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) 



A 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL 

Slnttquattan 

AND 

PICTURESQUE TOUR 

IN 

FRANCE AND GERMANY. 

BY THE REV. 

THO. FROGNALL DIBDIN, F.R.S. S.A. 
VOLUME I. 




DEI OMNIA PLENA. 



LONDON: 

PSIKTED FOa THE AUTHOR, BY W. BULMER AND W. XI< OL, 

AND SOLD BY PAYNE AND F088, LONGMAN, HURST AND CO. 
J. AND A. ARCH^ R. H. EVANS, R. TRIPHOOK, 
AND JOHN MAJOft. 

1821. 



TO THE 



PRESIDENT AND MEMBERS 



OF THE 




THESE VOLUMES 

ARE RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 
BY THE AUTHOR. 



N appearing before the Public 
for the first time in the charac- 
ter of a Traveller, I am naturally 
desirous, like most candidates 
for fame in a similar situation, 
of throwing myself upon the liberality of those 
whom I address. 

Since the establishment of peace upon the Con- 
tinent, the English have eagerly yielded to their 
well-known ardour and curiosity, in visiting those 
countries, firom which, by a long and apparently 
interminable state of warfare, they had been pre- 
viously excluded. In consequence, the wealth of 
Great Britain has been plentifiiUy scattered upon 
VOL. I. b 




ii 



PREFACE. 



the soils of Italy, France, and Gennany ; and we 
have been fevoured, in return, with many valuable 
publications, in which the character, antiquities, 
or peculiarities, of the countries visited, have been 
described with ability and truth. 

But, while one Traveller has confined his at- 
tention exclusively to Antiquities ; and another, 
with the same exclusive attention, to the produce 
and properties of soil; while a third has travelled 
for the purposes of political economy — a fourth 
as a statistical, and a fifth as apicturesqtie, tourist; 
there have been few or none who have favoured 
us with an account of the treasures of the 
Libraries, or of the general literary character; 
of those people with whom they have associated. 
For the first time, therefore, the Public will here 
find some attempt to gratify them in this important 
branch of information. 

Not that I can boast of having done much, 
beyond exciting the curiosity of the more en- 
terprising to make further researches, and to 
impart more valuable information : yet I would 
fain believe that, in a Tour which professes to 
be " BIBLIOGRAPHICAL," as wcU as "antiquarian 
and picturesque," there have been some suc- 
cessful attempts to inform the lovers of literature. 



PREFACE. 



and the collectors of books, of the various and 
almost inexhaustible sources of information which 
the Libraries of foreign countries contain. And 
perhaps it may be here worth remarking, that there 
are few pursuits, more gratifying" to foreigners, 
or more likely to lead to useful results, than those 
comiected with the object firnt specified in the 
title-page of this work. In the furtherance of 
such object, I am wilhng to hope that, as, on the 
one hand, I have always found the friendliest dis- 
position to assist my researches, so, on the other, 
there has been no backwardness in a grateful ac- 
knowledgment of favours conferred. Where so 
many have contributed their kind offices, it would 
be invidious to mention some names in exclu- 
sion of others ; and a register of the whole would 
occupy too large a portion of these prefetory 
remarks. But it is here the less necessary, as the 
names and the services of the persons alluded to 
will be found recorded in the body of the work. 

It will therefore be for the reader to determine 
in what manner I have done justice to the " rich 
and rare" volumes, in manuscript and print, which 
have been imreservedly submitted to my inspec- 
tion. My object has been to select, and bear 
away, many of the curious, splendid, and interest- 



iv 



PREFACE. 



ing specimens of art, of the lriK>Ctitfni0/*' con- 
jtdiiiLed ia these volumes ; and ^rhich, till their pre- 
jieiit appearance, were probably scarcely known 
— even to their possessors. If, by means of the 
beautiful embellishments selected from such vo- 
lumes— and especially from those in the royal 
libraries of Paris and Vienna* — may be said 
tp have thrown a few flowers upon the otherwise 
unalluring path of Bibliography^ I shall never 
.consider my time mis-spent, nor the expenses, 
attendant on my labours, misappUed. I am, how- 
ever, abundantly persuaded that very much, of the 
same character, yet remains to be accompUshed ; 
which, should the present attempt be crowned 
with success, may possibly stimulate other travel- 
lers tp more prosperous undertakings. For myself, 
the present is both ajirst and final effort. 

* The reader will be pleased to examine the pages, in the 
y^cxind and third volumes, under the above running titles; in 
iv)v(ch he will disoover, together with several okiginal portraits, 
(}\ere published for the first time) a great many beautiful spe- 
cimens of art which have been hid for centuries from general 
knowledge. The series of wood cuts, illustrative of the block-books 
pr^ry^ at Mvxich, form striking contrasts to the more de- 
licate specim^ of art" just alluded to. But such rude repl-c- 
sentations are not without their use — even if they be considered 
only as a supplement to Heineken^s Idte GerUrale (Tune Collection 
Completie'^es Estampes. 



FREFAGE. 



V 



^..ABiicaaQdittfttliispiiimdt, has been the desiM^ 
pwaMfling the makradb of Instnictionyot (>f Amu^ 
mexkU common to: the lower orders^ ^ tihe' p^dple 
iHiere I have resided. These miauuals are m 
verse and in prose ; and I haTte endeavotirdd both 
to diversify and enHven the foUbvnng pages, by 
tibe introduction of specimens or extracts fitmi 
dmnr^'-^pecially throughout the account of the 
tour in Normandy. Whether in Ihe unpi;'enije- 
ditated BaUad^ or the systematic Cdteehvimf^\t 
will be 'Observed that the genius and charactel^ of 
the people are yet the same. There will be f5rei- 
quently found, in either composition, the s^e 
peculiarity of custom, the same naivete 6f expries- 
fflon, and the same felicity of reply. Whether the 
BUnual be moral or religious— and whether the 
song treat of chivalry or of love —it generally jiitr- 
takes of that spirit and raciness which defies trans- 
fusion into a different language. In the notes, will 
be found accounts of, and extracts from, rare and 
Gwrious pieces, which may reward the toil of dili- 
gent perusal. 

So much in explanation of the bibliographical 
ol]gects in this Tour. The second object, as the 

•Sec Vol. i. pp. 133— 6: 138—146: 224; 316—321: 435— 
444: Vol. iL pp. 3: 23: 48—52: 54: &c. 



vi PR£FAC£. 

title-page announces, is antiquarian; or con- 
nected with the Antiquities of the several places 
visited. These antiquities have been principally 
architectural^ with the exception of such as are in- 
dicated chiefly in the second volume,* Of those, 
which are distinctly architectural, the views of 
the Cathedral and the Rm du Bac, at Rouen ; of 
the Church of St. Pierre and of the Abbey of St. 
StepJieny at Caen ; of the Cathedrals of Coutances, 
Strasbourg, UJm, and Vienna ; of the churches of 
St. Mary and St. James, at Nuremberg — ^together 
with the monasteries of Molk and Gottwic, and por- 
tions of the crypt at Freysing, and the church of 
the Monastery of St. James, at Ratisbon — ^as well 
as the old Palace or Castle at Heidelberg — 
may alone be considered sufficient to establish the 
propriety of the second epithet in the title-page of 
this work. But there are other decorations, smaller 
in size, yet not less briUiant in execution, which 
may be equally classed in the same department.*!' 
It remains to notice the portion of the work 

* This exception refers more particularly to the Plates from 
page 491 to p. 500. 

f Of these smaller antiquarian decorations, the Castle of Argues^ 
near Dieppe ; the remains (vfthc old castle xoalls^ the basso-relievo 
of the Champ de Drap (tOr, and the figures upon the monuments 
of Cardinal Amboise, and the Senesclud de Bre^e, at Rouen ; the 



PREFACE. 



which is denominated picturesque ; and of 
which some of the embellishments necessarily par** 
take of the antiquarian character. The View of 
Rouen, on the road to Havre ; of Cofudebec ; of 
Montmorenci Castle, at Tancarville ; of Falaise 
Castle ; of the Boulevards at Paris ; of the Old 
Gateway and New Gateway, at Nancy; of the 
Market Place and H6tel de ViUe at Stuttgart; 
of the Citadel of Salzburg; of Albert Durer's 
Street, hi Nuremberg ; and the Halt of Pilgrims 
to Gotttoic Monastery to say nothing of minor 
views, of the same character, may iairiy en* 
tide me to this popular epithet ; even at a time 
when almost every bookseller's shop is teem- 
ing with publications professing to be similar 
views of countries abroad and at home. I will 
not enter upon the invidious task of comparing 
these, with others which are just now claiming 
the attention of the public ; but it is equally 
my duty and inclination to affirm, that the beauty 

old lumses at Caen ; the fac-similes of the Bayeux Tapestry^ (of 
which the larger plate is perfectly unrivalled,) at Bayeux ; the 
Castle at Viee ; the Castle and supposed head of WiUiam the 
Conqueror, at Falaise ; the dd buildings, and cathedral oma^ 
ments, at Steasboubg — together witli the illustrations, of a similar 
kind, at Ratisbon and Nueembebg, are among the principal . . 
which claim the peculiar attention of the reader. 



Tiii 



PREFACE. 



ef the views in this work; is at least equalled by 
Hkek ^fidelity. 

rit is therefore but a necessary consequence of 
the foregoing prraiises^ to introduce the nione of 
the A&TisT, to whom, after all, these pages are 
probably indebted for their chief source of attrac* 
tion. Mr^ George Lewis, who accompanied me, 
has here given such proofs of a varied and happy 
talent, that I hardly know ( absit invidia" ) where 
to look for a union of such attainments in any 
other Uving Artist. When I say this, I am not 
unmindful of the superior claims of merit, in a 
knowledge of architectural perspective and an* 
tiquities, which distinguish the efforts of Coney, 
Mackenzie, Blore, Nash, Wild, and Cot- 
man* — ^names, which are equally a glory to the 

* Of the above artists, two only have ventured to exercise their 
{^dls upon the shores of Normandy. Mr. Cotman is first in the 
cmder of time. His work will be found occasionally referred to, 
in the first volume of these pages. They are entitled Anglo- 
NoEMAN Antiquities ; of which four parts (in folio) have al- 
ready appeared. This publication consists entirely of architec- 
tural and antiquarian views, with a slender portion of text, without 
Ihei^ry pretensions ; and these views are both drawn and engraved 
by the author. They are thoroughly artist-like ; without minute 
finish or marking of the parts, or much breadth of shadow : and 
they reflect very great credit upon the talents of their author. Some- 
thing in the shape of a rival publication has recently appeared in 
France, under the title of Mommens NormandSy by J olimens : ac- 



PRSFACB. 



ix 



9itaaiid tp the age. But the Nader will cast his 
eye upon the views included in the ANTiQUARiADr 
department of this wod:, and he will perceive 
that Mr. Lewis is nearly as powerfid in the de^ 
lineati«n of Gothic remains^ as of picturesque ap- 
pearanoes of nature^ and of national character in 
groups of the common people. It was 4ue to 
talents of this descripticni, and more especially was 
it due to a Uberal public, that the copies from sudi 
a pmeil should be worthy of the originals ; and 
I am willing to hope that, as no expanse has been 
spared, and no pains and exertions have been 
withheld, the engravings in these volumes may$ 
upon the whole, be considered a s{dendid and 
permanent monument of the progress of B&iTistt 
Art. - . . ■ 

oMnpamed by letter-press, in folio. The plates are lithognq)hical — 
but they are what artists call woolly and feeble.'*' Nevertheless, they 
occasionally exhibit architectural relics which are dear to the cu- 
rious eye of an Antiquary. The performances of Mr. Mackenzie 
are of a class quite different to either of the foregoing. They are 
minute, elaborate, and highly finished drawings, chiefly of the Ca- 
THBDRAL Aktiqoitibs of France - with the figures supplied by 
the pencil of a very able native artist, M. L akglois. It is hardly 
possible to say too much in commendation of these exquisite, and 
really matchless, productions; and when the public learn that they 
will be made acquainted with them through the burins of the two 
Lb Keuxs . . . they will have only to look forward to a gratification, 
which, of its kind, cannot possibly be exceeded. 



PREFACE. 



Reverting to the Text^and being desirous of 
detaining the reader as short a time as possible— 
it may be necessary, in the first place, to state, 
that these Letters must be understood as having 
been written abroad; and that the Notes are 
necessarily the result of subsequent intelligence, 
since the author's retum to England. In the 
second place, it may be permitted me to re- 
mark, that, of the countries here described^ Nor- 
mandy (although in France) may be considered 
a distinct and peculiar country ; and in a great 
measure new to British readers. Since the ap- 
pearance of DucareVs very pompous but very im- 
perfect work upon Anglo-Norman Antiquities,* 
there has been, with some few recent exceptions,"!" 
scarcely any thing deserving of the careful perusal 

* It was published in 1768, in a thin folio volume, with a good 
number of plates ; which latter are remarkable only for . . . their 
general infidelity, and want of the most ordinary artist^like talent. 

some Jew recent eaceptionsyl The principal of these " excep- 
tions,^ is the work of my friend Mr. Dawson Turner, under the 
tide of Some Account of a Tour in Normandy^ S^c. published by J. 
and A. Arch, in 1820, in two octavo volumes, in a manner equally 
Czeditable to the author, the artists, and the printer. I hardly know 
flo el^ant a specimen of a Provincial Press. But tliis is only 
a secondary merit ; the style is that of a lettered gentleman, and 
the researches and opinions, which the work developes, are those of a 
sober and sensible antiquary. The copper-plate embellishments 



PREFACE. 



xi 



of an English aBtiquary . . respecting a country^ 
from which our Kings, and a great portion of our 
Nobility, have sprung — ^and in which many of 
the churches and castles are supposed to have 
been erected either by English money or by 
English hands. Nor is the fertility of its soil, 
and beauty of its landscape, (which latter har- 
monises so perfectly with its objects of art) less 
deserving of the admiration of the traveller: 

are entirely by female hands . . the dearest to the author which 
could have been employed . . and if they are sometimes slight, or 
sometimes incomplete, they are generally delicate and faithful, 
and rarely fail to arrest attention and receive applause. Mr. 
Turner was earlier in the Norman field than myself ; but it has 
been gratifying to me to observe, that, without any previous or 
subsequent communication, we have formed many similar opinions 
respecting the same objects of art and antiquity. We have, also, 
without the least previous knowledge, devoted pretty nearly the 
same number of pages to the same countries described. In our 
respective performances, however, some places will be found to have 
been visited by one traveller, which the other omitted to see : and 
vice versa. Upon the whole, Mr. Turner's performance is a valu- 
able addition to our stock of knowledge respecting the architec- 
tural Antiquities of Nobmandy. A yet more recent publica- 
tion upon Normandy is that of Mrs. Stothabd, under the title of 
" Letters mritten durinff a Tour tlirough Normandy y Brittany^ 
and other Parts ofFrancey in the year 1818 ; published by Messrs. 
Longman and Co. in 1820, 4 to. This work appears to treat more 
fully of Brittany than of Normandy ; but I have as yet had no 
opportunity of examining its contents. The platesy for the sake 
of the name and reputation of Mr. Stotha&d, should have been 
elsewhere. 



YfkS^, hkj tiiQ)ito8(aime > of the «Kyitalhoti'^^ 
ii|^,fi!eq«en%fcbsc^ those' oh&nukeriili^di^ of a 
^le^j^foA^ ynA which our antiquaiiah ^ei^ have 
be^ £iiDUiar in ths illuminated pages of the 
fifteenth century. r , . 

.,The first volume of this work, together with a 
sw^U : portion of the second, is exclusively devoted 
tQ Nonnimdy. The treasures of the Public 
LiBBJLRiES OF Paris fiimish the chief materials 
of the second volume ; and a portion of the third 
still belongs to France. In consequence, the 
account of Germany is confined within narrower 
limits than was originally intended : yet I am wil- 
ling to hope that it will appear that the biblio- 
graphical and architectural antiquities of 

* ihe costume of the common people.] — The smaller plates (en- 
gratred with so much talent by the several artists whose names are 
attached to them) will fully justify the truth of the above remark. 
These pistes abound more frequently in the first volume; as 
in the groups at Dieppe, Rouen, Caen, and St, Lo, — Normandy 
being a country fertile in the exhibition of ancient and curious 
costume. But they are also seen at Paris, (vol. ii. p. 499.) Stras- 
bourg, (vol. iii. p. 82.) and Munich (vol. iii. p. 255.) In respect to 
the larger subjects — such as the Fille de Chambre at Dieppe, at 
Caen, and at Nuremberg — it should be observed that these are re- 
{Hi-esented with great attention to truth ; and perfectly divested of 
that theatrical and artificial air given to similar subjects by French 
Artists. They also serve to prove, that the high caps and stiff 
garments, which have delighted the curious Antiquary in andent 
Sluminations, are yet fiur from being ideal ornaments. 



that, Jiug^^XwilMiW^s;^^ not been 

iiegle9jl;^.. ,ijk^^ fanner department, the librti- 
rie^.pf Mu^jRa^adViBHiTA afford inexhanstiUe 
su}]jject^ of s«leqtiaii and' admiration ; and to have 
seen the celebrated purple MS. of a portion of the 
J^o^k ^ G^m^^rradomed with the art of the 
ffiurtb centuryr-'has, alone, almost requited the 
toil^^nd pains of a journey of no very ordinary ex- 
tepit* In the department of architectural anti- 
guitifs, the cities of. Ratisbon and Nuremberg 
ar^ of themselves, sufficient to supply the most 
curious and interesting details for a work of at 
lefust half the extent of the present. 

One word more, and I have done. Whatever 
may have been the objects of other travellers, or 
the feelings with which those objects have been 
viewed by them — whether as connected with 

* purple MS. of a portion of the book of Genesis.] This MS. 
I apprehend to be the oldest extant. It has been before des- 
cribe (on the exclusive authority of Lambecius) in the Bibliogra^ 
jhicaiJ)ecameronj voL L p. xliii.— iv. Once, for all, let me be here 
allowed to say» that, whenever that work and the Bibliotheca Sper^ 
ceriana have been quoted, in the following pages, it has been only 
whex^ they were conceived to afiPord the best information, within the 
au^qr^ knowledge, upon the subject treated of. I would cheers 
fulfy wave the rigjbit, which every man possesses, of doing what he 
plcpaies witH his qmyi property, if I thought the imputation of 
e^oHUm could be justly said to apply to sudi self-reference. 



xiv 



PREFACE. 



art or with society — I have never ceased to bear 
in mind, that an attachment to the laws and 
liberties of one*s oum comitry, could never be in- 
creased by a systematic disparagement of those 
of others: that civilities and kindnesses conferred, 
called for grateful returns ; and that the senti- 
ments which possessed me, at an early period of 
my continental visit,* have never ceased to operate 
till the moment of my return. This confession 
implies neither unqualified praise, nor unqualified 
censure, of the manners and customs of the coun- 
tries visited. It neither checks fi*eedom of thought, 
nor truth of observation — ^but least of all does it 
betray a fiixed and malign disposition to disown 
the soil of one's birth, to forget the country which 
has yielded protection to our persons and pro- 
perties, and to traduce those laws which have 
long rendered her the envy and admiration of the 
world. If, on the one hand, I may say with a wri- 
ter,-!* when speaking of the character of France — 
Gens, humanitate in exteros, benevolentia in eru- 
ditos, et facili in omnes comitate, pr^e aliis in- 
siGNis " — I trust, on the other hand, that I may be 

• See vol. i. 183, 4. 

f Buckley ; in his dedication of the edition of De Thau's 
Histaria Temporia to Dr. Mead. 



PREFACE. XV 

permitted to conclude, in the words of a much 
higher authority,* — I suppose that, wherever 
mention is made of countries, manners, or men, 
the English People, among the first that shall 
be praised, may deserve to be accounted a right 
pious, right honest, and right hardy nation/' 

Thomas Frognall Dibdin. 

P. S. I had forgotten to state, that the references, 
in some of the notes, to the -/Edes Althorpian^ 
must, till the publication of that work — towards 
the close of the year — be considered as premature. 
When these volumes were put to press, it was 
imaged that they would have been preceded by 
the work in question. The unavoidable cause of 
the delay of that work, is sufficiently known to 
the public. 

♦ Milton:— irorfo, vol. i. p. 217 : fd. edit. I698 



CONTENTS. 



VOL. I. 



C 



CONTENTS. 



VOLUME I. 
Letter I. 

Passage to Dieppe^ - - - - p. 1 
Letter II. 

Dieppe. Fisheries. Streets. Churches of St. Jacques 
and St. Remi. Divine fForship. Military Mass, 9 

Letter III. 

ViUage and Cattle of Argues. Sabbath Amusements. 
Manners and Customs. Boulevards, - - 26 

Letter IV. 

Rouen. Approach. Boulevards. Population. Street- 
Scenery, - - - - 36 

Letter V. 

Ecclesiastical Architecture. The Cathedral. Monu^ 
ments. Religious Ceremonies. The Abbey of St. 
Ouen. The Churches of St. Maclou, St. Fincent, St. 
Vivian, St. Gervais, and St. Paul, - - 47 

Letter VI. 

Halles de Commerce. Place de la Pucelle d^ Orleans i 
(Jeanne d!Arc). Basso-Relievo of the Champ de 
Drap d^Or. Palace and Courts of Justice, 89 



XX 



CONTENTS. 



Letter VII. 

Rouen. The Quays. Bridge of Boats. Rue du Bac. 
Rue de Rohec. Eatuc de Robec et d^Auhette. Mont 
Ste. Catherine. Hospices — Ginirale et d^ Humanity, 

108 

Letter VIII. 

Early Typography at Rouen. Modem printed Chap 
Books. Booksellers. Book Collectors^ - 123 

Letter IX. 

The Public Library. Account of some of the more 
curious and rare MSS. and Printed Books, 161 

Letter X. 

Departure from Rouen. St. Georges de Bocherville. 
Duclair. Marivaux. The Abbey of Jumiegts. Ar- 
rival at CaudebeCj - 185 

Letter XI. 

Caudebec. Lillebonne. Bolbec. Tankarville. Mont- 
morend Castle. Havre de Grace, - 208 

Letter XII. 

Havre de Grace. Honfieur. Journey to Caen, 242 

Letter XIII. 

Caen. Soil. Society. Education. A duel. Old 
houses. The Abbey of St. Stephen. Church of St. 
Pierre de Darnetal. Abbaye de la Sainte Trinity. 
Other Public Edifices, - - 261 



CONTENTS. 



xxi 



Letter XIV. 

Caen. Literary Society. Abhi de la Rue. Messrs. 
Pierre AimS Lair and Lamouroux. Medal of MaL- 
herbe. Booksellers. The Public Library. Memoir 
of the late M. Moysant, public Librarian. Manu^ 
scripts and printed Books. Protestant Place of 
tVorship. Courts of Justice, - - 308 

Letter XV. 

Bayeux. Cathedral. Ordination of Priests and Dea- 
cons.^ Crypt of the Cathedral. A Mysterious Inter- 
view, - - - - 345 

Letter XVI. 

Bayeux. Fisit near St. Loup. M. Pluquet, Apo* 
thecary and Book Fendor. Visit to the Bishop. The 
Chapter Library. Description of the Bayeux Tapes- 
try, with Facsimiles. Trade and Manufactures, 359 

Letter XVIL 

Bayeux to Coutances. St. Lo. Adventure at St. Gilles. 
CouTANCES. The Cathedral, Environs. Aqueduct. 
Market-day. Public Library. Establishment for 
the Clergy, - - - - 392 

Letter XVIIL 

Journey to Granville. Granville, Ulle Dieu, St. 
Sever. Town and Castle o/'Vire, - 415 

Letter XIX. 

Vire. Bibliography. Monsieur Adam. Monsieur de 
la Renaudiere. Olivier Basselin. M, Sdguin. The 
Public Library^ - - • - 428 



xxii 



CONTENTS. 



VOLUME II. 

Letter XX. 

Departure from Fire. Condi. Pont Ouilly. Arrival 
at Falaise. Hotel of the Grand Turc. The Castle 
of Falaise. Bibliomaniacal Interview , - p.\ 

Letter XXI. 

Mans. Mouton. Church of Ste. Trinitd. Comte de 
la Fresnaye. Guibray Church. Supposed head of 
William the Conqueror. M. Langevin, Historian of 
Falaise. Printing Offices, - - 21 

Letter XXII. 

A Sabbath at Falaise. Departure. Journey to Paris. 
Dreux. Houdan. Versailles. Entrance into Paris, 58 

Letter XXIII. 

Paris. The Boulevards. Public Buildings. Street- 
Scenery. Churches, Sgc. Musee des Monumens 
Francois. Fountains, - - - 76 

Letter XXIV. 

General Description of the Bibliothique du Roi. The 
Librarians, - - . - 122 

Letter XXV. 
Account of Illuminated MSS. in the Royal Library, 155 



Letter XXVI. 
The same subject continued. 



204 



CONTENTS. 



Letter XXVII. 
Paris. Account of some of the early printed and rare 



BooJcs, in the Royal Library y - - 246 

Letter XXVIII. 
Conclusion of the Account of the Royal Library. The 
Library of the Arsenal^ - - 300 

Letter XXIX. 



Library of Ste. Genevieve. The AbbS Mercier St. 
Leger. Library of the Mazarine College, or Instil 
tute. Private Library of the King. Mons. Barbier, 
Librarian, - - - 342 

Letter XXX. 

Some Account of the late Abbd Rive. Booksellers. 
Printers. Book Binders, - - 381 

Letter XXXI. 
Men of Letters. Dom Brial. The Abbi B^tencourt. 
Messrs. Gail^ Millin, and Langles. A Roxburghe 
Banquet, - . - - 423 

Letter XXXII. 

The Collections of Mons. Denon, M. Quintin Craufurd, 
and the Marquis de Sommariva, - 453 

Letter XXXIII. 

Notice of M. Willemins Monumens Francais in^dits. 
Miscellaneous Antiquities. Present State of the Fine 
Arts. General Observations on the National Cha- 
racter, - - . . 491 

Letter XXXIV. 

Journey from Paris to Strasbourg. Nancy, 521 



xxiv CONTENTS. 



VOLUME m. 

Letter XXXV. 
Strasbourg. Establiskmentof the Protestant Religion. 
The Cathedral. Other Ecclesiastical Buildings. The 
Public Library J - - - P-^ 

Letter XXXVL 
Society. Environs of Strasbourg. Domestic Archi- 
tecture. Manners and Customs. Free Masonry. 
Literature. Language, . - 74 

Letter XXXVII. 
Strasbourg to Stuttgart. Baden. The Elder Schweig- 
hasuser. Stuttgart. The Faustus of Goethe, 101 

Letter XXXVIII. 

Stuttgart. The Public Library. The Royal Library , 

131 

Letter XXXIX. 
The Royal Palace. A Bibliographical Negotiation. 
Dannecker the Sculptor. Environs of Stuttgart, 

166 

Letter XL. 

Departure Jrom Stuttgart. Ulm. Augsbourg. The 
Picture Gallery at Augsbourg^ - - 180 

Letter XLI. 

Augsbourg. Civil and Ecclesiastical Architecture. 
Population. Trade. The Public Library, 218 



CONTENTS. 



XXV 



Letter XLII. 

Munich. Churches. Royal Palace. Picture Gallery. 
The Public Library, - - 238 

Letter XLIII. 

JPurther Book- Acquisitions. Society. The Arts. 
Lithography, - 299 

Letter XLIV. 

Freysing. Landshut. Altoting. Salzburg. The Mo- 
nastery of St. Peter, - - - 322 

Letter XLV. 

Salzburg to Chremsminster. The Lake Gmunden. 
The Monastery of Chremsminster. Lintz, 360 

Letter XL VI. 

The Monasteries of St. Florian, Molk^ and Gottwic, 

386 

Letter XLVIL 

Vienna. The Imperial Library. Account of IHumi- 
nated MSS. and early printed Books^ - 446 

Letter XLVIIL* 

Population. Streets and Fountains. Churches. Con- 
vents. Palaces. Theatres. The Prater. The Em~ 
peror^s Private Library. Collection of Duke AU 
bert. The Ramparts. Suburbs. Monastery of 
Clostemeuburg. Capuchin Monastery in the Sub- 
urbs. Departure from Vienna, - - 535 

SUPPLEMENT. 
Ratisbon, Nuremberg, Manheim - - i — Ixii 
* This is numbered^ erroneously, XLIX. 



PLATES WITHOUT TEXT. 



VOL. I. 

To hce page 



Crucifix at Dieppe • ... 7 

Fille de Chambre^ Dieppe - - - 32 

South transept of Rouen Cathedral - • 50 

Rue du Bac, Rouen - - - - 1 12 

View of Rouen^ on the road to Havre - - 188 

Caudebec, the Heights .... ^Qg 

Montmorenci Castle^ Tancarville - . - 234 

FUle de Chambre^ Caen . . . . 268 

View of the Abbey of St. Stephen, Ditto - - ^82 

Church of St. Pierre de Dametal, Ditto ... ^97 

Portrait of Harold, from the Bayeux Tapestry - 378 

Aqueduct and Cathedral of Coutances ... 4^9 

Market-Place and Fountain, Vire . . 421 



VOL. II. 

Falaise Castle, Normandy - - - 10 

Boulevards Italiens, Paris - - - - 77 

John, King of France from a coeval painting - - 140 

Figure from an ancient Ivory Diptych of the Vlth Century (No. 1.) 146 
Figure of Christ, on ancient Brass Bookbinding - (No. 2.) 146 
Soldiers sleeping near the Sepulchre of, from the same (No. 3.) 146 
Charles the Bald, from a Latin Bible of the IXth Century 162 
TheEmperorLotharius,from a MS. ofthe Gospels of the same period 164 
Louisa of Savoy, Mother of Francis I. from a coeval MS. - 187 
Ann of Britanny, from a similar MS. - - 190 

Louis the Twelfth, from a similar MS. - - 215 

John, Duke of Britanny, from a similar MS. - - 225 

Figure of Christ, (folded) fiiom the Prayer Book of Charlemagne 373 
Portraitof A. A. Barbier ... 376 



LIST OF PLATES. 



To face page 

Portrait of Mons. Chardin^ Bookseller - - 400 

Portrait of Dom Brial - 428 

PiBani, the Medallist .... 458 

The Knife and Case of Diane de Poictiers - - 493 

Faience Plate, from B. Palessi ... 494 

Statues in the grand Porch of the Cathedral at Chartres - 494 

Wood Cut of St. Bemardinus - - - - 515 

Portrait of the late A. B. Millin - - 524 

Old Gate, Nancy - - (No. 1) 538 

New Gate, Nancy - - - (No. 2) 538 



VOL. III. 

Front View of Strasbouig Cathedral - - 12 

Suburbs of Strasbourg - . - . 53 

Portrait of J. Schweighsuser, Sen. - - 1 lo 

Crucifix at Stuttgart - - - - 1 18 

Hotel de Ville and Market-Place at Stuttgart - - 136 

Representation of the Trinity, from an illuminated MS. of the 

Xllth Century, in the King*s private library at Stuttgart 159 

Ulm Cathedral - ... 191 

Folded Cut of four Female Figures, from an ancient wooden block 

at Augsbourg .... 234-5 

Gaspard Hitter, a Bookbinder of the sixteenth century - 274 

Wood Cut of St. Christopher, at Munich - - 277 

Fac-simile of a Dead Christ, copper- plate of, of the date of 1462 278 
Fac-simile of a copper-plate Engraving of a Salvator Mundi, with 

the Initials £. S. as the Engraver - - - ibid. 

Wood Cut from an old Dance of Death - - 279 

Wood Cut of the Resurrection - - 284 

Wood Cut, — from the Life of St. Meinart - - 285 

Another — from ditto - - - ibid. 

Pillars in the Crypt at Freysing ... S26 

Citadel, Salzburg ... 347 

Monastery at Molk, in Austria ... 4og 

Berthold Dietmayr, Restorer of the Monastery at Ditto - 415 

Halt of Pilgrims in the road to Gottwic Monastery - - 422 

Portrait of J. Adam de Bartsch ... 443 

Interior of the Imperial Library at Vienna - - 454 



LIST OF PLATES. 

To (ace page 

Jaosimile^ from the purple MS. of the Pentateuch, Sec. IV., in 



the same library .... 459 

St. Jerom, from an Ivory Diptych in Ditto . - 460 

The Emperor Wenceslaus and his Queen, from a coeval MS. Bible 462 

Fac- simile from the same ... 463 

Saint Catherine - - . . 4^ 
Saint Agnes ... . 

Sidnt Margaret ... n^d, 

Leopold de Sempach .... 475 



Song, from an old MS. of Sir Tristan - - 476 

Fac-simile from the Breviaire d* Amour MS. of the Xlllth Century 479 
Fac-simile of the Autograph of Tasso's Gerusalemme Conquistata 482 
The Cathedral Church of St. Stephen, Vienna - - 548 

Master and Apprentice, Architects of the same - - 554 



SUPPLEMENT. 
Specimens of the Interior of the Monastery of St. James, Ra. 



tiflbon - - . - xiii 
Portrait of Dr. Charles Arbuthnot, the late President of the same xiv 

Portraits of De Murr and Panzer - - - xviii 

Interior of the Church of St. Mary, Nuremberg - xxi 

Interior of the Church of St. James, Ditto - - xxii 

Albert Durer's Street and House - - xxviii 
Fac-similes of the Paintings and Engravings of I. A. Klein, 

of Nuremberg ... - xxicviii 

Fille de Chambre, Nuremberg ... xliv 

Heidelberg Palace, or Castle ... xlviii 
Unknown Portrait, from the Collection of M. Artaria, at 

Manheim • • - - liv 



PLATES WITH TEXT. 



VOL- I. 

Beach at Brigfaton - - . . • 1 

Fish Market at Dieppe - - • - 17 

Eoce Homo, and attendant Gioup« at Dieppe - - - 80 

Market Women at Dieppe . • . - 25 

CasUe and VQlage of Arques . • - - 99 

Boulevards^ Rouen - - - - 44 

Monumental Figure of Charity^ in the Cathedral of Rouen - 57 

Ditto, of the Seneschal Brez6, in ditto - - 61 

Confession in the Abbey of St. Ouen - - - 73 

Basso-Relievo at Rouen .... ^qI 

Lemonadier and Halle de Commerce at ditto - - 109 

Castellated Remains - - - - 154 

Rocks, and view of the Seine, Tancarville ... $34 

Fteket Boat, from Havre to Honfleur - - 258 

Group of Women, Caen - - - . 253 

Old Houses at ditto - - - . 277 

House of Malherbe, ditto - - 279 

- Confession, in the Abbey-Church, at Caen - - 283 

Medal of Malherbe - .... 312 

Tapestry-roll, Bayeux . - - - - 377 

Charlatan, at St Lo - - - - 394 

Remains of Vire Castle ..... 425 



VOL. 11. 

Ancient appearance of Falaise Castle - - - 11 

Capital of an Ancient Pillar in the Interior of . - - 12 

Christ bearing his Cross at Guibray - - - 28 

Supposed Head of William the Conqueror, Falaise - 34 

Portrait of M Langevin, the Historian of Falaise - - 44 
Remains of the Castle at Houdan ... 70 

Ancient Games of the Circus, Ivory Diptych - - 1 47 
Adoration of the Magi, from the Breviary of John Duke of Bedford 178 
Chess Flay, from an illuminated MS. - - - 210 

Portraitof the Abb^MerderSt. Leger - - 361 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Portrait of Go^jet^ the PVench BibUograpber - - 379 

ZFortrait of the late Abbd Rive^ ditto ... 384 

T^ortrait of the Baron Denoa ... 459 

!Sook-binding pattern • • • • 495 

Bust of Francis I. - - - . 495 

Diane de Poictiers . - - - 497 

Blancbisseuses^ Rue St. Jacques ... 499 



VOL. III. 

Old Convent^ at Strasbouig - • • . 4 

Pignre of Clovis, on the exterior of the Cathedral at ditto -16 

Group at Prayers — Interior of ditto - - 39 

Old Houses — in the Town of ditto - - - 82 

Portrait of Melancthon> in the Picture Gallery at Augsbouig 216 

Vision of Pcregrinus> (whole length figure irradiated) - 222 

niyricusj Pope and Martyr - - - . 223 

Biarket Women at Munich - - 255 

Portrait of John Mielich, the painter - - 275 

Capital of a Pillar in the Crypt at Freysing - - 326 

View from the Window of the Public Library at Landshut 333 

figure of Michael Neander, the Friend of Budsus - - 353 

Pilgrimage to the Monastery at Gdttwic - - 433 
Esau returning from Hunting, from a MS. of the Pentateuch of 

the IVth Century, - - ■ - 458 
The Emperor Wenceslaus, and his Bathing Girls, fiiom a MS. Bible 463 
Figures in a Boat, with Music, from an illuminated MS. - 468 
Mary Magdalene, from an illuminated MS. - - 469 
Group of Females at Prayers, in the Cathedral of Vienna - 55 1 
Portrait of Charles the Bold, from an Illuminated MS. in the Em- 
peror of Austria's private Library - - - 591 



SUPPLEMENT. 

Portions of the Exterior of the Porch in the Monastery of St. James, 

at Ratisbon - - - - x 

Portion of the Castle Walls of Nuremberg, - - xvi 

Portrait of a Female at Nuremberg . - xvii 

A Hdrse, from an original design by M. Klein of Nuremberg xxxix 

The Palace of Heidelbeig, ... xlviii 




LETTER 1. 

PASSAGE TO DIEPPE. 

Dieppe, April 20, 1818. 

At length then, my dear Friend, the long projected 
" Voyage bibliographique, antiquaire, et pittoresque/* 
has begun to be carried into execution ; and the 

Voyageur" is safely landed upon the shores of Nor- 
mandy. When I think upon those pleasant strolls 
which we used occasionally to enjoy together upon 
the Downs, or on the Cliff, at Brighton — when I call 
to mind how you used to excite my curiosity, and 
inflkme my love of enterprise, by pointing to every 
accidental white sail which glimmered in the offing 
of that dreary expanse of sea ; — how you told me that 
the outward-bound vessel was carrying some adven- 
turous bibliographer to nm away with all the book- 
treasures along the shores of the Mediterranean, and 
that the inward-bound was freighted with such vo- 
lumes as Maittaire had never dreamt of, nor Panzer 
had seen— -and when you chided me for my scrupur 



2 



PASSAGE TO DIEPPE. 



lous delays^ because I was unwilling to break away 
from Decameronic engagements, till the " Ten Days 
Pleasant Discourse" were fully and feirly before the 
public : — when, I say, " I do remember me of these 
things," and look back upon that said ocean which I 
have crossed, and upon the strange and grotesque 
objects by which I am here surrounded, I cannot but 
experience a combination of feelings and of thoughts 
which it were difficult to have anticipated, and which 
it is still more difficult to describe. Without further 
preface or prologue, therefore, I shall rush at once 
upon the subject-matter of discussion. In other ^ords, 
I shall transmit to you (as you have earnestly requested 
me to do) such periodical accounts of my " travels and 
adventures** as may be most Ukely to interest yourself 
and family. Grant me all your indulgent patience, and 
all your unqualified candour. 

^ Vous voil^ done, Messieurs, k Dieppe!" — ex- 
elaimed the landlord (De La Rue) of the Grand 
H6tel d'Angleterre — as we made our way through a 
vociferating crowd of old and young, of both sexes, 
with cards of addresses in their hands, entreating us 

to take up our abode at their respective hotels 

But I know your love of method, and of minuteness of 
detail, and that you will be angry with me if I do not 
" b^gin at the beginning." Be it so then : and yet, what 
can you possibly expect in the description of that, 
whieh thousands, and perhaps tens of thousands, have 
done and said before me? 

It was surely on one of the finest of all fine days that 
I left my home, on the 14th of this present month, for 
the land of castles, churches, and ancient chivalry. The 



PASSAGE TO DIEPPE. 



3 



wind from the south-east was blowing pretty smartly 
at the time; but the sky was without a cloudy and I 
could not but look upon the brilliancy of every ex- 
ternal object as a fitvourable omen of the progress 
^nd termination of my tour. The word of departure 
being given — ^in one minute not a particle of my little 
brick dwelling was to be seen: when^ commending its 
precious inhabitants to the especial care of Heaven till 
my return^ I tenk quietly backwards upon my seat^ 
and essayed to hold discourse with my companions. 
Those companions, as you well know^ were Mr. GEORiQB 
Lb WIS, and my Son. The former, an artist of singular 
m^t and amiable manners, was selected to accom- 
pany me throughout the whole of my journey for the 
purpose of taking views, or of making copies, of what 
might be deemed curious and precious in art. 

Adverse winds, or the indolence or unwillingness of 
the Captain, detained us at Brighton two whole days 
— instead of sailing, as we were led to expect, on the 
day following our arrival there. We were to form 
the first ship*s company which had visited France 
this season. The passengers becoming clamorous as 
well as numerous, it was resolved that we should s^l 
on the Friday: when, the wind still blowing stiffly, 
with lowering clouds from the south-east — and the 
Ciq)tain still thinking his passengers out of their wits 
to desire to sail with such an almost directly adverse 
wind — we were launched upon the ocean in the jolly 
boat ; and approaching our gallant little packet, the 
Nancy commanded by Captain Blaber, the anchor 

* This niiart Ihtk vessel^ consideTed to be tbe fastest aaifing packet 
{tern Dieppe, of about 70 toii9 burden, scarcely survived our voyage 
VOL. 1. B 



4 



PASSAGE TO DIEPPE. 



was weighed^ and hoisting sail, we stood out to sea. 
The day began to improve upon us. The gloomy ap* 
pearances of the morning gradually brightened up. A 
host of black clouds rolled heavily away. The sun at 
length shone in his full meridian splendour, and the 
ocean sparkled as we cut through its emerald waves . • 

Vela dabant Iseti, et spumas salis sere ruebant. 

As we were approaching the period of a full moon, 
about four o'clock that chaste orb became faintly 
visible in the opposite horizon ; and for some two or 
three hours our spirits continued buoyant, chiefly firom 
the extraordinary beauty of the day. What moments 
were these for the indulgence of gay hope, and ardent 
expectation ! It was to be my dehUt upon a foreign 

eighteen months. Her end had nearly proved fatal to every soul oh 
board. In a dark night, in the month of September, when bound 
for Dieppe, she was struck by a heavy London brig. The crew were 
with difficulty saved — and the vessel went down within about twenty- 
five 'minutes after she had been struck. 

In former times, it should seem that the voyage was usually under- 
taken from Rye, In the Memoirs of Sir Hugh Chohnley, Knt, and 
Bart, ]687> Part II. p. xxl. 4to. there is an interesting accoimt of a 
passage from ' Rye to Deep,' (in which Sir Hugh was a passenger), 
upon a very stormy night— in which above eighty sail ' were lost 
between the entrance of the river at Rye, and the mouth of the Thames.* 
Sir Hugh was driven back but in a week afterwards tried the same 
passage with success. He concludes by describing the sailors at 
Dieppe as a sort of very troublesome and exacting seamen, and 
with the stink of the worst tobacco in the world, added such suf- 
fering to those who being subject to sea-sickness, had endured 
enough a-board a bad vessel, and small cabin, that this addition be- 
came almost intcderable. Indeed it was scarce to be endured by such 
who used not to comidain of evils at sea I' 







PASSAGE TO DIEPPE. 5 

land ; and as I supposed we neared the French coasts 
I strmned my eyes to obtain an early glimpse of somer 
thifig in the shape of cliif or jettie. But the wind con- 
tinued more determinedly in the south-east : the waves 
rose in larger masses ; and our little vessel threw up a 
heavy shower of foam as we entered upon the various 
tacks. Then it was that the pallid cheeky and heavy 
eye^ and dejected visage, became manifest : while^ to 
add to our wretchedness, the Captain told us that, on 
tacking from Beechey Head, it would be advisable for 
every one to go below — for that the wind would be 
blowing rather fresh." These " rathers," my good 
friend, sound gently enough from the mouth ; but are, 
in themselves, sometimes words of terrific import. In 
another sense^ we were to prepare for a strong breeze, 
or something like a stiff gale — although, wonderftil to 
say! the atmosphere continued cloudless. 

It is a grand sight — that vast, and apparently inter- 
minable ocean I 

maria undique et undique ccelum I 

We now darted from Beechy Head upon a long tack 
for the French coast ; and as the sun declined, we 
found it most prudent to put our Captain's advice info 
execution. Then commenced all the miseries of the 
voyage ! The moon had begun to assert her ascendancy, 
when, racked with torture and pain in our respective 
berths, a tremendous surge washed completely over the 
deck, sky-light, and binnacle : and down came in con^ 
sequence, drenched with the ^ briny wave,' the hardiest 
of our crew, who had, till then, ventured to linger 
upon deck. That crew was various ; and not without 
a few of the natives of those shores which We were 



6 



PASSAGE TO DIEPPE. 



about to viidt. Tlieir gwety however contiaued undis- 
turbed, in spite of frequent and violent indispoMtion. 

Dr. Johnson, I believe, preferred a prison to a ship — 
chiefly from the dread of fire. There are other causes 
from which a prefiarence may be given. These I will 
not enumerate. But to cut short my ship-narrative, 
suffice it only further to say, that, towards midnight, 
we heard our Ci^itain exclaim that he sal¥ the 
lights of Dieppe!** — a joyful sound to us miserable 
wretches below. There, however, we cimtinued to lie, 
tossing at anchor : it being impossible to enter the 
harbour till towards seven in the morning, owing to a 
want of sufficient water. But it was good news to find 
that we were safe, and beyond the reach of further 
ovmvhelming surges. I well remember, at this mo- 
ment, looking up towards the deck with a cheerless 
eye, and perceiving the light of the moon still linger- 
ing upon the mainnsail,— but I shall never forget how 
much more powerfully my sensations were excited, 
when, as the dawn of day made objects visible, I 
looked up, and saw an old wrinkle-visaged sailor, 
with a I'ed night cap on, begirt with large blue, puck- 
ered, short petticoats, in possession of the helm — about 
to steer the vessel into harbour ! * " Here is the true 
weather-beaten French mariner,*' thought I to myself ; 
-^^d Mr. Lewis would have given his last English 
piece of money to have sketched the face and figure of 
this picturesque old pilot. But extreme indisposition 
confined him in his berth, among the most helpless of 
the passengers. 

* The Englkh are not pennitted to bring their own vesflda into 
hariK>ur— for obvious resaons. 



PASSAGE TO DIEPPE: 



7 



About seven we were all upon deck. The' sea was 
yet swoln and agitatec^ and of a dingy colour ; while 

heavily with clouds came on the day, 

as we slowly approached the outward harbour of 
DiBPPB. A grey morning, with drizzling nun, is not 
the best^ accompaniment of a first visit to a fordgn 
shore. Nevertheless, every thing was new, and strange, 
and striking; and the huge crucifix to the right, (of 
which a representation is conveyed in this despatch) 
did not fail to make a very forcible impression. It is, 
however, sufficiently tasteless ; having the negative merit 
only of being the largest in France. As we approached 
the inner harbour, the shipping and the buildings more 
distinctly presented themselves. What a scene (said 
I to my companion) for our Calcott ! The harbour 
is large, and the vessels are entirely mercantile, with a 
plentiful sprinkling of fishing smacks — ^but the manner 
in which the latter harmonised with the tint and 
structure of the houses — the bustle upon shore — the 
casks, deal planks, ropes, and goods of every description 
upon the quays, — ail formed a most animated and 
inter^ting scene. The population seemed countless, 
and chiefly females ; whose high caps and enormous 
ear-rings, with the rest of thdr paraphernalia, half per- 
suaded us that, instead of being some few twenty-five 
leagues only from our own white cliffs, we bad in &ijct 
dropt upon the Antipodes ! It was a full hour before 
we got upon terra firma — sahited, and even assailed 
on all sides, with entreaties to come to certain hdtels. 
" Mais, Monsieur, Monsieur, par ici, par ici, — c'est ici 
oik vous serez charm6 de votre reception — vous serez 



8 



PASSAGE TO DIEPPE. 



h votre aise chez'' — ^^C*e8t FHotel d'Angleterre qnentous 
eherehons (replied I.)** — A la bonne heure, (exclaimed 
a lively young man) — suivez, Monsieur, je vous prie T 
when^ upon entering the coffee-room of thie inn, the 
worthy De La Rue, the landlord, exclaimed (as I think 
I bdfore told you) " Vous voilk done. Messieurs, k 
ZKeppe-Hsoyez le bien venft !'* We declared ourselves 
well satisfied : and willing to forget the miseries of the 
voyage, sat down to eggs and coffee, resolving to be ia 
good humour with every thing around us. 



9 



LETTER II. 

DIBPPB. VISHBRIBS. 8TRBBTS. CHURCHES OF ST. 
JACQUES AND ST. RBMY. DIVINE WORSHIP, MILI- 
TARY MASS. 

The town of Dieppe* contains a population of about 
twenty-thousand souls. Of these^ by much the greater 

* town of Dieppe,'] Dieppe owes its origin to the accidental asso- 
ciation of a few adyenturous fishermen. The rapid strides by which 
it rose from insignificancy to importance^ are not mariced in the annals 
of the historian : nor does its present population arise from those 
causes which hare rendered Brighton and Hastings so prosperous. No 
Frenchman thinks of settling at Dieppe without having commerdal 
olijects in view whereas^ in the i^es just mentioned* some hundreds 
of &milies yearly resort for the benefit of sea-air and sea-bathing. 
Hence, the crescent^ the colonnade^ and other stately architectural 
appendages^ are erected^ to invite residence and cause the diffusion of 
money. At Dieppe a very different order of things prevails. I shall 
translate an interesting passage from a French work published in 
1795 J which gives a pretty good outline of the origin and ancient fish* 
eries of Dieppe : In its origin^ this town was only a miserable collec- 
tion of huts of fishermen^ who^ for the convenience of carrying on 
their trade^ united themselves at the embouchure of the Arques^ at the 
foot of the western cliffl At that time Dieppe was only a smaU bay, 
to which vessels resorted by favour of the tide': the whole of the 
ground^ in which the present port is excavated^ exhibiting nothing but 
a swamp inundated twice a day. By degrees Dieppe reared its head^ 
and the fishery, which may be called the agriculture of the sea, was 
the first foundation of its future grandeur. 

As this town owed its origin to some obscure fishermen, so. has it 
owed its prosperity to the same useful class of men. The deeds and 



10 DIEPPE. 

stationary pait are females; arising from one-third at 
least of the males being constantly engaged in the fish- 
eries. As these fisheries form the main support of the 

charters of the time make mention of a gnat nmnber of different sorts 
of fish which every day arrived at the port,— of which the prindpai 
species was the ha ring, and of which species the antiquity reaches to 
the year 1030 ; there was also the mackarel, mentioned in a number 
of title-deeds of the xiith century : to which must be added the cod, 
the whiting, the congre-eel, more abundant formerly than at present 3 le 
colUtan, a fish which has now entirely forsaken our rivers the thoru' 
hack, tumhe, sole, haddock, anon, salmon, turhot, roach, porpoite, 
sturgeon, &c. But of all these species, the herring was infinitely the most 
useful and important in every respect ; and not only were they sought 
in the Channel, but our vessels went in search of them to the northern 
seas, to Yarmouth even on the English coasts, and upon those of 
ScJionen in Sweden : they even brought away the herring from Escone, 
of which there is often mention made in the ordinances of the time. 
Afterwards they exported this fish, salted, to all the ports of the Medi- 
terranean ; and, for this purpose, made use of their own vessels, which 
were called druggers ; because, in return, they brought home from the 
sea-ports in the Levant, spices and drugs, such as wax, oil, honey, 
pepper, saffron, ginger, cinnamon, rosin, alum, woad, &c. and all the 
provisions of which mention is made in the tarifs of entry, by sea, at 
Dieppe, in the xiiith and xivth centuries." p. 105. 

Consult the " Premier Essai sur le Dipartement de la Seine Infi- 
rieure, contenant les districts de Goumay, Neufchatel, Dieppe et Cany, 
Outrage topographique, historique et pittoresque, &c. par S. B. J. Noel, 
Redacteur du Journal de Rouen,"' 1795, an iii. 8vo. 3 a scarce work 
at the present moment. But the author would have shewn more 
judgment if he had spared a few imbecile flings at his opposite 
neighboiu^. My predecessor. Doctor Dugarkl, in his Anglo-Norman 
Antiquities, 1767, folio, p. 6, devotes about sixteen widely-spaced 
lines only, to his account of Dieppe ; subjoining, however, in a note, a 
copy of the original letters-patent of King Richard I. who granted the 
town to Walter^ Archbishop of Rouen, in exchange for Andely, which 
he annexed to the duchy of Normandy. 



DIEPPE- 



11 



inhabitants, it i6 right that you should know something 
about them — and the recent appearance of Goube'% 
work upon Normandy, will better enable me to send 
you a tolerably correct account. " That which chiefly 
^ves occupation to the Dieppe vessels, is the diffe- 
rent fisheries of the place — and especially the salted 
herring, mackarel, and cod. The herring fishery takes 
place twice a year: in August and October. The 
August fishery is carried on along the shores of England 
and the North. From sixty to eighty vessels, of from 
twenty-five to thirty ton burthen each, with about 
fifteen men in each vessel, are usually employed. They 
ai*e freighted with salt and empty barrels, for seasoning 
and stowing the fish, and they return about the end of 
October. The herrings caught in August are consider- 
ably preferable to those caught in October. The Octo- 
ber fishery is carried on with smaller vessels, along* the 
coast of France from Boulogne to Havre. From one 
hundred and twenty to one hundred and thirty vessels 
are engaged in this later navigation ; and the fish, 
which is smaller, and of inferior flavour to that caught 
upon the English coasts, is sent-almost entirely to the 
Provinces and to Paris, where it is eaten fresh." So 
much for the herring. 

The mackarel fishery usually commences towards 
the month of July, along the coast of Picardy; be- 
cause, being a sort of fish of passage, it gets into the 
channel in the month of April. It then moves towards 
the straits of Dover, as summer approaches. For this 
fishery they make use of large-decked vessels, from 
twenty to fifty tons burden, manned with from twelve 
to twenty men. There are however Dieppe boats em- 
ployed in this fishery which go as far as the Scilly 



12 



DIEPPE. 



Iskmdfl and Uflhant^ towards the middle of April. Tbey 
cany with them the salt requisite to season the fish^ 
which are afterwards sent to Paris, and to the provinces 
in the interior of France. The cod fishery is divided 
into the fresh and dried fish. The former continues 
from the beginning of February to the end of April — 
and the vessels employed, which go as far as Newfound- 
land, are two deckers, and from one hundred to one 
hundred and fifty tons burden — although, in fsjcty they 
nu*ely carry more than fifteen tons for fear of spoiling 
the fish. The dried-cod fishery is carried on in vessds 
of all sizes ; but it is essential that they be of a certain 
depth, because the fish is more cumbersome than 
weighty. The vessels however usually set sail about 
the month of March or April, in order that they may 
have the advantage of the summer season, to dry the 
fish. There are vessels which go to Newfoundland 
laden with brandy, flour, beans, treacle, linen and 
woollen cloths, which they dispose of to the inhabi- 
tants of the French colonies in exchange for dried cod. 
This latter species of commerce may be carried on in 
the summer months — as late as July.'* The author 
thus concludes with some animation: Ces pSches 
occupent un grand nombre de marins : elles vivifient le 
commerce de Dieppe : elles occupent tons les ateliers 
— ^les chantiers pour la construction des b^timens, la 
confection des filets pour la p^che, celle des hamegons, 
des cordages, des voiles, des barils ; ensuite vient la pre- 
paration des poissons, et leur expeditions joumalieres, 
ainsi que celle du poisson frais, qui se renouvelle, pour 
ainsi dire, k chaque mar^e.** * Vol. iii. p. 170. 

* Hisioirt du Duche de Normandie, par J. J. C. Goubc, 181 5> 8vo. 



DIEPPE. 



13 



In the oommon markets, for retail trade, tliey are 
not very nice in the quality or condition of their fish ; 
and enormous congre eels, which would be instantly 
rqected by the middling, or even lower classes in 
England, are, at Dieppe, bought with avidity and 
relished with glee. A few francs will procure a dish 
of fish large enough for a dozen people. The quays 
are constantly crowded, but there seems to be more 
of bustle than of business. The town is certainly 
pictunesque, notwithstanding the houses are very little 
more than a century o\d;^ and the streets are formal 

3 toIb. In the sequel^ this work will be more particularly noticed. 
The author of the Itin&aire de Rouen (1816, 12mo.) has given a 
more dramatic effect to his colouring of the same picture : Alors 
tout est en mouvement, et Vobservateur peut juger k son aise de leur 
industries remarquer les diffiE^rents effets de la joie, de la crainte, quel- 
(JOefois m^me de la tristesse, a la moindre nouvelle alarmante. L'alter- 
native du plaisir, de Tinqui^tude se peint sur la physionomie des 
fanmes et des filles des marins, si le Tent furieux et des nuages, pr6- 
cmacun de la temp^te, viennent soul^rer lea flots ^cumants.*' p. 303. 

t Utile more than a century oldJ] The town of Dieppe has suffered 
often and severely. During the time of the Normans it was almost 
demolished. It was sharply attacked by Lord Talbot (called the 
EngHsh Caesar) in 1442, whose army seems to have been encamped 
liear Ban^uemont, about a league from Dieppe, and to have occupied 
the strong position vulgarly called Qcesar's Camp ; (see Duoarel, p 5, 
and Noel, p. 87-8) but it rose again with strength and beauty, tiU 
the middle of the dxteenth century, when, in consequence of a 
most sanguinary sea-fight between the Flemish and Dieppois, (in 
which the ftinoiis Coligny commanded the latter) it experienced a 
very heavy eiOamity in the loss of many vessels, and the destruction 
of a portion of the town by fire. But a heavier calamity awaited 
it in the memorable bombardment of the (own by the English in 1694. 
Every thing seemed demolished but the old churches. Within the 



14 DffiPPE. 

and comparatirely wide: but this picturesqueness 
arises from the materials of the buildings being of stone 
and brick, now gray-tinted — from the sharp pointed 
poofe — ^from the bold projections of the architecture, 
and the large dimensions of the windows. Indeed it 
should seem that the houses were built expressly for 
Noblemen and Gentlemen, although they are inhabited 
by tradesmen, mechanics, and artizans in apparently 
very indifferent circumstances. There is a great waste 
of brick, stone, and mortar, and some of the largest 
buildings are situated in the gloomiest courts. We 
saw scarcely six private houses which could be called 

short space of thirty hours (says Noe1)> the English threw in 3000 
shells and 4000 balls, and made use of a machine charged with all 
manner of combustible materials and bars of iron, in the view of set- 
ting fire to the two wooden jetties, in which attempt, however, they 
were foiled." p. 1 16. An ordonnance of Louis XIV., carried into effect 
by the patriotic spirit of the people, caused the town of Dieppe to 
rise out of its ashes, as we now behold it. The streets are well 
planned and well paved j and the Dieppois would feign compare 
their High-street to the rue de Richlieu, at Paris. I suspect that it 
is sheer poverty which causes so great a number of their upper win- 
dows to remain unglazed. A Tour in France, published in 1701, thus 
notices the town of Dieppe shortly after the memorable bombardment 
just mentioned. These preparatory steps being over^ we had our 
dinner, and afterwards walked into the town which, being bom- 
barded last war (1694) by the English, is hardly yet rebuilt. What 
houses are up are lofty, so that the town is almost new, and will be a 
fine one, when finished, though not large ; we saw the ruins of 
many houses ; for the bombardment was so violent and successful 
that few were left standing entire. The great Church and Castle suf- 
fered in some parts* and other churches were quite demolished. The 
streets are large and straight, and the buildings uniform, generally of 
the same height, and aU of a sort of white brick,** Bic—Gent. Maga- 
zine^ March 1B19, p. 807> vol. lxxxix. 



DIEPPE. 



15 



elegant, and not a gentleman's carriage has been yet 
noticed by us in the streets. But if the Dieppois 
are not rich, they seem happy, and are in a constant 
state of occupation. A woman sells her wares in an 
open shop, or in an insulated booth, and sits without her 
bonnet — as indeed do all the tradesmen's wives — and 
works or sings as humour sways her. A man sells gin- 
gerbread in an open shed, and in the intervals of his cus- 
tomers coming, reads some popular history or romance. 
Most of the upper windows are wholly destitute of glass ; 
but are smothered with clothes, rags, and wall flowers. 
The fragrance emitted from these flowers affords no 
unpleasing antidote to odors of a very different d^ 
scription: — and here we begin to have a too convincing 
proof of the general character of the country in re- 
gard to the want of cleanliness. A little good sense, or 
Mtther a better-regulated police, would speedily get rid 
of such nuisances. The great crying evil throughout 
Prance, in respect to out-door inconveniences, arises 
from suffering the filth, of whatever description, to 
accumulate in the streets : and when the office of 
porification is put in force, it is so slovenly executed, 
that a portion is always left behind in order to show 
where future deposits are to be made. TTie want of 
public sewers is another great and grievous cause of 
smells of every description : but the French are used 
to these things — and will quietly sit with a collection 
of dirt beneath their noses, which would cause a notable 
spinster or housewife, on our side the water, to start 
back with disgust. At Dieppe there are fountains in 
abundance ; and if some of the limpid streams, which 
issue therefrom, were directed to cleansing the streets. 



16 



DIEPPE. 



(which are excellently well paved) the effect wbuld be 
both more salubrious and pleasant — especially to the 
sensitive organs of Englishmen ! 

We had hardly concluded our break&sts, on land- 
ing, when we saw a funeral go by : the priests and 
boys, with their black caps, white surplices, and 
umbrellas over their heads, (as it was raining) chauntr 
ing both loud and lustily — ^unconcerned at the busy 
and bawling scenes through which the procession must 
necessarily pass. What a novel object was this to gaze 
at ! Anon, a loud and clattering sound was heard ; and 
down came, in a heavy trot, with sundry ear-piercing 
crackings of the whip, the thundering Diligence: large^ 
lofty, and of most unwieldy dimensions : of a structure, 
too^ strong enough to carry a half score of elq^ianta. 
The postilion is an animal perfectly mi gemeris: gt^ 
alert, and living upon the best possible tenns tftt 
himself. He wears the royal livery, red and UaiB ; 
with a plate of the fleur de lis upon his left arm. IBs 
hair is tied behind in a thick, short, tightly fiisteiifld 
queue : with powder and pomatum sufficient to wea- 
ther a whole winter*s storm and tempest. As he men r 
rises in his stirrups, I leave you to judge of the mmr 
ciless effects of this ever-beating club upon the textnra 
of his jacket. He is however fond of Us horaet : if 
well known by them ; and then is all flourish and 
noise, and no sort of cruelty, in his treatment of then^ 
His spurs are of tremendous dimensions ; such as we 
see sticking to the heels of knights in illuminated Mss. 
of the xvth century. He has nothing to do with the 
ponderous machine behind him. He ats upon the near 
of the two wheel horses, with three horses before hun. 



DneppE. 



17 



His turnings are aU adroitly and correctly ihade; and^ 
upon the whole, he is a clever fellow in the exercise 
of his office. 

We had not spent half of the Saturday at Dieppe, 
before Mr. Lewis brought us a sketch, of which the en- 
closed is a feithful and spiritedly-finished drawing ; and 
so correctly are the characters identified, that the JiUe 
de chambre, at our hotel, instantly recognized the old 
woman, or the stout figure, to the right — as the per- 
son who usually brought fish for the consumption of 
their table. In this group^ in fact, you have an epitome 

OF THE WHOLE FISH-MARKET. 



18 



dibppb: 



I shall probably send you/ in some fiitnre despatch^ 
a more sober and near view of the far-famed cauchaise. 
You ought to know, that, foiinerly, this town was 
greatly celebrated for its manufactures in Ivory but 
the present aspect of the ivory-market affords but a 
faint notion of what it might have been in the sixteenth 
fUid seventeeth centuries. I purchased a few subordinate 
articles (chiefly of a reli^ous character) and which I 
shall preserve rather as a matter of evidence than of 
admiration. There is yet however a considerable ma^ 
ntifacture of thread lace; and between three and fbur 
thousand females are supposed to earn a comfortable 
livelihood by it. 

* manufactures in Ivory. "] It was possibly under the bold excur- 
sion of such distinguished navigators and captains as Parmentuu> 
DysMESNiL, and the great merchant Anoo, (in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries) that the ivory trade had attained its highest pitch of 
prosperity. The establishments of the Dicppois in Guinea necessarily 
facilitated the means of improving this branch of commerce. Walpole^ 
in his Anecdotes of Painting, vol. iii. p. 262, makes honorable mention 
of Lb marchand^ a native of Dieppe, who worked very successfully for 
several years in London. Mr. West was in possession of that Artist's 
own head, cut by himself ; and Lord Oxford had his head of Lord 
Somers. Evelyn, who visited Dieppe in the year 1644, observes that 
it then *^ abounded with workmen who made and sold curiosities of 
wory and tortoise-shell, and whatever the East Indies afforded of 
cabinets and purcelan ; and that natural and exotic rarities were there 
to be had with abundant choice.** Life and Writings of Evelyn, vol. i. 
p. 51, edit. 1818, 4to. In short, it appears to have been just at the 
time of Evelyn's visit, that Dieppe was in the height of its opulence 
and population for in one of ZeiUer's views of it, (in his TopograpJua 
OaUia, 1650) there are special designations of the establishments of 
Mmimes, Capucins, Carmelites, Jesuits, Ursulins and the HaUes, &c. 
The river Jrques seems also to have been very wide, particularly at its 
embouchure in the harbour. 



DIEPPE. 



]9 



' My love of eccleidastical architecture quickly in- 
duced me to visit the churches ; and we all three set 
out to pay our respects to the principal churchy called 
St. Jacqubs. As we entered it^ a general gloom pre- 
vailed^ and a sort of premature evening came on; 
while the clatter of the sabots was sufficiently audible \ 
along the aisles. In making the circuit of the side 
chapels^ an unusual light proceeded from a sort of 
grated door way^ We approached, and witnessed a 
sig^ which could not fail to rivet our attention. In 
what seemed to be an excavated interior, were several 
figures, cut in stone, and coloured after life— of which 
they were the size — representing the three Maries, St. 
John, and Joseph of Arimaihea . . in the act of en- 
tombing Christ : the figure of our Saviour being half 
sunk into the tomb. The whole was partially iUu- 
minated by some two dozen of shabby and nearly con- 
sumed tallow candles ; affording a striking contrast to 
the increasing darkness of the nave and the side-aisles. 
We retired, more and more struck with the novelty of 
every object around us, to our supper and beds, which 
were both excellent ; and a good night's rest made us 
fi>rget the miseries of the preceding evening. 

The next morning, being Sunday, we betook our- 
selves in good time to the service at St. Jacques'* : not 
however before Mr. Lewis, who had risen between six 
and seven o'clock, had brought home a sketch of what 
had taken place in the front of the church in the 
market place. This sketch represents a waxen figure 

* the service at St. Jacques*,'] — ^The stone with which this 
church is built, is said to have been brought from England; 
but I shonld rather apprehend it to have been obtained from Caen, 
which, as the reader wiU see in the sequel^ has been long and 



of CMM (what is ciilled Ecce 'Homb^ Closed 
within a brix, of wMcfa the doors Oi^ opened. *Th6 
figure and' box are the property of the' man whrf'plttys 
the' Violin, and who is selling little mass books, siip^ 
pMedto be rendered more sacred by hating been [ias^ 
ac^s the feet and hands of the waxen Christ. iSuct 
aliM^hgtel otecn^ation, and snch a motley gronp, mtiAt 
strikef yon trith astonishment — as a Snnday morning's 
recreation ! You receive it here, after its having been 
submitted to the finishing process of light and shade. 




DIEPPE. 



21 



By half past ten the congregation had assembled in 
good earnest ; and every side-chapel(I think about twelve 
in number) began to be filled by the penitent flocks : 
each bringing, or hiring, a rush-bottomed chair; with 
which the churches are pretty liberally furnished, and of 
which the Tarif (or terms of hire) is pasted upon the 
waUs. There were, I am quite sure, full eighteen women 
to one man ; which may in part be accounted for (as 
I before observed) by the almost uniform absence of a 
third of the male population occupied in the fisheries. 
I think there could not have been fiswer than two thou- 
sand souls present. I contrived to get upon the steps 
which separate the choir from the nave, and witnessed 
fiom thence a sort of ocean of white caps — as the 
8at w knelt. But what struck me as the most 
flolemn thing I had ever beheld^ was, a huge 
jtad fiipirBv dressed like a drum-major^ with a large 
i Iwt and three white plumes^ (the only covered 



■ Jbdngu Mied for the superior qualities of its stone. Here 
^ #1 wdl as at Eonen^ they wiU have it that the JSi^iiifc built 
^.lltaebesl Nod aqfs that the entombing of Chikl. as abore 
ri^d» is done after the original at Jerusalem^ and that It waa eaa* 
Ilia 1619, at the eipense of a pious traveller, who letmaed ftooa 
ijfaie. The fine scnl^ptnred culs-de-lampes, in silvsrj ivUch «ad- 
;|pkli%alioiit the diapd of the \rirgin, and whi(^ cxdled Oie adBiii»- . 

«f Caidhial Baibcrlii|^ together with snnfty «lksr ddicite and 
liilipf . embfilltahnasatii, were destrojed daring ..the boDfaaidflBeat 
iMnBoned at p. 13 ante. And I may add that onpments^ of % more 
4olid diaracter, suchas interior and exterior ftet-worics, porches, ballus- 
tiades, &c. were dreadfully defiM:ed during the Revolution — ^which, has 
left frightftd nuirks of its ravages in Normandy ! 



22 



DIEPPE. 



male figure in the congr^tion), a broad white sash 
upon a complete suit of red, including red stockings ; 
— ^representing what in our country is called a Beadle! 
He was a sturdy, baboon-visaged gentleman — bearing 
an halberd in his right hand, which he wielded with a 
sort of pompous swing, infusing terror into the young, 
and commanding the admiration of the old. In the 
procession of the priests, where the voices are raised 
to a higher pitch, and where the service seems to de- 
mand a more pious expression, the zeal of the con- 
gr^tion was unequivocally manifested by very general 
and sonorous responses : and I must say that, in same 
particulars connected with the fiilfilment of church du- 
ties, it were well if we took a lesson from our conti-- 
nental neighbours. But so little sense of out-door 
public decency prevails, that, during service, we were 
constantly annoyed by the sounds of the drum and fife, 
calling the national guard together for military mass 
at St. Remy. I must not, however, omit to inform 
you, that half the service was scarcely performed when 
the preacher mounted a pulpit, with a black cap oii> 
and read a short sermon from a printed-book — -a 
method, by the bye which some apologists for intellee- 
tual and manual labour might think worthy of imita- 
tion in our own countiyl I shall never forget the 
figure and attitude of the Ferger who attended the 
preacher : he followed him to the pulpit, festened the 
door, became stationary, and reposed his left arm over 
the railings of the stairs. Anon, he took out his snuff 
box with his right hand, and regaled himself with a 
pinch of snuff in the most joyous and comfortably-ab- 



DIEPPE. 



23 



stracted manner imaginable. There he remained till 
the conclusion of a thirteen minutes discourse ; not one 
word of which seemed to afford him half the satis&c- 
tion as did the contents of his snuff-box ! You know 
that you have absolutely commanded me to be mi« 
nute in all things/' and you see with what trifles I have 
in consequence ventured to entertain you. 

Military Mass was performed about an hour after 
at the church of Sr. Remy. Both Mr. Lewis and my 
Son saw this extraordinary spectacle, but I had had 
" sufficient for one dose/' Yet I strolled quietly to that 
same church, to witness the devotion of the congrega- 
tion previous to the entry of the soldiers ; and I will 
not dissemble that I was much struck and gratified by 
what I saw. There was more simplicity: a smaller 
congregation : softer music : a lower-toned organ : less 
rash of people; and in very many of the flock the 
mofit intense and unfeigned expression of piety. At the 
elevation of the host, from the end of the choir, (near 
which was suspended a white flag, with the portrait of 
the present King thereupon) a bell was loing from the 
tower of the church : the sound, below, was soft and 
silver-toned — accompanied by rather a quick movement 
of the organ^ upon the diapason stop ; which, united 
with the silence and prostration of the congregation, 
might have commanded the reverence of the most pro- 
&iie. I became motionless, save a slight and fixed 
mdination of the head — ^in which attitude I could not 
refrain from offering up a prayer for the preservation of 
those left behind ! — and which prayer, although not bor- 
rowed from the Romish ritual, might possibly be not 
the less availing on that account. There is nothings my 



24 DIEPPE. 

dear friend^ more refreshings in a foreign land, than 
this general appearance of earnestness of devotion, upon 
a sabbath day ; especially within the House of God, Out 
of doors a veiy different order of things prevails : But I 
quickly heard the clangor of the trumpet, the beat of 
drums, the measured tramp of human feet, and in 
marched two or three troops of the national guard to 
perform military mass. I retired precipitately to the 
Inn. My companions, who staid behind, told me that 
this military mass consisted of certain manoeuvres of 
the soldiers, with their caps on^ within the choir — ac- 
companied by loud and stunring music. It seemed 
a frightful contrast to all tliat had preceded it. 

I must not conclude this epistle, while upon the sub- 
ject of churches, without informing you that^ of the 
two, I consider that of St. Remy, or rather of mme 
portions of it, to be the more ancient; but St.f 
upon the whole, is not only the largest, but the 
elaborately sculptured, edifice. I should think die 



latter end of the XlVth century, a date quite anti- 
quated enough for the completion oy|^iiildtng* 111? 
Revolution has not failed to leave : ^^^^ 
devastations upon portions of thelHpofS of 
churches ; but modem manners ham not yqt prodi 
a re\*olution of a different and moi'e iCiWvMf chat^ 
ter — that of paying attention to the i 
the outer walls — ^in which all 
are strictly forbidden to be 
bid is one thing; and to pay attent^ 
tion is another. The filth that sometimes 
these churches is equally gross, noxious, and revolting. 
ITiey certainly do " order these things better in" — 




^^ehes^nck upon 
et iintiiondiqtt" 




DIEPP£. 25 

England. Forgive this new reading : but I cannot help^ 
in spite of all the marvels by which I am surrounded^ 
putting in a good word now and then for my own 
country. So God bless you. 



P. S. Mr> Lewis has just brought me another spirited 
drawings of what may be considered equally characte- 
ristic of the Market Women^ look at it attentively ; 
for I can assure you that the fidelity is equal to the 
spirit, of the performance. 



96 



LETTER IIL 

VILLAGE AND CASTLE OP ARQUB8. SABBATH AMUSE- 
MENTS. MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. BOULBTARDS. 

•As I had recdyed especial injunctions from ont 
flmtoid N * ♦ ♦ not to ieaye Dieppe without paying n 
visit to the famous Chateau dArques* in its neighbouf- 
hood^ I resolved to seize the opportunity of a tolerably 
fedr^ or rather gray-looking day, to go and pay due 
homage to these venerable remains of antiquity ; and 
accordingly, on the same Sunday, between one and 
two, Mr. L. and myself set out upon this congenial en- 
terprise. You go up the principal street, continue to the 
left, and pass under the gate or outlet to Rouen^ where 

* the fammu Chateau d'Arques.] — The French Antiquaries have 
pufibed the antiquity of this castle to the 8th century^ suppoeing it to 
have been built by William d*Arques, Count of TalIoi|> son of the se- 
cond marriage of Richard Duke of Normandy. I make no doubt^ 
• that, Ti^henever built^ the sea almost washed the base of it ) for it 
is known to have occupied the whole of what is called the Faliey of 
Arqaes, running as far as Bouteilles, Its position, in reference to the 
art of war, must have been almost impregnable. Other hypotheses 
assign its origin, perhaps with more truth, to the ninth or tentb 
century ) as a bulwark against the invasion of the Nonnans. When- 
ever built, its history has been fertile in sieges. In ] 144, it was 
commanded by a Flemish Monk, who preferred the spear to the crosierj 
but who perished by an arrow in the contest. Of its history, up to the 
nxteenth century, I am not able to give any details i but in the wan 
of Henry IV, with the League, 1589^ it was taken by surprise by sol- 



DIEPPE. 



27 



the noble road to Paris, on a fine ascent, faces yon 
upon quitting the town. You leave this to the right, 
turn down a bye-road, which runs beneath a high bank, 
or small hanging wood, and continue straight forward 
about two English miles ; when you catch the first 
glimpse of the castle to the right. The road thither is 
completely rural : apple-trees, just beginning to burst 
their blossoms, hamlets, small farm-houses, (many of 
which wereskilfully covei*ed with blue slate) a profusion 
of rich herbage of various kinds, delighted and regaled 
us as we pursued our tranquil walk. The country is of 
a gently-undulating character : but the flats or mea- 
dows, between the parallel ranges of hills, are subject; 
to constant inundation from the sea ; and in an agri- 
cnltural point of view are consequently of little use, 
except for summer grazing of the cattle. 

It was drawing on to vespers as we approached the 
FiUage of Argues: a young countryman neatly dressed, 
but bare-headed, liaving undertaken to conduct us thi- 
ther by a nearer road. The old castle had frequently 
peeped out upon us from its elevated situation ; but 
we were resolved to see all that could be seen,*" — and 
a FreDch village^ for the first time, was not to be over- 

dien io the diiguiae of sailors : who, stabbing the centmels, quickly 
made themselTes masters of the place. Henry caused it afterwards to 
be diimantled. In the first half of the eighteenth century it received 
my serere treatment from pillage, for the purpose of erecting public 
and private baOdings at Dieppe. The Revolution added to these 
la vages : " Aigonid'hui ses tours, ses remparts, ce doqjon qui reten- 
tirent poidant pfauieurs siddes des cris des combattans et de la victoire, 
livrtfl maintenant au plus mome silence^ sont devenus le s^jour des 
Mboox et des daeauz noctumes :** such is the solemn description of 
diis venerable min bj the author of (he Itin4raire de JtoMx ; 1 8 1 6, p. 1 99. 



28 



DIEPPE. 



looked. Accordingly we made a complete detour ; 
and passing through the principal, or high street, ap- 
proached the church. The bell was ringing for prayers 
and we entered with the congregation. For a village 
church, I hardly know a finer one than that of Arqaes : 
it having much in common with portions of the cathe- 
dral of Lincoln. Tlie upper part of the outer walls, 
with the tower and roof of the nave, are however com- 
paratively modem ; but the interior, which is light and 
airy, may be of the latter end of the xiiith century.* This 
interior is rather capacious, and may vie with any simi- 
lar building, attached to a village, which the province 
of Normandy (rich in ecclesiastical edifices) can boast 
of. We had no time to wait the commencement of the 
service, and indeed you will say we had already had a 
sufficient portion ; but, on quitting the church, to asoead 
the hill on which the castlftrftands, we passed a weO- 
dressed young lady, with a iiikaiitibditBd lierpWlio ww 
hastening to prayers, and who entettdtbeciiurdi with 
the cleigyman, whom she ov ertook on the way. We 
had reason to be well satisfied with this excellent lady ; 
for we found that, to preserve the old cascle iVom ucter 
destruction, she had purchased It «f government for . 
about seven thousand fr0m ; and hf causing locks \ 
and other fiisteninga to be applied to the principal | 
gates, she had sepnred it from the consent |4Uag9 

* Tl^ lUUfwre de Rouen, IBmfflftSt «if»» vbiiitdlf j tlm Uili 
jcimtdl il of tfw xitfa centwy. It poasessccl fiirnierly a buat of Hmmf, 
ipf^ wUch !• w ap foted to have ^een iilaced tUm alter the 
Wttle of An]iif^g»iQed^ Heaiyi 
:^%lit chinch ivip jfiodimfti, occow| | ^ tejhc mim wa^Vtf ; 



DIEPPE. 



29 



which used to be carried on within — ^for no one thought 
of building, without demolishing a certain portion of 
the castle for materials. To the best of my recollec- 
tion, this lady's name is Barrois. She has certainly, 
in one of its very best senses, " deserved well of her 
country.'* 

The sdte of the castle is admirable. Our approach 
was to the western extremity; which, as you look 
down, brings the village and church of Arques in the 
back-ground. Mr. Lewis, inspii*ed I suppose by the 
chaunt of the vespers, which we heard from our 
elevated station — took out his pencil, and made the 
following spirited little design. 



30 



DIEPPE. 



If the eye were to be considered as a correct jndgpe, 
this venerable pile, composed of hard flint-stone, inter- 
mixed with brick, (but not in layers, after the Roman 
feshion of uniting these two materials) would perhaps 
claim precedence, on the score of antiquity, over every 
other relic of the middle ages. A deep moat, now diy 
pasture land, with a bold acclivity before you, should 
seem to bid defiance, even in times of old, to the £90t 
and the spear of the invader. There are circular towers 
(as the view shews) at the extremities, and a square "ci- 
tadel or donjon within. Its area is also very extensive, 
smd perhaps yet retains its pristine limits as in the time 
of William the Conqueror. The wars of Henry the 
Fourth with the League helped to add to the previous 
devastations; but, although one of the most ancient 
and decayed-looking places of fortification imaginable — 
and although, from the crumbling and broken outlines, 
and the shelving of the banks rising from the moat, you 
might expect it to yield within some few twenty years 
to the ravages of time — yet I question if it be not tough 
enough to outlive all the great great grand-children of 
the present beholders of it! To the north, a good deal 
of earth has been recently thrown against the bases of 
the wall. The day harmonised admirably with the 
venerable object before us. The sunshine lasted but for 
a minute : when afterwards a gloom prevailed, and not 
a single catch of radiant light gilded any portion of 
the building. All was gray, and quiet, and of a sombre 
aspect, — and whatyow, in your admiration of art, would 
call in perfectly " fine keeping." Perhaps there is no 
object which more powerfully excites meditation, and 
calls forth the finer feelings connected with thoughts 



DIEPPE. 



upon the past, than that of an ancient, decayed, and 
magnificently-situated castle. But all is here hushed ; 
within and without. — ^Nor the harp of the minstrel, nor 
the clang of armour, nor the echoes of the horn, nor the 
uproar of the banquet — no, nor the invading nor the 
repelling foe — are now heard or distinguished ! . . but — 
It is time to wake out of this trance, and to pursue 
our journey homeward. We descended the liill, bade a 
long adieu to this venerable relic of the hardihood of 
other times, and quickened our pace towards Dieppe. 
As we gained upon the town, we began to discern groups 
of rustics, as well as of bourgeoises, assembling and 
mingling in the dance. ITie women never think of 
wearing bonnets ; and you have little idea how bril- 
Uantly the red and blue* (the very colours of Raffaelle's 
Madonnas !) glanced backwards and forwards, amidst 
the trunks of the fruit trees, to the sound of tlie spirit- 
stirring violin. The high, stiff, starched cauchoise, with 
its broad flappers, gave the finishing stroke to the 
novelty and singularity of the scene; and to their credit 
be it spoken, the women were nmch more tidily dressed 
than the men. We soon became spectators at more 
than one place of festivity. The couples are frequently 
female, for want of a sufficient number of beans ; but, 
whether correctly or incorrectly coupled, they dance 
with earnestness, if not with agility. No foolish tricks, 
or wanton mischief, ever disturbs the harmony of the 
scene. It was a picture k la Teniers, without its occa- 
sional grossness. "This then," said I to my companion, 
" is what I have so often heard of the sabbath-gambols 
of the French — and long may they enjoy them I .... for 
* The blue gown and red petticoat } or vice versa. 



32 



DIEPPE. 



they ai-e surely better than the brutal orgies of a pot- 
house^ or the &natical ravings of the tabernacle." You 
will please to remember^ my dear friend, that amidst 
these groups, we discovered some score fiices which we 
had noticed the same morning in the cathedral ; and 
as you cannot convince a Frenchman, or a Frenchwo- 
man, that tlie evening of the sabbath may be better 
devoted to a quiet stroll abroad, or to the penml of 
religious and instnictive books at home, the maaa of 
people had better be so occupied than ... do worse 

A late plain dinner, with our favourite vin ordinaii^ 
recruited our strength and kept us in perfectly gocid 
humour with Dieppe. My companion, in the eyenio^^ 
made a sketch of the fijlle de chambrb, — an important 
personage in my collection of costume — as yon mU 
observe from the representation of her, here enclose£^. 
She chose to put on lier best bib and tucker" upotl 
the occasion — ^it being Sunday evening: so that yte 
behold her to every possible advantage. I have reasoli 
to think tliat this costume, with very few and sligirt 
variations, has continued for several centuries.*!* The . 
following and last day, spent at Dieppe, was as 'beaa*^ 
tiful as that of our voyage thither. Mr. LfCwis beggsk 
at times with his pencil. He took a small bird's-^ 
view of the harbour, and woukl have made anothar 
drawing of a very picturesque cliaracter — were it not 
for the iGishing boats which continued to crowd into 

* See the opposite Plate. The original thought it " un peu trop 
ag^e." 

t The dress of the sailors is the same as in the xivth century j and 
so probably is that of the women. The illuminations in Froissard and 
Monstrelet dearly give us the Norman cauchoise. 



"0 (KPPK . 



DIEPPE. 



33 



the basoD^ and, by their extended sails, to shut out 
the view. He was also equally unfortunate in his 
attempt at a sketch of the castle just above the town,* 
to the north-west, but from another cause. On com- 
mencing it, a centinel advanced, and brutally tore the 
leaf out of his book — telling him it was ^ d^fendu/ He 
was surely a boor of a centinel, and had never danced 
on a Sunday evening ! To prohibit the drawing of an 
unfortified place is quite a piece of absurdity ; and a 
word to the Commandant would doubtless have equally 
led to the chastisement of the centinel, and the gratifi- 
cation of the a.rtist's wishes . . . but 9a ne vaut pas la 
peine and I essayed to comfort Mr. L. upon his mis- 
fortune. 

Upon the whole the French are rather jealous of the 
pencil of a British artist : for, on beginning the sketch 
of the harbour, I was obliged to muster up all the 
eloquence and logic I was master of, to persuade a 
custom-house officer and a corps of gens-d^armes that 
it was " tout-^fait une aflFaire pittoresque, et qui n'avoit 
aucun rapport ^ la guerre.'* A surly " hon I" was the 
only reply to my remonstrance ; but " bon" was cer- 
tainly preferable to another " d^fendu ! " 

The deportment of the Zh'e/^pou towards the English, 
is, upon the whole, rather gracious than otherwise; 
because the town profits by the liberality and love of 
expense of the latter. Yet the young ones, ais soon as 

^ It is built upon the scite of an old castle which was demolished at 
the end of the xiith century ; and the townsmen^ fearing that it might 
be rendered an important position to the Leaguers^ in the xvith cen- 
tury, proceeded to dismantle it. It was also materially injured in the 
following century. 



34 



DIEPPE. 



they can lisp^ are put in training for pronouncing the' 
G — d — ; and a few horribly-deformed and importunate 
beggars are for ever assailing the doors of the hotels. 
But beggary is nothing like so frightful an evil as I had 
anticipated. The general aspect of the town seems to 
indicate the poverty of the inhabitants ; their houses 
being too vast to be entirely occupied* The Boulevards, 
&cing the new bason, left unfinished by Napoleon^ or 
rather facing the range of meadows that run towards 
the village of Arques, might be advantageously occu- 
pied with houses ; but there is no speculation, and no 
love of picturesque, among the French. I should not 
be surprised, were the peace to continue a dozen years, 
(and God send it may, three times three dozen of 
years !) if a few adventurous English caused some more 
houses to be built, to be tenanted on easy terms, as a 
summer watering-place for those of their countrymen 
who can only muster up courage sufficient just to put 
their feet upon Gallic Ground. The immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Dieppe, and its proximity to Rx)uen and 
Paris, are inducements of no ordinary kind. 

Bonaparte seems to have been veiy anxious about the 
strengthening of the harbour ; the navigation into which 
is somewhat difficult and intricate. The sides of the 
walls, as you enter, are lofty, steep, and strong ; and 
raised batteries would render any hostile approach 
extremely hazardous to the assailants. 

There is no ship-building at this moment going on : 
the ribs of about half a dozen, half rotting, small mer- 
chant-craft being all that is discernible. But much is 
projected, and much is hoped from such projects. 
Dieppe has questionless many local advantages both by 



DIEPPE. 



35 



land and by sea ; yet it will require a long course of 
years to infuse confidence and beget a love of enter- 
prise. In spite of all the naval zealy it is here exhibited 
chiefly as affording means of subsistence from the fish- 
eries. The army will always be the favourite, even at a 
sear port. A regiment marched into the town on Monday 
evening. The men, were intoxicated — and the officers 
not only partook of the general inebriety, but paraded 
the streets arm in arm with the common men. This is 
equally a decoy and a disgrace — and dared not have 
been shewn at Versailles, or at Paris. I must not how- 
ever conclude my Dieppe journal without telling you 
that I hunted far and near for a good bookseller and 
some old books — ^but found nothing worth the search^ 
except a well-printed old Rouen Missal, and a Terence 
by Badius Ascensius. The booksellers are supplied with 
books chiefly from Rouen; the local press being too 
contemptible to mention. In respect to ^ hwA tWOtOt^ 
my countrymen had been beforehand with me ; and I 
was told strange anecdotes of their lucky trouvailles^ 
and of their unlimited generosity. May this ever attend 
them ! 



V 



36 



LETTER IV. 

ROUEN. APPROACH. BOULEVARDS. POPULATION. 
STREET SCENERY. 

Here I am, my excellent good friend, in the most 
extraordinary city in the world. One rubs one's eyes, 
and fancies one is dreaming, upon being carried through 
the streets of this old-fashioned place : or that, by some 
secret talismanic touch, we are absolutely mingling 
with human beings, and objects of art, at the com-* 
mencement of the xvith century : so very curious, and 
out of the common routine of things, is almost every 
object connected with Rouen. But before I commence 
my observations upon the town, I must give you a brief 
sketch of my journey thither. 

Previously to leaving Dieppe, we had obtained our 
regular circumstantial passports. No recruit was ever 
more exactly measured than were Mr. L. and myself ; 
and Linnseus could not have wiitten down the charac- 
teristics of a plant with more scrupulous accuracy than 
did the municipal officer survey and describe " Mes- 
sieurs les Anglois.*" You should know, in few words, 
that there is a printed list of the features ; so that the 
scribe has only to add the epithet in writing to each 
particular feature. 

We had bespoke our places in the cabriolet of the 
Diligence, which just holds three, tolerably comfort- 
able; provided there be a disposition to accommodate 



BOUEN. 



37 



each other. This cabriolet, as you have been often told^ 
is a sort of a buggy, or phaeton seat, with a covering of 
leather, in the front of the coach. It is fortified with a 
stiff leathern apron, upon the top of which is a piece of 
iron, covered with the leather, to fasten firmly by means 
of a hook on the peipendicular supporter of the head« 
There are stiffish leathern curtains on each side, to be 
drawn, if necessary, as a protection agsdnst the rain, &c. 
You lean upon the bar, or top of this leathern apron^ 
which is no very uncomfortable resting-place. And 
thus we took leave of Dieppe, on the 4th day after our 
arrival there. As we were seated in the cabriolet, we 
could scarcely refrain from loud laughter at the novelty 
of our situation, and the grotesqueness of the convey- 
ance. Our postilion was a rare specimen of his species; 
and a perfectly unique cofpy. He fancied himself, I suf^ 
pose, rather getting " into the vale of years,'* and had 
contrived to tinge his cheeks with a plentiful portion 
of rouge. His platted and powdered hair was sur- 
mounted with a battered black hat, tricked off with 
&ded ribband : his jacket was dark blue velvet, with 
the insignia of his order upon his left arm. What struck 
us as not a little singular, his countenance was no very 
&int resemblance of that of Voltaire^ when he might 
have been verging towards his sixtieth year. Most 
assuredly he resembled him in his elongated chin, and 
the s^castic expression of his mouth. We rolled mer- 
rily along — ^th^ horses sometimes spreading, and some- 
times closing, according to the size of the streets through 
which we were compelled to pass. Nothing apparently 
can be more bungling than the management of the 
conveyance^ in going down hill. There is no such 



38 



ROUEN. 



thing as a drag-chain; and at times the whole weight 
of the machine seems to press upon the haunches of the 
wheel-horses, — who, without breeching, go staggering 
along, sometimes at right angles, sometimes almost in 
one continued strait line with each other, turning face 
to face. The reins and harness are of cord; which, 
however, keep together pretty well. The postilion 
endeavours to break the rapidity of the descent by 
conducting the wheels over piles of gravel or rubbish, 
which are laid at the sides of the road, near the ditch ; 
so that, to those sitting in the cabriolet, and overlook- 
ing the whole process, the eflFect, with weak nerves, is 
absolutely terrific. They stop httle in changing horses, 
and the Diligence is certainly well managed ; and 
in general no accidents occur. We carried with us 
about fifty thousand francs of government money, and 
a cavalry soldier (one of the gens-darmes) accompanied 
us, in consequence, all the way to Rouen. 

The road from Dieppe to Rouen is wide, hard, and 
in excellent condition. There are few or no hedges, 
but rows of apple-trees afford a sufficient line of de- 
markation . The country is open, and gently undulating ; 
with scarcely any glimpses of what is called forest- 
scenery, till you get towards the conclusion of the first 
stage. There are several sharp ascents and descents ; 
yet the conducteur does not request the passengers to 
get down and walk. Nothing particularly strikes you 
till you approach Malaunaiy within about half a dozen 
miles of Rouen, and of course after the last change of 
horses. The environs of this beautiful village repay 
you for every species of disappointment, if any should 
have been experienced. The rising banks of a brisk 



ROUEN. 



39 



serpentine trout stream are studded with white houses, 
in which are cotton manufactories that appear to be 
carried on with spirit and success. Above these houses 
are hanging woods; and though the early spring would 
scwcely have coated the branches with green in our 
own country, yet here there was a general freshness of 
verdure, intermingled with the ruddy blossom of the 
apple — altogether rejoicing the eye and delighting the 
heart. Occasionally there were delicious spots, which 
the taste and wealth of an Englishman would have 
embellished to every possible degree of advantage. But 
wealth, for the gratification of picturesque taste, is a 
superfluity that will not fall to the lot of the French. 
The Revolution seems to have drained their purses, as 
well as daunted their love of enterprise, and thinned 
their population. Along the road-side there were some 
fiew houses of entertainment; and we observed the 
emptied cabriolet and stationary voiture, by the side of 
the gardens, where Monsieur and Madame, with their 
families, tripped lightly along the vistos, and smirked 
as John Bull saluted them! Moving vehicles, and 
numerous riding and walking groups, increased upon 
us, and every thing announced that we were approach- 
ing a great and populous city. Let me tell you, how- 
ever, that we had accomplished the last eight miles 
within an hour ; but during the preceding stages we had 
not exceeded five miles in the hour. 

The approach to Rouen is indeed magnificent. I 
speak of the immediate approach ; after you reach the 
top of a considerable rise, and are stopped by the bar- 
riers. You then look down a strait, broad, and strongly 
paved road, lined with a treble row of trees on each side. 



40 



KOUEN. 



As the foliage was not thickly set, we could discern, 
through the delicately-clothed branches, the tapering 
spire of the Cathedral^ and the more massive tower of the 
Ahhaye de St. Ouen — ^with hanging gardens, and white 
houses, to the left — covering a richly cultivated ridge <rf 
hills, which sink, as it were into the Boulevards ; and 
which is called the Faubourg Cauchoisb. Perhaps 
the Cathedral and St. Ouen are rather more in front ; 
yet, with the town, they incline somewhat to the left : liie 
whole being built upon a slope. To the right, throu^ 
the trees, you see the river Seine (here of no despicable 
depth or breadth) covered with boats and vessels in 
motion : the voice of commerce, and the stir of indus- 
try, cheering and animating you as you approach the 
town. We were told that almost every vessel which we 
saw (some of them of two hundred, and even of three 
hundred tons burden) was filled with brandy and wine. 
The lamps are suspended from the centre of long 
ropes, across the road ; and the whole scene is of a 
truly novel and imposing character. But how shall I 
convey to you an idea of what I experienced, as, turn- 
ing to the left, and leaving the broader streets which 
flank the quay, we began to enter the penetralia of 
this truly antiquated town. What narrow streets, 
what overhanging houses, what bizarre,* capricious 

* The French themselves acknowledge that the houses and streets 
are absolutely ''f rightful.** I strove frequently to defend them on 
principles of picturesque taste^ and from the association of ideas arinng 
from antiquity — but I should hope the defects of my speech^ rather 
than the weakness of my arguments^ failed to produce the desired 
effect. In Zeillefs European Topography, 1655^ &c. folio^ there is a 
bird's-eye view of Rouen^ of the date of 1620, [Rothomagvs, Rovan.] 
about two feet two inches in lengthy by ten inches in width. It shows 



EOUEN. 



41 



ornamenta^what a mixture of mod^n with ancient 
art — what fragments or rather ruins, of old delicately- 

the old stone bridge (now destroyed) with two of the central arches 
brokeo down— *and therefore impassable. The walls and ramparts 
are entire, and the view appears to be taken from the south-east 
point. The hills surroimding it are thickly wooded. It exhibits but 
indifierent art, yet is a pleasing print. There is another plate im- 
mediately fbUowing it, of the date of 1655, where the bridge of boats 
appears to the east of the old stone bridge, nearly one-half of whidi 
latter is destroyed. This view is a ground plan : the walls, &c. are 
entire 5 and the gardens, to the left of the western iauxbourgs, appear 
rich and endless. 

When I was at Paris, I examined, as the Abbd De la Rue advised 
me, the three volumes of Drawings and Prints relating to Normandy, 
which once belonged to De Boze, and are now to be found in the 
BUfL du Roy, Of their general merit this is not the place to say a word $ 
but as connected with the preceding, and for the sake of juxta-positicm, 
it may be as well to notice a few more old prints of Rouen. There 
are three pretty etchings of the ruins of the old stone bridge by Israel 
SUvestre, A bird*s-eye view of the town, pretty much in the style of 
that first above mentioned, after a painting by Georgvas Hoefiutgle, 
A man and woman are in the foreground. It is an oblong clever 
print. There is a duplicate of it. There is a laige ^und plan of 
Rouen^ with a small view in the comer : likewise an oblong view 
in profile, as it were, by SUvestre: weU engraved. Also a laxge bird's- 
eye view, from a position, nearer than the two preceding, — sold by 
H. JuiUot'-proche les grands Augustins au bout du pont neuf avec 
priu, &c. : a black and badly-engraved print. Several similar views 
not worth describing. There is an immense print, six feet, nine inches, 
by two feet in width, of Rouen and its ramparts, published by 
Jansen at Amsterdam in 1631, with letter- press beneath. The inscrip- 
tion above is in large white capital letters upon a black ground. It is 
useful for the detail 3 but the effect is bad. 

There has been recently (1817) published a Carte Topographique de 
la,f^ etdesFctuxbourgs de R^uen ; being a ground plan of the whole. 
It is a large and handsome map, but perti^ too4elicately executed 



42 BX)UEN. 

built Gothic churches — ^what signs of former and of 
modem devastation ! — ^what fountains, gutters, groups 
of never-ceasing men, women, and children, all gay, 
all occupied, and all apparently happy ! The Rue de la 
Grosse Horloge (so called from a huge, clumsy, anti- 
quated clock which goes across the street) struck us 
as not among the least singular streets of Rouen! 
Amazed, and half-bewildered, we turned floundering 
from street to street, with the eyes of the gazing mul- 
titude upon us, — " \oilk des Anglois !" On reaching 
the office of the Diligence, we prepared to put our 
baggage in motion for the Hotel-Vately the favourite 
inn of the English. Porters appeared, with their 
hottes upon their backs ; and a burden of at least 
two hundred and fifty pounds was placed upon one of 
those machines, and marched away with, in all the 
triumph of conscious skill and strength. The hotte 
is well contrived, causing the principal weight of 
the burden to fell horizontally across the shoulders, 
in an upright position, which is infinitely preferable to 
the perpendicular pressure, from the English knoiy 
upon the nape of the neck and shoulders. In five 
minutes we were in the court-yard of the hotel, in the 
centre of which was a large newly-constructed public 
vehicle caUed a velocifere. The springs are enormous, 
but there is much good sense in the planning of the 
whole — and I thought that it savoured of British inge- 
nuity, before I was told of the springs being actually 
modelled after those of our own vehicles. 

Ibr its svEe, and the variety of objects which it embraces. It ianever- 
theless very useful^ and has materially assisted me in designating with 
accuracy the^veral places above mentioned. 



BOUEN; 



43 



I commenced settling our plans by steuring roomiSi 
and bespeaking board and lodging according to art.** 
The landlady, a civil little woman, soon convinced ns 
that she was perfect mistress of her occupation, by an- 
ticipating many of our wants, and answering all pur 
queries in a very good-humoured and satisfactory 
manner. The relics of a table d^hdte, hashed up in the 
French style, was not the most agreeable dinner we 
could have desired for our first meal — especially when 
five francs were charged for one re-boiled fowl enfiladed 
by sorel sauce I However, here we are ; here we have 
been these two days ; and here we purpose staying till 
my particular objects of research shall have been ac- 
complished. In spite of their national antipathies, the 
French cannot but admit that in general les Anglois 
sent bien bons et tvhs propres." On the evening of 
our arrival, we were soon saluted by a laquais de 
place — the leech-like hanger-on of every hotel — ^who 
begged to know if we would walk upon the Boule- 
vards. We consented ; turned to the right ; and, gra- 
dually rising, gained a considerable eminence. Again 
we turned to the right, walking upon a raised prome- 
nade ; while the blossoms of the pear and apple trees, 
within a hundred walled gardens, perfumed the air 
with their delicious fragrance. As we continued our 
route along the Boulevard Beauvoisine, we gained one 
of the most interesting and commanding views ima- 
ginable of the city of Rouen — just at that moment 
lighted up by the golden rays of a glorious setting sun 
— ^which gave a broader and mellower tone to the 
shadows upon the Cathedral and the Ahhey of St. 
Ouen. The locality of Rouen renders it necessarily 
1 



44 



ROUEN. 



picturesque, view it from what station you will. To 
convince you of this, examine the following sketch, 
made but yesterday — from nearly the same spot, only 
a little more elevated — by the inde&itigable graphic 
companion of my tour. 



ROUEN. 



45 



The population of Rouen should seem to be after 
* the Chinese £[ishion : in other words, of an enormous 
extent. It is supposed to amount to full one hundred 
thousand souls. In truth, there is no end to the suc- 
cession of human beings. They swarm like bees, and 
like bees are busy in bringing home the produce of 
their industry. You have all the bustle and agitation 
of Cheqiride and Comhill ; only that the ever-moving 
aeoie is carried on within limits one-half as broad. 
Conceive Bucklersbury, Cannon-street, and Thames- 
street^ — and yet you cannot conceive the narrow streets 
of Rouen — ^filled with the flaunting cauchoise,and echo- 
iqg to the eteraal tramp of the sabot. Here they are ; 
men^ women, and children, all abroad in the very 
cmtre of the streets — alternately encountering the 
lyl^giiing of the gutter, and the jostling of their towns- 
moDi — while the swift cabriolet, or slow-paced cart^ or 
thmidering diligence, severs them, and scatters them 
abroad^ only that they may seem to be yet more con- 
deasefy united. Mr. L. with the natural enthusiasm 
of Us profession, becomes daily more in ecstacies with 
aU around him ... for myself, it is with difficulty I am 
penoaded that I am not living in the times of our 
Henry VIII. and of their Francis I. ; and am half dis- 
posed to inquire after the residence of George Tailleur 
the printer-^he associate, or foreign agent, of your 
bronrite PjfnsonJ^ You will call this epistle a rare 
rlMfiaody : but let it pass. To-morrow, and a few fol- 
lowing days, 

.... to fresh fields and pastures new • 
Pot fields** yon must read churches ; and for " pastures** 

* See the BibUographkal Decameron, vol. ii. p. 1S7> 8* 
VOL. I. D 



46 



ROUEN. 



the public library, booksellers* shops, and printers* 
offices. A thousand times fistrewell. 

P. S. I cannot refrain from adding a postscript. Not- 
withstanding all those tonneaus ffeau de vie and du 
vin ordinaire y of which I spoke in the body of this letter, 
we have been here upwards of forty-eight hours, and 
have not yet encountered a drunken person. Thdr 
brandy-shops (liere, as well as at Dieppe) are however 
as numerous as our pot-houses. 



47 



LETTER V. 

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. THE CATHEDRAL. 
MONUMENTS. RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES. THE ABBEY 
OF ST. OUEN. THE CHURCHES OF ST. MACLOU, ST. 
VINCENT, ST. VIVIEN, ST. GERVAIS, AND ST. PAUL. 

I HAVE now made myself pretty well acquainted with 
the locale of Rouen. How shall I convey to you a 
stimmary, and yet a satisfactory, description of it ? It 
cannot be done. Let me prose away, then, as I list 
— and for^ve all the minuteness, and even tautology, 
of detml which you may encounter. You love old 
drarches, old books, and relics of ancient art. These 
"be my themes, therefore: so fancy yourself either 
strolling leisurely with me arm in arm, in the streets, 
or sitting at my elbow, conning over the marvellous 
things that this city contains. First for the Cathe- 
dral : — ^for what traveller of taste does not doff his 
bonnet to the mother church of the town through 
which he happens to be travelling— or in which he 
takes up a temporary abode? You may remember 
that I gave you a glimpse of this Cathedral in my 
last letter, as we descended from the barriers down the 
pav^, towards the city. At that time only its two end 
towers, and central spire-crowned tower, were visible. 
Now let us ^proach it in good earnest. The west- 
front,* always the forte of the architect's skill, strikes 

* A view of this west front will be found in Mr. Cotman's Norman 
JnHquUiei. 



48 



EOUEN. 



you as you go down, or come up, the pimoipal street; 
or La Rue des Cannes j which seems to biseetittfejtown 
into equal parts. A small dpen «pM6^ (which tow- 
ever has been miserably encroaclied upon .rby tpetly 
shops) called tbid^lawer^gardmf is before itbis iirMteisp 
front — so that it has some bttle. breathing jfOoia'iiq 
which to expand its beauties to the wondering >^6»Qf 
the beholder. In my' poor judgmentvrtlus WMti^ 
front has very few elevations comparable with It^WreiwH 
including those of Lincoln and Ywk. - Iti mayl ftHh 
aibly want the severe, simple, breadth of this lormfr^ 
but it unites vastness of outline with miautepieai|>irf 
detail in a very extraordinary manner. TJjjie pOMh 
meats, especialiy upon the three porches, betwecy^tthe 
two towers, are numerous, rich, apd for the gE«pfenr 
patft even yet entice :~in fi^te of the Calvimist^lwi^ths 
IVench revolution, and, time. ^ Among tbeJowwi Aod 
smaller basso retievofil upop tJaese pdrcbciSi. i^ tjbft>i«|^ 
ject 'of the daughter of Herodiaa dancing l^omHeiyftci 
She is mamieuvering.oB her bands, bar feet bein^ at|h- 




in width, 
plates 

frbm'the drawUgS of 'I^glois, wek^ Tcll^ihddec^ repniilkilMtoto 
oftheorigintolii » ' ... vi!»*»v --im, 

fmtpUe4^the,C€hitMl Tlie vb!9^^ commit ksfilf^ 
throughout nearly the whole of the towns in Normandy, and especdaUy 
m%ie cathedrals, towards the year 1560, afibnl melani6hbly'j^r&okof 
the effects of religious animosities — however teal, or fana^riafj^^ tiU^it 
have been the provocations experienced. But the 'Cdlviii!^^%^ 
always a bitter an^ ferocious sect. Fommenlye', in his qtla^^iiiiU^ 
Htftotre de V£glise ' Caihedrate de Jtbuen, 1686^ hak'id^vbtid db^y 
one hundred pagds to an acfo^ilnt of taiViiiid^i ikt^fSreddfic^'/ ^\ d6- 
157. Farin is necessarily brie?. ' * • • 



ROUEN. 



49 



vardfl. To tfae.rigfat, the decapitation of St. John is 
lAing place. 

: '^Of the two towers, at the western extremity, on look- 
'at the cathedral, that to the left, or the northern 
kmeTy is very much the older — ^perhaps of the early 
part ^ofihe nith century, if not of the latter part of 
ilie'Xtthi^ It wants, however, the elegance of the 
Oipporite, or southern tower, which I imagine to be of 
ibd xivth century; but of which the upper part is 
oiarly of the sixteenth. 

' Before I take you into the cathedral, you must just 
step on each side to obtain a view of the transept 
daMB. They are both extremely elaborate in their 
•dalptore, but the exterior approach to the northern is 
WBifnfW and confined — little frequented — and half 
<sh6k6d with every species of revolting nuisance. The 
Mttthem transept makes amends for the defects of its 
nppombe neighbour. The space before it is devoted to 
itwrlof v^table market: curious old houses flank 
<Us space : and the ascent to the door, but more especi- 
ally the curiously sculptured porch itself, with the open 
spaces in the upper part — flight, fanciful, and striking 
to a degree — ^produce an effect as pleasing as it is extra- 
ordinary. Add to this, the ever-restless feet of suppli- 
ants, going in and coming out — the worn pavement, 
and the frittered ornaments, in consequence — seem to 

* The author of the Description Historique de Notre Dame de Rouen, 
\Si6, 8vo. p. 13, 13, (judiciously compiled from the larger works of 
Pmnmerfi^e and Farm) assigns the year 1100 as that of the com- 
H^^lioement of the building of this tower. He seems to think it pro- 
bable that it was built upon the scite of the ancient tower erected by 
St. Romanus, about the year 633. The upper part of the tower is 
howerer of the end of the xvth.. centuiy. 



50 



ROUEN. 



convince you that the ardour and activity of devotion- 
are almost equal to that of business. It was in firbjtt 
of this south transept, for five successive days, sitting 
within the chamber of a miserable entresol^ (over 
what in England we should call a liquor-shop) that, 
Mr. Lewis made the enchanting drawing which ac- 
companies this dispatch.* 

As you enter the cathedral, at the centre door, by 
descending two steps, you are struck with the length 
and loftiness of the nave, and at the lightness of the 
galliery which runs along the upper part of it. By a 
gallery, I mean a sort of open work, or passage left be^ 
tween the upper ornamental arches and the solid walls. 
This continues throughout the choir also. Perhaps 
the nave is too narrow for its length. The lantern of 
the central large tower is beautifully light and striking. 
It is supported by four massive clustered pillarsi 
about forty feet in circumference ; but on casting youir 
eye downwards, you are shocked at the tasteless divi- 
sion of the choir from the nave by what iis called a Gre^ 
dan screen : and the interior of the transepts has under- 
gone a like preposterous restoration. The rose windows 
of the transepts, and that at the west end of the nave^ 
merit your attention and commendation. I know you 
will be anxious to have an account of monuments^ stain- 
ed glass, and of all the et ceteras of cathedral accom^ 
paniments. But remember, I am not only not an archi- 
tectural antiquary, but, in order to satisfy your wishes 
on tliis head, you must absolutely read professional 
treatises — till the enterprising and well-directed taste 

* See the opposite plati. M. Cotman intends publishing a portion 
of the same subject; upon a lai^ger scale^ as an etching. 



ROUEN. 



51 



of Mr. Britton send some British artist over to do jus- 
tice to the manifold beauties of this venerable building. 
Yet the drawings and etchings of M. Cotman, of which 
I heard much from the inhabitants^ may possibly 
render the enterprise of Mr. Britton useless. I could 
not avoid noticing, to the right, upon entrance, perhaps 
the oldest side chapel in the cathedral ; of a date little 
less ancient than that of the northern tower, before 
mentioned. It contains by much the finest specimens 
of stained glass— of the early part of the xvith century. 
The capitals of the pillars are of a twelfth century aspect 
— ^for I dread the chastisement of our friend N****** if 
I carry them only into the last ten years of the eleventh ! 
There is also some beautiful stained glass on each side 
of the Chapel of the Vir^n,* behind the choir ; but 
although very ancient, it is the less interesting, as 
not being composed of groups, or of historical subjects. 
Yet, in this, as in almost all the churches which I 
have seen, frightful devastations have been made 
among the stained-glass windows by the fury of the 
Revolutionists. 

Respecting the Monuments, I have no time, and 
less inclination, to be copiously minute : never having 
possessed that patient spirit of tomb-stone chronicling 
which is painfully evident even in the pages of some of 

* This chapel is about ninety-five English feet in length, by thirty 
in width, and sixty in heighth. The sprawling painting by Philippe de 
Champagne, at the end of it, has no other merit than that of coTering 
so many square feet of wall. The architecture of this chapel is of 
the xivth century : the stained glass windows are of the latter end of the 
xvth. On going the circuit of the cathedral, one is surprised to count 
not fewer than twenty-Jive chapels. 



52 



Boum 



oiir.fcMt 'anti^Mite. -Yet 'you'Otight to know that the 

* thefamnu BibLik}."] M. Gilbert^ the author ot th^ Descriptum, &o. 
(mentioned at page 49> ante) says that both Rollo and his son William 
were buried in the south side of the cathedral, and that their remains 
were discovered about the year 1900> on building the present choir — and 
tiiat it was Rollo who built the ancient cathedral — ** according to 
Ordericus Vitalis and other contemporaneous historians," p. 56. But 
it must be observed that Vitalis, (as may be seen in Duchesne's Hisi, 
Normann, Script, p. 459) says not a word about it : and from the pages 
of the Neustria Pia, (9>300-l) it should seem that Rollo was rather 
partial to the Abbey of St. Ouen. He died in 917. On the opposite 
dufiel is tibe tomb of his son William Longesp^« who wastakai 
oiS ,^P9ll4i#imd|f in 944» «od his reinaias earned for iaterment to this 
Cf^O^^djpnd*:^ Jhfl.imonuBKental inscriptions of these are as fbUoir : 
Pommeraye {p. 68) having given the mart ancient ones. 

B09J4>. WiLUAM. 

Hie positUB est Hie positus est 

>.* RoUo GuiUelmiis IHctus Longua Spala 

oNMQiiMi«8ttttritiVart«CBb RoUoais FUhii, 

.fliM. .'. vRestituln DaaLNormsBBin 

; ,,Ft}iip9l)uxCoiiditorP8^ IVoditorie OccUus occccoxxsv. 

A FVancone Archiep. Rotom. Ossa Ipsius in veteri S«nctuar|o, 

Baj^tizatus Anno Dccccxiii. Ubi nunc est Caput Naris Primum 

Obiit Anno Dccccxvii. Condita, Transjato Altari, Hie 

Ossa fpsiiis in veteriBanctuario CDilocata sunt k B. Manrilio 

Nunc capite Natis Primnm Archiepisc. Rotom. 

- ' CmOta, Anno MXJuii. 
• ^Tteilhrto AltMTi, Golldctta 
So&ib&B. Maorilio Ardiiep. Rotom. 
An. uuKiiu 

Qu^ toiraids the end of the choir, at the back of the high altar, aie 
iTTi<?auni|pnt,al inscr^ons yet more interesting to Englishmen. The 
brother of Richard I. Richard 1. himself, and John Duke of Bedfofd. 
Aftjth^ are short I shall give them : , 

..^c "i Richard L Hbnrt ms Yqukobiu 

.:/•.:'! j'A- ■ ■ T. cw IficJaoet 



ROUEN. 



53 



dowB to the lights upon eutering ; although his monu- 
iDffliA(WnaQt.JtK^ older than tha xiiith century. As you 

NonnaamaB Duds Richardi Regis Angliae 

GoR Lbonis Dx€Ti Cor Leonis Dicti FVater 

Obiit Anno Obiit Anno 

mcxcix. mclxxxiii. 
John Duke of Bedford. 

Ad dextrum Altaris Latus 
Jacet 

lOANNBS Dux BeTFORDI 

Normannise pro Rex 
Obiit Anno 

MCCCCXXXV. 

IM Diike't tott^ivSl be seen engraved in San^^hf^s Getteatogteat Bb^ 
UUhft p. 914^ ivlridi plate, in faxX^ is the identical one uted hj DM»rel \ 
^vho had the singularly good fortune to decorate his Anglo-Nonnan 
Antiquities witiMMftmny expense to himself. 

The above is the fiunous Duke of Bedford, of biUiamaniacal cele- 
brity. Consult for one minute the BihL Decameron, to)* !• P* cxxxvi. 
There is a curious chapter in Fommeraye*8 Histaire de VEgUie CeUhe- 
drale de Rouen, p. SOS, respecting the Duke's tddng the habit of a 
canon of the cathedral. He attended, with his first ^vrife, Anne of Bur- 
9U1IDY, and threw himself upon the liberality and kindness of the monks, 
to be received by them as one of their order : " il les prioit d*6tre re9eu 
panny eux comme un, de leurs fr^res, et d'avoir tous les jours distnbu* 
tion de pain et de vin^ et pour marque de fr^temit^ d'etre v^tu du sur- 
plis et de I'aumusse : . comme aussi d*6tre a3aoci^, luy et sa tr^ gdn^- 
reuse et tr^ iUustre Spouse, aux suffrages de leur oompagnie, et k la 
participation de tous les biens qu'il plaira k Dieu leur domier la grace 
d*op6rer,*' p. 204 . A grand procession marked the day of the Duke's 
admission into the monkish fraternity. The whole of diis, with the 
Duke*s snpistb presents to the sacristy, and his dining with his Duchess, 
and reoeMsg^their portk>n of eight loaves and Ibur gallons of tme," 
aN» distioleUy-itttitated by the minute Pommeraye. 

Sandford, after telling us that he ^nks there never was any por- 
traiture*' of the Duke, tlius sums up his character. He was justly 
accounted ooA.of Ijhe best generals that ever blossomed out of the royal 
stem oi thunAQwmn. His valour was not mofettnftk to Us enemies 



54 



ROUEN. 



approach the Ch&pd of the Firgin,yoja pass by au 
andeni iftomiiMiit, ito the left, of a recumbent Bishi^, 

reposing behind a thin pillar, within a vastly-pretty 
ornamented Gothic arch. To the eye of a tastefiil anti- 
quary, this cannot fail to have its due attraction. While 
however we are treading upon hallowed ground, ren- 
dered if possible more sacred by the ashes of the illus- 
trious dead, let us move gently onwards towards the 
Chapel of the Firgin — behind the choir. See what bold 
and brilliant monumental figures are yonder, to the 
right of the altar ! How gracefully they kneel, and how 
devoutly they pray ! They are the figures of the Car- 
DiNAjus d'Amboisb* — uucle and nephew : — ^the former, 

than ikis memory honourable 3 for (doubtful whether with more glory to 
hinii or to tfae speaker) King Lewis the Eleventh^ being counselled by 
oertain envious persons to deface his tomb (wherein with him^ auth 
onej was buried all English men*s good ftDrtune ih France) used Uieae 
indeed prineely words : ' What honour shaU it be to us, or you, to break 
this monument, and to puU out of the ground the bones Hiif> whom, 
in his life* time, neither my. &ther nor your progenitors, with aU th«if 
puissance, were once able to make flie a foot backwarde ? who, by ids 
stren^k, policy and wit, kept them aU out of the principal domiaielis 
of Trance, and out of this noble dudiy of Normandy ? Wherefoi^, 1 
aay first, God sats his Sovl ; and let his body now lie in rest, which, 
when he was aHve, would have disquieted the proudest of us all. And 
for THis#ToicB, r assurt you it is not so worthy or convement as his 
honour and acts have deserved.* " p. 514-5, £d. I707. 

the CAaniNALS d*Amboi8e.] Fmnce can boast of few brighter orna- 
ments of church and of state than were these Cardinals : both of the 
Christian name of Oboegx. The uncle died in 1510 : the nephew abdut 
thirty years afterwards. It was the unde, minister of Louis XTI. w1ii6 
diverted the rivers of Robec and Auhette so as to pass through the city of 
Booeii for the purpose of dyeing and manufacturing woollen cloths. 
He aba caoaed to be built, fX his^wn expense^ the whdeof the iapade 
•oTthe west ftont, between the towers^ running over the andent porches 



ROUEN. 



55 



minister of Louis XII. and (what does not neoessariiy, 
fcM&Wy bnt wfaat ghres him an infiniteljr higher olaim. 

— ''fiiU (aajs Gilbert) of the moat beautiful fitogrpc-k^oking W9fV/ 
Hie magnificent tomb, above mentioned^ waa executed at ,chaijg;e 
and coat of the nephew, and finished in 1522 The names of the artL^ 
employed upon it are, unfortunately, unknown. It is abouViwenty-^iree 
feet high, by sevefiteen In length ; and displays the ft>Ifo1rii^ ^hscii^ 
tkm: 

rABTOm SRAM OLBRI, POPULI rATBR, AURIA ti^B 

LILIA SUBDSaANT, QUKRCU8 BT IPSA MIHI. 
MORTUUS BN lACBO, MORTB BXTINGUUNTUR H0N0RB8 : 
AT VIRTUS MORTIS NB8CIA, MORTE VIRBT. 

" Hub sumptuous monument was erected in the year 15^, by'Geoige 
d'Amboifle, the nephew, when he was only Archbishop of RoiKn,'aiid 
had no great expectation of obtuning the purple ; so that his statue, 
wfaidi wna at that time placed on the mausoleum, represented him 
dressed in his archiepisoopal habit : but as soon as he had procured a 
cardiiial's hat, he ordered his statue to be taken down, and replaced by 
tiiat which we now see. This mausoleum is said to have been seven 
years in making.'* Ducarbl; p. 19. I wish Ducarel had stated hid 
andiority for this anecdote. The word quercus," in the above imcrip- 
tkm, alludes to Pc^ Julius 11. who was of the house of Rovxra : M is 
the ItaUan word latinised. Perhaps the three greatest ministers which 
Frenoe ever possessed, were Amboise, Sully, and Colbert. Voltaire, 
who always loved a sneer at dmrchmen, says, that if Amboise had but 
(me benefice in his own diocese, the wfiole Kingdom of Prance served 
him for a tecond ! It may have been so ; for the Archbishop died 
immensely rich — leaving (according to the authors of the Gallia Chris- 
tiana, vol. xi. col. 96,) not less than 300,000 crowns (aureorum, qu. ?) 
bdiind him— but then " he made the poor hib heirs, and willed that 
th^ should enjoy every thing which he had accumulated by means of 
his jffchiepiscopal, or other, revenues." Pope Julius 11. pretended that 
Amboise had no right, as a churchman, to leave such an immense pio- 
perty behind him: buttheKmg (Louis XII.) was of a different qiimon; 
and, on iht other hand, forbade the interference of the Pope in the din 
posMkm of private pn^perty. The Archbishop's improvemeiita in tht 



56 



ROUEN. 



upon the gratitude of posterity) the restorer and beau- 
l^er of the glorious building in which you are contem- 
plating his figure ! This splendid monument is entirely 
of black and white marble, of the early part of the six- 
teenth century. The figures just mentioned are of white 
marble, kneeling upon cushions, beneath a rich canopy 
of Gothic firet-work. They are in their professional robes; 
their heads are bare, exhibiting the tonsure, with the hair 
in one large curl behind. A small whole-length figure of 
St. George, their tutelary saint, is below them, in gilded 

Cathedral alone shewed the liberality and munificence of his cha- 
racter. His letters must be interesting ; and especially those to Francis 
de Paula (of the order of the Minimes, to which order the Cardinal was 
much attached)^ of whom he was very fond. The Cardinal died in his 
fiftieth year only $ and his funeral was graced and honoured by the pre- 
sence of his royal master. Ouicciardini calls him the oracle and right 
arm of Louis." Of eight brothers, whom he left behind, four attained 
to the episcopal rank. His nephew succeeded him as Archbishop. See 
also Historia Genecdogica Magnahm Erancke ; voL vii. p. 129 : quoted 
in the work last mentioned. 

It was during the archiepiscopacy of the successor of the nephew of 
Amboise — namely, that of Charles of Bourbon — that the Calvmistic 
persecution commenced. Tunc vero coepit civitas, dicecesis, imiver- 
saqueprovincia lamentabilem in modum conflictari, ssvientibus ob reli- 
gicHiis dissidia plusquam civilibus bellis," &c. But then the good Arch- 
bishop, however bountiful he might have been towards the poor at 
Roficevalles, (when he escorted Philip H.'s first wife Elizabeth, daughter 
of Henry U. to the confines of Spain, after he had married her to that 
wretched monarch) should not have inflamed the irritated minds of 
the Calvinists, by burning alive, in 1559, John Coitin, one of their 
most eminent preachers ; by way of striking terror into the rest ! • .Well 
might the Chronicler observe, as the result, *' novas secta ilia in dies 
acquirebat vires.*' About 1560-2 the Calvinists got the upper hands 
and repaid the Catholics with a vengeance ! Charles of Bourbon died 
in 1590 : so that he had an arduous and agitated time of it. 



jtingoished. Take one — as a specimen— rrepresenting 
Charity. 




Tbe cross and the heart were mutilated dijuivg, thp 
Rr^lutaon. These figures again are flanked by «ght 
smklter' ones, placed in eafved iucIkb; while above 
thM/'ln'turn, kre' the twelve Apbsthts^ not 'le^i hmt^ 
Urally executed* . 1 



58 



irlfhtAiHMiii^tcased hya, faBlf>doien- ngged-coatadiiule A^gne4> <vbo 
iofipqi^ujip 1': ito moiiiit the tow<er." . fintiiie Gbmax, T^jtfif, ^Snpf* 
up loo^rexfsts there. ThisbeUwaa lurokeii in the year 179|6> on die 
airiTal of Loiiis XVI. at Rouen ; and during the revplutionaiy period 
o( TifsS it was conveyed to Romilly, for the puT|>ose of being mel^ 
i4>']^n'6h'. 'tet fragments of it were transported to the mint lit Paris, 
i^'ilKl'Mib^ of ifttrikhiga^efvr medals frotn it. These medals aredf Ike 
VIMNSbpossihibbcetnnrenee. MMn,in\^ HuLMedaUliqitedcUiRewolu-^ 
ti^J^of^ajife,, Ptkiis^ 1308, 8vo. has engraved the two aides of one. 
Th.^.English are .fbn4 of the histories of great bells ^ and I shall give 
a very brief one of the present. It was cast in 1501, under the auspices 
of the first Cardinal d'Amboise, by one Jean lb Masson, or Machon ; 
who, the story goes, died of joy on having succeeded in the attempt, 
and was bnried at the end of the nave under a small tomb^ with a 
bdl sculptured upon it. The following were the verses upon his 
tomb, before the Revolution had destroyed both : 

Cff'deiMs grist Jehan le Mack^n, 

De ChMTtres, homme de/achon, 
t .,, , Z/e^t^//W»^ Georgjbs d'AMBOiSE, 

^ Qui trente^ix mille livre poise. 

Mil cinq cens un,Jour d*aoust deuwiesme. 

Puis maurust le vingt et uniesme. 
iilus unfortunately-sensitive artist never lived to hear the sound of the 
bell which he had manufoctured 3 for it was not rung until the 1 6th of 
February, 1509, by sixteen men. See Pommeraye, p. 50. 1686, folio, 
llie following was the quatrain, in Gothic letters, which was cut upon 
tiiebyi'its^lf! 

j(e 0u(0 noirimee ^e0rae0 toBofce, 

^ ipsA iitn tat pAftiidf 
a^uatante milTe e tsoutieta# 



ROUEN. 69 

the bell and the tower, by the uncle and minister 
d'Amboisr. How the tone goes to one's heart! 
How the nave and the choir reverberate its echoes ! 
*Ti8 delusion all; a mere cheat of the imagination. 
But know, my dear friend, that there was once a bell, 
(and the largest in Europe, save one) which used to 
send forth its sound, for three successive centuries, from 
the said tower. This bell was broken about thirty years 
ago, and was destroyed in the ravages of the inunedi- 
atdy succeeding years.* The south-west tower remains 
and the upper part of the central tower, with the whcie 
of the lofty wooden spire : — the fruits of the liberality 
of the excellent men of whom such honourable mention 
has been made. Considering that this spire is very lofty, 
and composed of wood, it is surprising that it has not 

Below these were sixteen hexameter and pentameter verses. The dia- 
meter of the beU was nearly eleven feet English. The enormous size of 
the clapper (weighing 1838 lbs.) is said to have been the cause of the 
original fracture. The knob of this clapper^ yet in existence at the 
door of a blacksmith of Deville^ a village near Bouen^ is seventeen inches 
thidc. It follows that this bell^ although smaller than that at Mosoow> 
was the laigest in the world which was placed in a tower and sounded. 

It may be worth further remarking^ that this tower goes by the name 
of the Butter Tower. In other words, the Pope permitted the town's- 
fblk and country people, who had contributed by liberal donations to its 
re-edificatu>n^ to sell butter and milk in the market-place during Lent. 

* The choir was formerly separated from the surrounding ch^[)ek« 
or rather from the space between it and the chapeb, by a superb brass 
grating, fiill of the most beautiful arabesque ornaments — another testi- 
mony ^of the magnificent spirit of the Cardinal and Prime Minister of 
Louis XII. : whose anns^ as weU as the figure of his patron^ St. Geoige, 

were seen in the centre of every compartment The Revolution 

has not left a vestige behind ! 



60 



ROUEN. 



been destroyed by tempest j or accident from lightning.* 
The taste of it is rather capricious than beautiful. 

But I have not yet done with the monuments, or 
rather have only commenced the account of them. 
Examine yonder recumbent figure, to the left of the 
altar, opposite the splendid monument upon which I 
have just been dilating. It is lying upon its back, with 
a ghastly expression of countenance, representing the 
moment when the last breath has escaped from the 
body. It is the figure of the Grand Seneschal dk 
BfLEzk,^ — Governor of Rouen, and husband of the 
celebrated Diane de Poictiers — that thus claims our 
attention. This figure is quite naked, lying upon its 
back, with the right hand placed upon the stomach, 
but in an action which indicates life — and therefore is in 
bad taste, as far as truth is concerned ; for the head being 

* It has, however, imdeigone great changes and reparations. This 
central tower, with the superincumbent spire^ disphiys the architecture 
of the xiiith, xivth, and xvth centuries. From bottom to top it is four 
hundred and thirty English feet in height. The cock is fixed upon a 
slender base of only six inches yet it measures three feet and a half in 
length. It is supposed to be precisely parallel with the top of Mont St. 
Catharine. Let me add, that the whole length of the cathedral is about 
four hundred and forty feet and the transept about one huadfed and 
seventy-five, English measure. The height of the nave is about ninety^ 
and of the lantern one hundred and sixty-eight feetj English. The 
length of the nave is two hundred and twenty-eight feet. 

t the Grand Sbnischal Db Brsz£'.] He died in IhSl. Both 
the ancient and yet existing inscriptions are inserted by Gilbert, 
from Pommeraye and Farin, and formeriy there was seen^ in the 
middle of the moniunent^ the figure of the Seneschal halnted aa a 
Count, with all the msignia of his dignity. But this did not outlive 
the Revolution. 



BOUEN. 



61 



fidlen back,, much shrunken, and with a ghastly ex- 
pression of countenance — vindicating that sonie , time 
has elapsed since it breathed its last — the j^nd 
conld not rest in this position. The cenotaph i£i of 
black marble, disfigured by the names of idle visi- 
tors who choose to leave such impertinent memprijals 
behind! The famous Goujon is supposed to be the 
sculptor of the figure, which is painfully clever, but it 
strikes me as being too small. At any rate, the arms 
and body seem to be too strong and fleshy for the 
shrunken and death-stricken expression of the counte- 
nance. Above the Seneschal, thus prostrate and life- 
less, there is another and a very clever representation 
of him on a smaller scale; as the following copy (sup- 
plied from an etcliing by an ingenious female) evi- 
dently proves. 



62 



ROUEN. 



On each side of this figure (which has. not escaped 
serious injury) are two females in white ^marble ; one 
representing the Virgin, and the other Diana op 
PoicTiERS :* they are little more than half the size of 

* Diana of Poictibss.] — ^Again mention made of this extraor- 
dinary woman! ? (See tlie Bibliographical Decameron, yoI. ii. p. 486j 
&c.) The other figure^ with a cluld in its arms, supposed to be 
the ViBOiN, is by some with more propriety thought to be the 
nurse of the Seneschal. She is in the act of giving nourishment 
to a child, and the child is considered to be no less a personage 
than the Seneschal himself. In Ponmieraye's time (about the 
year 1660) there used to be a number of votive gifts " presented by 
the piety of the faithful.*' These have been all stolen. Besides the 
two figures of the Virgin or Nurse^ond Diana, there are, by the side of 
the equestrian statue, female figures representing the four virtues 
Prudence, Glory, Victory, and Faith. To her honour it must be 
mentioned, that Diana Was exceedingly liberal in her presents to the 
Cathedral. I regretted that I had not an opportunity of visiting even 
the scite only of the Chateau d^Anct, the residence of tliat extraordi- 
nary woman— especially as it was near Dreux, in the neighbourhood of 
Rouen — but I was deterred by the assurance that not a vestige of it re- 
mained ; the whole having been broken up and appropriated during 
the revolution. Gilbert quotes the verses upon this castle by Voltaire, 
in his Henriade, 

U voit Ics murs d^Anct, l)&tis aux bords de PElurc ; 

Lui-mtoe en ordoima la superbc structure. 

and refers to the Anecdote*, Sfc. des Reines et Regentes de France, 
1776, vol. iv. p. 456. 

Brantome may be advantageously consulted 3 as will be acknow-- 
ledgedon reading the smart and lively account of Diana in the Vlllth. 
chapter of the 1st volume of [Sir Nathaniel] WraxalVs Memoir* of the 
Kings of France; 1777, 8vo. an amusing, and now uncommon perform- 
ance. In Zeiller'9 Topography of Gaul, forming three volumes out of the 
sixteen in folio, of his views of the principal towns in Europe, 1650, 
&c., there is a bird's eye view of the Chateau d*An£t, from which it 
appears to have been, even at that time, in every respect magnificent 



ROUEN. 



63 



life. The whole is in the very best style of the sculp- 
ture of the time of Francis I. These precious speci- 

and complete. A kind of heavy portal entrance, in the middle^ (like that 
wbkih may be now seen at the late Colonel Seijeantson*s mansion, 
near Cuckfield^ in Sussex,) conducted you into a mansion containing 
three sides of a sort of college quadrangle — the ends, upon entering, 
haTing round towers, -of a castellated structure. Immediately behind 
the house was a sumptuous garden, laid out in formal flower beds^ 
and flanked, apparently, by offices and garden houses. Two foun- 
tains played in the middle. Behind the garden, again, there was a 
laige smooth meadow or lawn, with a piece of water in the middle — 
the whole surrounded by trees. On each side of the house, was a 
laige court, surroimded with offices for servants. In the centre of 
each court a laige fountain played having a stag in the centre of one, 
and a statue of Diana in that of the other. To the right of the ri^t 
hand court, appears what may be called stables — or the menagerie 
of Diana : and behind this, was a thick wood or forest. Upon a hill, to 
the left of the meadow behind the garden, was a church and a cru- 
cifix by the side of it. Everything wears the aspect of a royal resi- 
dence. Sir N. Wraxall observes that it was respectable even when he 
saw it in 1774. 

It must be admitted that Diana, when she caused the verses 

Indimka tibi quondam et fidmima cm^tw 
Vt fuit in thaiamo, sic erii in tumulo. 

to be engraved upon the tomb of the Seneschal, might well have 
moved the bile'* of the pious Benedictine Ponuneraye, and have ex- 
cited the taunting of Ducarel, when they thought upon her subse- 
quent connexion, in the character of mistress, with Henry the Second 
of France. Henry however endeavoured to compensate for his indis- 
cretions by the pomp and splendor of his processions. Rouen, so cele- 
brated of old for the entries of Kings and Nobles, seems to have been 
in a perfect blaze of splendor upon that of the Lover of Diana — qui 
fut plip magniflque que toutes ceUes qu*on avoit vu jusqu'alors see 
Farini Bist. de la VtUe de Aouen, vol. i.p. 191, where there is a sin- 
gularly minute and g^y account of all the orders and d^rees ^ citi- 
zens — (with their gorgeous accoutrements of white plumes, velvet 



64 



ROUEN. 



mens of art^ as well as several other onular remainB, 
were carried away during the revolution, to a place of 

hatSj rich brocades^ and curiously wrought taffetas) of wbom the peo- 
cessions were composed. It must have been a perfectly druralie 
sight, upon the largest possible scale. It was from reqpect to the 
'character or the memory of Diana, that so many plaister-represenla- 
tions of her were erected on the exteriors of buildings : espedalfy of 
those within small squares or quadrangles. In wandering about 
Roueuj I stumbled upon sereralold mansions of this kind. 

May I be forgiven for an extension of this note}— already peiluipf 
somewhat unconscionably long. Ds Thou, who was a little boy^ 
about six years of age, when he was present at the tilting matdi be- 
tween Henry II. and Mongomery (so fatal to the former,*) seems to 
have been unusually enflamed against Diana : and certainly he lived 
near enough to the time in which she ruled her royal lover, to gather 
evidence which would necessarily escape a later historian. He cbUb 
her a woman of a proud and weak understanding^*' adding, that " it 
was thought she ruled Henry by means of philtres and charms, and 
that she preserved her imbounded influence over him, till the dose of 
his life. All things (continues he) were ruled by her authority; and 
Montmorenci himself submitted to the veriest acts of meanness to in* 
gratiate himself with her-—'' pessimo exemplo summi imperii ad im- 
potentis foemins libidinem prostituti." A little onward he says that 

• Je vis bksser le Roi Henry 11. par Mongommery. La Reine fit 
d^molu* les Toumellei pour ce fiut : lieu unsi appell6, k cause d'un vieuz 
Chateau, oA 11 y avoit beaucoup de toumelles." See the Thuana, p. 199: 
attached to De Thou's Hut. iui temp. De Thou treats this duel Qn whkh dtt 
stomp of Mongomery's lance penetrated the eye and fractured the slodl 
of Henry) much too seriously. A various reading has it — " regem, in gr». 
garii militis modum, dignitatis 8U» oblitum, inter ludos jocosque periisie.'' 
But surely it was only the indulgence of a high chivalrous feeling, conunon to 
that age — and which had been in some sort practised by Henry's own fiuther 
with our Henry VIII. Besides, it must be remembered that Mongomeiy, 
the ablest champion of the lance in Christendom, was compelled unwiUini^y 
to fi^. De Thou says that Henry's death was predicted by Luca Guaricos, 
a madiematidaa and conjuror. See his History j voL L p. 768-8. 



BOUEN. 



66 



jsafttjFi Ite choir it spacions^ and well adapted to ite 
^grarpoaeB ; but who does not grieve to see the Arch* 
"bishop's stall, once the most curious and costly, of the 
4jtothi0 order, and executed at the end of the xvth cen- 
^tnrf, transformed into a stately common-place canopy, 
supported by columns of chestnut-wood carved in the 
Grecian style ? The Library, which used to terminate 
the. north transept, is — not gone — ^but transferred.. A 
fimciful stair-case, with an appropriate inscription,* 

the King effus^ Annam diligebat" — and that Diana was equally 
mistress of the royal stud and palace.'* Hisi, Sui Temparu : edU. 
BHdtkjf, vol. i. p. 108-9. At p. 76J he thus describes her downfiiU: 
.... Deserted in her utmost need 

By those her former bounty fed ! ... . 
" Valbntina [she was the DucnEssE be Valentinois] ignominiose 
aula esigitur^ f^ia gsiza oc gemmis ingentis pretii, quas ilia penes se 
habebat, non sine exprobratione repetitis : quod insigne fluxae auli- 
corum fidd testimonium fuit. Nam ex iis omnibus^ quosj dum remm 
potiretor, multos sed fere indignos ad honores evexerat, nemo unus 
repertuSj qui jacentis et a suis relicts fortunam sublevaret, praevalente 
adverstis beneficia privata odio publico." vol. i. 767. 

* vitk-an appropriate inscription.] The inscription is this : 
Si quern sancta tenet meditandi in lege voluntas. 
Hie poterit residens, sacris intendere libris. 
Pommeraye has rather an interesting gossipping chapter [Chap, 
xxii.] "De la Biblioth^ue de la Cathedrale:** p. 163: to which 
FsAMfOis DB Uarlay^ about the year 1630^ was one of the most 
omniftcent benefactors. Ducarel thus notices this library, as it 
appwed in his lime. The Library belonging to the cathedral is 
It oable gaUAryvone hundred feet in length by twenty feet in breadth ; 
bol-lMUk not a sufficient quantity of light. It is furnished with a 
gvest' number of printed books, and some indifferent pictures of its 
benefactors. Free access is allowed to all persons desirous of study- 
ing there, from eight of the dock in the morning till twelve, and 
from two till five in the afternoon, of every day in the week except 
Sundays and holidays p. 23. 

VOL. I. E 



66 



ROUEN. 



yet attest that it was formerly an appendage to that 
part of the edifice. 

Before I quit the subject of the cathedral, I must 
not fail to tell you something relating to the rites 
perfonned therein. Let us quit therefore the dead for 
the living. Of course we saw here, a repetition of 
the ceremonies observed at Dieppe ; but previously to 
the feast of the Ascension* we were also present at 

* feast of the Ascension.'] On this day there was formerly a very 
singular ceremony observed — which has now gone to decay. At 
least none such took place during my stay— although the prisons 
did not want even capital criminals. It may perhaps be worth while to 
refer the reader to Ducarel, p. 23> for a copious account of this 
ceremony. 

The authors of the Gallia Christiana, vol. xi. col. 3^ &c. notice the 
privilege, enjoyed by the Chapter, of rescuing one condemned male- 
factor {roxa decapitation, upon the feast of the Ascension 3 and at 
col. 12 it is again somewhat more particularly mentioned. Speaking 
of the victory gained by the Saint over the Devil — and especially of 
the " Draconis ingentis simulacrum, quasi imago idololatrise pros- 
trat«" — they take care to warn us, in a note, that the Devil, or 
the Dragon of St. Romanus was " not a real dragon,** but only a 
symbol of idolatry — like those dragons attached to the figures of 
St. Marcellus and St. Margaret. 

Evelyn, who visited the cathedral of Rouen in 1644, says that the 
quire had behind it a create dragon paynted on the wall 5 which 
they said had don much harme to the inhabitants till vanquished by 
St, Romain, their archbishop 3 for which there is an annual proces- 
sion." Life and Writings of John Evelyn ; vol. i. p. 56, edit. 1818. 
No traces of this precious piece of fresco painting now remain. Indeed 
I do not find it even noticed by Pommeraye, who published upon the 
cathedral about forty years afterwards. 

St. Romain, or Romanus, was the first Archbishop of Rouen. In the 
Thesauftu Novus Anecdotorum of Martene and Durand, vol. iii. coL 
1653, &c. there is a metrical life of this archiepiscopal Saint. 



ROUEN. 



67 



the confirmation of three hundred boys and three 
hundred girls, each very neatly and appropriately 
dressed^ in a sort of sabbath attire, and each holding a 
lighted wax taper in the hand. The girls were dressed 
in white, with white veils ; and the rich lent veils to 
those who had not the means of purchasing them. The 
cathedral^ especially about the choir, was crowded to 
excess. I hired a chair, stood up, and gazed as ear- 
nestly as the rest. The interest excited among the 
parents^ and especially the mothers, was very striking. 

Voil^ la petite — qu'elle a Fair charmant !— le petit 
ange !**.... A stir is made . . . they rise . . . and approach, 
in the most measured order, the rails of the choir . . . 
There they deposit their tapers. The priests, very 
numerous, extinguish them as dexterously as they can ; 
and the whole cathedral is perfumed with the mixed 
scent of the wax and frankincense. The boys, on ap- 
proaching the altar, and giving up their tapers, kneel 
down ; then shut their eyes, open their mouths ; and 
the priests deposit the consecrated wafer upon their 
tongues. The procession now took a different direc- 
tion. They all went into the nave, where a sermon 
was preached to the young people, expressly upon 
the occasion, by a Monsieur Quillebeuf, a canon of 
the cathedral, and a preacher of considerable popu- 
larity. He had one of the most meagre and forbidding 
physiognomies I ever beheld, and his beard was black 
and unshaven. But he preached well ; fluently, and 
even eloquently: making a very singular, but not 
ungraceful, use of his left arm — and displaying at times 
rather a happy fiimiliarity of manner, wholly exempt 
from vulgarity, and well suited to the capacities and 



68 



ROUEN. 



feelings of his youthful audience. His subject ww 
" belief in Christ Jesus on which he gave very excels 
lent proofs and evidences. His voice was thin^ but 
clear^ and distinctly heard; 

On the Feast of the Ascension, the Archbishop offi« 
ciated. He is the brother of Cambac^r6s^ the seccmd 
Consul of France when Bonaparte was the first ; and 
he is said to have once brandished the dagger as graces 
fully as he now does the crosier. However this may he, 
the Archbishop is, upon the whole, rather popular^ 
yet not with his clergy : by some of whom he is called 
cunning and worldly, and by others ignorant and 
selfish. The laity will have it that he is too shrewd 
for his brethren." He is a very portly gentleman, above 
the mean height ; and the Abbd T***, with whom 
I walked to the ceremony, did not scruple to call him 

une grosse machine de chair." His countenance is 
full, but of a benign expression ; and he has a sort 
of gentlemanly air with him. I was opposite to him 
during the service. He sat in his modernised stall, 
before described ; and had two attendants, full* 
dressed, with bag-wigs and swords. His squaro 
cardinaFs cap was placed upon the red cushion before 
him. During the service he seemed to enjoy his fre- 
quent pinch of snuff, but was not free from the odious 
custom of spitting — even over the sides of his stall. I 
had however the satisfaction of witnessing about 
his person the only clean pair of bands and white 
pocket-handkerchief, which I had then seen in France. 
The service was long, and wearisomely ceremonial: 
but I could not disguise my indignation on seeing the 
canons, in pairs, or alone, as they passed the stall to 



ROUEN. 



69 



and from tbe high altar, make low obdisances, almost 
amonnting to prostrations, before the Archbishop ; of 
which the latter took as little notice as the Great Tnrk 
wonld of those of his Muftis. This adulation to man, 
ia a house of God, is most repulsive to honest feelings. 
Tbe Archbishop lives in a retired manner, within an 
(dd and spacious palace, hard by the cathedral, into 
,jHiicfaL he has a private entrance ; and is said to be 
Af- of letting the English visit his residence.* The 
leveaues of the archbishopric are yet very considerable; 
biit they are supposed to have once netted little short 
£30,000. sterling.-^ 

And now, my djear Friend, if you are not tired with 
jthis. detour of the Cathedral, suppose we take a 
{Homenade to the next most important ecclesiastical 
edifice in the city of Rouen. What say you therefore 
to a stroll to the Abbey of St. Oubn ?| Willingly,** 

. * He died within eight months after the ceremony above witnessed^ 
io ]ua-6Sd year. 

. t In the year 1740> tbe diocese of Rouen comprdiended thirty 
'inml deaneries, thirty-four abbeys^ twelve monasteries, and at least 
finty ether ccwgregations or societies-— of both sexes. To this, add 
one thousand four hundred and thirty parishes, besides chapels and 
sidMdiary establishments. In the whole, one thousand seven hun- 
dred places of worship. OalUa Christiana 3 vol. xi. edit. 1759. 
' t ^ Abbet of St. Oubn.] The first sixty pag^es of the Neuttria 
■Pia are devoted to an account of this abbey. It wUl answer all rea- 
dable purpose, if, from these minute and ponderous details, it be 
mdj observed that there was probably an ecclesiastical building, on 
the present scite of St. Ouen, erected about the year 540 during the 
4dgn of Clothaire I. as Pope Gregory I. is supposed to have granted 
.some privileges to the monks of the said church or abbejF— first dedi- 
iMted to St. Peter, about the year 595. However, the piety of St. 



70 



ROUEN. 



methinks I hear you reply. — ^To the abbey therrfore 
let us go. In other words, you must listen patiently to 
my description of this enchanting building. 

AuDOEN or St. Ouen, together with his attachment to this fovowile 
spot^ soon eclipsed all recollections of previous devotional ardour, 
among the monks and abbots. The second chapter of the Neustria 
Pia affords abundant confirmation of this remark ; and thenceforward, 
St. Ouen^ having been made Archbishop of Rouen, and dying in 638 
(not in 6S9, as Ducarel intimates), the abbey was to be designated hj 
his own name. Consult too the Gallia Christiana, vol. xi. col. 19, 
&c. Ducarel says, that " St. Ouen dying at Clichy, his body waB 
brought to Rouen^ and deposited in a tomb which he had prepared 
for himself during his life-time, within the church of St. Peter, now 
the abbey church of St. Ouen that three years after his inter- 
ment, his remains were, by his successor Ausbert, inclosed in a shrine 
of silver, and placed near the high altar :** and that, in 848 they 
were removed to Paris, and in 918 brought back to this abbey, 
where they remain|ed till they were burnt by the Calvinists in 1562." 
p. 25 5 note. 

This is erroneous. The shrine might have been carried away in 
842, when the whole abbey was utterly destroyed by the incur- 
sions and ravages of the Normans. Towards the commencement 
of the following century, Rollo and other Norman chieftains 
were converted to Christianity— when also, the shrine might have 
been restored : but about the year 1050 the abbey was destroyed by 
fire ; and is supposed to have been rebuilt by Richard I. and the 
Empress Maud, in the following century. However, in the year 1248 
it suffered a second general destruction by Jire — Qui combussit eccle- 
sias S. Laurentij et S. Gildardi, et totam abbatiam S. Audobni. 
Tantum enim inualuit impetus ignis, vt omnia aedificia breui con- 
sumpserit, campanasque liquefecerit, et abbatem cum monachis 
exind^ fugere compulerit." It is true, the monks carried away some 

ornaments, chalices, deeds, writings, and reliquesj" but 1 appre- 
hend the shrine of the Founder was rather too weighty for transporta- 
Uon. Seethe iV^et<^<rtaPta;p.31. The Hugonots of 1562 have enough 
to answer for, without the additional act of sacrilege in destroying the 



ROUEN. 



71 



Leaving the Cathedral, you go along the Rue des 
CarmeSy and pass a beautifully sculptured fountain (of 
the early time of Francis I.) which stands at the comer 
of a street, to the right ; and which, from its central 
flKtoation, is visited the live^long day for the sake of 
Its limpid waters. Push on a little further; then, 
turning to the rights you get into a sort of square, 
and observe the Abbey^— or rather the west-front of it, 
fidl in face of you. You gaze, and are first struck 
with its matchless window : call it rose, or marygold, 
as you please. I think, for delicacy and richness of 
ornament, tliis window is perfectly unrivalled. There 
is a play of line in the mullions, which, considering 
their siz^ and strength, may be pronounced quite a 
master-piece of art. You approach, regretting the neg- 
lected state of the lateral towers, and enter, through 

ahiine of St. Ouen. It was after this Jire, towards the end of the 
znith^ or rather about the beginning of the xivth century, that 
the abbey, in its present form, was begun to be erected by the cele- 
brated Jkan Mabdaboent — and the building was continued by the 
ten successiye abbois. But the Abbots Bohier and Cibo, in the xvth 
century, put the finishing strokes to it, as it now appears. > though yet 
imperfect. Consult Pommeraye's Histoire de VAhhaye Royale de St. 
(hmde Rouen, 1662, folio : especially the xxi-iid chapters : p. 188. 
Consult also Ducarel 5 p. 26. " La seconde singularity c'est I'^difice de 
Vig^se et maisons de TAbbaye de St. Ouen, comprins les plaisants 
iaidins et ToUier de toutes sortes d'oyseaux : oti y a aussi vne fontaine 
de marbre haute esleuee auecques diners tuyaux d Vn plaisant et singu- 
lier artifice : et je puis a3seurer que le nef de ce temple est la plus 
ample et mieux vitree qui soit en ce royaume/* Such is the pithy but 
doquent little passage of Bourgueville, relating to this abbey, in his 
Reekerches et Antiquitds de Caen; 1588, 8vo. p. 39, from a personal 
su^ey of it towards the middle of the xvith centory. 



72 



ROUEN- 



tbe large and completely-opened centre doors^ flie 
nave of the Abbey. It was towards sun-set when We 
made our first entrance. The evening was beautiful ; 
and tbe variegated tints of sun-beam, admitted through 
the stained glass of the window, just noticed, weite 
perfectly enchanting. The window itself, as you look 
upwards, or rather as you fix your eye upon the centra 
of it, firom the remote end of the Abbey, or the LaAf$ 
Chapel^ was a perfect blaze of dazzling light : and 
nave^ choir, and side aisles, seemed magically illifr- 
mined • • • 

Seemed all on fire — ^within, around ; 

Deep sacristy and altar's pale ; 
Shone every pillar foliage-bound.... 

Lay of the Last Mtrntrel. 

We declared instinctively that the Abbby of St.Oubn 
could hardly have a rival ; — cei*tainly no superior. 

A trifling circumstance here occurred to divert our 
attention. In one of the remoter side chapels, feebly 
visited by all this magic of light, there stood a Coit- 
fessional. Within this confessional was an invisible 
priest. On the outside a woman was kneeling and 
confessing: just before her, upon the pavement, be- 
tween the pillars of the choir and the confessional, a 
poor woman, and a lad or two, had each taken a chair, 
and were praying in the attitudes here exhibited by the 
rapid pencil of Mr. Lewis : and I wall defy you to see 
the story better told in any of the more elaborate 
engra^^ngs of Picart. In the course of my corres- 
pondence, you will probably be treated with another 
similar exhibition or two. 



ROUEN. 73 




As the evening came on^ the gloom of abnost every 
nde chapel and recess was rendered doubly impres- 
ave by the devotion of numerous straggling suppli- 
cants ; and invocations to the presiding spirit of the 
place, reached the ears and touched the hearts of the 
by-8tanders. The grand western entrance presents you 
wiUi the most perfect view of the choir — a magical circle, 
or rather oval — ^flanked by lofty and clustered pillars, 
and free from the suiTounding obstruction of screens, &c. 
Nothing more airy and more captivating of the kind can 
1)6 imagined. The finish and delicacy of these pillars are 

quite gurprising. Above, below, around — every thing, is 
1 



74 



BOUEN, 



in the purest style of the xi vth and xvth centuries. The 
central tower is a tower of beauty as well as of strength. 
Yet in regard to further details, connected ^th the 
interior, it must be admitted that there is very little 
more which is deserving of particular description: 
except it be the gallery ^ which runs within the vralls 
of the nave and choir, and which is considerably more 
light and elegant than that of the cathedral. A great 
deal has been said about the circular windows at the 
end of the south transept, and they are undoubtedly 
elegant : but compared with the one at the extremity 
of the nave, they are rather to be noticed from the tale 
attached to them, than from their positive beauty. 
The tale, my friend, is briefly this. These windows 
were finished (as well as the larger one at the west 
front) about the year 1439. One of them was ex- 
ecuted by the master-mason, the other by his appren- 
tice ; and on being criticised by competent judges, 
the performance of the latter was said to eclipse that 
of the former. In consequence, the master became 
jealous and revengefril, and actually poniarded ' his 
apprentice. He was of course tried, condemned, and 
executed ; but an existing monument to his memoiy 
attests the humanity of the monks in ^ving him 
christian interment.* On the whole, it is the absence 

* christian interment.] — Les Religieux de Saint Ouen touches de 
compassion envers ce malheureux artisan, obtinrent son coips de la 
justice^ et pour reconnoissance des bons services qu*il leur avoit rendus 
dans la construction de leur 6g\lse, nonobstant sa fin tragique, ne laiH- 
Bbrent pas de hiy fair I'bonneur de Tinhumer dans la chapeUe de sainte 
AgneSy oh sa tombe se voit encore auec cet Epitaphe : 
' (^gati M. Albxandrs db Berncual, Makire de9,eey9r»de Mu9omurie, 



ROUEN. 



76 



of aU obtrusive and unappropriate ornament which 
^▼es to the interior of this building that lights un- 
encumbered^ and faery-like effect which so peculiarly 
belongs to it^ and which creates a sensation that I 
never remember to have felt within any other shnilar 
edifice. 

Let me however put in a word for the organ. It Us 
immense, and perhaps larger than that belonging to 
the Cathedral. The tin pipes (like those of the organ 
in the Cathedral) are of their natural colour. I paced 
the pavement beneath, and think it cannot be short 
of fcNTty English feet in length. Indeed^ in all the 
ehurches which I have yet seen^ the organs strike me 
as being of magnificent dimensions. 

You should be informed however that the extreme 
length of the interior, from the further end of the 
Chapel of the \lrgin, to its opposite western extre- 
mity, is about fi)ur hundred and fifty English feet ; 
while the height, from the pavement to the roof of 
the nave, or the choir, is one hundred and eight 
English feet. The transepts are about one hundred and 
forty feet in length.* The monuments are easily run 

Off BaHUage de Rouen, et de cette Eglise, qui trhpaisa Pan de grace, 1440, le 5 
Jmmer* Priez Dieu p&ur Pame de luy, 

PoMMERATE : HUt de VAbhaye de St. Ouen, p. 197, 1662, folio. 

At Pteiff , in a collection of prints^ relating to Nonnandy, (see page 
41 ante) I saw some clever, minute engravings in Grignion*s style, 
of these three rose windows : together with a geometrical plan of the 
abbey. But these I think may be seen in Pommeraye, p. 1 96. 

* The reader will find a description of the interior of this Abbey in 
Ducarel, p. 28, as it appeared in his time. I may add, however, 
that the dock, with " the figures of St. Michael and the Devil," and 
the " griUes de fer,*' are now no longer in existence. 



76 



ROUEN. 



over: indeed they scarcely deserve to be mentioned. 
Not so the exterior of this wonderful building. I have 
already told you that the west end was never com- 
pleted, but what i'^ finished is worthy of its neighbour- 
ing beauties. The central tower, upon the whole, is 
not only the grandest tower in Rouen, but there is 
nothing for its size in our own country that can com- 
pete with it. It rises upwards of one hundred feet 
above the roof the church ; and is supported below, 
or rather within, by four magnificent cluster-pillared 
bases, each about thirty-two feet in circumference- 
Its area, at bottom, can hardly be less than thirty- 
six feet square. The efiect, seen at a due distance, is 
perfectly enchanting — owing to the fine proportions of 
every thing about it, which are neither too slim nor too 
massive, neither too plain nor too ornate. Turn 
which way you will, from any part of the town or 
boulevards, the great tower of this Abbey lifts its 
magnificent head 

Quantum lenta solent inter viburna cupressi. 

The choir is flanked by flying buttresses, which have 
a double tier of small arches, altogether " marvellous 
and curious to behold." Attached to the northern 
transept, was once a refectory, chapter-house, and 
CLOISTER. But refectory, chapter-house, and cloisters, 
are now gone ! — save a mere relic of the latter. What 
could have caused their removal, think you? The van- 
dalic revolution? No — for hereunto adjoining, stand 
some oflSces of government; the Hotel de Fillcj 
Library, &c. — and the Refectory was taken down in 



ROUEN- 



77 



order that it might not impede the vieiv of a tasteless^ 
monotonous pile of what is called Greek or Roman 
ardhiteeture — in which the said government offices 
are contained! Nay, down went the very northern 
porch itself, attached to the northern transept . . and 
all this within thi*ee years of writing the melancholy 
record of such a preconcerted, tasteless, act of demo- 
lition. Where were the pencils — ^where were the pens 
—of the whole corps academique" of the city of 
Rouen. Pommeraye has favoured us with a view of 
this refectory, &c.* and my friend M. Le Prevost 
gratified me with a sight of some drawings of i1>--i- 
executed at his own expense, to enrich his choice 
little cabinet. It is due however to the present cor- 
poration to state, that the earliest acts of devasta- 
tion commenced during the revolution ; yet the grati- 
tude of the survivors of that horrible scene should 
rather have repaired what had been effaced, than have 
demolished the whole fabric — for the petty gratification 
of an architect's vanity. To compensate you, in some 
measure, for this ruthless act, you may steal quietly 

♦ Pommeraye has favoured us with a view of this refectory. "] — It is a 
bird's-eye view, and will be found between pages 220 and 221 of his 
History. It is not only a view of the refectory and cloisters^ but of the 
gardens, &c. and is extremely curious. In fhicarel's time those fine 
appurtenances were standing. He thus describes them. The 
RsFSCTORT, Chapter House, and Cloisters, are very grand edi- 
fices. In the latter, which appears to be much more ancient than the 
church, I observed some old stone desks stuck to the piUars, and de- 
signed to place books upon : but I did not meet with the image of any 
saint, or crucifix,'* Anglo-Norman Antiquities/* 1767> folio, p. 29. See 
old Boorgaeville's short description^ at page 73 ante ; where he talks 
of singing birds warbling in the a4jaoent gardens. 



78 



ROUEN. 



round to the pwch of the south transept^ and witness, 
in that porch^ one of the most chaste, light, and lovely 
specimens of Gothic architecture, which can be con* 
templated. Indeed, I hardly know any thing ilike it.* 
The leaves of the poplar and a&h were b^inning to 
mantle the exterior ; and, seen through their green and 
gay lattice work, the ti'aceries of the porch seemed to 
assume a more interesting aspect. They are now 
laending the upper part of the facade with new stone 
of peculiar excellence'^but it does not harmonise with 
the old work. They merit our thanks, however, for the 
preservation of what remains of this precious pile*; j J 
should remark to you that the eastern and north-- 
eastern sides of the abbey of St. Ouen are surrounded 
by promenades and trees : so that^ occasionally, either 
when walking, or sitting upon the benches, within these 
gardens, you catch one of the finest views imaginable of 
the abbey. Indeed, attached to the north-east side of 
the north transept, there is one relic of forma* times^ 
rather of the castellated than of the ecclesiastical cha^ 
raeterf* — which strikes me as the oldest piece of build- 

• hardly know any thing like i*.]— Even Dr. Ducarel became 
warm— on contemplating this porch ! " The porch at the south en* 
triemce into the church (says he) is much more worthy of the spectator's 
attention^ being highly enriched with architectonic ornaments; parti'- 
cularty two beautiful cul de lamps, which from the combination of a 
variety of spiral dressings, as they hang down from the vaulted roof, 
produce a very pleasing effect," p. 98. 

t rather of coitellated, than of eecledastical c^aroc^er.]-^^' Adjoin- 
ing to that part of the north side of the church, which is just below the 
transept of the cross, I observed a very old tower, which, as the monks 
assert, was part of the church built by king Ridiard I. and Maud the 
Empress,** Ducabel, p. 39. I have no doubt of this being of the 



ROUEN. 



79 



mgj of whatever kind, in Rouen — at least, that I have 
yet seen. At this early season of the year, nrach com- 
paftiy is assembled every evening in these walks : while, 
in front of the abbey, or in the square fisicing the 
western end, the national guard is exercised in the 
day time— and troops of feir nymphs and willing 
jrouths mingle in the dance on a sabbath evening, 
while a platform is erected for the instrumental per- 
formers, and for the exhibition of feats of legerdemain. 
Yottt must not take leave of St. Ouen without bdng 
told that, formerly, the French Kings used occasion- 
ally to " make revel" within the Abbofs house. 
Henry II, Charles IX, and Henry III, each took a fancy 
t<ythis spot — but especially the famous Henri Quatre. 
It is reported that this monarch sojourned her^ for four 
months — and his reply to the address of the aldermen 
and sheriff of Rouen is yet preserved both in MS. and 
by engravings. The King having arrived at St. Ouen 
(says an old MS.)* the keys of the tower were pre- 
sented to him, in the pi*esence of M. de Montpensier, 
the governor of the province, upon a velvet-cushion. 
TTie keys wei^e .gilt. The King took them, and re- 
placing them in the hands of the governor, said — " Mon 
cousin, je vous ies bailie pour les rendre, qu'ils les gar- 
dent;" — then, addressing the aldermen, he added, 
Soyez moi bons sujets et je vous serai bon Roi, et le 
meiUeur Roi que vous ayez jamais eu.*" 

laUei: part of the xiith century 3 but it must be now quite impossiUe to 
a[^ropriate, with exactitude^ every portion of this building. 

• Consult the account given by M. Le Prevost in the Precis Ana- 
lutupte des Travaux de V Academic, 4rc. de Rouen,"* for the year 1816^ 
p. 151^ &c. 



80 



ROUEN. 



Unconscionably long as you may have found this 
letter^ I shall hazard an extension of it by ^ving you a 
rapid sketch of the remaining ecclesiastical edifices 
which are more particularly deserving of notice. Next 
to the Abbey of St. Ouen, go by all means and see the 
church St. Maclou^ say your friends and your guides. 
The Abb6 Turquier accompanied me thither. The 
great beauties of St. Maclou are its tower and its 
porch. Of the tower, little more than the lantern 
remains. This is about 160 English feet in height. 
Above it was a belfiry or steeple, another 110 feet in 
height, constructed of wood and lead — ^but which has 
been nearly destroyed for the sake of the latter arti- 
cles — for sundry purposes of slaughter or resistance 
during the revolution.* The exterior of the porches 
are remarkable for their elaborate ornaments ; espe- 
cially those in the Rue Martinville. They are highly 
praised by the inhabitants, and are supposed to be 

* Farin tells us that you could go firom the top of the lantern to the 
cross^ or to the summit of the belfry> outside^ without a ladder : so ad- 
mirable was the workmanship/* Strangers (adds he) took models 
of it for the purpose of getting them engraved^ and they are sold pub- 
licly at Rome." Hiit. de la rille de Rouen, 1738, 4to. vol. ii. p. 154. 
There are thirteen chapels within this church ; of which however the 
building cannot be traced lower than quite the beginning of the xvidi 
century. The extreme length and width of the interior is about 15& 
by 82 feet English. Even in Du Four^s time the population of this 
parish was very great, and its cemetery (adds he) was the first and 
most regular in Rouen. He gives a brief, but glowing description 
of it — on va tout autour par des galeries couvertes et pav^j et, 
deux de ces galeries sont decor^ de deux autels/* &c. p. 150. 

Alas! time-^r the revolution --has annihilated all this. Let mt 
add that M. Cotman has published a view of the stairccue in the 
church of which I am speaking. 



ROUEN. 81 

after the models of the famous Goujon. Perhaps they 
are rather enemnbered with ornament^ and want that 
quiet effect^ and pure good taste^ which we see in the 
porches of the Cathedral and the Abbey of St. Ouen. 
However, let critics determine as they will upon this 
point — they must at least unite in reprobating the 
barbarous edict which doomed these delicate pieces of 
sculptured art to be deluged with an over-whelming 
tint of staring yellow ochre! The monuments and the 
stained glass cease to be interesting after what you 
have already seen. Two circumstances, connected 
with this church, I shall not easily forget. The one 
was, that, close to the principal door of entrance, (at 
right angles with the Rue Martinville) I got intelli- 
gence from a vender of old and second-hand books — 
who was seated in a narrow stall, or shed, with a 
cocked hat on, which almost touched each extremity 
of it— of a copy of the first impression of the New 
Testament printed in the French language about the 
year 1478, which he had sold to a brother book-vender, 
and which I purchased within five minutes after re- 
ceiving the intelligence. The other circumstance, of a 
very different complexion, was, that, in one of my 
visits to M. Megard, (the typographical Bulmer of 
Rouen) on a Sunday morning, I arrived just at the 
moment when the congregation were quitting the 
church. The Rue Martinville runs at right angles 
with the Rue Malpalu^ which latter is on a rapid de- 
scent, terminating at the quays. The human beings, 
almost all females, with their broad streamers waving 
in the wind" — in other words, with their white 
spiral caps, in a sort of undulating motion, as they 



82 



ROUEN. 



descended the streets — ^presented one of the most novel 
imd amusing sights of the kind which I had ever wit^ 
nessed. It seemed as if half of the population ci 
Rouen had uttered their orisons within St. Macloit; 
Indeed, I thought there would have been no end to 
the departing procession. 

Of the remaining churches, I shall mention only 
four: two of them chiefly remarkable for their intarior, 
and two for their paramount antiquity. Of the two 
former, that of St. Vincent * presents you with a nofade 
oi^gan^ with a light choir profusely gilded, and (rarer ac- 
companiment) in very excellent taste. But the stained 
glass is the chief magnet of attraction. It is riol^ 
varied^ and vivid to a degree ; and, upon the whole, 
is the finest specimen of this species of art in the pre« 
sent ecclesiastical remains of the city. St. Fivienjf is 

* that of St. Vincent J} Farin is rather brief in his account of this 
church : which however he calls one of the lai^g^t and finest in 
Rouen.** He coldly observes les vitres sont estim^ he might 
have inserted the adverb " tr^'* before the participle. The rqparB- 
tions and beautifying^ &c. took place diiefly about the year 17S0. 
The church suffered dreadfully from Calvinistic wrath in the year 
156^. The tower was built in 1669. It was on a fine sunny morur 
ing, before break£eist^ that I visited this church } and am willing to 
hope that> if the panegyric above bestowed upon the stained glass 
viindows be overchaiged^ the fault may be attributed to the Sun ! — ^Yet 
Gilbert countenances the eulogy. 

t St. Vivien.'] In the beginning of the xiiith century^ this church, 
now almost in the heart of the city, was in the suburbs. The pre- 
sent structure was completed towards the end of the xvth century. 
Towards the middle of the same century a bone of the arm, one 
of the shoes, and a part of the sepulchre — belonging to St. Vitikh — 
were carried to the cathedral church, and from thence deposited in that 
called by the i;iame of the Saint.** In the year 1588 a very extraor- 



ROUEN. 



83 



the second of these two former. It is a fine open 
chnrch, with a large organ^ having a very curiona 

Aaaiy procession of the White" Penitents*' set out from this church 
to the Cathedral. In 1560 it partook of the general calamity inflicted 
tiie implacable Calvinists. See Farin, toL ii. p. 162-4. 
I regret that I omitted to visit the churches of St. Patrice and St. 
0§dard } and more especially the latter — ^which Farin says (in his 
time) boasted of the finest stained glass windows in France" — and 
whidi gave rise to the saying — when speaking of wine of a fine 
transparent colour^ il est de la couleur des vitres de St. Godard !** 
Tliese biHliant windows are of the xvith century. The church of 
St Godard is also one of the very laigest^ as well as most ancient^ 
in Hooen. In former days^ the rich and the powerful seemed to vie 
witb each other in bestowing marks of their munificence upon it. 
But it suffered perhaps more dreadfully than any other from the un- 
bridled fury of the Calvinists. It may be worth noticing that Farin 
sajB that the organ^ which was erected in 1640, was the work of 
Wit,iiAU Lesley, a Scotchman. Vol. ii. p 132—143. Ducarel 
(p. 3S) has taken his brief notice of this church from Farin, without 
/MKving had the grace to acknowledge it. It should seem, from 
Gilbert^ that a great quantity of old stained glass had been of late sold 
to the English at Rouen. But the revolution had facilitated this traffic. 

On doit (says Gilbert) un tribut de reconnoissance k ceux des ma- 
giatrats et des habitans qui, par leur z^le et par leur courage, soiit 
parvenus h les preserver de la destruction.** He then goes on to 
observe : " La peinture sur verre, cultivee alors avec le plus grand 
suecte par dliabiles artistes (dont les descendans exercent encore la 
profession de vitrier k Rouen et k Paris,) ^ trouva dans la munificence 
des Rauennois, un noble sujet d'encouragement, et produisit cette 
multitude de magnifiques vitraux peints qui Ton admiroit autrefois 
dans les ^lises, et dont un petit nombre a fDrt heureusement ^happ^s 
^ la foreur revolutionnaire, aussi bien qu* k la cupidite des acquireurs 

• M. M. Levieil. " On doit ^ Pierre Levieil, mort en 1772, un excellent 
TVaiU HUtarique et pratique de la peinture tur verre, qui fait partie de 
PEncydop^iie. Get ouvrage est rempli de savantes recherches. Gilbert, 
p. 4. 

VOL. I. F 



84 



ROUEN. 



wooden screen in front, elaborately carved, and, as I 
conceive, of the very earliest part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. I ascended the organ-loft ; and the door hap- 
pening to be open, I examined this screen, (which has 
luckily escaped the yellow-ochre edict) very minutely, 
and was much gratified by the examination. Such 
pieces of art, so situated, are of rare occurrence. For 
the first time, within a parish church, I stepped upon 
the pavement of the choir: walked gently forwards, 
to the echo of my own footsteps, (for not a creature 
was in the church) and, " with no unhallowed hand" 
I would hope, ventured to open the choral or service 
book, resting upon its stand. It was wide, thick, and 
ponderous : upon vellum : beautifully written and well 
executed in every respect, with the exception of the 
illuminations — which were extremely indifferent. I 
ought to tell you that the doors of the churches, abroad, 
are open at all times of the day : the ancient or more 
massive door, or portal, is secured from shutting ; but 
a temporary, small, shabby wooden door, covered with 
dirty green baize, opening and shutting upon circular 
hinges, just covers the vacuum left by the absence of 
the larger one. 

But for the two ancient churches, above alluded to. 
Of these two ancient churches, therefore, situated at 

des monumens religkux qui en ont vendu une grande quantity aux 
Anglois. Le8 ^lises de Saint Godard^ de Saint Patrice^ de Saint 
Vivien^ et la Cathedrale^ poss^dent encore de pr^cieux morceaux de 
peinture sur verre." f Descript. Hist, de Ndtre Dame de Rouen, p. 4. 

f On se rappelle d'avoir vu avec intdr^t les beUes vitres de I'^lise de Saint 
Cande-le-vieux, de Saint Nicolas, et de la chapelle de Saint Maur. 



ROUEN. 



85 



the opposite extremities of the city, let me first take you 
to that of St. Gervaisy considerably to the north of 
where the Boulevards Cauchoise and Bouvreuil meet. It 
was hard by this favourite spot, say the Norman histo- 
rians, that the ancient Dukes of Normandy built their 
country-houses : considering it as a lieu de plaisance. 
Here too it was that the Conqueror came to breathe his 
last— desiring to be conveyed thither, from his palace in 
the city, for the benefit of the pure air. * I walked with 
M. Le Provost to this curious church : having before 
twice seen it. But the Crj/pt is the only thing worth 
talking about, on the score of antiquity. We were both 

• Ordericus Vitalis says that the dying monarch requested to be 
loonveyed thither^ to avoid the noise and bustle of a populous town. 
Rouen is described to be, in his time, populosa civitas.** Consult 
J>uche8ne*8 HistoruB Normannor. Scrip, Antiq, p. 656. It is not 
perhaps generally known that William was considered to be extremely 
munificent. He was certainly fond of giving large possessions to 
monastic establishments. In the archives of St. Ouen was a Carta 
Willelmi Anglorum regis, pro Monasterio Floriacbnsi Anno 1067> 
in which he liberally confirmed all the privileges granted to the 
same monastery by his ancestors Richard and Robert. In this charter 
he styles himself Anglorum rex effectus.** Consult Martene 
and I>urand*s Thesaurus Novus Anecdotorum, 1717^ fol. vol. 1. col. 
196, F. But in the prologue to the work, concerning the acts of 
the later Kings of France, in 1110, the Conqueror is thus designated : 
" Nullus rex nostrorum temporum hoc Giullelmo fiiit felicior ac 
moderatior. Ejus magnanimitatem & magnificentiam nemo laudare 
suffidt, quibus ille usque ad tenninos terrse super omnes sevi nostri 
r^es ac principes apparuit gloriosus. Fauci posthac reges, sicut 
reor, ilium imitabuntur, & ejus affluenti^ & morum eleganti^ per- 
fhientur, quibus eum Deus in hac vita felixque fortuna ditavit.** 
Eiusd. Op. vol. i. col. 3S7-8. 



86 



ROUEN. 



struck, after descending a narrow stair-case^ with the 
light which streamed from an aperture at the fiirthw 
end — half covered by the " youngand lusty grass" — and 
which shed a soft mellow tint upon the gloom below. 
As you enter, there are two tombs of the oldest Arch-.- 
bishops of Rouen — ^who lived in times remote enough 
(for aught I know to the contrary) to have shaken 
hands with St. Jerom. 'Hiese tombs are flat, solid, 
and plain. But it is the crypt (designed by Mr. Cot- 
man) upon which M. Le Prevost loves to expatiate ! — 
and which strikes the eye of the antiquary. Perhs^ 
I might say with perfect safety that here are the un- 
questionable remains of a Roman road. On quitting 
this crypt, and examining the architecture of the 
exterior above it, the same accomplished guide bade 
us remark the extraordinary formation of the capitals 
of the pillars : which, admitting some perversity of taste 
in a rude, Norman, imitative artist, are decidedly 
of Roman character. " Perhaps," said M. Le Prevost, 
" the last efforts of Roman art previous to the relin- 
quishment of the Romans." Among these capitals 
there is one of the perfect Doric order; while in 
another you discover the remains of two Roman 
eagles. The columns are all of the same height ; and 
totally unlike every thing of the kind which I have 
seen or heard of. Let me tell you, however, as we 
take leave of this curious old church, that William 
the Conqueror died in its vicinity. 

We descended the hill upon wiiich St. Gervais is 
built ; and walked onward towards St Paul, situated 
at the further and opposite end of the town, upon a 



ROUEN. 



87 



gentle eminence, just above the banks of the Seine. 
M. Le Provost was still our conductor. The day 
grew gloomy, and the heavens became black with 
thtmder--clouds, as we approached this small edifice. 
It is certainly of remote antiquity, but I suspect it 
to be completely Norman. The eastern end is full of 
antiquarian curiosities. We observed a Grecian mask 
as the centre ornament upon the capital of one of 
the circular figures; and Mr. Lewis made a few 
slight drawings of one of the grotesque heads in the 
exterior, of which the hair is of an uncommon fiaishion. 
We discovered the Saxon whiskers upon several of these 
SBbces. Upon the whole, it is possible that parts of this 
church may have been built at the latter end of the 
tenth century, after the Normans had made themselves 
^completely masters of this part of the kingdom ; yet 
it is more probable that there is no vestige left which 
claims a more ancient date than that of the end of 
the eleventh century. I ought just to notice the church 
of St. SeveTy^ supposed by some to be yet more 
ancient : but I had no opportunity of taking a parti- 
cular survey of it. 

T!hus much, or rather thus little, respecting the 
ECCLESIASTICAL ANTIQUITIES of Roucn. They merit 
indeed a volume of themselves. This city could once 
boast of upwards of tbirtyi parish churches; of 

• A view of it is published hy M. Cotman. 

t Si. Sever."] This church is situated in the southern fauxbourgs, 
by the side of the Seine, and was once siurounded by gardens, &c. 
As yofu cross the bridge of boats, and go to the race-ground, you 
leave it to the right : but it is not so old as St. Paul — whexe, Farin 
says, the worship of Adonis was once performed ! 



88 



KOUEN. 



which very nearly a dozen have been recently (I 
mean during the Revolution) converted into ware- 
houses. It forms a curious, and yet melancholy 
melange — this strange misappropriation, of what 
was formerly held most sacred, to the common and 
lowest purposes of civil life! You enter these ware* 
houses, or oflBices of business, and see the broken 
shaft, the battered capital, and half-demolished altar? 
piece — the gilded or the painted frieze — in the midst 
of bales of goods— casks, ropes, and bags of cotton i 
while, without, the same spirit of demolition prevails 
in the fractured column, and tottering arch way. Thus 
time brings its changes and decays — premature as 
well as natural — and the noise of the carmen and 
injunctions of the clerk ai-e now heard, where formerly 
there reigned a general silence, interrupted only by the 
matin or evening chaunt! I deplored this sort of 
sacrilegeous adaptation, to a respectable-looking old 
gentleman, sitting out of doors upon a chsur, and 
smoking his pipe — c'est dommage. Monsieur, qu'on 
a converti T^glise ^" — He stopped me: raised bii 
left hand: then took away his pipe with his right; 
gave a gentle whiff, and shrugging up his shoulders, 
half archly and half drily exclaimed — " Mais que vou'^ 
lez vous, Monsieur? — ce sont des ^v^nemens qu'on 
ne pent ni pr6voir ni prevenir. Voil^ ce que c'est T 
Leaving you to moralize upon this comfortable mor^ 
ceau of philosophy, consider me ever, &c. 



89 



LETTER VI. 

HAUiES D£ COMMERCE. PLACE DE LA PUCELLE d'oR- 
liEANS (JEANNE d'aRC). BASSO-RELIEVO OF THE CHAMP 
Dfi DRAP d'oR. PALACE AND COURTS OF JUSTICE. 

You must make up your mind to see a few more 
sights in the city of Rouen, before I conduct you to 
the environs, or to the summit of Mont St. Catharine. 
We must visit a few more relics of antiquity, and take 
a yet more familiar survey of the town, ere we strive 

superas evadere ad auras. 

Indeed the information to be gained well merits the 
toil endured in its acquisition ; and as the labour we 
delight in physics pain,'' so you must at least listen 
attentively to the continuation of the Rouen Tale. 
I should however notice to you, before hand, that 
Goube*s * account of this city, which occupies scarcely 
twenty-five pages of his third volume, is utterly un- 
worthy of criticism ; and though Goube says his work 
is written without literary pretension,** yet he might 
have filled these twenty-five pages with better stuflF. 
TTie only town in England that can give you any 
notion of Rouen, is Chester; although the similitude 
holds only in some few particulars. I must, in the first 
place then, make especial mention of the Halles db 
Commerce. The marhetsheve are numerous and abun- 



* See p. 12, ante. 



90 



ROUEN. 



dant, and are of all kinds. Cloth^ cotton^ lace^ linen^ 
fish^ fruity vegetables, meat, corn, and wine ; these for 
the exterior and interior of the body. Cattle, wood, 
iron, earthen- ware, seeds, and implements of agricul- 
ture; these for the supply of other necessities considered 
equally important. Each market has its appropriate 
scite. For picturesque effect, you must visit the 
Ftetix Marchd, for vegetables and fish ; which is kept 
in an open space, once filled by the servants and troops 
of the old Dukes of Normandy, having the ancient 
ducal palace in front. This is the fountain head 
whence the minor markets are supplied. Every stall 
has a large old tattered sort of umbrella spread above 
it, to ward ofi^ the rain or rays of heat ; and, seen 
from some points of view, the effect of all this, with 
the ever-restless motion of the tongues and feet of the 
vendors, united to their strange attire, is exceedingly 
singular and interesting. Mr. Lewis's occupation 
would not admit of his making a satisfactory sketch of 
it, or I am not certain whether any efibrt of his pencil 
could have more gratified the tastes of our country^ 
men. These huge and broad spreading umbrellas, 
with their accompaniments of live and dead stock, 
taken in a somewhat fore-shortened manner, would 
produce a truly spirited picture for the burin of Mitan. 

Leaving the old market place, you pass on to the 
March^ Neuf^ where fruits, eggs, and butter are chiefly 
sold. At this season of the year there is necessarUy 
little or no fruit, but I could have filled one coat 
pocket with eggs (a dangerous experiment!) for less 
than half a franc. These market places are at the 
southern extremity of the town, near the quays. But 



ROUEN. 



91 



while upon the subject of bujdng and selling, I must 
take you with me to the Halles of Rouen ; in other 
words, to the large public buildings now exclusively 
appropriated to the vendition of cloths, linen, and the 
varied etceteras of mercery. These are at once 
qiacious and interesting in a high degree. They form 
the divisions of the open spaces, or squares, where 
the markets just mentioned are held ; and were for- 
merly the appurtenances of the palaces and chateaux 
of the old Dukes of Normandy : the latter of which 
are now wholly demolished. You must rise betimes 
on a Friday morning, to witness a sight of which 
you can have no conception in England : unless it be 
at a similar scene in Leeds. By six o'clock the busy 
world is in motion within these halls. Then com- 
mences the incessant and inconceivable vocifera- 
tion of buying and selling. The whole scene is 
alive, and carried on in several vast, stone-arched 
rooms, supported by a row of pillars in the cen- 
tre. Of these halls, the largest is about three 
hundred and twenty English feet in length, by fifty- 
five in width. The centre, in each division, con- 
tains tables and counters for the display of cloth, 
cotton, stuff, and linen of all descriptions. The dis- 
play of divers colours — the commendations bestowed 
by the seller, and the reluctant assent of the pur- 
chaser — the animated eye of the former, and the cal- 
culating brow of the latter — the removal of one set 
of wares, and the bringing on of another — in short, 
the never-ceasing succession of sounds and sights 
astonishes the gravity of an Englishman ; whose asto- 
nishment is yet heightened by the extraordinary good 



92 



ROUEN. 



humour which every where prevails. The laugh, the 
joke^ the Equivoque, and reply^ were worth being re- 
corded in pointed metre ; — and what metre but thlit of 
Dan Crabbe could possibly render it justice ? By nine 
of the clock all is hushed, The sale is over : the goods 
are cleared ; and both buyers and sellers have quitted 
the scene. 

La Halle au Bled, or the Com Market, probably 
presents a more interesting scene. This hall is close to 
the preceding, and is about three hundred and twenty 
English feet in length, and proportionably broad and 
Icrfty. The market days are Monday, Wednesday, and 
Friday; but more especially the latter day. Indeed 
if you cast a leisurely and reflecting survey upon these 
several markets — ^if you consider the bustle and barter 
that is going on, and that every thing indicates the 
renovation of prosperity after the late afflicting events 
of the revolution — if you consider too (as the Rauen-^ 
mis ought, and I hope do, consider !) how good the 
God of harvest" has been to them in the fecundity of 
their pasture and arable soil ! — ^when you gaze, I say, 
with a truly philosophical feeling upon all this ani- 
mated scene, here so inadequately described, you can- 
not but instinctively acknowledge how preferable are 
the quiet pursuits of peace to the tumultuous occu- 
pations of war — how infinitely more instructive are the 
arts of agriculture than those of arms — and what in- 
calculable moral benefits result from the cultivation of 
industrious habits, compared with all the glories to 
be acquired from conquest, from ambition, and from 
despotism ! 

O Fortunatos nimium sua si bona ndrint ! — 



ROUEN. 



93 



From still, let me conduct you to active life. In 
other words, let us hasten to take a peep at the Horse 
and Cattle Market. These are subjects of consideration, 
to which you, my dear friend, who equally love to 
be borne upon a fiery steed, and to see your cows 
grazing in your meadows, or grouped upon canvas, 
by a Cuyp or a Vandevelde, can never be indifferent. 
On the other hand, consider my inexperience — ^my total 
ignorance of the meaning of words in Tattersal's Dic- 
tionary ; though, for dead stock, I will not allow your 
admiration of Cuyp, or of Vandevelde, to exceed my own. 
In few words then, be it known that the Horse and 
Cattle Market is carried on in the very opposite part 
of the town ; that is, towards the northern Boulevards. 
The horses are generally entire : and indeed you have 
scarcely any thing in England which exceeds the Nar^ 
man horsey properly so understood. This animal 
unites the hardiness of the mule with the strength of 
his own particular species. He is also docile, and 
well trained; and a Norman, from pure affection, 
thinks he can never put enough harness upon his 
back. I have seen the face and shoul(fers of a cart- 
horse quite buried beneath a profusion and weight of 
collar; and have beheld a farmer's horse, led out 
to the plough, with trappings as gorgeous and strik-» 
ing as those of a General's charger brought forward for 
a review. The carts and vehicles are usually balanced 
in the centre upon two wheels, which diminishes much 
of the pressure upon the horse. Yet the caps of the 
wheels are frightfully long, and inconveniently pro- 
jecting : while the eternally loud cracking of the whip 
is most repulsive to nervous ears. On one of these 



BOUEN. 



market days^ my son, more learned in the knowl^lge 
of horses than his parent, asked the price of an en- 
tire, fine animal; but the vender would hear of nothing 
under forty louis — ^which I thought " a good round 
sum.'' In the market these animals stand pretty close 
to each other for sale; and are led off, for shew, 
amidst boys, girls, and women, who contrive very dex- 
terously to get out of the way of their active hoofis. 
The French seem to have an instinctive method of doing 
that, which, with ourselves, demands forethought and 
deliberation. 

Of the Streets, in this extraordinary city, that of the 
Great Clock — (Rue de la Grosse HorlogeJ which runs 
in a straight line from the western front of the Cathe- 
dral, at right angles with the Rue des Carmes, is 
probably the most important, ancient, and interesting. 
When we were conveyed, on our entrance (in the 
cabriolet of the Diligence,) beneath the arch to the 
upper part of which this old fashioned clock is 
attached, we were lost in admiration at the singur 
larity of the scene. The inhabitants saw, and enjoyed, 
our astonishment. There is a fountain beneath, or 
rather on one side of this arch ; over which is sculp^ 
tured a motley group of insipid figures, of the latter 
time of Louis XIV. The old tower near this clock merits 
a leisurely survey: as do also some old houses, to 
the right, on looking at it. It was within this old 
tower * that a bell was formerly tolled, at nine o'clock 

• C'est, comme on Ta dit, dans cette Tour qu*est plac^ la cloche 
dite d*ai^nt> ou BefiProy^ que Ton sonne dans les c^r^monies pub- 
liques, pour les diverses Elections, les moments de calamity, teU 
que les incendies^ etc. elle se fiut remarquer par un timbre tr^s- 



ROUEN. 



95 



each evenings to warn the inhabitants abroad to retire 
irithin the walls of the city; but not for the purpose of 
extinguishing their fires — no curfew — as in times of 
old with us. As to the clocks it is remarkable rather 
for its antiquity than for the regularity of its move- 
ments. It is heavy and clumsy, yet not wanting a 
certain old feshioned richness of ornament. No in- 
habitant, living on either side of it, whether stationary^ 
or moving beneath it, ever now thinks of lifting his eyes 
towards this object — which formerly perhaps com- 
manded the admiration of the young and the respect of 
the old. Ancient usages are speedily forgotten ; and 
what we are in the habit of contemplating when young, 
ceases to attract attention in maturer years. 

Turning to the left, in this street, and going down 
a sharp descent, we observe a stand of hackney 
coaches in a small square, called La Place de la Pucelle: 
that is, the place where the famous Jbannb d'ARc* 

c!air et sonore qui produit une sensation extraordinaire. On la sonne 
tons les soirs k neuf-heures : c*est que Ton nomme k Rouen la retraite, 
paice que dans les temps de guerre, ou lorsque les portes de la yiUe se 
fomaient, elle averdssait les habitants hors de la ville d'y rentrer, 
an risque de passer la nuit dans les fauboui^. Sa destination a iii 
aussi d*avertir les soldats de la gamison de Theure de la retraite/' 
Itim&€ure, p. 126. 

* the famous Jranne d*Abc.] Goube, in the second volume of 
his Bistwre du Duchd de Narmandie, has devoted several spiritedly 
written pages to an account of the trial and execution of this heroine. 
Her history is pretty well known to the English — from earliest youth. 
Goube says that her mode of death had been completely prejudged — 
for that^ previously to the sentence being passed, they b^an to erect 
" a scaffold of plaister, so raised, that the flames could not at first 



96 



ROUEN. 



was imprisoned^ and afterwards burnt. What sensa- 
tions possess one as we gaze upon each surrounding 

reach her — and she was in consequence consumed by a slow fire : 
her tortures being long and horrible.*' Hume has been rather too 
brief : but he judiciously observes that the conduct of the Duke of 
Bedford was equally barbarous and dishonourable.** Indeed it 
were difficult to pronounce which is entitled to the greatest abhor- 
reijice — the imbecility of Charles VII. the baseness of John of 
Luxembourg, or the treachery of the Regent Bedford ? I hope this 
latter renowned character employed and paid the artists for his 
Beuuous Missal and Breviary — as an act of penance and atone- 
ment for his absolute wickedness towards the Maid of Orleans. 

It seems pretty clear that Monstrelet, the celebrated historian, and 
contemporary with Joan, was not well disposed towards her. She was 
taken prisoner in a sortie from Compeigne, about five o'clock in the 
afternoon, upon the eve of the day of Ascension, and " was drag- 
ged from her horse (says that chronicler) by an archer, near to 
whom was [Lyonnel] the hastarde de Vendome ; and to him she sur- 
rendered, and pledged her foith. He lost no time in carrying her 
to Maligny, and putting her under a secure guard,** &c. " The Duke 
of Burgundy went to the lodgings where she was confined, and 
spake some words to her ; but what they were (continues Monstrelet) 
I do not now recollect, although I was present [dolt !] The Duke 
and the army returned to their quarters, leaving the Msdd under the 
guard of Sir John Luxembourg ; who shortly after sent her, under a 
strong escort, to the castle of Beaulieu, and thence to that of Beau- 
Tevoir, where she remained, as you shall hear, a prisoner a long 
time.'* (Johnes*s Monstrelet, vol. ii. p. 380, folio impression. Edit. 
Sauvage, 1572. vol. ii. fol. 57-8.) So that it should seem Sir John 
did not immediately dispose of his prisoner : Monstrelet has confined 
his account of the incarceration and death of the Maid, to the Lettres 
Missives of the Regent Bedford : in which, among her supposed 
crimes, formal mention is made of her wearing man*s apparel for 
two whole years — chose d Dieu abhominabU P EUe fut men^ 
par la dicte iustice li^e au vieil marchb' dedans Rouen, et Ik pub- 
liquement fiit arse k la veue de tout le peuple.** Monstrelet, edit. 
Sauvage, vol. ii. fol. 71. 



BOUEN. 



97 



object I — although, now, each surrounding object has 
undergone a most palpable change. Ah, my friend — 

The unfortunate sufferer is thus described by a French poet of the 
latter end of the xyth century : 

£t a Rouen en emmenerent 
La PucELLE pour prisonniere. 

EUe est tr^ doulce, amiable, 
Moutonne, sans orgueil ne envie, 
Oracieuse, moult serviable, 
Et qui menoit bicn belle vie. 

Trb souvent elle se confessoit, 
Pour avoir Dieu en protecteur, 
Ne gaire Feste se passoit. 
Que ne receust son Cr^teur. 

Mais ce nonobstant les Angloys 
Aux vertuz & biens ne penserent, 
Aingois en hiune des Fran^oys, 
Tres durement si la traicterent. 



Puis an derrenier la condamnerent 
A mourir douloureusement, 
£t brief Tarderent & brullerent 
A Rouen tout publiquement. 

Z/M Poeiies de Martial de Parti, Paris, 1724, 
12mo. vol. i. p. 120. 

The identical spot on which she suffered is not now visible, accord- 
ing to Milling that place having been occupied by the late Marchi 
des Veaux, It was however not half a stone*s throw from the scite of 
the present statue. In the Antiquit^s Nationales of the last mentioned 
author (vol. iii. art. xxxvi.) there are three plates connected with 
die History of Joan of Arc. The Jirst plate represents the Parte Bauve- 
reml to the left, and the circular old tower to the right — in which lat- 
ter Joan was confined, with some houses before it : the middle ground 
is a complete representation of the rubbishing state by which many of 
the public buildings at Rouen are yet surrounded and French taste has 
enlivened the for^round with a picture of a lover and his mistress, 
in a bocage^ regaling themselves with a flagon of wine. The old 



98 



ROUEN. 



what emotions were once excited within this small 
space! What curiosity, and even agony of mind, 

circular tower qui vit g^mir cette infortun6e/' flays MiDin) exiBts 
no longer. The second plate represents the fountain which was built 
in the market-place upon the very spot where the Maid suffered, and 
which spot was at first designated by the erection of a cross. From 
the style of the embellishments it appears to have been of the time 
of Francis I. Goube has re-engraved this fountain. It was taken 
down or demolished in 1/55 i upon the scite of which was built 
the present tasteless production — resembling, as the author of the 
Itin^aire de Ronen (p. 69) well observes, rather a Pallas than 
the heroine of Orleans.'* The name of the author was Stodts. 
Millin*s third plate — of this present existing fountain, is desirable — 
In as much as it shews the front of the house, in the interior of which 
are the basso-relievos of the Champ de drap d'Or: for an account of 
which see afterwards. 

In the same work, vol. ii. p. 2, is a plate of the Maid*s monument 
at Orleans, cast in bronze (the second of the kind in France) in the 
year 1571. She is kneeling, with her long hair slightly tied with a 
riband behind the nape of her neck. Her head is imcovered, and 
her helmet and spear are by the side of her. Opposite to her is no 
very desirable neighbour — Charles VII. The central subject is the 
dead Christ in the lap of the Virgin. Does this monument yet 
exist? In a note at vol. iii. p. 3, Art. xxxvi., Millin properly refers 
to Lenglet du Fresnoy and Fontette*s edition of Le Long*s BihUotK^ue 
Histarique, for a catalogue of the numerous, or rather innumerable, 
works, of all kinds, and in all shapes, which were published relating 
to the Maid's life and death. The subject has been even dramatifleds 
and in the MSS. of the Vatican there is a metrical mystery of the Siege 
of Orleans, Millin allows, with equal propriety, that all portraits 
of her — ^whether in sculpture, or painting, or engraving — are purely 
IDEAL. Perhaps the nearest, in point of fidelity, was that which was 
seen in a painted glass window of the church of the Minimes at 
Chaillot: although the building was not erected till the time of 
Charles VIII. Yet it might have been a copy of some coeval produc- 
tion. In regard to oil paintings, I take it that the portrait of Judith, 
with a sword in one hand, and the head of Holofbmes in the other, has 



ROtJEN, 



99 



mmgled with the tumults of indignation^ the shouts 
(^levenge^ and the exclamations of pity ! But life now 
goes on just the same as if nothing remarkable had hap- 
pened here. The past is forgotten. Nor smoke nor 
flame is seen ; nor the shrieks of the sufferer are heard. 
Poor Joan ! — she is one of the many who, having been 
twtured as a heretic, have been afterwards reverenced 
as a martyr. Her statue was, not very long after her 
execution, almost adored upon that very spot where 
her body had been consigned, with execrations, to 
the flames. As I gazed upon the present wretched 
soolptured representation of her, I could not but think 
of the sleepy attempt of Chapelaine, and the more ani- 
mated effort of our Southey — to immortalize her 
memory. The prison where Joan of Arc was confined 
yet partly exists ; and the spot where she was burnt 
is attested both by a fountain and a statue, in the 
centre of the square. The present statue is indeed 
frightful in every respect. It is defective in form, and 
divested of the costume of the time : two faults, which 
no other beauties (had it possessed any) could have 
compensated. However, this square contains probably 
one of the very oldest houses in Rouen — and as inte- 
racting as it is ancient. It is invisible from without : 
bat yon open a wooden gate, and quickly find yourself 
jivllhin a small quadrangle, having three of its sides 
i' 

iMi QfloaUy copied (whh the omission of the latter accompaniment) 
as that of Jbanvm d'Abc. But it is time to clow this account of her. 
Yet I hardly know a more interesting coUection of books than that 
uliidi may be acquired respecting the &te of this equally brare and 
anfofiiinate heroine. 

VOI«. I. G 



100 



BOUEN. 



covered with ba88o-relieyo figures in plaister. lliat 
aide which feces you is evidently older than the left : 
indeed I have no hesitation in assigning it to the end 
of the xvth century. The clustered ornaments of 
human figures and cattle^ with which the whole of 
the exterior is covered, reminds us precisely of those 
numerous little wood-cut figures, chiefly pastoral^ 
which we see in the borders of printed missals of the 
same period. The taste which prevails in them is half 
French and half Flemish. Not so is the character of 
the plaister figures which cover the left side on enter- 
ing. These, my fiiend, are no less than the represen- 
tation of the procession of Henry VIII. and Francis I. 
to the fiunous Champ db drap d*Or : of which Mont- 
fiiucon^ after his fashion,* has published engravings. 

* Montfaucon, after his fashUm,'] Far be it from me to deiNnedate 4ie 
labours of Mont&ucon. But those who have not the means of getting 
at that learned antiquarian's Monarchie Eran^oue may posdbly hm 
an opportunity of examining precisely the same representatkmt^ of 
the procession above alluded to, in DueareVi Anglo-Ntnnum JM> 
^mties, Plate XII. Till the year 1726 this extraordhiary aeiiea of 
ornament was supposed to represent the Council of TrfoU} bol Hit 
Abb^ Noel, happening to find a salamander noarked upon the badL 
of one of the figures, supposed, with greater truth, that it was a 
representation of the abovementioned procession; and accQrdin|^ * 
sent Montfiiucon an account of the whole. The Ahhi might hftft •■ 
found more than one, two, or three salamanders, if he had lodhil 
sharply upon this extraordinary exterior and possibly, in his tfai^ 
the surfaces of the more delicate parts, especially of the te^tnm^ 
might not have sustained the iiguries which time and aocideiii noir 
seem to have inflicted upon them. Mr. Lewis, in the opposite beanftifid 
specimen of art, both drawn and engraved by himself, has been 
scrupulously exact in shewing the decayed and perfect parts juit as 
they appeared at the period of our visit. 



ROUEN. 



101 



Having carefully examined this veiy curious relic^ of 
the beginning of the sixteenth century^ I have no hesi- 
tation in pronouncing the copy of Montfoncon (or 
rather of the artist employed) to be most egregiously 
fiuthless. I visited it again and again ; considering it- 
to be worth all the " huge clocks" in Rouen put toge- 
ther. It was of course too tempting a subject to be 
n^lected by the pencil of Mr. Lewis : who selected the 
following small portion — as being nearly the most 
perfect which remains. 



102 



BOUEN« 



The house itself now a lady^s Imrdiiig^^schooly w<t 
thie mistress (Mrs^ Hannar, an English woman) sheirad 
Mr. L. all manner of civility and attention during 
the execution of the drawing. Several of the young 
and sprightly tenants of this old-fkshion^ place caae 
and conversed with him, while his pencil was in hia^ 
hand, and he contrived to vary the occupation of jthat 
said pencil, by making one or two pretty little sketches 
of their physiognomies. Mrs. Harmar herself had 
nearly forgotten her legitimate English — so insenidbly 
and surely do foreign sounds and language operate in 
living an altered character to our own. I hardly know 
how to take you from- this interesting spot — from this 
exhibition of beautifiil old art — especially too when I 
consider that Francis himself once occupied the man- 
sion, and held a council here, with both English and 
French : that his bugles once sounded from beneath 
the gate-way; and his goblets once sparkled upon 
the chestnut tables of the great hall. I do hope 
and trust that the Royal Academy of Rouen will not 
suffer this architectural relic to perish, without leaving 
behind a substantial and a faithful representation 
of it. 

While upon the subject of ancient edifices — * and 

* the subject of ancient edtfices,] On examining the note at page 41, 
it will be seen that mention is made of certain views of Rouen, or of 
portions of it, which are to be found in the Bibliotheque du Roi at 
Paris. In the same collection is a drawing of part of the ancient 
building in the Court of the Abbey St, Amand, in one of the streeTs 
of Rouen of which I have forgotten the name. In this composi- 
tion are seen the arms of Mary of Anhault, the Abbess. It is 
cleverly executed> and is well worth engraving. There i« also rathjer 



ROUEN. 



103 



wiute'the gallant deeds of Francis I. may be called 
to mind from reading the last paragraph but one — let 
me take you with me back again a few steps, and 
eromng the Rue de la Chrosse Horlogey contrive to 
]plaoe yoQ in the centre of the square which is formed 
by the Palais de Justice. The inhabitants con- 
sider this building as the principal lim (of a civil 
character) in their city. It has indeed great claims 
to notice and admiration, but will not bear the severe 
acrotiny of a critic in Gothic art. It was partly 
erected by thefisunous Cardinal d^Amboisb, (of whom 
I expatiated somewhat in my fifth letter) and partly 
by Francis I. ; and the Parliament of Normandy 
assembled here at the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, as it was built upon the scite of the old parlia- 
mait house. This building precisely marks the resto- 
mtion of Gothic taste in France, and the peculiar 
style of architecture which prevailed in the reign 
of Francis I. To say the truth, this style, however 
sparkfing and imposing, is objectionable in many 
respects: for it is, in the first place, neither pure 
Gothic nor pure Grecian — ^but an injudicious mixture 
of both. Greek arabesque borders are running up the 
sides of a portal, terminating in a Gothic arch ; and 
the Gothic ornaments themselves are not in the pui'est, 
or the most pleasing, taste. Too much is given to 
parts, and too little to the whole. The external orna- 
ments are frequently heavy from their size and dabo- 

mn interesting view of the entrance into the same abbey^ of the date 
<if 1702. Not a vestige of the original now remains. A little prints 
liy Sylvestre^ of one of the ^Ad castles^ at Rouen^ may be also just 
worth mentioning. 



104 



ROUEN. 



rate execution ; and they seem to be stuck an to the 
main building without rhyme or reason. Nevertheless 
I know not how you can refusQ assent to the criticism 
that this is a vaste batiment d'un gothique ^r6me- 
ment d^licat^ et tr^s hardi dans son execution.*** 
Surely however the architect would have improved^ as 
well as enriched, his building, if he had selected portions 
from a purer as well as better style of art, observable 
in the Cathedral and the Abbey of St. Ouen: — but 
men will be always inventing, and indulging their 
fancies equally at the expense of their judgment and 
reputation. 

The criminal offences are tried in the hall to the 
right, and the prisoners are confined in the lower part 
of the building to the left : above which you mount by 
a pretty lofty flight of stone steps, which conducts you 
to a singularly curious hall,'^' about one hundred and 
seventy-five English feet in length — roofed by wooden 
ribs, in the form of an arch, and displaying a most 
curious and exact specimen of carpenter's work. This 
is justly shewn and commented upon to the enquiring 
traveller. Parts of the building are devoted to the 
courts of assize, and to tribunals of audience of almost 
every description. The first Presidents of the Pdrlia- 

* Itin^aire de Rouen, 1815, 8vo. 

t In DucareFs time, " the ground story consisted of a great quad- 
rangle surrounded with booksellers shops. On one side of it a stone 
staircase led to a large and lofty room, which, in its internal as 
well as external appearance, resembled, though in miniature, West- 
minster hall. Here (continues Ducarel) I saw several gentlemen of 
the long robe, in their gowns and bands, walking up and down with 
briefs in their hands, and making a great show of business,** AngUh 
Norman Antiquitiesj p. 3^. 



BOUEN. 



106 



ment lived formerly in the building which faces yon 
upon entrance, but matters have now taken a very 
differei\t turn. Upon the whole, this Town Hall, or 
call it what you will, is rather a magnificent erection ; 
aad certainly very much superior to any provincial 
building of the kind which we possess in England. I 
should tell you that the courts for commercial or civil 
causes are situated near the quays, at the south part 
of the town: and Monsieur Riaux, who conducted 
me thither, (and who possesses the choicest library * 
of antiquarian books, of all descriptions, relating to 
Rouen, which I had the good fortune to see) carried 
me to the Hall of Commerce, which, among other 
apartments, contains a large chamber (contiguous to 
the Court of Justice) covered with fleurs de lys 
upon a light blue ground. It is now however much 
in need of reparation: fresh lilies and a new ground 
are absolutely necessary — to harmonise with a large 
oil-painting at one end of it,-f' in which is represented 

* the choiice$t Ubrary,'] Monsieur Riaux^ Aichiviste de la Chambre 
de Commerce. This amiable man and intelligent Bibliomaniac pro- 
mised to send me a list of his rarer and more valuable volumes^ 
before I left Rouen. He unites a love of literary with architectural an- 
tiquities. The collection of M. Le Prevost is however as copious. 

f At another end of this chamber of the Hall of Commerce is a 
Uglily coloured picture, of colossal dimensions, representing the Genitu 
of Commerce. It was bespoke by the Corporation of M. Le Monnier, 
of the Royal Academy of Painting, and is full of allegorical repre- 
sentations, comprehending the four quarters of the globe. " Imposant*' 
as this picture may be considered, and introduced to your attention 
by several printed pages of description, I could not but consider it very 
duU, very faulty, and very uninteresting. 



106 



ROUEN. 



the reception of Louis XVI. at Rouen by the Mayor 
and Deputies of the town, in 1786. AU the figures 
are of the size of life, well painted after the originals^ 
and appear to be strong resemblances. On enquiring 
how many of them were now livmg, I was told that 
— ALL WERE DEAD ! The fatc of the principal figure 
is but too well known. They should have this inte* 
resting subject — ^interesting undoubtedly to the inha* 
bitants — executed by one of their best engravers. It 
represents the unfortunate Louis quite in the prime of 
life; and is the best whole length portrait of him 
which I have yet seen in painting or engraving. 
What an ornament for a provincial, or what we should 
call a county, publication ? But let us hope that the 
city of Rouen will yet have its Whittakbr to describe 
its curiosities, and record its antiquities. I wish it no 
better historian. 

It is right however that you should know, that, in 
the Tribunal for the determination of commercial 
causes, there sits a very respectable Bench of Judges : 
among whom I recognised one that had perfectly the 
figure, air, and countenance, of an Englishman. I 
will also add (in sober truth) that he was the best 
looking of the whole. On enquiry of my guide, I 
found my supposition verified. He was an English- 
man ; but peradventure was indebted to a thirty years 
residence in the climate of Rouen for his handsome 
countenance and gentlemanly appearance I The ju- 
dicial costume is appropriate in every respect; but 
I could not help smiling upon meeting, the other 
morning, betimes, with my friend the judge, standing 
before the door of his house, in the open street — ^witb 



ROUEN. 



107 



a hairy cap on — leisurely smoking his pipe. Would 

Mr. Justice L of old, or Mr. Justice ■ 

that now is, recreate himself in the like manner ? I trow 
not. I hope you do not fail to remember that this is 
my Sixth Letter — " from the vine-covered hills and 
gay regions of France 



106 



LETTER VII. 

the quays. bridge of boats. rub du bac. rub 
de robec. eaux de robbc bt d*aubettb. 

mont stb. catharine. hospices g^n^ralb et 

d'humanit^. 

Still tarrying within this old fashioned place! I 
have indeed yet much to impart before I quit it^ and 
which I have no scruple in avowing will be well de- 
serving of your attention. Do not expect me however 
to be for ever lingering within mouldy walls and per- 
ishing towers — and that the living are to be systemati- 
cally neglected for the dead — ^tho* as^uedly you 

life enough" towards the latter parlNMVi l^t 
patch. Our day of departure is at lengt^xed, 
probably ^his may be my last epistlft but om 
hence. 

Just letting you know^ in few worda^ Jhat I 1ml 
visited the famous chemical labor 
(Rue Beauvoisine) and the yet more 
tacle exhibited in M. Lemere's machine for sav 
wood of all descriptions, into small or large planks, 1 
means of water works — must take you along thb 
QUAYS for a few minutes. Iliese quays aie flanked by 
an architectural front, which, were it \ 
to the original plan, would present ilg^l 
the noblest structures in Europe. To the blest <tf my 
recollection this stone front was begun in the reign of 
Louis XV. but many and prosperous must be the years 






HOUEN. 



of art> of commerce, and of peace, before money suffi- 
cient can be raised for the successful completion of the 
pile. The quays are long, broad, and full of bustle of 
every description ; while in some of the contiguous 
squares, ponderous bales of goods, shawls, cloth, and 
Ihien, are spread open to catch the observing eye. In 
the midst of this varied and animated scene, walks a 
WELL-KNOWN CHARACTER, in his large cocked hat, and 
with his tin machine upon his back, filled with lemon- 
ade or coffee, surmounted by a bell — which " ever and 
anon*' is sounded for the sake of attracting customers. 
Mr. Lewis has copied the entire scene to the life. 




1 



110 



BOUEN. 



. As you pass along this animated scene, by the side 
of the rapid Seine, and its Bridge of Boats*, yoa 

" * The communication with the country lying south of Roaeo> is 
canted on by means of a timber bridge, two hundred paces in length, 
thrown over the River Seine from the middle of the quay to the Ftta- 
bourg St. Sever^ and of which the inhabitants talk with infinite rap- 
tures. This structure, begun in the year 16^6, is framed upon nwetetn 
barges which rise and fall with the flux and reflux of the tide. It is so 
contrived that when there is occasion for vessels to pass through, one* 
|Art of it, by the help of pullies, turns upon iron rollers over the othir 
part, without the least iiyury to either. It hath also, as I was infonn- 
ed, this farther covenience, that it can be taken to pieces in a few 
hours, when any danger is apprehended from the winter floods bring* 
ing down large flakes of ice. Tlie expense of keeping this flaatmg 
bridge in repair is very considerable, as the barges on which it is con- 
structed, as wetl as the other parts of it, are subject to frequent decay \ 
inasmuch that it is said to amount, comniunibus annis, to ten thousand 
livres French, or upwards of four hundred pounds sterling. Just be- 
low it are the ruins of the once magnificent stone bridge, which con- 
sisted of thirteen arches, and was built by the Empress Maud, daughter 
of Henry I. King of England. This old bridge seems to have been 
much better situated than the present, having been placed so as to 
range in a line with the principal street, which is to this day called 
B.ue Grand Pont ; but after having stood firm between three or four 
hundred years, it began to feel a very sensible decay, and on the 22d of 
August 1502, three arches fell down, which in 1533 were followed by 
two others. These defects were supplied by a super-structure of tim- 
ber} but a few years after, some of the other arches beginning to open^ 
the carriage and foot ways became so dangerous, that they were to- 
tally abandoned, and the passage over the river was from that time 
effected by means of ferry boats. Several attempts were after this 
made to repair the old bridge, but the ignorance of the French archi- 
tects was so great, that they unanimously declared it impossible to re- 
build a stone bridge in that place, on account of the depth of the 
water, and the rapidity of the river. Whereupon the present floating 
bridge was constructed in the manner I have mentioned.** Ducaskl^ 
p. 35-6. 



ROUEN. 



Ill 



cannot help glancing now and then down the narrow 
old-£ei8hioned streets, which run at right angles with 
the quays — ^with the innumerable small tile-fashioned 
pieces of wood, like scales, upon the roofs — which 
seem as if they would be demolished by every blast. 
The narrowness and gloom of these streets, together 
with the bold and overwhelming projections of the upper 
stories and roofs, aflford a striking contrast with the 
animated scene upon the quays : — where the sun shines 
with full freedom, as it were, and where the glitter- 
ing streamers, at innumerable mast-heads, denote the 
wealth and prosperity of the town. If the day happen 
to be fine, you may devote half a morning in con- 
templating, and mingling with, so interesting a scene. 
Judge yourself of one of these cramped streets, and 
overshadowing roofe, by the following spirited drawing 

To this may be subjoined^ that Buonaparte commenced the building 
of a new stone bridge 3 of which only the abutments on each side 
of the river^ and one or two of the piers for arches in the middle, 
mre executed. I should apprehend that the present bridge of boats 
(which is always one of the ugliest and most unpicturesque convey- 
ances imaginable) would hardly last two dozen of years. The central 
part for the carriages is terribly worn and as I was walking upon it, 
during the passage of the Caen diligence, I thought the whole structure 
would have sunk into the bed of the river. A view of the river, the 
flhqiping, and the town, from a fine lofty stone bridge, would be en- 
dianting. I saw however, at Paris, in a collection of prints relating to 
Normandy (mentioned at page 41 ante) three pretty etchings, by 
IsBABL SiLVESTRS of the ruius of the old stone bridge. Silvestre 
flourished in 1650-60. Evelyn thus notices these ruins in 1644. There 
stand yet the mines [says he] of a magnificent bridge of stone, now 
supply'd by oneof boates only, to which come up vessels of consider- 
able burden." EveUfn's Memoirs-, vol. i. p. 50. Edit. 1S18. 



112 



ROUEN. 



of the Rue du Bac — leading to the south transept of 
the Cathedral — which has already cut so gay a figure 
in tliese despatches.* 

We liave liad frequent thunder-storms of late; and 
the other Sunday evening, happening to be sauntering at 
a consi(ieral)le heiglit above the north-west Boulevards, 
towards the Fauhotir^i: Caucholse^ I gained a summit, 
upon the edge of a gravel pit, wlience I looked down 
unexpectedly and precipitously upon the town below. 
A magnificent aiul immense cloud was rolling over the 
whole (?ity. The Seine was however visible on the; 
other side of it, shining like a broad silver chord; whil9 
the barren, ascending |)lains, through which the road 
to (,'aen |)asscs, were gradually becoming dusk with the 
overshadowing cloud, and drenched with rain which, 
seemed to be rushing down in one immense torrent. 
The top of the Cathech-al and of the abbey of St. Ouen 
were almost veiled in darkness, by the passingstonn ; but 
the lower part f)f the tower, and the whole of the nave 
of each building, were in one stream of golden light — 
from the last powerful rays of the setting sun. In ten 
minutes this nuigically-varied scene settled into the 
sober, uniform tint of evening ; but I can never forget 
the rich bed of i)nrj)le and pink, fringed with burnish- 
ed gold, in which the sun of that evening set. I de- 
scended — absorbed in the r(»collection of the lovely- 
objects which 1 had just contemplated — and regaled by 
the sounds of a thousand little gurgling streamlets^ 

* See the opposite copper-plate. Perhaps this is one of the 
closest and most faitliful of copies; and gives you a decided idea of 
the fj^eiierality of those ohi, narrow streets^ so particularly mentioned 
in the text. 



ROUEN. 



113 



created by the passing tempest, and hastening to pre- 
cipitate themselves into the Seine. 

Of the different trades, especially retail, which are 
carried on in Rouen with the greatest success, those 
connected with the cotton manufactories cannot fiail to 
claim your attention ; and I fancied I saw, in some of 
the shop-windows, shawls and gowns which might pre- 
sume to vie with our Manchester andNoi-wich produc- 
tions. Nevertheless, I learnt that the French were 
extremely partial to British manufactures: and cotton 
stockings, colored muslins, and what are called 
ginghams, are covetted by them with the same 
fcmdness as we prize their cambric and lace. 
Thdr best articles in watches, clocks, silver orna- 
ments^ and trinkets, are obtained from Paris. But in 
respect to upholstery, I must do the Rouennois the 
justice to say, that I never saw any thing to compare 
with their escrutoires and other articles of Aimiture 
made of the walnut tree. These upright escrutoires, 
or writing desks, are in almost every bed- room of the 
more respectable hotels : but of course their polish is 
gone when they become stationary furniture in an 
inn — ^for the art of rubbing, or what is called elbow- 
grease with us, is almost unknown on either side of 
the Seine. You would be charmed to have a fine spe- 
cimen of a side board, or an escrutoire, (the latter 
five or six feet high) made by one of their best cabinet- 
makers from choice walnut wood. The polish and 
tone of colour are equally gratifjdng; and resemble 
somewhat that of rose wood, but of a gayer aspect. 
The or-molu ornaments are tastefrilly put on ; but the 



114 



ROUEN. 



general shape, or contour, of the several pieces of fur- 
niture, struck me as being in bad taste. 

He who wishes to be astonished by the singnlarity 
of a scene, connected with trade, should walk leisurely 
down the Rue de Robec. It is surely the oddest, and, 
as some may think, the most repulsive scene imaginable: 
but who that has a rational curiosity could resist such 
a walk ? Here live the dyers of clothes — and in the 
middle of the street rushes the precipitous stream, 
called LEau de /ioftec*— receiving colours of all hues. 
To day it is nearly jet black : to-morrow it is br^t 
scarlet : a third day it is blue, and a fourth day it is 
yellow ! Meanwhile it is partially concealed by little 
bridges,, communicating with the manufactories, or 
with that side of the street where the work-people 
live: and the whole has a dismal and disagreeable as- 
pect — especially in dirty weather : but if you go to one 
end of it (I think to the north — ^as it runs north and 
south) and look down upon the descending street, 
with the overhanging upper stories and roofe — ^the 
foreshortened, numerous bridges — the differently-co- 
lored dyed clothes, suspended from the windows, or 
from poles — the constant motion of men, women, and 
children, running across the bridges — with the rapid, 
camelion stream beneath — ^you cannot fail to acknow- 
ledge that this is one of the most singular, gro- 

* Bourgueville describes this river, in the sixteenth centary, asbdi^ 
aucune fois iaulne, autrefois rouge^ verte, bleu^^ viol^e & autres 
couleurs, selon qu'vn grand nombre de teinturiers qui sont dessus^ la 
diuersifient par interualles en faisant leurs maneures." 

Antiquitez de Caen, p. 36. 



ROUEN. 



115 



tesque, and uncommon sights in the wonder-working 
city of Rouen. With all the betraying simplicity of 
a stranger^ I stopped opposite a house in which I 
saw a basso-relievo ornament of a knight, praying be 
neath a tree, while his horse was grazing beside him. 
This plaister ornament had the date of somewhere be- 
tween 1580 andl590 — ^but just now I forget the precise 
year. Possibly this might have been a representation 
of St* Hubert; or possibly the house might have been 
the residence of some distinguished character during the 
League, — ^but how comfortable are possibilities** in the 
solution of difficulties, or the appropriation of persons 
and things? I ought to tell you that our old friend 
the first jbmous Cardinal d*Amboise caused the 
Eau de Robec to be directed through the streets of 
Rouen, from its original channel or source in a little 
valley near St. Martin da Vivien. Formerly there 
was a much more numerous clan of these teintu- 
riers'* in the Rue de Robec — but they have of late 
sought more capacious premises in the fauxbourgs de 
St. Hilaire and de Martainvil/e. The neighbouring sis- 
ter-stream, FEau d^Aubette, is destined to the same pur- 
poses as that of which I have been just discoursing ; 
but I do not at this moment recollect whether it be also 
dignified, in its course, by turning a few com mills, ere 
it empties itself into the Seine. Indeed the thundering 
noise of one of these mills, turned by the Robec river, 
near the church of St. Maclou, will not be easily for- 
gotten by me. Thus you see of what various, strange, 
and striking objects the city of Rouen is composed. 
Bustle, noise, life and activity, in the midst of an at- 
mosphere unsullied by the fumes of sea coal : hilarity 



116 



ROUEN. 



and apparent contentment: the spraoe bourgeoise and 
the slattern fille de chambre : — attired in vestments of 
deep crimson and dark blue — every thing flits be- 
fore you as if touched by magic, and as if sorrow and 
misfortune were unknown to the inhabitants. 

Paull5 majora canamus.** In other words, let us 
leave the town for the country. Let us hurry through 
a few more bizarre alleys, courts, and streets — and as 
the morning is yet beautiful, let us hasten onwards to 
enjoy the famous Panorama of Rouen and its environs 
from the Mont Ste. Catharine . . . Indeed, my friend, 
I sincerely wish that you could have accompanied us 
to the summit of this enchanting eminence : but as 
you are far away, you must be coAtent with a brief de- 
scription of our little expedition thither.* The Mont 
St. Catharine, which is entirely chalk, is considered 
the highest of the hills in the immediate vicinity of 
Rouen ; or rather, perhaps, is considered the point of 
elevation from which the city is to be viewed to the 

* expedition thither,']— When John Evelyn visited this neighbour- 
hood^ in 1644> the country so abounded with wolres, that a shep- 
herd^ whom he met, told him that one of his companions was stran- 
gled by one of them the day before — and that, in the midst of the 
flock ! The fields (continues he) are mostly planted with pears and 
apples and other cider fruits. It is plentifully furnished with quarries 
of stone and slate, and hath iron in abundance." Memoirs of the Uife 
and Writings of John Evelyn, vol. i. p. 50. Edit. 1818. My friend 
Mr. J. H. Markland (a tried good Roxburgher) visited Mont St. Catha- 
rine the year after the visit above described. He was of course en- 
chanted with the view 3 and told me, that a friend whom he met there, 
and who had travelled pretty much in Italy, assured him there was 
nothing like it on the banks of either the Amo or the Po. In short, it 
is quite peculiar to itself— and cannot be smpassed. 



BOUEN. 



117 



greatest possible advantage. It lies to the left of the 
Seine^ in your way from the town ; and the ascent begins 
considerably beyond the barriers. Indeed it is on the 
route to Paris. We took an excellent fiacre to carry us 
to the beginning of the ascent, that our 1^ might be 
in proper order for scrambling up the acclivities imme-* 
diately above ; and leaving the main road to the light, 
we soon commenced our ambulatory operations in 
good earnest. But there was not much labour or 
much difficulty : so, halting, or standing, or sitting, on 
each little eminence, our admiration seemed to en- 
crease — ^till, gaining the highest point, looking towards 
the west, we found ourselves immediately above the 
town and the whole of its environs .... 

Heavens, what a goodly prospect spreads around !'* 

8ud I to myself— bethinking me of the well-known 
verse in Thomson*s description of the view from Rich- 
mond Hill. The prospect was indeed goodly — ^" being 
varied, extensive, fertile, and luxuriant ... in spite of a 
comparatively backward spring. The city was the 
main object, not only of attraction, but of astonish- 
ment. Although the point from which we viewed it 
is considered to be exactly on a level with the summit 
of the spire of the Cathedral, yet we seemed to be 
hanging, as it were, in the air, immediately over the 
streets themselves. We saw each church, each public 
edifice, and almost each street ; nay, we began to think 
we could discover almost every individual stirring 
in them. The soldiers, exercising on the parade in the 
Champ de Mars, seemed to be scarcely two stones 
throw from us ; while the sounds of their music reached 



118 



ROUEN. 



us in the most distinct and gratifying manner. No-— ■ 
" Diable boiteux** could ever have transported a Don 
Cleophas L^ndro Perez Zambullo** to a more favour- 
able situation for a knowledge of what was passing in a 
dty ; and if the houses had been unroofed^ we could have 
almost discerned whether the escrutoires were made of 
mahogany or of walnut-wood ! This wonder-working 
effect proceeds from the extraordinary clearness of the 
atmosphere, and the absence of sea-coal Aime. The sky 
was perfectly blue — the generality of the roofe were 
also composed of blue slate : this, added to the incipient 
verdure of the boulevards, and the darker hues of the 
trunks of the trees, upon the surrounding hills — ^the 
lengthening forests to the left, and the numerous white 
maisons de plaisance"* to the right — while the Sdne, 
with its hundred vessels, immediately below, to the 
left, and in face of you — ^with its cultivated little 
islands — and the sweeping meadows or race-ground-f- 
on the other side — all, or indeed any, of these objects 
could not fail to excite our warmest admiration, and 
to make us instinctively exclaim that such a pa- 
norama was perfectly unrivalled!" Mr. Lewis took 

• It is thus prettily observed in the little Itineraire de Rouen — Ces 
agr^ables maisons de plaisance appartiennent h. des habitants de Roue n 
qui y viennent en famille, dans la belle saison^ se d^lasser des embams 
dela viUe et des fatigues du commerce.'* p. 153. 

t race-ground.'] — ^When the English cavalry were quartered here in 
1814-5, the officers were in the frequent habit of racing with each 
other. These races weregaily attended by the inhabitants; and I hcard^ 
from more than one mouthy the warmest conunendations bestowed upon 
thefleetness of the coursers and the skill of the riders 



ROUEN. 



119 



oat his. drawiiig4)ook and pencil — and rather attempt- 
ed^ than executed, a sketch of this enchanting view. 

More immediately opposite, within a fine wood upon 
a bold hill, stood the house of the Mayor of Rouen for 
time being. I think they call this place Canteleu. 
It is very picturesque : but, as my hour of departure 
from hence draws near, and as you cannot possibly 
liave more than another Rouen dispatch, (which mti^^ 
and shall be devoted to Iiooftejf — with the delightful 
et cetaras dependent thereupon) 1 shall only express my 
T^pret that I cannot visit other equally well known spots 
in the environs of Rouen . . . that I cannot wander in 
the lonely valley of Mont-aux-Malades* — ^fit place for 
conventual or monastic dwelling — and ascend its nu- 
merous adjacent eminences, which, although they 
should seem to shut out the world, enable you to see 
the world from thence ! . . . that I must turn my back 
perhaps for ever upon Bapaume, Croissety and D^viUe, 
and (yet more cruel fate !) upon the sweet and smiling 
plains of Bois-guillaume. But I will not repine. I 
have seen much and enjoyed much. I have paced the 
naves of the Cathedral and of the abbey of St. Ouen ; and 

* Mant'Oux-Malades], — Les campagnes environnantes du Mont- 
aux-Malades ofirent des cdteaux charmants qui invitent k s*y reposer. 
IjeuTB richesses, leur vari^t^^ le silence de ces lieux solitaires^ qui n*est 
troabl^ que par les chants de PhilomMe et des heureux habitants des 
mirs, tout invite h, s'y arr^ter et k se livrer k la plus douce m^lancholie 
l«ur ces pelouses ^maill^es de fleurs." Itineraire de Rouen, p. 152. 
Such a passage — though from a waistcoat-pocket Itinerary — is not un- 
deserving of quotation. Mont-aux-Malades (its name derived, I ap- 
prehend, from the place being the resort of valetudinarians) lies above 
*the Fauxbourgs Cauchoise and Bouvreuil about a French league from 
the dty. 

VOL. I. H 



/ 



120 



ROUEN. 



have stood as it were upon their pinnacles, while gazing 
at them from the height of Mont St£. Catharine I 

M. P^riaux, a very sensible man, and Member of 
the Royal Academy of Rouen, as wdl as a printer of 
equal business and reputation, wrote out for me a list 
of all the desirable places to be visited in the vicinity 
of the city : but to write out," and to carry what is 
written into execution, are very different matters. I 
admitted to my Instructor that Mant-aux^Maladei 
and Bihorel must remain unvisited by me ... He 
answered, done vous n'auriez rien vft.** But thus 
is surely a mere Academic flourish. We descended 
Mont Ste. Catharine* on the side facing the Hospice 
G^ndrali a building of a very handsome form, and 
considerable dimensions. It is a noble establishment 
for foimdUngs, and the aged smd infirm of both 8«es. 
I was told that not fewer than twenty-five himdred 
human beings were sheltered in this asylum ; a numba:, 
which equally astonished and delighted me. The de- 
scent, on this side the hill, is exceedingly pleasing ; 
being composed of serpentine little walks, through 
occasional alleys of trees [and shrubs, to the vary 
base of the hill, not many hundred yards from the 

* This mount takes its name from an abbey formerly built there and 
dedicated to the Holy Trinity of which abbey Simeon, a religious 
character from Moimt Sinai, was the founder. He, and his holy at- 
tendant (of the name of Gosselin) carried thither the relics of St. Ca- 
therine, and hence the place is called Mont Ste. Catharine. Pommeraye 
has devoted ninety folio pages to the Histaire de VAhhaye de la Ste. TVi- 
niti; dite du Mont de Sainte Catharine; and is careful to tell us how 
Simeon got into possession of the relics of the Saint.*' 

Histoire de VAhhaye Roy ale de St Ouen, 1662^ folio. 



ROUEN. 



121 



faoqiitd. The architecture of this extensive building is 
more mixed tiian that of its neighbour the Hospice 
dUumamtij on account of the different times in which 
portions of it were added : but, upon the whole, you 
are rather struck with its approach to what may be 
called magnificence of style. I was indeed pleased with 
the good order and even good breeeding of its motley 
inhabitants. Some were strolling quietly, with thdr 
arms behind them, between rows of trees: — others 
were tranquilly sitting upon benches : a tliird group 
would be in motion within the squares of the building : 
a fourth appeared in deep consultation whether the 
patage of to-day were not inferior to that of the pre- 
ceding day? — Que cherchez vous. Monsieur ?'* said a 
fine looking old man, touching, and half taking off, 
his cocked hat f " I wish to see the Abb6 Tur- 
quier," — re^cmed I. " Ah, il vient de sortir — par ici, 
Monsieur." Thank you." " Monsieur je vous sou- 
haite le bon jour — au plaisir de vous revoir T And 
thus I paced through the squares of this vast building. 
The Portier" had a countenance which our Wilkie 
irould have seized with avidity, and copied with inimi- 
table spirit and fidelity. 

The Jardin des Plantes is in the immediate vicinity 
of this Hospital. It was established during the reign 
of Louis XV., and my amiable acquaintance, the fore- 
mentioned Abb£, is one of the brightest ornaments of 
the Botanic institution which is attached to it. This 
garden, next to that at Paris, is considered the most 
carious in France. I rambled through it — regaled by 



122 



ROUEN. 



the odours of the violet and jonquille, and still more 
rejoiced at the sight of the blossoms of the apple and 
ahnond trees. Spring is come at last . . . But where 
are the Books, and MSS. and Printing Presses of 
which I heretofore spake ? A little patience^ and then. 



LETTER VIIL 

BARLY TYPOGRAPHY AT ROUEN. MODERN PRINTERS. 
CHAP BOOKS. BOOKSELLERS. BOOK COLLECTORS. 

" Yes — and then" ... for all the gossip and chit- 
chat connected with paper ^ inky books, printing-offices, 
and curiosities of every graphic description. Perhaps 
the most regular method would be to speak of a few 
of the principal presses, before we take the productions 
of these presses into consideration. And firsts as to 
the antiquity of printing in Rouen.* The art of print- 
ing is supposed to have been introduced here, by a 
citizen of the name <^ Maufer, between the years 
1470 and 1480. Some of the specimens of Rouen 
Missals and Breviaries, especially of those by Morin^ 
who was the second printer in this city, are very 
splendid. His device, which is not common, but ra- 
ther striking, is here enclosed for your gratifica-^ 
tion. 

* antiquity of printing in 12oti6n.]— The reader may possibly not Ob- 
ject to coDsnlt two or three pages of the BihUographical Decameron, 
begmning. at page 137> vol. ii. respecting a few early Rouen printef8» 
The name of Maufsb> however, appears in a fine large folio volume, 
entitled Gaietanus de Ttenis Vincentini in Quatt. Aristot. Metheor, Li- 
bras, of the date of 1476 — in the possession of Earl Spencer. From 
the colophon of which we can only safely infer that Maufer was a 
^izen of Rouen, 



124 



ROUEN. 




Few provincial towns have been more fertile in ty- 
pographical productions ; and the reputation of Taii.* 
LBUR, GuALTiBR^ and Valentin^ gave great respect* 
ability to the press of Rouen at the commencement of 
the XVI th century.* 

* at the commencement of the xyith ceitliiry.]— Among the earlier 
works of a poetical description^ which seem to haveanj direct oonnectifm 
with Rouen, is the one entitled Palinodz^ Chants royauz. Ballades^ 
Rddeaulx, et Epigrammes } a Fhonnem' de limmacuke Coception^ &o. 

On the third leaf are the names of those who contrihuted ballads, &c. 
among which we read M. Andry de la vigne : M. Guillaome Cretui. 
lehanMarot. Nicolle le vestu. Nicolle aubert. Pierre lelieor. N.tiuw 
hot. G. Thibault. laques du pare. Innocent tourmente. Pierre le 
cheuallier. Crygnon de Dieppe. Guygnart appotkaire. Pieot. Guil* 



BOUEN. 



T25 



Yet I am not tSble to ascertain whether this press was 
very frditM in 1lmiiMejf,€^mdcltfty and o&l S^oettp- 

lanme roger. Clement marot. laques fiUaster. Busquet. Tasserie. 
Prere Guillaiune Alexis. 

All the poetry is of a serious and sombre cast— not approaching any 
thing like energy or sublimity : with over-strained conceits. I will 
give a specimen or two^ that the reader may judge for himself. At 
feoillet. Ixxi^ we have 

Ballade premier de la roze, 

Lan passe en terre gellee 
Bk fut si nidement traicte. 
Que au iourdhuy par la jprande gdee 
Nous souffroDS au ble la charte : 
Mais deuant que tout fut gaste, 
Dieu retint en certaine place. 
Contre firoit qui cest trop haste 
La terre rendant ble de grace : 

Ceste terre nest point fbullee 
Ne fouye yucr ny este 
Le soleil ou pluye coulee 
Par grace ya tousiours este 
Son rayon dorient monte 
Grace sur elle contre la glace 
Garda par diuine bonte 
La terre rendant ble de grace. 

Par la terre idnsy desolee 
Vint hm au peuple supplian 
Par lautre ame est consolee 
Du ble que grace y a plante 
Ble en lyuer fiit desplante 
Lautre est tousiours fertHle et grasse 
Preste a donner fruict a plante 
La terre rendant ble de grace. 

Renuoy. 

Prince le pfun par vous gouste 
De son ble porte lefficace 



126 . 



ROUEN. 



your beloved objects of research ! I rather think, 
however/that it was not deficient in this popular class 

Qui presenia du froit double 
La terre rendant ble de grace 
M. Guillaume Thibault. 

Beneath a rondeau^ by Guillauine Cretin^ is the fbUowing — by the 
same hand :*-* 

Argumentum, 

Vng fiacteur fut Osrhan nomme 
Roy sur tous chantres renomme 
Qui feist en des partz trente six 
Vng motet tellement asseis 
Quon ne veit oncq oemire semblable 
A derici chantre louable 
Premier queuoyer par chemin 
Le feist noter en parchemin 
Puys pour le chanter assembht 
Chantres auquelz tresbon sembk. 
Le fiBM^teur dieu nous signifie 
Son motet dont les partz ie nombre 
Ce sacre concept certifie 
Qui grace et vertus eut sans nombre. 

Le noteur et le parchemin 
Flgurent Anne & loachin 
Verbes passifz, pleurs manifestes 
Chantres, patriarches, prophetes 
Et les docteurs de saincte egUse 
^ Qui prouuent oenure tresexquise 
Ceste vierge dont fut yssant 
lesu Christ sen resiouyssant 

fueillet Ixxii. 

I may be pardoned for not giving more of the French : the latter 
few leaves are devoted to Latin verse — somewhat more refreshing 
than the preceding : Thus : — 

" QtuB est ista qua progyeditur, quan 

aurora consurgens, Cantworum vL cap. 

lam noua concipiens intacte exordia proUs, 
Pieria proferre tuba, atq decentibus orsis 



I 



BOUEN. 127 

of Hterature, if I am to judge from the specimens which 
are yet lingering, as it were, in the hands of the curi- 
ous. I ought rather to say, which are yet extant** 
(certainly not in choice print/*) in the hands of the 
many. The gravity even of an archiepiscopal see could 
never repress the natural love of the French, from 
time immemorial, for light and fancifrd reading. 

You know with what pertinacity I grope about old 
alleys, old courts, bye-lanes, and unfrequented comers 
— ^being like Harry Dyson of old, (according to Tom 
Hearne's account of him*) a person of a very strange, 
prying, and inquisitive genius, in the matter of books*' 
— in the search of what is curious, precious, and rare 
in the book way. But ere we touch that enchant- 
ing chord, let us proceed according to the plan laid 
down. First therefore for printing offices. Of these, 
the names of Periaux, (Imprimeur de FAcademieJ 

Hereo, cui liceat diuam conferre nitentem. 
An sit phas homini, quae iam supereminet orbes : 
Etheris ardentis describere nubibus imbris 
Sine niui similem, plenimq ; nocentia terns 
Icta cadut. sed lorgo manet super astra salutem 
Terrigenum curans, ne non nocitura coercens. 
Ergo nec est nubes seu nix dicenda nec imber 
Virgo mihi. potius latijs aurora vocanda est 
VodbuSy etherei certissima nunda solis. 

&c. &c. &c. Fo. Ixxvii. 

It is si^ed " Picardus laurea donatus.** The whole volume con- 
tains 100 leaves. A wood cut of the Virgin and child within a glory^ in 
the middle of an upright figure of a female^ radiated^ is on the reverse 
of the last leaf. Messrs. Arch^ Booksellers^ had a copy of this curious 
volume in their Catalogue of 1819> which was bound in blue 
morocco^ marked at the price of 82. 6s, 

* See BiblUmania, p. 398. 



ROTIEN. 



Baudry^ (Imprimeur du Roi) MkQAnb, fBue JUar- 
tinmllejy and Lbcr&kb-Labbby^ (Imprmeur^IAhr&ire 
et Marchand de Papiers) are masters of the pHncipal 
presses ; but such is the influence of Paris, or of me- 
tropolitan fashions, that a publisher will sometimes 
prefer getting his work printed at the capital-r-and 
even the " Description Historique de VEglise M^ro- 
politaine de Notre-Dame de Rouen (which I have so 
frequently mentioned, and which is published by 
Frbrb, the most respectable bookseller at Rouen), 
was printed in the Metropolis. Of the foregoil^^ 
printers, it behoves me to n^e sonie particular 
mention ; and yet I can speak personally but of tW0 : 
Messieurs P^riaux and M^gard. M. P^riaux is printer 
to the Acadimie des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts die 
Rouen, of which academy, indeed, he is himself an 
accomplished member.* He is quick, intelligent, 
well-bred, and obliging to the last degree ; and may 
be considered the Harry Stephen o[ the Rouen 
Printers. He urged me to call often: but I could 
visit him only twice. Each time I found him in his 

* himself an accomplished MemberJ] — ^In the sittiiigs cxf the Society 
for August L812> M. Periaux is announced as having communicated 

un m^moire rempli de recherches et d*6rudition^ dans lequel il 
examine cette question:** La Lune pascaXe doit elle 4tre appelUe Lune 
de Mars** En d*autres termes : Aquel mots solaxre un mots (u- 
fiaire est-il cens4 appartenir?'* Two of the Members pronounced a 
most favourable eulogy upon this ingenious performance— whidi is 
printed^ and may be had of all the Rouen booksellers. M. Periaux is 
just now occupied in the laborious but useful task of giving a Guide 
or HisTOBY of RouBN^ according to the alphabetical order of the 
streets and public buildings^ &c. 



ROUEN. 



1S9 



conntii^ hduse^ with his cap on-shading his eyes : a 
peii in his right hand, and a proof sheet in his left, 
fnioiigh he rqoiced at seeing me, I could discover 
^mach to his praise) that, like Aldus, he wished me to 

msy my saying quickly,"* and leave him to his deles 
and stets ! He has a great run of business, and lives 
In me of those strange, old-*&shioned houses, in the 
form of a square, with an outside spiral staircase, so 
common in this extraordinary city. He introduced 
me to his son, an intelligent young man — ^weil quali* 
fied to take the labouring oar, either upon the tem- 
porary or permanent retirement of his parent. M. 
P^riaux shewed me, with a conscious air of triumph, 
a map — printed with metal types within wood*cut de- 
markations of the different countries — and executed 
upon a scale which renders it rather an uncommon 
performance for the press. He has promised to pre- 
sent me with a copy of it — but I am not sure that I 
merit such a mark of his kindness. He was very 
anxioufi that I should make myself well acquainted 
with the UH:ale of this city, and even penned down, as I 
told you, the several places I ought to visit, with an 
earnestness approaching to a command — that I should 
of necessity see them. 

(X Monsieur Megard, who may be called the an- 
cient Jenson^ or the modem Buhner, of Rouen, I can 
speak only in terms of praise — ^both as a civil gentle- 
man and as a successfol printer. He is doubtless the 

* like Aldus, ''say my saying'* quickly,'] Consult Mr. Roscoe's Life of 
Leo X. vol, i. p. 169-70> 8vo. edit. Unger^ in his Life of Aldus, 
edt^. Geret p. xxxxii. has a pleasant notice of an inscription^ to the 
same efiect> put over the door of his printing office by Aldus. 



130 HOUEN. 

most elegant printer in this city ; and being also a 
publisher, his business is veiy considerable. He 
makes his regular half yearly journeys among the 
neighbouring towns and villages, and as regularly 
brings home the fruits of his enterprise and indus- 
try. The approach to his premises, in the Rue 
Martinville^ is sufficiently repulsive. In the usual 
manner, you pull a wire or string, and the door u 
opened by an invisible hand. You enter; pass along 
a range of offices, where presses are at work; ascend a 
flight of steps in front ; enter the warehouse, filled with 
a large stock of common vendible books ; and view, 
from the windows thereof, a beautiful portion of the 
south side of the Abbey of St. Ouen. Below, are a small 
court and garden ; such as would be considered of in- 
estimable value if adjoining the premises and appurte- 
nances of many of our London printers. If a large 
chimney, or a good part of a shabby old house were difr* 
placed, the view of the abbey, from this warehdose, 
would be perfectly enviable. On my first visits M; 
M^gard was from home ; but Madame, son ^powe 
Tattendoit k chaque moment There is a particular 
class of women among the Fi*ench, which is sin- 
gularly intelligent, civil, and even well-bred. I mean 
the wives of the more respectable tradesmen. Thus 
I found it, in addition to a hundred similar previous 
instances, with Madame M^gard. Mais Monsieur, 
je vous prie devous asseoir. Quevoulez vous?**'*^! 
wish to have a little conversation with your husband. 
I am an enthusiastic lover of the art of printing. I 
search every where for skilfril printers, and thus 
it is that I am in pursuit of Monsieur M^gard." 



HOUEN. 



131 



An immediate declension of the eye-lids^ accompa- 
nied with the most gentle obeisance^ attested the 
sensibility of the wife to the just eul(^ bestowed 
iipon her husband. We both sat down and con- 
versed together; and I found in Madame M^gard a 
middle-aged woman^ and mother of several children,) 
a communicative, and well-instructed representative 
of the said ancient Jenson, or modem Buhner. — 
^ Enfin, voilk mon mari qui arrive" — said Madame, 
taming round, upon the opening of thp door :— when 
I looked forward, and observed a stout man, rather 
above the middle size, with a countenance perfectly 
English — but accoutred in the dress of the national 
guardy with a huge grenadier cap upon his head. 
Madame saw my embarrassment : laughed : and in two 
minutes her husband knew the purport of my visit. 
He began by expressing his dislike of the military 
garb : but admitted the absolute necessity of adopting 
snch a measure as that of embodying a national guard. 

Soyez le bien venu : Ma foi, je ne suis que trop sensible. 
Monsieur, de Thonneur que vous me faites — vA que 
vons 6tes antiquaire typographique, et que vous 
avez public des ouvrages relatife k notre art. Mais 
oe n*est pas ici qu'il fsmt en chercher de belles 
^preuves. Cest k Paris." 

I parried this delicate thrust by observing that I was 
weil acquainted with the fine productions of JMdot — 
and had also. seen the less aspiring ones of himself— of 
which indeed I had reason to think his townsmen 
might be proud. This I spoke with the utmost 
smcerity. But you are printer to his Grace the 
Archbishop !" " Yes, Sir." " I hope he is a patron 



133 



BOUEN. 



the art, as well as a Cardinal of the see of Romer 
M. M^gard hesitated. But think of the .eodefflas- 
tical patrons of typography, of old. Think of the'Cardi- 
nals Bessarion, Campanus,and of the Bishop of Aleria.** 
C'est bien vrai. Monsieur, mais rAreh^ydque de 
Rouen n*est ni le Cardinal Bessarion ni rEv^qne 
d*A16rie — ^replied M. M^gard with equal promptitude 
and dexterity. In short, I learnt that M. M£gacd had 
seen his patron but once ; at which interview it 
should seem that he had experienced ten times the 
reserve and formality which were ever displayed 
by the Popes Paul II. and Sixtus IV. towards Sweyn- 
heym and Pannartz, and John Philip de Lignamine. 
I then bethou^t me of the grosse machine de 
chair*' of the Abb6 T.* My first visit concluded 
with two elegant little book-presents, on the part of 
M. M^gard— one being Heures de Rouen^ it Fusage 
du Diocise, 1814, 12mo. and the other Eirennes nxm- 
veUes commodes et utileSy 1815, 12mo.-^the former 
bound in green morocco; and the latter in calf, with 
gilt leaves, but printed on a sort of apricot-tinted paper 
— producing no unpleasing effect. Both are exceed-^ 
ingly well executed ; and which our Bensley or Buhner 
might own without the least apricot-blush upon their 
cheek. My visits to M. M6gard were rather frequents 
He has a son at the College Royale, or Lyc^, whither 
I accompanied him, one Sunday morning, and took tte 
church of that establishment in the way. It is built 
entirely in the Italian style of ai'chitecture : is exceed- 
ingly spacious: has a fine organ, and is numerously 
attended. The pictures I saw in it, although by no 

• See page 68. 



ROUEN. 



1S3 



means of first-rate merits quite convince me that it is 
in cfanrehes of Roman^ and not of Crothic architecture^ 
that paintings produce the most harmonious effect. 
Hiis college and church form a noble establishment^ 
atuated in one of the most commanding eminences of 
the town. From some parts of it, the flying buttresses 
d the nave of the Abbey of St. Ouen, with the Seine at 
a short distance, surmounted by the hills and woods 
of Canteleu as a back ground, are seen in the mc^st 
gloriously picturesque manner. 

But the printer who does the most business — or 
rather whose business lies in the lower department 
of the art, in brining forth what our friend B. usually 
calls chap books — is Lecrbne Labbey — imprimeur- 
l^aire et marchand de papiers. The very title im- 
ports a sort of Dan Newberry's repository. I believe 
however that Lecr6ne Labbey's business is much dimi- 
nished. He once lived in the Rue de la Qrosse^ 
Horloge, No. 12 : but at present carries on trade in 
one of the out-skirting streets of the town. I was 
told that the premises he now occupies were once an old 
church or monastery, and that a thousand fluttering 
sheets were now suspended where formerly was seen 
the solemn procession of silken banners^ with religious 
emblems emblazoned in colours of all hues. I called 
however at the old shop, and supplied myself with 
a dingy copy of the Catalogue de la Bihliothique 
Bleue* — ^from which catalogue however I could pur- 

* Catalogue de la BibUotheque Bletie qui se trouve chez LecrAie- 
Labbof, ImpftmeuT'^Libravre et Marchand de Papiers, ruedela Groue 
Hwrloge, No. l^, d Rouen, Such is the title. I select a few of the 



134 



BOUEN. 



chase but little: as the greater part of the older books^ 
several of the Caxtanian stamp, had taken their de- 
more curiouB works^ desiderated more particularly by the Roxburghen, 
and by collectors of our ancient literature. It will be seen that^ what 
was popular in Caxton*stime^ is yet sought after at the openhig of the 
xixth century. 

The following at 4 liv. 16 sous the dozen: 

Calendrier du Berger, fig. (Our old Shepherd's Calendar: see 
Typog, Aniiq. vol. ii. p. 596.) Gallien Restaur^, fig. Huan de Bor- 
deaux, premier et seconde parties. Les quatre FiU Aynum, Wood 
cut frontispiece opposite the title-page: pp. 152^ large 8vo. No&$, 
d 16 feuilles, Valentin et Orson. I purchased a copy of this edition^ 
as well as of The Four Sons of Aymon*' just noticed. It is a laige^ 
and closely printed octavo volume of 166 pages. 

When we consider that a dozen of ^ch books as these may be had 
for about 4s, English^ one cannot help contrasting it with the 
very dear terms upon which a similar set of books would be purchased 
in our own country. I apprehend that a volume^ like either of 
those here last noticed^ could not possibly be sold under 1«. 6d. : 
thus raising the sum of a dozen copies to little short of that of 
four times beyond what is given abroad. I proceed leisurely with 
a few others at 

Four livres 4 sous the dozen, 

Conquites de Charlemagne — which I presume to be the Life of 
Charlemain^ as originally printed in the xvth century, and fhnn 
which our Caxton published his version : see Typ. Jniiq, vol. i. p. 265. 

Cuisinier Eranfais. Marichal expert, nouveUe Edition, figures 
neuves. 

I obtained a copy of this latter work, which is a small, but full- 
printed, octavo of 153 pages. The figures" are sufficiently mise- 
rable; but I could not help smiling to observe, with all the veterinary 
quackery of the present day, a few of the old maxims of Dame Juliana 
Bemers* Book of Hunting, &c. engrafted upon the text of this woik. 
Thus, at page 11 we read : 



HOUEN. 



135 



parti»re8. It was from this Cataiogae that I learnt 
the precise character of the works destined for vulgar 
reading, and irom hence inferred, what I stated to 
yon a little time ago, that Romances, Randelays, and 
cliivalroas stories, are yet read with pleasure, if not 
wit haviditf, by the good people of France. It is, in 
short, from this lower, or lowest species of literature— 

De$ marqim que dokmU avoir le$ bans Chevaux. 

Si ta max bon Gheral, qni longnement te serve, 
Fkcnds mr^oiit k bnm bai, et Boignenx k conaem; 
Le grison n'est mauvaisi maU on r^te beau 
Le cheval quand il est de toutes parts moreao. 
Si pour les tiens et toi tu veuz avoir monture, 
Choisis sur-tout le blaoc, car longnement 11 dun. 

Le cheval doit avoir des marques distingudes^ tant pour la bont^ 
qne poor la beauts. II doit tenir de la Femme, du Boeof, du Renard^ 
etdu Cerf. 

De la Femme. Qa*il soit doux au montoir> beau de devant^ et belk 
cbevelure de icrin. 

Dm Bctuf. Qu'il ait les yeux beaux et gros^ Tenoolure belle^ et qu*il 
«oit Inen relev^. 

JDu Renard. Qu*il ait beau trot^ les oreilles petites et belles^ la 
^ueae grande et toussue. 

Dm Cerf. Qa*il ait les jambes s^ches^ qu*il soit bien relev^ du 
Levant, qa*il ait la t^ s^che. 

Consult Tifpog. Jniiq. vol. ii. p. 55-9^ fbr something like a similar 
description in the work of Daub Juliana Bebners. This book has 
some wretched wood cuts in the first part. The second part exhibits, 
in the title page, the dead stag, with his heels upwards, fisistened 
^ a pole — as we see it in some of the more ancient works upon 
hundng. This second part is devoted to Phisieurs Recettes, 
Apptoov^es du Sienr d L^Esphiey, Gentilhonmie P^rigourdin, pour 
tovles les maladies et accidens qm arrivent aux Chevaux.*' This 
second part is composed of 76 pages : the first, of SO. 
VOL. I. I 



136 



ROUEN. 



if it must be so designated— that we gatlier the real 
genius^ or mental character, of the wdinary classes of 
society. I do assure you that some of these chap 
publications are singularly droll and curious. Even 
the very rudiments of learning, or the mere alphabet* 
book, meets the eye in a very imponng manner. Let 
me send you the following specimen, being the first 
page of a little reli^ous manual, of whidi the press 
of M. M^gard has not disdained to throw off a few 
copies UPON VELLUM. You will observe from hence 
how carefully, and at what a tender age, the forms of 
the Roman Catholic religion are impressed upon the 
minds of youth. No child ever enters a place of wor- 
ship without making the form of a cross upon his 
breast — ^which custom, as you will observe by the red 
cross in the specimen here sent, he has been taught in 
the very elements of his education. In other respects, 
there i^ little difference in the formularies, or elemen- 
tary treatises, of both countries. 

Chap books at 3 livres 1^ sous the dozen. 

Ancien Testament, Aventurier Buscon. Figures de la Bible. Grande 
Danse Macabre, Jig, (From the celebrated old work under that name.) 
Histoire de Fortunatus. Palais des Curteux, Recueil de Chantons. 

At S livres the dozen. 

Les Loisirs des jolies Femmes, ou Recueil d^ariettes nouvelles. Pro — 
ph^ties de Moult, edit, ample. LAmant de J4sus, Doctrinal de 8a-^ 
pience. (Caxton's ordinal: see Typ. Antiq, vol. i. p. 266.) PurgaMr^ 
de St, Patrice, fig. Recueil de Chansons, &c. &c. &c. The Purgatorsr 
of St. Patrick was out of print. I sought for it every where^ in vain : 
but they endeavoured to console me by the assurance that a new, and 
improved edition had been long in contemplation. 



BOUEN. 



137 



In nomine Patris, & Filii, 
& Ipiritus fancti. Amen. 

• .^^^ A a b c d 

efghik 
^^jT^B 1 m n o p 

T^^^^ r q r f s t u 

V X y z & 
a e 1 o u m n ft ct fi fi 

fl jQ ffl ffi ffi « oe. 
L'Oraifon Dominicale. 

A ter nofter , 



P 



tur 



qui 
lis 



es m coe- 
fanctifice- 
nomen tuum , 



Love, Marriage, and Confession, are fertile themes 
for dissemination by means of these little farthing 
chap books. Whether such fugitive and superficial 
pieces ever find their way into the boudoirs of respecta- 
ble families^ I will not^ as a traveller^ have the teme- 
rity to affirm : but that they are familiar to the middling 
and lower orders of society, is palpable from almost 
every lounge which you take in the streets. Yonder 
sits a fille de chambre, after her work is done. She is 



140 



ROUEN. 



decorous manual of instruction. By no means; for 
read the very devout Litanies and Prayer with "which it 

6. Heureiix sont lea Amans riches^ car 1 amour aime la d^pense. 

7. Heureux sont les Amans saoB rivaux^ car ils poasedent seuls lea 
bomies graces de leurs Maitresses. 

Oraison trh-utile d une fille qui 44nre 4tre pourtfue eamme UfanU du 

Sacrement de Manage, 

Mon Dieu^ qui avez cr6d le genre hmnain pour benir votre nom 
pdorable, & qui lui avez donn^ par la source f^conde du sacrement de 
Manage^ une voie legitime pour ^teindre le feu de la concupiscence^ 
& en m^me temps multiplier; je vous addresse mes voeux du plus 
profond de mon coeurs, afin qu'il vous plaise me remplir d'une vertu 
vivifiante, qui me rende capable de produire du fruit de Tunion con- 
jugale, & me donner un Epoux qui ait toutes les quality n^cessaxres 

pour s*acquitter dignement des voeux du Manage 

• C*est> mon Dieu^ ce 

que je vous demande de toute mon ame avec les demi^res instances ^ 
regardez done en pitid votre trfes humble servante N. 

It is observable, from hence> how little the French character has 
altered. In the copper plates to the better editions of their pas- 
toral and love poets^ upwards of a century ago^ we o'bserve young' 
ladies and young gentlemen, of fourteen and twelve years^ with their 
brows encircled by wreaths of flowers^ reclining upon grass banks^ and 
enacting the parts of passionate lovers. The same thing is observed io 
their modem productions. I now proceed^ in the second place^ to a 
specimen or two from the Cat^cJunne ^ V Usage des Grandes FUlespour 
itre marines; Ensemble la maniere dattirer les Amans, Par Demandes 
is Expenses, A Rouen chez Lecr^e-Labbey, &c. 

Demande. Quel est le Sacrement le plus n^cessaire aux graodes Filles } 

R^onse. C'est le Manage. 

D. A quel dge doit on marier les Filles ? 

R. Selon comme elles sont belles. 

D. Les plus belles^ k quel ftge faut-il les marier } 

R. C*est ordinairement k seize & dix huit ans. 



ROUEN. 



141 



lUmclades^ and which I here send — for your gratifica- 
tion^ however transient. I admit that it is a strange 
mixture of the simple and serious. 

LITANIES 

Pour Umtes le» BIU» qui dhureni entrer em manage. 

Kyriey je voudrois^ 

Christe^ 6tre marine. 

Kyrie^ je prie tous les Saints^ 

Chriate, que ce soit demain. 

Saiote Marie, tout le Monde se marie. 

Saint Joseph, que vous al-je £ut? 

Saint Nicolas, ne m^oubUex pas. 
. Saint M^rie, que j*aie un bon mari. 

Saini Matthieu, qu*ilcraigne Dieu. 
. Saint Jean, qu'il m'aime tendrement. 

Saint Bruno, qu'il soit joli & beau. 
, Saint Francois, qu'il me soit fidele. 
. Saint Andr^, qu*il soit k mon gr6. 

Saint Didier, qu*il aime k trayaiUer. 
. Saint Honor^, qu*il n'aime pas k jouer. 
. Saint S^verin, qu*il n'aime pas le vin. 

Saint Clement qu*il soit diligent. 

Saint Sauveur, qu'il ait bon coeur. 

Saint Nicaise, que je sois a mon aise. 
. Saint Josse, qu'il me donne un carosse. 
. Saint Boni£ftce, que mon mariage se fisisse.. 
. Saint Augustin, d^ demain matin. 

OaAisoN. 

Seigneur, qui ayez fbnn^ Adam de la terre, and qui lui avez donn^ 
Ere pour sa compagne ; envoyez-moi, s'il vous plait, un bon mari 
pour oompagnon, non pour la volupt^, mais pour vous honorer & avoir 
dea en&nts qui vous b^nissent. Ainsi soit il. 

D. Pourquoi k cet ftge } 

R. De peur qu'il n'arrive quelque inconvenient k leur honneur. 
' D. Mais celles qui ne sont pas belles, k quel ftge feut-il done les 
marier? 



143 



ROUEN. 



Amoi^ the books of this class, before allucled to, 
I purchased a singularly amusing little mairaal called 

R. Au8sit6t que les Gardens les demandent> pour ne pas perdre la 
bonne occasion. 

D. Quand une FQle n*a point d'Amant^ comment iaat-il £ure poor 
en avoir? 

R. II y a plusieurs moyens pour 8*en procurer. 
D. Quels sont ces moyens ? 

£. Premi^rement^ il £Eiut avoir la sagesse & la modestie; se- 
condement^ ^tre bonne m^nag^re> bien actionn^e & son oceupatkm k 
son travail ; troisi^mement^ 6tre bien propre dans ses habilleiiieiits, 
dans son linge & dans sa chambre ; quatri^mement> ne pas a'aviser 
de porter plus que son itai ne permet, car c*est le moyen de lesren- 
voyer, plut6t que de les attirer. 

D. Quand une Ulle a un Amant bien k son gi^^ comment doit-elle 
fure> peur de le perdre ? 

R. n faut Taimer d'un amour honn^> qui est le v&itable moyen 
de le conserver; il font aussi ^viter envers lui les paroles hardies & pea 
respectueuses, peur de le f&cher ; se garder bien d'^couter les mauvais 
discours, tant d*un c6t^ que de I'autre 5 il faut aussi < toigonrs toe de 
bonne humeur^ principalement devant lui; ne point lui causer de la 
jalousie en fEusant trop d'accueil aux autres. 

D. Quand une Fille veut aller k la promenade, comment dmt^lle se 
comporter avec son Amant & avec ceux de la compagnie ? 

R. Elle doit premi^rement en demander permission k son pere, H sa 
m^re ou k ses sup^rieurs, & leur dire que c*est pour aller en tel en- 
droit. II faut aussi qu'elle se comporte en la compagnie de laqaelle 
est son Amant, avec beaucoup de modestie 

D. Les Dimancbes et les F^tes, quand une Fille garde la maison 
pendant la grand*-Messe ou les V^pres, & que son Amant la vient yoir^ 
conmient doit-elle se comporter? 

R. Avec une grande modestie & retenue, faisant son manage avec 
beaucoup d'action, sans s'amuser k badiner avec son Amant, ii cause 
des mauvaises suites qui pourroient en provenir. II fieiut aussi lui re- 
montrer qu'il auroit €t6 plus k propos d'etre k la giand'-Mwe ou L 
V^pres, & qu*il seroit Uen venu k une autre, le tout avec tenmes &.pa- 
roles de douceur. , 



BOUEN. 



143 



La Confession de ia Bonne Femme."^ It is really BOt 
^vested of merit. Whether however it may not have 

D. Qoand une Fille est demand^ en manage par un Garcon qui est 
1»en li son gr^, que doit elle r^pondre ? 

R. n fout d'abord qu'elle ^se semblant d'etre un peu surprise, ft 
i^pondre qu*elle ne pent pas croire qu'un Garcon de son m^rite & de 
son moyen, youltlt avoir en manage une aussi simple Fille comme elle. 

D. Si TAmant persiste, lui faisant des protestations d'amiti^, ou lui 
disant par exemple : Ce seroit tout mon d^ir, si je pouvois poss^er 
I'ami^ d'une aimable personne comme vous, & je serois le plus con- 
tent du monde. Si je ne craignois point de vous faire de la peine, 
j*aiirois Thonneur d'en parler k M. votre Pere et k Madame votre 

IL La Kile doit r^pondre ayec beaucoup de respect : Monsieur, si 
TOUs avez Tamiti^ que vous dites avoir pour moi, ils ne seront pas 
moins surpris que j*ai it6, parce qu'ils ne s*attendent, pas d'avoir cet 
avantage. 

Si Tamant a Pere ou Mere, il doit leuren parler, leur t^moigner son 
dessein, en leur disant : Si c'^toit votre volont^ comme c*est lamienne, 
je Bouhaiterois avoir en manage une telle, qui est une ti^-honn6te 
FiOe. 

Mbn FilSj j'ai trouv^ que vous avez ti^s-bien choisi, il £Eiut voir au 
phit6tsi nous pourrons avoir cet avantage. 

Le Pere & la Mere du Garcon parlant au Pere & k la Mere de la 
FiUe, api^s avoir fait le salut & lea complimens ordinaires, pourront 
dire: Monsieur & Madame, nous avons appris avec bien du plaisir 
qoL li J avoit une parfaite amiti6 entre Mademoiselle votre Fille & 
noire Garcon ; c*est ce qui nous oblige ^ vous la demander en mariage 
pour notre FIls, si vous nous Taccordez, nous serous parfiedtement con- 
%6oa« 

Monsieur & Madame, nous sommes charm^s de l*honneur que vous 
II0II8 ikites axgourd*hui 5 pour vous faire voir que nous avons une 
parfaite amiti^ pour vous & pour toute votre aimable famille, nous 
Y(his la promettons de bon coeur. 

Monsieur & Madame, nous sommes entibrement satisfaits} c'est ^ 
vtmh, s'il vous plait, k donner jour pour passer le contrat. 

Mon^euTj k jour de votre commoditi^ sera le n6tre. 



144 



HOUEN. 



been written, during the Revolution, with a view to 
ridicule the practice of auricular confession which yet 
obtmns throughout France, I cannot take upon me 
to pronounce ; but there are undoubtedly some por- 
tions of it which seem so obviously to satirise tUs 
practic, that one can hardly help drawing a conclu- 
sion in the aflGirmative. On the other hand it may 
perhaps be inferred, with greater probability, that it is 
intended to shew wilh what extreme fecility a system * 
of self-deception may be maintained. Referring how- 
ever to the little manual in question, it is to be ob- 
served that the book has neither imprint nor date. 
Among the various choice morceaus which it con- 
tains, take the following exti*acts-— exemplificatory 
of a woman's evading the main points of confession — 
and judge yourself of the accuracy, or otherwise, of my 
opinion. 

C. Ne voulez vous pas me r^pondre ; en un mot> combien y a-t-il 
de temps que vous ne vous 6tes confess^ ? 

P. II y a un niois tout juste, car c*6toit le quatri^e jour du mob 
pass6, & nous sommes au cinqui^me du mois courant; or comptez, 
mon pfere, & vous trouverez justement que 

C. C*est asisez, ne parlez point tant, & dites moi en peu de mots tos 
p^h^. 

Elle raconte les p^chis d^autrui. 

La P4nitente, J*ai un enfant qui est le plus m6chant gar^on que 
vous ayez jamais vu, il jure, bat sa soeur, il fuit T^cole, d^robe tout ce 
qu*il pent pour jouer ; il suit de m^chans i^pons : Fautre jour en cou- 
rant il perdit son chapeau. £nfin, c'est un mdchant gar^n, je veux 
vous Tamener afin que vous me Tendoctriniez un peu 8*il vous plait. 

C. Dites-moi vos p^ch^? 

P. Mais, mon p^re, j*ai une fille qui est encore piie, je ne la penx 
faire lever le matin, je Tappelle cent fois : Marguerite : plait-il ma Mere? 
Ihe-ioi promptement et descend* , va%$. Elle ne booge pas. Si tu 



ROUEN- 



145 



vient mamtenant, tu seraa hattue. Elle 8*en moque : quand je Ten- 
voie k la VlSiB, je lui dis^ retieru promptetnent, ne Vamitse pas, Ce- 
pendant^ die 8*aiT^ k toutes les portes comme Vkne d*iin meiiDier, 
die babOle avec tous oeux qu*elle rencontre > & quand elle me Mi cela> 
je la bats : ne fais-je pas bien^ mon p^re? 

C. Dites-moi vos p^h^ et non pas ceux de vos enfians? 
P. n se trouve> mon p^re^ que nous avons dans notre rue une voisine 
qui est la phis m^chante de toutes les femmes, elle jure, elle querelle 
tous ceux qui passent, personne ne la pent souffrir, ni son man, ni ses 
enlkDS, &bien sonvent elle s*enivre, & tous me dites, mon pfere quelle 

eatoeUe-lk? c'est 

C. Ah gardez-vous bien de la nommer, car k la confession il ne 
fimt jamais &ir connoitre les personues dont vous d^darez les 
p^chds. 

P. C*est elle qui vient se confesser api^ moi, grondez-la bien, car 
TOUS ne lui en sauriez trop dire. 

C. Taisez-vous done, & ne parlez que de vos p^ch€s, non pas de 
oeux des autres. 

EUe 9' accuse de ce qui n*est point pdch4. 

Pemiente, — Ah ! mon p^re, j*ai fait un grand p^h^, ah! le grand 
p6di^, h£las je serai damn6e, quoique mon confesseur m'ait d^fendu de 
le dire j'amais, n^anmoins mon p^re je vais tous le declarer. 

C. Ne le dites point puisque votre confesseur vous Fa defendu, je ne 
Teux point I'entendre. 

P. Ah! nimporte; je veux vous le dire, c*est un trop grand p^h6 : 
J'ai battu ma m^re. 

C. Vous avez battu votre mere ! Ah ! mis^rablej c*est un cas r^rv6 
& un crime qui m^rite la potence. £t quand I'avez-vous battue? 

P. Quand j'^tois petite de r%e de quatre ans. 

C. Ah ! simple, ne sai^-vous pas que tout ce que les enfians font 
avant Tftge de raison qui est environ Tftge de sept ans, ne sauroit ^tre 
un y€ch6, 

P. J'ai d^sir^ la mort dans Fimpatience. 

C. Mais auriez-vous \oulu ^trc morte tout de bon ! 

P. O que nenni : je Vai d^sir^e k mon enfant. 

C. Auriez-vous voulu qu'il lui fdi arriv6e quelque mal? 

P. Ah! que Dieu Ten preserve. 



146 BOX7EN. 

C. Fourquoi dites-TOus done cela ? 
P. Je me suis fiSLehe^ du bien d*autnii. 

C. Est-ee par envie que vous avez m afflig^ que lea antres eoBieiit 

du bien ? 

P. Non: mais j*auix>is souhait^ que le bon Dieu m*ea e<it donnd an- 
tant. Je me suis i^jouie de la mort d*un fils que j'avois^ qui 
muet^ aveugle & paitdytique. 

C. Fourquoi vous en ^tes-vous rejouie } est-ee paroe que toub hd 
Touliez du mal ? 

P. Non, mais parce que je me voyois d^livx^ d*une grande peine 
qu*il nous donnoit k tons. 
C. Cela n*est pas un p^h^. 

P. Je me suis i^jouie de la mort de mon oncle, qui m*a laiss^ son 
heritage. 

C. Vous ^tes-TOus rdjouie de sa mort ou seulement d*aTOir, eu ton 
heritage? 

P. Ce n'estque d'avoir eu son heritage. 
C. Cela n*est pas aussi p^ch^. 

P. J*aijug6 t^m^rairement d*un gar^on & d'une fiUe que j'ai vu en 
cachette se comporter mal. 

C. Cela n*est pas un p^h^ ni un jugement t^oidraire^ qoand ils 
YOU8 donnent un juste siget de juger mal d*eax^ & troua ^p66benm si 
vous jugiez qu'ils font bien. 

P. J'ai travaill^ les F^es & les Dimanches. 

C. Quel travail avez- vous ? 

P. J*ai attach^ avec un pcnnt d'aguille le colet au pouipoint de mon 
enfant. 

C. Cela n'est rien. 
P. J*aijur6Dieu. 

C. Vous avez jur^ Dieu^ voilk qui est fort scandaleux k une fbnme ; 
& comment disiez-vous? ^ 
P. JedisoisMafoi. 

C. Cda ne s'appelle pas jurer Dieu> mais seulement jurer sa foi, et 
quoiqu*il ne le faille jamais dire ce n'est pas toujours un p6di€, 
P. J*ai blasph^m^. 
C. Comment disiez-vous? 
P. Je disois Chienne k ma vache ! ! 



BOUfiN. 



147 



Of R0MANCB89 1 bought terribly coarse editions of 
Mmm de BaurdeauSD, Falentin et Orson^ and the Fowr 
Sms of Aymon. However^ I knew they would be ac- 
eq>tad[>let08omeof our curious friends ; thoughlam well 
aware that Palmbrin would not exchange his Elnglish 
iiRST EDITION of the secofid of these Romances for a 
•hip-load of such gipsey copies as are to be sold" at 
Licr£ne-Labbey*s. Upon the whole^ our own presses, 
even in country-towns, put forth better impressions of 
popular tales: but what is novel, especially in a fo- 
fcign land^ is generally acceptable ; and I am almost 
IttAiamed to think how many sous, or rather francs^ I 
iMure expended upon the Bibliothique Bleue ! There 
is one thing, my dear friend, which I must frankly de- 
dare to you as entitled to distinct notice and especial 
ooilmiendation. It is — the method of teaching ca- 
techisms'* of a different and higher order — I mean the 
CHURCH CATECHISMS. Both the Cathedral and the 
Abbey of St. Ouen have numerous side chapels. Within 
these side chapels are collected, on stated days of the 
week, the young of both sexes. They are arranged in 
a circle. A priest, in his white robes, is seated, or 
Stands, in the centre of them. He examines, ques- 
tions^ corrects, or commends, as the opportunity calls 
for. His manner is winning and persuasive. His 
action is admirable. The lads shew him great respect, 
and are rarely rude or seen to laugh. Those who an- 
swer well, and pay the greater attention, receive, with 
words of commendation, gentle {mts upon the head — 
and I could not but consider the blush, with which 
this mark of favour was usually received, as so many 
presages of future excellence in the youth. I once 



146 



BOUEN. 



witnessed a most determined catechetical lectnre of 
^Is ; who might be called, in the language of their 
matrimonial catechism, des grandes filles*** It was 
on an evening in the Chapel of My Lady in St. Oaen*s 
Abbey, that this examination took place. Two el- 
derly priests attended. The responses of the fe- 
males were as quick as they were correct; the eye 
being always invariably fixed upon the pavement^ 
accompanied with a gravity and even piety of expres- 
sion. A large group of mothers, with sundry spec- 
tators, were in attendance, — and perceiving we were 
English, both teachers and pupils seemed to exert 
themselves with greater energy. At length a question 
was put, to which a supposed incorrect response was 
given. It was repeated, and the same answer fol- 
lowed. The priest hesitated : something like vexation 
was kindling in his cheek, while the utmost calmness 
and confidence seemed to mark the countenance of the 
examinant. The attendant mothers were struck with 
surprise. A silence for one minute ensued. The ques- 
tion related to the Holy Spirit.'" The priest gently 
approached the girl, and softly articulated — " Mais, 
ma ch^re considerez un pen,** — and repeated the ques- 
tion. Mon pere, (yet more softly, rejoined the pupil) 
j'ai bien consider^e, et je crois que c*est comme je vous 
Tai d^j^ dit.*" The Priest crossed his hands upon his 
breast. . .brought down his eye-brows in a thinking 
mood... and turning quickly round to the girl, 
addressed her in the most affectionate tone of voice — 
Ma petite, — tu as bien dit ; et j'avois tort/' I shall 
never forget the expression of the girl. She curtsied, 



ROUEN. 



149 



Uushed • • • and with eyes^ from which tears seemed 
ready to start, surveyed the circle of spectators... 
caught the approving glance of her mother, and snnk 
trimnphantly upon her chmr-^with the united admira- 
tiim of teachers, companions, parents and spectators ! 
The whole was conducted with the most perfect pro- 
priety ; and the pastors did not withdraw till they 
were fiurly exhausted. Candour obliges one to confess 
that this reciprocity of zeal, on the part of master and 
papil, is equally creditable to both parties — and espe- 
cially serviceable to the cause of religion and morahty. 
Between compUns and vespers, on the Sabbath, it is 
delightful to observe this attention to the performance 
of clerical duties. 

We approach by degrees the book-themb in all its 
plenitude of discussion. Of Booksellers^ the principal 
IB the house of Frere, situated on the Quai de Parisy 
no. 70. Whether the father be living, I have forgotten 
to enquire ; but if civility, quickness, and intelligence 
be the chief requisite of a bibliopolist, the young Frere 
stands not in need of parental aid for the prosperity of 
hia business. His sisters are also very active in their se- 
veral capacities. The premises, although not large, are 
sufficiently commodious. The more respectable literati 
q£ Rouen come to read, to lounge, and to gossip in the 
upper room : in the manner of our own literati at Mr. 
Murray's more costly suite of apartments in Albemarle 
Street. From one comer of this upper room, I wa^ 
surprised and delighted, on my first entrance, by the 
notes of a warbling canary. This bird is taught to sing 
opera and concerto airs — and at particular periods 



150 



't will discourse most eloquent muSc." The efitet is 
not unpleasing^ especially as the soundis infitiitefy softer 
and mellower than the generally shrill and penetrating 
notes of that bird: and, peradventure, occasionally 
somewhat more gratefill than the potes oi the said 
loun^ng literati ! From the windows of this room you 
have also a good view of the bustle of the quay, and 
of the movements which take place on the river Seine ; 
wiiiie, within, you may discoure with an ancient white- 
crossed Bourbonist, a suppressed Buonap^n-tist, an 
abb^, a chevalier, a barrister, a critic, or a student. 
Here I met the amiable and well-informed Monsieur 
Adam ; a gentleman, whose kindness and pleasing con- 
versation only makes me regret that the period is fast 
approaching when I am probably to take leave of him 
forever. 

• Of the remaining booksellers in our way, I need only 
notice Le Maitre and Le Roux. The former, who has 
A very good stock of literary publications, lived in the 
Place St. Ouen . . and it was here that I hunted down 
the fine copy of the first edition of the French version 
of the New Testament (printed at Lyons about the 
year 1478), of which (as you may remember)^ I had 
got scent, at a stall, close to the portal of St. Machm. 
You may be sure that I scrupled not to give fifteen 
francs for this desirable copy — ^in its ancient monastic 
binding. I bought here a French version of the first 
volume only of Strutfs Manners and Customs^ Sfc. 
with a great number of the plates, for dght firanCs : 
and a copy of the Bihliothkque Pran^mse of Goujet 

* See p. 81, ante. 



BOUEN. 



151 



for twenty-five francs. This latter has been sold for 
£4. 4s. in our own country ; but to my joy I have found 
that it might be obtained for one half that sum. Let me 
here make honourable mention of the kind offices of 
Monsieur Langchampy who volunteered his friendly 
services in walking over half the town with me, to shew 
me what he justly considered as the most worthy of 
observation* It is impossible for a generous mind to 
refose its testimony to the ever prompt kindness of a 
well-bred Frenchman, in rendering you all the services 
in his power. Enquire the way, — and you have not 
<mly a finger quickly pointing to it, but the owner of 
the finger must also put himself in motion to accom- 
pany you a short distance upon the route, and that 
too uncovered ! Mais, Monsieur, mettez votre cha- 
peau. . je vous en prie . . mille pardons.** Monsieur ne 
dites pas un seul mot . . pour mon chapeau^ qu*il reste 
k 8on aise." 

Upon the whole, the soil of Rouen is not at present 
fertile in the curious lore of antiquity ; — ^however it 
might have once yielded a rich harvest from the pro- 
lific seeds sown by Morin, Tailleur, and Valentin. I 
gtaped about in all directions ; and to an hundred 
earnest enquiries for something curious, or rare, or 
ancient, was answered that I ought to have been 
there in the year 1814, when Paris was first taken 
possession of by the Allies — that my countrymen had 
preceded me, and had left nothing for future gleaners. 
I bought however of Lemaitre the last unsold copy, 
probably in Rouen, as well as in his own warehouse, of 
Pammerai/e's History of the Abbey of St. Ouen, to 

VOL I. K 



153 



ROUEN. 



which I have so frequently alluded, and for which I was 
glad to give a dozen francs. 

I find I cannot include the whole of my book-theme 
in this my intended last Rouen dispatch — as I have 
one or two private collectors to notice ; and as the ac- 
count of the Public Library and Picture Gallery y &c* 
must be considered at least worthy of a separate 
epistle. Among these book-collectors^ or antiquaries^ 
let me speak with becoming praise of the amiable and 
accomplished M. Augusts Le Pbbvost — who is 
considered, by competent judges, to be the best anti- 
quary in Rouen.* Mr. Dawson Turner, (a name, in 

* the best Antiquary tn RouenJ] — ^This gentleman is a belles-lettres 
Antiquary of the highest order. His " Mdmoire faisant suite li 1*E8- 
sai sur les Romans historiques du moyen lige** may teach modem 
Normans not to despair when death shall have laid low their present 
oracle the Abbb* db la Rub. This m^moire^ printed in the Transact 
tions of the Rouen Society fur 1816^ p. 117-141^ is written in excel- 
' lent taste and with sound critical acumen. It is followed by the same 
gentleman's " remarks upon the abbey church of St. Ouen*' — and 
upon Uie drawings relating to its ancient construction.** At page 
151^ M. Le Prevost speaks^ in a dignified style of serarity^ of the de- 
struction of ancient monuments of art — Encore quelques annte, 
diront-ilSy (observes he) et k Texception d*un petit nombre d*6difioe8 
d'une utility pressante et imm^diate^ nous aurons vu disparaitre tout 
ce qu*ont ^lev^ nos anc^tres : — ces iglisea, ces convents^ ces pa]ais> 
ces chateaux^ toutes ces constructions consacr^es k la religion^ li la 
repr^ntation ou k Futility publique. Une population li-la-fbis su- 
perbe et frivole^ d^pensi^re et mesquine, a pris la place de ces sages 
et pieuses generations, aust^res et ^conomes dans les details habitoels de 
la Tie privee, mais si magnifiques dans les grandes occasions^ et qui 
b£itissaient comme les Romains pour retemite^** p. 151. This is 
eloquent, but it is also just. M. Le Prevost was one in the cpnmus- 
sion with Messrs. Gourdin, Descamps, de Bois-H^bert^ Vauquelin, 



ROUEN. 



153 



in our own country synonymous with all that is libe- 
ral and enlightened in matters of yirti!l) was so oblig- 
ing as to give me a letter of introduction to him. 
Unluckily he has been unavoidably absent during half 
the time of my stay here. M. Le Prevost had reason 
to exult in shewing me the following books. 

Romances Nvevamente sacados de Hhstorias anti- 
guas de la Cronica de Espana compuestos par Loren^ 
de Sepulueda, &c. en Anvers^ 1566. 1 2mo. 

Another edition^ 1580. 12mo. 

For the first, the fortunate owner gave four sons — 
and for the second, six sous only — at Rouen. 

Cancionero General, 1573. 8vo. The table MS. : but 
bought at the sale of La Serna Santander's library for 
40 francs only. 

Leonis Papce SermoneSy 1470 : printed by Sweyn- 
heym and Pannartz, folio. A cropt and rather indiffe- 
rent copy. 

Chrysostomi Sermones, &c. 1470 : printed in the 
Eusebian monastery. A clean and sound copy ; ex- 
hibiting the peculiarity which is mentioned in a note 
(vol. i. p. 409) in the Bibliographical Decameron. 

Missale Rothomagense, 1499, folio. Without the 
device in front. A fine copy : but with two leaves MS. 

A beautiful Missal hy Pigouchet upon vellum, in 
8vo. in the original binding. 

M. Le Prevost very justly discredits any remains 
of Roman masonry at Rouen ; but he will not be dis- 

and D^soria, to give an accouDt of the more precious relics of art yet 
existing in the Abbey Church of St. Ouen— of which the destruc- 
tion 18 ALREADY BEGUN ! 



154 



ROUEN. 



pleased to see that the only existmg relics of the castle 
or town walls^ have been copied by the pencil of a 
late travelling friend. What you here bdiold is pro- 
bably of the fourteenth century. 



EOUEN. 



155 



The next book-collector in commendation of wliom 
I am bound to speak^ is Monsieur Duputel ; a 
member, as well as M. Le Prevost, of the Academy of 
Belles-Lettres at Rouen. The Abb6 Turquier conducted 
me thither ; and I found, in the owner of a choice col- 
lection of books, a well-bred gentleman and a most 
hearty bibliomaniac. He has comparatively a small 
library ; but, withal, some very curious, scarce, and 
interesting volumes. M. Duputel is smitten with that 
amiable and enviable passion, — ^the love of printing for 
prwate distribution — thus meriting to become a sort of 
Rcncburglie Associate. He was so good as to beg my 
acceptance of the nouvelle Edition" of his Bagatelles 
PoMqueSy* printed in an octavo volume of about 112 
pages^ at Rouen, in 1816. I took it home and quickly 
namined its contents. An advertisement^ foUomng 
the title page, tells us that of this new edition, which 
is notpri nted for sale, there are only eighty copies 
F— and tiMiifr copies, which have not the signa- 
of the author subjoined, must be considered as 
iterfcits/' Wtiether any speculator has had the 
ibood to counterfeit, or to put forth a spurious 
of, these rhymes, I have never had an opportu- 
certmniip. Perhaps the attempt may not 
ether taniL However, I am willing that M. 
lie] «ihould speak for himself, — ^which I think he 
; wmewhat funettily in the following ori^nal lines. 

Jtofe ei le Ruisieau. 



Une Rose un jour se mimit 
Dans le crisul d*une onde claire ; 



156 ROUEN. 

Mais^ pendant qu*elle a'admirmit, — 
Du bout de son aile Ugbre, 

Zephir reffeuille Le Ruisaeau 

Revolt sa fragile panire^ 

Et Tentratne au gr€ de son eau. 

Tel est I'ordre de la nature, 
ces agr^mens^ 
Dont aigourdliui vous semblez vaine^ 
S'^uleront avec le tems^ 
Qui^ dans sa course^ les entraine« 

p. 10. 

The version from the German fable^ and from our 
Prior*s well-known beantiful little poem^ are certainly 
very creditable to a muse which boasts only a trifling^ 
degree of inspiration. Receive them with courtesy. 

Ma Solitude. 

Loin des temp^tes du monde^ 
. Dans cet asile enchanteur^ 
Au sein d*une paix profbnde, 
•Tai tiouv^ le vrai bonheur. 

II fuit Tenceinte des viUes^ 
S^jour que les passions, 
£n erreure toigours fertilesj 
Remplissent d'illusions. 

Leur s^dnisante imposture, 
Voudrait en vain m*^louir j 
Des bienfoits de la nature 
Ici j'apprends k joulr. 



Dans ces riaotes prairies, 
Quand je yois declairsruisseaux 



BOUEN. 



Le long des rives fleuries 
Roiiler leurs limpides taxsx, 

Le seul destin que j'envie 
Est de voir, comme leurs cours^ 
Paisiblement de ma vie 
Couler les rapides jours. 



Puisse TEcho solitaire 
De ces tranquilles vallonSj 
Modeste Andelle, se plaire 
A r^pdter ses chansons ! 

p. 57. 

La Guvrlande^ 
Traduction de V Anglais de Prior. 

Pour omer de Chlo^ les cheveux ondoyans, 
Parmi les fleurs nouvellement ^closes 
J'avais choisi les lis les plus brillans, 

Les oeillets les plus beaux, et les plus fraiches roses. 

Ma Cblo^ sur son ^nt les plapa le matin : 
Alors on vit c^der sans peine> 
Leur vif ^clat k celui de son teint, 
Leur doux parfum k ceux de son haldne. 

De ses attraits ces fleurs paraissaient s'embellir, 
£t sur ses blonds cheveux les bergers, les berg^res 
Les voyaient se £&ner avec plus de plaisir 
Qu*ils ne les voyaient naitre au milieu des parterres. 

Mais, le soir, quand lem" sein fl^tri 
Eat cess^ d^exhaler son odeur s^duisante, 

EUe fixa, d*un r^ard attendri, 
Cette guirlande^ h^las ! n'aguibres si brillante. 



158 



ROUEN. 



Des larmes ausai-tdt coulent de ses beaux yeiuc. 

Que d*^oquence dans ces larmes ! 
Jamais pour Texprimer^ le langage des dieox^ 
Tout sublime qu'il est^ n'aurait assez de charmes. 

£n feignant d'ignorer ce tendre sentiment ; 

Pourquoi/* lui dis-je^ 6 ma sensible amie^ 
Pourquoi verser des pleurs? et par quel changement 
Abandonner ton ame k la melancbolie V* 

Vois-tu comme ces fleurs languissent tristement 
Me dit^ en soupirant^ ce moraliste aimabLe^ 
De leur fraicheur^ en un moment, 
S'est ^clips^ le cbarme peu durable. 

Tel est, b^ ! notre destin, 
^* Fleur de beauts ressemble k celles des prairies ; 
On les voit toutes deux naitre aveo le matin, 
£t d^ le soir ^tre flaries. 

Estelle bier encor brillait dans nos hameaux, 
Et I'amour attirait les bergers sur ses traces % 
De la mort, ai:yourd*hui> I'impitoyable faalx 
" A moissonn^ sa jeunesse et ses graces. 

" Soumise aux m^mes lois, peut-^tre que demain, 
Comme elle aussi, Damon, j'aurai cess^ de vivre .... 
Consacre dans tes vers la cause du chagrin 
" Auquel ton amante se livre.*' 

p. 92. 

The last and not the least of book-collectors, which 
I have had an opportunity of visiting, is Monsieur 
RiAux ; of whose very choice collection I have indeed 
already had occasion to make slight mention. With 
respect to what may be called a Rouennoisb Li- 
brary, that of M . Riaux is infinitely preferable to 
any which I have seen ; although I am not sure whether 
M. Le Prevost*s collection contain not nearly as many 



ROUEN. 



159 



books. He promised me a list of his works relating 
to the antiquities of Normandy in general, but I fear 
I must leave this place without it. I shall not however 
easily forget his fine copy of the Images de Philostraie, 
(always a shewy book) formerly in the library of Db 
Thou. M. Riaux is himself a man of first-rate book 
enthusiasm ; and unites the avocations oi his business 
with the gratification of his literary appetites, in a 
manner which does him infinite honour. A city like 
Rouen should have a host of such inhabitants : and 
the government, when it begins to breathe a little from 
recent embarrassments, will, I hope, cherish and sup- 
port that finest of all patriotic feelings, — a desire to 
preserve the relics, manners, and customs of past 
AOBs. Normandy is fertile beyond conception in 
objects which may gratify the most unbounded passion 
in this pursuit. It is the country where formerly the 
harp of the minstrel poured forth some of its sweetest 
strains ; and the lay and the fabliaux of the xiith and 
xiiith centuries, which delight us in the text of 
Sainte Palaye, and in the versions of Way, owed their 
existence to the combined spirit of chivalry and lite- 
rature, which never slumbered upon the shores of Nor- 
mandy ! But do not let me omit telling you of a very 
singular character, a priest of the name of. . m • . . . who 
lives in the vicinity of Rouen. He is the keenest of all 
bibliomaniacal hunters ; and evinced, in a late acqui- 
sition, the spring of a tiger with the eye of a lynx. 
He bought at Rouen the rarest of all rare Mysteries,* 
for a few sous. Within three weeks of the purchase, 
I was told that Monsieur Van-Praet, made the irresis- 

* Let bkuphemateurs du mm de Dteu." 



ROUEN. 



tible offer of 750 francs for the acquisition of it ! . . . 
and it is now reposing upon the shelves of the royal 
library. " Thinks I to myself—*' I will see this said 
mystery when I reach Paris; but ere that event 
take place, I have Cathedrals, and Libraries in abun- 
dance to visit. Upon the whole, it may be safely 
affirmed that accident only can present the most 
diligent enquirer after old and curious books^ with 
any thing in the shape of a satis£Eictory result from 
his searches. Rouen has been thoroughly weeded: 
or rather little better than weeds, in the charac- 
ter of books, now present themselves to the eye of the 
travelling collector. To be successful, you must be 
stationary/ for a few months : as there is no time for 
a temporary inhabitant to make experimental journeys 
to neighbouring villages^ or to neighbouring private 
collections. One more letter^ and then — ^fisu^ewell to 
Rouen ! 



LETTER IX. 

PHB PUBLIC LIBRARY, ACCOUNT OF SOME OF THE 
MORE CURIOUS AND RARE MSS. AND PRINTED BOOKS. 

The clock of the Cathedral has struck eleven, and it 
lis high time to visit the Public Library. In other words, 
iMs Public Library is open every day, with the excep- 
fion of Thursday, from ten till two. M. Gourdin, 
the principal librarian, is an intelligent and experienced 
t>ibliographer ; to whom we are indebted for two good 
treatises upon the famous Missal and Benedictiona- 
riusy — ^the oldest and most curious of their illuminated 
manuscripts. Of these, presently. M. Fossard is 
the sub-librarian ; and M. Fossard shall always have 
my best thanks and kindest reminiscences for the 
obli^ng and even laborious manner in which he was 
pleased to verify some readings and transcribe a 
3ortion of a MS. of Robertus Montensis — to satisfy 
mr fnend * * *. At present, M. Fossard has some- 
rfaat to learn in his bibliographical calling; but an 
arly period of life, and a willing, well-regulated, and 
rell-educated mind can accomplish any thing. He is 
. sprightly and pleasing young man; and facilitated my 
esearches with unintermitting assiduity. He would 
ill up the intervals of bibliographical gossip by expa- 
iating, in raptures, upon the beautiul blue eyes of a 
air English Lady, whom he once saw in the great 



4 



162 



ROUEN. 



library— looking at the huge folio Missal of wMch some 
notice has been taken in the pages of a certain work 
called the Bibliographical Decameron.* Of this 
splendid volume, by and by. 

Meanwhile it is necessary that you should know aU 
about the scite upon which this respectable edifice 
is built. Turn to one of my former letters, if you 
biq[)pen not to have burnt it, and you will find mention 
made of a certain ancient refectory running at right 
angles with the north side of the Abbey of St. Ouep. 
This was taken down ; and the present Hotel de 
ViLLB built either upon the scite of, or contiguous to 
it. The building is respectable from its size rather 
than from its beauty. The offices of goyemment 
occupy the ground and first floors^ and the Public 
Gallery of Pictures, and Public Library, running in 
parallel lines, fill the whole of the second or upper 
floor. The staircases, leading to all the public depart- 
ments, are airy and elegant ; especially that conduct- 
ing to the Library and Picture Gallery. I was shewn, 
as an unrivalled specimen of masonry, the flying sti(ir« 
case to one of the government offices ; but observed 
that we had two similar and rather superior specimens 
— one at Somerset House, and the other at Drury-lam 
Theatre. For a provincial town, the Library an/ 
Picture Gallery are two noble institutions. Of tl 
pictures, seen at all times, without fee, by strange 
I will only observe^ that, amidst a great deal of glar; 
trash, sent thither from Paris to astonish the Rou 
nois, I saw with great satis&ction a curious 



♦ Sec Vol. I . p. clxxxiv. 



ROUEN. 



jiisbate containing the portraits of the chiefe of the 
League — ^for which I learnt that one of the Princes of 
the Blood was willing to give a considerable sum. There 
IB also a good early picture or two, supposed to be by 
Jakm VanEyk^BXk early RqffaeUe of the entombing of 
Clirist, somewhat in his Perugino manner — and, better 
than many dozens of surrounding ornaments, a fine 
St. Francis, by Jnnihal Caracci ; worthy of all his high 
rq>iitation. The La Hires and Jouvenets cover count- 
lets square feet; and seem to be estimated rather 
firom their size than by their merit. A little tender 
Raffiielle, or elegant Parmegiano, is worth a ship-load 
of such gaudy colouring and unmeaning composition. 
At the end of the first of the two long rooms, or 
galleries of pictures, is placed a whole-length statue, 
ia terra cotta, of Cornbillb — a native, and the boast 
of Rouen. It is in a sitting posture ; and has very con- 
siderable merit. The countenance is full of expression ; 
but the nose, though sufficiently prominent, is somewhat 
flattened — contrary to the medallic representation of 
his countenance, which exhibits it rather aquiline. 
Every fiacility is afforded to artists, male and female, 
to copy the treasures of this collection ; and we 
saw, with equal pleasure and surprise, two ladies, 
and one Major of the National Guard, (the latter in 
long spurs and hessian boots, with a due portion of 
mustachios) busied in covering no small quantity 
of canvas with subjects not remarkable for their beauty 
or expression.* 

* The Founder of the Academy of Painting atRou^N was Monsieur 
]>s8CAMP8j a young Flemish painter, who happened to be passing 
that way in the year 1740> in his route to England by Havre. Des« 



164 



ROUEN. 



In approaching the Public LiBRARY^you passthroiigh 
a well-proportioned but not a very large room^ in which 
the sittings of the Academy of Rouen are held. A 
marble bust of the present King is at one end of it. 
The view from the opposite side^ or from the range 
of windows in the Library^ is really exhilarating. Tliis 
view commands some of the gently rising eminenoeg 
in the environs of the town ; and M. Gourdin^ who 
lives behind one of these eminences, told me that he 
retired thither, and returned from thence, every day to 
the performance of his public duties in the Library. 
After passing the before-mentioned room, you enter 
the second — which is designated the Reading-room : 
here the books, of whatever description you stand in 
need, are regularly brought to you. The librvy, where 
these books are kept, maybe full one hundred English 

camps was strongly urged to alter his views by Messrs. Cideville, 
Bourdonnaye^ and Lecat^ and to settle at Roaen^ and become tiie 
founder of a School of Painting there. About the year 1750 the estai^ 
blishment was perfected. Descamps is better known by his eleg^ 
performance entitled La Vie des Peintres Flamandes, AUemands ei 
HoUandois, arec des portraits graves, IJ^S, 8vo. 4 vols. TTie engrav- 
ings^ of which FicQUET executed several^ are supposed by some to 
constitute the chief merit of this work. It was translated into Dutch, 
and HouBRAKEN exhibited his unrivalled talents in executing seven! 
of the heads. Lord Spencer has a collection of proofs of these heads^ 
grouped without order and without letter-press, in a quarto form. Hie 
grandson of Descamps^ now an old man^ is the professor of painting; 
and a very civil and lively old gentleman he is. If the reader wish for 
a more particular account of the pictures in the Museum at Rouen^ be 
may consult Travels m France by Lieut, Hall, 1819^ 8vo ; whoe^ how- 
ever, it is evidently intended only as a subordinate portion of that gen- 
tleman's account of the dty of Rouen. 



BOUEN. 



165 



eet in lengthy of a proportionate height and width, 
[be windows are large^.and there is ample light for 
lie. survey of the treasures exhibited. Among these 
ireasiires, at the fiirther end of the room, reposes^ 
ipon a small table^ the huge folio Missal of which I 
leretofore spake. The shew-man^ or Cicerone^ an old 
MMter^ of about seventy^ advances in due form^ and 
places you at the bottom of the book^ while he stands 
sit the top : after a little common-place flourish^ the 
luund-hearted creature wets his huge thumb, and turns 
nvcr the leaves by fixing it precisely, every time, in the 
9d£«ame spot. In consequence, I leave you to judge 
of the frightful appearance of the mar^n where this 
begrimed thumb is in the habit of alighting ! This prac- 
doe is most heretical and abominable, and should be 
instantly corrected. All strangers, and especially the 
English, visit this graphic curiosity as the first thing to 
)e seen. It is the result of thirty years patient and 
ingenious toil. The character, or the style of art, may 
be variously criticised ; but nothing can induce you to 
withhold your admiration from the felicity of invention 
and the splendor of colouring which it displays. Having 
before described the writing, &c. it only remains to 
add that the name of the artist was D*£aubonne, a 
Benedictin monk, and that he died in 1714. 

The first MS. which I opened to examine minutely, 
was the famous Missal, supposed with good reason 
to be of the xith. century ; as the dominical table 
ead;ends from 1000 to 1095.* It is called St. Guthlac's 

* Of the English Samts> we observe^ in the Calendar^ the names 
of Cuthbert, Gutklac^ Elfege and Etheldithr^hui neither Dumtan, 
nor Etiuhoold. 



166 rouen: 

book; and the first sentence contains an oriscmfiM? 
the protection of that saint. It is a fine beantifiil 
volume^ about 13 inches in lengthy by 9 in width. I 
shall be particular in my account of it. The first four 
leaves are written in the usual large semi-Saxon cfafir 
racters of the time. The calendar is in a small band^ 
with alternate red, blue, and gold. In the opinion of 
the Abb6 Gourdin, this is not only a very copious^ bot a 
curious calendar; at the end of which we observe a 
short poem^ in hexameter and pentameter verses, upon 
the lunar revolutions, the days of the wedt, and the 
months of the year. It is also observable that they 
then used the terms of the Easter Moon, Rogatum 
Moon, and tVhitsuntide Moon. In the pr^BMse, tte 
name of each person is noticed for whom mass 
for the repose of his soul is said. The prefiEitory 
matter may be said to occupy the first sixteen 
leaves. The leaves immediately succeeding appear to 
have been cut out. The work itself follows, precisely 
in the character, or general style, of the Duke of De- 
vonshire's famous Missal, written by Godemann^ in the 
xth. century, by command of the Great Ethelwold.* 
Hie illuminated borders, consisting of architectural 
ornaments, in colours andgold^ together with the larger 
capital letters, are very splendidly executed. On the re- 
verse of the 8th, and on the recto of the 9t\i, leaf of the 
text, begins the series of illuminated subjects : such 
as the Nativity, Adoration of the Magi, Sgc. The 
Flight into Egypt is thus singularly represented ; Jor 
seph being made to carry the distaff of Mary. 

* See the BibliograpMcal Decameron ; vol. i. p. lix. 



ROUJBN. 



167 




All these are within a sort of ai*chitectural border^ 
w frame work. Among the subsequent subjects^ the 
Metrayat of Christ is not very inaptly treated ; the 
figures are about three inches in height, and the border 
is here very good. The Crucifixion and the taking 
down from the Cross follow ; in the latter, the figure 
of the mother of Christ is rather touchingly executed. 
In the Resurrection^ the angel upon the tomb is pre- 
cisely in the style of art of that in the Duke of Devon- 
shire's book ; but, the composition is less spirited. On 
the recto of the leaf where the Day of Pentecost occu- 
ines the reverse, the border encircles a text entirely 
gold. On the reverse of the 106th leaf is the following 
%are, intended for St. Peter ; the text on the oppo* 
site page^ in letters of gold, relating to him. 



108 AOtTEN. 




It may be worth informing you that the hair of tiie 
Saint is light blue ; his vestment^ or upper garment 
green — ^his under garment, orange : the glory, gold : 
the book, gold ; and the footstool gold. The illuminar 
tion for All Saints Day is fresh and good. Tliat of 



ROUEN. 



St. Andrew is particularly brilliant ; the opposite page 
of text is gold* The representation of the Trinity is 
torn out : the text^ opposite^ is in capitals of gold. 
After the 100th leaf—'' 3[tK^tt TpCU ittSrmitf 

Tbe text concludes on the reverse of the 201st leaf. 
Upon the whole this is a volume of great intrinsic 
curiosity, and considering its age, is in a fine state of 
preservation. — It belonged formerly to the Abbey of 
Jumieges; as is evident from the following coeval 
memorandum: — ^written in the hand-writing of Robert 
Bishop of London (afterwards Archbishop of Canter- 
bury), who was formerly head of that Monastery, and 
who died there in 1053 : It is as follows ; being an 
anathema against any future purloiner of the volume — 

Quem si quis vi vel dolo sen quoquo modo isti loco 
fiubtraxerit, animae suae propter quod fecerit detrimen- 
turn patiatur atque de libro viventium deleatur et cum 
justis non scribatur/* 

We must now take a peep at the companion of 
the foregoing old-fisushioned treasure. This is empha- 
tically called the Benbdictionarius. It is a curious 
volume ; perhaps of equal — perhaps of greater — anti- 
quity : bdng about half an inch shorter, and having 
twepty-two lines in a full page. The text is generally 
executed in larger lettei*s. The illuminations (de- 
scribed by M. Gourdin*) are larger, coarser, and fewer 
in number than those in the Missal. The first speci- 

* described by M, Gourdin.^ Notwithstanding this worthy Abb^ 
and most respectable librarian has published a sort of critical disser- 
latkm upon this old-foshioned tre^ure/' in the transactions of the 
Rcpuen Society for 1812^ p. 164 — 174 — in which he is pleased to gire 
the preference to the ffliiminationB in the BenetHctionanuioyrer those 

▼pL. I. L 



170 



ROUEN. 



men of frame-work bordering is broad and bold. The 
second similar specimen encloses the angel upon the 

ot the Misiol juat above described — ventare to diier ham him 
entirely in such conclusion. His criticism is thus : Lea figures en 
sont beaucoup plus mal dessindes que ceUes du B6iedicHi(nmaire, maps 
on pent dire que Tor est prodigu^ dans ce numuscrit^ — that is to 
say, there is a lavish expenditure of gold in the Ifissal.** But there 
is something more than a mere profusion of gold; wfaile the figures in 
theBenedictionarius are, in &ct, less skilfully and lesaspiritedtydrsim. 

Thk Benedictionarius, as above intimated^ has given rise to a 
critical dissertation of the Abb^ Gourdin, in the work just mentionjpA. 
The object of this dissertation is to refute the opinion of the Abb^ 
Saas, who assigned this ancient volume, apparently on the authority 
of Father Morin, to the viiith century. Montfoucon, without having 
seen the book, acquiesced in the same conclusion. But M. Cknir^ 
has justly shewn, from the introduction of certain Saints {Switkm and 
Ortm6a2d, the latter of whom died in the beginning of the xth century) 
that it could not have been executed in the eighth century. It seems 
the MS. had been given to the Cathedral of Rouen ; and the second 
question in agitation is, whether it was given by Robert Archbishop of 
Rouen, or by Robert Archbishop of Canterbury — a question, upon 
which a lively altercation took place between the Abb^ Saas and Dom 
Tassin, one of the Editors of the Nouveau Tr<Uti de Diplomatique, 
That it was given by an Archbishop of the name of Robert, seems incon- 
trovertible — from an ancient entry in an old Catalogue of the Books of 
the Cathedral. After six pages of bibliographical criticism, M. Crourdin 
concludes, upon apparently safe grounds, that the volume in question 
was given by the Robert who was Archbishop of Rouen, and who 
died in 1053 : in consequence, says M. Gourdin, the MS. is not of the 
ixth nor of the xiiith century. In all probability, it is of the com'* 
mencement of the xith century. The latter part of the volume contains 
a Pontifical, or forms and ceremonies connected with the eccle- 
siastical office. My friend the Rev. H. Drury posseses a very fine 
MS. (from the McCarthy collection) of the Cathedral Service of Rouenj, 
of the xiith or xiiith century. The initials are in a sober and appro- 
priate style ; the text is a large semi-gothic^ varied by red and bhie 



»OUEN. 171 

ftmb, (after the resurrection Irf Christ) of which I 
teve thus made a fee-simile. 




The markings of the lights are very strong, and have 
the roughness of oil-painting. The gilding is less skil- 



inka, but more particularly red. The fonns of the exorcism of oil> 
as well as the exorcism itself C Exorciso te creatura olei per domi* 
num patrem omzupotentem^ &c.) are curious and even diverting. 



173 



fiOUEN. 



fiilly exeratedthanin theMissai^andtheBtTlei^ i» 
generally of a very inferior kind. I subjoin two traetngs 
of comer portions from the fourth and sixth frame woilc, 
at top, which you may compare with what has already 
i^peared before the public, and hence convince yoursdf 
of the contemporaneousness of the respective produc- 
tions. 



BOUEN. 



173 



The Dewceni of the Holy Ohost is rather boldly 
npmented by flames of fire issuing from the opened 
moath of the Dove. In the whole^ there are only eight 
fflnminations; of which three are composed of figures^ 
and of these the third represents the Death of the 
Virgin. The vellum is thick^ but S(^; wd though 
this volume^ on the score of graphic beauty^ be inferior 
to the preceding, yet is it a most interesting and vene- 
rable relic of ancient art. The Abb^ Gourdin says, 
that it was reported that some of our countrymen had 
offered as much as 15,000 francs for this volume but 
I consider this report as exceedingly questionable* 
The Missal, "which is in every respect a more market- 
able article, may be worth one^eventh of that sum. 
Of the remaining MSS. there was little or nothing (on 
the score of art, antiquity, or intrinsic worth) in those 
which I saw, that much interested me ; and when I 
expressed a desire to make further and minute 
researches, I learnt, with equal surprise and sorrow, 
that they wanted both room and opportunity to exa- 
mine upwards of eight hundred yet uninspected MSS* 
In other words, they want finances ; for the reading- 
room itself, with appropriate shelves, might contain 
the whole of these unexamined volumes very commo- 
diously. However, you shall have the fioiils of a little 
more gleaning among illuminated MSS. An Ovid 
MORALIZED, iu Frcuch, in one large folio written in 
double columns, in a small close gothic character, 
is no contemptible volume for a short half hour*s 
amusement. This volume is evidently much cropt. 
The illuminations are precisely similar, in style and 



174 



ROUEN. 



colour^ to those of the Raman ff.Alexandre—heioire so 
copiously expatiated upon:* the back grounds aie 
diamond-wise : the figures are of the same height ; but 
there are no drolleries ; and upon the whole fewer embel- 
Mmients. One illumination is worth noticing. It is a 
representation of fortune, blinded, in the middle of her 
wheel — around which are £3ur figures: a king at 
top, and a naked figure at bottom. At folio 59^ recto, 
from the commencement of the text, which begins 
thus : — after 13 leaves of table : 

Se lescripture ne nous ment 
Tout eat pour nre erueignement 
QU quU a en Uures escript 
Soient bon ou mal U escript, 

Tliere is at bottom an escutcheon of arms^ five 
balls argent, upon a ground azure. At the end of the 
MS., which is much soiled, we read 

Explicit 

Ci finent Us fables douide le grant. 

Another MS. worth noticing, is that entitled Livrb 
HiSTORiAL des faits de feu Messire Betrand du 
GuESCLiN jWi^ connetable du Royaume de France^ 
Dm interesting volume was given to the library by the 
Abb6 Des Jardins, a canon of the cathedral of Rouen, 
in 1640. A note prefixed by Saas is wrong, according 
to M. Gourdin, who refers to Lehong's Bibl.Historiquey 
art. 13495-6. This MS. is executed in a coarse Gothic 
hand, in prose ; and has the following colophon : 

En vng teps qui a yuer no 
Ou chastel royal de vemon 
Qui ist aux chaps & la ville 



* Bibliogr, Decameron; vol. i. p. cxcviii. 



HOUEN. 



175 



list iehaiuiel destoutenville 
Au dh chastel lors capitaine 
Aussi de veraomel sur saine 
Et du roy escuier de corps 
Mectre en prose vn mS recors 
Ce Ihire cy extrait de rime 
Complet en mars dix & neufuieme 
Qui de Ian la date ne sect 
Mil. ccc. quatre vins & sept 

This volume is in good condition; and is bound in 
boards covered with red velvet. I examined also a 
curious old volume of various tracts^ which is bound in 
wood ; having in the centre, on each side, a large fi- 
gure, about nine inches high, carved in ivory. This 
volume is called the Ivory Book — and may be of the 
vvth century. I was well satisfied with turning over 
the leaves of an old volume of Homilies and Sermons^ 
some of them of St. Jerom, of the xiith century ; hav- 
ing two or three ancient and weU-executed grotesque 
capital initials ; of which the M. and P. struck me as 
bdng admirably ima^ned. 

From MSS. it is natural to go to Printed Books. 
When I first took my station among the students, I 
was much amused on finding, at my left hand, my old 
fiiend the porter, or Cicerone, gravely sitting, with 

spectacles on nose'', intent upon a modern publication 
—which was entitled, I think, Precis de la Revolution 
Francoise.^ The generality of the students, few in num- 
ber, were not remarkable for a very spruce exterior — ^in- 
cluding even the venerable head Librarian himself: but 
they sometimes compensate for these outward defi- 
ciences by the respectability and utility of their pur- 
suits. Thus, I saw a dingy looking young man con-^ 



176 



BOUEN. 



suiting with facility the Arabic hoAom of Castell^ to 
assist him in the perusal of a lai^ Latin and Arabic 
folio: while to my right sate an ancient gentleman^ 
busied in a careful examination ci the Index Chronolo- 
gicus** of Bouquet's Recueil des Hisioriens des Omdes. 
But this is very immaterial — and we go at onoe to the 
Mttft : especially to the F^eeners. The oldest woik 
they possess^ of the xvth century^ is 

Sti. Jeronimi Epistoljb: printed hy Sweynhtym 
and Pannartz in 1468, 2 vols, folio. A fair copy, but 
cropt — ^in its second binding, and wormed a little at 
the end. 

S. AuGUSTiNus DE CiviTATB Dei, printed hf J. de 
Spira in 1470, folio. The largest and finest topy I 
ever saw of this not very uncommon book. It is in 
Its original binding, with many rough leaves. 

Manipulus Curatorum, printed hy Cassaris onfy, _ 
(without his partner Stol) in 1473, at Paris, folio. A 
Vety early specimen of the press of this printer: but 
unluckily this is a very bad copy. 
' Speculum Historiale Vincentii Bellovacbnsis, 
printed hy Mentelin in 1473, in four folio volumes : the 
name of the printer in each volume. This copy is much 
eropt, and soiled. 

ZoPHiLOLOGiUM edituM ajratre Jacobo Magin de 
Parisius ordinis heremitarum sti Augustini.JinftfeUr- 
citer (sic.) This is a folio volume, without date— 
^stinguishable for the peculiar formation of the letter 
R ; but respecting the name of the printer, all en- 
quiries have been hitherto fruitless. Look into the firsts 
volume of the Bibl. Spenceriana, and you will 4nd 
fto-simile of this long-I^;ged lettw. Togethw with 



ROUEN. 



177 



Ulisirwk is bound an edition of the Three Kings of 
CiiHbOONB^ printed by GuUensckaiff* in 1477^ in his best 
manner. The copy is too much crept. 

Tractatus db Questionibus sec. Balbum. Print- 
ed at Parisj in 1477, 4to. without name of printer. To 
me, this type is perfectly new — as a Parisian produc* 
ticMi. It resembles the small and earlier type of Pyn* 
aon ; but is certmnly the model upon which Vostre, 
Eostace, and Bonfons, &c. formed their character. 
Perhaps it may have been executed by the printer of 
^the Ckronique de St. Denis^ in three folio volumes, 
1476. 

Ju8TiNU3* Printed hy Philip Condom Petri, in 

1479, folio. This is the earliest printed Classic in 
Ithe library: but as a specimen of ancient and valuable 
printing, it is scarcely worth more than a Napoleon or 
two. 

BiBLiA Sacra. Latine. Printed hy Koberger in 

1480. This is their earliest Bible. They ought to 
have one eighteen years earlier. Take eighteen from 
1480, and there remains the number 1462. You un- 
derstand me. 

La Vie des Peres, 1486, folio. An indifferent 
copy. M. Gourdin thinks that this is the first and 
oply edition of the work in the xvth century — ^but il 
Be trompe.*" 

CiCBRONis Epistol^ Familiarbs. Printed in 
1488. The earliest Cicero of the xvth century. There 
are libraries, private as well as public, which contain a 
fisw more Fifteeners of the same author ! 

We may notice, en passant, the Lbgbnda Aurba of 
1486j La Mbr des Histoir^s, by my old friend Philip 



178 



ROUEN. 



tiC Rouge, in 1488, a Catholicon of 1489, and Lb 
SoNGE Du Verdier, 1491 : the latter the edition. 
I tried to get a sight of the Sacramento db la pbni- 
TENciA, printed at Seville in 1492 ; but M. Fossard, 
whose attentions were unremitting, and whose manual 
exertions covered him with dust and cobwebs, was 
not able to lay his hand upon it. A word now re- 
specting 

Missals and Breviaries appertaining to the church 
service at Rouen. They have a ruled and washed** 
paper copy of the Missal, printed at Paris, in 1491, 
folio ; and also of the Breviary, printed at Paris by 
Levet, for Bernard, a Rouen bookseller, in the same 
year : folio. Also an edition of the Breviary in 1491, 
printed at Rouen. But the folio editions by Morin, in 
1495 and 1499, are glorious volumes— especially as they 
are printed upon vellum. The former is soiled from 
much thumbing: the latter is fresh, beautiful, and 
splendid : presenting us with a magnificent title-page. 
They have a duplicate of the latter, equally fine, and 
also upon vellum : with a difference in the title-page, 
it being ornamented at bottom. There is, however, a 
MS. leaf in the middle of this second copy. An edi- 
tion of the fVinter Part of the Cathedral Service at 
Rouen, printed by Jean de Bourgoys, in 1492, 8vo. 
UPON VELLUM, cxhibits a beautiful specimen of print- 
ing ; but the copy is rather cropt. We may vary our 
book subject by a notice or two of 

Aldine Classics. There is a good, clean, but 
cropt copy of the first Theocritus, 1495 : a desirable, 
clean copy of the Aristophanes of 1498 : a sound, clean, 
and perfect copy of the Epistolw Diversor. Phtlos. et 



ROUEN. 



179 



(hakm* 1499,4to. and a very good copy of the second 
DmnastheneSy of 1504. But the whole of these form 
nothing to boast of. I shall conclude my remarks 
among the Fifteeners^ by mentioning 

HoRATius^ 1492 : 1498, folio. The former has the 
commentaries of Aero and Porphyrio: the latter has 
the well known wood-cut decorations : but, singularly 
enough, a figure seems wanting in the middle com- 
partment at folio Ixxxix. As well as I could estimate, 
there are about 245 articles printed in the xvth cen- 
tury, with dates ; and about 88 articles in the same 
"century without dates. But the character and com- 
plexion of these Fiftbeners are, upon the whole, of a 
very secondary nature. Indeed, two-thirds of them 
may be easily dispensed with. Of the more rare and 
curious articles in the sixteenth century^ I noticed only 
the following : 

Victoria POrcheti adversus impios Hebraos> 
&c. 1520. A beautiful small folio, printed by Des- 
plain for Gourmont and Regnault, upon vellum. It 
came from the library of the Abbey of Jumieges. 

Flos Sanctorum. Toledo^ 1582, folio. A curious 
volume ; abounding with legendary tales of consider- 
able interest — as Mr. Southey, in his occasional re- 
fvences to it, has given us opportunities of knowing. 

Acta Sanctorum, 52 volumes : including a portion 
q£ the month of October. A very desirable copy, in 
nice old calf binding, with gilt tooling. 

Upon the whole, they reckon upon about 20,000 
volumes in the public library. Alas ! it was once of 
far greater extent. During the Revolution, they could 
boast of about 250,000 volumes ; but a considerable 



180 



ROUEN. 



portion of this vast number wag piEaged from the 
libraries of the Emigrants. These however have been 
partly restored to their respective owners. Yet dmiag 
that maddest of all manias, the revolutionary mama., 
they sold the greater part of this library tot the paltiy 
sum of 20,000 francs, and not fewer than 10,000 vo^ 
lumes are supposed to have been publicly burnt in the 
Place des Cannes . . . within fifty yards of the very spot 
.whence this account of it is penned! Do I still sniff 
the heart sickening odour of the fire and smoke of thii 
almost sacrilegious conflagration ? How many unique 
JMLysteries, Romances, and Chronicles, were possibly 
^destroyed at that eventful crisis i A word now onty 
respecting the^nances of this public library* The last 
year 1000 francs—only — were expmded upon it. it 
wa^ all they could spare. But what can you expeet 
— ^when I learnt, at the last sSance of their Royal Aca- 
demy, (in reply to some official questions from the 
Minister of the Interior) that the annual funds of the 
iK>ciety consisted only of 1800 francs ? 

I attended two Meetings of this Society — which 
can boast of some very intelligent clever members. 
'Hiey meet once a week, on a Friday, at six o^clodc, 
and terminate the sitting at dg^t. M. Vitalis, who 
took the chsdr of the President, understands English 
well, and is a very well-informed and respectable man. 
He gave me a good notion of the French gentleman of 
former times. There were about thirty Members pre- 
sent. Excellent order was observed, and some dis- 
cussions took place, in the shape of debates, which 
were conducted with equal temper and spirit. I heard 
a paper read relating to some travels in the alpine 



ROUEN. 



161 



Mnetattf itafy» nndeitaken with a view to botanical re- 
mmkesy wfaiolir wa» justly commoMied. Indeed bo- 
bny is a &voarite subject with nearly all the Members 
of the Society: but I hope good M. Le Prevost will 
mstet lose sight of locals Antiquities — ^in every point of 
mw in which it is capable of affording equal instruo- 
tkm and delight. What a volume they might produce 
Mnected with their own city ! They print, but do not 
Ipnblish^ an analytical abridgment of the Transactions 
wf the Society and I should tell you that^ had it 
ib^BOt been for the kind activity of M. Le Prevost, I 
fhtrald never have procured for Lord Spencer a perfecH; 
copy of these Memoirs — ^upwards of fifteen volumes 
fa octavo. In the Althorp Lihrary such a work is 
absohitely necessary : the more so, as I understood^ 
vben I left England, that neither the British Museum 
aor the Bodleian Library possessed a perfect set. 
.'I 

, .f OemoirM of the Tratuactwm of the Sock^jf.]— The History of these 
MeiOBoirB is briefly this. The Society was established in 1744 \ and a 
^ Frdcis Analytiqae*' of its labours, from the date of its foundation to 
attt year of its ifMoration in 1803, was published in the years 1814, 
and 1817' These three volumes comprehend its history in ^e 
Mlpifin g manner : that of 1814> called the 1st vcdmne, gives the his- 
%Bry from 1744 to 1750: that of 1816> from 1751 to 1760: and 
thai of 1817 " from 1761 to 1770." What became of the History 
from the year 1770 to the period of its interruption by the Revolution 
-^or whether it ceased in the year 1770 — am imable to mention ; as a 
toppbsed iperfect copy of these Transactions, supplied by the kindness 
ef'M. lie PrimMt, only famishes me with a resumption of the labours 
«f |lie:Academy in 1804. These were published in 1807. From this 
kltcr period^ that is from 1804, the series goes in aregular succession 
dbwh to the year 1815 — the account of the transactions in one year 
bdng regularly published in the year following. Thus, induding the 
three volumes published in 1814, 1816, and 1 8 l7«8upply(Dgaa abridged 



ff 



183 



BOUEN. 



Farewell now to Roubn. I have told yoa all tlie 
tdlings which I thought worthy of oommimication; I 

hifltory of the labours up to the year 1770, there will be sixteen vo- 
lumes in the whole. The work is published in an octsro form, xxpaa 
an indifferent paper^ and is indifferently printed. The title ift nal^ 
temly thus: " Prick Jnali/Hque des Traioaux de fAcadAme Rof4k 
dtf Sciences, dee Belles Lettres et dee ArU de Rouen:' De FIw^ de 
P. Pfrittux, Imprimeur du Roi et de VAcadhne" There are no oh 
graidngs — ^but those which are tabulated^ displaying the results of 
certain calculations and experiments. The generality of the comnnk 
nications are abridged; but there are several " Mteoires dont TAca* 
dtele a delib^r^ de Timpression en entier dans ses Actes/* Tlicie 
communications^ like those of our Royal Society's Transactions^ are 
most entirely scientific. Chemistry, Botany, and Medicine are in high 
request among the Rouennois. 

In the last volume, published in 1817# giving an account of the la* 
hours of the preceding year, the stream ofusual infbnnationis diverted 
a little into political channels^ all about Lovit Lb DB8IRB^ The 
French are admirable masters of quick transition. Thus, upon the in- 
auguration of the bust of Louis XVIII., M. Gourdin, the President, 
** pronounces a discourse'* beginning thus — Messieurs^ la o6pfi- 
monie qui nous rassemble aigourd'hui est ^galement auguste et 
touchante. Elle est auguste, puisqu*il s'y agit de Tinauguration du 
buste de notre Monarque : elle est touchante, puisque ce sent dei 
en&ns r^unis autour de I'image de leur p^re pour lui payer le tribut de 
leur amour. C'est done une f^te de famille. Ah I Messieurs, qu'dle 
est douce pour nos coeurs !'* — ^This is fbUowed by yet more ardent and 
more encomiastic language by M. Boistard, Ing^nieur en dief, 
chevalier de VOrdre royal de la L^on d'Honneur,** which concludes 
with'^Vivent les Bourbons ! Vivele Roi .Vive le Roi ! Vivent 
ks Bourbons!" My worthy acquaintance M. Dupntel— <^ whose 
privately-printed lucubrations of the muse, honourable mention 
has been made in a preceding page, has fbUowed up these testimo- 
nies of loyalty in prose, by the efiusions of his own muse— entitled 
and (beginning thus : 



BOUBN. 



188 



ve endeavoured to make yon saunter with me in the 
reets, in the cathedral, the abbey^ and the churches, 
e have, in imagination at least, strolled together 
mg the quays, visited the halls and public build- 

and gazed with rapture from Mont Ste. Ca* 
irine upon the en(!Aianting view of the city, the 

and the neighbouring hills. We have from 
nee breathed almost the pure air of heaven, and 
rveyed a country equally beautified by art, and 
sflsed by nature. Our hearts, from that same height, 
ve wished all manner of health, wealth, and pros* 
rity, to a land thus abounding in com and wine, 
d oil and gladness. We have silently, but sincerely 
lyed, that swords may for ever be " turned into 
iQgh-shares, and spears into pruning-hooks" : — that 
heart-burnings, antipathies, and animosities, may 
eternally extinguished ; and that, from henceforth, 
ire may be no national rivalries but such as tend 
establish, upon a firmer footing, and a more com- 
nhensive scale, the peace and happiness of fellow* 
»tures, of whatever persuasion they may be:— of 
A, who sedulously cultivate the arts of individual 

HOMMAGB A Louis LB DeSIAb'. 

IdyUe. 

Voas, da docte I^umasse et ramouret rhonnear, 

Au 8on de la trompette> 
Des vertus de Louis c^l^brez la grandeur; 

Une simple musette 
Sied mieux k mon esprit, et plait mieuz i, mon coeur. 
&c. &c. &c. 

apprehend there are no similar specimens in the printed Memoirs 
or own Societies • • • .But what then } 



184 



BOUEN. 



and of national improvement^ and blend the duties 
of social order with the higher calls of morality and 
religion. Ah! my friend, these are neither foolish 
thoughts nor romantic wishes. They arise naturally in 
an honeist heart, which, seeing that all creation is 
animated and upheld by one and the same power, 
cannot but ardently hope that all may be equally 
benefitted by a reliance upon its goodness and bounty. 

From this eminence we have descended somewhat 
into humbler walks. We have visited hospitals, strolled 
in flower-gardens, and associated with publishers and 
« collectors of works — both of the dead and the Itvin^. 
Hence we have diverged to witness the silent, and. yet 
eloquent relics of ancient art ; from the chissel of the 
iculptor, to the pencil of the illuminator ; and aidto 
ItilQf, like ''atdb lang ifptier have comforted us in 
our latter and more congenial researches. So now, 
fare you well. Commend me to your fitmily and to 
our common Mends, — especially to the "BfU^batffytCitf 
diould they perchance enquire after thdr wandering 
Vice President. Many wiU be the days passed over, 
and many the leagues traversed, ere I meet them again. 
No Clarendon festivals for me, till the year of our Lord 
1819 ! Again adieu ! . . . I have hired a decent cabriolet, 
a decent pair of horses, and a yet more promising pos- 
tilion ; and within twenty-four hours my back will be 
more decidedly turned upon ''dear old England*' — 
for that country, in which her ancient kings onc^ 
held dominion, and where every square mile (I had. 
almost smd acre) is equally interesting to the anti^ 
quaiy and the agriculturist. I salute you wholly^ andL 
am yours ever. 



.185 



LETTER X. 

pBPARTURB FROM ROUEN. ST. GEOROpiS DE BOCHI&R- 
VILLE. DUCLAIR. MARIVAUX. THE ABBEY Of 

4 -I V 

IjlUMIEGBS. ARRIVAL AT CAUOEBBG. 

til . .. 

. MY DEAR FRIEND. Milfff 181|. 

,,.,f4^Y,]aat letter led you to eixpect tfaat».ia spite of.aU 
iO l^tcsque boautiep^ aad antiquariaa- a^ttractkMiS) tbe 
ciffT OF ibpqBN wQS ftt leqgtli.ti^ .be quitt6d-*4uid thut % 
foc^ were to piirsue our foute Qiore in Uie charaetor/lif 
iiHifipepi^iit tmvdiers^ in na: hiiieii oftbric^. 
IHfiyp IHUgenc^y qr (^d^ctew^ Our o^ sagaoity and 
nrdd^iice^ aidad by.tliat ^.the f^gon de poiSte^ mfft 
^fooefi^h to be fm sole fuides« Adieu therefi^re. to 
dpijir avemi^j gloomy courts^ o^pl^ging moq£^ mut^ 
v^iiff^Mi^^ whips^ the iiQy^^oeaai»g tm» 

qf,4ifirt9 and cairriages^ neve^^odi^g: movements of 
cwsntless oiajBses.ctf popuialMn ^?r^Adieu I-r-andin their 
8|W(il» wekome: be the windingsn^^ the fertile mea* 
dwri the thickly-planted orchard^ and! the broad abd 
cKw^ing Sidney 

r^Ao^oiMiiiigljr, cooi'tfae^th of th^ between the 

h0ara of ten and dbeYen>; A. M. the raabtltng of horses' 
hoofed and the eehoes of a postillion's . whip, were beard 
vjilhin'the 'Court-^yard of th^ Hdtel Vatd. Monsieur, 
Madame, Jacques, ami the whole firatemity of domes- 
tiWi, were (m the.. alert^^^ pour faire les adieux k 
AiissieuF9 les Aagloia.* < This. Jacques . has been ai* 
ready incidentally noticed. He is the prime minister of 

VOL. I. M 



186 DEPARTUEE FROM ROUEN. 



the Hotel Vatel. A somewhat uncomfortable deten- 
tion in England for five years^ in the character of 
" prisoner of war,** has made him master of a pretty 
quick and ready utterance of common-place phrases 
in our language ; and he is not a little proud of his 
attainments therein. Seriously speaking, I consider 
him quite a phenomenon in his way ; and it is right 
you should know that he affords a very fair specimen 
of a sharp^ clever, French servant: His bodily move- 
ments are nearly as quick as those of his tongue. 
He rises, as well as his brethren, by five in the mom- 
# ing; and the testimonies of this early activity are 
quickly discovered in the unceasing noise of beating 
coats, singing French aii-s, and scolding the boot- 
boy. He rarely retires to rest before mid-night ; and 
the whole day long he is in one eternal round of occu- 
pation. When he is bordering upon impertinence, he 
seems to be conscious of it — declaring that " the Elng- 
lish make him saucy, but that naturally he is very 
civil.*" He always speaks of human beings in the neu- 
ter gender ; and to a question whether such a one has 
been at the Hotel, he replies, ^'I have not seen to- 
day.'* I am persuaded he is a thoroughly honest crea- 
ture ; and considering the pains which are taken to 
spoil him, it is surprising with what good sense and 
propriety he conducts himself. 

But to return. The whole complement of inn-* 
door occupants, including even visitors, attended our 
departure. " Au plaisir de vous revoir'* — Bon 
voyage" — and other similar exclamations resounded 
on all sides — when, about eleven o'clock, we sprung for- 
ward, at a smart trot, towards the barriers by which 



DEPARTUHE FROM ROUEN. 187 



we had entered Rouen. Our postillion was a thorough 
master of his calling, and his spurs and whip seemed 
to know no cessation from action. The steeds, per- 
fectly Norman, were somewhat fiery ; and we rattled 
along the streets, (for the pav6 never causes the least 
abatement of pace with the French driver) in high 
expectation of seeing a thousand rare sights ere we 
reached Havre — equally the limits of our journey, 
and of our contract with the owner of the cabrio- 
let. That accomplished antiquary, M. Le Prevost, 
whose name you have often heard, had furnished me 
with so dainty a bill of fare, or carte de voyage, that 
I began to consider each hour lost which did not bring 
us in contact with some architectural relic of anti- 
quity, or some elevated position — whence the wander- 
ing Seine and wooded heights of the adjacent country 
might be sui-veyed with equal advantage. 

You have often, I make no doubt, my dear friend, 
started upon something like a similar expedition: — 
when the morning has been fair, the sun bright, the 
breeze gentle, and the atmosphere clear. In such 
moments how the ardour of hope takes possession of 
one! — How the heart warms, and the conversation 
flows ! The barriers are approached ; we turn to the 
left, having the Grande Route du Havre rather before 
us, and commence our journey in good earnest. Pre- 
viously to gaining the first considerable height, you 
pass the village of Canteleu. This village is exceed- 
ingly picturesque. It is studded with water-mills, and 
is enlivened by a rapid rivulet, which empties itself, in 
a serpentine direction, into the Seine. You now begin 
to ascend a very cqmmanding eminence ; at the top of 



188 



ROUEN TO HAVRE. 



which are scattered some of those country houses which 
are seen from Mont Ste. Catharine. Tlie road is of a 
noble breadth. The day wanned — and we dismounted 
to let our steeds breathe more freelv, as we continued 
to ascend leisurely. Mr. Lewis ran on befoi'e ; took a 
position, — ^with the magnificent sweep of the river, 
and the towers and spires of Rouen at a little distance 
before him — and drawing forth his ready pencil, trans- 
ferred, in a fit of extacy, the whole of the enchanting 
scene * into his sketch-book. I send it you : matured 
and mellowed by the magic of light and shade. It is 
at once a most faithful copy of the particular scene re- 
presented, and of the generality of the river and hill sce- 
nery in the route from Rouen to Bolbec. Perhaps the 
distance is too delicately marked ; so as to give you 
an idea of the hill, to the right of Rouen, (which hi 
fact is Mont Ste. Catharine) being farther situated 
from the city than it really is. But the whole is de- 
lightfully picturesque. 

We romounted, having gratified the postilion by 
granting his request to have a peep at the drawing, 
which he pronounced to be " charmant !" I love cu- 
riosity of this kind, when it does not border upon im- 
pertinence ; and I had a shrewd suspicion that our 
gar^on was a lad of no ordinary mettle. Our first 
halting-place was to be St, Georges de Bocherville ; an 
ancient abbey of the xiith century, according to the 
instructions of M. Le Prevost. This abbey is situated 
about three French leagues from Rouen. Our route 

* See tlie Opposite Plate. Lieut. Hall has described the same, 
or a similar scene, with great truth and animation, in his TVimti 
in France, in 1818; 8to. p. 45, 6. 



ST. GEORGES DE BOCHERVILLE- 189 



thither^ from the summit of the hill which we had just 
ascended, lay along a road skirted by interminable 
orchards now in their fullest bloom. The air was 
absolutely perfumed, to a sort of aromatic excess, by 
tiie fragrance of these blossoms. The apple and pear 
were beautifully conspicuous ; and as the sky became 
still more serene, and the temperature yet more mild 
by the unobstructed sun beam, it is impossible to con- 
ceive any thing more balmy and more genial than was 
this lovely day. The minutes seemed to fly away too 
quickly — when we reached the village of Bocherville, 
where stands the church ; the chief remaining relic of 
this once beautiful abbey. We alighted at the au- 
berge ; and while our steeds and postillion were feast- 
ing upon their peculiar provenders, we started for the 
enjoyment of provender of a very different description. 

Turning quickly down a lane to the left, thickly 
shaded by overhanging branches of fruit trees^ we 
hastened onward, still keeping to the left ; when, peep- 
ing between the trees, at a little distance, we discerned 
the venerable ecclesiastical edifice— of a pale and 
even fresh tone of colour. It appeared to be small, 
but extremely beautiful, and of a deliciously old 
aspect. The village was all alive in a moment. 
Women and children were chiefly visible; the men 
being engaged in the fields. The towering cauchoise 
and wooden shoes proved that we were still in the vi- 
cinity of Rouen. There seemed to be plenty of dirt 
and plenty of wretchedness in the village. We in- 
qnired for Le Concierge ; and in his absence came 
^'madame son Spouse.*' We surveyed the west front 
very leism-ely^ and thought it an extremely beautiful 



190 



ROUEN TO HAVRE. 



specimen of the architecture of the twelfth and thir- 
teenth centuries; for certainly there are some portions 
more ancient than others. M. Le Prevost had apprised 
me that Mr. Cotman had designed pretty nearly the 
whole of the building,* with the exception of the chap- 
ter-house to the left of the west front. A survey of this 
chapter-house filled me with mingled soitow and de- 
light : sorrow, that the Revolution and a modern cot* 
ton manufactory had metamorphosed it from its origi- 
nal character ; and delight, that the portions which 
remained were of such beautiful forms^ and in such fine 
preservation. The stone, being of a very close-grained 
quality, is absolutely as white and sound as if it 
had been just cut from the quarry. The room^ where 
a parcel of bare legged girls and boys were working the 
respective machineries, had a roof of what may be called 
interlaced arches of the most delicate construction. 

This old building has been recently divided into an 
upper and ground floor ; and it was by means of this 
artificial division that, while upon the upper floor, we 
were enabled to make so minute a survey of the arched 
roof. I imagine the whole of this portion of the build- 
ing to have been the Chapter House ; and that on the 
scite, which is now occupied by a long front of build- 
ing, of the usual architecture of modern times^ stood 
the Refectory and Dormitory. It may, however, be 
just the reverse : nor is it material whether what we saw 
be the chapter-house or the refectory. The conversion 
of the whole to the purposes of trade has a very strange 

• Mr. Cotman has in fact published views of the West Fronts the 
South East, the West Entrance^ and the South Transept, with sculp- 
tured capitals and basso-relievosj &c. In the whole, seven plates. 



ST. GEORGES DE BOCHERVILLE. 191 



effect. But the present is not the first metamoiphosis : 
for the large building, just mentioned, was erected about 
four-score years ago by a nobleman, or prince, who 
diose to retire from the bustle of public life„ and to de- 
TOte a large fortune to the erection of this mansion as a 
monastery for a prior and seventeen lay-monks. A fine 
piece of ground, or walled park, surrounds it ; which is 
just now in a most pitiable state of neglect. In short, 
this general aspect of decay pervades the interior^ or 
manufactory itself. The superintendant, who shewed 
08 every part of this large establishment, told us that 
the owner was anxious to get rid either of the whole 
or of the half of it ; and that he would part with the 
latter for 35,000 francs. This apparently trifling sum 
would startle, at first sound, an English manufiEicturer : 
but all things, you know, must be estimated with refe-^ 
rence to the country in which they occur. Here, land 
and labour are cheap and reasonable enough^ and the 
demand (though things are upon the mend) is slow and 
uncertmn. 

The very sound of a Monastery made me curious to 
egcamine the disposition of the building. Accordingly, 
I followed my guide through suites of apartments up 
divers stone stair-cases, and along sundry corridores. 
I noticed the dormitories with due attention, and of 
course inquired eagerly for the Library : — ^but the 
shelves only remained— either the fear or the fury of 
the Revolution having long ago dispossessed it of 
$every thing in the shape of a hook. The whole was 
punted white. I counted eleven perpendicular di- 
visions ; and, from the small distances between the up- 
per shelves, there must have been a very considerable 



192 



ttOUEN TO HAVBE. 



number of duodecimos. The titles of the respective 
classes of the library were painted in white letters 
Yq>on a dark-blue groun^, at top. Bibles occupied the 
first division^ and the Fathers the second : but it 
should seem that equal importance was attached to 
the works of Heretics as to those called Littene Hu- 
maniores — ^for each had a division of equal ma^itnde. 

On close inquiry, I found that the ravages of cme 
day, during the Revolution, had gutted the poor li* 
brary of all its book-furniture. It is, hovrever, a very 
small room. There was something excessively melaii- 
choly in the air of all this premature ruin : stout walls, 
and spacious chambers, (the paint yet fresh) without 
occupation ! . . On looking out of window, especially 
from the back part of the building, the eye rests en- 
tirely upon what had once been fruitful orchards, 
abundant kitchen gardens, and shady avenues. Yet 
in England, this spot, rich by nature, and desirable 
from its proximity to a great city, would, ere forty 
moons had waned, have grown up into beauty and 
fertility, and expanded even into luxuriance of condi- 
tion. How interesting are the remans of ecclesiasti- 
cal architecture — and how yet increased in sanctity 
seems to be the house of God — ^when surrounded by a 
domain of this description! I must confess that I 
quitted this congenial spot (the first which united 
rural quiet vrith architectural antiquity, since our ears 
had been stunned by the " train-train*' of Rx>uen) with 
sensations of no ordinary kind. We retrod our steps ; 
and reaching the aiiberge, where stood the horses with 
the cabriolet ready to receive us, we remounted, and 
told the postillion to push on for Duclair. 



BE LA FONTAINE 



193 



The day was now, if possible, more lovely than before. 
Od looking at my instructions I found that we had 
to stop to examine the remains of an old castle at De^ 
k^tmtaine — about two English miles from St. Georges 
de Bocherville. These remains, however, are but the 
fragments of a ruin, if I may so speak ; yet they are 
intei^sting, but somewhat perilous : for a few broken 
portions of a wall support an upper chamber, where 
appears a stone chimney-piece of very curious con- 
stmction and ornament. Mr. Lewis contrived in ten 
minutes to make a slight yet characteristic sketch of it. 
I call these fragments perilous ; for there is a portion of 
Unem of which the superincumbent floor, of flint-stone 
and mortar, is just giving way — ^threatening to crush 
every thing below. On observing a large cavity or loop-- 
hole, about half way up the outer wall, I gained it by 
•means of a plentiful growth of ivy, and from thence 
TOTveyed the landscape before me. Here, having for 
some time past lost sight of the Seine, I caught a fine 
bold view of the sweep of that majestic river, now be- 
coming broader and broader — ^while, to the left, softly 
tinted by distance, appeared the beautiful old church we 
bad just left behind : — the verdure of the hedges, shrubs, 
and forest trees, affording a rich variety to the ruddy 
blossoms of the apple, and the white bloom of the pear. 
For a painter, or rather upon the principles of compo- 
sition for a well-painted landscape, there was nothing 
that an artist would think deserving of representing 
upon canvas : for there was absolutely neither what is 
called f(»^ground, nor middle-ground, nor distance — 
and yet, altogether, you would have preferred it even 
to the wooded scenery of Hobbima, to the cool stream- 



194 



ROUEN TO HAVRE. 



lets of Rysdael, or to the herbacious richness of Cuyp. 
I admit, however, that this delicious morceau of land* 
scape was greatly indebted, for its enchanting effect^ to 
the blue splendour of the sky, and the soft temperature 
of the air; while the fragrance of every distended bios* 
som added vastly to the gratification of the beholder. 
But it is time to descend from this elevation^ and to 
think of reaching Duclair. 

DucLAiR is situated close to the very borders of the 
Seine, which has now an absolutely lake-like appear- 
ance. We stopped at the auberge to rest our horses ; 
and Mr. Lewis, as usual, betook himself to some fa- 
vourable spot, at a small distance^ for the sake of exer- 
cising his pencil. Meanwhile I commenced a dis- 
course with the master of the inn and with his daugh^ 
ter ; the latter, a very respectable-looking and well-be- 
haved young woman of about twenty-two years of age. 
She was preparing a large crackling wood-fire to dress 
a fish, called the Alose, for the passengers of the dili^ 
gence — who were expected within half an hour. The 
French think they can never butter their victuals 
sufficiently ; and it would have produced a spasmodic 
affection, in a thoroughly bilious spectator, could he 
have seen the enormous piece of butter which this ac- 
tive young cuisini^re thought necessary to put into 
the pot in which the ^ Alose' was to be boiled. She 
laughed at the surprise I expressed; and added 
^*qu*on ne pent rien faire dans la cuisine sans le 
bewre." You ought to know, by the bye, that the Alose^ 
something like our mackerel in flavour, is a large 
and delicious fish ; and that we were always anxious 
to bespeak it at the table-d'hdte at Rouen. Extricated 



DUCLAIR. 



195 



from the lake of butter in which it floats, when brought 
upon table, it is not only a rich, but a very substantial 
fish ; and I give it decidedly the preference to all the 
items of every bill of fare presented to us by Juliana 
Bemers or Isaac Walton. 

The auberge is situated at the base of rather a lofty 
chalk cliff, close to the road side; and the opposite 
side of the road is washed by the waters of the Seine. 
I took a chair and sat in the open air, by the side of 
the door— enjoying the breeze, and much disposed to 
gossip with the master of the place. Perceiving this, 
he approached, and addressed me with a pleasant 
degree of famiharity. " You are from London, then, 
SirT ''I am." "Ah Sir, I never think of London 
but with the most painful sensations.** " How so ?" 
" Sir, I am the sole heir of a rich banker who died in 
that city before the Revolution. He was in partner* 
ship with an English gentleman. Can you possibly 
advise and assist me upon the subject?** I told 
him that my advice and assistance were literally 
not worth a sous ; but that, such as they were, he was 
perfectly welcome to both. " Your daughter Sir, is 
not married ?** — " Non, Monsieur, elle n'est pas encore 
^pous^e : mais je lui dis qu*elle ne sera jamais heurewe 
avant qu*elle ne le soit.** The daughter, who had 
overheard the conversation, came forward, and look • 
ing over her shoulder very archly, replied — " ou tnal^ 
heureuse, mon p^re !'* In the discourse which followed, 
the worthy innkeeper seemed wholly to forget all the 
agonies of disappointment in not succeeding as heir to 
the rich banker in London. Nevertheless, I am far 
from accusing him of felsehood . . . but the French 



196 



BOUEN TO HAVRE. 



Steadily looked forwards to Jumieges. " We will eat 
onr cold fowl and drink onr vin ordinaire upon tbe 
grass within the walls of the abbey/' said I to my 
companion : The Marchioness (rejoined he) can 
afford us nothing so delightful.'" Unchivalrous reply ! 
The road became more and more circuitous. We 
ascended very sensibly — ^then striking into a sort of 
bye-road, in a field, we were told that we should 

former, but to retain the latter : see pages 259> 26 1 , of the work 
just mentioned. Yet William Longesp^e, and his Son William, have 
doubtless better claims than either although not a restige remains 
of the building as it appeared in the times of the more andent 
Rulers of Normandy. I do not conceive indeed that any present 
portion of the ruins can be older than the beginning of the xiitfa cen- 
tury. That Clovifl may have been the original planner of the Abbey 
should seem to be not very improbable, from the following verses, 
taken from an old MS. Life of St. Bathilde, the wife and Queen of 
the French King : 

Jumegia ex natis Godouaei dicta Gemellis : 
Aucta refiilgebat nongentis fratribos olim. 

It must have been in Rollo*s time, therefore, a noble establishment. 
Rollo is indeed considered as the great restorer of religious edifices 
in Normandy: 

Tunc fieri delubra iubet, cellasque, domofique; 
Multaque rcstituit, priscis subuersa minis 
Prsedia, diuitla8, quo possent qofistibus absque, 
Quique Monoptolemi sedusam ducere vitam. 

Protinhs artificas sponsa mercedc labori, 
Structuras renouare parant arctando minori 
Schemate, limitibus, domumque lodque tenore 
Archetypum : tandem fobrefiacti encoenia Templi, 

&c. &c. &c. Neustria Pia, p. 306. 

William, sumamed Longespde, was the son of Rollo ; and it is 
just possible that he may have the most effectually contributed to the 
building of the Abbey. The first Abbot was Martinus ; or rather St. 
Martin — for, like St. Ouen» and the generality of first Abbots^ he was 



ABBEY OF JUMIEGES. 



190 



quickly reach the place of our destination. A frac^ 
tured capital^ and broken shafts of the late Norman 
time, left at random beneath a hedge^ seemed to bespeak 
the vicinity of the abbey. We then gained a height^ 
whence, looking straight forward, we caught the first 
giance of the spires, or rather of the small towers of the 
Abbey of Jumieges.* La voiU, Monsieur," — exclaim- 
ed the postilion — increasing both his speed and the 
flourishes of his whip—" voil^ la belle Abbayel'* 

It was indeed " beautiful" or " fine :" but these are 
words which carry force only by association of ideas. 
It hud been questionless most beautiful. The grey or 
almost white tint of the stone, contrasted by the wood- 
covered hills, in which the monastery seemed to be 
embosomed, struck us with peculiar force : " if these 
are end-towers (observed my companion) the central 
tower, now destroyed, must have been of very large 
dimensions." We approached and entered the village 
of Jumieges. Leaving some pretty houses to the right 
and left, among which is a parsonage residence of 
more than usually comfortable appearance for France, 

canonized. Among the grants of privileges^ &c. is one from our 
Henry T. " Not only (says Du Monstier) did the Norman Dukes love 
Ihe locality of> and largely endow^ the Abbey of Jumieges, but even the 
Kings of France— and chiefly Charles VII. — ^who erected there a reli- 
gious house which was standing in Du Monstiers time — not however 
without affording evidence of the ravages committed upon it by the 
Calvinists in the xvith century. It is above observed that Aones 
80RBL (mistress of Charles) was buried in the Abbey. 

* Mr. Cotman has published etchings of the West Eront : the Towers, 
aomewhat fore-shortened 5 the Elevation of the Nave — and doorway of 
the Abbey : the latter an extremely interesting specimen of art. A 
somewhat particular and animated description of it will be found in 
LAeut, BalXi Ttaoeltin France, 8vo. p. 57, 1819. 



200 



ROUEN TO HAVRE. 



we descended — and drove to a snug aubei^ evidently 
a portion of some of the outer buildings^ or of 
the chapter-house^ attached to the Abbey. A large 
gothic roof^ and central pillar^ upon entering, un- 
equivocally attest the ancient character of the place. 
The whole struck us as having been formerly of very 
great dimensions. It was a glorious sun-shiny af- 
ternoon, and the villagers quickly crowded round 
the cabriolet. Voil^ Messieurs les Anglois^ qui 
viennent voir FAbbaye— mais effectivement il n*y a 
rien k voir.'* I told the landlady the object of our 
visit. She procured us a guide and a key : and within 
.five minutes we entered the nave of the abbey. 

Sacred be the moment, and serene be the heavens^ on 
the first view of this interior ! I can never forget it. It 
has not the magical effect, or that sort of artificial burst, 
which attends the first view of Tintem abbey: but, as the 
ruin is larger, there is necessarily more to attract atten- 
tion. Like Tintem also, it is unroofed — ^yet this unroof- 
ing has proceeded from a different cause : of which pre- 
sently. The side aisles present you with a short flat- 
tened arch : the nave has none : but you observe a long 
pilaster-like or alto-relievo column, of slender dimen- 
sions, running from bottom to top, with a sort of Ro- 
man capital. The arched cieling and roof are entirely 
gone. We proceeded towards the eastern extremity, 
and saw more frightful ravages both of time and of ac- 
cident. The latter however had triumphed over the 
former : but for accident you must read revolutum. 

On the first view of each surrounding object, we 
were struck with a variety of sensations. In the land 
of Normandy — the land of castles and cathedrals — 



ABBEY OF JUMIB6ES. 201 



we fwcied a higher tone of feeling was connected 
with every thing we saw. But this was only the 
venial enthusiasm of young travellers. The day had 
been rather oppressive for a May morning ; and we 
were getting far into the afternoon^ when clouds 
began to gather^ and the sun became occasionally 
obscured. We seated ourselves upon a grassy hillock^ 
and began to prepare for cUnner. To the left of us 
lay a huge pile of fragments of pillars and groin- 
ings of arches — the effects of recent havoc : to the 
right, within three yards, was the very spot in which 
the celebrated Agnes Sorel, Mistress of Charles VII., 
lay entombed : — not a relic of mausoleum now marking 
the place where, formerly, the sculptor had exhibited 
the choicest efforts of his art, and the devotee had 
f^mired to 

Breathe a prayer for her soul — and pass on ! 

What a contrast, my dear friend, to the present aspect 
of things! — ^to the mixed rubbish and wild flowers with 
which every spot is now well nigh covered ! The mis- 
tress of the inn having furnished us with napkins and 
tumblers, we partook of our dinner, surrounded by 
the objects just described, with no ordinary sensations, 
llie first and only sentiment which we drank, was, 
(naturally I would hope) " dear Old England, and all 
that it contains — more enthusiastic toper would 
have drunk to the memories of those who slept within 
the walls of the abbey — ^but we were content to sacrifice 
Uie unknown dead to the cherished living. Yet I 
will not conceal that, more than once or twice, I felt 
a sort of romantic twinge come across me, which had 

VOL. I. N 



202 



ROUEN TO HAVRE. 



nearly induced me to make a libation to . . • Bat it 
was only a twinge — and, like twinges in general, was 
perfectly evanescent. 

llie air now became oppressive ; when, looking 
through the few remaining unglazed mullions of the 
windows, I observed that the clouds grew darker and 
darker, while a faint rumbling of thunder reached 
our ears. The sun however yet shone gaily, although 
paitially ; and as the storm neared us, it floated as it 
were round the abbey — affording, by means of its 
purple, black colour, contrasted with the pale tint of the 
walls,— one of the most beautiful painter-like effects 
ima^nable. Mr. L. started up from his seat to enjoy a 
more general view : but I was unwilling to quit the 
vicinity of Agnes Sorel — and remained tranquilly upon 
the hillock, even though two smart flashes of lightning 
had come across me. In an instant almost — and as 
if touched by the wand of a mighty necromancer — 
the whole scene became metamorphosed. The thunder 
growled, but only growled — and the threatening pha- 
lanx of sulphur-charged clouds rolled away — and 
melted into the quiet uniform tint which usually 
precedes sun-set. Our dinner being dispatched, we 
rose to make a thorough examination of the ruins which 
had survived .... not only the Revolution, but the 
cupidity of the present owner of the soil — ^who is a 
rich man, living at Rouen — and who loves to dispose 
of any portion of the stone, whether standing or pros- 
trate, for the sake of the lucre, however trifling, 
which arises from the sale. Surely the whole cor- 
poration of the city of Rouen, with the mayor at 



ABfiEY OF JUMIE6ES. 208 



their head^ ought to stand between this ruthless ri^ 
iban/* and the abbey — ^the victini of his brutal avarice 
and want of taste. 

We ascended the worn stone steps of the left tower 
of the western extremity as you enter, and walked over 
the ardied roof of the sid6 aisles^ which was covered 
with earth, grass, weeds, and wild flowers. There is 
nothing above it ; so that^ in a short time, from its 
es^posure to the vicissitudes of weather^ it must soon 
^ve way, and add to the enoripous heap of rubbish 
below. Indeed^ in one part, (but I forget over which of 
tile aisles) there is a frightful fracture, or opening, 
threatening to precipitate several ton weight of the 
MOf. The right tower is inaccessible of ascent ; but 
we pursued our spiral route to the very top of the 
left ; and, from its summit, enjoyed a glorious view 
of every thing immediately below and around us. The 
abbey had a most interesting but somewhat terrific ap- 
pearance. Nearly the whole of the eastern extremity 
was in ruins: — ^while, in the centre, the portion of the 
laptem, or square tower, which remained, denoted the 
extent of its original dimensions. The nave was en- 
tirely unroofed ; — and indeed not a single fragment of 
any portion of the roof was visible. Such a scene of sa- 
crilegious desolation can scarcely be conceived. What 
had been the abbot's lodge, the refectory, the chapter- 
house and cloisters, with all their appurtenances, is 
now perhaps only matter of conjecture : but the mate- 
rials are in a very entire state — that is to say, the stone 
is yet hard, close-grained, and of a beautiful creamy tint. 

The situation of the abbey is delightful. It lies at the 
bottom of some gently undulating hjills, within two or 



204 



ROUEN TO HAVRE- 



three hundred yards of the Seine. The river here nms 
gently, in a serpentine direction, at the foot of wood- 
covered hills — and all seemed, from our elevated sta- 
tion, indicative of fruitfulness, of gaiety, and of pros- 
perity, — all — save the mournful and magnificent 
remains of the venerable abbey whereon we gazed ! — 
In fact, Jumieges exists only as a shell. We descended^ 
strolled about the village, (taking every possible view 
of the Abbey) and mingled in the conversation of the 
villagers. It was a lovely approach of evening — and 
men, women, and children were seated, or sauntering 
in the open air. Perceiving we were anxious to gain 
information, they flocked around us — and from one 
man, in particular, I obtained exact intelligence about 
the havoc which had been committed during the Revo- 
lution upon the abbey. The roof had been battered 
down for the sake of the lead — ^to make bullets ; the 
pews, altars, and iron-work, had been converted into 
other destructive purposes of warfare; and the great 
bell had been sold to some speculators in a cannon- 
foundery at Rouen. The revolutionary mania had 
even brutalized the Abbot. This man, who must be 
considered as 

damned to everlasting fame, 

had been a monk of the monastery ; and as soon as he 
had attained the headship of it, he took it into his 
head to dispose of every tangible and moveable piece of 
furniture, to gratify the revolutionary pack which were 
daily howling at the gates of the abbey for entrance! 
Nor could he plead compulsion as an excuse. He 
seemed to enjoy the work of destruction, of which he 
had the absolute direction. But enough of this wretch. 



CAUDEBEC. 



905 



Having gratified our curiosity, as much as we were 
enabled, rather than as much as we wished, to do— 
we returned to the cabaret : ordered the horses, and 
prepared to quit Jumieges for Caudebec. The land- 
lady seemed loath to part with us, — tant elle aima 
Messieurs les Anglois qui venoient voir sa ch^re Abbaye 
de Jnmieges !** In five minutes we retraced our route 
through the village, and bade adieu to the Abbey . . 

a long and lingering adieu" — while the two slim 
western towers seemed to requite us for our solicitude 
by keeping in view whenever we chose to look behind 
—even till we came within a league of our next resting^ 
place. 

That resting-place was Caudebec; and the road 
thereto, from the spot we had just quitted, was, if pos- 
sible, more interesting than the preceding route. The 
son was about to sink into the waters of the Seine : 
—which were in one warm crimson hue for the last 
hour before we reached Caudebec. An evening of un- 
uraal serenity— or rather of splendour — crowned the 
gratifications of this busy day. The road was fre- 
quently winding ; but in general we kept pretty close 
to the banks of the Seine — on the opposite side 
of which, within about a league of Caudebec, we saw 
the chateau and terrace of the Marquise of (men- 
tioned a few minutes ago) whither many English resort, 
and where fruit trees and flowers rejoice the wondering 
eye and make sweet the circumambient air ! A ferry 
conducts you straight to the spot — ^which my imagina- 
tion peopled with valorous knights and courtly dames. 
Indeed I almost sighed as I passed this supposed ma- 
gical residence . . • and pressed onwards for Caudebec. 



206 



ROUEN TO HAVRE. 



Caudebec is a very considerable village^ or rather a 
small town. You go down a steep descent, on entering 
it by the route *we came. As you look about, there 
are singular appearances on all sides — of houses, and 
hanging gardens, and elaborately cut avenues — ^upon 
summits, declivities, and on the plain. But the charm 
of the view, at least to my old-fashioned eyes, was a 
fine old gothic church, and a very fine spire of what 
appeared to belong to another. As the evening had 
completely set in, we resolved to reserve our admiration 
of the place till the morrow. We had forgotten the 
Bame of the best inn — always a most important me- 
mento—and acqprdingly, in compliance with the in- 
structions received from the people in the street, we 
drove to the first auberge which presented itself. It 
was certainly of the sorriest possible aspect, and of the 
most straightened dimensions. But we were tired, and 
heartily glad of a resting-place. After securing beds, 
we strolled about the village. An avenue of trees, 
close to the water's edge, (I am speaking of the Seine) 
quickly caught our attention — and the light from a 
spruce calffi^e as quickly induced us to enter and be- 
speak refreshment. It was now quite dark. Remote 
as was this solitude, and humble as appeared almost 
every mansion, we were equally surprised and delighted 
by the appearance of neatness and comfort of every 
thing within this cofiee-house. We ordered tea: when 
the sound of this well-known English beVerage brought 
forth a middle-aged, respectable looking woman, who 
addressed us in French — ^which instantly struck me asl 
an Anglo-gallican melange. My reply helped to throw 
off the mask completely ; and we were glad to recog- 



CAUDEBEC. 



207 



nise each other as English. She told us she had been 
fourteen years domesticated in that mansion, of which 
the mistress was a woman of beauty and virtue, but 
overwhelmed with misfortune — " but," says she, " let 
me go and tell the girl how to make your tea, and then 
we will talk more at leisure/' 

On her return, we quickly resumed our promis- 
cuous chit-chat. To be sure she dearly loved talking : 
but the tea was good, and so was the cream, and so 
were the eggs, and eke the bread and butter : — and a 
delicious repast we made. Meanwhile some straggling, 
countrified-looking customers, camerwith their sous to 
enjoy their draught of eau de vie, but without the least 
tendency to inebriety. Tliere was a brightly-burn- 
ing lamp suspended to the cieling of the coffee house, 
and as Englishmen were rarely seen in the retired 
village of Caudebec, these customers gazed at us with 
a wonder-smitten eye. " You must come to-morrow 
morning and take your coffee here" — observed our 
good countr}'woman — they make excellent coffee at 
this house." We agreed to come on the morrow to 
breakfast, and so took our leave : retiring to our humble 
auberge, where two good beds, and sheets yet whiter 
than the freshest looking remaining stone in the abbey 
of Jumieges, awaited our return. Here I finished the 
journal of the occurrences of the day before I went to 
rest. . . • and here methinks is a fair and fitting oppor- 
tunity to wish my friend good night. So fare you 
well : and open the leaves of your Neush*ia PiOy to 
make yourself master of the Antiquities of the Abbey 

OF JUMIEGKS. 



206 



LETTER XL 

CAUDEBEC. LILLfiBONNE. BOLBEC. TANKAi|VILLB. 
MONTMORBNCI CASTLE. HAVRE DE GRACE. 

My last concluded with a night-scene at Caudebec. 
The present opens with a morning scene at the same 
place. Mr. Lewis, who generally contrives to borrow 
the wings of the lark, was stirring before six o'clock : 
and put his pencil in requisition a very short time after 
he had reached a fdvoumble spot. I told you in my last 
that Caudebec was a sort of an up-and-down place : 
nith hanging gardens, villas, and commanding terraces. 
Upon one of these latter, Mr. L. took liis station. It 
commanded a good bird's-eye view of the principal 
rtreet in the town. The sun was shining beautifully 
bright, lighting up the broad meandering Seine, the 
tower, and spire of the church, and the curiously cut 
avenues of the public gardens : which latter, indeed, 
have the effect, upon paper, of an ancient aqueduct. 
In the foreground, upon the walled terrace, some 
girls were sitting and gathering vegetables. One of 
them was reading. A dexterous aitist knows how to 
seize such an opportunity — and accordingly Mr. L 
contrived to put his whole picture together in a man- 
ner which perfectly enchanted me — when we met at the 
foi*ementioned caffie at breakfast. Look at it — * and 
fastidious as you are, dare you ventui'e to say that it 
hath a single defect ? 

• Sec the Oi*posit£ Plate. 



CAUDEBEC. 209 

I was however myself, for a miracle, stirring before 
line. The church was the first object of attraction. 
For the size of the place, it is really a noble structure : 
3erhaps of the early part of the sixteenth, or latter part 
y[ the fifteenth century. I speak of the exterior gene- 
rally, and of a great portion of the interior. A little 
shabby green-baise covei-ed door (as usual) was half 
open, and I entered with no ordinary expectations 
of gratification. The painted glass seemed abso- 
lutely to warm the place — so rich and varied were 
its colours. ThM*e is a great abundance of it, andespe* 
cially of figures of families kneeling — rather small, but 
with great appearance of portrait-like fidelity. They 
are chiefly of the first half of the sixteenth century : and 
I own that, upon gazing at these charming specimens of 
ancient painting upon glass, I longed to fix an artist 
before every window, to bear away triumphantly, 
in a portfolio of elephantine dimensions, a fiEiithful copy 
of almost every thing I saw. In some of the counter- 
nances, I &ncied I traced the pencil of Lucas Cra- 
NACH — and even of Hans Holbein. But I must not 
omit informing you of an interesting occurrence, 
which helped to give additional magic to the scene. I 
have told you that, in France, there is a perpetual in- 
gress and egress of devotees— especially of females. 
The nave and aisles are plentifully sprinkled with rush- 
bottomed chairs, upon which the devotees kneel — 
but always with a slanting or see-saw position of the 
chair. Upon one of these chairs, in such slanting posi- 
tion, knelt a young woman of the most regular set of 
features and interesting expression. Her profile, even 
to your own severe taste, might have been considered 



210 ROUEN TO HAVRE. 

perfect. She had large circular ear-rings, and was 
dressed in the Norman attire of blue and crimson. 
Her lips appeared to be exercised in prayer before a 
statue of the Virgin, and her raised eye and clasped 
hands denoted an intensity of devotion. The sun shone 
full upon the window which faced her, and which threw 
a warmth of colour over her whole figure. Her eye 
turned towards me, but her lips and hands were yet 
occupied in devotion. Perhaps, for effect, no devo- 
tional figure ever presented itself in a more interesting 
manner — both personally and locally considered. 

This church has numerous side chapels, and figures 
of patron-saints. The entombment of Christ in white 
marble, (at the end of the chapel of the Virgin,) 
is rather singular ; inasmuch as the figure of Christ 
itself is ancient, and exceedingly fine in anatomical 
expression ; but the usual surrounding figures are mo- 
dern, and proportionably clumsy and inexpressive. 
I noted one mural monument, to the memory of GrutL- 
laume TeUier, which was dated 1184. This date was 
undoubtedly only a repetition of the ancient one. Few 
churches have more highly interested me, than this at 
Caudebec* From the church I strolled to the Place, 
where stood our calBK, by the banks of the Seine. The 
morning view of this scene perfectly delighted me. 
Nothing can be more picturesque; The river cannot 
be much less than a mile in width, and it makes a per- 
fect bend in the form of a crescent. On one side, that 
on which the village stands, are walks and gardens 

* the Church at Caudebec,'] — ^Lieutenant Hall has weU described it. 
I did not see his description till more than a twelremonth alter mj 



CAUDEBEC. 



211 



through which peep numerous white villas — and on 
the other are meadows, terminating in lofty rising 
grounds — ^feathered with coppice-wood down to the 
very water's edge. This may be considered^ in fact, 
only a portion of the vast Forest de Breione, which 
rises in wooded majesty on the opposite heights. As 
the morning was fine, the effect was really exhilarating: 
but the recollection of Richmond Hill suggested to me 
how this infinitely more magnificent sweep of river* 
would have been improved, in a picturesque point of 
view, by vessels and sailing bolfts, with gay streamers, 
in perpetual motion ! The spirit and the wealth of our 
countrymen would make Caudebec one of the most 
enchanting summer-residences in the world. The po- 
pulation of the town is estimated at about five thousand* 
We assembled at the caff€ a little after nine, and 
there met the good Englishwoman who had procured 

own had been written. A part may be worth extracting The 
principal object of attraction is the Church^ the gothic spire of whid^ 
is encircled by fillets of roses^ beautifidly carved in stone, and conti- 
nued to the very summit of the steeple. The principal portal too is 
•colptured with no less richness and delicacy than that of St. Macloud 
al Rouen. Its interior length is about 250 feet by 72 of width. The 
central aisle [nave] is flanked on either side by ten massive circular 
columns, the capitals of which represent vine leaves and other decora- 
tions, more fanciful, and not less rich, than the Corinthian acanthus . . 
In one of the chapels there is a rude monumental effigy of the original 
architect of this church. It consists of a small skeleton, drawn in 
black lines, against a tablet in the wall : a mason^s level and trowel, 
with the plan of a building, are beside it, and an inscription in gothic 
characters, relating that the architect endowed the church he had built 
with certain lands, and died Anno 1184.'* Travels tn France, p. 47, 
1819, 8vo. I take this to be Guillaume Tbllie*— mentioned above. 



212 



ROUEN TO HAVRE. 



us tea according to art** the preceding evening. The 
coffee, I must own, was even better than we were 
taught to expect. Our conversation was directed 
chiefly to a knowledge of the locale, and of the general 
character of the inhabitants. There was a brewery; 
which, said our loquacious guide, was conducted by a 
Scotchman; who had also entered into partnership in the 
coal trade. This latter will excite your astonishment 
— considering that Normandy abounds in woods. But 
the truth is, the present generation is entirely thought- 
less of that which is succeed. Within the imme- 
diate vicinity of great towns, even of Rouen, the coun- 
try is denuded of trees; and yet no one thinks of 
planting. Thus, let only twenty-five years pass away, 
and where will be the Frenchman's fuel ? Even as it 
is, that article is of excessive high price — through- 
out the whole of France. Understanding that our 
friends in * * * * * had some thoughts of hiring a house 
for the summer in this neighbourhood, I told our iiemale 
acquaintance of the circumstance, and begged that 
she would interest herself for me. LiCt us," said she, 
^^set off immediately — for at this precise moment, 
there is an excellent vacant residence close to the river 
side.*' We paid our reckoning, (three francs a-head) 
and left the coffee-house immediately. 

But judge of my astonishment, when, on going out 
of doors, I saw the river in a state of extreme agitation: 
the whole mass of water rising perpendicularly, as it 
wei-e, and broad rippling waves rolling over each other. 
It was the coming in of the tide .... and within a 
quarter of an hour it appeared to have risen upwards 
of two feet. You may remember that, in our own 



CAUDEBEC. 



213 



country^ the Severn-tides exhibit the same phenome- 
non; and I have seen the river at Gloeester rise at 
once to the height of eight or ten feet, throwing up a 
shower of foam fipom the gradually narrowing bed of 
the river, and causing all the craft, great and small, to 
rise up as if by magic, and to appear upon a level with 
the meadows. The tide at Caudebec, though similar in 
kind, was not so in degree ; for it rose gradually yet 
most visibly — and by the time we had reached the 

house to let," the elevation could not have been less 
than seven or eight feet. 

As you ought to have a picture of a bettermost 
house to let in Normandy, you must read patiently 
what follows. An outer-wall with a carriage entrance 
first arrested our attention. We could not see what 
iFas behind — and omne ignotum pro magnifico** you 
know. We pulled a wire, expecting that wire to 
cause a bell to sound; but we pulled a long time with- 
out being favoured with any such sound. Effects are 
tmly adequate to their causes, and vice versa. Now the 
bell happened to have no connection with the wire, 
simply because the wire happened to have no connec- 
tion with the bell: in other words, because the said 
wipe had been broken these six months. We knocked 
with our fists, and obtained admission. To the left 
was. a remise, or place to put a carriage in : above 
was a good hay loft, and below was a stall (without 
divisions, as usual) for five horses. The mansion 
house was long and low: covered with white thick 
Venetian blinds, half open, and half in want of re- 
pair. The suite of apartments was considerable, but 
in a most melancholy looking plight : the furniture be- 



214 



ROUEN TO HAVRE. 



low was withdrawn. • The dining room, with a brick 
floor, was of goodly dimensions — and the end-rooms 
were in the character of bondoirs. The kitchen, 
liard by, exhibited but sorry capabilities — and neither 
spit, pot, nor pan, was visible. Above stairs, there were 
bed rooms furnished with beds, and a good drawing 
room — ^with yellow velveteen furniture, even to the 
bottoms of the chairs. The view of the garden, and 
of the river, immediately in front, was extremely in- 
teresting — and English neatness would have ren- 
dered the former a little " paradise of sweets.** The 
end rooms, like those below, in the character of 
boudoirs, had each a view of the bend of the river ; 
— and that, to the left, might have warmed the most 
cold-hearted observer of nature. The situation was un- 
doubtedly charming; but a rubbishing look pervaded 
even the very laburnums, which were streaming with 
gold. As for the box, which flanked the gravel walks, 
both box and walk wanted a thorough revolutionising — 
in other words, clipping, turning up, and rolling. Thf 
furniture must have been hired ; and exclusively of 
this extra cost, we were told that the house could not 
bie let for three months under forty Napoleons : — ^un^ 
doubtedly a very considerable price for the remote 
town of Caudebec. 

Having followed up this expedition by a walk upon 
the heights of the town, with which I was much grati- 
fied, we returned to our humble auberge, ordered the 
cabriolet to be got ready, and demanded the reckon- 
ing : — which, considering that we were not quite at an 
hdtel-royale, struck us as being far from moderate. 
Two old women, of similar features and age, presented 



CAUDEBEC. 



215 



themselves as we were getting into the carriage: one 
was the mistress, and the other the fiUe de chambre. 
" Mais, Monsieur (observed one of them) n'oubliez 
pes^je vous prie, la-fille-de-chambre — rappellez-vons 
que vos souliers ont et€ sup^rieurcment d^crott^s.'* I 
took ont a franc to remunerate the supposed fille-de- 
diambre — but was told it was the mistress. N'importe, 
Monsieur, c'est k ce moment que je suis fille-de-cham-^ 
bre— qnand vous serez parti, je serai la mattresse.'* 
Hie postillion seemed to enjoy this reparteee as much 
as ourselves : and bidding adieu to the worthy English- 
woman, who had so long resided in this place, and who 
appeared to look upon her countrymen as the rarest of 
all rare birds, we started forward for Lillebonnb. 

We were scarcely out of the town half a mile, when 
we began to ascend. We found ourselves quickly in 
die middle of those rising grounds which are seen from 
the promenade or Place du CaffSy and could not look 
nithout extraordinary gratification upon the beautiAil 
sliaracter of spring in its matured state. The larch 
tru even yet picturesque: the hazel and nut trees 
irere perfectly clothed with foliage, of a tender yet 
joyous tint : the chestnut was gorgeously in bloom ; the 
[kne and beech were beginning to give abundant pro- 
miale of their future luxuriance — while the lowlier tribes 
df laburnum and box, with their richly clad branches, 
covered the ground beneath entirely from view, 
rhe apple and pear blossoms still continued to varie- 
^te the wide sweep of foliage, and to fill the mr with 
their delicious perfume. It might be Switzerland in 
niniature— or it might not. Only this I know — ^that 
it seemed as though one could live embosomed and en- 



216 



ROUEN TO HAVRE. 



chanted in such a wilderness of sweets — ^reading the 
fabliaux of the*old Norman bards till the close of hu- 
man existence. We continued visibly, and even 
sharply^ to ascend ; and when we caught glimpses of 
the reach or winding of the river, nothing more beauti- 
fully picturesque could be imagined. But it was a 
picture of Spring scenery — ^lighted up by a bright bhic 
sky, and golden glow of sun shine. Nor must my fiu 
vourite church, before so particularly described, be 
forgotten in this joy-inspiring panorama. It stood, 
grey and venerable, (yet full of projecting gothic or- 
nament), like age in the mi^st of youth : attemp»ii^ 
and harmonising every thing around it. Still we con- 
tinued to mount higher and higher. We had some 
time past quitted the cabriolet, and walked on foot. 

Ma foi Messieurs (exclaimed our postillion) il me 
paroit que nous aliens monter jusqu*au ciel.** Mais 
pour mes pauvres chevaux. Monsieur — ^ils seront bien 
fiatigu^. II faut qu'ils mangent un bon din6.'* Us 
le mangeront k Lillebonne,** replied I. — A la bonne 
heure, done. Messieurs, montez, je vous prie : Lille- 
bonne est un pen loin d*ici— et pour y arriver k midi, 
il faut les fouett^r un pen."' So saying, we mounted — 
having gained the summit, and one of the animals be- 
coming hot and I'esti ve, the postillion forgot all his com- 
passionate feelings, and never ceased to belabour him, 
with spur and whip, at a smart gallop, for nearly half 
a French league. In five minutes we left all that was 
picturesque behind us ; and striking ojflf through bye- 
roads, across fields, (of which every inch was in an ad- 
mirable state of cultivation) enquired at almost every 
turn for the nearest route to Lillebonne. 



LILLEBONNE. 



217 



We found ourselves on a hard, strait, chalky old 
road— evidently Roman : and in due time perceived 
and entered the town of Lillbbonnb. But the sky had 
become overcast : soft and small rain was descending, 
and an unusual gloom prevailed • • . when we halted, 
agreeably to onr instructions, immediately before the 
gate of the ancient Castle.* Venerable indeed is this 
Norman castle, and extensive are the ruins which 
have survived. I shall never forget how it peeped 
odt npon us — through the light leaf of the pop- 
lar, and the pink blossom of the apple. It lies 
ckwe to the road, on the left. An old round tower, 
apparently of the time of William the Conqueror, 
very soon attracts your attention. The stones are 
large, and the interstices are also very considerable. 
It was here, says a yet current report, that William 
aasembled the Barons of Normandy, and the invasion 
of England was determined upon. Such a spot thens- 
fore strikes an English beholder with no ordinary 
emotions. We alighted; sent the cabriolet to the inn, 
and wished both postillion and horses to get their 
dinners without delay. For ourselves, we had resolved 

• the andeni Caitle,']—Tbis Castle is well described by Lieut. 
HaU; who has also given a wood-cut representation, but in too rude a 
manner, of the discovered walls in the ai^acent Raman theatre. He 
thinks this latter the Julia Bona of Ptolemy and Antoniniis. He 
supposes the old circular Norman tower, above mentioned, to be the 
doi\)on-keep. Upon the key-stone of the vaulting of the upper story, 
which had fallen in, was carved an escutcheon, bearing quarterly 1 
and 4, three manacles upon barulets; 3 and 3, five bosses, (peihaps 
besaats) with an escutcheon of pretence, three banilets.** 

Traioels in Erance, p, 58. 

VOL I. O 



2ia ROUEN TO HJlVBE. 



to reserve our appetites till we reached Bolbec; 
and there 'was food enough before us^ of a different 
description^ to exercise our intellectual digestioa fi>rat 
least the next coming hour. We knocked at the mas^ 
sre portals, and readily obtained admittance. 

The area, entirdy a grass-plat, was occupied 
several cows. Be£Dre us were evidently the . ruins of a 
large chapel or church — ^perhaps of the xivth centmy. 
The outer foce of the walls went deeply and perpendh> 
cularly down to the bottom of a dry fosse ; and.theri^ 
angle portion of the building was covered with garden 
ground, where the owner showed us some peas, winch 
be boasted he should have at his table within fiie. 
days. I own I thought he was. very likely to carry hit 
boast into execution ; for finer vegetables, or a finer 
bed of earth, I had scarcely ever noticed. How tfaii^ 
my dear friend,^ are changed from their original 
Fueter and destination I But the okl round tower/* 
say you ! — to the old round tower** then let us ga 
Tlie stair-case is narrow, dark, and decayed. We 
reached the first floor, or circular room, and Mr. L. 
made a rough drawing of the peculiarity of the eon<^ 
struction of the window seats — all of rough, solid, and 
massive stone. No silken settees, or chintz sofas, ever 
adorned the interior of this prison-like abode! We 
ascended to the second floor; which, if I remember 
rightly, was strewn with a portion of the third floor — 
that had fallen in from sheer decay. Great must have 
been the crash — as the fragments were huge, and 
widely scattered. On gaining a firm footing upon the 
outer wall, through a loop-hole window^ we gazed 
around us with equal wonder and delight. Bunches 



LILLEBOMMB. 



ttw^SM&w», in ftiU bloom, were growiog at our feet, 
ttd tf^iaBftg OS #itb tiseir fingnntie ; ttrfaile Rhi'abs of 
different species had contrived to take root in the in- 
i WW tfCiLtf 6t the wall, tad t6 make otir immecfiate fore- 
grotfnd a retyresentation of youth compared with old 
age, • • . the latter arising from the character of the sur- 
fomiding ruins. The wall of this round castle could 
Mfc be le89 than ten feet in thickness. A yonng woman, 
tte ri iq>er 4cft of the spot, attended us as guide. 

^ What kF that irregular rude mound, or wall of 
€Hith, in' the centre of which children are playing 
^It is the old Raman Theatre^ Sir.** 1 immediate^ 
ealled to mind M. Le Prevost^s instructions — and if I 
imild have borrowed the wings of a ^irit, I shoidd 
have instantly alighted upon the spot— but it was situ- 
ated inthout the precincts of the old castle and its ap^ 
jjMUtenances, and a mortal leap would have been at- 
tended with a mortal result. Have you many English 
who visit this q)ot?** said I to my guide. — Scarcely 
aogr, Sir-4t is a frightful place — ^friU of desolation and 
s a dncgs . .** replied she. We gazed around, and in the 
Asfance, through an aperture in the orchard trees, we 
mW the little fishing village of Quillebettfy* quite bu- 
ried^ as it were, in the waters of the Seine. An arm 
of the nxer meanders towards Lillebonne. Having 
gtalified oor picturesque and antiquarian propensities, 
from this elevated situaticm, we retrod, with more dif- 

* ihe UHU fahmg vUlage of QtitUe6etif:]— -Small as naay be thk 
tilli^ and inwgnificant as may be its aspect, it is one of themodt im-. 
pnrtant plag<a, with respect to navigatioD, in the vrhxAe course of thi6' 
river Seine, Seven yeais a^ theie were not fewer than fimr-Memrt 



220 



ROUEN TO HAVRE. 



ficulty than toil, our steps down the stair-case. A 
second stroll about the area, and along the skirtazof 

pilots settled here> by order of goTemmeat, for the purpose of goaid- 
ing against accidents which arise from a want of knowledge of th^ 
navigation of the river. In time of peace this nmnber would necessa- 
rily be increased. In the year 1789 there were upwards of 250 Eng- 
lish vessels which passed it — averaging, in the whole, 19,000 tons. 
It is from QuiUebeuf to Havre that the accidents arise. The author of 
a pompous, but very instructive memoir, " Sur la Topographie et la 
SiatUtique de la Ville de QuiUebeuf et de Vembauchure de la Seine, 
aifont pour objet-principal la navigation et la peM" (published in the 
Transactions of the Rouen Society for the year 1812, and from which 
the foregoing information has been obtained) mentions three or four 
weeks which have taken place in the Immediate vicinity of Quillebeaf : 
and it should seem that a calm is, of all things, the most fotal. The 
currents are strong, and the vessel is left to the mercy of the ti^es 
in consequence. There are also rocks and sand banks in abundancer 
Among the wrecks, was one in which a young girl of eighteen 
years of age fell a victim to the ignorance of the pilot. The vessel 
made a false tack between Hode and TancarviUe, and running upon a 
bank was upset in an instant. An English vessel once shared the same 
calamity. A thick fog suddenly came on, when the sloop ran upon a bank 
near the Nez de Tancarville, and the crew had just time to throw them- 
selves into the boat and escape destruction. The next mornings so 
sudden and so decisive was the change wrought by the sand and cur- 
rent, that, of the sloop, there remained, at ebb-tide, only ten feet of 
her mast visible ! It appears that the QuUlebois, owing to their de- 
tached situation, and their peculiar occupations, speak a Very bar- 
barous French. They have a sort of sing-song method of pronuncia- 
tion ; and the g and j are strangely perverted by them. Consult the 
memoir here referred to ; which occupies forty octavo pages : and 
which forms a sequel to a previous communication (in 1810) upon 
the Topography and Medical properties of QuiUebeiif and its a4iacent 
parts.*' The author is M. Boismare. His exordium is a spedm^ of 
the very worst possible taste in composition !** One would suppose it 
to be a prelude to an account of the discovery of anoUiflr Amerieai ! • 



LILLEBONNE. 



221 



the wall, was sufficient to convince us only — ^how 
sUgfat and imperfect had been our survey ! This I am 
qute sure of : — our friend * * * * would have break- 
ihsted, dined, and supped, within the walls of the 
castle of Lillebonne : or, rather, he would have gone 
without breakfast, dinner, and supper, could he only 
have had a fair sky and a good Brookman and Lang^ 
ion pencil, with kindly drawing-paper, in his hand ! 

On quitting the portal through which we had en^ 
tered, and bidding adieu to our Shepherdess and guide, 
we immediately hastened towards the Roman The-^ 
atre. The town of Lillebonne has a vastly pretty, 
pi<!turesque appearance from the old mound, or raised 
tarace, along the outer walls of the castle. In five 
minutes we mingled with the school boys who were 
amusing themselves within the ruins of all that is 
left of this probably once vast and magnificent old 
theatre. It is only by clearing away a great quantity 
ci earth, with which these ruins are covered, that you 
can correctly ascertain their character and state of 
preservation. M. Le Prevost bade me remark that the 
walls had much swerved from their original perpendi- 
cularity, — and that there was much irregularity in the 
laying of the bricks among the stones. But time, de- 
sign, and accident, have each in turn (in all probabi- 
lity) so contributed to decompose, defiice, and alter 
the original aspect of the building, that there is no 
forming a correct conjecture as to its ancient form. 
Earth, grass, trees, flowers, and weeds, have taken 
almost entire possession of some low and massive outer 
wiiUs ; so th'at the imagination has full play to supply 
aU defifciencies which appear to the eye. 



/ 



m ROUEN TQ II^VRE. 

From the whole of this interesting spot we retrestted, 
with mixed sensations of melancholy and frarporisf-^ 
our little anberge of the Three NegroeSy in the ceatre 
of the town. It had begun to rain smartly as we took 
shelter in the kitchen — ^where^ for the first time sum 
leaving England, I saw a display ofntensils which mjighl 
have vied with our own, or even with a Dntch inteyior, 
for neatness and order of disposition. Some oflhi 
dishes might have been as ancient as — ^n<»t the M 
Round Tower — but as the last English Duke of Nor^ 
mandy who might have banquetted there. The wiude 
was in high polish and in full display. On my q«n»* 
plimenting the good Aubergiste upon so creditable fi 
sight, she laughed, and replied briskly — Ce ne'rt 
rien, ceci : Pentecdte est tout pr^s, et done voua vwm, 
Monsieur/' — It should seem that Whitsuntide was tb9 
season for a general household purification. Some of 
her furniture had once belonged to the Castle: but sli9 
had bought it, in the scramble which took place at th^ 
dispersion and destruction of the move^les there^ 
during the Revolution. Wherever we went, traoes of 
that curse of France seemed to come across us I I 
recommend all travellers to take a lunch, and eiyoy a 
bottle of vin ordinaire, at Les Trois Nigresr^^ we 
did. I was obliged to summon up all my stock of 
knowledge in polite phraseology, in order to d^cliw ft 
plate of soup. It was delicious above every thii^ 
— but we had postponed taking dinner till we got 
to Bolbec." " Bon — ^vous y trouverez un hotSl su- 
perbe.'' We parted in the utmost good huinour^ upon 
my making no doubt that her soup was the b«ipt in jtho 
world.'' The French are easily pleased^ wid qivtfity is 



BOLBEC. 



223 



00 cheap and tmrrent a coin abroad^ that I wish our 
ooantrymen irould make use of it a little more fre- 
qnently than th^ appear to do. We started about 
tiro for Bolbec. 

The rain continued during the ^hole of our route 
thither ; but it did not prevent us from witnessii^g a 
land of plenty and of picturesque beauty on all sides. 
Indeed it is scarcely possible to conceive a more rich 
aad luxuriant state of culture. To our left, about half 
a league from Lillebdnne, we passed the domain of a 
ttnce wealthy, and extremely ^tensive abbey. I think 
Aey call it the Ahhey of Beauclois. A long rambling 
kare stone wall, and portions of a deserted ruin, kept 
ki right for fall half an English mile. What a country is 
Normandy for ecclesiastical remains ! The immediate 
approach to Bolbbc is that of the entrance to a modem 
ud flourishing trading town, which seems to be be^ 
ginning to recover from the effects of the Revolu*' 
tibn. After Rouen, and even Caudebec, it has a st^ 
modernized air. We drove to the principal inn> 
^l^iosite the church, and bespoke dinner and beds^ 
The church is perfectly modem, and equally heavy 
and large. Crowds of people were issuing from f^es- 
pers ; when, ascending a flight of steps, (for it is built 
on ground considerably above the ground-floor of the 
inn) we resolved to wait for the final departure of the 
congregation, and to take a leisurely survey of the in- 
terior, while our dinner was getting ready. 

The sexton was a perfect character in his way ; old, 
shrewd, communicative, and civil. We saw several 
confessionals. " What — you confess here pretty 
muchr Yes, Sir; but chiefly females^ and among 



224 



ROUEN TO HAVRE. 



them many widows.*" I had said nothing to provoke 
this ungallant reply. In respect to the sacrament^ 
what is the proportion between the communicants, 
as to sex " Sir, there are one hundred women ta 
twelve men.** I wish I could say that this dispropor- 
tion were confined to France. 

We quitted this heavy and ugly, but large and com- 
modious fabric, and betook ourselves to our inn and 
dinner. The cook was in every respect a learned pro- 
fessor in his art, and the produce of his skill was 
equally excellent and acceptable. We had scarcely 
finished our repast, and the Gruyere cheese and nuts 
yet lingered upon our table, when the soft sounds of 
an organ, accompanied by a youthful voice, saluted 
our ears in a very pleasing manner. Cest lb 
PAUVRB PETIT SAVOYARD, Messieurs'*— exckumed the 
waiter — " Vous allez entendre un air touchant ! Ah, le 
pauvre petit !" — " Comment 5a " Messieurs, il n'a 
ni p^re ni m^re ; m^s pour le chant— oh Dieu, il n'y 
a personne qui chante comme le pauvre petit Savoy- 
ard We were well disposed to hear the song, and 
to admit the truth of the waiter's observation. The 
little itinerant stopped opposite the door^ and sung the 
following airs : — 

Ban jour, Bon soir. 

Je peindrai sans detour 

Tout Temploi de ma vie : 

C*est de dire bonjour 

£t ban soir tour-ii-tour. 

Bonjour k mon amie, 

Lorsque je vfus la voir. 

Mais au fat qui m'ennuie, 

Bom soir. 



BOLBEC. 



225 



Bon jour iranc troubadour, 
Qui chantez la bombance ; 
La paix et lea beaux jours ; 
Bacchus et les amours. 
Qu'un rimeur en d^mence 
Vienne avec vous s'asseoir, 
Pour chanter la romance, 

Bon soir. 

Bonjour^ mon cher vcnsin, 
Chez vous la soif m'entndne : 
Bon jour — si votre vin 
Est de Beaune on du Rhin ; 
Mon gosier va sans peine 
Lui servir d'entonnoir ; 
Mab sll est de Surene, 

Bon soir. 

Aussi content qu un roi 
Quand mes vers vous font rire, 
Je suis de bonne foi, 
CTest un bon jour pour moi. 
Si ma muse en d^ire 
A trahi mon espoir, 
Je n^ai qu^un mot k dire, 

Bon soir, 

Le VaiUant Troubadour.* 
Beulant d'^amour, et partant pour la guerre, 
Un Troubadour, ennemi du chagrin, 

* I subjoin a version of this popular French air, from Pouts 
Letters to his Kinsfolk^ p. 21 1. It is worthy of juxtarposition, 
because it may be con^dered as fully equal to the ori^nal* 

The Troubadour. 
Glowing with love, on fire for fame, 

A Troubadour that hated sorrow. 
Beneath his Lady's window came. 

And thus he snog his last good morrow ; 



4 



EOUEN TO HAVRE. 



Dans son dSxre, k ba jeune Bergire, 
En la quittant r^p^tait sod refraia: 
Mon bras i ma petrie, 
Mon ooeur k moo amie ; 
Mourir gaiment pour la gknre ou ramour, 
C'est le devoir d^m vaillant Troubadoiir» 
Dans le bivouac k Troubadour fid^ 
Le casque au front, la guitare k la main, 
Toujours penaf et regrettant sa Bdlc^ 
Allait partout en cfaantant aoii refrain : 



" My arm ic is my eomitry'ft rSgfat, 

My hetit is in my tnie lo?e's bower ; 

Guly for love and fkme to tgY^t 
Befits the gallant Troubadoar." 

And while he marchM with hebn on head 
And harp in hand, the descant rang. 

As faithfiil to his favoorite maid. 

The minstrel burthen still he sung : 

" My arm it is my country's right. 

My heart Is in my Lady^i bower ; 

Resolv'd for love and &me to fight, 

I come a gallant Troubadour." 

Even when the battle's roar was deep. 

With dauntless heart he hew'd lus way 
Mid splintering lance, and falchion sweep. 

And still was heard his warrior lay i 
My Hfe it is my country's right ; 

My heart is in my Lady's bower 
For love to die, for fame to fight. 

Becomes the valiant Troubadour." 

Alas ! upon the bloody field 

He fell beneath the foeman's glaive 3 
But stiU, leciining on his shield. 

Expiring sung the exuhfaig stave ; 
" My Hfe it is my country's right. 

My heart is in my Lady's bower 
For love and fiune to fiUl in fight 

Becomes the vaUaat Troubadour." 



BOLBEC. 



227 



Mon bras k ma patrie, etc. 
Dana les combats d^plopmt son oourage, 
Des emiemis terminant le destin, 
Le Troubadour, au milieu du carnage^ 
Faisait encore entendre ce refrun : 
Mon bras k ma patrie, etc 
Ce brave, h^las ! pour prix de sa yaiUanoe 
Tfouva bientot la tr^pas en chemin ; 
U expira sous le fer d^une knoe 
Nommant sa belle et en chantant son nfcain : 
Mon bras k ma patrie^ 
Mon cceur k mon amie; 
Mourir gaiment pour la gloire ou ramour, 
CTest le devoir d^un vaillant Troubadour. 

I know not how it waa, but had the petit Savoy- 
ard** possessed the cultivated voice of a chorister^ I 
could not have listened to his notes with half the satis- 
Auction with which I dwelt upon his history, as stated 
by the waiter. He had no sooner concluded and 
made his bow^ than I bought the slender volume from 
which his songs had been chanted^ and had a long 
gossip with him. He slung his organ upon his back, 
ind ever and anon** touching bis hat^ expressed his 
thankfulness, as much for the interest I had taken in 
his welfare, as for the trifling piece of silver which I 
slipt into his hand at parting. Meanwhile all the 
henches, placed on the outMde of the houses, were 
occupied— chiefly by fen^ales — ^to witness, it should 
aaem^ so novel and interesting a sight as two English- 
men holding familiar discourse with a poor wandering 
^Savoyard! Our friend the sexton was among the 
spectators, and from his voice and action, appeared 
especially interested. Que le bon Dieu vous b^nisse i*' 



ROUEN TO HAVRE. 



exclaimed the Savoyard as we bade him fereweli. On 
pursuing our route for a stroll upon the heights near the 
town, we had occasion to pass these benches of spec- 
tators. The women, almost without any exception, 
inclined their heads by way of a gracious salute ; and 
Monsieur le Sacristain pulled oflF his enormous cock'd 
hat with the consequence of a drum*major. He ap- 
peared not to have forgotten the donation which he 
had received in the church. We smiled ; and conti- 
nuing our pursuit, gained an elevated situation: 
whence, looking down upon the spot where we had 
left the Savoyard, we observed him surrounded by the 
aforesaid females— each and every one of them appa- 
rently convulsed with laughter ! Even the little mu- 
sician appeared to have forgotten his orphan state.'""* 
The environs of BolbeCy especially in the upper 
part, are sufficiently picturesque. At least they are 
sufficiently fruitful : orchards, com and pasture land — 
intermixed with meadows, upon which cotton was 
spread for bleaching — produced altogether a very 
interesting effect. The little han^ng gardens, at- 
tached to labourers' huts, contributed to the beauty of 
the scene. A warm crimson sun-set iseemed to en- 
velope the coppice wood in a flame of gold. The road 
was yet reeking with moisture— and we retraced odr 
steps, through devious and slippery paths, to the h6tel. 
Evening had set in : the sound of the Savoyard's voice 
was no longer heard : we ordered tea and candles^ and 
I added considerably to my journal before I went to bed. 
As we were to sleep directly opposite the church, we 
were compelled the live-long night to hear the striking 
of every quarter of every passing hour — in sounds the 



BOLBEC. 



most hai-sh and penetrating. Mr. Lewis; who boasts 
of having a patent for sleeping, (and wlio had hither- 
to scarcely known the deprivation of slumber) was 
equally awake and restless with myself. As dawn and 
son-rise appeared, we determined upon an immediate 
departure ; and though we had told the post-boy that 
we should not want him till eight, his good nature was 
not to be ruffled by our impatience. We rose at five ; 
and before six the horses were harnessed to the cabri- 
olet. Having obtained the necessary instructions for 
reaching Tancarvilley (the ancient and proud seat of 
the MoNTMORBNCis) we paid our reckoning, and left 
Bolbec in a very cross and almost irritable mood. In 
proportion to the comfort of body, and elasticity of 
mind, arising from a night of sweet slumber, is the 
misery of a heated frame, and an oppressive head-ach — 
the effect of the want of that delicious slumber ! The 
latter was my lot in particular — ^for my companion's 
nerves had not been shattered like my own by repeat- 
ed nights of wakefulness and weariness. Allow, my 
friend, that the misery endured in consequence, is 
just in proportion to the joy and rapture with which 
one looks upon every gilded piece of scenery, and 
every transparent vapour, within an hour or two after 
son-rise ! A fine day, fresh objects, and strange oc- 
currences — how they make the heart dance with exul- 
tation ! As we ascended a long and rather steep hill, 
and, looking to the right and left, saw every thing in a 
Mate of verdure and promise, we did all we could to 
persuade ourselves that the journey would be agree- 
able, and that the castle of Montmorenci could not 
&il to command our admiration. We were now in 



230 



BOUEN TO HAVRE. 



t!ie bigh and broad route roj/akT to Ham te Graee i 
but bad scarcely been a kagne open it, when, lodcii^ 
8t our instmctions, we struck out cf the high rottd, to 
the left, and followed a private one through flat and 
nninterasting arable land. I cannot tell how nMtf 
turns we took, or through how many prett^^ MttletH^ 
lages we passed — till, after a long a^d graiikial aseent; 
we came upon a height, flanked the greater part by 
coppice wood, through one portion of wtndi — poi^ 
posely kept open for the view— we saw at a distance a 
marrellously fine group of perpendicular rocks (whose 
grey and battered sides were lighted up with a phrit 
colour from the morning sun) in the middle, as it 
were, of the Seine — ^which now really assumed an 
ocean-Uke appearance. In fact, these rocks were af 
a considerable distance, and appeared to be in the 
broadest part of the embouchure of that river. We 
halted the cabriolet; and almost forgot the souittd 
of the Bolbec clock — as we gazed upon thn truly 
magnificent and fascinating scene ! . . for the larks 
were now mounting all around us, and their notes, 
added to those of the songsters of the grove,** pro^ 
dttced an eflect which I even preferred to that arising 
from the organ and voice of the " pauvre petit Savoy- 
ard.** The post-boy partook of our rapture. Voilftj 
Messieurs, des rochers terriblement perpendiculiers^ 
eh, quelle belle vue de la riviere, et du paysage It 
was impossible to make any thing of so expansive a 
scene with the pencil — at least, by travellers who had 
wanted the refreshment of sleep, and who were begtm- 
ningto grow hungry and impatient for their breakfiist. 
But I shall always bear in remembranee these terriUy 



TANCABYILLE. 



381 



perpendicular rocks,** and the foregroond from which 
it was our good fortune to yiew them. 

Leaving this brilliant panorama, we kept onward, 
taming rather to the lelft, and then found our descent 
proportionably gradual with the ascent. The Seine 
was now right before us, as hasty glimpses of it, through 
partial vistos, had enabled us to ascertain. Still we 
deemed TancarviUe a terrible way off ; irst we were 
to go up, and then we were to go down— ^now to turn 
to the right, and afterwards to tiie kft*^ sort of 
mMUi fmmflik nAnfia route — ^when a prepossessing^ ymng 
pAysanne, with a decidedly-pointed finger and a weU<> 
rqpnlated vmce, told us that, after passii^ through sudita 
wood, we should reach an avenue, from the fiirtfaer end 
of which the castle of Mentmorenci would be visible . . 

nne petite lieue de distance.*' Every thing is ^ une 
petite lieue !** It is the answer to every question rela- 
tisf to distance. Though the league be double ader-* 
Mm one, still it is une petite** — Here however the 
payeanne happened to be right. We passed through 
the wood, gained the avenue, and from the further end 
saW'— even yet towering in imposing magnitude — ^the 
fiup-fiyned Chateau deMonimarend. It might be a small 
lei^^ off. We gained spirits and even strength at 
the sight : told the postillion to mend his. pace — of 
wiuch he gave immecfi^^ and satisfiKtory^ demonstra- 
tion, while the echoes of his whip resounded akmg the 
afewue. A closer road now received us. The hasiel 
md filbert occasionally brushed oar Ihcesy and the lad 
eonld with dilficulty quarter the ruts — almost broad 
and de^ enough to bury a Lincolnshire ox. We stiU 
ooDtianed to descend, and at length to discern 



232 



ROUEN TO HAVRE. 



die form and colour of the castle, to the right. As we 
descended, the castle seemed to gain in height and 
nbAgnitude — ^but that descent brought us into the very 
heart of a neighbourhood, in which Mrs. Ratcliffe 
would have placed troops of retidners, or of bimditti^ to 
listen to the warder's horn from the turrets of the 
castle. It was on all sides woody : at this period, of a 
bright, yellowish green — but in autumn, rich must be 
the tints, and dark and deep must be the shadows. 
Knolls of moss-interwoven grass, on the summits of 
which the beech and hme threw up their sturdy stems, 
now enclosed the road — which began to widen and to 
improve in condition. At length, turning a corner, 
a group of country people appeared — ^^^Est-ce id 
la route de Tancarville P*" — Tancarville est tout 
pr^ : c'est Ik, oh on voit la fiim^ des chemin^.*" 
Joyful intelligence ! — ^The post-boy increased his speed 
. • . the wheels seemed to move with a readier play^ 
and in one minute and a half we were upon the beach 
of the river Seine, and ali^ted at the door of the only 
auberge in the village. 

I know you to be both a lover of and connoisseur in 
Rembrandt's pictures ; and especially of those of his 
old characters. I wish you could have seen the old 
woman, of the name of Bucan, who came out of this 
same auberge to receive us. She had a sharp^ quick, 
constantly moving black eye ; keen features^ projecting 
from a surfiEice of flesh of a subdued mahogany tint ; 
about her temples, and the lower part of her cheeks, 
were all those harmonizing wrinkles which become old 
age — upon canvas — ^while, below her chin, communi- 
cating with a small and shrunken neck^ was that sort 



TANCABVILLBL 



233 



of concavity, or dewlap, which painters delight to ex- 
press with a minuteness of touch, and mellowness of 
tint, that contribute largely to picturesque effect! This 
good old woman received us with perfect elasticity of 
spirits and of action. It should seem that we were the 
first Englishmen who had visited her solitude this year. 
Her husband approached, but she soon ordered him to 
the right about" — to prepare fuel, coffee, and eggs. We 
were promised the best breakfast that could be got in 
Normandy, in twenty minutes. The inn being suffici- 
ently miserable, I was anxious for a ramble— and Mr. 
L. of course for a sketch. The tide was now coming up, 
as at Caudebec ; but the sweep and breadth of the river 
being upon a considerably larger scale, its increase was 
not yet so obvious — though I am quite sure that all the 
flats, which we saw on our arrival as a bed of mud, 
were, within a quarter of an hour, wholly covered with 
water : and, looking up to the right, we perceived the 
perpendicular walls of Montmorenci Castle to be washed 
by the refluent wave. It was a sort of ocean in minia- 
ture before us. A few miserable fishing boats were 
moored upon the beach ; while a small number of ill- 
clad and straggling villagers lingered about the same 
spot, and seemed to look upon us as beings dropt from 
the sky ! We strolled to the left — quickly mounted 
a wooded cliff — and, gaining a considerable eminence, 
Mr. Lewis saw the village of Tancarville at his feet . . : 
while the tide was coming up in a more agitated man* 
ner, and the Castle of Montmorenci appeared to gain 
a most imposing height and magnitude. A dark sha- 
dow flitted across the whole range of intermediate 

forest scenery, and an angry atmosphere seemed to 
1 



234 



ROUEN TO HAVRE. 



threaten to ovei-whelm castle^ trees, village, and 
river, in a deluge of rain. The view was so striking, 
that my companion hastened to transfer it to his sketch 
book ; — and you shall not only see, but be charmed 
with it, on our return from this wild region of solitude 
and romance.* 

I continued my route — still ascending, and leaving 
Mr. L. to his sketch. From the beach I had observed 
two very singular mushroom-shaped rocks: and I was 
resolved to stand upon their summits. Tlicy project 
from the cliff as if they had been cut out by art, and 
the bottom parts have been so worn, or scooped away 
by a strong current of water — that nothing can afford 
more decisive proof of ancient diluvian havoc. You 
have here the slight but faithful sketch of them taken 
by Mr. Lewis. 




Sec the Oppukitk Plate. 



TANCARVILLE. 



235 



• A winding path leads to them^ which you must re- 
trace if you wish to gain^ as I did^ a higher part of 
the cliff. The whole is covered with coppice-wood. I 
had now the gratification of viewing Quilleheuf a little 
more nearly. It was almost immediately opposite: 
while, to the right, I looked up the wide sweep of the 
river towards its embouchure, and fancied I could see 
Havre. The group of rocks, which had so charmed us 
on our journey, now assumed a different character. 
Meanwhile the threatening tempest passed on^ — rolling 
over the forest of Montmorenci : the sun was restored, 
and the day and the scenery equally broke upon us 
with an effulgence which cannot easily be described. 
But twice twenty minutes had elapsed — and where 
were our coffee and eggs ? On descending, we could 
discover, although at a considerable distance, the old 
woman standing at the door of the cabaret — apparently 
straining her eyes to catch a glimpse of us ; and she 
was almost disposed to scold us for having put her 
reputation of giving good breakfasts to so hazardous a 
trial. The wood was blazing, and the room was al- 
most filled by smoke — ^but a prolonged fost, and a 
stage of sixteen or eighteen miles, in a keen morning 
air, made us think only of allaying our hunger. In 
every public house, however mean, you see the white 
metal fork, and the napkin covering the plate. A 
dozen boiled eggs, and a coffee-pot and cups of per* 
fectly Brobdingnagdian dimensions, with tolerable 
bread and indifferent butter, formed the subject matter 
of our breakfast : and heartily and satisfactorily did we 
get through that meal. The postboy having stabled 
and refreshed his horses, was regaling himself fh the 



VOL. I. 



p 



336 



BOUEN TO HAVRE. 



kitchen^but how do you tlmik be was r^tiliiig fafan- 
Mii ? — ^Truly^ in stretcbing Ixmself upon a bencb^ and 
teading, as old Ascbam expresses it^ a merry tale m 
Boccace.** In otber words, be was reading a Fre&oh 
version of tbe Decameron of that celebrated author. 
Niofw, my friend, wbetber be bad ever beard of tbe Fid- 
darfer Boccaccio,* is truly beyond my power of divl* 
nation to affirm : but most certain it is tbat be was lb 
occupied — ^tbereby putting to sbame perbaps tbe wbole 
tribe of postillions in Great Britain ! Indeed, I bad 
already received sufficient proof of tbe general pnK 
pensity of tbe common people to read — whethei good or 
bad books . . . but let us bope and believe tbe former. 
We left tbe bibliomaniacal postboy to bis Boccaccio^ 
and prepared to visit tbe castlb . . .the once proud and 
yet commanding residence of tbe fomily of Montho* 

RBNCI. 

We ascended — ^with fresh energies imparted from our 
breakfast. Tbe day grew soft, and bright, and exhi- 
larating . . but alas ! for tbe changes and chances q( 
every thing in this transitory world. Where was the 
warder? He bad ceased to blow his bom for many a 
long year. Where was tbe harp of the minstrel ? It 

« the Faldaffer Boecaecio,']— At the sale of the preaeDt Duke of 
Marlborough's Library^ in 181 9, this fitf-famed volume was purchased 
by the House of Messrs. Longman^ Hurst^ Rees^ Brown^ and Ormefbr 
jC918. it having cost the Duke, at the sale of the Roxbubohe Libbabt 
(see the BibliographiccU Decameron, vol. iii. p. 69), in 1813, not 
less a sum than £.2260. Earl Spencer, who was the Duke*8 opponent, 
obtained this desirable volume of Messrs. Longman, Hunt, and Co. 
for precisely the same sum which they had given for it. Such a pur- 
H^kMae was equally honourable to both parties. 



CASTUB OF MONTMOiLENCI. 237 



^ad pesifibed two centuries ago, with the hand that had 
flmck its chords. Where was the attendant guard? — 
fir pwauivants — or men at arms ? They had been swept 
#ro9i human eidstence, like the leaves of the old limes 
MMi beech trees by which the lower part of the buili- 
4iMg was surrounded. The moat was dry ; the rampart 
WW a ruin : — ^the rank grass grew within the area • . • 
JWn; can I tell you how many vast relics of halls, ban^ 
ilimting rooms, and bed rooms, with all the magnificent 
f4ppurtenances of old castellated architecture, struck 
the eager eye with mixed melancholy and surprise ! 
The singular half-circular, and half square, corner 
towers, hanging oyer the evei-restless wave, interested 
m exceedingly. The guide shewed us where the 
luriaoners used to be kept — ^in a dungeon, apparently 
impervious to evqry glimmer of day-light, and every 
breath of air. I cannot pretend to say at what periqd 
«ren the oldest part of the Castle of Montmorenci was 
Iwilt : but I saw nothing that seemed to be more an- 
caent than the latter end of the xvth century.* Per- 
the greater portion may be of the beginning of the 
xvith ; but, amidst the unroofed rooms, I could not 
lielp admiring the planted borders, chiefly of a red co- 
lour, which run along the upper part of the walls, or 
wainscoats — ^giving indication not only of a good, but of 
a splendid, taste. Did I tell you that this sort of orna- 
ment was to be seen in some parts of the eastern end 
<rf the Abbey of Jumieges ? Here, indeed, they afforded 
6¥idence— an evidence, mingled with melancholy sen- 

■p BCr. Gotman haa a view of the gateway of TancarviUe^ or Mont- 
inpienci Castle. 



1238 



ROUEN TO HAVRE. 



sations on conviction — of the probable state of mag- 
nificence which once reigned throughout the castle. 
Between the comer towers, upon that part which runs 
immediately parallel with the Seine, there is a noble 
terrace, now converted into garden ground — ^which 
commands an immediate and extensive view of the 
embouchure of the river. It is the property of a spe- 
culator residing at Havre. Parallel with this terrace, 
runs the more modernised part of the castle, which the 
last residing owner inhabited. It may have hem 
built about fifty years ago, and is— or rather the re- 
mains of it are — quite in the modem style of domestic 
architecture. The rooms are large, lofty, and commo- 
dious ; — yet nothing but the shells of them remain. 
The revolutionaiy patriots completely gutted them 
of every useftil and every valuable piece of furni- 
ture: and even the bare walls are beginning to 
grow damp, and threaten immediate decay. I made 
several memoranda upon the spot, which have been 
unluckily, and I fear irretrievably, misplaced ; so that 
of this once vast, and yet commanding and interesting 
edifice, I regret that I am compelled to send you so 
short and so meagre an account. Farewell — a long 
and perhaps perpetual farewell — to the Castle oip 

MONTMORENCI ! 

The cabriolet met us at the bottom of the mound 
upon which the castle is built. We had paid our 
reckoning before we left the inn — so that we had no- 
thing to do but to step in, and push forward for Havre. 
We retraced the road through which we came ; and 
having repassed the village of St Romaine^ (containing 
a very picturesque sprinkling of houses) we darted 



HAVRE. 



239 



into the Route Royale^ and got upon one of the noblest 
Ugh roads in France. Between Tancarville, and 
Havre lie Hocher and Harfieuv ; each almost at the 
water's edge. I regretted I could not see the former; 
but in our approach to Harfleur we observed, to the 
i%ht^ some delightfully situated, and not inelegantly 
built, country villas or modern chateaux. The imme^ 
diate run down to Harfleur is exceedingly pleasing ; 
and though we trotted sharply through the town, the 
Exquisite little porch of the church was not lost upon 
ofl. It resembles that of St. Ouen — ^in miniature. The 
town, but especially the church,* is of the time of 
Francis I. Few places, I beUeve, for its dimensions, 
^ye been more celebrated in the middle ages than 
Harfleur. The Seine to the left becomes broader and 
bolder ; and, before you, beneath some wooded heights, 
lies Havrb. Every thing gave indication of commerce 
and prosperity as we gained upon the town. The 
hoQses increased in number and respectability of ap^ 
pearwce — Voyez-vous 1^, Messieurs, ^ droit, ces belies 
maisons de plaisance? — (exclmmed our charioteer) — 
Cest 1^ oil demeurent Messieurs vos compatriotes : 
ma foi, ils ont un joU gout.'' The first glance upon 
these stone houses confirmed the sagacity of our postil- 
Hob. They are gloriously situated — ^facing the ocean ; 
while the surrounding country teems with game of 
every spedes. Isaac Walton might have contrived 
to interweave a pretty ballad in his description of the 
trout streams. 

' But we approach the town. The hulls of hundreds 



* Mr. CotDoan has given a view of the Spire only. 



240 



lEIAVRB. 



of vessels ai'e seen in the commodkms^ dodt&; and the 
flags of merchantmen^ from all quarters of the glotMi 
Appear to stream from the mast-heads. It is a* scede 
of bustle, of business, and variety; and perfectly Eiig^- 
lish. What a contrast to the gloomy Solitude 
Montmorenci ! The outer and inner gates aref passed. 
Diligences issue from every quarter. The eentinds 
i*elieve guard. The sound of horns, from variouir 
jacket-boats immediately about to sail, echoes on $3i 

lodes We drove up the high street, and ^ 

t)roached the hfitel of the Jigle d'Ovy* kept by 
Justin, aAd considered to be the best. We were just 
in time for the table d*h6te, and to bespeak exccikfnt 
beds. Travellers were continually arriving and de* 
parting. What life and animation ! . . and eould I 
have shaken off my jaded spirits, arising from a sfei^ 
less and restless night, I should have relished, with a 
keener delight, the multitudinous objects before me. 
We sat down upwards of forty to dinner : and a good 
dinner it wds. Two English ladies, and three English 
gentlemen, were among the guests ; and though We 
were too distant to interchange a word, I could per- 
ceive and feel that we each thought ourselves a jiro^ 
tection to the other. After dinner, I settled for the 
cabriolet, and bade the postboy adieu ! — ^nor can I sup- 
press that, in wishing him well, I felt ten times mote 
than I had ever felt upon taking leave of a postillion. 
Was it because I found him reading a French vennon df 
Boccaccio? Something better, I should faope^ mingled 
itself with my sensations ; and I would willingly be- 

* I am not sure whether this inn be called the Arme9 de France, or 
as above. 



HAVRE. 



241 



fieve^ although he knows not my name^ that the said 
postillion will not think the worse of Messieurs les 
Anglois'* ... for having conducted a Bibliomaniac and 
a craniology-loving artist from Rouen to Havre. And 
now^ fare you well^ till I reach the opposite shore . . . 
and take up my residence at Caen. 



242 



LETTER XII. 

HAVRE DE GRACE. HONFLBUR. JOURNEY TO CABN. 

Caen^ May^ 1818. 

Well^ my friend ! . . . I have at length visited the 
interior of the Abbey of St. Stephen, and have walked 
over the grave of William the Conqueror and of 
Mathilda his wife. I am here very comfortably situ- 
ated, and shall not think of quitting this place for a 
week at least. But as you dearly love the gossip of a 
travelling journal, I shall take up the thread of my 
narrative from the spot in which I last addressed you : 
— ^particularly as our route hither was marked by some 
circumstances not unworthy of recital. First, how- 
ever, for Havre. 

We staid there only long enough to express our re- 
gret that the time of our residence could not be ex- 
tended. It happened to be a very fine afternoon, and 
I took a leisurely stroll upon the docks and ramparts,^ 

* £velyn> who visited Havre in 1644^ when the Duke de Richlieu 
was governor^ describes the citadel as strong and regular^ weU 
stored with artiUery^ &c. The works furnished with flEure brass canon^ 
having a motto^ *'Eaiw ultima Regum.** The aUogiamenta (om- 
tinues he) of the garrison are uniforme ; a spacious place for drawing 
up the soldiers, a pretty chapell, and a &ire house for the governor, 
&c The citadel was built by the late Cardinal Richlieu, unkk of the 
present Duke, and is very strong. The haven is very spadoufl.** 

Life and Writings of John Evelyn, edit. 1818, vol. i. p. 51. 

Indeed Havre seems always to have been a place of note and dis- 



HAVRE. 



243 



while Mr. Lewis ascended the heights upon which we 
had observed the " maisons de plaisance** pointed out to 
us by our postillion. The principal street is broad, 
straight, and seems surmounted at one end by these 
heights ; though there can be little short of a French 
league between them and its extremity : the other ex- 
tremity of the street ending with the harbour. The rect- 
angular and parallel streets are narrower and of less 
length ; but there are more interesting pieces of archi- 
tectural antiquity in them. As far as I could observe, 
or could receive information, thei-e was no house older 
than of the time of Francis I. Few of the churches 
could boast of a much more remote antiquity. The 
population of Havre is estimated at 20,000; and I 
should think this is no exaggerated statement. The 
town is full of aninlation — whether as relating to busi- 
ness or pleasure. For the former, you must visit the 
quays ; for the latter, you must promenade the high 
street, and more especially the Boulevards, towards 
the heights. The sun shone merrily, as it were, upon 
the thousands of busy, bustling, and bawling human 
creatures . . who were in constant locomotion in this 
latter place. 

Resolving to postpone my visits to the Booksellers 
till evening, I took advantage of every quarter of an 

tinction in more senses than one. In ZeiUer's Topographia GaUuB, 
(▼d. iii.) there is a view of it, about the period in which Evelyn saw it, 
by Jacques Gomboust> Ingdnieur du Boy, from which it appears to 
have been a very considerable place. Forty-two principal buildings 
and places are referred to in the directions and among them we ob- 
serve the BouLEVABDs DE RiCBLiso. There are windmills in abun- 
dance in the neighbourhood. 



244 



HAVRE. 



hour of day-light, after four, to make myself master of 
the locale of the harbom*. The docks are the great 
guns*' of the place ; and in these you see three Am^ 
rican vessels for one English. In fact, the business 
with America is of very considerable extent. I recog* 
nised among the vessels a beautiful little three-masted 
merchantman, which I had seen, about five years ago^ 
lying within Ramsgate pier — and any thing which re« 
minds you of your own country, though at no very tcr* 
rific distance from it, is looked upon with a fonder 
and more frequent eye. Just so it was upon viewing 
this tightly trimmed vessel. I wished, for a minute 
only, that I could leap on board — command a pros*' 
perous breeze, unfurl the sails by magic, — ^and 
gently landed upon that said pier at Ramsgate ! But 
where would have been Caen — and Bayeux — and 
Ckmtances — whither my steps were bending? What a 
difierence between the respective appearances of the 
quays of Dieppe and Havre? Although even here 
things would assume a rubbishing and littered as- 
pect compared with the quays at Liverpool or at 
Hull, yet it must be admitted, for the credit of Gal- 
lico-Norman commerce, that the quays of Havre 
make a very respectable appearance. You see men 
fiddling, dancing, sleeping, sitting, and of course talk- 
ing k pleine gorge, in groupes without end — but no 
drunkenness! . . not even a G m saluted my ear. 
The Southampton packets land their crews at Havre. 
I saw the arrival of one of these packets; and was 
cruel enough to contrast the animated and elastic 
spirits of a host of Fi*ench laquais de place, trades- 
people, &c. — attacking the passengers with cards of 



HAVRR 



945 



their address — ^with the feeble movemeDts and dejected 
coantenances of the objects of their attack. Mean- 
while a packet would sail in the evening for Harjlewr^ 
but nothing could shake the determination I had made 
of stopping (and sleeping^ if possible) at Havre. Again 
the packet masters caused the note of departure** to 
foe sounded; and again the high street reverberated 
its echoes — while trucks and wheel-barrows, laden 
with goodly or with sorrowful looking furniture, ap- 
peared in motion on all sides — hastening to be in time 
for the moment of departure. 

From the quays, I sauntered along the ramparts, 
which are flanked by broad ditches ; (of course plentlp 
folly supplied with water) and passing over the draw- 
bridge, by which all carriages enter the town — and 
which absolutely trembles as if about to sink beneath 
you, as the diligence rolls over it. — I made for the 
boulevards and tea-gardens ; to which, business being 
well nigh over, the inhabitants of Havre flock by hun*- 
^breds and by thousands. A fine afternoon throws 
every thing into good keeping** — as the artists say. 
The trees, and meadows, and upper lands were not 
only bright with the sun-beam, but the human counte- 
nance was lighted up with gladness. The occupations 
partook of this joyful character. Accordingly there 
was dancing and singing on all sides; a little beyond, 
appeared to sit a group of philosophers, or politi*- 
cians, upon a fantastically cut seat, beneath laburnums 
streaming with gold — ^while, still fort her, gradually be- 
coming invisible from the foliage and winding path, 
strolted pairs in more gentle discourse ! Meanwhile 
the whoop and halloo of school-boys, in rs^id and 



246 HAVRE. 

ceaseless evolutions, resounded through the air^ and 
heightened the gratification of the scene. 

And young and old came out to play 
Upon a sun-shine holiday. 

On looking up a winding road, I saw Mr. Lewis busi* 
ed with his pencil. Knolls of rich verdure, with fine 
spreading trees, and elegant mansions, were in the 
foreground — in the middle-ground, and quite at his 
feet, stood the town of Havre: — ^in the distance^ 
rolled and roared the expansive ocean ! The sun was 
visibly going to rest; but his departing beams yet 
sparkled upon the more prominent points of the pic- 
ture. There was no time for finishing the subject. 
After a stroll of nearly a couple of hours, on this inter- 
esting spot, I retraced my steps over the draw-bridge, 
and prepared for objects of still life ; in other words, 
for the examination of what might be curious and pro- 
fitable in the shape of a Itoftt- Yet I could not turn 
my back upon the rising ground, which I had just con- 
templated, without thinking that your friends in 
London— or any friends in any part of England— 
would do very wisely to spend an occasional sunimer 
and autumn upon the heights of Havre: and I will 
tell you why. In the first place, the locale is perfectly 
picturesque : there are both town and country gratifi- 
cations : sea and landscape in abundance^while the 
air is pure and elastic. In the second place, the time 
(that engenderer of spleen, and deadly weight upon 
the shoulders of too many of our countrymen) may be 
pleasingly and even usefully divided : in the morning 
you are mixing with the inhabitants of the town : in the 



HAVRE. 



247 



evening, with those of the country : the walks are com- 
modious, and the roads are, in that season of the year, 
perfectly excellent. But you begin to grow tired both 
of town and country. Be it so. In the third place, 
then, take a trip to Rouen, for a week or ten days ; 
(to say nothing of the intermediate and interesting 
spots, so superficially described in my late dispatch) 
return, and then tell me how you like the heights of 
Havre!! Or, cross an arm of the sea, (as I have 
just done) ramble about Honfieur, and make a leisurely 
journey to Caen or, go yet further : — then return, 
and tell me how you like the heights of Havre P Re- 
member> that the streams abound with trout, and the 
acy acent hills in variety and plenty of game ; also do not 
fidl to call to mind that one shipment, at Southampton, 
brings you direct to your place of destination. A 
praeperous wind may make you dress at one place, 
and undress at another. Where then shall be the ra- 
tionally founded objection to a residence upon the 
HBiORTS OF Havre ? 

^ The lamps were lighted when I commenced my bib- 
Hmnamacal voyage of discovery among the book- 
sellers. But what poverty of materials, for a man 
educated in the schools of Fust and Caxton ! ? To 
every question, about rare or old books, I was told 
that I should have been there when the allies first got 
fiopsession of Paris. In one of the shops of a respect* 
alite bibliopolist, I heard an animated, and even some- 
what fierce, discussion about the good or bad efiects 
ci the respective dynasties of the Bourbons and 
Buonaparte. Each of the two disputants defended 
his own side ^th warmth and eloquence. Each took 



948 



HAVRR 



fftfoffy and toefk it pretty oopiousljr; and the inom ve» 
hement the argument^ the more frequent .the miqoly of 
(tiat s{»rit-stiiTing stimulant. Berceiving me ta 
be an Englishman, I began to be appnehensive that { 
should be appeided to — or peradventnre^ abused 
with equal heartiness by both parties. But the iesal$ 
was Tery different, and afforded an admirable Uluatqit 
tiioB of the facility and sang-froid mth which tiis 
French can take up, or discard, any subject, however 
faiterestiBg or important. ^ You are from En^^d, 
Sir,'*— ^remarked the Buonapartist, taking off his hat, 
and inclining his head towards me, with a gracioiis 
■ahitalaoB. ^ lam. Sir.** How go€m your Hmse of 
Lerds and House of Commons ?'* As usual, Skyr-r 
very sound and very active : at least they were so. At 
present the latter exists no longer.** Exists iio 
lon^ ! — what has happened then, Sir ? — Hal you idy 
right to visit these shores in such a crisis of alamJ 
Did I not (turning to his Bourbon antagonist) did J 
not predict that things could not long last as they bad 
been going on -in Engkmd!** Whereupon, the said 
Prqphet added sundry other sympathetic >exclamatioQ0^ 
without allowing me to say one word in explanation id 
the cause of the dissolution of our &r-&med House of 
.Commons I At length, an opening presenting itself, I 
observed, with a mock solemnity of manner, tiiat it 
was the period of a gener€U election.'' QvCe^t-od ipiP 
ee mot \k vent signifier ?— ^je n*ai jamais entradu fvtknf 
de cela.** I explained it as briefly and as perspknir 
ously as I was able : but both Buonapartist and Bpur* 
bonist (to my astonishment) continued to ^ress titieir 
ignorance and surprise. I then eiqilained to them hm 



HAVRE. 



these rdqpeetive houses oamed on their proceedinj^ ; 
and that the mettbero of the house of Lords sat ubt 
oovered, with soviet robes trimmed with ermine— 4iut 
that those of the House of Commons sat with thetir 
iMto on^ and appeared in the dresses which diey hap- 
pened to wear during the day — ^booted^ or otherwise^ 
jmut as they pleased. It is impossible for me to oonyey 
to you an idea of the shrug, and exclamation of oon-r 
tempt^ with which these opposite-principled disputants 
simidtaneously treated our unfortunate Cosmmners : 
nor could these political champions separate the elor 
qiienoe and importance of the debates from the pikm 
appearance of hats and boots : while the Upper House 
was pronounced by them to be the only proper arena 
fer the display of intellectual strength and 'national 
insdonu Enfin, mon ami, (exclaimed the one, tum^ 
lif to the other) il faut avouer que ces ohoses sont idm 
fkoB mauYaas gout ; et je ne puis pas concevxnr CMOk 
memt ks Anglois^ qui sont yraiment de braves gens, pen- 
tIMt se conformer k des r^ig^ements qui doivent avoir 
an r6sultat si fimeste. A 9a I partons. Neuf heures 
vient de sonner. Monsieur je vous souhaite le bon 
aoir. Adieu, adieu."* These adieus were directed, the 
fimt to the booksellar, the second to myself., .and 
bolh Bourbonist and Buoni^Hurtist marched off, arm 
m vm, forgetting the dynasties which th^ had advo-r 
CMled^ but uniform in their expressions of surprise, and 
]tt»dictions of evil from the homdy costume of the 
Membm of the House of C!ommons ! I could scarcely 
refrain from loud laughter as they shut the door of the 
flbop, and disappeared. Doubtless these gentlemen 
had never consulted our BlackstMie'I 



250 



HAVRE. 



Luckily^ at that moment^ a copy of the Habiti mtu 
chi modemi, from the supposed designs of Utian^ 
and printed in 1590, Svo. happened to catch my eye^ 
and make me forget the scene which had just taken 
place. It was a sound, but somewhat cropt copy, and 
attired in a goodly jacket of calf-skin. The price de- 
manded was twelve francs : in our own country it brings 
double that price . . . and even more than treble might 
be given for such a copy as Mr. Grenville possesses. 
" C*est un pen fort, ce prix,*' observed I. " Comment 
fort, Monsieur? voiUi un joli livre, rempli de planches 
en bois — dont on ne pourroit, aujourd*hui, ex6cuter on 
pareil, sans en exiger an moins trois fois le prix.** 
This is any thing but an argument; but it is the 
common observation used by very many booksellers, 
whether near the banks of the Seine or the Thames. 
I counted down nine francs . • • and made a pditte^ 
looking at my bibliopolist. Hi bien, comme vous 
le d^sirez, je prendrai les nenf francs et vous prendres 
le livre. Ce'st ga.*" This was droll enough. I laid 
the book aside, and sought about for more . . . but a 
torn Sauvage Monstreletj and a thumbed and defective 
GdguifCs Chronicle, (these are technical phrases) were 
the only fruits-^r rather results— of a very anxkras 
forage for full three quarters of an honr. In three 
ahops, previously visited, there was scarody a&y thiiig 
to be seen but Voltaire and Rousseau. I made the 
most of my supposed prize, returned to the hfttd, 
drank a late and excellent cup of coffee, and afto* com- 
paring notes with Mr. Lewis, as to vAxeX we had seve- 
rally seen and heard, retired to rest, thoroughly worn 
out, and oppressed with sleep. 



HAVRE. 



951 



The packet was to sail by nine in the morning ; pre- 
oisely. For a wonder, (or rather no wonder at all, con- 
sidering what had occurred during the last twenty-four 
boors) I had an excellent night*s rest, and was pre- 
pared for breakfast by eight. Having breakfasted, 
we immediately accompanied our luggage to the inner 
harbour. Of course we had plenty of offers for the 
conveyance of it : so that in five minutes we were 
close to the water's edge, and observed the Honfleur 
packet swarming with passengers, and crammed with 
every species of merchandize: especially tubs, casks, 
trunks, cordage, and earthen-ware. We descended; 
saw our luggage stowed, took our stations near the 
helm — and after experiencing a good deal of un- 
comfortable heaving of the ocean, got clear from the 
mouth of the harbour, and stood o.ut to sea. The 
tide was running briskly and strongly into the 
harbour ; and a good deal of see-sawing of the vessel 
was the consequence- of such current. We were 
in truth very closely stowed ; and as these packets 
are built with flattish bottoms, and low sides, — a 
rough sea would not have failed to give to a crew, thus 
exposed, the appearance of half-drowned rats. Luckily 
the wind began to subside, and by degrees old ocean 
wore a face of undisturbed serenity. Not how- 
ever that very many of the passengers were not tn- 
cmwenienced by the agitation, however trifling, which 
had occurred. Our crew was a motley one ; but 
among them, a parchment-visaged Abbess^ with her 
broad streaming bands, seemed to experience parti- 
cular distress. She was surrounded by some hale, 

hearty market women, whose robust forms, and copper- 
1 



HAVBE. 



twted countenanceB, formed a strikiiig oantraat to ber 
own. A little beyond was an old office or two, Willi 
OQcfced hata of the usually capacious . diimenbioiM. Biit 
the poor Abbess was cruelly afflicted ; and ia a^gestive 
and t<me of voice, of the most piteous woe, impiloved 
the stewardof the vessel for accommodation below. Mr 
l^ewis seized an opportunity of transferring the whole 
foreshortened picture to his sketch book ; and I think 
you will allow it to be an admirable piece of compo- 
sition. 



HONFLEUR. 



253 



. Fortunately^ as I was not in the least annoyed by 
sickness^ I had leisure to survey the heights of Honfleur 
before we landed. These heights may be called counter- 
parts to those of Havre; but they are less lofty^ though 
equally well wooded. Looking towards the course of 
the River Seine^ as it narrowed in its windings, I dis- 
covered Harjleur and Hocher nearly opposite ; and, a 
good deal lower down, the little fishing town of Quilie- 
heufy apparently embedded in the water. I necessa- 
rily had a different view of those rocks which so much 
astonished our postillion on the approach to Tancar- 
ville ; and indeed on all sides I contemplated nothing 
bat picturesque beauty ttid agricultural plenteousness. 
Honfleur itself is surely among the most miserable of 
fishing towns*— or whatever be the staple commodity 
that supports it. But the environs make amends for 
-tfie squididness of the town. A few years of peace and 
iflenty would work wonders even in the improvements 
43l£ these environs. Perhi^)s no situation is more fa- 
vourable for the luxury of a summer retirement. 
. AcrofiB this arm of the sea, or rather the very embou- 
'diure of the river Seine, you observe Havre — (some 
^ c^t English miles distant) yet a consequential look- 
'il^ town. We paid only eight sons apiece for our 
^''fMfNige ; and having no passport to be visid (which in- 
'•d0Bd was the case at Havre,) we selected a stout lad or 

* It wu 80 in Evelyii*B time: in 1644j It is a poore fidier towne 
'(wys he) femarlLable for nothing so mudi as the odd yet useAill 
liabites which the good women weare> of beares and other skinns, as 
of raggs at Dieppe^ and all along these coasts.*' 

Lift and fVritings of J, Evelifn 1818, 4to. vol. i. p. 51. 
VOL. I. Q 



264 



HAVRE TO CAEN. 



two, from the crowds of lookers on, as we landed, to 
carry our luggage to the inn from which the diligence 
sets off for Cabn. It surprised us to see with what 
alacrity these lads carry the luggage up a steep hill 
in their trucks, or barrows ; but we were disgusted 
with the miserable forms, and miserable clothing, of 
both sexes, wtiich we encountered as we proceeded. 
Most fortunately we were in time to secure our placmi 
and the horses were in the very act of being put to^ as 
we paid our fares beforehand. 

All this, you will say, is very trifling ; but the fitct 
is, you tell me that I must make you accompany me 
wherever I go, and in whatever transaction I am am- 
cemed. Pbullo majora.** Judge of our surprise and 
gratification upon seeing two well-dressed and well- 
bred Englishmen, in the very act of securing their 
places. It is not always that, at first sight, English^ 
men associate so quickly, and apparently so cordially, 
as did these gentlemen with ourselves. They were 
the Messrs. D*** ofL**** Hallin Yorkshire: 
the elder brother an Oxford man of the same standing 
with myself. The younger, a Cantab. We were all 
bound for Caen; and right gladly did we coalesce 
upon this expedition. I shall not easily forget the shower 
of rain which fell as we set off ; and most thankfully 
did I prefer the shelter of the roof of the coach to the 
security of an umbrella in an open packet-boat. The 
mode of starting was peculiar to this part of the world. 
My love of out-door comforts, and of witnessing the 
scenery of a new countiy, made me solicitous to secure 
a place in the cabriolet ; but our acquaintances had 
previously obtained two places, and the driver and con- 



HAVRE TO CAEN. 



255 



ducteur (on this occasion the same individual) claimed 
the third place as a matter of right and necessity, for 
himself; from whence he exercised the office of the 
niiip— a singular, and rather ticklish, situation for the 
management of four horses, unaided by a postillion ! 
But what was my astonishment, when, on his good- 
nature ceding to me this third place, he took his 
iltation upon the roof — and from thence, with the 
reins in one hand, and a whip in the other, he es- 
sayed to guide four high-mettled Norman stallions, 
down one descent and up another ascent . • . the rain 
at the same moment pouring down in torrents ! To 
say that I was not nervous, would be foolish . . I will 
own that I was even terrified — ^for what a machine was 
bdiind me ! . . and if we had been overset, what a 
result must have ensued ! Fortunately we had not got 
out of the town, and had scarcely cleared the first 
descent, when one of the horses got his leg completely 
0V9 the rope traces, and it was impossible to pro- 
ceed. I now saw the danger of retaining my place in 
the cabriolet to the exclusion of the worthy driver, and 
instantly gave it up. He said very coolly Ce sent 
des diables de chevaux, et il faut Stre un peu plus pr^s 
poor les chatouiller/* Leaving him in full possession to 
tickle'' the animals as he pleased, I got inside the 
dili^pence ; and as the rain continued to descend yet 
more heavily and steadily, I was not chagrined at thQ 
(jbange : the leathern curtains of the cabriolet proving 
bata sorry defence. — ^Nothing, however, could discom- 
pose the gravity, or ruffle the good-humour of the 
oonducteur. In the midst of the descending rain, and 
vhile the horses appeared to be sprawling all over the 



266 



HAVRE TO CAEN. 



rocid, he whistled and sang alternately, as if nodmp 
had taken place. 

We now proceeded at a good sharp paoe, and m we 
ascended the very high hill on the direct road to Om, 
with fine leafy trees on each sidc^ and upon a nobk 
breadth of road, I looked out of the diligence to eogcy 
the truly magnificent view of the Seine — ^with glimpsel 
6f Harfleur and Havre on the opposite coast. TMt 
cessation of the rain, and the slow movement id the 
vehicle, enabled me to do this in a tolerably commcK 
dious manner. The ground however seemed saturated, 
and the leaves glistened with the incumbent mcnsture. 
There was a sort of pungent freshness of scent abroad— 
and a rich pasture land on each side gave the most 
luxuriant appearance to the landscape. Nature in- 
deed seemed to have fructified every thing in t 
manner at once spontaneous and perfect. The fiu» of 
the country is pasture-land thro^ighout ; that is to say, 
there are comparatively few orchards and little arable. 
I was told to pay attention to the cattle, for that the 
farmers prided themselves upon their property of thtt 
kind. They may pride themselves — if they please : but 
their pride is not of a lofty cast of character. Yoii 
know I am rather more conversant in Caxtons thab 
in cows ; but I have been in Lincolnshire, Hereford- 
shire, and Gloucestershire — and have seen and enjoyed, 
in these said counties, groups of cattle which appeared 
calculated for the land and the table of giants, com- 
pared with the Lilliputian objects, of the bucoline spe- 
cies, which were straying in thin flocks, throughout 
the luxuriant pastures of Normandy. That trium- 
phant and immutable maxim of small bone and 



PONT L^EVEQUR 257 

large carcaHe** seems, alas ! to be unknown in these re- 
gions. Nor are the cows extraordinary good milchers. 

However, on we rode — and on all sides we gazed. 
At length we reached Pont LEveque, a pretty long 
stage ; whare we dined (says my journal) upon roast 
lirarl, aspcutigos, trout, and an excellent omelette, with 
two good bottles of vin ordinsdre — which latter, for 
fonr Englishmen, was commendably moderate. Dur- 
ing dinner the rain came down again in yet heavier 
torrents — ^the gutters foamed, and the ground smoked 
with the unceasing fall of the water. In the midst of 
this aquatic storm, we toasted Old England right mer- 
rily and cordially ; and the conducteur, seeing us in 
good humour, told us that " we need not hurry, for 
that he preferred a dry journey to a wet one.** We 
reactily assented to this position ; but within half an 
hour, the weather clearing, we remounted : and by 
four o*clock we all got inside — and politics, i*eligion, 
literature, and the fine arts, kept us in constant dis- 
course and good humour as we rolled on for many a 
league. All the way to Troam (the last stage on this side 
of Caen) the country presents a truly lovely picture of 
pasture land. There are occasionally some wooded 
haghts^ in which English wealth and English taste 
would have raised villas of the prettiest forms, and with 
most commanding Mews. Yet there is nothing to be 
mentioned in the same breath with the country about 
Rodwell in Glocestershire. Nor are the trees of the 
same bulk and luxuriant foliage as are those in our 
own country. A fine oak is as rare as an uncut Wyn- 
kyn De fVorde\ but creeping rivulets, rich coppice 
wood^ avenues of elms and limes, and meadows be- 
gemmed vnth butter-cups — these are the characteristics 



258 



HAVRE TO CAEN- 



of the country through which we were pasfiing. It U 
in vain however you look for neat villas or come* 
quential farm houses : and as rarely do you see groups 
of villagers reposing, or in action . . A dearth of popu- 
lation gives to French landscape a melancholy and soli- 
tary cast of character. It is in cities that you must 
look for human beings — and for cities the French seem 
to have been created. Not any thing like an exempli- 
fication of Watteau's enchanting pieces . . but I chedc 
myself — ^ladies and gentlemen do not stir abroad to 
dance^ swing, romp, and enjoy a fgte champetre^ 

When storms and clouds obscure the sky^ 
And thunders roU^ and lightnings fly! 

Yet I shall not easily forget the sweep of country, or 
continuation of pasture land, between Pont L*£veqae 
and Troam. This latter village is sufficiently poor. 
We passed a good house to the left, and a delicious 
trout stream to the right ; but the road itself was 
absolutely flooded with rain. It was at Troam, I think, 
or at some halting place beyond, that our passports 
were demanded, and the examination of our trunks 
solicited. We surrendered our keys most willingly. 
The gentlemen with their cocked hats and blue jackets 
— ^having a belt from which a sword was suspended — 
consulted together for a minute only — returned our 
keys, and telling us that matters would be thorough^ 
looked into at Caen, said they would give us no trouble. 
We were of course not sorry at this determination — 
and the Messrs. D * * * and myself getting once more 
into the cabriolet, (a postboy being secured for the 
leaders) we began to screw up our spirits and curio- 



CAEN- 



sity for a view of the steeples of Caen. The country, 
from Troam to Caen, gets more into the arable kind ; 
but, though flatter and less ornamented with trees, it 
18 fruitful and agreeable to the eye. Unluckily the sun 
had set, and the horizon had become gloomy, when we 
first discovered the spires of St. Stephens ahhey — ^the 
fNrincipal ecclesiastical edifice at Caen. It was hard 
upon nine o'clock ; and the evening being extremely 
dusky, we had necessaiily a very indistinct view of the 
other churches— but, to my eye, as seen in a lengthened 
view, and through a treacherous atmosphere, Caen 
had the appearance of Oxford upon a diminutive scale. 
The town itself, like our famous University, is built in 
a slanting direction ; though the surrounding country 
18 yet flatter than about Oxford. As we entered it, 
Idl the population seemed collected to witness our 
arrival. From solitude we plunged at once into tu« 
mxQt, bustle, and noise. We stopped at the Hotel 
iEspagne — a large, but black and begrimed mansion. 
Here our luggage was taken down ; and here we were 
assailed by gar^ons de place, with cards in their 
hands, intreating us to put up at their respective 
hotels. We had somehow got a recommendation to the 
Hotel Roy ale in the Place Royale^ — and such a union 
of royal adjuncts was irresistible. — Accordingly, we 
resolved upon moving thither. In a trice our trunks 
were placed upon barrows : and we marched behind, 
in double quick time," in order to secure our pro- 
perty. The place appeared to improve as we made 
our different turnings, and gained upon our hotel. 
" Le voil^. Messieurs" — exclaimed our guides and 
baggage conductors — as we got into a goodly square. 



260 



CAEN. 



and saw a fiedr and comely mansion in front. The rash 
of landlord; waiting maids^ and gargons de plaoe^ en- 
countered us as we entered. '^Messieurs Je vous salue,** 
— said a huge^ ungracious looking figure — ^which said 
figure was nothing less than the master of the hotel — 
yclep*d Lagouelle. We were shown into a small room 
on the ground floor to the right — and ordered tea ; but 
had scarcely begun to enjoy the crackling blaze cf a 
plentiful wood fire^ when the said ungracious figure 
took his seat by the side of us ... to tell us aU about 
THE duel/' 

• I had heard (from an English gentleman in the 
packet boat from Havre to Honfleur^) something res- 
pecting this most extraordinary duel between a young 
Englishman and a young Frenchman : but as I mean 
to reserve my Caen btidgei for a distinct dispatch, and 
as I have yet hardly tarried twenty hours in this place, 
I must bid you adieu, only adding that I dreamt, last 
night, about some English antiquaries trying to bend 
the bow of William the Conqueror ! — Can this be sur- 
prising ? Again farewell. 



I 



261 



LETTER XIIL 

CABN. BOIL. SOCIETY. EDUCATION. A DUEL. OLD 
HOUSES. THE ABBEY OF ST. STEPHEN. CHURCH 
OF ST. PIERRE DE DERNETAL. ABB^ DE LA SAINTE 
TRINIT^. OTHER PUBLIC EDIFICES. 

I HAVE now resided upwards of a week at La- 
gouelle*S; the Hotel Royale^ and can tell you something 
of the place and of the inhabitants of Caen. But do not 
(BOEpect such a copious or curious sketch of these as 
you received of Rouen and of the Rouennois. Caen is 
still-life after Rouen : but it has been^ and yet is^ a 
town exceedingly well-deserving the attention of the 
loonging traveller and of the curious antiquary. Its 
ecclesiastical edifices are more ancient, but less vast 
and splendid^ than those of Rouen ; while the streets 
and the houses are much more wide and comfortable. 
Ibis place is the capital of the department of Cal- 
vados^ or of Lower Normandy : and its population 
is estimated at forty thousand souls. It has a public 
library^ a school of art, a college, mayoralty, and all 
the etceteras of a corporate society. But I must first 
give you something in the shape of political economy 
intelligence. Caen with its arrondissemens of Bayeux, 
Fire J Falaiscy Lisieux, and Pont LEvequCj is the coun- 
try of pasturage and of cattle. It is also fertile in the 
apple and pear ; but from recent experiments made at 
Jirgences^ they have abandoned all further attempts to 
cultivate the vine. There are beautiful and most abun- 



264 



CAEN. 



Caen and its immediate vicinity^ but lately that branch 
of trade has suffered extremely. The revolution first 
gave it a violent check, and the ignorance and inat- 
tention of the masters to recent improvements, intro* 
duced by means of chemistry, have helped to hasten 
its decay. To balance this misfortune, there has of 
late sprung up a very general and judiciously directed 
pommercial spirit in the article of porcelaine; and 
if Caen be inferior to its neighbouring towns, and 
especially to Rouen and Lisieux, in the articles of 
cloth, stuffs, and lace, it takes a decided lead in that 
which relates to pottery and china : no mean articles 
in the supply of domestic wants and luxuries. But 
it is in matters of higher pith and moment** that 
Caen may claim a superiority over the towns just 
noticed. There is a better spirit of education abroad; 
and, comparatively for its size, more science and more 
literature. This place has been long famous for the 
education of lawyers. There are two distinct acade- 
mies — one for "Science and Belles-Lettres" — the 
other for agriculture and commerce. The Ljfc^e is a 
noble building, close to the Abbey of St.lStephen : but 
I wish its fagade had been Gothic, to harmonise with 
this latter. Indeed^ Caen has quite the air o( Oxford, 
from the prevalent appearance of stone in its public 

taire qu'il n'y a viUe en Europe oh il se fac^ de plus beaux & singulkr 
LiNOE DE TABLE que Toii appeUe hautelke — sur lequel les artisans 
telliers representent toutes sortes de fleurs^ bestes^ oyscaux, arbres^ me- 
dalles^ & armoiries de Rois^ Princes^ Seigneurs, voire aussi naifue- 
ment & proprement que le plus estim^ Peintre pourroit rapporter 
auecques son pinceau, &c. Bourovbville; Jntiquiiez de Caen; 1 588^ 
8vo. p. 36. 



CAEN. 



266 



buildings. The environs of the town afford qnar- 
lies, whence the stone is taken in great blocks, in a 
comparatively soft state — and is thus cut into the 
several forms required with the greatest facility. It 
18 then exposed, and every succeeding day appears 
to add to its white tint and durable quality. I saw 
some important improvements making in the out- 
skirts of the town,* in which they were finishing 

^ mpraumeHti making m the ouiskirU of the townJ] — ^The &ux- 
bcmgB of Caeii> in the present day, wear a melancholy contrast to 
what they appear to have been in the middle of the xviih century, 
listen to the pleasantly penned description of them by the first topo- 
gnpher of the place . . . auxquelles les habitans et ieunesse se pour- 
meinent^ prennent plaisir k la saison du printemps> et de I'est^^ mftme 
lea fliers de TUniTersit^ ; les vns k sauter^ lutter^ oourir^ iouer aux 
Imrcs^ nager en la riviere qui les enclot> tirer de Tarc^ et prendre 
tontes honnestes recreations^ comme aussi font les damoiselles^ dames^ 
et bouigeoises, k y estendre et secher leur beau linge^ duquel les dites 
prairies sont aucunes fois si couuertes quelles semblent plustot blanches 
que yertes— et au jour des festes api^s le souper s*y assemblent les 
graades compagnies, tant de seigneurs^ offiders, dames, damoiselles^ 
boorgeoises^ en nombre de trois k quatre mile personnes qui 8*y pour- 
■woent par troupes> pour y auoir leur plaisir et recreation & voir les 
paase temps, &c.*'—Mais encores le plus grand plaisir qui se treuue en 
teUes assemble, c*est qu*en ce beau printemps vernal Ton y voit le 
diant et ramage melodieux des rossignols qui fleurissent^ firedonnent et 
degoissent, dedans cette circle et iardins prochains, rapportans par 
leor chant la m^moire de I'histoire de Fhilomene^ &c.*' Again, a few 
pages further: Je dir^ aussi^ auecques assurance, qu'il croist aux 
Imux prairies et iardins de cette ville & fauxbourgs des plus excellens 
etdelicats fruits de toutes series que en autre ville de France, et de toutes 
iiciirs odoriferentes en de belles & plaisantes trailles, gallerie, pallis- 
sades & parterres.'* Boubgusville : Antiquitez de Caen ; pp. 5, 6> 26. 

It may be worth subjoining, from the same interesting authority, 
that long after the time even of the puUication just referred to. 



266 



CAEN. 



shafts and capitals of columns in a manner the 
most correct and gratifying. Still further from the 

the town of Caen was surrounded by lofty and thick stone walla— 
upon the tops of which three men could walk a-breast ; and fran 
thence the inhabitants could discern the vessels sailing in the river 
Orne, across those large and beautiful meadows^ and unloading their 
cargoes by the sides of the walls.*' It appears indeed to have been a 
sort of a lounge or fashionable promenade— by means of various 
ladders for the purposes of ascent and descent. 

Among the old prints and bird*s-eye views of Caen^ whidi I saw in 
the coUection of Ds Boze at the Royal Library at Paria, there is one' 
accompanied by three pages of printed description ; which latter be- 
gins with the lines of Guillaume Breton Villa potens^ opulenta^" ftc. ; 
see post. There is also a very large print of Coen^ by P. Buache, of Oe 
date of 1747 : in which^ however^ the trees are made of more oonw- 
quence than the houses. Also a bird's-eye print of the dty, ham Hat 
pmaiat GumUmtie. This latter Itake to be from ZeiIler*sTopogni|iUa 
Gallis^ vol. iii. in which the towers of the Jbbaye dela TrinM, and of 
St. Etienne, having two stories, as it were, are unlike any thing we now 
observe. The view, in other respects, gives a good idea of the tows 
(of the date of 1640-50) and of the precincts of St. Stephen's abbey. 
The Place Royale seems to have been the Placede la Ckaimiei where 
we observe a gallows to be erected. Among the drawing8> &c. in the 
royal collection, is one of the castle of Caen, of the date of 1702, father 
interesting. The castle is now destroyed. There is also an impOBHig 
view of the Ahhaye de la Trinity : or rather of the monastery or hospi- 
tal now attached to it : also of the date of 1702 : a wretdied per- 
formance. An equally faithless view of the abbey of St. Stephen ; 
of the same date. Evelyn, in 1644, thus describes the town 
of Caen. The whole town is handsomely built of that excdl-; 
lent stone so well knowne by that name in England. I was lead to a 
pretty garden, planted with hedges of Alaternus, having at the en- 
trance, at an exceeding height, accurately cut in topiary worke, with 
well understood architecture, consisting of pillars, niches, freeases, and 
other ornaments, with greate curiosity, &c. 

Life and Writings of J. Evelyn; 1818^ 4to. vol. L p. 52. 



CAEN. 



267 



immediate vicinity of Caen, they find stone of a closer 
grain; and with this they make stair-cases, and 
pavements for the interior of buildings. Indeed 
the stone stair-cases in this place, which are usually 
circular, and projecting from the building, struck me 
as being equally uncommon and curious. It is assert- 
ed that they have different kinds of marble in the 
department of Calvados, which equal that of the 
south of France. At Basly and Fieux white marble 
is found which has been judged worthy of a compari- 
son with Parian ; but this is surely a little presump- 
tuous. However, it is known that Cardinal Richelieu 
brought from Vieux all the marble with which he 
built the chapel in the college of the Sorbonne. 

Upon the whole, as to general appearance, and as to 
particular society, Caen may be preferable to Rouen. 
The costume and manners of the common people are 
pretty much, if not entirely, the same ; except that, as 
to dress, the cauchoise is here rather more simple than 
at Dieppe and Rouen. The upper fille-de-chambre at 
our hotel displays not only a good correct model of 
national dress, but she is well-looking in her person, 
and well-bred in her manners. Mr. Lewis prevailed 
upon this good-natured young woman to sit for her 
likeness, and for the sake of her costume. The girls 
eyes sparkled with more than ordinary joy at the pro- 
posal, and even an expression of gratitude mingled it- 
self in her manner of compliance. I send you, as a 
rival to the cauchoise Dieppoiscy* the figure and dress 

• See p. 



1 



268 



CAEN. 



of the iille-dc-chambre at the Hotel Rafale of Caen.* 
And as a counterpart to it, pray examine this pleajsing 
little group, of the same character, or order in society, 
which Mr. L. brought in this morning — ^from a peram- 
bulation in the suburbs of the town before breakfiast. 
fli"^ms that Norman women sit, and 
out of doors, betimes in the moniii^« 




• Sec the Opposite Plate 
f depdt of . the English,'] — lti;va5 a similar d{;p6t in DucareFs Ume. 



CAEN. 



269 



and from very different causes. One fiunily comes M 
reside from motives of economy ; another from those of 
education ; a third from those of retirement ; and a 
fourth from pure love of sitting down^ in a strange 
place^ with the chance of making some pleasant con- 
nection^ or of seeking some strange adventure. Good 
and cheap livings and novel society^ are doubtless the 
main attractions. But there is desperate ill blood just 
now between the Caennois (I will not make use of the 
enlarged term Francois) and the English; and I 
will tell you the cause. Do you remember the em- 
phatic phrase in my last^ all about the duel?'' 
Listen. About three weeks only before our arrival,* 
a duel was fought between a young French law stu- 
dent and a young Englishman, the latter the son of a 
naval captain. I will mention no names ; and so far 
not wound the feelings of the friends of the parties con- 
cerned. But this duel, my friend, has been " the duel of 
duels"— on the score of desperation and of a fixed pur 
pose to murder. It is literally without precedent, and I 
trust will never be considered as one. You must know 
then, that Caen, in spite of all the bouleversemens"* of 
the Revolution, has maintained its ancient reputation of 
possessing a very large seminary, or college for stu- 
dents at law. These students amount to nearly 600 in 
number. Most young gentlemen under twenty years of 

* The story was in fact told us the very first night of our arrival^ 
by M. Lagouelle, the master of the hotel royale. He went through 
it with a method^ emphasis, and energy, rendered the more striking 
from the obesity of his figure and the vulgarity of his countenance. 
But he frankly allowed that " Monsieur TAnglois se conduisoit bien/' 



270 



CAEN. 



age are at times riotous^ or frolicsome^ or foolish. Geiie* 
rally speakings however^ the students conduct thCTi-- 
selves with propriety : but there had been a law-suit be- 
tween a French and English suitor^ and the Judgerpro* 
nounced sentence in favour of our countrjrman. The 
hall was crowded with spectators, and among them was 
a plentiful number of law-students. As th^ were retir* 
ing, one young Frenchman either made frightful faces, 
or contemptible gestures, in a very fixed and insulting 
manner, at a young Englishman — the son of this naval 
captain. Our countryman had no means or power of 
noticing or resenting the insult, as the aggressor was 
surrounded by his companions. It so happened that 
it was fair time at Caen ; and in the evening of the 
same day, our countiyman recognised, in the crowd at 
the £Etir, the physiognomy of the young man who had 
insulted him in the hall of justice. He approached 
him, and gave him to understand that his rude beha- 
viour should be noticed at a proper time and in a 
proper place : whereupon the Frenchman came up to 
him, shook him violently by the arm, and told him to 
" fix his distance on the ensuing morning.** Now the 
habit of duelling is very common among these law- 
students ; but they measure twenty-five paces, fire, and 
of course . . . miss — and then fimcy themselves great 
heroes, and there is an end of the aflfair I Not so upon 
the present occasion. Fifteen paces,** if you please- 
said the student sarcastically, with a conviction of the 
backwardness of bis opponent to meet him. " Five, 
rather" — exclaimed the provoked antagonist — ^' I will 
fight you at five paces :** — audit was agreed that they 



CAEN. 



271 



should so meet and fight on the morrow, at five paces 
only asunder. 

Each party was under twenty; but I believe the 
English youth had scarcely attained his nineteenth 
3^ear. What I am about to relate will cause your flesh 
to creep. It was determined by the seconds, as one 
must necessarily fall, from firing at so short a distance, 
that only one pistol should be loaded with ball: the 
other having nothing but powder : — and that, as the 
Frenchman had challenged, he was to have the first 
choice of the pistols. They parted : the seconds pre- 
pared the pistols according to agreement — and the 
&tal morning came. The combatants appeared, with- 
out one jot of abatement of spirit or of cool courage. 
The pistols lay upon the grass before them: one loaded 
only with powder, and the other with powder and ball. 
The Frenchman advanced: took up a pistol, weighed 
and. balanced it most carefully in his hand, and then 
. . . laid it down. He seized the other pistol, and 
cocking it, fixed himself upon the spot from whence 
he was to fire. The English youth was necessarily 
compelled to take the abandoned pistol. Five paces 
were then measured . . and on the signal being given, 
they both fired . . . and the Frenchman fell . . . dead 
UPON THE spot! Hc had in fiict taken up and laid 
down the very pistol which was loaded with the ficital 
ball, on the supposition of its being of too light a 
weight ; and even seemed to compliment himself upon 
his supposed sagacity upon the occasion. But to pro- 
ceed. The ball went through his heart, as I under- 
stood. The second of the deceased, upon seeing his 
friend a reeking corpse at his feet, became mad and 

VOL. I. R 



272 



CAEN. 



outrageous • . and was for fighting the survivor imma- 
diately ! Upon which the lad of mettle and courage 
reptied, that he would not fight a man without a 
second — " But go," said he, (drawing his watch coolly 
ftom out of his fob) I will give you twenty minutes to 
come back again with your second.** He waited, with 
his watch in his hand, and by the dead body of his 
antagonist, for the return of the Frenchman ; but on 
the expiration of the time, his own second conjured 
him to consult his safety and depart ; for that, from 
henceforth, his life was in jeopardy. He left the 
ground; obtained his passport, and quitted the town 
instantly ; but he had scarcely lost sight of the field of 
action a dozen minutes, ere a multitude of students 
came, determined to avenge the death of their country- 
man by that of his destroyer ! . . The dead body of the 
duellist was then placed upon a bier : and his Mineral 
was afterwards attended by several hundreds of his 
companions — ^who, armed with muskets and swords, 
threatened destruction to the civil and military autho- 
rities if they presumed to interfere ... for the Mayor 
had, in fact, prohibited the funeral rites to be performed 
within consecrated ground. All this, my dear friend, 
has necessarily increased the ill-blood which is ad- 
mitted to exist between the English and French . . . but 
the affair is now beginning to blow over — and when 
one of our fair young countrjrwomen, who has been 
visiting in the best circles here, with her mother, (for 
the last eight or ten months) asked me how oft;en I 
had been insulted since my arrival?*' — and I replied 
not once" — she expressed herself astonished beyond 
measure. 



CAEN. 



373 



^ A trace to sach topics of vexation and dismay. Only 
let us admit that, at this present moment, after what 
has passed, the wonder may be that the breach is not 
mder between the Caennois and our countrymen. It 
-IB now hig^ time to furnish you with some details 
relating to your fitvourite subjects of architbctural 
aod BOOKISH ANTiQurriBs. The former shall take 
precedence. First of the streets; secondly of the 
houses ; and thirdly of the public buildings, ecclesias* 
tical and civil. Yet a word upon the antiquity of the 
town itself. Its name, Cabn, (Cadami in Latin) is 
supposed to be derived from Cad-Hom : a compound 
word, half Celtic and half Saxon— ^lenoting, in the 
opinion of Bochart, the place of war. Hence the old 
words CadrJumj Cat/Uen, Cahem — and finally Caen. 
Let this suffice for etymological research. As to the 
antiquity of the place, it is supposed never to have been 
inhabited by the Romans : in other words, not to have 
existed as a town when they occupied the country : I 
shall say nothing about its condition during the time of 
llie Saxons ; who, it should seem, made no settlement 
here but it may be fairly stated that, on the introduc- 

* ike Saxmu . . . made no settlemerU hereJ] — " It was not, however, 
a gieat many years after, [the possession of the aoriAent parts of Qaul 
lif the Danes] that it was esteemed one of the chief towns in the pro- 
irincef as we find in the account of the intenriew at Rouen, in the year 
943, between Louis Ultramarinus, King of France, and Rollo, Duke of 
Normandy, as given us in a very ancient chronicle of that dukedom. 
Monsieur De Bras assures us, that in a MS. of the customs of Nor- 
mandy, written in the time of Duke RoUo, and which had fallen into 
his hands, Caen is spoken of as a town which then made no contemp- 
tible appearance ; and in the charter of dotation given by Richard II. 



274 



CAEN. 



tion and establishment of Christianity, Caen was^ at 
least a more insignificant place than Bayeux ; inasmuch 
as the Diocesan*s see is established at this latter place 
— ^whereas^ had Caen been of more local importance, w% 
should not have heard of the Bishop of Bayeux, but et 
the Bishop of Caen. Let me therefore take you at once 
to the beginning of the tenth century, when, under 
the government of the famous Rolloy this place attained 
strength and celebrity. It appears to have increabed 
in wealth and distinction during the following century. 
William the Conqueror built a noble abbey here, and 
chose it as the spot for his interment ; and such was 
its population and magnificence during the thirteenth 
century, that a poet of that period has noticed it in the 
most pointed and commendatory manner.* Before the 
Revolution it had thirteen parishes, a ooU^[e, aiid 
twenty public establishments for either sex. ^^t pre- 
sent the number of parishes is reduced to two ; and of 
the thirteen churches, seen in DucareFs time, I should 

Duke of Normandy, to his daughter Adela^ upon her maniage 
with Raynauld Count of Buigundy, the town of Caen, together 
with its churches, markets, custom-house, quay, and other dependen- 
des, are amply specified.** Anglo-Norman AntiquUies; p. 48. 

* a poet has noticed U in the most poMed and commendatory 
—This poet is WiUiam Le Brito, or Guillaume Breton, who teUsnt^ 
in his PhUipidos, that it was so weU peopled, and so mBgxuBoeaQf 
built, that there was no town in all France comparable to it, except 
Paris. His words are these : 

Villa potens, opnlenta» situ spatioea decors ; 

Fluminibus, pratis, et agronun fertilitate, 

Merciferasque rates portu capiente marine ; 

Seqne tot ecdesiis, domibus, et dvibus miaoi, 

Ut se Fteisk) viz annnat esse minoitm. 

p. 48-9. 



CAEN. 



275 



think it probable that a foui-th part has been demo- 
lidied. At leaat I know that, on the further extremity 
otthe town, beyond the Abbey of St. Stephen, there is 
little more than the shell of an ancient church, (St. 
Nicholas,* I think) of which the western end, be- 
Uaying the architecture of the thirteenth century, is 
OMverted into a blacksmith's shop, and the nave and 
ride aisles are mere stabling for horses. The Revolu- 
tion taught the importance of this adaptation to time 
aad circumstances ! 

However, to begin with the Streets. Those of St. 
Pierre, Notre Dame, and ^S'^. Jean are the principal 
for bustle and business. The first two form one con- 
tinuous line, leading to the abbey of St. Stephen, and 
afford in £Etct a very interesting stroll to the observer 
of' men and manners. The shops are inferior to those 
of Rouen, but a great shew of business is discernible 
in them. The street beyond the abbey, and those 
oalled Guilberty and des Chanoines, leading towards 
the river, are considered among the genteelest. Du- 
carel pronounced the hotises of Caen mean in gene- 
ral, though usually built of stone but I do not 
agree with him in this conclusion. The open parts 
afiout the Lj/c^e and the Abbey of St. Stephen, toge- 
ther with the Place Royale, where the library is 
rituated, form very agreeable spaces for the promenade 

* All that Ducarel says of it^ is '* that it is remarkable on account 
of its great age. " He calls it St. Nicholas des Champs, p. 75. Hue! 
observes that time and the new fortifications had much changed the 
limits of this parish — ^which formerly extended as far as the Isle Re- 
naud, out of the enclosure of the town^ behind St St^hen*s. Origmet 
de Caen ; p. 3(8. 



276 



CAEN. 



of the ladies and the exercise of the National Guard. - 
The Courts are full of architectural curiosities^ but 
mostly of the time of Francis I. — ^Indeed that monarch- 
seems to have been particularly anxious, both here and 
at Rouen, to revive a taste, whether good or bad, for 
gothic architecture and it is not only in courts, but 
in public edifices, wherever situated, that you observe 
specimens of architecture of the early part of the six-^* 
teenth century. Of the houses, those witn elaborate 
carvings in wood, beneath a pointed roof, are doubt- 
less of the greatest antiquity. There are a great num- 
ber of these ; and some very much older than others. 
M. Pierrb-Aim£ Lair (a worthy gentleman, of whom 
I shall by and by speak in ample terms) conducted 
Mr. Lewis and myself to two of these booses — ^wldcb 
he deemed the oldest in the town. Thcly are in the 
Rue St. Pierre : but modem innovations had begun to 
make encroachments in the one to the left. Mr. L. ob- 
tained permission to at in a room on the first floor, oh 
the opposite side of the way, and occupied two mormngs 
in making drawings of these old-fashioned resideiices. 
Cast your eye upon them : and tell me whether you are 
not charmed by the brilliancy and minuteness of Much 

* a taste, whether good or badtfor Gothic archiUeture.']—¥mada not 
only introduced a taste for architecture/* but fbrspectades^ fesiinties, 
and gaities of almost every class and description. The account of the 
triumphal entry of that Monarch and the Dauphin, In the year 1538, 
by Bourgueville, (taken apparently from his oiwn corious and contemn 
poraneous publication) may be placed alongside of any thing wiiich 
has been said of the triumphal entries of Henry II. at Rouen— though 
even at Caen, Henry took pains to rival the regal pomp of his prede^ 
cessor. Consult the Jntiquit^i de Caen, p. 103-*121, &c. 



CAEN. 



877 



which the artist has exhibited. At the same time they 
win remind you of the general character of our older 
hooses in the city of Chester, and elsewhere. They are 
coirered with ceats of plaister, the work of succeeding 
generations. 




278 



CAEN; 



A third curious old house is to the right hand corner 
of the street St. Jean ; as you go to the Post Office. 
But talking of houses, I must inform you that the resi- 
dence of the famous Malherbe yet exists in the street 
leading to the abbey St. Etienne. This house is of the 
middle of the sixteenth century : and what Corneille 
is to Roueriy Malherbe is to Caen. Ici naquit Malt- 
HERBE, &c. as you will perceive from the annexed 
drawing of this said house, is inscribed upon the front 
of the building. But Malherbe has been doomed to 
receive greater honours. His head was the first struck, 
in a series of medals, to perpetuate the resemblances 
of the most eminent literary characters (male and fe- 
male) in France : and it is due to the amiable Kerre- 
Aim£ Lair to designate him as the Father of this 
medallic project. 




CAEN. 279 

- Towards the street La helle Croix, is this inscription 
with the subjoined arms^ 

FRANCISCVS MALHERBVS 
HASCE AEDES EXTBVI CVBAVIT 




Towards la Rue de L'Odeon : 

CIVTTATIS OBNAMENTO 
LARIVMQUE AVITORVM MEMORIiE. 




In perambulating this town^ one cannot but be sur- 
prised at the non-appearance of fountains — those 
charming and commodious pieces of architecture and 
of street embellishment. In this respect, Rouen has 
infinitely the advantage of Caen : where, instead of the 
trickling current of translucent water, we observe 
nothing but the partial and perturbed stream issuing 
from ugly wellsy* as tasteless in their structure as they 



* ugl^f wetif .] — ^Bouigueville seems bitterly to lament the substitu- 
tion of weUs for fountains. He proposes a plan^ quite feasible in his 



280 CAEN. 

are inconvenient in the procuring of water. Upon one 
or two of these wells^ I observed the dates of 1560 and 
1588. 

The Public Edifices, however, demand a particular 
and appropriate description : and first of those of the 
ecclesiastical order. Let us begin therefore with the 
Abbby of St. Stephbn ; for it is the noblest and most 
interesting on many accounts It is called by the 
name of that Saint, inasmuch as there stood formerly 
a chapel, on the same scite, dedicated to him. Hie 
present building was completed and solemnly dedi- 
cated by William the Conqueror, in the presence 
of his wife, his two sons Robert and William, his 
fitvourite Archbishop Lanfranc, John Archbishop of 
Rouen, and Thomas Archbishop of York — towards 
the year 1080: but I strongly suspect, from the 
present prevailing character of the architecture, that 
nothing more than the west front and the towers 
upon which the spires rest, remain of its ancient 
structure. The spires (as the Abb6 De La Rue 
conjectures, and as I should also have thought) are 
about two centuries later than the towers. 

The outsides of the side aisles appear to be of the thir- 
teenth rather than of the end of the eleventh, centuiy. 
The first exterior view of the west front, and of the 

own estimation, whereby this desirable object migfat be effected : and 
then retorts upon his townsmen by reminding them of the commodioas 
fountains at Lineux, Faktue and Vire^o^ which the inhabitants 
" n'ont rien espaign^ pour auou- ceste decoration et commodity en leurs 
▼iUes/'— spiritedly adding—'' si j'estcns encore en auctorit^^ j'y ferois 
mon pouucnr, et ie y oifre de mes biens."* p. 17. 



CAEN. 



281 



towers^ is extremely interesting ; from the grey and 
dear tint^ as well as excellent quality of the stone, 
which, according to Hnet, was brought partly from 
Vaucelle and partly from Germany. One of the comer 
abutments of one of the towers has fallen down ; and 
a great portion of what remains seems to indicate rapid 
decay. The whole stands indeed greatly in need of 
reparation. The prettily f^hioned Norman stone- 
tile upon the spires, cannot fail to attract the attention 
of the antiquary. Ducarel, if I remember rightly,^ has 
made, of this whole front, a sort of elevation as if it 
were intended for a wooden model to work by : having 
all the stiffness and precision of an erection of forty- 
dght hours standing only. As the eye runs along the 
body of the building, towards the eastern end, a pro- 
portionate disgust prevails. The central tower is cropt 
close, and overwhelmed by a roof in the form of an 
extinguisher. This, in fact, was the consequence of the 
devastations of the Calvinists ; who absolutely sapped 
the foundation of the tower, with the hope of over- 
whelming the whole choir in ruin — ^but a part only of 
their malignant object was accomplished. The com- 
ponent parts of the eastern extremity are strangely 
and barbarously miscellaneous. However, no good 
conmianding exterior view can be obtained from the 

* Ducarel, if I remember rightly,"] The plate of Ducarel, here alluded 
to, forms the fourth plate in his work : afibrding, from the starch 
mamier in which it is engraved, an idea of one of the most dispropor- 
tioned, ug]y buildings imaginable. Mr. Cotman has favoured us with 
a good bold etching of the West Front, and of the elevation of com- 
partments of the Nave : The former is at once fsuthful and magnificent 5 
but the lower part wants characteristic markings. 



282 



CAEN. 



placcj or confined square^ opposite the towers. Yoa 
mnst thei-efore turn to the right about, and procure a 
survey from the more open space, (assuming the cha* 
racter of boulevards) facing also the Lycee — ^which em- 
braces a view of the eastern end, taking in the towers 
in a veiy picturesque manner. Hither Mr. Lewis and 
myself resorted ; and while I was seated upon a bench, 
reading the Abbe De la Rue's recent treatise upon the 
Armoric Bards (which the venerable author had pre- 
sented to me on the same morning,) IMr. Lewis was 
occupied with his pencil in transferring one of the 
prettiest representations imaginable of the objects be- 
fore him to his sketch book. It unites the fidelity of 
antiquarianism with all the picturesqueness of which 
the subject is capable.* 

But let us go back again to the west-front ; and 
opening the unfastened green baize covered door, enter 
softly and silently the venerable interior — sacred even 
to the feelings of Englishmen ! Of this interior, very 
much is changed from its original character. The side 
aisles retain their flattened arched roofs and pillars ; 
and in the nave you observe those rounded pilasters — 
or alto-relievo-like pillars — nmning from bottom to 
top, which are to be seen in the abbey of Jumieges. 
The capitals of these long pillars, are comparatively of 
modern date. To the left on entrance, within a side 
chapel, is the burial place of Matilda, the wife of the 
Conqueror. Tlie tombstone attesting her interment 
is undoubtedly of the time. Generally speaking, the in- 
terior is cold, and dull of effect. A desolate nakedness 

* Sec the Opposite Plate. 



I 



w 



CAEN. 



prevails, and you are disappointed that you do not see 
more objects of costliness or curiosity. The side 
chapels, of which not fewer than sixteen encircle the 
choir, have the discordant accompaniments of Grecian 
balustrades to separate them from the choir and nave. 
There is a good number of confessionals within them ; 
and at one of these I saw, for the first time, two wo- 
men, kneeling, in the act of confession to the same 
priest. " C'est un pen fort," observed our guide, in 
an under-voice, and with a humourous expression of 
countenance ! Meanwhile Mr. Lewis, who was in an 
opposite direction in the cathedral, was exercising his 
pencil in the following delineation of a similar subject. 




1 



284 



GAEN, 



To the right of the choir (in the sacristy, I think,) is 
hnng the huge portrait, in oil, within a black and gilt 
frame, of which Ducarel has published an engraving,* 
on the supposition of its being the portrait of William 
THE Conqueror. But nothing can be more ridicu- 
lous than such a conclusion. In the first place, the 
picture itself, which is a palpable copy, cannot be 
older than a century ; and, in the second place, were 
it an original performance, it could not be older than 
the time of Francis I. : — when, in feet, it purports to 
have been executed — as a faithful copy of the figure of 
King William as it appeared to the Cardinals in 1522, 
who were seizerf with a sacred phrenzy to take a peep 
at the body as it might exist at that time ! The cos- 
tume of the oil painting is evidently that of the time 
of our Henry VIII. ; and to suppose that the body of 
William— even had it remained in so surprisingly per- 
fect a state as Ducarel intimates, after an interment of 
upwards of four hundred years — could have presented 
such a costume, when, from DucareFs own statement, 
another whole-length representation of the same person 
is totally different y and more decidedly of the cha- 
racter of William's time, is really quite a reproach 
to any antiquary who plumes himself upon the posses- 
sion even of common sense. 

In the middle of the choir, and just before the high 

• the huge portrait , . , of which Ducarel has published an engraving.l 
Ducarel shall tell his own prosing tale ; lest, by abridging it, I should 
be suspected of partiality. I only beg that a second perusal of the 
text may follow the first perusal of this note : of which latter, indeed, 
a small portion is not divested of interest. See the next note but two, 
at page 292. 



CAEN. 



285 



dltar^ the body of the Conqueror was entombed with 
great pomp; and a monument erected to his memory 
of the most elaborate and costly description.* Nothing 

* '* In the middle of the choir, and just before the high altar, was 
deposited the body of the founder, William the Conqueror, King 
of England, and Duke of Normandy, under a most stately monument, 
erected at the expence of his son, William Rufus, and richly adorilM 
with gold, silver, and precious stones, by one Odo, a goldsmith of 
Caen. The top stone of the monument was of ttmch, supported on 
each side by three pilasters of white marble 5 and thereon lay the 
figure of the King, as large as life, dressed in his robes of state ; and 
at the foot, was the following epitaph, composed by Thomas, Arch- 
bishop of York. : 

QUI REXIT RIGIDOS NORTHMANOS ATQUE BRITANOS, 

AUDACTER VICIT FORTTTER OBTINUIT 
ET CCENOMANENSIS VIRTUTE COERCUIT ENSIS 

IMPERHQUE SUI LEGIBUS APPLICUIT 
REX MAGNUS PARVA JACET HAC GULIELMUS IN URNA 

SUFFICIT ET MAGNO PARVA DOMUS DOMINO 
TER SEPTEM GRADIBUS SE VOLVERAT ATQUE DUOBU8 

VIRGINIS IN GREMIO PHCEBUS ET HIC OBUT. 

losr. 

In the year 1538^ one of the cardinals^ attended by an archbishop and 
several dignified ecclesiastics, visiting the town of Caen, was prompted 
by a strong curiosity to see the body of the Conqueror^ and having, 
for that purpose, obtained permission flrom Peter de Martigny, bishop 
of Castres, who was at that time abbot of St. Stephen, they caused the 
tomb to be opened. Upon removing the cover stone, the body, which 
vras corpulent, and in stature greatly exceeded the tallest man then 
known, appeared as entire as when it was first buried. Within the 
tomb lay a copper plate gilt, on which was engraven the like epitaph 
with that on the outside of die monument, and beneath it was the fol- 
lowing inscription in old French : 

le Guillaume tres magnanime 

Due de Neustrie pareil a cbarlemaigne 



286 



CAEN. 



now remains but a flat black marble slab^ witiii a short 
inscription^ of quite a recent date. 

Pftssay le mer par un doux rent de siut 

Pour conquester toute la grand bretugne 

Puis desployer fis miunte noble enseigne 

£t dresser tentes et pavilions de guerre 

Et ondrier fis comme fil d'araigne 

Neuf cent grand's nefz si tost qui euz pied a teire 

Et puis en armes de la partis grauderre 

Pour coups recenz au doubte roy heranlt 

Dont come preux i'euz toute la deferre 

Non pas sans dur et manreilleux assault 

Pour bien jouster le desloyal ribault 

Je mis a mort et soixante et sept mille 

Neuf cents dixhuict et par unsi d'un sault 

Fnz roy d'anglois tenant toute leur isle 

Or n'est il nue tant soit fort et habile 

Qui quant c'est fut i^res ne se repose 

Mort m'a deffiedt que suis il cendre vile 

De toute choses ou jouit une pose. 

The cardinal^ who^ as well as the rest of the spectators, was greatly 
surprised at finding the body in so perfect a state, aflter having been 
buried near four hundred and fifty years, in order to perpetuate the 
memory of so remarkable an incident, procured a picture of the royal 
remains, in the condition they then appeared, to be painted on board, 
by the most eminent painter of the place, and caused it to be htmg up, 
together with the before-mentioned original inscription, on the wall of 
the abbey church, opposite to the monument. The tomb being agan 
carefully closed, remained undisturbed until the year 1 B6^, when the 
Calvinists, in a religious fury, forced it open, in expectation of meeting 
with immense treasures, but finding nothing more than the bones of 
the Conqueror, wrapt up in red taffets^ they threw them about the 
church in great derision, after having broken in pieces the monument, 
together with the royal eflfigies which lay thereon. Most of the bones 
were afterwards collected together by Monsieur de Bras, and delivered 
into the custody of Father Michael de CanaUe one of the monks and 
bailly of the abbey, who carefully lodged them in his cell, with an in- 



CAEN. 



In the present state of the abbey, and even in that of 
BucareFs time, there is, and was, a great dearth of se- 
pulchral monuments. Indeed I know not whether 

tent to restore them to their ancient place of sepulture^ as soon as the 
troubles should be ended but the town being some time after taken 
hj Admiral Chastellion^ the religious were driven from the abbey^ and 
the royal remains once more dispersed. However^ the Viscount de 
lUaise having at the time of these disturbances obtained from the 
rioters one of the thigh bones^ it was by him afterwards deposited in 
the royal grave. About the same time the picture of the Conqueroi^s 
remains^ as they appeared lying in the tomb^ in the year 1582, fell in 
the hands of Peter Hod^, gaoler of Caen, and one of the rioters, 
who converted one part thereof into a table, and used the other as a 
cupboard door; but these being four years after discovered and re* 
daimed by Monsieur de Bras, remained in his possession till his death, 
since which time it is unknown what is become of them. Jnglo' 
Norman Antiquities', p. 51-4. 

It should be noticed that, " besides the immense benefactions which 
William in his life time conferred upon this abbey, he, on his death, 
presented thereto the crown which he used to wear at all high festi- 
vals, together with his sceptre and rod : a cup set with precious stones ; 
his candlesticks of gold, and all his regalia 5 as also the ivory 
bugle-horn which usually hung at his back.*' p. 5 1 . note. The story of 
the breaking open of the coffin by the Calvinists, and finding the Con- 
queror's remains, is told by Bourgueville — who was an eye witness of 
these depredations, and who tried to soften the obdurate hearts" of 
the pillagers, but in vain. This contemporaneous historian observes 
that, in his time " the abbey was filled with beautiful and curious 
stained-glass windows and harmonious organs, which were all broken 
and destroyed — and that the seats, chairs, &c., and all other wooden 
materials were consumed by fire," p. 171 • Huet observes that a " Dom 
Jean de Baillehache and Dom Matthieu de la Dangie, religious of St. 
Stephen's, took care of the monument of the Conqueror in the year 
1642, and replaced it in the state in which it appeared in Huet's time." 
Origines de Caen-, p. 248. The revolution was still more terrible than 
Cahrinistic fury:— fbr no traces of the monument are now to be seen. 



386 



CAEN. 



you need be deUuned another minute widiin the inte- 
rior ; except it be to add your share of admiration to 
that which has been long and justly bestowed upoQ 
the huge organ* at the west end of the nave, which is 

* die huge organ] — " The west window is almost totally obscoied 
by a most gigantic organ built close to it^ and allowed to be the finest 
in aU France. This organ is so big, as to require eleven large bellows, 
&c.*' Ducard, p. 57. He then goes on to observe, that amongst 
the plate preserved in the treasury of this church, is a curious 
•ibVSB SALVXB, about ten inches in diameter^ gilt, and inlaid with an- 
tique medals. Tradition assures us, th&t it was on this salver, that 
king William the conqneror phiced the foundatioa charier of the abbey 
when he presented it, at the high altar, on the dedication of the church. 
The edges of this salver, which stands on a foot stalk of the same 
metal, are a little turned up, and,carved. In the centre is inlaid a 
Greek medal ^ on the obverse whereof is this legend, AvaaAp Avkomc 
but it being fixed in its socket, the reverse is not visible. The other 
medals, forty in number, are set round the rim, in holes punched quite 
through ; so that the edges of the holes serve as frames for the medals. 
These medals are Roman, and in the highest preservation. They Wjcre 
probably collected by Duke Robert, ftither of the Conqueror, during 
his pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and after his death fell into the 
hands of his son." 

*' The convent is a fine stone building, consisting of two quad- 
rangles 'j one whereof hath of late been partly rebuilt three of its sides 
being already finished. The galleries and cells for the monks are 
upon the principal and second stories. Under them, on the ground- 
floor, is a large refectory, fronting the garden, and near it a hand- 
some room, well fitted up, called la Salle de compagnie^ where, over 
the chimney, I was shewn a diminished picture of William the 
Conqueror, copied from the original, stiU preserved in the porter's 
lodge, and of which I shall speak hereafter. In the same room are 
likewise the pictures of the present king and queen of France, that of 
Cardinal Fleury, formerly abbot of this convent ; and some others. 
The south side of this quadrangle, which was formerly the abbatial 
house, is now in a ruinous conditionji but is intended to be soon rebuilt. 



eAEN. 



289 



considered to be the finest in all France. But Nor- 
mandy abounds in church decorations of this kind. 
Leaving therefore this venerable pile, endeared to the 
British antiquary by a thousand pleasing associations 
of ideas, we strike off into an adjoining court yard, 
and observe the ruins of a pretty extensive pile of 
building, which is called by Ducarel the Palace of 
the Conqueror * But in this supposed palace, in its* 

The second, or inner quadrangle, is very laige, but not closely built. 
Some of the windows of the apartments have pointed arches, but 
otiiers are circular, as are likewise those of the house at present appro- 
priated for the abbot's residence, and which was part of the ancient 
palace. The whole of these buildings is encompassed with laige and 
extensive gardens.** AngUh-Norman Antiquities; p. 57. 

• called by Ducarel the palace of the Conqueror.'] — ^It may be as 
well to give the whole of DucareFs account of this palace, as time (even 
fifty years !) has now given it a so decidedly altered character. That 
the building, in its present construction, was ever inhabited by Wil- 
liam the Conqueror is utterly absurd to imagine. Ducarel has en- 
deavoured to render his description more palateable by the addition of 
a copper plate representation of a portion of this supposed regal resi- 
dence. But he shall speak for himself. 

" Within the precinct of this abbey, adjoining to the church, king 
MHUiamthe Conqueror built a stately palace, for his own residence : 
several parts of it still remain ; particidarly one apartment, which is 
very large, and makes a noble appearance. The rooms in this apart- 
ment are at present used as granaries, but were formerly called the 
Guard chambers and Baron*s hall. These are perhaps as well worth 
the notice of an English antiquary, as any thing within the province 
of Nonnandy. One of these rooms, and indeed the principal now re- 
maining, was distinguished by the name of the Great Guard Cham- 
ber. This room, the cieling whereof is vaulted, and forms a most 
magnificent arch, is lofty, and well proportioned, being one hundred 
and fifty feet in length, and ninety in breadth. The windows on the 
east and west sides are decorated with fluted pillar8,«nd at each end is 



990 



CAEN. 



present state, most assuredly William I. never resided : 
for it is clearly not older than the thirteenth centmy: if 

a beautifiil rose window of sUme work, glazed with painted glaas of 
exquisite workmanship. On the north sides are two magnificent chim- 
neys in good preservation ; and round the whole of the room runs a 
stone bench intended for the convenience of the several persons dmng 
duty therein. The floor is paved with tiles, each near five inches 
■qoare, baked almost to vitrification. Eight rows of these tiles, 
running from east to west, are charged with different coats of arms, 
generally said to be those of the families who attended Duke William 
in his invasion of England. The intervals between each of these rows 
are filled up with a kind of tessellated pavement i the middle whereof 
represents a maze, or labyrinth, about ten feet in diameter, and so art- 
fliUy contrived, that, were we to suppose a man following all the in- 
tricate meanders of its volutes, he could not travel less than a mile be- 
fore he got from the one end to the other. The remainder of this floor 
is inlaid with small squares of different colours, placed alternately, 
and formed into draught or chess boards, for the amusement of the 
sdidiery whilst on guard. Turning out of this room on the left hand, 
you enter into a smaller room, called the Banm^s Hall, twenty-four 
feet in breadth and twenty-seven feet in length ; paved with the same 
sort of tiles as the former — but with this difference, that instead of 
coats of arms they are stained with figures of stags, and dogs in full 
chase. The walls of this room seem to have been ornamented with 
escutcheons of arms painted on heater shields, some of which are still 
remaining.** 

The fertile foncy of Ducarel will here have it that " it was in this 
guard chamber, and the baron*s hall a4ioining, that King William the 
Conqueror, as tradition tells us, in the most sumptuous manner enter- 
tained his mother Arlette with her wedding dinner on the day 
of her marriage to Harluin Count de ConteviUe, by whom she had 
Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, &c. &c," 

It is further remarkable, that, notwithstanding these rooms have 
been used as granaries for upwards of four hundred years, neither the 
damps of the wheat, the turning and shifUng of the grain, nor the 
wooden shoes or spades of the peasants constantly eiB|dqyed in Mng- 



CAEN. 



291 



ancients. Ducarel saw a great deal more than is now to 
be seen ; for, in fact, as I attempted to gain entrance into 

lag in and cleansing the wheat> have in the least damaged the floor> or 
worn off the painting from the tiles. The only injury this floor hath 
reeeired, is the taking up some few of the tiles, in order to open 
flmnds through the floor for the more ready conveyance of the corn 
inlo the rooms beneath. The great door of the guard room is very 
ciirkms, and shows the skill of the woikmen of those times. It Is 
loaded with fine carvings, and though injured by time and the putting 
on and pulling off its locks, is well worth observation. Under these 
rooms is another apartment, supported by fine columns. They were 
formerly used as waiting rooms for persons of inferior rank, but are 
now likewise converted into granaries. 

Opposite to the great wall, which was taken down about twenty 
years since, and till that time had for many years served as a dormitoiy 
for the monks, stood an ancient chapel, built before the abbey was 
founded j upon the outside of the wall of this chapel, were painted in 
fttaco, four portraits, as big as life, representing WUUam the Conqueror, 
his wife Matilda, and their two sons, Robert and WiUiam, The Con- 
queror was drawn as a very tall man, clothed in a royal robe, and 
standing on the back of an hound couchant : on his head was a diadem, 
ornamented with trefoils, his left hand pointed to his breast ; and in 
his right he held a sceptre surmounted with a fleur de lys. Queen 
Matilda was dressed in a kirtle and mantle, and had on her head a di- 
adem similar to that of her husband from the under part whereof 
hung a veil, which was represented as foiling carelessly behind her 
shoulders; in her right hand was a sceptre, sunnounted with a fleur de 
lys, and in her left, a book : her feet were supported by the figure of a 
lion. Duke Robert was represented as standing on a hound, and clad 
in a'tunique, over which was thrown a short robe, or mantle, his head 
was covered with a bonnet upon his right hand, clothed with a glove, 
stood a hawk ; and in his left hand was a lure. The picture of 
Duke William represented him as a youth bare headed, dressed in the 
same habit as his brother, and standing upon a fobulous monster, pro* 
bably intended for a double-bodied harpy, it having only one head 
with the face of a virgin, and two bodies, each resembling in akmpe 
VOL. I. S 



292 



CAEN. 



iwhat appeared to be the principal room, I was stopped 
by an old woman, who assured me qu'il n*y avoit 

•thai of a bird ; each of the bodies of this monster tenninated in the 
tail of a cat, and had the hind legs of a swine; the left hand of this 
Prince was clothed with a glove, and supported a falcon, which he was 
^feeding with his right. These paintings are supposed to have been 
•coeval with the foundation of the abbey of St. Stephen; and to have 
been drawn from the life : [of course !] They were destroyed in the 
year.1700, when the chi^ was pulled down but fortunately ftther 
•Montfaucon had previously procured drawings of them to be made; 
•and from those drawing I have caused them to be engraven.** AngUh 
Norman AnHquiHes; p. 69. 

I have caused reduced, but fedthful, copies of the two first, and 
die last of these figures to be taken ; and I here put it to the reader 
•how it is possible that such figures, as the first and the last^ in such 
different costumes, can be meant to represent the same person ? 




In regard to this supposed regal palace, I am surprised how Huet 
could observe that the abbey and the palace were of the same stmc- 
tose." They are surely quite different — unless Huet saw what has 
since been demolished. That cautious antiquary observer, however. 



CAEN. 



Tidn que da chauffiige/* It was trae enough: the 
trliole of the untenanted interior contained nothing 
but wood fuel. Returning to the principal street, 
and making a slight digression to the right, you descend 
somewhat abruptly by the side of a church in ruins, 
called St. Etienne le Vieil. In DucareFs time this 
i^ureh is described as entire. On the exterior of one 
of the remaining buttresses is a whole length figure, 
about four EngUsh feet in height (as far as I could guess 
by the eye) of a man on horseback — mutilated — ^tramp- 
ling upon another man at its feet. 
' It is no doubt a curious and uncommon ornament. 
But would you believe it? — this figure also, in the 
t^inion of M. Le Bras,* was intended for William 

properly rejects the supposition that the coat armours are of the time 
of William the Conqueror. He adds^ veryjudiciously^ thatj in respect 
to residence, " he is persuaded that that monarch was more fre- 
quently at his castle than at his palace.** Origines de Caen-, p. 247. 

* See the Jnglo-Narman Antiquities; p, 74. Bourgueville fevours 
the same hypothesis; but his description of the group, as it appeared 
in his time, trips up the heels of this conjecture. He says that there 
were, besides the two figures above mentioned, ^* vn autre honmie et 
femme h, genoux, comme s*ils demandoient raison de la mort de leur 
en&nt, qui est vne antiquity de grand remarque dont ie ne puis 
donner autre certitude de Thistoire.** Antiquitez de Caen ; p. 39. 
Now it is this additional portion of the group (at present no longer in 
existence) which should seem to confirm the conjecture of my friend 
Mr. Douce — that it is a representation of the received story, in the 
middle ages, of the Emperor Trajan being met by a widow who de- 
manded justice against the murderer of her son. The Emperor, who 
had just mounted his horse to set out upon some hostile expedition, 
replied, that he would listen to her on his return.** The wonuin said> 
'* What, if you never return ?** " My successor will satisfy you** — he 
replied — ''But how will that benefit yon^'* — resumed the widow. The 



CAEN. 



*mE Conqueror — ^representing his trinmphant entry 
into Caen ! As an object of art, even in its present 
mutilated state, it is highly interesting; and I re- 
joice that M. Cotman is likely to preserve! the 
little that i-emains from the hazard of destruction by 
the fidelity of his own copy of it. It is quite clear that, 
close to the figure, you discover traces of style which 
are unequivocally of the time of Francis I. The in- 
terior of what remains of this consecrated edifice is con- 
verted into a receptacle for . . carriages for hire. IShea 1 
Not far from this spot stood formerly a magnificent 
Cross — demolished during the memorable visit of the 
Calvinists. I was told that drawings and prints of it 
were yet in existence.* In the way to the abbey ot 
the Trinity, quite at the opposite or eastern eictremity 

Emperor then descended from his horse^ and enquiring into the wo- 
man's case^ caused justice to be done to her. Some of the stories say 
that the murderer was the £mperor*s own son. 

♦ prints of it [the cross] yet in existence."] — Bouipieville has fur- 
nished us with a very minute description of this cross — such as it 
was before its destruction by the Calvinists. " Ceste grande et 
belle Croix estoit d*une structure singuliere, dont la masse contenoit 
quinze pieds de haut, et trente de tour^ sur laquelle masse y 
auoit cinq coulonnes de vingt pieds de haut^ & n*auoient que demy 
pied de diamettre pour chacun chapiteau^ sur les dites coulonnes 
y auoit vne masse dc sept pieds de haut & de deux pieds & demy dia- 
mettre^ & entour estoient poshes quatre images de dnq pieds de haut, 
et sur Tamortissement du chapiteau estoit une belle Croix plants de 
cinq pieds de hauteur auecques autres imaginaires^ et graueures memo- 
rabies de belle et forte pierre^ & tour au tour d'icelle vn grand escalier 
de degrez^ par les quelz les Catholiques amontoyent & receuoyoient ce 
signe de Croix au jour dcs Rameaux^ qui leur reduissoit en m^moirede 
la passion de nostre Seigneur. Et en ce quel quartier de St. Estiennei 
residoient du temps de ma ieunesse vn bon iiombre d'officiers en de 
belles et magnifiques maisons^ &c.'* AntiquUex de Caenj p. 17. 



CAEN. 



295 



<rf the town, you necessarily pass along the Rue St. 
Pierre, and enter into the market-place^ affording 
an opening before the most beautiful church in 
aU Normandy. It is the church of St. Pierre de 
DsRNETAL* of which I now speak, and from which the 

* the church of St, Pierre de Demetal.'] — Situate in the middle of 
the town, and remarkable for the elegance and beauty of its spire, 
which is extremely lofty, and so admirably contrived, that, at what 
part soever of the church you enter, the eye does not discover either 
of the four columns on which the spire rests. This elegant piece of 
masonry was completed in the beginning of the xivth century, by 
[the cost and charges ofj one Nicholas, an Englishman, who was at 
that time a burgess of Caen, and treasurer of this church. At the 
tfane of his death, which happened in June, in the year 1317> the fol- 
lowing epitaph, preserved by Monsieur de Bras, was composed ; but 
it is not altc^ther certain whether it was ever placed over his grave, 
or not: 

LE VENDREDY DEVANT TOUT DROICT 

LA SAINT CLERQUE LE TEMPS n'eST FBOIT 

TBE8PA88A NICOLLE L*AN0L0IS 

L*AN MIL TBOIS CENS ET DIX SEPT 

SON CORPS GIST CY L*AMB A DIBU 80IT 

CHASCUN KN PRIE CAB C*EST BIEN DROICT. 

BOURGEOIS ESTOIT DE NOBILE GUISE 
MOVLTE DE filEN FIST EN CESTE EOLISB 
TBBSOBIEB EN FUT LONGUEMENT 
BT PAB LUY ET PAB SA DEVISE 
FUT LA TOUB EN SA VOYK MISB 
D*XSTBE FAICTE SI NOBLEMBNT, 

PBUO* HOMS ESTOIT COURTOI8 ET SAGS 

BT SANS OBGUEIL ET SANS OUTBAUE 

DB TOUS GENS CHEBY ET AIME 

DB SA MORT SB FUT GBAND DOMMAOB 

SON BSPBIT SOIT EN l'hEBITAOE 

OB PABADIS SOIT HOIB CLAMB. 



296 



CAEN. 



name of the street is derived. The tower and spire, the, 
effect ofENQLisH liberality, are of the most admirable 

The remainder (two stanzas) > is devoted to his wi fe w ho died the 
2d October, in the same year : 

OBAND DOMMAGE FUT COMME ON SCAIT 
CAR ELLE BSTOIT BIBN SAGE BT 80BBE 
OR PRIBZ PAB DBTOTION 
QU'lLB ATBNT PLEINE REMISSION. 

The body of another of our countrymen, Michael Treoorb, the; 
first rector of the University of Caen, lies buried at the entrance of the 
choir of this church, where his effigies still remains. Te Deum is 
constantly sung in this church upon all high festivals and other solemn 
occasions, and from hence it is, that the clergy and religious of Caen 
set out, in order to make their public processions.** Anglo-Norman 
Antiquities, p. 72. 

Ducarel, in saying that the above epitaph was preserved by M. Le 
Bras, appears to have been unacquainted with its preservation by 
Boui^eville a century and a half before. Bouigueville is extremely 
particular and even eloquent in his account of the tower, &c. He 
says that he had " seen towers at Paris, Rouen, Toulouse, Avignon, 
Narbonne, Montpelier, Lyons, Amiens, Chartres, Anglers, Bayeux, 
Constances, (qu. Coutances ?) and those of St. Stephen at Caen, and 
others, in divers parts of France, which are built in a pyramidal form 
— ^but THIS Tower of St. Peter exceeded all the others, as well in 
its height, as in its curious form of construction.** Antiq, de Caen; 
p. 36. He regrets, however, that the name of the architect has not 
descended to us. His more particular eulogy upon this tower is worth 
transcription: " C'est vn grand cas & bien digne de remarque que 
neanmoins la hauteur de ceste tour piramide, qui semble auoisiner les 
nues, le soufflement et violence des vents, la rigueur des gellees, la 
froideur des nieges, gresles, & frimats, Tabondance des pluyes, la ve- 
hemence des chaleurs du soleil, et orages, la lueur et humidity de la 
lune, n'ont faict aucun dommage, ny apparence de firoissure k au- 
cunes des pierres de ceste tour depuis son edification.'* &c. p. 38. At 
page 145 he relates a hardy adventure of a young man who mounted 
on the outside to the very summit, to take down the weather cock, 



CAEN. 



297 



form and workmanship. Mr. Lewis went to the left, 
facing the great window, at right angles witli the Rue 
St. Pierre, and made the beautiful drawing, of which a 
copy is here sent you.* Observe the extreme delicacy 

which had grown stiflf> and would not turn — II auoit (concludes he) 
vn cer\'cau bien asseur6, & plus de temerity que de sagesse.** 

Huet is somewhat particular in his account of the locale of the 
parish of St. Pierre de Dametal : observing^ firsts that it had the names 
of Pierre sous Caen, and S, Pierre du Chdtel en rive. Of the appel- 
lative " Dametalj" he thus remarks. Mais le nom qu'on luy a 
donni^S plus commun^ment^ a 6t6 S. Pierre dc Dametal. C*6toit 
Tancicn nom du principal lieu de cette paroiflse^ et peut-^tre de la pa- 
roisse toute enti^re : car le Pont de Saint Pierre, et un moulin sur 
rOdoUj dont il est parl^ dans la Chartre de fondation de I'Abbaye de 
S. Etienne, ont port6 le nom de Darnetal." Again : " Le nom de Dar- 
netal.que rondonnoitit ce lieu, semble marquer un bourg, un village, 
ou une seigneurie.'* Of the different periods of the completion of the 
church, he goes on to say : Quoy qu'il en soit, le b£ttiment a ^t^ fait 
k diverses reprises. M. de Bras en a marqu^ quelques dattes : celle 
du docher, en Fan 1308; ccUe de Taile du c6t6 du Carrefour, en Van 
1410 i celle de 1* autre aile quelque terns api^ : le rond-point et les 
voutes du choeur et des atles, FanlSSl. Jacques de Cahuignes a 
donn^ rang panni les iUustres citoyens de Caen, k Hector Sohier, 
oflebre architectes pour avoir fait les voutes du choeur et des alles de 
oette EgUse/* Origines de Caen -, p. 263, 4, 7, 8 ; 1702, 8vo. Huet 
msys not one single word in commendation of the building. He is 
unong the driest of dry antiquaries. Reverting, however, to old 
BousGUEViLLE, 1 cannot take leave of him without expressing my 

« bcuty thanks for the amusement and information which his unosten- 
tatious octavo volume^entitlcd Les Recherdhes et Antiquitez de la 

' FUk ef Universite de Caen, ^c. (A Caen, 1588, 8vo.) has afforded me. 

I Aad as we love to.be made acquainted with the persons of those, from 

' whom we have received instruction and pleasure, so take, gentle 
reader, a representation of the Portrait of BouRouEviLLs-^as it ap- 
jpan on the reverse of the title of the book just mentioned. 

* See the Opposite Plate. 



298 



CAENw 




Ce Pourtrait & maint liure 
Par le Peintre & I'escrit, 
Feront reuoir et viure 
Ta face & ton esprit. I. V. D. L. F. 
Hoc pictoris opu8> vigilataque scripta labore 
£t vultum & mentem pott tua busta fereut. 



CAEN. 



299 



and pictui*esque effect of the stone tiles, with which the 
spire is covered, as well as the lightness and im- 
posing consequence given to the tower upon which 
the spire rests! The whole has a charming effect. 
But severe criticism compels one to admit that the 
body of the church is defective in point of fine taste 
and unity of parts. The style is not only florid Gothic, 
but it is luxuriant, even to rankness, if I may so 
speak. The parts are capriciously put together : filled, 
and even crammed, with ornaments of apparently all 
ages : concluding with the Grecian mixture introduced 
in the reign of Francis I. The buttresses are, how- 
ever, generally, lofty and airy. Towards the op- 
posite extremity of this view, a branch of the river 
Ome, if not the river itself, runs : and from the prome- 
nade, or part where the post office is established, the 
body of the church is seen with all its grotesque and 
multiform divisions. In the midst of this complicated 
and corrupt style of architecture, the tower and spire 
rise like a structure built by preternatural bands 4 and 
I am not sure that, at this moment, I can recollect 
any thing of equal beauty and effect in the whole 
range of ecclesiastical edifices in our own country. 
Look at this building, from any part of the town, and 
you must acknowledge that it has the stongest claims 

The author^ who tells us he was bora in 1504^ lived through the 
most critical and not unperilous period of the times in which he wrote. 
His plan is perfectly artless^ and his style as completely simple. Nor 
does his fidelity appear impeachable. Such ancient volumes of topo- 
graphy are invaluable— as preserving the memory of things and of ob- 
jects^ which, but for such record, must perish without the hope or chance 
of recovery. 



300 



CAEN. 



to unqualified admiration. The body of the church 
is of very considerable dimensions. I entered it on 
a Sunday morning, about eleven o'clock, and found 
it quite filled with a large congregation, in which 
the cauchxnsej as usual, appeared like a broad white 
mass — from one end to the other. The priests were 
in> procession ; one of the most magnificent organs 
imaginable was in full intonation, with every stop 
opened; the voices of the congregation were lustily 
exercised : and the offices of religion were carried on 
in a manner which should seem to indicate a warm 
sense of devotion among the worshippers. There is a 
tolerably good set of modem paintings (the best which 
I have yet seen in the interior of a church) of the Life 
of Christ J in the side chapels. The eastern extremity, 
or the farther end of Our Ladjfs Chapel, is most hor- 
ribly bedaubed and overloaded with the most tasteless 
specimens of what is called Gothic art, perhaps ever 
witnessed ! The great bell of this church, which has an 
uncommonly deep and fine tone, is for ever 

Swin^ng slow with solemn roar ! 

that is to say, is tolling from five in the morning till 
ten at night, for the performance of the several offices 
of religion, so incessantly, in one side-chapel or ano- 
ther, are these offices carried on within this maternal 
parish church. 

I saw, with momentary astonishment, the leaning 
tower of a church in the Rue St. Jean, which is on6 
of the principal sti*eets in the town: and. which 



CAEN. 



301 



terminated by the Piacf des Cazernes, flanked by the 
river Orne. In this street I was asked, by a book- 
seller, two pounds two shillings, for a thumbed and 
cropt copy of the Elzevir^Heins^ius Horace of 1629 ; but 
with which demand I did not of course comply. In 
&€t, they have the most extravagant notions of the 
prices of Elzevirs, both hei*e and at Rouen. We shall 
see how this rage increases, or cools, as we approach 
F^ris. But you must now attend me in a visit to the 
most interesting public building, perhaps all things 
considered, which is to lie seen at Caen : I mean the 
Abbey of the Holy Trinity^ or L'Abbave aux Dambs.* 
This abbey was founded by the wife of the Conqueror, 
about the same time that William erected that of St, 
Stephen. It was founded for nuns of the Benedictin 
order. DucareFs description of it, which I have just 
seen in a copy of the Anglo-Norman Antiquities^ in a 
bookseller s shop, is sufficiently meagre, as are also his 
plates sufficiently miserable : but things ai'e stranger 
ly altered since his time. The nave of the church 
is occupied by a manufactory for making cordage, or 
twine, and upwards of a hundred lads are now busied 
in their flaxen occupations, where formerly the nun 
knelt before the cross, or was occupied in auricular con- 
fession, llie entrance at the western extremity is 
entirely stopped up: but the exterior gives manifest 
proof of an antiquity equal to that of the Abbey of St. 

* Of this building M. Cotman has published the West fronts east 
end^ exterior and interior ; great arches under the tower ^ crypt 3 east 
side of South transept ; elevation of the North side of the choir : eleva- 
iioD of the window ; South side exterior 3 view down the nave, N.W. 
direction. 



CAEN. 



Stephen. A representation of the western front of this 
exterior will be drawn and engraved by M. Cotman ; 
together with one of the subterraneous Saxon-called 
arches. Hie upper part of the towers are palpably 
of the fifteenth, or rather of the early part of the six- 
teenth century. I had no opportunity of judging of 
the neat pavement of the floor of the nave, in white 
and black marble, as noticed by Ducarel, on account 
of the occupation of this part of the building by the 
muiufisu^turing children ; but I saw some very ancient 
tomb-stones (one I think of the twelfth century) which 
had been removed from the nave or side aisles, and 
were placed perpendicularly, or rather leaning a little 
against the sides of the north transept. The nave is 
entirely walled up from the transepts, but the choir is 
£Mtunately preserved ; and a more perfect and inte- 
resting specimen of its kind, and of the same antiquity, 
is perhaps no where to be seen in Normandy. All 
the monuments as well as the altars, described by 
Ducarel, are now taken away. Having ascended a 
stone staircase^ we got into the upper part of the choir, 
above the first row of pillars — and walked along the 
wall. This was rather adventurous, you will say : but 
a more adventurous spirit of curiosity had nearly 
proved fieital to me : for, on quitting day-lig^t, we 
pursued a winding stone staircase,* in our way to the 
central tower — ^from hence to have a view of the town. 
I almost tremble as I relate it. There had been put 
up a sort of temporary wooden staircase, leading abso- 
lutely to . . . nothing : or rather to a dark void space. 
I happened to be foremost in ascending this, yet grop- 
ing in the dark — ^with the guide luckily close bdiind 



CAEN. 



908 



me : and having reached the topmost step, was raising 
my foot to a supposed higher or succeeding step . . . 
bnt there was none ! A depth of eighteen feet at least 
was below me. The guide caiight my coat, as I was 
about to lose my balance — and roared out " Arretez — 
tenez !" The least balance or inclination, one way or 
the other, is sufficient, upon these critical occasions : 
when luckily, from his catching my coat, and thereby 
pulling me slightly backwards, my fall . . and my life . • 
were equally saved ! I have reason from henceforth to 
remember the Abbaye aux Dambs at Caen. 

However, let us proceed. We gained the top of the 
central tower, which is not of equal altitude with those 
of the western extremity, and from thence sur- 
veyed the town, as well as the drizzling rain would per- 
mit us. I saw enough however to convince me that the 
scite of this abbey is fine and commanding. Indeed 
it stands nearly upon the highest ground in the town. 
Ducarel had not the glorious ambition to mount to 
the top of the tower ; and did not even possess that 
most commendable of all species of architectural cu- 
riosity, a wish to visit the crypt. Thus, in either extre- 
mity — whether to gaze upon the starry heavens, or to 
commune with the silent dead — we evinced a more 
laudable spirit of enterprise than did our old-fashioned 
predecessor. Accordingly, from the summit, you must 
accompany me to the lowest depth of the building. 
We descended by the same (somewhat intricate) route^ 
and I took especial care to avoid all temporary 
wooden stair-cases.*' The ciypt, beneath the choir^ is 
perhaps of yet greater interest and beauty than the 
choir itself. Within an old, very old stone coffin — at 



804 



CAEN. 



the further circular end— are the pulverised retnahig 
of one of the earliest Abbesses. I gazed around with 
mixed sensations of veneration and awe, and threw my- 
self back into centuries past, foncying that the shrond- 
ed figure of Matilda herself ghdM by, with a look as 
if to approve of my antiquarian enthusiasm. Havii^ 
gratified our curiosity by a careful survey of this sub- 
terraneous abode, we revisited the r^ons of day-ligfat, 
and made towards the large building, now a manufiie- 
tory, which in Ducarel's time had been a nunnery.* 

^ in DucareFs time had been a nunnery.]-— Ducarel's account of this 
nunnery^ is as follows : — I was not permitted to see any other part 
of the Abbey, except the Lady Abbess's parlour, which is a small room 
commanding a most delightful prospect of the country, exten^Ki^ to a 
great distance, this abbey being situated on a very high hiU. Among 
the muniments preserved here, is a very curious manuscript, containing 
an account of the foundress. Queen Matilda's wardrobe, jewels, toi- 
lette, &c. but I was not able to procure a copy of it, neither would 
the abbess admit me to a sight of a very ancient picture which hangs 
in one of the rooms, and is generally thought to be that of Matilda, 
tiieir first abbess, dressed in the habit of a nun ^ though some are 
rather inclined to believe it to be the picture of the royal foundress. 
Cicely, eldest daughter of William the Conqueror, having in the year 
1075, made her profession at Fescamp, was, upon the dedication of 
this church, removed hither, in order to be educated under the care of 
Matilda the first abbess, upon whose decease she succeeded to the go- 
vernment of the abbey ; which she managed with singular piety, for 
the space of fifteen years, and dying upon the 13th day of July in the 
year 1 126 was buried in the church of the monastery, having worn a 
religious habit for the space of fifty-two years. From that time the 
government hath constantly been conferred on ladies of the first rank. 
All the nuns are likewise daughters of persons of high birth, no others 
being admitted to take the veil here.*' — Anglo-Norman AntiqtMes, p. 
96. There is of course an end to every thing of the kind at the preaent 
day. 



CAEN. 



306 



The revolution has swept away every human being 
in the character of a nun ; but the director of the 
manu&ctory shewed us, with great civility, some 
relics, of oldc rosses, rings, veils, lachrymatories, &c. 
which had been taken from the crypt we had recently 
visited— on account of erecting some tomb, or eleva* 
tifig some portion of the ground, to the i*emains of a 
person of distinction — ^whether of old or modem times, 
I cannot just now recollect. These relics savoured of 
considerable antiquity. Tom Hearne would have set 
about proving that they must have belonged to Ma- 
tilda herself; but I will have neither the presumption 
nor the merit of attempting this proof. They seemed 
indeed to have undergone half a dozen decompositions. 
Upon the whole, if our Antiquarian Society, after 
having exhausted the cathedrals of their own country, 
should ever think of perpetuating the principal eccle- 
siastical edifices of Normandy, by means of the Art 
of Engravingy let them begin their labours with the 
Abbayb aux Dames at Caen. 

The forgoing, my dear friend, are the principal 
ecclesiastical buildings in this place. There are other 
public edifices, but comparatively of a modern date. 
And yet I should be guilty of a gross omission were I 

BotirgueviUe describes the havoc which took place within this abbey 
at the memorable visit of the Calvinists in 1562. From plundering the 
church of St. Stephen (as before described p. 386>) they proceeded to 
commit similar ravages here : — " sans auoir respect ni reuerence k la 
Dume Abbesse, ni k la religion et douceur feminine des Dames Reli- 
gKuaes.**— plusieurs des officiers de la maison 8*y trouuerent, vsans 
de gradeuses persuasions, pour penser flechir le cceur de ces plus que 
brutaux p. 174. 



306 



CAEN. 



to neglect giving yon an acconnt^ however snperficial, 
of the remains of an apparently castellated build* 
iNo, a little beyond the Abbaye aux Dames— or rather 
to the right, upon elevated ground, as you enter the 
town by the way we came. As far as I can discover^ 
this appears to have escaped Ducarel.* It is doubtless 
a very curious relic. Running along the upper part 
of the walls, is a series of basso-relievo heads, medal- 
lion-wise, cut in stone, evidently intended for por- 
traits. They are assuredly not older than the rdgn oi 
Francis I. but may be even as late as that of Henry II. 
Among these rude medallions, is a female head, with a 
ferocious-looking man on each side of it, dther sahrt- 
ing the woman, or whispering in her ear. But the 
most striking objects are the stone figures of two men 
— upon a circular tower— of which one is in the act 
of shooting an arrow, and the other as if holding a 
drawn sword. We got admittance to the interior of the 
.building ; and ascending the tower, found that these 
were only the trunks of figures, — and removable at 
pleasure. We could only stroke their beards and 

• appears to have escaped Ducarel,'] — Unless it be what he calls 
the FORT OF THB HoLY Trinity OF Caen ; in which was constantly 
kept a garrison, commanded by a captain, whose annual pay was 100 
single crowns. This was demolished by Charles, king of Nararre, in 
the year 1360, during the war which he carried on against Charles the 
dauphin, afterwards Charles V., &c.** Anglo-Norman Antiquities, p. 67. 
This castle, or the building once flanked by the walls above described, 
was twice taken by the English: once in 1346, when they made an 
immense booty, and loaded their ships with the gold and silver vessels 
found therein — and the second time in 1417^ — when they established 
themselves as masters of the place for 33 years. Animoite du Caka- 
dosi 1803-4) p. 63. 



CABN. 



307 



diake thdr bodies a little, which we of course did 
with impunity.. Whether the present be the original 
place of their destination may be very doubtful. The 
Abb^ de la Rue, W)t|i whom I discoursed upon the sub- 
ject yesterday morning, is of opinion that these figures 
a)p^4>f the time of Louis XI. : which makes them a little 
illpre ancient than the other ornaments of the build- 
uig.. . As to the interior, I could' gather nothing with 
certainty of the original character of the place from the 
present remains. The earth is piled up, here and th^, 
in . artificial mounds covered with grass : and an or- 
chard, and rich pasture land (where we saw several 
women milking cows) form the whole of the interior 
acenery* However the Caennois are rather rproiid of 
t^his building. 

^. Leaving you to your own conclusions respecting 
tj^e date of its erection, and putting the colc^faon'* 
to. this disquisition respecting the princqMd public 
bpildings at Caen, it is high time to assure you* how . 
fiuthfully I am always yours. 



VOL. r. 



T 



308 



LETTER XIV. 

UTBRARY 80CIBTY. ABB^ DB LA RUB. 'MBBBM. 

purbb-aimA lair and lamouroux* mbdal of 

MALHBRBB. BOOKSBLLERS. THB PUBLIC LIBRARY. 
MBMOIR OF THB LATB M. MOY8ANT, PUBLIC LIBRA* 
RIAN. MANUSCRIPTS AND PRINTED BOOKS. PRO- 
TESTANT PLACB OF WORSHIP. COURTS OF JU8TICB. 

From the dead let me conduct you to the Iirm^. 
In other words^ prepare to recdve some account (sf 
Society,— of Libraries — and of things appertaming to 
the formation of the intellectual character. Caen can 
boast oi a public Literary Society, and of the publica- 
tion of its memoirs.* But these memoirs^ consist at 
present of only six volumes, and are in our own coun- 
try extremely rare. My excellent friend, Pierre- Aim6 
Lair, made me a present of a set, which I intend for 
Lord Spencer's library. The volumes are in crown 
octavo, tolerably well printed. 

Among the men whose moral character and literary 
reputation throw a sort of lustre upon Caen, there is 
no one perhaps that stands upon quite so lofty an emi- 

* M^moins de rJcadende det BeUet Lettres de Caen, CkezJaequet 
Manoury, 1757« 4 voU, croum Svo, Rapport g^nirale tur les traoaus de 
tJcademie det Sciences, ArU, et BeUee Lettres de la villede Caenjusqu*au 
premier Janvier, 1811. Par P. F. T, Delarnnere, Secretaire. A Caen, 
thex Chalopin. An. 1811 — 15. Q vols, on different paper, with diffs- 
rent types, and provokiogly of a larger fbnn than its precunor. 



CAEN. 



309 



lieiice as the Abb£ dr la Rub ; at this time oceupiied 
in publishinga /Ti^/oi^ of Caen in two quarto volumes. 
As an archaeologist, he has no superior among his coun- 
trjrmen ; while his essays upon the BayeUx Tapestry and 
theAnglo-Norman Poets, published in our Archa^ologia, 
prove that there are few, even among ourselves, who 
could have treq,!ted those interesting subjects with more 
dcKterity or better success. The Ahh6 is, in short, the 
great archaeological oracle of Normandy. He was 
pleased to pay me a visit at Lagouelle*s. He is fisust 
advancing towards his seventieth year. His figure is 
father stout, and above the mean height : his com* 
{dexion is healthful, his eye brillisint, and a plentiful 
quantity of waving white hair adds much to the expresr 
Am of his countenance. He enquired kindly after 
oar mutual Mend Mr. Douce ; of whose talents and 
character he spoke in a manner which did equal honour 
to both. But he was inexorable, as to — not dining 
with me : observing that his Order was forbidden to 
dine in taverns. He gave me a list of places which I 
onght to visit in my further progress through Nor- 
mandy, and took leave of me more abruptly than I 
could have wished. He rarely visits Caen, though a 
great portion of his library is kept there : his abode 
being chiefly in the country, at the residence of a noble- 
mafi to whose son he was tutor. It is deligfatful to 
see a man, of his venerable aspect and widely extended 
reputation, enjoying, in the evening of life, (after brav- 
ing such a tempest, in the noon-day of it, as that of 
the Revolution) the calm, unimpaired possession of his 
faculties, and the respect of the virtuous and the wise. 
The study of Natural History obtains pretty gene- 



SIO 



caen: 



hJly at Caen ; indeed tbey have an Academf in* which 
this branch of learning is expressly taught— 4Uid <rf 
which Monsieur Lamouroux* is at once the chirf 
bmament and instructor. This gentleman (to whom 
oiir friend Mr. Dawson Turner furnished me with a 
letter of introduction) has the most unaffected man- 
ners, and a countenance particularly open and winmog^ 
He is a very dragon*' in his pursuit. On my second 
call, I found him busied iu unpacking some baskets of 
sea-weed, yet reeking with the briny moisture ; and 
which he handled and separated and classed with the 
same eagerness that we have seen our friend * ♦ ♦ run 
through an auction lot of books with 13 more !'* Hie 
library of Mr. Lamouroux is quite a workman^like 
library: filled with sensible, solid, and instructive 
books. His mansion, in the Rue Jaune, is of mndi 
narrower dimensions than his mind. Though he be 
a member of the Institute, he spoke of Sir Joseph 
Banks, and of our literary Societies, in a manner whidi 
did him infinite honour — and if he had only accepted 
a repeated and strongly-pressed invitation to dine with 
me at Lagouelle's, to meet his learned brother Pierre- 
Aim6 Lair, nothing would have been wanting to the 
completion of his character. There's elevation ojf sen-^ 
timent for yon ! What alert creatures these Savants 
ai-e. Ihey rise 1>efore six, and labour incessantly in 
their respective vocations (chiefly in the instruction of 
youth,) till dinner-time, at twelve or one ; and then 
at it again" till six in the afternoon. 

* Monsieur Lamouroux.'] — He lias recently (1816) published anoc- 
t&TO Tolume entitled Histoire des Polypiert, CoraiUghiei Flexibki, 
wigttiremeni n^mmh Zoophptei. Par J, F. F, Lomownm. 



CAEN. 



311 



You have frequently read the name of Pierre-Aim£ 
IjAir. Prepare to receive a sketch of the character to 
which that name appertains. But what a pallet of 
folours should I possess for such a task !— or^ rather^ 
what dexterity of handling were required if such a pal* 
let could be furnished ? With what hues, tints, tones, 
and masses/' should the picture glow ! A truce to com- 
mon-place exclamation — and receive, in good sooth, 
a very homely and very sober, but very faithful, descrip- 
tion. This gentleman is not only the life and soul of 
the society — ^but of the very town — ^in which he moves. 
Mr. L. and myself walked udth him, more than once, 
through very many streets, passages, and courts, which 
were distinguished for any relic of architectural anti- 
quity. He was recognised and saluted by nearly one 
person out of three — at all distinguished for respecta- 
bility of appearance — in our progress. " Je vous salue'* 
vous voiU avec Messieurs les Anglois" — ban 
jour," — " comment 5a va-t-il — The activity of 
Pierre-Aim^ Lair is only equalled by his goodness 
of heart and friendliness of disposition. He is all kind- 
ness. Call when you will, and ask for what you please, 
the object solicited is sure to be granted. He 
never seems to rise (and he is a very early riser) with 
spleen, ill-humour, or untoward propensities. With 
him, the sun seems always to shine, and the lark to 
tune her carol. And this cheerfulness of feeling is 
carried by him into every abode however gloomy, and 
every society however dull. In short, he is always 
the gay and the good-natured Pierre-Aim6 Lair. 

But more substantial praise belongs to this amiable 

man. Not only is Pierre-Aim6 psir a lover and col- 
1 



S12 CAEN. 

kctor .of tangible antiquities — such as glaaed tikSs 
broken busts, old pictures^ — and fractured ci^iitala-^ 
tdl seen in long array'* up the windings of his stair- 
case — but he is a critic, and a patron of the Uterdrjf 
antiquities of his country* Caen (as I told you in my 
last despatch) is the birth-plaoe of Malhbkbb ; and^iA 
the character now under discussion, it has found a pm 
petuator of the name and merits of the fitther <tf FVendi 
verse. In the year 1806 our worthy antiquary putfi>rtk 
a prefect for a general subscription for a medal in 
honour of Malherbe''* — ^which project was in due timie 

* suhicripikm for « medal t» hommr of Malbbbbs.}— The mnklHr 
project here alluded to is one which does, both theprqiector^andthe arts 
of FraDce, infinite honour j and I sincerely wish that some second Simob 
may rise up among ourselves to emulate^ and if possible to surpass, 
the performances of Gattbiux and Auobieu. The former is the artist 
to whom we are indebted for the medal of Malherfoe, and the latter 
for the series of the Buonaparte-noedak M. Lair told me that his 
sabscribers amounted to 1500 in number ; nor do I think this, hq^ 
evidence of the printed brochure before me, an exagi^rated statem^ 
The price of the head in bronze is 5 firancs ; and with the addition of a 
ring, one quarter of a franc more. 



CAEN. 



vewarded by the names of fifteen hundred efficient sub- 
•criberSy at five francs a piece. The proposal was 
doubtless flattering to the literary pride of the French ; 
wd luckily the execution of it surpassed the expectSr 
tions of the subscribers. The head is undoubtedly of 
the most perfect execution ; and almost puts me in a 
fisver, on contemplating it, when I think upon the com- 
paratively decrepid state of the medaUic art in our own 
fWantry. Wherefore is it so ? Not only, however, did 
diis head of Malherbe succeed — ^but a feeling was ex* 
pressed that it might be followed up by a series of 
beads of the most illustrious, of both sexes, in literature 
and the fine arts. The very hint was enough for Lair : 
though I am not sure whether he be not the father of 
the latter design also. Accordingly, there has appear- 
ed periodically a set of heads of this description, va 
bronze or other metal, as the purchaser pleases, which 
)ia6 reflected infinite credit not only upon the name of 
jkhe projector of this scheme, but upon the present state 
<tf the fine arts in France. 

. On the reverse is a Ijre^ surmounted by a laurel crown, with this 
emphatic inscription ; 

BNFIN IULBBRBE ttUt. 

which is taken from the weU-lmown passage in Bdileau*s Art Poetique 
beginning thus : ^ ' 

Enfin Malherbe f^ty et le premier en niuiee. 
Fit sentir dans les fen nne jnste cadeooe ; 
D'unmotmisensapliwpenseignelepoiifolr^ . i 

£t reduiflit la muse aiizrii|^ da devoir* 

The profile of Madame de S^vigii^, eiiecated by the same able me- 
daUist (Gatteaux)^ has in every respect equal merit. 



314 



CAEN. 



Yet another woi^ about Heire-Aim^ Lair. Heisfliofc 
80 inexorable as M. Lamouroux: for he has dined With 
me, and quaffed the chatnbertin and champagne of La- 
gouelle, commander in chief of this house. Better wines 
cannot be quaflfed ; and Malherbe and the Duke bf Wd- 
lii^on formed the alternate subjects of discourse and 
praise. In return, Mr: L. and myself dined with our 
guest. He had prepared an abtindant dinn6r^ and a 
V«ry select sociky : but although there was no wand^ 
as in the case of Sancho Panza, to charm away the 
dishes, &c. oi* to interdict the tasting of th^, yet it 
was scarcely possible to partake of one in' four; .so 
umnercifolly were they steeped and buried in butter. 
Among various vegetables was a dish of pommes d^ 
terre, k la mode Angloise.** — professed so to be — but 
utterly untouchable. They were almost iBoating in 
tlie liquified produce Of the dairy. However thete 
was an excellent course of pastry ; and, better thmi 
all the wines, was the society whicih encircled the 
table. The principal topic of discourse was the tne^ 
rits of the poets of the respective countries of France 
and England, from which I have reason to think 
that Pope, Thomson, and Young, are among the great- 
est &vourites with the French. The white brandy of 
Pierre- Aim6 Lair, introduced after dinner, is hardly to 
be described for its strength and pungency. Vous 
n^avez rien comme 5a chez vous ?" Ma foi je le crois 
bien ; c*est la lique&ction m£me du feu.'* We broke 
up before eight ; each retiring to his respective avoca- 
tions — but we did hot dine till five. I borrowed, how- 
ever, " an hour or twain** of the evening, after the de- 
parture of the company, to enjoy the mdre "patticular 



CAEN. 



315 



conversation of our host; and the more I saw and 
conversed with him, the greater was my gratification. 
At parting, he loaded me with a pile of pamphlets, of 
all sizes, of his own publication; and I ventured to 
predict to him that he would terminate his multifa- 
rious labours by settling into consolidated Biblioma- 
NiACiSM. " On peut faire pire!" — was his reply— on 
shaking hands with me^ and telling me he should cer- 
tainly meet me again at BayeuXj in my progress 
through Normandy. My acquaintance and walks 
with this amiable man seemed to be my security from 
insults iu the streets. But I must absolutely now have 
done with him : delightful as it is to think upon, and 
to record, acts of friendliness and liberality in a fo- 
reign land. 

Educa.tion, here commences early, and with incite- 
ments as alluring as at Rouen. Poisson in the Rue 
Proide is the principal — and indeed a very excellent — 
printer ; but Bonnbsbrre, in the same street, has put 
forth a vastly pretty manual of infantine devotion, in 
a brochure of eight pages, of which I send you the 
first, and which you may compare with tiie specimen 
transmitted in a former letter.* . ' 



* See page 137, ante. 



816 



■ CAEN'. 




Aabc de 
fghikl 
m n op q 
r f s t u vx y z & 

j ^ ae oe ii^. 




P 



VOraison dominicale. 

Ater nos- 



ter, qui es in 



Chalopin, in the Rue-Froide-Rue, has recently pub- 
lished a most curious little manual, in the cursive se- 
cretary gothic, entitled " La Civility hannite pour les 
EnfanSj qui commence par la maniere dcepprendre et 
bien lire, prononcer et Retire** I call it curious/' be- 



caom tbe V^ry first initial letter of the tesKt, rq[>re8etit- 
idg introduces us to the bizarrerie of the early part 
of the xvith century in treatises of a similar character. 
Take this first letter^ with a specimen also of those to 
which it appertains. 




^fuj qui 



This work is full of the old fashioned (and not a bit 
the worse on that account) precepts of the same pe- 
riod ; such as we see in the various versions of the 
" De Moribus Juvenum," of which the " Contenance 
de la Table,' in the French language^ is probably the 
most popular. It is executed throughout in the same 
small and smudged gothic character ; and, as I con- 
ceive, can have few purchasers. The printers of Caen 
must not be dismissed without respectfiil mention of 
the typographical talents of Lb Roy ; who ranks after 
Poisson. Let both these be considered as the Buhner 
and Bensley of the place. 

But among these venders of infantine literature, or 
of cheap popular pieces, there is no man who drives 
such a trade** as Picard-Guerin, Imprimeur en taiUe- 



4wce et Fabricant ^ Images^'' who lives in thelitie 4ef 

■TeinturierSf n''. 175. I paid him more than one^yisit; 
My from his ^^fabrication/' issue, the thousands and 
Mm of thousands of broadsides^ chap-books, ^. .&o. 
which inundate Lower Normandy. You give from- one 
to three sous, according as the subject be simple or 
compound, upon wood or upon copper: — Saints, mar- 
tyrs, and scriptural subjects ; or heroes, chieftmns, md 
monarchs, including the Duke of yVeH&Bigton and Louis 
XVIIL le D^8ir6— -are among the tiuUe-douces speci- 
fied in the imprints. Madame did, ii|ie.t)ie honour of 
shewing me some of her choicest; treasures, as her hus- 
band was from home. Up stairs was a |iarcel of mirthful 
boys and girls, with painting brushes in their hands, and 
saucers of various colours before them. Upon enquiry, 
I found that they received four sous per dozen, for co- 
louring ; but I will not take upon me to say that they 
were over or under paid — of so equivocal a character 
were their performances. Only I hoped to be excused if 
I preferred the plain to the coloured. In a foreign coun- 
try, our notice is attracted towards things perhaps the 
most mean and minute. With this feeling, I examined 
carefully what was put before me, and made a selection 
sufficient to shew that it was the produce of French soil. 
Among the serious subjects, were two to which I paid 
particular attention. The one was a metrical cantique 
of the Prodigal Sotiy with six wood cuts above the text, 
exhibiting the leading points of the Gospel-narrative. 
I will cut out and send you the second of these six : in 
which you will clearly perceive the military turn which 
seems to prevail throughout France in things the most 
minute. The Prodigal is about to mount his horse and 



CAEN. 



319. 



leave his fiitber^s house, in the cloke and oock'd hat of 
a Fraich officer. 




The fourth of these cuts is droll enough. It is entitled, 
" VEnfant Prodigue est chassS par ses maitresses.^ 
The expulsion consists in the women driving him out 
of doors with besoms and hfur-brooms. It is very pro- 
bable, however, that all this character of absurdity 
attaches to some of our own representations of the 
same subject; if, instead of examining (as in Pope^s 
time) 

«... the walls of Bedlam and Soho. 

we take a survey of the graphic broadsides which 
dangle from strings upon the wall at Hyde Park 
Comw. 

Another subject of a serious character, which I am 
about to describe to you, can rarely, in all probability. 



8S» 



CAEN. 



be tte production of a London artist. It is called 
Notre-Dame de la bonne D4Uvrande^* and is neces- 
sarily confined to the religion of the country. You 
have here, first of all, a . reduced form of the original: 
probably about one-third — and it is the more appro- 
priate^ as it will serve to giv^ you a very correct notion 
of the dressing out of the figures of the Virgin and 
Child which are meant to grace the altars of the 
chapels of the Virgin in most of the churches in Nor- 
mandy. 



CAEN^ 



891 



' To' describe all the trampery which is immediately 
around it, in the original, would be a waste of time ; 
tvut below are two good figures to the right, and two 
Wretched ones to the left. Beneath the whole, is the 
following accredited consoling piece of intelligence : 

Ii*AN SSOj des Barbares descendent dans le$ Gaulei, manacrent In 
HdHes, profanent et brUlent le$ EgUses. Raoult Due de Narmandiey $e 
Jomt d eux: r image de la Ste.'Vierge demeure enseveUe sous les ruineM dt 
llandenne dhapelle jusqu^au rigne de Henri J. Van 1331. Beaudaum, 
Baron de Douvres, averti par son berger qu*un mouton de son troupeau 
fowllait toujours dans le mime endroit, fit ouvrir la terre, et trouva ce 
trisor cachi depuis tant d^ann^es. II fit porter processionnellement ceite 
iomte image dans VEgUse de Douvres : mais Dieu permit qu^eUe Jut 
transport4e par un Ange dans V endroit de la chapelle oU elle est mainte- 
nant rivirie, C'est dans cette chapelle que, par rintercession de Marie, 
les prehears refoivent leur conversion, les affligis leur consolation, les m- 
firmes la sant4, les captifs leur dilivrance, que ceux qui sont en mer 
ichappent aux tempites et au naufrage, et que des miracles s'optrent 
joumellement sur les pieux Fiddles. 

A word next for Bubliopolists — including £ou- 
quinistesy or venders of old and second-hand books.*^ 
The very morning following my arrival in Caen, I 
walked to the abbey of St. Stephen, before breakfast, 
and in the way thither stopped at a book stall, to the 
right, within one hundred yards of the " Place** before 
'the said abbey — and purchased some black letter 
folios: among which the French version of Ccesar's 
Commentaries, printed by Verard, in 1488, was the 
most desirable acquisition. It is reserved for Lord 
8pencer*s library ;♦ at a price which, freight and duty 

* for Lord Spencer's Library.'] — and is described in the 3d voL of 
the ^DES Althorpiana ; forming the Supplement to the Biblio- 
THSCA SpsMCSRiANA : toe page 94. 



CAEN; 



indnded^ canaot reach the Bum of' twelve AilfingB of 
oar money. I carried it home, triumphantly beneath* 
my arm, wishing^ however, it had been in a •little 
more desirable condition. Of venders of second 
hand and old books, the elder and younger Ma- 
NOURY take a decisive lead. The former: lives in the 
Rue Frmde ; the latter in the Rue Notre Dame. . The 
ftither boasts of having upwards of thirty thomaiMl 
Wnmes, and is tolerably knowing in the arte and 
crafte** of vendition. But I much doubt whether his 
stock amount to one half of the number just mention** 
ed. He asked me two lauis dor for a copy of the 
Fiaudevires of Olivibr Ba6sblin> which is a modmi, 
but privately printed, volume ; and of which I hope to 
g^ve you some amusing particulars anon. He also told 
me that he had formerly sold a paper copy of Fktgfs 
Bible of 1462, with many of the illuminated initials 
cut out, to the library of the Arsenal, at Paris, for 100 
louis d'or. I only know that, if I had been librarian, 
he should not have had one half the money. It i& car 
ther singular that, both here and at Rouen, I have not 
found a single copy of the Anglica Normanica of 
Du Chesne: nor indeed does Manoury the elder pes* 
sess any stock of vendible volumes in the way of lite- 
rature or antiquities, either in the French or in the 
Latin language. 

Now for Manoury the younger. Old and young are 
comparative terms : for be it known that tibe son is 

ag6 de soixante ans." Over his door you read an 
ancient inscription, thus : 



" Battu, percd, US, Je veux changer demain.** 



CAEN. 



HhiB implies either <l]ke Aladdin's old lamtM for tte^> 
that he wishes to give new bocks in exchange tot old 
ones^ or that he can smarten np old onies by binding 6r 
otherwise, and give tbefn a - renovated bj^pearancM/ 
But the solution is immaterial:. the Inscription belngf 
as above. The interior of the younger Manotiry*H 
book repository almost iq>palled me. His front sho{f> 
and a eorridore communicating with the back part'Of 
the house, are rank with moisture ; and his -books are 
dmsequently rotting apace. Upon ray making ail 
pitiable a statement as I was able of this BtielanctH^ 
state of things — and pleading with all my energies 
agAinst the inevitable destruction which threatened the 
Han Mu^ — the obdurate bibliopolist displayed not one 
sdn^llation of sympathy. He was absohitdy indif- 
ferent to the whole concern. In the back parlour, al- 
most impervious to day-light, his daughter, and a stout 
and handsome bourgeoise, with rather an unusually 
elevated cauchoise, were regaling themselves with 
sonp and herbs at dinner. I hurried through, in my 
way to the upper regions, with apologies for the intru-> 
sion ; but was told that none were necessary — ^that I 
might go where, and stay as long, as I pleased; and 
that an explanation would be given to any iiiterroga- 
tory in the way of business. I expressed my obliga- 
tions for such civility ; and gaining an upper room, by 
the help of a chair, made a survey of its contents^ 
What piles of interminable rubbish! I selected, as 
the only rational or desirable volume— «half rotted 
with moisture — Belongs Marine Fishes, 1551, 4to ; and 
pbcing six' francs (the price demanded) upon the 
table^ hurried back, <iux>ugfa this sable and dismal ter* 



994 CLKEN:^ 

^toryy iHth a "flort' of piiedpitancjf amatanting' id 
horronr. What struck me, as productive of a rerf 
extraordinary effect — (like the light pouring through 
an artificial aperture in one of Rembrandt*s 
tures — thereby giving a radiant magic to the wbxM) 
was the cheerfulness and gaiety de ccsur of these fe-^ 
males, in the midst of this region of darkn^ and de^ 
Solation. Manoury told me that the Revolution had 
deprived him of the opportunity of having the finest 
bookselling stock in France ! His own carelessness 
and utter apathy are likely to prove yet more 'de8tru6«r 
tive enemies. 

But let us touch a more spirit-stirring*' chord in the 
book theme. Let us leave the Bouquiniste for the 
PUBLIC library: and I invite you most earnestly to 
accompany me thither^ and to hear matters of especial 
import. This library occupies the upper part of a fine 
large stone building, devoted to the public office! of 
government. The plan of the library is exceedingly 
striking; in the shape of a cross. It measures one 
hundred and thirty- four, by eighty, French feet ; and 
ifi supposed, apparently with justice, to contain 20fi00 
volumes. It is propoitionably wide and lofty. M. Hu- 
bert is the present chief librarian, having succeeded 
the late M. Moysant, his uncle. Of this latter presently. 
Among the more eminent benefactors and Biblioma- 
piacs, attached to this library, the name of FRAN9eis 
Mar'tin is singularly conspicuous. He was, from all 
accounts, and especially from the information at Mw 
Hubert, one of the most raving of book-madmen : but 
lie displayed, withal, a spirit of kindness and liberality 
towards his: fiavourite esjtablishment at Caeii> which 



CAEN. 



325 



could not be easily shaken or subdued. He was also a 
man of letters^ and evinced that most commendable of 
all literary propensities — a love of the Litbraturb of 
HIS Country. He amassed a very large collection of 
books^ which was cruelly pillaged during the Revolu- 
tion; but the public library became possessed of a 
great number of them. In those volumes^ formerly 
belonging to him^ which are now seen^ is the following 
printed inscription : " Franciscus Martin y Doctor Theo- 
logus Parisiensisy comparavit. Oretur pro eo." He 
was head of the convent of Cordeliers, and Prefect of 
the Province: but his mode of collecting was not ex- 
actly that which a public magistrate could call legiti- 
mate. He sought books everywhere; and when he 
could not buy them^ or obtain them by fair means^ he 
would steal them, and carry them home in the sleeves 
of his ^ownl He flourished about a century ago; 
and, with very few exceptions, all the best conditioned 
books in the libmry belonged to this magisterial book- 
robber. Among them I noted down with singular sa- 
tisfaction the Aldine edition of Stephanm de Urbibus, 
1502, folio — ^in its old vellum binding : — seemly to the 
eye, and comfortable to the touch. Nor did his copy 
of the Repertorium Statutorum Ordinis Cartusiensis, 
printed by Amerbachy at Basil, in a glorious gothic 
character, 1510, folio, escape my especial notice — more 
than the same Bibliomaniac^s beautiful copy of the 
Mentz Herbal, of 1484, in 4to. 

But the obliquities of Martin assume a less formi- 
dable aspect, when we contemplate a noble work, 
which he not only projected, but left behind ready for 
publication. It is thus entitled : Athence Normanno^ 

VOL. I. u 



CAEN- 



rum veteres ac recentes, seu syllabus Auctorum qui 
oriundi e Normannia^'^ Sgc. It consists of one volumey 
in MS., having the authority of government to publidi 
it, prefixed. There is a short Liatin preface, by Mardn^ 
followed by two pages of Latin verses beginning thus : 
In Auctorum Normanicorum Syllahum. 
Prolusio metrica. 

En Syllabus prodit paldm 

Contextus arte sedula 

Ex Litteratce Neustrias 

Auctoribus celebribus. 

Why this work has not been taken up and published 
by the Academy of Caen, seems rather strange — ^if they 
possess the pecuniary means of bringing it to light. 
But the " Satumia regna," should they ever " return" 
to France, may give animation to this inactivity, and 
pour a little gold into the emptied coffers of the trea- 
sury. Among the men, the memories of whom throw 
a lustre upon Caen,* was the fomous Samuel Bochart ; 
at once a botanist, a scholar, and a critic of distin- 
guished celebrity. He was a native of this place, and 
his books (many of them replete with valuable ms. 
notes) are among the chief treasures of the public li- 
brary. In(^d there is a distinct catcdogue of them, 
and the funds left by their illustrious owner form the 

* the memories of whom throw a lustre upon Caen,'] — Goube, in his 
Histoire du Duch4 de Normandie, 1816, Svo. has devoted upwards of 
thirty pages to an enumeration of these worthies toI. iii. p. S95. But 
in Huefs Origines de la ViUe de Caen; p. 491-65S, there wffl be fontfd 
miHch Diore eopious and satisfactory details. 



CAEN. 



927 



principal support of the library establishment. Bo- 
ebart*s portrait^ with those of many other benefactors 
to the library*^ adorns the walls; suspended above the 

* wUh those of many other benefactors to the library, ^^M.. Hubert 
was so obliging as to favour me with a list of these portraits; which 
may probably be gratifying to the curious : 

BsBTAND^ Jean^ £v6que de S^ez, n^^ Caen^ en 1552. 
BocHABT, Samuel, Ministre Protestant, ^ Caen, n^ Rouen. 
Bloust, de Camilly, Vice-Amiral, n^ ^ Rouen. 
Blouxt de CamiUy, Arch^v^ue de Bouiges. 
BvousT, Premi^ Biblioth^caire de 1* University en 1736. 
Catbaones, Jacques, Professeur en M^decine, n6k Caen, en 
Catslisb, Antoine, imprlmeur ^ Caen. 
Db Collbvillb, fils de Bocharc. 

CovTUBB, J. Baptiste, Recteur de rUniversit^, Pkiris, n^ )t Langrune> 

pite Caen. Peint en habit de Recteur. 
Cbbtbl, Professeur en Droits n^ k Ifs, pr^ Caen> en 1692. Peint en 

habit de Recteur de TUniv. de Caen. 
EuDBB, Jean, Fondateur de la Congregation des Eudistes, n^ en 1601. 
Flbuby, (Le Cardinal de,) Abb^ de St. Etienne de Caen. 
GoNFBBT, Professeur en Droit, Caen. 
Hallet^ Antoine, Professeur d*£loquence It Caen. 
Hvwr, FitmDskmel, n6 k Caen, en 1630. 
Db laLondb, Ingdnieur, n^ k Caen^ en 1689. 
Db LutneSj Ev^que de Bayeux. 
BIacb', Astronome, n^ k Caen, en 1586* 
Malhbmbb, Fran9ois, PoSte^ n^ k Caen, en 1555. 
Lb IfAttTBE DB Saviony^ Jacqucs, Recteur de ITJniversitd. 
MoTBAMT, Francois, Professeur et Biblioth^caire de la Ville. 
IiB Nbvf db Montbnat> Abbe de Ste. Gen^vi^ve^ It Fms. 
Pobb'b^ J^suite. 

PoBTBL, Guillaume, Professeur en M^dedne. 
Ptbbbon, Guillaume, Professeur en Droit. 
Sbobais, de FAcad^mie Fran^aise^ It Caen. 
Lb Sbns db Mons, de TAcad^me de Caen. 



328 



CAEN. 



books : affording a very agreeable coup d'oefl. Indeed 
the principal division of the library^ the farther end of 
which commands a pleasant prospect^ is worthy of an 
establishment belonging to the capital of an empire. 
The kindness of M. Hubert, and of his assistant^ render- 
ed my frequent sojoumings therein yet more delectable. 
But I have promised (before we come to notice a few 
of the books seriatim) to ^ve you some account of 
MoYSANT, the late principal librarian^ and uncle of the 
present. His portrait is among the pictured orna- 
ments of the chief room. The nephew has jfigtvoured 
me with a copy or two of the Notice Histarique** 
upon the uncle — composed by himself, and read at a 
public sitting of the Academy of Science, Art, and 
Belles-Lettres at Caen, on the 29th of July, 1814^ 
From this you are to learn that Francis Moysant was 
born in 1735, at the village of Audrieu, near Caen. 
Though he was of a large stature, his hmgs were feeble, 
and his constitution delicate. At the age of nineteen, 
he was appointed professor of grammar and rhetoric in 
the college of Lisieux. He then went to FariB, and 
studied under Beau and Batteux; when, applying 
himself more particularly to the profession of physic, 
he I'eturned to Caen, in his thirtieth year, and put on 
the cap of Doctor of medicine ; but he wanted dthar 
nerves or stamina for the successful exercise of his pro- 
fession. He had cured a patient, after painful and la- 
borious attention, of a very serious illness ; but his^pa- 

Tannboui le Fevre, k Caen^ en 1647i p^re de Mde. Dacier. 
Varignov^ Pierre^ Math^atjcien^ ii6 It Caen^ en 1664. 



CAEN. 



929 



tknt chose to take liberties too soon with his conva* 
lescent state. He was imprudent : had a relapse; and 
was hurried to his grave. Moysant took it seriously 
to hearty and gare up his business in precipitancy and 
disgust. In fact^ he was of too sanguine and irritable 
a temperament for the display of that cool, cautious^ 
and patient conduct, which it behoveth all young phy- 
mdans to adopt, ere tbey can possibly hope to attain 
the honours or the wealth of the Baillies and Halfords 
of the day ! Our Moysant returned to the study of his 
beloved belles-lettres. At that moment, luckily, the 
Society of the Jesuits was suppressed; and he was 
called by the King, in 1763, to fill the chair of Rhe- 
toric in one of the finest establishments of that body 
At Caen. He afterwards successively became per* 
petual Secretary of the Academy of Sciences, and Vice- 
President of the Society of Agriculture. He was next 
dubbed by the University, Dean of the faculty of arts^ 
^d was selected to pronounce the public oration upon 
the marriage of the unfortunate Louis XVI. with Marie 
Antoinette. He was now a marked and distinguished 
public character. The situation of Public Librarian 
was only wanting to render his reputation complete, 
and that he instantly obtained upon the death of his 
predecessor. With these occupations, he united that 
of instructing the English (who were always in the 
habit of visiting Caen,) in the French language ; and 
he obtained, in return, from some of his adult pupils, 
a pretty good notion of the laws and liberties of Old 
England. 

The Revolution now came on : when, like many of 
his respectable brethren^ he hailed it at first as the hai"- 



CAEN. 



binger of national reformation and prosperity. But he 
had soon reason to find that he had been decdved. 
However, in the fervour of the moment, and upon the 
suppression of the monastic and other public libraries, 
he received a very wide and unqualified commission to 
search all the libraries in the department of Calvados, 
and to bring home to Caen all the treasures he might 
discover. He set forth upon this mission with truly 
public spirited ideas : resolving (says his nephew) to 
do for Normandy what Dugdale and Dodsworth had 
done for England — and a Monasticum Neustriacum 
was the commendable object of his ambition. He pro* 
mised much, and perhaps did more than he promised. 
His curious collection (exclusively of the cait-loads of 
books which were sent to Caen) was shewn to his 
countrymen ; but the guillotine was now the order of 
the day — ^when Moysant * resolved to visit England, 
and submit to the English nobility the plan of his work> 
as that nation always attached importance to the pre^ 
servation of the monumcDts, or literary materials, of 
the middle ages." — He knew (continues the nephew) 
how proud the English were of their descent from the 
Norman nobles, and it was only to put them in pos- 
session of the means of preserving the unquestionable 
proofs of their origin. Moysant accordingly came 
over with his wife, and they were both quickly declared 
emigrants; their return was interdicted; and our 
bibliomaniac learnt, with heart-rending regret, that 
they had resolved upon the sale of the national pro- 
perty in France. He was therefore to live by his wits; 
having spiritedly declined all offer of assistance from 
the English g;ovemment. In this dilenmia he pub- 



CAEN. 



331 



Ifahed a work entitled Bibliothique des Ecrivaim 
Francais, ou choix des meilleurs morceaux en prose et 
en versy extraits de leurs ouvrages^ — a collection^ 
which was formed with judgment, and which was 
attended with complete success. The first edition was 
in four octavo volumes, in 1800 ; the second^ in six 
volumes 1803 ; a third edition, I think, followed, with 
a pocket dictionary of the £nglish and French lan- 
guages. It was during his stay amongst us that he 
was deservedly admitted a member of the Society of 
Antiquaries ; but he had returned to France in 1802^ 
before the appearance of the second edition of his 
Bihlioth^que ; and hawk-like, soaring or sailing in 
suspense between the book-atmospheres of Paris and 
Caen, he settled within the latter place — and again 
perched himself (at the united call of his townsmen) 
upon the chair destined for the Public Librarian ! 
Up to this moment, or rather till just before the return 
of Moysant, the public libraiy could not boast of a fine 
locale.* A portion of the present building, called les 
Batimens de la Mairicy was accordingly devoted to its 
reception ; the books having been formally declai-ed 
" the property of the town" — and not, as before, of the 
University. It was to give order, method, and freedom 
of access, to the enormous mass of books, which the 
dissolution of the monastic libraries had caused to be 
accumulated at Caen, that Moysant and his colleagues 
now devoted themselves with an assiduity as heroic as 

• In DucaFcVs time^ it was a handsome regular building, tolerably 
well furnished with books, and was kept open for the public two days 
in every week. — JnglO'Narman Jntiquities, p. 70. 



338^ CAES. 

it was unintennittiDg. But the health of onr. generalis- 
simo, which had been impaired during his residence im 
England, began to give way beneath such a pressure 
of fetigue and anxiety. Yet it pleased Providence to 
prolong his life till towards the close of the year 1813 1 
When he had the satisfaction of viewing his folios; 
quartos, octavos, and duodecimos, arranged in regular 
succession, and fydr array — ^when his work was honestly 
done — and when future visitors had only to stietdi 
forth their hands and gather the fruit which he had 
placed within their reach. His death (we are fold) 
was gentle, and like unto sleep. Religion had con* 
soled him in his latter moments; and after having 
reposed upon its efficacy, he waited with perfect 
composure for the breathing of his last sigh. Let the 
words of his nephew tell the rest ;* and meanwhile, 

* " M. Mojsant avait uoe cooyersation douce> instructiYe, et eo 
xn^me temps amusante par le grand nombre d' anecdotes qa*il racon- 
tait d*un ton qui lui ^tait propre, et qui y ajoutait encore und^r^d*in- 
t^r^t ; sa correspondance ^tait ti^s-^tendue, ct son extreme complain 
sance lui faisait fairevolon tiers les recherches qui lui ^taient demaod^es^ 
Toujours pret k &ire part des connoissances qu'il avait acquises 
par ses travaux, il pensa toiyours que les services qu*il rendait avec 
plaisir ^taient une des obligations de la place qu*il occupait, et si M. 
Barbier^ auteurdudictionnaire des ouvrages anonymes, etM.Henniker^ 
auteur d un ouvrage en Anglais sur les briques armorito de TAbbaye 
St. Etienne de Caen, n*eussent consign^ son nom dans leurs anvnges, 
On ignorerait les obligations qu*i1s lui out, et qu*ils se sont pta k iaiie 
oonnattre ; il a revu et corrig^ deux ^tions du Dictionnaire des Giands 
Hommes qui lui doit plus d*un volume d*augmentation. 

" Les di£P(^rens emplois queM. Moysantarempliset seautres travaux 
lui ont assign^ un rang honorable parmi les hommes instniits : sa m^- 
moire vivra encore long-temps dans une portion de la sod^t^ ^tran- 
g^re k sa reputation litt^raire, et c'est k une des plus beOes quality 



CAEN. 



S33 



let the name of Moysant be mentioned with thebiblir 
omaniacal honours which are doubtless its due ! . . 

From Librarians reveit we to books : to the books 
in the public library of Caen. The oldest printed; 
volume contained in it, and which had been bound with 
a MS, on the supposition of its being a manuscript 
also, is Numeister's impression of Aretin de Bella 
adversus Gothos, 1470, folio ; the first book from the 
press of the printer. I undeceived M. H6bert, who 
had supposed it to be a MS. The lettering is covered 
with horn, and the book is bound in boards ; all pro* 
per." The oldest Latin Bible they possess, is of the 
date of 1485 ; but there is preserved one volume of 
Sweynheym and Pannartz's impression of De Lyrds 
Commentary upon the Bible, of the date of 1471-2, 
which luckily contains the list of books printed by 
those printers in their memorable supplicatory letter to 

qui fessent honneur au cceur humain^ c'est au d^ir de se rendre ntile 
wax malheureux qu*il doit le souvenir qu*ils conserveront des services 
qu*Q leur a rendus : ses connoissances litt^raires Tavaient mis de bonne 
heure en relation avec les personnes les plus distingu^cs de la ViUe et 
de la Province, par leur rang ou leur fortune j plus tard ses ^^ves 
remplissaient les premiers emplois dans les administrations et la ma- 
gistrature 5 il se servit de I'acc^ qu*il avait aupi^ d*eux pour leur 
porter les reclamations de ceux qui g^missaient dans Tinfortune^ ou 
qui avaient des graces k demander > il ^tait si naturellement compa- 
tissant^ qu'il s'occupa toute sa vie des malheureux^ et qu*il d^ploya 
dans tons les instans la plus grande activity pour leur rendre service. 

M. Moysant s*dtait mari^ et une union qui a dur6 quarante-trois 
ans^ lui avait fait gouter tons les charmes du bonheur domestique ; H 
fat cependant trouble par la mort de son fils unique : le temps seul 
put affaiblir sa douleur, le temps seul consolera I'^pouse qui lui 
•urvit/' 



CAEN. 



Pope l^tnB IV. Tbe earliest Latin Classic i^peara to 
be tke Juvenal of 1474, with the Commentary of Cal* 
derinus, printed at Rome ; unless a dateless impress 
sion of Lucauy in the earliest type of Gering, with the 
verses placed at a considerable distance from each 
other, claim chronological precedence. There is also 
a Valerius Mammas of 1475, by Csesaris and Stol, 
bnt without their names. It is a large copy, soiled at 
the beginning. Of the same date is Gering's impres- 
sion of the Legenda Sanctorum ; and among the fUSfi 
tttnttfi I almost coveted a very elegant specimen of 
Jehan du Pr6's printing (with a device used by him 
never before seen by me,) of an edition of La Fie des 
PereSy in 1494, folio, original binding. It was not 
however free from the worm. I collected, from the 
written catalogue, that they had only forty-fivb 
works printed in the fifternth century ; and of 
these, none were of fii*st*rate quality. Indeed I know 
not if the most interesting be not already recorded. 

Among the MSS., I was much struck with the beau- 
tiful penmanship of a work, in three folio volumes, of 
the middle of the xvith century, entitled ; Divertisse-^ 
mens touchant le faict de la guerre^ extraits des livres 
de Polj/be, Frantin, Fegece, Cornazzan, Machiavely et 
autres bans autheurs'' It has no illuminations, but the 
scription is beautiful. A Breviary of the Church Ser- 
vice of LisieuXj of the xvth century, has some pretty 
but common illuminations. It is not fi*ee from injury. 
Of more intrinsic worth is a MS. entitled Du Castentin 
(a district not far from Caen,) with the following prefix 
in the hand-writing of Moysant. Ces m^moires sont 
de M. Toustaint de Billy, cur6 du Mesnil au-parc^ qui 



CAEN. 



S35 



avoit trayaill^ toute sa vie h Thistoire du Cotentin. lis 
8ont rares et m'ont ^t^ accord^s par M. Jourdan^ No- 
taire, auqnel ils appartenoient. Le p. (P^re) le Long 
et Mons. Teriet de fontette ne les ont pas connu. 
Moysantz/' It is a small folio^ in a neat band-writing. 
Another MS., or rather a compound of ms. and printed 
leaves, of yet considerably more importance, in 3 folio 
volumes, is entitled Le Mover i desNormans^par Joseph 
Andri^ Guial de Rouen : on the reverse of the title^ 
we read," Supplement au Dlctionnaire de Moreripour 
ce qui conceme la province de Normandie, et sea 
iUustresr A short preface follows ; then an ode " aux 
Grands Hommes de Normandie.** It is executed in the 
manner of a dictionary, running in alphabetical order. 
Hie first volume extends to I, and is illustrated with 
scraps from newspapers, and a few portraits. It is 
written pretty fiilly in double columns. The portrait 
and biography of Bouzard form an admirable specimen 
of biographical literary memoirs. The second volume 
goes to Z. The third volume is entitled "Le^ trois Slides 
palinodiquesy ou Histoire Gindrale des Palinods de 
Rouen^ Dieppe, 8^c. — by the same han(^ with an equal 
quantity of matter. It is right that such labours should 
be noticed, for the sake of all fiiture BLiss-like editors 
of provincial literature. There is another similar worh, 
in 2 folio ms. volumes, relating to Coutance. 

Before we again touch upon printed books, but of a 
later period, it may be right to inform you that the 
treasures of this Library suffered materially from the 
commotions of the Calvinists. Those hot-headed in«- 
terpreters of scripture destroyed everything in the 
shape of ornament or elegance attached to book-covers^ 



386 



CAEN. 



and pilies of volumes, however sacred, or tmexceptiona* 
ble on the score of good morals, were consigned to tiie 
fury of the flames. Of the remaining volumes which I 
saw, take the following very rapid sketch. Of HourSj 
or Church Services, there is a prodigiously fine copy of 
an edition printed by VostrCy in 4to., upon paper, with- 
out date. It is in the original ornamented cover, or 
binding, with a forest of rough edges to the leaves — 
and doubtless the finest copy of the kind I ever saw. 
Compared with this, how inferior in every respect is 
a cropt copy of. Kerver's impression of a similar work, 
printed upon vellum ! This latter is indeed a very 
indifierent book ; but the rough usage it has met with 
is the sole cause of such inferiority. I was well pleased 
with a fiur, sound copy of the Speculum Stultarumy in 
4to., bl. letter, in hexameter and pentameter verse, 
without date. Consult De Bure, vol. i. no. 3988. Nor 
did I examine without interest a rare little volume 
entitled ^^Les Origines de quelques Coutumes andennes, 
et deplusieurs fa^ons de parler triviales. Avec un vieux 
Manuscrit en vers, touchant FOrigine des Chevaliers 
Bannerets ; printed at Caen in 1672, 12mo. : a curions 
little work. They have a fine (royal) copy of fValtatCs 
Polyglot J with an excellent impression of the head; 
and a large paper copy of Stephens Greek Glossary ; 
in old vellum binding, with a great number of ms. 
notes by Bochart. Also a fine large paper Photius of 
1654, folio. But among their large papbrs, few 
volumes tower with greater magnificence than do the 
three folios of La Sainte Bible, printed by the Elze- 
virs at Amsterdam, in 1669. They are absolutely fine 
creatures ; of the stateliest dimensions and most attracr 



CAEN. 



337 



tive forms. They also pretend that thdr large paper 
copy of the first edition of Huefs Prceparatio Evan^ 
geUca, in folio^ is unique. Probably it is, as the author 
presented it to the Library himself. The Basil Eusta- 
ikim of 1559, in 3 vc^umes folio, is as glorious a copy 
tiB is Mr: Grenville's of the Roman edition of 1542. It 
is in its pristine membranaceous attire — the Vellum 
lapping over the fore-edges, in the manner €f Mr. 
Heber's copy of the first Aldine Aristotle, — most com- 
fortable to behold ! There is a fine large paper copy of 
Montaigne's Essays ^ 1635, folio, containing two titles 
imd a portrait of the author. It is bound in red mo- 
rocco> and considered hj M. Hubert a most rare rad 
desirable book. Indeed I was told that one CoUectw 
m particular was exceedingly anxious to obtain it. I 
WW a fine copy of 4^ folio edition of Ransard, printed 
im 1584j which is considered rare. Th^ is also a copy 
<if the w^ known Ldber NanceidoSy from Bochart's 
library, with a few ms. notes of Bochart himsetf. 
Here I saw, for the first time, a French metrical ver- 
irion of the works of FirgUy hy Robert and Anthony 
Cheualiers d^Agneamx peres^ de Vire^^en Normandie ; 
pnblisfaed at Paris in 1585, in el^nt italic type ; con- 
sidered rare. The same titmslators published a vmion 
lei Horace ; but it is not here. You may remember 
dtat I made mention of a certain work (in one of my 
4ate letters) called Lbs Vaudevires d'Oltoier Basselm. 
They preserve here a very choice copy of it, in 4to«> 
lai^ paper ; and of winch size only three copies are 
Mid to be ia existence. The entire title is Les Faude- 
viresj Poesies du xvine. ndc/e, par OUvier Basselm^ avec 
4m JHseoursjmr M Fie et des Notes pour texpUcalion 



338 



GAEN. 



de quelques anciens Mots: Fire, 1811.** 8vo. There 
are copies upon pink paper, of which this is one — and 
which was in fact presented to the Library by the 
Editors. Prefixed to it, is an indifferent drawing^, in 
india ink, representing the old castle of Vire, now 
nearly demolished, with Basselin seated at a table along 
with three of his boosing companions, channting his 
Terses k pleine gorge.** This Basselin appears in 
short to have been the French Drunken Barnamt of 
his day. 

What ! (say you :) not one single specimen from 
the library of your favourite Dianb db Poictibu! 
Can this be possible ? — No more of interrogatoty, I 
beseech you : but listen attentively and gratefully to 
the. intelligence which you are about to receive— mmI 
fiuicy not, if you have any i-espect for my taste, that 
I have forgotten my favourite Diane de Ptoictiers. On 
looking sharply about you, within this library, iheie 
will be found a magnificent copy of the Cammentmries 
of Chrysostom upon the Epistles of St. Pauly printed 
by Stephanus et Fratres da Sabio, at Ferona, in 1529, 
in three folio volumes. It is by much and by fiur the 
finest Greek work which I ever saw from the Sabii 
Press. No wonder Colbert jumped with avidity to 
receive such a copy of it : for, bating that it is nn 
pen rogn^,** the condition and colour are quite enchant- 
ing. And then for the ligature, or binding thereof!— 
idiich either Colbert, or his librarian Baluze, had the 
good sense and good taste to leave untouched* The 
first and second volumes are in reddish calf, with the 
royal arms in the centre, and the half moon (in ti^mishecl 
silver) beneath : the arabesque omamentSy or sorroimd^ 



CAEN. 



iDg border are in gilt. The edges are gilt^ stamped ; 
flush with the fore edge of the binding. In the centre 
of the sides of the binding, is a large with a fleur de 
lis at top: the top and bottom borders presenting 
the usual D and H, united — ^for which you may take 
a peep at a certain work ycleped the Bihliographicat 
Decameron. The third volume is in dark blue leather, 
with the same side ornaments; and the title of the 
work, as with the preceding volumes, is lettered iit 
Greek capitals. The H and crown, and monogram, as 
before ; but the edges of the leaves are, in this volume, 
stamped at bottom and top with an H, surmounted by 
a crown. The sides of the binding are also fuller and 
richer than in the preceding volumes. I well remember, 
at this moment, that ttiis was the very work, of which, 
when residing at Worcester, — commencing my career 
in life as a provincial Counsel — I had the misfortune to 
lose the third volume : and the loss so alBected me, that, 
to recover it, I left the profession, and became biblio^ 
grapher and divine. But the long sought after, and 
deeply r^retted object, has ever continued to elude my 
reiearch. The magnificent copy which I have been 
just describing was given to the Library by P. Le 
Jeune. It is quite a treasure in its way. 

Anodier specimen, if you please, from the library of 
the said favourite Diana. It is rather of a singular 
character: consisting of a French version of that 
once extremely popular work (originally published in 
the Latin language) called the Cosmography of Sehas^ 
turn Munster. The edition is of the date of 1555, in 
fidio. This copy must have been as splendid as it is 
ytt. curious. It contains two portraita of Henry tte 



CAEN. 



Second (^^ Henricvs U. Galliarvm Rbx invictiss/ 
PP.") and four of Holofernes (" Oloparnb*') on each 
side of the binding. In the centre of the sides we 
recognise the lunar ornaments of Diane de Ptoictiers ; 
but on the back, are five portraits of her, in gilt, eadi 
within the bands — and, like all the other ornaments^ 
much rubbed. Two of these five heads are facing a 
different head of Henry. There are also on the ndeir 
two pretty medallions of a winged figure blondng a' 
trumpet, and standing upon a chariot drawn by four 
horses : there are also small fleur de lis scattered be- 
tween the ornaments of the sides of the binding. The 
date of the forementioned medallion seems to be 1553.* 
The copy is cruelly cropt, and the volume is sufficieiitly 
badly printed ; which makes it the more surprising that 
such pains should have been taken with its bibliop&^ 
gistic embellishments. On examining it, I coald not 
help thinking how much inferior, in size and condition^ 
was the copy of it which I had seen at Frere's^ at 
Rouen, and in the darik and dank corridore of the 
younger Manoury at Caen. Yet, upon the whole, the 
copy, for the sake of its ornaments, is vehemently 
desirable. 

And now, my dear friend, you must make your 
bow with me to M. Hubert, and bid fistreweU to the 
PUBLIC LIBRARY at Cacu. Indeed I am fully dis» 
posed to bid farewell to every thing else in the same 
town : not however without being conscious that very 
much, both of what I have, and of what I have not; 
seen, merits a detail well calculated to please the in* 
tellectual appetites of travellers. What I have seen^ 
has been, indeed, but snmmaiily, and even soperfif 



CAEN. 



341 



dftlly described ; but I have done kny best ; and was 
ftarfol of exciting ennui, by a more parish register-like 
description. Yet what becomes of those grand topicsj 
^ religion and law of the country through which one 
kbs tratdled i Not a word about altars and tribiK 
mhl Very little indeed : and that little, I fear, most 
and unsatisfiEu;tory . For the service performed ik 
fladesof public worslup, I can add nothing to my Rouen 
delai]»-*excq[>t that there is here a brilliant diversity 
iii^ PaoTfiSTANT CHURCH iu the person of M. Marthi 
]toi.UN— Risteur, President de Ffiglise Refohii6 
eonsistoriale de Caen**— who has just published a ^ Mi^ 
fmm'eHistoriqmesurrEtatEccl^iMtique desPrbtestatui 
Snmfois depuU Francis \er. jusqu'h Lmis XFIIIi* 
JM a pamphlet of some fourscore pages. The task was 
efuaUy delicate and difficult of execution ; but hav-^ 
ilig read it, I am firee to confess that M. RoUin bail 
done his work very neatly and Very cleverly* I went 
ia company with Mrs^ and Miss I*** to htor the 
author ^-eaeh ; for he is a young man (about thirty) 
who draws his congregation as much from hiis talents 
aSf a preacher, as from his moral worth as an indivi* 
dual. It was on the occasion of several young ladies 
a«d gentlemen taking the sacrament for the first time* 
The church is strictly, I believe^ according to the Qe. 
neva persuasion ; but there was smnething so comj^ 
fertable, and to me so cheering, in the avowed doo* 
tme of Protestantism, that I accompanied my friends 
witb alacrity to the spot. Many English were pre* 
sent ) for M. Rollin is deservedly a fovourite with our 
coontrymeufc The church, however^ was scarcefy 
hatf^Hsd* The interior is the most^ukwardly adapt- 

VOL. I. X 



342 



CAEN. 



ed imaginable to the purposes either of readii^ or 
of preaching : for it consists of two aisles at right 
Itngies with each other. The desk and pulpit are fixed 
in the receding angle of their junction ; so that the ydic6 
flies forth to the right and left immediately as U 
escapes the preacher. After a very long, and a veiy 
dicQsly-sang psahn, Mr. RoUin commenced his dis^ 
eomrse. He is an extemporaneous preacher, and is 
said to strive (very foolishly, in my oi»nlon) to imi- 
tate Talfna in some of his action. I observed (and 
ckmld not help regretting as I observed) the mode m 
winch, after extending his arms at their entire length 
in a right line, he would cause his hands to e^ake 
kod flutter, like the tremulous wing of a bird ere 
it settles I But de gustibus** . . . His vmce is sweet 
and clear, rather than sonorous and unpressive i aad 
lie is perhaps, occasionally, too metaphorical m his 
composition. For the first time I heard the words ^ Oh 
Dieu r pronounced with great effect : but the wnatra 
was made up, of better things than mere exclamadoM. 
M. RolHn was frequently ingmiious, logicid, and 
GOBvincing; and his address to the young coinnMih 
nicants, towards the close of his discourse, waa imr 
pressive and efficient in the extreme. The ymmg 
people were deeply touched by his powerful apped^ aad 
I believe each countenance was suffiised with teais. 
He guarded them against the dangers and temptations 
of that world upon which they were about to enter, 
by setting before them the consolations of the rdigioa 
which they had professed, in a manner whioh i&dicatiMl 
that he had really their interests and hi^iaets at heart 
The fiemales were dreMed in white^ with loag wliits 



CAEN. 



rab ; and not one of the congregation, on quitting tiie 
churchy passed by them without fixing their eye upon 
cDjects'of such iriterest atid sensibility. The sermon was 
feUowed by a psalm, as drawling in its mode of per- 
formance as that by which it haid been preceded. I 
forget if it was permitted to any of the congregatidA' to 
iMay behind, to communicate ; but I cannot leave the 
threshold of the church without expressing how much 
I was gratified by the promptitude and civility of the 
ftrger, in accommodating us with good seats : " si ric 
aeioiper apud nos'* — ^would be no bad hint to attend to 
aeross the Channel. 

So much for Sabbath worship. A word only abottt 
Comfs of Justice. A smack of the whip** will tingle In 
My ears through life ; and I shall always attend Nisi 
'9rkur exhibitions with more than ordinary curiosity* I 
strolled one morning to the Place de Justice — ^whicb is 
Wrfl situated, in an airy and respectable neighbourhood, 
isaw two or three barristers, en pleine costume, pretty 
marly in the English fashion, walking quickly to aild 
fro with their clients, in the open air, before the heik \ 
and could not help contrasting the quick eye and un- 
concerned expression of countenance of the former^ 
with the simple look and yet earnest action of the 
latter. One of these barristers might have been mis- 
taken for an Englishman : but I will not say wherefore^ 
for fisar a Frenchman should be looking over your 
shoulderwhen you read this. I entered the Hall, and to 
ray astonishment, heard only a low muttering sound. 
Scarcely fifteen people were present. I approached the 
bench ; and what, think you, were the intellectual ob- 
jects upon which my eye alighted ? Tliree Judges . . 



344 



CAENi 



(dl &st toleep! Five barristers/ two of whom were 
nodding: one was literally addressing the bench. 
and the remaining two were talking to their clients in 
the most nnooncemed manner imaginable. The entire 
efkct, on my mind, was ridiculons in the extreme. 
With difficulty I refrained from absolute laughter^ 
and^quitted the Hall of Justice within five minutes of 
my entrance. Far be it from me, however, to desig- 
nate the forcing as a generally ti-ue picture of tiie 
administration of Justice at Caen. I am induced to 
hope and believe that a place, so long celebrated for 
the study of the law, yet continues occasionally to ex- 
hibit proofs of that logic and eloquence for which it 
has been renowned of old. I am willing to conclude 
that all the judges are not alike somniferous ; and that 
if the acfuteness of our Giffords, and the rhetoric ttf 
onr Dsnmans, sometimes instruct and enliven the aur 
dience, there will be found Judges to ai^ue like Gibbs 
and to decide like Scott. Farewell. Ere the setting of 
to-morrow's sun, I shall have gazed upon the famous 
tapestry at Bayeux. Most cordially yours. 



345 



LETTER XV. 

BAYKUX* CATHEDRAL. ORDINATION OF PRIESTS AND 
DEACONS. CRYPT OF THE CATHEDRAL. A MY8TERI- 
OUS INTERVIEW* 

BtijfeuTj MtMy IG, 181*8. 

• Tito of the most gratifying days of my- voyage** 
have been spent at this place r and^althoi^h the TapM* 
iry has not yet been absolntely -^^gazed vpon/^ the Ca« 
Ihedral (the most ancient reli^ous place of worship u| 
fionnandy) has been paced with a reverential step^ 
and surveyed with a careful eye; That which scarcdy 
warmed the blood of Ducarel has made my heart beat 
ivith an increased action ; and though this town be 
even dreary, as- well as thinly peopled, there is that 
about it, which^ from associations of ideas^ can nevw 
llul to afford a lively interest to a British antiquary. 

• Our old favourite method of travelling, in the ci^bri* 
tilet of the diligence, brought us here from- Caen in 
About two hours and a half^ The country, during the 
whole routei is open> well cultivated^ occasionally 
liently undulating, but generally denuded of trees. It 
\s always so- in the vicinity of great towns. Many 
pretty little churches, with delicate spires, peq>ed 
upon us to the right and left during our journey; but 
Ihe first view of the Cathedral of Baybux put all tbe 
^hers out of our recoUectiott. Yet even this first 



346 



BAYEUX. 



view produced a pish !'* from both of us : which arose 
from the corrupt style of architecture of the central 
tower— the upper part of which is of the time of Francis 
I. This central tower is not only lower than the two 
spire-crowned towers at the western extremity^ but is, 
in other respects, a very indifferent piece of building. 
The end spires are rather lofty than elegant : in tmtk 
tiiey are, in respect to form and ornament, aboat as 
sorry performances as can be seen. We were (Mm- 
veyed to the H6tel de Luxemhourgy the best inn in the 
town, and for a wonder rather pleasantly situated. 

Mine hostess'' is a smart, lively, and direwd woQian 
v^-perfectly mistress of the art and cr^ of innkjqep- 
iulf, and seen^ to have never known sorrow or disap* 
pOintment. Our bed-i-ooms are excellent, and a mXk 
ooverlld and fringed bed-frimiture gives to my own 
apartment the aspect of neatness and even of gaifBty^ 
Knowing that Mr. Stothard, Jim. had, the preceding 
year, been oqcupied in making a fiEU^-simile of the fiir 
mous tapestry'' for our own Society of Antiquaries, I en- 
quired if mine hostess had been acquiunted with that 
gentleman : Monsieur," replied she, je le connois 
Med ; c'est un brave homme : il demeura tout pr^ : waaA 
travailla-t-il comme quatre diables !" I will not ^iik 
guise that this eulogy of our amiable cocintrymaii 
pleased me right well" — though I was pretty snie 
that such language was the current (and to me aome;- 
what coarse) coin of compliment upon all OGcasioqsrr 
Imd instead of vin ordinaire" I ordered, rather ip 
a* gay and triumphant manner, une bouteille dy 
¥111 de Beaune"— ''Ah 1 9a," (repUed th^ livdy^aiidbdy^ 

vous' le (yowvei^ exceUeiM>--Me08ieiuii^ il V^J^ V^ 



BAYEUX. 



347 



iHym comme le Tin de Beaune/' We beiqpoke our 
liuiaer^ and strolled towards the cathedral. 
. There is^ in fact^ no proper approach to this inter-^ 
esting edifice. The western end is suffocated with 
houses. Here stands the post-office ; and with the 
most unsu^>ecting frankness^ on the part of the owner^ 
I had permission to examine, with my own hands> 
within doors, every letter — ^under the expectation that 
ibere were some for myself. Nor was I disappointed. 
But you must come with me to the cathedral : and of 
course we must enter together at the western front. 
There are five porticos : the central one being rather 
laifpe, and the two, on either side, comparatively smalls 
Formerly, these were covered with sculptured figures 
aad ornaments ; but the Calvinists in the sixteenth, and 
the Revolutionists in the eighteenth century, have coui- 
trived to render their present aspect mutilated and rer 
pulnve in the extreme. You should know, however, 
before you enter, that the tower to the left is coeval 
with the nave and choir — that is, of the middle of the 
l^th century ; while the one to the right is of the xvth 
ixntory. On entering, we were struck with the two 
hkrge transverse Norman arches which bestride the 
area, or square, for the bases of the two towers. It 
is the boldest and finest piece of masonry in the whole 
building. We were disappointed with the interior. It 
18 plain, solid, and rather divested of ornament. A very 
large wooden crucifix is placed over the screen of the 
i^ir, which has an effect — of its kind : but the monu* 
:ment8,and mural ornaments, scarcely deserye mention^ 
The rieUy ornamented arches, on each side of the naive, 
sprini^ng from massive tingle pillars, have rathar an im- 



348 



BAYEUX 



pomng eflfect : above them are Gotluc omamentB of a 
later period^ but too thickly and injadicionsly appBed. 
The choir is rather fine^ than otherwise ; but taken as a 
whole, I cannot say much for the interior of thid ca* 
thedral. Let us, however, suppose that the dinnor m 
over, and the vin de Beaune*" approved of— and tkat 
on our second visit, immediately afterwards, there is 
both time and inclination for a leisurely survey. On 
k)oking up, upon entering, within the side aisle to the 
left, you observe, with infinite regret, a dark and filthy 
green tint indicative of premature decay-— arising from 
the lead of that part of the roof having been stript finr 
the purpose of making bullets during the Revolntioi^-* 
a fate usually attendant upon poor cathedrals during 
popular insurrections I The extreme length of the in^ 
tenor is about 320 English feet, by 76 high, and the 
^ latter number of feet in width. The transepts are 
about 125 feet long, by 36 wide. The western towers^ 
to the very top of the spires, are about 250 Bnglish 
feet in height. The cathedral, in its present format 
f with the exception of such additions as are evidently 
of a posterior date) pwes its erection to the munificent 
spirit of Philip de Harcourt, bishop of the diocese in 
the middle of the xiith century. The exact date of 
the completion of the choir, supposed to be the earlier 

* in its present form!] — Ducarel*a faithless and diminutiye Tiew of It 
is only fit for a lady's pocket-book. Nor can I think, without pain, <tf 
a copy of this defbctiye print having been introduced into the pages of 
the Gentleman* s Magaxine for July 1819 $ espedallj as the SSd 
and 64th voluines of that work contain some creditable repesciita* 
iMN)s of the cathe^nJs, copied from better modeb jio Ducand^ work. 



BAYEUX, 



849 



part, is of the year 1159. But it had been previously 
twice or thrice rebuilt; by the Normans in 891^* and 
afterwards, from two successive fires— one in 1046, and 
the other in 1 106. As you pace the nave you cannot fidl 
to be struck, on the left, with one of the most magnificent 
and highly ornamented pulpits in Normandy. Jt has 
however sufiered from the revolutionary barbarians. 

One of the. most curious objects in the cathedral is 
the CRYPT ; of which, singularly enough, all knowledge 
had been long lost till the year 1412. The circumstance 
of its discovery is told in the following inscription, cut 
in the Gothic letter, upon a brass plate, and placed just 
^abore the southern entrance: 

€tt Ian mfl quatre cenii $ tiouje ' 

%t0 1nm0 tu la tent, la fttacntt 
^ue la S^quejf fttt (debtee 
l^oUe $omme $ lletoerettb ^ece 
^< 1S^^f He la a?ere 

• f The church was dedicated, after the second fire^ by Odo de Covts- 
viLi4i, the Conqueror's brother: — and William, his wife^ and two 
chfldren (Robert and William Rufus) were present at the ceremony. 
Odo lavished upon the church still greater property than "Wlliam 
had bestowed upon it— and especially the Barony of Plessis. <3e 
Mlat combla sa nouveUe ^lise de pr^sens. Un des plus r^ooarqui^ 
Uee^toit la Couronne de cuivre dor 4, couverte de lames d*argent, & at- 
tach^e k une chaine de fer dans la nef vis-k-vis du crucifix. Cette 
couronne de 16 pieds de hauteur, et om^ d*autres couronnes en forme 
de tours, occupoit la largeur de la nef : elle servoit k porter quantity de 
defges qu*on allumoit dans les grandes ffetes : il y avoit ausd 47 ▼«» 
iAtins gnm^ tout autour, k la louange de FegliBe.*' JEfiit. Sammmre 
d$ JtLyUle de Bajfeuxf 1773, Svo. p. 39. This extraordinary omament 
jf^ dest^ed durui^ the Keli^ous peraec^ . , 



IfiFiftt Venitit a jfon Cvf atntr 
€t lotjf nt Mffattt la ^late 
ttMtiaiit la gtanii Glutei bt ^tatt 
Cnfea I'M la (ajf^e €|apcll( 
fiHmt il n'atoott ete nrniMKe 

8)lni nfttfflc atioic if 0)1 atnt at ttite; SbtKit 

Ducssuhel BeemB to have had an aversion^ or at lettt 
barioflky^ towards crypts ; and accordingly both at 
Caen and Bayeux he raised his head above tfate inte- 
ence of subterran^us^ and supposed noxious^ vapoars: 
bat a good, sniflf 6t these cold and darksome regions is 
quite refreshing to a thorough-bred architectural anti- 
quary ! It was my good fortune to idsit this crypt at a 
very particular juncture. The day after my arrival 
at Bayeux^ there was a grand ordination. Before I 
had quitted my bed^ I heard the mellow and measured 
notes of human voices; and starting up, I saw an id* 
most interminable procession of priests, deacons, &c, 
walking singly behind each other, in two lines, leaving 
a'considerable space between them. They walked bara- 
headed, chanting, with a book in their hands, and bent 
their course towards the cathedral. I dressed quickly ; 
and dispatching my breakfast with equal promptitude, 
pursued the same route. On entering the western 
doors, thrown wide open, I shall never forget the effect 
produced by the crimson and blue draperies of the 
Norman women--^ great number of whom were dia- 
tmd, in groups, upon the top of the screen, about die 



BAYEUX 



351 



bage wooden crucifix ;^witBesaiiig the office of ordi* 
nation going on.below^ in the choir. They 4seemed to 
be suspended in the air ; and considering the piece of 
acn^ture around which they appeared, to gather them- 
selres — ^with the elevation of the screen itself — ^it was a 
eombination ot objects upon, which the pencil jof Nash 
(the most poetical of (mv architecture draftsmen) 
might have been exercised with the happiest possible 
resdlt. An ordination in a foreign country^ and espe- 
milly one upon such an apparently extensire scales 
ims^ to a professional man, not to be slighted ; and ac^ 
oordingly I determined upon making the most of the 
qm^tacle before me. Looking accidentally down mf 
fiHTOorite crypt, I observed that some religious cere^ 
mumy was going on there. The northern grate, w ^ 
tonce,. being open, I descended a flight of steps, and 
qnickly became a lodger in this subterraneous abode; 
"Pie first object that struck me was, the warm glow of 
dbjr light which darted upon the broad pink cross of 
the surplice of an officiating priest : a candle was 
bttraing upon the altar, on each side of him : another 
print, in a black vesture, officiated as an assistant-^-* 
and each, in turn, knelt^ and bowed, and prayed . • to 
tbe admiration of some few half dozen casual yet b,U 
tantive visitors — while the full sonorous chant from the 
voioes of upwards of one hundred and fifty priests and 
deacons, from the chcnr above, gave a peculiar sort of 
aolemmty to the mysterious gloom below. In spite of 
mf abstraction, I did not £bu1, however, to notice tbiit 
tbe pallani, about half a dozen in number, were of the 
deuraoter of those in the crypt of the Ahhmfe mut 
Iktme^ ftt Qmi hnt tl» t9e{>ital of the fiisi piikir^ 



368: 



BAYEUX. 



upon entering, exhibits almost the perfect Compo^te 
order ! . • . while the other capitals are,^ generally^ of 
the grotesque character of the xiith centiuy. Hie 
arch above them takes its spring immediatriy from the 
abacns of the capital : producing rather a dngiriar 
effisct : there is something like painting in finewbjntfc 
above the capital: but evidently, I should thiak^wof 
thelatter half of the xvth century. 

I now ascended ; and by the help of a chair, took a 
peep at the ceremony through the intercolummatim» 
of the choir : my diffidence, or rather apprehensionof n- 
fiisal, having withheld me f]x>m striving to gain admib* 
tance within the body. But my situation was asingularfy 
good one : opposite the altar. I looked, and behekL'^kk 
vast clerical ccmgregation at times kneeling, or standn^ 
or sitting : partially, or wholly : while the swdl of their 
vmces, accompanied by the full intonati<ms of the 
gan, and the yet more penetrating notes of the serpent^ 
seemed to breathe more than earthly solramity arouwL 
The ceremony had now continued full two hoars-^ 
when, in the midst of the most impressive part of Jt^ 
and while the young candidates for ordination wem 
prostrate before the high altar — the diapasoa stop c$ 
the organ (as at Dieppe) sending forth the softest notes 
•!~the venerable bishop placed the glittering mitre 
(apparently covered with gold gauze) upon his head^ 
and with a large gilt crosier in his right hand, de<» 
seended, with a measured and majestic step, ftom l3im 
floor of die altar, and proceeded to the execution of the 
more mysterious part of his office. The cancfidatcs^ 
with closed eyes, and outstretched hands^ weretondnd 
jMi the holy oil — and tlms became caoienatML . Oa 



BAYEUX. 



393 



•ririiig^each received a small piece of bread between the 
thumb and forefinger^ and the middle and third fingers ; 
tteir hands being pressed together — and^ still with 
doted eyes retired behind the high altar — ^where an o&k 
CMting priest made use of the bread to rub off the holy 
ojL The bishop is an elderly man, about three score and 
tm ; he has the usual sallow tint of his countrymen^ 
but his eye, somewhat sunk or retired, beneath bladE 
WnL overhanging eyebrows, is sharp and expressive 
-<^«and his whole mien has the indication of a weUU 
brad and well-educated gentleman. When he descend** 
ed with his full robes, crosier, and mitre, from the high 
altar, methought I saw some of the venerable forms of 
owWykbhams and WAVNRFLETBsof old — commands 
iqg the respect, and receiving the homage, of a grate* 
fbl congregation I You must allow, my dear friend^ 
thai if there be few ceremonies more imposing, there 
aure also few more beneficial, than that which I have 
described ; and that impressions, imbibed in young and 
honest minds, by such serious offices, are not easily 
effaced, but are productive in the end of the most sala* 
tary results. I really do not speak and reason thus 
because I have partaken of the same ceremony, in a 
mitigated form, in my owh country— or from any vio^ 
lent adherence to what may be called a Laud-like pas 
Am for hierarchy. On the contrary ... but you know 
my sentiments upon this head so frdly, that, if you 
pltase, as this ceremony is just ended — ^ we will tfrike 
»ittroU together to see what else is worthy of observa< 
tiDD.within this veneraUe cathedraL How provoking 
«-f«r rathar how disgusting! • At the very momcpi 
Hqr niiodMdtifly oti^^ 



BAYEUX. 



from tfaul ishgfB&SLceat spectacle; t MwHed ittta <^ 
l4ufy*9 Chapel; behind the choir^ and behdd' ^ AgtA 
which converted serionsness into snrpiite^llOftlerilij^ 
uponi mirth. Abore the altar of this reMOIety ^itiiaMd 
ohapel^ stands the ibcaos of thb Vihoin with tliK^iil^ 
fint Jesus in ber wms. This is the nsnal -chief oraiP 
pmrt of Our Lady's Chapd. But whart; dmpery Ibr tM 
mother of the sacred child I^tiff, starchy rectiriigtlu 
kiiy^lded white muslin, stuck about with dhreriif 
artificial flowers — like uato a shew figtire in BtWok 
Green Fair ! This ridiculous and most disgusting tm^ 
tome began more particularly ai; Caudd&ec. is if 
jptrsevered inr Why is it endured? The FVenblt'tuMtf'a 
quick sensibility, and a lively al|)prehenrioti wfaM 
is? beautiful and brilliant in the arts of scu^stms 
PmI painting . . • but the terms ^ jolijr geatik^^* and 
^;pp^re,^ arc made use of, like chaiity; te ^^covw^iA 
Bwdititude of sins'* * . or aberrationsirom true taste :t 
toarcely stopped a minute in this chapiil,- but proctfeedeA 
to a side one, to the right, which yet afibtcb procrf^^ 
its pristine splendour. It is coTcred with goU aid 
colours. Two or three supplicants 'were kneeling before 
the crucifix, and appeared to be tso absorbed in thar 
devotions as to be insensible of every surrounding oV 
ject. To them, the particular saint (I have forgotten 
the name) to whom the little chapel was dedicated, 
seemed to be dearer and more interesting tlum the 
gCMral voice of praise and thanksgiving^ with wfalA 
the : choir of the cattiedral resounded. Befbre we 
q[oii the place you must know that foutlscoK oandit 
dates were ordadned : that there are;8i3ety cleq^ at- 
tadMHbto the^hodf^i ; «nd'that vinraiMM ftwh 



8S6 



4rad< th<ii»aiid sotils anre under the ^pkitaal eogniMace 
of tlie BiBHC^B OP Baymvx. The treasufes of the 
Aedral' were once exeeBsive/^ and the episcopal stiptttd 
pfoportionably large : bnt^ of late years^ thingft^ are 
ndlf dmnged. The Calvinists in the sixteenth cen^ 
tivyy be^fan the work of havoc and destraction ; and 
tiiB Rerolnticmists in the dghteenth, as nsml^ ^|mt 
tbevcolophon"" to these devastations. At present^ fihom 
la^tmy respectable source of information, I learn tbtit the 
ranMnes of thei Bishop scarcely exceed 7001^ annnm 
if ow own money. The chapter had anciently the 
j^il^ of coining money. I cannot take leave of the 
tfathedfal without commending in strong terms of ad-" 
ttir|tti9o^ the lofty flying buttresses of the exterior of 
tl»nare. Tbe^perpendicular portions are crowned with 
sicnlptured whole lengtb %ure, from which the semi- 
arah takes its spring ; and are in much more elegant 
iaste tiban ayy other part of the builcKng. While view« 
ing the exterior, you cannot &il to be struck, in the 
genaral dearth of monuments^ with the following mjrs-* 
ttnooB inscri^ion rf* 

QuAite dies Ftachft fcwfBt cum 

Que iacet hie uetok uoiimiiB exeqidas, 
Leiitieqne diem magii amisuae dolemuB 

Qoam centom tales d caderentuetide. 

^i^ere aiioe exemm.]---€ette^;ttae . ..^toilaana^soati^ 
pfatf ridiea de Franoe en vaaea d*or d'aigeiit> et de piemriea ) em i^ 
Kqaeaetenornemens. Leprob^yerbalqiiiavoit^ diesa^ detiwlea 
aea rfekesaea^ en 1476, cootient tm detail qid ▼& presque k YioiBtd** 

< i iki^mif9teHomm$cr^>Hm.J—^^ inaeriplioib dontlei kttm 
aootaMknoB «ttdaeaqii*oaa'«B aerfOil othH ka ^pfci o s gna ar aa 



356 



BAYEUX. 



Hard by the cathedral stood formerly a magnifibeiA 
BPI6C0PAL PALACE. Upon this palace the old wvitem 
(and Bezieres, in particular — whose sensible mannalof 
the history of the town^ I purchased within two hours 
after my arrival here) dearly loved to expatiate. Tbera 
is now however nothing but a good large comfortable 
fiunily mansion: sufficient for the purposes of such 
boqritality and entertainment as the episcopal revenues- 
will afford* I have not only seen, but visited^ this 
^iscopal residence. In other words, my fiiend Pierre- 
Aim6 Lair having promised to take his last adieu Of 
me at Bayeux, as he had business with the Bishop, I 
met him agreeably to appointment at the palace : but 
his host, with a strong corps of visitors^ having just 
sate down to dinner — ^it was only one o*clock — bade 
him adieu, with the hope of seeing the Bishop on 
the morrow — ^to whom he had indeed mentioned 
my name. Our£EU*ewell was undoubtedly warm and 

porte ni date ni nom appeOatif. Quelques uns pr^tencleiit iiu^elle 
regarde la Maitresu du Due de Narmandie, qvd, an lien d'te« c uteii <ip 
dans r^lifle^commeelle Tavoit dedr^, fut endav^e^ pour parlor aliin, 
daoB r^paisaeur du mur de la Tour^ par ordre du cfaafntie. Ne serait- 
ce point plut6t liobelle de Douvre, maltresse de Robert Cooite de 
Gloce8tre> batard de Henri I. Roi d*Angleterre« dont naipiit Ricbard, 
qui malgr^ le ddfeut de sa naissance fut nomm^ Fan 1 133, kTEvMi^ 
de Bayeux) La date de son Obit au 94 d'Avril indnue, que ce fntle 
joordeaond^c^s. La femme d^ngn^ dans T^pitaphe moorat agfc> 
et aux F^tes de Fftques : at F&quea en I'ann^e 1166 tomlMi aatl#.' 
d*ATriL Ces cpoques paroistent asses s*accorder entr^dles, et Tii^ 
scription est assur^ent du m^e terns.*' In a note, Bezierea addsy 
Le Necrologe delaCath^rale en Mi mention en oes temies : Mdie 
menrii JpriUi, ObUui habellU, mairiM Rkhardi JE^dicofi iqfoc JOU 



BAYEUX. 



857 



iiafiere. He had volunteered a thousand acts of kind- 
ness towards me without any possible motive of self 
int^^est; and as he lifted up his right hand^ exckdming 

adieu^ pour toujours! — I will not dissemble that 
I was sensibly affected by the touching manner in 
which it was uttered . . and Pibrrb Aimi^ Lair shall 
always claim from me the warmest wishes for his 
prosperity and happiness. I hurried back through 
the court-yard — at the risk of losing a limb from the 
ferocious spring of a tremendous (chained) mastiff— 
and without returning the salute of the porter^ shut 
the gate violently, and departed. For five minutes^ 
pacing the south side of the cathedral, I was lost in 
a variety of even painful sensations. How was I to 
4Be the Library ? — where could I obtain a glimpse of 
the Tapbstry r — and now, that Kerre Aim6 Lair was to 
be no more seen, (for he told me he should quit the 
place on that same evening) who was to stand my 
friend, and smooth my access to the more curious and 
coveted objects <^ antiquity ? 

Thus absorbed in a variety of contending reflec- 
tions, a tall figure, clad in a loose long great coat, in a 
very gracious manner approached and addressed me. 
" Your name. Sir, is D * * ♦ At your service, 
Sir, that is my name."* You were yesterday evening 
Bt Monsieur Pluquet*s, purchasing books I was, 
Sir.^ It seems you are very fond of old books, and 
especially of those in the French and Latin languages 

I am fond of old books generally ; but I now seek 
more particularly those in your language — and have 
been delighted with an illuminated, and apparently 
coeval, MS. of the poetry of your fitmous Olivibr 

VOL. I. Y 



858 



BAYEUX. 



Bassblin, which . . You saw it^ Sir^ at Monnair 
nuquet*s. It belonged to a common firiend of ns both. 
He thinks it worth . • He asks ten Unas dor tot 
% and he shall have them with all my heart." Sir, 
I know he will never part with it even for that large 
gum.** I smiled, as he pronounced the word larger — 
bethinking myself of Atticus, for whose library I 
had intended it ! Do me the honour. Sir, of vifflting 
my obscure dwelling, in the country— a short league 
from hence. My abode is humble : in the midst of an 
orchard, which my father planted: but I possess a 
few books, some of them curious, and should like to 
read double the number I possess.*' I thanked the 
stranger for his polite attention and gracious c^er, 
which I accepted readily . . This evening, Sir, if 
you please.*' With all my heart, this very evening. 
But tell me. Sir, how can I obtain a sight of the Chap- 
ter Library, and of the famous Tapestry?*' l^ieak 
softly, (resumed the unknown) — for I am watched in 
this place. You shall see both — ^but must not say that 
Monsieur ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ was your adviser or friend. 
For the present, farewell. I shall expect you in the 
evening." We took leave ; and I returned hastily to the 
inn, to tell my adventures to my companion. 

There is something so charmingly mysterious in 
this little anecdote, that I would not for the world add 
a syllable of explanation. Leaving you, therefore, in 
full possession of it, to turn and twist it as you please 
consider me as usual. Yours. 



359 



LETTER XVI. 

VISIT NBAR ST. LOUP. M. PLUQUET^ APOTHECARY AND 
BOOK-VENDER. VISIT TO THE BISHOP. THE CHAP- 
TER UBRARY. DESCRIPTION OF THE BAYEUX TAPES- 
TRY> WITH FAC-SIMILES. TRADE AND MANUFACTURES. 

Well^ my good friend ! the stranger has been visited; 
his library inspected: his services accepted : and his cha- 
racter partly unfolded. To this I must add^ in the joy of 
my hearty (as indeed I mentioned slightly in my last) 
that both the Chapter Library and the famous Tapes- 
try have been explored and examined in a manner^ 
I trusty worthy of British curiosity. I hardly know 
what sort of order to adopt in this my second and last 
epistle from Bayeux ; which will be semi-bibliomania- 
oal and semi-archaeological: and sit down, almost at 
random, to impart such intelligence as my journal and 
memory may supply. 

The last was almost a purely ecclesiastical dispatch : 
as I generally first take oflf my cap to the towers and 
turrets pf a cathedral. Now then for the stranger! 
* * for it would be cruel to prolong the agony of 
expectation. Mr. Lewis having occupied himself, 
almost exclusively, with his pencil during the whole 
morning, I persuaded him to accompany me to St. 
jAmp. After dinner we set out upon our expedition. 
It had rained in the interim, and every tree was 
charged with moisture as we passed them . . their 



360 BAYEUX. 



blossoms exhaling sweets of a yet more pungent fin* 
grance* The road ran in a straight line from the west 
front of the cathedral, which, on turning round, as we 
saw it irradiated by partial glimpses of sunshine, be- 
tween masses of dark clouds, assumed a very imposing 
and venerable aspect. I should tell you, however, 
that the obliging Monsieur # * * ♦ • came himself 
to the Hdtel de Luxembourg, to conduct us to his 
humble abode : for humble'' it is in every sense of the 
word. About two-thirds of the way thither, we passed 
the little church of St. Loup : a perlfect Gothic toy q{ 
the xiith century — ^with the prettiest, best-proportknied 
tower that can be imagined. It has a few slight cfan^ 
tered columns at the iTour angles, but its hdgfat and 
breadth are truly pigmy. The stone is of a wfaitish 
grey. We did not enter ; and with difficulty omdd 
trace our way to examine the exterior through the faigb 
grass of the church yard, yet Icdd with the heavy rain. 
What a gem would the pencil of Blorb make of this 
tiny, ancient, interesting edifice I At length we struck 
off, down a lane slippery with moisture — when, 
opening a large swinging gate — hevfi (exclumed our 
guide) — ^lived and died my father, and here his son 
hopes to live and die also. Gentlemen, yonder is my 
hermitage.*" On looking at it, 

... I said to myself if there's peace in the world, 
A heart that is humble might hope for it here. 

It was indeed a retirement of the most secluded kind : 
absolutely surrounded by trees, shrubs, hay-stacks, and 
corn-stacks — for Monsieur * • • * • hath a &ncy 
for fiuming as well as fbr reading. The stair-case, 



BAYEUX. 



361: 



though constructed of good hard Nonban stone, was 
much worn in the middle from the frequent tread of 
half a century. It was also &tiguingly steep, but 
biekily it was short. We followed our guide to the 
left^ where, passing through one boudoir-like apaet* 
ment, strewn with books and papers, and hung with 
tt'imrcel of mean ornaments called pictures, we en* 
tend a second — of which portions of the wainscoat 
were taken away, to shew the books which were de» 
posited behind. Row after row, and pile upon pile, 
•thick my wondering eye. Anon, a closet was opened 
-"T^und there again they were stowed, thick and three- 
Ibid/* A few small busts, and fractured vases, were 
meant to grace a table in the centre of the room. 0£ 
the books, it is but justice to say that rarity had been 
flBcrificed to utility. There were some excellent^ choice^ 
oiitical works : a good deal of Latin; some Greek, 
and a sprinkle of Hebrew — for Monsieur * * . * is 
both a general and a sound scholar. On pointing to 
HwAiganfs Hebrew Bibley in four folio volumes, 1712, 

do you think this copy dear at fourteen francs T ssuid. 
he I — " How, Sir,'* (i*eplied I, in an exstacy of as- 
tonishment) — ^you mean to say fourteen lauis ?** Not 
at all. Sir. I purchased it at the price jmit men-^ 
tioned, nor do I think it too dear at that sum,** re- 
sumed he, in the most unsuspecting manner. I then 
told him, as a sort of balsamic consolation, that a late 
friend (I alluded to poor Mr. Ormerod) rejoiced on 
giving £12. for a copy by no means superior. Ah, 
l&bon Dieu I • • •** was his only observation thereupon. 

When about to return to the boudoir, through whieh 
we had. entered^ I observed with mingled, surimae. and 



362 



BAYEUX. 



pleasure, the four prettily executed English prints^ 
after the drawings of Lady Spencer, called Ntw 
Shoes,'' — Nice Supper,'' &c. Monsieur ♦ • • ♦ was 
pleased at my stopping to survey them. Ce sont 
Uty Monsieur (observed he), les dames qui me font 
toujours compagnie — nor can you conceive the reatf 
soft and gentlemanly manner, accompanied by a voice 
subdued even to sadness of tone, with which he made 
this, and almost every observation. I founds indeed, 
from the whole tenor of his discourse, that he had a 
mind in no ordinary a state of cultivation : and on ob- 
serving that a great portion of his library was thbolo- 
-^iCAL, I asked him respecting the general subject 
upon which he thought and wrote. He caught hold of 
my left arm, and stooping (for he is much taller than 
myself, . . • which he easily may be, methinks I hear 
you add . .) Sir, said he, I am by profession a deigy- 
man . . although now I am designated as an ex-Curi* 
I have lived through the Revolution • • and may have 
partaken of some of its irregularities, rather, I shooU 
hope, than of its atrocities. In the general hue-and- 
cry for reform, I thought that our church was capabk 
of very great improvement, and I think so still. The 
part I took was influenced by conscientious motives, 
rather than by a blind and vehement love of reform ; 
but it has never been forgiven or forgotten. The esta- 
blished clergy of the place do not associate with me ; 
but I care not a forthing for that — since I have here 
(pointing to his books) the very best society in the 
world. It was from the persuasion of the clergy hav- 
ing a constantly-fixed eye upon me, that I told you I 
was watched . . when walking near the precincts of the 



BAYEUX. 



363 



eathedral. I had been seeking you during the whole 
of the office of ordination.** In rq>ly to my question 
about his archoeological researches, he said he was 
then occupied in writing a disquisition upon the Bay- 
emst Tapestry J in which he should prove that the Ahh6 
de la Rue was wrong in considering it as a perfonn- 
aoce of the xiith century. He is your great anti- 
quarian oracle'* — observed I. He has an over-rated 
rqratation** — replied he — " and besides, he is too hy- 
pothetical.** Monsieur # # * * • promised to send 
me a copy of his dissertation, when printed ; and then 
let our friend N * * ♦ be judge " in the matter of the 
Bayeux Tapestry.** From the open windows of this 
hermitage, into which the branches absolutely thrust 
thraiselves, I essayed, but in vain, to survey the sur- 
rounding country ; and concluded a visit of nearly two 
hours, in a manner the most gratifying imaginable to 
himest feelings. A melancholy, mysterious air, seemed 
yety however, to mark this amiable stranger, which 
bad not been quite cleared up by the account he 
bad given of himself. Be assured (said he, at part- 
ing) that I will see you again, and that every fiEicility 
■ball be afforded you in the examination of the Bayeux 
Tapestry. I have an uncle who is an efficient member 
of the corporation.** 

Never was a solitude more complete, nor were man- 
ners more mild than those of Monsieur 
and I returned through the orchard which his father 
bad planted, with sensations that it would be difficult 
to describe. On my way homeward, I called again 
upon M. Pluquet, an apothecary by profession^ but a 



364 



BAYEUX. 



book lover and a book Tender* in hifl beart. The 
•cene was ratber singular. Below, was bis Pharma- 
copeia ; above were bis bed-room and books ; with a 
broken would-be antique or two, in the cotirt^jrard, 
and in the passage leading thereto. My first visit 
had been hasty, and only as a wbetter to the second. 
Yet I contrived to see from a visitor, who was pre* 
sent, the desirable MS. of the vulgar poetry of Olivibb 
Basselin, of which I made mention to M. * • Tlie 
same stranger was again present. We all qoiedy 
left the drugs below for drugs of a diflferent de- 
scription above — books being called by the ancients, 
you know, the " Medicine of the Soul." We 
mounted into the bed-room. Two birds, in comically- 
wired cages, were suspended from the cieling, and 
warbling aloud. A sick child, of three years of age, 
lay in a crib, by the side of the bed of Monsieur and 
Madame Pluquet^ — ^the pillows of which were fnnged 
in a very fonciful manner. Opposite the side of the 
bed, were some few half dozen shelves, covered with 
books of all descriptions. M. Pluquet now opened 
his bibliographical battery upon us. Gentlemen (for 
M. Lewis was with me) you see, in this room, all 
the treasures in the world I possess : my wife— -my 

* He has ainoe established himself at Faris^ as a bookidier : and 
it is scarcely three months since I received a letter from him, in 
which he told me that he could no longer resist the more powerful 
impulses of his heart — and that the phials of physic were at length 
abandoned for the volumes of Verard and of Gouimont. My ftiendj 
Mr. Dawson Tnmerj who knew him at Bayeux^ has pordiased hooka 
of him at Paris. 



BAYEUX. 



365 



i^d— my books—my antiquities.** Here the child 
moaned somewhat piteously, crying out cher papa, 
veaez ici but the hard-hearted biliomaniacal iEsou- 
lapius continued — with a parenthetically pronounced 

soyez tranquille, mignon " — Yes, gentlemen, these 
nrt my treasures. I am enthusiastic, even to mad- 
ness, in the respective pursuits into which the latter 
branch out ; but my means are slender — and my aver-^ 
sion to my business is just about in proportion to my 
fondness for books. Examine, gentlemen, and try 
your fortunes.** 

I scarcely needed such a rhetorical incitement: 
but alas ! the treasures of M . Pluquet were not of a 
!nature quite to make one's fortune. I contrived, 
with great difficulty, to pick out something of a re- 
cherchS kind ; and expended a napoleon upon some 
scarce little grammatical tracts, chiefly Greek, printed 
by Stephen at Paris, and by Hervagius at Basil: 
among the latter was the Bellum grammcUicale of 
E. Hessus. M. Pluquet wondered at my rejecting the 
folios, and sticking so closely to the duodecimos ; but 
bad he shewn roe a good Ferard Romance or Eustace 
Proissart^ he would have found me as alert in running 
away with the one as the other. I think he is really 
the most enthusiastic book-lover I have ever seen: 
certainly as a Bibliopolist. We concluded a very ani- 
mated conversation on all sides : rendered more noisy 
by the notes of the canaries, (who raised their voices 
as we raised ours) and the squalling of the sick child^ 
who necessarily in turn became more clamorous as 
papa and mama refused to listen to its cries. M. 



366 



BAYEUX. 



Pluquet told me at parting that M. * * * had requested 
his uncle to facilitate our researches respecting the 
Chapter Library, and the Tapestry : that he had him*- 
self spoken to the adjoint of the mayor respecting 
the former, and that the Abb6 F^tit had been solicit- 
ed to promote my wishes in regard to the latter. 
Upon the whole, this was one of the most yariouriy 
and satisfactorily spent days of my *^ voyage biUio- 
graphique.'' 

On the morrow, the mysterious and amiable M. 
• • * was with me betimes. He said he had brought 
a basket of books, from his hermitage, which he had 
left at a friend's house, and he entreated me to come 
and examine them. In the mean while we had had 
not only a peep at the Tapestry, but Mr. Lewis 
had obtained pmnission to make a fec-simile of such 
portion of it as I might deem necessary for any par- 
ticular object in view. I had been introduced to the 
mayor, who is chief magistrate for life : a very Caesar 
in miniature. He received me stiffly, and appeared 
at first rather a priggish sort of a gentleman ; observ- 
ing that my countryman, Mr. Stothard,* had been 

* Mr. Stothard, Jun. This gentleman has completely finished his 
lAboiurs> in a manner which reflects equal credit upon the Societj of 
Antiquaries^ at whose expense his mission was performed^ and upon 
himself. His own account of the tapestry may be seen in the xxxth 
tolume of the Archsologia. It is brief, perspicuous, and satis&c- 
tory. His fac-simile is one half the size of the original 5 executed 
with great neatness and fidelity ; but probably the touches are a 
UiUe too artist-like or masterly. This invaluable drawing wiU be 
engraved and published by the same Society. 



BAYEUX. 



967 



afready there for six months^ upon the same errand^ 
and what could I want further?** A short reply 
served to convince him that it would be no abuse of 
an extended indulgence if he would allow anotter 
English artist to make a fiEU^-simile of a diflferent de- 
scription, from a very small portion only/* Permis- 
skm was then granted — the Tapestry unrolled — and 
down sat, or stood, or stooped, my graphic companion 
to commence and conclude his labours. Let us leave 
him awhile, hard at work, and continue the hooh-nar^ 
ratwe. 

In our way to M. ♦ * * **s friend, I called with 
him at the Abb^*s, with a view to get a sight of the 
Chapter Library. He was from home, but would re- 
turn in an hour. I then attacked the aforesaid basket 
— ruot of apples, or of flowers, but — of haohs : and from 
a few unimportant articles I selected a loose uncut 
(mark that !) copy of the Petit Bernards Ovid*s Meta- 
morphoses*, of which the generous Stranger begged 
my acceptance. What a pretty thing will Charles 
Lewis (thought I to myself) make of this book!** 
and so sapng I slipt it gradually, but in the face of 
all present, (mark that also!) into my large inner 
pocket. Meanwhile a young paysanne^ of the superior 
ordw, arrived with her cher ami ; who carried a gay 
china cup in one hand, and a slender cane in the 
other. Droll accompaniment! She had averytower- 
ing^^cauchoise ; and as it was market-day, was dressed 
in her best. A fourth gentleman next arrived; 
another friend of M. * * ♦ ♦'s. He had brought a 

* (kmsultthe MtUogrophical Decameron toL l.p. 181-8. 



BAYEUX. 



hd exemplaire*' of a Latin Testameni in a silk haiid-^ 
kerchief, and would I do him the &Yoar to accept* 
i»r I was absolutely "p6n6tr6.*' This foUowedits 
precursor into the self-same inner pocket. It was 
bound in blue morocco, and the outside decoration 
pttt me in mind of Count Hoym — simply because the 
arms of that distinguished Bibliomaniac were upon 
the coyer. 

The little book-assembly broke up, and the Stranger 
again accompanied me to the Abb6. Mofethan^afB* 
hour had clasped — but the Ahh€ was still invisibld*. 
The maid smiled as I repeated the question of his 
being at home, and I thought I saw the head of it' 
man peeping through the blinds of the parlour. Yotf 
shall quickly know why I am thus particular. This 
will never do, said I to my amiable companion : we 
will go at once to the Bishop.'* ^^Say not toe;** lie- 
replied. If you take me there, you will never obtain 
the object you have in view. Besides, lam an excom- 
municated man. . added he, smiling. He left me, to 
return with his basket of books under his arm to his 
beloved hermitage ; promising to see me once again be« 
fore my departure. I then went boldly towards the epis^ 
copal palace, and wrote a note in pencil to theBidiop 
at the porter's lodge, mentioning the name of M. Lair, 
and the object of my visit. The porter observed that 
they had just sat down to dinner — but would I ottH 
at three? It seemed an age to that hour; but at 
lei^h three o'clock came, and I was punctual to the 
milDUte. The recollection of a certain library attached 
to one of the most venerable and most magnificent of 
the cathedrals of our own countiy — and of which the 



BAYEUX. 



curators have always shewn a most liberal sense of its 
management^ as well as a just appreciation of its trea^ 
sores — has always inlBiamed my curiosity to take 
ar peep at C^aptft MStuoi^f wherever situated. I was 
immediately admitted into the premises, and even the 
htge mastiff seemed to know that I was not an un- 
expected visitor— for he neither growled, nor betrayed 
any symptoms of uneasiness. In my way to the bxl^ 
dience chamber I saw the crosier and robes which the 
Bishop had worn the preceding day, at the ceremony 
oi ordination, lying picturesquely upon the table : a 
good vignette (thought I to myself) for a history of 
the cathedral. The audience chamber was rather an 
d^nt one, adorned with Gobeleins tapestry, quite 
fresh, and tolerably expressive : and while my eyes 
were fastened upon two figures enacting the parts of 
an Arcadian shepherd and shepherdess, a servant came 
in and announced the approach of Monseignsur 
l*£vBQUB. I rose in a trice to meet him, between 
doubt and apprehension as to the result. The Bishop 
entered with a sort of body-guard; being surrounded 
by six or seven canons who had been dining with him^ 
and who peeped at me over his shoulder in a very 
ttgnificant manner. The flush of good cheer was 
▼ifttble in their countenances — but for their Diocesan, 
I must say that he is yet more interesting upon a 
fiuniliar view. He wore a close purple dress, but- 
toned down the middle from top to bottom. A cross 
hmng upon his breast. His countenance had lost 
nothing of its expression by the absence of the mitre, 
and he was gracious even to loquacity ! I am willing 
to hq)e that I was eq<ially prud^t and brief in the 



370 



BAYEIDL 



q>ecificatioii of the object I had in view. My retjiiest itbs 
as promptly as it was courteously granted. Yea wiD 
excuse my attending you in person ; (said the Bishop) 
but I will instantly send for the Abb£ F^tit^ who is cor 
librarian ; and who will have nothing to do but to wuit 
upon you, and fiEicilitate your researches." He then 
dispatched a messenger for the reluctant LitmriaBi 
and b^n a familiar chat respecting the sitnatkm 
and number of my Cures^' — ^the answer to which of 
eoorse did not require a catalogue raimmU. At tiie 
mention of this Abb6 F^tit, I pricked up my eai8~ 
but I had now only to thank the Bishop for his poUte* 
ness, and to wish him a good day. The Abb6 F^lit 
quickly arrived with two more, who came trotting 
after him — and enlivened by the jingling music of the 
library keys^ which were dangling from the Abb6*8 
fingers, I quickened my steps towards the Chapter 
library. 

: But I was resolved to catechise this said Abb6 for 
his indvility in not admitting me into his house after 
two repeated calls. While therefore we were posting 
thrbugh the transepts of the cathedral, or rather just 
as we had gained a confined passage, aft;er turning the 
key upon the north transept door, I began to prepare 
my string of interrogatories. My first question was 
perfectly a home thrust : Je vous dirai (replied he, 
very readily— just as the key of the Library door had 
been admitted into the wards of the lock, and looking 
at me at the same time rather archly, over his rig^t 
shoulder) je vous dirai pourquoi je ne vous ai pas 
admis chez moi, pour causer touchant la bibUoth^ue. 
^'6toit parce que j*ai bien apper^u que voire com* 



BAYEUX. 



871 



pagnon n*4toit pas Fhamme pour nous.** The reool- 
lection of the conversation near the cathedral^ the 
preceding day — as well as the whole conduct of M * * — 
immediately came across me . . and I asked no more 
questions. But the Ahh€ complaisantly, and even 
jocosely, added — " comme vons Stes bien avec Mon-i- 
seigneur L*£v6que, vous verrez tout ce qu*il vous font. 
Ah 9a, montons!'* This addition"* — ^together with 
a certain unaccountable magnetic influence, arising, 
I make no doubt, from the properties of the /uirni' 
iure above stairs*— entirely subdued all irritabilities, 
and I mounted a good deal quicker than my com* 
panions. 

We were no sooner, all four, fairly within the library, 
than I requested my chief conductor to give me a brief 
outline of its history. " Willingly*' he replied. " This 
library, the remains of a magnificent collection, of from 
30, to 40,000 volumes, was originally placed in the 
Chapter-house, hard by. Look through the window 
to your left, and you will observe the ruins of that 
building. We have here about 6000 volumes: but 
the original collection consisted of the united libraries 
of defunct, and even of living, clergymen — ^for, during 
the revolution, the clergy, residing both in town and 
coimtry, conveyed their libraries to the Chapter-house, 
as a protection against private pillage. Well ! in that 
same Chi^ter-house, the books, thus collected, were 
piled one upon another, in layers, flat upon the flow — 
reaching absolutely to the deling . . . and for ten long 
years not a creature ventured to introduce a key into 
the library door. The windows also were rigidly kept 
shut. At length the Revolutionists wanted lead for 



372 



BAYEUX. 



musket balls^ and they anroofed the chapter-house; 
/ with their usual dexterity. Down came the rain upon^ 

the poor books^ in consequence ; and when M. Moy- 
sant received the orders of government to examine 
this library^ and to take away as many books as he 
wanted for the public library at Caen ... he was abso-. 
lutely horror-struck by the obstacles which presented 
themselves ! From the close confinement of every door 
and window, for ten years, the rank and fetid odour, 
which issued therefrom, was intolerable. For a lull fort- 
night every door and window was left open for venti- 
lation, ere M. Moysant could begin his work of selec- 
tion. He selected about 5000 volumes only ; but the 
infuriated Revolutionists, on his departure, wantonly 
plundered and destroyed a prodigious number of the 
remainder • . et cnfin (concluded he) vous voyev. 
Monsieur, ce qu'ils nous out laiss^.** — ^You will give 
me credit for having listened to every word of such a 
tale. 

The present library, which is on the first floor, is 
apparently about twenty-five feet square. But what, 
think you, was the first curiosity which the Abb4 F^tit 
jdarted upon to shew me ? The Contes de la Fontaine 
in four folio volumes — as common a work (I had al- 
most said) as a penny roll. My cicerone was astonish- 
ed on hearing of its frequent occurrence with us ; — but 
I hastened to dispense with his services — ^under the more 
courteous toumure de phrase of giving him no fur- 
ther trouble, and began to cater for myself. On. re- 
marking that, of the jicta Sanctorum^ they had only 
20 volumes, — it is complete nevertheless,** was. the 
reply I A good sample of fitness for the pffice of Head 



liftirariaii/ f had not yet met with a diDgle copy of 
Hie Pohfglat Bible of Cardinal JGmeneSj and of course 
wil8 not mnch disappointed at finding it wanting here. 
Of Le Jajfs Polyglot there was, as nsual^ a very desi- 
rAble copy. The Abb6 made me observe the Xlllth. 
i^nme of the Gallia Christianay* in boards, remark- 
kig that it was of excessive rarity i* but I doubt this. 
On shewing me the famous volume of Sanctius or San-- 
ehez de Matrimonio SacramentariOy 1607, folio, the 
Abhi observed — that the author wrote it, standing 
with his bare feet upon marble.** I was well pleased 
with a vastly pretty illuminated ms. Missaly in a large 
thick quarto volume, with borders and pictures in good 
condition ; but did not fail to commend right hear- 
tily the proper bibliomaniacal spirit of M. F^tit in 
ha;ving reserved (or kept concealed) the second volume 
of Gering^s Latin Bible — being the first impression of 
the sacred text in France — ^when M. Moysant came 
armed with full powers to carry off what treasures he 
pleased. No one knows what has become of the first 
Y<dume, but this second is cruelly imperfect — contiun- 
ing about a dozen blank leaves to supply the place of 
those which were wanting. It is otherwise a fair copy. 
ITiere are scarcely any classics, and not three of the 
tvth century. Upon the whole, although it is almost 
a matter of conscienccy as well as of character, with me, 
to examine every thing in the shape of a library, and 
especially of a public one, yet it must be admitted that 

* the Gallia CAmiknur.J^A complete copy is of excesaiy^ rarity 
our own country, but not bo abroad. It is yet^ however, an imperfBCl 
wdfk. 

VOL. !• Z 



374 



BAYEUX, 



the collection under consideration is hardly worthy cf a 
second visit : and accordingly I took both a first aoda 
final view of it. The Ahh€ F^tit gsdned upon me madi 
before I took my leave. To say the truth, he is not 
only very good-looking, but very civil, and even isMr 
tious in his manner of shewing the book-lions. Why 
does an unchristian-like spirit of prejudice, in religMm 
matters, turn the milk of human nature into gall ? 

From the Cliapter I went to the Coulbgb Librabt. 
In other words, there is a fine public school, orLyce£, 
or college, where a gi*eat number of lads and young 
men are educated according to art.*' The buildiiig 
is extensive and well-situated : the play-ground is large 
and commodious ; and there is a well-cultivated gar- 
den tempting with forbidden fruit.** Into this gar- 
den I strolled in search of the President of the College, 
who was not within doors. I found lum in company 
with some of the masters, and with several young men 
either playing, or about to play, at skittles. On com- 
municating the object of my visit, he granted me an 
immediate passport to the library — mais. Monsieur, 
(added he) ce n*est rien : il y avoit autrefois quelque 
chose ; maintenant, ce n*est qu*un amas de livres tth 
communs.'* I thanked him, and accompanied the 
librarian to the Library ; who absolutely apologized 
all the way for the little entertainment I should receive^ 
There was indeed little enough. The room may be 
about eighteen feet square. Of the books, a great por- 
tion was in vellum bindings, in wretched condition. 
Here was Jaj/s Polyglot^ and the matrimonial Sane- 
tins again! There was a very respectable sprink- 
ling of Spanish and French Dictionaries ; some few not 



BATEUX. 



S7S 



WlMlljniidtskfMe Aldoses ; and the rare Lonvain edi 
tiM dt Sir Th&mas More's Works, printed iti 1566, fcK 
Mdw^ I too with horror-mingled regret, a frightfuUy 
imperfect copy of the Service of Bdyeu^ Cathedraly 
printed in the Gothic letter, upon vbllum. But the 
great cariosity is a small brass or bronze crucifix, 
aboiit nine inches high, standing upon the mantle- 
piece ; very ancient, from the character of the crown, 
which savours of the latter period of Roman art — and 
which is the only crown, bereft of thorns, that I ever 
saw upon the head of our Saviour so represented. The 
eyes appear to be formed of a bright brown glass. 
Upon the whole ; as this is not a book, nor a fragment 
of an old illumination, I will say nothing more about 
its age. I was scarcely three quarters of an hour 
in tbe library ; but was fully sensible of the politeness 
of my attendant, and of the truth of his prediction, 
that I Should receive little entertainment from an 
enmination of the books. 

Now then, my friend, it is high time that you should 
be introduced in proper form to the famous Bayei^x 
l^APasTRT. Let us leave, therefore, paper and print- 
ing, for linen and needle-work. It is unnecessary 
to communicate the hundred little things which oc- 
curred till Mr. Lewis had finished his laborious task, 

• ike rare Lowain edition of Sir Thofnat More*t Works, &c.] —There 
iMnre been bibliographers^ and there are yet knowing book-coUecton, 
who covet this editk>n in preference to the Leipsic impression of SirT. 
More*8 Works of 1 698 ; in folio. But this must proceed from sheer ob- 
stinacy or rather^ perhaps, from ignorance that the latter edition con- 
tains the Utopia — whereas in the former it is imaccountably omitted to 
be vquinfeed— which ftmigfathave been^ from various previous editions* 



376 



BAYEUX. 



after an iq)plicatioii of six or dght honrs^ for two tiic^ 
cessive momiDgfiu His labours are at an end, and 
they have been thoroughly successfuL I hope to carry 
with me, throughout France and Germany, this most 
maryellous fac-simile — stitch for stitch^ colour for co^ 
loiu*, size for size. Not that I would be understood to 
ujQder-rate the previous labours of Mr. Stothard, which 
are in truth equally admirable— only that they are of a 
different nature, and upon a more extensive scale. 
Know then, in as few words as possible, that this cele- 
brated piece of Tapestry represents chiefly the Invasion 
OF England by William the Conqueror, and the 
subsequent d^ath of Hait>ld at the battle of Hasr 
tings. It measoiea abpot S14 English feet in length, 
by about nineteen inchHiii width ; and is supposed to 
have been woiked under ^ particnlar superinten- 
danceand direction of Matilda» 4kit irifii of tiieCion- 
queror. It was formerly exclusively kept and exhi- 
bited in the Cathedral ; but it is now justly retained 
in the Town Hall, and treasured as the most precious 
relic among the archives of the city. TTiere is indeed 
every reason to consider it as on^ of the most valuable 
historical monuments, which France possesses. . It has 
also given rise to a gnat deal of archaeological discus^ 
i^ion. Montfoucon, Ducarel, and De La Rue, have 
come forward successively — ^but more especially the 
first and last : and Monkfoucon in particular has fiir 
voured the world with, oopper-^late representations of 
the whole. There are in fact several series of plates of 
portions of this needle-work ; but all those which I have 
seen are lamentably defective. Montfaucon's plates 
are generally much too small : and the more enlarged 



BAYEUX. 



377 



are too ornamental. It is right, first of all, that you 
should have an idea how this piece of tapestry is pre- 
served, or rolled up. You see it here, therefore, pre- 
cisely as it appears after the person who shews it takes 
off the cloth with which it is usually covered. 



378 



BAYEUX. 



A female unrolls and explains it to yoa. The first 
portion of the needle^work, representing the embassj 
of Harold, from Edward the Conf(^or to William 
Duke of Normandy, is comparatively much defeeed:-^ 
that is to say, the stitches are worn iaway^ and little 
more than the ground, or fine close linen cloth, remains. 
It is not far from the be^nning — and where the colour is 
fresh, and the stitches are, comparatively, preserved — 
that you see the Portrait of Harold which accom- 
panies this letter,* Nothing can be more true to the 
original. 

* See the Opposite Plats. In the original, this figure, which is 
upon horseback, is thus introduced — with the attendant pursohrants 
and dogs : but great liberties, as a nice eye will readily discern— eren 
upon this reduced scale — ^have been taken, when compared with the 
opposite fac-simile. The ensuing is a mere copy of the smaller suite 
from MontflEuicon } also in outline. 








BATEUX. 



879 



You are to understand that the^ stitches^ if they may 
be so called^ are threads laid side by side — and bound 
down at intervals by cross stitches^ or fastenings-^upon 
rather a fine linen cloth ; and that the parts intended 
to represent jiesh are left untouched by the needle. I 
obtained a few straggling shreds of the worsted with 
which it is worked. The colours are generally a faded 
or bluish green, crimson, and pink. About the last five 
feet of this extraordinary roll are in a yet more de- 
cayed and imperfect state than the first portion. But 
the designer of the subject, whoever he was, had an 
eye throughout to Roman art — as it appeared in its 
later stages. The folds of the draperies, and the pro- 
portions of the figures, are executed with this feeling : 
witness the following representation of one of the 
messengers of William. 



I admit that this is a mere copy of Montfaucon*s 
plate, and that, compared with the original, it is too 
sharp and brilliant — ^but you can hence judge pretty 




880 



accurately of the general character the origitaal. 
You may possibly like to have a further speoiiiieii or 
two : first of the Shipping , and secondly of the Arckitec- 
ture. Take th^^ and admit that they are very cniioas 
and very interesting performances of the age. 




BATEUX. 



S81 



: You will bbserve that, both at top and at bottom of 
the principal subject, there is a running allegorical 
ornament ;* of which I will not incur the presumption 
to suppose myself a successful interpreter. The constel-' 
lations, and the symbols of agriculture and of rural oc- 
cupation, form the chief subjects of this running orna- 
ment. All the inscriptions, as you have them above, are 
executed in capital letters of about an inch in length ; 
and upon the whole, whether this extraordinary and in- 
valuable relic be of the latter end of the xith,or of the 
banning or middle of the xiith century^ seems to me a 

* a running allegorical ornament,'] — Something similar may be seen 
Doand the border of the baptismal vase of St. Louis, in Millin*s Antp- 
qmUt Naiionales. A part of the border in the Tapestry is a represen- 
tation of subjects from ^sop*s Fables. 

f be of the latter end of the Xlth or of 4he beginning or middle of the 
Xllih century] — Of a monument^ which has been pronounced by one 
of our ablest antiquaries to be The noblest in the world relat- 
uie TO OUR OLD English History,*' (See Stukely's PaUtog, Britan, 
Number XI. 1746, 4to. p. 2-3) it may be expected that some archaeo- 
logical discussion should be here subjoined. Yet I am free to confess 
that, after the essays of Messrs. Gumey> Stothard, and Amyott> (and 
more especially that of the latter gentleman) the matter — as to the 
period of its. execution — ^may be considered as well nigh, if not 
wholly, at rest. These essays appear in the XVIIIth and XlXth 
vcdumes of the Archaeologia. The Abb^ de la Rue contended that this 
Tapestry was worked in the time of the second Matilda, or the Empress 
Hand, which would bring it to the earlier part of the xiith. centurjr. 
The antiquaries above mentioned contend, with greater probability, 
that it is a performance of the period which it professes to commemo- 
rate ; namely, of the defeat of Harold at the battle of Hastings, and 
consequently of the acquiring of the Crown of England, by conquest, 
on the part of WiUiam* This latter therefore brings it to the period 
of about 1066|t to 1088 — so that, after all, the di£Ference of opinion is 



388 



SAYEUX. 



matter of rather secondary consideration. Tbat it ik at 
once (boiTowing a word out of the bibliomaniacal to^: 

only Aether this Tapestrj be fiftyyean Mat, or younger Uma th^ 
lespective advocate contend. 

Mr. Gurney^s Essay is chiefly occupied by the IntcriptianM and St/A* 
iecU** These are faithfully specified ; as are the engravings of a few of 
the subjects to be seen on the banners. Mr. Gumey justly observes 
that " the prints we have of it, are very insufficient to convey any 
accurate idea*' of the original. He further calls the perfonoaiioi 
f an apologetical history of the claims of William to the Crown of 
England, and of the breach of faith and fall of Harold) and that it li 
a perfect and finished action/' Archsologia : voL xviii. p. d59.<-4lfr. 
Charles Stothard has an observation worth extracting. On coming 
(myB he) to that part of the tapestry where Harold is priscmer In the 
hands of Guy Earl of Ponthten, a most singular custom first pr e a e n t s 
itself in the persons of Duke William, Guy, and thehr people ; not 
only are their upper lips shaven, but nearly the whole of their heads, 
excepting a portion of hair left in front. It is from the striking con- 
trast which these figures fbnn with the messenger who is croiicl&^ 
before William, that it is evident he is a Saxon, and probably dis* 
patched from Harold. It is a curious circumstance in favour of tiie 
great antiquity of the Tapestry, that time has, I believe, handed down to 
UB no other representation of this most singular fashion, and itappears 
to throw new light on a fact, which has perhaps been mimmderstood: 
the report made by Harold*s spies, that the Normans were an army of 
priests, is well known. I should conjecture, from what appears in 
the tapestry, that their resemblance to priests did not so much arise 
fmn the upper lip being shaven, as from the circumstance of the 
complete tonsure of the back part of the head. The following pas- 
sage seems to confirm this coiyecture, and at the same time to prove 
the truth of the tapestry : 

Un des Engles que ot veus, 
To8 les Normans res et tondus 
Cuida que tot provoire feussent 
Et que messes eaater peussent 

LeRmm^ Rmt,f6L2SjL 



BAYEUX. 



388 



cabidarjr) unique and important^ must be considered as 
a pootion to be neither doubted nor denied. It is at once 

• How (oontinuefl Mr. StoChard) are we to reconcile these fiicts with 
ft conjecture that the tapestry might have been executed in the time of 
Ckury the Erst, when we are well assured that during the reign of 
UMit king the hair was wom so long, that it excited the anathemas of 
iiw ehurch Y* Archteologia ; vol. xix. p. 184, &c. 

But the most copious, particular, and in my humble judgment the 
most satisfiurtory, disquisition upon the date of this singular historical 
monument, is entitled Defence of the early AnOquiiff of the Boffem 
Tapestry,"* by Thomas Amyott, Esq. immediately following Mr. Slo^ 
ttard*s communication, in the work just referred to. it is at direct issue 
^rith all the hypotheses of the Ahbi de la Rue, and in my opinion the le^ 
fohsare triumphantly established. Whether the Normans or theEngUth 
worked it, is perfectly a secondary consideration. The chief objections^ 
lilben by the Abb^, against its being a production of the xith century, 
eonsists in, first, its not being mentioned among the treasures possessed 
by the Conqueror at his decease secondly, that, if the Tapestry, were 
deposited in the church, it must have suffered, if not have been anni- 
hilated, at the storming of Bayeux and the destruction of the Cathedral 
by fire in the reign of Henry I., A. D.'1106 : — ^thirdly, the silence of 
Wace upon the 8ubject,*»-who wrote his metrical histories nearly a cen* 
tarj after the Tapestry is supposed to have been executed." The 
latter is chiefly insisted upon by the learned Abb^; who, which erer 
diampion come off victorious in this archoeological warfiure, must 
•t any rate receive the best thanks of the antiquary for the methodical 
sod erudite manner in which he has conducted his attacks. 

At the first blush itcannot fail to strike us that the Abb^ de la Rue's 
positions are bW of a negative character; and that, accordingto the strict 
ndes of logic, it must not be admitted, that because such and such 
writers have not noticed a circumstance, therefore that drcumstam^ 
or event cannot have taken place. The first two grounds of objection 
have, I think, been fairly set aside by Mr. Amyott. As to the third 
olgection, Mr. A. remarks — But it seems that Wace has not only 
n6t quoted the tapestry, but has varied fimn it in a manner which 
{AOfes that he had never seen it. The instances given of thiaTariatiim 



384 



BAYEUX. 



an exceedingly curious document of the conjugal attach- 
ment, and even enthusiastic yeneration^ of MatHiDa^ 

tfe» bowerer, a little unfiNrtanate. The first of them is yery ndanpor- 
taiit» for the difference merely consists in placing a figure at the iierm 
instead of the prow of a ship^ and in giving him a bow instead of.a 
trumpet. From an authority quoted by theAbb^ himself, it appean 
thatj with regard to this latter fiict, the Tapestry was rights and Wace 
was wrong : and thus an argument is unintentionally furnished in 
fimmr of the superior antiquity of the Ti^^estiy. The second instance 
of Tariation, namely, that relating to Taillefer's sword, may be easily 
dismissed ; since, after all, it now appears, from Mr. Stothard*s ezami- 
Mtion that neither Taillefer nor his sword is to be (bund in the 
Ti^wstry,*' &c. But it is chiefly from the names of JSlfgtta and Wa* 
oaan, inscribed over some of the figures, that I apprehend the oondu* 
sioQ in &vour of the Tapestry's being nearly a contemporaneous 
pioduction, may be safely drawn. 

It is quite dear that these names belong to perstms living when the 
work was in progress, or within the recollection of the woricers, and 
that they were attached to persons of some particular note or celebrity^ 
or rather pertiaps of local importance. An eye-witness, or a con- 
temporary only would have introduced them. They would not have 
lived in the memory of a person, whether mechanic or historian> whd 
lived a centunf after the event. No antiquary has yet fieurly approt 
priated these names, and more especially the second. It follows 
therefore that they would not have been introduced had they not beea 
in existence at the time ; and in confirmation of that of Wadakd, it 
seems that Mr. Henry Ellis (Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries^ 

confirmed Mr. Amyott*s conjecture on that subject, by the references 
with which he furnished him to Domesday^ Book, where his name 
occurs in no less than six counties, as holding lands of laige extent 
under Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, the tenant in capite of those propertiss 
ftom the crown. That he was not a guard or centinel, as the Abb^ de 
la Rue supposes, but that he held an office of rank in the household of 
either William or Odo, seems now decided beyond a doubt.** Mr 
Amyott thus spiritedly concludes alluding to the successful comple- 
tkm of Mr. Stothard's ciopy cif the entire original ndi.— Yet if the 



BAYBUX. 



and a political record of more weight tlian may. at first 
fligbt appear to belong to it. I suspect that^in paiatiDg 
as well as in poetry, a little fiction is mixed up with 
the truth ; but taking it altogether none but itsdf 

Baybux TAFBtsTRT be not history of the first class, it is perhaps some- 
ttdog better. It exhibits general traits, elsewhere sought in vain, of 
the costume and manners of that age^ which, of all others, if we ei^- 
cept the period of the Reformation, ought to be the most interesting 
to us ; — that age, which gave us a new race of monarchs, bringing with 
them new landholders, new laws, and almost a new language*' . . . 

Most sincerely therefore do I congratulate the Society on possessing 
a fiiithful and elegant copy of this matchless relic, affording at once 
a testimonial of the taste and liberality of our Council, and of the dili- 
gence and skill of our artist/' 

Mr. Amyott has subjoined a delightful specimen of his own poetiod 
powers in describing " the Minstrel Taillepbr's achievements,'* fai 
die battle of Hastings, from the old Norman lays of Gaimar and Wao^. 
lam hfilf tempted to subjoin it ; but can ofnly find room for the first few 
verses. The poem is entitled. 

The Onset of Taillsfkr. 

Foremost in the bands of France, 
ArmM vrith hauberk and vrith lance. 
And helmet glittering in the air. 
As if a warrior knight he were, 
Rush'd forth the Minstrel Taillbfbr 
Borne on his courser swift and strong. 

He gaily bounded o'er the plain. 
And raised the heart-inspiring song 
(Loud echoed by the warlike throng) 

Of Roland and of Charlemagne, 
Of Oliver, brave peer of old. 

Untaught to fly, unknown to yield. 
And many a Knight and Vassal bokl, 
Wh^se hallowed blood, in crimson flood. 

Dyed /iMKrm//^ field. 



986 



BAYEUX. 



loan be its pamllel.^ I have learnt^ evm here^ c(f 
what importance this tapestry*roli was considered in 
the time of Buonaparte's threatened invasion of oinr 
coahtry : and that, either after, or befon^ displaying it 
at Paris for two or three months, to awaken the curio- 
sity and excite the love of conquest among the dti-^ 
sens, it was conveyed to one or two sea-port townsi 
and exhibited upon the stage as a most important nm- 
iiriel in dramatic effect. Whether, at such a sight, the 
soldiers shouted — and, drawing their glittering swords. 

Clashed on their sounding shields the din of war, 

•--confident of a second representation of the same 
subject, by a second subjugation of our country — ^isa 
point which has not been exactly detailed to me ! But 
the supposition may not be considered very violent^ 
when I inform you that I was told, by a casual Frbnch 
visitor of the Tapestry, that — *^ pour cela, si Bonaparte 
avoit eu le courage, le r^sultat auroit ^t6 comme autre- 
fois." Matters however have taken rather a different 
turn ; and instead of all the notable duchesses and 
countesses of Paris,* sitting down to display the pro- 
gress and the prowess of their needles, to commemorate 

* M. Denon told me, in one of my visits to him at Paris, that by 
the commands of Bonaparte, he was chai^ged with the custody of this 
Tapestry for three months : that it was displayed in due form and cere- 
mony in the Museum and that after having taken a hasty sketch of it, 
(which he admitted could not be considered as very faithful) he le- 
torned it to Bayeux— as it was considered to be the peculiar property 
of that place. 



BAYEUX 



« aeoond conquest of the same country by a seoond 
tapestry roU — I would advise tbon^ as a sabject for 
a reverse to the present, to embody, in suitable 
stitches and tints, the poor solitary intended pillar of 
nraiuifPH upon the heights near Boulogne, with the 
rotting gun-boats and deserted corvettes, in picturesque 
groups around ! . . . and instead of Caesar's memoraUe 
threo-worded designation of victory, to substitute a 
motto a little more lengthy, but not quite so pleasant: 

" VOLUI SBD NON POTUI.** 

And now, my dear friend, I think you have had a 
pretty good share of Bayeux intelligence ; only that I 
ought not to close my despatches mthout a word or 
two relating to habits, manners, trade, and population. 
This will scarcely occupy a page. The men and wimea 
here are thoroughly Norman. Stout bodies, plump 
countenances, wooden shoes, and the caucb<nse— evento 
eKceedingly tall copies of the latter ! The pppulatioii 
may run hard apon ten thousand. The chief articles 
of commerce arc butter and lace. Of the former, there 
are two sorts : one, delicate and well flavoured, is made 
during winter and spring ; put up into small pots, and 
carried from hence in huge paniers, not only to all the 
immediately adjacent parts of the country, but even to 
P^uis — and is shipped in large quantities for the coUk 
nies. They have made as much as 120,0001b. weight 
each season; but Isigny, a neighbouring viUage, is 
rather the chief place for its production. The other 
sort of butter, which is eaten by the common pec^le, 
and which in fact is made throughout the whole of 
Lower Normandy, (the very butter, in short, in which 
the huge alase was floating in the. pot of the lively 



38B 



BAYEUX. 



coifiin^re at Dnchdr*) is also chiefly made at hig^f; 
but instead of a delicate tint, and a fine flavour, it 
is very mnch the contrary : and the mode of middng 
and transporting it accords with its qualities. It k 
saked, and packed in lai^ pots, and even barrels, fior 
the sake of exportation ; and not less than 50,0001b. 
iragfat is made each week. The whole profit arising 
fimn butter has been estimated at not less than two 
millions of francs: add to which, the circulation of 
specie kept up by the payment of the workmen, and 
the purchase of salt. As to lace, there are scarcely fewer 
than three thousand females constantly employed ia 
the manu&cture of that article. 

With respect to agricultural pursuits, in the vicinity 
of Bayeux, it may be fitting that you should know 
that lime is a most important article of profit* It hi 
used equally for manure and for building. The softer 
Hme is appropriated to the former, the harder to the 
latter purpose ; and both sorts are burnt either with 
wood or coal. The kilns, where coal is used, are built of 
a conical form, of which the interior is about five, and 
the exterior about fourteen, French feet in diameter: 
the depth is about eighteen feet. Each kiln at a working 
consumes about two hundred bushels of coal. The other 
kilns are nearly of the same depth, and always of the 
same diameter. Without reckoning those who are em- 
ployed in hewing and drawing the stone, each kiln 
employs twenty men, and it is filled about one hundred 
times in the course of the year, yielding about seventy- 
five tons of lime in the same period. One hundred 
weight of lime is sold for about one franc and a half: 

• ^ See page 194. ante. 



BAYEUX. 



3» 



a treasure^ wluch, if obtainable at the same price in 
our own country^ would make the farmers jump for joy. 

The mechanics here^ at least some of them, are equally 
civil and ingenious. In a shop, in the high or principal 
street, I saw an active carpenter, who had lost the 
fore finger of his right hand, hard at work — alternately 
whistling and sin^ng—overaprettypieceof ornamental 
furniture in wood. It was the full face of a female^ 
with closely curled hair over the forehead, surmounted 
by a wreath of flowers, having side curls, necklace, and 
platted hair. The whole was carved in beech, and 
the form and expression of the countenance were 
equally correct and pleasing. This merry fellow had 
a man or two under him, but he worked double 
tides^ compared with his dependants. I interrupted 
him sin^ng a French air, perfectly characteristic of the 
taste of his country. The title and song were thus: 

TOUJOURS. 
TwjJovMB, ioiyoun, je te serai fiddle ; 
Disait Adolphe k chaque instant du jour ; 
Toijyours, totyours je t'aimenti^ ma belle> 
Je veux le dire aux ^chos d*alentour 
Je graverai surl'^rce d'un h^tre, 
€e doux serment que le dieu des amours, 
Vient me dieter, en me fkisant connaitrej 
Que mon bonheur est de t'aimer toujours. Bit. 

Toujours, toiyours, lui r^pondit Ad^le, 

Tu r^neras dans le fond de mon coeur ; 

Tovyours, toujours, com me une tourtereUe, 

Je promets bien t*aimer avec ardeur^ 

Je pense k toi quand le soleil se Vbve, . t ■ , 

J*y pense encore k la fin de son cours ; 

Dans le sommeil si quelquefois je rive, 

C*e8t au bonheur de te<^rirCoii(jom. *^'' 



aoo: 



BAYEUX; 



Feia robiiet de mes pins tendres vceuz^ 
Toi^jours, toiyours, je garderai loin d'dle 
Le souvenir de sea traits radieux. 
Dans ses beaux yeux V^us a son empire, 
Sa douce voix commande les amours ; 
Un baiser d'elle, excitant k d^lire. 
Me fidt jurer de la chMr Unyours. 

The craft he exercised is now lost^ as a distinct branch 
of business, in our own coantry. He was a carver on 
wainscoat wood : and if I would give myself la peine 
d^entrer,** he would shew me all sorts of curiosities. I 
secured a fovourable reception, by purchasing the 
little ornament upon which he was at work — for a na- 
poleon : and this ornament, if I can manage well, shall 
be transported to England as soon as I reach P^ris. I 
followed the nimble mechanic (ci-devant a soldier in 
Bonaparte's campaigns, from whence he dated the losr 
of his finger) through a variety of intricate passages 
below and up stairs ; and saw, above, several excel- 
lently well finished pieces of furniture, for drawers or 
clothes-presses, in wainscoat wood: — the outsides of 
which were carved sometimes with clustered roses, 
surrounding a pair of fond doves ; or with represen- 
tations of Cupids, sheep, bows and arrows, and all the 
various emblemata of the tender passion. They would 
have reminded you of the old pieces of furniture which 
you found in your grandfather's mansion, upon taking 
possession of your estate : — and indeed are of th&ak- 
selves no despicable ornaments in their way. I was 
asked from eight to twelve napoleons for one of these 
pieces of massive and elaborately carved furniture, 
some six or seven feet in height. 



BAYEUX. 



391 



Nowfiu% you well. To have seen the Bayeux Tapb^- 
TRY is a requital for all my sufferings at sea^ and all 
my tours and detours by land. But^ in other respects, 
this is a town well deserving of greater antiquarian re- 
search than appears to have been bestowed upon it ; 
and I cannot help thinking that its ancient ecclesias- 
tical history is more interesting than is generally ima- 
gined. Informer days the discipline and influence of its 
.See seem to have been felt and acknowledged through- 
out nearly the whole of Normandy. Agsdn adieu. In 
imagpination/ the spires of Coutancbs Cathbdral 
beg^n to peep in the horizon. First, however, for St. 
Lo. 



VOL. I. 



A a 



393 



LETTER XVIL 

BAYEUX TO C0UTANCE8. ST. LO. ADVENTURE AT ST. 
GILLBS. THE CATHEDRAL OF C0UTANCB8. ENVI- 
RONS. AQUEDUCT. MARKET-DAY. PUBLIC LIBRARY. 
ESTABLISHMENT FOR THE CLERGY. 

I SEND you this despatch close to the very Cathe- 
dral, whose spires, while yet at Bayeux, were already 
glimmering in the horizon of my imagination. The 
journey hither has been in every respect the most 
beautiful and interesting that we have experienced on 
this side the Seine. We have seen something like 
undulating pasture-lands, wooded hills, meandering 
streams, and well-peopled villages ; and an air of gaiety 
and of cheerfulness, as well as the charm of picturesque 
beauty, has accompanied us from one cathedral to 
the other. 

We left the Hdtel de Luxembaurgy at Bayeux, in a 
hired cabriolet with a pair of horses^ about five in the 
afternoon, pushing on, at a smart trot, for Sr. Lo: 
which latter place we entered by moon-light. It was 
delightful to witness the gradual decay of day, as we 
passed through the extended forest of Cermf ; now in 
full luxuriance of foliage. The road, as usual, was 
broad and bold, and at times undulating; flanked 
by beech, elm, and fir. As I just observed to you, 
we entered St. Lo by moon-light : the double towers 



ST. LO. 



393 



of the great cathedral-like looking church, having 
a grand and even romantic effect, as we approached 
the town. An old castle, or rather a mere round- 
tower relic of one, appeared to the left, upon entering 
it. We passed the porch, or west end of the church, 
sometimes descending, at others ascending — midst 
close streets and overhanging roofs of houses, which 
cast a deep and solemn shadow, so as to shut out 
the moon beams for several hundred yards — and pur- 
suing our winding route, we at length stopped at 
the door of the principal hdtel — au Grand Coij ! We 
laughed heartily when we heard its name ; for with 
the strictest adherence to truth the adjective ought 
to have been petit ! It was one of the dingiest and 
smallest at which we had yet stopped ; a degree only 
superior to that of which such honourable mention was 
made in the account of Caudebec* 

However, we were shewn up stairs ; and the best 
front bed rooms were assigned to us. They were tole- 
rably large. The beds seemed to be in good order, and 
the coffee, with which we were quickly served, proved 
to be excellent. We strolled out, on a reconnoissance, 
about half-past nine ; but owing to th^ deep shadows 
from the moon, arising from the narrowness of the 
streets, we could make out nothing satisfactory of the 
locale. The church, however, promised a rich treat on 
the morrow. As soon as that morrow came, Mr. Lewis 
sprang mth his accustomed alertness from his bed, 
and betook himself to the occupations of his pencil. 
It was Sunday morning. The square, before the 

* See page 206, ante. 

1 



394 BAYEUX TO COUTANCES. 

west front of the church, was the rendezvous both of 
townsmen and countryfolks. How was I defighted 
and surprised, when, on his returning to break- 
fast, he exhibited a sketch,— of which you have here 
the finished picture! It is a charlatan vending 
powder for the effectual polishing of metals. He has 
just beaten his dram, which you see by the side of him, 
in order to collect his audience ; and having got a good 
assemblage, is full of the virtues of his wares — ^which 
are pronounced to be also equally efficacious for 
colmplaints in the stomach r 



ST. LO. 



305 



This man had been preceded^ in the situation which 
he occupied, by a rival vendor, upon horseback, with 
powders to kill rats. The latter stood upon the same 
eminence, wearing a hat, jacket, and trowsers, all white 
— ^upon which were panted hlack rats of every size 
and description ; and in his harangue to the populace 
he took care to tell them that the rats, painted upon 
his dress, were exact portraits of those which had been 
destroyed by means of his powders ! This, too, on a 
Sunday morning. But remember Dieppe.* For a 
wonder, I had risen time enough to take a turn before 
breakfast; when I paid my respects to the Cur^^ or 
minister of the church, in order to make enquiries about 
a Chapter Library. For the first time, since I trod upon 
GalBc ground, I found a clean, well-dressed, closely 
shiivm, and respectable looking clergyman, of a Sunday 
i^imiiiig. Note well, he had resSded several years in 
£nglaiid as an emigrS. Such is th» force of habit. He 
M0eived and treated me with that chrility whidi one 
ideman should always shew to amlber ; and thoagh 
^library, guch as I enquired after^ was in existr 
%y I had reason to be well satisfied with my yisii. 
the residMM 4>f the Cur6, (still before bveak&st) 
nut the pitfect, or chief superintetodant, df 
ihife Bfttel de Ville, in order to ezamuw the public U- 
brary there. Although he was not al home, an entire 
i^t ranger, and acddental looker on, told me he would 
me where the key oonU be readily pto^ 
kn, equaHy gratified and surprised at this po- 
Hte oflfer, I accepted it, and followed my man'' down 



* See page 90, ante. 



396 BAYEUX TO C0UTANCE8. 



one street and ap another ; till, having obtained the 
wished-for keys, I was shewn, by a second stranger, the 
library in question. 

It is certainly a most unostentatlons affidr^ A room, 
scarcely seventeen feet square, contains the library at- 
tached to the H6tel de Ville. Here I saw confiunon 
of every description. Imperfect duplicates ; piled up 
volumes of obsolete divinity, and neglected canon-law. 
Two copies of Le Jai/s Polyglot Bible had a singular 
i^pearance in this straitened collection : but there was 
nothing exactly to my palate (hungry as I then was) 
saving an early Boecius, a good copy oi Aldoses Qtem- 
tUian of 1514, and a black letter edition of the. GrimJ 
Coustumier de Normandie. The books, however^ had 
suffered dreadfully during the Revolution. I thanked 
my Cicerone for his obliging attention, and sought the 
oofiee and eggs of the Hdtel du Grand Coq, with the 
best possible disposition to do them justice. I found 
Mr. L. ready to receive me — ^putting a few finishmg 
touches to the characteristic drawing of which J have 
just made mention. Having dispatched our break- 
.fiusts, we proceeded to survey the church — ^from which 
the town takes its name. And first for the es(tarior 
of this edifice. The attached towers demand atten- 
tion and admiration. They are so. slightly attached 
as to be almost separated bom the body or nave.; 
forming something of that particular character which 
obtains more decidedly at the cathedral of Coutances. I 
am not sure whether this portion of the church at St. 
Lo be not preferable, on the score of regularity and den 
licacy, to the similar portion at this latter place. The 
west firont is indeed its chief beauty of exterior attrac- 



ST. LO. 



397 



tion ; and it was once rendered doubly interesting by a 
profesion of alto-relievo statues, which disappeared 
during the commotions of the revolution. You ascend 
rather a lofty flight of steps to this entrance ; and into 
which the whole town seemed to be pouring the full 
tide of its population. We sufiiered ourselves to be 
canned away along Mrith the rest, — and were qiuckly 
separated from each other. 

I almost startled as I entered the nave.* To the 
left, is a horribly-painted statue of the Virgin, with the 
child in her arms. The countenance is even as ugly, 
old, and repulsive, as the colouring is niost despicable. 
I never saw such a daub : and what emotions, con- 
nected with tenderness of feeling, or ardour of de- 
Totioti, can the contemplation of such an object 
excite? Surely the parish must have lost its witSy b» 
weU as its taste, to endure such a monstrous exhibit 
tioB of art. 

As I advanced towards the choir, I took especial 
notice of the very singular, and in my opinion very 
Qgly, formation both of the pillars and arches which 
snstain the roof. These pillars have no capitals^ and 
'the arch springs from them in the most abrupt man* 
ner^ The arch itself, is also very short and sharp 
pointed ; like the tops of lancet Mdndows. This mode 
obCuns pretty generally here ; but it should foe noted 
iSM, in the right feide aisle, the pillars have capitals, 
lliefe 18 something unusual also in the row of pil- 
lars which spring up, flanking the choir, half way 

* M. Coiman has a view of this church ; as annoimced in his Pr»- 
q>ecttt8. 



398 BAYEUX TO €OUTANCES. 



between the walls of the choir and the outward wall 
of the church. Nor am I sure that, destitate of a 
^ceful, superadded arch, such massiye perpendiculai^ 
Imes have either meaning or effect. Whether St. Lo 
were the Jirst church upon which the architect^ who 
built both that and tlie cathedral at Coutances, tried 
his talents — or whether, indeed, both churches be the 
effort of the same hand — I cannot pretend to d^er- 
mine ; but, both outwardly and inwardly, these two 
churches have a strong resemblance to each other. 
Like many other similar buildings in France, the 
church of St. Lo is closely blocked up by the sur- 
rounding houses. 

On descending the flight of steps by which I had en- 
tered, I turned to the right, and inquired the price of 
some plaister images of the Virgin, coloured, about 
three feet high, and intended as ornaments for churches. 
I was asked foi-ty francs for one, which I thought a 
Sufficiently extravagant price for such an article.' We 
prepared to leave St. Lo about mid-day, aft^ agredng 
for a large heavy machine, with a stout pair <^ horses, 
fo conduct us to this place. Hiere are some curious 
old houses near the inn, with exterior ornaments like 
those of the xvith century in our own countiy. But 
on quitting the town, in the road to Coutances, — after 
you come to what we called the old castle walls, on 
passing the outer gate— your eye is struck by rather 
an extraordinary combination of objects. The town 
itself seems to be built upon a rock. Above, below, all 
appears like huge scales of iron; while, at the bottom, 
in a serpentine direction, runs the peaceful and fruitlul 



BAYEUX TO COUTANCES. : 309 



river Awre.* The country inixn^ately arotind abouncte 
hi verdant pasture, and luxuriantly wooded heights. 
Upon the whole, our sortie from St. Lo, beneath a 
bright blue sky and'a meridian sun, was extreme^ 
ibieerfnl and gratifying. 

A hard rdad (but bold and broad, as usual) soon con- 
vinced us of the uncomfortableness of our conveyance ; 
which, though roomy, and of rather respectable appear^ 
ance, wanted springs. Add to this, the post-boy gravely 

* * the peaceful and fruUful river ^tcrtf.]— -I suspect tliat the pe8oet 
Ml' waters of this stream were frequently died with the blood of Bxh 
gOQOts and Roman Catholics during the fierce contests between MoNTr 
OOMSRY and Matignon towards the latter half of the sixteenth cen* 
tmy. At that period St. Lo was one of the strongest towns in die 
Socage ; uid the very pass above described, waS the avenue by whid^ 
Hie soldiers of the captains just mentioned, alternately advanced and 
retreated in their respective attacks upon St. Lo; which at length sui^ 
rendmd to- the victorious army of the latter; the leader of the Cathor 
Hcs* Le nom de Matignon devint alors c^lbbre dans toute TEurope. 
On toivit lliistoire de ses expeditions au Bocage, et elle fut imprimie 
^ Paris chez Ruffet. Les Peuples chantaient 1^ louanges dans plusi^ufii 
diansons dont je rapportend quelques couplets : 

At premier imtr de Mai par permissian divine, 
Saixt Lo /If/ asiailli d cwpt de couleuvrinee, 
Somme qi^on e^U petui que tout yfut nuh 
Et cendre coruumi. 
Matigwon y itait et ea Gendarmerie, 
Rempan, CUrel, auui Agneawe, Ste-Marie 
Qui iOM ceue disait Cohmbiires, rend§4tn 
Au grand Charles ton Roi 
Ou tu perdroi la vie, 
ColombUrei r^fond tout rempii de/Me 
De me rendre en poltron qtion ne me parte mye. 
Jamais ne me rendrai 
J^y veua perdre la vie. 
^ Sieum : Hi^oire Jimaire dee Boeam t p. d4(K384 : mS, \3m^ 



40a BAYEUXTOCOUTANCES. 



told 08 that he could not venture npon putting hi8 
horses beyond the speed of ;^mr miles an hoiir^ (and it 
was upwards of 12 miles to Coutances) as be bad to 
return to St. Lq the same evenings Complaint and 
vexation were equally unavailing : so we gaaed around 
uSj and having got into a country of rich verdure and 
variegated scen^^ we endeavoured to forget the occar 
sional jolts and inconveniences of our vehicle. We 
approached a pretty village ; in the centre of whidi a 
church stood by the road side. It was the village of 
St. GiiJiBs; to which saint the church is dedicated. 
This was too tempting an object to forego the visita^ 
tion of it. Our time was oor own ; and both the garden 
and the sturdy Norman horses, which he drove so ki-' 
smrdy along, were also at our command. Arretez :** 
and in five seconds we were within the church — a dr»» 
ry, deserted, and unomamented building ; but yet an* 
dent. Somebroken fragments ofsculpture were thrown 
about in obscure places — but what is that yonder T 
observed I to my companion. A more interesting mor- 
ceau^— and clearly of the time of Francis I. — I had not 
seen. It was a dead Chiist in the lap of his mother, 
each without head and feet. Mr. Lewis took a small 
and hasty sketch of it, and we both agreed that a more 
interesting and perfect specimen of the scu^ture of that 
time had not been seen by us. It was lodged npon a 
stone shelf, or projection from the wall, and might be 
about two feet in height. 

The more I examined it, the greater was my admira- 
tion. Let us see if we cannot obtmn it.** So wjin% 
— (leaving Mr. L. to make further sketches) I quitted 
the church, and enquired for theresidenceof Monsieur 



ST. GILLES. 



401 



JLe Cut6. His house was completely a rural hermitage ; 
half smothered with the blossoms of trees of various 
descriptions. The good man bad dined^ and was di-r 
gesting his potage by a stroll in his garden. He was 
decently attired ; and looked with more than ordinary 
surprise at the intrusion of an English stranger* In 
three minutes I told my tale. Without making the 
least objection, or even observation, he looked around 
him, and replied coolly — A 9a, mais il font mettre 
les sabots, parceque le hameau est un peu crott^ h 
cause de la pluie qui vient de tomber.** So the worthy 
Cur6 put on his wooden shoes, surmounted with a 
coarse skin, and we both trotted along together to^ 
wards the church-door, where stood the voiture and 
the aforesaid sturdy Norman horses.** It was quite 
a sight for the villagers ; who, by this time, had 
assembled to the number of fifty at least, around the 
carriage, Que vent dire tout ceci "? — was the obser* 
vation of more than one of the spectators. We ap» 
preached; and I was delighted to see the general 
attention paid to the clergyman by the respectful 
manner of their salutation. Under such a convoy I 
considered myself quite safe, and even b^fan to think 
I might be successful in the object for which I had 
InnDught him thither. But nothing could be done 
without the sub-mayor. It concerned the parish at 
large ; and they must be consulted. What is the sum 
you propose giving for this fragment " Two louis,** 
-'--replied I, with the utmost dedsioii and promptitude. 

A 9a, voyons.** The sub^mayor was sent for. He 
was not fyr off; — in an auberge, which we should 
call a common pot-house. On his arrival the wor- 



MB BAYEUX TO COUTANCES. 



thy Cur^y reusing his Voice^ addressed the magistrate 
wad the ' people^ — ^now much increased in number-^ 
and stated the object and the wishes of MonsiAair 
TAnglois, voyageur antiquaire/* I then claimed a nio* 
menfs attention^ and urged the reasonableness of my 
proposal—to which^ as they appeared to listen^ I Mt 
^considerable gratification . . . inasmuch as my Freilch 
^pras endured. 

The people looked at each other and siud nothing. 
In the midst of this general wonder^ Mr. I». surveyed 
us all with the iiitelligent eye of an artist, and dectered 
that he had never seen so very singular and novel ^ 
«cene. His pencil was beginning to be exercised'; 
When Messieurs Le Cnr6 and Sous-maire consulted 
apart — and turning round to me, concluded by observ- 
ing — " vous pouvez bien partir : nous y aviserons ; et 
t6us aurez des nouvelles li-dessus.** I requested, if they 
agreed, that the marble might be sent to Pierre-Aimi 
Lair at Caen ; who would receive intelligence frbmme 
upon the subject, and would be authorised to pay the 
two louis as soon as the packet should arrive. We 
mounted our voiture, apparently in the best posrible 
humour with each other: and bidding a thousand 
adieus, pushed on for this place. I am very sanguine 
— ^firom the good-humoured expression of countenance 
of the Cur6 and Sub-mayor, after they had chatted 
apart — that the affair will terminate agreeably to my 
wishes.* 

The reflection upon this whimsical adventure, toge- 

* Not a syllable of intelligence has since reached me upon the sub- 
ject. The fragment is however worth a eontre*p(r&iei. 



COUTANCES. 



406 



ther with the mcreasing beauty of the countiy^ kept 
our attention perfectly occupied — so as almost to forget 
ibai the voitare was without springs — ^till the beautiftd 
cathedral of Coutances caught our notice^ upon an 
elevated ground, to the left. The situation is truly stri- 
king, gaze from which quarter you please ; but from 
that of St. Lo, the immediate approach to the town is 
rendered very interesting from the broad route royale 
lined with birch, hazel, and beech. The delicacy, or 
perhaps the peculiarity of the western towers of the 
cathedral, struck us as singularly picturesque ; while 
the whole landscape was warmed by the foil efiulgeiice 
oi an unclouded sun, and animated by the increasing 
numbers and activity of the paysannes and bourgeoises 
mihghng in their sabbath-walks. Thdr bright daHc 
blues and crimsons were put on upon the occasion ; 
and nought but peace, tranquillity, and fruitlulness 
seemed to prevail on all sides. It was a scene wherein 
you might have placed Arcadian shepherds — ^worthy 
ci being copied by the pencil of Claude. 
. We entered the town at a sharp trot. The postillion, 
flourishing his whip, and causing its sound to re-echo 
through the principal street, upon an ascent, drove to 
the chief inn, the Hdtel dAngleterre, within about 
one hundred yards of the cathedral. Vespers were just 
over; and I diall not readily forget the rush and 
swarm of clergymen who ' were pouring out, from 
the north door, and covering the street with one ex* 
tensive black mass. Hiere could not have been t&wef 
than two hundred young Ecclesiastics — ^thus return- 
ing from vespers to their respective homes ; or rather 
to the CoU^, or great deriral establishment, bard 



404 



COUTANCE8. 



by ; which having sufiered from violencie atid mgkdtf 
through the revolution and Buonaparte^s dynaatj, » 
now beginning to raise its head in a very distinguished 
and commanding manner. It was a singular sight 
— to see such a crowd of young men, wearing^ cocked 
hats, black robes, and black bands with white edging! 
Hie women were all out in the streets ; sitting before 
their doors, or quietly lounging or walking. The af- 
ternoon was indeed unusually serene. 

We ordered a late dinner, and set out for the cathe- 
dral. It was impossible to visit it at a more fiivorabfe 
moment. The congregation had departed ; and a fine 
warm sun darted its rajrs in every surrounding direc- 
tion. We had also a communicative and civil guide) 
and were resolved to glean every intelligence wUeh 
could be imparted. As we looked around, we codd 
not foil to be struck with the singular arrangOEnent 
of the columns round the choir : or rather of the dou- 
ble msle between the choir and the walls, as at St. L o 
but here yet more distinctly marked. For a wondar^ 
an unpainted Virgin and child in Our Lady*s chapel, 
behind the choir ! There is nothing, I think, in the in^ 
tenor of this church that merits particular notice aQid 
commendation, except it be some beautifully-stained 
glass windows ; with the arms, however, of certain no^ 
ble families, and the regal arms (as at Bayeux)oblitera-' 
ted. There is a deep well in the north transept, to sup^ 
ply the town with water in case of fire. The pulpit is 
large and handsome; but not so magnificent as that at 
Bayeux. The organ is comparatively small. Perhaps 
the xiiith century is a period sufficient^ remote to 
assiga for the completioik of the interior of this diorcb^ 



COUTANCES 



405 



for I cannot subscribe to the hypothesis of the Abb6 de 
la Rue^ that this edifice was probably erected by Tan* 
cred King of Sicily at the end of the xith^ or begin* 
Bing of the xiith century. 

Herewith I transmit you a print* of the exterior of 
this beautiful church ; which exterior is indeed its chief 
attraction. Unquestionably the style of architecture 
is very peculiar^ and does not^ as for as I know^ extend 
beyond St. Lo, in Normandy. Our great object was 
to mount upon the roof of the central tower^ which 
is octagonal, containing fine lofty lancet windows, and 
commanding from its summit a magnificent pano- 
rama. Another story, one half the height of the pre* 
sent erection from the roof of the nave, would pat a 
glorious finish to the central tower of Notre Dam b at 
CouTANCBs. As we ascended this central tower, we 
digressed occasionally into the lateral galleries along 
the aisles* To look down, was somewhat terrific ; but 
we coidd not help bewailing the wretched, rotten, green^ 
tinted appearance of the roof of the north aisle ; which 
arose here, as at Bayeux, from its being stripped of 
the lead (during the Revolution) to make bullets — and 
from the rain-s penetrating the interior in consequence. 

^ This prints about 19 inches long^ and 14 wide^ is executed in 
a coane manner. It Is dedicated to " Leonor Goiyon de Matignou. 
£y^ue de Coutances^ of the date of 1747. To the left«. stuck i^t 
the top of a roof of a house^ the artist has represented himself in tbe 
act of taking his view. I bought it for a franc. The nesrt prindpel 
diurdi St. ... is to the right, as a sari of background. The whole 
is ayerj gross deviation from the rules of perspective. But the reader 
wiU be doobtlesa gratified by the artist-like view of M. Cotman, ^s 
annouiiced to rmbelliah his JrckUe^ral J n H fuit i€ i iqf Jffammdi/. 



406 COUTANCES. 



It was a most melancholy sight ; and the same had 
occurred beneath the roof of the tower whereon we 
stood, which had been also stript for the like murde- 
rous purpose. As we coutinued to a^cend^ we looked 
through the apertures to notice the fine formation and 
almost magical erection of the lancet windows of the 
western towers : and the higher we mounted, the more 
beautiful and magical seemed to be that portion of the 
building. At length we reached the summit; and con: 
centratiug ourselves a little, gazed around. 

The view was lovely beyond measure. CoutaDoesIies 
within four miles of the sea, so that to the west and south 
appeared an immense expanse of ocean. On the oppo- 
site points was an extensive landscape, well-wooded, 
undulating, rich, and thickly studded with fium-houses. 
JfTsty appeared to the north-west, quite encircled by 
the sea ; and nearly to the south stood out the ^Kdd 
insulated little rock of GranviUe, defying the eternal 
washing of the wave. Such a view is perhaps no 
where else to be seen in Normandy; certainly not 
from any ecclesiastical edifice with which I am ac- 
quainted. The sun was now declining apace, which 
gave a warmer glow to the ocean, and a richer 
hue to the landscape. It is impossible to particu- 
larize. ^1 was exquisitely refreshing, and joyous. 
The heart beats with a fuller pulsation as the eye 
darts over such an expansive and exhilirating scene! 
Spring was now clad in her deepest-coloured ves- 
ture : and a prospect of a fine summer and an abuii; 
dant harviest infused additional delight into the, be- 
holder. Immediately below, stood the insulated and 
respectable mansion or Palace of the Bishop ; in tfie 



COUTANCES. 



407 



midst of a formal garden— begirt with yet more for* 
mally dipt hedges. As the Prelate bore a good char- 
acter, I took a pleasure in gazing upon the roof which 
contained an inhabitant capable of administering so 
much good to the community. In short, I shall 
always remember the view from the top of the central 
tower of the cathedral of Ck)utances I* 

We quitted such a spot with reluctance ; but tinie 
was flying away, and the patience of the cuisinier at 
the Hdtel d'Angleterre had already been put somewhat 
to the test. In twenty minutes we sat down to our 

* I went up to the top of the great center tower^ to enjoy one of 
the finest prospects imaginable. The town of Granville appears In 
fronts and beyond it are the islands of Chausey and Jersey^ at the diar 
tance of seven leagues to the north, forms a noble object. The country 
on all sides, towards St. ho, Avranche, and Carenten, is a garden, rich, 
cultivated, and shaded with woods." [Sir Nathahiet] WraxalVs Tour, 
1775, 8vo. The author, a little before, thus describes the town and 
Beigfabouihood — ^but I must be permitted to question the aiccuraej of 
tke date of some of the domestic architecture ; as well as of the ere<>* 
tion of the cathedral in its present state. — Coutances stands on a 
hill, the sides of wliich descend with prodigious rapidity. Beyond the 
vale, a range of hills rises like a superb amphitheatre, and invests it on 
every side. The houses bear all the marks of antiquity in their struc- 
ture and taste, which is rude in a great degree. Many of them have 
donybtless stood five or six hundred years ; and on one, the style oif 
which merits peculiar study, is the date 1007^ yet remaining, in vety 
l^ible characters. On the s^^unit of the lull, in the centre of the town^ 
stands the cathedral. I have spent several hours in the examination of 
Us architecture. There is a grotesque beauty spread over the whole j 
and the fiuitastic ornaments of gothic building are mingled with a won* 
dtons elegance and delicacy in many of its parts. It was begun in 
1047> and William the Conqueror, King of England^ asaated in person 
at its solemn coneecFBtion some years afler." 



406 



COUTANCES. 



dinner^ in a bed- room, of which the formtQre wm 
ehiefly of green silk ; but the produce of the kitcheD 
and the skill of the cook made us wholly indifierent to 
surrounding objects, llie females^ even in the humblest 
walks, have generally fine names ; and Fictorina was 
that of the fille de chambre at the H6tel d*Angle- 
terre. After dinner we walked upon what may be 
called the heights of Coutances ; and a more delightfiil 
iBvening^s walk I never enjoyed. The women of every 
description — ladies, housekeepers, and servant maids — 
were all abroad ; either sitting upon benches, or stand- 
ing in gossiping groups, or straying in friendly pairs. 
We were much struck with the comeliness of the 
women; a certmn freshness of tint, and prevalence 
of the bon point, reminded us of those of our own 
country ; and among the latter, I startled, — as I 
gazed upon a countenance which afforded but too virid 
a resemblance to that of my late lamented niece ! Here 
indeed we almost fancied ourselves in a large mar- 
ket town in England. Certainly the Norman women 
are no where more comely and interesting than at 
Coutances. 

The immediate environs of this place are beautifiil 
and interesting: visit them in what direction you 
please. But there is nothing which so immediately 
strikes you as the remains of an ancient Aqueduct; 
gothicised at the hither end, but, with three or four cir- 
cular arches at the further extremity, where it springs 
from the opposite banks. Mr. Lewis in his stroll of 
this morning — ^it being market-day — ^visited that par- 
ticular spot, and from thence took the charming little 
view,— of the aqueduct in the foreground, and the ca- 



COUTANCES. 



409 



diedraly and St. . . . in the distance,— of which I trans- 
mit you a finished copy.* Tlie market-people add 
mildb to the effect ; while the peculiar play of light 
and .shade cannot fidl to strike you as singularly happy. 
Fine as was yesterday^ this day has not heen inferior 
tiil>it. I was of course glad of an opportunity of visiting 
the market, and of mingling with the country people. 
Tlie boulevards afforded an opportunity of accomplish* 
ing both these objects. Corn is a great article of 
trade ; and they have noble granaries for depositing it 
Apparently there is a great conflux of people, and 
much business stirring. I quickly perceived, in the 
midst of this ever-moving throng, our old friend the 
vender of rat-destroying po\^derfr-r-biisied in the exer- 
cise of his calling, and covered with his usual vest- 
ment of white, spotted or painted with black rats. 
He found plenty of bearers and plenty of purchasers. 
All was animation and bustle. In the midst of it, a 
man came forward to the edge of a bank — below which 
a great concourse was assembled. He beat a drum, to 
announce that a packet boat would sail to Jersey in the 
course of the afternoon ; but the people seemed too 
intent upon their occupations and gambols to attend 
to him. I sat upon a bench and read one of the little 
chap hoclks— Richard sans peur — which I had pur- 
chased the same morning : Mr. L. being wholly occu- 
lted, in the mean time, with the'view of which I have 
jnst made mention. 

While absorbed in reflections upon the heteroge- 
neous scene before me — and wishing for some of my 
dearest friends in England to be also spectators of it — 

* See TBB Opposite Flate. 
▼OL I. B b 



410 



COUTANCES. 



the notes of an hand-organ more and more dis- 
tinctly stole upon my ear. They were soft, and even 
pleasing notes. On looking round, I observed that the 
musician preceded a person, who carried aloft a waxen 
Virgin with the infe^nt Jesus ; and who, under such a 
sign, exhorted the multitude to approach and buy his 
book-wares. I trust I was too thorough-bred a jRoar- 
burgher to remain quiescent upon the bench : and 
accordingly starting up, and extending two sous, I be- 
came the fortunate purchaser of a little chap article — 
of which our friend Bernardo will for ever, I fear, 
envy me the possession ! The vender of the tome sang 
through his nose, as the organ warbled the following 

EN L*BONNEUR DU TRE8-8AINT 8ACEEMENT, 

Qui est txposi dans la grande EgUse caih^drale de St, Pierre et St Paul 
de Rome, pour implorer la miM&icorde de Die%u 

A IB : Du Theodore Francais. 

Approchez-vour, Chretiens fid^les^ 
Afin d*entendre rdciter : 
Ecoutez tous avec un grand z^le, 
Avec fen-eur et ^i6ii, 
Le voeu que nous avons hit, 
D'aller au grand Saint Jacques ; 
Grace k Dieu nous Tavons accompli. 
Pour Tomour de J^sus Christ. 

Dieu cr^ le del et la terre, 
Les astres et le firmament 3 
n fit la brillante lumibre, 
Ainsi que tous les autres ilimens, 
II a tir6 tout du n^ant, 
Ce qui respire sur la terre : 
Rendans hommage k la grandeur 
De notre divin Cr6ateur. 



COUTANCES. 



411 



* . TVms lea jours la malice augmente, II y a tr^-peu de religion \ 
La jeuoesse est trop p^tulaate^ Les enfEins jurent le saint Nom. £t 
opmment s*^tonneroit-on Si tant de fl^ux nous tourmenteut, £tsi Ton 
▼oit tant de malheurs, C'est Dieu qui punit les p^cheurs. 

Souvent on assiste k VOffice^ C'est comme une mani^re d*acquit^ 
Sans penser au saint Sacrifice, Oti s*est immol^ Jesus-Christ. Oh 
parle avee ses amis De ses afiaires temporelles. Sans fisure aucune at- 
tention Aux myst^res de la religion. 

Hifl^hissez bien, p^res et m^res, Sur ces morales et v^rit^s: C'est 
la loi de Dieu notre P^re; C'est lui qui nous les a dict^es : II faut les 
suiyre et les pratiquer, Tant que nous serous sur la terre. N'oublions 
point qu'api^s la mort, Nos ames existeront encore. 

J^sos nous en montre I'exemple Par sa bont^ et par sa douceur. 
Mnrdions^ allons k son saint Temple^ Pour le prier avec ferveur. Pour 
qu'il r^pande ses bienfaits Sur les pr^cieux biens de la terre, Et qu'il 
accorde k chaque maison Sa saintc benediction. 

Portons, Chretiens, sur nous I'imageDe notre Sauveur J6sus-Christj 
Flafons la dans notre manage. Sera en tout lieu notre appui. II met 
le Chretien k I'abri Du feu du ciel et du tonnerre. Portons les armes 
du Seigneur, Pour nous preserver de malheur. 

Que la paix chez nous toi:gours r^ne, £n bons Chretiens accordons- 
nous, £t que tons les troubles s'dteignent. Nous gouterons un sort plus 
doux. Que d une parfedte union Nous jouissions comme des fr^res : 
Ayons confiance en J^sus Christ, Nous aurons ses dons infinis. 

Adorons tons, d'lin coeur sincere, J^sus-Christ notre Rddempteur 5 
Offrons-lui nos voeux, nos pribres; Keclamons le avec ferveur. Tons 
les jours prions le Seigneur De nous preserver sur la terre, De mal- 
heurs et d'accidens. Prions le Sauveur tout-puissant. 



The day was beginning to wear away &st, and I had 
not yet accomplished the favourite and indispensable 
object of visiting the Public Library. I made two 
unsuccessful attempts ; but the third was fortunate. 

* It cannot fiail to be noticed that the following smtences are in fisct 
r%iiiiiig' vene, though printed prose-wise. 



413 



CX)UTANCES. 



I had no letter of introduction, and every body was 
busied in receiving the visits of th^r country friendB. 
I was much indebted to the polite attention of a 
stranger : who accompanied me to the house of the 
public librarian, his friend, and, he not being at home, 
undertook the office of shewing me the books. The 
room in which they are contained — ^wholly detached — 
and indeed at a considerable distance from the ca- 
thedral — ^is about sixty English feet long, low, and 
rather nan-ow. It is absolutely crammed with books, 
in the most shameful state of confusion. I saw, for 
the first time in Normandy, and with absolute glad* 
ness of heart, a copy of the Complutensian Pofygldt 
Bible ; of which the four latter volumes, in vellum 
binding, were tail and good : the earlier ones, in calf, 
not so desirable. For the first time too, since treading 
Norman soil, I saw a tolerably good sprinkle of Halim 
books. Ascensius*s first edition of Bedels EpisHeSy in 
small quarto : several old first editions of Greek au- 
thors : and a copy of the edition of the History of the 
Chevalier Bayard, with the portrait, precisely in the 
same style of binding, as that for which, at the sale 
of the Roxburghe Library y I was insane enough to 
give nine guineas. Bat the collection stands in dread- 
Ail need of weeding. Indeed, this observation may 
apply to the greater number of public collections 
throughout Normandy. I thanked my attendant for 
his patient and truly friendly attention, and took my 
leave. 

In my way homewards, I stopped at M. Joubert*8, 
the principal librarian, and beat about the bush** for 
bibliographical game. But my pursuit was not crowned 



C0UTANCE8. 



413 



with raccesfik M. J. told me, in reply to black-letter 
enquiries, that a Monsieur A****, a stout burly man, 
whom he called un gros p^a'' — was in the habit of 
paying yearly visits from Jersey, for the acquisition of 
the same black-letter treasures ; and that he swept 
away every thing in the shape of an ancient and equi- 
vocal volume in his annual rounds. I learnt pretty 
nearly, the same thing from. Manoury at Caen. M» 
Joubert is a very sensible and respectable man ; and is 
not only Seul Imprimeur de Manseigneur CEvSque** 
(PiBRRE Dupont-Poursat), but is in fact almost the 
only bookseller worth consulting in the place. I 
bought of him a copy of the Livre (TEglise ou Nau- 
veau Paroissien a V usage du Diocise de Coutances, or 
the common prayer book of the diocese. It is a very 
thick duodecimo, of 700 double columned pages, print- 
ed in a clear, new, and extremely legible character^ 
upon paper of sufficiently good texture. It was bound 
in sheepskin, and I gave only tkirtj/ sotis for it new. 
How it can be published at such a price, is beyond my 
conception* M. Joubert told me that the compositor 
or workman received 20 francs for setting up 36 pages^ 
and that the paper was 12 francs per ream. In our 
own. country, such prices would be at least doubled. 

It is impossible not to be struck here with the great 
number of young ecclesiastics. In short, the estab- 
lishment now erecting for them, vrill contain, when 
completed, (according to report) not fewer than four 
hundred. It is also impossible not to be struck with the 
extreme simplicity of their manners and deportment. 
'Riey converse with apparent familiarity with the very 
humblest of their flock : and seem, from the highest to 



414 COUTANCES- 

the lowest, to be cordially received. They are indiffe- 
rent as to personal appearance : one young man car- 
ries a bundle, as if of linen for his laundress, along the 
streets : another carries a round hat in his hand, with a 
cocked one upon his head : a kitchen utensil is seen in 
the hand of a third, and a chair, or small table, in that 
of a fourth. As they pass, they are repeatedly saluted. 
TUl the principal building be finished, many of them 
are scattered about the town, living quite in the upper 
stories. In short, it is the profession, rather than the 
particular candidate, which seems to claim the respect- 
ful attention of the townsmen. 

Thus much, or rather thus little, for Coutances. At 
five this afternoon we start in the cabriolet of the dili- 
gence for Granville — where we purpose sleeping. I 
regret that my time will only allow of so superficial a 
survey of this interesting place : of which both the 
town and the environs would richly repay a week*s resi- 
dence at least . . and I have been here scarcely seventy- 
two hours ! A well-built country-house in the neigh- 
bourhood, especially in that direction whither the aque- 
duct leads, would be a delightful acquisition to the 
lover both of nature and of the antiquities of art. In- 
deed, to a Parisian, what residence, throughout Nor- 
mandy, could be more desirable ? But Fictorina has 
announced the speedy approach of the diligence — 
and having dispatched our medntenon cutlet and our 
vin de Beaune, we are preparing for our departure. 
A thousand adieus. 



415 



LETTER XVIII. 

JOURNBY TO GRANVILLE. GRANVILLE. VILLB DIBC. 
ST. SEVER. TOWN AND CASTLE OF VIRE. 

Vire. 

Since my last, I have been as much gratified by the 
charms, of nature and of art, as during any one period 
of my tour. Prepare, therefore, for a melange of intel- 
ligence; but such as, I will make bold to predict^ 
cannot fidl to afford you considerable gratification. 
Normandy is doubtless a glorious country. It is 
fimitful in its soil, picturesque in the disposition of its 
la,nd and water, and rich in the architectural relics of 

the olden time/' It is also more than ordinarily in- 
teresting to us Englishmen. Here, in the very town^ 
whence I transmit this despatch — ^within two hundred 
and fifty yards of the hotel of the Cheval Blanc^ which 
just now encloses us within its granite walls — here, I 
say, lived and revelled the illustrious family of the Db 
Verbs.* Hence William the Conqueror took the 
£unous Aubrey db Verb to be a spectator of his 
prowess, and a sharer of his spoils, in his decisive sub- 
jugation of our own country. It is from this place that 

* The reader wUl find the fullest particulars relating to this once- 
distinguished family, in Halstead*s Genealogical Memoirt of Noble 
Families, &c. : a book, it is true, of extreme scarcity : but in lieu of it 
let him consult CoUim^s Noble FamiUes. 



416 



COUTANCES TO GRANVILLE. 



the De Veres derive their name. Their once-proud 
castle yet towers above the rushing rivulet below^ 
which turns a hundred mills in its course: but the 
warder's horn has long ceased to be heard, and the 
ramparts are levelled with the solid rock with which 
they were once, as it were, identified. The ruin, how- 
ever, which remains, will probably speak for itself in 
the course of this epistle. 

I recollect that my last concluded with the an- 
nounce of the lurrival of the diligence at Goutances, 
an4 of our preparatloa for departure to GrafwUte, 
in our route hither. We were well pleased to .find 
a seat in the cabriolet occupied by a very agreeable 
and intelligent countryman — ^Lieutenant M. of the 
n>yal artillery at Woolwich : with whom we quickly 
became fEuniliar — and who was, at that moment, in 
the pro^cution of an extenave tour to all the sea port 
towns, of France. We left Coutances with something 
i^proaching to reluctance; so completely anglicised 
seemed to be the scenery and inhabitants. Tlie evening 
was beautiful in the extreme; and upon gaining the 
height of one of the opposite hills, within about half a 
league of the town, in the high Granville route, tjre 
alighted walked, stopped, and gazed, alternately, 
upon the lovely landscape around us — the cathedrali ifa 
the mean time, becoming of one entire golden tint 
from the radiance of the setting sun. It was hardly 
possible to view a more perfect picture of its kind; 
and it served as a just counterpart to the more expan- 
sive scene which we had contemplated, but the pre- 
ceding evening, from the heights of that same cathe- 
dral. Mr. Lewis was for exercising his pencil without 



GRANVILLE. 



417 



dday ; but an en avant"* from the conducteur roused 
him from his rapturous abstraction^ when we remounted^ 
and descended into a valley ; and ere the succeeding 
height was gained, a fainter light floated over the dis- 
tant landscape . • . and every object reminded me of the 
accuracy of those exquisite lines by Collins — descrip- 
tive of the approach of evening's 

. . . gradual^ dusky veil. 

For the first time, we had to do with a drunken con- 
ducteur. Luckily the road was broad, and in the 
finest possible condition, and perfectly well known to 
the horses. Every turning was successfully made; 
and the fear of upsetting began to give way to the 
annoyance experienced from the roaring and shouting 
of the conducteur. It was almost dark when we reach- 
ed Granville — about twelve miles from Coutances ; 
when we learnt that the horses had run six miles before 
they started with us. As we descended towards the town, 
the road was absolutely solid rock : and considering what 
a house we' carried behind us (for so the body of the rft'/i- 
gence seemed) and the uncertain footing of the horses, 
in consequence of the rocky surface of the road, we 
ai^rehended the most sinister result. Luckily it was 
moon-light; when, approaching one of the sorriest 
looking inns imaginable, whither our conducteur (in 
spite of the better instructions of the landlord of the 
H6tel d*Angleterre at Coutances) had persuaded us 
to go, we alighted with a thankful heart, and bespoke 
supper and beds. The landlord's, or landlady's name 
was Fouche ; whereas we ought to have paid our re- 



418 



GRANVILLE. 



spects to Madame Puquet— or some such name — and 
it is right that, (for the benefit of all travellers^ who 
are unhappy unless they sleep at what is called the 
principal inn") the first auberge, to the left, upon 
entrance into Granville, be studiously avoided. But 
wherefore ? In a case of necessity, or indeed in any 
case, let none but the most fastidious eschew the resi* 
deuce of Madame Fouche ; for her manner is civil, 
her discourse is kind, her farinage is sweet and good, 
her beds are clean, and her charges are moderate. 

. In the morning (which was one of the coldest I ever 
remember for the season of the year) Mr. Lewis rose 
betimes, and betook himself, as usual, to his pencil: 
but the time did not admit of any very extensive 
operation. 

Granville is fortified on the land side by a de^ 
ravine, which renders an approach from thence almost 
impracticable. On every other side it is defended by 
the ocean, into which the town seems to have dropt 
perpendicularly from the clouds. At high water, 
Granville cannot be approached, even by transports, 
nearer than within two-thirds of a league ; and of course 
at low water it is surrounded by an extent of sharply 
pointed rock and chalk: impenetrable — terrific — and 
presenting both certain failure and destruction to the 
assailants! It is a Gibraltar in miniature. The 
English sharply cannonaded it a few years since, but 
it was only a political diversion. No landing was 
attempted. In the time of the civil wars, and more 
particularly in those of the League, Granville^ how- 
ever, had its share of misery. It is now a quiet, dull^ 



GRANVILLE TO VIRE. 419 



dreary, place ; to be visited only for the sake of the 
view from thence, looking towards St. Maloy and 
Mont St. Michel; the latter of which I give up — as 
an hopeless object of attainment. After breakfast 
—which was of the very best quality — we joined our 
fellow traveller Lieutenant M. in visiting the town. 
Granville is in fact built upon rock ; and the houses 
and the only two churches are entirely constructed 
of granite. The principal church (I think it was the 
principal) is rather pretty within, as to its construc- 
tion ; but the palpably gloomy eflfect given to it by 
the tint of the granite — ^the pillars being composed 
of that substance — renders it disagreeable to the eye. 
We saw several confessionals ; and in one of them, the 
office of confession was performing by a priest, who 
attended to two penitents at the same time ; but whose 
physiognomy was so repulsively frightful, that we 
could not help concluding he was listening to a tale 
which he was by no means prepared to receive. Mr. 
Lewis took a sketch of him. 

An hour's examination of the town thoroughly satisfied 
us. There was no public conveyance to ^/re, whither 
we intended immediately departing, and so we hired a 
voiture to be drawn by one sturdy Norman horse. To 
a question about springs, the conducteur replied that 
we should find every thing " tvhs propre/' We paid 
our reckoning, parted with reluctance from our ami- 
able countryman Lieutenant M. (who was pursuing 
his journey towards St. Malo) and set our faces to- 
wards ViRE. The day, for the season of the year, 
turned out to be gloomy and cold beyond measure : 
^nd the wind (to the east) was directly in our faces* 



420 



GRANVILLE TO VIRE. 



Nevertheless the voiid was one of the finest that we 
had seen in France^ for breadth sind general soundness 
of condition. It had all the consequence and evident* 
utility of a llonian route ; and as it was perpetually 
undulating, we had frequently some gratifying glimpses 
of its broad and bold direction. The suiTonnding 
country was of a quietly picturesque but fraitful as- 
pect ; and had our seats been comfortable, or after the 
fashion of those in our own country, our sensations 
had been more agreeable. But in truth, instead of 
springs, or any thing approximating to " tres propre," 
we had to encounter a hard planky susixnided at the 
extremities, by a piece of leather, to the sides ; and as 
the road was but too well bottomed, and the convey- 
ance was open in friMit to the bitter blast of the east, I 
can hardly describe (as I shall never forget) the misery 
of this conveyance. 

Fortunately our first stage was fllle Dieu. Here 
we ordered a voiture c'uid post horses: but, the master 
of the Poste lloyale, or rather of the inn, shook his 
head — " Four les chevanx, vous en aurez des meilleurs; 
mais, pour la voiture il n'y en a pas. Tenez, Messieurs ; 
venez voir." We followed, with miserable forebodings — 
and entering ashed, where stood an old tumble-down- 
looking phaeton — *' la voih\,Messiein's, c'estlaseule que 
je possMe dans ce moment" — exclaimed the landlord. It 
had never stirred from its j)osition since the fall of last 
year s leaf. It had been — within and without — the 
roosting place for fowls and other of the feathered 
tribe in the iurm yard ; and although literally covered 
with the ( ridences of such long and undisturbed pos- 
session, yet, as there was no appearance of rain, and as 



ST. SEVER. 



421 



we discovered tlie wished for ressorts'' (or springs) 
we compromised for the repuisiveness of the exterior, 
asid declared our intention of taking it onward. Water, 
brooms, brushes, and cloths, were quickly put in re- 
quisition ; and two stately and well fed horses, which 
threatened to fly away with our slender machine, being 
&8tened on, we absolutely darted forward, at a round 
rattling gallop, for St. Sever. Blessings wait upoA 
the memory of that artisan who invented • • . springs I 
We began to recover from our past miseries, and to 
fismcy ourselves upon the Bath roady as we pursued 
our route towards St. Sever. The postillion had the 
perfect command of his horses, and we gallopped, or 
trotted, or ambled, as his fancy— or rather bur wishes 
directed. The approach to our halting-place was 
rather imposing. What seemed to be a monastery, or 
church, at St. Sever, had quite the appearance of 
Moorish architecture; and indeed as we had occa- 
sional glimpses of it through the trees, the effect was 
exceedingly picturesque. This posting town is in truth 
very delightfully situated. While the horses were 
being changed, we made our way for the monastery ; 
which we found to be in a state rather of dilapidation 
than of ruin. It had, indeed, a wretched aspect. I en- 
tered the chapel, and saw lying, transversely upon a 
desk, to the left — a very clean, large paper, and uncut 
copy of the folio Rouen Missal of 1759. I had no 
doubt but that a few francs would have made me the 
possessor of it ; but surely this would have been called 
little short of an act of mitigated sacrilege ! Every 
thing about this deserted and decaying spot had a 
melancholy appearance : but the surrounding country 



422 



GRANVILLE TO VIRE. 



was rich^ wooded^ and pictui-esque. In former days of 
prosperity — such as St. Sever had seen before the Re^ 
▼olution — there had been gaiety, abundance, and hap- 
piness. It is now a perfect contrast to its pristine state. 

On returning to the " Poste Royale"^ we found tWD 
fresh lusty horses to our voiture — but the postitlira 
had sent a boy into the field to catch a third. Where^ 
fore was this? The tarif exacted it. A third hone 

r6ciproquement pour Tann^e" — parce qu'il faut tra 
verser une grande montagne avant qu'on pent arriver 
liVire'' — was the explanatory reply. It seemed per^* 
fectly ridiculous, as our vehicle was of such slendo* 
dimensions and weight. However, we were forced to 
yield. To scold the post-boy was equally absurd and 
unavailing ; parce que le tarif Texigea." But the 

montagne" was doubtless a reason for this addi- 
tional horse : and we began to imagine that something 
magnificently picturesque might be in store, for us. 
The three horses were put a-breast — and oflF we 
started with a phaeton-like velocity ! Certainly no- 
thing could have a more ridiculous appearance than 
our pigmy voiture thus conveyed by three animals — 
strong enough to have drawn the diligence. We were 
not long in reaching this " huge mountain," which 
provoked our unqualified laughter — from its insignifi- 
cant size — and upon the top of which stands the town 
of ViRE. It had been a Jair-day ; and groups of men 
and women, returning from the town, in their blue 
and crimson dresses, cheered somewhat the general 
gloom of the day, and lighted up the featui*es of the 
landscape. The nearer we approached, the more nu- 
merous and incessant were these groups. 



VIBE. 



423 



' Vire is a sort of Rouen in miniature — if bustle and 
population be only considered. In architectural com- 
parison, it is miserably feeble and inferior. The houses 
are genei*ally built of granite, and look extremely 
sombre in consequence. The old castle is yet inter- 
esting and commanding. But of this presently. We 
drove to the Cheval BktnCj' and bespoke, as usual, a 
late dinner and beds. Our first visit was to the castle ; 
but it is right that you should know, before hand, that 
the town ctf Vire, which contains a peculation of about 
ten thousand souls, stands upon a commanding emi- 
nence, in the midst of a very beautiful and picturesque 
country called the Socage. This country was, in 
former times, as fruitful in civil wars, horrors, and de- 
vastations, as the more celebrated Socage of the 
southern part of France, during the late Revolution. In 
shorty the Socage of Normandy was the scene of blood- 
shed during the Calvinistic or Hugonot persecution. 
It was in the vicinity of this town, in the parts through 
which we have travelled — from Caen hitherwards — 
that the hills and the dales rang with the feats of 
arms displayed in the alternate discomfiture and sue* 

cess of COLIGNY, CONDB, MONTGOMERY, UUd Ma- 
TIONON.* 

* An epitomifled account of these civil commotions will be found in 
the Histoire MiUtcttre des Bocains, par M. Richabd Sequin j d Fire, 
1816 : 12mo. of which work^ and of its author^ some notice will be 
taken in the following pages. Meanwhile^ consult page 399, ante. 
Amoi^ the MSS. in the Royal Library at Paris^ there are three 
Iblios (to be distinctly noticed in the second volume of this work) 
oontaining various excerpts relating to the town of Vire. In the 



434 



TIRE. 



But for the castle. It is situated at the extremity 
of an open space, terminated by a portion of the bou- 
levards ; having, in the foreground, the public libraiy 
to the left, and a sort of municipal hall to the right : 
neither of them objects of much architectural conse- 
quence. Still nearer in the foreground, is a fountain ; 
whither men, women, and cluldren — but chiefly the 
second class, in the character of blanchigseuBet^ 
regularly resort for water; as its bason <iB lunially 
overflowing. It was in a lucky moment that 1^. 
Lewis paid a visit to this spot; which his taidy 
pencil transmitted to his sketch-book in a mannor ttto 
beautiful and faithful not to be followed up by a fidiflii- 
ed design This design is enclosed for your . . . nn- 
qualified admiration I * But much as you love tfrt,^ 
and much as you will be gratified by such a delightful 
specimen of it, I am persuaded you would be iQcli^i||^ 

third of these nu. volumes^ (numberad 1089 or littdj) it^d«r the title 
of " Arme$ qui wnt H VEglue porwrnaU dM Vire, . 
there is an account of the town being taken by the 
gomery^ in the year 1568> about five o'clock in the 
assailants are caUed an army de la pr^tendue noixi^e i 
quelez auroient pill^ et rauagi6 VEglise^ rompu, froiss^^ cassi et mfa^ 
les vitres^ greillez, huis et fenetres, chaires^ bancs^ siegez> coffirez* sa- 
crairez^ autelz^ imagez/' &c. This account is followed by two laige, 
and not unskilfully executed drawings, of two feunilies^ kneeling, 
which were in the stained glass windows of the principal church. 

* See the Opposite Plate.' The woman with a bucket before her, 
turning round to the left^ stood on purpose to be drawn 3 and seemed 
Tastly pleased by the compliment which she considered to be thus 
paid her. The castle shews the reverse of that side which i^ipears in 
the opposite vignette. 




VIRE. 



to wold me if I do not give yon a nearer introduction 
to the old castle. Accordingly you have here a most 
exquisite little morceau of its kind. It is taken from 
behind the portion which you observe in the annexed 
representation ; and was minutely finished^ upon the 
spot. 




Frequently^ in the act of executing it^ several young 
men^ apparently students at the CoU^^ would sur- 
round Mr. L. with exclamations and compliments upon 
the minute delicacy and apparent difficulty of the un- 
dertaking As to the antiquity of the castle^ I should 
apprehend it to be of the twelfth century. Probably 
of a more ancient date ; though this is pretty well. 
1 



426 



VIRE: 



Its foundation is a solid rock. Indeed the whole ke^ 
is of the same kind of stone. Hie Chewd BUjouP-^ 
the name of the hotel at which we reside — should be 
rather called the Cheval Noir ;** for a more dark, 
dingy, and even dirty residence, for a traveller of any 
nasal or ocular sensibility, can be rarely visited. Our 
bed room, where we drink tea, is hung with tapestry; 
which, for aught I know to the contrary, may repre- 
sent the daring exploits of Montgomery and M atig- 
NON but which is so begrimed with filth that there is 
no decyphering the subjects worked upon it. On leav- 
ing the inn — and making your way to the top of the 
street — ^you turn to the left ; but on looking down, 
again to the left, you observe, below you, the great high 
road leading to Caen, which has a noble appearance. 
Indeed, the manner in which this part of Normandy is 
intersected with the routes royales^^ cannot feul to 
strike a stranger ; especially as these roads run over 
hill and dale, amidst meadows, and orchards, equally 
abundant in their respective harvests. The immediate 
vicinity of the town is remarkable as well for pic- 
turesque objects of scenery as for a high state of culti- 
vation ; and a stroll upon the heights, in whatever 
part visited, will not fail to repay you for the certain 
disappointment to be experienced within the streets 
of the town. Portions of the scenery, from these 
heights, are not unlike those in Derbyshire, about 
Matlock. There is plenty of rock, of shrubs, and of 
fern ; while another Derwent, less turbid and muddy, 
meanders below. Thus much for a genei*al, but hasty 



* Sec page 399, ante. 



VIRE. 427 

sketch the town of Vire. My next shall g^ve you some 
detail of the interior of a few of the houses, of which 
I may be said to have hitherto only contemplated the 
roofs. 



VOL. I. 



428 



LETTER XIX. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. MONSIEUR ADAM. MONSIEUR DE LA- 
RENAUDIERE. OLIVIER BASSELIN. M. SEGUIN. THE 
PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

It is a sad rainy day ; and having no temptation 
to stir abroad, I have shut myself up by the side of a 
huge wood fire — (surrounded by the dingy tapestry, of 
which my last letter did not make very honourable men- 
tion) — in a thoroughly communicative mood, to make 
you acquainted with all that has passed since my pre- 
vious despatch. SE^Oldlfl and the S&i&ttOtnattta be the 
cluef " burden of my present song !" You may re- 
member, in my account of the public library at Caen,* 
that some mention was made of a certain Olivier 
Basselin — ^whom I designated as the drunken Bar- 
NABY of Normandy ? Well, my friend — I have been 
at length made happy, and comforted in the extreme, 
by the possession of a copy of the Faudevires of that 
said Olivier Basselin — and from the hands, too, of one 
of his principal editors ! . . Monsieur Lanon de la Re- 
NAUDfERE, Avocat, ct Mairc, de Tallevende-le-Petit. 
This copy I intend (as indeed I told the donor) for the 
beloved library at Althorp. But let me tell my tale 
my own way. 

Hard by the hotel of the Cheval Blanc, (the best, 



• See page 3S7# ante. 



VIRE. 



429 



bad as it is — and indeed the only one in the town) 
lives a printer of the name of Adam. He is the prin- 
cipal, and the most respectable of his brethren in the 
same craft. After discoursing npon sundry desultory 
topics — and particularly examining the hooks of Edu- 
catiofiy among which I was both surprised and pleased 
to find the Distichs of Muretus* — I expressed my re- 

• Les Disiiques de Muret, traduits en vers Eranfait, par Aug. A, 
Se vend k Vire^ chez Adam, imprimeur-lib. An. I8O9. The reader 
may not be displeased to have a specimen of the manner of rendering 
these distichs into French verse : 

1. 

Dum tener es, Murbtb, avidis hsc aoribuB hanri : 
Nec memori mod6 conde animo, sed et ezprime flM^tifl. 

2. 

Inprimis yenerare Denm ; venerare parentes : 
Et quos ipsa loco tibi dat natura parentum. 

3. 

Mentiri noli. Nunquiun meodada protont. 
Si qmd peccaris, venia est tibi prompta fieitenti. 

4. 

Disce libens. Quid dulcius est quiun discere multa ! 
Discentem comitantur opes, comitantur honores. 

5. 

Si quis te objurget, mal^ cbm quid feceris, flli 
Oratiam babe, et ne iterbm queat objurgare cavet. 

6. 

Ne temer^ banc credas tibi qui blanditnr amicum. 
Peccantem puenun quisqius non corrigit, odit. 

1. 

Jeune encore^ 6 man Fik ! pour itre homme de bien, 
Ecoute, et dam ton ccmr grave cet eniretien. 



480 



VIRE. 



gret at having travelled through bo many towns of 
Normandy without meeting with one single copy of 
the Vaudevires of Olivier Basselin for sale. It is 
not very surprising^ Sir, since it is a privately printed 
book, and was never intended for sale. The impres- 
sion too is very limited. You know, Sir^ that the 
book was published here — and — ^ I started backwards, 
just one step and " no more." " Then I begin to be 
confident about obtaining it** — replied I. Gently, 
Sir ; — ** resumed Monsieur Adam — it is not to be 
bought, even here. But do you know no one . . . ?" 
" Not a creature." " Well, Sir, take courage. You 
are an Englishman ; and one of its principal editors — 
a very gallant Bibliomane — ^who is a great collector 
and lover of the literature of your country — (here I 
picked up courage and gaiety of heart) Uves in this 

2. 

Sert, honore le Dieu gut cria tmu let itres ; 
Soii fiU respectueuM, ioit docile i tei maUret, 

a 

Craifu de mentir: t<mJour$ (?e%t en vain que Pan ment; 
En awHtant ses torts, on est presqi^ innocent, 

4. 

Qt^il est beau d'itre tmtruit I Aime, acquiert la science i 
Assez d'honneurs, de biens seront ta recompense. 

5. 

I>un reproche obligeant, au Ueu d^kte C09^, 
Rends grAce it PamitU, mais n'en nUrite plus. 

6. 

Crains la louange : il est Pennemi de Pe^fHnee 
Celui qui pour sea torts plaque de timMgenee. 



VIRE. 



431 



town. He is President of the Tribunal. Go to him." 
Seeing me hesitate, in consequence of not having a 
letter of introduction — " Ce n*est rien (said he) 
allez tout-droit. II aime vos compatriotes ; et soyez 
persuade d*un accueil le plus favorable." Methought 
Monsieur Adam spake more eloquently than I had yet 
heard a Norman speak. 

In two seconds I quitted his shop, (promising to re- 
turn with an account of my reception) and five mi- 
nutes brought me into the presence of Monsieur Lanon 
de la Renaudiere, President du Tribunal, &c. My 
name is a most unfortunate one (as I have experienced 
more than once) for Gallic ears. It is made caco- 
phony itself. Monsieur Le President repeated it — 
and I repeated it — " Enfin, donnez vous la peine de 
r^crire" — said the Bibliomane, very politely. I had 
no sooner got through the half of the final n, than he 
shouted aloud, — "Est-ce done vous qui 6tes . . ?! 
naming certain bibliographical performances which 
need not be here mentioned. I never heard so rapid 
an utterance. On bowing, and replying in the affir- 
mative — it is not possible for me to convey to you a 
notion of the warmth, cordiality, and joyousness of 
heart, that marked the reception which this gentle- 
man instantly and in consequence gave me: and I 
will frankly own that I was as much abashed" as 
ever our ancient friend Caxton had been — ^in the pre- 
sence of his patroness the Duchess of Burgundy. I fol- 
lowed my new bibliomaniacal acquaintance rapidly 
up stairs ; and witnessed, with extreme pleasure, a few 
bundles of books (some of them English) lying upon 
the window seats of the first landing-place: much after 



432 VIRE. 

the fashion followed in a certain long, rambling, and 
antique residence not quite three quarters of a mik 
from the towers of Westminster Abbey. 

We gained the first floor ; when mine host tamed 
the keys of the doors of two contiguous rooms, and 
exclaimed, Voila ma Bibliothkque ! Theair of con- 
scious triumph with which these words were uttered, 
delighted me infinitely ; but my delight was much in- 
creased on a leisurely survey of one of the prettiest, 
most useful, and commendable collections of books, 
chiefly in the department of the Belles-Liettres, which 
I had ever witnessed. Monsieur La Renaudiere has a 
library of about 9000 volumes, of which eight hundred 
are English. But the owner is especially fond of poe- 
tical archceology ; in other words, of collecting every 
work which displays the progress of French and Eng- 
lish poetry in the middle and immediately following 
ages ; and talks of Trouveurs and Troubadours with an 
enthusiasm approaching toextacy. Meanwhile he points 
his finger to our Warton, Ellis, Ritson, and Southey ; 
tells you how dearly he loves them ; but yet leads you 
to conclude that he rather prefers Le Grandy Ginguene 
Sismondiy and Renouard.* Of the venerable living 
oracle in these matters, the Abb£ de la Rue, he said he 
considered him as un peu trop syst^matique.'* In 
short, M. La Renaudiere has almost a complete critical 
collection, in our tongue, upon the subject of old poe- 
try ; and was most anxious and inquisitive about the 
present state of cultivation of that branch of literature 

* A member of the Institute ; and not the bibliographical bookseller 
of the same name. 



VIRE. 



433 



in England : adding, that he himself meditated a work 
npon the French poetry of the xiith and XTiith cen- 
turies. He said he thought his library might be worth 
about 25,000 francs : nor did I consider such a valu- 
ation overcharged. He talks rapidly, earnestly, and 
incessantly ; but he talks well : and spoke of the 
renown of a certain library in St. James's Place^ in a 
manner which could not fail to quicken the pulse and 
warm the blood of its historian. We concluded an 
interview of nearly two hours by his compliance with 
my wishes to dine with me on the following day : al- 
though he was quite urgent in bargaining for the pre- 
vious measure of my tasting his pdtage and vol au 
vent. But the shortness and constant occupation of 
my time would not allow me to accede to it. M. 
La Renaudiere then went to a cabinet-like cupboard, 
drew forth an uncut copy, stitched in blue spotted 
paper, of his beloved Vaudevires by Olivier Bassk- 
lin:* and presenting it to me, added " Conservez 

* beloved Vaudevires by Olivier Basselin.] — ^The present seems to 
be the proper place to give the reader some account of this once fa- 
mous Bacchanalian poet. It is not often that France rests her preten- 
sion^ to poetical celebrity upon such claims. Love> romantic adven- 
tures^ gaiety of heart and of disposition form the chief materials of her 
minor poems : but we have here before us^ in the person and produc- 
tions of Olivieb Basselin^ a rival to Anacreon of old ; to our own 
Richard Braitbwait^ Vincent Bourne^ and Thomas Moore. As 
this volume is perhaps the only one which has travelled into England, 
the reader may be prepared to receive an account of its contents 
with the greater readiness and satisfoction. Firsts then^ of the life 
and occupations of Olivier Basselin ; which, as Goujet has entirely 
passed over all notice of him, we can gather only from the editors of 
the present edition of his works. Basselin appears to have been a 



434 



VIRE. 



le, pour Tamour de moi/' You may be assured that 
I received such a present in the most gracious man- 
ner I was capable of— but instantly and honestly 

Firois ; in other words^ an inhabitant of the town of Vire. But he 
had a strange propensity to rusticating, and preferred the immediate 
▼idnity of Vire— its quiet little valleys, running streams, and rocky 
recesses — to a more open and more distant residence. In such 
places, therefore, he carried with him his flasks of cider and his 
flagons of wine. Thither he resorted with his boon and meiry 
con^Nmions,'* and there he poured forth his ardent and unpremeditated 
strains. These " strains*' all savoured of the jovial propensities of 
their author : it being very rarely that tenderness of sentiment, whether 
connected with friendship or love, is admitted into his compositions. 
He was the thorough-bred Anacreon of the close of the fifteenth 
century. 

The town of Vire, as the reader may have already had intimation, is 
the chief town of that department, of Normandy called the Bocage : 
and in this department few places have been, of old, more celebrated 
than the Vaux de Vire; on account of the number of manufoctories 
which have existed there from time inmiemorial. It derives its name 
finom two principal valleys, in the form of a T, of which the base (if it 
may be so called — " jambage*') rests upon the Place du Chateau de 
Vire, It is sufficiently contiguous to the town to be considered among 
the fauxbourgs. The rivers Fire and Virene, which unite at the bridge 
of Vaux, run somewhat rapidly through the valleys. These rivers are 
flanked by manufactories of paper and cloth, which, from the xvth 
century, have been distinguished for their prosperous condition. In- 
deed, Babselin himself was a sort of doth manufacturer. In thb 
valley he passed his lifo in fulling his cloths, and " in composing 
those gay and delightful songs which are contained in the volume 
under consideration." Discours Prilinunaire, p. 17, &c. Olivier 
Basselin is the parent of the title Vaudevire — which has since 
been corrupted into Vaudeville. From the observation at page 16, 
Basselin appears to have been also the Fathee of Bacchanalian Po- 
BTEY in France. He frequented public festivals: and was a welcome 
guest at the tables of the rich— where the Vaudevire was in such re- 



VIRE. 



436 



added — permettez qn'il soit d6pos^ dans la bibli- 
oth^ue de Milord S . . . ? " C'est la mime chose** — 

quest, that it is supposed to have superseded the " Conte, or Fabliau, 
or the Chanson d* Amour."* p. xviij : 

Sur ce point-1^ soyez tranquille : 

Nos neveux, j'en suis bien certain, 

Se souTiendront de Basse lin, 

Perejoyeux du Faudeville : p. xxiij. 

Basselin is supposed to have died at the conclusion of the fifteenth 
century. His first editor was Jean le Houx, a poet and advocate of 
Vire, who was bom about the middle of the following centuiy. Le 
Houx was also an imitator of the Vaudevires of Basselin, and in short 
preferred poetry to his profession. The editors of the present volume 
have favoured us with one of Le Houx*s " Vaudevire pour le jour 
de la Ste. Yves, ffete des Avocats." 1 shall select the third and fourth 
stanzas as specimens of the imitator's muse : 

Que les auares Aduocats 
Gaignent ^ se rompre la teste, 
Pourvft que je sois de leur feste, 
Certes ne me souciray pas 
De leur procez ni dc leur sacs. 

MiEux vaut vider et assaillir 
Un pot qu'un procez difficile ; 
Au moins cela m'est plus utile. 
Car les procez me font vieillir^ 
Le bon vin me fait raieunir. 

Le Houx*s commendation of Basselin b thus expressed : 

De ce Virois conservons la mdmoire, 
A tout le moins k la table en beuvant ; 
Lequel ne beut jamais en rechignant, 
£t qui nous fait si joyeuscment boire- 



* The host, at these public and private festivals, usually called upon some 
one to recite or sing a song, chiefly of an amatory or chivalrous character 



436 



VIRE. 



rejoined he ; and giving me the address of the public 
librarian, we separated in the most cordial manner till 
the morrow. 

Une bonne boisson 

Prise avec marisson 

Pkr un satunuen, 

Ne lui hit point de bien. 
Mu8 le vin honor^ d'un gentil Vaodevire, 
N'aporte que 8ant^ en ne beuvant du pire. 

The poems of fiasselin were printed at least twice by Le Hoax— be- 
fore the year 1 600 but he took a few liberties with the style in adapt- 
ing it to his own times. Le Houx was persecuted by the clergy for 
the supposed licentiousness of these poems^ and could only obtain ab- 
solution by a journey to Rome^ and by the suppression of his own edi- 
torial labours. The first edition is now wholly unknown; and only 
two copies of the second, or last, should seem to have been known to 
the editors of the reprint under consideration. The title of that edi- 
tion is as follows : Le Litre des Chants nouveaux de Vaudevire, par 
ordre alphaheiique, corrigi et augment^ outre Iafr4c4dente impression; it 
Fire, chez Jean de Cesne, Imprtmeur** It is without date. Le Houx 
died in 1616, and this impression is supposed to have been published 
before his death. The text of this edition, together with a purer one 
found in an octavo MS. written in the black letter, and containing 
the poetry both of Basselin and Le Houx — (probably of the time of 
the latter) formed the basis of that of the present impression. This 
MS. belonged to a medical gentleman, of the name of Poliniere. The 
corruptions in orthography have been corrected from the models af- 
forded by the older compositions of Charles d^OrUans and Alain Char- 
tier* But it should doubtless appear that the curators of the present 



and this custom prevailed more particularly in Normandy than in other parts 
of France : 

Usuge est en Normandie, 
Que qui hebergiez est qu'il die 
\ Fable ou Chanson it son oste. 

See the authorities dted at page xv, of this Discours prdliminaire. 



VIKE. 



437 



I pdsted back to Monsieur Adam^ the printer and 
bookseller, and held aloft my blue-covered copy of 

edition were ignorant of the genuine, and somewhat elegant MS. 
written also in the gothic letter, which is incidentally noticed at page 
357^ ante, as in the possession of M. Pluquet. 

We now come, therefore, immediately to the volume before us, and 
to a consideration of the character of its contents. It is of a handsome 
form, approaching the size of a royal octavo. The half title is thus : 

Les Vaudevires par OUvier Bastelin" The fiill title, on the follow- 
ing leaf, is — " Les Vaudevires, Podsies du Ibme Steele, par Olivier 
Basselin, avec tin Discours sur sa Vie, et des Notes pour Vejcplication 
de quelques anciens mots. Vire, 1811.** On the reverse of this title- 
page we learn the names of the gentlemen, inhabitants of Vire — ten in 
number—'' by whose care and at whose expense the edition was put 
forth.** The preliminary discourse, with its notes, occupiesthe firstxxxvi 
pages. The text of the poet begins with this prefix : " Les Chants du 
Vaudevire par Olivier Basselin The text, composed ofxxvi Vaude- 
vires, occupies 190 pages : the notes conclude the volume at page 131. 
At the bottom of this last page we read the imprint thus : " De Vlm^ 
primerie de F, Le Court, d. Avranches." For the honour of the place, 
and of the memory of its old poetical inhabitant, the book should have 
been printed as well as published at Vire. There is nothing so very 
skilful or splendid in its typographical execution, as should have 
caused Monsieur Adam to have despaired. However, as the produc- 
tion of a provincial press, it is very creditably executed. 

I now proceed to submit a few specimens of the muse of this Fa- 
ther OF Bacchanalian Poetry in France 3 and must necessarily begin 
with a select few of those that are chiefly of a bacchanalian quality. 

VAUDEVIRE IL 



Atant le doz au feu et le ventre k la table, 
Estant parmi les pots pleins de via delectable, 

Ainsi comme ung poulet 
Je ne me laisseray morir de la pepie. 
Quant en debyroyc avoi la face cramoisie 

Et le nez violet. 



438 



VIRE. 



the Vaudemres as on unquestionable proof of the suc- 
cessful result of my visit to Monsieur La Renaudiere. 

Quant mon nez deyendra de couleur rouge on perse, 
Porteray lea couleurB que ch^t ma maitresse. 

Le vin rent le teint beau. 
Vault-il pas mieulx ayoir la couleur rouge et yive, 
Riche de beaulx rubis, que si pasle et ch^ve 

Ainsi quhmg beuyeur d'ean.* 

VAUDEVmE XXIX. 

Jb ne treuye en ma mededne 
Simple qui soit plus excellent, 
Que la noble plante de rigne 
IVoii le bon vin dairet {HToyient. • 

1l n'y a chez I'Apothicaire 
De drogue que je prize mieulx. 
Que ce bon vin qui me faict faire 
Le sang bon et Pesprit joyeulx. 

Qu'oN ne m'apporte point de casse, 
Et qu'on ne courre au Medecin : 
De Tin qu'on remplisse ma tasse, 
Qm me vouldra rendre bien sain. 

En mon r6cip^ qu'on ordonne 
Que je boind vin d'0rl6ans ^ 
La recepte me sera bonne, 
Les Mededns honnestes gens. 

Mais s'ils m'ordonnent de I'eau doulce, 
Ou la tisanne simplement, 



* The opening of the foUomng and third Vaudevire begins thus epigram- 
matically : 

Adam, c'est chose tr^ notolre 
Ne nous eust mis en tel dangier, 
Se au lieu du fatal mangier 
U se fust plustost mis k boire. 



VIRE. 



439 



N'est-ce pas done. Monsieur, (replied be) que je voiis 
ai bien conseili^ ? Ma foi, vous avez bien jou£ votre 
r61e." 

Sont gens qni veulent tout de course 
Me (aire morir povrement. 

Jb ne vueil ni laict ni fruictaige ; 
De ce je ne suys point friant. 
Mais je vendroye mon h^itage 
Pour avoir de ce vin friant. 

O que c'est dure d^partie 
De ma bouche et de ce bon vin 
A tons ceulx-1^ je porte envie 
Qui ont encor le verre plein. 

The greater part of the Xlth Vaudevire has some fair good broad 
humour about it : 

VAUDEVIRE XL 

Certes hoc vinum est bonus : 
Du maulvais latin ne nous chaille, 
Se bien congru n'estoit ce jus, 
Le tout ne vauldroit rien que vaille. 
Escolier j'appris que bon vin 
Aide bien au maulvais latin. 

Cestb sentence praticquant, 
De latin je n'en appris gakre ; 
Y pensant estre asscz s^avant, 
Puisque bon vin aimoye h boire. 
Lorsque maulvais m on a beu, 
Latin n'est bon, fust-il congru 

Fy du latin, parlous fran^ois, 
Je m'y recongnois davantiuge. 
Je vueil boire une bonne fois. 
Car voicy ung mabtre breuvaige : 
Certes se j'en beuvoye soubvent, 
Je deviendroye fort ^oquent. 



440 



VIRE. 



Ce*9t un livre de la plii8*giwide raret^, mdmechez 
noas.** Leaving the precious cargo with him, and 

The manner of thanking his jolly host, and of getting up from a 
well furnished table^ is thus humorously expressed : 

VAUDEVIRE Xn. 

C7bst assez, troupe honorable, 
De ces gentils chants Virois ; 
n fault se lever de table, 
Le reste en une aultre fois ; 

Car peut-estre 

Quele maistre 
Qm nous assemble edans 

N'oze dire 

Le martire 
£t mal que lid font les dents : 
Souvent incommodit^ 
Provient d'avoir trop chants. 

Mais il est trop Tdontaire 
Poor avoir le cneur marry 
IVavoir veu la bonne chi^ 
Que nous avons fedct chez luy. 

Monsieur I'hoste, 

Voyez, j'oste 
Mon bonnet honnestement. 

On me prie 

Que je die 
Qu'on Tous rent graces humblement 
Mais si le vin reste au pot, 
Sommes encor de Pdcot 

Faictbs-bn layer la bouche 
A quelques uns d'entre nous, 
Avant qu'ung varlet y touche, 
Puisque tout d^nd de tous. 

Je ne cure, 

Je Tous Jure, 



VIRE. 



441 



telling liim that I purposed immediately visiting the 
public library, he seemed astonished at my eagerness 

Jamais ma bouche aultrement 

Nostre hoetesse, 

Je Yous lusse 
Mille mercis en payement ; 
Cecy seroit esventd, 
J'en boy votre santd. 

J' AT ouy-dire it ma grand-m^, 
Tonsioura des vieulx on i^prent. 
Que de la goutte demi^ 
La bonne chiere ddpent 

Bonne femme. 

Que ton ame 
Piusse estre au ciel en repos ! 

J'ay envie. 

Si j'ay vie, 
D'ensuibvre bien tes propos ; 
Quant sur le bon vin je suls, 
J'en laisse moins que je puis. 

A further variety of Bassclin*s metre is discoverable in his KXIId. 
Vaudevire, thus : 

VAUDEVIRE XXIL 



He! qu'avons-nous affaire 
Du Turc ny du Sophy, 

Don don. 
Pourveu que j'aye k boire, 
Oes grandeurs je dis fy, 
Don don. 
Trincque, Seigneur, le vin est bon : 
Hoc acuii ingenium. 

Qui songe en vin ou vigne. 
Est ung prdsaige beureux, 
Don don. 



442 



VIRE. 



about books — and asked me if I had ever published any 
thing bibliogrcq^hicalP ^^Car enfin^ Monsieur, la plus- 

Le vin k qui redugne 

Rent le cneiir tout joyeuz, 
Don don. 
Trincque, Seigneur, le Tin est bon : 
Hoc acuU ing^nhm. 

Meschaxt est qui te broiuUe, 
Je parle aux tavernien, 

Don don. 
Le breuyaige k grenouille 
Ne doibt estre aux celHen, 
Don don. 
Trincque, Seigneur, le vin est bon : 
Hoc acuU ingenium. 

Que ce vin on ne coiq[^, 
Ain^ois qu'on b^nre net, 

Don don. 
Je pry toute la trouppe 
De vuider le godet, 
Don don. 
Trincque, Seigneur, le Tin est bon : 
Hoc acttit ingenium* 

1 have observed that the poetry of Basselin is almost wholly devoted 
to the celebration of the physical effects of wine upon the body and 
animal spirits and that the gentler emotions of the tender passion 
are rarely described in his numbers. In consequence he has not in- 
voked the Goddess of Beauty to associate with the God of Wine : to 

" Drop from her myrtle one leaf in his bowl 
or, when he does venture to introduce the society of a female, it is 
done after the following fashion — which discovers however an extreme 
facility and melody of rhythm. The burden of the song seems wonder- 
fully accordant with a Bacchanalian note. 

VAVDEVIRE XIX. 

En ung jardin d'ombraige tout convert, 
Au chaud du jour, ay treuv^ Madalaine, 



VIRR 



443 



part des Firois ne savent rien de la literature an- 
gloise** — concluded he . . . but I had just witnessed a 

Qui pr^ le pi^ d'mig sicomorre yert 
Donnoit au bort d'une claire fontune ; 
Son lit estoit de thin et maijolaine. 
Son tetin frais n'estoit pas bien cach^ : 

lyamour touch^ 
Poor contempler sa beaut^ souvenune 
Incontinent je m'en suys approch^* 

Sua, 8US, qa'on se resveille, 

Voicy vin excellent 

Qui feuct lever Poreille ; 

n fuct mol qui n'en prent 

Jb n'eus pouvoir, si belle la voyant, 
De m'abfltenir de baizotter sa bouche ; 
Si bien qu'enfin la belle e'esveillant* 
Me regardant avec ung oeil flEurouche, 
Me dit ces mots : Biberon, ne me touche, 
Tu n'est pas digne avecq moy d'esprouver 

Le jeu d'amer : 
Belle fillette h son aize ne couche 
Avecq celuy qiu ne fiedct qu'yvrongner. 

Sus, BUS, qu'on se resveille, 

Voicy vin excellent 

Qui fiEuct lever Poreille ; 

II fiuct mol qui n'en prent. 

Jb lay respons : Ce n'est pas desbonneur 
D'amer le vin, une choze si bonne : 
Vostre bel oeil entretient en chaleur, 
Et le vin en santd, ma personne. 
Poor vous amer, foult-il que j'abandonne 
Le soing qu'on doibt avoir de sa sant^ ? 

Fy de Beauty 
Qui son amant de desplaisir guerdonne, 
Au lieu de bien qu'il avoit mdrit^ 

Sus, sus, qu'on se resveille, 

Voicy vin excellent 

Qui fiuct lever Poreille ; 

n fiuct mol qui n'en prent. 
VOL. I. D d 



444 



VtBE. 



s]^lendid exception to this sweeping clause of eensnre. 
1 then sought the residence of the Abb6 Du Mbft- 

J'atmb bien mienlx I'omhre d'ong cabaret 

£t da beuchon de taverne yineuse^ 

Que cil qui est en xmg bean jardinet 

La Belle alon me respond despiteoie ; 

Tu ne m'es bon, cherefae one aaltie amoureuae. 

Poisque par toy j'ay perdn mes amonrs, 

Tousiours, tonBionn» 
Contre Tamour et la soif rigooreusey 
Que sois, bon Tin, arm6 de ton seoonra. 

Su8, 8U8, qnon se resveille, 

Voicy Tin Excellent 

Qui feict lever Toreille ; 

n fiiict mol qui n'en prent. p. 33. 

There is no space for fuiiher extracts 3 and possibly too much already 
may be supposed to have been devoted to the poetry of Basselin. Bat 
this is a volume in every respect interesting — ^both to the literary aoti- 
quary and to the Book-Collector. It remains therefore only to add-r 
according to the very minute and specific note, acoompftnying the 
copy of it presented to me by Monsieur Lanon de La Renaudiere^ one 
of the Editors — and who now meditates a new and improved as well 
as enlarged edition of it — that^ of this privately circulated impression, 
ONLY ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY COPIES wcFc printed } of which uumber 
ten were upon red coloured paper, of the manufacture of Vire— ten 
upon fine vellum paper— ten upon vellum paper in quarto— ten upon 
common paper in quarto. In his projected edition, M. La Renaudiere 
purposes to separate the poetry of Basselin from that of Le Houx— 
which have been somewhat mingled in the volume before us : as well 
as to write notes upon local customs, events, and places mentioned or 
alluded toby Basselin, &c. It is proper also to add, that this gentleman 
is the author of the article Basselin in the Biograpfue UnwerteUe-^ 
which work indeed he is a regular contributor. The copy under con- 
sideration has been recently bound by C. Lewis, in red morocco binding, 
with every appropriate garniture in the character of gilt ornaments : — a 
compliment due to the liberality of apiiit, and kindness of disposition, 
of its enthusiastic donor. 



VIRE. 



445 



'TVEUX, the public librarian. That gentleman was 
ftom bome, on a dinner party. I obtained information 
of the place where he might be found ; and considering 
two o'clock to be rather too early an hour (even in 
France) to disturb a gentleman during the exercise 
of so important a function, I strolled in the neigh- 
bourhood of the street, where he was regaling, for a 
fhn hour and half : when, at the expiration of that 
time, I ventured to knock at the door of a very res^ 
pectable mansion, and to enquire for the bibliogra- 
phical Abb6. ^ He is here. Sir, and has just done 
dinner. May I give him your name I am a stran- 
ger : an Englishman ; who, on the recommendation 
of Monsieur La Renaudiere, wishes to see the public 
library. But I will call again in about an hour." 
^^y no means : by no means : the Abb6 will see you 
•immediately." And forthwith appeared a very comely, 
tall, and respectable-looking gentleman, with his hair 
en pldn costume, both as to form and powder. Indeed 
I bad rarely before witnessed so prepossessing a figure. 
His salutation^^d address were most gracious and 



but to accompany him to the place which I wished 
to visit. Without even returning to his friends, he 
-took his hat, gave me the precedence on quitting the 
bouse — and in one minute, to my surprise, I found 
* myself in the street with the Abb^ de Mortueux, in 
tbe high way to the Public Library. In our way 
tiiither our discourse was constant and unrestrained. 
^You appear here. Monsieur TAbb^, to be partial 
to literature; ..but allow me first to congratulate 
you on the beautiful environs of your town." For 



wlaning; an( 




me that I had nothing to do 



446 



VIRE. 



literature in general, we are pretty well disposed. In 
regard to the beauties of the immediate neighbourhood 
of Vire, we should be unworthy inhabitants indeed, if 
we were not sensible of them.*' In five minutes we 
reached the Library. 

The shutters of the room were fastened, but the wor- 
thy Abb£ opened them in a trice ; when I saw, for the 
first time in Normandy, what appeared to be a genuine, 
old, unmutilated, unpillaged library. The room couM 
be scarcely more than twenty-two feet square.* I 
went instantly to work, with eyes and hands, in the 
ardent hope, and almost full persuasion, of finding 
something in the shape of a good old Greek or Roman 
Classic, or French Chronicle, or Romance. But, alas, 
I looked, and handled the tomes in vain ! The histoiy 
of the library is this : — ^The founder was a Monsieur 
PicHON : who, on being taken prisoner by the Eng- 
lish, at the capture of Louisburg in 1758, resided a 
long time in England under the name of Tyrrbl, and 
lived in circumstances of respectability and even of opu- 
lence. There — whether on the dispeinsion of the libra- 
ries of our Meads, Foulkes*, and RaiMtasons, I know 
not — he made his collection ; took his books over with 
him to Jersey, where he died in 1780 : and bequeathed 
them, about 3000 in number, to his native town of Vire. 
M. du Mortueux, who gave me these particulars, has 
drawn up a little memorial about him. His portrait, 
executed by an English artist, (whilst he lived among 
us) adorns the library ; with which I hope it will go 
down to a remote and grateful posterity. The colour- 

* It forms the building to the ieft> in the middle ground, in the 
▼iewof theFoant«iD>&c. See page 4S4> ante.' 



VIRE. 



447 



ingof this portrmt is faded: but it is evident that 
Monsieur Pichon had an expressive and sensible phy- 
siognomy. Mr. Lewis could not do every thing ; or I 
would have carried a transcript of it^ by his faithful 
pencil^ with me to Paris — to be executed by a French 
burin. 

Wonderful to relate, this collection of books was un- 
touched during the Revolution ; while the neighbour- 
ing library of the Cordeliers was ransacked without 
mercy. But I regret to say that the books in the cup- 
boards are getting sadly damp. Do not expect any 
thing very marvellous in the details of this collection ; 
The old-fashioned library doors, of wood, are quite in 
character with what they protect. Among the earlier 
printed books, I saw a very bad copy of Sweynheym 
and Pannartz's edition of the De Civitate Dei of St. 
Austin, of the date of 1470 ; and a large folio of 6e- 
ring*s impression of the Sermons of Thomas de Utino 
printed in the xviith year of the reign of Louis XI : 
or about the year 147L This latter was rather a fine 
copy. A little black-letter Latin Bible by Froben, of 
the date of 1495, rather tempted me ; but I could not 
resist asking, in a manner half serious and half jocose^ 
whether a napoleon would not secure me the posses- 
ion of a piquant little volume of black-letter tracts, 
printed by my old friend Guido Mercator?* The 
Ahbi smiled : observing — mon ami, on fait voir les 
livres ici : on les lit meme : mais on ne les vend pas.** 
I felt the force of this pointed reply : and was re- 
solved never again to ask an ecclesiastic to part with 

* Some account of thiB printer^ together with a fac-simile of hia 
device, may be seen in the BiUiographkal D€C€uneron, vol. ii. p. 33-6. 



446 



VIRE. 



a black-letter volume^ even though it were printed by 
^my old Mend Goido Mercator*" Seeing^ there wafe 
very little more deserving of investigation, 1 enqnired 
of my amiable guide about the Library of thb 
Cordeliers,*" of which he had just made mention; 
He told me that it consisted chiefly of canon and civil 
law, and had been literally almost destroyed : that he 
had contrived however to secure a great number of 

rubbishing theological books/* (so he called them !) 
which he sold for three sous a piece — and with the pro- 
duce of which he bought many excellent works for the 
library* I should like to have had the sifting of this 

theological rubbish Peradventure an Olivet BiUe, 
or a TyndaTs New Testament^ (in former times, when 
theCalvinists got a temporary ascendancy) might have 
found their way amidst the interminable rows of the 
Latin vulgate impression. Or rather, I wished to per- 
suade myself that this supposition was not a mere 
delusion ; and accordingly rummaged, high and low, 
in all directions . . . but to no purpose. It remained 
therefore only to thank the Abb6 most heartily for his 
patient endurance of my questions and searches, and 
particularly to apologise for bringing him from his 
surrounding friends. He told me, beginning with a 
" soyez tranquille," that the matter was not worth 
either a thought or a syllable ; and ere we quitted the 
library, he bade me observe the written entries of the 
numbers of students who came daily thither to I'ead. 
There were generally (he told me) from fifteen to 
twenty hard at it and I saw the names of not 
fewer than ninety-two who aspired to the honour 
and privilege of having access to the Bibliothbca 



VIBE. 



449 



PiCHONiANA. There is certainly no evidence of a back- 
wardness of disposition to obtain knowledge among 
the students of the department of Calvados. 

For the third time^ in the same day, I visited Monr 
sieur Adam; to carry away, like a bibliomaniacal 
Jason, the fleece I had secured. I saw there a grave^ 
stout gentleman — who saluted me on my entrance^ 
and who was introduced to me by Monsieur A. by the 
name of Seguin. He had been waiting (he said) fuU 
three quarters of an hour to see me, and concluded by 
observing, that, although a man in business, he had 
aspired to the honour of authorship. He had written, 
in feet, two rather interesting — but wretchedly, and 
incorrectly printed — duodecimo volumes, relating to 
the Socage,* in the immediate vicinity of Vire ; and 

♦ relating to the Socage.'] — ^The first publication is entitled EnoT 
iur VHistoire de V Industrie du Bocage en G6iSral, et de la VUle de 
Fhre sa capitate en particulier, 8(c" Par M. Richard Seouin. A 
Vh-e, chez Adam, Imprimeur, an 1810^ ISmo. It is not improbable that 
I may have been the only importer of this useful and crowdedly- 
paged duodecimo volume 3 which presents us with so varied and ani- 
mated a picture of the manners^ customs^ trades^ and occupations of 
the Bocains and Virois^ that I am persuaded the following extracts 
will be received rather with indulgence than censure. 

Manufactories of Cloth and Papbb. 
"La reunion dcs deux rivieres de Fire et de Vir^e, ainsi que de plu- 
oeurs ruisseaux^ ont encore facility en cette ville Tdtablissement de 
deux autres belles manufactures^ la draperie et la papeterie. La 
Vir^e^ dont les eaux claires et limpides roulent sur un sable dork, 
semble avoir ^t^ plac^e expr^s par la nature pour Templacement des 
moulins k papier; car les bords de la Vire ^tant couverts de moulins k 
fouler^ et lea eaux de cette riviere ^tant continuellement trouble par 
la craase des d^^raia des draps et tirtaine cpi'on y foule en grande 



460 



VIBE. 



' W1B8 himself the sole vender and distributer of his pub- 
lications. On my expressing a wish to possess these 

qaantit^^ elle ne serait gu^res propre pour la papeterie ; cependant il 
8*7 en est ^tabli qaelques-unes depuis la grande inondation de Vire^ ar- 
ibrie en 1782. 

''Flusieurs moulins foulons ayant 6t6 entrain^ par les eaux, quelques 
fiibricants de papier achet^rent les emplacexnens situ^ sous le ch&teau 
de Vire, et y Mtirent plusieurs moulios qu*on y voiC. On en tnmve 
aussi quelques-uns sur la petite riyi^re de Maisoncelles^ qui se jette 
dans la Vire audessus de cette villej mais le plus grand nombre des 
papeteries de Vire> et ks plus belles de tout le Bocage^ sont sur la 
Vir^e. Au commencement du quatorzi^me si^cle^ le papier fiit in- 
vent^ par un citadin de Padoue en Italic. Auparavant on ne fiaisait 
usage que de parchemin. On ne commen^a k s*en servir en France 
qu'en 1342. Toute la Valine des Vaux de Vire est remplie de 
moulins k papier^ de vastes magasins^ tant pour loger le chifibn, la 
oolle et les autres mati^res premieres que poiu' le papier de toute 
esp^ qu*on y fabrique en grande quantity. Toutes ces usines^ ainsi 
que les maisons des manufacturiers qui les accompagnent, sont b&ties 
presque toutes en pierre de taille et bien construites^ &c. &c.*' p. 156. 

''Quoiqu*on ne puisse fixer au juste T^tablissement de la papeterie k 
^re^ il parait pourtant que c'est dans le courant du seizi^me siMe 
puisque d^ ]*an ICOO^ il y avait d^jk des moulins k papier b&tis dans 
les Vaux de Vire 3 ainsi il y avait k peine deux si^cles que cette inven- 
tion dtait connue qu*on en fabriquait dejk k Vire. Les manufacturiers 
de cette ville tirent la plus grande partie du chiffon necessaire^ de la 
ci-devant Brefeigne. Tout le papier de cette fabrique est export^ en 
diff^rentes villes de Tintferieur, k Rouen, au H&vre et sur-tout k Paris, 
*otl il en est vendu la msyeure partie.** p. 1 59. 

In the following paragraph we learn that " St. Anne is the pre- 
siding patroness of paper makers 5 and that the anniversary of her 
birth day is celebrated by a suspension of all labour, and by proces- 
sions and amusements among the workmen.*' But of these two ma- 
nufetctorics, that of cloth is the greater. The author becomes quite 
animated and picturesque in a portion of his description of it. 

Quoiqu*il en soit, cette manu&cture^^tablie k Vire^ ne tarda pas k y 



VIRE, 



451 



books, he quitted the premises, and begged I would 
wait his return with a copy or two of them. While he 

fiiire de grands progr^. Le cours tortueux de la riviere de Vire^ sa 
rapidit^^ lea rochers dont elle est remplie^ fbrmant aupr^ de cette 
Tille une grande quantity de cascades et de sauts> a rendu focile la 
construction des moulins k foulon, et autres qui y sont en assez grand 
nombre. D*autre part^ la terre qui sert k ddgraisser les draps s'y 
trouve ti^s k commodity dans la lande de Clermont $ les fbulons de 
Vire la yantent comme excellente et lui donnent la pr^fi^rence sur 
toutes celles qu*on trouve ailleurs. Ces divers avantages naturels 
i^unis, &voris^rent beaucoup r^tablissement et les progi^ de cette 
gninde manufacture, ime des plus considerables qui soit en France, an 
moins par le grand nombre d*ouvriers qu'elle occupe, puisque je ne 
crois pas exag^rer de porter leur nombre k plus de cinq mille per- 
sonnes, tant dans la ville qu*k la campagne.** p. 161 . 

During the invasion of Italy by the French, it was the town of Vire 
which supplied all the clothing — especially the coarser part— for the 
army. Hear what the author observes upon this. 

Dans ce tems-lk nos arme^s faisant de grands progr^ en Italic, Vire 
fbumit k cette arm^e une immense quantity de draps de bourre, de la 
plus basse qualitd qu*il soit possible de faire. On les nomma cisal- 
pins, du nom d*une r^publique nouvellement fondle. Ces draps gris, 
bruns, et de toutes series de couleurs mk\€es, semblaient ^tre toi^ours 
trop bons, puisqu*on voyait des marchands, apr^s les avoir achetds, les 
fedre remettre k la ramme pour les faire allonger de plusieurs aunes : 
aussi le plus cher des cisalpins allait-il au prix de cine francs Taune } 
car les Virois ont le talent de faire du drap au prix le plus modique 
qu'on puisse d^irer. Quoiqu'il en soit, ce talent, si c*en est im, a foit 
entrer dans Vire, des sommes immenses de numeraire, et les cisalpins 
ont enrichi bien des drapiers, qui auraient tout perdu, s*ils n*avaient 
febriqud que des draps fins et de haut prix.*' p. 172 

The concluding sentence, and that which immediately follows* 



* Voil^, je crois, la vrme cause qoi fiidt que la dnq>erie de Mrs est depois 
long-tems dans le mfime ^tat, d'oil elle ne peat gu^res espd^r de sortir, paroe 



VIRE. 



was gone, M. Adam took the opportunity of telling me 
that he was a rich, respectable tradesman ; but that, 

the preceding, were one aroong the causes which drew down upon the 
author the indignation of his fellow-townsmen. I proceed to pro- 
bably more interesting extracts ; and shall commence with that reladng 
to the 

Drbbb and Charact£r of th£ Women. 
" Quant au costumb des femmbs d'ai:yourd*hui> comme il fiaudrait on 
volume entier pour le d^crire, je n*ai pas le courage de m'engager 
dans ce labyrinte de ridicules et de frivolity. Ce que j*en dirai seuk- 
ment en g^n^ral^ c*est qu'autant les femmes du temps pass^, etaieot 
d^centes et chastes^ et se faisaient gloire d*6tre graves et modestes, 
antant celles de notre si^de^ mettent tout en ceuvre pour paraltre cj- 
nyques et vohiptueuses. Nous ne sommes plus au temps oil les plus 
grandes dames se fEiisaient honneur de porter la cord^^re.* Leurs ha- 
biUemens ^taient aussi larges et ferm^s^ que cdui des femmes de nos 
jours sont ouverts et l^rs et d*ime finesse que les formes du coqis, 
au moindre mouvement^ se dessinent^ de mani^re ^ ne laisser rien ig- 
sorer. A peine se couvrent-elles le sein d'un voile transparent ti^ 
l^er ou de je ne sais quelle palatine qu'elles nomment point-k-jour, 
quij en couvrant tout> ne cache rien ; en sorte que si elles n'etalent 
pas tous leurs charmes k d^couvert> c*est que les hommes les moins 
acrupuleux^ qui se contentent de les persifler^ en seraient revolt^ 
tout-k-fait. D*ailleurs^ c*est que ce n*est pas encore la mode 3 plu- 
aieurs poussent m^me Timpudence jusqu*k venir dans nos temples 
tans coiffure^ les cheveux h^riss^ comme des furies 3 d*autres^ par 
une bizarrerie qu*on ne pent expliquer se d£pouillent> autant qu*il est 
en leur pouvoir^ des marques de leur propre sexe^ semblent vougir 
d*6tre femmes^ et deviennent ridicules en voulant paraitre demi- 
hommes. 

que pluBieurs obstacles presqu'inTincibles s'y opposent. Le premier est dans 
la quality des hunes qu'on y employe ; un second vient du trop peu d'attention 
de la part des fabricants. " 

^ Ceinture alors regardde comme Ic symbole de la continence. La reine de 
FVaiioe en d^rut les femmes titr^ dont la oonduite ^t irr^rochable." 
Hiii. (h im rhm. ie Bretmgme i la Fnmee par PabU IrmL 



VIRE. 



453 



having siud some severe things of the manufactures 
of Vire in his Jirst publication^ relating to the cwil 

Api^ ayoir d^shonor6 l*habit des femmes« elles ont encore vouln 
prostituer celui des hommes. On les a vues adopter succesaivement 
lea chapeauxy les redingotes^ les vestes^ les gilets, les bottes et jus- 
qu*aux boutons. Enfin si, au lieu de jupons, ellea avaient pu s'ac- 
ooounoder de Tusage de la culotte, la metamorphose ^tait complette; 
mais elks ont pr&f^r^ les robes tralnantes 3 c*est dommage que la na- 
ture ne leur ait donn6 une troisi^me main, qui leur serait n^cessaire 
pour tenir cette longue queue, qui sou vent patrouille laboue ou balaye 
la poussi^re. Pliit k Dieu que les anciennes lois fussent encore en vi- 
goeur, oil ceux et celles qui portaient des habits indecent etaientobligifo 
d*aller k Rome pour en obtenir Vabsolution, qui ne pouvait leur Hre 
accordee que par le souverain pontife.* 

Eneffet, le pape Eugene ne permit, en 1435, aux Cordeliers, d*ab- 
aondre les femmes qui portaient des habits ind^cens et des robes k 
queues, que dans le cas oil elles n'auraient fait que suirre la coutume 
da pays et non k dessein de squire; et s*il permit ^galement d*ab80U- 
dre les taiUeurs et couturi^res qui fEiisaient de ces habillemens, ce ne 
fbt qu'k condition qu'ils n'imagineraient plus de nouvelles modes. O 
antiques et sages ordonnances, que vous seriez utiles de nos jours ! 

Mais apr^ m'^tre ennuy^ k d^uvrir la turpitude de quelques folks 
k qui la fureur des modes toume la t^te, ou dont la toilette fait toute 
I'occupation, il est doux de se reposer sur un sujet plus agr^able, en 
essayant de tracer le tableau des vertus et des talens du plus grand 
nombre des femmes du Bocage, oi^ Ton peut dire que les bonnes 
moBuri et Thonnfttet^ sont encore en honneur, malgr^ k d^bordement 
des Tices qui ont inond^ la France pendant Tabsence de la Religion. 
Mais comme ks Bocains y sont ti^-attach6s et que la plupart lui sont 
rest^s fiddles, m^me durant son exil, on doit esp^rer que Tair hagard et 
les reparties fibres de quelques femmes (assaisonntes d^un b. ou d'une 
t) disparaStront enti^rement. On voit d^k avec plaisir que k saine 
morale reprend son empire dc jour en jour, sur-tout parmi les femmes. 



* Foifez Phab. des hcol siculien par MM Boiletm. Reeriatkms kUi m i qtm 
pmr M, Dr€%m-Dur^wr^ tme II. 



454 



vniE. 



histoiy of the Bocains^ his townsmen sharply resented 
what they considered as reflections thrown out against 

qui ne devraient jamais oublier que la sagesse et la modestie aoiit kt 
deux plus beaux oraemens de leur sexe. 

"Les femmes du Bocage, et sur-tout les Viroises^ joigiient k un eqvit 
▼if et e^jou^ les qualit^s du coips les plus estimables. Blondes et bruues 
pour le plus grand nombre^ elles sont de la moyenne taille^ mais bte 
Ibnn6es : elles ont le teint firais et fleuri^ Toeil vif^ le visage yenadi, k 
demarche leste^ un air ktoBk et tr^ ^^gantes dans tout lenr maintiai. 
Si on dit avee raison que les Bayeusines sont belles^ les fiUes da Bo- 
cage> qui sont leurs voisines^ ne leur oklent en aucune mani^^ car en 
gki6ral le sang est ti^beau en ce pays. Quant aux talens spiritods^ 
elles les possMent k un dkgrk Eminent. Elles parlent avec aisanoe^ cot 
le repartie prompte^ et outre les soins du m^nage^ oh elles excdknt 
de telle sorte qu*il n*y a point de contrfees oil il y ait plus de linge> 
dies entendent k menreiUe^ et font avee succts^ tout le detail du com- 
meroe." p.ttS. 

These passages also^ notwithstanding the sort of amende honor- 
able made in the concluding paragraph^ raised a storm of indignadon 
and bitterness against the imsuspecting author. From a consideration 
that copies of this work may be of extreme rarity^ as well as from a 
conviction that it contains within itself some very interesting informa- 
tion^ I shall submit two— and only two more passages : the one^ rela- 
ting to the introduction of the art of painting } the other^ to that of 
the art of printing^ in the Bocage. They are as follow: 

Le grand nombre d'anciens tableaux qu*on voyait dans les ^liseset 
les monast^s du Bocage^ peuvent faire croire que cet ^tat y 6tait en 
estimes sans doute que la plupart de ces tableaux n*avaient pas kt6 
ex^cut^s que par des 6trangers^ puisque ce fiit un peintre de Rome 
qui vint peindre la voiite de Valise de Vire en 1 534^ cela prouve qu'il 
n'y avait point de peintre en ce pays^ puisqu*on fot oblig^ d*en foire 
venir un de si loin et k si grands frais. Entre tous les anciens tableaux 
qui se voyaient dans T^glise Notre-Dame de Vire^ on remarquait Tado- 
ration des bergers qui 6tait autrefois au maitre-autel ; il est actuelle- 
ment plac6 dans la chapelle N uve^ au c6tk de T^pitre. Quoiqu*il soit 
vieux^ il porte encore des marques de son ancienne beautfe. Le co- 



VIRE. 



456 



them ; and M. S^gnio was told that perhaps his per^ 
sonal safety was endangered ! ... He wanted not a 

lorifl en dtait ^datant^ il fbrmait un bel ensemble, on y remarquait 
BUT- tout un bel ange qui parait dans Tadmiration, ainsi qu'un beiger 
tenant sa houlette, ayant un agneau coucb^ k c6t6 de lui.*' p. 945. 

Quant k l'imprim brib, on sait que cet art n*e8t pas anden, puisqu'il 
n*a invente qu*au quinzi^me uMe. Pendant tout le si^le suhrant, 
n*y ent gu^res que les grandes villes qui en eussent. Ainsi il n*ett 
pas etonnant qu'il n*y en edt pas au Socage. 

''Le prenuer Imprimeur dont on ait connaissance, pour la ville de 
Vire, fut ut nomme Jean Decetne, yers le commencement du 17e. 
aiMce. Qttdques exemplaires de son impression font voir que, non* 
•eulement il 6tait habfle dans Tart typograpbique, mais qu*il 4tait sa- 
vant et poss^dait les langues andennes : car dans quelques livres sortis 
de ses presses, on trouve, outre le Latin, du Grec, et m^me de Viil- 
hreu. II y a entr autres un livre de controverses contre les Calvinistes, 
que Decetne imprima en 1670. Les exemplaires en sont ti^ 
rarcs. 

'' Depnis sa mort, jusqu'en 1790,\^re n*eut aucune Imprimerie, mais 
k cette epoque, la revolution etant arriv6e, M. Malo, frfere-qu^teur cor* 
ddier, du couvent de cette ville, se fit Imprimeur. Mau M. Malo osa 
aspirer k une plus baute fortune. On a vu bien des fob, sous la baire 
et le froc, le m^me courage, que sous le casque et la cuirasse. M. 
Malo, sentant p^tiUer le feu martial au fond de ses entrailles, se fit sol« 
dat, et la fortune le servit si bien qu*il devint g^n^ral. Ce grade valait 
infiniment mietix que de fieure g^mir la presse 5 aussi il la vendit, et le 
sieur Lebel lui succMa. 

" Un an api^s, le sieur Jdam en ^tablit une nouvelle k Vire. Ainsi 
cette villeposs^ actuellement deux Imprimeries. £n 1S08, le pre- 
mier Janvier, le sieur Adam entreprit de publier un nouveau journal, 
qu'il continue sous le nom de Journal de Varrondisiement de Vire*' p. 
S53. 

It seems not a little bevere and discouraging, tbat a man, wbo, im- 
mersed in business, and writing botb to amuse bimself and to exalt tbe 
talents of bis townsmen — as M. S^guin bas done — (in tbe litde volume 
before us, of upwards of 400 pages) sbould bave met witb a fate so 
wbolly unmerited and unexpected. But doubtless tbere must be a 



456 



VIRE. 



fiecoad hint — ^but fled from home with precifntancjr: 
and in his absence the populace suspended his efllgy^ 

secret history^ or key^ attached to the transaction^ whichlfiranklyowi 
I have neither the curiosity nor the means to ascertain. We now 
come to the second of M. Spain's publications— entitled HistoireMUi' 
iairedes Bocains; k Vire^ &c. 1816 12mo. pp. 429. This is in emy 
respect more generally interesting (beyond the limits of Vire) than its 
precursor. The author begins thus : 

Lorsque je donnai monHistoire de Tlndustrie du Socage au Public, 
je me vis en butte aux calomnies les plus odieuses et les plus oonlia- 
dictoires. Ma vie fiit expos^e aux plus graves dangers. Je fas jng^ 
sans examen, condamn^ avec fureur^ et livr^ aux ex6cuteurs des hautci 
oeuvres, avant m^me d'avoir pu ouvrir la bouche pour me d^endie. 
Mais Tavidit^ mercantile qu*on supposait bless6e^ n*en ktail quele pii- 
texte la jalousie en 6tait le veritable styet^ et Tesprit r^olutionnaife 
permettait alors de tout oser contre moi.* 

II est vrai que ce n*est pas d'aiyourd*hui que les hommes qui ont le 
plus travaill^ k illustrer leur Patrie, ont ktb honnis et p^rsecutte. 
N*est-ce pas dans ce pays qu'ont vtoi des Olivier Basseiin et des Ma^- 
aire, dontTun fut priv^ de ses droits les plus l%itimes, et I'autre rfeduit 
k mourir de mis^re? Si de si grands honunes ont 6te m^connusoa 
m^pris^s^ je sais que je ne suis pas trop en droit de me plaindre^ car je n*ai 
ni leur talent^ ni leur r6putation^ aussi n*est-ce point pour accuser per* 
Sonne que je rapporte ces faits^ mais seulement pour obtenir la grioe 
d'etre lu avant d'etre jug6^ afin du moins de n'^tre condamn^ que dans 
les formes. J'aurais pu citer en ma faveur le t^moignage honorable 
que m'ont rendu plusieurs Acad^miciens et autres Savans illustres, 
tant de la Capitalc que des D^partemens. Mais quelques soient les 
clameurs de mes ennemis^ je me contenterai de leur r^pondre avec un 
des plus grands liommes du 16^. sl^cle^f Faites mieux, ou kugsex /aire 
ceux d qui Dieu en a donn4 le talent. I** 

♦ Voyez le Journal de rArrondissement de Vire, Aodt 18 10. 
+ Le Card. Ximdn^s aux ddtracteurs d'Erasme. Dupin des Antiquity 
T. 1. p. 77., Fleuri Hist. Eccl. T. 26, p. 339. 

X Chacun k ce metier 

Peat perdre impun^ent de I'encre et du papier. BoUew. 



VIRE. 



457 



and burnt it before the door of his house. 'Riis, how-> 
ever^ did not cool the ardour of authorship in M. 
guin. He set about publishing his military history of 

This publication is refdly filled with a great variety of curious histo« 
rical detail — throughout which is interspersed much that relates to 
" romaunt lore*' and romantic adventures. The civil wars between 
MoNTOOM£]iT and Matignon form alone a very important and inter* 
esting portion of the volume 3 and it is evident that the author has ex* 
erted himself with equal energy and anxiety to do justice to both par. 
ties'— except that occasionally he betrays his antipathies against the 
Hugonots.* I have quoted the commencing passage of this work : let 
me also quote the concluding one. There may be at least half a 
score readers who may think it something more than merdy histo- 
rically curious : 

Je finirai done ici mon Uistoire. Je n*ai point parl^ d*im grand 
nombre des faitsd*armes etd'actions glorieuses^ qui se sont passes dans 
la guerre de Tind^pendance des Etats-Unis d'Am^rique oti beaucoup 
de Bocains ont eu part ; mais mon principal dessein a 6te de traiter des 
goerres qui ont eu lieu dans le Bocage 3 ainsi je crois avoir atteint mon 
bot^ qui ^tait d*ecrire THistoire Militaire des Bocains par des fiedts el 
non pas des phrases $ je ne peux cependant omettre une circonstance 
glorieuse pour le Bocage 3 c*est la visite que le bon et infbrtune Louis 
XVI. fit aux Bocains en 1786. Ce grand Monarque dont les vues 
^talent aussi sages que profondes^ avait resolu de faire construire le 
beau Port de Cherbourg^ ouvrage vraiment Royal^ qui est ime des 
plus nobles entreprises qui aicnt ^te fiutes depuis Torigine de la Mo- 
narchic. Les Bocains sentirent I'avantage d*un si grand bienfoit. Le 
Roivenant visiter les travaux^ fut accueilli avec un enthousiasme presqu*- 
impossible 4 d^crire^ ainsi que les Princes qui I'accompagnaient. Sa 
marche ressemblait k un triomphe. Les peuples accouraient en fbule 
du fond des campagnes, et bordaient la route, feasant retentir les airs 
de chants d*al%resse et des cris millions de fois r6p4t6s de Vive le Roi ! 

* " Les soldats Huguenots commirent dans cette occasion, tontes sortes de 
cruaut^, d'infaimes et de sacrileges, jusqu'k m^er les Saintes Hosties am 
rsvoine qn'ils donnaient k leurs chevaux : mais Dieu permit qu'ils n'en vou- 
lurent pas manger." p. 369. 



458 



VIBE. 



the Bocains ; aod in the introductory part takes occa- 
sionto retort upon the violence of his persecutors. To 
return to M. S4guin. In about ten minutes he appear- 
ed^ with two copies in his hand — ^which I purchased, 
I thought dearly, at five francs each volume ; or a 
napoleon for the four books. After the adventures 
of this day, I need hardly tell you that I relished a 
substantial dinner at a late hour, and that both Mr. L. 
and myself were well satisfied with Vire. 

Yesterday M. La Renaudiere made good his engage- 
ment, and dined with us at five, in the salle k manger. 
This is a large inn ; and if good fore depended upon the 
number and even elegance of female cooks, the tra- 
veller ought to expect the very best at the Cheval 
Blanc. The afternoon was so inviting — and iny guest 
having volunteered his services to conduct me to the 
most beautiful points of view in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood — that we each seemed to vie with the other 
in dispatching what was placed before us . . . and 
within thirty-five minutes, from the moment of sitting 
down, we were in the outskirts of Vire. Never shall I 
forget that afternoon's ramble. The sun seemed to 

Musique^ Processions^ Arcs de triomphe^ Chemins jonch^s de fleors ; 
tout flit prodigu6. Les villes de Caen^ de Bayeux^ de Saint-Lo, de 
Carentan^ de Valognes, se surpass^rent daos cette occasion^ pour 
prouver ^S. M. leur amour et leur reconnaissance; mais rien ne fut phis 
brillant que Tentr^e de ce grand Roi k Cherbourg. Un peuple immensej 
le clerg6^ toute la noblesse du pays^ le son des cloches, le bniit dn 
canon, les acclamations universelles prouv(;rent au Monarque mieuz 
encore que lu pompe toute Royale et les f^tes magnifiques que la ville 
ne cessa de lui donner tous les jours, que les coeurs de tous les Bocains 
6taient k lui.'* p. 428. 



yiRE. 



459 



become more of a golden hue^ and the atmosphere to 
increase in clearness and serenity* A thousand little 
songsters were warbling in the full-leaved branches of 
the trees; while the mingled notes of the blanchis^ 
seuses and the milk-maids^ near the banks of the 
rippling stream below, reached us in a sort of wild and 
joyous harmony — as we gazed down from the overhang- 
ing heights. The meadows were spotted with sheep^ and 
the orchards teemed with the coming fruit. You may 
form some notion of the value of this rich and pictu- 
r^ue scenery, when I tell you that M . La Renau- 
diere possesses land, in the immediate vicinity of Vire, 
which lets at <£6. 6«. per English acre ! My guide was all 
gaiety of heart, and activity of step. We followed him 
through winding paths and devious tracks, amidst 
ooppice-wood and fern — not however till we had 
viewed, from one particular spot upon the heights^ a 
most commanding and interesting panorama of the 
town of Vire. We left Mr. Lewis, busied in tracing 
this panorama with his pencil, to continue our route^ 
and to pay a visit to a Mr. and Mrs. S * * * English 
p^ple — and friends of M. La Renaudiere . • . living 
about a league further on. 

In our way thither, we discoursed of English poetry ; 
and I found that Thomson was as great a favourite 
with my guide as with the rest of his countrymen. 
Indeed he frankly told me that he had translated him 
ilito French verse, and intended to publish his transla- 
tion. I urged him to quote specimens ; which he did with 
a readiness and force, and felicity of version, that quite 
enchanted me. He thoroughly understands the origi- 
nal ; and in the description of a cataract^ or mountain 

VOL I. Be 



4fl0 



VIBE. 



torrent^ from the Summer, he appeared to me ahnoit 
to surpass it. Monsieur R. then proceeded to quote 
Young and Pope, and delivered his opinion of our two 
great Whig and Tory Reviews. He said he preferred 
the politics and vivacity of the Edinburgh^ but thought 
the Quarterly more instructive and more carduUy 
written. ^^Enfin (he concluded) j*aime infiniment 
votre gouvemement, et vos ^crivains; mais j'aime 
m<Mns le peuple Anglois.** I replied that he had at 
least very recently shewn an exception to this opimol^ 
in his treatment of one among this very people. Cert 
une autre chose** — replied he briskly^ and laughingly— 
vous aUez voir deux de vos compatriotes^ qui sont 
mes amis intimes^ et vous en serez bien content !'* So 
saying, we continued our. route through a delightful 
avenue of beech-trees, upon the most elevated part 
within the vicinity of the town ; and my companion 
bade me view from thence the surrounding country. 
It was rich and beautifril ia the extreme ; and with 
perfect truth, I must say, resembled much more 
strongly the generality of our own scenery than what I 
had hitherto witnessed in Normandy. But the sun was 
beginning to cast his shadows broader and broader, 
and where was the residence of Monsieur and Madame 
S * * *? 

It was almost close at hand. We reached it in a 
quarter of an hour — ^but the inmates were unluckily 
from home. The house is low and long, but respect- 
able in appearance both within and without. The ap- 
proach to it is through a pretty copse, terminated by a 
garden ; and the surrounding grounds are rather taste- 
fully laid out. A portion of it indeed had been trained 



VIEE. 



461 



into something in the lihape of a labyrinth ; in the centre 
of which was a rocky seat, embedded as it were in moss 
— and from which some fine glimpses were caught 
of the surrounding country. The fragrance from the 
orchard trees, which had not yet quite shed their blos^ 
soms, was perfectly delicious; while the stilness of 
evening added to the peculiar harmony of the whole. 
We had scarcely sauntered ten minutes before Madame 
arrived. She had been twelve years in France, and 
spoke her own language so imperfectly, or rather so 
unintelligibly, that I begged of her to resume the 
French. Her reception of us was most hospitable: 
but we declined cakes and wine^ on account of the 
lateness of the hour. She told us that her husband 
was in possession of from fourscore to a hundred 
acres of the most productive land, and regretted that 
he was from home, on a visit to a neighbouring gen- 
tleman ; assuring us, if we could stay, that he would 
be heartily glad to see us — " especially any of his 
countrymen^ when introduced by Monsieur La Re- 
naudiere.** It was difficult to say who smiled and 
bowed with the greater complacency, at this double- 
shotted compliment. I now pressed our retreat home- 
wards. We bade this agreeable lady farewell, and re- 
turned down the heights, and through the devious 
paths by which we had ascended, 

l^Tiile talk of various kind deceived the road. 

A more active and profitable day has not yet been de- 
voted to Norman objects, whether of art or of nature. 
To morrow I breakfast with my friend and guide, 
and immediately afterwards push on for Falaisb. 



462 



• VIBJB* 



A cabriolet is hired^ bat doabts are 'entertained ft^ 
speeting the practicability of the route. My next 
epistle will be therefore from fWaise— where the re- 
nowned William the Conqaeror was born whose body 
we left entombed at Caen. The day is clearing np ; 
and I yet hope for a stroll upon the sdte of the castle. 



END OF VOL. I. 



London : printed by W. Bulmer and VV. MicoU 
Ciereland-iow, St James's. 



A 



FVom the omistion to notice certain e^tiona of works, in certam 
libraries, the reader will not infer that such libraries are theiefore without 
them. Nor does it necessarily follow that they emUm them. My object hai 
been, only to describe sudi books as, from choice, or the pardcnlar inclina- 
tions of the librarians, were placed before me in the several libraries visited. 

The MSS. are designated by the titles being printed in small c^iital 
letters. 



INDEX 



OF MANUSCRIPTS, 

AND OF PRINTED BOOKS, 

DE8CBIBKD9 QUOTED, OR BEFXBBED TO. 

Fol. Page. 

Abano de Petri, Cmciliator, 1472, folio— ia the Public library 

atManich, - - - - iii. 392-3 

jEne^ Silvii Hut, Bohem, 1475, foUo — in the Public Li- 
brary at Augsbourg, - - • Hi. 228 
JEtoput, Gr. 4to. Edit, piin.— in the Imperial Library atA^enna, — 493 

Lai, 1475, 4to. de FUla in the Royal Library at 

Stuttgart, . - - - - — 142 

Lai, 1480, folio— in the Royal library at Pfcris, - ii. 296 

i-; lial 1486, T^pp%, in the same library at Ptoris, - — 297 

Lat, 1486, G. de Leeu, folio— in the same library, 297 

fFiihimt date, or name ef printer, in the same, - 297 

FtaL 1491 and 1492, 4to.— in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - - - - iii. 493 

— Hiipan, 1496, foUo — ^in the Royal Library at Ptoris, ii. 298 

Germ. fFiihimt date, ifc., in the same library, - 297 

in the same library, - 298 

— Lat. 4to. — Prince Eugene's copy in the Imperial 
Library at Vienna, - - - iii. 493 

no date. Jig. lig. incis. (/. Zeiner) in the Royal 

library at Stuttgart, - - - - — 143 

^iopi Fabulee (Fab. topics) Brandt. 1501, folio copy pur- 
chased of Mr. Fischeim at Munich, - - — 304 

Acta Sanctorum, 52 vols., folio— in the PubUc Library at 
Rouen, - - - i. 179 

20 volumes, in the Chapter Library at Bayeux — 372 

• three sets of, in the Public Library at Stras- 
bourg, - - - - iiL 73 

■ six sets of, in the Public Library at Munich, — 298 

Alain Chartier, parabolet de, Ferard, 1492, foUo — upon til- 

LUM — ^in the Royal Library at Paris, - - ii. 289 



iv 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 





Fd. Page. 


Alain Ckartier, let faU de, f^erard, no date, folio— 4n the 






Royal Ldbrary al Fwis, • - 




289 


Albert Durer ; ongnial drawings or, in a Bo<hl of tTaycfB, 






in tnc tniDiic Ldorary at iviiuiicny 




273 


Alcuimu de lyinUate, Mtmast, Uiht^mrrha, 1500, folio— in 






the Public library at Angsboiiigy ... 


— 


233 


Alatne viauwif in tne tnioiic iiiDrary at icooeny 


L 


178 


X_. •.t^-. D^^^l ¥ 11._S. 


u. 


311-314 




— • 


350 








seller, - - - 




351 


J_ l^J t_ • T - - 


Si. 








296 


jnexttfutrui uouuif vuigo ae rtiut uei uocvntuue. v. or 






sspwa^ folio— in the Imperial Library at Vienna^ 




502 


AlfMMoc hiiteri^ue — le Bt^tnget B(^teuM — a chapbook. 






extracts firom, ... 




199 


jMgevMi ue jtfctUf 14/4, /. ae^ oiorafiOy louo— *in uie iTioiic 






Liiorary at niiinicny .... 




■292 - 


AniM-CkrOi-^olock dooi^-^ the I\rouc idbrary at Landshnt, 




335 


Ambroiu Hemnneron, (14oD,) in the Library of Uottwic 






monaSfeery, - - - 


— 


429 








Aogsbourgy - - * - • 


■— 


229 


a1«a OUa1%18;M Y ?ll ■ II HI 1 .A ^T«l.Ma«ii * 










zxv 


jvfnourif Catuse et aepurt^ rerarOf louy, loiio— *ufon vbllum. 






in ine itoyni liiDrary at « oriBy " • 


ii. 


287 


Angelui de Gamb. Tract Maleficwrum, 1472, folio— 4n the 






Public Ubrary at Augsbourg, 


nL 


232 


Anthologia Grmca, 1496, 4to. — upon vellum, in the li- 






brary of Ste. GenoTi^ve, at Pfeuis, 


B. 


349 


, 1603, Aldus, 8?o. upon vbllum, in the 






Royal Library at Pfeuis, - - . 


ii. 


311 


ArUhfui de Burtrw Concilia, Adam Rot, 1472, folio— in the 






Royal Library at Stuttgart, 


iii. 


143 


■ , in the li- 






brary of Gostemeuberg Monastery, 




617 


Antonii Archpi Opera Theologica, 1477, Koberger, folio— 






in the Public Library at Strasbourg, 




61 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

Fol. Page, 

AnUmku SabeWumt, m Mtmii. Stmikc. 4to.^ the Ubrary of 

Gdttwic Monastery, - - - - iii. 430 
jtnton, de S, Greg. Cam. Deeret. Paoia, 1476, folio— in tlie 

Imperial Library at ATienna, . - - - iii. 602 

Apocalifpie, bioeh-book^ia the Royal Library al Fsris, - ii. 256 

, in the Royal Library at Stuttgart, iii. 146 

, in the library of Gdttwic Monastery, — 428 

, in the Imperial library at A^enna» — 631 



, /la/. /Zamii^^, in the Imperial Library at Vienna^ — 483 

ApoiiinariM Offred. adv. Mani. B. Cfallui, 1478, 4to.— in the 

Imperial Ubrary at Vienna, - - - ^ 504 

ApotUei Creeds in German, block-book, with fitK: simile— in the 

Public Library at Mmiich, • • - — 384 

ApfMMUi Lot., 1472, F. de Sjnra, in the Public Library at 

Nuremberg, - . - Supplemeni, zz?i 
, Raidolt. 1478, folio— in the library of the Monas- 
tery of St. Florian, - - - - iii. 390 
-, Gr. 1551. folio— Diane de Poictiers' copy, in the 



Royal Library at Pteris, - - - - ii. 316-7 

JjmUm$, 1469, folio-^ the Royal Library at Ptois, - — 282 
, imperfect, in the Public Library at 

Munich, - - - - iiL 290 

, UPON VKLLUM, in the Imperial Library 



at Vienna, - - - — 493 
, 1472, Jenmm, folio — ^in the last mentioned 



library, - - - - — 493 

Aquinas, T., Sec. Secunda, Schoeffher, 1467, folio — upon 

VBLLUM, in the Imperial Library at Vienna^ - - — 505 
, Mentelin, folio, in the Public 

Library at Strasbourg, - - — 69 
, P. de PuMback. No date, folio 



— in the same library, ... ilnd. 
, OpuM (iwnrtiicript. Schoefker. 1469, folio— 



UPON VBLLUM, in the same library, - - ibid 
, In Evang. Matt, ei Marc. 1470, S. and 



PannartM, foUo— in the same library, - - iM. 
, de virtui. et vitiit. Menielm — ^in the Public 



Library at Munich, - - - — 289 

Arbre des Batailies, Ferard, 1493, folio — upon vkllum, 
in the Royal Library at Paris, - - i. 286 



▼i INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Areimu de Beih G0tkko, 1470, folkH-in the l\iblie Libnry 

alGMn, . . . . L 333 

Aretnm^ L., de Siudm et LUterU, {Unef^ 4to.— in the Royil 

Ubrary tl Stattgart, - - . - iiL 143 

Ariitaphanei, Gr, Aldtu, 1496, folio, in the Public Library it 

Ronen, - - - - * i. 178 

ArUMelU Operas Gr. Ahku, 1498, 6 fols. Two copies vfw 

VBLLUM (the fint volume in each copy wanting) in tiie 

Royal library at PteriB, - . - - u. 291 
Comment EuitraHi, 1636, Ald^i, folio, hige pi^ 

copy in the same collection, - - . — 314 
■' Eihicn Nicham0ckea. Gr. (i^MKt) — remaricaUy 

splendid copy of, in the Royal Library at Paris, • • — 893 
Eikica. Lai. Mentdin, Folio — in the Public 



Idbmy at StFBsbonrg, - - • i& 69 

Ar» Memorandi, &c. — - Mock book : five copies of, in the 

Public library at Munich, - - j — 282 

— — ^— — — — in the Public Library at 

Landshnt, - • . S36 

————————— in the Imperial library at 

Vienna, - - - . . . _ 531 
in the Library of CkKtwic 

Monastery, - - - - — 428 

An Aforiendi, Germanici — 4to. — in the Royal library at 

Stuttgart, - - - .^14$ 
, Lai, block book — two editions, in the Public 

library at Munich, - - • - 283 

Art de bien Afourir, f^erard, no date, folio — upon vbllum , 

in the Royal Library at Ptoris, - - - ii. 288 

Art and Crqfte to know well to dpe, Caston, in the Royal 

library at P^, - - - - ii. 1177 

Artus Le Rot, MS. xiith century, — in the Royal library 

atPtuis, - - - - - ii. 223 

Another MS. of the same Romance, in the same library, 224 
Artajtani Summa, (1469) folio — in the PubUc Library at 

Augsbourg, - - - - iii. 232 

Auguttinui Stt. De Cwitate Dei, 1467, folio — in the Royal 

Librar>- at Pari», - , - - - ii. 262 

— in the Library 

of Ste. Gencvi^re at Paris, - 346 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. vu 

fW. Page. 



AuguHinm Su. Dt Cwitaie Ddi, 1467, folio, in the Imperial 






library at Vienna, ... 


iii. 


483 


, in the Library 






of Caostemeuburg Monastery, - - 


— 


616 


■ Sweffnheffm mnd Pannartg, 






1470, folio, in the Public Library at Vm, 


i. 


447 


r, de Spim, 1470, folio — 






in the Public Library at Rouen, - - 


i. 


176 


■ , UPON VBLLUM, 






late in the Library of Chremsminster Monastery, - - - 


iii. 


375 


, UPON YBLLUM, 






in the Imperial Library at Vienna, 




483 


— — , upon paper, in 






the Library of Odttwic Monastery, 


— 


429 








in the Public Library at Strasbourg, 


— 


62 


, in the Public 






library at Munich, ... 


— 


293 


, in the Public 






library at Landshut, - - - - 


— 


335 


Schaeffher, 1473, 






folio— in the Library of the Monastery of Chremsminster, 




374 


, Jensan 1475, 






foUo — UPON VBLLUM, in the Imperial Library at Vienna, 




483 


Episiol^, Menirlin, folio, three copies, with 






different ms. dates, in the Public Library at Munich, 


— 


293 


, Mentelm — in the Imperial Library 








iii. 


484 


Coitf'eishmtm, Libri Kill, 1475. 4to. — in the 






Iiisperial Library at Vienna, 




484 


de Trinitate, folio— in the same collection. 




ibid. 


de arte pr^icandi. Fuit — in the possession of 






M. Levranlt at Strasbourg, ... 




96 


' de tingularitate Clertcorum^ 1467, 4to. — in the 






King's Private Library at Stuttgart, 




163 


AuGUSTiNi Sti. in Psalmos, MS. xyth century — formerly 






in the library of Gor?inus, King of Hungary, and now in 






that of the Royal Library at Stuttgart, 




155 


' Yppon, de Com, Evang, 1473, foUo — in the 






Public Library at Augsbourg, ... 




232 


Aulu» Gellius, 1469, folio-— in the Royal Library at Paris, 


ii. 


282 



viii 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 



rol. Pnge. 

AuUu Gellhtt, upon vkllum, in the ImperUJ Library »l 

Yienna, - - . . - iii. 

Aummkti, 1472, fi^— in the Royal Library at - ii. 282 

■ in the Impend Library at Vienna/ - ui. 494 



, Aldui^ 1617, 8fo. Grolier's copy, on large 

paper, in the Royal Library at Paris, - - - ii. 314 

Aymon, les quaireJUg, 1683, 4to. —in the Library of the Ar- 
senal, at Pteris - ... . _ 334 

B. 

Ba!^, Tract, de QiuBsi. 1477- 4to. in the Public Library at 
Rouen, - - - - - i. 177 

BALI.AD8; Ban J<ntr, Bon Soir : Le Faillant Thmbadaur, vol. i. 
224 — Ton^oun^ 389 ; various, from the Fmtdemre$ of Oli- 
vier Bauelin, 436-444 ; Fhe Le Roi, Vwe DAmmtr^ ii. 3. ; 
Nautance de Guillaume le Conquerant, ii. 64 ; m arborani 
le drapeau blanc, at Falaise, ii. 23 ; le Bauer d* Adieu, 48.; 
VImagedela Fie, 49iLe Troubadour Pariiien, 50 Sauve 
quipeut^BX ; Balade joyeux det Tavemiers, ii. 287. 

Bartholus Lectura. F. de Spira,\Al\. FoUo. Inthe Impe- 
rial Library at Vienna, - ... 

Bartsck, I. Adam de — Catalogue de» E»tan^>e», par, tfc. 1818. 

8?o. - - . - - 

Bastiano Foreii, 4to.-^in the Imperial Library at Vienna, 

Bella (La) Mano, 1474, 4to. — in the Imperial Library at 
Vienna, - . . . 

Bellovacefwis Fine. Spec. Hist. 1473, folio ; in the Public Li- 
brary at Rouen, . - - . 

in the Public Library at Augs- 

bourg, - .... - 

in the Imperial Library at 



Vienna, - - - - - 
Morale, 14/6, folio, in the Public 



Library at Strasbourg, - - - - 

Benedictionarius, MS. xith century -in the Public Library 
at Rouen, - ... - 

Berlinghieri, Geograjla, folio — in the Imperial Library 
(Prince Eugene's copy) at Vienna, - - - 

Berinus et Aygres de Lamant, Bonfons, no date, in the Li- 
brary of the Arsenal at Paris, - 



iii. 


606 




606 




614 




514 


i. 


176 


iii. 


233 


iii. 


606 


iii. 


59 


i. 


169-175 


iii. 


515 


ii. 


336-7 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. ix 

Fol Pagt, 

Bmmrwm» Efiiiiolm, (1469) fbtio-in the Royd Litniry »l 
Stuttgart, - - - - iii. 143 

>i > foUo— in the Imperial Library at 

Vienim, - - - - - - 606 

BeuarioB, Card, Orai, ad Inclii. Itai, Prme. Going. 4to. in 

the Imperial Library at Vienna^ - . . ^ 606 

BiBUA Latina, MS. Dcth century, of Charles the Bald* in 
the Royal library at IHuii, with a copper-plate engraving of 
that Monarch's portrait, - - - ii. 156-168 

— ' xiith century, in the same library, - ii. 166- 

^— — — — xvth century, of the Emperor Wen- 
ee»lmu--hjDi the Imperial Library at Vienna^ with three fiu>- 
nmile engraved illustrations, - - - iii. 461-463 

Hut, Paraphraiiica, MS. xvth century, - - ii. 168-172 
Bibiia Polygloita Camplui. 1516, &c. in the Public library at 
Coutances, - - - - - i. 412 

^ copy belongingto Diane 

de Poictiers, iu the Royal Library at Fstib, - - - ii. 315 

' — copy of Demetrius Chalcondylas, 
afterwards that of Eckius, in the Pubfic Library at Land- 
shut, - - - - in. 336 

— — — fTalton ; royal copy, in the Public Library 
alCaen, - - - - - i. 336 

' with the original de- 

dication, in the Library of the Arsenal at Paris, - - iii. 138 (lUMeJ 
——————————— Mrith the original de- 

cBcation, in the Public library at Stuttgart, - - — 138 

- in the Library of the 
Monastery of St. Florian, in Austria - - — 391 

BiMh PolyglotUi, Le Jay: in the Chi^ter library at Bayeux, i. 373 
- in the Library of the Lyc6e at do. — 374 
——————— in the Library of the Hotel de ^Ic 

atSt.Lo, - - - - - — 396 

'• — Hebraiea, edit. Soncini, 1489, in the Imperial Library 

at Vienna, - - - - - iii. 486 

Houbigant^ 1763, in a Private Ck>l]ec- 

tion near Bayeux, - - w - i. 361 

Hahn, 1806, in the Library of the Mo- 

nastery of Glostemeuburg, - - - - iii. 615 

— — (rr«M, Aldiu^ 1518, folio — FVaikds Isf s copy, upon 
thick paper, in the Royal Library at Paris^ - - ii. 313 

B 



X INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 

fW. Pagt, 

Biblia Gr^eca, Aldui, upon thick paper, in the Library of the 
Arsenal at Pftris, - - - - ii. 323-4 

— — - the usual copy, in the King's Private 

brary at Stuttgart, - . - - iii. 1G2 

Biblia Latina, (edU, Mmx, \4S5) folio, 2 ?oli., two copies of, 
in the Royal Library at Paris, - - - iL 253 

' >■ a copy in the Masarine 

Library at Paris, - - - - ii. 364-5 

a copy in the Public Li- 
brary at Munich, - - - - - iu. 287 

a copy in the Imperial 

Library at Vienna - - - . . _ 494 

Pfitter, (1461) folio, 3 v-ols. in the 

Royal Library at Paris, - - - - ii. 265 

in the 

Royal Library at Stuttgart, Cunperfect) - - iii. 137 

• in the 

Imperial Library at Vienna - - . — - 485 

f^si and Schoeffher, 1462: foUo— 

three copies (two upon yblluk, and a third on paper) in 

the fiibrary of the Arsenal at Paris, - - - ii. 321 

VBI4LUM COPT, in the Library of Ste. Genevieve, - - ii. 346 

in the Mazarine Library at Paris, - ii. 365 

in the Royal Library at Stuttgart, - - iii. 137 

(imperfect) in the Public Library at Landshut, — 335 

— ^— — iu the Imperial Library at Vienna, - — 485 
Biblia Latina, Mentelin — in the Public Library at Stras- 
bourg, - - - - - — 56 

iu the Imperial Library at Vi- 
enna, - - - - — 485 

Eggetteyn, (ms. date, 1468) in the Public 

Lilirary at Strasbourg, - - - - — 57 

(ms. date, 1466) in the Public 

Library at Munich, - - - - - — 289 

. supposed edition of Eggesteyn, in the Public 

Library at Strasbourg, - - - - — 55 

, 1475. folio, Frisner, &c. — in the Public Li- 
brary at Augsbonre, - - - - iii. 228 

(14/5 edit. Gering) imperfect copy in the 

Chapter Library \X Bayeux, - - - i. 373 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

Fol. Page, 



Bibiia Lathm, Hailbrun, 1476, folio : two copies, of which one 
is UPON VELLUM, in the Imperial library at Vienna, - iii. 486 

jgfuon, 1479, folio, in the Public 

Library at Strasbourg, - - . . 68 

• UPON VEL- 
LUM, in the Imperial Library at Vienna -and a second copy 
upon pi^r, ..... 486 

■ Litt. - in the Imperial Library 

at Vienna, - - - - iii 486 
: , 1483, folio, in the Public 

Library at Rouen, - - - - i. 177 
, 1486, folio, in the Public 

Library at Caen, - - - ^ i. 333 
: Fhfben, 1496, 8vo. in the Public 

Library at Vire, - - - - . . — 447 
Bibim Germanica, Mentelin, folio — in the Royal Library at 

Paris, - - ii. 266 

■ in the Public Library 

at Strasbourg, - - - - - - iii. 66 

■ two copies, in the Public 

Library at Stuttgart, - - - . ^ 137 

■ two copies in the Public 

Library at Munich, - - - - . 287 

■ in the Public Library at 
Landshut, - - - . . _ 334 

■ ■ in the Library at Clos- 
temeuburg Monastery, - - - - — 616 

in the Public Library 
at Ratisbon, - - - Supplement, xy 

- imperfect copy, (ms. date 
of 1467) in the Library of the Prince of Tour and Tazii, at 
Ratisbon, - - - Supplement, — xi 

■ in the Public Library at 

Nuremberg, - - Supplement, — xxv 

tuppoied fint edition, in the 

Public library at Landshut, . - . — 334 

— , iuppated fint edition, folio, in the Library 
of Gdttwic Monastery, - - - - — 428 

> Sorg, Augtbaurg, 1477, folio, in the Li- 
brary of Professor Veesenmeycr, at Ulm, - - — 196 



xij INDEX OF MANUSGRIFTS 





BtUm Germamem, Sarg, Angibmnrg^ 1477> folio, in tbe li- 






brary of the olonastery of St. Fbrifto, 




XO 


■ , Pepjm, 1624, folio— UPON vbllum, in 






the Royal Library at Stuttgart, - - - 




W 


Bihlla Italica; Kdend, AugtuH, 1471— 4blio— inthe Manrine 






Library, at IWs, - . - - 




366 








in the Royal Library at Stuttgart, 


iiL 


138 


. Kalend. Oetobru, 1471, foho — m the Ubiary 






of Ste. GeneW^, at Plunt, ... 


•• 
u. 


346 








brary at Stuttgart, - ... 


iii. 


138 


' in the Imperial 






Library at VicBna, - - - - 




486 


1477» folio, in the Library of Grottwic Mo- 






nastery, .... 




4SB 


B%M, Hut. Fenet. 1492, folio — ^ copy purchased of M. FIs- 










304 


HiMMr Bohemtcti, 1488, folio — in the Royal Library at Fsria, 


iL 


267 


- Poiontca, 1663, folio — in the same Library, 


"— 


256 


■■ ■ in the Royal Library at Stutt- 






gart, - - - . - 


iii. 


137 


copy purchased by the Author at 








iiL 


228 


in the Impenal Library at Vienna, 


— 


488 


1699, folio— 4n the Library of Ste. Genevieve, 


ii. 


347 


>■ Hunganca, 1666, folio— mcomplete, in the King's Pn- 






Tate Library at Stuttgart, ... 


iiL 


162^ 


, 1626, folio, in the Public Library at Stras- 






bourg, - - . . . 




68 


^ Sclatfonica,\5B\, folio, in the Royal Library at Stuttgart, 




139 


, 1684, in the Public Library at Stras- 






bourg, - - - . . 




68 


, 1687, folio— in the Royal Library at Phris, 


ii. 


267 


Bible, La Sainte, 1669, folio ; large paper copy in the Public 






Library of Caen, .... 


L 


336 


BiBLiA — ^HiSTORiCA, MS. vfrttbui germanwit. Sec. xiv. — in 






the Royal Library at Stuttgart, 


iii. 


162 


— — Aurea, IM. I. Zemer, 1474, folio — in the Library of 






Chremsminster Monastery, ... 




376 



AND OP PRINTED BOOKS. 



xiii 



Fol. Pag€, 

Biblia Pmtpemm, Neck book: in the Royal library at Paris, ii. 265 

, printed by Pfister, in the same, - - — 261 

' — , block book, German, — in the Royal lA- 

biBry at Strasbourg, - - - iii. 146 

, Laiine, first edition, in the same Library, — 147 

, block book — one (}erman, and two Latin 



editions, in the Public Library at Munich, - - — 283 
— , Lat. in the Library of Gdttwic Monas- 
tery, - - . - - — 428 
. in the Imperial Library at Vienna, — 531 



BiOGRAPHT, RoTAL, OF Francb — XTith ccutury — magnifi- 
cent MS. in the Royal Library at Paris, - . - ii. 216 

Bkupkemaieun du mm de Dieu, an ancient morality, in Svo., 
without date — discovered in the vicinity of Rouen, i. 159 — 
and fully described, with copious extracts, from the same 
tniiqae copy in the Royal Library at Paris, ... — 302^10 

Blazonry of Arms, Book of — xivth century, with he- 
simfle portrait of Leopold de Sempach — in the Imperial Li- 
brary at Vienna, - - - - uL 4744^ 

Block books; at Paris, i. 255; at Stuttgart, iiL 146; at Mu- 
nich, iii. 279 ; at Landshut, iii. 335 ; at Gdttwic Monastery, 
iii. 428 ; at Vienna, iii. 531. 

BOCACB, DE8 CaS DE8 NOBLBS HoMMBS & FeMMBS, MS. 

XTth century, in the Royal Library at Paris, - - iL 218 

' ■ . ■ two more 

MSS. of the same work, in the same Library, - - — 214 

Boccace Ruinei det Nobla Hommes, Sfc, 1476, Coktrd Mam- 

thn, folio, in the Royal Library at Pftris, - - — 280 

Boccaccio II Decamerone, 1471, Valdatfer, folio — in the 

Royal Library at Paris, - - . 279 

, 1472, A, de Mckaelibui, folio, in 

the Royal Library in Paris, - - - ibid. 

in the Public Library at Nurem- 



berg, .... Supplement, 
1476, Zarohu, folio, in the Impe- 



rial Library at Vienna, - - iii. 616 

• Deo Gradas, Sine Anno : fimam adk. 



prtn. in the Public Library at Munich, - - — 291 

Nhmpkaie, 1477» 4to., hi the Royal Library at 



Stuttgart, - . 145 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 



Boccaccio, de Clar. Muiier. (1470, qtL ?) folio, in the Imperial 

Library at Vienna, - - ilL 507 

Boetius, Kohurger, Germ. Lat., 1473, folio, in the Public 
Library at Augsbourg, - - iii. 231 

, F, Johannes, 1474, 4to., in the Library of Ste. 

Genevieve at Paris, - - iL 348 

Bonacenturte Pajkc Medit. Ht. Christi, 1468, G. Zeiner, in 

the Library of Gottwic Monastery, - - ui. 431 

Boni/acH Papa Lihr. Decret, 1465, folio, upon vellum, in 
the Library of Molk Monastery, " - - - — 411 

, UPON VELLUM, in the 

Imperial Library at Vienna, • - — 507 

UPON VELLUM, in the Poblic Library at Nurem- 



berg, - Sktpplemeni, xet 

Bonne Vie, ou Mademe, Chambery, 1485, folio, in the Im- 
- perial Library at Vienna, • - — 525 

Brandt Navu Stuit, Germ,, 1499, 4to., in the Imperial Library 

at Vienna, - - - — 526 

Bbbviairb d' Amours, MS. xiiith century, with copper plate 

fac-simile, in the Imperial Library at Vienna, - — 477-480 

BREviAiaa DE Belleville, MS., xivth century, in the 

Royal Library at Paris, - - ii. 174-6 

Breviary of John Duke of Bedford, MS. xvth century — 

in the Royal Library at Paris — with copperplate fac-simile 

of a portion of the Adoration of the Magi, from the same, ii. 176-185 
Brbviaire de M. de Monmorenct, MS. xvith century— in 

the Emperor of Austria's private collection at Vienna - iii. 592 
Breviarhim, ieu de dubiii Casibus in Missa: no date, &c., in 

the Public Library at Strasbourg - - - — 63 
, Teutonic^, 4to.,'^upoN vellum, copy purchased 

of M. Flscheim, at Munich, - - - — 304 

Brbviarium Eccl. Libs. MS. ; in tlie Public Library at Caen i. 334 
Breydenbach Itinerarium Lat. 1486, folio, in the library of the 

Prince of Tour and Taxis, at Ratisbon, Supplement, xi. 
, Itineraire, 1488, folio— in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - , - - iii. 526 

Brut d' Anglettere, MS. xivth century — ^in the Imperial 

Library at Vienna, - - — 477 

Bud€Bi Comment, in Ling. Gr. 1529, folio— Francis 1st. copy, 

upon vellum, in the Royal Library at Pari?, - ii. 295 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. 



XT 



Vol. Page. 

Burchiello Saneiii, 4to., in the Imperial Library at Vienna, - iii. 516 
Burtrio, AfUfum, de, Adam Rot, 1472, folio, in the library of 
Clostemeuburg Monastery, - - iii. 617 

C. 

Cadeaudei Mttset, - - - ii. 53 

Cflfwr, 1469, folio— in the Royal Library at Paris, - ii. 282 

, in the Mazarine Library, - - ii. 367 

■ , in the PubKc Library at Munich, - iii. 290 

, UPON VELLUM, in the Imperial Library, - iii. 494 

, 1471. Jenson, in the library of Gottwic Monastery, iii. 430 

, 1472. iS^. and Pannarts, folio, in the Imperial Library 

at Vienna, - - - - — 494 

Calderi Opus Conciliar. Adam Rot. 1472. Folio, in the 

library of Clostemeuburg^ Monastery, - - — 617 

Calbndarium, MS., xvith century in the Public Library at 

Munich, - - - — 269 
, Regiomontani, block book, in the Public Library 

at Munich, - - . _ 286 

Cancionero General, 1666, 8vo., 1673, 1680. 8vo., at Rouen, i. 153 
CaratzuUuM, De Tm. Div. Judic. Arnold de Brtueella, 1473, 

folio, in the Imperial Library at Vienna, - - iii. 607 

Castille et Artut d'Algarbe, 1687. 4to., in the Library of the 

Arsenal at Ptuis - - - ii. 327. 

Catichtsme dei Amant, - - i. 140 

, d Pusage des grandes fiUes pour itre marines - — ibid. 
Caterinn, da Sienna, 1477, 4to., in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - - iii. 617 

, de Senis, 1600, folio, in the Royal Library at Paris, ii. 315 
Catholicon, 1460, folio, upon vellum, in the Royal Ldbrary 

atParis, - - - — 264 
, in the Public Library 

at Munich, - • - - iii. 290 
, G. Zeiner, 1469, folio, upon vellum, in the 



Public Library at Munich, - - — 291 
^ in the Monastic Library of 



Chremsminster, - - - — 374 
, upon vellum, in the Monastic 



Library of Gottwic, - - - — 428 

UPON VELLUM, in the Imperial 



Library at Vienna, - - — 607 



FVom the omisuoii to notice oeruin editioDi of woriu, in certain 
libraries, the reader fnll not infer that inch libraries are theretoe without 
them. Nor does it necessarily follow that they CMlcm them. My object has 
been, only to describe such books as, from dioioe, or the particolar inclina- 
tions of the librarians, were placed before me in the several libraries risited. 

The MSS. are designated by the titles being printed in small capital 
letters. 



INDEX 



OF MANUSCRIPTS, 

AND OF PRINTED BOOKS, 

DESCBIBRD, QUOTED, OB BEFEBBED TO. 

Foi. Page. 

AhtMO de Petri^ Conciliator, 1472, folio-^ the Public Library 

at Munich, . . . . iii. 392-3 

jEnem Silvii Hit$, Bohem, 1475, folio — in the Public Li- 

brary at Augsbourg, - - - iii. 228 

J5!M^,6y.4to.Edit,prin — ^in the Imperial Library atVienna, — 493 
— — Lat. 1475, 4to. V, de mia in the Royal Library at 

Stuttgart, - - - - - — 142 

Lai. 1480, folio—in the Royal library at Paris, - ii. 296 

• Ital, 1485, 7%n, in the same library at Paris, - — 297 
LaL 1486, G. de Leeu, foU<h— in the same library, 297 

■ fFithaat date, or name of printer, in the same, - 297 
ftal. 1491 and 1492, 4to.— in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - - - - iii. 493 

■ Hispan, 1496, folio — in the Royal Library at Puis, ii. 298 

Germ, Without date, 8fc., in the same library, - 297 

—————————— in the same library, - 298 

Lat. 4to. — Prince Eugene's copy in the Imperial 

Library at Vienna, - - - iii. 493 

' no date, fig. lig. incii. (/. Zeiner) in the Royal 

Library at Stuttgart, - - - - — 143 

JEiopi Fabulm (Fab. ^sopicse) Brandt. 1501, folio copy pur- 
chased of Mr. Flscheim at Munich, - . — 304 
Acta Sanctorum, 52 vols., folio— in the Public Library at 
Rouen, - - - i. 179 
■ 20 volumes, in the Chapter Library at Bayeux — 372 

three sets of, in the Public Library at Stras- 

bouiKf - - - - iiL 73 

six sets of, in the Public Library at Munich, — 298 

Alain Chartier, paraboles de, Verard, 1492, folio — upon til- 

LUM — ^in the Royal Library at Paris, - - ii. 289 



iv 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 



Vd, Page, 

AUun Chartier, let faii de, Gerard, no date, folio— In the 



Royal Ldbrary at Paris, • - 


iL 


289 


Albert Durer ; original drawings of, in a Book of IVaym, 






in the Public library at Munich, 


iiL 


273 


Alcuimu de TrmUate, Mfrnatt. Utimfmrrha, 1500, folio— in 






the Public library at Augsbourg, ... 


— 


233 


Aldme Clauki, in tiie PnbUc library at Rouen, 


i. 


178 


, in the Royal library at Paris, 


ii. 


311^14 


, in the Library of St. Generi^e, 


— 


350 








seller, - .... 




351 


,in the King's Private library at Stuttgart, 


ni. 


ld5 


: — , in the Public Library at Muiuch; 


— 


296 


AleMifuhms GaUui^ vulgb de Filla Dei Doetrinale. V, de 






Spkra^ folio— in the Imperial Library at Vienna, 


— 


502 


Almanac kisi&rique — le Meeeager Boitena — a duipbook. 






extracts from, ... 


ifi. 


199 


Angdhude Aretit, 1474, IdeSidrano, fbfio— in the Publk 






library at Muiuch, . . . . 


— 


«2 


Anti-CMH-^block book^ the PubKc library at Landshut, 


— 


335 


Ambratu HeMomeron, (1460,) hi the library of G5tt^ 






monastery, - - - 


— 


429 


1472, foU<h— b the PnbKc library at 






Augsbourg, - - - ■ - 


— — 


229 








SappleMentf 




zzv 


Amours, chaue et d^Mri, Ferard, 1509, folio— upon ybllum^ 






in the Royal library at Pteis, 


ii. 


287 


Angelut de Gamb. Tract Malejlchrum, 1472, fi^o— in the 






Public library at Augsbourg, 


iii. 


232 


AfUhohgta GrsBca, 1496, 4to. — upon vsllum, in the li- 






brary of Ste. Qenayi^, at Phris, 


fi. 


349 


, 1503, Aldus, 870. upon vbllum, in the 






Royal Library at Paris, - - - 


ii. 


311 


Anihmui de Burtrio Concilia, Adam Rot, 1472, folio— m the 






Royal Library at Stuttgart, 


iii. 


143 


' — , in the li- 






brary of Gostemeuberg Monastery, 




617 


Antonii Archpi Opera Theologica, 1477, Koberget, folio— 






in the Publio Library at Strasbourg, 




61 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

Fd, Page. 

Antomut Sabetticui, m Mumi. Saniiac. 4to.— in the library of 

Gdttwic Monastery, - - - - iii. 430 

Anion, de S. Greg. Cam. Decret. Pama, 1476, foli<h— in the 
Imperial library at Vienna, - - - iii. 602 

Apocdiypie, bloch-booi^m the Royal Library at Paris, - ii. 266 
, in the Royal Library at Stuttgart, iii. 146 

, in the library of Odttwic Monastery, — 428 

, in the Imperial Library at Vienna^ — 631 

, Ital. ReUmger, in the Imperial library at Vienna^ — 483 

Apdlinam Ojfred. ado. Mant. B. Gallui, 1478, 4to.— ui the 
Lnperial Library at Vienna, ' - - - — 604 

ApoHlei Creeds in German, block-book, with he simile— on the 
Publicldbrary at Munich, - - . ~ 384 

Appiamu Lat, 1472, K de Spira, in the Public Library at 
Nuremberg, - - Supplement, zxvi 

, Ratdoli. 1478, folio— in the library of the Monas- 
tery of St. Florian, - - • - iii 390 

, Gr. 1661. folio — ^Diane de Poictiers' copy, in the 

Royal Library at Paris, - - - • ii. 316-7 



Apulehu, 1469, folio— in the Royal library at Plvis, 




282 








Munich, - - 


iii. 


290 


, UPON VBLLUM, in the Imperial Library 






at Vienna, ... 




493 


, 1472, Jemon, folio— in the last mentioned 






library, - - - 




493 


Aquinas, T., Sec. Secund€B, Sckqeffher, 1467, folio — ^upon 






VELLUM, in the Imperial Library at Vienna, 




606 








Library at Strasbourg, 




69 


; , P. de Puzbach. No date, folio 






— in the same library, ... 




ibid. 


, Opus Quartiscript. Schoeffher. 1469, folio— 






UPON VELLUM, in the same library. 




ibid 


, In Evang. Matt, et Marc. 1470, S. and 






Pannarig, folio— in the same library. 




ibid. 


, de virtut. et vUiis. Menielut—ia the Public 






Library at Munich, - 




289 


Arbre des BaUnUes, Verard, 1493, folio — upon vellum. 






in the Royal Library at Paris, 


i. 


286 



Ti INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Arettmt it BeUo GMico, 1470, folkH-in the PttbBe Ubrary 

atCten, - - . • L 333 

Jretimu, L., de Studiit et Litteris, {Unef) 4to.— in the Royil 

library at Stuttgart, - - - - iii. 148 

Ariitophanes, Gr. Aldm^ 1498, folio, in the Public Library at 

Rouen, - - - - • i. 178 

AriMtotelii Opera, Gr. Aldui, 1498, 6 toIb. Two copies upon 
VBLLUM (the first volume in each copy wanting) in the 
Royal library at Phrifl, - - - - ii. 291 

Comment EuHraiU, 1636, Akku, foUo, laige pq^ 

copy in the same collection, - - - — 314 

Ethica Nichomackea. Gr. iAUhu) -^remaricably 



splendid copy of, in the Royal Library at Plsris, 
Eikka. Lai. Menielin. Folio — in the Public 



library at Strasbourg, - - • iii. 69 

An Memarandi, Bee. — biock book : five copies of, in the 

Public library at Munich, - - ^ — 282 

' in the Public Library at 

Landshut, - . . ^ 335 

—————————— in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - - - — 631 
' ^ in the Library of Odttudc 

Monastery, - - - • — 428 

An Moriendi, Germanki — 4to. — in the Royal library at 

Stuttgart, . - - - — 146 
, Lat. block book—Kw editions, in the Public 

Library at Munich, .... 283 

Art de bien Mourir, Ferard, no date, folio — upon yillum, 

in the Royal Library at Paris, - - - ii. 288 

Art and Cm^fte to know well to dye. Canton, in the Royal 

Library at Puis, - - - - u. 277 

Artus Lb Rot, MS. xiith century, — in the Royal Library 

at Puis, - - - - ii. 223 

Another MS. of the same Romance, in the same Library, 224 
Artasani Summa, (1469) folio — in the Public library at 

Augsbourg, - - - - iii. 232 

Auguitinui Sti. De Cmtate Dei, 1467, folio — in the Royal 

Librar>' at Paris, - . - - - u. 262 

■ in the Library 

of Ste. Genevieve at Paris, - - - 346 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. vu 

fV. Page, 



Augu^hMu SU, De Cwitate IM, 1467, folio, in the Imperial 






Library at Vienna, ... 


iii. 


483 


, in the Library 






of dostemeuburg Monastery, - - - 


"~ 


616 








1470, folio, in the Public Library at Vlre, 


i. 


447 


f^, de Spira, 1470, folio — 






in the Public Library at Rouen, - - 


i. 


176 


________ , UPON YBLLUM, 






late in the Library of Chremsminster Monastery, - - - 


iii. 


375 


, UPON TBLLUM, 






in the Imperial Library at Vienna, 




483 


— — , upon paper, in 






the Library of Gdttrnc Monastery, 












in the Public Library at Strasbourg, 




62 








Library at Munich, ... 




293 








Library at Landshut, - - - - 




335 


■ Sckoeffher, 1473, 






toiio— in tne idbrary ot tne monastery oi cnremsminster. 




374 








folio — UPON YBLLUM, in the Imperial Library at Vienna, 




483 


Eputolit, MefUrlm, folio, three copies, with 






different ms. dates, in the Public Library at Mumch, 




293 


, Menteltn — m the Imperial Library 






at Vienna, ..... 


lU. 


484 


— — Cot^feuhfwm, Libri XIIL 1476- 4to. — in the 






Ii|»perial Library at Vienna, 




484 


de Triniiate, folio — ^in the same collection. 




m. 


de arte pr^edicandi. Futt — in the possession of 






M. Levrault at Strasbourg, ... 




96 


de iingulariUUe Clerieorum, 1467, 4to. — ^in the 






King's Private Library at Stuttgart, 




163 


AuousTiNi Sti. in Psalmos, MS. xvth century — formerly 






in the library of Corvinus, King of Hungary, and now in 






that of the Royal Library at Stuttgart, 




155 


Yppan. de Com. Emng. 1473, folio — in the 






Public Ldbrary at Augsbourg, ... 




232 


Aului Gelliui, 1469, folio— in the Royal Library at Paris, 


u. 


282 



viii 



INDEX OF &UNUSCRIPTS 



rol Page. 

Aulut GeUwM, UPON vbllvm, in tbe Imperiftl Ubrmry at 

Vienna, - - . - - iU. 493 

Ammmhu, 1472, folio— m the Royal Library at Ptaris, u. 282 

■ in the Impend Library at Vienna,' - liL 494 

, Jkhu^ 1617, Bro. Orolier's copy, on large 

paper, in the Royal Library at Puis, - - • ii. 314 

Agmon, lei quaireJUg, 1683, 4to. — in the Library of the Ar- 
senal, at Ptfis - . - - — 334 

B. 

Balku, Tract, de QhmL 1477- 4to. in the Pablic Library at 
Rouen, - - - - - i. 177 

Ballads; Bon Jtmr, Bon Soir : Le yaillant Thmbadour, vol. i. 
224 — 7\nffo9iri, 389 ; various, from the Faudevirei of Oli- 
vier Bauelin, 436-444 ; Hve Le Roi, Five DAmwtr, ii. 3. ; 
N&iuance de Gmlktume le Conqt$erani, ii. 64 ; m arborani 
le drtgi>eau Mane, at Falaite, ii. 23 ; le Bauer d' Adieu, 48.; 
V/magedela Vie, 49; Le Troubadaw Pariiien,60i Sauve 
qmpoMt^bl ; Balade joyeux des Tavemiers, ii. 287. 



Bmrtkolus Lectura. F. de Spira, 1471. Folio. In the Impe- 



rial library at Vienna, ... 


iii. 


606 


Bmiock, i. Adam de-^Catalogue det Eitampet, par, tfe. 1818. 






8?o. - - . . - 




606 


Boitiano Foreti, 4to.-4n the Imperial Library at Vienna,. 




614 


Bella (La) Mano, 1474, 4to. — in the Imperial Library at 






Vienna, . . . . 




5J4 


Bellovaceniis Fine. Spec. Hist. 1473, folio; in the Pablic Li- 






brary at Rouen, .... 


i. 


176 


' — in the Publio Library at Augs- 






iKHirg, - - ... 


iii. 


233 


— in the Imperial Library at 






Vienna, - - ... 


iii. 


506 


Morale, 14/6, folio, in the Public 






Library at Strasbourg, - - - - 


iii. 


59 


Benedictionarius, MS. xith century -in the Public Library 






at Rouen, - - - - - 


i. 


169.175 


BerUnghieri, Geografia, folio — in the Imperial Library 






(Prince Eugene's copy) at Vienna, - - 


iii. 


615 


Berinus et Aygres de Lamant, Bonfons, no date, in the li- 






brary of the Arsenal at Paris, ... 


ii. 


336-7 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. ix 

Fol Page, 

Betmrionii Epklolm, (1469) folio-in the Royal Library at 
Stuttgart. - - - ... iii. 143 

— ^ — , foHo — in the Imperial library at 

Vienna,. - - - - - — 606 

Beuarion^ Card. Orai. ad Inclii. lial. Prine. Going. 4to. in 

the Imperial Library at Vienna, - . . — 606 

BiBLiA Latina, MS. ixth century, of Charles the Bald- in 
the Royal Library at Paris, with a copper-plate engraving of 
that Monarch's portrait, - - - ii. 166-162 

— ■ xiith century, in the same library, - ii. 166 

xvth century, of the Emperor fFen- 

cetiaui — ^in the Imperial Library at Vienna, with three he- 
simile engraved illustrations, - - - iii. 461-463 

Bibiia Hitt, Paraphrastica, MS. x?th century, - - ii. 16S-172 
Biblk Polyglotta Camplut. 1616, &c. m the Public Library at 
Coutances, - - - . . i. 412 

^ copy belongingto Diane 

de Poictiers, in the Royal Library at Paris, - - - ii. 316 
- copy of Demetrius Chalcondylas, 



afterwards that of Eckius, in the Public Library at Land- 
shut, - - - - iii. 336 
fFaltan ; royal copy, in the Public Library 



at Caen, - - - - - i. 336 

. with the original de- 
dication, in the Library of the Arsenal at Paris, - - iii. 138 (noiej 

with the original de- 
dication, in the Public Library at Stuttgart, - - » 138 

• in the Library of the 



Monastery of St. Florian, in Austria - - ^ 391 

Bil^lia Poljfglotta, LeJay i in the Chapter Library at Bayeux, i. 373 
- in the Library of the Lyc6e at do. — 374 
■ in the Library of the Hotel de Viile 
atSt.Lo, - - - - - — 396 

— Hebraica^ edit. Soncini, 1489, in the Imperial Library 

at Vienna, - - - - - iii. 486 
Houbigant, 1763, in a Private Collec- 



tion near Bayeux, - - w - i. 361 

■ Hahn, 1806, in the Library of the Mo- 



nastery of Clostemeuburg, - - - -iii. 616 

Graca, Jidvs, 1618, folio — FVancis Isf s copy, upon 



thick paper, in the Royal Library at Pteis^ - - ii. 313 

B 



X INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 



fW. Page. 



nfhiM fwf^^/*A JmljttiM nnt\n t\\itAr nAtiAr in Y^itkmirv fliA 
Mjfutm jwHMwSf upuii uuwK pApor^ in uic uiuraiy vx buc 






/IrBQiUti M tiBTlS, .... 


•• 
11. 


OAS-* 








brary at Stuttgart, .... 


iii. 


162 


Rihlin F^ifSiua f^Ali \iam. I^AA ) fftli/i Q «rrk1a ft-orrk «v\iiiMI 

sjiviiu MjwtfHif ( rocf . ^CTH#. i^ooy itMiu, i> vuu«y »wu. cupioo Wf 






in tlip TI/)va1 TjihrM*v ttt Vtkviu _ _ _ 


ii. 


263 








Library at Furis, .... 


ii. 


364-6 


a copy in the Public Li- 








111. 


*o/ 




















Royal Library at Plans, - - - 


11. 


ORE 














xwyoi ijiurary ai oiimKori, yunuCTivci) - ~ 


••• 
111. 










Imperial Library at Vienoa ... 












loree copies \iWO upon ytHtLUMf oxui & mira on papery m 






tnc liiorary or tne Arsenal at rans« - - 


11. 


OKI 


wt t 1TM fi\nyr tn tVio f >ikraf*ir e\f f^tA ^AtiPinAirP _ . 
VBbiiUn curTf 111 iiic liiuriuy ui ofcc. vTCUCvicvCy ~ 


iia 


346 










.•• 
111. 


lot 












485 


Rihlin iMiinn Mtftnki^liwk •— in t)iA l^ihlin f lihrAFV A.t StTAS. 






bourg, - . - . 




66 


in the Imperial Library at Vi- 






enna, - - - - - 




486 


Eggetleyn, (ms. date, 1468) in the Public 






library at Strasbourg, - - - 




67 


(ms. date, 1466) in the Public 






Library at Munich, - .... 




289 


. supposed edition of Eggesteyn, in the Public 






Library at Strasbourg^ - - - - 




65 


, 1476, folio, FrUner, &c. — in the Public Li- 






brary at Augsbourir, . . . . 


iii. 


228 


(1475 edit. Gering) imperfect copy in the 






Chapter Library i.t Bayeux, - 


i. 


373 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

Vol, Page, 



Biblia Latina, Hailirun^ 1476, folio : two copies, of which one 

is UPON VELLUM, in the Imperial library atYlenna, - iii. 485 

Jemom, 1479. folio, in the Public 

Library at Strasbourg, - - . — . 68 

UPON VEL- 
LUM, in the Imperial Library at Vienna -and a second copy 
upon paper, ----- 486 

' Litt. A - in the Imperial Library 

at Vienna, - - - - iii 486 

: , 1483, folio, in the PubUc 

Library at Rouen, - - - - i. 177 

— . , 1486, folio, in the Public 

Library at Caen, - - - - i. 333 

: Froben, 1496, 8vo. in the Public 

Library at Vire, — 447 

BiUia Germanica, Mentelin, folio — in the Royal Library at 
PMt», ii. 256 

— — — ■ in the Public Library 

at Strasbourg, - - - - --iii. 55 

■ two copies, in the Pubfic 

Library at Stuttgart, - - - . _ 137 

■■ — • two copies in the Public 
Library at Munich, - - - - - — 287 

. in the Public library at 

Landshut, - - - . . — 334 

in the Library at Clos- 

temeuburg Monastery, - - - - — 616 

. —— in the Public Library 

atRatisbon, - - Supplement, xw 

• — — imperfect copy, (ms. date 

of 1467) in the Library of the Prince of Tour and Taxis, at 
Ratisbon, - - - Supplement, — xi 

■ in the Public Library at 

Nuremberg, - - Supplement, — xxv 

iuppated fint edition, in the 

Public library at Landshut, - - . — 334 

, iuppased fint edition, folio, in the library 

of Gottwic Monastery, - - - - — 428 

, Sorgr, Augibourg, 1477» folio, in the Li- 
brary of Professor Veesenmeyer, at Ulm, - - — 196 



xu INDEX OF MANUSGRIFT8 





BfbUa Germamea, Swrg, AugdKmrg, 1477, folio, in the Ii> 






biwy of the Monastery of St. Floriftn, 


ill* 


390 


, Peffpui^ 1624, folio— ^PON tsllum, in 






the Royal Libnuy at Stuttgart, - - - 


— 


137 


BiUki Italica; KiUend. AugtuH, 1471— Iblio— in the Mazarine 






Library, at Puia, - ... 


iL 


366 








in the Royal Library at Stuttgart, 


iiL 


loo 


Kalend. Odobris, 1471, folio — in the Library 






of Ste. Genen^fe, at nurii, ... 


iL 


346 


— — in the Royal li- 






brary at Stuttgart, - ... 


ui- 


138 


—————— in the Imperial 






Library at Vienna, - - - - 




4oD 


1477, folio, in the Library of Gdttwic Mo- 






nastery, ... - 




428 


Btbl Hut. Fenet. 1492, fobo — p copy purchased of M. Fls- 






cheim at Munich, ... 




304 


AMwr Bohemka, 1488, folio — in the Royal Library at Paris, 


iL 


267 


Polonica, 1663, folio — in the same Library, 


— ■ 


266 


in the Royal Library at Stutt- 






gart, .... - 


iiL 


137 


copy purchased by the Author at 








iO. 


228 


— — — in the Imperial Library at Vienna, 


— 


488 


1699, folio— in the Library of Ste. Genevieve, 


ii. 


347 


- Nungarwa, 1666, folio— mcomplete, m the King's Pri- 






Tate Library at Stuttgart, ... 


iii. 


16M 


, 1626, folio, in the Public Library at Straa- 










68 


Sclavonica,\6B\, folio, in the Royal Library at Stuttgart, 




139 


, 1684, in the Public Library at Stras- 






bourg, ..... 




68 


, 1687, folio— in the Royal Library at Paris, 


iL 


267 


Bible, La Sainie, 1669, folio ; large paper copy in the Public 






Library of Caen, - . . 


L 


336 


BiBLiA — ^HisTORiCA, MS, vernbui germamcit. Sec. xiv. — in 






the Royal Library at Stuttgart, 


iiL 


162 


■ Aurea, Lti, /. Zemer, 1474, folio — in the Library of 






Chremsminster Monastery, 




376 



AND OP PRINTED BOOKS. 



xiii 



Fal. Page. 

BihUa Pauperum^ bhck book : in the Royal library at Paris, ii. 256 
, printed by Pfister, in the same, - — 261 

, block book, Cterman, — in the Royal Li- 
brary at Strasbouq^, - - - - iii. 146 
, Latine, first edition, in the same Library, — 147 



block book — one German, and two Latin 



editions, in the Public Library at Munich, - - — 283 
, Lat. in the Library of Gdttwic Monas- 
tery, - - - - - — 428 
> in the Imperial Library at Vienna, — 531 



Biography, Rotal, op France — xvith century — magnifi- 
cent MS. in the Royal Library at Paris, ' - , - ii. 216 

Blasphemateun du nam de Dieu, an ancient morality, in Svo., 
without date — discovered in the vicinity of Rouen, i. 159 — 
and fully described, with copious extracts, from the same 
unique copy in the Royal Library at Paris, - - - — 302-310 

Blazonry op Arms, Book op — xivth century, with he- 

simile portrait of Leopold de Sempach — in the Imperial Li- ^ 
brary at Vienna, - - - - iiL 4744» 

Block books; at Paris, i. 255; at Stuttgart, iii. 146; at Mu- 
nich, iii. 279 ; at Landshut, iii. 335 ; at 05ttwic Monastery, 
iii. 428 ; at Vienna, iii. 531. 

BOCACB, DES CaS DE8 NOBLES H0MME8 & FeMMES, MS. 

xTth century, in the Royal Library at P^, - - ii. 212 

' ■ two more 

MSS. of the same work, in the same Library, - - ^ 214 

Boccace Ruine» des Nobles Hommes, 4^. 1476, Colard Mm^ 

eion, folio, in the Royal Library at Paris, - - — 280 

Boccaccio II Decamerone, 1471, Faldaffer, folio — in the 

Royal Library at Paris, - - - — 279 

, 1472, A, de Michaelibui, folio, in 

the Royal Library in Paris, - - - ibid, 

in the Public Library at Nurem- 



berg, - - . - Supplement^ xxy 
' , 1476, Zarohu, folio, b the Impe- 
rial Library at Vienna, - - iii. 615 
- Deo Gracioi, Sine Anno : /hrem edk. 



/>rtii. in the Public Library at Munich, - - — 291 

-, Nimpkale, 1477, 4to., in the Royal Library at 



Stuttgart, . - - 146 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPT8 



Boocaecio, de CJar, Mulier. (1470, qu. }) folio, in the Imperial 

Library at Vienna, - - iii. 507 

Boetius, Koburger, Germ. Lat., 1473, folio, in the Public 

Library at Augsbourg, - - iii. 231 
, F. Johannet, 1474, 4to., in the Library of Ste. 

Geneneve at Paris, - - ii. 348 

Bonacenturte Papa Medit. Fit. ChrUti, 1468, G. Zeiner, in 

the Library of Gottwic Monastery, - - iii. 431 

Bam/acii Papa Libr. Decret. 1465, folio, upon vbllum, in 

the Library of Molk Monastery, - - - — 411 
, UPON TBLLUM, in thc 

Imperial Library at Vienna, - - — 507 

— , UPON VELLUM, in the Public Library at Nurem- 



berg, • SupplemefU, xzr 

Bonne Pie, ou Madenie, Chamber^, 1485, folio, in the Im- 
• perial Library at Vienna, - - — 525 

Brandt Navis Stult. Germ., 1499, 4to., in the Imperial Library 

at Vienna, - - - — 526 

Bbbviairb d' Amours, MS. xiiith century, with copper plate 

fac-simile, in the Imperial Library at Vienna, - — 477*480 

Bretiairb de Bellbvillb, MS., xivth century, in the 

Royal Library at Paris, - - ii. 174-6 

Breviary of John Dukb of Bedford, MS. xvth century — 

in the Royal Library at Paris — frith copperplate fac-simile 

of a portion of the Adoration of the Magi, from the same, ii. 176>185 
Brbviairb de M. de Monmorbnct, MS. xvith century — in 

the Emperor of Austria's private collection at Vienna - iii. 592 
Brevhrium, seu de dubiis Casibw in Misia: no date, &c., in 

the Public Library at Strasbourg - • - — 63 
, Teutonic^, 4to.,'upoN vellum, copy purchased 

of M. Flscheim, at Munich, - - - — 304 

Brbviarium Eccl. Li88. MS.; in the Public Library at Caen i. 334 
Breydenbach Itinerarium Lai. 1486, folio, in the library of the 

Prince of Tour and Taxis, at Ratisbon, Supplement, xi. 
, Itineraire, 1488, folio— 4n the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - , - - iii. 526 

Brut d' Anglbttere, MS. xivth century — ^in the Imperial 

Library at Vienna, - - — 477 

Bud^ei Comment, in Ling. Gr. 1529, folio— Francis 1st. copy, 

UPON vellum, in the Royal Library at Paris, - ii. 295 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. 



XT 



rol Page. 

Burcfuello Sonetti, 4to., in the Imperial Library at Vienna, - iii. 516 
Burtrio, Anthon, de, Adam Rot, 1472, folio, in the library of 

Closterneuburg Monastery, - - iii. 617 



C. 



Cadeau des Mutes^ ... 


ii. 


53 


Ctetar, 1469, folio— in the Royal Library at Paris, 


ii. 


282 


, in the Mazarine Library, 


ii. 


367 


, in the Public Library at Munich, 


iii. 


290 


, UPON VELLUM, in the Imperial Library, - 


iii. 


494 


, 1471. Jenton, in the library of G6ttwic Monastery, 


iii. 


430 


, 1472. S. and Pannartz, folio, in the Imperial Library 






at Vienna, - - - - 




494 


Calderi Opus Concilior. Adam Rot. 1472. Folio, in the 






library of Clostemeuburp^ Monastery, 




617 


Calbndarium, MS*, xvith century in the Public Library at 






Munich, - - • 




269 


, Regiomontani, block book, in the Public Library 






at Munich, - - 




286 


Canchnero General, 1566, 8vo., 1573, 1580, 8to., at Rouen, 


i. 


153 


Caratzullus, De Tim. Dir. Judic. Arnold de Brucella, 1473, 






folio, in the Imperial Library at Vienna, 


iii. 


507 


Coitille et Arttu d'Algarbe, 1587. 4to., in the Library of the 






Arsenal at Paris - - - 


ii. 


327. 


Catickiime des Amans, 


i. 


140 


, ^ ttuage des grandet filles pour itre marines 




ibid. 


Caterina, da Sienna, 1477. 4to., in the Imperial Library at 






Vienna, ... 


iii. 


617 




ii. 


315 


Catholicon, 1460, folio, upon vellum, in the Royal Library 






atParis, - - - 




264 


, in the Public Library 






at Munich, - • - - 


iii. 


290 


, G. Zeiner, 1469, folio, upon vellum, in the 






Public Library at Munich, 




291 


, in the Monastic Library of 






Chremsminster, - - - 




374 


, UPON VELLUM, in the Monastic 






Library of Gbltwic, - - 




428 


, UPON VELLUM, iu thc Imperial 






Library at Vienna, 




507 



x?i INraX OF MANUSGRlPn 



OlMkm, 1488, folio, in the IHd^ - 


L 


178 


^ without date, &c., in Hie Pablic libivy tt 






Stmbomf , ... 


iiL 


63 


^ wkkmU dtie, folio, in the Imperial I^bnoy 






at Vienna, . . . 






(ktomt Etkica, 1477, folio, in the Royal Ubiury at Stuttgart, 




164 


, a. Zeiner) no date, in the Public Library al 






Straibounr,* 




63 


C§hi!hu, T^Mhu, Pnpertims, 1472, in the Royal Library at 






Ptfii, 


iL 


282 


, in the Maiarine Library, 




367 


' , in the Public library al 






Strasbourg, - 


iiL 


67 


, 1473, folio, in the Imperial 






Library at Vienna, 




494 


CtuH^ bookiprmied ^, in the Royal Library at Puis, 


iL276^^ 




iiL 


632 


CeUitma Commedia de, Anvtn^ 18mo., in the library of the 






Arsenal at Paris, - - - 


iL 


332 


Ckaucef^t Book of Ftme, Caxton^ folio, in the Iihperial 






LAnrary at Vienna, ... 


iu. 


532 


Chi88, Game of, metrical German verthn of, MS., see. xv.. 






in the Royal Library at Stuttgart, 




154 


Chevalier Delibre, 1488, 4to., in the Imperial Library at 






Vienna, ... 




526 


Chevalier au Lion, MS., 1470, in the Royal Library at 






Stuttgart, 




155 


Chivalry i see ToumametUs, 






Ckriiien de Mechel, Gat. des Tableaux de la Galerie imp. et 






roy. de Vienna, 1781, 8vo., 




573 


Ghroniqub de Louis XI., MS., xvith century, in the 






Imperial Library at Vienna, 


iiL 


480 


Chronicon Ponii/teum, 1474, 4to., in the Imperial Library at 






Vienna, - - - 




507 








Public Library at Strasbourg, 




59 


Hungarim, 1485, 4to., in the Public Library at 






Augsbourg, ... 




229 


Chromcon Normbergente, 1493, folio, quoted, or 






referred to, iiL 219, 237, 356, 536, Supplememi, 




ix. 



ANI> OP PRINTED BOOKS. 





/V. 


Page. 


Ckrwmieon Goitwicmtt, 173S» Mio^ 2 volt., womt aooowil 






of this nre and vifauible work* 


iiL 










Cmysolcrmi ErUemmtm, Gr, edit. priiL 4to.y in the Impenai 






library at Yiennay 




509 


CAfyif /owt Gnmmw/., Crr. 1529, folio, copy of Diane de 






Poictiers,* in the P^lic Ldbrary at Caen, 


i. 




(^eer^ de O/icn*^ 1465, 4to., upon tellum , from a private 






collection in toe vosges, now in tnat of tne KeT. U. Lfnuy* 


2SS 

m. 


70. 


, 1465, 4to., two copies cpom ybllcm, in 






the imperial Library at Vieiina, 


iiL 


494 


, 1466, 4to., upon paper, m the Mannne 






liUxrary at Fans, 


iL 


367 


, 1466, 4to., UPON VELLUM, in the Ro3raI 






Uifaryat Stuttgart, - - - 


iii. 


I4U 








collection, - 






, i/ildut), Syo., upon vellum, in the Royal 






Library at Paris, - - 


iL 


312 


~, Efiutolm mi Fmmlmm^ 1467» fobo, CanUnal Bes- 






sarion's copy, in the Imperial Library at Vienna, 


iiL 




1 AC€% O ——J -- - 






lOHO^ m tne same liiDrary, - - - 




fVNf. 








f<dio, in the Public Library at Augsbourg, 






■ , 1469, /. ae Sptra^ m the 






itoyal idorary at otuttgart. 




140 




L 


177 


^ , 15Q2, Aldus, 8vo., upon vellum, in 






the possession of M. Renouard, bookseller. 


ii. 


395 


-^Cicero^ de OraUire, Monuit. SouMac., folio, in the Library 






of Ste. Genevieve, at Paris, 


ii. 


346 


, f - de Spira, folio, in the Public Library 






at Strasbourg, - - 


iii. 


67 


1 , in the In^ierial Li- 






brary at Vienna, . . - 




496 


— ^ — ^ Opera PkUa§ophica, Ulric Nan, folio, in the Public 
Library at Munich, ... 








290 








brary at Vienna, - - . 




495 



c 



xvHi 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 



rol. Page, 

Cicero, Opera Philotophica, typ. Auionii, 1472, in the 
Library of Gottwic Monastery - - iii. 431 

, De Xatura Deorum, V. de Spira^ 1471, foUo, in the 

Mazarine Library, at Paris, - - ii. 367 

, Rhetorica foetus, Jenson, 1470, folio, upon vellum. 



in the Library of Ste. Genevieve, at Pftris, - - — 34s 

1 UPON TSLLUM, 

in the Ini])erial Library at Vienna, - - iii. 496 

Oraiionei, S. and Pannartz^ 1471, folio, in the 

Imperial Library at Vienna, - - — 496 

-, raldar/er, 1471, folio, upon tillum. 



(wanting one leaf) in the Royal Library at Paris, - ii. - 295 
, perfect vellum copy, in the 



possession of Mr. Renouard, bookseller, - - — 394 
, 1519, ^Idus, 8vo. , u po N ve llu m , firs t yolume 



only, in the Royal Library at Paris, - - iL 312 
, perfect copy, upon vellum. 



in the Library of Ste. Genevieve, - - iL 351 

Pediani Comment, und cum Trapezuni. 



de art. Cicer. orat. (/. de Colonk) 1477, folio, in the Public 
Library at Strasbourg, • - - iu. 67 

-, Opera Omnia, 1498, folio, 4 vols., in the Library of 



Ste. Genevifcve, at Paris, - - ii. 349 

, in the Imperial 

Library at Vienna, - - — 496 

1534, Giunta, folio, singular copy in 



the Royal Lil)rary ut Paris, - - ii. 317 

Cid, el Caralero, 1627, 4lo., in the Library of the Arsenal, 
at Paris : bound with Seffs Romances del Cid Ruy Diaz de 
Hevar, 1627, 4to. - - - ii. 330 

Cite pk Diev, MS., in the Royal Ubrary at IVis, - ii. 204-209 

Citk des Dames, (Frrard) folio, upon vellum, in the Impe- 
rial Library at Vienna, - - iii. 626 

Clement. Pap. Coftstit. 1468, rpoN vellvm, in the Imperial 
Library at Vienna, - - — 506 

Compendium Morale, folio, upon vellum, unique copy, 
late in the possession of the Baron Der^chau, at Nuremberg, 

Supplement, xxxiv. 

Con/essionale, Arnol irs, 1473, 4lo., in the library of Gottwic 
Monastery, - - - iii. 430-1 

C08TENTIX Du, MS., in the Public Library at Caen, - i. 334 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. 



xix 



Fol.^ Page, 

Cotman, Mr., character of his Anglo-Norman Antlquitieg, 

preface, p. viii. See Genbral Index, 
Cotutumier Grand, de Normandie, in the Public Library at 

St. Lo, in NcMinandy, - > - i. 39S 

CouTANCES, MS., biographical details connected with, in 

the Public Library at Caen, - - — 336 

Ccutumet Anciennes, 1672, 12mo. at Caen, - - — 336 

Craitom Lecncon, 1481, Gr. and Lat., folio, in the Library of 

Professor Veesenmeyer, at Ulm, - - iii. 194 
^ . Gr. and Lat,, 1499, folio, in the Library 

of the Prince of Tour and Taxis, at Ratisbon, Supplement, xi 
Cronica del Cid. Seville, 4to., in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - - — 627 

Cronica del rey Don Juan, Seville y 1663, 4to., copy pur- 
chased of Mr. Fischeim, at Munich, - - — 304 
Cronique de France, 1493, Ferard, i:pon vcllum, in the 

Royal Library at Paris, - • ii. 284 
de Florimont, 1629, 4to. — in the Library of the 

Arsenal at Paris, - - - — 336 
de Cleriadus, 1629, 4to., — in the Library of the 



Arsenal at Paris, - - — 337 

D. 

Daigremont et Fknan, 1638, 4to., in the Library of the 

Arsenal, at Paris, - - — 338 

Dance of Death, MS., with wood cuts, in the Public Library 

of Munich, - - iii. 278-9 

Dante, Numeiiter, 14/2, folio, in the Mazarine Library 
at Paris, - - - - - ii. 368 

. — , in the Imperial Library 

at Vienna, - iii. 618 

Petrtu Adam, 1472, folio, in the Library of Ste. 



Genevieve, at Paris, - - - - ii. 348 

-, Neapoli, Tuppi, folio, in the Royal Library 



at Stuttgart, - - - iii. 144 

-, Milan, 1478, with the comments of G. Tu- 



zago, folio, in the same collection, - - — ibid, 

1481, folio, imperfect copy, in the Public Library 



at Augsbourg - iii. 231 

-, perfect copy, with twenty copper plates. 



in the Public Library at Munich, - - - — 291 



XX 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 



Dante, 1481, folio, with xx, cc^perplates, in tbe Imperial li- 

bwry at Vienna, - - iii. 618 

Diuffpodhu Conrad^ his treatise on the clock in Strasboiuip 

Cathedral, - - - - - — 33 

Datti Elegant iolof, cum quibusd. aliU opuic, grammat., 4to. 

no date, in the Royal Library at Stuttgart, - - — 141 

Decor Puellantm, Jenmm^ 1461, 4to., in the Imperial Li- 

brary at Vienna, - - - - — 518 

Dtfemio Immac. Concept. B, V. Af. 1470, block book, in the 

Public Library at Munich, - - - — 286 

De Ftde Concubinamm in Sacerdot. 4to., late in the possession 

of M. Koch, of Manheim, Supplement, IyL 

Delphin Claisia, fine set of, in the library of Chremsminster 

Monastery, - - - . ^ 376 

Demoithenet, Gr.^ 1604, folio, in the Public Library at Rouen, i. 179 
Der rets Ritter, 1614, folio, unique copy, in the PubHc 

Library at Landshut, - - - - iii. 337 

Dictionarium Pauperum, Colon. 1604, 8?o., copy purchased 

of M. Flscheim, at Munich, - - . — 304 

Dion Cassiuif 1648, Gr. folio, edit, prin., Diane de Poictiers 

copy, in the Royal Library at Paris, - - ii. 316-7 

Dio Chryiottom. de Regno, Valdarfer, 4to., upon vellum, 

in the Emperor's private collection at Vienna, - iii. 693 

Dionysius Halicarnatsensit, Gr., 1646, folio, Diane de Poic- 

tierd' copy, in the Royal Library at Paris, - - ii. 317 

DioscoRiDES, Grace, MS., vith century, in the Imperial 

Library at Menna, - - - - - iii. 471-3 

D1VBRTI88MENT8 TOucHANT LA GUERRE, MS., in the Public 

Library at Caen, - - - - i. 334 

Doolin de Mapence, Paris, Bonfont, 4to. in the Library of the 

Arsenal, - - - . - - ii. 339 

Donatus : several early editions of, in the Public Library at 

Munich, - - - - - iii. 294 
, 4to. — {Bamler) in the Library of the Prince of 

Tour and Taxis, at Ratisbon, - Suppletnent, z 

Duns Scotus, I. de Rheno, 1473, folio — in the Library of 

Gottwic Monastery, - - - - iii. 431 
Durandi Rationale, 1469, folio, in the Royal Library at Paris, ii. 266 
, in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - - - - - ui» 608 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. x 

Foi. Page. 

Durandi Rationale, 1459, folio, in the Public Library at Nu- 
remberg, .... Supplement y — xxv 

, 1474, /. Zetner, folio, in the Library of 

Chremsminster Monastery, - - - - iiL 375 

, fTtthout Date, Litt, R. m the Public Li- 



brary at Strasbourg, - - - - — 63 

Speculum Judieiale, H«unet\ 1473, folio— in the 

Public Library at Strasbourg, - - - — 59 



EcHECs Amorsux, MS. folio— with copper-plate fius-simile — 
in the Royal Library at Paris, - - - - ii. 209 

Echec Jeu de,{Ferard) no date — upon tbllum, in the Royal 
Library at Paris, - - - - — 286 

Ein nuizlich btkchlin, Augi., 1498, 4to. — in the Imperial Li- 
brary at Vienna, - . - - - iii. 527 

Eratmut ejtpurgatu* iuxta cent. Acad. Lotan. 1579, folio, in the 
Public Library at Augsbourg. See TVf/imi^. AVmM, 1516. — 234 

EvAKGELiA QuATUOR, Lat. MS. vith century, in the Royal 

Library at Paris, - - - ii. 155-6 
VII ith century, in the Library 

of Chremsminster Monastery, - - iii. 377-9 

ixth century, belonging to 



the Emperor Lotharius, with engraving of his portrait, ii. 163-166 

ixth century— in the Public 



Library at Munich, - - - iii. 259-261 
xith century, inthe same Li- 
brary, - - - - — 262 

zth century, in the Public 



Library at Landshut, - - . — 333 

— xith century — in the Royal 

Library at Stuttgart, - - .... 143 

xvth century, in the Im- 
perial Library at Vienna - . ... 464 

Eyangelium Sti. Iohannis, MS. Lat. xith century, in the 
Royal Library at Paris, - - - ii. 173 

Evangelia cum EpUtolU : ItaL folio — in the Library of Gdtt- 
wic Monastery, - . . - iii. 428 

Euclides, 1482, folio, upon vellum, in the Royal Library at 
Paris, - - . - . iL 294 

, four varying copies of, in the Public 

Library at Munich, - - iiL 290 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 



rd. Page 

Euripides, Gr., 1603, Jldui-^vpov vellum, in the Royal Li- 

braiy at Pari9, - - - - ii. 311 
, Hecuba et Iphigenia in Jul. Gr. and Lat. 1507, 

8vo. UPON VELLUM, in the same Library, - - — iM, 

Eustathiui in Hwnerum, 1542, folio — upon yellum, in the 

Royal Library at Paris, - - - — 292 
upon paper, in the 

same collection, - - - - - — 316 
, 1559, folio, fine copy, upon paper, 

in the Public Library at Caen, - - - i. 337 

Eutropiui, 1471, Lover, folio — in the Kmff's Private Library 

at Stuttgart, - iii. Id2 

Exhortation against the Turks (1472) in the Public Library at 

Munich, - - - - - — 282 

Eyb. Margarita Poetica, 1472, folio— in the Public Library at 

Strasbourg, - - - - — 62 



F. 

Fait de la Guerre, C. Mansion, folio— in the Royal Library at 

Ptais, - - - - - ii. 280 

Fazio Dita Mundi, 1474, folio — in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - - - - iil 518 

Fichi'ti Rhetorica — Gering—4to. — upon vellum, in the Im- 
perial Library at Vienna, - - - — 509 
Fiorio e Biancijiore, Bologna, 1480, folio — in the Library of 

the Arsenal, at Paris, - - - - ii. 331 

Fierbras, 1486, folio— Prince Eugene's copy), in the Imperial 

Library at Vienna, - - - - iii. 528 

Flos Sanctorum, 1582, folio — in the Public Library at Rouen, i. 179 
Fontaine Contes de la, copy of in the Chapter Library at 

Bayeux, - - - - - i. 372 

Fortalitium Fidei — folio — no date — in the Public Library at 

Munich : curious printed advertisement in this copy, - iii. 295 
Frezzi II Quadriregio, 1481, folio— in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - - . - — 518 

Fulgosii Anteros — 1496 — folio— in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - - - - - — 518 

Funrrailleh deh Reineh de France, MS. folio — in the 

Emperor's Private Collection at Vienna, - - — 592 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. xxiii 

Fol Page. 

G. 

Gaientu, Or. \S25, folio, ^Idus — large paper copy, in the 

Royal Library at Paris, - - - - ii. 314 

F. Oaffcrii Laud. Harm. Inst. MS. XFith century — in the 
Emperor's Private Collection at Vienna, - - - iii. 692 

Galien et Jaquehne, 1525, folio— in the Library of the Arsenal, 
at Paris, - - - - - ii. 3^3 

Gallia Christiana, 1732, folio, in the Chapter Library at 
Bayeux, - - - - - i. 373 

Garnet of Cheu, Caxton, folio, 2d. edit. — in the Imperial Li- 
brary at Vienna, - - - - iii. 632 

Genesis — ^MS. of the ivth . century— fragmentt of Chapters of, 
account of — with fac-simile lUuminations, in the Imperial 
Library at Vienna, - - - - — 457 

Gerard, Comte de Nevers, 1526, 4to. — in the Library of the 
Arsenal at Paris, - - ' - - ii. 336 

Germanicar. Rer. Tres Script. Select. 1707, folio — referred to, iii. 363 

(?wrffii/^iViVfa»o,(5-c. 1726— referred to, - — 366-378 

Gesta Romanorum, MS. xivth century, in the King's Pri- 
vate Library at Stuttgart, - - - - — - 163 

Geyler, Navic. Fat. 1511, 4to — in the Public Library at 
Augsbourg, - - - - — 233 

Gloria Mulierum, Jenson, 4to. — in the Imperial Library at 
Vienna, - - - - - — 619 

Godfrey of Boulogne, Caxtm, folio — in the Imperial Library 
at Vienna, - - - - — 632 

Graal, St., MS. in the Royal Library at Paris, - - ii. 223 

Grammatica Rhythmica, 1466, folio— in the Royal Library at 
Paris, — 264 

Grandidier, Essai Hist, et Topog. sur PEglise CathMrale de 
Strasbourg, 1782, 8vo. - - - iii. 17-18 

Gratian Opus. Deeret. Schoeffher, 1470, folio, upon vellum, 
in the Library of Gottwic monastery,* - - iii. 428 

, Schoeffher, 1472, folio, upon vellum, in 

the Library of Closterneuburg monastery, - - — 617 

Gregorii Opera, Germ. 1483, folio, in the Library of Professor 
Veesenmeyer, at Ulm, - - - - — 193 



• I doubt whether there be any such edition, or whether the ensuing, by the same 
printer, be not here intended. 



IHUEX OP MANUSCaUPTS 



(ffiMlrfif, 6'0fw.« 1*483, 4to., wood ^to, in th^ ' 

fiessor Veesenmeyer, at Ulm, - . •HI. Mi' 

9 1471, 4to., widuMit aiti, in the same collee- 

tion. Set Petrmrcka, - . . — iM 

GuilUmme 4e Pdeme, 1552, 4to., in the Ldbrary of the Aise- 

nal: tocher edition, 1634, 4to., - . B. "SS^S 

Gulklmui de Saiketo, Ital 1474, folio, in the Libraiy of 

GMwic Monastery, - - . . _ 451 

Gnu de fFarwich, no date, 4to., in the Library of the Arsenal 

atFvis, . - . . - ii. 326 

Gjfnm Le Comriojfi, no date, Fierard, upon vellum, in the 

Royal library at Pkris, - . - ii. 284 

H. 

N&rtHei^i Chirmaney, block book, m the Royal Library al 
Ptois, . - - - it 266 

, in the Imperial Library at Vienna, - - iii. 531 ' 

ffmberim, Aualecta Medu ^ei, 1734, 12mo., copy in the pos- 
session of Professor Siebenkees at Strasbourg - ui. 80 
Hekyne La Belle, 1528, 4to., in the library of the Arsenal at 

Pteis, - - - - ii. 339 

Hector de Troye, Amoullet, 4to. in the Library of the 

Arsenal at Paris, - - . _ 340 /' 

Herborwm Mogunt,, 1484, 4to., in the Pablic Labrary at Caen, i. 325 
Hermann, Noiicet Hutoriques, StatUHquet, et Litt^hrei mr 

la FUle de Strasbourg, - - - iii. 3, &c. 

Heuret, printed by Fottre, fine copy of, in the Public library 

at Caen, - - - - i. 336 

Herodotus, Gr. 1502, Aldus, folio, large paper copy in the 

Royal Library at Paris, - - - - ii. 316 

HiSTORiA B. M. V1R01NI8, MS., folio, xvth century, with 
engraving of the portrait of Louisa of Savoy, therefrom, in 
the Public Library at Paris, - - - - H. 186-188 

, block book, folio, in the Royal 

Library at Paris, - - - — 266 

in the Royal Library 



at Stuttgart, - - - - - . — 146 

-, in the Public Library 



at Munich, - - - - ill. 286 

in the Imperial Library 



at Vienna, - - - - . — 631 



AND OP PRINTED BOOKS. 



xxxix 



rd. Page. 

Repertwium, N, deMilU, 1475, folio, in the Library of Gott- 

wic Monastery, - - - iii. 432 
Richard sam Peur, Janot, no date, 4to., in the Library of the 

Arsenal at Paris, - - - - S. 325 

, Bon/ofu, no date, 4to., in the same Library, ibid. 

, chapbook, — at Rouen and Contances, - i. 409 
Robert le Diable, Janot, no date, 4to., in the Library of the 

Arsenal at Paris, - - . - ii. 326 
Romancero General, 1492, folio, in the possession of Madame 

Debure, at Paris, - - - - ii. 388 

Romancei, MS,, in the Royal Library at Paris, - - — 217-229 

, printed, in the same Library, - - ii. 284-288 

, in the Public Library at Strasbourg, - iii. 64-6,&c 

, in the Public Library at Munich, - — 263, &c. 

/ZewMtfrrf, 1584, folio, in the Public Library at Caen, - i. 337 
RosB Roman de la, MS. xmh century, in the Royal Library 

at Paris, . . - ii. 224 
, Ferard, no date, upon vellum, in the 

Royal Library at Paris, - - — 285 
Rotseioptu elegam, ^c., Pyntm, 1523, 4to., the author's 

copy, afterwards that of Sir Thomas More, in the Public 

Library at Landshut, - - - iiL 337 
Ruberto Quadrageiimale, 1479, 4to., in the Imperial Library 

at Vienna, - • - iii, 524 



Sacramentarium, seu Missa Pap, Greg., MS., vith cen- 
tury, in the Imperial Library at Vienna, - - iii. 469 

Salluitius, 4to., edit. pr'm. in the Imperial Library at Vienna, — 499 

, Gering, 4to., in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - - 500 

Sanchez de Matrim. Sacram., copy in the chapter Library at 
Bayeux, i. 373, in the Library of the Lyc^, at Bayeuz, i. 374 

Sannazarii Arcadia, 1514, Aldtu, 8vo., Grolier's copy, on 
large paper, in the Royal Library at Paris, - - ii. 314 

Sannazarius de partu Firginis, Aldi, 1527, 12mo. in the 

King's Private library at Stuttgart, - - iiL 165 

Saxoferrato Ditputationei de-^F. de Spira, 1472, folio, in 
the Royal Library at Stuttgart, - - . — . 143 

, 1470, folio, in the Public Li- 
brary at Munich, - - - - — 292 



xxn INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 

fW. Ptige, 

HoRATius, MS.y xiith century, in the Ubniy of Molk Mo- 
nastery, - - - - - in. 412 

, Edit prin. 4to., in the Pnblic Ubrwy al Augi- 

bonrg, - - - - — 228 

, 1492-8, folio, in the Public library at Rouen, - L 179 

1498, folio, in the Public library al Stras- 



bourg, - - - - iii. 

1501, jildus, 8?o., UPON VBLLUM , in the Royal 



Library at Puu, - • - - iL 312 
, UPON VBLLUM, in thc Public 



Library at Munich, - - - iii. 296 

Horloge de Sapience^ Verard, 1493, folio, upon vbllum, in 

the Royal Library at Pkris, - - - iL 285 

HoRTUs Dbuciarum, MS., xiith century, in the Public Li- 
brary at Strasbourg, - - - iii. 52 
HoKTULus Anima, MS., xvth century— with five fiM>4imile 
copper plate engravings therefrom, in the Imperial Library 
at Vienna, ... . . . — 467-471 

, 1498, 12mo., in the King's Private li- 
brary at Stuttgart, - - - — 162 
Ratarum, 1499, 8vo., in the Public Library 



atAugsbourg, - - - - — 233 

Huet, Demanttrat. Evang. 1690, (1679?) foUo, unique copy in 

the Public Library at Caen, - - - i. 337 

Huon de Bourdeaux, four editions of, in the Library of the 

ArRenal at Paris, - - - - ii. 333 



Isocrates, Gr., Aldui, 1534, folio, large pi^r copy in the 
Royal Library at Paris, - - - - ii. 314 

Jiuany Rotnan de, printed hy Ctupton, in the Royal Library at 
Rffis. . - - . . — 250 

, same edition, in the Library of the Arsenal 

at Paris - - - - - — 322 

lehan de Saintri, Bon/on* , no date, 4to., in the Library of 
the Arsenal at Paris, - - - — 336 

Paris, Bon/ons, no date, 4to., in the same col- 
lection, - - - - - — 337 
, Paris, 1600, 4to., in the same, - — ibid. 



Jbrome, St., V^e, Mort, et Miracles de, MS., xTth cen- 
tury, in the Royal library of Stuttgart, - - m. 153 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. xxv 

Fol. Page, 

leronimi EpUtoUt, 1468, 5. and Patmartz, folio, in the 
Public Library at Rouen, - - - i. 176 

, UPON TBLLUH, in the Imperial 
Library at Vienna, - - - - iii. 488 

, 1470, S. and Pan, folio, in the li- 



brary of dostemeuburg Monastery, - — 617 

in the Public Library at 



Nuremberjir^ - - - Supplement, xxv. 

1470, Schoeffher, in the Public Li- 



brary at Strasbourg, - » - iii. 61 

- — , Mentelin, in the Public Library 

at Strasbourg, - - - - — 62 

, in the Pttblic library 
at Nuremberg, - - Supplement, xxv. 

Parmte, 1480, folio, in the 



Public Library at Augsbourg, - - ill 228 

Joiephui, Lat., 1470, Schuzler, folio, two copies, someidiat 
difiering from each other, in the library of Fh)fes8or Vee- 
senmeyer, at Ulm, - . - - - — 193 

— — , 1480, folio, in the Library of the Monastery 

of St. Florian, - - - . - — 390 

Gallic^, 1492, folio, in the Imperial Library at 



Vienna, 

Jourdain de Blave, Paris, Chretien, no date, 4to., in the 
Library of the Arsenal at Paris, - - - ii. 339 

Jouvencel le, 1497, f^erard, folio, upon vellum, in the 
Imperial Library at Vienna, - - - ilL 528 

Juitinus, 1479, folio, in the Public Library at Rouen, - i. 177 

Juvenalis, folio, K de Spira, edit. prin« in the Public li- 
brary at Strasbourg, - - - iii. 68 

— — , Ulric Han, typ, grand, folio, in the Imperial 
Library at Vienna, - - ' - . — 496 

, 1474, folio, in the Public Library at Caen, - i. 334 

, /. de Ftvizano, folio, in the Imperial Library at 
Vienna, - iii. 497 



K. 



Kentzinger, Documem Hittariques relat\fi d thistaire de 
France, tires desj4rchivetde la nilede Strasbourg, - iiL 9 



uviii INDEX OF MANUSGR1PX6. 

L. 



Lactantii Imtituiionet, 1465, folio, in the Royal Library at 



Paris, - - - - 


ii. 


262 








Genevieve, - - - 




345 








at Vienna, - - - - 




489 


, 1470, S, and Pmmarts, folio, in the 






Mazarine Library at Paris, ... 




367 


' , 1478> folio, in the Poblic Library at 






Strasbourg, - - ... 


iiL 


64 








Imperial Library at Vienna, . . . 




489 


Lancelot du Lac, MS., xivth century, in the Royal Li* 






brary at Paris, u. 217: another MS. of about the same 






period, in the same Library, ii. 219 : another MS. in the 






same library, - • 


ii. 


220 


, 1488, Verwd^ folio, in the In^ierial 






Library (Prince Eugene's copy) at Vienna, - . - 


iii. 


528 








the Royal Library at Paris, ... 


ii. 


284 








the Imoerial Libiw fit Vienna - - - 


iii. 


528 


LaicarU Gram. Grac. 1476, 4to., in the Royal Library 






at Paris, - . - - - 


iL 


281 


Laurentiui ralla, Jemoo, 1471, folio, in the Library of 






Gottwic Monastery, - . - . 


iii. 


431 


Leges Bavarica, MS., xiiith century, in the Public Li- 






brary at Landshut, .... 




334 


Legenda Aurea, (ten Sanctorum) Ital. Jeman, 1476, folio, in 






the Mazarine Library at Parif, - - - 


ii. 


365.6 


, UPON VELLUM, in the Imperial Library at 






Vienna, - 


iiL 


519 


, 1486, folio— in the Public Library at Rouen, 


i. 


177 


, 1475, Gertng, folio, in the Public library 






at Caen, - . . - - 




334 


Leanii Papa Sermones, 1470, folio, in the possession of M. 






Le PreTOSt, at Rouen^ - - - 




153 


Lfs Dewe Amant, Ferard, 1493, 4to., in the Imperial 






Library at Menna, .... 


iu. 


528 



AMI OF PRINTED BOGKS. sdz 

Lusm GsxsRATiONis Iks. Xti. MS. Tuth century : in the 

Royal Ulmiry at PHris, - - iL 172 

IMfr Modmrtm ngni/Scmdi^ 1480, Si. Albmu, —in the Royal 

Library at IHurifl, - - . — 278 

MomHtai. Bibl. 1474, Ulm, folio — copy pordiaaed of 

M. Fischeim, at Munich, - - - iiL 304 

LiUr 1518, folio; copy of, with ms. notes of 

B«diart, in the Public Library at Caen, - - i. 337 
1 two copies of, one iqKm large 

paper, in the Public Library at Nancy, - - ii. 643 
Lnum Prbcum, cum noi, 9f cami, MS. pervet, in the Royal Li- 
brary at Puris, - — 173 
, MS. XTth century, in the Public Library at 

Mnnidi, - - - - - iu. 272 

Liber Begwm, seu Fiia DavieRt — block book—hk die bnperial 

Lflnary at Vienna, - - - - — 631 

Z.^4re^(^/,^i(^A— in the Public Library at Munidi, iiL 279 
jUgynrmi Poet, cknr. 1607, folio — in the Minster Library at 

Ulm, - - - - . — 187 

LMtletoti^i Temtree, LetUm, &c folio— in the Imperial Library 

at Vienna, - - - . — 632, 

IMmrgia Suecmue Eccleeim, 1676, folio-4n the Library of the 

Anenal at Paris, - - - iL 324 

LmuB, MS. ZYth century — in the Imperial Library at 

Vioina, - - - - - iii. 473 

, 1469, folio,— in the Royal Library at Pkris, - ii, 274 

, — ^in the Public Library at Munich, - iii, 290 

, 1470, y. de Spira, folio, upon ybllum, in the Royal 

library at P^, - - - - ii. 276 
upon pi^er, in the same 

library, - - - - - — 276 

• in the Library of Goster- 

neoburg Monastery, - - - - iiL 616 

, 1472, S, and Pann,, folio, in the same Collection, - — 276 
Litre Historial, MS. Auct. B. du Guesclin ; in the Public 

Library at Rouen, - - - - L 174-6 

Lombardi Petri Sentent. (JEggeiteyn), folio, in the library 

of Clostemeuburg Monastery, - - - iii. 617 

Imcos Cranach, his Book of Ptayers, with original drawings 

by, in the Public Library at Munich, - - — 273 



xzx 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 



rd. Page. 



Lucanui, 1469, folio-^ the Publk Libnry at Munich, - iH. 290 
, 1476, folio, cum comment. Omniboni — in the 

Royal Library at Stuttgart, - - - — 14! 

, /Jp. Gering, folio, in the Public Library at Caen, - L 334 

Luciani, Opera, Or. 1496, folio— 4ne copy, in the poMession of 

M. Renouard, at Puis, - - . . U. 396 
, 1603, j^Idus, folio — large paper copy, hi the 

Royal library at Paris, - - . — 316 
, Opusc. Quad. Lat. 1494 — 4to. — ufon 

YsiiLnM, in the Imperial Library at Vienna, - - ui. 497 

Lucrethu, 1486, folio— in the King's Private €k>llection at 

Stuttgart, - - - - - — 162 

in the Imperial Library at Vienna, - — 497 

, T. de Ragass., 1496, 4to.— in the same library, — 498 

,Aldui, 1600, 4to.— in the same Library, - — Und. 

- — , Aldus, 1616, 8fo. — UPON tsllum, (siq^posed to 

be unique) in the Royal library at Ph^, - - iL 312 

Luctus Christianorum, Jemon, 4to. — in the Imperial Li- 
brary at Vienna, - - - - iiL 520 
Ludolphui Vita Ckriiti {Eggesieyn), 1474, folio, in the PubUc 

Library at Nancy, - - - - iL 644 
De Terra Sancta, &c. 4to.— in the Imperial Li- 

brary at Vienna, - - - - - iii. 609 

Lffra Nic, de in Biblia, 1471-2 ; one volume of, at Caen, - i. 333 

M. 

Mabrian, 1625, 4to.— in the library of the Arsenal at P^, ii. 334 

Macros, 1472, folio— in the Imperial Library at Vienna, iiL 498 

Maguelone, La BeUe, 1492, Trepperel, 4to. — in the Imperial 
library, at Vienna, - - - - — 628 

Maiui, de propriet. priec. verb. 1477» folio— ^. de Ceioma — in 
the Public Library at Strasbourg, - - - — 64 • 

Mammotrectui, Scho^her, 1470 — folio — upon vbllum, in 
the Imperial library at Vienna, - - - — 609 

■ in the Library of 

Olostemeuburg Monastery, - - . — 617 

, H. de Helie, 1470, folio — in the Public Li- 
brary at Landshut, - - - - — 336 

Manc'mellui, de mode ScribemU, 1499, 4to. — in the library 
of Professor Veesenmeyer, at Ulm, - - — 194 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. xxxl 

Fol Page, 

Mandbtillb, MS. German — 1471 — in the Royal library at 

Stuttgart, - - - - iii. 165 

Maniliui, 1474, folio, — ^in the King's IVivate Library at Stutt- 
gart, - . - - . — 162 
Manipului Curaimtm, 1473, folio, in the Public Library at 

Rouen, - - - - - i. 176 

Marco Polo, Germ. 1477> folio— 4n the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - - - - iil. 629 

Martialis, 1476, folio — in the Library of a Capuchin Monas- 
tery, near Vienna, - - - - — 621 
— — — — {Lover) folio — in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - - . — 498 

— ! , Aldui, 1602, 8vo. two copies upon ybllum, 

in the Royal Library at Paris, - - - ii. 312 

Matni Iasonis Epitalamion, MS. 4to. — in the Emperor's 

Private Library at Vienna, - - - iii. 692 

Maytter of Sentence, Caston, folio — in the Imperial Library 

at Vienna, - - - - - — 632 

Meinart, Si. L^e of, block book : in the Public Library at 

Munich, - - - - - — 286 

Meltmna, HUtorie von der. Germ, no date, folio, in the King's 

Private Library at Stuttgart, - - - — 164 

Meluiine, P. Le Noir, 4to. — ^in the Library of the Arsenal, - iL 339 
Memoirt of the Transactions of ike Society of Belles Lettres, 

&c. at Rouen, toI. i. page 181 : of a similar Society at Caen, i. 308 
Mer des Histoires, 1488, folio; in the Public Library at 

Rouen, - - - - - i. 178 

Messer Nobile Socio, Miserie de li Amante di, 1633, 4to. in 

the Library of the Arsenal at Paris, - - ii. 327 

Meurin Fils d*Oger, Paris, Bonfons, 4to. — in the Library of 

the Arsenal at Paris, - - - - ii. 339 

Miles et Amys, Verard, no date, folio— ^upon ykllum, in the 

Royal Library at Paris, - - - ii. 286 

— , Rouen, 4to. — in the Library of the Arsenal at 

ditto, - - - . - — 332 

Mirahilia Urbis Ronue, block book^ — in the Public Library at 

Munich, - - - - - iii. 284 

MissALE, MS. (Sti. Quthlaci) xith century, in the Public 

Library at Rouen, - - - - L \6bS 
xivth century, in the Royal Library at Stuttgart iii. 162 



szxB INMDC OP MANUStaWS. 

MiMALB, MS. zftt flMrr. MM iB tte MofA IMm? at 





hL 


MV ^ 


of QMriet Ike Bold, xrdi cmtnrj — m the te- 






perift librHy at Vieaiia, With fiM>«iiiile, 




wl 


— — — xvtfc oeatoy, — in the Ptablie Librwy at M«- 






■id^ 




8/0 








ni tiie Pnblic Library of Landshut, 




334 


— HeritpoUme (1479), foBo, upon thiLUM , in the 






Lnperial Library at Vienna, ... 




490 ' 


, lUpter, folio — in the King's Pn- 






▼ate Ubrary at Stattgart, 




lis 


Fenet. 1488, folio— upom yniiLVM» 






fai the Emperor's Rriyate Collection at ^enna. 


— 


694 








of a CSapndiin Monastery, near Vienna, 




6tl 


Roihofmag^me, 1499, folio, in the possesuonl of M. 






Le FreTOst at Ronen, - - - - 


i. 


168 








Publle Library at Rouen, 


i. 


178 


MozMnMcum, 1600, folio— with the Breriary 1603, 






in me Library of the Arsenal at Pans, 


iL 


388 


——————————— in the Library of Ste. 








— 


362 








Vienna, - - 




489 


• • a ^ rfc ^ i>a« 






of the Arsenal at Paris, ... 


ii. 


383 


Miua D^nciomm, Fiewud, 1499, folio, in the Library of a 






G^>ndun Monastery, near Vienna, 


iii. 


621 


Latma, 1667, 8vo., in the Library of the Arsenal, 


ii. 


328 


MmOmgn^i Euay$, 1636, folio, large paper, in the Pnblic 






Library at Caen, - ... 


i. 


337 


MmUe Sancto di Dw, 1477, folio, — in the Royal Library at 






Paris, ..... 




289 


, in the Lnperial Library at 








iii. 


620 


M^reri dei Narmmu, par I. A, Gmmi, MS. in the Pnblic Li- 






brary at Caen, .... 


i. 


336 


Mhrgmt U Citmi, 1660, 4to.— in the Library of the Arsenal, 








ii. 


334 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. xlv 

Fol, Page. 



rtrgtltui, o. Of r'atmartz, touo— in tne ivoyai Ldorary 






at PkuiSy - - - - • 


11* 


267 


rtrg^itus, .Menteitn, folio — m tae Library of ote. Uene- 






Tiifeve— (incomplete^ - - - - 




•>!/ 








bour^*— 'incomplete, - - • - 


••• 

ill* 


66 








enna, ----- 




/tOl 








Drnry cU raTlBy - - - - 




^7 








of Messrs* Treuttel and Wiirtz, - - - 












brary at Pans, - - - « 




tota. 








enna, ----- 


... 

iii. 


601 


14/1, otff. ana Fannartz, folio — m the Koyal Li- 






brary at Paris, - - - - 




269 


— — — ^— — — — — ^— late in the Royal 






LiDrary at otuttgart, - - - - 


iii. 


138 








brary at Vienna, - - - . 




501 












138 


— — — — 14/3, L. Acnatei, lolio — in the Imperial Li- 






brary at Vienna, - - - . 




501 








wic Monastery, - - . - 




431 


1475, Jemon, folio, in the Imperial Library at Vienna, 




502 


Servius in Firgilum. Ulric Han^ folio — Diane de 






Poictiers's copy, in the Mazarine Library at Paris, 


iL 


366 


. Faldarfer, 14? 1, folio — in 






the Public Library at Strasbourg, - 


iii. 


66 


. Litt R, in the Imperial Li- 






brary at Vienna, - - - - 




502 


^ 1478, Gering'f folio — in the Royal Li- 






brary at Paris, - - - - . 


ii. 


271 


j4ldui, 1501, 8vo. — UPON VELLUM, in the Public 






Library at Munich, .... 


iii. 


296 


y'trgiliuMy Aldus, 1505, 8?o. — in the possession of M. Re- 








iii. 


395 



xxxW INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Fol. Page. 

Oisian, copy of, with drawing of Isabey, in tht King's 
Private Library at Paris, - - - iL 376 

Omdiut maraltMitu, MS., xvth century in die Public li- 
brary at Rouen, - - - - i. 173 

Ovidii Opera Ommia, j^gagukU^ 147 \, wanting two leavei, in 
the Royal Library at Paris, - - - ii. 296 

, Fa*ti, Azoguidi, in the Imperial Library at Yieaaa, iiL 498 

Opera Omnia, S. and Pannartz, 147 \, in the Im- 
perial Library at Vienna, - - - iii. 498 

, EpiitoUt et Fasti, folio, in the same collection, - — 



Metamorpk, Edit, Bermard,, 1557, 8to., in a private 



collection at Bayeux, - - - - i. 367 

P. 

Paris et Fienne, Paris, no date, 4to., in the Library of the 
Arsenal at Paris, - - - - ii. 336 

Parole Devote de Vanma, Jenson. 4to., in the Imperial 
Library at Vienna, - - - - iU. 521 

Pentateuch, Hebr. 1491, folio, in the Royal Library at 
Puis, See also Gbkesis, ante. - - - iL 260 

Pbtrarcha, MS. xvth century, in the Library of Chrems- 
minster Monastery, - - - - iii. 379 

Petrarcha Sonetti, 1470, Prince Eugene's copy in the Im- 
perial Library at Vienna, - - - — 521 

, 1473, Zarotus, folio, in the Imperial 

Library at Vienna, - - - - — 622 

, Jenson, 1473, folio, in the Imperial 



Library at Vienna, - - - - — ibid, 

folio, in the Library of 



Gdttwic Monastery, - - - — 429 
, L. Achates, 1474, folio, in the same 



Library, ----- iM. 

Comment. Borstii, Bologn., 14/5, folk). 



two copies in the Imperial Library at Vienna, of which one 
belonged to Prince Eugene, - - • — 522 

-, Bolog., 1476, folio, (Asoguidi^) with 



the comment of Philelphus, in the Royal Library at Stutt- 
gart, - - - . - iil 145 < 



* Id the page refened to, I have coujectured it to be printed by UlricHao or 
Reifioger. To theie namet, I add the abore. 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. xlv 

/ W. Pafff. 

nrgilitu, S. 4- Pannartz, (1469) folio— in the Royal Library 

at Paris, . - - - - ii. 267 

yWgilhu, Mentelin, foUo — in the Library of Ste. Gene 

vifeve— (incomplete^ - - - - — 347 
in the Public Library at Stras- 
bourg — ^incomplete, ... - iii. 66 
— in the Imperial Library at Vi- 



enna, - - - - - — 601 



■ 1470, r. de Spira, upox tellum, in the Royal Li- 



brary at Paris, - - - - — 267 

t UPON TELLUM, in the possession 



of Messrs. Treuttel and Wiirtz, - - - — 268 

upon paper, in the Royal Li- 



brary at Paris, - - • - — ibid, 

, in the Imperial Library at Vi- 



enna, - - - - - iii. 601 

1471, Sur. and Pannartz, folio — in the Royal Li- 



brary at Paris, 

. late in the Roval 



Library at Stuttgart, - - - iii. 138 

,1471, y. de Spira, folio— in the Imperial Li- 



brary at Vienna, - - - - — 501 

1471, ^dom, folio— late in the Royal Library 



at Stuttgart, - - - - - - ^ 138 

1473, L. Ackatei, folio — in the Imperial Li- 



brary at Vienna, - - - - — 601 

- P de Lnraftna, 1474, folio — in the librar\- of Gott- 



wic Monastery, - - - - - — 431 

1475, •fnifo/i, folio, in the Imperial Library at M«nna, — Uf2 

Smhu in flrgilvm. Uric Nan, folio — Diarie de 



Poictiers's copy, in the Mazarine Library a< Pari*. - ii. 30^ 

raldar/er, 1471, folio — in 



the Public Library at Strasboorsr, ... \\i r/; 

Liit, R. in the Imp^Al Li- 



brary at Vienna, - . . . r^f2 

I47S, Gmar, folio ^ in thft R//;*J Li- 



brary at Paris, - - . . . ;I. 271 

i^/</tf#, 1501, Std.— UPOS TELLIM, IZJ: V JjVj: 

Ldbrary at Munich, - . . _ • 

nrgriliuM, Aldus, 1505, 8to. — in the pr/He**>A M fU- 

nouard, bookseller, . . - 

• - - -/f.j 




INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS, &c. 



Firgilhu, lUtl H. L. de Coin. 1476, folio— b the Ubrary of 
G5ttwic Monastery, - - - - iii 431 

GaUiei, 1586, folio — in the PubUc Library al 

Caen, - - - - - i. 33? 

Vita Christi, MS. in the Royal Library at Parii, - ii. 209 

VUa SH, Gear, Scho^ffher, 1481, 4to.— late in the possesaum 
of M.Traiteur, at Manhdm, - - Suppieimeni, Iv. 

ViTiB Sanctorum, MS. Sec. xii. — in the Royal library at 



Stuttgart, - - - . - iii. 149 

Dwerior, Prmc, et Tyran, cum Eutnpk, Pamh Di- 

acMo, ifc. P. de Lavagna, folio — in the library of Gdttvnc 
Monastery, - - — 431 

Fitntchu, Giuntm, 1613, 8vo. — upon tellum, in the library 

of Ste. Genevieve at Puns - - - - ii. 362 

yocaMarmmm^kum, H. de Hastm, fidiio— in the Public Li- 
brary at Strasbourg, - - - . iii. d2 

U. 

Utmo, T. dg, Semume9,pruued by Gering^-m the Public Li- 
brary at - - - - L 447 



— — , L, de, Quadrogeemale, 1471, folio— in the Library of 
Chremsminster Monastery, - - - iii. 376 

W. 

fTtcliffii Dialog!, 1625, 4to.— in the library of Professor Vec- 
senmeyer at Ulm, - - - - — 194 

WiLLiBRooDi Sti. Vita. Auct. Alcuino. MS. xith century, 
in the Pri?ate Royal Library at Stuttgart, - - . — 161 

Z. 

Zophilologhtm, ttithout date — in the Public Library at 
Rouen, - - - - - i. 176 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. xxxvn 

FoL Page, 

Pritctamu, Uiric Han^ folio— in the Imperial Library at Vieima, iii« 5 12 

, j4ldus, 1627, 8vo., Grolier's copy, upon large paper, 

in the Royal Library at Parifl, - - - iL 314 

■ , UPON YBLLUM, 



in the Library of Ste. Genevifeve, - - - — 348 

Proiperi Liber, {H. Glim) 4to. — ^in the PubMc Library at 

Munich, - - - - ' - ilL 293 

PsALTBRiUM, MS., ixth ccntufy, of Charles the Bald ; in the 
Public Library at Paris; - - - - ii. 163 

— , Sti. Ludovici, xiiith century, in the same 

library, - - - - . . — 166-168 

-, xith century, in the Royal Library at Stutt- 



gart, - - - - - iii. 147 
, xiith century, in the same Collection, - — 149 



xiith century, in the Royal Private Library 



at Stuttgart, - - - - - — 158-9 

xiith century, in the PublicLibrary at Mu- 



nich, - - - - - — 263 

, with most splendid illuminations, of the 
XTith century, in the same library, 
LaL 1467, f\ut and Schoeffher, folio,, in 



the Royal Library at Pbris, - - . - 
, in the Imperial Li- 



brary at Vienna, - - - - - 
1469, folio— in the Royal 



Library at Paris, 

1490, folio, Schoeffher, 



UPON VBLLUM, lu the Royal Library at Paris, 
1602, folio, Schoeffher, in 



the same library, .... 
without date — Cretuner^ 



in the Imperial Library at Vienna, ... 

folio, in 

the same Collection, - - 

, Lips. 1486, 4to. — in the Public Library at 

Landshut, ..... 

, Germanic^, 4to. — in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - - . - 

PT0LBMi«u8, Lat. MS. folio— in the Royal Library at Paris, 

Piolenueus, Lai, 1462, folio, in the Public Library at Stras- 
bourg, ..... 



ii 


260 


iii. 


490 


ii. 


260 


ii. 


261 




252 


iii. 


491 




ibid. 




335 




491 


ii. 


214 




59 



xuriiS INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 

roi. Page. 

Ptolemmut, Lai,, 1462, folio, in the Public Library at Mvmch, ill. 290 
, in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - - ... — 512 

Pulci n Driadeo, 1481, 4to., in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - - - - iii. 523 

, Pistole, 1492, in the same Library, - - iM, 

, Morganie Maggiare, 1500, 4to., in the same Library, iii. 524 



Q. 

iiuotuar NwMmorum, Germ,, 1473, folio, in the Library of 

Professor Veesenmeyer at Ulm, - - . .i— 

Quiniilianui, I. de Lignam. 1470, folio, in the Library of 

Ste. Genevieve, at IVis, - - - ii. 343 
, 1471, Jenam, folio, in the Public Library at 

Nuremberg, ... Supplement, zz? 

Quintus Curtiui, Lover, folio, in the Library of Gottwic 

Monastery, • - - - - iiL 431 



Rabamu Maunu, de Umcerto, Cfc,, Litt. R,, mo date, folio, 
in the Public Library at Strasbourir, - - iiL 69 

Raderi Bavaria Sancta, 1615, &c., folio, extracts, with fac- 
simile copper plates, from, - - - 221-4 

Ratdoli, specimens of the types from his press, in the Public 
Library at Munich, - - - - — 294 

Recveildes Hittoires de Troj^e, printed by Caaton, in the Royal 
Library at Paris, - - - ii. 247 

, printed by Verard, upon vbl- 

LUM, in the same Library, - - - — 248 

Regnari lek, ifc, Verard, 4to., Prince Eugene's copy in 
the Imperial Libivy at Vienna, - - iii. 529 

Regulo! Juris Canon. Adam Rot, 1472, folio, in the Impe- 
rial Library at Vienna, - - - - — 512 

, Confitend, peccata sua. Ital., 1473, 4to., in the Im- 
perial Library at Vienna, - - - — 524 

Repertorium Statu t. Ord. Carth., 1510, folio, in the Public 
Library at Caen, - - - - i. 325 

Repertorium Foeabuhr. Exquisit. Bertddus, Basle, folio, no 
date, in the Royal Library at Stuttgart, . . iii. • 142 



AND OF PRINTBD BOOKS. 



zzxix 



Vol. Page. 

Repertarium, N. deAfilU, 1475, folio, in the Library of Oott- 

wic Monastery, - - - iii. 432 
Richard sam Peur, Jamt, no date, 4to., in the Library of the 

Arsenal at Paris, - - - - ii. 325 

, BmfoM, no date, 4to., in the same Library, ib 'd. 

, chapbook,-—9X Rouen and Gontances, - i. 409 
Robert ie Viable, Janot, no date, 4to., in the Library of the 

Arsenal at Paris, - - . - ii. 326 
Romancero General, 1492, folio, in the possession of Madame 

Debure, at Paris, - - - - ii. 388 

Romancet, MS,, in the Royal Library at Paris, - - — 217-229 

— — , printed, in the same Library, - - ii. 284-288 

, in the Public Library at Strasbourg, - iii. 64-5,&c. 

, in the Public Library at Munich, - — 263, &c. 

/ZoiMorrf, 1584, folio, in the Public Library at Caen, - i. 337 
Ross Roman de la, MS. xivth century, in the Royal Library 

atParis, - . - u. 224 
, Ferard, no date, upon vellum, in the 

Royal Library at Paris, - - — 285 
Rotseioptu elegant, SfC., Pynson, 1523, 4to., the author's 

copy, aftem-ards that of Sir Thomas More, in the Public 

Library at Landshut, - - - iiL 337 
Ruberto Quadragesimale, 1479, 4to., in the Imperial Library 

at Vienna, - . - iii. 524 

S. 

Sacramentarium, 8EU M188A Pap. Greg., MS., vith cen- 
tury, in the Imperial Library at Vienna, - - iii. 469 

Salluitiui, 4to., edit, prin, in the Imperial Library at Vienna, — 499 

, Gering, Sfc, 4to., in the Imperial Library at 

Vienna, - - . ^ 500 

Sanchez de Matrim. Sacram., copy in the chapter Library at 
Bayeux, i. 373, in the Library of the Lyc^e, at Bayeux, i. 374 

Sannazarii Arcadia, 1514, Aldus, 8vo., Grolier's copy, on 
large paper, in the Royal Library at Paris, - - ii. 314 

Sannataritu de partu flrginis, Aldi, 1527, 12mo. in the 

King's Private Labrary at Stuttgart, - - iiL 165 

Saxoferrato Duiputationes de — F. de Spira, 1472, folio, in 
the Royal Library at Stuttgart, - - . _ 143 

, 1470, folio, in the Public Li- 
brary at Munich, - - - - — 292 



xl INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Vol. PMgf. 

Sigmm, HUtoire MlUkure det Booains, quoted, i. 399; 423; 
JUT f^Hoire de frndrnttrie dm Bocage en gMrtil, et de la 



mile de Fire m eepUeie en particulUre, 1810, 8?o., 


i. 


449 


Serehu m FirgUmm, see nrgilhts. 






Sevii G. de, DecreUdki, 1472, folio, printed by Adam Rot, in 






the Public Library wX StrMboorg, 


in. 


62 


S/brziada La, 1480, foUo, upon vbllcm, in the Royal Li- 






brary al P^, ... 


ii. 


290 


Skm^ of FaoU, 1609, 8vo., prmied fF. de fFarde, 






UPON VBLLUM, in the Royal Library at P^, 


ii. 


249 


SiBiLJB, &c., MS., xvth century, in the Public Library at 






Mamch, - - 


iii. 


269 


Silms lialicus. Later, 1471, folio, in the Mazarine Library 






alPiris, 


ii. 


367 


, in the Imperial library at 






Vienna, - - ... 


iii. 


600 


, andPannarti, 1471, folio, in the Imperial 






Library at Vienna, - - - - 


— 


600 


Songe du Ferdier, 1491, folio, in the Public Library at Rouen, 


i. 


178 


Speculum Hum Sale, block book, in the Royal library at Paris, 


ii. 


266 


, in the Royal Library at Stutt- 






gart, .... 


iii. 


146 


, in the Imperial Library at 






Vienna, ..... 


— 


631 


Spec. Hum. Sale. 1476, fo^o, printed by Richel, in the Public 






Library at Strasbourj^, - - - - 


— 


61 


Spec. Fit. Hum, 1471, folio, G.Zeiner, in the Public Library 






at Strasbourg, - - . . . 




62 


Speculum Stultorum, no date, 4to., in the Public Library at 






Caen, 


i. 


336 


Statiut in uium Delphini, 4to., two copies, in the Library of 






the Arsenal at P^, ... 


ii. 


323 


> beautifol copy in the Library of Chremsmin- 






ster monastery, - - 


iii. 


376 


Statutes of Rich, HI. Machlinia, in the Royal Library at 






Paris, - ... 


ii. 


278 


Stella Meeehiah, 1477, 4to., in the Public Library at Stras- 






bourg, ..... 


iii. 


69 


■ ' , in the King's Private Library 






at Stuttgart, ... 




164 


Stengelii /mag. Sanct. August. Sfc., et Monasteriologia, 






1619-20, referred to, - . . . 




224 



A 



INDEX 



OF PERSONS, 
PLACES, AND THINGS. 



^^ofSt. Oaen, i. 69-78; of Jnmieges; i. 196-206; of 8t Stepken, 

ftt Caen; 280-288; of the Holy Trinity, at Caen, 301. 
Achermmm, Mr., his extraordinary copy of hia own publicaition of Wes^ 

minster Abbey, iii. 696. 

, a collector of medals and coins at Manhdm, Siq^jilmmU, M. 
Adam, Mr. attentions to the author at Rouen, i. 160 ; and at Caen. 
, a printer at Vire, i. 429, 449. 

JEneat Sjflmut, his account of Strasbourg Cathedral in the xrth century, itt. 
24. 

4fl^ ftnd Ulric, Stt., Abbey of, at Augsbourg, ui. 220. 

AgneiSorel; her tomb in the abbey of Jumieges, i. 201. 

, supposed portraitof, in thecollection of Q. CrauiVird, iL 472* 

Agfuntgofaw Savhvr in the Garden of Gethsemane, representation of, at 
Laadshut, iii. 339 ; various, 346; at Kopff, near Salxburg, 361 ; at tht 
church of St. Mary, at Vienna, 667 ; in a church at Neiimarkt, S uppU 
meni, xviL 

Albert, Madame, opera singer, at P&ris, ii. 616-7. 

Albert, Duke, his fine collection at Vienna, iii. 699; monument eraded 

by him to the memory of his Duchess, iiL 668. 
Albert Durer, his productions at Nuremberg— the street called after Ui 

name, with copper-^late view of— his tombstone—and high character of. 

Supplement, xrii., zxvi., zL ; destruction of his diary, zxziiL, pietures of 

in KlosterHeilbronn, xliv-y. 
Alexander, late Mr., allusion to his talents, iii. 33. 
Allan, Sir Alexander, Bart., late,— -tribute to his memory, iiL 171. 

fish so called, i. 194. 
Altmann, Principal w Abbot of die mooaatary of OoClwie, in Austria, Us 

O 



sdii INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Vol. Page. 

TereiUiui, Gerardmg^en, 1479, folio — in Ae Libnuy of I^ 
fenor Vee8eiune3rer, at Ulm» • - - iiL 194 

Teitamentum Nmmm, Gullied, (1478,) folio, copy purchased 
at Rouen, - - - - - iL 81 

, HMtndieietltMu., 1717, ioHo, 

in the Royal Library at IHw, - - - — 256^ 

, B^hemM, Sec. xv — m the Im- 
perial Library at Vienna, - - • iu. 492 

, Gritei, Enumi, 1616, folio — three co- 
pies of, in the Public Library at Strasbourg,- - — 56 

copy ot in the Librvy 
of Mr. Haffner, at Strasbourg, - - - — 81 

, —in the King's Plri 

vate Library at Stuttgart, - - - - — 163 

■ R. Stephani, 1660, folio 

Diane de Poictiers's copy — in the Royal Library at 

Ptais, - - - - - ii. 316 

Teirrdanckks, 1517, folio — upon VBLLfiif, in the Library of 
Ste. Genevi^?e, at Pkris, - - - - n. 362 

, two copies of, in 
the Public Library at Munich, - - - iiL 297 

« , ditto, in the Im- 
perial Library at Vienna, - - - - — 629 

, in the Library of the Monastery 

ofSt. Florian, - - - - iii. 391 

, upon paper, in the 

pofMession of M. Traiteur, at Manheim, Supplement, U. 

Theocritfu, Gr. 1493, folio unique copy, upon large paper, 
in the Royal Library at Ptuis, - - - ii 316 

— , yildui, Or. 1496, folio — in the Public Library at 

Rouen, - - - - - L 178 

TheophroMtui, 1497, Or. Aldui — Diane de Poictiers's copy, in 
the posHession of M. Renouard at Puis, - - ii. 396 

Thucydidf, G<ntrmoni» folio, Ferard — upon vbllum, in 
the Imperial Library at Vienna— Prince Eugene's copy, - iii. 630 

TiMdeo da Ferrara, 4to. fFitkaut date, — in the Imperial li- 
bary at Vienm^ - - - — 625 

Tixa-LivK, MS. folio — in the Royal Library at Paris. See 

Livius. - - - - u. 216 

Tityrell Pfartzivnl, 14/7, folio — in the Public Library at 
Strasbourg, - - - - - iii. 65 



AND OF PRINTED BOOKS. xM 

Fd. Page. 

Tltpreil 4* P/artgkfai, 1477* folio — in the Public Library at 
Landahut, - - - - - iii 336 

■ in the Library of the Mo- 
nastery of St. Horian, - - - — 390 

' in the Library of Gdtt- 

wic Monastery, - - - - - — 431 

Tournaments, Book or, MS. XTth century ^ in the Royal 
Library at Paris, with copper-plate portrut of John Duke 
of Brittany, - - • - ii. 225 

■ duplicate and more recent 

copy of, - - - - - 228 

■ another MS. of the same 



work, 8?o., - - - - - — 229 

TVaetaius de Fenemt, &c. 1473, 4to.^in the Library of Gott- 

wic Monastery, ... . . iii 432 
dedoctrina dicendi, &c. : without date, &c. — in the 

Public Library at Strasbouryj^, - - - iii. 64 
d€ Pietate Condi. Gen,, 1480, folio, in the Impe- 

rial Library at Vienna, - - . . ^ 512 

TVebUandt Pari*, 4to. — in the Library of the Arsenal at 

Paris, . . . . - iL 340 

Tristan, MS., xi?th century, in the Royal Library at 

Pkris, - . - - - — 220 

, another MS. in the same 

Library, - - - - • — 221 

, a third MS. in the same 



librmry. - - - - - - — 222 

— , Germ, Sec. xiii., in the Public Library at Munich, 

with wood-cut fac-similes, - - • - iii. 263-268 
Gall, Sec. xiii., in the Imperial library at Vienna, 

with copper-plate engraving, - - - — 475 

, another MS. in the same Collec- 



tion, - - - - . — 476 

Triitran, Verord, folio — in the Imperial Library at Vienna, — 530 
Trttkemn Annulet Hhrsaugientei, 1690, folio — in the Library 

of the Monastery of Chremsminster, - • — 381 

J ' , in the Library of a 

Capuchin Monastery, near Vienna, - - - — 621 

Tnnff^filz de Rayi, Paris, no date, 4to. — in the Library of the 

Arsenal, - - - - - ii. 335 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 



Foi. Page. 

Tully of Old Age, Caxtm—m the Ro3ral Library at Fwis. - ii. 276 
Tundali, f^ish. Germ, 4to. in the Library of Professor Veesen- 

meyer at Llm, • - - - . iiL 194 

7\imer, Mr, Dawitm, Tour in Normandy, - - Pref. x. 

Turrecremata L de Mediiathnei, UHc Han, 1467, folio — in 

the Imperial Library at Vienna, - - . ~ 513 
in 

'the Public Library at Nuremberg, - Supplement, 
, 1473, in the 



Library of Gdttwic Monastery, - - - iii. 431 
, the same edition 



in the Imperial Library at Vienna, - - - — 492 
— : , In lAbrum Piahnor. Craeii impr, no date — 



in the Public Library at Munich, - - — 294 

V. 

Valerius Maximus, MS. xvth century — in the Imperial Li- 
brary at Vienna, - - - - iii 473 

, Mentelin, folio— two copies in the Pub- 
lic Library at Strasbourg, - - - — 66 

■ in the Imperial 



Library at Vienna, - - - - — 500 

' in the Royal Li- . 



brary at Stuttgart, - - - - — 140 
, /' <fe Spira, folio— in the Imperial 



Library at Vienna, - - - - - — 501 
, Schoeffher, 1472, folio — upon 



VELLUM, in the same library, - - - — ibid. 
, 1476, Cte$ ?r Stol, folio — in the 



Public Library at Caen. - - - - i. 334 

-, Aldui, 1534, 8?o. Grolier*s copy. 



on large paper, in the Royal Library at Paris, - - ii. 314 
yalturiun DeReMUitari, 1472, folio— in the Imperial Library 

(Prince Eugene'n copy) at Vienna, - - - iii. 514 
, Ital. Reisinger, folio — in the 

same CoUection, - - . . . — f^«/. 

Fauderirea : see Basselin, Genbral Index. 

He des Peres, 1486, folio, in the Public Library at Rouen. - i. 177 
, 1494, folio, at Caen, - - . — 334 



■tPkm, - - - - . L -96: 

nrfrUmi. .M/mieim. Mk* — it Ar Ubwrr of Stt Gtaw^ 

Tftft — rmrampirte - - ^ — ^ 
m tfcp Fufaiir Libimry ax 3uai> 

bcNiz^^ — if j umpte tfc. - ~ • - ni. 'fit" 

— iL tbf lxni%GiiLl IdbnDT at T»- 

auHL, . - - . , _ 50: 
1470, 6fnm, iTn% vm^vu, m tht Bmrnl Li- 

bnrystBDk. - - - ~ — 
• . rwjK TEia«ni. in tbr iwHeMMn 

of M«Mn- Tiraittel BiidTniraL - - - — -Sff" 

lllOJ I It T*Wki&. « « - «• I^IK. 

— . m 'hapeM lahnor kt T). 

aim^ - - - - ai. iiO: 

1471. Aw. flw? Pammenz. fiilir — m ttu.^ JUvvwu Li- 

bnry ax Vmnsk, - - • - — 36f* 

. kzf m the Boval 

Uhran' Ot Siiiniiart. - - - - iE JJIf' 

. . 1471, r tff .%»rB, foliiv— in At InqieriBl 1*- 

hrwT at Tieiiim. - - - - — ^''l 

. . 147L jidawL, fuiiiy— Iku: in tkf Bfival LBmoT 

8t Sl u r ipin , - - - - - - — 

3-i7X. L. J0ckett%^ fcibfi — m-dsi liii|ienal Li- 

hrwT Bt Tiaiiuu - - - - — 

P de Lmw^ 1474, fciBo — in ^ Khran df G&tt- 

^MimaBtar, - - - - - — 42il 

1475.«^f!wim,fuSifuinTiieIin|ienalIal^ — dAf? 

Servmr n />jrfl«». flrir Him^fofio — Dmut dt 

Poir^eiT^f onpy. in thf Mazannf Liiinrr at Pari^ - iL 366 

. ^. yakiarftT^ 1471, Mil* — in 

1^ PidtBc LahruT ai Sowiieiineu - - « iiL ^ 

. LitL JL in 1^ laqMBial 

WvratVienna, - - - - — 

w 147?v Grrmg. io&o — in R^wwH li- 

WvraEtPvifi, - - • > • iL 571 

Aldmt^ 13CH, ?TO. — rroic txluii^ in tiie Ihihlir 

L3wvT ■! Munich, - - • • in. 52% 

rwgHmg^ JUni^ 15(6, c*w». — in tiie possesnon of M. 1^ 
OMiird, bookseDer. - - - iii. 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS, &c. 



fV. Pagg. 

rtrgilhu, Jtal. N.L.de CMn. 1476, falk>-4n the Library of 
GOttwk Monastery, - - - - iii 431 

GaUiei, 1585, folio — in the Public library at 

Caen, - - - - ^ L 333 

Vita Christi, MS. in the Royal Library at Puis, - U. 209 

FUa SH. Gogr, Scho^jfher, 1481, 4to. — late in the poiseBUon 
of M. Truteur, at Manheim, - - SmppUmeni, Iv. 

ViTJi Sanctorum, MS. Sec. xii. — in the Royal Library at 
Stuttgart, - • • . - uL 149 

Dwerior. Princ. et Tyran, cum Eutr^ph, Paulo Di- 

aamOf ifc. P. de Lavaf^na, folio — in the Library of Gdttwic 
Monastery, . - — 431 

ntrwhUf Gmnta, 1513, 8vo. — vpon viLLUit, in the library 
ofSte-Oeneri^TeatPftris - - - - iL 352 

rocoMarmmBWieum, H. de Husm, folio— in the Public li- 
brary at Strasbourg, - - - . iii. 62 

U. 

Utmo, T. dg^ Sermottes, printed Gering^^ the Public Li- 
brary at Vire, - - . - i. 447 

» L, de, Quadragenmale, 1471, folio— in the library of 
Chremsminster Monastery, - - - iii. 375 

W. 

fTwlifii Diahgi, 1525, 4to.— in the Ubrary of Phrfessor Vee- 
senmeyer at Ulm, - - . - — 194 

WiLLiBRooDi Sti. Vita. Auct. Alcuino. MS. zith century, 
in the Private Royal Library at Stuttgart, - - . ^ 161 

Z. 

ZophUologium, wUhout date — in the Public Library at 
Rouen, . - - . - i. 176 



GENERAL INDEX. 



INDEX 



OP PERSONS, 
PLACES, AND THINGS. 



^MtyofSt. Ooen, i. 69-78; of Jnmieges; L 196-205; of 8t. Steplmi. 

at Caen; 280-288 ; of the HolyTrimty.at Gaen, 301. 
Ackermann, lUr,, his extraordinary copy of his own pablicadon of Wett- 

minster Abbey, iiL 596. 

, a coUecU^ of medals and coins at Manheim, Siq^piemmU, M. 
Adam, Mr. attentions to the author atRonen, i. 150; and at Caen. 
, a printer at Vire, i. 429, 449. 

JSneoi Sylmui, his account of Strasbourg Cathedral in the xvth century, UL 
24. 

and Ulric, Sis,, Abbey of, at Augsbourg, iii. 220. 
Agnet Sorei; her tomb in the abbey of Jumieges, i. 201 . 

, supposed portrait of, in the collection of Q. Crauftird, ii. 47% 
Agim^ufwar Savhur in the Garden o/ Gethsemane, representation of, at 
Landshut, iii. 339 ; various, 345; at Kopff, near Salzbuix, 361 ; at tki 
church of St. Mary, at Vienna, 557 ; in a church at Neiimarkt, Sappia^ 
mem, XTiL 

AHert, Madame, opera singer, at Pluris, ii. 516-7- 

Alkeri, Duke, his fine collection at Vienna, iiL 599; monnment ereded 

by him to the memory of his Duchess, iiL 558. 
Albert Durer, his productions at Nuremberg^-the street caDed after Idi 

name, with copper-plate view of— his tombstone— and high character of. 

Supplement, zrii., xxvi., xL ; destruction of his diary, xxxiiL, pictures of 

in KlosterHeilbronn, xli?-T. 
Alexander, laie Mr,, allusion to his talents, iii. 33. 
Allan, Sir Alexander, Bart., late,— tribute to his memory, iiL 171. 
Aloee, fish so called, L 194. 

Mmasm, Prine^w Abbai of die moaaflery of OoCtwic, in Aurtrfa* Ui 

O 



1 



INDEX OF PERSONS, 



hotpitable reception of tbe author, iH. 433, &c, his book presents, 436; 
his autograph, 439. 
Aliace, entrance within — and description of the country so called, iL 651-3; 

ii. 551-3; See also Voigei. 
AUatktn poetry, ui. 90-92. 

AhBHng, town between Munich and Salxbarg— singular place of worslup, 

iii. 340, 342. 

Amberger^ Chriiiapher, pictures by, at Augsbourg, with copy of the head of 

Melanchthon from, iii. 215, 6. 
Ambmte Cardinal^ monument of unde and nq>hew, in the cathedral at 

Rouen, i. 54, 60 ; high characters and anecdotes of, ibid. 
Ambrois, collection of armoury from the castle of, in the little BeWedere at 

Vienna, iii. 567. 

Amyou, Mr. Thomas, his dissertation on the Bayenx tapestry, i. 3S3, 385: 

his poetical composition, 385. 
Andriotsi, Gen, commander of the artillery at the capture of Vienna, aaeodote 

of, iii. 611. 

Andrieu^ his great talents as a medallitt, ii. 466-7* 

Ann of Brittany, account of her copy of the HarmB. M. Fhrgtma^ widi 

copper-plate engraving of her portrait, ii. 188, 201 ; her copy of Catherine 

deSenie, 1500, folio, 315. 
Antbachy arrival at, and interview with Comte DnBChsd, Sapplamentp zlv. 
Antiquities, National and MisoeUaneoas, at Paris, iL 494» 502. 
Apponi Count, his library, with intended sale of a portion of, iii. 601, 603. 
Arhuthnot, Dr. Charlee, late P^sident of the monastery of St. James, at 

Ratisbon, with portrait of. Supplement, xiii. 
Arc Jeanne d*, account of her sufferings, i. 95-8— her ancient and present 

sutue, 99. 

Arch, Messrs. J. and A., booksellers — in possession of a fine copy of die 
supposed first edition of the German Bible, from the public library at 
Landshut, iii. 335. 

Argues y village and castle of, near Dieppe, i. 26, 31. • 

^rsenal, library of, at Paris, ii. 320— collection of miUtary stores at Viema, 
iii. 569. 

Artaria, printseller at Vienna, iii. 605 ; Dom>, bookseller, printseller, and 
banker, at Manheim, Supplement, Hi.; his collection of pictures, Uii.; 
his kind-hearted hospitality, liv. 

Arts, Fine, present state of, at Paris, ii. 502-14 ; at Nuremberg^ SsqtpUmeni, 
xxxviii. 

Ascension Day, ancient custom on, at Rouen, i. 66. 

Atticus, a book collector — ^his library alluded to. i. 358; his visit to Paris, ii. 
446. 



PLAC£S AND THINGS 



li 



AnoiBOUBO.: eotranoe into, iiL 2Q2; •ppeannce oi the houses, i6i ^; mag- 
nificent hotel of the Three Negroee, 202; its gallery of pietnras, with 
specimens of the catalogue, describing them, written in the English 
langnage, 203; the Town Hall, 206; the Picture Gallery, 206; ancient 
splendour of the City, 218 j abbey of Sts. Ulric and Afn, 220; die 
martyrological roll of Augsbourg, 221 ; trade of Augsbonrg, 224; forti* 
cations and enrirons, 225 ; the public library, with account of some of the 
rarar books, &c, 226, 235; society of the Rev., at the table d'hdts^ 
of the inn, 238-9— departure from Augsbourg, 239. 

B. 

Baber, Rer, H. //., honourable mention of, by the Baron Von MoU, iiL 309. 

Baobn, near Rastadt, arri?al at, iii. 104 ; ita hot baths, 105; raomments 
in the principal church, 106-8; sabbath occupations, 106; master«ager 
and his niece, 109: the mall, 110 ; cTening walk to an a4{aoent conTcnl, 
with the EMer SchweiglaRiser, 111; castle in the vicinity of, 115. 

Bagiter, Mr,, his mtended Mfition of a Polyglot Bible aUnded to, iiL 606. 

Barbery, abbaye de, ms. ooDecdons relatingto— 4n the royal Library at Parity 

ii. 240. 

Barbier, Mr., private librarian of the King, iL 371 ; portrait of, and ao 

aooountof his works, 376-7; his present to Earl Spencer, 380. 
Barthtiemi late AM, bust of— in the collection o# Q. Cranlard, li. 471. 
Ar-/^Z>m;, town on the road to StFBsboorg, iL 534. 

Barteeh, /. Adam de, AuHc counsellor, and director in chief of the Imperial 
Library— lus kind receptk>n of the andior, and tethermnce of his views, 

iii. 447, 451, 536 ; his portnut, 446; his talents appreciated, 604. 
Bauelm Oimer, see Olhmr Bauelm, 

Bavaria, entrance into the territories of, and forests of fir, iiL 200. 

Batbux : cathedral ; ordination of priests and deacons; crypt of the csthedsal; 
a mysterious interriew, i. 345, 358 ; visit near 8t. Loup, 359 ; M. PliH|iiet, 
apothecary and book vendor, 364-5 ; visit to die Bishop, 369 ; the cliapier 
library, 370, 374 ; College Library, 374; aocoont of the Bayenx tapestryi 
with vignette and plate, 375, 367; agriculture and trade, 387, Sec.; ms. 
papers and drawings reladng to the history of, in the Royal Library at 
Paris, iL 241-3. 

Beamclok, ruins of the abbey, near LdUebonae, i. 283. 

Beeket, Tkomas-a^ ms collections relating to, IL 236-^. 

Bedford, John Duke of, his monnment in the cathedral at Rooen, i. 63; his 
Breviary in the Royal Library at Puis, ii. 176, 185. 

BeU,ikegreai, atRooen,L56; at Strasbowg, HL 83 ; at IVcysfaig, »i. 327. 

Behedere Palacee, great andmali, at Vienna^ iiL 567, 573. 



INDBX OF FfiRaONB, 



Bhi&rd, Mr., printsdler to hu Mijesty, at Fvii, iLI»7$ vifmaa aWiit dtt 
eigrtfingB of tlM D«)» of WeIBBgl«^ 

W. 

iSI^^I^ £)M,4SKtraoitlh^ called, paBfofmed m titt tabiiite of 

Vieiina,uL679,682. 
BmoNirMM, old prim o( U. 614.15. 
Bemank, • RiKtaiigh€»-oHaded to, L410. 

Bemhani, M,, one ^ tiw poblie m»miia •! Mondi ; Idf bibfifl^c^^ded 

talents, and kiiid attentioDi to .die entiior, SL 266, 8ia 
MflWMirr, AbH bis fiterarycliaiacto 

Be^hlagt Rector, public librarian at Augsbonig, iii. 226; negoliatioa with, 

about the povcbaae of certain books, 228. 
BHiiopkiiei, lei, a sodety so called, at Buk^ B. 447*9; list of meaim 

of the same society, 449; symposium pven by the society to BadSpeneer, 

449,460. 
Bmdmg, see Book. 

JNaf,anantiqoar,orscnerof oldbook^sftl^emM^M. 606. 
Bieekofekem^nmrKM, miztnra of aeili kilte oblBcbo^ ii. 100^8. 
9 km»i , old castle at, ui the wy to BtfaaboMg; iL 647> > 
BAmcAtsMiMf, at Pm^ copper plaaaof, iL 499. 
BMMii, batlkof, aMiidedto,m.l84. 

Mkck wood, co»-original'">'of dio xnrtli OBpliiiy yaiiiiiaiad ^af tlMeaMnM 

of die pubBcHbrary at As^aboaq^ iL 284^ 
Blore, iff. Us talentitaa an artlit, dlMto; 

Boeoge, account of the country so called ' in vicinily 'of Viio, ki fior- 
mandy, i. 423, 449. 

Boccaccio, Waldarfer, 1471; sale of, L 236; see Bibliooraphicai. Imdbz. 
Bochart, Samuel, native of CSaen, his books, (many of diem widi ma. notes) 

in dw public libnuy at Caen, L 326, 836. 
BoekervUle, Si. Veorget do; village and cbuteb of, !. 108, 190; monastery 

and manufactory at, i. 191. 
Boldec, town of, in Normandy, i. 223 ; the dnudi, and sm^ of tte T^f^ 

Savoyard there, 228-6; anecdote connected dle)rcwid^ 227-9; eBvirottsof 

Bolbec,228. 

BoMiparie, anecdote of at St. Diiier, H. 632; of him, and Marahsi Lasties, 
Hi. 308 ; receptionof, at the monastery of Gottwk, iH. 424 ; chancier of 

bis son, at Vienna, 674. 
Bookt, numbers of, in public Hbraries at Paris, ii. 869. 
BooMmding, ancient, at Paris — ^widi three copper plates, and one Tignette, 

of die ezteriorB of some of the more anrient diptydis, 14^7*; nodem^ 

at Ftei8,ii. 411,421. 



^iMOBB AND THIKOS. 



Itti 



BmkMUeny ft« IUmM. 149:151 ^ at H»m, K'd47'»Sm;«t Ca«^id9Mv»« 
Bayeiix»d6d; atCoutances, 412;at Vire^429;at FalaiBe, ii. 48-56; atfMs, 
d06i4O4; at Naatfy, 6«1-, a^ Sirasboulrit, fii 71j «t^9t«ttg^,Hi^l9yM^ 
Munich, 299 : at Vienna, 606 ; at Nuremberg, Supplemettty xlL ' ■■ 

Bootey, Mr,jun. bookseller, his republication of the Fratos of OeCtiM eotl^ 
mended, iii. 121; his manual of the eunodite of 'Nureoiberg, XX. 9 and 
apeciBai of Klmn't drawing!, Smpplemewt, xiz-xxxix. ? 

Bouuet, portrait of, by P. de Champagne, iL 475. 

BimguemUe, topographer of Gaen;^ extracts fipom Ids woric^ nd wood«Ml 

portrait a^L 294.7. 
Boulevards at Pbris, with copper-plate of the Booleyarda ItalieiiB,'' ii. 76*80. 
BoMhrmm, Mr Elder, boolc-binder at Paris, IL 414. ^ ^^'^ 

' the Yotmger, do. 416. 
Bret Le, Mr., public librarian at Stuttgart — anecdotes and character of^ Hi, 

131, 133> 171, 181. ,.\^.w\ 
BreMi, Seneschal 4e$ husband of Diane de Pdctierii^^ds tomb (with «l& 

graying) in die Cathedral of Rouen, i. 60^1. . ^ . ^ 

Brial, Dom, his residence, library, and literary diaraeler, ii» 4234Sl^flA 

portrait, 428; symposium urith him and the Abb4Beteilcovt^ 426. wQ 
^tdj^^e a€TOfff Me /ZAiiitf, near Stntsbouig---importance of, iu^ ''^y 
Bright, Jk^ hb aaAi&stei descriptiott of the Prater, at Vienna, iii. 58^ Mi 

account of the present state of Nurembeq;, Stfplement, p. x?fi. ' t< 
BrUtoMjf, John Duke of, portrait of, ii. 225 ; Ann«f Brittany--see Ann. tv'.n 
Brunet Ftls, /. C, bookseller at Pteis, ii. 397; character of hia |mblieatls«s, 

38&400risterfiow with Eiri Spencer, 400. . ■x^)'>^■\' 
Bmrgmair Hans, fine pictures by, at Augsbourg, iii. 2124U6. 



Cobma da MedaUkt, at Parif» iL 136; des Estampes, ii. 136-144. 

Caen ; i^proach to the town, i. 269. Account of its soil, mannlytprigs^ 
■ populaitino, apd eoviroas, i 26.1-267i costuq;ie of the common wmfa^ 
wisjb, fignette, and oopper-plate of the FlDe-de-Chavihre, 268;. despqcate 
duel fought there, 269-273; antiquities of the town, 273; streets and ho^fes 
of, irith cqiper-plate vignettes^ 275-8; fountMns of, 279; abbey of 8(t 
Stj^hen* with riew of, 280-288; tomb, portrait, ssid palace of Wil|iam 
the Conqueror, 284-292; supposed figure of do, 293; church of St. Dfar- 
netal, with copper-plate view, 295-7 ; portrait of Bourgueville, the h|u«^ 
nan of Caen, with extracts firoin his work, 294^9; account of the 
Abbaye aux Dames, or of the Holy Trinity, 301-5 : castellated buildings, 
306; the Abb6 de la Rue, 309; Memoirs of the Acwiemy at Caaii^ 308 ; 



1 



lif INDBX OF PERSONS, 

Mods. Lamouroiix, 310; Pierre Aim£ Lidr, 311 ; printen, and Manoala of 
instruction, 316-321 ; bodLsellen, 321-4; description of tiie Public labmy, 
with account of the books, 324-340 ; list of portraits in the same, 327 ; pro- 
testant ehundi and preachii^, 341 ; courts of Justice, 342. 
Cathi Jacquet, original portrait of, in the collection of Mr. Q. Granfurd, 
ii.479. 

MvimsU, ravages committed by — at Rouen, i. 49, 56, S2, — at Caen, 281, 
287,335,— at Bayeux, 355. 

Cambacir^, j4rchbishop; of Rouen, i. 68. 

CttmpbeU, Mr. his Poem of Hohoilinden » aUuded to, iU. 325. 

Canava, specimens of his sculpture in the coUection of the Marquis de Som- 
marira, ii. 4^5-489, in the palace at Stuttgart, iii. 168; his tomb of the Du- 
chess Albert, at Vienna, iii. 558, &c. 

Canttadi, near Stuttgart, description of, iii. 177. 

.C^pvcAm comtfeni, at Vienna, iii. 563 ; in the suburbs of, cafied the Rossau, 
619. 

CtudewalU^ remains of, at Ronen, i. 154; —at Caen, i. 306; al Nuremberg, 

Supplemeni, xviii. 
'tkieehumt; see ckap-Mkt, and BinLiooRAPBiCAL Ikdr. 
Catharine, Mont Sie,, at Rouen, riew from, i. 116-120. 
Caiharine, S$e., chapel of, in Strasbourg cathedral, with copper-plale of a 

group of women at prayers, in the same, iH. 32.-— engraving ef the 

Sunt, from an illuminated MS. in the Imperial Library, at Vi^ma, iii. 

469. 

Caikolhf and ProtesianU, controversy between, at Strasbourg, in the xvth 
and xTith centuries, iii. 5-10. 

Cathedral— of Rouen, with a plate, i. 50; of Caen, with a plate, i. 282; of 
Coutances, with a plate, i. 409; of Ptuis, ii. 95; of Strasbourg, witii a 
plate, iii. 12 ; of Ulm, with a pkte, 191; of Munich, 242; of Freysing, 
with a pkte, 325-7; of Vienna, with a plate, 547^ of Ratisbon, Sappi. 
viii. 

Caudebec, village near Rouen; i. 206-215 ; copper-plate view of, 208 ; church 
of, 209-10; description of a ready furnished house to let at, 212^14; ap- 
pearance of the tide coming in, 212. 

Cemy^f&reit of^ in Normandy, i. 392. 

Chalons iur Mame, town on the road to Strasbourg, ii. 530. 

Chamilli Af., instrumental to the smrender of Strasbourg to Louis XIV. ui. 
8-10. 

Champ de Drop (fOr, basso-relievo repnisentation of, with engraving, i. 100-2. 
Chap-boohs, at Rouen ; including Catechisms, Romances, Manuals of instruc- 
tion, &c. i. 134-148, 410. 
Chapleio/ihe Hrgin, Hymn BO called, ^,531. 



PLACES AND THINGS. 



Chardm, Mr. bookseller at Ftais ii. 400. — portnut of, with some particulars 
relating to, 400-403. 

Ckariatany at St. ho, vignette of, i. 394— account of, 396. 

Charlemagne, book of prayers belonging to, in the Private Library of the King 
of France, with iiic-simile of the figure of Christ therefrom, ii. 372*6. 

— ■ , a similar book in the library of Chremsminster 

Monastery, iii. 378. 

Charles the Bald, his Latin Bible, Psalter, and Prayer Book, in the Royal Li- 
brary at Paris, ii. 156-163. 

Chateaugiron, le Marquis de, president of the Society of Bibliophiles at Puris, 
ii. 449. 

Chewe, Du, M., curator of the print room in the Royal Library at Paris, ii. 

140 ; his opinion respecting the supposed original wood-cut of St Quriato- 

pher, of the date of 1423, ii. 143. 
Chevalier, M., Librarian of Ste. Genevieve library, ii. 343. 
Chrkmsminster, town and Monastebt of, account of a visit paid to the 

latter, with a description of the Monastery and of its Library, iii. 370-381. 

Jommey from Chremsminster to Linz, 381-3. 
Christopher, St., wood-cut of, of the date of 142^— at Paris, ii. 143 — di8<ioi- 

sition upon its genuineness, 143-145 ; ancient wood-cut of at Munich, iiL 

277. 

Cloch, at Strasbourg — ^formerly much celebrated, iii. 33. 

Closternbuburo Monastbrt, near Vienna, account of a visit to, with a 

description of the Library of, iii. 613-619. 
Clovis, figure of, on Strasbourg Cathedral, iii. 15-17. 
Cluny, Hdtel de, at Paris, ii. 118. 

Colbert, le Mimstre, his book passion : portrait of, in the collection of Mr. Q. 
Cranfurd, iL 477. 

Colmar, a town near the Rhine, supposed place for early typogn^hical pro- 
ductions, iii. 96. 

Colonnies, Hdtel des, rue de Richelieu, ii. 128»; Supplement, bdi. 

Cond^, village of, between Vire and Fahiise, ii. 3. 

Coney, Mr, his graphic talents alliided to. Pre/, viii : — iii. 42. 

Cof^fessional 'm the Abbey of St. Onen, i. 72-3 ; in the Abbey of St. Stephen, 
at Caen, i. 283; at Granville, 419. 

Conrad de LAchtemberg, the founder of Strasbourg cathedral, iii. 17. 

Cemeille, plaister figure of, at Rouen, i. 163. 

bust of, at Mr. Q. Crauford's, ii. 471. 

Cotman, Mr. references to his engravings of the arclutectnral antiquities of 

Normandy, i. 199, 281, 301, 397; u. 13. 
Cotta, M. bookseller at Stuttgart, iii. 119. 

CouTANGBS ; approach to, i. 403 ; the town, 403 ; the Galhedral, and view 



Ifl 



INHBX of FES80N8. 



fktmi thence, 404^$ mnalMr of jmag dtqff, md 40MU; 
eomeUness of die women, 406 ; andeat aqwdiict, 406 ; ooppef-^kte viMr 

of iht9qa/t^mMAcaaMM,4^ 

Oie Public Ubnr7,411;boolneUflffi, 41d}ms. eoOeetioMiel^^ to^iL 

231-236 ; aodent tqpettrj lMkiii«ii« to tiw crtiietoJ, 237. 
Onq^, Mr. cefeluMid printer at M», IL 40&410; kb Snmrndn if 

Ltmkei, 407s bibttflgnpLkaatympoiii^ 409; Madune, mentkm aML 
Crmei/Ut, at Dyeppe, with copper-plate, i. 7; »t Ftdaiae, iL 22; aH ViliBbaif, 

near Landshut, uL 340 ; at St. P^dlen, 419 ; near Nn^ 

old oofpe^pte engrafingof, bought of Baroo Dendun at do. zzshr. 
Orgpt, in tiw etorch of St. Gerraia, at Rouen, L 85; of Bayeuz eathednJ, 

349} of Abbaye anz Damea, at Caen 303, ; of Stnyibougcathedral, 13. 

37: of die cadMdral of Breysfaig^ wi«hcopper.platet, i&L 324-7. 

D. 

Dmmeeher, scuJ^tor, at Stattgart, iii. 172-176 ; obiervatioae his boat of 
8diiller,tm 

2^mf<€, the river, from Linx to Vienna, appearance of, near the Monaalory of 

M(dk, iiL407; nearthat of GOltwic, 422 ; near that of GkMtemeiibv]^ 613- 

14 ; at Straubing, Supplement^ iv.-v. 
Dmrid, a Pluriiian artist, his picture of Cupid and Pkyche, uu 482; Ids si^ 

posed skill in drawing, 502 ; remariu upon his picture of the Hofttii and 

Gnratii,50a4. 

Dehure, Mem, booksellers to His Majesty, at Puis, iL 387-9.— IMbM^ hv 
very choice collection of books, ii. 388. 

Demt^ M, (now Baron) ; his anecdote about the Bayeuz Tapestry, i. 366; a 
guest at the Roxburghe banquet, 442 ; account of his collection of cnriorities, 
prints, and pictures, 453-461 ; of his library, 402-464; his portrait, from the 
bust ofBosio, 459. 

Denekau, Barm, )iis curiosities at Nuremberg, Sigtpl, xxxii-v. 

Dtmoftre, celebnite<l engraver at Paris, ii. 504-5.— His opfadon die BritUi 
school of engraving, ii. 51 1. 

DwiM de Paiciiere, anecdotes of, at Rouen : i. 62-5 : several books belonging 
to, in the Public Library at Ca^n, i. 338-40, in the Royal labrwy at Paris, 
ii. 291-2 ; 293, 315, 316, 317, in the Library of Ste. Genevieve, Ii. 366; hv 
case-knife, with engraving, ii. 493 ; engraving o£ her bust, 497 ; her por- 
trait, in the collection of Mr. Q. Craufurd, ii. 478. 

Dkbit /Itmm, celebrated printerat P^, ii. 405; his letter-foondery, Mf. 

Dawn: passage from Brighton to, L 1.8: fisheries at, 11-13: rise and 
progress o£ the town, 13: want o£ good poUoe, 15 : engnviiga of maikel 
Maaea, 17^ enc nrri nf of mrr rnrtf¥,1ft mgraTliy nf wee i W i iiim i ii 



placbs and things. 



Ivii 



on totrene^ of tbe^iirboiir, 8 : diilreli of St. Jacques, 19 ; senlce thcrdn, 
21; dmrcb service at St. Remy, 23: engraytng- of Fille de Chambre, 
92^; loiad adrantages of I>iept>e, 34-3. 

Dietmapr, BertMeku, Restorer of the Monastery of llfalk, account and 
copper-plate engraving of the poitrdt of, Ifi. 415. 

D^igenee: at Dieppe, i. 16, 37, 38; In Germany, ffi. 201. 

Diptych, ancient, in the Royal Libraiy afPsHv^ wfth two copper-pkte 
engrarings, ii. 146, 147; in the Imperial Library at \^eittia, with a cop- 
per-plate engraving of St. Jerom, npon the same, ill. 460. 

Digier, St., town in the road to Strasbourg, anecdote of Bonaparte when 
there;a.632. 

D&»ce,^T., in possession of a bronze medal of Lbids XII., 4. '13fi.— his (Col- 
lection, referred to. Supplement, xxxv. 

Drew, between Falaise and Paris, ii. 65; churches and ruins of castles, 66-7. 

Drolleriee, m eeulpture, on the outside of Strasbourg cathedral, iu. 25-29. 

Drury, Rev, Henry, In possession of a MS. of the cathedral service at Rouen, 
of the xiiith century, i. 170 ; of a copy of Cicenfi Officee of 1465, u#bii 
VELLUM, from a private collection in the Vosges, iii. 70. 

Duddfr, village of, 1. 194 ; anecdote of the innkeeper and his daughter, 
194-6. 

Duel, desperate one fought at Caen, i. 269-272. 

DUjputel, M., a book-collector at Rouen, i. 155; specimens of his poetical 

compositions, 155-8, 182-3. 
Durand de Langon, M., an active member of the Society of the BiblhpMIei, at 

lWs,fi.447. 

E. 

Earthquakee, frequency of at Strasbourg, iii. 39. 

Ebner Family , and Cadejp Ebneriame, at Nuremberg, Suj^, juvi. 

Eckme, the celebrated antagonist of Luther— his chair^ cap, and coUeotiMi^ 

tracts by, preserved in the Public Library at Landshut^ iiL 336. 
Ef^B^eram, Sl Monastery of, at Ratisbon, Su/^l, x. 
En^elhardt, M. at Strasbourg, his work connected with the Mhuie-Siagen, 

iiL 90, 91, 120. 

Eagraeing, French echaol of, preceded by notices of a few of the move cele- 
brated engravers, ii. 504-511. 

Eng^ings, nuniber and value of, in the Imperial Idbrary at Vianni^ jil. 
^^^l in the private collection of the Emperor of Austria, $96k^ tha^M^ 
4j(j^n of tU Ih^ . . 

advance of the French to Vienna, ibid. 



Iviii 



INDEX OF PERSOK^ 



Epernajf, distinginBhed for its champagne wine — aoaed^le of the Pkraanans, 

when passing through this town, ii. 629. 
Evelyn, John, his description of Havre, i. 242 : of HoBflear, i. 263 ; of Mont 

Ste. Catherine, at Rouen, i. 116. 
Eugene, Prince, his book benefactions to the laqperial Library at Yienna, iii. 

452, &c. 

Eutiache, Si^ church of, at Pteis, ii. 97. 

P. 

" Falaise ; approach to, ii. 9: Hdtel of the Grand T\tre, 9-10; eo^er-pbte 
view of Fabuse castle, 10; copperplate vignette of the castle, aa it appeared 
two centuries ago, 11 ; copper-plate vignette of one of the qyitala of the 
pillars in the same, 13 ; general description of the castie, 13-19; church of 
Ste. IVinit^ 21^ ; return of Looia XVIII. celebrated, 23; mamifartiire of 
wax candles, 25 ; mansion and hospitable treatment of the Comte de la 
Fresnaye, 25^ ; diurch and fidr at Guibray, in the neighbooiiiood, i28-31 ; 
supposed head of William the Conqueror, with engraving, 33-36; church 
and place of St. Gervais, 36-40; account of M. Laageviap the Uatorian ^ 
Falaise, with copper-plate vignette, 40-46; temperature and situation of, 
47; fountains, ib,; printers, 48-56; booksellers, 56; odebcation of the 
fite-dieu, 59-62^ Hdpital 66i6ra], 62; departure in a diligence for Paris, 
63. 

Fttustus {the) of Goethe, account of, with fac-simile wood-cuta from, iii. 120- 
130 : reference to a more particular account of in Mr. Baldwin's Magazine, 

iii. 121. 

Fkitt, Abhi, librarian to the Chapter Library at Bayeux, i. 370. 

FUle de Chambre, at Dieppe, engraving of, i. 32 ; at Caen, engraving of, i. 

268; at Nuremberg, engraving of. Supplement, Ixiv. 
Fhre-uforks, at the Prater, near Vienna, iii. 588. 
FUcheim, Fan, bookseller at Munich, purchases from, iu. 303-5. 
Fheon, M., head librarian of Ste. Genevieve, ii. 343. 

Florian, St., Monastery of — visit to, and account of the building, — 
church, library, saloon, and picture gallery, iii. 387-404; description of the 
Abbot, 388-9; antiquity of the monastery, 397* 

Font, in a church at Salzburg, iii. 349 ; in the church of St. Sebald, at Nu- 
remberg, Supplement, xx. 

Fontaine, de la, village of, near Rouen, i. 193. 

Forest, in the neighbourhood of Baden, iii. 103 ; in the neighbourhood of 

Heilbronn, Supplrment, xlvi. 
Forster, Mr., celebr itcd engraver at Paris, ii. 507. 
Fotsard, M., sub-librcirian at Rouen, i. 161. 



PLACES AND THINGS. 



Fountahu, at Fnlaise, iL 10-47 ; at Puis, ii. 110-1 14 ; at AunrsboarR, iii. 180 ; 
at Yieima, iii. 542. 

fhmci^ (FVankfl) Madame, iMnker at StrMbourg, iii. 745— hoepitality and 
liberal conduct towards the author, 75, 77> 97 ^S. 

Francit his ybllum copy of the Commentaries of Budaras (his tutor) 
upon the Greek language, in the Royal Library at Paris, ii. 295; his copy 
of the Aldine Greek Bible upon thick paper, ii. 313 ; portnut of, in the 
Loufre, and in the collection of M. Q. Craufiird, ii. 472 ; engraving of 
the bast of,ii. 496, 

Franciscan Convent, at Vienna, iii. 564. 

fyeenmeotuy, account of its rise and progress at Strasbourg, iii. 88, 90- 
F)rench, national diaracter of, ii. 517, 520. 
Freree, Messrs. booksellers at Rouen, L 149. 

Fremoffe, Camte de la, residing at Fslaise— his literary amusements and 

kind attentions to the author, ii. 19, 25, 30, 37. 
Freysing, visit to ; the church, crypt, (with copper pUte engravings of pillan 

in the latter) and adjacent library, iii. 325, 329 ; M. Mozler, bookseller at, 

ihid 

F^h, a town near Nuremberg, excursion to, Supplemeni, zli. 
Fuit and Gutenberg, original depositions relating to the lawsuit between 
them, at Strasbourg, iii. 53. 

G. 

Gaertner Carbinian, librarian of the monastery of St. Peter, at Salzburg, iii. 
354-5. 

Gail, M., one of the curators of the Royal Library at P^, ii. 150; his 

literary character, and editions of Thucydides and Xenophon, 430, 433 ; 

his verses redted at the Roxburghe banquet, 445. 
Gallery of Pictwrei, at Rouen, L 162-4; of portraits at Caen, i. 327; at 

Augsbourg, iiL 203, 206; at Munich, 249 ; at Vienna, 571; at Nurem- 

berg, xxviiL 
Gascon, ancient book-binder at Paris, ii, 412. 
Geisler, M., beautiful engraver at Nuremberg, Supplement, i. xl. 
Geislingen, town near Llm, curious adventure at, iii. 182. 
GenevOve, Ste., nouvelle Egliee de, ii. 99, 100; Uhnry of, 342, 362. 
Gerard, M., portrait painter at Puis, renuurlu upon some of his pictures, ii. 

503. 

Germain, St. des Prie, iL 97 ; aux Augerrois, 98; destruction of the old 
library, u. 284. 

German character, Mendlinegs of dispoeition of, iii. 198 ; 622. 

GervaiM, St., church of, at Rouen, i. 85 ; at Falaise,ii. 36; at Paris, ii. 96. 



INDEX OP PERSONS, 



• Oejfler, John, a celebrated refonaer at StMbou]^, Hi. B, 35. 
GiIg'en,St., village near Gmandeii — night adFentore at, iiL 363. 
GUIeM, St., village between St. Lo and Coataneea— adventure there, i. 40L 
Gmunden, lake and village of, iiL 367-9; journey from Gmnnden to ChreBu- 
minsto-, iii. 370. 

tioTTwic MoNASTBRT; appprooch and viiit to — with an account of the 
church, library, saloon, and hoephabk reoeptdon at, fit 422, 440 ; copper- 
plate engraving of halt of pilgrims, in the approach to, 421-2; ^ same, 
of a portion of the same party, on their nearer approadi to the monastery, 
433. 

Gififfet, account of his bibliograplucal labours, with portrait, iL 378-9. 
Gwrdm, Mr., chief librarian of the public Idbrary at Rouen ; L 161. 
Grahame, Mr., commendation of his poem called tke Skbbaik/* u. 106. 
Orammoni, Camteue d!^— portrait of, in the collection of Q. Grauford, n. 

473. 

Gnuwilie, town in Normandy, i. 417, 419. 

GrenvUIe, Right Han, T., his library aUnded to, I. 337; H. 262; 264; 
316; iu. 68; 616. 

Griffiths, Dr,, about to establish a stereotype preu at Viemia, attention to 

the author. Supplement, vii. 
Grolier, books formerly in the library of, ii. 312, 314. 
Gfoiier, AbU, chief librarian of the library of the Arsenal, u. 320 
Grotifu, portrait of, in the collection of Q. Craufurd, iL 472. 
Gruber, AnUmnu, M., librarian to Count Apponi — his bibliogn^hical aid, 

iii. 601-3. 

Guerin, M., his picture of Diana and Endymion, iL 483. 
Guibray, in the vicinity of Falaise — church and ftir, ii. 28, 31. 
Gvidet, publications, rarity of, upon the continent, iii. 178. 
Gurney, Mr. ^Hudson) his dissertation on the Bayeux tapestry, i. 382. 
Gutenberg, spot at Strasbourg, where his first operations with the press are 
supposed to have been carried on, iii. 78 ; see /W/. 

H. 

Naffher, M., a protestant clergyman, at Strasbourg — his library, iii. 77, 80. 

Halles de Commerce, at Rouen, L 89, 92. 

Hammer, Mr. a celebrated orientalist, at Vienna, iii. 604. 

Hamilton, Mr., charg6 d'afiaires at Stuttgart— his kind attentions to the 

author, iii. 134, 168. 
Hapsburg, Rudolph Count of, one of the benefactors towards the buikymg 

of Strasbourg Cathedral, iii. 17- 
Harfleur, in the route to Havre, L 239. 

Hartenschneider, M., Professor — in the monastery of Chremsminster— 



PLACES AND THINGS. 



Ixi 



his kind attentions to the aathor, iii. 374, Sec, ; his opinion of our more 
celebrated writers, 380. 

Haslewood, Mr. J., historian of the Roxburghe Club, ii. 445. 

Hav&b, road from Rouen to— and view of the latter from, i. 187-8; ap- 
proach to the town, 239, &c. ^ description of the town and environs, 242, 
250. 

Heber, Mr., his library alluded to, iii. 381. 
mbert, M., public librarian at Caen, i. 324, 328. 

Heerdegen, M., bookseller at Furth, visit to, and purchases from. Supple- 
ment, zli. 

Hbidslbero, description of the palace, or castle, with engravings of. 

Supplement, xlvii ; of the great Tun, xlix. ; visit to the public library, L 
Heilbrann, near Heidelberg, Supplement, xlvi. 

Henry 11. , King of France, his triumphal entry into Rouen, i. 63-4; his 
death, ibidr, books in the public library at Caen, i. 338, &c. ; at Paris, u. 
311, 317; bronze bust of, in the collection of the late Q. Craufrurd, 47 L 

Henri IV., College de, near Ste. Genevieve, ii. 353. 

Herarde, Abbeu of Landsberg, account of a ms. by her called Hortut 
Deliciarum, iii. 52. 

Herman, King of Hungary, sec. xii. his psalter in the private library of 

the King of Wirtemberg, iii. 159. 
Hermann, M., a literary gentleman at Strasbourg, iii. 77 ; See Bibliogiu«> 

PHicAL Index. 

Heu, M., Professor of design, and engraver, at Munich, his amiable dia* 

racter, iii. 313, 316. 
Hibbert, Mr. George, his copy of the Sforxiada alluded to, ii. 291. 
Hohenlinden, plains of— seen from the top of Freysing cathedral, iii. 327. 
Holbein, John, father of Hans Holbein— pictures by, at Augsbourg, iii. 

207, 211. 

Hommartin, village in the road to Strasbourg, ii. 548. 

Honfleur, passage thither from Havre — and departure from thence to Caen 

in the Diligence, i. 251-5; description of the country from Honfleur to 

Caen, i. 256, 260. 
Hook, Mbi, late librarian of the Ste. Genevieve library, ii. 363-4. 
Hotel de FiUe, at Paris, ii. 89 ; de Soubise, at Paris, ii. 90 ; de Cluny, at Ptffis, 

ii. 118 ; at Stuttgart — ^with copper-plate, iii. 136. 
Houdan, between Dreux aad Pftris, with copper-plate vignette of the 

castle, ii. 69,70. 
Houiet, old, at Caen, i. 277 ; at Strasbourg, iii. 81-2. 
Hulmandel, M. C, the excellence of his lithogn^hical publications, iii. 319. 

I. 

lUyricui Quirinui, Pope and Martyr, copper-plate of, iii. 223. 



Izii 



INDEX OF PERSONS, 



Inttitute at Parii, description of tiie library of, ii. 370 ; sitting of the society, 
ii. 429. 

Inderlambach, near the lake Gmundeny iii. 366. 

liobejf, M., his painting in a copy of Ossian, formerly belonging to Bona- 
parte, ii. 376. 
Ischel, near the lake Gmunden, iii. 365. 
/vofy manufactures, at Dieppe, i. 18 ^ at Geislingen, iii. 182. 

J. 

Jacijues, St,, church of, at Dieppe, i. 21. 

J&eguet, head waiter at the H6tel-Vatel, at Rouen, i. 185. 

Jaquiftot, Madame, her eminence as a punter in enamel, ii. 5(XX-502. 

Jamet, St., monastery of, at Ratisbon, Supplement, xii. 

Jeuft, at Bischo£&heim, iii. 102; at Forth, Sigsplemeni, zlii., &c. 

John, King of France, original portnut — ^with o(^>per-p]ate of, iL 140. 

Joieph II. Emperor of Austria, character of, iii 564. 

Jouhert, M. bookseller at Coutances, i. 413. 

Judges, at Rouen, i. 106 ; at Caen, 343-4. 

Jumieges, description of the abbey of, L 196-205. 

Karlsruhe, near Rastadt, iiL 1 16. 

Kensmgtonksn acputintanee, met at Strasbourg, iii. 84. 

Keus, /. and H, Messrs., their gn4[>hic talents commended. Pre/, ix. iii. 42. 

Klein, M. librarian of the monastery of St. Florian, iii. 388, &c. 

Klein, M., distinguished artist at Nurembei^g, with copper-plate fMNsimiks of 

his drawings and engravings. Supplement, xzz?iii-xL 
Koberger, Anthony, the famous printer at Nuremberg, his office, &e. Suppl, 

xxii-iii. ; bronze head of his nephew John, in tiie possession of the author, 

xxiil. 

Kooh, late, one of the celebrated literary characters of Strasbourg, IiL 47> 

Koch, M., a book-collector at Manheim, Supplement, Iv. 

Kopitar, M. one of the librarians of the Imperial library at Vienna, iii. 448- 

9 ; his opinion of the antiquity of a German Tersion of the Bible, 462. 
Kopff, village near Landshut, iii. 361. 

Kraemer, M . Augustus, librarian to the Prince -of Tour and Taxis, — kind at- 
tentions of to the author. Supplement, x-xv. 

L. 

Lacquais de Place, at the H6tel Vatel at Rouen, i. 43-183. 



PLACES, AND TmNOS. 



Lair Pierre Aimiy M., at Caen ; his patriotic zeal, and kind attention to the 

author, i. 31 1-315 ; his parting farewell at Bayeux, i. 356. 
Lamouroujp, M., botanical professor at Caen, i. 310. 

Landshut, arrival at, viith anecdote of its capture by the FVench, iii. 329; ac- 
count of the books in the Public Library, removed thither from the Um- 
versity of Ingoldstadt, 330 ; copper-plate engraving of street scenery seen 
from the library, 333 ; the chair and doctor's bonnet of the celebrated 
Eckius, kept in the Public Library, iii. 336 ; opinion of a professor of 
botany at Landshut, respecting Shakspeare, iii. 338 ; church of St. Martin, 
the highest in Bavaria, 339. 

Langlii^ M., one of the head librarians of the Royal Library at Paris, ii. 151 ; 
his literary and social qualities, 438, &c. ; his praise-worthy conduct during 
the revolution, 441. 

Lasnes, late Marshal, anecdote of and Bonaparte, iii. 308. 

Laugher, a distinguished engraver at Paris, ii. 508. 

Laurent, M., distinguished punter at P&ris, ii. 520. 

Latfs, M. an Opera singer at Strasbourg, iii. 83. 

Lecrine, ^^^M, printer at Rouen, i. 133. 

Lemanadier, at Rouen, engraving of, i. 109. 

Lenoir, M. keeper of the monuments in the Rue des PetiU Augwtint— com" 

mendation of his work upon the same, ii. 107-9. 
Lesn^, M., book-binder and poet, at Paris, iL 412-421. 
Levrault, M., a celebrated printer at Strasbourg, iii. 95. 
Lewis, Charles, bookbinder ; his talents alluded to, i. 367 ; ii. 189, 245, 262, 

399, 421. 

Library, Public ; at Rouen, i. 161-179; at Caen, i. 324-340; at Bayeux, i. 
371 ; at St. Lo, i. 396; at Coutances, 411 ; at Vire, 446; at Paris ^ the 
Royal, ii. 128-318; the Arsenal, 318-341 ; of Ste. Genevieve, 342-362; the 
Mazarine, 362^368; private library of the King, 371-380 ; at Strasbourg, iii. 
50-69 ; at Stuttgart, 136-165 ; at Ulm (the Chapter Library), 187 ; of Augs- 
bourg, 227-235 ; at Munich, 257-297 ; at Freysing, 327 ; at Landshut, 331-3 ; 
at Salzburg, (monastic) 354 ; at Chremsminster monastery, 374 ; at St. Flo- 
rian Monastery, 391 ; at Molk monastery, 409; at Gdttidc monastery, 
427 ; at Vienna, 451, &c. ; at Clostemeuburg, 614 ; at Ratisbon, Suppl, xiv. 
at Nuremberg, SuppL xxiii-v. 

Library, Private; of Messrs. Le Prevost, Duputel, and Reanx, at Rouen, i. 
153, 155, 158 : of a gentleman near Bayeux, i. 361 ; at Strasbourg, iii. 70- 
77; of Professor Veesenmeyer at Ulm, 193; of Professor May at Augsbonrg, 
229 ; of the Emperor of Austria, at Vienna, iii. 589-599 ; of the Duke Al- 
bert, at ditto, 599 ; of Count Fries, at ditto, 600; of Count Apponi, at ditto, 
601 ; of the Prince of Tour and Taxis, Si^pl, x. 



bdv 



INDEX OF PERSONS, 



Lhktmberger, M., the typogn^ihical antkpiaryt at Strisbaibg; his book 

donation to Earl Spencer, iiL 79» 80. 
LignoHy M,, celebrated engrarer at ii. 506. 

IMieh<mne, town of, in Normaod^r* i* 2^7 ; andeat castle, 217, 221 ; inn of 

the Three Negroes, 222. 
Lmig or Ling, a town in Austria, brief description of, ilL jomey 

from Linz to St. Florian, iii. 386-7. 
IMhagraph^, as practised at Paris, ii. 513; at Bfunich^its ezcellenee there, 

iiL 317, 320. 

Lo, St, between Bayeux and Goutances, i. 393 ; anecdotes of itinerary 
charlatans, with a copper-plate vignette, 394-5 ; library of the hotel de 
Tille, 396 'y principal parish church, 397; andent strength and history of 
the town, 399. 

L&uii XII., gold medal of, bk the Cabinet des Mddailles at Paris, ii. 133; 

portndtof, from an illuminated MS., 214. 
Imit Xiy,, manner of taking possession of Strasbourg, iiL 10. 
Imli XniL, homage paid to, at Rouen, L 182-3; his return to FVanoc, 

celebrated at Falaise, u. 23; his patronage of Madame Jaquotot» tha 

enamellist, ii. 500. 
Loup, St,, visit to, in the neighbourhood of Bayeux, i. 359. 
Lothariui, Emperor, his copy of the Gospels, ii. 163-6. 
Louvre, description of, ii. 84-5. 

Lucas Cranach, extraordinary spedmens of his painting, in the dtaddat 
Nuremberg, Supplement, xxviii. 

Luther, Martin, his hymn sung by children at Strasbourg, iu. 54 ; his mo- 
nument by Ohmacht, iii. 98 ; collection of tracts relating to his contro- 
versy with Eckius kept in the public library at Landshut, iii. 336 : portrait 
of his wife at Nuremberg, Supplement, xxviiL 

lAUtembourg gardem, and palace of, ii. 94, 427. 

M. 

Jf *, Lieutenant, meeting and parting with, 416, 417. 

Mack General, his treachery or cowardice, in the surrender of Ulm, iii. 184. 

Maclou, St., church of, at Rouen, i. 80-2. 

Mackenzie, Mr., his beautiful drawings of the Cathedrals of France, Preface, 
viii-ix. 

Malkerbe, view of his house at Caen, i. 278 ; medal struck in honour of him, 
312. 

Manheim; arri\'alat the Golden Fleece, now so called: visit to Dom.Artaria, 
and friendliness of his reception; his collection of paintings, &c., and 
extensive business; book-collectors there; the public gardens, and old 



PLACES AND THINO& 



pakce; coltore of gnpes ia Uie Beli^dNmrliood; journey from Maoheim 

to i Suppiemeni, lii-lxfi. 
Magdalen, statue of the, by Caaoya, ii. 487, &c. 
Mmmtr^, Sen. andJun., bookseOen at Caen, i. 322-3. 
Mamion Cefard, books printed by— in the Royal library at P^, ii. 280. 
Marwmut, village of, near Rouen, i. 197. 
Marmhny Bobertde, his arms, 11.240. 

Martin, Franfoisy a singular bibliomaniac at Caen, i. 325; his copy of the 

jiikenw Normannorum, 326-6. 
Mary, Queen o/ Scats, portrait of, ii. 477 ; altar of goM, belonging <o, noir 

in the palace at Munich, iii. 248. 
Maaard, celebrated engrarer at P^, ii. 605. 
Ma^er, an ancient printer at Rouen, i. 123. 

Majnmilian the Great, adventure of, upon the top of Ulm cathedral, 191 ; 
his own copy of the Tewrdanckh in the Imperial Library at Vienna* IH. 

529. 

May, ProfeMor, public librarian at Augsbourg, iii. 226 ; purchase of books 
from, 229. 

Mazarine Library, description of, ii. 362, 368. 

Mazarin, Cardinal, portrait of, in the collection of Q. Cranfurd, ii. 477. 

Meau», cathedral of, ii. 526. 

Mhgard, M., printer at Rouen, i. 129, 132. 

Melanekthan, his portrait when young, from an original picture by Christ. 
Amberger, at Augsbouig, iii. 215-6; literary pieces of, collected at Nu- 
remberg, Supplement, uvi. 

Mercatar, Gwdo, book printed by, in the public library at Vire, i. 447. 

Mercier, St, lAger, Abhk, some account of, with engraving of his portrait, 
ii. 353, 362. 

, his posthumous labours, ii. 360, 378. 

Metz, briefly described, on the road from Manheim to Paris, Supplement, lis. 

Millin, M,, one of the curators of the royal library at Paris ; his dissertation 
upon the medal of Louis XIL, ii. 134 his literary character, 433, 438 ; 
library, 434 ; symposium at Paris, 435 ; preservation of national antiquities, 
437 } writes the account of the Roxburghe banquet, 444 ; his death, and 
portrait of, 522, 524. 

Minne-Singeri, or love poets, history of, at Strasbourg, iii. 90. 

Miual, MS., several in the Royal Library at Paris, ii. 202 ; in the collec- 
tion of M. Denon, ii. 462; in the Royal Library at Stuttgart, iii. 152; 
in the Royal Library at Munich, iii. 270; in the Imperial Library at 
Vienna, iii. 465. 

Mieeale, printed, copies of at Rouen, i. 165 ; at Caen, 336^ at Bayeoz, 
373,375 ; St. S^, 421; in the Ubrary of the Arsenal, U. 323. 



I 



INDEX OF PERSONS, 



MdLK, in Austria, Monastbrt of^Hioooimt of a fiiH to Une same, with a 
description of the interior, Gnchiding the Hbraiy aaddmrdi) and s copper- 
plate engraving of a riew of the exterior, and of the porfnit of Berthold 
Dietmayr, the restorer of the monastery, IH. 406, 418; aneedote of the 
French here, on theor march to Vieima, 414 ; monaitfry rerisited, on 
return from Vienna, Supplement, v. 

Moll, Baron Fon, one of the earaton of tiie Pkiblk libary at Minidi, iH. 
306, &c. ; ezcuniimto his rilk, 307. 

MoMASTBRiBS : St. Peter, at Salsbuif, 349, 366; o£ Cfarenamiiiater, 
370, 381; St. norian, 387, 404; Molk, 406, 418; O&ttwie, ^ «ec.; 
Clostemeubiiif, 613-9^ Oapachliii, 619, &c.| Sla. EnuMraiii and James, 
Ratisbon, Supplemeni, x-xiv. 

Moniauiier, J. L. dmeheue de, portrahof, in tlK eolleetai of Q. CSranfiud, 
«. 473. 

Montmarenci, Cattle, at TaaeanrlUe; deaeripHon, and eopper-plate Tiew of, 

i. 234-8. 

More, Sir Tkomai, his copy of the work of Eaooei lywf ehgmm, See., for- 
merly belonging to Eckuis— 4n the Pnblie Library at Landshut, iii 337. 

Moreau, late General, commendatkm of by Barai Von MoD, Ui. 306. 

Morm, andent printer at Rouen— his ^rice, i. 183-4 

Morteux, the MM, public librarian at Vu%, i. 445. 

Mouton, M. Le, Cnr6 of St. Trinity Church, at FUaise, u. 20, 25. 

Moj/eant, Mr. late public librarian at Caen— some account of, i. 328, &c., 
his mission to search libraries, 330 ; at Bayeux, 372; at FUaiseb ii. 19. 

Mosler, M., bookseller at Freysing, iii. 328. 

Munich ; appearance of the city, population, &c., iiL 241 ; the ealhedral, 242; 
fine monument in the choir, 242 ; church of St. Michael, 243; of St 
Caetan, 245 ; palace of Maximilian, 246, 249; pkture gallery, 249, 252; 
palace of Schlebheim, 252; public garden, 253; a threatemng storm, 254 ; 
market women, with copper-plate, 255 ; the public Ubrary, 251— descrq^ 
tion of the MSS. and rarer printed books, 259 — ^298; book acquisitiotts, 
and booksellers, 299, 306; curators of the pnblu; library, 306, 313; M. 
Hess, engraver, 314-5; M. Nockher, 316: Ldthography,317. 

Mffit^oui intervieip, with Strat^er, at Bayeux, i. 357, 363. 

N. 

Nanct; approach to, ii. 537; description of, 537, 545; copper-plate views 
of the old and new gates, 538; public garden, by moonlight, 539; the ca- 
thedral, 539; churches, 540; booksellers, 541 ; Le Dragon Rouge, 542; 
public library, 543. 

NenndeVy BttchntI, the fnend of Budseus, portndtof, iii. 353. 



PLACES AND THINGS. 



Ixvii 



Ne&markt, a post town between Landshut and Altdting, iii. 340; between 

Ratiflbon and Nuremberg, Supplement, xri. 
Nejf, late Afanhal, spot where he wtig shot, ii. 427. 
Nicholas, St., village near Nancy, ii. 545. 

Nockher, Afr., banker at Munich — his kind attentions to the author, iii. 316-7» 
365. 

NuREMBXRO; approach to, 5ii/>/)^ff»<ftl> zvii— copper-plate vignette of a 
portion of the walls, xviii— of a townswoman met in the vicinity of, xiz; 
appearance and population of the town, xx ; description of the churches, 
with copper-plate views of the interiors of St. James and St. Mary, xix, 
xxii j of the public library, xxiii; of the citadel, xxvi, xxx; of the town 
hall, XXX; decay of art and commerce, xxxi; writers upon the antiqui- 
ties and customs, &c., of the town, xviii, xx; supposed residence of 
Anthmy Koberger, the feunous printer of Nuremberg, in the xvth century, 
xxii, &c. ; the curiosities of Baron Derschau, xxxii, xxxv ; negotiation 
for the Codew Ebnerianus, a Greek ms. of the New Testament of the 
xiith century, xxxvi; present state of the fine arts at, xxxviii, xl; anti- 
quity of some of the bookselling-establishments, xli ; excursion to Furth, 
in the neighbourhood of, and purchase of books of Heerdegen, a book- 
seller there, xli-ii ; gaiety of sabbath costume, xliii ; departure from, to 
Manheim, xliv. 

O. 

Oberlin, one of the celebrated literary characters of Strasbourg, iii. 45-6, 90. 
Odilo, Klama, Mr., librarian at the monastery of Gdttwic, iii. 422. 
Ohmacht, sculptor, at Strasbourg, iii. AT, 97. 

Olivier Baeselin, price of a copy of Ms Vaude vires, i. 322; copies of that 
work in the public library at Caen, 337 ; some account of that work, and 
of its author, 433, 444 ; original MS. of, in the possession of a private 
genUeman at Bayeux, 364; copy of, presented to the author at Vire, 433, 
&c. 

Organ, in the church of St. Godard, at Rouen, i. 83 ; in the abbey of St. 
Ouen, i. 75; in the abbey of St. Stephen at Caen, 288; at Coutances, 
404 ; at St. Germun des Prb, at Paris, ii. 98 ; in the cathedral of 
Strasbourg, iii. 36 ; in the church of the monastery of St. Florian, 399. 

Ottley, Mr. W. Y., his fine collection of engravings alluded to, iii. 600 ; 
Supplement, xxxvi. 

Ouen, St., abbey of, at Rouen, i. 69, 78; refectory attached to, 77. 

OuUljf, Pont, village between Vire and Faliuse, ii. 5. 

P. 

P * ., Captain, R. N., pleasant fellow-traveller — met at Nancy, ii. 539; and 
at Strasbourg, iii. 98. 



kfiii 



Awirgrf oee fHrnhwi; ^ -» 

Pdirii de JuaiM, utRaaen, i. 108, 6 ; Mib Ro^y, st Ml, & Bl^ . 

Pa/itft\8<?riuir(/, FaSenee-plBte by, ii. 494. 

Pai/tiw, Mr., Vice PHndpal of the noiMlay at M 9lk— liiB^ attftntiom to 

the aathor, iii. 413, Stc 

Paper and printing, ordinary, at P^, ii. 410 ; at VienBa, iiL 610. 

Paris; approach lo,'!i. 73^; the Botilentfds, wiHi a copper-plate view of 

' r^BaiOmmhh ItoHem, 76, 80; the Thinleries, 80, 84 ; QiamiM Elyi^i, 

* 1*81; Mail R03ral,8K2; Gaff6 dee mllle coionnes, 82 ; Jardindes Fbuites, 
83; Louvre, 84-5; Bridges, 87; Halle auz Bib, 88; Ezdiange, 89; 
HaCel Sottbke, 90; Street Scenery, 91,94; Notre Dame, 95; Sl.Ger- 
Tus, 96; St. Eustache, 97 ; St. Germain des Pk-b, 97; St. Germain anx 
Auxerrois, 98; the Sorbonne, 99; the new Ste. GencTi^ve, or FniUieon, 
99, 100; St. Solpice, 100; the Oratoire, 103; St. Rodi, 103; FAasomp. 

'X'ViOD, 104; St. Philippe da Roule, 104; a PariBian sabbath, 105; mo- 
numents in the Rue des Petits Augustins, 107; Fountains, 110, 114; 
topographical woilu upon, 115, 117; Hotel de Cfamy, 118; old and 

^^^mMerh Psrit, 119, 120; ancient manners, custoais, and locality of Fuis, 
120, 127; general description of the Royal Library, 128, 148; ^ public 

{ <'>Hbrarians, 131, 150, 151; Cabinet des MedaiDes, 1^6, 137; OMiet des 

' ^^ £stampes, 138, 144; account of the illumhiated MSS.; 165, 245$* of the 
early printed books in the royal coUection, 246^ 318 ; library of the 

< ^n/taienal, 318, 341 ; Library of Ste. Genevieve, ^ 363; Abb6 Merder 
Saint L^, late librarian, 354, 362; the Maarine Library, 362, 368; 
Library of the Institute, 370; private library of the Kiag, 371, 3/6; 

^"tfome aee<mnt <tf the late Abb^ Rive, 381, 385; booksellers, 387, 404; 
printers, 405, 411; bookbinders, 413, 4^; men of letters, DomBrial, 
the Ahb^ Bdtencourt, 423, 430; Messrs. Gail, Millin, and Langib, 
430, 440; a Roxburghe banquet, 443, 452; collection of M. Denon, 453, 
467; of M. Qointin Cranfurd, 468, 480. of the Marquis de Sommariva, 
481, 490; notice of M. Willemins Monnmens In^U, 491, 493; miscel- 
laneous national antiquities, 495^ 502; of the Fine Arts, 502, 515; 
national character, 516, 520; departure from, 524. 
Pascal, Blaise, portrait of, in the collection of Q. Cranfurd, IL 473^ 
Paul, St., church of at Rouen, i. 86-7. 

Payne, Mr. John, his purchase of the second edition of Shakspeare, from 
the public library at Augsbourg, iii. 231 ; his purchase of the Code^ 
Ebnerianus, Supplement, xxxrii. 

Peregrinm^ B, G,, vision of, to Count Albert, with copper-plate, iu. 221. 

Piriaux, M., printer, and member of the Academy at Rouen, i. 127-9. 

Pfister, traeU printed bp^ in the Royal Library at Ptois, ii. 260; the Four 



FliAC^S AND THINOS. 



NitiorieM, Bihlia Pamperum, LaL and Germ, 261 ; FMei^ 1461 — fomerly 
in the Royal Library, now vestored, to tke Wolfenbuttle library, iL 261. 

Phaltbourg, a fortified town near tbe Vosget, ii. 649. . 

Pkardj Guerm, Mr., veiidor of ehap-bookfl Irt Caeo, i. dl7"8. 

Pichon, Mr., founder of the Public Library at Vire, L 446. 

Pictures, see Gallery, 

Pilgram, Anikonf, architect of Vienna oathedral, ill. 64a^. 

Pilgrims, halt of, in the road from St. Pdlten to Odttwic Monattery, wkh a 

copper-plate engraving of the same party, on their nearer approach to the 

same monastery, iii. 421-2, 433. 
Pieam, portnut of^ from the punting of Antonello da Messinap H. 467-8L 
Plochingen, curious old town, near Stuttgart, liL 181. 
Pluqnet, Mr. an apothecary and book vendor at Bayeux, i. 363. 
Pdlten, St., post-town between MQlk and Vienna^ iiL 419. 
Pont UEveque, between Honfleur and Caen, L 267. — Owilif, between Vh« 

and Falaise, ii. 5. 
Portraits, list of, in the Public Library at Caen, L 327. 
Portraits, engraned, number of, in the collection of the Enq)eror ef katXn^ 

iu.698. 

Postillion, in the Dieppe diligence, i. 37 ; at Ttocarville, i. 236 ; in the^nchy 
of Baden^ iiL 101 ; in the territory of Bavwia, IiL 200; ia Austria, iii. 369. 
Prater, the, at Vienna, description of, iii. 582, &c. 

PretfostLe, Mr. his drawings of the Abbey of St. Ouen, L77 ; hifl antiqaarian ] 
knowledge, 152 ; list of some rare books in his library, 153 $ attentioaa to 
the author, 187. 

Printing, ancient and modem, at Rouen, L 12S-152; at Viemia, iii. 606. ; 

see Stereotype. 
Printselling and Print shops, at Fnris, ii. 512. 
Protestant church at Caen, I 341. See Catholics. 
Prudhon, Parisian pdnter, character of his pictures, iL 483. 
Pucelle if Orleans ; see j4re, Jeanne ^. 

Pulpit, in Bayeux cathedral, L 349; of stone, in Strasbourg cathedral, iii 35; 
of marble and g^t in the church of the monastery of St. Florian, 400| en- 
tirely of gilt, in the monastic churdk of Molk, iiL 416. 

a 

Quays, at Rouen, i. 108. 

Quilleheuf, Mr., his preaching in Rouen cathedral, i. 67. 

Quillebeuf, fishing village in Normandy, L 219. 

Quintin CraufUrd, late Mr., his collection of pictures, ii. 468-480. 

R. 

Radel, Petit, Mr., librarian of the Maiarine Library, ii. 364-369. 



WDEK OF PERSONS, 



JUmUmUei, & i/cryiMM d^, jMrfrift^ in the ool^ 
ii474. 

JUtmpartt of Henna, remarks iqM>ii» iii. 610. 

iUnner, Mr.» Pablic Librarian at Niirembei]|;, Suppl, xiii., &c. 

Ratdbon : account of the town, cathedral, monasteries, and public cdiec- 

tions, Stippl, viL-XY. 
JMmM, Mr., his drawings of flowers — coUeetioo of, in the King's FHfate 

library at Pbris, ii. 376. 
R^itrmaikm, ut Simbtmrg, anecdotes connected with, iii. 87. 
Rembrandt, M. Denon's collection of prints by, ii. 460. 
R e m mdier e, M. Ixmon de la, at \^re — ^his bibliomaaiacal ardour and libiary, 

i. 431-46 ; society 458 his love of, and translations from, Thomson's 

Seasons, 459, &c. ; opiidon of onr reviews, 460; afternoon's ramble with 

the author, 460; friendly attentions to the author, IL 2. 
Renowtrd, Mr., bookseller at Paris, iL 392; character of his publications, 

39^ ; his choice library, 394-7 . 
Repomnrs, what— «t Falidse, ii. 60. 
,Remewi, Edmburg'h and Qaarterlff, opinion upon, L 460. 
Revaimthn, late, in France, direful effects of, i. 88, 180, 204, 362, 371, 405, 

iL 360; iii. 50. 
,Rhemi, its cathedral, &c. briefly described, St^jd. Ix. 
JUaum, Mr., at Rouen— his library, i. 10&.158. 

Rk9€, AM, the late — account of, with oopper-plate of his portrait, iL 381- 
385. 

Robec, Raede, at Rouen, i. 114-5. 
Reberteau, place so called near Strasbourg, iii. 13. 
Rob Roy, read for the first time at Strasbourg, iii. 76. 
Roger, Mr. stippling engraver at Ptais, ii. 509- 

Rohfiritsch, a Talet— hired at Strasbourg, ilL 99f — his expedition fiwi Man- 

heim to Stuttgart, iii. 171-2. 
Rdiin, Mr., protestant preacher at Caen, L 341. 

RoUo, the monument of, in Rouen cathedral, L 52, his patronage of ecelcsias 
tical architecture, 198 ; 274. 

Romain, &r Romamu, St. and the dragon— at Rouen, i. 66. 

RouxN : approach to the city, i. 38-40 ; general impression from appearance 
of the streets, i. 40-2 ; old copper-plate views of the town, and of its rid- 
nity, 40^1 ; Hdtel Vatel 42; Boulevards, 434 ; population. 45; cathedral, 
47 ; copper-plate view of the exterior of the south transept, 50; chapel of 
our Lady, 51 ; Monuments (with engravings) in the cathedral, 51-64; an- 
cient library attached to it, 65; ancient least on Ascension Day, 66; con- 
firmation, seen by the author, 67 ; the abbey of St. Ouen, 69-78 ; churches 
of St. Maclou, St. Vincent, St. Vivien, St. Gervab, and St. Paul, 80^; 



PLACES AND TfflNOS. 



Ixxi 



revolationary depredatioBB, 88, 180; Halles de Commeroe, 90-2 ; cattle-' 
market, 93 ; Rue de la Groflse Horloge, 94 ; Place de la Pucelle, 95 $ repre- 
sentation of the Champ de Drap d'Qr, 100^2; PtJius de Justice, 103-6; 
Judges in the Tribunal of Commerce, 106 ; Quays, 108 ; Bridge of Boats, 
1 10 ; Rue du Bac, with engraving, 1 U-2 ; manufactories, 1 13 ; Rue de Re- 
bec, 1 14 ; Mont Ste. Catharine, 1 1^122 ; old and modem printing at Rouen, 
123-161 ; chap-books, religious, moral, and amusing, 134-148 ; booksellers, 
149 161 ; book-collectors, 162-160 ; account of the MSS. and early printed 
books in the Public Library, 161-184; departure from, and distant view of, 
with engraving, 186-8; picture gallery, 162. 

RoMburgke CM, aUuded to, i. 184 ; ill. 302 ; iiL 446 ; Roxburghe banquet, 
given by the author at P^, ii. 441-461. 

Rue, Abh6 d!? fo, his Treatise upon the Armoric bards, i. 282; description of 
his person, i. 309 ; appreciation of his talents, i. 363. 



S. 

Sabbath, the, at Dieppe, i. 19-24; at Falaise, ii. 69; at Ptais, ii. 106; at 
Vienna, iii. 684, &c. at Nuremberg, SuppL xliiL-iv. 

Sac^f, SilveMtre de, Mr., his high character as an Orientalist, ii. 438. 

Saloon, in the monastery of St. Florian, magnificence of, iii. 402, &c. 

Salzbubg, approach to, iu. 322, 329, 343, 346; the hotel of the Golden 
Schiff, 346 ; the Citadel, with copper-plate engraving, 347 ; Place, near the 
cathedral, 348; diminished population of the town, 348; churches ci Sie. 
TVinUi and Seboitien, ibid. ; monastery of St. Peter, with an account of the 
library and book purchases therefrom, 349-366 ; mountainous country in 
the vicinity of Salzburg, 367 ; height of the prindpal mountams, ibid ; de- 
parture from Salzburg, 361. 

SalMburg marble, commendation of, iii. 403. 

Sandrart, his chef d'oeuvre, as a, painter, at Nuremberg, Suppl. xxix. 
Sarcander, P. /. librarian of the Capuchin convent, in the Rossau, near 

Vienna; his Latin bill of parcels, of books bought from thence, iu. 621. 
Saveme, entrance into — and mountainous country in the vicinity of, ii. 

661-3. 

Saudmpi, tillage on the road to Strasbourg, ii. 633. 

Sa:pe, Marshal, account of his monument, in the church of St. Thomas, at 

Strasbourg, iiL 43. 
Schalbacher, a bookseller at Vienna, purchase of books from, iii. 607> &c. 
Scherer, Mr., head librarian of the Public Ubrary at Munich, iii. 312-3; 

kind assistance of, in the translation of a German metrical ms. of Sir TVii- 

trero, 264. 



INDEX OF PERSONS, 



SekUUr, colossal bust of, by Daanacker, iii. 173^. 

Sehlichtegroil, Mr., one of the canton of the Public Libnry at Mmiich, iiL 

310; kind attentions of, iM. 
Soklouer, Mr. Ptofeasor at Heidelberg, his Universal Biogn^hj,*' Sufpi. 

Sehoepfin^ among the celebrated characten of Stnsbooig, iii. 45. 
SekMrunm Palace, near Vienna, 675. 

Sehweighmuier, L ten. Mr., his talents aUuded to, iii. 79-20; his edition of 

Herodotus, 95$ interview with, at Baden» iiL 105, &c. ; his portrait, 110 ; 

evening walk with, iiL 114. 
Sekweighmuerjun.^., his kmd attentions to the author, iiL 25, 60, 97;his 

Memoin of Koch, iiL 47* 
Sebastian, St., sculptured figure of, in the church at Falaise, ii. 22. 
Segwn, Mr. account of his publications at Vire, L 449. See Bibliooeaphi- 

CAL Indbx. 

Sever, St., between Ville^eu and Vm, i. 421. 
Sevre, near Pbris, ii. 72. 

^ebenkeee, Mr. Professor, public librarian at Landshut — kind attentions to 

the author, iii. 330332. 
Seeietff o/Bellee Lettres, at Rouen: sitting of, L 180. 
S^einne, Mr., his fine dramatic library, ii. 301. 

Semmarhfa, Marquis de, his collection of paintings and sculpture, iL 480- 
490. 

Sarboime, neighbourhood of, and College Royale, iL 386. 
Specklhn, Darnel, Ids plate of Strasbourg cathedral, iii. 41. 
S^^encer, Countess, prints from her designs in a private house near Bayenz, 
L362. 

, Early his purchase of the Valdarfer Boccaccio, L 236; his visit 

to Paris, and confrontation of his own impression of the woodcut of St 
Christopher, with a supposed similar impression at Paris, ii. 143-145; 
his library aUuded to, L 433 ; ii. 263, 265, 266, 273, 311,314, 316, 317; iiL 
56, 79, 132, 140, 192, 288, 306, 381, Suppl. x., zxv , xxziv.; his opimon 
respecting a copy of Ulric Han's edition of Servius in VirgiHum, in the 
Mazarine library, iL 366 ; is toasted, with the Roxbuighe Chib, 443 ; f&ted 
by the Society of Bibliophiles at Paris, 449-450. 

Spire, on the banks of the Rhine, near Manheim, desolated state of the catiie- 
dral, Suppl. Iviii. 

Steinbach, Ervin de, one of the architects of Strasbourg catiiedral, iiL 15-17. 
Stereotype printings, andent-^ the PubUc Library at Augsbouig, iiL 235; 

modem, about to be established at ^enaa, iii. 608. 
Stoeger, Mr., bookseller at Munich, iiL 299^. 



PLACES AND THINGS. 



Ixxili 



Stothard, Mr.Jun., his laboun connected with the Bayenx tapestry, i. d66» 

383. 

Strasbourg; approach, and entrance into, IL 664; the IVotestaat Reli^oD, 
iii. 6; treacherous surrender of the dty to L(mis XIV., 8; the cathedral, 
with account of publications and prints relating to, 11, 41 1 chureh of 8t 
Thomas, 41 1 the Public Library, 49 1 booksellers, 71 1 society, 74| euTirons 
of Strasbourg, 81 1 mannen and customs, 85 1 Ree^aaonry, 89 1 literature^ 
&C.91. 

Strattman, AbM, the a resident in the Monastery of Mfilk, and late public H- 
brarian of the Imperial library of Vienna, SL 408-410, &c. i urges the 
author to visit the monastery of G5ttwic, 411. 

Straubing, town near Ratisbon, Su/^l. vi. 

StudenU, in the Public library at Rouen, 1. 176. 

i9ruTT6ARTi arriTal at, iiL 116| crudftx at, with a ptete, 117i booksellers, 
119 f M. Le Bret, public librarian, 131 1 the Publk: or Royal library, 134- 
167 1 copper-plate view of the street scenery near, 136 1 Private Library of 
the Kii^^ of Wirtemberg, with a fiMN«imile of the Trinity, of the xnth 
century, iiL 167-166 1 descriptkm of the Royal PliJatie, iiL 166 1 description 
oftheUte Queen, 168-171; attendance at the levee for a Mbliograi^deal 
negotiation, 168. 

T. 

Tancmvilief village of, in Normandy i route thither from Bolbec, L 231 1 Aa> 
berg^ste, 232 1 Montmorend castle, and neighbourhood^ with vignette and 
separate y\ew of, 233-4 1 anecdote of the postillion, L 236. 

Tepettrp, at Bayeuz, account of, with woodcuts and copper-|dates, L 376, &c. 
in the cathedral of Strasbourg, iii. 30. 

ThoUf De, was an eye witness of the fiital wound received by Henri II. from 
Montmorend, i. 64 1 numerous coi^ of books, from his library, in the 
royal collection at Paris, S. 317- 

Thowenin^ Mr., book-buider at Pteb, ii. 416-418. 

Thundef'ttorm, over the dty of Rouen, i. 113 1 over the town of Baden, Iii. 

106 f over that of Munich, iiL 264. 
Tfniileries, description of, ii. 80-84. 

Tmbitanei in Germm^, brief description of their general character, iii. 369. 

Taul, town on the road to Strasbourg, iL 636. 

TraUewr^ Mr., a book^ollector at Manhdm, Suppl, liv. 

Travellmg, dearth of fellow-travellers in France, ii. 666. 

TreuUel and fHirtZf booksdlers at Paris, ii. 389 1 excursion to their country 

villa, iL 390i benevolent character of Madame Treuttel, 390 { bookseUeriat 

Strasbourg, iii. 72. 

K 



<I\imef, Jknumm, Mr., lib wrtqiwimi^Hrtil* api l«p> of viit^ tikoM^, u 
162-3 ; dbtncUr of hk Tkir Ǥ Narmam^^ Erefiuc, z. 

Vlm; appro«:h to. Hi. 1884; k(M^liie iS'/^ir cosuBe^^ 1&4, 
193; visit to ProfesBor Veesenmeyer, iiL 186; deacriplioii of il>e cBtbe- 
aiid of the Kbnry within it, 188,188^ 182; of the eboir^ 189; view 

I. from the tower of the cathedral, 190; adveataretiiereii^oii, 190; co]^er- 
piale view of the exterior, 191 ; market place, and credulity of ^ common 
people, 199 ; departure from, 200 ; date of die completion of the ca A edral, 

- 287. 

UrntU, St., legend of, ii. 199. 

FMere, DwtkeueJe la, portrait o( m Ae coUeetkm of Ifr. Q. Gnnfod, M. 
474. 

y^n ProeU M., one of the public fibrariaas at Faria, ii. 131 ; a guest at the 
RoriNDghe banqnet,442, &e.; at M. kdHn's dejenn^ hhifoiircbette,435; 
his kind attentions to the author, 132; his forthcoming catalogue of books 
printed iqion vdhim, in the Royal lilnnry, 247; his pmdiaee cf the mo- 
rality of the Bloiphemaieun th jmm de Dim, u. 301 ; his himwitatkm at 
the departure of the FabUi printed bp PJUier m 1471, 460; his print of 
St. Bemardinus, 614. 

y§eienmeffer, Profeuor, at Ulm ; visit to, and ifocomit of his library, fare- 
well sahitation of, iii. 186, 193^, 197. 

Fermi, M., his lithographical productions, ii. 613. 

Fenaiilei, ii. 71. 

Vienna ; approach to, iii. 442-3 ; arrival at the hotel called the Crown 
Hungary, 444 ; description of the Imperial Library, and head librarians, 
447, &c. ; number and value of the volumes in the same library, 461 ; 
copper-plate- riew of the interior of the library, 464; description of some 
of the MSS. in the library, 466, 486 ; description of the rarer and earlier 
printed books in the same, 483, 633 ; population and general description 
of Vienna, 636 ; number of Jews at, 637 ; national character and sodety 
at, 639; the streets, 641 ; fountains, 642; mode of living, 644; cairiages, 
646 ; description of the cathedral, with copper-plate view of the exterior, 
647, 666; monuments in the cathedral, 663; church of St. Mary, 666; 
publication descriptive of ecclesiastical edifices at Vienna, 666-7 ; church of 
the Augustins, and monument by Canova, to the memory of the Duchess 
Albert of Saxe-Teschen, 668; convents, 663; Gi^iuchin and Fhmdscan, 
663-6; the two Belvedere Palaces, 667, 673; the young Bonaparte, 574; 
Pdace of SchSnbrunn, 676; the Treasury, 677; Theatres, &c., 678; 
the Prater, 683, 686; fire works, near the same, 688; account of the 
Emperor of Austria's private library, &c., 689, 699; of the collection of 
drawings, &c. of Duke Albert, 699 ; of the libraries of Counts Fries and 
Apponi, 600; literature, 603; booksellers, 606; printing, 608; the 



PLAGB6 AND ^THWOa 



nuBupvtt, 610; mooMtary of CaMtmeutMq^t in the viciiiityot 
the Capachins, in the Roflsan, 619 ; depvtiire firom, SkppiemeiU, v. 

mie Dieu, post town, between GrtnTille and Vire, i . 420. 

yi»c€ni, St., diuix^ of, at Rouen, i. 82. 

Virb; approadi to, i. 422; the town, 423; hdtel of the GhewU Blanc, 423, 
436; market place and old castle, mth copper-plate view of, 424; vig- 
nette of the castle, 425; bibliography, 428, 458; aocoont of the Vandevires 
of Olivier Bassdin, 433, &c.; of the Public library, 446; founder and 
history of the Public Library, 447; manuftctories, manners and customs, 
449, &c. ; history of printing at, 455. 

yhrgil, two andent editions of— procured from the Royal Library at Stutt- 
gart, iiL 170, 171-3. 

Hrgin Mary, wretched representation of at St. Lo., i. 397; price of plaister 
images of, at St. Lo, 398; figure of, in the ctthedral at Coutaooes, 404; 
wood cut of, i. 320. 

yUalii, M., {Nresident of the society of belles-lettres at Rouen, i. 180. 

f7/fy, a small town, <m the road to Strasburg, ii. 531. 

Hvien, St, church of at Rouen, i. 82-4. 

roiture to Ville Dieu, i. 419 : from Dreux to Paris, iL 

f^oltaire, his bust by Houd<m, in the collection of Mr. Q. Craufurd, ii. 471 1 
his figure, in the Library of the Institute, ii. 370. 

f^o#^«ff, mountainous country near Strasbomg, iii. 20; number of baromal 
castles in the same, ibid. ; libraries in the same, iii. 70. 

W. 

Waterloo, print representing the efifects of the battle of, ii. 510. 

H^atU, Mr., about to establish a stereotype press at Vienna, iiL 608. 

Wellington, Duke of, his portrait by Gerard, iL 507; in aquatint, 51 1 ; 
anecdote relating to, at Phalsbourg, 550 ; at Strasbourg, iii. 85 ; at Vienna, 
606 ; at Neiimarkt, between Ratisbon and Nuremberg, Supplement, xd ; 
his military character appreciated, ibid. ; ii. 467 \ sale of his portrait, en- 
graved by Bromley, from Sir T.Lawrence's painting, at Manheim, Supple- 
ment, liii. 

Wenceilaue, Emperor of Bohemia, his MS. Bible (with three copper-plate 

engravings of his person) in the Imperial Library at Vienna, iii. 461, 463. 
fnikie, D., R. A., engravings from his pictures in the collection of M. 

Langlb, ii. 439 ; his talents complimented by M. B^nard, ii. 510. 
fFillemin, M., his antiquarian labours commended, ii. 491-4. 
fniliam the Conqueror, his tomb and supposed portndt in the abbey of St 

Stephen, at Caen, i. 284, 294; Pdace of, at Caen, 289; collection of 

chartularies, granted by, ii. 236. 
fTmdowi, painted, in the abbey of St Ouen, i^ 71 ; in the churches of Sdnts 



IxxTi 



INDEX OF PERSONS, te. 



^^Boeiit and Qodard* at Rouen, L 82-3; in jChe ebm^ at Dreoz, IL 66 1 io 
the church «t Tool, 635; in the eethednl at Strasboiiig, lii. 31 } in the 
church attached to tiie Public library at Stnvboiirs. in. 49. 
fFwiew^g^ itOe Queen of, description of her penon and manneri, nl eoort, 
iii. 168, 170; her funeral, 175. 

Y. 

Ymng, Mr., libnffian to the Emperor of Anstria^ and Secretary to the 
PHvy Coondl of State— hit kind attention to the aathor, uL 599. 

Z. 

Zeimer, J, printer at Ulm, supposed place of lus residence, iii. 192. 



[ Ixxvii ] 



ADDENDA. 

Vol, i. p. 309. The History of Caen by the Abb^ de la Rue, ^ 
has just appeared m two small octavo volumes (not quarto--4b5 here 
spedfied— and as I had been previously informed) under the title of 
Essais Historiquea sur la Vilk de Caen et son Arrondissement. 
Caeny 1820. With the exception of two or three indifferent plates 
of relics of scidpture, and of tiles, with armorial beanngs, this 
work is entirely divested of ornaments. There are some useful 
historical details in it, taken from the examination of records and 
achives: but a HiaTOBT of Caen b yet a desideratum. 

Vol. i. p. 444. The new edition of the Faudevires a£ Oli- 
vier Basselin, here alluded to, has recently appeared under the 
editorial care of Mr. Louis Dubois, under the title of " Vaux^^ 
Vires d'OUvier BamJin^ Pdeie Normandy de la Jin du env. 
Siede^ &c. Poisson^ Caeny 1821. 8vo. pp. 264: Paper at^SL J 
fr. Pap. v^ 15 fir. 

Vol. ii. p. 59. Falaise. The Sabbath-prepaiation, and pro- 
cession thereftom, here recorded, denoted the celebration of the 
Fete Djeu. I hiqjpened to be at Paris, two years afterwards, 
on the celebration of the same fete ; and walked between the fa- 
mous GU>blein tapestry, extended on either side, for at least 100 
yards, towards the Louvre. The grandest proces»on in Paris, on 
that day, was from the TTiuilleries to the parish dburch of Si. 
Gemmns aux Auxerrois. The Duchesse d'Angouleme walked 
in this procession; and it happening to rain, several umbrellas, 
from the bystanders, were offered for her acceptanoe--but she de- 
clined receiving one. These procesaons are moving in all parts of 
Paris, by times in the morning : but the people, generally q)eak- 
ing, heed them very little. 

Vol. ii. p. 313. The first Aldine Arisiotk VFOV YEhLVU. Not- 
withstanding I deferred to the opinion of Mr. Van Praet, and had 
even supposed, bom the evidence here adduced, that there was no 



cofpy of tht/ril iFotume of dik adHioD 

wijB sppeftrod to me strange and unaoooantaUe, that a printer, 
like Aldus, dmild lum t^trutk off cxipieB upon Tdhmi, of tlie rr- 
fMOfiMf^ volumes of an edition^ of wlndi there had been no similar 
iminressions taken of the ^rst : and thereby rendering every mem- 
faranaoeous cc^ ino(xnplete. It has at length turned out that 
there doM exist a copy of the Jirsi vcdume upon vellum: and die K- 
farary of New Ccdlege, Oxford, boasts of this umque treasure in its 
wsy. This discovery, I learn, was made by die Rev. Mr. Gaisfoid, 
the GredL Prafessor of that University. It is probaUe diat some 
aoddent hadattended the impressions of the^ri^ volume upon vd- 
fann; as it b otherwise impossible to account for its general non-ap- 
pearance. 

VoL iiL 455. MSS.in AelmperialLibraiy ai ViemuL In the xlvth 
number of die Classical Journal^ for March 1821, there iqipears 
a very particular account of the Thsodosiax Map, or Tabtda 
PetMngmanOj (it having bdonged to an individual of the name of 
Demderms Ignatius Peuimger, in 1714) die two Gred^ MSS. of 
Dioscorides, and some GredL MSS of Homer, &c together with 
slighter notices of a few other mmilar curiosities. The author is 
Dm. NosHDXN. 

Sftppkmenij p. xx, noU. The Shrike of St. Sbbald. I am 
fiivoiured by Mr. Boosey, jun. with a tiansladon of that part 
of the Guide of Nuremberg^ printed in the GCTian language, 
which relates to this very curious and splendid shrine, and which 
is as follows : The shrint of St Sebald was b^an m 1506 by 
Peter Fisdier, and his five sons, and was finished on the 19th 
June 1519 ; it required one hundred and twenty hundred weight 
of metal, and cost twenty-ax thousand four hundred guldois, 
which was paid by voluntary contributions. The part which is 
covered with gold and silver, is five feet ten inches long, and one 
foot seven inches broad inside the coffin. It was built in 18979 
and cost five hundred and six guldens in gold. Fischers 
work measures fifteen feet in height, eight feet bbt&i inches 
in length, and four feet eight inches in breadth. It has ibis 
inscription upon it : Peter Fischer, citizen of Nuremberg, par- 



formed this work with his aona, and brought it to a completion in 
the year 1519. To GrOD aloks is the praise, and to Si SebaJdj 
the heavenly prince, the honour, with the assistance of the charity 
of pious persons.^^ 



Lnncluii : Printed by W. Bulroer and W. Nicol, 
ClevcIaiid-roWf St. James's. 



COEEECTIONS. 



VOLUME I. 

page. line. >br rend. 

67. 13. dioir. altar. 

159. 21. Saint Pdaye, Barbaaan. 

221. 12. vastly pretty, extremely picturesque 

261. 4. Demetal, DametaL 
(Thii error has been introduced hi tlie in8cripd<m of Uie oopper-plate of tlie 
churdi Bo caUed.) 

291. I. ancients, so andent. 

— — 11. ine, five. 

315. 20. a vastly. rather a 

361. 20. 1712, 1753 

406. 15. enbonpomt, embonpoint. 

412. 32. librarian, bookseDer. 



VOLUME IL 

ftr re&d 

62. last but 6. leatore, fieatores. 

122. 2. indea. Mm. 

448. 17. Transdentab, TVansoendaitals. 

457. 6. infentor, restorer. 

467. the reference, to the '* Qproam F^jltk* at the bottom of 
page, M eiToneoiis.* the head of DenoB being introdnoed at pafe 459, aft^ 
prevkma leaf was cancdkd. 

478. 8. MaraMmtel, MontmaiteL 







VOLUME 


ni. 








read 




20, 


LamiEMk 






19. 


AttiuB, 


Attins. 


74. 


20. 


Fraxcs;. 






24. 


rmmtr. 






4. 


Mei?kbat. 


Memsamt, 


464. 


21. 






512. 


lMtb«l2. 




cat.