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Full text of "A Bicycle Tour in England and Wales: Made in 1879 by the President, Alfred D. Chandler, and ..."

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Copyrighif i88if 
By Alfred D. Chandler. 



University Press: 
John Wilson and Son, Cambridge. 



BICYCLE TOUR 



IN 



ENGLAND AND WALES 



MADE IN 1879, BY THE PRESIDENT, ALFRED D. CHANDLER, AND 

CAPTAIN, JOHN C. SHARP, JR., OF THE SUFFOLK 

BICYCLE CLUB, OF BOSTON, MASS. 



WITH 

AN APPENDIX 

GIVING INFORMATION ON THE USE OF THE BICYCLE, BOTH IN 
EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES. 



%Im jfonr ^VLTfB anh Sitbtntnn lUnstrations. 



BOSTON: 

A. WILLIAMS & CO., 283 WASHINGTON STREET. 

LONDON: 
CROSBY LOCKWOOD & CO., 

7 Stationer's Hall court, Ludgate Hill, e. c. 

i88r. 



CONTENTS. 



APPENDIX. 



-♦- 



Page 

I. Practical Bicycling Advice .... 109 

II. Hints on Continental Touring . . . 118 

III. Increase of Bicycle Riding .... 130 

IV. Table of the Fastest Times by English 

Professionals 131 

V. Table of the Fastest Times by English 

Amateurs 132 

VI. Road Riding. Long Distances in 24 

hours. With Table 133 

VII. Bicycle Riding in the United States . 138 

VIII. Is Bicycle Riding Healthy ? .... 140 

IX. Where Bicycles may be obtained in the 

United States 152 

X. Maps 161 

• 

Index 163 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



ALBBRTYPES BY THE FORBES COMPANY OF BOSTON. 



PAGE 

I. Canterbury Cathedral 7 

II. Road Scene, Bonchurch, Isle of Wight 15 

III. Carisbrooke Castle . . 21 

IV. Stonehenge 28 

V. Salisbury Cathedral Spire .... 28 

VI. Banbury Cross 36 

VII. Kenil WORTH Castle 44 

VIII. Chatsworth 52 

IX. Peacock Inn 60 

X. Warwick Castle 60 

XI. Haddon Hall 68 

XII. Scene at an English Race-Course . . 73 

(From Frith*s celebrated painting in the National Gallery, 

London ). 

XIU. York Cathedral 80 

XIV. South Stack Lighthouse 86 

XV. Rocks at South Stack 93 

XVI. Conway Castle 99 

XVII. Carnarvon Castle 106 



* 



MAPS. 



I. Skeleton Map of England, showing Route of 
Tour. 

II. Road Map of Southern England, reduced from 
the Ordnance Survey, — Counties of Kent, 
Surrey, Sussex, and parts of Essex, Middle- 
sex, Buckingham, and Berkshire. 

III. Same. Counties of Hampshire (Isle of Wight), 

Wiltshire, Dorset, Somerset, and parts of 
Devon, Monmouth, Gloucester, Berkshire, 
and Oxford. 

IV. Road Map of Eastern Massachusetts. 



A BICYCLE TOUR IN ENGLAND 

AND WALES. 



I. 

In a month we were to return to America. 
My affairs on the Continent had been ar- 
ranged, and I had just reached our rooms 
on Duke Street, St. James, London. My 
companion had in my absence been coach- 
ing with Keen, and had covered the track 
at Lillie Bridge in unusual time. We were 
both in the mood for it (though I was 
hardly in form), and we concluded to pass 
the month before our departure in a bicy- 
cle tour through England : not a tour cut 
out with mathematical precision, arranging 
the precise hour of arrival and departure at 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 9 

Letts, 72 Queen Victoria Street, London, 
E. C. These maps are reduced from the 
Ordnance Survey, and are on a scale of 
four miles to an inch ; they are safe guides ; 
by them we never lost our way, and could 
depend almost entirely upon their aid for 
the selection of our route from day to day. 
They fold up in cloth covers of a conven- 
ient size for pocket use. They cover all 
England and Wales, the entire country 
being divided into sixteen sections, the 
section or two needed for immediate use 
being taken. For machines we were at a 
loss, though in London ; large as the stock 
on hand was at various places, yet we could 
not anywhere hire ju*t what we wanted. 
At last J. selected a " Club," at Peake's, 
No. 14 Princes Street, Leicester Square, 
and from the same establishment I took 
a " Royal," — a machine just then coming 
into notice, and so named because specially 
produced to fill an order for the Prince of 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. II 

kerchiefs, and sundry other articles, in our 
travelling-bags. The map sections we used, 
including Southern and Central England 
and North Wales, were numbers 5, 8, 9, 
II, 13, and 14, or as they are sometimes 
, labelled, letters C, E, F, I, L, and M. 

On Tuesday, the 19th of August, 1879, 
we left Charing Cross by rail for Stroud, 
near Rochester, in Kent. This was to get 
well away from London for the start ; 
though the run from London to Roches-, 
ter, and beyond to Margate at the eastern 
extremity of Kent, is often made on bicy- 
cles in a day. As a rule we found the 
railway officials very obliging about our 
bicycles ; the machines were either put into 
one of those very narrow luggage compart- 
ments, where two bicycles just fit in side 
by side, or they were placed with ordinary 
luggage, but always carefully handled. All 
over England a charge for the carriage of 
bicycles is made by the railroads, varying 



12 A BICYCLE TOUR 

With the distance. The rates were then : 
under 12 miles, i^. ; under 25 miles, i^. 6d.\ 
under 50 miles, 2^.; under 75 miles, 3^.; 
under 100, 4^.; and i^. for every additional 
50 miles, — provided a passenger accom- 
panies the bicycle, otherwise double these 
rates are charged. Here is a copy of a 
receipt not collected, given by the London 
and North Western Railway. The receipt, 
like a check in this country, is usually taken 
up when you claim the machine. 

LONDON AND NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY. 

(314) EXCESS LVGGAGW:. 

No. 10069 -5^.//. IS, 1879. 

CHESTER to BIRMINGHAM. 

Name _ Passenger. 

Total weight lbs. 

Pass*^- allowed 2 Bicycles. 

Weight charged lbs. at £0 6s. 

Clerk. 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 1 3 

Mounting at the Stroud station, we rode 
across the Med way River bridge to Roches- 
ter, and then turned south for Maidstone. 
This is near the heart of Kent, famous for 
its hops, and during the season of 1879 — 
which was very wet — one of the most suc- 
cessful counties in all England for crops. 
Just out of Rochester is a hill which we 
had to walk up, and from which we had a 
view of Chatham, one of England's great 
naval stations. From the hill-top it was 
fair riding all the way to Maidstone. When 
about five miles out we began a long de- 
scent to the valley of the river Medway, hav- 
ing a fine view over the fields to Aylesford 
and the river. We dismounted, when part 
way down, to walk a few steps to " Kit's 
Cotty House," a singular Druidical ruin of 
huge stones, standing close by in a quite 
unaccountable way. J. commenced his 
sketches here, and before our trip was 
over he had two books full of ruins, land- 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 1 5 

have used shorter cranks, and can now 
ride almost any hill about Boston with as 
much ease as formerly with long cranks. 
Short cranks appeared to be the rule in 
England, unless over very rough or very 
hilly roads. 

J. now had a mishap within a hundred 
feet of the inn. The rain made the road- 
bed very slippery. The soil of the roads 
throughout a large part of England is 
oolite, or limestone, and, when wet, is 
treacherous. I well-nigh lost my balance 
before discovering what a surface we were 
riding over, and called to J. to take care ; 
but it was too late, and down he came, 
bending his bicycle crank out of shape. 
In less than half an hour a blacksmith 
hard by had the crank in order. The 
charge was but a shilling, and I was sur- 
prised at his skill as a workman. My turn 
for a tumble on slippery roads came later 
on in Derbyshire. On we then went with 



"•■»+. 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 1 7 

charm of a good English inn. Before leav- 
ing London I had made out a list of inns 
and commercial houses along our route, 
it taken from various guide and bicycle 
Waooks ; but we had often to depend rather 
•n information obtained from persons met 
as we entered a town or city. We were 
rarely misled, — our greatest mistake being 
at Burton-on-Trent, in Staffordshire; but 
that was soon corrected. 

The next morning we left Charing, in 
a light rain, for famous old Canterbur3^ 
After climbing the hill near the inn, the 
route was undulating on to the valley of 
the river Stour, down which we rode, soon 
reaching Canterbury, where we stopped at 
the Falstaff, though we afterwards found 
the Rose was better. Of course the cathe- 
dral was the great attraction at Canterbury, 
and we devoted all our spare time to it. 
About four o'clock in the afternoon, as the 
weather improved, we rode on towards the 



1 6 A BICYCLE TOUR 

great care, growing bolder as we became 
wetter. It poured so hard that at last w^e 
took shelter under some oak-trees. Two 
Englishmen in waterproofs drove by in a 
dog-cart, and smiled at us compassionately. 
We rallied each other at the series of inci- 
dents that in the last hour seemed to dis- 
pel the poetry of bicycling in England. 
However, we soon mounted and pressed 
on, stopping again at a little wayside inn, 
till the rain fell less, when we rode through 
to Charing, arriving at the Swan at half 
past six, after a ride of twenty-one miles 
from Rochester ; the first part pleasant and 
interesting, the last part hard and nasty. 

I cannot forget the courtesy and kind- 
ness shown us at the Swan, kept, as we 
had been told, by "a good family from 
London." Our wet clothes and shoes were 
nicely dried, our machines cleaned, and 
every comfort thoughtfully provided. It 
was as if we were at home, and this is the 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 1 7 

charm of a good English inn. Before leav- 
ing London I had made out a list of inns 
and commercial houses along our route, 
taken from various guide and bicycle 
books ; but we had often to depend rather 
on information obtained from persons met 
as we entered a town or city. We were 
rarely misled, — our greatest mistake being 
at Burton-on-Trent, in Staffordshire; but 
that was soon corrected. 

The next morning we left Charing, in 
a light rain, for famous old Canterbur3^ 
After climbing the hill near the inn, the 
route was undulating on to the valley of 
the river Stour, down which we rode, soon 
reaching Canterbury, where we stopped at 
the Falstaff, though we afterwards found 
the Rose was better. Of course the cathe- 
dral was the great attraction at Canterbury, 
and we devoted all our spare time to it. 
About four o'clock in the afternoon, as the 
weather improved, we rode on towards the 



1 8 A BICYCLE TOUR 

northeast, over a good road, and in two 
hours arrived at the White Hart, in Mar- 
gate, after a day's run of thirty miles, in- 
cluding several hours' stay at Canterbury 
to examine the cathedral That part of 
Kent called the Isle of Thanet suggested 
our western prairies in miniature. Margate 
was full of people, it being midsummer, and 
the town thronged with visitors, though of 
a different class from those met at Hast- 
ings or Brighton. Here I first used the 
public baths so common in England ; and, 
though we passed through many an Eng- 
lish watering-place, I always found it more 
agreeable to bathe in the excellent salt- 
water bath-houses, or natatoria, than in the 
sea itself. From the White Hart Hotel we 
looked over the little harbor which forms the 
foreground of Turner's painting of Margate. 
The next morning was fair, and we were 
off at nine o'clock for the run to Dover, 
across the Isle of Thanet, leaving Rams- 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 1 9 

gate on the left, by the shore of Pegwell 
Bay, and so on through Sandwich and by 
Deal. We developed enormous appetites, 
and I recall the immense relief we had oh 
coming up to the little Swing-Gate Inn, 
three miles or more out from Dover, where 
we ordered bread, cheese, and beer, about 
all the inn afforded, and which was served 
to us on a little balcony over the inn door, 
where we enjoyed the view over the fields, 
and were entertained by the arrival of a 
coach-load of passengers, many of whom 
got off to drink; and afterwards by the 
appearance of a young lady driving with a 
gentleman in a phaeton, and who appeared 
to be persons of superior station, the gen- 
tleman calling from the vehicle for brandy 
and water, with the request to " let me see 
the brandy before you put the water in." 
The whole was but another illustration of 
the constant proofs we saw of England's 
" national vice." 



20 A BICYCLE TOUR 

From Swing-Gate Inn to Dover was the 
most extraordinary bit of road we had met 
with. The mud, a whitish compound of 
limestone and water, was so deep that we 
were forced to dismount and walk on a 
ridge by the fence at one side for a long 
way; it was with difficulty that vehicles 
were dragged through. For such neglect 
of a road a New England town might be 
indicted ; but before our tour was over we 
found that English roads are by no means 
as fine as popularly supposed. Not only 
in Kent, but in Oxfordshire, Yorkshire, and 
elsewhere, we passed over miles of execra- 
ble roads, on which, if we kept in the saddle, 
we suffered from side-ache and could ride 
only by great exertion and skill, and where, 
indeed, we often had to dismount and walk. 
Yet it is true that for touring on bicycles 
England offers facilities such as can by no 
means be obtained generally in New Eng- 
land ; and for many a score of miles have 




CARl-^l!ROUK.E CASTLli, ISLE OF WIGHT. 



inv3Bion The p[i5on □( Charles I. in 1647-f 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 21 

we ridden over superb English roads, pass- 
ing mile-stone after mile-stone quickly and 
easily. 

The descent into Dover by the castle is 
dangerous ; it is not safe to ride down ; 
many even get out of their carriages and 
walk'. Before descending we stopped of 
course at Dover Castle, and then, after 
bathing at the natatorium in the town 
below, and watching a tremendous thun- 
der-storm, which flooded the streets, we 
passed the night at the Lord Warden 
Hotel by the pier. 

From Dover to Folkstone is all up-hill, 
excepting the last mile, which is so dan- 
gerously precipitous that the Dover Bicy- 
cle Club have a painted notice, or " Danger 
Board," placed conspicuously at the top, 
worded as follows: — 

"CAUTION TO BICYCLISTS. 
"It is dangerous to ride down this hilL 

" Dover Bicycle Club. 
"May, 1878. W. Fletcher, Captain,^^ 



22 A BICYCLE TOUR 

It seems that this idea of putting up 
danger boards originated with Captain 
Jawlette, of the Dover Bicycle Club, and 
has since been carried out generally in 
England. 

I asked the proprietor of a little bar at 
the hill-top what the favorite drink of the 
bicycle riders was, and he answered, " Soda 
and milk " ; adding, that sometimes thirty 
or forty riders passed there in a day, most 
of them moving toward Dover to take ad- 
vantage of the four-mile coast and of the 
prevailing southwest wind. We found that 
this southwest wind was a power ; it seemed 
to be the prevailing wind all over England 
at that season, so much so that on com- 
pleting our tour of the Isle of Wight we 
no longer struggled against it, but stood 
away for the north, and ran all the way up 
into Yorkshire with the wind on our backs 
for about three hundred miles. In arrang- 
ing an English tour it is perhaps well to 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 23 

regard this wind, and try to move generally 
from south to north or from west to east, 
rather than the other way. It is said that 
when young Appleyard made his wonder- 
ful ride from Bath to London (loo miles 
in 7 hours, i8 minutes, and 55 seconds), he 
had this wind blowing almost a gale behind 
him. As for the soda and milk, I found 
that it had staying qualities, without the 
heaviness of bitter beer or ale. Soda is 
sold everywhere in England in small bot- 
tles ; and I well remember how satisfactory 
was the mixture of this that a young gen- 
tleman from Dorsetshire prepared, as we 
were about to part after a swift fourteen- 
mile run side by side out of Chichester. 

After leaving Folkstone, the next place 
of special interest was Hastings, in Sussex, 
where I saw the Duke and Duchess of 
Edinburgh for a few moments. They were 
travelling in a special train, which stopped 
at the station. Their car was arranged in 



24 A BICYCLE TOUR 

part like an American drawing-room car. 
The Duke appeared at an open window, 
returned the recognition of those observ- 
ing, and conversed with some one await- 
ing him. The ladies of the party remained 
seated in full view through the large win- 
dows. A few quiet directions, a careful 
examination of the wheels, and the train 
moved away as quietly as it had ap- 
proached. Even those who examined the 
grease-boxes were dressed in neat uni- 
forms; and the locomotive, with its im- 
mense driving-wheels, the cars, — indeed, 
the entire train with its occupants, — made 
an interesting study of English railroad 
travelling at its best. ^ A few days later, at 
the Isle of Wight, the Queen crossed in the 
royal yacht to Gosport, and took a special 
train through to Balmoral, or rather Balla- 
ter, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, a ride of about 
six hundred miles. The expense to royalty 
for special railroad service seems great; for 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 25 

« 

I have read that the cost to the Queen is 
;^8,ooo, or about $40,000 a ye2Lr. 

After Hastings was Brighton, the famous 
watering-place, where we stopped at the Old 
Ship Hotel, facing the sea ; but it rained 
so violently that we soon longed to be off. 
We went about enough to get a distinct 
idea of Brighton externally, but we were 
growing to like the country more than the 
town. I enjoyed the swimming-bath there, 
and had the novelty of floating about while 
I tried to interpret the Greek and Latin 
inscriptions which encircled the interior. 
At npon we rode on through the rain to 
New Shoreham, stopping there to lunch. 
In the coffee-room of the inn were several 
scrap-books filled with entertaining novel- 
ties. From there our ride to Arundel was 
through mud and water with flooded roads ; 
but the beauty of Arundel checked us. Our 
dinner at the Norfolk Hotel was relished, 
and we stopped there for the night. While 



26 A BICYCLE TOUR 

at dinner, there was a noisy demonstration 
without, and we were told that a travelling 
circus was announcing its exhibition for 
that evening, so to the circus we went ; but 
I hope the Duke of Norfolk will provide 
a better place for such exhibitions in his 
neighborhood hereafter. There was a mot- 
ley throng in attendance, with a few re- 
served seats where some persons of quality 
sat with us, watching the performance with 
but little emotion. The ground in the ring 
was soon a mass of sticky mud, the tent 
being pitched in a field soaked with the 
recent rains. The poor performers were 
unable to get about with ease, save where 
carpets were spread. The principal feat- 
ures of the circus were advertised as Ameri- 
can. We came away before the crowd left, 
and had to stumble across the soggy field 
and grope in the dark to the highway 
leading to the town. 

The old and new castle of the Duke of 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 2J 

Norfolk are close to the hotel, and there 
can here be seen one of the most splendid 
baronial mansions in England ; the castle 
dating back nearly two hundred years be- 
fore the Norman conquest, and enjoying 
the peculiar privilege of conferring the 
dignity of earl on its possessor, without 
any patent or creation from the crown, — 
a privilege not enjoyed, it seems, by any 
other place in the kingdom. 

On Sunday, the 24th of August, at ten 
in the morning, we left picturesque Arun- 
del. It was a fine day; the road was very 
good. We were to run to Portsmouth, 
stopping some time at ancient Chichester, 
and were congratulating ourselves on the 
fair weather and an easy, peaceful run after 
the storms of the past ; but when just south 
of Slindon Park, five miles out, J.'s machine 
snapped in two where the backbone joins 
the head, and became useless. Our bicycle 
map showed that the nearest railway station 



28 . A BICYCLE TOUR 

was Barnham Junction, two miles south. In 
a few moments I had ridden there and re- 
turned with word that a Sunday train went 
up to London that afternoon ; and London 
was only about fifty miles away. We at 
once arranged that J. should go up to Lon- 
don, replace his broken machine, and meet 
me at Portsmouth the next day. This he 
did, getting another bicycle at Peake's and 
joining me at the George in Portsmouth, 
where I had telegraphed to him my arrival 
the day before. I mention this especially 
to show how such an accident can be man- 
aged in England, where, from almost any 
county, either London or Coventry (the 
headquarters for bicycles) may be reached 
in a few hours or less, and a return made 
as quickly. 

It was unnecessary for me to go to Lon- 
don too, so I rode on to Chichester, where 
I was surprised at the beautiful octagonal 
cross, fifty feet high, at the junction of four 



p 




STONEHENGE, DRUIDICAL RUINS, HAMPSHIK. 



i 



SALISBURY CATHEDRAL, HAMPSHIRE. 



Spire fini.shed a century la 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 29 

roads, one of the finest structures of the 
kind in Great Britain. 

My dinner that day was a solitary affair 
without J. I had sole possession of the 
coffee-room, and was at liberty to appro- 
priate the entire copy of the " Times," in- 
stead of a fractional part, as the custom is. 
My reading had but commenced, when a 
slight though muscular young gentleman 
entered the room in bicycle dress, and or- 
dered his dinner. In a few moments we 
became acquainted. It seemed that he 
was returning after a week's holiday on 
his bicycle through the South of Eng- 
land. He had ridden about forty miles 
that morning, and had about sixty more 
to do that afternoon and evening before 
reaching his home. This would be about 
one hundred miles for the day's run, of 
which he made light. He expected to 
reach home quite late, his route being to 
Southampton, thence across the New For- 



30 A BICYCLE TOUR 

est (using a lantern), and so to Wimborne- 
Minster in Dorset. I asked him whether 
he had any scruples about riding on Sun- 
day. He said he had not; that riding on 
Sunday in England was customary, and 
that his father was a clergyman who had 
accomplished his sixty miles a day on a 
tricycle. Later on in our trip, when at 
Warwick, we met a clergyman and his 
son who were "doing" England on tricy- 
cles at the rate of forty miles and more a 
day, his son being only about fourteen 
years of age. I rode with them part way 
to Kenilworth Castle, and observed the 
respect with which they were treated on 
the road, every one recognizing the clergy- 
man by his cloth. They were sun-burned 
and well ; and by using tricycles carried 
with them plenty of clothes, umbrellas, and 
articles a bicycle rider dispenses with. 

My route from Chichester to Ports- 
mouth was that of my new acquaintance 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 3 1 

as far as Cosham in Hampshire ; so we 
rolled along together over a very fine road, 
conversing as we went. It was a delightful 
ride ; my companion was very pleasant. 
After passing Havant, he pointed out the 
batteries at the north side of the road, 
which, though five miles or more from 
the sea, were, as I understood, heavy 
enough to throw shot over Portsmouth in- 
to Spithead beyond. At Cosham I turned 
to run into Portsmouth, four miles to the 
south, while my companion kept on to the 
west, and I hope reached his long journey's 
end in safety that night. 

Our time for the entire trip was limited 
to one month. This was not enough. 
We were often obliged to hurry on, when 
a longer stay would have been as instruc- 
tive as pleasant. One can spend a month 
in almost any of England's forty counties 
with profit and pleasure, and to allow but 
a month for all is insufficient. But we 



32 A BICYCLE TOUR 

travelled as far as we could in the time, 
on bicycles, on foot, on coaches, and in the 
cars, and the aggregate of our English and 
Welsh travel was about seventeen hundred 
miles, the route for only a portion of which 
is shown on the map accompanying this 
account ; several long rides in the cars, 
our ride on the coach to Windsor Castle, 
and other trips, being omitted as not strict- 
ly pertaining to this bicycle tour. 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 33 



II. 

I AM no longer one of those who sup- 
pose that on a bicycle tour the uppermost 
thought must be to accomplish the great- 
est possible distance each day, that the 
average may run up into the fifties or 
eighties, and the total be large. This de- 
lusion seizes upon almost every rider of 
spirit at first; but it will be found that 
more comfort, enjoyment, and knowledge 
are had if distance is made a secondary 
consideration, unless one cares only to fly 
through a country without time for obser- 
vation or reflection, in which case he will 
be apt to have but a very stupid passage. 

Portsmouth is a point of departure for 
the Isle of Wight. But there is so much 
of interest to be seen in and around Ports- 
mouth itself, especially of a naval and mili- 

3 



34 A BICYCLE TOUR 

tary kind, that one can afford a day or two 
less for the Isle of Wight to study the 
sterner subjects war and self-defence have 
developed in this, the chief naval arsenal 
and the most perfect fortress in Great 
Britain. 

The weather holding fair, and J. not 
having come down from London, I en- 
gaged a sailor to row me out to H. M, S. 
" Victory," one hundred and five years old 
(on which Nelson fell in action seventy- 
five years ago), and to other objects of in- 
terest in the harbor. It was at the time 
when England was touched by the mur- 
der of young Louis Napoleon. The huge 
steam transport for troops, which brought 
back Captain Cary from the Cape, had 
just arrived in Portsmouth. Cary's part 
in the affair with the Zulus and the death 
of young Louis were the common talk. 
Of all the remarks I heard on this, that 
of the bluff old sailor impressed me the 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES, 



35 



most, when, regretting the death of Louis, 
he said : " But better that one mother's 
son should die than a thousand." For 
had the French Prince Imperial lived, the 
sailor feared that he would have caused 
another of the sickening wars which Eu- 
rope periodically endures. I could not but 
contrast the aversion this old British tar 
had for war, with the zeal shown by the 
young Prussian soldiers I had, a fortnight 
before, seen eagerly crowding up with their 
sweethearts to the great battle paintings in 
the National Gallery in Berlin, 

In the " Bicycling World " of November 
12, 1880, is an interesting account of a 
trip to the Isle of Wight by " London 
W." His party landed at Cowes, and 
made a thirty-five mile run by Newport, 
Carisbrooke Castle, Blackgang, Ventnor, 
Shanklin, and Ryde. Our trip was quite 
different, for we left our bicycles at Ports- 
mouth, crossed to Ryde by steamer, and 



36 A BICYCLE TOUR 

took seats on top of the four-in-hand there 
for Sandown, the coach stopping a quarter 
of an hour or more on the way to let pas- 
sengers walk about at points of interest. 
At Sandown we left the coach and went 
on foot along the cliffs by Sandown Bay 
to Shanklin, where we lunched in a cosey 
little coffee-room, and then walked down 
into Shanklin Chine, across the fields, and 
so on by the rugged path of the Under-cliff' 
into Bonchurch and Ventnor, where we 
climbed a hill several hundred feet high, 
just by the station, and enjoyed the rare 
scene around and below. The weather was 
exceptionally fine. The route we took was 
impassable for bicycles, and one has hardly 
seen the Isle of Wight unless he has tak- 
en this walk. I regret that we could not 
have seen more of the Under-cliff" toward 
the west, but we found it prudent to go 
from Ventnor by rail to Newport, where 
we passed the night at the Bugle, first 



I 



; 



i 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 37 

walking out a mile to Carisbrooke Castle, 
where J. was busily engaged till dark in 
sketching, while I climbed in great delight 
all over the old walls ; indeed, soon after 
breakfast the next morning we went again 
to the castle, after which we saw what is 
left of the fine Roman villa near by, with 
its tessellated floors, which is older than 
Carisbrooke, and in its way, perhaps, a 
subject for as much reflection. 

Those parts of the Isle of Wight which 
form its distinctive features are to be ex- 
plored on foot. Some portions of the 
interior, to be sure, afford fair riding on a 
bicycle; but it is the south and southeast 
shores that give the isle its character, and 
to enjoy these in freedom one should be 
on foot. 

Returning to Portsmouth, we spent an- 
other night at the George, a heavy rain- 
storm having set in. If any suppose that 
life at English hotels, or even inns, is uni- 



38 A BICYCLE TOUR 

formly satisfactory, they mistake. As with 
English roads, so with the public-houses : 
now they are excellent, now the very re- 
verse. We frequently found that the " best " 
hotels, commercial houses, and inns were 
deficient ; and many that travellers seldom 
hear of were at times superior. In Ports- 
mouth, for instance, a town with more than 
one hundred thousand people, the " best " 
hotel was said to be the George. Now at 
the George we had rooms which were fair, 
but the service in the coffee-room was slow 
to an exasperating degree. I at first thought 
that the waiter — there was but one for the 
entire room — deemed bicycle riders un- 
worthy the usual attention, and for the 
experiment I doubled the customary fees ; 
but, finding that useless, then took the fel- 
low to task, when in a most respectful and 
apologetic way he explained that the du- 
ties of the coffee-room were quite beyond 
the power of a single waiter, and that diffi- 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 39 

culties in the kitchen made it impossible 
for him to serve us more promptly. 

In the evening there occurred what is 
common in Portsmouth, a hubbub of fifes 
and drums, with soHiers thronging the 
main street, some with a single sweetheart, 
many with two such hanging on their 
arms. I went to the front door to look 
on, and an English traveller in middle life 
stood watching with me. Suddenly he 
broke into a tirade upon English hotels, 
declaiming against the service at the 
George and elsewhere. He said the Eng- 
lish people did not know what a good 
hotel was ; that he had enjoyed what he 
considered the luxury of hotel life in Sa- 
ratoga and other American cities, and he 
gave vent to a good English growl on 
what is the fact, that in many matters 
England is very far behind the times. I 
was at first surprised, then revealed my 
nationality, and sympathized with him. 



40 A BICYCLE TOUR 

And so it was : we were often much an- 
noyed at our inability to have a meal at 
the desired time, even when ordered long 
in advance; and I have more than once 
arisen very early to repeat an order given 
the night before for breakfast, to make 
sure of having it on time, and even then 
been disappointed, not by a few moments 
only, but by half an hour and more. When 
one wishes to take a particular train this is 
vexatious. On the other hand, promptness, 
attention, and comfort were the marked 
characteristics of many of the public- 
houses we stopped at in England. 

Leaving the south coast, we now com- 
menced our run to the north, through the 
very heart of the country ; we scarce ever 
knew where we were to pass the night, or 
what was in store for us the next day ; it 
was a succession of entertaining novelties 
through some of the finest parts of the 
kingdom. The first of England's great 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 4 1 

cathedrals on our route was at Canterbury ; 
the second was at Salisbury, where we ar- 
rived at about one o'clock in the afternoon, 
lunching at the Red Lion. All our spare 
time at Salisbury was devoted to its unique 
cathedral, which is Early English of the 
purest type. The spire is the highest in 
the land, being four hundred feet, or near- 
ly twice the height of Bunker Hill monu- 
ment. Charles Sumner, who saw more of 
England and English society than any of 
his countrymen, wrote in 1838 : " My hap- 
piest moments in this island have been 
when I saw Salisbury and Durham cathe- 
drals. Much happiness have I enjoyed in 
the various distinguished and interesting 
society in which I have been permitted to 
mingle ; but greater than all this was that 
which I felt when I first gazed upon the 
glorious buildings I have mentioned. . . . 
It was with a thrill of pleasure that I looked 
from the spire of Salisbury," etc. 



42 A BICYCLE TOUR 

Here J. added to his increasing stock of 
photographs ; indeed, from time to time, 
we had either to send or take up to our 
rooms in London the accumulations of 
successive purchases in the way of pho- 
tographs, guide-books, and the like, and 
sometimes our travelling bags and pockets 
were stuffed to their utmost capacity. 

From Salisbury we ran that afternoon 
out to Amesbury, and then two miles west, 
passing Vespasian's Camp, to Stonehenge, 
" with its mysterious monuments, Druidical 
or whatever they may be." There is some- 
thing incongruous in riding up to those 
rude and ancient stone ruins on a modern 
bicycle. We heard the plausible explana- 
tions given by the old man in attendance, 
paid for them as usual (for at such places, 
who in England opens his mouth or moves 
a step for you without expecting his tip ?), 
and then, with a last look at the cathedral 
spire eight miles south, we hurried back to 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES, 



43 



Amesbury, and turned north for the water- 
shed of the Thames. Our run was up the 
pretty valley of the Avon. There are at 
least three rivers called Avon in England : 
this one flowed into the English Channel ; 
we came to a second farther north at Strat- 
ford. The ride that afternoon was very 
pleasant. We noticed how soon some Eng- 
lish roads are dry after a hard rain. On 
we went, with charming glimpses of the 
little river and the villages dotting its 
course, till at nightfall we came suddenly 
into Pewsey, and sprang off at the Phcenix 
for rest. 

If the Swan at Charing had its special 
merits, the Phcenix at Pewsey had greater. 
Here was a good lady with her daughters, 
who speedily arranged everything for our 
comfort, and neither J. nor I can soon for-* 
get that hot omelette with which we finally 
satisfied our appetites. As for my cham- 
ber, it was complete, and seemed to me the 



44 A BICYCLE TOUR 

finest of the kind I had occupied in Eng- 
land ; the china especially attracting my 
attention. In the morning we were kindly 
pressed to stay, and, but for lack of time, 
might have spent a charming day in and 
around that little Wiltshire town. But we 
had a long tour before us, and off we flew 
to the east, by a circuitous route, riding 
right through a flock of sheep on the way, 
and coming out on the Great Bath Road at 
a point near Froxfield, just above Hunger- 
ford. 

This Bath road is the famous racing 
road for bicycles, the run from Bath to 
London being a hundred miles {10^% to 
Hyde Park Corner); and the great one- 
hundred-mile straightaway races have been 
over this route, the fastest time for the en- 
tire distance being Mr. Appleyard's, June 
10, 1878, in 7 hours, 18 minutes, and 55 
seconds, or nearly 14 miles an hour for the 
entire time, including stops. Three months 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 45 

later, September 12, 1878, Mr. W. S. Brit- 
ten rode from London to Bath and back 
over this road, doing 220 miles in 23 hours 
54 minutes. 

From Hungerford we rolled along to 
Newbury, in Berkshire, where we lunched 
at the Chequers. I replenished my oil- 
can at a druggist's here ; the charge was a 
penny, but the man scowled so as I held 
up the little tin, that I asked what was the 
matter, when he answered that he was con- 
stantly called on to fill bicycle oil-cans, and 
he never could tell when they were full. 
From Newbury to Reading is seventeen 
miles, and we bowled along the fine road, 
covering the distance in an hour and twen- 
ty minutes, — J. arriving in advance, for 
he could easily outride me. It was a fine 
run; heavy rain-clouds chased us nearly all 
the way, but we outstripped them. Men, 
women, and children were seen hard at 
work gathering in the crops. The season 



46 A BICYCLE TOUR 

of 1879 was a very severe one for farmers. 
We flew through Theale at a racing speed ; 
and, altogether, our run of forty-two miles 
from Pewsey was very enjoyable. The 
day, however, was by no means spent : we 
stopped an hour or more in Reading; I 
plunged into the Thames at the bathing- 
house there, but got out at once, for the 
water was too chilly for me, though it was 
August. The constant rains and cold 
weather kept the temperature of fresh- 
water streams very low that summer. 
While crossing the track at the station 
there was a shout of warning, and we were 
told to "look sharp," for the Irish mail was 
coming; just then we heard a whistle, and 
a moment later the Irish mail-train tore 
through the Reading station and rushed 
on to London at a tremendous speed, the 
engineer crouching on his cabless engine. 

One feature of the day's ride showed 
how sensibly drivers of horses accept the 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 



innovation of bicycles in England. A 
short distance out from Newbury a vehi- 
cle was seen rapidly approaching us, and 
as we drew near, the driver raised his 
whip. A glance showed a young horse in 
the shafts ; he very naturally shied as we 
passed, when down came the whip on the 
horse, and the driver remarked that he 
would " break him in to bicycles." So on 
the day before, while riding out to Stone- 
henge, we met a lady driving in a phaeton, 
who, upon seeing us, got out to hold her 
horse. We immediately dismounted -at a 
safe distance, and on coming nearer, the 
lady deemed it necessary to excuse herself 
for driving such a horse, rather than accept 
any apology from us. 

It was during our run through either 
Wiltshire or Berkshire that we noticed 
public water troughs and drinking cups, 
with notices warning the public not to in- 
jure them, under heavy penalties! This 



48 A BICYCLE TOUR 

warning, it seems, was necessary to prevent 
the powerful liquor-sellers from destroying 
whatever might interfere with their inter- 
ests ; so deep a root has the use and abuse 
of liquor taken in England. Farther north, 
in Derbyshire, we again saw a few such 
wayside water supplies for drinking, but no 
warning was attached. In London such 
fountains and troughs are now very com- 
mon, their introduction being such a nov- 
elty, that I have read the precise number 
of human beings and animals that quench 
their thirst at these places ; the count being 
kept and published to prove to the British 
public, as I suppose, the utility of such 
benefactions. 

We had now been out eleven days, and 
found it necessary to go to London for let- 
ters, money, maps, and other things, intend- 
ing to return to Reading' the next day and 
resume our trip. We had already seen the 
most interesting portion of the countr}^ be- 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES, 



49 



tween Reading and London, on a four-in- 
hand. So, leaving my bicycle in charge of 
a porter at the Reading station, we tele- 
graphed to our landlady in Duke Street, 
and went by the next train to London, forty 
miles distant, J. taking his bicycle with him 
to be exchanged for a more serviceable one. 
We arrived in time for dinner. 

If one does not care to ride his bicycle 
through the streets of London, it can 
easily be carried in a hansom by standing 
it between the dasher and your seat; it 
just fits in. The driver does not object; 
it does not interfere with him, for he is 
overhead. Bicycles are often carried on 
the tops of cabs. 

The first portion of our intended tour 
was now over. We had traversed the coun- 
ties of Kent, Sussex, Hampshire, Wiltshire, 
and Berkshire, and explored the more in- 
teresting parts of the Isle of Wight. Oi 
route had been to many of the best known 



)ur ■ 

wn fl 



50 A BICYCLE TOUR 

watering-places, in full view of miles of 
England's southern coast ; was over hills 
and plains and valleys in the interior ; had 
revealed to us a varied succession of coun- 
try and city life, of hotels and of inns, both 
good and indifferent; had enabled us to 
examine two of England's greatest cathe- 
drals, Canterbury and Salisbury, at least 
three castles, Dover, Arundel, and Caris- 
brooke, a Roman villa, and the most cele- 
brated Druidical ruins in the kingdom. 

But what, to me at least, proved of more 
significance, was the health and superior 
physical strength acquired. A stay of for- 
ty-eight hours longer in America would 
probably have found me down with a fever. 
After the voyage, and after my return to 
London from the Continent, whither I had 
been on business, I was far from strong ; 
but the effect of this tour in the open air, 
accompanied by rational exercise, was to 
bring health and strength, with a disposi- 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 5 1 

tion to renew the trip through very differ- 
ent but equally interesting counties in the 
centre and north of England. For this 
our preparations were quickly made, and 
an account of our further experience will 
be found in the next two chapters. 



5^ A BICYCLE TOUR 



III. 

It will be remembered that at the end of 
the first part of our tour we were in Lon- 
don again, preparing to start off afresh. 
We arrived there on Friday evening, Au- 
gust 29, and on Saturday afternoon follow- 
ing returned to Reading by rail, starting 
at once on our bicycles up the valley of 
the world-renowned Thames, then swollen 
by the heavy rains. Though ascending 
the valley, the grade was easy ; still we 
rode along at our leisure, for the river 
views were too attractive to be passed with 
a mere glance. We dismounted occasion- 
ally, and in one place sauntered along the 
bank by a little inn, appreciating the full 
extent to which the people utilize the river, 
where boats of all kinds are kept in great 
numbers. Our ride was only fourteen miles 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 53 

before nightfall, but the weather was fine, 
and the short run slowly made to enjoy 
the rural views. At tea-time we came to 
ancient Wallingford, in Berkshire, and 
stopped for the night at the Lamb, 

The next day was clear and cool, and 
before night we had met with a varied and 
instructive experience. After breakfast, 
riding on, we crossed the Thames at Shil- 
lingford bridge, entering Oxfordshire, when 
a fine run through Dorchester and Nune- 
ham Courtney brought us to classical 
Oxford. In " Paterson's Roads " (which 
reached at least eighteen editions as far 
back as 1829, and which is still of value 
to the English tourist) I find at the con- 
clusion of the account of Oxford this sen- 
tence : " Volumes written on this head 
would be unequal to do justice to the sub- 
ject, and, in a few words, the powers of the 
pen are as inadequate to describe, as the 
creations of the pencil incompetent to de- 



54 A BICYCLE TOUR 

lineate the resplendent beauties of the city 
of Oxford." 

We stopped at the famous old Mitre 
Tavern, took lunch, and at once went on 
a tour of the city with a guide, who ex- 
pressed his pride in the number of distin- 
guished persons he had conducted through 
Oxford. I pass over details. We of course 
saw all that was open to us, including the 
several colleges, the gardens and grounds, 
the river, and the boat-houses. We hope, 
however, to visit Oxford again, and to study 
the city more thoroughly. 

Our route that afternoon was over the 
highway to Woodstock, where we turned 
to the left to see Blenheim Park, the mag- 
nificent seat of the Duke of Marlborough, 
with its princely mansion, the gift of the 
nation to the Duke. Unfortunately the 
palace was not open to visitors on that 
day, and we lost the chance of seeing one 
of the most valuable collections of pictures 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 55 

in England. There were some fine speci- 
mens of the little Blenheim spaniel playing 
at the palace gate. 

On approaching Woodstock we found 
the road very rough and fatiguing. I 
called for an explanation from some of the 
inhabitants, and asked why they allowed the 
road to remain in such a state. They ad- 
mitted the bad condition of the roads in 
all directions from Woodstock, affirming 
that it was due to some difficulty in the 
local governing boards, and regretted our 
annoyance. The rough riding continued 
as we kept on through Oxfordshire, a coun- 
ty where I think we had harder work than 
in any other in England. We were on 
the highway to Banbury; and this I am 
sure of, — that in the summer of 1879 it 
was a very rough road to Banbury Cross. 
What with Oxford and Blenheim Park, 
and the bad road that day, we did not 
reach Banbury till after dark, and then 
stopped at the Red Lion. 



56 A BICYCLE TOUR 

In the morning we selected photographs, 
including some of the Banbury Cross, — 
not the ancient one of nursery rhyme, 
which is destroyed, but the new one re- 
cently erected, and which, though fine, is 
small, and not to be compared, it seemed 
to me, with the grand old cross at Chiches- 
ter, in Sussex. 

When about a mile out of the town, we 
overtook a pack of foxhounds driven along 
the highway by the first and second whips, 
both nfiounted. The hounds obeyed the 
whips admirably, promptly moving from 
side to side of the road as directed. This 
was the second pack met, the first being in 
the South of England. The returns for 
1877 showed in the United Kingdom 
about three hundred and forty packs of 
staghounds, foxhounds, harriers, and bea- 
gles, having not far short of ten thousand 
couples. The expense of the hunting es- 
tablishments is enormous, the stable being 



IN ENGLAKD AND WALES. 57 

a far more onerous burden than that of 
a fashionable pack. The " Pall Mall Ga- 
zette " of November 3, 1S77, estimated the 
annual amount spent by the masters of 
hounds out of their own pockets, or out 
of the fund subscribed in the district for 
hunting establishments, including stables 
and kennels, at ^547,000, or over $2,500,- 
000 a year. To this is to be added the 
money spent by the people who hunt, from 
the owners of well-appointed studs to the 
modest proprietor of a steed called upon to 
do its three days' work in a fortnight. 

The pack we overtook was at once or- 
dered on to one side by the whips to let us 
pass, but I rode slowly behind a little while 
to watch the movements and discipline of 
the hounds. In this connection, it may be 
observed that I cannot recall an instance, 
throughout our tour, where a dog of any 
kind gave us annoyance. Contrast this 
with bicycle-riding in Massachusetts, where 



58 A BICYCLE TOUR 

it is an art to know how to manage the 
various breeds, from a snapping mongrel 
to the more dangerous Newfoundland. 

We now pressed on to enter Warwick- 
shire, one of England's most- charming 
counties ; first riding along the ridge of 
Edge Hill, where Charles I. engaged in 
battle with the Earl of Essex in 1642, and 
where five thousand men are said to have 
been found dead on the field of battle. 
The descent down the hill on to the plain 
near Kineton was so steep that we had to 
dismount and hold our machines back with 
no small effort. It was one of the steepest 
hills on the highway that we met in Eng- 
land. Rapidly riding across Warwickshire, 
by the way of Kineton and Charlcote, we 
entered Stratford-upon-Avon about noon, 
and stopped at the Shakespeare Inn, which 
had by its door, on a well-painted sign, 
" Headquarters of the Bicycle Touring 
Club." 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 59 

For a hundred and fifty miles or more 
I had ridden my machine without having 
it washed, and, as a consequence, it was in 
a shocking state, though in good running 
order. This had happened because, dur- 
ing the first week or more of our tour, 
when we scrupulously attended to the 
cleaning of the machines at an expense of 
a shilling a day for each, it either rained 
regularly the next morning, or the roads 
were so muddy that after a few minutes' 
use the machines were as dirty as before. 
At last I concluded that mine should not be 
cleaned at all, whereupon fine weather set 
in, which, to our delight, continued all the 
way to Stratford ; but as I rode over the 
bridge into that Shakespearian town, a 
little urchin actually cried out, " Just look 
at that bicycle ; it is dirty beyond descrip- 
tion / " That child's remark had its effect ; 
and in spite of J. s laughing protest, before 
another hour had passed, my machine was 



6o A BICYCLE TOUR 

washed by the hostler at the inn, who 
called out as we entered the stable yard, 
" This way with yer 'oss, sir ; 'ere's a box 
stall for yer 'oss, sir," 

It is said that more Americans make the 
pilgrimage to Stratford than any other peo- 
ple, and that they show more interest in 
the town and its associations. However 
this may be, we experienced the usual emo- 
tions and made the usual tour of the place, 
which, as a town, was by far the neatest 
and cleanest I had yet observed. We saw 
two other towns in England, and but two, 
noticeable for their neatness, — Leaming- 
ton, also in Warwickshire, and Doncaster 
in Yorkshire. 

From Stratford to Coventry, by War- 
wick and Kenilworth Castle, has been said 
to be the finest walk in England. We 
passed over the greater part of the way 
more than once. Leamin^on, England's 
fashionable Spa, is only two miles from 




PEACOCK ]SN, nEKBYSHIRE, 




rt'AKWlCK CAiiTr.E, WARWICK. 



62 A BICYCLE TOUR 

a library inferior to some in New England 
towns of half or even a fourth that number 
of people. It brought to mind the speech 
of young Lord Hamilton on education, 
which we heard in the Commons in July, 
and which helped to impress the English 
people with the deficiencies and needs of 
popular education. 

Now we were in the very home of bi- 
cycles. They were constantly seen in the 
streets, the bells attached giving notice of 
their approach. We used Challis Brothers' 
white-metal stop bell, a small, neat affair, 
obtained in London, which was fastened to 
the handle bar, the tongue or ball inside 
being provided with a cord and rubber 
spring, by which it could be pulled into 
quietude and kept so, or by a mere touch 
of the finger be forced again into the 
sphere to sound its melodious notes. Such 
a bell was necessary, for in some towns 
in England the local councils make the 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 

Warwick. Thus, within a line of twenty 
miles up and down the valley of the Avon, 
are to be found what no traveller in Eng- 
land should neglect, — all the Shakespear- 
ian associations of Stratford, the extremely 
interesting studies of old Warwick and 
Kenilworth Castles, the comforts and re- 
pose of modem Leamington, and the 
churches as well as the important manu- 
facturing interests of Coventry. 

At Warwick we stopped at the Warwick 
Arms, and in the morning rode over to 
Kenilworth Castle, after which we made 
the short but pleasant run to Coventr}', 
passing on the way great numbers of men 
and boys walking and riding to the War- 
wick races. We stopped at the Castle, 
in Coventry, which is conveniently near 
the noble churches and other buildings of 
interest. My attention was called to the 
public library, but I was surprised to find, 
in this city of forty thousand inhabitants, 



i 



64 A BICYCLE TOUR 

Mr. Derkinderin, — a well-known rider, then 
with Hillman & Herbert. It was difficult 
to select from among these manufacturers ; 
they were all worthy of patronage and had 
high reputations. I can myself vouch for 
the machines of at least three of them. 
Finally, J. concluded to order two fifty-six- 
inch " Club " machines, for home use, of 
the Coventry Machinist Company. For 
these he gave minute directions, which 
were carried out while we continued our 
tour; and on our way home from London 
to Liverpool, some time later, we stopped 
at Coventry, took a run out toward Kenil- 
worth and back on the new machines, and 
then had them boxed for the voyage. The 
machines were the finest I have ever seen. 
Riding bicycles abroad does not make 
them free of duty at home ; for the prac- 
tice in United States custom-houses has 
of late been changed in this regard, and 
duties must be paid on bicycles whether 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 65 

they have been used or not. So when Mr, 
James Gordon Bennett brought home some 
vehicles used abroad by him, and which 
he supposed were thus free from duty, it 
seems that he was obliged to pay, because 
the old rule to the contrary had been abol- 
ished. 

It was on one of our subsequent visits 
to Coventry that we sat down to a. " com- 
mercial dinner " at the Castle. This, as 
explained by our host, was simply a dinner 
of commercial gentlemen,' at about one 
o'clock, and of daily occurrence in Eng- 
land. There were, I believe, eight at the 
table where we were invited to sit. The 
dinner was substantial, though plain, — of 
fish, a roast, one or two vegetables, and a 
pudding or tart. The simplicity of the 
ordinary English fare is noticeable. There 
was, perhaps, a little insincerity on both 
sides when, after some experience in vari- 
ous counties of England, we would ask : 

5 



66 A BICYCLE TOUR 

** What can you give us for dinner ? " and 
would be answered : " What would you 
like to have ? " It was either beef or mut- 
ton, or mutton or beef, almost from one end 
of England to the other. Eggs, to be sure, 
were sometimes to be had, and occasionally 
fish, but the great variety to which Ameri- 
cans are accustomed is not ordinarily met 
with in England. I noticed this peculiar- 
ity in the bread : that in the southern half 
of the country the loaves were always cir- 
cular, with a small twist or top-knot on the 
upper side ; while in the northern half they 
were baked in the circular or rectangular 
form, without the upper story. 

About noon of September 3, a fine, clear 
day, we rode out of Coventry, over the 
great highway, toward Birmingham, and 
when eight miles off, turned sharp to the 
north at the Stone Bridge, riding away 
toward Coleshill and Tamworth, stopping 
a few moments at the former for a glass 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 6/ 

of beer and a biscuit, and at the latter 
about two hours at the Castle Hotel, for a 
substantial dinner, when J. opened a bottle 
of champagne in honor of his brothers 
birthday. Our ride to Tamworth was at a 
very rapid rate, over a good road ; and the 
run from there was through a level coun- 
try to Burton-on-Trent, in Staffordshire, 
where we arrived at six o'clock, and stopped 
at the Queen's. 

The entrance to the stable yards of pub- 
lic-houses in England is often under an 
archway, over and on both sides of which 
the hotel is sometimes built. We rode 
under the archway at the Queen's, as we 
supposed, and put our machines in charge 
of the hostler; but we were given such 
questionable apartments, and had such an 
unsatisfactory supper, that I was a little 
mortified, and strolled out to see where we 
were, when, to my amusement, I found we 
had entered the Saracen's Head instead of 



68 A BICYCLE TOUR 

the Queen's, — the two being side by side, 
and the mistake easily made in the arch. 
In a few moments we were comfortably 
established at the Queen's, whose landlord 
took us that evening to some amateur the- 
atricals in a public hal^, which were quite a 
novelty. 

Mention of the "Saracen's Head " re- 
minds me of the many odd names given to 
English inns. Much curious information 
is to be had in the large city and county 
directories found throughout England, and 
I usually examined the directory of each 
county we entered, for a better knowledge 
of the various sections. As to the names 
of inns, I had the curiosity to look through 
a long list of them in the Yorkshire direc- 
tory, and jotted down, as illustrations of 
English fancy in naming public-houses, the 
following : Cat i' th' Window (Halifax, 
Yorkshire); Flitch of Bacon; Jug; Hen 
and Chickens; Hole in the Wall; Hop 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 69 

Pole ; Labour in Vain ; Malt Shovel ; Old 
Dusty Miller ; One Tun ; Ring o' Bells ; 
Shoulder of Mutton (common); Three 
Horseshoes. If there is anything in a 
name, which of these inns is the most sug- 
gestive of a good dinner, a carousal, or a 
sound night's rest ? 

Before leaving Burton, we of course vis- 
ited the breweries where the renowned 
" India Pale " or " Bitter Beer " is manu- 
factured, and which, it seems, owes its 
favor at home to an accident. It was first 
made about the year 1823 for the East, and 
for several years India was its only market. 
But a vessel carrying a number of hogs- 
heads of India Pale was lost in the Chan- 
nel ; its cargo was sold ; and in this way 
bitter beer first became known as a bever- 
age in England, and so rapid was its popu- 
larity that since 1828 the pale-ale trade has 
taken the lead in Burton. The marvellous 
growth of the brewing trade has been more 
especially since 1862. At Burton nearly 



70 A BICYCLE TOUR 

3,ocx),ooo barrels of ale, of 36 gallons each, 
are produced in. a year, valued at $35,000,- 
000. Bass & Co., and Allsopp & Sons, 
have the largest of the thirty breweries 
there. Bass & Co.'s business premises 
cover over 1 50 acres, with six miles of rail- 
way and six locomotives — their own ex- 
clusive property. 

We were introduced by the attentive 
landlord of the Queen's to one of the firm 
of Bass & Co., who kindly took us over 
the more interesting portion of their enor- 
mous breweries. Afterward we found our 
way into one of the vast receiving cellars 
or vaults, where an employe, appreciating 
our motives and coin, led us on through 
hidden recesses to a particular row of bar- 
rels, one of which he pierced with a gimlet, 
and drew into a tall beaker glass after glass 
of ale unsurpassed in quality and appear- 
ance. One learns here to appreciate all 
the more that, in buying Bass's ale, care 
should be taken to find out who bottled it. 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 



IV. 



No sooner had one county of interest 
been left than we entered another. It was 
a great satisfaction to know that, ride where 
one would, new attractions were always to 
be found. Derbyshire, the next county on 
our route to the north, is famous for its 
scenery, its waters, its Chatsworth, and its 
Haddon and Hardwick Halls. The great 
" Derby" races are not held in Derby, 
but more than a hundred miles to the 
south, at Epsom, in Surrey, fourteen miles 
southwest of London. * To be sure, races 
are held at Derby, the county town of 
Derbyshire, but they are rather local, and 
not to be mistaken for the " Derby " races 
at Epsom. The great Epsom meeting is 
on Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and 
Friday immediately before Whitsuntide, the 



72 A BICYCLE TOUR 

" Derby " being on Wednesday, the " Oaks " 
on Friday ; called so after one of the Earls 
of Derby, and his seat, the Oaks, which is in 
the neighborhood. Next in importance to 
the Epsom races are the Doncaster races, 
at Doncaster, in Yorkshire, held (1879) on 
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Fri- 
day, September 9, 10, 11, and 12. As the 
" Derby " is the chief feature of the Epsom 
races, so the " St. Leger " is that of the 
Doncaster races ; named after Lieutenant- 
General St. Leger, who originated it in 
1776. Of the Doncaster races more will 
be said later on. 

Our morning examination of the great 
breweries at Burton-upon-Trent, in Staf- 
fordshire, and the proper sampling of 
Bass's finest ale, prevented a very early 
start ; but at last we were again in the 
saddle, and pushed on to Derby, where we 
found it advisable to take the train for 
Matlock Bath, arriving there at 2.30 p. m., 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 73 

and stopping at the New Bath Hotel. Mat- 
lock Bath is resorted to for its medicinal 
springs, and the many interesting excur- 
sions near by. The village lies in a dale 
through which the river Derwent flows, by 
steep and lofty rocks nearly three hundred 
feet high. The Matlock waters . have a 
temperature of about 68° Fahrenheit. In 
the basement of our hotel was a large swim- 
ming bath, between cemented walls, where- 
in the natural waters constantly flowed ; so 
that on arising in the morning, or at any 
other time, without leaving the house, we 
could descend and swim around at pleasure. 
Our first afternoon at Matlock was spent 
in paddling canoes on the river, rambling 
along the shore and over the rocks, and in 
having our tip-types taken, in riding cos- 
tume, at the little stand by the highway. 

The next morning we were off at a good 
hour for Chatsworth, "the finest private 
country residence in the world." Our ride 



74 A BICYCLE TOUR 

was up the Derwent valley from Matlock 
for about eight miles. The Park at Chats- 
worth is upwards of eleven miles in circuit 
(equal to that of the whole town of Brook- 
line, Mass.). As we rode through the park, 
herds of deer were seen quite near on each 
side of the avenue ; the bucks, with their 
antlers erect, all on one side, the does scam- 
pering off on the other. We dismounted 
at the mansion, or palace, and resting our 
machines upon the inner side of the great 
gate walls, waited, as the custom is, for the 
arrival of a sufficient number of persons to 
make up a party for the ushers to conduct 
through the residence and grounds. I am 
not now sure of the number, but believe 
about three thousand persons a week were 
then visiting Chatsworth. Thirty years ago, 
in 1850, Downing wrote that "upwards of 
eighty thousand persons visited Chatsworth 
last year." The crowd is greater, of course, 
in summer. Long open coaches and con- 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 75 

veyances of various kinds bring visitors by 
the score from the stations at Rowsley and 
Bakewell, and from all the country round 
about. 

To me the greatest attractions in the 
interior of the mansion were the sculpture 
and the marvellous wood carving ; the lat- 
ter claimed to be largely by that master 
artist of the seventeenth century, Grinling 
Gibbons, whose subjects are chiefly birds, 
flowers, foliage, fruit, and lace. It is even 
said that "many of his flowers used to 
move on their stems, like their natural pro- 
totypes, when shaken by a breeze." In the 
sculpture gallery, the usher, who had ob- 
served our scrutiny, kindly remarked, as 
the potent coin touched her palm, that we 
might remain till the next party came 
through; this we did, enjoying at our 
leisure, and undisturbed, the fine pieces 
by Canova, Thorwaldsen, and Chantrey. 
Afterwards we found the grand conserva- 



76 A BICYCLE TOUR 

tory and the gardens attractive and justly 
celebrated ; but for an interesting descrip- 
tion of these, I refer the reader to Down- 
ing's account of Chatsworth in his " Rural 
Essays." 

On the way back to Matlock we dis- 
. mounted for a little refreshment, but were 
told by the woman in charge of the place 
that she had formerly " cut up as many as 
Jive hams in a season," but of late, customers 
were so few that she had given up keeping 
supplies, and could not give us even a glass 
of milk. On account of some peculiarity of 
her landlord. This was the sorriest place 
of the kind we met in the whole country. 
It was true, however, that on account of 
the hard times in England, travel was then 
much lighter than formerly ; and as a rule, 
even at well-established inns, bicycle riders 
were welcomed for the few shillings they 
left. 

On arriving at Matlock we dined with 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 77 

a hearty appetite, and concluded to go to 
London by the evening train, to see on the 
morrow the last day's riding of the great 
six days' bicycle race at Agricultural Hall, 
London, and to attend to other matters 
there. We arrived at our rooms on Duke 
Street at 1 1 p. m. that evening. This ride 
by rail, from Matlock Bath to London and 
back, is not indicated on the map. 

We frequently took long as well as short 
journeys by rail in addition to our bicycle 
riding; most of our time in passing from 
place to place, however, being s^ent in the 
saddle. England has such a network of 
railways, that one can dart hither and yon 
in all directions from almost any point. 
By taking advantage of these facilities for 
travel, we saw a large portion of the coun- 
try not covered by our route on the bicycle. 
We travelled in our riding costume, either 
first, second, or third class, as fancy or good 
luck determined. The third-class accom- 



78 A BICYCLE TOUR 

modations are at times good and at times 
bad. Thus, in 1879, the Midland was a 
favorite road for third-class passengers, 
while the London and South Eastern was 
so unpopular that the " Times " published 
several letters condemning the company. 
The purchase of a second, or even a third- 
class ticket, often resulted in a ride in a 
first-class compartment. This happened 
when all but first-class compartments were 
full, or when the customary sixpence to 
the porter induced him to open a first-class 
compartment whether the others were full 
or not. This is the every-day experience 
in England. 

English life on the railway trains is 
quite a study. One day at Derby the 
trains were all late, and the station crowded 
with a motley throng from the local races. 
We knew there would be a scramble when 
the down train came, and tipped a porter 
with particular instructions to get us a 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 79 

seat ; but, just as the porter opened a door, 
a rush of rowdies in regular English fash- 
ion swept porter and everybody else away 
from the car. I never came nearer plant- 
ing my fist in somebody's eye, but it was 
well I did not ; it would have been rash, 
and a moment later our porter had us safe- 
ly tucked into a fii-st-class compartment. 
There were seven persons crowded into 
that compartment, which was meant for 
but six, and the chaff and abuse hurled to 
and fro between some of his countrymen 
and that seventh man were such as I 
thought would lead to blows. At last the 
situation was accepted, the conversation 
turned pleasantly upon the races, and we 
were made acquainted with the freshest 
horse-talk of the day. On another occa- 
sion, while riding out of London In a sec- 
ond-class compartment, a man got in with 
a large open basket filled with glassware, 
which he rested upon his knees, and then 



8o A BICYCLE TOUR 

began to smoke, though it was not a smok- 
ing car. The thought of being mixed up 
with a basketful of lamp chimneys and 
glass bric-a-brac^ in case of an accident, was 
not pleasant ; altogether, the glass man was 
a good subject for attack, and a fellow-pas- 
senger who disliked smoking engaged with 
him in such a bout of words that the guard 
was at last called on to settle the mat- 
ter. But for banter and raillery, or for 
mockery and jeer, I suppose the London 
cockney carries off the palm. We had 
such a fellow on board the " Baltic " on the 
voyage over, who was set upon one day in 
the smoking-room by some sharp-tongued 
Americans, and who gave in return an ex- 
hibition of his powers of retort, which fully 
sustained the reputation of his class. Of a 
different type was the soldier we travelled 
with in Wiltshire, who was just from the 
Cape, having returned with Captain Cary, 
and who took pleasure in exhibiting some 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 



ostrich feathers from South Africa, and as- 
segai or Zulu darts of the kind used in the 
assassination of Louis Napoleon. While 
riding through Staffordshire one evening, 
the train stopped, and a man came tum- 
bling into the compartment with his fish- 
pole and basket, in a high frame of mind 
over his day's sport, having lost his two 
companions, and having a few little fish 
which he exultingly showed for approval. 
But to return. 

The race at Agricultural Hall, London, 
was won by Waller, a Newcastle man, who 
accomplished the extraordinary feat of rid- 
ing fourteen hundred and four miles in six 
days of eighteen working hours each. Not 
one of the contestants was a physical mod- 
el. Keen, who probably rides in the best 
form of any English rider of note, did not 
enter this race, or at least was not riding 
that day. Waller, Terront, and Cann were 
the chief contestants. We saw Cann fall 




J 



i 



S2 A BICYCLE TOUR 

in turning a corner; it was pitiable: for- 
tunately the other riders did not fall on 
him. He was picked up by a policeman, 
and, with damaged ankle and arm, was 
helped hobbling to a dressing-room. Ter- 
ront pressed close upon Waller, lap after 
lap, but Waller held his own. They ate 
and drank in the saddle, seizing food or a 
mug of beef tea — or whatever it was — as 
they passed an attendant, and tossing back 
the mug empty on the next round. The 
riders were tough and sinewy to a remark- 
able degree, but wanting in athletic beauty 
of form. It was not my fortune to see in 
all England a single bicycle rider noticeable 
for grace and ease in the saddle. Keen, to 
be sure, is an exception, but I never saw 
Keen ride till he came to America. This 
want of form in riding, even among some 
of the most extraordinary long-distance rid- 
ers in England, was especially noticeable. 
The next day (Sunday, September 7) we 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 83 

left London, and returned to Matlock Bath 
over the Midland Railroad, arriving at 7.30 
p. M. On Monday morning we were off 
again in the saddle over the road towards 
Chatsworth. The rain of the day before 
made the road very treacherous. We have 
nothing of the kind in Massachusetts: 
English roads with a limestone surface are, 
when wet, exasperatingly slippery ; I felt 
in my bones, as the phrase is, that I should 
I fall, and I did, but no harm was done. 
About three miles south of Chatsworth 
we turned to the west, passing the cele- 
brated Peacock Inn, well known to tour- 
ists in Derbyshire, and in a few moments 
rode up to Haddon Hall, which, perhaps, 
gives the best idea of an ancient baronial 
residence to be found in England, for it 
is preserved as it was. We were shown 
through Haddon by a pretty little maid of 
about twelve years, who pointed out and 
described the various rooms and mementos 




84 



A BICYCLE TOUR 



k 



with a precision and a charm that were 
captivating. Her voice had that sweetness 
and purity of tone for which so many of 
the sex in England are noted the world 
over. 

Our route from Haddon Hall was over 
Beeley Hill (nearly one thousand feet high) 
and across Beeley Moor to Chesterfield. 
A better way would have been by Bake- 
well and Baslow. The hill gave us a hard 
climb, and the road over the moor at the 
top was too rough for bicycle riding ; it 
was the hardest and longest tramp in push- 
ing our bicycles that we had, and before 
we reached Chesterfield a heavy shower 
overtook us. After dinner at the Angel, 
as the roads were too muddy to use our 
machines with comfort, we took a hansom, 
and were driven out to Hardwick Hall, 
eight miles southeast. This hall is far- 
famed and very interesting, and, like Chats- 
worth, is the property of the Duke of 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 85 

Devonshire. It was here that Mary Queen 
of Scots passed several years of her captiv- 
ity. The great picture gallery is one hun- 
dred and ninety-five feet in length, ranging 
along the whole of the east front. 

From Chesterfield our route was to 
Sheffield and Doncaster, — both in York- 
shire. Our stop at Sheffield was short, to 
examine the Hallamshire bicycle works ; 
and we hurried on to Doncaster to attend 
the races. That town was crowded with 
visitors. We dined at the Royal Hotel, 
but were told that a bed for that night 
was not to be bad in Doncaster under two 
guineas — ten dollars. As two guineas 
was altogether more than we intended to 
pay, we went to the races, and then, jump- 
ing on our saddles, rode over to Thorne, 
nine miles off, arriving at the White Hart 
in ample time for tea, and paid for our 
beds but two shillings. 

After breakfast the next day we rode to 




86 



A BICYCLE TOUK 



Selby by the way o£ Snaith, the latter half 
of the way over an execrable road, badly 
out of repair. At Selby we lunched at the 
Londesborough Arms, and had opportuni- 
ty to examine the beautiful church near by ; 
then, leaving our machines, we took a train 
back to Doncaster, arriving there in time 
to attend the ten races of that afternoon, 
including the great St. Leger. Thousands 
of people go every year to these races. 
They even tell you in Yorkshire that the 
Doncaster races are not surpassed by the 
" Derby " at Epsom. Doncaster is a neat 
and attractive town, and the race-course is 
close by, over a wide, flat plain ; not like 
our race-courses, but spread over much 
more ground, with room for many stands 
and ample space for private coaches and 
carriages, with the vast throng that surges 
up and down. We studied the field and 
scene from every available point, going out 
to the starting-points, standing midway 



IM ENGLAND AND WALES. 87 

[own the course, and being close at the 
finish. The first race was at 1.45 p, m^ 
and the last of tiie ten was at 5.30 p. m., so 
that no time was wasted. The horses are 
not always started where the race ends, 
but at various places and distances, so as 
to finish at the grand stands, after running 
" five furlongs," " six furlongs," from the 
" Red House Inn," " one mile, six furlongs, 
and one hundred and thirty-two yards," 
" two miles and five furlongs," or as the 
case may be. On the day before, Mr. 
Pierre Lorillard, of New York, entered his 
famous horse Parole for the Great York- 
shire Handicap, but Parole was easily dis- 
tanced by Dresden China and two other 
horses. For the St. Leger stakes there 
were twenty-two entries. Rayon D'or, en- 
tered by Count F. de Lagrange, won ; 
Ruperra came in second. 

To see all the horses entered galloping 
over l^e turf (the track is entirely of turf 



88 A BICYCLE TOUR 

and not gravel), now separate, now in a 
clump as if to run over each other, and 
goaded on by the jockeys in their bright 
costumes, is a stirring sight. The din from 
the shouting of the betting men and crowd 
was extraordinary; at times there was a 
lull, and then a roar of human voices again 
came over the field. The men who sold 
betting tickets were usually on short stilts 
or shoes with soles perhaps a foot thick, 
and they wore startling costumes with lofty 
chimney-pots oddly labelled. They hailed 
from London, Liverpool, Dublin, Edin- 
burgh, and elsewhere. Mingling with 
these were acrobats, — men who dislocated 
their shoulders and twisted and bent like 
snakes ; and as for the three-card-monte 
men, they were everywhere, and as cun- 
ning and successful as the craft can be. 
When the lockers and hampers of the pri- 
vate coaches were opened, there was feast- 
ing enough. I saw a little urchin creep 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. Sg 

under a coach for an empty champagne 
bottle. All classes of society elbowed each 
other; it was one of those days when all 
England might jostle together with im- 
punity. Here is one of the betting tick- 
ets; the original, however, is printed in 
four different colors: — 



^^^<S^^% 



I 




ALL IN RUN OR NOT. 
r. Smith, Printer Maiden Lane, Nottingham. 



and here is a copy of one of the racing 
cards, the entries being omitted for want 
of space, except the entries for the St. 
Leger Stakes, which are given: — 




A EICVCLE TOUR 



1 4S ^^^ CLEvEL-uiD Handicap of 20 sovs, each, 
' 10 ft., and 5 only if declared, with 100 added ; 

the winner of the Leamington Slakes, the Great Ebor 
Handicap, or the Great Yorkshire Handicap to cany 
gib, of two of these stakes iilb or of any other handi- 
cap after August 21st, at 10 a.m., 51b extra ; the owner 
of the second horse to save his stake, — The straight 
mile (25 subs., 17 of whom pay 5 sovs. each). 
O IC The Rufford Abbey Stakes (Handicap) of 

■ 5 sovs, each, with 100 added, for three yrs old 

and upwards; a winner after the weights are out to 
carry ylb extra ; the owner of the second horse to re- 
ceive 35 sovs. out of the stakes. — Five furlongs, (15 
subs.) 
O QR A Match of 200 sovs. each, h fl., colts 8st 

lolb each, one to the post, — Six furlongs, 
O A The Corporation Stakes (Handicap) of 10 

* sovs. each, h ft., with 100 added, for two yre old 
only ; a winner after Sept. 4th, at 10 a.m., to carry ylb, 
twice or of 200 sovs. lolb extra ; the owner of the sec- 
ond horse to receive 25 sovs. out of the stakes. — Red 
House in. (16 subs.) 

O on The St. Leger Stakes of 25 sovs. each, for 
" three yrs old cohs 8st i61b, and fillies 8st 51b ; 
the owner of the second horse to receive 200 sovs. and 
the third 100 sovs. out of the stakes. — New St. Leger 
Course, about one mile six furlongs and 132 yards. 
(275 subs.) 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 



91 



1 — Lord Bateman's ch c PROTECTIONIST, by Palmet — 

Delilah (H. Jeffrey). 

Black and rose stripes, rose sleeves and cap. 

2 — Mr. H. E. Beddinpon's b c ALCHEMIST, by Rosicra- 

dan — Gold Dust (Rossiter). 

Orange, chocolate sleeves. 

3 — Mr. C. Blanton'schc EXETER, by Cathedral — Scamp's 



4_Mr. W. S. Cartwright's ch c GEORGE ALBERT, by 
Marsyas. 

Scarlet, black cap. 

5 — Mr. W. S. Crawfurd's br c GILDEROV, by Pell Mell — 

Highland Lassie (Huxtable). 

6 — Mr. W. S. Crawfurd's b or br c LANSDOWN, by Si. 

Albans — Gentle Mary (Fordham). 

Scarlet. 

7 — Mr. Elam's b c MARSHALL SCOTT, by EthuB — 

Baroness. 

White, ted sleeves and cap. 

8 — Lord Falmouth's b f LEAP YEAR, by Kingcraft — 
ilack, white sleeves, red cap. 

9 — Lord Falmouth's ch c MULEY EDRIS, by Wild Moor 
Black, white sleeves, red cap. 

-M. E, Fould's ch c SALTEADOR, by Verlugadin- 



Wheat-ei 



— Retty (F. Archer). 

E, Fould's ch c ! 
Slapdash (Hunter), 

Yellow and black hoops, black cap. 

-Mr. Gee's b f WHITE POPPY, by Winslow — For- 

Union jack, blue sleeves and cap. 



92 A BICYCLE TOUR 

12 — Duke of Hamilton's b c SQUEAKER, by Speaker — 

Botany Bay. 

Light blue, bronze sleeves and cap. 

13 — Mr. J. H. Houldsworth's ch c RUPERRA, by Advent- 

urer — Lady Morgan (C. Wood). 

Green and gold, yellow cap. 

14 — Mr. W. L Anson's b f MACCARONEA, by Macaroni — 

Bonny Bell. 

Turquoise, violet sleeves and cap. 

15 — Count F. de Lagrange's ch c RAYON D'OR, by Flageo- 

let — Arucaria (J. Goater). 

Blue, red sleeves and cap. 

16 — Count F. de Lagrange's ch c ZUT, by Flageolet — Regalia 

(J. Morris). 

Blue, red sleeves, blue cap. 

17 — Lord Norreys' br c SIR BEVYS, by Favonius — Lady 

Langden (T. Cannon). 

Dark blue, yellow cap. 

18 — Lord Rosebery's br c VISCONTI, by Parmesan — Lady 

Audley (Luke). 

Primrose, rose hoops and cap. 

19— Lord Scarborough's b f ELLANGOWAN, by Strathco- 

nan — Poinsettia. 

White, red spots and cap. 

20— Mr. James Snarry's d f JESSIE AGNES, by Macaroni 

— Polly Agnes. 

Crimson, straw sleeves. 

21 — Capt. F. Thompson's b c ROBBIE BURNS, by Martyr- 
dom — Auchnafree (J. Snowden). 

Green, white seams, black cap. 

22— Mr. J. Trotter's ch c PALMBEARER, by Palmer (J. Os- 
borne). 

Pink. 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 93 

A A The Milton Stakes of 10 sovs. each, h !l., 
' with zoo sovs. added, for two yrs old 7St, three 
8st gib, four gst 31b, five and upwards gst sib ; m. and 
g. allowed 31b ; the winner to be sold by auction for 200 
sovs. ; if entered to be sold for 100 sovs, allowed 7!b, 
the overplus over the selling price to he divided accord- 
ing to the new rule. — Five furlongs. (13 subs.) 



4,20 



Match for 500 sova., h ft. — Two miles. 



h kr\ The Bradgate Park Stakes of 10 sovs. each, 
■ h ft., with 100 added, for two yrs old 7st, and 

three 8st lolb; f. and g. allowed 31b, the second to 
receive 25 sovs. out of the stakes. — Red House in. 
(19 subs.) 

C 1A Her Majesty's Plate of 200 guineas, for three 
yrs old 8st 31b, four gst jlb, five gst 131b, six 
and upwards lost. — Cup Course, about two miles and 
five furlongs. 

C Ort The Muniqp-al Stakes of 300 sovs. each, h 
ft., for two yrs old, colts 8st lolb, and fillies 
8st 71b. — Red House in. {3 subs.) 

Immediately after the races we returned . 
to Selby by rail, and the next morning 
rode on our bicycles to York, over a fair 
road. York was the farthest point reached 



A 



I 



94 A BICYCLE TOUR 

by us towards the north. Whether to keep 
on as far as Edinburgh, in Scotland, or 
not, was considered ; but, owing to the 
rougher nature of the roads in that direc- 
tion and want of time, it was determined 
to make York a turning-point, and con- 
tinue our journey in a westerly direction 
to Chester and North Wales. The oppor- 
tunity of examining and admiring the great 
York Cathedral was fully appreciated. Our 
tour had now embraced the three greatest 
of the English cathedrals outside of Lon- 
don, — Canterbury, Salisbury, and York. 

I pass over the details of the rest of our 
trip. Enough has been written to show 
how independently we travelled; how our 
chief mode of locomotion on the line of 
selected route was the bicycle ; how, when 
occasion required, we journeyed by what- 
ever other way was most agreeable, going 
up to London, or off on side trips occa- 
sionally, and so directing the main tour as 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES, 



95 



to enable us to see those portions of the 
country deemed most interesting and most 
available in the short time at our disposal. 

Apart from the attractive scenery of 
Wales, to which we now turned, there was 
a special reason for travelling in that direc- 
tion. On July 28, 1879, at ten o'clock at 
night, the steamship " Baltic," of the White 
Star line, on which we crossed to Liver- 
pool, ran directly into the rocks at the 
South Stack lighthouse, on the northwest 
extremity of Wales. The matter was hushed 
up, for it is always policy to have but little 
known either of steamship or of railroad ac- 
cidents- About a month later, the "Brest," 
a Cunard steamer, was wrecked off the 
Lizard, in Cornwall, and all on board might 
have perished but for the bravery of Corn- 
ish life-saving men, who rescued crew and 
passengers. The Cunard steamer ran full 
speed on to the rocks at the Lizftrd, at half- 
past eight o'clock at aight, during a fog. 



I 



g6 A BICVCLE TOUR 

The Lizard lights were not seen, nor was 
the fog-horn heard. The only mention in 
the London " Times " of our extraordinary 
escape was in very small type, in the ship- 
ping column, as follows : — 

" The Baltic, st., from New York, arrived at Liver- 
pool July 29. The master reports at 10 p. m. on Mon- 
day night, during a fog, she touched the South Stack 
and slightly damaged her stem," 

" Touched," indeed I On that voyage 
the "Baltic" left Queenstown at about 
eight o'clock in the morning, and, a fog 
setting in, the run up St. George's Chan- 
nel was made partly at half speed. About 
four o'clock in the afternoon the steamer 
just escaped cutting a large sailing vessel 
in two; at ten o'clock in the evening the 
crash came, and it being the last night at 
sea, most of the passengers were up and 
very social. There was a rush for the 
deck ; ladies fainted ; all felt apprehen- 
sion. The sight from the deck was terri- 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 97 

bly grand. Two hundred feet above us, 
glimmering through the fog, was the re- 
volving light of the South Stack; rising 
from three hundred to five hundred feet 
from the water where the steamer struck 
were dark, almost perpendicular rocks ; an 
alarm bell and guns were heard from off 
the shore. The steamer, having struck 
head on In deep water, was backed off; 
she at once listed heavily to starboard. 
The blow had crushed the bow ; no one 
knew how soon she would go down. The 
boats stuck ; it was a quarter of an hour 
and more before some were loosened. A 
small boat forward was launched by sail- 
ors and ordered back. The steamer listed 
heavily again, and passengers moved to the 
port side. The water was not rough; we 
were near enough at first to swim to shore, 
but we did not then know that the current 
there was too strong for any swimmer, and 
we did not know that the rocks were too 







gS A BICYCLE TOUR 

steep to climb, with a tide rising sixteen 
feet to wash off any, perhaps, who got a 
footing. It is a horrible place; many a 
vessel has been lost on this shore. When 
the " Arizona," of the Guion line, struck 
an iceberg that fall, the ice crumbled 
down by the ton ; when the " Baltic " 
struck at South Stack, the solid rock 
was unyielding : true, speed had been 
slackened, because, a moment before the 
steamer struck, the danger was seen, and 
the engines reversed, but altogether too 
late to stop the vessel. The strength of 
modern steamers is thus shown:' their di- 
vision into compartments is a great safe- 
guard ; this saved the " Baltic." The 
forward compartment filled with water; 



1 of the " Arizona," when in 
dock, showed that " about twenty feet of the iron work of 
the bow, to within a few feet of the collision bulkhead, 
had been completely carried away by collision with the 
iceberg ; but, in other parts of the hull, every plate was in 
its place, and not a single rivet had been started." 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 



the Other six kept dry. The steamer was 
backed off farther and farther, out of sight 
of the hght, but within hearing of the guns. 
Some thought it safer to keep nearer the 
land, to make Holyhead, close by ; but the 
captain kept her out to sea; the vessel 
stopped Usting, and eventually we disem- 
barked at Liverpool in safety. The acci- 
dent was attributed to the tide and fog ; 
the steamer should have been two or three 
miles farther out. It seems that an Itahan 
lady gave the first alarm, as the great re- 
volving light suddenly loomed through 
the fog ; and that the lookout's warning 
followed after. Most of the passengers 
sat up all that night, not knowing what 
might occur; and, as sometimes happens 
in such cases, almost every passenger on 
board, including diplomats, lawyers, doc- 
tors, merchants, and ladies, signed a 
paper next morning, exonerating the cap- 
tain, and gave him three cheers on leav- 



i 



lOO A BICYCLE TOUR 

ing the steamer, so elated were they at 
escape.' 

On our arrival in bicycle dress at Holy- 
head, a month and a half after this acci- 
dent, we walked across the island to the 
South Stack Light, to see from the land 
where the " Baltic " struck. The coast 
scenery there is magnificent. The ap- 
proach and descent down the rocks and 
across the suspension bridge, ninety feet 

^ At three o'clock in the morning of March 13, 1880, the 
" Montana," of ihe Guion Line, was stranded on the rocks 
beyond South Stack Light. The passengers, mails, and 
crew were landed and sent to Liverpool next morning. 
The Liverpool stipendiary gave judgment to the effect 
that the accident was " in consequence of the captain hav- 
ing neglected to make due allowance for the ebb tide be- 
fore and after passing the South Stack, which ihere runs 
strongly, takes the ship on the port bow, and sets her in 
toward the land. The court could not accept the excuse 
put forward by the master's advocate, that he thought 
himself so far out of the range of the Skerries as not to 
necessitate the use of the lead. The court found the mas- 
ter in default for not making due allowance for the tide, 
as he was bound to do, and for not using his lead, and 
suspended his certificate for six calendar months." — Ntw 
York Maritime Register^ April 28, 18S0. 



1 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 



above the sea, to the little lighthouse islet, 
is uncommonly grand. Men used to be 
lowered over these rocks, which are hun- 
dreds of feet high, by ropes, for birds' eggs. 
The practice is now prohibited. There is 
a zigzag path of stone steps from the sum- 
mit above to the bridge below, and one 
must ring a bell on the land side of the 
bridge to communicate with the keeper, 
before admittance to the rocky islet is 
gained. 

To our surprise, the lighthouse keeper 
said he knew nothing of the danger the 
" Baltic " was in till a day or two after the 
event. He was up in the lighthouse at the 
time, and the fog cut off any view of 
the sea. A wager on this, as to whether 
the lighthouse keeper knew of our danger, 
had been made in London. The keeper 
could have given no assistance, not having 
a life-boat or crew; and he remarked that, 
had we gone down that night, we " would 



A BICYCLE TOUR 



have known what the fishes had for sup- 
per." 

A travelling photographer, with his ap- 
paratus, happened to arrive while we were 
on the rock, and I directed him to take 
several views of the scene of our accident 
and escape. These were afterwards ob- 
tained at Warwick, his headquarters ; and 
they are the best pictures of that romantic 
spot known to me. 

During our short stay in North Wales 
we examined Carnarvon and Conway Cas- 
tles, — noble old structures and magnifi- 
cent ruins ; and we also went up to 
pretty Llanberris, stopping at the Victoria 
Hotel, and walking from thence to the 
top of Snowdon, the highest mountain 
in England or Wales (thirty-five hundred 
and seventy-one feet high), returning on 
foot down by Llyn Llydaw and the grand 
Pass of Llanberris. We had fine weather 
in Wales, and our day at South Stack 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 



103 



Light was perfect : the air delightful, and 
all peaceful and still. 

While on the summit of Snowdon, we 
took shelter from the driving clouds in a 
small house, where some English travellers 
joined us in conversation over a lunch of 
bread, cheese, and ale. After a while an 
allusion to the United States drew an as- 
tonished inquiry as to whether we were 
" from America, — really from the States " ? 
They found it hard to believe that we were 
not Englishmen, though I had supposed 
that our talk was free from the peculiar 
idioms, turns of expression, and intonation, 
which stamp the Englishman the world 
over. This was very different from my ex- 
perience in Berlin, where, sitting for the 
first time at a long hotel table alone among 
strangers, an Englishman in the next chair 
spoke to me in our common tongue, hav- 
ing detected my nationality, as he said, by 
merely overhearing the single word with 



i 



104 A BICYCLE TOUR 

which I ordered wine. This man, how- 
ever, was an exceptional observer, and one 
of wide experience. He even alleged that, 
by a few niinutes' chat, he could tell from 
which of the forty counties in England 
any of his countrymen were ; a matter not 
so hard to determine where the dialects 
are as pronounced as in Yorkshire, Berk- 
shire, or Somersetsbire ; but, as to other 
and contiguous counties, where the shades 
of difference are slight, even if appreciable, 
the possibility of such a performance ma)', 
perhaps, be questioned. 

The details of our journey back to Lon- 
don, by the way of Chester, Birmingham, 
and Coventry, I omit, for this account has 
already been extended more than was de- 
signed. We reached London without ac- 
cident, in health and fine spirits, sunburned 
and strong, and returned our hired bicycles 
to Peake's, on Princes Street, within a mo- 
ment or two of the precise time when the 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 105 

month expired for which they were en- 



It must not be supposed that we passed 
over all the choicest parts of England and 
Wales on this tour. Many delightful trips 
could be made without crossing our path. 
There is a large portion of western and 
southwestern England which we omitted 
altogether. Then there is the ride through 
the Lake country, — rather rough, how- 
ever, — and so on over what I was told is a 
very fine road, — the run from Carlisle to 
Edinburgh. For crossing North Wales, 
one may take either the more northerly 
route from Chester to Bangor, or the 
famous road from Shrewsbury to Bangor, 
on the line of the old mail route between 
London and Holyhead, which was im- 
proved at great expense in the days of 
Telford, under the direction of parliamen- 
tary commissioners. But the runs are so 
many and so interesting in all directions 




io6 



A BICVCLE TOUR 



over England — excepting, perhaps, parts 
of Norfolk and Suffolk in the east — that 
no fixed line of travel can be prescribed, 
but each tourist must choose for himself. 
If a centre is to be chosen, take either 
Coventry or London, 

As to the expense of bicycle travelling in 
England, it depends so much on the rider 
himself, that perhaps no satisfactory answer 
can be given. We did not travel under the 
auspices of the Bicycle Touring Club, but 
went to the best inns and hotels, so far as 
we knew, and got the best of what we could, 
at the same time travelling prudently. I 
have before me hotel bills from different 
parts of England ; but, not even with their 
aid, can I tell accurately what our expenses 
were. This, however, can be said, that it 
is safe to allow four dollars a day ; the ex- 
penses would often be less, — at times, per- 
haps, more. Good food, and plenty of it, 
is indispensable on such a tour, as well as 



IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 



107 



a good bed and plenty of sleep. Provi- 
sion should be made for accidents to ma- 
chine and person. The riding-suit should 
be of a dark rather than light cloth. There 
is more rain and mud in England than in 
our country ; and, in riding, clothes are 
more apt to be soiled there. Warm under- 
clothing is needed ; for in summer it is much 
cooler in England than here. In the mid- 
dle of the day we often found it warm ; 
and, while riding then, I used to take off 
my blouse and strap it on to the handle 
bar with a little shawl-strap, which I have 
always found very convenient for that use. 
Good riding-maps are necessary ; those re- 
duced from the Ordnance Survey are the 
best, and can be had as before mentioned. 
Some advise taking a pair of serge trou- 
sers, which pack small, " to enable one to 
go about without attracting that attention 
which is the lot of any one clad in polo cap 
and knee breeches ; a costume, which, how- 



I08 BICYCLE TOUR IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 

ever appropriate near a bicycle, is objec- 
tionable apart from it." However, variety 
of costume, and dress adapted to the vari- 
ous sports, is so common abroad, that it 
seemed to me less notice is taken there 
than here of one s apparel, provided it is 
becoming. 

In conclusion, let me say that a bicycle 
tour of any length abroad is not all sun- 
shine and delight, but means the overcom- 
ing of many obstacles, making the best of 
rainy weather and strong head winds, put- 
ting up with the peculiarities of another 
country, and, above all, the constant exer- 
cise of pluck, patience, and consideration, — 
traits which it was my good fortune to see 
daily exhibited by my young companion 
on this tour. 



APPENDIX. 



I. 

PRACTICAL BICYCLING ADVICE. 

The following is from " The Bicyclist's Pocket 
Book and Diary," published in London in 1879. 
The suggestions are sensible, and for the most 
part as applicable in America as in England : — 

No. I. Its Value as an Exercise. 

Bicycling has now lived down the prejudice which, 
from a medical point of view, existed against it. It is 
admitted that the idea of rupture being produced by it 
is simply nonsense. Taken, as all exercise should be, 
judiciously and in moderation, it is one of, if not the 
best, exercise of the day. Its special benefits are, that 
it increases the circulation ; works more muscles than 
are worked in any other exercise ; amuses the mind by 
the places which can be visited by its means ; gives the 
lungs a greater change of air than could ordinarily be 
obtained ; induces strength of nerve and powers of self- 
possession; stimulates the appetite, and last, but not 



no APPENDIX. 

least, is an almost infallible remedy for a sluggish liver. 
The art of riding can be easily acquired by any person 
sufficiently active for the ordinary duties of life. There 
is no limit to the age at which bicycling can be learnt ; 
the only drawback to an elderly man acquiring the knowl- 
edge is the fact that he cannot, as a rule, stand, with 
impunity, the preliminary falls which every adult learner 
must experience more or less. A boy of eight or nine can 
be taught without falls, because he can literally be caught 
when falling, if proper attention is given to the task ; 
but it is different with adults. There is, perhaps, no 
person who derives so much pleasure from bicycling as 
the man who has been accustomed to active exercise on 
the river, or in the cricket or football field, and who has 
abandoned those pastimes on reaching " the thirties." 
The only persons for whom it is undesirable to learn 
are persons suffering from heart disease or consump- 
tion ; all others may ride not only with impunity, but 
with great physicd advantage. 

No. 2. Choice of a Machine. 

To say, as a hard and fast rule, that a roadster ma- 
chine should be heavy or light; should never exceed 
50 inches in the driving wheel ; or should be regulated 
by a man's height, or even by his length of leg, is an 
exploded theory, ist. A light machine, if well made, 
will run as easily over a rough road as a heavy one ; it 
only requires more careful riding ; /. e,, instead of sitting 




FRACTICAL BICYCLING ADVICE. Ill 

heavily on the saddle, as could be done on the heavy 
machine, it is necessary, by leaning on the handles and 
keeping the weight partially on the treadles, to humor 
the light machine. The question between a 3g-pounder 
and a ja-pounder is therefore merely one of the rider ; 
but for the novice we certainly say unhesitatingly — - 
" for the first year at least ride the heavy machine." 
Nine men out of ten will eventually take to a light ma- 
chine, which tells most favorably in comparison with a 
heavy one on a long journey or a smooth road. A 
novice, unless he is exceptionally active, should never 
ride, at first, his full size of machine, because most of a 
novice's tumbles and falls are in mounting. A man 
should really be measured, so to speak, for his machine. 
That is, his height is nothing to go by, as some men of 
equal height are long in the body and short in the legs, 
and viee versa. Thus a man of 5 feet 7 inches may 
ride a s6-inch, while a 5 foot g inch man may be lim- 
ited to a 52-inch. Nor is the length of leg an infallible 
criterion, as, unless a tall man is well knit, his legs can- 
not be utilized to their full length. In purchasing a 
machine, therefore, the novice will do well to ride a 
strong, heavy machine at first, and, when he becomes 
an accomplished rider, to invest in a light machine by a 
good maker, who has a reputation to lose. No machine 
should be without a brake. The neatest, most powerful, 
and only reliable brake is that applied to the front 
wheel, and by far the safest front-wheel brake is the 
" gi"!? brake," as the power of applying it can be used 



1 1 2 APPENDIX. 

with more delicacy than in any brake worked ,by re- 
volving the handle of the bicycle. As the principle of 
a bicycle is tension, not inward thrust, there is no extra 
rigidity secured by spokes screwed direct into the hub 
as against those simply nutted. This is entirely a mat- 
ter of taste. It will be seen that there is no inward 
strain on the wheel, when it is considered that, if there 
were, the spokes in the felloe might occasionally pro- 
trude and push the rubber off. The best bearings are 
ball bearings. The bearings of a hind wheel must be 
adjustable. On other points a purchaser must be guided 
by his own judgment, but he cannot go far wrong if he 
goes to a well-known and respectable firm. 

No. 3. On Touring. 

A companion is a very desirable adjunct to a tour, 
but by no means a necessity. In fact, provided a man 
knew that he would find genial companions at every 
resting-place for the night, he might dispense with a 
companion on the road, as that luxury frequently en- 
tails delays when one is fresh and stem chases when 
one is weary, the chance of meeting with a man of 
equal speed being rare. If a companion be chosen, 
however, he should be a man of even temper, and as 
nearly equal tastes as possible, both as to sight-seeing, 
expenditure, and speed. For the ordinary tourist, the 
best " wardrobe " is a riding suit of blue serge, with a 
straw or deerstalker hat, as the latter can be worn any- 




PRACTICAL BICYCLING ADVICE, 

where. A spare warm jeisey, flannel shirt, and a thin 
pair of serge trousers (which pack up small), with comb, 
tooth-brush, collars, handkerchief, and necktie, wnll be 
found sufficient alike for comfort, and to enable one to 
go about without attracting that attention which is the 
lot of any one clad in polo cap and knee breeches, a 
costume which, however appropriate near a bicycle, is 
objectionable apart from it. Four is a better number 
for a tour than two, for many reasons, the principal of 
which are that one's companions can be changed, and 
that a party of four are more likely to get attention in 
the way of specially prepared meals, &c., than one or 
two travelling alone. It should be remembered that 
excessive fatigue, in most men, paralyzes the digestive 
system, while exercise, moderated in proportion to one's 
strength, increases the working of that organization. 
Men who can ride, day after day, scathless, over give- 
and-take roads, more than 50 miles a journey, are ex- 
ceptional. The better system is to do 70 one day, if a 
chance offers, and only 30 the next day. One clay's 
rest in seven is not sufficient to thoroughly en]o\ a 
tour; there ought to be two days' rest. Never cut) a 
knapsack; it is unsightly, top heavy, and generally 
worrying. Always remember that a few pounds extra 
wheeled on a machine are not felt as compared to what 
they would be if carried on one's back. The Multum 
in Par\-o is unquestionably tlie best luggage 
As "legs over the handles " is the safest manner of 
resting those limbs downhill, it is undesirable, if possi- 



J 



114 APPENDIX. 

ble to avoid it, to have any luggage on the steering bar. 
A large "Multum" will carry the articles we have 
already named. The way to thoroughly enjoy a tour 
is to go exactly where one fancies, without reference to 
roads. If walking has to be done, it is no more fatigu- 
ing to walk and wheel a bicycle than it is to walk alone. 
Beyond an occasional glass of ale, stimulants should be 
avoided when on the road, as they cause the rider to 
overtax his strength. In the evening, after the work is 
over, they can be indulged in, — moderately of course. 
The majority of men require good, generous diet under 
exertion, if prolonged for more than one day. A small 
box of powdered fuller's earth will prove a great boon 
to the majority of bicycling tourists. It should always 
be taken into consideration, before starting on a tour, 
whether the main object of it is to see the places or 
simply to fly over good roads. Never part with your 
luggage or send it by train. Never ride at your top 
speed when touring, or fatigue will result. Examine 
your tyres every morning before starting, and touch up 
the cement with a hot poker if necessary. Try all nuts 
before starting. Keep the hind-wheel bearings carefully 
adjusted, and never forget to tighten up the saddle 
thumbscrews. Never ask any one but a bicyclist what 
roads are like. 

No. 4. On the Road. 

After learning to keep a bicycle on end, and to pro- 
pel it without fatigue, the rider's task is by no means 



PRACTICAL BICYCLING ADVICE. II5 

complete. He has to learn what may be called the 
" coachmanship " of bicycling. It is a want of, or a 
disregard of, this knowledge that usually brings riders to 
grief. It may be divided into tivo parts, viz., that which 
is required for one's oivn safety and that which is re- 
quired for other people's. First of all, leara to keep to 
the left [right in the United States] invariably, whether 
the road be rough or smooth, when meeting a vehicle. 
Always, in overtaking it, pass a vehicle on its right 
[left] side, no matter how easy it may appear to con- 
tinue your course to its left [right]. Led horses should 
be given a wide berth, and always passed on the side 
on which the man is walking or riding. Vehicles and 
horses should never be passed by a party on both sides 
at once. Never shout at pedestrians, but give notice 
of approach either by a bell or by coughing, or in some 
other inoffensive way. Always carry a bell and a lamp 
[the lamp, if you are to ride at night, — not otherwise] ; 
they are useful, and in many counties compulsory by 
law. Whistles and gongs are almost useless. Bugles 
are very effective, if well blown, but too noisy and ob- 
trusive for single riders or small parties. Never ride on 
the path [sidewalk]. Never take your feet off the 
treadles until you can see the bottom of a hill, no mat- 
ter how well you know it. Remember, if the wind be 
fair, you will require more brake power at hills you may 
have easily descended before. On greasy, newly-wa- 
tered macadam, avoid close proximity to vehicles ; turn 
in the knees, stick tight to the handles, and steer by 



Il6 APPENDIX. 

these means, carefully avoiding leaning over to either 
side. Legs over the handles is the only safe way of 
flying a hill. Never hold your breath in riding up hill ; 
it has a tendency to develop heart disease, by closing 
the lungs against the pumping of the blood. When 
running suddenly into stones at night, stick to the ma- 
chine, and keep it going; never give in till actually 
down. Never needlessly chaff any one; it may be 
only the exuberance of that vitality which athletic exer- 
cise induces ; but outsiders will make no allowance for 
such a feeling. Always remember that, whereas a bicy- 
cle cannot be pulled up to a dead stand like an ordinary 
vehicle [except by some experts^], it is incumbent on 
every rider to dismount, under circumstances that ne- 
cessitate a stoppage, and that, for not doing this in a 
crowd, a rider at Battersea imderwent " a month's hard 
labor." 

No. 5. Things to be Remembered. 

Never to stir out without a spanner [wrench] and 
oil-can. Always to trim your lamp and provide matches. 
To tighten up the saddle-screws with plyers or spanner, 
and not to trust to the fingers. That buckled wheels, 
by pulling, will generally spring all right again. That 
nothing wears so well, if required to tie on a loose tyre, 
as ordinary twine. That gravel roads should be chosen 
for riding in dry, and macadam roads in wet, weather. 

1 Mr. Owen, of Washington, stood still on his bicycle two 
hours and twenty-two minutes, when he dismounted voluntarily. 



PRACTICAL BICYCLING ADVICE. II 7 

That india-rubber does not slip on ice. That a leather- 
strip tyre does not slip on greasy macadam or stones. 
That those who perspire freely should always carry a dry 
flannel shirt for a change. That a little extra weight on 
the machine makes very little difference. That an oily 
rag rubbed over bright work in time will prevent rust. 
That there should be no funking when mounting. That 
the backbone is the safest mode of dismounting. That 
good oil is the cheapest in the end. 



Ii8 APPENDIX. 



II. 

HINTS ON CONTINENTAL TOURING. 

The following extracts from an article with 
the above title, printed in an English publication 
called the "Wheelman's Year Book," for 1881, 
may be of interest. The writer has explored on 
his bicycle " about thirty counties in England 
and Scotland, and the greater part of middle and 
western Europe." . 

If I were asked where one would be able to obtain 
the most advantage from the use of a bicycle for a short 
holiday of, say a month or three weeks, I should reply 
in favor of Switzerland and the Black Forest. Should 
expense be of little moment, the express train could be 
taken right into Switzerland, a week or ten days spent 
there, and then the train taken home again. The best 
pieces of road in that district are between Sallanches 
and Chamounix, Martigny and Lausanne, Lausanne and 
Geneva, Yverdon and Neuchatel, Zweissimmen and 
Thun, Interlachen and Lucerne, and Zurich and Schaff- 
hausen. All the other roads which border the Swiss 
lakes are generally in as good condition as an average 
English road ; but in wet weather, where there is much 
traffic (especially from Geneva to Sallanches), the 



HINTS ON CONTINENTAL TOURING. 



roads become very heavy, and, for a day or so after- 
wards, have that roughness of dried mud which causes 
such unpleasant jolting. With a very few exceptions, 
wherever there is a service of diligences, there wi!l be 
found a good road, and especially where the route is a 
hilly one, for the mountain roads, being made at con- 
siderable cost, are so constructed as to remain in excel- 
lent condition for long periods. 

I have often been asked how I manage about the 
mountains, when in Switzerland, with a bicycle, and 
cannot attribute such a senseless question to anything 
but ignorance of the country. Where there is a road 
good enough for carriages, of course the bicycle can go, 
but, in cases of climbing, where all have to go on foot, 
no sane person would wish to take a bicycle, any more 
than he would ask to be driven in the Cliainounix dili- 
gence to the top of Mont Blanc. 

My rea.sons for first alluding to Switzerland are that it 
is the place most generally longed for by those whose 
time or means will not permit wandering in more dis- 
tant parts ; that it is a country well laid out for tourists, 
and therefore not presenting so many difficulties in the 
way of language or such peculiarities as beset the inex- 
perienced traveller in less frequented localities, and that 
it so abounds with the glories of nature as amply to 
repay ail efforts to see it. Next in order, perhaps, I 
should put the Black Forest. Here we find a higher 
average of quality for the roads, but less grandeur in 
the scenery, and more need of acquaintance with the 



1 20 APPENDIX. 

language (Gennao), as the hotels are at greater dis- 
tances from one another, and less visited by English- 
speaking people. Three or four hundred miles of ex- 
cellent bicycling may, however, be there obtained, with 
a most adequate repayment of charming landscapes, 
filled witli dark mountains, wonderful woods, and rich 
gorges. 

France is the land of racing paths. Here we have 
roads on which twelve miles an hour can be made with- 
out difficulty, and fifteen miles in a single hour is a not 
very extraordinary accomplishment. Every one who 
loves a good road and " making the pace," should try 
a few hundred miles in France, But for myself, having 
been across that country fi-om Dieppe to Strasburg, and 
from Lausanne to Boulogne, I find that the attraction 
of turning my wheel with exquisite ease has now ceased 
to be sufficient compensation for riding on a road al- 
most as monotonous as an interminable extension of 
the broad track at Lillie Bridge, although my first hun- 
dred miles on a Gallic highway will always be a pleasant 
remembrance. The more hilly parts of France, how- 
ever, must always furnish a very considerable amount of 
enjoyment, such as the neighborhoods of Rouen, Mag- 
ny, Poissy, Ligny, Nancy, Metz, Dijon, and Pontarlier, 
while fi-om repute I might name the Valley of the Loire 
and other districts of the South, where the roads are 
said to be equally good. 

The Belgian roads are rideable, but railway travelling 
is so cheap and the country so much more noted for 



HINTS ON CONTINENTAL TOURING. 121 



particular spots of interest than for any beauty of 
scenery, that it will scarcely reward a bicyclist unless 
he is making a grand tour, and merely passes through 
on his way to fairer lands. 

The roads on the banks of the Rhine are good, but 
the steamboat is inexpensive and affords a better view 
of the celebrated surroundings, whilst above Mayence 
the country is flat for a considerable distance, and 
somewhat similar to the Thames Valley district. 

Further eastward we have the Harz Mountains, where 
several hundred miles of excellent roads may be found, 
bearing in mind that here, as elsewhere, the finest sur- 
faces are not in the plains, but among and over the 
mountains. The road over the Brocken, for instance, 
is one of the best, whilst towards Eisleben parts are 
here and there unrideable. 

For some distance south of Leipsic there Is a great 
sameness of country, and unless the bicyclist should 
have an insuperable objection to leaving the road, he 
would do well to pay a few marks to the railway pro- 
prietors, for visiting Dresden, Prague, Ratisbon, Nurem- 
burg, etc. (I say proprietors, as the railways in these 
regions do not always appertain to companies or the 
state, but bear the names of archdukes, crown princes, 
and other tremendous personages of that sort.) 

The roads in the valley of the Danube are passable, 
but between Passau and Buda-Pesth a ride in a steam- 
boat is a good investment 

Taking another strip of country to the south, we have 



123 



APPENDIX. 



L 



Styria, Carinthia, and the TjtoI. Here the roads are 
very variable. Sometimes one can make ten or twelve 
miles in an hour, and at others not fom' miles, the roads 
being unrideable. For instance, from Vienna to Mod- 
ling, there are ruts nine inches deep, on the bottom of 
which, however, a bicycle wheel might run were it not 
for stones and smaller sub-ruts (if I may so call them) 
which break up the surface formed by numbers of 
broad-tjTcd cart-wheels ; and in the neighborhood of 
Eruck-am-Mur and Gtaz pieces of road will be found 
with many loose stones and smaller nits, which do not 
conduce to the stability of any machme, and most cer- 
tainly jeopardize the springs and other delicate parts of 
second-rate or lightiy-built ones. When I was in Aus- 
tria I constantly came upon several miles of loose 
stones ; once, notably between Mond See and Salzburg, 
three hours were lost in traversing fourteen miles, the 
sides of the road being marshy, and the road itself well 
adapted for destroying the stoutest shoes. This is what 
is called Kaiserstrasse, and corresponds to our King's 
highway. On several occasions I was advised to take 
a particular route, by which a Kaiserstrasse would be 
traversed, the natives naming it as if the perfection of 
road-making, and so alluring me to ray fate. The result 
of my experiences in this respect is to make me warn 
all bicyclists against such spoke-loosening, spring-break- 
ing, tyre-cutting devices, and to advise them to take any 
road but a Kaiserstrasse, if a choice be possible. Apart 
from these drawbacks there are many good pieces of 



HINTS ON CONTINENTAL TOURING. 



road in Styria and Carinthia, and the country is wild 
and grand. 

The roads of the Tyrol are generally very suitable 
for bicycling. Those in the northern portions are like 
the Bavarian highways, whilst towards Imisbnick one 
finds a tendency to improvement, until in some places 
the quality of a good French road is attained. I gen- 
erally found that from seven to ten miles an hour could 
be averaged on the whole of some three hundred miles 
which I rode in that district. 

Just a few words on Northern Italy, and then I shall 
have exhausted the localities which I have traversed by 
bicycle, as I have not yet ventured into Russia, Turkey, 

After rain the roads south of the Alps will generally 
be in very good condition ; but in the summer a few 
days of dry weather, where there is much traflic, will 
provide two or three inches of dust. I do not remem- 
ber finding it necessary to walk any portions in this 
part, but certainly the Tuscan roads are rather better 
than those more towards the centre of the great plain, 
and westward to Cremona and Milan. In the Italian 
lake district the roads are similar to those of Switzer- 
land. 

In concluding this part of my subject I can only 
repeat that, as a rule, the roads of the continent are 
much better in mountainous districts than the plains ; 
and that if a bicycle rider is willing now and then to 
push his machine for a considerable distance, and is not 



I 



124 APPENDIX. 

desirous of such a high average speed as is made at 
home, he wilt not regret taking his trusty steed for a 
thousand miles or so in strange countries, I have three 
times crossed the Alps with my bicycle, and have not 
even then had at any time more than fifteen miles to 
go on foot. The Brenner Pass could almost be ridden 
without a dismount. I rode with two companions from 
Innsbruck to the summit in three and a quarter hours, 
a distance of twenty-three miles up-hill, and only walked 
about half a mile, whilst the eighty miles' descent into 
Italy was accomplished at about ten miles an hour, only 
a few short steep pieces having to be walked. , , . 

A very powerful brake is essential, and it is well if it 
can be appEed with ease for half an hour at a time, 
otherwise the machine may start off in the middle of a 
twelve-mile hill. Two inches of rake to the machine 
are absolutely necessary, as the most useful accomplish- 
ment abroad is the careful descent of long sleep hills. 
Those riders who seem to think that good bicycling 
consists in being able to ride a serai-racing machine 
with a perpendicular fork up a hill, will find themselves 
and machines at a discount amongst the mountains, 
for where there is a hill too steep for an ordinary road- 
ster, it is generally too steep, and also too long, for any 
other sort of machine, and ft'equent descents of several 
(sometimes len or twelve) miles are not safely or com- 
fortably made by back treadling. 

As regards personal equipment, perhaps I had better 
state what I take myself: one strong light jacket and 



HINTS ON CONTINENTAL TOURING, 



135 



trousers to match, one pair of knee-breeches, a waist- 
coat, one pair of shoes, one pair of thick stockings, two 
pairs of thin stockings, one pair of socks, one muffler 
or silk scarf, two merino vests, two pair thin cotton 
drawers, one night-shirt, four pocket-handkerchiefs, 
hair-brush, tooth-brush, tooth-powder, soap, and pass- 
port. These articles I carry in a knapsack measuring 
13 X 10 X 4 inches. The knapsack should be pro- 
vided with canes, and not basket work, die latter con- 
trivance, which appears to answer well enough for a 
pedestrian, being, according to my own experience 
and that of several friends, most uncomfortable for a 
bicycle rider. The articles carried should be of light 
material, especially the trousers, for reasons which will 
now appear. 

I have carried seven pounds on my back for many 
hundreds of miles at home and abroad without incon- 
venience ; but last season, in consequence of having 
some articles thicker, the weight was increased, and 
instead of ceasing to be a burden after the first two 
or three days, it was felt during the whole trip, and a 
friend of mine has since experimented in weight-carry- 
ing, and finds that there is a certain weight which a 
man can carry on a bicycle (it may, of course, be more 
or less than my seven pounds, according to strength) 
without feehng any inconvenience, but that an ex- 
tremely slight increase is like " the last straw," which 
we hear so much of, and will make the pack a burden 
even to the end of the journey. 



126 



APPENDIX. 



I may here again allude to a point which is touched 
upon above, namely, that any one who has not pre- 
viously carried weight will feel a strong inclination dur- 
ing the first two or three days to pitch his knapsack on 
the side of the road, and take his chance of a change 
of apparel ; but that after a little perseverance he will 
cease to notice the weight, and even find it a great 
assistance in shifting his centre of gravity when neces- 
sary. 

Perhaps I may be pardoned if I state what is prob- 
ably ob\'ious to some ; namely, the mode of procedure 
with the prescribed outfit. When riding, the knee- 
breeches, one pair of drawers and stockings are in 
use, the socks and trousers inside the knapsack, the 
waistcoat and muffler under the outside flap, so that 
they may be handy to slip on when the temperature 
changes, or wliilst making a halt. When staying in a 
town, of course, the trousers and socks come into use. 
It will also be found convenient to put on the spare 
clean underclothing when located for the evening, and 
hang the others (which are usually damp after a long 
ride) in some airy place in the hotel bedroom. When 
the journey is resumed, these latter can be used again, 
and so on until in a few days they will require washing. 
This accommodation is easily obtained where a. stay of 
over twenty-four hours is made, and then the washed 
garments come in for evening wear, and the others 
take day duty until their turn for washing and promo- 
tion comes round. . . , 



HINTS ON CONTINENTAL TOURING. I2J 

If a very long period is to be occupied in the lour, of 
course a portmanteau can be sent from place to place, 
and the arrangements as to clothing considerably mod- 
ified, but great delay frequently occurs in the trans- 
mission, and, if a tourist intends to remain in a place 
any time less than three days, he had better not risk 
having his arrangements put out by looking for his 
portmanteau, which may not have turned up as soon 
as expected. 

The head-gear is the only point now remaining in 
this division of the subject. I wear a strong, broad- 
brimmed, boating straw hat, and, when the heat is ex- 
cessive, improvise an additional protection by first 
placing a wet handkerchief (once folded) on my head, 
so as to cover my neck. Others find a straw helmet 
very comfortable ; and I have seen a polo cap, with a 
Unen flap attached as for shooting, giving considerable 
satisfaction. This last arrangement cannot, however, 
afford any protection for the eyes, on whose behalf 
tinted spectacles or eye-glasses will in most cases be- 
come necessary when on the dazzling roads, and in the 
bright atmosphere of Switzerland, Austria, Italy, or 
Southern France. . . . 

Still one point remains, which might more properly, 
perhaps, have been taken at the commencement, name- 
ly, — finding thi way. This is a very simple matter all 
over France, but, as one proceeds further eastward, 
reliable maps and a cyclometer will avoid much armoy- 
ance. The natives of Germany, especially, have often 



128 APPENDIX. 

a very indistinct idea of where they are living, and the 
unfortunate traveller may hear that a place is two stunde 
(about six miles) distant, and, after proceeding another 
mile, be told that it is five stunde (fifteen miles). 
Where they have not reached the state of civilization 
indicated by the metric system of measurement, they 
only hazard the number of " hours," which they sup- 
pose, or have heard, that it would take, or did take, a 
person (evidently a great-grandfather in some instances) 
to traverse the road on foot. 

The maps given in Baedeker's guide-books will most- 
ly answer all purposes (if the skeleton of the tour has 
been previously well studied), the roads marked with 
double lines, as a rule, being quite suitable for bicy- 
cling. A reference to the parenthetical notes of the 
altitudes of different points given in Baedeker's descrip- 
tions of the routes will enable one to anticipate gradi- 
ents. The boats of the General Steam Navigation 
Company furnish the most economical mode of reach- 
ing the continent, as the Company have reduced their 
charges for the carriage of bicycles to a very reasonable 
scale. On French railways the only charge for carrying 
a machine is the booking fee of ten centimes ; else- 
where, it is charged as luggage, but rarely at such a 
high rate as in England. 

Such as may have been sufficiently interested in these 
hints as to read them, if they have not already had 
practical experience in the matter, will have observed 
that bicycling on the continent varies in several respects 



HINTS ON CONTINENTAL TOURING. 1 29 

from bicycling in England, and, moreover, they will find 
that it affords opportunities for observations of native 
life very far in excess of those obtainable by almost 
any other means. The traveller by rail and diligence is, 
to a great degree, compelled to go on the beaten track, 
visiting only places that have lost their original strange- 
ness through the constant influx of foreigners, whilst the 
bicyclist combines a great part of the speed of this 
class with the freedom of the pedestrian, and can rap- 
idly move fropi one spot to another, at the same time 
that he enjoys the charm of localities comparatively 
undisturbed by the ordinary tourist. 



1 30 APPENDIX. 



III. 

INCREASE OF BICYCLE RIDING. 

The extraordinary increase of bicycle riding 
in the past few years may be inferred when it is 
known that : — 

The amount of capital invested in the* manufacture 
of bicycles and tricycles in England is estimated at be- 
tween seven and eight millions of dollars, and in the 
United States it is about five hundred thousand dol- 
lars. There are over four hundred different kinds 
of bicycles manufactured in England alone. 

The number of bicycle and tricycle riders in Eng- 
land is estimated at 250,000 ; in the United States at 
8,000, and rapidly increasing. 

The number of bicycle clubs, so far as known, is, in 

England 360 

United States 130 

Scotland 34 

France 20 

Wales 9 

Ireland 8 

Other countries 9 

Total 570 



TABLE OF THE FASTEST TIMES. I3I 



IV. 



TABLE OF THE FASTEST TIMES 



RECORDED AS HAVING BEEN MADE UPON THE BICYCLE 

BY ENGLISH professionals. 



Dis. in 

Miles. 


Time, 
h. m. s. 


Name* 


Date. 


Place. 


I 


2.46 


F. Cooper 


May 26, '80 


Cambridge 


2 


5 -364 


J. Keen 


May 21, '79 


(( 


3 


8.54i 




May 3, '^^ 


Wolverhampton 


4 


12.1 




u 


11 


5 


15.14 




Oct. 23, '78 


Cambridge 


6 


19-19* 




Oct. 13, '79 


Wolverhampton 


7 


22.364 




(( 


(( 


8 


25.48§ 




« 


i( 


9 


28.58J 




« 


n 


10 


32."« 




M 


u 


15 


48-19* 




<t 


(( 


20 


1-4-42* 




l( 


K 


25 


1.24.2 


D. Stanton 


Aug. 9, '79 


Cardifif 


50 


2.51.0 


W. Phillips 


Aug. 2, '80 


Dublin 


100 


5-5'-7 


G. W. WaUer 


May 3, '80 


Edinburgh 


262 


18.0.0 


(( 


Sept. 1-7, »79 


Agr'l Hall, London 


1000 


73.45-18 


<( 


<( 


u 


1404 


107.0.0 
(6 days.) 


u 


(( 


(( 



Two hundred and twenty-two miles on a bicycle, without a dismount^ 
was accomplished in eighteen hours by T. Andrews, in March, 1880, at 
the Agricultural Hall, London. The greatest distance ever ridden in 
six days on a bicycle was at Alexandra Rink, Derby, by S. Rawson, — 
fifteen hundred miles. When David Stanton, an English professional, 
commenced his bicycle ride of one thousand miles in six days, he started 
at six o'clock in the morning and rode forty-four miles before breakfast. 



TABLE OF THE FASTEST TIMES 



RECORDED AS HAVING BEEN MADE UPON THE BICYCLE 

BY ENGLISH amateurs. 



s,i- 


fc 


Nan.. 


D«e. 


pr™. 


, 


a, 47 


Hon. LKrith Falconer 


May 26, '80 


Cambridge 


3 


5-3H 
8.54I 


H. L. Cortia 


May 21, '79 
Aug. 23/79 


Leicester 


S 


11.5.1 

M.39I 






Aug. 4, •&> 


Stokeon-Trent 


7 
9 
'S 


■7-531 
20.52 
'3-57 
26.591 
29.541 
+5-M 
..038I 






A....,,* 

Sept, 2, '80 
Sept 22,'8o 


Surbiton 


SO 


^■!4.35 


J.F. 


tiffith 


July 17, ■80 


" 



ROAD RIDING. 



ROAD RIDING. 

Long Distances in Twenty-fouk Hours. 

The following list of known performances on 
bicycles, over tke highways of Great Britain, 
for ever puts at rest any doubt as to the prac- 
ticability of the bicycle, and reveals some of the 
astonishing feats which are so common abroad 
in the use of the bicycle as a mode of locomo- 
tion. The list is compiled from " The Cyclist," 
published in London, March g, 1881, and in- 
cludes only fifty performances out of five times 
that number, as published, of a hundred miles 
and over, all of which {with many not recorded) 
are known to have been accomplished in less 
than a single day : — 




134 



APPENDIX. 






i 



J3 

o 






<^ U w 

^ H Cs^ 



9 
O 



o 




S 



o 
U 

d 



s 

CO 




o 



I I I 



I I 



■Ato 
J? 












N 









« 



eo M P P 

8g 3 O 

> c« O 
0^ 



u 

a 
o 



A) 



8 = 

o 



.2 



C 

e 






o 

r 



V 



> c 






OS 

of 



4) 

E 

9 
O 






B 
O 

§ 



JO 

a 

43 

^ 65 



B43 



§ 

a 
o 



4) 
4) 






§ 

B 



a 






9 



4> B 

U43 

bO«Gno 



4> U Q 

•C M^ 

§§o8 

;s^2o 



Dis- 
tance. 
Miles. 


o 


? 


^ § 


% 




!• 




^ 


N 


N 


N W 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 



00 

•So. 

C/3 



CO 



• 00 S 



eg 

00 






4) 



00 



S 9 



4) 

B 
9 



aS 




00 •* 


«^ 


^4> 

^ s 




4J 


9 


4; 


CO 


•-» 


CO 



ROAD RIDING. 



|| III III I 
«u S 1 5^ S^dH i 



1«:e1 li 




* -'" t J Tj I I'l^ ^ 1 








s. 


APPENDIX. 

1 Jiy ill iiiJ 


1 


m 


- 1 TJl 12- 


2 1 3 =12:= 


til 


f I =51 [-.: 


... , ,... 


1 


HI' i 
i \ 1 ,i 


J 1 

ir i If 

11 1 lla 


1 


||!Ji 


1 J 1 g 


■^11 


S a aaa %%% 


ss s ? 1 tt t 


1 


H Im'i 


*ii ^i 1 llr 




I 



I p 



I |a II is I 



sj si 

ili 1 i 




1 38 APPENDIX. 



VII. 

BICYCLE RIDING IN THE UNITED STATES. 

It is a mistake to suppose that highways in 
England are universally superior to those in the 
United States. There are many roads in this 
country equal to the very best English roads, 
and there are roads in England quite as poor as 
our worst roads. The following is from an article 
on roads in an English publication : — 

" The adjectives ' good * and ' bad ' are quite useless 
in such conjunctions as these, since what a Yorkshire 
rider might call good, a Surrey man would be very 
likely to characterize as infamous, not to say unride- 
able.'' 

Englishmen are well aware of the fact that Eng- 
lish highways have not altogether that degree of 
superiority which for some reason Americans will 
claim for them. A lumpy English macadam is 
abominable, and a slippery oolite is exasperating. 
Nowhere in England or Wales has the writer 
found roads superior to many of those in the vi- 
cinity of Boston, Massachusetts. But there is 



BICVCLE RIDING IN THE UNITED STATES. 1 39 

this manifest advantage in an extended tour in 
England, that there good roads are found more 
or less all over the kingdom, whereas in Massa- 
chusetts, for instance, they are in and near a 
few large cities and towns, and not throngh the 
State at large, so that one can, upon the whole, 
do better in England on a tour than he can tn 
New England ; yet for circular runs of from ten 
to fifty miles, by selecting the route with care, 
one can find roads about Boston equal to the 
best in England. 

In using the bicycle almost exclusively for hy- 
gienic purposes, the writer has ridden over four 
thousand miles through the following counties 
in Massachusetts : Suffolk, Essex, Middlesex, 
Norfolk, Worcester, Hampden, Bristol, and Ply- 
mouth, and into the States of New Hampshire 
and Rhode Island. In all the above the bicycle 
can be ridden, although the roads in the eastern 
part of Massachusetts are by far the best. 

The use of the bicycle is now so well estab- 
lished that the number of riders throughout the 
United States increases at the rate of several 
thousand a year. 



L, 



IS BICYCLE RIDING HEALTHY? 

It is said that four years ago a professor at a 

neighboring university was prepared to demon- 
strate the impossibility of maintaining one's 
equilibrium on a bicycle. He was shown a bi- 
cycle in use on Boston Common, and abandoned 
his theory. At first the bicycle was regarded as 
a toy, and supposed to be of little use save on 
a smooth surface and level ground. The feats 
which have now been performed on bicycles over 
highways, taking the hills as they came, have 
been pronounced by a London daily as the most 
extraordinary accomplishments in the way of lo- 
comotion in the history of man ; no animal, save 
a bird, having the power to successfully compete 
with a man on a bicycle. A few years ago the 
attempt was made to drive a horse from Boston 
to Portland (one hundred and ten miles) in a 
day ; the horse dropped dead at Saco. In 1878 
an attempt was made at Prospect Park to drive 
a horse one hundred miles in ten consecutive 



IS BICYCLE RIDING HEALTHY? 



141 



hours ; the poor animal fell from exhaustion on 
the seventy-fifth mile. On previous pages of 
this Appendix are the names of fifty men who 
are known to have ridden from one hundred and 
twenty-four to two hundred and twenty miles 
in a day on a bicycle. Even now some to whom 
bicycles are familiar do not understand how the 
equilibrium is maintained in riding, and how it 
is that such extraordinary performances on them 
are so common with so little effort on the rider's 
part. 

The bicycle is a peculiar thing ; it is at vari- 
ance with our preconceived ideas ; it sets at 
naught what we believed. The general opin- 
ion outside of bicycle riders is that the exercise 
merely develops the legs, especially the calves, 
and that it is injurious to men. These are un- 
fortunate errors, because they deter many an 
invalid from obtaining the health and strength 
within his easy reach by bicycle riding. 

But you say, " My physician tells me that it is 
injurious." Then your physician is as ignorant 
of the subject as the university professor who de- 
clared it to be impossible to ride a bicycle. No 
professional opinion is of value unless given with 
a thorough knowledge of the case. No thorough 
knowledge of the effects of bicycle riding was 



142 



APPENDIX. 



I 
I 



attainable by any physician until recently. Ex- 
perience has now settled the question in favor of 
the bicycle, and it may well be doubted whether 
an intelligent physician, informed on the subject, 
can be found who will say that a judicious use 
of the bicycle is injurious. On the contrary, the 
testimony of medical men is now overwhelmingly 
in favor of the bicycle, and in England it is com- 
mon for physicians themselves to use the machine 
in their daily practice. 

That the exercise strengthens the legs follows 
as of course ; this of itself is sufficient to justify 
an encouragement of the bicycle ; for whatever 
makes these members sound, straight, and strong 
is a blessing. But the effect of bicycle riding 
ranges far above the commonly received notions. 
It is for the head, the heart, the chest, the back, 
the lungs, and for all the upper and nobler parts 
of man, that this exercise is of incalculable ben- 
efit. "How can this be?" you say. "When 
one rides he seems to move nothing but his 
legs ; how, then, can other parts of his frame 
be affected ,' " The answer is that experience 
shows that it is the upper part of the body, 
rather than the lower, which is acted upon, be- 
cause the hands, wrists, arms, shoulders, back, 
loins, and waist are all at work in balancing. 



IS BICYCLE RIDING HEALTHY? 



M3 



guiding, and controlling the machine, so that, 
after a long or swift run, it is not the legs which 
feel the work, but rather the arms, shoulders, 
and back. It is doubtful whether a man with 
the legs of a Hercules or a Milo could ride a 
bicycle half way up Milton Hill (near Boston), 
unless his lungs were strong enough to endure 
the strain upon them. On the other hand, a 
man or boy with only a moderate leg develop- 
ment, but with good lungs in working order, 
could ride a bicycle up and down Milton Hill 
with comparative ease. Many an aspirant in 
bicycle races has given up, not because his legs 
were weak or because his calves were insuffi- 
ciently developed, but because he was " blown ; " 
and has thus found to his astonishment that, in 
using a bicycle, it is "wind" that is needed 
rather than legs ; thai it is the upper part of 
his body which gives out, rather than the lower 
part. So complete and active is the circulation 
of the blood throughout the system, when riding, 
that it is common to ride comfortably for miles, 
without gloves, when the thermometer is as low 
as between io° and 20° Fahrenheit ; and yet 
riders well know how often in winter weather 
they are surprised with the question, " Is it not 
cold up there ? " The writer has ridden twenty- 



144 APPENDIX. 

four miles on a bicycle in a snow-storm, and kept 
warmer and enjoyed the ride more than if in a 
carriage or a sleigh. In walking, three fourths 
of the effort is said to be required in raising 
the weight of the body (one hundred and fifty 
pounds, perhaps) with each step, the other fourth 
being used in putting forward the legs. This 
three fourths is all saved on the bicycle, because 
the body is comfortably supported by the saddle. 
Hence, after an ordinary bicycle run of twenty 
or thirty miles, a good rider dismounts with a 
feeling of buoyancy, lightness, and activity, while 
an eight or ten mile walk might leave him with 
that dull, heavy, wearisome feeling so common 
after walking. In this single fact that, while 
riding, the body is comfortably supported, we 
have the key to fhe great advantage a bicycle 
rider has over the pedestrian or the horse. 

Bicycle riding demands and develops self- 
possession ; one's head must be clear and cool 
to determine instantaneously and correctly the 
precise movement needed for safety, however 
sudden the emergency. It develops the chest, 
and strengthens the lungs and heart ; for, when 
riding fast or up hill, the full, deep breaths en- 
forced, if tempered to moderation, are powerful, 
invigorating agencies. It is invaluable for a 



IS BICYCLE RIDING HEALTHY? 



M5 



sluggish liver ; it benefits the kidneys ; and 
for strengthening the digestive organs is unsur- 
passed. Who knows of a good bicycle rider who 
has a poor digestion ? and who knows of a man 
with a poor digestion who is happy ? 

To no class of men, perhaps, is bicycle riding 
more beneficial than to those who lead sedentary 
occupations in the manifold walks of life, — ap- 
prentices, clerks, students, business men, profes- 
sional men, physicians, teachers, clergymen, and 
others. If such find their system weakened and 
"run down" by over-work, anxiety, or other 
causes, and are not incapable of riding a bicycle, 
they will find that its use, instead of being inju- 
rious, will give them strength, tone, and a manly 
vigor from head to foot; in short, — health. 
This statement could be substantiated by thou- 
sands of bicycle riders, who have found, to their 
surprise and gratification, that this exercise in 
the sun and air, — the two greatest of tonics, — 
instead of merely developing the calves of their 
legs, has given them health and strength through- 
out the body. A like result may doubtless be 
attained in other ways, as by horseback riding, 
yachting, boating, or canoeing. But all cannot 
afford these, or live where such exercises are 
convenient, without an interference with their 



146 APPENDIX. 

regular work. The bicycle adds to the list 
of known agencies in obtaining and keeping 
health. 

He is a more than ordinary philosopher who, 
on every walk taken for health's sake, can forget 
that his walk is a duty effort. But with a bicycle 
the greater range of objects within easy reach 
offers a wide and varying field for observation. 
The writer has found his runs through the State 
made far more interesting and beneficial by 
studying the history, the topography, and the 
agricultural and manufacturing industries of 
the several municipalities visited. There is no 
easier and better way of getting acquainted 
with the growth and possibilities of the old 
Commonwealth. The artist, the botanist, the 
ornithologist, the oologist, and other specialists 
will find that the bicycle gives hitherto un- 
known advantages in the out-of-door pursuit of 
their studies. 

President Eliot of Harvard University, in his 
Annual Report to the Board of Overseers for 
1877-78, said : — 

" A singular notion prevails, especially in the coun- 
try, that it is the feeble, sickly children who should be 
sent to school and college, since they are apparently 
unfit for hard work. The fact that in the history of 



IS BICYCLE RIDING HEALTHY? 147 

literature a few cases can be pointed out in which 
genius was lodged in a weaJc or diseased body, is some- 
limes adduced in support of the strange proposition, 
that physical vigor is not necessary for professional 
men. But all experience contradicts these notions. 
To attain success and length of service in any of the 
learned professions, including that of teaching, a vigor- 
ous body is wellnigh essential. A busy lawyer, editor, 
minister, physician, or teacher has need of greater phys- 
ical endurance than a farmer, trader, manufacturer, or 
mechanic. All professional biography teaches that, to 
win lasting distinction in sedentary, in-door occupa- 
tions which task the brain and the nervous system, 
extraordinary toughness of body must accompany ex- 
traordinary mental powers." 

In Endymion, Chapter LXXXV., Lord Bea- 
consfield puts into the mouth of the Prime Min- 
ister (probably Lord Palmerston) these words : 
" Health is one of the elements to be considered 
in calculating the career of a public man, and 
I have always predicted an eminent career for 
Ferrars, because, in addition to his remarkable 
talents, he had apparently such a fine constitu- 
tion." 

Lord Coleridge, the present Lord Chief Jus- 
tice of England, told a Boston lawyer, In 1875, 
that when at the bar, with a practice worth 



148 APPENDIX. 

$70,000 a year, and when in Parliament, and 
Attorney-General, often working till past mid- 
night, he made it a point to ride every afternoon 
on horseback; but that in 1873, after lie be- 
came Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, 
his rides were not so frequent, because the strain 
upon both mind and body was then less severe. 
In other words, the amount of out-of-door exer- 
cise taken, regardless of the weather, was in 
proportion to the extent to which his physical 
and mental energies were taxed, increasing with 
the growth of his business, and diminishing as 
his labors became lighter. This was the custom 
with men of his class in England. Lord Cole- 
ridge was surprised when told that, notwith- 
standing a brighter sky, the very reverse was 
too apt to be the practice with professional men 
in the United States. 

The Right Hon. Robert Lowe, ex-Chancellor 
of the English Exchequer, now seventy years of 
age, is a well-known bicycle and tricycle rider. He 
is the president of the West Kent Bicycle Club, 
and in 1877, after distributing the prizes at bicy- 
cle races, urged the general use of the bicycle, 
and observed : " I am satisfied that if persons 
who are not young would addict themselves to 
the use of the bicycle, they would find it a very 



IS BICYCLE RIDING HEALTHY? 



149 



good thing, and the best possible antidote against 
the gout." 

The Hon. Ion Keith-Falconer, second son of 
the Earl of Kintore, and brother to Lord Inveru- 
rie, is first among English amateur bicycle riders, 
and at the Cambridge University examinations 
carried off nearly the highest honors in the theo- 
logical tripos, getting second, whilst in the He- 
brew examination he was prominent, and was 
awarded the Hebrew prize. Mr. E. Thornton, 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, another amateur 
bicycle rider of high repute, has carried off hon- 
ors in the mathematical tripos. Mr, Thornton 
is an American. 

Four years ago, when the writer was out of 
health, with the prospect of having to abandon 
his profession for want of physical strength to 
endure its labors, he was led by advices from 
England to use a bicycle. It then took three 
months to get a suitable machine, which was 
secured through the only agent in America at 
that time, — the British Vice-Consul at Balti- 
more. The writer at once commenced a regu- 
lar use of the machine, just as patients take 
doses of medicine. He locked his office door 
betimes, and (no instructors were then at hand) 
struggled to master the thing; he was often 



150 APPENDIX. 

thrown, sprained and re-sprained his wrists, and 
was supposed by many to have abandoned his 
profession and to have lost due sense of pro- 
priety. " To think that Mr. Chandler should 
be seen riding about the town astride of a 
wheel!" was one of the common remarks heard 
in disapprobation of his conduct. But he found 
that the exercise surpassed all others known to 
him on land, for the benefits derived, and he 
kept at it till his lungs (which were under the 
care of the late Dr- Edward H. Clarke) became 
strong enough to carry him on the bicycle over 
many of the steepest hitls about Boston, and to 
compete successfully with fast horses ; his mus- 
cles became "like steel," his digestion perfect, 
and, for aught he knows, complete health was 
secured from head to foot, notwithstanding that 
the method taken shocked some conservative 
people. Finally, what practical men think most 
of, instead of being forced to abandon his pro- 
fession, his practice was, by the means taken, 
not only maintained, but doubled. Hence, when 
asked that perpetually recurring question, " Is 
it healthy ? " the writer insists that it is, if 
not carried to excess, and maintains that the 
bicycle is a boon often of inestimable value to 
those who are tied down to sedentary occupa- 



IS BICYCLE RIDING HEALTHY? I5I 

tions, especially to such as find the use of a 
horse inconvenient, both on the score of expense 
and the attention the animal requires, and to such 
as do not live near enough to water to make row- 
ing or sailing convenient. 



152 



APPENDIX. 



IX. 



WHERE BICYCLES MAY BE OBTAINED IN 
THE UNITED STATES. 

Four years ago, in the early part of 1877, the 
only bicycle agent in America was Colonel T. W. 
Lawford, the British Vice-Consul at Baltimore. 
Now, in May, i88r, bicycles may be obtained of 
the following persons, among others, in the 
United States, from Maine to California, and 
from Minnesota to Texas : — 



Appleton, Wis. 
Auburn, N. Y. 
Ashtabula, Ohio 
Adrian, Mich. . 
Augusta, Ga. . 
Attleboro', Mass. 
Amherst, ** 
Ashland, Ohio 
Andover, Mass. 
Albion, N. Y 
Arcade, " 
Avon, 
Albany, 
Akron, Ohio 



n 



it 



Benoit & Bleser. 
A. E. Swartout. 
M. G. Dick. 
C. B. Ackley. 
Robt. W. Robertson. 
David D. Nevins. 
George F. Fisk. 
W. V. B. Topping. 
John L. Smith. 
Frank L. Bates. 
W. I. Masten. 
George W. Holmes. 
W. G. Paddock & Co. 
C. D. Miller. 



WHERE BICYCLES MAY BE OBTAINED. 1 53 

Bos ton. Mass Cunningham & Co., 6 and 8 

Berkeley Street. 
« " LP. Lord & Co., 48 Union 

Street. 
" " Charles R. Percival, 96 

Worcester Street. 

" " Pope Manufacturing Co., 

597 Washington Street. 

(Manufactory at Hartford, 

Conn.) 
" " Stoddard, Lovering, & Co., 

10 Milk Street. 

Biddeford, Me R. A. Fairfield. 

Brattleboro', Vt A. W. Chllds. . 

Burlington, " . . . . George Styles. 
Bridgeport, Conn. . . . Hincks & Johnson. 

Buffalo, N. Y Charles Schladermundt. 

Bradford, Pa H. A. Marlin. 

Baltimore, Md S. T. Clark. 

Brainerd, Minn Z. C. Thayer. 

Boone, la Reed D. Smith. 

Belief on taine, Ohio . . . H. H. Good. 
Binghamton, N. Y. . . Crocker & Ogden. 

Beloit, Wis Goodall & Emerson. 

Bay City, Mich Gedney & Avery. 

Brockton, Mass Fred. H. Johnson. 

Belfast, Me George T. Read. 

Bethlehem, Pa W. D. Packard. 

Cherokee, la Allison Brothers. 

Chicago, 111 J. M. Fairfield (cor. State 

and Van Buren Streets). 



154 



APPENDIX. 



Cincinnati, Ohio 
Cleveland, ** 
Council Bluffs, la 
Columbus, Ohicy 
Cedar Rapids, la. 
Clyde, N. Y. . 
Chillicothe, Ohio 
Camden, S. C. 
Charleston, " . 
Carroll, la. . . 
Cambridge, Md. 
Cleburne, Tex. 



B. Kittredge & Co. 

T. B. Stevens & Brother. 

C. H. Judson. 
Waggoner & Krag. 
£. Bliss. 

A. J. Denison. 
A. Dump. 
J. A. Young. 
L. M. Beebe. 
Ed. M. Wayne. 
Kemp & Co. 
W. P. Richardson. 



Detroit, Mich. 
Danville, Ky. . 
Dayton, Ohio . 
Des Moines, la 
Dubuque, 



it 



W. W. Seymour. 
J. N. Richardson. 
J. W. Stoddard & Co. 
Gilcrest & Miirphey. 
H. E. Tredway. 



Elmira, N.Y. . . . 
Easton, Pa. . . . 
Erie, ** . . . 
East Saginaw, Mich. 



Frank N earing. 
J. Hay & Sons. 
W. B. Vance & Co. 
H. L. Shaw. 



Farmdale, Ky. . . 
Fulton, N. Y. . . . 
Fostoria, Ohio . . 
Frankfort, Ky. . . 
Fond Du Lac, Wis. . 
Framingham, Mass. . 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 



C. W. Fowler. 
S. B. Mead. 
N. Portz & Co. 
W. C. Macklin. 
C. S. Corn well. 
W. D. Wilmot. 
C. W. Edgerton. 



WHERE BICYCLES MAY BE OBTAINED. 1 55 



Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Green Bay, Wis. . . 

Galveston, Tex. , . 
Greenwich, N. Y. 

Galva, Kan. . . . 

Greenville, S. C. . . 
Goldsboro', N. C. 



Foster, Stevens, & Co. 
F. W. Basche. 
J. E. Mason. 
George E. Dorr. 
George F. Haskins. 
F. W. Davis. 
J. Holt. 



Helena, Mont W. E. Norris. 

Hartford, Conn Weed Sewing Machine Co. 

" " .... Billings & Spencer Co. 

Hornellsville, N. Y. . . . G. A. Griggs. 

Hannibal, Mo C. P. Heywood. 

Halifax, N. S J. D. Shatford. 

Houston, Tex J. O. Simpson. 

Hingham, Mass Arthur L. Whiton. 

Haverhill, " . . . . S. Frank Woodman. 

Hillsboro*, Ohio . . . . N. Rockhold & Son. 

Hill, N. H Charles F. Adams. 

Hudson, Mich F. H. Goadby. 

Indianapolis, Ind. . . . Charles Mayer & Co. 

Iowa City, la Pryce & Schell. 

Independence, la. . . . Tabor & Tabor. 

Jamestown, N. Y. . . . Frank Merz & Co. 

Jeffersonville, Ind. . . . M. G. Main. 

Jackson, Miss B. W. Griffith. 

Kenton, Ohio Shanafelt & Kuert. 

Kansas City, Mo. . . . H. B. Martin. 



156 



APPENDIX. 



Louisville, Ky. 
Lockport, N. Y. . 
Lima, Ohio . . , 
Lancaster, Pa. . 
Los Angeles, Cal. 
Logansport, Ind. . 
La Fayette, " 
Lawrence, Mass. , 



Mankato, Minn. . 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Milville, N. J. . . 
Medina, N. Y. . . 
Meriden, Conn. . 
Milwaukee, Wis. . 
Murfreesboro', Tenn 
Muncie, Ind. . . 
Memphis, Tenn. . 
Manchester, N. H. 
Madison, Ind. . . 
Marion, Ohio . . 
Marshalltown, la. . 
Macon, Ga. . . . 
Marietta, Ohio . . 
Mansfield, " . . 
Montgomery, Ala. 
Martin's Ferry, Ohi 
Morrow, Ohio . 
Marlboro', Mass 
Milford, 



«( 



New Haven, Conn. 
New Orleans, La. 



10 



Horace Beddo. 
H. C. Hoag & Son. 
Gale Sherman. 
Mardn Rudy. 
W. C. Funey. 

F. M. Tipton. 
Perrin Brothers. 
Dyer & Co. 

Samborn & Wabz. 
Shafter & Clement. 
J. B. Rose. 
C. F. Hurd. 
Dr. T. S. Rust. 
L. M. Richardson. 
J. H. Nelson & Co. 
Stewart & Foster. 
S. T. Carnes & Co. 
J. B. Varick. 
Wm Sibley Truax. 
H. G. Welty. 
McQuiston & Burnell. 

G. W. Stratton. 
G. W. Gale. 

F. E. Morris. 
C. B. Wilkins. 
L. F. Oxley. 
J. C. Hart. 
Lewis T. Frye. 
H. E. Nelson. 

American Bicycle Co. 
Fred N. Thayer. 



WHERE BICYCLES MAY BE OBTAINED. 1 57 

New York, N. Y. . . . Wm. M. Wright, 160 Fulton 

Street. 

" " ... Schuyler & Duane, 189 

>B roadway. 

New Albany, Ind. . . . Frank C. Nunemacher. 

Norfolk, Va J. B. Piatt, Jr. 

Newburgh, Ohio .... Healy Bros. 

Norwich, Conn C. R. Butts. 

Nashville, Tenn V. L. Cunnyngham. 

Northboro', Mass. . . . A. E. Wood. 

Norwalk, Conn S. K. Stanley. 

Newburgh, N. Y J* T. Joslin. 

New London, Conn. . . . C. F. Chaney. 

New Britain, ** . . . John A. Williams. 

Nashville, 111 Lorenzo C. Liversay. 

Norwalk, Ohio N. S. C. Perkins. 

Niles, Mich John A. Montague. 

New Brunswick, N. J. . . Elliot Mason. 

New Cumberland, Pa. . . George F. Shoop. 

Nunda, N. Y W. Y. Robinson. 

New Castle, Ind L. A. Jennings. 

Ogden, Utah C. C. Richards. 

Omaha, Neb N. I. D. Solomon. 

Ottawa, Ont A. E. Wilson. 

Opelika, Ala. ..... Renfro Bros. 

Orange, Mass Underwood & Tenney. 

Oshkosh, Wis Benjamin B. Hooper. 

Oxford, Miss E. Hustace. 

Philadelphia, Pa H. B. Hart, 813 Arch Street. 

Pittsburgh, " . . . . E. J. Waring. 



158 APPENDIX. 

Plainfield, N. J Curtiss & Griff en. 

Portsmouth, Ohio . . . Lodwick & Dunlap. 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. . . A. N. Shaffer. 

Providence, R. I. . . . C. F. Handy, 135 Broad 

Street. 

Peoria, 111 George W. Rouse. 

Portsmouth, N. H. . . . C. A. Hazlett. 

Pittsfield, Mass L. L. Atwood. 

Portland, Me Charles H. Lamson. 

Portland, N. Y W. L. Smith. 

Parkers burg, W. Va. . . G. W. Gale. 

Princeton, N. J Wm. Chester. 

Port Huron, Mich. ... A. Dixon. 

Painesville, Ohio .... C. J. Pratt. 

Paterson, N. J Wm. T. Cole. 

Palmer, Mass E. S. Gibbons. 

Pueblo, Col E. P. Jordan. 

Rochester, N. Y F. A. Griswold. 

Russell ville, Tenn. . . . H. G. Rogan. 

Richmond, Me J. H. Odiorne. 

Richmond, Ind C. P. Buchanan, Jr. 

Red Wing, Minn. . . . Arland H. Allen. 

Rockport, Tex G. W. Fulton, Jr. 

Randolph, N. Y C. J. Brown & Co. 

Raleigh, N. C J. C. Brewster. 

Rutland, Vt M.J. Francisco. 

Salt Lake City, Utah . . Day & Co. 

San Antonio, Tex. ... Ed Stevens & Sons. 

San Francisco, Cal. . . . Osborn & Alexander. 

" « . . . F. T. Merrill. 



WHERE BICYCLES MAY BE OBTAINED. 1 59 

St. Louis, Mo C. & W. McClean. 

Springfield, Ohio. . . . D. E. Barnum. 

Selma, Ala. ..... Woolsey & Sons. 

St. Paul, Minn. . '. . . C. R. Smith. 

Spartanburg, S. C. . . . T. J. Trimmier. 

Sedalia, Mo O. Kernodle. 

Sidney, Ohio W. M. Johnston & Bro. 

Somerville, N. J I. Van Eps. 

Springfield, 111 Smith Bros. 

Susquehanna, Pa. ... T. A. Hay^ard. 

Salem, Mass A. J. Philbrick. 

Stevens's Point, Wis. . . Earl F. Phillips. 

Saint Peter, Minn. . . . Jas. Danby. 

Schenectady, N. Y. . . . Avery, Snell, & Co. 

Syracuse, N. Y Chas. C. Smith. 

Somerville, Tenn. . . . J. H. Dorth, 

San Saba, Tex W. W. Hackworth. 

South New Market, N. H. . Jas. A. Spead. 

Southington, Conn. . . . Brooks & Barnes. 

St. Johnsbury, Vt. . . . C. H. Knapp. 

Toledo, Ohio M. F. Richards. 

Terre Haute, Ind. . . . Chas. Baur. 

Tucson, Arizona . . . . C. W. Risley. 

Titusville, Pa J. H. Isham. 

Trenton, N. J J. Y Clark. 

University, Va J. L. Keller. 

Utica, N. Y Jas. H. Gilmore. 

Vincennes, Ind H. J. Foulks. 

Versailles, Ky B. A. Norris. 



i6o 



APPENDIX. 



Washington, D. C. 
Wilmington, Del. 
Wilkesbarre, Pa. . 
Worcester, Mass. 
Wheeling, W. Va. 
Williamsport, Pa. 
Westfield, N. Y. . 
Willimantic, Conn. 
Winnsboro', S. C. 
Warren, Ohio . . 
Waltham, Mass. . 
Wilmington, N. C. 
Washington, Ohio 
Woburn, Mass. . 



H. I. Carpenter. 
Wm. A. Bacon. 
J. G. Carpenter. 
Hill & Tolman. 
Hoge & Co. 
J. Howard. 
Samuel Crandall. 
Horace A. Adams. 
A. W. Brown. 
W. D. Packard. 
Wm. Shakspeare. 
W. J. Gordon. 
Frank Clugston. 
F. B. Richardson. 



Xenia, Ohio Trader & Co. 



MAPS. 1 6 1 



X. 

MAPS. 

At the beginning of this book will be found 
an outline map of England, drawn to accompany 
the description of the tour. 

At the end of the book will be found two bicy- 
cle riding maps of Southern England, giving in 
detail all that part between the Thames Valley 
and the English Channel, extending as far west 
as the river Severn, and including the Isle of 
Wight and the principal watering-places on the 
coast. These maps are reduced from the Ord- 
nance Survey, and are not only of value for 
the tourist, but are of use in the library for 
references. 

A third map is given of the eastern part of 
Massachusetts, reduced from the map specially 
prepared by the State authorities for the Cen- 
tennial Exhibition. 

Of course these maps will be found of use 
as well in horseback riding, or in driving and 
walking. 



INDEX. 



Accidents, 15, 27, 28, 8i, 82, 83, 107. 
Agricultural Hall, London, great race 

at, 77, 81, 82. 
Ale, 23, 69, 70, 114. 
Alps, 119, 124. 

Brenner Pass, how far rideable, 
124. 
Amesbury, 42, 43. 
Appleyard, feat by, 23, 44. 
" Arizona," the, accident to, 98. 
Arundel, 25-27, 50. 

Castle, 26, 27, 50. 
Austria, 121-123, 127. 
Avon, river, 43. 
Aylesford, 13. 



Baedeker's guide-books, 128. 

Bakewell, 75, 84. 

Ballater, 24. 

Balmoral, 24. 

*' Baltic," the, accident to, 95-102. 

Banbury, 55. 

Cross, 55, 56. 
Bangor, 105. 
Barnham Junction, 28. 
Baslow, 84. 
Bath Road, 23, 44. 
Baths, public, 18, 21, 25, 46, 73. 
Bayliss, Thomas, & Co., 63. 
Beaconsfield, Lord, 147. 
Beeley Hill, 84. 
Belgium, 120, 121. 
Bells. See Bicycle. 
Berkshire, 45, 49, 53, 103. 



Bicycle, bells on, 62, 63, 115. 
brakes on, iii, 124. 
capital invested, 130. 
charge on railways, 11, 12, 128. 
choice of machine, no. 
cleaning, 59, 117. 
cranks, short, 14, 15. 
duties on, 64. 
effect of riding on health, 50, 104, 

109, 140-15 1, 
fastest times on, 131, 132. 
headquarters for, 9, 28, 62-64, 15a- 

160 
hints on continental touring, 118- 
' 129. 

increase in use of, 130. 
its value as an exercise, 109, 140- 

151. 
long road rides, 29, 33, 44» 4S» "3. 

133-137- 
number of clubs, 130. 
number of riders, 130. 
on the road, 114-116. 
riding in the United States, 138, 

^ 139- 

riding on Sunday, 27, 30. 
six days' race, 81, 82. 
things to be remembered, zi6, 117. 
touring, 1 12- 1 14. 
varieties of, 130. 
where to buy in England, 9, 28, 

62-64. 
where to buy in the United States, 
152-160. 
Bicycle Touring Club, 58. 



]64 



INDEX. 



Birmingham, 66, 103. 

Bitter beer, 23, 69, 70. 

Blackgang, 35. 

Black Forest, 118, 119. 

Blenheim Park, 54. 

Blood, circulation of, in riding, 109, 

143- 
Bonchurch, 36. 
Boulogne, 120. 
Brakes. See Bicycle. 
Brenner Pass, 124. 
" Brest," the, wreck of, 95. 
Brighton, 25. 

Britten, W. S., feat by, 45, 134. 
Brocken, 121. 
Bruck-am-Mur, 122. 
Buda-Pesth, 121. 
Burton-on-Trent, 17, 67, 69, 72. 



Cabs, carrying bicycles on, 49. 
Cann, accident to, 81, 82. 
Canterbury, 17. 

Cathedral, 17, 18, 41, 50. 
Carisbrooke Castle, 35, 37, 50. 
Carinthia, 122. 
Carlisle, 105. 
Carnarvon Castle, 10 1. 
Cary, Captain, 34, 80. 
Castle, Arundel, 26, 27, 50. 

Carisbrooke, 35, 37, 50. 

Carnarvon, loi. 

Conway, loi. 

Dover, 21, 50. 

Kenilworth, 30, 60, 6f. 

Warwick, 60, 61. 

Windsor, 32. • 

Cathedral, Canterbury, 17, 18, 41, 50, 

94. 

Durham, 41. 

Salisbury, 41, 42, 50, 94. 

York, 94. 
Chamounix, 118, 119. 
Charing, 14, x6. 
Charing Cross, n. 
Charlcote, 58. 



Charles I., 58. 

Chatham, 13. 

Chatsworth, 71, 73-75, 83, 84. 

Chest, effect on the, 109, 144. 

Chester, 94, 103. 

Chesterfield, 84, 85. 

Chichester, 27, 28, 56. 

Circus at Arundel, 26. 

Clergymen, 30. 

Clothes. See Dress. 

Clubs, 130. 

Coleridge, Lord, 147, 148. 

Coleshill, 66. 

" Commercial Dinner," 65. 

Commercial Houses. See Inns. 

Conway Castle, 10 1. 

Cosham, 31. 

Coventry, 28, 60, 61-66, 103. 

Machinist Co., 63. 
Cowes, 35. 

Cranks. See Bicycub. 
Cremona, 123. 



Danger Boards, 21, 22. 

Danube, Valley of, 121. 

Deal, 19. 

De Lagrange, Count F., 87. 

Derby, 71, 72. 

" Derby" races, 71, 86. 

Derbyshire, 48, 71, 83. 

Devonshire, Duke of, 84, 85. 

Dialects, 104. 

Dieppe, 120. 

Digestion, effect on the, 145. 

Dijon, 120. 

Dogs, 55-58. 

Doncaster, 60, 72, 85, 86. 

Doncaster races, 72, 85-93. 

Dorchester, 53. 

Dorset, 30. 

Dover, 19, 21. 

Dresden, 121. 

Dresden China, 87. 

Dress, 10, 11, 107, 112, 113, 124-127. 

Drink, favorite, 22, 23, 114. 



INDEX. 



165 



Drinking, 19, 47, 48. 
Druidical ruins, 13, 42, 50. 
Dublin, 88. 

Durham Cathedral, 41. 
Duties on bicycles, 64. 

EoGB Hill, 58. 

Edinburgh, 88, 94. 

Edinburgh, Duke and Duchess of, 23, 

24. 
Education, 62. 
Eisleben, 121. 
Eliot, President, 146. 
Endymion, 147. 
Epsom, 71, 86. 
Essex, Earl of, 58. 
Expenses, 106, 118. 
EyeS| 127. 

Fastest Times, 23, 44> '3x» 132. 
Folkstone, 21. 
Food, 65, 66, 106. 
Foxhounds, 56, 57. 
France, 120, 127. 
Froxfield, 44. 

Geneva, 118. 
Gosport, 24. 
Graz, 122. 

Haddon Hall, 71, 83, 84. 

Hallamshire Works, 85. 

Hamilton, Lord, 62. 

Hampshire, 3 1 , 49* 

Hansoms, carrying bicycles in, 49. 

Hardwick Hall, 71, 84. 

Harrietsham, 14. 

Harz Mountains, 121. 

Hastings, 23. 

Havant, 31. 

Health, effect on, 50, 104, 109, 140- 

Heart, effect on, 142, 144. 
Hillman & Herbert, 63. 



Hills, 21, 58,84. 

Holyhead, 99, 100. 

Horses, 46, 47, 115. See Races* 

Hotels. See Inns. 

Hounds. See Docs. 

Hungerford, 44, 45. 

Hunting establishments, 57. 

India Pale, 69. 

Inns, 14, 16, 17, 50, 67, 76, 85. 

life at, 37-40* 43> 44- 

odd names, 68, 69. 
Innsbruck, 123. 
Interlachen, 11 8* 
Irish mail train, 46. 
Isle of Thanet, 18. 
Isle of Wight, 33-37» 49- 
Italy, 123, 127. 



Kaisbrstrassb, 122. 

Keen, John, champion, 7, 81, 82. 

Keith- Falconer, 132, 149. 

Kenilworth Castle, 30, 60, 61. 

Kent, county of, 11, 13, 18, 20, 49. 

Kidneys, effect on, 145. 

Kineton, 58. 

Kit's Cotty House, 13 . 

Lausanne, 118, 12a 

Leamington, 60, 61. 

Legs, effect on, 141-145. 

Leipsic, 121. 

Lenham, 14. 

Library at Coventry, 61, 62. 

Ligny, 120. 

Liver, effect on, no, 144, 145* 

Liverpool, 64, 88. 

Llanbems, 102. 

Llyn Llydaw, 102. 

Loire, Valley of, 120. 

London, 7, 23, 28, 48, 49, 52, 77, 81, 

83, 88, 104 
" London W.," 35. 
Lorillard, Pierre, 87. 



1 66 



INDEX. 



Lowe, ex-Chancellor, 148. 
Lucerne, ij8. 
Luggage, 11, 114, 127. 
Lungs, effect on, 142-144, 150. 

Magny, 120. 

Maidstone, 14. 

Maps, 8, 9, II, 107, 127, 128, 161. 

Margate, 11, 18. 

Marlborough, Duke of, 54. 

Martigny, 118. 

Mar>, Queen of Scots, 85. 

Matlock Bath, 72, 73, 76, 83. 

Mayence, 121. 

Metz, 120. 

Milan, 123. 

Modling, 122. 

Mond See, 122. 

*' Montana,'* the, accident to, 100, n. 

Mont Blanc, 119. 

Nancy, 120. 

Napoleon, Louis, 34, 35, 81. 

Natatoria. See Baths. 

Nelson, Admiral, 34. 

Neuchatel, 118. 

Newbury, 45. 

Newport, 35, 36. 

New Shoreham, 25. 

Norfolk, 106. 

Norfolk, Duke of, 26, 27. 

Nuneham Courtney, 53. 

Nuremburg, 121. 



Ordnance Survey, 9. 
Oxford, 53, 54- 
Oxfordshire, 20, 53, 55. 



Palmerston, Lord, 147. 

Parole, 87. 

Passau, 121. 

" Palerson's Roads," 53. 

Peacock Inn, 83. 



Peake*s bicycle emporium, 9, 28, 104. 

Pegwell Bay, 19. 

Pewsey, 43. 

Poissy, I20' 

Pontarlier, 120* 

Portsmouth, 27-29, 31, 33-3 5» 37' 

Prague, 121. 

Prince of Wales's son, 9, 10. 

Queen ; Her Majesty orders a tricy* 
cle, 63. 
cost of car service for, 24, 25. 

Races, bicycle, 23, 44, 81, 82. 

horse, 71, 72, 85-93. 
Railroads, 11, 12, 77-81, 118, 128. 
Rain, 14, 16, 21, 25, 37, 46, 83, 84. 
Ramsgate, 18, 19. 
Ratisbon, 121. 
Rayon d'Or, 87. 
Reading, 45, 46, 48, 49, 52. 
Roads, 20, 43, 94, 138. 

Austria, 121, 122. 

Belgium, 120, 121. 

England, bad, 20, 55, 84, 86, 138. 
good, 21. 43, 44» 67, 138. 
hilly, 13, 17, 21, 58, 84. 
slippery, 15, 83. 

France, 120. 

Germany, 121. 

Italy, 123. 

Massachusetts, 138, 139. 

Switzerland, 118, 119, 123, 124. 

United States, 138, 139. 
Rochester. 13. 
Roman Villa, 37, 50. 
Rouen, 120. 
Rowsley, 75. 
Ryde, 35. 

Salisbury, 41, 42. 
Sallanches, 118. 
Salzburg, 122. 
Sandown, 36. 



INDEX. 



167 



Sandwich, 19. 

Schaifhausen, 118. 

Scotland, 94. 

Selby, 86, 93. 

Self-possession developed, 109, 144. 

Shakspeare Inn, 58. 

Shanklin, 35, 36. 

Sheffield, 85. 

Shillingford Bridge, 53. 

Shrewsbury, 105. 

Singer & Co., 63. 

Sketching, 13, 14, 37. 

Slindon Park, 27. 

Snaith, 86. 

Snowdon, 102, 103. 

Snow-storm, riding in, 143, 144. 

Soda and milk, 22, 23. 

Somersetshire, 103. 

South Stack Light, 95. 

Staffordshire, 17, 67, 72. 

St. Leger races, 72, 87, 90-92. 

Stone Bridge, 66. 

Stonehenge, 42, 50. 

Strasbourg, 120. 

Stratford-upon-Avon, 58-61. 

Stroud, II, 13. 

Styria, 122. 

Suffolk, 106. 

Sumner, Charles, 41. 

Sunday, riding on, 27, 30. 

Sussex, 23, 49. 

Swimming. See Baths. 

Switzerland, 118, 119, 123, 124. 

Tamworth, 66, 67. 
Telford, the engineer, 105. 
Terront, 81, 82. 
Thames, the, 43, 46, 52, 53. 
Theale, 46. 



Thome, 85. 

Thornton, £., 149. 

Thun, 118. 

Tonics, the two greatest, 145. 

Tricycles, 30, 63. 

the Queen orders one, 63 
Tyrol, 123. 

Under-Cliff, 36. 

Ventnor, 35, 36. 
Vespasian's Camp, 42. 
"Victory," the, 34. 
Vienna, 122. 

Wales, 94, 95. 

Wales, Prince of ; bicycle for his sou, 

9, 10. 
Waller, champion rider, 8i| 82, 131. 
Wallingford, 53. 
Warwick, 60, 61. 
Castle, 60, 61. 
Warwickshire, 58, 60. 
Wiltshire, 44) 49. 
Wimborne Minster, 30. 
Wind, 22, 23, 115. 
Windsor Castle, 32. 
Woodstock, 54, 55. 



York, 93, 94. 

Cathedral, 94* 
Yorkshire, 20, 60, 85, 86, 103. 
Yverdon, n8. 



Zurich, 118. 
Zweissimmen, 118. 



University Press : John Wilson and Son, Cambridge. 



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This account of a bicycle tour in England 
was written only after repeated requests, and 
first appeared in four numbers of the ** Bicy- 
cling World," published in Boston, January 14 
and 21, and February 4 and 18, 1881. In 1879 
the aul^hor went to continental Europe on busi- 
ness, and was accompanied by a friend as far as 
London. Having completed the business, there 
happened to be a month before the steamer 
sailed on which the home-passage had been 
secured. Availing himself of this, the author 
returned to London, and, with his friend, made 
the tour described. 

An Appendix has been added giving informa- 
tion on bicycle touring in continental Europe, 
together with facts, but little known in America, 
on the extraordinary bicycle feats performed 
abroad and the remarkable progress and popu- 
larity of the machine, with an article especially 
devoted to the use of the bicycle as an invaluable 
hygienic agent. 

Boston, May 23, 1881. 



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