 
Indian Army, with the tired eyes of the Anglo-Indian, who ruled her class 
with a rod of iron, but with an unfailing sense of fun. Her friendly smile 
through the glass partition set me at my ease on the first morning, and 
throughout my sojourn her help and sympathy never failed. There was 
"Tipperary," moreover, acquaintance of W. B. Yeats and Patrick MacGill, 



52 Aberdeen University Review 

who made the lunch hours merry with anecdote. She it was who was one day 
rash enough to address one of her charges as " dear ". Instantly from the 
back benches arose a still small voice, " Ow, darlin' — kim orf me neck ! " 
And the class was Standard One ! There was, lastly, the second master, Mr. 
Andrews, tall and grim, who, apart from lessons, rarely addressed any boy 
save in monosyllabic undertone, emphasized with aid of his boot-toe, and in 
whose service every urchin in the school would joyfully have made of himself 
a door-mat. One morning soon after my arrival, the Head detained my class 
through the forenoon break. Finally, he said, "You may go to play now, 
boys, but if you will take a purely friendly hint from me, you'll keep out of 
Mr. Andrews' way. He's taking drill in the yard." To the chorus of 
"Yessir," which acknowledged the hint, one small youth in a front bench 
added dreamily, " 'E's wicious, 'e is ! " I gasped, and awaited the descent of 
retributive Nemesis, but nothing happened. Then I realized that a compli- 
ment had been intended. It takes the Scottish-bred teacher a long time to 
realize that many of the remarks of the juvenile Cockney convey no im- 
pertinent intent;, but are inspired solely by the spirit of friendliness and 
interest. 

Little Vauxhall blossoms ! It was with reluctant feet that I hied me to 
the more respectable and infinitely duller purlieus of Brixton, where my 
services were required in a Central School "as a specialist" (so ran the 
official missive), a title to which, up till then, my modest soul had had no 
thoughts of aspiring. Once, and only once, have I met you since. The 
memorable meeting took place one Saturday morning when I happened to be 
cycling across Clapham Common. Something familiar in the aspect of a 
ragamuffin crew playing an animated game of football caused me to turn 
down a side-path, when nearer inspection confirmed my first impression, and 
led to a joyful reunion. The half-time whistle was blown, and I sat on the 
fence and heard all about it. Then I went on my way, followed by vociferous 
hopes for our next merry meeting, the which I heartily endorse. But life, 
alas ! is short, and many and long are the streets of London. 

JANET B. BINNS 
{nee Rankine, M.A., 191 2), 



Translations ^ ^ 



Well he slumbers, greatly slain, 

Who in splendid battle dies ; 
Deep his sleep in midmost main 

Pillowed upon pearl who lies. 

Ease of all good gifts the best. 

War or wave at last decree ; * 

Love alone denies us rest, 
Crueller than sword or sea. 

— W. WATSON. 

IDEM GRAECE REDDITUM. 
ES fjL€v iKOLixdOrj KXeivT]^ \d\ev oo'Te Tekevrrjs 

fxapvajxevo^ Kparepco^ iv Sat /cvSaXt/xo), 
KVfjiaa'L 8' ip /xecraroc?, oljjLaL, ^advv vttvov lavei 

/C€t/xet'o§, 09 Koy^ai^; dvakiaicTL kXiOtJ • 
0)8* OV1/ rj(TV)(^LrjVy Scopcov y\vK€p(x)TaTov dWoiVj 

eW d\o<; €LT ^Ap€09 fjuolp^ aTreVet/xe Teko^s • 
fjiovvo's, ^Epa)9, (TV TTOVoiv S6fJL€v ovK iOdXeis dvairavXaVf 

al-^fjurjs KOL iT€Xdyov<; oiv iroXv nLKpoTepof;. 

—J. HARROWER. 

EvSovcTLV S' opicov Kopv^at re koX (jydpayy€<; . . . 

ALCMAN. 

Now sinks to rest the dark ravine, 

The mountain height, 
The rushing torrent and the cliff ; 

In dim grey dight 
Earth rocks to rest the creeping tribe. 

The tawny bees. 
Wild folk of the upland : in the depths 

Of purple seas 
Strange monsters sleep : the eagles rest 

In evening light. 
The long beat of their pinions stilled 

By drowsy night. 

— F. G. M. 



Reviews. 

Menders of the Maimed : The anatomical and physiological principles 
underlying the treatment of injuries to muscles, nerves, bones, and 
joints. By Arthur Keith, M.D., F.R.C.S., LL.D., F.R.S., Conservator 
of the Museum and Hunterian Professor, Royal College of Surgeons, 
England. Henry Frowde and Hodder and Stoughton, 1919. 8vo. Pp. 
xii + 335, 16 portraits, 7 figs. Price i6s. net. 

This felicitous book is based on a series of lectures which the author 
gave in 191 7-18 at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on the ana- 
tomical and physiological principles which underlie the art of Orthopaedic 
Surgery. But it is not to surgeons only that the book will appeal, for 
Professor Arthur Keith has treated his subject historically and personally, 
and given it relevancy to all who are interested in scientific development 
and in the triumphs of great men. This method has been followed de- 
liberately, for " the first advance in every great curative movement is made 
by a single mind brooding over facts gleaned by the bedside, the ex- 
perimental bench, or the dissecting table ; these are the critical occasions 
in the history of Medicine; on such occasions are forged the implements 
of the surgeon's armamentarium ". The result justifies the method, and the 
author is to be congratulated on the success with which he has disclosed 
the romance of the surgeon's craft. 

A beginning is naturally made with John Hunter (1728-93), who so 
clearly discerned and expounded two great facts, that restoration is efl'ected 
by powers inherent in the living tissue of the patient, and that the power to 
recover the function of injured joints and muscles is in the patient's will 
and brain. " His opinion was that it is the surgeon's business to direct, 
encourage, and interest that Will and brain." Thirty-one years after Hunter's 
death, John Hilton (1807-78) entered as a student at Guy's Hospital, 
and it was in 1862 that he completed the famous lectures afterwards pub- 
lished under the title of *' Rest and Pain," a book that "won an enduring 
place in the minds and hearts of medical men ". Pain he regarded as 
Nature's signal of her demand for rest. Pain guided the surgeon to the 
seat of disease, and in Hilton's scheme of thera*peutics action found no 
part, only rest. Of course, he construed the word " rest " in a mde sense, 
for in one case we find him writing of a patient with a bruised chest : " I 
requested that his wife should not say a word to him ". Dr. Keith's picture 
of John Hilton is very interesting : " His was a flat, rotund, plainly moulded, 
robust and honest face. His contemporaries tell us that he had the outward 
appearance of a dapper, prosperous city man. . . . He liked a waistcoat 
with a decisive pattern — one which was linked from pocket to pocket with 
a heavy gold chain and showed an ample shirt front." ... He was no poet 
the author of "Rest and Pain," but as shrewd as they make them, and with 
what a command of idiomatic English ! Hilton elaborated the means of 
securing rest into a system, but Hugh Owen Thomas (1834-91), a Liverpool 



Reviews 



55 



surgeon, made rest his creed and ritual. He literally spent his life in 
practising and preaching a therapeutic gospel of rest, and in devising 
appliances for serving what he never tired of calling ''enforced, uninterrupted, 
and prolonged rest ". 

The next chapter deals with John Little, G. F. L. Stromeyer, and William 
Adams, who were pioneers of an orthopaedic movement which led surgeons to 
practise the cutting of tendons for the relief and rectification of deformities. 
At the end of this chapter, Dr. Keith has some interesting comments on the 
passive function of ligaments, which come into action only when the normal 
muscular support and defence of a joint has broken down. Next on the 
scene comes the "simple-speaking, plain-living" Marshall Hall (1790-1857), 
"who showed us that we may learn rational methods for the treatment of 
human limbs even from a newt's tail ". For it was from this humble object 
that he was led in 1833 to his great discovery of the rflex function of the 
spinal cord — a discovery miserably depreciated by too many of his contem- 
poraries. It is interesting to read that at the end of his career, when suffering 
from malignant disease, his experimental genius did not desert him, for he 
worked out the postural method of artificial respiration. From Marshall Hall 
we pass to Duchenne of Boulogne, " one of the most remarkable figures which 
has ever appeared on the medical stage," much of the Breton and a '''char- 
acter," " Don Quixote and Sancho Panza rolled into one ". He introduced 
a new way of applying the Faradic current, at first for the treatment of chronic 
joint and muscular conditions, but afterwards * for determining the use of 
muscles, and it was thus that he elaborated his masterpiece, Pkysiologie des 
Mouvements (1867). " He was the first to show us the right way to study the 
functional and anatomical collapse of the foot," the unsolved problem of 
"fiat-foot " which means so much to every nation. In the next chapter Dr. 
Keith shows how Beevor in London followed in Duchenne's track with very 
important results. Here, too, is introduced a luminous account of the activity 
and management of those peculiar types of internal combustion engines which 
we call our muscles. We are also shown how Marshall Hall's work has been 
continued by Professor Sherrington and other modern neurologists, and this 
naturally leads to a discussion of the degeneration and regeneration of nerves. 
A masterly exposition shows how present-day orthopaedic practice, so far as 
the treatment of nerve injuries is concerned, rests on a century of laboratory 
experiment and clinical observation. It is, we think, with great skill that Dr. 
Keith traces the diverse contributions made by Swan, Paget, Flourens, 
Augustus Waller, F. M. Balfour, His and others. It is very educative for 
impatient utilitarians to read how "Waller found a source of new knowledge 
in the frog's tongue" and how the developing embryo of the dogfish became 
"a mine of discovery for young Balfour ". It may be added that it was the 
familiar pollywog that eventually yielded to Ross Harrison in 1904 the 
secret of how a nerve fibre does really grow. 

After an account of the introduction of tendon transplantation, Dr. 
Keith illustrates some of the principles which guide the orthopaedic practice 
of modern British surgeons. He refers especially to the work and writings of 
Sir William Macewen, Sir William Arbuthnot Lane and Sir Robert Jones. 
He then takes a rapid tour along the eastern seaboard of the United States 
to note the rise and expansion of orthopaedic surgery in America. He then 
takes us to France (where the word " orthopedia " was fashioned) and introduces 
us to a number of very interesting men, such as Jean Pierre David (1737- 



56 Aberdeen University Review 

1784) of Rouen, who first defined the r61es of "rest " and of "motion " in 
the treatment of surgical disorders; Jacques Delpech (1777-1832) " one of 
the most brilliant figures which has ever appeared in surgery and the virtual 
founder of orthopaedic surgery " ; and Just Lucas-Championniere (1843- 191 3), 
"an uncompromising advocate of movement as a curative agency in the 
treatment of all conditions which result from injuries and accidents ". It 
strikes the reader as very remarkable that there should be such divergent 
theory and practice as we see in the contrast between Thomas of Liverpool 
and Lucas-Championniere of Paris. But Dr. Keith points out, with a twinkle 
in his eye, that "the tissues of the body are endowed with a power of repair 
so strong that they will effect a cure amidst the most disadvantageous cir- 
cumstances". Moreover, there have been few "control experiments" in 
surgery and "we have still to pass through years of patient and toilsome ob- 
servation before we can tell with certainty how far surgical effort of any kind 
has helped or hindered in securing a perfect result ". Perhaps Jean David of 
Rouen was near the mark when he said that there was a time for rest and a 
time for motion in the treatment of most surgical conditions. From this 
discussion it is a natural step to an appreciation of gymnastics and massage in 
surgery. It is interesting to read the story of Pehr Ling, the creator of 
Swedish exercises, who studied theology at Upsala, wandered through Europe 
till he was twenty-eight, taught fencing and learned anatomy at the University 
of Lund, and there conceived the idea, not unnatural to a "rover," that he 
could make his country healthy, happy and prosperous by exercise. The next 
chapters bring us back to our bones, to the foundation of our knowledge of 
bone growth by Duhamel and Hunter; to the researches of Syme and of 
Goodsir, both men of Fife and Edinburgh professors ; to the continuation 
of these in further studies on bone repair and bone reproduction of Professors 
Oilier of Lyons and Sir William Macewen of Glasgow. From the eighteenth 
century until now there have been two parties or sects on the question of 
bone growth, the Duhamelites maintaining that the periosteum which surrounds 
the bone was the bone-producer, the Hallerites maintaining that bone grew 
more bone. As is usual in such cases, there is truth on both sides. Sir 
William Macewen " has given bone its rightful place among the living tissues 
of the body — a tissue whicfi has the power to reproduce itself. But in raising 
bone to its proper biological and surgical status, he has been less than just to 
the periosteum." For the bone-making power of the deepest layer of the 
periosteum. is indubitable. This is another illustration of the judicial way in 
which the author states both sides of the case and then gives his decision. 

In human discovery the way to success is often strewn with the wreckage 
of endeavours that failed. So has it been with the modern use of bone grafts. 
Why did Macewen succeed where Hunter failed ? Part of the answer is in 
one word — asepsis. Dr. Keith restates Wolffs Law of bone transformation : 
the bone-forming cells or osteoblasts at all times build and unbuild according 
to the stresses to which they are subjected. He also shows how the zoologist's 
study of the lowest multicellular animals, the sponges, has light to throw on 
the distant problems of orthopaedics. At the end of this chapter there is an 
interesting sentence for the vitalists : " We see that Hunter was not far off the 
truth when he attributed a form of ' consciousness ' to living bone ". 

The nineteenth chapter brings us to Aberdeen, and first to Peter Redfern 
(1821.1912), Professor of Anatomy and Physiology in King's College (1845- 
1860), the founder of our knowledge concerning the microscopic structure of 



Reviews 



57 



cartilage and the discoverer of the process by which its wounds are repaired. 
But the story brings us also to one who is happily still with us and in vigour, 
Sir Alexander Ogston, who in 1876 answered the question why the joints of 
the body do not wear out by use. The book ends with a characteristically 
fair-minded discussion of bone-setting — ancient and modern. 

We cannot lay down this attractive book, written in good style, printed in 
pleasant type, and generously illustrated, without thanking Dr. Arthur Keith 
for showing us so brilliantly how the history of an applied science and the 
lives of its devotees may be utilized to make the underlying principles clear. 
This is better than a mere chronicle on the one hand or an exposition of 
logical development on the other; The fact is that the author has passed 
beyond a scientific history to an artistic presentation which is truer still. 

Charles Annandale, M.A., LL.D. A Biographical Sketch. By Hamish 
Hendry. With an introduction by William Keith Leask. Blackie & 
Son, Ltd., London, 19 19. Pp. xiv + 70. 

There is something a little pathetic about this small brochure. It is 
published in honour of a man whom all felt to be worthy of a written memorial, 
whose services to literature in fact, demanded such recognition, but whose life ' 
had been so reserved, so self-contained, that when the time arrived for writing 
an account of it, there was found material only sufficient for this small booklet 
of sixty-two pages. The impression given is of quiet concentrated energy — 
so quiet as to be almost oppressive — and one seems to be watching some power- 
ful engine at work, turning out tons of encyclopaedic wisdom. Yet, looking 
at the kindly face in the frontispiece, one realizes that this cannot be the 
complete story, and feels instinctively that wife and daughter could have 
drawn the character in softer Hnes. 

Charles Annandale was an Aberdeen University man ; but financial 
reasons delayed his entrance to college till he was nineteen years of age — 
two years, at least, above the average of his companions. Owing to that fact 
he missed the full comradeship of University life, and this perhaps tended to 
increase his inborn reticence. Mr. Keith Leask, in his very interesting Intro- 
duction to this memoir, gives a sketch of the personalities and atmosphere of 
the University at the time Annandale came under its influence, and notes their 
effect on his character. He did well, though not brilliantly, in his classes, but 
the immediate result of his University work was not nearly so encouraging as 
he and his people might have been justified in expecting. He failed in his 
attempt to win the Simpson Greek prize — French and German studies had dis- 
tracted him too much from the necessary concentration on Greek, and 
Robertson Smith's brilliant young brother forged ahead of him. He just 
missed an Indian Civil appointment ; for while studying for this examination 
he was also doing his final year's work at the University, and here again was 
not able to concentrate sufficiently. And he twice failed in an attempt 
for the Ferguson Scholarship in Classics. How came a student of real talent 
and not wanting in application, to suffer such defeats ? In each case the 
weakness seems to have been the same : his literary tastes were too catholic, 
his reading too wide, his energies too much dissipated. But Fate had arranged 
that these apparent drawbacks should prove his strength, having destined him 
for work in which broad knowledge was more valuable than restricted scholar- 
ship, however profound. 



58 Aberdeen University Review 

The prospect before him had looked somewhat unpromising when, like a 
billiard ball rolling aimlessly about, he suddenly plumped down into the exact 
round hole made for him. Blackie & Son took possession of him. They 
were on the look-out for just such a man as he, and the "born lexicographer," 
as his biographer styles him, possessed qualities which eventually enabled him 
to rise to the position of Editor-in-chief in the office of that firm. For 
forty-seven years he worked there, producing an enormous amount of good 
work, compiling dictionary after dictionary, encyclopaedia after encyclopaedia, 
with a love for painstaking detail that only understanding scholarship could 
give. His University, looking on, approved his work, and in 1885 stamped 
her mark afresh by conferring on him the degree of LL.D. 

It is rather unfortunate that the " often repeated, characteristically favour- 
ite quotation " attributed to this accurate and careful writer, should appear as a 
rather bad w/j-quotation : but no doubt in this life he had got fairly inured to 
people's slip-shod references, and now may be able to forgive them. This 
slip, however, is really the odly flaw to be found in an admirably produced 
little volume, where paper and print are well calculated to support Mr. Hendry 
in his successful effort to put forth his meagre material to the best advantage. 

M. S. Best. 

Problems of National Education. By Twelve Scottish Educationists. 
Edited by John Clarke. Macmillan & Co. Pp. 368. 

Mr. Clarke has furnished a most timely and helpful contribution to the 
study of the conditions and future of our national education. While the 
individual contributor has been given a free hand in developing his subject, 
the choice of themes and the selection of writers were made by the editor, 
and the success he has achieved proves that he was no less discriminating in 
the former than in the latter. 

In his preface Mr. Clarke sketches the plan and object of the book and 
appends a summary of the principles embodied in the new Scottish Educati:>n 
Act. This gives a general starting-point for the chapters that follow. 

The series of contributions opens with a review of Scottish Education 
during the last fifty years from the capable pen of the President of the Edu- 
cational Institute. The physical interests of the young throughout all 
stages of instruction are then dealt with. Sir Leslie Mackenzie's authority 
guarantees the expert treatment of the subject In the two following chapters 
the training of girls in elementary and continuation schools and the aim and 
outlook in their secondary education are discussed by Miss Fish and Miss 
Ainslie on lines that are both practical and humanistic. Dr. Strong deals 
with the moral and religious elements in the school. His treatment of this 
difficult subject is sane and frank. Dr. Strong holds the view that moral can- 
not be divorced from religious teaching. Under the title of " Social Aspects 
of Education " the Principal of the Edinburgh Training School advocates 
greater scope and freedom for initiation in activities by the pupil both in- 
dividually and conjointly. By extension of self-activity and combination 
with his fellows the youth should receive training for the normal life of the 
citizen. Professor Burnet's treatment of classics in the school and University 
is a strenuous indictment of the Intermediate Examination as destructive of 
higher education, particularly in classics. The place and function of Science 



Reviews 5^ 



in education are set forth by Professor J. Arthur Thomson in a thoughtful, 
open-minded and attractive chapter. To the Principal of Heriot-Watt College 
falls the treatment of Technical Education. He works out a practical scheme 
for the conduct of technical instruction in the continuation schools under 
the new act. The St. Andrews Director of Studies deals with Teaching as a 
profession. He is hopeful for the future, but is of opinion that until teachers, 
organize themselves on the lines of the medical and legal professions they will 
not be able to purge their ranks, to establish their position on an adequate 
social and financial basis, and to exercise that guiding influence on education 
which their expert knowledge entitles them to wield. Local administration 
by Mr. John Clark, Clerk to the Glasgow School Board, is the subject of 
an informing chapter. The Scottish Universities are discussed by Professor 
Grierson of Edinburgh. - 

This brief synopsis will serve to show the wide ground covered by the 
book. Its salient feature is that the writers, while never losing sight of the 
ideal, are thoroughly practical in their suggestions and constructive advice. It 
is this combination that gives the book much of its value. It is to be hoped 
that in our position to-day, at the initiation of a great educational step, Mr. 
Clarke's book may find a wide circulation no less among the general public 
than educationists. Particularly in the hands of every member of the new 
administrative bodies it would prove both informing and stimulating. 

A. G. Wright. 

Instruction in Indian Secondary Schools. A book on School Manage- 
ment and Methods of Teaching. Edited by A. H. Mackenzie, Principal, 
Training College, Allahabad. Humphrey Milford, Oxford University 
Press. Pp. 367. 

This is the work of a graduate of Aberdeen University who has made a 
reputation for himself as an expert on the Training of Teachers in India. 
Mr. Mackenzie has edited a series of monographs written by men engaged in 
educational work in India, who are specially qualified by knowledge and 
experience to deal with their respective topics. While the individual con- 
tributors are responsible for their own position they have collaborated to 
discuss the chief practical problems which daily confront the teachers — 
discipline, school and class management, skill and method in teaching. 
These are treated with reference to conditions prevailing in India. 

The papers are eminently practical and suggestive and will prove of much 
service to Indian teachers. 

A. G. Wright. 

The Training of Teachers. By H. S. Duncan, Principal, Teachers' College, 
Saidaport, Madras, and A. H. Mackenzie, Principal, Government Train- 
ing College, Allahabad. Occasional Reports, No. 8, Bureau of Education, 
India. Pp. 98. 

This is the second volume in the shape of an " Occasional Report " issued 
by the Government Bureau on the Training of Teachers. The former dealt 
with the systems of Training followed in the United Kingdom, Prussia, and 
America. The present volume is a description of the system pursued in tKe 



6o Aberdeen University Review 

Madras Presidency and the United Provinces. Its aim is to illustrate what 
is being done in two provinces where general conditions differ widely and the 
diversity offers suggestive features for study elsewhere. It is interesting to 
note that both the authors are graduates of our own University. 

A. G. Wright. 

Handbook of Greek Vase-Painting. By Mary A. B. Herford, M.A., Assist- 
ant Lecturer in Classics in the University of Manchester. Manchester : 
University Press ; London : Longmans, Green & Co. 

It is a pleasing sign of the times that the University of Manchester has re- 
sumed its publications. In this, the hundred and twenty-second of the series, 
Miss Herford essays the task of introducing the non-specialist reader to 
^ subject fascinating in itself and of importance not to be exaggerated in its 
bearing on " Greek Literature and Sculpture ". The beginner will find in the 
first three chapters an admirably lucid account of the technique of vase- 
making, and of vases, their shapes and their uses. It was inevitable, however, 
that the historical account of the development of the art should suffer from 
the compression necessitated by considerations of space. The difficult 
period, for example, that is marked by the confluence of many streams 
towards Athens, and the ultimate establishment of the black-figured style 
there, is rather scantily dealt with, but from that point onwards there is 
nothing to complain of. The chapter on the Attic red-figured style and 
white-ground vases is remarkably well done, and in its thirty pages the various 
phases through which the art passed during the fifth century are delineated 
with complete understanding and sympathy. 

The book bears evidence on every page that the writer is fully abreast of 
the great progress made in the study of Greek vase-painting during the last 
twenty years. 

J. H. 

Secrets of Animal Life. By J. Arthur Thomson, M.A., LL.D. Lon- 
don: Andrew Melrose Ltd., 1919. Pp. vi + 315. 

These delightful studies appeared from time to time in the " New States- 
man," but numbers of readers will welcome their reappearance in this perma- 
nent form — dated from Marischal College. They deal both with old and new" 
problems of Nature, and are modestly presented by their author as mostly 
"appreciations of, and reflections on, the investigations of other naturalists". 
This does not do justice to the author's original observations of animal life 
and inanimate nature, nor to his criticisms of the theories of other workers, 
nor to his own conclusions and the charms of treatment and of style that 
pervade the book from beginning to end. But for these charms, born of a full 
mastery of details, a fine sympathy with the forms of life described and a rare 
gift of exposition, a course through those forty papers might prove bewildering 
to the unscientific reader. They treat not only of the forms, characters, 
instincts and habits of many different animals, large and small, and of their 
parasites, but also of the formation and character of the world they inhabit, 
of the seasons through which they live, and of the general biological laws, 
which the observation of them has suggested to modern investigators. Many 



Reviews 6i 

descriptions of nature, animate arid inanimate, tempt us to quotation ; but 
we must content ourselves with the following illustration of the temper of 
the philosophy which emerges from Professor Thomson's statement of biological 
facts and theories, and heartily commend the volume to the careful study of 
all who desire to be guided into an accurate knowledge of the world they 
live in, of their fellow-inhabitants, and of their own physical nature : — 

What strikes one is that the callous earth has been so conspicuously friendly [to the 
interests of living creatures], supplying not merely a shelter but a stimulating and educative 
home. Such a multitude of" preparations " seem to conspire together to facilitate life — the 
making of the atmosphere and hydrosphere, the properties of water and carbonic acid gas 
separately and together, the properties and abundance of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, 
the ready assumption of a colloidal state by complex carbon compounds, the character 
of the porous soil and the meteorological cycle. The whole aspect of life would have been 
different if fresh water had not the anomalous property of expanding near the freezing 
point just as the whole aspect of human history would have been different if our atmosphere 
had been too cloudy to allow us to see the stars. . . . The fact to stand firm on is that 
the order of inanimate Nature has been such that it facilitated the order and progress of 
animate Nature. The " material nature " — the stones and mortar of the world — must be 
admitted to have had a character which made the preparation of a home for life possible — 
a potentiaHty to which we do not seem to do anything like full justice unless we call it 
purposive. But preparing a home for life was not all, for far in the future there was the 
rational mind of man prying into the facts, puzzling over them, in part understanding 
them, and if this also evolved naturally, fhere is no way, even if we wished, of escaping the 
conclusion that what we call material is also spiritual, for there can be nothing in the end 
which was not also present in kind in the beginning. It looks, then, as if Nature was 
Nature for a purpose. 

Comments on the Present Situation. The. Death Song of Regner 
LoDBROG AND ITS Lessons FOR To-DAY. By the Rcv. William Miller, 
D.D., LL.D., CLE. Madras: Methodist Publishing House, 1919. 

In the first of these brochures, an address to the former students of 
Madras Christian College, Principal Miller discourses on the effects of the 
overthrow of Germany. " So far as concerns the march of external events the 
hundred and twenty days preceeding that 1 1 November on which Germany 
acknowledged that she lay prostrate at the feet of outraged humanity were 
the most remarkable period in the story of the world " ; the nearest historic 
parallel to which Dr. Miller finds in the months that intervened between the 
battle of Salamis, where the Greeks won their first success over the Persian 
invader, and those of Plataea and Mycale, where the victory of freedom was 
confirmed. The chief result to India was the passing away of the danger 
of invasion by the unscrupulous tyrant ; but India will no doubt be still 
concerned according as the German people remain unchanged in their spirit 
or become penitent for the past and prove worthy of taking their place in the 
League of Nations. A year ago Dr. Miller saw no evidence of such a 
change ; and he warns his old students against the recrudescence of German 
intrigues in the internal affairs of India, designed to foster conspiracies 
against the Government and inflame racial passions. The rest of the 
pamphlet presents shrewd and healthy advice in regard to the current 
agitation for constitutional reform ; and insists that this must be gradual, as 
the art of self-government is one but slowly learned by a people. " The 
European element [in most administrative bodies] must be very strong for 
many a day to come if progress is to be continuous and stable." Licidentally 
Dr. Miller exposes the defect of '* the recently propounded scheme for con- 



62 Aberdeen University Review 

stitutional reform in that it contains no hints on points so essential to its 
practical application as the question how electorates are to be constituted". 

The other work by Dr. Miller is a spirited . translation of an anonymous 
poem known in Scandinavian literature as the Krakamal, which purports to 
be the death-song of Regner Lodbrog, Regner the Rough-breeched, one of 
the earliest of the Vikings of whom anything historical is known, and the 
subject of much legend. He was defeated and made prisoner by Ella King 
of Northumberland, who stung him to death by means of poisonous reptiles 
" but not before he had told the story of his life in strains still well remembered 
in Norway and Iceland". The translation of the twenty-nine stanzas well 
sustains the barbaric force and exultation in battle of the original ; and then 
Dr.^ Miller proceeds to emphasize the resemblances between the ferocious 
spirit of the Vikings and the spirit of modern military Prussia ; as well as the 
differences, one of which is that the Vikings could in the main be reUed on to 
keep their word and do justice to their enemies' courage 1 

OsTEND AND Zeebrugge, April 23: May 10, 19 18. The Dispatches of 
Vice- Admiral Sir Roger Keyes, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., and other Narratives 
of the Operations. Edited by C. Sanford Terry, Litt.D. Oxford University 
Press, 19 1 9. Pp. 224. 

We congratulate Professor Terry on his being selected as the official 
historian of what a French Admiral has praised as *' the finest feat of arms 
in the naval history of all times and all countries " ; and no less do we con- 
gratulate the Admiralty and the British public on the selection. Professor 
Terry has achieved as admirable a record of the exploits of our Fleet 
at Ostend and Zeebrugge as his record of the Battle of Jutland Bank in 
1916. After an instructive introduction on "The Occasion and the Place," 
which includes a survey of previous naval exploits, with the conclusion that 
none of them offers an adequate parallel to Sir Roger Keyes' achievements, 
we have, in two chapters, a very clear account — composed from the Press 
Bureau's and other British narratives, and the accounts of the German 
Admiralty, with sufficient references to Sir Roger's dispatches — of the St. 
George's Day Raid, 23 April, and of the Ostend Raid on 10 May. Then 
follows in other three chapters the text of the dispatches themselves, of date 
9 May, 15 June and 24 July, and there is a full index. Eighteen illustrations 
complete what will always survive as one of the standard volumes on the 
Great War. The editor's own contributions are written from a careful and 
expert study of all the materials, without exaggeration or unnecessary orna- 
ment. They hold the reader not less by the strength and clearness of their 
style than by the surpassing interest of their subjects. Professor Terry has 
undoubtedly risen to the great occasion offered to him. 

The Life of Matter : An Inquiry and Adventure. By Arthur Turnbull, 
M.A., B.Sc, M.B. Pp. xviii + 324, 322 figs. Williams and Norgate, 
London, 191 9. 

This is an unconventional study of the activity of the world, as seen in 
things that used to be called " dead," in living creatures, and in the kingdom 
of man. It is very generously illustrated and should foster the saving grace 
of wonder. We do not think that the author's method is altogether suited 



Reviews 63 



for winning conviction ; thus dialogues between Music and Echo make one 
tired ; but there is much that arrests attention and provokes reflection. We 
cannot agree with all of Dr. TurnbuU's inferences from his experiments, but 
we are in full sympathy with his main thesis that " Nature is active through 
and through in every form, from the dull-brown mother-earth to the lark as 
it sings into the heavens. Man and earth is an animate fountain ; each drop 
rises, sparkles in the sunlight, curves and falls, only to be reabsorbed in the 
perpetual motion. . . . But to grasp Activity is beyond us.'' It would be 
easy to pick out mistakes in the book, such as the duck-bill linking Birds 
and Mammals ; but we would rather point with respect to the big idea in 
the background, that "the changes of Nature are purposeful, and there 
exists some Active Drive within it, a continuous Being or Body struggling 
for a higher expression ". We like the author's exceedingly interesting il- 
lustrations, his extraordinary assortment of facts, his notes on the history 
of discoveries, and his central idea of a dynamic cosmos, but when it comes 
to his scientific theories, such as "like causes never produce like effects," 
"action and reaction are unequal," "there is no such thing as a reflex" — 
we dislike them more than we can well say. Yet the book is bigger than 
its deliberate heresies. 

The Book of the Lews. By W. C. Mackenzie, F.S.A. (Scot.). Foreword 
by the Rt. Hon. Ian Macpherson, P.C., K.C., M.P. With Map and 
Illustrations. Paisley: Alexander Gardner [19 19]. Pp. xix + 276. 

Different reasons render a good book on The Lews of public interest and 
usefulness at the present time. The admiration of the Empire has been drawn 
to the island out of whose population of 30,000 at least 5000 men went forth 
to the Great War ; and Lord Leverhulme's purchase of Lewis and philan- 
thropic projects for its future are sympathetically watched by all who have the 
interests of the Highlands and Islands at heart. The University of Aberdeen, 
besides, cherishes its own links with Lewis in the admirable students which 
come to her from the Nicolson Institute in Stornoway. On these grounds, 
general and particular, as well as because of its own excellence, we welcome 
this volume by a scholar who has already proved his capacity as a Scottish 
historian in his "Short History of the Highlands and Isles" (of which the 
4th edition with a new chapter on " The Highlands and the War " is about to 
appear), "The Races of Ireland and Scotland," and other works. " The Book 
of the Lews " consists often historical sketches beginning with " The Norsemen 
in Lewis " and closing with " Ecclesiology and Religion " and " The Daily Life 
of the People ". The first of these describes the mingled Celtic and Norse 
strain which gives the population their distinctiveness, and furnishes a number 
of interesting etymologies of names of places and persons. Of the others we 
have found most instructive "The Fife Adventurers," an account of the 
attempt by lowland Scots under the patronage of James VI to possess and 
exploit the island ; " Oliver Cromwell and Lewis," the garrisoning of Stornoway 
and the naval protection of its fisheries from possible attempts of the Dutch ; 
and " Lewis and the Jacobites," a discriminating and equitable study of the 
Jacobite risings in Scotland, in the course of which allusion is made to the 
participation of our own Earl Marischal and his brother James in the Stornoway 
Council of War of 17 19. But indeed the whole book makes good reading 
and may warmly be commended. Appended are three studies on Pre-Historic 
Lewis, including "The Callernish Stones ". 



64 Aberdeen University Review 

Proceedings OF the British Academy, 191 3- 14. The Same for 191 5- 16. 
London : Published for the British Academy by Humphrey Milford. 
Oxford University Press. Pp. xii + 538 and xiv + 592. 

To indicate the wealth of these bulky volumes, it is enough to say that 
they contain the Presidential Addresses of Sir A. W. Ward and Viscount Bryce ; 
the Annual Shakespeare Lectures by Dr. Brandl, Professors Gilbert Murray 
and MacKail and Sir Sidney Lee, the Warton Lectures on English Poetry by 
C. Vaughan, Oliver Elton, Edmund Gosse, and C. H. Herford ; the Annual 
Philosophical Lectures by Emile Boutroux and Professor John Burnet; the 
First Annual Master-Mind Lecture (Cervantes and Shakespeare) by James 
Fitzmaurice- Kelly, and the First Annual Lecture on Art in Relation to 
Civilization (Le Blason de la France ou ses Tra'ts ^^ternels dans cette Guerre 
et dans les Vieilles Epopees) by Maurice Barres : along with many other 
papers on literary, linguistic, historical, archaeological and philosophical sub- 
jects by Fellows of the Academy and other experts, and appreciations of the 
following deceased FeUows : Bywater, Tyrrell, Driver, Cheyne, Lord-Justice 
Kennedy, John Cook Wilson, H. F. Tozer, Edward Moore, Josiah Royce, 
Thomas Hodgkin, Shadworth H. Hodgson, Robinson Ellis and Alexander 
Campbell Eraser. Among the contributors are Sir W. Ramsay on the Inter- 
mixture of Races in Asia Minor ; Professor Souter on Pelagius' Commentary 
on the Epistles of St. Paul, and Professor W. R. Sorley on Josiah Royce. It 
may be noted that the papers are also issued in separate form and can be had 
from the Publisher. 

The Layman's Book of the General Assembly [Church of Scotland] 
of 1919. Edited by the Rev. Harry Smith, M.A., Old Kilpatrick. 
Edinburgh : R. & R. Clark, Ltd. Pp. vi + 176. 

The arrestive portrait of Professor Paterson which forms the frontispiece 
to the current issue of the " Layman's Book " is a reminder — hardly needed, 
however — that the brilliant ecclesiastic was Moderator of the General 
Assembly this year and that his personality conspicuously marked not a 
little of the proceedings. As Mr. Smith well says in his concluding editorial 
sketch, Professor Paterson's " remarkable versatility was obvious at every 
turn, and his own contributions to the proceedings, as in addresses of welcome 
and of thanks, were a delight — apt, racy, sympathetic, whimsical, suggestive, 
and intensely human". With a Moderator of distinction, the Assembly was 
also one of distinction. It was '* officially " visited and addressed by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury — a unique incident in the annals of the Church 
of Scotland ; and among other visitors were Sir Douglas Haig and General 
Sir Henry Home, both of whom addressed the Assembly. On its business 
side, so to speak, the Assembly was notable for the adoption of the Articles 
of Union with the United Free Church. 

Problems of the Day. By Rev. James Milne, M.A. " Star Office," 
Thames, New Zealand, 19 19. 

In this Pamphlet Mr. Milne (M.A., 1887) under the heading '' Industry and 
the State " drafts a policy of " co-partnership between capital and labour under 
the aegis of the State ; advocates control of the Liquor Traffic by a Board of 



Reviews 65 



Commissioners on the lines of the Carlisle experiment ; and discusses the 
relations of the Churches and the State and Church Union in view of the 
industrial and political problems of the time". 



We have received from Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton " Reminiscences of 
Three Campaigns," by Sir Alexander Ogston, K.C.V.O., LL.D., a full review 
of which will appear in our next issue. 

We have received the first issue of a new monthly magazine, " Business 
Organisation and Management " (London : Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 
I Amen Corner, E.C. 4). The purpose of the magazine is to supply those 
responsible for the direction of our commercial and industrial life with an 
organ for the discussion of the numerous problems which are constantly 
exercising the minds of business and professional men; and the usefulness 
of such a medium for the exchange of views on industrial topics is obvious. 
Sir Charles Macara writes on " Industry in Peace," Mr. W. F. Spalding on 
" Indian Trade," and Sir Edward Brabrook on " A Just Income Tax ". Other 
writers deal with such subjects as Transportation Problems, Wages and Pro- 
duction, Registration of Companies, Capitalisation of Reserves, etc. 

We have also received " The Collegian, a fortnightly journal of Indian 
Educational Progress in all its Branches " (Vol. XII, No. 2) ; the "Columbia 
University Quarterly" (New York) for July, 19 19, with articles on American 
Scholarship in War, Psychological Reconstruction, College Military Training, 
and other subjects ; the " Durham University Journal," Vol. XXII, No 2, 
New Series, "the oldest University Magazine in the British Isles," and the 
same University's "College of Medicine Gazette," Vol. XIX, No. 3; "An 
Outline of the Practice of Preventive Medicine," a memorandum addressed to 
the Minister of Health by Sir George Newman, K.C.B., M.D., etc. (H.M.'s 
Stationery Office, price 6d.) ; " National Industrial Conference of Dominion 
and Provincial Governments with Representative Employers and Labour Men 
on the subjects of Industrial Relations and Labour Laws and for the con- 
sideration of the Labour Features of the Treaty of Peace," being the Official 
Report of the Proceedings and Discussions of the Conference held at Ottawa, 
15-20 September, 19 19. 



Correspondence. 

"BIMBO." 
The Editor, "Aberdeen University Review". 

-•K The University, 

Aberdeen, 15 September, 1919. 
Sir, 

Sheriff Blair, in his very interesting reminiscences of the "Old 
Gym," mentions that a certain teacher was nicknamed "Bimbo," but that 
he does not know the origin of the name. To me it offers no difficulty. In 
the early 'eighties, and doubtless also in the 'seventies, of last century, New- 
som's Circus toured the country. One of the features of the procession, par- 
ticularly interesting to boys, was a man on stilts several times his own length, 
who figured on the bills as " Great Bimbo the Giant ". 

I am, etc., 

S. 

THE SENIOR GRADUATE. 

The following letter has been received by Mr. R J. Anderson from Rev. 
Allan MacKillop, B.A., minister of the Presbyterian Church of Australia, 
Lismore, New South Wales. It has reference to paragraphs which appeared 
in the Review (vols, iii., 277, and iv., 81) : — 

The Manse, 
Lismore, N.S.W., 7 May, 1919. 

Dear Mr. Anderson, 

From the latest edition of the University Calendar received 
by me, I learn that the Senior Graduates of Aberdeen are the Reverends Dr. 
Mair and G. Compton Smith, each of whom received his degree in 1849. 

This letter is to draw your attention to the case of a parishioner of 
mine, 

Mr. John Burgess, M.A., 
Dairy Farmer, 

Goonellabah, 

Lismore, N.S.W., 
who received his degree at Marischal College in April, 1849. He came from 
the parish of Inveraven in the Presbytery of Aberlour. He pronounces the 
name " Invera'an," which must be a survival of the old Gaelic original : ' 
Inbhir-Amhuinn (more correctly perhaps Inbhir-Abhuinn). He studied 
Latin under Dr. Melvin at the Grammar School and under Professor Stuart 
Blackie at Marischal. He had a brother who was jninister of the Parish of 
Ardallie in Buchan. 



Correspondence 67 

It ought not to be impossible for you to ascertain from the records in your 
possession whether these things are correct. 

Mr. Burgess is putting forth no claim himself. He is quite content to be 
*' presumed to have died ". As his minister I thought that I ought not to 
allow this presumption to stand. Residence in Australia is not necessarily 
synonymous with sojourning in Sheol. The youngest " Burgess " of Aberdeen, 
Mr. William M. Hughes, will put you right on that point. 

Mr. Burgess devoted himself to farming all his life, and never took 
the trouble to make any use of his diploma. It has now suffered the fate 
of the Homeric MSS. owned by Codrus : — 

" Et divina opici rodebant carmina mures " 
- (Juvenal I., iii., 207). 

In Australia the equivalent of that, as a rule, would be : '* The blanky silver 
fishes have eaten my Nat Gould novel ! " The parchment given to Mr. 
Burgess seventy years ago has accompanied his neighbour's novels. 

Mr. Burgess has always proved himself a most worthy citizen, but very 
retired and very sparing of his speech. One of his sons fell in the South 
African War. Another, Ritchie, fought in the present war, but also did some 
conquering in Buchan. For there he married a Miss Campbell whose father 
was executor of the estate of his uncle, the minister of Ardallie. 

Mr. Burgess (Senior) was a contemporary with the late Principal Sir 
James Donaldson and the late Rev. Kenneth A. MacKenzie, LL.D. (Kingussie), 
at Aberdeen. With young Kenneth he visited the Manse of Lochcarron 
when it was occupied by the octogenarian " Ministir a bhuntata". 

These few facts I secured from Mr. Burgess under the pretence of ad- 
ministering spiritual consolation to him, while in reality cross-examining him as 
to his career. You, Sir, will admit that I have done very well, when you 
remember that you can converse for three hours with an Aberdeenshire man, 
SLud get nothing out of him but, '* Aye, fairly, fairly — aye, fairly ! " 

I shall be glad to know if these facts can be established, and that my 
parishioner is deserving of recognition as senior graduate ox proxime accessit 
thereto. 

Yours faithfully, 
Allan M'D. MacKillop. 

P.S. — Should you desire to know my own credentials, you may look up 
the list of matriculated students for 1893-94 and find my name at No. 375. 
Mr. J. D. MacDiarmid, Union Street, is the Secretary of my class and Pro- 
fessors Niven, Harrower, and Davidson as well as Principal Iverach and 
Professor Stalker, under whom I studied, are all still with you. 

A. MacK. 

[Mr. MacKillop is a year out. Mr. Burgess graduated at Marischal 
College in 1850, as did also Sir James Donaldson and Rev. Dr. Kenneth 
MacKenzie. 

Rev. G. Compton Smith (MA., 1849) ^^^s been the Senior Graduate of 
King's College since 1915 ; and Rev. Dr. William Mair is the Senior 
Alumnus of King's College, which he entered in 1844, graduating at 
Marischal College in 1849. But the Senior Graduate of Marischal College 
(and of the University) is Rev. John Robertson, New Brunswick (M.A., 1842). 
(See Reviev/, ii., 279, iii., 87, 277; "Calendar," 1919-20, Appx., p. 139.)] 




University Topics. 

NEW PROFESSORS AND LECTURERS. 

jO the Professorship of Divinity and Biblical Criticism 
vacant by the death of Dr. Thomas Nicol, the King, on 
the recommendation of the Secretary for Scotland, has 
approved the appointment of Rev. Andrew Cumming 
Baird, B.D., B.Sc, minister of Anderston Parish, 
Glasgow. Mr. Baird, who was born in 1883, received 
his early education at Airdrie Academy, where he won 
f-he gold medal as dux of the school in session 1898. Entering Glasgow 
University in 1900, he gained in open competition the Gartmore bursary of 
;^2i a year for three years. Graduating M.A. in 1903, he proceeded to a 
course of study for the degree of B.Sc, and graduated in Pure Science in 1905, 
at the same time adding honours in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy to his 
M.A. degree. In October of the same year Mr. Baird entered the divinity hall 
of the University, gaining second place in the bursary competition, and being 
appointed to a bursary of ^^2 a year for three years. In 1908 he completed 
his theological curriculum at Glasgow by graduating B.D., and was appointed 
to the Black Theological Fellowship of ;£i47 a year for two years, this being 
regarded as the premier distinction in theology in Glasgow University. 

Before the close of his theological course, Mr. Baird was appointed by 
the University Court assistant to the Professor of Hebrew for six months, and 
during the summer session of 1908 he was, in the absence of the Professor, 
in complete charge of the Hebrew classes of the University. In May of that 
year the Presbytery of Dumbarton licensed him to preach, and in July he 
left for the Continent, visiting the chief university cities in Germany. In 
October, 1908, he enrolled in the faculty of Theology in the University of 
Berlin, and studied there for two semesters till August, 1909, specializing in 
Assyrianology and Oriental Languages. In September, 1909, he was offered 
and accepted the post of assistant minister in the West Kirk, Greenock. 
During the winter, in addition to his work in Greenock, he conducted in 
connection with the Black Fellowship a course of fifteen lectures in Glasgow 
University on "The Civilization of Ancient Assyria and Babylon," these being 
largely attended by the general public as well as by the students of the 
University. In addition, he conducted the divinity class for students of 
divinity. 

Mr. Baird was ordained in September, 19 11, by the Presbytery of 
Glasgow to Anderston parish, where he has since laboured. On various 
occasions in the past four years he has acted as locum tenens for the Pro- 



University Topics 69 

fessors of Divinity in Glasgow University, delivering a short course of lectures 
to the students of the Theology and Biblical Criticism classes during the 
absence through illness of the respective Professors. At the end of last year 
the University Court appointed him University examiner in Hebrew and 
Biblical Criticism for the degree of B.D. He has contributed various papers 
to Theology and Biblical Archaeology to different learned societies, including 
the Oriental Society, the Egyptian Research Students' Association, and the 
Society for New Testament Study of Glasgow University. 

The University Court has appointed to the Chair of Chemistry, vacant by 
the transference of Professor Soddy to Oxford, Mr. Alexander Findlay 
(M.A., 1895; B.Sc, 1897; Ph.D. [Leipzig], 1900; D.Sc, [Aberd.], 1902), 
Professor of Chemistry in the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. The 
new Professor is a son of Mr. William Findlay, retired herring curer and ex- 
porter, Fountainhall Road, Aberdeen, and has just entered his forty-fifth year. 
He studied and graduated at the Aberdeen University, and was research 
assistant to Professor Japp for a year and a half. He then studied at Leipzig, 
and in October, 1900, was appointed assistant to Professor Purdie and interim 
Lecturer on Organic Chemistry at St. Andrews University. After a year 
(1901-02) spent in research in the laboratory of Professor Sir William Ramsay, 
University College, London, he was appointed Assistant Lecturer in Chemistry, 
and in 1 904 he became Lecturer in Chemistry and special Lecturer in Physical 
Chemistry in Birmingham University. In 191 1 he was appointed Professor 
of Chemistry and Director of the Edward Davies Chemical Laboratories in 
the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. 

Professor Findlay was External Examiner in Chemistry in Aberdeen Univer- 
sity, 1907-iou Ini9iihe was elected a Fellow of the Institute of Chemistry, 
and was examiner in Physical Chemistry to the Institute for three years. He 
was a member of the Council of the Institute from 191 6-1 8, and in the present 
year was re-elected for a period of three years. Since 191 7 he has been a 
member of the Council of the Chemical Society. In 1909 he was appointed 
by the Council of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry a member 
of an International Committee for the publication of annual tables of physical 
and chemical data ; and in 1 9 1 2 was appointed by the Council of the Chemical 
Society of London a member of a Committee on the Unification of Physico- 
Chemical Symbols. At a later date he became honorary secretary of an 
International Commission and also of a small " working committee " dealing 
with the same subject. He was Thomson Lecturer in the Aberdeen United 
Free Church College in the session 19 15-16; and recently, on the invitation 
of the Royal Institution, London, he gave a course of two lectures there on 
" Colloidal Matter and Some of its Properties ". 

Professor Findlay is the author of two interesting works — "Chemistry in 
the Service of Man " and " The Treasures of Coal Tar " — both of which have 
been reviewed in our pages. In 1911 he undertook to edit, for Messrs. Long- 
mans, Green, & Co., a series of monographs on Inorganic and Physical 
Chemistry, of which seven volumes have already appeared. 

Another distinguished graduate of the University has been chosen by the 
Court for the Professorship of Scots Law and Civil Law. Professor Irvine's 
successor is Mr. Alexander Mackenzie Stuart (M.A., 1896 ; LL.B. [Edin.], 



70 Aberdeen University Review 

1902), a native of Aberdeen, who for the past sixteen years has been practis- 
ing at the Scottish bar. Professor Mackenzie Stuart graduated at the Uni- 
versity with first-class honours in Mental Philosophy, gaining also the Bain 
gold medal and the Hutton prize (both awarded to the best honours graduate 
in Mental Philosophy), and, later, the Fullerton scholarship in the same sub- 
ject. He attended a number of the law classes at Aberdeen University, 
subsequently completing his legal studies at Edinburgh University, graduating 
LL.B. there "with distinction" in all subjects. In 1900 he was awarded the 
Blackwell Essay Prize in Aberdeen University (post-graduate) for an essay on 
" Socialistic Legislation in its effect on Industrial Enterprise ". Having won 
the Vans Dunlop scholarship at Edinburgh University, he delivered in 1904 
a series of lectures on "The Vesting of Legacies," and in the following year 
another series on " Feudal Casualties " ; and he wrote the article on " Casual- 
ties of Superiority " in the new edition of " Green's Encyclopaedia of Scots 
Law". 

Professor Mackenzie Stuart was called to the Scots Bar in 1903, was for 
a time acting Sheriff-Substitute of the Lothians and Peebles, and is an honor- 
ary Sheriff-Substitute of Edinburgh. He has acted for a number. of years 
as Examiner for the B.L. and LL.B. degrees in Aberdeen University. He 
has also acted as assessor to the Examiners of entrants to the Scots Bar, and 
is now himself one of the Examiners. 

The Court has appointed Mr. Archibald C. Morrison (M.A. [St. And.], 
1891 ; LL.B. [Glasg.], 1895), advocate in Aberdeen, Lecturer in Conveyanc- 
ing, in succession to the late Mr. James Duguid, advocate. Mr. Morrison 
has been in business in Aberdeen on his own account since 1899, and has 
had a wide experience of all departments of conveyancing, both feudal and 
commercial. In particular, he has had occasion to devote much time to the 
study and practice of conveyancing as applicable to joint-stock and other 
companies. 

An additional Lectureship in Education having been constituted, the 
Court has appointed to it Miss Gwendolen E. Bairstow, M.A., B.Ed., 
Edinburgh, Assistant Lecturer in Education in the Edinburgh Provincial 
Training College. 

The institution of the degree in Commerce has necessitated the estab- 
lishment of several new Lectureships. To the Lectureship in Geography the 
Court has appointed Mr. John M'Farlane, M.A., M.Com. Mr. M'Farlane 
is a graduate of Edinburgh and Cambridge, and graduated M.A. in Edinburgh 
in 1907, with first-class honours in History. He obtained a Vans Dunlop 
scholarship in History, and went to Cambridge, where he graduated with 
honours in History and Economics. In 1903 he was appointed Lecturer in 
Political and Economic Geography to the University of Manchester. 

To the Lectureship in Economic History the Court has appointed Mr. 
Arthur Birnie, M.A., assistant English master in George Watson's College, 
Edinburgh. Mr. Birnie graduated at Edinburgh University, with first-class 
, honours in History in 191 2, and first-class honours in Economics in 19 14. 
Amongst other scholarships and prizes he obtained the Vans Dunlop scholar- 
ship in History, and the Kirkpatrick scholarship in History in 191 2. He was 
also a Carnegie Research scholar in History in 191 2, and spent some time in 
research work at Balliol College, Oxford. 



University Topics yi 

Mr. Henry Alexander Davidson (B.Sc, 1896), solicitor and chartered 
accountant, Aberdeen, has been appointed Lecturer in Accounting and Busi- 
ness Methods. He was clerk and treasurer of the Aberdeen County District 
Board of Control, and was recently chosen as one of the representatives of the 
Society of Accountants in Aberdeen on the general examining board of the 
Chartered Accountants of Scotland. 

Mr. R. H. CowiE, the Aberdeen agent of the Royal Bank of Scotland, 
has been appointed Lecturer in Banking. 

THE RECEPTION OF SIR DOUGLAS HAIG. 

The summer graduation took place on 1 1 July, and was memorable for 
the conferment of the LL.D. degree on Field-Marshal Sir Douglas Haig and 
for the extraordinarily enthusiastic reception accorded to him and to Vice- 
Admiral Sir Roger Keyes. The Mitchell Hall was crowded, as were also the 
balcony and the picture gallery. The Duke of Richmond and Gordon, the 
Chancellor of the University, presided ; and the honorary graduands were in- 
troduced by the Principal (the Professorship of Law being at the time vacant). 

Both Sir Douglas Haig and Sir Roger Keyes had been warmly cheered 
on entering the hall, and the cheers were renewed as each of them was capped. 
In response to repeated and insistent calls. Sir Douglas Haig made a speech ; 
and in the course of it, referring to a statement of the war service of the Uni- 
versity with which he had been presented by the Principal, he said : " It is a 
splendid document. I read it with pride — pride that the fine record that I 
have found elsewhere among Scottish Universities should here be so well 
maintained, pride that I was about to belong to a University that had done 
so well." Sir Roger Keyes also made a brief speech. 

Shortly after half-past twelve the company began to leave the hall, and 
immediately the students leff the building they concentrated in force round 
the powerful grey car which was to convey Sir Douglas Haig and the Principal 
from Marischal College to the Municipal Buildings. A stout rope was pro- 
cured and fixed to the car, which was pulled by a large crowd of " under- 
grads ". Sir Douglas, on leaving the building, was hailed with salvoes of 
cheers from the students, who clambered on to the rear of his car, and also 
on the mud-guards. There was a general scramble to obtain an opportunity 
to shake hands with the Field-Marshal, who stood up in the car for a few 
seconds and saluted the cheering crowd. Many succeeded in receiving a 
hand-shake from Sir Douglas. The car, preceded by hundreds of students 
dragging the tow rope, " free engined " slowly out of the quadrangle and along 
Broad Street to the Municipal Buildings. The scenes along the short route 
were of a lively nature. Practically all the points of vantage were occupied 
by crowds of interested spectators. 

A similar enthusiastic reception was also accorded to Vice-Admiral Keyes, 
who left the quadrangle in a motor-car, but so slow was the progress made by 
the vehicle owing to the dense crowd, that several students, who were ap- 
parently at one time serving in the Navy, accompanied by men in naval uni- 
form, were successful in dragging him out of the car. Sir Roger was then 
carried down Broad Street to the Town House, and he was heartily cheered 
by a large mass of people who had gathered on the route. Many successful 
attempts were made to have the honour of shaking the hand of the hero of 
Zeebrugge and Ostend. 



72 Aberdeen University Review 

Later in the day, Sir Douglas Haig was presented (in the Music Hall) 
with the freedom of the city of Aberdeen. It was originally intended that he 
should be also entertained at dinner by the Corporation in the evening, but, 
owing to a sudden call to Paris to attend the Victory procession on the French 
national fete day, Sir Douglas was obliged to leave Aberdeen early in the 
evening. The dinner had accordingly to be abandoned, but the Town Coun- 
cil combined with the University authorities, and the customary luncheon to 
the honorary graduates was enlarged into a joint University and Corporation 
luncheon, which was held in the Town and County Hall. Sir Roger Keyes 
and Sir Douglas Haig responded to the toast of " The Imperial Forces," 
which was proposed by the Duke of Richmond and Gordon. 

The Principal subsequently received a letter from Sir Douglas Haig in 
which he said : — 

" I wish to thank you very much indeed for all that you did to make my 
visit to Aberdeen so entirely enjoyable. ... I should like you, if you would, 
to convey to all members of the University my very great appreciation of the 
splendid reception they gave me." 
And Sir Roger Keyes wrote : — 

" I really don't know how to begin to thank Aberdeen University for the 
very great honour I received yesterday, and for the kind things said about me 
which touched me more than I can say. . . . That wonderful reception the 
students gave me will always be a very proud memory. Thank you ! " 

THE HONORARY GRADUANDS. 

In addition to the honorary degrees conferred on Sir Douglas Haig and 
Sir Roger Keyes, the honorary degree of D.D. was conferred on 

John Morrow Simms, C.B., C.M.G., M.A., D.D., PrincipaK Chaplain, 
British Armies in France ; 
and the honorary degree of LL.D. on the following : — 

Fred. Orpen Bower, Sc.D., F.R.S., Professor of Botany, University of 

Glasgow. 
Sir James Cantlie, K.B.E., M.A., M.B., F.R.C.S., London School of 

Tropical Medicine, etc. 
Emeritus-Professor John Theodore Cash, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sir David Hardie, M.D., Brisbane, Queensland. {In absentia.) 
Emeritus-Professor Francis Robert Japp, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. {In 

absentia.) 
Surgeon-Vice-Admiral Sir James Porter, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., M.A., 

M.D., late Director- General, Naval Medical Department. 
John Scott Riddell, M.V.O., C.B.E., M.A., M.B., Director of the 
North-Eastern District, Red Cross Society (Scottish Branch). 
The Principal, in introducing these honorary graduands, said — 
Domine Cancellarie, 

The Senatus Academicus first bring to Your Grace the Right Rev. John 
Morrow Simms, Moderator of the Presbyterian Church of Ireland, and through- 
out the war Principal Chaplain to His Majesty's Forces in France. Belonging 
to Ulster by birth, baptism, and education, he came to Scotland to complete 
his theological training, and was thus doubly equipped for commission as a 



University Topics 73 



British chaplain. The faithfulness, ability, and experience of a lifetime of 
service raised him to his high office with the rank of Major-General ; that he 
has sustained it from the beginning to the end of the war is proof of the force 
and liberal temper of his character. The trusted head of the chaplains of all 
the churches, save one, he has signally contributed to the example of Christian 
unity which the Army has set to the Nation. For his devotion to the catholic 
interests of our religion, and in particular for his spiritual services to our Scottish 
soldiers, the Senatus — with special appropriateness to-day in the presence of 
his illustrious chief — present him for the degree of Doctor of Divinity. 

For the Degree of Doctor of Laws, the first whom we call is Frederic 
Orpen Bower, Fellow of the Royal Society and Doctor of Science of Cam- 
bridge, Regius Professor of Botany to our sister of Glasgow, and senior 
member of her Senatus Academicus. The links between the colleges of 
Glasgow and Aberdeen have been, from our Founder himself onwards, many 
and golden ; to-day we gladly forge still another, and of metal wotthy of the 
rest. A master of Botany, and a sure and lucid teacher, both by voice and 
pen. Dr. Bower has enriched his science through much research, and added 
to its literature a series of learned and original works. We feel it singularly 
seasonable that upon the restoration of peace the first of our civil doctors 
should be the minister of the gentlest of the sciences, who to his studies in 
Nature's " stable laws of beauty and utility " adds the charm of a lofty skill in 
music. Him, for his own and his works' sake, we deem most deserving of 
the academic laurel we now ask your Grace to bestow. 

Next we wouM promote three of our own tried teachers who have long 
served with distinction and abundant profit to their students in the medical 
schools of the University and Royal Infirmary. Dr. John Theodore Cash, 
Fellow of the Royal Society, has held the Chair of Materia Medica for two- 
and-thirty years, the first professor of his subject (I believe) to devote his 
whole time to teaching and research. The result has been a large and valu- 
able contribution to Pharmacology and Therapeutics, including the great share 
which, as our representative on the General Medical Council, he has taken in 
preparing the last edition of the British Pharmacopoeia. He has loyally 
served not only other academic interests but several civic and national causes, 
in particular organizing and conducting for the last four years the University 
Work Party in the interests of our wounded soldiers. By this degree the 
Senatus would set its seal on the honour and afi'ection in which Dr. Cash is 
held alike by his students and his colleagues. 

Emeritus- Professor Francis Robert Japp, Fellow of the Royal Society^ 
occupied our Chair of Chemistry for twenty-four years. His rank as a chemist 
is attested by many honours from his colleagues in that science. We are his 
debtors not only for the sustained power of his teaching and example in re- 
search, but for his able guidance of his department through the period of its 
greatest expansion. To his scientific powers he adds the mastery of many 
languages, and a fine taste in letters, for which the Chemical Society elected 
him as its foreign secretary. He is followed into his retirement by our un- 
qualified gratitude for long service and high influence. He is unable to be 
with us to-day, and we ask you to confer on him in absentia the degree to 
which we promote him. 

Colonel John Scott Riddell, lately Senior Surgeon and Clinical Lecturer 
in the Royal Infirmary, a student of the University both in Arts and Medicine, 
we would advance to the Doctorate not only for eminence in his profession. 



74 Aberdeen University Review 

and power as a teacher, but also for many patriotic labours both in peace and 
in war. He was one of those who by personal service and organizing his 
fellow-citizens did most among us to prepare for the crisis which came upon 
our nation. Into all he undertakes he carries the deftness of the born surgeon, 
and has earned the admiration of high authorities, as well as of his own people, 
by the equal zeal and wisdom with which he has discharged the arduous office 
of Red Cross Commissioner for the North-Eastern District of Scotland. A 
very able surgeon, a great and loved teacher, an indefatigable servant of his 
country and her cause, he is deservedly, and by us most cordially, presented 
for the degree of Doctor of Laws. 

, The next two graduands their Alma Mater welcomes back to herself and 
gladly associates them in the same honour. For having, as her students, 
shown the good example of competence both in Arts and Medicine, from 
that twofold preparation they have achieved careers of high distinction and 
of profit to their country. Sir James Cantlie (M.A. 1871 ; M.B.), Fellow of 
the Royal College of Surgeons, and Knight of the Order of the British 
Empire, has pursued his profession in many lands, accumulating experience, 
honours, and the gratitude of his fellow-men, by his versatile labours, shrewd 
judgment, and warm humanity. Seldom is the name of pioneer deserved 
by a worker in more than one branch of his profession, yet three of the most 
rapid developments of medical science in our time. Tropical Medicine and 
Surgery, Public Health, and the rise and organization of the great Ambulance 
Services of our country, all bear the impress of this man's powder of initiative 
and scientific spirit. A fruitful investigator, a wise counsellor, and an expert 
man of affairs, he is eminently worthy of the degree we ask you, Chancellor, 
to confer. 

To the highest rank and responsibility in the Medical Department of the 
Royal Navy, Sir James Porter has advanced, upon stage after stage of dis- 
tinguished labours both in peace and in war, seeing active service on three 
campaigns, in Egypt (1882), in the Sudan (1884-5), ^^i^ ^.s Principal Medical 
Officer of the Naval Division throughout the Boer War. Director-General of 
the Department from 1908 to 191 3, he greatly promoted its efficiency by 
his energy and wisdom, and, retiring with honour, was recalled to employment 
on special service in the Great War, which he has carried out with undiminished 
ability and distinction. For the vigour and independence of his career, in 
particular for his enlightened care of the educational interests of his pro- 
fession in the Navy — a care, we fondly believe, that was inspired by his own 
studies in this University — and as a conspicuous representative of her many 
graduates who have served as naval surgeons, his Alma Mater is proud to 
enrol among her Doctors of Laws, Sir James Porter, Knight Commander of 
the Orders of the Bath and of St. Michael and St. George. 

With these two we gladly join the name of their fellow-graduate and 
knight. Sir David Hardie, member of the Senate of the University of Queens- 
land and a leading physician in the capital of that province. He early 
volunteered for service in the war, and as major and lieut. -colonel in the 
R.A.M.C., in charge of a large hospital, he has ministered to the needs of the 
troops in France. He is honoured by us both for his civil career and as one 
of our many graduates who from the ends of the earth have nobly sped to 
serve and to fight for the cause of humanity ; and also as representing a Uni- 
versity, to which our own is closely linked through its illustrious Chancellor, 



University Topics 7 5 



the late lamented Sir William MacGregor. On Sir David Hardie we ask that 
the Degree of Doctor of Laws be bestowed in absentia. 

The University now hails the hero of what a high French Admiral (surely 
an impartial judge) has glorified as " the finest feat of arms in the naval 
history of all times and all countries" — Sir Roger John Brownlow Keyes. 
For, having proved his powers by the very re^sponsible part which, as Chief 
of Staff of the Eastern Squadron in the Mediterranean, he took in the famous 
landing on Gallipoli, where Navy and Army gloriously coipbined, to him it 
was reserved, where such co-operation was not practicable, both to organize 
and victoriously to lead a purely naval force against the fortresses of Zeebrugge 
and Ostend — an enterprise which, as one of ourselves has clearly shown, had 
no full precedent even in the annals of the British Navy. Our Navy had 
swept our foes from the surface of the seas, but he, by sea, carried our arms 
into two of the most formidable refuges of the engines of their submarine 
piracy, and thereby lifted an intolerable strain from the heart and resources 
of his people. It was one of the pivots of our ultimate victory. If faith in 
the impossible, if genius in planning and power in persuading, if possession of 
the absolute confidence of his men and daring courage in the final action be 
the marks of a great leader, then such an one now enters the University in 
the person of Vice- Admiral Sir Roger Keyes, Knight Commander of the Bath 
and of the Victorian Order. 

Honour upon honour falls on ourselves to-day, for we now acclaim the 
Commander-in-Chief of the greatest British armies that ever took the field. 
A soldier of unfailing skill and fortitude, the indomitable organizer of defence 
when only defence was possible, but equally master of victory as the tide of 
battle turned, he never doubted through the darkest hour the triumph of the 
justice for which he fought, and to his faith in his cause and in his men there 
was returned their unbroken confidence in himself and the trust of the nation 
iSehind him. We cannot advance the honour of such a man nor augment the 
praise which has come upon him from the cities and universities of his grate- 
ful people ; but he will suffer us to add at least this from the testimony of our 
sons who have fought under him, that beyond their confidence in his military 
genius they felt the inspiration of his <:haracter as health to their discipline 
and nerve to their courage ; while his sympathy and care for his soldiers — 
continued by his labours for their security on return to civil life — have 
won the reverent affection of all. Never, we may say, had so just a cause a 
purer champion. That happy union was our consolation under the strain 
and sorrow of war, and to-day hallows our pride in victory. In this famous 
Scot the University of Outram welcomes a heart as high, as chivalrous, and as 
self-forgetful as that of the Bayard of India — without fear and without 
reproach. Our ancient Colleges have no name upon their rolls more clear 
and illustrious than of this, our country's greatest captain through the 
greatest of her wars. 

The Principal added — \ 

With the prospect of a visit from them in the future, the Senatus 
Academicus deferred bringing up this day the following illustrious names 
of men who have accepted from us the honorary degree which has just 
been conferred on the others, namely : — 

Ferdinand Foch, Marshal of France, who writes that — "The ancient 
bonds which unite your University with that of Paris, bonds which the blood 



76 , Aberdeen University Review 

poured out for the common cauise has made still more close, render particu- 
larly agreeable to me the title which you have conferred ". 

- The next is Admiral Sir David Beatty, that great sentinel of the seas, 
whose long vigil and sustained pressure upon the enemy was at last rewarded 
by the surrender of their fleet. Then M. Adolphe Max, Burgomaster of 
Brussels, who, with his valiant King, conspicuously illustrates the tenacity and 
courage of the Belgian people; General Sir Edmund Allenby, liberator of 
Syria; our own General Sir George Francis Milne, Commander-in-Chief on 
the Salonika front ; and last, but not least, William Howard Taft, ex- President 
of the United States, a just friend of our country, and in his own a most 
powerful advocate of the League of Nations, 

BEQUESTS AND GIFTS TO THE UNIVERSITY. 

The late Sir William MacGregor (an appreciation of whom appears 
elsewhere) by his will bequeathed to the University of Aberdeen the ethno- 
logical and ornithological collections at his residence, Chapel-on- Leader, 
Berwickshire, to be placed in the museum of the University, along with the 
collections he had already lent to the University. The bequest is subject to 
the condition that his wife will be entitled to retain from the collection, as 
her own property, any special articles she may desire to have before it is 
handed over to the University, and that the ornithological collection should 
be properly mounted and preserved by the authorities of the University. 

The late Professor Trail (whose career and work are dealt with at length 
in this issue of the Review) bequeathed to the University ''all the collections 
and the books not already in the Library of which I die possessed ". The 
Professor had acted as Curator of the Library since the Committee of Manage- 
ment was reconstituted under the Act of 1889. 

In consequence of the death of the widow of Mr. John Thomson, Aber- 
deen University Press, the bequests made by Mr. Thomson to the University 
will become available shortly. They include the portrait of Mr. Thomson by 
Robert Brough, A.R.S.A., and ;;^20oo for the establishment of a lecturership 
on "The Structure and Functions of the Human Body," the lectures to be 
delivered during the winter session and to be open to the public without fee. 

Mrs. Adam, Denmore, Aberdeen, has gifted ;^iooo to the University in 
memory of her late husband, Mr. Thomas Adam of Denmore, to be applied 
at the discretion of the University Court for the purpose of improving the 
convenience and amenity of King's College buildings, recreation ground, and 
surroundings. 

At a meeting of the University Court in June last a letter was read from 
the family of a graduate of the University who fell during the war, intimating 
their desire to hand over to the University Court the sum of ;£i2o, being his 
estate. The money might be devoted to the founding of a memorial prize in 
the department of Economics. The gift was gratefully accepted, and the 
condition was approved. 

ELECTION OF COUNCIL ASSESSORS. 

The half-yearly meeting of the General Council was held on 18 October. 
At this meeting the term of office of the four Assessors of the Council in the 
University Court (as extended by the Secretary for Scotland) expired, and the 



University Topics 77 

election of two Assessors for the four-year period, 1919-23, and two for the two- 
year period, 19 19-21, became necessary. Mr. Patrick Cooper, advocate, 
Aberdeen, who has been in office since 1909, did not seek re-election. The 
three other Assessors were — Rev. James Smith, who has been in office since 
1 91 5, and Dr. John Scott Riddell and Dr. George Smith, who have been 
in office since 191 6. These three were re-elected, and Mr. D. M. M. 
MiLLiGAN, advocate, Aberdeen, was also elected an Assessor. A vote was 
then taken as to which of the Assessors elected should serve for the four-year 
period and which for the two-year period. The vote resulted in a show of 
fifty hands for Dr. Scott Riddell and thirty for Dr. Smith, who were accord- 
ingly appointed for four years ; and in twenty-six fori Rev. James Smith and 
eighteen for Mr. Milligan, who were appointed for two years. 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERTS FOR INDIA. 

Mr. G. Findlay Shirras, Director of the Department of Statistics, India, 
writes: "The Government of India has applied to the Secretary of State 
for Agricultural experts. These appointments are well paid, most congenial to 
men with a leaning for agriculture, and afford great scope. The men, when 
they arrive, are usually given charge of a circle, and are called Deputy 
Directors of Agriculture ; and the more we can obtain of the wisdom of the 
West which can be adapted to Eastern conditions the better. I am anxious 
that my old University should get a fair share of these appointments, and I 
venture to suggest that suitable graduates should get into touch with the 
Revenue Secretary, at the India Office, Whitehall, London, S.W. i." 

THE MARISCHAL COLLEGE MOTTO. 

The Marischal College motto, or, rather, the motto of the Earls Marischal 
— "They say. What say they? Let them say" — was the subject of dis- 
cussion in "The Spectator" a few months ago. The editor of that paper 
casually quoted it in an article and referred to it as a "fine old Jewish 
apophthegm ". Thereupon, two correspondents wrote asking whether there 
was anything Jewish in the " apophthegm ". One of them reproduced " the 
original form" of the motto "as it still appears in the arms of Dugald 
Dalgetty's famous old College," and rightly said it was borrowed from the 
family of the founder of the College, the Keiths, Earls Marischal of Scotland. 
The other correspondent wrote : — 

"Is it of Jewish origin ? Henry, the great Irish scholar, quotes it in the 
introduction to his Virgilian commentary in the Greek form : keyova-iv d 
^cXovo-tv, Xeycpioarav ' ov fxiXei fxoi. He does not, however, state where it is 
first to be found. The saying, in the form in which you give it, is the motto 
of a great Scots family, the Keiths." 

The editor of " The Spectator " appended the following note to this com- 
munication : — 

"Our correspondent is right. We remember to have seen the maxim 
quoted from a mediaeval Jewish theologian, who lived long before George, 
Earl Marischal, inscribed it at Marischal College, Aberdeen, in 1593. But 
the Greek version, we find, was a favourite posy for rings found at Pompeii, 
and occurs on late Roman gems, with the addition crv ^tAct ^c * <TVfxcf>€p€L a-ot 
(But love thou me : 'tis good for thee)." 



78 Aberdeen University Review 

THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR. 

Although the war is now a thing of the past, several items of news in 
connection with it which are of interest to University readers have been 
published since our last issue ; and we reproduce them, despite the fact that 
they may appear somewhat belated. 

Among the King's Birthday Honours was the following (accidentally 
omitted in our last issue) : — 

M.B.E. — Rev. Henry Farquhar, Chaplain to the Forces (M.A., 
1879; B.D. [Edin.]). 
The following distinctions were subsequently conferred — 

O.B.E. — Rev. George Cook Macpherson (M.A., 1900; B.D., 

1904), for distinguished services in India. 
M.C. — Dr. John Morrison, R.A.M.C. (M.A., 1915 ; M.B., 1918). 
Captain Richard R. M. Porter, Indian Medical Service (M.A., 
1908; M.B.). 
Lieutenant-General Sir George Francis Milne, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 
D.S.O., designated as Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the Black Sea 
(Arts Stud., 1881-83; LL.D., 1919), has been awarded the Grand Cross of 
the French Legion of Honour. 

Captain James Catto Duffus, R.F.A. (T.F.) (M.A., 1912; LL.B., 
1 914), has been awarded the French Croix de Guerre, for bravery in the 
field. 

Among recipients of Rumanian decorations in connection with the war 
were — 

Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Rumania — Lieutenant- 
General (Temporary General) Sir George Francis Milne. 
Officer of the Order of the Star of Rumania — Major Henry Jackson 
BuTCHART, D.S.O., Scottish Horse Yeomanry (B.L., 1905). 
Among the names of officers and men " mentioned " by Sir Douglas 
Haig for distinguished and gallant service and devotion to duty during the 
period 16 September, 191 8, to 15 March, 19 19, were those of — 

Lieutenant-Colonel (Acting Colonel) T. F. Dewar, C.B., T.D., 

M.D., R.A.M.C. (T.F.) (M.B., 1887)— fourth mention. 
Major (Temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) C. D. Peterkin, C.B.E., 
4th Gordon Highlanders (T.F.) (M.A., 1908). 
An official ^communique was issued in August containing the names of 
civil medical practitioners brought to the notice of the Secretary of State for 
AVar for valuable medical services rendered in the United Kingdom in con- 
nection with the war. Amongst others mentioned were — 

Mr. John Mitchell Bruce, C.V.O., M.D. (M.A., 1866; LL.D., 

1900). 
Mr. William Bulloch, M.D., F.R.S. (M.B., 1890; M.D., 1894). 
Sir James McKenzie Davidson (deceased) (M.B., 1882). 
Sir David Ferrier, M.D., F.R.S. (M.A., 1863; LL.D., 1881). 
Mr. BuRjORji SoRABji Kanga (M.B., 1916). 
Mr. Joseph Needham, M.D. (M.B., 1879). 
Mr. John George Pardoe, F.R.C.S. (M.B., 1892). 



University Topics 79 

The names of the under-mentioned have been brought to the notice of 
the Secretary of State for War for valuable services rendered in connection 
with the war : — 

Colonel Lachlan Mackinnon, City of Aberdeen Volunteer Regi- 
ment (M.A., 1875). 

Lieutenant-Colonel W. B. G. Minto, R.G.A. (T.F.) (deceased) 
(M.A., 1901). 

Among the names of those brought to the notice of the Government of 
India " for valuable services rendered in India in connexion with the war " 
was that of — 

George Findlay Shirras, F.S.S., I.E.S., Director of Statistics, 
Government of India (M.A., 1907). 

Lieutenant-Colonel John Hector Stephen, D.S.O. (B.Sc, 1900 ; 
M.B.), who is serving with the Army of Occupation in Germany, had the 
honour of being chosen to command the R.A.M.C. detachment of the 29th 
Division delegated to take part in the Victory march in Paris on 14 July. 

The Territorial Decoration has been conferred upon — 

Lieutenant-Colonel James Dawson, D.S.O., 6th Gordon Highlanders 

(T.F.) (retired) (M.A., 1896). 
Lieutenant-Colonel Frank Fleming, D.S.O., R.F.A» (T.F.) (Arts, 

1891-92). 
Lieutenant-Colonel James William Garden, D.S.O., R.F.A. (T.F.) 

(M.A., 1899; B.L., 1902). 
Major (Acting Colonel) David Rorie, D.S.O., R./.M.C. (T.F.) 

(Arts, 1882-83; Medicine, 191 o-i I ; M.D. [Ed'n.] ; D.RH. 

[Aberd.]). 

Rev. George Tod Wright (M.A., 1913 ; B.D., 1915) has been posted 
as Chaplain at General Headquarters in France. 

The forthcoming publication is announced of a work on experiences in 
the war by Dr. George Davidson, Torphins (M.A., 1884; M.B., 1887; 
M.D., 1894). Dr. Davidson is a son of the late Rev. Dr. Davidson, minister 
of Logie-Coldstone, and is well known as a distinguished botanist. When 
war broke out, he volunteered for service, and was sent to the Dardanelles, 
and took part in the sensational tragedy of the Clyde landing. He kept a 
diary of his experiences from embarkation to evacuation, and when issued to 
the public it will, no doubt, be found a most interesting contribution to the 
stirring story of the Dardanelles. 

The following addition has to be made to the War Obituary : — 

John Macdonald (M.A., 1902), Second Lieutenant, R.G.A., was killed 
in action in France on 27 May, 19 18. He was a native of Gairloch, Ross- 
shire, and was a teacher at Helensburgh prior to the outbreak of war. He 
joined the Artists' Rifles as a private in May, 191 7, and got his commission 
in the February following. 



8o Aberdeen University Review 

THE UNIVERSITY WAR MEMORIAL. 

At the meeting of the General Council on i8 October, the Principal (who 
presided) submitted a report on behalf of the War Memorial Committee 
appointed by the Senatus and the Court, proposing that the memorial to the 
301 students and former students of the University who had fallen during the 
war should take two forms. The first was to be a record in book form of all 
connected with the University who had served in the forces during the war, 
and the capable and experienced services of Miss Allardyce had been obtained 
in the construction of the roll. It was proposed to print short biographies 
and portraits of those who had fallen. That memorial volume, through the 
generosity of a friend, would be published at a price within the reach of all. 
The other memprial was to consist of monuments at King's College and 
Marischal College. The ante- chapel in King's College was to have the 
names of the fallen on its walls, and a stained glass window would be placed 
in the chapel. It was also hoped to restore the original east window, and 
thereby to give to the chapel all its former beauty. As to Marischal College, 
following the advice and wishes of the distinguished architect of the building, 
it was resolved that the memorial should take the form of a porch at the foot 
of the Marischal Tower — at the entrance to the halls. That had been part 
of Dr. Marshall Mackenzie's original design, and it would be of such shape 
and quality as to bear plainly marks of a memorial to the fallen. 

The Senatus and University Court, added the Principal, had each approved 
of these proposals, provided that before steps were taken to commence the 
work sketches of the whole scheme should be submitted to them. It would 
be in order if that meeting passed a similar resolution, and he moved that the 
General Council receive that interim report, and, subject to the completed 
sketches of the designs being produced, approve generally of the plans he had 
submitted. 

This was unanimously agreed to. 

The Principal further added that the Finance Sub-Committee were about 
to prepare an appeal to all graduates for the sum required, which was estimated 
at between ;^9ooo and ^^i 0,000. It was an obligation resting on all — a duty 
nothing less than sacred — to perpetuate the memory of these brave sons of 
the University and this sum was certainly not beyond the University. 

THE "ALMA MATER" ANTHOLOGY. 

We are glad to learn that sufficient subscriptions were received to warrant 
the preparation of the contemplated " Alma Mater " Anthology referred to in 
our last issue, and that it is intended to publish it about the middle of 
December. The volume will extend to 150 pages or so, and will embrace 
nearly 120 poems, selected from the poetical contributions to "Alma Mater" 
since its establishment in 1883. Graduates and Alumni who desire to 
possess a copy are asked to send in their names to " The Convener, Aberdeen 
University Anthology Committee, c/o Messrs. W. & W. Lindsay, 28 Market 
Street, Aberdeen ". 



Personalia. 

Within the last few months no fewer than eight graduates or alumni of 
Aberdeen University have been appointed to Professorships : Messrs. J. O. 
Thomson and Ritchie to Birmingham (as mentioned in last number), Milne 
to Leeds, Troup to Oxford, Findlay and Mackenzie Stuart to Aberdeen, Ogg 
to Madras, and Spencer Melvin to Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. 
In addition, at least ten have been appointed to important Lectureships : 
Mr. Bertram Laing to what is practically a professorial charge at Sheffield, 
Mr. J. A. K. Thomson at Harvard, Messrs. Knox and Pirie at Glasgow, 
Bowie at Manchester, Horace Williamson at Edinburgh, and H. A. Davidson 
at Aberdeen, where also Messrs. Fyvie and Geddes have been appointed 
Lecturers in Natural Philosophy, and Dr. Ian G. Innes Lecturer in Experi- 
mental Physiology. 

Dr. George Spencer Melvin (M.B., Hons., 1909; M.D., Hons., 1912), 
Lecturer on Experimental Physiology, in Aberdeen University, has been 
appointed Professor of Physiology in Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario. 
On graduating M.B., Dr. Melvin was awarded the John Murray medal 
and scholarship as the most distinguished graduate of his year. He was 
at first University assistant in Physiology, and later became Lecturer on 
Experimental Physiology. He has been eminently successful as a teacher, 
and also as an investigator ; his research work has been mainly concerned with 
the physiology of the circulation, and especially with blood- pressure, in con- 
nexion with which his published results, establishing, by new and improved 
methods, the nojrmal standards of blood-pressure on an adequate scale, have 
been widely appreciated and have been incorporated in special textbooks 
dealing with the subject both in this country and abroad. 

Mr. William Proctor Milne (M.A., Hons., 1903; D.Sc, 1910) has 
been appointed Professor of Mathematics in Leeds University. The new 
Professor is a native of Longside, Aberdeenshire. He entered Aberdeen 
University as second bursar in 1899, carried off all the prizes and distinctions 
in natural philosophy, and graduated with first-class honours in 1903, gaining 
also the Ferguson scholarship in that year. He then entered Clare College, 
Cambridge, and emerged as fourth wrangler in 1906. He was appointed 
mathematical master at CUfton College, Bristol, in 1907, and since that date 
he has held various mathematical and scientific examinerships at schools and 
colleges throughout the country, including, during recent years, examiner- 
ships for the Navy and Army. He has been prominent in the transactions 

6 



82 Aberdeen University Review 

of numerous educational organizations in England, and is the author of various 
papers and books bearing upon mathematical subjects. His published works 
include, "Homogeneous Co-ordinates" (1910), "Projective Geometry" 
(191 1), "Higher Algebra" (1913), "Calculus" (1919); and he is general 
editor of a series of mathematical and science textbooks. 

Mr. R. S. Troup (alumnus, 1891-94), Assistant Inspector-General of 
Forestry, Calcutta, has been elected Professor of Forestry at Oxford University. 
He is a son of Mr. James Troup (M.A., 186 1), formerly of the British 
Consular Service in Japan. 

Rev. George Ogg (M.A., 1912; B.Sc, 1919; B.D., 1919), has been 
appointed by the Foreign Mission Committee of the General Assembly of the 
Church of Scotland an educational missionary in India, and has been ordained 
by the Presbytery of Aberdeen. This has followed on his appointment as 
Professor of Mathematics in the Madras Christian College. Mr. Ogg, who 
is a native of Fochabers, had a distinguished University career. He gradu- 
ated M.A. with first-class honours in mathematics, and B.Sc. with distinction 
in mathematics and natural philosophy ; and on securing the B.D. degree he 
was awarded the Lyon Prize as the' most distinguished student of his year. 

Mr. Bertram Mitchell Laing (M.A., 191 1), has been appointed to the 
Lectureship in Philosophy in the University of Sheffield. The appointment 
carries with it the charge ofMhe whole work of the Philosophical Department. 
Mr. Laing had a brilliant University career, specializing with first-class 
honours in those subjects which will form the matter of his teaching in his 
new sphere, and gaining numerous prizes and scholarships, including the Bain 
Gold Medal, the Hutton Prize, the Fullerton and Ferguson Scholarships. 
After graduation he proceeded to the Continent, where he continued his 
studies. On returning, he was appointed assistant to the Professor of Logic 
in his Alma Mater. During the great war he served as an officer in the Black 
Watch, and came through some heavy fighting, being once wounded. He 
was mentioned in dispatches and gained the Military Cross for gallant con- 
duct in the field on different occasions. After the Armistice he went with his 
battalion to Germany, where he was engaged in duties in connection with the 
civil administration arising out of the Army of Occupation, besides carrying 
on educational work under the Army Education Scheme. 

Mr. James Alexander Ker Thomson (M.A., 1900) has been appomted 
Classical Lecturer at Harvard University — an appointment of considerable dis- 
tinction, as it is a rare occurrence for an American University of the stand- 
ing of Harvard to come to this country for teachers. Mr. Thomson, who is 
an Honours graduate in Classics, acted for some time as assistant in Greek 
at St. Andrews University, and, later, at Aberdeen. He is the author of 
" Studies in the Odyssey" and "The Greek Tradition: Essays in the Re- 
construction of Ancient Thought," which attracted much attention at the time 
of their publication, and met with a flattering reception from scholars. Pro- 
fessor Gilbert Murray, in an article in the "Quarterly Review," referred to Mr. 
Thomson as one of the most eminent of the younger school of Classical 
students, bracketing him with Zimmern and R. W. Livingstone. 

Dr. Joseph Knox (B.Sc, 1900; D.Sc), Lecturer in Chemistry in the 
University, has been appointed Lecturer in Chemistry in the University of 
Glasgow, where he will have entire charge of the instruction in chemistry 
of the medical students. Dr. Knox is a distinguished graduate of the Uni- 
versity, and has been on the teaching staff for the past thirteen years. He is 



Personalia. 8 3 



the author of several useful books on chemistry, and has published numerous 
researches of high merit. During the war he rendered admirable service in 
the production of war materials, especially in the production of nitrates from 
the atmosphere, on which subject he is one of the foremost authorities in the 
country. 

Mr. John William Pirie (M.A., 1910) has been appointed to a Lecture- 
ship in Classical Philosophy just instituted in Glasgow University. 

Mr. James Alexander Bowie (M.A., 191 4), has been appointed to a 
Lectureship on Economics at the Manchester School of Technology, in the 
department of industrial administration. The School of Technology is one 
of the constituent Colleges of Manchester University. 

Mr. W. T. Horace Williamson (B.Sc, 19 10), has been appointed to a 
Lectureship in Chemistry in the East of Scotland Agricultural College, 
Edinburgh. 

Mr. William Wilson Fyvie (B.Sc, 1904 ; D.Sc.) and Mr. Alexander 
E. M. Geddes (M.A., 1906; D.Sc), have been appointed Lecturers in 
Natural Philosophy at the University. 

Dr Ian George Innes (M.A., 191 1 ; B.Sc ; B.Sc. Agr., M.B., 1918) has 
been appointed Lecturer in Experimental Physiology at the University. 

Mr. Gwilym a. T. Davies, M.*A. (Oxon), University assistant in 
Humanity and Lecturer on Roman History, has been appointed Professor of 
Latin in the University College of South Wales, Cardiff. 

The Principal was selected by the Senatus to represent the University, in 
response to an invitation addressed to the Professors of Aberdeen, at the 
inauguration of the new French University at Strasbourg on 20-23 November. 
He was also appointed one of the delegates from the British Universities to 
visit the Universities of Belgium, on the invitation of the Belgian Government, 
the visit to follow immediately upon the celebrations of Strasbourg University. 

Professor J. Wight Duff (M.A., 1886 ; D.Litt. [Durh.]), Professor of 
Classics at Armstrong College, Newcastle, has also been appointed one of 
the representatives of British Universities to visit the Belgian Universities. 

Rev. Professor Cowan, on the occasion of his ministerial jubilee (see 
Review, vi., 283) was met by a number of his former students in the History 
classroom at King's College on 23 October, and made the recipient of gifts, 
which took the form of a gold watch — bearing the inscription, " A jubilee 
token of esteem to Dr. Cowan, D.D., D.C.L., Aberdeen University, from 
former students, October, 191 9" — a silver kettle and suit-case. Professor 
Cowan also accepted, on behalf of his wife, a gold wristlet watch which bore 
the inscription — "To Mrs. Cowan, from Dr. Cowan's former students, October, 
1 91 9," and a silver card case for Miss Cowan. The Principal presided, and 
among those present were: Professor Gilroy, Professor Fulton, Professor 
Baird, and Professor Stalker, United Free Church College. The presentation 
to Professor Cowan, was made by the Rev. M. J. Macpherson, Bourtie (M.A., 
1887 ; B.D., 1893) ; the gift for Mrs. Cowan was presented by Rev. Henry 
Coulter, Holburn Parish, Aberdeen (B.A. [R.U.I.]; B.D., 1912); and the 
gift for Miss Cowan was presented by Rev. A. J. Kesting, Dunfermline 
(M.A., 1894; B.D., 1897). 

Professor Baillie has been appointed representative of the University 
Court on the Local Advisory Council under the Aberdeenshire Education 
Authority. 

Professor Souter has been appointed by the University Library Com- 
mittee Curator of the Library for the Academic Year 1919-20. 



84 Aberdeen University Review 

Sir James Scorgie Meston, K. C.S.I. (LL.D., 191 3), has resigned the 
post of Financial Member of the Council of the Viceroy of India, to which 
he was appointed in February of last year, and has had a peerage conferred 
upon him. Sir James has been in London for some time in connection with 
the Government of India Bill, and gave evidence in support of it before the 
Joint Parliamentary Select Committee. His enforced resignation (consequent 
on the state of his health) has been accepted by the Indian Secretary and the 
Viceroy with the greatest regret. The conferment of a peerage on Sir James 
Meston is believed to be the first instance in which a graduate or alumnus of 
the University has been directly created a peer. 

Mr. Andrew Anderson, barrister (retired) (M.A., Marischal College, 
1859), was waited upon by a deputation representing the people of Strichen 
on II August, and presented with an enlarged photograph of himself in 
recognition of the numerous kindly services he has rendered the Strichen 
people for many years past. Photographs of Mr. Anderson, similarly enlarged 
and framed, were at the same time presented to the Public School, the Read- 
ing-Room, and the Good Templar Hall. 

Dr. John Anderson, Dundee (M.B., 1908); Dr. Theodore Chalmers, 
Rajputana (M.B., 1906) ; and Dr. Douglas Wood, Peterhead (M.B., 1908), 
has been admitted Fellows of the Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh. 

Dr. Robert N. Rudmose Brown (B.Sc, 1900; D.Sc), Lecturer in 
Geography at Sheffield University, was appointed assistant leader of the 
expedition to Spitsbergen sent out last summer by the Scottish Spitsbergen 
Syndicate. He has had extensive experience in Arctic and Antarctic explora- 
tion, having been botanist to the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition of 
1902. The leader of the expedition was Dr. William S. Bruce (LL.D., 1907), 
but, owing to his having to return to this country, the leadership devolved upon 
Dr. Rudmose Brown. 

Dr. William Bruce, Dingwall (M.A., King's College, 1855 ; M.D., 1858 ; 
LL.D., Aberd., 1891), i^ about to resign his post as medical officer of health 
for Ross and Cromarty, which he has held since 1889, the resignation to take 
effect on 31 December. 

Rev. John Burnett (M.A., 1865; B.D., 1874), senior minister of St. 
David's United Free Church, Glasgow, has attained his ministeaal jubilee. 
He was ordained minister of the Leslie and Premnay Free Church, Aberdeen- 
shire, on 26 August, 1869, and was translated to St. David's, Glasgow, nine 
years later. 

Rev. John Calder (D.D., 1904), on retiring from the ministry of the 
first charge at St. Machar Cathedral, was presented with his portrait and an 
illuminated address from members of the congregation. 

Dr. Charles Chree (M.A., 1879 ; LL.D., 1897 > F.R.S.), Superintendent 
of the Observatory at Kew, has been awarded by the Royal Society the Hughes 
Medal for his researches on terrestrial magnetism. 

Mr. Patrick Cooper (M.A., 1879), advocate, Aberdeen, has been elected 
President of the Incorporated Society of Law Agents for Scotland. 

Rev. Henry Coulter (B.A. [R.U.I.]; B.D., 1912), minister of New- 
port, Fife, since 1913, has been elected minister of Holburn Parish Church, 
Aberdeen. In 191 6 he went as a chaplain to France, and during the whole 
of 19 1 7 and a portion of 1918 he was attached to the 6th Gordon High- 
landers in the 51st Division. He now holds the rank of Hon. Chaplain to 
the Forces. 



Personalia 8 5 



Professor Arthur Robertson Cushny (M.A., 1886; M.D., 1892; 
LL.D., 191 1 ; F.R.S.) has been elected one of the Council of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh. 

Rev. John Taylor Dean (M.A., 1888), minister of the United Free 
Church, Coldingham, Berwickshire, has received a call from the Foreign Mis- 
sion Committee of the United Free Church for service in Calabar, South 
Nigeria, for the special work of training native students as evangelists and 
pastors. Mr. Dean spent the first seven years of his ministry (1891-98) as a 
missionary in Calabar. Personal reasons compelled him to seek a home 
charge, and he was settled in Coldingham in 1899. During 191 7-18, he was 
in Calabar as Acting Principal of the Hope Waddell Training Institute. 
During that time he was so much impressed with the need and the hopeful- 
ness of the work that he has accepted the call. He expected to sail in the 
beginning of November. 

Mr. James Catto Duffus, M.C. (M.A., 1912 ; LL.B.), has been admitted 
a member of the Society of Advocates in Aberdeen. 

Mr. Alexander Emslie (M.A., 1895), ex- Rector of Ayr Academy, has 
been appointed headmaster of Speir's School, Beith, Ayrshire. 

Mr. William James Entwistle (M.A., 19 16) has won the Fullerton 
Scholarship in Classics (in a special examination for demobilized candidates). 

Mr. Alexander Keith Forbes (M.A., 1904) has been appointed head- 
master of Fischcross Public School, Clackmannanshire. 

Mr. George Topham Forrest, F.R.I.B.A., F.G.S. (alumnus, 1888-90), 
County Architect of Essex, has been appointed architect to the London 
County Council, and superintending architect of Metropolitan buildings. 

Dr. David Watson Geddie (M.A., 1885 ; M.B., 1889) has been ap- 
pointed senior physician to the Royal Aberdeen Hospital for Sick Children, 
in place of Professor McKerron, resigned ; Dr. A. Greig Anderson (M.A., 
1905 ; M.D.) has been appointed junior physician, in place of Dr. Gibb, re- 
signed ; and Dr. Alexander Coutts Fowler, D.S.C. (M.B., 1919), has 
been appointed house surgeon and physician. 

Fleet-Surgeon John Falconer Hall, C.M.G. (M.B., 1893), has been 
gazetted to the Medical Department of the Admiralty as Deputy Director- 
General. 

Mr. William Dow Kennedy (M.A., 1898), headmaster of the High 
School, Oban, has been appointed Director of Education for Banffshire. 

Dr. John Macdonald (M.A., 1887 ; B.Sc, 1891 ; Ph.D. [Jena], 1894), 
rector of the Dunfermline High School since 1899, has been appointed 
Director of Education for the county of Aberdeen. 

Dr. James M'Hardy (alumnus, 1861-65; L.F.P.S., [Glas.]), who has 
been a member of the Banchory Town Council for thirty-three years and 
Provost of the burgh for the last fourteen years, was entertained at a public 
dinner on 23 September, and presented with an illuminated address and 
;;^266 los., in recognition of his long and esteemed services to the community 
of Banchory, in which he has been resident for fifty-four years. 

Mr. Donald Cameron McIntosh (M.A., 1890 ; D.Sc), head mathemati- 
cal master, Edinburgh Ladies' College, has been appointed Director of Edu- 
cation and clerk and treasurer to the Morayshire Education Authority. 

Rev. Allan MacKillop, of Lismore, N. S. Wales, has been notified by 
the University of Queensland that he has successfully passed his final ex- 
aminations qualifying for the degree of B.A. Mr. MacKillop studied first 



86 Aberdeen University Review 

at the Grammar School of Old Aberdeen, Scotland, then arts for four years at 
Aberdeen University, and afterwards theology for five years at the Free 
Church Divinity Hall of that city. Not having proceeded to a degree in 
Scotland, Mr. MacKillop resumed his studies four years ago in connexion 
with the University of Sydney, reading for six terms in Greek, Latin, and 
English with Greek and Roman history, and in logic and psychology, passing 
the annual examinations in each subject. For the last two years he has 
studied British history, ethics, metaphysics and pure mathematics as an 
external student of the University of Queen^land, and has now completed the 
course. 

Rev. Alexander McLean (M.A., 1903), minister of the United Free 
Church, Cromarty, has been appointed colleague and successor to Rev. John 
White, East Park United Free Church, Glasgow. 

Mr. Angus Macleod (M.A., 1908; B.Sc), Central Higher Grade School, 
Aberdeen, has received an appointment on the staff of Oban Academy. 

Rev. John Macleod, Inverness (M.A., 1891), has been nominated as 
Moderator of the General Assembly of the F>ee Church of Scotland for next 
year. He is a native of Fort William, and is forty-seven years of age. He 
graduated with first-class honours in classics, and took the Simpson Greek 
Prize, Seafield Latin Medal, and the Jenkyns Prize for Classical Philology. 
The same year he gained the FuUerton Classical Scholarship. He studied 
theology in New College, Edinburgh, and the Assembly College, Belfast, and 
was ordained minister of the Free Presbyterian Church at Loch Broom in 
1897. Translated to Kames in 1901, he was appointed theological tutor of 
the Free Church College, Edinburgh, in 1905, and was made Professor of 
New Testament Exegesis in 1906. He was called to the Free North Church, 
Inverness, in 1913. 

Mr. Robert Cujviming Thomson Mair, M.C. (M.A., 1902; LL.B. 
[Edin.]), formerly a solicitor in Elgin, has been appointed chief assistant to 
the Executive Officer of the Forfarshire Education Authority. 

Rev. James A. Mann (M.A., 191 3) has been elected minister of Coat- 
dyke United Free Church, Coatbridge. He was for five years minister oi- the 
Presbyterian church at Islay, Alberta, Canada. 

Dr. James Middleton (M.B., 1882), who has carried on a very exten: ive 
medical practice in Peterhead for many years, has retired, and has disposed 
of his practice to Dr. John Findlay (M.B., 1901), Crimond. 

Dr. Robert Milne (M.B., 1874; M.D., 1880), medical superintendent 
of Dr. Barnardo's Homes, London, has resigned owing to failing health, after 
about thirty-nine years' service. He will act as consultant doctor to the 
Homes. 

Dr. Andrew Mitchell (M.B., 1872), on the occasion of his retirement 
from practice, has been presented by patients and friends in New Deer and 
district with a solid silver rose bowl, a pair of solid silver candlestick-, and a 
wallet of Treasury notes, as a token of their esteem and affection. 

Mr. Alfred Ross Murison (M.A., Hons., 19 12), m'athematical master 
under the Vale of Leven School Committee, has been appointed to the Home 
Civil Service, Class I. 

Mr. Edward G. M. Murray (M.A., 1914) has been appointed Head- 
master of Echt Public School, Aberdeenshire. 

Mr. John Murray, M.P. for West Leeds (M.A., 1900), has been ap- 
pointed a member of a Departmental Committee set up by the English Board 



Personalia 8 7 



of Education to inquire into the existing provision of scholar.hips and free 
places at secondary schools and to make recommendations for the improve- 
ment of such provision, so as to render " facilities for higher education more 
generally accessible and advantageous to all classes of the population ". He 
has also been invited by the President of the Board of Education to assist in 
an honorary capacity as officer in charge of the administration of the Govern- 
ment scheme for assisting ex-service students to follow courses of higher 
education. 

Mr. John Murray (M.A., Hons. Eng., 1907), Master of Method, Dum- 
fries Academy, has been appointed rector of the Annan Academy. His pre- 
decessor at Annan, Mr. James Gray Gilchrist (M.A., 1894 ; B.Sc. [Lond.]), 
has been appointed Headmaster of Inverkeithing f^ublic School. 

The Very Reverend David Paul (M.A., 1864; LL.D.,'1894; D.D., 
[Edin.], 19 15), minister of Grange Parish (Robertson Memorial) Church, 
Edinburgh, has demitted office as minister of the parish. He is in his 
seventy -fourth year. He was Moderator of the General Assembly of the 
Church of Scotland in 1915. (See Review, vol. ii., 178.) 

Colonel John Scott Riddell, C.B.E., M.V.O. (M.A., 1884; M.B., 
CM., 1888), has been appointed by the University Court representative of 
the University on the Territorial Force Association of the County of the 
City of Aberdeen, in room of the late Professor Trail ; and Sir Alexander 
Ogston, K.C.V.O. (M.B., 1865; M.D., 1866; LL.D., 1910), and Rev. 
James Smith (M.A., 1874 ; B.D., 1877) have been reappointed representatives 
of the University on the County of Aberdeen Territorial Force Association. 

Mr. James Ritchie (M.A., 1904; D.Sc.) has been promoted to be 
Assistant Keeper in the Natural History Department of the Royal Scottish 
Museum, Edinburgh. His Thomson lectures on "The Influence of Man 
on Animal Life in Scotland " are likely to appear soon from the Cambridge 
University Press. 

Mr. John Watson Robertson (M.A., 1909 ; B.Sc.) has been appointed 
senior mathematical master in the Central Higher Grade School, Aberdeen. 

Professor William Robert Smith (M.B., 1876 ; M.D., 1879), Professor 
of Forensic Medicine, King's College, London, one of the Sheriffs of the City 
of London, was knighted on the occasion of the King's visit to the Guildhall, 
29 July, to receive from the Corporation an address of congratulation on the 
conclusion of peace. 

Dr. William Clark Souter (M.B., 1903; M.D., 1906), who gained 
the Middlemore Ophthalmic Prize (British Medical Association) in July, 19 17, 
satisfied the examiners for the Diploma in Ophthalmology of the University 
of Oxford in July last. 

Rev. Sydney Cardno Still (M.A., 19 15) has been ordained minister of 
the United Free Church, Kilcreggan and Cove, Dumbartonshire. 

Rev. David Sutherland (M.A., 1882), chaplain of the Peterhead 
convict prison, has retired, on reaching the age limit. 

Dr. Adam Annand Turner, M.C. (M.B., 1913), has received an ap- 
pointment under the Borough Council of St. Helens, Lancashire, his duties 
being connected with the child welfare scheme. 

Mr. James Adam Wilson (M.A., 1885 ; B.Sc. [Edin.], 1890), assistant 
science master in Robert Gordon's Technical College, Aberdeen, has been 
appointed head of the Science Department of the College. Consequent 
upon this appointment, Mr. John Alexander (M.A., 1898; B.Sc), one of 



88 Aberdeen University Review 

the mathematical masters in the College, has been appointed second teacher 
of physics; Mr. William Murray (M.A., 1909), has been promoted to Mr. 
Alexander's former post; and Mr. Robert R. Stewart (M.A., 191 6) to Mr. 
Murray's post. Mr. Andrew Milne (M.A., 1913), assistant teacher of 
classics, has resigned. 

Rev. Canon Alexander Wood (M.A., 1893), of the mission of the 
Scottish Episcopal Church at Chanda, Central Provinces, India, has been 
nominated by Dr. Westcott, the Metropolitan of India, formerly Bishop 
of Chota Nagpur, as his successor in that diocese. The Bishop-Designate 
was ordained in 1895, and, after holding the curacy of St. John's, Forfar, 
went to the Chanda Mission in 1898. He became Honorary Canon of 
Nagpur Cathedral in 19 14. 

Miss Emily Brown (M.A., 1914) has been appointed teacher of modern 
languages in the Higher Grade School, Beath, Fifeshire. 

Miss Louise Brown (M.A., 1914) is now French mistress in Golspie 
Higher Grade School. 

Miss Marjorie Culloden (M.B., 19 19) is acting as assistant to Dr. 
Ferguson, Banff. 

Miss Agnes Muriel Mackenzie (M.A., 19 12), late assistant in English 
at the University, is now on the staff of Rev. Dr. Hastings. 

Miss Jean Mackenzie Mackenzie (M.A., 19 18) last summer received 
the Birmingham University Diploma in Social Science, and is now studying 
at the London School of Economics. 

Miss Janet Roy Newlands (M.A., 19 14) has been appointed teacher of 
Latin and English in Bathgate. 

Miss NoRAH O'Connor (alumnus, 1915-17) has been appointed a pro- 
bationer-assistant in the University Library. 

Miss Charlotte R. D. Young (M.A., 1916) has been placed in Class 
I in the honours list for the School of English Literature at Oxford University 
— the only lady student at Oxford to take Class I honours. 

The Ferguson Scholarships for Classics and Mathematics (open for com- 
petition amongst students of the four Scottish Universities) have been won 
this year by Aberdeen students. The Classical scholarship was divided 
between Miss Katherine B. Wattie (M.A., 19 17) and Mr. Thomas M. 
Taylor (M.A., 19 19). The Mathematical scholarship was awarded to Mr. 
William O. Kermack (M.A., 1918 ; B.Sc, 1918). The Philosophical 
scholarship was won by a Glasgow graduate. The scholarships are of ;£8o 
each per annum, tenable for two years. 

The Fullerton, Moir, and Gray scholarship in Classics has been awarded 
to Mr. Thomas M. Taylor (M.A., 19 19), and the Hunter gold medal in 
Roman Law to Mr. Douglas J. Cormack (M.A., 191 6). Miss Nettie M. 
Lunan (M.A., 1 918) has been appointed to the Dey scholarship in Educa- 
tion ; Mr. George A. Shepherd (M.B., 1919) to the Thompson Fellowship 
in Medicine; and Rev. George Ogg (M. A., 1912 ; B.Sc, 1919; B.D., 1919) 
to the Burgess Prize in Divinity for an essay on Theodicy. 

Among recently-published works by Aberdeen University men are the 
following: "Reminiscences of Three Campaigns," by Sir Alexander Ogston 
— " TertuUian's Treatises Concerning Prayer and Baptism,'' translated by 
Professor Alexander Souter — "Menders of the Maimed," by Professor Arthur 
Keith, M.D., F.R.S. (Oxford University Press)— "The Secrets of Animal 
Life," by Professor J. Arthur Thomson — Professor Thomson's "Heredity" 



Personalia 89 

(third edition) — "The Christian Doctrine of Faith," edited by Rev. Dr. 
Hastings — ''The Faith of Isaiah, Statesman and EvangeUst," by Alex. 
R. Gordon, D.Litt., D.D. 

Professor Grierson, Edinburgh, is to edit the reproduction of a volume 
on "One hundred and fourteen Designs to Gray's Poems," by William Blake, 
recently discovered, uncatalogued and unrecorded, among the many treasures of 
Hamilton Palace. 

Rev. James H. Morrison (M.A., 1892), United Free Church minister, 
Newhills, author of "On the Trail of the Pioneers," one of the most suc- 
cessful missionary books of recent years, is about to publish a new work, 
entitled "Streams in the Desert: On Trek in Livingstonia ". It will give an 
account of Mr. ^]VIorrison'"s experiences during his travels as an Assembly 
Deputy in Nyasaland and Northern Rhodesia. 

Messrs. T. & T. Clark are at present passing through the press two new 
primers in the well-known series "Primers for Teachers and Junior Bible 
Class Students," edited by Rev. George Henderson, B.D., Monzie. One is 
entitled "The Gospel and the Epistles of St. John," by Rev. James A. 
Robertson, M.A., Ballater, formerly Bruce Lecturer, United Free Church 
College, Glasgow, and author of " The Spiritual Pilgrimage of Jesus ". The 
other is entitled "Tl^e Prophetical Literature of the Old Testament," and 
has been written by Professor A. R. Gordon, D.Litt, D.D., Montreal, whose 
larger important volume on the same subject is widely known. 

At the summer graduation, the degree of M.A. was conferred on 105 
students (on twelve of these with first-class honours, on eighteen with second- 
class honours, and on two with third-class honours) ; B.Sc, on four ; B.Sc. 
Agr., on seven; B.Sc. For., on one; B.D., on three; B.L., on three; and 
M.B. on twenty-four (on three of these with second-class honours). The 
diploma in Agriculture was granted to a single student (a woman). Of the 
Arts graduates, fifty-three were men and fifty-two women; all the B.Sc. 
graduates were men ; and fourteen of the medical graduates were men and 
ten women. The degree of D.Sc. was conferred on Miss Isabella Leitch, 
Peterhead, and on Mr. William Law Marr ; that of LL.B. on Shag Ying 
Yeh, Shanghai ; and that of M.D. on nine men. 

Mr. James G. Taylor, Kintore, carried off the Hutton Prize in Mental 
Philosophy ; Miss Jennie W. Aberdein, Aberdeen, the Seafield Gold Medal 
in English, the Minto Memorial Prize in English, and the Senatus Prize in 
English Literature ; Miss Flora E. Rothney, Aberdeen, the Kay Prize in 
Education ; Mr. William Douglas Simpson, Aberdeen, the Caithness Prize 
in History, and the Archibald Forbes Gold Medal in History ; Miss Margaret 
G. Harper, Aberdeen, the Senatus Medal in Modern Languages ; and Miss 
Gladys M. Mitchell, New Deer, the Town Council Prize in Economic 
Science. The John Murray Medal and Scholarship, awarded to the most 
distinguished graduate in Medicine for the year, was gained by Mr. George 
Alexander Shepherd, Ellon; land the Lizars Medal in Anatomy by Mr. 
William Litster Hector, Tarland. The Edmond Prize, awarded to the 
most distinguished graduate in Law of the year, was won by Mr. Norman 
Anderson Scorgie, Aberdeen. The Collie Prize in Botany fell to Mr. John 

B. Simpson, Nairn ; and the MacGillivray Prize in Zoology to Mr. Kenneth 
M. Robertson, Aberdeen. 

At the Bursary competition this year the first place was gained by John 

C. S. Ewen, a son of Rev. John S. Ewen, the minister of Garftrie (M.A., 



90 Aberdeen University Review 

1899 ; B.Sc.) : he was a pupil of Banff Academy, being this year's dux. The 
second bursar was Hannah K. Mitchell, daughter of Mr. John W. Mitchell, 
merchant, Cullen, and a pupil of Fordyce Academy. Margaret U. C. 
MacGregor, daughter of Rev. Peter MacGregor, minister of Duthil, and a 
pupil of Inverness Academy, was third bursar; and Margaret L. Bain, 
daughter of Mr. Walter R. Bain, schoolmaster, Maryculter, was fourth. She 
was a pupil of the Girls' High School, Aberdeen, as was also the fifth bursar, 
Priscilla T. Donald, daughter of the late Mr. James Donald, Crathes. The 
sixth bursar — Dorothy C. M'Iver, daughter of Mr. John M'lver, Huntly — 
was educated at the Gordon Schools, Huntly. The Girls' High School has 
the highest number of names in the first sixty names of the list, namely ten. 
Banff Academy comes next with eight. The Aberdeen Grammar School and 
Peterhead Academy have each seven ; Robert Gordon's College, six ; and 
the Central Higher Grade School and Fordyce Academy, five each. 

Following upon the death of Professor Trail, Professor Niven now be- 
comes the senior member of the Professoriate in respect of length of service, 
he having been appointed to the Chair of Natural Philosophy in 1880, when 
thirty- five years of age. Professor Hay is next in order, having been elected 
to the Chair of Forensic Medicine in 1883, when only twenty-eight years of 
age. He is followed by Professor Harrower, who succeeded the late Principal 
Sir William Geddes in the Chair of. Greek in 1886 when twenty- nine years of 
age, and Professor MacWilliam, who in the same year became Professor of 
Physiology, also at the age of twenty-nine years. Professor Cowan was ap- 
pointed to the Chair of Church History in 1889, and in the same year Pro- 
fessor Reid succeeded the late Sir John Struthers in the Chair of Anatomy. 

Among recently-appointed Justices of the Peace for the county of the 
city of Aberdeen were: the Principal, Mr. Henry Alexander (M.A., 1895), 
Mr. George Duncan (M.A., 1888), Mr. William Kelly (LL.D., 19 19), Mr. 
Lachlan MacKinnon (M.A., 1875), Dr. George Rose (M.B., 1887), and 
Rev. James Smith (M.A., 1874). 

Two medical graduates of the University were married in the University 
Chapel on 23 September — Dr. James Melvin, M.C. (M.B., 191 5), and Dr. 
Margaret Porteous (M.B., 19 19). The marriage ceremony was performed 
by the Principal, assisted by Rev. James Landreth, M.A., B.D., Logie-Pert, 
Montrose. 



Obituary. 



A distinguished graduate of the University and an accomplished member 
of the Professoriate passed away in the person of James William Helenus 
Trail (MA., 1870; M.B., 1876; M.D., 1879; F.R.S., F.L.S.), Professor of 
Botany, who died on 18 September, aged sixty-eight. He was a son of the 
late Rev. S\muel Trail (M.A., King's College, 1825; LL.D., 1847 ) D.D., 
1852), Professor of Systematic Theology in the University, 1867-87 ; his 
mother was a sister of Professor Hercules Scott, who occupied the chair of 
Moral Philosophy at King's College from 182 1 till i860 ; and he was further 
linked to the University by being married to a daughter of the late Dr. William 
Milligan, Professor of Biblical Criticism. In March 1877 (when only twenty- 
six years of age) he was appointed by the Crown Regius Professor of Botany 
in the University in succession to Professor George Dickie. Professor Trail 
had occupied his Chair for the unusually long period of forty-two years, and 
was the senior member of the Professoriate. He was a member of the 
University Court for six years (1897-1905). He held the office of Dean 
of the Faculty of Science from its institution in 1890 up to a year or two 
ago, and he had been Curator of the Library for the past twenty-eight years. 
He made many liberal gifts to the Library and he instituted, in memory of 
his mother, the Helen Scott Fund for the assistance of students of proved 
ability in the study of botany or zoology. Appreciations of the late Pro- 
fessor appear elsewhere in this number of the Review. 

Mr. Andrew Carnegie (LL.D., 1906), the founder of the Carnegie 
Trust for the Scottish Universities, endowing the trust with ;^2,ooo,ooo, 
died at his summer residence at Stockbridge, Lenox, Massachusetts, United 
States, on II August, aged eighty-two. He was Rector of Aberdeen Univer- 
sity from 191 1 to 1914. He contributed an article on the " The Right Hon. 
James Bryce, O.M." to the first number of the Review. In common with 
the other Scottish Universities, Aberdeen University shared in the noble 
provision of the Carnegie Trust by which all fees in the various faculties have 
been abolished. Through funds provided by the Carnegie Trust Lecturships 
in French, German, Geology, Education, Political Economy, and Constitu- 
tional Law were established; and the Carnegie Trustees assisted in the 
establishment of the Burnett-Fletcher Chair in History. An annual grant 
of ;£"iooo has also been given to the University Library. 

Sir William MacGregor, P.C, G.C.M.G., C.B. (M.B., 1872; M.D., 
1874; LL.D., 1895), a distinguished Colonial Governor, died in a nursing 
home in Aberdeen on 3 July, aged seventy-two years. An appreciative 
sketch of his career by Professor R. W. Reid appears elsewhere in this number 
of the Review. 



92 ^ Aberdeen University Review 

Dr. William Angus (M.B., 1907) died suddenly at St. Cyrus, Kincardine- 
shire, on 23 August, aged thirty-five. Dr. Angus, who was a native of Aber- 
deen, was educated at Robert Gordon's Technical College and the University, 
and took his medical degree with honours. Later, after considerable hospital 
practice in London, he took the degree in Public -Health at Cambridge. At 
the time of his death he held the position of medical officer of health in Leeds. 
A short time ago he retired from the army with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, 
having acted as assistant director of medical sanitation services in Egypt and 
Mesopotamia. Dr. Angus was fond of athletics, and in his University days 
took a great interest in running and rowing, and was closely associated with 
the Students' Representative Council. 

Rev. William Boyd (M.A., 1862) minister of Kilmaronock parish, 
Dumbartonshire, died on 28 October, aged seventy-six. He was a native of 
Kincardine, Ross-shire. He was minister of Bridgegate Church, Glasgow, 
from 1869 till 1879, when he was translated to Kilmaronock. He attained 
his ministerial jubilee about a fortnight before his death, when he was pre- 
sented with an address and a piece of silver plate from Dumbarton Presbytery 
{of which he had been " the father " for eighteen years), and with a well-filled 
wallet of Treasury notes from his congregation and friends. 

Dr. Leslie DuRNO (M.B., 1885; M.D., 1892) died at Bideford, North 
Devon, on 29 September, aged fifty-four. He was a native of Kemnay, 
Aberdeenshire, and began his medical career, first as assistant to the late Dr. 
Galloway, Rhynie, and then as assistant to the late Dr. Wilson, Oldmeldrum. 
About twenty-five years ago he settled in the Stoke Newington district of 
London, where he built up a large and lucrative practice, holding, in addition, 
many public appointments, including that of medical officer to the Stoke 
Newington Police Board. 

Mr. George Forsyth Duthie (alumnus, 1867-71), formerly head- 
master of Kittybrewster public school, Aberdeen, and one of the best-known 
educationists in the North of Scotland, died at his residence, Maryville, 
Woodside, on 7 July, aged seventy-nine. He was a native of Aberdeen. In 
1853, when only thirteen years old, he became a pupil teacher in Marywell 
Street School, of which the late Mr. David Maver was then headmaster. He 
afterwards studied at Moray House, Edinburgh, and in i860 took charge of 
Woodside School. His energy and enthusiasm as a teacher and his skill in 
organization soon had their effect pn the school, which flourished greatly and 
became eventually one of the largest in the North of Scotland, with scholars 
numbering about iioo. Though immersed in his school work, he found 
time to go through the curriculum at the University, where he was a student 
for four years, at the same time attending his school every day. On the 
passing of the Scottish Education Act in 1872, Woodside School came under 
the Old Machar School Board, Mr. Duthie being retained as headmaster ; 
and on the extension, in 1891, of the Aberdeen municipal boundary to include 
Woodside, Mr. Duthie was transferred to the service of the Aberdeen School 
Board. He remained in charge of Woodside School till 1900, when he was 
appointed to the new school erected at Kittybrewster, of which he continued 
headmaster till October, 1903, when he retired. Mr. Duthie was deeply 
interested in the wider aspects of education and in the advancement of the 
teaching profession. He, along with four other teachers, resuscitated the 
Aberdeen branch of the Educational Institute of Scotland, and was its first 
treasurer. He twice held the office of president of the branch, and for thirty 



Obituary g^ 



years he was a member of the General Committee of the Institute in Edin- 
burgh. In 1889 he became President of the Institute, and when he retired 
from the General Committee two years later, he was presented with an address 
from his fellow-teachers. On his retirement from teaching in 1903, he was 
presented by former pupils and professional friends with his portrait in oil, 
painted by Mr. Duddingstone Herdman, A.R.S.A., which now hangs in the 
Anderson Library, Woodside. 

Mr. Duthie was prominently identified with Woodside and in that con- 
nexion did much work of a public nature. He took an active part in the 
formation of Woodside into a police burgh, and for several years acted as 
clerk to the Police Commissioners and clerk of the police court ; and, later, 
he was a leader in the movement which led to the amalgamation of Woodside 
with Aberdeen. He was a member of the first Aberdeen Parish Council, and 
on one occasion was a candidate for the Town Council for the Woodside 
Ward. He served on the Aberdeen Public Library Committee, and for many 
years he was a director of the Anderson Library, Woodside. An ardent 
teetotaller, he was Chairman of the Woodside Temperance Society. 

He had five sons, all graduates of the University, and all of whom settled 
in South Africa : Hon. George Duthie (M.A., 1886; B.A. [Cantab.]), 
formerly Director of Education, Southern Rhodesia, now a farmer at Salisbury, 
Rhodesia; Dr. Robert C. Duthie (M.A., 1887; M.B., 1890), now deceased, 
who was in practice in Cape Province; Dr. William E. G. Duthie (M.A., 
1890 ; MB., 1894), Kroonstad, Orange Free Province ; Mr. James H. Duthie 
(M.A., 1893), mine official, Johannesburg; and Mr. Hector G. Duthie 
(M.A., 1895), Principal of the Public School at Senekal, Orange Free Pro- 
vince. 

Mr. George Clark Grant (M.A., 1870) died at his residence, 52 Ashley 
Road, Aberdeen, on i July, aged sixty-eight. Adopting the teaching profession, 
he held appointments successively at Rothiemurchus, in Argyleshire, and at 
Ferryhill School and the Girls' High School, Aberdeen. He then became 
French master at Robert Gordon's College, where he remained for a consider- 
able period. In 1896 he was appointed Principal of the Boys' Public School 
in Grahamstown, Cape Colony; and in 1904 he attained the dignity of 
Inspector of Schools, from which he retired (under the age limit) in 191 1. 

Miss Maggie Grant (M.A., 19 10) died on 6 October, 191 6. She was a 
teacher, and was a daughter of Mr. James Grant, Charleton, Grattan Place, 
Fraserburgh. 

Mr. James Hosie (M.A., 1906) died at the Schoolhouse, Dunalastir, 
Pitlochry, on 3 July, aged thirty-five. 

Rev. George McDonald (M.A., 1861 ; B.D., 1870) died at his residence, 
19 Mansionhouse Road, Edinburgh, on 8 October, aged eighty-one. He 
was a native of Cromdale ; was ordained minister of the parish of Eddra- 
chillis, Sutherlandshire, in 1868; and was translated to Rosskeen (Inver- 
gordon), Ross-shire, in 1870. Here he remained until his retirement last 
year, when a colleague and successor was appointed. During his ministry he 
served on a large number of the Committees of the Church of Scotland, being 
a member in particular of the Committee appointed to confer with the United 
Free Church in regard to, union. He was a member of the Rosskeen School 
Board for more than thirty years, and was for twenty years an active member 
of the Ross and Cromarty Secondary Education Committee. 

Rev. Peter Macdonald (M.A., 1882), minister of the Highlanders' 



94 Aberdeen University Review 

Memorial United Free Church, Glasgow, died at his residence, 8 Parkgrove 
Terrace, Glasgow, on i July, aged sixty-three. He was minister of St. 
Columba's Free Church, Edinburgh, 1884-95, and of the Free (afterwards 
United Free) Church, Stornoway, 1895-1902; and in the latter year was 
called to the West United Free Church, Glasgow. This church became 
unsafe for occupancy in 1913, and the congregation thereupon worshipped 
in the old St. Peter's Church, which was recently transformed into the High- 
landers' Memorial Church as a permanent memorial in Glasgow of High- 
landers who fell in the war. 

Rev. Alexander Mackenzie (M.A., 19 13) died at the United Free 
Church Manse, Rosehall, Sutherlandshire, on 15 February, aged twenty-eight, 
from pneumonia following influenza. A native of Nethy Bridge, Speyside, 
he graduated in 19 13, with first-class honours in Mental Philosophy. He 
then took the four years' divinity course at the United Free Church College, 
Aberdeen. On completing the course, he was almost immediately called to 
the congregation of Rosehall. He was ordained there in x^iugust, 19 17, and 
in the following November was married to Miss Jean Fowler (M.A., 191 2), 
Muir of Ord. 

Mr. James Cecil Davidson Mackie (M.A., 191 2 ; LL.B., 19 13) died at 
the Queen Mary Nursing Home, Edinburgh, on 8 August, aged twenty-seven. 
He was the elder son of Mr. James D. Mackie, advocate, Aberdeen. On the 
outbreak of the war, he was gazetted Second-Lieutenant in the 255th (ist 
Highland) Brigade, R.F. A. (T.F.), subsequently incorporated in the 5 ist (High- 
land) Division, and he served throughout the war, taking part in the various 
engagements in which the Division was employed. He was promoted Captain 
(substantive rank), June, 19 16, and was mentioned in dispatches. He was 
wounded in March, 19 18, and was gassed in France in September, 19 18, and 
it is believed that this accelerated the cause of his death — acute pneumonia. 

Rev. Donald C. Mackintosh (alumnus, 1884-88) died in Glasgow on 18 
August. He was a native of Culloden, and was educated at Inverness 
Academy, Aberdeen University, and the New College, Edinburgh. He was 
ordained minister of the Free Church at Rogart, Sutherlandshire, in 1897, 
and when the buildings there passed to the Free Church after the Union, he 
accepted a call to the United Free Church at Ardeonaig, Perthshire. He was 
appointed minister of St. Luke's, Glasgow, in 191 2, but resigned the charge 
in March of last year. 

Lieutenant-Colonel William Bain Griffiths Minto, Garrison Com- 
mander at Aberdeen (M.A., 1901), died in the Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, 
on 2 July, from injuries caused by the explosion of a blank cartridge at Torry 
Battery on 28 June while a naval gun was being prepared to fire a salute in 
celebration of the signing of peace with Germany. He was the elder son of 
the late Professor Minto, the occupant of the Chair of Logic and English at 
the University, 1880-93, ^^^ ^^s thirty-eight years of age. While attending 
the University he took a prominent and active part in its social life. He 
was at one time or another president of the Students' Representative Council, 
president of the Debating Society, pres^ent of the Liberal Association, and 
president of the Students' Union. He was an enthusiastic hockey player, 
and was a member of the International Selection Committee for Scotland, 
while for several years he was captain of the Aberdeen Hockey Club. After 
studying in Edinburgh for a short time, Colonel Minto entered the office of 
his stepfather, the late Mr. Williamson Booth, solicitor, in Aberdeen, and on 



Obituary g^ 



the death of that gentleman he became a partner in the firm of Messrs. 
Williamson Booth, Mintos, & Morrison, solicitors. 

Colonel Minto was an enthusiastic soldier, and had been connected with 
the army since 1901, when he obtained a commission as second lieutenant in 
the old Aberdeen Volunteer Artillery. When the Territorial Force came into 
being he received his majority in the North of Scotland Royal Garrison 
Artillery, with headquarters at Fonthill Barracks, Aberdeen. When war 
broke out he was mobilized with his unit, and was in command of the Torry 
Battery, and later was on duty for a time at Broughty Ferry. In 191 6 he 
took a siege battery to France, and served there until he returned for promo- 
tion. On being promoted lieutenant-colonel he became Garrison Com- 
mander at Aberdeen in succession to Lieutenant-Colonel J. O. Forbes of 
Corse, and carried out the important duties of the post with the utmost effi- 
ciency and success. He held the Territorial Decoration. 

Mr. James Morrison (M.A., 1884), headmaster of Knaven Public School, 
New Deer, died at the Schoolhouse on 29 August, aged sixty-three. He was 
headmaster of the Public School, Udny Green, Aberdeenshire, from 1885-98 ; 
and was afterwards in the Dunbeath Public School, Caithness. For some 
time he acted as private tutor on the Continent, when he developed a notable 
linguistic faculty, particularly in German and Russian : he had a knowledge of 
most of the European languages. An appreciation of him appeared in the 
"Aberdeen Free Press" of 13 September, in the course of which the writer 
("J.M.R.")said:— 

The man had simply a genius for languages. He had that rare faculty ascribed to 
Jebb of being able to identify himself for the time being with the spirit of the language he 
was using. He was for ever trying his hand at " versions ". Now it was " Annie Laurie " 
or " Auld Lang Syne" done into Russian. Then it would be some Russian poem done 
into " braid Scots ". . . . One had a sense of mystery about the man. He had a grand 
presence and had been well called in student days '• Goliath ". It was hard to reconcile 
his travelled air and urbane manners with the hinterland of Buchan, Now and then I 
caught glimpses of other days, lean days maybe, certainly adventure days. There had 
been a gap in his scholastic career, when he had been a book-canvasser, cycling up and 
down the island on his errands. That was how he came to achieve his astounding mileage 
on push-bike of the circumference of the globe. He had a musketeer's zest of life, and had 
spent a summer vacation once in driving one of the Corporation cars in our own city. At 
the outbreak of war he volunteered for active service, and at last to his delight was allowed 
to do duty on coast defence. A first-rate violinist, he was in great demand round the 
countryside. He was indeed an Admirable Crichton. Yet even so it needs all the philo- 
sophy of " A Grammarian's Funeral " to understand how such a gift of languages was left 
here seemingly to fast unused. 

General David Sinclair, C.S.I. (M.B., 1869), died in Edinburgh on 
1 1 October, aged seventy-two. He was a son of the late Mr. William Sinclair, 
Milltimber, near Aberdeen. He joined the Indian Medical Service (Madras) 
in 1869, and retired as a Surgeon-General in 1904. He was created a 
C.S.I, in 1898 for his services in Burma. 

Dr. Charles Cameron Slorach (M.B., 1898) was accidentally killed on 
the Hamilton road, Lanarkshire, in the early morning of 3 September. Driv- 
ing his own motor-car, he met a large steam tractor hauling a heavy ship's 
casting. He fancied he had cleared the obstruction when a projecting iron 
stanchion struck him on the face and he was killed almost instantaneously. 
Dr. Slorach had been in practice in Dumbarton for twenty-one years, and 
held the largest panel in thejown under the Insurance Act. He was a native 
of Huntly, and was aged forty-four. 



9 6 Aberdeen University Review 

Sir David Stewart of Banchory-Devenick and Leggart (M.A., King's 
College, 1855 ; LL.D., Aberdeen, 1895) died at his residence, Banchory 
House, near Aberdeen, on 11 October, aged eighty-three years. He was 
the eldest son of the late Mr. John Stewart, and succeeded him in 1887 as 
proprietor of the Aberdeen Combworks and of the estates of Banchory- 
Devenick and Leggart. He was president of the Aberdeen Chamber of 
Commerce, 1883-84; Dean of Guild of the city of Aberdeen, 1885-89; and 
a member of the Aberdeen School Board, 1885-88. He was elected Lord 
Provost of Aberdeen in 1889, and occupied the position for two terms of 
three years each, retiring in 1895. During that period he was, ex officio, 
a member of the University Couit, and he was also a member of the Court 
as Assessor for the Lord Rector (the Marquis of Huntly) from 1 896-1 900. 
The University extension scheme was initiated during his Provostship, and 
to the scheme he personally contributed ;£^iooo. He was the Unionist 
candidate for South Aberdeen in opposition to Mr. (now Viscount) Bryce 
at the general election of 1895, and was knighted in the year following. 
He became a director of the Great North of Scotland Railway Company in 
1 89 1, and had been Chairman of the Company since 1904. His three 
surviving sons are all graduates of the University — Colonel D. B. Douglas 
Stewart (M.A., 1882); Mr. William Dyce Stewart (M.A., 1885); and 
Dr. George Irvine Thompson Stewart (M.A., 1893 ; M.D., 1896; B.Sc, 
1899). One of his daughters is married to Professor Niven. Sir David 
Stewart's portrait, painted by Orchardson, is one of the chief artistic pos- 
sessions of the city. 

Dr. Charles Thistleton Dyer Urquhart (M.B., 1887; M.D., 1898) 
died at Johannesburg, Transvaal, on 25 September, aged fifty- nine. He 
was a son of the late E)r. John Urquhart, Aberdeen (M.A., Marischal 
College, 1844J. Before going to South Africa he practised in Aberdeen and 
in London, and was for some time at Bloemfontein, in the Orange River 
Province, before proceeding to the Transvaal. He was a Captain in the 
South African Medical Corps. 

Rachel Robertson White, Lady Geddes, widow of Sir William Duguid 
Geddes, Principal of the University, 1885-1900, died at her residence, 55 
Don Street, Old Aberdeen, on 22 October. She was a daughter of the late 
Mr. William White, Aberdeen, and a sister of the late Mr. John Forbes 
White, LL.D., the well-known art critic and patron of the fine arts. She 
was over ninety years of age, and had survived her husband nineteen years. 
Lady Geddes took an esteemed part in helping forward the restoration of 
King's College Chapel, and like her late husband was in warm sympathy with 
every effort for beautifying the buildings with which his name and hers are 
so intimately associated. For the scheme of restoring the chapel, funds 
were liberally provided by graduates and others, and through her well- 
directed activities Lady Geddes was largely instrumental in raising the 
handsome sum of jQ2)^oo. 




The 

Aberdeen University Review 

Vol. VII. No. 20 March, 1920 

The Value of Scientific Research in Agriculture. 

I HE application of science to industry during the last 
fifty years has produced revolutionary changes in 
the industrial world. New industries have been 
created ; old industries have had their production 
increased and improved. With this development 
there has been a remarkable change in public 
sentiment towards science. A generation ago what 
was termed the practical man regarded the scientist with a degree of 
suspicion. To-day the great industries look to the Universities for 
their technical experts, and most of the large manufacturing firms 
have their own research departments. It is more and more being 
recognized that scientific methods pay, and that the sums spent on 
scientific research are trifling compared with the results obtained. 

In this general advance British agriculture has participated to only 
a minor degree. With the exception of improvements in machinery, 
which are largely gifts from the engineering world, it can hardly be 
said that any very great advance or improvement towards increased 
production has been made during the past half-century in the practice 
of agriculture in this country. As an explanation it might be argued 
— and, indeed, the opinion is widely held — that agricultural production 
is definitely limited by certain natuml factors which form rigid 
boundaries, excluding the possibility of such increased production as 
is being obtained in manufacturing industries, and that, consequently, 
science is of limited application in agriculture and of little value to the 
practical farmer. 

Such a view is rapidly disappearing. It is becoming ever more 
evident, even to the layman, that there is hardly a branch of pure 

7 



98 Aberdeen University Review 

science with which agriculture is not connected. The problems of the 
soil are problems of chemistry, physics, geology, and bacteriology. All 
the biological sciences intervene in the raising of either crops or stock. 
Agriculture is undoubtedly the most scientific of all vocations, and it is 
no exaggeration to regard it as the application of all the sciences for 
the production of the prime necessities of life. 

Great advances are being made in almost every branch of science, 
and it would be contrary to all experience for any marked advance in 
pure science not to be accompanied sooner or later by an advance in 
applied science. The probability is, that there is an accumulation of 
scientific information which has not yet been applied on the farm with 
the same diligence as it has been in the workshop. 

There is a reason for this neglect of science in British agriculture. 
From about 1870 onward, while urban industries were enjoying a wave 
of prosperity, agriculture was suffering from a period of depression. 
Farming was unprofitable and land was going out of cultivation. 
Agricultural Colleges were either not yet in existence or were miser- 
ably equipped^ both with men and facilities for research. Under these 
conditions there was little encouragement or opportunity for progress. 
The result has been that, with the notable exception of the Rothamsted 
Experimental Station, organised research in agriculture was until 
quite recent years practically non-existent in this country. Into such 
a state of neglect had the science of agriculture fallen that in a report 
on the requirements of research drawn up by a committee of the 
Agricultural Education Association in 1 91 8 it is pointed out that even 
though money were now available " the supply of trained agriculture 
research workers is at present too small to admit of any immediate 
development of research on a large scale". In a memorandum on a 
scheme for a certain much-needed investigation which has been sub- 
mitted to the Development Commission this year it is suggested that 
it is highly desirable that an experienced worker should be brought 
from America for a year or two, or as an alternative, that young 
graduates should be sent across to America to be trained. When 
such are the considered opinions of those best qualified to judge it can 
hardly be said that agricultural science in this country is in a satis- 
factory condition. 

It is instructive to note what has been done in other countries 
during the past few years. A report drawn up by Sir T. H. Middleton 
at the request of Lord Selborne, President of the Board of Agriculture, 



Scientific Research in Agriculture gg 



shows what has been the recent development of agriculture in Germany.^ 
The following table taken from that report compares the increased 
production of various crops in Germany with what has taken place in 
England and Wales during a period of twenty-five years : — 

COMPARISON OF YIELD OF CROPS IN ENGLAND AND GERMANY DURING 
TWO PERIODS SEPARATED BY TWENTY-FIVE YEARS. 



- 


Yield per Acre per Annum. 


England and Wales. 


Germany. 


1885-89. 


1909-13. 


1885-89. 


1909-13. 


Wheat (bushels) 

Barley 

Oats 

Potatoes (tons) 

Meadow hay (cwts.) . 


29*5 
32-4 

38-8 

5-9 

26-1 


31-2 

327 

39*o 

6-2 

23-1 


19-8 
227 
257 
3*4 
22-5 


31-6 
367 
44-6 
5*4 
337 



It will be observed that in England the yield has been practically 
stationary, despite the fact that ground was going out of cultivation, 
and, as the inferior land would be first discarded, the average quality 
of the land cultivated in 1909-13 would be better than in 1885-89. 
In the case of Germany the production ^er acre has increased by over 
50 per cent, and in every case except potatoes is now actually higher 
than that of England. 

The increase in the yield is not to be explained by the assumption 
that the yield in England in 1885-89 had already reached a maximum, 
and that the improvement in Germany was due to the fact that in 
1885-89 German farming was in a backward condition and that in 
the interval she had improved her methods of farming to the level of 
English methods. Middleton discusses this point. He shows that 
the soils and climate of Germany are inferior to those of Britain and 
*' certainly not so well suited for the growing of large crops of grain, 
potatoes, roots, and hay". He says : " If a full discussion were pos- 
sible it could probably be shown that the production of the two 
countries in the eighties of last century is a closer index to the natural 
advantages enjoyed by cultivators in each than the production in the 

^ " The Recent Development of German Agriculture," Board of Agriculture, published 
1916. 



loo^ Aberdeen University Review 

period immediately before the war". If Middleton be correct this 
country should be able to increase its yield of crops per acre to some- 
thing like the extent Germany has done. 

It is often assumed that whatever position Britain may occupy in 
arable farming she is ahead of all countries in meat and milk produc- 
tion. Middleton ^ puts this assumption to the test. He shows that 
for every lOO acres of cultivated land Germany produces 4*27 tons of 
meat against Britain's 3-97, and 28*1 tons of milk against Britain's 
17*4. The production is not only greater, it is evidently more economi- 
cal, for the British farmer purchases annually 1 1 '5 tons of oilcake and 
other feeding-stuffs per 100 acres of cultivated land while the German 
purchases 87 tons. In addition he estimates that the average 100 acre 
farm in this country has about 40 acres of hill grazing not classed as 
cultivated, while the average German farm has about 3 acres. 

It is worth while considering how this ascendency of the German 
has been achieved. In the first place, the Government had a definite 
agricultural policy and the farmer had confidence in the Government. 
The ends desired were increased food production and the maintenance 
of a rural population. The means whereby these ends were obtained 
may be summed up in three words. Research, Organization, Education. 
Middleton, in reviewing the various factors that produced the progress 
of the past forty years, says : ^ " The very successful results of the 
Prussian policy of concentrating first on research and higher education 
is worth our special attention ". The same opinion as to the cause of 
the progress is held by the Germans themselves. Von Rumker ^ says i 
**The great progress that agriculture has achieved in Germany during 
the last quarter of a century is the result of the union of practice with 
science, and proves that money spent on research and education in 
every class brings in a high rate of interest. ..." 

Education itself, unless based on research, is sterile. If no new 
information is available there is nothing for the teacher to demonstrate. 
Middleton, after pointing out how well posted in scientific questions the 
leading German farmers are, says : * " The excellence of the instruction 
provided at the agricultural colleges has been made possible by the 
very close attention given by the Germans to research in agriculture '\ 

1 p. II. « P. 46. 

8 •• Monthly Bulletin of Agricultural Intelligence," International Agric. Inst., Rome,. 
May, 1914, p. 583. 
4 P. 42. 



Scientific Research in Agriculture loi 

There can be no doubt that the recent progress made by that nation 
is a demonstration on a large scale of the value of the application of 
science to practical farming. 

America has as great a belief in the value of research in agriculture 
as Germany. Research Institutions in the United States surpass in 
number and size those of any other country. For the year ending 
June, 1 91 7, the experimental stations there enjoyed a total revenue of 
$5,642,149. Of this $1,739,711 were obtained from fees, sale of pro- 
ducts, and other sources.^ The balance, representing in value close on 
;^ 1, 000, 000, was obtained from Federal or State grants. These funds 
are administered by the United States Department of Agriculture. -* 
The activities in which this money is expended are set forth in the 
preface of the annual official publication of that department as follows : ^ 
" In a broad way the work of the Department is divided into three 
types of activity: (i) Research, or the scientific study of the funda- 
mental problems of agriculture ; (2) Extension or educational work, or 
the dissemination of the information developed through the Department's 
experiments and discoveries ; and (3) Regulation or administration of 
various statutes with whose enforcement the Department is charged ". 
It will be observed that the whole system is based upon the applica- 
tion of science to practical farming and depends for its success upon 
the results of research. 

The question as to whether research in agriculture is profitable may 
best be discussed by taking some of the main lines of investigation 
and indicating the results of economic value that have already been or 
are likely to be obtained by scientific research. 

In arable farming two of the fundamental factors that determine 
yield are seeds and soils. It is already known that these can both be 
improved, but the extent to which improvement can be carried is not 
yet fully appreciated by all concerned, at least in this country. One 
example from the Continent and one from America will give an indica- 
tion of what the possibilities are in research in plant breeding. In 
1875, iii tons of beet were required to make i ton of sugar. By 
1 910 the quality of the plant had been so improved that only 6 tons 
were necessary (Hellfrich).^ At the Montana Experimental Station in 

^ " Work and Expenditure of Agricultural Experimental Station of United States 
Department of Agriculture," p. 13, officially published 1908. 

2" Program of Work of United States Department of Agriculture," 1919, preface, 
3 Quoted by Middleton, p. 40. 



I02 Aberdeen University Review 

the United States, in 191 7, a strain of kharkov oats was isolated that 
yielded 10 bushels more per acre than the original variety.^ When 
one considers that on the Continent' there are several million acres 
devoted to the cultivation of beet, and in Scotland alone nearly one 
and a quarter million acres are under oats, some idea is obtained of 
the economic value of improving seeds. 

The value of scientific investigation in this direction is no longer 
an academic question. Research in plant breeding has proved its 
value not only to the nation but to the farmer who has sufficient 
intelligence to take advantage of the results obtained. In a recent 
lecture on agriculture in this University, Mr. Ferguson of Surradalc 
stated that " for the last twenty years he had found that Continental 
research in plant breeding had been worth to him a sum almost equal 
to his rent ".^ 

Soil is the fundamental raw material of farming and its quality is 
one of the most important factors upon which the yield of the crop de- 
pends. The quality is not a fixed constant. It can be improved by 
various means, one of which is manuring. In addition to the manures 
produced in this country, over ;^2,ooo,ooo worth were imported in 
191 8. For the rational use of these one must know, not only the 
composition of the manure, but the requirement of the soil to which it 
is being applied. It is not solely a question of total quantity, it is 
a question of applying the exact amounts of the definite nutrients 
required. To do this one must know the needs of the crop to be raised 
and the deficiencies of the soil. According to a recent memorandum 
on the subject the position so far as Scotland is concerned is, " We do 
not know even the principal soil types, nor their distribution — much 
less their properties and requirements". The amount of money that 
must be wasted in one year either in the application of the wrong kind 
of manure or in the starving of the crop for lack of some constituent 
of the soil, would be sufficient to establish and endow for all time a 
research station to investigate this, one of the most difficult problems 
the farmer is faced with. 

Among the uninitiated there seems to be an idea that all the 
information that is required about soils can be obtained in a short 
time by a chemist armed with a test tube and a few reagents. 

1 •• Work and Expenditure of Agricultural Experimental Station, United State* 
Department of Agriculture,'* 1917, p. 19. 

^ Press Report, •• Aberdeen Daily Journal," 7 February, 1920. 



i 



Scientific Research in Agriculture 103 

Chemistry is of limited application. The micro-organisms of the soil 
and its physical condition are as important as its chemical constitution. 
The truth of the matter is, soil problems are of the utmost complexity 
and require a well-equipped and well-staffed institution before they 
can be investigated with any hopes of success. 

In England the Rothamsted Experimental Station deals with 
this subject, and investigations are being conducted at several institu- 
tions in America. Results are being obtained which are calculated to 
be of enormous economic value. For instance, at the Georgia Experi- 
mental Station,^ it has been found that a change in the method and 
time of application of the manure from that commonly practised gave 
1 3 '4 per cent increase in the crop. At Rothamsted investigations of 
a highly technical nature have shown the possibility of effecting a 
saving of the waste of farmyard manure and of increasing its value to 
the land ^ The worth of this scientific research is appreciated when it 
is remembered that in pre-war days this commodity was produced in 
Britain to the value of not less than ;^i 1,000,000, and that it is esti- 
mated that about one-half of its most useful constituent is lost. 

Results obtained in soil investigations in other countries do not 
always apply to this country with its different soil and different 
climate. There is need for a research station in Scotland. 

Stock farming presents as promising a field for the application of 
science as arable farming. The great advances made during the past 
few years in the Medical Schools in science in relation to disease and 
nutrition are in large measure still waiting to be applied to agriculture. 
A discussion of these two subjects will serve to illustrate the value of 
scientific research to the stock farmer. 

At a meeting of the Directors of the Highland and Agricultural 
Society in 1918,^ it was stated by Mr. Turnbull that the loss from 
disease in one county alone amounted to ^£^70,000 a year. What the 
annual loss amounts to in the 167 counties of the British Isles is 
unknown. It must run into millions. Diseases are mostly all pre- 
ventable if only the necessary knowledge were available. It is more 
than probable that the great advance made in the past few years in 
bacteriology has paved the way for the successful investigation of 

1 " Work and Expenditure of Agricultural Experimental Station, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture," 1917, p. 20. 

2«' Rothamsted Report," 1915-17, p. 8. 

3 " Transactions of Highland and Agricultural Society," vol. xxxi., p. 369. 



V 



I04 Aberdeen University Review 

many of these diseases of which at present little is known as regards 
either cause or cure. In view of the valuable work that has been 
done at Veterinary Institutions, even with their limited facilities, it 
seems impossible to doubt that the same degree of success can attend 
research in diseases of animals as has attended the research work of 
the medical profession, for example, in the prevention of cholera, typhus, 
and smallpox. The money spent in a greatly increased research 
effort in this direction would be a most remunerative investment. 

In animal nutrition two subjects of investigation at once suggest 
themselves — food-stuffs and feeding. Excluding the question of 
manurial values the worth of feeding-stuffs depends upon the extent 
to which they can be converted by the farm animal to milk, meat, or 
work. The analyst can give some idea of the chemical composition of 
a feeding-stuff, which is a very helpful guide to the stock farmer, but 
the real value of a feeding-stuff depends upon what proportion of it is 
digested, and further what proportion of the digested part is available 
for productive purposes. If there were available metabolic stalls for 
the collection of excreta and certain equipment and apparatus for the 
collection and analysis of expired air the net productive value of feed- 
ing-stuffs could be determined with some degree of exactness. These 
determinations might show some curious contrasts between the real 
value and the cost price of certain artificial feeding-stuffs. In 1919 
Great Britain spent on imported feeding-stuffs nearly ;^6o,ooo,ooo, 
and yet there is no station in this country where half a dozen bullocks 
or milk cows could be set up for experiment and the real net value 
of the different feeding-stuffs determined. 

With regard to the feeding of farm animals almost no definite 
experimental evidence is available to determine what is the most 
economical amount of concentrates to feed, or the best proportion of 
the constituents of the feeding-stuffs to give, to secure the fullest 
digestion and utilisation of the food. Very divergent practices are 
followed in different districts. To feed either above or below the 
requirements with regard either to the total food or to any constituent 
of the food means loss. That such loss does occur is fully recognized 
by authorities in practical agriculture. Mr. Ferguson ^ has called 
attention to the enormous loss that is taking place in feeding cattle, 
and Mr. Cruickshank ^ to the loss in the feeding of farm horses. In a 

^ Press report, " Aberdeen Daily Journal," 7 February, 1920. 
^ Press report, '• Aberdeen Free Press," 24 January, 1920. 



Scientific Research in Agriculture 105 

recent publication Mr. K. J. J. Mackenzie^ says: "More feeding-stuff 
than is necessary is used wholesale for the production of winter beef," 
and " We pay foreign countries for material which through ignorance we 
partially forfeit without any return ". 

In the human the food requirements can be determined without 
any great difficulty. During the last year of war when food was scarce 
this was done for the army, and the rations adjusted accordingly. 
There is no insuperable difficulty in having the exact requirements of 
farm animals determined and optimum feeding standards adopted. 

Investigations of the nature suggested above have been referred to 
first, because it is already recognized by those engaged in the industry 
that further information on these points is urgently needed. There 
are other problems in nutrition of equal economic importance, though 
as yet they have been considered only by a few. Some of these may 
be briefly indicated. 

With the exception of infectious diseases, by far the greater part 
of sickness and death is caused by nutritional disorders arising in dis- 
turbances of the digestive functions. Before the successful treatment 
or prevention of these can :make progress, indeed before a systematic 
study of them is profitable, more information must be obtained on 
the processes of digestion and nutrition, about which in regard to 
farm animals, and especially the ruminants, very little is known. 

It has recently been discovered that other substances in food-stuffs 
besides albuminoids, fats, carbohydrates, and salts are essential. 
*' Vitamines," whose nature so far can only be guessed at, and also 
certain constituents of the albuminoids, are necessary for health in the 
adult animal and for the full development of the young animal. These 
are sometimes present and sometimes absent in the constituents of the 
food. The study of the influence of these and the determination of 
their occurrence is obviously a matter of some importance, especially 
in feeding with artificially prepared foods. 

It is believed that the farm animal can digest and assimilate cer- 
tain food-stuffs by means of bacteria that are present in the alimentary 
canal. It is supposed that the action of bacteria is partly beneficial 
in preparing the food for absorption and partly destructive. Recent 
advances in bacteriology suggest the possibility of using bacteria as a 
means of increasing the digestibility of certain food-stuffs which have 

^ •' Cattle, etc.," Cambridge University Press, 1919, p. 41. 



io6 Aberdeen University Review 

high potential values but which are at present of little use on account 
of difficulty of digestion. 

There is no need to further multiply examples of work that might 
profitably be done. Such questions as the influence of external 
temperature and housing on food requirements, the influence of the 
secretion of internal glands on milk production and fat formation, the 
influence of the nutrition of the animal on its fertility, suggest them- 
selves to all who have given any consideration to the subject 

As to the economic value of research in animal nutrition, it is- 
surely of financial interest to the farmer to get increased information 
on feeding-stuffs — his raw material — and on the processes of digestion 
of the animal which he uses as a machine for converting the raw 
material into finished products — milk or meat To the nation the 
matter is one of vital importance. The products of animal husbandry 
form a large and the most expensive part of food and clothing. In 
addition to the ;^6o,ooo,ooo spent on imported feeding-stuffs, the im->" 
ports of animal products, beef, lard, dairy produce, hides, etc., amounted 
in 191 8 to over ;^2 80,000,000.^ If the importance of this industry 
to Britain were recognized and the possibilities of scientific research 
in animal nutrition appreciated, there would be as little difficulty in 
finding funds for research in this country as there is in Anierica. 

In the foregoing paragraphs an attempt has been made to indicate 
the possibilities of scientific research in some representative branches 
of agriculture. Equally in other directions it is difficult to set limits 
to the progress that could be made if only investigations were carried 
out on a scale and with an efficiency that the industry warrants. 

It is common knowledge that there is a gulf between what is 
already known and what is commonly practised. It is not so well 
known that the advances in pure science tend to leave a gulf between 
the teacher and the scientist These gaps must be closed up by ap- 
plied research and education to secure that combination of science and 
practice which is destined in the future to produce in the agriculture 
of this country improvements and progress as beneficial to the com- 
munity as those that have been produced in the industrial world. 

The value of research in agriculture is not a matter of academic 
speculation that awaits demonstration and proof. In Britain, in the end 
of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth, the epoch- 
making lectures on agricultural chemistry of Humphrey Davy, and the 

1 Statistics taken from " Transactions of Highland Agricultural Society," 19 19. 



Scientific Research in Agriculture 107 

work of Tull, Townshend, Bakewell, and their disciples, enabled pro- 
gress to be made that placed Britain in a position of acknowledged 
supremacy. The striking progress made by Germany during the past 
forty years and that being made by America to-day prove that in no 
country has agriculture reached or even come within sight of the full 
development of the wealth that lies latent in the land. There is 
literal truth in the following quotation from an article by the head of 
a foreign agricultural department : ^ "At the present time in almost all 
branches of agriculture — in the proper use of artificial manures, the 
choice and breeding of seeds, the use of machines to economise labour, 
the rational use of feeding-stuffs, the improvement of our herds of live 
stock, and the drainage and cultivation of our moors and waste land — 
we only stand at the very beginning of a full and universal employ- 
ment in the practice of agriculture of the great scientific and technical 
advances that have been made during the past fifty years ". 

To secure the benefits of these advances the first requisite is a 
settled Government policy that will give security and confidence to the 
farmer and induce him to adopt a continuous system of farming that 
will lead to increased production. The second requisite is a wide 
extension of agricultural research and education. From the economic 
point of View it is well worth the while. The country spends over 
;^ 5 00, 000,000 on imported farm products. A very large proportion 
of this might be, produced at home to the great benefit of the rate of 
exchange. 

Given a settled agricultural policy, applied research and the 
absorption in practice of the results of research will undoubtedly lead 
to increased production of food-stuff and continued prosperity for the 
agricultural community. If this be secured, intensive cultivation and 
the consequent increase of people employed on the land must follow. 
In Britain since 1870 there has been a steady flow of the population 
from the country to the town. This has not occurred to anything 
like the same extent in countries such as Denmark, Holland, or 
Germany, where agricultural science has flourished. In the last-named 
country the average number of persons wholly or partially employed 
in agriculture is 18*3 per 100 acres of cultivated land; in Britain 5*8. 
A relatively large rural population and an abundant home-produced 
food supply are now recognized as being essential for the welfare of 
the State. If research in agriculture can assist in the attainment of 
^ Quoted by Middleton, p. 49. 



io8 Aberdeen University Review 

this, it will repay to the nation, in manifold measure, its comparatively 
trifling cost. 

In considering, as we have done, the possibilities of progress in 
the science of agriculture, if only research and education were carried 
out intensively and extensively, it is difficult to avoid being unduly 
influenced by the alluring prospect, and presenting a case that might 
raise, in those unacquainted with the difficulties of research, false hopes 
of immediate revolutionary changes. Groping at the borders of the 
known and the unknown is a difficult and uncertain business. The 
path of progress is strewn with failures and disappointments. Although 
there is no field of scientific investigation that holds out greater 
prospects of results of economic value, which are likely speedily to be 
obtained, it must be remembered that, even when definite results are 
obtained, their practical utility must be tested before they can be 
demonstrated and absorbed in practice. In original research, indeed, 
the fruits, though certain, are usually of slow growth and are often 
reaped by the following generation 

J. B. ORR. 



On the Evening of a Funeral. 

(W. B. G. MINTO, 5 July, 1919.) 

" Peace hath her victories as renowned as War." ' 
Peace hath her sombre tragedy as well : 
He bore a charmed life through the shot and shell. 

Gallant and gay, insouciant ; not a scar, 

(" Not even a scratch ! " said laughing,) when afar 
He fought, and now some hideous miracle 
Has brought an end like this, — the passing bell, 

The men he loved following a flag-draped car. 

Strange silly trifles come from memory *s store, 
As I recall a schoolboy's bright, brown eyes, 
Evenings with story-books, stamps, butterflies, 

And far, far off*, — O weird, impossible thing ! 

(Not for the soldier is my heart so sore) 

A little child that used to kiss and cling. 

ELIZABETH CRAIGMYLE. 




The University Greek Play. 

jHE " Antigone " of Sophocles was acted in an English 
version by graduates and undergraduates of the 
University in the Music Hall, Aberdeen, on Friday 
and Saturday, 28 and 29 November of last year. 
The audiences at the evening performances and at 
the matinee were very large, and hundreds were 
unable to obtain admission. The play met with a 
reception which surprised management and actors alike by its warmth, 
and proved conclusively that Greek Tragedy, after a lapse of more 
than two thousand years, retains its moving power in undiminished 
degree. It may be that its sculpturesque and clean-cut outline, its 
severely logical construction, and its entire exclusion of the adventi- 
tious made a special appeal to the Aberdeen 97^09, but in any case the 
grip which the " Antigone " maintained from start to finish was un- 
mistakable. 

The actors were all amateurs, but by general consent there was 
nothing in their work that could be called amateurish. This is the 
more surprising that, except in a few cases, they were cast for their 
parts before they had been heard to speak a line. Moreover, although 
preparations had begun to be made as early as February of 191 9, the 
time actually occupied in rehearsals was not more than five weeks, 
and most of the serious business was done in the ten days preceding 
the performance. One is drawn therefore to agree with the Minister 
of Education when he said recently that there is an extraordinary 
amount of artistic genius latent in the race, though, true to our national 
instinct, we constantly belittle it. Yet the talent which we drew in 
such abundance and almost at haphazard from the ranks of our alumni 
would have proved of small service had it not been our good fortune 
to light on a Producer who could mould it to the best account. In 
Mr. Parry Gunn we found a rare combination of theatrical experience 
and imaginative power. His conception of the play as a whole> 



no Aberdeen University Review 

which dominated the action in its minutest feature, was thoroughly 
Greek, insisting as it did on the utmost economy of gesture and move- 
ment, and securing the maximum of emotional effect with the sparsest 
possible expenditure. Had he been a fifth century Athenian he could 
not have realized better oatp irXeov rffiLo-v iravro^;, and though the 
results he aimed at were often subtle, they were never lost in nebu- 
losity but driven home beyond the possibility of mistake. 

Under his inspiration the*cast became possessed by the spirit of 
"team work" — his own admirable expression — and it was realized 
that the play was not an occasion for **star turns" and individual 
triumphs, but something to which all must contribute by the stringing 
up of nerves and by the intensity with which they threw themselves 
into their parts. A single slacker in the chorus lessened the radiation 
of that spiritual force which subdued and held the audience. At the 
same time the burden borne by some was heavier than that of others. 
To Mr. Craigen, as Creon, there fell a very exacting part, and he rose 
to it nobly. His fine presence and magnificent voice made him always 
impressively regal, and he displayed great skill in the varied modula- 
tion of his tones through the trying length of his speeches. At the 
height of his arrogance and when crushed and broken by the fatal 
issue of his stubbornness, his note always rang true, and he spoke his 
lines with that right reserve and restraint which produces an emotional 
reverberation in the audience far exceeding the results of violent de- 
claiming. Miss Frances Mordaunt as Antigone acted well throughout. 
There are lines in the part of a very special difficulty, when the feel- 
ing has to be got by the voice alone, and only if an actress lose herself 
entirely in her part can she give them with any certainty. No greater 
praise can be accorded Miss Mordaunt than that she spoke these lines 
in exactly the right key of sadness, and in her bearing and her 
accents was the veritable Antigone, constrained by her high duty to 
a harshness alien to her nature. No less fine was the Threnode with 
the chorus, in which a strangely beautiful and almost weird effect 
was achieved, the spirit of Antigone seeming to float away already 
from this earth in the cadences of her voice. Of all the parts in the 
play Mr. Charles Davidson as the Sentinel had the hardest, and we 
were fortunate indeed in having it in hands so experienced. Much 
would be made of it on the modern stage, but its presentation had to 
be severely toned down to be in keeping with the Tragedy. To 
preserve the ''character" without obtruding its comedy aspect too 



The University Greek Play in 

jarringly required the most delicate handling, and this was done with 
-entire success. 

Although Creon and Antigone are the central personae, one cannot 
speak of the others as subsidiary in the ordinary sense. Sophoclean 
Tragedy is so perfect in its artistic unity that if a single element in its 
architecture be withdrawn the whole edifice is endangered. But the 
parts of Ismene, Haemon, and Tiresias are more or less straightforward 
in their nature and present fewer problems than the others. It was 
easier in their case to conform to the traditions of " the Grand Manner " 
which guided the Producer, and to attain the sculpturesque effect 
proper to the representation of Greek Tragedy. Starting with a 
clear conception and firm grip of their characters, Miss Stella Henriques, 
Mr. Walker, and Mr. Royston played them with a passion that did 
not effervesce in restless movement and gesture, but was thrilling by 
its very repression. In the small part of Eurydice Miss Margaret 
Ferguson achieved a great triumph. Although she had only nine 
lines to speak, and these merely prefatory to the recounting of the 
tragedy, every eye was irresistibly drawn to her as she struggled in 
the clutch of the emotions excited by the awful tidings of Antigone's 
■death and her son's suicide. Mr. Harvey's beautiful voice, with its 
wonderful range and delicate responsiveness to varying shades of feel- 
ing, made one understand the persistent occurrence of the Messenger's 
pr)(TL<; in Attic tragedies as a substitute for the presentation of the 
actual horror. It was no doubt an inheritance from the Rhapsodes' 
recitals of Homer, for Greek poetry dropped nothing absolutely as it 
moved on in its development of form out of form, but at the same time 
it is in keeping with the true artistic instinct of the Greeks that they 
did not degrade the dignity of Tragedy by the vulgarity of Realism. 

Mr. Parry Gunn in his too brief contribution to the " Book of the 
Antigone " — a contribution as remarkable for its closely packed and 
informative matter as for its perspicuity of statement — has dwelt on 
some of the characteristics of *'the Grand Manner" in acting, which 
is the lineal descendant of the Greek. For the sake of those whose 
knowledge of the stage is limited, it may be worth while referring to 
one which he regards as "the very essence" of that manner — the 
direct and pointed appeal, namely, of the actors to the audience, 
which is regarded as an important section of the company. This is 
an unwonted rdle for a modern audience to play, and possibly some 
may have been puzzled to find the actors facing towards them and 



112 Aberdeen University Review^ 

plainly talking at them. But for the moment they represented the 
Theban populace, before the tribunal of whose minds and consciences 
the issue was being tried. They were not peeping in surreptitiously 
through a hole in the " Fourth Wall," but as much a part of the piece 
as their Senators behind whom they sat. 

To any one acquainted with the well-understood conditions of 
Greek theatrical representation, the presence of these Senators as 
distinct from the singing and dancing choruses must have seemed an 
anomaly. They ought, of course, to have been the chorus itself, sing- 
ing and dancing (in the Greek sense of the word) with their arms, 
and heads and eyes, in short with their whole bodies, in the circular 
opxW'^P^ below the acting stage. It would take too long to explain 
fully the circumstances by which the management was driven to adopt 
the differentiation of function which appeared in the play as presented. 
They are to be found partly in the necessarily haphazard manner in 
which the elements of the chorus were collected, and partly in the 
character of the hall in which the Antigone was acted. When one 
considers the perils of the unknown in a new and untried venture 
like a Greek play, it was small wonder that many hung back from 
offering their services. But for this it might have been possible to 
select fifteen male undergraduates capable of singing Mendelssohn's 
music, while they interpreted sympathetically the thought and passion of 
the Choral Odes by the movements and poses of their bodies. In that 
case, however, the movements must have been of a solemn and stately 
character, entirely different from those introduced into the actual 
performance. And again, had the hall been smaller it might have 
been possible to secure an adequate volume of sound from a smaller 
chorus. Moreover, a band of old men was essential to the acting of 
the piece. Let any critic bring himself face to face with these problems, 
and suggest a solution different from that which was adopted, short 
of abandoning the idea of giving a Greek play at all. The manage- 
ment at least saw no middle course ; it resolutely declined the second 
alternative, and had the satisfaction of finding that a Greek effect was 
produced in spite of the violations of archaeological accuracy. 

A great part of the success of the production was due to Miss 
Janet Duff and Miss Wolton. To the modern mind the word " dance '* 
suggests a yearly-growing fatuousness and inanity, as different from 
the Greek conception as the Revue of to-day is from one of Shake- 
speare's plays. For the Greek the dance meant expression, and 



The University Greek Play 113 

beautiful expression, of thought and feeling by means of movement. 
For him the Roman Catholic Mass would have been a sacred dance 
because it expresses. The beautiful and significant poses of Greek 
Sculpture, we are told, were " the remains of ancient dances ". Dancing 
was '* silent poetry ". Lucian places the dancer's art far above the 
art of the actor, demanding as it did a greater natural endowment 
of mind and body, an infinitely longer course of training, infinitely 
deeper study, infinitely wider knowledge. The ideal dancer's equip- 
ment was co-extensive with everything that had ever been said or 
thought or done by man, for he has " to show forth human character and 
passion in all their variety ; to depict love and anger, frenzy and grief, 
each in its fitness ". 

No one who saw them could have failed to find delight in the 
dance designs of the two trainers, but it demanded an intimate 
acquaintance with the action of the play to give due value to the 
poetic imagination that underlay their work. In every Ode it was 
necessary to represent the appropriate mood of feeling, and not infre- 
quently fluctuations of the mood. As one who has been familiar with 
the Antigone for more than forty years, the present writer may be 
allowed to say that the choric movements were for him far more than 
an adventitious embellishment ; they were of the warp and woof of 
the drama. He recalled the apprehension with which he regarded a 
score of women students huddled together in their winter wraps on a 
dark October evening in a bleak classroom, the material which he 
handed over to Miss Duff and Miss Wolton as their future choreutae. 
The event proved the folly of being depressed by mere semblances, 
for the beauty and grace of movement in the dancers and their truthful 
delineation of successive phases of emotion would have satisfied a 
Lucian. The leader. Miss Elizabeth Christie, had a specially arduous 
part which she sustained with impressive dignity, gathering up in her 
stationary figure the emotions interpreted by the moving chorus. 

It has been said that the action of the piece demanded a band of 
Senators, whose leader should take a speaking part. Mr. William 
Gunn was one of the earliest and happiest finds. In voice and presence 
and self-possession he rivalled " Creon," and to say that is to say much. 
To those inexperienced in acting it may seem a small matter to mem- 
orize some thirty lines, but it has to be remembered that those thirty 
lines have to be spoken in one's or two's, separated from one another 
by lengthy speeches and choral odes. If one bears this in mind it will 

8 



114 Aberdeen University Review 

be clear that the emotional strain on the leader of the chorus is perhaps 
greater than that imposed on any single actor. He is never off duty, 
and it stands to Mr. Gunn's credit that he invariably came in ringing 
right and true. 

The music and the dresses, the ^ekoiroiia and the o-^L^iy have been 
adequately discussed in the '' Book of the Antigone". Regarding the 
first, however, it seems pertinent to observe that the University of 
Cambridge, in its presentation of the " Agamemnon," adopted the 
same substitutes for the ancient Greek instrumental music as approved 
themselves to Mr. Harry Town end, and in such matters Cambridge 
does not go astray. It was indeed debated for some time whether the 
Music Hall organ might not more closely represent Plato's TravapfxovLov 
than our un-Attic violins and piano, but the iravap^oviov had no place 
in the Dionysiac Theatre. The suggestion received its coup de grace 
when it was found how many cues depended on the conductor's baton. 
" Solvuntur risu tabulae." It would have been like steering an eight 
from the bows with cox facing stroke ! 

A word may perhaps be allowed on the subject of the Translation. 
Some eight or nine metrical versions were carefully considered, but 
it was very soon discovered that, however good they might be as 
literature, they would never do to act. The point of view altered the 
moment one's eye was fixed upon the stage. A line like ''Kinborn 
Ismene, in sistership germane," would have made an inauspicious 
opening. It was at one time thought that the eighteenth century 
version by Francklin might meet our requirements, for its diction was 
at least natural and its rhythm smooth and flowing. But it attained 
such merit as it possessed at the cost of many omissions, many 
blunders, and the loss of poetic colour. Something was needed mid- 
way between the excessive freedom of Francklin and the stringency of 
a scholarly rendering ; in short, another compromise in addition to the 
many which we were constrained to adopt. It was found, for example, 
that the Stichomythia, or one line dialogue, was monotonous in its stage 
effect, and accordingly it had to be broken up and diversified in a manner 
unsanctioned by the example of scholars. But although some slight 
amplification of the thought seemed at times unavoidable, the vice of 
** improving on the original " which has raised its head again in some 
popular renderings of Greek drama was sedulously avoided. It 
is true that Dryden, both by precept and example, taught that the 
translator was at liberty to express -** what was secretly in the poet or 



The University Greek Play 115 

might fairly be deduced from him," and make such additions as, " if 
he were living and an Englishman, the poet would probably have 
written ". Lord Woodhouselee was of opinion that Pope " had raised 
the drooping wing of Homer on his own pinions, improving on his 
thought and expression and covering the defects of the original by the 
good taste of the translator " ! The temptation to work up a flat 
though faithful version by unfair means, to raise it a power or two by 
a process of emotional involution, to intensify it so as to bring back 
again the full rapture of the original, is particularly strong in the case 
of the Greek dramatists and orators, for nowhere else than in these 
is the Greek principle of restraint more manifest. But to yield to 
the temptation and to substitute a debauch of romanticism for the 
asceticism of the Greek is the work of a literary libertine. 

The success which attended the production of the " Antigone " has 
inspired promoters and actors alike with the ambition of presenting 
another Greek play towards the end of the present year. Various 
suggestions have been^ considered, but so far no positive conclusion 
has been arrived at. One thing only is certain — we shall have nothing 
to do with Euripides, "the sensualist and sentimentalist," at any price. 
Of the plays of Sophocles the " Oedipus Tyrannus," the " Trachiniae," 
and the " Elect ra " have most to recommend them, but in relation to 
the available cast, and owing to other considerations, the " Aga- 
memnon " and '' Choephoroe " of Aeschylus, presented as a single play, 
seem more to be desired. The lyric element in both calls for pruning, 
but a pruning that is judicious, for the emotional effect of both plays 
is largely dependent on the choral odes. One blank, however, in a 
tentative cast we have as yet been unable to fill — the part of Clytsem- 
nestra. It is a great tragic part, demanding gifts of presence and 
voice along with a certain maturity of ^60^ hardly to be looked for in 
young women undergraduates. The present writer hopes that it will 
not be counted bad taste if he utilizes the last sentence of this article 
as a free advertisement, and invites the help of the readers of the 
Reviev^ in the quest of the management for an actress who will not 
mind killing her husband with an axe in the first act and being killed 
by her own son in the second. 

J. HARROWER. 



EDITORIAL NOTE ON THE FOREGOING. 

The Editorial Committee of the Review cannot let Professor 
Harrower's article on " The Greek Play " go forth without the addition 
of a tribute — in which they believe all members of the University will 
cordially join — to himself and Mrs. Harrower for the leading share 
they took in an event so conspicuous in the history of our University. 
To the Professor were due the initiative of the movement, its general 
plan, and in a large degree its organisation, progress, and consumma- 
tion. His, too, were the translations of all the Dialogue in the Drama, 
and of the Lyrics falling to the parts of Creon and Antigone — in the 
high quality of which the actors found much of their inspiration. As 
Convener of the Dress Committee, Mrs. Harrower filled an office of 
anxious judgment and heavy labour ; to her mainly the Play was 
indebted for the accuracy, harmony, and emotional value of its colour 
scheme. Warmest congratulations to both upon an achievement as 
original, as we are sure it will prove potential, in the University life of 
Scotland ! 

For full details of the Play we refer our readers to The Book of The 
'■'' Antigonel^ Played by Graduates and Undergraduates of Aberdeen 
University in The Music Hally Aberdeen, on Friday and Saturday, 2%th 
and 2gth November, 19 19. The volume is printed and published by 
the Rosemount Press, and illustrated by photographs of the principal 
conductors of the play and of the scenes and actors. 




An Old Scots Judge: Lord Strichen. 

|T the close of the greatest civil trial of the eighteenth 
century, the Douglas Cause, there were on the 
Bench of the Court of Session no fewer than four 
judges having territorial connection with the 
north-east corner — Lords Gardenstone, Mon- 
boddo, Pitfour, and Strichen. The last of these 
is now but the shade ot a name : his biography 
consists of a few scattered paragraphs. Yet the career of Alexander 
Fraser, who sat on the Bench for almost half a century (1730-177 5), 
is not without its points of interest Fraser had powerful family 
leverage ; for he was the brother-in-law of the two uncrowned kings 
of Scotland and the step-father of the first Scotch Prime Minister. 
He helped to dispense justice at trials that have since found a place 
in history and romance. Like his more famous colleagues. Lords 
Ormiston and Kames, he was active in promoting agricultural im- 
provements. If we are unable to claim for him intellectual pre- 
eminence, still he cannot have been the weakling that might be im- 
agined from a contemptuous allusion in Henry Grey Graham's 
" Scottish Men of Letters ". Besides, no less a personage than James 
Boswell has left him a character for honesty and generosity. In the 
following notice, which does not claim to be final, an attempt is made 
to gather widely-scattered details into a coherent narrative. 

Alexander Fraser was born in 1698 or 1699, the second son of 
Alexander, Fifth Fraser of Strichen, and his second wife, the Honour- 
able Emilia Stuart, daughter of James Lord Doune, eldest son of 
Alexander, fifth Earl of Moray. Either there was no male issue 
of the first marriage, or no son survived ; but we know from the 
Aberdeenshire Poll Book that there was a daughter, Marjorie. 
The Strichen Erasers, like their neighbours of Inverallochy, were a 
cadet family of the Lovat Erasers ; and our subject, by the death of 
his elder brother unmarried, became Seventh Fraser of Strichen. 
In 181 5, his great-grandson, Thomas Alexander, Tenth of Strichen, 



1 1 8 Aberdeen University Review 

became heir to the Lovat estates. Thomas Alexander was, in 
1837, created a peer of the United Kingdom; and the Scottish title 
— forfeited in The 'Forty-Five by the notorious Simon Fraser, 
Lord Lovat — was restored to him in 1857. He had sold the estate 
of Strichen in 1855. His grandson is the present Lord Lovat, who is 
thus the lineal descendant of Alexander Fraser, Lord Strichen. 

The course of Fraser's education can only be conjectured. The 
questions of where and how might be answered if we could discover 
his guardians. His father died while he was still an infant ; and his 
mother soon discarded her widow's weeds in favour of John Lindsay, 
Nineteenth Earl of Crawford. So our Fraser was brother uterine of 
that paladin, John, the Twentieth Earl. While their mother lived, 
the three Fraser boys may have spent seasons at Struthers in Fife- 
shire, the seat of the Earls of Crawford. From the opening of his 
speech on the Douglas Cause, we infer that Strichen had a liking for 
his brother Crawford ; and presently we shall find that Tom, the 
youngest of the three Erasers, became known among the Lindsays or 
Crawfords of Glengarnock in Ayrshire. The Countess died, however, 
when the eldest was only about thirteen years old. So we seem to be 
driven back to Buchan, or even among the Erasers of Inverness-shire. 
The Strichen family owned considerable estates in Inverness-shire, 
and intimacy had been maintained between the Highland and the 
Lowland kinsmen. In the case of Buchan, the minutes of Strichen 
Kirk Session are suggestive. They afford evidence that James 
Ferguson of Pitfour, in the adjoining parish of Old Deer, had some 
responsibility in connection with the Strichen estate ; but it is difficult 
to apprehend his precise status. He cannot have derived his authority 
from the will of our Fraser's father ; for that gentleman was already 
dead when Ferguson settled at Pitfour, after selling the estate of 
Badifurrow (now Manar). By whomsoever exercised, authority seems 
to have pressed lightly on the boys and on the parishioners. James, 
the young heir, ran into debt ; Tom liked fun ; Alexander alone kept 
his head. But it is time to focus these rambling speculations. So 
then, remembering the connection of the clan with both Aberdeen 
colleges, we turn to the published lists of alumni ; and we find that 
an Alexander Fraser entered King's College in 1 7 1 3, and graduated in 
Arts four years later. This period fits admirably ; for at matriculation 
the student would be about fifteen years old — then a common age for 
entry at King's. On this point, no more can be said in the meantime. 



An Old Scots Judge : Lord Strichen 1 1 g 

Being a younger son, Alexander had to fend for himself. It was 
quite in accordance with the custom of the times that his thoughts 
should be directed to the Scots Bar : its members were in those days 
drawn almost exclusively from the great families of the country. In 
all probability the bias was given him by James Ferguson of Pitfour. 
Not only was Ferguson himself an advocate at the Scots Bar ; but he 
had a son, about Alexander Fraser's age, destined for the same career. 
That son was educated at Marischal College, and ultimately, as Lord 
Pitfour, became Fraser's colleague on the Bench. To the Pitfour 
connection add the fact that Alexander's half-sister was the wife of 
James Craig of Riccarton in Midlothian, advocate, who in 1710 had 
been elected Professor of Civil Law in Edinburgh University. In whose 
chambers, then, did he pass the years that intervened between college 
and call to the Bar ? Was he under the eye of his brother-in-law ? 
Did he, like Burnett of Monboddo and many others, go to Holland to 
study the Institutes and the Pandects? Certain it is that he "passed 
advocate" on 23 June, 1722, the subject of his thesis being Title XIII 
of Book II of Justinian's Institutes, De exheredatione liberorum. Now 
that he was made free of Parliament House, Fraser did not fail to 
attract attention ; and presently he was appointed one of the Com- 
missaries of Edinburgh. Thus ^ early did he begin to exercise judicial 
functions. The metropolitan Commissary Court had a higher status 
than the provincial ones, for it possessed a double jurisdiction. Not 
only had its judges the local jurisdiction of their own commissariat in 
the confirmation of wills, the settlement of executry disputes, etc. ; 
but they also enjoyed a general and exclusive jurisdiction over Scotland 
in all causes that related strictly to marriage, legitimacy, and divorce. 
In addition, the Edinburgh Court heard appeals from the decisions of 
the inferior commissary courts. 

Quoth Bailie Nicol Jarvie, " I have whiles thought o' letting my 
lights burn before the Duke of Argyle, or his brother Lord Hay (for 
wherefore should they be hidden under a bushel ?) ". What was only 
an intention with the worthy Bailie was evidently a practice with the 
young advocate. His brother uterine, the gallant Earl of Crawford, 
who was brought up among the Campbells, may have had something 
to do" with Fraser's reception into the charmed circle; but there were 
professional opportunities as well. Hay was at this time an Extraordin- 
ary Lord of Session ; and, in addition, he held the office (largely a 
sinecure) of Lord Justice-General. Moreover, John and Archibald 



I20 Aberdeen University Review 

Campbell, Duke of Argyll and Earl of Hay respectively, who ruled 
Scotland, needed influential supporters in every shire ; and, by the 
death of his elder brother, Fraser jumped into a position of prominence 
in Aberdeenshire. In 1725 he succeeded to estates in the parishes 
of Strichen, Tyrie, and Pitsligo. He inherited lands in Inverness- 
shire also. So steadily did Fraser's lights burn before the two omnipo- 
tent Campbells that in 1730, by Lord Hay's influence, he was raised 
to the Bench of the Court of Session, under the title Lord Strichen. 
He had been at the Bar eight years precisely. Monboddo toiled for 
thirty. Soon, indeed, Campbells and Frasers formed a close alliance. 
About the time of Strichen's elevation, Simon Fraser, who was now 
Lord Lovat and Chief of Clan Fraser, was under the patronage of 
Hay; and in 1733 he married Primrose Campbell, cousin of Argyll 
and Hay. Lord Strichen had already, in 1731, married their sister, 
Ann Campbell, Countess of Bute, widow of James, second Earl of 
Bute. Strichen was a particular favourite. His wife, writing to an 
intimate friend soon after the marriage, says of her brothers* attitude : 
** They both have asur'd me that they aprove of my choise, that ther 
is non in Briton they would have bin so well pleased with, (to use ther 
own words) ". 

A Lord of Session from 1730-75, Fraser was also for twenty- 
nine years, 1735-64, a Lord of Justiciary. Though the emoluments 
of Scots judges still fell far short of the salaries accorded to their 
English contemporaries, there was some improvement about mid- 
century. Thereafter ordinary judges received £700 a year, with an 
additional ;^300 for those who were also justiciary judges. There 
were other attractions. Circuit journeys were not so dry as they are 
now ; for many of the lords were convivial souls. About the beginning 
of the 'fifties, Charles Cochrane of Ochiltree, a great wag, observed of 
the circuit lords that there were two of them, Justice-Clerk Erskine and 
Minto, who ate ; two of them, Strichen and Drummore, who drank ; 
and two that neither ate nor drank, Elchies and Kilkerran. It is 
evident from this unsolicited testimonial that our Fraser was a man of 
no mean capacity. He was one of those that " leugh to see a Tappit 
Hen ". 

When Strichen doffed the justiciary gown, he was made General 
of the Scottish Mint for life, in succession to Lord Belhaven. Of 
course, the Scottish Mint was abolished at the Union of the Parlia- 
ments ; but, after the manner of the age, the offices were maintained 



An Old Scots Judge : Lord Strichen 121 

as sinecures. The eighteenth century was the golden age of sinecurists. 
By this time Strichen was getting up in years ; and the direct power 
of Argyll was in abeyance. When Archibald Campbell, who had suc- 
ceeded his brother John as Duke, died in 1761, the management of 
Scottish affairs fell into the hands of their nephew, the third Earl of 
Bute, Strichen's elder step-son. The younger step-son, James Stuart 
— who married his cousin, Lady Betty Campbell, and who assumed the 
name of Mackenzie on succeeding to the estates of his great-grandfather. 
Sir George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh — also became a political power, 
being made Lord Privy Seal of Scotland. Though Bute was Prime 
Minister of Britain for a year only (1762-63), his brother kept grip in 
Scotland till 1765. It was this younger step-son that procured for 
Strichen his new commission. In the negotiations, the old man did not 
altogether trust Stuart Mackenzie's judgment ; and Mure of Caldwell, 
the mainstay of the Bute interest in Scotland, was of like mind. Our 
tentie friend was uneasy lest his step-son should fail to press for a life 
appointment, but his fears were groundless. The justiciary gown thus 
discarded fell on the shoulders of George Brown, Lord Coalstoun, 
whose acquaintance one may make, over the punch-bowl, in the pages 
of Stevenson's " Catriona," and whom we shall presently find bracketed 
with Lord Strichen in a jocular charge of mannerism preferred by 
Bozzy. Indeed, there were a great many interesting changes about 
this time ; and the year of Strichen's appointment to the Mint was a 
notable one for the North-East. In that year Burnett of Monboddo 
became Sheriff of Kincardine, and Lords Gardenstone and Pitfour 
took their seats on the Bench. 

The number of cases in which our judge sat during his long career 
must be legion. By good luck, those that are within the present 
writer's knowledge exhibit both local and general interest. In 
December, 1736, he delivered judgment in the case '' King's College 
V. Heritors of New Machar ". King's was titular of New Machar, and 
the dispute related to teinds. At this time the ecclesiastical affairs of 
the parish were sadly deranged ; and it may be recalled that in May 
of the following year, Thomas Reid, the philosopher, who had been 
presented to the living by King's College, had a hostile reception when 
he came to be ordained. 

Subsequently, in June, 1754, Strichen assisted at a criminal trial 
relating to Upper Deeside. Duncan Clerk and Alexander Bain 
Macdonald were charged, before the High Court of Justiciary at 



122 Aberdeen University Review 

Edinburgh, with the murder of Sergeant Arthur Davies, who, with 
eight men, had been stationed at Dubrach, near Inverey, to enforce 
the Disarming Act. It was an extraordinary trial. Not only was 
the jury's verdict of " Not Guilty" an amazing one in face of the evi- 
dence for the prosecution, but the Court admitted as evidence what 
was reported to have been said by the Sergeant's ghost. The story 
has so fascinated legal pens that it has been told at least four times. 

Strichen also figured in trials that have awakened great romantic 
interest. Though he was not present at the trial of Captain Porteous, 
he sat in that which, taking place in March, 1736, led up to the 
Porteous incident. There was great excitement when Wilson, Hall, 
and Robertson were placed at the bar, for there was much popular 
sympathy with the smugglers. Again, in the ** Traditions of Edin- 
burgh," Robert Chambers remarks playfully that Strichen may have 
been one of the judges that tried Effie Deans. As a matter of 
fact, he was the sole occupant of the bench when the charge of child 
murder was first preferred against Isobel Walker, whose sister Helen 
was the original of Jeanie Deans. The occasion was the circuit 
court at Dumfries in May, 1737. Counsel for the defence challenged 
the competency of the Court, maintaining that, under the Acts 
regulating circuit courts, two judges were a necessary quorum. The 
Advocate-Depute pleaded the authority derived from notour practice, 
but did not seriously oppose remittal to the High Court. Remittal 
was the course adopted by Strichen, who had scruples in the matter * 
and with this he disappeared from the scene. The veritable trial took 
place, not in Edinburgh, but at Dumfries, before Lords Royston and 
Elchies. Well, it's a far cry from ** The Heart of Midlothian " to the 
White Horse of Mormond. Yet association is established, when we 
realize that in the Auld Aisle in Strichen Kirkyard there rest one of 
the judges whom Efifie Deans faced, and his wife, the sister of that 
Duke of Argyll who befriended Jeani^ Deans in London. 

Our protagonist was nearing the end of his career when he 
appeared on the ample stage of the Douglas Cause. One may recall 
that in this absorbing case, which began in 1762, the Duke of Hamilton 
(whose mother was the fair Elizabeth Gunning) asked the Court of 
Session to reduce Archibald Douglas Steuart's service as heir to the 
vast estates left by Archibald, third Marquis and first Duke of Douglas, 
Steuart's uncle. Pursuer sought to prove that Steuart was not the 
genuine son of Lady Jane Douglas, the deceased Duke's sister. It 



An Old Scots Judge : Lord Strichen 123 

was in July, 1767, that the Court met to deliver its final decision; 
and six days were occupied by the judges in giving their opinions. 
The venue was a room in Holyrood House. After the Lord President 
had spoken, the senior judge was called upon. The doyen was Lord 
Strichen, who was of no less than twenty-two years' longer standing 
than any of his brethren. As we have seen, he was elevated in 1 730 ; 
and Karnes, who got the gown in 1752, was next in order of seniority. 
Monboddo, recently elevated, was last in this spate of speaking. Of 
the " Auld Fifteen," eight (including the Lord President) voted for the 
pursuer ; and seven for the defender. Here, then, the case ended in 
favour of the Duke of Hamilton ; but this decision was afterwards re- 
versed by the House of Lords. All four northern judges voted for 
the defender. 

Before we leave the courtyard, we may stroll for a little among the 
groups of advocates. The younger ones are taking off the mannerisms 
of the judges ; and those two cronies, Jamie Boswell and John Mac- 
laurin, are a centre of attraction. Their levity is incorrigible ; and 
when that skit, ** The Court of Session Garland," makes its appearance 
presently, the authorship will be fastened on them. Boswell is not 
unacquainted with Aberdeenshire, having paid a visit to Strichen 
House while he was yet a stripling ; and John Maclaurin knows some- 
thing about Aberdeen, being the eldest son of Colin Maclaurin who ' 
was at one time Professor of Mathematics in Marischal College. One 
glimpse of Strichen they give us in the couplet : — 

Lord Coalstoun expressed his doubts and his fears ; 
And Strichen threw in his weel-weels and oh dears. 

Strichen's political activity does not appear to have been very 
marked : in kittle casts o' state he played a cautious game. In 
Aberdeenshire he was useful to his patron. Lord Hay ; but if he worked 
at all in the larger field, he was completely eclipsed by his colleagues, 
Lords Milton, Alemore, and Drummore, who were henchmen to the 
same patron. Truth to tell, when about 1740 his two brothers-in-law 
differed in politics, he coquetted with both sides. Argyll withdrew 
his support from the Government party and joined the Opposition, 
otherwise the Country or Patriot party. Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat, 
did likewise. The Duke asked Simon to work for Sir Arthur 
Forbes of Craigievar (who represented Aberdeenshire from 1727-47) 
through his friends in the county ; and Simon accordingly approached 



124 Aberdeen University Review 

Strichen. If we are to credit Lovat's version of the matter, Strichen, 
while duly reserving his vote for Hay's candidate, promised to refrain 
from active measures against Sir Arthur. In respect of the Inverness- 
shire elections, Strichen was even more pliant. In 1741 Lord Lovat, 
who was manipulating the county for the Patriot party, disponed to 
him the lands and the barony of Lentran in the parish of Kirkhill. 
He thus became a " baron of the shire " and a reliable voter in the 
Lovat interest. It was no unusual manoeuvre : more than one High- 
land proprietor created votes by this device. Indeed, the creation of 
fictitious votes by dispositions in trust had already become so notori- 
ous throughout Scotland, that a trust-oath more searching than the 
original one was introduced to check the abuse. This oath might be 
put to any voter whose freehold qualifications were suspected of being 
merely nominal. New forms of procedure were then employed ; and 
the game went on by dint of increased deftness in legal juggling. 

But nobody's virtue was over-nice 

When Walpole talked of a man and his price. 

Whatever the procedure adopted on this occasion, Shnon had some 
doubts whether the conveyance to Strichen and another to Charles 
Fraser of Inverallochy complied with the terms of the trust-oath ; and 
he took the opinion of two well-known advocates, Robert Craigie of 
Glendoick, who became Lord Advocate in the following year, and 
James Ferguson, Second of Pitfour, Lord Strichen' s neighbour in 
Buchan. Of course, he could not offer a compromising position to a 
Lord of Session. The documents, however, were absolute deeds 
without condition ; and the forms of feudal investiture were duly 
observed. Simon told Inverallochy that the making of three barons 
cost him about **a hunder and twenty pound". 

Though Strichen was for a little while very complaisant to the Tories, 
he drew the line at Jacobitism ; and in The 'Forty- Five we find him 
a staunch supporter of the Government, acting in conjunction with 
another Alexander Fraser — the twelfth Lord Saltoun. About the 
beginning of January, 1746, he had a little adventure at Philorth, 
Lord Saltoun's place. A Lieutenant Grant came to Fraserburgh by 
the Kinghorn boat, carrying despatches from Edinburgh to Mr. 
(afterwards Sir) Ludovick Grant of Grant, who was at this time 
rendering important service to the Government. The Lieutenant, 
iinding upon inquiry that Lord Strichen was at Philorth, immediately 



An Old Scots Judge: Lord Strichen 125 

made his way thither. Thereupon the suspicions of the "Broch" 
Jacobites were roused ; and a crowd of them surrounded Saltoun's 
house, clamouring for the stranger. Grant, having secretly handed his 
despatches to Strichen, made a great show of entrusting his valuables 
in the shape of watch and money. He was made prisoner, but his 
captors were chagrined to find no papers upon him. By this time 
Strichen was '*on and awa'". He managed to send the letters to 
Ludovick Grant by a trusty messenger ; and Ludovick, in his report 
to the Earl of Loudoun, then commanding in the North, stated that 
Strichen did everything in his power to save the Lieutenant from 
being taken prisoner, even to the hazard of his own life. Mr. Ludovick 
and the nimble judge must have been old acquaintances ; for the 
future Baronet was practising at the Bar when the judge mounted the 
Bench. In addition, they were bound by "the inextricable filaments 
of Scottish family relationship " : Grant's paternal uncle had married 
Fraser's maternal aunt. Indubitably, Strichen was known to the 
powers as a loyal supporter of the Hanoverian succession; and 
candidates for office in those fickle times did not despise his signature 
on their testimonials. For instance, when heritable jurisdictions were 
abolished in 1747, and the purely judicial functions of the old heredit- 
ary sheriffs passed absolutely to the sheriffs-depute (who thus became 
in reality sheriffs-principal), the Government, still fearful of disaffec- 
tion, hedged the appointments about with great precautions. Burnett 
of Monboddo was a candidate for the office of sheriff-depute; and 
Strichen was signatory to a testimonial in his favour, along with the 
first Lord Arniston, Lord Drummore, and the future Lord Kames. 
The document, which Omond quotes in his " Lord Advocates of 
Scotland " as typical of its kind, certifies that Burnett is " of Revolu- 
tion Principles, and very well affected to his Majesty's person and 
Government ". 1 1 is doubtful if Alexander Grant, Sheriff of Aberdeen- 
shire at the time of the rebellion, could have been characterised in 
these terms. His loyalty was questioned, and his residence at 
Grantsfield (now Mid mar Castle) was subjected to a search by the 
military. When he protested his innocence to the Lord Justice-Clerk, 
it was Strichen that he called to witness. 

We must now decline upon matters domestic and parochial. As 
we have seen, Strichen in 1731 married Ann, Countess of Bute^ 
widow of the second Earl of Bute. The lady's first husband was the 
grandson, by his mother, of Sir George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh (** the 



126 Aberdeen University Review 

Bluidy Advocate MacKenyie "). There were at least six children of 
the first marriage ; and when the father died, they were placed under 
the guardianship of their uncles, Argyll and Hay. The elder son, the 
future Prime Minister, went to Eton at seven, and did not return to 
Scotland till he had almost reached manhood. Bute's Edinburgh 
residence was in an alley off the High Street, called, from Sir George, 
Rosehaugh's Close. This was the hearth to which our canny friend 
drew his chair ; and when he entered into possession, the alley was 
renamed, becoming Strichen's Close. The Countess died at Strichen 
in October, 1736 ; but her house continued to be her second husband's 
town residence till his death thirty-eight years later. The close still 
bears his name. If we are to judge from two letters of hers printed 
in John Anderson's work on the Erasers, the Countess of Bute was a 
vivacious lady. At the time of her second marriage she was past the 
first flush of youth ; and Tom Eraser, Strichen's younger brother, was 
emboldened to hope that he or his progeny would yet succeed to the 
estates. He seems to have been shiftless and improvident. Writing 
to her intimate friend, the Hon. Mrs. MacNeal of Ugadale in Argyll- 
shire, a month after her marriage, the lady reviews the situation with 
engaging frankness : — 

I am of oppinion Tom will get more beams than ever he will take the 
causion to provid for ; but I imagin he will have his own hopes ; I shall doe 
him no harme that way, not being very young, and haveing had many childreen 
alredey, which may indid be to likly, yet since Lady Delape had a daughter 
last sumer, I am resolved not to dispair till I am fifty ; since, without a 
mireckel, a woman may have a child till that age. We had very good com- 
pany with your mammy last night. She said she would not dispair of airing 
[bearing an heir to] an esteat yet ; if so, I need not be out of hopes. 

Poor Tom was doomed to disappointment, for a son was born of 
the marriage. It may be noted parenthetically that one gathers from 
these letteirs of 1731-32 that Tom Eraser and his wife were living in 
Mrs. MacNeal's neighbourhood in Argyllshire. This is interesting as 
indicative of the close relations among Campbells, Strichen Erasers, 
and Lindsays. The Hon. Mrs. MacNeal was a Lindsay of the Gamock 
branch, to which the Earldom of Crawford fell on the death of Strichen's 
brother uterine, the Twentieth Earl. One more quotation, and we 
take leave of the sprightly lady in Strichen's Close. It is a glimpse 
of old-world Edinburgh, of the society for which Allan Ramsay was 
planning a theatre in the neighbouring Carrubber's Close : — 



An Old Scots Judge : Lord Strichen 127 

Lord Lovet's marrage goes one ; they are to be marred the first week 
in March, and Im told ther is a list of forty-five more, but truly Im afraid ther 
will not one of the number hold. Never was ther so much deversion, never 
so many fine appearances of beautys and gentel prity wiman ; and manny are 
the bows (beaux) who sies (sigh for) them, yet, by any thing I can learn, they 
desir not to make any wifes, so that the ladys, I beleave, will all mostly return 
to the contrey as they came, which Im sure manny of them will regreat. 

The mention of Lord Lovat's marriage reminds us that Primrose 
Campbell, his widow, was a near neighbour of Strichen's in Edinburgh. 
She settled in the capital in 1740, when Simon and she finally 
separated. As we have already learnt, she was a cousin of Argyll 
and Hay ; and when the latter of these, who had succeeded his brother 
in the Dukedom, died in 1761, he was in turn succeeded by Primrose's 
brother. There are the most divergent estimates of her character. 
The judge, however, was very well disposed towards her ; and he is 
said to have offered help when, after the execution of her husband, 
she found herself in embarrassed circumstances. Again, Boswell has 
put it on record, in the Journal of his tour with Johnson, that Lord 
Strichen was a man not only honest, but highly generous. Bozzy 
himself had been under some sort of obligation to him ; and others 
that became aware of his accessibility solicited his good offices. In 
the " Letter Book of Bailie John Steuart of Inverness " (edited by Dr. 
William Mackay), there is, under date 29 June, 1745, the following 
entry : — 

I wrot of this dait to my Lord Strechen, begging his Lops, kind inter- 
cession with Sir Alexr. Ramsay of Balmain to grant one of his Philosophic 
Burses to my son Francis in the CoUedge of Aberdeen or St. Andrew ; as to 
which I begged his Lops, attention and speedie answer. 

Steuart was a leading Inverness merchant, and had an extensive 
connection among the gentry of the surrounding district Says Bailie 
Macmaster, in Neil Munro's "The New Road": *'And look at all 
them Great Glen lochs and rivers — full o' salmon ! There's a man in' 
Inverness called Stuart has the pick just now of all their kippered fish, 
but ril be learning him ! '* The nature of Steuart's claim on Strichen 
is clear enough. The merchant was related, by marriage, to Lord 
Lovat, who stood by him when he was in financial difficulties some 
three years before the time of which we ai'e speaking. Besides, 
Strichen held the barony of Lentran in Inverness-shire. On the other 
hand, the link between the judge and Sir Alexander Ramsay of Bal- 
main, who had succeeded to estates and titles in 17 10, is not apparent. 



128 Aberdeen University Review 

The Balmain estates lay in the parish of Fettercairn in Kincardine- 
shire, and included Fasque, the old House of Fasque being the family 
seat. Sir Alexander had been Rector of Marischal College in 1732. 
He was not the founder of the bursaries in question ; but the patron- 
age was bequeathed to him and to his successors of the name of 
Ramsay. 

The lands of Strichen, originally erected into a free barony by 
James V in 1528, were incorporated de novo by James VI in 1591, in 
favour of Thomas Fraser of Knockie, Inverness-shire, who thus be- 
came First Fraser of Strichen. At that time, the principal messuage 
of Strichen was a fortalice that stood in the locality called Newton. 
Its successor, the Auld Hoose, has also disappeared. The only relics 
of the latter are the dovecot, that characteristic pendicle of an 
eighteenth century mansion, and the dismantled gateway. Yet this 
manor-house was one of some importance in its day ; and fancy loves 
to dwell upon "the palace of Strichen," "an old fashion'd court 
mantled about with pleasant planting". Such are the descriptive 
terms used by two Buchan topographers of the earlier years of the 
century. In the reign of our hero's father, the establishment was by 
no means inconsiderable. As the *' Poll Book" of 1696 reveals, there 
were the chamberlain or factor, the steward or butler, the man cook, 
the laird's waiting-man, his daughter's maid, the footman, and the 
groom. There may have been additions on the laird's remarrying 
about 1697. Alexander Fraser, second son of this marriage, was 
served heir in general to his brother James in 1725; but, whatever 
the cause of the long interval, it was not till 1732 that he was infeft 
in the Barony. 

We have it on Boswell's authority that when Alexander succeeded 
to the family estates, he paid off heavy debts contracted by his pre- 
decessor, though he was under no legal obligation to do so. As we 
have seen, his inheritance was partly Highland, partly Lowland. 
Little can be said of his Inverness-shire patrimony ; for he seems to 
have disposed of it within thirteen years from the date of his suc- 
cession. Perhaps it was with the money derived from the sale of these 
lands that he paid his brother's numerous debts. At any rate, in his 
great-grandfather's time, the Strichen possessions in Inverness had a 
valued rent of £\\\9 3s. 4d. Scots (say ;^ii8 5s. 3d. sterling). The 
term "valued rent " is applied to the series of county valuations that, 
beginning in 1643, superseded the former "extents" or valuations. 



An Old Scots Judge: Lord Strichen 129 

Down to the middle of the nineteenth century, this valued rent was 
the basis on which the cess and other taxes were calculated. As to 
the disposal of these possessions, John Anderson states that the Third 
Fraser of Balmain bought Knockie in Stratherrick from the Strichen 
family ; and shortly after The 'Forty-Five, when evidence was being 
taken regarding Lovat's forfeited estates, it came out, in the examina- 
tion of Mackenzie of Fraserdale, that Simon had purchased from Lord 
Strichen the estate of Moniack, as well as lands in Stratherrick worth 
about ;^ioo sterling (say ;^ 1 200 Scots) per annum. The barony of 
Lentran, which was made over to our laird in 1741, was — according 
to Lovat — of less than ;^25o Scots, valued rent. His Lowland estates 
lay in three parishes. Again having recourse to the " Poll Book,'- 
which retains the valuation of 1674, we find the valued rent of the 
Strichen estate entered at ^1700, that of Easter Tyrie at ;^3io, and 
that of the Pitsligo lands at ;^300 Scots. These figures, which 
represent respectively ^'141 13s. 4d., £2^ i6s. 8d., and £2$ sterling, 
enable us to form a rough estimate of Fraser's Aberdeenshire patri- 
mony at the time of his succession. Since taxation was to be pro- 
portionate to the returns, they were probably put somewhat below 
the actual value ; but the years of dearth and stagnation that intervened 
between the valuation and our Fraser's succession must have caused 
the real rent to depreciate to some extent. 

A courageous start developed into an enlightened policy of 
management. In figuring as an agricultural reformer, however, 
Strichen was merely following, like many other lairds, the fashion set 
by his sometime colleague, Lord Ormiston, and by Ormiston's son, 
John Cockburn. With this reference we are again caught in the 
meshes of Scots family relationship. Though the Cockburns of 
Ormiston in East Lothian have become famous as pioneers in agri- 
culture, they were not the principal family of the name. That position 
belonged to the Cockburns of Langton in Berwickshire ; and Lord 
Strichen's father had married first a daughter of Sir Archibald Cock- 
burn of Langton. As we have seen, there was a daughter of this 
marriage, forming a link between Berwick and Buchan. So it comes 
about that we find the names of our laird and Sir Alexander Cockburn 
of Langton (Mrs. Fraser's brother) side by side in the transactions of 
a northern agricultural society. They occur in the list of subscribers 
to a work edited by James Arbuthnot, who hailed from the neighbour- 
hood of Peterhead — *'A True Method of Treating Light Hazely 

9 



130 Aberdeen University Review 

Ground ; or, an exact relation of the practice of farmers in Buchan : 
containing rules for Infields, Outfields, Haughs, and Laighs. By a 
Society of Farmers in Buchan." The essay was originally published 
at Edinburgh in 1735 ; but the title, as given here, is taken from the 
reprint of 181 1. 

The laird set to beat down prejudice and to carry out extensive 
improvements on his estates. 

Lang had the thristles and the dockans been 
In use to wag their taps upon the green. 

The system of short leases, which Lord Ormiston had discouraged in 
East Lothian as early as 1698, was abandoned here also. The tenants 
were supplied with lime gratis, and induced to use it as manure. 
About the middle of the century, artificial grasses began to be sown ; 
and potatoes, turnips, and flax were introduced. In all three parishes 
the growing and the spinning of flax attained considerable proportions. 
Again, fields were inclosed ; and tree-planting was undertaken. 
Transport was no easy matter in those days. About the time when 
Alexander Eraser succeeded his brother, there were three highways 
in the parish of Strichen ; and these were highways only by courtesy. 
In improving and extending the roads, Alexander was doing nothing 
original ; but we may surely give him some credit for the excellent 
condition they had reached by the last quarter of the century. His 
parochial activity was not confined to things temporal. In the oper- 
ing years of his lairdship he was ruling elder in the kirk ; and once 
we hear of his attending the Synod in that capacity. In his time 
there was only one change in the incumbency of the parish. In 1748 
he presented the Rev. John Smith, schoolmaster of Fraserburgh, to 
the living of Strichen. To the dominie at his own door the laird was 
equally kind ; for he gave him a glebe of eight acres. But kirk and 
school need souls to save. The Kirktoun was a mere hamlet that 
scarce accorded with the laird's dignity and aspirations ; and village- 
planning was being enthusiastically taken up by his compeers. A site 
was not far to seek ; for on the north bank of the Ugie was a well- 
sheltered level. There, between hill and river, the laird founded 
Mormond Village. Such was the name bestowed by its founder in 
1764; but the name it bears to-day is his own territorial designation 
— Strichen. 

Our tale is now told ; but it may not be amiss, at the end, to make 



An Old Scots Judge : Lord Strichen 131 

brief reference to Dr. Johnson's visit to Strichen House, on the 25th 
August, 1773. The Doctor and Boswell dined at the House on their 
way from Slains Castle to Banff, and both have described their 
entertainment Boswell's explanation of the detour is that he wished 
to show his companion the Stone Circle at Strichen House. Be that 
as it may, Bozzy cultivated the Bute connection; and he was well 
acquainted with this particular ramification. It was his second visit. 
On this occasion, the wayfarers' host was Lord Strichen's only son, 
Alexander Fraser, brother uterine of the Earl of Bute, who had, in 
1762, granted the lexicographer a pension of ;^300 a year. In his 
"Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides," Boswell calls their host the 
" proprietor," though Lord Strichen was alive at the date in question. 
The title is accurate ; for, some fourteen years earlier, about the time 
of Boswell's previous visit, the judge had executed a deed reserving to 
himself the life-rent, but vesting the full property of his estates in his 
son. The Druidical circle failed to impress Johnson, but he greatly 
admired the trees in the policies. A local fair was being held ; and 
the travellers had the company of several neighbouring proprietors 
at dinner. Though one of them, a Dr. Fraser, remembered seeing 
Johnson at a lecture on experimental philosophy at Lichfield, it is 
doubtful if the talk proved stimulating to the moralist. Perhaps the 
others, like the Laird of Killancureit, " talked, in a steady unalterable 
dull key, of top-dressing and bottom-dressing, and year-olds, and 
gimmers, and dinmonts, and stots, and runts, and kyloes ". Yet it- 
behooved Ursa Major to be moderately civil at the table of Bute's 
brother. He was no sooner clear of the grounds, however, than, in 
reply to a remark passed by Bozzy, he growled that country gentle- 
men had not enough to keep their minds in motion. 

The veteran judge died at Strichen House on the 1 5th February, 
1775. Statements of his age vary slightly: either he was in his 
seventy-sixth year, or he had completed it 

W. H. CRANNA. 



Heraclitus. 

EiTre Ti9, 'H/9a/cXctre, reov fxopov, eg Se /a€ haKpv 
T]yay€Vj ijivijcrOr)!/ S' oacrdKLS aiif^oTepoi 

rjeXiov X^crxy KaTeSva'afiev. dXXa cru fxiv ttov, 
feti'' 'AXiKapvyjacreVf reTpdiraKai cnrohirj • 

ai 8e real tfiiiovcriv wqhove^, V^^^ ^ TrdvTCJv 
dpnaKTrjp 'AiSi^s ovk iirl X'^'^P^ ^SaXct. 

— CALLIMACHUS. 



They told me, Heraclitus, they told me you were dead, 
They brought me bitter news to hear and bitter tears to shed. 
I wept, as I remembered how often you and I 
Had tired the sun with talking and sent him down the sky. 

And now that thou art lying, my dear old Carian guest, 
A handful of grey ashes, long, long ago at rest. 
Still are thy pleasant voices, thy nightingales, awake ; 
For Death, he taketh all away, but them he cannot take. 

—WILLIAM CORY. 



Scots and Gaelic Versions — A Comparison. 

They taul' me, Heraclitus, that ye had worn awa' : 
I grat to mind hoo aft we ca'd the crack atween the twa, 
Until the heark'nin sun'gaed doon news- weary i' the wast. 
An' noo for lang ye're in the mools, faur a maun lie at last ! 
Still morn an' nicht your mavises are pipin' clear amang's ; 
For Death, that coffins a' the lave, can never kist your sangs. 

—CHARLES MURRAY. 



Chaidh innseadh dhomh, a Dhunnachaidh, mo nuar ! nach 'ail 

thu beo, 
'S gu 'm b'airsnealach an sgialachd sin a Hon mo shuil le dedir. 
Do ghuil mi 's mi bhi cuimhneach' liuthad comhra bh' againn 

riamh, 
'S cia trie bha 'ghrian air bodhradh leinn, is ruaig sinn i do 'n iar. 

Ach nis, gu 'm beil thu 'd shineadh, a charaid chaomhail chdir, 
Mar dhuslach anns an tiir-thigh far nach fhaicear thu ni's m6 ; 
Tha fonn do ghuth gun sguir 'n a dhuisg mar chomh-sheirm 

bhinn nan ian ; 
Gu 'n glac an t-Eug gach ni bu leam, ach mairidh so do shior. 

—THOMAS SINTON. 




Sir David Stewart, LL.D., 

OF BANCHORY AND LEGGART. 

IR DAVID STEWART— the date of whose death 
allowed but a brief obituary notice of him in the last 
number of the Review — was a very prominent figure 
throughout the era of the University's history which 
was inaugurated by the Act of 1889. A loyal son 
of his Alma Mater he served on her Court for nine 
years, the first Lord Provost to do so ; he con- 
tributed by labour and counsel, as well as by a generous gift, to the 
greatest of her extensions ; and above all, his influence was most 
valuable in the promotion of good feeling and fruitful co-operation 
between the City and the University. Aberdeen has been fortunate 
in the number of her Lord Provosts who have assisted in fostering 
these happy relations. None has been more fitted than he was^ both 
by his gifts and by his University training, for such an influence or 
has exerted it with a more genial zeal. 

He entered King's College in 185 1, the same year as James 
Stirling, the Senior Wrangler of i860 (afterwards Sir James Stirling, a 
Judge of the High Court, and eventually a Lord Justice of Appeal), 
John Black, Professor of Humanity from 1868 to 1881, and William 
Bruce, later of Dingwall, and a member of the General Medical Council. 
Other Arts students of the time were Alexander Asher, who became 
Solicitor-General for Scotland; George Slesser and Thomas Barker, 
the Senior Wranglers of 1858 and 1862 ; Robert Hamilton, afterwards 
Under-Secretary of State for Ireland and then Governor of Tasmania ; 
James Smith and Stewart D. F. Salmond who were members of the 
University Court along with Sir David ; Archibald Forbes, the War 
Correspondent, and G. M. Macpherson who rose to be Chief Commis- 
sioner of Scinde. A man's horizon is always widened, and his mind 
enriched, by the eminence and variety of the public careers of his 
fellow-students ; and in this respect Sir David was singularly fortunate. 



Sir David Stewart, LL.D. 135 

It is interesting to note that Asher, Stirling, Black, Bruce, Hamilton, 
Forbes, Smith, Salmond and Macpherson, as well as Stewart himself, 
were all laureated by their University. 

Graduating Master of Arts in 1855, at the age of twenty, David 
Stewart — after a year's experience of the management of the comb- 
works which his father had founded and developed till they were 
among the largest in the Kingdom — was wisely sent on a long tour 
abroad, through Europe and as far as Egypt and the Holy Land. 
By this also were fostered those wide intellectual sympathies which 
distinguished him in the period of his public influence — sympathies 
wider than even the liberal Aberdeen curriculum in Arts and the 
experience of an extensive business were together capable of pro- 
ducing. In particular, this early and broad apprenticeship to foreign 
travel had much to do with the effective discharge of his office as the 
first chairman of the Aberdeen Branch of the Scottish Geographical 
Society. As one of his Committee I can testify that the success of 
the start of the Branch and of its early operations was in large measure 
due to his liberal ideas of what its work should be and to his un- 
wearied efforts to secure the best lecturers for its meetings. One of 
them, Prince Peter Kropotkin, who stayed at Banchory House, expressed 
(I remember) his admiration of his host's knowledge of geography and 
of his enlightened views of geographical education. 

Sir David's civic service — as President of the Chamber of Commerce 
1883-84, as Dean of Guild 1885-89, as a member of the School Board 
for three of those years, and as Lord Provost for a double term, 1 889-95 
— has been fully appreciated in the local journals and in the The Times. 
Here it is needful to record only the services which in his high civic 
rank, and afterwards, he rendered to the University. 

He was already Lord Provost when the Universities (Scotlancf) 
Act of 1889 included for the first time the Lord Provost among the 
ex officiis members of the University Court. He took his seat in the 
Court in January, 1890, and it is interesting to note that two of his 
earliest votes were given for these motions — that there should be two 
terms in practical Physics for Medical students, and that Greek should 
be an optional subject in the Preliminary Examination for the Degree 
in Arts. In the same year the Court resolved upon the extension of 
the Marischal College buildings, and through all the protracted dis- 
cussions, negotiations and operations which followed, both in the Uni- 
versity Court and in the Town Council, he took an active and an influential 



136 Aberdeen University Review 

part. He was a member of the Sites and Plans Committee of the 
Court ; and it was on his motion that the Court unanimously rescinded 
a previous decision to construct a new Natural Philosophy Department 
in King's College and resolved to build classrooms and laboratories for 
the subject in Marischal College. His influence as Lord Provost was 
very helpful in securing from the Chancellor of the Exchequer, at that 
time Mr. Goschen, the promise of a Government Grant of ;^40,ooo 
for the extensions ; he was also assiduous along with others in the 
work of raising the large number of private and local contributions, 
which the Government made a condition of their Grant, and he set a 
fruitful example by his own gift of ;^iooo. He was a member of the 
Committee charged with preparing for the celebration of the University's 
Quatercentenary which was designed for 1895, ^^^ in this and other 
directions he laboured hard for the honour and increased efficiency of 
the University. When it seemed, in consequence of the death of Mr. 
Mitchell, the munificent contributor to the extension of Marischal 
College, that the festival of 1895 would have to be postponed beyond 
the Lord Provost's extended term of office, the Court instructed its 
Ceremonials Committee "to make arrangements by which the im- 
portant part taken in the movement, both personally and officially, by 
Lord Provost Stewart should be suitably recognised ". In that year 
he received the Degree of Doctor of Laws and in the next, 1896, was 
appointed Rector's Assessor on the Court by the Marquis of Huntly, 
and was congratulated by the Court on his Knighthood. In the 
further extension of Marischal College and in organizing the greater 
celebrations of the Quatercentenary in 1906 he continued to take a 
large share, both during his Assessorship, which closed in 1899, and 
afterwards as one of five citizens specially elected to the Committee 
for the Celebrations, in addition to representatives of public bodies. 
The reception at Banchory House by Lady Stewart and himself of 
the delegates to the great event of 1906, was one of its conspicuous 
features. 

Sir David was happily enabled to carry on his activity in business, 
private and public, to within a week of his death at the advanced age 
of eighty-four. As certain letters show, he maintained to the end his 
interest in the University ; and he continued to exercise his generous 
hospitality towards her teachers. He is most gratefully remembered 
by the University for his many labours on her behalf, for the en- 
lightened sympathy, courage and zest with which he acted as one of 



Sir David Stewart, LL.D. 137 

her administrators through a period of heavy strain and no Httle 
anxiety, for his large heart, and for his thoughtfulness and geniality as a 
host. His loyalty to his Alma Mater and his confidence in her discip- 
line is also shown by the fact that his three sons all followed him in 
her curriculum and earned her degrees — Lieut. -Colonel David B. D. 
Stewart (M.A, 1882), the late Major William Dyce Stewart (M.A., 
1885), and Dr. George I. T. Stewart (M.A., 1893, B.Sc, M.D., 
F.R.C.S.), now medical officer of health for East Suffolk. To Lady 
Stewart and all the members of her family the respectful sympathy 
of the University is offered in the threefold bereavement they have 
suffered by the deaths of Sir David, his son. Major W. D. Stewart, 
and his daughter, Mrs. Winsloe — all within the last six months. 

GEORGE ADAM, SMITH. 




Donaldson Rose Thorn, 

LATE SECRETARY OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

|Y the death of Mr. Thorn the University of Aberdeen 
has lost a devoted son and servant, his colleagues 
a dear and trusted friend, and his fellow-citizens 
an example of uprightness, courtesy and generosity 
in all the relations of life. He will be keenly 
missed in the University, alike for what he did as 
her Secretary, for what he knew — no one more 
fully — of the Acts, Ordinances and Forms that regulate her business 
and ceremonies, and for what he was, one of the most modest, patient 
and unselfish of men. 

Donaldson Rose Thorn was born in Aberdeen in i860, the year 
of the fusion of the two Universities. Sprung on both sides from 
honest, gentle stocks, pious in spirit and of a marked dignity of carriage, 
he derived from them not a little of his attractive temper and bearing. 
His father was Mr. William Smith Thom, an Aberdeen merchant and 
commission agent, his mother the daughter of Mr. Donaldson Rose of 
Hazelhead, a notable citizen of Aberdeen, who started life as a cooper, 
and having accumulated stocks of timber beyond the needs of his 
business, took to timber-selling and then to building, at first sloops, 
and afterwards larger ships for his Baltic and North American imports. 
Ultimately he founded the well-known firm of shipowners, Donaldson 
Rose & Co., whose Australian clippers were for a time the largest of 
their kind. Mr. Rose, who became a Baillie of Aberdeen under Lord 
Provost Blaikie, and an elder of the East Parish of St. Nicholas, was 
a benevolent and venerable man. Two of his sons were also members 
of the firm and another was the Rev. Donaldson Rose of the East 
Free Church, Brechin. 

Young Thom's schools were Dr. Tulloch's Academy, the Gymna- i 
sium, Old Aberdeen, and Mr. Walker's Academy. He entered the 
University in 1877 and graduated Master of Arts in 188 1. During his 



!-> 




DONALDSON ROSE THOM, M.A. 



Donaldson Rose Thorn 139^ 

four years at King's College he had as his fellow-students, either in his^ 
own or other years, a considerable number with whom he was to be 
closely associated in the business of the Court and Senatus — Mr. 
Patrick Cooper, Mr. Andrew Davidson, now the University Auditor, 
Dr. George Smith, Mr. D. M. M. Milligan, Dr. J. E. Crombie, Professors 
Gilroy, MacWilliam and M'Kerron and Dr. Scott Riddell. One of 
his teachers was Mr. P. J. Anderson, who had been a pupil of Dr. 
Robert Walker ; and both of these came to hold office in the University 
beside him. In 1881-82 and 1882-83 he studied Law under Professor 
Grub, and divided with Mr. Andrew Davidson a special prize given 
by the President of the Society of Advocates for an essay on the 
Scottish Law of Teinds. I remember reading his essay with apprecia- 
tion of its full information and clear style. He served his apprentice-^ 
ship with Mr. Alexander Edmond. In 1889 he became a member 
of the Society of Advocates and about the same time was assumed 
as a partner in the firm of Hunter & Gordon, of which the senior 
member was Dr. William Hunter. 

In 1 892 he was appointed Secretary of the Faculty of Medicine. 
At that time the duties of the Secretary of the Senatus and those of 
the Secretaries of the other Faculties were discharged by different Pro- 
fessors ; and there were a Secretary of the University Court and of the 
General Council who was also Registrar of the University and of the 
Council and Collector of the Class Fees, Mr. Robert Walker, and a 
Factor, Dr. William Hunter. But in 1894 Mr. Thom was appointed 
Secretary of the Senatus and of the Faculties, with the duties besides 
of enrolling students, recording attendances, arranging University ex- 
aminations and editing the "Calendar". In 1893 ^ Committee of the 
Court had expressed their belief that it would be possible to combine 
all the aforesaid offices, in connection with Court, Senatus and Council, 
in one person, and in 1905 another Committee reported to the same 
effect. After consulting the other two bodies, the Court agreed that 
the Clerk of the General Council should not be officially connected 
with the Court or the Senatus ; and leaving the Council to elect their 
own Clerk and Registrar, the Court appointed Mr. Thom Secretary 
of the University, combining the offices of Secretary of the Court, 
Secretary of the Senatus and Faculties, and Factor and Treasurer of 
the University. Aberdeen is the only Scottish University in which 
such a combination exists. St. Andrews, which has long had the 
same Secretary for Court, Senatus, and Council, and Edinburgh whicK 



140 Aberdeen University Review 

has recently united the Secretaryships of Court and Senatus, have, 
-each of them, a separate Factor — as Glasgow has with separate 
Secretaries of Court and Senatus. In addition to what has been 
stated Mr. Thorn's duties were defined as including the clerkship and 
arrangement of the business of all Committees, standing and temporary, 
of the Court and Senatus, the collection (as Factor) of the Class Fees, 
and the discharge of all legal work for the University, except such as 
was specially arranged for. The Standing Committees of which he 
was Clerk were ten in number: of the Court, Finance, Edilis, and 
Lands ; of the Senatus, Honorary D.D., Honorary LL.D., Ceremonials, 
and the House Committees of King's and Marischal Colleges ; and, of 
Court and Senatus both, Museums, and Advertisements and "Calendar". 
In connection with the Ceremonials Committee the Secretary had to 
make arrangements for the Graduations and other functions, prepare 
and issue tickets, and marshal the processions. He had also to act 
as Clerk to the Boards of Studies, attend all meetings of the Official 
Advisers of Students, and conduct the relative correspondence — it was 
sometimes great — with students or their guardians. A very large 
part of his office-time was spent in interviews with these. He had 
to arrange for the Bursary Competitions and the Arts Bursary 
Allocation, and every fourth year to act as Convener of the Preliminary 
Examination Board of the Scottish Universities, and prepare its 
business. He supervised, of course, the University office, and as 
Factor and Treasurer he saw to the University lands and their tenants 
(whom also he had to interview from time to time), prepared leases, 
superintended the University servitors and the care of the buildings, 
and attended to investments. It may be truly said that, in respect 
only to the routine of his duties there was no servant of our University 
with more work to do or with more rapid transitions in his work, 
or more liable to interruptions, or responsible for such a multiplicity 
of detail. If it is thought that he was slow in working, all this must 
be kept in mind 

Mr. Thom's tenure of office fell in the period of the most rapid 
expansion of the functions, organization and resources of the University. 
The fresh tide of Ordinances under the Universities (Scotland) Act of 
1889 started in 1890, two years before his first appointment, and has 
flowed steadily since. Over 225 of these Ordinances have passed, 
and Mr. Thom's grasp of them, as well as of those under the Act of 
1858, was unfailing. Since 1892 the matriculated students have 



Donaldson Rose Thorn i^i 



increased from 914 to 1532. Three new Chairs, between forty and 
fifty new lectureships, one new Faculty (Science), and three new 
Departments, Agriculture, Education and Commerce, with some nine 
new Degrees, have been established. To the ten Standing Committees 
there have been added since 1910 the Military Education Committee, 
and the Joint-Committee (of the University and the North of Scotland 
College of Agriculture) on Research in Animal Nutrition ; while the 
number of temporary committees has also increased. Since 1906, when 
Mr. Thom became Secretary of the Court and Treasurer of the Univer- 
sity, the General University Fund has grown from ;^2 1,589 to ;^ 5 7,2 17 
and the Endowment Funds from ;^388,28i to ;^56i,398. Moreover, 
within the period of Mr. Thom's holding Office the University hasentered 
into relations with other institutions, such as the Carnegie Trust, the 
North of Scotland College of Agriculture, Robert Gordon's Technical 
College, the Aberdeen Training College for Teachers, and more recently, 
the University Grants Committee. All these expansions and new 
associations heavily increased Mr. Thom's routine duties and responsi- 
bilities. Two crises, of very different kinds, brought upon him in 
addition their own exactions. 

Along with Dr. Robert Walker, Mr. Thom acted as Joint Honorary 
Secretary of the Quatercentenary Committees. The preparation for 
the Celebrations lasted two years, and in the organization and manifold 
correspondence required he took a very large share. Modestly ignoring 
his own contribution he has described the whole in an interesting 
article ** Preparatory Steps, Scheme and Organization" in "The Re- 
cord of the Quatercentenary," towards the compilation of which volume 
he and Dr. Walker assisted the editor, Mr. R J. Anderson. During the 
celebrations themselves he did yeoman service by his marshalling of 
some of the processions and assemblies, and by his supervision of other 
arrangements. He was one of seven whom the University Court 
specially thanked for *' the untiring devotion and organizing skill," to 
which " the splendid success of the Celebrations is in great measure 
due ". He presented the carved oaken cabinet in which the addresses 
from other Universities and Societies are preserved, and compiled a 
most interesting collection of all the other official documents, symbols 
and illustrations of the famous event — a proof of how he had put his 
heart into its details. 

The other crisis, of an opposite nature, was that of the War. For 
the last five and a half years very heavy burdens have been thrown 



142 Aberdeen University Review 

upon the Secretary by the mobilization and demobilization of over 
2500 of our graduates, alumni, students, and the members of our 
various staffs. 

Time-tables had to be altered, the administrative office to be 
in part re-organised, substitute-teachers to be appointed, economies 
practised, petitions to be prepared to His Majesty in Council for the 
relaxation, in favour of men on service, of Ordinances either general to 
the Scottish Universities or particular to Aberdeen. After joining the 
•colours students had to be traced, often a work of great difficulty, and 
certificates drawn up for many of those who applied for commissions. 
The Provisional Roll of Service and the In Memoriam Roll, with their 
annual Supplements, had to be carefully drawn out and regularly 
revised. All this work was rendered possible only through the 
loyal co-operation of the members of all our staffs, but naturally much 
of the responsibility and drudgery of it fell to the Secretary. When 
our students came back the work did not decrease. I can testify to the 
almost constant attention which Mr. Thom gave to the long series of 
individual cases, nearly every one of them with its own problem of 
replacement in one or other of the curricula. And latterly too, there 
were the complicated questions, and the frequent correspondence with 
the Appointments Committee of the Ministry of Labour, which arose 
out of the provision of Government Grants to ex-service men. 

All these — Mr. Thom's crowded and often aggravated labours — have 
been not unduly appreciated by the Senatus in the following Minute, 
which they passed on his demission of their Secretaryship and which 
has since been endorsed by the Court: "The Senatus most gratefully 
acknowledges the uniform patience, carefulness and ability with which 
Mr. Thom has discharged the manifold duties and responsibilities of 
liis office, the unfailing courtesy and even temper of his relations to 
the members of the University and the public, the goodwill and un- 
selfishness with which he accepted the additional burdens of recent 
years, his mastery of the Acts, Ordinances and other deeds governing 
the life of the University, his ample knowledge of her history, and his 
constant loyalty to her interests material and spiritual. The members 
of the Senatus deeply regret the close of his long association with 
themselves, during which they have learned to regard him not only as 
a trusted official but as a dear and valued friend." 

Mr. Thom did not allow the heavy labours of his office to excuse 
him during the War from rendering service in His Majesty's Forces. 



Donaldson Rose Thorn 14.3 

In 1914 he became a mepiber of the Aberdeen Military Training 
Association, and when the City of Aberdeen Volunteer Regiment was 
formed he enlisted as a private in it, regularly attended the drills and 
parades and took his turn in going on guard at the Aberdeen docks. 

In June of last year Mr. Norman A. Scorgie, B.L., was appointed 
his assistant, but Mr. Thom had hardly begun to enjoy this assistance 
when he was compelled on medical advice to tender to the Court his 
resignation of the office of Secretary of the University ; though he 
accompanied it with the expression of the desire to continue in 
charge of some of his duties — preferably the Secretaryship of the 
University Court. He was offered an immediate and lengthened 
leave of absence more than once, but with the gentle obstinacy which 
marked him he persisted in holding to his post till the election of a 
successor. In Decejmber the Court, having accepted his resignation, 
appointed him as its Secretary, and Major Henryv Jackson Butchart, 
D.S.O., B.L., as Secretary of the University in charge of all the rest 
of the duties which Mr. Thom had so long performed — both appoint- 
ments to date from i st January of this year. 

Mr. Thom expressed himself as very happy in the relief he thus 
enjoyed ; and we hoped that by the great diminution of his labours 
his health might be improved and that, as he himself so greatly desired, 
he might be able to continue for some time to serve the University 
which already owed so much to his care and devotion. But on the 
25rd of January, when he was convalescing from a heavy cold, from 
which he had suffered, he suddenly passed away — with the same gentle- 
ness and quietness that had marked all his long and strenuous labours. 

He was buried on the 27th, in Springbank Cemetery. The funeral 
service, held in the East United Free Church, of which he was an 
elder and clerk to the Deacons' Court, was largely attended by his 
•colleagues, and other members of the University, and the public. 

In 191 5, Mr. Thom was married to Miss Jessie Miller, and has left 
two sons. She and they have the warm and respectful sympathy of 
all who knew him and of none more than of his colleagues in the 
University. 

In 191 3 Mr. Thom was granted leave of absence for six months 
and spent these in a voyage round the world by the Panama Canal 
and Costa Rica to California — where he was joined by his old class- 
fellow Mr. Carnegie Ross, C.B., M.A., the British Consul-General at 
San Francisco — Japan, Northern China, Siberia, Russia, and Germany. 



144 Aberdeen University Review 

The lecture which he gave on his return and the short article which he 
wrote for No. i8 of this REVIEW on "The Old Astronomical Ob- 
servatory of Peking," as well as his contribution to " The Record of the 
Quatercentenary," already referred to, and a report in "Scottish Notes 
and Queries " (for April, 1894) o^ the Discovery of Urn and Bones at 
Kinmuick, illustrate his possession of a clear, straightforward style, his 
wide reading, and his accuracy of statement. He had begun notes for 
a series of articles for the REVIEW on the University Lands, which 
his knowledge of her ancient records and his familiarity with her 
modern business eminently fitted him to write. He had an intimate 
acquaintance with the archaeology of the North-east of Scotland, and 
his collection of pictures and books, many of which by Mr. Thom's 
desire and Mrs. Thom's kindness have been given to the University 
Library, is proof of his wider sympathies in Art and Letters. He 
took a pride in the Art treasures of the University, and in this de- 
partment, too, we owe much to his care and counsel. 

I cannot conclude this notice of my closest associate in work for 
the last ten years without testifying to the consistency of his character, 
temper and conduct. I never knew him to neglect what he under- 
took to do, or to grumble, or even to talk, about the heavy aggrava- 
tions of his duties. In my hearing he never said a harsh word of 
anybody else, and till he was forced by the state of his health to ask 
leave to resign I never knew him to seek anything for himself. 

GEORGE ADAM SMITH. . 




University War Record. 

T is already well known that Aberdeen University, 
like other Universities, Colleges, and seats of 
learning has decided, as part of her War Memorial, 
to publish a Roll of Service, and for the benefit of 
those whom it may concern (and whom, connected 
with the University, does it not concern ?) it has 
been thought desirable that something should ap- 
pear in the Review telling of the aim and scope of the Roll, and of 
the progress of the work so far. 

The Roll of Service is intended to be a permanent Record of the 
part played by members of the University in the Great War, 19 14-19. 
This Record will fall into two parts, the In Memoriam Roll, or Roll of 
Sacrifice, and the Roll of Service. The first part of the volume will 
consist of the In Memoriam Roll, with condensed biographies and 
portraits of uniform size of those who gave their lives for King and 
Country, who were killed in action, or died of wounds, or went down 
with their ships or aircraft, or died of illness contracted while on active 
service. The second part will be tiie Roll of Service, and will include 
the names of Graduates, Alumni, and Students, and members of the 
University Staffs, who went on service in the Great War — such ser- 
vice to include Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Service, or any national 
work arising out of the War. The net seems wide, but there are many 
things to be taken into consideration, and we would like our Record, 
as far as may be, to be worthy of the great deeds done, worthy of 
those who fought and those who fell, and worthy of all the unknown 
heroism and self-sacrifice, for we shall never know all that it meant to 
some to go — and to some to stay. It has also to be remembered that the 
Record is to be a permanent one, which will tell to those who come 
after us, and will enable them to tell to their children and their 
children's children, the part that the University took in the Great War. 
Already with some the tendency is to push the thought and the 
memory of the war out of their lives, but it would be sacrilege to yield 
to such a tendency. 

10 



146 Aberdeen University Review 

It is hoped to include various topographical items and possibly 
homely details, so that in time to come the Record may prove a foot- 
note to history. To ensure as far as possible the accuracy of the 
Record forms have been sent out asking for the necessary information. 
The form has been compiled with much care, and only after compari- 
son with what is being done at other Universities, including Oxford, 
Edinburgh, Glasgow, etc. Approximately, 8000 forms have been 
issued. In many cases they were sent to older men, who were beyond 
military age, but much of the work done by them was war work, in 
that they released younger men, or aided in the national life, and in 
some cases though much too old to work they wrote a word of thanks 
that their Alma Mater had not '* overlooked " them, which gives one 
the opportunity of saying that if those who did not do war work would 
return the forms with their name and address it would be a great 
assistance, showing that they had received them. There is another point 
which has emerged. Some of those who have received the form feel, 
with wholesome modesty or commendable diffidence, that they do not 
wish to " even themselves " with the men who fought and fell, and 
while one admires the sentiment may one suggest that there is another 
side to it ? In many instances the work done was war work in the 
truest sense, such as releasing those in civil employment that they 
might become combatants, acting as substitutes for teachers, assisting 
in the food production of the country, and so on ; and if we ask what 
enabled them to do this, was it not the knowledge, education, discipline 
— mental and moral — which they received at the University? So for 
the honour of their Alma Mater let them show their gratitude and 
appreciation of what she did for them and enabled them to do, by 
sending in the record of their work, leaving the committee to judge of 
the importance and significance of the work done. The editor has no 
illusions about the task in hand. Absolute accuracy is rarely obtain- 
able ; the ideal Record would take years to compile. The ideal is 
always a hand's-breadth beyond our grasp, and, as regards the In 
Memoriam Roll^ the ideal seems specially remote. 

We niay bravely try to say that " they are the lucky ones, those 
dear dead plucky ones," but we know that 

It's wi' breakin' hearts an' wi' mem'ries sair 
We're biggin' the Soldiers' Cairn. 

M. D. ALLARDYCE, 
Editor. 




On the March in Mesopotamia. 

QiYARAH, en route to Mosul, 
2 August^ 1919. 
HILE the heat is not so fierce and while I wait for the 
column to get ready I am trying to get off a few lines 
to you. The march has, so far, been terrible ; distances 
have been long and the heat exceptional. My two 
twenty-four mile stages put seven men into hospital, 
men whom no ordinary march or work affects. They 
nearly finished me too for we have to trek at night, 
which means, apart from loss of sleep, a constant wear 
on my nerves. Heavy with sleep I have to strain into 
the gloom to be sure I do not miss the track. Any mistake the first two 
marches would have meant disaster, for they were very long and we had to strike 
water just exactly or not at all. I managed it, but had to dismount, as I had to 
trust to the feel of the ground as much as to sight. So long as I could feel 
the cart ruts or the dust in them I knew I was all right. The first halt was at 
*Ain Dibs — 'Ain is Arabic for Spring — where there is a brackish spring just 
sufficient for a thousand animals. It is off the road up into the hills, and so well 
concealed that the fear began to grip me that it had gone dry, but I got there 
in spite of my Warrant Officer's suspicions that I had gone dotty when he 
saw me prospecting higher and higher into the hills. It really was a feat to 
find the well, and I hope the photographs I took of it will turn out well. 

It seemed we were scarcely in before we had to leave again, and this was 
the hardest march of this road. We had to cross the foothills of the Jabal 
Makhul, go along the top of the ridge and drop to Shergat and water at the 
twenty-second mile. Just entering the pass I had a report that a man had 
fallen out and was lost. I was fearfully upset for I thought it impossible 
he would be found alive. I was " panicked " badly, and from there everything 
seemed to go wrong. The driver of the leading cart went to sleep and, 
going down a slope, the whole cart overturned, and that took an hour to set 
right. Farther on, at a most awkward V corkscrew corner, we found a 
motor lorry had broken down right in the middle of the upward slope. Of 
course every single mule jibbed at passing between it and the hill-side, and 
to go outside, had they shied, would have meant a drop of forty feet, so 
each pair had to be coaxed through separately. I was, by this time, beside 
myself with anxiety and want of sleep, as the march seemed likely to last into 
the heat of the day. Luckily there were no more catastrophes save that, 
when we finally reached Shergat and were just pegging down, up comes the 
Post Commandant to hoof us to a site specially selected, I should think, 
because of its general unsuitability as a transport camp. I told him so 
but later forgave him. He had the best intentions. He took me swimming 
in the Tigris in the evening, for, risking a strafing at the Mosul end, I halted 
a full day at Shergat. It was absolutely necessary. 

Shergat was the first of the great Assyrian capitals and would appear 
to have been magnificently built of cut and squared blocks of marble and 
limestone. It must have been, apart from a few buildings, a finer place 
than Babylon. The Germans have done a little exploration in the ruins — 



148 Aberdeen University Review 

just enough to make them teasing. The water steps are intact and seemed 
to invite one to picture them thronged as in the days of the city's pride. Now 
there is not even an Arab village there. 

The day's halt sent every one on the next march to Hadruniyah in good 
spirits, which did not last as we had to crawl along for fear of overshooting 
the camp in the dark, and then we had to pitch in the dark, and generally 
there was such confusion that, in place of being asleep by one o'clock, we 
were pottering about at four o'clock, and to make it all the more awful a 
sandstorm started as soon as it was light and blew with such force that it 
got into locked steel trunks. I am not exaggerating in the least. How 
my old man cooked me a breakfast I do not know. He did, however, and 
by dint of not biting or chewing I found it not too gritty. As soon as it 
lulled I got soap and a towel and shot down to the river for a dip. The 
Tigris is very like the Dee here, beautifully clear, flowing over a pebbly bottom. 
It teems with fish which were nibbling my toes as I stood in the water. That 
too is no exaggeration. But the day was such that we started the march 
very depressed, and never have the men made so poor a pretence of being 
cheery. This time, though, we had a guide and we went straight ahead and 
made camp in record time just with the light so that we were all down and 
mules watered and fed by seven o'clock, after which the men slipped off to 
the river for a dip, and came back to find food ready so that they rested 
during the heat of the day and are now ready to march with the usual good 
temper and chatter. I curse them often for chattering but hate to miss it. 

Qiyarah is the site of an oil well. The machinery, etc., were destroyed by 
the Turks, but the oil is still in sufficient evidence to give the air a stench of 
burning motor tyres, and the little stream which flows down from the well to 
the river is heavily impregnated with a tarry smell and looks greasy. Thus 
oil occurs just where it is wanted. From Mosul to Baghdad is glorious 
country just wanting water. Oil pumps will give that, and the oil is just 
to hand. We are getting to work re-opening the place. If Mesopotamia is 
allotted to us, we shall have done very well out of the war. No other country 
can get such a rich prize. God knows the Empire has paid heavily enough 
for it. Some of us are still paying. I saw quoted, some one's saying, " Not 
real hardships but just discomforts test a man ". I am afraid I am not a 
man, for the grit in my teeth, the glare in my eyes, the dry salt sweat on my 
body make me writhe in agony. I could stand everything but the, loss of 
sleep, which makes me stupid. 

7/8/19.— We got to Mosul on the 5th and march again on the 9th, five 
days up. As they have started issuing secret instructions I suppose we had 
better not say where. They promise we shall be up there no more than 
six months. I am too listless to protest. . . . Myself— I am being sent 
out with mules (and men too) which the General said are not going to 
last three weeks. I was so glad he came and saw with his own eyes the 
class of animal I have. He said, " You are very badly off, but do your best ". 
He is the Divisional Commander and seems to know his mind. So long 
as he is convinced I have done my best I don't think he will let General 
Head-quarters make a scapegoat of me. That is really what it comes to. 

Let's forget that and get on to the march again. From Qiyarah we had 
a very pleasant trip to Hadra where we got closer to the river than I have 
been yet. It was a lovely stretch and I had a dip and went to sleep as soon 
as we got in. It is the first time I have had a real sleep in the day, and I 



:i 




'AiN Dibs 




The Tigris at Hadra. Rafts floating down to Baghdad 




A Difficult Track — Kurdistan 
Under Rain. Note the Tarpaulin Covers 




Vale of Rawoka (?), Kurdistan. Trees, chiefly Chestnuts 



On the March in Mesopotamia 149 

■was dog-tired. Watering, etc., was so easy that the men had a Hghter day 
than usual, and as I insisted on starting at ten while the moon was still up 
we got off the mark well and in spite of a long march got to Hammam 'Ali 
not too done up. Hammam 'Ali is an interesting place, and the word Hammam 
means " Bath ". It is so called because of the hot sulphur springs which abound 
there and which are thronged by people from a hundred miles round. They 
are most excellent for skin diseases and waist measurement. One lot of 
springs has a real bath house built over it of which I have attempted a photo. 
The water was so hot that the bathers could not remain in at first. The 
water seemed very dirty but looked clear enough when taken up in a bowl. 
On the bottom of the bath there is a continual deposit of pitch which, in 
some cases, is dug up and eaten by the bathers. 

For the rest the day at this post was fearfully hot, and I got no rest all 
day. Then we were deceived by people telling us that the march to Mosul 
was easy and only eleven miles. So I consented to a later start. The eleven 
became fifteen miles, and to that we had to add two as we went clean through 
the town, over the river, right out to here of all places — NINEVEH. We 
are camped just below the ruins and a great mosque which goes by the name 
of Nabi Yunas, " the Prophet Jonah ". . . . Actually Jonah was buried hun- 
dreds of miles away at Kufa, but it is here, on the scene of his labours, they 
have erected a shrine in his honour. It is a very imposing place and 
dominates the whole of the Mosul plain. Mosul itself is a very picturesquely 
placed city which must have altered a little from the day when General 
Marshall could call it the dirtiest town in the world. It is stone-built for 
one thing, all the doors and windows being made of a coarse grey marble 
which gives a rich effect. Streets are wide for the Orient, and the rocky 
ground does not give out the reek of corruption which clings to places like 
Hillah and Baghdad. It is full of disease, particularly that rising from loose 
living. The people seem to be a decadent crowd as compared with those 
of lower Mesopotamia. It is a treat to look at a Bedouin after seeing these. 
I get a curious feeling as I look at the Mosulians of seeing a dying race, one 
utterly effete and merely crawling about like flies till the frost nips them for 
ever. 

I am using the halt to refit as far as may be. I am dreadfully anxious 
about it all but pray it will be all right. 

1 3/8/ 1 9. -—Just into Zakho after five days' trek from Mosul, done in fine 
style, though we found many lies had been told us concerning the length of 
some of the stages. It is disconcerting to find you have made a late start, 
relying on a short march which proves under-estimated and sun-up finds you 
still wearily trudging. An hour or two hours in the sun does more to ex- 
haust the men than a full night's trek. We have been marching at night 
again of course, only this time we have had a glorious moon. It is as good 
as daylight so that I was able to ride most of these marches, and generally 
(being able to see where I was going) the strain was altogether less than that 
on the march from Baizi to Mosul. That part of our trek was merely beastly. 
This has been even pleasant, and several times we have wished it might be 
our luck to have halted here or there on this road. It is the old highway 
to Nisibin and Aleppo, and in parts is still a fine metalled road though the 
greater portion is quite ruined. Still I daresay if we stop we shall re- metal 
it. Indeed we have done it at both ends and have built some fine culverts. 
At present, however, the road is so bad that we had to use a track running 



150 Aberdeen University Review 

alongside which is well enough now but would be impossible after rain. We 
had to cross several terrible river beds, and the last passage over or, rather,. 
through, the Bohuk Su and up this bank, I thought would kill the cart mules. 
We had several near squeaks as there was a sheer drop, and carts in some 
cases started rolling back in spite of the straining mules. It was all hands 
on deck or wheels ; cooks, sweepers, and what not, all took a hand and we 
got through. At those points the route, which is quite decent everj^where 
else, just touched the impossible for wheeled transport. 

I forget whether I groused about the trip. I guess I did, but while 
not prepared to say I'm happy yet over it, still it has been an experience over 
which (after a few years to forget grievances) I may become boresome and 
boastful. I can appreciate the fact that the Mosul vilayet was the richest 
in the Turkish Empire. Our road in spring must be wonderful, for vast 
wheat lands stretch on either hand as far as the eye can see, and at every 
village now as we passed, there were great heaps of harvested grain in all 
stages, from the just gathered stooks to the threshed and sifted wheat. Nearly 
all the villages are Christian, and the people, as is natural where they have 
stood persecution for their faith, are a much finer type than the Armenian 
or Syrian. These people have lived normally under fear of raids from Kurds 
for over a thousand years, and they have stood fast. Their joy at our coming 
is intense, for though latterly the Turkish Government was not unwilling to 
protect such industrious, tax-paying subjects, it somehow could never gather 
sufficient energy to make a thorough job of the Kurds. We are setting about 
it, I can't say thoroughly, for I despair of ever seeing thorough preparations 
in Mesopotamia, still on a scale which appears to stagger our peace-disturbing 
friends. The Sularmaniyah Kurds are now very docile, but these have still 
to be taught, and we hope the next three weeks or so will put the fear of God 
and the British Empire into them. We are quite an imposing force and 
generally should knock the devil out of them. It takes the old frontier form 
of battering their villages to pieces. Architecture is governed by the ever- 
threatening Kurd. Each village consists of a huge castellated sort of fort 
round which cluster huts which can be abandoned during a raid, and the 
people collected in the big khan which, poor enough shelter against trained 
troops, is strong enough to fend off raiders for the day or so they prowl 
about. I had several talks, so far as my halting Arabic would allow, with 
the villagers. One man told me he had been pressed into the Turkish 
Army and was taken prisoner in early '15 at Nasiriyeh and was a prisoner 
in India till the Armistice. He asked me why, in place of going to all this 
trouble, we did not arm the Christians who, most of them having had to serve 
in the Turkish Army, would at least stand a chance against their age-long 
persecutors. I could not but agree. Most of them work for the Moham- 
medan Arab owners, taking one-ninth part as their share of the crop, and 
most of them, I must say, spoke well of their Mohammedan owners who, 
apart from the question of high tolerant principles, have naturally every 
cause to care for the labourer who tills lands otherwise worthless to them. 
If the kids get a map they may trace our process from Mosul — Nineveh, 
Filfil, Faida, Simel, Tarkejan (Tarkehayen) and Zakho. Faida was a sweet 
little spot, and my tent was on green grass next to a lovely spring. Filfil 
and Simel were dealing with enormous crops as we passed. Tarkejan is now 
quite ruined, but is the halting-place before one enters the pass to Zakho 
through the Jabal el-Abia. Not far from it there was a very picturesque 



<1> 




Second March from Zakho, Kurdistan 




A Straggling Column — Kurdistan 




Mohammed Hussain 




Ancient (Roman (?)) Bridge on a Branch of the Khabur near Zakho 
Logs floating to the Tigris 



I 



On the March in Mesopotamia 151 

village called Asi, snuggling in bush vineyards with a rim of oaks and stately 
cypresses. We are, of course, far beyond the palm belt now, and there are 
quite a number of holm oaks, cypresses, and other trees to be seen. In the 
pass the road is bordered with wild oleanders and vines cling wherever the 
hill-sides are not too steep. At Zakho indeed, it seems, the people live by 
selling each other grapes. Some one says they make a very passable wine 
here, which, if true, is good news for the alcoholic, as the difficulty here is 
to get even essential rations up, transport is so short and the road so long. 
All stores come up on hired local camel or donkey transport. Losses are 
naturally heavy. I fail to see how a force of this strength is to be kept going 
on that haphazard means of communication, so we shall probably move fairly 
quickly and get the job over as soon as may be. A Garhwali officer, who 
came up in January, told me he took thirteen days to get here from Mosul, 
the road was so bad, and nine days to get back after posting the detachment. 
Several times the garrison had to go out looking for the ration convoy which 
they found on the far side of one of the streams waiting for the water to 
subside. Once it refused to, and a bridge was made of carts whose beds 
were under water but not enough to prevent the rations being man-handled 
across it, while the mules were swam across higher up. He seemed fed up 
with it all, particularly as lately the Kurds have started their war and dash 
in every second or third night. 

1 4/8/ 1 9. — I can't remember whether I have already told you that 
oleanders are the most apparent feature by the roadside. Anyway, on getting 
into camp, I found a lance Naik — you will find his photo amongst those I 
have sent home — Mohammed Hussain had decorated his leading mule with 
the pink and white flowers. She looked rather fetching, I must say. Now 
my idea of Government gear and uniform is that it is designed to give the 
maximum of service and neat appearance with the least show, so I pounce on 
all illicit decoration of collars, etc., etc. Mohammed Hussain smiled sweetly 
at me when I asked why he had broken orders, and said, " But you know this 
is a mule of a very voluptuous taste, and she longed so for these flowers ". 
The same young imp of mischief scored again to-day. A raid was made for 
surplus gear — which every driver will collect with the idea of course that, 
if he loses anything, he need not report his loss but quietly make it up from 
his little hoard. My Warrant Officer was chuckling over the amount he 
extracted from this lad's section but stopped smiling when, on the com- 
pletion of the raid, Mohammed went and brought still more stuff, including 
seven spare grooming brushes. Denny had to own himself quite stumped. 
Really it is a puzzle where they get the stuff from. We raid them periodically 
but never fail to get heaps of goods from them. Rations for instance — we 
once did not get fodder for three days but at the end of it still had a day's 
supply in hand. They are marvellous people. 

Later. — Had a look at Zakho and am not prepossessed. The site is 
magnificent and might well have given the romantic novelists their ideas of 
the capitals of the fictitious Zendas and Alcovias, etc., etc., which they 
create. It stands high above the river [a branch of the Khabur] which cascades 
below in lovely greens, blues, and reds. 

The " bags " of the male inhabitants are visions of delight, ballooning 
most gracefully and made of all colours, including shot silks. My Pathan 
orderly's eye bulged with envy on beholding them. 

T. R. SPILLER. 



Tillyduke School in the Middle of Last Century. 




I HE perusal of Professor Reid's able biographical sketch 
of Sir William MacGregor in the Review recalls to my 
mind a number of facts in connection with Tillyduke 
School which may interest your readers. 

But first let me say that Tillyduke, though a " side " 
school, was not by any means a small one when Sir 
William was a pupil there, for the roll, which is extant 
and in excellent preservation, shows a total of just under 
a hundred. For quite a decade the number of pupils fluctuated between 
ninety and ninety-eight, showing that the countryside was much more thickly 
populated than it is now. Certainly the building was a new one, and the 
teacher, Mr. Kennedy, was an earnest and enthusiastic worker, so that pupils 
often came to him from considerable distances. The school had just been 
completed when Mr. Kennedy arrived to take charge. The scene that met 
his eyes was far from inviting. The house was encumbered with all kinds of 
rubbish left by the workmen, heaps of stones lay round the doors, and nothing 
had been done to make the dwelling comfortable or even habitable. It was 
mid- January and the snowy wreaths covered everything as far as the eye 
could reach from Morven to the Birk Hill, and the prospect of settling down 
there on a pittance of ;^i8 a year would have daunted many a brave heart. 
Not so Mr. Kennedy. Outside and inside school his activities were exercised 
to such good purpose that after no very considerable time the dwelling was 
one of the best on Deskryside, his garden well stocked. A few acres of the 
rough moorland trenched into a croft and held at nominal rent from Sir 
Charles Forbes, enabled him to keep a modest stock, including a pony, which 
was almost indispensable in that remote hill-side, miles away from church, 
shop and railway station. Here it may be remarked that Sir William 
MacGregor taught in a side school during his summer vacations, but not at 
Tillyduke. It was at Invernettie where this little school was situated, near 
the junction of the road to Torrencroy. The lairds of Upper Donside 
favoured education, and there were several glens with facilities for elementary 
schooling. Invernettie was a centre for the bairns from the farms and shiel- 
ings on Nochtyside. Sir William lodged at Invernettie and taught both the 
day school and the Sunday school. The lady who, as "fee't" lassie at 
Invernettie, led the singing at his Sunday class, is still living and resides on 
Deeside. 

Tillyduke school had won some laurels previous to the arrival of Mr. 
Kennedy, that is to say, the older school which was superseded in 1853. 
For many years a roughly built barn-like building with thatched roof but 
innocent of floor or ceiling, and situated on the farm of Tillyduke, was the: 
" seat of learning " in this remote district. The schoolmaster was a man of 



Tilly duke School 153 

parts, who had spent some time at Aberdeen University and had there acquired 
a most unusual proficiency in Mathematics. Throughout Strathdon and the 
neighbouring parishes he was known as an expert measurer and calculator, 
and his services in regard to surveying were often in requisition. Mr. 
Cattanach, for so he was always called by the scholars, the Mr. putting their 
respected teacher on a level with the minister, was a native of Glengairn, 
which he could visit by walking over the Bunyeach which is an extension of 
Morven to N.W. Not only did he do so, but he was frequently visited in 
return by his father, who generally brought with him a supply of seeds, turnip, 
grass, etc., partly for disposal to the neighbours, partly for his son's use. 
Among the scholars this hardy old gentleman was known as " George of the 
Glen ". 

According to the accounts of his old pupil^ Mr. Cattanach was a first- 
rate dominie, worthy of a much higher place in his profession. All agree 
that his Arithmetic and Mathematics were unequalled both in quality and in 
breadth. 

But the schoolmaster had other accomplishments. At mending clocks 
he was equal to any watchmaker, and he could dismount the mechanism, 
clean the works, repair faults, and set everything right. Watches, too, were 
not beyond his skill, unless exceptional. In fact, in these and other 
respects he was a mechanical genius. Nor did he neglect that source of 
enjoyment which does much to cheer the lives of those who dwell "far from 
the madding crowd ". He studied music, practised diligently, and became 
one of the three or four most noted fiddlers in a parish which then included 
many fine strathspey players. No great ball, whether at Castle Newe or 
Candacraig or any of the numerous mansion houses on Upper Donside, was 
complete without the master from Deskryside. 

In general appearance Mr. Cattanach was rather under medium height 
and strongly built. He was particular about the neatness of his dress, and 
wore a morning coat in school hours. His eldest son was a very clever boy 
who gave promise of great achievements at the University, but most unfortun- 
ately he died in the midst of his studies. His second son, John, taught in 
Tillyduke school for some time after his father died. This young man was 
not highly qualified, but it was the desire of the inhabitants that he should 
carry on till at least the new school was completed. Mr. Cattanach died 
about the year 1850 and was buried in Glengairn churchyard. 

Notwithstanding the unpromising outlook, from a worldly point of view, 
of a schoolmaster placed in charge of a side school like Tillyduke, it is 
remarkable that Mr. Cattanach prospered there and left a sum to his descen- 
dants which caused no little surprise among the good folks of Deskryside. 

JOHN DON. 



Reviews. 

The History of the South African ColXege, 1829-1 91 8. By Professor 
W. Ritchie. With 136 illustrations. 2 vols. Capetown: T. Maskew 
Miller, 191 8. 8vo. Pp. xvi + viii + 918. 

In the Review for June, 191 7, our graduate. Professor William Ritchie, gave a 
sketch of the history of higher education in South Africa, up to the year 19 16, 
when Parliament passed three Acts constituting three separate Universities for 
the Colony. Now, with the assistance of seven other writers, he has elaborated 
his theme, and in the two handsome volumes before us he gives a most 
interesting account of the rise of the University of Cape Town, in which he 
shows the pride proper to one who has taken so large a part in its development. 

Founded in 1829 as the College of South Africa, this institution came on 
the scene at a time when a new spirit of enterprise was awakening in the 
Colony and the need of sound education had come prominently before the 
minds of progressive citizens in Cape Town. It began brilliantly under this^ 
impetus, but its fortunes fluctuated greatly during the earlier years of its 
existence, and it had to fight its way through many troubles ; among others 
there being the religious instruction question, divided authority difficulties, 
and the ever-recurring financial strain. It is interesting to mark the gradual 
emergence from the struggle, and Professor Ritchie, who joined the staff in 
1 88 1 as Professor of Classics, gives in great detail the various iievelopments^ 
which finally culminated triumphantly in the College of South Africa becoming 
the University of Cape Town in 191 8. Many of these developments recall 
the agitations and experiments of our own University in Aberdeen and arouse 
a fellow-feeling. The woman question, for instance — in 1886 women students 
were guardedly admitted, but to the Chemistry department only, where, 
however, they behaved with such exemplary propriety that in the following 
year all other departments were thrown open to them, and they are now on 
the same footing as the men. It was not until 1906 that a Students' Repre- 
sentative Council was formed, but when it came it did much to strengthen 
the corporate feeling among the students, and prepared them for the wider 
University life which is now theirs. The old graduates of the College have 
always taken a warm interest in its expansion and improvement, and have 
shown their sympathy in many very practical ways. As far back as 1887 they 
started their benefactions by the establishment of a boarding-house for students 
at moderate charges, which proved an immediate and increasing success, 
either because or in spite of the fact that it was put under the management of 
one of the professors and was subject to the visitation of two members of the 
College Council. 

We have touched on only a few of the interesting details which Professor 
Ritchie has put before us. The wealth of illustrations and especially that of' 
the portraits adds greatly to the attraction of the book ; for, although we are 
given life-like sketches of the different personalities, it is an additional ad- 
vantage to have the actual features before one, and in the curious old-fashioned 
portraits of the founders we seem to see fresh indication of the strong, 
determined persistency which piloted the College through its early days of 
trial. An excellent index, valuable lists of officials and alumni, and a pleasant 
easy style of writing complete the value of a most interesting publication. 



Reviews i ^ ^ 

which, if welcome to us, must be still more so to old graduates and students 
of the College, who in reading these pages will live over again years which 
they probably count the most happy of their lives. 

A St. Andrews Treasury of Scottish Verse, selected, arranged, and 
edited by Mrs. Alexander Lawson and Alexander Lawson, Berry Professor 
of English Literature in the University of St. Andrews. London: 
A. & C. Black, Ltd., 1920. Pp. xiv + 280. 7s. 6d. net. 

In preparing this volume' for 1920, Professor and Mrs. Lawson had many 
difficulties to contend with. The aftermath of war has found paper, prints 
and binding all soaring in price. As a result it was possible to print only 
about a fourth of the matter contained in each of the Scottish Anthologies 
of Sir George Douglas and Professor Macneile Dixon. It would doubtless 
have been easy for the editors, thus limited, to confine themselves to the best, 
but this choice, under their circumstances, would have resulted in what would 
have been a mere selection of the best-known work in volumes already in- 
their readers' hands. Moreover, it was a feature of both those volumes, as 
will be remembered, that much space should be allotted to recent and living 
writers, and Professor and Mrs. Lawson have followed them in this respects 
The result, of course, is that the first half of the book, devoted to historical 
names, has, as compared with the former Anthologies, a rather slight effect, 
but we do not see how this could have been avoided if they were to carry out 
their plan. As it is, we have a volume which is wisely supplementary to 
those already in the market and purchasable without more than the necessary 
duplication. A new discrimination has been exercised even in dealing with 
famous names, and we have fresh pieces from Alexander Montgomerie, Scott, 
Lady Nairne, Aytoun, James Thomson and others, while scattered throughout 
the volume there are numerous poems that will be new to the Anthology 
reader. But the distinguishing feature of the book is its second portion 
dealing with more modern writers. There are some fourteen authors not 
represented at all in the two former Anthologies, not to mention that some 
writers, Andrew Lang in particular, are represented very freshly. 

It is proper that the University of Aberdeen should ^be grateful for the 
new justice done to poets of the north, and we may say in conclusion that if 
its authors have not accomplished, under the conditions now prevailing, what 
would have been the impossible, they have at least done what it requires 
great patience, wide knowledge and discriminating taste to do. They have 
produced in the difficult and much-trodden world of Anthology what is so 
far from being a mere reprint that it is a new book and a new book that will 
be especially welcome to the tried lovers of Scottish poetry. 

The Yale Book of Student Verse, i 910- 191 9. With an Introduction 
by Charlton M. Lewis, Ph.D., Professor of English Literature, Yale 
. University. New Haven : Yale University Press ; London : Humphrey 
Milford, Oxford University Press, 1919. Pp. 212. 6s. net. 

This extremely neat volume of student verse consists of selections from the 
writings of some twenty Yale authors. It is very unlike our last book of 
Georgian Poetry and gives one rather seriously to think. There is no bad 
writing in the volume and the level of accomplishment is steadily maintained. 
Th"ere are no freaks. What strikes one in regard to each poem is that great 



156 Aberdeen University Review 

pains have been taken with the structure of the building. It is not merely 
that there is nothing flung ofl" or careless in form. The subjects are always 
good and various — those that are perpetually the subject of the poet in every 
clime and time, such as the objects of the Natural World or the basic emotions 
— huge events of our own day, as for instance the Battle of the Marne — a 
drab subject directly studied for its own interest alone as we find in Table 
Talk — or parts of one's own direct experience, Lines to a Former Teacher. 
The number of War Poems is of course considerable, but the writers have all 
had something to say, "excellent matter of emulation for our flourishing 
metricians ". It is the more surprising that one is not more often infected 
with the feeling of the authors and that so few of the poems, admirably as 
they are written, leave a lasting impression of themselves. On our side of 
the ocean our young men exhibit an opposite tendency. We may say, perhaps, 
that in England just now, we have a great many young poets, but our young 
poets have not taken sufficient trouble to consider what they are writing about. 
They are able to a surprising degree to convey their own feeling, but somehow 
one feels that the material of the building has been little their concern. 
Would an alliance or an Entente Cordiale be possible so that we might both 
have sound matter emotionally conveyed and the emotional conveyance of 
sound matter? But this is perhaps captious criticism, for the reader of 
poetry, never fully satisfied, is always asking for something that he doesn't 
get. It would be more gracious to acknowledge that this volume is academi- 
cally of high attainment, graceful and sufficient, both in matter and form, and 
that its source and origin is very obviously youth attuned to high purpose. 
One delights to add that where the young have learnt so well and so evenly 
the teachers, too, must be worthy of their long tradition of culture. 

World History. By Viscount Bryce. [The British Academy. The Annual 
Raleigh Lecture, 1919.] London : Published for the British Academy 
by Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, Amen Corner, E.G. 
Pp. 27. 2S. net. 

The Raleigh Lecture of the British Academy was founded in 1918 in com- 
memoration of Sir Walter Raleigh, and Viscount Bryce, last year's lecturer, 
chose as his subject "World History," suggested by the book which is 
Raleigh's chief contribution to our literature, his "History of the World," 
written in the Tower of London, and published in 161 2. To write a history 
of the world, collating and co-ordinating the immense mass of material now 
available, would be a very formidable undertaking ; even the ambitious effort 
of Mr. H. G. Wells, which has attracted so much attention, does not profess 
to be more than an " outline ". Lord Bryce's self-imposed task in this lecture 
is the modest one of indicating how the thing might be or should be done. 
A perusal of the pamphlet, however, leaves the impression that the lecturer 
himself is uncommonly well qualified to do the very thing the doing of which 
he defines. Scattered here and there are brief but luminous passages depict- 
ing phases of world history, the rise and fall of nations, the growth of ideas, 
the development of civilization, and so on, which are remarkable for the 
comprehensive insight and historic instinct they display, as well as for the 
literary skill with which they are presented. The strictly limited purpose of 
the lecture, nevertheless, is always observed. It is directed to the conception 
of World History, the various lines on which it may be treated, i'.s relation to 
the histories of particular countries, and the light it may be made to throw 



Reviews i^j 



upon them ; and on these points the lecture abounds in weighty considerations 
and reflections and in many valuable suggestions. 

The principal suggestion is that a definite line to be taken in compiling a 
complete history of the world would be "an account of the Process and the 
Forces whereby races, tribes, nations, and states have been, or are being, 
drawn together into one common life commensurate with the earth which 
they inhabit ". Among the forces tending in this direction the more prominent 
are Conquest, Commerce, and Religion (this last specially exemplified by 
Buddhism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism); other unifying forces are 
those of philosophy, literature, and physical science. 

If any one were asked to mention a very few names as representative of the various 
unifying influences, whom could he single out as those whose life-work has done most to 
bring mankind together ? Perhaps he would select, among conquerors, Alexander and 
Julius Caesar ; among religious teachers, Buddha, St. Paul, and Mohammed ; among ex- 
plorers, Columbus and the even more venturesome Magellan ; among men of science, Watt^ 
to whom rather than to any other single man we owe our modern means of communication ; 
and Pasteur, whose researches have so reduced the risks of zymotic disease that white men 
can now with reasonable safety live among and civilize and convert, or oppress and exploit^ 
men of other colours in every part of the globe. 

Lord Bryce has much to say on the absorption of races and the springing 
up of new national types, and this leads him on to speculation as to the 
tendencies that may be expected in the future — the possible intermixture of 
races by intermarriage, with a probable counterpoise, however, in the antagon- 
isms of religion or colour. Finally, asks Lord Bryce, what has World History 
to tell us about human progress ? The answer depends on what is meant by 
progress. On the material side of life, the advance has been enormous ; so, 
too, in the fuller knowledge and mastery of the forces of nature. But "if 
progress means an improvement in the intellectual quality of the individual 
man, i.e., either of the leading and dominating minds, if it imparts either a 
more vigorous power of practical thinking or a finer power of poetical or 
philosophical or artistic creation, the answer must be that history records no 
such improvement." 

Catalogue of the Printed Books in the Library of the University of 
Edinburgh. Vol. I. A-F. At the University Press, T. A. Constable, 
1918. 4to. Pp. X + 1383 + [i]. 

This volume heralds the accomplishment of a task which Sisyphus might have 
rebelled against and Hercules politely declined. It has overtaken work 
which, by rights, should have been done more than a hundred years ago, and 
which in consequence of the delay had grown so complicated that succeeding^ 
librarians had quietly shelved the whole matter, leaving confusion to grow 
worse confounded. Now, however, the task is really accomplished, and the 
present Librarian is able to present to the world a stately volume, worthy to 
rank with the fine catalogues of the John Rylands Library, or the Bibliotheca 
Lindesiana. 

Up to this time, Edinburgh University Library has had no printed General 
Catalogue ; and even of the special lists, cataloguing small divisions of the 
Library, the last (of medical books) appeared as far back as 1798, with its 
supplement in 1805. In 1864 there began a serial publication giving the 
yearly additions, followed later by one issued monthly or thereby; which 
again, in 1905, reverted to the annual issue. But this still left untouched 
the more valuable part of the Library, comprising the collected wealth of 






158 Aberdeen University ^ Review 

more than two hundred and fifty years. There were, it is true, seventeenth 
century catalogues of the Drummond of Hawthornden and the Nairne collec- 
tions; and the Maitland Club published in 1834 from the Edinburgh Town 
Council Records the old list of books presented in 1580 by Clement Litel: 
these, however, represented but a small proportion of the vast collection in 
the University Library. A Hand Catalogue appeared in 1906, containing a 
selection of books in all departments, but the selection was a very limited 
one, the octavo volume running only to 240 pages. And this was the whole 
sum of available printed lists. It will thus be evident that the need for a 
General Catalogue was very urgent ; not for use of readers in the Library only, 
but more especially for students at a distance who were unable to consult the 
manuscript catalpgues, by which alone it was possible to ascertain whether 
any specified book was procurable or not. 

It may be interesting to consider the form this long-desired Catalogue 
has taken, and to compare it with older ones of other Universities. It is an 
Author Catalogue based on the Rules of the American Library Association 
and the [British] Library Association, published in 1908. Most of the large 
libraries have contented themselves with the author form, for either dictionary 
or subject catalogues are too extensive undertakings, when it comes to titling 
volumes counted in terms of millions. Of the two great English Universities, 
Oxford has its splendid Bodleian Catalogue, published in 1 843 ; but Cambridge, 
overwhelmed by its own wealth, has no General Catalogue ; Glasgow has had 
none but Supplements since 1791, nor St. Andrews since 1826; though in 
this last case there is an excellent quarterly Bulletin^ which catalogues current 
books. Aberdeen University had up till now — when Edinburgh wrests her 
laurels from her — the distinction among the Scottish Universities of possess- 
ing the latest and most complete General Catalogue, that issued in 1873-74 
by the late Mr. John Fyfe. This was considered, and indeed was, a wonderful 
piece of work : yet, comparing an entry there with one from the Edinburgh 
Catalogue, it is easy to see where the Aberdeen Catalogue fails and to point 
out shortcomings. In justice to Professor Fyfe, however, it must be re- 
membered 4;hat in his day there were but few printed catalogues to which 
reference could be made on points of difficulty. Mr. Nicholson in his 
Introduction pays tribute to the British^ Museum Catalogue — that mainstay 
and support of all subsequent cataloguers — but Professor Fyfe was without this 
aid, and had to depend almost entirely on the Bodleian Catalogue and his 
own knowledge. 

The great crux in all catalogues is the anonymous book, and probably no 
two libraries ever agreed entirely on this point, or accepted any code of rules 
without making their own modifications. In the Catalogue under considera- 
tion, the plan has been followed of titling an anonymous work from the first 
word not an article, and as much more as seems necessary. This plan has 
the merit of great simplicity and is adopted by the A.L. A. and the L.A. But 
simplicity is not always compatible with effectiveness; and in this case it 
would seem to sacrifice the man who seeks a volume to the man who already 
has found it — for probably only the latter would be able to supply the exact 
titles of some of the old anonymous literature. If I want "Observations on 
alphabetic writing " and forget that the full title is "Conjectural observations " 
I shall be turned empty away ; if I ask for *' Observations — or Remarks — or 
Discourse — concerning the antiquity of the Christian Church " I shall be re- 
fused because I did not remember the magic word was " Disquisitions ". This 



Reviews 



159 



is discouraging to a researcHer, and he would probably vote for the rule which 
places such books respectively under " Alphabetic writing " and " Christian 
church " — that is, under the clearly expressed subject. But the whole ques- 
tion is a thorny one, and it must be admitted that the British Museum 
itself does not appear to have solved the difficulty : at least it would seem so, 
as its system lands us with " A First book on Algebra " titled under " Book ". 

When the Rules for this Catalogue were formulated, it was not to be 
foreseen that long before it should appear in print, sceptres and crowns 
should tumble down with such an appalling crash that even the adjectives 
belonging to them would be discarded as useless. If it had been, learned 
societies and academies would probably not have been ranged, as they are 
here, under the prefixes Reale, Kaiserliches, Konigliches, etc. ; as Kaiserliches 
deutsches archseologisches Institut, or Konigliche Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften. Happy those libraries which had contented themselves with a bald 
K. or R. discreetly relegated to an inconspicuous place; as Deutsches 
archseologisches Institut, K,, or Akademie der Wissenschaften, K. : and can 
now offer their catalogue to the reddest flag-waver without danger — only 
keeping a judicious thumb on the last letter. Incidentally, this is probably 
the more convenient method of titling, for it is not always easy to remember 
what the initials represent — royal, royale, reale ; konigl, kaiserl., kungl., etc. — 
and the adjective quite frequently is not written out in full. While on the 
subject of learned societies, we would join issue on the question of dispersing 
their different publications under the various headings. Bulletins, Proceedings, 
Transactions, Journals, etc., following the principle of first word entries. The 
Society might fairly be considered the corporate author of these, and it is a 
great convenience to have them all under one heading. 

Only time can divulge whether this Catalogue has attained to the same 
dignity in character that it has in appearance. Accuracy, the imperative 
virtue by whose presence or absence such a work must stand or fall, cannot 
be estimated in a cursory glance over the pages, and it is only under the 
strain of frequent use by scholars that its quality will become evident. Yet, 
though mistakes might perhaps be found — one would be suspicious of the 
identification of the John Bissets, for instance — and a few misprints are 
inevitable in a volume of such bulk, the general verdict will surely be that 
this is a great achievement. For many long years Edinburgh University 
graduates have wistfully hoped or angrily demanded that the buried wealth in 
their University Library should be made fully accessible to scholars : but 
probably few of them realized the amount of work necessary before such a 
result could be attained. In this one volume, A-F alone, there are about 
80,000 entries, and there will probably be over 300,000 before the work is 
completed. Even in simple straightforward cataloguing this would represent 
a vast amount of labour ; but it must also be remembered that dealing with 
old fifteenth, sixteenth, or seventeenth century volumes is not straightforward 
work, and that a single anonymous book may exhaust the time and patience, 
and haunt the dreams of the cataloguer for weeks. It is therefore with real 
admiration and respect that we offer our congratulations to Edinburgh 
University and its Librarian on the appearance of this very important work, 
and predict for it a warm welcome from all libraries privileged to receive it, 
in addition to the deep gratitude of those individual scholars who have hitherto 
sighed for such a volume in vain. 

Maud Storr Best. 



i6o Aberdeen University Review 

Ille Ego : Virgil and Professor Richmond. By J. S. Phillimore. Oxford : 
University Press. Pp. 24. is. 6d. net. 

Professor Richmond in his inaugural lecture to the Humanity Class in Edin- 
burgh University argued that four lines beginning Ille ego and prefixed to the 
first line of the Aeneid, as we all know it, in certain manuscripts and in the 
edition of Virgil published in " Oxford Classical Texts," are, as a matter of fact, 
not Virgil's, but the work of the teacher and scholar Nisus, who maintained that 
they stood at the beginning of the Aeneid as it left the poet's hands. Professor 
Phillimore in this rejoinder makes a very able defence of the lines. The 
matter is not easy to settle. The lines are worthy of Virgil, but did he 
seriously intend to put himself forward at the very beginning of so exalted an 
epic ? May it not be the case that he did write the lines, but that his better 
judgment sought to withhold them from the public ? The greatest modern 
student of Virgil, Dr. Henry, defends the authenticity of the lines at great 
length, but the latest editor of Virgil, Paul Lejay, one of the very greatest of 
living French latinists, rejects them (p. xcix of his edition, published at Paris 
last year). 

A. SOUTER. 

Experiments with Plants : a First Schoolbook of Science. By J. B. Philips 
M.A. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Pp. 205. 3s. net. 

We tend to approach a new book on elementary botany with some impatience ; 
but it must be said that a work by a teacher of the ability and experience of 
Mr. J. Bentley Philip is a welcome addition to the not very long list of really 
good schoolbooks on natural science. The author is particularly happy in 
his endeavour to link up the life of the plant with physics and chemistry on 
the one hand, and with life in general on the other. His experiments are 
well chosen and clearly described; the illustrations are excellent; and the 
style is free and interesting. 

In a future edition we should like to see some of the simpler experiments 
on plant movements included. An experiment on Soil nitrification would 
make Chapter VII more complete, and the distinction between nitrifying and 
nitrogen-fixing bacteria might be made more clear. 

The book should prove of great use to teachers and pupils alike. 

The Universities of Australia. Published by Authority of the Department 
of Repatriation and Demobilization, Australian Imperial Force. Printed 
by Ede & Townsend, Ltd., London. 6d. 

This is a compact, informative, and interesting account of the six Universities 
of Australia, designed to indicate " what they can offer to British service men 
who accept the assistance of the British Government for studies in Australia ". 
Each state of the Commonwealth has now a University. New South Wales 
has " Sydney," Victoria " Melbourne," South Australia " Adelaide," while the 
other three, bearing the names of their states, "Tasmania," "Queensland," 
and " Western Australia," are at Hobart, Brisbane, and Perth respectively. 
The six differ in size, in the amounts of their private endowments, and of their 
State grants, in the forms of their government, and in the departments of 
knowledge they include. Information is given on all these particulars. The 
numbers of their students and teachers vary from 214 of the one and twenty-five 



J 



Reviews 1 6 1 

of the other in Western Australia to 1137 and 174 at Melbourne, and 1736 
and 178 at Sydney. Their Degrees, conditions of Entrance and Matriculation, 
and periods of study, with the fees and cost of living, are all described ; and 
there is an interesting section on the University and the professions in Australia. 
Altogether a most useful introduction to the Australian universities ! 

Principles of Commercial History. By James Stephenson, M.A., 
M.Comm., B.Sc. [Pitman's Library of Commercial Education]. London : 
Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., i Amen Corner, E.C. 4. Pp. xxi + 279. 
7s. 6d. net. 

Exception might be taken to the title of this book, the term "principles" 
being hardly applicable to history of any kind, far less to commercial history. 
It would have been better, perhaps, to have called the book the " History of 
Commerce," or "Features of Commercial History," for it is a record of what 
the author himself styles " stages in the history of commerce," and commerce 
itself, everywhere and in all times, is reducible to the simple principle of barter 
or exchange. This criticism apart, Mr. Stephenson's work can be warmly 
commended for its wide range, its grasp of details, and the directness and 
lucidity of its exposition. He deals with commercial history in four periods 
— that of antiquity (4000 b.c.-a.d. 476), the medieval period (a.d. 476-1453), 
the period of geographical discovery (1453-1815), and modern times (1815- 
19 14). Rapid as is his survey, it is far from perfunctory, and he recounts 
fairly fully the fascinating story of how ** from very small beginnings com- 
merce has attained to its present astounding magnitude, and how, in the course 
of time, it has passed through various stages of development which, in turn, 
have led to the transference from one nation to another of commercial suprem- 
acy ". The expansion of trade, domestic and foreign, the development of 
inter-commercial relations, the estabHshment of banking and exchanges, the 
introduction of diverse commercial policies with their effects, colonial expan- 
sion, and many other features are duly noted. From the "test-papers " 
annexed to each chapter, we take it that the work is intended as a class-book 
in the new and more academic study of commerce. For that purpose it seems 
exceedingly well adapted ; but none the less it possesses much attractiveness 
for a wider circle of readers not bent on securing a degree. 

Problems of Labor and Industry in Great Britain, France, and Italy. 
Boston : Massachusetts National Industrial Conference Board, 19 19. 

We gladly draw the attention of all interested in the problems of Political 
Economy, as raised by the present critical relations between Capital and 
Labour, to this exhaustive report by a Commission of American experts in the 
subject on the conditions they found in our own country, France, and Italy 
during an investigation of over two months. The titles of the chapters of the 
Report indicate the scope of the volume, which consists of 403 pages. They 
are as follows : Introduction on the new conditions created by the War ; Causes 
of discontent, with the emphasis on labour problems ; Nationalization of in- 
dustry, and organization of material ; Efificiency of production ; Management 
organization of workers and of employers ; Unionism in Great Britain ; Em- 
ployers' organizations ; Shop stewards ; Works Committees ; Eight hour day, 
minimum wage ; Unemployment ; Housing ; The co-operative movement ; 

II 



1 62 Aberdeen University Review 

Political labour movement ; The Whitley plan ; Political influences in the 
French, Italian, and International labour movements ; Nationalization of 
British railways and coal and "key" industries ; Property rights ; and a final 
chapter on the findings of the Commission. It may not unjustly be objected 
that the time given by the Commission was too short for their full understand- 
ing of conditions and problems within three nations so large and varied as the 
British, French, and Italian. Yet there is a good deal of accurate and useful 
information contained in the volume ; and both the report of the Commis- 
sioners* experience and their findings are suggestive. 

The Spirit : God and His Relation to Man Considered from the Stand- 
point OF Philosophy, Psychology, and Art. Edited by B. H. Streeter. 
London : Macmillan & Co., 1919. 

To this volume the contributors are, besides the editor, Miss Lily Dougall, 
and Messrs. Seth Pringle-Pattison, J. Arthur Hadfield, C. A. Anderson Scott, 
Cyril W. Emmet, and A. Clutton-Brock, The whole volume is singularly in- 
structive and inspiring. We have found this to be the case especially with 
the essays of Professor Seth Pringle-Pattison on " Immanence and Transcend- 
ence," and Professor Anderson Scott of Westminster College, Cambridge, on 
" What Happened at Pentecost ". The latter's exposition of the narrative in 
the second chapter of the Book of Acts, and his emphasis upon the " Fellow- 
ship " (Kotvwna) as the new and essential element introduced by Christianity, 
with its sacramental and ethical results, are original and very striking. 

Thirty-second Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
1910-11. Pp. 819. 

Bulletin 64 of the Bureau. The MXya Indians of Southern Yucatan 
AND Northern British Honduras. By Thomas W. F. Gann. Pp. 
146. 

Bulletin 65. Arch^ological Explorations in North-Eastern Arizona. 
By Alfred Vincent Kidder and Samuel J. Guernsey. Pp. 228. 

Bulletin 70. Prehistoric Villages, Castles, and Towers of South- 
western Colorado. By J. Walter Fewkes. Pp. 79 + 33 plates. 
Washington : Government Printing Office. 

We have directed attention before to the elaborate and precise manner in 
which ethnographical work is prosecuted in the United States, and these new 
publications of the Smithsonian Institution again demonstrate the fact. In- 
terest in American archaeology was greatly stimulated by the formation, several 
years ago, of an Archaeological Institute, and this was followed by the establish- 
ment, in 1907, of a School of American Archaeology. That there is an ample 
field for investigation is shown by the details furnished in the administrative 
report of the Bureau and in the various Bulletins. By far the larger portion 
of the Annual Report, it should be mentioned, is occupied by an " accom- 
panying paper " devoted to the fiction, legends, and myths of the Seneca 
Indians. The history of the Indian tribes, however, by no means exhausts 
the scope of inquiry. Many recent discoveries go to prove the existence of 
" a people in the stone-age culture, ignorant of metals, and therefore pre- 
historic " ; this is shown mainly by the " finds " made in cave-dwellings and 
cliff-dwellings. The investigation of primitive races is a matter of absorbing 



Reviews 163 



interest, and it is gratifying to find the work of investigation being pursued 
so systematically and so scientifically as is evidently the case in America. 



The "Aberdeen University Library Bulletin" for January contains an 
article by the Sub- Librarian on Professor Trail, sketching his work as Curator 
of the Library. It is intended to publish in the "Bulletin" shortly a 
catalogue of the Professor's botanical library, which he bequeathed to the 
University. The catalogue is being prepared by Miss A. M. Davidson. 

Part III of the " Transactions of the Scottish Dialects Committee," edited 
by Mr. William Grant, M.A. (pp. 58 — 2s. 6d.), carries on the General Vocabu- 
lary of hitherto unrecorded Scottish words and meanings from H to O. We 
are introduced thereby to a very large number of new words and phrases. 
For instance, " heely," meaning slow or bad, as in *' Ca' yer hogs to a heely 
market," credited to Rosehearty ; and " heely-tee," as in "come heely-tee," 
meaning to come in last or badly off for a share in anything, illustrated by 
" Gin ye wis expeckit t' fes hame a flagonfu' t' bile, yer midder cam heely-tee 
wi' a' she got " (Central Aberdeenshire). "Nae on't the day" is a Buchan 
phrase for " out-of-sorts " ; " He's an on-thriven lookin' crater " hails from 
East Lothian, though it has an Aberdeenshire sound about it. Banffshire, 
Forfarshire, Fifeshire, and indeed most of the Scottish counties furnish odd 
samples of both words and phrases — an indication of the great number of 
contributors Mr. Grant has enlisted in the work he pursues with such diligence 
and enthusiasm, and the success of which is manifested by the growing pro- 
portions of the Vocabulary. 

Rev. Robert H. Calder (M.A., 1877), the founder of the prize for English 
or Scottish verse (see Review, vi., 164-5), h^s just published a brochure en- 
titled " Songs of the Plough " (Aberdeen : William Smith & Sons. Pp. 20 — 
7d.). Seven of the songs are in Scots and deal mainly with rural life, especi- 
ally in the phases common to ploughmen, including even the ambition to 
possess " A Placie o' My Ain " : — 

When there's bits o' land to let, 

I own I wad be fain 
On fair and decent terms to get 

A placie o' my ain. 

The remaining five songs are in English and strike a higher note ; one in- 
stance of the pathos of the war, for example, is thus pathetically depicted : — 

The green leaves return at the breath of the spring, 
And the birds seek the cover to build and to sing, 
The lapwing returns to his haunt on the lea, 
But the lad of Glencoila returns not to me. 

The warm light returns to the brow of the ben, 

And the stream sparkles bright as it winds down the glen, 

The angler again on its banks wanders free, 

But the lad of Glencoila returns not to me. 

" The Universities and the Training of Teachers " (Oxford : Clarendon 
Press. Pp. 28 — IS. 6d. net) is a reprint of an inaugural lecture by F. J. R. 
Hendy, M.A., Director of Training in the University of Oxford. Though the 
lecture deals principally with the changes recently effected in the organization 
of the Training Department of Oxford University, Mr. Hendy's general re- 
marks have a much wider application. Referring to the now common demand 



164 Aberdeen University Review 

that teachers should possess an academic degree, he suggests a modification 
(for teachers) of the present degree courses. He is of opinion that for per- 
haps three-fourths of the work of secondary schools the most useful type of 
master is the man who can take all but the highest work in two or even three 
kindred subjects, and he indicates "such combinations as Modern History 
and Geography, or one of these with English or a foreign language ; or Eng- 
lish with one or even two foreign languages ; or Mathematics with one or 
more branches of Science ". In the more specific work of training teachers, 
he lays stress on the teaching of technique, the study of the history of educa- 
tion, and psychology. 

Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., have just issued the first part of " Pitman's 
Business Man's Encyclopaedia " (Pp. 64 — is. 4d. net), a work designed to be 
practically a Dictionary of Commerce. It has been compiled, an editorial 
note states, with the object of " providing, in compact form, the means of 
obtaining full and accurate information, with the minimum amount of trouble, 
upon any subject which can be legitimately claimed to fall within the sphere 
of a business man's life " ; and, judging from this first part, the work, when 
completed, will prove an excellent compendium, readily serviceable, and cal- 
culated to be extremely helpful. 

From the North of Scotland Agricultural College we have received 
" Prospectus of Special Classes in Summer Term 1920, for Planters Home on 
Leave " ; " Scheme of Experiments and Demonstrations " in the county 
extension department, being the Programme for season 1920; "Transactions 
of the Former Students' Association, 191 6- 191 9," including editorial notes, 
** Experiences of an Aberdeenshire Clay Farm," by James Cruickshank, Esq., 
Port ErroU, " Small Holdings," by Dr. Wilson of Tarty, and " Discussion on 
Tractors " ; also Bulletin No. 26, "The Natural History of the Bee," by John 
Anderson, M.A., B.Sc, Lecturer on Bee-keeping, a remarkably lucid and 
interesting study to be commended to all bee-keepers. 

We have also received " How did Illusion of Phenomenal Universe 
Arise ? A Solution by the Author of the * Dream Problem ' " (Delhi, pub- 
lished by " Practical Medicine,'' 1919) ; "The Covenant of Goodness, a Way 
of Life for the Great Reconstruction," by I. Brozel (London, published by the 
author, 1920, price is.), "a summing-up of the leading ideals of all Religions 
and Dispensations into the Law of Goodness or the Messianic Law " ; 
" Nature and Supernature : i. A Key to the Spiritual World," by John Leslie 
(Aberdeen, W. Jolly & Sons, Ltd., 1920, price 2s.) — an earnest discussion 
on the Churches, Spiritualism, Christian Science, Telepathy, Prayer, and other 
kindred subjects ; "Castle Doon," a Scotch Tragedy in Four Acts, by Stanley 
C. Planning (Manchester, 1919); "Post-graduate Teaching in the Univer- 
sity of Calcutta, 19 18-19," various reports of post-graduate teaching both 
in Arts and Science with the University regulations for post-graduate studies ; 
the Magazine of the Scottish Churches College, Calcutta, for September and 
November, 191 9, and for January, 1920, with articles on literary, scientific, 
economic, and other subjects ; " The Durham University Journal," Vol. XXII, 
No. 5, March, 1920, with college notices and news, reviews, and among other 
interesting articles one by C. E. Whiting on " The Great Plot of 1663," and 
another on " The Re-opening of the University of Strasbourg " ; and the 
" University of Durham College of Medicine Gazette," Vol. XX, No. 2, 
January, 1920. 



University Topics. 

NEW CHAIR OF POLITICAL ECONOMY. 

At the Spring Graduation on 24 March the very gratifying announcement was 
made that Sir Thomas Jaffrey, of Aberdeen, has placed at the disposal of the 
University Court the munificent sum of ;£2o,ooo, for the establishment of a 
Chair of Political Economy. 

ANIMAL NUTRITION RESEARCH INSTITUTE. 

An Institute for the prosecution of research in animal nutrition has been 
initiated at Craibstone Farm under the charge of a Joint Committee of repre- 
sentatives from the University and from the North of Scotland College of 
Agriculture, and intimation has just been made of the offer of ;^i 0,000 
towards its establishment and equipment, on the condition that the Govern- 
ment give an equal amount for capital expenditure and a sufficient annual 
grant for maintenance. The donor is Mr. John Quiller Rowett, Ely, Frant, 
SussexyB a London merchant interested in practical agriculture and stock- 
breeding. Mr. Rowett is the first private donor to the funds of the Institute, 
having, to begin with, offered ;£'iooo in January last. The cost of establish- 
ing the Institute is estimated at ;£5 0,000, and the Government, it is hoped, 
will make a grant of ;^i for every j£i subscribed. Efforts are being made, 
particularly by the Agricultural section of the Aberdeen Chamber of Com- 
merce, to raise the ;£^i5,ooo now required to secure the complete sum 
needed. Two eminent scientists are already at work at the Institute — Dr. 
J. B. Orr, D.S.O., M.C., M.A., D.Sc. (author of the article on "Scientific 
Research in Agriculture " in the present number of the Review) as director ; 
and Dr. R. H. A. Plimmer as chief of the bio-chemical department. So far, 
only the right wing of the building designed for the Institute is erected, but, 
when completed, the research station will have a full staff of research 
workers in all matters relating to agricultural food-stuffs and the economical 
feeding of farm animals.' As further accommodation becomes available. Dr. 
Orr and Dr. Plimmer will be aided irv their work by other highly-qualified 
experts, and the Institute will, if adequately furnished with the initial funds 
necessary, do much and far-reaching good on behalf of scientific agriculture. 

Dr. Orr and Dr. Plimmer, it may be mentioned, have the status of Uni- 
versity Lecturers. 

The Joint Committee have resolved to attach Mr. Rowett's name to the 
Institute. 

NEW PROFESSOR OF BOTANY. 

The King has been pleased, on the recommendation of the Secretary for 
Scotland, to approve of the appointment of Mr. William Grant Craib 



1 66 Aberdeen University Review 

(M.A., 1907) to be Regius Professor of Botany in the University in room of 
the late Professor Trail. The new Professor is a son of the late Mr. William 
Craib, farmer, Kirkside, Banff. He received his early education at Banff 
Academy and at Fordyce Academy; and, entering Aberdeen University, 
graduated in Arts in 1907, with special distinction in Botany. Soon after- 
wards, he was selected to fill temporarily the posts of Curator of the Herbarium 
and Librarian at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sibpur, Calcutta. While in 
India he was deputed on a collecting expedition to the hills of North Cachar 
in Assam and also made an excursion into the bikkim Himalaya. Returning 
home, Mr. Craib from 1909 to 191 5 occupied the post, under the India 
Office, of Assistant for India in the Herbarium attached to the Royal Gardens 
at Kew. Since 191 5 he has been Lecturer on Forest Botany and Indian 
Forest Trees in Edinburgh University, where he has had charge of the course 
of instruction on the botanical side to students of forestry. He was recently 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. This year he was 
appointed external Examiner in Botany at Aberdeen University. The new 
Professor's published papers, embodying original and independent research, 
include the " Flora of Banffshire " and '* Contributions to the Flora of Siam," 
reprinted in the ** Aberdeen University Studies"; and also "Regional 
Spread of Moisture in the Wood of Trees — Deciduous-Leaved Trees During 
the Period Late Autumn \o Early Spring ". 

It may be of interest to mention that one of the candidates for the Botany 
Chair was a lady — Dame Helen Gwynne-Vaughan, the widow of a scientist. 
She was for many years head of the Botany Department at Birkbeck 
College, London, and was Examiner in Botany in the University for four 
years before the war. She succeeded Miss Violet Douglas-Pennant as Com- 
mandant of the Women's Royal Air Force in September, 19 18, and was made 
C.B.E. in that year. She is also an LL.D. of Glasgow University. She is 
one of the few women to hold a flying certificate, 

NEW UNIVERSITY LECTURERS. 

Dr. John Cruickshank, Pathologist to the Crichton Royal Institution, 
Dumfries, has been appointed to the Georgina McRobert Lectureship in 
Pathology in Aberdeen University. Dr. Cruickshank graduated M.B., Ch.B. 
with honours at Glasgow University in 1908, gaining the Brunton Memorial 
Prize as the most distinguished graduate of his year. From 1 908 till 1 9 1 1 
he was Assistant to the Professor of Pathology, Glasgow University. In 1911 
he was appointed Pathologist and Clinical Pathologist to the Crichton Royal 
Institution, where he has conducted investigations into the pathology of 
mental diseases. In 191 3 Dr. Cruickshank graduated M.D. with honours, 
and was awarded a Bellahouston Gold Medal for eminent merit in his thesis. 
During the war he served in France as Officer in Charge of a mobile 
bacteriological laboratory and as Assistant Adviser in Pathology to the Third 
Army, and was twice mentioned in dispatches. Dr. Cruickshank has held 
several research scholarships, and is the author of numerous publications 
bearing on his researches in various branches of Pathology. 

Mr. Alexander Blacklaw (M.A., 1878), advocate, Aberdeen, has 
been appointed Lecturer in Mercantile Law under the Ordinance instituting 
a degree in Commerce, and will deliver his lectures during the ensuing 
summer session. 



University Topics 167 



COUNT D'ALVIELLA AND THE GIFFORD LECTURESHIP. 

The Senatus recently renewed an invitation to Count Goblet d'Alviella 
to become Gifford Lecturer, and offered him special facilities, suggesting that 
the lectures be limited to one year, and be delivered either in the forthcoming 
summer or during next winter. The Count, however, has felt obliged to 
decline the invitation, even under what he termed the "tempting conditions " 
proposed. Having resumed his duties as Vice-President of the Belgian 
Senate and leader of the Liberal party in that chamber, he felt (he wrote) 
that he owed it to his country " not to desert this field of action until at least 
the end of the present Legislature, which has to perform within two years an 
enormous amount of work in trying to restore the former state and to 
rejuvenate the old constitution of Belgium ". 

THE SECRETARYSHIP OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

The late Mr. Donaldson Rose Thom (as elsewhere noted in this number 
of the Review) resigned the important post of Secretary, Treasurer, and 
Factor of the University at the end of the past year. He was appointed in 
1906, when the University authorities decided to withdraw their factorial 
and legal work from outside quarters and appoint a " whole time " official to 
the post. 

The appointment of a successor to Mr. Thom was made by the University 
Court on 2 2 December last, when, on the recommendation of a Joint Com- 
mittee of the Court and the Senatus, and with the concurrence of the 
Senatus, Mr. Henry Jackson Butchart, D.S.O., B.L., advocate in Aberdeen, 
was appointed. It was resolved at the same time that the Secretary should 
devote his whole time to the duties of the office, these duties to include the 
Secretaryship of the Senatus, the Faculties, and the different Committees of 
the Court and the Senatus, along with the factorship and Treasurership of 
the University. 

Mr. H. J. Butchart, the new Secretary of the University, is a son of the 
late Mr. James S. Butchart, advocate in Aberdeen, and is thirty-seven years 
of age. He is a B.L. of the University with honours (1905), and a member 
of the Society of Advocates in Aberdeen l["i 908), and for the past eleven years 
he has been a partner in the firm of Butchart & Rennet. A Captain in the 
Scottish Horse on the outbreak of war, he was mobilized with his regiment 
and remained on active service till demobilized in July last year. From June, 
19 16, he served continuously on the Staff in Egypt, Palestine, and France; 
and during the advance on and capture of Beersheba and Jerusalem he was* 
responsible, under the Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General, for the 
transport and supply arrangements of the 74th (Yeomanry) Division. He 
was twice mentioned in dispatches, promoted to the rank of Major, and 
awarded the D.S.O. and the Star of Roumania. 

On the death of Mr. Thom, Mr. Butchart was appointed Secretary to the 
University Court. 

GIFTS TO THE UNIVERSITY. 

Among recent gifts to the University is an ancient portrait of one of the 
Stuart Kings, probably James V, on an oak panel— bequeathed by the late 
Mr. John Thomson, Aberdeen University Press. 



1 68 Aberdeen University Review 

UNIQUE GIFT TO THE LIBRARY. 

Rev. Dr. James Donald, Keith-hall (M.A., King's Coll., 1858; D.D., 
Aberd., 1904), has presented to the University Library a volume of very 
considerable importance — a copy of the earliest known Scottish edition of 
the Authorized Version of the New Testament, dated 16 19. It is a work 
absolutely new to bibliographers, who have hitherto believed the Edinburgh 
edition of 1628 to be the earliest. Raban printed at Aberdeen in 163 1 what 
has now to take rank as the third Scottish edition. 

The volume presented by Dr. Donald, which measures three by two 
inches, and has 11 16 pages, according to the colophon "was printed at 
Edinburgh by Andro Hart, anno 16 19, Novemb. 4." The morocco binding 
seems to be early 19th century, with a later silver clasp bearing the inscrip- 
tion, "James Donald, Keith-hall, from his grand aunt, Elizabeth Wilson, 
Kirkhill, 21st Nov. 1876". Dr. Donald writes: "My grand aunt was 
the daughter of Dean Christie, Episcopal minister at Woodhead, Fyvie, about 
1800, and was the wife of her cousin, Mr. Alexander Wilson, Oldmeldrum, 
who was my grandmother's brother. She told me that it had been given to 
her father by a very old lady who belonged to his congregation. It has the 
reading ' shamefastness ' (which is right) in i Timothy ii. 9. It is probably 
the only copy remaining of that issue." 

Though the 16 19 issue is the earliest Scottish edition of the Authorized 
Version, it was preceded by an edition of the Geneva Version (Edinburgh : 
A. Arbuthnet, 1576) and an edition of Beza's Version (Edinburgh : A. Hart, 
1610). 

Mr. Kellas Johnstone has presented to the University Library 180 
volumes of great interest and value, largely biographical, but including many 
French classics in fine bindings. 

> 
THE UNIVERSITY AND THE WAR. 

The following awards and honours have been announced since our last 
issue : — 

Lieutenant-General Sir George ^Francis Milne (Arts student, 1881-83 ; 
LL.D., 19 1 9) has had conferred upon him by the President of the Republic 
of China the Order of Wen-Hu, ist Class. 

Major Archer Irvine- Fortescue, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1904), has been 
awarded the D.S.O. for services rendered in North Russia. He distinguished 
himself in the withdrawal of his hospital, with 100 patients, from Shenkhurst, 
when that town had to be evacuated on short notice ; and he accomplished 
the withdrawal under the most arduous and trying circumstances, bringing 
the whole convoy over no versts to Beresniki without the loss of a single life. 
At present he is a member of a special mission to Persia. 

Dr. Alexander William Hendry, Captain, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1914; 
M.D., 1 91 8), has been made an Officer of the British Empire (O.B.E.) for 
services during the war. 

Captain John Elrick Kesson, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1907 ; M.D.), has been 
made an O.B.E. He is serving at present with the 7th Sanitary Section of the 
R.A.M.C. at Batum, Russia. 

Captain William Littlejohn, 4th Gordon Highlanders (alumnus, 1892- 
95), has been made an O.B.E. for services during the war. 



University Topics 169 

Rev. Frederick William Lovie (M.A., 1912) has been awarded the 
Military Cross. On leaving the Divinity Hall, Aberdeen, he became assistant 
at Old Greyfriars Church, Edinburgh ; and after the outbreak of war he 
enlisted in the Gordon Highlanders as a private soldier. He won promotion 
rapidly, and after serving for some time as a non-commissioned officer, he 
received a commission. He saw service in France with the 8/ioth Gordon 
Highlanders and latterly with the 5 th Gordons, and was severely wounded in 
the summer of 19 18. 

Mr. Grigor Charles Allan Robertson, M.C, formerly Lieutenant, 
6th Seaforth Highlanders (B.Sc. Agr., 1913), has been awarded the French 
Legion d'Honneur (Chevalier). He was recently appointed Lecturer in 
Agriculture at Leeds University. 

Captain (Acting Major) Harold Edgar Smith, R.A.M.C. (T. F.) (M.A., 
1901 ; M.B.), has been awarded by the King of the Hellenes the Medal of 
Military Merit of the third class, in recognition of distinguished service during 
the campaign. Dr. Smith was in charge of No. 3 Ophthalmic Centre, 1916- 
18, and of No. i Ophthalmic Centre, 19 18- 19, British Salonika Force. 

THE MOST DISTINGUISHED ARTS CLASS. 

A correspondent of an Aberdeen newspaper having asked which Arts 
Class of the University has produced "the greatest number of famous men," 
the following reply was furnished by " P. J. A. " : — 

If by " famous men " is meant men who have risen above the ordinary 
level of University professors, knights bachelor, doctors of Divinity or minor 
poets, and have achieved some measure of real distinction, then the smallest 
Arts Class that has entered the University since i860 may put in a claim. 
That was the Class of 1868-72 — some members of which, it may surprise the 
present generation of graduates to learn, still survive. The entrants of 1868 
numbered only eighty-six, but these included: — 

Sir William Watson Cheyne, Bart., M.P. for the Scottish Universities. 
(Medicine.) 

The Hon. Lord Kennedy. (Law.) 

Dr. Robert Laws, the Columba of Central Africa. (Divinity.) 

Dr. William Loudon MoUison, Master of Clare College, Cambridge. 
(Education.) 

Can any other Arts Class point to 5 per cent of its members who rose to 
fairly comparable positions? 

PRIZE FOR ANGLO-AMERICAN HISTORY 

The Executive Committee of the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of 
Scotland has adopted a proposal by Lord Shaw of Dunfermline that a prize 
of 300 guineas be given by the Trust for the best survey of Anglo-American 
history by a graduate of any of the Scottish Universities of not over ten years' 
standing from the date of his first graduation. 

KITCHENER SCHOLARSHIPS. 

The Council of the Lord Kitchener National Memorial Fund has issued 
its first award of 86 scholarships, ranging in value from ^50 to ^£"150 per 
annum, and for periods of from one to four years, according to the needs of 



lyo Aberdeen University Review 

the different applicants. Among the selected applicants are : Mr. E. W„ 
Comins, Blundell's School, Bideford, Cornwall, who receives ;£"i2o for one 
year to attend the planters' course, Aberdeen and North of Scotland College 
of Agriculture ; and Mr. Ian C. Robertson, Robert Gordon's College, Aberdeen,, 
who is to receive ^TS P^^ annum for two and two-third years on attending a 
course in commerce at Aberdeen University. Mr. John Martin, student in 
Arts, who, as a driver in the Ross and Cromarty (Mountain) Battery, served in 
the Gallipoli campaign and was wounded, was awarded one of the first scholar- 
ships in October, 191 8. The object of the fund is to assist the -education 
of, among others, demobilized officers, non-commissioned officers, and men, 
and of their sons. Of the 85 scholarships, 1 8 were given to sons of officers,, 
and 15 to sons of officers who had risen from the ranks. 



GRADUATES' DINNERS. 

ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY CLUB, LONDON. 

There was a large gathering of members of the Club at the half-yearly dinner 
in the Criterion Restaurant on 20 November. Professor Ashley W. Mackintosh 
presided, and the principal guest was Mr. Robert Munro, the Secretary for 
Scotland. Among those present were Professor Sir David Ferrier, Professor 
Arthur Keith, Rev. Principal Forsyth, Sir James Cantlie, Sir James Galloway, 
Sir James Porter, and Sir James Reid. 

The Chairman, in proposing "The University and the Aberdeen University 
Club, London," said that, with regard to their Alma Mater, the year that was 
passing had been a notable year. It was notable, first and foremost, in the 
return of so many students from the Great War. Before the war one was 
talking to unsophisticated youth. Now one was dealing with those who had 
had experiences which he might never have again in his lifetime. Yet they 
were as modest and studious as if they never had gone through that unsettling 
period. Aberdeen University, like all British Universities, had shone during 
the war. The roll of service amounted to something like 2600 — nearly three 
battalions of men at full strength — (applause). They had suffered dreadfully 
— 302 had fallen. Of these 161 were graduates and 97 students. Besides 
that eleven were students previously graduates, twenty-four were former 
students, and seven were put in who intended matriculating, but who were 
prevented through going to the war. From 1912 to 191 8, 281 men had 
passed through his hands. These were young men who graduated and were 
sent to the front lines. If the war had finished in March, 19 18, only four 
would have fallen. But other seven had fallen. He thought the surprise 
was not that so many fell but that so many had come back. He doubted 
if any medical school was so depleted of its staff as Aberdeen. 

After referring to the great changes in the University Staff, the introduction 
of two new degrees (Commerce and Education), and other matters, the 
Chairman went on to say that they had easily a record number of students 
now for the University. In 1861, when Sir David Ferrier was carrying 
everything before him, there were about 600 students — mainly Arts, only 160 
being in Medicine. This winter alone the University had 1445 — practically 
400 more than they ever had in the history of the University — (applause). 
In arts they had 275 men and 285 women. In science they had, in what 



University Topics lyi 

used to be a small department, the startling figure of 205 men and 50 
women. Divinity was low, with only nine, and law had twenty. They had 
in medicine 458 men and 140 women. 

Principal Forsyth proposed **The Guests," and Mr. Robert Munro, Sir 
David Brynmor Jones, and Sir James Purves Stewart replied. 

The health of the Chairman was proposed by Sir David Ferrier. 

ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY EDINBURGH ASSOCIATION. 

The thirty-first annual dinner of this Association was held in the Cale- 
donian Station Hotel, Edinburgh, on 6 February. The last dinner took place 
in February, 1914. Rev. Dr. James Harvey, Lady Glenorchy's United Free 
Church, Edinburgh, presided over a large attendance of members, and Sir 
George Adam Smith, Principal of the University, was the guest of the evening.. 

The Principal, replying to the toast of " Our Alma Mater," proposed by 
the Chairman, referred to the present situation and prospects of the University, 
and remarked that, like all other universities, they had been faced with a 
perfect flood, an overwhelming spate of students this year. Marischal College,, 
which was enlarged in 1906 to an extent which it was thought would suffice 
for the next fifty years, was, he said, becoming, far too crowded, and they were 
faced with several alternatives. One was to remove their science classes to 
King's and leave Marischal free for medicine, law, and the new department 
of commerce. Whether that or some other alternative would be adopted he 
could not say. He wanted all the graduates of Aberdeen University to keep 
in view the fact that they would require during the next dozen years the help 
— financial, intellectual, and moral — of her sons throughout the world in her 
endeavour to meet the educational needs of that part of the country — 
(applause). They had in comparison with other Universities far too many 
independent lectureships. Instead of these they ought to have professorships. 
They wished to see six or seven of these lectureships raised to the rank of 
professorships during the next few years — (applause). 

Sir W. Leslie Mackenzie proposed "Sister Universities," and Professor 
A. R. Cushny replied. Rev. J. R. P. Sclater submitted "Literature," Professor 
Grierson responding. "The Chairman" was proposed by Mr. William 
Mitchell, K.C. 

OUR GRADUATES IN LANCASHIRE. 

The North- East Lancashire Aberdeen University Graduates Association, 
founded in 1895, held its twenty-first annual dinner — and the first since 
the beginning of the war — on 29 January, in its accustomed place of meeting. 
The Old Bull Inn, Blackburn. The Association has about forty members, of 
whom some twenty-two were present with an equal number of guests. A 
novel and very happy feature of the gathering was the presence of two lady 
graduates who are settled in Burnley, Mrs. Elizabeth Helen Ritchie {nee Duff) 
(M.A., 1913) and Mrs. Margaret Stephen Ritchie («^^ Allan) (M. A., 1917), 
whose guests were their husbands. The Chairman, who proved an admirable 
conductor of the proceedings, was Dr. William Moir (M.B., 1892) of Darwen. 
"Alma Mater" was proposed by Sir William Milligan (M.B., 1886) of Man- 
chester, an honorary member of the Association, and replied to by the 
Principal, the guest of the evening. Dr. James Gardner, a Glasgow graduate, 
proposed " The Association," and the President-elect, Dr. Alex. Falconer (M.B.„ 




172 Aberdeen University Review 

i895)of Earby, Yorks, replied. Dr. A. M. Sinclair (M.B., 1890) of Burnley, 
who acted as Mayor of that town during three years of the war, proposed 
**The Guests," and Mr. Ritchie replied. The toast of "The Chairman " was 
given by Dr. C. Ritchie (M.B., 1895) of Nelson, and in returning thanks Dr. 
Moir proposed the health of Dr. Thomas Snowball (M.A., 1892) of Burnley, 
to whom were due the careful and entirely successful arrangements of a very 
enjoyable evening. The speeches were of a most happy character, reminiscent, 
intimate, and inspired by grateful and affectionate loyalty to Alma Mater. In 
addition, those of Sir William Milligan and the Principal sketched the recent 
developments and indicated the needs and future policy of the University, and 
suitable references were made to the many changes of the past year and in 
particular to the lamented deaths of Professor Trail and Mr. D. R. Thom. 
The Chairman reported that the Association had decided to make a joint- 
contribution to the University War Memorial, described by the Principal. 
The company very much missed Dr. William Geddie (M.B., 1874), one of the 
founders of the Association, who has just retired from his long practice at 
Accrington and is residing at Speymouth. A hearty welcome was given to 
the singing of verses composed by the late Professor Stephenson whose visits 
to the Association, as well as those of Dr. Scott Riddell, were gratefully re- 
membered by the members present. Dr. Stephenson's verses are as follows : — 

« THE OLD BULL INN." 
{Tunc— The Gadle Rins.) 



O gin I were in the Old Bull Inn, 
The Old Bull Inn, The Old Bull Inn, 
O gin I were in the Old Bull Inn, 

Where College freens forgather. 

When old-time freens agree to dine, 
It's no the meat, it's no the wine, 
It's just the tang o' auld lang syne 
That draws us a' thegether. 

{Chorus) — So here we are in the Old Bull Inn, dfc. 

From Aberdeen we're hine awa, 

The years slip by, but 'mongst them a' 

Our student days we maist reca', 

They keep us young and hearty. 

[Chorus) — So here we are, &•€. 

A weel-kent face, the hand o' ane 
Gar years gang dirlin' through the brain. 
And mak' us feel we're back again 
In Marischal or in King's. 

(Chorus) — So here we are, &>€. 

Then here's to Marischal and to King's, 
Round them, like ivy, mem'ry clings, 
Fu' loud the '* Gaudeamus " rings 
In Blackburn's Old Bull Inn. 

Gaudeamns igitur,juvenes dum sumus, 

Post jucundam juventutem, post molestam senectutem. 

Nos habebit humus, nos habebit humus. 



University Topics 173 



ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY CLUB, MANCHESTER. 

The first annual dinner of this Club after the war was held in Manchester 
on 12 March, under the presidency of Dr. Alexander Fraser, D.S.O., of 
Queen's Park (M.B., 1892), Professor Ashley Mackintosh was the guest of 
the evening. 

SOUTH AFRICAN ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY CLUB. 

A very successful meeting of the South African Aberdeen University Club 
(Transvaal Branch) was held at Johannesburg on 21 June last. Mr. W. E. C. 
Clarke, M.A., the Vice-President, was in the chair; and twenty-six graduates 
sat down to dinner. Invited guests brought the number 10 over thirty. 

A kind letter of greeting from the Principal of the University was read, 
and was much appreciated by the members. Copies of the Roll of Service 
and its Supplements were handed round during the evening. Many recollec- 
tions of old college days were unearthed from the caverns of memory ; and 
many sons gave expression to their affectionate regard for their old Alma 
Mater. 

After the outbreak of the war the annual meetings naturally lapsed. 
The active life of the club has now been resumed, however ; and periodical 
meetings will be held in future. 

SCIENCE GRADUATES' REUNION. 

A reunion of the science graduates of Aberdeen University was held in 
the Palace Hotel on 29 December, and took the form of an informal reception, 
followed by a dance. The reunion was attended by about a hundred guests, 
and among those who accepted invitations were Principal Sir George and Lady 
Adam Smith, Mr. James Wordie and Miss Wordie, Professor and Mrs. 
Hendrick, Professor Macdonald, Professor Reid, Professor and Mrs. Thomson, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Warwick Brown. The committee in charge of the arrange- 
ments consisted of Dr. Marr, Dr. Skene, Miss Dow, Miss Dunn, Miss Essle- 
mont, with Mr. P. Leslie as convener. An enjoyable evening was spent. 

ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY WOMEN IN LONDON. 

The informal association of Aberdeen University Women in London, 
which began its activities in November, 1918, has been leading a flourishing 
existence ever since that date. Meetings have been held every two months, 
and on no occasion have the numbers present fallen below twenty. These 
gatherings have for the most part taken the form of dinners. Recently, how- 
ever, it was decided to vary the programme by holding a dance, which took 
place on 13 February, in the Irish Club, 28 Charing Cross Road. Twenty- 
five couples were present, mainly Aberdeen graduates, and the evening proved 
most successful. In view of the general enthusiasm, it is hoped that the 
function will become an annual event. 

CLASS REUNIONS. 

Arts Class, 1889-93. — After being in abeyance during the war, the 
triennial reunion of this class has ))een resumed, and a dinner was held in 



174 Aberdeen University Review 

the Imperial Hotel, Aberdeen, on 29 December. The chair was occupied 
by Colonel R. Bruce, D.S.O., Cults, and the other members of the class 
present were: Mr. W. G. Fraser, H.M.I.S., Stirling; Dr. R. Douglas, 
Elgin; Mr. W. Mitchell, K.C., Edinburgh ; Rev. J. R. Duncan, Lhanbryde ; 
Mr. F. S. Teunon, advocate, Aberdeen ; Mr. E. Rennet, advocate, Aberdeen ; 
Mr. B. Skinner, Head Master, Strichen P.S. ; Mr. James Innes, Head Master, 
Alford P.S. ; Mr. W. G. Campbell, S.S.C, Edinburgh; Dr. J. Crombie, 
Aberdeen ; Mr. James M'Lean, Head Master, Lumphanan P.S. ; Mr. John 
Mackay, Training College, Aberdeen ; Rev. W. G. Garvie, Ballantrae ; Major 
W. Alexander of Cobairdy; and Mr. J. Reid, C.A., Aberdeen. Apologies 
for absence were intimated from Professor Souter, Aberdeen ; Professor J. C. 
Philip, London ; Mr. W. H. Cranna, Aberdeen ; Rev. A. W. Watt, Orkney ; 
Mr. James H. Duthie, South Africa ; Mr. D. H. Duthie, Aberdeen ; Pro- 
fessor Mair, Edinburgh ; and Mr. George Andrew, Broughty- Ferry. 

The loyal toasts were given from the chair; the toast of the Imperial 
Forces was given by Mr. Rennet, and replied to by Colonel Bruce ; the Class 
was proposed by Mr. Innes, Mr. Canipbell replying. The University was 
honoured on the call of Mr. Mitchell, and replied to by Major Alexander. 
Dr. Crombie proposed the toast of the Chairman. 

A very pleasant evening was spent in reminiscence, song, and story. It 
was recorded that three members of the class had fallen in the war, viz. : 
Captain R. K. T. Catto, Major A. K. Robb, and Rev. A. Urquhart, while 
suitable reference was made to the distinguished career of the Chairman — 
Colonel Bruce — in the Army during the war. 

Arts Class, 1892-96. — This class held a very happy reunion in the 
Imperial Hotel, Aberdeen, on 2 January. Much has happened since the 
last meeting in December, 191 2, and the feet of the passing of historic years 
gave an additional interest and enjoyment to the gathering. Twelve sat down 
to dinner. Colonel James Dawson, D.S.O., etc., Director of Education, 
presided. The original roll showed a membership of 108. Of these a few 
will fall out owing to insufficient qualification ; ministry 1 3, medical profession 
1 7, teaching 30, law 8, various 1 1 ; died before entering on profession, 4 ; 
unknown through not replying, 25. The toast-list given from the chair was 
"The King," "The Class," "The Absentees," and "To the Memory". 
The health of the secretary was also proposed by Colonel Dawson, and his 
own health as chairman was most felicitously given by Mr. Littlejohn, speaking 
from experience of his excellent war service in the famous 51st Division. 

As the first class under the " New Ordinance " of these distant-getting 
days, the class appeals to all members to make a strong effort to keep up the 
good old Aberdeen University custom of reunion. 

Arts Class, 1901-5. — This class held its fourth reunion in the Palace 
Hotel, Aberdeen, on 2 January. Rev. Ivo M. Clark, Farnell, Brechin, 
presided, and the other members of the class present were : Mrs. Elizabeth 
Black, Liverpool ; Messrs. Robert Bruce, Aberdeen ; H. J. Butchart, the 
newly-appointed secretary of the University ; James M. Clapperton, solicitor, 
Aberdeen ; A. K. Forbes, Head Master of Fishcross P.S., Alloa; Miss Annie 
Kemp, Woodside Higher Grade School, Glasgow ; Miss Christina Mackay, 
Central Higher Grade School, Aberdeen ; Messrs. Alexander M'Ouat, teacher, 
Glasgow ; James D. Patterson, solicitor, Banff ; J. Minto Robertson, Turriff 
Higher Grade School ; Miss Mary Robson, Aberdeen ; Miss Christabel Sharp, 



University Topics 17^ 



Ware Grammar School, Herts ; Messrs. Alfred J. Smith, D.Litt., Lecturer in 
Humanity, Aberdeen ; and Theodore Watt, Aberdeen, secretary of the class. 

After dinner, a very interesting time was spent in going over the records 
of the class. It was reported that eight members had fallen in the war, these 
being Alexander AUardyce, solicitor, Aberdeen; William T. Craig, teacher, 
Glasgow; George Dawson, teacher, Aberdeen; John K. Forbes ("Student 
and Sniper-Sergeant ") ; James T. Jenkins, herring merchant, Burghead ; 
James Rae, M.D., R.A.M.C. ; Bertram W. Tawse, Principal of the Educa- 
tional Institute, Inverness ; and Robert W. Wilson, teacher, Glasgow. Special 
reference was made to outstanding events in the class's history since the last 
reunion seven years ago, these including the appointment of Mr. Butchart as 
secretary of the University, the conferring of the degree of D.Litt. on Mr. 
A. J. Smith, and the part taken by Mr. Robert S. Clark in Shackleton's trans- 
Antarctic Expedition. He acted as biologist, and was one of the party of 
twenty- two marooned on Elephant Island for four and a half months in 191 6. 
Altogether, the members present at the reunion felt that the class was worthily 
upholding the great tradition of the University, and resolved to issue a new 
edition of the class record. 

Arts Class, 1905-9. — A dinner of this class was held in the Imperial 
Hotel, Aberdeen, on 22 December. Thirty members of the class were 
present — seventeen ladies and thirteen gentlemen. Mr. R. N. Gilchrist, 
Principal of Krishnagar College, India, was chairman, and proposed the loyal 
toast and that of the class, which was replied to by Mr. W. T. H. Williamson. 
Miss I. Coutts and Messrs. Milne and Robertson were appointed permanent 
Class secretaries, with power to form a committee for the purpose of collecting 
information for a Cl^ss Record and to arrange for the next reunion. 

The Chairman, in the course of his remarks, referred to the fact that 
sixteen members of the class had fallen during the war, including the Town 
Council medallist (Mr. John McCulloch, M.A.), the Simpson mathematical 
prizeman (Mr. Fred Stephen, M.A.), and some others of the most brilliant 
and promising men of the year. Silent honour was done to the memory of 
those comrades who had given their lives for freedom and right. 

Arts Class, 1908-12. — An informal reunion supper of this class was 
held in the Station Hotel, Aberdeen, on 2 January. Dr. Ian G. Innes, the 
Class Secretary, presided, and twenty members of the class were present. 
After the usual toasts, the question of a Class Record was discussed and it 
was unanimously resolved to proceed with it forthwith under the Editorship 
of Mr. E. Main. As it was found impossible to arrange for a formal reunion 
owing to lack of time, it was also unanimously resolved that such a gathering 
should take place about Christmas, 1920, and that arrangements for this 
should be made as early as possible. 

Twenty-one members of the class have died, fifteen of these having given 
their lives for their country in the Great War, in which practically every male 
member of the class served in some capacity. The class has the following 
War Honours to its credit : i D.S.O., 3 O.B.E.'s, 2 M.C.'sand Bar, 10 M.C.'s, 
and numerous " mentions in dispatches " and foreign decorations. 

The following members were present : J. W. Cormack, Lenzie ; J. A. 
Symon, Weston-super-Mare; J. T. Stephen, Buckie; W. L. Shiach, Laur- 
encekirk; J. Forbes* Dufftown; G. K. Fraser, Aberdeen; E. Main, Edin- 
burgh ; F. W. Law, Aberdeen ; J. A. Watson, Langside, Glasgow ; Rev. D. 




176 Aberdeen University Review 

S. Johnston, Bervie ; L. Gavin, Banff; W. Weir, Aberdeen; W. P. Law,, 
Aberdeen ; A. Morrison, Birnie, Elgin ; Rev. G. A. Johnston, Aberdeen ; G. 
Wilson, Elgin ; A. D. Robertson, Hamilton ; A. C. Paterson, Fordyce ; I. G. 
Innes, Aberdeen ; R. A. Morrison, Aberdeen. 

A most enjoyable evening was spent, and the excellent "class" spirit 
and individual enthusiasm for the welfare of the "Year" as a whole was as 
marked as ever. A large number of apologies for absence was intimated. 

SOUTH AFRICAN STUDENTS' DINNER. 

The number of South African students in Aberdeen having increased con- 
siderably during the past year, a gathering of them at dinner took place in the 
University Union, Marischal College, on the evening of 23 December. Mr. 
E. L. Conradie presided, and, after the toast of "The King" had been 
pledged, proposed " South Africa ". Every true South African, he said, was 
proud of his nationality, and felt honoured to belong to a country with so 
noble a history. Mr. G. O. Thornton, proposing " The University of 
Aberdeen," expressed the hope that as South Africans they would all endea- 
vour to uphold the reputation of the University. Mr Minde suitably replied. 
Mr. S. K. Cohen, in proposing " The University of Cape Town and its sister 
Universities in South Africa," said the South African student would always re- 
tain a tender spot for the Universities of his homeland. This toast was fol- 
lowed by the " war-cry " of the old South African College, and was replied to 
by Mr. J. H. Van Blommestein. Then followed the toast " The Three South 
African Ladies Present," proposed by Mr. P. Bayer and replied to by Mr. J. 
C. Smith. Mr. J. M. Bayer proposed " The People at Home," and Mr. C. 
Shapiro replied. The toast of " The Medical Profession " was proposed 
by Mr. N. C. Bodenstein and replied to by Mr. A. L. G. Thomson, both 
gentlemen referring to the great good which could be done by so noble a pro- 
fession in South Africa. 

The menu was printed partly in Dutch and partly in English, and bore 
on the cover the motto " Eendracht Maakt Macht " (Unity is Strength), and 
underneath a picture of Table Mountain, with the words " Ex Unitate Vires ". 
The musical programme was arranged by Mrs. Conradie and Mr. P. Bayer. A 
most enjoyable evening terminated with the singing of the South African 
College song, " Afrikaanders Landgenoten," and the National Anthem. 



M 



Personalia. 

Among the New Year honours were the following :^ 

K.B.E. — Sir Alexander McRobert (LL.D., 1912). 

Knight — Dr. Francis Grant Ogilvie, C.B., Assistant Controller in 
French Warfare Research Department, Chemical Warfare Depart- 
ment (M.A., 1879; B.Sc. [Edin.], LL.D. [Edin.]). 

C.M.G. — George Herbert Mair, Assistant Director of the League of 
Nations Secretariat (M.A., 1905). [Mr. Mair is also a Chevalier of 
the French Legion of Honour.] 

The Senatus, at a recent meeting, agreed to confer the following honorary 
degrees at the spring graduation : — 

I>.D.— 

Rev. Gavin Elmslie Argo, minister of Kincardine O'Neil (M.A., 1875 ; 
B.D., 1902). 

Rev. Alexander Fiddes, minister of St. Bernard's, Edinburgh (M.A., 
1879; B.D., 1882). 

Rev. George Jackson, B.A. (Lond.), Professor of English Literature and 
Bible, Didsbury College, Manchester. 

Rev. Robert Alexander Lendrum, minister of St. David's United Free 
Church, Glasgow (M.A., 1882). 

Rev. Donald MacLean, Moderator of the General Assembly of the Free 
Church of Scotland (alumnus, 1888-92). 

Rev. James Ironside Still, Banchory- Devenick United Free Church 
(M.A., 1877). 

LL.D.— 

Sir Jagadis Chandra Bose, C.I.E., C.S.L, M.A. (Cantab.), D.Sc. (Lond.), 
Professor Emeritus of the Presidency College, Calcutta. 

Dr. William Bulloch, M.D., F.R.S., Professor of Bacteriology at the 
London Hospital Medical College (M.B., 1890; M.D., 1894). 

Professor John Wight Duff, M.A., D.Litt., Professor of Classics in 
Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Vice-Principal of the College 
(M.A., 1886; M.A. [Oxon.], 1895; D.Litt. [Durh.], 1910; D.Litt. [Oxon.], 
1911). 

Sir Alfred Daniel Hall, K.C.B., M.A. (Oxon.), F.R.S., Permanent 
Secretary of the Board of Agriculture since 191 7. 

Mr. James Hopwood Jeans, M.A., F.R.S., Secretary of the Royal Society. 

12 



178 Aberdeen University Review 

Sir Robert Jones, K.B.E., C.B., F.R.C.S.E., F.R.C.S.I., Lecturer in 
Orthopaedic Surgery, Liverpool University. 

Mr. Charles Smith McPherson, Rector of Banff Academy (M.A., 1879). 
Mr. Charles Murray (author of " Hamewith " and other Scottish poems). 
Dr. David Nicholson, C.B., M.D., a Lord Chancellor's Visitor in Lunacy 
since 1896 (M.B., 1866; M.D., 1875). 

The Principal is a member of the Committee recently appointed by the 
Prime Minister " to inquire into the position to be assigned to the classics 
(i.e. to the language, literature, and history of Ancient Greece and Rome) 
in the educational system of the United Kingdom, and to advise as to the 
means by which the proper study of these subjects may be maintained and 
improved ". He has also been appointed the representative of the University 
on the Carnegie Trust of the Scottish Universities in succession to Professor 
Matthew Hay, who has resigned the position, which he has held continu- 
ously since the formation of the Trust in 1901. 

Professor Baillie has been appointed by the Ministry of Labour to act 
as Chairman of the Trade Board for the jute spinning and weaving trade in 
Great Britain, and also for the flax and hemp trades. During the war he 
conducted many conciliation and arbitration inquiries connected with these 
trades. The Professor has also been appointed an Assessor from the Senatus 
to the University Court on the expiry of Professor Harrower's term of office. 

Professor Matthew Hay has been appointed the representative of the 
University on the General Medical Council in succession to Professor Cash. 

Mr. A. Mackenzie Stuart (M.A., 1896; LL.B. [Edin.]), the new Profes- 
sor of Law at the University, has been made K.C. 

Rev. Principal Iverach, of the Aberdeen United Free Church College 
(D.D., 1891), has intimated his intention to resign the Chair of New 
Testament Literature at the College, to which he was appointed in 1907, 
having for the ten years previous been Professor of Apologetics. 

Mr. Alfred Macleod, who has been Lecturer on Elocution at the 
University for forty-five years, has resigned. At his farewell lecture in 
December, reference was made by Professor Cowan, on behalf of the Faculty 
of Divinity, to his long service and his ability as a teacher of elocution. 

Professor Matthew Hay, Dr. James F. Tocher (B.Sc, 1908 ; D.Sc), 
and Dr. George Williamson (M.A., 1883; M.B., 1886) have been ap- 
pointed members of the consultative Council on Medical and Allied Services 
set up to advise and assist the Scottish Board of Health. 

Other four graduates of the University have been appointed Professors. 
Dr. William Bulloch (M.B., 1890; M.D., 1894; F.R.S.), Bacteriologist 
and Lecturer in Bacteriology and General Pathology at the London Hospital, 
has been appointed to the Goldsmiths' Company Chair of Bacteriology at 
the London Hospital Medical College. Dr. Arthur Wellesley Falconer, 
C.B.E., D.S.O. (M.B., 1 901 ; M.D., 1907), has been appointed Professor of 
Medicine in the University of South Africa at Cape Town. He was Assis- 
tant to the Professor of Medicine at the University, and also Assistant 
Physican at the Royal Infirmary. Dr. James McIntosh (M.B., 1905 ; 
M.D.), who for some time past has been in the bacteriological department of 
the London Hospital, has been appointed to the London University Chair of 
Pathology tenable at the Middlesex Hospital Medical School. He has made 



Personalia lyg 



several contributions to medical journals relating to the action of the spirochaete 
pallida. Dr. Hugh MacLean (M.B. Hons., 1903; M.D., 1904), has been 
appointed Professor of Bio-Chemistry at London University. He took his 
M.D. degree at Aberdeen in 1904 with the highest honours. 

Mr. George Methven Angus (M.A., 1896; B.L.) and Mr. Robert 
Pearson Masson (M.A., 1906; LL.B.) have been admitted members of the 
Aberdeen Society of Advocates. 

Mr. Robert Bain (M.A., 1902) has been appointed teacher of methods 
in the Central Higher Grade School, Aberdeen. 

The Hon. Sir William Bisset Berry, M.D., M.L.A. (M.A., Marischal 
College, 1858; M.D., 1861 ; LL.D., 1911), completed his eightieth year 
last July, having been born at Aberdeen on 26 July, 1839. Sir Bisset Berry 
(says the " Cape Times ") is, according to qualification, the senior member of 
the profession in South Africa, as he graduated M.D. of Aberdeen in 1861. 
The next senior doctor by qualification is a graduate of the same University, 
Dr. John Brown [M.A., Marischal College, i860], still doing active work at 
the Cape Town Dispensary, who took the M.D. two years later. Sir Bisset 
Berry commenced practice in South Africa in 1864, and for most of his time 
has resided at Queenstown, with the public life of which he actively identified 
himself, and which he has represented in Parliament, with a short interval, 
since 1894, although he was unable, by reason of age and infirmity, to attend 
the last session. He was speaker of the Old Cape House of Assembly from 
1898 to 1907. A man of the widest erudition and the most kindly courtesy, 
our venerable confrere is (observes the " S. A. Medical Record ") an ornament 
to the profession to which he belongs. 

Mr. Arthur Richardson Brown (M.A., 1896), advocate, Edinburgh, 
has been appointed by the Lord Advocate of Scotland Junior Counsel for the 
Treasury, the Woods and Forests, the Commissioner of Works, the King's and 
Lord Treasurer's Remembrancer, and the Accountant of Court. Mr. Brown, 
who was called to the bar in 1903, acted as a member of the staff of the War 
Trade Intelligence Department, 1915-19. During the latter portion of that 
period he was assistant to the representative of H.M. Procurator-General. 

Mr. Archibald Reith Burnett (M.A., 1903), assistant teacher in the 
Higher Grade School, Lossiemouth, has been appointed head teacher of 
French in St. John's Grammar School, Hamilton. 

' Mr. Alexander Campbell, M.C. (M.A., .1912), has been appointed 
Assistant Director of Education for the county of Nottingham. During the 
war he was a Captain in the Seaforth Highlanders and was awarded the 
Military Cross and the Croix de Guerre and Gold Star. 

Rev. Alexander Godsman Catto (M.A., 1905; B.D.), minister of 
Inverkeithny, Banffshire, has been elected minister of Aberdour, Aberdeen- 
shire. He is a son of the late Rev. John Catto (M.A., 1867), minister of 
Fintray, Aberdeenshire. 

Rev. George Frederick Cox (M.A., 1910; B.D.), elected minister of 
the parish of Ardersier, Inverness-shire, has declined the call. 

There is a movement on foot to establish a Chair of Radiology at one 
of the Universities, and perhaps also the X-Rays Research Institute in 
London, in memory of the late Sir James McKenzie Davidson (M.B., 1882) 
(see Review, vol. vi., 292). At the time of his death. Sir James McKenzie 
Davidson was one of the leading authorities on X-Rays and Radiology. 



i8o Aberdeen University Review 

Mr. Robert Hugh Dean (M.A., 1876), who for forty-three years has 
been head master of a school in Banchory-Devenick, Kincardineshire — first at 
Findon Public School for twenty years, and then at Banchory-Devenick 
Public School for twenty-three years — has been obliged to retire owing to ill- 
health. He was presented on his retirement with a wallet of Treasury notes 
subscribed for in the parish, Mrs. Dean being presented with a China tea-set 
and flower-bowl. 

The FuUerton, Moir, and Gray Scholarship in Mental Philosophy has 
been awarded to Mr. William Macfarlane Dickie, Huntly (M.A., 1918). 

Rev. Andrew Davidson Donaldson (M.A., 187 1), formerly minister of 
St. Clement's United Free Church, Aberdeen, has been appointed minister of 
Forglen United Free Church, Banffshire. 

Dr. William Robert Duguid (M.A., 1888 ; M.B., 1892), who has retired 
from practice, was entertained at a complimentary dinner in Buckie on 16 
January. After graduating in medicine, Dr. Duguid was for a short time 
assistant in Elgin hospital, and later returned to Buckie (his native place), 
first as assistant to his father, the late Dr. W. R. Duguid, and thereafter as 
his partner. The partnership existed until the death of his father in 191 3, 
and since that year the practice has been carried on by Dr. W. R. Duguid 
himself. Dr. Duguid retired from it on 31 December last, and it is 
understood that he is going on a long holiday in order to recuperate from the 
effects of the heavy work which he had to undertake during the war. During 
his practice in Buckie the doctor has held the following appointments : 
Medical Officer to the Parish Council for the Eastern District, and doctor 
for the Post Oflfice, the Admiralty, and under the Factory Acts. During the 
war he also acted as examiner of recruits for the Army and Navy, and had full 
charge of the V.A.D. hospital at Portessie. 

Dr. Alfred G. B. Duncan (M.B., 1915 ; M.D., 1919) has been appointed 
assistant lecturer in Public Health at the University ; and Dr. Alexander 
W. Hendry (M.B., 19 14) an additional assistant lecturer in Materia Medica. 

Mr. James H. Edwards (M.A., 1903 ; LL.B.) has been appointed Town 
Clerk of Kintore, Aberdeenshire. 

Rev. John Spence Ewen (M.A., 1899; B.Sc), minister of Gamrie, 
Banffshire, has been elected minister of the parish of Monquhitter, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

Rev. Andrew James Aiken Falconer (M.A., 1907 ; B.D., 1919) has 
been elected minister of the parish of Strichen, Aberdeenshire. After gradu- 
ating in Arts, he became Science teacher in the Maud Higher Grade School, 
and later at the Old Deer and Methlick Higher Grade Schools. In 191 5 he 
entered the Divinity Hall at Aberdeen University, but his studies were inter- 
rupted by his joining the army, in which he served both as a private and as an 
officer in the Royal Garrison Artillery. He was wounded and gassed in 191 7, 
and received his discharge in the following year. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Frank Fleming, D.S.O. (alumnus, 1891-92), has been 
appointed to the command of the ist Highland Brigade, R.F.A., Aberdeen,, 
under the new Territorial Army scheme ; and Major Lachlan Mackinnon, 
D.S.O. (M.A., 1906 ; LL.B.), has been appointed to the command of the 4th 
Battalion Gordon Highlanders, Aberdeen. 

Mr. Robert Nivkn Gilchrist (M.A., 1909), who delivered a lecture on 
" India : the Making of a Nation " to the University Sociological Society in 



Personalia -i 8 1 

January, is Principal of Krishnagar College, Bengal, and also Professor of 
Political Economy and Political Philosophy in the College. He has been over 
nine years in Bengal. A volume of studies on " Indian Nationality " by him 
will shortly be published. 

The semi-jubilee of the ministry of Rev. Patrick Lindsay Gordon 
(M.A., 1886 ; B.D.), Glenbervie parish, Kincardineshire, was celebrated in 
November last by the presentation to him of new pulpit robes and an easy 
chair. 

Mr. William Law Gordon (M.A., 191 9) has received an important 
commercial appointment in Calcutta. 

Rev. Donald MacGregor Grant, C.F. (M.A., 1901 ; B.D., 1904), 
formerly minister of Walkerburn, Peebles-shire, has been elected minister of 
Newport (Fife) Parish Church. Early in the war, Mr. Grant enlisted as a 
private in the R.A.M.C., resigning his charge so that it might not suffer in his 
absence. After serving in this country and in Egypt, he was transferred to 
the Royal Engineers. In this service his knowledge of German enabled him 
to do valuable work in picking up enemy messages. He had many dangerous 
experiences, and showed the utmost gallantry in the front trenches. After the 
armistice he received a commission as Chaplain. 

Rev. Alexander Gray (M.A., 191 1), minister of Balmaghie United Free 
Church, Kirkcudbrightshire, has been elected minister of Belhelvie and Shiels 
United Free Church, Aberdeenshire. 

Rev. George Gray (M.A., 1907), minister of Gallatown United Free 
Church, Kirkcaldy, has been elected minister of the South United Free Church, 
Bonhill, Dumbartonshire. 

Sir Henry M. W. Gray, K.B.E., C.B., C.M.G. (M.B., 1895 i F.R.C.S.E,), 
who has been surgeon of the Sick Children's Hospital, Aberdeen, for the past 
nine years, has felt obliged to resign the post, owing to the pressure of other 
professional work, but is to continue his connection with the Hospital in 
the capacity of Honorary Consulting Surgeon. Mr. Alexander Mitchell 
(M.A., 1 901 ; M.B.) has been appointed surgeon in place of Sir Henry Gray. 
Dr. Robert Richards (M.A., 1907; M.B., 1910; M.D., 1917 ; D.P.H.) 
has been appointed assistant surgeon. 

Dr. James Breadalbane MacDiarmid (M.B., 1905), Hawera, Taranaki, 
New Zealand, has been admitted a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
Edinburgh. 

Sir John Macdonell, C.B. (M.A., 1865 ; LL.D., 1892), has resigned the 
Quain Professorship of Comparative Law in the University of London, to 
which he was appointed in 1901. He has also retired from the post of 
Master of the Supreme Court of Judicature, which he has held since 1889. 
He became Senior Master and King's Remembrancer in 191 2. 

Mr. John McFarlane, lecturer in Geography at the University, is to be 
President of the Geography Section of the British Association at its forth- 
coming meeting at Cardiff in August. 

Rev. William McHardy (M.A., 1883 ; B.D.), minister of Boddam Parish 
Church, has been appointed Chaplain of H.M. Prison, Peterhead, 

Mr. Duncan Mackenzie (M.A., 1895), Head Master of the George Street 
Higher Grade School, Aberdeen, has been appointed Head Master of the King 
Street School; Mr. Thomas Miller (M.A., 1894), Head Master of George 
Street School; Mr. Robert Moir Littlejohn (M.A., 1891), Head Master of 



1 82 Aberdeen University Review 

the Kittybrewster School; Mr. Alexander S. Balneaves (M.A., 1891) 
Head Master of the St. Paul Street School; and Mr. John H. Mennie 
(M.A., 1900) Head Master of Westfield School. 

Mr. George Herbert Mair, C.M.G. (M.A., 1905), has been appointed to 
the permanent staff of the British section of the League of Nations, and will be 
in charge of the issue of news and official information regarding the League. 

Sir James Scorgie Meston, K.C.S.I. (LL.D., 1913), on his elevation to 
the peerage, has taken the title of Baron Meston of Agra and Dunnottar. His 
lordship has been appointed a member of a Committee constituted to advise 
the Government of India on the adjustment of the financial relations between 
the Central and Provincial Governments, with special regard to the new 
financial systems contemplated under the Government of India Act, 191 9. 
He has also been appointed by the Government of India arbitrator in the 
dispute between Brahmins and non-Brahmins regarding the reservation of 
seats for non-Brahmins in the Provincial Councils. 

Mr. Francis William Michie (M.A., 1894), H.M. Inspector of Schools 
for Dumfries-shire and Galloway, has been transferred to Aberdeen. 

Dr. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, C.B.E. (M.A., 1884; LL.D., 1914), 
the Secretary to the Zoological Society, was (as a special correspondent of 
" The Times ") a passenger and observer in the Vickers-Vimy aeroplane which 
attempted the flight from Cairo to Cape Town. The flight began on 6 Febru- 
ary. The distance is 5206 miles, and it had been arranged that the aero- 
plane should always land at nightfall at a specially-arranged landing-place 
prepared beforehand. Many difficulties were encountered, the aeroplane 
having to return to ground frequently; and finally on 27 February, it 
crashed at Tabora, to the east of Lake Tanganyika, 2637 miles from Cairo, 
when taking off from the aerodrome there, and the flight was abandoned* 
Fortunately, the pilots and passengers were uninjured. The flight was not a 
spectacular performance, but was a serious attempt to show whether the Dark 
Continent can be crossed easily and safely from end to end by proper aircraft 
in ordinary conditions. Dr. Mitchell, in the first of his communications |to 
**The Times," described himself as " a middle-aged, scientific man, who was not 
an aeronaut or a traveller, but who had an interest in the natural history and 
geology, the peoples and plagues of Africa ". He said the objects of the trip 
were — "First, to ascertain if it be a practical link of Empire. Then the 
panorama may throw some light on interesting problems of the scenery and 
geology of Africa. And I hope now and again to see something of the 
animals." He added — " I do not intend to take any lethal weapons, and 
hope to see some lions, or elephants, or giraffes ". 

Mr. William Mitchell (M. A., 1893; LL.B. [Edin.]), advocate, Edin- 
burgh, has been made K.C. 

Rev. Alexander James Morrison (M.A., 1909), minister of the United 
Free Church, Portree, has been elected colleague and successor to Rev. 
Alexander Soutar, of the First United Free Church, Thurso. 

Mr. Alfred Ross Murison (M.A., 191 2), mathematical master, 
Alexandria, Dumbartonshire, has been awarded first-class honours in 
Economics, thus securing triple first-class honours, having previously won 
that distinction in Classics and in Mathematics. Mr. Murison has been 
appointed Rector of the Miller Institute, Thurso. 



Personalia. 183 

Dr. Robert Rannie (M.B., 1887) was recently presented with a silver 
salver and a wallet containing a cheque for ;£i4o, by friends in Peterculter 
and adjoining parishes, in recognition of valued services rendered for over 
thirty years. Mrs. Rannie was at the same time presented with a number of 
gifts. 

The Government of India has deputed Sir Benjamin Robertson, 
K. C.S.I, (alumnus, 1880-83; LL.D., 1914), Chief Commissioner of the 
Central Provinces, to South Africa, in regard to the Commission on Indian 
grievances. 

To mark the completion of his eightieth year, Rev. Dr. James Robertson 
(M.A., King's Coll., 1859; D.D., 1880), Emeritus Professor of Hebrew and 
Semitic Languages in Glasgow University, was recently waited upon by a 
deputation representing the Glasgow University Oriental Society, friends, and 
former pupils, and presented with a handsome volume of essays on Oriental 
subjects by members of the Society, which will shortly be published. 

Mr. Francis Rumbles (M.A., 19 14) has been appointed a teacher on the 
staff of Robert Gordon's College, Aberdeen. 

Mr. George Findlay Shirras (M.A., 1907), Director of the Department 
of Statistics, India, was one of the three representatives of the Indian Govern- 
ment at the Imperial Conference on Statistics held in London in January. 

Rev. James Smith (M.A., 1874 ; B.D., 1877), minister of St. George's- 
in-the-West Parish Church, Aberdeen, has resigned his membership of the 
Aberdeen Education Authority. Mr. Smith was a member of the Aberdeen 
School Board for sixteen years, and held a number of important convenerships, 
including that of the School Administration Committee. He was elected to 
the Education Authority last year. 

The bacteriological work for the Aberdeen City Hospital has been trans- 
ferred from the University to the laboratory at the Hospital, and Dr. John 
Smith {M.B., 1915) has been placed in charge of the work. 

Mr. Walter Allan Stewart (B.Sc. Agr., 19 13), Wye Agricultural 
College, Kent, has been appointed Agricultural Organiser for Northampton- 
shire. 

Rev. Robert Harvey Strachan (M.A., 1893), minister of Lan^lde Hill 
United Free Church, Glasgow, has been elected minister of St. Andrew's 
United Free Church, Edinburgh, in succession to Rev. Dr. W. M. Macgregor, 
now a Professor in the Glasgow College of the Church. 

Mr. Alexander J. R. Thain (M.A., 1884), advocate in Aberdeen, has 
been appointed Clerk to the Property and Income-tax Commissioners (Aber- 
deen District). 

Rev. Dr. James Thomson (M.A., 1875 ; D.D. [Glasgow]) is lecturer on 
Pastoral Theology at the University this session. 

A tablet has been erected by Mrs. Stewart Thomson in Gilcomston Parish 
Church, Aberdeen, in memory of her husband. Rev. William Stewart 
Thomson (M.A., 1885), for many years an elder and trustee of the church, 
and of her youngest son, James Walter Stewart Thomson, Lieutenant, 4th 
Gordon Highlanders, who was killed in the war. 

Rev. Robert Urquhart (M.A., 1865), senior minister of Oldmeldrum 
United Free Church, attained his jubilee as a minister in November last, 
and was entertained at dinner by the Donside United Free Church Presbytery 
and presented by the Oldmeldrum congregation with a wallet of Treasury 
notes. 



184 Aberdeen University Review 

A brass tablet to the memory of Rev. Dr. George Walker (M.A., 1861 ; 
B.D., 1867; D.D. [St. And.], 1916), for forty-two years minister of Castle- 
Douglas parish, Galloway, has been erected in the church. 

Rev. James Moir Webster (M.A., 1897 ; B.D.), minister of the quoad 
sacra North Parish, Dunfermline, has been elected minister of the parish of 
Carnock, Fifeshire. 

Mr. Alexander M. Williamson (M.A., 1877) has been elected President 
of the Aberdeen Society of Advocates. 

A brass tablet to the memory of the late Rev. Dr. George Wisely (M.A., 
Marischal College, 1846; D.D., Aberd., 1894) has been erected in the 
Scotch Church, Malta. Dr. Wisely was ordained minister of the Scottish 
Free Church at Malta in 1854, and was also appointed officiating Presbytenan 
Chaplain to the Forces ; and for about sixty years he was prominently 
identified with the public life of Malta, rendering many services in particular 
to the Scottish regiments of the Army (see Review, iv., 281). The unveiling 
ceremony was performed in presence of a large assemblage by Field-Marshal 
Lord Plumer, Governor of Malta. 

Mr. Herbert H. E. Wiseman (M.A., 1907) has been appointed Director 
of singing under the Edinburgh Education Authority. Mr. Wiseman — who 
is a son of Dean Wiseman, Bucksburn (M.A., 1869 ; D.D., 1905) — studied 
at the Royal College of Music, London. Since 1908 he has been music 
master in the Madras College, St. Andrews, organist in Holy Trinity Church, 
conductor of the Musical Association (choral and orchestral), and latterly 
lecturer on Music to the St. Andrews Provincial Committee for the Training 
of Teachers. 

Rev. George Tod Wright (M.A., 1913 ; B.D., 1915) has been elected 
minister of Dryfesdale (Lockerbie) Parish Church. 

Rev. John Rainy Wright (M.A., 1890), minister of the United Free 
Church, St. Fergus, Aberdeenshire, has been compelled, on account of the state 
of his health, to seek complete relief from the work of the ministry, and ap- 
plication has been made for the appointment of a junior minister. 

Dr. William Peters Young (M.B., 1900) has just retired from a large 
medical practice in Keighley, Yorkshire, where he has been for seventeen 
years, and has taken up residence in Aberdeen. He was presented, on 
leaving, with a number of handsome gifts, these including a massive silver 
salver, presented at a large gathering of the citizens of Keighley " as a mark 
of the esteem in which he is held and appreciation of the services he has 
rendered to the borough". Dr. Young represented the South Ward of 
Keighley in the Town Council for three years, was President of the Ward 
Association for several years, and was a member of the Keighley Education 
Committee. 

Among recent admissions to the fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons 
of England were the following : William Anderson (M.B., 1915) ; John 
Frederick Gill (M.B., 1906 ; B.Sc.) ; and James Murray Duff Mitchell 
(M.B., 1907 ; B.Sc, M.D., D.P.H., [Cantab.]). 

The following students of the University have been successful in obtain- 
ing places in the Home or Indian Civil Service under the reconstruction scheme 
of examination: Edmund Blaikie Boyd (M.A., 1916) ; Samuel Hoare 
(M.A., 1919) ; William Donald Horne (M.A., 1919) ; Donald Mackenzie 
(M.A., 191 3) ; Alfred Ross Murison (M.A., 191 2); William Taylor 



Personalia 185 

(M.A., 1913) ; William Robert Tennant (M.A., 1914) ; Alfred Buyers 
Valentine (M.A., 1919) ; and Allan M. Charles (undergraduate). 

The following have been appointed conveners of sub-committees of the 
Aberdeen Survey Association : Geography and Geology — Dr. Alexander 
Bremner ; Biology — Dr. John Rennie (B.Sc, 1898; D.Sc.) and Dr. 
Macgregor Skene (B.Sc, 1909 ; D.Sc.) ; Anthropology — Professor R. W. 
Reid (M.B., 1872 ; M.D.) and Mr. Alexander Macdonald (M.A., 18S7) ; 
Arts and Crafts — Dr. William Kelly (LL.D., 191 9) and Mr. John Hector ; 
Civics — Dr. J. L. McIntyre and Mr. R. B. Forrester. 

Miss Annie Hardie (M.A., 19 10) has been appointed Principal of the 
Mabbubia Girls' School, Hyderabad, India. 

Miss Winifred McKilligan (M.A., 191 5) has been appointed a teacher 
under the Aberdeen Education Authority. 

Miss Elisa M. Malcolm (M.A., 1918) has received an appointment on 
the teaching staff of the Girls' High School, Aberdeen. 

Miss Elizabeth C. S. Oliver (B.Sc, 191 1) has been appointed Head- 
mistress of the Albyn Place High School for Girls, Aberdeen. She comes 
to Aberdeen from Newcastle, where she was in charge of the Junior House 
of the High School and held the post of lecturer in Botany to the Newcastle 
Pharmaceutical Society. 

Miss Mary Paton Ramsay (M.A., 1908) has been awarded by the 
Council of the British Academy the Rose Mary Crawshay Prize for English 
(of the value of ;^ioo) for her work on Donne, entitled " Les Doctrines 
Medievales chez Donne " (see review by Professor Grierson in Review, v., 
48-50). The Rose Mary Crawshay Prize is awarded annually "to a woman 
of any nationality who, in the judgment of the Council of the British 
Academy, has written or published within three years next preceding the 
date of the award a historical or critical .work of sufficient value on any 
subject connected with English literature, preference being given to a work 
regarding one of the poets Byron, Shelley, and Keats." Miss Ramsay, who 
is a daughter of Emeritus Professor Sir William Ramsay, studied at St. Hugh's 
College (for women), Oxford, and for four years at Paris, as Carnegie Scholar 
and Fellow ; she is a Doctor of Philosophy of the University of . Paris. 
During the war she served in various capacities, and for two years in France 
in the Queen Mary's Army Auxiliary Corps, Ordnance Department. At 
present she is lecturer in History and Sociology in the American College for 
Women, Constantinople. 

Miss Dorothea L. Reid (M.A., 191 5) and Miss Helen A. Sorley 
(M.A., 1 91 7) have been appointed to the teaching staff of the Aberdeen 
Education Authority. 

Among recent publications by University men are the following : "Streams 
in the Desert," by Rev. J. H. Morrison, Newhills United Free Church 
(M.A., 1892); "Outlines of the History of Botany," by Professor R. J. 
Harvey- Gibson ; "Transactions of the Scottish Dialects Committee, No. HI," 
edited by William Grant, M.A. "The Foundations of Music," by Henry 
J. Watt, D.Phil.; "Hints on Translation from Latin into English" and 
"Hints on the Study of Latin, a.d. 125-750" — both by Professor Souter 
{" Helps for Students of History " Series) ; " Indian Finance and Currency," 
by G. Findlay Shirras ; "The Incomparable 29th and the 'River Clyde,'" by 
Dr. George Davidson; "The Church as it Was, Is, and Should Be," by Rev, 
W. A. Reid (M.A., 1885). 



1 86 Aberdeen University Review 

The second course of Gifford Lectures on " Divine Personality and 
Human Life," delivered in the University of Aberdeen by Mr. Clement C. J. 
Webb, Fellow of St. Mary Magdalen College, Oxford, will be published, like 
the first course, entitled "God and Personality," in the "Library of Phil- 
osophy," edited by Professor J. H. Muirhead. 

Mr. William Murison, Aberdeen Grammar School (M.A., 1884), wha 
edited Burke's " Present Discontents " several years ago, has continued his 
study of Burke by preparing an edition of " Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol," 
" Speech at Bristol," and "Letter to a Noble Lord". The volume will be- 
issued soon by the Cambridge University Press. For the same publishers 
Mr. Murison has undertaken an edition of Sir Thomas Browne's " Religio 
Medici " and " Urn Burial ". 

Professor Jack is to publish shortly '*A Commentary on the Poetry of 
Chaucer and Spenser ". " Originally conceived as essays in a series consider- 
ing some of the older poets from the standpoint of modern interests, these 
studies" (says "Bookman" in the "Glasgow Herald") "became fortuitously 
college lectures, and were then recast in more literary form. The author's 
first consideration was to keep the poems of Chaucer and Spenser constantly 
under review, not as documents in the history of literature, but as emotional 
compositions which may or may not have retained their power to please. 
The interest of this or that poem to the modern reader is practically the sole 
question with which Professor Jack has continuously concerned himself. The 
result, he says in his preface, is a running commentary that is likely to be less 
serviceable to those who have not read the poets than to those who either 
already know them or are in process of making their acquaintance." 

Messrs. Constable announce a new and illustrated translation of J. N. 
Forkel's "Life of Johann Sebastian Bach," edited by Professor Terry. 
Fork el's Life of Bach (1902) is the standard biography of its subject and 
a work of international reputation. An English translation was issued in 
1820, but has long been out of print, and the work is practically unprocurable 
in this country. Professor Terry has devoted much care to the preparation 
of this revised and annotated translatioh of the work as well as of several 
appendices which will give the book an additional claim upon the attention 
of Bach lovers. 

The Very Rev. Dr. William Mair, whose death is chronicled in the 
Obituary in this number of the Review, was the Senior Alumnus of King's 
College, which he entered in 1844. He afterwards migrated to Marischal 
College, where he graduated M.A. in 1849, taking subsequently the joint 
Divinity curriculum during 1849-53. He kept a record of the Marischal 
College Arts Class of 1845-49, of which he was the sole survivor. He was 
probably the oldest subscriber to the Review. An article upon him will be 
contributed to the next number of the Review by Rev. W. S Crockett, 
minister of Tweedsmuir Parish. 

The death (on 9 February) of Rev. Canon James Petrie (B.A. [Lond.]) 
formerly Rector of St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, Alford, recalls the some- 
what remarkable fact that he was the father of six sons, all of whom are 
graduates of Aberdeen University and four of whom were at one time 
instituted clergymen in the diocese of Aberdeen along with their father. The 
sons are: Dr. James Petrie (M.B., 1882), at one time a medical missionary 
in Central Africa, and now district surgeon at Melmoth, Zululand; Rev. 



Personalia 187 



William S. B. Petrie (M.A., 1884), formerly Rector of All Saints', Strichen, 
now of St. Andrew's, Alford (in succession to his father) ; Rev. Edmund 
James Petrie (M.A., 1886), formerly Rector of St. John's, New Pitsligo, now 
at St. Margaret's, Newlands, Glasgow ; Dr. Richard Norris Petrie (M.B., 
1899), formerly at South Uist, now at Evie, Orkney; Rev. George Frank 
Petrie (M.A., 1893), formerly Rector of St. Matthew's, Oldmeldrum, now of 
Subiaco, Perth, Western Australia; and Rev. Frederick Herbert Petrie 
(M.A., 1895), formerly Rector of Monymusk, now of St. Alban's, Perth, 
Western Australia. 

In the "Meteorological Magazine" for February, 1920, the following 
tribute is paid to Mr. G. A. Clarke, the observer at King's College, Old 
Aberdeen, in a notice of his Professional Notes, No, 9 — "An Analysis of 
Cloud Distribution at Aberdeen durmg the years 1916-18": "Mr. G. A. 
Clarke holds a unique position as an observer of clouds. His sketches 
and photographs are well known for their artistic merit as well as for 
their scientific value. Nephoscope observations at Aberdeen, for which he 
has been principally responsible, have been published in the ' Geophysical 
Journal ' for some years and an analysis of this series was published in the 
supplement to the 'Journal' for the year 19 16. In the Professional Note 
which has recently been issued the frequency of different cloud types is 
discussed. . . . Amongst other results it is found that on 31 per cent, of 
days there is considerable cloud below 3000 feet and only on 15 per cent, is 
there no 'characteristic' cloud below 15,000 feet." "Stress is laid on the 
selection of the characteristic cloud present each day. The rule adopted 
being that if four-tenths of the sky were covered with a lower cloud, that 
cloud should be taken as characteristic." 

The Spring Graduation took place on 24 March, the Vice-Chancellor pre- 
siding, when the honorary degrees mentioned elsewhere were conferred, as 
well as 59 ordinary degrees. 



Obituary, 



Rev. Charles Birnie (M.A., 1875), minister of the parish of Aberdour, 
Aberdeenshire, died at a nursing home in Glasgow on 10 November, aged 
sixty-six. He was a native of Boharm, Banffshire. For some time after 
graduation he engaged in teaching, and was schoolmaster — first at Rayne and 
afterwards at Auchterless. Subsequently he studied Divinity at Aberdeen 
University, and on being licensed, was for six months assistant to the late 
Rev. W. M. Wilson, North Parish, Aberdeen. He was appointed minister of 
Aberdour in 1884. 

Mr. James Brown Bisset (M.A., 1868) died at his residence, Rosneath, 
Cults, Aberdeen, on 10 March, aged seventy-one... After graduating, he was 
for three years chief assistant in Appleby Grammar School. In 1871 he was 
appointed assistant-substitute to Mr. Fyfe, then schoolmaster of Towie, 
Aberdeenshire, and, on the passing of the Education Act in 1872, the newly- 
elected school board appointed him head master. He filled the post for the 
next thirty years, retiring in 1902, since when he had lived at Cults. 

Dr. Robert Sinclair Black (M.A. [Edin.], 1884; M.B., 1889; M.D., 
1902; D.P.H., 1889), Physician Superintendent of the Pietermaritzburg 
Mental Hospital, Natal, died at Pietermaritzburg on 30 September. He was 
for some time at the Colonial Bacteriological Institute, Grahamstown, Cape 
Province, and was thereafter Medical Officer at the Robben Island Infirmary 
and Asylum. He was a native of Inverness and was fifty-eight years of age. 
At the funeral of Dr. Black, the service was conducted by an old graduate of 
Marischal College, Rev. Dr. John Smith, minister of St. John's Presbyterian 
Church (M.A., 1858; D.D. [Aberd.], 1907). 

Mr. Alexander Duncan Cameron (M.A., 1900) died at 29 Hartington 
Place, Edinburgh, on 14 January, aged forty. He was a native of Ullapool, 
Ross- shire, where his father was schoolmaster for about forty years. After 
graduating with first-class honours in Classics, he was awarded a Reid 
exhibition to Christ Church, Oxford, where he gained an open classical scholar- 
ship. In 1904, Mr. Cameron was appointed assistant to the Director of 
Technical Education at Liverpool, and in 1911 Assistant Director of Educa- 
tion for the city, which office he held at the time of his death. His close 
association with the administration of education in Liverpool led to his being 
invited to assist the Liverpool Council of Education — a voluntary body — as 
its secretary, and through this Council his knowledge and administrative 
capacity were devoted to the helping forward of almost every educational 
agency in the city. Education in Liverpool owes to him in a large measure 
the great progress which has marked it in recent years. 

Mr. Geohge Garioch Dalgarno (M.A., 1878) died at his residence, 
Viewbank, Springfield Terrace, Arbroath, on 19 February, aged sixty-one. 
He was a son of the late Rev. James Dalgarno, minister of the Free Church, 
Peterculter ; and, after graduating, he qualified as a solicitor. He went feo 



Obituary 189 



I 



Arbroath in 1884 as assistant to the late Mr. George Miln, who, a few years 
later, took him into partnership. The firm had an extensive and successful 
business, and on Mr. Miln's death Mr. Dalgarno carried it on under the old 
name of Miln & Dalgarno. 

Dr. George DuFFUS (M.B., 1884) died at Normanhurst, Woking, Surrey, 
on II January, aged sixty-four. He was a son of the late Provost Duffus, 
■* Cullen, and received his early education at the Free Church school there. 
He then proceeded to Aberdeen, and was apprenticed to Messrs. Davidson 
& Kay, chemists, for several years. Later, he decided to study medicine, 
and entered the University at Aberdeen, where he had a distinguished career. 
He won the Gold Medal for Materia Medica and the Keith Gold Medal for 
Practical Surgery, graduating M.B., CM. in 1884. Dr. Duffus then went as 
an assistant superintendent to the County Asylum, Macclesfield, where he 
gained a valuable experience in mental diseases, and later he proceeded to 
Tuebrook Villa, a private asylum near Liverpool, as medical superintendent. 
Dr. Duffus retired about fifteen years ago. All along he took a keen interest 
in his native town, and for many years he distributed coals to the necessitous 
poor at the New Year season. The bell in the steeple of the United Free 
Church was presented to the church by Dr. Dufifus. 

Rev. Dr. David Eaton (M.A., 1874; D.D., 1900) died at Cronkley, 
Wynn Avenue, Old Colwyn, North Wales, on 16 January, aged seventy. 
After graduating, he studied at the Free Church (now United Free Church) 
College, Aberdeen, distinguishing himself in Hebrew and German studies 
and gaining the Foete Hebrew scholarship. He continued his studies at 
Leipzig, and won the Muir Hebrew Prize, open to graduates of all Scottish 
Universities. He was minister of the Free Church at Dufftown, Banffshire, 
from 1878 till 1884, when he was called to Melville Church, Aberdeen. 
Nine years later he was translated to Great Hamilton Street Church, 
Glasgow; and in 1902 he was selected by the Glasgow Presbytery to under- 
take a new extension charge at Scotstoun, where he built up a large con- 
gregation, to which he ministered till 191 6, when he felt that his health 
was not equal to the strain and retired. Apart from his pastoral work, he won 
wide appreciation by his scholarly attainments, which found expression in 
several important German translations in theology and exegesis and in articles 
contributed to theological reviews and dictionaries. He translated the " Bibli- 
cal Theology of the New Testament," by Dr. Weiss, Dr. Delitzch's "Com- 
mentary on the Psalms," Rothe's "Exposition of ist John," etc. 

Dr. James Farquhar (M.A., 1897 ; M.B., 1904) died at 10 Barker 
Street, Oldham, on 16 January, aged forty-two. 

Sir Thomas Richard Eraser, M.D., F.R.S. (LL.D., Aberd., 1894), 
Emeritus Professor of Materia Medica at Edinburgh University, and Honorary 
Physician in Ordinary to the King in Scotland, died on 4 January, aged 
seventy-eight. 

Mrs. Caroline Stewart Hill {nee Mackenzie) (M.A., 1907) died at 
Chipping Sodbury, Gloucestershire, on 15 January. 

Rev. John Keith (M.A., King's College, 1859) died at his residence, 
51 Hamilton Place, Aberdeen, on 14 November, aged eighty-two. He was 
elected minister of the Free Church (afterwards United Free Church), 
Carmyllie, Forfarshire, in 1865, but retired several years ago and had since 
resided in Aberdeen. He celebrated his ministerial jubilee in 1915. 



I go Aberdeen University Review 

Rev. Charles Cadell Macdonald (D.D., 1900), minister of St. 
Clement's Parish Church, Aberdeen, since 1879, died at his residence, 
10 Ferryhill Place, Aberdeen, on 15 February, aged eighty-two. 

Rev. Duncan McGregor (M.A., 1878) died at the Manse, Torphins, 
Aberdeenshire, on 29 February, aged sixty- four. He was ordained parish 
minister of Torphins in 1884, and had held the charge for the long period 
of thirty-six years. Mr. McGregor was a native of Inverness, and received 
his early education at Fordyce Academy. 

Rev. Neil Mackay (M.A., 1889), minister of the United Free Church of 
Strathy and Halladale, Caithness, died at the United Free Manse, Logie- 
Easter, Ross-shire, on 3 January, aged fifty-four. He was a native of Thurso, 
and was formerly minister of the Free (afterwards the United Free) Church at 
Croick, Ross-shire. 

The Very Reverend William Mair (M.A., Marischal College, 1849 5 
D.D., Aberd., 1885) died at his residence, 145 Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, on 
26 January, aged eighty-nine. He was a son of Rev. James Mair (M.A., 
Marischal College, 18 18), who was schoolmaster at Savoch, Aberdeenshire, 
and was also a probationer of the Church of Scotland. Becoming a minister 
of that Church, Dr. Mair was ordained to a charge at Lochgelly in 1861, was 
translated to Ardoch in 1865, and then, in 1869, to Earlston, Berwickshire, 
where he was minister for thirty -four years, retiring in 1903. He was Moder- 
ator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, 1897. Dr. Mair 
was recognized as the chief ecclesiastical lawyer of the Church. His principal 
literary work was his " Digest of Laws, etc., of the Church of Scotland," which 
is regarded as a standard authority on the forms of the Church ; and he was 
the author of many works and pamphlets, notably a pamphlet entitled " The 
Truth about the Church of Scotland " issued during the disestablishment con- 
troversy. He was an energetic advocate of Church union and a member of 
the Church of Scotland Committee on the subject. In 191 1 he published 
an autobiography under the title of "My Life," and in 1918 a volume of 
" Action Sermons ". 

Rev. David Miller (M.A. [St. Andrews], 1869; B.D., 1875) died in 
Nairn on 23 February, aged eighty-three. He spent his early years as a 
Government Inspector of Schools at St. Kitts, in the West Indies. He 
afterwards entered the ministry, and was ordained minister of the East Parish 
Church, Brechin, in 1874. He became minister of Ardclach, Nairnshire, 
in 1883, but retired from active duty in 191 6, and had since resided in Nairn. 

Dr. Thomas Milne (M.A., 1868 ; M.B., 1871 ; M.D., 1874) died at his 
residence, 26 Rubislaw Terrace, on 16 March, aged seventy-two. He was for 
many years in practice at Accrington, Lancashire, but seitled in Aberdeen 
over twenty-five years ago and built up a large practice. He had been an 
office-bearer of the Aberdeen Philosophical Society since 1897, was President, 
1911-13, and a paper of his on "Longevity" is published in the Society's 
" Transactions ". A son of Dr. Milne, Dr. Herbert Stewart Milne 
{M.B., 1909), was an officer in the R.A.M.C. during the war, attaining the 
rank of major and being awarded the M.C. and bar. 

Colonel R. Davidson Murray (alumnus, 1866-68) died in London (after 
an operation) on 1 2 January, aged sixty-eight. He^ was the fourth son of the 
late Mr. William Murray of Kilcoy, Inverness- shire, and received his early 
education at the Inverness Royal Academy. After his two years at Aberdeen 



Obituary i g i 



University, he proceeded to Edinburgh University, where he graduated in 
Medicine. He took a high place in the competitive examination for the Indian 
Medical Service, and went to India in 1874. He served in the Burmese War 
under Sir Herbert Macpherson, and held many important civil surgeon ap- 
pointments. For some years he acted as Professor of Surgery in Calcutta 
Medical College, where he had an extensive surgical practice in consultative 
and operative surgery. For the last five years of his service he held the 
appointment of Inspector-General of Hospitals in the United Provinces of 
Bengal, where his organization for relief measures did much to alleviate the 
■distress caused by the famine of 1906. Colonel Murray served as a member 
of the Lieutenant-Governor's Legislative Council, and was the first medical 
officer to obtain a seat in the Indian Legislature. He retired in 19 10, after 
thirty-six years' distinguished service, and founded the Indian Empire Club in 
London, of which he was hon. secretary. He married a daughter of the late 
Surgeon-General George Mackay, of the Indian Medical Service, by whom he 
is survived, with three sons and three daughters. He had the pleasure and 
good fortune to see all his sons return from the war decorated with honours 
and not disabled. 

Sir William Osler, the distinguished physician, Regius Professor of 
Medicine at Oxford University, died at Oxford on 29 December, aged seventy. 
He was made an honorary LL.D. of Aberdeen University in 1898, when he was 
Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 

Rev. Dr. George Reith (M.A., 186 1 ; D.D., 1892), senior minister of 
the College and Kelvingrove United Free Church, Glasgow, died at his resi-« 
dence, 3 7 Lynedoch Street, Glasgow, on 9 December, aged seventy-seven. He 
was a son of the late Mr. George Reith, who was first secretary and then man- 
ager of the Aberdeen Railway, and was subsequently manager of the Clyde 
Trust ; and was a brother of the late Dr. Archibald Reith (M.D., Marischal 
College, 1859), the founder of- the Porthill Sunday School, Aberdeen. Dr. 
George Reith was associated for some time with Rev. Dr. Howie in mission 
work in the wynds of Glasgow, and in 1866 was appointed to the Free (after- 
wards United Free) College Church, Glasgow, as colleague and successor to 
Dr. Robert Buchanan, the author of " The Ten Years' Conflict ". He was 
Moderator of the General Assembly of his Church in 19 14. His most im- 
portant literary work was a volume on St. John's Gospel. 

Dr. Alexander Scott (M.A., Marischal College, 1857; M.B., i860; 
L.R.C.S. Ed.), Staff Surgeon, R.N. (retired), died at Craigowan, Bridge of 
Don, Aberdeen, on 17 February, aged eighty-two. In his day he was 
regarded as one of the most eminent surgeons in the Royal Navy. The most 
of his service was at Malta, the West Indies, and South America. He had 
been on the retired list for about forty years. 

Dr. George Smith, CLE., LL.D., F.R.G.S., F.S.S. (father of Principal 
Sir George Adam Smith), died in Edinburgh on 24 December, aged eighty-six. 
He was first Tutor and then Principal of the Doveton College, Calcutta, 
1853-58, editor of the "Calcutta Review," 1857-64, and of "The Friend of 
India," 1859-75, and for fifteen years he was the India correspondent of 
" The Times ". Returning to Scotland, he edited the " Daily Review," Edin- 
burgh, for a year or two, and in 1878 he became secretary of the Foreign 
Missions Committee of the Free (afterwards United Free) Church of Scotland, 
a position he held for thirty-two years. He was the author of numerous 



192 Aberdeen University Review 

works on India, including the "Student's Geography of British India,'* 
"Twelve Indian Statesmen," and biographies of Carey, Duff, and other 
missionaries. 

Mr. William Dyce Stewart (M.A., 1885) died in a nursing home in 
Aberdeen on i January, aged fifty-five. He was a son of the late Sir David 
Stewart of Banchory-Devenick and Leggart (M.A., King's College, 1885 ; 
LL.D., Aberdeen, 1895) (see p. 96) ; and, along with his brother, Colonel 
D. B. Douglas Stewart (M.A., 1882), was joint managing director of the 
Aberdeen Combworks Company, Limited. He was for many years an officer 
in the Aberdeen Volunteer Artillery, and afterwards in the Forfar and Kin- 
cardineshire Artillery, and held the rank of Major. He was named after his 
maternal grand-uncle, Mr. William Dyce, R.A. 

Mr. Donaldson Rose Thom (M.A., 1881), advocate im Aberdeen, who 
was appointed Secretary of the University in 1906, and continued to hold 
that important and onerous post till the end of last year, when he resigned, 
died at his residence, 42 Albyn Place, Aberdeen, on 23 January, aged sixty. 
An appreciation of Mr. Thom by the Principal appears elsewhere in this 
number of the Review. 

Mr. Alick Allan Gardiner Wright (M.A., 1894) died at Bailleswells, 
Bieldside, near Aberdeen, on 6 November, aged forty-six. Mr. Wright, who 
was born in Portsoy, was educated at Robert Gordon's College and Milne's 
Institution, Fochabers. He entered Aberdeen University in 1890, and had a 
brilliant career there, graduating in 1894 with first-class honours in Classics 
and gaining the Simpson Greek Prize, the Seafield Latin Medal, and the Town 
Council Gold Medal as the best graduate of his year. From Aberdeen he 
went to Cambridge, where he took a high place in the Classical Tripos. In 
1898 he entered the Educational Service in India. For some years he was 
Educational Inspector in Sind, and he finally rose to be Director of Public 
Instruction in the Central Provinces, the highest educational position in the 
province. Unfortunately, Mr. Wright was seized with sudden illness in 191 3, 
and had to return to this country. Though he recovered, he was not strong 
enough to return to India, and he retired on pension in igi6, Mr. Wright 
was a man of marked literary gifts and attainments. He had high capacity 
for administrative work, and but for his breakdown in health he would have 
risen to a still more eminent position in the public services of India. A 
brother, Mr. James Wright, was also a brilliant alumnus of Aberdeen Univer- 
sity, from which he entered the Indian Civil Service (Bengal), where he had 
a very distinguished career. He died a number of years ago. 




I 



The 

Aberdeen University Review 

Vol. VII. No. 21 June, 1920 

"Alma Mater" Anthology, 1883-1919.' 

I. 

TOLD you," said James Murdoch one day in the 
Cromwell's Tower, **that I should some day 
introduce you to one of the most distinguished 
scholars of Oxford." Just a few minutes before, 
a peculiarly individual figure had come in : a 
dark, sweeping Highland cloak, black hair, shaven 
face — sallow, long, with no smile ; something of 
a dignity and pride dominating the whole. He sat by the fire to our 
right. That day, I was dull ; Aristophanes was not encouraging ; I 
was thinking of Socrates and the questioning of the eternal sea out of 
the' window there, a mile away. Grey answered to grey and I was 
wandering on the ocean, sad in heart, despairing, and losing myself, 
as always, in the mists of sorrow that follow the children of xny race. 
There was no reason in the mood ; yet nothing was enough to raise 
me to laughter at Aristophanes or to other than a patchy unconcern 
for Greek Composition. Times come — as then — when there is a wish 
to end all things. That morning ''the despotism of the fact" leaded 
my heart, and the grey sea had no depths too deep for my gloom. 
" Let me," continued Murdoch, " introduce you to Mr. William Keith 
Leask, Scholar of Worcester College, Oxford." But this was a 
different affair ! Leask stepped forward in his haughty way and made 
our acquaintance. Whether he spoke, I cannot remember ; but there 
was that in his air which none of us will forget. Years before — it 
seemed years then, when every year counted for something more than 

^ •' * Alma Mater ' Anthology, 1883-1919." Aberdeen : W. & W. Lindsay. Pp.. 
xi + 133. 2/5. 



194 Aberdeen University Review 

a whiff of ancient routine — we had heard of him ; how he worked 
himself to weariness and exhaustion ; how he would revive himself by 
singing the Scots songs or by listening to them ; how he sacrificed 
the externals of life to his invincible impulse towards the ancients ; 
how, too, he had shown to the examiners of the South what the 
North could do when she produces a memory and the will to govern 
it ; how he had risen easily first in Moderations, and how, in private 
talk, his learning poured from him in streams : and here was the man. 

Somehow this came over me in a beam of sunlight, which made 
silver of the sea and filled the square tower with ^ happiness. To our 
left, the Observatory silences connected us with the heavens above ; 
here was a man to open to us the heavens beneath. Plato became an 
interest ; Aristophanes, humorous. There was, for the moment, a 
passion in every particle, and out at the long drawn end of the vista 
lay spires and colleges and sported oaks, cloisters of learning and 
temples of wisdom. 

It was something in Plato that did it, just as the bend in a beam 
of light from the stars behind the sun compels us to revise Newton 
and think seriously of Einstein. After all, the beginning of infinity 
must be a point. To-day, it was how to render some phrase about 
reality, and Leask suggested to ovray^ 6v. For the forty years since 
then I have been seeking for the meaning of *'real being," and I have 
failed to find it; but Leask and Plato will always hang together in 
vay mind. For these forty years, he has circled like the Muse of 
Memory over the University and I cannot think of King's College 
without him. Leask Avas an atmosphere. Not once but many times 
after that day in 1880, I met him and talked with him and walked 
with him and argued with him and drank from the unfailing well of 
his comments on life. To-day I am glad that here, in this Anthology, 
he keeps his place among the men that count, older and younger than 
any there. When the little book came, Leask was the first name I 
looked for and found ; but, as I wandered among the voices of the 
others, yielding to their sweetnesses as to the harmonies of the bells 
on the green Alps, I felt, that, through all the changes, the spirit is 
the same to-day and for ever, and my forty years are but a long session 
in the ancient Tower. # 

Yet though their feet should wander far, 

By alien ways 
And lighted by an alien star, 

In other days, 



^^Alma Mater" Anthology, 1883-1919 195 

Still may their hearts recall anon 

In quiet hour 
The dear dead days, forever gone, 

In that old tower. 

(Mair.) 

Mair's verses are always elegant; his other pieces here I read 
again with pleasure, but his post-graduate sonnet to Hesiod is a 

classic. 

From my attic window I saw, for five years day by day, the picture 
of the Aulton and the sea. These are the background in all my 
wanderings at home or abroad, but most in my wanderings at home ; 
for, in twenty years, I have gone round and round Scotland, searching 
among her hills, moving from island to island, exulting in storms on 
land and sea, resting in silent bays among the northern isles ; and I 
thank Leask for these words of his : — 

So, too, the wanderer, from Northern climes, 
^ When from his heart some hidden music swells 

Out of some lonely skerry, or dark voe 
That frets and eddies to the surge below, 
Of memories faint and dim that come from other times, 
Will start again and deem he hears the Aulton Bells. 

But I must leave Leask alone ; otherwise I shall have no room 
for any other name. But this, perhaps, I may record: in 1882 I 
went, as secretary of the Literary Society, to ask him for a "paper". 
How curious that we should say a " paper " ! It marked our test of 
worth ; for any man can speak, but only the few can write. I went 
into Leask's room at three in the afternoon ; I came out at nine. 
For all the six hours, I sat almost silent, yet there was not a silent 
moment. I came away with the promise of a paper on — " Is there a 
Science of History ? " ; but I took with me also the revelations of a 
rich mind. Leask knew his man and I knew a scholar. 

II. 

Bain retired in 1880. It was a blow to my wishes in philosophy; 
but I had at least the luck of one session of his teaching in English. 
He was the greatest master I ever had, perhaps the only really great 
one ; but this I cannot know, for final greatness is not revealed in its 
own generation. But one thing I do know: I would not exchange 
the twenty-five years of his friendship for all that I ever learned from 



196 Aberdeen University Review 

other men. The work he did in the fifties is living to-day with a life 
that is ever renewed. This is not the illusion of a personal per- 
spective ; it is the view that some of the younger philosophers of Scot- 
land and England are beginning to express. And, even when they 
do not express it, they show many effects of his influence. The first 
time I met Bergson — it was at the Aristotelian Society, when Bertrand 
Russell was President — I said to him that, in personal appearance, he 
might almost pass for a younger brother of Bain. He was charmed 
to be told so, and assured me that, as a student, he had studied Bain's 
works with care, as indeed his own works show, and that " in France, 
Bain is a classic ". But here it is Bain's English teaching I wish to 
note. In his own writing, he aimed first and last at lucidity and 
relevance. The criticism he was proudest of was Mark Pattison's 
deliverance in the ''Athenaeum " on the stout volume of " Mental and 
Moral Science " : " We have read it from cover to cover and it does not 
contain a single irrelevant sentence ". But to lucidity and relevance he 
sacrificed some other qualities that many lesser men possessed, and, 
from the merely ''literary" standpoint, he suffered. But in his 
English Class the sense of style revealed itself in his lovely voice and 
his perfect elocution. In these forty years I have heard many good 
readers and speakers on the stage and ofT. it, but I have never heard 
a reader like Bain. His reading of the opening passage of Shelley's 
" Prometheus " filled me with a fury of desire to read Shelley, and I still 
have, as a fountain of delight, the one-and-sixpenny copy I rushed 
that afternoon to buy. Bain revealed to me a whole world of beauty. 
To-day I am writing of this Anthology because Bain's beautiful voice 
opened the gates of wonder, and in the world of his revelation I have 
been wandering ever since, discovering new delights and consolations 
in the colours and rhythms of good writing. 

But there was a defect in Bain's method of teaching, a defect due 
in the main to the petty views then taken of what was due to an 
English department. In the miserable fifty hours allowed for the 
course, he set himself to teach what was teachable, and he succeeded 
to a marvel. But he knew that all he could do must be only a be- 
ginning, but it was a beginning so vivid that to-day, with a few hours' 
preparation, I could teach his whole course through. But of the course 
as it had to be taught there is this to say : it was teaching for 
direction, for criticism, for understanding, for appreciation, but it was 
not teaching for production. That, as he realised and said, must come 



"Alma Mater" Anthology, 1883-1919 197 

through other channels. He confined himself to the reconstructive 
criticism of form ; but, in doing so, he furnished us with a superb in- 
strument, which I, for one, have never ceased to use. Perhaps it made 
us over-critical of our own work and, therefore, too little productive. 
That was a result that Bain himself often talked about to friends : 
men were apt to be too critical of their own work and by that to fail 
in producing as much as they ought to produce. This, of course, he 
never applied to aesthetic production like the higher prose and all 
poetry. For these the primitive endowment must be high and the 
pains infinite. Yet, for sensitive minds, the training in criticism, how- 
ever admirable for the main purpose of ordinary composition, was apt 
to restrain the impulse to production. 

III. 

Minto came in 1880. With him came the spirit of journalism, 
which is to say the spirit of literature. Later, in our refinements, we 
have learned to think of the journalist as a specialist apart ; but 
Addison's " Spectator " was journalism and it remains literature. First 
and last the journalist is a man that, from morhing to night, puts 
words to the uses of life. And that is the practice of letters. If this 
be too high a claim, and if journalism be but one of the occasions for 
projecting ideas and feelings into words, we may say at least of Minto 
that he put literature in the first place and, to his teaching of it, he 
brought an atmosphere of actuality. He came to us from the heart 
of living politics. He taught us to read ; he encouraged us to pro- 
duce, and he kindled in us a desire for the life of action. He broke 
the spell of mere acquisitional learning. He uncovered to us good 
literature ; he bred us in constructive criticism and, above all, he 
strengthened the impulse to write. In twelve years of warm friend- 
ship I tried to let him know, from time to time, my gratitude for 
having opened to me Coleridge's " Biographia Literaria," Wordsworth's 
" Preface to the Lyrical Ballads," Matthew Arnold's " Introduction," 
Berkeley's prose, Newman's prose, George Sand's prose, Wordsworth's 
poetry, Matthew Arnold's poetry, and many another great author in 
literature and in philosophy. A man like Minto — humane, sympa- 
thetic, political — could not fail to inspire, and I cannot but feel that he 
helped to create the atmosphere out of which "Alma Mater" appeared. 
It is certain that he sent many of us to the world of journalism, and 



198 Aberdeen University Review 

some of us have lived there ever since or at least on the fringes of that 
great forest. I recall like yesterday the hours of terrible sorrow that 
came to me with the telegraphic message — " Minto is dying"; but, 
in spite of the desolating news, I was able to telegraph by even- 
ing to the " Free Press " something of what his death meant to us, and I 
still thank the *' Free Press " for that opportunity. And I was only one 
of scores. I have attended many great funerals; but this was the 
funeral of a man that the whole city loved, and the thousands on the 
streets looked on in sorrow. 

Those were the days before options or honours courses ; but 
Minto, through sheer force of personality, had the effect of a depart- 
ment. He wakened in the University the spirit of romance, and it 
has never gone to sleep again. It is this that made W. A. Mackenzie 
sing :— 

O Master ! Truly thine is gain 
To leave this caravanserai 

Of woe, and sleep within the fane 
Where are the gods of Yesterday. 

IV. 

. I remember the day when the first number of " Alma Mater " ap- 
peared. It was a slight thing, filled mainly with hope. For my part, 
I was not uninterested ; but the severities of life had already taken me 
in charge and I had seen " The Academic " and knew its fate. " Alma 
Mater" was born in the year 1883-84, the year after I graduated in 
Arts. I always understood that my friend Dr. Beveridge was the 
chief mover ; but there were other bright particular stars in that class, 
Chalmers Mitchell among the brightest. The Anthology has next to 
nothing from the year 1884; but the first volume of "Alma Mater" 
does have some things worth recording : this, for instance, of Chalmers 
Mitchell's :— 

For this is the dower in our doom, 

The light of life and the breath. 
Sweet love, the one bright plume 

In the shadowy wings of death. 

The lure of Swinburne took us all in those days ; but Chalmers 
Mitchell was Rossettian, and his paper on Rossetti at the Literary was 
a piece of fine criticism. He has conquered many other worlds since 
then, and recently the whole kingdom was kept looking for the news of 
his flying journey to South Africa. I remember the days when he was 



^^Alma Mater" Anthology, 1883-1919 199 

preparing to go up to Oxford to contest a scholarship and he pressed 
me to come. There were reasons for my not going and they seemed 
good enough then ; but, if it were to-day, perhaps I should listen to the 
plea of the younger man, knowing now that I am ready to scrap all 
that I have seen and done since for one breath of what I learned at 
King's and for the things of which this Anthology is the symbol and 
the reminder. The world of Administration is a poor thing to the 
world of thought and expression. We must learn so much to do so 
little, and the thing done is taken up as an unknown element in the 
world and the world goes on, leaving us with the satisfaction that 
comes only of sacrifice ; but in the world of thought there is a joy that 
nothing else can give, and that is why, wearied of action and longing 
for peace, we turn to these verses and dream again "of these poor 
Might-Have-Beens, these fatuous ineffectual yesterdays ". The end of 
every life is failure ; that is our doom, and it is the unlived life that 
alone seems certain of success ; but if there is anything that can re- 
deem the weariness of the day's duty and smooth out the anxieties of 
regret for things unachieved, it is the flush of young beauty in verses 
like these, where despair is the despair of growth, not the final despair 
of age, and where the hope is the hope of a future still to taste and 
to test, not the haunting vision of a future that is now dead : " The 
happy highways where I went and cannot come again ". This is the 
mind I bring to the reading of this charming volume. I can say truly 
that my training for the understanding of the things it embodies has 
been continuous ever since I left King's College. 

V. 

When Minto's successor. Professor Grierson, came, he brought 
back with him the sensitive, warm nature that we knew so well at the 
Literary in the Eighties ; but this time he came with more learning 
from the south and he found a new world of academic possibilities 
opening out before him. When, a few weeks ago, I read his '* Bressay 
Caves " at our University Association in Edinburgh, he told me that 
he thought better of it when he heard me read it, but that, at the 
time, he was stopped by Campbell Macfie's comments. Macfie himself 
was even then a good poet, and I am glad that the Anthology gives 
at least four of his pieces. But " Bressay Caves " was a finger exercise 
by a future Professor of English, and it is certain that the English 



200 Aberdeen University Review 

Department of Aberdeen University has not lost by Professor Grier- 
son's wealth of poetic feeling. 

Of Professor Jack's influence, it is too soon to speak ; but, from 
what I hear, I am satisfied that his enthusiasm for good literature will 
have a fine response in the next anthology. 

VI. 

But here we come on a new fact. It was in Grierson's period that 
''the^women came to King's". Mrs. Rachel Annand Taylor comes 
alphabetically first here, and it would be difficult to say that she is 
not also aesthetically first. I recall her fine phrase — *' the setting of 
the untired falcon of the will at impossible quarry," and I find in 
some of her verses here notes that have grown to greater richness in 
her later work : — 

Then, like a princess proud of old, 

Come walk beneath the musing trees ; 

For once attend the melodies 
That edge the evening air with gold ; 

And let the falling echo part 

The lake of dreams within thine heart, 
That lake of still, sequestered gold. 

Or let your ear answer to this: — 

For Youth, who goes to War, 

With winds of April blowing 
Through his unvizored golden hair, — 
With reckless golden head all bare, 

And all his banners flowing, — 
For Youth, for Youth, who rides afar 
In silver armour fair to see. 
With joints of gold at arm and knee, 
Fantastic prince of chivalry, 
Arrogant, wistful, beautiful, 
Youth, the Pure Fool,— 
We that are old, hard, winter-bitten, grey. 
Yet rode crusading, once upon a day, 
We pray to Father, Son, and Holy Ghost : 
" Oh ! let him win the battle that we lost ". 

There are, it is true, hints of the too rich colour of her more 
mature work ; but there are, too, hints of the simpler rhythm of ** The 
Roman Road " : — 

A dream of strange triumphal things 

In flame and sound goes by, 
A Roman Pomp of captive Kings 

Beneath a turquoise sky. 



^^Alma Mater" Anthology, 1883-1919 201 

It is many years since I first met Mrs. Taylor and we talked of 
Scott. I said some strong things about him, and this among 
others : that we were only then outliving the evil influence of his 
alleged histories. Her eyes flashed in wonder at such a judgment, 
and she assured me that the romances had illumined for her the whole 
course of Scottish history with a light that could not perish. Perhaps ! 
But I was more interested in the psychological reaction of a true 
poetess, who has added to the world's beautiful verse. Incidentally, 
when I said she should write more prose, she almost shuddered and 
told me that she found it even more diflicult than verse. It is easy 
to understand why : a few of her best sentences are all the explanation 
wanted. 

VII. 

Perhaps, now, I may go down the list and say what occurs to me. 
This is. not a time for criticism, whether we mean by it a formulated 
judgment or " the impressions of a soul among masterpieces ". Here 
it is a time for searching back into the motifs of youth and of yielding 
once more to their spell. To quote Leask again : — 

To all the children of the Crown, 

Who now, or on some older day, 
Have, in the glory of the gown, 

Once climbed in life the Spital Brae ; 
And who, though sundered far apart 

By time and tide, where'er they be, 
Bear yet within them in their heart 

That music of the Northern Sea. 

Here is my friend Malcolm Bulloch. An Anthology without 
some of his rhymes would not be tolerable. " Davie " was and is the 
favourite. To this generation, Davie is unknown ; by the last genera- 
tion, he cannot be forgotten : — 

What tho' time and what tho' tide 
Hae cast yer laddies far and wide. 

By east, by wast — 

They mind the past. 
And dream aboot ye, Davie. 

A' yer loons, at hame or roamin', 

Drink yer health in bumpers foamin' ; 

Noo ye're gettin' to the gloamin', 
Aifter wark, my Davie. 

Bulloch wrote many a rhyme for " Alma Mater " and we always read 
them with delight. It was in ''Alma Mater" he trained himself to 



202 Aberdeen University Review 

become the incorruptible critic of drama and to keep a large world 
looking for his flashes of wit. 

What shall I say of Sir William Geddes and his pieces ? I never 
can see his name without thinking of one morning when we were 
Bajans and my left-hand friend whispered to me during prayer : 
** Hasn't Geddes a beautiful head?" We did not then think of him 
as a writer of Scots verse ; but I am glad the editors have kept for us 
"Big Bon-Accord" and the ''Leopard Cats". In his translations 
Geddes had not outlived the fallacy of " poetic diction," and even in his 
Scots the fallacy appears ; but — here I speak with diffidence, for 
Scots is not my language — one phrase of one verse should live : — 

Gae name ilk toun, the four seas roun' ; 

There's ane that bear's the gree, 
For routh o' mense an' grip o' sense — ' 

It lies 'tween Don and Dee. 

Of Thomas Hardy, another senior, it is enough to quote two fine 
lines : — 

On the grave influence of whose eyes sublime 
Men count for the stability of the time. 

These it is well to have with us, and we thank a great man of letters 
for having written them. 

Then there is Ronald Campbell Macfie. Many of his poems I 
have put to the test of "reading aloud" and I have never failed to 
get a response. He is full of beautiful things. Those in this volume 
are not so good as many he has written since ; but there is originality, 
a free use of words, a subtlety of verse music. Thus : — 

Go, love yon lily breaking thro' the sod 

And thou shalt be refreshed as if by wine, 
And sup as in a hostel with thy God 
On food divine. 

Go, gaze on Ocean when the twilight lingers 

On waves as beautiful as at their birth, 
When thunderous they trickled thro' God's fingers 
Upon the earth. 

There are some other old friends that I cannot forbear to name. 
There is Alexander Mackie, whom I first met forty years ago. He 
was then Bain's assistant, and we knew him for a keen critic of com- 
position. Later, I acted for three years on the staff of his school — three 
critical years when life was still all to make. It was then I found in 
Mackie a true friend and brother, and one great regret of the later 



"Alma Mater" Anthology, 1 883-1919 203 

time was that I could see so little of him. I wish I could have 
brought into a synthesis all I knew of his work in the happy days when 
we met every morning and parted every afternoon, and when again we 
met at Bain's on Sundays and turned over questions of criticism in 
many fields of life. It is not the merit of his verses that takes me now ; 
it is the way they rouse in me again the old anxieties and satisfactions 
and friendships. Aberdeen means less to me now that Mackie is dead. 
To me Mackie's '' In Memoriam of Principal Lang " is also an elegy for 
himself, for I know how well he loved the heart of the University : — 

The moonlit Crown of King's and yon twin towers 
Rising above the old Cathedral bowers 
Heard the soft-whisper'd call to one who lay 
Ready to break his staff and yield the sway 
Of academic life to other powers. 

And what am I to say of W. A. Mackenzie, seven of whose many 
pieces take their places in these pages? Shall I choose the ironic 
gaiety of a " Divine Debauch " ? — 

Who'd be sane and sad and sober, 
This clean morn in young October — 
When the air, like sparkling Mosel, 
Fills the cup for lout and losel, 
Longing lad and love-sick maiden, 
Vagabond with high dreams laden ? 

or the horror of Introspection — Ail-That- I-Was facing All-That-I-Am ? 
To these and the others he has added much since then ; but we all 
admired his facility, and I rejoice to find his pieces here again. 

VIII. 

There are other names in the list that I could dwell upon ; but there 
are some that I miss. That is always the tragedy of an Anthology. 
No two choosers would choose all the same, and I cannot help having 
preferences for some of the omitted. For instance, there was a sonnet 
by John Barron beginning — 

Upon the crestless mountain Calasay 

There lies a rose in argent aureole, 

Ever enduring, in whose inmost soul 

Twin spirits lie, the lady of the lips and tongue, 

And they, while moon succeeds wan moon. . . . 

but here my memory snaps and the print is, I think, in the volume 
I gave to Mr. P. J. Anderson to make up the set in the University 



204 Aberdeen University Review 

Library. Perhaps the sonnet was somewhat of a Rossettian echo, 
but it was worth a place. I remember talking of it to James Symon 
and he thought of it as I did. Curiously, the atmosphere of medicine 
at Marischal did not mean losing touch with the young poets of King's, 
and I knew most of them. And here the name of Symon has slipped 
out quite naturally. I always think of him as among the fine spirits 
of his day. His " City of Dreams " always took us, Swinburnian echo 
though it was in manner : — 

Is it where Isis engirdles college and chapel and tower, 
Isis that bears on her bosom Youth in its lustiest flower, 
Glory of England, my Oxford, is it to thee I would turn, 
Seeking anew to awaken pulses that tingle and burn ? 

Nay, thou art dear ; but a dearer, sterner Mistress is mine : 
Fast by the Northern Sea the symbols are twain of her shrine, 
Heavenward soaring they beacon the mariner far in the Bay, 
Crown of the reverend Past and Tower but of Yesterday ! 

There is yet another piece I should like to have had in this volume, 
perhaps mainly for personal reasons ; but its merit is beyond question. 
It is a sonnet by " Sigma " (William Charles Spence, First Bursar, 
1878), introduced ironically as discovered *'in the course of prolonged 
researches among Elizabethan sonneteers". I dare to offer it again ; 
for it is the work of a friend whose memory is too sacred to be spoken 
of. The misgiving of the last two lines became a prophecy : that is, 
perhaps, another reason for reprinting the sonnet in a University 
chronicle : — 

When I have seen the morning's haughty rose 

That spread her beauty to the cheerful sun. 

Drooping at eve, that beauty's pride undone 
Which gave her vantage of her meaner foes; 

When the gay peacock would his tail unclose 
And teach the eye all other fowl to shun, 
But, moulting, he to house would quickly run, 

Leaving a plume behind to tell his woes ; 

Then have I said — I see man's image there ! 

He goes a soldier out, holding all eyes ; 

But coming crippled home, neglected dies. 
Green hope doth ever herald gray despair ; 
And these young lines that wail a common care, 

Are signal where my own in waiting lies. 

There are other omissions, of course ; but these are disputables. 
I am as fond of Macfie's early work as Andrew Lang was ; for I like 



"Alma Mater" Anthology, 1883-1919 205 

to see in embryo the elements of the full man. But what he has 
published later makes up for the other pieces missed here. 

There arc names of other friends ; but the young generation is 
calling, and their song is so sweet that I can no longer resist it. 

IX. 

One afternoon, eight years ago, I spent an hour or two motoring 
among the townships of The Point, which is the name of the peninsula 
that lies to the north-east of Stornoway. My companion was a 
sensitive and courtly gentleman, and knocked gently at this door and 
that and spoke to the people in soft, beautiful Gaelic. To the stranger 
the doors in Lewis are not easily opened, but to the friend with a 
friend there is nothing that that wonderful people will not give. Per- 
haps it was the accident that our clan names were the same ; more 
probably, it was my companion's gracious sympathy ; I only know 
that every fibre of my nature was stirred with tenderness in that little 
tour among the people of the townships. That was my first visit to 
Lewis ;' I cannot forget it, and I shall always link the wonderful beauty 
of that land and sea with the gentleness of one fine spirit whose heart 
answers to pain and trouble as the ^olian lyre to the shifting winds. 

I could not then know that, eight years later, I should be trying 
to find just where the peculiar charm of Miss Agnes Muriel Mackenzie's 
verses lies. I only know they breathe the beauty of that beautiful, 
sad island, whose life is a romance that no modernism can quench. 

Aignish O ! The death-fires are lighting 
Over the sand where sleep the heroes. 
Where will their sons rest forth of the fighting? 

' And the grey gulls wheeling ever, 

And the wide arch of sky — 
O Aignish in the machar, 
And quiet there to lie. 

The island of Lewis is a marvel in the history of the War ; I have 
read of nothing like it ; but, knowing a very little of the people, I feel 
no surprise at what they have done. I have gloried in the winds 
and rains of Lewis, and, because of these, but most, perhaps, because 
of that afternoon in the peninsula, I read and re-read with increasing 
pleasure the romances Miss Agnes Muriel Mackenzie has put into 
music for us. Where so much is good, it is difficult to maintain a 



V 



2o6 Aberdeen University Review 

stable preference. Who is not lifted away to another world by 
*'Gahalan's Song"?— 

Oh suns and moons and many winds 

Are all gone dark and still, 
And river-water has run to the sea 

That was cloud upon the hill. 

But a day of the days cannot die, my dear, 

Until my soul be slain — 
A morning grey and a night of wind 

And February rain. 

Oh queens and lovers go down to death 

And kings shall lose their power, 
But I, though I perish as they, have been 

Immortal for an hour. 

It would be some satisfaction to analyse the elements of this 
wonderfully clever piece. For instance, note how the slow syllables 
of the first two lines of the first stanza emphasise the metrical lightness 
of its last two lines. But this kind of criticism, fascinating though it 
be, is a thing for the student of verse. Here, let the reader read tlntil 
he find his pleasure, and if he can stop reading before he knows the 
three stanzas by heart, it is more than I have been able to do. 

Of MissJMackenzie's other fifteen pieces, the one I like best is 
*' En Passant ". This sonnet will be quoted in every future Anthology 
of our University's verse. As with " Gahalan's Song," it would be a 
pleasure to expose the pretty delicacies of rhythm and vowel alterna- 
tion that form a medium for this happy conceit ; but the emotional 
atmosphere is incommunicable except by the piece as a whole. Yet 
I cannot help quoting the last six lines : — 

I too shall pass, nor enter in again : 

The door will close, and that will be the end. 
Another face in the mirror ! Yet, we twain, 

Who here have talked together, friend and friend. 

So many nights, have made one memory 
This room will not forget, I think — nor I. 

There is another name that is new to me — Miss Nan Shepherd, 
who contributes eleven pieces. Some of them I read when they 
appeared in "Alma Mater". There is a new strain here. It differs 
from Mrs. Rachel Annand Taylor's and from Miss Mackenzie's. I 
have read the pieces again and again, and the differences are them- 
selves a fascinating, if difficult, study. Miss Nan Shepherd has a 



^^Alma Mater" Anthology, 1883-1919 207 

wonderful control of rhythms. She experiments freely and succeeds 
often. I cannot quite characterise her work, specific though it be ; 
perhaps it is my bias for philosophy that makes me think of her as 
among the metaphysicians. This quality is well shown in two sonnets 
— "The Dim Stars Wander" and "To-night, To-night, when all the 
Sky is Bare ". Neither of these will quote ; they must be read intently 
and enjoyed in the full music of their rhythms. Another example of 
her outlook is " The Man who Journeyed to his Heart's Desire " : — 

And there the folk who had sought as he 

Stared in a silence stonily 

(For nothing was even worth a sigh) 

On the long straight line of the sea and sky, 

And the long straight line of the sand and the sea. 

The last two lines are a triumph. 

From Miss Elizabeth Stephen (Mrs. J. A. Innes) we have five 
pieces. It is not easy to convey her peculiar quality. Here are two 
stanzas from " The Hermit " : — 

And while the long days creep, 

And make the lingering birds forget to sing, 

The dying breeze shall grow too faint to bring 

Heart-beat of cities 

From salt sea-borders to these realms of sleep. 

New worlds shall have their birth 

To which the laughing children shall be heir. 

But I, who watch the windy capes made bare. 

Homeless — unquiet, 

Fulfil the one true mind of Heaven and Earth. 

I have already said too much; yet 1 should like to have said 
something of Miss Maribel Thomson's pretty " Reproach to Cupid " ; 
of Mr. John Wellwood's "Ad Finem Usque"; of Mr. J. H. Mason's 
" Death " :— 

Our so Hospitable Host, 
Giver of our Lives and Lights, 
Salute .... 

or of his beautiful *' Nocturne " : — 

The morning came and the sowing of seed. 

Comes night with the reaping ; 
The Watchman is crying his last " Godspeed" 

Ere the tower be forsaken. 

Sleep, my beloved, the day is done, 

Thou shalt not awaken ; 
I come, beloved, may ours be one 

Fair night for sleeping ! 



2o8 Aberdeen University Review 

I should like also to say something of the translations and the 
ironies and the comics, especially of Dr. Rorie's " Macfadden and 
Macfee " ; but there is room only for a word or two on the " authors 
unknown ". They belong to many dates. Of the pieces many are 
interesting, but one takes me more than the others, and, when I 
think of " Alma Mater " and all that she has meant to me these forty 
years, I should wish to address her in such words as the author ot 
"At Dawn" uses: — 

When I am old, and time has cast 

His silver noose around my head; 
When shadows lengthen, and the last 

Faint echo in the night has fled ; 

When voices hush, and storm-winds rise, 

To drive my slender barque astray ; 
When slumber seals my troubled eyes, 

And fades the last light of the day — 

Losing all else, I still would see, 

Thy hands stretched out to welcome me. 

X. 

Of the Anthology as a whole, one last remark : the Editors have 
succeeded in making the " collection as representative as possible of 
the various aspects of University verse since the founding of ' Alma 
Mater' in 1883". But they have done much more than this: they 
have raised a beautiful memorial to " those who have lived and toiled 
and wept and dreamed " through the last forty years of our University 
history. Perhaps'an old worker on " Alma Mater," never an editor but 
for seven years a contributor, may be allowed to record his pride that, 
in thirty-seven years, the oldest University magazine in the world can 
yield such a harvest of verse. The recent years have been more 
fruitful, and I wonder why. Is it that the ancient severities have 
given place to a keener perception of beauty in rhythm, or that the 
coming of the women has made a difference, or that the whole out- 
look on life has shifted and the alleged finalities of the philosophies 
and religions are no longer taken so seriously ? Are we entering on 
a period of greater emotional instability, and shall we now look for 
our chief satisfaction — not to the poetry of metaphysical constructions, 
but — to vague emotions of regret and despair, sometimes real, some- 
times merely postural, but always symptomatic of inner conflicts that 
cannot be stilled by ancient counsels but " ache for more substantial 



"Alma Mater" Anthology, 1883-1919 209 

boon than sleep"? Or are these but compensation symptoms thrown 
up by the positive spirit, which seeks, as ever, to project its wishes on 
the sky that it may understand more intimately the merely human ? 
There are many strains of tendency visible in this volume, and if I 
had the time and the energy, I should delight in tracing some of them 
to their origins and in following them into their differences. But per- 
haps, after all, the Time Spirit is only playing upon us with his 
illusions, and the essence of the whole matter is the dream of the 
timeless Spirit of Youth, the oldest and the youngest : oldest, in that 
it brings us back to the fundamentals of desire ; youngest, in that it 
clothes its hopes with new infinities of surprise. 

W. LESLIE MACKENZIE. 



14 




Materia Medica. 

A HISTORICAL SKETCH.^ 

|HE subject I am called upon to teach is not one that, 
as a whole, lends itself to popular exposition. It 
is a complex — a construct — of various sciences and 
includes several branches some of which may, with 
profit, be studied independently. It has arisen, 
however, from one definite object — the treatment 
of disease. And, as it is necessary to prevent or 
cure disease and alleviate suffering by all the means in our power, it 
has come to include within its scope any measure capable of influencing, 
directly or indirectly, vital processes. The name, Materia Medica, 
originally implied all that was known of remedial agents. Although, 
during the course of evolution, the term has become restricted in its 
meaning, the subject-matter of this chair still remains the same. " Its 
main object is primarily to initiate students into the treatment of 
disease. 

How or when the treatment of disease arose no one knows. How 
or when the multiplicity of diseases we have come to recognise came 
into being, we cannot tell ; whether, indeed, the more serious have 
undergone transmutations or, with individual variations, have been 
one and the same from the first, we only surmise. All that we can 
definitely say is that injuries, including dietetic errors, are likely to 
have produced similar effects upon primitive peoples to those they 
produce or may produce to-day. The chief differences, if we exclude 
complications, would probably be found to be the result of differences 
in the noxious agent. But when we come to the treatment of disease, 
we are wholly in a land of conjecture. To guide us, we may use the 
geological method of observing the phenomena which go on around 
us and project back to unthinkable time the effects we now see ; and 
we may employ the biological idea of self-preservation as an important 

^ Inaugural Lecture, October, 1919. 



Materia Medica 



211 



and probably essential factor. It might, seem, indeed, incongruous to 
employ what I have termed the geological method and compare the 
happenings in a civilised community of to-day with those at the Dawn 
of Reason untold ages ago. But we have primitive peoples yet, and 
there is still, however much we 'may try to disguise it, a primitive 
streak in most of us. Moreover, there is around us still more primitive 
life, and we have been told, and it is still maintained by some eminent 
authorities, that our earliest treatment! of disease was derived from the 
observation of animals. Even the process of blood-letting, which we 
must regard from the point of view of primitive therapeutics as a 
somewhat advanced mode of treatment, is stated by Pliny to have 
been derived from this source. It is credited to the hippopotamus. 
**That intelligent animal," he says, "finding himself plethoric, goes 
out on the banks of the Nile, and there searches for a sharp-pointed 
reed which he runs into a vein in his leg, and having then got rid of 
a sufficient amount of blood, closes the wound with clay." We will 
not presume to doubt the word of so eminent a man, but I cannot 
forbear expressing a desire for a specimen of that particular reed for 
the Materia Medica Museum. Although it is possible that some sug- 
gestions for the treatment of disease may have been acquired from the 
habits of animals, it seems to me improbable that much of the know- 
ledge of primitive peoples on this subject was obtained in this manner. 
Experiment has shown that there is no therapeutic instinct in animals. 
The observations recorded by Pliny and others, when accurate, must 
have been chance occurrences, seen by few even in an age of Hunters. 
Moreover, their application to the needs of man would require mental 
processes greater, I believe, than primitive man possessed. Pure 
imitation, I think, we may exclude. Imitation is unquestionably a 
powerful educative factor among animals of the same species, but it is 
of small importance in the case of animals differing widely in the 
zoological scale. Birds may have shown us that flight was possible 
but it can scarcely be said that they taught us how to fly. It is even 
questionable if the deductions that have been drawn from avian 
morphology by the very learned, have assisted us in this latest 
development of mechanical science. Nor can we credit Dickens with 
the innovation of the twopenny tube although he suggests through 
Professor Queerspeck that business men might travel in trains from 
their residences to the city through the sewers. Similarly with thera- 
peutics. We have been told that we learnt the use of emetics from 



212 Aberdeen University Review 

the dog. Dogs are said to eat grass to make them vomit. I doubt 
if they do any such thing ; and I am suspicious that primitive man 
knew more about emetics than the dog long before this animal became 
domesticated. It is possible that animals supplied information about 
foods ; that they showed that certain things which they ate were not 
necessarily injurious ; but Therapeutics — the Treatment of Disease — 
could not have originated solely in this way. 

I believe that it originated mainly in the desire of the individual 
for self-preservation, coupled with the sympathy inherent in animal 
nature. The occurrence of disagreeable symptoms usually leads to a 
desire for relief. Any change seems preferable from the distress of 
the moment. In Sir Gerald Portal's book, " The British Mission to 
Uganda," the following incident is described: "During the march on 
one of these days, our righteous English indignation was fired by what at 
first sight appeared to be a most abominable case of torture and cruelty 
in our own caravan. Our attention being attracted to a small group 
of men bending over a prostrate figure, we strolled up to see what 
was the matter. On arrival we found a porter, or soldier — I forget 
which — stretched face downwards on the ground, while two powerful 
men were pulling at his arms and legs in opposite directions with all 
their strength. Round each of the victim's ankles, separately, cords 
had been tied as tightly as they could be drawn, and the pressure still 
further increased by a rude tourniquet made of a stick twisted in the 
knots, till they appeared to be cutting into the flesh. As though this 
was not sufficient torture, a third strapping big fellow was walking 
and even stamping up and down on the naked back of the unfortunate 
wretch, who was lying motionless, and, as we thought, without the 
power to struggle. Blazing with anger at the idea of this act of bar- 
barism being perpetrated under our very eyes, we hotly demanded 
what it meant; but somewhat to our discomfiture the cold-blooded 
torturers only answered with a grin, and, quite undisturbed by our 
anger, the single word ' tumbo,' while the panting victim raised his 
prostrate head and softly muttered the same not very poetical sound. 
* Tumbo ' may be literally translated by the English colloquial 
expression ' tummy ' ; in other words, the prostrate gentleman was 
suffering from apparently severe pains in the abdominal region, for 
which this stretching of the limbs, the tying-up of the ankles, and the 
walking on the back constituted a favourite native remedy. The cure 
was rapid and complete, for on the termination of the operation the 



Materia Medica 213 



patient jumped up — a little stiffly at first, shouldered his load, and 
marched off in excellent spirits." 

In the absence of experience and knowledge in primitive peoples, 
we can understand how various accessible things would be tried in 
disease — the water from the brook ; the herbs of the field ; even the 
bark from the woods. It does not require great intelligence to attempt 
to quell the heat of an inflammation by the coolness of the water 
of the stream. The effects obtained would to some extent be re- 
membered ; a certain experience would have been gained ; and 
eventually, with the development of small tribal communities, it is 
not difficult to conceive that such effects, whether obtained by personal 
experience or observation, would be remembered by one — and there is 
generally some one — who took a special interest in such matters. Thus 
might arise the primitive medicine man — or woman. At the same time 
experience would be gained by the search for new vegetable foods, and 
perhaps more from chance observations of the toxic effects of plants 
on children or adults such as are not infrequently seen in our own 
day. Some of these are striking and could scarcely fail to impress 
even the primitive intelligence of that early time. This, I believe, was 
the origin of therapeutics. It was in personal experience, observation, 
and even experiment — primitive, undigested, incomplete — but I think 
it forms the first period. 

The second period could not have been long delayed. Wiih the 
development of even simple tribal conditions and the consequent inter- 
communication of ideas among adults, reasoning would be stimulated, 
imagination sharpened, and experience extended. We can conceive 
of questions arising as to the cause of impressive natural phenomena, 
such as lightning and thunder ; we can conceive of the primitive savage 
wondering from whence disease came ; and we can also conceive of 
his attributing these apparently spontaneous happenings to unseen 
beings. Whether these were of the nature of spirits or where they re- 
sided we need not inquire. The important thing to recognize is that 
we have had instituted a presumed cause of disease. There has been 
created a primitive pathologist. It is the second stage. 

In the systematic class I shall have to refer at an early period to 
the Principles of Treatment, and one of these, theoretically the most 
important, is to remove the cause of disease ; another is like unto it — ' 
if the cause cannot be removed, endeavour to counteract it. 'Com- 
mentary on these therapeutic axioms is not necessary here ; we may 



214 Aberdeen University Review 

accept them as self-evident. I only wish to call attention to the fact 
that a step, intellectually a great step, had been made in the evolution 
of treatment when disease was attributed to a cause. For even to the 
meanest intelligence it would be obvious that the supposed cause must 
be counteracted or removed. It is immaterial to us what the cause 
was believed to be ; whether it was within or without the patient, near 
or far off, it had to be propitiated, and thus another factor was added 
to therapeutics. 

It is not my intention to trace this hypothetical development of 
the treatment of disease through the millenia that followed. At the 
moment history opens therapeutics has advanced greatly. Different 
drugs are apparently used for different diseases ; different spirits or 
deities are credited with the charge of different affections; different 
theories of the cause of disease exist. A distinct profession of Medicine 
has arisen and has even undergone considerable evolution. The first 
physician of whom we have record was what we should now call a 
Physician to the King. He was Chief Physician to the Pharaoh 
Sahura of the Fifth Dynasty, and, according to the testimony of his 
tomb, he cured the sovereign of a disease of the nostrils and received 
the thanks of the King and the homage of the Court in consequence. 
This happened, it is surmised, before the year 3500'B.C.^ Then we 
pass over another two thousand years to the Papyrus Ebers. Perhaps 
it is that we know more of Egyptian than of other ancient civilizations, 
but as far as our present knowledge goes Egyptian Medicine seems 
earliest to have reached a relatively high state of development. Even 
specialization was by no means unknown. 

It would also be impossible with the time at my disposal to trace 
even briefly the development of therapeutics, during the many suc- 
ceeding centuries. As at present, it is probable that new drugs, 
new combinations of drugs, and new methods were from time to 
time introduced and older ones discarded At- the time our era opens 
the regular Materia Medica was very large as is evident from the 
work of Dioscorides, the first writer on this subject. He describes 
nearly a thousand remedies in use at the time. And unques- 
tionably, considerable advances had been made both by the Egyptian 
and Greek Schools, but up to what I shall call the third period 
of therapeutics, which commenced with the physiological investiga- 
tion of drugs, the development of therapeutics was, for the time 

^ Other authorities date it soon after 3000 and some even later. 



Materia Medica 215 

covered, relatively slight. What developments there were appear 
to have been made at long intervals, and were, for the most part, 
associated with the great schools. The greatness of Greece — and it was 
as great in Medicine as in Philosophy — introduced, indirectly, another 
factor — that of authority — which, since it played an important part in 
therapeutics up to the beginning of last century, it is necessary to 
mention. It may perhaps be most concisely explained by reference 
to a concrete instance — that of blood-letting. This therapeutic measure 
was practised long before our era, and it was still one of the commonest 
methods of treatment a hundred years ago. Instead, however, of 
observing and comparing and criticising its effects under differejit con- 
ditions, some mediaeval physicians spent their time in acrimonious 
discussion, based on authority, as to which vein should be used. At 
one time the difference of opinion as to whether the right or the left 
leg should be employed, became so acute that an appeal was made to 
the leading crowned heads of Europe* and the Pope to settle the 
matter. 

The dominating influence in the endeavour to advance the course 
of therapeutics during this long period of medical history, was un- 
doubtedly the attempts to divine the cause of disease. It is true that 
certain schools, notably the Empirics, disregarded causes, but they 
were probably in a minority. Views on the cause of disease, as we 
have seen, naturally influence treatment, and, in a sense, therapeutics 
may be said to reflect the pathology of the day. Whatever may be 
said of the credulity of medical practitioners towards current theological 
tenets — and they have been accused of agnosticism in all ages — 
there can be no doubt that the tenour of their thoughts must be 
affected by the civilization in which they live. Brought up in an en- 
vironment of superstition and credulity, with authority triple crowned^ 
their horizon must be circumscribed. Whether causes are found in 
the spirit of the mountain or forest, or in birds or reptiles or other 
moving thing, or in a pantheon of deities and demons, matters not 
The thoughts of men are turned in these directions and the stagnation 
of therapeutics for so many centuries is thus largely explained. That 
it was due to mental apathy it is difficult to believe. In all great 
communities, in all ages, men of genius are found. The fault can only 
be with the system of education. It is difficult otherwise to explain 
how such a profound thinker and keen observer as Sir Thomas 
Browne, the writer of some of our most harmonious prose, could have 



2i6 Aberdeen University Review 

given evidence against two miserable victims of witchcraft, which, at 
least, helped to their conviction. This prevalent superstition during 
these long ages allowed imagination to run riot. Possibly in the first 
place arising as an act of propitiation things were believed to be valu- 
able medicinally according as they were difficult to obtain or prepare 
and th^efore costly, or oftentimes were more or less disgusting in 
nature. In the oldest medical work — the Papyrus Ebers — probably 
compiled about 1550 B.C., the following recipe among much that is 
good is recommended against all kinds of witchcraft : " A large beetle ; 
cut off his head and wings ; boil him ; put him in oil ; apply to the 
part. Then cook his head and wings ; put them in serpent's fat ; warm 
it ; let the patient drink it." We had really not advanced much further 
in A.D. 1550. Let us take John of Gaddesden's directions for a belt 
for the colic :' " Take the skin of a sea-cow and make a girdle ; make 
its buckle of whalebone and the strap (?) of whale tooth, if it can be 
got, or of the same whalebone. Whoever wears this belt will never 
have colic." Or let us take the directions recommended for nightmare 
in a country which has long considered itself enlightened, at a much 
later date : " Do not bring in a light, or call loudly to the sleeper, but 
bite his heel or big toe, and gently utt)sr his name ; also spit in his 
face, and give him some ginger-beer ; he will soon come round. If 
not, blow into his ears through small tubes, pull out fourteen hairs 
from his head, twist them together and poke them up his nose." 
Methods equally foolish are in vogue among all civilized peoples to- 
day. I am not referring to them because they are outside the pale of 
the profession. Perhaps the main tendency, during this long interval, 
as far as drug treatment is concerned, had been a development towards 
polypharmacy. Recipes containing a large number of ingredients were 
often employed — the renowned theriac, used almost as a panacea fo«. 
nearly two millenia, had fifty-six. Originating in Mithridatisrn they were 
eventually used on the principle of the shot-gun that something would 
hit the spot. Even the Doctrine of Similars, which maintained that 
diseased organs were benefited by parts similar to them — that yellow 
things were good for jaundice, heart-shaped leaves for heart disease, 
fowl's gizzards for diseases of the stomach, or cyclamen for diseases of 
the ear — and other doctrines developed by the Mystics of mediaeval 
times, failed to influence materially the complexity of the medicines 
prescribed. 

It would be untrue if I conveyed the idea that there were no great 



Materia Medica 217 

men in Medicine during these thirty centuries. On the contrary most 
of the giants of our profession lived in those days. It must be re- 
membered that we are dealing with Treatment, excluding surgical 
treatment. First and foremost of these giants, and the only one I 
shall do more than mention, comes Hippocrates, whose title to fame, 
according to Celsus, is that he separated Medicine from Philosophy. 
The same witty saying has been applied to him as to Homer and 
Shakespeare, and with greater justification. For there were several 
Hippocrates, the second of the name being the greatest and most 
renowned. He is regarded as the Father of Medicine. From his school 
at Cos he has influenced medical thought to the present day. He 
taught the value of accurate observation, and of a detailed study of 
cases and effects, and he impressed upon his students a high moral 
ideal. The phrase — " with purity and holiness I will pass my life and 
practice my Art " — which occurs in the so-called Hippocratic Oath, 
formulated by his school, may be taken as evidence of this. Further 
evidence may be found in his ideas of the qualifications required of 
medical students and medical' practitioners. The second paragraph 
of the so-called Law, which, as Adams remarks, would be better trans- 
lated, the Standard, reads : " Whoever is to acquire a competent 
knowledge of medicine, ought to be possessed of the following ad- 
vantages ; a natural disposition ; instruction ; a favourable position 
for the study ; early tuition ; love of labour ; leisure. First of all a 
natural talent is required ; for when Nature opposes everything else is 
vain ; but when Nature leads the way to what is most excellent, in- 
struction in the Art takes place, which the student must try to 
appropriate to himself by reflection, becoming an early pupil in a place 
well adapted for instruction. He must also bring to the task a love 
of labour and perseverance, so that the instruction, taking root, may 
bring forth proper and abundant fruits." Regarding medical practi- 
tioners he says : " The physician should be well-mannered, discreet, 
and of good repute ; wise in judgement ; temperate, and self- 
controlled. Honourable in all his dealings, he should unite firmness 
with gentleness, and should avoid luxury and display, frivolity and 
levity. He should not be greedy of gain, but should accommodate 
his fees to the circumstances of his patients, and, if necessary, render 
his services gratuitously. He should think more of his honour than 
of profit, and rather run the risk of incurring the ingratitude of a 
patient he has treated than add to the distress of a sick person by 



2i8 Aberdeen University Review 

bargaining about fees during illness. In the case of a poor stranger, 
particularly, it is especially becoming to give gratuitous help, for where 
there is love of mankind there is love of Art." 

A high moral ideal was not, however, limited to the Greek Schools. 
It was also found farther East. Hindoo Medicine, the position of 
which in history has not been decided, has not materially influenced 
modern Medicine, owing perhaps largely to its superstition and mysti- 
cism, but it maintained a high moral standard as will be recognized 
from the qualities laid down by the Veda as desirable in a student of 
Medicine. " He should be of mild disposition ; noble by nature ; not 
mean in acts ; possessed of intelligence ; free from pride ; endowed 
with a large understanding ; with a power of memory and judgement ; 
having a liberal mind ; devoted to truth ; disposed to solitude ; free 
from haughtiness ; of a thoughtful disposition ; not prone to wrath ; 
endowed with purity of behaviour and compassion for all ; devotedly 
attached to the study of medicine ; free from cupidity ; without sloth ; 
seeking the good of all creatures." Similar admonitions have been 
made in other countries and in later times ; and I may say that it was 
a great pleasure to me to find from the Calendar that this University 
still maintains this ancient tradition. The Declaration which all 
those who qualify in Medicine here are asked to sign could scarcely be 
improved upon for fairness, comprehensiveness and brevity : " I will 
exercise my profession to the best of my knowledge and ability, for 
the good of all persons whose health may be placed in my care, and 
for the public weal ; that I will hold in due regard the honourable 
traditions and obligations of the Medical Profession, and will do no- 
thing inconsistent therewith ; and that I will be loyal to the Univer- 
sity and endeavour to promote its welfare and maintain its reputation." 

That greater advances were not made in Hippocratic and later 
times is mainly due to the prevailing ideas of Pathology. A certain 
amount of morbid anatomy was known, but morbid physiology was 
almost purely speculative^ Internal diseases were attributed to 
.alterations in humours which were credited with certain properties, 
hot and moist, cold and dry, and so on ; and they were treated by 
drugs, which by the time of Galen were supposed to possess contrary 
activities. This fanciful pathology and pharmacology continued until 
recent times and in large measure it explains the relatively slight ad- 
vancement in drug therapeutics from the period of the Papyrus Ebers 
to the beginning of the seventeenth century. Chance observation 



Materia Medica 219 



occasionally gave us valuable remedies, but the new drugs were used 
indiscriminately without sufficient knowledge of their remedial powers. 
In some other departments of Medicine greater advances were made, 
especially by the great teachers of the various schools which succeeded- 
that of Cos ; but these were mainly of a clinical or anatomical and 
surgical nature and are beyond my scope. 

The fault was mainly in the system of education. There can be 
no question that Moli^re's witty epigram had justification. What was 
required for progress was a new system ; and this was found in ex- 
periment. With the introduction of the method of experimental con- 
trol the third era of therapeutics opens. 

It must not be imagined from this statement that experiment was 
not employed in former times. It was in fact fairly largely resorted 
to. What was new was the correlation and control of the effects ob- 
tained. It had its birth in the desire to know more of the things in 
heaven above and in the earth beneath and in the water under the 
earth. This evolved the scientific spirit, or as it was the method 
rather than the matter that counted, it is better to say the scientific 
method. The birth of the New Medicine is usually dated from 
William Harvey, who, about the time of Sir Thomas Browne, de- 
monstrated the circulation of the blood. But it was long after this 
that scientific method permeated medicine as a whole. And, as I 
have said, this was the important step. In education it often matters 
little what facts are employed to explain Principles : a youth can be 
educated to observe, imagine, reason, and deduce by any science 
properly taught. The training is the thing. Since such training was 
introduced Medicine has advanced by leaps and bounds. Men were 
no longer content with isolated observations and metaphysical hypo- 
theses. The problems of disease were more deeply studied and the 
facts more carefully collected, correlated and controlled. This re- 
birth was unquestionably aided on the clinical side by Sydenham's 
re-introduction of the Hippocratic method of accurate observation of 
symptoms, but we should not have travelled very far had there no,t 
been a large development of the scientific spirit and a resultant great 
advance in the sciences ancillary to Medicine. The last have been of 
the greatest service to medical research. Physics has given us in- 
struments of precision undreamt of by the ancients; chemistry has 
provided us with methods for determining the metabolic changes of 
the body and has added a storehouse of potential drugs with which it 



r 



2 20 Aberdeen University Review 

is difficult to cope ; biology, among its many contributions, has taught 
us the existence of low forms of life which, directly and indirectly, 
are the most potent causes of disease ; even mathematics, which has 
long been regarded as a subject outside our sphere, has added its 
quota and has helped us to unravel the important causative factors in 
diseases of complex etiology. 

Earlier in the year, at a meeting in London, Sir Clifford Allbutt 
spoke of the present as the greatest moment in the history of 
Medicine. This audacious claim, as he termed it, he endeavoured to 
substantiate in his address on ' ' The New Birth of Medicine ". '* What 
is then the new birth, this revolution in Medicine ? " he asks. And 
he answers it in the following words : " It is nothing less than its 
enlargement from an art of observation and empiricism to an applied 
science founded on research ; from a craft of tradition and sagacity 
to an applied science of analysis and law ; from a descriptive code of 
surface phenomena to the discovery of deeper affinities ; from a set of 
rules and axioms of quality to measurements of quantity ". With this 
-Statement we cannot cavil ; but has it not been the object of scientific 
inquiry for a generation past; and has the result been attained? I 
think not. In my opinion the new birth commenced with controlled 
experiment. If Harvey's investigations took many generations to 
bear full fruit it was due to the untilled soil on which the seed fell, 
and to the less satisfactory channels of communication of the time. 
Even in our own day epoch-making discoveries are occasionally long 
neglected. In the earlier stages of my third period investigators with 
the scientific habit of mind were few ; during the past fifty years owing 
to education and especially during the last five, owing largely to 
circumstance, they have been many. Progress has consequently been 
more rapid ; but it has been largely on certain lines. It is true, as 
Professor Allbutt remarks, that " In former wars deaths by disease 
were many times more numerous than by battle ". But this mortality 
was the product of a few diseases — such diseases as typhoid fever and 
dysentery which tend to be prevalent whenever vast armies of men 
congregate together. The prevention of typhoid, the improved 
treatment of dysentery are the results of recent years of research, and 
in large measure this explains the relatively low death-rate from 
disease of the armies in the field. But is this advance any greater — 
is it as great — as the control we obtained of smallpox one hundred 
years ago ? It would, I think, be wrong to confine the new birth to 
the last few years or even to the period since the South African War. 
\ 



Materia Medica 221 

The treatment ot to-day is based largely upon the biological, and 
especially the physiological discoveries, coupled with those of chemistry, 
of the past century. In his Presidential Address to the British As- 
sociation, Sir Edward Schafer said : •' The strides which were made in 
the advance of the mechanical sciences during the nineteenth century, 
which is generally considered to mark that century as an age of 
unexampled progress, are as nothing in comparison with those made 
in the domain of biology". The comparison is perhaps too severe, 
but taken impressionistically the statement, I think, is true. The 
advances in therapeutics and in pharmacology, which is a branch of 
biology, have partaken of this greatness. Two outstanding dis- 
coveries will make the nineteenth century memorable in therapeutics 
— the discovery of anaesthetics and the introduction of antiseptic 
treatment. Anaesthesia in some sense had been dreamt of before our 
era. A little more than a hundred years ago it was almost realised. 
Sir Humphry Davy after his discovery of nitrous oxide gas suggested 
it for this purpose, but the suggestion was not acted upon — the 
world had to wait another forty years for the boon of anaesthesia. 
The other great advance — the antiseptic treatment of wounds — 
was a still greater boon to humanity. It was a corollary of Pasteur's 
investigations worked out by the master mind of Lister. Its prin- 
ciples and its benefits are known to all. It has overshadowed other 
advances ; but these also have been great. At the beginning of the 
century no pure active principle of a crude vegetable drug was known ; 
no synthetic drug had been prepared ; bacteriology was unthought of ; 
and physiology was still in its infancy. All these — the last two only 
during the past fifty years — have given us remedies of the greatest 
value. Well might Sir Clifford Allbutt say to-day is the greatest 
moment in the history of Medicine. These optimistic words must 
not, however, delude us into false security. Much, indeed most, still 
remains to be done. Very recent progress has been great, but we are 
as yet too near it to judge it impartially. It has had the advantage 
that the questions raised needed immediate solution and all men's 
minds were concentrated on them. Advance is usually fitful. " It 
is," says Karl Pearson in his " Grammar of Science," " as if individual 
workers in both Europe and America were bringing their stones to 
one great building and piling them on and cementing them together 
without regard to any general plan or to their individual neighbour's 
work ; only where some one has placed a great corner-stone is it 
regarded, and the building then rises on this firm foundation more 



222 Aberdeen University Review 

rapidly than at other points, till it reaches a height at which it is 
stopped for want of side support." This intensive building at places 
has had to be carried on during the past five years. We know much 
more of wound treatment and certain other things, but we know little, 
if any more, of the treatment of the common ailments which afiflict 
humanity. 

This is not the time to consider the present problems of thera- 
peutics. But as far as drug treatment is concerned it is obvious that 
an accurate knowledge of the action of drugs is essential. This we 
are far from knowing ; w^e are still laying the foundations. Much 
has been accomplished in this school by the labours of my predecessor, 
and I trust that Professor Cash's spirit will still abide with us. His 
valuable contributions have ranged over a wide field — too wide for 
succinct treatment ; he has been a main support of pharmacology for a 
generation and has consistently and rightly maintained it throughout 
as the basis of therapeutics. I feel some diffidence in following him, 
and I can only say that I will do my best to carry on the traditions 
which he has established. I am sure you will join with me in wishing 
him a long and happy period of repose. 

In the pursuit of this knowledge of the action of drugs we may 
approach the subject from two aspects — we may study pharmacology 
as an Applied Science or as a Pure Science. As an Applied Science 
it is concerned with the treatment of disease, whether in man, beast, or 
plant. For this purpose an accurate knowledge of the action of 
drugs which have been found useful in disease is required. But there 
is another and wider aspect of pharmacology ; it is as a branch of the 
great science of biology. From this point of view it is essentially a 
pure science. It is the science which is concerned with the effect of 
chemical substances on living matter. It seeks to determine not only 
the changes induced in vital tissues but also the manner in which 
such changes are brought about. Here, in its endeavour to unravel 
the riddle of life, it joins hands with physiology. These studies are 
undertaken with no ulterior motive than the acquisition of knowledge; 
they have not, I mean, any immediate bearing on the treatment of 
disease. But who will say that they are not profitable? Although 
not immediately applicable to practical needs they are deepening and 
strengthening the foundations on which therapeutics is built. Owing 
partly to these unremunerative aims pharmacology as a science must 
remain the study of a few. To these it offers many attractions. It is 
wide in scope ; it affords the same kind of training as other biological 



Materia Medica 223 



sciences ; and it has a more immediate practical bearing on the prob- 
lems of Medicine than most. It would therefore seem to be a de- 
sirable subject of study for those who wish to attain to the higher 
reaches of the profession and who can give the necessary time to the 
taking of a science degree. 

As most of you will be entering into the practice of our profession, 
it will be my object to treat pharmacology as an Applied Science. I 
shall endeavour to impart its principles, but I hope not to overburden 
you with much that has no practical bearing on the treatment of 
disease. At the same time I shall ask you to study the subject in a 
scientific spirit. I should like you to be imbued with the spirit of 
inquiry, for this is the basis of good practice. And this is the time 
to acquire it. In no other profession is it so necessary. Every case 
that you will see hereafter will offer some problem, perhaps many 
problems for solution, and none of these problems will be so impor- 
tant as treatment. This will always provide food for thought. There 
are few short cuts. So cultivate the habit of thinking. It is your 
duty to your fellow-man. Let sound principles and not blatant ad- 
vertisement guide you. Strait is the gate ; it is difficult at first, but 
later comes the reward. 

In the school in which I received the rudiments of my medical 
education it was customary to have an opening address. It was 
frequently given by some distinguished member of the profession, and 
in the year I entered it was delivered by Sir James Paget. His 
subject was " The Utility of Scientific Work in Practice," and I think 
of the addresses I have heard, it has influenced me most. Although 
delivered thirty-two years ago it remains true in essence to-day. I 
will conclude with his closing words. *' We boast of the progress of 
Medicine and Surgery in the last fifty years. We try to tell all the 
good it has brought to men. In the next fifty, through which I hope 
you will all live, the gain will be still greater; for the progress of 
knowledge is with increasing velocity. Now, how much will each of 
you contribute to this progress? None can tell. But this at least is 
certain, that you are bound, by plain duty, to do your best to con- 
tribute to it largely ; even as it is every man's duty to do all the good 
he can by all the means that can fairly come within his power. And 
remember always that wherever power is, there is duty ; and where- 
ever duty, there responsibility to God and man." 

C. R. MARSHALL. 




Dr. Mair of Earlston. 

jBOUT the year 1908 Dr. Mair wrote telling me 
that he had finished the autobiography on which 
I knew he had been engaged, and inviting me to 
read over the manuscript with him in the quiet of 
his Edinburgh home. That was done, and a few 
minor suggestions were given effect to. But the 
book as presented to the public differed consider- 
ably from the original draft both in size and substance, the publishers' 
literary adviser having recommended expansions on at least half of the 
chapters. The volume, therefore, which appeared in 1 9 1 1 under the title 
"My Life," furnishes a wonderfully complete record of its author's long 
and busy career. Dr. Mair survived the publication of this work by 
nine years — as absorbed and energetic years as any in his hey-day. 
He was never an idle man. He worked to the last. From his 
sick-bed he dictated letters in answer to the still numerous inquiries on 
ecclesiastical matters which had come to him with every post for many 
years. To the penultimate day of his life his interest in Kirk affairs 
remained keen and undiminished. Then suddenly, in his sleep, he 
passed into the final rest — making the exit for which he had hoped. 

It is curious to reflect that at an early stage this man of patriarchal 
age, this almost nonagenarian, was regarded as a short-liver, and 
likely to be taken ere he had turned thirty. Medical diagnosis showed 
him to be suffering from " tubercular peritonitis," though the sufferer 
himself was probably unaware of the serious nature of the malady. 
Happily he was destined to '* cheat the doctors". There was in the 
pale and' anaemic student a something which contributed to his cure 
more than all the medicines he swallowed, a something more efficacious 
than the enlivening environment of Lisbon and Beyrout where he 
sojourned for some months. It was the youth's sheer power of will — 
the dominant trait all through — his quiet determination to wrestle 
with the evil and to shake it off. Here was a clear case of spirit and 
matter being pitted against each other — getting into close grips — and 



>{ 



V 




Dr. MAIR of EARLSTON, 
M.A., Marischal College, 1849; D.D., Aberdeen, 1885. 



i 



Dr. Mail of Earlston 225 

the latter finding its naaster. The patient had discernment enough to 
see that only by uncompromising obedience to a severe, even drastic, 
mode of life could he become himself again, and live to purpose in 
a world where men ever need to be taught the art and the virtue of self- 
conquest. Unswerving loyalty to the physiological laws, and a perfect 
understanding of himself from every point of view preserved Mair to 
his friends, and saved him for the Church of his fathers. He was seven 
years off the field, and at the end, his Aberdeen physician — Kilgour, 
the most eminent medical man north of Edinburgh — never expecting 
Mair's return, declared to him that only one thing could have ac- 
counted for the transformation. " The fact is," he said to his young 
friend, " you have your own good sense to thank for your recovery." 

I have never known any person who possessed so large a stock of 
this important and valuable asset of "good sense". It was Mair's 
crowning characteristic, the secret of his success as a minister and as a 
man of the world, and the bed-rock of much devoted and disinterested 
service to a multitude which no man can number. That divine gift 
he put cheerfully at the disposal of his fellowmen. In the Church, 
and out of it, there must have been thousands to whom Dr. Mair was 
"guide, philosopher, and friend," not only with regard to purely 
ecclesiastical questions, but also in respect of life's more private and 
personal concerns, not to speak of the deep things of the soul. Mair's 
chief function was counselling. Providence took him into the wilder- 
ness to prepare him, as St. Paul was prepared, for a particular work. 
He was not an ecclesiastic or a preacher so much as an adviser — a 
consummately wise counsellor. He had a way of looking at things 
which altered the whole field of vision for the other person, shedding 
over it rays of friendly illumination where only darkness and uncertainty 
had settled. He had a remarkable faculty of insight and foresight as 
if he actually saw what lay within and what was looming without. 
He examined the bearings of a case with conscientious care, weighed 
up the chances, visualized the contingencies, and having stated his 
opinion in that concise and confident manner which was peculiar to 
him, one could not get away from the conviction that Mair's verdict 
was the only possible one, because it was generally the right one. 
His judgments and counsellings, especially in later life, were accepted 
with an assurance born of the confidence that was reposed in him, 
and of the knowledge that self never entered into the reckoning. He 
was genuinely altruistic, large-hearted, generous, charity-loving, despite 

15 



2 2b Aberdeen University Review 

a determined opinionativeness and an unbending will. It is not 
an exaggeration to say that no minister since Thomas Chalmers's 
time was more consulted, or more trusted by the Church at large. 
And I cannot but think it is by this feature of his work — as a coun- 
sellor — that Dr. Mair himself would wish to have his niche of Re- 
membrance. 

William Mair was a native of the Buchan district of Aberdeenshire. 
At Savoch of Deer he was born on i April, 1830. His father, the 
Rev. James Mair, a graduate of Marischal College [1814], was a 
licentiate of the Church, but had been settled for some years as school- 
master at Savoch. The boyhood of the future Church leader was 
a singularly happy one, for his parents were in comfortable circum- 
stances, and religion shed its pure glow over their home. To 
Christian Johnston, his " wise and lovable mother," he most of all 
owed that passion for uprightness and the grace of obedience, which 
were conspicuous qualities in his character. He lost her early, but 
words of hers, never forgotten, "sounded the keynote of duty for 
a lifetime". When fourteen, he left Savoch for the study of Latin 
under the learned Melvin at the Grammar School of Aberdeen. 
Aftegjvards he passed into King's College. - In 1845-46 he entered 
Marischal College as a student of the first year. He did well in his 
classes, established a reputation for mathematics,, and secured the 
Gray Prize, the mathematical blue ribbon of his time. On 6 April, 
1849, he graduated Master of Arts with honours. For a period he 
taught in the parish school of Dyke. Then came the Divinity Hall, 
and licence in 1853. Ill-health held him in thrall for other seven 
years, when he could do nothing but keep his faith and wait patiently 
for convalescence, and an opening of the door that might bring him 
into his kingdom. 

In 1 86 1 Mair was ordained to Lochgelly Chapel, among the 
Fife miners. Here is a strange stor>^ told him by one of his elders 
there : Thrice repeated, the elder said he had seen in a dream the man 
who was to be their minister : he could tell him anywhere. And the 
moment Mr. Mair appeared at the vestry door upon trial-sermon day, 
*' That's the man I saw," whispered the dreamer to his wife in the pew. 
Another story from the autobiography tells of a Lochgelly joiner 
" who took times of drinking during which he wandered about the 
streets, especially when he had begun to recover, with hanging head in 
the most forlorn, forsaken-looking manner. One day meeting me, he 



Dr. Mair of Earlston 22"/ 

came straight in front of me, face to face, and said with the most 
affecting desperate earnestness, * Oh, sir, if I was a minister, I would 
preach like the verra deevil '." Ardoch followed Lochgelly in 1865 : 
and Earlston in 1869. In his last parish Dr. Mair spent thirty-four 
years. His Alma Mater gave him her D.D. in 1885. " The Digest of 
Church Laws and Decisions " appeared in 1887. The Moderatorship 
came in 1897 — Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee year. He de- 
mitted his charge in 1903, and died in Edinburgh on 26 January 
last. 

Of Dr. Mair's active ministry in my native parish an infinitely more 
capable pen than mine could have set down with uncommon skill and 
eloquence much that has not found its way into the pages of " My Life ". 
I refer to my old teacher, Mr. Daniel Aitkenhead — like his late 
confrere very nearly a nonagenarian. Mr. Aitkenhead went to Earlston 
in 1856, and is now the doyen if not the last survivor of the "old 
parochials " of Scotland. He was Mair's session-clerk (he still holds 
that office), and the minister's right-hand man all through. I have tried 
to persuade my beloved and venerable preceptor to put together his 
ample fund of reminiscence as to those earlier days. But alas ! he is, as 
ever, the modest and unassuming pedagogue, shrinking from publicity 
with a shyness and a reticence which must have lost him a rectorship 
or two. Mair and he were the chief figures and the most learned men 
in the small Berwickshire town — the one burrowing deep among the 
minutiae of Forms of Process, or wading through endless legal techni- 
calities — the other rejoicing in the companionship of favourite classical 
authors who were as familiar to him as the multiplication table and the 
Shorter Catechism. It is impossible to estimate the influence of two 
such men in a comparatively quiet parish remote from the great centres, 
three or four decades ago. One realizes, as one has come to be older, 
the surpassing worth of both a good schoolmaster and a good minister. 
One does not, and cannot comprehend these things in the callow days, 
but influence, conscious and unconscious, always tells in the long run, 
and he would be a miserable ingrate who did not make confession as 
to those early and far-away boons. For myself I am sincerely grateful 
at having been an ** Earlston boy" in the days when Mair and Aitken- 
head literally licked into shape its lads of ambition, bringing them to 
see that there was a goal to strive after, and inspiring them with the 
hope and possibility of reaching it sometime, somehow. 

Dr. Mair was the most scrupulously exact man I have known. 



2 2'8 Aberdeen University Review 

His mathematical bent made him methodical and precise even to " per- 
nicketyness ". His punctuality was proverbial. His criticism might 
be sharp and stinging on occasion, but it was never inconsiderate, 
never designed to hurt. He wounded not for wounding's sake. The 
twinge, he not seldom saw, was a pre-requisite of the purifying and 
healing process. His whole mode of life was reduced to an ordered 
and considered system from which he scarcely ever deviated. His 
food, his clothes, his copious tumblers of hot water, his twice-a-day 
walking exercise, his hours of work, of rest, and of sleep were subject 
to little or no variation all the year round. He lived according to rule 
and practised what to others must have appeared a tiresome rigidity, 
yet this it was which brought him to the verge of ninety. 

But he was often exacting as well as exact, forgetting that 
counsels of perfection for the average individual are mostly a beating of 
the air. He could be frankly censorious if the circumstances required 
him to be so. Whoever the person, or wherever the place, his proclama- 
tion of the truth was never repressed. Truth, he said, '* must have its 
innings, no matter the occasion ". Offended wrath was often completely 
disarmed by his friendly outspokenness, and some who came to pour 
out vials of anger ended by pouring out praises instead. No man was 
more passionate in his respect for sincerity or more contemptuous of 
duplicity and dissimulation. The Doctor had hosts of admirers to 
whom he was the incarnation of moral worth and spiritual excellence, 
and there were some who candidly disliked him because he was the 
soul of honour, and after his own fearless fashion called a spade a 
spade. Frequently, however, his faithful warnings and earnest remon- 
strances came to their own in the end. Indifferent folk were turned 
to seriousness : intemperate ones learned sobriety : improvident people 
realized the sin pf waste and remembered the possible ''rainy day". 

Mair mellowed considerably in the closing years of his life. There 
was still the old dogmatic fire — the lion roused to virtuous ire at times, 
but age had done its own softening work, and the knowledge of in- 
creasing limitations, instead of narrowing and souring him, only brought 
him unto the broader outlook, making him more than ever a man of 
goodwill, and establishing him with a sort of double security in the 
esteem of the Church and in the affection of his intimates. 

Dr. Mair was an admirable specimen of the older type of country 
parson. He visited pastorally, discouraged and eschewed country-side 
gossip : centred his attention on domestic needs and troubles and 



Dr. Mair of Earlston 229 

hopes : prayed, if he deemed it expedient, and departed, leaving be- 
hind him the impression of a good man, and a faithful minister, conven- 
tional but kindly, stiffish at times, yet the most approachable person 
in the world in hours of crisis — when tribulation entered one's door or 
gnawed at one's heart. 

Dr. Mair could not be spoken of as a " popular preacher ". It was 
a phrase he abominated. Eloquence in the common sense was ob- 
noxious to him. He cultivated simplicity of speech as he culti- 
vated simplicity of life. His language was clothed in terse undefiled 
Saxon, not unlike Spurgeon's. But, unlike Spurgeon, Mair was never 
an orator. He lacked the poetic and imaginative faculty and only 
sparingly had he the sense of humour, though he could tell a good 
story when he liked. In theology he was ultra-orthodox. New 
schools of thought had no temptation for him, and he had nothing but 
condemnation for modern theories of the Scriptures. The Bible he 
accepted as the infallible, verbally inspired will of God, and from that 
article of his creed he never receded. The theology of his youth was 
the source of his comfort and hope in old age. His last literary under- 
taking, a small collection of " Action Sermons," offers an excellent ex- 
ample of that easily-understood Biblical and Gospel exposition which 
was a feature of the Earlston pulpit when I began to be interested in 
such things as a mere boy, and budding student. 

In Earlston old church (predecessor of the present building) I 
have seen the reverence of the worshippers sadly disturbed now and 
again. A wandering sparrow occasionally diverted attention from the 
preacher. I recall an exciting (probably welcome enough) interlude 
furnished by a bat. I can see the whole scene after forty years, with 
Johnnie Millar as hero of the moment. Johnnie's seat was the first from 
the wall in the middle gallery. And there he sat "in fair white 
waistcoat dight," the embodiment of a comfortable and contented man 
of business who had made a tolerable success of life. Our friend the 
bat, after a season of fitful flutterings, landed on the window sill close 
to the dapper little draper. I can see John drawing on his gloves, the 
safer to grasp the intruder. Down comes the window — and our sport 
is over! But from the pulpit we are quickly summoned back to the 
**day of solemn things" : "Now that you have had your amusement, 
I shall resume". 

Dr. Mair must have been the last of those worthy divines who 
indulged in familiar colloquy in the course of the service. He requested 



230 Aberdeen University Review 

me once, ages ago (calling me by my Christian name) to shut a door 
(as I thought) which had been left open one warm June day. Ex- 
cited, I crossed the passage and closed the door. But coming back 
to my seat, I was met with this rejoinder: "It was the window, man, 
and not the door that I wished closed. I feel the air coming in on 
my head like a stream of cold water." Thereupon the Kirk treasurer 
sitting behind me, slightly enraged, it was said, shut the offending 
window with a bang which echoed through the building. The 
Doctor looked menacingly at late-comers, but I never heard of him 
making the point-blank remonstrance which is attributed to his pre- 
decessor at Earlston — David William Gordon. Jenny Shiel from 
the hamlet of Redpath, a couple of miles off, was usually seated half 
an hour before service began. One Sunday she went to the assis- 
tance of a friend who had turned faint before the bell rang. Coming 
back almost immediately, the minister was in the pulpit, and about to 
give out the Psalm, when he expostulated, *' Jenny, my worthy friend, 
you are late to-day ". " I was in afore, sir," retaliated Jenny. " Hold 
your peace, Jenny, and let us worship God," replied Gordon, uncon- 
scious of his aggression. Mair was never so unceremonious, but he 
had a habit of commanding attention, and even of " scolding " when he 
thought he was not getting his due from some hearers. He has 
been known to awaken sleepers : to cease speaking till a child had 
done crying : to reprimand a man for looking at his watch : another 
for turning the leaves of his Bible : another for whispering, and 
once, a stranger for sharpening his pencil and proceeding to take 
notes of the discourse. The latter was only practising shorthand, 
it appeared, but the action was foolish and ill-timed. All this was 
so characteristic of Mair — so natural to him — that nobody ever took 
umbrage. The kirk had its full quota Sunday after Sunday, for 
people dtd attend the House of God in those days though the services 
were drearier and more extended, there being both a lecture and a 
sermon. 

Dr. Mair was a prime mover in all material improvements affecting 
Earlston. Its Water Supply owed much to his mathematical and 
engineering aptitude. He all but constructed a swing bridge over 
the Leader, having acted as architect and directed the operations as 
master of works. He erected a handsome new parish church, purchased 
a derelict U.P. tabernacle, and had it turned into a hall for his own con- 
gregation. As a keen temperance reformer he invested in a public- 



Dr. Mair of Earlston 231 



house property to get rid of the licence. He was an enthusiastic 
educationist, took a prominent part in the management of the local 
Library, and was for many years Chaplain to the Volunteers. He 
had no recreations in the ordinary sense, though I have often seen him 
on horseback. He was a perfect master of the art of horsemanship, 
an elegant rider, having been used to it from boyhood. On all ques- 
tions relating to farming he was well versed. His only real hobby, 
however, was his work. 

In closing these rather desultory reminiscences I should like to add 
a word on Dr. Mair's connexion with the cause of Presbyterian 
RTe-union. Dr. Archibald Scott has been named the pioneer of the 
movement towards Church Union in Scotland. Doubtless it was 
Scott's Overture in the Presbytery of Edinburgh and his subsequent 
motion in the General Assembly which set the ball a-rolling from an 
official point of view. But was it not Mair who fashioned the ball ? 
I am satisfied it was. Scott and Mair talked the matter over, as we 
know, and Mair must have been able at some time to convince Scott 
that the only safety of the Church was in Union. Scott may have 
acted from panic, but Mair had fully expiscated the problem for- him- 
self He had reasoned it out with the most absolute thoroughness. 
Prophet-like he had persuaded himself that short of Union the Church 
could never do her work as she might and ought to do it at home and 
abroad. If the Church was to be saved from every point of view — from 
wranglings, retrogradation, indifference, decline — Mair saw that Union 
was the irreducible necessity. And in that holy cause he gave the 
best of the final ten years of his life. He was out and out the Apostle 
and Pioneer of a United Church in Scotland. 

I recollect that when I first went to Edinburgh University in the 
winter of 1885-86 there was much talk about Disestablishment. 
Mair was a strenuous defender of the Kirk. He preached and lec- 
tured on the subject, and it was a frequent week-day topic as well. 
Even then he advocated Union, as I and others belonging to Earlston 
can testify. He affirmed that the only perfect solution of the Church 
difficulty was a re-united Presbyterianism. Over and over again in 
the course of innumerable walks and talks on the country roads 
around Earlston, I have heard him say so — years before the Overture 
of 1907. There were obstacles, to be sure, in individuals and in 
systems, and the Scottish mind was unripe for dealing with the 
question on the broad basis which has been found possible to-day. 



232 Aberdeen University Review 

In the taking of almost the initial step towards this epoch-making 
settlement it will be impossible to forget what the minister of Earlston 
did, both when he was in office as a minister and in no less indefatig- 
able efforts after his retirement I confidently name Dr. Mair as 
among the very first of those who looked forward to the advent of 
the better day. He laboured for it, prayed for it, waited eagerly, 
passionately, almost youthfully, for its consummation. I used to tell 
him he would be the first Moderator of the United Kirk, and I believe 
he would have been, had the discussions been less protracted. He was 
not destined to behold Union with the bodily eye. Within the veil 
may we not be permitted to think of him as participating still in the 
noble avocation of heartening and counselling the Church to which 
his sincerest earthly efforts were given, and of speeding her on to her 
only true goal in the perfect Unity of Jesus Christ, her glorious King 
and Head? 

W. S. CROCKETT. 




The Kings College Class ofi8o8-i8i2. 

GLIMPSES INTO ITS INTIMATE LIFE. 

OME curious glimpses from the student's point of 
view into the life of the King's College Class of 
1 808-18 1 2 are afforded by a series of letters which 
my grand-uncle, the Rev. William Malcolm (1791- 
1838), minister of Leochel-Cushnie, wrote to the 
Rev. Alexander Birnie, M.A. (i 782-1 856), for fifty- 
four years schoolmaster of Lumphanan, which have 
recently come into my hands, through the courtesy of Mr. Bimie's 
granddaughter, Mrs. Kennedy, who lives at Rose Villa, Lumphanan. 

William Malcolm was a man of the saintliest character who is^still 
remembered in Leochel-Cushnie, and indeed the Vale of Alford, and to 
my astonishment I find that his '* Catechism and Prayers for the use 
of Young Communicants," first issued in 1834, is still being reprinted 
by the thousand and is still used at Leochel-Cushnie. 

Malcolm kept Birnie well informed of life at King's College, 
although the first letter preserved is dated 2 1 December, 1 809, which 
seems to corroborate a family legend that he only took three sessions. 
From the other letters I extract only some passages, from which one 
is surprised to note a greater wealth of extra-mural activity than one 
expected : — 

1 810, 22 November. — The Bursars are reserved in the extreme this year 
about their versions, and as I hear they have good reason for being so. There 
were only twenty-six competitors. Even the first Bursar's versions were replete 
with error. He had one maximus error. 

181 1, 13 February. — The Tertian Class think they have sustained no loss 
at all by Mr. Duncan's illness since he has placed such an able depute as 
Mr. Paul in his place. Mr, Duncan is considerably well if it were not for his 
defect of speech. He has engaged to teach the Semi Class, Mr, Paul is 
chosen for the Tertian and Dr. Jack for the Magistrand Class which Mr. 
Walker is teaching at present. Mr. McLachlan is very much disconcerted 
that he has got no place amongst them as he had the promise when any vacancy 
took place, he says, " talis est fides Academica ". 

181 1, 28 November.— I think I will like my studies this winter remarkably 



2 34 Aberdeen University Review 

well. We're to have sixty lectures on chemistry in addition to the branches 
usually taught in our class. 

It fell to my share yesterday to give a discourse on the idioms and geniuses 
of languages and wherein the idioms of ancient and modern languages chiefly 
differ, wherein their geniuses likewise, what were the duties of the pr)Tuyp€^ in 
Greece and the qualifications required for that office. 

1812, II January. — You'll probably have heard that we are to have a 
public graduation this year. We are to have so, indeed, at which I'm not a 
little rejoiced — especially as Dr. Jack tells us the expences will scarcely ex- 
ceed that of a private one. 

The subject of my graduation harangue is "Whether a public or private 
education be most to be preferred ". I have my public school speech to deliver 
on Monday first. The subject is *' The ancient systems of philosophy ". I 
attend an elocution class and one for Church music. I am to recite at a public 
lecture some time in the course of this month. I have a part of a Parliamentary 
debate, the part of Joffier and two other pieces to recite. 

On Christmas night a posse of students, among which (sic) were Dr. 
Garrioch's sons, thought proper to parade the streets kicking up an extra- 
ordinary riot ; breaking windows, lamps, etc. Cognizance was immediately 
taken of them. On the morrow they were arraigned before the magistrates, 
James Garrioch was fined one half guinea [los. 6d.], George, 5s. Three others 
were fined one half guinea each and strictly enjoined to keep the peace for the 
future in case of worse consequences. There's Magistrand conduct for you. 

The letters close with an extraordinary account of the sequel to 
this afifair, which may account for the family belief that Malcolm, 
unlike his younger brother Andrew, my grandfather the schoolmaster 
of Leochel-Cushnie, never took his M.A, although he duly appears an 
"A.M." in Mr. P. J. Anderson's "Roll of Alumni in Arts of the 
University and King's College of Aberdeen" (p. 117). This letter, 
written from King's College, may explain wjiy he is believed not to 
have graduated : — 

18 1 2, 31 January. — I am just returned from a very unpleasant business 
indeed. Our class is now completely split. Confusion and acrimony are 
uniformly prevailing amongst us. You'll be anxious to know what the source 
of all this is. In my last I mentioned to you how Dr. Garrioch's sons 
(George and James) with two others were brought to order by the 
magistrates for their conduct. The Dr.'s sons are perfect converts, but the 
other two* lads would not be checked so soon. They molested us at all our 
meetings. They were expelled from the Society. This exasperated them 
still more. Those who had any hand in expelling them, among whom I was, 
could not walk the streets at night in safety, these fellows always going in 
disguise, with great bludgeons, waiting to give their opponents "a damnable 
leathering " as they termed it. In short they behaved so notoriously towards 
us, that we were obliged to recur to some method of redress. 

Accordingly, a party of us (for you must know they had as formidable a 
quorum on their side as we had) collected and represented their conduct to 
Dr. Jack. To relate all the circumstances that ensued would extend beyond 



The King's College Class of 1808-1812 235 

the bonds of a letter of this kind ; suffice it to say that after many meetings 
of the profession, one of them was fined los. 6d., the other deprived of a 
ten guinea bursary. This lad's name is Alex. Tawse from Strathdon. What, 
above all, aggravated his conduct was it being proved against him that he 
took in some wenches to some private room in college. This you know 
crowded everything. And had it not been for Dr. Jack who exerted all his 
influence for him, and that the other half of the class signed a petition drawn 
. up, some say by Dr. Jack, begging the professors to mitigate the punishment — 
as his accusers, they affirmed, were actuated by malice and private pique — 
had it not been for this, he would have certainly been expelled. Dr. 
McPherson, Mr. TuUoch and the Principal were all bent upon his expulsion. 
However his sentence was pronounced last Monday to be a deprivation of 
his bursary. 

From such circumstances, you may easily conjecture in what a ferment the 
class is now in, the Highlanders taking one party, the Low country lads another. 
They always walk in two parties, and when they meet there is a general 
hiss. Dr. Jack is likely [to back], indeed he has backed the conduct of these 
fellows a good deal. They say he is much offended at our accusation, and 
in many instances already he has thrown somewhat of contempt upon us. 
This is likely to produce more effects. Our party is half determined, unless 
the Doctor shows us more respect, to graduate at another college ; at least we 
are resolved not to graduate with these blackguards. I have only to say that 
I've adhered to the most honourable half of the class, but I believe I'm the 
only Low country man that has sided the Highland party. 

I beg your pardon for encroaching so much on your time and patience, 
with a narrative of our transactions. I thought perhaps the news would be 
acceptable as I know you like always to hear what is doing in the place 
where yourself was once so much concerned. I know you will, not mention 
some of these things as I don't wish to be the propagation of any such 
business as the above. I hope matters will be more amicably arranged than 
at present it is imagined. 

You imagine I attend Mr. Barclay's class. It is Mr. Smith's I attend. 
I make no doubt but I mighf have derived as much benefit from the one as 
the other. But Mr. Barclay is my class fellow, and an ambitious principle 
that commands me in such cases, would not allow me to be my class fellow's 
pupil. He is a very fine lad, affectation is his only fault. He has his com- 
pliments to you. 

There must, one would think, be many letters of this kind 
scattered up and down the shire that would throw a vivid light on 
the intimate life of the University a century or more ago. 

J. M. BULLOCH. 




Dr. John Lees, 

LECTURER IN GERMAN. 

VERY widespread feeling of regret was aroused 
by the death of Mr. John Lees, M.A., D.Litt, 
Lecturer in German in the University, which oc- 
curred on 31 May, after a painful and lingering 
illness extending over a period of six months. 
Dr. Lees had proved himself a most valuable 
addition to the teaching staff of the University, and 
was greatly esteemed by the students who benefited by his tuition, 
alike for his instructional methods and his charming personality. He 
took a keen interest in University affairs generally, was a member of 
the Entrance Board, and gave excellent service as an adviser of studies. 
Dr. Lees, who was only forty-four years of age, was the son of a 
leading farmer in Ayrshire, and received his early education at Ayr 
Academy, of which he was dux in 1893. He proceeded to Edinburgh 
University, where he had a distinguished career, graduating in Arts in 
1899 with First Class Honours in Classics, and obtaining the Gray 
Scholarship of £S6 as the First Classical Graduate of his year. He 
was attracted early to the study of German and German literature, 
and during the summer session of 1 898 he attended the University of 
Heidelberg, giving special attention to the spoken language. In the 
following winter he attended the German class at Edinburgh Univer- 
sity, and was awarded the First Class medal. Having obtained the 
Heriot Travelling Scholarship of ;^ 1 00 in German, Mr. Lees spent the 
next two sessions at the University of Strassburg, and in July, 1 901, 
he was appointed to a Heriot research fellowship in German of the 
value of ;^I00. He entered a German translation of his thesis on 
" Anacreontic Poetry " for the Lamey Prize of Strassburg University 
(value ;^I90), open to all nationalities, and this prize was equally 
divided between a German student and Mr. Lees, who, later, received 
the degree of D.Litt. from Edinburgh University for a thesis^on Heine. 




JOHN LEES, M.A., D.Lrrx. 



Dr. John Lees 237 



Resolving to enter the teaching profession, Dr. Lees underwent 
training at the Moray House College, Edinburgh, and he gained 
practical experience by successive appointments at Ayr Academy and 
Greenock Academy, and as Classical master at George Watson's 
College, Edinburgh, and, finally, at the Stirling High School. 

In March, 1903, Dr. Lees was unanimously appointed Lecturer in 
German Language and Literature in Aberdeen University. His work 
in this capacity had been progressively successful, his classes having 
been attended by a large number of students, both men and women. 
He may be said, indeed, to have given an entirely new impetus to the 
study of German at the University, for, under his inspiration and 
enthusiasm, it attained an importance never before experienced. 

Dr. Lees was much more than a lecturer in German. Profoundly 
versed in German literature, he was also imbued with the critical 
spirit, and had made several valuable contributions to the exposition 
of the subject with which he became so particularly identified. He 
leaves behind him a considerable body of literary work. His trans- 
lation of Houston Stewart Chamberlain's book, " The Foundations of 
the Nineteenth Century," was widely read in this country when the 
war brought that remarkable work into notoriety. " The German 
Lyric," which was published in 191 4, and which is a critical handbook 
to the whole of German lyrical poetry, revealed Dr. Lees as an able 
literary historian, and took its place as the chief of the shorter treatises 
upon this particular subject. Later, Dr. Lees wrote a chapter on 
" German Literature " for Professor Paterson's book on " German 
Culture" ; while there is at present in the press a book from his pen 
entitled, " Das Buch der Lieder," consisting of selected German songs. 
Dr. Lees also frequently contributed reviews of current publications 
to scholastic and literary journals. He could write effectively on 
themes other than German ; it will be sufficient here to refer to his 
vigorous reply to Professor Harrower on the subject of the Arts curri- 
culum which appeared in the Review of March last year. 

Added to the regret felt at the loss to the University of such an 
able and influential teacher, is regret at the premature close of a career 
which promised to be of great value to the general educational 
interests of the city. At the coming into being of the new educational 
system last year, Dr. Lees was induced to offer himself as a candidate 
for the Aberdeen Education Authority. His "campaign speeches" 
exhibited a remarkable grip of educational questions, and, being duly 



238 Aberdeen University Review 

elected to the Authority, he was appointed convener of the Staffing, 
Salaries, and Bursaries Committee. In that onerous position, he — 
until laid aside by ill-health — rendered very valuable service, especially 
in the amicable adjustment of the difficult questions that emerged in 
connection with this part of the Authority's work. 

I. 

At the University Service in King's College Chapel on Sunday, 
6 June, the Principal paid the following tribute : — 

Death has again broken into our fellowship, and this time has 
taken from us one who was still, as men measure, in the midway of 
his career. 

John Lees came to us in 1903, when he was yet in his twenties, 
with the reputation of an able teacher of the Classics and of a student 
of German, who had already to his credit the results of some research 
in that language and literature. He had taken his degree at Edinburgh 
with First Class Honours in Classics and had served as head of the 
Classical Department in the High School of Stirling. From this 
particular training we may fairly deduce much, both of his success as a 
Lecturer in German and of his influence as a counsellor in the general 
matters of educational policy. Beyond themselves, the Classics give 
a man power to discriminate the genius and measure the capacities of 
other languages and literatures, affording him high and stable canons 
of prose and poetry and a sound judgment of style and rhythm. To 
combine such scholarship with the mastery of another literature whose 
streams rise upon a very different watershed — which though influenced, 
as all European literature has been by the classical spirit and classical 
forms, draws its inspiration and its melodies mainly from Folk-song 
and Romance and from pieties other than those of Greece and Rome 
— means a culture of considerable breadth and richness. Dr. Lees 
harvested its fruits in the work on "The German Lyric," which he 
published in 191 4, and which represents the substance of his lectures 
here for ten years. His pupils have been fortunate in a teacher so 
endowed and so trained to use his endowments. In our counsels his 
varied scholarship and experience enabled him to hold a just balance 
between the traditional and the modern types of University studies : 
a poise of the utmost value at the present time. 

But to-day and in this place, we dwell rather on the mental honesty 



Dr. John Lees 239 



of the man, on his tireless industry, on the example of his patriotism 
and public spirit, alike in war and in peace, and on his courage whether 
in facing large additions to his work, when his strength was already 
impaired, or in bearing with cheerfulness the heavy trials of a fatal 
illness. 

He carries hence a blameless name, the record of a very faithful 
career, the affection and gratitude of his students, and this tribute of 
his colleagues to his learning as well as to the disinterestedness of all 
his service for our common weal. 

To his wife, his children, and his brothers we offer our deep and 
respectful sympathy. 

II. 

As one of Dr. Lees' oldest colleagues, I have been asked to say a 
few words upon his services to education. It is difficult to do full 
justice to this side of his activities, because one feels that he was only 
at the beginning of his career of public service, and, had his life been 
spared, that he would have accomplished much of which he had only 
time to give promise. Dr. Lees was a distinguished scholar, the 
breadth and variety of whose attainments, particularly in his own field, 
could not escape the most casual observation. He was an accom- 
plished teacher, the best evidence of whose power and skill is to be 
found in the development of the teaching of German in the University 
and in his deservedly high reputation both among his students and 
furth of Aberdeen. Nor should his success in examining — com- 
petency in which is too often taken for granted — be overlooked ; his 
sound judgment and common sense were here conspicuous, and his 
shrewd decisions were backed up by incisive expression. In all these 
respects his position was assured both with students and with col- 
leagues. His counsel was highly esteemed and frequently sought, and 
the University Court but ratified the common verdict in nominating 
him as one of its first group of representatives on the Universities' 
Entrance Board. 

The period during which Dr. Lees was able to act as a member of 
the Entrance Board, short as it was, was more than sufficient to justify 
his selection. In December last, he readily acceded to a request 
from the Secondary Teachers of the District to address them on the 
work of the Board, and the occasion served to reveal his grasp of the 
situation and of its bearing upon the schools. He gave a vigorous 



240 Aberdeen University Review 

and masterly exposition of the Board's policy and of the progress 
already made. His address was of the greatest service in helping to 
establish contact and mutual comprehension between school and 
University, the former preparing pupils for entrance, the latter build- 
ing, as perforce it must, on the foundations laid in the school. It was 
even then evident that Dr. Lees was putting a severe tax upon his 
strength. Indeed, appreciation of his service to the Teachers' As- 
sociation and of the gracious manner of rendering it was tinged with 
a dash of regret that an additional burden had been imposed upon 
such an enthusiastic worker. But throughout Dr. Lees was unsparing 
of himself. 

In the beginning of 191 9, the first elections took place for the 
Education Authorities under the Education (Scotland) Act, 191 8. 
When Dr. Lees came forward to offer his services to the city, his 
public spirit was widely welcomed. His claims to a seat on the 
Authority were heartily endorsed by the electorate, and on election he 
was chosen to the most responsible office under the Authority with the 
exception of the Chairmanship itself — the Convenership of the Staffing 
and Salaries Committee. By teachers in particular he was hailed as 
the right man in the right place, a confidence that was amply justified. 
An immense amount of labour had to be undertaken by the Authority 
as a whole, and especially by the Committee charged with the burning 
question of teachers' salaries. In the construction and adjustment of 
salary scales, in receiving innumerable representations, in satisfying 
endless, sometimes conflicting, claims. Dr. Lees displayed patience, 
tact, and skill that were quite invaluable alike to teachers and to the 
community. He succeeded — or at any rate came as near to success as 
the circumstances would allow human wit to do — in reconciling the 
interests of the profession and of the public purse. To him is due a 
large share of the credit of dealing with a situation which was always 
critical, and at times threatening. 

In the end of last year, a deputation of the Secondary Teachers 
waited on Dr. Lees' Committee. Upon the Convener fell the chief 
direction of discussion, and he acquitted himself to admiration. His 
grip of the whole situation, his mastery of detail, his readiness to 
recognize facts, his quickness to detect flaws of argument, his firmness^ 
and withal courtesy were conspicuous throughout. The deputation 
went away satisfied that they had received a most fair and sympathetic 
hearing, and that their case might with some confidence be left in the 



Dr. John Lees 241 



Committee's hands. In the issue these hopes were not disappointed. 
On that occasion it was again evident that Dr. Lees was far from well. 
Though for some weeks subsequent he courageously discharged his 
heavy round, and deprecated any suggestion that he should spare his 
strength, there can be little doubt that devotion to these calls of the 
public service hastened the catastrophe. 

-His ready adaptation to the requirements of public life affords a 
striking refutation, not for the first time, of the legend that there is 
some necessary antagonism between academic and wider communal 
life. It also bears testimony to his own ability and to the soundness 
of his training. He could ill be spared, as it seems to our restricted 
vision, especially in these days. Deo aliter visum. If we may not, 
therefore, call his death untimely, we may at least say that his loss 
is at the moment irreparable. It is a loss alike to the interests of 
German teaching and of education generally, a loss not only to Aber- 
deen but to all Scotland. 

JOHN CLARKE. 

III. 

Through the lamented death of Dr. Lees, educational administra- 
tion in Aberdeen has sustained a serious loss. 

By his training and experience, as well as by his sane views on 
educational problems. Dr. Lees was fitted, as few men are, to take 
part in the work which has been thrown on the new Authorities by 
the Act of 191 8, and, on his election to the Aberdeen City Authority, 
his colleagues at once recognized his outstanding ability and his 
thorough grasp of the questions with which they have to deal. He 
was unanimously appointed Convener of the Staffing and Salaries 
Committee of the Authority, and no happier choice could have been 
made. As an old teacher himself, he could appreciate and sympathize 
with the teachers' difficulties. At the same time, he could readily 
appraise the qualities that go to the making of a successful teacher, 
and in the appointment of new members of the Authority's staff, the 
advice and guidance which he was able to give were soon found to 
be invaluable. 

But the characteristics of Dr. Lees which, I think, most impressed 
his colleagues were his absolute fairness, and his consideration for 
the feelings of others. Many difficult personal questions fall to be 

16 



2^2 Aberdeen University Review 

considered by a Staffing Committee, but members of the staff could 
always depend on getting just and even generous treatment from 
Dr. Lees. It is, indeed, not too much to say that in losing him, 
the teaching profession in Aberdeen has lost one of the best friends 
it ever had. 

The members of the Authority mourn a beloved and admired 
colleague, and the citizens of Aberdeen are poorer by the death of one 
who was capable of giving them public service of a peculiarly valuable 
kind. 

GEORGE DUNCAN. 



Van Benedcn of Liege, 



Van Beneden was born in 1846 and died in 19 10. To students of em- 
bryology, his name has been familiar for more than a generation. According 
to Professor Arthur Thomson, it was about 1883 that "van Beneden made 
the important discovery that the nuclei of the ovum and of the sper- 
matozoon which unite in fertilization contain each one-half of the number of 
chromosomes characteristic of the body-cells. This has been confirmed in re- 
gard to so many plants and animals that it may now be regarded as a general 
fact." 

Some time ago, the University of Liege invited representatives from other 
universities to attend the unveiling of a statue to van Beneden's memory. 
Principal Sir George Adam Smith authorized me to act as a representative of 
the University of Aberdeen. The unveiling took place on Monday, 24 May, 
1920. The ceremony was of the simplest. It was conducted at the Zoological 
Institute, where van Beneden taught. Like many other universities, the 
University of Liege conducts its work in several groups of buildings : the 
Zoological Institute, Physiological Institute, Anatomical Institute, and so on. 
Along with Professor Sarolea, who represented the University of Edinburgh, 
and Sir Thomas Oliver, who represented the University of Durham, and Dr. 
Hegner, who represented Johns Hopkins University, of Baltimore, I went from 
Brussels to Liege on the morning of the 24th. There were representatives of 
the Belgian Court and of the Belgian Ministry. Members of the Committee 
received us at the station and we drove to the Zoological Institute. There we 
met the Rector and Professors of the University of Liege and a number of 
delegates from the other universities of Belgium. The professors and delegates 
went in procession to the Zoological classroom. There, Colonel Nolf, Pro- 
fessor of Physiology and President of the Committee, gave the opening address 
and unveiled a beautiful bronze medallion of van Beneden. In his address, 
he gave us a summary of van Beneden's researches, his fundamental title to 
distinction for his discoveries in the biology of fertilization, his methods of teach- 
ing, his force of character, his place in the University, and his general influence 
on the whole development of science in the school. Professor Gravis, the 
Professor of Botany, followed with an even more elaborate account of van 
Beneden's researches in various fields. Then M. Lameere, President of the 
Royal Academy of Sciences of Belgium, emphasized certain aspects of van 
Beneden's work. After him came van den Stricht, of the University of 
Ghent. He roused the meeting to a perfect ecstasy of appreciation on the 
question whether there should or should not be a Flemish University in 
Ghent ! Obviously, in this matter, feeling runs very high : academic battles 
constitute a war of their own. Next, Professor Sarolea, who was a student of 
van Beneden's thirty years ago, and who, as Belgian Consul in Edinburgh, had 
the primary responsibility in the arrangement for thousands of Belgian refugees 
during the war, referred feelingly to the increase of international appreciation 



244 Aberdeen University Review 

between Scotland and Belgium, and mentioned how van Beneden had received 
from Edinburgh University over twenty years ago the Honorary Degree of 
Doctor of Laws : as there was an Internationale of economics and an Inter- 
nationale of politics, there was also an Internationale of science, and in it van 
Beneden's name was among the greatest. The little speech was received with 
warmth. Then Professor Damas, van Beneden's successor in the Zoological 
Department, completed the sequence and emphasized the outstanding results 
of van Beneden's work as an investigator and as a teacher. This ended the 
proceedings indoors. We then proceeded to the outside front, where the 
Institute looks over the Meuse. One could not help thinking of the differ- 
ence between the doings of the day and the doings of six years ago, when the 
Meuse ran blood. To-day, bright sun shone on the faces of the crowd and 
we looked on the beautiful statue of a great man : a symbol in bronze of the 
belief that, in the end, truth, goodness and beauty are the winning powers of 
the world. The statue was formally unveiled and there were further discourses 
on the work of the artist. The students took their part. Van Beneden's 
daughter was there, with her husband and their two children, who shyly laid 
their bouquets of flowers at the foot of the statue, so symbolizing their inheri- 
tance of a great name. 

Then, the Ministers and foreign delegates were entertained by the Rector 
and Professors of the University at a banquet. It was a profound pleasure 
to take part in the intimate life of this famous University, and I know that the 
action of Aberdeen in sending a representative has created a new bond of 
understanding between the one old University and the other. The orations 
and an account of the proceedings will be done into a booklet. Colonel Nolf 
is to send me a copy, and, if the University does not also receive one, I shall 
pass mine on to Mr. Anderson : in Belgium, as in Scotland, printing is dear 
and slow. 

W. LESLIE MACKENZIE. 

27 May, 1920. 

The Principal has since received the following letter from the Rector of 
the University of Liege : — 

LiEQE, LE 25 May, 1920. 

Monsieur et cher Collegue, 

L'Universite d'Aberdeen a bien voulu deleguer un de ses mem- 
bres pour la representer \ la ceremonie de I'inauguration du monument erige 
k la memoire de notre illustre collegue Edouard van Beneden. 

Le corps professoral de I'Universite de Liege a ete extremement sensible 
a ce temoignage de courtoise confraternite. II me charge de vous adresser 
ses bien cordiaux remerciments. 

Veuillez agreer. Monsieur et cher Collegue, I'expression de mes meilleurs 
sentiments. 

Le Recteur, 

EUGENE HUBERT. 
A Monsieur le Recteur de I'Universite d'Aberdeen. 



1^' 



The Hygiene Congress at Brussels. 

In 1 9 14 it had been arranged that the Royal Institute of Public Health 
should hold its Congress in Brussels. The war intervened ; but the invitation 
stood. The Congress took place from the 19th to the 24th of May, 1920. 
The place was the Palais des Academies, an ideal place for the holding of 
congresses. Indeed, at the same time, there was also a Congress of French 
and Belgian medical men. On the 20th there was the formal opening. His 
Majesty King Albert was present. When he appeared, a wave of personal 
sympathy and congratulation swept over the crowded audience. It was not 
possible to remain untouched in the presence of this most favoured monarch. 
The moment of his appearance was history. Lord Sandhurst, President of 
the Congress, gave his presidential address and then transferred his President's 
chain of office to Lord Leverhulme. There were delegates from many nations : 
each offered his brief tribute. A group of -distinguished men were created 
Honorary Fellows of the Institute. The first was M. Adolphe Max, Burg- 
mestre of Brussels. When he stood up to receive his Fellowship, the meeting 
went mad. I have seen many manifestations of the emotions of the crowd, 
but I have never known a warmer acknowledgment of a splendid man's 
bravery. 

Later, the work of the Sections proceeded. There were three days of keen 
discussion of the many problems of hygiene : not least, the discussion on the 
control of venereal diseases. The majority of the Congress were, of course, 
British; but Belgium took its effective share. There were excursions to 
battlefields and some of us went there ; others remained to study the city of 
Brussels. On Sunday, there was a formal procession from the Palais to the 
Cathedral of Ste. Gudule, where Bishop Wachter preached : first in English, 
then in French, then in Flemish. The Congress ended with the usual dinner. 
Belgian Ministers and other prominent representatives of Belgium took part. 
From many conversations, I am able to say that this Congress has done much 
to develop feelings of international goodwill between Belgium and Great 
Britain. International feeling is so elusive that it is difficult to offer a.ny 
"proof" of my statement; but if I chose to analyse the facts, I could bring 
proofs by the hundred. We came away with the feeling that we had learned 
to understand Belgium better and that Belgium also understood us better. 
The great fete of the Congress was the reception by Burgmestre Max at the 
Hdtel de Ville. Nothing could have shown more effectively the invincible 
life of this gallant people. The Boulevard du Nord has been re-named ; it is 
now Boulevard Adolphe Max. 

W. LESLIE MACKENZIE. 

27 May, 1920. 



Correspondence. 

PORTRAIT OF DR. JAMES MELVIN. 
Dr. Robert Walker to Mr. P. J. Anderson. 

Dear Mr. Anderson, 

I think that the Library at King's is the sole fitting repository for 
the accompanying drawing of Dr. James Melvin, the distinguished Latin 
scholar who was long Rector of the Grammar School of Aberdeen, and, in 
sending it to you for acceptance, it is right that I should explain how it was 
produced and how I came to possess it. I may premise that it is the work of 
two artists guided by suggestions from some who knew well the subject in his 
life, myself among the number. 

I shall not, I trust, be thought vain if I refer to the minutes of Senatus 
in the time of Principal Pirie where there is recorded a minute of thanks to 
myself for the success of my efforts as Librarian and Secretary of the Univer- 
sity Court ^ in obtaining from Mr. Gladstone through our then Rector, Lord 
Rosebery, the large Government Grant for the latest extension eastward of 
the Library Hall at King's. It had become necessary, Professor Geddes be- 
ing now Principal, to accommodate appropriately the Library of Dr. Melvin, 
bequeathed to us by Mrs. John Dun, Melvin's sister. Hence it was that I 
was one day in the Library in the company of Principal Geddes, and Dr. 
Francis Edmond, who represented the estate of the deceased Mrs. Dun. 
We stood before the recently erected window, the tracery of which is a copy, 
longo intervallo, of the sumptuous west-end window of the Chapel. Melvin's 
books were standing in tall floor-cases in the ante-room of the Greek depart- 
ment, and it had been decided to locate them before the window where they 
now are. I threw out the suggestion that Mrs. Dun's executors might see 
their way to adorn the window with stained glass. The Principal cordially 
caught up the proposal with the further suggestion that our great Aberdeen 
Latinist might be specially commemorated by being associated in the design 
with representations of other famous Scottish scholars of days gone-by, and so 
Melvin appears, "plain for all folk to see," in the goodly company of George 
Buchanan, Arthur Johnston and Thomas Ruddiman. 

Every effort, it was felt, must be made to produce in the window some 
sort of likeness of our hero. A photograph of Cassie's characteristic portrait 
in the Grammar School was accordingly put into the hands of the designers of 
the window for the use of their artist. 

From the fact, however, that the scheme of the design required that the 
pose of Melvin's face had to be deflected somewhat from that of the photo to 
fit-in with the glance, or outlook, of the other three faces, we felt that the 



Vf^ 




i 



^f^ 



JAMES MELVIN, LL.D., 
Rector of the Grammar School, 1826-53. 



Correspondence 247 



drawing as submitted for approval was not quite satisfactory. I was accord- 
ingly permitted to lay it before my life-long friend, Sir George Reid, who ap- 
plied his high artistic skill to the detection and, though reluctantly, the 
correction, of what was at fault. 

I need only add that I have had the satisfaction of seeing an old pupil of 
Melvin from beyond the seas stand, with delighted gaze, before the window 
declaring, "I could pick him out of a thousand". 

When the work on the window had been completed, Dr. Edmond was so 
good as to consent to hand over the drawing to me, in remembrance of my 
individual efforts. The designers were quite agreeable, and thus it became 
the property of. 

Yours very sincerely, 

ROBERT WALKER. 

TiLLYDRONE, 

21 April, 1920. 



Reviews. 

Reminiscences of Three Campaigns. By Sir Alexander Ogston, K.C.V.O., 
LL.D., etc., Surgeon in Ordinary to the King in Scotland, Emeritus 
Professor of Surgery in the University of Aberdeen. London : Hodder 
& Stoughton. N.D. 

The "three campaigns" of this title were that of Egypt in 1885, the South 
African War, and (counted as one) the Serbian and Italian campaigns of the 
Great War, all of which the author followed as a voluntary surgeon. The 
four parts of the volume successively devoted to them contain far more than 
a series of separate experiences. Throughout runs the record of reform and 
progress in the medical and surgical services of the British Army and Navy — 
we reverse the official order, for it was mainly with the Army that Sir Alexander 
had to do. Nor is the record only that of an expert observer. Impelled at 
first to the Egyptian campaign by his need, as an instructor in military surgery, 
to witness its operations in the field. Sir Alexander soon became aware of 
defects in the system, which convinced him of the necessity of reforms, and he 
formed the resolution to advocate these " without regard to the odium, which 
is the sure portion of every one who ventures to suggest reform in the War 
Office". The development of his purpose by a bold address at the British 
Medical Association in 1899, by his experiences in South Africa, and by the 
corroborations of his views during the Serbian and Italian campaigns invest 
the volume with an ethical, as well as a historical, unity ; which is informed 
and braced by the revelation of the strong personality of the writer, sure of 
his facts, of his cause, of himself, and even of the impressions he left on those 
who had been prejudiced against him. But there are other interests than the 
man and his medical cause. The surgeon was also a keen student of the 
military operations ; and these he followed and discussed with their leaders, 
and has sketched for us, with zest and an unflagging will to see and understand 
all their details. The result is not only much lucid instruction on the 
general lines of the campaigns and the greater military dispositions, but vivid 
accounts of single battles and skirmishes which will be of value to the general 
historian. All that, however, does not exhaust Sir Alexander's range of interests. 
He gives us, by the way, striking descriptions of scenery, interesting discussions 
in archaeology, studies of individuals and their careers, notes on schools and 
other institutions, and observations on politics and the feelings between 
different races. And the book is pervaded by the same humane spirit which 
distinguished the volume of his pupil, Sir Henry Gray. All this equal unity 
of purpose and variety of interest, with the same frank, courageous and con- 
fident character revealing itself through both, catch the reader from the be- 
ginning and hold him to the last page. 

The story of our Army medical service for the last thirty-five years will 
be read with mixed feelings. Both in Egypt and South Africa Sir Alexander 



Reviews 



249 



pays a high tribute to the quality of the officers, N.C.O.s and nurses of the 
Army Medical Department — " better work could not have been done ". But 
from the moment of his arrival in Egypt he felt there was " something want- 
ing to place their efficiency in the position which it ought to have occupied". 
The officers had then no proper rank in the Army, the importance of the 
service as a whole was not recognised by the War Office, it was not organized 
or "polished" as the other branches of the Army were, and only "the 
residuum " of the Army was attracted to its ranks. Our nation had not 
yet come to understand that *' it is not less important to save the lives of 
its battle-worn men and officers than to destroy those of the enemy ". At 
Suakim in 1885 there was not much scope for the operation of a voluntary 
organization like the National Aid (afterwards the British Red Cross) Society ; 
but even then Sir Alexander feared that the sense of self-sufficiency which 
besets every public department would lead the War Office and Army Medical 
Department to jealousy if not hostility towards voluntary help. 

In South Africa this fear was deplorably realized. The Army Medical 
Department was at first contemptuous towards voluntary aid, and " clearly 
showed jealousy and even hostility ". He gives many distressing instances of 
how the usefulness of the Red Cross was frustrated by the department which, 
although its own resources were inadequate to the needs of the campaign, 
refused to employ the personnel and the means with which voluntary associa- 
tions were ready to provide it, declined the services of trained nurses at the 
front, except in hospital trains, and put impediments in the way of the sick and 
wounded receiving all the comforts that private benevolence was eager to place 
at their disposal — and all this at a time when other nations were fully recogniz- 
ing the indispensableness of civilian organization in aid of their military 
medical services. It is a sad story. 

How many of the reforms, advocated by Sir Alexander in 1885 and again 
in his Portsmouth Address of 1899, have been effected is matter of public 
knowledge. The demands for a proper rank for Medical Officers have been 
conceded. The services of women have been more fully taken advantage of. 
And the Red Cross Society and other voluntary medical associations have 
come to their own. Sir Alexander has, it is true, criticisms to make about 
certain R.A.M.C. and Red Cross Hospitals in the Great War, but he must 
view with satisfaction the great amount of progress which has been achieved. 
On his own share in that progress he is very heartily to be congratulated. 

The Incomparable 29TH and the " River Clyde". By George Davidson, 
M.A., M.D., Major, R.A.M.C. Aberdeen : James Gordon Bisset. Pp. 
vii +238. 6s. net. 

As a rule, any record of the war or of personal experiences in the war which 
takes the form of a diary is far more attractive than a mere narrative, what- 
ever the ability with which the narrative is written or whatever the distinction 
of the writer. The diary, however, must be much more than a chronicle of 
occurrences — it must have a character of its own. It must exhibit keen per- 
ception and accurate observation, some faculty of graphic description, and a 
sense of humour ; and it must make itself evident as the mental reflex of a 
distinct individuality. All these qualities are happily manifest in the exceed- 
ingly interesting diary which Dr. Davidson of Torphins kept — for the sole 



250 Aberdeen University Review 

purpose, he says, of giving his wife " some connected idea of how we at the 
Front were spending our time " — and which is now published in the volume 
under notice. 

Dr. Davidson, after serving for five months as a lieutenant in what was at 
first known as the ist Highland Field Ambulance and afterwards as the 89th 
Field Ambulance, left for foreign service in March, 1915, and in due course 
he and his unit were attached to " the Incomparable 29th Division " — the 
phrase is Sir Ian Hamilton's — and became part of the Gallipoli expeditionary 
force. He landed on the peninsula from the famous " River Clyde " collier ; 
he witnessed the battle of Sedd-el-Bahr, the advance on Krithia, the fighting 
on Achi Baba, and many other engagements ; he was ordered for a rest to 
Lemnos and was then sent to Suvla Bay ; he had experiences while there of 
the violent bombardment about Anzac and Sari Bair ; and towards the end of 
the year he was compelled, much against his will, to leave the peninsula — 
after three months* illness, his strength had got so undermined that, as he 
says, " I could stand it no longer ". 

I am now writing on a hospital ship [he adds], trying to feel that I have done my 
bit, ... I felt depressed at being forced to leave, and cowardly when I thought of those 
left behind; still on gazing around I felt astonished I had been able '* to stick it " so long. 
The monotony lately has been very trying ; living on a small piece of ground with the 
enemy in front and the sea behind, and no progress being made, could have been nothing 
else. 

That Dr. Davidson had by no means spared himself is abundantly evident 
from the diary — too abundantly evident also is it that his services and those 
of his assistants were in constant requisition. Instances of the work he per- 
formed and of the dreadful conditions under which it was performed could be 
readily cited from the diary, modest and reserved though the allusions are, 
but we must content ourselves with a single passage which has a special local 
interest : — 

14 yune. — I marched a number of our men up The Gully to work at our new dressing 
station. I had a look at the place chosen but liked it worse than ever, and proceeded to 
tear down the sides of the little gully I preferred. By night we had converted it into a most 
romantic and safe retreat for the wounded and ourselves. The dry bed of a stream, for 
about 100 yards, we levelled down into a beautiful path, with several twists and high tower- 
ing walls, and in the extreme end we levelled the floor oiF a water-worn amphitheatre making 
room for about twenty stretcher cases. A little water drips over the centre of the forty feet 
high overhanging wall, which in wet weather would be a raging torrent. (This was after- 
wards known, and figured in our maps, as Aberdeen Gully. It was most suitable for our 
work, very safe, and much admired by every one.) 

Dr. Davidson's personal (as apart from professional) experiences and re- 
flections constitute a feature of the book — they are told so vividly, with a 
charming insouciance, and very often with a touch of humour. He lived 
for the most part in a dug-out or " funk-hole," and had very indifferent food — 
"all are deadly sick of army biscuits," he writes. * He became indiiferent to 
"Jack Johnsons," "Black Marias," and other projectiles, though on one 
occasion, a succession of shells discharged in his proximity gave him, he ad- 
mits " the fright of his life ". Not wholly absorbed in his terrible work, he 
notes the migration of birds, the geological and scenic features of the country, 
the characteristics of British and Gurkha soldiers, Australians and New 
Zealanders, and so on. As a specimen of his close observation we may give 
the following : — 



Reviews 251 



9 May. — I had to stop the above account of the day's doings suddenly and go out with 
the stretcher-bearers, when we had a terrible time — hard work up to i a.m., and most of the 
time to the music of bullets about our ears. And amidst all the din and roar of battle a 
nightingale sang the whole day and still more sweetly all through the next night, perched 
in a clump of trees we had repeatedly to pass on the way to the Regimental Aid Posts of 
the Lanes, and Plymouth and Drake Battalions — such a contrast of sounds ! 

As a sidelight on the essential blunder of the Gallipoli expedition, the 
impossibility of driving the Turks from an impregnable position, and the great 
sacrifice of life that was involved. Dr. Davidson's book is of very considerable 
value. One single entry in the diary (out of many) epitomizes the disastrous 
failure of the expedition : "Four calendar months since we landed on Galli- 
poli. And not much progress made yet." 

Indian Finance and Banking. By G. Findlay Shirras. London: Mac- 
millan & Co., Ltd., 1919. Pp* xii ■{- 483. i8s. net. 

The scope of this very considerable work upon Indian Finance and Banking 
is the description of " the everyday conditions under which the financial system 
works, the circulating media such as rupees, sovereigns, and notes, exchange, 
banking, and the very important questions relating to Government balances 
and reserves in India and abroad, especially in London, the great money 
market of th5 world, where international transactions in normal times are 
settled ". It does not deal with the Indian systems of public revenue and. 
expenditure. 

The main portions of the book consist first of a very thorough and ade- 
quate account of the development of the Indian currency system, including 
both metallic and paper money together with the closely related problems of 
the foreign exchange, and second, of an interesting and instructive description 
of the Indian banking system with an introduction to some of its present day 
problems. 

Mr. Findlay Shirras, who is a distinguished graduate of the University of 
Aberdeen, is Director of Statistics with the Government of India, and while he 
definitely states that the work "has no oflficial character whatsoever," it is 
evident that he combines in an exceptional degree qualifications which should 
make this study a standard work in its own field. He is in close touch with 
the data which he employs in his study ; he has had full opportunities of ap- 
preciating the attitude of all classes of the community towards currency and 
credit problems, and it is a great merit of his work that he views India's prob- 
lems from the standpoint of his adopted country. 

Mr. Shirras arranges his material clearly and aims at writing " in such a 
way that he who runs, may read, and reading, understand ". 

The claim seems justified in this respect that the general reader should 
certainly find this book valuable in gaining an appreciation of some of those 
problems of currency which have been matters of controversy between experts. 
It may be doubted, however, how far a person without some study of mone- 
tary theory and of international trade can appreciate critically decisions upon 
Bimetallism, Silver and Gold Standards, the Gold Exchange Standard, the 
reserves of a monetary system, and Mr. Shirras has to treat of these subjects 
in his first twelve chapters, but it must be said that he is successful in avoid- 
ng an over-technical discussion. 

In bringing out the value and interest of Mr. Shirras' study for the reader, 
there are three points which seem to deserve mention. 



252 Aberdeen University Review 

The first is the up-to-date character of the survey, which devotes special 
attention to the events of the war period in both currency and banking, and 
in addition the clear outline of the outstanding events in currency history. 

The war, in the opinion of the author, has been "a first-rate professor of 
economics " ; "it has placed many standing questions of currency policy in a 
wholly new light " ; and the " Indian Banking System as a whole has been 
strengthened by the unparalleled trade prosperity of the last few years ". 

In the second place the description of Indian development is valuable be- 
cause that country, owing to its special position, has had to face in its ex- 
perience practically every fundamental question in currency which has arisen 
during the last century, and has developed a form of gold standard >^hich must 
be ranked as one of the outstanding experiments of recent times. 

India was a silver standard country, a large part of whose trade was con- 
ducted with gold standard countries; after 1873 she was interested with the 
U.S.A. and the Latin Union in the attempt to establish rated Bimetallism on 
an international basis; after 1893 the Indian Mint for coining silver was 
closed and there was gradually established a gold standard for international 
exchange without an internal currency of gold. India's trade was formerly 
typical of that Eastern group of peoples whose exchange rates depended upon 
the relative values of gold and silver bullion. Her banking had developed to 
a relatively slight extent considering the magnitude of her resources and 
population. 

This raises the third point upon which the author gives us information of 
much interest, namely, the special conditions of India which produce effects 
often entirely different from those which might be expected in advanced in- 
dustrial states. 

There is the lack of education among the people, 94 per cent of whom 
are unable to read or write a letter in their own script ; again the remarkable 
absorption of the precious metals as private treasure means a serious loss from 
the banking standpoint ; India is the home of the man with one talent, who 
went and buried it, and of the man who found a treasure in a field ; the 
strength of immemorial custom prevents any considerable use of paper money 
or even gold coinage in up-country districts ; and the perpetual see-saw of good 
and bad years, due to the vagaries of the monsoon, " the jugular vein of 
Indian trade," is a further cause of instability. 

Mr. Shirras expresses the view that the three greatest economic needs of 
India at the present time are (i) more and better education, (2) greater bank- 
ing facilities, (3) more adequate and easy means of transport. 

This book then contains much that is pf interest and value to the general 
student of finance, and it is also representative of a new development, the 
growth of a school of Indian economists, who will gradually build up by iheir 
research a complete survey of the industrial and commercial life of India. 
This will allow her problems to be examined in the light of her own condi- 
tions, whereas there has sometimes been a tendency to apply theories based 
upon British experience to Indian life without due regard to the differences in 
the social systems. 

In conclusion, one cannot help but think that Mr. Shirras' work shows the 
value of allowing public officials, who have exceptional opportunities for the 
investigation of economic problems, to make published contributions to the 
literature of the subject. 

R. B. Forrester. 



Reviews 



253 



Religion and Culture. By Frederick Schleiter, Ph.D. New York: 
Columbia University Press, 191 9. Pp. x + 206. 8s. 6d. net. 

This well- printed and well-bound work has been submitted to the Editor of 
this Review by Mr. Humphrey Milford of the Oxford University Press, the 
Sales Agent in this country for the Columbia University Press. It purports 
to be a critical survey of methods of approach to religious phenomena, and 
amply justifies this description of its contents. 

During the last fifty years, by the labours of investigators like Tylor, 
Robertson Smith and Sir James Frazer (to cite only dominant names in this 
connexion, and for once these may be British), immense masses of diverse 
ethnological material have been critically sifted and constructively classified ; 
and this would seem to be an opportune time for a scrutiny of methods and 
an estimate of theories. The subject of primitive culture and magico- 
religious development is drawing to itself a rapidly increasing number of 
students, and many of us should like to know at this stage how matters stand 
in this particular field of inquiry. Dr. Schleiter is the man to tell us, if 
intimate and extensive study, adequacy of philosophical equipment, a cautious 
habit of mind, and a remarkable power of vigorous expression (if too often in 
sesquipedalian terms) may constitute the endowment of a competent guide. 

The book as a whole is an impressive warning against the tendency to 
which as a Geisteswissenschaft ethnology is so liable, namely, to extrude 
negative evidence and to deal in abstract formulations, whereby the descrip- 
tion and characterization of cultural phenomena becomes separated from their 
cultural settings in different temporal periods and dramatic stages. It is not 
the processes of generalization and abstraction as such that are attacked, but 
that over-generalization and premature classification from which in the writer's 
opinion we ordinarily suffer in this field. 

But in what field do we not suffer from these things ? And ought we 
not to suffer gladly ? Through dogma lies the way of progress. Our writer 
does not say, Non Jingo hypotheses ; but he appears to allow only grudgingly 
that it is better to have framed a false hypothesis than never to have framed 
one at all. 

According to our analysis (it is not a book that lends itself readily to 
analysis) the discussion falls into three parts. 

The main theme in the first part is the correct method of determining 
and interpreting magico-religious ''analoga". The point is emphasized that 
the uncontrolled use of the "form criterion," so common in the application 
of the comparative method of approach, leads to hopeless confusion. It is 
fallacious to say that morphological similarities are the result of parallel and 
independent development, thus almost completely ignoring — as do so many 
English writers — actual historical processes of diffusion and dissemination 
from one area to another. On the other hand, it is equally fallacious to say 
that morphological similarities are the result of diffusion and dissemination, 
thus virtually making a " methodological fetish " — as do so many German 
and American writers — of this concept. The author's conclusion, in which 
he sums up a drastic critique of the comparative method, is that the framing 
of ethnographical analoga is a "somewhat romantic procedure," in many 
respects comparable — he adds — to the building up in the pre-Darwinian 
biology of animal and plant archetypes. 

In the case of taboo, for example, in which the constant feature is that a 



2 54 Aberdeen University Review 

thing is forbidden, " the reasons for the inhibitory prescription, together with 
its genetic history and psychological setting, are frequently so exceedingly 
dissimilar, that we are bound to admit that taboo in two or more areas may 
be non-comparable". 

The second part of the work examines the " spirit-mana " problem, taking 
up first the theory of the primacy of spirit or soul. The writer is convinced 
that no such universal systematization of experience as Tylor postulated in his 
spiritistic Weltanschauung has ever taken place. The Tylorian animism is 
rejected as too intellectualistic, being vitiated by the psychological fallacy of 
confusing the operations of the primitive mind with the processes of its inter- 
pretation by the observer. Nor again is the writer inclined to grant the 
contentions of the wowa-theorists, who would award the primacy among the 
fundamental magico-religious concepts to an impersonal unanthropomorphic 
power, immanent in nature and all- pervasive, rather than to spirit or soul. 
The wa«a-theorists are declared to be guilty of basing their evidence upon 
" static " facts belonging to diverse cultures and entering into carefully 
selected linguistic material ; which is the same error as the animists make. 
But the actual truth is that the concept of mana cannot be said to be more 
primitive than animism. 

It is unnecessary to suppose, continues the writer, that either spirit or 
magical power must be the primordial factor in magico-religious experience 
and that the two are linked together in temporal sequence. The belief in 
emanations for example and in specific powers and properties of physical 
bodies, sufficiently indicates that the rubrics of magic and religion are not so 
comprehensive as is generally imagined. 

A discussion in this connexion of the therapeutic properties attributed to 
precious stones gives the writer an opportunity of telling us that during his 
final illness Pope Clement VII. ingested in fourteen days forty thousand 
ducats' worth of precious stones in the form of powders, and of citing the 
comment that this procedure was enough, without the ancillary intermediation 
of his disease, to cause the transportation of his Holiness to another and better 
world ! 

The third part of the work, upon which we can only touch, examines the 
concept of causality. The use of this concept as a basis of comparison 
between different phases of culture and diverse mental processes is greatly 
deplored. '*In the same way that ethnic entities, such as totemism, taboo, 
etc., are artificial units when divorced from their cultural settings, so causality 
at large, when separated from its embodiment in concrete mental operations, 
is an artificial unit which does not assist us in the understanding, the com- 
parison, or the elucidation of the phenomena involved." 

Let us add that while Dr. Schleiter's critical caution does not perhaps 
make him a very satisfying guide, we are deeply indebted to him for an ex- 
ceedingly able and most timely work ; and if he knows human nature, he will 
reaUze that he does not leave his readers floundering in a bog of scepticism, 
content (to adopt the kind of language he delights in) with descriptive 
characterizations of concrete particularities, but that they will go forth from 
the perusal of his book dogmatizing and to dogmatize, if with more reserve 
and greater caution than before. It is through dogma, we repeat, that the 
way of progress lies. 

William Fulton. 



Reviews 



255 



The Universities and the Training of Teachers. By F. J. R. Hendy, 
M.A., of Lincoln College, Oxford. Oxford : Clarendon Press. 9J x 6. 
Pp. 28. IS. 6d. net. 

Mr. Hendy's lecture is designed to show the general meaning and intention 
of the changes in the organization of the Training Department of the Univer- 
sity of Oxford recently effected in order to meet the situation created by the 
Act of 1918. Secondary education has become if not a reality, at any rate a 
possibility, for all pupils of the State schools ; and the Board of Education 
looks to the Universities to produce the teachers. These teachers ought as a rule 
to be graduates, and their professional training " should itself be the function 
of the Universities, a part of their post-graduation work ". Teachers must be 
equipped, too, for the social side of their duties no less than in scholarship, 
they must know the ways and habits of the homes from which the pupils are 
drawn, their interests, and their recreations. Hence University settlements, 
boys' clubs, and observation of, even temporary occupation in, the work of 
factory or office are elements in the teacher's preparation that can no longer 
be neglected. Mr. Hendy is of opinion that the future Primary Schools, 
staffed almost entirely by women, will educate children up to the age of ten 
or eleven, and the Secondary Schools beyond that age — an idea that has al- 
ready been propounded in Scotland as a solution of our own similar problem. 
In thus returning to what was its original function, the training of the teacher, 
the University must gradually supersede the existing type of Training College. 
The teacher of the future will require, in the first place, to be a graduate. 
But, for this purpose, the Oxford highly specialized degree must give place to, 
or be supplemented by, a degree combining two or more subjects, for example, 
history and geography, or one of these along with English or a foreign 
language, or mathematics with a science. Men so trained may be regarded 
as better educated than the inferior specialist, " who too often has merely 
added to his general ignorance a failure in his special subject ". Of course, 
the superficiality incident to extensive study must be guarded against, one 
obvious measure being to insist upon specialized study, including research, 
in at least one branch of some one subject. The schools must also themselves 
come into partnership with the universities in providing the training. They 
must be freely thrown open for the practice of students, and they must help 
to break the existing vicious circle by refusing to employ untrained teachers. 
The acceptance of such teachers helps to kill the desire and the need for 
training. Teaching has, in fact, become, or been made to appear, so un- 
attractive that the profession has to be recruited not merely by making 
entrance to it easy but even by financial inducements to enter it at all. 

Academic instruction for the intending teacher should, Mr. Hendy thinks, 
cover: (i) Technique, (2) History of Education, which bears closely upon 
method, (3) a philosophical basis, comprising a knowledge of the workings of 
pupils' minds — Psychology the author fights shy of, as a term of ill-omen — 
and reflection upon educational ends, something of an ethical and social 
character. In any event, the teacher-to-be must be enabled to discern "the 
true issue for education amidst the confused jumble of discordant cries which 
so often masquerade under the name ". He must realize that he has a mission, 
and he must have scope to fulfil it. He must be freed from the yoke of " an 
endless system of meticulous regulations, a responsibility which paralyses 
rather than inspires". Training is again on its trial among ourselves — 



256 Aberdeen University Review 

happily not its necessity, but merely its most effective organization. The 
parallels and contrasts of England are comprehensively set forth, and at the 
same time with moderation, in Mr. Hendy's lecture, which both on this 
ground and on its merits, will well repay perusal. The appeal with which he 
concludes for the sympathy and assistance of all within the University who 
have the interests of education at heart will not, one may hope, fall on deaf 
ears. 

John Clarke. 

The Classroom Republic. By Ernest A. Craddock, M.A. London : 
A. & C. Black, Ltd. Pp. 80. 2s. 6d. net. 

Many novel ideas are being ventilatdd nowadays and subjected to the acid 
test of experiment, and education, which always has had its idealists and 
reformers, has not escaped the contagion. In this little work we have an 
interesting account of a somewhat startling innovation, which has already 
arrested attention in educational circles. Mr. Craddock, who is form-master 
and senior French master at the Northern Polytechnic Day Secondary School, 
Holloway, London, evidently troubled in mind by the dual problem which 
confronts every teacher — that of imparting instruction and at the same time 
maintaining discipline — suggests a solution which is certainly ingenious and in 
support of which he advances argument that is reasonable and weighty. He 
proposes that the teacher should content himself with choosing the subjects 
and times of instruction, and with imparting the knowledge he possesses, and 
that the pupils should become responsible for the discipline of the school, 
should, in short, govern themselves, finding therein "a wholesome and 
salutary outlet for their exuberant activity" and developing thereby their 
character by a real self-control. Not content with theorizing, he has given 
the proposal an actual trial. He started a " Classroom Republic " with a 
Fourth Form (average age, thirteen years). He asked the boys to elect a 
committee of five, to whom he entrusted the discipline of the class, both in- 
side and outside the classroom. This committee was empowered to punish 
or to reward ; to decide what home work should be done, and, within limits, 
what work should be done in class also ; and to be responsible that the home 
work was well and punctually performed, that sports were properly conducted, 
that the room was kept in order, that the boys' appearance was not neglected, 
etc. Mr. Craddock declares emphatically that the experiment — of the working 
of which ample details are given — has been a decided success. 

I have now taught for two years on these principles [he says], and should no more 
think of going back to the old way than I should think of trying to re-establish " trial by 
ordeal ". I have had the two most pleasant years of all my teaching experience, which 
extends over a long period. My boys are happier, infinitely more tractable, and infinitely 
more diligent. The relations between us are more cordial, more intimate, and more work- 
inspiring than I had ever known in previous years. My work is easier, that of the boys 
more spontaneous and more cheerfully done, and it proceeds at twice the old rate and with 
twice the old enthusiasm. Failures in home work have almost disappeared. ... I have 
punished no boy in any way for close on two years, and with the disappearance of my right 
to punish seems to have disappeared the necessity to do so. Punishments by the com- 
mittee have become so rare that when they are necessary the necessity excites remark. 

Astounding as may appear at first sight the project of establishing School- 
boy Soviets, these results are certainly striking and entitle the project to 
respectful consideration. 



Reviews 257 



The plan and its working are elaborated at some length, and there are 
chapters dealing with the advantages of the system and with some objections 
that are advanced against it. To one of the most obvious objections Mr. 
Craddock answers that " even the worst of children are capable, given self- 
government, of becoming really useful units in a society ". This may be an 
optimistic view, and Mr. Craddock's little work is saturated with optimism ; 
but, after all, optimism is the vital principle of all reform. The development 
of the " Classroom Republic " will assuredly be watched with interest by 
educationalists and others. 



Oxford University Press : General Catalogue, 1920. 
Cambridge University Press : Catalogue, 1920. 

It is fairly well recognized nowadays that the real art of advertising consists 
in arousing interest : hence the delightfully intimate peeps given into the family 
history of consumers of Pink pills or Back-ache pellets, and the fascinating 
novelettes whose striking morals point so irresistibly to purchases from 
Selfridge's or Harrod's Stores. The writers of these advertisements have 
marked with discerning eye that people will not be bored if they can possibly 
avoid it — would rather be cheated any day — and if the advertisement be dull 
will not study it, however durable the material or wholesome the medicine 
advocated. This idea has been late of recognition so far as books are con- 
cerned, and until quite recently a publisher's catalogue was simply a list, to 
which a reader must bring his own enthusiasm and interest if he wished to 
make a study of it. To-day, however, publishers are waking up, and it is 
pleasant to see that a lead has been given them by the two old University Presses 
of Oxford and Cambridge. Oxford takes the place of honour, for in 191 6 it 
issued its first General Catalogue and therein set a standard which has not 
yet been equalled in this country. For it has attained the goal we speak of — 
it is extremely interesting. The books are grouped together in subject classi- 
fication ; attractive notes are given on some of the more important entries, 
such as the Oxford Dictionary or the Dictionary of National Biography ; 
the different founts of print are illustrated for us, and the various styles of 
binding described and explained. Last, but by no means least, all necessary 
information about each book is given fully, including price, size and date, 
this last being a special boon, for many publishers think mistakenly that it is 
better business to suppress the date. It would be difficult to say how this 
catalogue could be much improved upon ; and if we point out that the entry 
under Gifford Lectures is disappointing, as of three references given only one 
proves fruitful, that is only to say that no work can be faultless, and an op- 
portunity for noting that a similar flaw detected by us in the 191 6 edition 
has been rectified in this. 

If we had not seen the Oxford catalogue, we might have said that the 
Cambridge University Press had produced the best thing of its kind so far, 
and what they have given us is without doubt a very excellent piece of work. 
It is not on such an ambitious scale as the Oxford catalogue, there being no 
illustrations and not such adequate information on individual books. But 
it also is grouped by subject, and adds the virtue of beginning each group 
with the journals belonging to it. The introductory sketch of the history of 

.17 



258 Aberdeen University Review 

the Press is of great interest, and answers several questions one might have 
wished to ask. For instance, what was the origin of the name " Pitt Press," 
which sometimes stirs curiosity? It seems that this name was given to the 
new press buildings erected with the surplus money of a fund subscribed in 
1824 for a statue to William Pitt. 

Studying the two catalogues, one feels justified in taking heart of grace 
again and believing that the obsession of materialism is not so universal as 
generally supposed. So long as University publishers and others of like high 
standing can command the attention of the public by the issue of such ex- 
cellent catalogues as these, without going bankrupt, so long we may fairly as- 
sume that British scholarship is not yet tottering to its fall, nor appreciation 
of it dying in this country. 

M. S. Best. 



Scottish Life in Light and Shadow. By Rev. T. McWilliam, M.A., 
Minister of Foveran, Aberdeenshire. Paisley : Alexander Gardner. Pp. 
130. 

A modest and unpretentious volume, marked by genuine feeling as well as by 
patriotic fervour and noticeable for its discriminating arid on the whole sane 
and sound estimate of the Scottish character. The author gives us what he 
calls a " homely presentation of Scottish life in light and shadow, as in- 
cidentally observed during a ministry of more than thirty years, twenty-three 
of which were spent in another country-parish in Aberdeenshire " — New Byth, 
to wit. Though appreciative of what he terms "provincial patriotism," the 
" predilection for one's native country-side and one's own folk there," Mr. 
McWilliam strenuously insists on its being merged in national patriotism ; and 
accordingly, while Aberdeenshire ways and sayings are largely introduced in 
his sketches, these sketches are by no means limited to the north-east corner. 
They deal, for instance, with such general characters as the religious Scots- 
man, the " pushful " Scot, the undemonstrative Scot, the humorous Scot, the 
poetic Scotsman, and so on, the outstanding features of each class being 
mainly illustrated by anecdotes, many of which, however, are fairly familiar. 
*• Pastoral Papers " is the title given to one section of the book, evidently the 
outcome of personal experiences in ministerial visitation ; most of the experiences 
here delineated are touching and suggestive, and Mr. McWilliam effectively 
uses many of them to inculcate charity and other noble lessons. Another 
interesting section of the book is that devoted to Scottish bairns, with illus- 
trations of the "astonishing originality, naivete^ and logic" in some of their 
replies to questions. Needless to say of a book dealing with Scottish char- 
acter, it abounds in humorous stories, particularly stories of "sermon-tasters " 
and ministerial critics. Many of these are excellent of their kind : we are 
disposed to reckon one of the best the comment on the minister who, having 
as a candidate preached without " the paper," when ordained at once began 
with "the paper ". "Whit dae ye think o' him, John ? " was asked of the 
village merchant, who immediately replied with the scathing criticism — " He's 
jist like oor cheap tea, that a' comes aff at the first watter ". Mr. McWilliam 
is well known as a poet, and this little volume is enhanced by several poems, 



Reviews 259 

including the pathetic song relative to his own personal loss in the war 
*' The Sang o' the 'Circling Sea "— 

♦' SaS on ! Sab on ! " croons the Sang ower the Burn ; 
♦' Yet latna grief lang blin' the e'e ; 
Tho' they winna come back, 
Yet they took the richt track, 
Tae the airms o' the 'Circling Sea." • 

Men of the North-East and Two Other Addresses. By Robert T. Skinner, 
M.A., F.R.S.E. Aberdeen : Printed for private circulation by Milne & 
Hutchison, 1920. Pp. 61. 

Though printed for private circulation this little volume deserves some public 
notice as an interesting and useful summary of notable men and some move- 
ments and institutions. It is pleasant to have our memories refreshed by 
such a procession of the worthies of the North-East of Scotland as saunter 
through Mr. Skinner's first address. This was delivered from the Chair of the 
Annual Dinner, Aberdeen University Edinburgh Association, in 191 3, and 
concludes with a tribute to Professor Arthur Thomson, the guest of the even- 
ing. The second address is an account of "James Donaldson and His 
Hospital," Edinburgh, and after bringing together many interesting facts in 
the life of its founder proceeds to describe the institution — the only one which 
'* boards and educates the deaf-mute and the hearing child under the same 
roof'' — with some valuable statistics as to deaf and dumb children, and their 
progress. The third address is " The Story of the Dick Bequest " and what 
it has done for education in the North-East. Who that is interested in the 
North-East, or in education in general, will not be grateful to Mr. Skinner for 
this compact account of what one man's foresight has achieved by the ap- 
plication of his fortune to the development of sound learning and religion in 
his native province ? This address is a welcome document for reference on 
one of the most beneUcial institutions in our country. Both the second and 
the third addresses were delivered to the Aberdeen Rotary Club. 

Great Britain and the United States : A Critical Review of their His- 
torical Relations. By J. Travis Mills, M.A. Oxford University Press. 
Pp. 68. 2s. 6d. net. 

This brochure forms the substance of lectures delivered by the author to 
various units of the American Army of Occupation in Germany 'during May 
and June of last year. Their sole object, he says, was that of "promoting 
conciliation born of mutual understanding," a somewhat difficult task in the 
circumstances, we are afraid. Of nothing is the average American more 
absolutely convinced than that in all the disputes between his country and 
ours Britain was invariably in the wrong, and this "national" view is em- 
phasized in most American schoolbooks. According to Mr. Page, the late 
American Ambassador, however, " the disproportion and wrong temper of 
these books is fast disappearing," and we may hope that the newer texts which 
are said to be correcting this old fault may be productive of a better feeling 
towards this country. Mr. Mills's main contention is that " Britain's policy 
was logically defensible " and that " there does exist a British 'case ' " ; and he 
demonstrates this by a skilful examination of the events which led to the War 



26o Aberdeen University Review 

of Independence, the War of l8i2, the Alabama difficulty, and the Venezuelan 
dispute. He reinforces his arguments by citing " the honest and impartial 
statements of modern American historians," mentioning in particular Dr. 
Channing of Harvard and Professor Howard of Nebraska. His survey of 
Anglo-American relations is fair and temperate throughout, and its candid 
consideration ought to go far to abate the embittered prejudices that still exist. 
Given that consideration, any assembly of genuine Americans anywhere, as 
Mr. Mills remarks, '^ would say that faults and misconceptions, few or many, 
small or great, on either side, have not been of such a character as to divide 
for all time the hearts of kindred nations ". 

Handbook of Aboriginal American Antiquities. Part I., Introductory. 
The Lithic Industries. By W. H. Holmes. (Bureau of American 
Ethnology, Bulletin 60.) Washington : Government Printing Office. 
Pp. xvii + 380. 

The title correctly describes the work, which is really introductory* to the 
systematic presentation of the antiquities and deals largely with the evidences 
of the manipulation of stone, one of the earliest industries of primitive 
peoples. Probably the general reader will be more interested in the earlier 
chapters, which deal with archaeological problems and discard as fallacious a 
number of theories that have been put forward regarding the origin of the 
American race. According to Mr. Holmes, the view that has to be accepted 
is that America was peopled from the Old World by way of Bering Strait. 
This conclusion has been arrived at from recent researches, which have de- 
monstrated the marked similarity of certain of the north-eastern Asiatic tribes 
to the American Indians, taken in connexion with the geographical proximity 
of north-eastern Asia'and Arctic America. The date of the supposed migration 
from Asia to America is very uncertain, but the earliest date yet discovered in 
the " glyphic " characters of the American aborigines, translated into our 
system is 100 b.c. ; the next recorded date is 160 years later, or 60 a.d. 

Mediaeval Forgers and Forgeries. By T. F. Tout, M.A., F.B.A. 
Manchester : at the University Press. London, etc. : Longmans, Green 
& Co., 1920. IS. net. 

This is one of the John Rylands Lecture Series reprinted from the Bulletin 
of the Library of that name. It is an instructive, and for the most part, enter- 
taining account of the motives, methods and fortunes, immediate or ultimate, 
of the forgers, lay and clerical, of the Middle Ages. The habit was startingly 
rife, and excited by very various passions, ranging along the whole scale of 
deceit from the most sordid to some that were wholly disinterested. Professor 
Tout's general description, written with all his well-known mastery of the life 
of the period, closes with the story of two particular frauds, the Historia Crow- 
landensis by the false Ingulf, and the tractate, De Situ Britanniae^ by the pseudo 
Richard of Cirencester. 

Field Gunnery : A Practical Manual prepared with special reference to the 
Heavies. By Donald A. Macalister, R.G.A., Assoc.R.S.M. London: 
John Murray. Pp. xii + 228. 3s. 6d. net. 

The value of this little manual is best attested by the fact that the present is 
the fourth edition, the work having appeared originally in December, 191 5. 



Reviews 261 

Since then, as the author says in his preface, " methods which were smiled 
upon by old army men, as being too complex, have, under siege conditions, 
become part of the normal routine of a battery ". The author's object is to 
explain the elements of Field Gunnery " so that the~ young gunner may under- 
stand the reasons for what his duty may require him to do " ; but the young 
gunner is duly warned that much of the material dealt with in the book is 
" not regulation " and that therefore the manual must be read with discrimina- 
tion. It seems, nevertheless, well fitted to explain the technical details with 
which it deals, these including a number of field formulae, aiming and laying, 
ranging methods of fire, etc. One chapter deals with fuse-indicator and time 
shrapnel, and another with ballistics. 

Joint-Jubilee of St. John's Church, Pietermaritzburg, and its first 
minister, the Rev. John Smith, M.A., D.D., 17 March, 1920. Maritzburg : 
The Natal Witness, Ltd., 1920. 

Dr. Smith, who was born in Aberdeen in 1839, and was a pupil of Dr. 
Melvin at the Grammar School, graduated in Marischal College in 1858. He 
was appointed in 1865 as colleague to Mr. Campbell of the first Presbyterian 
Church in Pietermaritzburg, and ordained there by the Presbytery of Natal in 
the same year. In 1820 a second Presbyterian church was founded in the 
city, and to it Dr. Smith has ministered ever since. This long ministry has 
been one of singular influence not only in Pietermaritzburg but throughout 
Natal and the rest of South Africa, where he is venerated as ** The Father of 
the Presbyterian Church ". This pamphlet gives details of the history of the 
congregation, and tributes to the high character and fruitful work of their 
minister. It is a noble record of which his Alma Mater, who created him a 
Doctor of Divinity in 1907, may well be proud. We are glad to see in the 
portrait of him which is given that though in his eighty-first year his eye is 
not dimmed nor his force abated. 

"The Study of Anglo-Norman" (Oxford: Clarendon Press. Pp. 28— 
IS. 6d. net) is the inaugural lecture delivered at Oxford University in February 
last by Paul Studer, Taylorian Professor of the Romance Languages. It is a 
plea for the study of Anglo-Norman (a " living " language until the middle of 
the fourteenth century), particularly because it is capable of throwing much 
light on English history, social and constitutional, on Middle-English, and on 
the growth and evolution of the English language. The lecture was designed 
to show that Anglo-Norman was a homogeneous language with distinctly 
Norman characteristics, and to furnish an estimate of the value (literary or 
linguistic) of the records which have been preserved. 

" Moderation " is the title of a 2 7 -pp. booklet in defence of the use of 
wine as a beverage, a food, and an aid in sickness and ill-health, by "A 
Medical Man who has made wine a study," issued by a firm of wine-dealers 
in London. 

We have received the Annual Reports of the Scottish Churches Mission, 
Calcutta, and of the Madras Christian College for 19 19. In the former the 
Calcutta Scottish College reports that of its students who entered for the Uni- 
versity examinations 47 took the B.x\. Degree with Honours (7 with distinction) 



262 Aberdeen University Review 

and 71 passed, and 13 took the B.Sc. Degree with Honours (9 with distinction) 
and 18 passed'; out of 63 successful candidates in Economics, Philosophy, 
and Physics 24 were from the College, and its students took the 2nd, 3rd, and 
5th places in Philosophy Honours, the ist place and 7 others out of 20 in 
Physics, and 10 out of 27 in Economics — an admirable proof of the high 
standard of the teaching in the College and of the earnestness of the students. 
In Madras, from which Principal Skinner and Professor Pittendrigh are about 
to retire, 106 candidates passed the B.A. in English out of 189 who went up, 
and in Science 109 out of 184; while for the B.A. Honours Preliminary 41 
out of 46 sent up passed, and for the final Honours 35 out of 42. Mr. Ogg, 
one of our Honours Graduates, has joined the College as Professor of Mathe- 
matics. 

We have also received — Inaugural Address of the Scottish-American As- 
sociation on " Scottish- American Friendship," by the Hon. John W. Davis, 
American Ambassador in London (Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd, 1920) ; "Ihe 
Alumni Register, University of Pennsylvania," Vol. XXII., No. 8, May, 1920, 
with articles, comments, reports, and the twenty-fifth instalment of the War 
Record, from which we learn that 209 of the University's alumni were killed 
during the War ; the first number of "The Personalist," a quarterly journal of 
Philosophy, Theology and Literature (University of Southern California, April, 
1920), with articles on "Can Civilization become Christian?" by the editor. 
Dr. Flewelling, " A Group of American Idealists," by J. W. Buckham, " A 
British Estimate of Dr. Bowne," by Principal Iverach, " Personalism," by 
F. W. Collier, and " The Common Thread in French and English Culture," 
by James Main Dixon ; the Anniversary Number of "The Caledonian " (New 
York, April, 1920), published on its twentieth birthday, with articles on political 
and religious topics, and correspondence and some verses ; " The Durham 
University Journal" for November, 191 9, with University News and articles 
on W. B. Yeats, The Redemption of Palestine, and the late Professor Moor- 
man of Leeds; the same University's "College of Medicine Gazette" for 
May, 1920, with surgical and other articles; "The Magazine of the Scottish 
Churches College," Calcutta, for March, 1920, with notes, addresses, articles, 
and reports. 



. University Topics. 




CARDINAL MERCIER AND THE GIFFORD LECTURESHIP. 

I HE Senatus invited Cardinal Mercier, the Archbishop of 

Mahnes, one of the great heroic figures of the war — the 

only Belgian, it was said, whom the Germans were afraid 

to arrest — to deliver the Gifford Lectures in 1921-22. 

Apart from the eminence of the person thus asked, the 

invitation was noteworthy as the first ever given by any 

Scottish University to a Roman Catholic dignitary to 

become Gifford Lecturer. The distinguished prelate, however, felt himself 

obliged to decline the invitation, his declinature being conveyed in the 

following letter (in French) : — 

ArchevSche de Malines, 
Malines, i8th Avrilf 1920. 

Monsieur le Principal et Vice-Chancelier, 

J'ai longtemps tarde a repondre a votre invitation a donner, durant 
les annees 1921 et 1922, les conferences Gifford sur la Religion Naturelle a 
rUniversite d'Aberdeen, parce que cette proposition flatteuse m'attirait. 
C'etait pour moi une occasion de prendre contact avec I'elite intellectuelle de 
votre noble pays et d'echanger avec elle des idees sur les questions qui sont k 
la base de I'ordre cree et qui commandent notre vie individuelle et sociale. 

Mais a la reflexion, je dois me resoudre a decliner votre ofTre, si aimable 
soit-elle. 

Mon voyage aux Etats-Unis avait entraine un arriere si considerable qu'il 
est k peine liquid^ et j'ai eu du mal a me remettre de ses fatigues. 

Nous sortons ici d'une premiere session d'un Concile ecclesiastique pro- 
vincial qui se reunira a nouveau en Septembre. D'ici-la questions religieuses 
et disciplinaires, soumises k I'examen, devront, etre mtiries. Dans quelques 
jours, je me vendrai a Rome, et mon absence se prolongera pendant plusieurs 
semaines. Ajoutez a cela que les travaux de reconstruction morale de notre 
pays, profondement bouleverse par I'occupation ennemie, absorbera toute mon 
attention, et vous comprendrez, je n'en doute pas, qu'en depit de mon desir 
de repondre a votre appel, les circonstances me forcent de m'y soustraire. 

Agreez, Monsieur le Principal et Vice-Chancelier, mes remerciments pour 
rhonneur que vous avez bien voulu me faire, tous mes regrets, et Tassurance 
de ma haute consideration. 

iii D. J. CARD. MERCIER, 
Arc/i. de Malines. 



264 Aberdeen University Review 

(Translation.) 

Archbishop's Palace, 
Malines, 18th April, 1920. 

The Principal and Vice-Chancellor. 
Sir, 

I have been a long time in replying to your invitation to deliver, during the 
years 1921 and 1922, the Gifford Lectures on Natural Religion at the University of Aber- 
deen, because that flattering proposal attracted me. It would have given me an opportunity 
of coming into contact with the intellectual Mite of your noble country, and of exchanging 
withlhem ideas on the questions which are at the base of established order and which 
govern our individual and social life. 

But, on reflection, I am afraid I must decline your proposal, grateful though it be. 

My journey to the United States led to arrears of business so considerable that they 
have not yet been fully overtaken, and I have hard trouble to get things in order again. 

We have just finished here the first session of an Ecclesiastical Provincial Council, 
which is to meet again in September. By that time religious and disciplinary questions 
now under examination will have matured. In a few days I will be going to Rome, and 
my absence there will be prolonged for several weeks. Add to this that the task of the 
moral reconstruction of our country, profoundly upset by the occupation of the enemy, 
will absorb my whole attention ; and you will understand, I doubt not, that, despite my 
desire to consent to your request, the circumstances oblige me to refrain. 

Accept, Sir, my thanks for the honour which you have been so kind as to confer upon 
me, my sincerest regrets, and the assurance of my high regard. 

VISIT OF PRINCE HENRY TO THE UNIVERSITY. 

Prince Henry, the third son of the King, held an investiture in the Town and 
County Hall, Aberdeen, on 6 May, conferring decorations on northern officers 
and distinctions on ladies and gentlemen for services in connexion with the 
war. His Royal Highness subsequently visited several places in the city knd 
neighbourhood, including King's College and Marischal College. At King's 
College, the Principal and Professors Harrower, Souter, Jack, Terry, Fulton, 
and Baird, with Mr. P. J. Anderson, the Librarian, all wearing academic 
gowns, were in waiting under the arch leading to the quadrangle, and were 
presented to the Prince, who was then conducted to the University Chapel. 
The Principal explained to His Royal Highness that this was the first visit of 
Royalty to King's College (as distinguished from Marischal College) for many 
centuries. The Prince evinced keen interest in the history of the foundation 
of the College and the building of the Chapel, and particularly in the proposed 
Memorial to the men of the University who fell in the war, which was de- 
scribed to him. He afterwards visited the Library and signed the visitors' 
book of the University. At Marischal College, there was a large assemblage 
of students, who raised vociferous cheers on the arrival of the Prince. His 
Royal Highness and party, however, pressed for time, merely motored round 
the quadrangle without alighting. 

PROPOSED Ph.D. DEGREE. 

The University Court has issued a Draft Ordinance for the institution of 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D). Ordinances instituting such a 
degree have been made by the other three Scottish Universities, and the same 
degree has now been introduced into nearly every other University in the 
United Kingdom. This step is an indirect result of the war, being due to a 
desire to offer to students of the allied countries the Doctor's degree which 
formerly attracted so many candidates to the Universities of Central Europe. 
The principal features of the Ordinance are as follows : — 



Univers ity Topics 265 



I. A Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) may be conferred by the University of 
Aberdeen in any of the Faculties thereof, i 

II. Research students who have pursued within the University of Aberdeen (or in any 
college or institution which may be affiliated thereto) a course of special study or research 
may be admitted as candidates for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, under the following 
conditions, namely : — 

(i) That they have obtained a degree in a Scottish University, or a degree in a uni- 
versity or college specially recognized for the purpose of this section, or that they have 
obtained a diploma or certificate recognized in like manner as equivalent to a degree. 

(2) That they have pursued a course of special study or research during a period of 
nine academical terms as research students in the University of Aberdeen, or in any college 
or institution that may be affiliated thereto, and that they produce to the Senatus Aca- 
demicus evidence of satisfactory progress in the special study or research undertaken by 
them during that period. \ 

III. Every candidate for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy shall present a thesis to 
be approved by the Senatus Academicus on the recommendations of a committee appointed 
for this purpose by the Senatus. The thesis shall embody the results of the candidate's 
special study or research. 

IV. The Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) shall not be conferred honoris causa 
tantum. 

The Draft Ordinance was discussed at the half-yearly meeting of the 
General Council of the University on 17 April. A Sub-Committee of the 
Business Committee (consisting of Dr. George Smith, convener, Mr. C. J. 
Davidson, Dr. Gordon Murray, and Mr. William Riddoch) recommended that 
the General Council should accept the principle that a Ph.D. degree be in- 
stituted, but suggested that the existing D.Phil, degree be abolished and the 
D.Litt. degree so far modified as to be made to cover the subjects of Language, 
Literature, and Philosophy ; also that the regulation debarring Masters of Arts 
with honours in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, or in Mental Philo- 
sophy, from offering themselves for the degree of D.Litt., should be revoked. 
Objection was also taken to certain details, and the Sub-Committee submitted 
revised forms of parts of the Draft Ordinance. 

At the meeting of the General Council, Dr. George Smith said they had 
in Aberdeen University three post-graduate degrees, one in Philosophy, one 
in Science, and one in Letters. In the case of Philosophy — the D.Phil. — the 
degree could only be taken by research students, graduates in Mental Philo- 
sophy. In Letters they had the same kind of degree, but confined solely to 
Letters. Those who had taken the degree in Mental Philosophy were not 
eligible, and neither was a graduate in Science on that score. When they 
came to Science only those who had Mathematics or Natural Philosophy or 
who were research students in Science were entitled to be candidates. These 
degrees were all of a very high character, so much so that so far as Philosophy 
was concerned at the present time the degree was only held by two persons, 
though it had been instituted a good many years. The proposal to establish 
a Ph.D. degree created a practical difficulty, as it would mean that they would 
have two degrees in Philosophy. The clerk had carefully collected informa- 
tion bearing on the point from other Universities. Thus they found that 
Edinburgh had taken no cognizance of it and proposed to have a degree of 
D.Phil, as before, and also a new Ph.D., whereas St. Andrews and Glasgow 
proposed to abrogate or annul the D.Phil, and have only the one new Ph.D. 
The difficulty in the latter course was what were they to do for the present 
holders of the old title, but Glasgow proposed to allow these, on payment of a 
small sum, to take the new title. The Committee were strongly of opinion 
that the only way out of the practical difficulty confronting them — because 



266 Aberdeen University Review 

there would be confusion in the public mind as well as of experts by having 
two degrees of practically the same title — was to follow the path that had been 
taken by St. Andrews and Glasgow. Revisions in the Draft Ordinance were 
thus rendered necessary, and these he detailed. He moved that they re- 
present to the University Court in the usual way that the proposed changes 
should be given effect to. 

Rev. Dr. Gordon Murray seconded ; and the motion was agreed to un- 
animously. 

COURSE FOR NON-GREEK STUDENTS. 

The Senatus, on the recommendation of the Faculty of Arts, has resolved 
that there should be established within the Department of History and Law a 
course in Greek History, Literature and Art for non-Greek students, to be 
divided into three parts: (i) History and Archaeology; (2) Literature; (3) 
Sculpture and Vase-painting, each of twenty-five lectures, such course to 
qualify as a subject for graduation in Arts. 

The General Council has expressed satisfaction with the proposal. 

The scheme was drafted by Professor Harrower, who explained it at a 
meeting of the Classical Association of Scotland held at Marischal College on 
6 March. 

The course (he said) was on such lines that it might be attended by students 
who had no knowledge of the Greek language. Its aim was to show what the 
world owed to Greek thought and Greek achievement in the application of 
ideas to life. To have such a course as an unattached option would do little 
good, and therefore he had proposed that it should be one of the recognized 
subjects in the department of Law and History qualifying for the Degree of 
M.A. When he surveyed the subjects that were already recognized as worthy 
to form a part of a graduate's curriculum, he did not think this proposed 
course need fear comparison. It would be to the full as instructive as most. 
But what did call for explanation was the manner in which it was to be re- • 
lated to the study of Greek in the University. He would like it to be under- 
stood that it was meant to be in no sense a substitute for the ordinary course 
in language and literature. He hoped, in the first place, that some of those 
who took it might be induced thereafter to begin the study of the language 
at the University. He thought, too, that such a course would have a natural 
place in the preparation for the Greek-Eflglish Honours school which existed 
in the University. 

He had not the slightest intention of encouraging the belief that without 
an adequate knowledge of the language, the proper study of the literature — 
that is, of the matter wedded to the form — came within the range of possibility. 
It did not follow, however, that the thought and matter by itself was devoid of 
educative value. On the contrary, he thought it had in it the making of a 
powerful educational instrument — different, no doubt, from the study of the 
literature, but yet possessing a distinctive use. It was true that it laboured 
under one disadvantage — it implied the use of translations. There were not, 
and never had been, nor would there ever be any translations that could take 
the place of the great classics. The weakest part of the scheme was, no doubt, 
the provision it made for the study of pure literature, and it was unavoidable that 
it should be so. Were it otherwise, this new course might supersede the one 
in existence. The element of literature made a far wider appeal than either 



University Topics 267 



of the other two, and it was unfortunate that one could not promise more from 
the handling of it than was possible in the case of non-Greek students. 

He foresaw a danger in the tendency of the times lest they should have to 
content themselves with lower and lower attainments in the matter of language 
from their entrants. He did not mean knowledge less in amount, but know- 
ledge less accurate and thorough. For students who, through no fault of 
their own or of their teachers, had been unnaturally forced in their training, 
he thought this new course which was projected would prove infinitely more 
profitable than the ordinary graduation course in Greek. He had had the 
good fortune throughout his term of office, to have had but a small number 
of these unfortunates to deal with, but he feared they would not grow fewer 
as time went on, and here was held out to them a refuge. This was in all 
human probability his last attempt at a solution of the problem. Here in 
Aberdeen it had been acute for sixty years — a much longer time, he fancied, 
than in any other University centre. They had had no rest from the struggle, 
and they had tried expedient after expedient to baffie the attacks of ill-wishers, 
and the far more dangerous folly of friends. They had seen that Greek was 
an exotic plant among northern peoples that required the tenderest and most 
generous treatment. It had been blown on by cold blasts arid trampled under 
foot — subjected to treatment that the hardiest weed could not survive — and 
its final extinction was inevitable unless those who loved it could devise pro- 
tection. 

THE RECONSTRUCTION OF BISHOP ELPHINSTONE'S TOMB. 

The General Council, in October 1909, appointed a Committee of forty- 
four members " to consider the propriety and feasibility of reconstructing 
Bishop Elphinstone's tomb in its original form, with powers to take steps to- 
wards its reconstruction if thought desirable". The Committee appointed 
Professor Harrower convener, and eventually adopted a suitable scheme of 
reconstruction, entrusted its execution to Mr. Henry Wilson, artist, and sent 
out an appeal for subscriptions, the subscriptions, paid or promised, amounting 
to ^1585. 

The last report of the Committee was submitted to the General Council 
at the April meeting of 191 5 ; and at the recent meeting of the Council the Com- 
mittee, believing that, after the lapse of five years, it might be well to recall 
the steps that had been taken, presented a selection from the minutes of its 
proceedings since the scheme was initiated. It also reported that, notwith- 
standing the various causes that had delayed the work of reconstruction, there 
was now some prospect of its reaching completion within a moderate time. 

Mr. Henry Alexander presented the report in the absence of Professor 
Harrower, who was unable to return from the Classical Association meeting 
at Newcastle in time to do so. Professor Harrower, he said, had been identi- 
fied with the scheme from the beginning, and to him more than anyone else 
was due the raising of the funds which were required for the proposal. The 
scheme had been started about eleven years ago on the initiative of the late 
Mr. John Milne, LL.D., and the Committee were very conscious of the delay 
which had taken place in the progress of the work. The funds had been 
raised comparatively quickly, and the Committee, acting upon the advice of 
the artists associated with them in an advisory capacity, entrusted the work to 
Mr. Henry Wilson, who was regarded as one of the leading sculptors in the 



268 Aberdeen University Review 

country at the present day. The principal cause of the subsequent delay was 
the war, because during these five years the necessary metals were practically 
unobtainable, the work being largely in bronze. A further difficulty was that 
Mr. Wilson's studio was in Venice, where some parts of the work had been 
started, and he had to leave Venice when the war broke out, and he had not 
yet been able to return to take up the pieces of the tomb that were lying there. 
The complicated and elaborate nature of the design was another consideration. 

The scheme of restoration did not consist of a single piece of sculpture 
but of several. On the top of the tomb as it lay in King's College Chapel, 
there would be a recumbent effigy of Bishop Elphinstone. The slab over the 
tomb itself would be raised from the floor of the chapel, and round it would 
be placed a series of figures representing the Graces and Virtues. In addition 
to these there were several shields and heraldic devices with a Latin inscription, 
and subsequently it had been decided to add a scroll with a Gaelic inscription, 
prepared by Mr. John Eraser, the University Lecturer on Celtic. The addi- 
tion of the Gaelic inscription was thought to be fitting as linking the University's 
founder with what was thought to have been at that time the principal language 
of the northern parts of Scotland. The design and execution of not one piece 
but of a series of sculptures was necessarily an elaborate piece of work, and 
the delay was due to some extent to the. very fact that Mr. Wilson himself was 
an exceedingly conscientious artist who put an amount of intensity and spirit 
into the work that they might not have got from a more rapid but perhaps 
more commercial craftsman. While the design was elaborate, it was not at 
all florid or extravagant, and the work would be in perfect harmony with the 
simplicity and nobility of the chapel. 

The Committee had been fortunate in securing the co-operation of Mr. 
Townend, the curator of the Art Gallery, not only a man of very fine artistic 
feeling himself, but one who was familiar with the technical processes connected 
with sculpture, and, confident of his assistance, the Committee hoped that they 
would be able to accelerate and promote the execution of the work. They 
had now considerable reason to believe that within this year it would be well 
on the way to completion. They were assured by some who had seen what 
was already done that when completed the tomb would rank as one of the 
finest pieces of memorial work executed in our time. It would be a great 
addition to the artistic possessions of the University, and at the same time, and 
what was of more importance, a fitting expression of the gratitude which the 
present generation felt to the memory of their illustrious founder. 

Mr. Alexander moved the adoption of the report ; and this was agreed 
to unanimously. 

VISIT OF THE UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMITTEE. 

The University Grants Committee, appointed by the Government to 
advise the Treasury upon the allocation of Government Grants to the Univer- 
sities of the United Kingdom, have completed their visitation of the Univer- 
sities, and it is understood that they are now preparing a report with a view to 
the settlement of the grants for the quinquennium beginning 1921-22. In 
the beginning of May the following members of the Committee visited 
Aberdeen : Sir William McCormick (Chairman), Sir Dugald Clerk, Sir Wilmot 
Herringham, Sir Frederick Kenyon, and Miss S. M. Fry (a daughter of Sir 
Edward Fry, a lady actively associated with University studies, more par- 



University Topics 269 

ticularly for women). They were shown over all the departments, both in 
King's and Marischal Colleges ; and on the following day they met in Con- 
ference with, successively, the Lecturers and Assistants' Association, the 
Students' Representative Council, the Joint Committee on Halls of Residence, 
the Senatus and the University Court. 

MEMORIAL OF PROFESSOR NICOL. 

A mural tablet in memory of the late Professor James Nicol, F.R.S.E., 
F.G.S., Professor of Natural History in the University from 1853 to 1878, 
has been placed in the Geology classroom, Marischal College, and was 
formally unveiled by Dr. John Home, F.R.S., Edinburgh; the tablet is 
of bronze mounted on oak, and is in the form of a medallion, in bas-relief, 
of the head of Professor Nicol in profile. It was the work of Miss Alice 
B. Woodward, Bushey, Herts. The inscription contains this sentence — 
" His views on the succession of the rock groups of the North-West Highlands, 
decried while he lived, were confirmed by the officers of the Geological 
Survey in 1884," and underneath the words of the Professor himsell — 
" Leaving time and the unchanging mountains to confirm or refute ". The 
tablet has an ornamental border with artistically worked-out representations 
of a mountain region and various specimens of fossils. 

[Dr. Home's interesting address on the occasion will appear in an early 
issue of the Review.] 

APPOINTMENT OF GIFFORD LECTURER. 

Mr. Ernest William Hobson, ScD. (Cantab,), F.R.S., F.R.A.S., hon. 
D.Sc. (Oxford, Dublin, Sheffield, and Manchester Universities), Sadlerian 
Professor of Pure Mathematics at Cambridge since 19 10, has been appointed 
Gifford Lecturer at Aberdeen University for the year 1921-22. 

PLANTERS' CLASSES. 

Special classes for planters home on leave, arranged by the Aberdeen and 
North of Scotland College of Agriculture, were opened at Marischal College 
on 4 May, and lasted for the remainder of the summer term — a period of 
eight weeks. This is the first time that such classes have been held, and the 
venture is looked upon as more or less of an experiment. The large attend- 
ance of students, however, suggested that the experiment is likely to be a 
successful one, and the limited accommodation of the classrooms of the Agri- 
cultural and Forestry departments was fully taxed. Lectures were given 
on forestr)', entomology, agricultural chemistry, and cognate subjects. 

NEW LECTURESHIPS. 

At a recent meeting of the University Court, it was agreed to appoint a 
Lecturer in Anatomy, at a salary of ;^4oo a year. 

M. Jules Desseignet, Lecturer in French at the University, was appointed 
to lecture on Commercial French. 

It has also been agreed to appoint a Lectureship in Spanish for the B.Com. 
-degree. 



270 Aberdeen University Review 

NEW EXAMINERS. 

The following have been appointed new Examiners : — 

Botany — Dr. W. G. Smith, Lecturer in Botany, Edinburgh. 

Celtic — Professor Bergin, Dublin. 

Forensic Medicine — A. K. Chalmers, M.A:, D.P.H., D.Sc, Glasgow. 

Geography — Professor L. W. Lyde, London. 

Statistics — David Heron, M.A., D.Sc. 

Accounting and Business Methods — Stephen M'Rae, C.A., Dundee. 
The three last-named are in connexion with the B.Com. degree. 

PROPOSED TUTORIAL CLASSES. 

The Joint-Committee of the University, the Aberdeen Education Autho- 
rity, and the Workers' Education Association are arranging for tutorial classes 
next winter in the University on the following subjects, provided a sufficient 
number of students are enrolled, i.e. not less than fifteen in each class : 
Political Economy and the History of Industry, by Mr. Arthur Birnie, M.A. ; 
English Literature, by Mr. Henry Crow, M.A. ; Forestry, by Mr. Peter Leslie, 
M.A., and ..others; and perhaps also in National History and in Political 
Science. 

STUDENTS' " GALA WEEK " FOR THE INFIRMARY. 

A very high meed of praise is due the students for the novel idea of 
organizing a series of week's entertainments in aid of the funds of the Aber- 
deen Royal Lifirmary — an institution sorely in need of financial assistance, 
by the way ; and it is exceedingly satisfactory to record that the unique effort 
was in every respect splendidly successful, alike in the character of the enter- 
tainments and in the substantial amount of money collected. The "gala 
week," as it was called, extended from Tuesday, 20 April, to Saturday, the 
24th, and the various entertainments were carried out by a Committee of men 
and women students, under the auspices of the Students' Representative 
Council. The programme of " events " comprised a musical entertainment 
in th^ Debating Hall of the Students' Union ; a football match at King's 
College grounds between teams representing the University Association and 
the Aberdeen Football Club ; a The Dansant in the Mitchell Hall ; a fancy 
dress torchlight procession on the Friday evening ; and a matinee perform- 
ance by student artistes in the Tivoli Theatre on the Saturday afternoon. 
The torchlight procession was, of course, the "popular" event of the week, 
and was witnessed by a large crowd of people along the whole line of the 
route. It was particularly noticeable for the large number of " processionists," 
for the diversity of the characters personified, and lor the variety of the 
costumes and ''schemes of colour". It was creditably free, too, fiom the 
horseplay and the discharge of peasemeal which so often militate against the 
joyous and rollicking march of lusty and exuberant youth. Minor incidents 
of the week indicated the whole-hearted enthusiasm with which the students 
entered into their enterprising and benevolent work. A band of eighteen 
acted as "sandwich-men," patrolling the streets with advertisement boards, 
dressed and walking in the manner of the unfortunate " down-and-outs " 
whom they temporarily supplanted. Others, in costume, manipulated a 
piano-organ and collected "donations"; a ladjr student played the violin for 



University Topics 271 

several hours on the steps of the Music Hall. What with the music and the 
bright colours of the costumes, the brilliant sunshine, and the throngs of 
people, it seemed — as was duly noted at the time — as if Union Street had for 
the nonce become part of a foreign city in Carnival time. The total sum 
collected during the week was ;;^i496 4s. iid. and, after defraying expenses, 
^1468 13s. 4d. was handed over to the Infirmary — a result on which the 
students are to be most heartily congratulated. 

DR. GILES ON SCOTS BIBLE VERSIONS. 

Dr. Peter Giles (M.A., 1882; LL.D., 1903), Master of Emmanuel 
College and Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University, delivered a lecture on 
"Some Early Scottish Translations of the Classics" to the Aberdeen Uni- 
versity Classical Society on 14 January. In the course of the lecture he 
remarked that the fact that no important version of the Bible into the Scots 
dialect had ever existed was mainly responsible for the inability of Scots to 
maintain itself as a literary language. There was, however, a version of the 
New Testament apparently made about 1520 by one Murdoch Nisbet, a 
Lollard of Kyle, from the second, more literar}' and less stiff and literal 
version of Wyclif's Bible, which is attributed to John Purvey, it could not, 
however, be considered a translation into Scots, because it differed from 
Purvey's version only in re-spelling in the Scots fashion and in replacing a 
southern word unintelligible to northern readers by a Scots word. 

This was illustrated (continued Dr. Giles) from the parable of the Prodigal Son, in 
which Wyclif represents the prodigal as saying, *' Fadir, geve me the porscioun of catel 
that fallith to me ". Nisbet puts in the more intelligible word " substance " for " catel ". 
So he writes *' aan " for Purvey's " oon " (one), and adopts with re-spelling Purvey's " he 
covitid to fille his wombe of the coddis that hoggis eten," oblivious of the fact that hogs 
in Scotland are not pigs but sheep, as is well seen in the old rhyme about the " borrowing 
days " in which the " three little hoggies that come hirplin' hame " are certainly not pigs. 

•How the same story would look in the modern Buchan dialect was shown by a new 
version (composed by Dr. Giles himself) in which the prodigal •' gedderet a'thing thegidder 
an' gid awa' far foreign, an' 'ere he connacht 'is bawbees in lous' livin'. An' fin 'e 'ed 
spent a'thing, ther wes a terrible faimin in 'at cwintrie an' 'e began t' be rael ull aff. An' 
'e gid an' jeynit 'imsel on t* een o' the gran' fok in 'at cwintrie, an' he sent 'im tull the 
oot ferm t' feed swine. An' 'e wes 'at sair pitten tull, 'at 'e wed a' ettin the whaups 'at 
'e swine wes ettin, an' naebody gya 'im naething (or more idiomatically, *' an' naebodysed. 
Collie, wull ye tast? "). An' fin 'e cam' tull 'imsel he sed : Foo mony fee't servan's ar 
at m' fader's, 'at hes mair met nor 'e can ett an' a'm perishin' a' hunger. A'll awa' an' 
gyang hame t' m' fader an' A'll say tull 'im : Fader, A've been an uU-deein' craetur i' the 
face o' Gweed an' tull you tee. A'm nae worthy t' be ca't a sin o' yours ony mair. Mak' 
me like een i' yer fee't loons. An' up 'e got, an' awa' hame tuU's fader. An' fin 'e wes 
stull hyne awa', his fader saw 'im, an' 'is hert cudna be onpitiet him an' 'e ran an' took 
'im in's oxter an' kisst 'im." 

GRADUATES' DINNERS. 

ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY CLUB, LONDON. 

The half-yearly dinner of the Club was held on 20 May. Dr. Peter 
Giles, Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University, presided, and Lord Meston 
was the principal guest. Among those present were Sir Henry Craik, M.P., 
Sir Robert Blair, Sir James Galloway, Sir Frank Ogilvie, Sir David Prain, Sir 
James Reid, Sir Charles Troup, Lieutenant-Colonel Allan, Professor John 
Adams, Dr. Henry Ogg Forbes, Dr. J. Mitchell Bruce, etc. 



272 Aberdeen University Review 

Mr. J. M. Bulloch, proposing "The Guests," paid a tribute to the work 
of Lord Meston in India and South Africa. 

Lord Meston, in reply, spoke about the close connexion that existed 
between the University of Aberdeen and the Indian Public Services when he 
went there in 1883. In 1883 there was a record number of entrants from the 
University into the Indian Services. He remembered when he and two 
others went out together they were seen off at the station by David Rennet, 
whose last words to them was, " Noo, remember Aiberdeen and twal' mile 
roun' ". Unfortunately, what was true in those days was not so true now. 
The Scottish Universities had undoubtedly relaxed the close connexion that 
used to exist between them. Whatever might be the effect of that in Aber- 
deen, there was no doubt about the effect of it in India. There were the 
soundest and best reasons why Aberdeen graduates of those early days 
rendered such good service to India. They went out with a very liberal 
disposition — he did not use the word as a political label. He meant that 
they went out with an open mind, adaptable to receiving new impressions, 
and they were ready to sympathize with the people among whom they would 
work. And the new man was then always ready to take off his coat in a way 
that was a little difficult for the English graduate who now went out at much 
older age. The young graduate from Aberdeen in the early days was a great 
Imperialist, although he perhaps did not know it, and certainly did not talk 
about it. It was perfectly true that India was going through a great Con- 
stitutional change that would give the people of India a greater share in the 
administration of their own affairs, but he believed that India would be not 
less dependent but more dependent on our co-operation and assistance than 
it had been in the past. Therefore Aberdeen University could give them 
help, and he asked that those who had influence should try to get the Uni- 
versity to send its young men to India, where they would find a great horizon, 
and a wide field of usefulness. He asked the University to remember its 
great traditions and to continue to give its help to the Indian Empire, and 
so earn the gratitude of one-fifth of the human race. (Applause.) 

On the proposal of Sir James Galloway, the health of the Chairman was 
toasted with enthusiasm. 



Personalia. 

Amongst appointments to the Order of the British Empire in the long list 
of 6700 awarded in March last were the following : — 

O.B.E. 

David Hutcheon Duthie, Assistant Food Commissioner, Edinburgh 

(M.A, 1893; B.L., 1895). 
Alexander Rudolf Galloway, M.B., CM., Specialist Member of 

Medical Boards in Scotland, Ministry of National Service (M.A., 

1884; M.B., 1888). 
James Lewis McIntyre, D.Sc, County Director for Aberdeenshire and 

Vice-President of Cults Branch, British Red Cross Society (Lecturer on 

Comparative Psychology). 
Captain Alexander James Falconer Munro — Services in connexion 

with the reception and assistance of British refugees from abroad 

(M.A., 1906). 
Lieutenant Archibald Cameron Morrison, Appeal National Service 

Representative, Aberdeen, Ministry of National Service (M.A. [St. 

And.], 1891 ; LL.B. [Glasg.], 1895 5 Lecturer in Conveyancing). 
James George Paull, Chairman, Allowance Committee, Aberdeenshire 

Local War Pensions Committee (M.A., 189 1). 
Charles Stewart, Principal, Robert Gordon's Technical College, Aber- 
deen (M.A., 1883). 

M.B.E. 

George Cran, M.D., V.D., J.P., County Director, Kincardine Branch, 

British Red Cross Society; Medical Officer, Weal Auxiliary Hospital, 

(M.B., 1875 ; M.D., 1877). 
Alexander Ledingham, M.D., County Director, Banffshire Branch, 

British Red Cross Society (M.A., 1893 ; M.B., 1897 ; D.P.H., 1901 ; 

M.D., 1905). 

Major Frederick William Campbell Brown, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1915), 
has been awarded the O.B.E. for distinguished services while serving in Egypt. 
In May, 1917, Major (then Captain) Brown, when acting in command of a 
sanitary section, discovered a process for destroying refuse, which proved very 
valuable in preserving the health of the troops. For his services in this direc- 
tion he was appointed Assistant Deputy-Director of Medical Services. 

18 / 



2 74 Aberdeen University Review 

Five more of our graduates and alumni have been made Professors, making 
eighteen appointments of Aberdeen graduates or alumni to Professorships 
within little more than twelve months. The new appointments, announced 
since our last issue, are the following : — 

Dr. Ernest William Henderson Cruickshank (M.B., 1910 ; D.Sc. 
[Lond.], 1 91 9) has been appointed Associate Professor of Physiology at the 
Union Medical College, Peking. After graduating, he held hospital appoint- 
ments in Macclesfield and Shrewsbury, but went to London in 191 1 to study 
Physiology at University College. The results of his research work were em- 
bodied in a thesis, for which he was awarded the D.Sc. degree of London Uni- 
versity. During the war, Dr. Cruickshank saw much active service as medical 
officer to the nth Battalion Royal West Kent Regiment, and after the armis- 
tice he was chosen to take charge of the party sent to the northern half of 
Bavaria to search for British prisoners. Since the war he has held an appoint- 
ment as Lecturer in the Washington Medical College, St. Louis. 

Dr. John Rawson Elder (M.A., Hons., 1902; D.Litt., 1914) has 
been appointed to the Chair of History in the University of Otago, Dunedin, 
New Zealand. Dr. Elder has been for some time Lecturer in British History 
at the University, and he was also Lecturer in Spanish at Robert Gordon's 
College, where he was a teacher. He is the author of "The Highland Host 
of 1678" (for which he received the D.Litt. degree) and "The Royal 
Fishery Companies of the 17th Century," and he has at present in the press 
" Spanish Influences in Scottish History ". He was Secretary of the Aberdeen 
and North- East Branch of the Historical Association of Scotland. He has 
long been known as an accomplished instrumentalist, and has done good work 
as Secretary of the Aberdeen Musical Festival. He contributed an interesting 
article on " Music in the University since 1898 " to the first volume of the 
Review. 

Rev. Dr. Donald Maclean (alumnus, 1888-92 ; D.D., 1920), Secretary 
of the Highlands and Islands Committee of the Free Church of Scotland, has 
been appointed Professor of Church History and Principles in the Church, 
defeating Rev. John Macleod, Inverness (M.A., 189 1) (see p. 86 ; also vol. 
vl, 184). 

Mr. Duncan Tait Hutchison McLellan (M.A., 191 6) has been ap- 
pointed to a Chair of History in the Scottish Churches College, Calcutta, a 
constituent college in the University of Calcutta. After a brilliant University 
career, interrupted by military service during the war, Mr. McLellan graduated 
with first-class honours in History. He recently studied Divinity, graduated 
B.D., and has now been licensed and ordained as a missionary of the Church 
of Scotland. During the war he served first in France, where he was severely 
wounded, and latterly as an officer in the King's African Rifles in East Africa. 

Rev. James Alexander Robertson (M.A., 1902) has been appointed 
Professor of New Testament Language and Literature in the Aberdeen 
United Free Church College, in succession to Principal Iverach, resigned. 
Mr. Robertson, who is the son of the minister of the United Free Church, 
Ardersier, Inverness-shire, was the dux of his school, the Inverness Academy, 
where he was first on the classical side and gold medallist. At Aberdeen 
University he was the first man of his time, graduating with first-class honours 
in Mental Philosophy and winning the Hutton Prize, the Bain Gold Medal, 



Personalia 275 

and the Fullerton Scholarship. He gained in the* same year (1902) the blue 
ribbon of Scottish education, the Ferguson Scholarship in Philosophy, which 
is open to all the Scottish Universities. Proceeding to the Glasgow United Free 
Church College, he continued his remarkable record of supremacy, being first 
in all the classes in each of the four years and winning the Freeland Scholar- 
ship, the Clark Scholarship, and the Thomson Fellowship. In his fourth year 
Professor (now Principal Sir) George Adam Smith made him his Assistant in 
Old Testament Hebrew. Mr. Robertson subsequently went to Germany and 
specialized in New Testament study at the Universities of Marburg and Leip- 
zig. He was eventually ordained a minister of the United Free Church, and 
has occupied four charges — at Glenlyon, Perthshire ; at a large church in 
Forfar ; in Palmerston Place, Edinburgh ; and at Ballater. In 1 9 1 7 he was 
selected to deliver the Bruce Lectures in the Glasgow College, and these were 
afterwards published in book form as " The Spiritual Pilgrimage of Jesus ". 
His second published work was "The Gospel and Epistles of St. John " (1919). 
He has two books about to be published — "The Passion Journey of Jesus " 
and *' The Hidden Romance of the New Testament " ; and he is collaborating 
with his wife in the writing of a " Life of Christ " in verse. 

[It is noticeable that the final vote for the Professorship lay between Mr. 
Robertson and two other Aberdeen graduates — Rev. Adam Fyfe Findlay, 
Edinburgh (M.A., 1889), and Rev. Dr. Robert A. Lendrum, St. David's 
Church, Glasgow (M.A., 1882; D.D., 1920). The vote resulted: Mr. 
Robertson, 370; Dr. Lendrum, 183; Mr. Findlay, 163. Mr. Robertson's 
appointment was then made unanimous.] 

At a Convocation of Oxford University on 24 June, the honorary degree 
of D.D. was conferred upon the Very Rev. Principal Sir George Adam Smith, 
Aberdeen University; the Very Rev. Dr. James Cooper, Glasgow Univer- 
sity (M.A., 1867 ; D.D., 1892) ; and Rev. Dr. John Skinner, Principal of 
Westminster College, Cambridge (M.A., 1876 ; D.D., 1895). This is the 
first occasion on which the D.D. degree of Oxford has been conferred on 
persons not belonging to the Anglican Church. 

The Principal has also been elected a " membre d'honneur " of the 
Palestine Oriental Society in Jerusalem, of which the celebrated Dominican 
scholar, Pere Lagrange, is President and Professor Garstang Vice-President. 

The King of the Belgians has made Emeritus-Professor Sir Alexander 
Ogston a Cavalier of the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus. 

In connexion with the art lectures on sculpture, architecture, and painting, 
the University Court has asked Professor Baillie to deliver a short series 
of lectures on "The Philosophy of Art" during the winter session of 
1920-21. 

Professor William Leslie Davidson has retired from the Aberdeen Pro- 
vincial Committee for the Training of Teachers (of which latterly he was 
Chairman), on account of increasing burdens that have been placed on him in 
connexion with University matters and in connexion with education. Mr. 
David M. M. Milligan (M.A., 1881) has been appointed Chairman in 
his stead. 

Professor Findlay delivered the second biennial Hurter and Driffield 
Memorial Lecture to the Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain in 
London on 1 1 May. His subject was '* Some Propehies of Colloidal Matter 
and their Application to Photography ". 



276 Aberdeen University Review 

Professor Fulton, of the Chair of Systematic Theology, has been made 
a D.D. of Glasgow University, of which he is a graduate — M.A., with first- 
class honours in Classics, 1898; B.Sc, with special distinction in Mathematics 
and Astronomy, 1900; B.D., 1902. 

Emeritus-Professor Sir William M. Ramsay has been elected President of 
the Oriental Society — a society started in Edinburgh. 

Rev. William Adam (M.A., 1902; B.D.), minister of Kirkpatrick- 
Durham, Dalbeattie, has been elected minister of St. Clement's Parish, 
Aberdeen, in succession to the late Dr. C. C. Macdonald. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Bruce, D.S.O., T.D., R.A.M.C. (M.A., 
1893; M.B., 1897; M.D., 1899), has received the Medaille de la Recon- 
naissance Francaise (in silver) for devotion in the care of French civilians. 
While serving with the 51st Division in France, he rendered valuable help to 
the civilians in Cambrai, Valenciennes, and other French towns immediately 
after the termination of hostilities, attending to no fewer than 150 to 200 
patients per day. Lieutenant-Colonel Bruce has been appointed Officer 
Commanding the 5 th Battalion Gordon Highlanders. 

Sir Robert Bruce (M.A., 1876), Controller of the London Postal Service, 
has retired, after nearly forty-four years' service in the General Post Office. 
He entered the postal service in the year he graduated, and in 1905 was ap- 
pointed to the Controllership from which he has just retired. On retiring, he 
was presented with a silver salver suitably inscribed and other silver articles 
by his immediate staff at headquarters. 

Rev. James Campbell (M.A., 19 10) has been elected minister of the parish 
of Arngask, Perthshire. 

Dr. William Campbell (M.B., 1905 ; L.D.S. [Glasg,]) has been appointed 
to the Government post in Basrah, Mesopotamia, of Civil Port Health Officer, 
his duties being to inspect all boats, passengers, and crews arriving at and leav- 
ing Basrah, and the general sanitary state of the docks. Before the war, he 
was dental surgeon and assistant medical officer to the Aberdeen School Board. 
During the war he was a Captain in the R.A.M.C., and served in Mesopo- 
tamia. 

Mr. Duncan Clarke (M.A., 1882), headmaster of Victoria Road Public 
School, Aberdeen, has retired under the age regulation. He has been engaged 
in educational work in Aberdeen for forty-two years, and has been head- 
master in succession of Commerce Street, St. Paul's Street, and Victoria Road 
Schools. He has also been actively engaged in evening school organizing 
and teaching since 1878. On the occasion of his retirement, Mr. Clarke was 
entertained at dinner by the stafif of his school and other teachers who had 
been associated with him in the various schools of which he had been the 
head. He was also presented with two easy chairs from his colleagues as a 
token of their respect and esteem. 

Rev. Sidney Knight Finlayson (M.A., 1913), who was elected minister 
of Maryculter United Free Church in 191 7, has resigned the charge. 

Rev. John Eraser (M.A., 1914 ; B.D., 191 9) has been elected parish 
minister of Kintore, Aberdeenshire. 

Mr. Lewis Gavin (M.A., 191 2) has been appointed classical master at 
Fraserburgh Academy. 

Rev. James Harvey, Lady Glenorchy's Church, Edinburgh (M.A., 1879 ; 
D.D., 19 19), has become Senior Principal Clerk of Assembly of the United 
Free Church of Scotland, owing to the retirement of Rev. Dr. Charles Jerdan ; 



Personalia 



277 



and Rev. James Gordon Sutherland, Galston, Ayrshire (M.A., 1879 ; 
B.D.J 1891), has been elected Junior Principal Clerk in succession to Dr.' 
Harvey. By a curious coincidence, the Convener of the Business Committee 
(the virtual " Leader of the House "), who sits along with the Principal Clerks 
of the Assembly at the main table, is Rev. William A. Simpson Matheson, 
Galashiels (M.A., 1880), so that the three principal business officials of 
the Assembly are all Aberdeen graduates, the two clerks being of the same 
year. 

Dr. John William Innes (M.A., 1910 ; M.B., 1915 ; D.P.H.), who was 
for some time engaged in a commission to the island of Lewis under the 
Scottish Board of Health, has received an important public health appoint- 
ment in Lincolnshire. 

Mr. Percival Robson Kirby (M.A., 1910) is director of musical educa- 
tion in Natal, and has just issued an important report upon musical education 
in the province. 

Mr. Peter Leslie (M.A., 1902 ; B.Sc. Agr.), Lecturer in Forestry, has 
been granted leave of absence for three months during the coming autumn, 
to enable him to visit a number of the forestry schools, experimental stations, 
forest products laboratories, and some of the more important forest districts 
in the United States and Canada. 

Rev. Wilson Summers Leslie (M.A., 1915; B.D., 1918) has been 
elected minister of the Parish Church, Macduff, in succession to the late Rev. 
James Eadie. 

Rev. Frederick William Lovie (M.A., 191 2) has been elected minister 
of the parish of Monymusk, Aberdeenshire. After completing his divinity 
course, he for a time acted as assistant at Old Greyfriars Church, Edinburgh. 
On the outbreak of war, he_ joined the army as a private in the Gordon 
Highlanders, afterwards received a commission in the same regiment, and 
ultimately was awarded the M.C. Since leaving the army, Mr. Lovie has 
been assistant at Dunnottar Parish Church. 

Mr. Allan James Low (M.A., 19 14) has been appointed mathematical 
instructor on board H.M.S. " Renown," the vessel in which the Prince of Wales 
sailed to Australia. 

Rev. Ritchie Doughty Lyon (M.A., 1916 ; B.D., 1919) has been 
elected minister of the North Parish Church, Dunfermline. 

Sir William Leslie Mackenzie (M.A., 1883 ; M.B., 1888 ; M.D., 1895 ; 
LL.D., 191 2) has been appointed Chairman of an Inter- Departmental Com- 
mittee, nominated by the Secretary for Scotland in his capacity as President 
of the Scottish Board of Health, to report upon the laws, regulations, and 
procedure under which milk is sold in Scotland. Sir W. L. Mackenzie was 
one of the British delegates to the International Congress on Public Health 
which assembled at Brussels in May. He was president of the Municipal 
Hygiene Section, and the subject of his presidential address was " The Ancient 
and Modern City State ". Sir William was presented with the Brussels Uni- 
versity Medal. He was also appointed by the Principal to represent the 
University at the unveiling of the statue of Ediiard van Beneden at Liege. 
Brief accounts of the unveiling ceremony and of the Congress from his pen 
appear elsewhere in this number of the Review. 

Mr. Alexander Morrice Mackay (M.A., 1895 ; LL.B., [Edin.]), advo- 
cate, Edinburgh, has been made K.C. 

Rev. Alasdair Macgillivray Macleod (M.A., 1910), Kirkhill United 



278 Aberdeen University Review 

Free Church, Inverness, has been appointed minister of the Invergorden 
United Free Church. 

Mr. Charles S. McPherson (M.A., 1879), Rector of Banff Academy, 
was entertained by his fellow- teachers and other educationists in Banffshire at 
a complimentary luncheon in the Fleming Hall, Aberlour, on 19 June, in 
recognition of the conferment on him of the degree of LL.D. by his Alma 
Mater. 

Sir Patrick Manson, G.C.M.G. (M.B., 1865; M.D., 1866; LL.D., 
1886; D.Sc. [Oxon.] ; F.R.S.), has received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
from Cambridge University. Sir Patrick, who is in his seventy-sixth year, was 
for many years physician and medical adviser to the Colonial Office. An 
eminent parasitologist, he was the first to enunciate the hypothesis (afterwards 
conclusively proved) that malaria was due to a parasite of the mosquito. 

Lord Meston, K. C.S.I. (LL.D., 1913), has been selected to deliver the 
Rede Lecture at Cambridge University. His subject will be " India at the 
Cross-Ways ". 

Mr. Francis William Michie (M.A., 1894), who has been H.M. Inspector 
of Schools for Dumfriesshire and Galloway for about eleven years, was re- 
cently entertained at a complimentary luncheon at Castle-Douglas, by the 
Dumfries and Galloway Federation of branches of the Educational Institute of 
Scotland, on the occasion of his promotion to the position of H.M. Inspector 
of Schools for the Aberdeen area. 

Rev. Dr. Alexander Miller (M. A., 1864; B.D. 1868; D.D., 1905), 
who has been minister of the Free (now United Free) Church at Buckie, 
Banffshire, since 1875, has been presented by his congregation with his 
portrait, painted by Mr. Malcolm Gavin, A.R.S.A., as a token of esteem and 
of appreciation of his work as minister of the congregation for forty-five years. 
Dr. Miller (who is a native of Thurso) founded in 1898 the Caithness Prize 
in History in the University. 

Lieutenant-General (temporary General) Sir George Francis Milne 
(Arts student, 1881-83 J LL.D., 1919), who is in command of the British 
troops employed in the military occupation of Constantinople, has been 
gazetted General. He has had conferred on him by the King of the Greeks 
the Greek Medal for military merit, first-class. He has also been appointed 
a Knight of Grace of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in 
England. 

Dr. Leslie James Milne (M.A., 1885; M.B., 1890; M.D., 1897), 
medical officer of health for Mirfield, Yorkshire, has been appointed certifying 
factory surgeon for Dewsbury. Dr. Milne has been factory surgeon for Mirfield, 
Ravensthorpe, and Thornhill since 1906, and his new appointment comprises 
all places in Dewsbury county borough and Mirfield urban district which come 
under the Factory and Workshops Act. 

Rev. Peter Milne (M.A., 1885 ; B.D., 1889), on the occasion of his 
retiring from the work of Guild Missionary of the Church of Scotland and 
planters' chaplain at The Duars, Jalpaiguri, India, was presented by his 
planter friends with a substantial token of their affection and esteem. The 
work of the mission during the twelve years that Mr. Milne has had charge of 
it has been remarkably successful. Previous to going to India, he was for a 
time at Kimberley, Griqualand West, and Beaconsfield in the Cape Province. 

Mr. George Alexander Morrison (M.A., 1889), Rector of Inverness 
Academy, has been appointed Headmaster of Robert Gordon's Secondary 



Personalia 279 



School, Aberdeen. He joined the staff of Robert Gordon's College in the 
year in which he graduated and was for about twelve years head classical 
master. He became Rector of Inverness Academy in November, 1910. 

Rev. M'Intosh Mowat (student in Divinity, 1917-20) has been elected 
minister of Ruthrieston Parish Church, Aberdeen. He qualified as a law 
agent and acted as a solicitor for three years, but decided during the war to 
give up law for the ministry. For two years and a half prior to his election 
to Ruthrieston, he was assistant in Holburn Parish Church. 

Rev. David Bruce Nicol (M.A., 1905; B.D.), minister of Skelmorlie, 
Ayrshire, has been unanimously elected minister of St. Margaret's Parish 
Church, Edinburgh. 

Sir Francis Grant Ogilvie, C.B. (M.A., 1879; B.Sc. [Edin.] ; LL.D. 
[Edin.]), has been appointed Chairman of the Geological Survey Board set up 
within the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. 

Dr. James Raffan (M.B., 1906) has been elected to the surgical staff of 
the Huddersfield Royal Infirmary. 

Dr. John Rennie (B.Sc, 1898 ; D.Sc, 1903), University Lecturer on 
Parasitology and Experimental Zoology, has been appointed a member of the 
Aberdeen Education Authority, in place of Rev. James Smith (M.A., 1874; 
B.D., 1877), resigned. 

Mr. John Rose (B.Sc. Agr., 191 1), county organiser for the North of 
Scotland College of Agriculture on the western seaboard of Ross-shire, has" 
been appointed an Assistant Sub-Commissioner for Small Holdings under the 
Scottish Board of Agriculture. 

Dr. Charles Anderson Scott (D.D., Aberd., 1912), Professor of New 
Testament Theology, Westminster College, Cambridge, has had conferred on 
him by the University of Cambridge the degrees of B.D. and D.D. 

Rev. Dr. Robert Scott (M.A., 1875 ; D.D., 1907), who returned from 
India last year in failing health, retires from service in June, forty-one years 
after ordination. During his long professoriate in Wilson College, Bombay, 
of which he acted as Principal for periods amounting to seven years. Dr. Scott 
has been intimately connected with the management and work of the Uni- 
versity of Bombay. Frequently he has been a member of the Syndicate or 
Executive Committee, and Chairman of standing or special Committees. 
Latterly, he was Dean of the Faculty of Arts ; and one of his last acts was to 
inspect and report on the nineteen Colleges of the Presidency. Dr. Scott 
took part also in educational activities outside the University; and was 
President of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. On the eve of 
his departure, at a meeting of students and friends, presided over by the Chief- 
Justice, Sir Basil Scott, Dr. Scott received a farewell gift of 7800 rupees, the 
remainder of the subscription being given for a portrait, which now hangs in 
Wilson College. 

Deputy-Surgeon Jonathan Shand, R.N. (M.B., 1887), has been promoted 
to the highest rank in the medical service in the Navy — that of Surgeon Rear- 
Admiral. His whole life has been spent in the service, which he entered in 
1887. He was appointed Fleet Surgeon in 1903. He belongs to Newmill, 
Keith, where his father was a blacksmith. 

Dr. Thomas Stewart Slessor (M.A., 1898; M.B., 1902) has been ap- 
pointed Deputy Commissioner of Medical Services for the district between 
Aberdeen and Dundee. During the war Dr. Slessor was engaged on medical 
service with the Army, previous to which he was in practice at Glamis, Forfar- 
shire, r 



2 8o Aberdeen University Review 

Mr. Alexander Smith (M.A., 1902), headmaster of Rayne Public School, 
has been appointed headmaster of Forgue Public School, Aberdeenshire. On 
his leaving Rayne, he was presented with a bureau, the outcome of a public 
subscription. 

Dr. James Smith (M.A., 1890 ; M.B., 1893), late Chairman of the Peter- 
head Burgh School Board, in recognition of his services to education, was 
entertained at a complimentary dinner in Peterhead recently, and presented 
with a portrait group of the members of the old School Board and the officials. 

Rev. Dr. John Smith (M.A., Marischal Coll., 1858 ; D.D., 1907) has 
retired from the pastorate of St. John's Presbyterian Church, Pietermaritzburg, 
Natal, after a ministry there of fifty years. He is now eighty-one years of 
age. (See notice of "Joint- Jubilee of St. John's Church" in our Reviews 
section.) 

Mr. James David Maxwell Smith (M.A., 1920) has been appointed 
to the Civil Service of the Malay Peninsula, after examination by the 
Selection Board under the Authority of the Civil Service Commissioners. 
Mr. Smith had been one year at the University when the war interrupted 
his studies. As a member of " U " Company he served in France with 
the i/4th Gordon Highlanders till November, 191 7, when he got a com- 
mission in the Royal Marines ; he was full Lieutenant when the armistice 
was agreed to. 

Sir William Robert Smith (M.B., 1876; M.D., 1879) was one of the 
British delegates to the International Congress on Public Health held at 
Brussels in May, and was presented with the Brussels University Medal. 

Mr. John T. Sorley (M.A., 1879), City Chamberlain of Aberdeen, has 
had conferred on him by the King of the Belgians the Palms (in gold) of the 
Order of the Crown, in recognition of his valuable work as Treasurer of the 
Belgian Relief Fund in Aberdeen. 

Major Francis William Squair, R.A.M.C. (M.B., 1902), has been 
awarded the Territorial Decoration. 

In the reconstruction of Robert Gordon's Technical College, Aberdeen, 
which is now under consideration by the Governors, Mr. Charles Stewart, 
O.B E. (M.A., 1883), the Principal of the College, expressed a desire to 
be retained as Principal of the Technical College, a new Headmaster to be 
appointed to the Secondary School. 

Mr. George Stewart (M.A., 1897; B.Sc, 1901), first assistant and 
principal teacher of Mathematics and Science, West Coats Higher Grade 
School, Cambuslang, has been appointed Headmaster of Strathaven Academy, 
Lanarkshire. 

Mr. James Alexander Symon (M.A. ; B.Sc. Agr., 191 1), agricultural 
education organiser for the county of Somerset, has been appointed a Sub- 
Commissioner under the Scottish Board of Agriculture. 

Rev. William Thomson (M.A., 1885 ; B.D., 1892), minister of the 
Scots Church at Amsterdam, who recently attained his semi-jubilee, was pre- 
sented by his congregation with pulpit robes and B.D. hood, the Sunday 
School at the same time presenting him with an electric study lamp and a 
basket of flowers. Mr. Thomson has had the honorary degree of D.D. con- 
ferred upon him by Ursinus College, Collegeville, Philadelphia. 

Dr. James Fowler Tocher (B.Sc, 1908; D.Sc. ; F.I.C.) is a member 
of the Inter-Departmental Committee on the sale of miljk in Scotland of which 
Sir W. Leslie Mackenzie is Chairman. 



Personalia 281 

Mr. Robert S. Troup (alumnus, 1891-94), recently appointed Professor 
of Forestry at Oxford University, has been elected a Fellow of St. John's 
College, Oxford. 

Rev. Frederic S. M. Walker (M.A., 191 6; B.D., 191 9) has been 
elected minister of Newtyle United Free Church, Forfarshire. 

The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs announced on 29 March that a 
number of British subjects had been arrested recently by the Soviet Govern- 
ment, and that the British Government was taking the necessary steps to 
secure their release. Among the persons specified as having been arrested 
was "Professor Wilson," immediately identified as Mr. William Sharpe 
Wilson (M.A., 1884), a brother of Dr. Robert M. Wilson of Tarty, Ellon. 
Professor Wilson has been for many years in Russia, on the staff of Petrograd 
University, where he specialized in English language and literature. He was 
at one time tutor to the family of the late Tsar. The news of Professor 
Wilson's arrest was confirmed by Rev. F. W. North, Chaplain of 'the Church 
of England at Moscow since 191 1, who arrived at Southampton on 22 May 
with the final contingent of 250 British and French refugees from Russia. 
Mr. North (who had himself been arrested three times) said thirteen British 
people remained in Moscow, all of them in prison, and Professor Wilson 
was one of them; he is charged with endeavouring to obtain secret in- 
formation. 

A letter from Professor Wilson was received by his Aberdeenshire relatives 
in the beginning of April — after an interval of nearly two years. In this letter 
he said, " I am still alive, but not particularly well, as owing to the scarcity 
and quality of the food I have been more or less ill for the past six months. 
During the past two years my weight has been reduced from fourteen to nine 
stones." 

Rev. Dr. James Wiseman (M.A., 1869; D.D., 1905), Rector of St. 
Machar's Episcopal Church, Bucksburn, near Aberdeen, and Dean of the 
Diocese of Aberdeen and Orkney, recently attained his ministerial jubilee, he 
having been ordained in 1870. He was presented by the congregation with 
an illuminated address and a wallet of Treasury notes, and, on behalf of the 
diocese, with a silver salver and a cheque. Appropriate gifts were also pre- 
sented to the Misses Wiseman. 

Rev. John Younie (M.A., 1909; B.D.) has been appointed minister of 
Kippen Parish, Stirlingshire. After graduating, he was for a time assistant 
classical teacher at Milne's Institution, Fochabers, and then took his divinity 
course at Edinburgh University. During the war he served for three years 
in Mesopotamia in various capacities — first in the ranks, and then as a chap- 
lain. On his demobilisation, he became assistant at St. John's Parish Church, 
Edinburgh. 

Miss Jennie Watson Aberdein (M.A., Hons., 191 9) has received an ap- 
pointment on the staff of the Girls' High School, Aberdeen. 

Miss Elizabeth Eleanor Auchinachie (M.A., 1915) has received an 
appointment under the Banffshire Education Authority. 

Miss Jeannie Geddes (M.A., 1920) has been appointed assistant teacher 
of Mathematics in the Central Higher Grade School, Aberdeen. 

Miss Annie Peill Matthews (M.A., 1902) has been appointed Vice- 
Principal of Dagfield School, Birkdale, Lancashire. 

MissjEANiE Bayne Topping (M.A., 191 1) has been appointed assistant 
teacher of French at the Central Higher Grade School, Aberdeen. 



282 Aberdeen University Review 

Miss Annabella Wood (M.A., 1915) has been appointed to the staff of 
the Huntly Academy. 

Among works by University men recently published are the following : 
" A Commentary on the Poetry of Chaucer and Spenser," by Professor Jack ; 
"The Antigone of Sophocles," by Professor Harrower; "A History of the 
United Kingdom, 1707-1919," by Professor R. S. Rait; "Teaching the 
Child," by the late Mr. Charles MacGregor, Master of Method in the Aberdeen 
Training Centre (the first secretary of the Review), who fell in the war ; "The 
Engines of the Human Body," the substance of Christmas Lectures at the 
Royal Institution, by Professor Arthur Keith ; " Divine Personality and 
Human Life," Part II (Gifford Lectures at Aberdeen), by Clement C. J. Webb; 
and "Industrial Unrest: Some Causes and Remedies," a lecture by Professor 
Baillie to the Department of Industrial Administration, College of Tech- 
nology, Manchester — pamphlet (Manchester University Press). 

Mr. John Murray, M.P. (M.A., 1900), is acting as secretary for the 
"Oxford Tracts on Economic Subjects," a new series of publications which 
is appearing from the Oxford University Press. The tracts are to be issued 
at i^d. each, and a large number of Oxford University and other scholars are 
to contribute to the series. 

The Cambridge University Press announces the early publication of 
"The Influence of Man on Animal Life in Scotland, A Study in Faunal 
Evolution," by Dr. James Ritchie (M.A., 1904; D.Sc). 

At the Spring Graduation on 24 March, the degree of M.A. was conferred 
on thirty students (on two of these with first-class honours, on seven with 
second-class honours, and on one with third-class honours) ; B.Sc. on six ; 
B.Sc. Agr., on three; B.Sc. For., on one; B.D., on one; LL.B., on four; 
and M.B., on ten (on one of these with second-class honours), fifty-five in all. 
Of the Arts graduates; twenty-one were men and nine were women ; of the 
Science graduates, two were women ; and of the graduates in Medicine six 
were men and four were women. The Diploma in Agriculture was granted 
to two Students. Mr. Walter Ritchie (B.Sc. ; B.Sc. Agr., 191 3) received the 
degree of D.Sc. The degree of M.D. was conferred on Mr. Alistair Sim 
Garden, West Croydon, London (M.B., 1906); Mr. James Leask, Wick 
(M.B., 1907); and Miss Helen Lillie, Watten, Caithness (M.A. , 1910; M.B., 
1914). 

Mr. James Ross Smith, Aberdeen, won the Simpson Greek prize and 
Robbie gold medal, and the Seafield gold medal in Latin ; Mr. George Steuart 
Jamieson, Invergordon, won the Simpson Mathematical prize, and divided 
the Greig prize in Natural Philosophy with Miss Helen Cameron, Glenlivet, 
who won the Boxill Mathematical prize ; and Miss Jeannie Geddes, Buckie, 
won the Neil Arnott prize in Experimental Physics. The Dr. Black prize 
in Latin, the Dr. David Rennet gold medal in Mathematics, and the Liddel 
prize were not awarded. The Fife Jamieson Memorial gold medal in Anatomy 
was won by Mr. Alexander Lyall, Aberdeen ; Mr. Murray Young Garden, 
Portsoy, won the Matthews Duncan gold medal in Obstetrics, and divided the 
Keith gold medal for Surgery with Mr. James Christian Hall, Banchory ; the 
Shepherd Memorial gold medal was won by Mr. Alexander Victor Reid Don, 
Aberdeen ; the Dr. James Anderson gold medal by Mr. Douglas Mackenzie 
Thomson, Aberdeen; and the Alexander Ogston prize in Surgery by Mr. 
William Lister liector, Tarland. 



Obituary. 



Rev. William Brebner (M.A., 1868) died at his residence, 26 Gladstone 
Place, Aberdeen, on 22 May, aged seventy-three. On completing his divinity 
course, he was appointed assistant to Rev. F. W. King, Kilpatrick; and 
in 1876, when Rev. David Milne, then minister of Gilcomston Parish Church, 
Aberdeen, applied for a colleague and successor, Mr. Brebner was appointed. 
He remained minister at Gilcomston for forty years, retiring in 19 16. Dur- 
ing his pastorate, a scheme for the complete restoration of the church was 
successfully carried through, a suite of halls was built, and a handsome pipe 
organ was installed in the church. On the occasion of his attaining his 
ministerial semi-jubilee, Mr. Brebner was presented with several gifts from 
his congregation; and when he retired in 191 6 the close of a long and 
honourable ministry was signalized by the presentation to Mr. Brebner of his 
portrait, painted by Mr. G. Fiddes Watt, A.R.S.A. He was for many years a 
member of the A'berdeen Endowments Trust and Chairman of the Blind 
Asylum. 

Dr. Alexander Cruickshank (M.B., 1896) died at his residence, Lochen- 
gair, Stonehaven, on 22 March, aged forty-four. He was a native of Maud, 
Aberdeenshire. After graduating, he practised in Cruden for seven or eight 
years, and about eighteen years ago he set up practice in Stonehaven, on the 
death of Dr. Anderson. He held a number of public appointments. He was 
medical officer to the Post Office and the Kincardineshire Combination Poor- 
house and for Dunnottar parish, and he had one of the largest panel practices 
in the county. During the war he was a Captain in the 7th Gordon High- 
landers when they were stationed at Bedford. 

Mr. Robert Dale (M.A. 1884; F.E.I.S.) died at Stellenbosch, Cape 
Province, South Africa, on 25 April, aged sixty- two. He was the eldest son 
of the late Mr. James Dale, teacher, Robert Gordon's College, Aberdeen, and 
for many years he had been on the staff of the Victoria College at Stellen- 
bosch as Associate Professor in Literature and Mathematics. 

Rev. William Ewan (M.A., Marischal College, 1859) died at his resi- 
dence, 93 Bon- Accord Street, Aberdeen, on 28 June, aged eighty-two. 
After graduating, he proceeded to the Divinity Hall, and on completing his 
studies was licensed by the Presbytery of Paisley in 1862. He held several 
appointments under the Presbyteries of Edinburgh and Paisley, and in 1868 
was ordained to the Free (afterwards United Free) Church at Fyvie, Aberdeen- 
shire. He retired from active work in connection with his charge several 
years ago, retaining the position of senior minister. Two years ago he cele- 
brated his ministerial jubilee. While resident in Fyvie, Mr. Ewan was a 
member of the School Board and of the Parish Council. 

Rev. William Eraser (Divinity, 1894-97) died in a nursing home. 



284 Aberdeen University Review 

Aberdeen, from an attack of influenza, on 26 April, aged fifty- six. He was a 
son of Mr. Alexander Fraser, sub-editor of the "Aberdeen Journal " (who died 
three days later), and he studied at Glasgow University as well as at Aberdeen. 
Licensed by the Presbytery of Aberdeen in 1897, he became assistant at St. 
George's-in-the-West, Aberdeen, and later he was assistant to Rev. Dr. 
Jamieson, St. Machar Cathedral. He was for a time minister of St. Stephen's 
Church, Inverness, and in 1903 was appointed minister of Shurrery quoad sacra 
parish, Caithness. When Rev. James Smith took up service as a Chaplain to 
the Forces, Mr. Fraser returned to St. George's-in-the-West as assistant. 

Rev. Dr. James Gordon Gray (M.A., Marischal Coll., 1859; D.D. [St. 
And.]), for well-nigh forty years the minister of the Scottish Presbyterian 
Church in the Via Venti Settembre, Rome, died at Rome on 2 March. Dr. 
Gray was a native of Aberdeen, the son of Mr. Charles Gray, a cooper, and 
was born in 1841. He graduated at Marischal College with honourable dis- 
tinction, being also the winner of the Gray prize. He studied divinity at the 
Aberdeen Free Church College, and in 1867 was ordained minister of the 
Free Church at Marykirk, Kincardineshire. A few years later, he was trans- 
lated to Leghorn, then to Naples, and finally, in 1 881, to Rome, where he 
remained for the rest of his life, and with which he came to be peculiarly 
identified. "In Rome," said an obituary notice in the United Free Church 
"Record," "he filled a unique place, as was strikingly shown by the repre- 
sentative gathering at his funeral, from the British Ambassador downwards." 
Until the war broke out, his Sunday afternoon lectures were a feature of the 
Roman winter season: "a strangely cosmopolitan audience it was that filled 
his church, often to overflowing ". He founded and superintended for many 
years a Girls' High School, " the success of which made regrets all the deeper 
when lack of support led to its being closed ". He acted as agent for the 
National Bible Society of Scotland, and did much for the spread of the Scrip- 
tures in Italy, especially in the war years. Moreover, he carried out success- 
ful excavations of special interest in connexion with Paul's sojourn in Rome. 
" The results would have been still richer but for the obstinacy of the ec- 
clesiastical authorities who owned the site. These studies gave Dr. Gray a 
respected place among Roman students — ^a matter of unfeigned pride for his 
congregation." 

At a meeting of the Colonial and Continental Committee of the United 
Free Church on 20 April, the following minute was adopted : — 

The Committee record with deep sorrow the death of the Rev. James Gordon Gray, 
D.D., which took place at Rome on 2 March, after four days' illness. Dr. Gray at the time 
of his death was in his eightieth year, and had been fifty-four years in the ministry, forty- 
four of which were spent in the service of this Committee, at Leghorn, at Naples, and 
finally at Rome. At Rome, where the longest and most fruitful period of his ministry was 
spent, he devoted his main efforts to his congregation, which he built up in influence and 
usefulness. But his strong personality, his wisdom in counsel, and his evangelical zeal 
made him a tower of strength to our Church in its work in Italy. 

His position in Rome was specially congenial to a man of his scholarly instincts, and 
it offered great opportunities, of which he availed himself to the utmost, of fostering the 
Protestant life of Italy by the circulation of the Scriptures and the dissemination of Chris- 
tian literature. 

He has passed to his reward in the fulness of his years, but before his strength had be- 
gun perceptibly to fail, and his body rests in the Protestant Cemetery at Rome outside the 
gate of St. Paul in the district of the city associated with the last hours of the great Apostle 
whose doctrines he loved to expound, and whose life, especially in its associations with the 
Eternal City, was throughout his ministry a theme of unfailing interest and inspiration to 
him. 



Obituary 285 

The "Scotsman" of 23 March reproduced from "II Piccolo Giornale 
d'ltalia " an appreciation of Dr. Gray by Signor Paolo Rossi, which contained 
the following interesting passage : — 

The unexpected death of Dr. Gray leaves a blank not only in the comparatively narrow 
limits of his own church, but in the wide field of archaeological research. He was in the 
habit of devoting his leisure hours to studying Christian archaeology, seeking to raise from 
the ruins not only historic facts, but the Christian spirit of the primitive Church. It may 
be said that subterranean Rome, as associated with the story of the early Church, held no 
secrets from him. In this field his activities were of great value to the British Archaeo- 
logical Society of Rome, of which he was a member. It is worthy of mention that the re- 
searches carried out under his direction in the famous *' House of Priscilla," one of the early 
Christians, along with his studies on primitive forms of Art and our early Fathers of the 
Church, particularly St. Paul, were about to be embodied for publication when death 
claimed him. 

Dr. Robert Aikman Gray (M.B., 1874; M.D., 1879) died at 
12 Richmond Terrace, Blackburn, Lancashire, on 17 March, aged seventy. 
He was a son of the late Rev. Robert A. G. Gray (M.A., Marischal Coll., 
1834), mathematical master in the Town's Public School, Little Belmont 
Street, Aberdeen. He was for a time in practice in Montrose, but settled in 
Blackburn many years ago. 

Dr. John Inglis (M.A., 1881 ; M.B., 1883; M.D., 1886) died at St. 
Leonards-on-Sea, on 10 May, aged fifty-nine. He was the fifth son of the 
late Mr. Alexander Inglis, merchant and ship chandler, Aberdeen. Soon 
after graduating, he went to Hastings, where he entered into general practice, 
and later, he bought a practice at St. Leonards-on-Sea. He was a member 
of the East Sussex Medico-Chirurgical Society, and was at one time vice- 
president of the Balneological Society of London. 

Dr. James Ironside (M.B., 1868) died at his residence, 29 High Street, 
Laurencekirk, on 24 April, aged seventy-five. He was a native of Bonny- 
kelly. New Deer, Aberdeenshire, and, after graduating, he began practice in 
New Pitsligo. In April, 1870, however, he took over a practice in Laurence- 
kirk, and had retired — shortly before his death — after fifty years' professional 
work. He was at one time a member of the Laurencekirk Town Council. 

Brigade-Surgeon-Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Forbes Keith (M.B., 1866 ; 
M.D., 1870) died at 49 Whitwell Road, Southsea, on i April, aged seventy- 
nine. He had a very distinguished career in the Indian Medical Service, 
which he joined at Bombay in 1867. He served with the Abyssinian Ex- 
pedition in 1868, and in the Afghan War in 1880. In the latter campaign 
he took part in the defence of Kandahar, the sortie of Deh Khoja, and the 
battle of I September. For his valuable services he was mentioned in 
dispatches, and received the Afghan War Medal (with clasp). He also 
served in the Burmese Expedition of 1886 to 1888. He retired in 1894. 

Dr. George Maclean (M.A., Marischal College, 1859; M.B., Aberd., 
1862), Inspector-General of Hospitals, Royal Navy (retired), died at 46 Frog- 
nal, Hampstead, London, on 3 1 May, aged seventy-nine. He was the eldest 
surviving son of the late Rev. Alexander M. Maclean (D.D., Glasg., 1842), 
minister of Kiltearn, Ross-shire, and was born at St. Andrews, New Brunswick. 
He joined the medical service of the Royal Navy in August, 1862, and retired 
as an Inspector-General of Hospitals and Fleets in 1900. 

Dr. James Middleton (M.B., 1882) died at Howe o' Buchan, near 
Peterhead, on 26 March, aged sixty-eight. He had been in failing health for 
some time, and had to retire from practice in the end of last year. After 



2 86 Aberdeen University Review 

graduating he spent six years in England, acquiring experience in his pro- 
fession, and then settled in Peterhead, having purchased the practice of the 
late Dr. Milne. His practice increased rapidly. Later, he was appointed 
medical officer to the Volunteer Battalion, and when the Territorial Force 
came into existence he continued in that capacity in the 5 th Battalion Gordon 
Highlanders. He was mobilised on the outbreak of war, and went with the 
battalion to Bedford. Subsequently, he returned to Peterhead and became 
medical officer of the second and third lines of that unit respectively. 
Shortly before his death he was presented with a solid silver tea and coffee 
service, a silver salver (suitably inscribed), a revolving bookcase, and a 
travelling rug — the outcome of a public subscription — in appreciation of his 
work and services. Dr. Middleton had distinct literary leanings, was an 
enthusiastic member of the Peterhead Literary Society, chairman of the Read- 
ing Society, and one of the representatives of the ratepayers on the Peterhead 
Library and Arbuthnot Museum. He was one of the oldest members of the 
Buchan Club (formerly Buchan Field Club), was its president in 1895, and 
contributed to its " Transactions " valuable papers on " Bacteria and 
Epidemics " and "Anthropology ". He also contributed a noteworthy article 
on "Men of Literature in the North-East" to "The Book of Buchan," 
edited by Dr. James F. Tocher. 

Dr. Andrew Mitchell (M.B., 1872) died at his residence, Auehreddie 
House, New Deer, Aberdeenshire, on 26 May, aged seventy-one. He had 
practised in New Deer and district for the long period of fifty-two years. 
During his active life he was for many years medical officer for the 5 th 
Battalion of the Gordon Highlanders, and when he retired several years ago 
he was granted the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel ; he had also the Volunteer 
Decoration. 

Mr. William Morrison (Law student, 1884-86) died in a nursing home 
in Aberdeen on 24 May, aged sixty-five years. He was a solicitor in Aber- 
deen — a partner of the firm of Messrs. Williamson Booth, Mintos, and 
Morrison. For the past eight years he had acted as secretary and treasurer 
of the congregation of St. Andrew's Cathedral, Aberdeen.^ 

Surgeon-Major-General Henry Foljambe Paterson (M.B., Marischal 
College, 1858; M.D. ; F.R.C.S. [Edin.]) died at 142 Goldhawk Terrace, 
London, on May, aged eighty-three. He entered the Army Medical 
Service, reaching the rank of Surgeon-Colonel in 1888 and that of Surgeon- 
Major-General in 1893. He was Principal Medical Officer at Aldershot from 
1894 till 1896, when he retired from the service. 

Mr. James Pratt (M.A., 1867) died at Pembridge Gardens, London, on 
30 April, aged seventy- three. He was a son of Rev. George Pratt, and was 
born at Savaii, Navigator Islands. He joined the Indian Civil Service in 
1869. Called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1879, he was afterwards a Joint 
Magistrate, a District and Sessions Judge, and a Judge of the High Court of 
Calcutta from 1900 until his retirement in 1906. 

Dr. George Joseph Saunders (M.B., 1898) died at Johnsonville, 
Wellington, New Zealand, on 9 April, aged forty-three. He was the younger 
son of the late Rev. George Saunders, Congregational Church, Woodside, 
Aberdeen. After graduating, he was for a time in partnership with his 
brother, Dr. Alfred Morison Saunders (M.A., 1884; M.B., 1888), at 
Hopeman and ^^urghead, Morayshire. He subsequently went to New 
Zealand, and built up a large practice at Johnsonville. Dr. Saunders met 



Obituary 287 



with a rather serious motor-car accident about eighteen months before his 
death, while returning from a visit to a patient in the middle of the night, and 
he never fully recovered from its effects. 

Mr. James Scott, I.S.O. (M.A., 1871), died at 54 Birch Grove, West 
Acton, London, on 10 May, aged sixty-nine. After graduating, he went out 
to China as a student-interpreter, and for many years was British Consul at 
Seoul, Korea. He published a Dictionary of the Korean Language, for which 
he received the thanks of the Foreign Office. Mr. Scott was finally promoted 
as.Consul-General at Canton, a post for which he was eminently suited, and 
his discharge of his duties brought him high praise from all quarters. On 
his retirement about fifteen years ago, the honour of I.S.O. was conferred 
upon him. Mr. Scott then came to Aberdeen, but shortly before the war 
left to reside in London. 

Dr. Henry Fife Morland Simpson (M.A. [Cantab.] ; LL.D., Aberd., 
191 1), who had been Rector of the Aberdeen Grammar School since 1893, 
died at his residence, 448 Great Western Road, Aberdeen, on 15 May, aged 
sixty. In April, 1883, he was appointed assistant master at Fettes College, 
Edinburgh, under the late Dr. W. A. Potts ; and ten years later he became 
Rector of the Aberdeen Grammar School in succession to the late Dr. James 
Moir. On the occasion of his semi-jubilee as Rector, Dr. Simpson was, in 
April, 1919, presented by former pupils with his portrait, which was hung in 
the hall of the School. Dr. Simpson was the author of several works, notably 
"Bon Record " — a volume of records and reminiscences of the Grammar 
School ; several translations from the Danish, a series of " Letters on Claver- 
house," etc. ; he was joint editor with Canon Murdoch of Bishop George 
Wishart's '* Deeds of Montrose " ; and he edited Scott's *' Legend of 
Montrose " for the Pitt Press series, his contributions in the form of the 
introduction and footnotes being of considerable historical and literary value. 

Mr. Peter Thomson (alumnus, 1865-68), formerly Town Clerk of 
Uitenhage, South Africa, died there on 9 June. 

Mr. John Arbuthnott Trail (M.A., 1866; LL.B. [Edin.], 1872; 
LL.D., 1902) died at his residence, 14 Belgrave Place, Edinburgh, on 11 
June, aged seventy-three. He was a son of the late Dr. Samuel Trail, 
Professor of Systematic Theology, Aberdeen University, and an elder brother 
of the late Dr. James W. H. Trail, Professor of Botany, Aberdeen University, 
who died in September last. Dr. J. A. Trail studied law and was admitted a 
member of the Society of Writers to the Signet, Edinburgh, in 1872 ; in 1879 
he entered into the partnership of the existing legal firm of Scott, Moncrieff 
and Trail. To the cause of education Dr. Trail gave generously of his time 
and ability. About 1905 he succeeded the late Professor Simon Laurie as 
secretary to the Education Committee of the Church of Scotland, and when 
in 1907 the training colleges were handed over to the Provincial Committees 
he was appointed secretary to the Joint Committee of the Education Com- 
mittees of the Church of Scotland and the United Free Church. In this 
direction he was able to give a vast amount of valuable service to education 
both in the training colleges and in schools. 

Rev. Dr. John- White Youngson (M.A., 1873; ^-D., 1884; D.D., 
1893) died at Sialkot, India, on 27 June, aged sixty-eight. He was a 
missionary of the Church of Scotland in India, being located principally in 
the Punjab, and he had also been stationed at Jammu and Kashmir. He was 
for long head of the Sialkot mission in the Punjab, and to him was mainly 



2 88 Aberdeen University Review 

due the remarkable expansion of what was previously a small mission into 
one of the leading missionary organizations of the Church of Scotland, with 
a baptized native membership of over 14,000. Among his other missionary 
enterprises was the establishment of a native Christian colony, called after 
him Youngsonabad. Dr. Youngson relinquished the superintendence of the 
Sialkot mission in 1907 and came home; but, at the request of the Foreign 
Mission Committee, he went out to India again, to start a new mi^^sionary 
undertaking at Poona, and he remained seven years there. He retired from 
active work in 191 7, after forty-two years' service ; but, in view of the shortage 
of workers in the mission field caused by the war, he again offered his services 
and returned to Sialkot in June of last year. He was Moderator of the first 
General Assembly of the Presbyterian Mission Churches in India. Dr. 
Youngson was a native of Rosehearty, Aberdeenshire. He was the author of 
an article on " The Missionary in India," in the Review for February, 19 15 
(Vol. II., 147-155). 



In the War Obituary in Vol. V. of the Review (p. 283) it was stated that 
Robert Anderson (2nd Medicine, 1898), Second Lieutenant in the 7th 
Battalion of the Somersetshire Light Infantry, was reported to have been 
killed in action in France in April, 1918. 

It has now been ascertained, however, that the information on which this 
statement was based was erroneous. Lieutenant Anderson, it seems, was 
Captured by the Germans at St. Quentin on 23 March, 191 8, and was re- 
patriated after the signing of the Armistice. He arrived at Dover on 
28 November, 19 18, and, apparently, he is now serving with his regiment. 



Medical Missionaries are urgently needed by the Church of Scotland 
Foreign Mission Committee for Mission Hospitals in India, Africa, and China. 
Particulars of the various appointments may be had on application to the 
Secretary of the Committee, 22 Queen Street, Edinburgh. 



Index to Volume VII 



Aberdeen University Club, London, 170, 

271. 
Aberdein, Jennie W. : notes on, 89, 281. 
Adam, Mrs. Thomas : gift to University, 76. 
Adam, Rev. William : note on, 276, 
Agricultural experts for India, 77. 
Alexander, Henry: J. P., go. 
Alexander, John : note on, 87. 
AUardyce, M. D. : University War Record, 

145. 
Alma Mater Anthology, 80 ; appreciation of, 

by Sir W. Leslie Mackenzie, 193. 
*^ Alma Mater," The Cover-Design of. By 

James D. Symon, 27. 
Anderson, Dr. Alexander G. : note on, 85. 
Anderson, Andrew : note on, 84. 
Anderson, Dr. John : F.R.C.S., Ed., 81. 
Anderson, P. J. : The Curator of the Library, 

1891-1919 [Professor Trail], 40. 
Anderson, Robert: Obituary, 91, 188, 283; 

Personalia, 81, 177, 273 ; University 

Topics, 68, 164, 263. 
Anderson, Sec-Lieut. Robert : note on, 288. 
Anderson, Dr. William: F.R.C.S., 184. 
Anglo-American History Piize, 169. 
Angus, George M. : note on, 179. 
Angus, Dr. William : death of, 92. 
Animal Nutrition Research Institute, 165. 
Argo, Rev. Gavin E. : D.D., 177. 
Arts Class, The most distinguished, 169. 
Auchinachie, Jennie W. : note on, 281. 

Baillie, Professor John B. : notes on, 83, 
178, 275, 282. 

Bain, Margaret L. : note on, 90. 

Baird, Rev. Andrew C. : Professor of Biblical 
Criticism, 68. 

Bairstow, Gwendolen E. : Lecturer in Edu- 
cation, 70. 

Balneaves, Alexander S. : note on, 182. 

Berry, Sir William B. : note on, 179. 

Best, Maud S. : reviews Hendry's Charles 
Annandale, 57 ; Catalogue of Edinburgh 
University Library, 157; Oxford Uni- 
versity Press and Cambridge University 
Press Catalogues, 257. 

Binns, Mrs. Janet B. : " On Supply " in 
London, 49. 

Birnie, Arthur : Lecturer in Economic His- 
tory, 70. 

Birnie, Rev. Charles : death of, 1S8. 

Bisset, James B. : death of, 188. 

Black, Dr. Robert S. : death of, 188. 



Blacklaw, Alexander : Lecturer in Mercantile 
Law, 1 66. 

Bose, Sir Jagadis C. : LL.D., 177. 

Bower, Professor F. O. : LL.D., 73. 

Bowie, James A. : Economics Lecturer 
Manchester, 83. 

Boyd, Edmund B. : note on, 184. 

Boyd, Rev. William : death of, 92. 

Brebner, Rev. William: death of, 283. 

Bremner, Dr. Alexander : note on, 185. 

Brown, Arthur R. : note on, 179. 

Brown, Emily : note on, 88. 

Brown, Major F. W. C. : O.B.E., 273. 

Brown, Louise : note on, 88. 

Brown, Dr. R. N. Rudmose : note on, 84. 

Bruce, Dr. John M. : note on, 78. 

Bruce, Lt.-Col. Robert : note on, 276. 

Bruce, Sir Robert : note on, 276. 

Bruce, Dr. William : note on, 84. 

Bruce, Dr. William S. : note on, 84. 

Bulloch, J. M. : The King's College Class of 
1808-1812, 233. 

Bulloch, Dr. William: LL.D., 177; Pro- 
fessor of Bacteriology, London, 178 ; 
note on, 78. 

Burnett, Archibald R. : note on, 179. 

Burnett, Rev. John : note on, 84. 

Butchart, Major Henry J. : Officer of the Star 
of Rumania, 78 ; Secretary of the Uni- 
versity, 167. 

Calder, Rev. Dr. John : note on, 84. 
Cameron, Alexander D. : death of, 188. 
Cameron, Helen : note on, 282. 
Campbell, Alexander : note on, 179. 
Campbell, Rev. James : note on, 276. 
Campbell, Dr. William : note on, 276. 
Cantlie, Sir James: LL.D., 74. 
Carnegie, Andrew: death of, 91. 
Cash, Emeritus-Professor John T. : LL.D., 

73- 

Catto, Rev. Alexander G. : note on, 179. 

Chalmers, Dr. Theodore: F.R.C.S., Ed., 84. 

Charles, Allan M. : note on, 185. 

Chree, Dr. Charles: note on, 84. 

Clarke, Duncan : note on, 276. 

Clarke, G. A.; note on, 187. 

Clarke, John : appreciation ot Dr. John 
Lees, 239; reviews Hendy's Univer- 
sities and the Training of Teachers, 255. 

Class Reunions, 173. 

Cooper, Rev. Professor James: D.D., Ox- 
ford, 275. 



19 



290 Aberdeen University Review 



Cooper, Patrick : note on, 84. 
Cormack, Douglas J. : note on, 88. 
Correspondence : — 
" Bimbo,'' 66. 
Portrait of Dr. James Melvin. By Dr. 

Robert Walker, 246. 
The Senior Graduate. By Rev. Allan M'D. 
MacKillop, 66. 
Coulter, Rev. Henry : note on, 84. 
Cowan, Professor Henry : notes on, 83, 90. 
Cowie, R. H. ; Lecturer in Banking, 71. 
Cox, Rev. George F. : note on, 179. 
Craib, William G. : Professor of Botany, 

164. 
Craigmyle, Elizabeth: On the Evening of a 

Funeral, 108. 
Cran, Dr. George : M.B.E., 273. 
Cranna, W. H. : An Old Scots Judge : Lord 

Stricken, 117. 
Crockett, Rev. W. S. : Dr. Mair ofEarlston, 

224. 
Cruickshank, Dr. Alexander : death of, 283. 
Cruickshank, Dr. E. W. H. : Professor of 

Physiology, Peking, 274. 
Cruickshank, Dr. John : Pathology Lecturer, 

166. 
Culloden, Marjorie : note on, 88. 
Curator of the Library, 1891-1919, The [Pro- 
fessor Trail]. By P. J. Anderson, 40. 
Cushny, Professor Arthur R. : note on, 85. 

Dale, Robert : death of, 283. 
Dalgarno, George G. : death of, 188, 
D'Alviella, Count : declines Gifford Lecture- 
ship, 167. 
Davidson, Dr. George : his Incomparable 2gth 

and the " River Clyde," reviewed, 249 ; 

notes on, 79, 185. 
Davidson, Henry A. : Lecturer in Accounting 

and Business Methods, 71. 
Davidson, Sir James McK. : notes on, 78, 

179. 
Davidson, Professor William L. : note on, 

275- 
Davies, Gwilym A. T. : Professor, Cardiff, 83. 
Dawson, Lt.-Col. James : T.D., 79. 
Dean, Rev. John T. : note on, 85. 
Dean, Robert H. : note on, 180. 
Dewar, Lt.-Col. Thomas F. : dispatches, 78. 
Dickie, William M. : note on, 180. 
Don, Alexander V. R. : note on, 282. 
Don, John : Tillyduke School in the Middle 

of Last Century, 152. 
Donald, Rev. Dr. James : gift to University 

Library, 168. 
Donald, Priscilla T. : note on, 90. 
Donaldson, Rev. Andrew D. : note on, 180. 
Duff, Professor John W. : LL.D., 177 ; note 

on, 83. 
DufFus, Dr. George : death of, 189. 
Duffus, Capt. James C. : Croix de Guerre, 

78 ; note on, 85. 
Duguid, Dr. William R. : note on, 180. 
Duncan, Dr. Alfred G. B. : note on, 180. 



Duncan, George : appreciation of Dr. Lees, 

241; J. P., 90. 
Durno, Dr. Leslie : death of, 92. 
Duthie, David H. : O.B.E., 273. 
Duthie, George F. : death of, 92. 

Eaton, Rev. Dr. David : death of, 189. 

Edwards, James H. : note on, 180. 

Elder, Dr. John R. : Professor of History, 

Dunedin, 274. 
Elphinstone, Bishop: reconstruction of tomb, 

267. 
Emslie, Alexander : note on, 85. 
Entwistle, William J. : note on, 85. 
Ewan, Rev. William : death of, 283. 
Ewen, John C. S. : note on, 89. 
Ewen, Rev. John S. : notes on,' 89, 180. 
Examiners, New, 270. 

Falconer, Rev. Andrew J. A. : note on, 180. 
Falconer, Dr. Arthur W. : Professor of 

Medicine, Cape Town, 178. 
Farquhar, Rev. Henry : M.B.E., 78. 
Farquhar, Dr. James : death of, 189. 
Ferrier, Sir David : note on, 78. 
Fiddes, Rev. Alexander : D.D., 177. 
Findlay, Rev. Adam F. : note on, 275. 
Findlay, Alexander : Professor of Chemistry 

69 ; note on, 275. 
Findlay, Dr. John : note on, 86. 
Finlayson, Rev. Sidney K. : note on, 276. 
Fleming, Lt.-Col. Frank: T.D., 79; note 

on, 180. 
Forbes, Alexander K. : note on, 85. 
Forrest, George T. : note on, 85. 
Forrester, Robert B. : reviews Shirras's 

Indian Finance and Banking, 251 ; note 

on, 185. 
Fortescue, Major A. Irvine: D.S.O., 168. 
Fowler, Dr. Alexander C. : note on, 85. 
Eraser, Rev. John : note on, 276. 
Eraser, Rev. William : death of, 283. 
Eraser, Sir Thomas R. : death of, 189. 
Fulton, Rev. Professor William : D.D., 

Glasgow, 276 ; reviews Dr. Schleiter's 

Religion and Culture, 253. 
Fyvie, William W. : Natural Philosophy 

Lecturer, 83. 

Galloway, Dr. Alexander R. : O.B.E., 273. 

Garden, Alistair S. : note on, 282. 

Garden, Lt.-Col. James W. : T.D., 79. 

Garden, Murray Young : note on, 282. 

Gavin, Lewis : note on, 276. 

Geddes, Alexander E. M. : Natural Phil- 
osophy Lecturer, 83. 

Geddes, Jeannie : notes on, 281, 282. 

Geddes, Lady : death of, 96. 

Geddie, Dr. David W. : note on, 85. 

Gibson, Professor R. J. Harvey- : note on, 
185. 

Gifford Lectureship, 167, 263, 269. 

Gilchrist, James G. : note on, 87. 

Gilchrist, Robert N. : note on, 180. 



Index to Volume VII 



291 



Giles, Dr. Peter : on Scots Bible Versions, 

271. 
Gill, Dr. John F. : F.R.C.S., 184. 
Gordon, Rev. Dr. Alexander R. : note on, 

89. 
Gordon, Rev. Patrick L. : note on, 181. 
Gordon, William L. : note on, 181. 
Graduates' Dinners, 170, 271. 
Grant, Rev. Donald M. : note on, 181. 
Grant, George C. : death of, 93. 
Grant, Maggie : death of, 93 
Gray, Rev. Alexander : note on, 181. 
Gray, Rev. Dr. James G. : death of, 284. 
Gray, Rev. George : note on, 181. 
Gray, Sir Henry M. W. : note on, 181. 
Gray, Dr. Robert A. : death of, 285. 
Grierson, Professor H. J. C. : note on, 89. 

Haig, F.-M. Sir Douglas [Earl Haig] : re- 
ception of, 71 ; LL.D., 75. 

Hall, Sir Alfred D. : LL.D., 177. 

Hall, James C. : note on, 282. 

Hall, Fleet-Surg. John F. : note on, 85. 

Hardie, Annie: note on, 185. 

Hardie, Sir David : LL.D., 74. 

narrower, I rofessor John : The University 
Greek Play, 109; reviews Herford's 
Handbook 0/ Greek Vase- Painting, 60 ; 
notes on, 90, 282. 

Harper, Margaret G. : note on, 89. 

Harvey, Rev. Dr. James : note on, 276. 

Hastings, Rev. Dr. James : note on, 89. 

Hay, Professor Matthew : notes on, 90,178. 

Hector, John : note on, 185. 

Hector, William L. : notes on, 89, 282. 

Henderson, Rev. George : note on, 89. 

Hendry, Dr. Alexander W. : note on, 180 ; 
O.B.E., 168. 

Hendry, Rev. Frederic : James IV. and the 
Scottish Navy, 46. 

Henry, Prince : visits University, 264. 

Heraclitus (Scots and Gaelic Versions). By 
Charles Murray and Rev. Dr. Thomas 
Sinton, 132. 

Hill, Mrs. Caroline S. : death of, 189. 

Hoare, Samuel : note on, 184. 

Hobson Ernest W. : Gifford Lecturer, 269. 

Honorary Graduands : introduction of, 72. 

Home, William D. : note on, 184. 

Hosie, James : death of, 93. 

Hygiene Congress at Brussels, The, By Sir 
William L. Mackenzie, 245. 

Inglis, Dr. John : death of, 285. 

In Memoriam : Professor j. W. H. Trail. 
By Sir David Prain, 29 ; The Curator of 
the Library, 1891-1919. By P. J. Ander- 
son, 40; The Professor Ultra Cathe- 
dram. By Alexander Macdonald, 43. 

Innes, Dr. Ian G. : Experimental Physiology 
Lecturer, 83. 

Innes, Dr. John W. : note on, 277. 

Ironside, Dr. James : death of, 285. 

Iverach, Rev. Principal James: note on, 178. 



Jack, Professor A. A. : notes on, 186, 282. 

Jackson, Rev. George : D.D., 177. 

Jaffrey, Sir Thomas : gift for Political Eco- 
nomy chair, 165. 

James IV. and the Scottish Navy. By Rev. 
Frederic Hendry, 46. 

Jamieson, George S. : note on, 282. 

Japp, Emeritus- Professor F. R. : LL.D., 73. 

Jeans, James H. : LL.D., 177. 

Jones, Sir Robert : LL.D., 178. 

Kanga, Dr. Burjorji S. : note on, 78. 
Keith, Professor Arthur : his Menders of the 

Maimed reviewed, 54 ; note on, 282. 
Kaith, Rev. John : death of, 189. 
Keith, Brig..Surg.-Lt.-Col. Joseph F. : 

death of, 285. 
Kelly, William : J. P., 90 ; note on, 185. 
Kennedy, William D. : note on, 85. 
Kermack, William O. : note on, 88. 
Kesson, Capt. John E. : O.B.E., 168. 
Keyes, Vice-Adml. Sir Roger J. B. : LL.D., 

75- 
King's College C/aw 0/1808-1812, The. By 

J. M. Bulloch, 233. 
Kirby, Percival R. : note on, 277. 
Kitchener Scholarships, 169. 
Knox, Dr. Joseph : Chemistry Lecturer, 

Glasgow, 82. 

Laing, Bertram M. : Professor, Sheffield, 82. 
Leask, James : note on, 282. 
Lectureships, New, 269. 
Ledingham, Dr. Alexander : M.B.E., 273. 
Lees, Dr. John : death of, 236 ; appreciations 

of, 238 ; portrait of, 236. 
Leitch, Dr. Isabella : note on, 89. 
Lendrum, Rev. Robert A.: D.D., 177; note 

on, 275. 
Leslie, Peter : note on, 277. 
Leslie, Rev. Wilson S. : note on, 277. 
Lillie, Helen : note on, 282. 
Littlejohn, Robert M. : note on, 181. 
Littlejohn, Capt. Williamt O.B.E., 168. 
Lovie, Rev. Frederick W. : M.C., 169 ; note 

on, 277. 
Low, Allan J. : note on, 277. 
Lunan, Nettie M. : note on, 88. 
Lyall, Alexander : note on, 282. 
Lyon, Rev. Ritchie D. : note on, 277. 

MacDiarmid, Dr. James B. : note on, 181. 
Macdonald, Alexander: The Professor Ultra 

Cathedram [Professor Trail], 43 ; note 

on, 185. 
Macdonald, Rev. Dr. Charles C. : death of, 

190. 
McDonald, Rev. George : death of, 93. 
Macdonald, Dr. John : note on, 85. 
Macdonald, Sec.-Lt. John : death of, 79. 
Macdonald, Rev. Peter : death of, 93. 
Macdonell, Sir John : note on, 181. 
M'Farlane, John : Lecturer in Geography, 

70; note on, 181. 



292 Aberdeen University Review 



McGregor, Charles : note on, 282. 

McGregor, Rev. Duncan : death of, igo. 

MacGregor, Margaret U. C. : note on, 90. 

MacGregor, Sir William: death of, 91; ap- 
preciation of, by Professor R. W. Reid, 
I ; bequeaths ethnological and ornitho- 
logical collections to University, 76 ; 
birthplace of (illustration), 4 ; portrait of, 
frontispiece. 

M'Hardy, Dr. James: note on, 85. 

McHardy, Rev. William : note on, 181. 

Mclntyre, Dr. J. Lewis : O.B.E., 273 ; note 
on, 185. 

M'lver, Dorothy C. : note on, 90. 

Mackay, Alexander M. : K.C., 277. 

Mackay, Rev. Neil : death of, 190. 

Mackenzie, Agnes M, : note on, 88. 

Mackenzie, Rev. Alexander : death of, 94. 

Mackenzie, Donald : note on, 184. 

Mackenzie, Duncan : note on, 181. 

Mackenzie, Jean M. : note on, 88. 

Mackenzie, Sir William L. : •* Alma Mater " 
Anthology, 1883-1919, 193 ; Hygiene 
Congress at Brussels, The, 245 ; Van 
Beneden of Liege, 243 ; note on, 277. 

Mackie, James C. D. : death of, 94. 

McKilligan, Winifred : note on, 185. 

MacKillop, Rev. Allan M'D. : letter, 66; 
note on, 85. 

Mackinnon, Col. Lachlan: J. P., 90; note 
on, 79. 

Mackinnon, Major Lachlan : note on, 180. 

Mcintosh, Donald C. : note on, 85. 

Macintosh, Rev. Donald C. : death of, 94. 

Mcintosh, Dr. James : Pathology Professor, 
London, 178. 

McLean, Rev. Alexander : note on, 86. 

MacLean, Rev. Donald: D.D., 177; Free 
Church Professor, 274. 

Maclean, Dr. George : death of 285. 

MacLean, Dr. Hugh : Professor of Bio- 
Chemistry, London, 179. 

McLellan, Duncan T. H. : Professor of 
History, Calcutta, 274. 

Macleod, Rev. Alasdair M. M. : note on, 
277. 

Macleod, Alfred : note on, 178. 

Macleod, Angus : note on, 86. 

Macleod, Rev. John : note on, 86. 

McPherson, Charles S. : LL.D., 178 ; note 
on, 278. 

Macpherson, Rev. George C. : O.B.E., 78. 

McRobert, Sir Alexander : K.B.E., 177. 

Mac William, Professor John A. : note on, 90. 

Maik, George H.: C.M.G., 177; note on, 
182. 

Mair, Robert C. T. : note on, 86. 

Mair, Very Rev. Dr. William : death of, 190 ; 
appreciation of, by Rev. W. S. Crockett, 
224; note on, 186; portiait of, 224. 

Malcolm, Elisa M. : note on, 185. 

Mann, Rev. James A. : note on, 86. 

Manson, Sir Patrick : LL.D., Cambridge, 278. 



Marischal College motto, 77. 

Marr, William L. : note on, 89. 

Marshall, Professor C. R. : Materia Medica, 
210. 

Masson, Robert P. : note on, 179. 

Materia Medica. By Professor C. R. Mar- 
shall, 210. 

Matthews, Annie P. : note on, 281. 

May, Maude G. : A Poet of the Apennines, 15. 

Melvin, Dr. George S. : Professor, Kingston, 
81. 

Melvin, Dr. James : portrait of, 246 ; letter 
on portrait, 246. 

Melvin, Dr. James : note on, 90. 

Mennie, John H. : note on, 182. 

Mercier, Cardinal : declines Gifford Lecture- 
ship, 263. 

Mesopotamia, On the March in. By T. R. 
Spiller, 147. 

Meston, Sir James S. [Lord Meston] : made 
a peer, 182 ; Rede Lecturer, 278 ; note 
, on, 84. 

Michie, Francis W. : notes on, 182, 278. 

Middleton, Dr. James: death of, 285, note 
on, 86. 

Miller, Rev. Dr. Alexander : note on, 278. 

Miller, Rev. David : death of, 190. 

Miller, Thomas : note on, 181. 

Milligan, David M. M. : elected General 
Council Assessor, 77 ; note on, 275. 

Milne, Andrew : note on, 88. 

Milne, Lt.-Gen. Sir George F. : Grand Cross 
of the Crown of Rumania, 78; Grand 
Cross of the Legion of Honour, 78 ; 
Order of Wen-Hu, 168 ; note on, 278. 

Milne, Dr. Leslie J. : note on, 278. 

Milne, Rev. Peter : note on, 278. 

Milne, Dr. Robert : note on, 86. 

Milne, Dr. Thomas : death of, 190. 

Milne, William P. : Professor, Leeds, 81. 

Minto, Lt.-Col. William B. G. : death of, 
94 ; memorial sonnet, 108 ; note on, 79. 

Mitchell, Dr. Alexander : note on, 181. 

Mitchell, Dr. Andrew : death of, 285 ; note 
on, 86. 

Mitchell, Gladys M. : note on, 89. 

Mitchell, Hannah K. : note on, 90. 

Mitchell, James M. D. : F.R.C.S., 184. 

Mitchell, Dr. Peter C. : aeroplane flight, 182. 

Mitchell, William : K.C., 182. 

Morrison, Rev. Alexander J. : note on, 182. 

Morrison, Archibald C. : Lecturer in Con- 
veyancing, 70 ; O.B.E., 273. 

Morrison, George A, : note on, 278. 

Morrison, James : death of, 95. 

Morrison, Rev. James H. : notes on, 89, 185. 

Morrison, Dr. John : M.C., 78. 

Morrison, William : death of, 285. 

Mowat, Rev. M'Intosh : note on, 279. 

Munro, Capt. A. J. F. : O.B.E., 273. 

Murison, Alfred R. : notes on, 86, 182, 184. 

Murison, William : note on, 186. 

Murray, Charles : HeracUtus (Scots version), 
132 ; Tho' I he AuV, 26 ; LL.D., 178. 



Index to Volume VII 



293 



Murray, Edward G. M. : note on, 86. 
Murray, John : note on, 87. 
Murray, John, M.P. : notes on, 86, 282. 
Murray, Col. R. D. : death of, 190. 
Murray, William : note on, 88. 

Needham, Dr. Joseph : note on, 78. 
Newlands, Janet R. : note on, 88. 
Nicholson, Dr. David: LL.D., 178. 
Nicol, Rev. David B. : note on, 279. 
Nicol, Professor James : memorial of, 269. 
Niven, Professor Charles : note on, go. 
Non-Greek Students : Course for, 266. 

Obituary, gi, 188, 283. 

O'Connor, Norah : note on, 88. 

Og?» Rev. George : Professor, Madras, 82 ; 

note on, 88. 
Ogilvie, Dr. Francis G. : knighted, 177; 

note on, 279. 
Ogston, Sir Alexander : his Reminiscences of 

Three Campaigns reviewed, 248 ; notes 

on, 87, 88, 275. 
Old Scots Judge, An: Lord Stricken. By 

W. H. Cranna, 117. 
Oliver, Elizabeth C. S. : note on, 185. 
•• On Supply " in London. By Mrs. Janet 

B. Binns, 49. 
On the Evening of a Funeral. By Elizabeth 

Craigmyle, 108, 
Orr, Dr. J. B. : The Value of Scientific 

Research in Agriculture^ 97. 
Osier, Sir William : death of, 191. 

Pardoe, Dr. John G. : note on, 78. 

Paterson, Surg.-Maj.-Gen. Henry F. : death 
of, 286. 

Paul, Very Rev. Dr. David : note on, 87. 

Paull, James G. : O.B.E., 273. 

Personalia, 81, 177, 273. 

Peterkin, Major Charles D. : dispatches, 78. 

Petrie, Rev. Canon James : note on, 186. 

Ph.D. Degree, 264. 

Pirie, John W. : Classical Philosophy Lec- 
turer, Glasgow, 83. 

Planters' Classes, 269. 

Poet of the Apennines, A. By Maude G. 
May, 15. 

Political Economy : new chair, 165. 

Porteous, Dr. Margaret : note on, 90. 

Porter, Sir James : LL.D., 74. 

Porter, Capt. Richard R. M. : M.C., 78. 

Prain, Sir David: In Memoriam, Professor 
y. W. H. Trail, 29. 

Pratt, James : death of, 286. 

Professor Ultra Cathedram, The [Professor 
Trail]. By Alexander Macdonald, 43. 

Professors and Lecturers, New, 68, 81, 178, 
274. 

Raffan, Dr. James : note on, 279. 
Rait, Professor R. S. : note on, 282. 
Ramsay, Mary P. : note on, 185. 



Ramsay, Emeritus-Professor Sir W. M. : 

note on, 276. 
Rannie, Dr. Robert : note on, 183. 
Reid, Dorothea L. : note on, 185. 
Reid, Professor R. W. : Sir William Mac- 

Gregor, 1 ; notes on, 90, 185. 
Reid, Rev. W. A. : note on, 185. 
Reith, Rev. Dr. George : death of, 191. 
Rennie, Dr. John : notes on, 185, 279. 
Reviews : — 
Aberdeen University Library Bulletin, 

163. 
Aboriginal American Antiquities, Hand- 
book of, 260. 
Bryce, Viscount : World History, 156. 
Bureau of American Ethnology — Annual 

Report (1910-11) and Bulletins, 162. 
Calder, Rev. R. H. : Songs of the Plough, 

163. 
Cambridge University Press Catalogue, 

257- 
Catalogue of Edinburgh University Lib- 
rary, 157. 
Clarke, John [ed.] : Problems of National 

Education, 58. 
Craddock, Ernest A. : The Classroom Re- 
public, 256. 
Davidson, Dr. George : The Incomparable 

2gth and the " River Clyde," 249. 
Duncan. H. S. and Mackenzie, A. H. : 

The Training of Teachers, 59. 
Grant, William [ed.] : Transactions of the 

Scottish Dialects Committee, Part III, 

163. 
Hendry, Hamish : Charles Annandale, 

M.A., LL.D., 57. 
Hendy, F. J. R. : Universities and the 

Training of Teachers, 163, 255. 
Herford, Mary A. B. : Handbook of 

Greek Vase-Painting, 60. 
Joint-Jubilee of St. John's Church, Pieter- 

maritzburg, etc., 261. 
Keith, Arthur : Menders of the Maimed, 54. 
Lawson, Mrs. A. and A.: St. Andrews 

Treasury of Scottish Verse, 155. 
Macalister, Donald A.: Field Gunnery, 

260. 
Mackenzie, A. H. [ed.]: Instruction in 

Indian Secondary Schools, 59. 
Mackenzie, W. C. : The Book of the Lews, 

63. 
McWilliam, Rev. T. : Scottish Life %n 

Light and Shadow, 258. 
Mills, J. Travis : Great Britain and the 

United States, 259. 
Miller, Rev. William, D.D. : Comments 

on the Present Situation, etc., 61. 
Milne, Rev. James : Problems of the Day, 

64. . . r 

Ogston, Sir Alexander: Reminiscences oj 

Three Campaigns, 248. 
Oxford University Press Catalogue, 257. 
Philip, J. B. : Experiments with Plants, 

160,, 



294 Aberdeen University Review 



Reviews — cont. : — 

Phillimore, J. S. : Ille Ego : Virgil and 

Professor Richmond, i6o. 
Problems of Labour and Industry, i6i. 
Proceedings of the British Academy, 1913- 

14, and for 1915-16, 64. 
Ritchie, Professor W. : History of the 

South African College, 154. 
Schleiter, Dr. Frederick : Religion and 

Culture, 253. 
Shirras, G. Findlay : Indian Finance and 

Banking, 251. 
Skinner, Robert T, : Men of the North- 

East, etc., 259. 
Smith, Rev. Harry: The Layman's Book 

of the General Assembly of 1919, 64. 
Stephenson, James: Principles of Com- 
mercial History, 161. 
Streeter, B. H. [ed.] : The Spirit : God 

and His Relation to Man, 162. 
Studer, Professor Paul : The Study of 

Anglo-Norman, 261. 
Terry, C. Sanford [ed.] : Ostend and Zee- 

brugge, 62. 
Thomson, J. Arthur: Secrets of Animal 

Life, 60. 
Tout, T. F. : MedicBval Forgets and 

Forgeries, 260. 
TurnbuU, Arthur : The Life of Matter, 62. 
Universities of Australia, 160. 
Yale Book of Student Verse, 155. 
Richards, Dr. Robert : note on, 181. 
Riddell, Col. John S. : LL.D., 73 ; re-elected 
General Council Assessor, 77 ; note on, 
87. 
Ritchie, Dr. James : notes on, 87, 282. 
Ritchie, Walter : note on, 282. 
Robertson, Sir Benjamin : note on, 183. 
Robertson, Grigor C. A. : note on, 169. 
Robertson, Rev. Dr. James : note on, 183. 
Robertson, Rev. James A. : Professor, Aber- 
deen United Free Church College, 274 ; 
note on, 89. 
Robertson, John W. : note on, 87. 
Robertson, Kenneth M. : note on, 89. 
Rorie, Major David: T.D., 79. 
Rose, Dr. George: J. P., 90. 
Rose, John : note on, 279. 
Rothney, Flora E. : note on, 89. 
Rumbles, Francis : note on, 183. 

Saunders, Dr. George J. : death of, 286. 
Scientific Research in Agriculture, The Value 

of. By Dr. J. B. Orr, 97. 
Scorgie, Norman A. : note on, 89. 
Scots Bible Versions, 271. 
Scott, Dr. Alexander : death of, 191. 
Scott, Rev. Dr. Charles A. : D.D., Cam- 
bridge, 279. 
Scott, James, I.S.O. : death of, 287. 
Scott, Rev. Dr. Robert : note on, 279. 
Shand, Deputy-Surg. Jonathan : note on, 279. 
Shepherd, Dr. George A. : notes on, 88, 
89. 



Shirras, George F. ; his Indian Finance and 
Banking reviewed, 251 ; notes on, 79, 
183, 185. 

Simms, Rev. John M. : D.D., 72. 

Simpson, Dr. H. F. Morland : death of, 287. 

Simpson, John B. : note on, 89. 

Simpson, William D : note on, 89. 

Sinclair, Gen. David : death of, 95. 

Sinton, Rev. Dr. Thomas : Heraclitus (Gaelic 
version), 132. 

Skene, Dr. Macgregor : note on, 185. 

Skinner, Rev. Principal John : D.D., Oxford, 

275- 
Skinner, Robert T. : his Men of the North- 

East, etc., reviewed, 259. 
Slessor, Dr. Thomas S. : note on, 279. 
Slorach, Dr. Charles C. : death of, 95. 
Smith, Alexander : note on, 280. 
Smith, Dr. George : re-elected General 

Council Assessor, 77. 
Smith, Dr. George : death of, 191. 
Smith, Principal Sir George Adam : Donald- 
son Rose Thorn, 138 ; Sir David Stewart, 

LL.D., 134 ; tribute to Dr. Lees, 238 ; 

D.D., Oxford, 275 ; J. P., 90 ; notes on, 

83, 178, 275. 
Smith, Dr. Harold E. : note on, 169. 
Smith, Dr. James : note on. 280. 
Smith, Rev. James: J. P., 90; re-elected 

General Council Assessor, 77 ; notes on, 

87, 183. 
Smith, James D. M. : note on, 280. 
Smith, James R. : note on, 282. 
Smith, Dr. John : note on, 183. 
Smith, Rev. Dr. John : note on, 280. 
Smith, Professor William R. : knighted, 87 ; 

note on, 280. 
Sorley, Helen A. : note on, 185. 
Sorley, John T. : note on, 280. 
Souter, Professor Alexander: reviews Ille 

Ego, 160 ; notes on, 83, 88, 185. 
Souter, Dr. William C. : note on, 87. 
South African Students' Dinner, 176. 
Spiller, T. R. : On the March in Mesopo- 
tamia, 147. 
Squair, Major Francis W. : T.D., 280. 
Stephen, Lt.-Col. John H. : note on, 79. 
Stewart, Charles: O.B.E., 273; note on, 

280. 
Stewart, Sir David, LL.D. : death of, 96 ; 

appreciation of, by Principal Sir George 

Adam Smith, 134. 
Stewart, George : note on, 280. 
Stewart, Robert R. : note on, 88. 
Stewart, Walter A. : note on, 183. 
Stewart, William D. : death of, 192. 
Still, Rev. James L : D.D., 177. 
Still, Rev. Sydney C. : note on, 87. 
Strachan, Rev. Robert H. : note on, 183. 
Strichen, Lord, 117. 
Stuart, Alexander M. : K.C., 178; Professor 

of Law, 69. 
Students' " Gala Week," 270. 
Sutherland, Rev. David : note on, 87. 



Index to Volume VII 



295 



Sutherland, Rev. James G. : note on, 277. 
Symon, James A, ; note on, 280. 
Symon, James D. : The Cover-Design of 
** Alma Mater,'' 27. 

Taylor, James G. : note on, 89. 

Taylor, Thomas M. : note on, 88. 

Taylor, William : note on, 184. 

Tennant, William R. : note on, 185. 

Teny, Professor C. S. ; note on, 186. 

Thain, Alexander J. R. : note on, 183. 

Tho' I be AuV. By Charles Murray, 26. 

Thorn, Donaldson R. : death of, 192 ; ap- 
preciation of, by Principal Sir George 
Adam Smith, 138. 

Thomson, Douglas M. : note on, 282. 

Thomson, Dr. James : note on, 183. 

Thomson, Peter : death of, 287. 

Thomson, James A. K. : Classical Lecturer, 
Harvard, 82. 

Thomson, John : bequests to University, 
76, 167. 

Thomson, Professor J. Arthur: his Secrets 
of Animal Life reviewed, 60 ; note on, 
88. 

Thomson, Rev. Dr. William : note on, 280. 

Thomson, Rev. William S. : note on, 183. 

Tillyduke School in the Middle of Last Cen- 
tury. By John Don, 152. 

Tocher, James F. : notes on, 178, 280. 

Topping, Jeanie B. : note on, 281. 

Trail, Professor James W. H. : death of, 91 ; 
appreciations of, 29-45 ; bequeaths his 
books to University Library, 76. 

Trail, Dr. John A. : death of, 287. 

Translations, 53. 

Troup, Robert S. : Professor, Oxford, 82 ; 
note on, 281. 

Turner, Dr. Adam A. : note on, 87. 

Tutorial classes, 270. 

University, The : bequests and gifts, 76, 
167 ; gift to Library, 168 ; Secretary ap- 
pointed, 167 ; visit of Grants Committee, 
268 ; visit of Prince Henry, 264 ; war 
memorial, 80. 



University and the War, The, 78, 168. 
University Greek Play, The. By Professor 

John Har rower, 109. 
University Topics, 68, 164, 263. 
University War Record. By M. D. Allar- 

dyce, 145. 
Urquhart, Dr. C. T. D. : death of, 96. 
Urquhart, Rev. Robert : note o \ 183. 

Valentine, Alfred B. : note on, 185. 
Van Beneden of Liege. By Sir William L. 
Mackenzie, 243. 

Walker, Rev. Frederic S. M. ; note on, 281. 

Walker, Rev. Dr. George : note on, 184. 

Walker, Dr. Robert: letter on Portrait of 
Dr. James Melvin, 246. 

Watt, Dr. Henry J. : note on, 185. 

Wattie, Katharine B. : note on, 88. 

Webb, Clement C. J. : notes on, 186, 282. 

Webster, Rev. James M. : note on, 184. 

Williamson, Alexander M. : note on, 184. 

Williamson, Dr. George : note on, 178. 

Williamson, W. T. H. : Chemistry Lec- 
turer, Edinburgh, 83. 

Wilson, James A. : note on, 87. 

Wilson, William S. : note on, 281. 

Wisely, Rev. Dr. George: note on, 184. 

Wiseman, Herbert H. E. : note on, 184. 

Wiseman, Rev, Dr. James : note on, 281. 

Wood, Rev. Canon Alexander : note on, 88. 

Wood, Annabella : note on, 282. - 

Wood, Dr. Douglas : F.R.C.S., Ed., 84. 

Wright, Alick G. : reviews Problems of 
National Education, 58; Instruction in 
Indian Secondary Schools, 59 ; The 
Training of Teachers, 59 ; death of, 192. 

Wright, Rev. George T. : notes on, 79, 184. 

Wright, Rev. John R. ; note on, 184. 

Yeh, Shao Ying : note on, 89. 
Young, Charlotte R. D. : note on, 88. 
Young, Dr. William P. ; note on, 184. 
Youngson, Rev. Dr. John W. : death of, 

287. 
Younie, Rev. John : note on, 281. 



Illustrations. 



The Rt. Hon. Sir William MacGregor, G.C.M.G Frontispiece 

HiLLOCKHEAD CoTTAGE, TowiE To face page 4 

The Source of the Cover-design of "Alma Mater" ... ,,27 

Professor James W._H. Trail ,, 29 

Sir David Stewart, LL.D ,, 134 

Donaldson Rose Thom, M.A ,,138 

'AiN Dibs „ 148 

The Tigris at Hadra „ 148 

A Difficult Track — Kurdistan ,, 149 

Vale of Rawoka (?) Kurdistan „ 149 

Second March from Zako, Kurdistan ,, 150 

A Straggling Column — Kurdistan „ 150 

Mohammed Hussain ,, 151 

Ancient Bridge on the Khabur ........ ,, 151 

Dr. Mair of Earlston ,» 224 

John Lees, M.A., D.Litt. ,, 236 

James Melvin, LL.D „ 246 



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